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The economics of the beef cattle situation in British Columbia Vrooman, Charles William 1936

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THE ECONOMICS OF THE BEEF CATTLE SITUATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. BY C. W. VROOMAN UNDER THE DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILDIENT OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE. MAY 1936. FRONTISPIECE IOREMRD The great d i f f i cu l ty in writing a thesis such as this i s finding suitable material. Very l i t t l e has been written about the Beef Cattle i n -dustry in Br i t i sh Columbia. No adequate surveys have been made of pro-duction methods and s t a t i s t i c a l data on marketing i s extremely scarce and scattered. Much time was wasted searching for adequate s t a t i s t i c a l data and i t would appear that the time i s ripe for the establishment of a stat-i s t i c a l section i n the Library of the University. In this section a l l sorts ana kinds of s t a t i s t i c a l data might be accumulated. This would assist tremendously a l l students doing s ta t i s t i ca l research of any nature. AOKHOWLEDQEMMT I wish, to part icular ly acknowledge the assistance rendered me by Bruce L. Robinson in the preparation of s t a t i s t i ca l data. Professor H. M. King, head of the Department of Animal Husbandry at the University, and J. 0 . Berry, assistant i n the same department, gave many valuable criticisms and suggestions as to organization and source of my material. G. Yv. Vrooman. TABLE OF CONTENTS T i t l e : JTHE ECONOMICS OF THE BEEF CATTLE SITUATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. PART I CHAPTER I The History and Present of the Beef Cattle Industry in B r i t i s h Columbia., Early History Boom Period Present Position PART II CHAPTER II Pasture Lands and Range Management 15 Range Areas in Br i t i sh Columbia 15 Range Types 18 CHAPTER III Livestock Husbandry: Breeding and Feeding 38 General Range Methods 38 The Breeding Herd 39 Feeding - The Breeding Herd • 46 Finishing Steers 49 CHAPTER IV Livestock Husbandry: Ranch Operations 53 Equipment " 53 Operations 70 CHAPTER V Diseases and Pests of Cattle and Their Control 81 CHAPTER VI Stock Poisoning and Mechanically Injurious Plants 120 Poisonous Plants 120 Mechanically Injurious Plants 135 Page 1 1 .5 12 TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued Page PART III CHAPTER VII Survey of Canadian Beef Cattle Marketing 158 Production 158 Consumption 142 Exports 149 CHAPTER VIII Marketing Procedure on Organized Markets 160 CHAPTER IX B r i t i s h Columbia Beef Cattle Marketing 177 CHAPTER X PART IV Summary and Conclusions 189 CHARTS PAGE No. I Human and Beef Cattle Population of Br i t i sh Columbia for Census Years 1871 - 1931. 2 No. II The Beef Cattle Population of Br i t i sh Columbia 1881 - 1934... 9 No. I l l Total Value of Beef Cattle i n Br i t i sh Columbia 1912 - 1934. 10 No. IV The Beef Cattle Population of Canada 1881 - 1934. 139 No. V Total Value of Beef Cattle in Canada 1910 - 1934. 140 No. VI Comparison of Beef Cattle Population i n Canada and In the Provinces on Ratio Chart 1909 - 1934. 141 No. VII Percentage of the Beef Cattle Population of Br i t i sh Columbia to that of Canada 1911 - 1934. 145 No. VIII Comparison of Average Value per Head in Br i t i sh Columbia and Canada. 144 No. IX Per Capita Consumption of Meats In Canada 1921 - 1933. • 146 No. X Correlative Comparison of Prices and Exports 1928 - 1935. 150. No. XI Exports of Canadian Beef Cattle 1922 - 1932. 151 No. XII Exports of Beef from Canada 1922 - 1932. 152 No, XIII Beef Cattle Exports to the United States from Canada 1922 - 1932 ( incl . ) 154-No. XTV Exports of Beef from Canada to the United States 1922 - 1932. 155 No. XV Beef Cattle Exports to Great Br i ta in from Canada 1922 - 1932. 156 No. XVI Exports of Beef from Canada to Great Br i ta in 1922 - 1932. 157 No. XVII Indices of Seasonal Variation in Receipts of Beef Cattle at Principal Canadian Markets. 165 No. XVIII Indices of Seasonal Variation i n Exports of Beef Cattle. 165 CHARTS - Continued PAGE No. XIX Indices of Seasonal Variation in Prices of Beef Cattle (Weighted Monthly Average 1922 - 1932) at Pr inc ipa l .Canadian Markets. 166 No. XX Correlative Comparison of Prices and Receipts of Beef Cattle at Pr incipal Canadian Markets. 167 No. XXI Comparison of the Prices and Receipts of Steers, Good and Choice, up to 1050 Pounds, at the P r i n -c ipa l Canadian Markets - 1934. 169 No. XXII Imports of Beef Cattle into B r i t i s h Columbia from Other Provinces 1918 - 1934. 180 No. r a i l Value of'Beef Cattle Imported into Br i t i sh Col - , umbia from Other Provinces 1918 - 1934. 180A No. XXIV Origins of Cattle Marketed i n Br i t i sh Columbia by Dis tr ic t s - Five Year Average 1927 - 1931. 191 No. XXV Exports of Beef Cattle from B r i t i s h Columbia to the United States 1920 - 1954. 192 No. XXVI Percentage of B r i t i s h Columbia's Beef Cattle Population to Human Population Census Years 1881 - 1931. 193 TABLES PAGE Ho, I Important Trees of the Tranquil!e Range 20 "No. II Important Shrubs of the Tranquille Range SO No. I l l Important Grasses of the Tranquille Range 21 No. IT Other Important Herbaceous Plants 22 No. Y Palatabi l i ty to Cattle of Principal Native Species of Forage Plants - 19S5. Middle and Lower Grassland. 24 No. YI Palatabi l i ty to Cattle of Principal Native Species of Forage Plants - 1955. Lower Montane. 25 No. VII Palatabi l i ty to Cattle of Pr incipal Native Species of Forage Plants - 1955. Upper Montane. 26 No. VIII Pr incipal Forage Species for Cattle Grazing 1935. 27 No, DC Chemical Composition of Native Fodder Species in the Grassland Zone. 28 No. X Reseeding Experiment near Nicola, B. C. 32 No. XI Growth Development of Some Important Forage Species - 1935 - Middle Grassland Zone. 34 Lower Montane Zone 34 Upper Montane Zone 35 No. XII Branded Beef Sales 1931 - 1935 ( inc l .) 179 MAPS Br i t i sh Columbia - Showing Range Areas. 16 Salting Plan on a Montane Forest Range - Dominion Experimental Station., Kamloops, B. C. 66 PLATES PAGE Good Saddle Stock. Frontispiece No, 1 Heseeding Experiment near Nicola, B. C. 53 No, 2 Corral Showing Dovetailing of the Logs. 58 No, 3 Corral System Showing Small Catchpen and. Wing Chutes Dominion Range Experimental Station, Kamloops, B. D. 60 No. 4 Weed Control - An Experiment i n the Eradication of Bromus Tectorum. - Dominion Range Experimental Station, Kamloops, B, C. 124 No, 5 A Typical Death Camas Area - Showing Association with a Claytonia Species. 129 DIAGRAMS No. 1 A Model Corral System 62 No. 2 Plan of a Squeeze Chute 63 No. 3 A Cattle Dipping Vat 119 PREFACE The purpose of this study i s to analyze, in general, the position of the beef cattle industry in this province. In the early history can be found clues which establish the cause of many of the cattlemen's present d i f f i c u l t i e s . Production methods can be compared with those of other sections and some conclusions can be made as to changes which might be made in British Columbia. Data on production i s very scattered and i t would appear that a thorough survey should be made of the Brit i s h Columbia cattle ranches i n order to find out exactly where they stand. Similarly with marketing, a definite survey as to prices received by the B r i t i s h Columbia ranchers should be made, i f a system of marketing i s to he evolved which is f a i r to a l l parties. PART I . EARLY HISTORY CHAPTER I THE HISTORY AM) PRESENT POSITION OF THE BEEF CATTLE INDUSTRY . IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. EARLY HISTORY The agricultural development of Br i t i sh Columbia has been r e l -at ively slow. There have been a number of factors responsible for this slow growth. Possibly the main one has been the isolated position of this province; linked with this has been the sparseness of the population. In the early days Br i t i sh Columbia was entirely cut off from a l l eastern mar-kets by the mountain ranges and the markets to the south were also el imin-ated to a large extent by the boundary l i n e . Consequently, before the ad-vent of the rai lroad and modern transportation methods, i t s agriculture had to be of a self-sufficing type. Today the cattleman of this province has no d i f f i cu l ty finding a market for his beef because the growth of the human population has far exceeded the gro¥/th of"the beef catt le population, (see Chart No. I) so that at the present time B r i t i s h Columbia imports from Alberta about f i f t y percent of the beef consumed. Hudson's Bay Company In the early days the Hudson's Bay Company, which was a fur trading organization, had control of Br i t i sh Columbia, and endeavored to discourage settlers from coming into this area* This same company, how-ever, rea l ly l a i d the foundation of the range cattle business in the prov-ince. About the year 1840 they imported a number of cattle from their southern posts, i n what i s now Oregon and Washington states, to the lower end of Vancouver Island, where they established a large farm and developed a herd of beef catt le . At about the same time they established 'a small herd in the interior of the province. CHART NO. I HUMAFT AID BEEF CATTLE POPULATION ,- 0 E BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR CENSUS TEARS 1871 - 1931. (Hundreds of Thousands) *• /87/ its/ r?oi ill/ 1121 /93/ Gold Rush The f i r s t great impetus to the beef cattle industry was received in 1858, when gold was discovered along the Fraser River. This brought a great influx of sett lers , and cattle were driven up from Washington and Oregon, and from even as far south as Cal i fornia . As the gold excitement died down, many of those who came i n the "rush" stayed to settle more per-manently and formed a nucleus of stockmen. In the words of an early writer, « -the capacities for pasturage of the central d i s t r i c t are very exten-sive, and of a character unsurpassed, perhaps, i n any part of the world," —throughout the southern portion there i s a species of grass, called by the Voyageurs, Foin Rond, - by the English sett lers , bunch-grass, -which i s specially noted for i t s valuable qualities i t i s not sur-prising that the animals roaming at large i n the natural pastures, attain a condition approaching to that of s t a l l fed stocks Winter feeding i n most parts i s quite unnecessary — " Early Settlers Following the gold rush increasing numbers of settlers began to dr i f t i n . They were encouraged by being granted the privilege of running or depasturing herds on a l l unsettled crown lands. In addition, land was cheap, se l l ing for one dollar per acre, one fourth to be paid at once, the remainder within four years. Unsurveyed land might be claimed by pre-emption with no necessity for payment t i l l i t be surveyed when the pre-emption became l iable to the usual government price of one dollar per acre. One of the earl iest importations of cattle to the inter ior was by Lewis Campbell, who came to this province from California in 1858. In 1864 he went to Oregon and purchased a herd of cattle which he drove north to the South Thompson River, where he located on a piece of land twelve miles east -4-of Kamloops. On M s Oregon t r ip he was accompanied by the late John Wilson, "cattle king" of Savona, who came to Br i t i sh Columbia i n *58, mining and trading on the Fraser and in the Cariboo before settl ing down at Savona as a stock raiser* Scattered through numerous references are other small b i t s of i n -formation describing the ranching industry of the early days. In 1866, Thomas E l l i s arrived at Penticton with one hundred and twenty-seven head of cattle which he had purchased i n Oregon. In 1872, Mr. and Mrs. John F a l l Al l i son settled at Westbank on Okanagan Lake where they established them-selves. Their herd consisted of f i f t y head of purebred stock, probably Shorthorns. In 1868, the f i r s t settlers located i n the Nicola valley; i n that year sheep farming was commenced near the foot of the lake, and cattle breeding at the forks of the Nicola and Coldwater Rivers. It was estimated i n 1882 that the Nicola valley contained f i f t y or sixty bona fide settlers owning col lect ively between ten thousand and twelve thousand head of cattle, about one thousand head of horses and two thousand head of sheep. However, farming and ranching ac t iv i t ie s in the Nicola valley were limited by not having an easily accessible market for the produce. The settlers looked forward to a period of much greater expansion when the rai lroad had been put through, opening the coast markets. In 1875-76 a marked change in conditions was brought about by the . construction of a Government wagon road from Kamloops to Okanagan Mission. This brought with i t an influx of new settlers and, as the country became settled, the stock-raising business naturally waned, the large unbroken stretches of range being no longer available for pasturage. This i s the counterpart of the history of the beef cattle industry of the Great Plains where the influx of settlers gradually drove the cattlemen farther and far-ther west. The winter of 1880-81 was a disastrous one for this province. There was mild weather well into January when a sudden storm drove the cattle in off the range. By March the weather had again become balmy and the stock were put back on the range, most of the winter feed having been exhausted. In A p r i l there came a terr ible storm and blizzard with Intense cold and a depth of snow that was greater than i n January. As the feed had been exhausted great numbers of catt le starved to death. Of the Al l i son ' s herd of eight hundred head only half survived the winter and similar losses were suffered by a l l stockmen. Canadian Pacif ic Railway The advent of the Canadian Pacif ic Railway i n 1886 gave a new l i f e to the livestock industry* The construction camps supplied a valuable market for the beef and when the railway was finished i t provided easy ac-cess to the coast markets. Previous to this time, the catt le , i n order to reach the markets at the coastj had to be driven. One of the earl iest routes to the coast was via Anderson and Harrison Lakes. The Hope-Prince-ton t r a i l was the main outlet for the cattle produced i n the Okanagan, while the Cariboo road tapped the Kamloops and Cariboo d i s t r i c t s . The de-velopment of mining in the Kootenay also furnished a valuable market for the beef produced. BOOM PERIOD The construction of the railway was the f i n a l step in the early development of the livestock industry In B r i t i s h Columbia. The ranchmen could now dispose of a l l they could produce and so, with wonderful pastur-age available, the ranching industry forged ahead. In 1903, the cattle i n -dustry was i n a state of boom, higher prices being paid for stock than had been the case for a number of years. One of the reasons for this was that iri the United States the growth of population had caught up with the food production and prices were higher. The Provincial Government Bul let in of 1903, on Land and Agr icul-ture , states: "The high prices which good cattle demand justify s t a l l feeding. There i s a good market for beef right i n the province. The ranges are cer-tainly capable of supporting more cat t le , and especially with the develop-ment of i r r iga t ion , poss ib i l i t ie s of the cattle industry of the province could be increased threefold, in which case beef, instead of being marketed as three and four year olds, would be sold as two year olds. This of course involves the feeding of the cat t le , which would be done from the time they were born u n t i l they were slaughtered." "There i s a poss ib i l i ty of re-pasturing depleted ranges and i f the land could be fenced and the cattle kept off for a time, they would a l -most re-pasture themselves*" Fencing•of Ranges In 1904, while the demand was steady prices dropped to a certain extent* In 1906, G. H. Hadwen, writing in a Provincial , Government Bul let in on Agriculture in Br i t i sh Columbia, mentions that the railway belt of the Canadian Pacif ic Railway was being fenced to a large extent and so occas-ioning a certain amount of readjustment in the range cattle industry. He states, "the open range i s getting to be a thing of the past. Ultimately, owing to the poss ib i l i ty of allowing the bunch-grass to recover, the coun-try w i l l carry more head of cattle than, i t does at present, but the altered conditions w i l l bring about different methods in stock-raising and are not in favor of larger outf i t s * " "At the present time the pastures are reserved for winter feed, and the catt le are turned out i n the spring on the timber and s t i l l open range. This method allows the bunch-grass seed to ripen and f a l l , and the recovery of this grass, especially i n a showery season i s very marked. As the open range becomes more limited the summer beef w i l l be th in , and this d i f f i cu l ty i s bound to become more acute as the country i s fenced up. Three propositions w i l l present themselves to stockmen, v i z . , to reduce the herd, to turn the beef on the fenced land, or to s e l l store ca t t l e . " In the North-west at that time cattle prices were somewhat depressed and so the outlook for the stockman was none too good* There were" many ranches worthy of mention at that time, perhaps the most noted being the Douglas Lake Cattle Company which ran about f i f -teen thousand head of cattle and two thousand head of horses. The Western Canadian Ranching Company ran about ten thousand head and was one of the better known outf i t s . The Bostock Ranch at Ducks, owned by Senator Bos-t ick , the large ranch owned by Price E l l i s o n , M . L . A . , the Greenhow and O'Keefe ranches, either of which were worth nearly half a mi l l ion dollars, were a l l landmarks of the beef cattle industry i n the early days. Beef could be produced on these ranches for less than two dollars per cwt., and sold at the coast for eight to ten dollars per cwt., l ive weight. By 1909, the pronounced increase in population had le f t the cattle industry far behind and the cattlemen of the province were able to supply the demand only from June 1st to December 31st. During the rest of the year pract ica l ly the whole supply had to be obtained from Alberta. With very few exceptions pract ical ly no winter fattening of beef was done i n the inter ior , largely due to the high prices of feed i n the ranching d i s t r i c t s , and very l i t t l e change could be expected u n t i l larger areas were put under Irr igat ion and more feed produced. At that time range catt le brought from three-fifty to five dol-lars per ewt* at shipping points on the Canadian Pacif ic Railway. They consisted almost entirely of Hereford and Shorthorn grades and were gener-a l l y of good quality* Almost a l l of the ranching was carried on in the area from a few miles north of the Canadian Pacif ic Railway to the United States' boundary. At that same time the average price paid for butterfat i n milk was thirty-seven cents per pound. It can be seen that price con-ditions i n 1909 and 1935 corresponded very closely in regard to these two commodities* far Period During the war years the beef cattle industry received a tremen-dous impetus, as did a l l agriculture, due to the high prices. From 1915 to 1917, the beef cattle population of B r i t i s h Columbia Increased from about one hundred thousand head to about one hundred and ninety thousand head, an increase of about ninety percent. (See Chart No. II) These were prosperous years for the cattlemen, values increasing over the same period from five mil l ion to twelve mi l l ion five hundred thousand dollars , or about one hundred and f i f t y percent. (See Chart No. I l l ) Following the war, in 1919, the beef cattle population held up but the value dropped back to about the 1915 l eve l , prices being even lower than in the early war and pre-war years. The depression of 1920-21 h i t the cattlemen hard, but, CHART NO. II THE BEEF CATTLE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1881 - 1934. •'„• CHMT 'HO. I l l s TOTM, ¥1LUE v OF BEEF CATTLE IE BRITISH' ;COLUHBIA 1912 - 1954. '.' . ; (Millions bf'Dollars) '/<> ///J~ /fjo /f-Zf . //jo //SS-with the tremendous profits of the wax years as a reserve, they were able to withstand the hard times, and again i n 1925 the beef cattle population began to increase. With prices also advancing the beef cattle industry expanded u n t i l 1929. In this peak year the beef cattle population was about two hundred and ninety thousand head, valued at more than f i fteen mi l l ion dol lars . With the disastrous crash In f inancial affairs In 1929-30, prices of cattle f e l l to an extremely low level and from 1929 to 1930 the beef catt le population of Br i t i sh Columbia was pract ica l ly halved. Values over this same period dropped from fifteen mi l l ion to f ive mi l l ion dollars and the whole industry was put in a very precarious position. EARLY PUREBRED IMPORTATIONS The records of the early purebred importations into B r i t i s h Col -umbia are very scattered. The f i r s t record of purebred cattle importations into Br i t i sh Columbia was i n 1867, a purebred b u l l coming from Cal i fornia in that year; more were brought from Oregon in 1873, and a consignment came from Ontario i n 1874. A l l of these were Shorthorns. By 1915 there were several herds of purebred Shorthorns and Herefords established i n the prov-ince. At that time there were no herds of purebred Aberdeen Angus. Pure-bred bul ls sold for seventy to one hundred and twenty-five dollars accord-ing to their quality. SUMMARY In general, the history of the beef cattle industry in Br i t i sh Columbia corresponds with that of the prair ie provinces. F i r s t came the -fur traders, then the pioneers with their small herds, later developing i n -to large holders. A general expansion of the industry followed under more or less open range conditions. Soon more settlers came i n and the range -12-areas were broken up and then with the advent of the rai lroad practically-a l l the large holdings disappeared, the -range began to be fenced with con-sequent over-grazing, leaving the cattleman in a precarious state with .•if present low prices* THE BEEF PRODUCER'S PRESENT POSITION As was pointed out above, the stockmen of Br i t i sh Columbia are in a precarious posit ion. Production costs have been increasing rapidly over a period of the last twenty years whereas prices have remained at a l eve l comparable with the pre-war l e v e l . Range lands have been badly depleted by over-grazing and on the whole* the stock i s of inferior quality. The B r i t -i sh Columbia producer has lagged ten to fifteen years behind the times i n his production and management methods. The ranching industry has been tre-mendously over-capitalized as was that of the prairies In the early days. In Br i t i sh Columbia too much money has been spent i n buying land and equip-ment and not enough i n purchasing good breeding stock. There i s not a large cattle ranch i n the province today that could pay one percent on i t s investment even i f cattle prices were twenty to thir ty percent higher. Over-capitalization of Land This over-capitalization i s not entirely the fault of the ranch owners. A l l surveyed crown lands, i n the early days, were sold for one dollar per acre. This seemed a r idiculously low price to the investors of that time and so large tracts of land were bought and expensive i rr igat ion systems were instal led to water the crops for winter feed. It i s an estab-lished economic principle that land i s worth only what i t can produce. At the present time, i t takes from forty to one hundred acres to support one animal, consequently land i s much over-valued at one dollar per acre. When - 1 3 -the ranchers bought the land i t was covered by a wonderful growth of bunch-grass but as a result of mismanagement that bunch-grass today i s pract ica l ly non-existent. To that extent the ranchers are responsible for their posit ion. Even at the.low price of one dollar an acre however, the land, for use i n beef production, may have been over-capitalized* Galf Crop Another important factor causing the ranchman to be almost bank-rupt and making i t impossible for the ranches to pay dividends i s the low cal f crop of Br i t i sh Columbia ranches. On the average, competent author-i t i e s estimate the ca l f crop in Br i t i sh Columbia to be thirty-f ive to forty percent. Even i n the foothi l l s section of Alberta the average ca l f crop i s seventy percent and on the plains region runs closer to seventy-five percent. This factor alone i s sufficient to make i t impossible for the Br i t i sh Columbia cattleman to pay dividends. In general, the beef cattlemen of this province would seem to be indifferent managers and i n -ferior business men. Organization Legislation has made i t possible for them to form loca l l i v e -stock associations that can have large powers i n handling the range under their jur i sdict ion, but few associations have been formed* By examining the minutes of a meeting of the Br i t i sh Columbia Beef Cattle Growers* Association i t w i l l be seen that cattlemen have real ized that things are not as they should be within the industry* Up to the present time, how-ever, they have not been able to make many changes for improvement. At the present time Br i t i sh Columbia produces less than f i f t y percent of the beef consumed in the province, the remainder must be ship-ed i n from Alberta. The range areas i n Br i t i sh Columbia were at one time -14-and are now to a limited degree every b i t as fine as those of Alberta* Consequently, the B r i t i s h Columbia ranchman should be i n a position to make better profits than the Alberta man, as a result of the freight d i f -ferentia l * It might be interpreted, however, from the attitude of the Br i t i sh Columbia stockmen to the importation of Alberta cat t le , that they cannot compete with the Alberta stockmen In producing beef. If this be so, i t might be well to consider some of the causes* These may be i n the f i e l d of production or i n the f i e ld of marketing. It i s probable that the causal factors are i n both economic f ie lds* Management methods are faulty, pro-duction costs are too high and the system of marketing Br i t i sh Columbia beef may be somewhat antiquated and open to abuse* • In the following chapters the trends i n beef cattle production and marketing are pointed out, production of range beef i s reviewed and the marketing situation analyzed* PART II. PRODUCTION Marking a Lonely Bunchgrass Plant A Highly Over-grazed Open Grassland Range -15-CHAPTER II PASTURE LANDS AM) RANGE MANAGEMENT. RANGE AREAS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA - Resources There are approximately; eleven mi l l ion acres of crown land used for grazing i n B r i t i s h Columbia. About twenty-one mi l l ion acres have been alienated, and of this amount seven hundred and f i f t y thousand acres of land are cult ivated. In addition there are several "reserves" and "common-ages" which tota l approximately two hundred and f i f t y thousand acres. Large areas in the Forest Reserves are under grazing regulations and are used chiefly for summer grazing. The extent of this area runs into many mill ions of acres. In addition to the crown range used for grazing, i t has been es-timated that there are f u l l y one hundred and sixty mi l l ion acres, located mostly east of the Coast Range of mountains, which are suitable for grazing and agricultural development, but, so far , on which very l i t t l e development has taken place. The map on page sixteen shows very roughly the range land areas of the province. The range areas of B r i t i s h Columbia may be sub-divided as follows: The various areas i n the range country of Br i t i sh Columbia have few distinguishing differences from a land u t i l i z a t ion standpoint. There 1, Similkameen (Okanagan {Keremeos (Princeton & south 2. Kamloop & Nicola (Nicola (Merritt (Douglas Lake (Kamloops 5, Cariboo (Chilcotin Ashcroft (Williams Lake (Lil looet Di s t r i c t -17-i s not sufficient change topographically, climatically and vegetationally to alter management practices to a marked degree* Topography The Similkameen and Okanagan area i s characterized by level bot-toms i n the valleys, bordered with rough grassed h i l l s , which rise to high-er mountains where considerable tree growth exists* Within short distances the elevation varies from fourteen hundred to six thousand feet with the climate varying with the altitude* The average precipitation for the val-leys i s around ten inches a year* In the Kamloops d i s t r i c t somewhat similar conditions exist. In the Nicola area however, more open stretches of bunch-grass land occur, and more r o l l i n g country prevails than i n the Similkameen. In the Cariboo dis-t r i c t there i s even more r o l l i n g open country with bench lands dropping down into the valleys of the Fraser and Chilcotin Rivers. In this region the precipitation i s a l i t t l e heavier with more snowfall. A l l the range areas of B r i t i s h Columbia are relatively well watered. There are numerous springs and small creeks which supply sufficient water for the stock as well as for irrigation purposes* In some of the areas there i s sufficient precipitation to carry on dry farming* Climate The winter climate i n the range areas of British Columbia could not be said to be particularly severe* While there i s considerable f a l l of snow, especially i n the Cariboo region, there are few extremely cold spells which last for any length of time. The winter season usually extends from early December to late February* Bordering the range areas i n the Interior a more severe winter climate occurs, but i n these areas mixed farming i s the principal occupation. RANGE TYPES Throughout the grazing areas the various types of range may be classed as follows: 1, Open: Where grasses predominate. 2* Semi-open: Sparsely covered with timber, grasses predominating, 3. Open weed range: Where weeds and herbaceous plants predominate. 4. Meadows (wet): Sedges, calamagrostis. 5. Meadows (dry): Beckmania, etc. 6* Timber, open: Weedy flowering plants. • 7. Timber, medium dense: Browse principal forage, 8. Timber, dense: Browse sparse with scanty.ground eover* 9. Waste Range: Dense timber and barren. These range types may be grouped into three or four larger classes as follows: 1. Grassland - includes groups 1, 2 and 3. 2. Montane Forest - includes group 2 to a certain extent, and groups 6 and 7, Groups 4 and 5 are usually found i n this area* 3. Sub-alpine Forest - includes groups 8 and 9. 4. Alpine Range - includes group 9. The above types of grazing land lend themselves into divisions of spring, f a l l , winter and midsummer grazing* The grassland range i s usually on the lower levels ranging altitude from one to two thousand feet. This type, of range lends i t s e l f part icularly well to spring, f a l l and winter grazing* The montane forest range i s for summer use and varies i n altitude from two thousand to four thousand five hundred feet* In midsummer, in some sections of the country, the cattle may get up onto sub-alpine range, but in Br i t i sh Columbia most of this range, where i t i s used at a l l , i s used by sheep* In some of the Rocky Mountain states south of the boundary l i n e , cattle are grazed on mountain meadows even as high as thirteen thousand feet, but i n Br i t i sh Columbia the cattle rarely go above the Mon-tane Forest belt . Vegetation The ranges of Br i t i sh Columbia are over-grazed. This has been known for a number of years and f i n a l l y the Dominion Government established a range experimental station on the range of the Provincial Government San-atorium Farm at Tranquille. This range i s ideal for the purposes of ex-perimental work i n that i t shows a l l the different types of range lands that are found i n this province and, in common with most of the lower range lands of the province, the grassland area has been heavily over-grazed. It therefore provides a good area for experimentation i n methods of bringing over-grazed range back into productivity. Preliminary surveys were made of this area i n 1934 and i n 1935 the Experimental Farms divis ion took over the jur isdict ion of the range beef herd* The following pages are excerpts of tables and material taken from the report of the work carried on at this station i n 1935 and show the typical condition of the vegetative cover of the range lands of B r i t i s h Columbia. The relative abundance of vegetative cover Is,^indicated as f o l -lows; 4 - very abundant 5 - f a i r l y abundant • 2 - common 1 - occuring, but not common TABLE I Important Trees of the Tranquille Ran^e Grassland Montane Forest Sub-Alpine Forest Abies lasiocarpa Alpine F i r 3 Betula papyrifera White Birch - 1 1 Picea engelmanli Engleman Spruce - 1 4 Pinus contorta var. l a t i f o l i a Lodgepole Pine - 3 3 Pinus ponderosa Populus tremuloides Ponderosa or Aspen Yellow Pine 1 2 2 1 Populus trichocarpa Black Cottonwood - 1 Psuedotsuga tax i fo l ia Douglas F i r - 4 1 TABLE II Important Shrubs of the Tranquille Range Grassland Montane Forest Sub-Alpine Forest Acer glabrum Rocky Mtn. Maple 1 1 -Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a Saskatoon 1 1 -Artemisia tridentata Sagebrush 4' 1 -Betula fontinalis Mountain Birch - 1 1 Ghrysothamnus spp. Yellow Sage 4 2 -Juniperus communis Common Juniper - 2 1 Juniperus scopulorum Dwarf Cedar - 2 -Lonicera involucratum Turin-berry - 1 1 Menziesia ferruginia False Azelia - 1 1 Ribes palustre Swamp Gooseberry - 1 1 Rubus nutkanus Thimbleberry - 2 1 Shepherdia canadensis Soopolallie ...«. - 3 1 Symphoricarpos racemosa Coral Berry - 3 1 TABLE III Important Grasses of the Tranqullle Range Grassland Montane Sub-Alpine Forest Forest Agropyron paueiflorum Slender Wheat Grass 4 «• Bromus tectorum Downy Brome 3 - «. Galamagrostis canadensis Marsh Reedgrass 1 1 1 Calamagrostis rubescens Pinegrass - 4 3 Danthonia intermedia Timber Oatgrass - 1 2 Elymus condensatus Giant Wild Rye 2 -Elymus glaucus Timber Wild Rye - 2 -Koeleria cristate Junegrass 3 1 1 Poa sppi (compressa?) Canada bluegrass (?) 2 2 -Poa secunda Sahdberg's bluegrass 4 . 1 -Sporobolus cryptandrus Sand Dropseed 3 - -Stipa columbiana Columbia Speargrass 2 1 -Stipa comata Long-awned Speargrass 4 - --22- . TABLE TV Other Important Herbaeeous Plants Grassland Montane Sub-Alpine Forest Forest Achillea, millefolium Yarrow 2 3 1 Ahtennaria dimorpha 4 - — Arctostaphylos Bearberry 4 1 Artemisia fugida Wormwood 3 - -Aster conspicuus Rough Aster - 3 2 Astragalus compestris Timber milk retch - 3 1 Erigeron spp. Fleabane 3 - -Erigeron compositus Dwarf Fleabane 3 ** -Lapula spp* Blue Stickseed 4 -Lathyrus ochroleucous Peavlne - 4 -Lepidium apetalum Peppergrass 3 - -Linnaea borealis Twin flower - 4 1 Lupinus spp. Wild blue lupine 2 4 Opuntia f r a g i l i s Cactus 3 •a* -. Sisymbrium altissimum Tumbling mustard 3 ' - -Spiraea lucida Spiraea, white - 4 1 Taraxcum officinale Dandelion 2 1 1 Vaccinium spp. Blueberry - 3 4 V i o l a americana Wild vetch 4 -Zygadenus venenosus Death Camas 2 1 am -23-From a study of the growth development of some of the important species on the different range types, i t was found that i n the grassland zone most of the pr incipal species began growth late in March or early in A p r i l and flowered i n May or June, The two principle exceptions were Spor-obolus (Sand Dropseed) and Chrysthamnus (Yellow Sage), both of which made no new growth u n t i l l a t e ' i n A p r i l , and grew quite slowly unt i l the warm weather in July, In the lower montane zone growth began nearly two weeks later than i n the grassland* Most of the principal species began growth at about the same time, flowering in June. However, i n the upper montane zone there was l i t t l e growth before the middle of May and most of the species did not flower u n t i l July, In the grassland and lower montane regions most of the species cured we l l . In the upper montane zone many of the species were frozen while s t i l l green. Types of Forage Grazed Numerous observations were made concerning the palatabi l i ty to both cattle and horses of the pr incipal native plants i n various growth stages, on different vegetative types and at different times of the year. A summary of some of the results obtained i s presented i n the following tables: It w i l l be noted in the tables that: (1) In the grassland zone the great bulk of the cattle fodder is supplied by a few grass species. 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H CQ fH bO P © © o ex p^  .o 1-3 W >d r-i CQ CO cd r l © o CQ CQ CO P P CO cd fH fH CO fH >d o cd bD p rH fH fn cd 4= cd a 4> •H © P i - — cd O -P P i K fd '• 4 s p" cd CO fH © CO cd © cd o © • H PH , P ' _ . P 8 •p rd CQ fH , — . & © m P i o CO P .a P- P o CQ O fH o r-i fn cd cd fH © p v > d o cd O « •ri fH cd i A3 U bO P i P bD © © o © P i P fn g pj fH rH • H O o cd © 3 3?3 4= rl PH CO O CO • . CO * — • M — -28-Feeding Value of Native Forage Species The results of the studies on the composition and the feeding value of the native forage species are as yet incomplete, but some results have been obtained which are set out in the following tables. TJfflLE IX Ohemioal Composition of Native Fodder Species in the Grassland Zone Species Growth Stage % Prot. Fibre CaO P 2 0 5 Agropyron pauciflorum Late leaf, curing 3.84 32.40 0.569 0.162 Agropyron pauciflorum Seed r ipe , 50% shed 3.71 36.42 0.418 0*157 Elymus condensatus Seed early dough 5.20 35.48 0.391 0.288 Koeleria cristata Curing, seed 50$ shed 6,03 34.15 0.645 0.350 Poa ccsnpressa (?) Seed r ipe, curing 6.89 32.91 0*401 0.382 Poa secunda Seed shed, cured 5.59 33.72 0.385 0.167 Sporobolus cryptandrus Seed, early dough 8.82 32.50 0.404 0.336 Stipa oomata Curedj seed 75% shed 4.75 32.40 0.402 0.168 Hay Meadow, Carex s Agrosti Equisetum) SCut for hay 9.65 21.09 1.77 0,333 Balsamorhiza sagittata Cured, seed shed 4.27 32.30 1.99 0.214 -29-TABLE IX - Continued Chemical Composition of Native Eodder Speoies in the Upper Montane Zone Species Growth Stage fo Prot. Fibre CaO ^295 Aster conspicuus Medium leaf 8.76 17.78 1.59 1.39 tt II Late leaf, frosted 5.64 18.17 1.61 1.87 Calamagrostis rubescens Medium leaf 6.05 25.57 0.764 0.498 n n Late leaf, curing 5.15 27.59 1*05 0.377 ti ti Seed r ipe , curing 3*32 38.27 0.433 0*222 n II Late leaf, frosted 3.05 28.95 0.783 0*328 Lathyrus ochroleucous Seed, early dough 17.25 26.67 1.82 0.480 Lupinus spp. Medium flower 17.55 16*10 2.21 0*575 V i c i a americana Seed r ipe , shedding 12.56 28.57 1.84 0*358 (1) In general, as on the pra ir ies , the native fodder plants are well suited to the nutrit ive requirements of the livestock* (2) Most of the native fodders tested, and part icularly those of the grassland zone* possess low calcium and phosphorus content in the mature condition. The late f a l l and winter pasturage would appear to if be deficient i n these two minerals, part icular ly in phosphorus. ?1 |1 (3) In general, the fodder species of the montane zone are richer in ca l - |l I cium than those of the grassland. Species of legumes and asters are pj particularly high in phosphorus. \i I There should be no mineral deficiency during the summer months on a • .mi 1 montane range where such forbs are abundant. |jj Plant Succession Studies 1  i _ _ _ _ _ _____________ . j [ These were carried out on protected plots and showed that per- ;j( ennial fodder species increase at the expense of annual and perennial weed W. I M l types* Apparently most annual species disappear f a i r l y quickly on plots protected from grazing while the perennial weeds maintain themselves for a long time. Junegrass (Koeleria cristata) appears to increase more rapidly on such areas than do any of-the other desirable fodder grasses. Plots at Riske Creek indicated that improvement of a depleted range may occur just as rapidly under a program of f a l l grazing as under total protection. Quadrat studies on these plots indicated the following average number of plants per square metre: Plot Weeds Annual Perennial Total Grasses Annual Perennial Total North p lo t , protected 0 20 20 50 5 55 South plot , f a l l grazed 0 17 17 52 7 59 Check, unprotected range 67 14 81 23 2 25 I The general plan of range management on the Experimental Station i s to protect the lower ranges in the late spring, summer and early f a l l . This gives the young plants a chance to establish themselves i n the late spring and to make enough growth to produce and shed the seed in summer and f a l l . It has been found from work done on the prair ie and i n the f o o t h i l l ranges i n the western United States that the very early spring grazing i s the most harmful to the grass cover. I f the young shoots are eaten as soon as they appear i n the spring* i t sets the plant back enormously, and i f such a procedure i s followed over a period of years i t soon results in an over-grazed condition of the range. In B r i t i s h Columbia i t has been the common practice for the stockmen to turn the cattle out as soon as any growth shows on the range in the spring. This i s decidedly a wrong practice. The cattle should be kept on feed or on meadows just as long as possible, giving the grass a chance to make five or six inches of growth before the animals are turned loose. Late f a i l grazing on these lower ranges i s not harmful as i t i s only the cured vegetation that i s eaten. Summer grazing on the lower ranges i s not desirable as there is much less seed set by the grasses and consequently fewer younger plants coming along the next year. .During the summer, f u l l use should be made of the montane ranges. These timbered ranges can only be used for about five months of the year and so the stock should be care-f u l l y herded while on this range i n order to get the greatest possible amount of use from i t . Bange Improvement There are two general methods of improving over-grazed ranges. The f i r s t method i s by natural revegetation under a system of controlled grazing; and the second is by a r t i f i c i a l revegetation by reseeding to native or introduced forage species. The latter method has not proved to be sat-isfactory on the prair ie as the cost i s prohibitive and the results unsat-isfactory except where the land had previously been cult ivated, such as on abandoned home-steads* In Br i t i sh Columbia where the ranges are over-grazed to a greater extent than on the pra ir ie i t may be feasible to reseed. In 1952 a plot was reseeded near Nicola; half this plot was fenced so that i t was given tota l protection and the other half was le f t unfeneed* In 1935 the result was viewed and the following figures obtained, showing the strength, vigor and seed production of the stand, Plate No. 1 shows a p ic -ture of this reseeded plot where i t was under fence and i l lustrates what might be done with over-grazed range under controlled conditions. The re-sults are shown in table X as follows: -32-TABLE _ Reseedin^ .Experiment near Micola. B e C. Grass Protected Grazed Stand Vigor Seed Weed- Stand Vigor Seed Weed-Prod, InesB Prod, iness Crested Wheat Grass 95% 10 9 1 60 5 1 5 Slender " " 65 9 9 2 - 50. i s 7 Ta l l Oat Grass 95 10 10 2 10 2 0 10 Ta l l Fescue 75 8 8 4 50 5 l s 6 Kentucky Bluegrass 70 7 7 5 40 4 0 7 Mixture of above 90 Mostly-crested slender t a l l oat and wheat, ,2 55 5 1 Mostly crested wheat, slender wheat, and t a l l fescue. 6 The T a l l Oat Grass showed up well under protection and may possess valuable qualities as a dry land hay but i t does not stand up under range conditions where i t i s being heavily grazed. Crested wheat grass would appear to be the best of these grasses for reseeding purposes followed by slender wheat grass and T a l l Fescue. Kentucky Bluegrass does not stand up well under range conditions, although i t gave better results than the Ta l l Oat grass under grazing,-Growth Development It is important for the stockman to know the growth development of the important species of plants in order that he may know the best time to graze the various areas of his range. Knowing the predominance of the various species on the different sections of range and knowing their seed-ing habits, the stockman can arrange his grazing plan to get the maximum feeding value from the fodder and at the same time build up or maintain the Reseeding Experiment near Nicola. -34-carrying capacity of the range. The growth development i n 1935, of some of the important species on the Tranquille range, was as follows: TABLE XI Growth Development of Some Important Forage Species - 1935  Middle Grassland Zone Species Seed Ripe Relative Seed Production (Max* 10) Agropyron pauciflorum July 24 Ig-(Slender Wheat Grass) Bromus tectorum June 20 10 (Downy Brome) Koeleria cr is tata Aug. 1 2 (Junegrass) Poa secunda June 15 2 (Sandberg's Bluegrass) Sporobolus cryptandrus Sept* 5 3 (Sand Dropseed) Stipa comata July 16 l i (Long-awned Speargrass) - . • Antennaria dimorpha May 16 V Artemisia trldenta No seed 0 (Sagebrush) Chrysothamnus spp. Oct. 30 -|-(Yellow Sage) Erigeron spp. July 20 - Oct. 15 6 (Fleabane) Lapula spp. June 24 - Oct. 1 8 (Blue Stickseed) Lower Montane Zone Agropyron pauciflorum Aug. 13 l ^ (Slender Wheat Grass) Koeleria cr istata Aug. 16 3 (Junegrass) -35-TABLE XI - Continued Growth Development of Some Important Forage Species - 1955  Lower Montane Zone 'Spec ies Seed Ripe Relative Seed Production (Max. 10) Festuca scabrella Aug. 12 s Achil lea millefolium Sept. 5 3 (Yarrow) Antennaria spp. July 3 2 Arctostaphylos Aug. 15 j% (Bearberry) Artemisia spp. Oct. 5 1 (Sagebrush) Balsamorhiza sagittata July 10 1 Chrysothamnus spp. Nov. 5 1 (Yellow Sage) Upper Montane Zone Calamagrostis rubescens Sept. 15 \ (Pinegrass) Elymus glaucus Sept. 3 8 (Timber Wild Rye) Stipa richardsonii Aug* V 7 Achi l lea millefolium Sept. 5 2 (Yarrow) Arctostaphylos Aug. 15 2 (Bearberry) Aster conspicuus Sept* 26 3 (Rough Aster) Astragalus compestris Aug. 18 3 (Timber Milk vetch) Berberis aquifolium Aug* 15 3 Lathyrus ochroleucous Aug* 26 5 (Peavine) -36-TABLE XI - Continued Growth Development of Some Important Forage Species - 1935  Upper Montane Zone ' Species Seed Ripe Relative Seed Production (Max. 10) Luplnus spp. Aug. 22 (Lupine) Rosa spp. Sept. 10 (Wild Rose) Shepherdia canadensis Aug. 10 (Soopolallie) Spiraea lucida Sept. 1 (Spiraea, white) Symphoricarpos racemosa Aug. 30 (Coral Berry) V i c i a americana Aug. 27 (Wild Vetch) In order that the stockman may make the fullest and most econom-i c a l use of his range, he should have a thorough knowledge of the types of range that are included on his property, the vegetation of the various areas and the value of the various fodders at the different seasons. If the stockman has a working knowledge of a l l these factors then he can work out a grazing plan that w i l l best suit the different units of his range® Many of the more modern stockmen work out what may be called the ' salt ing equivalentT of each section of range. This salting equivalent shows that when a certain amount of salt has been eaten by a known number of animals on a certain area, then the forage on that area has been grazed sufficient-l y and the cattle should be moved to another area. This i s an extremely valuable index but requires a special knowledge of range and forage types -37-i f i t i s to be computed. The average stockman has not sufficient training to t e l l whether or not a range has been grazed enough for a certain season or whether he i s over-grazing his range. The cattle may come off fat from a range that i s being badly over-grazed and yet no difference i n the forage cover may be apparent to the untrained man. It i s only over a long period that the stockman can t e l l i f his range i s being over-grazed and when he does f i n a l l y real ize i t , the over-grazing has usually gone so far that i t takes years to bring the range back into i t s normal productive state. Results of experiments on the prair ies have shown that the prac-tice of rotational grazing i s of doubtful value, although i n the United States i t i s highly recommended as a method of bringing over-grazed ranges into productivity. The main objection to this system seems to be that i t i s slow. Possibly a better system Is that of deferred grazing coupled with a system of rotational grazing. The range may be divided into two main sections on one of which grazing i s deferred u n t i l later on i n the summer; the other section i s not grazed i n the late summer when the seed of the main forage species i s about to set and f a l l . This system gives the one half of the range a chance to make a good growth in the spring, consequent-l y there are more plants to set seed; the other half has a chance to set seed undisturbed and so gives more seedlings the following year* This sys-tem has the objection that i t requires more range to carry the same number of cattle thai under the regular system but the ranchman must pay sometime for his bad management and this would seem to be the least expensive method of increasing the productivity of the range. -38-CHAPTER III LIVESTOCK HUSBANDRY: BREEDING AND FEEDING. GENERAL RANGE METHODS In Br i t i sh Columbia the usual practice has been to turn the cattle out the back gate as soon as any growth shows on the lower ranges in the spring and to le t them back when snow comes. There i s a general round-up, usually i n late spring or early summer for the purpose of castrating bu l l calves. Some ranches have two round-ups, - one to castrate calves, e tc . , in the spring and the other i n the f a l l for the purpose of separating out the market beef animals. Often the stockman does not see his cattle more than once during the whole summer. It i s true that range cattle should be l e f t alone as much as possible but the Br i t i sh Columbia stockman, i n general, carries this to the extreme. The cattle herd, particularly the breeding herd, should be kept under observation throughout the whole year. It seems absurd that any business man should le t five hundred head, or so, of catt le , representing an investment of fifteen to twenty thousand dollars, out the back gate to roam at w i l l for six or eight months without knowing what i s happening to that investment. Every stockman should employ a herd-er who i s capable of looking after the stock on the range. Range Riders The range rider ( i f he i s a good one) i s probably the greatest asset a ranch can have. In the early days a l l a cowboy had to know was, how to r ide , how to use a rope, and how to brand and castrate calves. The day of the old time cowboy has passed just as the day of the open range. The range rider for the modern ranch should have a knowledge of the various fodders, their growth habits, when the different species have the greatest -39-nutrit ive value, and their palatabi l i ty . He should have a thorough know-ledge of the habits of catt le . The range rider should be able to judge, roughly, when a piece of range has been grazed sufficiently and should be able to work out a definite plan for the salting of the cattle on a range unit . In addition to this knowledge, the rider must be able to handle the cattle properly i n driving them, and also when they are in the corral . The rider must watch the breeding herd and separate out the poor breeders. Be-sides a l l this the rider must have a knowledge of the common cattle dis-eases and of the poisonous plants on the range and so prevent losses from these sources. In short, the rider must have sufficient training to be able to take charge of the herd when i t i s at i t s most productive period, the summer months, and obtain the greatest possible returns. The range rider i s the stockman's right-hand man and on him depends, to a great ex-tent, the income of the ranch. THE BREEDING HERD The breeding herd, i t s health, condition and strength, should be the prime interest of the stockman. Calf crop i s a direct indication of profits that can be expected. The breeding herds of the stockmen" in B r i t -ish Columbia are much neglected and this i s evidenced i n the poor calf crop obtained by the Br i t i sh Columbia ranchers in comparison with the more up-to-date stockmen of the pra i r ie . The range i s often divided into units by natural barriers. These serve the purpose, when i t i s desired, of confining the cattle to a certain area. By supplementing natural barriers with dr i f t fences, often a suitable breeding pasture can be obtained at a very low cost* The breeding herd should have the best range lands allocated, to i t . The beef herd may suffer a small loss in weight, due to being put on poorer grazing -40-areas, but this i s more than offset by the increased cal f crop. Calf Prop The calf crop i s estimated by taking the percentage of the num-ber of calves at weaning time to the number of cows in the breeding herd put out with the bul l s . To i l lustrate i t s tremendous importance the f o l -lowing, example is used. A herd of five hundred breeding cows have a cal f crop of thirty-f ive percent: about the average for Br i t i sh Columbia. This would give one hundred and seventy-five calves which, when sold as two year olds, weighing nine hundred pounds at a price of1 five dollars per cwt., would gross seven thousand, eight hundred and seventy-five dollars. It i s quite possible, by more efficient management and the use of better bul l s , to increase this ca l f crop to seventy percent, or three hundred and f i f t y calves. Because of the larger number of calves, there would be less fodder, and so these animals might s e l l as two year olds at a weight of eight hundred pounds. If the price, due to poorer quality among the la t ter group of steers, i s reduced to four dollars per cwt., the animals would gross eleven thousand, two hundred dollars , or three thousand, three hundred and twenty-five dollars more than the f i r s t group. In order to bring the gross value of this latter group of steers down to the level of the value of the f i r s t group, the price would have to be reduced to two dollars and eighty-one cents per cwt., a ridiculously low figure. This i s purely an i l lus t ra t ion showing the value of the calf crop and does not i n -clude a l l possible factors. For instance, i t w i l l take twice as much feed to winter the larger number of steers, and so feed and labor costs are i n -creased. This shows that the three thousand, three hundred and twenty-five dollars i s not entirely "velvet", but in any case, as the overhead remains the same, the net returns would be much greater from the herd with the increased calf crop. Cross-breeding The Br i t i sh Columbia stockman does not pay enough attention to his breeding herd* The range, cattle herds of this province should be c u l l -ed severely. The uneveness of the range herds of this province may be partly the result of the practice of cross-breeding. There are certain Mfads" i n the ranching business, as in any other business, which sweep the country and then disappear, leaving a certain amount of debris in their wake. Cross-breeding, as practiced by the Br i t i sh Columbia rancher, was a fad, and has le f t the breeding herds of this province i n very poor con-di t ion . Cross-breeding used inte l l igent ly i n a commercial herd is of great value, as i s witnessed by the winning animals at Smithfield being cross-bred Shorthorn-Galloways* But, in the hands of the average ranchman, cross-breeding i s a dangerous weapon. The f i r s t generation of cross-breds are usually superior to either of the parental types; but i f the cross-bred heifers are bred back to the strain of either parent or to a cross-bred b u l l , then the result i s havoc. To practice cross-breeding a man must maintain two herds, for example, - a rancher has a herd of high grade Here-fords; these must be sp l i t into two groups, one group is bred to a Short-horn b u l l to give the cross-bred animals which are a l l sold* The other half of the herd i s bred to a Hereford b u l l , the steers are sold and the heifers are used to replenish both herds. This system has some advantages in the hands of an expert stockman, but for the average rancher i t i s better to stick to one breed. The Cow Herd The cows in the breeding herd should be severely culled and a l l the non-breeders and irregular breeders discarded, as well as those which -42-are weak or show symptoms of disease* An irregularly breeding cow i s much worse than one that does not breed at a l l as the irregular breeder w i l l perpetuate herself, while the non-breeders come to a natural end. Thin cows should be given special attention and when brought in off the range should be fed a l i t t l e concentrate along with the hay ration to build 'them up* In the summer the breeding cows should be put on the very best pasture available. By that time the calves have become quite a good size and re-quire a lo t of milk. If the cows are put on a pasture which has a lot of legume forage, peavine and vetch, mixed with grasses and browse, then the cow w i l l receive a better balanced rat ion than i f she were on a grass pas-ture. When the breeding herd i s moved down from the r i c h timber feed i n the f a l l , the cured grass feed of the lower lands assists materially i n slowing the milk flow, and so the calves can be weaned in the f a l l with very l i t t l e fear of udder troubles developing among the cows* At a l l times the breeding herd should be kept in a good, thr i f ty , active condition. Some ranchers follow the practice of breeding yearling heifers but this should be condemned. Yearling heifers that are bred do not devel-op f u l l y , and growth i s apt to be stunted. It costs very l i t t l e to keep the animals another year, and their future breeding efficiency w i l l be much greater i f the heifers are not bred u n t i l they are two years old* It Is a tremendous strain on the constitution of an animal to have to grow, pro-ducing bone and meat, and produce and support a ca l f at the same time. There are apt to be breeding troubles with a heifer that i s bred as a year-l i n g , and this i s possibly a factor contributing to the low cal f crop i n Br i t i sh Columbia. The B u l l The use of poor bulls by the ranchers of Br i t i sh Columbia i s an--43-other factor which, has caused the stock to lose size and quality. In the early days when, castrating the calves at the round-ups the remark was often passed "that's a big, husky calf, cut him; h e ' l l make a good steer" and "that's a weak, miserable crittur; l e t him go for a b u l l . " This was extremely bad logic* Not to use purebred bulls i s inexcusable and i f a man can't afford to buy a good purebred b u l l he might well go out of bus-iness. The bu l l i s more than half the herd. The meat producing qualities of animals at present are believed to be inherited by the calf equally from the dam and sire. But this does not forego the fact that the sire i s of much more importance than the dam i n a commercial herd* A cow, as a rule, leaves but one calf a year, whereas a good bul l w i l l breed from twenty to thirty-five cows i n a year. In Argentina there has been much emphasis l a i d on buying good bulls, consequently, Argentinan buyers for a long period of years have taken the top bulls i n both Great Britain and the United States. That this has been profitable for them i s not to be doubt-ed, for Argentinan chilled beef takes up a tremendous part of the British market* It may be compared in quality and standardization to the high class Caledonian lamb shipped to the British market from New Zealand, or to Danish bacon. In British Columbia, however, the average rancher uses bulls of very inferior quality and w i l l not put out the money to buy a good b u l l . This fact i s borne out be the exhibiting and sale of livestock at the Kamloops Bull Sale. The Provincial Bull Sale The Provincial Bull Sale, held at Kamloops, i s an extremely val-uable institution for the stock breeders of this province, and i t should be fostered and improved* There are a number of breeders of purebred an--44-imals i n the province and some of these have very high class stock, but, except in rare instances, i t does not measure up to the class of purebred stock kept on the prair ies or in the western United States. This i s ev-idenced by the fact that when a prair ie purebred breeder does show at the Kamloops, as a rule, the prair ie bulls are the winners in the show r ing . Many may dispute this fact, part icularly on the grounds that Br i t i sh Col-umbia bred Shorthorns have taken the Grand Championship for a number of years at this show. But on the average, the prair ie bulls shown are of better quality than the Br i t i sh Columbia bred bul l s . At no time, however, has there been a very large showing of prair ie bul l s , and those that are shown are very often the second grade bulls of the stockbreeder* This latter fact i s the result of the low prices . It does not pay the prair ie man to ship his best bulls to Kamloops because he can obtain much better prices for them at the Calgary Bul l Sale. This may be explained by reason of the fact that the Calgary Bul l Sale draws on a larger and more populous ranching terr i tory, but undoubtedly, part of the trouble i s that the B r i t -ish Columbia rancher is unwilling to pay the price for top-grade bul l s . It i s most certainly poor economy to buy poor bul ls . Number of Bulls Another factor in calf crop is the number of bul ls used. In rugged country a mature b u l l w i l l scarcely serve more than twenty cows in a season. Br i t i sh Columbia ranchers are prone tp use far too few bulls , and in many cases, some of the small "nesters" use no bulls, of their own at a l l . I f they are located on range adjoining that of a large outfit , which as a rule , i s rather poorly fenced, they rely on their animals mixing with those of the large outf i t ' s and so being bred. *45-The use of young bul l s , that i s yearlings and two year olds, i s exploited to a large degree in Br i t i sh Columbia, and many promising young bul ls have had their breeding efficiency impaired by over-use as yearlings. On rugged range a yearling bul l should only be lef t with the herd a short time and cannot be expected to breed more than five to ten cows. A two year old bu l l may be given s l ight ly heavier use and may breed up to fifteen cows, but even this number is a lot for a two year old in rough country. Breeding Season There should be a definite breeding season planned by the stock-men* It i s best to have calves arriving as close to one time as possible. This gives the beef herd an even looking appearance when being viewed by the buyer for the meat packer. Previous to the breeding season, the cows should be given a chance to put on flesh and strengthen themselves after the long winter period. This i s somewhat similar to the practice of sheep-men "flushing" ewes. The animals are put on the breeding pasture which should be a confined piece of range with good feed. If the feed i s p lent i -f u l on this range unit , the animals are quieter and less apt to wander than i f fodder i s scarce. This makes i t easier for the bulls to get around and a greater number of cows are covered. Weaning Generally speaking, calves born i n the spring should be weaned in the f a l l , usually in early October before the grass i s too dry. Under no conditions should spring calves be permitted to follow their mothers onto winter range. It i s possible to wean calves i n pastures that are some dis-tance from the cow herd but the fences in between must be practical ly 'hog t i ght ' . The best method i s to shut the calves up i n a tight corral and give them a l l the good a l fa l fa hay they can eat over the whole winter, and by spring they are weaned. Where the f a c i l i t i e s are present, the steer calves may be separated from the heifers and put on a l i t t l e better feed a; they w i l l probably return this i n a better price the next f a l l . However, economy should be practiced i n feeding the heifer calves although they should have sufficient feed to make a normal growth on. The corral for weaning should be on rather high ground and have some sort of shelter in connection with i t so that the calves can get out of the heavier snows. Timothy and slough hays are rather poor feed for cattle and weaning calves w i l l do much better on a l fa l fa or clover hay. PEEPING f The Breeding Herd It has been stated that in the production of beef catt le , i t i s f i f t y percent breeding and f i f t y percent feeding. Experiments with cattle under range conditions at the Dominion Range Experimental station at Many-berries, Alberta, would seem to indicate that this ratio i s not entirely correct. From the results of feeding experiments at that station i t would appear that the ratio might be something l ike forty percent breeding and sixty percent feeding. In this experiment groups of cattle were put on pastures arranged so that on one pasture twenty acres per head was allowed, on a second, thir ty acres per head, and on a third, forty acres per head. These cattle were a l l of pract ical ly the same breeding and were the average animals taken from the herd of Gi lchr i s t Brothers* To a l l appearances, after being on the pastures for a year or more, those animals allowed but twenty acres per head were scrubby and of very poor quality. The animals on the pasture giving thir ty acres per head were of good quality and i t would not have been suspected that they were of the same breeding as the -47-previous group. The animals allowed forty acres per head were of s t i l l better quality hut there was not the same difference between these and those allowed th ir ty acres per head, as between the latter group and those allowed twenty acres per head. These results were real ly astounding and further experimenting i s being done. Carrying Capacity The carrying capacity of the range determines i t s value and i s influenced, to a large degree, by the climate. In wet years the grass w i l l make a stronger growth and so can be grazed more heavily than in dry years. The carrying capacity of a range can only be worked out over a period of years. By having a certain number of cattle graze a range unit for some years and by determining whether the vegetative cover i s main-taining i t s e l f or going down i n condition, the stockman can estimate f a i r l y closely the productivity of the range. Ranges of low capacity may not be worth more than two or three cents per acre when leased, whereas a range that i s i n f i r s t class condition may be worth double that amount. In leasing range, security of tenure must be established. This i s a primary condition that must be satisfied in a l l agriculture i f i t i s to prosper. The usual range lease runs for twenty-one years. Low taxes on 'deeded' land must be assured, for only by having extremely low fixed charges can the rancher make a pro f i t . In Br i t i sh Columbia adequate laws covering the grazing of l ivestock on Crown Lands have been proclaimed and the Forest Reserve lands are well managed by the Forestry Branch of the Provincial Government. The usual charge for grazing cattle on Crown Lands i s five cents per head per month with a minimum charge of twenty-five cents and a maximum of f i f t y cents. ' ' I - 4 8 -Winter Feeding: Range cat t le , as a rule, are carried through the winter just as cheaply as possible. No attempt i s made to increase the weight of the manure animals over the winter period. Even calves may be carried over the winter i n low condition. Experiments conducted on the prairies would seem to indicate that there is ^ery l i t t l e difference in the weight of calves by their second f a l l whether they have been on a good ration during their f i r s t winter or whether they have been on a low plane of nutrit ion* If possible, stock should be wintered on the range, but in Br i t i sh Columbia the lower winter ranges have been so badly over-grazed that i n most cases this i s impossible. The production of hay for winter feeding should be mainly an insurance against prolonged cold spells with deep snow, but in Br i t i sh Columbia i t i s a d is t inct necessity. As a general rule , however, cattle should be le f t out on the range just as long as possible and put on feed just as winter breaks up and the young grass starts to grow. By put-ting the stock on feed at this time i t gives the young grass a chance to get established and make four to s ix inches of growth before i t i s eaten down. Feeding at this time also gives the cows a chance to pick up a l i t t l e , and gain strength for the arduous calving period that i s approach-ing . The stockman should put up no more hay than he actually needs for the normal winter period. As an insurance, however, i t i s usual to have one year's hay supply ahead at a l l times. The stand-by crop for hay production in the range areas of Br i t i sh Columbia i s a l fa l fa . Where suff-icient Irrigation water i s available this i s by far the best crop to grow and gives by far the greatest return in feed value per acre. Many stockmen re ly entirely on slough hay and wild meadow hay but, as a rule, this hay i s of poor quality and i s high i n s i l i c a content. The amount of the crop that can be obtained from meadows i s always uncertain and i f i t were not - '# " for the very low cost per ton of this hay i t would have very few points in i t s favor for winter feeding. Gereal grains w i l l often produce satisfact-ory quantities of hay on dry land areas and, as was mentioned before, Ta l l Oat grass has dist inct poss ib i l i t ie s as a dry land hay. In recent years, greater use has been made of silage for winter feeding of range catt le . Silage crops, as a whole, are too expensive per unit total digestible nutrients to be used for this purpose* Where silage crops can be grown, a l fa l fa can be grown-, -and the latter crop w i l l give much more satisfactory returns. Generally i t does not pay to feed a grain or high protein sup-plements to range cattle over the winter* In the case of very weak cows, however, i t does pay to give them a l i t t l e extra feed in the form of con-centrates* The main idea in winter feeding i s to carry the animals through at just as low a cost as possible, keeping them i n a thri f ty condition but not too weak. Finishing Steers Up to the present time there has been very l i t t l e steer finishing done i n Br i t i sh Columbia* This may have been partly due to the lack of cheap grains and fattening feeds, and partly to the apathy on the part of the farmers and ranchers of the province towards this enterprise. At the present time there are many more beef animals being fattened than a few years ago, but as yet, no definite system of steer finishing has been -50-worked out. Cattle brought down from the inter ior to the coast take from two to six weeks to become acclimatized; on the average about four weeks. This fact pract ica l ly precludes the poss ib i l i ty of profitable cattle feeding i n " the coastal regions. A system of 'contract* feeding was arranged some years ago but because the animals took so long to become acclimatized, and on account of the unfamiliarity of most JBraser valley farmers to this en-terprise, i t was entirely unsatisfactory for the feeder and the practice has pract ica l ly stopped. Economically speaking, there is no doubt that the coast i s the correct place for finishing steers, but climatic conditions are against i t . There i s close at hand a supply of cheap concentrate in the form of elevator, mi l l ing and d i s t i l l e r y by-products, and often there i s a supply of cheap grain that has spoiled i n shipment. Notwithstanding a l l these facts* generally i t does not pay to f inish steers at the coast. The inter ior has the advantage over the coastal regions for the purpose of steer finishingj i n that i t requires no time for the animals to become acclimatized. There is rather a limited supply of grain available in the interior but a large quantity of a l fa l fa i s grown. At the present time steers are finished i n the inter ior , pract ical ly on a l fa l fa alone, although in some few cases, elevator by-products have been shipped up to use along with the home-grown grain that i s available* There i s a great deal of art as well as science i n finishing steers* The animals must be kept consuming just as much feed as possible, being a l i t t l e b i t hungry a l l the time. At the same time the animals must not be overfed or they w i l l go off their feed entirely and w i l l take weeks to regain the position they have lost . A suitable ration for fattening - 5 1 -steers i s as follows: At the start of the feeding period the meal should consist of equal parts, by weight, of oats and barley; as the feeding period advances, gradually increase the proportion of barley u n t i l i t i s twice that of oats. Wheat, corn, or good elevator screenings may replace a l l or part of the barley. I f good legume hay i s available, l i t t l e or no high-protein concen-trate need be fed, but i f the hay is of poor quality a small quantity of some high-protein concentrate should be added to the meal. The cattle should be placed on f u l l feed slowly; start with two pounds of meal and i n -crease i t by a half pound u n t i l the animals are receiving seven or eight pounds of the meal. The following feeding schedule may be followed when feeding two year old steers:-1st day — 2 lbs. ground oats, bay, silage or roots, salt free w i l l . 2nd day - 2 " tt »t tt tt tt tt tt tt tt 3rd day - n ft it tt it tt ft tt ti 4th day 3 " t? tt it ' t» tt tt tt « tt 5th day - • s i ti tt tt tt tt ti tt tt n tt 6th day - 4 ft tt w ft tt tt tt tt tt 7th day •- » tt n . tf ti tt tr rt tt 8th day - 5 " n rr ft tt tt tt n ft tt 9th day 5% » tt tt tt tt tt tt tt tt tt 10th day - 6 »• ft « it tt tt tt tt • n tt 11th day - 6 i » tt ft tt n tt tf tt ft tt 12th day y t? ?t ft n tt tt tt tf ft tt The grain, hay and silage or roots should be fed in two equal feedings per day for the f i r s t three or four weeks. If maximum gains are desired the -52-hay may be fed only after the evening feeding of silage and grain, when the animals are well on feed. A prime requisite in following any feeding schedule is that i t be regular as to time and quantities. The length of the feeding period w i l l vary and depends on a num-ber of factors such as age, type, quality of the feed used, rate of feeding and weather conditions. The market conditions also govern, to a certain extent, the length of the feeding period. F u l l fed steers require approximately the following length of feeding periods:-2 year olds 80-125 days Yearlings 120-155 " Calves 150-190 " Excessive amounts of shrinkage in shipping en route to market can be controlled to a certain extent, by proper feeding and management be-fore the time of loading* If silage is being fed, the amount should be re-duced by one-half, two or three days before shipping; the grain ration should be reduced and the proportion of oats increased a day or two before loading. It i s a very bad policy to give the animals an unusual amount of water just previous to loading, and the salt allowance should be reduced a l i t t l e . Generally, the dry roughages and fibrous feeds should be i n -creased previous to shipping and care should be taken not to excite or overheat the animals i n loading. CHAPTER IV LIVESTOCK HUSBANDRY: RANCH OPERATIONS In any industry i t i s a general rule that, having suitable raw material, prof i t or loss depends upon the efficiency, quality and depend-a b i l i t y of the equipment and the use to which i t i s put. Ranching, or stock ra i s ing , i s an industry i n the ful lest sense of the word, and so in this industry the good manager w i l l have equipment which i s ef f ic ient , de-pendable and of good quality, and furthermore, he w i l l use this equipment to the ful lest possible advantage. Any stockman who does not balance the factors of h i s production to produce at the lowest possible cost i s bound to be a marginal producer eventually, as those who are good managers w i l l sooner or later enter the business and so force him to the wal l . EQUIPMENT - This chapter deals with the equipment which is necessary for the up-to-date stockman to have and shows the uses to which i t may be put. Un-doubtedly the greatest help to a ranchman in controlling his cattle are fences. The day of the 'open' range i s past and the stockman that i s s t i l l thinking in terms of that 'golden age' i s outmoded. Corrals, chutes and 'squeezes' are also a necessary adjunct of the modern ranching industry and should be included i n the ranch equipment. Proper precaution for provision for depreciation and upkeep of a l l equipment should be taken* This i s a point i n management which i s a l l too often neglected or improperly understood by stockmen. Fences and Fencing Material Undoubtedly the best fence for cattle is a good woven-wire type, -54-forty inches high with a strand of barbed wire six inches above that. This type of fence i s too expensive where large areas of range are being fenced. The next best type is a four-strand barbed wire fence with the top wire approximately four feet ten inches high, and the bottom one about two feet above the ground. This type of fence, with posts from sixteen to twenty feet apart, w i l l stop a l l dr i f t ing , but w i l l not stop calves, or cattle that are crowded into a corner* There should be at least three stays between posts i n open country, with more in the timbered areas of the range. Many cattlemen however, use the three strand wire fence, partic-ular ly i f they have horses running loose on the range. This type of fence i s quite satisfactory for a dr i f t fence and i s much safer for horses. A three strand wire fence stretched t ight i s much better than a four strand fence that i s a l i t t l e slack. Smooth wire was found to be very satisfactory by the Forestry Service of the United States on the ranges i n Eastern Oregon, particularly i f the second wire from the top, in a four wire fence, was barbed to pre-vent horses from rubbing their t a i l s and so weakening the fence. The usual type of barbed wire has four barbs spaced every six inches and comes in quarter mile spools, weighing about eighty pounds* There is a Br i t i sh wire on the market with a one thousand pound breaking strain (two hundred pounds stronger than the average) which weighs but thirty-six pounds per quarter mile spool. At the Kamloops Range Experimental Station a spool of this wire was used to fence a small pasture but was found to be unsatisfactory. I t was apparently improperly la id and had a great tendency to "kink" unless extreme care was exercised* Another fault that was found with this wire was that i t had a great deal of stretch and a fence that was tight at night -55-would be slack i n the morning. Without a doubt, though, the lighter spool speeded up fencing operations considerably. A great deal has been written concerning the preservative treat-ment of fence posts. The general concensus of opinion is that i t pays to treat posts with coal-tar creosote, i f this material can be obtained at a reasonable pr ice . In Montana, Lodgepole Pine posts were treated at a cost of twenty-six cents per post, and cottonwood posts, which absorbed a great deal more of the mixture, cost f i f ty- f ive cents per post. Undoubtedly in B r i t i s h Columbia, Lodgepole Pine or Aspen posts could be treated at a reasonable cost and after treatment w i l l last from fifteen to twenty years at the least. For stockmen, a simple method of treating posts i s to have two large drums, one containing the creosote, maintained at a temperature of 215 to 225 degrees F. and the other containing cold creosote. The seasoned posts are put i n the hot mixture for a period of thir ty minutes to an hour and then are moved to the cold mixture* The contraction of the a i r ce l l s i n the post draws the creosote well into the wood and makes a lasting pre-servative* There are a number of other preservatives, but few meet the following requirements. A preservative for general use should be safe to usej should be reasonably cheap, should penetrate wood readily, should not be corrosive to metal, should not evaporate or wash out of the wood easily, and should be poisonous to the fungi which cause the posts to rot . The following are some preservatives that are used: coal-tar creosote, car-bollneums, wood-tar creosote, water-gas-tar creosote, tar, petroleum o i l s , creosote mixtures, zinc chloride, sodium flouride, mercuric chloride, copper sulphate, paint, linseed o i l and whitewash. The last three mention-ed are not effective preservatives. In regard to copper sulphate or blue-stone, i n the summer of 1935, a number of Lodgepole and Aspen posts were treated at the Kamloops Range Experimental Station with this reagent. These posts were used in regular fences and were spaced so that different so i l types would be encountered. It w i l l be interesting to see the effects of the varying s o i l acidity and composition on these posts and to compare them with their neighbors which were not treated. The cost of treating the posts was negligible and i f the results prove satisfactory i t w i l l be of great assistance to the cattlemen in future years. Tree l ine fences can be used to good advantage on some timbered ranges to prevent dr i f t ing . As a rule i t does not pay to tack a l ine fence on to trees as there is too much breakage as a result of the trees being blown over in storms, furthermore, the wire must not be too taut to allow for the swaying of the trees in the wind. The staples holding the wire to the trees should not be driven home but should allow the wire to slide back and forth a l i t t l e . There is a further d i f f i cu l ty with tree l ine fences in that the growth of the trees may force the staples out and so allow the wire to go slack, or else the tree'may grow over the staple, causing the wire to be held t ightly with consequent breakage* At the best, tree l ine fences are makeshift affairs and are continually i n need of repairs* Corrals There i s no greater convenience to the cattleman than a set of corrals that ©an be depended upon to hold anything and everything that i s put into them. Many, when building a set of corrals, underestimate the ab i l i ty of steers to get out of them. A good corral should be six feet high and strong enough to withstand the tremendous shock of a bunch of cattle being crowded up against the side. If range horses are to be handled i n the same corral , i t is advisable to build i t closer to seven feet high* Corral gates and gateposts must be exceedingly strong and well anchored, and should be carefully hung so that the heavy gate may be closed quickly by one man. There are four main methods of building corrals. The f i r s t method i s to build i t of poles or logs putting the ends one on top of the other between pairs of heavy posts, tied with wire, or else by morticing the logs into one another in the manner of a log house. The logs for an octagon shaped corral should be about fifteen to eighteen inches through at the butt, tapering off to not less than nine inches, and should be twenty-four to twenty-six feet long to give a corral with a d i -ameter of about sixty to seventy feet; this , bui l t five logs high on level ground, w i l l hold cattle successfully. The bottom log should be raised about six inches off the ground to help to prevent rott ing. Plate No. 2 i l lustrates this type of corra l . The second method is that used in a l l the leading stock yards. In this type of corra l , the posts are set deep i n the ground about eight feet apart and six feet above ground. Planks of 2" x 8" material are n a i l -ed on crosswise and are from three to six inches apart. They are always placed on the inside of the posts and i n the case of division fences, on both sides. Under range conditions this type of corral i s usually too ex-pensive even i f the lumber i s easily available. However, for corrals-at the home ranch, i t usually pays to build this type even though the material i s more expensive. The third method i s a plain board-wall made perfectly tight out PLATE NO. 2 Corral Showing Dovetailing of the Logs. -69-of inch hoards set upright. The boards are nailed to crosspieces set on the posts that are eight feet apart. This type of corral need not be as strong as the cattle are not as apt to charge a solid fence, that they cannot see through, as an open one. This type of corral makes a good feed-ing ground i n windy places as the sides are excellent wind-breaks. For range use this type of corral is not very satisfactory as the cost i s a l -most prohibit ive, and i t has the disadvantage of not being able to leave i t in a hurry i f a mean cow charges while her calf i s being branded. The fourth method of building corral fences i s the old style stake fence, formerly quite common in desert range areas. In this style of fence the posts are set as close together as they w i l l stand and then the tops are wired together. In Br i t i sh Columbia there is usually timber easily available within a short distance of the site for the corral and so this type i s seldom, i f ever, used. The shape of a corral w i l l depend on i t s use and location but generally, the nearer round the better. With any other shape the animals are apt to crowd Into a corner which w i l l result in injury to some of the animals or else the corral w i l l give way under the t e r r i f i c strain. As a rule, where there i s roping to be done, a system of corrals i s bui l t so that the cattle may be separated into several groups. Plate No. 3 shows a system of corrals on the range of the Tranquille Sanatorium Farm. This picture shows the small catch-pen which is a necessary adjunct to any cor-r a l system. The catch-pen should be just large enough so that a man may stand in the center and catch any animal as they m i l l around the sides. In some sections i t i s the practice to have the corral bui l t in a long narrow shape. This i s valuable at branding time for the calves can be -60-FLATE WO. 3 Corral System Showing Small Catchpen and Wing Chutes -Dominion Range Experimental Station Kamloops, B. C. separated from the cow herd and run to one end, then the branding f i re i s bui l t in the center and the calves are dragged up to i t * After the various operations they are allowed to escape back to the cow herd at the other end* The branding f i re in the center with the group of men standing about i t w i l l safely keep the two bunches separated. The diagram on page sixty-two shows a good corral system for range use* Chutes In connection with any good corral system should be an arrange-ment of chutes* The squeeze chute i s almost a necessity of the modern up-to-date ranch. It has a multitude of uses, although the greatest use of i t i s made at branding and dehorning time. The more modern method of making a squeeze chute is to have the bars upright rather than longitudinal; i t re-sults in much less strain on the animal's frame and those bars which inter-fere with effective work can be easily removed. By using the chute method there is much less chance of injury to the animal and the operation is speeded up considerably. The diagram on page sixty-three shows a suitable plan for a squeeze chute'* The squeeze chute i s not the only kind of chute that i s employed on the up-to-date ranch. Loading chutes for loading the cattle into a stock-car or a truck are very necessary and should be bui l t so that they are easily movable. There are other chutes in connection with the corral system to assist i n separating out different bunches, and i f there is a scales, then there i s usually a system of run-ways in connection with i t . Wing-chutes at the entrance of the corral make i t much easier to trap the animals and get them through the gate without exciting them too much and with less chance of injury through crowding. -62 DIAGRAM NO, 1 A Model Corral System. -63-DIAGRAM WO. 2 Plan of a Squeeze Chute. Salting, Salt and Salt-troughs Generally speaking, judicious salt ing is the cheapest, easiest and most effective way of controlling catt le on the range. Many, far too many, cattlemen do not salt their herds at a l l , or do so in a very haphaz-ard manner. As a rule , range cattle consume a year-round average of one pound per head per month. In the summer, when the cattle are on juicy young grasses and the nutritious timber feed, they w i l l consume up to one and one-half pounds per head per month, and in the f a l l and winter, when the feed i s dry and matured, the consumption w i l l drop to three-quarters of a pound or less* There is a definite monetary loss to the cattleman who does not salt his catt le . On almost every range there are natural salt l i cks where the earth is heavily charged with various salts and, i f the cattle are starved for sa l t , they w i l l travel many miles to these l i ck s , using up the energy which should produce beef. Many of these natural salt l i cks contain a large proportion of Epsom and other undesirable salts which have a laxative effect and so upset the functions of the digestive system that much of the value of the feed i s los t . The feed wasted by the cattle, that i s , transformed into kinetic energy rather than forming flesh, is a tremendous loss to the cattlemen of this province and, to use the range expression, they are "paying for a dead horse"* By carefully planning the location of salt troughs i t i s possible to make the fullest use of the range. The salting grounds should be ar-ranged so that the cattle w i l l work gradually from the water holes to the salting ground, covering most of the range in their progress. The salting grounds, however, should not be too far from water, and so the cattle w i l l not have to travel too great distances between salt and water. Some f o l -low the practice of putting the salting grounds immediately adjacent to the water holes. This i s not a good practice. The cattle w i l l have the tendency to hang around the water holes and much good range w i l l not be touched. The map on page sixty-six shows roughly the salting arrangement used in the Watching Creek Basin of the range of the Kamloops Range Exper-imental Station. Approximately one hundred and seventy head of breeding stock were grazed for the summer of 1935 on this ranges The arrangement of salt grounds assisted materially i n checking the dr i f t of the cattle, even though they had never been under control on the range previous to this time. There is some discussion as to the best kind of salt to use for range cattle* The old type of rock salt put out i n big lumps, weighing from fifteen to twenty-five pounds per lump is rapidly passing into the discard* These blocks of rock salt are not satisfactory because one old "bossy" cow may l i c k at a block of salt a l l day i n order to satisfy her cravings, keeping the other catt le from the salt and making the herd fret-f u l and unrestful. Possibly the best type of salt to use i s the coarse ground stock sa l t . In using this type of salt there is a much greater loss from leaching* At the Kamloops Range Experimental Station, during the summer of 1935, coarse ground stock sal t , exposed to the weather, was found to leach out about f i f t y percent i n two months. However, this was a summer of ex-ceptionally heavy r a i n f a l l . The t r i a l was conducted at an elevation of three thousand one hundred feet i n a Lodgepole-Aspen type range, the salt being exposed to the weather i n an open box i n a sizable clearing. The best way to save this loss from weathering i s to have the rider put the salt out i n small quantities of ten pounds or so, at frequent intervals . This has another advantage of making i t possible for the rider to keep track of the cattle and check any dr i f t ing before the animals are too far off their range. I f the stock salt i s to be used, troughs of some sort must be made to hold i t or the loss w i l l be greater than was pointed out above. In the timber range troughs may be roughly fashioned out of a fal len tree, chopping out a trough four to five feet long, six inches wide, and three or four inches deep. If there are no trees large enough or in the open country, troughs may be constructed very cheaply from 2" x 6" material. The side and bottom pieces may be cut four feet long at the m i l l and also the end pieces which are ten inches long. Using about fourteen three and one-half inch spikes, a strong trough may be constructed which w i l l have the inside measurements of 4* x 6" (w) x 4" (d). A dozen or so of these troughs can be loaded on a packhorse i n their knocked-down form and so easily transported to the area to be grazed. Water-holes Water and salt go hand-in-hand. In conjunction with a proper salting plan there should be a clear idea of what water i s available and how long i t i s available. By carefully clearing out springs and by fencing them with a rough sort of fence, i t makes i t much easier for the cattle to get a drink, the water i s cleaner and as a rule, w i l l last longer as there i s not so much seepage. There Is the added factor that when a spring is fenced i t nu l l i f i e s the danger of a cow becoming bogged down, which means a loss of thir ty or forty dollars to the rancher. On wooded range i t Is a simple matter to f a l l trees and construct a blockade so that the cattle can get at the water from just the one end where a suitable trough can be dug out, and even in the open country there i s usually a l i t t l e grove of trees around a spring which w i l l supply enough wood for a snake fence. By carefully cleaning out and improving springs a rider can save the cattle many miles of walking and so have added to their weight when they come off the range i n the f a l l . The closing-off of a lka l i springs and other poison springs also saves considerable loss* On areas where there are. poisonous plants growing i n abundance, the fencing off of a springs w i l l help to a large degree in keeping the cattle off such an area and so save losses from poisoning. Feed Yards It is often desirable that the feed yard should be divided into several paddocks i n order that the cattle of different ages may be separ-ated; also a smaller bunch of cattle are apt to be quieter and so make better gains* However, under most ranch conditions there are usually two or more feed yards that serve the same purpose. It i s desirable that the yard be fenced on the north and side of the prevailing wind, and also that there may be some sort of shelter that the cattle can get under in the case of heavy snows, In any case, the snow should be brushed off the an-imals backs, and so save that energy which would be used to melt the snow. Ranch Horses Mechanical power can never entirely replace the use of horses on the ranch. Although trucks and tractors do much of the hauling formerly done with teams and wagons, they can never entirely replace the work horse. The saddle horse i s a dist inct necessity. In latter years of low prices of farm products there has been a definite swing towards a more extensive use of horses by rancher; and farmer a l ike , undoubtedly as prices r ise and the rancher and farmer have more money to spend on gas and o i l there w i l l be a return swing of the pendulum. A survey of f i f ty- s ix Wyoming cattle ranches, from a standpoint of horse equipment, reveals the following facts, An average ranch comprised three thousand, four hundred and eleven acres, of which two thousand, eight hundred and eight acres were in pasture and four hundred and forty-four acres in hay. These ranches varied i n size up to twenty-five thousand acres. Twenty-three of the f i f ty- s ix ranches re-porting, formed an average of ninety-five acres of crops other than hay, with a range of from twenty to three hundred acres. Four hundred and thirty-two head of cattle per ranch was an average number. An average of 8.5 saddle horses were owned on these ranches, with four head being gener-a l l y used for an average of one hundred and eighteen days per year. The number of horses varied from one to thirty-f ive head per ranch. Twenty head was the largest number reported as being used a l l season. These four hundred and sixty-seven saddle horses averaged 34*2 hands in height and nine hundred and ninety-seven pounds in weight. They varied from nine hundred to eleven hundred pounds in weight. Out of the f i f t y - s i x reporting, only one cattleman depended en-t i r e l y upon range feed for his saddle horses. Twenty-one of the men fed both hay and grain at some time during the year* Nineteen supplemented range feed with hay alone, while eight used grain to supplement the range at some time during the year* Oats was the most common grain reported, but corn and barley were also used. An average of f i fteen head of work horses were owned by these ranchers. They reported an average of 3*5 regular teams worked 207.4 days -70-each year* On this estimate, each work horse was used about ninety-seven days per year. The average height of a l l work horses was 15.2 hands, and the average weight twelve hundred and ninety pounds. This survey shows a typical condition among ranchers. The saddle stock i s usually the best that they can afford, but the work stock is def-in i te ly inferior for the heavy type of work that has to be done. Now, how-ever, much of the heavier work, such as plowing, etc . , i s done by tractor rather than using a number of horses. Nevertheless, the horse w i l l never be displaced on the ranch because of his low upkeep costs, (he can be run on the range when not in use), his low depreciation, and h i s greater fac-i l i t y for movement i n rough country where there are few, or even no, roads. The saddle horse i s , of course, a permanent part of the equipment for his use i n handling the cattle i s indispensable. The use of dogs, however, i s making inroads on the use of the saddle horse. On the rough mountain ranges and i n heavy timber or brush, two well-trained dogs can do the work of half a dozen cowpunchers, but on the open range their use i s limited on account of the cactus and the sharp rocks of the washes tearing their feet, OPERATIONS - Castration: and Spaying Males of the beef herd are castrated primarily because beef qualit ies are developed to a higher degree in the steer. In the steer the meat i s of finer quality with greater development of those parts of the body that furnish the most valuable cuts. Steers are much quieter animals, easier to handle, and so fatten much more readily than bulls* Castration consists of the removal of the testicles or the crushing of the cords so that the testicles atrophy. In any case the secretion of the hormones is interrupted and the animal, besides being rendered s ter i le , looses his sexual instincts to a large degree and the secondary sex characteristics cease to develop. Calves are usually cas-trated towards the end of the summer or in early f a l l when they are a few months of age. They may be castrated at any age from a few weeks up to ei&ht months without any serious consequences. After an age of about nine months i s reached, the secondary sex characteristics begin to develop and the animals show a "staggy" appearance. Heifers are spayed to increase their value as meat animals by eliminating the poss ib i l i ty of their becoming with ca l f . It i s the common opinion among producers that spayed heifers fatten more rapidly than "open" heifers. The spaying of heifers eliminates the necessity of separating them from the bulls and the breeding herd and is an easy method of cul l ing the herd and yet obtaining a l i t t l e better prices for the almost valueless animals. Buyers are always suspicious of unspayed heifers and discriminate against them. To i l lus trate why this i s so: A rancher in the interior of Br i t i sh Columbia bought a carload of allegedly open heifers from Alberta to put on feed during the winter. These heifers showed evidences of Angus blood and as the rancher's herd was mainly Hereford, this blood was not acceptable i n his breeding herd. Before the winter feeding period was over these open heifers were found to be in ca l f and so the rancher, rather than slaughter them and lose the ca l f , held them over. A number of these calves, when they were born, looked l ike f a i r l y good grade Herefords, and so many of them were put with the breeding herd. However, in later generations, the blood of the Angus came out i n the form of black streaks on the sides of otherwise good-look--72-ing Herefords and so produced an untidy appearance in the herd. Commercial buyers discriminate against unspayed heifers because i f the animals are in calf they are paying for the extra weight of the calf which i s of no value to them in the meat packing industry. For spaying heifers the animal must be held firmly and an i n -cis ion made i n the right side behind the ribs and a l i t t l e below the hips and so the ovaries are removed. In castration there are two methods used in the removal of the tes t ic les . One method i s to make a vert ica l s l i t in the scrotum and re-move the testicles through this opening; the other method is to cut off the bottom of the scrotum and force the testicles out , in both cases severing the cords with a scraping action. The f i r s t method has the advantage of less bleeding but i s apt to result in greater infection by blow f l i e s or other parasites. The second method results in better drainage and con-sequently less danger of infection, but there i s a greater danger of the animals bleeding excessively and so being bothered by pests and the other animals of the herd which smell the blood. A newer method, which, s t r i c t l y defined, is not castration but which amounts to the same thing, i s the crushing the cords by means of the Burdizzo pincers. This method, i f carefully used, i s quite as efficient • and gives much better results . It gives a larger "cod" (or fat in the scrotum) which i s a factor by which buyers measure the value of catt le . The main objection against the use of the Burdizzo i s that a few calves may be missed or have only one cord crushed i f the operators are not care-f u l . This objection i s entirely overcome i f the instrument i s used care-, f u l l y and with intell igence. Branding and Marking The practice of branding i s one of the oldest of the customs of the catt le industry. Brands were established in order that the rancher might be able to identify those catt le which belonged to him. In the days of the open range the brand was of a great deal of importance, for in the community round-ups which were held, the calves were branded with the mark of the cow at whose side they were running. Even though the owner of a brand were not present at the round-up, his calves were branded for him and a t a l l y kept of the number. In the more densely populated areas where the animals were running i n fenced pastures the practice was not so wide-spread. But even today, with the cattle under fenced range, i t i s nec-essary to brand the cattle for the purpose of positive identif ication. In B r i t i s h Columbia there are adequate laws which make the brand the legal sign of ownership. Brands must be registered to make them valid in the eyes of the law and others are not allowed to duplicate a brand even though their catt le are running i n an altogether different section of the country. The brand i s the trade-mark of the cattlemen and they take great pride in the type of stock that carry their brand. It i s common practice to brand the calves before they are weaned, for the danger of a cal f straying i s much greater after weaning. There are two methods which are used in branding cattle, the hot iron, and the cold iron dipped in a commercial branding solution. The latter method i s a recent innovation and the hot iron method i s used far more extensively. The cold brand is more conveniently used, particularly where there are a few animals to be branded, and i t i s presumed to be less painful. There are two methods of handling cattle which are to be branded. These are:- (1) throwing, and, (2) chute-branding. The latter method is the more desirable because i t results i n less injury to the animals and is far more efficient and holds the animals more f irmly. The d i f f i cu l ty in the use of the "squeeze" as i t i s cal led, i s to build one which w i l l ac-comodate larger animals and calves as wel l . Many prefer to have a squeeze that w i l l handle yearlings and the calves are then worked by hand. In """ some cases the old method of "roping-out" i s s t i l l practiced, but the more progressive ranchmen prefer to work the cattle in corrals. "Crowding" corrals are becoming more common. With this method the calves are separ-ated out and run into a small catch-pen or crowding corral* Here the smaller calves are flanked while the larger ones are muzzled down to a r ing set i n the ground. There are two types of branding irons, the running iron, and the stamp iron. With the former the brand i s bui l t up in sections by a "T" or an " L " shaped iron, whereas with the stamping iron, as the name implies, the brand i s molded i n one piece and i s stamped on in one operation. Stamping irons are apt to blot sharp-angled letters such as, A, M, N, W, and X, but are much more dist inct for the open letters such as, 0, C, D, P, and Q. The material used i n the irons is usually from one quarter to three quarters of an inch i n diameter, with by far the largest number using 3/8 inch material. The handles must be at least two and one-half feet long and most are made longer. For cold branding, stamping irons are used and have concave faces of one-half inch and may be f i tted with short-er handles. In applying the hot iron care must be exercised to have the iron neither too hot nor too cold* Excessively hot irons, i f held on too long, are cruel and are apt to burn too deeply, but an iron that is not hot enough i s just as bad for i t w i l l have to be held on longer and this gives the heat a chance to penetrate the skin to the tissues below. In most cases i t i s better to have the iron too hot than too cold. Marking The practice of marking catt le i s as old as that of branding but i t i s not as widely used. The usual method of marking cattle i s by cutting the ears in some particular manner although there are other methods. The following are the common earmarks of catt le : Crop Fold the ear lengthwise and cut at right-angles to the folded edge. Qverslope Make an incision a fraction of an inch from the point, toward the head, where the upper surface of the ear turns up. Cut down in a rounding manner approximately one-half inch and then cut para l le l to a l ine that would halve the ear lengthwise* A l i t t l e upward slope given to the last cut gives a graceful curve. Underslope The underslope cut i s the under portion of the ear, and the f i r s t cut i s made i n an upward manner. The second, however, i s pract ical ly the same as an overslope. Swallow Fork Fold the ear lengthwise. From a point three-fourths or an inch from the t i p , depending on the size of the ear, cut toward the outer edges in such a direction or manner that a triangular section with a one-half or three-quarter inch base w i l l be removed. Steeple Fork Fold the ear lengthwise. Make the f i r s t cut at right angles to the seam, and the second cut paral le l to the seam. Remove a rectangular sec-r tion of the ear, Oversharp The cut i s begun at the same point as for an overslope, but brought downward and i n a straight l ine to the median l ine at the t ip of the ear, Undersharp Cut as an underslope except for an upward straight l ine to the point mentioned above* Spl i t The knife blade is inserted and drawn to the outer edge of the ear. B i t , Under or Over Fold the ear crosswise at the point where the b i t i s to be made. Re-move a triangular section as in making a swallow fork* Dewlap Marks In some loca l i t i e s marks are made on the dewlap* The usual method is to s l i t a piece of the loose skin on the dewlap upwards, so that i t hangs loose. The main objection to this method of marking is that i t leaves a large area open to the infestation of screw-worms and pests. Wattles These are similar to dewlap marks except that the loose skin on the cheeks is cut and le f t hanging* The earmarking of cattle is not to be desired in cold climates as i t makes the ears of the animals more subject to frostbite. Dewlaps and wattles are also not to be desired in colder climates as they are apt to be frozen off and so identif ication los t . -77-vaccinating Cattle are usually vaccinated for blackleg at the same time as the branding and castrating takes place. The three operations are per-formed at once to save the expense of rounding-up the cattle again and working them over a second time. Range cattle should be observed frequent-l y but handled as easi ly and as l i t t l e as possible. In the case of some diseases breaking out i n the herd, such as anthrax or hemorrhagic septic-emia, the catt le are often rounded-up and immunized against the disease. Often before shipping cattle to the feed-lot or after they reach the feed-l o t , they are vaccinated or immunized against certain diseases that might be contracted. In general, the disease for which up-to-date ranchers a l -ways vaccinate i s blackleg. It i s an extremely simple operation, not taking more than a minute, and gives pract ical ly one hundred percent re-sults . The cost of the vaccine is very small and i t i s a cheap form of i n -surance against loss from this source. Dehorning Butchers often say that horns and prime carcasses are seldom found on the same animal, meaning that many of the bruises on the carcass, which detract from i t s appearance and sale value, are caused by horns. Generally speaking, the younger cattle are when they are dehorned, the better beef animals they w i l l make. The operation is much less severe i f dehorning is done while the calf i s small. The usual practice i s to dehorn at weaning time, or with yearlings, to dehorn in the spring before the f l i e s are bad. There are a number of'methods of dehorning - the usual one for calves i s to use a mechanical dehorner, whereas with the older animals a saw i s often safer and gives better results* The use of caustic on the -78- ' horn buttons of the one to two weeks old calf has not met with the approval of the cattlemen for range use because of the necessity of clipping the hair and "ruffing" the horn button before i t i s applied. Several companies are now putting out a dehorning paste which i s more easily applied than caustic. The application can be made direct ly to the horn buttons without any previous preparation. The simplicity of this material should make i t popular for dehorning young calves on the range. The dehorning spoon is a good instrument to gouge out the horns of calves under three months old* This small instrument, shaped l ike a spoon on the cutting end, can be held in one hand. The dehorning operation with this instrument i s accomplished as follows:-Grasp the horn between the thumb and the spoon, press the cutting edge through the skin at the base of the horn, rotate the hand back, then forward, and a sl ight twist of the wrist w i l l bring the horn out. The op-eration i s much l ike pull ing the cork out of a bottle. The Barnes Dehorner. This instrument, when open to receive the horn, forms a cylinder which i s pressed over the horn* The handles are para l le l and close together. To complete the dehorning operation press the dehorners firmly against the ca l f ' s head and spread the handles unt i l the horn comes out. This"instrument i s suitable for dehorning calves from three months to one year o ld . Both the above instruments 'go i n after the horn' therefore, there i s less danger of leaving part of the horn producing tissue which may afterwards develop bad looking scurs or stub horns* Cattle a" year old or older that have not been dehorned have gen-eral ly developed a good horn that must be removed with a saw or some one of several heavy clippers. Cattle of this age suffer more, are harder to handle and take longer to recover than those dehorned as calves. With older cattle there i s much greater danger of excessive bleeding and losses are heavier. The use of the clippers i s not desirable with mature cattle as'they are apt to cause a splintering of the bone of the skull and may cause instantaneous death, in any case, the wound takes longer to heal. It i s not advisable to dehorn cattle that have been on sweet clover feed for any length of time for in many cases there is d i f f icul ty in getting the blood to coagulate. The value of dehorning i s almost unquestioned today. One of the largest commission firms on the North American Continent makes the follow-ing strong endorsation of dehorning:-"No single step or operation i n the handling of cattle yields bigger returns i n money than the single act of dehorning. The absence of horns on a bunch of steers usually adds fifteen cents to twenty-five cents per hundred to their value. A l l buyers prefer dehorned steers, even for loca l slaughter, as the carcasses are l i k e l y to be free from bruises and i n -juries; but the most important fact i s that many eastern shippers refuse to bid on horned cattle on account of the practical certainty that some of them w i l l be injured in transit . In the case of a bunch of steers that, except for their horns, would just suit the eastern shipper, the difference may amount to as much as twenty-five to f i f t y cents per hundred." Ultimately the farmer and feeder pay the buyers' losses through bruising and goring. It i s estimated i n Canada that a b i l l of damages from horns, running from five hundred thousand to one mil l ion dollars per annum, i s charged up against the industry. To sum things up, the following advantages are derived from de-horning commercial ca t t le : --80-1. Better market returns. 2* Maximum results for feed consumed. 3. Quicker sales. 4. Contentment in the herd. 5. Fair play i n the feed-lot. 6. Easier handling, 7* Less shrinkage i n transit . 8. No bruises to discount sales. CHAPTER 7, DISEASES AND PESTS OF CATTLE AND THEIR CONTROL It i s an impressive fact that in North America, twenty out of one thousand catt le die each year from disease, - yet this is the average for many successive years. Of the cattle slaughtered in 1934, at Canadian inspected slaughtering establishments, 1.31% were condemned as being unfit for human consumption. Besides these i t is not known how many animals were condemned before they ever reached the slaughter houses. Of the sheep slaughtered in the same year, only 0.22% were condemned and only 0.34% of the hogs* An interpretation of these figures might be that cattlemen, as a whole, are not as progressive as the sheepmen or the hog raisers in their disease control measures* By carefully organizing to stamp out disease among catt le , the, stockmen should be able to cut down the number of cattle condemnations to be approximately equal to the figures for sheep and hogs. In this way the cattlemen could obtain about one percent greater return on their investment which would help considerably to turn present losses into profit * The large economic losses among cattle are chargeable to many maladies. The chief diseases causing losses, in their order or importance, are: tuberculosis, contagious abortion, anthrax, blackleg and foot-and-mouth disease. The latter disease, while there has not been an outbreak on this continent for a number of years, causes tremendous losses when i t does appear. Scabies, warbles, ticks and l i ce also aause losses that are of major importance to the stockmen. Fortunately, i f the stockmen w i l l familiarize themselves with the characteristics of these diseases and pests and adopt proper sanitary and preventive measures, the present large -82-losses can be greatly reduced* Bovine Tuberculosis In 1934, at Canadian Inspected slaughter houses, seventeen thousand seven hundred and thirty-one cattle were condemned as unfit for human consumption, either in part or as a whole, and of this large number 45.9% were condemned due to tubercular lesions in some part of their an-atomy* Therefore, from this source alone, tuberculosis cost the cattlemen of Canada over three hundred thousand dollars in one year. Year after year the cattlemen have been losing large amounts of money on account of this disease and i n the face of the fact that the disease can be detected easily and by the application of adequate preventive measures can be pract ical ly stamped out. Tuberculosis of cattle i s a specific infection due to the micro-organism, Bacil lus tuberculosis (Koch), an acid and alcohol fast mycobac-terium. The disease affects almost a l l animals and human beings. There are three types of the tuberculosis organism of which cattle, as a rule, are susceptible to only the bovine type. Humans, however, are susceptible to human type organism and the bovine type organism and also, to a small extent to the avian type organism. The germs from a tuberculous cow may pass from her body in the sal iva , milk or manure and, as the disease is slow i n developing, there i s no outward indication i n the early stages; consequently i t may infect the entire herd before the disease is discovered. This statement, however, applies more to conditions of the farm rather than to range conditions where the spread of infection i s not nearly so great nor so rapid. There are no external symptoms that can fee depended on for de--83-tecting a l l tuberculous animals in a herd. In extremely advanced cases, where there are open lesions i n the lungs, the animal may cough and there may be a general appearance of unthriftiness with loss of flesh and nasal discharge. If the infection is centered in the glands in the region of the throat there may be hard painless swellings and the breathing may be di f f-i c u l t and hoarse. These symptoms must not be confused with actinomycosis nor swellings due to the penetration of foxta i l beards. Sometimes the dis-eased glands i n the chest prevent the usual passage of gas from the paunch to the mouth by pressing on the gullet and so chronic bloating results. The only known positive method of diagnosis i s the tuberculin test. The test i s rel iable when i t i s applied by a trained man. Tuberculin i s an es-pecial ly prepared diagnostic agent which produces a specific reaction in the presence of the disease. An animal so tested may not give a character-i s t i c reaction i f re-injected with tuberculin unt i l after a period of about sixty days. With a corra l , a chute, and a suitable "squeeze", one man and a helper can test range cattle accurately at the rate of from three hundred to f ive hundred a day for an indefinite period when the intradermal test i s used. The animals to be tested must each go through the chute twice, f i r s t for the injection of the tuberculin and again for observation of the re-action. A l l infected animals should be isolated in a separate pasture. There are three methods of testing with tuberculin and in brief the procedures are as follows:-(a) The intradermal test consists of injecting two or three drops of tuberculin into the layers of skin. The location usually preferred by veterinarians i s one of the folds of skin on the underside of the base of the t a i l . A positive intradermal reaction is indicated by i n --84-flammation and a thickening of the fo ld . This thickening is usually best observed between forty-eight and one hundred and twenty hours after i n -jection. (b) The subcutaneous test consists in injecting two to four cubic centi-meters of a diluted tuberculin beneath the skin of the neck or shoulder. The reaction consists in a r ise in temperature between eight and twenty hours after injection, and occasionally by symptoms of depression, shivering, br i s t l ing hair, ceased rumination, and looseness of the bowels. (c) The opthalmic test consists in placing under the eyelid a small disc of milk sugar permeated with tuberculin, or applying the concentrated f lu id form to the eyeball. The best results are obtained by the sen-sit ized test , which consists of two ins t i l l a t ions , two or three days apart* The reaction is a mild inflammation of the eye with a dis-charge of pus, which usually ceases in a few hours. The great value of this test i s that i t i s proof against the practice known as "plug-ging". Slaughter for beef under inspection is the recommended method for the disposal of most reacting cattle which show no vis ible signs of the disease, except in those cases where the beef value would be much less than the breeding value* The method formerly and most commonly employed of dis-posing reacting cattle was by slaughter and bur ia l . This i s a wasteful method, the results are discouraging and i t i s now very seldom practiced. The government meat inspection regulations admit the use for food of meat from animals that show, limited lesions of tuberculosis of the non-edible viscera, for i t is recognized that the meat, i t s e l f , does not contain the -85-tubercle b a c i l l i and, besides, the common procedure of cooking meat i s further safeguard against danger. There have been a number of attempts made to prepare a vaccine or a reagent which would give the animals an immunity against the disease. Of these attempts several have had limited success but i t i s s t i l l i n the dev-elopment stage. The most successful work to date, has been done by Cal-mette and Guerin at the Pasteur Institute in Paris , and by co-workers on this continent. These men have been able to give an Immunity to some an-imals by inoculating them with an attenuated form of the tubercle b a c i l l i . The in jected .bac i l l i may l ive for a long time at the point of injection but no spread or reactivation has thus far been noted. Results at the Agric-u l tura l Experimental Station at Berkeley, Cali fornia, have shown that this vaccine can have only a limited f i e ld of usefulness in the eradication of tuberculosis among range catt le . Von Behring and Spahlinger have also worked along similar l ines but as yet no conclusive results have been ob-tained. Bang*s Disease Bang's Disease i s called by a number of names, infectious or con-tagious abortion, Brucellosis , etc. and i s due to a micro-organism Bacillus abortus or Brucella abortus. It causes a premature expulsion of the foetus known as abortion or ' s l inking the c a l f . Associated with this disease is the retention of afterbirths and s t e r i l i t y owing to an infectious catarrh being set up in the uterus. Infection may be carried in the udder and supramammary lymph glands of an infected cow or may be in the genital discharges from an i n -fected uterus. The genital tract of the bul l may carry the infection a l --86-though i t is doubtful i f much infection is carried in this way. Clean an-imals usually become infected through consumption of contaminated fodder or through infected water or milk. Undoubtedly this disease i s not as prevalent under range con-ditions as under farming conditions and the spread of infection is slower but i t i s definitely known that the disease does exist in range herds and causes large losses each year. The disease is of an insidious character in that an animal may abort once and then appear to be free of infection, carrying a normal cal f thereafter, but at the same time this cow may be spreading infection and contaminating the rest of the herd. It is reason-able to suppose that each breeding heifer i n the range herds aborts at least once during her period of usefulness and calculating this period as seven or eight years, the heifer w i l l produce one less calf than i f she were free of the infection. This i s a loss of fifteen to twenty percent in the efficiency of the animal; another l i t t l e leak in production that cuts down prof i t s . The disease contagious abortion cannot be diagnosed posit ively without bacteriological examination of the genital discharge or by an agglutination test of the blood of the animal. Because a cow aborts Is not definite proof that she is infected with Brucella abortus, but i t should be sufficient evidence to warrant cul l ing the animal. Once an animal has ab-orted i t i s never certain that she w i l l produce another normal calf . Culling a l l animals that are definitely not in calf in the spring and fattening them for sale in midsummer is one of the easiest ways of par-t i a l l y controlling the disease and eliminating steri le cows, in general, from the herd. But this is not positive control of abortion; as was men-tioned previously, a cow may carry the disease and spread infection and yet produce a normal cal f herself. The only positive method of eliminating the disease carriers Is by segregating a l l positive reactors to the agglutin-ation test. This i s a test made from the blood samples taken from each an-imal. The test i s of a somewhat delicate nature and can be accomplished only by a suitable laboratory technician i n an adequately equipped labor-atory. In making this test the blood serum of the suspected animal i s placed in test tubes and has added to i t a culture suspension of the Bac-i l l u s abortus. The bringing into contact of the blood serum with the cul-ture suspension may cause a change to take place in the test tube, which, in the case of an infected animal, would cause the abortion b a c i l l i to be-come agglutinated (clumped together) in the bottom of the test tube, i n -dicating a positive reaction. The blood serum from an uninfected animal remains unchanged. This test merely indicates that the animal i s infected with the germ and does not t e l l whether she has aborted or ever w i l l . The best policy i s to s e l l for slaughter a l l infected animals as soon as pos-sible and i n the meantime keep them separated from the rest of the breeding herd. An alternative to this i s to keep two separate herds, particularly i f they are valuable breeding animals and check by future tests whether or not there has been any spread from the diseased herd to the clean herd. In this way, and at present, i n this way only, can the disease definitely be kept under control and eventually stamped out. The neighbors' cattle may be a source of infection on unfenced range but i t i s probable that the greatest spread.of infection takes place in the feed yard and on the winter feeding grounds, where the animals are bunched more closely and where they are more apt to come i n contact with a source of infection. -88" The foregoing discussion does not mean that because a cow does not produce a normal ca l f that she i s infected with Brucella abortus. True, she must be immediately suspected of this disease, but her inabi l i ty to reproduce may be due to any one of a number of causes* It i s possible, through bad management, that she may never have been bred, or i t may be that the bu l l was s te r i l e , or i t may have been due to any one of a number of other diseases which caused the cow to be s ter i l e . A common disease of the ovaries which renders a cow steri le i s 'cystic ovaries' which i s a degenerative change whereby cysts are formed which destroy the gland tissue of the ovaries and prevent ovulation; this often causes the animal to become a nymphomaniac. Endo-mstritis is an i n -flamed condition which often follows retained afterbirth and may give rise to pyometra. This latter i s characterized by a purulent discharge from the vulva* In some cases there is a persistent corpus luteum which prevents ovulation, and recently certain mineral deficiencies are suspected as causing s t e r i l i t y . In show stock obesity i s often the cause of an animal f a i l ing to 'catch* but this i s easily remedied through proper feeding and exercise. Anthrax Anthrax i s a severe and usually fatal disease which occurs spor-adically and in epizootics. It usually runs an acute febrile course and is caused by the entrance of a germ or i t s spores into the animal's tissues. The causitive organism is known as the Bacillus anthracis. This micro-organism was observed in the blood as early as 1849, but i t was not unt i l 1863 that i t was announced to be bacteria and directly connected with the -89-disease. There has been no outbreak of this disease in Br i t i sh Columbia since 1925, but stockmen must be continually on the watch because when i t r does appear i t spreads very rapidly. Pract ical ly a l l animals are subject to anthrax. Farm animals are especially susceptible in the following order sheep, horses and catt le . Hogs, dogs, cats and carnivorous animals in gen-eral , are less susceptible and may only become infected after repeated ex-posure* Anthrax i s not often transmitted directly from animal to animal except by blood sucking insects. Direct infection only occurs when the blood or excrement of infected animals comes direct ly in contact with i n -juries on the skin or mucous membrane. The diseased animal i s nevertheless' a source of danger, for i t s excrement contaminates the food, bedding and ground with which other animals come in contact, and so infection is trans-mitted indirect ly . Anthrax rarely develops through skin lesions unless the wounds or abrasions extend, completely through the skin* In this way the b a c i l l i or spores enter the tissue fluids and reach the blood circulation* The manure of infected animals i s part icularly dangerous as i t forms a suitable medium when mixed with earth for the propagation of b a c i l l i , and also for the for-mation of spores* Anthrax runs i t s course so rapidly that i t is hardly possible to diagnose the disease in the l iv ing animal. An apparently well animal may be found dead in the morning* A very high temperature, even up to 108 de-grees F, or 110 Degrees F."may be expected about twenty-four hours before death. Just before, or immediately after, death, bloody discharges may be -90-seen coming from the natural openings of the body. The carcass of a diseased animal should be burned as soon as the disease is diagnosed, and the premises thoroughly disinfected. Burying is unsatisfactory as earthworms may carry spores of the disease to the surface. An opportunity to treat animals with anthrax i s seldom present and when such opportunity i s afforded i t is usually frui t less . Should the resistance of the animal be great and the death be delayed, no system of treatment is l i ke ly to be satisfactory. Anthrax can be prevented by the use of vaccines, agressins or anti-serums. These are available from commercial firms and i f an outbreak occurs or i s feared, i t is best to treat a l l the animals apt to be affected, for, "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure". Blackleg Blackleg, a disease that causes large losses every year among cattle, i s found in nearly every country. Cattle in the north or south, on mountain pastures and on lowlands, appear to be equally subject"to infection Climate and temperature apparently have no appreciable effect on the germ. It i s a bacterial disease (Bacillus chauveaux) of young thri f ty animals, affecting part icularly individuals from six to eighteen months of age. The very young seem to be inherently immune to the disease but this immunity i s worn off by the time they reach six months of age. Cattle more than two years old seldom contract blackleg, and some claim that an animal over three years is immune to the disease. Blackleg is easily recognized and usually the f i r s t symptom is a swelling which may appear on any part of the body except the t a i l or below the knees. Because the tumor i s frequently on the thigh or shoulder, and because, when the carcass i s skinned the swollen parts are observed to be -91-dark colored, the disease has been named "blackleg" or "black-quarter". The tumors, which at f i r s t are small and painful, may appear on any part of the body* These increase in size and i n a short time may nearly cover the surface of the body. If slight pressure i s made on the tumor a char-acteris t ic crackling sound is heard, due to the collection of gas in the infected tissue. The general symptoms are loss of appetite, high fever and ac-celerated respiration. The animal moves- with di f f icul ty and frequently l i e s down. If water i s near the victim w i l l drink a l i t t l e at- frequent intervals . Within a few hours the animal w i l l be unable to r i se and death occurs, usually in from twelve to thir ty-s ix yours after the f i r s t symptoms appear. After death the carcass becomes distended with gas. Few animals survive this disease* Profuse bleeding and violent exercise are advocated by some cattlemen as a cure, but cases of recovery, are few and i t i s better to leave the animal undisturbed. Whenever an animal dies from the disease and proper precautions are not taken afterwards, the germs in the carcass increase by the mil l ion and these germs l i v e for years, ana although they do not develop outside of an animal, they are ready to enter and continue their destructive work at any time. As a precautionary measure, i t i s best to burn, the whole carcass u n t i l i t i s entirely consumed. Burying i s unsatisfactory as earthworms can carry the germs to the surface and so contaminate the grass and herb-age* There have been a number of vaccines prepared which are successful i n combating the disease and which can be administered by the stockman without the assistance of a veterinarian. Outbreaks of the disease are now becoming fewer because of this preventative measure which i s now be-coming widely used. The percentage loss by blackleg is now less than 0.5% of the animals vaccinated. Poot-and-Mouth Disease This disease is also known as aphthous fever or epizootic aphtha. It i s an acute, highly communicable disease which attacks prac-t i c a l l y a l l domestic animals. Of these, catt le , sheep, swine and goats are most susceptible; the greatest losses being most commonly caused amongst catt le . Human beings may also be affected. It has been recognized as a separate disease in Europe since 1839, and has caused incalculable losses in different European countries where outbreaks are s t i l l f a i r l y frequent, notwithstanding the most string-ent regulations in regard to stamping i t out. On the American continent i t has fortunately been of rare occurrence, appearing in Canada i n 1870, 1875, and 1884, and in the United States in 1870, 1880, 1884, 1902-3, 1908 and 1914-15. In this latest outbreak the total amount of loss borne by the state of I l l i n o i s alone up to March 3rd, 1915, was one mi l l ion , one hundred and eighty-seven thousand, four hundred and seventy-one dollars with twice that amount of actual ' loss . Animals affected suffer severely. With blistered mouths and feet, burning fever, raw, swollen tongues hanging out between infected l i p s , sore feet and swollen pasterns, they present a piteous appearance. In milk cattle the flow of milk becomes greatly decreased or ceases altogether. Pregnant females frequently abort. In sheep and swine there is frequently an entire separation of the horny and fleshy portions of the feet. - 9 3 -Foot-and-mouth disease i s caused by a f i l t rab le virus and is characterized by the breaking out of vesicles or blisters in the mouth, around the coronets of the feet and between the toes. It is very highly contagious but, contrary to general be l ie f , does not cause great mortality, although the f inancial loss involved by i t s appearance is tremendous. The period of incubation varies from forty-eight hours to ten days. Early symptoms are dullness, loss of appetite, shivering, staring, coat, arched back, stiffness of movement and a decided r ise in temperature. These premonitory general symptoms are usually followed by more localized conditions which characterize the disease. These include definite lameness, sal ivation or slavering at the mouth accompanied (in cattle) by a smacking or sucking sound. Saliva becomes more ropy and viscid as the disease pro-gresses. Within twenty-four hours of the appearance of general symptoms vesicles or bl is ters appear on the mucous membranes, especially those of the mouth. Foot-and-mouth disease i s probably the most highly infective disease known. This fact should be remembered in dealing with i t . Com-pletely isolate a l l suspected animals and permit no one to examine them or work around them. A special attendant should be appointed who should have nothing whatever to do with the remainder of the stock on the farm. As stated, the disease is not generally fa ta l , but i t i s usual to slaughter a l l infected animals. Curative treatment may alleviate suf-fering but w i l l not stop the course of the disease nor prevent infection spreading. Any measures are better than the spread of the disease. Af-fected animals should be slaughtered as soon as diagnosis i s certain, or -94-at the earliest possible moment. The carcasses of these animals should be to ta l ly destroyed, preferably by thorough cremation, otherwise by burying them in a trench at least six feet deep and covering them with unslaked lime. Infected stables or yards should be thoroughly disinfected, using some rel iable product. A l l manure should be burned and no other animals allowed in the disinfected area for a period of from thirty to f i f ty days. With foot-and-mouth disease, an ounce of prevention i s worth several pounds of cure and so isolate a l l suspected animals indoors immed-iate ly . Health of Animals Branch at Ottawa should be notified and the local veterinarian called i n . Mycotic Stomatitis The name stomatitis s ignifies that there is present in the af-fected animals an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth. This inflammation, which quickly develops into ulcers, i s one of the principal and most frequently observed lesions* Mycotic stomatitis refers to that form 'of stomatitis which results from eating food containing i r r i t a t ing fungi. Other names which have been applied to this disease by different writers are aporadic aphthae; apthous stomatitis; sore mouth of catt le ; sore" tongue; benign, simple or non-infectious foot-and-mouth disease, and some others. Mycotic stomatitis is a sporadic, or non-infectious disease which affects cattle of a l l ages that are on pasture, but more especially milk cows. It i s characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membrane of the mouth, producing salivation and inappetence, and secondarily affecting the feet, which become sore and swollen. Superficial erosions of the skin, part icular ly of the muzzle, and of the teats and udders of cows, may also be present, with some elevation of temperature and emaciation* The disease results from the eating of forage containing fungi or molds. It i s probable that more than one fungus is involved in the pro-duction of this disease, but no particular species has been definitely proved to be the causative factor* The fact that the disease disappears from a loca l i ty at a certain time and reappears at irregular intervals would suggest the probability that certain climatic conditions were essent-i a l for the propagation of the causative fungi, since i t is well known that the malady becomes prevalent after a hot, dry period has been followed by ra in , thus furnishing the requirements necessary for the luxuriant develop-ment of molds and fungi. Among the f i r s t symptoms observed in mycotic stomatitis are i n -ab i l i ty to eat, suspension of rumination, frequent movements of the l ips with the formation of froth on their margins, and i n some cases a dribbling of saliva from the mouth. If the mouth i s examined, exceptionally small bl i s ters w i l l be seen, which quickly become eroded and develop into active ulcers. The ulcers have a hemorrhagic border, a depressed suppurating sur-face, and contain a brownish or yellowish colored debris which is soon re-placed by granulation tissue. As a result of this sloughing of the tissues and the retention of food i n the mouth, a very offensive odor is exhaled. In some cases there are associated with these alterations a slight swelling and painfullness in the region of the pasterns. The skin around the coronet may occasionally become fissured, and the thin skin in the cleft of the foot eroded and suppurated, but without the formation of vesicles. Mycotic stomatitis i s not a serious disease, and in uncomplicated cases, recoveries soon follow the removal of the cause and application of the indicated remedies. In such cases complete restoration may occur with-i n a week. In aggravated cases, death may occur i n six or eight days but the mortality rate i s low, being less than 0 .5%* The course of this dis-ease i s irregular and runs from seven to fifteen days, the average case covering a period of about ten days. The treatment of mycotic stomatitis should consist i n f i r s t re-moving the herd from the area of range on which they have been grazing. Medicinal treatment i s then applied by placing medicated salt i n the troughs accessible to the animals. This salt may be prepared by pouring four ounces of crude carbolic acid upon twelve quarts of ordinary stock.salt and then mixing i t thoroughly* The lesions of the feet should be treated with a 2% solution of carbolic acid or of creolln, while the fissures and other lesions of the skin w i l l be benefited by the application of carbolized vas-eline or zinc ointment. If the animals are treated i n this manner and put on good clean pasture the disease w i l l rapidly disappear. Johne's Disease Johne's disease i s commonly known as chronic bacterial dysentery, infectious diarrhea, or paratuberculosis. It i s caused by an acid-fact or-ganism (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis) very similar to that of tubercul-osis* This organism is aerobic, non-motile, and does not produce spores and i s found in the intest inal mucous membrane and the mesenteric lymph glands of the infected animal. Cattle of a l l ages are susceptible to the disease, however, i t is more prevalent in animals from two to four years of age. The disease is 'f more prevalent among dairy stock than among range animals as i t thrives and spreads under conditions of confinement. At least six months elapse after the animal has picked up the i n -fection before the physical symptoms appear. The most characteristic symp-tom is the appearance of diarrhea with gradual loss of f lesh; the animal becomes a walking skeleton. In the early stages the symptoms of diarrhea may disappear for a short space of time only to reappear in a more virulent form* The feces are thin, watery and frequently contain gas bubbles and flakes of mucous. The thirst i s greatly increased but the appetite usually remains normal throughout the disease and in the lactating female the milk flow is greatly decreased. The animal may l ive for months but the disease f ina l ly terminates in death. A diagnosis of Johne•s disease may be made by applying a specific test, similar in nature to the tuberculin test. This test consists of i n -jecting a preparation, known as "johnin", into the blood stream of the an-imal. The infected animal w i l l show a rise in temperature, often accom-panied by symptoms of diarrhea and c h i l l s . There i s no treatment for Johne's disease, but i t may be prevent-ed by isolating a l l suspicious cases from the herd. As infection i s pres-ent In the feces of the animal, grass, hay or other food may become con-taminated and are a means of spreading the disease. If a single case ap~ pears in the herd, especially i f they are on the feed-lot, then a l l the an-imals should be tested, and a l l the reactors eliminated. Hemorrhagic Septicemia The disease is also known as Broncho-pneumonia, Stockyard Fever and Shipping Fever of catt le . It i s recognized as an acute or sub-acute infectious disease caused by the germ Bacillus bovisepticus. The disease i s characterized by i t s sudden development, rapid course, and high mortal-i t y . The germ causing Hemorrhagic Septicemia -has some peculiar char-acter i s t ics . It i s frequently present in soils and elsewhere in some lo-ca l i t i e s , but may only give rise to the disease at certain times. Seasonal and other conditions may influence the germ favoring i t s development, and thus greatly increasing the danger of natural infection from the s o i l . Therefore cattle sometimes become suddenly affected while at pasture, es-pecia l ly during changeable or inclement weather which lessens the animals' resistance to infection. It i s also believed that some animals may be what are known as 'carriers* and so are a dangerous source of the disease. While catt le of a l l kinds are l iable to the disease, i t i s noticed that young cattle are most susceptible. It is also noticed that this suscept-i b i l i t y i s increased where the cattle are shipped over long distances, and have passed through public stockyards, which are considered to be centres of infection. The symptoms vary according to the virulency of the invading germs and the severity of the attack. In most cases the cattle are attack-ed suddenly and the i l lness i s pronounced manifested by high temperatures, rapid pulse, accompanied by manifestations of acute gastroenteritis and severe pluero-pneumonia. Swellings may occur around the head and throat, the tongue may be greatly swollen, purplish in color, and partly protruding -99-from the mouth. The eyes sometimes become inflamed and reddened, with a profuse flow of tears running down the face. Frequently the animals af-fected develop a bloody diarrhea causing marked weakness and rapid exhaus-t ion. In the majority of cases the animals refuse to eat, causing them to lose flesh rapidly and become extremely weak in a comparatively short per-iod of time after the f i r s t symptoms appear. In regard to the treatment and prevention of the disease; Govern-ment veterinary inspectors are not usually detailed to deal with cases of Hemorrhagic Septicemia and so the cattleman w i l l find i t a wise policy to immediately secure the services of their veterinarian to deal with the dis-ease and lessen their probable losses, through the use of vaccines and other biologies. Other preventative procedures are; to isolate a l l sick animals, to clean and disinfect premises, and immunize a l l cattle. For the protection of the cattle against the. disease, use can be made of either the aggressin treatment, the vaccine treatment, the bacterin treatment, or the immune serum treatment* Reputable commercial laboratories have a wide mar-ket for these laboratory products enabling them to meet the demand. As a rule i t i s best to have these treatments applied by a qualified veterin-arian to be sure of their effectiveness. Coocidiosis The symptoms of coccidiosis and hemorrhagic septicemia are very similar and many cattle are being vaccinated against the latter disease when the disease from which they are suffering i s coccidiosis. Recent out-breaks in Saskatchewan, thought to be Hemorrhagic Septicemia, have been identified as coccidiosis . -100-Both diseases are featured by diarrhea and the passing of blood c lot s , but while septicemia i a caused by a germ against which the cattle can be made immune from attack, vaccination gives no protection against coccidiosis which is much more common. Fortunately, whereas hemorrhagic septicemia i s a disease from which cattle seldom recover, animals often re-cover from an attack of coccidiosis . Coccidiosis i s caused by a minute parasite which is swallowed by the animals i n the form of an egg. The egg is softened as i t passes along the digestive tract and a number of small bodies known as sporozites are released. These enter the intestinal wall where they rupture the blood vessels and reduce the l in ing to a pulp. The l i f e cycle is completed in the wall of the intestine, and an egg is again formed and is passed out with the discharge, ready to infect a healthy animal. These eggs may re-main ineffective for many months. The f i r s t noticeable symptoms of coccidiosis are dullness, loss of appetite, and a general appearance of unthriftiness. Diarrhea soon ap-pears and often the feces are streaked with blood. Later the discharge may Consist entirely of blood and at this stage the animal may stand with i t s back humped up and grind i t s teeth as though i t were suffering severe pain. Emaciation i s rapid and i n many cases the animal may become so weak as to be unable to stand. The temperature often remains normal, not r i s ing above 103, which fact distinguishes i t from hemorrhagic septicemia, as in the lat ter disease the temperature often rises to 107, Death occurs in only about twenty percent of untreated cases, usually in about five to seven days from the onset. In milder cases, im-provement begins in two to five days and the animal gradually returns to -101-normal. Treatments recommended are; Thymol, one teaspoonful in one pint of warm water twice dai ly (as the drug does not dissolve, shake well be-fore using), or sodium hyposuphate may be given, one ounce in every two gallons of drinking water. Drinks of bran and flaxseed should be given three times daily. To a gallon of bran and a quart of flaxseed add sufficient boiling water to make up two gallons and give when cold. Also steps should be taken to pre-vent the healthy animals from eating where the discharges have fal len from the diseased animal and generally hygienic rules observed. Actinomycosis Actinomycosis i s also commonly called lump-jaw, big-jaw, or wood-en tongue. The disease i s caused by a ray fungus named actinomyces, which outside of the body grows on forage grasses and grains. It i s not directly communicable from animal to animal or from animal to man, transmission of the disease being from the infected beards of these plants. Where several animals in a herd are infected, the chances are that they became so from a common source rather than from one another. The disease affects the bones of the head, the tongue, or the throat, producing a honeycombing of the bones, swelling, hardening or u l -ceration of the tissues and glands. "Lump-jaw" develops slowly. In the early stages the swellings are small, but they slowly increase in size un-t i l they are conspicuous.. If not treated surgically or medically, they eventually burst. The small tumors may be removed by an operation, or an incis ion i s sometimes made in the wound and a caustic preparation packed in . While the disease i s entirely local and does not affect the eat-i b i l i t y of the meat from diseased animals, i t does reduce their gains on -102-feed and is a source of loss in that respect. Iodine w i l l k i l l the fungus i f applied direct ly . The treatment most often recommended is to give the animal large doses of iodine of potassium in a drench or i n a drinking water. One to three drams of this drug is given daily for from seven to fourteen days. The size of the dose varies with the size of the animal, two drams being given to an animal weighing one thousand pounds. The only prevention i s to avoid feeding the animals hay containing foxtai ls . Ophthalmia Conjuctivit is (simple ophthalmia) - This i s an inflammation of the conjunctival mucous membrane of the eyeball and l i d s ; in severe cases the deeper coats of the eye may become involved, seriously complicating the attack. It may result from a bruise of the eyelid; from the introduction of foreign matter into the eye, such as chaff, hayseed, dust, gnats, etc . ; from exposure to cold; poisonous or -irritating vapors arising from the f i l thiness of the stables. Dust, cinders or sand blown into the eyes dur-ing transportation frequently induce conjunctivitis . A profuse flow of tears, closure of the eyelids from intolerance to l i gh t , retraction of the eyeball, disinclination to move, diminution of milk flow, etc . , are the main symptoms. On parting the l ids the l ining membrane i s found injected with an excess of blood, giving i t a red and swollen appearance; the sclerotic or white of the eye, i s bloodshot and the Cornea may be cloudy. If the disease advances keratit is results, with i t s tra in of unfavorable circumstances. The treatment consists of a careful examination of the eye to dis--103-cover any particles of chaff, etc . , which may have lodged in the eye, and upon the discovery of such a cause prompt removal i s indicated* This may be accomplished by flushing the eye with warm water by means of a syringe, or, i f the foreign substance i s adherent to the eyeball or l i d i t may be scooped out with the handle of a teaspoon or some other blunt instrument. To relieve the congestion and loca l i r r i t a t i o n , a wash composed of boracic acid i n freshly boiled water, twenty grains to the ounce may be used. A few drops of this should be placed i n the eye three or four times dai ly. The animal should be kept i n a cool darkened stable i f possible. If there i s much fever and constitutional disturbance i t may be advisable to admin-ister one pound of Epsom salts dissolved in one quart of water. Infectious Catarrhal Conjunctivitis (specific Ophthalmia) - This generally appears i n an enzootic or epizootic form, and affects quite a number in the herd* It i s d i s t inc t ly a contagious disease and may be brought into a previously healthy herd by one animal with sore eyes. It may continue in a herd for a season or for several years, affecting a l l newly purchased animals. It i s seldom seen in the winter months and i t affects old and young animals a l ike . This form of catarrhal conjunctivitis is characterized by a mucopurulent discharge from the eyes, an intense degree of inflammation of the mucous membrane, accompanied by a swelling of the eyelids and an early opacity of the cornea* The implication of the cornea i n the disease fre-quently blinds the animal for a time and various other diseases may super-vene* The attack is marked from the onset by fever, part ia l loss of ap-petite, par t ia l loss of milk flow, suspended rumination, and separation from the herd. -104-Whenever this affection appears in a herd the unaffected animals should be moved to another part of the range and the affected animals isolated, treating them with one to one and one-half pounds of Epsom salts i n two or three pints of water as well as washing their eyes as often as possible with a solution of one dram of boracic acid to four ounces of boil ing water. Scabies ' Scabies in catt le , also known as mange, scab or i tch, i s a dis-ease which has prevailed in the past to a considerable extent among the range cattle of the North and North-west. Wherever the disease is preval-ent, a l l classes, conditions and ages of cattle are l iab le to be affected by i t . Every year scabies is the cause of large monetary losses to cattle owners* A herd affected with i t becomes i r r i ta ted , shrinks in weight, gets into an unthrifty condition and has growth arrested, functional disturb-ances commence, and there i s a heavy death-rate© While there are at least three different forms of scabies in cattle the most common one is Psoroptic scabies, and i t i s exclusively this form of mange that w i l l be dealt with. The essential cause of this disease is a l i t t l e parasite known as the Psorotes bovis, which does not differ materially in appearance from the Psorotes of the horse or sheep. The differentiation of this parasite into various species is based not upon any marked anatomical differences but rather on i t s adaptability to l ive on certain species of animals. When transferred from one genus to another they l ive but a short while, and any eruption that appears recovers spontaneously. Favoring causes for this disease are to be found in malnutrition and stabling during the winter -105-months. At this period of the year the parasites are driven downward by the cold and attack the skin causing great Irr i tat ion. The mite- i s pla inly v i s ib le to the naked eye and is egg-shaped with four pairs of legs. Each female lays from fifteen to twenty-four eggs which hatch after three or four days of incubation. The young mites grow to maturity, mate, and the females deposit their eggs in from ten to twelve days. The entire l i f e cycle i s spent on the host animal. Dipping once, i f properly done, k i l l s the "parasites but many of the eggs survive, and so the operation must be repeated in from ten to twelve days to k i l l the newly hatched mites before they have had a chance to mate and lay eggs. Most frequently the disease appears at the root of the t a i l , the thighs or i t may be the neck or withers. Later, any portion of the entire body may become involved. There is violent itching (puritus), the animal rubbing i t s e l f against a l l possible objects and frequently to such an ex-tent as to cause bleeding of the affected portions. Certain other affections of the skin may possibly be mistaken for scabies. Lice w i l l produce violent itching and occasion the loss of hair . There is not, however, the tendency toward the formation of thick crusts as w i l l be found in scabies. This condition is readily diagnosed by the rec-ognition of the l i c e which are to be found especially at the base of the horns, the upper portion of the neck or at the root of the t a i l . It must be kept in mind, however, that the two conditions of scabies and lousiness frequently co-exist and the examination must therefore be more than a super-f i c i a l one. In general, however, the l ine of treatment adopted for scabies proves effective in the treatment of lousiness. Either dipping or spraying is used to combat a l l types of cattle -106-scab. Dipping is the most effective as the entire body receives a wetting by this method. Much of the l iquid is lost by spraying and some parts of the body may be untouched by the dip. The trough for dipping is usually arranged so that the cattle enter one end and swim through to climb up the incline at the other end. Cattle should be fed and watered about four hours before dip-ping. If they have been driven some distance and are hot, they should be allowed to cool before going into the tank. If the nights are cool, i t should be arranged that the dipping i s finished early enough to give the animals a chance to dry off before dark. The vat should be seventy to eighty inches deep so that the ta l lest of the animals w i l l have to swim. To estimate the amount of dip required, the length of the tank in inches i s multiplied by the width i n inches and the depth in inches and the result divided by two hundred and thirty-one to give the number of gallons required, A short haired steer w i l l carry off about two quarts of dip while a long haired steer wi l l absorb about four quarts. The total amount that w i l l be lost must be calculated and added from time to time as the an-imals go through the tank i n order to keep i t to the required depth. The inside dimensions of a convenient sized tank are as follows:-Length at top - twenty-six feet, at bottom, twelve feet; width at top, three feet, at bottom, one and one-half feet; depth, seven feet at the foot of the incline leading to the dripping pen, Every part of the dipping paraphernalia should be carefully examined for nails or anything that might wound the animals. Every animal should be completely submerged at least once and those obviously affected, two or three times. Any of the more common'dips mix well with soft water. Hard v/ater -107-may be broken by using one to four pounds of sal-soda per one hundred gal-lons of water* Nicotine dips are sold under trade names and require reas-onably soft water. The solution for dipping should contain 0.05% nicotine. r Both the nicotine dips and lime-sulphur dip should be used warm, ninety-five to one hundred and five degrees being about the right temperature. Lime-sulphur dip i s made in the proportion of twelve pounds of unslaked lime and twenty-four pounds of flowers of sulphur to one hundred gallons of water. A l l dips should be mixed according to the directions and specified rules which come on the package. Warble F l ies It i s estimated that warble f l i e s cost the stockmen of the West-ern provinces about ten mil l ion dollars per year. A great deal of this loss i s indirect due to gadding and consequent loss of weight in beef an-imals; however, i t i s estimated that the loss i n hides alone runs close on to a mi l l ion dollars and i f the stockmen through combined effort could re-duce losses by a reasonable amount, the benefit would be widespread. This i s just another of the small leaks that are taking the profit out of ranch-, ing. There are two species of the warble, the l i f e histories and hab-i t s of the two having much in common. Eggs are la id during bright, sunny days on the legs and lower parts of the animal and are attached to the hairs . The small grubs hatch i n from three to seven days, penetrate through the skin* and migrate through the tissues of the host, in some cases con-gregating i n numbers i n the region of the gul let . They remain here during the summer and unt i l late winter, when they undertake a second migration and come to rest under the skin of the back, which they perforate in order -108-to make breathing holes. After about two months in this position, during which time they feed on matter in the tumor-like cysts formed, they squeeze their way through the breathing holes, drop to the ground and pupate as hard, black, seed-like objects measuring nearly three-quarters of an inch i n length. Emergence of the adult f l i e s occurs in from one to two months; mating may take place on the same day and egg-laying commence, an average of about four hundred eggs being la id during the l i f e of the female. While the individual l i f e of adults i s very short, about a week, in nature, the period of adult act iv i ty is a long one of five months be-ginning in A p r i l , since successive adults are developing and emerging during this period, and one species appear later on the wing than the other. The tota l period of development from egg to egg requires about a year and at least nine months of this is passed as a grub in the host an-imal. The Common Cattle Grub or Heel Ely (Hypoderma Lineatum de Vi l ler s ) The Common heel f l y i s the smaller and earlier of the two species. Bright, sunshiny days are favored for egg laying, but the insect appears to prefer laying i t s eggs in the shaded parts of the body. It lias a habit of set-t l i n g on the ground In the shade of the heels of a cow and reaching up with i t s long egg tube to attach the eggs to the hairs of the coronet. When the cattle are lying down the f ly lays i t s eggs on parts of the body which come close to the ground. It i s usually very quiet in i t s attack, and i s less l i k e l y to cause gadding than the rougher, less stealthy, warble. The grubs of this species, in the colder interior of the province, seldom make an ap-pearance before mid-January, although at the coast t&ey may appear in Dec-ember, The Northern Cattle Grub or Large Warble Ely (Hypoderma -109-Bovis de Geer) - The large warble f l y has been found to be almost as widely distributed in Canada, and to be nearly as common as the smaller species. Varying weather conditions may, however, cause seasonal fluctuations in the two species, and fine weather conditions during the egg-laying period of one species may cause i t to predominate temporarily over the other. This i s a later developing species and adults are found on the wing from early June u n t i l August, and are part icular ly annoying during July. The egg-laying act ivi ty i s even more restricted to bright, sunshiny days than is the case with the common heel f l y . Eggs are seldom la id while the animal i s lying down and are usually l a id f a i r ly high up on the legs, They are invariably placed singly on the hairs and not in rows as is the case in the other species. Since an equally large number are l a i d , this results in a more frequent, intermittent attack. This, and the rougher behavior of the insect, explains the greater fear experienced by cattle when the large warble f l y i s annoying them. Egg-laying commences in June, about a week after the smaller heel f l i e s have ceased their act ivi t ies and i t may con-tinue unt i l August. The complete eradication of warble f l i e s from a restricted area has been actually demonstrated as possible and as feasible. In Denmark, compulsory control legis lat ion was enacted in 1923. In the previous year 29.5% of a l l hides were grubby but after three years operation of the Act, grubby hides were reduced to 2-g%, and complete eradication is anticipated through continuance of the control measures employed. Many livestock owners re ly impl ic i t ly on the application of re-pellent dressings 1 or " f l y dopes" to their stock as a protection against ^•This i s more applicable to farm conditions. Range livestock owners, as a rule, do nothing. warble f l y troubles, but experimental work has fai led to substantiate the practical value of any known repellents in this respect. There are several accepted methods of controlling the warble f l y . The f i r s t method i s by hand, squeezing the grubs out of the breathing holes when they have settled in the back of the animal. lor large numbers of stock, this method is not practicable. The second method is to treat the animals with washes having as their base derris root, tobacco or pyrethrum powder or a combination of these. A satisfactory wash can be made up from standardized derris powder, one pound; soft soap, one-quarter pound; water, one gallon. This should be l i b e r a l l y applied to the backs of the animals. The cost of materials should not exceed four to five cents per animal treated. A third method which, under range conditions, is not so practic-able, i s that of applying by hand to the cysts an ointment having as i t s base derris root or pyrethrum. This method i s not as effective i n handling large numbers of animals as the wash. Ticks In Br i t i sh Columbia about a dozen different kinds of ticks are found. The female of one of these ticks (Dermacentor venustus) may, under certain conditions, cause paralysis, sometimes followed by death i n man and in animals. The paralysis t ick (Dermacentor venustus) in certain parts of Montana i s i t s e l f affected by small parasites which i t passes on to man, causing the disease known as Rocky Mountain Fever or Spotted Fever, A l -though fortunately, there are no records of these ticks carrying Spotted Fever in B r i t i s h Columbia, there i s a number of records of them causing paralysis i n man and animals. - I l l -Paralysis i s caused by the female tick when she is feeding fast; i f she is sucking blood slowly, paralysis does not occur. The explanation for this i s not known, but i t i s assumed that when she is feeding fast a large amount of the substance that she secretes to keep the blood f lu id , it injected into the body in a sufficient amount at one time to cause trouble, A single t ick may cause paralysis or even death, Dermacentor venustus i s found over the greater part of south-western Br i t i sh Columbia and in the adjacent portion of Southern Alberta. It i s known to occur one hundred miles north of Kamloops, It i s occasion-a l l y found in south-western Br i t i sh Columbia, but i s not plenti ful as wet weather is detrimental to i t s early stages which are passed on small an-imals. This t ick appears as an adult early in the spring and attaches i t s e l f to the skin of large wild and domesticated animals and on man; The sexes mate when on the animal; the female, after feeding on the animal for about seven days, drops off on to the ground and lays about four thousand eggs. After about thirty-s ix days the eggs hatch into minute six-legged larval or "seed" t icks . The small larval ticks crawl up on to grass or other supports, and when the opportunity offers, attach themselves to small animals such as rabbits, mice, squirrels , chipmunks, etc. They remain on such an an-imal for about four days,-drop off on to the ground, moult, and after about thirty-eight days emerge as an eight-legged middle-sized t ick or nymph, which i s sexually immature. The nymph attaches i t s e l f to the same kinds of small animals that the larval ticks feed on, and after about seven days they drop to the -112-ground, moult, and in about ninety days emerge as adult ticks* Hot or cold weather influences the length of each stage; also, the length of time that the larval or nymph ticks have to wait for a suit-able host may prolong the l i f e -cyc le . Unfed larval ticks usually die in about thirty days, but may l ive for one hundred and seventeen days; unfed nymphs may l i v e for three hundred days; adults, captured in the spring, have been known to survive four hundred and thirteen days without feeding, and after fasting for three hundred and sixty-five days readily attach themselves to a host. The l i fe-cyc le may be completed in sixty-eight days under most favorable circumstances, but usually two years is required and sometimes three. While i t i s possible that other species of animals may be par-alyzed by Dermacentor venustus, at present there are only definite records for dogs and sheep. The general symptoms are a staggering gait, fa l l ing down, bumping into fences and other objects and f ina l ly the animal i s un-able to r i s e . Some of these animals die but others recover owing to the fact that the t i ck , when ful ly gorged with blood, fa l l s off. Cattle and horses may carry the Dermacentor venustus t ick, but the commonest t ick on these animals, especially horses, i s the "moose t ick" , Dermacentor albispictus. This t ick is s l ightly larger than the paralysis tick and lighter in color. To complete i t s l i fe-cycle i t requires only one host and not three, as with Dermacentor venustus* The changes from larva to nymph and from nymph to adult take place on the same animal; the fer-t i l i z e d , engorged female drops off on to the ground and lays from four to five thousand eggs, from which the larva emerge during the summer, but which do not usually attach themselves to their host un t i l autumn. There i s some indication that this t i ck i s of economic importance, when i n suf-f ic ient numbers to weaken the animal from loss of blood. Ticks may be controlled (l) by treating affected stock with an arsenical dip which k i l l s the t icks before the egg-laying begins, and (2) by destroying the small mammals upon which the young Dermacentor venustus ticks feed by the use of poison bait or other means. Greasy preparations w i l l k i l l ticks through blocking their breathing pores which are located near their fourth pair of legs. These preparations must foe applied by hand and are somewhat laborious when there are a large number of animals to be treated. An effective mixture is as follows: Kerosene, ten ounces; l a rd , ten ounces; pine tar, two ounces; or kerosene, one-half pint ; linseed o i l , one-half pint ; sulphur, one ounce. Lice Cattle l i c e are widely distributed and have been recognized as a pest by livestock growers since early times. These parasites are more or less prevalent in a l l parts of the country. In the range country the cattle often become infested very heavily with l i c e , the degree of infest-ation varying from year to year with climatic and other conditions. Ordinarily, l i c e on cattle are not observed unt i l they become so numerous that they cause unmistakable signs of annoyance. Usually the an-imals whose lousy condition f i r s t attracts attention are the poor, weak, un-thr i f ty members of the herd, and frequently the owner thinks they are lousy because they are unthrifty, whereas the unthrifty condition may be caused by the l i c e . As a ru le , the individual members of a herd are not affected equally, as some cattle seem to be unsuitable hosts to such an extent that they may be considered practical ly immune. However, when l i ce are intro--114-duced into a herd during the f a l l or winter they usually spread rapidly un-t i l every animal, or nearly every animal, is infested. Cattle l i c e are injurious to a l l classes of cattle, but the greatest losses occur in young stock and poorly nourished old animals. The losses are caused by i r r i t a t i o n , digestive disturbances, arrested growth, "low v i t a l i t y , and increased death rate. Lice are rea l ly a contributing factor to the last point mentioned as a cause of loss, by having the v i -t a l i t y of the animals so that they succumb to inclement weather and disease. Three species of l i ce are commonly found on cattle. Two of these are blood suckers, or suctorial l i c e , and are commonly called "blue l i c e " . The third species i s a biting louse, commonly known as the " l i t t l e red louse". Suctorial Lice The short nosed cattle louse (Haematropinus Eurystermus) usually i s found on mature catt le , although i t may occur on calves and young stock. The average length of adult females i s about one-eighth of an inch and the body i s about one-half as broad as long. The males are s l ightly smaller than the females. The head is short, nearly as broad as long, and i s bluntly rounded in front. The head and thorax are yellowish brown, while the abdomen is blue slate colored. These l i c e pass the various stages of their l i f e on the animal. The eggs, commonly called "nits",are attached firmly to the hairs, usually close to the skin, The incubation period varies from eleven to eighteen days, with an average of fourteen days during mild weather. The young females begin to-lay eggs when they are about twelve days' old* The long-nosed cattle louse (Linognathus v i tu l i ) usually i s found on calves and young stock, but sometimes occurs on mature catt le . These may be distinguished from the short-nosed species by their longer, more slender form being only about one-third.as broad as they are long. These l i ce pass their entire l i f e on the animal and deposit eggs in the same general manner as the other species. The eggs hatch i n ten to four-teen days, the average period of incubation being about twelve days* The young females reach sexual maturity and begin laying eggs about eleven days from the date of hatching. Biting Lice The common bit ing l i c e of cattle (Trichodectes scalaris) are found on both very young and mature cattle* They are much smaller than the sucking l i ce but are s t i l l v i s ib le to the naked eye. The head is broad and blunt, the color Is reddish, that part of the body commonly yellowish white. "The l i f e "history is similar to that of the sucking l i ce * The average period of incubation is probably about ten days. Each species of domestic animals has i t s own particular species of l i c e , and except i n accidental cases, catt le l i c e are found only on cattle* They increase very rapidly in number on cattle during dry,, cold weather, when the hair i s long, but tend to disappear during the spring and summer, appearing again in the f a l l when they increase very rapidly. Treatment therefore, should be applied i n the f a l l while the weather is suitable and before the l i c e have become so numerous as to cause injury. The favorite locations of the sucking .l ice are the sides of the neck, brisket back, inner surface of the thighs, and on the head, around the nose, eyes and. ears. When feeding they attach themselves to the skin by burying their sucking tubes in the tissues. When not feeding they move -.116--about over the hair and skin. The bit ing l i c e usually are found on the withers and around the root of the t a i l , but they may occur on any part of the body. They appar-ently feed on particles of hair , scales and exudations from the skin. Or-dinari ly they do not i r r i t a te the animals as much as the sucking l i c e , how-ever, when present in large numbers they often form colonies or groups around the base of the t a i l , etc. The skin over these areas appears to be raised and ringworm may be suspected, but when the lesion is manipulated the scarf skin fa l l s off, exposing the l i ce grouped on the raw tissue. When separated from their hosts the bit ing l i c e l i ve about seven days, the sucking l i ce only about four days. As a rule, eggs are not de-posited except on the host, but when the hair to which they are attached is removed and kept under f a i r l y favorable conditions, they may continue to hatch for as long as twenty days. The newly hatched l i ce l ive only two or three days unless they find a host. The disinfectants to eradicate l i c e may be applied by hand, by spraying or by dipping, but under range conditions the latter method is usually employed* In choosing a dip for cattle l i c e the conditions under which i t i s to be used should be considered. If the dipping plant i s supplied with soft water, any of the dips recommended may be used, but i f the water i s very hard, the dip that mixes best with the water available should be used. Arsenical dips mix well with any kind of water; nicotine dips require reasonably soft water; creosote dips require soft water as they may be injurious to the animals i f used with hard water. None of the dips w i l l eliminate a l l the l i ce in one operation but the animals should go -117-through the vat a second time after fifteen or sixteen days have elapsed. Arsenical dip has been used to a considerable extent for l i ce and i t has proved to be a very satisfactory remedy. A formula for arsenical dip i s as follows: Jour pounds caustic soda.(85% pure) Eight " white arsenic (99% pure) in fine powder Eight " sal soda crystals One gallon pine tar Water sufficient to make f ive hundred gallons Dissolve the caustic in one gallon of water and then add the arsenic slowly so as to keep the solution just below boi l ing . When a l l the arsenic has been added dilute to about four gallons and add sal soda, s t i r unt i l i t is dissolved. Add water to make up the solution to five gallons. Emulsify the pine tar as follows: Dissolve three-quarters of a pound of dry caustic soda or concentrated lye (or one pound of dry caustic potash) in one quart of water, add one gallon of pine tar, and s t i r unt i l the mixture brightens to a uniform thick f lu id* The arsenical stock solution and the emulsified pine tar pre-pared are sufficient to make five hundred gallons of dip. The proportion of ingredients should be one gallon of arsenical stock and about one quart of tar stock to ninety-nine gallons of water. The coal tar creosote dips are sold under many trade names and when diluted with soft water they are efficacious in eradicating cattle l i c e . Coal tar creosote dips may be used cold or warm, but the temperature of the bath should not exceed ninety-five degrees F. These dips should con-tain, when diluted ready for use, not less than one percent by weight of -118-coal tar o i l s and cresylic acid. These dips should be used in accordance with the instructions printed on the label of the container. Nicotine dips are sold under various trade names, and farmers and livestock growers are more or less familiar with them. The nicotine dip recommended for scab is also satisfactory as a remedy for l i ce and as i s stated, should contain .05% nicotine to be effective. One point in the control of l i ce that must be remembered. Treated cattle should not be allowed to mix with untreated cattle or they w i l l again be infested and also treated cattle should not be put back into infested paddocks or buildings unt i l ten days or two weeks have elapsed to allow the l i c e in the premises to die* The following is a plan of a cattle-dipping plant with a wooden vat. The vat should be placed in f a i r l y level ground and i t is best i f i t face north and south. In this case the cattle enter at the south and leave at the north as they w i l l work better i f not facing the sun. -120-• CHAPTER .'VI STOCK POISONING AND MECHMICALLY INJURIOUS PLANTS There is an enormous annual t o l l of losses on the livestock i n -dustry due to diseases, predatory animals, poisonous or injurious plants, and accidents of a l l sorts. Two phases of this problem, outside, of course, of bacterial pathology, come within the domain of botany, v i z . , (1) the existence of poisonous plants, many of which are devoured by l ive-stock, often with fatal effect; and (2) the presence of plants which at some stage of their development cause mechanical injury, not uncommonly weakening the animal seriously and sometimes causing death. POISONOUS PLANTS The poisonous plant problem i s serious on the mountain and foot-h i l l ranges of the west. In the United States on the National Forest Range alone, approximately eight thousand cattle and twenty thousand sheep, valued at about five hundred thousand dollars, die annually from eating poisonous plants; yet the acreage of the National Forest Range is only a small part of the grazing grounds of the West. Moreover, losses on these high ranges, as a rule , are less than on the lower areas. In Br i t i sh Col-umbia i t i s impossible to estimate losses due to poisonous plants because so many of the stockmen are unfamiliar with the symptoms of poisoning and furthermore, are unfamiliar with the species themselves. It i s certain, however, that there i s some loss due to poisoning, much of which can be avoided by knowing the poisonous species and when they are most apt to be eaten by stock. By controlling the cattle on the range the poison areas can be avoided to a large extent. In this way losses can be minimized. -121-There are six genera which include the majority of poisonous plant species which are responsible for seventy-five percent of the losses These genera are the members of four families: the Bunchflower family (Melanthaceae), the Buttercup Family (Ranunculaceae), the Pea or Pulse Family (Leguminoseae), and the Parsnip Family (Umbelliferae). In addition to the poisonous species of the higher plants, power fu l ly toxic substances occur among some of the bacteria and parasitic fungi. Certain mushrooms and some smuts, l ike ergot, have been the cause of livestock losses. Like many poisonous flowering plants, the fungi are somewhat variable in the toxic substances present. Although something may be accomplished in the"application of med i c a l remedies to poisoned animals on the range, the main reliance in the control of losses must be upon better range management and improved l i ve -stock handling* The degree of poisoning Is dependent not only on the amount de-voured but on the rapidity with which the toxic substance i s eliminated. The la t ter varies with different plants and animals and hence some plants may be poisonous and yet never cause symptoms of distress in certain an-imals. Poisonous plants are not grazed as a matter of choice and there i s a str iking relation between the scarcity of feed and losses by poison-ous plants. The heaviest losses are l iable to occur on ranges that are badly depleted such as the lower ranges of Br i t i sh Columbia, The time of grazing is an important factor governing losses from this source. It i s well known that the alkaloids or toxic substances are not evenly dis-tributed throughout the plant tissues. For example, in the toxic lupines^ -122-poisoning i s unknown u n t i l the seed pods are well formed; therefore prac-t i c a l l y a l l lupine poisoning occurs in the late summer or early f a l l . Ac-cordingly lupine-infested lands should be grazed early in the season before the seeds have developed, and should be avoided for late summer and f a l l grazing. It i s a good practice to graze on a poison-infested area that class of livestock which Is immune to the toxic species. Horses and cattle as a rule , are not subject to poisoning by death-camas and so can be grazed on areas infested with this plant with impunity. Furthermore, stock poisoning from death camas rarely occurs after flowering. While the herb-age may be poisonous after the flower has been dropped, the leaves are much less tender and palatable than in early spring. The larkspurs, although poisonous to catt le , are not injurious to horses and sheep. The leafage of the larkspurs, on the other hand, seems to lose much of i t s poisonous property about the time of seed maturity, and the plant seldom causes serious losses in cattle late in the f a l l . Failure to provide sufficient salt causes foraging animals to develop a perverted appetite; Animals not given sufficient salt become restless and are d i f f i c u l t to handle and at the same time are unable to eliminate poisons as well as are those supplied with ample salt . In addition to proper salt ing, the animals should have easy access to water at a l l times. Without sufficient water, poisonous substances cannot be read-i l y eliminated. It i s known that poisonous plants generally, increase in abund-ance where the ranges are over-grazed. As the productivity of the range i s increased, many species of poisonous plants w i l l be crowded out by de-sirable forage species. This appears to be especially true of the low -123-larkspurs, death camas, and, to a lesser extent, of the locos. Then too, as the proportion of desirable species increases the proportion of poison-ous plants devoured decreases and so lessens the extent of the poisoning. Grubbing out or destroying by the use of chemicals have been tried as methods of eradicating poisonous plants but, on the whole, whey are not practicable. Burning has been advocated as a means of destroying certain annual grasses (such as Bromus tectorum), that are mechanically injurious to the catt le . At the Dominion Range Experimental Station at Kamloops a small area heavily infested with this grass was burned when the grass had begun to set' seed early in the summer. (See Plate No, 4) The area burned very clean and by early f a l l the few scattered perennial grasses were show-ing green with no sign of new growth from the Brome grass. This would ap-pear to be a feasible method of eradicating this undesirable grass. Loco Plants Loco plants are members of two genera - Oxytropis and Astragalus. The most destructive of this plant i s the so-called Lambert's, white, stem-less, or rattleweed loco (Oxytropis Lambertii). It i s a perennial herb with stems twelve to eighteen inches high, the leaflets of the compound leaves being slender, somewhat hairy, and olive green in color. The spikes of flowers are commonly white, though the petals are sometimes streaked with purple. As the calyx is sometimes red, a variety of colors i s found. The ra t t l ing of the pods as one touches them when the seed i s mature sometimes resembles the sound of a rattlesnake and the name "rattleweed" i s i n more or less common use. Woolly, purple or Texas loco (Astragalus Mollissimus) i s probably the second most destructive species but i s not found as far north as Br i t i sh -124-, PLATE NO. 4 Weed Control - An Experiment in the Eradication of Bromus Tectorum Dominion Range Experimental Station Kamloops, B. 0. -125-Columbia, the northern boundary of this species more or less corresponding with the northern boundary of Nebraska. Loco has a habit forming effect on animals and the results are cumulative; animals never become immune to i t * The f i r s t symptoms of loco poisoning are stupidity and general loss of condition. The animals show a marked lack of muscular control and become very nervous and excitable. The gait i s irregular and staggering, the eyes are glassy and the sight is im-paired or lost altogether. A rough, shaggy coat i s characteristic. No certain cure for loco poisoning has yet been found. If the disease has not progressed so far that the animals are no longer worth sav-ing, they should be removed from the loco-infested range and given proper feed. Constipation may be relieved by a dose of Epsom salts; for mature cattle one pound given as a drench, for calves, two ounces. As a rule i t does not pay to grub out loco-infested areas and the best prevention is to keep that part of the range well up in condition by not grazing too many animals on i t . Young stock should be kept off loco areas, part icularly where other forage is scarce. If the infestation by loco weed is very bad, that part of the range should be fenced off against stock, or the animals should not be herded on those lands. Larkspurs (Delphinium) The larkspur species may be conveniently divided into two groups -t a l l larkspur and low larkspur. These two groups differ somewhat in their choice of growth sites . The t a l l species prefer moist sheltered gulches and canyons of the higher ranges whereas the low larkspur grows on open h i l l -sides, i n drier loca l i t i e s than the t a l l species, and at somewhat lower elevations. Both the t a l l and the low larkspur are found in varying abund--126-ance in the foo th i l l and mountain pastures of the west. It i s probable that more deaths among cattle on western ranges are caused by larkspur than by any other poisonous plant. In 1915 the es-timated money loss of cattle from this cause on the Fishlake National For-est ranges in Utah was fifteen thousand dollars . A l l parts of the larkspur plant above ground are poisonous; most of the trouble is caused by the leaves but some by the flowers also. The seeds contain more active poison than the rest of the plant, but they hardly ever cause death, as they are readily disseminated upon reaching maturity and are not sought for by stock. After seed maturity the leafage seems to lose much of i t s toxicity. The low larkspurs are poisonous as long as their herbage lives but that generally lasts only through May and June. Moreover, the low species seldom grows densely enough for stock to crop fata l amounts of herbage. The roots of the native larkspurs are never eaten, as they are tough and woody and d i f f i cu l t to get at. Larkspur poisoning always causes constipation, and recovery usually follows i f this condition can be relieved. Bloating sometimes occurs and occasionally death is caused by choking. Animals poisoned by larkspur f a l l in a peculiar way; the forelegs buckle and the animal supports i t s e l f by i t s head, and by spreading i t s hind legs. Other common symptoms are quivering of the entire body, loss of muscular control, weak, rapid pulse, and evidence of pain in the abdomen, probably due to constipation. As already said, i t i s probable that, i f the constipation could be relieved as soon as the f i r s t symptoms of poisoning appear, the poison would not result fa ta l ly . Many experiments have been tried with various -127-remedies, such as barium chloride, caffeine, sodium benzoate, strychnine, potassium permanganate, and atropine; but none of these has proved success-f u l l . Apparently favorable results have been obtained from hypodermic i n -jections of physostignine sal icylate , pilocarpine hydrochloride, and strychnine sulphate; but, while more than ninety-sis percent of the cases treated with this remedy recovered, the total number of the tests made was not large enough to give absolute proof of the efficacy of the treatment. Most of the losses of cattle from larkspur poisoning occur in regions where the plant grows in small dense patches, frequently i n gulches into which the animals stray and graze unt i l they have eaten enough to cause poisoning. In such areas the most practicable method of eradicat-ing larkspur i s by grubbing i t out. Another effective method of eradicat-ing t a l l larkspur i s by cutting. The plants must be cut back twice the f i r s t year and once in each of the following two years. The cutting method however, requires transporting the labor to the area four times instead of once as the grubbing method requires. Death Camas (Zygadenus) Other common names for Zygadenus are Alkal i grass, hog's potato, lobel ia , mystery grass, poison sego, soap plant and squirrel food. Species belonging to this genus are erect perennial herbs growing either from root-stocks or a membraneous covered bulb, with leafy stems. The leaves are long, narrow and grasslike; the flowers are green, yellow or white, borne i n terminal elongated or dense racemes or panicles. The species of death camas are widely distributed over the range areas and are found at a l l altitudes. The plants are somewhat exacting in -128-the matter of s i te , preferring f a i r l y moist loca l i t ies into which, the water seeps slowly rather than wet, swampy or very dry ground, Plate No. 5 shows a typical site with death camas mixed with Claytonia spp. at the edge of the timber at an elevation of about twenty-seven hundred feet. Death camas rarely lasts later than July, although the l i f e of i t s herbage varies with the altitude and the exposure where i t grows. There are about ten species of Zygadenus, a l l of which are sup-posed to be more or less poisonous. Experiments with the various species prove that Zygadenus Gramineus i s the most virulent species, with Zygadenus Yenenosus second; and that Zygadenus Elegaus and Zygadenus Paniculatus, probably the next two most Important species, are only about one-seventh as toxic. Most of the losses of stock from death camas poisoning occur among sheep, but horses and cattle are also sometimes poisoned. Stockmen are generally not familiar with the plant and are therefore l ike ly to at-tribute to other plants losses of stock which may have been caused by death-camas. Investigators differ as to whether the largest number of cases of poisoning from death camas are caused by the bulb or by aerial portions of the plant. While the entire plant, including the seeds, i s known to be poisonous, the bulb contains a large amount of active poison, though ev-idently less than the seed. Ordinarily, the bulbs are pulled out of the ground with d i f f i cu l ty . The more pronounced general symptoms of death camas poisoning are frothing at the mouth, vomiting, restlessness, weakened heart action, -ISO-irregular spasmodic breathing, convulsions,bloating, weakness of the muscles shown in a staggering gait and inabi l i ty to rise when down, and general'paralysis. Bleeding, a remedy commonly used by herders for death camas poisoning, i s useless? Any antidote is ineffective unless given as soon as symptoms of poisoning appear, for the poison cannot be counteracted after i t leaves the stomach. Medical tests carefully conducted by workers i n the United States Department of Agriculture have fa i led to develop an effective antidote against death camas poisoning. Clearly then, the best method of combating this weed poisoning i s by prevention. A l l stockmen should become acquainted with the plant and take measures to keep their stock away from i t , especially in the early spring before an abundance of nutritious feed i s available. Water Hemlock (Cicuta) Other common names for Cicuta are cowbane, beaver poison, mus-quash root, muskrat weed, parsnip, snakeweed, snakeroot, and spotted par-sley. The water hemlocks are perennial umbellifers growing from a root-stock, with pinnate leaves and toothed leaflets . The flowers are white; the f rui t ovoid to obicular, smooth, unwinged but with prominent, f l a t t i sh r ib s , the la tera l ones largest* The seeds are nearly cy l indr ica l . A striking peculiarity of the roots of most species i s their characteristic musky odor and horizontal chambered partitions* In western North America, water hemlock usually occurs between elevations of about three thousand and eight thousand feet* The growth areas of water hemlock are much restricted. It i s found only i n moist or wet loca l i t i e s , as along the banks of streams, -131-irr igat ion ditches, in swamps, and on wild, moist hay land, usually in isolated patches* ' Although there i s considerable difference of opinion among i n -vestigators as to the number of animals poisoned by water hemlock, there is no doubt that a l l of the higher animals, including man, are susceptible to the poison. A large proportion of the animals poisoned by water hemlock die, for, unless the animals are treated immediately after the f i r s t symp-tom of poisoning occurs, there is small chance of saving them. Because the toxic principle acts so virulently i t i s pract ical ly impossible to treat a large number of cases at one time. Investigators differ again as to the toxic properties of the stems and leaves of water hemlock. The general opinion, however, i s that the whole of the plant is poisonous, at least during the early stages of i t s growth, although there i s much less danger i n the part above ground. Usually there are not tops and seeds enough to be harmful when the plant is mixed with hay. Most of the poisonous principle of Cicuta i s contained in the root, which i s so virulently poisonous that a very small amount appears to be sufficient to k i l l any of the higher animals* The symptoms of Cicuta poisoning are frothing at the mouth, ex-cessive flow of urine, very violent convulsions, often with more or less opisthotonos, or arching of the back, and evidence of severe pain. The breathing is'apparently labored and heart action irregular. The action of hemlock poison i s very rapid and cattle have been known to die within f i f -teen minutes after the appearance of the f i r s t symptom of poisoning, but sometimes the animals have been known to l ive for two or three hours. Be-cause of quick action of the water hemlock poison, antidotes are rarely of any use, and prevention i s more effective than cure* The roots of water hemlock are only about six inches below the ground and so i t i s comparative-l y easy to eradicate the plant by grubbing. If, for any reason, grubbing i s impractical, i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to fence stock away from infested areas as i t i s almost invariably confined to isolated patches. Lupines (Lupinus) The lupines are given many common names such as, blue bean, blue pea, Indian bean, Old Maid's Bonnet, Quaker's-bonnet, and Sundial. Lupines are distributed over a l l the western stock grazing regions. They grow so abundantly in some loca l i t i e s that sol id tracts of the blossoms are vis ible for miles. There are about twenty-five species represented in the west, most of them preferring the slopes of h i l l s , or portions of mountain ranges at moderate elevations. Lupines make f a i r ly good forage plants i f not eat-en at the poisonous stage of their growth, in fact, i n some areas where large tracts of dense stands occur, they are often cut for hay* Experiments indicate that practical ly a l l animals are more or less susceptible to the toxic substances contained in lupine. However, there are few authentic cases of lupine poisoning of cattle, most losses occurring among sheep and to a small extent among horses. The frui t of the lupines i s extremely toxic, and the plant i s very dangerous to stock when the pods are fu l ly developed and f i l l e d with ripe seed. Animals poisoned by lupine become crazed, move about with an irreg-ular , staggering gait , froth at the mouth, and with sheep , butt at any ob-ject i n their way. Spasms and fa l l ing f i t s are also characteristic and the - 1 3 3 -flow of urine i s always increased, often containing blood. Post mortem examinations show that the effects of lupine poison on the animal organism are similar to acute loco poisoning, the membranes of the brain and lungs being congested, and the small blood vessels ruptured, There i s no known antidote for lupine poisoning that i s effective and the best procedure i s prevention. Animals should be kept off areas heavily infested while the plants are setting seed and unt i l the seed is shed. Hay should not be made from lupine unless i t i s cut while the plants are i n bloom or after the seed has been shed. Milkweeds (Asclepias) Certain species of milkweeds have long been known to contain .. toxic properties. Whorled milkweed (Asclepias Galioides) has caused losses of sheep, catt le , and horses throughout i t s range, and in some sections these losses have been very great. It occurs on dry plains and i n the foot-h i l l areas. Although animals do not devour the plant under ordinary c i r -cumstances, they eat i t when they are very hungry. Poisoning usually occurs when stock come on a patch of milkweed after they have been driven some dis-tance. Whorled milkweed is a perennial with horizontal spreading roots. It is very tough and di f f icul t to eradicate. As the seeds are winged the plant is readily distributed. It grows abundantly along railroads, on the banks of ditches, and in waste places. Obviously one who would prevent an-imals being poisoned from milkweed should learn to recognize the plant and ' keep hungry animals away from i t . -134-Aconite (Aconitum Columbianum) Aconite or Monkfs-hood, i s an erect, smooth, single-stemmed plant two to five feet high, with numerous leaves at the base and a long terminal cluster of conspicuous "hooded" blue flowers. The plant resembles blue larkspur, with which i t is commonly confused, and grows in close proximity to i t . It i s v i r tua l ly impossible for the layman to t e l l the difference between aconite and t a l l larkspur by the leaves alone, but when they are in flower they are readily distinguishable by anyone. The larkspur flower i s provided with a conspicuous spur; the aconite flower i s without a spur but i s conspicuously hooded. The distribution is about the same as larkspur. Aconite i s known to contain toxic properties, and probably is more poisonous than i t s closest relat ives , the larkspurs* It is not pal-atable to cattle and therefore causes no losses to this class of stock. Ergot (Clavlceps Purpurea) Ergot is a parasitic fungus, having the appearance of a black spur, straight or s l ight ly curved, one-fourth to one-half of an inch in length, which grows i n the heads of some grasses. It occurs on a number of host plants, such as wild rye (Elymus), various meadow grasses, bluejoint, couchgrass (Agropyron), Junegrass (Koeleria), and others. It occurs most frequently on wild rye, and may be present wherever that plant grows. It usually appears i n the middle of August and remains unt i l late in the f a l l . Ergot produces two forms of poisoning - the nervous form and the gangrenous form. Symptoms in both forms of the disease are fatigue, cold sweat, nervousness, paralysis of the entire body beginning with the tongue and throat, and digestive disturbances. In pregnant animals the poison often causes powerful uterine contractions causing the animal to abort. -135-The gangrenous form of ergotism is characterized by swelling and the form-ation of dry gangrene of the hoofs, followed by death from exhaustion. Large quantities of ergot are required to cause fatal results. As soon as evidence of poisoning appears the animals must be re-moved from the-infected plants. A regular dose of Glauber's salts should be administered to aid in eliminating the poison. As the poison must be gradually eliminated from the system, the results of treatment are necess-a r i l y slow, MECHANICALLY INJURIOUS PLANTS . A large number of the plant genera contain species that cause mechanical injury to stock. Sandburs, cockleburs, and certain cacti need only be mentioned in this connection. Many such plants cause considerable annoyance to l ivestock, the effective plant parts frequently entering into the flesh of the animals and causing inflammation of varying degrees of seriousness. Mechanical injuries caused by plants on range and pasture are in evidence mostly in the f a l l of the year, about the time of seed maturity* -The most serious mechanical injuries brought about by vegetation are caused by grasses. Among these, species embraced in the following genera are most injurious: Bromegrass. (Bromus); barley and squirre l ta i l grasses (Hordeum and Sitanion, respectively); needlegrass (Stipa); three-awn (Aristida); and gramagrass (Bouteloua). Bromegrasses - Downy bromegrass, sometimes called June brome (Bromus teet-orum); hairy bromegrass (Bromus v i l losus) ; and red bromegrass (Bromus rubeus) are the most troublesome species of the genus. The causes of the injury inf l ic ted by these plants are much the same; the injurious effects are, likewise, pract ica l ly ident ica l . At seed maturity the seed head breaks up readily. As the animal grazes, the f lorets , by means of sharp calluses, and later the long rough awns, penetrate and cause sores and i n -flammation of the skin, eyes, l i p s , teeth, tongue, throat, stomach, and in-testines. Downy brome i s part icularly prevalent on over-grazed sections of the ranges in Br i t i sh Columbia, indeed, is an indicator of over-grazing to a certain extent. It i s an annual grass and this assists i n i t s erad-icat ion. Where an area is heavily infested with this grass i t may be burnt just before the seed is about to be shed. This gives about one hun-dred percent k i l l and so gives those desirable perennial grasses a chance to thrive besides lessening the r i s k of injury to stock* The loss of feed i s negligible as this plant i s of very low feeding value once the seed has started to form. Barley and Squi r re l ta i l Grasses - These closely related grasses are prob-ably the most destructive of the physically injurious plants. In many parts, of the West the awned spikelets, especially those of squirre l ta i l barley (Hordeum Jubatum) are very injurious, particularly to sheep. As many as six hundred thousand awns are sometimes produced by a single plant. The grasses1 also spoi l much good hay making i t unfit for use. Needlegrasses - Devi l ' s darning needle (Stipa spartea) and needle-and-thread (Stipa comata) are conspicuous species of the genus in the injuries which they i n f l i c t upon livestock. The awns of these grasses are several inches long; the spikelets or florets are sharp-pointed and rea l ly bore i n --137-to the skin and the intestines of animals. At maturity- the awn bends near the middle and becomes s l ightly twisted below the f i r s t bend. Variation i n the humidity of the a i r causes the awn to twist and untwist, and in this way the sharp-pointed floret penetrates the surface to which i t i s attach-ed. In range stock serious inflammation and peritonitis are sometimes caused by these grasses. Occasionally, i f the spikelets get into the eyes of the animals, blindness i s caused and eventually death from starvation. Three-awn - Dogtown three-awn (Aristida adscensionis) and Fendler's three-awn (Aristida Eendleriana) in some loca l i t ie s are troublesome when the seed i s r ipe . At maturity the seed, with i t s awn attachment, i s blown about by the wind, the sharp-pointed callus being i n advance. These awns work their way into the nostr i l s and eyes of a l l classes of stock. Gramagrass - Needlegrama (Boutelona aristidoides) i s probably the only species of gramagrass which is mechanically injurious to foraging animals. The entire spike breaks from the common axis, the segments being provided with a sharp callus point at the base. The effect of these segments on persons i s anything but pleasant. The sharp base of the spikes penetrates the stockings and other clothing and then breaks off. The skin is left f u l l of "needlepoints". ASTRAGALUS COMPESTRIS No mention has been made of this allegedly poisonous plant. The reason for this omission is that there i s no definite knowledge of the poisonous properties of this species. Conclusive experimental results have not yet been obtained. Work i s now being done at the Kamloops Bange Ex-perimental Station on this plant but results w i l l not be apparent for a number of years. Nutritious Montane Grazing for Breeding Cows. PART III. MARKETING 1:' | . | • i i .•':| "i CHAPTER V I I SURVEY OF CANADIAN BEEF CATTLE MARKETING PRODUCTION The beef cattle industry i s of great importance in agriculture. This branch of agriculture is exceeded in value of output by only Field Crops and Dairying. The beef cattle industry i t s e l f may be divided into two branches; production on range areas and production under, more or less, farming conditions. These types of production are carried on in two main areas - the Western provinces and the Eastern provinces. In Br i t i sh Col-umbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan, beef catt le are produced pract ical ly en-t i r e l y under range conditions. In Manitoba, in the early days, beef cattle were produced under range conditions, but at the present time the business i s carried on under semi-farming conditions. Ontario and Quebec produce beef almost entirely under farm conditions; also the Maritimes. Canada Chart No. IV shows the total beef catt le population of Canada and the value of i t is shown In Chart No. V. Chart No. VI shows the proportion-ate changes in the beef cattle population of the various provinces (ex-clusive of the Maritimes) and of Canada. This chart shows that from 1915 to 1917, cattle populations pract ical ly doubled in a l l provinces. 1 It also shows very clearly the downward trend in production since 1920 in Canada and in the more important beef producing provinces. The trend in Manitoba is s l ight ly downward but in Br i t i sh Columbia the trend has been upward. In this province, however, production took a tremendous drop in 1930-31, but since that time the trend i s again upward. The cattle population of Bri t i sh Columbia i s very erratic and takes tremendous sweeps up or down in a very -'•The Maritimes are excluded by reason of their relative unimportance. -139-CHART NO. IY .;. THE BEEF CATTLE POPULATION OF CANADA 1881 - 1934, (Millions of Head) -140-GHAKT K0. V TOTAL VALUE OE BEEF CATTLE IN CANADA 1910 - 1934, (Millions o f Dollars) -142-short time. Alberta i s somewhat the" same as Br i t i sh Columbia, but the ratio of the change is not as great. As might be expected in a mixed farm-ing section, Ontario's production i s very steady, although Quebec shows a larger degree of var i ab i l i ty . In interpreting semi-log charts such as this the ratio of change rather than absolute numbers should be observed. The magnitude of the change is not as apparent but unfortunately, in order to show clearly the production of a l l the provinces and Canada on one chart, i t i s necessary to use this type of chart. Br i t i sh Columbia As was stated, the beef cattle population of Br i t i sh Columbia shows tremendous var iab i l i ty . Why this is so, cannot be explained from data at hand. Br i t i sh Columbia, however, produces a small part of Canada's tota l beef. Chart No. VII shows the percentage of Br i t i sh Columbia's beef cattle population to that of Canada. It w i l l be noted that the general trend i s upward but that in 1930-51 the beef cattle population of Br i t i sh Columbia took a tremendous drop. It i s interesting to see that value per head of beef catt le in Br i t i sh Columbia is somewhat above the general av-erage value for Canada. This fact i s shown in Chart No. VIII and i l l u s -trates a spread which i s pract ical ly constant. This might be interpreted that the Br i t i sh Columbia cattleman has a slight advantage over cattlemen in the rest of Canada in the matter of price or value of stock. CONSUMPTION Meat consumed per capita — There are many factors which affect the consumption of beef in Canada. Price of beef i s the main factor a l -though with this must be considered the price of competing and substitution products. Business cycles affect the standard of l iv ing and this in turn -143-CHART MO. VII PEREEITTAG-E OF THE BSSF CATTLE POPULATION OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA TO THAT OF CABALA. 1911 - 1934. -144-CHART NO. VIII , COMPARISON OI? AVERAGE VALUE-PER HEAD -.IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AND CANADA • • /oo 7* So ZS \ 1 » t \ A '/ \ ' / \ ,J-f. ; \_ • / • / \ V y \ > - /—«— > / \ * / \ \ * > \ * • \ \ \ * \ V - ' X 6 I— • —L- 1 i i - i. /f/° /f/5' /feo //*$- /fso /ps -145-i s evidenced i n the consumption of meats. Chart No. IX shows the annual per capita consumption of meats in Canada from 1921 to 1933. It w i l l he noted that: (1) Mutton and lamb consumption i s extremely stable. (2) Beef consumption has been adversely affected by the general business collapse in 1929-30. (3) Pork consumption i s extremely variable and follows roughly the hog price cycle. In 1930 the consumption of pork rose and the consumption of beef fe l l . . This might be explained by the fact that the r e t a i l price of pork f e l l more rapidly than the r e t a i l price of beef. The problem of analyzing meat consumption would require a large amount of s t a t i s t i c a l data and can only be dealt with li g h t l y here. Statistical data, however, can be obtained and would make a valuable study. The Trend in Demand Market demands for a type of stock- are ever-changing. In the early days of construction camps and long drives, cattle were put on the market as three or four year olds. Now the cry i s for baby beef. Part of this change in demand i s due to changing social conditions. Today there are far more people crowded into c i t i e s and a great many of these live in apart-ments. Urban people, on the whole, have much smaller families than rural inhabitants and this causes a greater demand for smaller cuts of beef. The most logical and cheapest way to supply small cuts of beef i s to market the animal at an earlier age. Per one pound of saleable meat a bullock of three years old has consumed twenty-two and one-half pounds (dry matter) of food, -146-CHART NO. IX PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF MEATS IN CANADA 1921 - 1935. . (Pounds) /fj2/ /f*3 /fss /fi? //jp /fJ/ yp3 whereas one k i l l e d at eighteen months has only consumed eleven and three-quarter pounds for each one pound of saleable meat produced. The younger animal, however, requires a higher proportion of concentrated food - two and one-half pounds as compared with one and one-quarter pounds for the older animal. This would seem to indicate that It might be to the stock-growers' advantage to produce yearling beef. The consumption of feed is less per pound of meat produced and the rate of turnover is increased, both of which factors are desirable in any industry. Grading and Standardization In the matter of grading of beef there is much room for extension. The consumer i s , as a rule, a poor judge of good meat and the local butcher may se l l almost anything as prime b e e f » If the meat turns out to be poor, the consumer usually blames i t onto bad cooking or just considers himself unlucky. As a group, the consumers are extremely apathetic as to the grade of meat they desire. The ranchman may do his best to meet the popular de-mand but the ignorance of the consumer as to the qualities of good beef en-t i r e l y thwart him. The education of the consumer i s a f ie ld in which the government might serve a useful part* At the National Beef Cattle Conference, held in Winnipeg i n 1928, i t was recognized that some steps had to be taken in grading beef. Some un-scrupulous retai lers were, and s t i l l are, sel l ing extremely poor beef as good and choice. The consumer did not know that by paying a high price whether he would be sure of getting good beef. As a result of this , a sys-tem for the grading of carcasses was established to work in conjunction with the Government inspection of slaughterings. Inspected beef was to be graded by Government inspectors on the r a i l and branded, either red or blue, as to re-quality. This plan was put into operation some time in 1930 and so far suits have been rather poor. The consumer, in most cases, i s ignorant of the fact that there i s such a thing as branded beef and, consequently, is s t i l l easy prey for the unscrupulous re ta i l e r . A plan of grading beef should be put into operation and might be analogous to the present egg-grading plan. Inspected beef carcasses could be classed into a number of grades and those that are not inspected should be marked ungraded.. This c lass i f icat ion should be carried right through to the re ta i l e r ' s counter where the beef should be pla inly marked as to grade. This alone is not sufficient. A program of education of the consumer should be adopted. Steps should be taken by the government or by the beef cattle producers to educate the consumer to demand good meat. Furthermore, a l l ex-ports of cattle and of beef should be inspected by the government, at the point of departure, and only those animals and carcasses that come up to a high standard should be allowed to be exported. This w i l l guarantee the good reputation of Canadian beef on the export markets and consequently i t w i l l enjoy a more favorable reception. Grading l i ve cattle on the public stockyards i s at present well organized but the grading of direct shipments is completely in the hands of the packer. The grading of direct shipments by the government would entail a much greater inspection service than is maintained at present. There ap-pears to be no other solution of this d i f f icul ty at the present time. In Br i t i sh Columbia, where a livestock exchange has just recently been estab-l ished, the grading of stock has been entirely in the hands of the packers. It can be depended on that the packers are not over-grading stock shipped -149-EXPORTS Canada has, at the present time, a surplus of beef cattle pro-duction amounting to about fifteen percent per year. This surplus must be exported and has a depressing effect on the home market. There is a direct correlation between exports and prices as is shown in Chart No. X. Pos-sibly the foreign trade should be expanded, but this would make greater competition for Argentina and some other large beef exporting countries, From an international viewpoint this might not be desirable. On the other hand, Canada i s closer than Argentina to the European markets and l i e s in the same temperate zone, and so could ship beef at a lower cost. Canada has a much greater area than either Argentina or Brazil; much of this area has been entirely undeveloped, and so the production of beef might be ex-panded easily. To compete with Argentina, however, would require that the quality of the stock of this country be improved and, by and large, the ex-pansion of the export market is not particularly desirable. It i s desirable, however, that the present export surplus be dis-posed of i n the most profitable way. Canada's exports of beef cattle and of beef show considerable fluctuation. The imposition of t a r i f f s or em-bargoes by importing countries exert such a strong influence on the Can-adian export trade as to exclude the possibility of a long time trend. Year to year fluctuations are tremendous, especially in the export trade with a single country. Charts No. XI and No. XII show total Canadian exports of beef cattle and of beef, respectively, for the years 1922-34 inclusive. Unfor-tunately the length of time for which figures are available i s so short -151-CHART NO. XI EXPORTS OP CANADIAN BEE3F CATTLE 1922 - 1932. (Thousands of Head) Zoo / oo /fit, //Jo /f-?Z -152-CHART NO.XII EXPORTS OP BEEF FROM CANADA 1922 - 1932. (Millions of Pounds) -153-that l i t t l e can be deduced from these charts. The general trend of exports, as with production, i s downward. Causal relationships can be traced more easily by breaking the figures up into exports of beef cattle and of beef to the two principle markets, v i z . , Great Br i ta in and the United States. This i s done in charts No. XIII to XVI, inclusive. United States Undoubtedly the United States i s Canada's best market for beef and beef cat t le . The nearness of the market with i t s large centres of pop-ulation make i t particularly desirable. Prices, generally, are higher in the United States, there being an increasing disparity between i t s human and beef cattle populations. For seven and one-half years previous to the Tari f f Act of 1921, Canadian cattle entered the United States duty free. That Act imposed duties which were increased i n 1922 to 33% or 43% ad val-orem, depending on weight, and to three cents per pound on fresh beef or veal , . These duties were attempts to bolster up the home industry in the United States and to forego the necessity of importing foodstuffs. The effect of this t a r i f f was to reduce materially the exports of beef and beef cattle from Canada to the United States for the years 1922 to 1926. (See Charts No, XIII and XIV). The high prices prevailing over the period from 1926 to 1929 en-abled Canadian producers to ship both beef and beef cattle into the United States at a profit in spite of the high tar i f f . . From 1926 to 1927 exports of both these more than doubled. In 1930 however, the combined effect of low prices and of the United States Tariff Act of 1930 (Hawley-Smoot Tarif f ) , which imposed drastic duties on beef and cattle, (three cents per pound on the latter) reduced Canadian exports to the United States, almost to the -154-CHART iKO, X I I I BEEP CATTLE EXPORTS TO U.S.A. PROM CANADA. YEARS 1922 - 19S2 ( incl . ) Thousands of Head /C}3° -155-CHART NO. XIV ' EXPORTS OF BEEF FROM. CANADA TO THE UNITED STATES 1922 - 1932. (Millions of Pounds) 4o o i I r l [ ^ ' •.'fti • 'ft* /fc8 /^o ./p* —156 CHART NO. XV BEEF CATTLE EXPORTS TO GREAT BRITAIN FROM CANADA. YEARS 1922 - 1932 ( incl . ) Thousands of Head /oo\ So o /px • / P * tfJ* -157-CHART NO. XVI EXPORTS OE BEEF FROM CANADA TO GREAT BRITAIN 192E - 1952. (Millions of Pounds) -158-vanishing point. As a result of this action, i n December 1934, cattle were sel l ing i n Canada at a price below the cost of production. In January, 1935, a sudden price advance added about twenty dol-lars per head to the value of a l l beef cattle in Canada. This price ad-vance was the cumulative effect of a number of factors. The policy of the United States government in curtai l ing the production of beef cattle in an effort to raise prices had a beneficial effect. The second factor was the effect of the drought which drast ical ly curtailed production even further and forced to market millions of cattle in the United States. This latter factor amplified the government's attempts at curtailment of production to such an extent as to cause a scarcity. Prices were raised i n the United States to such an extent as to make i t possible for Canadian cattle to again jump the t a r i f f wal l . This relieved the surplus burden on Canadian markets to a large extent and so prices in Canada rose abruptly. Trade agreements concluded in the latter part of 1935 between the United States and Canada allow a certain number (about one hundred and f i f ty- s ix thousand head) of Canadian beef cattle to enter the United States at a reduced duty of two cents per pound livewelght. This agreement became operative January 1st, 1936, and at the present time there i s approximately ten thousand head per month crossing the border. This number w i l l undoubt-edly increase as f a l l approaches. Great Br i ta in The Br i t i sh market is undoubtedly a second choice market for Can-adian beef and beef catt le . Cattle are shipped from Canada to Great Britain only when the United States market is cut off by reason of high tar i f f s . -159-Charts XV" and X\TC show markedly the effect of closing the American market. Immediately the t a r i f f prohibits shipment to the United States the exports to Great Britain increase. In 1926 when i t became possible for Canadian r cattle to jump the t a r i f f wall, exports to Great Britain practically ceas-ed. Again in 1930 this phenomenon was exhibited. There are a number of factors which make Great Britain a secondary market for Canadian beef and beef cattle. The high cost of ocean transport i s a limiting factor. Cattle shipped alive shrink a great deal in transport and must be put on the feed-lots i n Great Britain. By the time the cost of the feed and trans-portation is deducted from the sale price, there i s very l i t t l e l e f t for the producer or shipper in Canada. Then again, Canadian beef has to com-pete against a very high quality product imported from Argentina and from the Irish Free State. Up unt i l 1925 there was an embargo on Canadian cattle which made i t necessary to slaughter a l l stock immediately on ar-r i v a l . This was a precaution against foot-and-mouth disease. Slaughtering Canadian cattle on arrival gave them a rather poor name as the animals were thin and i n poor condition after the long ocean voyage. As. a result of this, Canadian cattle were regarded with disfavor on the British market for a number of years. -160-CHAPTER VIII MARKETING PROCEDURE ON ORGANIZED MARKETS Stockyards and Public Markets For the protection of the farming community, Departments of Ag-riculture encouraged the establishment of the open market place, known as the public stockyards, and have adopted regulations for i t s management and control. This i s the place to which i t was expected a l l buyers would come and to which, naturally, a l l sellers should come. In Canada the primary livestock market i s at Toronto, with secondary markets at Montreal, Winni-peg, Calgary and Edmonton. There are a number of smaller .markets at such places as Brandon, Regina, Moosejaw and recently, Vancouver. For many years stockyards functioned in this manner. Stock was accumulated by drovers, shippers or producers at country points, I t was sent by r a i l to the public stockyards, where numerous buyers i n open competition bought their livestock, and thus the market price was fixed. In those days there were numerous packers, butchers, exporters, feeders and others competing for the stock which arrived, and the law of supply and demand had a fai r f i e l d for operation. The producer, under these conditions, was always en-sured of getting a market price definitely fixed by active competition. Some of the stockyards are owned and operated by joint stock com-panies and of these, some are controlled in a large part by the meat packer Others again have just evolved where the volume of shipping has justified the establishment of shipping and storage f a c i l i t i e s . In general, stockyards companies do not deal in livestock. Their purpose is to supply the buyers and sellers with a meeting place at which,. -161-the product may be viewed and sales made. The stockyard has the f a c i l i t i e s for handling the stock while i t is on their premises. The company has no influence on the market and i s primarily interested in providing the f a c i l -i t i e s for as large a number of livestock as i t can attract. The producers have other means of disposing of their stock, such as, shipping to the packer direct, consequently i t i s to the advantage of the stockyard to at-tract sellers by maintaining an impartial attitude and imposing fa i r rates for feed and storage. Buyers are attracted by the fact that at the stock-yard they can purchase any volume of stock that they require and of the grade and quality desired. There i s considerable complexity in the organization of a stock-yard . The producer may s e l l the stock himself but, as a rule, the stock is put i n the charge of a commission firm. These firms maintain a large force of salesmen, clerks, accountants and. executives, and have up-to-the-minute reports on a l l livestock markets. Because these firms are in such close contact with the market at a l l times, they can, as a rule, obtain better prices for stock than the owner. As a result of the relatively perishable nature of the product the staff of these commission firms i s large for the amount of business done. With the increase i n the shipment of livestock by truck, commission firms have had to increase their staffs. It is now nec-essary to have men at a l l gates to the stockyards to meet the truckers and obtain their business. The Dominion Government retains control over the public stockyards and from time to time imposes regulations regarding the operations. It maintains a special branch, known since 1935 as the Markets Service Branch, previously being known as the Markets Intelligence Service, for the admin--162-is trat ion and enforcement of the Livestock and Livestock Products Act. This act was passed i n 1917 and brought a l l stockyards i n Canada under Federal control i n 1919. It was consolidated and revised in 1925. It provides for a market news service and.enforces regulations set up by the Act. These act iv i t ies result i n : (1) The bonding of a l l Commission men, co-operative organizations and dealers; (2) The operation of livestock exchanges; (5) The regulation of stockyards service charge; (4) The inst ituting and auditing of trust accounts; (5) The supervising of accommodation for livestock; (6) The regulating of the quality and cost of feed. As was stated previously, buyer and seller meet at the public stockyard and so the forces of demand and supply are brought together to create a market. A complete consideration of the complex marketing s i t -uation i n Canada i s not within the scope of the study but there are cer-tain aspects which can be touched on. Figures for the receipts, prices, e tc . , are available for the livestock marketed on the public stockyards. As only 4 0 - 6 0 % of the beef catt le marketed in Canada passes through the public stockyards,all stat-i s t i c a l analysis must be interpreted in view of that fact. Receipts Seasonal variation i n receipts of cattle are the direct result of general range management. Chart No. XVII shows the Indices of Seasonal Variation in Receipts of Beef Cattle at the Principal Canadian Markets. The marked upward trend, starting in June is the result of cattle being -165-CHART HO. XVII INDICES OF SEASONAL .'ViHIfl.TION IN RECEIPTS OF BEEF CATTLE AT PRINCIPAL CANADIAN MARKETS -164-brought i n off the range. The beef round-up usually is not held before July and nay take place any time from then on. This results in large supplies of range beef arriving on the market. As might be expected, an overloaded market i n the late summer and f a l l months increases the exports of cattle. Chart No, XVIII shows the Indices of Seasonal Variation of Ex-ports of Beef Cattle from Canada and this figure corresponds to the pre-vious one to a marked degree. By November practically a l l the cattle are in off the ranges and so receipts drop precipitously. It would appear from these charts that the consumption of beef must be extremely elastic or that large amounts are put i n storage during the f a l l and winter. This i s not so, although cold storage holdings are increased during the f a l l and winter to a certain extent. Many of the cattle marketed furing the f a l l are stored in another way. There i s con-siderable feeding of livestock done i n Ontario and Quebec. These cattle are bought i n the f a l l and come back on the market again in the late spring and summer. By counting these animals but once, that i s , when they are to be slaughtered, the upswing of the seasonal variation of receipts curve would be leveled considerably. Prices It might be expected that i f the law of supply and demand has freedom of action the prices of cattle would drop in the late summer and f a l l . This is true. Chart No. XIX shows the Indices of Seasonal Variation of Prices of Beef Cattle on the Principal Canadian Markets and illustrates price decline in the f a l l when receipts are heaviest and price increases in late winter and spring when receipts are light. Chart No. XX shows the -165-INDICES 01 SEASONAL VARIATION IN EXPORTS OE BEEF CATTLE j * n , : fH. /fir- //<-••• M*f ^ A"f- ^" -166-CHART MO. XIX INDICES OE SEASONAL VARIATION IN PRICES OP BEEF CATTLE (Weighted Monthly Average 1922 - 1932) AT PRINCIPAL CANADIAN MARKETS I/O /DO So > ; : : f*J>. (pp. -fyt 'rfy 3"'S /f^. Syr! Od. pec. -167-CEART NO, XX COKRELATIYE COMPARISON OF PRICES AND RECEIPTS OF BEEF CATTLE AT PRINCIPAL CANADIAN MARKETS -168-correlation between, the Indices of Seasonal Variation of Prices and Re-ceipts to advantage. The correlation of indices of seasonal variation is rather a novel method but in this case i t appears to be the only method, as f u l l s t a t i s t i c a l data i s not available. These charts of seasonal var-iation are not concerned with absolute values and are representative of the average year. These do not, in themselves, provide a basis for price fore-casting, but i t may be interpreted that i n the average year prices are low in the f a l l and high in the spring and summer. An interesting study has been made on the receipts and prices of Good and Choice, up to 1,050 lbs. Steers, The general price trend i s sim-i l a r , being up in the spring and down in the f a l l . The receipts of these cattle show a striking relation to the price. A representative year, 1934, is presented in Chart No. XXI and shows a direct correlation between prices and receipts. It might be interpreted from this, that as the heaviest re-ceipts of good and choice cattle are in the spring, most of these animals have been on the feed-lot. It also might be interpreted that stock-feeders, being closer to the market, are better able to take advantage of a turn in price, and so, i f the market takes an upturn, receipts immediately increase* The Meat Packer Production has been briefly outlined and the marketing procedure given roughly but the meat packer, who is the link between the producer and the consumer, has been mentioned but l i t t l e . The meat packing industry is one of Canada's most important industries. In 1932, i t ranked third in the point of gross value of output and f i r s t in the cost of materials used. This industry, as might be expected, i s concentrated in the larger centres -169-CHART NO. XXI COMPARISON OP THE PRICES AND RECEIPTS OE STEERS, GOOD AND CHOICE, UP TO 1050 POUNDSs AT THE PRINCIPAL CANADIAN MARKETS - 1954. -170-of population, Ontario, i n 1933, producing 46% of the total value of the products sold. Large-scale production is the rule in the meat packing industry. Twenty-four plants, many of which are under the same ownership, account for 84.7% of the value of the total output. The remaining 15.3% i s divided among one hundred and eleven plants. The Canada Packers Limited, i s the largest meat packing concern in Canada. In 1953, sales of this company amounted to f ifty-four mi l l ion dollars, or 59% of the tota l . Swift Can-adian Company Limited came second with sales amounting to twenty-four mil l ion dol lars , or 86% of the tota l . These two companies between them ettrtrol the sale of 84.7% of the output of the industry in Canada. From 1929-52 the physical volume of the meat packing business de-clined 7% while over the same period the value of output declined 50.9%. Furthermore, while sales f e l l 50.9%, the return to the primary producer f e l l 56,8% and the return to the packing company only 24.5%. In 1929, for every dol lar ' s worth of meat sold, 81.7 cents went to the suppliers of materials, and the value added by the manufacturer amounted to 18.5 cents; in 1955, however, although the consumer's dollar purchases approximately 80% more meat than i n 1929, out of each dollar the producer received only 76.3 cents, and the packer 25.7 cents. It i s interesting to note that the Swift Canadian Company suf-fered operating losses in two out of five year period, 1929-35, but Canada Packers Limited, with approximately double the volume of Swift Company, was able to extract sufficient to cover a l l i t s costs and a profit in each year. The following table compares the earnings of five meat packing com-panies, Canada Packers, Swifts, Burns & Company, l i l s i l , Limited and -171-Gainers, Limited, over the period 1929-33, inclusive. Percentages of Earnings on Invested Capital 1929-33 (inclusive) 111 l ive Companies Canada Packers Limited 1929 9.9 16.0 1930 3.4 7.5 1931 3.9 1932 *"X # 2 6,3 1933 6.2 Average 3© 3 8.9 It would seem from this and other evidence that Canada Packers Limited carry out a policy of extreme business conservation. For instance, for the five years ending the 29th of March, 1934, provision for deprec-iat ion and repairs by Canada Packers Limited amounted to 52% of the aver-age depreciable value of the fixed assets* Profits have also been affected by writing off against operations over five hundred thousand dollars of the book value of investments. The market value of investments at March 29th, 1934, exceeded the net book value by over one hundred thousand dollars . This shows the dominating influence of the one company in the meat packing industry. It is only natural that the position held by this packer em-phasizes the natural disparity in bargaining power between the packer and the primary producer. The primary producer has borne a disproportionate share of the burden of f a l l ing price levels during the depression and in many cases he has been the victim of exploitation. The livestock industry provides a notable example of this situation. During the recent depression, the livestock industry has suffered -172-particularly through lack of profitable markets. The farmer producing grain has some alternative in i t s disposal — he may s e l l i t , feed i t or hold i t — but when a steer or a hog is "finished", i t must be sold, as i t rapidly loses i t s prime condition. Thus the farmer producing livestock is more completely at the mercy of the buyers than farmers producing other farm commodities and i t i s essential that extra precautions be taken to protect his interests. There i s no gainsaying the fact that criticism of the existing marketing system has been particularly r i f e during the past few years. The general dissatisfaction was expressed by many of the wit-nesses appearing before the Price Spreads Commission. During the years 1932, 1933 and most of 1934, cattle numbers were increasing, due largely to the earlier loss of the United States market which forced farmers to hold back animals which ordinarily would have been disposed of across the line. This increase in the number of cattle un-doubtedly led to heavier marketings and forced prices lower. It was not u n t i l late in 1934 that the effect of lower prices became evident and that the rate of increase diminished. Thus the price of good and choice steers over 1,050 pounds at Toronto f e l l almost steadily for four years and, in 1933, averaged four dollars and sixty-three cents per ewt, - less than one-half the comparable price for 1929. The low point was reached in February, 1933, when this grade sold for three dollars and sixty cents per ewt. in Toronto. Prices to western farmers and for lower grade animals actually reached a level, where, in some instances, they were insufficient to pay freight and stock-yard charges. The price of good and choice steers over 1,050 pounds, at Calgary, f e l l to two dollars and twenty-five cents per ewt. in September, -173-Oetober ana November of 1933. Again i t i s very evident that the f u l l lowering of prices was not carried through to the consumer so that consumption could be improved. If consumption was at a maximum under the low r e t a i l price which existed, then consumer's purchasing power was not reflected in prices paid to the producer. The Report of the Royal Commission on Price Spreads states: "The packer, the wholesaler, the retailer, protected their margins on a f a l l i n g market and since their costs and charges form a high proportion of wholesale and r e t a i l prices, this operated to prevent the commensurate de-cline of meat prices. A study of price indices clearly reveals this s i t -uation and also proves that these middlemen's margins are promptly, i f slightly, increased as soon as ri s i n g prices permit." As was stated previously, s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of prices of l i v e -stock i s based on figures given for marketings on the public stockyards. The public stockyards is expected to be the place where the law of supply and demand i s given a f a i r f i e l d of operation and the producer i s ensured of freely competitive market. In recent years, this situation has been completely changed. This change has been brought about mainly by two factors* F i r s t , the elimination of the small packing company and wholesale butcher, either by merger and absorption or by cut-throat competition. Canada Packers, Limited i s the dominating unit with a business greater than the next five packing companies combined. This development -has reduced competition to the detriment of the producer. Canada Packer's buyers are to be found on the chief stockyards in Canada, and a l l instruct-ed as to price, methods and practices, from a head office in Toronto. Sim--174-i l a r l y with the Swift Canadian Company Limited, the head office is located in Toronto and a l l buyers receive instructions from there, livestock pur-chasing i s thus concentrated with less competition than might be expected . among packer-buyers. The Royal Commission on Price Spreads reports: "There was uncontradicted evidence given by a former o f f i c i a l of Canada Packers Limited that in Toronto i t was the usual practice for this firm to arrange with Swifts before the market opened, as to the prices to be paid for livestock. Also, the manager of the Western Stock Growers' Association, one of the largest ranchers in Alberta, gave evidence that i f a packers' buyer gave an offer for cattle on the ranch, i t would not be raised by any other packer-buyer, either on the ranch or in the stockyards." Another method adopted by the packers to reduce buying compet-i t i o n on the open market, i s the practice of selling to wholesale butchers carcasses on the r a i l , at cost price plus k i l l i n g charges. This is said to have effectively removed the wholesale butcher from competition on the pub-l i e stockyards. A third factor which has successfully reduced competitive buying on the public stockyards i s the fact that the packing companies have vig-orously developed a system of direct shipment to the packing house. This direct shipment business has been largely increased by the use of trucks instead of railroad, to carry the livestock to market. The trucker is chiefly interested in carrying as large a volume of business as possible. Any time saving device means more business for him and so, by delivering the stock direct to the packing plant and by having sale invoices signed immediately, he can save the time that would be taken for the sale to be -175-made at the public stockyards. -It i s distinctly to the advantage of the meat packer to have livestock shipped' direct to the packing plant for the following reasons: (1) The stock i s paid for on the packer's weight. On the public stock-yards government scales are used which register each five pounds. (2) When livestock other than hogs i s delivered direct to the packers, i t i s graded by the packers themselves, and the price i s fixed, according to the grade. The producer i n making direct shipments of livestock to the packers is placing himself in their hands as regards, weight, grade and price. He is unprotected by an agent or by any regulations except in the grading of hogs. It is easy to see who i s in the weak and who is in the strong position under these conditions* The prices paid for livestock shipped direct is said to be the market price. That market price is set where there i s a competitive mar-ket, namely, on the public stockyards. The packer receiving 50% of his supplies shipped direct i s not as eager a buyer on the market as the packer with no assured supplies. Consequently, the packers are not keen buyers on the market which has the effect of breaking down the price. When the price has been broken down to a satisfactory level the packer can step forward and f i l l his requirements. Furthermore, this price i s the basis on which payment for direct shipments i s made, It is a vicious circle; the direct shipments make the packer a dull buyer and the price i s reduced and then this price i s used to pay for direct shipments. Toronto i s the primary livestock market for Canada. One hour -176-after the Toronto market opens, telegraphic reports of i t s condition are sent to the western markets. If the Toronto market is draggy i t has a tendency to depress the western markets. Therefore i t i s to the packer's advantage to abstain from buying on the Toronto market for the f i r s t hour on the principal market days, Tuesday and Thursday. As a result of de-pressing the western markets the same packers' buyers can obtain their supplies at a lower price. The Report of the Royal Commission on Price Spreads states: "It w i l l , therefore, be seen that direct shipments are of a distinct ad-vantage to the packers, not only i n leaving weights, grades and prices substantially within their own control, but also as a lever to use upon the open market at the stockyards to settle the price at which they w i l l pay for the stock required. Then this price is used to pay for direct shipments which have helped to establish i t . " -177-CHAPTER IX BRITISH COLUMBIA BEEF CATTLE MARKETING The marketing methods employed in British Columbia are partly the result of the early development of the cattle industry i n the province. In the early days the market for cattle was in the mining settlements and construction camps. The cattlemen became accustomed to driving their cattle to these local markets and as these settlements were continually be-ing shifted, no definite markets were established. As British Columbia progressed and the railroad gave easy access to the coast markets, the cattlemen shipped their stock consigned to some butcher or wholesaler with whom they had become familiar. The development of the meat packer resulted in an increase in competition in the wholesale trade and i t became custom-ary for the slaughtering plants to send their buyer up to the interior to obtain the necessary supplies of cattle. At the same time a certain amount of stock was shipped direct to the smaller butchers and they were able to carry on. The great expansion of population at the coast caused an expan-sion of the large meat packing plants and soon control centered with two companies. As a result of not being able to support a buyer in the f i e l d , the- smaller meat packing establishment was practically forced out of ex-istence. This led to a system of "country selling" which has been, and s t i l l i s , the rule in British Columbia. The beef produced in British Columbia comes mainly from two areas, the Cariboo d i s t r i c t and the Kamloops and Nicola d i s t r i c t . 1 Prac-t i c a l l y a l l this beef i s sold on the coast market. Three railroads pro-vide the means of transportation, a l l having as their eventual terminus, Vancouver city. The Pacific Great Eastern railroad taps the greater por-Refer to Chart No. XVIV, Appendix. -178-tion of the Cariboo d i s t r i c t but cattle coming by this route must be trans-ferred to a scow which brings them to Vancouver. The Canadian Pacific and Canadian National railroads tap practically the same territory. These lines meet at Kamloops and run side by side as far as Hope, at the head of the Fraser Valley. The Canadian National then approaches Vancouver from "New Westminster and the Canadian Pacific from Coquitlam. A branch line of the latter taps the Similkameen and Okanagan areas and joins the main line at Hope. Briti s h Columbia i s well supplied with railroads and so there is no lack of f a c i l i t i e s in transporting the livestock to market. These facts are important when considering a system of orderly marketing for Br i t i s h Columbia. Consumers in this province demand a high quality product. Men working in industries such as mining and logging insist on having the very best of food. The tourist trade, as a rule, demands a high quality product and this i s an important business in British Columbia. The large passenger t r a f f i c by ships are also a market for a high class product. The part of the population engaged i n manufacturing usually consumes the lower grades of meats, and in British Columbia manufacturing i s in i t s infancy. The result of this demand for a high quality product i s indicated by the f i g -ures showing the consumption of branded (Red and Blue) beef i n British Col-umbia compared with Canada. Table X I I shows that British Columbia con-sumes a much greater proportion of branded beef than the other provinces. Actually, the percentage of branded beef in Canada i s small, but is i n -creasing rather rapidly. -179-TABLE XII BRANDED. BEEF SALES 1931-1935 (inc.) (Millions of pounds) B. 0... 1st 1st Qual. Qual, YEAR RED BLUE 1931 1.417 .183 1932 1.754 .359 1933 S.178 .423 1934 2.130 .792 1935 2.352 2.372 CANADA B. C. 1st 1st 1 % RED Qual. Qual. TO RED BLUE BLUE 6,346 10,894 774.3 7.534 14.215 488,6 9.885 20.796 , 514*9 12*502 27.074 268.9 19.999 26.912 99.2 CANADA  CANADA f BRANDED fo RED TO TOTAL TO DRESSED BLUE BEE1 58.3 5.09 53 6.98 47.5 9.07 46.2 : 48.3 As has been stated i n earlier chapters Br i t i sh Columbia imports approximately f i f t y percent of the beef consumed. Imports of beef cattle from other provinces is shown i n Chart No. XXII* Practical ly a l l these come from Alberta. Imports have been increasing since 1918 and show a small degree of. correlation with the cattle population of Br i t i sh Columbia,. There is a certain amount of disagreement between Provincial and Dominion government stat is t ics in regard to imports. This may be the result of trans-shipment of cattle from Br i t i sh Columbia to the United States at certain times. When ta r i f f , exchange and price differentials are favorable, there i s quite a flow of cattle from Br i t i sh Columbia to the Seattle and 2 Tacoma markets. If an agreement could be made with the United States guar-anteeing a settled t a r i f f rate, there might be sufficient reason, prices permitting, to establish a definite trade,in cattle with the nearby Amer-ican markets. This might warrant expansion of the industry in Br i t i sh Col-umbia. 2Refer to Chart No. XXV, Appendix. -180-OHART NO. XXII IMPORTS OF BEEF CATTLE INTO BRITISH COLOMBIA FROM OTHER PROVINCES 1918 - 1934. (Thousands of Head) 3° 1° o » . . i .. | I I /f/jr /fja //ijr /frf -180 A-CBART NO, XXIII VALUE OF BEEF CATTLE IMPORTED INTO BRITISH COLUMBIA FROM OTHER PROVINCES 1918 - 1954, - (Millions of Dollars) -181-At the present time with a system of country selling in force the Briti s h Columbia cattleman i s not assured of a market. It was pointed out in the previous chapter that direct shipments give the meat packer every advantage and are to the detriment of the producer. Up un t i l seven years ago the Brit i s h Columbia cattleman had no alternative but to s e l l his cattle to the packer-buyer on the ranch or to ship direct to the packing plant. As Swift Canadian and Burns and Company are the two main packing plants in British Columbia, i t would not be expected that their practices in this province would be any more to the advantage of the producer than in other provinces. It i s well known that i f one buyer makes an offer for cattle on the ranch, either, no other buyer approaches that man or, the price i s not raised by any other buyer. The establishment of the British Columbia Livestock Exchange i n 1928 did give the rancher another outlet, but this firm was very l i t t l e patronized. In 1935 when this firm came under the Livestock and Livestock Products Act and was established as a public stockyards the volume of cattle passing through the exchange did not increase to any great extent. The British Columbia rancher i s almost entirely in the hands of the packer as to the grading of his stock and as to price paid. The mar-ket information i s very scanty and"most certainly the packer-buyers do not give the ranchers any helpful suggestions as to the. condition of the l i v e -stock markets. The large producer is in a better position than the small man. The former has considerably more bargaining power in that he can supply the packer i n quantity lots but the small rancher i s completely at the mercy of the packer-buyer. Clearly, there must b e some organization -182-of producers or some new system of marketing evolved which w i l l give the producer greater bargaining power than he has at present. ORDERLY MAROTING FOB BRITISH COLUMBIA In prosperous years the livestock producers were not particular-l y interested in what happened to their stock after the buyer assumed own-ership at the shipping point. The producer was content to tend to his own business of growing the cattle and was not interested in the amount of profit made by the buyer. In the recent years of low prices the value of stock has been below the cost of production and the producer immediately realized that marketing was a part of his own business just as much as production. The cattlemen of this province seized on the marketing s i t -uation as a point of grievance and several abortive attempts were made to solve the situation. Organization For any attempt of producers to increase their bargaining power to succeed, there must be a strong organization, a willingness to work to-gether and a singleness of purpose. British Columbia producers are sing-ularly divided among themselves and i t is to the meat packers advantage to keep them so. The central organization of the beef cattlemen i s the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association. This organization i s af f i l i a t e d with the Western Canada Livestock Union. There are some local subsidiaries of the Association but these are organized, mainly, for the purpose of solving local production problems. Not a l l cattlemen of the province stand solidly behind their central organization. There i s a continual bickering and quarreling which militates against the effective solution of -183-problems. As a result of this, l i t t l e has been done to alleviate the mar-keting situation. The central association, up to the present, has been able to make changes in only those details which affect production. The main activity of the association has been the establishment and management of the Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show at Kamloops. This is a worthwhile piece of work and i s well handled. The organization, however, does not appear to be sufficiently representative or sufficiently unan-imous to throw the weight necessary to alter the marketing situation. Dis-satisfaction with the marketing set-up has been expressed by a l l members but, up to the present, the various committee reports have shown few con-crete suggestions. Central Market Until the B r i t i s h Columbia Livestock Exchange was incorporated no competitive market for beef cattle existed in British Columbia. It is desirable that there be a public stockyards in order that the stockman be taken out of the "buyers market". The proper location of such a stockyards i s debatable. Almost unquestionably the British Columbia Livestock Ex-change is situated in the wrong location for a public market. Cattle com-ing by Canadian National Railway have to be sidetracked and run about six miles down to the Livestock Exchange and then i f they are sold to Swifts or Burns they must be hauled away around by Coquitlam. Cattle arriving by Canadian Pacific Railway must be sidetracked and run down to the Exchange and similarly these must be hauled back. Cattle arriving by Pacific Great Eastern have to be shipped from Vancouver right around, about thirty or forty miles, and then these too must be hauled back. If these are sold to -184-Burns .& Company they go back to almost where they started from. It would appear on superficial examination that Coquitlam or someplace closeby is the logical place for a public stockyards. There would be no dif f i c u l t y i n shipping,stock via Canadian National or Canadian Pacific and these r a i l -roads carry by far the greatest proportion of the stock. That stock coming by Pacific Great Eastern would, of necessity, have to repeat its journey-ings i f sold to Burns, but this would not be a very large difficulty. In investigation into the Stockyard and Livestock Situation in Briti s h Columbia, made in 1925 by Mr. McCallum, Chief of the Stockyards Service for the Dominion, recommended against the establishment of a pub-l i c stockyards at that time. The report outlines the requirements for the establishment of a public stockyards as follows: (1) - Sufficient steady volume of receipts to keep down the overhead ex-penses - otherwise the cost of operation would defeat the objects sought for in their establishment. (2) The certainty of constant buying and selling competition in order to secure for livestock marketed through them the highest financial re-turn to the producer, (5) F a c i l i t i e s at f a i r l y close proximity for finishing both in winter and summer, thin, unfinished stock not suitable for immediate slaughter. (4) Access, at minimum expense, to other markets i n the event of prices being unduly depressed, for any reason, at the stockyard. (5) In the case of a stockyard at the Coast, the prospect of a largely i n -creased flow of livestock in that direction, the development of a•grad-ually increasing profitable demand from the Orient for livestock and meats, and a likelihood that annual livestock production in the prov--185-ince would, shortly, at least equal the volume of meat and animals imported. At the present time, in regard to beef cattle, i t would appear that a l l requirements, except possibly the f i r s t , are met satisfactorily. From the viewpoint of a l l livestock, however, there i s a tremendous short-age of locally grown sheep and hogs. Private interests, however, have found i t possible to operate the Briti s h Columbia Livestock Exchange and so i t might appear that a public stockyards is feasible even though the volume of supply i s small. In the event of a : public stockyards being established at someplace other than at the British Columbia Livestock Exchange, i t would be necessary that a l l British Columbia producers s e l l their stock on the stockyards in order to give sufficient volume. This, of course, ex-eludes stock sold for local consumption in the interior. If a suitable public stockyards is established in British Columbia, i t would definitely be to the advantage of the producer in the matters of prices and grades, Natural Products Marketing Act. As a result of widespread demand from producers for more orderly marketing of their product the Natural Products Marketing Act was passed. , Both Federal and Provincial governments passed legislation which, in effect, made possible compulsory cooperation in the marketing of primary products with two-thirds majority control. Many groups of producers have availed themselves of this legislation, among them being the beef cattlemen of B r i t -ish Columbia, Among the beef cattle producers there is considerable divergence of opinion as to whether or not the Act should apply and as to the form of - 1 8 6 -control to be adopted. A scheme has been adopted under the Act to regulate the marketing of Beef Cattle, Beef and Products thereof produced in that part of Br i t i s h Columbia south of the 57th Parallel of latitude. No active steps have been taken to enforce this scheme, other than the election of a Board. This marketing Board has wide powers i n regard to the disposal of the products, Some of the powers of the Marketing Board are outlined in Section 19 of the scheme, as follows: (a) To require that a l l l i v e cattle offered for sale as beef cattle shall be graded to the satisfaction of the Marketing Board; (b) To regulate the preparation, assembling, transportation, and marketing of the natural product; (c) To regulate the time and place at which and to designate the agency or agencies through which the natural product shall be marketed within the area of production, and to provide that no agency may s e l l within the area of production the natural product except under permit from the Marketing Board; (d) To procure the registration of the names, addresses, and occupations of a l l persons engaged in the production or marketing of the natural product within the area of production; (e) To require f u l l information relating to the production and marketing of the natural product from a l l persons and agencies engaged therein from time to time as i t may be deemed expedient, and to inspect the books and premises of such persons and agencies; (f) To require that every person engaged in the marketing of the natural product in the area of production shall obtain a permit from the Mar-keting Board; -187-.) To require that a l l producers, whether registered or not, subject to the exemptions hereinafter mentioned, shall comply with the orders and regulations of the Marketing Board; ) To f i x and collect any or a l l fees and charges that the Marketing Board may from time to time have lawful authority to f i x and collect; ) To determine the quantity and quality, grade or class of the Natural Product that shall be marketed by any person at any time, and to pro-hibit the marketing of any of the natural product of any grade, qual-i t y , or class; I To determine the manner of distribution of the natural product and the spread which wholesale dealers shall add to the price paid by them for the natural product; By i t s e l f or through the agencies, to conduct a pool or pools for the equalization of returns received from the sale of the natural product, and to compensate any person for a loss sustained by withholding from the market, or forwarding to a specified market, any of the natural product pursuant to an order of the Marketing Board: Provided that no compensation shall be paid in respect of any natural product that may be withheld from a particular market because the grade of such product i s deemed by the Marketing Board to be unsuitable for such market, and that pools shall be conducted only within the grades of the natural product established by the Marketing Board: Provided also that a l l pools shall be limited to the marketing of the natural product during periods of time not exceeding one week. Prom the foregoing i t i s seen that the Marketing Board has ex--188-tremely wide powers and controls the product right through to the retailers. The scheme has been drawn up and a Board appointed but up to the present no action has been taken in regard to the enforcement of the scheme. One of the members of the Board, Mr. P. B. Ward, is admittedly against the ap-plication of the scheme. There i s some doubt that the Natural Products Marketing Act i s even meant to apply to such a product as beef cattle in the province of Bri t i s h Columbia. In the Dominion Act, section 5 , sub-section 4 , under the heading Marketing Schemes, the following regulation i s lai d down: "Before any scheme i s approved the Governor in Council shall be satisfied, (a) that the principal market for the natural product is outside the province of production: or (b) that some part of the product produced may be exported. It would appear from this that the Act is meant to cover surplus products, such as f r u i t in British Columbia, or dairy products in the Eraser Valley. With beef cattle, the principal market is certainly not outside of the province and although there i s some export of beef cattle from Br i t i s h Columbia to the United States at certain times, there Is a net balance of imports into British Columbia amounting to about f i f t y percent of the beef consumed. The Minister and Governor in Council read a differ-ent meaning into this section of the Act than is apparent to the layman. When approving of schemes such as the Beef Cattle Scheme, i t would appear that the Governor i n Council is working in direct contravention of the s p i r i t of the Act. This does not mean that i t is not a good thing to have a Beef Cattle Scheme, but i t does appear that the powers of the Act might be extended i f such a scheme i s to be approved. PART IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION -189-CHAPTER X SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In Br i t i s h Columbia there i s a marked under-production of beef in relation to consumption which results in the importation, mainly from A l -berta, of thousands of head of cattle yearly. With the tremendous re-sources for pasturage of the province this should not be necessary. The over-grazed condition of the lower ranges and the over-capitalization of the ranching industry has made i t d i f f i c u l t for the British Columbia pro-ducer to compete with the Alberta man in spite of the freight differential. Production methods i n Brit i s h Columbia are somewhat antiquated and the standard of efficiency of the rancher is very low. Marketing of beef cattle in the province i s an extremely haphaz-ard affair with every advantage in favor of the packer-buyer. The system of country selling i s ruinous to the producer and should be corrected. A central market appears to be the most effective way to establish competit-ive buying by the meat packers. It i s doubtful i f the Natural Products Marketing Act i s even meant to apply to a condition such as the marketing of beef cattle in Brit i s h Columbia. A scheme has been drawn up under this Act but has not been enforced, mainly on account of the difference of op-inion among the producers and the complexity of the situation. Data on the marketing of beef cattle in B r i t i s h Columbia i s extremely scattered and in-sufficient to make a thorough analysis of the situation. Recommendat ions It might be well for one who is concerning himself with another's business to make sure that his own i s run properly and efficiently. The -190-ranchors of B r i t i s h Columbia should improve their production methods. The low calf"crop i s one of the major items causing the high costs of pro-ducing beef in B r i t i s h Columbia. The herds of the province must be culled severely, and more and better bulls used in order to increase the calf crop. Range riders must be employed and they should be of a very high calibre. Only by stopping small leaks in production can the costs be re-duced, A system of grazing should be worked out by the ranchers in order to try to bring back into production, badly over-grazed ranges. Prelimin-ary work, in this regard, has been started at the Dominion Range Experi-mental Station at Kamloops and this work should receive the ranchers' wholehearted support and cooperation. A system of marketing should be worked out in order to remove the present "buyers* market" that exists. The establishment of a central stockyards suitably located i s a means of relieving this. The public mar-ket must be given the support of the producers. In the author's opinion here i s the f i e l d i n which cooperation should be applied. When a suitably located public stockyards has been established, the Marketing Board could invoke their powers and insist that a l l cattle should be sold on this public stockyard. This would ensure a freely competitive market and would make a place at which the disposal of low grade animals would be f a c i l i -tated. Appendix -191-' CHART. NO. XXIY ORIGINS OF CATTLE 'MARKETED IN. BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS FIVE YEAR AVERAGE 1927 - 1931. -192-CHART NO. XXV EXPORTS OE BEEF CATTLE FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA TO THE UNITED STATES 1920 - 1934. ' (Thousands of Head) -193-CHAHT NO. XXVI PMCENTAGE OP BRITISH COLUMBIA'S BEEP CATTLE - POPULATION TO HUMAN POPULATION. CEBTSUS YEARS 1881 - 1931. BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, A. 0. 1872 Beatty, E . W. 1935 Begg 1894 Black, John D, 1932 Brown, E. 1925 Cosnell, A. E. 1914' Davenport, A. C. 1926 - The Dominion at the West - King's Printer ,Victoria . - Agriculture and Prosperity - History of Br i t i sh Columbia - Research in Marketing of Farm Products - Advisory Committee of Social and Economic Research in Ag-riculture - Social Science Research Council, '.. - Marketing - Harper Bros., Hew York. - Author's Edition - Canada and Its Provinces - T. A , ' Constable at Edinburgh University Press for the Publisher's Association of Canada L t d . , Toronto, Volume 22, Part 2, Pacific Province - History of  Farming. - The American Livestock Market - Drover • s Journal . . Pr int , Chicago. Edminster, L. R. 1926 - .—g. pat tie Industry and the Tari f f - U. S. A . , Mac-mi llaix Go,, New York. El l inger , T. U, H. 1926 Gardner, C s 1923 -Trends in Slaughter and Cost of Livestock Since  1921 -.J- Farm Economics Volume VIII, Chicago, 111, Agricultural Cooperation - Washington Gov't Print-ing Office, Haney, L, H , 1930 - Business Forecasting - G i n n & C o , , New York. Hammond, J , 1933 - How Science Can Help to Improve the Nation's Food Supply - Meat - Journal Soc. Chem. Engineers, Aug. 4th, 1933, London, S. W. 1934 -Hay,\G. C. 1936 Hazl i t t , W. C. 1858 Eultz , F i S. ' . 1930 Grading Meat - J . Agric. Science, Vol . XXIV, Part II, A p r i l , 1934, Cambridge University Press. . The Livestock Marketing Problem. This Way Out. Br i t i sh Columbia and Vancouver's Island - G. Rout-ledge & Co. , London. Range Beef Production, in the Seventeen Western. States - John Wiley & Sons, New York. Mackintosh, W* A. MacNab Mayne Mumford, K. V*. Nevins, Allan Plumb Rutherford, J . G, Sampson, A. W. Shultz, Henry Snapp Van Es BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued 1924 - Agricultural Cooperation in Western Canada -Queen's University',' Kingston, Ryerson Press, Toronto. 1898 - B r i t i s h Columbia for Settlers. 1862 - Br i t i sh Columbia and Vancouver Island. 1908 - Beef Production. 1930 - Master's Essays in History, a. Manual - Columbia University Press, Hew York. 1927 - Marketing of Farm Animals - Ginn & Co. , Boston. 1909 - The Cattle Trade of Western Canada - Special Re-port - Dom. Dept. Agric. 1930 Range and Pasture Management - Wiley & Sons, Ltd., . New York. 1928 - Livestock Husbandry on Range and Pasture. 1928 - The S ta t i s t ica l Laws of Demand and Supply - Un-ivers i ty of Chicago Press, Chicago, 111. 1925 - Beef Cattle. 1932 - Animal Hygiene, - Wiley & Sons, L t d . , New York. , DOMINION GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS - Department of Agriculture - _ Report of the Dominion Agrostologist, 1930 - 1953. 1915 - Beef Raising In Canada 1929 - Bui . 120 N. S. - Anthrax 1930 - " 117 N. S. -B lack leg 1920 - " 133 - Tick Paralysis in Br i t i sh Columbia 1928 - " 40 - Seasonable Hints - Pl ies , Warbles, etc. 1932 - Pam. ,147 ' - Warble Plies 1934 - Bui. 167 - Johne's Disease of Cattle 1925 - Report on Livestock and Stockyard Situation in Br i t i sh Columbia, 1932 - Feeder Purchase Policy - Br i t i sh Columbia Edition, BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued 1931 - A Survey of Some Problems of the Range Livestock Industry in Bri t i s h Columbia - L. B, Thomson. 1955 - Agricultural Situation and Outlook. 1936 " " " , » 1932 - Preliminary Report - An Economic Study of Beef Cattle Raising on the Range Areas of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Annual Markets Review. Livestock and Meat Trade Review. Weekly Livestock Markets Report. Monthly Review of Agric. Statistics. 1954 - Report of Royal Commission on Price Spreads. 1929 - Bui. 125 N . So - Use of Irrigation Water on Farm Crops. 1925 - Pam. 21 N . S. - The Winter Feeding of Beef Cattle in Ontario. Department of the Interior 1928 - Wood Preservation in Canada. 1929 - Creosote Treatment of Douglas Fir* 1925 - Circ. 15 - Preservative Treatment of Fence Posts. 1925 - Regulations Governing the Granting and Administration of Graz-ing Leases on Dominion Lands in the Railway Belt in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau of Statistics Statistics of Production Canada Yearbook Livestock and Animal Products Statistics Marketing Board - • Guide to the Preparation of Marketing Schemes PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - Department of Agriculture 1911 - Bui. 52 - Control of Bovine Tuberculosis in British Columbia, 1935 - Circ, 55 - Feeding of Farm.Livestock in British Columbia. BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued Annual Report of the Minister Agricultural Journal 1914 - Royal Commission on Agriculture 1921 - Agriculture' i n British Columbia Agricultural Statistics Report 1903-7 - Land and Agriculture 1929 - Circ. 47 - The Use of Water in Irrigation, University of British Columbia 1932 - R. L. Davis and H. M. King - Winter Steer Feeding in British Columbia General Grazing Act, 1919, C. 30, S. 1 - B. C. Grazing Act Amendment Act, 1925 - B. C. " " " " 1951 " " " " 1934 Grazing Regulations 1934 Grazing Management of Crown Lands - Circ. 2 and 3. 1934 - Bui. 10 (Land Series) - Purchase and Lease of Crown Lands. 1934 - " 5 ( " " ) - B. C. Land Recording Divisions of the Southern Interior. Grazing Manual for the General Information and Guidance of Forest Officers. Stock Brands Act - R. S. 1924, C. 27, S. 1 - B. C. <  " " Amendment Act, 1933. Animals Act - R. S. 1924, C. 11. Yearbook of British Columbia, 1897, 1903, 1911-14. Sta t i s t i c a l Summary, 1934. ur Natiffidal Products Marketing Act, B. C. Section 19t - Cattle Scheme. BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued Bri t i s h Columbia Directory of 1882. 60 Years of Progress, History of the Okanagan. Guide to British Columbia - 1877-8. Province of Saskatchewan - Department of Agriculture Blackleg - J. C. Smith Foot-and-lvlouth Disease - J. C. Smith Care, Feeding and Management of Beef Cattle. Province of Ontario - Department of Agriculture 1928 - Hemorrhagic Septicemia of Cattle 1933 - Bui. 304 - Infectious Abortion of Cattle 1930 - '* 350 - The Warble Fly University of Alberta 1934 - Bui. 25 - A Study of Some Problems in Cattle Finishing. ARTICLES Scientific Agriculture, Oct., 1930, Hope, E. C., pp. 80-94, Livestock Cycles in Canada, Canadian Unionist, Sept., 1931, pp. 61, Herbert, W. B., Farmers Co-operation Will Survive. Industrial Canada, May 1931, pp. 66, Atkinson, Hon. W., British Col-umbia's Agricultural Industry. Financial Post, Aug., 1932, pp, 10, Canada Seeks Equality in British Cattle Trade, The National Woolgrower, Vol. XXVI, No. 3, March, 1936, McClure, S. W., The Protective Tariff i n 1936. Canadian Ayrshire Review, March, 1956, Fulton, J. S., Coccidiosis. MISCELLANEOUS Empire Marketing Board - Survey Method of Research i n Farm Economics. BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued Canada Packers Ltd. Letters of Industrial Development Council, 1930 - 1935. Report to Shareholders, 1935. Review of Livestock Prices.' 1935. Miscellaneous Reports Eastern Canada Livestock Union Western Canada Livestock Union British Columbia Beef Cattle Grower's Association Report of the National Beef Cattle Conference, Winnipeg, Man., 1928. OTHER PUBLICATIONS United States Department of Agriculture - Farmer's Bulletin 1917 - Bui, 826 - Eradicating Tall Larkspur. 1922 - " 1273 - The Stock-Poisoning Death Camas. 1928 - " 744 - Preservative Treatment of Farm Timbers. 1918 - " 909 - Cattle Lice and How to Eradicate Them. 1926 - Circ.400 - Foot-and-Mouth Disease. United States Bureau of Animal Industry 1904 - Circ. 65 - Opthalmia in Cattle. 1904 - " 51 - Mycotic Stomatitis of Cattle. University of California 1932 - Bui. 543 - Seasonal Changes i n the Chemical Composition of Range Forage. Circ.281 - Results of a Survey on the Cost of Production of Beef. 1929 - Circ. 21 - Bovine Tuberculosis. University of Montana 1933 - Bui. 275 - Maintenance of Beef Cows for Calf Production. BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued 1933 - Bui. 156 - Beef Cattle. 1931 - Circ. 24 - Wintering Beef Cattle at a Low Cost. University of Wisconsin 1933 - Circ.260 - Bang's Disease. Storrs Agricultural Experimental Station 1918 - Bui. 97 - Cattle Lice. Oregon Agriculture College 1925 - Bui. 220 - Cost of Producing Beef on the Ranges of Eastern Oregon, 1915 - " 180 - Livestock Management: Beef Cattle, University of Nebraska 1919 - Bui, 174 - Beef Production. Texas Agricultural Experimental Station 1930 - Bui. 415 - Planning the Ranch for Greater Profit. 1927 - " 367 - Activities of Livestock on the Range. Utah Agricultural Experimental Station 1927 - Bui. 203 - Cattle Ranching in Utah. 1924 - Circ, 51 - Foot-and-Mouth Disease. University of Idaho 1931 - Ext. Circ. 39 - Wintering Range Stock. University of Minnesota 1932 - Bui. 146 - Modern Methods in Beef Production. . South Dakota Agricultural'Experimental Station 1911 - Bui. 131 - Scabies (Mange) i n Cattle. Iowa State College 1922 - Circ. 75 - Beef Cattle Equipment. 1928 - Bui. 254 - Local Cooperative Livestock Marketing-.Associations since 1920. BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued 1933 - Bui. 306 - Cooperation i n Agriculture. 1926 - Research Bui. 101 - A S t a t i s t i c a l Study of the Prices and P: duction of Beef Cattle. 

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