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The economics of the beef cattle situation in British Columbia Vrooman, Charles William 1936

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THE ECONOMICS OF THE BEEF CATTLE SITUATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.  BY  C. W. VROOMAN  UNDER THE DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY  SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILDIENT OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE.  MAY 1936.  FRONTISPIECE  IOREMRD  The great d i f f i c u l t y i n writing a thesis such as this i s finding suitable material.  Very l i t t l e has been written about the Beef Cattle i n -  dustry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. duction  No adequate surveys have  been made of pro-  methods and s t a t i s t i c a l data on marketing i s extremely scarce and  scattered.  Much time was wasted searching for adequate s t a t i s t i c a l data  and i t would appear that the time i s ripe for the establishment of a stati s t i c a l section i n the Library of the U n i v e r s i t y .  In t h i s section  all  sorts ana kinds of s t a t i s t i c a l data might be accumulated. This would a s s i s t tremendously a l l students doing s t a t i s t i c a l research of any nature.  AOKHOWLEDQEMMT  I wish, to p a r t i c u l a r l y acknowledge the assistance rendered me by Bruce L . Robinson i n the preparation of s t a t i s t i c a l  data.  Professor H. M.  King, head of the Department of Animal Husbandry at the U n i v e r s i t y , and J . 0 . Berry, assistant i n the same department, gave many valuable c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions as to organization and source of my material.  G. Yv. Vrooman.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  T i t l e : JTHE ECONOMICS OF THE BEEF CATTLE SITUATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. Page PART I CHAPTER I  The History and Present of the Beef Cattle in B r i t i s h Columbia.,  Industry 1  E a r l y History  1  Boom Period  .5  Present P o s i t i o n  12  PART II CHAPTER II  CHAPTER I I I  Pasture Lands and Range Management Range Areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia  15  Range Types  18  Livestock Husbandry:  Breeding and Feeding  38  General Range Methods  38  The Breeding Herd  39  Feeding - The Breeding Herd Finishing Steers CHAPTER IV  15  Livestock Husbandry: Equipment  •  46 49  Ranch Operations "  Operations CHAPTER V  Diseases and Pests of Cattle and Their Control  CHAPTER VI  Stock Poisoning and Mechanically Injurious Plants  53 53 70 81 120  Poisonous Plants  120  Mechanically Injurious Plants  135  TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued  Page  PART III CHAPTER VII  Survey of Canadian Beef Cattle Marketing  158  Production  158  Consumption  142  Exports  149  CHAPTER VIII  Marketing Procedure on Organized Markets  160  CHAPTER IX  B r i t i s h Columbia Beef Cattle Marketing  177  PART IV CHAPTER X  Summary and Conclusions  189  CHARTS No. I No. II No. I l l  PAGE  Human and Beef Cattle Population of B r i t i s h Columbia for Census Years 1871 - 1931.  2  The Beef Cattle Population of B r i t i s h Columbia 1881 - 1934...  9  Total Value of Beef Cattle i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1912 - 1934.  10  No. IV  The Beef Cattle Population of Canada 1881 - 1934.  139  No. V  Total Value of Beef Cattle i n Canada 1910 - 1934.  140  No. VI  Comparison of Beef Cattle Population i n Canada and In the Provinces on Ratio Chart 1909 - 1934.  141  Percentage of the Beef Cattle Population of B r i t i s h Columbia to that of Canada 1911 - 1934.  145  Comparison of Average Value per Head i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada.  144  Per Capita Consumption of Meats In Canada 1921 - 1933. •  146  Correlative Comparison of Prices and Exports 1928 - 1935.  150.  No. XI  Exports of Canadian Beef Cattle 1922 - 1932.  151  No. XII  Exports of Beef from Canada 1922 - 1932.  152  No, XIII  Beef Cattle Exports to the United States from  No. VII No. VIII No. IX No. X  No. XTV  No. XV No. XVI  No. XVII No. XVIII  Canada 1922 - 1932 ( i n c l . )  154-  Exports of Beef from Canada to the United States 1922 - 1932.  155  Beef Cattle Exports to Great B r i t a i n from Canada 1922 - 1932.  156  Exports of Beef from Canada to Great B r i t a i n 1922 - 1932.  157  Indices of Seasonal V a r i a t i o n i n Receipts of Beef Cattle at P r i n c i p a l Canadian Markets.  165  Indices of Seasonal V a r i a t i o n i n Exports of Beef Cattle.  165  CHARTS - Continued  No. XIX  No. XX No. XXI  No. XXII No.  rail  No. XXIV No. XXV No. XXVI  PAGE  Indices of Seasonal V a r i a t i o n i n Prices of Beef Cattle (Weighted Monthly Average 1922 - 1932) at P r i n c i p a l .Canadian Markets.  166  Correlative Comparison of Prices and Receipts of Beef Cattle at P r i n c i p a l Canadian Markets.  167  Comparison of the Prices and Receipts of Steers, Good and Choice, up to 1050 Pounds, at the P r i n c i p a l Canadian Markets - 1934.  169  Imports of Beef Cattle into B r i t i s h Columbia from Other Provinces 1918 - 1934.  180  Value of'Beef Cattle Imported into B r i t i s h C o l - , umbia from Other Provinces 1918 - 1934.  180A  Origins of C a t t l e Marketed i n B r i t i s h Columbia by D i s t r i c t s - Five Year Average 1927 - 1931.  191  Exports of Beef Cattle from B r i t i s h Columbia to the United States 1920 - 1954.  192  Percentage of B r i t i s h Columbia's Beef Cattle Population to Human Population Census Years 1881 - 1931.  193  TABLES  PAGE  Ho, I  Important Trees of the Tranquil!e Range  20  "No. II  Important Shrubs of the Tranquille Range  SO  No. I l l  Important Grasses of the Tranquille Range  21  No. IT  Other Important Herbaceous Plants  22  No. Y  P a l a t a b i l i t y to Cattle of P r i n c i p a l Native Species of Forage Plants - 19S5. Middle and Lower Grassland.  24  P a l a t a b i l i t y to Cattle of P r i n c i p a l Native Species of Forage Plants - 1955. Lower Montane.  25  P a l a t a b i l i t y to Cattle of P r i n c i p a l Native Species of Forage Plants - 1955. Upper Montane.  26  No. VIII  P r i n c i p a l Forage Species for Cattle Grazing 1935.  27  No, DC  Chemical Composition of Native Fodder Species i n the Grassland Zone.  28  No. X  Reseeding Experiment near N i c o l a , B. C.  32  No. XI  Growth Development of Some Important Forage Species - 1935 - Middle Grassland Zone. Lower Montane Zone Upper Montane Zone  34 34 35  No. XII  Branded Beef Sales 1931 - 1935 ( i n c l . )  No. YI  No. VII  179  MAPS B r i t i s h Columbia - Showing Range Areas.  16  Salting Plan on a Montane Forest Range - Dominion Experimental Station., Kamloops, B. C.  66  PLATES Good Saddle Stock.  PAGE Frontispiece  No, 1  Heseeding Experiment near N i c o l a , B. C.  53  No, 2  Corral Showing Dovetailing of the Logs.  58  No, 3  C o r r a l System Showing Small Catchpen and. Wing Chutes Dominion Range Experimental Station, Kamloops, B. D.  60  No. 4  No, 5  Weed Control - An Experiment i n the Eradication of Bromus Tectorum. - Dominion Range Experimental Station, Kamloops, B, C.  124  A Typical Death Camas Area - Showing Association with a Claytonia Species.  129  DIAGRAMS No. 1  A Model Corral System  62  No. 2  Plan of a Squeeze Chute  63  No. 3  A Cattle Dipping Vat  119  PREFACE  The purpose of this study i s to analyze, i n general, the position of the beef cattle industry i n this province.  In the early history can be  found clues which establish the cause of many of the cattlemen's present difficulties.  Production methods can be compared with those of other  sections and some conclusions can be made as to changes which might be made i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Data on production i s very scattered and i t would appear that a thorough survey should be made of the B r i t i s h Columbia cattle ranches i n order to f i n d out exactly where they stand.  Similarly  with marketing, a definite survey as to prices received by the B r i t i s h Columbia ranchers should be made, i f a system of marketing i s to he evolved which i s f a i r to a l l parties.  PART I .  EARLY HISTORY  CHAPTER I THE HISTORY AM) PRESENT POSITION OF THE BEEF CATTLE INDUSTRY  .  IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. EARLY HISTORY The a g r i c u l t u r a l development of B r i t i s h Columbia has been r e l a t i v e l y slow. slow growth.  There have been a number of factors responsible for t h i s Possibly the main one has been the isolated p o s i t i o n of this  province; linked with t h i s has been the sparseness of the population.  In  the early days B r i t i s h Columbia was e n t i r e l y cut off from a l l eastern markets by the mountain ranges and the markets to the south were also e l i m i n ated to a large extent by the boundary l i n e .  Consequently, before the ad-  vent of the r a i l r o a d and modern transportation methods, i t s had to be of a s e l f - s u f f i c i n g  type.  agriculture  Today the cattleman of this province  has no d i f f i c u l t y finding a market for his beef because the growth of the human population has far exceeded the gro¥/th of"the beef c a t t l e population, (see Chart No. I) so that at the present time B r i t i s h Columbia imports from Alberta about f i f t y percent of the beef consumed. Hudson's Bay Company In the early days the Hudson's Bay Company, which was a fur trading organization, had control of B r i t i s h Columbia, and endeavored to discourage s e t t l e r s from coming into t h i s area*  This same company, how-  ever, r e a l l y l a i d the foundation of the range cattle business in the province.  About the year 1840 they imported a number of c a t t l e from t h e i r  southern posts, i n what i s now Oregon and Washington states, to the lower end of Vancouver Island, where they established a large farm and developed a herd of beef c a t t l e .  At about the same time they established 'a small  herd i n the i n t e r i o r of the province.  CHART NO. I  HUMAFT AID BEEF CATTLE POPULATION ,-  0  E  BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR CENSUS TEARS 1871 - 1931. (Hundreds of Thousands)  *•  /87/  its/  r?oi  ill/  1121  /93/  Gold Rush The f i r s t great impetus to the beef c a t t l e industry was received i n 1858, when gold was discovered along the Fraser River.  This brought a  great i n f l u x of s e t t l e r s , and c a t t l e were driven up from Washington and Oregon, and from even as far south as C a l i f o r n i a .  As the gold excitement  died down, many of those who came i n the "rush" stayed to s e t t l e more permanently and formed a nucleus of stockmen. «  In the words of an early w r i t e r ,  -the capacities for pasturage of the c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t are very exten-  sive, and of a character unsurpassed, perhaps, i n any part of the w o r l d , " —throughout the southern portion there i s a species of grass, c a l l e d by the Voyageurs, Foin Rond, - by the English s e t t l e r s , bunch-grass, which i s s p e c i a l l y noted f o r i t s valuable q u a l i t i e s  -  i t i s not sur-  p r i s i n g that the animals roaming at large i n the natural pastures, a t t a i n a condition approaching to that of s t a l l fed stocks parts i s quite unnecessary —  Winter feeding i n most  "  Early S e t t l e r s Following the gold rush increasing numbers of s e t t l e r s began to drift i n .  They were encouraged by being granted the p r i v i l e g e of running  or depasturing herds on a l l unsettled crown lands.  In a d d i t i o n , land was  cheap, s e l l i n g for one d o l l a r per acre, one fourth to be paid at once, the remainder within four years.  Unsurveyed land might be claimed by pre-  emption with no necessity for payment t i l l i t be surveyed when the preemption became l i a b l e to the usual government price of one d o l l a r per acre. One of the e a r l i e s t importations of c a t t l e to the i n t e r i o r was by Lewis Campbell, who came to this province from C a l i f o r n i a i n 1858.  In 1864  he went to Oregon and purchased a herd of c a t t l e which he drove north to the South Thompson River, where he located on a piece of land twelve miles east  -4of Kamloops.  On M s Oregon t r i p he was accompanied by the l a t e John Wilson,  " c a t t l e king" of Savona, who came to B r i t i s h Columbia i n *58, mining and trading on the Fraser and i n the Cariboo before s e t t l i n g down at Savona as a stock r a i s e r * Scattered through numerous references are other small b i t s of i n formation describing the ranching industry of the early days.  In 1866,  Thomas E l l i s arrived at Penticton with one hundred and twenty-seven head of c a t t l e which he had purchased i n Oregon.  In 1872, Mr. and Mrs. John F a l l  A l l i s o n settled at Westbank on Okanagan Lake where they established themselves.  Their herd consisted of f i f t y head of purebred stock, probably  Shorthorns.  In 1868, the f i r s t  s e t t l e r s located i n the Nicola v a l l e y ; i n  that year sheep farming was commenced near the foot of the lake, and c a t t l e breeding at the forks of the Nicola and Coldwater Rivers.  It was estimated  i n 1882 that the Nicola v a l l e y contained f i f t y or s i x t y bona fide s e t t l e r s owning c o l l e c t i v e l y between ten thousand and twelve thousand head of about one thousand head of horses and two thousand head of sheep.  cattle,  However,  farming and ranching a c t i v i t i e s i n the Nicola v a l l e y were l i m i t e d by not having an e a s i l y accessible market for the produce.  The s e t t l e r s looked  forward to a period of much greater expansion when the r a i l r o a d had been put through, opening the coast markets. In 1875-76 a marked change i n conditions was brought about by the . construction of a Government wagon road from Kamloops to Okanagan Mission. This brought with i t an influx of new s e t t l e r s and, as the country became s e t t l e d , the stock-raising business naturally waned, the large unbroken stretches of range being no longer available for pasturage.  This i s the  counterpart of the history of the beef c a t t l e industry of the Great Plains  where the influx of s e t t l e r s gradually drove the cattlemen farther and f a r ther west. The winter of 1880-81 was a disastrous one for t h i s province. There was mild weather w e l l into January when a sudden storm drove the c a t t l e i n off the range.  By March the weather had again become balmy and  the stock were put back on the range, most of the winter feed having been exhausted.  In A p r i l there came a t e r r i b l e storm and b l i z z a r d with Intense  cold and a depth of snow that was greater than i n January. been exhausted great numbers of c a t t l e starved to death.  As the feed had Of the A l l i s o n ' s  herd of eight hundred head only h a l f survived the winter and s i m i l a r losses were suffered by a l l stockmen. Canadian P a c i f i c Railway The advent of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n 1886 gave a new l i f e to the l i v e s t o c k industry*  The construction camps supplied a valuable  market for the beef and when the railway was finished i t provided easy access to the coast markets.  Previous to this time, the c a t t l e , i n order to  reach the markets at the coastj had to be driven.  One of the e a r l i e s t  routes to the coast was v i a Anderson and Harrison Lakes.  The Hope-Prince-  ton t r a i l was the main outlet for the c a t t l e produced i n the Okanagan, while the Cariboo road tapped the Kamloops and Cariboo d i s t r i c t s .  The de-  velopment of mining i n the Kootenay also furnished a valuable market for the beef produced. BOOM PERIOD The construction of the railway was the f i n a l step i n the early development of the livestock industry In B r i t i s h Columbia.  The ranchmen  could now dispose of a l l they could produce and so, with wonderful pastur-  age a v a i l a b l e , the ranching industry forged ahead.  In 1903, the c a t t l e i n -  dustry was i n a state of boom, higher prices being paid for stock than had been the case for a number of years.  One of the reasons for this was that  iri the United States the growth of population had caught up with the food production and prices were higher. The P r o v i n c i a l Government B u l l e t i n of 1903, on Land and A g r i c u l ture , states: "The high prices which good c a t t l e demand j u s t i f y s t a l l feeding. There i s a good market for beef r i g h t i n the province.  The ranges are cer-  t a i n l y capable of supporting more c a t t l e , and e s p e c i a l l y with the development of i r r i g a t i o n , p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the c a t t l e industry of the province could be increased threefold, i n which case beef, instead of being marketed as three and four year olds, would be sold as two year olds.  This of  course involves the feeding of the c a t t l e , which would be done from the time they were born u n t i l they were slaughtered." "There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of re-pasturing depleted ranges and i f the land could be fenced and the cattle kept off for a time, they would a l most re-pasture  themselves*"  Fencing•of Ranges In 1904, while the demand was steady prices dropped to a certain extent*  In 1906, G. H. Hadwen, w r i t i n g i n a P r o v i n c i a l , Government B u l l e t i n  on Agriculture i n B r i t i s h Columbia, mentions that the railway belt of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway was being fenced to a large extent and so occasioning a certain amount of readjustment i n the range c a t t l e industry. states, "the open range i s getting to be a thing of the past.  He  Ultimately,  owing to the p o s s i b i l i t y of allowing the bunch-grass to recover, the coun-  t r y w i l l carry more head of c a t t l e than, i t does at present, but the altered conditions w i l l bring about different methods i n stock-raising and are not i n favor of larger  outfits*"  "At the present time the pastures are reserved for winter feed, and the c a t t l e are turned out i n the spring on the timber and s t i l l open range.  This method allows the bunch-grass seed to ripen and f a l l ,  and the  recovery of t h i s grass, especially i n a showery season i s very marked.  As  the open range becomes more l i m i t e d the summer beef w i l l be t h i n , and this d i f f i c u l t y i s bound to become more acute as the country i s fenced up. Three propositions w i l l present themselves to stockmen, v i z . , to reduce the herd, to turn the beef on the fenced land, or to s e l l store c a t t l e . "  In  the North-west at that time c a t t l e prices were somewhat depressed and so the outlook for the stockman was none too good* There were" many ranches worthy of mention at that time, perhaps the most noted being the Douglas Lake Cattle Company which ran about teen thousand head of c a t t l e and two thousand head of horses.  fif-  The Western  Canadian Ranching Company ran about ten thousand head and was one of the better known o u t f i t s .  The Bostock Ranch at Ducks, owned by Senator Bos-  t i c k , the large ranch owned by P r i c e E l l i s o n , M . L . A . , the Greenhow and O'Keefe ranches, either of which were worth nearly half a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , were a l l landmarks of the beef c a t t l e industry i n the early days.  Beef  could be produced on these ranches for l e s s than two d o l l a r s per cwt., and sold at the coast for eight to ten d o l l a r s per cwt., l i v e weight. By 1909, the pronounced increase i n population had l e f t the c a t t l e industry f a r behind and the cattlemen of the province were able to supply the demand only from June 1st to December 31st.  During the rest of  the year p r a c t i c a l l y the whole supply had to be obtained from A l b e r t a . With very few exceptions p r a c t i c a l l y no winter fattening of beef was done i n the i n t e r i o r , l a r g e l y due to the high prices of feed i n the ranching districts,  and very l i t t l e change could be expected u n t i l larger areas  were put under I r r i g a t i o n and more feed produced. At that time range c a t t l e brought from t h r e e - f i f t y to f i v e d o l l a r s per ewt* at shipping points on the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway.  They  consisted almost e n t i r e l y of Hereford and Shorthorn grades and were genera l l y of good quality*  Almost a l l of the ranching was carried on i n the  area from a few miles north of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway to the United States' boundary.  At that same time the average price paid for  i n milk was thirty-seven cents per pound.  butterfat  It can be seen that price con-  d i t i o n s i n 1909 and 1935 corresponded very closely i n regard to these two commodities* f a r Period During the war years the beef c a t t l e industry received a tremendous impetus, as did a l l a g r i c u l t u r e , due to the high p r i c e s .  From 1915  to 1917, the beef c a t t l e population of B r i t i s h Columbia Increased from about one hundred thousand head to about one hundred and ninety thousand head, an increase of about ninety percent.  (See Chart No. II)  These were  prosperous years for the cattlemen, values increasing over the same period from f i v e m i l l i o n to twelve m i l l i o n f i v e hundred thousand d o l l a r s , or about one hundred and f i f t y percent.  (See Chart No. I l l )  Following the war, i n  1919, the beef c a t t l e population held up but the value dropped back to about the 1915 l e v e l , prices being even lower than i n the early war and pre-war years.  The depression of 1920-21 h i t the cattlemen hard, but,  CHART NO.  II  THE BEEF CATTLE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1881 - 1934.  •'„•  CHMT 'HO. I l l  s  TOTM, ¥1LUE v OF BEEF CATTLE IE BRITISH' ;COLUHBIA 1912 - 1954.  '.' . ; (Millions bf'Dollars)  '/<>  ///J~  /fjo  /f-Zf  .  //jo  //SS-  with the tremendous p r o f i t s of the wax years as a reserve,  they were able  to withstand the hard times, and again i n 1925 the beef c a t t l e population began to increase.  With prices also advancing the beef c a t t l e industry  expanded u n t i l 1929.  In this peak year the beef c a t t l e population was  about two hundred and ninety thousand head, valued at more than f i f t e e n million dollars.  With the disastrous crash In f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s In 1929-30,  prices of c a t t l e f e l l to an extremely low l e v e l and from 1929 to 1930 the beef c a t t l e population of B r i t i s h Columbia was p r a c t i c a l l y halved.  Values  over t h i s same period dropped from f i f t e e n m i l l i o n to f i v e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s and the whole industry was put i n a very precarious  position.  EARLY PUREBRED IMPORTATIONS The records of the early purebred importations into B r i t i s h C o l umbia are very scattered.  The f i r s t  record of purebred c a t t l e importations  i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia was i n 1867, a purebred b u l l coming from C a l i f o r n i a i n that year; more were brought from Oregon i n 1873, and a consignment came from Ontario i n 1874.  A l l of these were Shorthorns.  By 1915 there were  several herds of purebred Shorthorns and Herefords established i n the province.  At that time there were no herds of purebred Aberdeen Angus.  Pure-  bred b u l l s sold for seventy to one hundred and twenty-five dollars according to t h e i r q u a l i t y . SUMMARY In general, the history of the beef c a t t l e industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia corresponds with that of the p r a i r i e provinces.  F i r s t came the -  fur traders, then the pioneers with t h e i r small herds, l a t e r developing i n to large holders.  A general expansion of the industry followed under more  or less open range conditions.  Soon more s e t t l e r s came i n and the range  -12areas were broken up and then with the advent of the r a i l r o a d practicallya l l the large holdings disappeared,  the -range began to be fenced with con-  sequent over-grazing, leaving the cattleman i n a precarious state with .•if  present low prices* THE BEEF PRODUCER'S PRESENT POSITION As was pointed out above, the stockmen of B r i t i s h Columbia are i n a precarious p o s i t i o n .  Production costs have been increasing r a p i d l y over  a period of the l a s t twenty years whereas prices have remained at a l e v e l comparable with the pre-war l e v e l .  Range lands have been badly depleted by  over-grazing and on the whole* the stock i s of i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y .  The B r i t -  i s h Columbia producer has lagged ten to f i f t e e n years behind the times i n h i s production and management methods.  The ranching industry has been t r e -  mendously over-capitalized as was that of the p r a i r i e s In the early days. In B r i t i s h Columbia too much money has been spent i n buying land and equipment and not enough i n purchasing good breeding stock.  There i s not a  large c a t t l e ranch i n the province today that could pay one percent on i t s investment even i f c a t t l e prices were twenty to t h i r t y percent higher. Over-capitalization of Land This o v e r - c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i s not e n t i r e l y the f a u l t of the ranch owners.  A l l surveyed crown lands, i n the early days, were sold for one  d o l l a r per acre.  This seemed a r i d i c u l o u s l y low price to the investors of  that time and so large t r a c t s of land were bought and expensive i r r i g a t i o n systems were i n s t a l l e d to water the crops for winter feed.  It i s an estab-  l i s h e d economic p r i n c i p l e that land i s worth only what i t can produce.  At  the present time, i t takes from f o r t y to one hundred acres to support one animal, consequently land i s much over-valued at one d o l l a r per acre.  When  - 1 3 -  the ranchers bought the land i t was covered by a wonderful growth of bunch-grass but as a r e s u l t of mismanagement that bunch-grass today i s p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent. their p o s i t i o n .  To that extent the ranchers are responsible for  Even at the.low price of one dollar an acre however, the  land, for use i n beef production, may have been over-capitalized* Galf Crop Another important factor causing the ranchman to be almost bankrupt and making i t impossible for the ranches to pay dividends i s the low c a l f crop of B r i t i s h Columbia ranches.  On the average, competent author-  i t i e s estimate the c a l f crop i n B r i t i s h Columbia to be t h i r t y - f i v e to forty percent.  Even i n the f o o t h i l l s section of Alberta the average c a l f  crop i s seventy percent and on the plains region runs closer to seventyf i v e percent.  This factor alone i s s u f f i c i e n t to make i t impossible for  the B r i t i s h Columbia cattleman to pay dividends.  In general, the beef  cattlemen of this province would seem to be indifferent managers and i n f e r i o r business men. Organization L e g i s l a t i o n has made i t possible for them to form l o c a l l i v e stock associations that can have large powers i n handling the range under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n , but few associations have been formed*  By examining  the minutes of a meeting of the B r i t i s h Columbia Beef C a t t l e Growers* Association i t w i l l be seen that cattlemen have r e a l i z e d that things are not as they should be within the industry*  Up to the present time, how-  ever, they have not been able to make many changes for improvement. At the present time B r i t i s h Columbia produces less than f i f t y percent of the beef consumed i n the province, the remainder must be shiped i n from A l b e r t a .  The range areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia were at one time  -14and are now to a limited degree every b i t as fine as those of Alberta* Consequently, the B r i t i s h Columbia ranchman should be i n a position to make better p r o f i t s than the Alberta man, as a r e s u l t of the freight ferential*  dif-  It might be interpreted, however, from the attitude of the  B r i t i s h Columbia stockmen to the importation of Alberta c a t t l e , cannot compete with the Alberta stockmen In producing beef. i t might be w e l l to consider some of the causes* of production or i n the f i e l d of marketing. factors are i n both economic f i e l d s *  that they  I f t h i s be so,  These may be i n the f i e l d  I t i s probable that the causal  Management methods are f a u l t y , pro-  duction costs are too high and the system of marketing B r i t i s h Columbia beef may be somewhat antiquated and open to abuse* • In the following chapters the trends i n beef c a t t l e production and marketing are pointed out, production of range beef i s reviewed and the marketing s i t u a t i o n analyzed*  PART II.  PRODUCTION  Marking a Lonely Bunchgrass Plant A Highly Over-grazed Open Grassland Range  -15CHAPTER I I PASTURE LANDS AM) RANGE MANAGEMENT. RANGE AREAS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA - Resources There are approximately; eleven m i l l i o n acres of crown land used for grazing i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  About twenty-one m i l l i o n acres have been  alienated, and of t h i s amount seven hundred and f i f t y thousand acres of land are c u l t i v a t e d .  In addition there are several "reserves" and "common-  ages" which t o t a l approximately two hundred and f i f t y thousand acres. Large areas i n the Forest Reserves are under grazing regulations and are used c h i e f l y for summer grazing.  The extent of t h i s area runs into many  m i l l i o n s of acres. In addition to the crown range used for grazing, i t has been estimated that there are f u l l y one hundred and s i x t y m i l l i o n acres, located mostly east of the Coast Range of mountains, which are suitable for grazing and a g r i c u l t u r a l development, but, so f a r , on which very l i t t l e development has taken place.  The map on page sixteen shows very roughly the range land  areas of the province. The range areas of B r i t i s h Columbia may be sub-divided as follows:  1, Similkameen  (Okanagan {Keremeos (Princeton & south  2. Kamloop & Nicola  (Nicola (Merritt (Douglas Lake (Kamloops  5, Cariboo  ( C h i l c o t i n Ashcroft (Williams Lake (Lillooet District  The various areas i n the range country of B r i t i s h Columbia have few distinguishing differences  from a land u t i l i z a t i o n standpoint.  There  -17i s not s u f f i c i e n t change topographically, c l i m a t i c a l l y and vegetationally to a l t e r management practices to a marked degree* Topography The Similkameen and Okanagan area i s characterized by l e v e l bottoms i n the v a l l e y s , bordered with rough grassed h i l l s , which r i s e to higher mountains where considerable tree growth exists*  Within short distances  the elevation varies from fourteen hundred to s i x thousand feet with the climate varying with the a l t i t u d e *  The average p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r the v a l -  leys i s around ten inches a year* In the Kamloops d i s t r i c t somewhat s i m i l a r conditions e x i s t .  In  the N i c o l a area however, more open stretches of bunch-grass land occur, and more r o l l i n g country p r e v a i l s than i n the Similkameen.  In the Cariboo d i s -  t r i c t there i s even more r o l l i n g open country with bench lands dropping down into the v a l l e y s of the Fraser and C h i l c o t i n Rivers.  In t h i s region  the p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s a l i t t l e heavier with more snowfall. A l l the range areas of B r i t i s h Columbia are r e l a t i v e l y w e l l watered.  There are numerous  springs and small creeks which supply s u f f i c i e n t water f o r the stock as w e l l as f o r i r r i g a t i o n purposes*  In some of the areas there i s s u f f i c i e n t  p r e c i p i t a t i o n to c a r r y on dry farming* Climate The winter climate i n the range areas of B r i t i s h Columbia could not be said to be p a r t i c u l a r l y severe*  While there i s considerable f a l l of  snow, e s p e c i a l l y i n the Cariboo region, there are few extremely cold s p e l l s which l a s t f o r any length of time. early December to l a t e February*  The winter season usually extends from  Bordering the range areas i n the Interior  a more severe winter climate occurs, but i n these areas mixed farming i s  the p r i n c i p a l occupation. RANGE TYPES Throughout the grazing areas the various types of range may be classed as follows: 1,  Open:  Where grasses predominate.  2*  Semi-open:  3.  Open weed range:  4.  Meadows (wet):  Sedges, calamagrostis.  5.  Meadows (dry):  Beckmania, e t c .  6*  Timber, open:  7.  Timber, medium dense:  8.  Timber, dense:  9.  Waste Range:  Sparsely covered with timber, grasses predominating, Where weeds and herbaceous plants predominate.  Weedy flowering plants.  •  Browse p r i n c i p a l forage,  Browse sparse with scanty.ground eover* Dense timber and barren.  These range types may be grouped into three or four larger classes as follows: 1.  Grassland - includes groups 1, 2 and 3.  2.  Montane Forest - includes group 2 to a c e r t a i n extent, and groups 6 and 7,  Groups 4 and 5 are usually found i n this area*  3.  Sub-alpine Forest - includes groups 8 and 9.  4.  Alpine Range - includes group 9. The above types of grazing land lend themselves into divisions of  spring, f a l l , winter and midsummer grazing*  The grassland range i s usually  on the lower levels ranging altitude from one to two thousand feet.  This  type, of range lends i t s e l f p a r t i c u l a r l y well to spring, f a l l and winter grazing*  The montane forest range i s for summer use and varies i n altitude  from two thousand to four thousand f i v e hundred feet*  In midsummer, i n  some sections of the country, the c a t t l e may get up onto sub-alpine range,  but i n B r i t i s h Columbia most of t h i s range, where i t i s used at a l l , used by sheep*  is  In some of the Rocky Mountain states south of the boundary  l i n e , c a t t l e are grazed on mountain meadows even as high as thirteen thousand feet, but i n B r i t i s h Columbia the c a t t l e r a r e l y go above the Montane Forest b e l t . Vegetation The ranges of B r i t i s h Columbia are over-grazed.  This has been  known for a number of years and f i n a l l y the Dominion Government established a range experimental station on the range of the P r o v i n c i a l Government Sanatorium Farm at T r a n q u i l l e .  This range i s i d e a l for the purposes of ex-  perimental work i n that i t shows a l l the different types of range lands that are found i n t h i s province and, i n common with most of the lower range lands of the province, the grassland area has been heavily over-grazed.  It  therefore provides a good area f o r experimentation i n methods of bringing over-grazed range back into p r o d u c t i v i t y .  Preliminary surveys were made of  this area i n 1934 and i n 1935 the Experimental Farms d i v i s i o n took over the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the range beef herd*  The following pages are excerpts of  tables and material taken from the report of the work carried on at this station i n 1935 and show the t y p i c a l condition of the vegetative cover of the range lands of B r i t i s h Columbia. The r e l a t i v e abundance of vegetative cover Is,^indicated as lows; 4 - very abundant 5 - f a i r l y abundant  •  2 - common 1 - occuring, but not common  fol-  TABLE I Important Trees of the Tranquille Ran^e Grassland  Abies  lasiocarpa  Alpine F i r  Betula papyrifera  White Birch  Picea engelmanli  Engleman Spruce  Pinus contorta var. l a t i f o l i a Lodgepole Pine Pinus ponderosa Populus tremuloides  Ponderosa or Yellow Pine Aspen  Populus trichocarpa  Black Cottonwood  Psuedotsuga t a x i f o l i a  Douglas F i r  Montane Forest  Sub-Alpine Forest 3  1  1  1  1  4  3  3  2 2  -  1  1  -  4  1  TABLE II Important Shrubs of the Tranquille Range Grassland  Montane Forest  Sub-Alpine Forest  Acer glabrum  Rocky Mtn. Maple  1  1  Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a  Saskatoon  1  1  -  Artemisia  Sagebrush  4'  1  -  Betula f o n t i n a l i s  Mountain Birch  -  1  1  Ghrysothamnus spp.  Yellow Sage  4  2  -  Juniperus communis  Common Juniper  2  1  Juniperus scopulorum  Dwarf Cedar  Lonicera involucratum  Turin-berry  Menziesia ferruginia  False A z e l i a  Ribes palustre  Swamp Gooseberry  Rubus nutkanus  Thimbleberry  Shepherdia canadensis  Soopolallie  tridentata  Symphoricarpos racemosa Coral Berry  -  ...«.  -  -  2  -  1  1  1  1  1  1  2  1  3  1  3  1  TABLE III Important Grasses of the Tranqullle Range Grassland  Montane Forest  Sub-Alpine Forest  Agropyron paueiflorum  Slender Wheat Grass  4  Bromus tectorum  Downy Brome  3  -  «.  Galamagrostis  canadensis  Marsh Reedgrass  1  1  1  Calamagrostis  rubescens  Pinegrass  4  3  1  2  «•  Danthonia intermedia  Timber Oatgrass  -  Elymus condensatus  Giant Wild Rye  2  Elymus glaucus  Timber Wild Rye  -  2  -  Koeleria c r i s t a t e  Junegrass  3  1  1  Poa sppi  Canada bluegrass  (?)  2  2  -  Sahdberg's bluegrass  4  1  -  Sand Dropseed  3  -  Stipa columbiana  Columbia Speargrass  2  1  Stipa comata  Long-awned Speargrass  4  -  (compressa?)  Poa secunda Sporobolus  cryptandrus  -  .  -  -  -22- . TABLE TV Other Important Herbaeeous Plants  A c h i l l e a , millefolium  Grassland  Montane Forest  2  3  1  4  -  —  4  1  Yarrow  Ahtennaria dimorpha  Sub-Alpine Forest  Arctostaphylos  Bearberry  Artemisia fugida  Wormwood  3  -  -  Aster  Rough Aster  -  3  2  Astragalus compestris  Timber milk retch  -  3  1  Erigeron spp.  Fleabane  3  -  Erigeron compositus  Dwarf Fleabane  3  **  -  Lapula spp*  Blue Stickseed  4  -  Lathyrus  Peavlne  conspicuus  ochroleucous  -  4  -  -  -  4  1  2  4  •a*  -.  Lepidium apetalum  Peppergrass  Linnaea borealis  Twin flower  Lupinus spp.  Wild blue lupine  Opuntia f r a g i l i s  Cactus  3  Sisymbrium altissimum  Tumbling mustard  3 '  -  -  Spiraea lucida  Spiraea, white  -  4  1  Taraxcum o f f i c i n a l e  Dandelion  2  1  1  Vaccinium spp.  Blueberry  3  4  V i o l a americana  Wild vetch  Zygadenus venenosus  Death Camas  3  -  -  4 2  1  am  -23From a study of the growth development of some of the important species on the different range types, i t was found that i n the grassland zone most of the p r i n c i p a l species began growth l a t e i n March or early i n A p r i l and flowered i n May or June,  The two p r i n c i p l e exceptions were Spor-  obolus (Sand Dropseed) and Chrysthamnus (Yellow Sage), both of which made no new growth u n t i l l a t e ' i n A p r i l , and grew quite slowly u n t i l the warm weather i n J u l y ,  In the lower montane zone growth began nearly two weeks  l a t e r than i n the grassland*  Most of the p r i n c i p a l species began growth at  about the same time, flowering i n June.  However, i n the upper montane zone  there was l i t t l e growth before the middle of May and most of the species d i d not flower u n t i l J u l y , In the grassland and lower montane regions most of the species cured w e l l .  In the upper montane zone many of the species were frozen  while s t i l l green. Types of Forage Grazed Numerous observations were made concerning the p a l a t a b i l i t y to both c a t t l e and horses of the p r i n c i p a l native plants i n various growth stages, on different vegetative types and at different times of the year. A summary of some of the r e s u l t s obtained i s presented i n the following tables: I t w i l l be noted i n the tables that: (1) In the grassland zone the great bulk of the c a t t l e fodder i s supplied by a few grass species. 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TJfflLE IX Ohemioal Composition of Native Fodder Species i n the Grassland Zone Growth Stage  % Prot. Fibre CaO P 2 0 5  Agropyron pauciflorum  Late l e a f , curing  3.84  32.40 0.569 0.162  Agropyron pauciflorum  Seed r i p e , 50% shed  3.71  36.42 0.418 0*157  Elymus condensatus  Seed early dough  5.20  35.48 0.391 0.288  Koeleria  Curing, seed 50$ shed 6,03  34.15 0.645 0.350  Seed r i p e , curing  6.89  32.91 0*401 0.382  Poa secunda  Seed shed, cured  5.59  33.72 0.385 0.167  Sporobolus cryptandrus  Seed, early dough  8.82  32.50 0.404 0.336  Stipa oomata  Curedj seed 75% shed  4.75  32.40 0.402 0.168  9.65  21.09 1.77  0,333  4.27  32.30 1.99  0.214  Species  cristata  Poa ccsnpressa  (?)  Hay Meadow, Carex s Agrosti S Cut for hay Equisetum) Balsamorhiza sagittata  Cured, seed shed  -29-  TABLE IX - Continued Chemical Composition of Native Eodder Speoies i n the Upper Montane Zone Species  Aster conspicuus II  tt  Calamagrostis  Growth Stage  fo P r o t .  Fibre  CaO  Medium l e a f  8.76  17.78  1.59  1.39  5.64  18.17  1.61  1.87  Medium leaf  6.05  25.57  0.764  0.498  Late l e a f , rubescens  frosted  ^295  n  n  Late l e a f , curing  5.15  27.59  1*05  0.377  ti  ti  Seed r i p e , curing  3*32  38.27  0.433  0*222  n  II  Late l e a f ,  3.05  28.95  0.783  0*328  frosted  Lathyrus ochroleucous  Seed, early dough  17.25  26.67  1.82  0.480  Lupinus spp.  Medium flower  17.55  16*10  2.21  0*575  V i c i a americana  Seed r i p e , shedding 12.56  28.57  1.84  0*358  (1)  In general, as on the p r a i r i e s , the native fodder plants are w e l l suited to the n u t r i t i v e requirements of the livestock*  (2)  Most of the native fodders tested, and p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the grassland zone* possess low calcium and phosphorus content i n the mature condition.  The l a t e f a l l and winter pasturage would appear to  if (3)  be deficient i n these two minerals, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n phosphorus.  ?1  In general, the fodder species of the montane zone are r i c h e r i n c a l -  |l  |1  I cium than those of the grassland. p a r t i c u l a r l y high i n phosphorus.  Species of legumes and asters are  There should be no mineral deficiency during the summer months on a montane range where such forbs are abundant. Plant Studies _ _ _ _ _ _Succession ____________ . These were carried out on protected plots and showed that perennial fodder species increase at the expense of annual and perennial weed  pj \i  I  • .mi  1  |jj 1 j1[ ;j( W.  I Ml  types*  Apparently most annual species disappear f a i r l y quickly on plots  protected from grazing while the perennial weeds maintain themselves for a long time.  Junegrass (Koeleria c r i s t a t a ) appears to increase more rapidly  on such areas than do any of-the other desirable fodder grasses.  Plots at  Riske Creek indicated that improvement of a depleted range may occur just as r a p i d l y under a program of f a l l grazing as under t o t a l protection. Quadrat studies on these plots indicated the following average number of plants per square metre: Plot  Weeds Annual Perennial  Total  Grasses Annual Perennial  Total  North p l o t , protected  0  20  20  50  5  55  South p l o t , f a l l grazed  0  17  17  52  7  59  67  14  81  23  2  25  Check, unprotected range I  The general plan of range management on the Experimental Station i s to protect the lower ranges i n the l a t e spring, summer and early f a l l . This gives the young plants a chance to establish themselves i n the l a t e spring and to make enough growth to produce and shed the seed i n summer and fall.  I t has been found from work done on the p r a i r i e and i n the f o o t h i l l  ranges i n the western United States that the very early spring grazing i s the most harmful to the grass cover.  I f the young shoots are eaten as soon  as they appear i n the spring* i t sets the plant back enormously, and i f such a procedure i s followed over a period of years i t soon r e s u l t s i n an over-grazed condition of the range. In B r i t i s h Columbia i t has been the common practice for the stockmen to turn the c a t t l e out as soon as any growth shows on the range i n the spring.  This i s decidedly a wrong p r a c t i c e .  The c a t t l e should be kept  on feed or on meadows just as long as possible, giving the grass a chance to make f i v e or six inches of growth before the animals are turned loose. Late f a i l grazing on these lower ranges i s not harmful as i t i s only the cured vegetation that i s eaten.  Summer grazing on the lower ranges i s not  desirable as there i s much l e s s seed set by the grasses and consequently fewer younger plants coming along the next year. .During the summer, f u l l use should be made of the montane ranges.  These timbered ranges can only  be used for about f i v e months of the year and so the stock should be caref u l l y herded while on t h i s range i n order to get the greatest possible amount of use from i t . Bange Improvement There are two general methods of improving over-grazed ranges. The f i r s t method i s by natural revegetation under a system of controlled grazing; and the second i s by a r t i f i c i a l revegetation by reseeding to native or introduced forage species.  The l a t t e r method has not proved to be sat-  isfactory on the p r a i r i e as the cost i s p r o h i b i t i v e and the results  unsat-  isfactory except where the land had previously been c u l t i v a t e d , such as on abandoned home-steads*  In B r i t i s h Columbia where the ranges are over-  grazed to a greater extent than on the p r a i r i e i t may be feasible  to reseed.  In 1952 a p l o t was reseeded near N i c o l a ; h a l f t h i s plot was fenced so that i t was given t o t a l protection and the other h a l f was l e f t unfeneed*  In  1935 the r e s u l t was viewed and the following figures obtained, showing the strength, vigor and seed production of the stand,  Plate No. 1 shows a p i c -  ture of this reseeded plot where i t was under fence and i l l u s t r a t e s what might be done with over-grazed range under controlled conditions. sults are shown i n table X as follows:  The r e -  -32TABLE _ Reseedin^ .Experiment near Micola. B e C. Grass Stand  Protected Vigor Seed Prod,  Weed- Stand InesB  10  9  1  60  2 -  50.  Crested Wheat Grass  95%  Slender  65  9  9  T a l l Oat Grass  95  10  10  2  10  T a l l Fescue  75  8  8  4  Kentucky Bluegrass  70  7  7  Mixture of above  90  "  "  Grazed Vigor Seed WeedProd, iness 5  1  5  i s  7  2  0  10  50  5  l s  6  5  40  4  0  7  Mostly- t a l l oat ,2 crested and slender wheat,  55  5 1 Mostly crested wheat, slender wheat, and t a l l fescue.  6  The T a l l Oat Grass showed up w e l l under protection and may possess valuable qualities  as a dry land hay but i t does not stand up under range conditions  where i t i s being heavily grazed.  Crested wheat grass would appear to be  the best of these grasses for reseeding purposes followed by slender wheat grass and T a l l Fescue.  Kentucky Bluegrass does not stand up well under  range conditions, although i t gave better r e s u l t s than the T a l l Oat grass under grazing,Growth Development I t is important for the stockman to know the growth development of the important species of plants i n order that he may know the best time to graze the various areas of his range.  Knowing the predominance of the  various species on the different sections of range and knowing their seeding habits,  the stockman can arrange his grazing plan to get the maximum  feeding value from the fodder and at the same time b u i l d up or maintain the  Reseeding Experiment near N i c o l a .  -34carrying capacity of the range.  The growth development i n 1935, of some of  the important species on the Tranquille range, was as follows: TABLE XI Growth Development of Some Important Forage Species - 1935 Middle Grassland Zone Species  Seed Ripe  Relative Seed Production (Max* 10)  Agropyron pauciflorum (Slender Wheat Grass)  July 24  Bromus tectorum (Downy Brome)  June 20  Koeleria c r i s t a t a (Junegrass)  Aug.  1  2  Poa secunda (Sandberg's Bluegrass)  June 15  2  Sporobolus cryptandrus (Sand Dropseed)  Sept* 5  3  July 16 •  l i  Stipa comata (Long-awned Speargrass)  -  .  Ig10  Antennaria dimorpha  May 16  V  Artemisia trldenta (Sagebrush)  No seed  0  Chrysothamnus spp. (Yellow Sage)  Oct. 30  -|-  Erigeron spp. (Fleabane)  J u l y 20 - Oct. 15  6  Lapula spp. (Blue Stickseed)  June 24 - Oct.  8  1  Lower Montane Zone Agropyron pauciflorum (Slender Wheat Grass)  Aug. 13  l^  Koeleria c r i s t a t a (Junegrass)  Aug. 16  3  -35TABLE XI - Continued Growth Development of Some Important Forage Species - 1955 Lower Montane Zone 'Species  Seed Ripe  Relative Seed Production (Max. 10)  Festuca scabrella  Aug. 12  s  Achillea millefolium (Yarrow)  Sept. 5  3  Antennaria spp.  July  3  2  Arctostaphylos (Bearberry)  Aug. 15  j%  Artemisia spp. (Sagebrush)  Oct.  5  1  Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a  July 10  1  Chrysothamnus spp. (Yellow Sage)  Nov.  1  5  Upper Montane Zone Calamagrostis rubescens (Pinegrass)  Sept. 15  \  Elymus glaucus (Timber Wild Rye)  Sept.  3  8  Stipa r i c h a r d s o n i i  Aug*  V  7  Achillea millefolium (Yarrow)  Sept.  5  2  Arctostaphylos (Bearberry)  Aug.  15  2  Aster conspicuus (Rough Aster)  Sept* 26  3  Astragalus compestris (Timber M i l k vetch)  Aug.  18  3  Berberis aquifolium  Aug*  15  3  Lathyrus ochroleucous (Peavine)  Aug*  26  5  -36TABLE XI - Continued Growth Development of Some Important Forage Species - 1935 Upper Montane Zone '  Species  Seed Ripe  Luplnus spp. (Lupine)  Aug.  Rosa spp. (Wild Rose)  Sept. 10  Shepherdia canadensis (Soopolallie)  Aug.  Spiraea l u c i d a (Spiraea, white)  Sept.  Symphoricarpos racemosa (Coral Berry)  Aug.  30  V i c i a americana (Wild Vetch)  Aug.  27  Relative Seed Production (Max. 10)  22  10 1  In order that the stockman may make the f u l l e s t and most economi c a l use of h i s range, he should have a thorough knowledge of the types of range that are included on h i s property, the vegetation of the various areas and the value of the various fodders at the different seasons.  If  the stockman has a working knowledge of a l l these factors then he can work out a grazing plan that w i l l best suit the different units of h i s range® Many of the more modern stockmen work out what may be c a l l e d the equivalent T of each section of range.  'salting  This salting equivalent shows that  when a c e r t a i n amount of s a l t has been eaten by a known number of animals on a certain area, then the forage on that area has been grazed l y and the c a t t l e should be moved to another area.  sufficient-  This i s an extremely  valuable index but requires a special knowledge of range and forage types  -37i f i t i s to be computed.  The average stockman has not s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g  to t e l l whether or not a range has been grazed enough for a certain season or whether he i s over-grazing his range.  The c a t t l e may come off fat from  a range that i s being badly over-grazed and yet no difference i n the forage cover may be apparent to the untrained man.  It i s only over a long period  that the stockman can t e l l i f his range i s being over-grazed and when he does f i n a l l y r e a l i z e i t , the over-grazing has usually gone so far that i t takes years to bring the range back into i t s normal productive state. Results of experiments on the p r a i r i e s have shown that the pract i c e of r o t a t i o n a l grazing i s of doubtful value, although i n the United States i t i s highly recommended as a method of bringing over-grazed ranges into p r o d u c t i v i t y . i s slow.  The main objection to t h i s system seems to be that i t  Possibly a better system Is that of deferred grazing coupled with  a system of r o t a t i o n a l grazing.  The range may be divided into two main  sections on one of which grazing i s deferred u n t i l l a t e r on i n the summer; the other section i s not grazed i n the l a t e summer when the seed of the main forage species i s about to set and f a l l .  This system gives the one  h a l f of the range a chance to make a good growth i n the spring,  consequent-  l y there are more plants to set seed; the other half has a chance to set seed undisturbed and so gives more seedlings the following year*  This sys-  tem has the objection that i t requires more range to carry the same number of c a t t l e t h a i under the regular system but the ranchman must pay sometime for h i s bad management and t h i s would seem to be the l e a s t expensive method of increasing the productivity of the range.  -38CHAPTER III LIVESTOCK HUSBANDRY:  BREEDING AND FEEDING.  GENERAL RANGE METHODS In B r i t i s h Columbia the usual practice has been to turn the c a t t l e out the back gate as soon as any growth shows on the lower ranges i n the spring and to l e t them back when snow comes.  There i s a general round-  up, u s u a l l y i n l a t e spring or early summer for the purpose of castrating b u l l calves.  Some ranches have two round-ups, - one to castrate calves,  e t c . , i n the spring and the other i n the f a l l for the purpose of out the market beef animals.  Often the stockman does not see his  more than once during the whole summer.  separating cattle  It i s true that range c a t t l e  should be l e f t alone as much as possible but the B r i t i s h Columbia stockman, i n general, carries t h i s to the extreme.  The c a t t l e herd, p a r t i c u l a r l y the  breeding herd, should be kept under observation throughout the whole year. It seems absurd that any business man should l e t f i v e hundred head, or so, of c a t t l e , representing an investment of f i f t e e n to twenty thousand d o l l a r s , out the back gate to roam at w i l l for six or eight months without knowing what i s happening to that investment. er who i s capable of looking after  Every stockman should employ a herd-  the stock on the range.  Range Riders The range rider ( i f he i s a good one) i s probably the greatest asset a ranch can have.  In the early days a l l a cowboy had to know was,  how to r i d e , how to use a rope, and how to brand and castrate calves.  The  day of the old time cowboy has passed just as the day of the open range. The range r i d e r for the modern ranch should have a knowledge of the various fodders, their growth habits, when the different species have the greatest  -39n u t r i t i v e value, and t h e i r p a l a t a b i l i t y . ledge of the habits of c a t t l e .  He should have a thorough know-  The range r i d e r should be able to judge,  roughly, when a piece of range has been grazed s u f f i c i e n t l y and should be able to work out a definite plan for the salting of the c a t t l e on a range unit.  In addition to t h i s knowledge, the r i d e r must be able to handle the  c a t t l e properly i n d r i v i n g them, and also when they are i n the c o r r a l .  The  r i d e r must watch the breeding herd and separate out the poor breeders.  Be-  sides a l l t h i s the r i d e r must have a knowledge of the common c a t t l e d i s eases and of the poisonous plants on the range and so prevent losses from these sources.  In short, the rider must have sufficient  training to be  able to take charge of the herd when i t i s at i t s most productive period, the summer months, and obtain the greatest possible returns.  The range  r i d e r i s the stockman's right-hand man and on him depends, to a great extent, the income of the ranch. THE BREEDING HERD The breeding herd, i t s health, condition and strength, should be the prime interest of the stockman. profits  that can be expected.  Calf crop i s a d i r e c t indication of  The breeding herds of the stockmen" i n B r i t -  i s h Columbia are much neglected and t h i s i s evidenced i n the poor c a l f crop obtained by the B r i t i s h Columbia ranchers i n comparison with the more upto-date stockmen of the p r a i r i e . The range i s often divided into units by natural b a r r i e r s . These serve the purpose, when i t i s desired, of confining the c a t t l e to a certain area.  By supplementing natural barriers with d r i f t fences,  often  a suitable breeding pasture can be obtained at a very low cost*  The  breeding herd should have the best range lands allocated, to i t .  The beef  herd may suffer  a small l o s s i n weight, due to being put on poorer grazing  -40areas, but this i s more than offset by the increased c a l f crop. Calf Prop The calf crop i s estimated by taking the percentage of the number of calves at weaning time to the number of cows i n the breeding herd put out with the b u l l s .  To i l l u s t r a t e i t s tremendous importance the f o l -  lowing, example i s used.  A herd of f i v e hundred breeding cows have a c a l f  crop of t h i r t y - f i v e percent:  about the average for B r i t i s h Columbia.  This would give one hundred and seventy-five calves which, when sold as two year olds, weighing nine hundred pounds at a price of1 five dollars per cwt., would gross seven thousand, eight hundred and seventy-five d o l l a r s . It i s quite possible, by more e f f i c i e n t management and the use of better b u l l s , to increase this c a l f crop to seventy percent, or three hundred and f i f t y calves.  Because of the larger number of calves, there would be less  fodder, and so these animals might s e l l as two year olds at a weight of eight hundred pounds.  I f the p r i c e , due to poorer quality among the  l a t t e r group of steers, i s reduced to four dollars per cwt., the animals would gross eleven thousand, two hundred d o l l a r s , or three thousand, three hundred and twenty-five dollars more than the f i r s t group.  In order to  bring the gross value of t h i s l a t t e r group of steers down to the l e v e l of the value of the f i r s t group, the price would have to be reduced to two dollars and eighty-one cents per cwt., a r i d i c u l o u s l y low figure.  This i s  purely an i l l u s t r a t i o n showing the value of the calf crop and does not i n clude a l l possible factors.  For instance, i t w i l l take twice as much feed  to winter the larger number of steers, and so feed and labor costs are i n creased.  This shows that the three thousand, three hundred and twenty-  five d o l l a r s i s not e n t i r e l y " v e l v e t " , but i n any case, as the overhead remains the same, the net returns would be much greater from the herd with  the increased c a l f crop. Cross-breeding The B r i t i s h Columbia stockman does not pay enough attention to his breeding herd* ed severely.  The range, c a t t l e herds of this province should be c u l l -  The uneveness of the range herds of this province may be  p a r t l y the r e s u l t of the practice of cross-breeding. M  There are certain  fads" i n the ranching business, as i n any other business, which sweep the  country and then disappear, wake.  leaving a certain amount of debris i n their  Cross-breeding, as practiced by the B r i t i s h Columbia rancher, was a  fad, and has l e f t the breeding herds of this province i n very poor condition.  Cross-breeding used i n t e l l i g e n t l y i n a commercial herd i s of great  value, as i s witnessed by the winning animals at Smithfield being crossbred Shorthorn-Galloways*  But, i n the hands of the average ranchman,  cross-breeding i s a dangerous weapon.  The f i r s t generation of cross-breds  are usually superior to either of the parental types; but i f the crossbred heifers are bred back to the s t r a i n of either parent or to a crossbred b u l l , then the r e s u l t i s havoc.  To practice cross-breeding a man must  maintain two herds, for example, - a rancher has a herd of high grade Herefords; these must be s p l i t into two groups, one group i s bred to a Shorthorn b u l l to give the cross-bred animals which are a l l sold*  The other  half of the herd i s bred to a Hereford b u l l , the steers are sold and the heifers are used to replenish both herds.  This system has some advantages  i n the hands of an expert stockman, but for the average rancher i t i s better to stick to one breed. The Cow Herd The cows i n the breeding herd should be severely culled and a l l the non-breeders and i r r e g u l a r breeders discarded, as well as those which  -42are weak or show symptoms of disease*  An i r r e g u l a r l y breeding cow i s much  worse than one that does not breed at a l l as the irregular breeder w i l l perpetuate herself, while the non-breeders come to a natural end.  Thin  cows should be given special attention and when brought i n off the range should be fed a l i t t l e concentrate along with the hay r a t i o n to b u i l d 'them up*  In the summer the breeding cows should be put on the very best pasture  available.  By that time the calves have become quite a good size and r e -  quire a l o t of milk.  I f the cows are put on a pasture which has a l o t of  legume forage, peavine and vetch, mixed with grasses and browse, then the cow w i l l receive a better balanced r a t i o n than i f she were on a grass pasture.  When the breeding herd i s moved down from the r i c h timber feed i n  the f a l l , the cured grass feed of the lower lands a s s i s t s materially i n slowing the milk flow, and so the calves can be weaned i n the f a l l with very l i t t l e fear of udder troubles developing among the cows*  At a l l times  the breeding herd should be kept i n a good, t h r i f t y , active condition. Some ranchers follow the practice of breeding yearling heifers but t h i s should be condemned.  Yearling heifers that are bred do not devel-  op f u l l y , and growth i s apt to be stunted.  It costs very l i t t l e to keep  the animals another year, and t h e i r future breeding efficiency w i l l be much greater i f the heifers are not bred u n t i l they are two years old*  It Is a  tremendous s t r a i n on the constitution of an animal to have to grow, producing bone and meat, and produce and support a c a l f at the same time. There are apt to be breeding troubles with a heifer that i s bred as a yearl i n g , and t h i s i s possibly a factor contributing to the low c a l f crop i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The B u l l The use of poor b u l l s by the ranchers of B r i t i s h Columbia i s an-  -43other factor which, has caused the stock to lose s i z e and quality.  In the  early days when, castrating the calves at the round-ups the remark was often passed "that's a b i g , husky c a l f , cut him; h e ' l l make a good steer" and "that's a weak, miserable c r i t t u r ; l e t him go f o r a b u l l . " extremely bad l o g i c *  This was  Not to use purebred b u l l s i s inexcusable and i f a  man can't a f f o r d to buy a good purebred b u l l he might w e l l go out of business.  The b u l l i s more than h a l f the herd.  The meat producing q u a l i t i e s  of animals at present are believed to be inherited by the c a l f equally from the dam and s i r e .  But this does not forego the fact that the s i r e i s  of much more importance than the dam i n a commercial herd*  A cow, as a  r u l e , leaves but one c a l f a year, whereas a good b u l l w i l l breed from twenty to t h i r t y - f i v e cows i n a year.  In Argentina there has been much  emphasis l a i d on buying good b u l l s , consequently, Argentinan buyers f o r a long period of years have taken the top b u l l s i n both Great B r i t a i n and the United States.  That t h i s has been p r o f i t a b l e for them i s not to be doubt-  ed, f o r Argentinan c h i l l e d beef takes up a tremendous part of the B r i t i s h market*  I t may be compared i n quality and standardization to the high  class Caledonian lamb shipped to the B r i t i s h market from New to Danish bacon.  Zealand, or  In B r i t i s h Columbia, however, the average rancher uses  b u l l s of very i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y and w i l l not put out the money to buy a good b u l l .  This fact i s borne out be the exhibiting and sale of livestock  at the Kamloops B u l l Sale. The P r o v i n c i a l B u l l Sale The P r o v i n c i a l B u l l Sale, held at Kamloops, i s an extremely v a l uable i n s t i t u t i o n for the stock breeders of this province, and i t should be fostered and improved*  There are a number of breeders of purebred an-  -44imals i n the province and some of these have very high class stock, but, except i n rare instances, i t does not measure up to the class of purebred stock kept on the p r a i r i e s or i n the western United States.  This i s ev-  idenced by the fact that when a p r a i r i e purebred breeder does show at the Kamloops, as a r u l e , the p r a i r i e b u l l s are the winners i n the show r i n g . Many may dispute this fact, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the grounds that B r i t i s h C o l umbia bred Shorthorns have taken the Grand Championship for a number of years at t h i s show.  But on the average, the p r a i r i e b u l l s shown are of  better quality than the B r i t i s h Columbia bred b u l l s .  At no time, however,  has there been a very large showing of p r a i r i e b u l l s , and those that are shown are very often the second grade b u l l s of the stockbreeder* l a t t e r fact i s the r e s u l t of the low p r i c e s .  This  I t does not pay the p r a i r i e  man to ship his best bulls to Kamloops because he can obtain much better prices for them at the Calgary B u l l Sale.  This may be explained by reason  of the fact that the Calgary B u l l Sale draws on a larger and more populous ranching t e r r i t o r y , but undoubtedly, part of the trouble i s that the B r i t i s h Columbia rancher i s unwilling to pay the price for top-grade b u l l s .  It  i s most c e r t a i n l y poor economy to buy poor b u l l s . Number of B u l l s Another factor i n c a l f crop i s the number of b u l l s used.  In  rugged country a mature b u l l w i l l scarcely serve more than twenty cows i n a season.  B r i t i s h Columbia ranchers are prone tp use far too few b u l l s , and  i n many cases, some of the small "nesters" use no bulls, of t h e i r own at all.  I f they are located on range adjoining that of a large o u t f i t , which  as a r u l e , i s rather poorly fenced, they r e l y on t h e i r animals mixing with those of the large o u t f i t ' s  and so being bred.  *45The use of young b u l l s , that i s yearlings and two year olds,  is  exploited to a large degree i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and many promising young b u l l s have had t h e i r breeding efficiency impaired by over-use as  yearlings.  On rugged range a yearling b u l l should only be l e f t with the herd a short time and cannot be expected to breed more than five to ten cows.  A two  year old b u l l may be given s l i g h t l y heavier use and may breed up to f i f t e e n cows, but even t h i s number i s a l o t for a two year old i n rough country. Breeding Season There should be a definite breeding season planned by the stockmen*  It i s best to have calves a r r i v i n g as close to one time as  possible.  This gives the beef herd an even looking appearance when being viewed by the buyer for the meat packer.  Previous to the breeding season, the cows  should be given a chance to put on flesh and strengthen themselves the long winter period. men " f l u s h i n g " ewes.  after  This i s somewhat similar to the practice of sheep-  The animals are put on the breeding pasture which  should be a confined piece of range with good feed.  If the feed i s p l e n t i -  f u l on t h i s range u n i t , the animals are quieter and less apt to wander than i f fodder i s scarce.  This makes i t easier for the b u l l s to get around and  a greater number of cows are covered. Weaning Generally speaking, calves born i n the spring should be weaned i n the f a l l , usually i n early October before the grass i s too dry.  Under no  conditions should spring calves be permitted to follow t h e i r mothers onto winter range.  It i s possible to wean calves i n pastures that are some d i s -  tance from the cow herd but the fences i n between must be p r a c t i c a l l y 'hog tight'.  The best method i s to shut the calves up i n a tight c o r r a l and  give them a l l the good a l f a l f a hay they can eat over the whole winter, and by spring they are weaned.  Where the f a c i l i t i e s are present,  the steer  calves may be separated from the heifers and put on a l i t t l e better feed a; they w i l l probably return t h i s i n a better price the next f a l l .  However,  economy should be practiced i n feeding the heifer calves although they should have sufficient feed to make a normal growth on.  The c o r r a l for  weaning should be on rather high ground and have some sort of shelter i n connection with i t so that the calves can get out of the heavier snows. Timothy and slough hays are rather poor feed for c a t t l e and weaning calves w i l l do much better on a l f a l f a or clover hay. PEEPING f The Breeding Herd It has been stated that i n the production of beef c a t t l e , i t f i f t y percent breeding and f i f t y percent feeding.  is  Experiments with c a t t l e  under range conditions at the Dominion Range Experimental station at Manyb e r r i e s , A l b e r t a , would seem to indicate that t h i s r a t i o i s not e n t i r e l y correct.  From the r e s u l t s of feeding experiments at that station i t would  appear that the r a t i o might be something l i k e forty percent breeding and s i x t y percent feeding.  In t h i s experiment groups of c a t t l e were put on  pastures arranged so that on one pasture twenty acres per head was allowed, on a second, t h i r t y acres per head, and on a t h i r d , forty acres per head. These c a t t l e were a l l of p r a c t i c a l l y the same breeding and were the average animals taken from the herd of G i l c h r i s t Brothers*  To a l l appearances,  after being on the pastures f o r a year or more, those animals allowed but twenty acres per head were scrubby and of very poor q u a l i t y .  The animals  on the pasture giving t h i r t y acres per head were of good quality and i t would not have been suspected that they were of the same breeding as the  -47previous group.  The animals allowed forty acres per head were of s t i l l  better q u a l i t y hut there was not the same difference between these and those allowed t h i r t y acres per head, as between the l a t t e r group and those allowed twenty acres per head.  These r e s u l t s were r e a l l y astounding and  further experimenting i s being done. Carrying Capacity The carrying capacity of the range determines i t s value and i s influenced, to a large degree, by the climate.  In wet years the grass  w i l l make a stronger growth and so can be grazed more heavily than i n dry years.  The carrying capacity of a range can only be worked out over a  period of years.  By having a certain number of c a t t l e graze a range unit  for some years and by determining whether the vegetative cover i s maintaining i t s e l f or going down i n condition, the stockman can estimate f a i r l y c l o s e l y the productivity of the range.  Ranges of low capacity may not be  worth more than two or three cents per acre when leased, whereas a range that i s i n f i r s t class condition may be worth double that amount. In leasing range, security of tenure must be established. i s a primary condition that must be s a t i s f i e d to prosper.  This  i n a l l agriculture i f i t  The usual range lease runs for twenty-one years.  is  Low taxes  on 'deeded' land must be assured, for only by having extremely low fixed charges can the rancher make a p r o f i t .  In B r i t i s h Columbia adequate laws  covering the grazing of l i v e s t o c k on Crown Lands have been proclaimed and the Forest Reserve lands are w e l l managed by the Forestry Branch of the P r o v i n c i a l Government.  The usual charge for grazing c a t t l e on Crown Lands  i s five cents per head per month with a minimum charge of twenty-five cents and a maximum of f i f t y  cents.  ' 'I  -48-  Winter Feeding: Range c a t t l e , cheaply as possible.  as a r u l e , are c a r r i e d through the winter just as  No attempt i s made to increase the weight of the  manure animals over the winter period. winter i n low condition.  Even calves may be carried over the  Experiments conducted on the p r a i r i e s would seem  to indicate that there i s ^ery l i t t l e difference i n the weight of calves by t h e i r second f a l l whether they have been on a good r a t i o n during their f i r s t winter or whether they have been on a low plane of n u t r i t i o n * possible,  If  stock should be wintered on the range, but i n B r i t i s h Columbia  the lower winter ranges have been so badly over-grazed that i n most cases t h i s i s impossible.  The production of hay for winter feeding should be  mainly an insurance against prolonged cold s p e l l s with deep snow, but i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t i s a d i s t i n c t necessity.  As a general r u l e , however,  c a t t l e should be l e f t out on the range just as long as possible and put on feed just as winter breaks up and the young grass starts to grow.  By put-  t i n g the stock on feed at t h i s time i t gives the young grass a chance to get established and make four to s i x inches of growth before i t i s down.  eaten  Feeding at this time also gives the cows a chance to pick up a  l i t t l e , and gain strength for the arduous calving period that i s approaching. The stockman should put up no more hay than he actually needs f o r the normal winter period.  As an insurance, however, i t i s usual to  have one year's hay supply ahead at a l l times.  The stand-by crop for hay  production i n the range areas of B r i t i s h Columbia i s a l f a l f a .  Where suff-  i c i e n t I r r i g a t i o n water i s available t h i s i s by far the best crop to grow and gives by far the greatest return i n feed value per acre.  Many stockmen  r e l y e n t i r e l y on slough hay and wild meadow hay but, as a r u l e , t h i s hay i s of poor quality and i s high i n s i l i c a content.  The amount of the crop  that can be obtained from meadows i s always uncertain and i f i t were not -  "  '#  for the very low cost per ton of t h i s hay i t would have very few points i n i t s favor for winter feeding.  Gereal grains w i l l often produce s a t i s f a c t -  ory quantities of hay on dry land areas and, as was mentioned before, Oat grass has d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t i e s as a dry land hay.  Tall  In recent years,  greater use has been made of silage for winter feeding of range c a t t l e . Silage crops, as a whole, are too expensive per unit t o t a l nutrients to be used for this purpose*  digestible  Where silage crops can be grown,  a l f a l f a can be grown-, -and the l a t t e r crop w i l l give much more satisfactory returns. Generally i t does not pay to feed a grain or high protein supplements to range c a t t l e over the winter*  In the case of very weak cows,  however, i t does pay to give them a l i t t l e extra feed i n the form of concentrates*  The main idea i n winter feeding i s to carry the animals through  at just as low a cost as possible,  keeping them i n a t h r i f t y condition but  not too weak. Finishing Steers Up to the present time there has been very l i t t l e steer f i n i s h i n g done i n B r i t i s h Columbia*  This may have been p a r t l y due to the lack of  cheap grains and fattening feeds, and p a r t l y to the apathy on the part of the farmers and ranchers of the province towards this enterprise.  At the  present time there are many more beef animals being fattened than a few years ago, but as yet, no definite system of steer f i n i s h i n g has been  -50-  worked out. Cattle brought down from the i n t e r i o r to the coast take from two to six weeks to become acclimatized; on the average about four weeks.  This  fact p r a c t i c a l l y precludes the p o s s i b i l i t y of profitable c a t t l e feeding i n " the coastal regions.  A system of 'contract* feeding was arranged some  years ago but because the animals took so long to become acclimatized, and on account of the u n f a m i l i a r i t y of most JBraser valley farmers to this enterprise,  i t was e n t i r e l y unsatisfactory  has p r a c t i c a l l y stopped.  for the feeder and the practice  Economically speaking, there i s no doubt that the  coast i s the correct place for f i n i s h i n g steers, but climatic conditions are against i t .  There i s close at hand a supply of cheap concentrate i n  the form of elevator, m i l l i n g and d i s t i l l e r y by-products, and often there i s a supply of cheap grain that has spoiled i n shipment.  Notwithstanding  a l l these facts* generally i t does not pay to f i n i s h steers at the coast. The i n t e r i o r has the advantage over the coastal regions for the purpose of steer f i n i s h i n g j i n that i t requires no time for the animals to become acclimatized.  There i s rather a limited supply of grain available  i n the i n t e r i o r but a large quantity of a l f a l f a  i s grown.  At the present  time steers are finished i n the i n t e r i o r , p r a c t i c a l l y on a l f a l f a  alone,  although i n some few cases, elevator by-products have been shipped up to use along with the home-grown grain that i s  available*  There i s a great deal of art as well as science i n f i n i s h i n g steers*  The animals must be kept consuming just as much feed as  being a l i t t l e b i t hungry a l l the time.  possible,  At the same time the animals must  not be overfed or they w i l l go off their feed e n t i r e l y and w i l l take weeks to regain the p o s i t i o n they have l o s t .  A suitable ration for fattening  - 5 1 -  steers i s as follows: At the start of the feeding period the meal should consist of equal parts, by weight, of oats and barley; as the feeding period advances, gradually increase the proportion of barley u n t i l i t i s twice that of oats. Wheat, corn, or good elevator screenings may replace a l l or part of the barley.  I f good legume hay i s a v a i l a b l e , l i t t l e or no high-protein concen-  trate need be fed, but i f the hay i s of poor quality a small quantity of some high-protein concentrate should be added to the meal.  The c a t t l e  should be placed on f u l l feed slowly; start with two pounds of meal and i n crease i t by a h a l f pound u n t i l the animals are receiving seven or eight pounds of the meal.  The following feeding schedule may be followed when  feeding two year old s t e e r s : 1st day  —  2 l b s . ground oats, bay, silage or roots,  2nd day  -2  "  tt  »t  tt  tt  tt  tt  tt  tt  tt  n  ft  it  tt  it  tt  ft  tt  ti  "  t?  tt  it  ' t»  tt  tt  tt  «  tt  ti  tt  tt  tt  tt  ti  tt  tt  n  tt  ft  tt  w  ft  tt  tt  tt  tt  tt  »  tt  n.  tf  ti  tt  tr  rt  tt  "  n  rr  ft  tt  tt  tt  n  ft  tt  5% »  tt  tt  tt  tt  tt  tt  tt  tt  tt  ft  «  it  tt  tt  tt  tt •  n  tt  tt  ft  tt  n  tt  tf  tt  ft  tt  ?t  ft  n  tt  tt  tt  tf  ft  tt  3rd day 4th day  3  5th day  -  6th day  -4  •si  7th day •8th day - 5 9th day 10th day  -6  »•  11th day - 6 i » 12th day  s a l t free w i l l .  y  t?  The grain, hay and silage or roots should be fed i n two equal feedings per day for the f i r s t  three or four weeks.  I f maximum gains are desired the  -52hay may be fed only after the evening feeding of silage and grain, when the animals are w e l l on feed.  A prime requisite i n following any feeding  schedule i s that i t be regular as to time and quantities. The length of the feeding period w i l l vary and depends on a number of factors such as age, and weather conditions.  type, quality of the feed used, rate of feeding  The market conditions also govern, to a certain  extent, the length of the feeding period. F u l l fed steers require approximately the following length of feeding p e r i o d s : 2 year olds  80-125 days  Yearlings  120-155  "  Calves  150-190  "  Excessive amounts of shrinkage i n shipping en route to market can be controlled to a certain extent, by proper feeding and management before the time of loading*  I f silage i s being fed, the amount should be r e -  duced by one-half, two or three days before shipping; the grain ration should be reduced and the proportion of oats increased a day or two before loading.  It i s a very bad p o l i c y to give the animals an unusual amount of  water just previous to loading, and the s a l t allowance should be reduced a little.  Generally, the dry roughages and fibrous feeds should be i n -  creased previous to shipping and care should be taken not to excite or overheat the animals i n loading.  CHAPTER IV LIVESTOCK HUSBANDRY:  RANCH OPERATIONS  In any industry i t i s a general r u l e that, having suitable raw material, p r o f i t or loss depends upon the efficiency, quality and dependa b i l i t y of the equipment and the use to which i t i s put. stock r a i s i n g , i s an industry i n the f u l l e s t  Ranching, or  sense of the word, and so i n  this industry the good manager w i l l have equipment which i s e f f i c i e n t ,  de-  pendable and of good q u a l i t y , and furthermore, he w i l l use this equipment to the f u l l e s t possible advantage.  Any stockman who does not balance the  factors of h i s production to produce at the lowest possible cost i s bound to be a marginal producer eventually, as those who are good managers w i l l sooner or l a t e r enter the business and so force him to the w a l l . EQUIPMENT -  This chapter deals with the equipment which i s necessary for the  up-to-date stockman to have and shows the uses to which i t may be put.  Un-  doubtedly the greatest help to a ranchman i n c o n t r o l l i n g his cattle are fences.  The day of the 'open' range i s past and the stockman that i s  thinking i n terms of that  'golden age'  i s outmoded.  still  C o r r a l s , chutes and  'squeezes' are also a necessary adjunct of the modern ranching industry and should be included i n the ranch equipment.  Proper precaution for provision  for depreciation and upkeep of a l l equipment should be taken*  This i s a  point i n management which i s a l l too often neglected or improperly understood by stockmen. Fences and Fencing Material Undoubtedly the best fence for c a t t l e i s a good woven-wire type,  -54forty inches high with a strand of barbed wire six inches above that. This type of fence i s too expensive where large areas of range are being fenced.  The next best type i s a four-strand barbed wire fence with the top  wire approximately four feet ten inches high, and the bottom one about two feet above the ground.  This type of fence, with posts from sixteen to  twenty feet apart, w i l l stop a l l d r i f t i n g , but w i l l not stop calves, or c a t t l e that are crowded into a corner*  There should be at least three  stays between posts i n open country, with more i n the timbered areas of the range.  Many cattlemen however, use the three strand wire fence, p a r t i c -  u l a r l y i f they have horses running loose on the range. i s quite satisfactory  This type of fence  for a d r i f t fence and i s much safer f o r horses.  A  three strand wire fence stretched t i g h t i s much better than a four strand fence that i s a l i t t l e  slack.  Smooth wire was found to be very satisfactory  by the Forestry  Service of the United States on the ranges i n Eastern Oregon, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the second wire from the top, i n a four wire fence, was barbed to prevent horses from rubbing their t a i l s and so weakening the fence.  The usual  type of barbed wire has four barbs spaced every six inches and comes i n quarter mile spools, weighing about eighty pounds*  There i s a B r i t i s h wire  on the market with a one thousand pound breaking s t r a i n (two hundred pounds stronger than the average) which weighs but t h i r t y - s i x pounds per quarter mile spool.  At the Kamloops Range Experimental Station a spool of this  wire was used to fence a small pasture but was found to be unsatisfactory. I t was apparently improperly l a i d and had a great tendency to "kink" unless extreme care was exercised*  Another fault that was found with this wire  was that i t had a great deal of stretch and a fence that was tight at night  -55would be slack i n the morning.  Without a doubt, though, the l i g h t e r spool  speeded up fencing operations considerably. A great deal has been written concerning the preservative treatment of fence posts.  The general concensus of opinion i s that i t pays to  treat posts with coal-tar creosote, i f t h i s material can be obtained at a reasonable p r i c e .  In Montana, Lodgepole Pine posts were treated at a cost  of twenty-six cents per post, and cottonwood posts, which absorbed a great deal more of the mixture, cost f i f t y - f i v e cents per post.  Undoubtedly i n  B r i t i s h Columbia, Lodgepole Pine or Aspen posts could be treated at a reasonable cost and after treatment w i l l l a s t from f i f t e e n to twenty years at the l e a s t . For stockmen, a simple method of treating posts i s to have two large drums, one containing the creosote, maintained at a temperature of 215 to 225 degrees F . and the other containing cold creosote.  The seasoned  posts are put i n the hot mixture for a period of t h i r t y minutes to an hour and then are moved to the cold mixture*  The contraction of the a i r c e l l s  i n the post draws the creosote w e l l into the wood and makes a l a s t i n g preservative* There are a number of other preservatives, following requirements.  but few meet the  A preservative for general use should be safe to  usej should be reasonably cheap, should penetrate wood r e a d i l y , should not be corrosive to metal, should not evaporate or wash out of the wood e a s i l y , and should be poisonous to the fungi which cause the posts to r o t .  The  following are some preservatives that are used:  car-  coal-tar creosote,  bollneums, wood-tar creosote, water-gas-tar creosote, t a r , petroleum o i l s , creosote mixtures, zinc chloride, sodium f l o u r i d e , mercuric chloride,  copper sulphate, paint, linseed o i l and whitewash. ed are not effective preservatives.  The l a s t three mention-  In regard to copper sulphate or blue-  stone, i n the summer of 1935, a number of Lodgepole and Aspen posts were treated at the Kamloops Range Experimental Station with this reagent. These posts were used i n regular fences and were spaced so that s o i l types would be encountered.  different  It w i l l be interesting to see the effects  of the varying s o i l a c i d i t y and composition on these posts and to compare them with their neighbors which were not treated.  The cost of treating the  posts was negligible and i f the r e s u l t s prove satisfactory i t w i l l be of great assistance to the cattlemen i n future years.  Tree l i n e fences can be  used to good advantage on some timbered ranges to prevent d r i f t i n g .  As a  rule i t does not pay to tack a l i n e fence on to trees as there i s too much breakage as a r e s u l t of the trees being blown over i n storms, furthermore, the wire must not be too taut to allow for the swaying of the trees i n the wind.  The staples holding the wire to the trees should not be driven home  but should allow the wire to slide back and forth a l i t t l e .  There i s a  further d i f f i c u l t y with tree l i n e fences i n that the growth of the trees may force the staples out and so allow the wire to go slack, or else the tree'may grow over the staple, causing the wire to be held t i g h t l y with consequent breakage*  At the best, tree l i n e fences are makeshift  affairs  and are continually i n need of repairs* Corrals There i s no greater convenience to the cattleman than a set of corrals that ©an be depended upon to hold anything and everything that put into them.  Many, when building a set of corrals, underestimate  a b i l i t y of steers to get out of them.  the  A good corral should be six feet  is  high and strong enough to withstand the tremendous shock of a bunch of c a t t l e being crowded up against the side.  I f range horses are to be  handled i n the same c o r r a l , i t i s advisable to build i t closer to seven feet high*  Corral gates and gateposts must be exceedingly strong and well  anchored, and should be c a r e f u l l y hung so that the heavy gate may be closed quickly by one man.  There are four main methods of building c o r r a l s .  The f i r s t method i s to b u i l d i t of poles or logs putting the ends one on top of the other between pairs of heavy posts, tied with wire, or else by morticing the logs into one another i n the manner of a log house. The logs for an octagon shaped c o r r a l should be about f i f t e e n to eighteen inches through at the butt, tapering o f f to not less than nine inches, and should be twenty-four to twenty-six feet long to give a c o r r a l with a d i ameter of about sixty to seventy feet; t h i s , b u i l t five logs high on l e v e l ground, w i l l hold c a t t l e successfully.  The bottom log should be raised  about s i x inches off the ground to help to prevent r o t t i n g .  Plate No. 2  i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s type of c o r r a l . The second method i s that used i n a l l the leading stock yards. In this type of c o r r a l , the posts are s e t deep i n the ground about eight feet apart and s i x feet above ground.  Planks of 2" x 8" material are n a i l -  ed on crosswise and are from three to six inches apart.  They are always  placed on the inside of the posts and i n the case of d i v i s i o n fences, on both sides.  Under range conditions this type of corral i s usually too ex-  pensive even i f the lumber i s easily available.  However, for corrals-at the  home ranch, i t usually pays to build t h i s type even though the material i s more expensive. The third method i s a p l a i n board-wall made perfectly tight out  PLATE NO. 2  Corral Showing Dovetailing of the Logs.  -69of inch hoards set upright.  The boards are nailed to crosspieces set on  the posts that are eight feet apart.  This type of c o r r a l need not be as  strong as the cattle are not as apt to charge a s o l i d fence, that they cannot see through, as an open one.  This type of c o r r a l makes a good feed-  ing ground i n windy places as the sides are excellent wind-breaks.  For  range use t h i s type of c o r r a l is not very satisfactory as the cost i s a l most p r o h i b i t i v e , and i t has the disadvantage of not being able to leave i t i n a hurry i f a mean cow charges while her c a l f i s being branded. The fourth method of building c o r r a l fences i s the old style stake fence, formerly quite common i n desert range areas.  In this style  of fence the posts are set as close together as they w i l l stand and then the tops are wired together.  In B r i t i s h Columbia there i s usually timber  e a s i l y available within a short distance of the site for the corral and so this type i s seldom, i f ever, used. The shape of a c o r r a l w i l l depend on i t s use and location but generally, the nearer round the better.  With any other shape the animals  are apt to crowd Into a corner which w i l l r e s u l t i n injury to some of the animals or else the c o r r a l w i l l give way under the t e r r i f i c s t r a i n .  As a  r u l e , where there i s roping to be done, a system of corrals i s b u i l t so that the c a t t l e may be separated into several groups.  Plate No. 3 shows  a system of corrals on the range of the Tranquille Sanatorium Farm.  This  picture shows the small catch-pen which i s a necessary adjunct to any corral  system.  The catch-pen should be just large enough so that a man may  stand i n the center and catch any animal as they m i l l around the sides. In some sections i t i s the practice to have the c o r r a l b u i l t i n a long narrow shape.  This i s valuable at branding time for the calves can be  -60-  FLATE WO. 3  C o r r a l System Showing Small Catchpen and Wing Chutes Dominion Range Experimental S t a t i o n Kamloops, B. C.  separated from the cow herd and run to one end, then the branding f i r e b u i l t i n the center and the calves are dragged up to i t *  is  After the various  operations they are allowed to escape back to the cow herd at the other end*  The branding f i r e i n the center with the group of men standing about  i t w i l l safely keep the two bunches separated.  The diagram on page sixty-  two shows a good c o r r a l system for range use* Chutes In connection with any good c o r r a l system should be an arrangement of chutes*  The squeeze chute i s almost a necessity of the modern up-  to-date ranch.  It has a multitude of uses, although the greatest use of i t  i s made at branding and dehorning time.  The more modern method of making a  squeeze chute i s to have the bars upright rather than l o n g i t u d i n a l ; i t r e sults i n much less s t r a i n on the animal's frame and those bars which i n t e r fere with effective work can be e a s i l y removed.  By using the chute method  there i s much less chance of injury to the animal and the operation i s speeded up considerably.  The diagram on page sixty-three shows a suitable  plan for a squeeze chute'* The squeeze chute i s not the only kind of chute that i s employed on the up-to-date ranch.  Loading chutes for loading the c a t t l e into a  stock-car or a truck are very necessary and should be b u i l t so that they are e a s i l y movable.  There are other chutes i n connection with the c o r r a l  system to a s s i s t i n separating out different bunches, and i f there i s a scales, then there i s usually a system of run-ways i n connection with i t . Wing-chutes at the entrance of the c o r r a l make i t much easier to trap the animals and get them through the gate without exciting them too much and with l e s s chance of injury through crowding.  -62  DIAGRAM NO, 1  A Model Corral System.  -63-  DIAGRAM WO. 2  Plan of a Squeeze Chute.  S a l t i n g , Salt and Salt-troughs Generally speaking,  judicious s a l t i n g i s the cheapest,  and most effective way of controlling c a t t l e on the range.  easiest  Many, far too  many, cattlemen do not s a l t their herds at a l l , or do so i n a very haphazard manner.  As a r u l e , range c a t t l e consume a year-round average of one  pound per head per month.  In the summer, when the c a t t l e are on juicy  young grasses and the n u t r i t i o u s timber feed, they w i l l consume up to one and one-half pounds per head per month, and i n the f a l l and winter, when the feed i s dry and matured, the consumption w i l l drop to three-quarters of a pound or less*  There i s a definite monetary loss to the cattleman who  does not s a l t his c a t t l e .  On almost every range there are natural s a l t  l i c k s where the earth i s heavily charged with various salts and, i f the c a t t l e are starved for s a l t , they w i l l t r a v e l many miles to these l i c k s , using up the energy which should produce beef.  Many of these natural salt  l i c k s contain a large proportion of Epsom and other undesirable salts which have a laxative effect and so upset the functions of the digestive system that much of the value of the feed i s l o s t . that i s ,  The feed wasted by the c a t t l e ,  transformed into k i n e t i c energy rather than forming f l e s h , i s a  tremendous loss to the cattlemen of t h i s province and, to use the range expression, they are "paying for a dead horse"* By c a r e f u l l y planning the l o c a t i o n of s a l t troughs i t i s to make the f u l l e s t use of the range.  possible  The salting grounds should be ar-  ranged so that the c a t t l e w i l l work gradually from the water holes to the s a l t i n g ground, covering most of the range i n their progress.  The salting  grounds, however, should not be too far from water, and so the cattle w i l l not have to t r a v e l too great distances between salt and water.  Some f o l -  low the practice of putting the s a l t i n g grounds immediately adjacent to the water holes.  This i s not a good p r a c t i c e .  The c a t t l e w i l l have the  tendency to hang around the water holes and much good range w i l l not be touched.  The map on page s i x t y - s i x shows roughly the s a l t i n g arrangement  used i n the Watching Creek Basin of the range of the Kamloops Range Experimental S t a t i o n .  Approximately one hundred and seventy head of breeding  stock were grazed f o r the summer of 1935 on this ranges  The arrangement  of s a l t grounds assisted materially i n checking the d r i f t of the c a t t l e , even though they had never been under control on the range previous to this time. There i s some discussion as to the best kind of salt to use for range c a t t l e *  The old type of rock salt put out i n big lumps, weighing  from f i f t e e n to twenty-five pounds per lump i s rapidly passing into the discard*  These blocks of rock s a l t are not satisfactory because one old  "bossy" cow may l i c k at a block of s a l t a l l day i n order to satisfy her cravings, keeping the other c a t t l e from the s a l t and making the herd f r e t f u l and u n r e s t f u l .  Possibly the best type of s a l t to use i s the coarse  ground stock s a l t .  In using t h i s type of s a l t there i s a much greater loss  from leaching* At the Kamloops Range Experimental Station, during the summer of 1935, coarse ground stock s a l t , exposed to the weather, was found to leach out about f i f t y percent i n two months. ceptionally heavy r a i n f a l l .  However, this was a summer of ex-  The t r i a l was conducted at an elevation of  three thousand one hundred feet i n a Lodgepole-Aspen type range, the salt being exposed to the weather i n an open box i n a sizable clearing.  The best  way to save this l o s s from weathering i s to have the r i d e r put the salt out  i n small quantities of ten pounds or so, at frequent i n t e r v a l s .  This has  another advantage of making i t possible for the r i d e r to keep track of the c a t t l e and check any d r i f t i n g before the animals are too far off their range. I f the stock s a l t i s to be used, troughs of some sort must be made to hold i t or the loss w i l l be greater than was pointed out above. In the timber range troughs may be roughly fashioned out of a f a l l e n tree, chopping out a trough four to five feet long, six inches wide, and three or four inches deep.  I f there are no trees large enough or i n the open  country, troughs may be constructed very cheaply from 2" x 6" material. The side and bottom pieces may be cut four feet long at the m i l l and also the end pieces which are ten inches long.  Using about fourteen three and  one-half inch spikes, a strong trough may be constructed which w i l l have the inside measurements of 4* x 6" (w) x 4" (d).  A dozen or so of these  troughs can be loaded on a packhorse i n t h e i r knocked-down form and so e a s i l y transported to the area to be grazed. Water-holes Water and s a l t go hand-in-hand.  In conjunction with a proper  s a l t i n g plan there should be a clear idea of what water i s available and how long i t i s a v a i l a b l e .  By carefully clearing out springs and by fencing  them with a rough sort of fence, i t makes i t much easier for the cattle to get a drink, the water i s cleaner and as a r u l e , w i l l l a s t longer as there i s not so much seepage.  There Is the added factor that when a spring i s  fenced i t n u l l i f i e s the danger of a cow becoming bogged down, which means a loss of t h i r t y or f o r t y dollars to the rancher.  On wooded range i t Is a  simple matter to f a l l trees and construct a blockade so that the cattle  can get at the water from just the one end where a suitable trough can be dug out, and even i n the open country there i s usually a l i t t l e grove of trees around a spring which w i l l supply enough wood for a snake fence.  By  carefully cleaning out and improving springs a rider can save the c a t t l e many miles of walking and so have added to t h e i r weight when they come off the range i n the f a l l .  The closing-off of a l k a l i springs and other poison  springs also saves considerable loss*  On areas where there are. poisonous  plants growing i n abundance, the fencing off of a springs w i l l help to a large degree i n keeping the c a t t l e off such an area and so save losses from poisoning. Feed Yards I t i s often desirable that the feed yard should be divided into several paddocks i n order that the c a t t l e of different ages may be separated; also a smaller bunch of c a t t l e are apt to be quieter and so make better gains*  However, under most ranch conditions there are usually two  or more feed yards that serve the same purpose.  It i s desirable that the  yard be fenced on the north and side of the prevailing wind, and also that there may be some sort of shelter that the c a t t l e can get under i n the case of heavy snows,  In any case, the snow should be brushed off the an-  imals backs, and so save that energy which would be used to melt the snow. Ranch Horses Mechanical power can never e n t i r e l y replace the use of horses on the ranch.  Although trucks and tractors do much of the hauling formerly  done with teams and wagons, they can never e n t i r e l y replace the work horse. The saddle horse i s a d i s t i n c t necessity.  In l a t t e r years of low prices  of farm products there has been a definite swing towards a more extensive  use of horses by rancher; and farmer a l i k e , undoubtedly as prices r i s e and the rancher and farmer have more money to spend on gas and o i l there w i l l be a return swing of the pendulum.  A survey of f i f t y - s i x Wyoming c a t t l e  ranches, from a standpoint of horse equipment, reveals the following facts, An average ranch comprised three thousand, four hundred and eleven acres, of which two thousand, eight hundred and eight acres were i n pasture and four hundred and forty-four acres i n hay. to twenty-five thousand acres.  These ranches varied i n size up  Twenty-three of the f i f t y - s i x ranches r e -  porting, formed an average of ninety-five acres of crops other than hay, with a range of from twenty to three hundred acres.  Four hundred and  thirty-two head of c a t t l e per ranch was an average number.  An average of  8.5 saddle horses were owned on these ranches, with four head being genera l l y used for an average of one hundred and eighteen days per year. number of horses varied from one to t h i r t y - f i v e head per ranch. head was the largest number reported as being used a l l season.  The  Twenty These four  hundred and sixty-seven saddle horses averaged 34*2 hands i n height and nine hundred and ninety-seven pounds i n weight.  They varied from nine  hundred to eleven hundred pounds i n weight. Out of the f i f t y - s i x reporting, only one cattleman depended ent i r e l y upon range feed for h i s saddle horses.  Twenty-one of the men fed  both hay and grain at some time during the year*  Nineteen supplemented  range feed with hay alone, while eight used grain to supplement the range at some time during the year*  Oats was the most common grain reported,  but corn and barley were also used. An average of f i f t e e n head of work horses were owned by these ranchers.  They reported an average of 3*5 regular teams worked 207.4 days  -70each year*  On t h i s estimate, each work horse was used about ninety-seven  days per year.  The average height of a l l work horses was 15.2 hands, and  the average weight twelve hundred and ninety pounds. This survey shows a t y p i c a l condition among ranchers.  The saddle  stock i s usually the best that they can afford, but the work stock i s defi n i t e l y i n f e r i o r for the heavy type of work that has to be done.  Now, how-  ever, much of the heavier work, such as plowing, e t c . , i s done by tractor rather than using a number of horses.  Nevertheless,  the horse w i l l never  be displaced on the ranch because of h i s low upkeep costs, on the range when not i n use),  (he can be run  his low depreciation, and h i s greater fac-  i l i t y for movement i n rough country where there are few, or even no, roads. The saddle horse i s , of course, a permanent part of the equipment for his use i n handling the c a t t l e i s indispensable. making inroads on the use of the saddle horse.  The use of dogs, however, i s On the rough mountain ranges  and i n heavy timber or brush, two well-trained dogs can do the work of half a dozen cowpunchers, but on the open range t h e i r use i s limited on account of the cactus and the sharp rocks of the washes tearing their feet, OPERATIONS - Castration: and Spaying Males of the beef herd are castrated primarily because beef q u a l i t i e s are developed to a higher degree i n the steer.  In the steer the  meat i s of f i n e r quality with greater development of those parts of the body that furnish the most valuable cuts.  Steers are much quieter animals,  easier to handle, and so fatten much more readily than b u l l s * Castration consists of the removal of the t e s t i c l e s or the crushing of the cords so that the t e s t i c l e s atrophy.  In any case the  secretion of the hormones i s interrupted and the animal, besides being  rendered s t e r i l e , looses his sexual i n s t i n c t s to a large degree and the secondary sex characteristics cease to develop.  Calves are usually cas-  trated towards the end of the summer or i n e a r l y f a l l when they are a few months of age.  They may be castrated at any age from a few weeks up to  ei&ht months without any serious consequences.  After an age of about nine  months i s reached, the secondary sex characteristics begin to develop and the animals show a "staggy" appearance. Heifers are spayed to increase their value as meat animals by eliminating the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r becoming with c a l f .  It i s the common  opinion among producers that spayed heifers fatten more rapidly than "open" heifers.  The spaying of heifers eliminates the necessity of  separating  them from the b u l l s and the breeding herd and i s an easy method of c u l l i n g the herd and yet obtaining a l i t t l e better prices for the almost  valueless  animals. Buyers are always suspicious of unspayed heifers and discriminate against them.  To i l l u s t r a t e why this i s so:  A rancher i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia bought a carload of allegedly open heifers from Alberta to put on feed during the winter. These heifers showed evidences of Angus blood and as the rancher's herd was mainly Hereford, this blood was not acceptable i n his breeding herd. Before the winter feeding period was over these open heifers were found to be i n c a l f and so the rancher, rather than slaughter them and lose the c a l f , held them over.  A number of these calves, when they were born,  looked l i k e f a i r l y good grade Herefords, and so many of them were put with the breeding herd.  However, i n l a t e r generations,  the blood of the Angus  came out i n the form of black streaks on the sides of otherwise good-look-  -72ing Herefords and so produced an untidy appearance i n the herd. Commercial buyers discriminate against unspayed heifers because i f the animals are i n c a l f they are paying for the extra weight of the c a l f which i s of no value to them i n the meat packing industry. For spaying heifers the animal must be held firmly and an i n c i s i o n made i n the r i g h t side behind the r i b s and a l i t t l e below the hips and so the ovaries are removed. In castration there are two methods used i n the removal of the testicles.  One method i s to make a v e r t i c a l s l i t i n the scrotum and r e -  move the t e s t i c l e s through this opening; the other method i s to cut off the bottom of the scrotum and force the t e s t i c l e s o u t , i n both cases severing the cords with a scraping a c t i o n .  The f i r s t method has the advantage of  l e s s bleeding but i s apt to r e s u l t i n greater i n f e c t i o n by blow f l i e s other parasites.  or  The second method results i n better drainage and con-  sequently less danger of i n f e c t i o n , but there i s a greater danger of the animals bleeding excessively and so being bothered by pests and the other animals of the herd which smell the blood. A newer method, which, s t r i c t l y defined, i s not castration but which amounts to the same thing, i s the crushing the cords by means of the Burdizzo pincers.  This method, i f carefully used, i s quite as e f f i c i e n t •  and gives much better r e s u l t s .  It gives a larger "cod" (or fat i n the  scrotum) which i s a factor by which buyers measure the value of  cattle.  The main objection against the use of the Burdizzo i s that a few calves may be missed or have only one cord crushed i f the operators are not careful.  This objection i s e n t i r e l y overcome i f the instrument i s used care-,  f u l l y and with i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Branding and Marking The practice of branding i s one of the oldest of the customs of the c a t t l e industry.  Brands were established  i n order that the rancher  might be able to i d e n t i f y those c a t t l e which belonged to him.  In the days  of the open range the brand was of a great deal of importance, for i n the community round-ups which were held, the calves were branded with the mark of the cow at whose side they were running.  Even though the owner of a  brand were not present at the round-up, his calves were branded for him and a t a l l y kept of the number.  In the more densely populated areas where  the animals were running i n fenced pastures the practice was not so widespread.  But even today, with the c a t t l e under fenced range, i t i s nec-  essary to brand the c a t t l e for the purpose of positive i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  In  B r i t i s h Columbia there are adequate laws which make the brand the l e g a l sign of ownership.  Brands must be registered to make them v a l i d i n the  eyes of the law and others are not allowed to duplicate a brand even though t h e i r c a t t l e are running i n an altogether different section of the country. The brand i s the trade-mark of the cattlemen and they take great pride i n the type of stock that carry t h e i r brand. It i s common practice to brand the calves before they are weaned, for the danger of a c a l f straying i s much greater after weaning. two methods which are used i n branding c a t t l e , i r o n dipped i n a commercial branding solution.  There are  the hot i r o n , and the cold The latter method i s a  recent innovation and the hot i r o n method i s used far more extensively. The cold brand i s more conveniently used, p a r t i c u l a r l y where there are a few animals to be branded, and i t i s presumed to be less p a i n f u l . There are two methods of handling c a t t l e which are to be branded. These a r e : -  (1) throwing, and, (2) chute-branding.  The l a t t e r method i s  the more desirable because i t r e s u l t s i n l e s s i n j u r y to the animals and i s far more e f f i c i e n t and holds the animals more f i r m l y .  The d i f f i c u l t y i n  the use of the "squeeze" as i t i s c a l l e d , i s to b u i l d one which w i l l accomodate larger animals and calves as w e l l .  Many prefer to have a squeeze  that w i l l handle yearlings and the calves are then worked by hand.  In """  some cases the old method of "roping-out" i s s t i l l practiced, but the more progressive ranchmen prefer to work the c a t t l e i n corrals. corrals are becoming more common.  "Crowding"  With t h i s method the calves are separ-  ated out and run into a small catch-pen or crowding c o r r a l *  Here the  smaller calves are flanked while the larger ones are muzzled down to a r i n g set i n the ground. There are two types of branding i r o n s , the running i r o n , and the stamp i r o n .  With the former the brand i s b u i l t up i n sections by a " T " or  an " L " shaped i r o n , whereas with the stamping i r o n , as the name implies, the brand i s molded i n one piece and i s stamped on i n one operation. Stamping irons are apt to blot sharp-angled l e t t e r s such as, A, M, N, W, and X , but are much more d i s t i n c t for the open l e t t e r s such as, and Q.  0, C, D, P,  The material used i n the irons is usually from one quarter to  three quarters of an inch i n diameter, with by far the largest number using 3/8 inch material.  The handles must be at least two and one-half  feet long and most are made longer.  For cold branding, stamping irons are  used and have concave faces of one-half inch and may be f i t t e d with shorter handles. In applying the hot iron care must be exercised to have the iron neither too hot nor too cold*  Excessively hot i r o n s , i f held on too long,  are cruel and are apt to burn too deeply, but an iron that is not hot  enough i s  just as bad for i t w i l l have to be held on longer and this gives  the heat a chance to penetrate the s k i n to the tissues below.  In most  cases i t i s better to have the iron too hot than too c o l d . Marking The practice of marking c a t t l e i s as old as that of branding but i t i s not as widely used.  The usual method of marking c a t t l e i s by cutting  the ears i n some p a r t i c u l a r manner although there are other methods. The following are the common earmarks of  cattle:  Crop Fold the ear lengthwise and cut at right-angles  to the folded edge.  Qverslope Make an i n c i s i o n a fraction of an inch from the point, toward the head, where the upper surface of the ear turns up.  Cut down i n a rounding  manner approximately one-half inch and then cut p a r a l l e l to a l i n e that would halve the ear lengthwise* cut gives a graceful  A l i t t l e upward slope given to the l a s t  curve. Underslope  The underslope cut i s the under portion of the ear, and the f i r s t i s made i n an upward manner.  cut  The second, however, i s p r a c t i c a l l y the same  as an overslope. Swallow Fork Fold the ear lengthwise.  From a point three-fourths  or an inch from  the t i p , depending on the size of the ear, cut toward the outer edges i n such a d i r e c t i o n or manner that a triangular section with a one-half or three-quarter inch base w i l l be removed.  Steeple Fork Fold the ear lengthwise.  Make the f i r s t cut at right angles to the  seam, and the second cut p a r a l l e l to the seam.  Remove a rectangular  sec-  r  tion of the ear, Oversharp The cut i s begun at the same point as for an overslope, but brought downward and i n a straight l i n e to the median l i n e at the t i p of the ear, Undersharp Cut as an underslope except for an upward straight l i n e to the point mentioned above* Split The knife blade is inserted and drawn to the outer edge of the ear. B i t , Under or Over Fold the ear crosswise at the point where the b i t i s to be made.  Re-  move a triangular section as i n making a swallow fork* Dewlap Marks In some l o c a l i t i e s marks are made on the dewlap*  The usual method i s  to s l i t a piece of the loose skin on the dewlap upwards, so that i t hangs loose.  The main objection to this method of marking i s that i t leaves a  large area open to the infestation of screw-worms and pests. Wattles These are s i m i l a r to dewlap marks except that the loose skin on the cheeks i s cut and l e f t hanging* The earmarking of c a t t l e is not to be desired i n cold climates as i t makes the ears of the animals more subject to f r o s t b i t e .  Dewlaps and  wattles are also not to be desired i n colder climates as they are apt to be frozen off and so i d e n t i f i c a t i o n l o s t .  -77vaccinating Cattle are usually vaccinated for blackleg at the same time as the branding and castrating  takes place.  The three operations are per-  formed at once to save the expense of rounding-up the cattle again and working them over a second time.  Range c a t t l e should be observed  l y but handled as e a s i l y and as l i t t l e as possible.  frequent-  In the case of some  diseases breaking out i n the herd, such as anthrax or hemorrhagic  septic-  emia, the c a t t l e are often rounded-up and immunized against the disease. Often before shipping c a t t l e to the feed-lot or after they reach the feedl o t , they are vaccinated or immunized against certain diseases that might be contracted.  In general, the disease for which up-to-date ranchers a l -  ways vaccinate i s blackleg.  It i s an extremely simple operation, not  taking more than a minute, and gives p r a c t i c a l l y one hundred percent r e sults.  The cost of the vaccine i s very small and i t i s a cheap form of i n -  surance against loss from t h i s  source.  Dehorning Butchers often say that horns and prime carcasses are seldom found on the same animal, meaning that many of the bruises on the carcass, which detract from i t s appearance and sale value, are caused by horns. Generally speaking, the younger c a t t l e are when they are dehorned, the better beef animals they w i l l make.  The operation i s much less severe i f  dehorning i s done while the c a l f i s small. at weaning time, or with yearlings,  The usual practice i s to dehorn  to dehorn i n the spring before the  f l i e s are bad. There are a number of'methods of dehorning - the usual one for calves i s to use a mechanical dehorner, whereas with the older animals a saw i s often safer and gives better results*  The use of caustic on the  -78- ' horn buttons of the one to two weeks old calf has not met with the approval of the cattlemen for range use because of the necessity of clipping the hair and " r u f f i n g " the horn button before i t i s applied.  Several companies  are now putting out a dehorning paste which i s more easily applied than caustic.  The application can be made d i r e c t l y to the horn buttons without  any previous preparation.  The s i m p l i c i t y of t h i s material should make i t  popular for dehorning young calves on the range. The dehorning spoon i s a good instrument to gouge out the horns of calves under three months old*  This small instrument, shaped l i k e a  spoon on the cutting end, can be held i n one hand.  The dehorning operation  with t h i s instrument i s accomplished as follows:Grasp the horn between the thumb and the spoon, press the cutting edge through the skin at the base of the horn, rotate the hand back, then forward, and a s l i g h t twist of the wrist w i l l bring the horn out.  The op-  eration i s much l i k e p u l l i n g the cork out of a b o t t l e . The Barnes Dehorner.  This instrument, when open to receive the  horn, forms a cylinder which i s pressed over the horn* p a r a l l e l and close together.  The handles are  To complete the dehorning operation press  the dehorners firmly against the c a l f ' s head and spread the handles u n t i l the horn comes out.  This"instrument i s suitable for dehorning calves from  three months to one year o l d . Both the above instruments 'go i n after the horn'  therefore,  there i s less danger of leaving part of the horn producing tissue which may afterwards develop bad looking scurs or stub horns* Cattle a" year old or older that have not been dehorned have gene r a l l y developed a good horn that must be removed with a saw or some one of several heavy c l i p p e r s .  Cattle of this age suffer more, are harder to  handle and take longer to recover than those dehorned as calves.  With  older c a t t l e there i s much greater danger of excessive bleeding and losses are heavier.  The use of the clippers i s not desirable with mature c a t t l e  as'they are apt to cause a s p l i n t e r i n g of the bone of the s k u l l and may cause instantaneous death, i n any case, the wound takes longer to heal.  It  i s not advisable to dehorn c a t t l e that have been on sweet clover feed for any length of time for i n many cases there i s d i f f i c u l t y i n getting the blood to coagulate. The value of dehorning i s almost unquestioned today.  One of the  largest commission firms on the North American Continent makes the following strong endorsation of dehorning:"No single step or operation i n the handling of c a t t l e yields bigger returns i n money than the single act of dehorning.  The absence of  horns on a bunch of steers usually adds f i f t e e n cents to twenty-five cents per hundred to t h e i r value.  A l l buyers prefer dehorned steers, even for  l o c a l slaughter, as the carcasses are l i k e l y to be free from bruises and i n j u r i e s ; but the most important fact i s that many eastern shippers refuse to b i d on horned c a t t l e on account of the p r a c t i c a l certainty that some of them w i l l be injured i n t r a n s i t .  In the case of a bunch of steers that,  except for t h e i r horns, would just suit the eastern shipper, the  difference  may amount to as much as twenty-five to f i f t y cents per hundred." Ultimately the farmer and feeder pay the buyers' losses through bruising and goring.  It i s estimated i n Canada that a b i l l of damages from  horns, running from f i v e hundred thousand to one m i l l i o n dollars per annum, i s charged up against the industry. To sum things up, the following advantages are derived from dehorning commercial  cattle:-  -801.  Better market returns.  2*  Maximum r e s u l t s for feed consumed.  3.  Quicker  4.  Contentment i n the herd.  5.  F a i r play i n the feed-lot.  6.  Easier handling,  7*  Less shrinkage i n t r a n s i t .  8.  No bruises to discount sales.  sales.  CHAPTER 7, DISEASES AND PESTS OF CATTLE AND THEIR CONTROL  It i s an impressive fact that i n North America, twenty out of one thousand c a t t l e die each year from disease, - yet this i s the average for many successive years.  Of the c a t t l e slaughtered i n 1934, at Canadian  inspected slaughtering establishments, for human consumption.  1.31% were condemned as being unfit  Besides these i t is not known how many animals were  condemned before they ever reached the slaughter houses.  Of the sheep  slaughtered i n the same year, only 0.22% were condemned and only 0.34% of the hogs*  An interpretation of these figures might be that cattlemen, as  a whole, are not as progressive as the sheepmen or the hog r a i s e r s i n their disease control measures*  By c a r e f u l l y organizing to stamp out disease  among c a t t l e , the, stockmen should be able to cut down the number of cattle condemnations to be approximately equal to the figures for sheep and hogs. In this way the cattlemen could obtain about one percent greater return on their investment which would help considerably to turn present losses into profit* The large economic losses among cattle are chargeable to many maladies. are:  The chief diseases causing losses, i n their order or importance,  tuberculosis, contagious abortion, anthrax, blackleg and foot-and-  mouth disease.  The l a t t e r disease, while there has not been an outbreak  on t h i s continent for a number of years, causes tremendous losses when i t does appear.  Scabies, warbles, t i c k s and l i c e also aause losses that are  of major importance to the stockmen.  Fortunately, i f the stockmen w i l l  f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with the characteristics of these diseases and pests and adopt proper sanitary and preventive measures, the present  large  -82losses can be greatly reduced* Bovine Tuberculosis In 1934, at Canadian Inspected slaughter houses, seventeen thousand seven hundred and thirty-one c a t t l e were condemned as unfit for human consumption, either i n part or as a whole, and of this large number 45.9% were condemned due to tubercular lesions i n some part of their anatomy*  Therefore, from this source alone, tuberculosis cost the cattlemen  of Canada over three hundred thousand dollars i n one year.  Year after year  the cattlemen have been losing large amounts of money on account of this disease and i n the face of the fact that the disease can be detected  easily  and by the a p p l i c a t i o n of adequate preventive measures can be p r a c t i c a l l y stamped out. Tuberculosis of c a t t l e i s a specific infection due to the microorganism, B a c i l l u s tuberculosis terium.  (Koch), an acid and alcohol fast mycobac-  The disease affects almost a l l animals and human beings.  There  are three types of the tuberculosis organism of which c a t t l e , as a r u l e , are susceptible  to only the bovine type.  Humans, however, are  susceptible  to human type organism and the bovine type organism and a l s o , to a small extent to the avian type organism.  The germs from a tuberculous cow may  pass from her body i n the s a l i v a , milk or manure and, as the disease i s slow i n developing, there i s no outward i n d i c a t i o n i n the early stages; consequently i t may infect the entire herd before the disease i s discovered. This statement, however, applies more to conditions of the farm rather than to range conditions where the spread of infection i s not nearly so great nor so r a p i d . There are no external symptoms that can fee depended on for de-  -83tecting a l l tuberculous animals i n a herd.  In extremely advanced cases,  where there are open lesions i n the lungs, the animal may cough and there may be a general appearance of unthriftiness with loss of flesh and nasal discharge.  I f the i n f e c t i o n i s centered i n the glands i n the region of the  throat there may be hard painless swellings and the breathing may be d i f f i c u l t and hoarse.  These symptoms must not be confused with actinomycosis  nor swellings due to the penetration of f o x t a i l beards.  Sometimes the d i s -  eased glands i n the chest prevent the usual passage of gas from the paunch to the mouth by pressing on the g u l l e t and so chronic bloating r e s u l t s . The only known positive method of diagnosis i s the tuberculin t e s t . test i s r e l i a b l e when i t i s applied by a trained man.  The  Tuberculin i s an es-  p e c i a l l y prepared diagnostic agent which produces a specific reaction i n the presence of the disease.  An animal so tested may not give a character-  i s t i c reaction i f re-injected with tuberculin u n t i l after a period of about s i x t y days. With a c o r r a l , a chute, and a suitable "squeeze", one man and a helper can test range cattle accurately at the rate of from three hundred to f i v e hundred a day for an i n d e f i n i t e period when the intradermal test i s used.  The animals to be tested must each go through the chute twice, f i r s t  for the i n j e c t i o n of the tuberculin and again for observation of the reaction.  A l l infected animals should be isolated i n a separate pasture. There are three methods of testing with tuberculin and i n brief  the procedures are as f o l l o w s : (a)  The intradermal test consists of injecting two or three drops of tuberculin into the layers of skin.  The location usually preferred by  veterinarians i s one of the folds of skin on the underside of the base of the t a i l .  A positive intradermal reaction i s indicated by i n -  -84flammation and a thickening of the f o l d .  This thickening i s usually best  observed between forty-eight and one hundred and twenty hours after i n jection. (b)  The subcutaneous test consists i n injecting two to four cubic c e n t i meters of a diluted tuberculin beneath the skin of the neck or shoulder.  The reaction consists i n a r i s e i n temperature between  eight and twenty hours after i n j e c t i o n , and occasionally by symptoms of depression, shivering, b r i s t l i n g h a i r , ceased rumination, and looseness of the bowels. (c)  The opthalmic test consists i n placing under the eyelid a small disc of milk sugar permeated with t u b e r c u l i n , or applying the concentrated f l u i d form to the eyeball.  The best results are obtained by the sen-  s i t i z e d t e s t , which consists of two i n s t i l l a t i o n s , two or three days apart*  The reaction i s a mild inflammation of the eye with a d i s -  charge of pus, which usually ceases i n a few hours.  The great value  of t h i s t e s t i s that i t i s proof against the practice known as "plugging". Slaughter for beef under inspection i s the recommended method for the disposal of most reacting c a t t l e which show no v i s i b l e signs of the disease, except i n those cases where the beef value would be much less than the breeding value*  The method formerly and most commonly employed of dis-  posing reacting c a t t l e was by slaughter and b u r i a l .  This i s a wasteful  method, the r e s u l t s are discouraging and i t i s now very seldom practiced. The government meat inspection regulations admit the use for food of meat from animals that show, limited lesions of tuberculosis of the non-edible v i s c e r a , for i t i s recognized that the meat, i t s e l f ,  does not contain the  -85tubercle b a c i l l i and, besides, the common procedure of cooking meat i s further safeguard against danger. There have been a number of attempts made to prepare a vaccine or a reagent which would give the animals an immunity against the disease.  Of  these attempts several have had l i m i t e d success but i t i s s t i l l i n the development stage.  The most successful work to date, has been done by C a l -  mette and Guerin at the Pasteur Institute i n P a r i s , and by co-workers on this continent.  These men have been able to give an Immunity to some an-  imals by inoculating them with an attenuated form of the tubercle b a c i l l i . The i n j e c t e d . b a c i l l i may l i v e for a long time at the point of i n j e c t i o n but no spread or reactivation has thus far been noted.  Results at the Agric-  u l t u r a l Experimental Station at Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , have shown that this vaccine can have only a l i m i t e d f i e l d of usefulness tuberculosis among range c a t t l e .  i n the eradication of  Von Behring and Spahlinger have also  worked along s i m i l a r l i n e s but as yet no conclusive results have been obtained. Bang*s Disease Bang's Disease i s c a l l e d by a number of names, infectious or contagious abortion, B r u c e l l o s i s , e t c . and i s due to a micro-organism B a c i l l u s abortus or Brucella abortus.  It causes a premature expulsion of the foetus  known as abortion or ' s l i n k i n g the c a l f .  Associated with this disease i s  the retention of afterbirths and s t e r i l i t y owing to an infectious catarrh being set up i n the uterus. Infection may be carried i n the udder and supramammary lymph glands of an infected cow or may be i n the genital discharges from an i n fected uterus.  The genital tract of the b u l l may carry the infection a l -  -86though i t i s doubtful i f much infection i s carried i n this way.  Clean an-  imals usually become infected through consumption of contaminated fodder or through infected water or milk. Undoubtedly this disease i s not as prevalent under range conditions as under farming conditions and the spread of infection i s slower but i t i s d e f i n i t e l y known that the disease does exist i n range herds and causes large losses each year.  The disease i s of an insidious character i n  that an animal may abort once and then appear to be free of i n f e c t i o n , carrying a normal c a l f thereafter,  but at the same time this cow may be  spreading infection and contaminating the rest of the herd.  It i s reason-  able to suppose that each breeding heifer i n the range herds aborts at least once during her period of usefulness and calculating this period as seven or eight years, the heifer w i l l produce one less c a l f than i f she were free of the i n f e c t i o n .  This i s a loss of fifteen to twenty percent i n  the efficiency of the animal; another l i t t l e leak i n production that cuts down p r o f i t s . The disease contagious abortion cannot be diagnosed p o s i t i v e l y without b a c t e r i o l o g i c a l examination of the genital discharge or by an agglutination test of the blood of the animal.  Because a cow aborts Is not  d e f i n i t e proof that she i s infected with Brucella abortus, but i t should be s u f f i c i e n t evidence to warrant c u l l i n g the animal.  Once an animal has ab-  orted i t i s never certain that she w i l l produce another normal c a l f . C u l l i n g a l l animals that are d e f i n i t e l y not i n c a l f i n the spring and fattening them for sale i n midsummer i s one of the easiest ways of part i a l l y c o n t r o l l i n g the disease and eliminating s t e r i l e cows, i n general, from the herd.  But t h i s i s not positive control of abortion; as was men-  tioned previously, a cow may carry the disease and spread infection and yet produce a normal c a l f h e r s e l f .  The only positive method of eliminating the  disease c a r r i e r s Is by segregating a l l positive reactors to the agglutination t e s t . imal.  This i s a test made from the blood samples taken from each an-  The test i s of a somewhat delicate nature and can be accomplished  only by a suitable laboratory technician i n an adequately equipped laboratory.  In making t h i s test the blood serum of the suspected animal i s  placed i n t e s t tubes and has added to i t a culture suspension of the Baci l l u s abortus.  The bringing into contact of the blood serum with the c u l -  ture suspension may cause a change to take place i n the test tube, which, i n the case of an infected animal, would cause the abortion b a c i l l i to become agglutinated  (clumped together) i n the bottom of the test tube, i n -  dicating a positive r e a c t i o n . remains  unchanged.  The blood serum from an uninfected animal  This test merely indicates that the animal i s infected  with the germ and does not t e l l whether she has aborted or ever w i l l .  The  best p o l i c y i s to s e l l for slaughter a l l infected animals as soon as poss i b l e and i n the meantime keep them separated from the rest of the breeding herd.  An alternative to t h i s i s to keep two separate herds, p a r t i c u l a r l y  i f they are valuable breeding animals and check by future tests whether or not there has been any spread from the diseased herd to the clean herd. this way, and at present,  In  i n t h i s way only, can the disease d e f i n i t e l y be  kept under control and eventually stamped out.  The neighbors' cattle may  be a source of i n f e c t i o n on unfenced range but i t i s probable that the greatest spread.of i n f e c t i o n takes place i n the feed yard and on the winter feeding grounds, where the animals are bunched more c l o s e l y and where they are more apt to come i n contact with a source of i n f e c t i o n .  -88"  The foregoing discussion does not mean that because a cow does not produce a normal c a l f that she i s infected with Brucella abortus.  True,  she must be immediately suspected of t h i s disease, but her i n a b i l i t y to reproduce may be due to any one of a number of causes*  It i s  possible,  through bad management, that she may never have been bred, or i t may be that the b u l l was s t e r i l e ,  or i t may have been due to any one of a number  of other diseases which caused the cow to be  sterile.  A common disease of the ovaries which renders a cow s t e r i l e  is  ' c y s t i c ovaries' which i s a degenerative change whereby cysts are formed which destroy the gland tissue of the ovaries and prevent ovulation; this often causes the animal to become a nymphomaniac.  Endo-mstritis i s an i n -  flamed condition which often follows retained a f t e r b i r t h and may give r i s e to pyometra. vulva*  This l a t t e r i s characterized by a purulent discharge from the  In some cases there i s a persistent  corpus luteum which prevents  ovulation, and recently certain mineral deficiencies are suspected as causing s t e r i l i t y .  In show stock obesity i s often the cause of an animal  f a i l i n g to 'catch* but this i s easily remedied through proper feeding and exercise. Anthrax Anthrax i s a severe and usually f a t a l disease which occurs spora d i c a l l y and i n epizootics.  It usually runs an acute f e b r i l e course and i s  caused by the entrance of a germ or i t s spores into the animal's tissues. The causitive organism i s known as the B a c i l l u s anthracis.  This micro-  organism was observed i n the blood as early as 1849, but i t was not u n t i l 1863 that i t was announced to be bacteria and d i r e c t l y connected with the  -89disease. There has been no outbreak of t h i s disease i n B r i t i s h Columbia since 1925, but stockmen must be continually on the watch because when i t r  does appear i t spreads very r a p i d l y . to anthrax.  P r a c t i c a l l y a l l animals are subject  Farm animals are e s p e c i a l l y susceptible i n the following order  sheep, horses and c a t t l e .  Hogs, dogs, cats and carnivorous animals i n gen-  e r a l , are less susceptible and may only become infected after repeated exposure* Anthrax i s not often transmitted d i r e c t l y from animal to animal except by blood sucking insects.  Direct infection only occurs when the  blood or excrement of infected animals comes d i r e c t l y i n contact with i n juries on the skin or mucous membrane.  The diseased animal i s nevertheless'  a source of danger, for i t s excrement contaminates the food, bedding and ground with which other animals come i n contact, and so infection i s transmitted i n d i r e c t l y . Anthrax r a r e l y develops through skin lesions unless the wounds or abrasions extend, completely through the skin*  In this way the b a c i l l i or  spores enter the tissue f l u i d s and reach the blood c i r c u l a t i o n *  The manure  of infected animals i s p a r t i c u l a r l y dangerous as i t forms a suitable medium when mixed with earth for the propagation of b a c i l l i , and also for the formation of spores* Anthrax runs i t s course so rapidly that i t i s hardly possible to diagnose the disease i n the l i v i n g animal. be found dead i n the morning*  An apparently well animal may  A very high temperature, even up to 108 de-  grees F , or 110 Degrees F."may be expected about twenty-four hours before death.  Just before, or immediately after,  death, bloody discharges may be  -90-  seen coming from the natural openings of the body. The carcass of a diseased animal should be burned as soon as the disease i s diagnosed, and the premises thoroughly disinfected.  Burying i s  unsatisfactory as earthworms may carry spores of the disease to the  surface.  An opportunity to treat animals with anthrax i s seldom present and when such opportunity i s afforded i t i s usually f r u i t l e s s .  Should the  resistance of the animal be great and the death be delayed, no system of treatment i s l i k e l y to be satisfactory. Anthrax can be prevented by the use of vaccines, agressins or anti-serums.  These are available from commercial firms and i f an outbreak  occurs or i s feared, for,  i t i s best to treat a l l the animals apt to be affected,  "an ounce of prevention i s worth a pound of cure".  Blackleg Blackleg, a disease that causes large losses every year among cattle,  i s found i n nearly every country.  Cattle i n the north or south, on  mountain pastures and on lowlands, appear to be equally subject"to infection Climate and temperature apparently have no appreciable effect  on the germ.  It i s a b a c t e r i a l disease (Bacillus chauveaux) of young t h r i f t y animals, affecting p a r t i c u l a r l y individuals from six to eighteen months of age.  The very young seem to be inherently immune to the disease but this  immunity i s worn off by the time they reach six months of age.  Cattle more  than two years old seldom contract blackleg, and some claim that an animal over three years i s immune to the disease. Blackleg i s e a s i l y recognized and usually the f i r s t  symptom i s a  swelling which may appear on any part of the body except the t a i l or below the knees.  Because the tumor i s frequently on the thigh or shoulder, and  because, when the carcass i s skinned the swollen parts are observed to be  -91dark colored, the disease has been named "blackleg" or "black-quarter". The tumors, which at f i r s t of the body*  These increase i n size and i n a short time may nearly cover  the surface of the body. acteristic  are small and p a i n f u l , may appear on any part  I f s l i g h t pressure i s made on the tumor a char-  crackling sound i s heard, due to the c o l l e c t i o n of gas i n the  infected t i s s u e . The general symptoms are loss of appetite, celerated r e s p i r a t i o n .  high fever and ac-  The animal moves- with d i f f i c u l t y and frequently  l i e s down.  I f water i s near the v i c t i m w i l l drink a l i t t l e at- frequent  intervals.  Within a few hours the animal w i l l be unable to r i s e and  death occurs, usually i n from twelve to t h i r t y - s i x yours after the f i r s t symptoms appear.  After death the carcass becomes distended with gas.  Few  animals survive t h i s disease* Profuse bleeding and violent exercise are advocated by some cattlemen as a cure, but cases of recovery, are few and i t i s better to leave the animal undisturbed.  Whenever an animal dies from the disease  and proper precautions are not taken afterwards,  the germs i n the carcass  increase by the m i l l i o n and these germs l i v e for years, ana although they do not develop outside of an animal, they are ready to enter and continue their destructive work at any time. As a precautionary measure, i t i s best to burn, the whole carcass u n t i l i t i s e n t i r e l y consumed.  Burying i s unsatisfactory as earthworms  can carry the germs to the surface and so contaminate the grass and herbage*  There have been a number of vaccines prepared which are  successful  i n combating the disease and which can be administered by the stockman without the assistance of a veterinarian.  Outbreaks of the disease are  now becoming fewer because of this preventative measure which i s now becoming widely used.  The percentage loss by blackleg is now less than 0.5%  of the animals vaccinated. Poot-and-Mouth Disease This disease i s also known as aphthous fever or epizootic aphtha. I t i s an acute, highly communicable disease which attacks pract i c a l l y a l l domestic animals. are most susceptible; amongst c a t t l e .  Of these, c a t t l e ,  sheep, swine and goats  the greatest losses being most commonly caused  Human beings may also be affected.  It has been recognized as a separate disease i n Europe since 1839, and has caused incalculable losses i n different European countries where outbreaks are s t i l l f a i r l y frequent, notwithstanding the most s t r i n g ent regulations i n regard to stamping i t out.  On the American continent i t  has fortunately been of rare occurrence, appearing i n Canada i n 1870, 1875, and 1884, and i n the United States i n 1870, 1880, 1884, 1902-3, 1908 and 1914-15.  In this l a t e s t outbreak the t o t a l amount of loss borne by the  state of I l l i n o i s alone up to March 3rd, 1915, was one m i l l i o n , one hundred and eighty-seven thousand, four hundred and seventy-one dollars with twice that amount of  actual'loss.  Animals affected suffer  severely.  With b l i s t e r e d mouths and feet,  burning fever, raw, swollen tongues hanging out between infected l i p s , sore feet and swollen pasterns, they present a piteous appearance.  In milk  c a t t l e the flow of milk becomes greatly decreased or ceases altogether. Pregnant females frequently abort.  In sheep and swine there i s frequently  an entire separation of the horny and fleshy portions of the feet.  -93-  Foot-and-mouth disease i s caused by a f i l t r a b l e virus and i s characterized by the breaking out of vesicles or b l i s t e r s around the coronets of the feet and between the toes.  in the mouth,  It is very highly  contagious but, contrary to general b e l i e f , does not cause great mortality, although the f i n a n c i a l loss involved by i t s appearance i s tremendous. The period of incubation varies from forty-eight hours to ten days.  Early symptoms are dullness, l o s s of appetite,  shivering, staring,  coat, arched back, stiffness of movement and a decided r i s e i n temperature. These premonitory general symptoms are usually followed by more l o c a l i z e d conditions which characterize the disease.  These include definite  lameness,  s a l i v a t i o n o r slavering at the mouth accompanied (in cattle) by a smacking or sucking sound. gresses.  Saliva becomes more ropy and v i s c i d as the disease pro-  Within twenty-four hours of the appearance of general symptoms  vesicles or b l i s t e r s appear on the mucous membranes, especially those of the mouth. Foot-and-mouth disease i s probably the most highly infective disease known.  This fact should be remembered i n dealing with i t .  Com-  p l e t e l y i s o l a t e a l l suspected animals and permit no one to examine them or work around them.  A special attendant should be appointed who should have  nothing whatever to do with the remainder of the stock on the farm. As stated, the disease i s not generally f a t a l , but i t i s usual to slaughter a l l infected animals.  Curative treatment may alleviate suf-  fering but w i l l not stop the course of the disease nor prevent infection spreading.  Any measures are better than the spread of the disease.  Af-  fected animals should be slaughtered as soon as diagnosis i s c e r t a i n , or  -94at the e a r l i e s t possible moment.  The carcasses of these animals should be  t o t a l l y destroyed, preferably by thorough cremation, otherwise by burying them i n a trench at least six feet deep and covering them with unslaked lime. Infected stables or yards should be thoroughly disinfected, using some r e l i a b l e product.  A l l manure should be burned and no other animals  allowed i n the disinfected area for a period of from t h i r t y to f i f t y days. With foot-and-mouth disease, an ounce of prevention i s worth several pounds of cure and so i s o l a t e a l l suspected animals indoors immediately.  Health of Animals Branch at Ottawa should be n o t i f i e d and the  l o c a l veterinarian c a l l e d i n . Mycotic Stomatitis The name stomatitis s i g n i f i e s that there i s present i n the affected animals an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth.  This  inflammation, which quickly develops into ulcers, i s one of the p r i n c i p a l and most frequently observed lesions*  Mycotic stomatitis refers to that  form 'of stomatitis which results from eating food containing i r r i t a t i n g fungi.  Other names which have been applied to t h i s disease by different  writers are aporadic aphthae; apthous stomatitis;  sore mouth of c a t t l e ;  sore" tongue; benign, simple or non-infectious foot-and-mouth disease, and some others. Mycotic stomatitis i s a sporadic, or non-infectious disease which affects c a t t l e of a l l ages that are on pasture, but more especially milk cows.  It i s characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the  mucous membrane of the mouth, producing salivation and inappetence, and  secondarily affecting the feet, which become sore and swollen.  Superficial  erosions of the s k i n , p a r t i c u l a r l y of the muzzle, and of the teats and udders of cows, may also be present, with some elevation of temperature and emaciation* The disease r e s u l t s from the eating of forage containing fungi or molds.  It i s probable that more than one fungus i s involved i n the pro-  duction of t h i s disease, but no p a r t i c u l a r species has been d e f i n i t e l y proved to be the causative factor*  The fact that the disease disappears  from a l o c a l i t y at a c e r t a i n time and reappears at irregular intervals would suggest the p r o b a b i l i t y that certain climatic conditions were essenti a l for the propagation of the causative fungi, since i t i s well known that the malady becomes prevalent after a hot, dry period has been followed by r a i n , thus furnishing the requirements necessary for the luxuriant development of molds and fungi. Among the f i r s t symptoms observed i n mycotic stomatitis are i n a b i l i t y to eat,  suspension of rumination, frequent movements of the l i p s  with the formation of f r o t h on t h e i r margins, and i n some cases a dribbling of saliva from the mouth.  I f the mouth i s examined, exceptionally small  b l i s t e r s w i l l be seen, which quickly become eroded and develop into active ulcers.  The ulcers have a hemorrhagic border, a depressed  suppurating sur-  face, and contain a brownish or yellowish colored debris which i s soon r e placed by granulation t i s s u e .  As a result of t h i s sloughing of the tissues  and the retention of food i n the mouth, a very offensive odor i s exhaled. In some cases there are associated with these alterations a slight swelling and painfullness i n the region of the pasterns.  The skin  around the coronet may occasionally become fissured, and the thin skin i n  the c l e f t of the foot eroded and suppurated, but without the formation of vesicles. Mycotic stomatitis i s not a serious disease, and i n uncomplicated cases, recoveries soon follow the removal of the cause and application of the indicated remedies. i n a week.  In such cases complete restoration may occur with-  In aggravated cases, death may occur i n six or eight days but  the mortality rate i s low, being less than 0.5%*  The course of t h i s  dis-  ease i s irregular and runs from seven to f i f t e e n days, the average case covering a period of about ten days. The treatment of mycotic stomatitis should consist i n f i r s t  re-  moving the herd from the area of range on which they have been grazing. Medicinal treatment i s then applied by placing medicated s a l t i n the troughs accessible to the animals.  This salt may be prepared by pouring four ounces  of crude carbolic acid upon twelve quarts of ordinary stock.salt and then mixing i t thoroughly*  The lesions of the feet should be treated with a 2%  solution of carbolic acid or of c r e o l l n , while the fissures and other lesions of the skin w i l l be benefited by the application of carbolized vaseline or zinc ointment.  I f the animals are treated i n t h i s manner and put  on good clean pasture the disease w i l l rapidly disappear. Johne's Disease Johne's disease i s commonly known as chronic b a c t e r i a l infectious diarrhea, or paratuberculosis.  dysentery,  It i s caused by an acid-fact  or-  ganism (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis) very similar to that of tuberculosis*  This organism i s aerobic, non-motile, and does not produce spores  and i s found i n the i n t e s t i n a l mucous membrane and the mesenteric lymph  glands of the infected animal. Cattle of a l l ages are susceptible  to the disease, however, i t i s  more prevalent i n animals from two to four years of age.  The disease i s  'f  more prevalent among dairy stock than among range animals as i t  thrives  and spreads under conditions of confinement. At least six months elapse after the animal has picked up the i n fection before the physical symptoms appear.  The most characteristic symp-  tom i s the appearance of diarrhea with gradual loss of f l e s h ; the animal becomes a walking skeleton.  In the early stages the symptoms of diarrhea  may disappear for a short space of time only to reappear i n a more virulent form*  The feces are t h i n , watery and frequently contain gas bubbles and  flakes of mucous.  The t h i r s t i s greatly increased but the appetite usually  remains normal throughout the disease and i n the lactating female the milk flow i s greatly decreased.  The animal may l i v e for months but the disease  f i n a l l y terminates i n death. A diagnosis of Johne•s disease may be made by applying a specific t e s t , similar i n nature to the tuberculin t e s t .  This test consists of i n -  jecting a preparation, known as " j o h n i n " , into the blood stream of the animal.  The infected animal w i l l show a r i s e i n temperature, often accom-  panied by symptoms of diarrhea and c h i l l s . There i s no treatment for Johne's disease, but i t may be prevented by i s o l a t i n g a l l suspicious cases from the herd.  As infection i s pres-  ent In the feces of the animal, grass, hay or other food may become contaminated and are a means of spreading the disease.  I f a single case ap~  pears i n the herd, especially i f they are on the feed-lot, imals should be tested, and a l l the reactors eliminated.  then a l l the an-  Hemorrhagic Septicemia The disease i s also known as Broncho-pneumonia, Stockyard Fever and Shipping Fever of c a t t l e .  It i s recognized as an acute or sub-acute  infectious disease caused by the germ B a c i l l u s bovisepticus.  The disease  i s characterized by i t s sudden development, rapid course, and high mortality. The germ causing Hemorrhagic Septicemia -has some peculiar characteristics.  It i s frequently present i n s o i l s and elsewhere i n some l o -  c a l i t i e s , but may only give r i s e to the disease at certain times.  Seasonal  and other conditions may influence the germ favoring i t s development, and thus greatly increasing the danger of natural infection from the s o i l . Therefore c a t t l e sometimes become suddenly affected while at pasture,  es-  p e c i a l l y during changeable or inclement weather which lessens the animals' resistance to i n f e c t i o n . what are known as  It i s also believed that some animals may be  'carriers*  and so are a dangerous source of the disease.  While c a t t l e of a l l kinds are l i a b l e to the disease, i t i s noticed that young c a t t l e are most susceptible.  It is also noticed that this suscept-  i b i l i t y i s increased where the c a t t l e are shipped over long distances, and have passed through public stockyards, which are considered to be centres of i n f e c t i o n . The symptoms vary according to the virulency of the invading germs and the severity of the attack.  In most cases the c a t t l e are attack-  ed suddenly and the i l l n e s s i s pronounced manifested by high temperatures, rapid pulse, accompanied by manifestations severe pluero-pneumonia.  of acute gastroenteritis  and  Swellings may occur around the head and throat,  the tongue may be greatly swollen, purplish i n color, and partly protruding  -99from the mouth.  The eyes sometimes become inflamed and reddened, with a  profuse flow of tears running down the face.  Frequently the animals af-  fected develop a bloody diarrhea causing marked weakness and rapid exhaustion.  In the majority of cases the animals refuse to eat, causing them to  lose f l e s h rapidly and become extremely weak i n a comparatively short period of time after the f i r s t symptoms appear. In regard to the treatment and prevention of the disease; Government veterinary inspectors are not usually detailed to deal with cases of Hemorrhagic Septicemia and so the cattleman w i l l find i t a wise p o l i c y to immediately secure the services of t h e i r veterinarian to deal with the d i s ease and lessen t h e i r probable losses, through the use of vaccines and other b i o l o g i e s .  Other preventative procedures are; to isolate a l l sick  animals, to clean and d i s i n f e c t premises, and immunize a l l c a t t l e .  For the  protection of the c a t t l e against the. disease, use can be made of either the aggressin treatment, the vaccine treatment, the bacterin treatment, or the immune serum treatment*  Reputable commercial laboratories have a wide mar-  ket for these laboratory products enabling them to meet the demand.  As a  rule i t i s best to have these treatments applied by a qualified v e t e r i n arian to be sure of their  effectiveness.  Coocidiosis The symptoms of coccidiosis and hemorrhagic septicemia are very s i m i l a r and many c a t t l e are being vaccinated against the l a t t e r disease when the disease from which they are suffering i s c o c c i d i o s i s .  Recent out-  breaks i n Saskatchewan, thought to be Hemorrhagic Septicemia, have been i d e n t i f i e d as c o c c i d i o s i s .  -100Both diseases are featured by diarrhea and the passing of blood c l o t s , but while septicemia i a caused by a germ against which the c a t t l e can be made immune from attack, vaccination gives no protection against c o c c i d i o s i s which i s much more common.  Fortunately, whereas hemorrhagic  septicemia i s a disease from which c a t t l e seldom recover, animals often recover from an attack of c o c c i d i o s i s . Coccidiosis i s caused by a minute parasite which i s swallowed by the animals i n the form of an egg.  The egg i s softened as i t passes along  the digestive tract and a number of small bodies known as sporozites released.  are  These enter the i n t e s t i n a l wall where they rupture the blood  vessels and reduce the l i n i n g to a pulp.  The l i f e cycle i s completed i n  the wall of the i n t e s t i n e , and an egg i s again formed and is passed out with the discharge, ready to infect a healthy animal.  These eggs may re-  main ineffective for many months. The f i r s t noticeable symptoms of coccidiosis are dullness, of appetite, and a general appearance of unthriftiness. pears and often the feces are streaked with blood.  loss  Diarrhea soon ap-  Later the discharge may  Consist e n t i r e l y of blood and at this stage the animal may stand with i t s back humped up and grind i t s teeth as though i t were suffering severe pain. Emaciation i s rapid and i n many cases the animal may become so weak as to be unable to stand.  The temperature often remains normal, not r i s i n g above  103, which fact distinguishes  i t from hemorrhagic septicemia, as i n the  l a t t e r disease the temperature often r i s e s to 107, Death occurs i n only about twenty percent of untreated cases, usually i n about f i v e to seven days from the onset.  In milder cases, im-  provement begins i n two to five days and the animal gradually returns to  -101normal.  Treatments recommended are; Thymol, one teaspoonful i n one pint  of warm water twice d a i l y (as the drug does not dissolve,  shake well be-  fore using), or sodium hyposuphate may be given, one ounce i n every two gallons of drinking water. Drinks of bran and flaxseed should be given three times d a i l y . To a gallon of bran and a quart of flaxseed add sufficient b o i l i n g water to make up two gallons and give when c o l d .  Also steps should be taken to pre-  vent the healthy animals from eating where the discharges have f a l l e n from the diseased animal and generally hygienic rules  observed.  Actinomycosis Actinomycosis i s also commonly called lump-jaw, big-jaw, en tongue.  or wood-  The disease i s caused by a ray fungus named actinomyces, which  outside of the body grows on forage grasses and grains.  It i s not d i r e c t l y  communicable from animal to animal or from animal to man, transmission of the disease being from the infected beards of these plants.  Where several  animals i n a herd are infected, the chances are that they became so from a common source rather than from one another. The disease affects the bones of the head, the tongue, or the throat, producing a honeycombing of the bones, swelling, hardening or u l ceration of the tissues and glands.  "Lump-jaw" develops slowly.  In the  early stages the swellings are small, but they slowly increase i n size unt i l they are conspicuous.. eventually burst.  I f not treated surgically or medically, they  The small tumors may be removed by an operation, or an  i n c i s i o n i s sometimes made i n the wound and a caustic preparation packed i n . While the disease i s e n t i r e l y l o c a l and does not affect the eati b i l i t y of the meat from diseased animals, i t does reduce their gains on  -102feed and is a source of loss i n that respect. i f applied d i r e c t l y .  Iodine w i l l k i l l the fungus  The treatment most often recommended i s to give the  animal large doses of iodine of potassium i n a drench or i n a drinking water.  One to three drams of this drug i s given daily for from seven to  fourteen days.  The size of the dose varies with the size of the animal,  two drams being given to an animal weighing one thousand pounds.  The only  prevention i s to avoid feeding the animals hay containing f o x t a i l s . Ophthalmia Conjuctivitis  (simple ophthalmia)  - This i s an inflammation of  the conjunctival mucous membrane of the eyeball and l i d s ;  i n severe cases  the deeper coats of the eye may become involved, seriously complicating the attack. It may r e s u l t from a bruise of the e y e l i d ; from the introduction of foreign matter into the eye, such as chaff, hayseed, dust, gnats,  etc.;  from exposure to c o l d ; poisonous or - i r r i t a t i n g vapors arising from the filthiness  of the stables.  ing transportation  Dust, cinders or sand blown into the eyes dur-  frequently induce  conjunctivitis.  A profuse flow of tears, closure of the eyelids from intolerance to l i g h t , retraction of the eyeball, d i s i n c l i n a t i o n to move, diminution of milk flow, e t c . ,  are the main symptoms.  On parting the l i d s the l i n i n g  membrane i s found injected with an excess of blood, giving i t a red and swollen appearance; the s c l e r o t i c or white of the eye, i s bloodshot and the Cornea may be cloudy. t r a i n of unfavorable  I f the disease advances k e r a t i t i s results, with i t s circumstances.  The treatment consists of a careful examination of the eye to d i s -  -103cover any p a r t i c l e s of chaff,  e t c . , which may have lodged i n the eye, and  upon the discovery of such a cause prompt removal i s indicated*  This may  be accomplished by flushing the eye with warm water by means of a syringe, o r , i f the foreign substance i s adherent to the eyeball or l i d i t may be scooped out with the handle of a teaspoon or some other blunt instrument. To r e l i e v e the congestion and l o c a l i r r i t a t i o n , a wash composed of boracic acid i n freshly boiled water, twenty grains to the ounce may be used.  A  few drops of this should be placed i n the eye three or four times d a i l y . The animal should be kept i n a cool darkened stable i f possible.  I f there  i s much fever and constitutional disturbance i t may be advisable to admini s t e r one pound of Epsom s a l t s dissolved i n one quart of water. Infectious Catarrhal Conjunctivitis (specific Ophthalmia) - This generally appears i n an enzootic or epizootic form, and affects quite a number i n the herd*  It i s d i s t i n c t l y a contagious disease and may be  brought into a previously healthy herd by one animal with sore eyes.  It  may continue i n a herd for a season or for several years, affecting a l l newly purchased animals.  It i s seldom seen i n the winter months and i t  affects old and young animals a l i k e . This form of catarrhal c o n j u n c t i v i t i s i s characterized by a mucopurulent discharge from the eyes, an intense degree of inflammation of the mucous membrane, accompanied by a swelling of the eyelids and an early opacity of the cornea*  The implication of the cornea i n the disease f r e -  quently blinds the animal for a time and various other diseases may supervene*  The attack i s marked from the onset by fever, p a r t i a l loss of ap-  p e t i t e , p a r t i a l loss of milk flow, suspended rumination, and separation from the herd.  -104Whenever t h i s affection appears i n a herd the unaffected animals should be moved to another part of the range and the affected animals i s o l a t e d , treating them with one to one and one-half pounds of Epsom s a l t s i n two or three pints of water as well as washing their eyes as often as possible with a solution of one dram of boracic acid to four ounces of b o i l i n g water. Scabies  ' Scabies i n c a t t l e , also known as mange, scab or i t c h , i s a d i s -  ease which has prevailed i n the past to a considerable extent among the range c a t t l e of the North and North-west.  Wherever the disease i s preval-  ent, a l l classes, conditions and ages of c a t t l e are l i a b l e to be affected by i t . owners*  Every year scabies i s the cause of large monetary losses to c a t t l e A herd affected with i t becomes i r r i t a t e d , shrinks i n weight, gets  into an u n t h r i f t y condition and has growth arrested, functional disturbances commence, and there i s a heavy d e a t h - r a t e © While there are at least three different forms of scabies i n c a t t l e the most common one i s Psoroptic scabies, and i t i s exclusively t h i s form of mange that w i l l be dealt with. The essential cause of this disease i s a l i t t l e parasite known as the Psorotes bovis, which does not d i f f e r materially i n appearance from the Psorotes of the horse or sheep.  The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of this parasite  into various species i s based not upon any marked anatomical differences but rather on i t s adaptability to l i v e on certain species of animals.  When  transferred from one genus to another they l i v e but a short while, and any eruption that appears recovers spontaneously.  Favoring causes for this  disease are to be found i n malnutrition and stabling during the winter  -105months.  At this period of the year the parasites are driven downward by  the cold and attack the skin causing great I r r i t a t i o n . The mite- i s p l a i n l y v i s i b l e to the naked eye and i s egg-shaped with four pairs of l e g s .  Each female lays from f i f t e e n to twenty-four eggs  which hatch after three or four days of incubation.  The young mites grow  to maturity, mate, and the females deposit their eggs i n from ten to twelve days.  The entire l i f e cycle i s spent on the host animal.  Dipping once, i f  properly done, k i l l s the "parasites but many of the eggs survive, and so the operation must be repeated i n from ten to twelve days to k i l l the newly hatched mites before they have had a chance to mate and lay eggs. Most frequently the disease appears at the root of the t a i l , the thighs or i t may be the neck or withers. body may become involved.  Later, any portion of the entire  There i s violent itching (puritus),  the animal  rubbing i t s e l f against a l l possible objects and frequently to such an extent as to cause bleeding of the affected Certain other affections scabies.  portions.  of the skin may possibly be mistaken for  Lice w i l l produce violent i t c h i n g and occasion the loss of h a i r .  There i s not, however, the tendency toward the formation of thick crusts as w i l l be found i n scabies.  This condition i s r e a d i l y diagnosed by the rec-  ognition of the l i c e which are to be found especially at the base of the horns, the upper portion of the neck or at the root of the t a i l .  It must  be kept i n mind, however, that the two conditions of scabies and lousiness frequently co-exist and the examination must therefore be more than a superf i c i a l one.  In general, however, the l i n e of treatment adopted for scabies  proves effective  i n the treatment of lousiness.  Either dipping or spraying i s used to combat a l l types of cattle  -106scab.  Dipping i s the most effective as the entire body receives a wetting  by t h i s method.  Much of the l i q u i d i s l o s t by spraying and some parts of  the body may be untouched by the d i p .  The trough for dipping i s usually  arranged so that the c a t t l e enter one end and swim through to climb up the i n c l i n e at the other end. Cattle should be fed and watered about four hours before dip-ping. I f they have been driven some distance and are hot, they should be allowed to cool before going into the tank.  I f the nights are c o o l , i t should be  arranged that the dipping i s finished early enough to give the animals a chance to dry off before dark.  The vat should be seventy to eighty inches  deep so that the t a l l e s t of the animals w i l l have to swim. To estimate the amount of dip required, the length of the tank i n inches i s multiplied by the width i n inches and the depth i n inches and the r e s u l t divided by two hundred and thirty-one to give the number of gallons required,  A short haired steer w i l l carry off about two quarts of dip  while a long haired steer w i l l absorb about four quarts.  The t o t a l amount  that w i l l be l o s t must be calculated and added from time to time as the animals go through the tank i n order to keep i t to the required depth. The inside dimensions of a convenient sized tank are as follows:Length at top - twenty-six feet, at bottom, twelve feet; width at top, three feet, at bottom, one and one-half feet; depth, seven feet at the foot of the i n c l i n e leading to the dripping pen,  Every part of the dipping  paraphernalia should be carefully examined for n a i l s or anything that might wound the animals.  Every animal should be completely submerged at least  once and those obviously affected,  two or three times.  Any of the more common'dips mix well with soft water.  Hard v/ater  -107may be broken by using one to four pounds of sal-soda per one hundred gallons of water*  Nicotine dips are sold under trade names and require reas-  onably soft water.  The solution for dipping should contain 0.05% nicotine.  r  Both the nicotine dips and lime-sulphur dip should be used warm, ninetyfive to one hundred and f i v e degrees being about the r i g h t  temperature.  Lime-sulphur dip i s made i n the proportion of twelve pounds of unslaked lime and twenty-four pounds of flowers of sulphur to one hundred gallons of water.  A l l dips should be mixed according to the directions and specified  rules which come on the package. Warble F l i e s It i s estimated that warble f l i e s  cost the stockmen of the West-  ern provinces about ten m i l l i o n dollars per year.  A great deal of this  loss i s i n d i r e c t due to gadding and consequent loss of weight i n beef animals; however, i t i s estimated that the loss i n hides alone runs close on to a m i l l i o n dollars and i f the stockmen through combined effort could reduce losses by a reasonable amount, the benefit would be widespread.  This  i s just another of the small leaks that are taking the p r o f i t out of ranch-, ing. There are two species of the warble, the l i f e histories and habi t s of the two having much i n common.  Eggs are l a i d during bright, sunny  days on the legs and lower parts of the animal and are attached to the hairs.  The small grubs hatch i n from three to seven days, penetrate through  the skin* and migrate through the tissues of the host, i n some cases congregating i n numbers i n the region of the g u l l e t .  They remain here during  the summer and u n t i l l a t e winter, when they undertake a second migration and come to rest under the skin of the back, which they perforate i n order  -108to make breathing holes.  After about two months i n this p o s i t i o n , during  which time they feed on matter i n the tumor-like cysts formed, they squeeze t h e i r way through the breathing holes, drop to the ground and pupate as hard, black, seed-like objects measuring nearly three-quarters of an inch i n length.  Emergence of the adult f l i e s occurs i n from one to  two months; mating may take place on the same day and egg-laying commence, an average of about four hundred eggs being l a i d during the l i f e of the female.  While the i n d i v i d u a l l i f e of adults i s very short, about a week,  i n nature, the period of adult a c t i v i t y i s a long one of five months beginning i n A p r i l , since successive adults are developing and emerging during t h i s period, and one species appear l a t e r on the wing than the other.  The t o t a l period of development from egg to egg requires about a  year and at least nine months of this i s passed as a grub i n the host animal. The Common Cattle Grub or Heel E l y (Hypoderma Lineatum de V i l l e r s ) The Common heel f l y i s the smaller and e a r l i e r of the two species.  Bright,  sunshiny days are favored for egg l a y i n g , but the insect appears to prefer laying i t s eggs i n the shaded parts of the body.  It lias a habit of set-  t l i n g on the ground In the shade of the heels of a cow and reaching up with i t s long egg tube to attach the eggs to the hairs of the coronet.  When the  c a t t l e are l y i n g down the f l y lays i t s eggs on parts of the body which come close to the ground.  It i s usually very quiet i n i t s attack, and i s less  l i k e l y to cause gadding than the rougher, less stealthy, warble.  The grubs  of t h i s species, i n the colder i n t e r i o r of the province, seldom make an appearance before mid-January, although at the coast t&ey may appear i n December,  The Northern Cattle Grub or Large Warble Ely (Hypoderma  -109Bovis de Geer) - The large warble f l y has been found to be almost as widely distributed i n Canada, and to be nearly as common as the smaller species. Varying weather conditions may, however, cause seasonal fluctuations i n the two species, and fine weather conditions during the egg-laying period of one species may cause i t to predominate temporarily over the other.  This  i s a l a t e r developing species and adults are found on the wing from early June u n t i l August, and are p a r t i c u l a r l y annoying during July.  The egg-  laying a c t i v i t y i s even more r e s t r i c t e d to b r i g h t , sunshiny days than i s the case with the common heel f l y .  Eggs are seldom l a i d while the animal  i s l y i n g down and are usually l a i d f a i r l y high up on the legs,  They are  i n v a r i a b l y placed singly on the hairs and not i n rows as i s the case i n the other species. more frequent, insect,  Since an equally large number are l a i d , this results i n a intermittent attack.  This, and the rougher behavior of the  explains the greater fear experienced by c a t t l e when the large  warble f l y i s annoying them.  Egg-laying commences i n June, about a week  after the smaller heel f l i e s have ceased their a c t i v i t i e s  and i t may con-  tinue u n t i l August. The complete eradication of warble f l i e s from a r e s t r i c t e d area has been actually demonstrated as possible and as f e a s i b l e . compulsory control l e g i s l a t i o n was enacted i n 1923.  In Denmark,  In the previous year  29.5% of a l l hides were grubby but after three years operation of the Act, grubby hides were reduced to 2-g%, and complete eradication i s  anticipated  through continuance of the control measures employed. Many livestock owners r e l y i m p l i c i t l y on the application of repellent dressings 1 or " f l y dopes" to their stock as a protection against  ^•This i s more applicable to farm conditions. r u l e , do nothing.  Range livestock owners, as a  warble f l y troubles, but experimental work has f a i l e d to substantiate the p r a c t i c a l value of any known repellents i n t h i s  respect.  There are several accepted methods of controlling the warble f l y . The f i r s t method i s by hand, squeezing the grubs out of the breathing holes when they have settled i n the back of the animal. stock, this method i s not practicable.  l o r large numbers of  The second method i s to treat the  animals with washes having as their base d e r r i s root, tobacco or pyrethrum powder or a combination of these.  A satisfactory wash can be made up from  standardized d e r r i s powder, one pound; soft soap, one-quarter pound; water, one gallon.  This should be l i b e r a l l y applied to the backs of the animals.  The cost of materials should not exceed four to five cents per animal treated.  A t h i r d method which, under range conditions, i s not so practic-  able, i s that of applying by hand to the cysts an ointment having as base derris root or pyrethrum.  its  This method i s not as effective i n handling  large numbers of animals as the wash. Ticks In B r i t i s h Columbia about a dozen different kinds of ticks are found.  The female of one of these ticks (Dermacentor venustus) may, under  certain conditions, cause p a r a l y s i s ,  sometimes followed by death i n man and  i n animals. The paralysis t i c k (Dermacentor venustus)  i n certain parts of  Montana i s i t s e l f affected by small parasites which i t passes on to man, causing the disease known as Rocky Mountain Fever or Spotted Fever, A l though fortunately, there are no records of these t i c k s carrying Spotted Fever i n B r i t i s h Columbia, there i s a number of records of them causing paralysis i n man and animals.  -IllParalysis i s caused by the female t i c k when she i s feeding fast; i f she i s sucking blood slowly, paralysis does not occur.  The explanation  for t h i s i s not known, but i t i s assumed that when she i s feeding fast a large amount of the substance that she secretes to keep the blood f l u i d , it injected into the body i n a sufficient amount at one time to cause trouble, A single t i c k may cause paralysis  or even death,  Dermacentor venustus i s found over the greater part of southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the adjacent portion of Southern Alberta. It i s known to occur one hundred miles north of Kamloops,  It i s occasion-  a l l y found i n south-western B r i t i s h Columbia, but i s not p l e n t i f u l as wet weather i s detrimental to i t s early stages which are passed on small animals. This t i c k appears as an adult early i n the spring and attaches i t s e l f to the s k i n of large wild and domesticated animals and on man; sexes mate when on the animal; the female, after  The  feeding on the animal for  about seven days, drops off on to the ground and lays about four thousand eggs.  After about t h i r t y - s i x days the eggs hatch into minute six-legged  l a r v a l or "seed" t i c k s . The small l a r v a l t i c k s crawl up on to grass or other  supports,  and when the opportunity offers, attach themselves to small animals such as rabbits, mice, s q u i r r e l s , chipmunks, e t c .  They remain on such an an-  imal for about four days,-drop off on to the ground, moult, and after  about  thirty-eight days emerge as an eight-legged middle-sized t i c k or nymph, which i s sexually immature. The nymph attaches i t s e l f to the same kinds of small animals that the l a r v a l ticks feed on, and after about seven days they drop to the  -112ground, moult, and i n about ninety days emerge as adult t i c k s * Hot or cold weather influences the length of each stage; also, the length of time that the l a r v a l or nymph ticks have to wait for a s u i t able host may prolong the l i f e - c y c l e .  Unfed l a r v a l ticks usually die i n  about t h i r t y days, but may l i v e for one hundred and seventeen days; unfed nymphs may l i v e f o r three hundred days; adults, captured i n the spring, have been known to survive four hundred and thirteen days without feeding, and after fasting for three hundred and s i x t y - f i v e days r e a d i l y attach themselves to a host.  The l i f e - c y c l e may be completed i n sixty-eight days  under most favorable circumstances, but usually two years i s required and sometimes three. While i t i s possible that other species of animals may be paralyzed by Dermacentor venustus, at present there are only definite records for dogs and sheep.  The general symptoms are a staggering g a i t ,  falling  down, bumping into fences and other objects and f i n a l l y the animal i s unable to r i s e .  Some of these animals die but others recover owing to the  fact that the t i c k , when f u l l y gorged with blood, f a l l s  off.  Cattle and horses may carry the Dermacentor venustus t i c k , but the commonest t i c k on these animals, especially horses, i s the "moose t i c k " , Dermacentor a l b i s p i c t u s . t i c k and l i g h t e r i n color.  This t i c k is s l i g h t l y larger than the paralysis To complete i t s l i f e - c y c l e i t requires only one  host and not three, as with Dermacentor venustus*  The changes from larva  to nymph and from nymph to adult take place on the same animal; the f e r t i l i z e d , engorged female drops off on to the ground and lays from four to five thousand eggs, from which the larva emerge during the summer, but which do not usually attach themselves to their host u n t i l autumn.  There  i s some indication that this t i c k i s of economic importance, when i n suff i c i e n t numbers to weaken the animal from loss of blood. Ticks may be controlled (l) by treating affected  stock with an  arsenical dip which k i l l s the t i c k s before the egg-laying begins, and (2) by destroying the small mammals upon which the young Dermacentor venustus t i c k s feed by the use of poison bait or other means.  Greasy preparations  w i l l k i l l ticks through blocking t h e i r breathing pores which are located near t h e i r fourth p a i r of legs.  These preparations must foe applied by  hand and are somewhat laborious when there are a large number of animals to be treated.  An effective mixture i s as follows:  l a r d , ten ounces; pine tar, oil,  two ounces; or kerosene,  Kerosene, ten ounces; one-half p i n t ; linseed  one-half p i n t ; sulphur, one ounce.  Lice Cattle l i c e are widely distributed and have been recognized as a pest by livestock growers since early times. l e s s prevalent i n a l l parts of the country.  These parasites are more or In the range country the  c a t t l e often become infested very heavily with l i c e , the degree of  infest-  ation varying from year to year with climatic and other conditions. O r d i n a r i l y , l i c e on c a t t l e are not observed u n t i l they become so numerous that they cause unmistakable signs of annoyance.  Usually the an-  imals whose lousy condition f i r s t attracts attention are the poor, weak, unt h r i f t y members of the herd, and frequently the owner thinks they are lousy because they are u n t h r i f t y , whereas the unthrifty condition may be caused by the l i c e .  As a r u l e , the individual members of a herd are not  affected  equally, as some c a t t l e seem to be unsuitable hosts to such an extent that they may be considered p r a c t i c a l l y immune.  However, when l i c e are i n t r o -  -114duced into a herd during the f a l l or winter they usually spread rapidly unt i l every animal, or nearly every animal, i s  infested.  Cattle l i c e are injurious to a l l classes of c a t t l e , but the greatest losses occur i n young stock and poorly nourished old animals.  The  losses are caused by i r r i t a t i o n , digestive disturbances, arrested growth, "low v i t a l i t y , and increased death r a t e .  Lice are r e a l l y a contributing  factor to the l a s t point mentioned as a cause of l o s s , by having the v i t a l i t y of the animals so that they succumb to inclement weather and disease. Three species of l i c e are commonly found on c a t t l e .  Two of these  are blood suckers, or s u c t o r i a l l i c e , and are commonly called "blue l i c e " . The t h i r d species i s a b i t i n g louse, commonly known as the " l i t t l e red louse". Suctorial Lice The short nosed c a t t l e louse (Haematropinus Eurystermus)  usually  i s found on mature c a t t l e , although i t may occur on calves and young stock. The average length of adult females i s about one-eighth of an inch and the body i s about one-half as broad as long. than the females.  The males are s l i g h t l y smaller  The head i s short, nearly as broad as long, and i s  bluntly rounded i n front.  The head and thorax are yellowish brown, while  the abdomen i s blue slate colored. These l i c e pass the various stages of their l i f e on the animal. The eggs, commonly c a l l e d " n i t s " , a r e attached firmly to the h a i r s , close to the s k i n ,  usually  The incubation period varies from eleven to eighteen  days, with an average of fourteen days during mild weather.  The young  females begin to-lay eggs when they are about twelve days' old* The long-nosed cattle louse (Linognathus v i t u l i ) usually  is  found on calves and young stock, but sometimes occurs on mature c a t t l e . These may be distinguished from the short-nosed species by t h e i r longer, more slender form being only about one-third.as broad as they are long. These l i c e pass their entire l i f e on the animal and deposit eggs i n the same general manner as the other species.  The eggs hatch i n ten to four-  teen days, the average period of incubation being about twelve days*  The  young females reach sexual maturity and begin laying eggs about eleven days from the date of hatching. B i t i n g Lice The common b i t i n g l i c e of c a t t l e (Trichodectes scalaris) are found on both very young and mature cattle*  They are much smaller than the  sucking l i c e but are s t i l l v i s i b l e to the naked eye.  The head i s broad and  blunt, the color I s reddish, that part of the body commonly yellowish white. "The l i f e "history i s similar to that of the sucking l i c e *  The  average period of incubation i s probably about ten days. Each species of domestic animals has i t s own particular species of l i c e , and except i n accidental cases, c a t t l e l i c e are found only on cattle*  They increase very r a p i d l y i n number on cattle during dry,, cold  weather, when the hair i s long, but tend to disappear during the spring and summer, appearing again i n the f a l l when they increase very r a p i d l y . Treatment therefore,  should be applied i n the f a l l while the weather  is  suitable and before the l i c e have become so numerous as to cause injury. The favorite locations of the sucking . l i c e are the sides of the neck, brisket back, inner surface of the thighs, and on the head, around the nose, eyes and. ears.  When feeding they attach themselves to the skin  by burying t h e i r sucking tubes i n the tissues.  When not feeding they move  -.116--  about over the hair and s k i n . The b i t i n g l i c e usually are found on the withers and around the root of the t a i l , but they may occur on any part of the body. ently feed on p a r t i c l e s  They appar-  of h a i r , scales and exudations from the skin.  Or-  d i n a r i l y they do not i r r i t a t e the animals as much as the sucking l i c e , however, when present i n large numbers they often form colonies or groups around the base of the t a i l , e t c .  The skin over these areas appears to be  raised and ringworm may be suspected, but when the lesion i s manipulated the scarf skin f a l l s off, exposing the l i c e grouped on the raw tissue. When separated from their hosts the b i t i n g l i c e l i v e about seven days, the sucking l i c e only about four days.  As a r u l e , eggs are not de-  posited except on the host, but when the hair to which they are attached  is  removed and kept under f a i r l y favorable conditions, they may continue to hatch for as long as twenty days.  The newly hatched l i c e l i v e only two or  three days unless they find a host. The disinfectants  to eradicate l i c e may be applied by hand, by  spraying or by dipping, but under range conditions the l a t t e r method i s usually employed*  In choosing a dip for c a t t l e l i c e the conditions under  which i t i s to be used should be considered.  I f the dipping plant i s  supplied with soft water, any of the dips recommended may be used, but i f the water i s very hard, the dip that mixes best with the water should be used.  available  Arsenical dips mix well with any kind of water; nicotine  dips require reasonably soft water; creosote dips require soft water as they may be injurious to the animals i f used with hard water.  None of the  dips w i l l eliminate a l l the l i c e i n one operation but the animals should go  -117through the vat a second time after fifteen or sixteen days have elapsed. Arsenical dip has been used to a considerable extent for l i c e and i t has proved to be a very satisfactory remedy.  A formula for arsenical  dip i s as follows: Jour pounds caustic soda.(85% pure) Eight  "  white arsenic  (99% pure) i n fine powder  Eight  "  s a l soda crystals  One gallon pine tar Water sufficient  to make f i v e hundred gallons  Dissolve the caustic i n one gallon of water and then add the arsenic slowly so as to keep the solution just below b o i l i n g .  When a l l the arsenic has  been added d i l u t e to about four gallons and add sal soda, s t i r u n t i l i t dissolved.  is  Add water to make up the solution to five gallons. Emulsify the pine tar as follows:  Dissolve three-quarters  of a  pound of dry caustic soda or concentrated lye (or one pound of dry caustic potash) i n one quart of water, add one gallon of pine tar, and s t i r u n t i l the mixture brightens to a uniform thick f l u i d * The arsenical stock solution and the emulsified pine tar prepared are s u f f i c i e n t to make f i v e hundred gallons of dip.  The proportion  of ingredients should be one g a l l o n of arsenical stock and about one quart of tar stock to ninety-nine gallons of water. The coal tar creosote dips are sold under many trade names and when diluted with soft water they are efficacious lice.  i n eradicating cattle  Coal tar creosote dips may be used cold or warm, but the temperature  of the bath should not exceed ninety-five degrees F.  These dips should con-  t a i n , when diluted ready for use, not less than one percent by weight of  -118coal tar o i l s and c r e s y l i c a c i d .  These dips should be used i n accordance  with the instructions printed on the l a b e l of the container. Nicotine dips are sold under various trade names, and farmers and livestock growers are more or less familiar with them.  The nicotine  dip recommended for scab i s also satisfactory as a remedy for l i c e and as i s stated, should contain .05% nicotine to be  effective.  One point i n the control of l i c e that must be remembered. Treated c a t t l e should not be allowed to mix with untreated c a t t l e or they w i l l again be infested and also treated c a t t l e should not be put back into infested paddocks or buildings u n t i l ten days or two weeks have elapsed to allow the l i c e i n the premises to die* The following i s a plan of a cattle-dipping plant with a wooden vat.  The vat should be placed i n f a i r l y l e v e l ground and i t i s best i f i t  face north and south.  In t h i s case the c a t t l e enter at the south and  leave at the north as they w i l l work better i f not facing the sun.  -120• CHAPTER .'VI STOCK POISONING AND MECHMICALLY INJURIOUS PLANTS  There i s an enormous annual t o l l of losses on the livestock i n dustry due to diseases, predatory animals, poisonous or injurious plants, and accidents of a l l sorts.  Two phases of this problem, outside, of  course, of b a c t e r i a l pathology, come within the domain of botany, v i z . , (1) the existence of poisonous plants, many of which are devoured by l i v e stock, often with f a t a l effect;  and (2) the presence of plants which at  some stage of their development cause mechanical injury, not uncommonly weakening the animal seriously and sometimes causing death. POISONOUS PLANTS The poisonous plant problem i s serious on the mountain and footh i l l ranges of the west.  In the United States on the National Forest  Range alone, approximately eight thousand c a t t l e and twenty thousand sheep, valued at about five hundred thousand d o l l a r s , die annually from eating poisonous plants; yet the acreage of the National Forest Range i s only a small part of the grazing grounds of the West.  Moreover, losses on these  high ranges, as a r u l e , are less than on the lower areas.  In B r i t i s h Col-  umbia i t i s impossible to estimate losses due to poisonous plants because so many of the stockmen are unfamiliar with the symptoms of poisoning and furthermore, are unfamiliar with the species themselves.  It i s certain,  however, that there i s some loss due to poisoning, much of which can be avoided by knowing the poisonous species and when they are most apt to be eaten by stock.  By controlling the cattle on the range the poison areas  can be avoided to a large extent.  In this way losses can be minimized.  -121There are six genera which include the majority of poisonous plant species which are responsible for seventy-five percent of the losses These genera are the members of four f a m i l i e s :  the Bunchflower family  (Melanthaceae), the Buttercup Family (Ranunculaceae), the Pea or Pulse Family (Leguminoseae), and the Parsnip Family (Umbelliferae). In addition to the poisonous species of the higher plants, power f u l l y toxic substances occur among some of the bacteria and parasitic fungi.  Certain mushrooms and some smuts, l i k e ergot, have been the cause  of l i v e s t o c k losses.  Like many poisonous flowering plants, the fungi are  somewhat variable i n the toxic substances present. Although something may be accomplished i n the"application of med i c a l remedies to poisoned animals on the range, the main reliance i n the control of losses must be upon better range management and improved l i v e stock handling* The degree of poisoning Is dependent not only on the amount devoured but on the r a p i d i t y with which the toxic substance i s eliminated. The l a t t e r varies with different plants and animals and hence some plants may be poisonous and yet never cause symptoms of distress i n certain animals. Poisonous plants are not grazed as a matter of choice and there i s a s t r i k i n g r e l a t i o n between the scarcity of feed and losses by poisonous plants.  The heaviest losses are l i a b l e to occur on ranges that are  badly depleted such as the lower ranges of B r i t i s h Columbia,  The time of  grazing i s an important factor governing losses from t h i s source.  It  is  well known that the alkaloids or toxic substances are not evenly d i s tributed throughout the plant tissues.  For example, i n the toxic lupines^  -122poisoning i s unknown u n t i l the seed pods are well formed; therefore pract i c a l l y a l l lupine poisoning occurs i n the late summer or early f a l l .  Ac-  cordingly lupine-infested lands should be grazed early i n the season before the seeds have developed, and should be avoided for late summer and f a l l grazing.  It i s a good practice to graze on a poison-infested area that  class of livestock which Is immune to the toxic species.  Horses and cattle  as a r u l e , are not subject to poisoning by death-camas and so can be grazed on areas infested with t h i s plant with impunity.  Furthermore, stock  poisoning from death camas r a r e l y occurs after flowering. age may be poisonous after  While the herb-  the flower has been dropped, the leaves are much  less tender and palatable than i n early spring. The larkspurs, although poisonous to c a t t l e , are not injurious to horses and sheep.  The leafage of the larkspurs, on the other hand, seems  to lose much of i t s poisonous property about the time of seed maturity, and the plant seldom causes serious losses i n cattle late i n the f a l l . Failure to provide s u f f i c i e n t salt causes foraging animals to develop a perverted appetite;  Animals not given sufficient salt become  r e s t l e s s and are d i f f i c u l t to handle and at the same time are unable to eliminate poisons as w e l l as are those supplied with ample s a l t .  In  addition to proper s a l t i n g , the animals should have easy access to water at a l l times.  Without s u f f i c i e n t water, poisonous substances cannot be read-  i l y eliminated. It i s known that poisonous plants generally, increase i n abundance where the ranges are over-grazed.  As the productivity of the range  i s increased, many species of poisonous plants w i l l be crowded out by desirable forage species.  This appears to be especially true of the low  -123larkspurs, death camas, and, to a lesser extent, of the locos.  Then too,  as the proportion of desirable species increases the proportion of poisonous plants devoured decreases and so lessens the extent of the poisoning. Grubbing out or destroying by the use of chemicals have been tried as methods of eradicating poisonous plants but, on the whole, whey are not practicable.  Burning has been advocated as a means of destroying certain  annual grasses (such as Bromus tectorum), that are mechanically injurious to the c a t t l e .  At the Dominion Range Experimental Station at Kamloops a  small area heavily infested with t h i s grass was burned when the grass had begun to set' seed early i n the summer.  (See Plate No, 4)  The area burned  very clean and by early f a l l the few scattered perennial grasses were showing green with no sign of new growth from the Brome grass.  This would ap-  pear to be a feasible method of eradicating this undesirable grass. Loco Plants Loco plants are members of two genera - Oxytropis and Astragalus. The most destructive of this plant i s the so-called Lambert's, white, steml e s s , or rattleweed loco (Oxytropis Lambertii).  It i s a perennial herb with  stems twelve to eighteen inches high, the l e a f l e t s of the compound leaves being slender, somewhat hairy, and o l i v e green i n color.  The spikes of  flowers are commonly white, though the petals are sometimes streaked with purple.  As the calyx i s sometimes red, a variety of colors i s found.  The  r a t t l i n g of the pods as one touches them when the seed i s mature sometimes resembles the sound of a rattlesnake and the name "rattleweed" i s i n more or less common use. Woolly, purple or Texas loco (Astragalus Mollissimus) i s probably the second most destructive species but i s not found as far north as B r i t i s h  -124-  , PLATE NO. 4  Weed  Control - An Experiment i n the Eradication of Bromus Tectorum Dominion Range Experimental Station Kamloops, B. 0.  -125Columbia, the northern boundary of t h i s species more or less corresponding with the northern boundary of Nebraska. Loco has a habit forming effect on animals and the r e s u l t s are cumulative; animals never become immune to i t *  The f i r s t  poisoning are stupidity and general loss of condition.  symptoms of loco  The animals show a  marked lack of muscular control and become very nervous and excitable.  The  gait i s irregular and staggering, the eyes are glassy and the sight i s impaired or l o s t altogether.  A rough, shaggy coat i s  characteristic.  No c e r t a i n cure for loco poisoning has yet been found.  I f the  disease has not progressed so far that the animals are no longer worth saving, they should be removed from the loco-infested range and given proper feed.  Constipation may be relieved by a dose of Epsom s a l t s ; for mature  c a t t l e one pound given as a drench, for calves, two ounces. As a rule i t does not pay to grub out loco-infested areas and the best prevention i s to keep that part of the range well up i n condition by not grazing too many animals on i t .  Young stock should be kept off loco  areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y where other forage i s scarce.  If the infestation by  loco weed i s very bad, that part of the range should be fenced off against stock, or the animals should not be herded on those lands. Larkspurs  (Delphinium) The larkspur species may be conveniently divided into two groups -  t a l l larkspur and low larkspur. choice of growth s i t e s .  These two groups differ  somewhat i n their  The t a l l species prefer moist sheltered gulches and  canyons of the higher ranges whereas the low larkspur grows on open h i l l sides, i n d r i e r l o c a l i t i e s than the t a l l species, and at somewhat lower elevations.  Both the t a l l and the low larkspur are found i n varying abund-  -126ance i n the f o o t h i l l and mountain pastures of the west. It i s probable that more deaths among c a t t l e on western ranges are caused by larkspur than by any other poisonous plant.  In 1915 the es-  timated money loss of c a t t l e from this cause on the Fishlake National Forest ranges i n Utah was f i f t e e n thousand d o l l a r s .  A l l parts of the larkspur  plant above ground are poisonous; most of the trouble i s caused by the leaves but some by the flowers a l s o .  The seeds contain more active poison  than the r e s t of the plant, but they hardly ever cause death, as they are r e a d i l y disseminated upon reaching maturity and are not sought for by stock.  After seed maturity the leafage seems to lose much of i t s t o x i c i t y . The low larkspurs are poisonous as long as their herbage l i v e s  but that generally l a s t s only through May and June.  Moreover, the low  species seldom grows densely enough for stock to crop f a t a l amounts of herbage.  The roots of the native larkspurs are never eaten, as they are  tough and woody and d i f f i c u l t to get  at.  Larkspur poisoning always causes constipation, and recovery usually follows i f this condition can be r e l i e v e d . occurs and occasionally death i s caused by choking.  Bloating sometimes Animals poisoned by  larkspur f a l l i n a peculiar way; the forelegs buckle and the animal supports i t s e l f by i t s head, and by spreading i t s hind legs.  Other common symptoms  are quivering of the entire body, loss of muscular control, weak, rapid pulse, and evidence of pain i n the abdomen, probably due to constipation. As already said, i t i s probable that, i f the constipation could be relieved as soon as the f i r s t symptoms of poisoning appear, the poison would not result f a t a l l y .  Many experiments have been t r i e d with various  -127remedies, such as barium c h l o r i d e , caffeine,  sodium benzoate, strychnine,  potassium permanganate, and atropine; but none of these has proved successfull.  Apparently favorable results have been obtained from hypodermic i n -  jections of physostignine s a l i c y l a t e , pilocarpine hydrochloride, and strychnine sulphate; but, while more than n i n e t y - s i s percent of the cases treated with t h i s remedy recovered, the t o t a l number of the tests made was not large enough to give absolute proof of the efficacy of the treatment. Most of the losses of c a t t l e from larkspur poisoning occur i n regions where the plant grows i n small dense patches, frequently i n gulches into which the animals stray and graze u n t i l they have eaten enough to cause poisoning.  In such areas the most practicable method of eradicat-  ing larkspur i s by grubbing i t out. ing t a l l larkspur i s by c u t t i n g .  Another effective method of eradicat-  The plants must be cut back twice the  f i r s t year and once i n each of the following two years.  The cutting method  however, requires transporting the labor to the area four times instead of once as the grubbing method requires. Death Camas (Zygadenus) Other common names for Zygadenus are A l k a l i grass, hog's potato, l o b e l i a , mystery grass, poison sego, soap plant and s q u i r r e l food.  Species  belonging to t h i s genus are erect perennial herbs growing either from rootstocks or a membraneous covered bulb, with leafy stems. long, narrow and grasslike;  The leaves are  the flowers are green, yellow or white, borne  i n terminal elongated or dense racemes or panicles. The species of death camas are widely distributed over the range areas and are found at a l l a l t i t u d e s .  The plants are somewhat exacting i n  -128the matter of s i t e , preferring f a i r l y moist l o c a l i t i e s into which, the water seeps slowly rather than wet, swampy or very dry ground,  Plate No. 5 shows  a t y p i c a l s i t e with death camas mixed with Claytonia spp. at the edge of the timber at an elevation of about twenty-seven hundred feet.  Death camas  r a r e l y l a s t s l a t e r than July, although the l i f e of i t s herbage varies with the a l t i t u d e and the exposure where i t grows. There are about ten species of Zygadenus, a l l of which are supposed to be more or less poisonous.  Experiments with the various species  prove that Zygadenus Gramineus i s the most virulent species, with Zygadenus Yenenosus second; and that Zygadenus Elegaus and Zygadenus Paniculatus, probably the next two most Important species, are only about one-seventh as toxic. Most of the losses of stock from death camas poisoning occur among sheep, but horses and c a t t l e are a l s o sometimes poisoned.  Stockmen  are generally not familiar with the plant and are therefore l i k e l y to att r i b u t e to other plants losses of stock which may have been caused by deathcamas. Investigators  d i f f e r as to whether the largest number of cases of  poisoning from death camas are caused by the bulb or by a e r i a l portions of the plant.  While the entire plant, including the seeds, i s known to be  poisonous, the bulb contains a large amount of active poison, though evidently less than the seed.  Ordinarily, the bulbs are pulled out of the  ground with d i f f i c u l t y . The more pronounced general symptoms of death camas poisoning are frothing at the mouth, vomiting, restlessness, weakened heart a c t i o n ,  -ISOirregular spasmodic breathing, convulsions,bloating, weakness of the muscles shown i n a staggering gait and i n a b i l i t y to r i s e when down, and general'paralysis. Bleeding, a remedy commonly used by herders for death camas poisoning, i s useless?  Any antidote is ineffective unless given as soon as  symptoms of poisoning appear, f o r the poison cannot be counteracted after i t leaves the stomach.  Medical tests carefully conducted by workers i n the  United States Department of Agriculture have f a i l e d to develop an effective antidote against death camas poisoning.  Clearly then, the best method of  combating this weed poisoning i s by prevention.  A l l stockmen should become  acquainted with the plant and take measures to keep their stock away from i t , especially i n the early spring before an abundance of nutritious feed is  available.  Water Hemlock (Cicuta) Other common names for Cicuta are cowbane, beaver poison, musquash root, muskrat weed, parsnip, snakeweed, snakeroot, and spotted parsley.  The water hemlocks are perennial umbellifers growing from a root-  stock, with pinnate leaves and toothed l e a f l e t s .  The flowers are white;  the f r u i t ovoid to obicular, smooth, unwinged but with prominent, f l a t t i s h r i b s , the l a t e r a l ones largest*  The seeds are nearly c y l i n d r i c a l .  A  s t r i k i n g p e c u l i a r i t y of the roots of most species i s their characteristic musky odor and horizontal chambered partitions*  In western North America,  water hemlock usually occurs between elevations of about three thousand and eight thousand feet*  The growth areas of water hemlock are much r e s t r i c t e d .  I t i s found only i n moist or wet l o c a l i t i e s , as along the banks of streams,  -131i r r i g a t i o n ditches, i n swamps, and on w i l d , moist hay land, usually i n isolated patches*  '  Although there i s considerable difference of opinion among i n vestigators as to the number of animals poisoned by water hemlock, there is no doubt that a l l of the higher animals, including man, are susceptible the poison.  to  A large proportion of the animals poisoned by water hemlock  d i e , f o r , unless the animals are treated immediately after the f i r s t symptom of poisoning occurs, there i s small chance of saving them.  Because the  toxic p r i n c i p l e acts so v i r u l e n t l y i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y impossible to treat a large number of cases at one time. Investigators d i f f e r again as to the toxic properties of the stems and leaves of water hemlock.  The general opinion, however, i s  that  the whole of the plant i s poisonous, at least during the early stages of i t s growth, although there i s much less danger i n the part above ground. Usually there are not tops and seeds enough to be harmful when the plant i s mixed with hay.  Most of the poisonous p r i n c i p l e of Cicuta i s contained i n  the root, which i s so v i r u l e n t l y poisonous that a very small amount appears to be sufficient to k i l l any of the higher animals* The symptoms of Cicuta poisoning are frothing at the mouth, excessive flow of urine, very violent convulsions, often with more or less opisthotonos, or arching of the back, and evidence of severe pain. breathing is'apparently labored and heart action i r r e g u l a r .  The  The action of  hemlock poison i s very rapid and c a t t l e have been known to die within f i f teen minutes after  the appearance of the f i r s t symptom of poisoning, but  sometimes the animals have been known to l i v e for two or three hours.  Be-  cause of quick a c t i o n of the water hemlock poison, antidotes are r a r e l y of any use, and prevention i s more effective  than cure*  The roots of water  hemlock are only about six inches below the ground and so i t i s comparativel y easy to eradicate the plant by grubbing.  If,  for any reason, grubbing  i s impractical, i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to fence stock away from infested areas as i t i s almost invariably confined to isolated  patches.  Lupines (Lupinus) The lupines are given many common names such as, blue bean, blue pea, Indian bean, Old Maid's Bonnet, Quaker's-bonnet, and Sundial. are distributed over a l l the western stock grazing regions.  Lupines  They grow so  abundantly i n some l o c a l i t i e s that s o l i d tracts of the blossoms are v i s i b l e for miles.  There are about twenty-five species represented i n the west,  most of them preferring the slopes of h i l l s , or portions of mountain ranges at moderate elevations.  Lupines make f a i r l y good forage plants i f not eat-  en at the poisonous stage of their growth, i n f a c t , i n some areas where large tracts of dense stands occur, they are often cut for hay* Experiments indicate that p r a c t i c a l l y a l l animals are more or less susceptible to the toxic substances contained i n lupine.  However, there are  few authentic cases of lupine poisoning of c a t t l e , most losses occurring among sheep and to a small extent among horses. The f r u i t of the lupines i s extremely t o x i c , and the plant i s very dangerous to stock when the pods are f u l l y developed and f i l l e d with ripe seed.  Animals poisoned by lupine become crazed, move about with an i r r e g -  u l a r , staggering g a i t , froth at the mouth, and with sheep , butt at any object i n their way.  Spasms and f a l l i n g f i t s are also characteristic and the  - 1 3 3 -  flow of urine i s always increased, often containing blood.  Post mortem  examinations show that the effects of lupine poison on the animal organism are similar to acute loco poisoning, the membranes of the brain and lungs being congested, and the small blood vessels ruptured, There i s no known antidote for lupine poisoning that i s and the best procedure i s prevention.  effective  Animals should be kept off areas  heavily infested while the plants are setting seed and u n t i l the seed i s shed.  Hay should not be made from lupine unless i t i s cut while the plants  are i n bloom or after the seed has been shed. Milkweeds  (Asclepias) Certain species of milkweeds have long been known to contain  . toxic properties.  Whorled milkweed (Asclepias Galioides) has caused losses  of sheep, c a t t l e , and horses throughout i t s range, and i n some sections these losses have been very great. h i l l areas. cumstances,  It occurs on dry plains and i n the foot-  Although animals do not devour the plant under ordinary c i r they eat i t when they are very hungry.  Poisoning usually occurs  when stock come on a patch of milkweed after they have been driven some d i s tance. Whorled milkweed i s a perennial with horizontal spreading roots. It is very tough and d i f f i c u l t to eradicate. plant i s r e a d i l y d i s t r i b u t e d .  As the seeds are winged the  It grows abundantly along railroads, on the  banks of ditches, and i n waste places.  Obviously one who would prevent an-  imals being poisoned from milkweed should learn to recognize the plant and ' keep hungry animals away from i t .  -134-  Aconite (Aconitum Columbianum) Aconite or Monk f s-hood, i s an erect, smooth, single-stemmed plant two to five feet high, with numerous leaves at the base and a long terminal cluster of conspicuous "hooded" blue flowers.  The plant resembles blue  larkspur, with which i t i s commonly confused, and grows i n close proximity to i t .  It i s v i r t u a l l y impossible for the layman to t e l l the difference  between aconite and t a l l larkspur by the leaves alone, but when they are in flower they are r e a d i l y distinguishable by anyone.  The larkspur flower i s  provided with a conspicuous spur; the aconite flower i s without a spur but i s conspicuously hooded.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n i s about the same as larkspur.  Aconite i s known to contain toxic properties, and probably i s more poisonous than i t s closest r e l a t i v e s ,  the larkspurs*  It i s not p a l -  atable to c a t t l e and therefore causes no losses to this class of stock. Ergot (Clavlceps Purpurea) Ergot i s a p a r a s i t i c fungus, having the appearance of a black spur, straight or s l i g h t l y curved, one-fourth to one-half of an inch i n length, which grows i n the heads of some grasses. host plants, couchgrass  It occurs on a number of  such as wild rye (Elymus), various meadow grasses, bluejoint,  (Agropyron), Junegrass (Koeleria), and others.  It occurs most  frequently on wild rye, and may be present wherever that plant grows.  It  usually appears i n the middle of August and remains u n t i l late i n the f a l l . Ergot produces two forms of poisoning - the nervous form and the gangrenous form.  Symptoms i n both forms of the disease are fatigue,  cold  sweat, nervousness, paralysis of the entire body beginning with the tongue and throat, and digestive disturbances.  In pregnant animals the poison  often causes powerful uterine contractions causing the animal to abort.  -135The gangrenous form of ergotism i s characterized by swelling and the formation of dry gangrene of the hoofs, followed by death from exhaustion. Large quantities of ergot are required to cause f a t a l  results.  As soon as evidence of poisoning appears the animals must be r e moved from the-infected plants.  A regular dose of Glauber's s a l t s should  be administered to a i d i n eliminating the poison.  As the poison must be  gradually eliminated from the system, the results of treatment are necessa r i l y slow, MECHANICALLY INJURIOUS PLANTS  .  A large number of the plant genera contain species that cause mechanical injury to stock.  Sandburs, cockleburs, and certain c a c t i need  only be mentioned i n t h i s connection.  Many such plants cause considerable  annoyance to l i v e s t o c k , the effective plant parts frequently entering into the f l e s h of the animals and causing inflammation of varying degrees of seriousness.  Mechanical i n j u r i e s caused by plants on range and pasture  are i n evidence mostly i n the f a l l of the year, about the time of seed maturity*  The most serious mechanical injuries brought about by vegetation  are caused by grasses.  Among these,  genera are most i n j u r i o u s :  species embraced i n the following  Bromegrass. (Bromus); barley and s q u i r r e l t a i l  grasses (Hordeum and Sitanion, respectively); needlegrass (Stipa); threeawn ( A r i s t i d a ) ; and gramagrass (Bouteloua). Bromegrasses - Downy bromegrass, orum); hairy bromegrass  sometimes c a l l e d June brome (Bromus teet-  (Bromus v i l l o s u s ) ; and red bromegrass  rubeus) are the most troublesome species of the genus.  (Bromus  The causes of the  i n j u r y i n f l i c t e d by these plants are much the same; the injurious effects are, likewise, p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l . breaks up r e a d i l y . calluses,  At seed maturity the seed head  As the animal grazes, the f l o r e t s , by means of sharp  and l a t e r the long rough awns, penetrate and cause sores and i n -  flammation of the s k i n , eyes, l i p s , teeth, tongue, throat, stomach, and intestines. Downy brome i s p a r t i c u l a r l y prevalent on over-grazed sections of the ranges i n B r i t i s h Columbia, indeed, is an indicator of over-grazing to a certain extent. ication.  It i s an annual grass and this assists i n i t s erad-  Where an area is heavily infested with this grass i t may be  burnt just before the seed i s about to be shed.  This gives about one hun-  dred percent k i l l and so gives those desirable perennial grasses a chance to t h r i v e besides lessening the r i s k of injury to stock*  The loss of feed  i s negligible as this plant i s of very low feeding value once the seed has started to form. Barley and S q u i r r e l t a i l Grasses - These closely related grasses are probably the most destructive of the physically injurious plants. parts, of the West the awned spikelets,  In many  especially those of s q u i r r e l t a i l  barley (Hordeum Jubatum) are very injurious, p a r t i c u l a r l y to sheep.  As  many as six hundred thousand awns are sometimes produced by a single plant. The grasses1 also s p o i l much good hay making i t unfit for use. Needlegrasses - D e v i l ' s darning needle (Stipa spartea) and needle-andthread (Stipa comata) are conspicuous species of the genus i n the i n j u r i e s which they i n f l i c t upon l i v e s t o c k .  The awns of these grasses are several  inches l o n g ; the spikelets or f l o r e t s are sharp-pointed and r e a l l y bore i n -  -137to the skin and the intestines of animals.  At maturity- the awn bends near  the middle and becomes s l i g h t l y twisted below the f i r s t bend.  Variation  i n the humidity of the a i r causes the awn to twist and untwist, and i n this way the sharp-pointed f l o r e t penetrates the surface to which i t i s attached.  In range stock serious inflammation and p e r i t o n i t i s are sometimes  caused by these grasses.  Occasionally, i f the spikelets get into the eyes  of the animals, blindness i s caused and eventually death from starvation. Three-awn - Dogtown three-awn (Aristida adscensionis)  and Fendler's three-  awn ( A r i s t i d a Eendleriana) i n some l o c a l i t i e s are troublesome when the seed is ripe.  At maturity the seed, with i t s awn attachment, i s blown about by  the wind, the sharp-pointed callus being i n advance.  These awns work their  way into the n o s t r i l s and eyes of a l l classes of stock. Gramagrass - Needlegrama (Boutelona aristidoides)  i s probably the only  species of gramagrass which i s mechanically injurious to foraging animals. The entire spike breaks from the common axis, the segments being provided with a sharp callus point at the base. persons i s anything but pleasant.  The effect of these segments on  The sharp base of the spikes penetrates  the stockings and other clothing and then breaks off.  The skin i s  left  f u l l of "needlepoints". ASTRAGALUS COMPESTRIS No mention has been made of this allegedly poisonous plant.  The  reason for t h i s omission i s that there i s no d e f i n i t e knowledge of the poisonous properties of this species. not yet been obtained.  Conclusive experimental results have  Work i s now being done at the Kamloops Bange Ex-  perimental Station on t h i s plant but results w i l l not be apparent for a number of years.  Nutritious Montane Grazing for Breeding Cows.  PART I I I .  MARKETING 1:' |.|  •i  .•':|  "i  CHAPTER V I I SURVEY OF CANADIAN B E E F C A T T L E MARKETING PRODUCTION  The beef c a t t l e industry i s of great importance i n agriculture. This branch of agriculture i s exceeded i n value of output by only F i e l d Crops and Dairying.  The beef cattle industry i t s e l f may be divided into  two branches; production on range areas and production under, more or l e s s , farming conditions.  These types of production are carried on i n two main  areas - the Western provinces and the Eastern provinces.  In B r i t i s h C o l -  umbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan, beef c a t t l e are produced p r a c t i c a l l y ent i r e l y under range conditions.  In Manitoba, i n the early days, beef cattle  were produced under range conditions, but at the present time the business i s carried on under semi-farming conditions.  Ontario and Quebec produce  beef almost e n t i r e l y under farm conditions; also the Maritimes. Canada Chart No. IV shows the t o t a l beef c a t t l e population of Canada and the value of i t i s shown I n Chart No. V . Chart No. VI shows the proportionate changes in the beef cattle population of the various provinces clusive of the Maritimes) and of Canada.  (ex-  This chart shows that from 1915 to  1917, c a t t l e populations p r a c t i c a l l y doubled i n a l l provinces. 1  It also  shows very c l e a r l y the downward trend i n production since 1920 i n Canada and i n the more important beef producing provinces.  The trend i n Manitoba i s  s l i g h t l y downward but i n B r i t i s h Columbia the trend has been upward.  In  this province, however, production took a tremendous drop i n 1930-31, but since that time the trend i s again upward.  The c a t t l e population of B r i t i s h  Columbia i s very e r r a t i c and takes tremendous sweeps up or down i n a very -'•The Maritimes are excluded by reason of their r e l a t i v e unimportance.  -139-  CHART NO. IY .;.  THE BEEF CATTLE POPULATION OF CANADA 1881  -  1934,  (Millions of Head)  -140-  GHAKT K0. V  TOTAL VALUE OE BEEF CATTLE IN CANADA 1910  -  1934,  (Millions o f Dollars)  -142short time.  Alberta i s somewhat the" same as B r i t i s h Columbia, but the  r a t i o of the change i s not as great.  As might be expected i n a mixed farm-  ing section, Ontario's production i s very steady, although Quebec shows a larger degree of v a r i a b i l i t y .  In interpreting semi-log charts such as this  the r a t i o of change rather than absolute numbers should be observed.  The  magnitude of the change i s not as apparent but unfortunately, i n order to show c l e a r l y the production of a l l the provinces and Canada on one chart, i t i s necessary to use t h i s type of chart. B r i t i s h Columbia As was stated, the beef c a t t l e population of B r i t i s h Columbia shows tremendous v a r i a b i l i t y . data at hand. t o t a l beef.  Why this i s so, cannot be explained from  B r i t i s h Columbia, however, produces a small part of Canada's Chart No. VII shows the percentage of B r i t i s h Columbia's beef  c a t t l e population to that of Canada.  It w i l l be noted that the general  trend i s upward but that i n 1930-51 the beef c a t t l e population of B r i t i s h Columbia took a tremendous drop.  It i s interesting to see that value per  head of beef c a t t l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s somewhat above the general average value for Canada.  This fact i s shown i n Chart No. VIII and i l l u s -  trates a spread which i s p r a c t i c a l l y constant.  This might be interpreted  that the B r i t i s h Columbia cattleman has a s l i g h t advantage over cattlemen i n the rest of Canada i n the matter of price or value of stock. CONSUMPTION Meat consumed per capita — the consumption of beef i n Canada.  There are many factors which affect  Price of beef i s the main factor a l -  though with this must be considered the price of competing and substitution products.  Business cycles affect  the standard of l i v i n g and this i n turn  -143-  CHART MO.  VII  PEREEITTAG-E OF T H E B S S F C A T T L E POPULATION OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA TO THAT OF CABALA.  1911 - 1934.  -144-  CHART NO. VIII ,  COMPARISON OI? AVERAGE VALUE-PER HEAD -.IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AND CANADA •  •  /oo  7*  \  1 »  So  t  ' '/ /  ,J-f.  /  •  \  A ;  \\  \_  - /—«—  \  >/ */  V\ y>  6  I— /f/°  • —L-  /f/5'  *  \  \ \ \  / •  ZS  \ \  > * • \ *  \  1  /feo  i //*$-  i /fso  V  - ' X  - i. /ps  -145-  i s evidenced i n the consumption of meats.  Chart No. IX shows the annual  per capita consumption of meats i n Canada from 1921 to 1933.  I t w i l l he  noted that: (1) Mutton and lamb consumption i s extremely stable. (2)  Beef consumption has been adversely affected by the general business collapse i n 1929-30.  (3)  Pork consumption i s extremely variable and follows roughly the hog price cycle. In 1930 the consumption of pork rose and the consumption of beef  fell..  This might be explained by the fact that the r e t a i l price of pork  f e l l more rapidly than the r e t a i l price of beef. The problem of analyzing meat consumption would require a large amount of s t a t i s t i c a l data and can only be dealt with l i g h t l y here. S t a t i s t i c a l data, however, can be obtained and would make a valuable study. The Trend i n Demand Market demands f o r a type of stock- are ever-changing.  In the  early days of construction camps and long drives, cattle were put on the market as three or four year olds.  Now the cry i s for baby beef. Part of  this change i n demand i s due to changing social conditions.  Today there are  far more people crowded into c i t i e s and a great many of these l i v e i n apartments.  Urban people, on the whole, have much smaller families than rural  inhabitants and this causes a greater demand for smaller cuts of beef. The most logical and cheapest way to supply small cuts of beef i s to market the animal at an earlier age. Per one pound of saleable meat a bullock of three years old has consumed twenty-two and one-half pounds (dry matter) of food,  -146-  CHART NO. IX PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF MEATS IN CANADA 1921  - 1935.  .  (Pounds)  /fj2/  /f*3  /fss  /fi?  //jp  /fJ/  yp3  whereas one k i l l e d at eighteen months has only consumed eleven and threequarter pounds for each one pound of saleable meat produced.  The younger  animal, however, requires a higher proportion of concentrated food - two and one-half pounds as compared with one and one-quarter pounds for the older animal.  This would seem to indicate that It might be to the stock-  growers' advantage to produce yearling beef.  The consumption of feed i s  l e s s per pound of meat produced and the rate of turnover i s increased, both of which factors are desirable i n any industry. Grading and Standardization In the matter of grading of beef there i s much room for extension. The consumer i s , as a r u l e , a poor judge of good meat and the l o c a l butcher may s e l l almost anything as prime b e e f »  If the meat turns out to be poor,  the consumer usually blames i t onto bad cooking or just considers himself unlucky.  As a group, the consumers are extremely apathetic as to the grade  of meat they d e s i r e .  The ranchman may do his best to meet the popular de-  mand but the ignorance of the consumer as to the qualities of good beef ent i r e l y thwart him.  The education of the consumer i s a f i e l d i n which the  government might serve a useful part* At the National Beef Cattle Conference, held i n Winnipeg i n 1928, i t was recognized that some steps had to be taken i n grading beef.  Some un-  scrupulous r e t a i l e r s were, and s t i l l are, s e l l i n g extremely poor beef as good and choice.  The consumer did not know that by paying a high price  whether he would be sure of getting good beef.  As a result of t h i s , a sys-  tem for the grading of carcasses was established to work i n conjunction with the Government inspection of slaughterings.  Inspected beef was to be graded  by Government inspectors on the r a i l and branded, either red or blue, as to  quality.  This plan was put into operation some time i n 1930 and so far  s u i t s have been rather poor.  re-  The consumer, i n most cases, i s ignorant of  the fact that there i s such a thing as branded beef and, consequently,  is  s t i l l easy prey for the unscrupulous r e t a i l e r . A plan of grading beef should be put into operation and might be analogous to the present egg-grading plan.  Inspected beef carcasses could  be classed into a number of grades and those that are not inspected should be marked ungraded..  This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should be carried right through to  the r e t a i l e r ' s counter where the beef should be p l a i n l y marked as to grade. This alone i s not s u f f i c i e n t . be adopted.  A program of education of the consumer should  Steps should be taken by the government or by the beef c a t t l e  producers to educate the consumer to demand good meat.  Furthermore, a l l ex-  ports of c a t t l e and of beef should be inspected by the government, at the point of departure, and only those animals and carcasses that come up to a high standard should be allowed to be exported.  This w i l l guarantee the  good reputation of Canadian beef on the export markets and consequently i t w i l l enjoy a more favorable reception. Grading l i v e cattle on the public stockyards i s at present well organized but the grading of direct shipments is completely i n the hands of the packer.  The grading of d i r e c t shipments by the government would e n t a i l  a much greater inspection service than i s maintained at present.  There ap-  pears to be no other solution of this d i f f i c u l t y at the present time.  In  B r i t i s h Columbia, where a livestock exchange has just recently been establ i s h e d , the grading of stock has been e n t i r e l y i n the hands of the packers. It can be depended on that the packers are not over-grading stock shipped  -149EXPORTS Canada has, at the present time, a surplus of beef c a t t l e production amounting to about f i f t e e n percent per year.  This surplus must be  exported and has a depressing e f f e c t on the home market.  There i s a direct  c o r r e l a t i o n between exports and prices as i s shown i n Chart No. X.  Pos-  s i b l y the foreign trade should be expanded, but t h i s would make greater competition f o r Argentina and some other large beef exporting countries, From an international viewpoint this might not be desirable.  On the other  hand, Canada i s closer than Argentina to the European markets and l i e s i n the same temperate zone, and so could ship beef at a lower cost.  Canada  has a much greater area than either Argentina or B r a z i l ; much of t h i s area has been e n t i r e l y undeveloped, and so the production of beef might be expanded easily.  To compete with Argentina, however, would require that the  q u a l i t y of the stock of this country be improved and, by and large, the expansion of the export market i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y desirable. It i s desirable, however, that the present export surplus be d i s posed of i n the most profitable way. of beef show considerable fluctuation.  Canada's exports of beef c a t t l e and The imposition of t a r i f f s or em-  bargoes by importing countries exert such a strong influence on the Canadian export trade as to exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of a long time trend. Year to year fluctuations are tremendous, especially i n the export trade with a single country. Charts No. XI and No. XII show total Canadian exports of beef cattle and of beef, respectively, f o r the years 1922-34 inclusive.  Unfor-  tunately the length of time f o r which figures are available i s so short  -151-  CHART NO. XI  EXPORTS OP CANADIAN BEE3F CATTLE 1922 - 1932. (Thousands of Head)  Zoo  / oo  /fit,  //Jo  /f-?Z  -152-  CHART NO.XII  EXPORTS OP BEEF FROM CANADA 1922 -  1932.  (Millions of Pounds)  -153that l i t t l e can be deduced from these charts. as with production, i s downward.  The general trend of exports,  Causal relationships can be traced more  e a s i l y by breaking the figures up into exports of beef c a t t l e and of beef to the two p r i n c i p l e markets, v i z . , Great B r i t a i n and the United States. This i s done i n charts No. XIII to XVI, i n c l u s i v e . United States Undoubtedly the United States i s Canada's best market for beef and beef c a t t l e .  The nearness of the market with i t s large centres of pop-  ulation make i t p a r t i c u l a r l y desirable.  P r i c e s , generally, are higher i n  the United States, there being an increasing d i s p a r i t y between i t s human and beef cattle populations.  For seven and one-half years previous to the  T a r i f f Act of 1921, Canadian c a t t l e entered the United States duty free. That Act imposed duties which were increased i n 1922 to 33% or 43% ad v a l orem, depending on weight, and to three cents per pound on fresh beef or v e a l , . These duties were attempts to bolster up the home industry i n the United States and to forego the necessity of importing foodstuffs.  The  effect of this t a r i f f was to reduce materially the exports of beef and beef c a t t l e from Canada to the United States for the years 1922 to 1926.  (See  Charts No, XIII and XIV). The high prices p r e v a i l i n g over the period from 1926 to 1929 enabled Canadian producers to ship both beef and beef c a t t l e into the United States at a p r o f i t i n spite of the high t a r i f f . . of both these more than doubled.  From 1926 to 1927 exports  In 1930 however, the combined effect of  low prices and of the United States T a r i f f Act of 1930 (Hawley-Smoot T a r i f f ) , which imposed drastic duties on beef and c a t t l e ,  (three cents per pound on  the l a t t e r ) reduced Canadian exports to the United States, almost to the  -154-  CHART iKO, X I I I  BEEP CATTLE EXPORTS TO U.S.A. PROM CANADA. YEARS 1922 - 19S2  (incl.)  Thousands of Head  }3°  /C  -155-  CHART NO. XIV '  EXPORTS OF BEEF FROM. CANADA TO THE UNITED STATES 1922 - 1932. (Millions of Pounds)  4o  o i  I  •.'fti  •  r  l  [  'ft*  /fc 8  /^o  ^  '  ./p*  —156  CHART NO. XV  BEEF CATTLE EXPORTS TO GREAT BRITAIN FROM CANADA. YEARS 1922 - 1932  (incl.)  Thousands of Head  /oo\  So  o  /px  • / P *  tfJ*  -157-  CHART NO. XVI  EXPORTS OE BEEF FROM CANADA TO GREAT BRITAIN 192E -  1952.  (Millions of Pounds)  -158vanishing p o i n t .  As a r e s u l t of this action, i n December 1934, cattle were  s e l l i n g i n Canada at a price below the cost of production. In January, 1935, a sudden price advance added about twenty d o l l a r s per head to the value of a l l beef cattle i n Canada. vance was the cumulative effect  of a number of factors.  This price adThe p o l i c y of the  United States government i n c u r t a i l i n g the production of beef cattle i n an effort to r a i s e prices had a b e n e f i c i a l effect. effect  The second factor was the  of the drought which d r a s t i c a l l y curtailed production even further  and forced to market m i l l i o n s of cattle i n the United States.  This l a t t e r  factor amplified the government's attempts at curtailment of production to such an extent as to cause a s c a r c i t y .  Prices were raised i n the United  States to such an extent as to make i t possible for Canadian c a t t l e to again jump the t a r i f f w a l l .  This relieved the surplus burden on Canadian markets  to a large extent and so prices i n Canada rose abruptly. Trade agreements concluded i n the l a t t e r part of 1935 between the United States and Canada allow a c e r t a i n number (about one hundred and f i f t y - s i x thousand head) of Canadian beef cattle to enter the United States at a reduced duty of two cents per pound livewelght. operative January 1st,  1936, and at the present time there i s approximately  ten thousand head per month crossing the border. edly increase as f a l l  This agreement became  This number w i l l undoubt-  approaches.  Great B r i t a i n The B r i t i s h market is undoubtedly a second choice market for Canadian beef and beef c a t t l e .  Cattle are shipped from Canada to Great B r i t a i n  only when the United States market i s cut off by reason of high  tariffs.  -159Charts XV" and X\TC show markedly the effect of closing the American market. Immediately the t a r i f f p r o h i b i t s shipment t o the United States the exports to Great B r i t a i n increase.  In 1926 when i t became possible f o r Canadian  r  c a t t l e to jump the t a r i f f w a l l , exports to Great B r i t a i n p r a c t i c a l l y ceased.  Again i n 1930 t h i s phenomenon was exhibited.  There are a number of  factors which make Great B r i t a i n a secondary market for Canadian beef and beef c a t t l e .  The high cost of ocean transport i s a l i m i t i n g factor.  Cattle shipped a l i v e shrink a great deal i n transport and must be put on the feed-lots i n Great B r i t a i n .  By the time the cost of the feed and trans-  portation i s deducted from the sale price, there i s very l i t t l e l e f t f o r the producer or shipper i n Canada.  Then again, Canadian beef has to com-  pete against a very high quality product imported from Argentina and from the I r i s h Free State.  Up u n t i l 1925 there was an embargo on Canadian  c a t t l e which made i t necessary to slaughter a l l stock immediately rival.  This was a precaution against foot-and-mouth disease.  on ar-  Slaughtering  Canadian c a t t l e on a r r i v a l gave them a rather poor name as the animals were t h i n and i n poor condition after the long ocean voyage.  As. a result of  t h i s , Canadian c a t t l e were regarded with disfavor on the B r i t i s h market f o r a number of years.  -160-  CHAPTER VIII  MARKETING PROCEDURE ON ORGANIZED MARKETS Stockyards and Public Markets For the protection of the farming community, Departments of Agriculture encouraged the establishment of the open market place, known as the public stockyards, and have adopted regulations for i t s management and control.  This i s the place to which i t was expected a l l buyers would come  and to which, naturally, a l l sellers should come. In Canada the primary livestock market i s at Toronto, with secondary markets at Montreal, Winnipeg, Calgary and Edmonton. There are a number of smaller .markets at such places as Brandon, Regina, Moosejaw and recently, Vancouver. For many years stockyards functioned i n this manner. Stock was accumulated by drovers, shippers or producers at country points,  I t was sent by r a i l to  the public stockyards, where numerous buyers i n open competition bought their livestock, and thus the market price was fixed.  In those days there  were numerous packers, butchers, exporters, feeders and others competing for the stock which arrived, and the law of supply and demand had a f a i r f i e l d for operation. The producer, under these conditions, was always ensured of getting a market price definitely fixed by active competition. Some of the stockyards are owned and operated by joint stock companies and of these, some are controlled i n a large part by the meat packer Others again have just evolved where the volume of shipping has justified the establishment of shipping and storage f a c i l i t i e s . In general, stockyards companies do not deal i n livestock.  Their  purpose i s to supply the buyers and sellers with a meeting place at which,.  -161-  the product may be viewed and sales made. The stockyard has the f a c i l i t i e s for handling the stock while i t i s on their premises.  The company has no  influence on the market and i s primarily interested i n providing the f a c i l i t i e s f o r as large a number of livestock as i t can attract.  The producers  have other means of disposing of their stock, such as, shipping to the packer direct, consequently i t i s to the advantage of the stockyard to attract sellers by maintaining an impartial attitude and imposing f a i r rates for feed and storage.  Buyers are attracted by the fact that at the stock-  yard they can purchase any volume of stock that they require and of the grade and quality desired. There i s considerable complexity i n the organization of a stockyard . The producer may s e l l the stock himself but, as a rule, the stock i s put i n the charge of a commission firm.  These firms maintain a large force  of salesmen, clerks, accountants and. executives, and have up-to-the-minute reports on a l l livestock markets. Because these firms are i n such close contact with the market at a l l times, they can, as a rule, obtain better prices for stock than the owner. As a result of the relatively perishable nature of the product the staff of these commission firms i s large for the amount of business done. With the increase i n the shipment of livestock by truck, commission firms have had to increase their staffs.  I t i s now nec-  essary to have men at a l l gates to the stockyards to meet the truckers and obtain their business. The Dominion Government retains control over the public stockyards and from time to time imposes regulations regarding the operations. I t maintains a special branch, known since 1935 as the Markets Service Branch, previously being known as the Markets Intelligence Service, for the admin-  -162i s t r a t i o n and enforcement of the Livestock and Livestock Products A c t . This act was passed i n 1917 and brought a l l stockyards i n Canada under Federal control i n 1919.  It was consolidated and revised i n 1925.  It  provides for a market news service and.enforces regulations set up by the Act. (1)  These a c t i v i t i e s result i n : The bonding of a l l Commission men, co-operative organizations and dealers;  (2)  The operation of l i v e s t o c k exchanges;  (5)  The regulation of stockyards service charge;  (4)  The i n s t i t u t i n g and auditing of trust  (5)  The supervising of accommodation for livestock;  (6)  The regulating of the quality and cost of feed.  accounts;  As was stated previously, buyer and seller meet at the public stockyard and so the forces of demand and supply are brought together to create a market.  A complete consideration of the complex marketing s i t -  uation i n Canada i s not within the scope of the study but there are cert a i n aspects which can be touched on. Figures for the r e c e i p t s , p r i c e s , e t c . , are available for the livestock marketed on the public stockyards.  As only  40-60%  of the beef  c a t t l e marketed i n Canada passes through the public stockyards,all stati s t i c a l analysis must be interpreted i n view of that f a c t . Receipts Seasonal v a r i a t i o n i n receipts of cattle are the direct result of general range management.  Chart No. XVII shows the Indices of Seasonal  V a r i a t i o n i n Receipts of Beef Cattle at the P r i n c i p a l Canadian Markets. The marked upward trend, starting i n June i s the result of cattle being  -165-  CHART HO. XVII  INDICES OF SEASONAL .'ViHIfl.TION IN RECEIPTS OF BEEF CATTLE AT PRINCIPAL CANADIAN MARKETS  -164-  brought i n off the range.  The beef round-up usually i s not held before  July and nay take place any time from then on.  This results i n large  supplies of range beef arriving on the market.  As might be expected, an  overloaded market i n the late summer and f a l l months increases the exports of cattle.  Chart No, XVIII shows the Indices of Seasonal Variation of Ex-  ports of Beef Cattle from Canada and this figure corresponds to the previous one to a marked degree. By November practically a l l the cattle are in off the ranges and so receipts drop precipitously. It would appear from these charts that the consumption of beef must be extremely elastic or that large amounts are put i n storage during the  f a l l and winter.  This i s not so, although cold storage holdings are  increased during the f a l l and winter to a certain extent. Many of the cattle marketed furing the f a l l are stored i n another way.  There i s con-  siderable feeding of livestock done i n Ontario and Quebec. These cattle are bought i n the f a l l and come back on the market again i n the late spring and summer. By counting these animals but once, that i s , when they are to be slaughtered, the upswing of the seasonal variation of receipts curve would be leveled considerably. Prices It might be expected that i f the law of supply and demand has freedom of action the prices of cattle would drop i n the late summer and fall.  This i s true.  Chart No. XIX shows the Indices of Seasonal Variation  of Prices of Beef Cattle on the Principal Canadian Markets and illustrates price decline i n the f a l l when receipts are heaviest and price increases i n late winter and spring when receipts are l i g h t .  Chart No. XX shows the  -165-  INDICES 01 SEASONAL VARIATION IN EXPORTS OE BEEF CATTLE  j * n ,  :  fH.  /fir-  //<-•••  M*f  ^  "f-  A  ^"  -166-  CHART MO. XIX INDICES OE SEASONAL VARIATION IN PRICES OP BEEF CATTLE (Weighted Monthly Average 1922  -  1932)  AT PRINCIPAL CANADIAN MARKETS  >  ; :  :  I/O  /DO  So  f*J>. (pp. -fyt  'rfy  3"'S /f^.  Syr! Od.  pec.  -167-  CEART NO, XX  COKRELATIYE COMPARISON OF PRICES AND RECEIPTS OF BEEF CATTLE AT PRINCIPAL CANADIAN MARKETS  -168correlation between, the Indices of Seasonal Variation of Prices and Receipts to advantage. The correlation of indices of seasonal variation i s rather a novel method but i n this case i t appears to be the only method, as f u l l s t a t i s t i c a l data i s not available.  These charts of seasonal var-  iation are not concerned with absolute values and are representative of the average year.  These do not, i n themselves, provide a basis for price fore-  casting, but i t may be interpreted that i n the average year prices are low in the f a l l and high i n the spring and summer. An interesting study has been made on the receipts and prices of Good and Choice, up to 1,050 lbs. Steers, The general price trend i s simi l a r , being up i n the spring and down i n the f a l l . cattle show a striking relation to the price.  The receipts of these  A representative year, 1934,  i s presented i n Chart No. XXI and shows a direct correlation between prices and receipts.  I t might be interpreted from t h i s , that as the heaviest re-  ceipts of good and choice cattle are in the spring, most of these animals have been on the feed-lot.  I t also might be interpreted that stock-feeders,  being closer to the market, are better able to take advantage of a turn in price, and so, i f the market takes an upturn, receipts immediately increase* The Meat Packer Production has been b r i e f l y outlined and the marketing procedure given roughly but the meat packer, who i s the link between the producer and the consumer, has been mentioned but l i t t l e . one of Canada's most important industries.  The meat packing industry i s In 1932, i t ranked third i n the  point of gross value of output and f i r s t i n the cost of materials used. This industry, as might be expected, i s concentrated i n the larger centres  -169-  CHART NO. XXI COMPARISON OP THE PRICES AND RECEIPTS OE STEERS, GOOD AND CHOICE, UP TO 1050 POUNDSs AT THE PRINCIPAL CANADIAN MARKETS - 1 9 5 4 .  -170of population, Ontario, i n 1933, producing 46% of the t o t a l value of the products s o l d . Large-scale production i s the rule i n the meat packing industry. Twenty-four plants, many of which are under the same ownership, account for 84.7% of the value of the t o t a l output. among one hundred and eleven plants.  The remaining 15.3% i s divided  The Canada Packers Limited, i s the  largest meat packing concern i n Canada.  In 1953, sales of this company  amounted to f i f t y - f o u r m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , or 59% of the t o t a l .  Swift Can-  adian Company Limited came second with sales amounting to twenty-four m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , or 86% of the t o t a l .  These two companies between them  ettrtrol the sale of 84.7% of the output of the industry i n Canada. From 1929-52 the physical volume of the meat packing business dec l i n e d 7% while over the same period the value of output declined 50.9%. Furthermore, while sales f e l l 50.9%, the return to the primary producer f e l l 56,8% and the return to the packing company only 24.5%.  In 1929, for  every d o l l a r ' s worth of meat sold, 81.7 cents went to the suppliers of materials,  and the value added by the manufacturer amounted to 18.5 cents;  i n 1955, however, although the consumer's dollar purchases  approximately  80% more meat than i n 1929, out of each d o l l a r the producer received only 76.3 cents, and the packer 25.7 cents. It i s interesting to note that the Swift Canadian Company suffered operating losses i n two out of f i v e year period, 1929-35, but Canada Packers Limited, with approximately double the volume of Swift Company, was able to extract sufficient to cover a l l i t s costs and a p r o f i t i n each year.  The following table compares the earnings of five meat packing com-  panies, Canada Packers, Swifts, Burns & Company, l i l s i l , Limited and  -171Gainers, Limited, over the period 1929-33, i n c l u s i v e . Percentages  of Earnings on Invested Capital 1929-33 (inclusive) 111 l i v e Companies  Canada Packers Limited  1929  9.9  16.0  1930  3.4  7.5  1931  3.9  1932  *"X # 2  1933  6.2  Average  6,3  3© 3  8.9  It would seem from t h i s and other evidence that Canada Packers Limited carry out a p o l i c y of extreme business conservation.  For instance,  for the f i v e years ending the 29th of March, 1934, provision for depreci a t i o n and repairs by Canada Packers Limited amounted to 52% of the average depreciable value of the fixed assets*  P r o f i t s have also been affected  by w r i t i n g off against operations over five hundred thousand dollars of the book value of investments.  The market value of investments at March 29th,  1934, exceeded the net book value by over one hundred thousand d o l l a r s . This shows the dominating influence of the one company i n the meat packing industry.  It i s only natural that the p o s i t i o n held by this packer em-  phasizes the natural disparity i n bargaining power between the packer and the primary producer.  The primary producer has borne a disproportionate  share of the burden of f a l l i n g price levels during the depression and i n many cases he has been the victim of exploitation.  The livestock industry  provides a notable example of this s i t u a t i o n . During the recent depression, the livestock industry has  suffered  -172particularly through lack of profitable markets.  The farmer producing  grain has some alternative in i t s disposal — he may s e l l i t , feed i t or hold  i t — but when a steer or a hog i s "finished", i t must be sold, as i t  rapidly loses i t s prime condition.  Thus the farmer producing livestock i s  more completely at the mercy of the buyers than farmers producing other farm commodities and i t i s essential that extra precautions be taken to protect h i s interests.  There i s no gainsaying the fact that criticism of  the existing marketing system has been particularly r i f e during the past few years. The general dissatisfaction was expressed by many of the witnesses appearing before the Price Spreads Commission. During the years 1932, 1933 and most of 1934, cattle numbers were increasing, due largely to the earlier loss of the United States market which forced farmers to hold back animals which ordinarily would have been disposed of across the line.  This increase i n the number of cattle un-  doubtedly led to heavier marketings and forced prices lower. I t was not u n t i l late i n 1934 that the effect of lower prices became evident and that the rate of increase diminished. Thus the price of good and choice steers over 1,050 pounds at Toronto f e l l almost steadily for four years and, i n 1933, averaged four dollars and sixty-three cents per ewt, - less than one-half the comparable price for 1929.  The low point was reached i n February, 1933, when this  grade sold for three dollars and sixty cents per ewt. i n Toronto. Prices to western farmers and for lower grade animals actually reached a level, where, i n some instances, they were insufficient to pay freight and stockyard charges.  The price of good and choice steers over 1,050 pounds, at  Calgary, f e l l to two dollars and twenty-five cents per ewt. i n September,  -173-  Oetober ana November of 1933. Again i t i s very evident that the f u l l lowering of prices was not carried through to the consumer so that consumption could be improved. I f consumption was at a maximum under the low r e t a i l price which existed, then consumer's purchasing power was not reflected i n prices paid to the producer.  The Report of the Royal Commission on Price Spreads states:  "The packer, the wholesaler, the r e t a i l e r , protected their margins on a f a l l i n g market and since their costs and charges form a high proportion of wholesale and r e t a i l prices, this operated to prevent the commensurate decline of meat prices.  A study of price indices clearly reveals this s i t -  uation and also proves that these middlemen's margins are promptly, i f s l i g h t l y , increased as soon as r i s i n g prices permit." As was stated previously, s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of prices of l i v e stock i s based on figures given for marketings on the public stockyards. The public stockyards i s expected to be the place where the law of supply and demand i s given a f a i r f i e l d of operation and the producer i s ensured of freely competitive market. In recent years, this situation has been completely changed. This change has been brought about mainly by two factors*  F i r s t , the elimination of the small packing company and wholesale  butcher, either by merger and absorption or by cut-throat competition. Canada Packers, Limited i s the dominating unit with a business greater than the next five packing companies combined. This development -has reduced competition to the detriment of the producer.  Canada Packer's  buyers are to be found on the chief stockyards i n Canada, and a l l instructed as to price, methods and practices, from a head office i n Toronto.  Sim-  -174-  i l a r l y with the Swift Canadian Company Limited, the head office i s located i n Toronto and a l l buyers receive instructions from there, livestock purchasing i s thus concentrated with less competition than might be expected . among packer-buyers. The Royal Commission on Price Spreads reports: "There was uncontradicted evidence given by a former o f f i c i a l of Canada Packers Limited that i n Toronto i t was the usual practice for this firm to arrange with Swifts before the market opened, as to the prices to be paid for livestock.  Also, the manager of the Western Stock Growers'  Association, one of the largest ranchers i n Alberta, gave evidence that i f a packers' buyer gave an offer f o r cattle on the ranch, i t would not be raised by any other packer-buyer, either on the ranch or i n the stockyards." Another method adopted by the packers to reduce buying competi t i o n on the open market, i s the practice of selling to wholesale butchers carcasses on the r a i l , at cost price plus k i l l i n g charges. This i s said to have effectively removed the wholesale butcher from competition on the publ i e stockyards. A third factor which has successfully reduced competitive buying on the public stockyards i s the fact that the packing companies have vigorously developed a system of direct shipment to the packing house. This direct shipment business has been largely increased by the use of trucks instead of railroad, to carry the livestock to market.  The trucker i s  chiefly interested i n carrying as large a volume of business as possible. Any time saving device means more business for him and so, by delivering the stock direct to the packing plant and by having sale invoices signed immediately, he can save the time that would be taken for the sale to be  -175-  made at the public stockyards. -It i s d i s t i n c t l y to the advantage of the meat packer to have livestock shipped' direct to the packing plant for the following reasons: (1)  The stock i s paid for on the packer's weight. On the public stockyards government scales are used which register each five pounds.  (2)  When livestock other than hogs i s delivered direct to the packers, i t i s graded by the packers themselves, and the price i s fixed, according to the grade. The producer i n making direct shipments of livestock to the  packers i s placing himself i n their hands as regards, weight, grade and price.  He i s unprotected by an agent or by any regulations except i n the  grading of hogs.  I t i s easy to see who i s i n the weak and who i s i n the  strong position under these conditions* The prices paid for livestock shipped direct i s said to be the market price.  That market price i s set where there i s a competitive mar-  ket, namely, on the public stockyards. The packer receiving 50% of his supplies shipped direct i s not as eager a buyer on the market as the packer with no assured supplies.  Consequently, the packers are not keen buyers  on the market which has the effect of breaking down the price.  When the  price has been broken down to a satisfactory level the packer can step forward and f i l l his requirements. Furthermore, this price i s the basis on which payment for direct shipments i s made, I t i s a vicious c i r c l e ; the direct shipments make the packer a dull buyer and the price i s reduced and then this price i s used to pay for direct shipments. Toronto i s the primary livestock market for Canada. One hour  -176-  after the Toronto market opens, telegraphic reports of i t s condition are sent to the western markets.  I f the Toronto market i s draggy i t has a  tendency to depress the western markets.  Therefore i t i s to the packer's  advantage to abstain from buying on the Toronto market for the f i r s t hour on the p r i n c i p a l market days, Tuesday and Thursday. As a result of depressing the western markets the same packers' buyers can obtain their supplies at a lower price. The Report of the Royal Commission on Price Spreads states: "It w i l l , therefore, be seen that direct shipments are of a distinct advantage to the packers, not only i n leaving weights, grades and prices substantially within their own control, but also as a lever to use upon the open market at the stockyards to settle the price at which they w i l l pay for the stock required.  Then this price i s used to pay f o r direct  shipments which have helped to establish i t . "  -177-  CHAPTER IX BRITISH COLUMBIA BEEF CATTLE MARKETING The marketing methods employed i n B r i t i s h Columbia are partly the result of the early development of the cattle industry i n the province. In the early days the market for cattle was i n the mining settlements and construction camps. The cattlemen became accustomed to driving their cattle to these l o c a l markets and as these settlements were continually being shifted, no definite markets were established. As B r i t i s h Columbia progressed and the railroad gave easy access to the coast markets, the cattlemen shipped their stock consigned to some butcher or wholesaler with whom they had become familiar.  The development of the meat packer resulted  i n an increase i n competition i n the wholesale trade and i t became customary for the slaughtering plants to send their buyer up to the interior to obtain the necessary supplies of cattle.  At the same time a certain amount  of stock was shipped direct to the smaller butchers and they were able to carry on.  The great expansion of population at the coast caused an expan-  sion of the large meat packing plants and soon control centered with two companies. As a result of not being able to support a buyer i n the f i e l d , the- smaller meat packing establishment was practically forced out of existence.  This led to a system of "country selling" which has been, and  s t i l l i s , the rule i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The beef produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia comes mainly from two areas, the Cariboo d i s t r i c t and the Kamloops and Nicola d i s t r i c t . Prac1  t i c a l l y a l l this beef i s sold on the coast market. Three railroads provide the means of transportation, a l l having as their eventual terminus, Vancouver c i t y .  The Pacific Great Eastern railroad taps the greater por-  Refer to Chart No. XVIV, Appendix.  -178-  tion of the Cariboo d i s t r i c t but cattle coming by this route must be transferred to a scow which brings them to Vancouver.  The Canadian Pacific and  Canadian National railroads tap practically the same territory.  These  lines meet at Kamloops and run side by side as far as Hope, at the head of the Fraser Valley.  The Canadian National then approaches Vancouver from  "New Westminster and the Canadian Pacific from Coquitlam. A branch line of the l a t t e r taps the Similkameen and Okanagan areas and joins the main line at Hope. B r i t i s h Columbia i s well supplied with railroads and so there i s no lack of f a c i l i t i e s i n transporting the livestock to market.  These  facts are important when considering a system of orderly marketing for B r i t i s h Columbia. Consumers i n this province demand a high quality product. Men working i n industries such as mining and logging insist on having the very best of food. The tourist trade, as a rule, demands a high quality product and this i s an important business i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The large passenger  t r a f f i c by ships are also a market for a high class product. The part of the population engaged i n manufacturing usually consumes the lower grades of meats, and i n B r i t i s h Columbia manufacturing i s i n i t s infancy.  The  result of this demand for a high quality product i s indicated by the f i g ures showing the consumption of branded (Red and Blue) beef i n B r i t i s h Columbia compared with Canada. Table X I I shows that B r i t i s h Columbia consumes a much greater proportion of branded beef than the other provinces. Actually, the percentage of branded beef i n Canada i s small, but i s i n creasing rather rapidly.  -179TABLE XII BRANDED. BEEF SALES 1931-1935 (inc.) (Millions of pounds)  YEAR  1st Qual. RED  B.  0... 1st Qual, BLUE  CANADA 1st 1st Qual. Qual. RED BLUE  1  B. C. % RED TO BLUE  CANADA fo RED TO BLUE  CANADA f BRANDED TO TOTAL DRESSED BEE1  1931  1.417  .183  6,346  10,894  774.3  58.3  5.09  1932  1.754  .359  7.534  14.215  488,6  53  6.98  1933  S.178  .423  9.885  20.796 ,  514*9  47.5  9.07  1934  2.130  .792  12*502  27.074  268.9  46.2  1935  2.352  2.372  19.999  26.912  99.2  48.3  :  As has been stated i n e a r l i e r chapters B r i t i s h Columbia imports approximately f i f t y percent of the beef consumed. from other provinces i s shown i n Chart No. XXII* come from A l b e r t a .  Imports of beef  cattle  P r a c t i c a l l y a l l these  Imports have been increasing since 1918 and show a  small degree of. correlation with the cattle population of B r i t i s h Columbia,. There i s a c e r t a i n amount of disagreement between Provincial and Dominion government s t a t i s t i c s i n regard to imports.  This may be the result of  trans-shipment of cattle from B r i t i s h Columbia to the United States at certain times.  When t a r i f f ,  exchange and price differentials are favorable,  there i s quite a flow of c a t t l e from B r i t i s h Columbia to the Seattle and 2 Tacoma markets.  I f an agreement could be made with the United States guar-  anteeing a settled t a r i f f rate, there might be sufficient reason, prices permitting, to establish a definite t r a d e , i n cattle with the nearby American markets.  This might warrant expansion of the industry i n B r i t i s h Col-  umbia. 2  Refer to Chart No. XXV, Appendix.  -180-  OHART NO. XXII  IMPORTS OF BEEF CATTLE INTO BRITISH COLOMBIA FROM OTHER PROVINCES 1918 - 1934. (Thousands of Head)  3°  1°  o  »  /f/jr  .  .  i ..  /fja  |  //ijr  I  I  /frf  -180 A-  CBART NO, XXIII  VALUE OF BEEF CATTLE IMPORTED INTO BRITISH COLUMBIA FROM OTHER PROVINCES 1918 -  1954,  (Millions of Dollars)  -181-  At the present time with a system of country selling i n force the B r i t i s h Columbia cattleman i s not assured of a market. I t was pointed out i n the previous chapter that direct shipments give the meat packer every advantage and are to the detriment of the producer.  Up u n t i l seven years  ago the B r i t i s h Columbia cattleman had no alternative but to s e l l his cattle to the packer-buyer on the ranch or to ship direct to the packing plant.  As Swift Canadian and Burns and Company are the two main packing  plants i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t would not be expected that their practices i n this province would be any more to the advantage of the producer than i n other provinces. I t i s well known that i f one buyer makes an offer for cattle on the ranch, either, no other buyer approaches that man or, the price i s not raised by any other buyer.  The establishment of the B r i t i s h  Columbia Livestock Exchange i n 1928 did give the rancher another outlet, but this firm was very l i t t l e patronized. In 1935 when this firm came under the Livestock and Livestock Products Act and was established as a public stockyards the volume of cattle passing through the exchange did not increase to any great extent. The B r i t i s h Columbia rancher i s almost entirely in the hands of the packer as to the grading of his stock and as to price paid. The market information i s very scanty and"most certainly the packer-buyers do not give the ranchers any helpful suggestions as to the. condition of the l i v e stock markets. man.  The large producer is i n a better position than the small  The former has considerably more bargaining power i n that he can  supply the packer i n quantity lots but the small rancher i s completely at the mercy of the packer-buyer.  Clearly, there must b e some organization  -182-  of producers or some new system of marketing evolved which w i l l give the producer greater bargaining power than he has at present. ORDERLY MAROTING FOB BRITISH COLUMBIA In prosperous years the livestock producers were not particularl y interested i n what happened to their stock after the buyer assumed ownership at the shipping point.  The producer was content to tend to his own  business of growing the cattle and was not interested i n the amount of p r o f i t made by the buyer.  In the recent years of low prices the value of  stock has been below the cost of production and the producer immediately realized that marketing was a part of his own business just as much as production.  The cattlemen of this province seized on the marketing s i t -  uation as a point of grievance and several abortive attempts were made to solve the situation. Organization For any attempt of producers to increase their bargaining power to succeed, there must be a strong organization, a willingness to work together and a singleness of purpose. B r i t i s h Columbia producers are singu l a r l y divided among themselves and i t i s to the meat packers advantage to keep them so. The central organization of the beef cattlemen i s the B r i t i s h Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association. with the Western Canada Livestock Union.  This organization i s a f f i l i a t e d  There are some local subsidiaries  of the Association but these are organized, mainly, for the purpose of solving l o c a l production problems. Not a l l cattlemen of the province stand solidly behind their central organization.  There i s a continual  bickering and quarreling which militates against the effective solution of  -183-  problems.  As a result of this, l i t t l e has been done to alleviate the mar-  keting situation.  The central association, up to the present, has been  able to make changes i n only those details which affect production.  The  main a c t i v i t y of the association has been the establishment and management of the Provincial B u l l Sale and Fat Stock Show at Kamloops. This i s a worthwhile piece of work and i s well handled.  The organization, however,  does not appear to be sufficiently representative or sufficiently unanimous to throw the weight necessary to a l t e r the marketing situation.  Dis-  satisfaction with the marketing set-up has been expressed by a l l members but, up to the present, the various committee reports have shown few concrete suggestions. Central Market U n t i l the B r i t i s h Columbia Livestock Exchange was incorporated no competitive market for beef cattle existed in B r i t i s h Columbia.  It is  desirable that there be a public stockyards i n order that the stockman be taken out of the "buyers market". The proper location of such a stockyards i s debatable. Almost unquestionably the B r i t i s h Columbia Livestock Exchange i s situated i n the wrong location for a public market. Cattle coming by Canadian National Railway have to be sidetracked and run about six miles down to the Livestock Exchange and then i f they are sold to Swifts or Burns they must be hauled away around by Coquitlam.  Cattle arriving by  Canadian Pacific Railway must be sidetracked and run down to the Exchange and similarly these must be hauled back. Cattle arriving by Pacific Great Eastern have to be shipped from Vancouver right around, about thirty or forty miles, and then these too must be hauled back.  If these are sold to  -184Burns .&  Company they go back to almost where they started from. I t would  appear on superficial examination that Coquitlam or someplace closeby i s the l o g i c a l place f o r a public stockyards.  There would be no d i f f i c u l t y  i n shipping,stock v i a Canadian National or Canadian Pacific and these r a i l roads carry by far the greatest proportion of the stock. That stock coming by Pacific Great Eastern would, of necessity, have to repeat i t s journeyings i f sold to Burns, but this would not be a very large d i f f i c u l t y . In investigation into the Stockyard and Livestock Situation i n B r i t i s h Columbia, made i n 1925 by Mr. McCallum, Chief of the Stockyards Service for the Dominion, recommended against the establishment of a publ i c stockyards at that time.  The report outlines the requirements for the  establishment of a public stockyards as follows: (1) - Sufficient steady volume of receipts to keep down the overhead expenses - otherwise the cost of operation would defeat the objects sought for i n their establishment. (2)  The certainty of constant buying and selling competition i n order to secure for livestock marketed through them the highest financial return to the producer,  (5) F a c i l i t i e s at f a i r l y close proximity for finishing both i n winter and summer, thin, unfinished stock not suitable for immediate slaughter. (4)  Access, at minimum expense, to other markets i n the event of prices being unduly depressed, for any reason, at the stockyard.  (5)  In the case of a stockyard at the Coast, the prospect of a largely i n creased flow of livestock i n that direction, the development of a•gradually increasing profitable demand from the Orient for livestock and meats, and a likelihood that annual livestock production i n the prov-  -185-  ince would, shortly, at least equal the volume of meat and animals imported. At the present time, i n regard to beef cattle, i t would appear that a l l requirements, except possibly the f i r s t , are met satisfactorily. From the viewpoint of a l l livestock, however, there i s a tremendous shortage of l o c a l l y grown sheep and hogs. Private interests, however, have found i t possible to operate the B r i t i s h Columbia Livestock Exchange and so i t might appear that a public stockyards i s feasible even though the volume of supply i s small.  In the event of a : public stockyards being established  at someplace other than at the B r i t i s h Columbia Livestock Exchange, i t would be necessary that a l l B r i t i s h Columbia producers s e l l their stock on the stockyards i n order to give sufficient volume. This, of course, exeludes stock sold for l o c a l consumption i n the interior.  I f a suitable  public stockyards i s established i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t would definitely be to the advantage of the producer i n the matters of prices and grades, Natural Products Marketing Act. As a result of widespread demand from producers for more orderly marketing of their product the Natural Products Marketing Act was passed. , Both Federal and Provincial governments passed legislation which, i n effect, made possible compulsory cooperation in the marketing of primary products with two-thirds majority control. Many groups of producers have availed themselves of this legislation, among them being the beef cattlemen of B r i t ish Columbia, Among the beef cattle producers there i s considerable divergence of opinion as to whether or not the Act should apply and as to the form of  -186-  control to be adopted.  A scheme has been adopted under the Act to regulate  the marketing of Beef Cattle, Beef and Products thereof produced i n that part of B r i t i s h Columbia south of the 57th P a r a l l e l of latitude. No active steps have been taken to enforce this scheme, other than the election of a Board.  This marketing Board has wide powers i n regard to the disposal of  the products, Some of the powers of the Marketing Board are outlined in Section 19 of the scheme, as follows: (a) To require that a l l l i v e cattle offered for sale as beef cattle shall be graded to the satisfaction of the Marketing Board; (b) To regulate the preparation, assembling, transportation, and marketing of the natural product; (c) To regulate the time and place at which and to designate the agency or agencies through which the natural product shall be marketed within the area of production, and to provide that no agency may s e l l within the area of production the natural product except under permit from the Marketing Board; (d) To procure the registration of the names, addresses, and occupations of a l l persons engaged i n the production or marketing of the natural product within the area of production; (e) To require f u l l information relating to the production and marketing of the natural product from a l l persons and agencies engaged therein from time to time as i t may be deemed expedient, and to inspect the books and premises of such persons and agencies; (f)  To require that every person engaged i n the marketing of the natural product i n the area of production shall obtain a permit from the Marketing Board;  -187-  .) To require that a l l producers, whether registered or not, subject to the exemptions hereinafter mentioned, shall comply with the orders and regulations of the Marketing Board; )  To f i x and collect any or a l l fees and charges that the Marketing Board may from time to time have lawful authority to f i x and collect;  )  To determine the quantity and quality, grade or class of the Natural Product that shall be marketed by any person at any time, and to proh i b i t the marketing of any of the natural product of any grade, quali t y , or class;  I To determine the manner of distribution of the natural product and the spread which wholesale dealers shall add to the price paid by them for the natural product; By i t s e l f or through the agencies, to conduct a pool or pools for the equalization of returns received from the sale of the natural product, and to compensate any person for a loss sustained by withholding from the market, or forwarding to a specified market, any of the natural product pursuant to an order of the Marketing Board: Provided that no compensation shall be paid i n respect of any natural product that may be withheld from a particular market because the grade of such product i s deemed by the Marketing Board to be unsuitable for such market, and that pools shall be conducted only within the grades of the natural product established by the Marketing Board: Provided also that a l l pools shall be limited to the marketing of the natural product during periods of time not exceeding one week. Prom the foregoing i t i s seen that the Marketing Board has ex-  -188-  tremely wide powers and controls the product right through to the retailers. The scheme has been drawn up and a Board appointed but up to the present no action has been taken i n regard t o the enforcement of the scheme. One of the members of the Board, Mr. P. B. Ward, i s admittedly against the app l i c a t i o n of the scheme. There i s some doubt that the Natural Products Marketing Act i s even meant to apply to such a product as beef cattle i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia.  In the Dominion Act, section 5 , sub-section 4 , under the  heading Marketing Schemes, the following regulation i s l a i d down: "Before any scheme i s approved the Governor i n Council shall be satisfied, (a) that the principal market for the natural product i s outside the province of production: or (b) that some part of the product produced may be exported. I t would appear from this that the Act i s meant to cover surplus products, such as f r u i t i n B r i t i s h Columbia, or dairy products i n the Eraser Valley.  With beef cattle, the principal market i s certainly not  outside of the province and although there i s some export of beef cattle from B r i t i s h Columbia to the United States at certain times, there Is a net balance of imports into B r i t i s h Columbia amounting to about f i f t y percent of the beef consumed. The Minister and Governor i n Council read a different meaning into this section of the Act than i s apparent to the layman. When approving of schemes such as the Beef Cattle Scheme, i t would appear that the Governor i n Council i s working i n direct contravention of the s p i r i t of the Act. This does not mean that i t i s not a good thing to have a Beef Cattle Scheme, but i t does appear that the powers of the Act might be extended i f such a scheme i s to be approved.  PART IV.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  -189CHAPTER X SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In B r i t i s h Columbia there i s a marked under-production of beef i n relation to consumption which results i n the importation, mainly from A l berta, of thousands of head of cattle yearly. With the tremendous r e sources for pasturage of the province this should not be necessary. The over-grazed condition of the lower ranges and the over-capitalization of the ranching industry has made i t d i f f i c u l t for the B r i t i s h Columbia producer to compete with the Alberta man i n spite of the freight d i f f e r e n t i a l . Production methods i n B r i t i s h Columbia are somewhat antiquated and the standard of efficiency of the rancher i s very low. Marketing of beef cattle i n the province i s an extremely haphazard a f f a i r with every advantage i n favor of the packer-buyer.  The system  of country selling i s ruinous to the producer and should be corrected. A central market appears to be the most effective way to establish competitive buying by the meat packers.  I t i s doubtful i f the Natural Products  Marketing Act i s even meant to apply to a condition such as the marketing of beef cattle i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  A scheme has been drawn up under this  Act but has not been enforced, mainly on account of the difference of opinion among the producers and the complexity of the situation.  Data on the  marketing of beef cattle i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s extremely scattered and i n sufficient to make a thorough analysis of the situation. Recommendat ions I t might be well for one who i s concerning himself with another's business to make sure that his own i s run properly and e f f i c i e n t l y . The  -190-  ranchors of B r i t i s h Columbia should improve their production methods.  The  low calf"crop i s one of the major items causing the high costs of producing beef i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The herds of the province must be culled  severely, and more and better bulls used i n order to increase the calf crop. Range riders must be employed and they should be of a very high calibre.  Only by stopping small leaks i n production can the costs be re-  duced, A system of grazing should be worked out by the ranchers i n order to t r y to bring back into production, badly over-grazed ranges.  Prelimin-  ary work, i n this regard, has been started at the Dominion Range Experimental Station at Kamloops and this work should receive the ranchers' wholehearted support and cooperation. A system of marketing should be worked out i n order to remove the present "buyers* market" that exists.  The establishment of a central  stockyards suitably located i s a means of relieving this. ket must be given the support of the producers.  The public mar-  In the author's opinion  here i s the f i e l d i n which cooperation should be applied. When a suitably located public stockyards has been established, the Marketing Board could invoke their powers and i n s i s t that a l l cattle should be sold on this public stockyard. This would ensure a freely competitive market and would make a place at which the disposal of low grade animals would be f a c i l i tated.  Appendix -191-  ' CHART. NO. XXIY  ORIGINS OF CATTLE 'MARKETED IN. BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS FIVE YEAR AVERAGE  1927 - 1931.  -192-  CHART NO. XXV  EXPORTS OE BEEF CATTLE FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA TO THE UNITED STATES 1920 - 1934. (Thousands of Head)  '  -193-  CHAHT NO. XXVI  PMCENTAGE OP BRITISH COLUMBIA'S BEEP CATTLE -  POPULATION TO HUMAN POPULATION. CEBTSUS YEARS 1881 -  1931.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Anderson, A. 0.  1872  Beatty, E . W.  1935 - Agriculture and Prosperity  Begg  1894 - History of B r i t i s h Columbia  Black, John D,  1932 - Research i n Marketing of Farm Products - Advisory Committee of Social and Economic Research i n Agr i c u l t u r e - Social Science Research Council, '..  Brown, E .  1925 - Marketing - Harper B r o s . , Hew York.  Cosnell, A . E.  1914' - Author's Edition - Canada and Its Provinces - T. A , ' Constable at Edinburgh University Press for the Publisher's Association of Canada L t d . , Toronto, Volume 22, Part 2, P a c i f i c Province - History of Farming.  - The Dominion at the West - King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a .  Davenport, A. C. 1926 - The American Livestock Market - Drover • s Journal . . P r i n t , Chicago. Edminster, L . R. 1926 - .—g. pat tie Industry and the T a r i f f - U. S. A . , Macmi llaix Go,, New York. E l l i n g e r , T. U, H . 1926  Trends in Slaughter and Cost of Livestock Since 1921 -.J- Farm Economics Volume VIII, Chicago, 111,  Gardner, C s  1923 - A g r i c u l t u r a l Cooperation - Washington Gov't P r i n t ing Office,  Haney, L, H ,  1930 - Business Forecasting - G i n n & C o , , New York.  Hammond, J ,  1933 - How Science Can Help to Improve the Nation's Food Supply - Meat - Journal Soc. Chem. Engineers, Aug. 4th, 1933, London, S. W. 1934  Hay,\G. C.  H a z l i t t , W. C. E u l t z , F i S.  - Grading Meat - J . Agric. Science, V o l . XXIV, Part II, A p r i l , 1934, Cambridge University Press. . The Livestock Marketing Problem.  1936  This Way Out.  1858  B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver's Island - G. Routledge & C o . , London.  ' . 1930  Range Beef Production, i n the Seventeen Western. States - John Wiley & Sons, New York.  BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued Mackintosh, W* A .  1924 - A g r i c u l t u r a l Cooperation i n Western Canada Queen's University',' Kingston, Ryerson Press, Toronto.  MacNab  1898 - B r i t i s h Columbia for S e t t l e r s .  Mayne  1862 - B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver Island.  Mumford, K. V*.  1908 - Beef Production.  Nevins, A l l a n  1930 - Master's Essays i n History, a. Manual - Columbia University Press, Hew York.  Plumb  1927 - Marketing of Farm Animals - Ginn & C o . , Boston.  Rutherford, J . G,  1909 - The Cattle Trade of Western Canada - Special Report - Dom. Dept. Agric.  Sampson, A. W.  1930  Range and Pasture Management - Wiley & Sons, L t d . , . New York.  1928 - Livestock Husbandry on Range and Pasture.  ,  Shultz, Henry  1928 - The S t a t i s t i c a l Laws of Demand and Supply - Uni v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Chicago, 111.  Snapp  1925 - Beef  Van Es  1932 - Animal Hygiene, - Wiley & Sons, L t d . , New York.  Cattle.  DOMINION GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS - Department of Agriculture - _  Report of the Dominion Agrostologist, 1930 - 1953. 1915 - Beef Raising In Canada 1929 - B u i . 120 N. S. - Anthrax 1930 -  "  117 N. S.  -Blackleg  1920 -  "  133  - Tick Paralysis i n B r i t i s h Columbia  1928 -  "  40  - Seasonable Hints - P l i e s , Warbles,  1932 - Pam. ,147 '  - Warble P l i e s  1934 - B u i . 167  - Johne's Disease of Cattle  etc.  1925 - Report on Livestock and Stockyard Situation i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1932 - Feeder Purchase P o l i c y - B r i t i s h Columbia Edition,  BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued 1 9 3 1 - A Survey of Some Problems of the Range Livestock Industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia - L. B, Thomson. 1955 - Agricultural Situation and Outlook. 1936  "  "  "  ,»  1932 - Preliminary Report - An Economic Study of Beef Cattle Raising on the Range Areas of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Annual Markets Review. Livestock and Meat Trade Review. Weekly Livestock Markets Report. Monthly Review of Agric. S t a t i s t i c s . 1954 - Report of Royal Commission on Price Spreads. 1929 - Bui. 125 N . So - Use of Irrigation Water on Farm Crops. 1925 - Pam.  21 N . S. - The Winter Feeding of Beef Cattle i n Ontario.  Department of the Interior 1928 - Wood Preservation i n Canada. 1929 - Creosote Treatment of Douglas Fir* 1925 - Circ. 15 - Preservative Treatment of Fence Posts. 1925 - Regulations Governing the Granting and Administration of Grazing Leases on Dominion Lands i n the Railway Belt i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s S t a t i s t i c s of Production Canada Yearbook Livestock and Animal Products Statistics Marketing Board  - •  Guide to the Preparation of Marketing Schemes PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - Department of Agriculture 1911 - Bui.  52 - Control of Bovine Tuberculosis i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  1935 - Circ, 55 - Feeding of Farm.Livestock i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued Annual Report of the Minister Agricultural Journal 1914 - Royal Commission on Agriculture 1921 - Agriculture' i n B r i t i s h Columbia Agricultural S t a t i s t i c s Report 1903-7 - Land and Agriculture 1929 - Circ. 47 - The Use of Water i n Irrigation, University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1932 - R. L. Davis and H. M. King - Winter Steer Feeding i n B r i t i s h Columbia General Grazing Act, 1919, C. 30, S. 1 - B. C. Grazing Act Amendment Act, 1925 - B. C. "  "  "  "  1951  "  "  "  "  1934  Grazing Regulations  1934  Grazing Management of Crown Lands - Circ. 2 and 3. 1934 - Bui. 10 (Land Series) - Purchase and Lease of Crown Lands. 1934 -  "  5 (  "  "  ) - B. C. Land Recording Divisions of the Southern Interior.  Grazing Manual for the General Information and Guidance of Forest Officers. Stock Brands Act - R. S. 1924, C. 27, S. 1 - B. C. <<  "  " Amendment Act, 1933.  Animals Act - R. S. 1924, C. 11. Yearbook of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1897, 1903, 1911-14. S t a t i s t i c a l Summary, 1934. ur Natiffidal Products Marketing Act, B. C. Section 19t - Cattle Scheme.  BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued B r i t i s h Columbia Directory of 1882. 60 Years of Progress, History of the Okanagan. Guide to B r i t i s h Columbia - 1877-8. Province of Saskatchewan - Department of Agriculture Blackleg - J . C. Smith Foot-and-lvlouth Disease - J . C. Smith Care, Feeding and Management of Beef Cattle. Province of Ontario - Department of Agriculture 1928 - Hemorrhagic Septicemia of Cattle 1933 - Bui. 304 - Infectious Abortion of Cattle 1930 - '*  350 - The Warble Fly  University of Alberta 1934 - Bui.  25 - A Study of Some Problems i n Cattle Finishing.  ARTICLES S c i e n t i f i c Agriculture, Oct., 1930, Hope, E. C., pp. 80-94, Cycles i n Canada,  Livestock  Canadian Unionist, Sept., 1931, pp. 61, Herbert, W. B., Farmers Cooperation W i l l Survive. Industrial Canada, May 1931, pp. 66, Atkinson, Hon. W., B r i t i s h Columbia's Agricultural Industry. Financial Post, Aug., 1932, pp, 10, Canada Seeks Equality i n B r i t i s h Cattle Trade, The National Woolgrower, Vol. XXVI, No. 3, March, 1936, McClure, S. W., The Protective Tariff i n 1936. Canadian Ayrshire Review, March, 1956, Fulton, J. S., Coccidiosis. MISCELLANEOUS Empire Marketing Board - Survey Method of Research i n Farm Economics.  BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued Canada Packers Ltd. Letters of Industrial Development Council, 1930 - 1935. Report to Shareholders, 1935. Review of Livestock Prices.' 1935. Miscellaneous Reports Eastern Canada Livestock Union Western Canada Livestock Union B r i t i s h Columbia Beef Cattle Grower's Association Report of the National Beef Cattle Conference, Winnipeg, Man., 1928. OTHER PUBLICATIONS United States Department of Agriculture - Farmer's Bulletin 1917 - Bui, 826 - Eradicating Tall Larkspur. 1922 - " 1273 - The Stock-Poisoning Death Camas. 1928 - "  744 - Preservative Treatment of Farm Timbers.  1918 - "  909 - Cattle Lice and How to Eradicate Them.  1926 - Circ.400 - Foot-and-Mouth Disease. United States Bureau of Animal Industry 1904 - Circ. 65 - Opthalmia i n Cattle. 1904 - "  51 - Mycotic Stomatitis of Cattle.  University of California 1932 - Bui. 543 - Seasonal Changes i n the Chemical Composition of Range Forage. Circ.281 - Results of a Survey on the Cost of Production of Beef. 1929 - Circ. 21 - Bovine Tuberculosis. University of Montana 1933 - Bui. 275 - Maintenance of Beef Cows for Calf Production.  BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued 1933 - Bui. 156 - Beef Cattle. 1931 - Circ. 24 - Wintering Beef Cattle at a Low Cost. University of Wisconsin 1933 - Circ.260 - Bang's Disease. Storrs Agricultural Experimental Station 1918 - Bui. 97 - Cattle Lice. Oregon Agriculture College 1925 - Bui. 220 - Cost of Producing Beef on the Ranges of Eastern Oregon, 1915 - "  180 - Livestock Management: Beef Cattle,  University of Nebraska 1919 - Bui, 174 - Beef Production. Texas Agricultural Experimental Station 1930 - Bui. 415 - Planning the Ranch for Greater P r o f i t . 1927 - "  367 - A c t i v i t i e s of Livestock on the Range.  Utah Agricultural Experimental Station 1927 - Bui. 203 - Cattle Ranching i n Utah. 1924 - Circ, 51 - Foot-and-Mouth Disease. University of Idaho 1931 - Ext. Circ. 39 - Wintering Range Stock. University of Minnesota 1932 - Bui. 146 - Modern Methods i n Beef Production. . South Dakota Agricultural'Experimental Station 1911 - Bui. 131 - Scabies (Mange) i n Cattle. Iowa State College 1922 - Circ. 75 - Beef Cattle Equipment. 1928 - Bui. 254 - Local Cooperative Livestock Marketing-.Associations since 1920.  BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued 1933 - Bui. 306 - Cooperation i n Agriculture. 1926 - Research Bui. 101 - A S t a t i s t i c a l Study of the Prices and P: duction of Beef Cattle.  

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