Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Small fruits in Canada (an economic survey with particular reference to British Columbia) Campbell, Blake Archibald 1936

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1936_A4_C2_S6.pdf [ 24.47MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105523.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105523-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105523-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105523-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105523-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105523-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105523-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105523-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105523.ris

Full Text

SMALL FRUITS I I CANADA (An economic s u r v e y w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to B r i t i s h Columbia)  by  Blake A r c h i b a l d . Campbell, B.S.A.  A t h e s i s submitted as a p a r t i a l  requirement  f o r the Degree of M a s t e r o f S c i e n c e i n A g r i c u l t u r e i n the F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e  THE UlTIYiSRSITY Off BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1956.  Submitted - A p r i l ^ a . 9 5 6 . Approved. Head o f Department  I JT.ID E. X Page Acknov/ledgme n t s 3?Q (3.T3. C j j X O H  ©• • •  »» »«« »» »»  General Statement Botanical C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  • • •«  ............  S t a t i s t i c s o f Canadian I n d u s t r y  9 0 « { > t » A & 9 0 0 G 0 0 6  0 0  G e n e r a l Statement ................... L i m i t i n g F a c t o r s of P r o d u c t i o n Climate Soil Site Limiting Factors applied to S m a l l F r u i t s ..................*... Strav/berry Brambles Bush F r u i t s M a r k e t i n g Problems  ™  ^  1 4 7-24  G e n e r a l Statement * Pro duct xon ..•..•»•••«•••••••••«••*.. V a r i o u s F r u i t s Compared ............. C o r r e l a t i o n o f P r i c e and P r o d u c t i o n .. Small F r u i t Products * Trade: Imports and E x p o r t s • P r o d u c t i o n Problems  1  7 8 10 12 19 21 25 - 35 25 25  29  .*••••«>•••»••••*•••.••.•.• 3 D - 65  General Statement ..................... " V a r i e t y " Problems •...........«..«.• Strawberry Raspberry B l a c k b e r r y and L o g a n b e r r y C u r r a n t and Gooseberry Wonderberry (Youngberry)  36 5o  Perishability  42  .....  p  IV  (Continued) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Storage ............ Trueking S h i p p i n g by F r e i g h t : p r e ceding.  45  M a r k s t Demand C ompetitxon •.••...««...•.•..........• P r o c e s s i n g Problems -- R e l a t i v e M e r i t s Canning Jam J e l l y Making F r o z e n Pack P r o c e s s i n g w i t h SOg.  48 ^0 52  .  Y  A  .  .  .  ^  .  .  .  .  .  .  «  «  »  •  S a l e s O r g a n i z a t i o n and Management  »  .  .  .  «  ©  «  »  ........  64-75  G e n e r a l Statement • • . • • • • • * • • • • • • * . o » . < Advantages o f G o - o p e r a t i v e s .«......... Standardization Ad ve r 12. sn. ng •..•.»*..•©••«*.««©•  64 64 65 66  Middleman O p e r a t i o n s Broker Whole s a l e r Retailer  67  ••••••*••.•••••••  Methods o f -Sales .»...«,.••..•.••......• Consignment F . 0 . B. Shipping Point — L o c a l Sales A p p l i c a t i o n of Natural Products Marketing A c t to Small F r u i t s  YI  age  ......  B r i t i s h Columbians S m a l l F r u i t Problems ... G e n e r a l Statement ....... S t a t i s t i c a l Study Crop Movements and S a l e s Problems .... Middleman Charges Problem L.C.S. Shipments M a i n Crop Raspberry Crop L a t e Crop.  71  75  76 - 88 76 76 80  Page Conclusions  ••••••••••••••»••••••••••••••  Recommendations  •.•.•».•••.••••••••••*••••••  3? 1*0 d&c t i 0x1 • • » • • • • • • • • » # • • • • < > • • • • • • • • Harve s t irx^ *••«••»••»«•»«•••••«••»••« Marie © t ing ® * o » » . » « 0 « o » o * « » » o » » » » » o o 9 . « C o n t r o l l e d P r o d u c t i o n • .••.<•»•••••«....•' 0o*•*op@2? 8.13X0X1 »««• - • • • Summary o f Recommendations .......... S*minn.8>3?y  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  .  •  •  •  •  •  •  ^  92 - 105 92 9i) 9^ -99 100 102 104* ™ 106  9 * » « * « r f r » 9 * « o « * o » » » « » «  107 -  L i t e r a t u r e C i t e d and R e f e r e n c e s  Appendix  89 "• 91  •  •  •  •  i  i  i  .  .  ,  *  112  115 — 120  TABLE  IILEX Pa^e  Table  Average P r o d u c t i o n f o r E l e v e n Y e a r s by P r o v i n c e s ..  Table I I  10  Value of Commercial F r u i t P r o d u c t i o n IS  Table I I I Acreage Table I V  o f F r u i t s i n Canada Compared  14  Crop Movements o f B e r r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n C a r l o t s  82  T o t a l Crop Movement of B e r r i e s i n B r i t i s l i Columbia  83  9  Table V  ,9 9 9  Table VI  o « 9 & 9 9 9  9 9 9 .•#  9  9 9 9 9 9 9 9  # © 9 9 9 9 9  9 9  P e r C a p i t a Consumption o f S m a l l . F r u i t i n Quarts  97  APPBJPIX — TABLE mim . Table  T o t a l P r o d u c t i o n by P r o v i n c e s i n Quarts and P e r c e n t  9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 *  Table  Average P r i c e o f S m a l l F r u i t s i n Canada ... •  Table  <• •  • • . 9> 9 9 •  4  Table 7  « 9 9 9  9 9 9 9 9  9 9  9  9 .9  Import and E x p o r t — Q u a n t i t y and Value from 1924-1934  Table 5(a) Q u a n t i t y Canned (b) Value of Canned Table 6  • • • 9 9 9 9 9 9 C 9 9  T o t a l P r o d u c t i o n of S m a l l F r u i t s i n Canada b e f o r e I924 •  Table  •  114 115 116  e * * 9 « 9 9 9 9 9 9 « 6 9 « 9 9  117  of Small F r u i t s i n Canada . Small F r u i t s i n Canada •  113  e ©  # • • 9 9 9 9 9  *  9 9 0 6 9 9 9 9  Q u a n t i t y of F r u i t P r o c e s s e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia  117  118  Q u a n t i t y o f F r u i t Produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia which was s o l d on the F r e s h Fruit-Market  119  Quantity of F r u i t Processed i n B r i t i s h Coltimbia 9 9 «• €> »•» a » « » 9 9 e « 6 9 e * e  120  9  Table 8  »  9 9 9 9 9  * 9 9  FIGURE IIBKX  Page Fig.  1  S m a l l F r u i t P r o d u c t i o n i n Canada byP r o v i n c e s , 1924-1954  9  Fig. 2  Average percent P r o d u c t i o n o f S m a l l F r u i t s by P r o v i n c e s  11  Fig.  3  Fig. 4  Fig. $  Fig. 6  Fig* 7  Fig. 8  Fig.  R e l a t i v e Value o f F r u i t s i n Canada  ......  15  C o r r e l a t i o n o f P r i c e and P r o d u c t i o n o f S m a l l F r u i t s i n Canada .............  16  D e v i a t i o n of P r i c e and P r o d u c t i o n from fformal Trend *....... * * „  18  Q u a n t i t y and Value o f Canned S m a l l F r u i t s i n Canada, 1925-1934 ...........  20  Q u a n t i t y and Value E x p o r t s , 1924-1934  24  Imports and „....  Production of Small F r u i t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  77  QR e l a t i v e Value, o f P r o c e s s e d and F r e s h B e r r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia 2igV 9 10  Strawberries Raspberries  F i g . 11  Loganberries  F ig .  Blackberries  12  .....  AOTomDGMEHTS  The w r i t e r wishes to acknowledge the h e l p g i v e n him i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s . He i s g r a t e f u l to Dean F.M.  Glement of the F a c u l t y o f  A g r i c u l t u r e at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r h i s h e l p i n s e l e c t i n g a t o p i c and f o r h i s guidance suggestions.  and  A l s o he wishes t o express h i s i n d e b t e d -  ness t o Dr. A.F.  B a r s s , Head of the Department of  H o r t i c u l t u r e f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n p r e p a r i n g the l i n e ; and t o Mr.  J . J . Woods, A s s i s t a n t  out-  Superintendent  of the Dominion E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm a t A g a s s i z , B.C., h i s k i n d and c r i t i c a l r e v i e w of the m a n u s c r i p t .  for  The  w r i t e r a p p r e c i a t e s the a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n him by a l l o t h e r s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y those who made a v a i l a b l e data w i t h r e g a r d t o the s t a t i s t i c s i n Canada, and a l s o to B r i t i s h Columbia crop movements.  I  INTRODUCTION  General  Statement  The f i r s t r e c o r d of s m a l l f r u i t s b e i n g produced i n Canada on a commercial s c a l e was l e s s than 50 y e a r s ago. Before 1885  t h e r e was l i t t l e  o r no attempt t o market s m a l l  f r u i t s through such channels as we have to-day.  Although  l i m i t e d areas of a n a l l f r u i t s were grown f o r home consumpt i o n b e f o r e t h a t t i m e , s i n c e then t h e r e has been g r e a t advances, and a t the p r e s e n t time l a r g e acreages are devoted to the growing o f s m a l l f r u i t s i n a l l p a r t s of Canada, e x c e p t on the p r a i r i e s .  E x c e l l e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s have  been p r o v i d e d f o r l o n g d i s t a n c e s h i p p i n g , and the means o f p r e s e r v a t i o n of the s m a l l f r u i t has reached almost a s t a t e of perfection.  T r a i n e d h o r t i c u l t u r i s t s are d e v o t i n g t h e i r time  to a study o f s m a l l f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n problems, p r o d u c t i o n of new v a r i e t i e s , the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s of growth and p o s s i b l e means of i n c r e a s i n g y i e l d . The s m a l l f r u i t i n d u s t r y has become so s p e c i a l i z e d t h a t i t w a r r a n t s a t t e n t i o n from the p o i n t of view of market, and the p o t e n t i a l i t y of f u t u r e demands.  Before such a s t u d y  can be c a r r i e d through s u c c e s s f u l l y , a complete knowledge of past and p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s must be r e v i e w e d .  These  con-  d i t i o n s must be c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h p r o d u c t i o n problems i n order to make any p r e d i c t i o n or recommendations about f u t u r e  production or marketing i n f l u e n c e s .  Canada i s a c o u n t r y which  i s l a r g e l y dependent on h e r a g r i c u l t u r e and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s f o r h e r income.  I n past y e a r s emphasis has been l a i d on the  d e p r e s s i o n i n 1929-1932, the consumption  for a l l agricultural  crops decreased because the people of Canada, and the c o u n t r i e s to which Canada e x p o r t e d d i d not have the p u r c h a s i n g power. I n the present day, b e s i d e s an i n c r e a s e i n acreage t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s e i n the output per a c r e f o r many c r o p s . A c c o r d i n g t o W i l c o x ( ^ l ) , t h i s i n c r e a s e i n output p e r a c r e i s due t o man's p r o g r e s s over t h e f a c t o r s which go t o make up f o r p r o d u c t i o n ; and as a r e s u l t i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y i n the near f u t u r e t o c u r t a i l acreage i n o r d e r n o t t o have a c o n t i n u a l surplus. I n t h i s r e s p e c t s m a l l f r u i t s i n Canada are i n the 1  same p o s i t i o n as a l l other a g r i c u l t u r a l c r o p s .  The produc-  t i o n i s so much above the a c t u a l market demand t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o f i x a l o w p r i c e i n o r d e r t o move these s m a l l f r u i t s and w i t h t h i s l o w p r i c e i t i s h a r d f o r the farmer t o mate a p r o f i t .  I t remains then t o be seen whether i t i s  p o s s i b l e t o i n c r e a s e the consumption  of s m a l l f r u i t s .  With these, thoughts i n mind t h i s study has been pursued, and most o f t h e f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g t o the s u c c e s s f u l m a r k e t i n g of s m a l l f r u i t i n Canada are shown. s i m i l a r k i n d have been conducted  Surveys of a  i n Washington and Oregon,  and from t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d t h e r e , i t i s obvious t h a t the problems w i t h which t h e y are c o n f r o n t e d a r e s i m i l a r t o those  • which ..apply t o Canadian c o n d i t i o n s . The  problems are d e a l t w i t h f i r s t from the  p o i n t of the e n t i r e Dominion.  But as c e r t a i n  stand-  necessary  s t a t i s t i c a l data are n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r the Dominion a t l a r g e , the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia has been s e l e c t e d , not o n l y because d a t a are a v a i l a b l e , but a l s o because B r i t i s h Columbia i s about e q u a l to O n t a r i o , the other g r e a t f r u i t  growing  p r o v i n c e i n Canada. Under the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s m a l l f r u i t s comes the s t r a w b e r r y , r a s p b e r r y , l o g a n b e r r y , b l a c k b e r r y , c u r r a n t and gooseberry.  Of these o n l y the f i r s t  t h r e e , namely s t r a w b e r r y ,  r a s p b e r r y , and l o g a n b e r r y are o f any g r e a t commercial i m p o r t ance .  Of these three the l a t t e r , namely the l o g a n b e r r y , i s  of importance  o n l y i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, b e i n g  l i m i t e d t o t h a t a r e a by c l i m a t i c r e q u i r e m e n t s .  Thus the  s t u d y i s r e a l l y l i m i t e d f i r s t o f a l l t o the two most i m p o r t ant s m a l l f r u i t s , the strawberry, and the r a s p b e r r y , and s e c o n d l y to a l l o t h e r s m a l l f r u i t s . The most i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s t h a t are d e a l t w i t h i n c l u d e f i r s t , c l i m a t i c and s o i l r e q u i r e m e n t s r e l a t i o n t o the m a r k e t i n g  and  their  problems; s e c o n d l y , the i d e a l type  of b e r r y t h a t i s d e s i r e d from the s t a n d p o i n t of the consumer; t h i r d l y , the means of d i s p o s a l of the b e r r y crop —  both  f r e s h and processed;  problems  f o u r t h l y , the a c t u a l m a r k e t i n g  are taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h a r e v i e w of present o r g a n i z a t i o n i n s o f a r as i t i s a p p l i c a b l e to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s ; and  f i n a l l y , recommendations f o r a more s u c c e s s f u l h a n d l i n g  are  suggested.  B o t a n i c a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Small Before  Fruits  a study of the s m a l l f r u i t i s u n d e r t a k e n ,  an o u t l i n e of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p b o t a n i c a l l y i s shown and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f a m i l i e s t o which they b e l o n g are noted. The  s t r a w b e r r y forms p a r t of the rose  family  Rosaceae, and i t i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o P o t e n t i l l a , from w h i c h i t d i f f e r s c h i e f l y i n the r e c e p t a c l e of the f r u i t becoming f l e s h y and e d i b l e .  The  p l a n t s are l o w p e r e n n i a l herbs which  propagate e a s i l y by r u n n e r s and  seed (4.5).  I t belongs to the b o t a n i c a l s p e c i e s F r a g a r i a chiolensis.  The  f r u i t of the s t r a w b e r r y ,  the o n l y p a r t w i t h  which we are concerned, i s an achene which has a thalmus as the e d i b l e p o r t i o n .  The  c a r p e l s are spread over the  surface. A l l brambles i n c l u d i n g the b l a c k b e r r y , and r a s p b e r r y belong t o the f a m i l y Rubus.  loganberry  They have been  d e s c r i b e d by B a i l e y ( l ) as b e i n g low and d i f f u s e m o s t l y woody p l a n t s u s u a l l y producing  canes and grown f o r the  e d i b l e f r u i t s , f o r ground c o v e r and f o r the more or l e s s ornamental c h a r a c t e r of h a b i t f o l i a g e and bloom. The  p l a n t s are t r a i l i n g , decumbent, a s c e n d i n g or  e r e c t , the t i p s o f t h e l o n g growth u s u a l l y r e c u r v i n g even i f otherwise e r e c t .  The stems a r e g l a b r o u s , h a i r y o r v a r i o u s l y  ' g l a n d u l a r , m o s t l y t h o r n y or p r i c k l y , u s u a l l y s h o r t l i v e d and p i t h y , sometimes semi-herbaceaus. Rubus i s c l o s e l y a l l i e d to Rosa, the f a m i l y t o which t h e s t r a w b e r r y b e l o n g s , and i t d i f f e r s c h i e f l y i n the s t r u c t u r e o f the f l o w e r .  I n Rosa, the t o r u s or thalmus i s  h o l l o w and c o n t a i n s the d r y f r u i t or achenes.  I n rubus, the  t o r u s i s convex, c o n i c a l o r elongated and bears m o s t l y  soft  or p u l p y f r u i t s on i t s s u r f a c e . Y[  I n r a s p b e r r i e s and b l a c k b e r r i e s , t h e cases bear the second year and then aggregate o f c a r p e l s . coherent  die o r become weak.  The d r u p e l s are u s u a l l y more or l e s s  a t m a t u r i t y , the c o l l e c t i v e body forming t h e f r u i t  or b e r r y o f the h o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . coherent  The f r u i t s are an  I n r a s p b e r r i e s , the  d r u p e l s separate from the t o r u s a t m a t u r i t y , c a u s i n g  the b e r r i e s t o be concave o r h o l l o w on t h e under s i d e .  In  t h i s r e s p e c t i t d i f f e r s from the b l a c k b e r r y i n which the coherent d r u p e l s adhere t o the t o r u s which separate a t m a t u r i t y and tend to f o r m the "core o f the b e r r y " , N e a r l y a l l red r a s p b e r r i e s c u l t i v a t e d f o r t h e i r f r u i t i n N o r t h America have been developed red  raspberry.  from the American  R. s t r i g o s i s and from h y b r i d s between t h i s  s p e c i e s and the European r e d r a s p b e r r y R. i d a e u s (j>5). C u r r a n t s and g o o s e b e r r i e s b e l o n g t o the t h i r d family Ribes.  B a i l e y ( l ) s t a t e s t h a t , the p l a n t s are u s u a l l y  low, u p r i g h t or l e s s o f t e n procumbent, d e c i d u o u s , r a r e l y evergreen shrubs w i t h p r i c k l y or unarmed b r a n c h e s , s m a l l or •medium s i z e d , and u s u a l l y lobed l e a v e s w i t h r a t h e r s m a l l s o l i t a r y o r racemose f l o w e r s o f t e n g r e e n i s h o r r e d d i s h and i n s i g n i f i c a n t , but i n some s p e c i e s w h i t e or b r i g h t l y c o l o r e d i n shades of r e d , s c a r l e t , orange or y e l l o w .  The f r u i t  are o f t e n a t t r a c t i v e and are e i t h e r b l a c k , p u r p l e , y e l l o w i s h or g r e e n i s h .  also  scarlet,  The f l o w e r s appear i n the s p r i n g  w i t h the l e a v e s and the f r u i t s r i p e n i n June or J u l y . I t i s p o s s i b l e to see from t h i s t h a t s m a l l  fruits  are a h o r t i c u l t u r a l r a t h e r than a b o t a n i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n . While Rubus and Rosa might be c l a s s e d t o g e t h e r , the f a m i l y R i b e s has not the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e i t h e r f a m i l y , and b o t a n i c a l l y would be c l a s s e d s e p a r a t e l y .  However, f o r the  convenience of t h i s s t u d y the three f a m i l i e s Rosa, R i b e s and Rubus aire combined.  II  STATISTICS OJP CANADIAN INDUSTRY G e n e r a l Statement  The remarkable  s m a l l f r u i t i n d u s t r y o f Canada has shown some  t r e n d s i n p r o d u c t i o n s i n c e 1900 ( 2 1 ) .  The t o t a l  p r o d u c t i o n i s no h i g h e r to-day than i t was 3j> y e a r s ago, and y e t t h e r e has been a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e d u r i n g r e c e n t y e a r s i n the p r o d u c t i o n of the two most important s m a l l f r u i t s to-day, the r a s p b e r r y and t h e s t r a w b e r r y . I n 1900 t h e r e was a v e r y l a r g e p r o d u c t i o n o f bush f r u i t s , namely c u r r a n t s , r e d and b l a c k , and g o o s e b e r r i e s . In t h a t year 21,000,000 q u a r t s were produced and a p p a r e n t l y marketed.  However, i t was p r o b a b l y found t h a t there was no  c o n t i n u a l market f o r such f r u i t s o t h e r than jam, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t by 1910 the c r o p of bush f r u i t s had d e c l i n e d t o 4 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 q u a r t s , and s i n c e 1920 has been c o n s i d e r e d o f l i t t l e commercial  importance.  E s t i m a t e s p l a c e the I9IG crop o f s m a l l f r u i t s a t 32,000,000 q u a r t s , and t h i s f i g u r e remained an a l l time h i g h u n t i l 1932. A f t e r 1910 t h e p r o d u c t i o n d e c l i n e d and d u r i n g the war and post-war y e a r s , we f i n d p r o d u c t i o n s t e a d i l y d e c l i n i n g , w i t h a low p o i n t of s l i g h t l y over 12 ,000,000 q u a r t s i n 1924. The post-war y e a r s saw the i n f l u x o f r e t u r n e d s o l d i e r s , e s t a b l i s h e d b y S o l d i e r S e t t l e m e n t Boards i n t o the s m a l l f r u i t i n d u s t r y f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g  reasons,-  First:  Small f r u i t production, u n l i k e tree f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n , i s a s h o r t term  investment,  where r e t u r n from c a p i t a l i n v e s t e d can be expected i n the f i r s t two or three years of growth. Secondly:  Does n o t n e c e s s i t a t e a l a r g e amount o f capital.  Lastly:  No s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i s r e q u i r e d , as i s the case w i t h d a i r y i n g , e t c .  So i t was t h a t a f t e r 1924 the t r e n d o f p r o d u c t i o n showed a steady i n c r e a s e u n t i l 1929.  During the p e r i o d from  I924-I929 w h i l e p r o d u c t i o n was i n c r e a s i n g and p r i c e s were d e c l i n i n g u n t i l the f i n a l c r a s h came i n 1929 f o r c i n g many s m a l l f r u i t growers o f f the l a n d .  However a f t e r 1930 there  was an i n c r e a s e u n t i l 1932 , when t h e peak o f s m a l l f r u i t d u c t i o n was reached.  pro-  Since t h a t time t h e r e has been a s l i g h t  d e c l i n e , w h i c h can be a t t r i b u t e d t o adverse weather f a c t o r s .  Production F i g u r e s by p r o v i n c e s were not a v a i l a b l e before 1924,  but f o r t h e p e r i o d from 1924-1934,(19),  shown i n c h a r t form i n F i g . 1 i n q u a r t s . t h a t from 1924-1932 O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h 75-807.  of the t o t a l  these are  T h i s c h a r t shows Columbia produced  p r o d u c t i o n i n Canada.  Since 1932 , how-  e v e r , Quebec has been r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g acreage and y i e l d ,  -  9  -  glfc  1  S m a l l i ' r u i t P r o d u c t i o n i n Canada by P r o v i n c e s P r o d u c t i o n (1,000,000 36 i 1 1 1 1  quarts) 1  1  1  1  1  r —  1  o  Years 24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33  34  -10 so t h a t when the l a s t data were a v a i l a b l e , Quebec had s u r passed  B r i t i s h Columbia's p r o d u c t i o n , and was e q u a l t o t h a t  of O n t a r i o .  The m a r i t i m e s have remained f a i r l y c o n s t a n t  over  the e n t i r e p e r i o d . F i g . 2 shows a c h a r t f o r t h e average percent  pro-  d u c t i o n f o r 11 y e a r s by p r o v i n c e s , t h e f i g u r e b e i n g g i v e n i n Table I . Table  I  Ontario  38.62%  B r i t i s h Columbia  38.41%  Quebec  1^.87%  New  Brunswick  3.94% •  Nova S c o t i a  3.14%  Values of V a r i o u s F r u i t s  Compared-  I n 1952 the t o t a l v a l u e of s m a l l f r u i t s was e s t i m a t e d a t $2,220,700.00, ( 2 1 b ) . of the value of a l l f r u i t s .  This represented  18.52%  I n 1932 the t o t a l v a l u e o f s m a l l  f r u i t s was s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r , b e i n g |2 ,564 ,300.00, y e t t h i s was o n l y 15.75% of the t o t a l v a l u e o f f r u i t s .  These two  y e a r s have been taken because they r e p r e s e n t t h e " o f f " end "on" year i n apple p r o d u c t i o n , and as the apple p r o d u c t i o n i s of such importance  i t has a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the r e l a t i v e  - 12 v a l u e of s m a l l f r u i t s .  -  An average of these two y e a r s  has  "been taken as a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e f i g u r e f o r the r e l a t i v e value o f s m a l l f r u i t s over a period, of y e a r s . f i g . 3 shows the r e l a t i v e importance  of s m a l l  f r u i t s when viewed from the s t a n d p o i n t o f average value f o r the two y e a r s 19 32 and 1933. the a c t u a l importance  Table I I r e p r e s e n t s i n d e t a i l  of each main group, and then under  each heading the d i f f e r e n t f r u i t s . Table I I I r e p r e s e n t s the acreage of these same groups of f r u i t s as o u t l i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s t a b l e , and i t shows a l s o t h a t a l t h o u g h the acreage i n orchards  decreased  c o n s i d e r a b l y between 1911-1933, the acreage i n s m a l l f r u i t s showed a s m a l l i n c r e a s e .  C o r r e l a t i o n of P r i c e and P r o d u c t i o n In order to o b t a i n a c l e a r c o n c e p t i o n of the a c t u a l t r e n d of the s m a l l f r u i t i n d u s t r y , a c o r r e l a t i o n of p r i c e and p r o d u c t i o n has been made, assuming t h a t one i s d i r e c t l y dependent on the o t h e r .  The  p r i c e and  production  f i g u r e s f o r the p e r i o d from I924-I934 are shown i n F i g . 4 . The  s t r a i g h t l i n e trend f o r both p r o d u c t i o n and p r i c e i s a l s o  shown.  The c h a r t s show t h a t when p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d , the  p r i c e decreased; increased.  and when p r o d u c t i o n decreased, p r i c e s  A l t h o u g h t h i s i s true f o r most y e a r s , the  years  from I929-I954 show the b e s t i n d i r e c t marked c o r r e l a t i o n .  - 13 -  Table  II  Value ( e s t i m a t e d ) of Commercial F r u i t P r o d u c t i o n i n Canada (See F i g . 3) E x p r e s s e d i n v a l u e and percentage f o r t h e average o f the two y e a r s 1952 and 1935. Value  i  Apple  8,721,400  61.47  Pears  432 ,700  2.99  Plums  242 ,100  1.74  1,026 ,600  7-32  Apricots  108,500  .85  Cherries  497,000  3.61  TREE FRUITS  11,04 3,300  77.97  Strawberries  1,645,800  11.97  748,500  5.46  2 592* 300  17.15  670,000  4.85  14,105,900  100.00  Fruit  Peaches  Raspberries SMALL FRUITS Grape s TOTAL  1  Canada Year Book, page 281, 1934-1935  Table.  I l l  Acreages i n Canada compared:  :..  Orchards Vineyards Small F r u i t s  1911  1921  1931  405,596  297,053  267,925  9,836  7,090  16,159  17,495  17,741  18,822  F i g u r e s from t h e Canada Year Book, Page 279, I934-I935.  - 15 -  - 16  -  Fig. 4 C o r r e l a t i o n of Pro due t i on and P r i c e o f Small F r u i t s i n Canada ?oduction ( m i l l i o n s of q u a r t s ) Price (cents 3.6 \  \ \  /  v\  / /  • \ •-\ \ \ \  /  \  / / ^  1  i  1 1 1  . \. \ \  v y~  oduct i o n I  1 \ 1 A 1 \ 1f 'i y r / i /  s \  i  \ •  A  \  '  ;  SI /  >  V  1  : 1f 1  \ •\ \ \ \  i  'i i  1  1  "\  \  y  /  \•  V  /  \  /  Prf .c©  /  >\ Y \  Year 24 2^  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  ./ •  33  54  T h i s same t r e n d I s brought out more c l e a r l y i n F i g . 5,  which shows the d e v i a t i o n of the a c t u a l from the  s t r a i g h t l i n e t r e n d i n the case of b o t h p r o d u c t i o n and  price.  These are shown t o have r e v e r s e d e v i a t i o n s showing t h a t they are c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d . The  c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between p r i c e and  p r o d u c t i o n f o r the p e r i o d 1924-1934 i s - . 8 5 0 9 .  T h i s shows a  v e r y h i g h i n d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n between the two v a r i a b l e s (as -1.00  i s perfect correlation). Studying t h i s c h a r t more c l o s e l y , i t can be  seen  t h a t each of the peaks of heavy p r o d u c t i o n f o l l o w s p e r i o d s of favourable  p r i c e s as i n 1926  and 1930.  The  unfavourable  p r i c e s r e c e i v e d f o r s m a l l f r u i t s d u r i n g those y e a r s of h i g h p r o d u c t i o n caused a subsequent r e d u c t i o n i n acreage as i n The  reason f o r the apparent l a g i n I 9 3 I  1929  and 1932.  1953  i s due to the f a c t t h a t r a s p b e r r i e s and a l l o t h e r  and small  f r u i t s except s t r a w b e r r i e s take two y e a r s to come i n t o b e a r i n g , and t h e r e f o r e i n c r e a s e d p l a n t i n g does not change p r o d u c t i o n immediately.  Because of these c y c l e s the growers  do not r e c e i v e sueh a l a r g e r e t u r n as t h e y would i f t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n were kept  constant.  I t i s seen from t h i s s h o r t s t u d y t h a t and  p r i c e are i n d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d , and  i f production  p r i c e are b o t h to be i n c r e a s e d i t i s n e c e s s a r y the t h i r d f a c t o r , namely consumption.  production and  to i n c r e a s e  Means by which con-  sumption might be i n f l u e n c e d w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  later.  - 18 •Ei.g. 5 D e v i a t i o n o f P r i c e and P r o d u c t i o n from Normal  ieo_r  7"  \  ri.c e  / /  '•/  x  co.cuc t i c n"  \ \  /  \  /  /  / / /  V  / /  /  /  ./  /  x' S s  ----  s.  -  .  .  . <-  8-7 "6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 H 1  2 3 4 .5  6 7 8  Trend  - 19  -  Small F r u i t Products A l t h o u g h s m a l l f r u i t p r o d u c t s would n o r m a l l y i n c l u d e a l l p r o d u c t s w h i c h have s m a l l f r u i t s as a base, I n t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , i t w i l l i n c l u d e o n l y t h a t amount which i s used i n the c a n n i n g i n d u s t r y . because s t a t i s t i c a l  This i s necessary  data f o r a l l p r o d u c t s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e .  However, t h i s a v a i l a b l e d a t a w i l l g i v e a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the t r e n d .  F i g . 6 shows t h e amount and  v a l u e of s m a l l f r u i t s used f o r canning i n Canada from I 9 2 5 1934,  (20).  As may be seen, t h e r e are decided i r r e g u l a r -  i t i e s not o n l y i n amount canned, but a l s o i n the amount i n r e l a t i o n to the v a l u e .  I n o n l y 3 y e a r s has t h e r e been an  i n c r e a s e over t h e year b e f o r e — 42% i n I 9 2 9 , and 56% i n 1954.  an i n c r e a s e o f 50% i n I 9 2 6 ,  A l l o t h e r y e a r s showed a  decided decrease from the p r e v i o u s year w i t h the p e r i o d from 1929-1953 showing a v e r y r a p i d d e c l i n e i n q u a n t i t y as v a l u e .  V a l u e , however., dropped  as w e l l  f a r lower and out of a l l  p r o p o r t i o n w i t h the f a l l i n the q u a n t i t y . In the 1.0 y e a r s from 1923-1954 the average  amount  of s m a l l f r u i t canned was about 159,852 c a s e s , w i t h an average y e a r l y value o f $ 6 0 8 , 2 4 5 . 0 0 . The t r e n d i n t h i s case shows v e r y l i t t l e what f u t u r e demand i s l i k e l y t o be.  as t o  S m a l l f r u i t canning i s  so dependent on o u t s i d e f a c t o r s t h a t i t i s h a r d t o p r e d i c t what w i l l be the a c t u a l amount canned.  I t i s dependent  Fig. 6 Q u a n t i t y and Value o f Canned S m a l l F r u i t s i n Canada from I 9 2 5 - I 9 5 4 Q u a n t i t y (thousands o f cases) 180  Value (thousands o f 900 dollars)  1  1  11  160  1  •  /•I  \\  It  11  'V  //  /'  ^ \  /'  140  V  v\  i r  120  //  • /•/  \\\\ 11 1 \\ '\hIi It N  i  ft  \ \ \ \ \ > \ \ \V \ % t a i t t i t y \\ \ V -.. \\\ " \ \ »\ \\Y \ \ <\ \  700  >  \l  i  800  \• v  11 j1 1 I 1 1 1 1  //  600  1  \  t  100  „  1 i  1  l\I  Valu 3 80  7 / /  - \ \  1 11  \\ \ \  : 1  ~  400  1  1  1 1 1 1  \  60  7 500 /  /  \ \  \  300  200  40 >  100  20  Years I925 26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33. 34  - 21 -  upon such f a c t o r s as weather c o n d i t i o n s at h a r v e s t ,  condi-  t i o n of the f r e s h f r u i t m a r k e t , the s t o c k remaining  of the  •previous y e a r ' s o u t p u t , and the t r e n d of the demand f o r small f r u i t products.  The  amount canned each year i s c l o s e l y  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a l l these f a c t o r s .  I t would seem t h a t the  s m a l l f r u i t s are l o o k e d upon by many as l u x u r y T h i s may  products.  be seen from the p e r i o d between 1929-1933,  the p r i c e d e c l i n e d , the demand a l s o d e c l i n e d .  although  I t was not a  case then of the r e g u l a r supply and demand c u r v e , which represent  the s t a b l e commodities, and  can  shows t h a t when p r i c e s  i n c r e a s e d , demand d e c r e a s e d , and v i c e v e r s a . C o n s i d e r i n g now t h a t O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h q u a n t i t i e s canned. total  the amount per p r o v i n c e , we  find  Columbia show by f a r the l a r g e s t  A l t h o u g h Quebec has been i n c r e a s i n g i t s  p r o d u c t i o n i n r e c e n t y e a r s , the amount used f o r com-  m e r c i a l c a n n i n g has decreased to such a p o i n t t h a t i t i s practically negligible.  On the  other hand, because of the  i n c r e a s e d q u a n t i t i e s of l o g a n b e r r i e s b e i n g canned,  British  Columbia has assumed the l e a d i n s m a l l f r u i t c a n n i n g , i n 1933  and 1934  and  produced over t w i c e as much as O n t a r i o ,  or  between 66-707. of a l l s m a l l f r u i t s canned i n Canada.  Trade —  Imports and  Of the nine p r o v i n c e s s m a l l f r u i t i n any q u a n t i t y .  Exports  i n Canada, s i x o n l y produce  Of these s i x , two  provinces  ( P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and Quebec) produce only enough to p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f y the wants w i t h i n t h e i r own p r o v i n c e . leaves four provinces with a surplus.  This  The O n t a r i o crop i s  u s u a l l y t r u c k e d t o the market i n s i d e the p r o v i n c e , but O n t a r i o a l s o s u p p l i e s a l a r g e p a r t of the M o n t r e a l market; as i n 1935,  when 62 c a r l o t s o f s m a l l f r u i t s a r r i v e d a t t h i s  market from O n t a r i o , ( 3 9 ) . The  s i t u a t i o n i n New Brunswick has been summed up  by M. Cummings of t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , (10) , when he s a i d t h a t i n c e r t a i n y e a r s around f i f t e e n c a r l o a d s are shipped to Boston and to M o n t r e a l , and q u i t e l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s to t h e i r own c i t y m a r k e t s .  I n 1935, 17 c a r l o a d s were  to S t . John, N.B., and 7 c a r l o a d s t o M o n t r e a l , b e s i d e s which went t o Boston.  shipped those  However, i n 1935, 7 c a r l o a d s were  shipped t o H a l i f a x from New Brunswick, which o f f s e t p a r t i a l l y those which had been shipped The  into that province.  B r i t i s h Columbia crop i s d i s p o s e d of u s u a l l y  a t home and i n the t h r e e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , A l b e r t a , Manitoba and Saskatchewan.  I n some y e a r s , however, when the  B r i t i s h Columbia crop was e a r l i e r than the e a s t e r n c r o p , s e v e r a l c a r l o a d s have gone t o the M o n t r e a l and Toronto markets. B e s i d e s the movement o f f r u i t s between the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s i n Canada, there i s a l s o a movement o f imports and e x p o r t s t o and from Canada from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  Due to  the e a r l y season, the U n i t e d S t a t e s manages t o p l a c e the  f r u i t on the market f i r s t and o b t a i n the b e s t market; and  so  by the time l o c a l f r u i t i s a v a i l a b l e , the demand and the p r i c e i s n o t as keen as i t would have been, i f the b e r r i e s from the U n i t e d S t a t e s were not a l l o w e d i n . During the 10 y e a r s under o b s e r v a t i o n both and e x p o r t s show a decided d e c l i n e , ( 1 9 ) .  imports  While the q u a n t i t y  of imported b e r r i e s has i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y , the value of such imports has decreased  t o about h a l f t h e i r o r i g i n a l v a l u e .  The e x p o r t s , on the - o t h e r hand, have shown not o n l y a  decrease  i n v a l u e but a l s o i n q u a n t i t y . Fig,  7 shows very c l e a r l y the t r e n d o f imports  e x p o r t s i n Canada, b u t b e s i d e s t h i s , i t b r i n g s out  another  p o i n t very c l e a r l y , namely, t h a t of average v a l u e . 1924  and 19-34  imported  and  Between  the average value of f r e s h s m a l l f r u i t s  i n t o Canada was 13/ per pound, w h i l e the average  value of f r e s h f r u i t e x p o r t e d was  o n l y 9/ per pound.  This  shows c l e a r l y t h a t the i m p o r t s t h a t came from the U n i t e d S t a t e s o b t a i n e d the h i g h p r i c e market, p r o b a b l y t h a t at the f i r s t of the y e a r , w h i l e t h a t which was exported was l a t e r crop when the U n i t e d S t a t e s crop was  finished.  the  -  24  -  7  Q u a n t i t y and Value —  Imports and E x p o r t s Value (10,000 o f dollars) 110  Q u a n t i t y ( m i l l i o n s of l b s . ) 11  /  10  8  \  7  /  /  /  '  \  /  \ 4 —  s  *  \  / \  90  \\  /  t \  /'  \ \  \ \  /  \\  /'  \\  1  / 6  100  To  \<  \ I  /  \  \ \  /  \  /  /  Go  \  / /  tTo  / H-o  \  /  50  % \ \ \ \  2.0 \  7"^^  \  10  \  7_  E x p o r t Value  1  Import  Export Quantity  k  Import Q u a n t i t y  Value  Ill  PRODUCTION PROBLEMS General  Statement  The p r o d u c t i o n of s m a l l f r u i t s i s so c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the a c t u a l m a r k e t i n g t h a t t h i s s t u d y of the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n has been undertaken. i n c l u d e a g e n e r a l statement  It will  of c l i m a t i c , s o i l , and s i t e  factor's, b u t w i l l go on t o d i s c u s s these f a c t o r s i n d e t a i l i n r e g a r d t o each o f the t h r e e s m a l l f r u i t b e r r i e s , brambles, bush f r u i t . w i l l be c a r r i e d  groups,  straw-  Indeed t h i s i n d i v i d u a l  study  f u r t h e r to i n c l u d e q u e s t i o n s o f f e r t i l i t y ,  p e s t s , d i s e a s e s , and the i n f l u e n c e o f c u l t u r a l methods on commercial p r o d u c t i o n .  Limiting  F a c t o r s of P r o d u c t i o n  Climate The l i m i t i n g c l i m a t i c same f o r a l l s m a l l f r u i t s .  f e a t u r e s a r e p r a c t i c a l l y the  The main f e a t u r e s which w i l l be  d e a l t w i t h are temperature, l e n g t h of growing  season,  rain-  f a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n , and wind. The resistant  small f r u i t  v a r i e t i e s p o p u l a r to-day are n o t  to extremes i n temperatures.  A m i l d winter i s  n e c e s s a r y as the p l a n t s w i l l not stand zero weather o r a l t e r n a t e f r e e z i n g end thawing.  Temperature, however, must  be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h h u m i d i t y i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e amount of  - 26 w i n t e r k i l l i n g , "because h u m i d i t y h a v i n g a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the s e r i o u s n e s s  of low t e m p e r a t u r e s .  A moderate summer i s  p r e f e r r e d as h i g h temperatures t a x t h e a b i l i t y o f p l a n t s t o t r a n s p i r e enough water t o r e m a i n c o o l , ( 2 5 ) , and s e v e r a l days of h o t weather reduces the y i e l d m a t e r i a l l y .  Seventy-three  degrees (73°) mean average i s c o n s i d e r e d  an optimum, b u t  68-79° i s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r g r o w t h , ( 4 3 ) .  Although small  fruit  growing i s c a r r i e d on t o some e x t e n t i n the southern s t a t e s , the b e r r i e s r i p e n i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f the y e a r i n the c o o l , season, ( 2 5 ) , whereas i n t h e n o r t h e r n  s t a t e s and i n Canada  the b e r r i e s r i p e n d u r i n g t h e months o f May, June and J u l y . Another f a c t o r which i s t i e d up w i t h temperature and a l s o w i t h the l e n g t h of the growing season i s t h a t of the time o f frost.  I t i s an a b s o l u t e  n e c e s s i t y t h a t there be no l a t e  f r o s t a t the time of b l o s s o m i n g .  Those p l a n t s most susceptible  t o s p r i n g f r o s t s a r e s t r a w b e r r i e s t h a t are unmulched, v a r i e t i e s o f a l l s m a l l f r u i t s t h a t bloom e a r l y , and b e r r i e s p l a n t e d on southern e x p o s u r e s , ( 4 3 ) . The  l e n g t h of the growing season i s g e n e r a l l y  measured from the l a s t k i l l i n g f r o s t i n the s p r i n g u n t i l the f i r s t I n the f a l l .  The l e n g t h of time between these two must  always be enough t o a l l o w f o r blooming and r i p e n i n g of f r u i t and d e v e l o p i n g  of the new canes or p l a n t s t h a t w i l l f r u i t the  f o l l o w i n g year. R a i n f a l l i s another v e r y i m p o r t a n t c l i m a t i c factor.  Not o n l y must the t o t a l y e a r l y r a i n f a l l be adequate,  - 27 -  but the amount d u r i n g the growing season must n e i t h e r be g r e a t nor too l i t t l e .  too  I t i s a v e r y poor p o l i c y t o grow s m a l l  f r u i t under i r r i g a t i o n , because as w e l l as being i t a f f e c t s the q u a l i t y of the f r u i t .  An inadequate supply  water w i l l not a l l o w the f r u i t to f i l l r e s u l t , y i e l d i s reduced and  expensive, of  s u f f i c i e n t l y ; as a  the b e r r i e s have a dry t a s t e .  On the other hand, too much water i s i n j u r i o u s , as i t makes the b e r r i e s too s o f t and s e v e r e l y i m p a i r s t h e i r k e e p i n g shipping q u a l i t y .  The  i d e a l time f o r r a i n i s w h i l e  b e r r i e s are growing, before colour.  and  the  t h e y have begun to take on  any  A good r a i n a t t h i s time should be enough to take  the p l a n t s through the r i p e n i n g season, p r o v i d i n g the m o i s t u r e can be conserved i n the The  soil.  l a s t c l i m a t i c f e a t u r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d  t h a t which i s not l i k e l y to be important namely t h a t of wind.  is  i n many s e c t i o n s ,  Hot d r y i n g winds i n the summer cause  a d r y i n g out of the s o i l and a l s o of b e r r i e s , r e d u c i n g m o i s t u r e content and i n t h i s way Severe w i n t e r winds may  a f f e c t i n g the  the  yield.  cause damage, e s p e c i a l l y i n the case  of cane f r u i t s , as these may e a s i l y be broken u n l e s s a d e q u a t e l y p r o t e c t e d , however, more damage i s probably  caused  by the winds d r y i n g out s o i l i n w i n t e r and the p l a n t i s not a b l e to o b t a i n m o i s t u r e and  dies, (4).  These g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o c l i m a t i c features apply to a l l small f r u i t s ,  and any  exceptions  t h e r e t o w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r a f t e r s o i l , f e r t i l i t y , and s i t e have been d i s o t t s s e d .  - 28 -  Soil Not  o n l y the type of s m a l l f r u i t but a l s o the  v a r i e t y w i l l v a r y , a c c o r d i n g to type of s o i l .  However i n  g e n e r a l , the f o u r main e s s e n t i a l s f o r s o i l s f o r s m a l l f r u i t s are t h a t the s o i l be w e l l d r a i n e d ; t h a t i t be deep w i t h r e t e n t i v e s u b - s o i l ; t h a t i t be w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h humus, and t h a t i t have a v a i l a b l e m i n e r a l elements and n i t r o g e n e s s e n t i a l f o r plant l i f e .  These problems are d i s c u s s e d i n  r e l a t i o n t o each group o f s m a l l  fruits.  Site Under t h i s heading are i n c l u d e d such f a c t o r s as slope , p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o atmospheric and water drainage and shade.  Besides  t h e s e , there are other f a c t o r s  which have t o do w i t h m a r k e t i n g problems r a t h e r than product i o n problems, and which w i l l be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n later. The  slope of the ground i n f l u e n c e s t o some e x t e n t  the e a r l i n e s s o f any c r o p , t h e e a r l i e r the crop the g r e a t e r the i n f l u e n c e .  However, w h i l e t h i s i s important f o r  e a r l i n e s s , i t i s n o t as important  f o r the s u c c e s s f u l growth  of any s m a l l f r u i t as a r e p r o p e r atmospheric and s o i l drainage.  B e r r i e s should not be planted i n l o w l y i n g  places  where t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be a l a t e s p r i n g f r o s t , o r where ground w i l l remain c o l d and. wet f a r on i n t o the summer.  While  i t i s not always p o s s i b l e t o remedy improper atmospherio drainage,  i t i s o f t e n p o s s i b l e t o provide  proper s o i l  drainage  -29  -  e i t h e r by i n s t a l l i n g a c l o s e d drainage system o r by opening a f u r r o w between t h e rows —  the l a t t e r sometimes being  .enough to prevent damage by w a t e r .  The shading e f f e c t o f  t r e e s or mountains o r by o t h e r means must be watched i f s u c c e s s f u l growing i s t o r e s u l t .  The s m a l l f r u i t s must be  p r o v i d e d w i t h as much s u n l i g h t as p o s s i b l e d u r i n g the growing season.  L i m i t i n g F a c t o r s as A p p l i e d t o Small F r u i t s Strawberry S t r a w b e r r i e s are d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r types o f s m a l l f r u i t s i n t h a t t h e y a r e low growing, have a r o o t system t h a t does n o t p e n e t r a t e f a r i n t o the ground, and therefore require  a r i c h s u p p l y o f organic m a t t e r c l o s e t o  the p l a n t , ( 4 3 ) .  I n r e g a r d t o c l i m a t i c f e a t u r e s , the straw-  b e r r y i s no d i f f e r e n t from other s m a l l f r u i t s .  The i d e a l s o i l  c o n d i t i o n s are summed up by Macoun, ( 3 1 ) , when he s t a t e s t h a t "the s t r a w b e r r y w i l l t h r i v e on a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f s o i l s , from a very l i g h t sand t o a heavy c l a y , but when p o s s i b l e t o make a s e l e c t i o n a moderately  l i g h t pliable s o i l i s preferred.  From the s t a n d p o i n t of p h y s i c a l t e x t u r e a l i g h t s o i l i s s a t i s f a c t o r y , but b e i n g g e n e r a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n humus and p l a n t f o o d , i t i s n o t as v a l u a b l e as a h e a v i e r sand loam or a v e r y l i g h t c l a y 1 oam".  B e s i d e s these f a c t o r s a l r e a d y mentioned  the s o i l should n o t pack h a r d , as i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r strawb e r r i e s to form hew p l a n t s by sending out r u n n e r s .  It is  - 30 -  a l s o i m p o r t a n t t h a t the s o i l be w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h humus i n the decomposed s t a t e , (25).  The strav/berry i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y  s e n s i t i v e t o s o i l r e a c t i o n a l t h o u g h i t t h r i v e s b e s t on s o i l s g i v i n g an a c i d r e a c t i o n , ( 4 3 ) . In  i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r which l i m i t s s t r a w b e r r y pro-  d u c t i o n i n many areas i s t h e s t r a w b e r r y r o o t w e e v i l , B r a c h y r h i n u s ovatus 1., or some o t h e r pasts o r d i s e a s e *  How-  e v e r , i f proper p r e c a u t i o n s are made i n s e l e c t i n g a s i t e and proper c o n t r o l measures are p r a c t i s e d once the p l a n t a t i o n has been s t a r t e d these p e s t s and d i s e a s e s can be c o n t r o l l e d .  A  d i f f i c u l t y i n s t r a w b e r r y m a r k e t i n g which i s e s s e n t i a l l y a problem t r a c e a b l e t o p r o d u c t i o n i s t h a t o f misshapen b e r r i e s and nubbins.  The main reasons f o r such b e r r i e s are namely,  u n f a v o u r a b l e weather c o n d i t i o n s and f a u l t y p o l l i n a t i o n , and also c e r t a i n virus diseases.  The u n f a v o u r a b l e weather con-  d i t i o n s c a n be i n f l u e n c e d by the grower i f he mulches h i s p l a n t s , and does n o t remove the mulch u n t i l a l l danger o f f r o s t i s passed.  Improper p o l l i n a t i o n can be l e s s e n e d t o a  l a r g e e x t e n t i f p e r f e c t v a r i e t i e s are s e l e c t e d i n the b e g i n n i n g and mixed w i t h any i m p e r f e c t s o r t s which may be grown. Another f a c t o r t h a t p l a y s a l a r g e p a r t i n s u c c e s s f u l p r o d u c t i o n i s a knowledge of proper methods and f e r t i l i z a t i o n .  cultural  S t r a w b e r r i e s are o f t e n grown  c o m m e r c i a l l y as.a companion c r o p i n o r c h a r d s .  T h i s has i t s  advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s , end i t w i l l depend p r o b a b l y upon l o c a l f a c t o r s whether i t can be done s u c c e s s f u l l y o r  - 31 not.  P r o p e r f e r t i l i z a t i o n i s a problem of g r e a t  importance.  Manure i s the i d e a l f e r t i l i z e r , b u t as i t i s not always a v a i l a b l e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to s u b s t i t u t e  e i t h e r a green  manure crop o r an a r t i f i c i a l f e r t i l i z e r .  However, much has  been w r i t t e n (12, 32) r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r s on the f i r m n e s s and f l a v o u r of b e r r i e s .  Some w r i t e r s c l a i m  t h a t n i t r o g e n causes p l a n t s t o make s o f t e r b e r r i e s o f i n f e r i o r keeping q u a l i t y , (43).  I f such be the c a s e , i t i s  of the utmost i m p o r t a n c e , as the f r u i t o f s t r a w b e r r y m a l l y a h i g h l y p e r i s h a b l e commodity.  i s nor-  However, i t i s not yet an  e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t t h a t such i s the c a s e , and B. W. Greve says a f t e r much e x p e r i m e n t i n g  w i t h t h i s problem t h a t r e s u l t s d i d  not seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t f r u i t was so s o f t and of such i n f e r i o r h a n d l i n g q u a l i t y t h a t n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r might n o t be warranted i f i t improved the y i e l d , ( 1 2 ) • I n r e g a r d to f l a v o u r , i t has been s a i d t h a t f r u i t from p l a n t s t r e a t e d w i t h phosphorous and n i t r o g e n seemed best f l a v o u r e d , w h i l e t h a t from p l a n t s t r e a t e d w i t h potash was poorest. A l l these f a c t o r s must be c o n s i d e r e d  from the  p o i n t of m a r k e t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Brambles A l t h o u g h the brambles i n c l u d e a l l types of r a s p b e r r i e s ; , the r e d , the b l a c k and the p u r p l e , the b l a c k b e r r y , dewberry, end l o g a n b e r r y ,  o n l y t h r e e of these are o f import-  ance i n Canada, namely, t h e r e d r a s p b e r r y , the b l a c k b e r r y , and the l o g a n b e r r y .  The l o g a n b e r r y i s l e s s hardy than other s m a l l fruits,  and can not s t a n d zero temperatures,  (49).  For  this  reason i t i s c o n f i n e d i n Canada to the c o a s t a l r e g i o n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and cannot be. grown i n the i n t e r i o r of t h a t P r o v i n c e or i n E a s t e r n Canada. The r e d r a s p b e r r i e s as a group i s h a r d i e r f u r t h e r n o r t h than the other brambles, but i s l e s s hardy to the s o u t h , (25).  However, there are v a r i e t i e s t h a t are e x c e p t i o n s to  to t h i s r u l e , such as the Guthbert which i s v e r y tender  and:  s u b j e c t to heavy w i n t e r k i l l i n g i n even m i l d s e c t i o n s . The b e s t type of s o i l f o r a l l brambles i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l i g h t loam s o i l t h a t i s w e l l d r a i n e d , but i n which the m o i s t u r e  s u p p l y must be m a i n t a i n e d .  Due  to the deep  r o o t i n g systems of the brambles the s u b - s o i l must be deep and retentive, ( 4 l ) . Disease i n brambles e s p e c i a l l y i n r a s p b e r r i e s i s perhaps more o f a problem t h a n w i t h s t r a w b e r r i e s .  Not  only  are d i s e a s e s i n r a s p b e r r i e s harder to c o n t r o l but a l s o harder to e r a d i c a t e .  R a s p b e r r i e s , once t h e y have been p l a n t e d , are  l e f t f o r t e n to f i f t e e n or twenty y e a r s before t h e y are removed.  T h i s e l i m a t e s any chance of r o t a t i o n to r i d the  s o i l of any p a r t i c u l a r disease and pest as i n the case of strawberries.  Mr.  J . J . Woods at A g a s s i z , B. C.,  (52),  assumes t h a t a f t e r a number of y e a r s the s o i l tends t o become l a c k i n g i n c e r t a i n elements,  and i s then very s u b j e c t to  d i s e a s e and i t i s not p o s s i b l e to i n c r e a s e the y i e l d pro-  - 35 -  f i t a b l y by u s i n g commercial f e r t i l i z e r s . The w o r k i n g i n New  same problem has been found by Dr. W.H.  Rankin  York, ( 3 8 ) , and he sums up by s a y i n g "More and  more d u r i n g a p e r i o d of many y e a r s r a s p b e r r y growers have been f i n d i n g t h a t t h e i r v a r i e t i e s are g r a d u a l l y l o s i n g t h e i r v i g o r and are not p r o f i t a b l e ; and  t h a t r e p u t a t i o n of red r a s p b e r r i e s  i s s u f f e r i n g g r e a t l y because the b e r r i e s from the  sickly  bushes are f l a v o u r l e s s , s m a l l e r and s c a r c e l y p a l a t a b l e u n l e s s d i s g u i s e d by sugar and cream.  Canners are unable to m a i n t a i n  t h e i r d e s i r e d q u a l i t y i n t h e i r r a s p b e r r y product because of this trouble". Such d i s e a s e s as y e l l o w or orange r u s t , mosaic may  have a d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t .  f a c t o r s , i t i s probable  and  However, b e s i d e s  t h a t there i s some d i s e a s e or b a c t e r i a  t h a t i s s l o w i n g up r o o t growth and p r e v e n t i n g the development of the p l a n t .  proper  R a s p b e r r i e s to be grown s u c c e s s -  f u l l y should be s t a r t e d on new  r a s p b e r r y s o i l from c e r t i f i e d  s t o c k , a v a i l a b l e i n c e r t a i n p r o v i n c e s at the present and s h o u l d have a d e f i n i t e s e t r o t a t i o n . be accomplished  these  time,  T h i s r o t a t i o n can  by removing p a r t of the crop each y e a r ,  p l a n t i n g a g r e e n manure crop and r e p l a n t i n g .  This i s only  p o s s i b l e , however, i n l a r g e growing a r e a s . Bush F r u i t s T h i s c l a s s of s m a l l f r u i t s i n c l u d e s c u r r a n t s and gooseberries.  At one  time bush f r u i t s were the most  - 34  -  important s m a l l f r u i t , b u t i n the l a s t t w e n t y - f i v e years have decreased I n demand.  v e r y r a p i d l y i n p r o d u c t i o n due t o the d e c l i n e  C u r r a n t s are s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from the o t h e r  s m a l l f r u i t s i n r e g a r d to t h e i r c l i m a t i o r e q u i r e m e n t s .  These  b e r r i e s t h r i v e b e s t i n the n o r t h temperate zone, ( 4 ) , where the mean summer temperature  i s r e l a t i v e l y low.  They can be  grown s u c c e s s f u l l y i n most p a r t s of Canada and i n southern d i s t r i c t s i n h i g h a l t i t u d e s which more c l o s e l y approximate n o r t h e r n c o n d i t i o n s ' . They w i l l even t h r i v e i n p a r t i a l shade. S o i l c o n d i t i o n s f o r g o o s e b e r r i e s and c u r r a n t s may  be  such  t h a t t h e y are s i i g h t l y too wet f o r any other s m a l l f r u i t ,  but  such t h a t must not be s i t u a t e d i n low a i r p o c k e t s , (2j>).  It  i s p r e f e r a b l e t h a t bush f r u i t s grow i n heavy s o i l because a l i g h t s o i l i s not condusive  to c o o l n e s s .  The c h i e f l i m i t i n g  f a c t o r s of bush f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n have been summed up  by  Shoemaker, ( 4 3 ) , as f o l l o w s : First:  As a group they p r e f e r a c o o l s o i l , but not stand drought and re q u i r e a  will  continuous  supply of moisture. Second:  Due  t o the f a c t t h a t the cane maggot i s a  s e r i o u s pest f o r which there i s not guaranteed  any  c o n t r o l , i t tends to l i m i t  pro-  d u c t i o n u n t i l such time as a permanent cont r o l measure i s . found. Third:  The market i s l i m i t e d , and w h i l e t h i s i s a c t u a l l y n o t a p r o d u c t i o n problem, i t s t i l l  - S i x -  t i e s i n w i t h i t f o r i n order t o have maximum p r o d u c t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y market f o r the e n t i r e  t o have a  crop.  P r o d u c t i o n problems as r e l a t e d t o s m a l l f r u i t s i n g e n e r a l and t o the d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s have been summed up v e r y b r i e f l y and no attempt has been made t o e l a b o r a t e on any one phase.  I t i s not meant t h a t such a study should be regarded  as b e i n g complete, b u t r a t h e r i t i s d e s i r e d t h a t a g e n e r a l knowledge^ as t o what e x t e n t the p r o d u c t i o n problems t i e i n w i t h marketing\be obtained).  I f such a f e e l i n g i s r e a l i z e d ,  the w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t the purpose of t h i s p a r t of the t h e s i s has been s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplished.  - 36 -  IT  MARKETING. PROBLEMS G e n e r a l Statement  A s i d e from a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n problems, the one o f m a r k e t i n g i s t h e l a r g e s t which c o n f r o n t s th© s m a l l f r u i t i n d u s t r y to-day.  I t i s on t h i s problem t h a t the w r i t e r p l a n s  to p l a c e most emphasis and t o a n a l y s e a l l the problems o f m a r k e t i n g w i t h w h i c h the grower i s c o n f r o n t e d .  The f a c t o r s  which w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n c l u d e the v a r i e t y problem, p e r i s h a b i l i t y i n c l u d i n g t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods, the market demand, c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r f r u i t s and the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of the uses t o which s m a l l f r u i t s may be put -- consumed f r e s h , as jam o r canned, f r o z e n o r preserved by S 0 9 .  V a r i e t y Problem The p r o d u c e r s o f any v a r i e t y of f r u i t must, i f he hopes t o be a s u c c e s s f u l grower, not o n l y grow t h a t v a r i e t y which i s b e s t adapted t o h i s l a n d and c u l t u r a l methods but must a l s o grow a v a r i e t y o f f r u i t t h a t the consumer w i l l demand.  The grower s h o u l d f i n d out b e f o r e he e v e r s t a r t s p r o -  d u c t i o n , the market to which he w i l l have t o c a t e r , whether to the f r e s h f r u i t market, e i t h e r l o c a l or d i s t a n t , or t o the market f o r p r o c e s s e d f r u i t . In s e l e c t i n g a v a r i e t y f o r any market, c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be taken of i t s g e n e r a l appearance, i t s s h i p p i n g  - 37 -  q u a l i t y , i t s productiveness,  as w e l l as i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y to  the l a n d t o be used. The  best way  to r e a l l y analyse  t h i s problem i s to  take each v a r i e t y of s m a l l f r u i t and c o n s i d e r i t s e p a r a t e l y . Strawberry The  strawberry  d i f f e r s i n i t s b o t a n i c a l make-up  from the other k i n d s of s m a l l f r u i t s .  I n p i c k i n g , the h u l l i s  l e f t on the b e r r y and there i s no h o l l o w r e c e p t a c l e l e f t  by  the core as i s the case of r a s p b e r r i e s , or a hard core as i n the case of l o g a n b e r r i e s .  I t a l s o d i f f e r s from r a s p b e r r i e s  i n t h a t the market does n o t demand any  specific variety.  T h i s i s a good t h i n g because v a r i e t i e s are not u n i v e r s a l l y popular from p o i n t o f view of p r o d u c t i o n , but must be adapted to e v e r y d i s t r i c t . However, i n b u y i n g the s t r a w b e r r y  the consumer i s  i n f l u e n c e d by the c o l o u r , s i z e and g e n e r a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the f r u i t , ( 4 l ) .  I f the grower keeps t h i s i n mind, i t should  be p o s s i b l e to grow a v a r i e t y of s t r a w b e r r y w i t h the approval  t h a t w i l l meet  of the consumer.  Another problem f a c i n g the s t r a w b e r r y market at the present time i s that of the f e a s i b i l i t y bearing strawberry  of the  f o r long distance shipping.  The  everever-  b e a r i n g v a r i e t y comes on the market a f t e r the main crop o f s t r a w b e r r i e s and  of r a s p b e r r i e s has f i n i s h e d . Many pro-  ducers have h e l d the viewpoint  t h a t by m a r k e t i n g s t r a w b e r r i e s  a t t h i s time t h e r e i s not so much e o m p e t i t i o n  with  other  - 38 "berries.  -  However, those t h a t do t a k e t h i s s t a n d f a i l t o  r e a l i z e t h a t t r e e f r u i t s are "by t h i s time coming onto the market and t h e r e i s no g r e a t demand f o r s t r a w b e r r i e s a f t e r the main c r o p has passed.  I t would then be to the advantage  of the grower t h a t he t u r n h i s a t t e n t i o n away from the  growth  of e v e r b e a r i n g v a r i e t i e s . Raspberry Of a l l the s m a l l f r u i t s the r a s p b e r r y p r e s e n t s the most d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e g a r d t o v a r i e t y d i f f i c u l t i e s .  I n gen-  e r a l i t can be c l a s s e d i n two groups, the Guthbert and the sour v a r i e t i e s .  Sour v a r i e t i e s , i n c l u d e a l l v a r i e t i e s except  the C u t h b e r t , are not comparable w i t h the l a t t e r i n f l a v o u r or i n g e n e r a l t e x t u r e f o r canning or f r e s h f r u i t However, the consumer, who  purposes.  i s not educated to d i s -  t i n g u i s h from outward appearance between v a r i e t i e s does not know what i s b e i n g purchased.  People who  know the Guthbert  p r e f e r them, but i f the consumer has no knowledge of v a r i e t y , the sour v a r i e t y w i l l p r o b a b l y r e t a r d the demand f o r r a s p b e r r i e s of any t y p e .  These same problems have, been d e a l t w i t h  by Farquhar, ( 2 4 ) , and he s t a t e s t h a t " w h i l e the s o - c a l l e d sour v a r i e t y has been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y marketed d u r i n g the v a r i o u s past season on the f r e s h market, I n e v e r t h e l e s s maint a i n t h a t we have no measure by which t o gauge how much damage, i f any, the m a r k e t i n g of these sour v a r i e t y r a s p b e r r i e s on the f r e s h market has done t o the g e n e r a l m a r k e t i n g ©f r e d r a s p berries i n their fresh state".  T h i s statement was made con-  - 3  -  9  c e r n i n g the S t a t e o f Washington, U.S.A., and i t i s the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r t h a t t h i s i s a v i t a l problem i n the m a r k e t i n g of r a s p b e r r i e s i n Canada.  I f c a r l o a d s go out c o n t a i n i n g f i v e or  s i x v a r i e t i e s of b e r r i e s , and the consumer does n o t know the d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s , he does not know what t o buy and what t o reject.  I t s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be the aim o f the producer t o  produce o n l y t h a t v a r i e t y o f b e r r y which w i l l meet w i t h u n i v e r s a l a p p r o v a l and c r e a t e a t a s t e so t h a t more r a s p b e r r i e s w i l l be consumed. Not  o n l y the consumer o f the f r e s h f r u i t b u t a l s o  the c a n n e r i e s are i n f l u e n c e d by v a r i e t y .  The cannery  opera-  t o r s , however, know and demand f i r s t the C u t h b e r t , then the Newman, and l a s t , the L l o y d George, no other v a r i e t y b e i n g wanted, ( 4 2 ) . There i s , o f c o u r s e ,  a very good r e a s o n why  Cuthberts a r e not grown e x c l u s i v e l y .  The Cuthbert  i s not  as s a t i s f a c t o r y i n i t s growth o r p r o d u c t i v e h a b i t s , and i s more s u s c e p t i b l e t o d i s e a s e than are o t h e r v a r i e t i e s . not s t a n d severe  It will  w i n t e r s , whereas such v a r i e t i e s as the Latham  and Newman a r e v e r y w i n t e r hardy.  As a producer the Cuthbert  stands o n l y i n a second c l a s s , and cannot be compared w i t h such v a r i e t i e s as L l o y d George, Latham, and Count. The  Cuthbert  i s not r e s i s t a n t t o such d i s e a s e s as  y e l l o w r u s t and mosaic as are o t h e r v a r i e t i e s of b e r r i e s . Taking a l l these f a c t o r s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , one can r e a d i l y see why the grower p r e f e r s g r o w i n g o t h e r b e r r i e s t o the  -  Cuthbert;  40  -  however, growers r e a l i z e t h a t the consumer has the  power t o demand o n l y t h e b e s t , and r e q u i r e s not o n l y a v a r i e t y t h a t w i l l be agreeable  to h i s t a s t e , but a l s o one t h a t has  good t e x t u r e , has an a t t r a c t i v e c o l o u r , and i s otherwise as n e a r l y p e r f e c t as p o s s i b l e .  Such a b e r r y c a n o n l y be  obtained by growing the r i g h t v a r i e t y and making sure t h a t i t has proper f e r t i l i z a t i o n , c u l t i v a t i o n and i s h a r v e s t e d a t the r i g h t time and marketed through the p r o p e r  channels*  B l a c k b e r r y and Loganberry With the r e s t of the s m a l l f r u i t s , v a r i e t y i s not an i m p o r t a n t  f a c t o r from the consumer's p o i n t of view, m a i n l y  because they a r e of l i t t l e commercial importance. demand f o r b l a c k b e r r i e s i s b u i l t up i t might become but u n t i l  such time there i s no need to worry.  I f the important,  The b l a c k -  b e r r i e s are used c h i e f l y f o r jam and home p r o c e s s i n g , a v e r y l i t t l e amount b e i n g consumed as f r e s h f r u i t . The  l o g a n b e r r y i s r e a l l y a b l a c k b e r r y of the  t r a i l i n g t y p e , which has been domesticated species.  from the w i l d  I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r e d , ( 1 1 ) , "as a r e d f r u i t  v a r i e t y of the w i l d t r a i l i n g b l a c k b e r r y o f the P a c i f i c Coast". Gooseberry and Currant —  Bush F r u i t s  S i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t w i t h r e g a r d t o bush fruits  as w i t h s t r a w b e r r y , namely t h a t d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s  are adapted to d i f f e r e n t c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s .  I t has been  - 41 -  recommended, i n a B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l B u l l e t i n , "Currant and Gooseberry C u l t u r e " , ( 6 ) , t h a t "Before  setting  out any number of bushes i t i s o f t e n a d v i s a b l e to f i n d j u s t what v a r i e t i e s have been d o i n g w e l l i n the  out  district",  The b u l l e t i n goes on f u r t h e r t o s t a t e t h a t white c u r r a n t s , except f o r home u s e , s h o u l d not be p l a n t e d as there i s no market demand*  The o u t s t a n d i n g red c u r r a n t v a r i e t i e s seem  t o be the P e r f e c t i o n and f a y , w h i l e the most w i d e l y recommended b l a c k c u r r a n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia are the Boskoop G i a n t and the V i c t o r i a .  The American v a r i e t i e s of goose-  b e r r i e s are grown i n preference to the European, as they are more r e s i s t a n t t o mildew.  The v a r i e t y of gooseberry most  w i d e l y used i s the Oregon Champion. Youngberry (Wonderberry) A l t h o u g h a l l the v a r i e t i e s t h a t are b e i n g s t u d i e d from the commercial s t a n d p o i n t have been d e a l t w i t h , there i s one  other b e r r y which might be mentioned here i n c o n n e c t i o n  with variety.  The w r i t e r r e f e r s here to the youngberry or  wonderberry, as i t i s sometimes c a l l e d .  This berry i s a  c r o s s between Phenomenal l o g a n b e r r y and Mayes dewberry. A c c o r d i n g to a grower i n Oregon, ( 2 b ) , the f r u i t of the wonderberry i s l a r g e r and sweeter  than the l o g a n b e r r y , i n  r e a l i t y the l a r g e s t b e r r y among the cane f r u i t s t h a t he seen.  had  I t has a f l a v o u r s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the l o g a n b e r r y ,  but i t does not have the s t r o n g a c i d t a s t e of t h a t v a r i e t y .  - 42  -  A l t h o u g h the t a s t e i s h a r d t o d e s c r i b e , i t i s a f i n e flavoured f r u i t QT p i e s .  f o r e a t i n g f r e s h , and i s e x c e l l e n t f o r sauce  F o r j e l l y i t i s c o n s i d e r e d by many who have t r i e d  i t as b e i n g e x c e l l e n t . The b e r r i e s themselves are a dark wine c o l o u r and appear almost b l a c k when f u l l y r i p e and present a v e r y p l e a s i n g appearance  when i n the box.  B e s i d e s the q u a l i t i e s a l r e a d y mentioned s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e is . I t s absence of seeds. :  an out-  T h i s shows a  d i s t i n c t s u p e r i o r i t y over the r a s p b e r r y , l o g a n b e r r y and blackberry. The youngberry i s grown c h i e f l y i n warm c l i m a t e s , such as C a l i f o r n i a , and i s not hardy t o aero temperatures. However, i f proper care were t a k e n t o p r o t e c t i t from d i s e a s e i t might be p o s s i b l e to t u r n i t . i n t o a commercial b e r r y i n those p a r t s of Canada which c a n s u c c e s s f u l l y grow the l o g a n b e r r y . The b e r r y i s a good s h i p p e r and should meet w i t h the a p p r o v a l o f b o t h r e t a i l e r and consumer.  An o b j e c t i o n a b l e  c h a r a c t e r i n i t s growth i s the prevalence of n e e d l e - r l i k e barbs on the canes which make them extremely d i f f i c u l t to handle.  Perishability Under t h e heading of p e r i s h a b i l i t y w i l l be d i s cussed h a r v e s t i n g and s t o r i n g problems.  - 43 -  The  f i n a l c o n d i t i o n o f "berries i s governed by the  eare w i t h which e a c h step i n the h a n d l i n g of the b e r r i e s i s taken; from the time t h e y are p i c k e d o f f the bush and even b e f o r e , u n t i l i t r e a c h e s the a c t u a l consumer, care must be taken t o see t h a t the b e r r i e s are not handled more than necessary. Measures which must be taken a t h a r v e s t i n g time i n c l u d e f i r s t o f a l l p i c k i n g a t the r i g h t stage I f p i c k e d f o r the f r e s h market o r canning,  of m a t u r i t y .  the degree o f r i p e -  ness depends on the d i s t a n c e from the market.  Especially i s  t h i s true of the s t r a w b e r r i e s which are a s o f t - f l e s h e d v a r i e t y (43) of b e r r y and must be p i c k e d before r i p e i n order t o g e t them to market i n good c o n d i t i o n . b e i n g used f o r jam or wine , the stage important.  I f the b e r r i e s are  of r i p e n e s s i s not  as  I n the case of the l o g a n b e r r y , the f r u i t i s not  p i c k e d u n t i l r i p e , as i t i s not n e c e s s a r y  to preserve  the  form o f the b e r r y , b u t r a t h e r the best f l a v o u r and aroma possible, (49).  I n the case of the b l a c k b e r r y the b e r r y must  be a b s o l u t e l y b l a c k b e f o r e i t i s r i p e , ( 4 1 ) .  Because there  i s such a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n degrees of b l a c k n e s s ,  black-  b e r r y p i c k i n g i s made v e r y d i f f i c u l t . I n p i c k i n g c u r r a n t s and g o o s e b e r r i e s f o r jam poses, one may  pur-  use the s t r i p p i n g method, but i f f o r the  f r e s h market more care must be t a k e n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of the c u r r a n t s which must be p i c k e d w i t h the stems remaining on the b e r r i e s .  I f u s i n g the c u r r a n t s f o r j e l l y , the b e r r i e s  are picked s l i g h t l y u n d e r - r i p e  and  only a few p i c k i n g s are  -  44  -  required, (43). Another important that of climate.  factor affecting harvesting i s  No b e r r i e s should be p i c k e d w h i l e wet, as  they w i l l n o t stand up f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  Some b e r r i e s ,  such as the r a s p b e r r i e s w i l l n o t stand p i c k i n g even w h i l e the dew i s on, whereas the s t r a w b e r r y , on the o t h e r hand, i s not i n j u r e d i f p i c k e d while s l i g h t l y wet. The time a t which p i c k i n g i s done must a l s o be considered.  P i c k i n g during the h o t t e s t p a r t o f the day i s  g e n e r a l l y n o t a d v i s e d as i t i n c r e a s e s the p e r i s h a b i l i t y considerably.  To o b t a i n the best r e s u l t s p i c k i n g should be done  i n the morning a f t e r the dew has disappeared  and i n the l a t e r  p a r t o f the a f t e r n o o n a f t e r the heat o f the day has passed. At any r a t e , the b e r r i e s s h o u l d not be a l l o w e d t o stand i n the sun, but should be removed immediately  to c o l d s t o r a g e .  For s m a l l f r u i t s i t i s a d v i s a b l e , i f c a t e r i n g t o the f r e s h market trade t o grade the f r u i t and y e t t o do so i n such a way as t o a v o i d e x c e s s h a n d l i n g because t h a t i m p a i r s the keeping  quality.  When g r a d i n g i s d e s i r e d i t i s  o f t e n a d v i s a b l e t o have two p i c k i n g s d u r i n g the day, the f i r s t p i c k i n g t a k i n g o n l y those which are c l a s s e d as marketa b l e b e r r i e s and s e c o n d l y , a l l o t h e r s —  these l a t e r  being  used f o r jam. Growers or communities which are s h i p p i n g b e r r i e s year a f t e r year under a s p e c i a l Trade Name would do w e l l t o make use o f t h i s method as graded b e r r i e s command the best market, and i t g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t s i n repeated  orders and  -  a s t e a d y market.  The example  4j>  -  of Kentucky may be quoted i n  t h i s case and i t has been s t a t e d , ( 4 3 ) ,  t h a t " R e p u t a t i o n of  Kentucky b e r r i e s has been b u i l t up because of good superv i s i o n of p i c k e r s of s h i p p i n g b e r r i e s at the r i g h t s t a g e , and the d i s c a r d i n g of a l l c u l l s " . Summing up the causes f o r p e r i s h a b i l i t y of s m a l l f r u i t s , we f i n d t h a t the l e n g t h of time t h e y w i l l  keep  depends on,(a) S p e c i e s and a l s o v a r i e t y o f b e r r y , (b) Degree of r i p e n e s s when p i c k e d , (c) Oare w i t h which h a n d l e d , (d) Temperature a t which (e) Temperature  picked,  a t which h e l d a f t e r p i c k i n g .  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Storage F i r s t - c l a s s b e r r i e s held, under optimum c o n d i t i o n s cannot be e x p e c t e d t o keep more than ten d a y s , i f h e l d i n the f r e s h s t a t e , (25). storage  Thus the problems of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  are f a i r l y c l o s e l y l i n k e d  together.  Trucking A l t h o u g h b e r r i e s are an e x t r e m e l y p e r i s h a b l e  fruit  they are adapted t o t r u c k t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on smooth roads over a r e a s o n a b l e m i l e a g e , ( 4 3 ) , t h a t i s t o say, any f r u i t t h a t i s  - 46  -  shipped i n t h i s way must be handled w i t h extreme care there w i l l be no i n j u r y done by b u i s i n g .  so  Since the s t a r t of  t r u c k i n g , there has been a d e c l i n e i n b e r r y growing i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of l a r g e c i t i e s and p r o d u c t i o n has to take the cheaper lands f u r t h e r from the Trucking  tended  city.  should be done d u r i n g the c o o l of the  n i g h t t o o b t a i n the b e s t r e s u l t s .  The  one b i g disadvantage  w i t h t r u c k i n g i s t h a t I t causes g r e a t f l u c t u a t i o n i n p r i c e owing t o the b r i n g i n g of l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s on the market w i t h out any advance r e p o r t s , thus c a u s i n g a s e r i o u s g l u t . Shipping  Freight Most b e r r i e s at the present time are s t i l l  by f r e i g h t e i t h e r i n s t r a i g h t or mixed c a r s . are to be shipped any  B e r r i e s , i f they  d i s t a n c e must be " p r e - c o o l e d "  s h i p p i n g , and t h e n t r a n s p o r t e d  shipped  before  i n r e f r i g e r a t o r cars.  E x p e r i m e n t a l work on p r e - c o o l i n g has been done by Gverholser  and Moses,(54), i n C a l i f o r n i a and  are presented as f o l l o w s , -  "The  their findings  term " p r e - c o o l i n g " r e f e r s to  the process of c o o l i n g the f r u i t soon a f t e r h a r v e s t i n g before  i t i s shipped.  f r u i t can be picked and  The  and  degree of, m a t u r i t y at which the  the c o n d i t i o n i n which i t a r r i v e s a t  i t s d e s t i n a t i o n depends g r e a t l y upon i t s temperature a f t e r • h a r v e s t , both before and d u r i n g t r a n s i t .  The more n e a r l y  f r u i t i s p i c k e d a t the p r o p e r stage of m a t u r i t y f o r the best developing  of c o o l i n g and h i g h e s t subsequent e a t i n g  q u a l i t y , the g r e a t e r i s the n e c e s s i t y f o r c o o l i n g " .  - 47 -  A l t h o u g h t h i s was a g e n e r a l statement made f o r a l l f r u i t s i t a p p l i e s d i r e c t l y t o s m a l l f r u i t s , as does a l s o the statement which f o l l o w s , i s not Inert.  " F r u i t when p i c k e d from the t r e e  A f t e r h a r v e s t i n g i t c o n t i n u e s m e t a b o l i c or  r i p e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r a v a r i e d p e r i o d o f t i m e , depending upon the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t surround i t . metabolic a c t i v i t i e s ,  As a r e s u l t of these  the t i s s u e s of the f r u i t  become o v e r - r i p e and break down.  gradually  These changes may be  r e t a r d e d and decay checked, by c o o l i n g the f r u i t promptly a f t e r i t has been h a r v e s t e d and k e e p i n g i t a t a r e l a t i v e l y low temperature u n t i l used.  The r a t e a t which f r u i t r i p e n s  may be reduced as much as o n e - h a l f f o r each I 5 F a h r e n h e i t 0  drop i n the temperature a t which i t i s h e l d w i t h i n  ripening  temperatures". O v e r h o l s e r and Moses went f u r t h e r and found t h a t r a s p b e r r i e s a t a temperature of 68 generated heat a t the r a t e o f . 0 6 e a l o r e s per second per k i l o g r a m because of t h e i r own s e l f - h e a t i n g .  T h i s was about f i v e times as much as  a p p l e s and f i f t e e n times as much as oranges. They, t h e r e f o r e , concluded t h a t "The s e l f - h e a t i n g of f r u i t and r e l a t i v e l y a s m a l l amount o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n r e q u i r e d to check i t , and the value of r a p i d r e d u c t i o n o f f i e l d temperatures o f i r u i t seem t o j u s t i f y p r e - c o o l i n g by m e c h a n i c a l r e f r i g e r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t i s p l a c e d i n i n s u l a t e d compartments p r o v i d e d w i t h l i m i t e d such as r e f r i g e r a t o r c a r s " .  refrigeration,  -  48  -  When these f a c t o r s are a p p l i e d s p e c i a l l y to s m a l l f r u i t s , we f i n d t h a t : s p e c i a l care must be t a k e n .  B e s i d e s pre-  c e d i n g , the c a r must be l o a d e d p r o p e r l y t o a l l o w f o r proper c i r c u l a t i o n of a i r .  Not more than f o u r packages deep should  be a l l o w e d , o t h e r w i s e poor c i r c u l a t i o n of a i r and damage by deterioration w i l l result. to make sure the f r u i t  The b e r r i e s must a l s o be braced  i s not damaged.  As i t i s i m p o s s i b l e  to s a l v a g e b e r r i e s as we do o t h e r f r u i t s , g r e a t care must be t a k e n f o r p r e v e n t i o n r a t h e r than r e p a i r . One  s h i p p i n g t r o u b l e e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of  r a s p b e r r i e s i s the development o f moulds, because once t h e y have s t a r t e d to form they spread q u i c k l y and cause decay on o v e r - r i p e and s o f t b e r r i e s , ( 2 4 )  Consequently, I t i s to the  advantage of the grower to see t h a t no mould i s a l l o w e d to develop, and t h i s can o n l y be a c h i e v e d by p r o p e r p r e - c o o l i n g and proper s h i p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s .  Market .Demand I n a p r e v i o u s part the c o r r e l a t i o n between p r i c e and p r o d u c t i o n has been shown. why  the consumption  There i s no r e a s o n , however,  can not be i n c r e a s e d so as t o a f f e c t  p r i c e and p r o d u c t i o n c o r r e l a t i o n .  The market c o u l d be  i n c r e a s e d q u i t e m a r k e d l y i f the r i g h t methods were to be employed.  this  - 49 An example of t h i s was  shown "by the A s s o c i a t e d  Growers of B. G. L t d . Proper a d v e r t i s i n g was t r a d e brand O.K.  was  c a r r i e d on, a  d i r e c t l y used and by d i f f e r e n t means the  c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t of a d v e r t i s i n g became e v i d e n t as the  years  passed. But before a d v e r t i s i n g i s c a r r i e d on, i t i s necessary  to have a product which can be guaranteed year  a f t e r year. necessary  For t h i s purpose, i f no o t h e r , i t would be  to form c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n the d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of  the c o u n t r y , and a d v e r t i s i n g must be p r o v i n c i a l or dominion wide i f r e s u l t s are t o be o b t a i n e d .  A d v e r t i s i n g methods  which might prove s u c c e s s f u l f o r s m a l l f r u i t s are as f o l l o w s , (a) Newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g at time of crop movements. (b) Show c a r d s f o r r e t a i l e r s and banners f o r t r u c k s of j o b b e r s , or on f r e i g h t c a r s . ( c ) Radio b r o a d c a s t s , g i v i n g a t t r a c t i v e r e c i p e s . (d) R e g i s t e r e d trade brand w h i c h has a good name, and which r e p r e s e n t s the h i g h e s t q u a l i t y of b e r r y sold. (e) F i l m s f o r t h e a t r e s showing a l l stages i n the h a r v e s t i n g and  the m a r k e t i n g  of the  small f r u i t . Due  t o the h i g h p e r i s h a b i l i t y of s m a l l f r u i t s , i t  i s not p o s s i b l e t o have window d i s p l a y s or to show i n exhibitions.  However, i t might be p o s s i b l e t o a d v e r t i s e a  _ _5Q  -  S t r a w b e r r y or Raspberry Week" s i m i l a r to the B.G. Lamb week". ,r  T h i s "week" would have t o c o i n c i d e w i t h the time when the l a r g e s t q u a n t i t y of f r u i t was  coming on the market.  Very l i t t l e a d v e r t i s i n g a s i d e from t h a t done by p r i v a t e s t o r e s i s c a r r i e d on a t the  present  c e r t a i n p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s , as w i l l be  time except i n  shown l a t e r .  lot  o n l y i s the a d v e r t i s i n g n e c e s s a r y f o r the f r e s h f r u i t market, but i t i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l f o r f r u i t as jam, canned or f r o z e n pack. Consumers who  do not a t the p r e s e n t  t a s t e of good jam must be encouraged to use c o s t of p u t t i n g samples i n the homes.  time know the  i t even at a  F o r such goods i t i s  not the domestic market that would be a f f e c t e d , but  rather  the export and f o r e i g n market. The his  grower must be made to r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s to  advantage t h a t the b e r r i e s be a d v e r t i s e d ^  Consumption  must be i n c r e a s e d i f the p r i c e i s to be strengthened. p l a n , however, would have to be advertising.  The  b e s t way  formulated  Some  to pay f o r such  would p r o b a b l y be a s m a l l charge on  each c r a t e .  Competition Competition  i s a v i t a l f a c t o r to-day i n the  m a r k e t i n g of s m a l l f r u i t s , and i s of three k i n d s ; ( l ) competi-  - n a -  t i o n "between d i f f e r e n t s m a l l f r u i t s , (2) c o m p e t i t i o n s w i t h o t h e r f r u i t s , (3) c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the weather f a c t o r . Between May l j j t h and J u l y l ^ t h s m a l l f r u i t s  con-  s t i t u t e the l a r g e s t volumes o f a l l f r u i t coming on t o the market.  The only other f r u i t on the market a t t h i s time i s  the o h e r r y . The  tendency i s f o r the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of s m a l l  f r u i t to crowd each o t h e r on the market.  The s t r a w b e r r y i s  the f i r s t b e r r y of the season, t h e a c t u a l time o f course depending on weather c o n d i t i o n s .  Before these have f i n i s h e d ,  the r a s p b e r r i e s and bush f r u i t s have s t a r t e d coming on a market t h a t has l o s t i t s keenness f o r b e r r i e s .  Slightly  l a t e r the l o g a n b e r r y s t a r t s coming on t o the market and competes w i t h a l l the other b e r r i e s .  F i n a l l y b e f o r e t h i s group  i s f i n i s h e d the b l a c k b e r r i e s and e v e r b e a r i n g s t r a w b e r r i e s are on the market.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t o see from t h i s t h a t the  d i f f e r e n t s m a l l f r u i t s do a c t u a l l y compete w i t h each o t h e r f o r t h e market. However, b e s i d e s t h i s tendency f o r c o m p e t i t i o n between s m a l l f r u i t s , there i s a l so c ompeti t i o n between s m a l l f r u i t s and t r e e f r u i t s which come on the market a t the same time .  F o r example , c h e r r i e s s t a r t on the market a t the same  time as r a s p b e r r i e s and continue on the market through the whole p e r i o d .  A l t h o u g h i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to measure such com-  pe t i t i o n , i t does n e v e r t h e l e s s e x i s t .  This i s one of the  reasons why e v e r b e a r i n g s t r a w b e r r i e s have not been so p o p u l a r .  - 52 -  Although, there are no other s m a l l f r u i t s on t h e market a t t h i s t i m e , a p r i c o t s , plums, peaches and pears p r a c t i c a l l y monopolize the market.  A l s o the consumer's d e s i r e f o r  "berries have "been l a r g e l y s a t i s f i e d u n t i l the next season. The l a s t competing f a c t o r i s not r e a l l y a comp e t i n g f a c t o r i n the true sense o f the word, b u t i t does h e l p l i m i t consumption.  B e r r i e s reach t h e i r h i g h e s t demand  by t h e consumer when the weather i s f i n e .  They are  e s s e n t i a l l y part o f an e a r l y summer d i e t .  I f the weather  b r e a k s and wet, r a i n y weather p r e v a i l s the consumption i s g o i n g to be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d . will limit  the keeping  Not o n l y t h a t , b u t r a i n  q u a l i t y of b e r r i e s , so t h a t they  not s t o r e p r o p e r l y f o r even a short l e n g t h of time.  will  It i s  p o s s i b l e t h a t a l a r g e p a r t o f one week of c o l d , wet weather d u r i n g the r a i n y season i s l i a b l e t o r u i n a l a r g e p a r t o f the crop movement. These competing f a c t o r s cannot as a r u l e be cont r o l l e d e x c e p t i n the case of the e v e r b e a r i n g s t r a w b e r r y , as a l r e a d y mentioned.  The growers i n t h i s case would be a d v i s e d  to change from e v e r b e a r i n g  t o a main crop v a r i e t y .  P r o c e s s i n g Problems -- R e l a t i v e M e r i t s Canada must r e l y to a l a r g e e x t e n t upon other uses b e s i d e s f r e s h consumption f o r the d i s p o s a l of the p r o d u c t i o n  - 53 -  of s m a l l f r u i t s .  Such means as jamming, canning,  jelly-making,  f r e e z i n g or p r o c e s s i n g w i t h SO^ must be depended upon t o r e l i e v e Canada o f h e r s u r p l u s .  These are now d e a l t w i t h i n  the order as named. (a)  Canning  i s the p r e s e r v a t i o n of f r u i t whole, i n a 55-70%  syrup,(9), (b)  Jam  i s prepared  by b o i l i n g the whole f r u i t pulp w i t h  s u g a r to a m o d e r a t e l y t h i c k c o n s i s t e n c y  without  r e t a i n i n g the shape of the f r u i t , ( 9 ) . (c)  Jelly  i s made by b o i l i n g f r u i t w i t h or without  water,  e x t r a c t i n g and s t r a i n i n g the j u i c e , adding sugar and" c o n c e n t r a t i n g t o such c o n s i s t e n c y t h a t g e l a t i n i z a t i o n takes p l a c e on (d)  F r o z e n Pack  cooling,(9).  c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of p l a c i n g the f r u i t  i n b a r r e l s o r o t h e r c o n t a i n e r s w i t h or without  sugar  and f r e e z i n g and s t o r i n g the pack a t r e l a t i v e l y l o w temperatures,(l8)* (e)  P r o c e s s i n g w i t h S 0 2 i s a means o f p r e s e r v a t i o n by which b e r r i e s are put up i n a s o l u t i o n o f SO,,, water and l i m e , the l a t t e r b e i n g used f o r hardening* This g i v e s a f a i r c o n c e p t i o n  question.  of the methods i n  I t remains to be shown what i n f l u e n c e each has on  p r o d u c t i o n , consumption and p r i c e .  - 54  -  F r u i t i s processed p r i m a r i l y t o extend the m a r k e t i n g season of the f r u i t s and a l s o t o prepare i t i n i t s most a t t r a c t i v e  form*  F o r canning o n l y the h i g h e s t grade a c c e p t e d , s i n c e the cannery man  of b e r r i e s are  has had e x p e r i e n c e w i t h  p o o r e r g r a d e s , he wants o n l y the b e s t .  The f r u i t must be  f r e s h , of a c e r t a i n v a r i e t y , c e r t a i n m a t u r i t y , whole and of uncrushed  and u n i f o r m i n appearance,  c o l o u r , and s i z e .  Canned  b e r r i e s are a d e c l i c i o u s d e s s e r t and s h o u l d have a u n i v e r s a l appeal t o the a p p e t i t e .  A l t h o u g h a l l s m a l l f r u i t s are canned  to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , o n l y the b e r r i e s are canned c o m m e r c i a l l y . C l i m a t e i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r canning b e r r i e s .  For  f l a v o u r and t e x t u r e the b e r r i e s t h a t are grown i n a medium p r e c i p i t a t i o n a r e a are p r e f e r r e d .  Those grown i n a dry b e l t  a r e a do not seem to have the same f l a v o u r , and w h i l e they w i l l g e n e r a l l y keep l o n g e r d u r i n g the r u s h of a b e r r y season, t h e y do not a p p e a l t o the canner. Z a v a l l a , ( 5 4 ) , has s a i d about c a n n i n g b e r r i e s t h a t "In  o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e the demand on the market the canning  o p e r a t i o n s h o u l d be performed  as c a r e f u l l y as p o s s i b l e .  B e r r i e s are v e r y t e n d e r and can be e a s i l y b r u i s e d .  Therefore  the h a n d l i n g o f them has t o be done w i t h g r e a t c a r e , otherwise c o n s i d e r a b l e waste w i l l  occur and the y i e l d per ton of h i g h  grad.e w i l l be low". I t i s noted by a l l t h a t b e r r i e s cannot be packed i n o r d i n a r y t i n c a n s , but must be canned i n enamel or l a c q u e r e d  - 55 cans i n order and  to prevent p i n h o l i n g and' subsequent c o r r o s i o n  s p o i l a g e due  to the h i g h a c i d i t y of the f r u i t .  .  B e r r i e s f o r c a n n i n g are p i c k e d i n t o s h a l l o w  boxes  t h a t are l a r g e r than those used f o r f r e s h f r u . i t t r a d e , end i f p o s s i b l e the b e r r i e s are picked and canned d a i l y i n order t h a t f r u i t may  be a t the optimum r a t e of m a t u r i t y .  B l a c k b e r r i e s to be used f o r canning are m e r e l y s o r t e d and washed, w i t h l i t t l e attempt made to grade , as to s i z e , as most of the f r u i t i s used f o r p i e s r a t h e r than f o r dessert purposes, (9) . L o g a n b e r r i e s are l a r g e i n s i z e and deep red i n colour.  As the f r u i t i s i n demand c h i e f l y f o r pie making,  there i s no n e c e s s i t y f o r g r a d i n g , and packed i n l a r g e t i n s , ( 9 ) .  they are m o s t l y  I t i s the o p i n i o n of some t h a t , i f  the l o g a n b e r r i e s were canned more i n a l i g h t syrup and extensive  an  s e l l i n g campaign c a r r i e d on, that there would be  a  tremendous i n c r e a s e i n eonsumption. Raspberries  f o r d e s s e r t purposes must be graded  and are packed i n a heavy s y r u p .  For p i e s t h e y are  generally  ungraded and packed, i n w a t e r . Strawberries  f o r canning must be f i r m i n t e x t u r e ;  t h i s i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l because of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f r u i t , w h i c h made i t break down more e a s i l y than the o t h e r b e r r i e s , and t h e y must be of good f l a v o u r , of good c o l o u r and o f l a r g e s i z e .  As they are used g e n e r a l l y f o r  dessert purposes, they must be graded.  The  chief  difficulty  - 56 i n the c a n n i n g of s t r a w b e r r i e s i s the s o f t e n i n g d u r i n g the s t e r i l i z a t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t s i n the can c o n t a i n i n g o n l y from l / 3 t o l / 2 o f i t s volume o f b e r r i e s , ( 9 ) . be canned i n a heavy, r a t h e r than l i g h t Jam  S t r a w b e r r i e s shoxild syrup.  (5) Jams are n o r m a l l y made from s m a l l f r u i t s ; the  e n t i r e f r u i t i s cooked w i t h sugar t o the d e s i r e d which s h o u l d be s o f t o r j e l l y - l i k e , and c o n t a i n no f r e e l i q u i d .  constituency practically  F r u i t f o r jam must be w e l l r i p e n e d i n order  t o give the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f l a v o u r and c o l o u r to f i n i s h e d jam. and  Jam i s the main o u t l e t f o r c u r r a n t s and g o o s e b e r r i e s p l a y s an important  p a r t i n d i s p o s i n g of the s u r p l u s of  other s m a l l f r u i t s w h i c h , because o f shape o r q u a l i t y , are not s u i t a b l e f o r the f r e s h f r u i t market, and of those which, because of the weather c o n d i t i o n s at the time o f r i p e n i n g , w i l l n o t s h i p ; o f v a r i e t i e s n o t a c c e p t e d f o r canning; mixed v a r i e t i e s which a r e shipped  and of  t o the jam f a c t o r i e s pro-  v i d e d t h e y a r e f r e e from decay and a r e n o t s t a l e . The p r i c e f o r jam b e r r i e s i s n a t u r a l l y not as h i g h as f o r those used f o r o t h e r purposes, but a f a i r p r i c e i s always  assured. The number of b e r r i e s t h a t are canned each y e a r  depends t h e r e f o r e on many f a c t o r s ; ( l ) c l i m a t i c —• the weather a t p i c k i n g time w i l l determine whether o r n o t b e r r i e s may be shipped  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y over l o n g  distances}  - 51 -  (2) p r i c e —  the d i f f e r e n c e i n the spread between jam  f r e s h f r u i t must be c o n s i d e r e d , and  and  the narrower t h i s  spread,  the g r e a t e r the amount of b e r r i e s t h a t w i l l be used f o r jam. In o r d e r to determine  t h i s spread, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c r a t e  c o s t s must be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n as w e l l as increased cost f o r picking; year —  slightly-  (3) c a r r y - o v e r from p r e v i o u s  w h i l e i t might be thought by some t h a t the jam f a c t o r y  i s dependent on the p r o d u c e r f o r i t s s u p p l y , such i s not the case. at  Jam f a c t o r i e s c a n o n l y handle  a c e r t a i n amount of  fruit  any one t i m e , and w h i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e to process f r u i t  and  keep i t as jam d u r i n g s l a c k t i m e s , there i s always the n e c e s s i t y of h a v i n g to make the s a l e s equal the manufactured production.  I f a s t o c k or c a r r y - o v e r begins to  the amount of b e r r i e s t o be used as jam w i l l be  accumulate, seriously  curtailed. There i s no f i x e d r a t e i n the amount o f sugar f o r jam.  A r e d u c t i o n of the sugar w i l l give the jam a t a r t t a s t e ,  and such jams are much to be p r e f e r r e d to those which are too sweet and tend t o appease the a p p e t i t e q u i c k l y , ^ ) .  I f the  jam i s kept t a r t t h e r e w i l l n a t u r a l l y be a h i g h e r consumption. There i s no need here to go i n t o the a c t u a l  jamming pro-  c e s s e s , but i t might be w e l l t o mention i n p a s s i n g t h a t the fundamental processes are the same f o r a l l s m a l l  fruits,  except c u r r a n t s and g o o s e b e r r i e s . There are t h r e e types of c u r r a n t s , the b l a c k , r e d , and w h i t e , but o n l y the f i r s t two are grown c o m m e r c i a l l y i n  - 58 -  Canada.  The b l a c k c u r r a n t s must be b l a n c h e d t o remove p a r t  of the v e r y heavy aroma. before  picking.  impaired.  A l l c u r r a n t s must be w e l l  ripened  I f t o o g r e e n , the f l a v o u r and t a s t e w i l l be  However, t h e y must n o t be t o o r i p e or the jam w i l l  tend t o by s y r u p y o r gummy. I f the seeds of the c u r r a n t s or g o o s e b e r r i e s a r e o b j e c t i o n a b l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e to s t r a i n the p u l p through a s i e v e before  the sugar i s added.  J e l l y Making The  e s s e n t i a l s of good j e l l y are determined by  the p e c t i n , a c i d and sugar c o n t e n t o f the f r u i t s .  Small  f r u i t s t h a t a r e h i g h i n p e c t i n and a c i d i t y are l o g a n b e r r i e s , sour v a r i e t i e s of b l a c k b e r r i e s and c u r r a n t s . I t I s p o s s i b l e t o make j e l l i e s from a l l s m a l l f r u i t s , b u t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o add p e c t i n or sugar to some i n order t o m a i n t a i n  the r i g h t b a l a n c e .  Many commercial f i r m s c a r r y t h i s p r o c e s s i n g  still  f a r t h e r , and prepare j e l l y powders, w h i c h on the a d d i t i o n of w a t e r , give a s t a n d a r d  flavour of j e l l y .  •& p e r f e c t j e l l y " as d e s c r i b e d by C r u e s s , ( 9 ) , " i s c l e a r , s p a r k l i n g , transparent  and o f a t t r a c t i v e c o l o r —  when  removed from the g l a s s i t should r e t a i n i t s form and should q u i v e r and n o t f l o w .  I t should not be syrupy, s t i c k y , o r  gummy, and should r e t a i n the f l a v o u r and aroma of the o r i g i n a l fruit.  When c u t i t should be tender and y e t so f i r m t h a t a  sharp edge and smooth s p a r k l i n g cut s u r f a c e  remain"V  - 59 -  J e l l y making i s a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d i n d u s t r y a t the present t i m e , and a demand has been c r e a t e d f o r the product c h i e f l y through the means of a d v e r t i s i n g . One should t h i n k then t h a t other p r o d u c t s  of t h e same f r u i t s c o u l d n o t  have t h e i r consumption s i m i l a r l y i n c r e a s e d . F r o z e n Pack I n the past the f r o z e n pack method was thought of as a means o n l y f o r p r e s e r v i n g the f r u i t u n t i l i t c o u l d be used by the p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t or commercial f i r m s , such as restaurants, hotels, etc.  However, w i t h t h e d e v e l o p i n g o f  new methods, new c o n t a i n e r s and p r o p e r storage c o n d i t i o n s , there i s no reason why t h i s method should n o t be used i n marketing  the f r u i t d i r e c t l y to the consumer. The Oregon and Washington growers have r e a l i z e d  what an a s s e t t h i s f r o z e n pack method could be.  Between  1918-192 8 the o u t p u t f o r s t r a w b e r r i e s alone i n c r e a s e d from 3,000 f i f t y - g a l l o n b a r r e l s to 70*000 b a r r e l s , ( 1 8 ) .  Later  t h e y a l s o r e a l i z e d the importance o f the consumers' trade and from 1928-1930 i n the m i d s t o f the d e p r e s s i o n of a l l s m a l l f r u i t s i n c r e a s e d from 434,000 c a r t o n s t o 1,872,876 c a r t o n s , ( 5 0 ) .  the out put  one and two pound  However, s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s  are needed by r e t a i l e r s t o handle the f r o z e n pack f r u i t , as a 0 temperature o f 10 likelihood  or lower b e i n g r e q u i r e d , so t h e r e i s l i t t l e  o f a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e u n t i l means o f proper r e t a i l  storage c o n d i t i o n s are p e r f e c t e d . I n Canada, progress along t h i s l i n e i s d e c i d e d l y  - 60 b e h i n d t h a t of the P a c i f i c Northwest, and i s c o n f i n e d to the l a r g e c o n t a i n e r s .  mainly  However the sooner the manufacturer  and r e t a i l e r r e a l i z e the p o t e n t i a l consumption f o r f r u i t i n s m a l l c o n t a i n e r s , the b e t t e r i t w i l l ' be f o r s m a l l  fruit  growers. The  f r u i t preserved  by the f r o z e n pack method i s  used v e r y l a r g e l y i n the commercial manufacture of p r e s e r v e s , jams and j e l l i e s .  Considerable  q u a n t i t i e s are employed i n  the p r e p a r a t i o n o f crushed f r u i t and f r u i t syrup f o r soda f o u n t a i n u s e , and i n p i e b a k i n g by l a r g e r e s t a u r a n t s and bakers.  The manufacture of i c e cream w i t h f r u i t f l a v o u r s  a l s o u t i l i z e s an a p p r e c i a b l e p a r t of the t o t a l f r o z e n pack, e s p e c i a l l y o f s t r a w b e r r i e s , and a s m a l l q u a n t i t y i s used i n p r e p a r a t i o n o f f r u i t e x t r a c t s and f l a v o u r s .  T h i s summary i n  the U.S.D.A. b u l l e t i n , ( 1 8 ) , g i v e s a concise statement conc e r n i n g the wide u s e s t o which f r o z e n pack may be p u t . The f r o z e n pack method has a very good f u t u r e and should be developed i n the i n t e r e s t s of the s m a l l grower.  Not o n l y i s i t a means of s t r e n g t h e n i n g  fruit consumption  but i t a l s o f u r n i s h e s a means f o r o r d e r l y m a r k e t i n g when the b e r r i e s are found u n s u i t a b l e f o r other purposes o r when i t i s impossible  to handle them d u r i n g the main season r u s h . Before  f r e e z i n g c a n be attempted the b e r r i e s must  be s o r t e d and a l l other f r u i t d e b r i s , mouldy b e r r i e s or those otherwise  u n s u i t a b l e f o r b a r r e l l i n g removed.  f r o z e n w i t h o r without variety.  B e r r i e s are  sugar, dependent on the type and  The b a r r e l s are then removed to the f r e e z i n g storage,  - 61 where temperature r a n g i n g from 0  to 15  i s m a i n t a i n e d , (18) .  F o r the s m a l l e r c a r t o n s the vacuum c l o s e d cont a i n e r s are recommended as t h e y prevent a b s o r p t i o n and a i r i n t e r c h a n g e , thus p r o d u c i n g a c c e p t a b l e  products,(50).  V a r i e t y i s important i n the f r e e z i n g method as i t i s necessary  to have b e r r i e s which w i l l h o l d t h e i r c o l o u r  and f l a v o u r d u r i n g f r e e z i n g . The  v a r i e t i e s recommended by  W^egand are the M a r s h a l l s t r a w b e r r y , the Guthbert and the E v e r g r e e n  raspberry,  b l a c k b e r r y as b e i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y w i t h  r e g a r d to c o l o u r , f i r m n e s s and good t e x t u r e .  At the  present  the c o l d pack means o f d i s p o s a l i s not f e a s i b l e f o r l o g a n b e r r i e s f o r two reasons;  f i r s t , the b e r r y i t s e l f has a hard  o b j e c t i o n a b l e c o r e , and s e c o n d l y , i t has no a p p e t i t e appeal on the f r o z e n pack market. The  sugar content must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d , as the  h i g h e s t d e n s i t y syrups g e n e r a l l y d e t r a c t from the f l a v o u r of the product by over-emphasis of the sweet t a s t e . Processing with  SO,,  A r e l a t i v e l y new method of p r o c e s s i n g which has  met  f a v o u r wi t h the c a n n e r i e s and the jam f a c t o r i e s i s the p r e s e r v a t i o n of b e r r i e s by s u l p h u r d i o x i d e . B e r r i e s which cannot be used immediately, for  or  those  which there i s a need of t r a n s p o r t i n g l o n g d i s t a n c e s  w i t h no r e f r i g e r a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s may by t h i s means.  be preserved  excellently  - 62  -  Sulphur d i o x i d e has l o n g heen used e x t e n s i v e l y i n the d r i e d f r u i t i n d u s t r y as i t i s t o x i c t o moulds and b a c t e r i a , (29).  However, i t i s o n l y i n recent y e a r s t h a t i t was  covered t h a t i t c o u l d be used i n the l i q u i d s e r v a t i o n of small f r u i t s  without  dis-  form f o r the  pre-  i n j u r y to the f l a v o u r .  Consequently, there i s an i n c r e a s i n g u t i l i z a t i o n  of such a  method f o r b e s i d e s b e i n g cheaper than the f r o z e n pack, i t i s l e s s t r o u b l e because no s p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n s until  need to be  taken  the b e r r i e s are r e a d y f o r use. B e r r i e s are put up i n b a r r e l s and are used f o r the  processing trade.  On s t a n d i n g  they become b l e a c h e d , but once  the SOg  has been d r i v e n o f f they resume t h e i r n a t u r a l c o l o u r ,  and may  be used f o r a l l products e x c e p t i n g those canned. I t might be w e l l to mention here one s p e c i a l i z e d  use f o r which l o g a n b e r r i e s are used i n B r i t i s h large percent,  Columbia.  i s consumed e a c h y e a r i n the f r u i t  A  juice  i n d u s t r y , w i t h i t s c e n t r e on Vancouver I s l a n d , ( 4 9 ) . Loganberries  must be f u l l y mature and must have  a t t a i n e d t h e i r maximum e o l o u r and sugar c o n t e n t .  The  i s s o f t and ferments q u i c k l y and t h e r e f o r e must be soon a f t e r p i c k i n g . depends on the use  From t h i s p o i n t on i n the  fruit  pressed  processing  to which i t i s to be put e i the r f re sh or  fermented. I n order to see e x a c t l y what p a r t these d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s i n g methods p l a y i n Canada, the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t s from The  A g r i c u l t u r a l S i t u a t i o n and O u t l o o k , ( 2 3 ) ,  I936 are g i v e n .  I n 1936  a comment on s t r a w b e r r y  1934  and  conditions  - 63  -  r e a d s , "A v e r y heavy c r o p n e c e s s i t a t e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n of measures to s t a b i l i z e p r i c e s . was  processed.  The  A very l a r g e q u a n t i t y of f r u i t  e s t i m a t e d pack of canned s t r a w b e r r i e s  45,000 c a s e s , a sharp advance over the 1934 cases.  Larger  pack of 39 ,000  q u a n t i t i e s than u s u a l o f s t r a w b e r r i e s were  packed i n s u l p h u r estimate  was  d i o x i d e and shipped  abroad.  A preliminary  i n d i c a t e s t h a t some 3,500 b a r r e l s of b e r r i e s so  t r e a t e d were shipped  d u r i n g the past season.  T h i s method of  t r e a t i n g b e r r i e s has been p r a c t i s e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r some y e a r s , but was I t i s estimated  an innovation i n the p r o v i n c e  of O n t a r i o .  t h a t i n O n t a r i o and Quebec 60,000 pounds of  b e r r i e s are a n n u a l l y h e l d as f r o z e n pulp f o r jam manufacturing". I n the 1934  r e p o r t we  f i n d mention made of the  f r o z e n paok method of p r e s e r v a t i o n and a t t h a t time the statement was made t h a t "A c o m p a r a t i v e l y may  be  new  i n n o v a t i o n which  expected to reach q u i t e l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s i s the mer-  c h a n d i z i n g of f r e s h f r o z e n s t r a w b e r r i e s . f r e e z i n g and s t o r a g e  added c o s t of  i s v e r y m o d e r a t e " — f u r t h e r the f a c t i s  stated that "Processing domestic or export  The  of s t r a w b e r r i e s f o r storage  d i s p o s a l f o r canning,  f r e e z i n g e t c . a l r e a d y has  jam making  and and  attained large proportions.  This  method a f f o r d s the grower an escape from crop and weather a b n o r m a l i t i e s as w e l l as a f f o r d i n g the m a n u f a c t u r e r s t h e i r supply f o r y e a r round  operations".  - 64 V  SALES- ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT General  Statement  'T  The commercial s m a l l f r u i t crop i n Canada i s handled almost e n t i r e l y through l o c a l c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a tions.  The reasons f o r t h i s means of o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the  "benefits t h a t may he brought about b y such a r e d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s p a r t of the work and means of r e d u c i n g c o s t o f marketing is  suggested.  Advantage of C o - o p e r a t i v e s Small f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n i s a community e n t e r p r i s e and as g e n e r a l l y o n l y two t o f i v e a c r e s are devoted to s m a l l f r u i t growing on any one f a r m , there i s the need to combine the b e r r i e s of many growers f o r economical  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  refrigeration,(55). Since b e r r i e s are the more p e r i s h a b l e f r u i t s , i t i s necessary  t o see t h a t they are loaded i n t o c a r s as  q u i c k l y and as e c o n o m i c a l l y as p o s s i b l e .  G e n e r a l l y only co-  o p e r a t i v e s have the n e c e s s a r y s u p p l y to s h i p c a r l o a d s o f b e r r i e s , and t h i s , b e s i d e s c u t t i n g down c o s t s , w i l l i n s u r e a f a s t e r and b e t t e r means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . I t i s to the advantage of the grower t o keep c o s t down. The u s u a l type o f c o - o p e r a t i v e i s the s m a l l f r u i t  - 65 areas i s one  i n w h i c h the patrons of the o r g a n i z a t i o n are  members,(48) .  A manager i s employed, and a l l members  share i n the p r o f i t or l o s s of the body as a whole.  A l l the  c o s t s are pooled, e i t h e r on the b a s i s of v a r i e t y or grade. The  business  of the c o - o p e r a t i v e  i s handled through  one b r o k e r and when the f i n a l r e t u r n s are a v a i l a b l e , the c o s t s are  s u b t r a c t e d from the r e t u r n s and the members are  p a i d o f f on the b a s i s of the number of o r a t e s shipped the c o - o p e r a t i v e .  into  I f there i s an e f f i c i e n t manager t h i s i s  the best method f o r the group as a whole t o market the  fruit.  I n d i v i d u a l independents not d e a l i n g through the c o - o p e r a t i v e may  a t times r e c e i v e a b e t t e r p r i c e by c a t e r i n g  to the b e s t market, but t h i s i s not b e i n g f a i r to the  other  f r u i t growers. Standardization I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the c o - o p e r a t i v e  to e f f i c i e n t l y  c a r r y on p r a c t i c e s which the i n d i v i d u a l grower cannot hope even t o attempt. a d v e r t i s i n g are  Such p r a c t i c e s as s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and essential.  P h i l l i p s and Card of K e n t u c k y , ( 3 5 ) , s t a t e t h a t u  S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of q u a l i t y and method of p r e p a r a t i o n f o r  market are i m p o r t a n t  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s In s t r a w b e r r y  marketing.  I n d i f f e r e n t packs and poor q u a l i t y f r u i t cause wide d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n p r i c e s and lower the p r i c e l e v e l " . H e r e i n l i e s the major d i f f i c u l t y of the m a r k e t i n g problem i n Canada to-day.  I t i s t r u e t h a t b e r r i e s have to  -  66-  come up to c e r t a i n g r a d e s as s e t f o r t h by the Dominion F r u i t B r a n c h , ( 2 6 ) , but t h e r e i s no s t i p u l a t i o n made as to the v a r i e t y of f r u i t t h a t may  be s o l d on a market.  As a l r e a d y  mentioned, i t i s the d u t y of c o - o p e r a t i v e s to s t a n d a r d i z e t h e i r p r o d u c t s , and s e l l them by a brand name, and make t h a t brand name mean something.  Examples of t r a d e names t h a t have  come t o be r e c o g n i z e d as of s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y are the "Eatmore Cranberry"  and "0. K."  or Okanagan Apples.  r e c o g n i t i o n been achieved?  How  has  such  C h i e f l y by naming a product  by  a d v e r t i s i n g i t as b e i n g s u p e r i o r and then by making sure t h a t the product  can be depended upon.  There i s no reason why  the  customer, f o r example, can not be educated to the f a c t t h a t C u t h b e r t s are the best v a r i e t y o f r a s p b e r r y , and those t h a t are marketed under the name o f say " F r a s e r V a l l e y Cuthberts" are s u p e r i o r .  Once the customer has found out t h a t the brand  can be r e l i e d upon, r e p e a t o r d e r s may  be depended on and a  premium might even be p o s s i b l e . Adverti sing The B r i t i s h Columbia growers have a l r e a d y c a r r i e d on an a d v e r t i s i n g programme; the use of the r a d i o and  other  means have been used to induce the consumer to eat more berries.  The  s h i p p e r s and T h i s was was  cost o f such a d v e r t i s i n g was  defrayed by  jobbers a g r e e i n g to a deduotion  of ^  carlot  per c r a t e .  attempted only w i t h s t r a w b e r r i e s i n 193J? as there  i n t h a t year a very l a r g e p r o d u c t i o n , and w i t h a l a t e  season, making i t necessary 1  to market a l a r g e q u a n t i t y i n a  \  - 67  -  s h o r t space o f t i m e . There i s no reason why a programme l i k e t h i s should not be c a r r i e d on e v e r y year f o r a l l b e r r i e s .  The  advertising  c o s t s would soon pay f o r themselves i n a h i g h e r p r i c e f o r the berries. M a r k e t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s can c a r r y out such a p l a n f a r b e t t e r t h a n an i n d i v i d u a l grower.  Not o n l y t h a t , but i t i s  p o s s i b l e f o r such o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o educate the grower h i m s e l f to put up a graded f i r s t - c l a s s pack. Perhaps, i f any such programme as the one mentioned above were to be attempted i n Canada, the p r o g r e s s would be v e r y slow, and even though i t would be b e n e f i c i a l , i t would meet w i t h p r o t e s t s a t a l l  stages from producers to  consumers.  Middlemen O p e r a t i o n I n many s a l e s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the independent always v o i c e s the argument t h a t the 'middleman p r i c e s " are too g r e a t and he can g e t a b e t t e r p r i c e f o r h i s product by d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y t o the consumer.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y such i s t r u e i n  i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s , but i t would be i m p o s s i b l e i f a l l  growers  were t o attempt t o c a r r y out such a p l a n . The number o f middlemen between the producer and "the consumer w i l l depend, of course , on the method o f marketing.  Assuming  t h a t the c o - o p e r a t i v e i s the producer  - 68 and the consignment s a l e s or JF.0..B.. method i s  organization,  the g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e , t h e r e are usually three s t e p s between the producer and consumer.  These are shown by  Converse,(8),  Page 110, and a r e d i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d as f o l l o w s , -  (  Producer^ Go-op. I.» Assoc.)  Producer" Co-opera-tive |  Broker ^ Buying Agent Local Buye r j  'Whole- ^ saler or I Jobber  'Wholesaler! or' .Jobber Broker  ( R e t a i l e r ) -> (Consumer  ( R e t a i l e r ) —>  (Consumer  Broker The b r o k e r ' s job i s to f i n a a market f o r the f r u i t . He may  be r e p r e s e n t e d by a buyer a t a l o c a l s h i p p i n g p o i n t ,  but he d e a l s w i t h w h o l e s a l e r s and jobbers and makes no to d i v i d e the f r u i t .  attempt  He I s the go-between f o r a producer i n  a d i s t a n t c i t y , and the buyer, and a c c o r d i n g t o law must r e p r e s e n t the s e l l e r .  C e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s are passed by the  Dominion Government which prevent m a l p r a c t i c e s by b r o k e r s . He does not a c t u a l l y handle  the b e r r i e s .  wholesaler The w h o l e s a l e r a c t u a l l y s t a r t s the process of division.  He buys the f r u i t i n c a r l o a d l o t s , and r e c e i v e s a  p r o f i t on the b e r r i e s g o i n g through h i s hands.  The  p r i c e he  r e c e i v e s i s u s u a l l y so much per c a r or so much per c r a t e . d e a l s w i t h the  He  retailer.  Retailer The r e t a i l e r i s the s t o r e - k e e p e r who w i t h the consumer.  deals d i r e c t l y  He r e c e i v e s h i s goods from the w h o l e s a l e r  i n f a i r l y large allotments.  Because of the h i g h p e r i s h a b i l i t y  of b e r r i e s , the r e t a i l e r i s f o r c e d to demand a h i g h r a t e f o r h a n d l i n g because of the r i s k of l o s s by s p o i l a g e or d e t e r i o r ation. The a c t u a l f u n c t i o n of the middleman i s d e a l t w i t h later.  Here a g a i n the advantage of c o - o p e r a t i o n i s shown.  The w h o l e s a l e r and jobber when h a n d l i n g a l i m i t e d amount of  - 70 f r u i t f i x a price that i s r e l a t i v e l y high.  Whereas i f a  l a r g e amount o f f r u i t i s handled, I t i s g e n e r a l l y done on the percentage b a s i s and  the c o s t i s lowered  considerably.  Thus f a r we have d e a l t w i t h the c o - o p e r a t i v e , as i t might a f f e c t the f r e s h f r u i t market.  only  However, wi th co-  o p e r a t i o n i t would be p o s s i b l e to make c o n t r a c t s wi t h  jam  f a c t o r i e s and d i v e r t to jam t h a t p o r t i o n of the f r u i t , which was not s u i t a b l e f o r the f r e s h market, or which would cause a g l u t on the market.- By d o i n g t h i s , not o n l y c o u l d q u a l i t y but a l s o q u a n t i t y and thus p r i c e be I t should be the  regulated.  object of any c o - o p e r a t i v e  to  keep low-grade f r u i t o f f the market, even i f i t should have to be d e s t r o y e d , because b e s i d e s having a d e p r e s s i n g e f f e c t on p r i c e , i t tends to have a s i m i l a r e f f e c t on consumption. Then a g a i n , c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s , i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o - o p e r a t i v e s having market i n f ormation not a v a i l a b l e to the i n d i v i d u a l producers. accurate  Because of the  system t h a t i s i n e f f e c t to-day, i t i s p o s s i b l e to  know what i s the supply on any market, and  the amount t h a t  i s en route t o that market, except i n the case of those b e r r i e s t h a t are shipped by t r u c k .  By t a k i n g supply i n t o  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and c o r r e l a t i n g i t . w i t h the p r i c e f a c t o r , the co-operatives  can  ship b e r r i e s to t h a t place which w i l l have  the best demand. An example of t h i s might be such that a  co-operative  at H a t z i c has r e p o r t s t h a t s t r a w b e r r i e s are l a t e r i p e n i n g i n  - 71 O n t a r i o , and t h a t there are none en r o u t e from any p o i n t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  Then i f the Vancouver market and the many  p r a i r i e markets were taxed t o the utmost, and any  additional  s u p p l y would f o r c e the p r i c e down, immediately b e r r i e s c o u l d be d i s p a t c h e d f o r O n t a r i o , and a good p r i c e r e a l i z e d ; whereas, i f no i n f o r m a t i o n had been a v a i l a b l e the b e r r i e s would prob a b l y have been sent t o an a l r e a d y overloaded market, and the market f o r b e r r i e s would have been b a d l y d i s r u p t e d .  Method o f Sale  (27)  Thus f a r we have d e a l t o n l y w i t h the f u n c t i o n s of the c o - o p e r a t i v e , b u t t o complete the p i c t u r e a survey o f a c t u a l marketing  steps i s n e c e s s a r y . • The  two a l t e r n a t i ves when m a r k e t i n g  c o - o p e r a t i v e has  b e r r i e s , whereas the  independent d e a l e r not h a v i n g a l a r g e volume g e n e r a l l y has three. Consignment The f i r s t method of s a l e i s consignment s a l e to commission agent or b r o k e r .  Under t h i s me thod the b r o k e r  s e l l s the b e r r i e s f o r the producer at the best p r i c e p o s s i b l e on the market, deducts f r e i g h t and s a l e s charges and r e m i t s the remainder to the producer.  I n t h i s way  r i s k i s e n t i r e l y i n the hands of the grower and any  the  deterior-  a t i o n i n the product or unfavourable market p r i c e w i l l have a  - 72 d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on h i s f i n a l net p r i c e , not r e c e i v e any more than h a n d l i n g  The  b r o k e r does  charges.  F.O.B. Method The  second means i s the F.O.B..method of s a l e by which  the b e r r i e s are s o l d a t a c e r t a i n p r i c e at the l o a d i n g p o i n t . The buyer bears the c o s t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a c c e p t s the  risks  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and market and any decrease i n the market price,  However, the p r i c e set i s g e n e r a l l y low enough f o r the  b r o k e r t o make h i s own berries.  charges, and  sometimes a p r o f i t on  T h i s i s r e a l l y a method of hedging and the grower i s  w i l l i n g to p a r t w i t h a p o r t i o n of h i s p r o f i t s i n order insure himself a reasonable p r i c e . connection  to m a i n t a i n  The  Point —  Local  an i n s p e c t o r a t b o t h s h i p p i n g  and  later.  Sales  l a s t method of m a r k e t i n g and  be u s e d to advantage where p r o d u c t i o n where there i s no c o - o p e r a t i v e for  to  I t i s necessary i n t h i s  t e r m i n a l p o i n t s , but h i s d u t i e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d Shipping  the  cash at the s h i p p i n g p o i n t .  the one  t h a t can  i s low and  only  consequently  a s s o c i a t i o n , i s t h a t of s a l e I n t h i s way  the grower i s  r e l i e v e d of a l l f u r t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and at the same time, has  ready cash to pay f o r the h a r v e s t i n g o f h i s c r o p .  l o c a l i t i e s t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a s s e t . w i l l receive for t h e i r f r u i t  The  I n some  p r i c e they  i n t h i s way w i l l depend upon  whether t h e r e i s a "buyer" or a " s e l l e r " market, or i n other words, what the market demand and s u p p l y i s .  - 73 There i s v e r y l i t t l e  d i f f e r e n c e i n p r i c e over a  p e r i o d of t i m e , between the f i r s t two methods, b u t because of the f a c t t h a t the r i s k i s t r a n s f e r r e d from the s e l l e r t o buyer w i t h F.O.B. s a l e s , t h i s method i s p r e f e r r e d by many shippers.  A p p l i c a t i o n of Natural Products Marketing Act t o Small, ffrui t.s The  Canadian Government has r e a l i z e d the advantages  and n e c e s s i t y o f the c o - o p e r a t i v e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s , and p r o v i d e d a scheme i n 1934 whereby i f the growers i n any p a r t i c u l a r a r e a p r o d u c i n g 70% of a g i v e n product c o u l d formul a t e a scheme f o r m a r k e t i n g , then a l l producers would be r e q u i r e d t o f a l l i n l i n e wi t h the scheme. small f r u i t  However, as ye t no  areas have taken advantage of such a scheme, due  perhaps f o r two reasons; f i r s t , the l e g a l aspect of the A c t i s s t i l l , i n doubt, and s e c o n d l y , the p r e s e n t method of m a r k e t i n g seems s a t i s f a c t o r y . Thus f a r t h e r e have been two schemes approved and put I n t o e f f e c t under the p l a n .  The f i r s t  i s the Canada Jam  M a r k e t i n g Scheme,(3) , which aims a t s t a b i l i z i n g of p r i c e and improving the q u a l i t y of the r e g u l a t e d p r o d u c t .  Through an  i n c r e a s e i n the r e t u r n s to the manufacturers, i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t growers w i l l secure b e t t e r p r i c e s f o r t h e i r f r u i t  which  - 74 i s processed.  The  second scheme approved was  B e r r y M a r k e t i n g Scheme,(37)• l o c a l hoard may  the Processed  T h i s scheme p r o v i d e s t h a t a  r e g u l a t e the time and p l a c e , and designate the  agency through which the processed b e r r i e s are marketed.  This  measure was n e c e s s a r y i n I935 i n order to market an u n u s u a l l y l a r g e crop o f s t r a w b e r r i e s .  Because of an e a r l y f r o s t i n  Great B r i t a i n d e s t r o y i n g 1he c r o p , there was a demand f o r any b e r r i e s t h a t Canada was able to e x p o r t , wi t h the r e s u l t t h a t t h i s scheme proved a d i s t i n c t success i n I 9 5 5 . A scheme f o r l o c a l b e r r y growers v^ould have to be one which would i n v o l v e the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : (1)  A p o o l i n g o f r e t u r n s i n any g i v e n area -- not  n e c e s s a r i l y one p o o l , but perhaps three to f i v e p o o l s , depending on the d i f f e r e n t seasons and d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s of berries. (2)  A s y s t e m a t i c g r a d i n g and l a b e l l i n g o f f r u i t to  make i t a t t r a c t i v e . (3)  An e f f i c i e n t manager.  (4)  An e d u c a t i o n a l campaign to educate the consumer  c o n c e r n i n g the type of b e r r i e s t h a t are b e s t f o r the d i f f e r e n t needs e i t h e r f o r consumption as f r e s h f r u i t , or f o r p r e s e r v i n g , jamming or  jellying.  Inspection The Dominion of Canada has a very competent i n s p e c t i o n . s e r v i c e a t the p r e s e n t time of two k i n d s , t e r m i n a l  - 75 and  shipping  inspection.  -  I t became n e c e s s a r y to e s t a b l i s h  t h i s i n o r d e r to i n s u r e f a i r p r a c t i c e s between s h i p p e r buyer.  The  and  grades of f r u i t are set by those of the government  s t a n d a r d s , and  b o t h p a r t i e s must abide by the grades set  the i n s p e c t o r u n l e s s e i t h e r one  by  of them a p p l y f o r r e -  inspection. Hot  o n l y does i t prevent d i s p u t e s , but  prevents f a l s e representation e x p o r t e d or imported. the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n  of b e r r i e s t h a t are b e i n g  This i s r e a l l y the f i r s t step towards  of b e r r i e s .  However,  i t does not  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between v a r i e t i e s , and grades are Srade I or ungraded.  i t also  either  attempt  .  YI  - 76  -  BRITISH, CQLIMBIA T S SMALL FRUIT PROBLEMS G e n e r a l Statement  A l t h o u g h B r i t i s h Columbia has been s p e c i f i e d i n g e n e r a l o u t l i n e f o r d e t a i l e d s t u d y , i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t the problems of t h a t province are any g r e a t e r or x  d i v e r s i f i e d than those T h i s p r o v i n c e was (1)  of any other p r o v i n c e i n the Dominion.  s e l e c t e d m a i n l y f o r the f o l l o w i n g  reasons.  More data' are a v a i l a b l e w i t h r e g a r d to the  m a r k e t i n g , and a l s o f o r d e t a i l e d p r o d u c t i o n of v a r i e t i e s , i n any o t h e r province*. (2)  A v e r y l a r g e percentage  of the f r u i t i s shipped  out  of the p r o v i n c e , hence the problems i n v o l v e d i n marketing  are  very important. (3)  I t i s one o f the two most important s m a l l f r u i t  producing provinces.  S t a t i s t i c a l Study I n o r d e r t o get a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the s m a l l f r u i t i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n , ( 1 5 ) , f o r each v a r i e t y i s shown i n the Appendix, and these f i g u r e s f o r the v a r i o u s s m a l l f r u i t s are c h a r t e d and compared i n F i g . 8*. I t i s p o s s i b l e to see from t h i s the r e l a t i v e importance these c r o p s .  of  With the e x c e p t i o n of two y e a r s , s t r a w b e r r i e s  Fig. .8 P r o d u c t i o n of S m a l l F r u i t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. (Production i n c a r l o t s )  \  5  !  ota: L Pr<jduci 1 on  600  500 -  /  7  /  St caws  / 1  300  \  : \" \  /'  200  7^ . /  /  /  /  /  /  \  1 \  /  /'  / / /  '  '  I  /  \ /  /  \  x  /'  \  .  •/  Ra£ ipS N N  /  100  v.\  IiO|'an BU: 3h ^B:  z 22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  V  \  A'  0  /'  i  1  30  31  f  .ack  32  33  /  are the most i m p o r t a n t c r o p .  I n these y e a r s , 1925  more r a s p b e r r i e s were produced.  and  1926,  Since t h i s l a t t e r year the  r a s p b e r r i e s have shown a steady d e c l i n e u n t i l i n 1955, when more l o g a n b e r r i e s and bush f r u i t s were produced berries.  than r a s p -  L o g a n b e r r i e s are q u i t e an. important crop i n B. C.  f  b e i n g c h i e f l y c e n t e r e d on Vancouver I s l a n d , which i s the c e n t e r of the wine making i n d u s t r y . In F i g . 9 - 1 2  the amount of each f r u i t t h a t i s  used f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g and t h a t amount which i s marketed f r e s h i s compared f o r each s m a l l f r u i t , except bush f r u i t s which show a s i m i l a r t r e n d t o s t r a w b e r r i e s . Fig.  9; shows the r e l a t i v e importance  of processed  s t r a w b e r r i e s i n . r e l a t i o n to the amount consumed f r e s h .  For  the twelve y e a r s s t u d i e d , t h e r e i s p r a c t i c a l l y the same amount manufactured  as consumed f r e s h , w i t h the f r e s h f r u i t  "market t a k i n g a s l i g h t l e a d . F i g . 10 shows a comparison between the processed and f r e s h f r u i t consumption  of r a s p b e r r i e s .  A very s i m i l a r  t r e n d to t h a t o f s t r a w b e r r i e s i s shown. F i g . 11 shows the way  i n which the l o g a n b e r r y crop  i s d i s p o s e d o f , and i t can be seen t h a t a d i f f e r e n t i s presented.  A c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m e l l percentage  problem  of l o g a n -  b e r r i e s are consumed on the f r e s h f r u i t market i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  At no time i n the twelve years d i d the f r e s h  f r u i t consumption  exceed 600,000 l b s . , w h i l e on the o t h e r hand,  -79Q u a n t i t y of D i f f e r e n t F r u i t s  —  P r o c e s s e d and F r e s h F r u i t s Compared Fii (tjoo^***) S t r a w b e r r i e s  F i g . 10 Raspberrie s  ( (poo s p i t s )  '9 Or  90,  80  80  70  70  60  60  50  5Q  40 30  20 10  1 J3  Ji"2l»  F i g . 11 Loganberrie s  60  50  50  40  40  30  30  20  20  10  10 l i i-i •'•H >.•> iL n  *5 2  3o 31 3»  33  F i g . 12 Blackberries  6o  0  i ? 2-f ^S?  'J * j  Fresh F r u i t  3 1 3 * 3d 3<f  0 i 4 J-3  M  i ) i t i ) J t i V *o 31 3 » »« J>i  Processed  - 80  -  the amount of l o g a n b e r r i e s t h a t have been processed  reached  the amazing t o t a l of almost 2 ,200,QQG l b s . i n the years and 1934.  1926  Any f u t u r e i n c r e a s e i n consumption w i l l have to  be of the manufactured p r o d u c t , as l i t t l e i n c r e a s e can be expected i n the amount consumed f r e s h . F i g . 12 shows the t r e n d of b l a c k b e r r y Although cessed  production.  t h e r e has been a v a r i a t i o n i n the q u a n t i t y pro-  i n the l a s t t h i r t e e n y e a r s , the amount s o l d on the  f re sh f r u i t market has remained f a i r l y constant wi t h the peak year of s e l l i n g b e i n g i n 192J?, when 33,688 c r a t e s were d i s posed of i n B r i t i s h Columbia and export p o i n t s , while the year was  1935 The  low  when 18,404 c r a t e s were marketed. amounts processed  on the o t h e r hand, have  shown l a r g e r f l u c t u a t i o n s from year t o year w i t h 1926  being  the h i g h year of p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h 4^8,834 l b s . of b l a c k b e r r i e s g o i n g to the p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s .  Crop Movements As has a l r e a d y been mentioned * B r i t i s h Columbia markets a l a r g e percentage of i t s b e r r i e s outside the p r o v i n c e , the p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, and M a n i t o b a , b e i n g I t s c h i e f customers.  The marketing  plan  t h a t has been i n e f f e c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the l a s t years has worked out  satisfactorily.  two  - 81 -  The p l a n as o u t l i n e d by B. D i c k i e , ( 1 7 ) ,  i s one i n  which a l l e a r l o t s are handled through one s a l e s agency I n Vancouver, which used brokerage f a c i l i t i e s of the Canadian F r u i t D i s t r i b u t o r s , i n Vancouver; C.H. Robinson L t d . , U n i t e d B r o k e r s and Grant D i s t r i b u t i n g Co. on the P r a i r i e ;  Frank  Gibson i n Toronto; and M u t u a l B r o k e r s L t d . i n M o n t r e a l .  The  s h i p p e r s agreed on a p r i n c i p l e of c e n t r a l s e l l i n g w i t h no s t i p u l a t i o n s o t h e r t h a n t h a t the P a c i f i c Co-operative Union i n s i s t e d on U n i t e d B r o k e r s and Grant D i s t r i b u t i n g Co. h a v i n g f u l l access on volume. Each market on the p r a i r i e s e v e n t u a l l y agreed t o a c e r t a i n percentage and t o economize  and a v o i d o v e r l a p p i n g .  Each market r e c e i v e d and d i s p a t c h e d under the heading of "Winnipeg Berries', , and Edmonton B e r r y S a l e s " . The movement of s m a l l f r u i t s i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  i s not o n l y d i v i d e d i n t o d i s t r i c t p o o l s , but a l s o i n t o three main c r o p movements,(16). The f i r s t c o n s i s t s of the main crop o f s t r a w b e r r i e s . I n I935 t h i s c o n s i s t e d of I53 c a r l o a d s , a l l but one of which were s h i p p e d to the p r a i r i e . lots,  I n a d d i t i o n t o these 1^3 c a r -  there were 500 tons of b e r r i e s processed w i t h SOg and  sent t o the U n i t e d Kingdom as a l r e a d y mentioned. The second movement i n c l u d e s l o g a n b e r r i e s and b l a c k b e r r i e s , as w e l l as the main crop o f r a s p b e r r i e s . 1955, 47 c a r l o a d s were shipped from B r i t i s h Columbia to the p r a i r i e s .  In  - 82 -  The l a s t crop i s known a s the l a t e c r o p , and cons i s t s o f e v e r b e a r i n g s t r a w b e r r i e s and b l a c k b e r r i e s . The ' t o t a l amount shipped from the lower M a i n l a n d  to the p r a i r i e  was 44 c a r l o a d s . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , ( 1 6 ) , shows the number of c r a t e s o f each v a r i e t y t h a t was. shipped i n each movement.  Table  Main Crop Strawberries  12 3,780 c r a t e s  Raspberries Loganberries  IV  Raspberries  l a t e Crop  3,316 c r a t e s  25,744 c r a t e s  29,892  "  4,023  "  Blackberries Miscellaneous  1.490  »  2,556  "  6,597  n  2,280  125,270 c r a t e s  39,311 c r a t e s  690  "  36,266 c r a t e s  This table deals only with carload l o t s .  Besides  t h e s e , there i s a l a r g e movement o f b e r r i e s i n l e s s than c a r l o t shipments ( L . C . L . ) .  These are t a b u l a t e d i n the  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , t o g e t h e r w i t h the c a r l o t movements and the c e n t r a l market where the f r u i t was sent f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n .  - 85 •st  r-i  63  OJ st st  O  EH  bo  o  st H  so CO  ON tA CO A  &-I •H  CO-  PS  •ri  o  OS  Os A CO  O SO A  UA  to  to  OJ  to  to  to  SO  r-i r-i  sO  to  ON  to]  St.  sO <A  O  sO" SO H  O CO st  OJ sO to  OJ  st CO  CO  "A  A  OJ  O SO IA  st  st H H  ON  ON  to  OJ r-i  OJ  OJ  C\l rH  OJ OJ  CO  OJ H CO  sO  SO  ON  SO st  c-  ON  to  SO st OS OJ  OJ  IA OJ  OJ sD sO  ON OJ  st  CO  to  OJ tA st  sO  H H to  CO tO  sO tr\  sO  OJ  CO H  st  OJ  st  • O  CO  -P O r-i  (-3  to  OS * SO OJ  OJ OJ H  ON  C-  c-  ON  SO r-J  r-i  CQ  SO rH  to  St OJ  o  co  r-l  OJ  r-i  co  CO  r-i  o o +=  ON  O  to r-i  CO  H  r°  OS E-i  S3 G +=  a G  o  H st  H H  O  to  to to  OJ  r-i  PH  to  o IA to sO o '.O  ti  IA OJ  o  to OJ  CO st  O r-H u  CQ CD  •ri (H  o O  Si •ri  PH CD  £ PH  COI S  r-i  C-  +3  43-  co o  st  ti r-q  O  EH  O r-H PH  co : or  43 ©  c— tO  IX\  PH PH  CD  "g* CQ  co  sO r-i  C-  •IA.  O  to  O  PH  co o <0  •H  CQ <D •H PH  CMPH  o PH o  CD 4^>  CO  •st tA OJ r-i  ti O  EH  CQ CQ CD »H  OJ  CO CO  PH  03  CD rO .M o  o  r-i  bo  03  - 84 Table V, b e s i d e s showing the type of small f r u i t movement, e i t h e r c a r l o t s o r L.C.L. b r i n g s out some o t h e r i m p o r t a n t problems i n the m a r k e t i n g of s m a l l f r u i t s * Mi ddleman Charge s I n c e r t a i n a r e a s because o f the f a c t t h a t the middleman attempts t o charge too much margin f o r d o i n g b u s i n e s s , the s a l e i n t h a t a r e a i s d e f i n i t e l y c u r t a i l e d . o n l y does the middleman s u f f e r , but a l s o the p r o d u c e r s .  Not The  t a b l e shows t h a t prosperous Saskatoon t e r r i t o r y s o l d r e l a t i v e l y few b e r r i e s oompared even to the Regina Dry B e l t . E v i d e n t l y the j o b b e r s i n Saskatoon attempted too h i g h a margin on a h i g h volume.  I n cases such as t h i s , i t might be  a d v i s a b l e t o have government s u p e r v i s i o n of j o b b e r s , and t o determine t h a t amount which i s c o n s i d e r e d a f a i r margin f o r the v a r i o u s f r u i t s .  T h i s would e l i m i n a t e , to a l a r g e e x t e n t ,  too h i g h m a r g i n by j o b b e r s , and s h o u l d encourage  consumption.  Problems of L.C.L. Shipments Table V shows a l s o t h a t the two A l b e r t a markets, C a l g a r y and Edmonton, are deluged w i t h L.C.L. shipments. A l t h o u g h these are c h i e f l y shipped by independent growers, and from the l o w e r p r o d u c i n g a r e a s , they do n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n s t i t u t e a l a r g e enough volume to wreck the A l b e r t a markets.  Of these L.C.L. shipments, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 ,000 are  from C l e a r w a t e r , 3,000 c r a t e s from Salmon Arm, and 5,000 from C r e s t o n , W y n d e l l , and Kootenay.  However, even t a k i n g these  - 85  -  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the L.C.L. movement from the Lower Mainland  is still  s u f f i c i e n t to e n t i r e l y r u i n the A l b e r t a  market.  T h i s problem c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d i f the s m a l l b e r r y  growers would take advantage of the N a t u r a l Pro due ts Marke t i n g Act.  By t h i s way  the a c t u a l board c o u l d i n f l u e n c e the move-  ment o f a l l b e r r i e s wi t h i n any a r e a , and thus e l i m i n a t e the deluge on a l l markets. So f a r we have d e a l t o n l y w i t h the d i f f i c u l t i e s of handling berries i n general.  I t might be a d v i s a b l e here to  g i v e an i d e a of the a c t u a l problems t h a t the producers meet, t a k i n g I935 as an average y e a r , and c o n s i d e r i n g them from the p o i n t of view of the the three movements. M a i n Crop - S t r a w b e r r i e s The main s t r a w b e r r y crop i n B r i t i s h Columbia  was  e x a c t l y two weeks l a t e r than i t was  the p r e v i o u s y e a r , w h i l e  the E a s t e r n Canada crop was e a r l y .  This deprived  Columbia o f any hope of marketing Canada, a l t h o u g h i n 1934,  British  any b e r r i e s i n E a s t e r n  13 c a r l o a d s had been shipped  to  M o n t r e a l and Toronto, which helped immensely i n r e l i e v i n g the p r a i r i e c o n g e s t i o n .  However, t h e r e were the  two  redeeming f e a t u r e s ; f i r s t , p r o s p e c t s of good g r a i n h a r v e s t the p r a i r i e caused a g e n e r a l o p t i m i s t i c buying market; s e c o n d l y , shipments o f 500  tons of SO,, b e r r i e s to the  p r a i r i e s h e l p e d t o r e l i e v e the market. shortage  and  Because of the  of r a i n i n B r i t i sh Columbia, when the s t r a w b e r r i e s  on  s h o u l d have had m o i s t u r e t o enable them to f i l l out p r o p e r l y , the q u a l i t y o f the f i r s t b e r r i e s shipped was .adversely a f f e c t e d .  However, the r a i n came j u s t i n time to  save the main s t r a w b e r r y crop from f a i l u r e .  Prices f o r  s t r a w b e r r i e s were f a i r l y h i g h f o r b e r r i e s t h a t were shipped, and the grower was n e t t e d s i x cents a pound. Raspberry  Prop The m a r k e t i n g of the B r i t i s h Columbia r a s p b e r r y  crop ivas v e r y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y from the p o i n t o f view of returns.  There was n o t one cause, b u t a s e r i e s o f causes,  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r these poor r e t u r n s .  F i r s t of a l l the main  crop o f s t r a w b e r r i e s was s t i l l g o i n g onto the market when the r a s p b e r r y crop s t a r t e d .  The r a s p b e r r i e s , t o o , were o f  i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y , n e c e s s i t a t i n g that they be s o l d immediately even a t a poor p r i c e .  Thus n o t o n l y were the r a s p b e r r i e s  d e p r i v e d of a c l e a n market, but a l s o the p r i c e had t o s t a r t l o w e r than i t otherwi se would have.  Next, because o f weather  c o n d i t i o n s a t the s h i p p i n g p o i n t , i t was not p o s s i b l e f o r the growers to s h i p b e r r i e s t h a t were capable of s t a n d i n g up f o r s e v e r a l days, and b e i n g i n good c o n d i t i o n upon a r r i v a l a t the market.  Another main r e a s o n f o r the poor p r i c e was t h a t  g r a i n p r o s p e c t s d u r i n g t h i s i n t e r v a l of time changed from e x c e l l e n t t o v e r y poor; pessimism was widespread, and b u y i n g was depressed.  S t i l l another reason was that the B r i t i s h  Columbia crop was l a t e , w h i l e the E a s t e r n Canadian crop was  -  87  -  e a r l i e r than u s u a l , and there was no p o s s i b i l i t y o f relieving  the p r a i r i e c o n g e s t i o n .  The l a s t r e a s o n was t h a t  pne w h i c h has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d , namely, t h a t because o f of the s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s  t h a t were shipped  was a l a c k of u n i f o r m i t y upon a r r i v a l . although  t h i s season, there  The Cuthbert b e r r y ,  the best a l l - r o u n d s h i p p i n g b e r r y , v/as d e c l i n i n g i n  p r o d u c t i o n , and the growers had been a t t e m p t i n g v a r i e t i e s , w i t h the r e s u l t  to grow other  t h a t i n each c a r l o a d of rasp-  b e r r i e s t h e r e were .from three to f i v e d i f f e r e n t  v a r i e t i e s of  berries. L a t e Crop T h i s c r o p a l s o s u f f e r e d due to the p r a i r i e crop conditions. attempting  Wot o n l y t h a t , but the p r a i r i e markets were t o dispose  distributed  of the l a r g e s t volume of b e r r i e s ever  i n such a short p e r i o d of time j u s t p r i o r to the  commencement of the l a t e c r o p .  At the same t i m e ,  shipping  p o i n t c o n d i t i o n s were e x t r e m e l y poor, and a heavy r a i n , f o l l o w e d by a h i g h humidity,made b e r r i e s v e r y poor s h i p p e r s . The  season was a l s o l a t e , and t h i s r e s u l t e d i n a s e r i o u s com-  p e t i t i o n wi t h the main crop of deciduous f r u i t s from Washington, O n t a r i o , and B r i t i s h Columbia. The  l a s t r e a s o n f o r the poor r e t u r n s i s one which  has not been mentioned b e f o r e , namely, that of t e r m i n a l conditions.  By the time t h a t the l a s t f r u i t came on the  market, r a i n s had s e t i n and there were e a r l y f r o s t , a l l of  - 88 which tended t o have a d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t on the p r i c e . Although E a s t e r n Canada used t e n c a r l o t s , the market was a t no time s a t i s f a c t o r y , and i t proved j u s t a means o f r e l i e v i n g t h e congested p r a i r i e markets. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o see from t h i s b r i e f r e v i e w g i v e n t h a t Canada i s d e f i n i t e l y d i v i d e s i n t o zones f o r s m a l l f r u i t s marketing.  Any d i s c o u r a g i n g r e p o r t s such as crop f a i l u r e ,  weather c o n d i t i o n s , o r o t h e r o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s t h a t might be a d e c i d e d setback f o r the growers i n one p a r t of the c o u n t r y might be c r e a t i n g a market and c a u s i n g an advance i n p r i c e , prove an a b s o l u t e boom to those i n another p a r t .  It  would be almost an i m p o s s i b i l i t y to e l i m i n a t e such a cond i t i o n , as i t p r e v a i l s not o n l y f o r s m a l l f r u i t s , b u t f o r a l l c r o p s , and a t the same t i m e , i s not only n a t i o n - w i d e , but world-wide.  - 89 -  VII  CONCLUSIONS  From t h i s s t u d y o f s m a l l f r u i t s , the w r i t e r has drawn the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s , as b e i n g adaptable i n a g e n e r a l way t o a l l s m a l l f r u i t s i n Canada. I n d i c a t i o n of any widespread expansion i n the near f u t u r e seems t o l i e p r i m a r i l y i n the hope t h a t the consumpt i o n of processed b e r r i e s can be i n c r e a s e d , o r t h a t the g r a i n c r o p on the p r a i r i e becomes  improved.  P r o d u c t i o n of s m a l l f r u i t s i n Canada f o l l o w s definite cycles.  Being g e n e r a l l y a short-term crop, i t i s  p o s s i b l e f o r r a p i d c o n t r a c t i o n and expansion of acreage on the b a s i s of the p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s low o r h i g h p r i c e respectively. Because of the e a r l i n e s s of the crop the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s able t o e x p o r t to Canada at a time when the p r i c e i s h i g h e s t , and d e s t r o y the urgent demand f o r b e r r i e s by the time the Canadian crop i s ready. p r i c e f o r the Canadian  T h i s causes a low s t a r t i n g  berries.  There are many p r o d u c t i o n problems which have to be s t u d i e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia to-day.  still  The most out-  s t a n d i n g one i s p r o b a b l y the c o n d i t i o n o f r a s p b e r r i e s "Running-out"  o r "Mining of Raspberry" soils, a l t h o u g h fungus  and v i r u s d i s e a s e s of a l l s m a l l f r u . i t s are by no means under control.  - 90 -  P r o d u c t i o n problems are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to m a r k e t i n g , and many of the m a r k e t i n g problems to-day are ' i n t e n s i f i e d by the grower who has not been educated as to the v a r i e t y o r t o b e s t means o f c u l t i v a t i o n and h a r v e s t i n g . In g e n e r a l , the grower who does not know the b e s t way to handle the b e r r i e s before t h e y leave h i s hands. The consumption  of s m a l l f r u i t s  c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d  i f a l l middlemen would g i v e t h e i r f u l l support to the coo p e r a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s , and not demand too l a r g e a margin f o r h a n d l i n g the f r u i t .  I t i s to the advantage of a l l groups  t h a t the spread between producer and consumer be reduced t o the minimum. The c h i e f hope f o r i n c r e a s e d consumption  i n the  f u t u r e i s from the i n c r e a s e i n processed f r u i t s , as i n the p a s t few y e a r s o n l y the F r o z e n Pack method of p r e s e r v a t i o n has shown any r e a l advance.  There should a l s o be a hope f o r  an i n c r e a s e d demand i n Canada as sDon as the r e t a i l e r s  install  equipment to keep the f r u i t a t a low enough temperature. The l a t e s t me t h od of p r o c e s s i n g on a s c a l e i s the use of SOg.  commercial  T h i s method can be employed com-  m e r c i a l l y i n t i m e s of s t r e s s i n an e f f o r t to b r i n g about orderly marketing.  T h i s i s a f a r more s a t i s f a c t o r y means  than even the F r o z e n Pack method. The g r a d i n g of s m a l l f r u i t s  i s not adequate i n  Canada to-day as v a r i e t y should be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  - 91  -  The producer should be a d v i s e d to j o i n up w i t h a s m a l l f r u i t c o - o p e r a t i v e i n order t o b e n e f i t not o n l y h i m s e l f , but a l s o the s m a l l f r u i t growers as a group.  - 92  VIII  -  jffi€QMMBIEDA T10 i¥S  Recommendations made here are "based on the p o i n t s that have been developed i n the p r e v i o u s p a r t of t h i s and are c l a s s e d under f i v e main headings; harvesting, marketing,  essay,  production,  c o n t r o l l e d p r o d u c t i o n , and  co-  operation.  Production While t h i s i s a c t u a l l y not a survey from a h o r t i c u l t u r a l s t a n d p o i n t , n e v e r t h e l e s s the w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t he is justified  i n o f f e r i n g h i s views on how  the s m a l l f r u i t  crop m i g h t be improved to b e n e f i t t h e producer, not o n l y i n m a r k e t i n g b e r r i e s , but a l s o i n r e d u c i n g the c o s t of production. C o n t r a r y to g e n e r a l b e l i e f a grower should not i n t o s m a l l f r u i t growing u n l e s s he has had some along t h i s l i n e .  go  experience  Small f r u i t growing as a main crop e n t e r -  p r i s e w i t h no supplementing e n t e r p r i s e s , g i v e s a poor d i s t r i b u t i o n of l a b o u r d u r i n g the y e a r .  Such a farm would keep  the owner employed at the most, o n l y about s i x to e i g h t months d u r i n g the year.  Whereas i f the farmer combined s m a l l  f r u i t growing w i t h p o u l t r y r a i s i n g , he would have a farm which c o u l d s t i l l be kept to the s m a l l farm s i z e , and y e t  one  - 93 -  which c o u l d y i e l d a maximum r e t u r n per a c r e , ( 3 9 ) .  Poultry  r a i s i n g i s p r e f e r r e d as a supplementary e n t e r p r i s e t o " d a i r y i n g , because t h e l a t t e r would tend t o have i t s l a b o u r c o n f l i c t w i t h the l a b o u r i n s m a l l f r u i t  growing.  Some of the advantages o f such a combination o f b e r r i e s and p o u l t r y are b r i e f l y as f o l l o w s :  there would be  an average d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a b o u r over the y e a r , p l e n t i f u l s u p p l y o f manure f o r c u l t i v a t i o n o f b e r r i e s , and the r i s k of income b e i n g e n t i r e l y cut o f f would be reduced.  These  form the main reasons why b e r r i e s c a n best be grown as a supplementary crop. There are other reasons why an i n e x p e r i e n c e d man s h o u l d n o t attempt  s m a l l f r u i t growing.  are v e r y s e r i o u s handicaps  P e s t s and d i s e a s e s  which the grower i s faced w i t h ,  and any grower n o t knowing the a c t u a l symptoms, may be conf r o n t e d w i t h a s i t u a t i o n w i t h which he i s n o t able t o cope. I t i s , o f c o u r s e , t r u e t h a t the government p u b l i s h e s b u l l e t i n s on such s u b j e c t s and m a i n t a i n s men throughout the p r o v i n c e to d e a l w i t h such problems; y e t the grower who has not made h i m s e l f acquainted w i t h such f a c t o r s as n u t r i t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s and e x c e s s e s , fungus and v i r u s d i s e a s e s , and the way i n which pests i n j u r e the p l a n t s , would be under a s e r i o u s handicap  and n o t be l i k e l y to succeed.  At the p r e s e n t t i m e , the Dominion Government m a i n t a i n s e x p e r i m e n t a l and i l l u s t r a t i o n s t a t i o n s i n a l l  - 94 -  p r o v i n c e s and i n most d i s t r i c t s .  I n most of these  where s m a l l f r u i t s can he grown, the problem 'competent h o r t i c u l t u r i s t s .  stations,  i s s t u d i e d by  I n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t such  work i s done i n the i n t e r e s t of the s m a l l f r u i t grower, very few growers take the time or the t r o u b l e t o v i s i t such  sta-  t i o n s t o f i n d out j u s t e x a c t l y what c u l t u r a l methods are b e i n g c a r r i e d on.  I n s t e a d , the grower p r e f e r s t o grow the  f r u i t the same way he has done i n the past, w i t h the r e s u l t that i t o f t e n r e s u l t s i n d i s a s t e r . Such q u e s t i o n s as f e r t i l i z e r m i x t u r e s , proper  cul-  t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , methods of combatting d i s e a s e s and p e s t s , and the value of c e r t i f i e d s t o c k can o n l y be s o l v e d by experiment  and e x p e r i e n c e .  The e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a t i o n s should  save the farmer the t r o u b l e of u s i n g u n t r i e d methods, and i t would be t o h i s advantage to f o l l o w t h e i r a d v i c e . Another phase o f work which the government i s c a r r y i n g on through i t s e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a t i o n s i s the i m p r o v i n g of v a r i e t i e s by e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n the b r e e d i n g of s m a l l f r u i t s .  Such a .programme as t h i s e n t a i l s v a s t  c r o s s i n g experiments and o n l y about one s e e d l i n g i n ten thousand i s worth k e e p i n g .  I t can be seen t h a t a p r i v a t e  grower c o u l d not hope t o c a r r y on such improvement work. A l t h o u g h work i s b e i n g c a r r i e d on f o r a l l s p e c i e s of  s m a l l f r u i t s , the r a s p b e r r y v a r i e t y problem  i s the most  i m p o r t a n t at the p r e s e n t time f o r B r i t i s h Columbia a t l e a s t .  - 95 Some r a s p b e r r i e s are f a v o u r a b l e from the p o i n t of view of p r o d u c t i o n , and o t h e r s from the consumer's a n g l e , but the u l t i m a t e aim i n b r e e d i n g work i s to o b t a i n a b e r r y t h a t i s s u i t a b l e t o both c l a s s e s concerned.  Such a r a s p b e r r y ,  a c c o r d i n g to J . J . Woods,(.52), would have to combine "The q u a l i t y of the Guthbert,  the y i e l d of the L l o y d George, the  h a r d i n e s s and h a b i t of growth of the Latham, and the c o l o u r of the V i k i n g " .  I t w i l l probably be some time before  a b e r r y i s o b t a i n e d , as b r e e d i n g  such  and m u l t i p l i c a t i o n work,  though f a s t e r t h a n ^ t r e e f r u i t s , i s a slow p r o c e s s , and y e t growers s h o u l d make themselves acquainted w i t h the improvement work as- i t p r o g r e s s e s , i n order t o be ready to grow the i d e a l b e r r y when the time c omes.  Harvesting Although  the best h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s have been  d i s c u s s e d d u r i n g the course  of t h i s study, no mention has  been made o f the f a c t t h a t improper h a r v e s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s can e a s i l y be a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r of p r o d u c t i o n , and one which might be improved«, The p i c k i n g c o s t s of s m a l l f r u i t s i s an important i t e m i n the t o t a l cost o f p r o d u c t i o n .  Not only i s t h i s s o ,  but l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of cheap labour must be a v a i l a b l e f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s of the y e a r , and s m a l l f r u i t s can o n l y be grown where such l a b o u r can be o b t a i n e d .  -  %  -  For those s m a l l f r u i t s which r i p e n q u i c k l y and must be p i c k e d  o f t e n , s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to p i c k i n g i s r e q u i r e d .  S t r a w b e r r i e s , r a s p b e r r i e s , b l a c k b e r r i e s and l o g a n b e r r i e s f o r the f r e s h f r u i t market should be p i c k e d o n l y by e x p e r i e n c e d p i c k e r s , as the b e r r i e s must be capable of s t a n d i n g up even under adverse s h i p p i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  P i c k e r s who  are  not  e x p e r i e n c e d tend t o s a c r i f i c e care i n p i c k i n g i n an attempt to increase  speed, arid b e r r i e s t h a t have been handled  r o u g h l y can be used only f o r jamming.  Once a p i c k e r  gains  some e x p e r i e n c e i n p i c k i n g , and l e a r n s to handle the b e r r i e s c a r e f u l l y , then i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a l l o w t h a t p i c k e r to p i c k the s h i p p i n g b e r r i e s which pay a b e t t e r p r i c e . l o g a n b e r r i e s , f o r the f r e s h f r u i t market, r e q u i r e a l s o s p e c i a l care when p i c k i n g .  Because of the nature of the  f r u i t the c e l l punctures very e a s i l y , causing leakage  and  making an u n a t t r a c t i v e package.  Marketing Canada can r o u g h l y be c l a s s e d i n t o three m a r k e t i n g divisions.  Western Canada;. O n t a r i o , and Quebec;, and  Maritimes.  We have seen t h a t , as a g e n e r a l r u l e , each of  these areas tend to be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t as f a r as each district  goes.  the  - 97  -  Comparing the per c a p i t a consumption of each d i s t r i c t , talcing the p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s as g i v e n by the 'census o f 1951,(21a), and the peak year of p r o d u c t i o n o f 1952,(19), i t i s found t h a t there i s a wide range of v a r i a t i o n as shown i n Table Y I . Table  ¥1  Per C a p i t a Consumption i n Quarts We s t e r n Canada  5«5  O n t a r i o and Quebec  3 # -L  Marltimes  2.7  Canada Average  5.1  These f i g u r e s i n Table VI show, of course,  only  the b e r r i e s t h a t are produced on a commercial s c a l e , and t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y i n the o l d e r s e t t l e d p a r t s of Canada much more produced on a domestic to become more u n i f o r m .  s c a l e , so these f i g u r e s would tend  However, i f proper a d v e r t i s i n g were  c a r r i e d on, per c a p i t a consumption should be i n c r e a s e d to f i v e q u a r t s per c a p i t a per y e a r , i f the proper s t i m u l a n t were g i v e n to the consumer.  T h i s i n c r e a s e might come through  s t i m u l a t i o n i n the demand f o r f r e s h f r u i t s ,  jam,  jellies,  or  canned b e r r i e s , but i n any case , i f the p r o d u c t i o n were i n c r e a s e d t o f i v e q u a r t s per c a p i t a i t would r e q u i r e f i f t y one m i l l i o n q u a r t s t o s a t i s f y the demand.  T h i s would indeed  )  -  98  -  prove a boon to the s m a l l f r u i t producer, and would have an i n d i r e c t e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g h i s income, '  I n a g e n e r a l way i t has been d i s c u s s e d how such  an i n c r e a s e might be f o r t h c o m i n g i f proper a d v e r t i s i n g methods are  pursued.  However, a s i d e from t h i s , t h e r e are s e v e r a l ways  by which consumption might be i n c r e a s e d f o r the d i f f e r e n t small f r u i t products. C o n s i d e r i n g f i r s t , the jam b e r r i e s .  At the present  time i t i s t h e g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e t o use f o r jam b e r r i e s , those which cannot be used on another market. p o l i c y i s advisable i s very questionable.  Whether such a B e r r i e s obtained  i n t h i s way a r e g e n e r a l l y the c u l l s o f the f i e l d * the s m a l l and misformed b e r r i e s , and those i n which the f l a v o u r i s not a b s o l u t e l y the b e s t .  To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , i t might be  w e l l t o r e f e r t o the Howe Sound b e r r i e s .  Because  of the  l a c k of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , i t was found t h a t they c o u l d n o t be marketed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n Vancouver.  However,  as the b e r r i e s produced were of e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y , a manuf a c t u r e r b u i l t a jam f a c t o r y end jammed a l l the b e r r i e s j u s t as t h e y come from the f i e l d .  T h i s f a c t proved to be a  good a d v e r t i s e m e n t , and when made known, there was a demand for  jam.  T h i s jam proved to be of a s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y to most  b r a n d s , as the b e r r i e s were l a r g e and seemed t o have the natural berry flavour.  With such s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y i t would  be p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a premium f o r such jam. The demand f o r f i r s t - c l a s s jam, the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s ,  - 99 -  c o u l d "be I n c r e a s e d by such a procedure as mentioned above. I n many d i s t r i c t s i t might be a d v i s a b l e t o ship a l l b e r r i e s for  jam i n s t e a d o f skimming o f f the cream o f the crop and  s h i p p i n g t o the f r e s h f r u i t market, and then s e l l i n g for  jam. A l t h o u g h the grower would probably  the r e s t  receive a  s m a l l e r p r i c e , i t i s d o u b t f u l whether i t would not be as f a r ahead i n the end, because he would be saved expense of c r a t e s and  of packing and of other i n c i d e n t a l s n e c e s s a r y I n s h i p p i n g . Another angle which should. be i n v e s t i g a t e d f u r t h e r  i s the problem o f s h i p p i n g q u a l i t y .  T h i s has been c a r r i e d on  to a v e r y l i m i t e d extent I n Canada, and g e n e r a l l y by people whose o p i n i o n i s b i a s e d . should  B e r r i e s o f a l l v a r i e t i e s and types  be shipped under a l l c o n d i t i o n s by government men, and  the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d  s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e t o the s m a l l  f r u i t grower so t h a t he w i l l know what v a r i e t y i s the best f o r s h i p p i n g and under what c o n d i t i o n s i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o ship. Besides  conduoting s h i p p i n g t e s t s , i t would be t o  the advantage of the p r o d u c e r , i f the government would make t e s t s f o r the d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s f o r t h e i r jamming and canning q u a l i t y .  Controlled  Production  As has a l r e a d y been seen, f l u c t u a t i o n i n the p r i c e of s m a l l f r u i t s are c e r t a i n t o o c c u r as long as there i s no  - 100  r e s t r i c t i o n on p r o d u c t i o n .  -  To s t o p these wide f l u c t u a t i o n s ,  i t would be i n the i n t e r e s t of the s m a l l f r u i t producer i f "the government were to set up a committee which would a l l o t production t o d i f f e r e n t areas.  The  snail fruit  producers  1  a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n the areas would have t o do the p l a n n i n g for  the i n d i v i d u a l farms.  Such a p l a n as the one  suggested  has been t r i e d f o r other crops w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of success.  The  c o s t s of such a p l a n as t h i s might be g r e a t e r  than the b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d .  However, i t would do no harm f o r  the s m a l l f r u i t growers t o make a survey as t o the  feasibilit  of c o n t r o l l e d p r o d u c t i o n . I t might be t h a t c o n t r o l of the market r a t h e r than acreage might have a d e p r e s s i n g e f f e c t on p r o d u c t i o n , but t h i s c o u l d o n l y be shown through a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . I f a programme of c o n t r o l l e d acreage were put  into  e f f e c t , i t would be n e c e s s a r y to m a i n t a i n a r e s e r v e s u p p l y of b e r r i e s , p r e s e r v e d by f r e e z i n g o r o t h e r means i n case of adverse weather c o n d i t i o n s , to keep the market  steady.  Go-ope r a t i on l i t t l e has been s a i d thus f a r c o n c e r n i n g advantages and disadvantages  the  of c o - o p e r a t i o n , and y e t t h i s i s  r e a l l y a part of a programme of. c o n t r o l l e d p r o d u c t i o n . Acreage can b e s t be c o n t r o l l e d through c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a d i s t r i c t , i f the c o - o p e r a t i v e r e p r e s e n t s enough o f  - 101 -  the producers I n the a r e a . I t would be t o the advantage  of growers even i n  an a r e a w i t h o n l y n i n e or ten. producers to market t h e i r f r u i t as a group, because as such they can market  fruit  r e g u l a r l y and have a c e r t a i n s e l l i n g power. However, thus f a r o n l y the advantages  of s e l l i n g  c o l l e c t i v e l y have been mentioned, and t h i s I s but one of the b e n e f i t s t h a t may be d e r i v e d .  The b u y i n g o f m a t e r i a l s , such  as commercial f e r t i l i z e r s , c r a t e s and c e r t i f i e d s t o c k can be bought a t a lower c o s t i f a l a r g e r q u a n t i t y i s o r d e r e d . A l t h o u g h i t i s not a sound economic p r a c t i c e t o be granted such p r i v i l e g e s , the p r o d u c e r , n e v e r t h e l e s s , should take advantage  of such c o n d i t i o n s when they do e x i s t .  The margin  between the c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n and the net r e c e i p t s f o r b e r r i e s i s so s l i g h t to-day t h a t any decrease i n the c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n would h e l p the producer. The o n l y r e a s o n s a grower might g i v e f o r marketing his  crop i n d e p e n d e n t l y to-day are:  f i r s t , t h a t he can market  d i r e c t l y to the consumer; and s e c o n d l y , t h a t the c o - o p e r a t i v e to which he would have t o b e l o n g i s i n e f f i c i e n t l y managed. The f i r s t reason can be o f f e r e d i n o n l y a few cases and even t h e n , i t would be to the advantage producers as a whole i f the independent through t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e .  o f the s m a l l f r u i t  s h i p p e r would market  The independent s h i p p e r , when he  s e l l s d i r e c t l y to the consumer, tends to o f f e r the b e r r i e s  -102 at a lower p r i c e and thus causes a g e n e r a l d e p r e s s i o n on the market.  The independent s h i p p e r must be made t o r e a l i z e h i s  . o b l i g a t i o n s t o the s m a l l f r u i t producer as a group. The second r e a s o n , namely that o f i n e f f i c i e n t management, i s e n t i r e l y i n the hands o f the s m a l l f r u i t producer.  I f any grower i s n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h r e s u l t s and  can show p r o o f t h a t poor r e t u r n s are the r e s u l t o f i n e f f i c i e n t management, I t i s probable t h a t the f r u i t producers would demand a change i n management. I t i s time t h a t c o - o p e r a t i v e s l i m i t p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e as f a r as m a r k e t i n g i s concerned, but i t i s perhaps a good t h i n g to l e a v e i t i n the hands o f those who know something about i t .  As l o n g as the producer r e c e i v e s a  s a t i s f a c t o r y p r i c e f o r h i s b e r r i e s and runs the p r o d u c t i o n end, he s h o u l d be s a t i s f i e d . are  However, many growers to-day  not r e c e i v i n g what t h e y c o n s i d e r a s a t i s f a c t o r y p r i c e ,  and t h e y attempt t o p l a c e the blame on middlemen charges.  Summary of Recommendations Summing up measures which might be taken t o h e l p the  s m a l l f r u i t i n d u s t r y we f i n d (l)  the  that,-  An e d u c a t i o n a l campaign s h o u l d be conducted by  government i n t h e i n t e r e s t of the producer t o show him  - 103 which are the best methods o f c u l t i v a t i o n , disease c o n t r o l measures, supplementing e n t e r p r i s e s , h a r v e s t i n g methods and , s u i t a b l e v a r i e t i e s f o r s h i p p i n g and m a r k e t i n g . (2)  A s i m i l a r campaign should be c a r r i e d on t o educate  the consumer i n r e g a r d t o the best type of b e r r y , and the d i f f e r e n t uses t o which b e r r i e s might be put* (5)  The- q u a l i t y o f jam must be improved i n an e f f o r t  to i n c r e a s e the q u a n t i t y consumed. (4)  C o n t r o l l e d p r o d u c t i o n or m a r k e t i n g should be  i n v e s t i g a t e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h the a d v i s i b i l i t y f o r the s m a l l f r u i t grower t o operate under the N a t u r a l P r o d u c t s M a r k e t i n g Act i n c e r t a i n areas. (5)  C o - o p e r a t i o n f o r buying as w e l l as s e l l i n g w i l l be  t o the advantage of a l l s m a l l f r u i t growers.  The  independent  s h i p p e r i s o f t e n s t r o n g enough to d e s t r o y the b a r g a i n i n g power of c o - o p e r a t i v e s , and i n t h i s way s p o i l s the market and causes a lower p r i c e .  - 104 IX  SUMMARY  B e r r y p r o d u c t i o n has sh own  some remarkable  trends  s i n c e 1900 w i t h the h i g h e s t p o i n t of p r o d u c t i o n b e i n g i n 1932 when t h i r t y - t w o m i l l i o n q u a r t s were produced i n f i v e provinces.  O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h Columbia produced 77%. o f the  t o t a l commercial f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n i n the years 1924-1954. Commercial s m a l l f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n i s c o n f i n e d c h i e f l y t o s t r a w b e r r i e s and r a s p b e r r i e s , which  comprised  about 18.57; by value of a l l f r u i t s i n Canada i n 1932-1933. P r i c e and p r o d u c t i o n of s m a l l f r u i t s show a v e r y high i n d i r e c t  correlation*  P r o c e s s e d b e r r i e s are a v e r y important means of d i s p o s i n g of the s m a l l f r u i t c r o p .  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so  i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. C o m p e t i t i o n w i t h b e r r i e s from o u t s i d e i s c o n f i n e d m a i n l y t o t h e s m a l l f r u i t s from the U n i t e d S t a t e s a t the b e g i n n i n g of the season, when the p r i c e i s h i g h . P r o d u c t i o n problems, such as c l i m a t i c , s o i l and s i t e f a c t o r s I n f l u e n c e the m a r k e t i n g of a l l s m a l l f r u i t s , 1  There a r e a l s o many minor problems such as disease and n u t r i t i o n which must be c o n s i d e r e d i n r e g a r d t o the Individual  fruit. The m a r k e t i n g problem which i s foremost  minds of those i n t e r e s t e d i n s m a l l f r u i t growing variety.-  i n the  i s t h a t of  I t i s n e c e s s a r y to f i n d a v a r i e t y which w i l l  - 105  -  s a t i s f y the consumer f o r consumption, and the producer from the s t a n d p o i n t . i n t r o d u c e d and  of growth h a b i t s .  A new  b e r r y which has been  shows promise i s the youngberry or wonderberry  as i t i s sometimes c a l l e d . Because of the extreme p e r i s h a b i l i t y of b e r r i e s , care must be e x e r c i s e d i n t h e i r h a n d l i n g , h a r v e s t i n g , packing t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and  storage.  I t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e by means of a d v e r t i s i n g and other s t i m u l a t i o n s to i n c r e a s e the demand f o r s m a l l  fruits,  not o n l y t h a t of f r e s h pack, but a l s o those which are  pro-  cessed. Small f r u i t s are processed by jamming, c a n n i n g , j e l l y i n g , f r e e z i n g , or by p l a c i n g i n a s o l u t i o n of S 0 , 2  l a s t two methods named are r e c e n t developments and  The  should  show an i n c r e a s e i n the near f u t u r e * S m a l l f r u i t s are handled most s a t i s f a c t o r i l y through c o - o p e r a t i v e  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r  such an o r g a n i z a t i o n t o c a r r y on the p r a c t i c e s of  standard-  i z a t i o n and a d v e r t i s i n g . The  f u n c t i o n s of m a r k e t i n g are the same as w i t h  o t h e r s m e l l f r u i t s , as they pass through the hands of coo p e r a t i v e s , w h o l e s a l e r , r e t a i l e r and then consumer. The  three methods of s a l e t h a t are i n common  p r a c t i c e are the consignment method, JT.0.J3., and d i r e c t selling.  Where p o s s i b l e the l a s t method, that of d i r e c t  s e l l i n g , i s p r e f e r r e d , but where i t i s not f e a s i b l e to market  - 106  i n t h i s way,  -  the grower tends to p r e f e r the F.O.B. method,  as i t r e l i e v e s him  of a l l r i s k of m a r k e t i n g .  I n s p e c t i o n a t t e r m i n a l and s h i p p i n g p o i n t s i s c a r r i e d on by government employees i n the i n t e r e s t of both the s h i p p e r and the c o n s i g n e e . I n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t was  found t h a t each s m a l l  f r u i t showed a d i f f e r e n t t r e n d i n r e g a r d to the percentage t h a t was  processed.  About $0%  strawberries, raspberries,  and b l a c k b e r r i e s were consumed as f r e s h f r u i t , whereas o n l y a v e r y s m a l l percentage of the l o g a n b e r r i e s were s o l d i n the f r e s h market, The  t h r e e crop movements i n B r i t i s h Columbia are  the main crop s t r a w b e r r i e s , r a s p b e r r i e s , and l a t e  crop.  Such problems as middleman charges and L.C.L, shipments are d e a l t w i t h , and a l s o the i n d i v i d u a l problems i n w i t h each c r o p movement.  connection  - 107  -  LITERATURE CITED A M  REFERENCES  (l)  B a i l e y . L.H..  Standard C y c l o p e d i a o f H o r t i culture . • M a c m i l l a n Go. of New York, 1917.  (2)  Better Fruit  John T. Jerome, P u b l i s h e r . B e t t e r E m i t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 809 T e r m i n a l S a l e s B u i l d i n g , P o r t l a n d , Oregon.  1)  1  (b) (3)  Canada Jam '. . Marke t i n g -Scheme  (4)  C h a n d l e r , W.  (5)  Chenoweth.  H.  W.W.  F e b r u a r y , 1930 June 1931.  Under N a t u r a l P r o d u c t s •Marketing A c t , 1934. P r i n t e d i n Canadian G a z e t t e , May, I 9 3 5 . F r u i t Growing. Houghton M i f f l e n Company, Boston, Mass* Page 6 l 6 . Food P r e s e r v a t i o n . John W i l e y & Son I n c . , New 1930.  York,  (6)  C l a r k e , G.B.w;.  C u r r a n t s and Gooseberry C u l t u r e . P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, H o r t . C i r . No. 56.  (7)  C l a r k e . G.B.W,  Raspberry C u l t u r e . P r o v i n c e of , B r i t i s h Columbia. H o r t . C i r . No. 55.  (8)  Converse, P a u l D.  M a r k e t i n g , Methods and P o l i c i e s . P r e n t i s e H a l l I n c . , New York, I929 — Second E d i t i o n .  (9)  Cruess,  Commercial F r u i t and Vegetable Products. McGraw H i l l Book Co. I n c . , New York, 1924.  (lO)  Gumming. M.  W.V.  Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Nova Scotia. Correspondence, November 6 , 193J?.  - 108  (11)  Darrow, G.M«  C u l t u r e of Loganberry, B l a c k b e r r y and R e l a t e d V a r i e t i e s , Farmer B u l l e t i n 998, I928, U.S.D.A.  (12)  Darrow * GyM.'  E f f e c t of F e r t i l i z e r s on Firmness and F l a v o u r o f S t r a w b e r r i e s I n F o r t h C a r o l i n a , U.S.D.A.. Reprint i n Proceeding o f A.S.H.S. f o r 1931*  (13)  D a v i s . M. _B.  Raspberry and i t s C u l t i v a t i o n i n Canada* Dominion B u l l e t i n 114, 1929.  (14)  Department o f Agriculture  (15)  Department o f Agriculture  (16)  Dickie.  (17)  D i c k i e , B«  (18)  P i e h l , H.ff., Magness, J.&?, and Bonney, V.B. - 0",S.D,A.  B  P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. Annual Report f o r 1933 and 1934, S t a t i s t i c s Branchi A g r i c u l t u r e S t a t i s t i c s Report. 1924-1934. B e r r y Deal of 1935. Report o f Canadian F r u i t D i s t r i b u t o r s L t d . Vancouver, Not p u b l i s h e d . C e n t r a l S e l l i n g Great Advantage to B r i t i s h Columbia B e r r y D e a l . C o u n t r y L i f e . E d i t o r and Manager, C h a r l e s Hayden, Yernon, B.C., October, I 9 3 5 .  F r o z e n Pack Methods o f P r e s e r v i n g B e r r i e s _ i n the P a c i f i c N o r t h west* T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 148, January, 1930* , (19)  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s Annual S t a t i s t i c s o f F r u i t , and Floriculture* 1924 - 1934.  (20)  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s F r u i t and Vegetable P a c k i n g I n d u s t r y i n Canada, 1924 - I 9 2 9 .  - 109 (20)  (21)  (Continued)  -  Report of F r u i t and vegetable P r e p a r a t i o n s i n Canada, 1930 1934.  -  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s Canada Year Book. 1933 1934-35  (22)  Dominion M a r k e t i n g  Board Guide t o P r e p a r a t i o n of M a r k e t i n g Schemes.  (23)  Domini on of.Canada  Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Agricultural Situation.  The  1934 1935 1936 (24)  Farquhar,  (25)  ffra.se.r, ..Samuel  (26)  F r u i t . B r a n c h of Dominion of C a n a d  CD.  General Manager, Tfashington B e r r y Growers A s s o c i a t i o n , Sumner Washington. "The Future of Berry Production", r e p r i n t e d i n Proceedings of the 2 7 t h Annual Meeting of Washington State Horticultural Association, I93I. American F r u i t s . Orange Judd P u b l i s h i n g Co* I n c . , New York, 1924. g  The F i r s t Vegetable and Honey Act and R e g u l a t i o n . P u b l i c a t i o n 476, 1935. (27)  Heckman. J.H.  and H a l l .  O..J.  H a r v e s t i n g , M a r k e t i n g Methods and Production P o l i c i e s f o r Arkansas S t r a w b e r r i e s . Univers i t y of A r k a n s a s , E x t e n s i o n C i r . No. 528, A p r i l , 1934.  - 110  (28)  * (29)  (30)  -  H e n d r i c k s o n , I.E.  Strawberry Culture i n C a l i f o r n i a . Agriculture Extension Service, 23; R e v i s e d , 1931.  Jacob. H.E. '  Use of Sulphur D i o x i d e i n S h i p p i n g Grapes. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a . B u l l e t i n 47, 1929.  Johnson, N e i l W..  and Severance,. Geo* An Economic Study of B e r r y Earming i n Western Washington. A g r i c u l t u r e Experimental Stat i o n , Pullman, Washington. B u l l e t i n No. 204, June, I926.  (31)  Maooun. W.f. , and D a v i s ,  M.B.  The S t r a w b e r r y and i t s C u l t i v a t i o n i n Canada. Dominion Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , B u l l e t i n No. 80, I929. (32)  Overholser,  E.L.  Rate of R i p e n i n g , and f i r m n e s s of S t r a w b e r r y as i n f l u e n c e d by f e r t i l i z e r and c e r t a i n o t h e r f a c t o r s . Washington S t a t e H o r t i c u l t u r a l P r o c e e d i n g s , 1932, pages 27i-278. >  (33)  Overholser.  E.L.  A Study of the Shipment of f r e s h f r u i t and Vegetables to the f a r E a s t i U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a B u l l e t i n No. 497, 3 u l y 1930.  (54)  O v e r h o l s e r , E.L.,  and Moses,  B.D.  P r e - c o o l i n g of f r e s h f r u i t s and Temperatures of R e f r i g e r a t o r Cars and Warehouse Rooms. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a B u l l e t i n No. 496, June 1930. (35)  P h i l l i p s , CD.  and Card,  .P.O.  • O r g a n i z a t i o n and Management Problems o f Co-operative Strawberry Marketing Associations i n Kentucky. U n i v e r s i t y of Kentucky B u i . No. 319, August 1951.  - I l l  (36)  Price... H.B..  -  and.Negaard., 0*A. M a r k e t i n g L o c a l l y Grown Raspb e r r i e s i n Minnesota. Univers i t y of Minnesota B u i . I o . 245. J u l y , 1928,  (37)  Processed B e r r y M a r k e t i n g Scheme Under N a t u r a l P r o d u c t s M a r k e t i n g Act o f Canada, 1934. Reprinted i n Canada G a z e t t e , June 29,1935.  (38)  Rankin.  (39)  Robinson,, R»B.  (40) S c h u s t e r .  W.H,  C.E.  Quoted i n Small F r u i t s of York. Hedrick,(45).  New  O f f i c e of F r u i t Commission. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Correspondence, October 17  I935,  and Burrler., A..S, Costs and P r a c t i c e s i n Strawberry P r o d u c t i o n i n the W i l l i a m e t t e V a l l e y , Oregon. Oregon S t a t e State A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , Corvallis. Station Bulletin No. 245, May I 9 2 9 .  (41)  Sears.  P.O.  (42)  Shimeh. J.B.  P a c i f i c Co-operative Union, M i s s i o n , B.C. Correspondence March 20, 1936.  (43)  Shoemaker. J.S  Small F r u i t C u l t u r e . P. B l a h i s t o n ' s Son & Co. I n c . , 1012 Walnut S t . , Philadelphia.  (44)  Shoemaker, J.S., and Greve  Productive Small F r u i t Culture. L i p p i n c o t t s Farm Manual. E d i t e d by Kary C. D a v i s . J.P, L i p p i n c o t t Go., P h i l a d e l p h i a and London, 1920.  R e l a t i o n of N i t r o g e n F e r t i l i z e r to the Firmness and Composition of S t r a w b e r r i e s . Ohio B u i . No. 466, 1930.  - 112  (4-5)  S m a l l F r u i t s o f New  -  York H e d r i c k , U.D. J*B,LynCo., p r i n t e r , Albany, 1925.  (46)  S u l e r a d , G.L.  and K e l s o n ,  M.N.  An Economic Study of the Small F r u i t I n d u s t r y i n Oregon. Oregon S t a t e A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , C o r v a l l i s , Oregon. S t a t i o n B u i . No. 274, January, 1931. *($3)  (47)  Thompson, F*L.  F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Strawberry P r i c e s . U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i B u l l e t i n Ho. 347. February I935.  (48)  Thompson, R.L.  F i n a n c i n g P r o d u c t i o n and M a r k e t i n g of L o u i s i a n a S t r a w b e r r i e s and Suggested Recommendations. L o u i s i a n a State U n i v e r s i t y . B u l l e t i n Wo. 219, January 1931.  (49)  White. E.W.  Loganberry C u l t u r e . P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia H o r t i c u l t u r e C i r . No. 54. (Revised E d i t i o n )  (50)  Wi-egX'ahd, E r n e s t H. -  The "Frozen Pack" Method of P r e s e r v i n g B e r r i e s . Oregon S t a t e A g r i c u l t u r a l College, C o r v a l l i s , Oregon S t a t i o n B u l l e t i n No.278, May 1931.  (51)  W i l c o x , O.W.  Reshaping A g r i c u l t u r e . W.W.Norton & Co. I n c . P u b l i s h e r s . New York.  (52)  Woods. J . J .  P r o g r e s s i v e Report on Raspberry Growing i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Dominion E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm, A g a s s i z , B r i t i s h Columbia.  (53)  V a r i e t y Key  Summary. Report of Raspberry Committee, B r i t i sh Columbia.  (54)  Z a v a l l a . J.P.  Canning o f F r u i t s and V e g e t a b l e s . John Wiley & Sons I n c . , New Y o r k , 1916.  - 113 -  o y t lAtO  o  ONC—  LT\CV1 <«t to CM  O O  O  O  CVJ  CvJ  o o  c-  «> « NO O CvJ l A «=t ON  LA  CvJ^B-2OCvJ O CVI NO v O C - -  O H C-tO ** «  oto  COH H l A Cv!  LAH LALA  c— ^i-tO o  o  ON  ON  ** «  tOcCVltO  o to ON ON H c o Cvl CvJ  o  o  oco  «" »  "=tH o  NO  to  Cvl r H H tO CO ON  •^•NO  H H •=t  Cvl CVJ IA  NO  r-t  Cvl tO H-=t  •A  NO  o HI  O O  C— IA  O IA ONO  O  IA  O  CVI *  Cv  -st . O U \ o o LA<tf O ^i" LT\tO LT\ C— xO  C -  O ^ O ur\ O ON LT\OX N O CVJ ON  O O 0^=t IAC- OvO O Lf\ tO i r \ O ON LT\Lf\ O C O o ^ * © u>0 CO I A CvJ O v D I A v O O Ocvl tO tO H LA"*t r H *t ON NO o NO NO <*  CD  P  •A  IA  LA  O H O C O  O c o  o  i  O N O  O  I  O O  LT\"vJ-  o o O H O  H lA f O H ON  CM  «=t  CO  Lf\  NO  ov>. o to • A H ON  o o  o to  tA  to NO  •  to Lf\  tA  •  O'-s^. o o c—  0*sA. o o O N O  *. ©  «  CVJ CVJ to  tACM CvJ to  CO  Oss-5. O H OON  O-sf ONtO ««  CVI«tf" tOH CO  - * H  H  Cvl  to  Ovs-S. o o o to  o t o o t o  OCvJ ONO  IA  O N O  CO-* c— CO  O  •» $  ON ON  NO CvJ H  CO  ON iA « ON  LA  O ' s t OCO L A Cvl «> o lAEO H NO  *•  e  X—'  CvJ  o  to  ONO  O CvJ  O N O  O N O  *>  l A O L A Cvj ON  Si  Lf\ O  o to Cvl LA  CO  OV * O C O OCO O H ONtO O OCO O " 0 ft ® •> e l A - s i - NO t o l A t O to to H H CO  O ^ O Cvl  H  H  H  c—*=t to o  CVJCO LA H  ONH LA to  ^-  CO •=t  CO c— NO  LA ON ON  CVI H  CvJ H  CO H  LA H ON «* H  OV£ OCO O O «* e OtO ^to H  LACvJ CvJ LA  Hcvj NO LA  ON  LT\ CO  O N O  C~CO  O N O  o  o  C—CvJ  ON-^JNOtO  otr-  o^°.  o o CvJ  NO  «" .  O N O  NO  O V L 0'^2ON O LT\ O H O CVI O i A to O N O O O 0" o (* o « * NO tO U-\"^- NO t o C—H to to CVI H CO CVI O H  o o  o o c—  o o  ON to o  CN to o  LA to cvi  H NO  H  to CVI  O  to  H  CO H  «=t CVl  O  ^  O  o  cvi H  o to o  NO  to NO o  o H NO  to to  CO CVI  CVI  O"  3> to  H  ©  to  H  O  Ok  05  to rH  Hcvj "*tCO  o^a. O IA O O ON o  O ^ . O CvJ  o o o  O O  r H -sjto  O'jrS. 0'=HL 0 \ r ^  CVJ  o LA  *t *=t  2  to O O CO A O  CO  'o~~  O ON O t— L A CvJ iAC— * © e N O C— v D v f l v t H ONH ON CO  XOV2-  o t o  to H  o rH  NO  O O  cv  0) QJJ  !4  C3 CD SH  CVJ ON H  LA CvJ ON H  NO CvJ ON H  c— CVJ ON  H  CO CVJ ON H  ON cvl ON H  o to 0N H  H to ON H  CVI to ON H  to to ON H  to ON H  •« !4  CD i> «1  - 114- -  APPENDIX Table Average P r i c e  2  of S m a l l F r u i t s - I n Canada Not Weighted Average  -115  -  O  to OJ ON r-i st OJ  o  o  OJ  O st CO  OJ ir\ SO  SO ON st  OJ  CO  st  OJ  OJ  ON st  o  c-  o st rrsO C -  sO  A  Co  LA  H  OS  H  © U o  © CO  ©  OJ OS r-i  CO CO H  SO  •H  OJ  to  r-i  co st  CO rH  **  o o  st  CO  to  st CO  CO  e— . to e  OJ  CO  H  o o  ON  St st «v LTV SO SO  OJ OJ ON  H  OJ  c-  CO  rH  c-  C -  I A  st erst  to  cr~ CO  »  SO  OJ  CO  sO OJ  CO  sO  OJ  ON SO st  o  o  o  ON  11  •  H  o  M H  to!  PH  ON o SO  CO  !^  SO 0 s CO H sO  o co  o o o  rH rH  CO r-i  FH  R  I  OJ so sO  CQ -P •H  H CO EH  © H  CO  • e»  ' CO  to  o  OJ  t  c r-i LA  ON  o  H  OJ ON r-i  e>  ON st  rH  o  OS  to  H to ON c OJ  o H  H  :  st  cr-  c»  OJ OJ  o to O  • vQ  o  CM  M H  O, PI  O •H += O  • H  ON c—  o  c-  I  rO O FH  1  8,  IT*  c—  o E— •  rH  H  o  <-l  ON C-r-  OJ  OJ  O OJ os  H  sO st  co  CO  to  r-l  H A  #«  LA  O SO  sO  to  LA  CO  st OJ  e  cOJ CO 0 OJ  H  IA.  O  rH SO st CO SO OJ  P-f H' CO  CQ  -P  o  &H  CQ  ©  >d ©  •H  FH FH  ©  rO t» S^' C O u  +3  CO  CQ  a Ti CO FH  •ri  ©  CO F-. SH  pi  o  FH FH  ©  o  O CJ3  •n'  ©  CQ rO +3  ©  CQ  CQ FH  © 43  o  FH FH  ©  c3 -P  CQ CO  EH  Pi  o  ©  is  CO FH 43  CO  CQ  ©  •H FH FH  ©  ft  CQ CO PH  CQ FH  ©  rf  43  o  rH  CO +s O EH  ,  - 116 ON  H  st  to  I st OJ  ON  r-i CD  •p c)  a  NO  rH H  \*  OJ  c— to  st OJ st st co  to  §» O  0t  G  {Si  CO  to  CO CO  C—  rH r-i  to <* to to  CO  CO  st  LA  C-  LA  CM r-i  O NO  NO  st NO  LA  St  CO  ON  st  ON  CO  CO NO  ' ©  LA  to c~  p.  LA  © H  rH  CO  OJ rH  F*  o •H rH Q  OJ  H  04 -p rH  O  NO  OJ  to OJ  to H  to NO  NO  H  c—  c-  ON  OJ t~  O  LA  CO  to  r-i NO  LA  t*. LA  O  c~  NO  o e-  CO  st  st  st OJ  ON ON  © r-i  P •H Pi rH  r-i  ON  CO  O  CM  LA A NO  O  I A NO  o o  rH NO  ON  CO  st  LA  cON  to  Pq  rH  CO  <H O  e*  CO  CO  c— to  H  o  •H  3 CO *3 +CO fc> co-• PH  «  s'fc>  CO +3  O  OJ  to ON  G  o to  -p  o  S:  OJ  CO ON  c—  ©  st CM  NO  OJ  to ON  c-  NO ON  o st  H ON  to  H  LA NO  A ON  st  O  C— st tr-  CO  c— ON  rH  r-i  o  NO ON  CO ON  OJ  ON  LA  ' «t NO  CO  rH  OJ  LA  LA  »  to to  o ©  st  Co OJ  o o OJ  to  st  NO  to r-i OJ  ©. OJ  st A  OJ  rH O <H - P >3 >S rH H «H <H CD 0> •ri - H rf rf  0  o  1  I  r-i  ON  to  H  st O  LA NO  NO  8  o  NO  st  LA  © o  ON  ON  LA «» NO  e~-  «»  CM st LA  O  OJ  o  OJ  cNO A  H LA ON  *>  to  ON  to  tH OJ sf  st O OJ  st  st  st  • A  A  NO  CO CO -P -P ?H fH 0 O  a a  •ri CD  I 1  LA  OJ  ON  r-i  CM ON  r-i  NO  c~  OJ  OJ  ON  ON  r-i  rH  GO  CM  ON  OJ  ON  ON  r-i  H  o to  H to  OJ  to  ON  to to  st  ON  H  r-i  rH  rH  rH  ON  ON  3  CO  o  •H +3  CO •H  +3 -P CO <H o  H Pi O  CO CD  CO  to  ON  a? CD fH  O  •rl CO CD fH  •H « O  - 117 APPEMX Table  5  Q u a n t i t y and Value o f Small F r u i t s Canned i n Canada by P r o v i n c e s ' (a) Q u a n t i t y ( i n cases) British Columbia  Year  Canada  Quebec  Ontario  Maritimes  I925 1926 1927 1928  111,213 160,064 147,726 153,408-  26,154 25,908 9,886  31,472 64,678 45,490 57*882  10,625 8,441  / 42,964 63,040  16*571 5,600  67,499 55,122  1929 1950 I93I 1932 I933 I934  175,301 164,512 144,675 118,833 93,131 149,655  12,614 32,101 1,098  73,647 51,207 53,616 69,364 6l 896  Average  139,852  14*804  73,385 55,445 89,030 48,578 30,615 45,551  15,955 25,159 90  -  -  -  5  105,879 *  * Tremendous i n c r e a s e I n l o g a n b e r r i e s s i n c e 1950« (b) Value 1925  $478,582  1926  805,514  1927 1928  731,441 659,725 871,974 728,060 662 ,214  ,164,587.: 1177,046 68,850 560,076 34,759 357 ,495 57,028 274,364 576,700 6l;l2 3 75,074 299,521 540 414,935  385,225 289,220  161,847 93,873  1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1954  492 , 4 97  Average 1608.245  :  -  45,551  $51,840  |205,100  27,019 86,552 23,855 47,370 78,486 4,826  538,569 352,655 , 284,476 387,981 275,159 2 38,701  -  220,571 192,685  764  336,775  - 118 APPENDIX' Table  6  T o t a l Production of D i f f e r e n t Small F r u i t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia from 1,922-1954 (Expressed i n C a r l o t s — a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 tons t o the c a r ) Year 1922 1923 1924 1925 I926 1927 1928 I929  1930 1951 I952 ; 1935 1934  Figures  Strawberries  Haspberries  265.0 500,7 224*5 115.2  154.5 175.9 214.0 186*8  27*2 27.8 41>9 55.6  196.9 526.9 552.0 515.2 246.9 272o8  2 56*5 ". 187.0 170.2 ; 155.6 118.2 120.7 122.1  47*5 58*6 56.4 41.7 59.5 29.5 34.6  58 > 2 55*2 86.6 44.1 120*2 79.6 69.O 80.2 '82.8 10 6-. 1 115.8  74.2 122,0  50*5 37.5  89.5 II5.8  279.5 332 & 2 441.6  as p u b l i s h e d  Blackberries  Loganberries  ..  Bush  Total  30 i 3  495.5 587-I  29^5 26*2 56.7 55.4 46.4 41.7 :  595.2 416.4 656.5 678.5 669.5  26.6 45.9 48.2 62... 4  597*5 533.5 577*3 612.4  80*7 90*0  606.9 806.7  i n P r o v i n c i a l Department o f S t a t i s t i c s 1924-1954, B'.C.  F i g u r e s i n Tables 7 and 8 g i v i n g f r e s h f r u i t s t a t i s t i c s , and a l s o processed f i g u r e s when combined and reduced to the same u n i t s ( l b s . ) give the f i g u r e s f o r the t o t a l production. Weight of f r u i t i n the c r a t e s of the b e r r i e s i s reckoned a t , Strawberries Raspberries Blackberries loganberries Bush.Fruit  — — —  16 l b s . I6.5 " 16 " 16 B.C. f i g u r e not consistent.  - 119 AEEEnSTDIX Table  7  Q u a n t i t y o f f r u i t produced I n B r i t i s h Columbia which was s o l d on t h e F r e s h F r u i t Market (Expressed i n terms o f c r a t e s ) *  Year  Strawberries  1922 192 3 1924  153,878 213,987 159,007  1925 1926 1927  85,815 116,802 206,764  ,1928  194,664 192 9 • 217,880 1930 159,637  RaspBlackLoganberries berries . berries 77,094 114,804 137,990 119,573 120,676 139,376  29,109 35,688 30,715 52,073  10,412 22,070 18,058 6,740 15,556 12,873  125,691 110,855  26,995 32,058  5,H6 9,421  29*957 23*450  9,539 11,354  24^693 18,404 28,165  12,36l 9,512 .8,412  1931  220,556  93,827 88,554  1932 1933 I934  172,992 220,696 356*440  85,274 52,976 74,562  *  22 ,554 28,173  :  Bush ' 12,080 16,280 11,704 15,763 13,768 17,087 11,673  See Note a t the bottom o f Table 6.  Total 275,818 395,314 355,868 261,579 •' 295,317 408,175 564,139  8,559 9,040  578,753 302 ,000  8 ,175  551,869.;  9,117 7,140 8,090  .304,437 508,728 485,629  - 120 APPENDIX Table  8  Q u a n t i t y o f f r u i t p r o c e s s e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Expressed I n terms of pounds)*  Year  Stravzberrles  1922 2 , 7 9 8 , 5 3 3 1925 2 , 5 8 9 , 5 3 9 I924 1,946,534 I925 891,800 1926 2 , 0 7 0 , 4 5 2 I927 3,229,429 1928 3 , 9 2 5 , 4 4 6 1?29 2 , 7 7 9 , 7 9 6 1930 2,382 ,918 I93I 1932 1933 I934  1,926,735 2,477,096 2,671,570 5,551,614  Easpberries  Blackberries  1,554,287 1,756,141 2,210,926 1,945,261 2,921,800 1,649,544  I82,643 105,844  371,631 173,076 4 5 8 , 8 54 255,652 1,519,099 297,488 1 , 0 5 9 , 1 7 6 521,428 956,281 511,702 1 , 0 8 9 , 6 6 5 214,941 9 0 8 , 8 4 4 247,382 550,496; 2 7 8 , 7 1 8 1 , 2 0 5 , 2 8 9 282,786  Loganberrie s  Bush Fruits  Total  600,594 531,814 5 , 4 4 7 , 8 7 1 7 5 0 , 0 7 8 217,750 5,419,352 1,422 , 9 4 5 310,095 6 , 2 6 2 , 1 2 7 775,109 450,216 4,255,462 2,191,576 472,766 8,115,228 1 , 3 8 5 , 7 6 7 658,045 7 , 1 6 2 , 2 3 7 1 , 2 9 7 , 8 5 7 575,421 7,613,211 1 , 4 5 3 , 4 5 5 558,076 5,962,929 1,504,080 3 7 6 , 9 9 7 5 , 5 3 1 * 9 7 8 1 , 9 4 1 , 5 8 0 2 9 1 , 8 2 1 5*464,740 2 , 0 5 4 , 9 2 8 393,142 6 , 0 8 1 , 3 9 2 1,616 ,220 422,380 5 , 5 1 9 , 3 8 0 2 , 1 8 1 , 9 4 9 5 7 9 , 5 0 0 7,401,118  * See Note a t bottom o f Table 6.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105523/manifest

Comment

Related Items