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Small fruits in Canada (an economic survey with particular reference to British Columbia) Campbell, Blake Archibald 1936

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SMALL FRUITS I I CANADA (An economic survey w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to B r i t i s h Columbia) by Blake Archibald. Campbell, B.S.A. A t h e s i s submitted as a p a r t i a l requirement f o r the Degree of Master of Science i n A g r i c u l t u r e i n the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e THE UlTIYiSRSITY Off BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1956. Submitted - A p r i l ^ a . 9 5 6 . Approved. Head of Department I JT.ID E. X Page Acknov/ledgme n t s 3 ? Q (3.T3. C j j X O H © • • • » » » « « » » » » • • • « 1 ™ ^ General Statement 1 Bo t a n i c a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ............ 4 S t a t i s t i c s of Canadian Industry 7 - 2 4 General Statement * 7 Pro duct xon ..•..•»•••«•••••••••«••*.. 8 Various F r u i t s Compared ............. 10 C o r r e l a t i o n of P r i c e and Production .. 12 Small F r u i t Products * 19 Trade: Imports and Exports • 21 Production Problems 9 0 « { > t » A & 9 0 0 G 0 0 6 0 0 25 - 35 General Statement ................... 25 L i m i t i n g Factors of Production 25 Climate S o i l S i t e L i m i t i n g F a ctors app l i e d to Small F r u i t s ..................*... 29 Strav/berry Brambles Bush F r u i t s Marketing Problems .*••••«>•••»••••*•••.••.•.• 3 D - 65 General Statement ..................... 36 "V a r i e t y " Problems •...........«..«.• 5o Strawberry Raspberry Blackberry and Loganberry Currant and Gooseberry Wonderberry (Youngberry) P e r i s h a b i l i t y ..... 42 IV (Continued) page Transportation and Storage ............ 45 Trueking Shipping by F r e i g h t : pre-c e d i n g . Markst Demand . A . . . ^ . . . . . . « « » • » . . . « © « » 48 C ompetitxon •.••...««...•.•..........• ^0 Processing Problems -- R e l a t i v e M e r i t s 52 Canning Jam J e l l y Making Frozen Pack Processing w i t h SOg. Y Sales Organization and Management ........ 6 4 - 7 5 General Statement • • . • • • • • * • • • • • • * . o » . < 64 Advantages of Go-operatives .«......... 64 S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n 65 Ad ve r 12. sn. ng •..•.»*..•©••«*.««©• 66 Middleman Operations ••••••*••.••••••• 67 Broker Whole s a l e r R e t a i l e r Methods of -Sales .»...«,.••..•.••......• 71 Consignment F . 0. B. Shipping P o i n t — L o c a l Sales A p p l i c a t i o n of Natural Products Marketing Act to Small F r u i t s ...... 75 YI B r i t i s h Columbians Small F r u i t Problems ... 76 - 88 General Statement ....... 76 S t a t i s t i c a l Study 76 Crop Movements and Sales Problems .... 80 Middleman Charges Problem L.C.S. Shipments Main Crop Raspberry Crop Late Crop. Page Conclusions ••••••••••••••»•••••••••••••• 89 "• 91 Recommendations •.•.•».•••.••••••••••*•••••• 92 - 105 3? 1*0 d&c t i 0x1 • • » • • • • • • • • » # • • • • < > • • • • • • • • 92 Harve st irx^ *••«••»••»«•»«•••••«••»••« 9i) Marie © t ing ® * o » » . » « 0 « o » o * « » » o » » » » » o o 9 . « 9 ^  C o n t r o l l e d Production • .••.<•»•••••«....•' -99 0o*•*op@2? 8.13X0X1 »««• - • • • 100 Summary of Recommendations .......... 102 S*minn.8>3?y 9 * » « * « r f r » 9 * « o « * o » » » « » « 104* ™ 106 L i t e r a t u r e C i t e d and References 107 - 112 Appendix • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • ^ • • • • i i i . . , * 115 — 120 TABLE IILEX Table Table I I Average Production f o r Eleven Years by Provinces .. Value of Commercial F r u i t Production Table I I I Acreage of F r u i t s i n Canada Compared Table Table Table IV V VI Crop Movements of B e r r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n C a r l o t s 9 o « 9 & 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Total Crop Movement of B e r r i e s i n B r i t i s l i Columbia ,9 9 9 9 9 9 .•# # © 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Per Capita Consumption of Small . F r u i t i n Quarts Pa^e 10 IS 14 82 83 97 Table Table Table Table Table Table Table APPBJPIX — TABLE mim . T o t a l Production by Provinces i n Quarts and Percent 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 * » Average P r i c e of Small F r u i t s i n Canada ... • <• • • • . 9> 9 9 • • • • 9 9 9 9 9 9 C 9 9 Total Production of Small F r u i t s i n Canada before I924 • « 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 Import and Export — Quantity and Value from 1924-1934 5(a) Quantity of Small F r u i t s Canned i n Canada . (b) Value of Small F r u i t s Canned i n Canada 9 9 .9 e © • e * * 9 « 9 9 9 9 9 9 « 6 9 « 9 9 • # • • 9 9 9 9 9 * 9 9 0 6 9 9 9 9 6 7 Quantity of F r u i t Processed i n B r i t i s h Columbia Quantity of F r u i t Produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia which was sold on the Fresh Fruit-Market 9 9 9 9 9 9 * 9 9 Table 8 Quantity of F r u i t Processed i n B r i t i s h Coltimbia 9 9 «• €> »•» a » « » 9 9 e « 6 9 e * e 113 114 115 116 117 117 118 119 120 FIGURE IIBKX Page F i g . 1 F i g . 2 F i g . 3 F i g . 4 F i g . $ F i g . 6 F i g * 7 F i g . 8 F i g . Q-Small F r u i t Production i n Canada by-Provinces, 1924-1954 9 Average percent Production of Small F r u i t s by Provinces 11 Re l a t i v e Value of F r u i t s i n Canada ...... 15 C o r r e l a t i o n of P r i c e and Production of Small F r u i t s i n Canada ............. 16 Deviation of P r i c e and Production from fformal Trend *....... * * „ 18 Quantity and Value of Canned Small F r u i t s i n Canada, 1925-1934 ........... 20 Quantity and Value Imports and Exports, 1924-1934 „.... 24 Production of Small F r u i t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia 77 R e l a t i v e Value, of Processed and Fresh B e r r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia ..... 2igV 9 Strawberries 10 Raspberries F i g . 11 Loganberries F i i g . 12 B l a c k b e r r i e s AOTomDGMEHTS The w r i t e r wishes to acknowledge the help given him i n the preparation of t h i s Master's Thesis. He i s g r a t e f u l to Dean F.M. Glement of the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r h i s help i n s e l e c t i n g a t o p i c and f o r h i s guidance and suggestions. Also he wishes to express h i s indebted-ness to Dr. A.F. Barss, Head of the Department of H o r t i c u l t u r e f o r h i s assistance i n preparing the out-l i n e ; and to Mr. J . J . Woods, A s s i s t a n t Superintendent of the Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz, B.C., f o r h i s k i n d and c r i t i c a l review of the manuscript. The w r i t e r appreciates the assistance given him by a l l others, and p a r t i c u l a r l y those who made a v a i l a b l e data w i t h regard to the s t a t i s t i c s i n Canada, and also to B r i t i s h Columbia crop movements. I INTRODUCTION General Statement The f i r s t record of small f r u i t s being produced i n Canada on a commercial scale was l e s s than 50 years ago. Before 1885 there was l i t t l e or no attempt to market small f r u i t s through such channels as we have to-day. Although l i m i t e d areas of a n a l l f r u i t s were grown f o r home consump-t i o n before that time, since then there has been great advances, and at the present time large acreages are devoted to the growing of small f r u i t s i n a l l p arts of Canada, except on the p r a i r i e s . E x c e l l e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s have been provided f o r long distance s h i p p i n g , and the means of pre s e r v a t i o n of the small f r u i t has reached almost a state of p e r f e c t i o n . Trained h o r t i c u l t u r i s t s are devoting t h e i r time to a study of small f r u i t production problems, production of new v a r i e t i e s , the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s of growth and p o s s i b l e means of i n c r e a s i n g y i e l d . The small f r u i t i n d u s t r y has become so s p e c i a l i z e d that i t warrants a t t e n t i o n from the point of view of market, and the p o t e n t i a l i t y of fu t u r e demands. Before such a study can be c a r r i e d through s u c c e s s f u l l y , a complete knowledge of past and present c o n d i t i o n s must be reviewed. These con-d i t i o n s must be co-ordinated w i t h production problems i n order to make any p r e d i c t i o n or recommendations about future production or marketing i n f l u e n c e s . Canada i s a country which i s l a r g e l y dependent on her a g r i c u l t u r e and n a t u r a l resources f o r her income. In past years emphasis has been l a i d on the depression i n 1929-1932, the consumption f o r a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l crops decreased because the people of Canada, and the countries to which Canada exported d i d not have the purchasing power. In the present day, besides an increase i n acreage there has been an increase i n the output per acre f o r many crops. According to Wilcox ( ^ l ) , t h i s increase i n output per acre i s due to man's progress over the f a c t o r s which go to make up f o r production; and as a r e s u l t i t w i l l be necessary i n the near future to c u r t a i l acreage i n order not to have a c o n t i n u a l surplus. In t h i s 1 respect small f r u i t s i n Canada are i n the same p o s i t i o n as a l l other a g r i c u l t u r a l crops. The produc-t i o n i s so much above the actual market demand that i t i s necessary to f i x a low p r i c e i n order to move these small f r u i t s and wi t h t h i s low pri c e i t i s hard f o r the farmer to mate a p r o f i t . I t remains then to be seen whether i t i s possible to increase the consumption of small f r u i t s . With these, thoughts i n mind t h i s study has been pursued, and most of the f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g to the su c c e s s f u l marketing of small f r u i t i n Canada are shown. Surveys of a s i m i l a r k ind have been conducted i n Washington and Oregon, and from the r e s u l t s obtained there, i t i s obvious that the problems with which they are confronted are s i m i l a r to those • which ..apply to Canadian c o n d i t i o n s . The problems are dealt w i t h f i r s t from the stand-p o i n t of the e n t i r e Dominion. But as c e r t a i n necessary s t a t i s t i c a l data are not a v a i l a b l e f o r the Dominion at l a r g e , the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia has been s e l e c t e d , not only because data are a v a i l a b l e , but also because B r i t i s h Columbia i s about equal to Ontario, the other great f r u i t growing province i n Canada. Under the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of small f r u i t s comes the strawberry, raspberry, loganberry, b l a c k b e r r y , currant and gooseberry. Of these only the f i r s t three, namely strawberry, raspberry, and loganberry are of any great commercial import-ance . Of these three the l a t t e r , namely the loganberry, i s of importance only i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia, being l i m i t e d to that area by c l i m a t i c requirements. Thus the study i s r e a l l y l i m i t e d f i r s t of a l l t o the two most import-ant small f r u i t s , the strawberry, and the raspberry, and secondly to a l l other small f r u i t s . The most important points that are dealt with include f i r s t , c l i m a t i c and s o i l requirements and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the marketing problems; secondly, the i d e a l type of berry that i s desired from the standpoint of the consumer; t h i r d l y , the means of d i s p o s a l of the berry crop — both f r e s h and processed; f o u r t h l y , the a c t u a l marketing problems are taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h a review of present organi-z a t i o n i n s o f a r as i t i s a p p l i c a b l e to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s ; and f i n a l l y , recommendations f o r a more s u c c e s s f u l handling are suggested. B o t a n i c a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Small F r u i t s Before a study of the small f r u i t i s undertaken, an o u t l i n e of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p b o t a n i c a l l y i s shown and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f a m i l i e s to which they belong are noted. The strawberry forms part of the rose f a m i l y Rosaceae, and i t i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to P o t e n t i l l a , from which i t d i f f e r s c h i e f l y i n the receptacle of the f r u i t becoming f l e s h y and e d i b l e . The plants are low perennial herbs which propagate e a s i l y by runners and seed (4.5). I t belongs to the b o t a n i c a l species F r a g a r i a c h i o l e n s i s . The f r u i t of the strawberry, the only part with which we are concerned, i s an achene which has a thalmus as the e d i b l e p o r t i o n . The c a r p e l s are spread over the surface. A l l brambles i n c l u d i n g the b l a c k b e r r y , loganberry and raspberry belong to the f a m i l y Rubus. They have been described by B a i l e y ( l ) as being low and d i f f u s e mostly woody plants u s u a l l y producing canes and grown f o r the e d i b l e f r u i t s , f o r ground cover and f o r the more or l e s s ornamental character of h a b i t f o l i a g e and bloom. The p l a n t s are t r a i l i n g , decumbent, ascending or e r e c t , the t i p s of the long growth u s u a l l y r e c u r v i n g even i f otherwise e r e c t . The stems are glabrous, h a i r y or v a r i o u s l y 'glandular, mostly thorny or p r i c k l y , u s u a l l y short l i v e d and p i t h y , sometimes semi-herbaceaus. Rubus i s c l o s e l y a l l i e d to Rosa, the f a m i l y to which the strawberry belongs, and i t d i f f e r s c h i e f l y i n the stru c t u r e of the f l o w e r . In Rosa, the torus or thalmus i s hollow and contains the dry f r u i t or achenes. In rubus, the torus i s convex, c o n i c a l or elongated and bears mostly s o f t or pulpy f r u i t s on i t s surface. Y[ In r a s p b e r r i e s and b l a c k b e r r i e s , the cases bear the second year and then die or become weak. The f r u i t s are an aggregate of c a r p e l s . The drupels are u s u a l l y more or l e s s coherent at m a t u r i t y , the c o l l e c t i v e body forming the f r u i t or berry of the h o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . In r a s p b e r r i e s , the coherent drupels separate from the torus at m a t u r i t y , causing the b e r r i e s to be concave or hollow on the under s i d e . In t h i s respect i t d i f f e r s from the blackberry i n which the coherent drupels adhere to the torus which separate at maturity and tend to form the "core of the berry", Nearly a l l red r a s p b e r r i e s c u l t i v a t e d f o r t h e i r f r u i t i n North America have been developed from the American red raspberry. R. s t r i g o s i s and from hybrids between t h i s species and the European red raspberry R. idaeus (j>5). Currants and gooseberries belong to the t h i r d f a m i l y Ribes. B a i l e y ( l ) s t a t e s t h a t , the plants are u s u a l l y low, u p r i g h t or l e s s often procumbent, deciduous, r a r e l y evergreen shrubs w i t h p r i c k l y or unarmed branches, small or •medium s i z e d , and u s u a l l y lobed leaves with rather small s o l i t a r y or racemose flo w e r s often greenish or reddish and i n s i g n i f i c a n t , but i n some species white or b r i g h t l y colored i n shades of red, s c a r l e t , orange or yellow. The f r u i t a l s o are often a t t r a c t i v e and are e i t h e r b l a c k , purple, s c a r l e t , y e l l o w i s h or greenish. The flowers appear i n the spring w i t h the leaves and the f r u i t s r i p e n i n June or J u l y . I t i s po s s i b l e to see from t h i s that small f r u i t s are a h o r t i c u l t u r a l r a t h e r than a b o t a n i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n . While Rubus and Rosa might be classed together, the f a m i l y Ribes has not the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e i t h e r f a m i l y , and b o t a n i c a l l y would be c l a s s e d separately. However, f o r the convenience of t h i s study the three f a m i l i e s Rosa, Ribes and Rubus aire combined. I I STATISTICS OJP CANADIAN INDUSTRY General Statement The small f r u i t i n d u s t r y of Canada has shown some remarkable trends i n production since 1900 (21). The t o t a l production i s no higher to-day than i t was 3j> years ago, and yet there has been a considerable increase during recent years i n the production of the two most important small f r u i t s to-day, the raspberry and the strawberry. In 1900 there was a very large production of bush f r u i t s , namely c u r r a n t s , red and bl a c k , and gooseberries. In that year 21 ,000,000 quarts were produced and apparently marketed. However, i t was probably found that there was no co n t i n u a l market f o r such f r u i t s other than jam, w i t h the r e s u l t that by 1910 the crop of bush f r u i t s had declined to 4 ,000,000 quarts, and since 1920 has been considered of l i t t l e commercial importance. Estimates place the I9IG crop of small f r u i t s at 32 ,000,000 quarts, and t h i s f i g u r e remained an a l l time high u n t i l 1932. A f t e r 1910 the production d e c l i n e d and during the war and post-war years, we f i n d production s t e a d i l y d e c l i n i n g , w i t h a low point of s l i g h t l y over 12 ,000,000 quarts i n 1924. The post-war years saw the i n f l u x of returned s o l d i e r s , e s t a b l i s h e d by S o l d i e r Settlement Boards i n t o the small f r u i t i n d u s t r y f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons,-F i r s t : Small f r u i t production, u n l i k e tree f r u i t production, i s a short term investment, where r e t u r n from c a p i t a l invested can be expected i n the f i r s t two or three years of growth. Secondly: Does not ne c e s s i t a t e a lar g e amount of c a p i t a l . L a s t l y : No s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i s r e q u i r e d , as i s the case w i t h d a i r y i n g , e t c . So i t was that a f t e r 1924 the trend of production showed a steady increase u n t i l 1929. During the period from I924-I929 while production was i n c r e a s i n g and p r i c e s were d e c l i n i n g u n t i l the f i n a l c r a s h came i n 1929 f o r c i n g many small f r u i t growers o f f the land. However a f t e r 1930 there was an increase u n t i l 1932 , when the peak of small f r u i t pro-duction was reached. Since t h a t time there has been a s l i g h t d e c l i n e , which can be a t t r i b u t e d to adverse weather f a c t o r s . Production Figures by provinces were not a v a i l a b l e before 1924, but f o r the period from 1924-1934 , (19) , these are shown i n chart form i n F i g . 1 i n quarts. This chart shows that from 1924-1932 Ontario and B r i t i s h Columbia produced 75-807. of the t o t a l production i n Canada. Since 1932 , how-ever, Quebec has been r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g acreage and y i e l d , - 9 -g l f c 1 Small i ' r u i t Production i n Canada by Provinces Production (1,000,000 quarts) 36 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r — o Years 24 25 2 6 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 - 1 0 -so that when the l a s t data were a v a i l a b l e , Quebec had sur-passed B r i t i s h Columbia's production, and was equal to that of Ontario. The maritimes have remained f a i r l y constant over the e n t i r e p e riod. F i g . 2 shows a chart f o r the average percent pro-duction f o r 11 years by provinces, the f i g u r e being given i n Table I . Table I Ontario 3 8 . 6 2 % B r i t i s h Columbia 38.41% Quebec 1^.87% New Brunswick 3.94% • Nova S c o t i a 3.14% Values of Various F r u i t s Compared-In 1952 the t o t a l value of small f r u i t s was estimated at $2,220,700.00, (21b) . This represented 18.52% of the value of a l l f r u i t s . In 1932 the t o t a l value of small f r u i t s was s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r , being |2 ,564 ,300.00, yet t h i s was only 15.75% of the t o t a l value of f r u i t s . These two years have been taken because they represent the " o f f " end "on" year i n apple production, and as the apple production i s of such importance i t has a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the r e l a t i v e - 12 -value of small f r u i t s . An average of these two years has "been taken as a f a i r l y accurate f i g u r e f o r the r e l a t i v e value of small f r u i t s over a period, of years. f i g . 3 shows the r e l a t i v e importance of small f r u i t s when viewed from the standpoint of average value f o r the two years 19 32 and 1933. Table I I represents i n d e t a i l the actual importance of each main group, and then under each heading the d i f f e r e n t f r u i t s . Table I I I represents the acreage of these same groups of f r u i t s as o u t l i n e d i n the previous t a b l e , and i t shows also that although the acreage i n orchards decreased considerably between 1911-1933, the acreage i n small f r u i t s showed a small increase. C o r r e l a t i o n of P r i c e and Production In order to obtain a c l e a r conception of the actual trend of the small f r u i t i n d u s t r y , a c o r r e l a t i o n of p r i c e and production has been made, assuming that one i s d i r e c t l y dependent on the other. The p r i c e and production f i g u r e s f o r the period from I924-I934 are shown i n F i g . 4 . The s t r a i g h t l i n e trend f o r both production and p r i c e i s also shown. The charts show that when production increased, the p r i c e decreased; and when production decreased, p r i c e s increased. Although t h i s i s true f o r most years, the years from I929-I954 show the best i n d i r e c t marked c o r r e l a t i o n . - 13 -Table I I Value (estimated) of Commercial F r u i t Production i n Canada (See F i g . 3) Expressed i n value and percentage f o r the average of the two years 1952 and 1935. F r u i t Value i Apple 8,721,400 61.47 Pears 432 ,700 2.99 Plums 242 ,100 1.74 Peaches 1,026 ,600 7-32 A p r i c o t s 108,500 .85 Cherries 497,000 3.61 TREE FRUITS 11,04 3,300 77.97 Strawberries 1,645,800 11.97 Raspberries 748,500 5.46 SMALL FRUITS 2 1592* 300 17.15 Grape s 670,000 4.85 TOTAL 14,105,900 100.00 Canada Year Book, page 281, 1934-1935 Table. I l l Acreages i n Canada compared: :.. 1911 1921 1931 Orchards 405,596 297,053 267,925 Vineyards 9,836 7,090 16,159 Small F r u i t s 17,495 17,741 18,822 Figures from the Canada Year Book, Page 279, I934-I935. - 15 -- 16 -F i g . 4 C o r r e l a t i o n of Pro due t i on and P r i c e of Small F r u i t s i n Canada P r i c e (cents 3.6 ?oduction ( m i l l i o n s of quarts) \ \ \ v / / / \ • \ •-\ \ \ / / / \ \ 1 1 1 1 ^ . \. \ \ v i y~ oduct i o n I 1 1 1 f \ A \ s ' i i 1 ' i y r / i / \ \ \ 1 i i : f A • \ •-\ \ \ \ 1 1 1 ; V > y ' " \ 1 \ SI \ / / V / • / / \ Prf .c© >\ Y \ . / • Year 24 2^ 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 54 This same trend Is brought out more c l e a r l y i n F i g . 5 , which shows the d e v i a t i o n of the a c t u a l from the s t r a i g h t l i n e trend i n the case of both production and p r i c e . These are shown to have reverse d e v i a t i o n s showing that they are c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d . The c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between p r i c e and production f o r the p e r i o d 1924-1934 i s - . 8 5 0 9 . This shows a very high i n d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n between the two v a r i a b l e s (as - 1 . 0 0 i s perfect c o r r e l a t i o n ) . Studying t h i s chart more c l o s e l y , i t can be seen that each of the peaks of heavy production f o l l o w s periods of favourable p r i c e s as i n 1926 and 1930. The unfavourable p r i c e s received f o r small f r u i t s during those years of high production caused a subsequent reduction i n acreage as i n 1929 and 1932. The reason f o r the apparent l a g i n I93I and 1953 i s due to the f a c t that r a s p b e r r i e s and a l l other small f r u i t s except st r a w b e r r i e s take two years to come i n t o bearing, and therefore increased p l a n t i n g does not change production immediately. Because of these c y c l e s the growers do not receive sueh a large return as they would i f t h e i r production were kept constant. I t i s seen from t h i s short study that production and price are i n d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d , and i f production and p r i c e are both to be increased i t i s necessary to increase the t h i r d f a c t o r , namely consumption. Means by which con-sumption might be i n f l u e n c e d w i l l be discussed l a t e r . - 18 -•Ei.g. 5 D e v i a t i o n of P r i c e and Production from Normal Trend ieo_r / '•/ / 7" \ ri.c e x co.c uc t i c n" \ \ / / / \ V / / / / x' / / / . / / s S ----s. -. . . <-8-7 "6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 H 1 2 3 4 .5 6 7 8 - 19 -Small F r u i t Products Although small f r u i t products would normally include a l l products which have small f r u i t s as a base, In t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , i t w i l l include only that amount which i s used i n the canning i n d u s t r y . This i s necessary because s t a t i s t i c a l data f o r a l l products are not a v a i l a b l e . However, t h i s a v a i l a b l e data w i l l give a f a i r l y accurate representation of the trend. F i g . 6 shows the amount and value of small f r u i t s used f o r canning i n Canada from I 9 2 5 -1934, (20). As may be seen, there are decided i r r e g u l a r -i t i e s not only i n amount canned, but also i n the amount i n r e l a t i o n to the value. In only 3 years has there been an increase over the year before — an increase of 50% i n I926, 42% i n I929, and 56% i n 1954. A l l other years showed a decided decrease from the previous year with the period from 1929-1953 showing a very r a p i d d e c l i n e i n quantity as w e l l as value. Value, however., dropped f a r lower and out of a l l proportion w i t h the f a l l i n the quantity. In the 1.0 years from 1923-1954 the average amount of small f r u i t canned was about 159,852 cases, w i t h an average y e a r l y value of $608,245.00. The trend i n t h i s case shows very l i t t l e as to what fut u r e demand i s l i k e l y to be. Small f r u i t canning i s so dependent on outside f a c t o r s that i t i s hard to p r e d i c t what w i l l be the a c t u a l amount canned. I t i s dependent F i g . 6 Quantity and Value of Canned Small F r u i t s i n Canada from I925-I954 Quantity (thousands of cases) 1801 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 • 1 11 1 /•I \ \ \ \ \ > \ /' \\ 'V ^ \ V v \ It 1 1 / / /' // • /•/ 1 It \ \ • v \ \ V \ \ \ V -.. \ " % t a i t t i t y i r i i ft 11 j 1 1 1 \ \ \ \ \'\ \ N\ 11 Ii h l \ \ \ > \ \ » \ \ Y \ \ I 1 1 1 / / 1 t 1 i < \ \ \ „ 1 l Valu \ I \ \ 3 - \ \ / 7 / 7 / / 1 1 \ \ \ \ \ 1 : 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ~ \ > Value (thousands of 900 d o l l a r s ) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Years I925 26 27 28 2 9 30 31 32 33. 34 - 21 -upon such f a c t o r s as weather conditions at harvest, condi-t i o n of the f r e s h f r u i t market, the stock remaining of the •previous year' s output, and the trend of the demand f o r small f r u i t products. The amount canned each year i s c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a l l these f a c t o r s . I t would seem that the small f r u i t s are looked upon by many as l u x u r y products. This may be seen from the p e r i o d between 1929-1933, although the price d e c l i n e d , the demand a l s o d e c l i n e d . I t was not a case then of the regular supply and demand curve, which can represent the s t a b l e commodities, and shows that when p r i c e s increased, demand decreased, and v i c e versa. Considering now the amount per province, we f i n d that Ontario and B r i t i s h Columbia show by f a r the l a r g e s t q u a n t i t i e s canned. Although Quebec has been i n c r e a s i n g i t s t o t a l production i n recent years, the amount used f o r com-m e r c i a l canning has decreased to such a point that i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y n e g l i g i b l e . On the other hand, because of the increased q u a n t i t i e s of l o g a n b e r r i e s being canned, B r i t i s h Columbia has assumed the l e a d i n small f r u i t canning, and i n 1933 and 1934 produced over twice as much as Ontario, or between 66-707. of a l l small f r u i t s canned i n Canada. Trade — Imports and Exports Of the nine provinces i n Canada, s i x only produce small f r u i t i n any q u a n t i t y . Of these s i x , two provinces (Prince Edward I s l a n d and Quebec) produce only enough to p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f y the wants w i t h i n t h e i r own province. This leaves f o u r provinces w i t h a s u r p l u s . The Ontario crop i s u s u a l l y trucked to the market i n s i d e the province, but Ontario also supplies a large part of the Montreal market; as i n 1935, when 62 c a r l o t s of small f r u i t s a r r i v e d at t h i s market from Ontario, ( 3 9 ) . The s i t u a t i o n i n New Brunswick has been summed up by M. Cummings of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , (10) , when he s a i d that i n c e r t a i n years around f i f t e e n carloads are shipped to Boston and to Montreal, and quite large q u a n t i t i e s to t h e i r own c i t y markets. In 1935, 17 carloads were shipped to St. John, N.B., and 7 carloads to Montreal, besides those which went to Boston. However, i n 1935, 7 carloads were shipped to H a l i f a x from New Brunswick, which o f f s e t p a r t i a l l y those which had been shipped i n t o that province. The B r i t i s h Columbia crop i s disposed of u s u a l l y at home and i n the three p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , A l b e r t a , Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In some years, however, when the B r i t i s h Columbia crop was e a r l i e r than the eastern crop, s e v e r a l carloads have gone to the Montreal and Toronto markets. Besides the movement o f f r u i t s between the various provinces i n Canada, there i s also a movement of imports and exports to and from Canada from the United States. Due to the e a r l y season, the United States manages to place the f r u i t on the market f i r s t and obtain the best market; and so by the time l o c a l f r u i t i s a v a i l a b l e , the demand and the p r i c e i s not as keen as i t would have been, i f the b e r r i e s from the United States were not allowed i n . During the 10 years under observation both imports and exports show a decided d e c l i n e , (19). While the quantity of imported b e r r i e s has increased s l i g h t l y , the value of such imports has decreased to about h a l f t h e i r o r i g i n a l value. The exports, on the - other hand, have shown not only a decrease i n value but also i n q u a n t i t y . F i g , 7 shows very c l e a r l y the trend of imports and exports i n Canada, but besides t h i s , i t brings out another point very c l e a r l y , namely, that of average value. Between 1924 and 19-34 the average value of f r e s h small f r u i t s imported i n t o Canada was 13/ per pound, while the average value of f r e s h f r u i t exported was only 9/ per pound. This shows c l e a r l y that the imports that came from the United States obtained the high p r i c e market, probably that at the f i r s t of the year, while that which was exported was the l a t e r crop when the United States crop was f i n i s h e d . - 24 -7 Quantity and Value — Imports and Exports Quantity ( m i l l i o n s of l b s . ) 11 10 8 7 6 4 / \ / ' / /' \ \ t \ \ \ \ \ \ / / / /' \ \ \ \ / 1 \ < \ I / / \ \ \ / \ \ / / \ / \ / / — s* \ / / \ % \ \ \ \ \ 7"^^ \ Value (10,000 of d o l l a r s ) 110 100 90 To Go tTo H-o 50 2.0 1 0 \ 7_ Export Value 1 Export Quantity k Import Value Import Quantity I l l PRODUCTION PROBLEMS General Statement The production of small f r u i t s i s so c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d with the a c t u a l marketing that t h i s study of the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s of production has been undertaken. I t w i l l include a general statement of c l i m a t i c , s o i l , and s i t e factor's, but w i l l go on to discuss these f a c t o r s i n d e t a i l i n regard to each of the three small f r u i t groups, straw-b e r r i e s , brambles, bush f r u i t . Indeed t h i s i n d i v i d u a l study w i l l be c a r r i e d f u r t h e r to include questions of f e r t i l i t y , p e sts, diseases, and the in f l u e n c e of c u l t u r a l methods on commercial production. L i m i t i n g Factors of Production Climate The l i m i t i n g c l i m a t i c f e atures are p r a c t i c a l l y the same f o r a l l small f r u i t s . The main features which w i l l be dealt with are temperature, l e n g t h of growing season, r a i n -f a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n , and wind. The small f r u i t v a r i e t i e s popular to-day are not r e s i s t a n t to extremes i n temperatures. A m i l d winter i s necessary as the p l a n t s w i l l not stand zero weather or al t e r n a t e f r e e z i n g end thawing. Temperature, however, must be considered with humidity i n determining the amount of - 26 -winter k i l l i n g , "because humidity having a d i r e c t influence on the seriousness of low temperatures. A moderate summer i s preferred as high temperatures tax the a b i l i t y of plants to tr a n s p i r e enough water to remain c o o l , ( 2 5 ) , and several days of hot weather reduces the y i e l d m a t e r i a l l y . Seventy-three degrees (73°) mean average i s considered an optimum, but 68-79° i s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r growth,(43). Although small f r u i t growing i s c a r r i e d on to some extent i n the southern s t a t e s , the b e r r i e s r i p e n i n the e a r l y part of the year i n the c o o l , season, ( 2 5 ) , whereas i n the northern states and i n Canada the b e r r i e s ripen during the months of May, June and J u l y . Another f a c t o r which i s t i e d up wit h temperature and also with the length of the growing season i s that of the time of f r o s t . I t i s an absolute n e c e s s i t y that there be no l a t e f r o s t at the time of blossoming. Those plan t s most susceptible to spring f r o s t s are strawberries that are unmulched, v a r i e t i e s of a l l small f r u i t s that bloom e a r l y , and b e r r i e s planted on southern exposures, (43). The length of the growing season i s g e n e r a l l y measured from the l a s t k i l l i n g f r o s t i n the spring u n t i l the f i r s t I n the f a l l . The l e n g t h of time between these two must always be enough to allow f o r blooming and r i p e n i n g of f r u i t and developing of the new canes or p l a n t s that w i l l f r u i t the f o l l o w i n g year. R a i n f a l l i s another very important c l i m a t i c f a c t o r . Not only must the t o t a l y e a r l y r a i n f a l l be adequate, - 2 7 -but the amount during the growing season must n e i t h e r be too great nor too l i t t l e . I t i s a very poor p o l i c y to grow small f r u i t under i r r i g a t i o n , because as w e l l as being expensive, i t a f f e c t s the q u a l i t y of the f r u i t . An inadequate supply of water w i l l not allow the f r u i t to f i l l s u f f i c i e n t l y ; as a r e s u l t , y i e l d i s reduced and the b e r r i e s have a dry t a s t e . On the other hand, too much water i s i n j u r i o u s , as i t makes the b e r r i e s too s o f t and severely impairs t h e i r keeping and shipping q u a l i t y . The i d e a l time f o r r a i n i s while the b e r r i e s are growing, before they have begun to take on any colour. A good r a i n a t t h i s time should be enough to take the plants through the r i p e n i n g season, p r o v i d i n g the moisture can be conserved i n the s o i l . The l a s t c l i m a t i c feature to be considered i s that which i s not l i k e l y to be important i n many s e c t i o n s , namely that of wind. Hot d r y i n g winds i n the summer cause a drying out of the s o i l and a l s o of b e r r i e s , reducing the moisture content and i n t h i s way a f f e c t i n g the y i e l d . Severe winter winds may cause damage, e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of cane f r u i t s , as these may e a s i l y be broken unless adequately protected, however, more damage i s probably caused by the winds drying out s o i l i n winter and the plant i s not able to obtain moisture and d i e s , ( 4 ) . These general c o n d i t i o n s with regard to c l i m a t i c features apply to a l l small f r u i t s , and any exceptions thereto w i l l be discussed l a t e r a f t e r s o i l , f e r t i l i t y , and s i t e have been disottssed. - 28 -S o i l Not only the type of small f r u i t but also the v a r i e t y w i l l vary, according to type of s o i l . However i n general, the four main e s s e n t i a l s f o r s o i l s f o r small f r u i t s are that the s o i l be w e l l drained; that i t be deep with r e t e n t i v e s u b - s o i l ; that i t be w e l l supplied w i t h humus, and that i t have a v a i l a b l e mineral elements and n i t r o g e n e s s e n t i a l f o r plant l i f e . These problems are discussed i n r e l a t i o n to each group of small f r u i t s . S i t e Under t h i s heading are included such f a c t o r s as slope , p o s i t i o n with respect to atmospheric and water drainage and shade. Besides these, there are other f a c t o r s which have to do with marketing problems ra t h e r than produc-t i o n problems, and which w i l l be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n l a t e r . The slope of the ground i n f l u e n c e s to some extent the e a r l i n e s s of any crop, the e a r l i e r the crop the greater the i n f l u e n c e . However, while t h i s i s important f o r e a r l i n e s s , i t i s not as important f o r the su c c e s s f u l growth of any small f r u i t as are proper atmospheric and s o i l drainage. B e r r i e s should not be planted i n low l y i n g places where there i s l i k e l y to be a l a t e spring f r o s t , or where ground w i l l remain c o l d and. wet f a r on i n t o the summer. While i t i s not always p o s s i b l e to remedy improper atmospherio drainage, i t i s often possible to provide proper s o i l drainage -29 -e i t h e r by i n s t a l l i n g a closed drainage system or by opening a furrow between the rows — the l a t t e r sometimes being .enough to prevent damage by water. The shading e f f e c t of trees or mountains or by other means must be watched i f suc c e s s f u l growing i s to r e s u l t . The small f r u i t s must be provided with as much s u n l i g h t as pos s i b l e during the growing season. L i m i t i n g Factors as Applied to Small F r u i t s  Strawberry Strawberries are d i f f e r e n t from other types of small f r u i t s i n that they are low growing, have a root system that does not penetrate f a r i n t o the ground, and therefore require a r i c h supply of organic matter close to the p l a n t , (43). In regard to c l i m a t i c f e a t u r e s , the straw-berry i s no d i f f e r e n t from other small f r u i t s . The i d e a l s o i l c o n d i t i o n s are summed up by Macoun, (31), when he states that "the strawberry w i l l t h r i v e on a great v a r i e t y of s o i l s , from a very l i g h t sand to a heavy c l a y , but when possible to make a s e l e c t i o n a moderately l i g h t p l i a b l e s o i l i s preferred. From the standpoint of p h y s i c a l texture a l i g h t s o i l i s s a t i s f a c t o r y , but being g e n e r a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n humus and plant food, i t i s not as valuable as a heavier sand loam or a very l i g h t c l a y 1 oam". Besides these f a c t o r s already mentioned the s o i l should not pack hard, as i t i s necessary f o r straw-b e r r i e s to form hew plants by sending out runners. I t i s - 30 -also important that the s o i l be w e l l supplied with humus i n the decomposed s t a t e , (25). The strav/berry i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e to s o i l r e a c t i o n although i t t h r i v e s best on s o i l s g i v i n g an a c i d r e a c t i o n , ( 4 3 ) . I n important f a c t o r which l i m i t s strawberry pro-duction i n many areas i s the strawberry root w e e v i l , Brachyrhinus ovatus 1., or some other pasts or disease* How-ever, i f proper precautions are made i n s e l e c t i n g a s i t e and proper c o n t r o l measures are p r a c t i s e d once the p l a n t a t i o n has been st a r t e d these pests and diseases can be c o n t r o l l e d . A d i f f i c u l t y i n strawberry marketing which i s e s s e n t i a l l y a pro-blem traceable to production i s that of misshapen b e r r i e s and nubbins. The main reasons f o r such b e r r i e s are namely, unfavourable weather co n d i t i o n s and f a u l t y p o l l i n a t i o n , and als o c e r t a i n v i r u s diseases. The unfavourable weather con-d i t i o n s can be in f l u e n c e d by the grower i f he mulches h i s pl a n t s , and does not remove the mulch u n t i l a l l danger of f r o s t i s passed. Improper p o l l i n a t i o n can be lessened to a large extent i f perfect v a r i e t i e s are se l e c t e d i n the begin-ning and mixed with any imperfect s o r t s which may be grown. Another f a c t o r that plays a large part i n su c c e s s f u l production i s a knowledge of proper c u l t u r a l methods and f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Strawberries are often grown commercially as.a companion crop i n orchards. This has i t s advantages and disadvantages, end i t w i l l depend probably upon l o c a l f a c t o r s whether i t can be done s u c c e s s f u l l y or - 31 -not. Proper f e r t i l i z a t i o n i s a problem of great importance. Manure i s the i d e a l f e r t i l i z e r , but as i t i s not always a v a i l a b l e , i t i s necessary to s u b s t i t u t e e i t h e r a green manure crop or an a r t i f i c i a l f e r t i l i z e r . However, much has been w r i t t e n (12, 32) regarding the e f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r s on the firmness and fla v o u r of b e r r i e s . Some w r i t e r s claim that nitrogen causes pla n t s to make s o f t e r b e r r i e s of i n f e r i o r keeping q u a l i t y , (43). I f such be the case, i t i s of the utmost importance, as the f r u i t of strawberry i s nor-mally a h i g h l y perishable commodity. However, i t i s not yet an e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t that such i s the case, and B. W. Greve says a f t e r much experimenting w i t h t h i s problem that r e s u l t s did not seem to i n d i c a t e that f r u i t was so s o f t and of such i n f e r i o r handling q u a l i t y that nitrogen f e r t i l i z e r might not be warranted i f i t improved the y i e l d , (12)• In regard to f l a v o u r , i t has been s a i d that f r u i t from plants treated with phosphorous and nitrogen seemed best f l a v o u r e d , while that from plants t r e a t e d with potash was poorest. A l l these f a c t o r s must be considered from the point of marketing c o n d i t i o n s . Brambles Although the brambles include a l l types of rasp-berries;, the red, the black and the purple, the blackberry, dewberry, end loganberry, only three of these are of import-ance i n Canada, namely, the red raspberry, the blac k b e r r y , and the loganberry. The loganberry i s l e s s hardy than other small f r u i t s , and can not stand zero temperatures, (49). For t h i s reason i t i s confined i n Canada to the c o a s t a l regions of B r i t i s h Columbia, and cannot be. grown i n the i n t e r i o r of that Province or i n E a s t e r n Canada. The red r a s p b e r r i e s as a group i s h a r d i e r f u r t h e r north than the other brambles, but i s l e s s hardy to the south, ( 2 5 ) . However, there are v a r i e t i e s that are exceptions to to t h i s rule , such as the Guthbert which i s very tender and: subject to heavy winter k i l l i n g i n even m i l d s e c t i o n s . The best type of s o i l f o r a l l brambles i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l i g h t loam s o i l that i s w e l l drained, but i n which the moisture supply must be maintained. Due to the deep r o o t i n g systems of the brambles the s u b - s o i l must be deep and r e t e n t i v e , ( 4 l ) . Disease i n brambles e s p e c i a l l y i n r a s p b e r r i e s i s perhaps more of a problem than with strawberries. Not only are diseases i n r a s p b e r r i e s harder to c o n t r o l but also harder to e r a d i c a t e . Raspberries, once they have been planted, are l e f t f o r ten to f i f t e e n or twenty years before they are removed. This elimates any chance of r o t a t i o n to r i d the s o i l of any p a r t i c u l a r disease and pest as i n the case of strawberries. Mr. J. J . Woods at Agassiz, B. C., ( 5 2 ) , assumes that a f t e r a number of years the s o i l tends to be-come l a c k i n g i n c e r t a i n elements, and i s then very subject to disease and i t i s not p o s s i b l e to increase the y i e l d pro-- 35 -f i t a b l y by using commercial f e r t i l i z e r s . The same problem has been found by Dr. W.H. Rankin working i n New York, (38), and he sums up by saying "More and more during a period of many years raspberry growers have been f i n d i n g that t h e i r v a r i e t i e s are g r a d u a l l y l o s i n g t h e i r v i g o r and are not p r o f i t a b l e ; and that r e p u t a t i o n of red r a s p b e r r i e s i s s u f f e r i n g g r e a t l y because the b e r r i e s from the s i c k l y bushes are f l a v o u r l e s s , smaller and s c a r c e l y palatable unless disguised by sugar and cream. Canners are unable to maintain t h e i r desired q u a l i t y i n t h e i r raspberry product because of t h i s t r o u b l e " . Such diseases as yellow or orange r u s t , and mosaic may have a devastating e f f e c t . However, besides these f a c t o r s , i t i s probable that there i s some disease or b a c t e r i a that i s slowing up root growth and preventing the proper development of the p l a n t . Raspberries to be grown success-f u l l y should be s t a r t e d on new raspberry s o i l from c e r t i f i e d stock, a v a i l a b l e i n c e r t a i n provinces at the present time, and should have a d e f i n i t e set r o t a t i o n . This r o t a t i o n can be accomplished by removing part of the crop each year, p l a n t i n g a green manure crop and r e p l a n t i n g . This i s only p o s s i b l e , however, i n large growing areas. Bush F r u i t s This c l a s s of small f r u i t s includes currants and gooseberries. At one time bush f r u i t s were the most - 34 -important small f r u i t , but i n the l a s t twenty-five years have decreased very r a p i d l y i n production due to the d e c l i n e In demand. Currants are s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from the other small f r u i t s i n regard to t h e i r c l i m a t i o requirements. These b e r r i e s t h r i v e best i n the north temperate zone, ( 4 ) , where the mean summer temperature i s r e l a t i v e l y low. They can be grown s u c c e s s f u l l y i n most p a r t s of Canada and i n southern d i s t r i c t s i n h i g h a l t i t u d e s which more c l o s e l y approximate northern conditions'. They w i l l even t h r i v e i n p a r t i a l shade. S o i l c o n d i t i o n s f o r gooseberries and currants may be such that they are s i i g h t l y too wet f o r any other small f r u i t , but such that must not be s i t u a t e d i n low a i r pockets, (2j>). I t i s p r e f erable that bush f r u i t s grow i n heavy s o i l because a l i g h t s o i l i s not condusive to coolness. The c h i e f l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s of bush f r u i t production have been summed up by Shoemaker, (43), as f o l l o w s : F i r s t : As a group they p r e f e r a cool s o i l , but w i l l not stand drought and re quire a continuous supply of moisture. Second: Due to the f a c t that the cane maggot i s a serious pest f o r which there i s not any guaranteed c o n t r o l , i t tends to l i m i t pro-duction u n t i l such time as a permanent con-t r o l measure i s . found. Th i r d : The market i s l i m i t e d , and while t h i s i s a c t u a l l y not a production problem, i t s t i l l - S i x -t i e s i n w i t h i t f o r i n order to have maxi-mum production i t i s necessary to have a market f o r the e n t i r e crop. Production problems as r e l a t e d to small f r u i t s i n general and to the d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s have been summed up very b r i e f l y and no attempt has been made to elaborate on any one phase. I t i s not meant that such a study should be regarded as being complete, but ra t h e r i t i s desired that a general knowledge^ as to what extent the production problems t i e i n with marketing\be obtained). I f such a f e e l i n g i s r e a l i z e d , the w r i t e r f e e l s that the purpose of t h i s part of the t h e s i s has been s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplished. - 36 -I T MARKETING. PROBLEMS  General Statement Aside from act u a l production problems, the one of marketing i s the l a r g e s t which confronts th© small f r u i t i n d u s t r y to-day. I t i s on t h i s problem that the w r i t e r plans to place most emphasis and t o analyse a l l the problems of marketing w i t h which the grower i s confronted. The f a c t o r s which w i l l be d e a l t with include the v a r i e t y problem, p e r i s h -a b i l i t y i n c l u d i n g the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods, the market demand, competition w i t h other f r u i t s and the r e l a t i v e m erits of the uses to which small f r u i t s may be put -- con-sumed f r e s h , as jam or canned, frozen or preserved by S 0 9 . V a r i e t y Problem The producers of any v a r i e t y of f r u i t must, i f he hopes to be a su c c e s s f u l grower, not only grow that v a r i e t y which i s best adapted to h i s l a n d and c u l t u r a l methods but must also grow a v a r i e t y of f r u i t that the consumer w i l l demand. The grower should f i n d out before he ever s t a r t s pro-duction, the market to which he w i l l have to c a t e r , whether to the f r e s h f r u i t market, e i t h e r l o c a l or d i s t a n t , or to the market f o r processed f r u i t . In s e l e c t i n g a v a r i e t y f o r any market, considera-t i o n must be taken of i t s general appearance, i t s shipping - 37 -q u a l i t y , i t s productiveness, as w e l l as i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y to the land to be used. The best way to r e a l l y analyse t h i s problem i s to take each v a r i e t y of small f r u i t and consider i t separately. Strawberry The strawberry d i f f e r s i n i t s b o t a n i c a l make-up from the other kinds of small f r u i t s . In p i c k i n g , the h u l l i s l e f t on the berry and there i s no hollow receptacle l e f t by the core as i s the case of r a s p b e r r i e s , or a hard core as i n the case of l o g a n b e r r i e s . I t also d i f f e r s from r a s p b e r r i e s i n that the market does not demand any s p e c i f i c v a r i e t y . This i s a good t h i n g because v a r i e t i e s are not u n i v e r s a l l y popular from point of view of production, but must be adapted to every d i s t r i c t . However, i n buying the strawberry the consumer i s influenced by the c o l o u r , s i z e and general a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the f r u i t , ( 4 l ). I f the grower keeps t h i s i n mind, i t should be possible to grow a v a r i e t y of strawberry that w i l l meet with the approval of the consumer. Another problem f a c i n g the strawberry market at the present time i s that of the f e a s i b i l i t y of the ever-bearing strawberry f o r l o n g distance shipping. The ever-bearing v a r i e t y comes on the market a f t e r the main crop of strawberries and of raspberries has f i n i s h e d . Many pro-ducers have h e l d the viewpoint that by marketing strawberries at t h i s time there i s not so much eompetition with other - 38 -"berries. However, those that do take t h i s stand f a i l to r e a l i z e t h a t tree f r u i t s are "by t h i s time coming onto the market and there i s no great demand f o r strawberries a f t e r the main crop has passed. I t would then be to the advantage of the grower that he t u r n h i s a t t e n t i o n away from the growth of everbearing v a r i e t i e s . Raspberry Of a l l the small f r u i t s the raspberry presents the most d i f f i c u l t i e s i n regard to v a r i e t y d i f f i c u l t i e s . In gen-e r a l i t can be classed i n two groups, the Guthbert and the sour v a r i e t i e s . Sour v a r i e t i e s , include a l l v a r i e t i e s except the Cuthbert, are not comparable with the l a t t e r i n f l a v o u r or i n general texture f o r canning or f r e s h f r u i t purposes. However, the consumer, who i s not educated to d i s -t i n g u i s h from outward appearance between v a r i e t i e s does not know what i s being purchased. People who know the Guthbert p r e f e r them, but i f the consumer has no knowledge of v a r i e t y , the sour v a r i e t y w i l l probably r e t a r d the demand f o r rasp-b e r r i e s of any type. These same problems have, been dealt with by Farquhar, (24), and he states that "while the s o - c a l l e d sour v a r i e t y has been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y marketed during the various past season on the f r e s h market, I nevertheless main-t a i n that we have no measure by which to gauge how much damage, i f any, the marketing of these sour v a r i e t y r a s p b e r r i e s on the f r e s h market has done to the general marketing ©f red rasp-b e r r i e s i n t h e i r f r e s h s t a t e " . This statement was made con-- 3 9 -cerning the State of Washington, U.S.A., and i t i s the opinion of the w r i t e r that t h i s i s a v i t a l problem i n the marketing of ra s p b e r r i e s i n Canada. I f carloads go out conta i n i n g f i v e or s i x v a r i e t i e s of b e r r i e s , and the consumer does not know the d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s , he does not know what to buy and what to r e j e c t . I t should, t h e r e f o r e , be the aim of the producer to produce only that v a r i e t y of berry which w i l l meet with univ-e r s a l approval and create a taste so that more r a s p b e r r i e s w i l l be consumed. Not only the consumer of the fr e s h f r u i t but also the canneries are in f l u e n c e d by v a r i e t y . The cannery opera-t o r s , however, know and demand f i r s t the Cuthbert, then the Newman, and l a s t , the Lloyd George, no other v a r i e t y being wanted, (42). There i s , of course, a very good reason why Cuthberts are not grown e x c l u s i v e l y . The Cuthbert i s not as s a t i s f a c t o r y i n i t s growth or productive h a b i t s , and i s more susceptible to disease than are other v a r i e t i e s . I t w i l l not stand severe w i n t e r s , whereas such v a r i e t i e s as the Latham and Newman are very winter hardy. As a producer the Cuthbert stands only i n a second c l a s s , and cannot be compared with such v a r i e t i e s as Lloyd George, Latham, and Count. The Cuthbert i s not r e s i s t a n t to such diseases as yellow r u s t and mosaic as are other v a r i e t i e s of b e r r i e s . Taking a l l these f a c t o r s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , one can r e a d i l y see why the grower prefers growing other b e r r i e s to the - 4 0 -Cuthbert; however, growers r e a l i z e that the consumer has the power to demand only the best, and r e q u i r e s not only a v a r i e t y that w i l l be agreeable to h i s t a s t e , but a l s o one that has good t e x t u r e , has an a t t r a c t i v e c o l o u r , and i s otherwise as ne a r l y perfect as p o s s i b l e . Such a berry can only be obtained by growing the r i g h t v a r i e t y and making sure that i t has proper f e r t i l i z a t i o n , c u l t i v a t i o n and i s harvested at the r i g h t time and marketed through the proper channels* Blackberry and Loganberry With the r e s t of the small f r u i t s , v a r i e t y i s not an important f a c t o r from the consumer's point of view, mainly because they are of l i t t l e commercial importance. I f the demand f o r b l a c k b e r r i e s i s b u i l t up i t might become important, but u n t i l such time there i s no need to worry. The black-b e r r i e s are used c h i e f l y f o r jam and home processing, a very l i t t l e amount being consumed as f r e s h f r u i t . The loganberry i s r e a l l y a b l a c k b e r r y of the t r a i l i n g type, which has been domesticated from the w i l d species. I t i s , therefore, considered, (11), "as a r e d f r u i t v a r i e t y of the w i l d t r a i l i n g b lackberry of the P a c i f i c Coast". Gooseberry and Currant — Bush F r u i t s S i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t with regard to bush f r u i t s as wi t h strawberry, namely that d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s are adapted to d i f f e r e n t c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . I t has been - 41 -recommended, i n a B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l B u l l e t i n , "Currant and Gooseberry C u l t u r e " , ( 6 ) , that "Before s e t t i n g out any number of bushes i t i s often advisable to f i n d out j u s t what v a r i e t i e s have been doing w e l l i n the d i s t r i c t " , The b u l l e t i n goes on f u r t h e r to state that white c u r r a n t s , except f o r home use, should not be planted as there i s no market demand* The outstanding red currant v a r i e t i e s seem to be the P e r f e c t i o n and f a y , while the most widely recom-mended black currant i n B r i t i s h Columbia are the Boskoop Giant and the V i c t o r i a . The American v a r i e t i e s of goose-b e r r i e s are grown i n preference to the European, as they are more r e s i s t a n t to mildew. The v a r i e t y of gooseberry most widely used i s the Oregon Champion. Youngberry (Wonderberry) Although a l l the v a r i e t i e s that are being studied from the commercial standpoint have been dealt w i t h , there i s one other berry which might be mentioned here i n connection with v a r i e t y . The w r i t e r r e f e r s here to the youngberry or wonderberry, as i t i s sometimes c a l l e d . This berry i s a cross between Phenomenal loganberry and Mayes dewberry. According to a grower i n Oregon, (2b), the f r u i t of the wonderberry i s l a r g e r and sweeter than the loganberry, i n r e a l i t y the l a r g e s t berry among the cane f r u i t s that he had seen. I t has a f l a v o u r s i m i l a r to that of the loganberry, but i t does not have the strong a c i d t a s t e of that v a r i e t y . - 42 -Although the taste i s hard to d e s c r i b e , i t i s a f i n e flavoured f r u i t f o r e a t i n g f r e s h , and i s e x c e l l e n t f o r sauce Q T pies. For j e l l y i t i s considered by many who have t r i e d i t as being e x c e l l e n t . The b e r r i e s themselves are a dark wine colour and appear almost black when f u l l y r i p e and present a very pl e a s i n g appearance when i n the box. Besides the q u a l i t i e s already mentioned an out-standing feature is :. I t s absence of seeds. This shows a d i s t i n c t s u p e r i o r i t y over the raspberry, loganberry and black b e r r y . The youngberry i s grown c h i e f l y i n warm c l i m a t e s , such as C a l i f o r n i a , and i s not hardy to aero temperatures. However, i f proper care were taken to protect i t from disease i t might be possible to turn i t . i n t o a commercial berry i n those parts of Canada which can s u c c e s s f u l l y grow the loganberry. The berry i s a good shipper and should meet with the approval of both r e t a i l e r and consumer. An objectionable character i n i t s growth i s the prevalence of needle-rlike barbs on the canes which make them extremely d i f f i c u l t to handle. P e r i s h a b i l i t y Under the heading of p e r i s h a b i l i t y w i l l be d i s -cussed h a r v e s t i n g and s t o r i n g problems. - 43 -The f i n a l c o n d i t i o n of "berries i s governed by the eare with which each step i n the handling of the b e r r i e s i s taken; from the time they are picked off the bush and even before, u n t i l i t reaches the a c t u a l consumer, care must be taken to see that the b e r r i e s are not handled more than necessary. Measures which must be taken at harvesting time include f i r s t of a l l p i c k i n g at the r i g h t stage of maturity. I f picked f o r the f r e s h market or canning, the degree of r i p e -ness depends on the distance from the market. E s p e c i a l l y i s t h i s true of the strawberries which are a s o f t - f l e s h e d v a r i e t y (43) of berry and must be picked before ripe i n order to get them to market i n good c o n d i t i o n . I f the b e r r i e s are being used f o r jam or wine , the stage of ripeness i s not as important. In the case of the loganberry, the f r u i t i s not picked u n t i l r i p e , as i t i s not necessary to preserve the form of the berry, but r a t h e r the best f l a v o u r and aroma p o s s i b l e , (49). In the case of the blackberry the berry must be a b s o l u t e l y black before i t i s r i p e , (41). Because there i s such a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n degrees of blackness, black-berry p i c k i n g i s made very d i f f i c u l t . In p i c k i n g currants and gooseberries f o r jam pur-poses, one may use the s t r i p p i n g method, but i f f o r the f r e s h market more care must be taken, e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of the currants which must be picked with the stems remaining on the b e r r i e s . I f using the currants f o r j e l l y , the b e r r i e s are picked s l i g h t l y under-ripe and only a few pickings are - 44 -r e q u i r e d , (43). Another important f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g harvesting i s that of climate. No b e r r i e s should be picked while wet, as they w i l l not stand up f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Some b e r r i e s , such as the r a s p b e r r i e s w i l l not stand p i c k i n g even while the dew i s on, whereas the strawberry, on the other hand, i s not i n j u r e d i f picked while s l i g h t l y wet. The time at which p i c k i n g i s done must also be con-si d e r e d . P i c k i n g during the h o t t e s t part of the day i s ge n e r a l l y not advised as i t increases the p e r i s h a b i l i t y con-s i d e r a b l y . To obtain the best r e s u l t s p i c k i n g should be done i n the morning a f t e r the dew has disappeared and i n the l a t e r part of the afternoon a f t e r the heat of the day has passed. At any r a t e , the b e r r i e s should not be allowed to stand i n the sun, but should be removed immediately to c o l d storage. For small f r u i t s i t i s a d v i s a b l e , i f c a t e r i n g to the f r e s h market trade to grade the f r u i t and yet to do so i n such a way as to avoid excess handling because that impairs the keeping q u a l i t y . When grading i s desired i t i s often advisable to have two pickings during the day, the f i r s t p i c k i n g t a k i n g only those which are classed as market-able b e r r i e s and secondly, a l l others — these l a t e r being used f o r jam. Growers or communities which are shipping b e r r i e s year a f t e r year under a s p e c i a l Trade Name would do w e l l to make use of t h i s method as graded b e r r i e s command the best market, and i t g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t s i n repeated orders and - 4j> -a steady market. The example of Kentucky may be quoted i n t h i s case and i t has been s t a t e d , ( 4 3 ) , that "Reputation of Kentucky b e r r i e s has been b u i l t up because of good super-v i s i o n of p i c k e r s of s h i p p i n g b e r r i e s at the r i g h t stage, and the d i s c a r d i n g of a l l c u l l s " . Summing up the causes f o r p e r i s h a b i l i t y of small f r u i t s , we f i n d that the le n g t h of time they w i l l keep depends on,-(a) Species and also v a r i e t y of berry, (b) Degree of ripeness when picked, (c) Oare with which handled, (d) Temperature at which picked, (e) Temperature at which held a f t e r p i c k i n g . Transportation and Storage F i r s t - c l a s s b e r r i e s held, under optimum conditions cannot be expected to keep more than ten days, i f held i n the f r e s h s t a t e , ( 2 5 ) . Thus the problems of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and storage are f a i r l y c l o s e l y l i n k e d together. Trucking Although b e r r i e s are an extremely perishable f r u i t they are adapted to truck t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on smooth roads over a reasonable mileage, (43) , that i s to say, any f r u i t that i s - 46 -shipped i n t h i s way must be handled w i t h extreme care so there w i l l be no i n j u r y done by b u i s i n g . Since the s t a r t of t r u c k i n g , there has been a d e c l i n e i n berry growing i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of large c i t i e s and production has tended to take the cheaper lands f u r t h e r from the c i t y . Trucking should be done during the cool of the night to obtain the best r e s u l t s . The one b i g disadvantage with t r u c k i n g i s that I t causes great f l u c t u a t i o n i n p r i c e owing to the b r i n g i n g of large q u a n t i t i e s on the market with-out any advance r e p o r t s , thus causing a serious g l u t . Shipping F r e i g h t Most b e r r i e s at the present time are s t i l l shipped by f r e i g h t e i t h e r i n s t r a i g h t or mixed car s . B e r r i e s , i f they are to be shipped any distance must be "pre-cooled" before s h i p p i n g , and then transported i n r e f r i g e r a t o r cars. Experimental work on pre-cooling has been done by Gverholser and Moses,(54), i n C a l i f o r n i a and t h e i r f i n d i n g s are presented as f o l l o w s , - "The term "pre-cooling" r e f e r s to the process of c o o l i n g the f r u i t soon a f t e r harvesting and before i t i s shipped. The degree of, m a t u r i t y at which the f r u i t can be picked and the c o n d i t i o n i n which i t a r r i v e s at i t s d e s t i n a t i o n depends g r e a t l y upon i t s temperature a f t e r • harvest, both before and during t r a n s i t . The more n e a r l y f r u i t i s picked at the proper stage of m a t u r i t y f o r the best developing of c o o l i n g and highest subsequent eating q u a l i t y , the greater i s the n e c e s s i t y f o r c o o l i n g " . - 47 -Although t h i s was a general statement made f o r a l l f r u i t s i t a p p l i e s d i r e c t l y to small f r u i t s , as does also the statement which f o l l o w s , - " F r u i t when picked from the tree i s not I n e r t . A f t e r h a r v e s t i n g i t continues metabolic or r i p e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r a v a r i e d period of time, depending upon the c o n d i t i o n s that surround i t . As a r e s u l t of these metabolic a c t i v i t i e s , the t i s s u e s of the f r u i t g r a d u a l l y become over-ripe and break down. These changes may be retarded and decay checked, by c o o l i n g the f r u i t promptly a f t e r i t has been harvested and keeping i t at a r e l a t i v e l y low temperature u n t i l used. The r a t e at which f r u i t ripens may be reduced as much as one-half f o r each I 5 0 Fahrenheit drop i n the temperature at which i t i s he l d w i t h i n r i p e n i n g temperatures". Overholser and Moses went f u r t h e r and found that r a s p b e r r i e s at a temperature of 68 generated heat at the rate of . 0 6 ealores per second per kilogram because of t h e i r own s e l f - h e a t i n g . This was about f i v e times as much as apples and f i f t e e n times as much as oranges. They, the r e f o r e , concluded that "The s e l f - h e a t i n g of f r u i t and r e l a t i v e l y a small amount of r e f r i g e r a t i o n required to check i t , and the value of r a p i d reduction of f i e l d temperatures of i r u i t seem to j u s t i f y p r e-cooling by mechanical r e f r i g e r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t i s placed i n i n s u l a t e d compartments provided with l i m i t e d r e f r i g e r a t i o n , such as r e f r i g e r a t o r c a r s " . - 48 -When these f a c t o r s are applied s p e c i a l l y to small f r u i t s , we f i n d that: s p e c i a l care must be taken. Besides pre-c e d i n g , the car must be loaded properly to allow f o r proper c i r c u l a t i o n of a i r . Not more than four packages deep should be allowed, otherwise poor c i r c u l a t i o n of a i r and damage by d e t e r i o r a t i o n w i l l r e s u l t . The b e r r i e s must al s o be braced to make sure the f r u i t i s not damaged. As i t i s impossible to salvage b e r r i e s as we do other f r u i t s , great care must be taken f o r prevention r a t h e r than r e p a i r . One shipping trouble e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of r a s p b e r r i e s i s the development of moulds, because once they have s t a r t e d to form they spread q u i c k l y and cause decay on over-ripe and s o f t berries, ( 2 4 ) Consequently, I t i s to the advantage of the grower to see that no mould i s allowed to develop, and t h i s can only be achieved by proper pre-cooling and proper shipping f a c i l i t i e s . Market .Demand In a previous part the c o r r e l a t i o n between price and production has been shown. There i s no reason, however, why the consumption can not be increased so as to a f f e c t t h i s p r i c e and production c o r r e l a t i o n . The market could be increased quite markedly i f the r i g h t methods were to be employed. - 49 -An example of t h i s was shown "by the Associated Growers of B. G. L t d . Proper a d v e r t i s i n g was c a r r i e d on, a trade brand O.K. was d i r e c t l y used and by d i f f e r e n t means the cumulative e f f e c t of a d v e r t i s i n g became evident as the years passed. But before a d v e r t i s i n g i s c a r r i e d on, i t i s necessary to have a product which can be guaranteed year a f t e r year. For t h i s purpose, i f no other, i t would be necessary to form co-operatives i n the d i f f e r e n t sections of the country, and a d v e r t i s i n g must be p r o v i n c i a l or dominion wide i f r e s u l t s are to be obtained. A d v e r t i s i n g methods which might prove suc c e s s f u l f o r small f r u i t s are as f o l l o w s , -(a) Newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g at time of crop movements. (b) Show cards f o r r e t a i l e r s and banners f o r trucks of jobbers, or on f r e i g h t cars. (c) Radio broadcasts, g i v i n g a t t r a c t i v e r e c i p e s . (d) Registered trade brand which has a good name, and which represents the highest q u a l i t y of berry s o l d . (e) Films f o r theatres showing a l l stages i n the h a r v e s t i n g and the marketing of the small f r u i t . Due to the high p e r i s h a b i l i t y of small f r u i t s , i t i s not p o s s i b l e to have window d i s p l a y s or to show i n e x h i b i t i o n s . However, i t might be p o s s i b l e to advertise a _ _5Q -Strawberry or Raspberry Week" s i m i l a r to the ,rB.G. Lamb week". This "week" would have to coincide with the time when the l a r g e s t q u a n t i t y of f r u i t was coming on the market. Very l i t t l e a d v e r t i s i n g aside from that done by p r i v a t e stores i s c a r r i e d on at the present time except i n c e r t a i n p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s , as w i l l be shown l a t e r . l o t only i s the a d v e r t i s i n g necessary f o r the f r e s h f r u i t market, but i t i s also e s s e n t i a l f o r f r u i t as jam, canned or frozen pack. Consumers who do not at the present time know the tas t e of good jam must be encouraged to use i t even at a cost of p u t t i n g samples i n the homes. For such goods i t i s not the domestic market that would be a f f e c t e d , but rather the export and f o r e i g n market. The grower must be made to r e a l i z e that i t i s to h i s advantage that the b e r r i e s be advertised^ Consumption must be increased i f the p r i c e i s to be strengthened. Some plan, however, would have to be formulated to pay f o r such a d v e r t i s i n g . The best way would probably be a small charge on each c r a t e . Competition Competition i s a v i t a l f a c t o r to-day i n the marketing of small f r u i t s , and i s of three kinds; ( l ) competi-- n a -t i o n "between d i f f e r e n t small f r u i t s , (2) competitions with other f r u i t s , (3) competition with the weather f a c t o r . Between May l j j t h and J u l y l ^ t h small f r u i t s con-s t i t u t e the l a r g e s t volumes of a l l f r u i t coming on to the market. The only other f r u i t on the market at t h i s time i s the oherry. The tendency i s f o r the d i f f e r e n t types of small f r u i t to crowd each other on the market. The strawberry i s the f i r s t b e rry of the season, the a c t u a l time of course depending on weather conditions. Before these have f i n i s h e d , the r a s p b e r r i e s and bush f r u i t s have started coming on a market that has l o s t i t s keenness f o r b e r r i e s . S l i g h t l y l a t e r the loganberry s t a r t s coming on to the market and com-petes w i t h a l l the other b e r r i e s . F i n a l l y before t h i s group i s f i n i s h e d the b l a c k b e r r i e s and everbearing strawberries are on the market. I t i s possible to see from t h i s that the d i f f e r e n t small f r u i t s do a c t u a l l y compete with each other f o r the market. However, besides t h i s tendency f o r competition between small f r u i t s , there i s a l so c ompeti t i o n between small f r u i t s and tree f r u i t s which come on the market at the same time . For example , c h e r r i e s s t a r t on the market at the same time as r a s p b e r r i e s and continue on the market through the whole p e r i o d . Although i t i s impossible to measure such com-pe t i t i o n , i t does nevertheless e x i s t . This i s one of the reasons why everbearing strawberries have not been so popular. - 52 -Although, there are no other small f r u i t s on the market at t h i s time, a p r i c o t s , plums, peaches and pears p r a c t i c a l l y monopolize the market. Also the consumer's desire f o r "berries have "been l a r g e l y s a t i s f i e d u n t i l the next season. The l a s t competing f a c t o r i s not r e a l l y a com-peting f a c t o r i n the true sense of the word, but i t does help l i m i t consumption. B e r r i e s reach t h e i r highest demand by the consumer when the weather i s f i n e . They are e s s e n t i a l l y part of an e a r l y summer d i e t . I f the weather breaks and wet, r a i n y weather p r e v a i l s the consumption i s going to be adversely a f f e c t e d . Not only t h a t , but r a i n w i l l l i m i t the keeping q u a l i t y of b e r r i e s , so that they w i l l not store properly f o r even a short length of time. I t i s poss i b l e that a large part of one week of c o l d , wet weather during the r a i n y season i s l i a b l e to r u i n a large part of the crop movement. These competing f a c t o r s cannot as a r u l e be con-t r o l l e d except i n the case of the everbearing strawberry, as already mentioned. The growers i n t h i s case would be advised to change from everbearing t o a main crop v a r i e t y . Processing Problems -- R e l a t i v e M e r i t s Canada must r e l y to a large extent upon other uses besides f r e s h consumption f o r the d i s p o s a l of the production - 53 -of small f r u i t s . Such means as jamming, canning, jelly-making, f r e e z i n g or processing with SO^ must be depended upon to r e l i e v e Canada of her surplus. These are now dealt with i n the order as named. (a) Canning i s the preservation of f r u i t whole, i n a 55-70% syrup, ( 9 ) , (b) Jam i s prepared by b o i l i n g the whole f r u i t pulp with sugar to a moderately t h i c k consistency without r e t a i n i n g the shape of the f r u i t , ( 9 ) . (c) J e l l y i s made by b o i l i n g f r u i t w i t h or without water, e x t r a c t i n g and s t r a i n i n g the ju i c e , adding sugar and" concentrating to such consistency that g e l a t i n i z a t i o n takes place on c o o l i n g , ( 9 ) . (d) Frozen Pack c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of p l a c i n g the f r u i t i n b a r r e l s or other containers with or without sugar and f r e e z i n g and s t o r i n g the pack at r e l a t i v e l y low temperatures, ( l 8 ) * (e) Processing w i t h S0 2 i s a means of preservation by which b e r r i e s are put up i n a s o l u t i o n of SO,,, water and lime, the l a t t e r being used f o r hardening* This gives a f a i r conception of the methods i n question. I t remains to be shown what influence each has on production, consumption and p r i c e . - 54 -F r u i t i s processed p r i m a r i l y to extend the marketing season of the f r u i t s and also to prepare i t i n i t s most a t t r a c t i v e form* For canning only the highest grade of b e r r i e s are accepted, since the cannery man has had experience with poorer grades, he wants only the best. The f r u i t must be f r e s h , of a c e r t a i n v a r i e t y , c e r t a i n m a t u r i t y , whole and of uncrushed and uniform i n appearance, c o l o u r , and s i z e . Canned b e r r i e s are a d e c l i c i o u s dessert and should have a u n i v e r s a l appeal to the a p p e t i t e . Although a l l small f r u i t s are canned to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , only the b e r r i e s are canned commercially. Climate i s an important f a c t o r f o r canning b e r r i e s . For fl a v o u r and texture the b e r r i e s that are grown i n a medium p r e c i p i t a t i o n area are pre f e r r e d . Those grown i n a dry b e l t area do not seem to have the same f l a v o u r , and while they w i l l g e n e r a l l y keep longer during the rush of a berry season, they do not appeal t o the canner. Zavalla, ( 5 4 ), has s a i d about canning b e r r i e s that "In order to increase the demand on the market the canning operation should be performed as c a r e f u l l y as p o s s i b l e . B e r r i e s are very tender and can be e a s i l y bruised. Therefore the handling of them has to be done with great care, otherwise considerable waste w i l l occur and the y i e l d per ton of high grad.e w i l l be low". I t i s noted by a l l that b e r r i e s cannot be packed i n ordinary t i n cans, but must be canned i n enamel or lacquered - 55 -cans i n order to prevent p i n h o l i n g and' subsequent c o r r o s i o n and spoilage due to the high a c i d i t y of the f r u i t . . B e r r i e s f o r canning are picked i n t o shallow boxes that are l a r g e r than those used f o r f r e s h f r u . i t trade, end i f possible the b e r r i e s are picked and canned d a i l y i n order that f r u i t may be at the optimum r a t e of maturity. B l a c k b e r r i e s to be used f o r canning are merely sorted and washed, wi t h l i t t l e attempt made to grade , as to s i z e , as most of the f r u i t i s used f o r pies rather than f o r dessert purposes, (9) . Loganberries are large i n s i z e and deep red i n colour. As the f r u i t i s i n demand c h i e f l y f o r pie making, there i s no n e c e s s i t y f o r grading, and they are mostly packed i n large t i n s , ( 9 ) . I t i s the opinion of some t h a t , i f the loganberries were canned more i n a l i g h t syrup and an extensive s e l l i n g campaign c a r r i e d on, that there would be a tremendous increase i n eonsumption. Raspberries f o r dessert purposes must be graded and are packed i n a heavy syrup. For pies they are g e n e r a l l y ungraded and packed, i n water. Strawberries f o r canning must be f i r m i n texture; t h i s i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l because of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f r u i t , which made i t break down more e a s i l y than the other b e r r i e s , and they must be of good f l a v o u r , of good colour and of large s i z e . As they are used g e n e r a l l y f o r dessert purposes, they must be graded. The c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y - 56 -i n the canning of strawberries i s the softening during the s t e r i l i z a t i o n which r e s u l t s i n the can containing only from l / 3 to l/2 of i t s volume of b e r r i e s , ( 9 ) . Strawberries shoxild be canned i n a heavy, r a t h e r than l i g h t syrup. Jam (5) Jams are normally made from small f r u i t s ; the e n t i r e f r u i t i s cooked with sugar to the desired constituency which should be s o f t or j e l l y - l i k e , and contain p r a c t i c a l l y no fr e e l i q u i d . F r u i t f o r jam must be w e l l ripened i n order to give the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f l a v o u r and colour to f i n i s h e d jam. Jam i s the main o u t l e t f o r currants and gooseberries and plays an important part i n d i s p o s i n g of the surplus of other small f r u i t s which, because of shape or q u a l i t y , are not s u i t a b l e f o r the f r e s h f r u i t market, and of those which, because of the weather conditions at the time of r i p e n i n g , w i l l not ship; of v a r i e t i e s not accepted f o r canning; and of mixed v a r i e t i e s which are shipped to the jam f a c t o r i e s pro-vided they are free from decay and are not s t a l e . The p r i c e f o r jam b e r r i e s i s n a t u r a l l y not as high as f o r those used f o r other purposes, but a f a i r price i s always assured. The number of b e r r i e s that are canned each year depends therefore on many f a c t o r s ; ( l ) c l i m a t i c —• the weather at p i c k i n g time w i l l determine whether or not b e r r i e s may be shipped s a t i s f a c t o r i l y over l o n g distances} - 51 -(2) p r i c e — the d i f f e r e n c e i n the spread between jam and f r e s h f r u i t must be considered, and the narrower t h i s spread, the greater the amount of b e r r i e s that w i l l be used f o r jam. In order to determine t h i s spread, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and crate costs must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n as w e l l as s l i g h t l y -increased cost f o r p i c k i n g ; (3) carry-over from previous year — while i t might be thought by some that the jam f a c t o r y i s dependent on the producer f o r i t s supply, such i s not the case. Jam f a c t o r i e s can only handle a c e r t a i n amount of f r u i t at any one time, and while i t i s possible to process f r u i t and keep i t as jam d u r i n g slack times, there i s always the n e c e s s i t y of having to make the sales equal the manufactured production. I f a stock or carry-over begins to accumulate, the amount of b e r r i e s to be used as jam w i l l be s e r i o u s l y c u r t a i l e d . There i s no f i x e d rate i n the amount of sugar f o r jam. A reduction of the sugar w i l l give the jam a t a r t t a s t e , and such jams are much to be p r e f e r r e d to those which are too sweet and tend t o appease the appetite q u i c k l y , ^ ) . I f the jam i s kept t a r t there w i l l n a t u r a l l y be a higher consumption. There i s no need here to go i n t o the actual jamming pro-cesses, but i t might be w e l l to mention i n passing that the fundamental processes are the same f o r a l l small f r u i t s , except currants and gooseberries. There are three types of currants, the black, red, and white, but only the f i r s t two are grown commercially i n - 58 -Canada. The black c u r r a n t s must be blanched to remove part of the very heavy aroma. A l l currants must be w e l l ripened before p i c k i n g . I f too green, the f l a v o u r and taste w i l l be impaired. However, they must not be too ri p e or the jam w i l l tend to by syrupy or gummy. I f the seeds of the currants or gooseberries are obj e c t i o n a b l e , i t i s pos s i b l e to s t r a i n the pulp through a sieve before the sugar i s added. J e l l y Making The e s s e n t i a l s of good j e l l y are determined by the p e c t i n , a c i d and sugar content of the f r u i t s . Small f r u i t s that are high i n p e c t i n and a c i d i t y are log a n b e r r i e s , sour v a r i e t i e s of b l a c k b e r r i e s and currants. I t Is p o s s i b l e to make j e l l i e s from a l l small f r u i t s , but i t i s necessary to add p e c t i n or sugar to some i n order to maintain the r i g h t balance. Many commercial f i r m s c a r r y t h i s processing s t i l l f a r t h e r , and prepare j e l l y powders, which on the a d d i t i o n of water, give a standard f l a v o u r of j e l l y . •& perfect j e l l y " as described by Cruess, ( 9 ), " i s c l e a r , s p a r k l i n g , transparent and of a t t r a c t i v e c o l o r — when removed from the glass i t should r e t a i n i t s form and should quiver and not flow. I t should not be syrupy, s t i c k y , or gummy, and should r e t a i n the fla v o u r and aroma of the o r i g i n a l f r u i t . When cut i t should be tender and yet so f i r m that a sharp edge and smooth s p a r k l i n g cut surface remain"V - 59 -J e l l y making i s a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d i n d u s t r y at the present time, and a demand has been created f o r the pro-duct c h i e f l y through the means of a d v e r t i s i n g . One should think then that other products of the same f r u i t s could not have t h e i r consumption s i m i l a r l y increased. Frozen Pack In the past the f r o z e n pack method was thought of as a means only f o r preserving the f r u i t u n t i l i t could be used by the processing plant or commercial firms, such as res t a u r a n t s , h o t e l s , e t c . However, wi t h the developing of new methods, new containers and proper storage c o n d i t i o n s , there i s no reason why t h i s method should not be used i n marketing the f r u i t d i r e c t l y to the consumer. The Oregon and Washington growers have r e a l i z e d what an asset t h i s frozen pack method could be. Between 1918-192 8 the output f o r strawberries alone increased from 3,000 f i f t y - g a l l o n b a r r e l s to 70*000 b a r r e l s , ( 1 8 ) . L a t e r they a l s o r e a l i z e d the importance of the consumers' trade and from 1928-1930 i n the midst of the depression the out put of a l l small f r u i t s increased from 434,000 one and two pound cartons to 1,872,876 cartons, ( 5 0 ). However, s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s are needed by r e t a i l e r s to handle the frozen pack f r u i t , as a 0 temperature of 10 or lower being r e q u i r e d , so there i s l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d of a f u r t h e r increase u n t i l means of proper r e t a i l storage conditions are perfected. In Canada, progress along t h i s l i n e i s decidedly - 60 -behind that of the P a c i f i c Northwest, and i s confined mainly to the larg e containers. However the sooner the manufacturer and r e t a i l e r r e a l i z e the p o t e n t i a l consumption f o r f r u i t i n small containers, the b e t t e r i t w i l l ' be f o r small f r u i t growers. The f r u i t preserved by the f r o z e n pack method i s used very l a r g e l y i n the commercial manufacture of preserves, jams and j e l l i e s . Considerable q u a n t i t i e s are employed i n the preparation of crushed f r u i t and f r u i t syrup f o r soda f o u n t a i n use, and i n pie baking by lar g e restaurants and bakers. The manufacture of i c e cream with f r u i t f l a v o u r s also u t i l i z e s an appreciable part of the t o t a l f r ozen pack, e s p e c i a l l y of str a w b e r r i e s , and a small q u a n t i t y i s used i n preparation of f r u i t e x t r a c t s and f l a v o u r s . This summary i n the U.S.D.A. b u l l e t i n , ( 1 8 ) , gives a concise statement con-cerning the wide uses to which frozen pack may be put. The f r o z e n pack method has a very good future and should be developed i n the i n t e r e s t s of the small f r u i t grower. Not only i s i t a means of strengthening consumption but i t a l s o f u r n i s h e s a means f o r o r d e r l y marketing when the b e r r i e s are found unsuitable f o r other purposes or when i t i s impossible to handle them during the main season rush. Before f r e e z i n g can be attempted the b e r r i e s must be sorted and a l l other f r u i t d e b r i s , mouldy b e r r i e s or those otherwise unsuitable f o r b a r r e l l i n g removed. B e r r i e s are frozen w i t h or without sugar, dependent on the type and v a r i e t y . The b a r r e l s are then removed to the f r e e z i n g storage, - 61 -where temperature ranging from 0 to 15 i s maintained, (18) . For the smaller cartons the vacuum closed con-t a i n e r s are recommended as they prevent absorption and a i r interchange, thus producing acceptable products,(50). V a r i e t y i s important i n the f r e e z i n g method as i t i s necessary to have b e r r i e s which w i l l hold t h e i r colour and f l a v o u r during f r e e z i n g . The v a r i e t i e s recommended by W^egand are the M a r s h a l l strawberry, the Guthbert raspberry, and the Evergreen blackberry as being s a t i s f a c t o r y with regard to colour, firmness and good texture. At the present the c o l d pack means of d i s p o s a l i s not f e a s i b l e f o r logan-b e r r i e s f o r two reasons; f i r s t , the b e r r y i t s e l f has a hard objectionable core, and secondly, i t has no appetite appeal on the f r o z e n pack market. The sugar content must a l s o be considered, as the highest density syrups g e n e r a l l y detract from the f l a v o u r of the product by over-emphasis of the sweet t a s t e . Processing with SO,, A r e l a t i v e l y new method of processing which has met favour wi th the canneries and the jam f a c t o r i e s i s the pre-s e r v a t i o n of b e r r i e s by sulphur dioxide. B e r r i e s which cannot be used immediately, or those f o r which there i s a need of t r a n s p o r t i n g long distances with no r e f r i g e r a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s may be preserved e x c e l l e n t l y by t h i s means. - 62 -Sulphur dioxide has long heen used e x t e n s i v e l y i n the d r i e d f r u i t i n d u s t r y as i t i s t o x i c to moulds and b a c t e r i a , ( 2 9 ) . However, i t i s only i n recent years that i t was d i s -covered that i t could be used i n the l i q u i d form f o r the pre-s e r v a t i o n of small f r u i t s without i n j u r y to the f l a v o u r . Consequently, there i s an i n c r e a s i n g u t i l i z a t i o n of such a method f o r besides being cheaper than the f r o z e n pack, i t i s l e s s trouble because no s p e c i a l precautions need to be taken u n t i l the b e r r i e s are ready f o r use. B e r r i e s are put up i n b a r r e l s and are used f o r the processing trade. On standing they become bleached, but once the SOg has been d r i v e n o f f they resume t h e i r n a t u r a l colour, and may be used f o r a l l products excepting those canned. I t might be w e l l to mention here one s p e c i a l i z e d use f o r which l o g a n b e r r i e s are used i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A l a r g e percent, i s consumed each year i n the f r u i t j u i c e i n d u s t r y , with i t s centre on Vancouver Island, ( 4 9 ) . Loganberries must be f u l l y mature and must have a t t a i n e d t h e i r maximum eolour and sugar content. The f r u i t i s s o f t and ferments q u i c k l y and therefore must be pressed soon a f t e r p i c k i n g . From t h i s point on i n the processing depends on the use to which i t i s to be put e i the r f re sh or fermented. In order to see e x a c t l y what part these d i f f e r e n t processing methods play i n Canada, the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t s from The A g r i c u l t u r a l S i t u a t i o n and Outlook,(23), 1934 and I936 are given. In 1936 a comment on strawberry conditions - 63 -reads, "A very heavy crop n e c e s s i t a t e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n of measures to s t a b i l i z e p r i c e s . A very large quantity of f r u i t was processed. The estimated pack of canned strawberries was 45 ,000 cases, a sharp advance over the 1934 pack of 39 ,000 cases. Larger q u a n t i t i e s than usual of strawberries were packed i n sulphur dioxide and shipped abroad. A p r e l i m i n a r y estimate i n d i c a t e s that some 3,500 b a r r e l s of b e r r i e s so treated were shipped during the past season. This method of t r e a t i n g b e r r i e s has been p r a c t i s e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r some years, but was an innovation i n the province of Ontario. I t i s estimated that i n Ontario and Quebec 60,000 pounds of b e r r i e s are annually held as frozen pulp f o r jam manufacturing". I n the 1934 report we f i n d mention made of the frozen paok method of preservation and at that time the statement was made tha t "A comparatively new innovation which may be expected to reach q u i t e large proportions i s the mer-chandizing of f r e s h f r o z e n strawberries. The added cost of f r e e z i n g and storage i s very m o d e r a t e " — f u r t h e r the f a c t i s stated that "Processing of strawberries f o r storage and domestic or export d i s p o s a l f o r canning, jam making and f r e e z i n g e t c . already has attained large proportions. This method a f f o r d s the grower an escape from crop and weather abnormalities as w e l l as a f f o r d i n g the manufacturers t h e i r supply f o r year round operations". - 64 -V SALES- ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT  General Statement 'T The commercial small f r u i t crop i n Canada i s handled almost e n t i r e l y through l o c a l co-operative organiza-t i o n s . The reasons f o r t h i s means of organizations and the "benefits t h a t may he brought about by such are dealt with i n t h i s part of the work and means of reducing cost of marketing i s suggested. Advantage of Co-operatives Small f r u i t production i s a community e n t e r p r i s e and as g e n e r a l l y o n l y two to f i v e acres are devoted to small f r u i t growing on any one farm, there i s the need to combine the b e r r i e s of many growers f o r economical t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r e f r i g e r a t i o n , ( 5 5 ) . Since b e r r i e s are the more perishable f r u i t s , i t i s necessary to see that they are loaded i n t o cars as q u i c k l y and as economically as p o s s i b l e . Generally only co-operatives have the necessary supply to ship carloads of b e r r i e s , and t h i s , besides c u t t i n g down costs, w i l l insure a f a s t e r and bet t e r means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . I t i s to the advantage of the grower to keep cost down. The usual type of co-operative i s the small f r u i t - 65 -areas i s one i n which the patrons of the o r g a n i z a t i o n are members,(48) . A manager i s employed, and a l l members share i n the p r o f i t or l o s s of the body as a whole. A l l the costs are pooled, e i t h e r on the b a s i s of v a r i e t y or grade. The business of the co-operative i s handled through one broker and when the f i n a l r e t urns are a v a i l a b l e , the costs are subtracted from the returns and the members are p a i d o f f on the b a s i s of the number of orates shipped into the co-operative. I f there i s an e f f i c i e n t manager t h i s i s the best method f o r the group as a whole to market the f r u i t . I n d i v i d u a l independents not dealing through the co-operative may at times receive a b e t t e r p r i c e by c a t e r i n g to the best market, but t h i s i s not being f a i r to the other f r u i t growers. Stan d a r d i z a t i o n I t i s possible f o r the co-operative to e f f i c i e n t l y c a r r y on p r a c t i c e s which the i n d i v i d u a l grower cannot hope even to attempt. Such p r a c t i c e s as s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and a d v e r t i s i n g are e s s e n t i a l . P h i l l i p s and Card of Kentucky,(3 5 ), state that u S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of q u a l i t y and method of preparation f o r market are important considerations In strawberry marketing. I n d i f f e r e n t packs and poor q u a l i t y f r u i t cause wide d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n p r i c e s and lower the price l e v e l " . Herein l i e s the major d i f f i c u l t y of the marketing problem i n Canada to-day. I t i s true that b e r r i e s have to - 6 6 -come up to c e r t a i n grades as set f o r t h by the Dominion F r u i t Branch,(26), but there i s no s t i p u l a t i o n made as to the v a r i e t y of f r u i t that may be sold on a market. As already mentioned, i t i s the duty of co-operatives to standardize t h e i r products, and s e l l them by a brand name, and make that brand name mean something. Examples of trade names that have come to be recognized as of s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y are the "Eatmore Cranberry" and "0. K." or Okanagan Apples. How has such r e c o g n i t i o n been achieved? C h i e f l y by naming a product by a d v e r t i s i n g i t as being superior and then by making sure that the product can be depended upon. There i s no reason why the customer, f o r example, can not be educated to the f a c t that Cuthberts are the best v a r i e t y of raspberry, and those that are marketed under the name of say "Fraser V a l l e y Cuthberts" are superior. Once the customer has found out that the brand can be r e l i e d upon, repeat orders may be depended on and a premium might even be p o s s i b l e . A d v e r t i s i n g The B r i t i s h Columbia growers have already c a r r i e d on an a d v e r t i s i n g programme; the use of the radio and other means have been used to induce the consumer to eat more b e r r i e s . The cost o f such a d v e r t i s i n g was defrayed by c a r l o t shippers and jobbers agreeing to a deduotion of ^ per c r a t e . This was attempted only with strawberries i n 193J? as there was i n that year a very large production, and with a l a t e season, 1 making i t necessary to market a large quantity i n a \ - 67 -short space of time. There i s no reason why a programme l i k e t h i s should not be c a r r i e d on every year f o r a l l b e r r i e s . The a d v e r t i s i n g costs would soon pay f o r themselves i n a higher p r i c e f o r the b e r r i e s . Marketing a s s o c i a t i o n s can carry out such a plan f a r b e t t e r than an i n d i v i d u a l grower. Not only t h a t , but i t i s possible f o r such organizations to educate the grower himself to put up a graded f i r s t - c l a s s pack. Perhaps, i f any such programme as the one mentioned above were to be attempted i n Canada, the progress would be very slow, and even though i t would be b e n e f i c i a l , i t would meet w i t h p r o t e s t s at a l l stages from producers to consumers. Middlemen Operation In many sa l e s organizations, the independent always voices the argument that the 'middleman p r i c e s " are too great and he can get a b e t t e r p r i c e f o r h i s product by dealing d i r e c t l y to the consumer. Unfortunately such i s true i n i n d i v i dual cases, but i t would be impossible i f a l l growers were to attempt to c a r r y out such a plan. The number of middlemen between the producer and "the consumer w i l l depend, of course , on the method of marketing. Assuming that the co-operative i s the producer - 68 -o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the consignment s a l e s or JF.0..B.. method i s the general p r a c t i c e , there are usually three steps between the producer and consumer. These are shown by Converse,(8), Page 110, and are diagrammatically represented as f o l l o w s , -Producer^ Go-op. I.» Assoc.) (Broker ^ Buying Agent Local Buye r j 'Whole- ^ s a l e r or I Jobber ( R e t a i l e r ) -> (Consumer Producer" Co-opera--t i v e | 'Wholesaler! or' .Jobber Broker (Retailer) —> (Consumer Broker The broker's job i s to f i n a a market f o r the f r u i t . He may be represented by a buyer at a l o c a l shipping point, but he deals w i t h wholesalers and jobbers and makes no attempt to divide the f r u i t . He I s the go-between f o r a producer i n a d i s t a n t c i t y , and the buyer, and according to law must represent the s e l l e r . C e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s are passed by the Dominion Government which prevent malpractices by brokers. He does not a c t u a l l y handle the b e r r i e s . wholesaler The wholesaler a c t u a l l y s t a r t s the process of d i v i s i o n . He buys the f r u i t i n carload l o t s , and receives a p r o f i t on the b e r r i e s going through h i s hands. The price he receives i s u s u a l l y so much per car or so much per c r a t e . He deals w i t h the r e t a i l e r . R e t a i l e r The r e t a i l e r i s the store-keeper who deals d i r e c t l y with the consumer. He receives h i s goods from the wholesaler i n f a i r l y large allotments. Because of the high p e r i s h a b i l i t y of b e r r i e s , the r e t a i l e r i s forced to demand a high rate f o r handling because of the r i s k of l o s s by spoilage or d e t e r i o r -a t i o n . The a c t u a l f u n c t i o n of the middleman i s dealt with l a t e r . Here again the advantage of co-operation i s shown. The wholesaler and jobber when handling a l i m i t e d amount of - 70 -f r u i t f i x a p r i c e that i s r e l a t i v e l y high. Whereas i f a large amount of f r u i t i s handled, I t i s g e n e r a l l y done on the percentage b a s i s and the cost i s lowered considerably. Thus f a r we have de a l t w i t h the co-operative, only as i t might a f f e c t the f r e s h f r u i t market. However, wi th co-operation i t would be possible to make contracts wi th jam f a c t o r i e s and d i v e r t to jam that p o r t i o n of the f r u i t , which was not s u i t a b l e f o r the fresh market, or which would cause a g l u t on the market.- By doing t h i s , not only could q u a l i t y but also quantity and thus p r i c e be regulated. I t should be the object of any co-operative to keep low-grade f r u i t o f f the market, even i f i t should have to be destroyed, because besides having a depressing e f f e c t on p r i c e , i t tends to have a s i m i l a r e f f e c t on consumption. Then again, c l o s e l y associated with t h i s , i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of co-operatives having market i n f ormation not a v a i l a b l e to the i n d i v i d u a l producers. Because of the accurate system that i s i n e f f e c t to-day, i t i s possible to know what i s the supply on any market, and the amount that i s en route to that market, except i n the case of those b e r r i e s that are shipped by truck. By t a k i n g supply i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and c o r r e l a t i n g i t . w i t h the p r i c e f a c t o r , the co-operatives can ship b e r r i e s to that place which w i l l have the best demand. An example of t h i s might be such that a co-operative at Hatzic has reports that strawberries are l a t e ripening i n - 71 -Ontario, and that there are none en route from any points i n the United States. Then i f the Vancouver market and the many p r a i r i e markets were taxed to the utmost, and any a d d i t i o n a l supply would force the p r i c e down, immediately b e r r i e s could be dispatched f o r Ontario, and a good p r i c e r e a l i z e d ; whereas, i f no information had been a v a i l a b l e the b e r r i e s would pro-bably have been sent to an already overloaded market, and the market f o r b e r r i e s would have been badly disrupted. Method of Sale (27) Thus f a r we have dealt only with the functions of the co-operative, but to complete the p i c t u r e a survey of a c t u a l marketing steps i s necessary. • The co-operative has two a l t e r n a t i ves when marketing b e r r i e s , whereas the independent dealer not having a large volume g e n e r a l l y has three. Consignment The f i r s t method of sale i s consignment sale to commission agent or broker. Under t h i s me thod the broker s e l l s the b e r r i e s f o r the producer at the best p r i c e p o s s i b l e on the market, deducts f r e i g h t and sales charges and remits the remainder to the producer. In t h i s way the r i s k i s e n t i r e l y i n the hands of the grower and any d e t e r i o r -a t i o n i n the product or unfavourable market price w i l l have a - 72 -d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on h i s f i n a l net p r i c e , The broker does not receive any more than handling charges. F.O.B. Method The second means i s the F.O.B..method of sale by which the b e r r i e s are sold at a c e r t a i n p r i c e at the loading point. The buyer bears the cost of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , accepts the r i s k s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and market and any decrease i n the market p r i c e , However, the p r i c e set i s g e n e r a l l y low enough f o r the broker to make h i s own charges, and sometimes a p r o f i t on the b e r r i e s . This i s r e a l l y a method of hedging and the grower i s w i l l i n g to part w i t h a p o r t i o n of h i s p r o f i t s i n order to insure himself a reasonable p r i c e . I t i s necessary i n t h i s connection to maintain an inspector at both shipping and t e r m i n a l p o i n t s , but h i s d u t i e s w i l l be discussed l a t e r . Shipping Point — L o c a l Sales The l a s t method of marketing and the one that can only be used to advantage where production i s low and consequently where there i s no co-operative a s s o c i a t i o n , i s that of sale f o r cash at the shipping p o i n t . In t h i s way the grower i s r e l i e v e d of a l l f u r t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and at the same time, has ready cash to pay f o r the harvesting of h i s crop. In some l o c a l i t i e s t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y an asset. The p r i c e they w i l l receive f o r t h e i r f r u i t i n t h i s way w i l l depend upon whether there i s a "buyer" or a " s e l l e r " market, or i n other words, what the market demand and supply i s . - 73 -There i s very l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n price over a period of time, between the f i r s t two methods, but because of the f a c t that the r i s k i s tr a n s f e r r e d from the s e l l e r to buyer w i t h F.O.B. s a l e s , t h i s method i s preferred by many shippers. A p p l i c a t i o n of Natural Products Marketing Act  t o Small, ffrui t.s The Canadian Government has r e a l i z e d the advantages and n e c e s s i t y of the co-operative f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l products, and provided a scheme i n 1934 whereby i f the growers i n any p a r t i c u l a r area producing 70% of a given product could formu-l a t e a scheme f o r marketing, then a l l producers would be required t o f a l l i n l i n e wi th the scheme. However, as ye t no small f r u i t areas have taken advantage of such a scheme, due perhaps f o r two reasons; f i r s t , the l e g a l aspect of the Act i s s t i l l , i n doubt, and secondly, the present method of marketing seems s a t i s f a c t o r y . Thus f a r there have been two schemes approved and put Into e f f e c t under the plan. The f i r s t i s the Canada Jam Marketing Scheme,(3) , which aims at s t a b i l i z i n g of price and improving the q u a l i t y of the regulated product. Through an increase i n the returns to the manufacturers, i t i s believed that growers w i l l secure b e t t e r p r i c e s f o r t h e i r f r u i t which - 74 -i s processed. The second scheme approved was the Processed Berry Marketing Scheme,(37)• This scheme provides that a l o c a l hoard may regulate the time and place, and designate the agency through which the processed b e r r i e s are marketed. This measure was necessary i n I935 i n order to market an unusually large crop of strawberries. Because of an e a r l y f r o s t i n Great B r i t a i n destroying 1he crop, there was a demand f o r any b e r r i e s that Canada was able to export, wi th the r e s u l t that t h i s scheme proved a d i s t i n c t success i n I955. A scheme for l o c a l berry growers v^ould have to be one which would involve the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : (1) A pooling of returns i n any given area -- not n e c e s s a r i l y one p o o l , but perhaps three to f i v e pools, depending on the d i f f e r e n t seasons and d i f f e r e n t species of b e r r i e s . (2) A systematic grading and l a b e l l i n g of f r u i t to make i t a t t r a c t i v e . (3) An e f f i c i e n t manager. ( 4 ) An educational campaign to educate the consumer concerning the type of b e r r i e s that are best f o r the d i f f e r e n t needs e i t h e r f o r consumption as f r e s h f r u i t , or f o r preserving, jamming or j e l l y i n g . Inspection The Dominion of Canada has a very competent i n s p e c t i o n . s e r v i c e at the present time of two kinds, terminal - 75 -and shipping i n s p e c t i o n . I t became necessary to e s t a b l i s h t h i s i n order to insure f a i r p r a c t i c e s between shipper and buyer. The grades of f r u i t are set by those of the government standards, and both p a r t i e s must abide by the grades set by the i n s p e c t o r u n l e s s e i t h e r one of them apply f o r r e -i n s p e c t i o n . Hot only does i t prevent disputes, but i t also prevents f a l s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of b e r r i e s that are being exported or imported. This i s r e a l l y the f i r s t step towards the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of b e r r i e s . However, i t does not attempt to d i s t i n g u i s h between v a r i e t i e s , and grades are e i t h e r Srade I or ungraded. . - 76 -YI BRITISH, CQLIMBIA T S SMALL FRUIT PROBLEMS General Statement Although B r i t i s h Columbia has been s p e c i f i e d i n general o u t l i n e f o r d e t a i l e d study, i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w that the problems of that province are any greater or x d i v e r s i f i e d than those of any other province i n the Dominion. This province was s e l e c t e d mainly f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons. (1) More data' are a v a i l a b l e with regard to the marketing, and a l s o f o r d e t a i l e d production of v a r i e t i e s , i n any other province*. (2) A very large percentage of the f r u i t i s shipped out of the province, hence the problems involved i n marketing are very important. (3) I t i s one of the two most important small f r u i t producing provinces. S t a t i s t i c a l Study In order to get a c l e a r picture of the small f r u i t i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the t o t a l production, (15) , f o r each v a r i e t y i s shown i n the Appendix, and these f i g u r e s f o r the various small f r u i t s are charted and compared i n F i g . 8*. I t i s p o s s i b l e to see from t h i s the r e l a t i v e importance of these crops. With the exception of two years, strawberries F i g . . 8 Production of Small F r u i t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. (Production i n c a r l o t s ) 600 500 300 200 100 0 \ 5 !ota: L Pr< jduci 1 on -/ / 1 / / St \ caws / ' 7 1 i / ' \ : \ " \ / \ / ' / / / 1 I \ ' \ . •/ /' . / / / / / 7^  / / \ ' / / / x Ra£ N N ipS v. A' z IiO| 'an BU: 3h ^-B: \ V \ .ack f 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 are the most important crop. In these years, 1925 and 1926, more r a s p b e r r i e s were produced. Since t h i s l a t t e r year the r a s p b e r r i e s have shown a steady decline u n t i l i n 1955, when more loganberries and bush f r u i t s were produced than rasp-b e r r i e s . Loganberries are quite an. important crop i n B. C. f being c h i e f l y centered on Vancouver I s l a n d , which i s the center of the wine making i n d u s t r y . In F i g . 9 - 1 2 the amount of each f r u i t that i s used f o r manufacturing and that amount which i s marketed f r e s h i s compared f o r each small f r u i t , except bush f r u i t s which show a s i m i l a r trend to strawberries. F i g . 9; shows the r e l a t i v e importance of processed strawberries i n . r e l a t i o n to the amount consumed f r e s h . For the twelve years s t u d i e d , there i s p r a c t i c a l l y the same amount manufactured as consumed f r e s h , with the f r e s h f r u i t "market taking a s l i g h t l e a d . F i g . 10 shows a comparison between the processed and fres h f r u i t consumption of r a s p b e r r i e s . A very s i m i l a r trend to that of strawberries i s shown. F i g . 11 shows the way i n which the loganberry crop i s disposed of, and i t can be seen that a d i f f e r e n t problem i s presented. A comparatively smell percentage of logan-b e r r i e s are consumed on the fres h f r u i t market i n B r i t i s h Columbia. At no time i n the twelve years did the f r e s h f r u i t consumption exceed 600,000 l b s . , while on the other hand, - 7 9 -Quantity of D i f f e r e n t F r u i t s — Processed and Fresh F r u i t s Compared F i i (tjoo^***) Strawberries '9 Or 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 ( ( p o o s p i t s ) 90, F i g . 10 Raspberrie s 1 F i g . 11  Loganberrie s 6o 50 40 30 20 10 0 l i i-i •'•H >.•> iL n *5 2 'J * j 3 1 3 * 3d 3<f Fresh F r u i t 80 70 60 5Q J 3 Ji"2l» i ? 2-f ^S? 3o 31 3» 33 F i g . 12 Bl a c k b e r r i e s 60 5 0 40 30 2 0 10 0 i 4 J-3 M i ) i t i ) J t i V *o 31 3 » »« J>i Processed - 80 -the amount of loganberries that have been processed reached the amazing t o t a l of almost 2 ,200,QQG l b s . i n the years 1926 and 1934. Any f u t u r e increase i n consumption w i l l have to be of the manufactured product, as l i t t l e increase can be expected i n the amount consumed f r e s h . F i g . 12 shows the trend of blackberry production. Although there has been a v a r i a t i o n i n the quantity pro-cessed i n the l a s t t h i r t e e n years, the amount sold on the f re sh f r u i t market has remained f a i r l y constant wi th the peak year of s e l l i n g being i n 192J?, when 33,688 crates were d i s -posed of i n B r i t i s h Columbia and export p o i n t s , while the low year was 1935 when 18,404 cra t e s were marketed. The amounts processed on the other hand, have shown l a r g e r f l u c t u a t i o n s from year to year with 1926 being the high year of production, with 4^8,834 l b s . of b l a c k b e r r i e s going to the processing p l a n t s . Crop Movements As has already been mentioned * B r i t i s h Columbia markets a l a r g e percentage of i t s b e r r i e s outside the province, the p r a i r i e provinces, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, being I t s c h i e f customers. The marketing plan that has been i n e f f e c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the l a s t two years has worked out s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . - 81 -The plan as o u t l i n e d by B. Dickie, ( 1 7 ) , i s one i n which a l l e a r l o t s are handled through one sales agency In Vancouver, which used brokerage f a c i l i t i e s of the Canadian F r u i t D i s t r i b u t o r s , i n Vancouver; C.H. Robinson L t d . , United Brokers and Grant D i s t r i b u t i n g Co. on the P r a i r i e ; Frank Gibson i n Toronto; and Mutual Brokers L t d . i n Montreal. The shippers agreed on a p r i n c i p l e of c e n t r a l s e l l i n g with no s t i p u l a t i o n s other than that the P a c i f i c Co-operative Union i n s i s t e d on United Brokers and Grant D i s t r i b u t i n g Co. having f u l l access on volume. Each market on the p r a i r i e s e v e n t u a l l y agreed to a c e r t a i n percentage and to economize and avoid overlapping. Each market received and dispatched under the heading of "Winnipeg Berries', , and Edmonton Berry Sales". The movement of small f r u i t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s not only divided i n t o d i s t r i c t pools, but also i n t o three main crop movements,(16). The f i r s t c o n s i s t s of the main crop of strawberries. In I935 t h i s consisted of I53 carloads, a l l but one of which were shipped to the p r a i r i e . In a d d i t i o n to these 1^3 car-l o t s , there were 500 tons of b e r r i e s processed with SOg and sent to the United Kingdom as already mentioned. The second movement includes loganberries and b l a c k b e r r i e s , as w e l l as the main crop of raspb e r r i e s . In 1955, 47 carloads were shipped from B r i t i s h Columbia to the p r a i r i e s . - 82 -The l a s t crop i s known as the l a t e crop, and con-s i s t s of everbearing strawberries and b l a c k b e r r i e s . The 'total amount shipped from the lower Mainland to the p r a i r i e was 44 carloads. The f o l l o w i n g table,(16), shows the number of crates of each v a r i e t y t h a t was. shipped i n each movement. Table IV Main Crop Raspberries l a t e Crop s s Strawberries Raspberries Loganberries B l a c k b e r r i e s Miscellaneous 12 3,780 c r a t e s 1.490 » 125,270 crates 3,316 crates 29,892 " 4,023 " 2,280 39,311 crates 25,744 crate 2,556 " 6,597 n 690 " 36,266 crate This table deals only with carload l o t s . Besides these, there i s a large movement of b e r r i e s i n l e s s than c a r l o t shipments (L.C.L.). These are tabulated i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , together w i t h the c a r l o t movements and the c e n t r a l market where the f r u i t was sent f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n . - 85 -H r° OS E-i r-i 63 O EH bo &-I •H CO-PS •ri to] o o += co CQ co CO S3 G += a G PH ti o •st o OJ st st H st so CO St. sO <A o sO ON tA CO A to Os A CO UA to to ON SO OJ to OS * SO OJ ON r-i SO r-J ON c-r-i SO rH H st O OJ o H H to r-i St OJ to to r-i r-i to O OS to sO" H CO r-l O SO A O SO A OJ r-i O SO IA OJ r-i O OJ CO sO st to OJ st CO OJ CO "A to OJ to OJ OJ H OJ to OJ OJ r-i C -ON to ON c-to o st IA OJ st OJ sD sO CO to IA OJ o to o to OJ IA sO '.O CO st 43-O r-H u co o r-q ti O EH o O Si •ri CO CQ CD •ri (H PH CD £ PH I S to sO OJ tA st OJ r-i sO C -CO H +3 O r-H PH co : or • CO O 4 3 © CQ CD »H PH PH CD "g* CQ co st ON st H H ON C\l rH CO sO OJ H CO SO SO st ON OJ SO st OS OJ ON OJ c— OJ tO CO IX\ CO sO r-i C-•IA. H H to st to O CO sO tO tr\ OJ st •st tA OJ r-i -P O r-i PH co o (-3 O ti O EH CQ <0 •H C M P H o PH o CD 4^ > CO 03 bo o CQ <D •H PH PH CD rO .M o 03 r-i - 84 -Table V, besides showing the type of small f r u i t movement, e i t h e r c a r l o t s or L.C.L. brings out some other important problems i n the marketing of small f r u i t s * Mi ddleman Charge s In c e r t a i n areas because of the f a c t that the middleman attempts to charge too much margin f o r doing business, the sale i n that area i s d e f i n i t e l y c u r t a i l e d . Not only does the middleman s u f f e r , but also the producers. The table shows that prosperous Saskatoon t e r r i t o r y s o l d r e l a -t i v e l y few b e r r i e s oompared even to the Regina Dry B e l t . E v i d e n t l y the jobbers i n Saskatoon attempted too high a margin on a h i g h volume. In cases such as t h i s , i t might be advisable to have government s u p e r v i s i o n of jobbers, and to determine that amount which i s considered a f a i r margin f o r the various f r u i t s . This would e l i m i n a t e , to a large extent, too high margin by jobbers, and should encourage consumption. Problems of L.C.L. Shipments Table V shows al s o that the two A l b e r t a markets, Calgary and Edmonton, are deluged with L.C.L. shipments. Although these are c h i e f l y shipped by independent growers, and from the lower producing areas, they do nevertheless c o n s t i t u t e a large enough volume to wreck the A l b e r t a markets. Of these L.C.L. shipments, approximately 5 ,000 are from Clearwater, 3,000 crates from Salmon Arm, and 5,000 from Creston, Wyndell, and Kootenay. However, even taking these - 85 -i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the L.C.L. movement from the Lower Mainland i s s t i l l s u f f i c i e n t to e n t i r e l y r u i n the A l b e r t a market. This problem could be eliminated i f the small berry growers would take advantage of the Natural Pro due ts Marke t i n g Act. By t h i s way the a c t u a l board could influence the move-ment of a l l b e r r i e s wi t h i n any area, and thus eliminate the deluge on a l l markets. So f a r we have dealt only w i t h the d i f f i c u l t i e s of handling b e r r i e s i n general. I t might be advisable here to give an idea of the a c t u a l problems that the producers meet, taking I935 as an average year, and considering them from the point of view of the the three movements. Main Crop - Strawberries The main strawberry crop i n B r i t i s h Columbia was e x a c t l y two weeks l a t e r than i t was the previous year, while the E a s t e r n Canada crop was e a r l y . This deprived B r i t i s h Columbia of any hope of marketing any b e r r i e s i n Eastern Canada, although i n 1934, 13 carloads had been shipped to Montreal and Toronto, which helped immensely i n r e l i e v i n g the p r a i r i e congestion. However, there were the two redeeming features; f i r s t , prospects of good g r a i n harvest on the p r a i r i e caused a general o p t i m i s t i c buying market; and secondly, shipments of 500 tons of SO,, b e r r i e s to the p r a i r i e s helped to r e l i e v e the market. Because of the shortage of r a i n i n B r i t i sh Columbia, when the strawberries should have had moisture to enable them to f i l l out properly, the q u a l i t y of the f i r s t b e r r i e s shipped was .adversely a f f e c t e d . However, the r a i n came just i n time to save the main strawberry crop from f a i l u r e . P r i c e s f o r strawberries were f a i r l y high f o r b e r r i e s that were shipped, and the grower was netted s i x cents a pound. Raspberry Prop The marketing of the B r i t i s h Columbia raspberry crop ivas very u n s a t i s f a c t o r y from the point of view of r e t u r n s . There was not one cause, but a s e r i e s of causes, responsible f o r these poor r e t u r n s . F i r s t of a l l the main crop of strawberries was s t i l l going onto the market when the raspberry crop s t a r t e d . The r a s p b e r r i e s , too, were of i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y , n e c e s s i t a t i n g that they be sold immediately even at a poor p r i c e . Thus not only were the ra s p b e r r i e s deprived of a clean market, but also the price had to s t a r t lower than i t otherwi se would have. Next, because of weather c o n d i t i o n s at the shipping po i n t , i t was not possible f o r the growers to ship b e r r i e s that were capable of standing up f o r several days, and being i n good c o n d i t i o n upon a r r i v a l at the market. Another main reason f o r the poor p r i c e was that g r a i n prospects during t h i s i n t e r v a l of time changed from e x c e l l e n t to very poor; pessimism was widespread, and buying was depressed. S t i l l another reason was that the B r i t i s h Columbia crop was l a t e , while the Eastern Canadian crop was - 87 -e a r l i e r than u s u a l , and there was no p o s s i b i l i t y of r e l i e v i n g the p r a i r i e congestion. The l a s t reason was that pne which has already been discussed, namely, that because of of the seve r a l v a r i e t i e s that were shipped t h i s season, there was a l a c k of u n i f o r m i t y upon a r r i v a l . The Cuthbert berry, although the best a l l - r o u n d shipping berry, v/as d e c l i n i n g i n production, and the growers had been attempting to grow other v a r i e t i e s , with the r e s u l t that i n each car l o a d of rasp-b e r r i e s there were .from three to f i v e d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s of b e r r i e s . Late Crop This crop also suffered due to the p r a i r i e crop c o n d i t i o n s . Wot only that, but the p r a i r i e markets were attempting to dispose of the l a r g e s t volume of b e r r i e s ever d i s t r i b u t e d i n such a short period of time just p r i o r to the commencement of the l a t e crop. At the same time, shipping point c o n d i t i o n s were extremely poor, and a heavy r a i n , f ollowed by a high humidity,made b e r r i e s very poor shippers. The season was also l a t e , and t h i s r e s u l t e d i n a serious com-p e t i t i o n wi th the main crop of deciduous f r u i t s from Washington, Ontario, and B r i t i s h Columbia. The l a s t reason for the poor returns i s one which has not been mentioned before, namely, that of terminal c o n d i t i o n s . By the time that the l a s t f r u i t came on the market, r a i n s had set i n and there were e a r l y f r o s t , a l l of - 88 which tended to have a devastating e f f e c t on the pr i c e . Although Eastern Canada used ten c a r l o t s , the market was at no time s a t i s f a c t o r y , and i t proved just a means of r e l i e v i n g the congested p r a i r i e markets. I t i s pos s i b l e to see from t h i s b r i e f review given that Canada i s d e f i n i t e l y d i v i d e s into zones f o r small f r u i t s marketing. Any discouraging reports such as crop f a i l u r e , weather c o n d i t i o n s , or other outside i n f l u e n c e s that might be a decided setback f o r the growers i n one part of the country might be c r e a t i n g a market and causing an advance i n p r i c e , prove an absolute boom to those i n another part. I t would be almost an i m p o s s i b i l i t y to eliminate such a con-d i t i o n , as i t p r e v a i l s not only f o r small f r u i t s , but f o r a l l crops, and at the same time, i s not only nation-wide, but world-wide. - 89 -VII CONCLUSIONS From t h i s study of small f r u i t s , the w r i t e r has drawn the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s, as being adaptable i n a general way to a l l small f r u i t s i n Canada. I n d i c a t i o n of any widespread expansion i n the near future seems to l i e p r i m a r i l y i n the hope that the consump-t i o n of processed b e r r i e s can be increased, or that the g r a i n crop on the p r a i r i e becomes improved. Production of small f r u i t s i n Canada follows d e f i n i t e c y c l e s . Being g e n e r a l l y a short-term crop, i t i s possible f o r r a p i d c o n t r a c t i o n and expansion of acreage on the b a s i s of the previous year's low or high p r i c e r e s p e c t i v e l y . Because of the e a r l i n e s s of the crop the United States i s able to export to Canada at a time when the pri c e i s h i g h e s t , and destroy the urgent demand f o r b e r r i e s by the time the Canadian crop i s ready. This causes a low s t a r t i n g p r i c e f o r the Canadian b e r r i e s . There are many production problems which s t i l l have to be studied i n B r i t i s h Columbia to-day. The most out-standing one i s probably the c o n d i t i o n of ra s p b e r r i e s "Running-out" or "Mining of Raspberry" soils, although fungus and v i r u s diseases of a l l small f r u . i t s are by no means under c o n t r o l . - 90 -Production problems are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to marketing, and many of the marketing problems to-day are ' i n t e n s i f i e d by the grower who has not been educated as to the v a r i e t y or to best means of c u l t i v a t i o n and harvesting. In general, the grower who does not know the best way to handle the b e r r i e s before they leave h i s hands. The consumption of small f r u i t s could be increased i f a l l middlemen would give t h e i r f u l l support to the co-operative a s s o c i a t i o n s , and not demand too large a margin f o r handling the f r u i t . I t i s to the advantage of a l l groups that the spread between producer and consumer be reduced to the minimum. The c h i e f hope f o r increased consumption i n the future i s from the increase i n processed f r u i t s , as i n the past few years only the Frozen Pack method of preservation has shown any r e a l advance. There should also be a hope f o r an increased demand i n Canada as sDon as the r e t a i l e r s i n s t a l l equipment to keep the f r u i t at a low enough temperature. The l a t e s t me th od of processing on a commercial scale i s the use of SOg. This method can be employed com-m e r c i a l l y i n times of s t r e s s i n an e f f o r t to b r i n g about o r d e r l y marketing. This i s a f a r more s a t i s f a c t o r y means than even the Frozen Pack method. The grading of small f r u i t s i s not adequate i n Canada to-day as v a r i e t y should be taken i n t o consideration. - 91 -The producer should be advised to j o i n up with a small f r u i t co-operative i n order to b e n e f i t not only himself, but a l s o the small f r u i t growers as a group. - 92 -V I I I jffi€QMMBIEDA T10 i¥S Recommendations made here are "based on the points that have been developed i n the previous part of t h i s essay, and are classed under f i v e main headings; production, h a r v e s t i n g , marketing, c o n t r o l l e d production, and co-operation. Production While t h i s i s a c t u a l l y not a survey from a h o r t i -c u l t u r a l standpoint, nevertheless the w r i t e r f e e l s that he i s j u s t i f i e d i n o f f e r i n g h i s views on how the small f r u i t crop might be improved to b e n e f i t the producer, not only i n marketing b e r r i e s , but a l s o i n reducing the cost of produc-t i o n . Contrary to general b e l i e f a grower should not go i n t o small f r u i t growing unless he has had some experience along t h i s l i n e . Small f r u i t growing as a main crop enter-p r i s e w i t h no supplementing e n t e r p r i s e s , gives a poor d i s -t r i b u t i o n of labour during the year. Such a farm would keep the owner employed at the most, only about s i x to eight months during the year. Whereas i f the farmer combined small f r u i t growing w i t h p o u l t r y r a i s i n g , he would have a farm which could s t i l l be kept to the small farm s i z e , and yet one - 93 -which could y i e l d a maximum r e t u r n per acre, ( 3 9 ) . P o u l t r y r a i s i n g i s p r e f e r r e d as a supplementary enterprise to "dairying, because the l a t t e r would tend to have i t s labour c o n f l i c t with the labour i n small f r u i t growing. Some of the advantages of such a combination of b e r r i e s and p o u l t r y are b r i e f l y as f o l l o w s : there would be an average d i s t r i b u t i o n of labour over the year, p l e n t i f u l supply of manure f o r c u l t i v a t i o n of b e r r i e s , and the r i s k of income being e n t i r e l y cut o f f would be reduced. These form the main reasons why b e r r i e s can best be grown as a supplementary crop. There are other reasons why an inexperienced man should not attempt small f r u i t growing. Pests and diseases are very serious handicaps which the grower i s faced w i t h , and any grower not knowing the a c t u a l symptoms, may be con-f r o n t e d with a s i t u a t i o n with which he i s not able to cope. I t i s , of course, true that the government publishes b u l l e t i n s on such subjects and maintains men throughout the province to deal with such problems; yet the grower who has not made himself acquainted w i t h such f a c t o r s as n u t r i t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s and excesses, fungus and v i r u s diseases, and the way i n which pests i n j u r e the p l a n t s , would be under a serious handicap and not be l i k e l y to succeed. At the present time, the Dominion Government maintains experimental and i l l u s t r a t i o n s t a t i o n s i n a l l - 94 -provinces and i n most di s t r i c t s . In most of these s t a t i o n s , where small f r u i t s can he grown, the problem i s studied by 'competent h o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . In s p i t e of the f a c t that such work i s done i n the i n t e r e s t of the small f r u i t grower, very few growers take the time or the trouble to v i s i t such s t a -t i o n s to f i n d out just e x a c t l y what c u l t u r a l methods are being c a r r i e d on. Instead, the grower prefers to grow the f r u i t the same way he has done i n the past, with the r e s u l t that i t o f t e n r e s u l t s i n d i s a s t e r . Such questions as f e r t i l i z e r mixtures, proper c u l -t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , methods of combatting diseases and pests, and the value of c e r t i f i e d stock can only be solved by experiment and experience. The experimental s t a t i o n s should save the farmer the trouble of using u n t r i e d methods, and i t would be to h i s advantage to f o l l o w t h e i r advice. Another phase of work which the government i s c a r r y i n g on through i t s experimental s t a t i o n s i s the improving of v a r i e t i e s by experimentation i n the breeding of small f r u i t s . Such a .programme as t h i s e n t a i l s vast c r o s s i n g experiments and only about one seedling i n ten thousand i s worth keeping. I t can be seen that a private grower could not hope to c a r r y on such improvement work. Although work i s being c a r r i e d on f o r a l l species of small f r u i t s , the raspberry v a r i e t y problem i s the most important at the present time f o r B r i t i s h Columbia at l e a s t . - 95 -Some r a s p b e r r i e s are favourable from the point of view of production, and others from the consumer's angle, but the ul t i m a t e aim i n breeding work i s to obtain a berry that i s s u i t a b l e to both classes concerned. Such a raspberry, according to J . J . Woods,(.52), would have to combine "The q u a l i t y of the Guthbert, the y i e l d of the Lloyd George, the hardiness and h a b i t of growth of the Latham, and the colour of the V i k i n g " . I t w i l l probably be some time before such a b e r r y i s obtained, as breeding and m u l t i p l i c a t i o n work, though f a s t e r than^tree f r u i t s , i s a slow process, and yet growers should make themselves acquainted with the improve-ment work as- i t progresses, i n order to be ready to grow the i d e a l berry when the time c omes. Harvesting Although the best harvesting practices have been discussed during the course of t h i s study, no mention has been made of the f a c t t h a t improper harvesting f a c i l i t i e s can e a s i l y be a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r of production, and one which might be improved«, The p i c k i n g costs of small f r u i t s i s an important item i n the t o t a l cost of production. Not only i s t h i s so, but large q u a n t i t i e s of cheap labour must be a v a i l a b l e f o r short periods of the year, and small f r u i t s can only be grown where such labour can be obtained. - % -For those small f r u i t s which ripen q u i c k l y and must be picked o f t e n , s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to p i c k i n g i s required. Strawberries, r a s p b e r r i e s , b l a c k b e r r i e s and loganberries f o r the f r e s h f r u i t market should be picked only by experienced p i c k e r s , as the b e r r i e s must be capable of standing up even under adverse shipping c o n d i t i o n s . P i c k e r s who are not experienced tend to s a c r i f i c e care i n p i c k i n g i n an attempt to increase speed, arid b e r r i e s that have been handled roughly can be used only f o r jamming. Once a picker gains some experience i n p i c k i n g , and learns to handle the b e r r i e s c a r e f u l l y , then i t i s possible to allow that picker to pick the shipping b e r r i e s which pay a b e t t e r p r i c e . l o g a n b e r r i e s , f o r the f r e s h f r u i t market, require a l s o s p e c i a l care when p i c k i n g . Because of the nature of the f r u i t the c e l l punctures very e a s i l y , causing leakage and making an u n a t t r a c t i v e package. Marketing Canada can roughly be classed i n t o three marketing d i v i s i o n s . Western Canada;. Ontario, and Quebec;, and the Maritimes. We have seen t h a t , as a general r u l e , each of these areas tend to be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t as f a r as each d i s t r i c t goes. - 97 -Comparing the per c a p i t a consumption of each d i s t r i c t , talcing the population f i g u r e s as given by the 'census of 1951,(21a), and the peak year of production of 1952,(19), i t i s found that there i s a wide range of v a r i a t i o n as shown i n Table YI. Table ¥1 Per Capita Consumption i n Quarts 5«5 3 # -L 2.7 5.1 We s t e r n Canada Ontario and Quebec Marltimes Canada Average These f i g u r e s i n Table VI show, of course, only the b e r r i e s that are produced on a commercial s c a l e , and there i s probably i n the older s e t t l e d parts of Canada much more produced on a domestic scale , so these f i g u r e s would tend to become more uniform. However, i f proper a d v e r t i s i n g were c a r r i e d on, per c a p i t a consumption should be increased to f i v e quarts per c a p i t a per year, i f the proper stimulant were given to the consumer. This increase might come through s t i m u l a t i o n i n the demand f o r f r e s h f r u i t s , jam, j e l l i e s , or canned b e r r i e s , but i n any case , i f the production were ) increased to f i v e quarts per c a p i t a i t would require f i f t y -one m i l l i o n quarts to s a t i s f y the demand. This would indeed - 98 -prove a boon to the small f r u i t producer, and would have an i n d i r e c t e f f e c t of i n c r e a s i n g h i s income, ' In a general way i t has been discussed how such an increase might be forthcoming i f proper a d v e r t i s i n g methods are pursued. However, aside from t h i s , there are several ways by which consumption might be increased f o r the d i f f e r e n t small f r u i t products. Considering f i r s t , the jam b e r r i e s . At the present time i t i s the general p r a c t i c e to use f o r jam b e r r i e s , those which cannot be used on another market. Whether such a p o l i c y i s advisable i s very questionable. B e r r i e s obtained i n t h i s way are g e n e r a l l y the c u l l s of the f i e l d * the small and misformed b e r r i e s , and those i n which the f l a v o u r i s not a b s o l u t e l y the best. To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s point, i t might be w e l l to r e f e r to the Howe Sound b e r r i e s . Because of the la c k of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , i t was found that they could not be marketed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n Vancouver. However, as the b e r r i e s produced were of e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y , a manu-f a c t u r e r b u i l t a jam f a c t o r y end jammed a l l the b e r r i e s j u s t as they come from the f i e l d . This f a c t proved to be a good advertisement, and when made known, there was a demand f o r jam. This jam proved to be of a superior q u a l i t y to most brands, as the b e r r i e s were lar g e and seemed to have the n a t u r a l b e r r y f l a v o u r . With such superior q u a l i t y i t would be p o s s i b l e to obtain a premium f o r such jam. The demand f o r f i r s t - c l a s s jam, the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s , - 99 -could "be Increased by such a procedure as mentioned above. In many d i s t r i c t s i t might be advisable to ship a l l b e r r i e s f o r jam in s t e a d of skimming o f f the cream of the crop and shipping to the f r e s h f r u i t market, and then s e l l i n g the r e s t f o r jam. Although the grower would probably receive a smaller p r i c e , i t i s doubtful whether i t would not be as f a r ahead i n the end, because he would be saved expense of cra t e s and of packing and of other i n c i d e n t a l s necessary In shipping. Another angle which should. be i n v e s t i g a t e d f u r t h e r i s the problem of shipping q u a l i t y . This has been c a r r i e d on to a very l i m i t e d extent In Canada, and g e n e r a l l y by people whose opinion i s biased. B e r r i e s of a l l v a r i e t i e s and types should be shipped under a l l c o n d i t i o n s by government men, and the r e s u l t s obtained should be made a v a i l a b l e to the small f r u i t grower so tha t he w i l l know what v a r i e t y i s the best f o r shipping and under what con d i t i o n s i t i s advisable to ship. Besides conduoting shipping t e s t s , i t would be to the advantage of the producer, i f the government would make t e s t s f o r the d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s f o r t h e i r jamming and canning q u a l i t y . C o n t r o l l e d Production As has already been seen, f l u c t u a t i o n i n the pri c e of small f r u i t s are c e r t a i n to occur as long as there i s no - 100 -r e s t r i c t i o n on production. To stop these wide f l u c t u a t i o n s , i t would be i n the i n t e r e s t of the small f r u i t producer i f "the government were to set up a committee which would a l l o t production t o d i f f e r e n t areas. The s n a i l f r u i t producers 1 a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n the areas would have to do the planning f o r the i n d i v i d u a l farms. Such a plan as the one suggested has been t r i e d f o r other crops with varying degrees of success. The costs of such a plan as t h i s might be greater than the b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d . However, i t would do no harm f o r the small f r u i t growers to make a survey as to the f e a s i b i l i t of c o n t r o l l e d production. I t might be that c o n t r o l of the market rather than acreage might have a depressing e f f e c t on production, but t h i s could only be shown through a c t u a l experience. I f a programme of c o n t r o l l e d acreage were put i n t o e f f e c t , i t would be necessary to maintain a reserve supply of b e r r i e s , preserved by f r e e z i n g or other means i n case of adverse weather c o n d i t i o n s , to keep the market steady. Go-ope r a t i on l i t t l e has been said thus f a r concerning the advantages and disadvantages of co-operation, and yet t h i s i s r e a l l y a part of a programme of. c o n t r o l l e d production. Acreage can best be c o n t r o l l e d through co-operative organiza-t i o n i n a d i s t r i c t , i f the co-operative represents enough of - 101 -the producers In the area. I t would be to the advantage of growers even i n an area w i t h only nine or ten. producers to market t h e i r f r u i t as a group, because as such they can market f r u i t r e g u l a r l y and have a c e r t a i n s e l l i n g power. However, thus f a r only the advantages of s e l l i n g c o l l e c t i v e l y have been mentioned, and t h i s Is but one of the b e n e f i t s that may be derived. The buying of m a t e r i a l s , such as commercial f e r t i l i z e r s , crates and c e r t i f i e d stock can be bought at a lower cost i f a l a r g e r quantity i s ordered. Although i t i s not a sound economic p r a c t i c e to be granted such p r i v i l e g e s , the producer, nevertheless, should take advantage of such c o n d i t i o n s when they do e x i s t . The margin between the cost of production and the net r e c e i p t s f o r b e r r i e s i s so s l i g h t to-day that any decrease i n the cost of production would help the producer. The only reasons a grower might give f o r marketing h i s crop independently to-day are: f i r s t , that he can market d i r e c t l y to the consumer; and secondly, that the co-operative to which he would have to belong i s i n e f f i c i e n t l y managed. The f i r s t reason can be offered i n only a few cases and even then, i t would be to the advantage of the small f r u i t producers as a whole i f the independent shipper would market through the co-operative. The independent shipper, when he s e l l s d i r e c t l y to the consumer, tends to o f f e r the b e r r i e s -102 -at a lower price and thus causes a general depression on the market. The independent shipper must be made to r e a l i z e h i s .ob l i g a t i o n s to the small f r u i t producer as a group. The second reason, namely that of i n e f f i c i e n t management, i s e n t i r e l y i n the hands of the small f r u i t producer. I f any grower i s not s a t i s f i e d with r e s u l t s and can show proof that poor returns are the r e s u l t of i n e f f i c i e n t management, I t i s probable that the f r u i t producers would demand a change i n management. I t i s time that co-operatives l i m i t private i n i t i a t i v e as f a r as marketing i s concerned, but i t i s perhaps a good t h i n g to leave i t i n the hands of those who know something about i t . As long as the producer receives a s a t i s f a c t o r y p r i c e f o r h i s b e r r i e s and runs the production end, he should be s a t i s f i e d . However, many growers to-day are not r e c e i v i n g what they consider a s a t i s f a c t o r y p r i c e , and they attempt to place the blame on middlemen charges. Summary of Recommendations Summing up measures which might be taken to help the small f r u i t i n d u s t r y we f i n d that,-( l ) An educational campaign should be conducted by the government i n the i n t e r e s t of the producer to show him - 103 -which are the best methods of c u l t i v a t i o n , disease c o n t r o l measures, supplementing e n t e r p r i s e s , harvesting methods and , s u i t a b l e v a r i e t i e s f o r shipping and marketing. (2) A s i m i l a r campaign should be c a r r i e d on to educate the consumer i n regard to the best type of berry, and the d i f f e r e n t uses t o which b e r r i e s might be put* ( 5 ) The- q u a l i t y of jam must be improved i n an e f f o r t to increase the q u a n t i t y consumed. (4) C o n t r o l l e d production or marketing should be i n v e s t i g a t e d , together w i t h the a d v i s i b i l i t y f o r the small f r u i t grower to operate under the Natural Products Marketing Act i n c e r t a i n areas. (5) Co-operation f o r buying as w e l l as s e l l i n g w i l l be to the advantage of a l l small f r u i t growers. The independent shipper i s often strong enough to destroy the bargaining power of co-operatives, and i n t h i s way s p o i l s the market and causes a lower p r i c e . - 104 -IX SUMMARY Berry production has sh own some remarkable trends since 1900 with the highest point of production being i n 1932 when thi r t y - t w o m i l l i o n quarts were produced i n f i v e p rovinces. Ontario and B r i t i s h Columbia produced 77%. of the t o t a l commercial f r u i t production i n the years 1924-1954. Commercial small f r u i t production i s confined c h i e f l y to strawberries and r a s p b e r r i e s , which comprised about 18.57; by value of a l l f r u i t s i n Canada i n 1932-1933. P r i c e and production of small f r u i t s show a very high i n d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n * Processed b e r r i e s are a very important means of disp o s i n g of the small f r u i t crop. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Competition w i t h b e r r i e s from outside i s confined mainly to the small f r u i t s from the United States at the beginning of the season, when the pri c e i s high. Production problems, such as c l i m a t i c , s o i l and s i t e f a c t o r s Influence the marketing of a l l small f r u i t s , 1 There are also many minor problems such as disease and n u t r i t i o n which must be considered i n regard to the I n d i v i d u a l f r u i t . The marketing problem which i s foremost i n the minds of those i n t e r e s t e d i n small f r u i t growing i s that of va r i e t y . - I t i s necessary to f i n d a v a r i e t y which w i l l - 105 -s a t i s f y the consumer f o r consumption, and the producer from the standpoint of growth h a b i t s . A new berry which has been .introduced and shows promise i s the youngberry or wonderberry as i t i s sometimes c a l l e d . Because of the extreme p e r i s h a b i l i t y of b e r r i e s , care must be exercised i n t h e i r handling, h a r v e s t i n g , packing t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and storage. I t should be possible by means of a d v e r t i s i n g and other s t i m u l a t i o n s to increase the demand f o r small f r u i t s , not only that of f r e s h pack, but also those which are pro-cessed. Small f r u i t s are processed by jamming, canning, j e l l y i n g , f r e e z i n g , or by p l a c i n g i n a s o l u t i o n of S0 2, The l a s t two methods named are recent developments and should show an increase i n the near f u t u r e * Small f r u i t s are handled most s a t i s f a c t o r i l y through co-operative o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as i t i s possible f o r such an o r g a n i z a t i o n to c a r r y on the p r a c t i c e s of standard-i z a t i o n and a d v e r t i s i n g . The f u n c t i o n s of marketing are the same as with other smell f r u i t s , as they pass through the hands of co-operatives, wholesaler, r e t a i l e r and then consumer. The three methods of sale that are i n common p r a c t i c e are the consignment method, JT.0 .J3., and d i r e c t s e l l i n g . Where p o s s i b l e the l a s t method, that of d i r e c t s e l l i n g , i s preferred, but where i t i s not f e a s i b l e to market - 106 -i n t h i s way, the grower tends to prefer the F.O.B. method, as i t r e l i e v e s him of a l l r i s k of marketing. Inspection at terminal and shipping points i s c a r r i e d on by government employees i n the i n t e r e s t of both the shipper and the consignee. In B r i t i s h Columbia, i t was found that each small f r u i t showed a d i f f e r e n t trend i n regard to the percentage that was processed. About $0% s t r a w b e r r i e s , r a s p b e r r i e s , and b l a c k b e r r i e s were consumed as f r e s h f r u i t , whereas only a very small percentage of the loganberries were s o l d i n the f r e s h market, The three crop movements i n B r i t i s h Columbia are the main crop s t r a w b e r r i e s , r a s p b e r r i e s , and l a t e crop. Such problems as middleman charges and L.C.L, shipments are dealt w i t h , and also the i n d i v i d u a l problems i n connection w i t h each crop movement. - 107 -LITERATURE CITED A M REFERENCES ( l ) B a i l e y . L.H.. (2) B e t t e r F r u i t (3) Canada Jam '. . Marke t i n g -Scheme (4) Chandler, W. H. (5) Chenoweth. W.W. ( 6 ) Clarke, G.B.w;. (7) Clarke. G.B.W, (8) Converse, Paul D. (9) Cruess, W.V. (lO) Gumming. M. Standard Cyclopedia of H o r t i -c u l t u r e . • Macmillan Go. of New York, 1917. John T. Jerome, P u b l i s h e r . Better E m i t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 809 Terminal Sales B u i l d i n g , P o r t l a n d , Oregon. 11) (b) June February, 1930 1931. Under Natural Products •Marketing Act, 1934. P r i n t e d i n Canadian Gazette, May, I 9 3 5 . F r u i t Growing. Houghton M i f f l e n Company, Boston, Mass* Page 6 l 6 . Food Pr e s e r v a t i o n . John Wiley & Son Inc., New York, 1930. Currants and Gooseberry Culture. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Hort. C i r . No. 56 . Raspberry Culture. Province of , B r i t i s h Columbia. Hort. C i r . No. 55. Marketing, Methods and P o l i c i e s . P r entise H a l l Inc., New York, I929 — Second E d i t i o n . Commercial F r u i t and Vegetable Products. McGraw H i l l Book Co. Inc., New York, 1924. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Nova S c o t i a . Correspondence, November 6 , 193J?. - 108 (11) Darrow, G.M« (12) (17) Darrow * GyM.' (13) Davis. M. _B. (14) (15) (16) D i c k i e . B Department of  A g r i c u l t u r e Department of A g r i c u l t u r e D i c k i e , B« Culture of Loganberry, Black-berry and Related V a r i e t i e s , Farmer B u l l e t i n 998, I928, U.S.D.A. E f f e c t of F e r t i l i z e r s on Firmness and Flavour of Strawberries In Forth C a r o l i n a , U.S.D.A.. Reprint i n Proceeding of A.S.H.S. f o r 1931* Raspberry and i t s C u l t i v a t i o n i n Canada* Dominion B u l l e t i n 114, 1929. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Annual Report f o r 1933 and 1934, S t a t i s t i c s Branchi A g r i c u l t u r e S t a t i s t i c s Report. 1924-1934. Berry Deal of 1935. Report of Canadian F r u i t D i s t r i b u t o r s L t d . Vancouver, Not published. Ce n t r a l S e l l i n g Great Advantage to B r i t i s h Columbia Berry Deal. Country L i f e . E d i t o r and Manager, Charles Hayden, Yernon, B.C., October, I 9 3 5 . (18) P i e h l , H.ff., Magness, J.&?, and Bonney, V.B. - 0",S.D,A. Frozen Pack Methods of Preserving B e r r i e s _ i n the P a c i f i c North-west* Technical B u l l e t i n No. 148, January, 1930* , (19) Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s Annual S t a t i s t i c s of F r u i t , and F l o r i c u l t u r e * 1924 - 1934. (20) Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s F r u i t and Vegetable Packing Industry i n Canada, 1924 - I 9 2 9 . - 109 -(20) (Continued) (21) (24) ( 2 5 ) Report of F r u i t and vegetable Preparations i n Canada, 1930 -1934. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s Canada Year Book. 1933 1934-35 ( 2 2 ) Dominion Marketing Board (23) Domini on of.Canada Farquhar, CD. ffra.se.r, ..Samuel Guide to Preparation of Marketing Schemes. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . The A g r i c u l t u r a l S i t u a t i o n . 1934 1935 1936 General Manager, Tfashington Berry Growers A s s o c i a t i o n , Sumner Washington. "The Future of Berry Production", r e p r i n t e d i n Proceedings of the 2 7 t h Annual Meeting of Washington State H o r t i c u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , I 9 3 I . American F r u i t s . Orange Judd P u b l i s h i n g Co* Inc., New York, 1924. ( 2 6 ) F r u i t . B r a n c h of Dominion of Canad g The F i r s t Vegetable and Honey Act and Regulation. P u b l i c a t i o n 476 , 1935. ( 2 7 ) Heckman. J.H. and H a l l . O..J. Harvesting, Marketing Methods and Production P o l i c i e s f o r Arkansas Strawberries. Univer-s i t y of Arkansas, Extension C i r . No. 528, A p r i l , 1934. - 110 -(28) Hendrickson, I.E. Strawberry Culture i n C a l i f o r n i a . A g r i c u l t u r e Extension Service, 23; Revised, 1931. * (29) Jacob. H.E. Use of Sulphur Dioxide i n ' Shipping Grapes. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a . B u l l e t i n 47, 1929. (30) Johnson, N e i l W.. and Severance,. Geo* An Economic Study of Berry Earming i n Western Washington. A g r i c u l t u r e Experimental Sta-t i o n , Pullman, Washington. B u l l e t i n No. 204, June, I926. (31) Maooun. W.f. , and Davis, M.B. The Strawberry and i t s C u l t i v a -t i o n i n Canada. Dominion Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , B u l l e t i n No. 80, I929. Rate of Ripening, and firmness of Strawberry as influenced by f e r t i l i z e r and c e r t a i n other f a c t o r s . Washington State H o r t i c u l t u r a l Proceedings, 1932, pages 27i-278. > A Study of the Shipment of f r e s h f r u i t and Vegetables to the f a r E a s t i U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a B u l l e t i n No. 497, 3uly 1930. ( 5 4 ) Overholser, E.L., and Moses, B.D. Pr e - c o o l i n g of f r e s h f r u i t s and Temperatures of R e f r i g e r a t o r Cars and Warehouse Rooms. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a B u l l e t i n No. 496, June 1930. (35) P h i l l i p s , CD. and Card, .P.O. •Organization and Management Problems of Co-operative Straw-berry Marketing Associations i n Kentucky. U n i v e r s i t y of Kentucky B u i . No. 319, August 1951. (32) Overholser, E.L. (33) Overholser. E.L. - I l l -(36) Price... H.B.. and.Negaard., 0*A. Marketing L o c a l l y Grown Rasp-b e r r i e s i n Minnesota. Univer-s i t y of Minnesota B u i . I o . 245. J u l y , 1928, (37) Processed Berry Marketing Scheme (38) (39) Rankin. W.H, Robinson,, R»B. Under Natural Products Marketing Act of Canada, 1934. Reprinted i n Canada Gazette, June 29,1935. Quoted i n Small F r u i t s of New York. H e drick , ( 4 5 ) . O f f i c e of F r u i t Commission. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Correspondence, October 17 I935, (40) Schuster. C.E. and Burrler., A..S, (41) Sears. P.O. Costs and P r a c t i c e s i n Strawberry Production i n the Williamette V a l l e y , Oregon. Oregon State State A g r i c u l t u r a l College, C o r v a l l i s . S t a t i o n B u l l e t i n No. 245, May I 9 2 9 . Productive Small F r u i t Culture. L i p p i n c o t t s Farm Manual. E d i t e d by Kary C. Davis. J.P, L i p p i n -c o t t Go., P h i l a d e l p h i a and London, 1920. Shimeh. J.B. (42) (43) Shoemaker. J.S (44) Shoemaker, J.S., and Greve P a c i f i c Co-operative Union, M i s s i o n , B.C. Correspondence March 20, 1936. Small F r u i t Culture. P. Blahiston's Son & Co. Inc., 1012 Walnut St., P h i l a d e l p h i a . R e l a t i o n of Nitrogen F e r t i l i z e r to the Firmness and Composition of Strawberries. Ohio B u i . No. 466, 1930. - 112 -(4-5) Small F r u i t s of New York Hedrick, U.D. J*B,LynCo., p r i n t e r , Albany, 1925. (46) Sulerad, G.L. and Kelson, M.N. An Economic Study of the Small F r u i t Industry i n Oregon. Oregon State A g r i c u l t u r a l College, C o r v a l l i s , Oregon. S t a t i o n B u i . No. 274, January, 1931. *($3) (47) Thompson, F*L. Factors A f f e c t i n g Strawberry P r i c e s . U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i B u l l e t i n Ho. 347. February I935. (48) Thompson, R.L. Financing Production and Marketing of Louisiana Strawberries and Suggested Recommendations. Louis i a n a State U n i v e r s i t y . B u l l e t i n Wo. 219, January 1931. (49) White. E.W. Loganberry Cul t u r e . Province of B r i t i s h Columbia H o r t i c u l t u r e C i r . No. 54 . (Revised E d i t i o n ) (50) Wi-egX'ahd, Ernest H. The "Frozen Pack" Method of Pre-- serving B e r r i e s . Oregon State A g r i c u l t u r a l College, C o r v a l l i s , Oregon S t a t i o n B u l l e t i n No.278, May 1931. (51) Wilcox, O.W. Reshaping A g r i c u l t u r e . W.W.Norton & Co. Inc. P u b l i s h e r s . New York. (52) Woods. J . J . Progressive Report on Raspberry Growing i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Dominion Experimental Farm, Agassiz, B r i t i s h Columbia. (53) V a r i e t y Key Summary. Report of Raspberry Committee, B r i t i sh Columbia. (54) Z a v a l l a . J.P. Canning of F r u i t s and Vegetables. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1916. - 113 -o o y t l A t O O N C — LT\CV1 C M <«t to O O O O CVJ CvJ L A o c -o «> « NO O CvJ l A «=t ON O H C - t O ** « C O H H l A Cv! o r-t CvJ^ B-2-O O C v J o t o o t o CVI NO v O C-- ON ON ** « L A H c— t O c - H c o L A L A ^i - tO CVltO Cvl CvJ o ON ON NO NO o o oco «" » " = t H o to o HI Cvl r H H tO C O O N H H •=t • A Cvl tO H - = t • ^ • N O Cvl CVJ I A N O O C— O I A O I A O N O C - -st . O U \ LA<tf O ^i" LT\ C — • A I A O I A O C V I Cv * o o LT\tO x O L A O ^ O ur\ O ON L T \ O X N O CVJ O N t A O O tO i r \ * © u > 0 O c v l 0^=t I A C -O ON LT\Lf\ CO I A CvJ O tO tO H O v O O C O O Lf\ o ^ O *t H c v j O *=t "*tCO v D I A v O O LA"*t r H *t o N O O N N O N O to <* L A CO N O o to to r H H r H r H -sj-ON-^ J-N O t O LT\ CO C D P O H O c o o i O C O O N O O I O «=t LT\"vJ-O C O NO Lf\ o o O H O C M Oss-5. O - s f X—' 'o~~ O'jrS. 0'=HL 0 \ r ^ O V £ H ON O H O ON O t— O N O O CvJ O C O l A i A O O N ONtO L A CvJ i A C — O N O O N O O O f « «« e * © e *> «" . «* e O ON CVI«tf" N O C— v D v f l l A O O N O O t O H t O H - * H v t H O N H L A Cvj C—CvJ ^ t o ON CO ON CO ON H H Cvl t o CvJ t o N O CO o v > . o to • A H o o o to Ovs-S. o o o to o t o o t o O C v J O N O XOV2-to O CO A O Lf\ O O O V 2 * O C O O C O O C O ONtO O H O O O ^ O Cvl • •» $ " 0 ft ® •> e 3> O N t A O I A O N O C O - * o t o o to lA-s i - NO to l A t O c—*=t to to to ON NO c— Cvl t o to to N O Lf\ ON CvJ *• CO CO L A H H CO o H H H H O ' - s ^ . 0 * s A . O ' s t O ^ . o ^ ° . o ^ a . O V L 0 '^2-• o o o O C O O CvJ O N O O I A O ON O LT\ O H O CVI O N O CO o c— O N O L A Cvl C~CO o t r - O ON o to O i A O O O N O O ^ H *. © «> o 0" o « * (* o © « CVJ CVJ t A C M l A E O H c v j LACvJ CVJCO C — H NO tO U-\"^- NO to O N H to CvJ H NO CvJ L A to CVI to H L A to to NO L A L A H CVI CO H O to CVJ H H o o o o o O o o O O o L A O o o o o o o cvi t o O o CvJ to o c— O " H o Ok 05 CO L A L A ON CN L A H to o Si NO CO c— H ON to to to NO NO H ^ - •=t NO ON ON o o cvi N O o NO o «* cv CVI CvJ CO O N CO «=t to to CO H H H H H CVl H CVI t o CVI CVI 0) QJJ •« !4 L A NO c— CO ON o H CVI t o !4 C3 CVJ CvJ CvJ CVJ CVJ cvl to to to to to CD CD ON ON ON O N ON ON 0N ON ON ON ON i> SH H H H H H H H H H H H « 1 - 114- -APPENDIX  Table 2 Average P r i c e of Small F r u i t s - I n Canada Not Weighted Average - 1 1 5 -M H R I P H to! H CO E H s t OJ O S H © U o © CO CO o CQ - P • H FH ! ^ r H r H CO M O, PI O • H += O r O O FH P-f H ' CO - P o &H O O o o o s t o s t to OJ CO c - r r -OJ OJ S O s O ON i r \ ON OJ C -r-i S O s t A s O Co CO s t OJ L A H CO S O c - CO O N o ON s t CO to o r H St o OJ s t e r -H r-i s t s t OJ c - I A s t © ** «v OJ » OJ • H OJ to CO LTV OJ CO rH c r ~ • OS s t o s t e— SO ON c - C - to CO r-i o CO . to S O H S O OJ CO e 11 OJ CO s O CO s O OJ H OJ H OJ ON CO ON o o o o : s o o o S O o OS s t s O SO OJ s t o ON cr-© • e» H e> c» H SO o o t c - OJ ON OJ H to 0 s CO co o r-i ON s t OJ to O H s O ' CO o L A r-i rH ON • vQ c CO to ON H o OJ o r-i to H CM H • H s O c o r-l I A . ON ON s t H s t O c — C-r- to A OJ rH O #« e o I c - 1 8, I T * OJ CO O c - SO o o o s L A SO OJ s t <-l c— E— H s O to CO CO • 0 rH H L A CO OJ SO OJ OJ H OJ CQ >d © CQ a Ti CQ © CO FH CQ © CQ • H © •n' © FH © •ri FH • H FH CQ rO FH FH FH © + 3 © FH © FH rH rO CQ © c3 © CQ CO t » S^ ' CO o FH - P is FH +s CO F-. O © o CO ft © O u SH CJ3 CQ E H FH CQ rf E H , + 3 pi 4 3 CO 4 3 CO 4 3 CO o o Pi CO P H o - 116 -O N H • p c) G a N O s t §» C O to C— C O C O L A O N O r H OJ O C O r H s t s t CM C - N O OJ H \* s t to <* r- i L A p. N O r-i L A St C O OJ s t to L A O N s t O N to C O ' © c— to c o to 0 t to r H © H L A C O C O c~ N O OJ {Si CO 04 - p rH O N O to OJ O N L A N O s t r-i I A O N r H OJ H t ~ O s t s t O N N O C O C O to to L A C O OJ C O O o s t L A t*. e* OJ N O to L A o O N L A o c- C O N O r-i O e- O N CM A r H O N c— c— c - N O c~ C O © O N O N O to to H r-i H OJ C O c— N O to H N O © . to O N s t O N L A A s t G O N © CM o N O O N to OJ o N O OJ s t O C— C O s t to to c - H c— s t r-i A - p OJ O N O N O N tr - OJ OJ o S: rH r-i r-i o L A o O N to H CM OJ c- H N O C O to © L A N O s t s t o N O L A O N O N to s t N O e~- O L A OJ A O N ' «t «» *> OJ O N C - o 8 o N O O N O t H s t N O C O o o L A © A to OJ O r H OJ OJ OJ L A s t o to O N s f OJ » «» L A L A to s t N O O N O N s t s t s t • A L A N O c~ G O O N o H OJ to s t CO OJ CM OJ OJ CM OJ to to to to to CD O N O N O N O N O N O N O N O N O N O N O N r-i r-i r-i r H r-i H H r-i r H r H r H CO *3 fc> co « s'fc> O rH O C O <H - P s t to I s t OJ O N r-i CD r H F* o • H rH Q H P • H Pi rH Pq <H O CO o • H + 3 CO • H - P CO +3 >3 >S rH H «H <H CD 0> •r i - H rf rf 0 o 1 I 3 CO o • H + 3 CO • H CO CO - P - P ?H fH 0 O a a +3 •ri CD - P CO I 1 <H o a? CD fH H P i O CO CD fH O •rl • H « O - 117 -APPEMX Table 5 Quantity and Value of Small F r u i t s  Canned i n Canada by Provinces ' (a) Quantity(in cases) Year Canada B r i t i s h Quebec Ontario Maritimes Columbia I925 111,213 26,154 31,472 10,625 / 42,964 1926 160,064 25,908 64,678 8,441 63,040 1927 147,726 9,886 45,490 16*571 67,499 1928 153,408- 14*804 57*882 5,600 55,122 1929 175,301 15,955 73,385 12,614 73,647 1950 164,512 25,159 55,445 32,101 51,207 I93I 144,675 90 89,030 1,098 53,616 1932 118,833 - 48,578 - 69,364 I933 93,131 - 30,615 6l 5896 I934 149,655 45,551 - 105,879 * Average 139,852 * Tremendous increase I n loganberries since 1950« (b) Value 1925 $478,582 ,164,587.: 1177,046 $51,840 |205,100 1926 805,514 68,850 560,076 27,019 538,569 1927 731,441 34,759 357 ,495 86,552 352,655 , 1928 659,725 57,028 274,364 23,855 284,476 1929 871,974 6l;l2 3 : 576,700 47,370 387,981 1930 728,060 75,074 299,521 78,486 275,159 1931 662 ,214 540 414,935 4,826 2 38,701 1932 385,225 - 161,847 220,571 1933 289,220 - 93,873 - 192,685 1954 492 , 4 97 - 45,551 764 336,775 Average 1608.245 - 118 -APPENDIX' Table 6 T o t a l Production of D i f f e r e n t Small F r u i t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia from 1,922-1954 (Expressed i n Car l o t s — approximately 10 tons to the car) Year Straw-b e r r i e s Hasp-b e r r i e s Black-b e r r i e s Logan-b e r r i e s Bush Tota l 1922 265.0 154 .5 27*2 58 > 2 30 i 3 495 .5 1923 500,7 175.9 27.8 55*2 29^5 587-I 1924 224*5 214 .0 41>9 86.6 26*2 595.2 1925 115 .2 186*8 55.6 44.1 56.7 416 .4 I926 196.9 2 56*5 ". 47*5 120*2 55.4 656.5 1927 526.9 187.0 58*6 79.6 46.4 678.5 1928 552.0 170.2 ; 56.4 69.O 41 .7 669.5 I929 515.2 155.6 41 .7 80.2 : 26.6 597*5 1930 246 .9 118 .2 59.5 '82.8 45.9 533.5 1951 272o8 120.7 29.5 10 6-. 1 48.2 577*3 I952 279.5 122.1 34.6 115 .8 62... 4 612.4 ; 1935 332 & 2 74.2 50*5 89.5 80*7 606.9 1934 441.6 122,0 37.5 .. I I 5 . 8 90*0 806.7 Figures as published i n P r o v i n c i a l Department of S t a t i s t i c s 1924-1954, B'.C. Figures i n Tables 7 and 8 g i v i n g f r e s h f r u i t s t a t i s t i c s , and also processed f i g u r e s when combined and reduced to the same u n i t s ( l b s . ) give the f i g u r e s f o r the t o t a l production. Weight of f r u i t i n the crates of the b e r r i e s i s reckoned a t , -Strawberries Raspberries B l a c k b e r r i e s loganberries Bush.Fruit 16 l b s . — I 6 . 5 " — 16 " — 16 B.C. f i g u r e not con s i s t e n t . - 119 -AEEEnSTDIX  Table 7 Quantity of f r u i t produced I n B r i t i s h Columbia which was s o l d on the Fresh F r u i t Market (Expressed i n terms of c r a t e s ) * Year Straw-b e r r i e s Rasp-b e r r i e s Black-b e r r i e s Logan-. b e r r i e s Bush Total 1922 153,878 77,094 22 ,554 10,412 ' 12,080 275,818 192 3 213,987 114,804 28,173 22,070 16,280 395,314 1924 159,007 137,990 29,109 18,058 11,704 355,868 1925 85,815 119,573 35,688 6,740 15,763 261,579 •' 1926 116,802 120,676 30,715 15,556 13,768 295,317 1927 206,764 139,376 52,073 12,873 17,087 408,175 ,1928 194,664 125,691 26,995 5,H6 11,673 564,139 192 9 • 217,880 110,855 32,058 9,421 8,559 578,753 1930 159,637 93,827 29*957 9,539 9,040 302 ,000 1931 220,556 88,554 :23*450 11,354 8 ,175 551,869.; 1932 172,992 85,274 24^693 12,36l 9,117 .304,437 1933 220,696 52,976 18,404 9,512 7,140 508,728 I934 356*440 74,562 28,165 .8,412 8,090 485,629 * See Note at the bottom of Table 6. - 120 -APPENDIX Table 8 Quantity of f r u i t processed i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Expressed In terms of pounds)* Year Stravz- Easp- Black- Logan- Bush b e r r l e s b e r r i e s b e r r i e s b e r r i e s F r u i t s T o t a l 1922 2 , 7 9 8 , 5 3 3 1 , 5 5 4 , 2 8 7 I 8 2 , 6 4 3 600,594 531,814 5 , 4 4 7 , 8 7 1 1925 2 , 5 8 9 , 5 3 9 1 ,756,141 1 0 5 , 8 4 4 7 5 0 , 0 7 8 217,750 5,419,352 I 9 2 4 1 , 9 4 6 , 5 3 4 2,210 ,926 371 ,631 1,422 ,945 310 ,095 6 , 2 6 2 , 1 2 7 I 9 2 5 8 9 1 , 8 0 0 1,945,261 173 ,076 775,109 450,216 4,255,462 1926 2 , 0 7 0 , 4 5 2 2 , 9 2 1 , 8 0 0 4 5 8 , 8 54 2 , 1 9 1 , 5 7 6 4 7 2 , 7 6 6 8 , 1 1 5 , 2 2 8 I927 3,229,429 1,649,544 255,652 1 ,385,767 658,045 7,162,237 1928 3 , 9 2 5 , 4 4 6 1 , 5 1 9 , 0 9 9 2 9 7 , 4 8 8 1 ,297,857 575,421 7,613 ,211 1?29 2 , 7 7 9 , 7 9 6 1 , 0 5 9 , 1 7 6 521,428 1 , 4 5 3 , 4 5 5 558,076 5 , 9 6 2 , 9 2 9 1930 2,382 ,918 956,281 511,702 1,504,080 376,997 5 ,531*978 I 9 3 I 1 , 9 2 6 , 7 3 5 1 , 0 8 9 , 6 6 5 214,941 1 , 9 4 1 , 5 8 0 2 9 1 , 8 2 1 5*464,740 1932 2 , 4 7 7 , 0 9 6 9 0 8 , 8 4 4 247,382 2,054,928 393,142 6 , 0 8 1 , 3 9 2 1933 2,671,570 550 ,496; 2 7 8 , 7 1 8 1,616 ,220 422,380 5 , 5 1 9 , 3 8 0 I 9 3 4 5,551,614 1 ,205 ,289 282,786 2 , 1 8 1 , 9 4 9 5 7 9 , 5 0 0 7,401,118 * See Note at bottom of Table 6. 

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