Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A description and examination of a type of professional training in the light of educational psychology Cross, Henry Norman 1935

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1935_A8_C7_D3.pdf [ 8.55MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105507.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105507-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105507-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105507-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105507-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105507-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105507-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105507-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105507.ris

Full Text

A OF IN  DESCRIPTION A  THE  TYPE. OF LIGHT  OF  AND  EXMilNATTof''^^"^'^"^''"  PROFESSIONAL EDUCATIONAL  TRAINING PSYCHOLOGY  by Henry Norman Cross  A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF ARTS i n tjae Department  PHILOSOPHY  The U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia  FEBRUARY 1955  TABLE .OF CONTENTS Page I  Introduction  II  III  .  I  Checking of C a l c u l a t i o n s and Achievement of F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h V a r i o u s Forms and Records .  1  L)i s ens s i o n • • « • • « * * « •  3  • * •••  •  L e a r n i n g the V e r i f i c a t i o n of Cash and Bank JD  IV  I  S  C*O.  s  s  1  on  »  •  •  «  •  *  •  s  *  «  •  •  •  •  •  *H  The L e a r n i n g of Vouching D1 s L. ui s s i on  V  VI  8  • • « « • . • «•  9  •  #  *  •  •  « » • »  9'  L e a r n i n g the V e r i f i c a t i o n of I n v e n t o r i e s . . .  11  D i s ens s 1 on • « • • • • • - • • •  13  • « » • o • « •  L e a r n i n g the V e r i f i c a t i o n o f Accounts and Notes R e c e i v a b l e . . . . . . ...  15  Di s e n s s i o n » • m • • • • * * • •» • • • » • • • * • VII  L e a r n i n g the P r e p a r a t i o n of Schedules o f Accrued and P r e p a i d Items . . . . . . . . . D i scuts s ion. » * « «  VIII  # • •  IX  r  20  « « • « « •  L e a r n i n g the V e r i f i c a t i o n of Accounts and Notes Payable and Outstanding L i a b i l i t i e s . D i s cms s 1 on • • •  18  .  24  »«•  The L e a r n i n g of P o s t i n g  28  Discussion  29  Page X  XI  XII  XIII  XIV  XV  XVI  L e a r n i n g the A n a l y s i s of C a p i t a l A s s e t Accounts .  51  Discussion  52  L e a r n i n g t h e V e r i f i c a t i o n of Share C a p i t a l and E x a m i n a t i o n o f Minute Books  54  Discussion  55  D e s c r i p t i o n and D i s c u s s i o n o f the L e a r n i n g o f A n a l y s i s o f P r o f i t and Loss Accounts. . .  57  D e s c r i p t i o n and D i s c u s s i o n of Method o f L e a r n i n g t o C a r r y Out a Complete A u d i t . . .  45  G e n e r a l D i s c u s s i o n of the L e a r n i n g o f Detail Verification. .  50  General D i s c u s s i o n of the L e a r n i n g o f More Advanced Work Leading up t o the Completion o f an A u d i t  70  Conclusion .  78  A DESCRIPTION AND EXAMINATION OF A TYPE OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE LIGHT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY I INTRODUCTION The  a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s of  t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d o f accounting  i s l i m i t e d by t h e  absence o f a knowledge o f these p r i n c i p l e s and by practical factors.  The s e n i o r a c c o u n t a n t who i s a c q u a i n t -  ed w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s o f pedagogy i s an e x c e p t i o n . pressure  of time and o t h e r  The  c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e work  would always a c t as an impediment i n t h e way o f an endeavour t o a s c e r t a i n and a p p l y more c o r r e c t methods. The  very nature of p r o f e s s i o n a l accounting  learning of i t systematic.  makes t h e  I t s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d ,  however, t h a t t h i s l e a r n i n g i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y based upon any c o n s c i o u s or p r e c o n c e i v e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . The  t r a i n i n g can be s a i d t o be i n k e e p i n g w i t h s c i e n c e i n  so f a r as those methods t h a t have been developed by t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f common sense, resemble t h e r e f i n e d judgements o f the s c i e n t i s t , as t h e y f r e q u e n t l y do. The  d e s c r i p t i v e p a r t o f t h i s ?rork i s w r i t t e n  from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f view.  There appears t o be'  no t e x t d e a l i n g w i t h the t r a i n i n g o f the beginner i n accounting  i n t h i s manner.  The a c c o u n t i n g  text treats  II •idie-subject from a g e n e r a l p o i n t o f view, c o n c e r n i n g  itself  w i t h t h a t w h i c h s h o u l d be done t o s a t i s f y c e r t a i n l e g a l and other requirements.. The d e s c r i p t i o n I n these pages d e a l s • w i t h a s p e c i f i c form and method of t r a i n i n g .  A.  p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e way i n w h i c h a s u b j e c t i s l e a r n e d must i n v o l v e a d e s c r i p t i o n , i n some sense, o f that subject.  The t e x t oh e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y showing  ho?/ a r i t h m e t i c i s l e a r n e d , may s t a t e and d e s c r i b e t h e problems of a r i t h m e t i c but concerns i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y w i t h the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s .  I t may o n l y he c o n s i d e r e d  logical treatise.  a psycho-  '  The study o f any type o f l e a r n i n g : i s t h e study o f \ t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of new ways o f r e a c t i n g .  The i m p o r t a n t  p a r t s o f the p r o c e s s a r e governed by t h e laws o f l e a r n i n g . Each law emphasizes a p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f . t h e  process.  The e x e r c i s e by use o f any mental r e a c t i o n tends t o s t r e n g t h e n  it.  T h i s , s i m p l y , i s - t h e l a w of use.  From i t f o l l o w s ; t h e law o f f r e q u e n c y , which s t a t e s ; t h e more f r e q u e n t becomes.  the e x e r c i s e o f a r e a c t i o n t h e s t r o n g e r i t  The converse i s e q u a l l y t r u e and i s r e f e r r e d t o  as the law o f d i s u s e .  The l a w o f recency s t a t e s t h a t the  more r e c e n t t h e e x e r c i s e t h e s t r o n g e r w i l l . b e t h e r e a c t i o n . A l l o f these laws are s u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n t h a t f a c t o r s ; remain unchanged. r a r e l y do so.  other  I n f a e t these other f a c t o r s  They d i f f e r i n t h e i r q u a l i t y and, a c c o r d i n g -  l y , the lav; o f e f f e c t i s i n t r o d u c e d which s t a t e s t h a t i n  .human behaviour much*depends on the sense of  satisfaction  or atmoyance- w h i c h accompanies an a c t or I t s r e s u l t . 'There i s an abundance of p s y c h o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t a s u b j e c t must be " o v e r - l e a r n e d " to  t o .be r e t a i n e d .  i f the  desired  Many experiments have been  made t o show the extent, t o w h i c h we f o r g e t what we It i s e s s e n t i a l that a subject.should  be  learn.  sufficiently  : l e a r n e d b e f o r e the l e a r n e r i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o some o t h e r subject.  • These laws appear; t o be almost s e l f - e v i d e n t .  They i n c l u d e the c u m u l a t i v e r e s u l t of c e n t u r i e s s c i e n t i f i c study and,  simple though t h e y may  of  appear, i t  i s p o s s i b l e t o observe t h e i r : v i o l a t i o n ?/herever we  see  the t r a i n i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s c a r r i e d -put" .without t h e i r study and a p p l i c a t i o n . The mind i s always a c t i v e i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge.  Ah attempt at. t r a i n i n g i n any f i e l d  be s e r i o u s l y handicapped, by f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e b a s i c f a c t of human l e a r n i n g .  The  will  this  t h e o r y t h a t the mind  i s a. t a b u l a r a s a on w h i c h i d e a s are p a s s i v e l y i m p r e s s e d , as was. t a u g h t by the e a r l y 'psychologists such as Bp eke Hume and  the a s s o c i a t i o n i s t s and i m p r e s s i o n i s t s  f o l l o w e d , has l o n g been d i s c r e d i t e d .  The  and  that  b e l i e f that  ideas  are p a s s i v e l y r e c e i v e d i s s t i l l ; p o p u l a r l y h e l d , however, and a f f e c t s the t r a i n i n g of . i n d i v i d u a l s under a l l c i r c u m -  s t a n c e s where t h e a d v a n c e s o f -modern p s y c h o l o g y a r e not Known. .-"'Where, I n t h e p a s t , emphasis r e s t e d w i t h t h e :  t e a c h e r i t i s how p l a c e d on the l e a r n e r .  The o b j e c t o f  the t e a c h e r used t o be t o "impress" i d e a s on t h e mind o f the l e a r n e r .  I t i s now t o d i r e c t , him i n such a manner  t h a t h i s mind may be as a c t i v e as p o s s i b l e I n t h e accumul a t i o n of h i s -knowledges  A l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i s looked  upon as being i n t h e n a t u r e o f a problem, w h e r e i n t h e l e a r n e r ...must e x e r c i s e h i s mind t o o b t a i n the most economi c a l and e f f e c t i v e method of s o l u t i o n .  The whole o f a  • s i t u a t i o n , however l a r g e or small,; f i r s t p r e s e n t s  itself  v a g u e l y t o the mind w i t h c e r t a i n dominant f e a t u r e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e i t s meaning".  The mind tends t o a n a l y s e ,  fill  i n , and r e l a t e the d e t a i l t o the meaning as a whole. d o i n g t h i s the mind a n a l y s e s  and s y n t h e s i z e s  In  concurrently  and i n t e r - a c t i v e l y a t a l l t i m e s . The i n d i v i d u a l should be t r a i n e d t o t h i n k  ' '  along the course the mind n a t u r a l l y t a k e s i f t h e most d e s i r a b l e r e s u l t s are t o be o b t a i n e d .  Learning  may  be  made d i f f i c u l t i f the normal -flow, o f t h i n k i n g I s impeded or i m p r o p e r l y  directed.  An e f f i c i e n t d i r e c t i o n would be  t h a t w h i c h a p p l i e d , : as f a r as p o s s i b l e , a s c i e n t i f i c : knowledge o f t h e laws of l e a r n i n g and aimed a t g u i d i n g the l e a r n e r i n . su.ch a manner:, t h a t he would t h i n k f o r him-, s e l f as much as p o s s i b l e .  He would a c q u i r e new f a c t s i n  a l o g i c a l and connected manner.  Each p a r t would be  -V r e l a t e d t o a l l o t h e r p a r t s and t h i s sense of r e l a t i o n s h i p would a c t i v e l y d i r e c t h i s mind i n t h e s o l u t i o n of any problem. The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s  w i l l be found u s e f u l  i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a i n i n g t h a t i s t o be o u t l i n e d . Three methods of l e a r n i n g w i l l be r e c o g n i z e d .  The f i r s t  i s t h e t r i a l and e r r o r method, which i s looked upon as the most elementary and which i m p l i e s no r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g or a n a l y s i s , but c o n s i s t s of random movements w i t h t h e o b j e c t of r e a c h i n g  a goal.  The second I s t h e method '  r e f e r r e d t o as i m i t a t i o n - t h e o b s e r v a t i o n  o f t h a t -which  o t h e r s do enables the l e a r n e r t o a c q u i r e a s t o r e of knoY/ledge w i t h o u t the p r o c e s s of d i s c o v e r i n g f o r h i m s e l f , at the t i m e , t h e importance o f each i n d i v i d u a l p a r t . t h i r d way of l e a r n i n g I s by r e f l e c t i v e thought.  The  This  method I n v o l v e s a c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e problem as a whole, the o b j e c t i v e s and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the p a r t s t o each other and t o the whole.  This t h r e e f o l d d i s t i n c t i o n i s ,  however, u s e f u l r a t h e r t h a n f i n a l , s i n c e t r i a l and e r r o r l e a r n i n g i s apparent throughout the whole range of our thinking. An attempt w i l l be made t o show t h a t these t h r e e methods a r e p r e s e n t i n v a r y i n g degrees i n the l e a r n ing  t h a t i s t o be examined - t h a t though no one method  may he p r e s e n t t o the e x c l u s i o n o f t h e others,, one may be  - VI ,the more prominent.  P s y c h o l o g i s t s agree g e n e r a l l y t h a t  /the l a s t i s most e f f e c t i v e .  An attempt s h o u l d be made,  ' t h e r e f o r e ) t o r a i s e ^he l e v e l wherever p o s s i b l e from l e a r n i n g by t r i a l and e r r o r , or by i m i t a t i o n , t o a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h t h e h i g h e r p r o c e s s e s of the mind are i n v o l v e d . . Moreover, r e a s o n i n g i s the form of l e a r n i n g t h a t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a d a p t a b l e i n the f i e l d o f a c c o u n t i n g , Psychology has a c h i e v e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the  processes  p f r e a s o n i n g , a knowledge of which, i s e s s e n t i a l i f t r a i n ing  i s t o be c a r r i e d out c o r r e c t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y .  In  reasonings the mind I s o p e r a t i n g a l o n g i t s normal course. I t c o n t i n u e s t o a n a l y s e and s y n t h e s i z e , but i n a. more • p u r p o s i v e , r e f i n e d and complex manner. ,a, vague p i c t u r e , of. a. s i t u a t i o n , we may  Instead of having have a p l a n or a  h y p o t h e s i s or a problem w i t h c e r t a i n d e f i n e d paths ^procedure  of  towards, s o l u t i o n . This, i m p l i e s the r e c o g n i t i o n  of r e l a t i o n s between the elements', and a c o m b i n a t i o n them i n the course o f o b s e r v i n g them.  of  In reasoning,  con-  s c i o u s n e s s or awareness of the problem or p l a n as a wrhole i s e s s e n t i a l , i f the p a r t s are t o be examined as t o t h e i r • r e l a t i o n t o i t and t o each o t h e r , f o r t h e r e o b v i o u s l y must be the r e c o g n i t i o n : o f a p p r o p r i a t e means t o the ,  I n the s o l u t i o n of any problem or the  end.  con-  s t r u c t i o n of any h y p o t h e s i s , not o n l y does the mind use , the f a c t s of p r e s e n t o b s e r v a t i o n ; i t a l s o draws from the storehouse  of memory any e x p e r i e n c e t h a t r e l a t e s  itself.  - VII To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s l a t t e r a c t i v i t y , the m a t e r i a l s t o r e d i n the mind should be i n a form t o p e r m i t s e l e c t i o n and review f o r the purposes of s e l e c t i v e thought.  rapid  I f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between i d e a s i s c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d ,  each  step i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s w i l l l e a d e a s i l y and i n e v i t a b l y to the n e x t . Moreover, the abridgement o f t r i a l and l e a r n i n g i s g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d by the p r e v e n t i o n c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r s . the l e a r n e r may  error and  Through a knowledge of m i s t a k e s  see the consequences o f h i s a c t s or get a  b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what i s r e q u i r e d of  him.  E r r o r s s h o u l d be Drought to. the n o t i c e o f l e a r n e r wherever p o s s i b l e , i f they are t o be p r e v e n t e d or c o r r e c t e d . l e a r n e r may  subsequently  U n l e s s e r r o r s are known, the  c a r r y on a t some performance I n d e f i n i t e l y  w i t h l i t t l e or no improvement.  I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r an i n -  c o r r e c t mode of procedure to become h a b i t u a t e d , not c o r r e c t e d at the o u t s e t .  i f i t is  Where a knowledge of m i s t a k e s  I s b e f o r e the mind, the s e l e c t i v e p r o c e s s e s are and the l e a r n e r i s enabled t o f i n d h i s way his  the  facilitated,  more r e a d i l y to  objective. T r a i n i n g methods may  be improved s c i e n t i f i c a l l y  i f the mind i s developed i n accordance w i t h the laws of l e a r n i n g , w i t h f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n of the a c t i v e n a t u r e of  the  mind.  as  far  Random and  i m i t a t i v e t h i n k i n g should be r e p l a c e d  as p o s s i b l e by r e a s o n i n g .  To do t h i s a p l a n and  under-  - VIII standing  o f the purposes i m p l i c i t i n i t should be sub-  s t i t u t e d f o r the vague o u t l i n e t h a t i s formed at f i r s t i n the mind,--  The o b s t a c l e s  t h a t may p r e s e n t themselves  should be c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d , and the means s u p p l i e d which s h o r t e r and b e t t e r paths may be r e c o g n i z e d selected.  and  by  - 1 -  'Checking of C a l c u l a t i o n s and Achievement of F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h V a r i o u s Forms and Records The c h e c k i n g of c a l c u l a t i o n s i s u s u a l l y the f i r s t work t o which a g u n i o r accountant i s a s s i g n e d .  In  the c h e c k i n g of a d d i t i o n s h e - i s g i v e n d e f i n i t e I n s t r u c t i o n s a s t o ..what columns i n the hook or statement he i s r e q u i r e d t o c h e c k . • There a r e , of c o u r s e , many d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s ?  where the c h e c k i n g i s n e c e s s a r y , but he i s c a r e f t i l l y ' directed;  and the o n l y knowledge r e q u i r e d of him i s the  a b i l i t y t o add.  , T h i s c h e c k i n g of a d d i t i o n s i s a v e r y  important l i n k I n the r e a s o n i n g t h a t -leads t o the consummation of the t o t a l v e r i f i c a t i o n work t h a t i s b e i n g c a r r i e d out*  The  j u n i o r a t t h i s stage has no i d e a as to,  what t h i s may  be.  Each s t e p he makes i s under c a r e f u l  observation.  He i s i n s t r u c t e d t o mark whatever he  checks  w i t h a d i s t i n c t i v e mark, so t h a t the gaps i n h i s work be s u b s e q u e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d and completed.  may  F o r example^  when the t o t a l s are c a r r i e d f o r w a r d from one page t o a n o t h e r , i f these are not marked and checked, the work t h a t he has been d o i n g o n . a d d i t i o n s I s of l i t t l e v a l u e .  He  w i l l ; a l s o be g i v e n work t o do on e x t e n s i o n s , t h a t i s , the v e r i f i c a t i o n of m u l t i p l i c a t i o n wherever i t appears on the d a t a t h a t a r e s u b m i t t e d t o him, the most f r e q u e n t of which are, i n v e n t o r i e s .  Here a g a i n , the amount of work he i s  t o do I s d e f i n i t e l y i n d i c a t e d , ' a n i ' h e ' w i l l show what ;  been done by. marking. .The  has  ;  -.• . .  e a r l y p a r t of the t r a i n i n g i s ^confined  work of t h i s n a t u r e .  to  No t e c h n i c a l knowledge i s n e c e s s a r y ,  but the s t u d e n t / a c q u i r e s a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h forms of, which he w i l l see a g r e a t d e a l l a t e r .  He w i l l be g i v e n  s h e e t s o n w h i c h are shownj a d e s c r i p t i o n of the ;  the q u a n t i t y , the u n i t p r i c e and the  inventory  article,  the t o t a l amount..  Under  heading of q u a n t i t y w i l l be shown the number of u n i t s  of w e i g h t , count.or measurement u s e d , e.g., gallons, etc.  The  pounds, f e e t ,  u n i t p r i c e s w i l l be shown i n terms of  p r i c e s f o r the p a r t i c u l a r weight or measurement i n w h i c h the q u a n t i t i e s have been shovm.  The' t o t a l amount w i l l  the r e s u l t o b t a i n e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the q u a n t i t y by unit price.  be  the  I t . i s found n e c e s s a r y , q u i t e o f t e n , t o con-  v e r t the q u a n t i t y g i v e n i n t o some o t h e r u n i t , , s u c h as evrb., or gro ss, b e f o r e the computation can be made.  In  doing, t h i s the s e n i o r cannot be b o t h e r e d too o f t e n .  The  ;  student.must a p p e a l t o whoever i s r e s p o n s i b l e compilation  of•'••.-the i n v e n t o r i e s .  He  for  the  cannot a f f o r d t o  q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e h a v i n g t r i e d t o r e a s o n the problem for  h i m s e l f , as he may  I n t h i s way  be accused of a s k i n g  he g r a d u a l l y a c q u i r e s  absurd  information  out questions.  t h a t he uses  i n doing,work of. a s i m i l a r n a t u r e where, s i m i l a r u n i t s v a r i a t i o n s are f o u n d .  ask  ^  and  He w i l l have been g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o observe v a r i o u s c l a s s e s of r e c o r d s , cash, books, purchase j o u r n a l s , s a l e s j o u r n a l s and r e g i s t e r s o f d i f f e r e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s , a l s o v a r i o u s types of l i s t s and  summaries.  These w i l l be d i f f e r e n t everywhere he goes, so t h a t he becomes accustomed t o the f a c t t h a t a l l systems are d i f f e r e n t , however much the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s are  the  same. Discussion I n the l e a r n i n g of the work on a d d i t i o n s , as such, l i t t l e new  knowledge i s o b t a i n e d .  The l e a r n i n g of  the work on e x t e n s i o n s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r a b l y  facilitated  i f the j u n i o r were g i v e n the same types of work t o do c o n s e c u t i v e l y , u n t i l i t became f a m i l i a r .  T h i s , however,  i s not always p o s s i b l e , as no s i m i l a r type of work may a v a i l a b l e f o r h i s n e x t assignment. working on a d d i t i o n s a g a i n .  He may  be  f i n d himself  T h i s i s not so t r u e of  this  e a r l y simple c l a s s of work, as t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l of i t and he w i l l do enough t o become accustomed t o t h e possible variations;  as .the work becomes more complex, :  the l i k e l i h o o d of c o n t i n u e d p r a c t i c e upon s i m i l a r k i n d s of work i s l e s s e n e d .  The l e a r n i n g c o u l d be f a c i l i t a t e d i f ,  on the completion  of h i s assignment, comparisons were made  w i t h o t h e r s e t s of working p a p e r s , showing work s i m i l a r to what he has been doing and g i v i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s  such  _ 4 as we s h a l l show l a t e r .  In developing f a m i l i a r i t y  v a r i o u s k i n d s o f r e c o r d s , the t r a i n i n g more e f f e c t i v e were reviewed of a s i m i l a r  c o u l d be  with  rendered  i f t h e r e c o r d s t h a t had been d e a l t w i t h and compared o r , i f a f t e r  a number o f t a s k s  n a t u r e have been done, these were reviewed  as a whole and t h e s i m i l a r i t y  indicated.  - 5 - I l l 'L e a r n i n g the V e r i f i c a t i o n of Cash and Bank B a l a n c e s The j u n i o r may next be a l l o w e d t o a s s i s t i n the c o u n t i n g of s m a l l cash funds and I n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e working p a p e r s .  He i s i n s t r u c t e d t o f o l l o w the  p r e v i o u s working p a p e r s , which w i l l g i v e him d e f i n i t e directions.  The cash vouchers and o t h e r items making up  the fund are l i s t e d .  Currency i s s e t down by the v a r i o u s  denominations of notes and m e t a l l i c money.  Vouchers  are  l i s t e d i n d e t a i l , showing d a t e s , p a r t i c u l a r s and amounts for  each.  Cheques and vouchers f o r advances are a l s o  noted I n d e t a i l showing d a t e s , names o f drawers or persons to whom advances have been made, and the amounts of each. The vouchers are examined.to  see t h a t t h e y bear the proper  s i g n a t u r e s and t h a t t h e y appear t o be i n o r d e r .  The work  to be done i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d on the p r e v i o u s s c h e d u l e s . A l l schedules the j u n i o r now  prepares w i l l be s u b s e q u e n t l y  reviewed by h i s s e n i o r and any o m i s s i o n s p o i n t e d out t o him.  The s e n i o r w i l l p r o b a b l y show him, f o r example,  t h a t he has f a i l e d t o t r a c e the cheques a p p e a r i n g on h i s schedule t o ' t h e cash book r e l a t i v e t o the p a r t i c u l a r fund that i s being v e r i f i e d . Upon c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s p a r t o f the cash v e r i f i c a t i o n he may be g i v e n work t o do on the cash I n bank.  - 6 Here a g a i n , the p r e v i o u s papers'show him what he i s t o do. He t r a c e s p a i d cheques and a l s o d e p o s i t s t o the c a s h book and bank s t a t e m e n t s .  I n t r a c i n g the cheques he must  examine them, p a y i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o :  t h e date of  the cheque, the name o f the payee, the s i g n a t u r e s on each cheque (which s h o u l d be of those who cheques) the endorsements, cheque was p a i d .  are a u t h o r i z e d t o s i g n  and t h e d a t e on which  each  The d e t a i l a p p e a r i n g on the d u p l i c a t e  d e p o s i t s l i p s i s a l s o checked w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l e n t r i e s i n the cash book.  I n the p r e p a r a t i o n of. the r e c o n c i l i a -  t i o n ' between the b a l a n c e , as shown by the cash book, and t h a t of the bank statement or bank pass book, the work i s more d i f f i c u l t .  U s u a l l y the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n has a l r e a d y  been prepared by the bookkeeper, i s t h a t t h i s be checked. to  and a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d  I f , however, the s t u d e n t has  prepare the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n h i m s e l f , he w i l l be  upon t o do some c a r e f u l t h i n k i n g .  called  W i t h no u n u s u a l i t e m s ,  however, i t may be a s i m p l e matter f o r him, by f o l l o w i n g what was done on the working papers of the p r e v i o u s a u d i t , to  complete the n e c e s s a r y work.  There may  be i t e m s  a p p e a r i n g on the bank statement t h a t do not appear i n the cash book, or items i n the cash book, o t h e r than o u t s t a n d ing  cheques, w h i c h are not t o be found on the bank s t a t e -  ment.  Here he has a problem on h i s hands.  f i n d the s o l u t i o n h i m s e l f he may  F a i l i n g to  consult h i s senior.  any event i t i s by a t t e m p t i n g t o work out the problem  In that  - 7 he l e a r n s most q u i c k l y , as compared w i t h merely f o l l o w i n g the  work completed by someone e l s e .  T h i s a s p e c t of h i s  l e a r n i n g w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y l a t e r . Discussion The student w i l l f i n d h i m s e l f . i n . a k i n d of i n t e l l e c t u a l maze but by f o l l o w i n g the d e v i o u s paths l a i d out f o r him i n t h e papers of the p r e v i o u s a u d i t , be be l e d i n t o the open. i t , may  will  H i s work, when he l o o k s back upon  seem meaningless and i t may remain so u n t i l he  has done a g r e a t d e a l , by which time he may have a c q u i r e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i t as a whole. s h o u l d be brought about much e a r l i e r .  This understanding A f t e r the work  has been completed i t s h o u l d be reviewed and n e c e s s a r y e x p l a n a t i o n s s h o u l d be made.  T h i s f a c t i s demonstrated  when we a g a i n c o n s i d e r what happens i f a m i s t a k e has been made.  '.'hen the work i s b e i n g r e v i e w e d , some d o u b t f u l  item may be d i s c o v e r e d w h i c h , due t o the l a c k of under- ' s t a n d i n g on the p a r t of the j u n i o r , i s not a d e q u a t e l y described.  More i n f o r m a t i o n i s demanded.  In order to  g i v e i t , the n e c e s s i t y a r i s e s f o r mental a c t i v i t y which always r e s u l t s I n a f u l l e r c o n c e p t i o n o f what i s b e i n g clone.  I f ?rorking c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t t e d , time c o u l d be  w e l l s p e n t , as we s h a l l see, i n the s o l u t i o n of problems d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s phase of the work.  - 8 - IV The L e a r n i n g o f Vouching Vouching i s t h e term used t o d e s c r i b e t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n v o i c e s , l e t t e r s and other documentary e v i d e n c e by comparison w i t h t h e e n t r i e s i n t h e books o f o r i g i n a l entry.  I n t h i s c l a s s o f work t h e j u n i o r i s  u s u a l l y s t a r t e d on t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f p e t t y cash d i s b u r s e ments.  He w i l l f i n d t h a t these a r e supported by i n v o i c e s  approved by t h e employee r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e c e i p t o f the goods o r s e r v i c e s f o r w h i c h the i n v o i c e s were rendered Items such as postage stamps, c a r f a r e and s i m i l a r payments w i l l be supported by vouchers signed by t h e employee r e c e i v i n g t h e money.  He must s c r u t i n i z e these c a r e f u l l y  and l i s t a l l vouchers t h a t appear t o be m i s s i n g . ing  I n vouch  other d i s b u r s e m e n t s , he must see t h a t t h e i n v o i c e i s  on t h e c r e d i t o r ' s own form and not on a form made up i n the o f f i c e o f t h e c l i e n t .  The date o f t h e i n v o i c e w i l l  be so i n s p e c t e d t h a t he w i l l d i s c o v e r I f b i l l s a r e being r e g u l a r l y p a i d on t h e i r due date o r o t h e r w i s e .  He must  see t h a t t h e i n v o i c e I s addressed t o t h e c l i e n t and not t o persons i n h i s employ.  He must observe t h a t r e c e i v i n g  r e p o r t s a r e a t t a c h e d , and t h a t both a r e approved as t o p r i c e s and c a l c u l a t i o n s . The method o f going about t h e vouching depends upon t h e viay- t h e vouchers a r e f i l e d , e i t h e r a l p h a b e t i c a l l y by names of customers o r a c c o u n t s , or n u m e r i c a l l y .  I f they a r e f i l e d n u m e r i c a l l y i t i s o n l y  - 9 n e c e s s a r y t o a s c e r t a i n the number of the vouchers required.  I f a l p h a b e t i c a l l y , i t w i l l r e q u i r e the name of  the customer o r account as w e l l as the voucher. cases I t may  I n some  be p o s s i b l e t o do the vouching by working  back i n the f i l e s t o the books of o r i g i n a l e n t r y . Discussion I t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the j u n i o r t o determine the s i m p l e s t and  s h o r t e s t method p r a c t i c a b l e on the  t i c u l a r s e t of books w i t h which he i s w o r k i n g .  He  partakes  an u n n e c e s s a r i l y l o n g r o u t e the f i r s t time he does the work, and l e a r n s s h o r t e r and b e t t e r ways by h i s experimentation.  own  The number of d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o be  remembered should be impressed a t the o u t s e t . t h i s i s not done.  In practice  He memorizes by the d r i l l r e c e i v e d i n  the d o i n g , perhaps at the expense of the work.  I t would .  be s a f e r and more e f f i c i e n t i f he were d r i l l e d b e f o r e work commenced.  Much time i s spent b e f o r e he i s a b l e t o .  remember a l l the t h i n g s he must do. to f i n d the way  the  He i s u s u a l l y l e f t  f o r h i m s e l f , being t o l d once what t o  and a f t e r having been g i v e n an I l l u s t r a t i o n . done the work p r e v i o u s l y he may  I f he  do has  r e c e i v e no d i r e c t i o n a t  a l l , though the manner i n which i t i s t o be done may q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of any p r e v i o u s  be  experience.  D i r e c t i o n would e l i m i n a t e a g r e a t d e a l of l o s t t i m e , would be v a l u a b l e even i f i t came a f t e r something  had  and  - 10 been completed,  p r o v i d i n g more work of a s i m i l a r n a t u r e  i s a s s i g n e d b e f o r e be has f o r g o t t e n what he has been 'told.  - 11 -  - v Learning  the V e r i f i c a t i o n of  Inventories-  I n the v e r i f i c a t i o n of i n v e n t o r i e s has  reference  a l r e a d y been made t o a r i t h m e t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s .  a l a t e r stage the j u n i o r w i l l be g i v e n work i n w i t h q u a n t i t i e s and  pricing.  r e c e i v i n g r e p o r t s and of the q u a n t i t i e s .  connection  He w i l l be r e q u i r e d  examine o r i g i n a l i n v e n t o r y f i g u r e s , I n v e n t o r y  At  to  records,  shipping reports i n - confirmation When a p h y s i c a l i n v e n t o r y "has  t a k e n , he must make a comparison of the i n v e n t o r y  been sheets  w i t h a s e l e c t e d number of o r i g i n a l t i c k e t s , cards or memoranda, showing the r e s u l t of. the c o u n t i n g , or measuring.  weighing  He r e c e i v e s s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s as  the amount of work to.be done and,  to  I f . t h e work be com-  p l i c a t e d , he i s t o l d the manner i n w h i c h t o go about i t . He may  a l s o be r e q u i r e d t o check c e r t a i n items on  i n v e n t o r y sheets by r e f e r e n c e  the  t o i n v e n t o r y r e c o r d s , when  he "must f i r s t f i n d out whether q u a n t i t i e s alone are t o be checked, or whether he must v e r i f y u n i t p r i c e s and  amounts.  I f the sheets are compiled from p h y s i c a l i n v e n t o r i e s , t h e r e may  be numerous d i f f e r e n c e s between the sheets  the r e c o r d s .  and  I f the sheets are prepared from book i n -  v e n t o r i e s , the sheets and r e c o r d s w i l l agree. be ever on the a l e r t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t may i m p o r t a n t readjustment of the i n v e n t o r y .  He must l e a d to some  He must keep  - 12  -  h i s eyes open f o r v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n as t o slow moving m a t e r i a l , as the r e c o r d s w i l l show purchases or and  s a l e s i n the account f o r each commodity.  products,  production Discontinued  damaged merchandise and s u c h items are  t r a t i o n s o f what he may  discover.  the s h i p p i n g r e c o r d s , he must use  illus-  I n h i s e x a m i n a t i o n of care t o see t h a t  no  f i c t i t i o u s b i l l i n g s have been made and t h a t merchandise b i l l e d t o customers i s e x c l u d e d from the i n v e n t o r y .  He  -  w i l X r e c e i v e no d e f i n i t e i n s t r u c t i o n s . f o r the  detection  of f i c t i t i o u s b i l l i n g , though the p o s s i b i l i t i e s manipulation  are numerous.  for  I n the t e s t s t h a t he makes,  of c o u r s e , he w i l l be guided by h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s i n each p a r t i c u l a r case.  Copies of i n v o i c e s are u s u a l l y examined  t o see t h a t the s a l e s appear r e g u l a r , and the records  shipping  t o see t h a t the goods were a c t u a l l y shipped,,  O r i g i n a l orders are examined to a s c e r t a i n i f the goods were o r d e r e d and  i f the terms t h e r e o f are complied w i t h .  I n order t o c e r t i f y p r i c e s , a s y s t e m a t i c i s used, based on t h a t of p r e v i o u s  audits.  plan  I t u s u a l l y con-  s i s t s of l i s t i n g c e r t a i n items t h a t are to be v e r i f i e d  and  of examined i n v o i c e s i n support of a l l the amounts appearing  thereon.  The  p r i c e s shown .on the most r e c e n t i n -  v o i c e s are the ones t h a t are examined; and  t h e y , of c o u r s e ,  s h o u l d be a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same as those used i n v a l u i n g the i n v e n t o r i e s . - Such items as d u t y , f r e i g h t , i n s u r a n c e and  s i m i l a r charges may  be i n c l u d e d i n the f i n a l p r i c e ,  - 13 i n ' w h i c h case t h e schedule w i l l have columns t o t a k e care of t h e s e .  The j u n i o r must a s c e r t a i n a l s o whether a l l t h e  i n v o i c e s examined by him have been r e c o r d e d i n the books; and t o do  so he must make r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i n v e n t o r y  records.  He f i n d s t h a t u s u a l l y t h e h e s t way t o do t h i s  i s t o i n s e r t t h e numbers o f t h e r e q u i r e d vouchers on t h e schedules and t o g e t t h e vouchers from the' f i l e s a l l a t the same t i m e .  T h i s s h o r t e r method he may n o t d i s c o v e r  u n t i l he has done a number- o f jobs o f t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l be g i v e n t o him i n r e g a r d to t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f market p r i c e s as' t o t h e sources to w h i c h he must r e f e r , such as t r a d e p a p e r s , p r i c e and s i m i l a r d a t a .  lists  I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , he i s u s u a l l y  r e f e r r e d t o t h e p u r c h a s i n g department where complete I n formation i s a v a i l a b l e .  He may a l s o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n  as r e g a r d s d i f f e r e n c e i n s i z e s , grades and c o m p o s i t i o n and any m a t t e r s r e l a t i v e t o t h e p r i c e .  He s h o u l d n o t  accept t h e i n f o r m a t i o n he r e c e i v e s w i t h o u t  investigation,  but should s a t i s f y h i m s e l f t h a t i t i s c o r r e c t . Piscussion. A t e c h n i c a l knowledge i s r e q u i r e d t h a t can o n l y be o b t a i n e d by e x p e r i e n c e , and t h e r e a r e many f a c t o r s t h a t condition the t r a i n i n g i n t h i s regard.  I n one case the  j u n i o r may be d e a l i n g w i t h an i n v e n t o r y o f canned salmon and i n another i t may be v i t r i f i e d  pipe.  Notwithstanding  - 14 t h i s , t h e r e are enough c l a s s e s of working papers on same s u b j e c t so t h a t he can be g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d .  the  A  d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t i t i s g e n e r a l l y too l o n g b e f o r e he i s g i v e n another o p p o r t u n i t y f o r doing the same k i n d of work a g a i n .  T h i s c o u l d be overcome i f  he were g i v e n work on s i m i l a r types of i n v e n t o r i e s . This work, of c o u r s e , would o n l y be i n the n a t u r e of p r a c t i c e , f o r , o b v i o u s l y , the .time f o r d o i n g i t i s p r e s c r i b e d by c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h can h a r d l y be c o n t r o l l e d . As the  student  i s t r a i n e d a t p r e s e n t i t t a k e s y e a r s b e f o r e he can keep i n mind a l l the i m p o r t a n t • the v e r i f i c a t i o n .  The  t h i n g s t h a t are n e c e s s a r y  main, r e a s o n f o r t h i s l i e s i n the  f a c t t h a t no d e f i n i t e e f f o r t i s made t o equip him t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , apart from circumstances work n o r m a l l y o c c u r s .  in  with  i n vrtiich the  I n the m u l t i t u d e of v a r i a t i o n s  t h a t w i l l be e n c o u n t e r e d , he can h a r d l y be expected t o • remember v e r y much of what he has l e a r n e d , u n l e s s  definite  s t e p s are taken t o Impress the d e t a i l s upon h i s mind. i d e a l c o n d i t i o n would be one i n which he would be  The  permitted  t o do n o t h i n g e l s e but t h i s k i n d o f work u n t i l he became f u l l y a c q u a i n t e d math i t .  He c o u l d s t a r t on the e a s i e r  and be g r a d u a l l y t a k e n t o the more d i f f i c u l t .  The  p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e s c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d , widened  and  strengthened  on a s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s .  im-  "•  -  1  5  -  L e a r n i n g the V e r i f i c a t i o n .. Qf Accounts and Motes R e c e i v a b l e The J u n i o r may be i n s t r u c t e d t o v e r i f y the a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e , w h i c h means t h a t he  must,ascertain  from t h e l e d g e r the date o r dates on w h i c h the  outstand-  i n g b a l a n c e was: i n c u r r e d and w r i t e . I t on the s c h e d u l e s of a c c o u n t s t h a t have been submitted t o him, t h e " p a r t i c u l a r amount,  opposite  His object i s to give  informa-  t i o n that w i l l u l t i i s a t e l y lead to the formation  o f an  o p i n i o n as t o whether or n o t an account i s good and . c o l l e c t i b l e . I f the account has been p a i d s u b s e q u e n t l y t o .the date o f the ••'financial, s t a t e m e n t , no b e t t e r evidence c o u l d be g i v e n o f i t s c o l l e c t i b i l i t y - ,  so t h a t i n ' t h i s  case i t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o age the a c c o u n t .  I t often  o c c u r s , however, t h a t the j u n i o r w i l l f i r s t age the account aJnd a f t e r w a r d s  a s c e r t a i n t h a t a l l o r p a r t o f the amount  t h a t he has aged has been p a i d , thus showing t h a t he has done u n n e c e s s a r y work.  He i s not being watehed as he  does t h i s work; so tie can o n l y l e a r n f o r h i m s e l f t h a t i t can be done more e x p e d i t i o u s l y .  The amount o f d e t a i l  r e q u i r e d f o r h i s a g e i n g w i l l be a s c e r t a i n e d by c o n s u l t a t i o n •with'Ms s e n i o r . credit  terms?  What s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  sufficient  Should the balances have been p a i d  t h i r t y , s i x t y o r n i n e t y days?  after  Quite o f t e n the ledgers  are marked I n such a manner, f o r the c l i e n t ' s own Use, so  as t o make such i n f o r m a t i o n r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .  He must  make notes o f any i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t I s r e l a t i v e t o t h e c o l l e c t i b i l i t y of the accounts.  He should r e f e r t o the  c r e d i t l i s t t o f i n d whether t h e customer I s ' i n f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t j ^ whether t h e account has been passed by a t h i r d p a r t y f o r c o l l e c t i o n , whether t h e r e i s any p r o b a b l e litigation  i n v o l v e d or whether t h e i t e m i s i n d i s p u t e .  E x p e r i e n c e and t h e s u g g e s t i o n s  t h a t he r e c e i v e d from t h e  l i s t s t h a t were used on t h e p r e v i o u s a u d i t a r e o f i n v a l u a b l e assistance.  He w i l l be expected t o check c o p i e s o f  i n v o i c e s rendered f o r a c e r t a i n p e r i o d t h r o u g h from t h e s a l e s j o u r n a l , a l s o s h i p p i n g r e c o r d s , t o see t h a t the merchandise shown by t h e I n v o i c e s was a c t u a l l y t a k e n out of t h e i n v e n t o r y r e c o r d s  b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e p e r i o d .  He must keep i n mind t h a t he i s t r y i n g t o ' a s c e r t a i n t h a t these i n v o i c e s a r e n o t f i c t i t i o u s  s a l e s o r consigned s a l e s .  At t h e same time he w i l l make a t e s t check o f any c r e d i t memoranda and e n t r i e s made i n the books o f o r i g i n a l e n t r y a f t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e a u d i t t o a s c e r t a i n i f any o f these a f f e c t t h e c o l l e c t i b i l i t y o f t h e accounts a t the end o f the  period. Notes r e c e i v a b l e a r e u s u a l l y examined and  l i s t e d a t t h e date o f t h e a u d i t , a t t h e same time t h e cash i s counted.  The form f o l l o w e d w i l l be i n d i c a t e d  by p r e v i o u s l i s t s , which t h e a s s i s t a n t i s expected t o follow- c l o s e l y .  He w i l l - b e c r i t i c i z e d i f he f a l l t o do  - 17 so or i f he make any v a r i a t i o n s t h e r e f r o m reason-.  The  without  excellent  l i s t s o f notes r e c e i v a b l e u s u a l l y show, for-  each n o t e , the number of the n o t e , the date of the n o t e , the names of the makers, the names o f the e n d o r s e r s ,  the  due d a t e , the r a t e o f i n t e r e s t , the date to w h i c h t h i s has been p a i d , the amount of the n o t e , the h e l d and the v a l u e t h e r e o f .  The  collateral  t o t a l , o f the l i s t  s u b s e q u e n t l y checked t o the c o n t r o l account to see I t i s " i n agreement.  Is that  I f a l l the notes are not on, hand  a l i s t w i l l be r e c e i v e d of those h e l d elsewhere and be c o n f i r m e d  frtll  by c e r t i f i c a t e r e c e i v e d d i r e c t f r o m t h e i r  c u s t o d i a n s , such as bankers or c o l l e c t i o n a g e n t s .  In  v e r i f y i n g the e x i s t e n c e of a n o t e , the j u n i o r i s i n c l i n e d a t f i r s t t o l o s e s i g h t of the f a c t t h a t i t i s a l s o h i s main d u t y , as i n the case o f the accounts r e c e i v a b l e , to g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n whereby an o p i n i o n may their collectibility. impression  be formed as to  Quite o f t e n , t o o , the m i s t a k e n  e x i s t s t h a t because the debt takes the form of  a note i t may  be c o n s i d e r e d  good.  The  j u n i o r has t o l e a r n  t o be on h i s guard a g a i n s t t h i s i d e a which i s e a s i l y h e l d and  i s too o f t e n h e l d by the c l i e n t .  t h a t the note I s secured  I f he i s informed  by a l i e n on the p r o d u c t . o f  company, t h i s i s not enough.  the  He must a s c e r t a i n the  r e a l i z a b l e v a l u e of the a s s e t a g a i n s t w h i c h the l i e n i s h e l d and the c o s t of r e a l i z a t i o n .  He must l e a r n not t o  - 18 take i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t , because a p r o p e r t y once had a v a l u e g r e a t l y i n excess o f i t s p r e s e n t day worth t h a t i t i s s t i l l as v a l u a b l e .  T h i s may n o t occur t o him when  he i s w r i t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n on h i s s c h e d u l e , but he w i l l be q u e s t i o n e d about t h e matter  later.  Discussion The f o r m i n g o f an o p i n i o n as t o t h e c o l l e c t i b i l i t y o f accounts comes from the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n on the s c h e d u l e s .  T h i s work i s o f a somewhat complex  n a t u r e and, as was the case i n t h e l e a r n i n g  previously  d e s c r i b e d , t h e r e i s no doubt but t h a t t r a i n i n g c o u l d be improved  i f i t were p o s s i b l e f o r t h e l e a r n e r t o be some-  t h i n g o f a s p e c i a l i s t u n t i l he has a c q u i r e d a v a l u a b l e mass o f e x p e r i e n c e .  Too g r e a t a p e r i o d o f time i s a l l o w e d  t o e l a p s e b e f o r e he a g a i n does t h e same k i n d o f work. Much c o u l d be g a i n e d i f the o b j e c t i v e were c a r e f u l l y p l a c e d b e f o r e him by h i s s e n i o r .  The j u n i o r i s i n c l i n e d t o do  h i s work, f o l l o w i n g t h e p a t h l a i d out f o r him, w i t h o u t a r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p a r t h i s work I s p l a y i n g . comprehensive view o f what he i s d o i n g .  He has no  I t i s t r u e he  g r a d u a l l y a c q u i r e s t h i s a f t e r f o l l o w i n g the same many t i m e s .  procedure  I t dawns on him, i n s t e a d o f being d e f i n i t e l y  p l a c e d b e f o r e him by h i s s e n i o r .  I t i s t r u e the s e n i o r  does attempt t o make him r e a l i z e what he I s d o i n g , p a r -  - 19 t i c u l a r l y when he i s s u b s e q u e n t l y q u e s t i o n e d r e g a r d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n he has f a i l e d t o p u t on h i s working  papers.  More p r o g r e s s c o u l d De made i f t h e s e n i o r made h i s e x p l a n a t i o n s a t t h e proper t i m e .  " , • - VII - • : L e a r n i n g the P r e p a r a t i o n of Schedules; of Accrued and P r e p a i d  * v  Items  ' The p r e p a r a t i o n , of s c h e d u l e s of accrued  or p r e -  p a i d i t e m s , t y p i c a l of .-which are. wages, i n t e r e s t ,  taxes,  i n s u r a n c e , r e n t and s u c h . s i m i l a r a c c o u n t s ,  called  for.  In: v e r i f y i n g accrued  may  be  :  wages the amounts of the  last  p a y r o l l p a i d d u r i n g . t h e p e r i o d , the f i r s t p a y r o l l s of the n e x t p e r i o d and  the p e r i o d s c o v e r e d . b y the payment w i l l  be  o b t a i n e d . '."'.With;this i n f o r m a t i o n a t hand t h e amount of t h e accrued  p a y r o l l can be e a s i l y d e t e r m i n e d . 'Accrued  i n t e r e s t , , accrued  t a x e s and  s i m i l a r a c c r u a l s are checked  i n d e t a i l by r e f e r e n c e t o the a c t u a l s u p p o r t i n g . d a t a the ' c a l c u l a t i o n t h e r e o f . c a t i o n of prepaid,.rentj  and  I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the' v e - r i f i - ' t h e j u n i o r , may  be t o l d t o  a; l i s t of l e a s e s on w h i c h h e notes the d a t e o f ;  :  prepare,,  the l e a s e ,  names of the p a r t i e s , the term and renewal: p r i v i l e g e s , r e n t payable f o r o r i g i n a l term and  i n e v e n t of r e n e w a l s ,  s p e c i a l s t i p u l a t i o n s as t o s u b l e t t i n g p r i v i l e g e s , e t c . The vouchers f o r payments made w i l l be examined i n conJunction therewith.  The d e t e r m i n a t i o n  of the a c t u a l  amount p r e p a i d w i l l be a r r i v e d a t by a d i r e c t  reference  t o the i n f o r m a t i o n as shown on, h i s s c h e d u l e , which w i l l have been confirmed, by e x a m i n a t i o n of a c t u a l l e a s e s or documents r e l a t i v e t h e r e t o . ,  The  c a l c u l a t i o n s i n each  case have u s u a l l y been,made p r e v i o u s l y .  The  o n l y problem  i>hat- -remains-- ..is • to '.-follow', the .reasoning; and t o check t h e p r e m i s e s ; . I n v e r i f y i n g p r e p a i d i n s u r a n c e , he draws up. a schedule; g i v i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ; number of p o l i c y , name o f i n s u r a n c e company, r i s k a g a i n s t w h i c h I n s u r e d ^ amount o f coverage p r o v i d e d by p o l i c y , date o f commencement o f insurance,: date o f t e r m i n a t i o n o f I n s u r a n c e , amount o f premium and amount o f i n s u r a n c e p r e p a i d .  This  i n f o r m a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d from t h e a c t u a l p o l i c i e s thems e l v e s o r , I f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n I s o b t a i n e d from a r e g i s t e r of; i n s u r a n c e , the . - p o l i c i e s , are! checked i n d e t a i l with. the'. I n f o r m a t i o n as i t I s shown on t h e s c h e d u l e .  I n ; calculating  the 'proportion, o f t h e premiums . prepaid^'- t h e a c t u a l number of days i s a s c e r t a i n e d from t h e s c h e d u l e , t h a t i s t h e date o f t h e commencement o f i n s u r a n c e and t h e premium. Be.mdst observe t h a t t h e p o l i c y i s t h e s i g n e d not a s i g n e d copy.  original,  I f i t I s a copy he/must r e p o r t i t •  to h i s s e n i o r , . a s t h e whereabouts o f t h e o r i g i n a l must be •known.and I t s e x i s t e n c e e s t a b l i s h e d .  I f i t i s i n the  hands o f a t h i r d p e r s o n i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o determine t h a t person's i n t e r e s t , as t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t an/unrecorded l i a b i l i t y may be d i s c o v e r e d .  The c l i e n t  may.be b o r r o w i n g m o n e y by mortgaging h i s r e a l e s t a t e and making no r e c o r d t h e r e o f i n h i s books.  An a s s e t  Which may have a c t u a l l y been s o l d may be shown on t h e books.  The j u n i o r must: a l s o see t h a t t h e j j o l i c y i s i n  the /favour o f t h e c l i e n t .  I f i t . i s payable  t o someone  - 22 e l s e , or t o t h e c l i e n t and someone e l s e , as t h e i r i n t e r e s t s may appear a t t h a t d a t e , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y 'f  t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i n t e r e s t h e l d or l i a b l e t o be h e l d i n the c l i e n t ' s p r o p e r t y and t h e a.ccounting  i n respect  t h e r e o f must appear on t h e c l i e n t ' s books. Discussion T h i s a g a i n i s t y p i c a l o f t h e g e n e r a l n a t u r e of the work f o r which t h e t r a i n i n g i s being r e c e i v e d .  Certain  f a c t s a r e d e r i v e d from v a r i o u s sources and, by the process of r e a s o n i n g , itself  the c o n c l u s i o n i s a r r i v e d a t which f i n d s  expressed i n one of t h e a s s e t s o r l i a b i l i t i e s  the f i n a n c i a l statement.  The f a c t s must be e s t a b l i s h e d  by e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . be q u e s t i o n e d  on  The r e a s o n i n g  t° determine t h a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n  f o l l o w s from t h a t a u t h o r i t y .  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t  must  rightly of the  f a c t s i s a matter of t r a i n i n g s u c h as i s being o u t l i n e d . The a b i l i t y t o q u e s t i o n and a n a l y s e  t h e l o g i c , and t o be  s a t i s f i e d t h a t i t i s t r u e and t o be c o r r e c t i n doing s o , i n v o l v e s complex m e n t a l o p e r a t i o n s t h a t a r e not o n l y a matter of t r a i n i n g but a l s o depend t o a h i g h degree on n a t u r a l endowment. P a r t of t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n i s c a l l e d f o r on the working p a p e r s , so t h a t whether o r n o t he understands i t , he cannot f a i l t o g i v e i t .  Other i n f o r m a t i o n , such  as  whether the p o l i c y i s i n the name of the company or whether  -  fio  —  or not the p o l i c y i s a copy, i s not r e q u i r e d to he shown on h i s working p a p e r s , and he can f a i l t o g i v e i t . h<e r e a l i z e d the o b j e c t of h i s . w o r k , t h i s o m i s s i o n not o c c u r .  If Yrould  I n o t h e r words, i f he were shown what the  work l e a d s t o , and were expected t o work w i t h t h i s i n h i s mind, the d e t a i l v/ould be a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n c l u d e d .  It is  seldom t h a t the j u n i o r i n h i s e a r l y stages i s b r i l l i a n t enough t o have a comprehension of t h e ' r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the r e a s o n i n g the work.  t h a t was  i n the mind of those who  planned  F i r s t , he s h o u l d a s c e r t a i n the amount of  t h e p r e p a i d i n s u r a n c e and s e c o n d l y ,  obtain  information  r e g a r d i n g the e x i s t e n c e of the a s s e t s t o which the i n s u r a n c e r e l a t e s , and make sure t h a t a l l r e l a t i v e i l i t i e s are t a k e n up i n the a c c o u n t s .  T h i s w i l l be d e a l t  w i t h f u r t h e r i n c o n s i d e r i n g the a n a l y s i s of v a r i o u s accounts.  •  ' -  *  liab-  - 24 - VIII L e a r n i n g t h e V e r i f i c a t i o n of Accounts and Notes P a y a b l e and O u t s t a n d i n g L i a b i l i t i e s A l i s t of t h e balances of the a c c o u n t s payable l e d g e r or a l i s t of u n p a i d v o u c h e r s , i f a voucher i s k e p t , may be p r e s e n t e d f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n .  register  .Balances must  be checked t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l accounts i n t h e l e d g e r s . A l l b a l a n c e s w h i c h have been o u t s t a n d i n g f o r a l o n g time are to be i n v e s t i g a t e d t o d i s c o v e r i f t h e r e a r e any l a t e r  bills  w h i c h s h o u l d a l s o have been i n c l u d e d , or i f t h e r e i s a d i s pute which may i n v o l v e f u r t h e r l i a b i l i t y .  There may a l s o  be a c c u m u l a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t on the items which a r e o u t standing.  I f any d e b i t b a l a n c e s appear, the j u n i o r must  * d e a l w i t h these i n the same manner as he d i d w i t h accounts receivable.  There i s a tendency, when g i v e n l i s t s o f  accounts payable f o r t h e f i r s t time,.merely t o mark these d e b i t s as checked i n t h e same manner as the c r e d i t b a l a n c e s . He i s n o t l i k e l y t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y are n o t d i f f e r e n t from account's r e c e i v a b l e , and t h a t t h e i r  collectibility  must be determined i n t h e same manner.  I f an account  c a l l e d "sundries" i s included I n the l i s t , f u l l of t h e s e must be p r o c u r e d .  details  D e f i n i t e , i n s t r u c t i o n s may  not be g i v e n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s , a n d he must be c a r e f u l not t o a c c e p t , ' w i t h o u t I n v e s t i g a t i o n , such ambiguous t i t l e s as the above, o r any o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e t h a t do not c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e a c r e d i t o r .  An e x a m i n a t i o n must be  - 25 made o f monthly statements i s s u e d by t h e more i m p o r t a n t c r e d i t o r s t o see t h a t these a r e I n agreement w i t h t h e amounts a p p e a r i n g on. the l i s t . or  Important d i f f e r e n c e s  items t h a t cannot be understood, must be r e f e r r e d t o  the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e s e n i o r .  I n v e r i f i c a t i o n o f notes  payable t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a schedule i s r e q u i r e d from the notes payable a c c o u n t , g i v i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n - date o f i s s u e o f t h e n o t e , name o f c r e d i t o r , I n t e r e s t r a t e , t e n u r e and due d a t e , name o f e n d o r s e r , c o l l a t e r a l h y p o t h e c a t e d , accrued o r p r e p a i d i n t e r e s t , and remarks as t o t h e c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e notes.  The r e q u i r e d I n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d from  the n o t e s payable book.  The t o t a l must agree w i t h t h e  general ledger balance.  The n o t e s a r e examined t o see  t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e r e o n i s i n agreement w i t h t h e d e t a i l s as shown by t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e notes payable account.  C a n c e l l e d n o t e s a r e examined f o r a l l n o t e s  paid during the p e r i o d .  A t e s t check o f payments w i l l  be v e r i f i e d I n t h e same way.  The i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o  c o n f i r m e d by correspondence d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e c r e d i t o r s , xvhich w i l l be checked t o these l i s t s . In o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n whether a l l l i a b i l i t i e s have been t a k e n up, t h e j u n i o r w i l l be requested t o examine a l l t r a n s a c t i o n s r e c o r d e d s i n c e t h e c l o s e o f the p e r i o d under r e v i e w .  He w i l l examine vouchers and i n v o i c e s  - 26 f r o m vendors.  .He w i l l s c r u t i n i z e payments made, d e b i t s  and c r e d i t memoranda i s s u e d , j o u r n a l e n t r i e s , r e c e i v i n g r e p o r t s and s t o c k r e c o r d s .  He w i l l , o f c o u r s e ,  receive  s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s as t o t h e a c t u a l work he i s t o do. As a l l i n v o i c e s d a t e d p r i o r t o , or- on the ' l a s t day o f , the p e r i o d should have been r e c o r d e d bilities,  I n t h e books as l i a -  i t i s h i s duty t o check c a r e f u l l y the i n v o i c e s  as t o t h e i r d a t e s .  Upon d i s c o v e r i n g an i n v o i c e t h a t has  •been o m i t t e d he w i l l - l i s t f u l l p a r t i c u l a r s , t h e important i n f o r m a t i o n being' the name o f t h e account t o be charged, the date o f t h e r e c e i p t o f t h e merchandise and whether the merchandise has been i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n v e n t o r y or not.  The name o f t h e account b e i n g charged, t h e n a t u r e  of t h e expense and t h e p e r i o d f o r w h i c h b i l l e d , must be shown f o r a l l u n r e c o r d e d i n v o i c e s f o r expenses. Discussion. Even a f t e r t h e j u n i o r becomes f u l l y  competent  to' g i v e a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d , he does n o t necessar i l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e importance o f a l l o f t h e d e t a i l or t h e p a r t i t plays i n connection with the f i n a l r e s u l t .  He  does n o t l o o k f o r r e a s o n i n g , he f o l l o w s and works by imitation. ing himself.  He s h o u l d be a s s i s t e d i n producing  t h e reason  He should f i r s t o f a l l be asked what he i s  endeavouring t o a s c e r t a i n , namely, i f t h e f u l l  liability  of t h e company had been s e t up both as t o p r i n c i p a l and  - 27 i n t e r e s t , or whether i t had  been o v e r s t a t e d .  He c o u l d  asked what a l l the d e t a i l on the schedule he was t o p r e p a r e had t o do w i t h t h i s o b j e c t i v e .  be  about  I f t h i s method  were adopted, wherever l i s t s or schedules were,prepared, i t would produce b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s .  I t would make him  l e a r n l o g i c a l l y i n s t e a d of by m e m o r i z a t i o n through repetition.  The main o b j e c t i o n t o h i s p r e s e n t mode of  l e a r n i n g i s t h a t he f o l l o w s h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s , but i n s t r u c t i o n s do n o t g i v e the f i n a l o b j e c t i v e s of work or show the c o n n e c t i o n  the the  w i t h the v a r i o u s minor element  A s c h e d u l e c o u l d be drawn up e x p l a i n i n g i n some d e t a i l cause f o r the work and  the g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of  i n t e g r a l parts i n connection The  the  the  w i t h each p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n .  s c h e d u l e c o u l d be prepared on a sound p s y c h o l o g i c a l  b a s i s t h a t would ensure i n c r e a s e i n e f f i c i e n c y and a more r a p i d development on the p a r t of the j u n i o r .  effect  — <;8 - IX The L e a r n i n g  o f Posting;  P o s t i n g i s t h e name f o r t h e procedure whereby every e n t r y i n the books o f o r i g i n a l e n t r y i s t r a c e d i n d e t a i l o r i n t o t a l t o t h e accounts of t h e g e n e r a l In-checking  ledger.  p o s t i n g s , t h e j u n i o r must a s c e r t a i n  t h a t a l l e n t r i e s i n t h e book o f o r i g i n a l e n t r y have been c a r r i e d i n t o t a l t o t h e g e n e r a l 'ledger and t o t h e s u b s i d i a r y ledger; and  t h a t a l l d e b i t s have been posted as such  t h a t a l l c r e d i t s have been posted as c r e d i t s ;  that  the e n t r i e s have been posted t o t h e p r o p e r account and that a l l e n t r i e s are understood.  The work of p o s t i n g i s  u s u a l l y s t a r t e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the senior a s s i s t a n t , who i s f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p r o c e d u r e , t h e j u n i o r c a l l i n g t h e e n t r i e s from t h e r e f e r e n c e s senior.  t h a t a r e g i v e n t o him by the  There a r e v a r i o u s ways o f doing t h e checking on  the d i f f e r e n t types o f r e c o r d s , and he must d i s c o v e r t h e s h o r t e s t method.  He cannot r e l y e n t i r e l y on p o s t i n g  f o l i o s appearing  i n the books, but should make c e r t a i n  t h a t every e n t r y i s posted r e g a r d l e s s o f whether o r n o t a p o s t i n g f o l i o appears i n t h e e n t r y .  When columnar  r e c o r d s a r e i n u s e , he must be sure t h a t t h e t o t a l s o f ' the columns a r e posted, been posted.  i f the d e t a i l s t h e r e o f have n o t  F o r example, the column f o r raw m a t e r i a l s  i n t h e voucher r e g i s t e r w i l l almost always be posted i n total.  The column f o r s u n d r i e s may be posted i n d e t a i l  - 29 or  i t may be summarized and t h e p o s t i n g s made from t h e  summary.  C e r t a i n columns, a g a i n , may be p o s t e d i n t o t a l  as w e l l as i n d e t a i l , such as t h e accounts payable column of  the voucher r e g i s t e r .  The t o t a l o f t h i s column w i l l  be posted t o t h e accounts payable i n t h e g e n e r a l l e d g e r and t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l c r e d i t o r ' s account i n the c r e d i t o r s , l e d g e r , i f such l e d g e r be i n use.  As was p r e v i o u s l y  s t a t e d , he must be sure t h a t p o s t i n g s have been made, t o the  p r o p e r account and t h a t t h e e n t r i e s a r e u n d e r s t o o d .  He f i n d s t h a t t h e best way f o r d o i n g t h i s i s t o o b t a i n at  f i r s t an o u t l i n e o f t h e accounts used, i n d i c a t i n g t h e  accounts t h a t w i l l be affected;.  C o n s i d e r a t i o n should  t h e n be g i v e n t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e e n t r y t o d e c i d e i f t h a t account i s t h e one i n w h i c h t h e e n t r y s h o u l d be recorded.  He i s r e q u i r e d t o read each e n t r y , m e n t a l l y  n o t i n g t h e account a f f e c t e d , and i s then a b l e t o determine whether or n o t the e n t r y i s c o r r e c t . Discussion Many y e a r s o f c h e c k i n g o f p o s t i n g s would be n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e bookkeeping c o u l d be l e a r n e d i n t h i s way. The r e a s o n i s t h a t , i n c h e c k i n g t h e p o s t i n g , a d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s o f thought i s i n v o l v e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t aim i n view. of  The bookkeeping i s l e a r n e d i n c i d e n t a l l y ,  assuming,  c o u r s e , t h a t t h e j u n i o r has done no bookkeeping.  The  c h e c k i n g o f p o s t i n g s i s a somewhat m e c h a n i c a l p r o c e s s .  - 50 Any improvement t h a t c o u l d be made, as i s apparent from the d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e work, would come i n t h e way t h e p o s t i n g was aone, t h a t i s t o say, t h e a c t u a l r o u t e  taken.  Here, as e l s e w h e r e , there, are r i g h t ways and wrong ways, short.ways and l o n g ways.  The j u n i o r i s g i v e n no d e f i n i t e  i n s t r u c t i o n as t o which i s the best way t o s t a r t .  As was  i n d i c a t e d , he has done t h e work b e f o r e w i t h a s e n i o r and he may or may n o t have done enough o f i t t o know which i s the shortest route.  A l i t t l e time, spent w i t h him  showing t h e a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e s he may t a k e , and q u e s t i o n ing  him w i t h r e g a r d t o work t h a t had been done b e f o r e ,  would u n q u e s t i o n a b l y  be b e n e f i c i a l .  As r e g a r d s t h e under-  s t a n d i n g o f t h e e n t r i e s , t h i s i n v o l v e s knowledge and t r a i n - ' ing  o f t h e h i g h e s t degree.  can do so he must be f u l l y  To be i n a p o s i t i o n where he competent and should have  r e c e i v e d a t r a i n i n g such as w i l l be o u t l i n e d . happens t h a t he i s g i v e n t h e work t o do w i t h o u t received the t r a i n i n g . for  I t frequently having  I f we c o n s i d e r t h a t I t i s necessary  him t o havd a t ready r e f e r e n c e t h e whole body o f  p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge w h i c h he must b r i n g t o bear i n examination  o f t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f any e n t r y , we r e a l i z e  the d i s t a n c e he must t r a v e l before he i s competent t o deal properly with this task.  This p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n  i n v o l v e s so e x t e n s i v e a f i e l d as t o occupy t h e e n t i r e technique  o f some p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s .  - 31 - X Learning the A n a l y s i s of C a p i t a l A s s e t Accounts The f i r s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t t h a t i s t o be l e a r n e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f any account  i n the general ledger i s  t h a t t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e e n t r y must be shown and a l s o a d e s c r i p t i o n of the nature o f the t r a n s a c t i o n .  T h i s may  be v e r y s i m p l e when i t i s so s t a t e d , b u t i t i s a f a c t o f fundamental importance  and i s another way o f s a y i n g ,  "Show t h e bookkeeping".  However s i m p l e t h i s p r i n c i p l e  may appear t o be, t h e j u n i o r does n o t understand i t immediately. In  c o n f i r m i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s on such  capital  a s s e t s as l a n d , b u i l d i n g s , machinery and equipment and such i n t a n g i b l e a s s e t s as g o o d w i l l , p a t e n t s and t r a d e marks, s c h e d u l e s a r e drawn up and a d d i t i o n s and d e d u c t i o n s verified.  Upon s t a r t i n g h i s work he w i l l be f u r n i s h e d  w i t h t h e schedules d e a l i n g w i t h the same account on t h e p r e v i o u s a u d i t , which he f o l l o w s c l o s e l y .  These schedules  show p a r t i c u l a r s d e s c r i b i n g the account, opening  balances,  a d d i t i o n s , d e d u c t i o n s and o t h e r changes and the f i n a l balance.  H i s work, though i t may be new, c o n s i s t s o f  f o l l o w i n g . t h a t which has gone b e f o r e . charged  I f anything i s  i r r e g u l a r l y t o c a p i t a l t h a t should have gone t o  o p e r a t i n g ana he o v e r l o o k i t , i t w i l l be shown on h i s  - 52 schedules and w i l l be d i s c o v e r e d l a t e r . i n these accounts  The  changes  are c h i e f l y e x p l a i n e d by new  purchases,  p a y r o l l or s t o r e t r a n s f e r s . •In  v e r i f y i n g p a y r o l l and s t o r e t r a n s f e r s , he  i s not l e d v e r y f a r a f i e l d f r o m work he has a l r e a d y done, for  he has p r e v i o u s l y done c o n s i d e r a b l e work on both of  these i t e m s . to may  The r e l a t i v e ease w i t h which he i s a b l e  c o n f i r m the amounts t h a t a r e shown on h i s  schedule  l e a d him away from the more i m p o r t a n t problem.  these s t o r e s and p a y r o l l t r a n s f e r s proper charges c a p i t a l and how how  Are to  have they been determined? - t h a t i s ,  d i d t h e i r c o m p i l e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e between o p e r a t i n g  charges and c a p i t a l charges  i n making h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n ?  I f t h i s q u e s t i o n does not c o n f r o n t the j u n i o r as a r e s u l t of whatever i n f o r m a t i o n he has gathered i n . the course of his  e x p e r i e n c e , i t w i l l be p l a c e d b e f o r e him, e i t h e r  by  the notes on the p r e v i o u s schedules or by h i s s e n i o r , i f he f a i l t o make e n q u i r y i n c o n n e c t i o n t h e r e w i t h . Discussion Here a g a i n , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the j u n i o r to a n a l y s e the accounts w i t h o u t f u l l y o f what he i s d o i n g .  r e a l i z i n g the . s i g n i f i c a n c e  He s h o u l d c l e a r l y understand  he i s t o show the o t h e r account or accounts  that  a f f e c t e d by  the e n t r i e s he examines and t o g i v e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the n a t u r e o f the t r a n s a c t i o n . He should have c e r t a i n  - 33 aims before h i m , based on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p a r t h i s work p l a y s .  He s h o u l d , o f c o u r s e , r e a l i z e t h a t he i s again  c o n f i r m i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an a s s e t .  He should have a.  knowledge o f the l o g i c a l method used f o r d o i n g t h i s . i s n o t t h e case a t f i r s t . was done on the p r e c e d i n g  Such  By i m i t a t i n g the work t h a t a u d i t , he shows the other  side  of any e n t r y t h a t has been made and g i v e s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f i t , and a l s o marks i t i n a manner t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he has examined some document a u t h o r i z i n g t h e e n t r y .  - 34 - XI L e a r n i n g the V e r i f i c a t i o n o f Share C a p i t a l and E x a m i n a t i o n of Minute Books The  j u n i o r may work i n v e r i f i c a t i o n of share  c a p i t a l and on such d a t a as the minutes of the meetings of  the d i r e c t o r s and s h a r e h o l d e r s o f t h e company.  He  will  examine the share c e r t i f i c a t e stubs and see t h a t t h e t o t a l agrees w i t h t h a t as shown by the g e n e r a l l e d g e r t o be outstanding.  When he does t h i s the f i r s t t i m e , he  may  be asked t o prepare a l i s t of the names from the share c e r t i f i c a t e s t u b s o f the shares o u t s t a n d i n g .  It will  compared w i t h the t o t a l as shown by the l e d g e r , and w i l l be c o r r e c t e d i f he has made any He may  be  he  error.  be r e q u e s t e d t o make a t e s t check of  the e n t r i e s from the r e g i s t e r of t r a n s f e r s by  examining  the c a n c e l l e d c e r t i f i c a t e s t u r n e d i n and a c c o u n t i n g f o r the new may of  c e r t i f i c a t e s i s s u e d i n exchange t h e r e f o r .  He  a l s o make a t e s t check of the p o s t i n g from the r e g i s t e r t r a n s f e r s t o the r e g i s t e r o f s h a r e h o l d e r s , the purpose  of h i s . work b e i n g t o a s s u r e the accountant t h a t the company has not i s s u e d more s t o c k than i t has been a u t h o r i z e d t o i s s u e and t h a t the number o f shares o u t s t a n d i n g , as shown by the a c c o u n t s , i s c o r r e c t . In b e i n g asked t o make a s y n o p s i s of the minutes of d i r e c t o r s ' and s h a r e h o l d e r s ' meetings,  the  j u n i o r i s g i v e n work t h a t c a l l s f o r something  entirely  d i f f e r e n t from a n y t h i n g he has done b e f o r e .  He can gather  from the p r e v i o u s w o r k i n g papers t h a t he must show the date of t h e meeting, the k i n d of m e e t i n g , d i r e c t o r s ' or s h a r e h o l d e r s ' , names and the - p o s i t i o n s o f persons s i g n i n g the minutes.  When i t comes t o making a s y n o p s i s of t h e  minutes t h e m s e l v e s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o guide' him. f i r s t e f f o r t w i l l be c a r e f u l l y watched to.  His  and d o u b t l e s s added  I t i s o n l y by many e f f o r t s t h a t he comes t o understand  what i s i m p o r t a n t and what i s wanted.  There i s much  i n t h e minutes w h i c h has no importance as f a r as the a u d i t o r i s concerned.  On the o t h e r . h a n d , some of the most  v i t a l t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h which he i s concerned appear i n the  m i n u t e s , and of these he must have  knowledge.  Discussion E v e r y t h i n g t h a t has been s a i d w i t h r e g a r d t o the  d e t a i l work a p p l i e s w i t h e q u a l f o r c e t o the work on  share c a p i t a l . or  The j u n i o r i s not c o n s c i o u s of the reasons  the p l a c e of the work i n the a u d i t .  Much of what  he does i s m e c h a n i c a l , and t h e r e are numerous t h i n g s t h a t he s h o u l d have b e f o r e his- mind.  He i s not d r i l l e d  on these t o the same e x t e n t as i n the e t h e r i n s t a n c e s c i t e d , because the work comes at wider i n t e r v a l s of t i m e , so t h a t he may  f o r g e t most of what he has l e a r n e d .  - 56 I n h i s checking where i t was  of the r e g i s t e r of t r a n s f e r s ,  not n e c e s s a r y f o r him t o p r e p a r e a schedule  of the work done, except t o s t a t e t h a t he had  c a r r i e d out  a c e r t a i n amount of c h e c k i n g , h i s e r r o r s are not known. They can, t h e r e f o r e , be of l i t t l e use as a means f o r g u i d i n g him.  In l i s t i n g  the names from the share c e r -  t i f i c a t e s t u b s , the e r r o r s t h a t are made w i l l become apparent and may for  some time why  be c o r r e c t e d .  He may  not know, however,  he i s d o i n g the work, as the  errors  w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e t h i s , u n l e s s , as each e r r o r Is c o r r e c t e d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the o b j e c t i v e s i s Indicated. When he makes h i s f i r s t attempt to the minutes of the s h a r e h o l d e r s ' i d e a of what i s expected.  meeting, he has  may  Some  by a r e v i e w of  numerous examples, what i s expected, a f t e r which he be q u e s t i o n e d t o a s c e r t a i n -whether he i s t h i n k i n g  contained  he  be e f f e c t e d ,  not be known.  attempt s h o u l d be made t o show him,  the r i g h t l i n e s .  too  Though e v e r y t h i n g  be examined, and improvement may  t h a t w h i c h he has o v e r l o o k e d  little  The work i s c a r r i e d out  much on a t r i a l and e r r o r b a s i s . w r i t e s may  synopsize  He c o u l d be shown what  should  along  information  i n the minutes i s i m p o r t a n t from t h i s p o i n t of  v i e w , i n s t e a d of l e a r n i n g , a~ he does a t p r e s e n t , t r y i n g t o f o l l o w as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e the p r e v i o u s  by papers.  - 57 - XII D e s c r i p t i o n and D i s c u s s i o n o f the L e a r n i n g o f A n a l y s i s o f P r o f i t and Loss Accounts A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the work on t h e a n a l y s i s of the p r o f i t and l o s s s e c t i o n of the g e n e r a l l e d g e r w i l l i n d i c a t e an advanced form of the t r a i n i n g t h a t has been p r e v i o u s l y r e c e i v e d . . The j u n i o r i s expected t o "show the. bookkeeping".  He h a s , of c o u r s e , the p r e v i o u s working papers,  which he f o l l o w s as t o form and which g i v e him c o n s i d e r a b l e aid  i n h i s work, as many o f the items a r e u n a l t e r e d from  year to year. Y/hen he b e g i n s , h i s tendency i s t o i m i t a t e , w i t h o u t r e f l e c t i o n , the p r e v i o u s papers, t r y i n g as best he can t o g i v e s i m i l a r I n f o r m a t i o n t o t h a t shown on these papers.  T h i s w i l l c a r r y him t h r o u g h , as l o n g as he does  not get any new or u n u s u a l problems, i n which c a s e , of c o u r s e , he may a p p e a l t o h i s s e n i o r .  I t i s not u n t i l he  l e a r n s t h a t he must show where t h e o t h e r s i d e o f the e n t r y has been r e c o r d e d and t h a t he must g i v e the p a r t i c u l a r s , t h a t he i s a b l e t o a n a l y s e an account p r o p e r l y . The p r o f i t and l o s s schedules a r e arranged i n the order t h a t t h e items appear on the p r o f i t and l o s s statement.  It will  be unnecessary t o d e a l w i t h the  a n a l y s i s o f every i t e m .  C e r t a i n o f the more i m p o r t a n t ones  w i l l i n d i c a t e the n a t u r e of h i s work and show the method  - 38 through which i t i s learned. •Sales a r e a n a l y s e d i n s k e l e t o n , t h a t i s t o say, the schedule w i l l show cash and accounts r e c e i v a b l e , which are t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e e n t r i e s , and then show monthly totals. on s a l e s .  The work here i s supported by d e t a i l v e r i f i c a t i o n I n showing t h e monthly t o t a l s , t h e j u n i o r i s  expected t o i n v e s t i g a t e i f he f i n d u n u s u a l f l u c t u a t i o n s . I f he does not do t h i s , he i s c e r t a i n t o be q u e s t i o n e d as t o t h e reason f o r tlie f l u c t u a t i o n s , i f t h i s does n o t appear on t h e working p a p e r s . I n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e v a r i o u s accounts t h a t make up t h e Cost o f S a l e s , t h e same form w i l l be f o l l o w e d . I n t h e case o f purchases o f raw m a t e r i a l s , he shows cash and accounts payable and a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the' n a t u r e o f the purchases.  I n some cases he i s e x p e c t e d ,  e s p e c i a l l y i n the.purchase o f such v a l u a b l e items as t r a c t o r s o r a u t o m o b i l e s , when they a r e purchased f o r s a l e , t o g i v e a l l d e t a i l s , both as t o q u a n t i t y and amount and the s e r i a l number and d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a r t i c l e  involved.  T h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s a l s o t r u e o f s a l e s under the same c i r cumstances, where t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e f i g u r e s are used i n confirmation of the inventories.  In dealing with f r e i g h t - i n  and any o t h e r items t h a t go t o make up t h e c o s t o f s a l e s , the same procedure i s f o l l o w e d .  He s h o u l d have l e a r n e d  from h i s s k e l e t o n a n a l y s i s t h a t he i s s a y i n g , as a whole, of t h e a c c o u n t , what he i s l a t e r t o say i n much more d e t a i l  - 39 o f o t h e r accounts t h a t r e q u i r e a more minute a n a l y s i s . H i s a n a l y s i s o f the s a l a r i e s ' account s h o u l d g i v e him an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r o b s e r v i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s t h a t he i s d o i n g .  For  example,  he l i s t s t h e names of the i n d i v i d u a l s who are i n r e c e i p t of the s a l a r i e s , he a s c e r t a i n s the amounts r e c e i v e d monthly and m u l t i p l i e s them by the number of months f o r which the v/ork i s b e i n g done; h i s t o t a l s h o u l d agree w i t h the l e d g e r balance.  T h i s i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of how he can a n a l y s e  an a c c o u n t , b r i n g i t i n t o agreement w i t h the l e d g e r b a l a n c e and y e t not n e c e s s a r i l y understand c o m p l e t e l y . He may  not  r e a l i z e f o r some t i m e , c o n s c i o u s l y , t h a t he i s s t i l l "showing the bookkeeping" and a t the same time g i v i n g , i n a much condensed form, f u l l p a r t i c u l a r s of the c o n t e n t s of l e d g e r pages, which themselves may  show meaningless  totals. There are c e r t a i n accounts i n the p r o f i t and l o s s s e c t i o n i n which e r r o r s are.more l i k e l y t o be found t h a n i n any o t h e r s , e r r o r s of commission, by i n t e n t i o n or otherwise.  For example, the bookkeeper may have c e r t a i n  items and not know t o "which account they should be charged, or he may have something he wants to c o n c e a l o r , a g a i n he may want t o p r e v e n t c e r t a i n accounts from a p p e a r i n g too large.  The a u d i t o r ' s w o r k i n g papers are designed t o  a n t i c i p a t e such a c o n d i t i o n .  The j u n i o r , of c o u r s e , i s not  - 40 c o g n i z a n t of t h i s a t f i r s t .  He w i l l a n a l y s e one o f these  a c c o u n t s , such as m i s c e l l a n e o u s expense a c c o u n t , or o f f i c e expenses, or g e n e r a l expenses, and  i l l observe  t h a t the p r e v i o u s w o r k i n g papers c a l l f o r minute d e s c r i p t i o n of every item contained t h e r e i n . are  So l o n g as t h e r e  no u n u s u a l items i n t h i s account,-he may be p e r m i t t e d  to f o l l o w b l i n d l y what has been done i n the p a s t .  An  i t e m may have t o be of v e r y u n u s u a l n a t u r e t o a t t r a c t his  a t t e n t i o n the f i r s t t i m e .  However, whatever i s con-  t a i n e d i n the account i s shown on h i s working papers and, even though he may not r e c o g n i z e t h a t a c e r t a i n i t e m i s not p r o p e r l y c h a r g e a b l e t h e r e t o , h i s s e n i o r , upon e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i s working papers s u b s e q u e n t l y , w i l l do so.  As was f o r m e r l y s t a t e d , the form of a n a l y s i s i s  shown by t h e p r e v i o u s papers t h a t h e - i s t o f o l l o w , so t h a t he has no p a r t i c u l a r - problem i n t h i s r e s p e c t .  In  f a c t , I t I s so c l e a r l y s e t f o r t h t h a t , a g a i n , i t i s l i k e l y to l e a d him away from "showing the bookkeeping". In  an a n a l y s i s of such accounts as t a x e s , h i s  schedule may c l o s e l y resemble the l e d g e r s h e e t , and h e r e , i f t h e bookkeeper f o l l o w s c o r r e c t p r i n c i p l e s , which i s by no means always t h e c a s e , he i s a b l e t o see more c l e a r l y t h a t he i s d e a l i n g w i t h bookkeeping and n o t merely l i s t ing  figures.  I n t h i s account he w i l l see o n l y a few  e n t r i e s which he c o p i e s on t o h i s schedules i n the p r e s c r i b e d form.  He w i l l show, f o r example, the o t h e r s i d e  of the e n t r y , r e s e r v e f o r taxes, and d e s c r i p t i o n , say, p e r i o d i c p r o v i s i o n f o r l a n d t a x e s , the d e t a i l s o f t h e property involved.  I f t h e payment of taxes has a c t u a l l y  been charged t o t h i s a c c o u n t , he w i l l show the other s i d e of the e n t r y - Cash - t h e C i t y of-Vancouver - and a desc r i p t i o n of what the payment i s f o r , such a s , t a x e s on lot  t w e l v e , b l o c k s i x t e e n , and the p e r i o d .  I f property  i s h e l d j o i n t l y w i t h another p a r t y , who r e m i t s t h e taxes for  t h e company t o pay, he may show i t as f o l l o w s -  Vancouver M a n u f a c t u r i n g  Co., (being the o t h e r s i d e o f t h e  e n t r y , ) and - Cash i n payment of t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n o f taxes on t h e f u l l y  described property,  of t h e T r a n s a c t i o n ) .  (being t h e d e s c r i p t i o n  H i s a n a l y s i s o f r e n t account may  show-rent p a i d t o s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s and the p e r i o d .  He  may, i n f o l l o w i n g the l a s t working p a p e r s , where no i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o c c u r , o v e r l o o k the f a c t t h a t the payment date has been a l t e r e d .  However, h i s schedules  will  show  t h i s f a c t and h i s s e n i o r w i l l draw h i s a t t e n t i o n t o theoversight. I t I s i n such accounts as t h i s t h a t he should recognize accrued months;  t h e reason f o r some of h i s c a l c u l a t i o n s of  i t e m s , f o r h i s a n a l y s i s shows r e n t p a i d f o r eleven and he i s brought t o r e a l i z e t h a t , i f no charge  has gone t h r o u g h f o r the twelve months, the l i a b i l i t y t h e r e f o r - i n other words, t h e o t h e r s i d e of the e n t r y - ha not  been s e t up.  In h i s a n a l y s i s of the i n s u r a n c e account he . i s doing work more c l o s e l y r e s e m b l i n g work t h a t he w i l l do l a t e r i n a n a l y s i s of. balance sheet accounts.  Here  he shows t h e name of the i n s u r a n c e company t o whom the premium was p a i d a n d . f u l l p a r t i c u l a r s c o n c e r n i n g the p o l i c y , such as the s e r i a l number and such p a r t i c u l a r s as "were p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h p r e p a i d i n s u r a n c e . He i s now a b l e t o connect up i n h i s mind t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s account and the work t h a t he has- p r e v i o u s l y done, perhaps somewhat b l i n d l y .  He i s expected t o t r a c e  t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e p o l i c i e s from t h i s account t o the schedule o f p r e p a i d i n s u r a n c e and t o mark them as so checked.  He w i l l f i n d c e r t a i n of the p o l i c i e s on'the  l i s t o f prepaid i n s u r a n c e , unmarked, which he w i l l be a b l e t o mark by r e f e r e n c e t o p r e v i o u s y e a r s ' working  papers.  I f he s t i l l f i n d s items unmarked on the p r e p a i d  Insurance  s c h e d u l e , he may d i s c o v e r t h a t he has examined p o l i c i e s , the l i a b i l i t y f o r which has not been s e t up.  He may f i n d  on h i s a n a l y s i s schedule some items unmarked.  These may  r e p r e s e n t p o l i c i e s t h a t have been o m i t t e d from the l i s t of  prepaid insurance.  D e s c r i p t i o n and D i s c u s s i o n o f Method o f L e a r n i n g t o C a r r y Out a Complete A u d i t The  j u n i o r as y e t has not been g i v e n a complete  a u d i t t o do, i n t h e f u l l sense o f the word, a l t h o u g h t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t he h a s , i n one way o r a n o t h e r , completed s e c t i o n s o f work which, i f p u t t o g e t h e r , might almost be considered  an a u d i t .  He has v e r i f i e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f  c e r t a i n a s s e t s and l i a b i l i t i e s and has been t r a i n e d so t h a t he may be ready t o s t a r t t o do an a u d i t h i m s e l f . "' We have observed t h a t i n each department of his  work t h e r e was a l a c k o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e l o g i c a l  p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d , and a l s o t h a t he was s l o w l y acquiring knowledge about which he was s u b s e q u e n t l y t o reason and w h i c h he-was'to f i t i n t o a scheme t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the work as a whole.  We a r e no?/ about  to observe t h e manner i n which t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s takes form.  We w i l l a l s o observe t h a t i t i s n o t u n t i l he has  t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t he i s a b l e t o do h i s most e f f e c t i v e work.  He i s about t o adopt a t h i n k i n g or r e a s o n i n g  a t t i t u d e regarding  h i s own work, encouraged by a s i m i l a r  a t t i t u d e toward h i s j u n i o r and by the d e s i r e t o do work, as f a r as p o s s i b l e , t h a t i s above c r i t i c i s m .  T h i s was  t r u e , o f c o u r s e , t o some degree o f t h e work t h a t has been p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , b u t , t h e awareness u s u a l l y came a f t e r he had passed through h i s p e r i o d o f t u i t i o n , when  - 44 i t was o f l i t t l e v a l u e t o him i n doing the work. He I s now p a s s i n g i n t o a phase where the mind draws from i t s storehouse a l l t h e e x p e r i e n c e s and knowledge t h a t i t has accumulated  and b u i l d s i t t o g e t h e r i n t o a whole.  He i s p a s s i n g i n t o t h a t stage of mental a c t i v i t y  which,  though c h a r a c t e r i s i n g h i s work t o some degree i n the past w i t h r e g a r d t o the p a r t s , now becomes t r u e of b o t h the p a r t and t h e whole.  He reaches a s t a t e where, r e f l e c t i n g ,  Yifeighing, and b a l a n c i n g , p l a y a more fundamental than ever before.  role  He w i l l b e g i n t o d i s c o v e r now t h a t  e v e r y t h i n g t h a t he has been d o i n g has been l e a d i n g toward some g o a l .  He w i l l become p r o f i c i e n t i n work t h a t  may  never a g a i n be expected of him e x c e p t , perhaps, as a c r i t i c . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s t h e most b a s i c c r i t i c i s m of t h e manner i n which he has been t r a i n e d , f o r t h i s awareness and  consequent  p r o f i c i e n c y s h o u l d have been reached a t a time when i t would have been u s e f u l i n the work he had been d o i n g . The f i r s t i m p o r t a n t d i s c o v e r y t h a t i s made i n t a k i n g up a s m a l l a u d i t , i s t h a t t h e t r i a l balance g i v e s him h i s s t a r t i n g p o i n t .  I t a l s o s e r v e s as a guide and  g i v e s him, t o a c e r t a i n degree, a knowledge of h i s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the work. for  T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r ,  as he a n a l y s e s o r v e r i f i e s the accounts he marks  them o f f on the t r i a l b a l a n c e .  The items t h a t a r e un-  marked r e p r e s e n t the work t h a t i s n o t done.  The p r e v i o u s  - 45 working papers a l s o serve t o guide him.  The working  papers a r e a r r a n g e d i n the o r d e r I n which t h e accounts a-re arranged on t h e balance s h e e t .  In undertaking h i s  work he f o l l o w s these papers ana, t h e r e f o r e , the o r d e r i n which he examined t h e accounts i s determined i n t h i s way. to  The accounts on the t r i a l balance a r e seldom  found  be i n the same o r d e r as they appear i n the working  p a p e r s , > I n the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s , the accounts a r e a r r a n g e d i n the g e n e r a l l e d g e r I n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r and c o n s e q u e n t l y appear t h i s way on the t r i a l b a l a n c e .  It  i s t r u e t h a t i n such cases where the accountant i s w e l l t r a i n e d , the accounts I n the g e n e r a l l e d g e r may be a r r a n g e d i n balance sheet order and h i s t r i a l w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , a l s o appear t h a t way. of  balance  The b a l a n c e sheet  t h e a u d i t o r , however, i s not o f t e n found t o have the  same arrangement .as t h a t of h i s c l i e n t .  The  system,  t h e r e f o r e , w i t h which the j u n i o r s e t s about h i s work I s determined by these two f a c t o r s - the number o f accounts as shown on the t r i a l balance and the order I n which he proceeds t o v e r i f y them, as i n d i c a t e d by the p r e v i o u s working papers.  T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r ,  though he may n o t have anyone a c t u a l l y s u p e r v i s i n g him u n t i l h i s work I s completed, he always knows how much I s to  be done and t h e order I n which t o do i t . Each schedule i n the p r e v i o u s working  papers  i n d i c a t e s how much work i s t o be done on any p a r t i c u l a r  account and, as was p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , l i t t l e  difficulty  w i l l be encountered, because a t some time he w i l l have had e x p e r i e n c e on almost a l l o f the a c c o u n t s .  The main  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e work t h a t he i s no?/ doing and t h a t which has p r e v i o u s l y been d o n e , l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t , i n t h e p a s t , i f he were i n t r o u b l e w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r a c c o u n t , he c o u l d r e f e r t o h i s s e n i o r .  Now he i s , i n  a sense, the s e n i o r and must s o l v e the problems h i m s e l f . H i s work on t h e accounts has 'gradually brought him t o a s t a t e where he can do t h i s , f o r , i n a more p a r t i c u l a r way, his  development has been such t h a t he c o u l d f i n a l l y  the problems t h a t arose i n whatever he was  solve  doing.  He w i l l have" a j u n i o r a s s i s t i n g him and here his  t r a i n i n g t a k e s on a newer a s p e c t , f o r he now assumes  the r o l e of i n s t r u c t o r .  I n a n a l y z i n g and e x p l a i n i n g the  problems t h a t a r e p l a c e d b e f o r e him by h i s j u n i o r , a h i g h e r degree o f awareness o f t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e dawns upon him.  I n the' p a s t , he may n o t have r e c o g n i z e d  the  e x i s t e n c e of a f o r e s t , f o r he was concerned w i t h a t r e e . H i s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e t r e e tended t o shut out a more synthet i c comprehension o f t h e f o r e s t as a whole.  I n h i s nev/  r o l e he i s c o n t i n u a l l y c a l l e d upon t o e x e r c i s e a sense of p r o p o r t i o n and p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t f o r m e r l y was  provided,  t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , f o r him. He now a l s o becomes an a u d i t o r of an a u d i t o r , for  i t i s h i s duty t o r e v i e w t h e work t h a t i s done by h i s  a s s i s t a n t and c r i t i c i s e his  it.  T h i s a l s o serves t o broaden  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and knowledge o f the work t h a t i s b e i n g  done.  I f he f a i l t o note an o m i s s i o n o r e r r o r on t h e  papers o f h i s j u n i o r , i t w i l l be d i s c o v e r e d l a t e r by someone s e n i o r t o him and w i l l r e f l e c t upon him.  He must,  t h e r e f o r e , be j u s t as c a r e f u l i n h i s r e v i e w o f work g i v e n to him as i n h i s own work.  An e f f o r t o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s  always r e q u i r e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t , as i t i s easy t o take f o r g r a n t e d t h a t the work o f h i s j u n i o r i s s a t i s f a c t o r y , w i t h out c a r e f u l l y examining i t .  When h i s own work i s completed  he must r e v i e w i t w i t h t h i s same a t t i t u d e , a t t e m p t i n g t o d i s c o v e r o m i s s i o n s or e r r o r s and l o o k i n g f o r p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t may r e q u i r e adjustment.  As the work  p r o c e e d s , he keeps a s c h e d u l e f o r h i s own u s e , showing work t h a t has y e t t o be completed on c e r t a i n a c c o u n t s , e r r o r s t h a t may need adjustment, and any i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t may s u b s e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e t o he r e p o r t e d on. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e working p a p e r s , he i s now r e q u i r e d t o prepare a d j u s t i n g j o u r n a l e n t r i e s , balance sheets and statements o f p r o f i t and l o s s .  Adjusting  j o u r n a l e n t r i e s c o n t a i n t h e adjustments o f t h e accounts which are f i n a l l y  c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y by him.  When these  adjustments have been d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e c l i e n t , they a r e g i v e n e f f e c t i n t h e accounts and throughout t h e working papers. •  Every j o u r n a l e n t r y r e p r e s e n t s a problem.  He  has t o d e c i d e where t h e c o r r e c t i o n i s t o be made and what accounts a r e i n v o l v e d , and he must g i v e a proper e x p l a n a •r  t i c n o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e adjustment.  In h i s discussion  w i t h t h e c l i e n t as t o t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f t h e e n t r y , new demands a r e a l s o made o f him, f o r h i s c l i e n t may ask him f o r t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e change. I n drawing up balance sheet and p r o f i t and l o s s a c c o u n t s , o f c o u r s e , he c o n t i n u e s t o f o l l o w t h e p r e v i o u s w o r k i n g papers.  However, t h e r e i s always some  new i t e m t h a t has n o t appeared b e f o r e and which w i l l now r e p r e s e n t a problem t o him, upon which he should o b t a i n advice.  I t I s by t h e continuous work t h a t he does i n  p r e p a r i n g statements,.and  I n f i n d i n g answers t o t h e problems  t h a t a r i s e , t h a t h i s p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h i s work i s developed. He f i n d s t h a t statements v a r y on every type o f work t h a t he does;  and i t i s n o t u n t i l a f t e r y e a r s o f p r a c t i c e t h a t  he i s a b l e t o complete t h e work w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o some h i g h e r authority.„ When t h e balance sheet and p r o f i t and l o s s statement have been p r e p a r e d , t h e work o f w r i t i n g t h e r e p o r t or l e t t e r s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h what has been done . is required.  No s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g has been r e c e i v e d i n  t h i s r e s p e c t , w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f w r i t i n g notes on v e r i f i c a t i o n work t h a t has been done and synopses o f minutes o r work o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e .  The p r e v i o u s  educa-  - 49 t i o n t h a t has been r e c e i v e d . i s . o f more importance i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h a n i n any o t h e r .  A good e d u c a t i o n I n t h e  w r i t i n g of E n g l i s h i s indispensable.  In addition, a  knowledge o f t h e t e c h n i c a l language o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n must be a c q u i r e d . R e p o r t s q u i t e o f t e n resemble word f o r word those t h a t were w r i t t e n on t h e p r e v i o u s dates and f i g u r e s a l t e r e d . may be c o m p l e t e l y reference used.  a u d i t but w i t h the  A paragraph here or t h e r e  new, b u t i t i s o f t e n p o s s i b l e t o make  t o some o t h e r r e p o r t f o r t h e wording t h a t may be  U n u s u a l r e p o r t s a r e never expected u n t i l t h e  e x p erience  and t r a i n i n g o f t h e person w r i t i n g them  such p r o c e d u r e .  justifies  I n a d d i t i o n to the report, l e t t e r s are  w r i t t e n d e a l i n g w i t h c e r t a i n routine matters.  These  l e t t e r s a r e s t e r e o t y p e d , and t h e form used on p r e v i o u s , occasions  i s u s u a l l y adequate.  - 50 - XIV .General D i s c u s s i o n of t h e L e a r n i n g o f D e t a i l V e r i f i c a t i o n . We have c o n s i d e r e d l o o k e d upon as " d e t a i l w o r k "  t h e n a t u r e o f t h a t which i s and w h i c h forms t h e founda-  x  t i o n o f the.junior's accounting'knowledge. c r i b e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e work. and  We have des-  In dealing with additions  e x t e n s i o n s , we saw t h a t t h e work was done under such  s u p e r v i s i o n that nothing  b u t a knowledge o f simple  a r i t h m e t i c was n e c e s s a r y , and t h a t a secondary knowledge was  being a s s i m i l a t e d , namely, f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h  accounting one  forms.  various  The j u n i o r i s s t a r t e d on t h i s work f o r  r e a s o n , which may o r may n o t have a c o n n e c t i o n  with a  c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r h i s t r a i n i n g , because o f i t s s i m p l i c i t y and  t h e f a c t t h a t no p r e v i o u s  knowledge i s r e q u i r e d .  When  he i s d o i n g i t no attempt i s made t o show hirc, o r t o a s c e r t a i n i f i t i s w o r t h w h i l e showing him,  t h e p a r t h i s work  I s p l a y i n g o r t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a l a r g e r reasoning  process.  This l a c k of r e g a r d f o r the development o f the consciousness of the reasoning  process i n v o l v e d i n t t h e  work i s f u r t h e r e d by t h e f a c t t h a t each p a r t i s a s e c t i o n unto i t s e l f .  The j u n i o r may have become  thoroughly  ^ T h i s i s a t e c h n i c a l e x p r e s s i o n which means b o t h a d e t a i l e d v e r i f i c a t i o n and t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n of d e t a i l .  - 51 p r o f i c i e n t i n c a r r y i n g out the d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n regarding  t h e work on cash b a l a n c e s ,  b u t i t may be some  time b e f o r e he r e a l i z e s t h e f a c t of the e x i s t e n c e o f one of t h e items on t h e balance sheet. for  I t i s quite possible  him t o complete h i s work w i t h o u t t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  I n other words, he may f o l l o w t h e procedure c a r e f u l l y , and do t h e work t h o r o u g h l y  and n o t know what he has done.  This a l s o becomes apparent when we c o n s i d e r a g a i n h i s work on t h e i n v e n t o r i e s .  This work d i v i d e s i t s e l f  into  two c l a s s e s , t h a t where he f o l l o w s w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s as t o checking  and t h a t where he prepares s c h e d u l e s .  In the  f i r s t c a s e , he has a r o u t i n e procedure t o f o l l o w , such as c h e c k i n g  c a l c u l a t i o n s o r comparing i n v e n t o r y  with o r i g i n a l inventory t i c k e t s . for  sheets  I t i s quite possible  him t o do t h e s e t h i n g s w i t h o u t knowing why he i s doing  them. T h i s i s j u s t as t r u e o f the other work o u t l i n e d . the p r e p a r a t i o n o f i n v e n t o r y s c h e d u l e s , d e f i n i t e form.  In  he f o l l o w s a  He does n o t know why t h i s form i s d i f f e r e n t  from t h a t used on another i n v e n t o r y , or t h a t every column and n o t a t i o n i t d i r e c t s him to- complete has an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n the l o g i c a l processes back o f the work. We found i n t h e work on accounts and b i l l s r e c e i v a b l e t h a t same automatic f o l l o w i n g o f i n s t r u c t i o n s . We saw t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e f o r him t o age t h e accounts and a f t e r w a r d s  a s c e r t a i n t h a t they had been p a i d , by  f o l l o w i n g h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e o r d e r t h a t they appeared on the working papers and n o t i n the order t h a t an unders t a n d i n g o f the reason f o r h i s work would I n d i c a t e .  I f he  had b e f o r e him "the f a c t t h a t these were d i f f e r e n t methods of e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e same f a c t , he would n o t use b o t h .  He  would s e l e c t the more e f f e c t i v e and omit the o t h e r . We have p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f s c h e d u l e s , d e a l i n g w i t h i n v e n t o r i e s , b i l l s r e c e i v a b l e and p r e p a i d and accrued i t e m s , i n v o l v e d c a r e f u l l y  thought-out  methods o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c e r t a i n f a c t s by r e a s o n i n g . d e t a i l s or premises  The  appearing on the schedules were  con-  f i r m e d by r e f e r e n c e t o some a u t h o r i t a t i v e document, and the c o n c l u s i o n , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a balance which appeared on the f i n a n c i a l statement, was worked out on these and t h e r e a s o n i n g c l e a r l y shown.  schedul  The -work may have been  done many times u n t i l the form, which i s somewhat s t e r e o t y p e d , was c o m p l e t e l y memorized. has been r e a s o n i n g .  He may n o t r e a l i z e he  He has memorized a p a t t e r n , which  i s always used on s i m i l a r t y p e s o f work.  I t would be much  more b e n e f i c i a l t o him i f he were shown the e x t e n t t o which he was r e a s o n i n g , and t h a t t h i s r e a s o n i n g i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the g e n e r a l n a t u r e of the whole o f the work t h a t he i s doing.  He s h o u l d be shown the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t the  r e a s o n i n g on each s p e c i f i c type o f 'work bears t o the whole, a r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e v e n t u a l l y o c c u r s t o him, a f t e r he has  passed a l o n g way on, but which i s n o t d e f i n i t e l y and i n t e n t i o n a l l y p l a c e d b e f o r e him. . When t h e j u n i o r i s g i v e n work on c a l c u l a t i o n s h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s save him t h e n e c e s s i t y o f wondering what he has t o do.  He has n o t h i n g  t o r e a s o n out f o r h i m s e l f .  He merely adds o r m u l t i p l i e s , as t h e case may be, whatever d a t a a r e submitted t o him.  I f , however, he has done  s i m i l a r work b e f o r e , he may be g i v e n some sheets w i t h the f o l l o w i n g curt request,  "Check t h i s " .  I n d i c a t i n g what he has checked.  He marks h i s work,  Very o f t e n the work must  be handed back t o him and t h e f a c t p o i n t e d out t h a t i t i s imcomplete.  I n t h i s way he g r a d u a l l y l e a r n s t h a t when he  i s given anything  t o do i t must be completed.  So t h a t ,  even i n work as elementary as t h i s , where i t would appear t h a t t h e r e i s s m a l l p l a c e f o r t r i a l and e r r o r , t h i s i s t h e way he l e a r n s .  " I f he be above the average i n i n t e l l i g e n c e  he i s l i k e l y t o ask f o r s i m i l a r sheets on t h e p r e v i o u s a u d i t and f o l l o w them.  He reaches a s t a g e , a t l e n g t h ,  when he teikes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e whole o f h i s s m a l l assignment and .is a b l e t o complete i t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The  o b j e c t i o n t o t h i s method o f l e a r n i n g i s t h a t he com-  p l e t e s numerous assignments before he reaches an unders t a n d i n g t h a t he c o u l a have had much e a r l i e r i f t h e t r o u b l e were t a k e n t o i n s t r u c t him. As f o r h i s a c q u i r i n g a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h  various  - 54 k i n d s of r e c o r d s , t h i s i s done w i t h o u t r e c o g n i t i o n of f a c t t h a t l e a r n i n g i s an a c t i v e f u n c t i o n .  I f the  the  various  •t  r e c o r d s were p l a c e d answer q u e s t i o n s  before him,  and he were r e q u i r e d t o  prepared w i t h the o b j e c t of e x e r c i s i n g h i s  mind on the importance of the v a r i a t i o n s , i n order  that  he might g r a p p l e w i t h them as problems, there i s l i t t l e doubt as t o the improvement t h a t would r e s u l t . The balances.  same t h i n g I s t r u e of h i s work on the cash  He o b t a i n s a s c h e d u l e showing the work he i s  g o i n g t o do and f o l l o w s i t .  When he f i r s t does the work,  i t i s n o t h i n g more t h a n a l i s t .  I t does not occur to  him t h a t each of the d e t a i l s of h i s l i s t has a s i g n i f i c a n c e . If  i t d i d , and he d i d not u n d e r s t a n d , he might ask why  t o t a l amount of h i s count was detail.  the  not shown i n s t e a d of a l l the  He does not r e a l i z e t h a t f o r e v e r y t h i n g he does  t h e r e i s a r e a s o n . He  i s so engrossed i n what he i s doing  t h a t he never t h i n k s of e n q u i r i n g i f i t be so, and what the reason may  be.  He works by i m i t a t i o n .  He f o l l o w s  the  p a t h l a i d down f o r him by the papers of the p r e v i o u s and a l s o l e a r n s by o m i s s i o n s and e r r o r s .  I t i s apparent  t h a t c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n of cash work on other would g i v e him  audits  a c l e a r e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s of what he i s  d o i n g , and p l a c e him i n a p o s i t i o n where he would be t o examine h i s own taught was  audit,  -work i n the l i g h t of what he had  necessary.  able been  He would not merely i m i t a t e h i s  - 55 predecessor.  H i s knowledge would a c t as a guide t o him,  and he would he a b l e t o become h i s own c r i t i c , as r e g a r d s wnat t h e important requirements  were and n o t as t o how near  he was t o t h e p r e v i o u s working papers. t r u e o f h i s work on t h e bank b a l a n c e s .  T h i s i s j u s t as 1  His  instructions  t e l l h i m t o compare t h e d e t a i l o f t h e d u p l i c a t e d e p o s i t s l i p s w i t h t h e cash book. doing t h i s .  He does n o t know why he i s  He does n o t r e a l i z e t h a t he i s a t t e m p t i n g t o  s a t i s f y h i m s e l f t h a t t h e funds o f t h e company a r e i n t a c t . Even when he draws up h i s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f the bank balance and the balance as shown by t h e company's cash book, he does n o t r e a l i z e t o what e x t e n t t h e items he shows as o u t s t a n d i n g a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . not:realize  I n o t h e r words, he does  t h a t what he i s showing as d e t a i l on h i s work-  i n g papers has a s i g n i f i c a n c e  t h a t has been c a r e f u l l y  thought  o u t , and t h a t e v e r y t h i n g he w r i t e s i s o f importance, p r o v i d i n g he f o l l o w s t h e papers o f t h e p r e v i o u s a u d i t .  On  h i s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i n r e g a r d t o t h e o u t s t a n d i n g cheques, he shows t h e number o f t h e cheque, t h e date and t h e name o f the' payee.  The cheque i s e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e $ i f a n y t h i n g  appears t o be u n u s u a l , such as t h e name o f t h e person who i s s u e d t h e cheque,  an e n q u i r y s h o u l d be made and t h e r e s u l t s  s h o u l d be r e c o r d e d on t h e working papers.  The j u n i o r  sel-  dom makes t h i s e n q u i r y a t f i r s t , u n l e s s he has been requested t o ao so by h i s s e n i o r , and t h i s shows t h a t he does n o t  - 56 u n d e r s t a n d , i n h i s e a r l y a t t e m p t s , the prime r e q u i s i t e o f the work he i s d o i n g . "t  I n our d e s c r i p t i o n o f "vouching" we found t h a t I t was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e j u n i o r t o have a c e r t a i n amount of knowledge w i t h which t o commence the work.  We  offered the c r i t i c i s m that t h i s information i s u s u a l l y acquired-while  d o i n g , and a t t h e expense o f , the work.  How much i s o v e r l o o k e d  can never be known.  assume t h a t i n the b e g i n n i n g and  I t i s safe to  h i s o m i s s i o n s a r e numerous  g r a d u a l l y become l e s s and l e s s .  The o n l y way t h a t  h i s o m i s s i o n s c o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d would be t o do the work again, which, of course, i s i m p r a c t i c a b l e . must n e c e s s a r i l y be s l o w e r .  The l e a r n i n g  I f i t were known, as i n t h e  case o f e r r o r s such as we have p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, t h a t he had made a m i s t a k e and i t was p o i n t e d out t o him, the t r i a l and e r r o r p r o c e s s would a t l e a s t be s h o r t e r .  This  c o n d i t i o n . c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d i f c e r t a i n f i l e s of i n v o i c e s were k e p t , c o n t a i n i n g known e r r o r s w h i c h , a f t e r  thoroughly  e x p l a i n i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s , he were t o l d t o check, and afterwards the whole.  each d e t a i l demonstrated and a g a i n r e l a t e d t o He should have a p i c t u r e of the work t h a t i s  being done and the d e t a i l s t h a t he i s r e q u i r e d t o l o o k for, f i t t e d carefully into this picture. With regard  t o - h i s method of f i n d i n g . h i s way  through the r e c o r d s , he should not be l e f t t o h i s own  - 57 resources,  We have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d t h e f a m i l i a r i z i n g  :  of t h e student w i t h v a r i o u s k i n d s o f r e c o r d s .  The l a t t e r  c o u l d be c a r r i e d out p r o f i t a b l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s work, and t h e g r o u n d - w o r k ' l a i d  f o r p o s t i n g , which i s t o  follow later. The l e f t to himself.  junior, i ndealing with inventories, i s He must n o t bother h i s s e n i o r t o o o f t e n ,  and he a v o i d s a s k i n g absurd q u e s t i o n s . can be made o f n e a r l y e v e r y t h i n g he does.  This  observation  An advantage  i s gained through t h e f a c t t h a t he i s compelled, t o t h i n k for  h i m s e l f ; but, on t h e o t h e r hand, he I s thrown I n t o a  c o n d i t i o n where he must l e a r n by t r i a l and e r r o r , where the knowledge o f t h e e r r o r s and t h e improvement t h a t r e s u l t s therefrom  are r e s t r i c t e d .  I n t h i s f i e l d , as  i n the o t h e r s , l e a r n i n g by t r i a l and e r r o r cannot be e l i m i n a t e d , b u t i t can and s h o u l d be l e s s e n e d . common e r r o r s , mistakes  There are  t h a t every j u n i o r makes.  be c l a s s i f i e d and by c a r e f u l i n s t r u c t i o n  These can  avoided.  I n each o f the d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s o f work there are methods common t o a l l c l a s s e s . vouching,  We have seen t h a t i n  t h e j u n i o r must have a c e r t a i n body of knowledge  which he uses f o r examining t h e documents t h a t he t r a c e s through the r e c o r d s .  We saw d e f e c t s i n the manner i n  which t h i s knowledge was o b t a i n e d and a l s o i n t h e way he learned to apply i t .  This may be s a i d t o be t r u e wherever  d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s are s e t , o u t f o r trie j u n i o r t o f o l l o w , and not 30 t r u e when he has t o prepare schedules  showing  trie manner i n which h i s r e s u l t s a r e a r r i v e d a t .  The  l e a r n i n g i n t h e f i r s t case i s d i s t i n c t l y t r i a l and e r r o r l e a r n i n g , and, i n t h e l a t t e r , n e a r e r t o i m i t a t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n , though t h e r e i s an element of the former always present. I n v e n t o r y v e r i f i c a t i o n demonstrates t h i s clearly.  fact  One p a r t of the work I s d e t a i l c h e c k i n g , which  i s r e a d i l y comparable t o the work a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d and can be improved by the methods suggested.  The o t h e r , d e a l i n g  w i t h p r i c i n g , i n v o l v e s the p r e p a r a t i o n of schedules  and  i n t r o d u c e s an o b j e c t i v e medium f o r doing the work and subs e q u e n t l y examining i t .  The i m i t a t i v e element i s found  i n the f a c t t h a t the j u n i o r f o l l o w s i n minute d e t a i l the schedule  of work prepared  on the p r e v i o u s a u d i t .  Any e r r o r s  t h a t a r e made a r e s e t out i n w r i t i n g , and t h e r e i s no doubt about t h e i r being d i s c o v e r e d .  As we have p o i n t e d o u t , i t  i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e f o r the schedule an u n d e r s t a n d i n g tions.  t o be prepared  without  on the p a r t o f the j u n i o r of i t s i m p l i c a -  I t i s o n l y a f t e r he has completed many  schedules  of a s i m i l a r n a t u r e t h a t h i s work takes on a meaning as t o i t s e l f and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the e n t i r e v e r i f i c a t i o n work.  Means have a l r e a d y been g i v e n whereby t h i s work  can be changed from t h a t of merely f o l l o w i n g , t o t h a t where  - 59 the j u n i o r i s a b l e t o think'more w h i l e he l e a r n s , the previous  papers s e r v i n g as a check and an a i d to h i s t h i n k -  ing. I t would seem to be a simple matter to him  t h a t he i s a t t e m p t i n g  i n v e n t o r y i s valued l o w e r , and  inform  to e s t a b l i s h the f a c t t h a t  the  a t c o s t or market, whichever i s the  t h a t t h i s i s the r e a s o n he I s examining c o s t  I n v o i c e s and  sales invoices.  f i n d t h a t a j u n i o r who  has  Yet i t i s s u r p r i s i n g to  completed many assignments of  t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n does not understand why  he i s showing  dates on h i s schedules and does not connect i n h i s mind the f a c t t h a t the s a l e s i n v o i c e s he i s r e c o r d i n g are i n d i c a t i o n of the c u r r e n t market p r i c e .  an  I t remains f o r  the s e n i o r to examine h i s f i g u r e s a g a i n s t those of the i n ventory  t o a s c e r t a i n the fundamental f a c t c o n c e r n i n g  v a l u a t i o n of the i n v e n t o r y .  the  I t demonstrates the e f f e c t i v e -  ness o f t h e working p a p e r s , t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h i s t o be done, but a t the same time i t shows the weakness i n the t r a i n i n g of the j u n i o r .  I f more a t t e n t i o n were p a i d to  t r a i n i n g the j u n i o r , he would pass from a c o n d i t i o n where he i m i t a t e d h i s p r e d e c e s s o r and would adopt the a t t i t u d e , towards h i s own  work, t h a t h i s s e n i o r had  done.  We have drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t , i n connection  particularly  w i t h i n v e n t o r i e s , t h a t the work u s u a l l y d i v i d e s  i t s e l f i n t o two  p a r t s - t h a t where d e t a i l checking  and where l i t t l e t h i n k i n g may  i s done  be n e c e s s a r y , and t h a t where  - 60 c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s are . a r r i v e d * a t and where a g r e a t of t h i n k i n g i s n e c e s s a r y . and h i l l s r e c e i v a b l e .  deal  T h i s i s ' t r u e o f work on accounts  I n the d e t a i l work, notes are made  on the schedules o f d a t e s , amounts p a i d and such i n f o r m a t i o n as w i l l l e a d t o the f o r m a t i o n o f an o p i n i o n as t o the value of the a s s e t and a l s o as t o I t s e x i s t e n c e .  This i s a  case where, owing t o the demands o f the work, the system of the w o r k and the t r a i n i n g o f the j u n i o r go hand i n hand, because h i s work and h i s thoughts a r e w r i t t e n down and any i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s wanting i s asked f o r and a n y t h i n g i s unnecessary e l i m i n a t e d .  that  He cannot so o f t e n f o l l o w  what has gone b e f o r e , because new c o n d i t i o n s , r e q u i r i n g new treatment,  demand t h a t he must r e a s o n t h i n g s o u t .  'second p a r t o f the work depends upon the f i r s t .  The  He must  form an o p i n i o n from the i n f o r m a t i o n he has shown on h i s papers.  I n t h i s work, t h e n , h i s l e a r n i n g i s more a c t i v e  than elsewhere.  The same c r i t i c i s m can be made here as  was made i n r e g a r d t o the' l e a r n i n g o f vouching - t h a t he l e a r n s too much w h i l e he i s doing t h e work. t h a t h i s progress  I t i s true  i s more r a p i d here t h a n elsewhere, but  t h a t i s because the n a t u r e  o f the work demands t h a t he  must t h i n k about what he i s d o i n g .  Nevertheless,.he  c o v e r s , t o too g r e a t an e x t e n t , by e r r o r s o r omissions nature  of the work and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e balance  disthe sheet.  I t would -be a simple matter t o i n d i c a t e t o him beforehand  - 61 the importance  o f the d e t a i l s and t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h  the o b j e c t i v e ; i n o t h e r words, t o g i v e him a r e a l i z a t i o n of the p a t t e r n of r e a s o n i n g n i s mind i s u n c o n s c i o u s l y making. Some o f the p i t f a l l s i n t o which he i s l i k e l y to stumble have been i n d i c a t e d .  The e x t e n t t o which a l l  j u n i o r s commit the same f a u l t s makes them almost errors.  standard  The manner i n which these e r r o r s may be l e s s e n e d ,  i f n o t e l i m i n a t e d , has b e e n . d i s c u s s e d .  A greater e f f o r t  s h o u l d be made t o b r i n g these e r r o r s t o h i s n o t i c e . Is done t o a g r e a t e x t e n t when he i s p r e p a r i n g for  schedules,  these a r e always reviewed and h i s mistakes p o i n t e d out  t o him. ing  This  We have seen t h a t , due t o h i s l a c k o f understand-  o f the o b j e c t i v e s ana the r e a s o n i n g o f h i s work, i t i s  p o s s i b l e f o r him t o make e r r o r s o f o m i s s i o n w i t h o u t  their  being d i s c o v e r e d ; and we i n d i c a t e d means whereby t h i s be somewhat c o r r e c t e d .  may  I n the d e t a i l work.that does not  appear on s c h e d u l e s , t h i s i s a more d i f f i c u l t problem, f o r , as we saw, i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o know what e r r o r s a r e made, 'we saw t h a t the j u n i o r must make h i s own mark on e v e r y t h i n g he does, and t h a t t h e s e n i o r subsequently reviews h i s work t o see t h a t a l l Items have been marked.  I t o f t e n happens  t h a t t h e s e n i o r c o r r e c t s the o m i s s i o n but f a i l s t o p o i n t i t out t o the j u n i o r .  T h i s should not be the case.  The  j u n i o r s h o u l d be informed of a l l e r r o r s t h a t he makes.  - 62 Though i t i s o b v i o u s l y not p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e the e r r o r s before  the mind of the j u n i o r i n such cases where these are  not known, t h i s c o n d i t i o n can be met  to some degree on  basis o u t l i n e d i n dealing with d e t a i l checking, was  the  where i t  suggested t h a t sample i n v o i c e s be k e p t w i t h known  e r r o r s on them so t h a t the j u n i o r might be t r a i n e d t i l l reached p r o f i c i e n c y .  he  The n a t u r e of the t r a i n i n g would  demand t h a t a l l the e r r o r s come under h i s  observation.  The method of l e a r n i n g d e s c r i b e d n a t u r a l l y l e n d s i t s e l f t o l e a r n i n g of a p a s s i v e n a t u r e , e x p r e s s i o n may  If this  be used to I n d i c a t e t h a t form of l e a r n i n g  where the mind i s l e s s a c t i v e than i n the more e f f e c t i v e form.  A l l l e a r n i n g , of c o u r s e , i s a c t i v e , but there  v a r y i n g degrees o f a c t i v i t y .  The  expression  are  i s used  t o i n d i c a t e a d i f f e r e n c e not i n q u a l i t y but i n degree. We verification.  can observe t h i s c l e a r l y i n cash and We  saw t h a t he d i d not have a consciousness  of the o b j e c t i v e s of h i s work or of the reasoning • i t had nothing  been planned. was  bank  I n f o l l o w i n g the p r e v i o u s  l e f t to h i s imagination.  whereby  papers,  He f o l l o w e d a r o u t i n e  procedure and l i s t e d the items i n the same order t h a t they appeared on those .papers. work,' so there wqs  He was  g i v e n simple  c l a s s e s of  l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d of problems a r i s i n g  t h a t would make him t h i n k .  A f t e r h a v i n g aone the work a  s u f f i c i e n t number of times the form became memorized.  It  was u s u a l l y when he f a i l e d t o f o l l o w the p r e v i o u s papers t h a t he made an e r r o r , the d i s c o v e r y of which served to a c c e l e r a t e the speed w i t h which he l e a r n e d the form.  But  i f he were c a r e f u l , t h e r e might have been no o c c a s i o n f o r criticism;  and h i s l e a r n i n g was  of times he was  dependent upon the number  a b l e t o r e p e a t the same o p e r a t i o n .  The  same c o n d i t i o n e x i s t s when he i s r e c o n c i l i n g bank b a l a n c e s . We  saw t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e .  thinking.  I t i s t r u e he i s expected  to keep h i s eyes open,  but no one knows t o what e x t e n t he does t h i s , not even he himself.  I t i s o n l y by r e p e t i t i o n of s i m i l a r k i n d s of work  and a growing  consciousness  o f t h e i r meaning t h a t he i s a b l e  to "watch p r o p e r l y f o r such t h i n g s as the d a t e , the name of the payee and the s i g n a t u r e s .  When h i s work i s o b j e c t i v e l y  d i s p l a y e d on the working papers, t h e r e i s some p o s s i b i l i t y of checking him, but o n l y when something of an unusual a r i s e s and he i s unable to d e a l w i t h i t .  nature  He gets s i m p l e r  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s t o do a t f i r s t so t h a t h i s l e a r n i n g i s a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h r e p e t i t i o n and memorization, the number of times he does the work.  depending on  As the work becomes  more c o m p l i c a t e d c e r t a i n problems a r i s e , such as have been i n d i c a t e d , where the l e a r n i n g tends t o become more a c t i v e and consequently q u i c k e r . For the same r e a s o n s , i t i s not p o s s i b l e to know how  e f f e c t i v e h i s work i s when he i s vouching.  His  knowledge i s never o b j e c t i v e l y brought out u n t i l some e r r o r  - 64 i s made.  How  c l o s e l y he i s o b s e r v i n g  t h a t vouchers are  p r o p e r l y s i g n e d , t h a t they are on the c r e d i t o r ' s own t h a t t h e y are being r e g u l a r l y p a i d , t h a t they are  form,  properly  a d d r e s s e d , t h a t the s e v e r a l s i g n a t u r e s of a p p r o v a l  are  shown and' o t h e r s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n , i s never a s c e r t a i n e d . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the p r e s e n t i n d i c a t e that.he  b a s i s of h i s t r a i n i n g would  does a good many assignments i n order  l e a r n t o p e r f o r m t h i s complex mental o p e r a t i o n ily.  to  satisfactor-  A method has been suggested to a v o i d t h i s .  It is  enough t o p o i n t out here t h a t h i s l e a r n i n g I s of a p a s s i v e n a t u r e and t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e time must e l a p s e b e f o r e  he  becomes p r o f i c i e n t . When he i s doing h i s d e t a i l checking  of- i n v e n t -  o r i e s t h e r e i s the same p o s s i b i l i t y of o v e r s i g h t . i s of a t i r e s o m e  The work  n a t u r e , and, u n l e s s he i s s t i m u l a t e d by a  c l e a r understanding  and knowledge, i t can be l i t t l e more  t h a n a r i t u a l to be completed as soon as p o s s i b l e .  How  can  he keep h i s eyes open f o r slow moving m a t e r i a l , d i s c o n t i n u e d p r o d u c t s , damaged p r o d u c t s , f i c t i t i o u s b i l l i n g s ; how  i s he  a b l e t o know t h a t merchandise b i l l e d to customers i s  excluded  from the i n v e n t o r i e s , , t h a t the i n v o i c e s are i n o r d e r , t h a t t h e goods are a c t u a l l y shipped,  i f he i s not made  thoroughly  conversant w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s of h i s work beforehand?  It  must be remembered t h a t he must have a knowledge of these r e q u i r e m e n t s r e a d i l y at hand i n order t o c a r r y out the work  - 65 efficiently.  He l e a r n s t o do t h i s c l a s s o f work i n the  same manner as t h a t d e s c r i b e d elsewhere;  he l e a r n s w h i l e  he i s doing the work, not b e f o r e he does i t . H i s c o n s c i o u s ness o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s grows i n t h i s way, and i s i m p e r f e c t u n t i l c o n s i d e r a b l e work has been done.  We have seen t h a t  he must r e c o r d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n he r e c e i v e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h v e r i f i c a t i o n o f p r i c e s on h i s s c h e d u l e s , i s thereby  g i v e n f o r checking  i n t h i s case can be d e t e c t e d  him.  and a means  E r r o r s and o v e r s i g h t s -  and r e c t i f i e d .  However, we  a l s o saw t h a t the next i n v e n t o r y t h a t he r e c e i v e s may.be entirely different,  so t h a t whatever he has l e a r n e d by  h a v i n g been f a c e d by t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f some e r r o r may be forgotten  b e f o r e he i s g i v e n something s i m i l a r t o do a g a i n .  Years may pass b e f o r e he l e a r n s t o do the work p r o p e r l y .  He  may n o t l e a r n u n t i l he i s showing someone e l s e the c o r r e c t way t o do i t , when some of t h e t h i n g s he should have known may occur t o him. I n the l e a r n i n g i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h accounts and b i l l s r e c e i v a b l e , i t i s not p o s s i b l e f o r the j u n i o r t o get v e r y f a r w i t h o u t having done much t h i n k i n g .  I t i s truei,.  of c o u r s e , t h a t a g r e a t d e a l o f v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n may not have been recorded  and t h a t what t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s may  never be d i s c o v e r e d . information.  I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o g i v e unnecessary  The o n l y way t o c o r r e c t t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s to  s h o r t e n t h e l e n g t h of time t h a t i t takes a t present j u n i o r t o understand what he i s s t r i v i n g f o r .  f o r the  In h i s learn-  - 66 ing,  as we have d e s c r i b e d i t , t h i s i s brought t o h i s  a t t e n t i o n by c r i t i c i s m .  I f t h e r e i s no c r i t i c i s m and t h e  work i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and along t h e l i n e s i n d i c a t e d by the papers he i s f o l l o w i n g , t h e l e a r n i n g i s l e s s a c t i v e i n the same sense as has been p r e v i o u s l y p o i n t e d out.  He may  n e g l e c t t o show such p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n as the c r e d i t terms, t h a t t h e customer i s I n f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y ,  that  the account has not been passed f o r c o l l e c t i o n by a t h i r d p a r t y , or t h a t t h e r e i s p o s s i b l e pending, l i t i g a t i o n ing  affect-  t h e c o l l e c t i b i l i t y o f the account, or t h a t i t i s i n  dispute. The  checking  o f l i s t s o f accounts payable t o the  l e d g e r s and p o s t i n g s i s among t h e most m e c h a n i c a l work t h a t the j u n i o r i s r e q u i r e d , t o do, and he does enough o f i t t o become r a p i d and a c c u r a t e .  The mental a l e r t n e s s t h a t i s  r e q u i r e d when he i s doing t h e c h e c k i n g . i s another matter and i s s u b j e c t t o the, same c r i t i c i s m s as were made above. There i s room f o r improvement i n regard t o t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a l l l i s t s , whether o f notes p a y a b l e , accrued or p r e p a i d items.  We saw t h a t v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t  may be d i s c o v e r e d w h i l e p r e p a r i n g these l i s t s i s i n e f f e c t i n c i d e n t a l t o t h e main o b j e c t i v e .  I t I s p o s s i b l e , through  m e t i c u l o u s l y f o l l o w i n g t h e p r e v i o u s p a p e r s , t o complete the assignment and not d i s c o v e r t h e secondary i n f o r m a t i o n .  This  i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e j u n i o r ' s l e a r n i n g i s a c q u i r e d  - 67 by i m i t a t i o n o f former work and n o t n e c e s s a r i l y by r e a s o n ing  about i t , except t h a t he does c o n s i d e r how near I t i s  to t h e model he has b e f o r e him.  Though t h e r e may be l i t t l e  p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t o f these l i s t s n o t being a t t a i n e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r such secondary i n f o r m a t i o n , as t o whether o r n o t money i s being borrowed on mortgages for  v l i i c h no r e c o r d has been made, o r o f an o u t s i d e I n t e r e s t  and t h e l i a b i l i t y consequent t h e r e t o , t o be o v e r l o o k e d . We saw t h a t i n making h i s n o t e s on accounts r e c e i v a b l e he must g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l p e r m i t t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an o p i n i o n as t o whether o r n o t t h e accounts are  doubtful.  A t p r e s e n t t h e r e i s no d e f i n i t e way t h a t he  may go about t h i s except by f o l l o w i n g h i s p r e d e c e s s o r ' s work.  We have c i t e d c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s t h a t he c o u l d have  b e f o r e him when he does h i s work, such as - What are t h e c r e d i t terms?  I s t h e customer i n f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y ?  Has t h e account been p r o p e r l y passed f o r c o l l e c t i o n by a t h i r d party?  Is i t i n dispute?  I s t h e r e p o s s i b l e pending  l i t i g a t i o n a f f e c t i n g t h e c o l l e c t i b i l i t y o f the account? and o t h e r s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s .  At p r e s e n t t h e q u e s t i o n i n g  of an account i s o c c a s i o n e d c h i e f l y by i t s age.  Care .  s h o u l d be t a k e n t o e s t a b l i s h i n the mind o f t h e j u n i o r what the  r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e , and t o I n d i c a t e c l e a r l y t h e paths  t h a t he may f o l l o w , making him c o n s c i o u s beforehand o f a d e f i n i t e procedure.  V e r i f i c a t i o n work cannot be done p r o p e r l y u n l e s s the j u n i o r i s always c a r e f u l l y a t t e n d i n g t o what he i s doing, "We have g i v e n numerous i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h i s .  Mien we  c o n s i d e r the number o f t h i n g s t h a t he must keep i n mind when he i s vouching  or doing d e t a i l bank work, p o s t i n g or  a n y t h i n g o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e , we see t h a t he i s being d r i l l e d i n the f o r m a t i o n o f a h a b i t of' a t t e n d i n g . c r i t i c i z e every i t e m t h a t he i s examining f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e h i s mind.  He must  with certain i n -  He does t h i s a. g r e a t number of  times i n the course o f h i s work.  The i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t we  have d e s c r i b e d should be p l a c e d b e f o r e him I n the b e g i n n i n g , and n o t be l e a r n e d d u r i n g , and a t the expense o f , the work, i f t h i s h a b i t of a t t e n t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d i s t o be p r o p e r l y developed.  I n o t h e r words, he  s h o u l d n o t s t a r t out w i t h the date of the i n v o i c e , one or two of the proper s i g n a t u r e s i n h i s mind and add t o these as he p r o g r e s s e s .  He s h o u l d have a l l the data I n h i s  mind from the commencement.  I t would appear then t h a t  some e f f o r t should be made t o r e i n f o r c e t h i s very v a l u a b l e aspect of h i s t r a i n i n g by d e v e l o p i n g i t more s p e c i f i c a l l y . ¥\e have observed r  t h a t i n p a r t of the work, such  as where the j u n i o r i s p r e p a r i n g schedules t h a t may be examined s u b s e q u e n t l y , h i s e r r o r s a r e shown.  I n order t o  a v o i d t h i s c o n d i t i o n he c o n c e n t r a t e s on r e p r o d u c i n g as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e t h e form o f the p r e v i o u s working  papers.  - 69 H i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what i s expected o f him i s not s u f f i c i e n t , when he commences t h e work, 'to l e t him do anyt h i n g hut f o l l o w c a r e f u l l y t h e form l a i d out f o r him. He i s d e v e l o p i n g a h a b i t o f a t t e n t i o n on the p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g t h a t he i s d o i n g ; b u t the t h i n g he i s doing i s not p r i m a r y , but secondary  - t h a t i s t o say, h i s e f f o r t s are d i r e c t e d  towards c o p y i n g and n o t towards s a t i s f y i n g h i m s e l f t h a t t h e requirements beforehand,  t h a t s h o u l d have been p l a c e d b e f o r e h i s mind a r e complied  with.  - 70 -  XV-  General D i s c u s s i o n of. t h e Learning; of More Advanced Work Leading- up t o the c o m p l e t i o n o f an A u d i t We have drawn s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s o f a c c o u n t s , the c h i e f r e q u i r e ment as t h e j u n i o r l e a r n s its, i s t o " f o l l o w the bookkeeping" He must f o l l o w i t b e c a u s e , . i n r e c o r d i n g on h i s papers the bookkeeping, he i s showing -the n a t u r e o f the t r a n s a c t i o n s t h a t have a r i s e n .  Whether o r n o t he i s a b l e t o understand  them, whoever examines h i s work s u b s e q u e n t l y must be able t o determine the c o r r e c t n e s s o f the e n t r i e s t h a t a r e made. The f i r s t o b j e c t , t h e n , f o r him i s t o show c o r r e c t l y what e n t r i e s have been made, t o understand t h e reason f o r sho?/ing t h e s e , whether or n o t he i s a b l e t o form an o p i n i o n as t o their correctness.  The a b i l i t y t o form an o p i n i o n as t o  the v a l i d i t y of an e n t r y , he a c q u i r e s from c r i t i c i s m o f h i s w o r k i n g papers by a s e n i o r .  The j u n i o r u s u a l l y l e a r n s t h i s  work i n the same manner as he d i d t h a t o f the past i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f s c h e d u l e s and l i s t s . previous  papers.  He m e t i c u l o u s l y f o l l o w s  H i s c o n c e r n ' i s h e r e , as i t was i n the  cases c i t e d elsewhere, t o be as near as p o s s i b l e t o t h e form o f the p r e v i o u s papers.  The p a t t e r n I s memorized i n  t h i s way, and the o b j e c t i v e s o f the p a t t e r n come t o him g r a d u a l l y d u r i n g the p r o c e s s .  We saw t h a t the p r i n c i p l e  i n v o l v e d i s c o n s i s t e n t throughout the -whole o f t h e ' a n a l y s i s ,  - 71 .namely, t o i n d i c a t e the o p p o s i t e s i d e o f an e n t r y and t o describe  the n a t u r e of the t r a n s a c t i o n . I n our d e s c r i p t i o n of the -work on c a p i t a l  a s s e t s , we saw t h a t t h e r e was a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n , such as t h e name o f the person or company from whom the purchase was made, and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f what was purchased, or i t may have been a s t o r e s ' i s s u e ,  ( i n which case t h i s was shown)  and what was charged i n d i c a t e d .  Or a g a i n , i t may have been  a p a y r o l l charge when a d e s c r i p t i o n of the n a t u r e o f the -work c a r r i e d out was made.  I n h i s work on t h e a n a l y s i s of  p r o f i t and l o s s i t e m s , the same p r i n c i p l e was though i n l e s s d e t a i l e d form. e n t r y was I n d i c a t e d  folio-wed,  The o p p o s i t e s i d e o f the  by some -general d e s c r i p t i o n and what  was purchased or s o l d was d e s c r i b e d  i n summary form.  The main c r i t i c i s m of the p r e s e n t method o f l e a r n i n g I s t h a t the l e a r n e r I s n o t c o n s c i o u s o f t h e p r i n c i p l e r e f e r r e d t o i n the p r e c e d i n g paragraphs u n t i l a f t e r he has completed numerous assignments.  This i s  evidenced i n t h e f a c t t h a t , the moment .he i s compelled t o break away f om the p r e v i o u s working papers, because of something o f an u n u s u a l n a t u r e , he f a i l s t o s a t i s f y the requirements. instance  He l e a r n s what i s expected i n each p a r t i c u l a r  by b e i n g r e q u i r e d  t o show the work i n proper form  a f t e r i t has been c r i t i c i s e d ,  He d i s c o v e r s , a f t e r making  numerous e r r o r s , t h a t t h e r e i s a p r i n c i p l e i n v o l v e d .  In  o t h e r words, i t occurs to him t h a t what he i s d o i n g i n d e t a i l i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the whole of h i s a n a l y s i s , • T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s h o u l d not be l e f t f o r the l e a r n e r to d i s cover i n h i s own  way,  but should be p l a c e d b e f o r e him  before  the work commences and whenever an e r r o r i s made. In order f o r him to become a judge of  the  p r o p r i e t y o f the e n t r i e s , he must d i s c o v e r c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e one  e n t r y from another.  He must  l e a r n the d i f f e r e n c e between an e n t r y t h a t a f f e c t s c a p i t a l and an e n t r y t h a t a f f e c t s revenue.  As we  saw,  he  learns  t h i s by t h e ' c r i t i c i s m s or s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t are made by  the  s e n i o r i n examining h i s work. One  of the advantages to De found i n t h i s s e c t i o n  of the work i s t h a t most of the e r r o r s come t o l i g h t are used as a means of e d u c a t i o n .  Eowrever, an improvement  c o u l d be made i f , vtfiehever an e r r o r o c c u r r e d , that i t i n v o l v e d a flaw In h i s reasoning never be a l l o w e d  and  he was  process.  shown He  should  to l o s e s i g h t of the f a c t t h a t he i s  e s t a b l i s h i n g , the e x i s t e n c e and v a l u e of a balance l o g i c a l l y , and  t h a t every d e t a i l of h i s work has a p l a c e i n t h i s l o g i c .  He s h o u l d be a i d e d as much as p o s s i b l e to formulate thoughts on the same b a s i s .  his  He should know, when he i s  p r e p a r i n g a l i s t of names from share c e r t i f i c a t e stubs f o r example, t h a t he i s a t t e m p t i n g  to corroborate  the amount  t h a t i s shown on the balance sheet as r e g a r d s the share  c a p i t a l of the company, or t h a t he i s endeavouring t o prove t h a t the company has not i s s u e d more s t o c k than I t has been authorized  to issue. H i s work on a n a l y s i s o f accounts i s an i n t r o -  d u c t i o n t o t h a t which l e a d s him t o a s t a t e where a great d e a l more i s expected o f him.  As the d e s c r i p t i o n of the  work shows, h i s a n a l y t i c a l - mental p r o c e s s e s may be given  full  p l a y , but t o r e c e i v e f u l l b e n e f i t he should be conscious of the p r o c e s s e s .  We saw t h a t t h e r e i s a tendency f o r him t o  i m i t a t e , and n o t r e f l e c t upon what he I s d o i n g , and suggested t h a t an e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o c o r r e c t t h i s .  We have  p o i n t e d out t h a t the more p r o f i c i e n t he becomes, c o n s t r u c t i v e t h i n k i n g or r e a s o n i n g has been from simple  becomes more e v i d e n t .  The process  l e a r n i n g by t r i a l and e r r o r t o t h a t  where t h e h i g h e r mental p r o c e s s e s a r e i n v o l v e d .  We found  t h i s demonstrated i n our e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i s l e a r n i n g when he i s c a r r y i n g out an a u d i t u n a i d e d .  We saw t h a t a t f i r s t  he has c e r t a i n guides t o l e a d him i n new work.  The procedure  t h a t he f o l l o w s i n t h e arrangement o f the papers, he l e a r n s by i m i t a t i o n .  I t would h e l p g r e a t l y i f the work as a  whole c o u l d be u n i f i e d f o r him when he reaches the p o s i t i o n where the p i c t u r e of a complete a u d i t can be understood. He l e a r n s t o draw up f i n a n c i a l statements by p r e p a r i n g h i s master schedules, of the year b e f o r e .  s t r i c t l y f o l l o w i n g those  That the master schedules a r e copied  - 74 on the f i n a l statements i s a new  d i s c o v e r y f o r him.  As  passes from the performance of one a u d i t t o another he •f even f o r g e t t h i s new be.  he may  d i s c o v e r y , however i m p o r t a n t i t may  I t i s c l e a r , t h e n , t h a t he l e a r n s t h i s by memoriza-  t i o n of a p a t t e r n v a r y i n g i n the degree of i t s c o m p l e x i t y and,  correspondingly,  its assimilation.  i n the l e n g t h of time n e c e s s a r y f o r  He should have had an Idea of t h i s  p a t t e r n w h i l e he was  l e a r n i n g , and  c a r r y out the work a t  i n t e r v a l s not too f a r a p a r t . The  p r e p a r a t i o n of a d j u s t i n g j o u r n a l e n t r i e s  p r e s e n t e d a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t mode of l e a r n i n g . t h e y are made, they are u s u a l l y d i s c u s s e d  Before  as t o t h e i r  p r o p r i e t y so t h a t , p r o v i d i n g he were g i v e n enough;of them to p r e p a r e , he would soon be a b l e t o reason them out f o r himself.  Such i s not the case.  r e q u i r e few a d j u s t m e n t s , and he has  Many of h i s f i r s t the o p p o r t u n i t y  making adjustments o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y , when he may g o t t e n what he p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d .  thoroughly  for  have f o r -  T h i s , however, i s o f f -  s e t by the f a c t t h a t he i s a g a i n g i v e n the f o r d i s c u s s i n g and  audits  opportunity  c o n s i d e r i n g every e n t r y  that  is.made, both w i t h the person whose accounts he i s a d j u s t i n g and w i t h someone who  i s s e n i o r to him.  Certain audits  are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the numerous- adjustments t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o make.  Others'have v e r y few.  I t would be  of advantage i f i t were p o s s i b l e f o r the l e a r n e r t o be ' t r a i n e d i n t h i s exceedingly  i m p o r t a n t branch of h i s p r o f e s s i o n  -70  by so a r r a n g i n g h i s work t h a t he c o u l d s p e c i a l i s e i n making adjustments for  f o r a longer period.  T h i s i s a broad  field,  i t covers a l l a s p e c t s o f a c c o u n t i n g knowledge; and, i n  t r a i n i n g the b e g i n n e r , t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s t h a t s h o u l d be borne i n mind i f the most s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s are t o be o b t a i n e d .  Though each j o u r n a l e n t r y i s a problem  i n i t s e l f , i t has a r e l a t i o n s h i p b o t h t o what he i s doing and t o a c c o u n t i n g as a whole t h a t he should understand.  If  care were taken t o i n d i c a t e t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , h i s knowledge i n every r e s p e c t c o u l d ue c o n s i d e r a b l y extended.  I n every  case where he has been c a r r y i n g out d e t a i l work, I f he  has  d i s c o v e r e d an e r r o r , the n e c e s s i t y may have a r i s e n f o r an adjustment;  so t h a t the adjustments  have a c o n n e c t i o n i n  t h i s way w i t h the d e t a i l work and w i l l serve as a f u r t h e r means f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g I n h i s mind the o b j e c t s of. t h a t work. ;  The  same method of t r a i n i n g t h a t has been out-  l i n e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a l l forms of v e r i f i c a t i o n work i s apparent  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of any w r i t t e n r e p o r t or l e t t e r .  When the j u n i o r f i r s t w r i t e s a r e p o r t , i t i s u s u a l l y n o t h i n g r  more than a copy of t h a t which was  prepared the year b e f o r e .  A f t e r he has w r i t t e n s i m i l a r r e p o r t s a s u f f i c i e n t number of times' they become memorized, as the form of an u n c o n d i t i o n a l report i s stereotyped.  Whenever t h e r e are v a r i a t i o n s , they  are u s u a l l y o n l y t o be found i n a sentence or a He l e a r n s t o w r i t e these new  sentences  paragraph.  or paragraphs and  g r a d u a l l y becomes a b l e t o c o n s t r u c t a whole r e p o r t .  He  c o u l d be a s s i s t e d i f he were i n s t r u c t e d t o w r i t e r e p o r t s from the beginning has  been d o i n g .  on the v a r i o u s c l a s s e s of work t h a t he He does not n e c e s s a r i l y know what the  r e q u i r e m e n t s of the r e p o r t a r e , as he f o l l o w s the l a s t one, but l e a r n s g r a d u a l l y a f t e r he has become f a m i l i a r w i t h the form.  He should  be g i v e n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s  before  he commences t o w r i t e . t h e r e p o r t and a f t e r i t i s completed. I n c a r r y i n g ' out a complete a u d i t , the l e a r n e r reaches a p o s i t i o n where he gains a c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the u n i t s o f h i s a u d i t and o f t h e i r g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , a l s o the means whereby they a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r .  He does t h i s  because he i s f o r c e d i n t o a p o s i t i o n where he must t h i n k about a l l o f t h e work. and  That c o n s c i o u s n e s s which should  c o u l d be a r r i v e d a t i n t h e a c t u a l c a r r y i n g out of  d e t a i l v e r i f i c a t i o n i s acquired u s u a l l y at t h i s l a t e  stage.  Had i t been p o s s i b l e f o r him t o have developed i n the manner s u g g e s t e d , he might be I n a p o s i t i o n where he c o u l d form many of the judgments t h a t a r e u s u a l l y l e f t t o h i s p r i n c i p a l . A l l o f the d e t a i l work t h a t has been o u t l i n e d now comes i n t o h i s p r o v i n c e , and he i s e i t h e r d o i n g the work or c r i t i c i s i n g someone e l s e .  Whichever t h e case may be, he  now works w i t h some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a whole a u d i t ;  and he  attempts t o r e l a t e t h e p a r t s . There i s l i t t l e o f the work t h a t he has not done b e f o r e , as f a r as the a c t u a l v e r i f i c a t i o n i s concerned.  77 The most s i n g u l a r f e a t u r e o f h i s l e a r n i n g l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t he i s l e f t t o h i s own r e s o u r c e s .  We saw t h a t the  p a t h he must f o l l o w i s c a r e f u l l y marked, so t h a t he cannot l o s e h i s way.  The anomalous s i t u a t i o n i s . t h a t he does n o t  knot? where he i s g o i n g , and i f these marks were n o t before him he would be l o s t .  He has l i t t l e comprehension a t f i r s t  of what he i s about t o do, and h e r e i n l i e s t h e main f a u l t in his training.  Some attempt s h o u l d be made t o g i v e him  a view o f t h e f i e l d he i s about t o cover.  I t p r e s e n t he  f o l l o w s , one step a t a t i m e , h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s and e v e n t u a l l y comes t o the end o f the path.  He does t h i s s e v e r a l times  and then r e a l i z e s what he should have grasped t o some e x t e n t at t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s r e l a t e d and i s p a r t of a c a r e f u l l y planned  procedure.  - 78 - XVI Conclusion We have observed t h a t improvement c o u l d be. made i n each p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s o f work by a p p l i c a t i o n o f the laws of l e a r n i n g .  The law o f use c o u l d be a p p l i e d  effectively  by g i v i n g s i m i l a r c l a s s e s o f work u n t i l each c l a s s I s thoroughly  learned.  The r e a c t i o n s i n v o l v e d could be  s t r e n g t h e n e d t o a degree where the improvement i n l e a r n i n g might be made permanent.  We have remarked on the f a i l u r e  t o observe and apply the l a w o f -recency* period i s allowed  t o elapse  Tod l o n g a  i n many cases before t h e l e a r n e r  i s g i v e n work a g a i n o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e .  We have observed  numerous s i m i l a r i n s t a n c e s o f f a i l u r e t o a p p l y t h e law of disuse.  As a r e s u l t o f the s t u d e n t ' s being  transferred  t o an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t c l a s s of work, t h a t which he has a l r e a d y l e a r n e d has been f o r g o t t e n .  I f a mental  operation  i s e l a b o r a t e , t h e number o f r e p e t i t i o n s must be g r e a t e r , and t h e r e c e n c y o f t h e attempts must be i n c r e a s e d , i f t h e o p e r a t i o n i s to. be s u f f i c i e n t l y e x e r c i s e d .  We have  I n d i c a t e d means whereby a g r e a t e r number o f u s e f u l a s s o c i a t i o n s c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d exercised. associations.  i n t o the r e a c t i o n t h a t i s t o be  I t should be as r i c h as p o s s i b l e w i t h d e s i r a b l e A more complex p a t t e r n w i l l ' o b v i o u s l y  g r e a t e r and more f r e q u e n t  exercise.  require  Furthermore, we have  seen t h a t t h r o u g h i n s u f f i c i e n t and I n f r e q u e n t  exercise a  - 79 l e s s e n i n g i n the p r o m p t n e s s / s u r e n e s s , and ease of r e c a l l w i l l occur;  and t h a t by f a i l u r e to observe these p r i n c i p l e s  the time a l r e a d y spent on a s u b j e c t may We  have been wasted.  have noted a p p l i c a t i o n s of the lav/ o f e f f e c t t o some  extent i n observing  t h a t the best r e s u l t s were obtained  as  a r e s u l t of a f e a r of adverse c r i t i c i s m . ' A d e s i r e to product work of a h i g h grade i n order t o enjoy f a v o u r a b l e was  also manifest.  covered had  comment  A d e s i r e to a v o i d e r r o r s being  dis-  an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on the t r a i n i n g .  We  suggested t h a t by g i v i n g the l e a r n e r a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what he i s d o i n g , s t i l l g r e a t e r b e n e f i t s might be achieved. We have shown t h a t the n a t u r e of the t r a i n i n g tends toward d e v e l o p i n g a c t i v e nature. tendency was  the mind w i t h o u t r e c o g n i t i o n of I t s  I n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f working paper's, the  t o f o l l o w , s t e p by s t e p , w i t h o u t t h i n k i n g ,  the p a t t e r n of these papers.  The work was  c a r r i e d out  a  s u f f i c i e n t number of times u n t i l the form became memorized, •without the l e a r n e r n e c e s s a r i l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g i t s i m p l i c a tions.  We  suggested t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n could be improved,  i f he were a s s i s t e d to l e a r n l o g i c a l l y . to him,  and  The  objectives  should  be d e s c r i b e d  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s pointed  out.  He would then keep these o b j e c t i v e s before him,  and  a s s o c i a t e each p a r t to them as he worked. An h y p o t h e s i s  t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s between three  d i f f e r e n t modes of l e a r n i n g - t r i a l and e r r o r , i m i t a t i o n  - 80 and r e f l e c t i v e a n a l y s i s o r r e a s o n i n g , venient  was found t o be con-  i n the e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a i n i n g t h a t has been  described.  The term t r i a l and e r r o r l e a r n i n g has been  used i n a r e s t r i c t e d sense, f o r i t can be observed t h a t the p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g by r e a s o n i n g from l e a r n i n g by t r i a l and e r r o r .  i s not e n t i r e l y d i s t i n c t I n reasoning,  as I n  any other form o f l e a r n i n g , the s o l u t i o n of a problem i s a c h i e v e d by a p r o c e s s o f t r i a l s and e l i m i n a t i o n s o f e r r o r s , and  the s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l o r s a t i s f a c t o r y means  to t h a t s o l u t i o n .  Where t r i a l and e r r o r l e a r n i n g has been  r e f e r r e d t o i t has been used I n t h e sense o f l a c k o f those elements that a r e m a n i f e s t i n t h e h i g h e r The term r e a s o n i n g  has been used t o i m p l y t h a t the mind o f  the i n d i v i d u a l i s more a c t i v e , . a n d his  forms o f r e a s o n i n g .  t h a t he i s able to'draw  i n f o r m a t i o n from a wider s o u r c e , t h a t h i s e f f o r t s a r e  more h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d ,  t h a t he has a b e t t e r sense o f  d i r e c t i o n and t h a t he h a s , g e n e r a l l y , a h i g h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what i s r e q u i r e d and o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s Inherent i n his  problems. .We suggested methods f o r r a i s i n g the standard  of t r a i n i n g t o a plane where the reasoning  processes of the  mind c o u l d be a l l o w e d more p l a y and where these processes c o u l d be r e f i n e d .  The whole o f the work i s b u i l t up  l o g i c a l l y - . He should  be aided i n t h i n k i n g out h i s work  as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e on t h a t b a s i s which was i n t h e minds  81 of "th.se who - o r i g i n a l l y prepared the form.  The c r i t i c i s m  was o f f e r e d that t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f the work and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e p a r t s s h o u l d not be l e f t u n t i l the l e a r n e r reaches a c o n d i t i o n where he i s c o n d u c t i n g t h e work h i m s e l f . V!  e  saw a l s o t h a t , even a f t e r he had reached t h i s s t a g e , he  s t i l l worked t o a g r e a t e x t e n t by i m i t a t i o n u n t i l he eventu a l l y a c h i e v e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t he s h o u l d have had long before.  We saw/- t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g l e a d i n g up t o where  an e n t i r e a u d i t I s c a r r i e d o u t by t h e i n d i v i d u a l may be divided  g e n e r a l l y i n t o two p a r t s - .that where ..he i s f o l l o w -  i n g w r i t t e n and v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , and t h a t where the p r e p a r a t i o n o f working papers i s i n v o l v e d .  In the f i r s t  c a s e , t h e e r r o r s t h a t were made d i d not always come t o l i g h t , so they were o f l i t t l e use as a means o f improving h i s knowledge.  I n the second case, t h e e r r o r s were u s u a l l y  apparent on the working papers, and c o u l d be used as a b a s i s f o r improvement. I n a l l t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n we observed t h a t reasoni n g l a y behind the i n s t r u c t i o n s and the forms t h a t were followed.  There was always an o b j e c t i v e and a l o g i c a l  process l e a d i n g up t o i t . .  The l e a r n e r i s l e d along this  c a r e f u l l y reasoned pathway by these i n s t r u c t i o n s . a n d forms. There i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the e x e r c i s e o f h i s own i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h i n the l i m i t s t h a t are thus marked o u t . He i s compelled t o follow-, one step a t a t i m e , a reasoned  p a t t e r n as he works, 10 such an extent t h a t he f i n d s he i s doing h i s own  reasoning.  The  eventually  p a t t e r n becomes  e s t a b l i s h e d i n h i s mind c h i e f l y by - r e p e t i t i o n , not  by  learning i t l o g i c a l l y . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of each c l a s s of work was d e s c r i b e and  obtained  as an outcome o f h i s attempts to  e x p l a i n i t t o someone e l s e .  a h i g h e r degree of a c t i v i t y , reasoning and h i s l e a r n i n g became more r a p i d .  The  mind reached  became more apparent He made d i s c o v e r i e s  a t t h i s stage which he should have made when he was d e t a i l work.  doing  This increase i n r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g could  have been a c h i e v e d i n each p a r t i c u l a r phase of h i s work i f the t r a i n i n g was l e a r n i n g ' and  c a r r i e d out i n keeping w i t h the laws of  the p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d . An i n t e l l i g e n t i n d i v i d u a l w i l l f i n a l l y achieve  the o b j e c t i v e s of any t r a i n i n g , however u n s c i e n t i f i c i t may being  be.  The  reasoning  p r o c e s s e s t h a t l i e beneath what i s  done w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be d i s c o v e r e d  by him and  utilized.  I f he i s to be brought to a b e t t e r and q u i c k e r understandi n g of 'whatever he i s l e a r n i n g , some effor't should be made to a s s i s t him through the use of the l a r g e , s y s t e m a t i c a l l y organized has  boay of knowledge which e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y  developed. How  much can be gained by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s has not been d e a l t w i t h i n these  pages.  I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to. s t a t e t h a t the beginner i s  s e l e c t e d t o some extent on a b a s i s o f h i s past achievements, which may g e n e r a l l y be t a k e n t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he i s s u i t e d f o r the work.  Moreover, h i s r e l a t i v e a b i l i t y t o l e a r n soon  becomes m a n i f e s t .  I t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t success i n  this profession correlates highly with intelligence.  Some-  t h i n g might be gained by an attempt t o a s c e r t a i n , on a s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s , a t t h e o u t s e t , the degree o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a d a p t a b i l i t y f o r the work;  but t h i s l i e s  outside  the scope o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . A h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i q u e was observed i n the procedure t h a t i s f o l l o w e d ;  but i t i s a technique the  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f which r e l a t e s t o the work t h a t i s t o be c a r r i e d out and not t o t h e t r a i n i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  No  such c a r e f u l l y thought-out p l a n e x i s t s as regards the t r a i n ing.  We have seen t h e l e a r n i n g o f s y s t e m a t i c  methods of  t h i n k i n g and working by a procedure t h a t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y scientific. .The c r i t i c i s m s t h a t have been o f f e r e d a r e n o t t o be i n t e r p r e t e d t o imply t h a t the method o f t r a i n i n g i s not e f f e c t i v e .  I t i s s u p e r i o r , perhaps, t o t h a t used .  elsewhere, where s i m i l a r c l a s s e s of work a r e i n v o l v e d . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d i n other f i e l d s might a i s c l o s e s t i l l g r e a t e r shortcomings i n those f i e l d s .  The  system of t r a i n i n g t h a t has been o u t l i n e d does s a t i s f y t h e  pragmatic t e s t - i t achieves r e s u l t s o f a h i g h o r d e r . An attempt has been made t o show t h a t these r e s u l t s can be o b t a i n e d more e c o n o m i c a l l y and i n a s h o r t e r p e r i o d o f time.  - oOo -  Bibliography  A n g e l l , J.R.,'Psychology, 1908, Chapters 11 and 12 Book, W.F.,  L e a r n i n g t o T y p e w r i t e , 1925, Chapters 1 and  Gates, A . I . , Psychology f o r Students of E d u c a t i o n , 1927, Chapters 10 t o 14 i n c l u s i v e . P y l e , W.H.,  The P s y c h o l o g y o f L e a r n i n g , 1921, Chapters 1 t o 8 i n c l u s i v e .  Thorndike,E.L., E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 1913, Volume 1, Chapter 12. Woodworth, R.S., P s y c h o l o g y , 1925, Chapters 16 ana 18.  ho r e f e r e n c e s a r e g i v e n t o a c c o u n t i n g t e x t s as none appear t o be w r i t t e n w i t h the p o i n t of view- r e q u i r e d i n these pages. Moreover, n o t h i n g has been w r i t t e n r e g a r d i n g the a c t u a l t r a i n i n g that i s described.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105507/manifest

Comment

Related Items