UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Some aspects of the development of public education in British Columbia Gamey, Harold Wesley 1934

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I CAT no. .L0*e> . n*-f 7  SOME ASPECTS OP THE DEVELOPMENT OP PUBLIC EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  by H a r o l d Wesley Gamey  W  W  *  A T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d f o r t h e Degree o f ,MASTER OP ARTS  4 ^  the Department of  P H I L O S O P H Y  4^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia April  1934  TABLE OP CONTENTS. CHAPTER  \  PAGE  I.  The E a r l y H i s t o r y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n a l  II.  The E v o l u t i o n o f t h e S c h o o l Law and R e g u l a t i o n s . ,  11  III.  The E v o l u t i o n o f Government A i d t o S c h o o l s .  23  IV.  Health Education i n the Schools. (a) H i s t o r y o f H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n . (b) The S t r a t h c o n a T r u s t . (c) Teacher T r a i n i n g i n Hygiene and Physical Education.  35 42 44  V.  System.  1  The E v o l u t i o n o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l System. (a) A Summary o f t h e Growth o f t h e S c h o o l System. (b) The H i s t o r y o f t h e Former South Vancouver Schools. (c) The H i s t o r y o f t h e Former P o i n t Grey Schools. Some S p e c i a l F e a t u r e s of t h e Vancouver S c h o o l System. ' (a) The A d a p t a t i o n o f t h e System t o t h e Educ a t i o n a l Needs o f t h e P u p i l s . (b) A M u l t i p l e Course o f S t u d y .  68  VII.  Modern E x p e r i m e n t s i n Vancouver. (a) Changes i n S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n . (b) S c i e n t i f i c L e a d e r s h i p i n E d u c a t i o n .  76 78  VIII.  E a r l y H i s t o r y of the Teaching P r o f e s s i o n .  83  IX.  The H i s t o r y o f T e a c h e r s ' C e r t i f i c a t e s . (a) E a r l y C e r t i f i c a t e s . (b) The Academic C e r t i f i c a t e .  VI.  48 56 57  63  (c) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f C e r t i f i c a t e s .  89 93 100  X.  P r o f e s s i o n a l Growth o f t h e T e a c h e r .  109  XI.  Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n s . (a) E a r l y O r g a n i z a t i o n s . (b) The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation. (c) "The B.C.Teacher". The E v o l u t i o n o f t h e T e a c h e r s ' P e n s i o n s A c t .  XII.  115 121 125 126  LIST OF TABLES• Page •1. Summary o f t h e S c h o o l System  1873-1908,  2. E a r l y H i g h S c h o o l s * 3. S c h o o l A t t e n d a n c e  8-9 9  1872-1922.  9-10  4. Summary o f t h e S c h o o l Law, showing t h e Development o f t h e S c h o o l System.  21-22  5. S c h o o l P r o p e r t y i n Vancouver as a t June 30, 1900.  52  6. H i g h S c h o o l A t t e n d a n c e i n Vancouver, 1890-1899.  53  7. E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l A t t e n d a n c e i n V a n c o u v e r , 1866-1895.  53  8. S c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n i n Vancouver, 1886-1932. 9. The B u i l d i n g Programme showing t h e I n c r e a s e 1Q. Number o f Teachers and 1894-1929. 11. The Development o f t h e  i n Vancouver, 1900-1915, i n School Population, P u p i l s i n South Vancouver, P o i n t Grey S c h o o l s .  12.  S c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n and T e a c h i n g S t a f f i n t h e P o i n t Grey S c h o o l s , 1908-28*  13.  The Development o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver S c h o o l System.  54 55 57 58-59 59 60-62  14. Teachers Employed and C e r t i f i c a t e s H e l d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1931-32.  107  15.  Number o f Teachers Employed i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1873-1932.  108  16.  P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e B.C.Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , 1917-1934,  124  17.  Comparative Membership i n t h e B.C.Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , 1921-1932.  124  SOME ASPECTS OP THE DEVELOPMENT of PUBLIC EDUCATION I N BRITISH COLUMBIA  CHAPTER I .  The E a r l y H i s t o r y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n a l System. F o l l o w i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Vancouver I s l a n d as a Crown Colony i n 1849, t h e Hudson's Bay Company made e f f o r t s to p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n o f i t s employees  and o f o t h e r s e t t l e r s .  The Company's C h a p l a i n , t h e  Reverend R o b e r t J . S t a i n e s , was t h e f i r s t t e a c h e r and t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g , w h i c h s e r v e d as r e s i d e n c e , c h u r c h , and s c h o o l , was n e a r the s i t e o f t h e p r e s e n t Bank of Commerce, P o r t and Government S t r e e t s , V i c t o r i a . " * " Prom 1851-1856 t h e Government o f t h e Colony o f Vancouver I s l a n d was a d m i n i s t e r e d by Governor Douglas w i t h t h e assistance of a L e g i s l a t i v e Council.  I n h i s r e p o r t t o the  s e c r e t a r y o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company, on October 8, 1851, Governor Douglas s t a t e s , " I w i l l a l s o t a k e the l i b e r t y o f c a l l i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n of t h e Governor and Committee t o t h e s u b j e c t o f e d u c a t i o n by recommending t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f one  1. A f t e r a c o m p i l a t i o n from t h e e x t r a c t o f t h r e e a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by Mr. J . P o r s y t h e , former P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n , as p u b l i s h e d i n t h e B.C.Teacher, f o r December 1926, p.4.  o r two e l e m e n t a r y  s c h o o l s i n the c o l o n y t o g i v e a p r o p e r  m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g to the c h i l d r e n o f the who  settlers,  a t p r e s e n t are g r o w i n g up I n i g n o r a n c e o f a l l t h e i r d u t i e  to God and  society.  One  s c h o o l a t V i c t o r i a and one a t E s q u i -  m a l t w i l l p r o v i d e f o r the p r e s e n t wants of the "In  settlement.  r e g a r d t o the c h a r a c t e r o f the t e a c h e r s , I  would v e n t u r e t o recommend a m i d d l e - a g e d couple f o r e a c h s c h o o l , o f s t r i c t l y r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s and u n b l e m i s h e d c h a r a c t e r , c a p a b l e o f g i v i n g a good sound e d u c a t i o n and  nothing  more, these s c h o o l s b e i n g i n t e n d e d f o r the c h i l d r e n o f l a b o u r Ing and p o o r e r c l a s s e s ; and c h i l d r e n of p r o m i s i n g t a l e n t s o r whom t h e i r p a r e n t s may w i s h t o educate f u r t h e r may  pursue  t h e i r s t u d i e s and a c q u i r e o t h e r branches o f knowledge a t t h e Company's s c h o o l conducted In  by the Reverend Mr. Staines""' . -  the s p r i n g o f 1852 Governor Douglas opened a  day s c h o o l f o r boys and a p p o i n t e d Mr. C h a r l e s B a i l e y as maste A l s o , about t h i s t i m e , Mr. L a n g f o r d opened a s c h o o l f o r l a d l e at Colwood, and a p p o i n t e d M i s s S c o t t as t e a c h e r .  1. From the Report o f Governor Douglas g i v e n t o the S e c r e t a r y o f the Hudson's Bay Company, O c t o b e r 8, 1851. 2. A f t e r an e x t r a c t from t h e Records o f the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s as p u b l i s h e d i n the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Teachers' Magazine, f o r December 1926, pages 4,5, and 6.  Applications various  districts  f o r schools  of the  country  C o u n c i l r e s o l v e d t h a t two delay,  one  near the  Maple P o i n t , Legislative that  five  a school school 1853, site  and  Council  schools  other  and  P l a i n and  forty the  later  Again,  i t i s shown t h a t t h e  state  be  the  from  Legislative  opened  The  without  Minutes  at  of  the  show a r e s o l u t i o n  appropriated  that  at Maple P o i n t .  upon the  should  f o r March' 2 9 t h , 1853,  at V i c t o r i a  December, 1853,  i n 1853  at V i c t o r i a .  h u n d r e d pounds be  ' f e e t l o n g and  and  received  Puget S o u n d Company's E s t a b l i s h m e n t  the  near Minies  were b e i n g  f o r the  erection of  p r o v i s i o n , be  made f o r  i n the minutes of March  Legislative decided  f e e t wide.- 1  that  the  Later,  Council appointed  of C o l o n i a l Schools  p  Council  second  a committee t o  and  to  "  hold  31st,  f i x e d upon a  s c h o o l be  on t h e  the  forty of report  quarterly  •  examinations. From t h e s t u d y Provincial Archives, Victoria before  District  the  of  there  School  Craigflower  the  original  seems t o be  was  documents i n t h e  little  doubt t h a t  e s t a b l i s h e d more t h a n a  s c h o o l ; ^ however, C r a i g f l o w e r  the  year is  the  1.  From t h e  Minutes  of  the  Legislative  C o u n c i l , 1853,  p.  19.  2.  From t h e  Minutes  of t h e  Legislative  C o u n c i l , 1853,  p.  23.  3.  From a r e s e a r c h o f t h e r e c o r d s i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s and p u b l i s h e d i n ' t h e B . C . T e a c h e r s ' M a g a z i n e f o r December, 1926.  o l d e s t s u r v i v i n g o f the C o l o n i a l s c h o o l - h o u s e s .  The V i c t o r i a  D i s t r i c t S c h o o l , e r e c t e d on t h e r e s e r v e o n t h e s i t e o f t h e p r e s e n t G i r l s ' C e n t r a l S c h o o l , was opened i n 1853 w i t h Mr. R o b e r t B a r r as master and w i t h b o t h day  and r e s i d e n t p u p i l s .  I t was a p u b l i c s c h o o l b u t not a f r e e s c h o o l .  Mr. B a r r r e -  s i g n e d i n November 1856 and was succeeded by Mr. Kennedy, who i n t u r n was succeeded by Mr. B u r r on March 29, 1859. I n a c c o r d w i t h a recommendation of the Governor, the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , on F e b r u a r y  27, 1856, r e s o l v e d ,  "That t h e Reverend Edward C r i d g e be r e q u e s t e d t e r l y examinations  t o h o l d quar-  and to r e p o r t on the p r o g r e s s and conduct  o f the p u p i l s , on the system of management, and on a l l o t h e r matters  c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e D i s t r i c t Schools w h i c h may appear  d e s e r v i n g o f attention";"'" thus, Reverend Mr. C r i d g e became' the f i r s t Honorary S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Superintendent  of Education.  The f i r s t  o f E d u c a t i o n siaown. i n t h e r e c o r d s was Mr,  A l f r e d Waddington, a p p o i n t e d  on t h e s i x t h o f June, 1865,  and t h e f i r s t S c h o o l A c t , e s t a b l i s h i n g a ,free s c h o o l system, was passed i n the same y e a r by t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly o f Vancouver I s l a n d .  On t h e Manland t h e p o p u l a t i o n was t o o  few and t o o much s c a t t e r e d t o admit o f any o r g a n i z e d The f i r s t  system.  s c h o o l a c t o f t h e C o l o n y o f B r i t i s h Co-  1. From t h e M i n u t e s o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l f o r 1856, as g i v e n on page 29 o f Memo #11, p u b l i s h e d i n 1918.  - 5 -  l u m b i a , "An Ordinance t o e s t a b l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l s  throughout  the C o l o n y o f B r i t i s h Columbia," was passed on March 13, 1869.  F o l l o w i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n "An A c t R e s p e c t i n g Public.  S c h o o l s " was passed i n 1872 and formed S c h o o l A c t of t h e p r e s e n t day.  the b a s i s of the  A t t h e time o f t h e u n i o n o f  the two c o l o n i e s o f Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h  Columbia,  i n 1868, s c h o o l a f f a i r s were i n a r a t h e r n e g l e c t e d s t a t e . There were s c h o o l s , as shown above, b u t t h e y were e i t h e r p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s o r were s u p p o r t e d i n p a r t b y l e v i e s . In  1869, when t h e u n i t e d c o l o n i e s l e g i s l a t e d on t h e s u b j e c t ,  t h e r e were o n l y t w e l v e schoo1s  i n o p e r a t i o n and about  three  hundred f i f t y p u p i l s a t s c h o o l out o f an e s t i m a t e d s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n o f two thousand.  The end of t h i s p e r i o d o f d i s -  o r g a n i z a t i o n came i n 1872, when t h e McCreight Government e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e a l p u b l i c s c h o o l system  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.^  The S c h o o l A c t o f 1872 a p p o i n t e d as S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of E d u c a t i o n , Mr. J e s s o p , who s e r v e d u n t i l August 1878. I t a l s o a p p o i n t e d t h e f i r s t Boa rd of E d u c a t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g o f Messrs. W.F.Tolmie, M.W.T.Drake, A.Munro, A . J . L a n g l e y , R. W i l l i a m s , and E . M a r v i n .  D u r i n g t h e y e a r 1872 t h e f o l l o w i n g  s c h o o l s were i n o p e r a t i o n at l e a s t p a r t o f the t i m e : V i c t o r i a C i t y and D i s t r i c t , C r a i g f l o w e r , E s q u i m a l t , M e t c h o s i n , Sooke,  1. Coats and G o s n e l l . p. 338 and 339.  The Makers o f Canada, C h a p t e r XX.,  Cedar H i l l , Lake, S a a n i c h , S o u t h Ccwichan,  N o r t h Cowiehan,  S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , Nanaimo, Com ox, New W e s t m i n s t e r ,  Langley,  Y a l e , C h l l l i w a c k , G r a n v i l l e ( V a n c o u v e r ) , Sumas, C l i n t o n , and Hope,  The f i r s t h i g h s c h o o l s came a few y e a r s l a t e r : at V i c -  t o r i a i n 1876; New Westminster  i n 1884; Nanaimo i n 1886; and  at Vancouver i n 1890. I n a n a r t i c l e on e a r l y e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Mr, W i l l i a m Burns, second S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r and f i r s t  Normal S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l , g i v e s an i n t e r e s t i n g a c 1  c o u n t , w h i c h i s summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g  paragraphs:  The P u b l i c S c h o o l A c t o f 1872 p r o v i d e d f o r t h e app o i n t m e n t , by t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i 1 , o f a Board of E d u c a t i o n , w h i c h w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of E d u c a t i o n was t o p l a o e and b u i l d s c h o o l s , t o a p p o i n t and d i s m i s s t e a c h e r s , and t o c o n t r o l i n e v e r y way t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a f f a i r s of the Province.  I t became a p p a r e n t , however, t h a t  s u c h a system o f e n t i r e c e n t r a l c o n t r o l was not s u i t e d t o t h e needs o f a p r o v i n c e o f l a r g e a r e a and w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n located i n widely scattered centres.  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s  c o n d i t i o n , t h e Board o f E d u c a t i o n was a b o l i s h e d i n 1879 and the supreme c o n t r o l was p l a c e d i n t h e hands o f t h e L i e u t e n ant-Governor ~ i n - G o u n c i l . appointment  The A c t of 1879 p r o v i d e d f o r t h e  o f t r u s t e e s , w i t h power over m a t t e r s o f l o c a l  1. "The E d u c a t i o n a l System o f B r i t i s h Columbia," i n Chapter XX, V o l . I I , o f " B r i t i s h Columbia" by Howey and S c h o l e • field.  -  7  -  i n t e r e s t , i n c l u d i n g t h e appointment and d i s m i s s a l o f t e a c h e r s . The t r u s t e e s , however, were s u b j e c t t o the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the Department o f E d u c a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  of  t e a c h e r s , and t o the r e g u l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o a t t e n d a n c e ,  text-  books, and o t h e r m a t t e r s of i n t e r n a l economy i n t h e A l l s a l a r i e s and Superintendent  schools.  c o s t s were p a i d by t h e Government, and  the  and h i s a s s i s t a n t s c a r r i e d out i n s p e c t i o n s  as f r e q u e n t l y as time p e r m i t t e d . The  development o f v a r i o u s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  brought a l a r g e i n c r e a s e of p o p u l a t i o n t o many p a r t s of the P r o v i n c e , and,  i n a few y e a r s , when these people became p e r -  manent s e t t l e r s , t h e y demanded an i n c r e a s e i n s c h o o l s . f i r s t s t e p t o meet the need was  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of a s s i s t e d  s c h o o l s , where the Government p r o v i d e d the s a l a r y and people f u r n i s h e d t h e b u i l d i n g and equipment. by 1896,  The  the  As a r e s u l t ,  t h e r e were two hundred f o r t y - f o u r s c h o o l s i n t h e  P r o v i n c e , r a n g i n g from the s m a l l a s s i s t e d s c h o o l s i n t h e l y i n g d i s t r i c t s t o t h e l a r g e graded s c h o o l s i n t h e populated  centres.  The  i n c r e a s e was  thickly  so r a p i d t h a t changes  seemed i m p e r a t i v e i n o r d e r t h a t the s c h o o l s might be more e f f i c i e n t ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , Act was  I n 1888  and 1891  the  a l t e r e d , g i v i n g a d d i t i o n a l powers t o l o c a l  rendered School author-  i t i e s and I n c r e a s i n g the number o f i n s p e c t o r s from two four.  The  out-  to  P r o v i n c e was d i v i d e d , f o r purposes o f a d m i n i s t r a -  t i o n , i n t o four inspectorates,'each w i t h i t s resident  i n s p e c t o r , who  r e p o r t e d t o the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of E d u c a t i o n  and a s s i s t e d t r u s t e e s and t e a c h e r s . The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t a b u l a r form, from the A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , i s i n t e r e s t i n g evidence o f the r a p i d growth of t h e s c h o o l s , and o f the p r o g r e s s i v e and f a r - s i g h t e d a t t i t u d e o f t h e Department and t e a c h i n g body. TABLE A. Report 1872-1874  Items and  Suggestions  1. High S c h o o l s s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d a t V i c t o r i a and New W e s t m i n s t e r . 2. Such s c h o o l s t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g . 3. F i r s t Teachers' C o n v e n t i o n s u g g e s t e d , w i t h a m e e t i n g of t h e Teachers' I n s t i t u t e arranged f o r the f o l l o w i n g J u l y .  1874-1875  1. A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r t e a c h e r s p l a c e d i n E a s t e r n Canada. 2. Drawing as a b r a n c h of P u b l i c S c h o o l work.  1875-1876  1. S u g g e s t i o n o f a Teachers' Fund.  Superannuation  2. F i r s t E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n h e l d . 1876-1877  1. S u g g e s t i o n s by S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Jess op re Schol a r s h i p s , S c h o o l L i b r a r i e s , and E v e n i n g Schools.  1881-1882  1. S u g g e s t i o n s r e p u p i I s r e p o r t s . dent C .C.McKenzie.  1885- 1884  1. B e g i n n i n g o f t h e Honour R o l l system. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t L.D.Pope.  1886- 1887  1. F i r s t S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r , Mr. D.W.Wilson,  B.A.  1891-1892  1. Second S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r , Mr. Wm.  B.A.  1  Superinten-  Burns,  - 9 1896- 1897  1. I n s p e c t o r s Burns, Nether by,  Cowperthwaite.  2. A s s i s t a n t i n g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n , I n s p e c t o r D.W.Wilson. 1897- 1898  1. Mr. A l e x a n d e r R o b i n s o n , B.A., as S u p e r i n t e n dent .  1907-1908  1. F i r s t f r e e t e x t - b o o k system  TABLE B . High School  adopted.  EARLY HIGH SCHOOLS Opening  F i r s t P r i n c i p a l or Teacher  1.  Victoria  Aug. 1872  Rev. A . B . N i c h o l s o n , B.A.  2.  New Westminster-  Aug. 1884  Mr. H.M.Stramberg, B.A.  3.  Nanaimo  1886  Mr. W. Hunter, B.A.  4.  Vancouver  1890  Mr. R. Law, B.A.  5.  Nelson  1901  Mr. R . J . C l a r k , M.A. ( F i r s t up-country h i g h school)  ""From Annual R e p o r t s o f P u b l i c S c h o o l s .  TABLE C. Years from t h e Act of 1872.  ATTENDANCE 1872-1922  Year  Number of P u p i l s  Percentage o f Attendance  1871-1872  412  1  1872-1873  1028  55.93  2  1873-1874  1245  62.48  3  1874-1875  1403  61.58  4  1875-1876  1685  58.39  5  1876-1877  1998  63.06  6  1877-1878  2198  63.49  from t h e Act o f 1675  Year  Number of Pupils  Percentage Attendance  •7  . - 1878-1879  2301  63.49  8  1879-1880  2462  52.50  9  1880-1881  2571  53.20  10  1881-1882  2653  51.20  15  1886-1887  5345  53.75  20  1891-1892  10,773  57.80  25  1896-1897  15,798  - 6Sv29  30  1901-1902  23,903  65.11  40  1911-1912  50,170  74.88  50  1921-1922  91,919  82.16  % r o r a Annual R e p o r t s  ;  Public Schools.  - 11  -  CHAPTER I I . The E v o l u t i o n o f t h e S c h o o l Law and R e g u l a t i o n s . A c a r e f u l s t u d y o f the development o f t h e S c h o o l Law g i v e s , n o t o n l y a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f our s c h o o l system, h u t a l s o , a v i s i o n o f e v e r w i d e n i n g h o r i z o n s i n t h e w o r l d o f education.  F o r s i x t y y e a r s t h e r e g u l a t i o n s have been changing t o  meet t h e e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f t h e P r o v i n c e .  Evidence of pro-  g r e s s i s f o u n d i n t h e statement t h a t , i n p r a c t i c a l l y year since Confederation, the S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h  every  Columbia  have i n c l u d e d a S c h o o l A c t , e i t h e r amending o r supplementing previous acts. I t i s n o t t h e I n t e n t i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r t o quote the v a r i o u s a c t s b u t r a t h e r t o t r a c e the development o f some phases o f t h e regulations.- 1  The S c h o o l A c t o f 1872, passed  by t h e F i r s t S e s s i o n o f t h e F i r s t P a r l i a m e n t o f B r i t i s h Columb i a , p r o v i d e d f o r a Board o f E d u c a t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g o f s i x members.  The same a c t gave a u t h o r i t y t o the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r -  i n - C o u n c i l t o a p p o i n t a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of E d u c a t i o n , t o c r e a t e new s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , t o d e f i n e and a l t e r t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s , and t o s e t a s i d e  i n each s c h o o l d i s t r i c t waste crown l a n d s f o r  school purposes.  The r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s , t h e d u t i e s o f  the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , and the powers o f the Board o f E d u c a t i o n were a l s o c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n t h e A c t . 1. G e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e f o r a l l changes l i s t e d — T h e S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1872-1932; i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e S c h o o l A c t s , vario-us y|a rs > - C o n s o l i d a t e d S c h o o l A c t s o f the A  l  e n t  A c t s  a n d  - 12 The B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n was g i v e n t h e f o l l o w i n g powers:  To s e l e c t , adopt, and p r e s c r i b e a u n i f o r m system o f  t e x t - b o o k s ; t o make and e s t a b l i s h r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the conduct o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s ; t o examine and g i v e  certi-  f i c a t e s of q u a l i f i c a t i o n to teachers of Public Schools; to a p p o i n t t h e t e a c h e r s i n any s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and t o f i x the s a l a r i e s j t o f u r n i s h apparatus  f o r the s c h o o l s ; and t o e s t a -  b l i s h s e p a r a t e s c h o o l s f o r females  i n any d i s t r i c t , where i t  may be deemed e x p e d i e n t t o do s o . Among t h e d u t i e s o f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  of Education  the f o l l o w i n g appeared: t o v i s i t each s c h o o l a t l e a s t once e a c h y e a r ; t o d e l i v e r i n each s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , a t l e a s t once a y e a r , a p u b l i c l e c t u r e o n a s u b j e c t corm.ected w i t h educat i o n ; and t o make a n n u a l l y a r e p o r t on t h e P u b l i c  Schools  w i t h any i n f o r m a t i o n and s u g g e s t i o n s deemed u s e f u l . The d u t i e s o f the t e a c h e r s , as d e f i n e d b y t h e A c t o f 1872, i n c l u d e d : t o t e a c h a l l b r a n c h e s a c c o r d i n g t o r e g u l a t i o n s ; t o keep the r e g u l a t i o n r e g i s t e r ; t o m a i n t a i n o r d e r and d i s c i p l i n e ; and t o have a p u b l i c e x a m i n a t i o n  a t the end  o f each h a l f - y e a r . Other s e c t i o n s o f the o r i g i n a l a c t p r o v i d e d f o r t h r e e t r u s t e e s i n e a c h d i s t r i c t ; t h e r e g u l a t i o n s f o r conduct i n g e l e c t i o n s and s c h o o l m e e t i n g s ;  the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r  v o t e r s and t r u s t e e s ; and the d u t i e s o f T r u s t e e  Boards.  F i n a l l y i t p r o v i d e d t h a t a l l s c h o o l s were t o be n o n - s e c t a r i a n ,  - 13 -  and  a l t h o u g h the h i g h e s t m o r a l i t y was t o "be i n c u l c a t e d no  r e l i g i o u s dogma o r c r e e d was t o be  taught•  From t h e A c t o f 1872 onward m o d i f i c a t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s continued evolved.  t o be made u n t i l the a c t o f t o d a y was  The f o l l o w i n g s e l e c t e d examples o f changes and a d -  d i t i o n s g i v e a comprehensive v i e w o f the t r a n s i t i o n covering  period  t h e s i x t y - y e a r s from 1872 t o 1932. The s c h o o l  acts  o f c e r t a i n y e a r s a r e c i t e d as a u t h o r i t i e s and some i t e m s a r e s e l e c t e d from each. S e v e r a l changes and a d d i t i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e A c t o f 1873.  The t r u s t e e s were g i v e n t h e a u t h o r i t y t o make  by-laws ( w i t h the a p p r o v a l  o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ) on t h e com-  p u l s o r y a t t e n d a n c e o f s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , o f s u c h age, t h a n seven o r more t h a n f o u r t e e n y e a r s , law.  not less  o r as f i x e d b y the b y -  The power t o a p p o i n t t e a c h e r s v/as t a k e n from t h e Board  o f E d u c a t i o n and g i v e n t o the t r u s t e e s .  A u t h o r i t y to hold  s c h o o l i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the d i s t r i c t f o r p a r t o f t h e day or y e a r was a l s o g i v e n t o t h e t r u s t e e b o a r d s . of non-sectarian  The c r e a t i o n  p u b l i c b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s , and t h e d e f i n i n g o f  the summer v a c a t i o n as "one month from t h e f i r s t Monday i n J u l y o r i n August" were new Items i n t h i s a c t . made i n the r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s ,  A d d i t i o n s were  i n c l u d i n g the k e e p i n g  of a r e c o r d o f c o r p o r a l punishments, t h e power t o e x p e l o r suspend p u p i l s ( w i t h the a u t h o r i t y o f t h e t r u s t e e s ) , and a statement on opening and c l o s i n g s c h o o l .  I t suggested opening  - 14 -  and c l o s i n g p r a y e r s and mentioned t h a t t h e L o r d ' s P r a y e r was to be p a r t o f the opening e x e r c i s e s and t h a t the Ten Gommandments were t o be taught and r e p e a t e d a t l e a s t once a month. In  1876 t h e r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s were l i m i t e d t o t h e L o r d ' s  P r a y e r and t h e Ten Commandments, and t h e use of. the same was l e f t . o p t i o n a l w i t h the v a r i o u s t r u s t e e b o a r d s .  A l s o . a more  d e f i n i t e r u l e about compulsory e d u c a t i o n was g i v e n , namely, t h a t e v e r y c h i l d from the age o f seven t o twelve  inclusive  must a t t e n d some s c h o o l , o r be o t h e r w i s e e d u c a t e d f o r s i x months i n e v e r y  year.  The A c t o f 1879 a b o l i s h e d t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , p l a c e d h i g h s c h o o l s under t h e c o n t r o l o f l o c a l b o a r d s , and p r o v i d e d f o r t h e appointment o f two examiners t o a s s i s t the Superintendent cates.  i n e x a m i n i n g t e a c h e r s and g r a n t i n g c e r t i f i -  I n a d d i t i o n t o p r e v i o u s d u t i e s , t h e t e a c h e r s were  r e q u i r e d t o send m o n t h l y r e p o r t s t o p a r e n t s , t o have a t i m e t a b l e i n a conspicuous of r e s i g n i n g .  p l a c e , and t o g i v e t h i r t y d a y s  New statements  1  notice  were g i v e n about r e l i g i o u s  e x e r c i s e s , a n d on the l e n g t h o f s c h o o l v a c a t i o n s .  Religious  e x e r c i s e s were s t r i c t l y p r o h i b i t e d i n t h e opening and c l o s i n g o f s c h o o l , b u t t h i s was changed i n 1880 t o the use of t h e Lord's P r a y e r on p e r m i s s i o n o f the t r u s t e e s .  The summer  v a c a t i o n was f i x e d , a n d extended "from t h e l a s t  Saturday'in  June t o t h e f i r s t Sunday i n A u g u s t " , and t h e w i n t e r v a c a t i o n was g i v e n as "the two weeks p r e c e d i n g  the f i r s t Monday I n  J a n u a r y a f t e r the' New Y e a r . " The  regulations regarding  the e l e c t i o n o f t r u s t e e s  i n C i t y S c h o o l d i s t r i c t s were r e - s t a t e d i n t h e S c h o o l A c t o f 1885  and i n c l u d e d two changes, namely, t h a t the w i f e o f a  h o u s e h o l d e r o r f r e e h o l d e r was e n t i t l e d t o v o t e and t h a t the c i t i e s o f V i c t o r i a , New W e s t m i n s t e r , and Nanaimo were t o have six trustees. By, t h e S c h o o l A c t o f 1889 any female h o u s e h o l d e r or f r e e h o l d e r , w i t h t h e o t h e r r e q u i r e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , he e l e c t e d as a t r u s t e e . portant  T  might  h e same a c t b r o u g h t about an i m -  change i n t h e m a t t e r o f c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r t e a c h e r s ,  when i t s t a t e d t h a t a l l h o l d e r s taught twelve years c o n t i n u o u s l y  o f c e r t i f i c a t e s who have s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o have  the same renewed w i t h o u t e x a m i n a t i o n . The  y e a r 1891 saw a new s c h o o l  a c t w h i c h c r e a t e d the  C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , w i t h t h e powers p r e v i o u s l y exe r c i s e d by t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r - i h - C o u n c i l those f o r m e r l y h e l d by t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t . a u t h o r i t y f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t duties d e f i n i t e l y assigned  and some o f I t a l s o gave  o f a normal s c h o o l .  The new  t o the Superintendent; were t h e  s u p e r v i s i o n o f i n s p e c t o r s and s c h o o l s , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n s of T e a c h e r s ' I n s t i t u t e s . the t r u s t e e - b o a r d s  Another i m p o r t a n t change was t h a t  i n c i t y d i s t r i c t s were t o c o n s i s t o f seven  members, t h r e e a p p o i n t e d by t h e and  f o u r by t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l .  Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council Such c i t i e s ,  Victoria,  Nanaimo, New W e s t m i n s t e r ,  and Vancouver were now r e q u i r e d t o  pay o n e - h a l f the t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s and a l l the c o s t o f b u i l d ings. and maintenance.  The A c t o f 1892 amended the s e c t i o n on  the appointment o f t r u s t e e boards i n c i t y d i s t r i c t s and s t a t e d t h a t , I n s t e a d o f b e i n g a p p o i n t e d as i n the A c t o f 1891 they were t o be e l e c t e d by the e l e c t o r s q u a l i f i e d t o v o t e f o r the mayor. F u r t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, New W e s t m i n s t e r ,  and Vancouver came w i t h t h e S c h o o l A c t o f  1893., w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t these c i t i e s were r e q u i r e d t o f i x and pay a l l the s a l a r i e s . , and o t h e r expenses b u t were t o r e ceive a grant of ten d o l l a r s per p u p i l .  I'he same c i t y boards  were g i v e n power t o demand and r e c e i v e f e e s f o r , h i g h s c h o o l . H i g h e r e d u c a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e A c t o f 1894, w h i c h gave the C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n the power t o e s t a b l i s h C o l l e g i a t e I n s t i t u t e s I n any d i s t r i c t and a l s o g r a n t e d such i n s t i t u t i o n s the p r i v i l e g e o f a f f i l i a t i n g w i t h any o f c e r t a i n named C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s . Much i m p o r t a n t s c h o o l l e g i s l a t i o n was passed i n 1901.  'he c i t y d i s t r i c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o f i r s t ,  A  second,  and t h i r d c l a s s , w i t h seven, f i v e , and t h r e e t r u s t e e s r e s p e c tively.  The s a l a r i e s o f the t e a c h e r s i n a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d  c i t i e s and towns were t o be p a i d by the s a i d c i t i e s and towns b u t , i n . r e t u r n , t h e y were g i v e n g r a n t s per p u p i l o f t h i r t e e n , f i f t e e n , and twenty d o l l a r s , w i t h t h r e e hundred d o l l a r s e x t r a  - 17 for  each h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r .  i  he  c i t i e s were c l a s s i f i e d  f o l l o w s : Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , w i t h average attendance  as of  one thousand o r more, as f i r s t c l a s s ; Nanaimo, New  Westminster,  R o s s l a n d , and N e l s o n , w i t h two hundred f i f t y to one  thousand  p u p i l s , as second c l a s s ; and e l e v e n o t h e r s , w i t h u n d e r two hundred f i f t y , as t h i r d c l a s s .  attendance  ""he c i t i e s i n the  f i r s t c l a s s were g i v e n power t o a p p o i n t a G i t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t . The number of p u p i l s per t e a c h e r was  g i v e n i n the  A c t o f 1905, w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t t r u s t e e s were r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e one t e a c h e r i f l e s s than s i x t y p u p i l s , two t e a c h e r s i f s i x t y t o one hundred twenty p u p i l s , and, i f above one hundred twenty p u p i l s , one  t e a c h e r f o r each s i x t y o r f r a c t i o n t h e r e o f .  The A c t a l s o r e q u i r e d r u r a l m u n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t s to have f i v e trustees.  I n the Act of 1910  t e r e s t o f secondary  f u r t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n i n the i n -  e d u c a t i o n was  I n t r o d u c e d w i t h the  pro-  v i s i o n f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s u p e r i o r s c h o o l s i n r u r a l rural municipal d i s t r i c t s . ers  was  and  The need f o r t r a i n i n g more t e a c h -  r e c o g n i z e d i n the same y e a r , when a l l o w a n c e s were  g r a n t e d f o r the t r a v e l l i n g expenses o f s t u d e n t  teachers  a t t e n d i n g the Normal S c h o o l . The number o f p u p i l s p e r t e a c h e r was changed i n 1914.  T r u s t e e s were now  r e q u i r e d to p r o v i d e one  teacher f o r  f o r t y p u p i l s , two t e a c h e r s f o r f o r t y t o eighty,- and above e i g h t y , one t e a c h e r f o r each f o r t y p u p i l s o r f r a c t i o n t h e r e o f . The A c t of 1914 was  i m p o r t a n t i n t h a t i t gave s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s  - 18 -  the r i g h t t o o r g a n i z e manual t r a i n i n g , home economics, t e c h n i c a l , commercial, arts centres.  I n d u s t r i a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l , and f i n e  Further steps i n e n r i c h i n g the c u r r i c u l u m  were t a k e n i n 1919 w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n f o r courses i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , gymnastics  o r cadet work, o r b o t h .  Another  s e c t i o n o f t h e A c t o f 1919, o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t e a c h e r s , r e q u i r e d t h e i n s p e c t o r s t o make r e p o r t s i n t r i p l i c a t e so as t o p r o v i d e c o p i e s f o r t h e t e a c h e r , t h e s c h o o l h o a r d , and t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  of Education*  A Department o f E d u c a t i o n , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l A c t , was c r e a t e d i n 1920.  The A c t o f 1920 a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e . C o u n c i l o f  P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n was t o c o n s i s t o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f Educat i o n and t h e members o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , w i t h t h e Superintendent  as e x - o f f i c i o s e c r e t a r y .  Marked advances  i n s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n f o l l o w e d the c r e a t i o n of t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n .  I n 1925 t h e C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c -  t i o n r e c e i v e d a u t h o r i t y t o conduct and m a i n t a i n a s c h o o l f o r deaf and b l i n d c h i l d r e n o f t h e p r o v i n c e and i n 1926 t h e A c t p r o v i d e d f o r t h e appointment o f a H e a l t h I n s p e c t o r . The  same a c t s a n c t i o n e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t e c h n i c a l  s c h o o l s and t h e appointment o f M u n i c i p a l I n s p e c t o r s i n mun i c i p a l i n s p e c t o r i a l districts« New r e g u l a t i o n s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g t h e t e a c h e r s  - 19 -  were passed w i t h the S c h o o l A c t o f 1929, w h i c h a p p o i n t e d an i n v e s t i g a t o r t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h female  t e a c h e r s worked i n r u r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and  f i x e d , once more, t h e number o f p u p i l s p e r t e a c h e r .  Trustees  were c o m p e l l e d , b y t h i s a c t , t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g number o f p u p i l s : i n e l e m e n t a r y  s c h o o l s , one t e a c h -  e r f o r l e s s than t h i r t y - f i v e , and above t h i r t y - f i v e  one f o r  each a d d i t i o n a l f o r t y o r f r a c t i o n t h e r e o f ; i n h i g h s c h o o l s , one t e a c h e r f o r l e s s t h a n t w e n t y - f i v e , two t e a c h e r s f o r t w e n t y - f i v e t o f i f t y , and above f i f t y , thirty-five pupils.  one t e a c h e r f o r each  These r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e number  o f t e a c h e r s t o be employed were changed t o t h e i r form two y e a r s l a t e r .  present  S e c t i o n 142,•of the P u b l i c  Schools  A c t o f 1931 gave the standards f i x i n g t h e number of t e a c h e r s i n r e s p e c t o f whose s a l a r i e s p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s would be p a i d . T h i s s e c t i o n was unchanged i n the c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f the A c t i n 1932, and i n the P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t Amendment A c t passed on March 3 1 , 1933, S e c t i o n 142 f i x e d t h e f o l l o w i n g (a) F o r elementary  standards:  schools having t h i r t y - f i v e or  fewer p u p i l s I n r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e ,  one t e a c h e r ;  thirty-six  to e i g h t y p u p i l s , two t e a c h e r s ; and over e i g h t y p u p i l s , one t e a c h e r f o r each f o r t y o r f r a c t i o n o f t h a t number. (b) F o r each s u p e r i o r s c h o o l , one t e a c h e r f o r t h e p u p i l s i n Grades V I I I . , I X . , and X., and one t e a c h e r f o r e a c h f o r t y o r f r a c t i o n t h e r e o f i n Grades I . t o V I I .  - 20 -  (c) F o r each p u b l i c s c h o o l , o t h e r t h a n a n element a r y o r s u p e r i o r s c h o o l , h a v i n g t w e n t y - f i v e o r fewer  pupils,  one t e a c h e r j t w e n t y - s i x .to f i f t y p u p i l s , two t e a c h e r s ; and o v e r f i f t y p u p i l s , t h r e e o r more t e a c h e r s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x a c t number o f p u p i l s The P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t Amendment A c t o f 1933 makes p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a "Board o f R e f e r e n c e " , which s h a l l c o n s i s t o f t h r e e members, one o f whom s h a l l be a member o f the B a r o f the P r o v i n c e , one o f whom s h a l l be t h e nominee of t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , and one o f whom s h a l l be the nominee o f t h e B r i t i s h School Trustees' Association.  Columbia  The B o a r d o f R e f e r e n c e s e r v e s  as a "Court o f Appe'al" f o r t h e t e a c h e r s and t r u s t e e s . ^ The f o l l o w i n g now  t a b l e shows some o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s ,  i n f o r c e , w h i c h were added g r a d u a l l y over a p e r i o d o f  y e a r s as t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m • I n c r e a s e d i n s i z e and complexity, Act,  ^he s e c t i o n numbers a r e those found i n the P u b l i c S c h o o l s a s c o n s o l i d a t e d f o r convenience o n l y , A p r i l 20, 1932.  M e n t i o n i s a l s o made o f f u r t h e r amendments passed on March 3 1 , 1933.  The v a r i o u s p o i n t s l i s t e d suggest t h e s t a g e s , i n t h e  h i s t o r y o f the development o f o u r p r e s e n t system, w h i c h made the a d d i t i o n s and amendments i m p e r a t i v e .  1. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t o f 1932, S e c t i o n 142 ( c ) , p. 74. 2. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t Amendment A t , 1933, S e c t i o n 162 ( b ) . c  - 21 -  TABLE SECTION 3  ITEM. The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the Department of Education,  ... 4 ( 2 )  A S p e c i a l I n v e s t i g a t o r appointed*  5(b) 7(1)  .  On t h e management o f n o r m a l s c h o o l s . (c)  7(3)  On t h e r e p o r t s o f I n s p e c t o r s . C h i e f I n s p e c t o r of S c h o o l s .  11  The C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n .  I2(i)  Grades o f t e a c h e r s '  certificates.  (q)  To e s t a b l i s h t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s .  (r)  Correspondence c o u r s e s .  (t)  Summer S c h o o l s f o r Teachers*  13(e)  To e s t a b l i s h a s c h o o l f o r the d e a f and b l i n d *  (b) 14(a)  B u r s a r i e s or s c h o l a r s h i p s . (b) ( c )  A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of school d i s t r i c t s .  15  The s u b - c l a s s e s o f m u n i c i p a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s .  24  T e a c h e r s ' Pensions A c t .  27  On a i d t o s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s .  29  On a i d t o n i g h t s c h o o l s (amended 1933).  30  On a i d t o d i s t r i c t s i n conveying  pupils to  school. 50(m)  On d e n t a l s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n .  50(p)  On. t h e t r e a t m e n t o f c h i l d r e n f o r d e f e c t s .  83(d)  Text-books f o r i n d i g e n t p u p i l s .  133(4)  Power t o a p p o i n t s c h o o l - h e a l t h n u r s e s .  - 22 SECTION  ITEM  158  Power t o e s t a b l i s h , s p e c i a l c o u r s e s .  152(k)  On t h e a d m i s s i o n o f p r a c t i c e t e a c h e r s t o class-rooms.  163  H e a l t h inspe c t i o n o f s c h o o l s .  163(1)  The appointment o f S c h o o l H e a l t h I n s p e c t o r s .  167  On t h e s u p e r v i s i o n of p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e s .  170  An a n n u a l t e s t o f p u p i l s f o r p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s .  CHAPTER I I I . The E v o l u t i o n  o f Government A i d t o S c h o o l s .  The h i s t o r y o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l a i d t o s c h o o l s shows the e v o l u t i o n  o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l system from  another viewpoint.  The f i r s t S c h o o l A c t o f t h e C o l o n y o f  B r i t i s h Columbia was passed and was e n t i t l e d throughout  on t h e 1 3 t h day o f March, 1869,  "An o r d i n a n c e t o e s t a b l i s h P u b l i c  t h e C o l o n y o f B r i t i s h Columbia."  l i a m e n t o f B r i t i s h Columbia passed  Schools  The F i r s t  "An A c t R e s p e c t i n g  ParPublic  S c h o o l s " on A p r i l 1 1 , 1872, and t h e r e b y r e p e a l e d t h e Common S c h o o l Ordinance o f 1869 and t h e Common S c h o o l Amendments Ordinance o f 1870. The A c t o f 1872 formed t h e b a s i s subsequent s c h o o l l e g i s l a t i o n  of a l l  and has grown u n t i l i n 1932,  t h e S c h o o l A c t and R e g u l a t i o n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia formed a p u b l i c a t i o n o f some one hundred and t w e l v e pages. The A c t o f 1872 c r e a t e d a " P u b l i c S c h o o l Fund". "There s h a l l be s e t a p a r t by t h e O f f i c e r i n Charge o f t h e T r e a s u r y f o r t h e time b e i n g , o u t o f t h e G e n e r a l Revenue o f t h e P r o v i n c e , t h e sum o f f o r t y thousand d o l l a r s f o r P u b l i c S c h o o l purposes,  and i n each subsequent y e a r such sum s h a l l  be s e t a p a r t as a f o r e s a i d  as may be v o t e d b y t h e L e g i s l a t i v e  Assembly f o r t h e purposes a f o r e s a i d ,  and t h e s a i d sums o f  money s h a l l be c a l l e d t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l Fund." The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l was g i v e n t h e  - 24  -  power, on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t r u s t e e s and t h e indorsement  of  t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , t o g r a n t s u c h a sum o f money as r e q u i r e d t o pay t h e s a l a r y o f t h e t e a c h e r , t o d e f r a y t h e c o s t o f t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g , and t h e c o s t o f t h e f u r n i s h i n g and apparatus and c u r r e n t expenses connected t h e r e w i t h .  Power was a l s o  g i v e n t o g r a n t such sums as thought p r o p e r i n a i d o f t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f a s c h o o l i n any p a r t o f t h e P r o v i n c e not h a v i n g a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , and not h a v i n g l e s s t h a n seven, and not more t h a n f o u r t e e n c h i l d r e n , between t h e ages o f f i v e and sixteen years. The s a l a r i e s o f a l l p u b l i c and h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were p a i d m o n t h l y d i r e c t from t h e P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r y . amendment t o t h e S c h o o l A c t i n 1888 r e q u i r e d V i c t o r i a , mo, New W e s t m i n s t e r ,  An Nanai-  and Vancouver t o r e f u n d t o t h e P r o v i n -  c i a l T r e a s u r y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e money spent i n t h e s e on t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s .  cities  By t h e S c h o o l A c t o f 1891 these  c i t i e s were t o bear t h e c o s t o f s c h o o l s i t e s , b u i l d i n g s , r e p a i r s , and i n c i d e n t a l expenses, as w e l l as o n e - h a l f o f t h e cost of teachers' s a l a r i e s .  Two y e a r s l a t e r , 1893, t h e  S c h o o l A c t o f 1891 was amended and t h e f o u r c i t i e s now f i x e d and p a i d s a l a r i e s as w e l l as a l l o t h e r expenses, b u t t h e P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r y r e t u r n e d a g r a n t o f t e n d o l l a r s p e r head, p a i d q u a r t e r l y and based on t h e average d a i l y attendance f o r t h e h a l f - y e a r p r e c e d i n g payment.  A t t h i s time t h e r u r a l  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were t h e o n l y ones t o r e c e i v e t h e i r  salaries  - 25 -  d i r e c t from the P r o v i n c i a l A new  Treasury.  S c h o o l Act was  passed  i n 1901 w h i c h r e - o r g a n -  i z e d t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f u r b a n c e n t r e s and the s c a l e o f grants t o teachers' s a l a r i e s . c l a s s , 1000 1000  C i t i e s were d i v i d e d i n t o  o r more average a t t e n d a n c e ;  average a t t e n d a n c e ;  second c l a s s , 250  and t h i r d c l a s s , l e s s t h a n 250  A l l incorporated c i t i e s of f i r s t ,  first to  pupils.  second, and t h i r d c l a s s p a i d  the s a l a r i e s o f t e a c h e r s and r e c e i v e d g r a n t s of t h i r t e e n , f i f t e e n and t w e n t y d o l l a r s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I n a d d i t i o n they  were g r a n t e d a n e x t r a t h r e e hundred d o l l a r s f o r e a c h h i g h school teacher ,  exployed.  G r a n t s b a s e d on t h e number o f p u p i l s d i d not work  w e l l i n p r a c t i c e and when a new A p r i l 8, 1905, s c h o o l s was  S c h o o l Act was  passed,  on  a d i f f e r e n t scheme f o r a p p o r t i o n i n g g r a n t s t o  adopted by t h e P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r y .  g r a n t s were b a s e d upon the number o f e l e m e n t a r y ,  The  new  high school,  manual t r a i n i n g and home economics t e a c h e r s employed on time.  C i t i e s o f the f i r s t ,  full  second, and t h i r d c l a s s r e c e i v e d  #560, $420, and $465 r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e r u r a l s c h o o l s r e c e i v e d $480.  A l s o t r u s t e e boards might r e c e i v e an a d d i t i o n a l  g r a n t up t o a maximum o f $100  per t e a c h e r on c o n d i t i o n t h a t  the l o c a l b o a r d p a i d an e q u i v a l e n t amount t o supplement the teacher's s a l a r y .  There were s t i l l hundreds of " a s s i s t e d "  r u r a l s c h o o l s where the government f i x e d the s a l a r y and p a i d the t o t a l c o s t of e d u c a t i o n from the P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r y .  In  -•26..--  1906 t h e a d d i t i o n a l g r a n t o f one hundred d o l l a r s f o r one hundred d o l l a r s c o n t i n u e d  I n r u r a l s c h o o l s , b u t , i n c i t y mu-  n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t s , t h e government p a i d o n l y o n e - h a l f as much as t h e t r u s t e e boards and not d o l l a r f o r d o l l a r . By t h e A c t o f 1910 t h e government c o n t r i b u t e d n o t less than three-quarters  o f t h e c o s t o f m a t e r i a l s and e q u i p -  ment f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g manual t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s ,  I  n  1917 t h e  P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r y f u r n i s h e d not more t h a n o n e - h a l f o f c o n v e y i n g p u p i l s t o c e n t r a l graded s c h o o l s .  the cost  By 1919, i f  the f u l l time o f a t e a c h e r was t a k e n i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o r g y m n a s t i c s o r cadet work, s u c h t e a c h e r was t o count i n t h e p e r c a p i t a g r a n t , a n d , i n 1920, d e n t a l surgeons and nurses on f u l l time were a l s o i n c l u d e d . The S c h o o l A c t o f 1922 i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e one hundred d o l l a r s e x t r a g r a n t , p a y a b l e from t h e P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r y t o wards a t e a c h e r s 1  s a l a r y , as p a r t o f t h e f i x e d g r a n t , making  the g r a n t s t o s a l a r i e s as f o l l o w s :  C i t y School D i s t r i c t s of  f i r s t , second, and t h i r d c l a s s , $460, $520, and $565 r e s p e c t i v e l y ; D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s $580; and R u r a l S c h o o l  Dis-  t r i c t s $580. A change was made b y t h e A c t o f 1931, when I t r e pealed  s e c t i o n s 20, 2 1 , and 22 o f Chapter 226 o f t h e C o n s o l i -  d a t e d A c t o f 1924, r e l a t i n g t o p r o v i n c i a l a i d t o s c h o o l s , and s u b s t i t u t e d new s e c t i o n s 20, 2 1 , and 22. "It  S e c t i o n 20 r e a d ,  s h a l l be t h e d u t y o f t h e C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n  - 27 t o p r e p a r e and a u t h o r i z e s t a n d a r d s c h e d u l e s a l l t e a c h e r s , n u r s e s , and d e n t a l surgeons d u l e s may  of s a l a r i e s f o r , w h i c h sche-  v a r y f o r d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s , and, when c o n s i d e r e d  expedient, to r e v i s e the schedules."  S e c t i o n 21 made p r o -  v i s i o n f o r i n t r o d u c i n g the s c h e d u l e s , and f o r g r a n t s t o s a l a r i e s o f t e a c h e r s not employed d u r i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the schedule.  I t s t a t e d the new  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of school d i s -  t r i c t s as f o l l o w s , "For the purposes o f s e c t i o n 22, Lieutenant-Governor-in-Counci1  the  shall divide c i t y municipality  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t o f o u r s u b - c l a s s e s t o be known as A, C, and D, and d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t h r e e s u b - c l a s s e s t o be known as A, B, and C j and  B,  into  shall  a s s i g n each c i t y m u n i c i p a l i t y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and each d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y school d i s t r i c t t o i t s proper sub-class C h a p t e r 53, o f t h e A c t o f 1931, was  amended i n 1932  to  "  add,  "and r u r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and community s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t o f i v e s u b - c l a s s e s t o be known as A, B, C, D,  and  E."  S e c t i o n 22, s u b - s e c t i o n s 1, 2, and 3, d e a l t w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g r a n t s on the above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  and  s t a t e d , " ( l ) S u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s o f s e c t i o n s 24 and  142,  the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n s h a l l as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r the end o f e a c h month, except the months of J u l y and August, payt o the m u n i c i p a l i t y comprised i n each m u n i c i p a l i t y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , a g r a n t based on t h e s a l a r i e s d u r i n g t h a t month, i n accordance w i t h s e c t i o n s 20 and 21, a t the f o l l o w i n g  — 28 ••» r a t e s : C i t y M u n i c i p a l i t y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s o f s u b - c l a s s A, t h i r t y - t h r e e and o n e - t h i r d p e r centum; s u b - c l a s s B, f o r t y p e r centum; s u b - c l a s s C, f o r t y - f i v e p e r centum; and s u b - c l a s s D f i f t y p e r centum. "(2) S u b j e c t t o p r o v i s i o n s -  at the f o l l o w i n g  r a t e s : D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s o f s u b - c l a s s A, f o r t y - f i v e p e r centum; s u b - c l a s s B, f i f t y p e r centum; and s u b - c l a s s C, s i x t y p e r centum." The above s t a t e d s u b - s e c t i o n s 1 and 2 were changed and t h e new form came i n t o e f f e c t on t h e f i r s t day o f A p r i l , 1932, and gave t h e f o l l o w i n g r a t e s : f o r C i t y M u n i c i p a l i t y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s o f s u b - c l a s s A, t w e n t y - f i v e p e r centum; subc l a s s B, t h i r t y - t w o p e r centum; s u b - c l a s s C, t h i r t y - s e v e n p e r centum; and s u b - c l a s s D, f o r t y - t w o p e r centum; and f o r D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s o f s u b - c l a s s A, t h i r t y f i v e p e r centum; s u b - c l a s s B, f o r t y - t w o p e r centum; and subc l a s s C, f i f t y - t w o p e r centum. "(3) S u b j e c t t o p r o v i s i o n s  — i n a r e g u l a r l y organ-  i z e d r u r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a t t h e r a t e o f s i x t y - t w o p e r centum o f amount o f s a l a r y , o r a g r a n t o f f i f t y - e i g h t w h i c h e v e r may be t h e g r e a t e r . "  dollars  I n 1932 S e c t i o n 2 2 , ( 3 ) , was  amended and r u r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o r community s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s were d i v i d e d I n t o s u b - c l a s s e s A, B, C, D, and E as s t a t e d above and t h e g r a n t , t o come i n t o e f f e c t on t h e f i r s t day o f September 1932, became, " R u r a l S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s or  - 29 Community S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s o f s u b - c l a s s A, f i f t y - t w o per tum;  s u b - c l a s s B, s i x t y - t w o p e r centum; s u b - c l a s s C,  f i v e per centum; s u b - c l a s s D,  n i n e t y per centum; and  cen-  seventysub-class  E, more t h a n n i n e t y p e r centum, a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e Council of Public  Instruction."  B e f o r e 1932 had passed  a new d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g r a n t s  b a s e d upon t h e t a x a b l e w e a l t h o f e v e r y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t announced by t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n .  was  He s t a t e d t h a t the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would be a l t e r e d e v e r y t h r e e o r f i v e y e a r s the L e g i s l a t u r e m i g h t d e c i d e and t h a t the new i n t o e f f e c t I n the c i t i e s on A p r i l 1, 1933, on J u l y 1, 1933.  Schedules  as  p l a n would come  and i n r u r a l  areas  o f s t a n d a r d b a s i c s a l a r i e s were  s e t , s o l e l y f o r t h e purpose o f e s t i m a t i n g government a s s i s t a n c e , the measure o f such a s s i s t a n c e depending l a r g e l y the t a x a b l e p r o p e r t y p e r t e a c h e r i n e a c h a r e a . t a r y s t a n d a r d s a l a r y was  The  on  elemen-  s e t a t #780, the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l  a t $1100, and the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l a t $1200. I t was  e s t i m a t e d t h a t on t o p o f t h e government  g r a n t one m i l l would pay the b a l a n c e o f the s t a n d a r d f o r elementary  salary  t e a c h e r s i n r u r a l and d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l areas  and one and o n e - h a l f m i l l s i n c i t y s c h o o l s .  One m i l l  over  t h e g r a n t would pay the b a l a n c e o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t a n d a r d salaries.  One  and o n e - q u a r t e r m i l l s would pay t h e b a l a n c e  standard h i g h school s a l a r i e s i n a l l areas.  of  The amount p a i d  i n any c e n t r e over the s t a n d a r d schedule would thus become  - 30 a m a t t e r s o l e l y f o r t h a t c e n t r e and i t s r a t e p a y e r s t o d e c i d e . The c h i e f change came i n t h e r e s u l t a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l funds on t h i s b a s i s , c u t t i n g from r i c h d i s t r i c t s and a d d i n g t o t h e p o o r e r . The announcement s t a t e d t h a t c i t i e s were t o be graded a c c o r d i n g t o each $20,000 o f t a x a b l e p r o p e r t y p e r  elementary  t e a c h e r , r a n g i n g from l e s s t h a n $20,000 t o more t h a n $420,000 and from l e s s t h a n $100,000 t o more t h a n $800,000 o f t a x a b l e property per high school teacher.  R u r a l elementary  schools  were t o be graded i n areas w i t h l e s s t h a n $20,000 p e r t e a c h e r t o more t h a n $520,000 p e r t e a c h e r i n $20,000 s t e p s , w h i l e t h e h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would be t h e same as i n t h e c i t i e s . The w o r d i n g o f t h e o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l a p p r o v i n g the s t a n d a r d schedules  o f s a l a r i e s i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g , "The purpose o f  the s a i d s t a n d a r d s c h e d u l e s  o f s a l a r i e s , as p r o v i d e d , i s not  f o r t h e f i x i n g o f t h e s a l a r y a c t u a l l y p a i d i n any c a s e , o r f o r c o m p e l l i n g any b o a r d o f s c h o o l t r u s t e e s t o pay, or t o l i m i t payment t o t h e s a l a r i e s s e t out i n the s c h e d u l e s , b u t o n l y as a b a s i s on w h i c h t h e g r a n t s o f . a i d from t h e p r o v i n c i a l t r e a s u r y p r o v i d e d by t h e s a i d a c t s h a l l be p a i d t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e , a f t e r t h e comi n g i n t o e f f e c t of the s a i d standard  schedules."  The whole system o f p r o v i n c i a l a i d was  officially  s e t f o r t h i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t Amendment A c t , 1933, w h i c h r e p e a l e d s e c t i o n s 20, 21, 22 and amended s e c t i o n 24 by a d d i n g  - 31 s u b - s e c t i o n s (4) and ( 5 ) .  New s e c t i o n s were s u b s t i t u t e d ,  e x c e r p t s f r o m w h i c h appear below?  S e c t i o n (20), g i v i n g the  C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n power t o p r e p a r e and a u t h o r i z e s c h e d u l e s of s t a n d a r d b a s i c s a l a r i e s and t o r e v i s e t h e same, and S e c t i o n ( 2 1 ) , f i x i n g t h e time when t h e s c h e d u l e s came i n t o e f f e c t and t h e b a s i s of i n t e r i m g r a n t s . S e c t i o n (22) s t a t e d , "(1) A s s e s s e d v a l u e o f t a x a b l e p r o p e r t y i n t h e case of any m u n i c i p a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ,  shall  mean t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u e of t a x a b l e l a n d p l u s s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r centum o f t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f t a x a b l e improvements, and, i n the case o f any r u r a l o r community s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s h a l l mean the a s s e s s e d v a l u e of p r o p e r t y i n t h a t d i s t r i c t .  The " f i s c a l  y e a r " s h a l l mean f r o m t h e f i r s t day of A p r i l t o the t h i r t y f i r s t day o f March.  The number of t e a c h e r s o f each  classifi-  c a t i o n employed s h a l l mean t h e number employed w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of s t a n d a r d s s e t out i n s e c t i o n 142. "(2) F o r the purposes of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e g r a n t t h a t s h a l l be p a i d i n r e s p e c t o f each h i g h - s c h o o l t e a c h e r i n any s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , a sum e q u a l t o one and o n e - q u a r t e r m i l l s  on  the d o l l a r of t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f t a x a b l e p r o p e r t y i n t h a t district  s h a l l be d i v i d e d by t h e number of h i g h - s c h o o l t e a c h e r s  r e g u l a r l y employed and t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e sum so obt a i n e d and t h e s a l a r y f o r h i g h - s c h o o l t e a c h e r s s e t out i n t h e schedules  of s t a n d a r d b a s i c s a l a r i e s s h a l l be the amount of the  g r a n t t o be p a i d i n r e s p e c t of each h i g h - s c h o o l t e a c h e r r e g u -  - 52 l a r l y employed i n t h a t d i s t r i c t . "(5) F o r t h e purposes o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e g r a n t t h a t s h a l l be p a i d i n r e s p e c t o f each j u n i o r h i g h - s c h o o l t e a c h e r , each p r i n c i p a l o f a s u p e r i o r s c h o o l , e a c h n u r s e , and each d e n t a l s u r g e o n i n any s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , a sum e q u a l t o one m i l l on t h e d o l l a r o f a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f t a x a b l e p r o p e r t y  shall  be d i v i d e d by t h e number o f such t e a c h e r s and t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e sum o b t a i n e d and t h e s a l a r y f o r j u n i o r h i g h - s c h o o l t e a c h e r s s e t out i n t h e s c h e d u l e s o f s t a n d a r d b a s i c s a l a r i e s s h a l l be t h e g r a n t .  The g r a n t p a i d f o r such t e a c h e r s  shall  be a t l e a s t f i f t y d o l l a r s p e r annum g r e a t e r t h a n t h e g r a n t payable  i n r e s p e c t o f each e l e m e n t a r y  teacher I n that school  district. "(4)  F o r t h e purpose o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e g r a n t t h a t  s h a l l be p a i d i n r e s p e c t o f e a c h e l e m e n t a r y  school teacher i n  any c i t y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , a sum e q u a l t o one and mills  one-quarter  on t h e d o l l a r o f t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f t a x a b l e p r o p e r t y  s h a l l be d i v i d e d by t h e number o f e l e m e n t a r y  t e a c h e r s employed  and t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e sum o b t a i n e d and t h e s a l a r y s t a t e d i n t h e s c h e d u l e s o f s t a n d a r d b a s i c s a l a r i e s s h a l l be t h e amount o f t h e g r a n t i n r e s p e c t o f e a c h elementary  school  teacher. "(5) F o r t h e purpose o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e g r a n t t h a t s h a l l be p a i d i n r e s p e c t o f any elementary any d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  school teacher I n  o r i n any r u r a l o r  - 33 community s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , a sum  e q u a l t o one m i l l on the  d o l l a r s h a l l be d i v i d e d by the number o f elementary t e a c h e r s and t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e sum  school  o b t a i n e d and  the  s t a n d a r d s a l a r y s h a l l be the g r a n t . "(6) The  g r a n t s so d e t e r m i n e d s h a l l be p a i d by the  M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e , i n the case o f a m u n i c i p a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y comprised i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , and,  in  the case o f a r u r a l or community s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , t o the t e a c h er,  n u r s e , or d e n t a l s u r g e o n concerned.  The  grants s h a l l  p a i d i n m o n t h l y i n s t a l m e n t s as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r the  be end  o f e a c h month, e x c e p t the months o f J u l y and August." The  s u b s e c t i o n s (4) and ( 5 ) , added i n t h e amendment t o  s e c t i o n 7 o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t , 1931,  f o r the purpose of  s a f e g u a r d i n g the s t a n d a r d b a s i c s a l a r i e s and t e a c h e r s '  pension  c o n t r i b u t i o n s , were as f o l l o w s : "(4) Where the s a l a r y a c t u a l l y p a i d i s l e s s t h a n s a l a r y o f the p o s i t i o n as d e s i g n a t e d i n the s c h e d u l e s  the  of  standard b a s i c s a l a r i e s , the grant payable i n r e s p e c t of t h a t t e a c h e r , n u r s e , o r d e n t a l surgeon, s h a l l be reduced by  an  amount e q u a l t o the d i f f e r e n c e between the s a l a r y a c t u a l l y p a i d and the s a l a r y d e s i g n a t e d . "(5) A r e d u c t i o n o f any g r a n t payable under t h i s A c t may  be made i n the case of any m u n i c i p a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  In  w h i c h t h e Board o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s has f a i l e d t o t r a n s m i t t o the M i n i s t e r o f Finance the amount r e q u i r e d t o be deducted  - 34 ~ from t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s under s e c t i o n 3 o f the "Teachers' Pensions A c t " .  The amount o f r e d u c t i o n s h a l l be p l a c e d by  t h e M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e i n t h e Teachers' P e n s i o n s Fund under t h a t A c t t o t h e c r e d i t o f t h e t e a c h e r s concerned."  - 35 -  CHAPTER IV. Health Education i n the Schools. (a) H i s t o r y o f H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n . From t h e e a r l i e s t days i n t h e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  the o b l i g a t i o n of the s t a t e f o r safe-  g u a r d i n g t h e h e a l t h o f s c h o o l c h i l d r e n has been r e c o g n i z e d . Every opportunity f o r using the e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e Department was s e i z e d , and, as t h e y e a r s went b y , new l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l educ a t i o n was p u t i n t o o p e r a t i o n . I n t h e T h i r d Annual R e p o r t o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1874, among t h e d u t i e s o f t h e t e a c h e r  t h e f o l l o w i n g item: was found, "To promote, by p r e c e p t and example, c l e a n l i n e s s , n e a t n e s s , and d e c e n c y . " i  I n the  S i x t h Annual Report o f 1877, J o h n J e s s o p , E s q u i r e , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , i n s p e a k i n g o f c l e a n l i n e s s , remarked as f o l l o w s , "Too many s c h o o l houses a r e a n y t h i n g b u t p a t t e r n s o f neatness - and c l e a n l i n e s s .  S a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s should  a l s o induce t e a c h e r s and t r u s t e e s t o be s c r u p u l o u s l y e x a c t i n g i n these m a t t e r s , f o r t h e h e a l t h o f t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s must n e c e s s a r i l y be I m p a i r e d by t r y i n g t o s t u d y o r t e a c h i n a b a d l y v e n t i l a t e d , unswept, and d i s o r d e r l y  apartment."^  1. P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1874-75, Appendix B, p. 59. 2. P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1876-77, p. 12.  - 36 A g a i n i n t h e N i n t h Annual S c h o o l Report o f 1880, among t h e r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e t e a c h e r was I n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g , "No p e r s o n s h a l l "be a d m i t t e d i n t o , o r c o n t i n u e i n , any s c h o o l as p u p i l , i f he i s a f f e c t e d w i t h , o r has been exposed t o any c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e , u n t i l a l l danger o f c o n t a g i o n s h a l l have passed away as c e r t i f i e d i n w r i t i n g b y a m e d i c a l man."1 S u p e r i n t e n d e n t S. A. Pope, i n h i s g e n e r a l r e p o r t for  1884, made t h e f o l l o w i n g comment, "The n e g l e c t o f p r o -  per p h y s i c a l c u l t u r e I s i n some cases apparent.  To g i v e a  p u p i l adequate time and freedom i n w h i c h t o romp and p l a y , as s u i t s h i s w i l l ,  i s not g i v i n g a l l t h e a t t e n t i o n n e c e s s a r y  to h i s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .  He s h o u l d be t a u g h t t o s i t ,  s t a n d , and walk i n an e r e c t p o s i t i o n - - - - - a n d t o guard a g a i n s t an improper p o s t u r e . " ^ The r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s , as s t a t e d I n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s Report o f 1885-1886, i n c l u d e d , " I t i s conceded t h a t P h y s i o l o g y and Hygiene s h o u l d be added t o t h e p r e s e n t range o f s u b j e c t s o f e x a m i n a t i o n f o r a l l c l a s s e s of c e r t i f i c a t e s . "  3  A l s o , from 1884 t o 1887, t h e  p r e s c r i b e d c o u r s e o f s t u d y f o r Common S c h o o l s s t a t e d , "The  1. P u b l i c S c h o o l s Repot, 1879,80, p. 350. 2. P u b l i c S c h o o l R e p o r t , 1883-84, p. 157. 3. P u b l i c S c h o o l R e p o r t , 1885-86, p.; 187.  - 37 f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s may be t a u g h t : — - and Hygiene,"  , Anatomy, P h y s i o l o g y ,  w h i l e t h e course o f s t u d y f o r H i g h Schools, r e a d ,  " A l l s u b j e c t s p r e s c r i b e d f o r Graded and Common S c h o o l s , and Anatomy, P h y s i o l o g y and H y g i e n e . " . 1  s i o l o g y , and Hygiene,"  I n 1886,  "Anatomy, Phy-  by Edward P l a y t e r , was i n c l u d e d i n  the books a u t h o r i z e d f o r p u b l i c and h i g h s c h o o l s . I n h i s remarks t o t e a c h e r s i n t h e Annual Report o f 1887,  t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t emphasized t h e need f o r p r o p e r p o s -  t u r e and s t r e s s e d t h e Importance o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g .  He  spoke o f hygiene i n t h e f o l l o w i n g words, "The p r o p r i e t y o f p l a c i n g t h i s s u b j e c t upon t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f s t u d i e s t o be t a u g h t i n t h e s c h o o l s was under t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e Department f o r some t i m e , and i t i s g r a t i f y i n g t o note t h a t t h e p r e s c r i b i n g o f t h e same compulsory  s u b j e c t has met w i t h v e r y  general approval.^ About t h e same t i m e t h e s u b j e c t was d e f i n i t e l y p r e s c r i b e d f o r the examination f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n of teachers, and t o t h e a u t h o r i z e d t e x t - b o o k s were added, "Manual o f Hygiene",  and " P h y s i c a l C u l t u r e . "  Another  s t e p was t a k e n I n  1888, when t h e s t u d y o f Temperance was i n t r o d u c e d as an op-  1. 2. 3. 4.  P u b l i c Schools P u b l i c Schools P u b l i c Schools P u b l i c Schools  Report, Report, Report, Report,  1885-86, 1885-86, 1886-87, 1886-87,  Appendix D, p. 38. Appendix E, p. 51. p. 195. p. 246.  - 38 t i o n a l s u b j e c t f o r t h e s c h o o l s and a t e x t - b o o k  by Dr.  R.W.  R i c h a r d s o n was p l a c e d on t h e l i s t o f a u t h o r i z e d books. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as might have been e x p e c t e d from t h e name, "Anatomy, P h y s i o l o g y , and Hygiene", a wrong emphasis was p l a c e d upon t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r as t h e f o l l o w i n g summaries show.  The H i g h S c h o o l E x a m i n a t i o n a t Midsummer 1888 had t h e  f i r s t paper on t h e s u b j e c t , and p o i n t s about w h i c h  questions  were asked were: a d e f i n i t i o n o f e a c h p a r t o f t h e s u b j e c t ; the naming o f c e r t a i n bones; t h e t e e t h , t h e i r k i n d , number, and f u n c t i o n s ; t h e h e a r t ; d i g e s t i o n ; r e s p i r a t i o n ; t h e s a l i v a r y g l a n d s ; and t h e diaphragm. for  The t e a c h e r s '  examination  t h e same y e a r was a n improvement f o r , a l t h o u g h t h e f i r s t  s e v e n q u e s t i o n s c a l l e d f o r a d e t a i l e d knowledge o f t h e human body w i t h s c i e n t i f i c names, t h e l a s t t h r e e q u e s t i o n s were g i v e n over t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f d i e t , a l c o h o l , c e r t a i n h y g i e n i c l a w s , and t h e p r o p e r remedy i n c e r t a i n cases o f p r a c t i c a l first aid. The  over emphasis on t h e s c i e n t i f i c aspect  s u b j e c t was soon r e a l i z e d by t h o s e were t a k e n t o remedy t h e d e f e c t . speaking  o f the  i n a u t h o r i t y and s t e p s The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , i n  o f t h e t e a c h i n g o f Anatomy, P h y s i o l o g y , and Hygiene,  made t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t , " O r a l p r i m a r y i n s t r u c t i o n i n these a l l i e d s u b j e c t s may be g i v e n i n t h e whole s c h o o l , but p u p i l s o f t h e F o u r t h and F i f t h Readers s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o use t h e t e x t - b o o k .  The t e a c h i n g o f t h e s u b j e c t a f f o r d s t h e  t e a c h e r an o p p o r t u n i t y o f i m p a r t i n g p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n on many p o i n t s o f v i t a l consequence t o t h e p u p i l .  I n g i v i n g the  - 39 i n s t r u c t i o n i n h y g i e n e , t h e l a c k o f temperance, w i t h r e f e r ence t o t h e e v i l e f f e c t s o f s t i m u l a n t s and n a r c o t i c s on t h e human system s h o u l d not be o v e r l o o k e d . a l Report  1,1  I n t h e same Annu-  o f 1889-90, I n s p e c t o r W i l s o n s a i d i n p a r t , "Lessons  t o p u p i l s below t h e T h i r d Reader s h o u l d v e r y p r o p e r l y d e a l to a great extent w i t h the hygiene--the  conditions of health.  More a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g .  The  c h i e f a i m o f t h e l e s s o n s i s I m p a r t i n g a knowledge o f t h e laws o f h e a l t h .  D i r e c t i o n s about c l e a n l i n e s s ,  ventilation,  s l e e p , work, r e s t , f o o d , r e g u l a r h a b i t s , and temperance s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d . "  2  From 1888-1892 t h e f o l l o w i n g books were a u t h o r i z e d f o r use i n t h e s c h o o l s : F i r s t Book o f Anatomyj P a t h f i n d e r B B y s i o l o g y ; C h i l d H e a l t h P r i m e r ; P h y s i o l o g y f o r Young P e o p l e ; and t h e Second Book o f Anatomy, P h y s i o l o g y and Hygiene.  As  the y e a r s passed t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e books c o n t i n u e d t o change, some examples b e i n g : The E s s e n t i a l s o f H e a l t h , 19081909;  How t o be H e a l t h y , 1911-1912; and P h y s i o l o g y and  Hygiene, b y R i t c h i e and C a l d w e l l , i n 1928-1929. A g l a n c e a t t h e c o u r s e o f s t u d y f o r 1932 shows t h e c o n t r a s t between t h e o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t mat-  1. Annual Schools R e p o r t , 1889-90, p. 124. 2. A n n u a l Schools R e p o r t , 1889-90, p. 133 and 1890-91, p. 181.  - 40 ~ t e r t o be s t r e s s e d , and t h a t w h i c h has g r a d u a l l y been s e l e c t e d as e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e w e l f a r e heading of H e a l t h Education, is stated.  of the p u p i l .  Under t h e  t h e aim f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t grades  Grade I . "To h e l p t h e c h i l d r e n t o e s t a b l i s h good  h e a l t h h a b i t s and t o d e v e l o p s e l f - c o n t r o l and p r o p e r s a f e t y A  r e s p o n s e s i n danger s i t u a t i o n s ; " Grade I I . , "To d e v e l o p and strengthen phasis phasize ing  c o r r e c t h e a l t h h a b i t s and a t t i t u d e s , p l a c i n g em-  on p e r s o n a l h e a l t h ; " Grade I I I . , "  • — a n d t o em-  the children's personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the carry-  out o f h e a l t h d e v e l o p i n g  activities  a t home as w e l l as  a t s c h o o l : " Grade I V . , "To promote a g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y , i n the p r a c t i c e o f good h e a l t h h a b i t s and t o i n c u l c a t e a sense of p e r s anal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n h e l p i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e s p r e a d of disease."  I n t h e h i g h e r grades a n attempt i s made t o  g i v e t h e p u p i l a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s upon w h i c h h e a l t h r u l e s a r e based; o f t h e main f u n c t i o n s o f t h e organs o f t h e body as a f u r t h e r s t i m u l u s t o h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g ; and o f t h e g r e a t importance o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s .  I n t h e 1933  i s s u e o f t h e Course o f S t u d y f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s ,  pages  103-107 a r e d e v o t e d t o t h e "Aims and Methods i n H e a l t h Educ a t i o n " , w h i l e pages 107-109 comprise a l i s t o f books and magazines f o r t h e use o f c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r s . I n 1892-93 t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n i s s u e d , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , t h e Manual o f S c h o o l Law, as a s e p a r a t e pub-  - 41 -  l i c a t i o n from t h e Report o f t h e P u b l i c Schools and from t h a t time onward f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s were made t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f h e a l t h i n t h e v a r i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e Manual o f S c h o o l Law, t h e R e p o r t o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A p t , and t h e S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  Under t h e date  of F e b r u a r y 25, 1910, t h e S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d e d "An A c t t o P r o v i d e f o r t h e M e d i c a l I n s p e c t i o n o f S c h o o l s " and t h e f i r s t r e p o r t o f t h e m e d i c a l i n s p e c t i o n o f the  p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia was  made f o r the y e a r e n d i n g December 3 1 , 1911. I n t h e second r e p o r t e n d i n g June 30, 1913, some new p r i n c i p l e s were adopted f o r t h e management o f m e d i c a l i n s p e c t i o n I n t h e r u r a l and a s s i s t e d s c h o o l s , and t h e f o l l o w ing  statement was made, "The work i s now w e l l o r g a n i z e d , so  t h a t m e d i c a l i n s p e c t i o n o f s c h o o l s i s now a n a c c o m p l i s h e d fact i n B r i t i s h Columbia."  1  E x c e r p t s .from the t h i r d  report,  summarizing t h e work f o r t h e y e a r 1914, a r e i n t e r e s t i n g : " T h i s i s t h e second y e a r i n w h i c h e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n o f t h e P r o v i n c e has been c a r r i e d out s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , and t h e r e s u l t s a r e most e n c o u r a g i n g .  The S c h o o l Nurse t o  the Department has been a g r e a t h e l p i n v i s i t i n g  outlying  schools."  1. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1913, p. S.3. 2. S e s s i o n a l Papers o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V o l . II'> 1914, p. P.5.  (b) The S t r a t h e o n a T r u s t . The R e p o r t  .  o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 1909-1910, a n -  nounced t h a t t h e Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia had accepted the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e S t r a t h c o n a T r u s t f o r t h e encouragement o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and m i l i t a r y d r i l l i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s and t h a t t h e s c h o o l s would thus p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e benefits.  A l o c a l committee was a p p o i n t e d f o r t h e P r o v i n c e  t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s t o the l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y I n regard t o i n s t r u c t i o n of teachers, the t r a i n i n g of c h i l d r e n , the inspect i o n o f s c h o o l s , and t h e a l l o t m e n t o f rewards.  One o f t h e  o b j e c t s o f t h e T r u s t was t h e improvement o f t h e p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s o f the c h i l d r e n , w h i l e at s c h o o l , by means o f a p r o p e r system o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g c a l c u l a t e d t o improve t h e i r p h y s i c a l development, and, a t t h e same t i m e , t o i n c u l c a t e h a b i t s o f a l e r t n e s s , o r d e r l i n e s s , and prompt obedience. The E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l o f t h e T r u s t deemed i t necessary t o r e q u i r e that the Province, before i t could p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e b e n e f i t s , s h o u l d pledge i t s e l f t o i n c l u d e i n the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e s c h o o l s under i t s c o n t r o l i n s t r u c t i o n i n p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r a l l c h i l d r e n of both sexes a t t e n d i n g t h e same and a l s o t h a t a c e r t i f i c a t e o f a b i l i t y t o i n s t r u c t i n p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g s h o u l d form a p a r t of e v e r y t e a c h e r ' s c e r t i f i c a t e , o t h e r t h a n those o f t h e  - 43 l o w e s t grades.  (The Department of E d u c a t i o n p l e d g e d  t o r e q u i r e t e a c h e r s , who  itself  were a l r e a d y i n p o s s e s s i o n o f c e r t i -  f i c a t e s , t o q u a l i f y themselves t o i n s t r u c t i n p h y s i c a l training.) y  The  l o c a l committee a t i t s f i r s t m e e t i n g h e l d at  V i c t o r i a , March 31, 1911,  d e c i d e d t h a t the d i v i s i o n o f the  P r o v i n c e f o r purposes o f c o m p e t i t i o n and i n s p e c t i o n o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g s h o u l d he the i n s p e c t o r i a l d i s t r i c t s t h a t the I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s c e r f o r the d i s t r i c t .  and  s h o u l d be the I n s p e c t i n g O f f i -  I t a l s o suggested  s h o u l d a l l o t marks as f o l l o w s :  t h a t the  Inspector  twenty percentum f o r d i s -  c i p l i n e , o r d e r l i n e s s , and c l e a n l i n e s s ; t h i r t y - f i v e percentum f o r t h e performance of the p r e s c r i b e d e x e r c i s e s ; and f i v e percentum f o r the g e n e r a l physique  forty-  and h e a l t h o f the  school.^ As the Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n a c c e p t i n g the b e n e f i t s had agreed t o the c o n d i t i o n s o f the T r u s t , i t now  took s t e p s t o p r o v i d e f o r the same.  June 1911,  From January  to  the f i r s t course of i n s t r u c t i o n i n p h y s i c a l  t r a i n i n g was  p r o v i d e d a t the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l i n  Vancouver I n o r d e r t h a t the s t u d e n t s i n t r a i n i n g might qualify.  C l a s s e s were a l s o h e l d a t t h r e e c e n t r e s d u r i n g the  1. P u b l i c Schools R e p o r t 1909-10, p. A 57, 58,  59.  siamraer v a c a t i o n o f 1912.  S i n c e t h a t time a l l graduates o f  Normal S c h o o l s have been q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r o b t a i n i n g t h e c e r t i f i c a t e h a s been g i v e n a l l t e a c h ers i n s e r v i c e .  The S c h o o l Board o f Vancouver a l s o  provided  c l a s s e s d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1911-1912 and f i f t y - f i v e ers q u a l i f i e d .  teach-  The f i r s t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e S y l l a b u s o f  P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g was i n October and November 1911, f i v e , hundred c o p i e s were sent out.  when  S i n c e 1911 a s y l l a b u s  has b e e n p a r t o f t h e equipment s u p p l i e d t o e v e r y new s c h o o l .  (c) Teacher T r a i n i n g i n Hygiene and P h y s i c a l  Education.  A f u r t h e r step i n the i n t e r e s t of h e a l t h was  t a k e n when c o u r s e s i n t h e same were i n c l u d e d i n the  c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e Summer S c h o o l The  education  f o r teachers  at Victoria.  1925 r e p o r t o f the D i r e c t o r o f Summer S c h o o l s notes t h a t  the c o u r s e i n Hygiene and C h i l d H e a l t h was d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t teachers the c l a s s - r o o m  i n t h e i r presentation of health education i n and t o supplement t h e i r t r a i n i n g s o t h a t t h e y  would be equipped t o g i v e sound h e a l t h t r a i n i n g a l o n g modern lines. and  He s t a t e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n c l u d e d n u t r i t i o n  fundamental i n s t r u c t i o n r e g a r d i n g foods and normal  growth; p e r s o n a l hygiene and h e a l t h h a b i t s ; p r e v e n t i o n and c o n t r o l o f communicable d i s e a s e s ; and modern methods o f s a n i tation. "The  I n another part of h i s r e p o r t , the D i r e c t o r  says,  aim i n t h e l e c t u r e s devoted t o h y g i e n e , i s not t o g i v e  - 45 the t e a c h e r s a mere r e c i t a l of the normal f u n c t i o n i n g of the human body, but r a t h e r t o i n s t r u c t them i n t h e a r t of manipul a t i n g t h i s w o n d e r f u l machine c o m f o r t a b l y and e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h a v i e w t o g a i n i n g whatever i s most w o r t h w h i l e i n l i f e ,  and,  moreover, t o g i v e them t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g so t h a t they may  in  t u r n t e a c h t h e same a r t t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p u p i l s i n an i n teresting  manner."  1  The need f o r such c o u r s e s was p o i n t e d out i n the "Survey o f t h e S c h o o l System" which s a i d ,  " I n l i e u of a n u r s -  i n g s t a f f the work i n h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n must be done by the t e a c h e r s of the P r o v i n c e .  At p r e s e n t , however, the t e a c h e r s  a r e not b e i n g a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d f o r t h i s i m p o r t a n t work"? A g a i n , I n Chapter X I I . , of the Survey the f o l l o w i n g recommend a t i o n s were made, "(14) A s p e c i a l l y q u a l i f i e d nurse  should  be added t o the s t a f f of each normal s c h o o l b o t h f o r the purpose of m e d i c a l l y examining  the s t u d e n t body and f o r i n s t r u c -  t i o n a l work i n e l e m e n t a r y p h y s i o l o g y , s c h o o l h y g i e n e , sanitation  problems,  rural  and h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n .  "(15) The c o n t e n t of the p r e s e n t course i n p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g a t the normal s c h o o l s , w h i l e not w i t h o u t v a l u e , i s too f o r m a l .  I t s h o u l d be humanized through the i n t r o d u c t i o n  of more group games and o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s .  1. P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1924-25, p.  M.70.  2. The Survey of the S c h o o l System (1928), Chapter X I I . , S e c t i o n I X . , p..223.  -  46  -  " S p e c i a l courses f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f i n s t r u c t o r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d i n t h e summer schools conducted  under t h e a u t h o r i t y o f the Department o f Education'.' I n accordance w i t h these recommendations, a f u l l  programme o f H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n , t h o r o u g h l y checked by D r s . H. W.  H i l l and H.E. Young, was drawn up i n 1927.  The s u b j e c t -  m a t t e r o f the c o u r s e s open t o a l l t e a c h e r s i s g i v e n i n t h e Report  o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s f o r 1930-31.  Under t h e h e a d i n g  o f a "Course f o r B r i t i s h Columbia C e r t i f i c a t e i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n " i t s t a t e s , "As w i l l be seen from t h e courses  out-  l i n e d below, p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n has been t r e a t e d from i t s broad e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t , and i n accordance w i t h t h e P r o gramme o f S t u d i e s i t was c o n s i d e r e d as a s c h o o l a c t i v i t y i n which every p u p i l should p a r t i c i p a t e . "Games and e x e r c i s e s f o r a l l grades and s u i t a b l e for  c l a s s - r o o m s , h a l l s , and playgrounds  were g i v e n .  Reme-  d i a l exercises f o r i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s having p o s t u r a l defects and abnormal developments o c c u p i e d a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e course.  F o l k - d a n c i n g was i n c l u d e d i n t h e programme. "The work done d u r i n g t h e Summer S c h o o l w i l l be  c o n t i n u e d on S a t u r d a y mornings i n Vancouver d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r months."  2  I . The Survey o f t h e S c h o o l System, Ch. X I I . , p. 229-230 2. P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1930-31, p. L.27.  1  A summary o f the courses  f o r t e a c h e r s now o f f e r e d  at t h e summer s c h o o l s i s g i v e n below.:. Course I . , f o r t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l  Certificate,  i n c l u d e s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n p r a c t i c e and t h e o r y ; t e a c h i n g . p r a c t i c e ; s c h o o l games; f o l k - d a n c i n g ; swimming; s c h o o l remed i a l e x e r c i s e s ; p h y s i o l o g y ; anatomy; h y g i e n e ;  and f i r s t a i d .  I n a l l , t w o hundred t e n hours o f i n s t r u c t i o n a r e r e q u i r e d f o r this certificate.  The requirements  f o r the S p e c i a l C e r t i -  f i c a t e , e n t i t l i n g the holder t o teach p h y s i c a l education i n j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , i n c l u d e t h e second course  on  the above t o p i c s and two hundred twenty hours o f i n s t r u e tion.The h i g h e s t c e r t i f i c a t e , t h e S u p e r v i s o r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e , b r a c e s t h e two a l r e a d y named, and i n c l u d e s t h e t h i r d on t h e t o p i c s o f courses psychology  emcourse  I . and I I . and, i n a d d i t i o n ,  o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and t h e p r a c t i c e and t h e o r y  of e d u c a t i o n a l  gymnastics.  The above o u t l i n e d courses f o r the t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n not o n l y suggest t h e type o f work done i n t h e s c h o o l s , but a l s o show t h a t the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e g i v i n g much w o r t h w h i l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the p h y s i c a l w e l f a r e o f the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n of the P r o v i n c e .  CHAPTER V.  The E v o l u t i o n o f the Vancouver S c h o o l System.  (a) A Summary o f the Growth of t h e S c h o o l System. About s i x t y y e a r s ago (1873-1933) t h e H a s t i n g s M i l l Company, f o r m i n g the n u c l e u s o f the o l d Town o f G r a n v i l l e , e n t e r e d i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l Government and e r e c t e d the f i r s t  s c h o o l b u i l d i n g w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f t h e  p r e s e n t c i t y o f Vancouver.  The Government s u p p l i e d the t e a c h  e r , and some twenty p u p i l s were e n r o l l e d , c h i l d r e n o f the  em-  p l o y e e s o f t h e H a s t i n g s lumber m i l l . The b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e G r a n v i l l e S c h o o l ( l a t e r Vancouver) and o f t h e a d j o i n i n g d i s t r i c t o f B u r r a r d ( l a t e r M o o d y v i l l e ) were a r r a n g e d on F e b r u a r y 12, 1873.  The announce  ment r e a d as f o l l o w s , "Whereas the b o u n d a r i e s o f the B u r r a r d I n l e t S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , as a t p r e s e n t c o n s t i t u t e d , embrace the N o r t h and South s i d e s o f the I n l e t ; "and whereas i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t the S o u t h s i d e s h o u l d be c r e a t e d a s e p a r a t e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ; " N o t i c e i s g i v e n , t h a t a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s h a l l be and i s hereby e s t a b l i s h e d on the S o u t h s i d e o f the s a i d I n l e t , t o be c a l l e d t h e " G r a n v i l l e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ; " and t h a t the b o u n d a r i e s o f such d i s t r i c t s h a l l be a l l t h a t t r a c t o f land.embraced w i t h i n the c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f a c i r c l e whose  - 49 -  centre, s h a l l be the s c h o o l house on t h e S o u t h s i d e of the s a i d I n l e t , and whose r a d i u s s h a l l be a d i s t a n c e o f t h r e e m i l e s from s u c h s c h o o l house; e x c e p t i n g always any l a n d oh the s i d e o f the s a i d I n l e t .  North  1 , 1  Thus t h e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t o f G r a n v i l l e , the s c h o o l on t h e South s i d e of B u r r a r d I n l e t and the  first  forerunner  o f the Vancouver s c h o o l system, came i n t o b e i n g s i x t y y e a r s ago.  F o r t h i r t e e n y e a r s the s c h o o l was  u n t i l i n 1886, the name was  called Granville,  when the C i t y o f Vancouver was  incorporated,  changed t o Vancouver and the boundaries  made the  same as f o r the newly c r e a t e d c i t y . I n 1886  the s c h o o l was  c l o s e d from June 1 3 t h u n t i l  November because o f the " g r e a t f i r e " w h i c h d e s t r o y e d the townsite.  The  i n c r e a s e i n enrolment d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g  year  v e r y much exceeded t h a t o f any o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n the Province.  At the b e g i n n i n g o f the y e a r the s c h o o l was  the charge o f one t e a c h e r , but i t was  under  soon found n e c e s s a r y  to  a p p o i n t an a s s i s t a n t , and, b e f o r e the c l o s e of the term, a second a s s i s t a n t and a m o n i t o r were added; thus the common s c h o o l o f G r a n v i l l e , 1886,  was  transformed  during t h i s very  s h o r t p e r i o d i n t o the graded s c h o o l of Vancouver under the  1. The T h i r d A n n u a l R e p o r t o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s Columbia, 1874, p. 17 and 18.  of B r i t i s h  -  charge o f f o u r t e a c h e r s .  50  -  A s c h o o l - h o u s e was e r e c t e d , on  Cordova S t r e e t , E a s t , and a l t h o u g h i t c o n t a i n e d f o u r l a r g e a p a r t m e n t s , i t d i d not a f f o r d t h e accommodation w h i c h t h e r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c i t y demanded. a c t u a l school population increased.from  The  ninety-three i n Jan-  u a r y 1887 t o two hundred e i g h t y - f i v e by June o f t h a t y e a r . D u r i n g 1888 two a d d i t i o n a l s c h o o l s were added, one i n t h e w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e c i t y , and t h e o t h e r , known as False Creek, i n the southern p a r t .  As a r e s u l t o f t h e con-  tinued r a p i d increase i n school population, the f o l l o w i n g recommendations were made: t h a t a n o t h e r a s s i s t a n t f o r each s c h o o l s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d  immediately;  t h a t a commodious  b u i l d i n g s h o u l d be e r e c t e d on a s i t e s u i t a b l e f o r a c e n t r a l s c h o o l ; and t h a t w i t h two graded s c h o o l s i n o p e r a t i o n t h e c i t y would soon be i n a p o s i t i o n t o make a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a high school w i t h i n i t s l i m i t s . By t h e end o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r 1888-89, t h e E a s t S c h o o l had f i v e hundred s i x t y - t w o p u p i l s , crowded i n t o nonpermanent q u a r t e r s u n t i l t h e new b u i l d i n g c o u l d be e r e c t e d ; the West S c h o o l , b u i l t  i n t h e summer o f 1888,  had t h r e e  hundred twenty-one p u p i l s ; and t h e F a l s e Creek S c h o o l , e r e c t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1889, sions.  had reached t h r e e  divi-  A two-room b u i l d i n g , t o accommodate t h e two h i g h e s t  d i v i s i o n s o f t h e f u t u r e C e n t r a l S c h o o l was e r e c t e d on t h e  - 51 C e n t r a l s i t e i n 1889, b u t t h e new s c h o o l , a f i n e t w o - s t o r y e i g h t - r o o m b r i c k b u i l d i n g , was ready by J a n u a r y 1890.  The  f i r s t h i g h s c h o o l was s t a r t e d i n J a n u a r y 1890, w i t h an enr o l m e n t o f t h i r t y - o n e , and o c c u p i e d a room i n the new C e n t r a l School. D u r i n g 1889-90 t h e name o f t h e F a l s e Creek  School  was changed t o Mount P l e a s a n t and t h e e r e c t i o n o f a new E a s t S c h o o l was s t a r t e d .  T h i s b u i l d i n g c o n t a i n i n g e i g h t rooms  was completed i n March 1891, and new b u i l d i n g s f o r the West and Mount P l e a s a n t S c h o o l s were e r e c t e d i n 1892.  The H i g h  S c h o o l s t i l l met i n t h e same frame b u i l d i n g a t t h e r e a r o f t h e C e n t r a l S c h o o l , b u t t h e t r u s t e e s were b u i l d i n g a new H i g h S c h o o l on t h e C e n t r a l grounds.  A l t h o u g h the S c h o o l  B o a r d , i n 1892, spent $150,000 on b u i l d i n g s , t h e s c h o o l s were s t i l l crowded and i t was n e c e s s a r y t o open a F a i r v i e w S c h o o l i n 1895; an a d d i t i o n t o t h e E a s t S c h o o l I n 1896; two rooms on Campbell Avenue i n 1898; and t o use t h e o l d B u r r a r d S t r e e t and Mount P l e a s a n t b u i l d i n g s .  - 52 -  TABLE OP "SCHOOL PROPERTY" AS AT JUNE 30, 1900"""  I  2 •H  -P  rH  •H  •H  r-i  Cd  u  © •P  H  cd  PQ  ,fl  ra o 0 U 1  «H  H  iH  O  H £}  cd  CO  ra © at ,3  rH - P O  PI  ©  fl o U W  © +3  i  i 5d CV i cj <*H H t-i  .fl  S  -p  -d ©<H -(J O 03 cd TJ  H © fl 33  •H -PrH O ra aS ^ pxq > W)  O>H  0  •H pi CP - P ©,Q © CO © rH, CO TD"  2 *  H cd  aS'rd fl  > pifl  cd  . -p  iO © u fl © EH-P'M-H g  pigh School  1892  Brick  8  200' x 250* $16,000 $48,000  3entral  1889  Brick  8  250' x 265' $32 j,  ; Dast End  1890 *> 97 B r i c k  16  400' x 264' $26,000j $80,350  iATest End  18921-97  Brick  16  450' x 264' $27,000 $85,375  l e s t E n d ( o l d ) 1888 Mt. P l e a s a n t  1892f97  fc/It. P l e a s a n t , 1888 (old) 1895 JFairview  Wood Brick  000  $59,250  3  264' x 122' $ 6,000  ,225  16  400' x 264' $10,000  ,800  Wood  3  175' x 150' $ 4,000 $.6,500  Wood  4  520* x 264' $18,200 $22,350 $139,20q$380,100  ^Annual Report o f Vancouver C i t y Board o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s f o r t h e y e a r e n d i n g June 30, 1900, as p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Annual Report o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 224.  - 53 -  TABLE OP HIGH SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 1890-1899"""  Male 1890 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900  •- 91 -- 92 •- 93 •- 94 -- 95 -- 96 -- 97 -- 98 -- 99 -- 1900 . -- 1901  10 13 18 31 52 58 55 55 55 63 71 77  Female  .  21 29 54 65 92 101 79 98 101 102 126 142  Average Attendance  Total 31 42 72 96 144 159 134 153 156 165 197 219  24.67 24. 34 42.87 64. 34 92.77 108.44 87.74 88.73 94.35  TABLE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 1886-1895  Year 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894  :  - 87 - 88 - 89 - 90 - 91 - 92 - 93 -94 -95  Male 138 333 533 720 840 960 1010 1096 1167  Femal e  Total  Average Attendance  110 309 491 745 908 1044 1165 1151 1208  248 642 1024 1465 1748 2004 2175 2247 2375  168.40 238.19 537.69 817.84 1011.09 1168.34 .1542.56 . 1575.09 1640.44  From t h e Annual R e p o r t s , o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e y e a r s i n c l u d e d i n t h e t a b l e s .  - 54 -  TABLE OP SCHOOL POPULATION I N VANCOUVER 1886-1932  Year  1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908  School Population  - 87 -88 - 89 - 90 - 91 - 92 - 93 -94 - 95 - 96 - 97 - 98 - 99 - 1900 -01 - 02 - 03 - 04 - 05 -06 - 07 - 08 - 09 :  ;  248 642 1024 1465 1748 2004 2175 2247 2375 2301 2535 2908 3229 5836 4591 4391 4766 5412 6152 6733 7583 8441 8947  Year  1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 ""1928 1929 1930 1931  -  School Population 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 25 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32  10,283 11,424 12,286 13,060 13,248 13,365 13,512 14,197 16,465 17,775 18,803 19,757 20,649 21,056 21,372 21,675 22,357 22,971 23,290 39,503 39,946 40,596 40,857  1. G e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e f o r t a b l e s , " H i s t o r i c a l S k e t c h o f P o i n t Grey S c h o o l s " , i n t h e R e p o r t o f t h e Vancouver C i t y S c h o o l s , Vancouver, B.G., pp. 195-204 and p. 224« *Amalgamation o f Vancouver C i t y , S o u t h Vancouver, and P o i n t Grey, J a n u a r y 1, 1929.  - 55 -  TABLE OF THE BUILDING PROGRAMME 1900  to  1915.  (Showing the r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n )  Year 1901  A d d i t i o n t o the S c h o o l System  1900  -  1904  - 05  1906  07  K i t s i l a n o ( F o r m e r l y F a i r v i e w West).  1907.  08  Aberdeen (8 rooms). Cedar Cove now Macdonald.  1908  09  Simon F r a s e r  1909  10  Alexandra, B r i t a n n i a High School, Lord N e l s o n 1910, C e c i l Rhodes 1910, Tennyson 1910, A l e x a n d r a ( a d d i t i o n ) , and New Board Offices.  1910  - 11  G e n e r a l Gordon, Henry Hudson, N i g h t i n g a l e , and temporary rooms a t H a s t i n g s and Beacons field.  1912  - 13  C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , F r a n k l i n , Laura S e c o r d , L i v i n g s t o n e , and new b u i l d i n g f o r H a s t i n g s .  1913  - 14  B e a c o n s f i e l d ( a d d i t i o n ) , B r i t a n n i a High S c h o o l ( a d d i t i o n ) , D.L.301, and Bayview.  1914  - 15  K i n g George H i g h S c h o o l ( i n o l d Dawson)  L o r d Roberts and Seymour Schools opened, g i v i n g the w e s t e r n p a r t o f the c i t y two s c h o o l s - L o r d Roberts and Dawson ( o l d West End), and the e a s t e r n p a r t two s c h o o l s - Seymour and S t r a t h c o n a ( o l d E a s t End). West F a i r v i e w (November 1904), H i g h S c h o o l ( J a n u a r y 1904), Grand View (4 rooms), Model, Temporary Cedar Cove.  called  1909.  - 56 (b) The  H i s t o r y o f t h e Former S o u t h Vancouver S c h o o l s . The  elementary  " N o r t h Arm  S c h o o l " b u i l t i n 1885 was  s c h o o l o r g a n i z e d i n S o u t h Vancouver.  the  first  I t was  near  the F r a s e r R i v e r a t the c o r n e r o f North Arm Road ( F r a s e r Avenue) and R i v e r Road (now Marine D r i v e ) . c a l l e d " S o u t h Vancouver", was  Lord S e l k i r k .  and i n 1911 was A new  second s c h o o l ,  b u i l t a t 2 0 t h Avenue and C l a r k  D r i v e and opened i n J a n u a r y 1894. "Cedar C o t t a g e "  The  L a t e r i t was  c a l l e d the  g i v e n i t s p r e s e n t name o f  d i s t r i c t , o r g a n i z e d i n 1896  and named  "East Vancouver", was  s i t u a t e d at Joyce Road and Westminster  Road (now  This school, l a t e r c a l l e d  i s now  Kingsway).  named S i r Guy C a r l e t o n .  o f "West Vancouver" was  I n 1901  the S c h o o l  For a time t h i s s c h o o l was  but i s now was  c a l l e d t h e Brock.  The  28th  known as "Mountain View"  next t o be b u i l t , i n 1902,  t h e "Eburne S c h o o l " , s i t u a t e d a t Eburne (now  By 1906  District  c r e a t e d and a s c h o o l e r e c t e d on West-  m i n s t e r Avenue (now M a i n S t r e e t ) between 2 7 t h and Avenues.  "Collingwood",  Marpole).  t h e r e were f i v e s c h o o l s i n o p e r a t i o n i n S o u t h Van-  couver, w h i c h a t t h a t time i n c l u d e d P o i n t Grey. P o i n t Grey M u n i c i p a l i t y was t e r n a r e a o f S o u t h Vancouver i n 1908 and one  formed from the wesand the Eburne School  o t h e r c l a s s were t a k e n over by the t r u s t e e s of the  new m u n i c i p a l i t y .  A M u n i c i p a l I n s p e c t o r of S c h o o l s  appointed  and under h i s guidance,  I n 1911,  was  a high school  was  opened i n 1912, manual t r a i n i n g and d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e c l a s s e s  - 57 -  were s t a r t e d i n 1913, and t h e e f f i c i e n t system, t a k e n by t h e Board o f t h e G r e a t e r C i t y , was d e v e l o p e d .  TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBER OP TEACHERS AND PUPILS IN SOUTH VANCOUVER, 1894 t o 1929.* Year  Pupils  Teachers  Year  Pupils  Teachers  1894-95  86  2  1912-13  3621  89  1897-98  131  3  1915-16  4635  131  1900-01  206  4  1918-19  5698  158  1903-04  362  8  1921-22  7297  205  1906-07  569  13  1924-25  8272  238  1909-10  1103  25  1927-28  8940  260  ( c ) The H i s t o r y o f t h e Former P o i n t Grey S c h o o l s . An i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e phenomenal growth o f t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f P o i n t Grey i s found i n a comparison o f t h e school  systems o f 1908 and 1928.  When t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f  P o i n t Grey was formed i n 1908, two s c h o o l s ,  t h e "Eburne" a t  7 0 t h Avenue and G r a n v i l l e and t h e "D.L.472" near t h e p r e s e n t Oak S t r e e t S c h o o l , were t a k e n over from South Vancouver.  1 .* E x t r a c t s from a H i s t o r i c a l S k e t c h o f t h e South Vancouver S c h o o l s i n t h e R e p o r t o f Vancouver S c h o o l s 1928, p. 179.  -58  -  These s c h o o l s were v a l u e d a t two thousand d o l l a r s and  pro-  v i d e d accommodation f o r n i n e t y - f o u r p u p i l s , under the d i r e c t i o n o f two t e a c h e r s .  By 1928,  j u s t p r e v i o u s t o amalgama-  t i o n , t h e r e were 6437 p u p i l s under the d i r e c t i o n of  203  t e a c h e r s , and f o u r t e e n l a r g e s c h o o l s v a l u e d a t $2,506,146. TABLE OP TBE DEVELOPMENT OP THE Year  POINT GREY SCHOOLS.  Item  1908  ( J a n u a r y 1908) O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f P o i n t Grey. F i r s t m e e t i n g of the P o i n t Grey S c h o o l Board h e l d i n G r i g g ' s H a l l , Eburne, J a n u a r y 13, 1908. A two-room s c h o o l . was opened on the s i t e o f the p r e s e n t K e r r i s dale School.  1909  F i r s t b u i l d i n g on the s i t e o f the Queen Mary School.  1910  F i r s t u n i t s o f D a v i d L l o y d George, and Street Schools.  1911  A school medical o f f i c e r  1912  A Superior Class f o r h i g h school students e s t a b l i s h e d at Eburne S c h o o l . (The nucleus o f the p r e s e n t Magee H i g h S c h o o l ) .  1914  Magee H i g h , new Queen Mary, and L o r d K i t c h e n er schools b u i l t .  1916  F i r s t manual t r a i n i n g and domestic s c i e n c e c l a s s e s s t a r t e d . A commercial course i n t r o duced a t Magee H i g h S c h o o l .  1920  The E d i t h C a v e l l and P r i n c e o f Wales s c h o o l s were b u i l t and two rooms a t S t r a t h c o n a H e i g h t s . Male V i c e - P r i n c i p a l s a p p o i n t e d i n the s c h o o l s .  1923  Magee P u b l i c and L o r d Byng H i g h opened.  Oak  appointed.  - 59 -  Year  Item  1926  L a n g a r a and Q u i l c h e n a s c h o o l s . Technical and Home Economic Departments s t a r t e d a t Magee H i g h S c h o o l .  1927  S u p e r v i s o r s f o r A r t and P h y s i c a l Educat i o n a p p o i n t e d . One j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s s t a r t e d a t Magee.  1928  P o i n t Grey J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l was organized. .. . ,  1929  J a n u a r y 1, Amalgamation w i t h Vancouver C i t y and South Vancouver*  SCHOOL POPULATION AND TEACHING STAFF IN POINT GREY SCHOOLS 1908-28. Year  Enrolment  Staff  1908  94  2  1910  178  5  1912  448  14  1914  931  25  1916  1080  38  1918  1227  42  1920  2009  51  1922  2816  84  1924  3712  111  1926  4977  163  1928  6217  208  - 60 -  TABLE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREATER VANCOUVER SCHOOL SYSTEM. Year  Steps I n t h e Development  1873  F e b r u a r y 12. The b o u n d a r i e s o f G r a n v i l l e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ( l a t e r Vancouver School) were a r r a n g e d . The f i r s t t e a c h e r was Miss J u l i a Sweeney.  1883  Fifty-one pupils enrolled i n Granville School.  1885  No^th Arm S c h o o l ( f i r s t s c h o o l i n South Vancouver) was e s t a b l i s h e d .  1886  S c h o o l s c l o s e d from June 13 t o November 4 due t o t h e "Great F i r e " . Granville Dist r i c t changed t o Vancouver S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ,  1890  J a n u a r y 1 Vancouver's f i r s t h i g h s c h o o l was opened.  1894  "South Vancouver S c h o o l " i n " S o u t h Vancouver"was o r g a n i z e d .  1896  F i r s t t r u a n t o f f i c e r was employed. "East S c h o o l " , i n South Vancouver, was opened.  1899  The f i r s t C i t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f Schools was a p p o i n t e d . The Vancouver High S c h o o l ( l a t e r K i n g Edward) was a f f i l i a t e d w i t h M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y and work g i v e n i n F i r s t Year A r t s .  1901  P h y s i c a l C u l t u r e and D r i l l added t o t h e s c h o o l programme. Manual T r a i n i n g s t a r t e d i n t h e elementary schools.  1902  Second Y e a r A r t s g i v e n a t t h e a f f i l i a t e d h i g h s c h o o l . A c l a s s i n commercial subj e c t s s t a r t e d a t K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l . "Eburne S c h o o l " o r g a n i z e d i n South. Vancouver.  -  Steps An a t t e n d a n c e  61 -  I n t h e Development officer  appointed.  A H i g h S c h o o l C a d e t C o r p s was o r g a n i z e d . A m u s i c s u p e r v i s o r was a p p o i n t e d . C l a s s e s i n Home E c o n o m i c s opened i n t h e elementary schools. A drawing  supervisor appointed.  Appointment o f t h e f i r s t officer.  school medical  E x t e n s i o n o f manual t r a i n i n g t o t h e h i g h schools. The M u n i c i p a l i t y o f P o i n t G r e y was formed. E x t e n s i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s t o t h e h i g h schools. The f i r s t N i g h t S c h o o l was organized. The f i r s t c l a s s f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f s u b n o r m a l c h i l d r e n was o p e n e d . A n A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l was a p p o i n t e d . A M u n i c i p a l I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l was a p p o i n t e d , i n South Vancouver. A s u p e r v i s o r f o r p r i m a r y c l a s s e s was e n g a ged. The l a t e J . S . G o r d o n , B.A., was a p p o i n t e d as M u n i c i p a l I n s p e c t o r . Commercial c l a s s e s were s t a r t e d a t B r i t a nnia High School. A D e n t a l C l i n i c was opened i n c o n n e c t i o n with the schools. A n O r a l S c h o o l f o r t h e d e a f and dumb was organized. The P a r e n t T e a c h e r Movement b e g a n i n V a n couver. T e c h n i c a l c l a s s e s were i n t r o d u c e d a t K i n g Edward High S c h o o l . The S c h o o l f o r t h e B l i n d was s t a r t e d .  Steps i n the Development The H i g h S c h o o l o f Commerce was o r g a n i z e d from the commercial c l a s s e s a t K i n g Edward High School. Mr. T. A. Brough, B.A., was a p p o i n t e d as Assistant Municipal Inspector. A t h r e e y e a r s ' course i n Home Economics was e s t a b l i s h e d . The F a i r v i e w " J u n i o r High" was o r g a n i z e d . A T e a c h e r s Community Room L i b r a r y was established. 1  The  f i r s t p l a t o o n s c h o o l was  organized.  The was  S c h o o l o f D e c o r a t i v e and A p p l i e d A r t opened.  The Bureau o f Measurements was o r g a n i z e d . The f i r s t j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s was s t a r t e d i n P o i n t Grey. Two l a r g e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s were opened i n Vancouver. C l a s s e s i n S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n were organi z e d . P o i n t Grey adopted the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l system. January 1. Amalgamation of Vancouver, S o u t h Vancouver, and P o i n t Grey. September. A D i r e c t o r o f V o c a t i o n a l Guidance was a p p o i n t e d .  - 63 CHAPTER VI. Some S p e c i a l F e a t u r e s o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l System. (a) The A d a p t a t i o n o f t h e System t o t h e E d u c a t i o n a l Heeds of t h e P u p i l s . A s t u d y o f t h e p r e s e n t s c h o o l system o f Vancouver r e v e a l s many f e a t u r e s t h a t a r e I n d i c a t i v e o f t h e e n l i g h t e n e d e d u c a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e o f p a s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t r u s t e e boards.  No phase o f t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s more  c l e a r l y t h a n t h e attempt made t o p r o v i d e adequate e d u c a t i o n al facilities  f o r c h i l d r e n who, because o f mental o r p h y s i c a l  d e f i c i e n c i e s , were handicapped  i n t h e work o f t h e o r d i n a r y  classrooms. S c h o o l s f o r t h e Deaf and B l i n d . I n 1915 t h e S c h o o l Board opened an O r a l S c h o o l f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f deaf and dumb p u p i l s and on May 1, 1916, a School f o r the B l i n d .  B o t h s c h o o l s remained under t h e con-  t r o l o f t h e Vancouver Board f o r some y e a r s b u t were l a t e r t a k e n over by t h e E d u c a t i o n Department i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y might be conducted on a l a r g e r s c a l e t o s e r v e t h e needs o f the e n t i r e P r o v i n c e .  Accommodation f o r such c h i l d r e n I s  p r o v i d e d a t t h e b u i l d i n g i n P o i n t Grey f o r m e r l y used as a Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l and now o p e r a t e d as a S c h o o l f o r t h e Deaf and B l i n d .  - 64 -  The  Open A i r S c h o o l .  An Open A i r S c h o o l was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1926, when the temporary frame one-room s c h o o l s s e r v i n g as an annex t o the C h a r l e s D i c k e n s S c h o o l were r e m o d e l l e d and e n l a r g e d by the e r e c t i o n o f s l e e p i n g b a l c o n i e s , a d i n i n g - r o o m , and a k i t c h e n , and used f o r d e l i c a t e c h i l d r e n — p a r t i c u l a r l y those predisposed t o tuberculosis.  The p u p i l s r e c e i v e d  special  a t t e n t i o n from t h e s c h o o l m e d i c a l o f f i c e r , who i n h i s  report  f o r 1926 remarked on t h e r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d I n t h e f o l l o w i n g terms, "The e f f e c t o f c o n t i n u a l l y open windows,' maximum suns h i n e , o r g a n i z e d p l a y , hot b a l a n c e d meals a t mid-day, f o l lowed by an hour o f r e s t o r s l e e p on b a l c o n y c o t s , and t h e n breathing  e x e r c i s e s , was apparent from t h e f i r s t .  T h i s was  shown by remarkable g a i n s i n w e i g h t , and improvement i n 1  colour, vigour,  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  Special  capacity."  Classes.  I n t h e s c h o o l y e a r 1910-11 two s p e c i a l f o r feeble-minded or exceptional the C e n t r a l S c h o o l .  classes  c h i l d r e n were s t a r t e d a t  These c h i l d r e n were t a k e n from t h e  s c h o o l s o f t h e c i t y and grouped t o g e t h e r under s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d teachers.  N t o n l y d i d t h e p u p i l s , who were i n a 0  g r e a t many cases d e f i c i e n t , b e n e f i t g r e a t l y , b u t t h e t e a c h e r s  1. P u b l i c S c h o o l R e p o r t 1925-26.  p. R. 44.  •-  65  -  from whose rooms t h e y were t a k e n were r e l i e v e d of t h e i r presence  and c o n s e q u e n t l y a h l e t o g i v e more a t t e n t i o n t o the  normal p u p i l s . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t advance i n t h i s f i e l d was made i n F e b r u a r y 1918, when a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c l i n i c was e s t a b l i s h e d . The  p s y c h o l o g i s t examined the elementary  s c h o o l s showing the  g r e a t e s t r e t a r d a t i o n , and, out o f f i v e hundred p u p i l s examined t w e n t y - f i v e were found t o be sub-normal and c o n s e q u e n t l y a c t ing  as a drawback t o the advancement o f o t h e r p u p i l s .  Such  c h i l d r e n were removed and under the e x p e r i e n c e d guidance  of  the p s y c h o l o g i s t and h e r a s s i s t a n t s soon showed evidence  of  progress.  By the end o f the s c h o o l y e a r 1918,  t i o n o f e i g h t s c h o o l s was  the examina-  completed and s i x s p e c i a l c l a s s e s  and one f o r low-grade d e f e c t i v e s were o r g a n i z e d . . The  two a u x i l i a r y c l a s s e s f o r h o p e l e s s l y d e f e c t i v e  c h i l d r e n , s t a r t e d at C e n t r a l S c h o o l i n 1910, were s t i l l i n operation. now  One  disbanded  o f t h e s e , f o r t h e o l d e r boys and g i r l s ,  as the c h i l d r e n were t o o o l d f o r the s c h o o l s  t o h a n d l e , and i n need o f permanent c u s t o d i a l c a r e . same c a r e was  The  needed f o r t h e younger ones, b u t , as t h e y were  o f s c h o o l age, the c l a s s was  continued.  An o b s e r v a t i o n c l a s s f o r the c a r e f u l study cases was  was  s t a r t e d by the c l i n i c i n 1918,  S p e c i a l C l a s s e s was  appointed.  of  and a S u p e r v i s o r o f  The t e a c h e r s of the c l a s s e s  h e l d w e e k l y meetings w i t h the S u p e r v i s o r t o d i s c u s s the work  -  accomplished  66  -  and t o p l a n a d d i t i o n a l ways f o r h e l p i n g these  u n f o r t u n a t e s t o become u s e f u l c i t i z e n s . work grew u n t i l i n 1929 elementary  Y e a r by y e a r the  t h e r e were e i g h t e e n c l a s s e s i n the  s c h o o l s and two double  c l a s s e s i n the J u n i o r h i g h  schools. The P r e v o c a t i o n a l C l a s s Experiment i n Vancouver. The M u n i c i p a l I n s p e c t o r of S c h o o l s , i n June  1914,  made a s u r v e y o f p u p i l s who were unable t o do e n t r a n c e work.  One  class  hundred s i x t y cases were found and a s c h o o l , p r o -  v i d i n g a m o d i f i e d programme o f a p r a c t i c a l c h a r a c t e r , was opened i n August 1914.  The purpose of the s c h o o l was  to  secure a course of e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d t o those s t u d e n t s whose a b i l i t i e s l a y i n a p r a c t i c a l d i r e c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n I n academic s t u d i e s .  'I'here was  no i n t e n t i o n t o r e g a r d  such s t u d e n t s as m e n t a l l y i n f e r i o r ; i n d e e d , the t e a c h e r s found many o f the p u p i l s t o be o f a h i g h o r d e r o f gence.  The  c u r r i c u l u m o f the c l a s s e s was  p a r t s ; t w o - t h i r d s o f the s c h o o l week was  intelli-  divided into  two  devoted t o academic  s t u d i e s , and the remainder t o p r a c t i c a l work.  The  girls  took  a t h o r o u g h l y p r a c t i c a l course i n h o u s e w i f e r y , i n c l u d i n g sewi n g , c o o k i n g , l a u n d r y work, and domestic hygiene, w h i l e the boys devoted  t h e i r time t o woodwork.  I n 1915 the c l a s s e s were c e n t r a l i z e d a t the C e c i l Rhodes S c h o o l and the course r e o r g a n i z e d t o g i v e h a l f - t i m e t o t h e academic s i d e and h a l f - t i m e t o p r a c t i c a l work.  The  - 67 -  a u t h o r i t i e s , i n s e l e c t i n g p u p i l s f o r these c l a s s e s , made I t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t t h e s c h o o l was not i n t e n d e d f o r p u p i l s who were u n s u i t e d f o r p u b l i c s c h o o l work owing t o p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l i n a b i l i t y , b u t , r a t h e r , f o r those o f average a b i l i t y w i t h a n i n c l i n a t i o n towards the p r a c t i c a l s i d e o f s c h o o l  life.  E x c e l l e n t p r o g r e s s was made a t t h e s c h o o l and t h e p u p i l s , engaged i n a c t i v i t i e s  s u i t a b l e t o t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , were i n t e r -  e s t e d I n t h e i r work and happy i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g w o r t h w h i l e results.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t o c u r t a i l expenses, t h e s c h o o l was  c l o s e d i n 1916 and t h e students absorbed back i n t o t h e regul a r c l a s s e s o f t h e s c h o o l system. Prom 1916-1922 p u p i l s , u n s u i t e d f o r t h e o r d i n a r y academic c o u r s e , were o b l i g e d t o pass t h e E n t r a n c e  Examina-  t i o n o r t o r e p e a t t h e work o f t h e s e n i o r grades i n t h e elementary schools.  As a r e s u l t , the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f those who  f a i l e d dropped out o f t h e system and r e c e i v e d no f u r t h e r school t r a i n i n g .  Those who succeeded i n p a s s i n g i n t o t h e h i g h  s c h o o l s had a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y as t h e S c h o o l Board opened a t e c h n i c a l c l a s s f o r boys a t K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l i n 1916, and s i m i l a r c l a s s e s f o r g i r l s i n 1917. The  Fairview Junior High School.  An e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e above type o f p u p i l was p r o v i d e d by t h e S c h o o l Board w i t h the opening o f t h e F a i r v i e w J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i n September 1922.  The purpose  o f t h e s c h o o l was t o g i v e a t l e a s t .two y e a r s ' academic and  - 68 -  practical  work t o boys and g i r l s who had completed t h e P u b l i c  S c h o o l Course, b u t were not i n a p o s i t i o n t o take one o f the ordinary h i g h school courses.  I n subsequent years t h e s t u -  d e n t body was drawn from t h e elementary  schools of the c i t y  and i n c l u d e d t h o s e who had f a i l e d t o pass t h e E n t r a n c e Exam i n a t i o n and o t h e r s who were over age and r e t a r d e d i n lower grades.  The j u n i o r h i g h schools,opened  i n September 1927,  made f u l l p r o v i s i o n . f o r such c h i l d r e n , w h i l e the F a i r v i e w J u n i o r High S c h o o l c o n t i n u e d t o serve t h e needs of' p u p i l s from areas n o t o r g a n i z e d on t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p l a n .  (b) A M u l t i p l e Course o f Study. Technical Education. Manual T r a i n i n g c l a s s e s were opened I n t h e element a r y s c h o o l s o f Vancouver as e a r l y as 1901, and extended t o the h i g h s c h o o l s i n 1908.  L a t e r , i n 1905, the f i r s t c l a s s e s  i n Home Economics were o r g a n i z e d , and, by 1909, t h e s u b j e c t was o f f e r e d i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l .  H me Economics, as taught 0  i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l s , was r e o r g a n i z e d i n 1909, when a t h r e e -years' course was s t a r t e d a t K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l . . At p r e s e n t t h e s u b j e c t i s taught i n a l l j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s and a t h i g h s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g a m u l t i p l e course o f s t u d y . The y e a r 1916 marked a f u r t h e r advance i n t h e work o f t h e department o f t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n , when t h e School Board opened a c l a s s a t K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l f o r s t u d e n t s  - 69 -  whose a b i l i t i e s and i n c l i n a t i o n s l a y i n the d i r e c t i o n of p r a c t i c a l work.  The  programme was  o r g a n i z e d so as t o g i v e  a d d i t i o n a l t i m e t o manual t r a i n i n g , s c i e n c e , and mathematics, and the o b j e c t o f the course was  t o g i v e the s t u d e n t s  the  advantage o f the o r d i n a r y h i g h s c h o o l and a t the same time t o enable them t o a c q u i r e a t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l . g i r l s i n 1917  S i m i l a r advantages were extended t o  and proved so p o p u l a r t h a t by September  1918  t h e r e were seven c l a s s e s w i t h two hundred s e v e n t y - s e v e n students. D e f i n i t e s t e p s towards a t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l were t a k e n i n 1919,  when the S c h o o l T r u s t e e s d i s c u s s e d the ques-  t i o n o f government a i d w i t h the F e d e r a l a u t h o r ! t i e s. t h e y c a l l e d a m e e t i n g of the t r u s t e e s o f the  Later  surrounding  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and formed a j o i n t committee t o t a k e up m a t t e r w i t h the Department o f E d u c a t i o n at V i c t o r i a . was  decided  t h a t Vancouver was  Vancouver Board the n e c e s s a r y  the l o g i c a l c e n t r e , governing  the It  the  body, and t h a t the  d e t a i l e d work s h o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d by a s p e c i a l T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l Board o f D i r e c t o r s . The  Board t h e n endeavoured t o o b t a i n a s u i t a b l e  b u i l d i n g t o serve as temporary q u a r t e r s u n t i l p l a n s  could  be made f o r s u b m i t t i n g a by-law f o r s u c h a s c h o o l .  Mean-  w h i l e t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government d e c i d e d t o s e l e c t the b u i l d i n g i t s e l f and the q u e s t i o n of i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  -  was  70  -  t u r n e d over t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l S u p e r v i s o r o f T e c h n i c a l  Training.  As a r e s u l t , t h e former Labour Temple was pur-  chased and r e m o d e l l e d  by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government and r e n t e d  t o t h e S c h o o l Board.  I t was opened as t h e Vancouver T e c h n i c a l  S c h o o l on March 1, 1921,  and s u f f i c i e n t equipment was p r o v i d e d  t o meet t h e need f o r t h e next few y e a r s . I n 1926 t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government n o t i f i e d t h e S c h o o l B o a r d t h a t t h e Labour Temple w o u l d not be f o r r e n t a f t e r June 1927. L a t e r , however, i t c o n s e n t e d t o a l l o w t h e T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l t o occupy t h e b u i l d i n g u n t i l J u l y 1928.  This  made i t c l e a r t h a t d e f i n i t e and speedy a c t i o n , i n t h e m a t t e r o f p r o v i d i n g a new T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l , was i m p e r a t i v e .  Although  n e g o t i a t i o n s towards t h e u n i o n o f Vancouver and t h e neighbouri n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o form a t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l area-had been s t a r t e d under a u t h o r i t y o f t h e P u b l i c Schools A c t o f 1927, t h e need f o r h a s t e f o r c e d t h e Vancouver Board t o f o r m u l a t e I t s own t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l programme,'*"  A c c o r d i n g l y , i n June 1927,  appeal was made t o t h e r a t e p a y e r s  an  f o r $300,000 f o r t h e f i r s t  u n i t o f t h e T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l and f o r $50,000 f o r f u r n i s h i n g s and equipment.  T h i s a p p l i c a t i o n was endorsed and p l a n s were  made f o r c o m p l e t i o n b y September 1928.  1. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s Amendment A c t , 1927, s e c t i o n 12, s u b - s e c t i o n P.  - 71 -  Some m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and p o s s i b l e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  arose over t h e outcome o f t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s l o o k i n g t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l a r e a , due t o the n e c e s s a r y s t e p s on t h e p a r t o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board.  I n r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s t h e Chairman o f t h e Vancouver  Board made t h e f o l l o w i n g statement, "We s t i l l s t a n d by t h e p r i n c i p l e o f h a v i n g one l a r g e , w e l l equipped T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l f o r G r e a t e r Vancouver, t o w h i c h s t u d e n t s from t h e v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s - w i l l be a d m i t t e d on e q u i t a b l e terms. Our Board, i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , o u t l i n e d t h i s as our p o l i c y and t h e M i n i s t e r a s s u r e d us t h a t the a l l o c a t i o n p l a c e d i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l e s t i m a t e s l a s t for  T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l work i n G r e a t e r Vancouver would be  a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e s c h o o l we a r e p l a n n i n g .  I t seems, t h e r e -  f o r e , t h a t we a r e i n honour bound t o r e g a r d the f i r s t of  year  unit  t h e T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l we s h a l l e r e c t as t h e f i r s t u n i t o f  the G r e a t e r Vancouver T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l . "-1  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f such a s c h o o l i n the e d u c a t i o n -  a l l i f e o f G r e a t e r Vancouver was w e l l p r e s e n t e d i n a s t a t e ment o f 'proposed aims f o r a T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l as o u t l i n e d by J o h n K y l e , A.R.C.A. — T e c h n i c a l O r g a n i z e r f o r t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n .  I n the Annual Report o f t h e P u b l i c Schools f o r  1. Report o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board, 1927, p. 10,11.  - 72 -  1926-27, he s a i d i n p a r t , "A g r e a t a d d i t i o n t o t h e  attendance  o f i n d u s t r i a l s t u d e n t s w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y be made when a t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l f o r G r e a t e r Vancouver i s b u i l t , as i t w i l l be a t t h i s s c h o o l where t h e f i n i s h i n g v o c a t i o n a l courses w i l l be provided.  This t e c h n i c a l school w i l l  s e r v e as a l i n k between  the h i g h s c h o o l s and i n d u s t r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s .  Care s h o u l d be  t a k e n , however, t o guard the t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l from becoming m e r e l y a t e c h n i c a l h i g h s c h o o l and t o p r e s e r v e i t s i d e n t i t y as a p r e - e m i n e n t l y  t e c h n i c a l or v o c a t i o n a l school.  It will  m a i n l y c a t e r t o t h e needs o f s t u d e n t s who have completed the t e c h n i c a l h i g h s c h o o l course o r have found t h e i r  aptitudes  t h r o u g h t h e e x p l o r a t o r y c o u r s e s i n the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s and have an i n t e l l i g e n t i d e a o f the o c c u p a t i o n i n w h i c h they des i r e t o engage.  Vancouver has f o u r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s ,  where a good p e r c e n t a g e o f the p u p i l s w i l l prove themselves more c a p a b l e i n t h e l i n e o f c r a f t s m a n s h i p t h a n i n an academic way.  I f t h e s e p u p i l s do not i n t e n d t o proceed t o U n i v e r s i t y ,  the t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l w i l l be t h e most d e s i r a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n to attend.  On t h e o t h e r hand, i f t h e s t u d e n t s d e s i r e t o  a t t e n d the s c i e n c e course a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y , a t e c h n i c a l course i n a composite h i g h s c h o o l s h o u l d be the avenue o f approach.  These h i g h s c h o o l s w i l l be compelled  to enrich  t h e i r c o u r s e s , w h i l e the T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l o f G r e a t e r Vancouver w i l l c o n t i n u e t o work i n c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n -  - 73 d u s t r y and t h e A p p r e n t i c e s h i p C o u n c i l .  1 , 1  B e f o r e 1926-27 o n l y s t u d e n t s o f H i g h S c h o o l  En-  t r a n c e s t a n d i n g were a d m i t t e d t o t h e T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l — t h e r e was  no room f o r o t h e r s .  t i o n i n the new  B u t , w i t h the i n c r e a s e d accommoda-  s c h o o l , t e c h n i c a l c l a s s e s were p r o v i d e d f o r  over-aged p u p i l s t a k e n from the s e n i o r grades o f the element a r y schools I n the non-junior h i g h school areas.  These are  g i v e n a course v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h has been o f f e r e d for  y e a r s a t t h e P a i r v i e w J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l and  practically  the same course i s g i v e n at the l a r g e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s to  the same c l a s s o f p u p i l s who  areas.  The  l i v e i n junior high school  c o s t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n these p u p i l s r e c e i v e I s  h i g h e r t h a n i t would have been had t h e y remained i n the elementary new  s c h o o l s but t h e y r e c e i v e a t r a i n i n g under the  c o n d i t i o n s t h a t w i l l b e t t e r f i t them f o r u s e f u l c i t i z e n -  ship. Commercial E d u c a t i o n . The  f i r s t c l a s s I n commercial s u b j e c t s was  ed at K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l i n 1902,  open-  L a t e r the c l a s s e s  were h e l d i n the C e c i l Rhodes S c h o o l and i n September  1918  the c o m m e r c i a l department became a s e p a r a t e u n i t known as the H i g h S c h o o l o f Commerce.  The  p r e s e n t High S c h o o l  of  Commerce i s s i t u a t e d i n the o l d P a i r v i e w S c h o o l , w i t h Mr.  1. The P u b l i c Schools R e p o r t , 1926-27, p. M.  56,57.  - 74 W.K.Beech, M.A.,B.Paed. as p r i n c i p a l .  A commercial d e p a r t -  ment opened a t B r i t a n n i a High S c h o o l i n 1918, became t h e n u c l e u s o f t h e p r e s e n t Grandview H i g h S c h o o l o f Commerce, l o c a t e d i n t h e o l d Grandview s c h o o l , under the p r i n c i p a l s h i p o f Mr. L.W.Taylor, B.A.  I  n  1932, t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r t h e  f i r s t c l a s s e s were o r g a n i z e d , commercial work was b e i n g taught i n j u n i o r , s e n i o r , and commercial h i g h s c h o o l s .  The  School o f Decorative and.Applied A r t .  Prom t h e e a r l y days o f t h e s c h o o l system  drawing  has been g i v e n a d e f i n i t e p l a c e i n the course o f s t u d y i n Vancouver.  S u p e r v i s o r s and s p e c i a l a r t m a s t e r s have been  p r o v i d e d s i n c e 1906 and under t h e i r d i r e c t i o n a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f work has been m a i n t a i n e d .  The f i n a l achievement i n  t h i s department o f s c h o o l work came w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a S c h o o l o f D e c o r a t i v e and A p p l i e d A r t i n October 1925. s c h o o l was an immediate s u c c e s s , w i t h an attendance  The  f o r the  f i r s t y e a r o f one hundred f i f t y - n i n e i n t h e day c l a s s e s and one hundred s i x t y - t w o a t n i g h t . graduated course.  I n June 1929 e l e v e n  students  and were the f i r s t t o complete the f o u r y e a r Arrangements have now been made so t h a t A r t S c h o o l  s t u d e n t s may q u a l i f y f o r a P r o v i n c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e t o t e a c h art  i n the schools of the Province.  • - 75 Today t h e s c h o o l s o f Vancouver compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h e s c h o o l systems i n t h e most p r o g r e s s i v e c i t i e s on the c o n t i n e n t .  I n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n , s i n c e t h e opening o f the  present century, school a c t i v i t i e s  have been i n t r o d u c e d by  s u c c e s s i v e S c h o o l B o a r d s , w i t h t h e concurrence o f t h e c i t i z e n s When we c o n s i d e r t h e s e new a c t i v i t i e s — D r a w i n g , M u s i c , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Manual T r a i n i n g , Home Economics, Commercial E d u c a t i o n , M e d i c a l I n s p e c t i o n , Night S c h o o l Work, D e n t a l Work, S c h o o l f o r t h e Deaf, S c h o o l f o r the B l i n d , Work i n S p e c i a l Classes, Sight Conservation, Technical Education,  Open A i r C l a s s e s ,  and A r t S c h o o l Work—we a r e brought t o  the r e a l i z a t i o n not o n l y t h a t g r e a t advances have been made i n the past, but a l s o , that f u t u r e expansion i s i n e v i t a b l e .  - 76 CHAPTER V I I . Modern E x p e r i m e n t s i n Vancouver.  (a) Changes i n S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n . P l a t o o n Schools. A p l a t o o n s c h o o l was opened i n Vancouver i n Septemb e r 1 9 2 4 — t h e f i r s t s c h o o l o f i t s k i n d i n Western Canada. T h i s was made p o s s i b l e by c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l changes t o t h e Tennyson S c h o o l — a  sixteen-room  nasium and a l a r g e a u d i t o r i u m .  b u i l d i n g , w i t h a s m a l l gymBy t h e p l a t o o n o r g a n i z a t i o n  i t was found p o s s i b l e t o accommodate twenty-one c l a s s e s o f f o r t y each i n s t e a d o f s i x t e e n c l a s s e s f o r m e r l y .  T h i s con-  s i d e r a t i o n a l o n e might have been s u f f i c i e n t t o w a r r a n t t h e change; b u t t h e r e was another r e a s o n (and a more i m p o r t a n t one), t h e hope t h a t b e t t e r work might be done.  The r e s u l t s  a c h i e v e d were so s a t i s f a c t o r y t h a t another s c h o o l , t h e Hast i n g s E l e m e n t a r y , was changed t o t h e p l a t o o n system i n 1925.  The  J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i n Vancouver.  An o u t s t a n d i n g change i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l system was t h e o p e n i n g o f a J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i n September 1922.  This s c h o o l , the present Pairview J u n i o r  H i g h , was n o t a j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i n t h e s t r i c t sense o f the term, b u t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e j u n i o r h i g h o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h was put i n t o e f f e c t on a more e l a b o r a t e s c a l e a t a l a t e r d a t e .  The aim o f t h e s c h o o l  - 77 was t o g i v e a t l e a s t two y e a r s ' academic and p r a c t i c a l work t o boys and g i r l s who had completed t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l  course  but who were not i n a p o s i t i o n t o take one o f t h e o r d i n a r y h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e s . The f i r s t y e a r ' s experiment  was so suc-  c e s s f u l t h a t t h e s c h o o l was e n l a r g e d t h e next y e a r .  I n sub-  sequent y e a r s t h e course o f s t u d y was m o d i f i e d so as t o f i l l an i m p o r t a n t need i n c a r i n g f o r p u p i l s from t h e elementary s c h o o l s who were not f i t t e d t o pass t h e E n t r a n c e and e n t e r t h e h i g h s c h o o l s .  Examination  These p u p i l s who were not v e r y  s u c c e s s f u l i n academic s t u d i e s accomplished  much good work  i n t h e new type o f s c h o o l where t h e courses f i t t e d  their  needs and much p r a c t i c a l work was p r o v i d e d . The S c h o o l Board had hoped t o open t h e f i r s t j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , o r g a n i z e d on t h e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d l i n e s , i n September 1926, b u t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g programme made i t i n a d v i s a b l e t o attempt  t h i s b e f o r e September 1927. D u r i n g t h e y e a r 1926-27  a programme o f s t u d i e s was p r e p a r e d f o r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , f o u r o f w h i c h were i n o p e r a t i o n i n the P r o v i n c e by t h e end of t h e year. The d i s t i n c t i o n o f b e i n g t h e f i r s t d i s t r i c t t o e s t a b l i s h a j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l went t o t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f P e n t i c t o n , where j u n i o r h i g h work was s t a r t e d i n September, 1926,  under P r i n c i p a l A.S.Matheson.  I n September, 1927, two  l a r g e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s were opened i n Vancouver: t h e K i t -  - 78 s i l a n o , under P r i n c i p a l H.B.King, M . A . ; w i t h H . B . P i t c h , M.A. as p r i n c i p a l .  and t h e Templeton  A j u n i o r h i g h school  c l a s s had been s t a r t e d t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r i n P o i n t Grey, and t h e work was extended i n 1927. I n September 1928 P o i n t Grey o r g a n i z e d 756 Grade Seven p u p i l s and c a r r i e d on j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l work, a l though t h e p u p i l s remained i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l b u i l d ings.  L a t e r , a by-law was passed p r o v i d i n g f o r a f o r t y - t w o  room b u i l d i n g , and i n September 1929 t h e P o i n t Grey J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l was opened.  A f t e r amalgamation, G r e a t e r Van-  c o u v e r had t h r e e l a r g e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s — T e m p l e t o n , K i t s i l a n o , and P o i n t G r e y — a s w e l l as t h e o r i g i n a l "so c a l l e d " Pairview J u n i o r High.  (b)  S c i e n t i f i c Leadership i n Education. The Bureau o f Measurements. At  t h e b e g i n n i n g o f J a n u a r y 1927, t h e Vancouver  S c h o o l B o a r d opened a Bureau o f Measurements, p l a c i n g i t under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f R o b e r t S t r a i g h t , B.A. of  I n speaking  the f i r s t year's a c t i v i t y , the Municipal Inspector of  S c h o o l s remarked i n p a r t , " I t i s , however, when one views the  work o f t h e department f o r t h e e n t i r e y e a r and c a l c u -  l a t e s t h e i n f l u e n c e i t s f i n d i n g s w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y e x e r t on the  t e a c h i n g and g e n e r a l management o f p u p i l s f o r t h e im-  mediate f u t u r e , t h a t t h e r e a l v a l u e o f t h e bureau i n our  - 79 -  s c h o o l system becomes a p p a r e n t .  Prom the d i r e c t o r ' s r e p o r t  you w i l l a s c e r t a i n f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n the h i s t o r y o f Vancouver S c h o o l s ,  how  the work i n these s c h o o l s , i n Impor-  t a n t s u b j e c t s , compares w i t h s i m i l a r work i n o t h e r sive school  the  progres-  systems.  " I am  o f the o p i n i o n , however, t h a t the most impor-  t a n t s e r v i c e t h e bureau has r e n d e r e d has been i n p r o p e r l y e v a l u a t i n g the r e l a t i v e a b i l i t i e s o f v a r i o u s groups o f p u p i l s for  example, those commencing s c h o o l , those b e g i n n i n g  j u n i o r h i g h work, and those e n t e r i n g t h e s e n i o r h i g h  the schools.  F a i r l y r e l i a b l e d i a g n o s e s o f the m e n t a l c a p a c i t y of p u p i l s , obtained  t h r o u g h s c i e n t i f i c a l l y conducted t e s t s , a t t h e s e  t h r e e c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s , ensures b e t t e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r t e a c h i n g purposes and "The  consequently b e t t e r  teaching.  b u r e a u , I am g l a d t o know, has  not  rested  s a t i s f i e d w i t h m e r e l y d e t e c t i n g weaknesses i n our  school  system.  I t has  teachers  and  factory  gone f u r t h e r , and, by c o - o p e r a t i o n  with  s u p e r v i s o r s , has p r e s c r i b e d remedies f o r u n s a t i s -  conditions."^ How  many-sided the work o f the bureau r e a l l y i s ,  w i l l be r e a l i z e d from a p e r u s a l o f a summary o f t o p i c s d i s -  1. E x t r a c t s from the Report o f the M u n i c i p a l I n s p e c t o r S c h o o l s f o r t h e y e a r 1927, i n the T r u s t e e s ' Annual R e p o r t of Vancouver S c h o o l s , 1927, p. 27.  of  - 80 c u s s e d i n the 1927 r e p o r t o f the d i r e c t o r .  Statistics  and  graphs t o i l l u s t r a t e the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s were g i v e n : s t a t e ment of i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g ; v i s i t s by the s o c i a l w o r k e r ; statement r e g r o u p t e s t i n g ; summary of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s f o r Grade One; r e s u l t s i n r e a d i n g t e s t s ; t e s t s f o r p u p i l s promoting t o j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l ; t e s t s f o r p u p i l s promoting t o s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l ; t a b l e of promotions to h i g h s c h o o l ; d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s f o r Grade E i g h t pup i l s ; l i s t s o f mimeographed l e s s o n s i n e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e ; sviggested v o c a t i o n a l guidance programmes f o r e l e m e n t a r y , j u n i o r h i g h , and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s ; s t a t e ment on placement and f o l l o w - u p work; statement o f p u p i l s w i t h d r a w i n g f r o m the system; r e p o r t s o f s p e c i a l c l a s s e s ; a n a l y s i s of the time t a b l e s i n use i n the s c h o o l s ;  age-grade  c e n s u s ; c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r c i t i e s i n average p u p i l s ; t a b l e o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the ages o f the p u p i l s ; promot i o n summaries f o r Grades One  t o F i v e ; and the r e p o r t o f the  s u p e r v i s i o n of s p e c i a l c l a s s e s . The above and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on s i n c e 1927 a s s u r e d l y p r o v e the t r u t h of the M u n i c i p a l I n s p e c t o r ' s prophecy t h a t the newly o r g a n i z e d bureau would i n the f u t u r e e x e r t a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on the t e a c h i n g and g e n e r a l management o f p u p i l s .  - 81 -  V o c a t i o n a l Guidance, E a r l y i n 1930 the S c h o o l Board a p p o i n t e d a subcommittee o f t h e Management Committee t o c o n s i d e r the quest i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l guidance  i n the s c h o o l s .  As a r e s u l t ,  R.H.Bennett, B.A., B.C.L., was a p p o i n t e d D i r e c t o r o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e , as from September 1930.  Although  appointment was the f i r s t s t e p towards a s y s t e m a t i c i z a t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l guidance  this organ-  i n the s c h o o l s , i t d i d n o t  i n d i c a t e t h a t the s u b j e c t had r e c e i v e d no p r e v i o u s c o n s i d e r ation, e i t h e r i n I t s educational or vocational aspects.  The  summary o f v o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n l i s t e d below g i v e s a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f how the s u b j e c t was t r e a t e d i n the s c h o o l s , p r e v i o u s t o t h e appointment o f the D i r e c t o r , (1) D e f i n i t e , though perhaps i n c i d e n t a l , a d v i c e on edu. c a t i o n a l guidance had been g i v e n b y p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s t o t h e p u p i l s under t h e i r immediate c a r e . (2) E v e r y y e a r the A s s i s t a n t M u n i c i p a l I n s p e c t o r met the e n t r a n c e c l a s s e s o f the elementary s c h o o l s and gave a v e r y f u l l e x p l a n a t i o n o f the h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m and the p o s s i b l e c h o i c e o f c o u r s e s . (3) The Bureau o f Measurements f u r n i s h e d summaries of o c c u p a t i o n s and a d v i c e on t h e c h o i c e o f h i g h s c h o o l courses. (4) I n the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s " t r y - o u t c o u r s e s " were g i v e n and f r e q u e n t " r o l l c l a s s " p e r i o d s were dev o t e d t o t h e s t u d y o f o c c u p a t i o n s and c o u r s e s . (5) F o r a number o f years speakers from t h e K i w a n i s C l u b had g i v e n t a l k s t o t h e s e n i o r p u p i l s i n the s c h o o l s . These men, prominent members o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l and b u s i n e s s w o r l d , spoke from p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , and, b y t h e i r t a l k s , n o t o n l y f u r n i s h e d  - 82  -  i n f o r m a t i o n about v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s but a l s o h e l p e d to c r e a t e i n t h e c h i l d ' s mind an i n t e r e s t i n h i s own future • The  establishment  of a Bureau o f Guidance co-  o r d i n a t e d a l l these.phases o f i n s t r u c t i o n and put the i n g o f the s u b j e c t upon a d e f i n i t e f o o t i n g .  teach-  Immediately  upon t a k i n g over h i s d u t i e s the D i r e c t o r p r e s e n t e d a p l a n of o r g a n i z a t i o n and proceeded t o c a r r y out a d e f i n i t e programme. He v i s i t e d the j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s and f o r v o c a t i o n a l periods'; o r g a n i z e d  classes f o r  arranged  teachers;  g a t h e r e d m a t e r i a l s and i s s u e d b u l l e t i n s f o r the  counsellors;  spoke t o v a r i o u s c l u b s and a s s o c i a t i o n s ; i n t e r v i e w e d busi n e s s men;  and  i n v e s t i g a t e d a l l cases of w i t h d r a w a l s from  the s c h o o l s *  '  Unfortunately, Bureau was  discontinued  owing t o f i n a n c i a l r e a s o n s , the i n September 1933,  of i t s work s t i l l c o n t i n u e i n the p a s t and  due  but the e f f e c t s  t o the. i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d  the o r g a n i z a t i o n g i v e n to the  subject.  - 83 -  CHAPTER V I I I ,  E a r l y H i s t o r y o f t h e Teachingg PP rr ooffee s s i o n .  The  s i x t y y e a r p e r i o d , 1872-1932. d u r i n g w h i c h our  p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l system was e v o l v e d brought a g r e a t many changes d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n .  With  the f i r s t i n c r e a s e s i n s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n came a shortage o f q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , a n d , as a r e s u l t , s u c h q u e s t i o n s as the source  o f supply, examination  and c e r t i f i c a t i o n , normal  s c h o o l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , became m a t t e r s o f moment for  the e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  L a t e r , w i t h an increase i n  numbers and l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e , came t h e need f o r t e a c h e r s ' conventions  and summer s c h o o l s , and a s u p e r a n n u a t i o n  I n 1874, the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t "The to  of Education,  act. said,  want o f p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s i s a g r e a t drawback  the e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e P u b l i c Schools  i n the P r o v i n c e .  Many o f the s c h o o l s a r e under u n q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s and t h i s s t a t e o f t h i n g s w i l l c o n t i n u e u n t i l a s t r o n g t i d e o f immigrat i o n s e t s i n , b r i n g i n g more t e a c h e r s w i t h i t $ o r u n t i l we can educate and t r a i n them f o r the work h e r e ; o r u n t i l we c a n o f f e r such s a l a r i e s as w i l l induce p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r s t o s e t t l e i n the province.."  1  1. Prom t h e g e n e r a l r e p o r t o f Mr. J o h n J e s s o p . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of E d u c a t i o n , i n the A n n u a l Report o f the P u b l i c Schools o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1874, p. 12.  - 84 -  He made a recommendation i n another p a r t o f the same r e p o r t when he s a i d , "The q u e s t i o n o f H i g h s h o u l d n o t he l e f t any l o n g e r i n abeyance.  Schools  These s c h o o l s  would do good s e r v i c e as T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e s f o r t e a c h e r s , till  such time as the number o f o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w o u l d  w a r r a n t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a P r o v i n c i a l Normal School.. Dependence upon i m m i g r a t i o n f o r a s u p p l y o f t e a c h e r s i s v e r y p r e c a r i o u s as p a s t e x p e r i e n c e f u l l y p r o v e s .  We s h a l l r e q u i r e  t w e l v e t o f o u r t e e n new t e a c h e r s a n n u a l l y t o keep up the t e a c h ing s t a f f .  Free t u i t i o n i n t h e H i g h S c h o o l s , with, perhaps a  l i t t l e p e c u n i a r y a i d , would be a g r e a t i n c e n t i v e t o p u p i l s o f b o t h s e x e s , t o seek a d m i s s i o n , w i t h a s p e c i a l view o f p a s s i n g the t e a c h e r s ' e x a m i n a t i o n s , s c h o o l work.  and e n t e r i n g t h e p u b l i c  These proposed e s t a b l i s h m e n t s would, t h e r e f o r e ,  f o r t h e p r e s e n t answer t h e purposes o f H i g h S c h o o l , T r a i n i n g S c h o o l , and Model S c h o o l .  1 , 1  Teachers e x a m i n a t i o n s were h e l d i n 1874 from J u l y 6-10 i n c l u s i v e , and e l e v e n c a n d i d a t e s o b t a i n e d c e r t i f i c a t e s but the s u p p l y o f t e a c h e r s was s t i l l inadequate i n that year advertisements  i n 1875 and  f o r t e a c h e r s were p l a c e d i n t h e  1. E x t r a c t s from t h e g e n e r a l r e p o r t o f Mr. John J e s s o p , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , i n the P u b l i c Schools Report. 1874, p. 9.  - 85 -  "Globe" and " M a i l " newspapers o f T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o .  At  1  the time o f p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e F i f t h Annual Report i n 1876, t h e r e were f o r t y c e r t i f i c a t e d t e a c h e r s i n s e r v i c e i n the P r o v i n c e o f w h i c h f o u r t e e n h e l d f i r s t c l a s s , twenty-one second c l a s s , and f i v e t h i r d c l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s . a l s o t h i r t e e n n o n - c e r t i f i c a t e d t e a c h e r s employed.  There were The  average a n n u a l s a l a r y o f $523.43 f o r 1872 I n c r e a s e d t o $713.10 i n 1873, when s a l a r i e s were r e g u l a t e d by t h e Board. o f E d u c a t i o n , b u t d e c r e a s e d i n the n e x t two y e a r s because of the number o f new s c h o o l s a t t h e minimum.  By 1876 i t was  $644.41 and t h e average f o r the p e r i o d o f 1872-1876 was $651.05, The i n c r e a s e i n s c h o o l s f o r the same p e r i o d was 2  from t w e l v e t o f o r t y . Each y e a r the number o f c a n d i d a t e s f o r examinat i o n i n c r e a s e d u n t i l i n . 1 8 7 7 , when t h e r e were  seventy-one  t e a c h e r s employed, the s u p p l y almost e q u a l l e d the demand. That y e a r the average a n n u a l s a l a r y was $702.07, the i n c r e a s e b e i n g due t o h i g h e r c e r t i f i c a t e s and more h i g h s c h o o l teachers.  A t the Teachers' Convention f o r the same y e a r t h e  q u e s t i o n o f s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r p u p i l t e a c h e r s was d i s c u s s e d and i t was f e l t t h a t , i f they were c o n t i n u e d , enough good  1. The t e x t o f these a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , w i t h terms o f c o n t r a c t and inducements o f f e r e d , i s p r e s e n t e d i n the P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1875, p. 13. 2. The above f i g u r e s are from the P u b l i c Schools Report f o r 1875-76, p. 88 and 89.  - 86 -  t e a c h e r s c o u l d be a n t i c i p a t e d from t h i s source t o make dependence upon o t h e r c o u n t r i e s u n n e c e s s a r y . n o t i c e was p u b l i s h e d i n the T o r o n t o , o f "The T e a c h i n g  As a r e s u l t a  "Globe" under the t i t l e  P r o f e s s i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia".  The t e x t  of the n o t i c e i n p a r t , was, "So f a r every competent t e a c h e r a r r i v i n g I n the p r o v i n c e has s e c u r e d a p o s i t i o n a t $50-f125 per month b u t t h e s c h o o l s a r e now a l l s u p p l i e d .  Changes o f  c o u r s e o c c u r , b u t few. We have i n d u c e d young and p r o m i s i n g p u p i l s t o e n t e r the p r o f e s s i o n , so t h a t , h e r e a f t e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , w i l l be i n p o s i t i o n t o s u p p l y her own teachers."" " 1  The number o f c a n d i d a t e s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n from persons e d u c a t e d i n the p r o v i n c e s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d .  Many  o f those e n r o l l e d i n the h i g h s c h o o l s p r i o r t o 1901 were d e l i b e r a t e l y p r e p a r i n g themselves  w i t h the h e l p o f t h e i r  t e a c h e r s f o r t h e g r e a t work o f t e a c h i n g .  Various  attempts  to make up f o r the l a c k o f t r a i n i n g were made, such as the use o f t h e s y s t e m o f p u p i l - t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Normal C l a s s i n t h e V i c t o r i a , H i g h S c h o o l . February  By  1881 n e a r l y h a l f o f the c e r t i f i c a t e d t e a c h e r s had  o b t a i n e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e P r o v i n c e and t h e r e were o n l y  . The f u l l statement of t h e Advertisement i s g i v e n i n the Report o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s f o r 1876-1877, p. 67,68.  - 87 -  t h i r t e e n temporary c e r t i f i c a t e s h e l d . t e a c h e r s were b e i n g educated  Because so many  l o c a l l y , the l a c k o f the p r o -  f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g t h a t c o u l d be g i v e n i n a Normal S c h o o l was  keenly  felt*  I n a d i s c u s s i o n a t the Teachers'  I n s t i t u t e of  i t was p o i n t e d out t h a t most o f the two hundred and  1892,  forty  t e a c h e r s i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s had not r e c e i v e d p r e p a r a t o r y i n s t r u c t i o n to f i t them f o r e n t r a n c e i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n , and, a t the 1897  s e s s i o n of the I n s t i t u t e , i t was  t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia was  stated  the o n l y p r o v i n c e i n the Dominion  n o t s u p p o r t i n g one o r more normal s c h o o l s . F o r many y e a r s p r e v i o u s to the opening couver Normal S c h o o l i n 1901, i n g i n s t i t u t e was  o f the Van-  the need f o r a t e a c h e r  s t r o n g l y advocated  train-  i n the a n n u a l r e p o r t s  o f t h e I n s p e c t o r s and by t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board. annual r e p o r t f o r 1890,  In his  Mr. John Robson, P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ,  s t a t e d the case as f o l l o w s , "A Normal S c h o o l i s v e r y much needed, and the e x p e n d i t u r e n e c e s s a r y to the maintenance of the same would be a wise economy.  Such an  institution  would send f o r t h a n n u a l l y an e a r n e s t band o f  workers,  equipped w i t h a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l and possessed o f a knowledge o f the s c i e n c e o f teaching."' ' 1  1. A f t e r an a r t i c l e by J . W . G i b s o n , M . A . , B.Paed. i n the P u b l i c S c h o o l s Report o f 1927-28, p. V. 40 & 41.  - 88 -  Dr. S.D.Pope, i n October 1894, made the f o l l o w i n g u r g e n t p l e a , " I n every, p r o f e s s i o n a l p u r s u i t s p e c i a l ing i s a requirement,  train-  and p a r t i c u l a r l y s h o u l d t h i s be the  case w i t h those who have to d e a l w i t h the c h i l d mind. those who have a t l e a s t some knowledge o f p s y c h o l o g y  Only and  p r o p e r methods o f s c h o o l management s h o u l d be g r a n t e d f i c a t e s t o t e a c h i n our p u b l i c s c h o o l s .  certi-  E x p e r i e n c e has  proved t h a t i t i s wise economy f o r any c o u n t r y to g i v e , h e r t e a c h e r s t h o r o u g h i n s t r u c t i o n as t o methods and g e n e r a l knowledge o f s c h o o l management.  T h i s can o n l y be done by  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Normal School.""'" Dr..Alexander  Robinson,  as S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ,  finally  p r e v a i l e d upon the Government t o e s t a b l i s h the Vancouver Normal and the f i r s t c l a s s e s were opened i n the o l d Vanc o u v e r H i g h S c h o o l , on t h e n i n t h o f January, 1901, w i t h f o r t y - t w o s t u d e n t s , u n d e r t h e p r i n c i p a l s h i p o f Mr. W i l l i a m Burns, I n s p e c t o r of Schools.  F o r two y e a r s the Normal  S c h o o l was w i t h o u t a permanent home, as the p r e s e n t b u i l d i n g was n o t o c c u p i e d u n t i l 1909,  On the f o u r t h o f January,1915,  the V i c t o r i a Normal S c h o o l was opened, w i t h a n attendance  of  2 f o r t y - f i v e s t u d e n t s , u n d e r P r i n c i p a l D.L.  1 and 2.  MacLaurin.  From an a r t i c l e by J.W.Gibson, M.A., B . P d . , i n the P u o l i c S c h o o l s Report f o r 1927-28, p. v.40 & 4 1 . ae  - 89 -  CHAPTER I X .  The H i s t o r y o f Teachers'  Certificates.  (a) E a r l y C e r t i f i c a t e s . The R u l e s f o r the E x a m i n a t i o n o f P u b l i c S c h o o l Teachers and the I s s u a n c e o f C e r t i f i c a t e s o f Q u a l i f i c a t i o n were f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n t h e R e p o r t o f P u b l i c S c h o o l s f o r 1874. (The f u l l r e g u l a t i o n s and e x a m i n a t i o n papers make v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g and i l l u m i n a t i n g r e a d i n g . )  To each s u b j e c t was  a t t a c h e d an i n v a r i a b l e number o f marks and the p r o p o r t i o n a l v a l u e o f the answers g i v e n by t h e c a n d i d a t e s was upon t h a t s t a n d a r d e x c l u s i v e l y .  determined  The s u b j e c t s of e x a m i n a t i o n  w i t h the p o s s i b l e marks were: S p e l l i n g ( 2 0 0 ) ; Reading  (200);  W r i t i n g ( 2 0 0 ) ; C o m p o s i t i o n ( 2 0 0 ) ; Geography ( 2 0 0 ) ; H i s t o r y ( 2 0 0 ) ; Grammar ( 2 0 0 ) ; A r i t h m e t i c ( 2 0 0 ) ; Bookkeeping Mathematics, Drawing  (200);  ( 1 0 0 ) ; f o r each b r a n c h ; L a t i n ( 5 0 ) ; F r e n c h ( 5 0 ) ;  ( 5 0 ) ; and M u s i c  (50).^  At f i r s t o n l y T h i r d C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e s were g r a n t e d , the minimum p e r c e n t a g e o f answers b e i n g f o r t y p e r centum, b u t the statement was made t h a t w i t h i n t w e l v e months o f the i n a u g u r a t i o n of the Board o f Examiners  arrangements  1. P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1874, Appendix C, p. 48. 2. P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1874, Appendix 0, p. 48.  would  be  - 90  -  made t o i s s u e h i g h e r c e r t i f i c a t e s  on the f o l l o w i n g b a s i s :  F i r s t Class. A, e i g h t y p e r centum; F i r s t C l a s s B, seventy centum; Second C l a s s A, s i x t y per centrum; Second C l a s s  per  B,  f i f t y p e r centum; T h i r d C l a s s A, f o r t y p e r centum; and T h i r d C l a s s B, t h i r t y per centum., were v a l i d  1  The  certificates  " u n t i l r e v o k e d by t h e Board of Examiners," the  second c l a s s f o r three y e a r s , and year.  f i r s t class  A t the end of the f i x e d  and t h u s had certificates.  the t h i r d c l a s s f o r  term the t e a c h e r s wrote a g a i n  the o p p o r t u n i t y of o b t a i n i n g h i g h e r and ^he s u b j e c t s of the e x a m i n a t i o n ,  the  f  tage t o be o b t a i n e d , and v a r i e d from t i m e t o t i m e .  the d u r a t i o n of the The  one  higher percen-  certificates  s u b j e c t s of e x a m i n a t i o n  for  the Second and T h i r d G l a s s were the same, w i t h d i f f e r e n t percentages,  b u t , f o r the F i r s t C l a s s B C e r t i f i c a t e  s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d , w h i l e c a n d i d a t e s  more  f o r the F i r s t C l a s s  A wrote some s u b j e c t s i n a d d i t i o n t o those p r e s c r i b e d f o r the F i r s t C l a s s B.  Graduates o f a U n i v e r s i t y were g i v e n a  F i r s t C l a s s A c e r t i f i c a t e , on w r i t i n g a paper on The  Teachers' C o n v e n t i o n of 1877  once the F i r s t C l a s s A c e r t i f i c a t e was be v a l i d f o r l i f e .  I n November 1878,  E d u c a t i o n , C,C.McKenzle, i n speaking  1. P u b l i c Schools  R e p o r t , 1874,  Education.  suggested t h a t  o b t a i n e d , i t should Superintendent  of t e a c h e r s '  of  salaries,  Appendix C, p. 48 & 49.  - 91 -  suggested as f o l l o w s , " I t w i l l be observed t h a t i n t h i s s c a l e t h e r e i s n o t a h i n t a t t h e grade o f t e a c h e r s  1  certi-  f i c a t e s a l t h o u g h t h a t i s ' the b a s i s upon w h i c h s a l a r i e s a r e  :  g r a n t e d i n e v e r y o t h e r c o u n t r y h a v i n g a system o f p u b l i c education.  I n making t h i s r e - a d j u s t m e n t , I t h i n k i t would be  a d v i s a b l e t o make some changes i n t h e schedule o f c e r t i f i c a tes.  P r e v i o u s t o 1877-78 the c e r t i f i c a t e s o f female t e a c h -  ers were g r a n t e d upon e x a m i n a t i o n papers r e q u i r i n g much l o w e r a t t a i n m e n t s t h a n t h o s e r e q u i r e d f o r the same grade o f c e r t i f i c a t e by a male t e a c h e r , and the i m p r e s s i o n i s abroad t h a t c e r t i f i c a t e s have n o t been g i v e n i m p a r t i a l l y ,  1 pro-  pose t o super-add t o t h e p r e s e n t grades o f c e r t i f i c a t e s a h i g h e r grade t o be c a l l e d " L i f e C e r t i f i c a t e " o r some s i m i l a r name.  No c e r t i f i c a t e s a r e a t p r e s e n t g r a n t e d f o r l i f e and  the demand f o r s u c h c e r t i f i c a t e s c o u l d be m e t . "  1  (An e a r l y  advantage g a i n e d by t h e Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n . ) Temporary c e r t i f i c a t e s , v a l i d u n t i l the n e x t exa m i n a t i o n , were added i n 1881. The r e g u l a t i o n s p u b l i s h e d i n 1881 gave t h e f o l l o w i n g statement on the v a l u e and d u r a tion of certificates: "(1) A temporary c e r t i f i c a t e , v a l i d t i l l  the n e x t  examination  of t e a c h e r s , s h a l l e n t i t l e the h o l d e r t o t e a c h t e m p o r a r i l y i n  1. The P u b l i c Schools Report, 1877-78, Appendix K, p. 238.  - 92 -  any s c h o o l . "(2) A T h i r d C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e ,  v a l i d f o r one y e a r ,  shall  e n t i t l e the h o l d e r t o t e a c h i n any P u b l i c S c h o o l i n whichone t e a c h e r i s employed, o r as an a s s i s t a n t i n one i n w h i c h more t h a n one i s employed. "(3) A Second C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e ,  v a l i d f o r three y e a r s ,  s h a l l e n t i t l e t h e h o l d e r t o h o l d any p o s i t i o n i n any P u b l i c School, "(4) A F i r s t C l a s s , Grade B , c e r t i f i c a t e , v a l i d f o r f o u r y e a r s , s h a l l e n t i t l e the h o l d e r t o h o l d any p o s i t i o n i n any P u b l i c S c h o o l , o r t o a c t as a s s i s t a n t i n a H i g h S c h o o l , "(5) A F i r s t C l a s s , Grade A, c e r t i f i c a t e , v a l i d f o r f o u r y e a r s , s h a l l e n t i t l e the h o l d e r t o h o l d any p o s i t i o n i n any P u b l i c or High S c h o o l , "  1  W i t h i n a few y e a r s from t h i s t i m e , F i r s t C l a s s A and B c o u l d be renewed on a p p l i c a t i o n o f the h o l d e r , p r o v i d e d he gave " s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o o f o f h i s success as a teacher,"  I n 1888-89 t h e r e g u l a t i o n was p u b l i s h e d t h a t a l l  holders of c e r t i f i c a t e s  who had t a u g h t c o n t i n u o u s l y i n the  p r o v i n c e f o r a p e r i o d o f twelve y e a r s were e n t i t l e d t h e i r c e r t i f i c a t e s renewed w i t h o u t e x a m i n a t i o n .  t o have  Later, i n  1. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1881, A p p e n d i x B, p. 299.  - 93  1900, the c l a s s e s o f c e r t i f i c a t e s were changed t o Academic, F i r s t , Second, and T h i r d .  The o l d F i r s t G l a s s A was t o be  the Academic, and t h e o l d F i r s t C l a s s B as t h e F i r s t C l a s s .  was t o be known  A f t e r the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l was  opened on J a n u a r y 9, 1901, no f u r t h e r c e r t i f i c a t e s were granted without normal t r a i n i n g .  (b) The Academic  Certificate.  The f o r e r u n n e r o f the Academic C e r t i f i c a t e ( t h e h i g h e s t c e r t i f i c a t e g r a n t e d by t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n ) was the F i r s t G l a s s A.  Graduates o f U n i v e r s i t i e s were  g i v e n the F i r s t C l a s s A C e r t i f i c a t e , on w r i t i n g a paper on Education.  No attendance  a t a p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g school  was n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e w r i t i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n .  This p r i v i -  l e g e was a l s o g r a n t e d a t a l a t e r date t o c a n d i d a t e s who had completed two y e a r s o f the A r t s course a t a r e c o g n i z e d university.  B e f o r e 1888 the c e r t i f i c a t e c o u l d be renewed  on a p p l i c a t i o n o f the h o l d e r , p r o v i d e d he gave p r o o f o f h i s success as a t e a c h e r . "  "satisfactory  L a t e r , i n 1900, when  the c l a s s e s o f c e r t i f i c a t e s were changed, t h e o l d F i r s t C l a s s A became the Academic C e r t i f i c a t e . A f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Normal S c h o o l i n J a n u a r y , 1901, i t was p o s s i b l e f o r u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s t o o b t a i n t h e Academic C e r t i f i c a t e a f t e r attendance a t t h e f a l l term  (September t o December), b u t the work o f t h i s term p r e -  - 94 -  p a r e d t e a c h e r s o n l y f o r t e a c h i n g i n elementary The Academic C e r t i f i c a t e was who  schools.  s t i l l granted to candidates  had c o m p l e t e d two y e a r s o f a u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e , p r o v i -  ded they had t a k e n the f o u r months' p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t a normal s c h o o l .  I n 1921  the Department of E d u c a t i o n  r e q u i r e d a l l c a n d i d a t e s f o r an academic c e r t i f i c a t e to he graduates  o f a r e c o g n i z e d u n i v e r s i t y and i n 1923-24 de-  manded p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r b o t h elementary and  high  s c h o o l s c o v e r i n g a p e r i o d from September to A p r i l . A t the r e q u e s t of the P r o v i n c i a l Department o f E d u c a t i o n , the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia undertook, September 1923,  in  the d i r e c t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g  o f c a n d i d a t e s f o r the Academic C e r t i f i c a t e .  Courses i n  elementary methods and i n the s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s o f the e l e mentary s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m were p r o v i d e d a t the Vancouver ^ o r m a l S c h o o l , and f a c i l i t i e s f o r p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g were f u r n i s h e d a t K i n g Edward High S c h o o l . open o n l y t o u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s ,  '-'•'he Dean of A r t s and  S c i e n c e a c t e d as p r o v i s i o n a l d i r e c t o r . Dr. George M. Weir was  The c o u r s e s were  I n November,  1923,  appointed P r o f e s s o r of Education  and  D i r e c t o r o f Teacher T r a i n i n g and assumed the d u t i e s o f the o f f i c e i n January,  1924.  L e c t u r e r s on Methods i n h i g h schoo  s u b j e c t s were a p p o i n t e d f r o m the U n i v e r s i t y  staff.  1  1. The C a l e n d a r , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1924-25, p. 259-60.  - 95 -  During  the f i r s t term, the Methods courses i n e l e -  mentary s c h o o l s u b j e c t s were g i v e n under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y and o b s e r v a t i o n assignments and p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g i n the e l e m e n t a r y  s c h o o l s were r e q u i r e d .  The  Methods c o u r s e s were g i v e n d u r i n g the second term by members o f the U n i v e r s i t y s t a f f and were c o n f i n e d to h i g h s c h o o l subjects.  Candidates  were p e r m i t t e d to r e g i s t e r f o r p r o f e s -  s i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n assignments and p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g i n the h i g h school.) o n l y i n those  subjects  w h i c h t h e y were q u a l i f i e d t o t e a c h by r e a s o n o f t h e i r p r e v i o u academic p r e p a r a t i o n . obligatory.  i n t h r e e s u b j e c t s were  A l l c a n d i d a t e s were r e q u i r e d to take  t i o n a l Psychology; and  Methods c o u r s e s  ( l ) Educa-  (2) H i s t o r y and P r i n c i p l e s o f E d u c a t i o n ;  (3) S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Law.  The  observation  assignments and p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g approximated one hundred h o u r s — f o r t y i n the elementary,  and s i x t y i n the h i g h school."  At the c l o s e o f the s e s s i o n , s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s were recommended t o the P r o v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n f o r the Academic C e r t i f i c a t e , and t o the F a c u l t y of A r t s S c i e n c e f o r the g r a n t i n g o f the U n i v e r s i t y d i p l o m a  and  i n Educa-  tion.  1. The C a l e n d a r of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1924-25, p. 254-260.  - 96 The U n i v e r s i t y C a l e n d a r o f 1926-27 announced t h a t c a n d i d a t e s o b t a i n i n g a t l e a s t s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t on the work o f t h e y e a r would he awarded Honour s t a n d i n g ,  I n the  1  C a l e n d a r o f 1926-27 the p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e s i n A r t s and S c i e n c e were g i v e n as f o l l o w s , "Students r e g i s t e r e d i n A r t s and S c i e n c e who i n t e n d t o q u a l i f y as h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e a d v i s e d t o t a k e i n the T h i r d and F o u r t h y e a r s a t l e a s t t h r e e Honour o r Pass c o u r s e s s e l e c t e d from E n g l i s h , H i s t o r y , F r e n c h , L a t i n , Mathematics, P h y s i c s , Chemistry,"  The same announcement suggested t h a t one c l a s s i n •2.  p s y c h o l o g y s h o u l d be t a k e n d u r i n g the undergraduate  course.  I n t h i s y e a r , t o the c o u r s e s o f f e r e d , were added (1) Educat i o n a l T e s t s , Measurements, and S t a t i s t i c s ; (2) Psychology o f Elementary S c h o o l S u b j e c t s ; and (3) Methods i n High' School Subjects.^ The g r a d i n g o f s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s was changed i n 1927-28 as f o l l o w s : F i r s t C l a s s , an average o f e i g h t y p e r centum; Second C l a s s , s i x t y - f i v e t o e i g h t y p e r centum; Passed f i f t y t o s i x t y - f i v e per centum.  A f t e r 1928 candida-r  t e s a d m i t t e d t o t h e c o u r s e i n H i g h S c h o o l Methods were r e -  1. • 2. 3. 4. 5.  The 27, The The The T h e  Calendar p. 101, Calendar Calendar Calendar Calendar  o f the U n i v e r s i t y of- B r i t i s h Columbia,  1926-  of of of of  102. 102.. 103. 102.  the the the the  University University University University  of of of of  B.C., B.C., B.C., B.C.,  1926-27, 1926-27, 1926-27, 1927-28,  p. p. p. p.  - 97 -  q u i r e d t o have t a k e n t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f a minor ( s i x u n i t s ) i n . the c o r r e s p o n d i n g pass courses o f undergraduate  work.  1  By t h e C a l e n d a r o f 1928-29 t h i s was changed from s i x t o n i n e 2 units  and two Methods c o u r s e s were made o b l i g a t o r y ( f o r  t e a c h i n g and e x a m i n a t i o n p u r p o s e s ) , w h i l e one course might b e . a t t e n d e d as a n a u d i t o r . The same announcement o f f e r e d a c o u r s e i n " J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a 2 tion," and.advised a l l p r o s p e c t i v e students t o take s i x 2 u n i t s i n E d u c a t i o n f o r c r e d i t towards t h e B.A. degree. ' Subsequent t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e Teacher T r a i n i n g course f o r t h e g r a n t i n g o f Academic c e r t i f i c a t e s , c e r t a i n t e a c h e r s i n s e r v i c e r e c e i v e d t h e B.A. degree  either  t h r o u g h Summer S e s s i o n s o r by t a k i n g t h e F o u r t h year i n t h e Winter Session.  These t e a c h e r s , h o l d i n g F i r s t C l a s s c e r t i -  f i c a t e s , i m m e d i a t e l y made a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r Academic c e r t i f i c a t e s , and t h e f o l l o w i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , c o v e r i n g such cases> were c r e a t e d by t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n , "Teachers who completed t h e Normal S c h o o l Course p r i o r t o the e s t a b l i shment o f the Teacher T r a i n i n g Course and who have now s e c u r e d t h e i r B.A. Degrees, may secure Academic C e r t i f i c a t e s by c o m p l e t i n g f o u r and a h a l f a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s o f e d u c a t i o n a l work a t t h e Summer S c h o o l conducted by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f 1. The C a l e n d a r o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1927-28, p. 103. 2. C a l e n d a r 1928-29, p. 108-110.  Columbia,  -98  B r i t i s h Columbia."  -  x  D u r i n g the next few y e a r s , so many p e c u l i a r  situ-  a t i o n s , each r e q u i r i n g i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a r o s e , t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s f e l t t h a t new r e g u l a t i o n s were needed i f abuses were t o be p r e v e n t e d and t h e s t a n d a r d m a i n t a i n e d ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , an O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i 1 , c r e a t i n g new and d e t a i l e d r e g u l a t i o n s , was passed on the t h i r t e e n t h day of A p r i l , 1 9 3 3 . A copy o f t h e Order-in-Counc 11 i s g i v e n below; I beg t o r e p o r t t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o persons hold the necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ( i . e .  the B.A.  who  Diploma  and.the Diploma i n E d u c a t i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia) f o r t h e Academic Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e , t h e r e a r e two groups o f c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h a t  Certificate:-  "A" Group: Persons who have t h e i r permanent second o r f i r s t c l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s by 1933 and t h e i r B.A. Diplomas by 1933. "B" Group: or  (1) P e r s o n s who have t h e i r i n t e r i m second f i r s t c l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s by 1933, and t h e i r  B.A.  Diplomas by 1933.  1. A f t e r a statement by J.L.Watson, B.A., R e g i s t r a r o f the Department of E d u c a t i o n , g i v e n i n a p e r s o n a l l e t t e r on March 7, 1930.  -99  (2)  -  Persons who have t h e i r Normal S c h o o l  Diplomas by 1933 and w i l l t a k e t h e i r Diplomas a f t e r  1933.  (5) Persons who  have t h e i r B.A.  B.A.  Diplomas by  1933 and w i l l t a k e t h e i r Normal S c h o o l Diplomas a f t e r  1933.  (4) Persons who w i l l t a k e t h e i r Normal S c h o o l Diplomas a f t e r 1933, and t h e i r B.A. after  Diplomas  1933.  and t o recommend t h a t a p e r s o n i n "A" Group be g r a n t e d the Academic Teacher's  C e r t i f i c a t e on com-  p l e t i o n o f f o u r and a h a l f u n i t s i n E d u c a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o the s i x t y u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r the Diploma  B.A.  and t h a t C e r t i f i c a t e be g r a n t e d t o a p e r s o n  i n "B" Group who  has c o m p l i e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g  conditions: (1) Completed f o u r and a h a l f u n i t s i n E d u c a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o the s i x t y u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r the B.A.  Diploma.  ( 2 ) Completed a course ( t h r e e u n i t s ) upon t h e h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m and the Methodology o f two s u b j e c t s of  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . ( T h i s t o be t a k e n at the U n i v e r -  s i t y Summer S c h o o l or e x t r a - m u r a l l y under the d i r e c t i o n o f the P r o f e s s o r o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and f o l l o w e d by w r i t t e n Examina-  - 100  -  -  1  t l o n s i n papers o f t h r e e hours each.) (3) Completed f i f t e e n hours o b s e r v a t i o n and  f i f t e e n hours  P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g i n H i g h S c h o o l s under t h e d i r e c t i o n of the P r o f e s s o r o f E d u c a t i o n ,  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  (c) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f C e r t i f i c a t e s . Three t y p e s of t e a c h e r s '  c e r t i f i c a t e s are  issued  by the Department of E d u c a t i o n — P e r m a n e n t , I n t e r i m , Temporary.  and  These c e r t i f i c a t e s are a g a i n d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r  c l a s s e s — A c a d e m i c , F i r s t C l a s s , Second C l a s s , and S p e c i a l - i n accordance w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g each c l a s s .  the g r a n t i n g  S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s are g r a n t e d  part to teachers  f o r the most  of manual t r a i n i n g , d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e ,  commercial s u b j e c t s .  The  g r a n t i n g o f T h i r d C l a s s has  d i s c o n t i n u e d , none s u c h h a v i n g been i s s u e d s i n c e June 1922.  of  and been 30, 2  Some temporary are i s s u e d t o meet s p e c i a l needs. I n 1922,  were i s s u e d .  f o r the f i r s t time, i n t e r i m c e r t i f i c a t e s  P r e v i o u s l y permanent c e r t i f i c a t e s were g r a n t -  ed t o a l l s t u d e n t s whose work was  not c l a s s e d as poor by  1. From statements and e n c l o s u r e s i n a p r i v a t e l e t t e r , from J.L.Watson, B.A., R e g i s t r a r of the Department o f E d u c a t i o n , dated December 19, 1933. 2. G e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e f o r S e c t i o n C. R e g u l a t i o n s governing Teachers' C e r t i f i c a t e s , as g i v e n i n the p u b l i c a t i o n , "The Programme of S t u d i e s f o r H i g h S c h o o l s .  1  -  101  the Normal s c h o o l i n s t r u c t o r s .  Under the i n t e r i m c e r t i f i c a t e  arrangement, s t u d e n t s whose work i s w h o l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a r e n o t g r a n t e d c e r t i f i c a t e s o f any c l a s s , w h i l e s t u d e n t s whose work i s o n l y " f a i r " a r e i s s u e d i n t e r i m c e r t i f i c a t e s v a l i d f o r two y e a r s .  B e f o r e the h o l d e r s o f such c e r t i f i c a t e s a r e  g i v e n permanent s t a n d i n g they must show by a c t u a l t e a c h i n g d u r i n g the time t h e i r c e r t i f i c a t e s a r e i n f o r c e t h a t they p o s s e s s a d a p t a b i l i t y f o r c l a s s - r o o m work. Students  a r e no longer, a d m i t t e d t o the Normal S c h o o l  on the o l d q u a l i f i c a t i o n - - n a m e l y , the J u n i o r . M a t r i c u l a t i o n Certificate.  Now, h i g h s c h o o l students who a r e p r e p a r i n g t o  e n t e r the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n a r e r e q u i r e d t o keep i n t h e i r s c h o o l courses  the s u b j e c t s o f C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y , C a n a d i a n  C i v i c s , B r i t i s h H i s t o r y , Geography, A r i t h m e t i c , and Drawing, as w e l l as the work p r e s c r i b e d f o r J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e , Composition,  A l g e b r a , Geometry, one s c i e n c e , and  one f o r e i g n language. Special Certificates. Por s e v e r a l y e a r s the Department o f E d u c a t i o n has been a c t i v e i n o r g a n i z i n g and e s t a b l i s h i n g courses by means o f w h i c h t e a c h e r s a r e a b l e to q u a l i f y themselves f o r v a r i o u s Special Certificates. (1) C e r t i f i c a t e s i n P h y s i c a l Education.  (These are  o u t l i n e d i n the c h a p t e r on " H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n " and embrace  - 102  r '  the f o l l o w i n g : P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C e r t i f i c a t e f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C e r t i f i c a t e f o r J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , a n d the S u p e r v i s o r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e , ( 1 1 ) Commercial Work, ^a) The H i g h S c h o o l A s s i s t a n t Commercial Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e ( I n t e r i m ) , T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e i s open to h o l d e r s o f F i r s t C l a s s o r Academic c e r t i f i c a t e s who have completed the following  courses:  ( 1 ) Stenography ( t h e o r y and P r a c t i c e ) . ( 2 ) T y p e w r i t i n g (Theory and P r a c t i c e ) . (3) Bookkeeping (Theory and P r a c t i c e ) . (4) B u s i n e s s P r a c t i c e and S t a t u t e Law. (5) Penmanship (Theory and P r a c t i c e ) . (6) A r i t h m e t i c o f Commerce and F i n a n c e . ( 7 ) Economics and Economic Geography. (b) The Commercial S p e c i a l i s t ' s C e r t i f i c a t e  (Permanent).  To o b t a i n t h i s c e r t i f i c a t e , a c a n d i d a t e must h o l d the H i g h S c h o o l A s s i s t a n t Commercial Teacher's c e r t i f i c a t e and pass t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n e x a m i n a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s : (1) Auditing (2) B u s i n e s s  Finance  (3) O f f i c e P r a c t i c e and O r g a n i z a t i o n (4) H i s t o r y o f Commerce and I n d u s t r y (5) Commercial Correspondence and F i l i n g  i n any f o u r  - 103 (6) Commercial F r e n c h o r S p a n i s h (7)  Shorthand  (8) T y p e w r i t i n g (9) B u s i n e s s E x p e r i e n c e (Two y e a r s of approved experience) ( I I I ) C e r t i f i c a t e s i n School Music, (a) S c h o o l Music C e r t i f i c a t e f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s . The f o l l o w i n g c o u r s e s are r e q u i r e d : (1) E n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n S i g h t R e a d i n g , Time . and E a r . (2) P s y c h o l o g y and Pedagogy ( a p p l i e d t o music t e a c h i n g ) (3) Advanced S i g h t R e a d i n g , Time and E a r (4) Rudiments o f Music (5) Melody and Harmony (6) C h o r a l S i n g i n g ( i n s c h o o l s ) (h) The S c h o o l M u s i c C e r t i f i c a t e , J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h Schools.  C a n d i d a t e s must p o s s e s s t h e S c h o o l M u s i c  Certifi-  cate f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s and cover t h e f o l l o w i n g c o u r s e s : (1) Melody and Harmony 2 (2) I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n (3) Music A p p r e c i a t i o n (4) H i s t o r y o f Music (5) I n s t r u m e n t a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s (High S c h o o l ) (6) Two y e a r s ' s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h i n g on an i n t e r i m certificate.  - 104  -  (IV) C e r t i f i c a t e s i n I n d u s t r i a l A r t s , (a) The B r i t i s h Columbia C e r t i f i c a t e i n Manual T r a i n i n g f o r Elementary  Schools.  The  following regulations  g o v e r n the g r a n t i n g o f the c e r t i f i c a t e : ( l ) A p p l i c a n t s must be e i t h e r c r a f t s m e n o f not  less  t h a n f i v e y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e o r e l s e t e a c h e r s , h o l d i n g the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F i r s t C l a s s , and h a v i n g not l e s s than  two  years' s a t i s f a c t o r y teaching experience* (2) C r a f t s m e n  ( u n l e s s h o l d i n g the J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n )  must t a k e E n g l i s h I . (100 h o u r s ) and Mathematics I . hours).  (100  Teachers must t a k e Woodwork (200 h o u r s ) .  (3) Courses i n Pedogogy ( f o r c r a f t s m e n ) , Drawing ( i n c l u d i n g Geometry, D r a u g h t i n g , D e s i g n ) , and Woodwork. The  above c o u r s e s t o t o t a l 625  hours.  (4) A f t e r two y e a r s on an i n t e r i m c e r t i f i c a t e , i n elementary  s c h o o l s , a permanent c e r t i f i c a t e i s g r a n t e d .  (b) H i g h S c h o o l T e c h n i c a l C e r t i f i c a t e (A and B ) . (A) of Academic s t a n d a r d (The h o l d e r must possess M a t r i c u l a t i o n or T e c h n i c a l L e a v i n g  Certificate).  (B) not o f Academic s t a n d a r d . B o t h C l a s s A and B c e r t i f i c a t e s r e q u i r e the f o l l o w i n g courses: (a) P e d a g o g i c a l Group. (250 h o u r s ) (b) T e c h n o l o g i c a l Group. (The f o l l o w i n g hours are r e q u i r e d i n the v a r i o u s c o u r s e s ) .  the  - 105 -  (1) Drawing (575 (2) Woodwork (875 (3) M e t a l (725  hours) hours)  hours)  (4) E l e c t r i c i t y (400  hours)  (c) T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e  (A and B).~  (A) o f Academic s t a n d a r d f o r those w i t h M a t r i c u l a t i o n or T e c h n i c a l L e a v i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s • (B) n o t o f Academic s t a n d a r d . A l l a p p l i c a n t s must have s e r v e d an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p a t a t r a d e and show p r o o f t h a t t h e y have reached one hundred p e r c e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s o f the t r a d e .  The  f o l l o w i n g c o u r s e s are r e q u i r e d : (a) P e d o g o g i c a l Group (250 h o u r s ) . (h) Shop c o u r s e s o f the f o l l o w i n g hours i n the v a r i o u s departments: (1) i n C a b i n e t Making (1325  hours)  (2) i n B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n (1325 (3) i n Sheet M e t a l Work (1325 ( 4 ) i n Machine Shop (1325 (5) i n D r a u g h t i n g  (1350  hours)  hours)  hours)  hours)  (6) i n M o t o r E n g i n e e r i n g (1325 (7) i n P r i n t i n g (1325 h o u r s ) .  hours)  - 106  -  (V) Home Economics Teachers'  Certificates.  Each a p p l i c a n t f o r t h i s c e r t i f i c a t e must have had approved t r a i n i n g  i n one o f the r e c o g n i z e d t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s  i n Canada, the U n i t e d S t a t e s , o r the U n i t e d Kingdom; and a l s o h o l d a P u b l i c S c h o o l Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e o r have had approved, p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d i n g . Certificates  other  The f o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t o r ' s  a r e g r a n t e d by the Department o f E d u c a t i o n :  (a) I n t e r i m and Permanent C e r t i f i c a t e s h o l d e r t o t e a c h i n Elementary  e n t i t l i n g the  Schools,  (b) I n t e r i m and Permanent C e r t i f i c a t e s  e n t i t l i n g the  h o l d e r t o t e a c h i n . J u n i o r H i g h and High S c h o o l s . ( V I ) A r t Teacher and S u p e r v i s o r . E v e r y I n s t r u c t o r must h o l d a B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t r u c t o r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e , Grade A o r Grade B.  Qualifications  f o r the Grade A o r B C e r t i f i c a t e : (a) A P u b l i c S c h o o l Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e o r o t h e r •approved p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , (b) An A r t M a s t e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e o f G r e a t B r i t a i n o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t from any i n s t i t u t i o n r e c o g n i z e d by the Department o f E d u c a t i o n .  - 107 -  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e number o f t e a c h e r s of each s e x employed and a l s o the number o f c e r t i f i c a t e s o f  H i g h S c h o o l s ( r u r a l ] 50  21  64  -  304  173  477  • -  -  4  11  -  53  47  100  -  "1  4  -  31  24  55  -  -  -  32  7  39  -  47  -  103  102  205  84  8  332 1138 1470  28  2  137  452  589  -  91  232  323  152  549  701  _  7  32  -  J u n i o r H i g h Schools 86  63  9  Superior Schools  Elementary Schools (city} 1-18 667 550  43  E l e m e n t a r y Schools ( D i s t . M u n i c i p a l i t y ) 13 242 293  .11  -  R e g u l a r l y organized r u r a l schools 17 155 147  4  -  A s s i s t e d Schools  •Exchange  -  Third.  -  Second  Total,  85  Female  High S c h o o l s ( D i s . trict Municipality)  -  Male , '•  H i g h S c h o o l s ( c i t y ) 392  r j Temporal Special  1  Schools  First  Academic  each c l a s s h e l d by these t e a c h e r s . The f i g u r e s a r e f o r 1 ' 1951-32. • u •  21 282 379  15  4 • -  T o t a l 1931-32"' 7891 4411 378  73  30 238  10 1235 2724 3959  7591 3801 471  65  30 225  18 1163 2785 3948  1  T o t a l 1930-31  1. P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1931-32, p. L. 10.  - 108 -  TABLE OP TEACHERS EMPLOYED I N THE PROVINCE,  Year  Number  Year  Number  Year  Number  1873-74  32  1892-93  267  1917-18  2246  1875-76  40  1897-98  429  1922-23  3118  1877-78"  56  1902-03  607  1927-28  3668  1882-83  69  1907-08  816  1931-32  3959  1887-88  128  1912-13  1597  1. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1931-32, p. L . l l .  (109)  CHAPTER X;. P r o f e s s i o n a l Growth o f the Teacher.  I n t h e two p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , we t r a c e d t h e development o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and t h e e v o l u t i o n o f the p r e s e n t system o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n .  We now propose t o d e a l b r i e f l y w i t h  the e d u c a t i o n a l g r o w t h o f t e a c h e r s a l r e a d y engaged i n a c t i v e service.  Teachers a r e t o be commended f o r t h e t i m e , energy,  and money expended i n t a k i n g a d d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s , whether f o r the purpose o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r academic s t a n d i n g and grade of c e r t i f i c a t e , or f o r improving t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n ments .  Such t e a c h e r s have g i v e n up t h e i r summer h o l i d a y s ,  y e a r a f t e r y e a r t o a t t e n d summer c o u r s e s , e i t h e r i n V i c t o r i a , under t h e Department  o f E d u c a t i o n , o r a t v a r i o u s Canadian and  American u n i v e r s i t i e s •  We propose t o c o n s i d e r t h e work done  a t two o f t h e c e n t r e s o f summer s t u d y , namely, the Summer S e s s i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and the Summer S c h o o l f o r Teachers a t V i c t o r i a . The U n i v e r s i t y Summer S e s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y Summer S e s s i o n began i n 1920, as a Summer S c h o o l f o r T e a c h e r s , w i t h t h e purpose o f a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s who w i s h e d t o q u a l i f y f o r a F i r s t C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e . I n 1921 the name was changed t o t h e Summer S e s s i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ,and t h e work was e n l a r g e d t o  - 110 -  i n c l u d e a number o f Second Y e a r s u b j e c t s .  P r o v i s i o n was  made whereby those a t t e n d i n g might complete t h e work o f the f i r s t two y e a r s .  A number o f t e a c h e r s succeeded i n o b t a i n -  i n g t h e t h i r t y u n i t s o f c r e d i t p r e s c r i b e d f o r the F i r s t and Second y e a r s and a d e f i n i t e demand f o r more advanced work was made. B e g i n n i n g w i t h the Summer S e s s i o n o f 1926, the U n i v e r s i t y o f f e r e d advanced c o u r s e s , the s u c c e s s f u l complet i o n o f w h i c h e n t i t l e d s t u d e n t s to c r e d i t i n the T h i r d y e a r . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e , t h e Summer S e s s i o n o f f e r e d c l a s s e s i n commercial s u b j e c t s t o a s s i s t teachers i n o b t a i n i n g the Commercial C e r t i f i c a t e , and s p e c i a l courses i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , m e n t a l measurements, and t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f s p e c i a l subjects of the school curriculum. To meet t h e demand f o r more advanced v/ork a scheme o f c o u r s e s was passed by the U n i v e r s i t y Senate i n 1927.  The  c h i e f p o i n t s i n t h e scheme were g i v e n i n the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from t h e U n i v e r s i t y C a l e n d a r f o r 1929,  "The e s s e n -  t i a l f e a t u r e o f t h e new arrangement i s t h a t s t u d e n t s p r o c e e d i n g t o a degree w i t h o u t attendance  a t a Winter  Session  may do so b y t a k i n g , s u b j e c t t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s mentioned below, s i x u n i t s o f work i n any Summer S e s s i o n , and, subs e q u e n t l y t o S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n o r F i r s t Year A r t s , an 1 a d d i t i o n a l t h r e e u n i t s o f A f t e r n o o n and Evening c l a s s e s . " 1. C a l e n d a r o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1928-29, p. 313.  - I l l-  The c o n d i t i o n s were t h a t t h e number o f u n i t s v/hich c o u l d he t a k e n i n S a t u r d a y and A f t e r n o o n c l a s s e s w i t h o u t attendance a t W i n t e r and Summer S e s s i o n s s h o u l d . n o t exceed f i f t e e n u n i t s sohsequent  t o S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n , and, t h a t s t u d e n t s t a k i n g  s i x u n i t s I n a Summer S e s s i o n were r e q u i r e d t o do p r e p a r a t o r y work i n these c o u r s e s . The C a l e n d a r f o r 1931-32 announced t h e f o l l o w i n g r e g u l a t i o n s f o r c o u r s e s l e a d i n g t o the B.A. degree: (1) The degree of B.A, w i l l he g r a n t e d on c o m p l e t i o n of c o u r s e s amounting  t o s i x t y u n i t s chosen i n con-  formity w i t h Calendar r e g u l a t i o n s . (2) C a n d i d a t e s f o r the degree a r e a d v i s e d t o a t t e n d a t l e a s t one W i n t e r S e s s i o n , p r e f e r a b l y t h a t o f the Fourth Year. (3) A student s e e k i n g t h e degree o f B.A. w i t h o u t a t t e n d i n g a W i n t e r S e s s i o n i n h i s -Fourth Y e a r  will  be r e q u i r e d t o w r i t e , i n a d d i t i o n t o the examinat i o n s i n each c o u r s e , one paper i n each o f the two departments  i n which h i s major work has been done.  These papers w i l l be on t h e whole o f t h e "underg r a d u a t e ' s T h i r d and F o u r t h y e a r work i n those departments, and w i l l t h e r e f o r e c o v e r a t l e a s t u n i t s o f work.  fifteen  These e x a m i n a t i o n s w i l l be h e l d a t  the c l o s e o f the Summer S e s s i o n i n w h i c h t h e c a n d i -  - 112 -  date i s c o m p l e t i n g h i s d e g r e e .  1  I n O c t o b e r , 1933, t h e U n i v e r s i t y Senate a b o l i s h e d p r e p a r a t o r y e x a m i n a t i o n s based on p r e v i o u s r e a d i n g and t h e g e n e r a l e x a m i n a t i o n on T h i r d and F o u r t h y e a r work.  Under t h e  new r e g u l a t i o n s s t u d e n t s w r i t e o n l y the t e s t s f o r each course t h e y study and r e c e i v e t h e degree of B.A. when t h e y have comp l e t e d the r e q u i r e d number o f u n i t s . The above o u t l i n e d c o u r s e s t a k e n by t e a c h e r s i n service, although bringing material returns i n u n i v e r s i t y degrees and academic c e r t i f i c a t e s , bear evidence o f a d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o improve  the s t a t u s o f the p r o f e s s i o n .  The V i c t o r i a summer S c h o o l f o r Teachers; The f i r s t Summer S c h o o l f o r Teachers was h e l d a t V i c t o r i a -from J u l y 6 t o August 1, 1914.  A  s  o u t l i n e d i n the  c i r c u l a r o f announcement, the o b j e c t o f the courses was to f  i n c r e a s e t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f the s c h o o l s o f t h e P r o v i n c e by g i v i n g t e a c h e r s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e i r grasp of  c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s and o f q u a l i f y i n g t?aemselves a l o n g c e r t a i n  s p e c i a l l i n e s o f s c h o o l work.  I n 1914, f i v e hundred t h i r t e e n  t e a c h e r s t o o k advantage o f t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l growth.  A t the f i r s t s e s s i o n courses were g i v e n i n R u r a l  S c i e n c e , and S c h o o l G a r d e n i n g , Manual T r a i n i n g , Manual A r t s ,  1. C a l e n d a r o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1931-32,  - 113 Household Economics,  A r t , and V o c a l M u s i c , w h i l e i n 1915,  E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and F r e n c h were added t o the c u r r i c u l u m . I n 1916, on account o f t h e f i n a n c i a l d e p r e s s i o n t h a t e x i s t e d everywhere,  i t was thought a d v i s a b l e t o omit  the Summer S c h o o l a l t o g e t h e r , b u t I n 1917 i t was r e o r g a n i z e d w i t h a reduced attendance.  A new c o u r s e i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e  and A r t was added i n 1919, and s e s s i o n s were h e l d i n 1920, w i t h an a t t e n d a n c e o f one hundred e i g h t y - f o u r and i n 1921, w i t h two hundred  seven.  A l t h o u g h r e a l i z i n g t h a t p a r t o f t h e decrease i n a t t e n d a n c e was no doubt due t o the f a c t t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l U n i v e r s i t y Summer S e s s i o n was i n o p e r a t i o n a t P o i n t Grey, the d i r e c t o r o f the V i c t o r i a s c h o o l e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n • t h a t i f the c o u r s e s p r o v i d e d were n o t those which t h e majori t y o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r s d e s i r e d , i t would be w e l l t o a l t e r t h e courses o r add t o them t h a t w h i c h would to a l a r g e r number.  A  s  appeal  a r e s u l t o f t h i s p o l i c y the attendance  increased considerably. The f o l l o w i n g i s an e x t r a c t from t h e r e p o r t o f the D i r e c t o r o f Summer S e s s i o n s , "A P r o v i n c i a l Summer S c h o o l f o r t e a c h e r s has been h e l d i n V i c t o r i a s i n c e 1914, the main o b j e c t b e i n g t o p r o v i d e c o u r s e s o f a r e f r e s h i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g n a t u r e supplementary t o work c o v e r e d i n t h e Normal School.  D u r i n g t h e p a s t few y e a r s another s c h o o l i n Vancouver  has been g r a d u a l l y growing i n i m p o r t a n c e .  The t e a c h e r s  - 114 -  attending  t h i s s c h o o l have been o b t a i n i n g B r i t i s h Columbia  S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s i n commercial s u b j e c t s , t e c h n i c a l work, p h y s i c a l education  and music®  "In 1931 i t was c o n s i d e r e d  necessary to discontinue  the V i c t o r i a s c h o o l , b u t i t was d e c i d e d to. c a r r y on the Vanc o u v e r s c h o o l on a p a y i n g b a s i s .  T h i s arrangement was so  s a t i s f a c t o r y t h a t I t was d e c i d e d t o o r g a n i z e  the V i c t o r i a  s c h o o l I n 1932 on a s i m i l a r p l a n . " When one c o n s i d e r s schools  t h e l a r g e attendance a t these  and a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y Summer S e s s i o n , i t seems t o  be an e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t t h a t the t e a c h e r s  o f B r i t i s h Columbia  a r e , and have been f o r many years., g e n u i n e l y the m a t t e r o f e d u c a t i o n a l  i n earnest i n  achievement.  1, Report o f the D i r e c t o r o f Summer Schools f o r Teachers i n t h e Report of t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1931-32, p. L. 27.  - 115 -  CHAPTER X I . Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n s .  (a) E a r l y O r g a n i z a t i o n s . •  Prom t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f our e d u c a t i o n a l system,  the t e a c h e r s r e a l i z e d the v a l u e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n as a means o f creating a spirit  o f c o - o p e r a t i o n among t h e members o f t h e  p r o f e s s i o n ! c o n s e q u e n t l y , a: t e a c h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n was formed at a n e a r l y d a t e .  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f such an o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l i f e o f t h e P r o v i n c e , was a d m i r a b l y s t a t e d , i n 1874, by Mr. John J e s s o p , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  of E d u c a t i o n ,  when he s a i d i n p a r t , " I t a f f o r d s me g r e a t p l e a s u r e t o r e p o r t the i n a u g u r a t i o n o f a Teachers' bia.  Pursuant  Convention  f o r B r i t i s h Colum-  t o n o t i c e , a meeting was h e l d on t h e n i n t h o f  J u l y , i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e Assembly H a l l , the Honorable the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary i n the c h a i r .  I t was proposed t o h o l d  the f i r s t m e e t i n g o f the I n s t i t u t e i n J u l y n e x t , d u r i n g the time o f t h e a n n u a l t e a c h e r s ' e x a m i n a t i o n , when addresses  will  be d e l i v e r e d , papers r e a d , and d i s c u s s i o n s h e l d on v a r i o u s t o p i c s connected teaching.  w i t h e d u c a t i o n and t h e d i f f e r e n t methods of  Our e n t i r e s c h o o l system w i l l a l s o be passed  under r e v i e w , y e a r by y e a r , and i t s m e r i t s and d e m e r i t s t h o r o u g h l y d i s c u s s e d by t e a c h e r s and o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n education.  Among t h e f i r s t b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s w h i c h I a n t i -  - 116  -  c i p a t e f r o m the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h i s c o n v e n t i o n i s the a t t a i n m e n t o f more u n i f o r m i t y i n the methods o f t e a c h i n g * "  1  The A s s o c i a t i o n completed i t s f i r s t y e a r i n J u l y 1875, when t h r e e s e s s i o n s were held' i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly  H a l l on the f i f t h , s i x t h and s e v e n t h o f J u l y , w i t h  f i v e t e a c h e r s p r e s e n t , b e s i d e s o t h e r persons education.  interested i n  The f o l l o w i n g summary i n s e m i - t a b u l a r form g i v e s  a resume o f t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r a number o f y e a r s suggests the l i n e s o f endeavour 1875.  twenty-  and  pursued.  A r e s o l u t i o n was p r e s e n t e d , namely, t h a t the  questions  on t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be taken from the a u t h o r i z e d t e x t b o o k s , as much as p o s s i b l e , so t h a t c a n d i d a t e s m i g h t have a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y o f q u a l i f y ing  themselves  and o f u t i l i z i n g the knowledge r e q u i r e d  in their respective schools* 1876.  2  The methods o f t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g , grammar, and geography were d i s c u s s e d , and some e d u c a t i o n a l magazines •z.  were i n t r o d u c e d . 1877.  The v a l u e of the A s s o c i a t i o n was  c l e a r l y shown b y  number o f s u b j e c t s t h a t were d i s c u s s e d .  Superintendent  J e s s o p gave a summary o f the s c h o o l system t o date  1. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1874, p. 11. 2. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1874-75, p. 17. 3. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1875-76, p. 90.  the  and  - 117  -  a f r e e and open d i s c u s s i o n was A committee was  h e l d on the s c h o o l  law.  a p p o i n t e d t o l a y a scheme f o r s u p e r -  a n n u a t i o n "before the n e x t meeting of the a s s o c i a t i o n .  1878.  A suggestion  was made t h a t F i r s t G l a s s , Grade A,  certificates  should be g i v e n f o r  E x a m i n a t i o n s were d i s c u s s e d scheme was mittee form.  1884.  life .  and t h e  1  superannuation  approved, w i t h the appointment o f a com-  to p l a c e i t b e f o r e the Government i n a p r o p e r 2  d e c i d e d as f o l l o w s J "The  T h i s y e a r i t was o f one  organization  or more T e a c h e r s ' I n s t i t u t e s would prove o f  g r e a t b e n e f i t not  o n l y t o the i n e x p e r i e n c e d  instru-  c t o r s , but a l s o t o t h o s e whose l i v e s have been spent i n the p r o f e s s i o n , by i n t r o d u c i n g new developing  i d e a s w h i c h would a f t e r w a r d s  with practical 1885.  The  methods and  results."  be  r e i t e r a t e d when i t was  p o i n t e d out t h a t the knowledge t h a t o t h e r  should  tested  3  p l e a f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n was  band t o g e t h e r  f o r m u t u a l p r o t e c t i o n , and  professions elevation,  c e r t a i n l y arouse the s p i r i t o f the t e a c h e r s  do l i k e w i s e and  that p r o f e s s i o n a l pride should  c e r t i f i c a t e d teachers and honour of t h e  by  to  animate  t o guard z e a l o u s l y the I n t e r e s t s  profession.  1. P u b l i c S c h o o l s "Report, 1876-77, p. 10 & 11. 2. P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1877-78, p. 181. 3. P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1885-84, p. 156.  - 118 -  In  A p r i l a p r e l i m i n a r y m e e t i n g was h e l d a t w h i c h t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n was completed and the f i r s t meeting was h e l d i n J u l y , when t h e name " B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e " was chosen.  Teachers'  I t was a l s o d e c i d e d .to meet  a n n u a l l y f o r a t l e a s t two days and a management comm i t t e e was a p p o i n t e d t o i n t e r v i e w the Government t o have a week s e t a p a r t a t E a s t e r f o r t h e c o n v e n t i o n . 1886. The second meeting  1  of t h e I n s t i t u t e was h e l d i n V i c -  t o r i a i n J u l y , when Time T a b l e s , Hygiene, F i r s t  Steps  i n Reading, a n d M o r a l i t y as Taught i n the S c h o o l s were topics discussed.  Three r e s o l u t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d ,  namely, t h a t the I n s t i t u t e a s k t h e Government f o r f i v e days a y e a r f o r a t e a c h e r t o v i s i t  other schools; that  F i r s t and Second C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s be made permanent; and- t h a t B r a n c h I n s t i t u t e s t o meet more f r e q u e n t l y , be :  h e l d i n c e r t a i n c i t i e s as Nanaimo, V i c t o r i a , and New 2 Westminster.  .  1887. I n t h e Annual R e p o r t o f t h e P u b l i c Schools f o r 1887, the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n remarked, "There has been a marked improvement i n the methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n adopted b y t h e t e a c h e r s d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r .  1. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s Report, 1884-85, p. 341-343. 2. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1885-86, p. 181-185.  This i s  - 119 -  chiefly attributed  t o the m u t u a l exchange o f thought  on t h e p r a c t i c a l work o f the s c h o o l room a t t h e meeti n g s o f t h e T e a c h e r s ' I n s t i t u t e s , as w e l l as the more f r e q u e n t meetings o f the B r a n c h I n s t i t u t e s , and t o the v i s i t s made b y t e a c h e r s t o each o t h e r . 1888.  Two t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d were (1) D i s c i p l i n e  1 , 1  i n the S c h o o l s ,  and ( 2 ) The M u t u a l R e l a t i o n o f P a r e n t and Teacher. 1891.  A M a i n l a n d Teachers' I n s t i t u t e was h e l d a t N w Weste  minster i n July. 1894.  I n s t i t u t e s were h e l d a t V i c t o r i a and Vancouver.  1895.  The M a i n l a n d T e a c h e r s ' I n s t i t u t e was h e l d a t New Westminster.  A t t h i s time- t h e V i c t o r i a I n s t i t u t e was  h o l d i n g m o n t h l y meetings a t w h i c h papers on e d u c a t i o n a l t o p i c s were r e a d and d i s c u s s e d . 1896.  The t e a c h e r s o f t h e Spallumcheen and Okanagan V a l l e y s met a t Vernon on May 25 and 26 and o r g a n i z e d t h e " I n l a n d Teachers' I n s t i t u t e . "  1897.  I n the A n n u a l R e p o r t o f P u b l i c S c h o o l s f o r 1897 t h e f o l l o w i n g announcement was made, " I t has been deemed a d v i s a b l e t o r e - o r g a n i z e t h e P r o v i n c i a l Teachers' I n s t i t u t e and f o r t h i s purpose a c o n v e n t i o n has been c a l l e d t o meet i n V i c t o r i a on t h e 20, 21, and 22 o f  1. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1 8 8 6 8 7 , p. 195. y  - 120 A p r i l 1897.  We  -  e x p r e s s the hope t h a t each t e a c h e r  w i l l c o n s i d e r i t h i s duty t o a t t e n d the meetings of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , i f i n h i s power t o do so«  As  the  f o u r days i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g E a s t e r Monday are made h o l i d a y s i n those s c h o o l s whose t e a c h e r s a t t e n d the c o n v e n t i o n , ample time i s p r o v i d e d f o r the r e t u r n t r i p a f t e r the c l o s e of the I n s t i t u t e . " " hundred t e a c h e r s were p r e s e n t and the  Over  two  constitution  and by-laws were adopted and a h i g h s c h o o l s e c t i o n  1899.  was  formed.  Two  r e s o l u t i o n s f r o m the P r o v i n c i a l Teachers'  t u t e of 1899 were (1) t h a t the examinations  Insti-  for  t e a c h e r s ' c e r t i f i c a t e s be t h o r o u g h l y r e v i s e d , and (2) t h a t a Kootenay Teachers' 1903.  The P r o v i n c i a l Teachers' s t o k e , where i t was  I n s t i t u t e be formed. .  I n s t i t u t e was  decided to h o l d a Yale-Cariboo  I n s t i t u t e a t Vernon or Kamloops Prom 1904 t u t e met  t o 1914  as f o l l o w s :  h e l d at R e v e l -  9  the P r o v i n c i a l Teachers' 1904,  Insti-  I n Vancouver, where t h r e e  hundred f i f t y members a t t e n d e d ; I n 1905  at Revelstoke,  w i t h about one hundred p r e s e n t ; i n 1906  at V i c t o r i a ;  i n 1908  a t Vancouver, f i v e hundred a t t e n d i n g ; i n  at N e l s o n ; and i n 1914,  the. 1 5 t h Annual Convention  h e l d i n the K i n g Edward High S c h o o l , Vancouver. 1. P u b l i c Schools R e p o r t , 1895-96, p.  290.  1910 was  - 121 -  D u r i n g these l a s t y e a r s Branch I n s t i t u t e s were a l s o h e l d of the Y a l e - C a r i b o o , R o s s l a n d , South-East Kootenay,  and  M a i n l a n d (now Coast Teachers) I n s t i t u t e s and i n 1909 the Dominion E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n h e l d i t s session at Victoria,, I n a l l , f i f t e e n c o n v e n t i o n s of the P r o v i n c i a l ers ' I n s t i t u t e A p r i l 1914.  Teach-  were h e l d , the f i r s t i n 1885 and the l a s t i n  A s p e c i a l m e e t i n g o f the I n s t i t u t e was  by Mr. J.S. W i l l i s , on March 29, 1921, when i t was  called officially  r e s o l v e d t h a t , owing t o the f o r m a t i o n of the B r i t i s h  Columbia  T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n h a v i n g r e n d e r e d f u r t h e r s e s s i o n s Inadv i s a b l e and u n n e c e s s a r y the P r o v i n c i a l Teachers' I n s t i t u t e be c l o s e d out and the funds handed over t o the B r i t i s h Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n .  Columbia  1  (b) The O r g a n i z a t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation. The i n a u g u r a l m e e t i n g of the B r i t i s h Columbia  Teach-  e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n t o o k p l a c e I n the Dawson S c h o o l , Vancouver, October 28, 1916.  Some e x t r a c t s from the minutes of the meet-  i n g are g i v e n b e l o w .  1, The B.C.  on  2  Teacher, December 1926, p. 27.  2. From the minutes of the o r g a n i z a t i o n m e e t i n g , on f i l e I n the o f f i c e of the B.C. Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n .  - 122 -  At the i n v i t a t i o n o f the E x e c u t i v e of the Vancouver T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , d e l e g a t e s f r o m V i c t o r i a , Nexv Westmins t e r , P o i n t Grey, South Vancouver, and N o r t h Vancouver  met  the E x e c u t i v e of the V.T.A. t o d i s c u s s the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a P r o v i n c i a l F e d e r a t i o n f o r men  and women engaged i n t e a c h i n g .  The chairman (Mr. J . G , L i s t e r ) e x p l a i n e d the r e a s o n s the V.T.A. had f o r w a n t i n g d e l e g a t e s  t o meet them, p o i n t i n g  out the advantages t h a t would accrue f r o m the f o r m a t i o n of a P r o v i n c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Teachers.  After discussion i t  was moved t h a t , "The p r e s e n t i s opportune f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a F e d e r a t i o n of A s s o c i a t e d Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. " A c o n s t i t u t i o n i n r o u g h d r a f t form, w h i c h had been prepared  i n o r d e r t h a t the m e e t i n g might have something d e f i -  n i t e upon w h i c h t o base d i s c u s s i o n , was r e a d t o t h e d e l e g a t e s . The d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h f o l l o w e d r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s t i t u t i o n being d r a f t e d f o r submission  t o the f i r s t g e n e r a l meeting of  the F e d e r a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h a r e s o l u t i o n t h a t "The meeting c o n s i d e r a d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r the proposed T e a c h e r s ' Federation." I t was f i n a l l y moved t h a t the chairman of the meeting  be convener of a committee of seven t o a c t as a P r o v i s i o n -  a l E x e c u t i v e u n t i l the f i r s t A n n u a l G e n e r a l M e e t i n g of the F e d e r a t i o n , and t o r e c o n s i d e r the above c o n s t i t u t i o n b e f o r e  - 123 -  s u b m i t t i n g i t t o the member a s s o c i a t i o n s . A meeting of the P r o v i s i o n a l E x e c u t i v e was h e l d i n the  Dawson S c h o o l , Vancouver, on November 18, 1916, a t w h i c h  i t was a r r a n g e d t h a t the F i r s t Annual M e e t i n g be h e l d i n Vancouver i n J a n u a r y .  As a r e s u l t , the f i r s t Annual G e n e r a l  M e e t i n g of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n was  held  i n the a u d i t o r i u m of the K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l , Vancouver, on the f o u r t h of J a n u a r y , 1917.  At t h i s m e e t i n g the proposed,  c o n s t i t u t i o n was d i s c u s s e d , c l a u s e by c l a u s e , and, a f t e r c e r t a i n changes were made, a r e s o l u t i o n was passed t h a t i t be adopted i n i t s amended form.  The e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s  was  t h e n h e l d and r e s u l t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t e a c h e r s b e i n g chosen as the f i r s t e x e c u t i v e of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation: President  Mr. J . G . L i s t e r ,  Vancouver Westminster.  F i r s t Vice-President  -  Dr. L i t t l e ,  New  Second V i c e - P r e s i d e n t  -  Mr. C h a r l e s w o r t h , V i c t o r i a .  Recording Secretary  Mr, Thornber, South Vancouver.  Corresponding Secretary  M i s s E. Munn, Vancouver.  Treasurer  Mr. Bowles, P o i n t Grey.  - 124 -  L i s t of P r e s i d e n t s of t h e F e d e r a t i o n 1917 1918 1919 1920 192219251924192519261927192819291930193119321933-  •23 •24 •25 •26 •27 •28 29 30 31 32 33 34  Mr. Mr. """Mr. 'Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. - Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr.  J. J. H. J. J. J. G« E. E. G.  W.  T.  n  I. I. J. G.  G. L i s t e r G. L i s t e r Charlesworth R. P o l l o c k G. L i s t e r G. L i s t e r A. F e r g u s s o n S. M a r t i n H. Lock W. C l a r k • H. Morrow W. Woodhead S. Ford Dilworth Dilworth C. B r o m L. Thornber  ""Appointed G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y , December 1919.  Comparative Membership - 1921-22 t o 1951-52. 1921- •22 1922- • 23 1925=•24 1924- •25 1925- •26 1926- •27 1927- •28 1928- •29 1929- 30 1930- 31 1951- 32  1606 1559 1891 1839 1596 1773 1649 1873 2143 2298 2135  - 125 -  <c)"The B. C  9  Teacher".  At t h e Annual G e n e r a l M e e t i n g h e l d on September 1921, i t was r e s o l v e d t h a t the F e d e r a t i o n p u b l i s h an magazine.  1,  official  Volume I . , Number I , p u b l i s h e d f o r September-  October 1921, c o n t a i n e d the f o l l o w i n g e d i t o r i a l : " I n accordance w i t h t h e r e s o l u t i o n of the Annual G e n e r a l M e e t i n g , "The B. C. Teacher", the o f f i c i a l organ of the B. C. T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , makes i t s appearance. magazine  The  i s e n t i r e l y under the c o n t r o l of the t e a c h e r s , w i t h  the G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y as managing e d i t o r . "While the main purpose of the magazine w i l l be t o keep a l l members f u l l y , i n touch, w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s of the F e d e r a t i o n , y e t i t i s hoped t o g i v e each month a r t i c l e s  con-  t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s p i r a t i o n f o r those engaged i n the work of e d u c a t i o n , whether t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t r u s t e e s , or p a r e n t s . "-1  1. Volume I . No. 1, of the B.C.Teacher, f o r Sept.-Oct. 1921  - 126 -  CHAPTER X I I . The E v o l u t i o n o f t h e Teachers' P e n s i o n s A c t .  The q u e s t i o n o f a superannuated  t e a c h e r s f u n d was 1  c o n s i d e r e d hy t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s as e a r l y as 1876. I n t h a t y e a r t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n p o i n t e d out t h a t the time had f u l l y a r r i v e d f o r t h e P r o v i n c e t o f o l l o w t h e example of O n t a r i o , Quebec, G r e a t B r i t a i n , and many of t h e German S t a t e s , i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a superannuated for  teachers' fund  the b e n e f i t o f t e a c h e r s when t h e y had reached a c e r t a i n  age i n t h e s e r v i c e .  He enumerated t h e many advantages  that  would accrue t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n f r o m such an arrangement.  The  f o l l o w i n g a r e some o f them, w h i c h a r e j u s t as much i n evidence today as t h e y were i n 1876: " I t would f o r m a bond o f u n i o n among t h e members o f the p r o f e s s i o n .  They would have something t o l o o k f o r w a r d t o  a f t e r a d e f i n i t e p e r i o d of s e r v i c e .  I t would a c t as a power-  f u l inducement n o t o n l y i n e n c o u r a g i n g persons o f a b i l i t y and c u l t u r e t o adopt t h e p r o f e s s i o n b u t i n r e t a i n i n g them f o r a longer period.  P u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h i n g would n o t be r e g a r d e d  m e r e l y as a s t e p p i n g stone t o something more r e m u n e r a t i v e when those engaged i n i t would be c e r t a i n o f r e c e i v i n g an annual s t i p e n d a t a f i x e d age, when they would have t h e r i g h t to r e t i r e ,  o r of a i d s h o u l d t h e y be o b l i g e d t h r o u g h f a i l i n g  - 127 -  h e a l t h t o r e l i n q u i s h the p r o f e s s i o n sooner." The approved was  fund,  x  a s recommended b y t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ,  a t the Teachers'  appointed t o prepare  Convention  was  o f 1877, a n d a committee  a scheme i n d e t a i l  to l a ybefore the  p  A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e next year. approved  o f , and another  The scheme, as p r e p a r e d , was  committee  t h e Government i n a p r o p e r f o r m .  selected to place i t before Here t h e m a t t e r  ended and  no f u r t h e r m e n t i o n o f i t was made i n t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e T e a c h ers'  Institutes;  i n fact,  the Superannuation the L e g i s l a t i v e were  i t was n o t u n t i l  of C i v i l  S e r v a n t s had been i n t r o d u c e d i n  A s s e m b l y , many y e a r s l a t e r ,  that  active  steps  taken. In  1922,  addressing the Teachers'  t h e Honorable  Servants  Convention  J . D. MacLean, M.D.,  Education, pointed out that  CM.,  the Superannuation  at Easter Minister of Bill  for  o f t h e P r o v i n c e . h a d b e e n amended t h e p r e v i o u s  SO' a s t o p e r m i t for  a B i l l respecting  any p u b l i c body t o t a k e  example, t h e t e a c h e r s o f a c i t y  School Board,  on a j o i n t  Civil year  advantage o f the A c t ;  c o u l d arrange w i t h the  contributory basis,  t o make  arrange-  ments f o r s u p e r a n n u a t i o n . ^  1.  The P u b l i c  Schools Report,  2.  Prom a summary o f t h e T e a c h e r s ' C o n v e n t i o n S c h o o l s R e p o r t f o r 1877, p . 1 0 .  3.  The P u b l i c  Schools Report,  4. The B.C. T e a c h e r ,  1876, p . 89,  1878, p . 1 8 1 .  May 1922, p . 5.  i n the Public  - 128 -  The B.C.Teacher  f o r October 1926, gave a copy of t h e  S u p e r a n n u a t i o n A c t as I t a f f e c t e d t h e t e a c h e r s and p o i n t e d out t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e o r e t i c a l l y t h e r e was an A c t , p r a c t i c a l l y , however, no t e a c h e r s were a l l o w e d t o t a k e advantage o f i t . The a r t i c l e e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s c o u l d o n l y come under the A c t when t h e S c h o o l Board gave n o t i c e of i t s i n t e n t i o n t o a v a i l i t s e l f o f t h e A c t , and, a l s o , t h a t an amendment h a d been p a s s e d t h a t "A S c h o o l Board could, o n l y s i g n i f y i t s i n t e n t i o n w i t h the consent o f t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l " ; i n o t h e r words, t h e t e a c h e r s were i n t h e same p o s i t i o n as i f no A c t 1 existed. A t t h e Annual G e n e r a l meeting o f t h e Teachers' Federa t i o n f o r 1924, t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n was p a s s e d , "Whereas, P a r t I V . , o f t h e S u p e r a n n u a t i o n A c t , which has now been i n f o r c e f o r t h r e e y e a r s , i s f o u n d t o be unworkable, owing t o the c l a u s e w h i c h r e q u i r e s t h e consent o f t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , t h e r e f o r e be i t r e s o l v e d ;  That t h e Government be asked t o  r e c o g n i z e t e a c h e r s as t h e i r employees f o r t h e purposes of the S u p e r a n n u a t i o n A c t , and t o p l a c e them on t h e same f o o t i n g as the c i v i l  servants."  2  1. B. C. Teacher, October 1926, p. 26. 2, B. C. Teacher, June, 1924, p. 217.  - 129  ~  The G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y of the . F e d e r a t i o n r e p o r t e d a t the C o n v e n t i o n  of 1926  advance i n the m a t t e r superannuation  t h a t the L e g i s l a t u r e had made a b i g of superannuation,,  The p r i n c i p l e of a  scheme f o r t e a c h e r s had been accepted by  House almost u n a n i m o u s l y , and d e t a i l s were now  the  t o be worked  out by the C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , w h i c h had  already  s i g n i f i e d i t s i n t e n t i o n of c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h the F e d e r a t i o n in this  matter.  1  An e d i t o r i a l i n the B.C.Teacher f o r October  1926,  c o n t a i n e d a g e n e r a l s u r v e y of the q u e s t i o n up t o t h a t d a t e . I t quoted c e r t a i n statements  f r o m the "Survey of the  School  System" as f o l l o w s , "A m a t t e r of v i t a l importance i s the quest i o n of a system of p e n s i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s .  I f the t e a c h i n g  p r o f e s s i o n i s t o be l i f t e d t o a h i g h e r l e v e l i t must a t t r a c t more men  and more women who  w i l l make i t a l i f e work.  A  p e n s i o n scheme w i l l m a t e r i a l l y a s s i s t i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n .  We  t h i n k i t s a f e t o say t h a t i n money r e t u r n s a l o n e the P r o v i n c e would g a i n by the Immediate a d o p t i o n of a system of a n n u a t i o n f o r teachers'.'  2  The  super-  e d i t o r i a l then p o i n t e d out t h a t  we have an a c t , a f i n e a c t , on the S t a t u t e s Books, but not  one  t e a c h e r under i t because the c o n t r i b u t i o n must be d u p l i c a t e d by the employer, and the employer i s s t a t e d by the Government to be the L o c a l S c h o o l Board.  I n t h i s r e g a r d a recommendation  p. 319 &  321,  - 150 by the Survey Commissioners was  g i v e n , " I n our o p i n i o n  p e n s i o n scheme t h a t depends upon the a i d of l o c a l boards i s i m p o s s i b l e .  any  school  L o c a l c o n d i t i o n s show too g r e a t a v a r i -  a t i o n t o make s u c h a scheme p r a c t i c a b l e *  The needs of  the  P r o v i n c e r e q u i r e a m o b i l e t e a c h i n g f o r c e and t h i s means a p e n s i o n system w h i c h has  a P r o v i n c e - w i d e base and one  w i l l i n c l u d e e v e r y t e a c h e r I n the P r o v i n c e * must d e r i v e I t s s u p p o r t f r o m two  Such a system  sources and two o n l y ,  P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r y and the e a r n i n g s i t was  that  p o i n t e d out t h a t the A c t now  of the t e a c h e r s . " recognizes  of a P r o v i n c i a l S u p e r a n n u a t i o n Scheme w i t h the  the Later  1  the p r i n c i p l e Provincial  Government as a c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t y t h e r e t o , and removes the previous  d i f f i c u l t y of h a v i n g  a system w h i c h depends- on  the  L o c a l Boards. I n November 1926  i t was  announced t o the  t h a t w i t h i n the n e x t few days a l l t e a c h e r s  of the  teachers Province  would r e c e i v e a S u p e r a n n u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a s k i n g f o r the p r e l i m i n a r y i n f o r m a t i o n which was  a b s o l u t e l y necessary to  f o r m the b a s i s of d i s c u s s i o n i n c o n n e c t i o n t i o n of a S u p e r a n n u a t i o n B i l l .  The  w i t h the  prepara-  announcement a l s o e x p l a i n e d  t h a t the E d u c a t i o n Department and the F e d e r a t i o n were co-oper. a t i n g i n the m a t t e r , and u r g e n t l y appealed t o e v e r y t e a c h e r r e t u r n the f o r m i m m e d i a t e l y * 1. The Survey of the S c h o o l System, t>. 521. 2. The B.C.Teacher, October 1926, p / 1 4 - 2 2 . 5. The B.C.Teacher, November 1926, p. 2.  to  - 131 -  Under the t i t l e of R e t i r e m e n t A l l o w a n c e s , the  B.C.  Teacher, f o r June 1927, p o i n t e d out t h a t a t l a s t we have sec u r e d a t a n g i b l e advance and have paved the way f o r what we hope w i l l be a v e r y e a r l y a d o p t i o n of a G e n e r a l Scheme.  Superannuation  At the l a s t s e s s i o n of the L e g i s l a t u r e , the sum  of  e i g h t thousand d o l l a r s was v o t e d t o be used as a r e t i r i n g a l l o w a n c e f o r t e a c h e r s , who,  by r e a s o n of o l d age, or f a i l i n g  h e a l t h , were unable t o c o n t i n u e i n the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e r e f o r e , a number of o l d t e a c h e r s are r e c e i v i n g a monthly allowance.  The  o p i n i o n was  expressed that  t h e F e d e r a t i o n was wise i n c o n c e n t r a t i n g f o r the p r e s e n t y e a r on the p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e r e t i r i n g a l l o w a n c e because, b e f o r e a s a t i s f a c t o r y s u p e r a n n u a t i o n scheme c o u l d be adopted,  two  t h i n g s were n e c e s s a r y : f i r s t , an immediate p r o v i s i o n f o r those who  were i n u r g e n t need of some a s s i s t a n c e ; and s e c o n d l y , a  d e f i n i t e r e c o g n i t i o n by the P r o v i n c i a l Government t h a t i t has an o b l i g a t i o n t o f i l l  i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s who  spend  t h e i r whole l i v e s i n r e n d e r i n g t o t h e - S t a t e such i m p o r t a n t fundamental  and  s e r v i c e as - g i v e n I n the e d u c a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n .  The a r t i c l e went on t o e x p l a i n t h a t b o t h of t h e s e have now accomplished,  been  and t h a t i t i s obvious t h a t the Government can-  n o t c o n t i n u e , y e a r a f t e r y e a r , t o v o t e s u f f i c i e n t money i t s e l f t o l o o k a f t e r the i n c r e a s i n g number who w i l l be f o r c e d t o r e t i r e , and by t h i s means t h e r e w i l l , of n e c e s s i t y , have t o be some scheme whereby the t e a c h e r s themselves w i l l c o n t r i b u t e  - 132 -  each y e a r a p o r t i o n of t h e amount n e c e s s a r y t o secure them a s u p e r a n n u a t i o n a l l o w a n c e a t the time of r e t i r e m e n t . A g a i n , i n the same a r t i c l e , i t was f u r t h e r f e a t u r e of importance was  explained that a  the f a c t t h a t the L e g i s l a -  t u r e made p r o v i s i o n f o r the c i v i c s e r v a n t s t o o b t a i n supera n n u a t i o n , i f s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of the employees demanded i t , by making i t compulsory upon the c o u n c i l t o e n t e r the scheme, and t o make c o n t r i b u t i o n s e q u a l t o those of the servants.  civic  The f o l l o w i n g i s a q u o t a t i o n f r o m the e d i t o r i a l  upon which the above paragraphs p o s i t i o n now  a r e based, " A c c o r d i n g l y , the  i s , t h a t c i v i l s e r v a n t s and c i v i c s e r v a n t s , b o t h  have a p r a c t i c a l s u p e r a n n u a t i o n scheme.  Teachers, who  are i n  the s t r i c t e s t sense, b o t h c i v i l and c i v i c s e r v a n t s , have as yet  no p r a c t i c a l scheme.  t h i s f a c t was  I t i s e v i d e n t l y "our t u r n n e x t " , and  a d m i t t e d d u r i n g the L e g i s l a t u r e d i s c u s s i o n of  the p a s t y e a r . "  1  L e g i s l a t i o n was d e l a y e d d u r i n g the balance of  1927  and the g r e a t e r p a r t of 1928 because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n connection w i t h c e r t a i n f i n a n c i a l d e t a i l s . c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n was  Without doubt,  the  t h e d i f f i c u l t y of o b t a i n i n g a s u i t a b l e  s o l u t i o n t o the problem of how  t o r a i s e s u f f i c i e n t funds t o  meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the o l d e r t e a c h e r s , who would r e a c h r e t i r i n g age w i t h i n the next few y e a r s w i t h o u t o p p o r t u n i t y of  1. The B.C.Teacher, June 1927, p. 2 and  3.  - 133  -  p r o v i d i n g much f o r themselves by means of the p o r t i o n of the A c t .  T h i s was  Teacher f o r December 1928, of d i f f i c u l t y (a) The  i t was  s e t t l e d and  i n the  announced t h a t the  B.C.  points  had been agreed upon, namely: doubling  of c o n t r i b u t i o n s by the Government o n l y  a t the time of •(b) The  finally  contributory  retirement;  temporary b o r r o w i n g f r o m the "Teachers' Super-  a n n u a t i o n Fund", i f , and when, n e c e s s a r y , f o r the purpose of m e e t i n g payments under the " S p e c i a l Reserve Fund" s e c t i o n f o r back s e r v i c e . F i n a l l y , i n the March 1929  1  i s s u e of the B.C.Teacher,  the f o l l o w i n g announcement of g r e a t consequence t o was  g i v e n , "The  teachers  Teachers' P e n s i o n s A c t passed i t s T h i r d  R e a d i n g i n the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e a t f i v e minutes a f t e r ten o'clock  on F r i d a y e v e n i n g , March 15, 1929,  and was  assen-  t e d t o by H i s Honor the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r a t the c l o s e of the S e s s i o n  on Wednesday, March 20.  "The of A p r i l , 1929,  Act w i l l  come i n t o o p e r a t i o n on the f i r s t  and the f i r s t payments by t e a c h e r s w i l l  made f r o m the s a l a r i e s p a i d a t the end "The notable  1. The  day be  of A p r i l .  enactment of a Teachers' P e n s i o n s p l a n marks a  s t e p f o r w a r d i n the h i s t o r y of the t e a c h i n g  B.C.Teacher f o r December, 1928,  p.  3.  profession  - 134 -  of t h e p r o v i n c e .  F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s the F e d e r a t i o n has been  s t e a d i l y making p r o g r e s s , b u t d u r i n g the l a s t s i x months the work became v e r y i n t e n s i v e and c a l l e d f o r g r e a t e f f o r t and energy.  The success now a t t a i n e d i s one on which t h e Feder-  a t i o n has e v e r y r i g h t t o p r i d e i t s e l f .  I t has once more  demonstrated i t s v a l u e i n a c o n c r e t e and d e f i n i t e way."" " 1  1. The B.C.Teacher f o r March 1929, p. 3. presented i n t h i s i s s u e .  The f u l l A c t i s  BIBLIOGRAPHY.  A n n u a l R e p o r t s of the P u b l i c S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1874-1932. B.C.Teacher, Vancouver, B.C., S e p t . 1921, May 1922, June 1924, May 1926, Oct. 1926, Nov, 1926, Dec. 1926, June 1927, Dec. 1928, March 1929. C a l e n d a r of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, B.C., 1924, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1931.  Vancouver,  C o a t s , R.H. and G o s n e l l , R.E. S i r James Douglas Makers of Canada, V o l . X X . ) , T o r o n t o , 1909.  (The  " H i s t o r i c a l S k e t c h of the P o i n t Grey S c h o o l s " , i n the Annual R e p o r t of Vancouver C i t y S c h o o l s , Vancouver, B.C., 1928. " H i s t o r i c a l S k e t c h of the South Vancouver S c h o o l s " , I n the Annual R e p o r t of Vancouver C i t y S c h o o l s , Vancouver B.C., 1928. Howay, F.W. B r i t i s h Columbia (Prom the E a r l i e s t Times t o the P r e s e n t ) , V o l . I I . , Vancouver, B.C., 1914. Manual o f the S c h o o l Law and S c h o o l R e g u l a t i o n s of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1929 and 1932. M i n u t e s of the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1851-1861, Memo #11, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1918. "Minutes of the O r g a n i z a t i o n M e e t i n g of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers* F e d e r a t i o n " , i n the Records of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , A l d i n e House, Vancouver, B.C. Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the H i g h Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1928. P u b l i c S c h o o l A c t s , i n the S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1872-1932.  BIBLIOGRAPHY ( c o n t i n u e d )  Putman, J.H. and W e i r , G.M. Survey of t h e S c h o o l System, of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a B.C., 1925, "Report o f Governor Douglas t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Hudson Bay Company, O c t o b e r , 1851", i n t h e B.C.Teacher, Vancouver, B.C., December, 1926. "Research o f the R e c o r d s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s " , i n the B.C.Teacher, Vancouver, B.C., December, 1926. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , 1913, 1914*  B.C.,  "The E d u c a t i o n a l System o f B r i t i s h Columbia", i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Prom t h e E a r l i e s t Times t o the P r e s e n t ) , S c h o l e f i e l d E.O.S., and Howay, P.W., V o l . I I . , C h a p t e r XX., Vancouver, B.C., 1 9 1 4 0  Vancouver C i t y S c h o o l s ; A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f t h e T r u s t e e s , Vancouver, B. C.  

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