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British Columbia slime-moulds 1934

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BRITISH COLUMBIA SIIME-MOTIDS. E l i z a b e t h Mary H a l l e y . A Thesis submitted f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f BIG-LOGY. THE U1ITERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1934. b y TABLE OF CONTENTS. Page Acknowledgements I n t r o d u c t i o n . I General i n t r o d u c t i o n . I L o c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f areas • I I Prevalence o f slime-moulds i n a r e a s . . . . . . . . . I n Methods o f c o l l e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HF •Methods o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f m a t e r i a l IV General c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Myxomyeetes 1 Physarales.» • • 1 Physaraceae 2 Badhamia (Berk.) Rost.................... 2 " u t r i c u l a r i s . 2 " r u h i g i n o s a . * 3 Physarum (Pers.) Host. 3 " oitectum. 5 " eontextum 6 " a u r i s c a l p ium 7 " v i r i d e . 8 " nutans. 9 " (oinereum?) 9 " (ohlatum?) 11 " (oarneum?) 12 " (vernum?) 14 Graterium T r e n t e p o h l 1& ". leucocephalum 16 Leo carpus ( L i n k ) Rost 1<S » f r a g i l i s . . 16 Didymiaceae 16 Didymium (Schrad.) F r . 16 » d i f forme 18 " melanospermum.. • • • • 18 " sauamulosum 19 " eximium 20 " xanthopus 22 Diderma Pers 2 J " radiatum. 24 t! montanum, a s t e r o i d e s , 25 27 T r e v e l y a n i 2? Lepi&ocLerma DeBary n t i g r i n u m . . . . . . . . . . S t e m o n i t a l e s . . «j» • • • Stemonitaceae • • • St e m o n i t i s ( G l e d i t s o a ) Rost " f u s c a . n ( f u s c a ? ) . . . . . . . . . . . » ( n i g r e s c e n s ? ) " (hyperopta?)....... " a x i f e r a . . . . . . . . . . . . « ( a x i f e r a ? ) . . . . . . . . . " h e r b a t i e a . . . . . . . . . . Comatrioha (Preuss) Rost...< " rubens............. " typhoi&es.... « » ( n i g r a ? ) . Diachaea F r . 18 e e r i f e r a . . . . . . . . . . . Lamp r o de rmac e a?e • • • Enerthenema Bowman... " p a p i l l a t u m . Lamproderma Rost..... " columbinum. ". sc i n t i l l a n s . . . . . . . . " violaceum.......... " (arcyrionema?)•.... C r i b r a r i a l e s C r i b r a r i a c e a e G r i b r a r i a (Pers.) Schrader.. " r u f a " f e r r u g i n e a . . . . . . . . . " a r g i l l a c e a . . . . . . . . . " purpurea........... » ( d i c t y d i o i d e s ? ) .... " (macroearpa?) " sp. (563" " sp. (^§5, » so. (566< " sp. {5h\, " sp. (569, " s p . (570. Dictydium (Schrad.) Rost " cancellatum. L y c o g a l a l e s . Lycogala M i c h e l i " epidendrum.. T r l e h i a l e s A rcyriaceae • °° A r c y r i a ( H i l l ) Pers bb " i n c a r n a t a « 08 " nutans 68 " denudata..................... ©9 " c i n e r e a , «... 69 » ( c i n e r e a ? ) . . . 70 »' (pomiformis?} 71 « ( v e r s i c o l o r ? ) ; 72 P r o t o t r i c h i a e e a e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 P r o t o t r i e h i a Rost..................... 73 » me t a l l i c a . 73 T r i c h i a c e a e 73 T r i c h i a ( H a l l e r ) Sost................. 7 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 favo ginea •. 7© (favoginea?) 7° verrucosa.« 7 7 55 v a r i a 7 7 '» c o n t o r t a 8 0 " B o t r y t i s . 8 1 » l a t e r i t i a . 81 " d e c i p i e n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 11 ( d e c i p i e n s ? ) 8 3 Oligonema Rost........................ 8 4 » fl a v i d u m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4 " n i t e n s .............. 8 5 Summary * <•*•• 8 6 " scabra, it w n AG KHQWISDGEMEHfS The ?«rriter wishes to express her g r a t i t u d e to Dr• A» H. Hutchinson, Head of the Department of Botany, at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r the use o f the l a b o r a t o r y equipment o f h i s department; and to Dr. F. Dickson, As s o c i a t e Professor of Botany, at The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r the deep i n t e r e s t shown i n s u p e r v i z i n g the w o r k . The w r i t e r also wishes to thank a l l who k i n d l y a s s i s t e d by b r i n g i n g i n m a t e r i a l to add t o the c o l l e c t i o n . I IKTRODUCTIOU. General Introduction*. The province of B r i t i s h Columbia covers a l a r g e area i n which there i s a very wide range o f c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s and topographical f e a t u r e s . For t h i s reason the systematic study of f u n g i o f the province presents a f i e l d so comprehensive t h a t only a few- i s o l a t e d groups of fu n g i have been d e a l t w i t h . The geographical nature o f the southern c o a s t a l p a r t of B r i t i s h Columbia being favourable to the growth of s l i m e - moulds, i t was suggested by Dr. F. Dickson that a study o f these f u n g i be made by the w r i t e r to form the b a s i s f o r a t h e s i s . A c c o r d i n g l y a c o l l e c t i o n of slime-moulds was begun, gatherings f i r s t being made i n the d i s t r i c t of S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , B. C., durin g the summer of 1931, t h i s c o l l e c t i o n l a t e r being augmented by specimens from areas i n the v i c i n i t y of Vancouver, B. C., obtained at i n t e r v a l s , mainly d u r i n g the summer and f a l l months o f the years 1931, 1932 and 1933. No attempt was made to cover l a r g e r areas and i t was the r e f o r e impossible to o b t a i n a c o l l e c t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of more than a very s m a l l part of B r i t i s h Columbia. I T L o c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n o f Areas. Much of the m a t e r i a l i n the c o l l e c t i o n was obtained i n the l o c a l i t y of S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , which l i e s 123° 30» West l o n g , and 40° j?0» North l a t . , and i s one o f the G u l f Islands i n the S t r a i t o f Georgia between the mainland and the eastern coast o f the southern p a r t of Vancouver I s l a n d . The c l i m a t e i n t h i s r e g i o n i s v e r y m i l d , the in f l u e n c e o f the surrounding waters being to modify both the heat i n summer and the c o l d i n w i n t e r , The w i n t e r i s short w i t h l i t t l e snow as a r u l e ; the summer almost r a i n l e s s w i t h cool n i g h t s and heavy dews. The averate r a i n f a l l i s approx- imately 30" a year, and whi l e t h i s .was not exceeded i n 1931, i n which year the l a r g e r part of the c o l l e c t i o n was made, there was nevertheless an abnormal amount o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n d u r i n g the months of May and June. A r a t h e r l i m i t e d area o f not more than f o r t h acres at the north end o f the I s l a n d was c o l l e c t e d over c o n t i n u o u s l y d u r i n g the months of May, June and J u l y . The land slopes bade f o r a mile or so from the sea i n t e r r a c e d formation, a s e r i e s of s m a l l wooded h i l l s b e ing separated from one another by narrow l o w - l y i n g f i e l d s . The woods are composed mainly of Douglas f i r , cedar and hemlock t r e e s , w i t h s p r i n k l i n g s of maple, a l d e r and arbutus, and i n most of the stands there i s a t h i c k undergrowth o f s a l a l . In some woods a l l the ground i s covered w i t h a t h i c k carpet of moss, and there i s an abundance o f o l d r o t t i n g logs l y i n g i n the d e b r i s beneath the standing tree's. I l l Besides the m a t e r i a l gathered, on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , many specimens were c o l l e c t e d i n wooded areas o n l y c o v e r i n g a few acres i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver, which l i e s 12$° West l o n g , and 49° 20 r North l a t . Due to the nearness of h i g h mountains the annual r a i n f a l l i n Vancouver i s q u i t e l a r g e , averaging ahout 60"• The woods i n the areas c o l l e c t e d over c o n t a i n a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of deciduous t r e e s , such as a l d e r and w i l l o w , and the land i s comparatively h i g h . In t h i s l o c a l i t y c o l l e c t i o n s were made d u r i n g September, October and November, as w e l l as i n the summer months. Prevalence of Slime-Moulds i n Areas. In the two l o c a l i t i e s d e s c r i b e d above a t o t a l of one hundred and three forms, i n nineteen genera were c o l l e c t e d , many of them o c c u r r i n g i n both r e g i o n s , some only i n one or the other. C e r t a i n of these specimens were d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d , w hile others are l i s t e d as d o u b t f u l or v a r y i n g forms. Colonies o f slime-moulds were found on almost a l l the undisturbed r o t t i n g logs i n the woods, t h i s remarkable prevalence probably being due to the favourable weather c o n d i t i o n s at the time of c o l l e c t i n g . In the order Physarales the genera Badhamia, Physarum, Craterium, Leocarpus, Didymium, Piderma and Lepidoderma are represented; S t e m o n i t i s t Comatricha, Dlachaea, Enerthenema and Lamproderma i n the Stemonitales; two genera C r i b r a r i a and Dictydlum i n the C r i b r a r i a l e s , and the s i n g l e genus Lyeogala i n the L y c o g a l a l e s ; the genera A r c y r i a . P r o t o t r i c h i a 0 T r i c h i a and Ollgonema i n the T r i c h i a l e s . Methods of C o l l e c t i o n and P r e s e r v a t i o n of M a t e r i a l . Considerable care was taken i n the c o l l e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the slime-moulds, mature specimens gathered i n the f i e l d being immediately t r a n s f e r r e d w i t h a p o r t i o n of the substratum to small boxes. Immature specimens were allowed to remain unmolested u n t i l the sporangia were f u l l y developed. The boxes c o n t a i n i n g f r e s h l y c o l l e c t e d slime-moulds were ex- posed f o r s e v e r a l hours to the d i r e c t s u n l i g h t before being cl o s e d . I n the absence of s u n l i g h t the specimens i n boxes were heated g e n t l y f o r an hour or two. This treatment a s s i s t s i n the d r y i n g out o f specimens, and prevents contamination of the sporangia by d e s t r u c t i v e molds or i n s e c t s . Methods of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n of M a t e r i a l . In the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l L i s t e r * s "Mycetosoa" ( l j ) and Macbride *s "North American SIime-Moulds" (14) were the only works employed. In the absence o f herbarium m a t e r i a l the task of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the v a r i o u s specimens i n the c o l l e c t i o n was more d i f f i c u l t than i t would otherwise have been, since no comparisons with p r o p e r l y i d e n t i f i e d species co could be made. Every specimen contained i n the c o l l e c t i o n has been st u d i e d c r i t i c a l l y , and the present work c o n s i s t s of a l i s t of the s p e c ies represented. In eases where the specimens are a b s o l u t e l y t y p i c a l o f the species they represent, no d e s c r i p t i o n has been in c l u d e d , but i n d e a l i n g w i t h v a r y i n g forms, a t t e n t i o n V has been drawn t o the c h a r a c t e r s which d i f f e r from those to be found i n t y p i c a l s p e c i e s , and where t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s d o u b t f u l a d i s c u s s i o n i s given of the taxonomic d i f f i c u l t i e s . A l l s p o r e measurements were made i n a 2% s o l u t i o n o f p o t a s s i u m h y d r o x i d e , w h i l e mounts of the m a t e r i a l t o be s t u d i e d , were made i n a mounting f l u i d composed m a i n l y o f glycerine„ I n t h i s work a number has been g i v e n t o each d i s t i n c t form, whether d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d o r m e r e l y l i s t e d as v a r y i n g o r d o u b t f u l , the number being The U n i v e r s i t y of B. C. M y c o l o g i c a l Herbarium lumber; i n the l a b e l l i n g o f the m a t e r i a l c o r r e s p o n d i n g numbers have been a p p l i e d t o the specimens c o n t a i n e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n . - 1 - BRITISH COLUMBIA SLIME-MOULDS* GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF MYXOMYCETES• Macbride (14) Glasses myxomycetes as p a r a s i t e s o r saprophytes; the s a p r o p h y t i c myxomycetes he p l a c e s i n two groups - the Exosporeae and t h e Myxogastres. The l a t t e r group o n l y w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s work, f o r a l t h o u g h s p e c i e s o f Ceratiomyxa. b e l o n g i n g to the Exosporeae, were v e r y common i n the f a l l , they were not s t u d i e d c r i t i c a l l y . Slime-moulds b e l o n g i n g to the Myxogastres are d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g f i v e o r d e r s , Physarales» S t e m o n i t a l e s . C r i b r a r i a l e s , L y e o g a l a l e s . T r i c h i a l e s * These w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n the subsequent pages, the sequence o f f a m i l i e s and genera w i t h i n the ord e r s b e i n g t h a t of Macbride (14). For each genus a key has been prepared f o r those s p e c i e s of the genus which are represented In the c o l l e c t i o n , the key bei n g based on c h a r a c t e r s shown i n the m a t e r i a l s t u d i e d * ORDER I PHYSARALES• T h i s o r d e r i s d i v i d e d by Macbride (14) i n t o two f a m i l i e s , the Physaraceae and the Didymiaeeae* The Physaraeeae a r e , on the whole, w e l l represented, species "belonging to four out of seven genera having "been c o l l e c t e d . In the genus Badhamia two species are represented i n Physarum f i v e d e f i n i t e , and f o u r d o u b t f u l , s p e c i e s , while gatherings were made of one species belonging to each of the genera Craterium and Leocarpus. Ho specimens o f F u l l g o , P h y s a r e l l a or Cienkowskia were found i n e i t h e r o f the l o c a l i t i e s i n which the c o l l e c t i o n was made* ' In the Didymiaeeae three genera out of f i v e are represented, c o l l e c t i o n s being made of f i v e species of Didymium, f o u r o f Diderma. and one o f Lepidoderma. No gather- ings were made of Muoilago or Colloderma. PHYSARACEAE 1 . Badhamia (Berkeley) Rost. Two species of t h i s genus were c o l l e c t e d , the m a t e r i a l being i d e n t i f i e d w i t h ease. They may be separated as f o l l o w s : I . Sporangia i r i d e s c e n t v i o l e t o r b l u i s ^ g r e y ; s t i p e s membranous, branching to support the hanging sporangia; spores 9.5u - 12u i n diameter. (1) B» u t r i c u l a r i s . I I . Sporangia s i l v e r y - b r o w n ; s t i p e s d i s t i n c t , e r e c t ; spores l l u . - 14 u i n diameter. (2) B. r u b i g i n o s a . ( l ) Badhamia u t r i c u l a r ! s ( B u l l . ) Berk. Sporangia i n a c l u s t e r , hanging from the underside o f a s m a l l maple l o g . Plasmodium deep orange-yellow, t a k i n g over a week t o mature. C o l l e c t e d once o n l y , Vancouver v i c i n i t y , i n the l a t e f a l l . T h i s m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l o f B» u t r i o u l a r i s . U.B.G. Myc. Herb. I o . £00 (2) Badhamia r u b i g i n o s a (Chev.) Rost. Sporangia g r e g a r i o u s on d e c a y i n g maple l e a v e s . Large c o l o n y c o l l e c t e d i n the l a t e f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . Maohride (14) d e s c r i b e s the spores o f t h i s s p e c i e s as b e i n g "minutely roughened o r s p i n u l o s e " , w h i l e those o f the m a t e r i a l r e f e r r e d to above are marked w i t h dark prominent warts or s p i n u l e s , which are arranged unevenly to form broken r e t i c u l a t i o n s over the s u r f a c e o f the spore• T h i s f e a t u r e o f the spores c h a r a c t e r i z e s B» r u b i g i n o s a v a r . d i o t y o s p o r a as g i v e n by L i s t e r (13) , i n which he d e s c r i b e s the otherwise t y p i c a l sporangia as having spores "marked w i t h prominent o f t e n c o n f l u e n t warts forming broken r e t i c u l a t i o n s . " Macbride ( 1 4 ) , however makes no mention o f any v a r i e t y and so the m a t e r i a l has been c l a s s i f i e d s i m ply as B. r u b i g i n o s a . U.B.G. Myc. Herb. I o . 501 2. Physarum (Persoon) R o s t . T h i s genus i s f a i r l y w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d , s e v e r a l s p e c i e s h a v i n g been c o l l e c t e d . These f o r the most p a r t show v a r i a t i o n s from the t y p i c a l forms, as d e s c r i b e d by Macbride (14) and L i s t e r (13), and i n some cases t h i s v a r i a t i o n i s so c o n s i d e r a b l e that the s p e c i e s c o u l d not be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i d e n t i f i e d , and q u e n t l y have been recorded as d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s . Sporangia w h i t e , grey o r y e l l o w ; s t i p i t a t e or s e s s i l e ; p e r i d i u m c o n t a i n i n g d e p o s i t s o f l i m e . A. Sporangium w a l l double; s p o r a n g i a and lime-knots white• (a) S p o r a n g i a s c a t t e r e d , f o r m i n g s h o r t o r elongated plasmodiooarps; lime-knots connected by numerous s h o r t threads. (1) P. b i t e c t u m . (b) Sporangia c l o s e l y compressed; c a p i l l i t i u m badhamioid, threads few. (2) P. contextum. B . Sporangium w a l l s i n g l e ; s p o r a n g i a and l i m e - k n o t s v a r i o u s l y c o l o u r e d , white, y e l l o w o r orange. (a) Sporangla golden-orange; lime-knots orange, l a r g e and i r r e g u l a r , b r a n c h i n g . (3) P. a u r i s c a l p turn. (b) Sporangia w h i t e , grey or y e l l o w ; l i m e - k n o t s white or y e l l o w , v a r i o u s l y shaped, or s m a l l f u s i f o r m and orange. ( i ) Sporangia s t a l k e d , l e n t i c u l a r , u s u a l l y nodding; sporangium w a l l when r u p t u r e d p e r s i s t i n g a t the base i n p e t a l - l i k e l o b e s , fragmentary above• x Sporangia y e l l o w or g r e e n i s h - y e l l o w ; l i m e - knots f u s i f o r m orange . (4) P. v i r l d e . xx Sporangia w h i t i s h o r grey; lime-knots v a r y i n g i n s i z e , rounded, white, (5) P . nutans. ( i i ) Sporangia s e s s i l e , or s t a l k e d e r e c t , globose o r sub~globose; sporangium w a l l u s u a l l y l o n g p e r s i s t e n t , o r i r r e g u l a r l y d e h i s c e n t , x Sporangia s e s s i l e , crowded o r f o r m i n g plasmodiocarps, g r e y i s h - w h i t e or g r e y . (6) P. (oinereum?). xx Sporangia s t i p i t a t e , g r e e n i s h - y e l l o w , or yellowish-whi t e • o Sporangia g r e e n i s h - y e l l o w ; lime-knots b r i g h t or p a l e y e l l o w . ( ? ) P . (oblatum?). oo Sporangia p a l e y e l l o w i s h - w h i t e ; lime-knots white. (8) Pa (eameum?). I I . Sporangia d u l l b l a c k , plasmodioearpous; p e r i d i u m l i m e l e s s . (9) P . (vernum?). (1) Bhysarum biteotum L i s t e r . Sporangia s c a t t e r e d o r g r e g a r i o u s , f a i r l y common on decaying wood. C o l l e c t e d once o r t w i c e , Vancouver v i c i n i t y , i n the f a l l . There i s one d i s c r e p a n c y to be noted i n the c l a s s i f i - c a t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l as P . b i t e c t u m - the sporangium w a l l resembles t h a t o f P . sinuosum. Sporangia o f P. slnuosum are c h a r a c t e r i z e d , a c c o r d i n g to Macbride (14) and L i s t e r ( 1 3 ) , by having a r e t i c u l a t e d outer w a l l and a w r i n k l e d i n n e r v / a l l ad- h e r i n g to i t . P. biteetum, on the other hand, i s described by both authors as having a smooth i n n e r w a l l , and hence a l s o a smooth outer w a l l . According to L i s t e r (13) these two a l l i e d forms are o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d i n the south of England, P. biteetum d i f f e r i n g c o n s t a n t l y from P. sinuosum i n having a smooth p u r p l i s h i nner sporangium w a l l , and rougher spores smoother and p a l e r on one s i d e . In the present species the p u r p l i s h inner w a l l i s r e t i c u l a t e d , g i v i n g to the outer w a l l a r e t i c u l a t e d appearance a l s o , e s p e c i a l l y above. The outer w a l l i s quite f r e e and does not adhere t o the i n n e r w a l l * P. sinuosum gets i t s name from the nature of the plasmodiooarp, - creeping i n long v e i n - l i k e r e t i c u l a t i o n s or curves'* (Macbride ( 1 4 ) ) , and no such h a b i t occurs i n t h i s s p e c i e s . The spores are a l s o l a r g e r (?.5u. - l l u , diameter) than i n a t y p i c a l form o f P. sinuosum. and are d i s t i n c t l y rough, w i t h a p a l e r , smoother area o f dehiscence. Apart from the c h a r a c t e r o f the w a l l t h i s species f i t s p e r f e c t l y the d e s c r i p t i o n s given of P. biteetum, and has been c l a s s i f i e d as such, i n the b e l i e f that the s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n from the t y p i c a l form, i n the nature o f the sporangium w a l l , shows an approach to the c l o s e l y a l l i e d species P. sinuosum. U.B.G. Myc. Herb. Ho. £ 0 2 (2) Physarum oontextum Persoon. Sporangia gregarious on f i b e r - l i k e p l a n t r o o t s on the surface o f an o l d l o g . C o l l e c t e d once only i n a wet wooded a r e a on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , i n the s p r i n g . T h i s g a t h e r i n g i s t y p i c a l i n a l l r e s p e c t s hut spore s i z e , the l a r g e range i n spore diameter (lOp: - ZZjx. a v e r a g i n g l^n.) s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h i s i s an im p e r f e c t specimen o f P.. oontextum. The spores, i n a d d i t i o n , show i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of shape, o n l y a few o f them h e i n g p e r f e c t l y globose. The l a r g e spores appear to be e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the sporan- gium, and are not c o n f i n e d t o any p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n ( i n n e r o r o u t e r ) as f a r as can be determined. Attempts t o s t a i n the spores t o show the n u c l e i proved u n s u c c e s s f u l , and i t was not p o s s i b l e to f i n d out i f the l a r g e r spores a r e , perhaps, b i - n u c l e a t e or t r i - n u c l e a t e . The l a r g e spores are i n a l l o t h e r r e s p e c t s s i m i l a r t o the s m a l l e r ones, the w a l l s b e i n g o f equal t h i c k n e s s . The l a r g e s t spores were estimated t o be as much as e i g h t times the volume o f the s m a l l e s t • Despite the i r r e g u l a r i t y i n spore s i z e t h i s specimen was c l a s s i f i e d as P. contextual which has spores l a r g e r ( r a n g i n g from about lOn. - 14u. i n diameter) than has P» conglomeratum, i t s c l o s e s t a l l y . The e a p i l l i t i u m i s d i s t i n c t l y badhamioid, b e i n g d e n s e l y charged w i t h l i m e . U.B.G. Myc. Herb. No. j?Q3 (3) Physarum a u r l s c a l p l u m Cooke. Sporangia g r e g a r i o u s on f a l l e n w i l l o w twigs, w i l l o w l e a v e s and Douglas f i r n e e d l e s . C o l l e c t e d once i n the summer on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , i n a dry wooded a r e a . Most o f t h i s m a t e r i a l i s q u i t e t y p i c a l , but some - 8 - specimens show a type of P. a u r i s c a l p i u m c l o s e l y approaching Badhamia d e o i p i e n s . The orange sporangia are s e s s i l e r o f t e n plasmodiocarpous, and the c a p i l l i t i u m densely charged w i t h l i m e , w i t h few connecting threads* The spores however range, as i n the t y p i c a l form, from ICu. - 12ji i n diameter. M a t e r i a l t y p i c a l of P. a u r i s c a l p i u m ; - U.B.G. Myc. Herb. No. 504 M a t e r i a l showing an approach to Badhamia d e e i p i e n s : - U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 505 (4) Physarum v l r l d e ( B u l l . ) P e r s . Sporangia gregarious on Douglas f i r twigs and charred f i r wood. Gathered f r e q u e n t l y i n dry wooded regions on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n the s p r i n g . This m a t e r i a l i s a b s o l u t e l y t y p i c a l of P. v i r i d e . U.B.G. Myc. Herb. No. 506 A c o l l e c t i o n of P. v i r i d e was made a l s o i n the s p r i n g , on an o l d Douglas f i r l o g , i n which the sporangia d i f f e r from those r e f e r r e d to above i n the nature of the s t i p e . In a l l the sporangia the s t i p e i s swollen f o r about o n e - t h i r d of the way up, t h i s p o r t i o n being very dark; the sporangia a l s o appear somewhat l a r g e r . A l l other c h a r a c t e r s are i d e n t i c a l w i t h those of the t y p i c a l form, so t h i s m a t e r i a l was considered to be a form of P. v i r i d e v a r y i n g o n l y i n the nature of the s t i p e . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 507 (5) Pbysarum nutans Persoon. Sporangia gregarious on decaying a l d e r wood and "bark, Douglas f i r "bark, maple wood and even bracket f u n g i on decaying a l d e r l o g s . C o l l e c t e d f r e q u e n t l y i n wet wooded areas on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d and i n Vancouver v i c i n i t i e s i n the summer and • f a l l . For the most part the m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d i s t y p i c a l o f P. nutans, but one g a t h e r i n g was made i n which the sporangia d i f f e r s l i g h t l y from the t y p i c a l form. The sporangia are l a r g e and e r e c t , the c a p i l l i t i u m c o n t a i n i n g numerous l a r g e lime-knots t h i s suggests an approach to P. nutans v a r . leuoophaeum ( L i s t e r (13))» but L i s t e r (13) notes t h a t the species i s extremely v a r i a b l e , and t h a t between c e r t a i n extreme forms, " a l l shades of d i f f e r e n c e may be found, making i t d i f f i c u l t to define even d i s t i n c t v a r i e t i e s " . T y p i c a l specimens o f P. nutans:- U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. £0-8 Varyi n g form; of P. nutans:- U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 509 (6) Physarum (oinereum?). Sporangia gregarious on blades o f g r a s s . C o l l e c t e d once i n the summer, Vancouver v i c i n i t y , the extensive heaped colony covering a considerable area o f lawn t u r f . T his specimen i n a l l but spore dimensions f i t s the d e s c r i p t i o n s g iven by L i s t e r (13) and Macbride ( 1 4 ) o f P. oinereum b e t t e r than i t does those of P. conferturn or P» vernunu The l a r g e s p o r a n g i a ( .3 mm* ~ .6 mm. In diameter) abundant e a p i l l i t i u m , w i t h l a r g e numerous lime-knots d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s s p e c i e s from P. confertum. while the o f t e n i r i d e s c e n t b l u i s h - g r e y c o l o u r (due to the absence o f lime i n the w a l l s ) s e p a r a t e s I t from P. vernum. In the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l the l a r g e s p i n u l o s e spores 8u - lO.fJu. i n diameter, p r e s e n t a d i f f i c u l t y s i n c e L i s t e r (13) d e s c r i b e s P. cinereum as h a v i n g spores 7P- - lOu. i n diameter, w h i l e Macbride (14) g i v e s the spore range as 6u - 7p.. L i s t e r (13) however, notes t h a t P. cinereum i s connected by i n t e r m e d i a t e forms w i t h P. veraum - which has spores r a n g i n g i n diameter from 9p: - 12p, - and a l s o s t a t e s t h a t when the s p o r a n g i a o f P. cinereum are c l u s t e r e d and n e a r l y d e s t i t u t e o f l i m e , t h i s s p e c i e s i s o n l y w i t h d i f f i c u l t y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from P. confertum. I t seems probable t h a t t h i s i s a form o f P» cinereum showing an approach to P. vernum i n p o s s e s s i n g l a r g e r and d a r k e r spores than i s u s u a l i n the t y p i c a l form. I t would outwardly appear l i k e P. confertum on account o f the l i m e l e s s p e r i d i u m . The t u r f o f lawns appears to be a common substratum f o r the Plasmodium o f P. cinereum, as mention i s made o f t h i s f a c t both by L i s t e r (13) and Macbride (14); the specimen under d i s c u s s i o n was found growing on lawn g r a s s . L i s t e r (13) a l s o observes t h a t specimens o f P. cinereum have been found i n which the c l u s t e r e d s p o r a n g i a are i r i d e s c e n t blue from the absence o f lime d e p o s i t s i n t h e i r w a l l s . These two p o i n t s , w h ile o f no v a l u e i n a c t u a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , yet he l p to c o n f i r m the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the specimen as B. oinereum. U.B.C. Myc. Hero. No. 5 1 0 ( 7 ) Physarum (oblatum?). Sporangia l o o s e l y g r e g a r i o u s on the hark o f a w i l l o w t w i g l y i n g among dead l e a v e s and o l d l o g s . Gathered once o n l y , these few sp o r a n g i a b e i n g c o l l e c t e d i n e a r l y summer i n a d r y wooded ar e a on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d . In the absence o f herbarium m a t e r i a l i t was found d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y t h i s specimen s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The c a p i l l i t i u m i s d i s t i n c t l y badhamioid i n type, the l i m e - k n o t s b e i n g numerous, l a r g e , and o f t e n e x t e n s i v e l y branched, w i t h few c o n n e c t i n g t h r e a d s . A c c o r d i n g to the key g i v e n by L i s t e r ( 1 3 ) f o r the s p e c i e s o f Badhamia t h i s m a t e r i a l would be c l a s s i f i e d as B. v i r i d e s e e n s , and the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n o f t h i s s p e c i e s does show that t h e r e are s i m i l a r i t i e s to be found i n the s i z e and c o l o u r o f the sp o r a n g i a , and the nature o f the lime granules o f the sporangium w a l l , as w e l l as i n the c o l o u r and nature o f the c a p i l l i t i u m . B. v l r i d e s c e n s d i f f e r s from the present form i n having s h o r t s t i p e s ( . 1 ram. - . 3 mm. long) as opposed to the lo n g e r s t i p e s ( . 5 mm. - . 7 5 mm. lo n g ) o f t h i s specimen, and l a r g e r s p o r e s , 9u. - I3n, i n s t e a d o f l O u - l l u diameter. None of the s p e c i e s o f Badhamia l i s t e d by Macbride (14) i n any way f i t t h i s s p e c i e s , but i n the genus Physarum i t would be c l a s s - i f i e d , a c c o r d i n g to h i s key, as P. oblatum, and f i t s h i s - 12 - d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s p e c i e s . Macbride (14) notes t h a t the lime-knots are "dense and abundant", but does not mention the badhamioid nature o f the e a p i l l i t i u m . From the key to the s p e c i e s o f Physarum g i v e n by L i s t e r ( l j ) t h i s m a t e r i a l would be i d e n t i f i e d as P. Maydis (P. oblatum a c c o r d i n g to Macbride*s nomenclature), and f i t s t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n f a i r l y w e l l a l s o ; i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n however the l i m e - k n o t s appear s m a l l e r and the threads f a r more numerous than i n t h i s specimen. I t was concluded t h a t the present s p e c i e s must be a form o f P. oblatum w i t h badhamioid e a p i l l i t i u m . U.B.G. Myc. Herb. Ho. 511 (8) Physarum (carneum?). Sporangia l o o s e l y g r e g a r i o u s on twigs of w i l l o w and Douglas f i r l y i n g on the ground. C o l l e c t e d once or twioe i n a d r y wooded area on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , i n the summer. Two s l i g h t l y d i f f e r i n g c o l l e c t i o n s were made o f t h i s s p e c i e s , which c o u l d not be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i d e n t i f i e d . In the f i r s t g a t h e r i n g the f a i r l y numerous sporangia are on w i l l o w and f i r bark, w h i l e the second g a t h e r i n g c o n s i s t s of a few sporangia on a cedar t w i g . These much weathered sporangia d i f f e r m a i n l y from those of the f i r s t g a t h e r i n g i n b e i n g s m a l l e r , (the head r a n g i n g i n diameter from .25 mm. ~ •5 mm., as opposed to the range o f .5 mm. - .6 mm. i n the other s p o r a n g i a ) , and a l s o i n p o s s e s s i n g s m a l l e r v i o l e t - b r o w n spores, r a n g i n g i n diameter from 8u - ?u a v e r a g i n g 8.2u. The sporangia i n the f i r s t g a t h e r i n g have purple-brown spores, 8p. - l i p . , •» 13 « a v e r a g i n g 9.1)1 i n diameter. The s t i p e i n the s m a l l e r form i s a p a l e y e l l o w i s h - w h i t e ; i n the l a r g e r form the s t i p e i s e i t h e r p a l e y e l l o w i s h - w h i t e or c l e a r orange i n c o l o u r . T h i s m a t e r i a l cannot he d e f i n i t e l y c l a s s i f i e d as P. carneum, on account o f the c o l o u r o f the s p o r a n g i a , both head and s t i p e , and the spore measurements. The s m a l l e r spored s p o r a n g i a o f the second g a t h e r i n g come c l o s e r t o P. oameum than to any o t h e r s p e c i e s o f Physarum. a l t h o u g h the sporangium head i s n e a r e r white than y e l l o w , and the s t i p e i s not n o t i c e - a b l y f l e s h - t i n t e d . The spore range comes w i t h i n t h a t g i v e n by L i s t e r (13), although s l i g h t l y l a r g e r than t h a t g i v e n by Macbride ( 1 4 ) . The s p o r a n g i a of the f i r s t g a t h e r i n g present a d i f f i c u l t y i n the c o l o u r o f the s t i p e and the l a r g e r spore dimensions. The s t i p e s i n one group o f sporangia are c l e a r orange r e d , and the s p o r a n g i a themselves are more o f a dingy y e l l o w i s h - w h i t e than a d e f i n i t e y e l l o w . T h i s suggests an approach to P. nodulosum i n which the white spo r a n g i a are d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g b r i g h t brown or red brown s t i p e s , and spores r a n g i n g i n diameter from 8p. - l l u . ( L i s t e r (13)) o r from 10n - 12u (Macbride ( 1 4 ) ) . L i s t e r (13) a l s o notes the occurrence o f forms o f P. p u s i l l u m (P. nodulosum a c c o r d i n g to Macbride*s nomenclature) w i t h badhamioid e a p i l l i t i u m , such as i s found i n some o f the s p o r a n g i a i n t h i s m a t e r i a l . There are s t i l l to be c o n s i d e r e d the sporangia o f the second g a t h e r i n g w i t h the p a l e y e l l o w i s h s t i p e s , and i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t may be mentioned t h a t P. carneum i s d e s c r i b e d by L i s t e r (13) as - 14 - having e i t h e r f l e s h - c o l o u r e d or d u l l r e d s t i p e s , so t h a t while both these c o l o u r s might be found In s t i p e s o f t y p i c a l P» oameum, o n l y the r e d d i s h ones c o u l d belong to P> nodulosum. From the g a t h e r i n g s a t hand, and i n the absence o f herbarium m a t e r i a l n o t h i n g f u r t h e r can be done to decide the matter; i t seems probable t h a t the s p e c i e s i s a form o f P. earneum, but a t the same time i t i s p o s s i b l e that a l l the m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d may not r e p r e s e n t the same s p e c i e s - the l a r g e r spored form perhaps b e i n g a v a r i a t i o n of P. nodulosum, the s m a l l e r spored form b e i n g more n e a r l y t y p i c a l of P . oaraeum. F i r s t g a t h e r i n g , l a r g e r spored f ornu- U.B.G. Myc. Herb. Ho. 512 Second g a t h e r i n g , s m a l l e r spored form:- U.B.C, Myc. Herb. Ho. 515 (9) Physarum (vernum?). Sporangia s c a t t e r e d on decaying wood. T h i s scanty much weathered m a t e r i a l was c o l l e c t e d i n the f a l l i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver. The s p o r a n g i a form d u l l b l a c k plasmodiocarps, the s i n g l e w a l l b e i n g without d e p o s i t s o f l i m e . The c a p i l l i t i u m i s abundant, c o n t a i n i n g numerous l a r g e , t h i c k , white l i m e - k n o t s t connected by many membranous t h r e a d s . In some sporangia the lime has disappeared l e a v i n g an almost c o l o u r l e s s membrane i n place o f the l i m e - k n o t . Attempts to mount the c a p i l l i t i u m to show the threads and l i m e - k n o t s proved u n s u c c e s s f u l , s i n c e the lime-knots seem to d i s i n t e g r a t e when mounted i n 2% potassium * 15 « hydroxide, and n e i t h e r the threads nor the o u t l i n e s o f the lime- k n o t s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . The dark brown s p i n u l o s e spores are u s u a l l y globose, lOn - 12u a v e r a g i n g 11,In, but are sometimes o v a l , f l a t t e n e d on one s i d e , a v e r a g i n g about 10u x 12u, u s u a l l y w i t h a p a l e r area o f dehiscence. The absence o f lime In the w a l l s o f t h i s specimen makes i d e n t i f i c a t i o n d i f f i c u l t . A c c o r d i n g to the key g i v e n by Macbride (14) f o r the s p e c i e s o f Physarum t h i s would be one o f the three s p e c i e s P. s e r p u l a : P. l a t e r i t i u m ; P. vernum, the o n l y t h r e e s p e c i e s l i s t e d which are plasmodiocarpous w i t h a simple p e r i d i u m . T h i s s p e c i e s must then be P. vernum on account o f the white c a l c a r e o u s d e p o s i t s , as opposed to the ye l l o w d e p o s i t s o f P. s e r p u l a . and the red d e p o s i t s o f P. l a t e r i t i u m . ,. The occurrence o f o c c a s i o n a l oval-shaped spores would suggest an approach t o P. ovisporum, a s p e c i e s not l i s t e d by Macbride ( 1 4 ) , but mentioned by L i s t e r (13) as b e i n g c l o s e l y a l l i e d to both P. vernum and P. compressum. The o v a l spores however show no white l i n e o f dehiscence, such as c h a r a c t e r i z e s spores o f P. ovisporum. and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the i r r e g u l a r i t y i n shape may be due to the f a c t t h a t the sporangia were not qui t e mature when c o l l e c t e d . L i s t e r (13) g i v e s a v a r i e t y o f P. vernum —-P. vernum v a r . i r i d e s o e n s i n which the sporangia are dark brown from absence of lime i n the w a l l s . From the f o r e g o i n g s c a n t y d e s c r i p t i o n i t seems reasonable to suggest t h a t t h i s specimen i s an imperfect form o f P. vernum. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 514 ~ 16 - 3 • C r a t e r i u m T r e n t e p o h l . T h i s genus i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n by a s i n g l e s p e c i e s , which i s t y p i c a l i n a l l r e s p e c t s and c o u l d t h e r e f o r e he e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d . C r a terium leucocephalum (Pers.) Ditmar. Sporangia g r e g a r i o u s on f a l l e n horsechestnut l e a v e s and Douglas f i r twigs and n e e d l e s . C o l l e c t e d twice i n dry exposed areas on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n the summer. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. £15 4 . Leocarpus ( L i n k ) Rost. The s i n g l e s p e c i e s b e l o n g i n g to t h i s genus was c o l l e c t e d s e v e r a l times from d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s , a l l the m a t e r i a l b e i n g t y p i c a l . Leocarpus f r a g l l l s (Dickson) Rost. Sporangia gregarious, on f a l l e n twigs and l e a v e s , o r hanging i n bunches from l i v i n g s a l a l stems. C o l l e c t e d a number o f times i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver i n the f a l l . A specimen growing on a w i n d f a l l o f f i r needles and twigs was c o l l e c t e d from a r e g i o n i n the c o a s t mountains of B r i t i s h Columbia, but the s p o r a n g i a are s i m i l a r to those gathered at the lower a l t i t u d e , b e i n g q u i t e t y p i c a l o f the s p e c i e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 516 DIDYMIACEAE !• Dldymium (Schrad.) F r . In t h i s genus f i v e s p e c i e s have been recorded, but - 17 - o n l y one o f these c o u l d he i d e n t i f i e d w i t h ease, a tendency f o r a l l i e d s p e c i e s to i n t e r g r a d e making i t d i f f i c u l t to d i v i d e up the r e s t o f the m a t e r i a l i n t o d e f i n i t e s p e c i e s . I . Sporangia snow-white, f l a t t e n e d , s e s s i l e ; o u t e r w a l l a smooth " b r i t t l e c r u s t o f c l o s e l y combined almost i n - d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e t i n y lime c r y s t a l s ; c o l u m e l l a none. (1) D. d i f f o r m e . I I . Sporangia white or grey, rounded, u s u a l l y s t i p i t a t e ; outer w a l l a c r u s t o f l o o s e l y combined, e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e s t e l l a t e lime c r y s t a l s ; c o l u m e l l a p r e s e n t • A. Sporangia s t i p i t a t e or s e s s i l e forming plasmodio- c a r p s ; s t i p e s t o u t , b l a c k or very dark brown, opaque; c o l u m e l l a l i g h t or dark brown. (2) P. melanospermum. S. Sporangia always d i s t i n c t l y s t i p i t a t e ; s t i p e white, y e l l o w i s h , orange or c l e a r red-brown; c o l u m e l l a white, y e l l o w i s h - w h i t e , y e l l o w or r a r e l y orange. (a) S t i p e and c o l u m e l l a c o n c o l o r o u s , white or pale y e l l o w i s h - w h i t e , r a r e l y orange. (3) D. squamulosum. (b) S t i p e orange or r e d d i s h brown, t r a n s l u c e n t , or pale brown above, b l a c k opaque below; c o l u m e l l a white o r y e l l o w . ( i ) C o l u m e l l a yellow, roughened; c a p i l l i t i u m o f l a x c o l o u r l e s s t h r e a d s . ( 4 ) P. eximium. • » 18 » ( i i ) C o l u m e l l a white smooth; e a p i l l i t i u m o f r i g i d purplish-brown t h r e a d s • (j>) D« xanthopus. (1) Sidymium diffo r m e Buoy. Sporangia s c a t t e r e d on the hark o f an o l d branch, l y i n g among d e c a y i n g l e a v e s * T h i s scanty m a t e r i a l was c o l l e c t - ed i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver i n the f a l l , and i s a b s o l u t e l y t y p i c a l o f the s p e c i e s * Macbride (14) notes t h a t B. d i f f o r m e i s " e v i d e n t l y r a r e " i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s * U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. $VJ (2) Sidymium melanospermum (Pers.) Maobr. Sporangia g r e g a r i o u s , abundant on the crumbling i n - s i d e wood o f a v e r y o l d Douglas f i r stump. T h i s m a t e r i a l , which i s t y p i c a l , was c o l l e c t e d i n the summer i n a d r y wooded r e g i o n on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d . A g a t h e r i n g o f D. melanospermum was made i n a v e r y wet wooded area on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n the s p r i n g , the grey s p o r a n g i a , extremely numerous, growing a l l over a heap o f branches and twigs o f Douglas f i r . T h i s m a t e r i a l d i f f e r s from the t y p i c a l form i n h a v i n g e a p i l l i t i u m o f v e r y s l e n d e r f l e x u o s e c o l o u r l e s s threads, and spores ranging o n l y from 8}i - l O u , a v e r a g i n g 8.7ji i n diameter; i n these two r e s p e c t s the sporangia resemble D. minus. Macbride (14) separates D. minus from D. melano- spermum as a d i s t i n c t and constant s p e c i e s , w h i l e L i s t e r (13) d e s c r i b e s i t as a v a r i e t y o n l y o f D. melanospermum. n o t i n g t h a t - 19 - "Intermediate form u n i t i n g the v a r . minus and the t y p i c a l form are so f r e q u e n t t h a t the former cannot be regarded as a d i s t i n c t s p e c i e s " . Macbride (14) separates D. minus from D. melanospermum on the b a s i s o f sporangium s i z e , and the p r e s e n t s p e c i e s would undoubtedly be c l a s s i f i e d as D. melano- spermum on account o f the l a r g e sporangia and s h o r t , s t o u t s t i p e s . However the c a p i l l i t i u m o f very s l e n d e r c o l o u r l e s s t h r e a d s , and the spores, so much s m a l l e r than i n the t y p i c a l form, show an approach to D. minus. M a t e r i a l t y p i c a l o f P, melanospermum:- U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 518 M a t e r i a l showing an approach to D. minus:- •TJ.B.C. Myc. Herb. ¥ 0 . $19 (3) Didymium squamulosum ( A l b , and Schw.) F r i e s . S porangia g r e g a r i o u s on f a l l e n a l d e r , w i l l o w and maple l e a v e s and twigs and bracken s t a l k s . Abundant i n Vancouver v i c i n i t i e s i n the f a l l • Plasmodium p r a o t i c a l l y c o l o u r l e s s , immature s p o r a n g i a t r a n s p a r e n t white or y e l l o w i s h . In some o f the g a t h e r i n g s made o f t h i s s p e c i e s the spor a n g i a are l a r g e , about 1 mm. i n diameter, f l a t t e n e d , o f t e n c o n f l u e n t , and so s h o r t l y s t i p i t a t e ( s t i p e .1 mm - .2 mm. long) as t o appear s e s s i l e , the s t i p e b e i n g completely hidden i n the concave base o f the sporangium. In these sporangia the w h i t i s h c o l u m e l l a i s u s u a l l y broad and f l a t t e n e d a l s o . T h i s i s probably an i m p e r f e c t development o f D. squamulosum. A s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n from the t y p i c a l form was found i n ~ 20 « which the s t i p e and c o l u m e l l a o f the sp o r a n g i a range i n c o l o u r from p a l e greyish-brown to dark orange. Some o f the sporangia have both s t i p e and c o l u m e l l a orange i n c o l o u r , while i n others the s t i p e , orange a t the base, shades to y e l l o w above, i n which case the c o l u m e l l a i s a l s o y e l l o w i s h ; i n these forms the dark brown h y p o t h a l l u s i s not conspicuous. L i s t e r (13) remarks t h a t numerous v a r i e t i e s occur i n t h i s s p e c i e s and t h a t the s t i p e and c o l u m e l l a may vary from white to orange. In a l l other r e s p e c t s these sporangia conform to the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f D. squamul0sum, and s i n c e they were found a s s o c i a t e d w i t h normal s p o r a n g i a there was no h e s i t a t i o n i n i d e n t i f y i n g them as 3). squamulosum a l s o . T y p i c a l m a t e r i a l : - U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 520 V a r y i n g form, s p o r a n g i a f l a t t e n e d , n e a r l y s e s s i l e ; - U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 521 V a r y i n g form, s t i p e and c o l u m e l l a not t y p i c a l i n c o l o u r : - U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 522 ( 4 ) Didymium eximium Peck. Sporangia g r e g a r i o u s on f a l l e n maple l e a v e s . M a t e r i a l p l e n t i f u l , c o l l e c t e d once i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver, l a t e f a l l . In these s p o r a n g i a the c o l u m e l l a i s a conspicuous, depressed saddle-shaped s t r u c t u r e , d u l l y e l l o w w i t h roughened s u r f a c e . The spores are pale v i o l e t - b r o w n , r a n g i n g from - 21 - 7*5u:•• 9«5^» a v e r a g i n g 8.6p. i n diameter. Sporangia from the same g a t h e r i n g hut growing on f e r n f ronds show a few d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r u c t u r e . They are o f t e n depressed above as w e l l as u m b i l i c a t e beneath, and the roughened y e l l o w c o l u m e l l a i s extremely l a r g e , c i r c u l a r i n o u t l i n e , and much f l a t t e n e d . The spores are v e r y p a l e v i o l a c e o u s r a n g i n g from 8u - l i p . , a v e r a g i n g 8.In. i n diameter. Some d i f f i c u l t y was encountered i n c l a s s i f y i n g the g a t h e r i n g as c e r t a i n o f the c h a r a c t e r s o f D. n l g r i p e s . P. xanthopus and D. eximium seem to be blended i n t h i s one s p e c i e s . L i s t e r ( l j ) I n c l u d e s these three t o g e t h e r and d e s c r i b e s D. xanthopus and D» eximium as v a r i e t i e s of D. n i g r i p e s , s i n c e he f i n d s t h a t the forms blend i n t o one another completely. Macbride (14) keeps the t h r e e forms separate, as d i s t i n c t s p e c i e s , s t a t i n g t h a t they are q u i t e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . The l a r g e roughened y e l l o w c o l u m e l l a was c o n s i d e r e d to be the most important f e a t u r e i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s s p e c i e s ; the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s , a l s o f i t the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n by Macbride (14) o f D. eximium. The e x c e p t i o n s are as f o l l o w s : - the sporangia are not always depressed globose, nor are they minute, f e a t u r e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f D. eximium a c c o r d i n g to Macbride (14), but not mentioned by L i s t e r ( l j ) , w h i l e a d e f i n i t e h y p o t h a l l u s such as Macbride (14) d e s c r i b e s f o r D. n i g r i p e s i s p r e s e n t i n t h i s s p e c i e s i n which the h y p o t h a l l u s i s supposedly scant or none. The spore range i s l a r g e r than t h a t g i v e n by Macbride (14), but comes w i t h i n the range g i v e n by L i s t e r (13) f o r P. n i g r i p e s and i t s v a r i e t i e s . The spore c o l o u r which i s commonly darker i n P. eximium than i n P. n i g r i p e s or 33. xanthopus i s i n t h i s m a t e r i a l q u i t e p a l e ; w i t h r e f e r e n c e to D. eximium and P. xanthopus spore c o l o u r appears to be an in c o n s t a n t f e a t u r e , s i n c e i n speoimens o f 3). xanthopus developed on s o i l the spores are dark, not p a l e , v i o l a c e o u s . L i s t e r (13) makes use o f the presence o r absence of r e f u s e matter i n the s t i p e to h e l p d i s t i n g u i s h P. n i g r i p e s from P. melanospermum, P. n i g r i p e s p o s s e s s i n g t r a n s l u c e n t orange brown s t i p e s w ithout r e f u s e m a t t e r . I n the specimens under d i s c u s s i o n , however, r e f u s e matter i s found to be p r e s e n t e i t h e r at the base or i n the lower h a l f o f the s t i p e , making i t opaque; the s t i p e o f P. n i g r i p e s i s black and opaque a c c o r d i n g to Macbride (14)• Prom the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n i t would appear t h a t t h i s i s a form o f P. eximium showing c h a r a c t e r s both o f P. n i g r i p e s and o f P. xanthopus. M a t e r i a l on maple l e a v e s , c o l u m e l l a saddle-shaped:- U.B.G. Myc. Herb. No. 523 M a t e r i a l on f e r n f r o n d s , c o l u m e l l a c i r c u l a r , f l a t t e n e d : - U.B.G. Myc. Herb. No. 324 (3) Pidymium xanthopus (Pitmar) FT. Sporangia s c a t t e r e d , developed on s o i l . The m a t e r i a l was c o l l e c t e d i n the s p r i n g from bean f l a t s i n a greenhouse. T h i s i s undoubtedly D. xanthopus and yet the spores i n s t e a d o f b e i n g s m a l l , 7.5u - 8.5u, p a l e v i o l a c e o u s and almost smooth, are dark and warted, r a n g i n g from 8u - lOn., av e r a g i n g 9ju i n diameter* On the o t h e r hand. In the m a t e r i a l c l a s s i f i e d as P. eximium the spores are sm a l l e r and p a l e r , i n s t e a d o f l a r g e r and darke r , than those of D. xanthopus. l i s t e r ( l j ) makes no d i s t i n c t i o n i n spore s i z e between the t h r e e forms, but g i v e s the spore range o f D. n l g r i p e s as 8)1 - l i p . and d e s c r i b e s the spores as p a l e v i o l e t - b r o w n , n e a r l y smooth. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 525 2* Diderma Persoon. T h i s genus i s q u i t e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n , f o u r s p e c i e s h a v i n g been recorded. Some d i f f i c u l t y was en- countered i n i d e n t i f y i n g the m a t e r i a l due to the v a r i a b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n o f the s p e c i e s . I« Sporangia u s u a l l y s t i p i t a t e , sporangium w a l l r u p t u r i n g above, more or l e s s p e r s i s t e n t below; outer l a y e r o f w a l l c a l c a r e o u s , b r i t t l e , the inn e r membranous. A. Two l a y e r s o f sporangium w a l l c l o s e l y adhering; c o l u m e l l a very l a r g e , roughened, yellow; spores dark purple-brown, 9u « 12p diameter. (1) D. radlatum. B* Two l a y e r s o f sporangium w a l l e a s i l y separable; c o l u m e l l a u s u a l l y s m a l l , reddish-brown; spores p a l e v i o l e t - b r o w n , 7.^u - 9.5u diameter. (2) D. montanum. I I * Sporangia u s u a l l y s e s s i l e , sporangium w a l l r u p t u r i n g i n t o p e t a l - l i k e r e f l e x i n g l o b e s ; outer l a y e r of w a l l membranous, the i n n e r c a l c a r e o u s . A* Sporangia s m a l l , about .75 mm. i n diameter; peridium of two adhering l a y e r s ; e a p i l l i t i u m o f slender c o l o u r l e s s threads. (3) 33. a s t e r o l d e s . B. Sporangia l a r g e r , about 1 mm. - 1 . 5 mm. i n diameter; peridium o f three c l o s e l y adhering l a y e r s ; e a p i l l i t i u m o f s t o u t e r r i g i d , mostly dark p u r p l i s h - brown t h r e a d s . ( 4 ) 33. T r e v e l y a n i . (1) Uidejrma radiatum (Linn.) Morg. Sporangia l o o s e l y gregarious on the bark of a twig l y i n g on a heap o f dead l e a v e s . C o l l e c t e d once o n l y , Vancouver v i c i n i t y , i n the f a l l . T h i s specimen i s apparently t y p i c a l o f 3). radiatum, although the dehiscence of the sporangium w a l l i s i r r e g u l a r , not s t e l l a t e , and the lobes are seldom r e f l e x e d . This i r r e g u l a r dehiscence o f the drab sporangia i s suggestive o f 3). radiatum v a r . umbllicatum, which L i s t e r (13) d e s c r i b e s as being very c l o s e l y a l l i e d to 33. montanum. S u p e r f i c i a l l y these sporangia c l o s e l y resemble those o f 33. montanum, the c o l l e c t i o n s having been made o f both species at the same time of year and i n the same l o c a l i t y . Macbride (14) st a t e s t h a t t h i s species i s r a r e . U.B.G. Myc. Herb. No. 526 (2) Diderma montanum Meylan. Sporangia g r e g a r i o u s on moss and bark of o l d l o g s , o f t e n o c c u r r i n g i n l i n e s a l o n g c r a c k s i n the wood of the substratum. T h i s s p e c i e s i s ve r y abundant i n the f a l l and was c o l l e c t e d o f t e n i n Vancouver v i c i n i t i e s . Plasmodium s c a r c e , creamy-white, opaque; the sporangia when f i r s t formed are white, changing from white to fawn, and from fawn through brown and grey to b l a c k , the mature s p o r a n g i a b e i n g w h i t i s h or pale b u f f - c o l o u r e d . Of the s p e c i e s o f Diderma l i s t e d by Macbride (14), the one most n e a r l y l i k e t h i s m a t e r i a l i s D. radiatum, but the pr e s e n t s p e c i e s d i f f e r s from D. radiatum c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the nature o f the sporangium'wall, c o l u m e l l a and spores, w h i l e i t f i t s the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n by L i s t e r (13) o f D. montanum. Moreover L i s t e r (13) notes t h a t D. montanum i s c l o s e l y a l l i e d to D. radiatum v a r . umbilicatum . b e i n g d i s t i n g u i s h e d from i t by the two l a y e r s o f the sporangium w a l l , which are e a s i l y s e p a r a b l e , i n s t e a d o f c l o s e l y a d h ering, and by the spores b e i n g p a l e r , s m a l l e r and smoother. I t i s i n these r e s p e c t s t h a t t h i s m a t e r i a l d i f f e r s from the m a t e r i a l c l a s s i f i e d as D. radiatum (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 526) , and i n a d d i t i o n the c o l u m e l l a o f the present s p e c i e s i s s m a l l and dark red-brown, while t h a t o f D. radiatum. as shown by the specimens at hand, i s extremely l a r g e and p a l e y e l l o w . T h i s s p e c i e s has the re fore been c l a s s i f i e d as D. montanum d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t Macbride (14) - 26 - has no record, o f i t having t e e n found "before on t h i s c o n t i n e n t . In a l l the g a t h e r i n g s o f B. montanum the spores are remarkably constant i n s i z e and c o l o u r , b e i n g p a l e violet-brown, r a n g i n g i n diameter from 7*5p. - 9*5u, w h i l e the spores o f P« radiatum are dark purple-brown r a n g i n g i n diameter from 9p- - 12u* In the shape s i z e and c o l o u r o f the c o l u m e l l a , how- ever, there i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the d i f f e r e n t s p o r a n g i a , and one o r two forms were c o l l e c t e d which appear to be t r a n s i t i o n a l between 33* montanum and P* radiatum i n the nature o f the c o l u m e l l a * In the f i r s t o f these forms the c o l u m e l l a i s l a r g e , about o n e - h a l f the s i z e o f a c o l u m e l l a t y p i c a l o f D . radiatum, and i s p a l e o r dark reddish-brown. These sporangia, apart from the v e r y conspicuous c o l u m e l l a , are s i m i l a r to ones t y p i c a l of D* montanum» The c o l u m e l l a o f spora n g i a i n the second g a t h e r i n g i s a l s o l a r g e , about o n e - t h i r d the s i z e o f a c o l u m e l l a t y p i c a l o f 33* radiatum and i s p a l e r e d d i s h or yellow-brown, sometimes creamish. A t h i r d g a t h e r i n g shows the c o l u m e l l a the same s i z e as i n the p r e c e d i n g form, but concolorous w i t h the s t i p e , white or creamish* The i n c r e a s e i n s i z e and the v a r i a t i o n In c o l o u r o f the c o l u m e l l a i n these three forms, show an approach to D » radiatum. but the sporangium w a l l o f two e a s i l y s e p a r a t i n g l a y e r s , and the s m a l l p a l e s p o r e s , d i s t i n g u i s h them as forms o f D t montanum. The t y p i c a l gatherings of D. montanum. as w e l l as the three v a r y i n g forms were c o l l e c t e d at the same time of year, i n one r e g i o n , and on s i m i l a r s u b s t r a t a . T y p i c a l m a t e r i a l : - U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 527 F i r s t v a r y i n g •form:- U.B.C. Myc..Herb. Ho. 528 Second v a r y i n g form: - U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 529 T h i r d v a r y i n g form:- U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 530 (3) Siderma a s t e r o i d e s L i s t . Sporangia gregarious on f a l l e n arbutus leaves and w i l l o w t w i g s . C o l l e c t e d twice on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , s p r i n g and summer, i n dry wooded r e g i o n s . This m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l of the s p e c i e s . U.B.C• Myc. Herb. Ho. 531 ( 4 ) Diderma T r e v e l y a n i (Grev.) FT. Sporangia gregarious on the bark of a decaying a l d e r l o g . T h i s scanty, much weathered m a t e r i a l was c o l l e c t e d i n the spr i n g , i n a wet wooded area on S a l t Spring I s l a n d . In the f a l l some s i m i l a r sporangia were gathered i n the v i c i n i t y of Vancouver on decaying maple l e a v e s , but they were apparently immature at the time o f c o l l e c t i o n , and were o f no use f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n •» 28 purposes. The sporangia o f the weathered m a t e r i a l f i t the d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n by l i s t e r (13) and Macbride (14) o f 33. T r e v e l y a n i w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f the nature of the base of the sporangium. The lower q u a r t e r o f the sporangium appears to be t h i c k e n e d , forming a broad c i r c u l a r y e l l o w i s h roughened area, almost l i k e a f l a t t e n e d o r concave c o l u m e l l a , from the edge o f which the l o b e s o f the r u p t u r e d sporangium w a l l are r e f l e x e d . The t h r e e - l a y e r e d w a l l , the method o f dehiscence and the dark much branched network o f c a p i l l i t i a l threads d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s s p e c i e s as 33. T r e v e l y a n i , w h i l e the b a s a l t h i c k e n e d rough a r e a may be due to abnormal development of the s p o r a n g i a . U.B.G. Myc. Herb. Ho. 532 3. Lepidoderma 33eBary. T h i s genus i s r e p r e s e n t e d by one s p e c i e s which i s very abundant i n wet wooded r e g i o n s on v a r i o u s s u b s t r a t a , i n the f a l l . A l l the g a t h e r i n g s a r e quite t y p i c a l and no d i f f i c u l t y was experienced i n i d e n t i f y i n g the m a t e r i a l . Lepidoderma t l g r i n u m (Schrad.) Rost. Sporangia s c a t t e r e d on moss covered l o g s . C o l l e c t e d f r e q u e n t l y i n the f a l l , Vancouver v i o i n i t y . Plasmodium deep orange y e l l o w . A c c o r d i n g to Macbride (14) t h i s s p e c i e s i s r a r e . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 333 . » g o , ORDER I I STEMQHITAIES. The order Stemonitales i s d i v i d e d by Macbride (14; Into t h r e e f a m i l i e s , the Amaurochaetaceae. the Stemonitaoeae and t h e Lamprodermaeeab. No s p e c i e s b e l o n g i n g to the f i r s t f a m i l y were found, but the two rema i n i n g f a m i l i e s are w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n . In the Stemonitaoeae specie s b e l o n g i n g to three out of f o u r genera were c o l l e c t e d , the l a r g e s t number of r e p r e s e n t - a t i v e s b e i n g i n the genus S t e m o n l t i s i n which t h r e e d e f i n i t e and f o u r d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s are rec o r d e d . Two d e f i n i t e and one d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s have been p l a c e d i n the genus Comatrioha, and a s i n g l e s p e c i e s i n the genus Diachaea. Ho g a t h e r i n g s were made of B r e f e l d i a . S p e c i e s of genera b e l o n g i n g to the f a m i l y Lamprodermaeeab are not o f such f r e q u e n t occurrence as are members o f the Stemonitaoeae. o n l y two out o f f o u r genera b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d . A s i n g l e s p e c i e s o f the genus Enerthenema, and t h r e e d e f i n i t e and one d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s o f hamproderma have been l i s t e d , no g a t h e r i n g s h a v i n g been made o f s p e c i e s o f Clastoderma o r E c h i n o s t e l i u m . STEMOHITACEAE I.. S t e m o n l t i s ( G l e d i t s o h ) Rost. T h i s genus , w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n , p r e s e n t e d many taxonomic d i f f i c u l t i e s , s i n c e much of the - 30 - m a t e r i a l was not t y p i c a l of any o f the s p e c i e s of S t e m o n i t i s l i s t e d b y Macbride ( 1 4 ) o r l i s t e r (13) . Only three s p e c i e s were d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d , w h i l e f o u r others, showing marked v a r i a t i o n s from t y p i c a l forms, have been recorded as d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s . D i f f i c u l t y was experienced i n f i n d i n g constant c h a r a c t e r s on which to separate the v a r i o u s forms, s i n c e i n most o f the s p e c i e s the s i z e and c o l o u r of the s p o r a n g i a , d e n s i t y o f the c a p i l l i t i u m , and the nature of the c a p i l l i t i a l s u r f a c e n e t , seem to be s u b j e c t to a g r e a t range o f v a r i a t i o n . A number o f forms were c o l l e c t e d besides the ones reco r d e d here; these appear f o r the most p a r t to he v a r y i n g phases o f the s p e c i e s l i s t e d below, but time d i d not permit o f t h e i r study i n d e t a i l . I . Spores marked w i t h d i s t i n c t or f a i n t r e t i c u l a t i o n s . A. Sporangia dusky purplish-brown; spores 6.5ji - 8u diameter, purple-brown or v i o l e t - g r e y , s t r o n g l y r e t i c u l a t e d w i t h bands or rows of s t o u t s p i n e s . (a) Sporangia 6 mm. - 13 mm. i n t o t a l h e i g h t . (1) S. f u s c a . (b) Sporangia 2 mm. «* 3.5 mm. i n t o t a l h e i g h t . ( i ) Sporangia s l e n d e r , c y l i n d r i c a l ; c a p i l l i t i a l threads s l e n d e r , branched and anastomosing; s u r f a c e net w e l l developed; spores r e t i c u l a t e d w i t h rows o f s p i n e s . ( 2 ) S. ( f u s c a ? ) . ( i i ) Sporangia broad, elongated-ovate; c a p i l l i t i a l threads s t o u t , l i t t l e branched; s u r f a c e net i r r e g u l a r , d i s a p p e a r i n g near the summit of the sporangium; spores r e t i c u l a t e d w i t h continuous r a i s e d hands, or confluent s p i n e s . (3) S. (nlgreseens?). B. Sporangia pale l i l a c - b r o w n or pinkish-fawn; spores 5»5u. - 6,5u. diameter, pale v i o l a c e o u s or y e l l o w i s h , very f a i n t l y and i r r e g u l a r l y r e t i c u l a t e d . (4) S. (hyperopta?). I I . Spores n e a r l y smooth, or minutely warted. A. Spores 4u. - 6n. diameter, pale r e d d i s h or y e l l o w i s h , n e a r l y smooth. (a) Sporangia b r i g h t rusty-brown, about 15 mm. hi g h ; meshes o f surface net 8p. - 30u wide; spores j?ji - 6u diameter. (5) S. a x i f e r a . .-••(b) Sporangia d u l l v i o l e t - b r o w n , about 7 mm* h i g h ; meshes of surface net 2On. - 6Op. wide; spores 4.3u - 3 . 5 u diameter. (6) S. ( a x i f e r a ? ) . B . Spores 6p. - 8ji diameter, pale v i o l e t - g r e y , minutely warted. (7) S. h e r b a t i c a . ( l ) S t e m o n i t i s f u s c a (Roth) Eost. Sporangia c l u s t e r e d on decaying maple wood and l e a v e s . C o l l e c t e d once or twice i n the v i c i n i t y of Vancouver, i n the f a l l . A range o f v a r i a t i o n i n the height of the sporangia i s shown i n the three gatherings made of t h i s s p e c i e s . In the f i r s t g a t h e r i n g the sporangia range i n height from ? mm. - 13 mm.; the second c o l l e c t i o n contains sporangia about 8 mm. high, w h i l e i n the t h i r d c l u s t e r they average about 6 mm. i n h e i g h t . The de n s i t y o f the e a p i l l i t i u m , and the nature of the usr f a c e net vary c o n s i d e r a b l y even i n sporangia from the same ga t h e r i n g , but i n a l l the m a t e r i a l examined the spore character- i s t i c s are very constant. M a t e r i a l c o n t a i n i n g sporangia 9 mm. - 13 mm. hi g h : - U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 534 M a t e r i a l c o n t a i n i n g sporangia 8 mm. h i g h r - U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 333 M a t e r i a l c o n t a i n i n g sporangia 6 mm. h i g h : - U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 536 (2) S t e m o n l t i s ( f u s c a ? ) . Sporangia in a small c l u s t e r on a maple t w i g . C o l l e c t e d i n the e a r l y summer i n a wet wooded area on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d . This species d i f f e r s from t y p i c a l gatherings of S. fusoa p r i n c i p a l l y i n s i z e , the slender c y l i n d r i c a l sporangia ranging i n height from 3.23 mm. - 3.5 mm.; i n t h i s respect the m a t e r i a l f i t s the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n by Macbride (14) of S. nigrescens, and by L i s t e r (13) of S. fusca v a r . nigrescens. Macbride (14) d i s t i n g u i s h e s S. nigrescens from S. fusca by i t s small s i z e , 3 mm. - 3 mm., i n t e n s e l y b l a c k c o l o u r , very short s t i p e , .3 mm. lo n g , and incomplete surface net. The sporangia - 33 - o f the present m a t e r i a l , b e s i d e s "being s m a l l , are a very dark purple-brown, but the s t i p e i s co m p a r a t i v e l y l o n g 1.25 mm. - 1.3 mm., and the s u r f a c e net i s present j u s t as i n t y p i c a l forms of S.. f u s c a . Some o f the g a t h e r i n g s o f S. f u s c a are a l s o v e r y dark (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 534), so that except f o r s i z e t h i s s p e c i e s i s r e a l l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h S. f u s c a . I t may be noted t h a t there i s o n l y a few m i l l i m e t r e s d i f f e r e n c e i n height between the sporangia o f t h i s s p e c i e s and those o f the s h o r t e r forms o f S. f u s c a . (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 536). U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 537 (3) S t e m o n i t i s ( n i g r e s c e n s ? ) . Sporangia g r e g a r i o u s i n s c a t t e r e d c l u s t e r s on Douglas f i r wood. C o l l e c t e d once, e a r l y summer, i n a wet wooded r e g i o n on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d . T h i s s p e c i e s does not appear to be quite t y p i c a l o f S. n i g r e s c e n s as d e s c r i b e d by Macbride (14), and so has been recorded as d o u b t f u l . The sp o r a n g i a i n s t e a d o f b e i n g c y l i n d r i - c a l are elongated-ovate, broader a t the base than above; the s t i p e i s s l i g h t l y l o n g e r than i s t y p i c a l , .75 mm. lo n g ; the su r f a c e n e t i s o n l y incomplete near the apex of the sporangium, the meshes v a r y i n g g r e a t l y i n s i z e and shape - smal l i n some sporang i a , l a r g e i n o t h e r s -, while the pa l e v i o l e t - g r e y spores, 6.5U. - 7.5p. diameter, appear to be r e t i c u l a t e d w i t h continuous r a i s e d bands, although i n some cases c o n f l u e n t spines can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . „ _ „ , „ __ 0 & U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 538 • 34 - (4) S t e m o n l t i s ( h y p e r o p t a ? ) . Sporangia g r e g a r i o u s , c l u s t e r d i n l i t t l e t u f t s or s p r e a d i n g a l o n g cracks i n de c a y i n g Douglas f i r wood. C o l l e c t e d once i n an exposed swampy area on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , i n the s p r i n g . T h i s m a t e r i a l i s not a b s o l u t e l y t y p i c a l o f any o f the s p e c i e s l i s t e d by Macbride ( 1 4 ) or L i s t e r (13) f o r t h i s genus, but a c c o r d i n g to the key g i v e n by Macbride (14) f o r the s p e c i e s o f S t e m o n l t i s i t would be c l a s s i f i e d as S. v i r g i n i e n s i s . on account o f the s h o r t s p o r a n g i a , 2.5 mm. - 3.23 mm., and r e t i c u l a t e d s p ores. Macbride (14), however, d e s c r i b e s the spores o f .S. v i r g i n i e n s i s as b e i n g c o n s p i c u o u s l y banded w i t h t e n or twelve meshes to the hemisphere, and notes that the spore markings are s u f f i c i e n t to i d e n t i f y the s p e c i e s . In the pre s e n t s p e c i e s the spores are v e r y f a i n t l y and i r r e g u l a r l y r e t i c u l a t e d ; some show a few patches o f small-meshed network connected by f a i n t l i n e s ; i n others a l a x r e t i c u l a t i o n o f more or l e s s c i r c u l a r meshes seems to cover the spore s u r f a c e , while i n many the me she s are narrow, elongated and angular, so t h a t the bands appear to run p a r a l l e l around the hemisphere. These spore markings are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f S. hyperopta which L i s t e r (13) g i v e s as a s p e c i e s n e a r l y r e l a t e d t o S. v i r g i n i e n s i s . b e i n g d i s t i n g u i s h e d from i t by the l e s s complete surface net and the f a i n t e r more uneven r e t i c u l a t i o n o f the spores. I t i s i n j u s t these r e s p e c t s t h a t t h i s m a t e r i a l d i f f e r s from d e s c r i p t i o n s o f S. v i r g i n i e n s i s , and resembles S. hyperopta. - 35 - I t d i f f e r s from S. hyperopta however, and tends t o approach S> v i r g i n i e n s i s i n p o s s e s s i n g s l i g h t l y l a r g e r spores, 5»5ji - 6.5^-, and l o n g e r s t i p e s , (about 1 mm. i n l e n g t h ) . Without the use o f an o i l immersion l e n s t h i s s p e c i e s might be c l a s s i f i e d as Comatricha p u l c h e l l a v a r . g r a c i l i s ( L i s t e r ( 1 3 ) ) , as the spore markings are too i n d i s t i n c t to be seen c l e a r l y w i t h o r d i n a r y m a g n i f i c a t i o n s and the spores con- se q u e n t l y appear almost smooth or warted. U.B.G. Myc• Herb. Ho* 539 (5) S t e m o n i t i s a x i f e r a ( B u l l . ) Macbr. Sporangia g r e g a r i o u s i n t u f t s on decaying maple wood. C o l l e c t e d once i n the s p r i n g on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , and once i n Vancouver i n the f a l l • The g r e a t e r development of branches near and at the apex o f the c o l u m e l l a , and the uneven s u r f a c e net w i t h f r e e p r o j e c t i n g ends, suggest an approach to the a l l i e d s p e c i e s S. f l a v o g e n i t a , but the l a r g e l o n g - s t i p e d s p o r a n g i a ( t o t a l h e i g h t about 13 mm.) and the v e r y s m a l l spores 5P- - 6 u , average 5.4u, d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f y t h i s g a t h e r i n g as S. a x i f e r a . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 540 (6) S t e m o n i t i s ( a x i f e r a ? ) . Sporangia g r e g a r i o u s on decaying l e a v e s ; gathered once i n the f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . The most conspicuous c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s s p e c i e s i s to be found i n the s m a l l n e a r l y c o l o u r l e s s , a b s o l u t e l y smooth •» — spores, r a n g i n g from 4.5u - 5.5U i n diameter. There are only- two s p e c i e s o f S t e m o n i t i s l i s t e d by Macbride (14) which possess spores s i m i l a r to the ones j u s t d e s c r i b e d , namely, S. S m i t h i i and S. a x i f e r a * S. S m i t h i i however i s s a i d by Macbride (14) to i n c l u d e forms v a r y i n g i n s i z e from 2.5 mm. - 5 mm. o n l y , and the s p o r a n g i a o f the p r e s e n t s p e c i e s range from 5.5 mm. « 7 mm. i n h e i g h t . The specimens d i f f e r from S. a x i f e r a a l s o , i n s i z e , as w e l l as i n c o l o u r , the sporangia b e i n g a d u l l v i o l e t brown i n s t e a d o f b r i g h t rusty-brown; the s u r f a c e net i s composed of d e l i c a t e , f l e x u o s e threads surrounding l a r g e i r r e g u l a r meshes 20u. - 60u wide, and i s incomplete toward the s u r f a c e of the sporangium. In t y p i c a l forms of S. a x i f e r a the s u r f a c e net i s fine-me shed, the me she s as a r u l e not l a r g e r than j50u i n width. U.B.C• Myc. Herb. Ho. 541 (7) S t e m o n i t i s h e r b a t i c a Pk. Sporangia g r e g a r i o u s , growing i n a t u f t on maple wood. C o l l e c t e d once i n the f a l l , v i c i n i t y of Vancouver. These spor a n g i a are not q u i t e t y p i c a l of S. h e r b a t i c a , but show an approach to S. splendens i n the l o n g e r s t i p e s , 2.5 mm. -5.5 mm., l i t t l e branched c a p i l l i t i u m and very f i r m s u r f a c e n e t . L i s t e r (15) remarks that S. h e r b a t i c a holds an intermediate p o s i t i o n between S. f l a v o g e n i t a and S. splendens, and adds t h a t d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s may show a tendency toward one or other of these a l l i e s . U.B.C. Myc• Herb. Ho. 542 2 . Comatricha (Preuss) Rost. Two o f the three species recorded f o r t h i s genus were e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d , "but the t h i r d , l i s t e d as d o u b t f u l , i n c l u d e s three v a r y i n g forms, which, although quite d i s t i n c t from one another, nevertheless appear to be phases of a s i n g l e s p e c i e s . The e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s of the sporangia, and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c p a i l l i t i u m i n these forms vary so much that no s a t i s f a c t o r y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n could be made. One or two somewhat s i m i l a r v a r y i n g forms were c o l l e c t e d , but owing to l a c k of time these could not be examined c r i t i c a l l y , and consequently are omitted from t h i s l i s t . I . Sporangia s m a l l , 1 mm. - l . j j mm. i n t o t a l h e ight, v i o l a c e o u s or p i n k i s h brown; sporangium w a l l p e r s i s t e n t at base of sporangium forming a d i s t i n c t brownish mem- branous cup, which i s attached to the c a p i l l i t i u m . ( 1 ) C . rufrens. I I . Sporangia l a r g e r , u s u a l l y 2 mm. - 7 nu&. i n t o t a l height, s i l v e r y - g r e y , v i o l e t - or dusky-brown; sporangium w a l l evanescent, or more or l e s s p e r s i s t e n t as a s i l v e r y - g r e y membranous sheath. A. Sporangia c y l i n d r i c a l , sporangium w a l l s i l v e r y - g r e y , p a r t i a l l y or w h olly p e r s i s t e n t enveloping the s t i p e and sporangium head; spores 6u - 7)i diameter, marked w i t h s c a t t e r e d prominent warts (or patches of t i n y warts) three or four to the hemisphere. (2) C. typhoides. B. Sporangia o v a t e - c y l i n d r i c a l or o v o i d , sporangium w a l l evanescent; spores 7.5n - ?u diameter, mi n u t e l y warted. (3) G. ( n i g r a ? ) . ( l ) Comatricha rubens L i s t e r . Sporangia l o o s e l y g r e g a r i o u s o r s c a t t e r e d , abundant on wet d e c a y i n g a l d e r l e a v e s . C o l l e c t e d once, l a t e f a l l , i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver• T h i s m a t e r i a l i s not quite t y p i c a l of the s p e c i e s as d e s c r i b e d by L i s t e r (13) and Macbride (14), a s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n the nature o f the c o l u m e l l a and the c o l n u r o f the c a p i l l i t i a l t h r eads and spores. The c o l u m e l l a i s u s u a l l y o n l y o n e - t h i r d , r a r e l y o n e - h a l f , the height o f the sporangium, while i n t y p i c a l forms i t i s "more than h a l f the h e i g h t " (Macbride (14)) or "about t w o - t h i r d s " the h e i g h t " ( L i s t e r (13)) o f the sporangium; the e a p i l l i t i u m i s b r i g h t reddish-brown, not purplish-brown, and the spores very pale r e d d i s h or l i l a c , almost c o l o u r l e s s , i n s t e a d o f l i l a c - b r o w n . In o t h e r r e s p e c t s the m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l o f C. rubens. U.B.G. Myc. Herb. I o . 543 (2) Gomatricha typ h o i d e s ( B u l l . ) Rost. Sporangia gregarious f o r m i n g l a r g e c o l o n i e s on r o t t i n g Douglas f i r wood. C o l l e c t e d once i n the summer, i n a wooded area on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d . T h i s g a t h e r i n g conforms i n a l l r e s p e c t s but one to the d e s c r i p t i o n s g i ven by L i s t e r (13) and Macbride (14) of C. typhoides. Both authors give the t o t a l height of the sporangia as ranging onl y from 2 mm. - 3 mm., whil e the sporangia o f t h i s m a t e r i a l show a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r range I . 7 3 mm. - 3 mm.. but are otherwise t y p i c a l of the s p e c i e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 5 4 4 ( 3) Comatricha ( n i g r a ? ) . Under t h i s heading are grouped three forms, which wh i l e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from one another yet appear to resemble C. n i g r a more than they resemble any other species of Comatricha l i s t e d by Macbride (14) or L i s t e r (13); since these gatherings are so d i s t i n c t from one another, they w i l l be d e a l t w i t h s e p a r a t e l y . In the f i r s t form the sporangia, s c a t t e r e d i n loose aggregations, were found on the bark of a Douglas f i r l o g , i n a dry wooded area on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n the s p r i n g . These sporangia seem to show a very cl o s e approach to C. S u k s d o r f i i i n the dark sooty-brown, almost black colour of the oval or o v a t e - c y l i n d r i c a l sporangia; i n the very dark purplish-brown colour of the threads, which a r i s e from a l l p a r t s of the co l u m e l l a , and i n the dark v i o l a c e o u s , or purp1ish-brown colour of the spores. L i s t e r (13) notes t h a t C. n i g r a i s connected by intermediate forms w i t h C. S a k s d o r f i i , a close a l l y ; the spores of the l a t t e r species however, are l a r g e , 9u. - lj>p. ( L i s t e r ( 1 3 ) ) , or lOu - 12u. - (Macbride ( 1 4 ) ) , while i n the present species the spores resemble those of C. n i g r a , being •» 40 — much s m a l l e r , 7»5u. - 9u., a v e r a g i n g 8 .4u i n diameter. I t i s p o s s i b l e that t h i s m a t e r i a l shows an abnormal development o f the s p e c i e s , s i n c e the c a p i l l i t i a l threads are very i r r e g u l a r , b e i n g c o n s p i c u o u s l y warted, e s p e c i a l l y near and at the s u r f a c e of the sporangium, U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 545 The s p o r a n g i a of t h e second g a t h e r i n g are l o o s e l y g r e g a r i o u s on r o t t i n g moss-covered wood and Douglas f i r needles. They were c o l l e c t e d i n the v i c i n i t y of Vancouver i n the l a t e f a l l . In immature specimens the head i s opaque white, the s t i p e b l a c k . These sporangia d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from those o f the f i r s t and t h i r d g a t h e r i n g s (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Nos. 545 and 547) b e i n g much t a l l e r , 3 mm. « 7 mm., w h i l e the others are l e s s than 3.5 mm. i n t o t a l h e i g h t ; the o v o i d , v i o l a c e o u s sooty- brown heads are mounted on l o n g s l e n d e r f l e x u o s e s t i p e s , and are u s u a l l y nodding and s l i g h t l y plumose a t the t i p s . In most r e s p e c t s the m a t e r i a l f i t s the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f 0 . n i g r a , but one or two p e c u l i a r i t i e s are to be noted. The t o t a l he i g h t o f the s p o r a n g i a i s l a r g e r than t h a t g i v e n by L i s t e r (13); the branches o f the c o l u m e l l a , g i v i n g r i s e to the violaceous-brown c a p i l l i t i a l t h r e a d s , are more numerous and u s u a l l y l a r g e r i n the b a s a l r e g i o n o f the sporangium, while the spores, 8u. - 9u. i n diameter, are marked w i t h d i s t i n c t s c a t t e r - ed, but e v e n l y spaced warts. A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the spores from t h i s m a t e r i a l have added i r r e g u l a r markings l i k e t h i c k e n - ings i n the w a l l , o r adhesions to i t . These are seldom « B 41 •» extensive but form dark patches on the s u r f a c e of the spore w a l l . U.B.G. Myc. Herb. Ho. 546 The t h i r d g a t h e r i n g i s composed of sporangia aggregated i n s m a l l c l u s t e r s or s c a t t e r e d on Douglas f i r and maple wood. C o l l e c t e d twice, once i n the summer i n a dry wooded area on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , and once i n the f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . Of the three forms t h i s i s most n e a r l y t y p i c a l o f C. n i g r a . The s h o r t l y o v o i d , dark brown spora n g i a are q u i t e s h o r t , 1.2,5 mm. - 3.25 mm., e r e c t , and are s l i g h t l y u m b i l i c a t e beneath. They vary from t y p i c a l forms i n the nature o f the e a p i l l i t i u m and spores; the branches of the c o l u m e l l a are more numerous near the base and a t the apex, than elsewhere; the t h r e a d s become p a l e r and much more s l e n d e r toward the p e r i p h e r y , forming an i r r e g u l a r s u r f a c e net i n the lower r e g i o n o f the sporangium. The m a j o r i t y o f spores are t y p i c a l but some of them show e x t r a t h i c k e n i n g s or adhesions such as are found i n spores o f the second g a t h e r i n g (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 546) . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 547 C. n i g r a i s s a i d by Macbride (14) to be a l l i e d to C. l a x a and C . a e q u a l i s . w h i l e L i s t e r (13; d e s c r i b e s i t as a very v a r i a b l e s p e c i e s , c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o , and connected by i n t e r m e d i a t e forms wi t h the three s p e c i e s C. S u k s d o r f i i , C. l a x a , and C. e l e g a n s . T h i s g r e a t range o f v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the s p e c i e s may account f o r the d i f f i c u l t y experienced i n i d e n t i f y i n g the three forms l i s t e d above, (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. <» 42 — 546,-547)• 3» Diachaea F r i e s . T h i s genus i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the e o l l e c t i o n by a s i n g l e s p e c i e s , which i s not l i s t e d by Macbride (14), but which L i s t e r (13) d e s c r i b e s as a l i m e l e s s s p e c i e s . Diachaea c e r i f e r a G. L i s t e r . Sporangia g r e g a r i o u s on very wet moss covered wood. C o l l e c t e d s e v e r a l times i n the f a l l , i n Vancouver v i c i n i t i e s . Plasmodium s c a r c e , a p p a r e n t l y n e a r l y c o l o u r l e s s , heaping i n t o l i t t l e t r a n s p a r e n t , almost c o l o u r l e s s g l o b u l e s , As the sporan g i a take form the head becomes t r a n s p a r e n t y e l l o w i s h , the s t i p e greenish-brown above and below, b l a c k i n the m i d d l e e G r a d u a l l y the s t i p e t u r n s b l a c k , the head changing to white and then cream-colour, u n t i l f i n a l l y both head and s t i p e are d u l l b l a c k . At m a t u r i t y the sp o r a n g i a are i r i d e s c e n t dark brownish or g r e e n i s h p u r p l e . A c c o r d i n g to L i s t e r (13) the l i m e l e s s forms o f Diachaea c l o s e l y resemble some s p e c i e s of Lamproderma, and the present s p e c i e s was f i r s t d e s c r i b e d as Lamproderma columbinum v a r . s e s s i l e . T h i s m a t e r i a l , w h i l e b e a r i n g a s u p e r f i c i a l resemblance to members o f the genus Lamp roderma, on account o f the i r i d e s c e n t , l i m e l e s s peridium, i s n e v e r t h e l e s s quite d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from any o f the lamprodermas by the very dark, r i g i d c a p i l l i t i a l threads which f o r k and anastomose, but do not form a network, the pale i r r e g u l a r l y shaped and marked spores, and by the absence o f a c o l u m e l l a , - the threads s p r i n g i n g from a "basal d i s c formed by the broad t i p of the s t i p e . This species can be separated i n a d d i t i o n from lamp ro derma columbinum i n p a r t i c u l a r , by the nature of i t s sporangial development, i n the manner des c r i b e d above, from a transparent, almost c o l o u r l e s s Plasmodium, w h i l e the observed development of sporangia of L. columbinum from transparent or opaque white Plasmodia i s qui t e d i f f e r e n t , , D. e e r i f e r a , a l i m e l e s s species of Diachaea, i s not l i s t e d by Macbride (14) as o c c u r r i n g i n America; these specimens how- ever seem to be very n e a r l y t y p i c a l o f 33. o e r i f e r a as represent- ed by L i s t e r T s d e s c r i p t i o n and i l l u s t r a t i o n s , w h i l e they do not conform to any of Macbride*s d e s c r i p t i o n s of species o f Lamproderma, Siaohaea or a l l i e d genera. No y e l l o w waxy c o l l a r i s apparent i n the sporangia, but L i s t e r (13) mentions that t h i s f e a t u r e i s p e c u l i a r to Japanese specimens; the spores, °ji - l6u diameter, do not show quite such a lar g e range i n diameter as i s given by L i s t e r (13), but are very s i m i l a r since i n h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s they are depi c t e d as i r r e g u l a r i n shape and marked wit h e i t h e r close or s c a t t e r e d warts or s p i n u l e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. ̂ 48 LAMPRO bERMAC EAE 1. Enerthenema Bowman. Of the two species l i s t e d i n t h i s genus by Machride (14), one i s in c l u d e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n , and since the m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l i n a l l respects i t was not d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y . Enerthenema p a p i l l a t u m (Pers.) Rost. Sporangia gregarious on r o t t i n g a l d e r and f i r wood. C o l l e c t e d twice i n the s p r i n g on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , i n a wet wooded area. According to Macbride (14) t h i s w e l l marked species i s rare on t h i s c o n t i n e n t . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 549 2. Lamproderma Rost. This genus i s w e l l represented, f o u r species having been c o l l e c t e d . I n three of these the m a t e r i a l i s f a i r l y t y p i c a l and so o f f e r e d no p a r t i c u l a r taxonomic d i f f i c u l t i e s , but the f o u r t h species c o u l d not be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i d e n t i f i e d , and i s therefore recorded as d o u b t f u l • I . Sporangia u s u a l l y b r i l l i a n t l y i r i d e s c e n t w i t h b l u e , green, purple, bronze or gold r e f l e c t i o n s . A. Sporangia l a r g e , 2.75 mm. - 3.75 mm. i n t o t a l height; e a p i l l i t i u m dark from the c o l u m e l l a out to the periphery, becoming pale at the t i p s ; spores dark, c l o s e l y s p i n u l o s e , l i p - l j p i n diameter. (1) L. columbinum. B. Sporangia s m a l l , 1 mm. - 1.2J5 mm. i n t o t a l height; e a p i l l i t i u m pale f o r a short distance a f t e r l e a v i n g the c o l u m e l l a , then a b r u p t l y dark; spores p a l e , marked w i t h s c a t t e r e d warts, 6.5p - 8 .̂ p. i n diameter. (2) 1. s c i n t i l l a n s . I I . Sporangia u s u a l l y d u l l , dark s i l v e r y black, or s i l v e r y » 45 - v i o l e t , sometimes with f a i n t i r i d e s c e n c e . A. Sporangia subglobose, deeply u m b i l i c a t e beneath, peridium dark, the same colour throughout; c a p i l l i t - i a l threads pale brown or almost c o l o u r l e s s , a r i s i n g u s u a l l y from the upper h a l f of the colume l l a ; spores 9f- - 12u.t averaging 10.7u i n diameter. O) L. violaceum. B. Sporangia subglobose or obovoid, not u m b i l i c a t e , peridium s i l v e r y - v i o l a c e o u s above, dark reddish-brown below forming a cup a t the base of the sporangium; c a p i l l i t i a l threads deep r e d - or purple-brown, a r i s i n g c h i e f l y from the l a r g e main d i v i s i o n s of the apex o f the c o l u m e l l a ; spores 7«5p- - 9f-- averaging 8.6u i n diameter. ( 4 ) L. (aroyrlonema?). ( l ) lamproderma columbinum (Pers.) Rost. Two very d i s t i n c t forms o f t h i s species were c o l l e c t - ed; the f i r s t i s more or l e s s t y p i c a l of the species as desc r i b e d by l i s t e r (12) and Macbride (14), w h i l e the second corresponds i n every way to the d e s c r i p t i o n given by L i s t e r (15) of L. columbinum var. g r a c i l e . In the t y p i c a l form the sporangia are gregarious, forming l a r g e c o l o n i e s on the mossy surfaces of very o l d Douglas f i r l o g s . Abundant i n the f a l l , c o l l e c t e d i n the v i c i n i t y of Vancouver. The Plasmodium i s u s u a l l y opaque white, r a r e l y grey, the immature sporangia on stout black s t i p e s are opaque white •=» 46 — and c l a v a t e a t f i r s t , soon changing i n shape to globose i n colo u r from white to p i n k i s h fawn and f i n a l l y to b l a c k . At mat u r i t y the p e r f e c t l y globose heads are b r i l l i a n t l y i r i d e s c e n t , b r i g h t green being the predominating colour i n a l l the c o l l e c t i o n s made, purple and bronze t i n t s o c c u r r i n g r a r e l y . A p e c u l i a r i t y was noted i n the f a c t t h a t the sporangia are seldom s o l i t a r y , but tend to occur i n twos and t h r e e s , the s t i p e s , o f t e n j o i n e d f o r a quarter of t h e i r l e n g t h , d i v e r g i n g from a common base. I n t h i s m a t e r i a l the co l u m e l l a i s sh o r t e r than the approximate l e n g t h L i s t e r (13) gives as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , while the spores have a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r diameter range ( l l u . - ljp.) than i s recorded by Macbride (14). U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 550 The sporangia of the second form are gregarious on the mossy bark of r o t t i n g l o g s , and were c o l l e c t e d f r e q u e n t l y i n Vancouver v i c i n i t i e s i n the f a l l • At no time were they found a s s o c i a t e d w i t h sporangia of the f i r s t type (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 5j>0), although the two forms are abundant on s i m i l a r s u b s t r a t a a t the same time of year, and i n one l o c a l i t y . The Plasmodium i s watery white and the immature sporangia are completely white a t f i r s t ; the c e n t r a l part of the s t i p e , ( i n the l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s ) then becomes b l a c k l e a v i n g a transparent w h i t i s h p a r t on e i t h e r s i d e , and f i n a l l y both head and s t i p e t u r n b l a c k . At ma t u r i t y the s o l i t a r y obovoid sporangia mounted on slender curved s t i p e s , are i r i d e s c e n t b r i g h t blue or p u r p l i s h , the peridium being much f i r m e r and the co l u m e l l a l o n g e r , than i n the other form. Macbride (14) does not describe any v a r i e t i e s under L. oolumbinum. but the sporangia of the two types recorded here agree f a i r l y w e l l w i t h h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the s p e c i e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 551 (3) Lamproderma s c i n t i l l a n s (Berk, and Br.) Morgan. Sporangia gregarious on maple and a l d e r l e a v e s , f i r twigs and decaying herbaceous stems, forming extensive c o l o n i e s . C o l l e c t e d i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver i n the l a t e f a l l . Immature sporangia are y e l l o w i s h - w h i t e on white s t i p e s ; as the s t i p e becomes dark the head changes to yellow, and from yellow to a dingy mauve, u n t i l e v e n t u a l l y both head and s t i p e are b l a c k . At m a t u r i t y some of the sporangia are i r i d e s c e n t blue and p u r p l i s h - b r o n z e , w h i l e others are golden or s i l v e r y - b r o n z e . The d u l l g o l d and s i l v e r y sporangia are quite e a s i l y separable on a b a s i s o f c o l o u r from those w i t h blue and purple i r i d e s c e n t , and as f a r as could be made out the sporangia of the two forms grow i n separate, although o f t e n adjacent, patches• This suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of a v a r i e t a l d i f f e r e n c e , but the two forms c o u l d not be c o n s t a n t l y separated on s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . While there i s a strong tendency f o r the peridium to be wholly p e r s i s t e n t and adherent to the e a p i l l i t - ium i n the blue and purple forms, t h i s was a l s o found to be the case i n one or two of the d u l l e r s i l v e r y sporangia, i n which as a r a l e the peridium i s evanescent f a l l i n g away i n l a r g e f l a k e s . Much branched, flexuose c a p i l l i t i a l threads appear only to be present i n the blue and purple forms, hut c a p i l l i t i u m of s t r a i g h t , seldom u n i t i n g threads also occurs i n these, as w e l l as i n the golden sporangia. On the whole no d e f i n i t e s e p a r a t i o n could be made, the species as represented i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n b eing very v a r i a b l e as to the col o u r and nature of the sporangium w a l l . I n a l l , the c a p i l l i t i u m i s c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c a l l y p a le at the base where i t leaves the c o l u m e l l a , and the spores are t y p i c a l throughout. Macbride (14) notes t h a t t h i s species i s r a r e , and a l s o adds t h a t i t i s an e a r l y s p e c i e s , whereas t h i s m a t e r i a l was c o l l e c t e d i n the l a t e f a l l . Blue and purple i r i d e s c e n t sporangia:- U.B.C• Myc. Herb. No. 552 D u l l golden and s i l v e r y sporangia:- U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 553 (3) Lamproderma violaeeum ( F r i e s ) Best. Sporangia gregarious on moss and bark forming extensive c o l o n i e s on r o t t i n g Douglas f i r l o g s . C o l l e c t e d i n Vancouver, l a t e f a l l . Plasmodium b r i g h t canary-yellow, t h i c k opaque and exte n s i v e . Immature sporangia b r i g h t yellow at f i r s t , the s t i p e l a t e r becoming dark, and the head changing through shades of yellow and orange-buff to greenish-brown; mature sporangia d u l l brownish or s i l v e r y b l a c k . This c o l l e c t i o n does not seem to be quite t y p i c a l o f L. violaeeum; the sporangia are darker and l e s s c o l o u r f u l than would be expected from the d e s c r i p t i o n given by Macbride ( 1 4 ) , - 49 - i n which they are said, to be m e t a l l i c blue or pu r p l e . The s t i p e i s d i s t i n c t l y t a p e r i n g , not even, and the spores decided- l y spinulose , w i t h a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r diameter range (9/a - I2u) than i s t y p i c a l f o r the s p e c i e s . Macbride (14) notes that the Plasmodium i s transparent and then amber-tinted, but according to l i s t e r ( l j ) i t i s sometimes ye l l o w . On the whole t h i s may be taken as a s l i g h t l y v a r y i n g form of h. violaoeum, and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the l a c k of m e t a l l i c i r i d e s c e n c e may be connected i n some way, w i t h the col o u r of the Plasmodium, which apparent- l y i s unusual a l s o . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 554 (4) Lamproderm (arcyrlonema?). Sporangia c l u s t e r e d i n l a r g e c o l o n i e s on deoaying maple leaves and herbaceous stems. C o l l e c t e d once, i n the f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . Plasmodium extensive creamish-buff, immature sporangia changing from cream-colour to bla c h through shades o f brown and v i o l e t - b r o w n , the head at maturity being s i l v e r y - v i o l e t , the s t i p e b l a c k . This g a t h e r i n g does not f i t the d e s c r i p t i o n s of any of the species of lamproderma l i s t e d by Macbride (14) or L i s t e r (13), but i t approaches L. arcyrlonema i n some respects, although i t d i f f e r s from i t i n others. The branching of the columella and the e a p i l l i t i u m i s very Comatrlcha-like, and i n t h i s way i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f L. arcyrlonema. The black c o l u m e l l a , reaching h a l f the height o f the sporangium, d i v i d e s at the t i p i n t o two (sometimes more) main d i v i s i o n s ; smaller - 50 ~ l a t e r a l branches may be given o f f as w e l l . The deep p u r p l e - brown c a p i l l i t i a l threads, flexuose and much looped form an A r e y r i a - l i k e network, e s p e c i a l l y i n the outer part of the sporangium. In these respects the m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l of L. arcyrlonema. but i t d i f f e r s i n the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s . The sporangia are subglobose or obovoid, not globose, while the presence of a d e f i n i t e r e d d i s h , r i b b e d b a s a l cup i s d i s t i n c t i v e the spore mass i s brown, not b l a c k , the spores l a r g e r (7.571 - 9pi diameter), and marked w i t h prominent i r r e g u l a r l y s c a t t e r e d warts, and short 1ines formed by co n f l u e n t warts, covering the spore surface w i t h broken, i r r e g u l a r r e t i c u l a t i o n s . With the exc e p t i o n of the p e r s i s t e n t peridium t h i s species bears a strong resemblance to Comatricha l u r i d a as des c r i b e d by l i s t e r (15) , and would consequently appear to be on the b o r d e r l i n e between the two genera Lamproderma and Comatricha. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 555 ORDER I I I CRIBRARIALES. In t h i s order f i v e f a m i l i e s are l i s t e d by Macbride (14), but only species belonging to one of these - the C r i b r a r i a c e a e - are inc l u d e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n , no gatherings having been made of members of the remaining four f a m i l i e s . In the genus C r i b r a r i a , . the f i r s t of the two genera belonging to the C r i b r a r i a c e a e , four d e f i n i t e and ten doub t f u l species have • 51 - been l i s t e d , t h i s b e i n g the l a r g e s t number o f forms recorded f o r any one genus i n the c o l l e c t i o n ; the s i n g l e s p e c i e s o f the second genus, Dictydium. was a l s o c o l l e c t e d , so t h a t while the o r d e r C r i b r a r i a l e s as a whole, may not be very w e l l represented here, the f a m i l y C r i b r a r i a c e a b most c e r t a i n l y i s . CRIBRARIACEAE. 1. ; C r i b r a r i a (Pers») S c h r a d e r . T h i s genus i s b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t e d than any other genus i n the c o l l e c t i o n , f o u r t e e n d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r i n g forms h a v i n g been c o l l e c t e d . The taxonomic d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered were such t h a t o n l y f o u r o f these s p e c i e s have been d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d . The remaining m a t e r i a l shows a g r e a t range o f v a r i a t i o n , c h i e f l y i n the nature o f the p e r i d i a l cup and n e t - work, these f e a t u r e s d i f f e r i n g so w i d e l y from d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n by L i s t e r (13) and Macbride (14) o f t y p i c a l forms, that no s a t i s f a c t o r y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n could be made o f the ten d i s t i n c t types r e p r e s e n t e d In the m a t e r i a l • These are con- s e q u e n t l y l i s t e d as d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s of the genus• I . l o d e s o f p e r i d i a l network l i t t l e e n l a r g e d . A. Cup w e l l d e f i n e d ; threads l i t t l e branched; meshes of network l a r g e . (1) C. r u f a . B. Cup s m a l l , i n d e f i n i t e ; t h r e a d s much branched; meshes of network numerous , s m a l l • (a) Sporangia l o n g - s t i p i t a t e , u s u a l l y r u s t - c o l o u r e d ; **' 5 2 ** spore mass b r i c k red; threads r e d d i s h . (2) G, f e r r u g i n e a . (b) Sporangia s h o r t - s t i p i t a t e , c l a y - c o l o u r e d ; spore mass c l a y - c o l o u r e d ; threads yellowish-brown• (3) C. a r g i l l a e e a . Nodes of p e r i d i a l network d e f i n i t e l y enlarged. .. Aggregation o f granules i n cup, h o r i z o n t a l ; sporangia p u r p l e . (4) C. purpurea. • Aggregation of granules i n cup, l o n g i t u d i n a l ; sporangia brown, (a) Nodes of p e r i d i a l network expanded i n t o small compact areas. ( I ) Cup replaced by r i b s . (5) C. ( d i o t y d i o i d e s ? ) . ( i i ) Cup w e l l d e f i n e d . x Margin of cup i n d e f i n i t e , o f t e n w i t h d i s t i n c t p e r f o r a t i o n s . (6) C. (maorocarpa?). xx Margin of cup d i s t i n c t , not p e r f o r a t e d . o Sporangia reddish-brown, l e s s than .5 mm. i n diameter. (7) C r i b r a r i a sp. (363). 00 Sporangia yellowish-brown, .5 mm. or more i n diameter. # Cup s m a l l , o n e - s i x t h to o n e - f i f t h the height o f the sporangium. (8) C r i b r a r i a sp. (364)• - 53 - §§ Cup l a r g e r , o n e - t h i r d the height of the sporangium. 4 Sporangia s m a l l , t o t a l height 1.5 mm. (9) C r i h r a r i a sp. (565). 44 Sporangia l a r g e r , t o t a l height 2.75 mm. (10) C r i h r a r i a sp. (566). (h) Bodes of p e r i d i a l network expanded i n t o l a r g e spreading a r e a s . ( i ) Teeth of cup continued i n t o network as r i b s ; expansions broad comparatively few i n number. (11) C r i b r a r i a sp. (567). ( i i ) Teeth of cup s m a l l , not continued i n t o the network as r i b s ; expansions elongated, branch- i n g numerous• x Cup o n e - t h i r d the height of the sporangium; nodes v a r y i n g , - broad or narrow, sometimes q u i t e s m a l l and compact, - branched. (12) C r i b r a r i a sp. (568). xx Cup one-sixth to o n e - f i f t h the height of the sporangium; nodes narrow, much branched. o T o t a l height o f sporangium, 1.5 mm.; cup minute, i n d e f i n i t e ; nodes elongated, con- t i n u i n g i n t o the threads; threads 3p. - 5p. i n w idth. (13) C r i b r a r i a sp. (569). - 54 - oo T o t a l h e i g h t of sporangium. 3 mm.; cup l a r g e r ( o n e - s i x t h height o f sporangium); nodes conspicuous; threads s l e n d e r , 2u i n w i d t h . (14) C r i b r a r i a sp. (570) (1) C r i b r a r i a r u f a (Roth) Rest. Sporangia s c a t t e r e d , on de c a y i n g wood. C o l l e c t e d once o n l y , Vancouver v i c i n i t y , i n the f a l l . The nodes o f the p e r i d i a l network are l i t t l e expand- ed as a r u l e , but are o c c a s i o n a l l y extended i n t o r e c t a n g u l a r or t r i a n g u l a r areas; i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s the m a t e r i a l appears to be t y p i c a l o f the s p e c i e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 556 (2) C r i b r a r i a f e r r u g i n e a Meylan. Sporangia c l o s e l y g r e g a r i o u s , forming extensive c o l o n i e s on the bark and wood o f r o t t i n g Douglas f i r l o g s . C o l l e c t e d once i n the f a l l , i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver. The t h i c k opaque Plasmodium, b l a c k a t f i r s t , soon turns blue-grey and the s p o r a n g i a begin t o form; these a t f i r s t are completely b l u e - g r e y , l a t e r the s t i p e t u r n s dark, while the s h i n i n g head changes i n c o l o u r from grey t o brown and t h e n t o greyish-brown; the mature s p o r a n g i a are b r i g h t reddish-brown. The extensive Plasmodium i s ve r y conspecuous, i t s blue-grey mass b e i n g v i s i b l e from a d i s t a n c e . T h i s m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l i n a l l r e s p e c t s o f » 55 *• C. f e r r u g i n e a as described by L i s t e r (13); i t i s of i n t e r e s t to note t h a t the s p e c i e s i s not recorded by Macbride (14), and apparently has not been c o l l e c t e d on t h i s continent before U.B.C. Myc. Herb, Ho. 557 A form o f C. f e r r u g i n e a was c o l l e c t e d i n which the colour o f the mature sporangia d i f f e r from that of the t y p i c a l form. Both specimens were c o l l e c t e d at the same time of year, but were growing i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the wooded area. The immature sporangia were a d u l l purplish-brown, the mature sporangia a deep buffy-brown as opposed to the b r i g h t r u s t c o l o u r o f t y p i c a l forms. The sporangia are a l s o s l i g h t l y l a r g e r , many of them 3 mm. i n t o t a l h e i g h t , and the threads of the p e r i d i a l net are s t o u t e r and darker than i n the t y p i c a l s porangia. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 558 (3) C r i b r a r i a a r g i l l a c e a P e r s . Sporangia gregarious on the bark of f a l l e n Douglas f i r branches. C o l l e c t e d once i n a wet wooded area on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , i n the summer. Immature sporangia:- s t i p e brown, head deep grey changing to l i g h t yellow and then becom- i n g c l a y - c o l o u r e d at m a t u r i t y . According to Macbride (14) and L i s t e r (13) the p e r i d i a l net of C. a r g i l l a c e a i s without nodal t h i c k e n i n g s , but a v a r i a t i o n i s present i n these sporangia where the nodes of the net are sometimes s l i g h t l y expanded. In other respects the m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l of the s p e c i e s . - 56 - U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 559 (4) C r i b r a r i a purpurea Schrad. Sporangia l o o s e l y gregarious on r o t t i n g l o g s . C o l l e c t e d once or twice i n the f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . This m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l of the spe c i e s , which Macbride (14) describes as r a r e . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 560 (5) C r i b r a r i a ( d i c t y d i o i d e s ? ) . Sporangia gregarious on decaying wood. C o l l e c t e d i n the f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . T his s p e c i e s resembles C. d i c t y d i o i d e s i n e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s , (the cup being replaced by r i b s ) and the nature of the spores, but d i f f e r s i n the s t r u c t u r e of the p e r i d i a l net. L i s t e r (13) describes the nodes of the network as being j o i n e d by s l e n d e r threads and having many free ends, while Macbride (14) says the " s t e l l a t e nodules emit f i l a m e n t a l rays i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s " • I n the present species the small i r r e g u l a r l y shaped s?/ollen nodes give o f f s e v e r a l stout connecting threads and one or two short free ends but are not i n the l e a s t " s t e l l a t e " . There i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that the specimen may be a form of C. splendens, since i n t h i s species a l s o , the cup i s replaced by r i b s . The present m a t e r i a l d i f f e r s however i n having a small-meshed net w i t h conspicuous and d i s t i n c t nodes; L i s t e r (13) notes that C. splendens i s connected by i n t e r - mediate forms w i t h C. aurantiaea and other a l l i e d s p e c i e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 56I - 57 - (6) C r i b r a r i a (macrocarpa?). Sporangia l o o s e l y gregarious on r o t t i n g wood* C o l l e c t e d i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver i n the f a l l . The m a t e r i a l represented i n the c o l l e c t i o n i s not a b s o l u t e l y t y p i c a l of C. macrocarpa, because wh i l e the margin of the cup i s u s u a l l y p e r f o r a t e d , the amount o f p e r f o r a t i o n v a r i e s g r e a t l y and i s very small i n some sporangia; the s t i p e i s u n u s u a l l y l o n g , 2 * 2 5 mm., and numerous lo n g or short f r e e ends are present i n the network. Macbride (14) notes that t h i s " r a r e " species i s o n l y r i v a l l e d i n s i z e by C. a r g i l l a c e a , but these sproangia are s i m i l a r i n s i z e and general appearance to sporangia i n some o f the u n i d e n t i f i e d gatherings which possess unperforated cups and somewhat resemble C. a u r a n t i a c a . This suggests that the present species might be a phase o f some such species as G. a u r a n t i a c a showing an approach to C. macrocarpa, since L i s t e r ( 1 3 ) remarks t h a t C. aura n t i a c a i s connected by intermediate forms w i t h a group of a l l i e d s p e c i e s , i n c l u d i n g C. macrocarpa. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 5 6 2 (7) C r i b r a r i a sp. Sporangia s c a t t e r e d on charred Douglas f i r wood. C o l l e c t e d once i n a dry wooded area on S a l t Spring I s l a n d , i n the s p r i n g . These sporangia are very minute, . 2 5 mm. - .4 mm. r a r e l y . 5 mm. i n diameter, and u s u a l l y only about 1 mm., r a r e l y 1 . 5 mm. i n t o t a l h e i g h t ; i n colour they are reddish or orange- — 5 8 — brown; the r i b b e d r e g u l a r l y toothed cup i s o n e - t h i r d the height o f the sporangium and the meshes of the network s m a l l , p o l y g o n a l , the nodes expanded i n t o compact t r i a n g u l a r or quadrangular areas g i v i n g o f f s e v e r a l s t r a i g h t connecting threads; f r e e ends none; spores almost smooth, y e l l o w i s h , 6u - 8u i n diameter. According to the key given by Macbride (14) f o r the species of C r i b r a r i a . t h i s would be c l a s s i f i e d as C. m i n u t i s s i - ma, 0. t e n e l l a , o r C. microcarpa.on account of i t s small s i z e ; however, the d e s c r i p t i o n given above doesn't f i t any of these three s p e c i e s . The colour of the sporangia and characters of the p e r i d i a l net and cup suggest an approach to C. a u r a n t i a c a , but Macbride (14) says t h i s species i s e a s i l y recognized by i t s l a r g e sporangia, .8 mm. - mm. i n diameter; the spores o f the present species are a l s o l a r g e r than i n C. a u r a n t i a c a . In the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n given by L i s t e r ( 1 3 ) t h i s species comes close to G . v u l g a r i s var. a u r a n t i a c a . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 563 (8) C r i b r a r i a sp. Sporangia gregarious, forming extensive c o l o n i e s on decaying b a r k l e s s Douglas f i r l o g s . C o l l e c t e d i n the v i c i n i t y of Vancouver, i n the f a l l . The y e l l o w i s h b u f f - c o l o u r e d sporangia are l a r g e .75 mm. i n diameter, and about 3.75 mm. i n t o t a l height; the cup i s only o n e - s i x t h or o n e - f i f t h the height of the sporangium and has numerous lo n g slender t e e t h ; the meshes of the net are s m a l l , the nodes expanded i n t o d e f i n i t e t r i a n g u l a r or quadrangular areas o f t e n somewhat rounded; f r e e ends few; spores y e l l o w i s h j?u - 7p. i n diameter. This species hears a considerable resemblance to C. a u r a n t i a c a , but the cup i s very small and the s t i p e r a t h e r l o n g . Macbride (14) notes t h a t i n the dusky forms of C. a u r a n t i a c a , set o f f by Sehrader as C. v u l g a r i s , the s t i p e s are u s u a l l y longer, but apparently the s i z e and colour of sporangia of t h i s species i s very v a r i a b l e depending upon c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s prevalent a t the time of f r u i t i n g (Macbride ( 1 4 ) ) • The dark compact, o f t e n rounded, nodes of the network somewhat resemble those of C. t e n e l l a ; L i s t e r (13) notes that the forms of C. a u r a n t i a c a w i t h a close r e g u l a r net approach G. t e n e l l a or C. i n t r i c a t a . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 564 (9) C r i b r a r i a sp. Sporangia l o o s e l y gregarious on r o t t i n g l o g s ; c o l l e c t - ed i n the f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . This species i s s i m i l a r to the preceding one (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 564), but d i f f e r s i n height and the s i z e o f the p e r i d i a l cup. The sporangia are s m a l l , .5 mm. i n diameter, or l e s s , and the s t i p e short, about 1 mm. long; the cup o n e - t h i r d the height of the sporangium. The m a t e r i a l probably represents a short form of C. a u r a n t i a c a , but i s quite e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h - able from the preceding species (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 564) which a l s o appears to be a form of C. a u r a n t i a c a . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 565 (10) C r i b r a r i a sp. Sporangia gregarious extending i n large c o l o n i e s over the decaying wood of Douglas f i r l o g s * C o l l e c t e d i n the v i c i n i t y of Vancouver i n the f a l l . The very dark b u f f - c o l o u r e d sporangia of t h i s gather- i n g can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from those of the preceding species (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 5S5) by t h e i r height ( t o t a l height 2*75 mm., head .75 mm* diameter), by the presence of numerous fr e e ends i n the p e r i d i a l net, and by the s l i g h t l y l a r g e r spore range, 5u - Bjx diameter. From species (8) - U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 564, i t can be separated by the darker c o l o u r , l a r g e r cup (o n e - t h i r d the height o f the sporangium), free ends of the net and l a r g e r spore range. This apparently i s yet another form of C. aurantiaca,, although the development of numerous free ends i n the p e r i d i a l network i s unusual f o r that s p e c i e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 566 (11) C r i b r a r i a sp. Sporangia gregarious on o l d l o g s ; c o l l e c t e d i n the f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . This g a t h e r i n g i s not t y p i c a l o f any of the species of C r i b r a r i a l i s t e d by Macbride (14) or l i s t e r ( 1 3 ). The sporangia - t o t a l height I.25 mm., head .5 mm. diameter - are nut-brown; cup, o n e - t h i r d the height of the sporangium w i t h jagged margin, p a s s i n g over to the network by means of i r r e g u l a r , - 61 - n o d e - l i k e r i b s which may have cross-connections between them g i v i n g a p e r f o r a t e d appearance i n places to the margin, l e t - work i r r e g u l a r , nodes l a r g e and g l a t t e n e d , o f t e n s t e l l a t e , or l o n g narrow angular and extensive; short f r e e ends many; spores 7p- *» 8u diameter. The m a t e r i a l somewhat resembles C. v u l g a r i s as de s c r i b e d by L i s t e r (13), but has much l a r g e r spores; the conspicuous net w i t h s t e l l a t e nodes e m i t t i n g f r e e r a y s , and the i r r e g u l a r cup are suggestive of C . d i c t y d i o i d e s , but the expanded, f l a t areas at the nodes, comparatively few i n number, give to the p e r i d i a l net a d i s t i n c t i v e appearance un- l i k e anything described by Macbride ( 1 4 ) or L i s t e r ( 1 3 ) . S u p e r f i c i a l l y t h i s g a t h e r i n g resembles species ( 5 ) , C. ( d i c t y d i o i d e s ? ) . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 561 , but the nature of the p e r i d i a l cup and net i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 567 (12) C r i b r a r i a sp. Sporangia gregarious on decaying a l d e r wood; c o l l e c t e d i n the e a r l y summer i n a wet wooded reg i o n on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d . This species comes c l o s e r to C. d i c t y d i o i d e s than to any other species o f C r i b r a r i a . but i s by no means t y p i c a l of that s p e c i e s . The t o t a l height of the orange-brown or b u f f - coloured sporangia i s about 2 mm., the head being .jj mm. - .7 mm. i n diameter; cup o n e - t h i r d the height of the sporangium, w i t h shallow marginal t e e t h ; network i r r e g u l a r ; nodes numerous - 62 - l a r g e f l a t branching areas as a r u l e , sometimes s m a l l e r and compact, w i t h numerous slender connecting threads and fre e ends; spores 6n - 8jx i n diameter. According to Macbride (14) the cup of C, d i c t y d i o i d e s i s v a r i a b l e , sometimes w e l l developed, some- times rudimentary or replaced by r i b s . The spores of the present species are l a r g e r than i s t y p i c a l of C. d i c t y d i o i d e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 568 (13) C r i b r a r i a sp. Sporangia gregarious on decaying wood; c o l l e c t e d i n the f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . In t h i s m a t e r i a l the sporangia are d u l l ochraceous- brown, about 1.25 mm. i n t o t a l h e i g h t , the head u s u a l l y .5 mm. i n diameter, but sometimes as small as .3 mm. and as large as •75 mm. i n diameter; cup one-sixt h the height o f the sporangium; meshes s m a l l ; nodes f l a t broad and angular, o c c a s i o n a l l y narrow and angular, very i r r e g u l a r i n shape, often much elongated; spores 5jx - Jjx i n diameter. This d e s c r i p t i o n does not f i t any of the d e s c r i p t i o n s given by Macbride ( 1 4 ) or L i s t e r (13) f o r the sp e c i e s of C r i b r a r i a . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 569 (14) C r i b r a r i a sp. Sporangia l o o s e l y gregarious on o l d Douglas f i r wood; c o l l e o t e d i n the v i c i n i t y of Vancouver; f a l l * Sporangia yellowish-brown; t o t a l height about 3 mm., head .9 mm. - 1 mm* diameter; cup o n e - f i f t h the height of the - 63 ~ sporangium, deeply toothed; nodes conspicuous, numerous, ex- panded and branching i n t o angular areas g i v i n g o f f s e v e r a l connecting threads and many free ends; spores y e l l o w i s h , 3P- - Gjx, This s p e c i e s resembles C. a u r a n t i a c a i n some respects, but d i f f e r s i n the presence of the numerous free ends of the p e r i d i a l n e t , and the nature o f the nodes; the much expanded nodal areas d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s species from the other forms recorded i n t h i s l i s t as approaching 0, a u r a n t i a c a . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 570 The three species (8), (9) and (10) of t h i s s e r i e s (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Nos. 564, 565, 566) a l l resemble C. a u r a n t i a c a more c l o s e l y than they resemble any other species of C r i b r a r i a d e scribed by L i s t e r (13) or Macbride (14), but at the same time they can be separated from one another by c h a r a c t e r s which seem to be constant i n the sporangia o f a group. I f these a l l represent a s i n g l e species - C. aurantiaca - the range of v a r i a t i o n i n such a s p e c i e s must be very great; i n a d d i t i o n i t may be noted t h a t species (5), (6) and (7) of t h i s s e r i e s (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. l o s . 561, 362, 563) are apparent- l y w i d e l y separated from one another, and from species (8), (9) and (10), and yet the p o s s i b i l i t y of these, a l s o , being v a r y i n g form of C. aurantiaca has been suggested. Species (11) to (14) i n the s e r i e s (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Nos. 567 - 570) are separated from the forms mentioned above by a d i f f e r e n c e i n the nature of the nodes of the p e r i d i a l network, but i n one of ~ 64 ~ these forms a l s o , species (14) (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 570) c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r s of C. a u r a n t i a c a are found. Species (11) and (12) somewhat resemble C. d i c t y d i o i d e s . but d i f f e r from one another, and are q u i t e d i s t i n c t from species (5) (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 561) which a l s o approaches C. d i c t y d i o i d e s . According to L i s t e r (13) the f o l l o w i n g f i v e s p e c i e s , - C. a u r a n t i a c a , C. macrooarpa. C. t e n e l l a . C. l n t r i c a t a and C. splendens - are c l o s e l y a l l i e d and are connected by i n t e r - grading forms. This suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y that the m a j o r i t y of the forms recorded here are v a r y i n g phases of one or two of these s p e c i e s , the taxonomic d i f f i c u l t i e s being accounted f o r by the presence of i n t e r m e d i a t e , as w e l l as t y p i c a l , c h a r a c t e r s , and the consequent great range of v a r i a t i o n shown i n the m a t e r i a l . 2. Diotydium (Schrad.) Rost* This genus i s represented by a t y p i c a l gathering of the s i n g l e species belonging to i t . Dictydium cancellatum (Batsoh) Macbr. Sporangia gregarious on the crumbling inner wood of a very o l d Douglas f i r l o g . C o l l e c t e d once only, i n the l a t e f a l l 9 Vaneouver v i c i n i t y . The sporangia,, black when immature , are dark brown at m a t u r i t y , the s t i p e s dark brown or b l a c k ; t o t a l height about 3 mm.; head 1 mm. i n diameter. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 571 — 65 *** ORDER IT LYC OGALALES . The order Lycogalales contains the s i n g l e genus Lycogala, and t h i s i s represented i n the c o l l e c t i o n by one sp e c i e s . Lycogala M i c h e l i . Macbride (14) l i s t s f o u r species under t h i s genus, but only one o f these has been c o l l e c t e d here, the gatherings being q u i t e t y p i c a l . Lycogala epidendrum (Buxb.) F r i e s . Sporangia s o l i t a r y or c l u s t e r e d on decaying maple and Douglas f i r l o g s . This species i s common i n the summer and f a l l , and numerous c o l l e c t i o n s were made both on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d and i n the v i c i n i t y of Yancotiver. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 5 7 2 ORDER ¥ TRICHIALES. This order i s d i v i d e d by Macbride (14) i n t o f i v e f a m i l i e s , of which three - A r c y r i a c e a e , the P r o t o t r i c h l a c e a e and the Triehiaceae - are represented i n the c o l l e c t i o n . No specimens of the two smaller f a m i l i e s , the Dianemaceae and the Perichaenaceae, were found. The f a m i l y Arcyriaceae comprises three genera, Lachnobolus, A r o y r i a and H e t e r o t r i c h i a . The a r c y r i a s alone w i l l be d e a l t w i t h , since no members of the other two genera •» 66 — were c o l l e c t e d . Macbride (14) l i s t s twelve species of A r c y r i a , and o f t h a t number four d e f i n i t e and three d o u b t f u l species are represented i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . The f a m i l y P r o t o t r i o h i a e e a e contains a s i n g l e genus, P r o t o t r i c h i a , and a s i n g l e s p e c i e s , which was c o l l e c t e d s e v e r a l times. Macbride (14) gives f o u r genera i n the Trichiaceae - H e m i t r i o h i a , Calonema. T r i c h i a and Oiigonema. Of these only the l a s t two are represented i n the c o l l e c t i o n . In the genus T r i c h i a numerous specimens were gathered; eight of the fourteen species l i s t e d by Macbride (14) have been d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d , some only w i t h d i f f i c u l t y , w hile two others have been recorded as d o u b t f u l . Several v a r y i n g forms are included under one or two of the s p e c i e s , so that on the whole t h i s genus i s very w e l l represented. Two species of Oiigonema are recorded here; Macbride (14) l i s t s o n l y f o u r species f o r the genus. ARCYRIACEAE A r c y r i a ( H i l l ) P e r s . Four d e f i n i t e and three doubtful species are recorded i n t h i s genus. The m a t e r i a l o f the f o u r d e f i n i t e l y c l a s s i f i e d dpecies i s t y p i c a l f o r the most p a r t , and since the colour of the sporangia and e a p i l l i t i u m i s d i a g n o s t i c i n these species i t was not d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y them. In the remaining m a t e r i a l the sporangia show v a r i a t i o n s from t y p i c a l forms, and consequently c o u l d not be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i d e n t i f i e d . - 67 - !• Spores 6p. - 8ji i n diameter. A. C a p i l l i t i u m i n t y p i c a l forms l o o s e l y attached to the cup by few threads. (a) C a p i l l i t i u m pink or rosy, expanded but not droop- i n g ; threads w i t h numerous r i n g - l i k e expansions. (1) A. i n c a r n a t a . (b) C a p i l l i t i u m y e l l o w or ye11owish-buff, much ex- panded, drooping; threads without r i n g - l i k e expansions. (2) A. nutans. B. C a p i l l i t i u m i n t y p i c a l f o r m s more or l e s s p e r s i s t e n t l y attached to the cup by many threads• (a) C a p i l l i t i u m b r i g h t , or brownish-red; threads marked w i t h prominent cogs and h a l f - r i n g s . (3) A. denudata. (b) C a p i l l i t i u m w h i t i s h , cream-white, g r e y i s h or d u l l y ellow; threads warted or banded, and s p i n u l o s e . ( i ) C a p i l l i t i u m grey, w h i t i s h or cream-white. x C a p i l l i t i u m s c a r c e l y expanded, grey or w h i t i s h . ( 4 ) A. c i n e r e a . xx C a p i l l i t i u m d e f i n i t e l y expanded, cream- white • (5) A. ( c i n e r e a ? ) . ( i i ) C a p i l l i t i u m d u l l y e l l o w . (6) A. (pomiformis?). *» 68 — I I * Spores 9ja - l i p . In diameter; sporangia and c a p i l l i t i u m d u l l orange-red. (7) A. ( v e r s i c o l o r ? ) . ( l ) A r c y r i a Inoarnata P e r s , Sporangia gregarious on Douglas f i r , maple and cedar wood. C o l l e c t e d a number of times on S a l t Spring Island and i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver, i n the summer and e a r l y f a l l . Gatherings o f t h i s species were t y p i c a l f o r the most p a r t , but one c o l l e c t i o n was made i n which the sporangia are more or l e s s oval i n shape, while the c a p i l l i t i u m i s not as e l a s t i c as i n t y p i c a l forms, and v a r i e s i n c o l o u r from a pale p i n k i s h - r e d , to a darker rosy red. According to L i s t e r (13) t h i s specimen would be c l a s s i f i e d as A. inoarnata v a r . fulgens on account o f the colour of the sporangia; Macbride (14) however, d e s c r i b e s the colour of A. inoarnata as f l e s h - c o l o u r e d or rosy, making no mention of any v a r i e t y . T y p i c a l m a t e r i a l : - U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 573 V a r y i n g m a t e r i a l , A. inoarnata v a r . f u l g e n s : - U.B.C. Myc. Herb. l o . 574 (2) A r c y r i a nutans ( B u l l . ) Grev. Sporangia gregarious on decaying Douglas f i r and cedar wood. C o l l e c t e d once or twice i n dry wooded areas on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n the s p r i n g , and i n the v i c i n i t y of Vancouver i n the summer. - 6° - T h i s m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l of the species as described by L i s t e r (13) and Macbride (14). U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 575 (?) A r c y r i a denudata (Linn.) Sheldon. Sporangia gregarious on Douglas f i r and maple l o g s , and twigs of e i t h e r deciduous or evergreen t r e e s . C o l l e c t e d f r e q u e n t l y i n d r y and wet wooded areas on S a l t Spring I s l a n d i n the s p r i n g and summer, and i n Vancouver v i c i n i t i e s i n the summer and f a l l . Some c o l l e c t i o n s of the species show v a r i a t i o n s i n the c h a r a c t e r of the c a p i l l i t i u m , the threads being much roughened and spi n u l o s e ; t h i s i s probably due to weather c o n d i t i o n s a t the time of development o f the sporangia. The chara c t e r of the c a p i l l i t i u m i n c e r t a i n specimens suggests an approach to A. s t i p a t a not evident i n t y p i c a l forms of t h i s s p e c i e s • The expanded c a p i l l i t i u m i n these gatherings i s smo0ther - 10oking and o f a p a l e r c o l o u r than i n the others; the attachment o f the c a p i l l i t i u m i s by fewer threads; the cogs are not so prominent and are wider based, wh i l e free rounded ends and a suggestion o f f a i n t s p i r a l bands are v i s i b l e i n some mounts. The occurrence of such forms of A. denudata i s mentioned by L i s t e r (13) . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 37b (4) A r c y r i a c i n e r e a ( B u l l . ) Pers. Sporangia gregarious on ro t t i n g maple wood and Douglas f i r l o g s . C o l l e c t e d twice i n wet wooded regions on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n the s p r i n g . These sporangia, u s u a l l y grey, sometimes dingy y e l l o w i s h - w h i t e , are t y p i c a l of the s p e c i e s , i n t h e i r e a r l y stages of development both sporangium head and s t i p e are white and of a s t i c k y c onsistency; the white colour g r a d u a l l y changes to grey, and from grey to s h i n i n g b l a c k . As the sporangium matures the black fades f i r s t to a d u l l yellow c o l o u r and f i n a l l y back again to grey. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 577 (5) A r c y r i a ( c i n e r e a ? ) . Two c o l l e c t i o n s were made on S a l t Spring I s l a n d i n the e a r l y summer, of what appears t o be a v a r y i n g form of A. c i n e r e a . In one gather i n g a group o f three sporangia were found on the bark of a maple twig. The c a p i l l i t i u m i s creamish white i n c o l o u r , and i s expanded forming curved or somewhat procumbent s u b c y l i n d r i c a l columns about 5 mm. l o n g . In the other c o l l e c t i o n a group o f twenty sporangia are s c a t t e r e d over a s m a l l area of Douglas f i r bark. In these the c a p i l l i t i u m - white at f i r s t , becoming dingy w i t h age - i s expanded to form erect c y l i n d r i c a l or o v o i d . t u f t s about 2 mm. l o n g and 1 mm. wide, more l o o s e l y expanded at the t i p than the base. The most conspicuous d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s form and the t y p i c a l form of A. c i n e r e a l i e s i n the nature o f the e a p i l l i t i u m which i s v e r y d e f i n i t e l y expanded i n these sporangia hut i s almost i n e l a s t i c and hardly expanded at a l l i n sporangia t y p i c a l o f A. c i n e r e a , so th a t outwardly, at l e a s t s the two specimens appear very d i f f e r e n t . As regards m i c r o s c o p i c a l characters t h i s form i s very hard to separate from A. c i n e r e a . hut the f o l l o w i n g general d i f f e r e n c e s may be noted. The spines on the threads are often more prominent, and the s w e l l i n g s of the b a s a l threads very conspicuous and f a r more numerous than i n the t y p i c a l form, w h i l e the spores average o n l y 6.2u i n diameter as opposed to 7«2p. - the average diameter of the spores of the t y p i c a l m a t e r i a l examined. Only a few mounts of the v a r y i n g form could be made, since the m a t e r i a l i s so scarce, and consequently i t was d i f f i c u l t to determine whether or not these m i c r o s c o p i c a l characters are constant. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 578 (6) A r c y r i a (pomiformis?)« Sporangia s c a t t e r e d on the in n e r wood and decaying bark of an o l d Douglas f i r l o g l y i n g i n damp earth i n a coni f e r o u s wood. C o l l e c t e d once on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n the e a r l y summer. This m a t e r i a l f i t s the d e s c r i p t i o n of A. pomiformis given by L i s t e r (13) but d i f f e r s from that given by Macbride (14) i n the s i z e and c o l o u r of the sporangia; these are d u l l ochraceous-yellow, or b u f f coloured, not " b r i g h t yellow", and are about 1 mm., sometimes l e s s , i n t o t a l h e i g h t . Sporangia i n which the hu f f - c o l o u r e d c a p i l l i t i u m i s expanded, may measure 4 mm. i n h e i g h t . L i s t e r (13) notes t h a t A. pomiformis can he d i s t i n g u i s h e d from A. ci n e r e a by the s c a t t e r e d b u f f sporangia w i t h l o o s e r c a p i l l i t i u m . U.B.C. Myc, Herb. Ho. 57? (7) A r c y r i a ( v e r s i c o l o r ? ) . Sporangia gregarious on maple wood. C o l l e c t e d once only, l a t e f a l l , i n the v i c i n i t y of Vancouver. Immature sporangia brownish-pink, mature sporangia orange-red. This gathering d i f f e r s from t y p i c a l forms o f A. v e r s i c o l o r i n the f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s . According to Macbride (14) the c a p i l l i t i u m i s " b r i g h t golden yellow or orange", whereas i n t h i s m a t e r i a l the c a p i l l i t i u m i s r a t h e r d u l l orange, or y e l l o w i s h - r e d ; the s t i p e i s u s u a l l y l o n g r .5 mm. or .6 mm., and pale or dark red above, p i n k i s h below, while L i s t e r (13) d e s c r i b e s i t as ".2 mm. l o n g , yellow-brown" i n the t y p i c a l s pecies; the sporangium w a l l as a r u l e i s only p e r s i s t e n t i n the lower h a l f or quarter, forming a deep reddish cup; the spores are l a r g e r than u s u a l , ranging from °ji ~ l l u , averaging 10.5u, and are marked w i t h s c a t t e r e d patches of warts. The sporangium w a l l i n the present species i s very d i s t i n c t l y p a p i l l a t e on the inn e r s i d e , a feature which i s used by L i s t e r (13) to separate A. v e r s i c o l o r from A. f e r r u g i n e a , a c l o s e l y a l l i e d species i n which the inn e r s i d e of the sporangium w a l l i s marked w i t h round-meshed r e t i c u l a t i o n . U.B.C, Myc. Herb. No. 580 PROTQTRICHIACEAE. P r o t o t r i c h i a Rost. This genus contains a s i n g l e species which i s rep- resented i n the c o l l e c t i o n by s e v e r a l t y p i c a l g atherings. P r o t o t r i c h i a m e t a l l i o a (Berk.) Mass. Sporangia l o o s e l y gregarious on w i l l o w bark and Douglas f i r wood. C o l l e c t e d i n f r e q u e n t l y , once on S a l t Spring I s l a n d i n the summer and once i n the f a l l , i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver. l i s t e r (13) notes that i n p e r f e c t development the strands o f the c a p i l l i t i u m are deep red-brown, but a l s o says t h a t the species i s very s e n s i t i v e to changes o f temperature and weather. This probably accounts f o r the f a c t that the spores and c a p i l l i t i u m i n the specimens examined were pale or n e a r l y c o l o u r l e s s . In other respects the m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 58I TRICHIACEAE. 1. T r i c h i a ( H a l l e r ) Rost. The t r i c h i a s are b e t t e r represented i n the c o l l e c t i o n than any other genus, since ten d i s t i n c t forms (eight d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d species and two doubtful ones) were c o l l e c t e d , and Macbride (14) l i s t s only fourteen species f o r the whole genus; i n a d d i t i o n one or two v a r y i n g forms are mentioned under several o f the s p e c i e s . The d i a g n o s t i c characters of the d i f f e r e n t species are on the whole w e l l marked and constant, so that i t was not so d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y the v a r y i n g forms i n t h i s genus as i t was i n some of the other genera (e.g. Cribraria)» where characters of s e v e r a l species may he blended i n a s i n g l e specimen. I . Spores marked wi t h d i s t i n c t r e t i c u l a t i o n s . A. R e t i c u l a t i o n s c l o s e , even, forming a small meshed net over the spore s u r f a c e . (1) T. scabra. B. R e t i c u l a t i o n s l a r g e , sometimes i r r e g u l a r , forming a complete or incomplete, wide meshed net over the spore su r f a c e . (a) Sporangia s e s s i l e , c l o s e l y crowded. ( i ) E l a t e r s 7 »2u. - 8u i n width; spores evenly r e t i c u l a t e d . (2) T. favoginea. ( i i ) E l a t e r s *>jx - 5»5u, i n width; spores unevenly r e t i c u l a t e d . (3) T. (favoginea?). (b) Sporangia u s u a l l y s t i p i t a t e ; s t i p e s weak, u n i t e d i n small c l u s t e r s . ( 4 ) T. verrucosa. I I . Spores minutely warted, or only p a r t l y covered w i t h minute r e t i c u l a t i o n s . A. Sporangia yellow; s p i r a l s of e l a t e r s two• (5) T. v a r i a . ~ 75 ~ B* Sporangia "brown; s p i r a l s o f e l a t e r s three or more, u s u a l l y f o u r . (a) Sporangia s e s s i l e , r a r e l y s h o r t l y s t i p i t a t e . (6) T. oontorta, (b) Sporangia d e f i n i t e l y s t i p i t a t e . ( i ) Sporangium w a l l marked w i t h conspicuous pale l i n e s of dehiscence. x S t i p e dark brown, opaque, f i l l e d w i t h refuse matter. (7) T. B o t r y t i s . xx S t i p e deep r e d d i s h , t r a n s l u c e n t , without refuse matter. (8) T. l a t e r i t i a . ( i i ) Sporangium w a l l even i n c o l o u r , not showing l i n e s o f dehiscence; s t i p e f i l l e d w i t h spore- l i k e c e l l s . x E l a t e r s smooth, 5u - 6 .3u i n width. (9) T. d e c i p i e n s . xx E l a t e r s spinose, 6 .3u - ? . 2 n i n w i d t h . (10) T. ( d e c i p i e n s ? ) . (1) T r i c h i a scabra Rost. Sporangia c l o s e l y gregarious forming extensive c o l o n i e s on r o t t i n g Douglas f i r l o g s . C o l l e c t e d i n the f a l l , v i c i n i t y of Vancouver. The Plasmodium, white at f i r s t , t u rns g r a d u a l l y to pale yellow as the sporangia begin to take form, and then from pale to a deeper yellow u n t i l as the sporangia near maturity they become ochraceous-orange i n c o l o u r . - 76 - The e l a t e r s are somewhat wider (6u. - 7.2p.) than would he expected from the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the species given by- L i s t e r (13; and Macbride (14), but i n other respects the m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 582 (2) T r i o h i a favoginea (Batsch) Pers. Sporangia gregarious crowded i n small or l a r g e c o l o n i e s on maple, a l d e r and Douglas f i r wood. C o l l e c t e d on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n the s p r i n g and e a r l y summer, wet wooded area, and i n the f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . The m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l of the species as described by L i s t e r (I3) and Macbride (.14). U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho, 383 (3) T r i c h i a (favoginea?). Sporangia gregarious on decaying a l d e r leaves and Douglas f i r bark. C o l l e c t e d once, i n the f a l l , v i c i n i t y of Vancouver. L i s t e r (13) notes t h a t intermediate forms f r e q u e n t l y occur between T. favoginea and T. p e r s i m i l i s , and the present species appears to be one o f these. The co l o u r o f the sporangia and c a p i l l i t i u m favours T. favoginea while the shape of the sporangium i s l i k e that of T. p e r s i m i l i s . Broken r e t i c u l a t i o n of the spores suggests an approach to the spore marking of T. p e r s i m i l i s , but the s i z e of the spores (14.4p. - l 6 n i n diameter) and the width of the spore border i s suggestive • 77 - of IE* favoginea. The width of the e l a t e r s (5u - 5.Jju) approaches the width of e l a t e r s of I . p e r s i m i l i s ; the s p i r a l hands, i n some cases, are produced i n t o two or three d i v e r g i n g p o i n t s at the t i p s of the e l a t e r s , as i n T. p e r s i m i l i s , hut the l o n g i t u d - i n a l s t r i a e are quite conspicuous, U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 584 (4) T r i c h i a verrucosa Berk. Sporangia gregarious on r o t t e n Douglas f i r wood. C o l l e c t e d once only, i n the l a t e f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . Plasmodium white, t h i c k and opaque; the immature sporangia t u r n from white to l i g h t yellow, becoming d u l l yellow or b u f f - coloured j u s t before m a t u r i t y . The m a t e r i a l appears to be t y p i c a l of the species, which Macbride (14) says i s to be expected i n the southern U n i t e d States since specimens i n the herbarium of the State U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa are from Mexico. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 585 (5) T r i c h i a v a r i a (Pers.) Rost. In t h i s s p e c ies a number o f forms v a r y i n g i n e x t e r n a l and cap i n i t i a l characters were found • In some c o l l e c t i o n s the sporangia are a l l s e s s i l e , i n others there are s t i p i t a t e and s e s s i l e sporangia, w h i l e i n two or three gatherings a l l the sporangia are d i s t i n c t l y s t i p i t a t e . In t y p i c a l specimens the sporangia are c l o s e l y g r egarious, u s u a l l y on w i l l o w and maple wood. C o l l e c t e d i n the - 78 - summer on S a l t Spring I s l a n d , and f r e q u e n t l y i n the f a l l , v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver. Plasmodium white, immature sporangia w h i t e , t u r n i n g pale y e l l o w . U.B.C, Myc. Herb. I o . 586 A s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n of the t y p i c a l form of T. v a r i a was c o l l e c t e d i n the s p r i n g on the r o t t i n g wood of an o l d maple l o g . The sporangia mostly s e s s i l e , a few s h o r t l y s t i p i t a t e are f a r l a r g e r than those i n a t y p i c a l c o l l e c t i o n of T. v a r i a , hut t h i s might he due to the abundance of the Plasmodium and favourable weather c o n d i t i o n s a t the time of development o f the sporangia. The c a p i l l i t i u m d i f f e r s from that o f t y p i c a l forms i n having very i r r e g u l a r , t w i s t e d e l a t e r s which o c c a s i o n a l l y possess s p i n e - l i k e branches or spines. The o u t l i n e of the e l a t e r s o f t e n appears roughened where the two i r r e g u l a r , i n d e f i n i t e , c l o s e l y would s p i r a l bands p r o j e c t on e i t h e r s i d e . The spines are of r a t h e r infrequent occurrence and none of the mounts show more than one spine on a s i n g l e e l a t e r . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 587 Several sporangia were found, a l s o i n the s p r i n g , which were p a r t i a l l y destroyed by some minute fungus. The specimen has been c l a s s i f i e d as T. v a r i a since i t comes c l o s e r to t h i s species than to any other species of T r i c h i a . The e l a t e r s are very l o n g , or quite s h o r t , t e r m i n a t i n g sometimes i n a l a r g e bulbous s w e l l i n g , sometimes i n a s w e l l i n g and a l o n g - 79 - p o i n t . E l a t e r s rough l o o k i n g , 4u. » 5.4u. wide, s p i r a l s probably two, perhaps three i n p l a c e s , very f a i n t , i r r e g u l a r and d i f f i c u l t to count; spores 12.6u - I J . J J U i n diameter. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Wo. 588 In another g a t h e r i n g , made i n the s p r i n g on w i l l o w wood, a more d i s t i n c t v a r i a t i o n o f T. v a r i a was found. The brownish-yellow sporangia d i f f e r from the t y p i c a l form o f T. v a r i a i n the c o l o u r and nature of the sporangium w a l l , and i n the spiny c h a r a c t e r of the c a p i l l i t i u m . The sporangium w a l l i s not t r a n s l u c e n t when mounted; the e l a t e r s are sometimes t y p i c a l , but of t e n possess t i p s which are swollen and club shaped, w i t h s e v e r a l l a t e r a l or t e r m i n a l b l u n t spines. Occasion- a l spines are a l s o found along the l e n g t h of the e l a t e r s , so that on the whole the c a p i l l i t i u m can be termed d e f i n i t e l y s p i n y . U.B.C, Myc. Herb. Ho. 589 A c o l l e c t i o n of T. v a r i a was made i n the f a l l near Vancouver, i n which the sporangia are brownish, and s t i p i t a t e . The sporangium w a l l i s hard and the c a p i l l i t i a l mass c l o s e l y compacted; e l a t e r s comparatively few, long f r e q u e n t l y twined around each other i n the middle, i r r e g u l a r and t w i s t e d i n out- l i n e • U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 59O Other s t i p i t a t e sporangia of T. v a r i a c o l l e c t e d i n the f a l l near Vancouver a l s o have the c a p i l l i t i a l mass c l o s e l y ~ 80 « compacted. The c a p i l l i t i u m i t s e l f d i f f e r s from that found i n t y p i c a l forms, i n th a t the ends of the e l a t e r s terminate a b r u p t l y i n obtuse p o i n t s , and that the e l a t e r s themselves are sometimes branched. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 591 From the foregoing l i s t i t can be seen that the species T. v a r i a includes a number of d i v e r s i f i e d forms, a l l showing s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s from the t y p i c a l form, but neverthe- l e s s , a l l d e f i n i t e l y belonging to t h i s s p e c i e s . (6) T r i c h i a eontorta (Ditmar) Rost. v ar inconspicua L i s t e r . Sporangia l o o s e l y gregarious on maple wood. C o l l e c t - ed once i n the f a l l , near Vancouver. These sporangia, d u l l orange i n t h e i r e a r l y stages o f development, took from one to two weeks to become f u l l y mature. The e l a t e r s are p e c u l i a r i n t h a t they are o f t e n swollen a t i n t e r v a l s a l o n g t h e i r l e n g t h , w i t h a more or l e s s swollen t i p t e r m i n a t i n g i n one or sometimes two, curved or s t r a i g h t p o i n t s . This specimen i s undoubtedly a v a r i e t y of T. eontorta, and yet no mention i s made, e i t h e r by L i s t e r (13) or Macbride ( 1 4 ) , of the s w e l l i n g s i n the e l a t e r s . However L i s t e r (13) notes t h a t the occurrence of bulbous s w e l l i n g s i n the e l a t e r s i s so frequent, and a t the same time so inconstant, i n many species of T r i c h i a that i t cannot be r e c e i v e d as a s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. I\To. 5?2 - 81 - (7) T r i c h i a B o t r y t i s Pers. Sporangia gregarious on decaying Douglas f i r and Maple wood. C o l l e c t e d once on S a l t Spring Island i n the e a r l y summer, and f r e q u e n t l y i n Vancouver v i c i n i t i e s i n the f a l l . The immature sporangia mounted on dark p u r p l i s h s t i p e s , are opaque white i n t h e i r e a r l y stages of development, and tu r n dark purple or bl a c k j u s t before maturing. This m a t e r i a l i s quite t y p i c a l of T. B o t r y t i s as described by L i s t e r (13) and Macbride (14). U.B.C. Myc. Herb. I o . 593 A c o l l e c t i o n of t h i s species was made i n the v i c i n i t y of Vancouver i n the f a l l , c o n t a i n i n g sporangia which are y e l l o w i s h , not purple brown, and i n which the e l a t e r s are perhaps a l i t t l e p a l e r i n c o l o u r , the s p i r a l s c l o s e r , and the spores l a r g e r (11.7u ~ 12.6u i n diameter) than i n the t y p i c a l form of T. B o t r y t i s ; the immature sporangia are quite a l i g h t orange c o l o u r . I t i s probable t h a t t h i s i s merely a form o f T. B o t r y t i s showing a l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n c o l o u r and c a p i l l i t i a l c h a r a c t e r s , since Macbride (14) describes the species as remarkable f o r i t s v a r i a t i o n i n c o l o u r . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. I o . 594 (8) T r i o h i a l a t e r i t i a Lev. Sporangia gregarious on Douglas f i r wood. C o l l e c t e d once i n a wet wooded area, e a r l y summer, on S a l t Spring I s l a n d . This specimen, which i s t y p i c a l of the species, was found on a l o g that was l y i n g i n a stream, so that the sporangia were a c t u a l l y i n running water when they were c o l l e c t e d . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 595 (9) T r i c h i a d e c ipiens (Pers.) Macbr. This species shows d i v e r s i f i e d forms, s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s from the t y p i c a l T. decipiens being represented i n the c o l l e c t i o n . The sporangia o f the t y p i c a l form are gregarious on r o t t i n g l o g s , and were c o l l e c t e d i n the f a l l i n Vancouver v i c i n i t i e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 596 l i s t e r (13) notes t h a t s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s of t h i s species have been described but that they appear to represent forms r a t h e r than important v a r i e t i e s , and i n t h i s connection he mentions the v a r i e t y " o l i v a c e a " , which d i f f e r s from the t y p i c a l form only i n e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r s . This form was c o l l e c t e d f r e q u e n t l y i n the f a l l on decaying Douglas f i r and maple wood. When immature the sporangia are pale p i n k i s h - orange, the s t i p e s being white• The m a t e r i a l e x a c t l y f i t s the d e s c r i p t i o n given by L i s t e r (13) of T. decipiens var o l i v a c e a . but a l s o f i t s t h a t given by Macbride (14), of the t y p i c a l form. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 597 Several c o l l e c t i o n s of sporangia were made on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , which seem to show a gradation from a s l i g h t l y v a r y i n g form, of T. decipiens to the more n a t u r a l form. The f i r s t of these gatherings was made i n the summer, on w i l l o w wood. Immature sporangia orange coloured w i t h white s t a l k s , mature sporangia s h i n i n g d u l l brown, very minute, about 1 mm. i n t o t a l h e i g h t . This specimen d i f f e r s from the t y p i c a l form of T. decipiens i n the s i z e of the sporangia, the width o f the e l a t e r s ( 3u - 4.5pJ and the nature of the spores which are e c h i n u l a t e , 9p. - l i p . i n diameter. U.B.C. Myc, Herb. No. 598 A specimen resembling the t y p i c a l form more c l o s e l y was found on decaying maple wood. The sporangia are about . 1.5 mm. i n t o t a l height, the e l a t e r s range from 3.6u - 5p: i n width; the spores are e c h i n u l a t e . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 599 In another c o l l e c t i o n the sporangia are s i m i l a r i n appearance to those r e f e r r e d t o above (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 599), but are about 2.5 mm. i n t o t a l height; the e l a t e r s are almost t y p i c a l ranging from 4.5p. - 6ji i n w i d t h , and the spores, while they are e c h i n u l a t e , are the same s i z e as those found i n t y p i c a l forms o f T. d e c i p i e n s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 600 (10) T r i c h i a ( d e c i p i e n s ? ) . Sporangia gregarious on decaying wood; c o l l e c t e d once only, i n a wooded area near Vancouver, i n the f a l l . The smooth e l a t e r s , very g r a d u a l l y t a p e r i n g at the ~ 8 4 «• ends, the f o u r evenly wound s p i r a l s , the s p o r e - l i k e c e l l s f i l l i n g the s t i p e , and the p a r t i a l l y r e t i c u l a t e d spores place t h i s s p e c ies as T, d e c i p i e n s . Howe\rer the width of the e l a t e r s , averaging 3.6u i n T. d e c i p i e n s , hut ?n. i n t h i s form, the r e g u l a r occurrence i n the c a p i l l i t i u m of spines, s p i n e - l i k e tranches and b i f u r c a t e t i p s d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h t h i s as a d i s t i n c t v a r i a t i o n of T. decipiens„ and one which i s not mentioned e i t h e r by L i s t e r (13) or by Macbride (14 U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 601 2. 01 i gone ma Host. This small genus i s represented i n the c o l l e c t i o n by two c l o s e l y a l l i e d species which are c h i e f l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the nature of t h e i r c a p i l l i t i u m . The m a t e r i a l was r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y s i n c e the markings of the c a p i l l i t i a l threads are so obscure. I . E l a t e r s marked w i t h a s e r i e s of f a i n t close l i n e s and minute warts; spores 11,7u - 13u i n diameter, r e g u l a r l y r e t i c u l a t e d w i t h continuous bands j border Iji wide. (1) 0 . flavidum. I I . E l a t e r s marked w i t h i n d e f i n i t e s p i r a l bands; spores 12u - l b u in-diameter, i r r e g u l a r l y r e t i c u l a t e d w i t h p i t t e d bands, border 1.5p. wide, (2) 0 . n i t e n s . (1) Oligonema flavidum (Peck) Mass. Sporangia gregarious, heaped i n a c l u s t e r on a piece - 85 - o f Douglas f i r bark which was embedded i n boggy s o i l . C o l l e c t e d once on S a l t Spring I s l a n d , i n the s p r i n g . The m a t e r i a l f i t s the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the species given by L i s t e r (13) and Macbride (14). U.B.C. Myc. Herb. I o . 602 (2) Oiigonema n l t e n s ( L i b . ) Rost. In t h i s g a t h e r i n g , which i s t y p i c a l of the species as described by L i s t e r (13) and Macbride (14), the sporangia are gregarious, c l u s t e r e d on Douglas f i r wood. The c o l l e c t i o n was made on S a l t Spring I s l a n d i n the summer. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. I o . 603. — 8 6 — SUMMARY. This paper deals with, a study of B r i t i s h Columbia slime-moulds as represented i n a c o l l e c t i o n gathered over a p e r i o d of three years i n wooded areas on S a l t Spring I s l a n d , B. C., and i n the v i c i n i t y of Vancouver, B. C. Both sub-classes of the Myxomycetes are represented; the Exosporeae by the s i n g l e genus Ceratiomyxa, the Myxogastres by a number of genera i n each of i t s f i v e orders - a t o t a l of one hundred and three forms belonging to nineteen genera i n ei g h t f a m i l i e s being recorded. Of these, f i f t y are species which have been d e f i n i t e l y I d e n t i f i e d , twenty-eight are v a r y i n g forms of c e r t a i n known species , seventeen are l i s t e d as doubt- f u l , while the remaining species, e i g h t i n number, could not be i d e n t i f i e d a t a l l . In the f a m i l y Physaraoeab a t o t a l of nine t y p i c a l and f o u r d o u b t f u l species i s recorded:- two species of Badhamia; f i v e d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d and four d o u b t f u l species of Physarum; a s i n g l e species of Craterium, C* leuoocephalum, which according to Macbride ( 1 4 ) i s "not common"; and the s i n g l e species of Leocarpus. The f a m i l y Didymiaeeae i s represented by ten s p e c i e s , f i v e belonging to the genus Didymium; four to Diderma and one to Lepidoderma. Three of the species recorded, Didymium difforme, Diderma radiatum and Lepidoderma t i g r i n u m are sai d by Macbride (.14) to be rare i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , while Diderma montanum i s not l i s t e d by him » 87 - as o c c u r r i n g on t h i s c o n t i n e n t . S i x t y p i c a l and f i v e d o u b t f u l species are recorded i n the f a m i l y Stemonitaoeae:- three d e f i n i t e and four doubt- f u l species i n Stem o n i t i s : two d e f i n i t e and one doubtful species i n Comatricha and a s i n g l e species of Diachaea, the l a t t e r a l i m e l e s s species D. c e r l f e r a not mentioned by Macbride (14) as o c c u r r i n g i n the Uni t e d S t a t e s . The f a m i l y Lamprodermaceae i s represented by f o u r d e f i n i t e and one doubt- f u l s p e c i e s . The s i n g l e species i n the genus Enerthenema, S. p a p i l l a t u m i s s a i d by Macbride (14) to be r a r e , w h i l e of the fo u r forms l i s t e d under the genus LamprOderma, one L . s c i n t i l l - ans t i s apparently r a r e a l s o . Five t y p i c a l species are recorded i n the C r i b r a r i a c e a e : - one species of Dictydium and f o u r of C r i b r a r i a . Of these f o u r C r i b r a r i a purpurea i s s a i d by Macbride (14) to be r a r e , and another C r i b r a r i a f e r r u g i n e a has not been p r e v i o u s l y recorded f o r t h i s c o n t i n e n t . Besides these t y p i c a l species two d o u b t f u l and eight u n i d e n t i f i a b l e species have been recorded i n the genus C r i b r a r i a . A s i n g l e common species o f Lyeogala i s l i s t e d . In the f a m i l y Arcyriaceae four d e f i n i t e and three d o u b t f u l species are recorded, a l l i n the genus A r c y r i a ; the s i n g l e species belonging to the genus P r o t o t r i c h i a of the f a m i l y P r o t o t r i c h i a e e a e was c o l l e c t e d , w h i l e the f a m i l y Triohiaceae i s represented by a t o t a l of ten t y p i c a l and two d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s : - two species of Oiigonema, and eight of U.O e - 88 T r i c h i a , the two v a r y i n g forms belonging to the l a t t e r genu T r i c h i a eontorta Is rare according to Macbride (14), while the same author says that T. verrucosa i s to be expected i n the southern United S t a t e s , since specimens i n the herbarium of the State U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa were c o l l e c t e d i n Mexico. Many taxonomic d i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered i n c l a s s i f y i n g c e r t a i n species o f Physarum, Stemonitis, Comatricha and C r i b r a r i a . The range o f v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n a s i n g l e species i s o f t e n very great, and the need f o r a r e v i s i o n of the genus C r i b r a r i a , I n p a r t i c u l a r , seems to be i n d i c a t e d . A more d e t a i l e d study o f the c r i b r a r i a s , f o r instance, might l e a d to the separation into d i s t i n c t and p o s s i b l y new sp e c i e s , of some of the u n i d e n t i f i a b l e forms represented i n the genus. Species of the genera Stemonitis and Comatricha were a l s o , on the whole, d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y , since the c a p i l l i t i a l characters appear to be inconstant, and i n some cases d i f f i c u l t y was experienced even i n separ a t i n g the two genera. I t i s of i n t e r e s t t o note that of the one hundred and three forms l i s t e d i n t h i s work, only f i f t y are a b s o l u t e l y t y p i c a l of the species they r e p r e s e n t . The Myxomycetes, as represented by the specimens i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n , appear to be subject to a great range of v a r i a t i o n both i n e x t e r n a l features and c a p i l l i t i a l c h a r a c t e r s , and w h i l e the cause of t h i s tendency to vary i s not d e f i n i t e l y known, i t i s probably l a r g e l y due to the e f f e c t of environment- a l c o n d i t i o n s upon the developing sporangia. BIBLIOGRAPHY Cook, W.R.I, and Miss E.M. H o l t : - Some observations on the germination of the spores of some species of Mycetozoa. Mycologia J20: 340 - 352. 1?28. G i l b e r t , F.A.:- On the occurrence o f b i f l a g e l l a t e swarm c e l l s i n c e r t a i n Myxomycetes. Mycologia 1? : 277 • 283. 1927o G i l b e r t , F.A.:- Feeding h a b i t s o f the svarm c e l l s of the myxomycete D i c t y d i a e t h a l i u m plumbeurn. Am. Jour. Bot. 15: 123 - 131. 192b. G i l b e r t , F.A.:- A study of the method of spore germination i n Myxomycetes. Am. Jour. Bot. 15: 3^5 - 352. 1928. G i l b e r t , F.A.:- Observations on the feeding h a b i t s of the swarm c e l l s of Myxomycetes. Am. Jour. Bot. 15: 473 « 484. 1928. G i l b e r t , F.A.:- Factors i n f l u e n c i n g the germination of myxomycetous spores. Am. Jour. Bot. 16: 280 - 286. 1929. G i l b e r t , F.A.:- Spore germination i n the Myxomycetes: a comparative study of spore germination by f a m i l i e s . Am. Jour. Bot. IjS: 421.- 432. 1929. Harper, R.A. and Dodge.:- The formation of the c a p i l l i t i u m i n c e r t a i n Myxomycetes. Ann. Bot. 28: 1 - 18. 1914. •\ Howard, F.L.:- Laboratory c u l t i v a t i o n of myxomycete Plasmodia. Am. Jour. Bot. 18: 624 - 628. 1931* L i s t e r , A.:- Notes on the Plasmodium of Badhamia u t r i c u l a r i s and B r e f e l d i a maximaT AnnT Bot. 2: 1 - 23. 18*88. ' ~ L i s t e r , A.:- Notes on Chondrioderma difforme and other Mycetozoa. Ann. Bot. ±: 281 - 29b. I889. L i s t e r , A.:- On the c u l t i v a t i o n o f Mycetozoa from spores. Jour. Bot. j$2: 5 - 8 . 1901. 13® L i s t e r , A,:- A Monograph, o f the Mycetozoa; T h i r d e d i t i o n . Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . I925. 1 4 . Macbride, T . H . T h e North American Slime-moulds; Second e d i t i o n . The Macmillan Company, New York. 1922. 13• Smith, E.G.:- The l o n g e v i t y o f myxomycete spores. Mycologia 21: 321 - 323. I929. l b o Smith, E.G.:* Some phases of spore germination of Myxomycetes. Am. Jour. Bot. 16: 645 - 650. 1929. ~~

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