UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

British Columbia slime-moulds Halley, Elizabeth Mary 1934-12-31

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BRITISH COLUMBIA SIIME-MOTIDS.  b y  E l i z a b e t h Mary H a l l e y .  A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f BIG-LOGY.  THE U1ITERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1934.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.  Page Acknowledgements Introduction. I General i n t r o d u c t i o n . I L o c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f a r e a s • II Prevalence o f slime-moulds i n a r e a s . . . . . . . . . I n Methods o f c o l l e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of material............... HF •Methods o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and description of material IV G e n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Myxomyeetes 1 Physarales.» • • 1 Physaraceae 2 Badhamia ( B e r k . ) R o s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 " utricular is. 2 " ruhiginosa. * 3 Physarum ( P e r s . ) H o s t . 3 " oitectum. 5 " eontextum 6 " a u r i s c a l p ium 7 " viride. 8 " nutans. 9 " (oinereum?) 9 " (ohlatum?) 11 " (oarneum?) 12 " (vernum?) 14 Graterium Trentepohl 1& ". leucocephalum 16 Leo c a r p u s ( L i n k ) R o s t 1<S » fragilis.. 16 Didymiaceae 16 Didymium ( S c h r a d . ) F r . 16 » d i f forme 18 " melanospermum.. • • • • 18 " sauamulosum 19 " eximium 20 " xanthopus 22 Diderma P e r s 2J " radiatum. 24 montanum, 25 asteroides, 27 t! Trevelyani 2?  Lepi&ocLerma D e B a r y tigrinum.......... S t e m o n i t a l e s . . «j» • • • Stemonitaceae •• • S t e m o n i t i s ( G l e d i t s o a ) Rost " fusca. (fusca?)........... » (nigrescens?) " (hyperopta?)....... " axifera............ n  n  «  (axifera?).........  " herbatiea.......... C o m a t r i o h a ( P r e u s s ) Rost...< " rubens.............  " »  Diachaea  typhoi&es.... (nigra?).  «  Fr. eerifera........... Lamp r o de rmac e a?e ••• 18  Enerthenema Bowman...  " papillatum. Lamproderma R o s t . . . . . " columbinum. ". sc i n t i l l a n s . . . . . . . . " violaceum.......... " (arcyrionema?)•....  Cribrariales  Cribrariaceae G r i b r a r i a (Pers.) Schrader.. " rufa " ferruginea.........  " "  argillacea......... purpurea...........  » " "  ( d i c t y d i o i d e s ? ) .... (macroearpa?) s p . (563"  " »  s p . (^§5, s o . (566 <  "  s p . {5h\,  "  s p . (569, s p . (570.  " D i c t y d i u m (Schrad.) Rost " cancellatum. Lycogalales.  Lycogala M i c h e l i "  epidendrum..  Trlehiales Arcyriaceae A r c y r i a ( H i l l ) Pers " incarnata  "  • «  nutans  °° bb 08  68  " denudata..................... " cinerea, «... » (cinerea?)... »' (pomiformis?} « (versicolor?) ; Prototrichiaeeae......................... P r o t o t r i e h i a Rost..................... » me t a l l i c a . Trichiaceae T r i c h"i a ( Hsacla lb er ar ,) S o s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ©9 69 70 71 72 73 73 73 73 7 3  favo g i n e a •. (favoginea?) verrucosa.« varia '» contorta " Botrytis. » lateritia. " decipiens.................... (decipiens?) Oligonema R o s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . » flavidum..................... " nitens ..............  7© 7° 77 77 8 0 8 1 81 8 2 8 3 8 4 8 4 8 5  it  w n  .......  55  11  Summary  *  .........  75  <•*•• 8 6  AG KHQWISDGEMEHfS  The ?«rriter w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h e r g r a t i t u d e t o Dr• A» H. H u t c h i n s o n , Head o f t h e Department o f Botany, a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e use o f t h e l a b o r a t o r y equipment o f h i s department; and t o D r . F. D i c k s o n , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f Botany, a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r the deep i n t e r e s t shown i n s u p e r v i z i n g t h e  work.  The w r i t e r a l s o w i s h e s t o thank a l l who k i n d l y a s s i s t e d by b r i n g i n g i n m a t e r i a l t o add t o t h e c o l l e c t i o n .  I  IKTRODUCTIOU.  General Introduction*. The  province  o f B r i t i s h Columbia c o v e r s a l a r g e  i n which t h e r e i s a v e r y wide range o f c l i m a t i c topographical  area  c o n d i t i o n s and  features.  For t h i s r e a s o n t h e s y s t e m a t i c province presents  study o f f u n g i o f t h e  a f i e l d so comprehensive t h a t o n l y a few-  i s o l a t e d groups o f f u n g i have been d e a l t w i t h . The  geographical  nature  o f the s o u t h e r n c o a s t a l p a r t  o f B r i t i s h Columbia b e i n g f a v o u r a b l e  t o t h e growth o f s l i m e -  moulds, i t was suggested by Dr. F. D i c k s o n t h a t a s t u d y o f t h e s e f u n g i be made by t h e w r i t e r t o form t h e b a s i s f o r a thesis. A c c o r d i n g l y a c o l l e c t i o n o f slime-moulds was begun, gatherings  f i r s t b e i n g made i n t h e d i s t r i c t o f S a l t  Spring  I s l a n d , B. C., d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1931, t h i s c o l l e c t i o n  later  b e i n g augmented by specimens from a r e a s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver, B. C., o b t a i n e d a t i n t e r v a l s , m a i n l y d u r i n g t h e summer and f a l l months o f the y e a r s 1931, 1932 and 1933. No attempt was made t o c o v e r l a r g e r a r e a s and i t was therefore impossible to obtain a c o l l e c t i o n representative o f more than a v e r y s m a l l p a r t o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  IT  L o c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n o f A r e a s . Much o f t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n was  obtained  i n t h e l o c a l i t y o f S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , w h i c h l i e s 123°  30»  West l o n g , and 40° j?0» N o r t h l a t . , a n d i s one o f t h e G u l f Islands i n the S t r a i t o f Georgia  between the m a i n l a n d and t h e  e a s t e r n coast o f the s o u t h e r n p a r t o f Vancouver I s l a n d . The c l i m a t e i n t h i s r e g i o n i s v e r y m i l d , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the s u r r o u n d i n g w a t e r s b e i n g t o m o d i f y both t h e heat i n summer and t h e c o l d i n w i n t e r ,  The w i n t e r i s s h o r t  w i t h l i t t l e snow a s a r u l e ; the summer almost r a i n l e s s w i t h c o o l n i g h t s and heavy dews.  The a v e r a t e r a i n f a l l i s approx-  i m a t e l y 30" a y e a r , and w h i l e t h i s .was n o t exceeded i n 1931, i n w h i c h y e a r the l a r g e r p a r t o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n was made, t h e r e was n e v e r t h e l e s s an abnormal amount o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n d u r i n g t h e months o f May and June. A r a t h e r l i m i t e d a r e a o f not more t h a n f o r t h a c r e s a t the n o r t h end o f t h e I s l a n d was c o l l e c t e d o v e r c o n t i n u o u s l y d u r i n g the months o f May, June and J u l y .  The l a n d s l o p e s bade  f o r a m i l e o r so from the sea i n t e r r a c e d f o r m a t i o n , a s e r i e s o f s m a l l wooded h i l l s b e i n g s e p a r a t e d narrow l o w - l y i n g f i e l d s .  from one a n o t h e r by  The woods a r e composed m a i n l y o f  Douglas f i r , cedar and hemlock t r e e s , w i t h s p r i n k l i n g s o f maple, a l d e r and a r b u t u s , and i n most o f t h e stands t h e r e i s a t h i c k undergrowth o f s a l a l .  I n some woods a l l the ground i s covered  w i t h a t h i c k c a r p e t of moss, and t h e r e i s an abundance o f o l d r o t t i n g l o g s l y i n g i n t h e d e b r i s beneath t h e s t a n d i n g tree's.  Ill B e s i d e s t h e m a t e r i a l gathered, on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , many specimens were c o l l e c t e d i n wooded a r e a s o n l y c o v e r i n g a few a c r e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver, w h i c h l i e s 12$° l o n g , and 49°  20  r  North l a t .  Due  West  to the n e a r n e s s o f h i g h  mountains the a n n u a l r a i n f a l l i n Vancouver i s q u i t e l a r g e , a v e r a g i n g ahout 60"•  The woods i n the a r e a s c o l l e c t e d over  c o n t a i n a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e s , such as a l d e r and w i l l o w , and the l a n d i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y  high.  In t h i s  l o c a l i t y c o l l e c t i o n s were made d u r i n g September, October and November, as w e l l as i n t h e summer months. Prevalence  of Slime-Moulds i n A r e a s .  I n the two l o c a l i t i e s d e s c r i b e d above a t o t a l o f  one  hundred and t h r e e forms, i n n i n e t e e n genera were c o l l e c t e d , many o f them o c c u r r i n g i n b o t h r e g i o n s , some o n l y i n one other.  C e r t a i n o f t h e s e specimens were d e f i n i t e l y  identified,  w h i l e o t h e r s are l i s t e d as d o u b t f u l o r v a r y i n g f o r m s .  Colonies  o f slime-moulds were found on almost a l l t h e u n d i s t u r b e d l o g s i n the woods, t h i s r e m a r k a b l e p r e v a l e n c e due  o r the  probably  rotting  being  to the f a v o u r a b l e weather c o n d i t i o n s a t the time o f  collecting. I n the o r d e r P h y s a r a l e s the genera Badhamia, Physarum, C r a t e r i u m , L e o c a r p u s , Didymium, Piderma and Lepidoderma are represented; Stemonitis  t  C o m a t r i c h a , D l a c h a e a , Enerthenema and  Lamproderma i n the S t e m o n i t a l e s ; Dictydlum  two genera C r i b r a r i a  and  i n the C r i b r a r i a l e s , and the s i n g l e genus L y e o g a l a  the L y c o g a l a l e s ; the genera A r c y r i a . P r o t o t r i c h i a  0  Trichia  in and  Ollgonema i n the T r i c h i a l e s . Methods o f C o l l e c t i o n and P r e s e r v a t i o n o f M a t e r i a l . C o n s i d e r a b l e c a r e was t a k e n i n the c o l l e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the s l i m e - m o u l d s , mature specimens g a t h e r e d i n the  f i e l d b e i n g i m m e d i a t e l y t r a n s f e r r e d w i t h a p o r t i o n o f the  s u b s t r a t u m to s m a l l boxes.  Immature specimens were a l l o w e d t o  remain unmolested u n t i l the s p o r a n g i a were f u l l y d e v e l o p e d . The boxes c o n t a i n i n g f r e s h l y c o l l e c t e d s l i m e - m o u l d s were exposed f o r s e v e r a l hours t o the d i r e c t s u n l i g h t b e f o r e b e i n g closed.  I n the absence o f s u n l i g h t the specimens i n boxes  were h e a t e d g e n t l y f o r an hour o r two.  This treatment a s s i s t s  i n the d r y i n g out o f specimens, and p r e v e n t s c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f the  s p o r a n g i a by d e s t r u c t i v e molds o r i n s e c t s . Methods o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n o f M a t e r i a l . In the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l  Lister*s  "Mycetosoa" ( l j ) and Macbride *s " N o r t h American SIime-Moulds" (14) were the o n l y works employed.  I n t h e absence o f h e r b a r i u m  m a t e r i a l the t a s k o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s specimens i n the  c o l l e c t i o n was more d i f f i c u l t  t h a n i t would o t h e r w i s e have  been, s i n c e no comparisons w i t h p r o p e r l y i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i e s co c o u l d be made. Every specimen c o n t a i n e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n has been s t u d i e d c r i t i c a l l y , and the p r e s e n t work c o n s i s t s o f a l i s t the  of  s p e c i e s r e p r e s e n t e d . I n eases where the specimens a r e  a b s o l u t e l y t y p i c a l o f the s p e c i e s t h e y r e p r e s e n t , no d e s c r i p t i o n has been i n c l u d e d , b u t i n d e a l i n g w i t h v a r y i n g f o r m s , a t t e n t i o n  V h a s b e e n d r a w n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h d i f f e r from those t o be found i n t y p i c a l  s p e c i e s , and where t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s  d o u b t f u l a d i s c u s s i o n i s g i v e n of the taxonomic All  difficulties.  s p o r e m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e made i n a 2% s o l u t i o n o f p o t a s s i u m  h y d r o x i d e , w h i l e m o u n t s o f t h e m a t e r i a l t o be s t u d i e d , were made i n a m o u n t i n g f l u i d In  composed m a i n l y o f glycerine„  t h i s w o r k a number h a s b e e n g i v e n t o e a c h  form, whether d e f i n i t e l y  identified  or merely l i s t e d  distinct  as  v a r y i n g o r d o u b t f u l , t h e n u m b e r b e i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B. Mycological  C.  H e r b a r i u m lumber; i n t h e l a b e l l i n g o f t h e m a t e r i a l  c o r r e s p o n d i n g numbers h a v e b e e n a p p l i e d t o t h e s p e c i m e n s contained i n the c o l l e c t i o n .  -  1 -  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA SLIME-MOULDS*  GENERAL C L A S S I F I C A T I O N OF MYXOMYCETES•  Macbride saprophytes;  (14) G l a s s e s myxomycetes a s p a r a s i t e s o r  t h e s a p r o p h y t i c myxomycetes he p l a c e s i n two  groups - t h e Exosporeae only w i l l  The l a t t e r g r o u p  be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s work, f o r a l t h o u g h  Ceratiomyxa. belonging the  and t h e M y x o g a s t r e s .  species o f  t o t h e E x o s p o r e a e , were v e r y common i n  f a l l , t h e y were n o t s t u d i e d c r i t i c a l l y . Slime-moulds b e l o n g i n g t o the Myxogastres a r e d i v i d e d  into  the f o l l o w i n g f i v e o r d e r s , P h y s a r a l e s »  Cribrariales, with  Lyeogalales. Trichiales*  i n the subsequent pages,  genera w i t h i n t h e orders b e i n g  These w i l l  the sequence  be d e a l t  of families  and  that o f Macbride ( 1 4 ) .  F o r e a c h genus a k e y h a s o f t h e genus which  Stemonitales.  been p r e p a r e d f o r t h o s e  are represented  In the c o l l e c t i o n , the key  b e i n g b a s e d o n c h a r a c t e r s shown i n t h e m a t e r i a l s t u d i e d *  ORDER I PHYSARALES• This order families,  species  i s d i v i d e d by Macbride  (14) i n t o  t h e Physaraceae and t h e Didymiaeeae*  two  The Physaraeeae a r e , on t h e w h o l e , w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d , s p e c i e s "belonging t o f o u r o u t o f s e v e n genera h a v i n g "been collected.  I n t h e genus Badhamia two s p e c i e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d  i n Physarum f i v e d e f i n i t e , and f o u r d o u b t f u l , s p e c i e s , w h i l e g a t h e r i n g s were made o f one s p e c i e s b e l o n g i n g t o each o f t h e genera C r a t e r i u m and L e o c a r p u s .  Ho specimens o f F u l l g o ,  P h y s a r e l l a o r C i e n k o w s k i a were found i n e i t h e r o f t h e l o c a l i t i e s i n w h i c h t h e c o l l e c t i o n was made* ' I n t h e Didymiaeeae t h r e e genera o u t o f f i v e a r e r e p r e s e n t e d , c o l l e c t i o n s b e i n g made o f f i v e s p e c i e s o f Didymium, f o u r o f Diderma. and one o f Lepidoderma.  No gather-  i n g s were made o f M u o i l a g o o r C o l l o d e r m a .  PHYSARACEAE 1.  Badhamia ( B e r k e l e y ) R o s t . Two s p e c i e s o f t h i s genus were c o l l e c t e d , t h e m a t e r i a l  b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d w i t h ease. I.  They may be s e p a r a t e d as f o l l o w s :  Sporangia i r i d e s c e n t v i o l e t o r b l u i s ^ g r e y ;  stipes  membranous, b r a n c h i n g t o s u p p o r t t h e hanging  sporangia;  spores 9.5u - 12u i n diameter. (1) B» u t r i c u l a r i s . II.  Sporangia s i l v e r y - b r o w n ; s t i p e s d i s t i n c t , e r e c t ; spores l l u . - 14 u i n d i a m e t e r . (2) B. r u b i g i n o s a .  (l)  Badhamia u t r i c u l a r ! s ( B u l l . ) B e r k . S p o r a n g i a i n a c l u s t e r , hanging from the u n d e r s i d e  o f a s m a l l maple l o g .  P l a s m o d i u m deep o r a n g e - y e l l o w ,  o v e r a week t o m a t u r e . vicinity,  i n the l a t e  This material  C o l l e c t e d once o n l y ,  i s typical  Badhamia r u b i g i n o s a Sporangia  Large c o l o n y  as being  "minutely  o f B»  utrioularis.  Myc. Herb. I o . £00 (Chev.) R o s t .  gregarious  collected  Maohride  Vancouver  fall.  U.B.G. (2)  on d e c a y i n g  i n the l a t e  fall,  maple  (14) d e s c r i b e s t h e spores  spores  over the s u r f a c e  species  those  dark prominent  u n e v e n l y t o form  o f the spore•  of  This  broken  feature of  c h a r a c t e r i z e s B» r u b i g i n o s a v a r . d i o t y o s p o r a  g i v e n by L i s t e r typical  vicinity.  of this  roughened o r s p i n u l o s e " , w h i l e  warts or s p i n u l e s , which are arranged  the  leaves.  Vancouver  t h e m a t e r i a l r e f e r r e d t o above a r e m a r k e d w i t h  reticulations  taking  (13),  sporangia  often confluent  i n w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s t h e  as having  spores  warts forming  "marked w i t h  as  otherwise prominent  broken r e t i c u l a t i o n s . "  Macbride  ( 1 4 ) , h o w e v e r makes no m e n t i o n o f a n y v a r i e t y a n d so t h e m a t e r i a l has been c l a s s i f i e d U.B.G. 2.  Physarum  simply  as B. r u b i g i n o s a .  Myc. H e r b . I o . 501  (Persoon) Rost.  T h i s genus i s f a i r l y w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d , having  been c o l l e c t e d .  from the t y p i c a l Lister that  several  species  T h e s e f o r t h e most p a r t show v a r i a t i o n s  f o r m s , as d e s c r i b e d by Macbride  (13), a n d i n some c a s e s  this variation  t h e s p e c i e s c o u l d n o t be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  (14) and  i s so c o n s i d e r a b l e i d e n t i f i e d , and  q u e n t l y have b e e n r e c o r d e d as d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s . Sporangia white,  grey or yellow; s t i p i t a t e  or  sessile;  peridium containing deposits of lime. A.  Sporangium w a l l double;  s p o r a n g i a and  lime-knots  white• (a) Sporangia  scattered,  plasmodiooarps; short  forming short or  lime-knots connected  (b) S p o r a n g i a c l o s e l y compressed; badhamioid,  threads  P.  numerous  Sporangium w a l l s i n g l e ;  few.  s p o r a n g i a and  v a r i o u s l y coloured, white, (a) Sporangla  yellow or  golden-orange;  irregular,  bitectum.  capillitium  (2) P.  and  by  threads. (1)  B.  elongated  contextum.  lime-knots orange.  l i m e - k n o t s orange,  large  branching. (3)  P.  a u r i s c a l p turn.  (b) Sporangia w h i t e , grey or y e l l o w ; lime-knots  white  or y e l l o w , v a r i o u s l y shaped, o r s m a l l f u s i f o r m  and  orange. ( i ) Sporangia  stalked, lenticular, usually  nodding;  s p o r a n g i u m w a l l when r u p t u r e d p e r s i s t i n g a t base i n p e t a l - l i k e x Sporangia knots  l o b e s , fragmentary  the  above•  yellow or greenish-yellow; lime-  f u s i f o r m orange . (4)  xx Sporangia w h i t i s h or grey;  P.  virlde.  lime-knots v a r y i n g  in  size,  rounded, white, (5) P .  (ii)  Sporangia s e s s i l e , or  sub~globose;  or stalked erect,  or irregularly  x Sporangia  sessile,  plasmodiocarps,  long  dehiscent,  crowded o r  forming  greyish-white or (6)  Sporangia  globose  sporangium w a l l u s u a l l y  persistent,  xx  nutans.  P.  grey.  (oinereum?).  s t i p i t a t e , greenish-yellow, or  yellowish-whi t e • o Sporangia bright  greenish-yellow;  or pale  yellow. (?)  oo  lime-knots  P.  (oblatum?).  Sporangia p a l e yellowish-white; lime-knots white. Pa  (8) II.  Sporangia  d u l l black, plasmodioearpous;  (eameum?).  peridium  limeless.  (9) (1)  Bhysarum b i t e o t u m Sporangia  d e c a y i n g wood. the  P.  (vernum?).  Lister.  scattered  Collected  or gregarious, f a i r l y  common  on  once o r t w i c e , Vancouver v i c i n i t y , i n  fall. There  i s one  d i s c r e p a n c y t o be n o t e d  c a t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l as P . resembles  that  of P.  sinuosum.  b i t e c t u m - the Sporangia  c h a r a c t e r i z e d , a c c o r d i n g to Macbride  i n the  sporangium w a l l  o f P.  (14) and  classifi-  slnuosum  Lister  (13),  are by  h a v i n g a r e t i c u l a t e d o u t e r w a l l and a w r i n k l e d i n n e r v / a l l adhering to i t .  P. b i t e e t u m , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s d e s c r i b e d by  b o t h a u t h o r s a s h a v i n g a smooth i n n e r w a l l , and hence a l s o a smooth o u t e r w a l l .  A c c o r d i n g t o L i s t e r (13) t h e s e two a l l i e d  forms a r e o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d i n t h e s o u t h o f E n g l a n d , P. b i t e e t u m d i f f e r i n g c o n s t a n t l y from P. sinuosum i n h a v i n g a smooth p u r p l i s h i n n e r sporangium w a l l , and rougher s p o r e s smoother and p a l e r on one s i d e .  I n the present species the p u r p l i s h inner  w a l l i s r e t i c u l a t e d , g i v i n g t o the o u t e r w a l l a r e t i c u l a t e d appearance a l s o , e s p e c i a l l y above.  The o u t e r w a l l i s q u i t e  f r e e and does n o t adhere t o t h e i n n e r w a l l *  P. sinuosum g e t s  i t s name from t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p l a s m o d i o o a r p , - c r e e p i n g i n l o n g v e i n - l i k e r e t i c u l a t i o n s o r curves'* (Macbride ( 1 4 ) ) , and no such h a b i t o c c u r s i n t h i s s p e c i e s .  The s p o r e s a r e a l s o  l a r g e r (?.5u. - l l u , d i a m e t e r ) t h a n i n a t y p i c a l form o f P. sinuosum. and a r e d i s t i n c t l y rough, w i t h a p a l e r , smoother area o f dehiscence.  A p a r t from the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e w a l l  this  s p e c i e s f i t s p e r f e c t l y t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n o f P. b i t e e t u m , and has been c l a s s i f i e d as s u c h , i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n f r o m the t y p i c a l f o r m , i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e w a l l , shows a n approach  sporangium  to the c l o s e l y a l l i e d species  P. sinuosum. U.B.G. Myc. Herb. Ho. £ 0 2 (2)  Physarum oontextum P e r s o o n . S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on f i b e r - l i k e p l a n t r o o t s on the  s u r f a c e o f an o l d l o g .  C o l l e c t e d once o n l y i n a wet wooded  a r e a on S a l t  Spring Island, i n the spring.  This gathering i s t y p i c a l size,  the l a r g e range  i n spore  l^n.) s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h i s P.. o o n t e x t u m .  i n a l l r e s p e c t s hut spore  diameter  ZZjx.  (lOp: -  i s an i m p e r f e c t s p e c i m e n o f  The s p o r e s ,  i n a d d i t i o n , show i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f  s h a p e , o n l y a few o f them h e i n g p e r f e c t l y g l o b o s e . spores  averaging  a p p e a r t o be e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d  throughout  The l a r g e the sporan-  gium, a n d a r e n o t c o n f i n e d t o a n y p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n ( i n n e r o r o u t e r ) a s f a r a s c a n be d e t e r m i n e d . spores  t o show t h e n u c l e i  possible  to f i n d  nucleate  or t r i - n u c l e a t e .  respects similar  Attempts t o s t a i n the  p r o v e d u n s u c c e s s f u l , a n d i t was n o t  out i f the l a r g e r  spores  The l a r g e s p o r e s  t o the s m a l l e r ones,  were e s t i m a t e d t o be a s much a s  The l a r g e s t  eight  t h e volume o f t h e s m a l l e s t •  ity  i n spore  size  which has spores diameter)  this larger  spores  are i n a l l other  the w a l l s b e i n g o f equal  thickness. times  are, perhaps, b i -  Despite the i r r e g u l a r  s p e c i m e n was c l a s s i f i e d ( r a n g i n g from  a s P. c o n t e x t u a l  a b o u t lOn. - 14u. i n  than has P» conglomeratum, i t s c l o s e s t The  eapillitium  densely charged  with  ally.  i s d i s t i n c t l y badhamioid,  being  lime. U.B.G. M y c . H e r b . No. j?Q3  (3)  Physarum a u r l s c a l p l u m Cooke. Sporangia  g r e g a r i o u s on f a l l e n w i l l o w t w i g s ,  l e a v e s and D o u g l a s f i r n e e d l e s . on S a l t  Collected  willow  once i n t h e summer  S p r i n g I s l a n d , i n a d r y wooded a r e a . M o s t o f t h i s m a t e r i a l i s q u i t e t y p i c a l , b u t some  - 8 -  specimens show a t y p e o f P. a u r i s c a l p i u m c l o s e l y Badhamia d e o i p i e n s . plasmodiocarpous,  approaching  The orange s p o r a n g i a a r e s e s s i l e  r  often  and t h e c a p i l l i t i u m d e n s e l y charged w i t h l i m e ,  w i t h few c o n n e c t i n g t h r e a d s *  The spores however range, as i n  the t y p i c a l form, from ICu. - 12ji i n d i a m e t e r . M a t e r i a l t y p i c a l o f P. a u r i s c a l p i u m ; U.B.G. Myc. H e r b . No. 504 M a t e r i a l showing an a p p r o a c h t o Badhamia d e e i p i e n s : U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . No. 505 (4)  Physarum v l r l d e  (Bull.) Pers.  S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on Douglas f i r t w i g s and c h a r r e d f i r wood.  Gathered  f r e q u e n t l y i n d r y wooded r e g i o n s on S a l t  S p r i n g I s l a n d i n the s p r i n g . T h i s m a t e r i a l i s a b s o l u t e l y t y p i c a l o f P. v i r i d e . U.B.G. Myc. Herb. No. 506 A c o l l e c t i o n o f P. v i r i d e was made a l s o i n t h e s p r i n g , on an o l d D o u g l a s f i r l o g , i n w h i c h t h e s p o r a n g i a d i f f e r from t h o s e r e f e r r e d t o above i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t i p e .  I n a l l the  s p o r a n g i a the s t i p e i s s w o l l e n f o r about o n e - t h i r d o f t h e way up, t h i s p o r t i o n b e i n g v e r y dark; t h e s p o r a n g i a a l s o appear somewhat l a r g e r .  A l l o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s a r e i d e n t i c a l w i t h those  o f t h e t y p i c a l form, so t h i s m a t e r i a l was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a form o f P. v i r i d e v a r y i n g o n l y i n t h e n a t u r e o f the s t i p e . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 507  (5)  Pbysarum nutans  Persoon.  S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on d e c a y i n g a l d e r wood and "bark, Douglas f i r "bark, maple wood and e v e n b r a c k e t f u n g i on d e c a y i n g alder logs.  C o l l e c t e d f r e q u e n t l y i n wet wooded a r e a s on S a l t  S p r i n g I s l a n d and i n Vancouver v i c i n i t i e s i n the summer and •fall. F o r the most p a r t t h e m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d i s t y p i c a l o f P. n u t a n s , b u t one g a t h e r i n g was made i n w h i c h t h e s p o r a n g i a d i f f e r s l i g h t l y from the t y p i c a l form.  The s p o r a n g i a a r e l a r g e  and e r e c t , the c a p i l l i t i u m c o n t a i n i n g numerous l a r g e l i m e - k n o t s t h i s s u g g e s t s an approach t o P. n u t a n s v a r . leuoophaeum ( L i s t e r (13))» but L i s t e r (13)  n o t e s t h a t the s p e c i e s i s  e x t r e m e l y v a r i a b l e , and t h a t between c e r t a i n extreme f o r m s , " a l l shades o f d i f f e r e n c e may d e f i n e even d i s t i n c t  be found, making i t d i f f i c u l t t o  varieties".  T y p i c a l specimens  o f P.  nutans:-  U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . No. V a r y i n g form; o f P.  nutans:-  U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . No. (6)  £0-8  509  Physarum ( o i n e r e u m ? ) . S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on b l a d e s o f g r a s s .  Collected  once i n the summer, Vancouver v i c i n i t y , the e x t e n s i v e heaped c o l o n y c o v e r i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a o f lawn T h i s specimen  turf.  i n a l l but spore d i m e n s i o n s f i t s  d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n by L i s t e r  (13)  and Macbride  (14) of  P. oinereum b e t t e r than i t does t h o s e o f P. conferturn o r  the  P» v e r n u n u abundant  eapillitium,  distinguish iridescent the  s p o r a n g i a ( . 3 mm*  The l a r g e  this  . 6 mm.  In diameter)  w i t h l a r g e numerous l i m e - k n o t s  s p e c i e s f r o m P. c o n f e r t u m . w h i l e t h e o f t e n  bluish-grey colour  (due to the absence  o f lime i n  w a l l s ) s e p a r a t e s I t from P. vernum. In  spinulose  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f this m a t e r i a l the large  s p o r e s 8u - lO.fJu. i n d i a m e t e r , p r e s e n t a  since L i s t e r  (13)  difficulty  d e s c r i b e s P. c i n e r e u m a s h a v i n g s p o r e s  7P- - lOu. i n d i a m e t e r , w h i l e M a c b r i d e r a n g e a s 6 u - 7p.. is  ~  Lister  (13)  (14) g i v e s the spore  however, n o t e s t h a t P. c i n e r e u m  c o n n e c t e d b y i n t e r m e d i a t e forms w i t h P. veraum - w h i c h h a s  s p o r e s r a n g i n g i n d i a m e t e r f r o m 9p: - 12p, - a n d a l s o when t h e s p o r a n g i a o f P. c i n e r e u m a r e c l u s t e r e d destitute  o f lime, t h i s  distinguishable  species i s only with  from P. confertum.  i s a f o r m o f P» c i n e r e u m s h o w i n g  form.  I t would  that  and n e a r l y  difficulty  I t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t  this  an a p p r o a c h t o P . vernum i n  p o s s e s s i n g l a r g e r and darker spores than i s u s u a l typical  states  outwardly appear l i k e  i n the  P. c o n f e r t u m on  account o f t h e l i m e l e s s p e r i d i u m . The  turf  o f lawns  a p p e a r s t o be a common s u b s t r a t u m  f o r t h e P l a s m o d i u m o f P. c i n e r e u m , a s m e n t i o n fact  b o t h by L i s t e r  (13)  and Macbride  (14); the specimen  d i s c u s s i o n was f o u n d g r o w i n g on l a w n g r a s s . observes that  specimens  the  sporangia are iridescent  clustered  lime deposits  i s made o f t h i s  Lister  (13)  under also  o f P. c i n e r e u m have b e e n f o u n d i n w h i c h  i n their walls.  These  b l u e from the absence o f  two p o i n t s , w h i l e o f no  value  i n a c t u a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , y e t help to confirm the  identification  o f t h e specimen a s B. o i n e r e u m . U.B.C. M y c . H e r o . No. 5 1 0  (7)  Physarum  (oblatum?).  Sporangia  loosely gregarious  on the hark o f a w i l l o w  t w i g l y i n g among d e a d l e a v e s a n d o l d l o g s . these  few s p o r a n g i a b e i n g c o l l e c t e d  wooded a r e a  on S a l t  i n early  to identify The  the  lime-knots  branched, w i t h  once  only,  summer i n a d r y  Spring Island.  In t h e absence o f herbarium difficult  Gathered  this  capillitium  m a t e r i a l i t was  found  specimen s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . i s d i s t i n c t l y badhamioid  i n type,  b e i n g numerous, l a r g e , a n d o f t e n e x t e n s i v e l y few c o n n e c t i n g  According  threads.  t o t h e k e y g i v e n by L i s t e r  ( 1 3 ) f o r the  s p e c i e s o f B a d h a m i a t h i s m a t e r i a l w o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d a s B. v i r i d e s e e n s , a n d t h e d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n o f t h i s show t h a t t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s t o be f o u n d colour the  o f t h e s p o r a n g i a , and t h e nature  o f the lime  granules o f  B. v l r i d e s c e n s d i f f e r s from the p r e s e n t  having  short stipes  longer  stipes  larger  spores,  fit  i n t h e s i z e and  sporangium w a l l , as w e l l a s i n t h e c o l o u r and nature  capillitium.  of  s p e c i e s does  ( . 1 ram. - . 3 mm.  ( . 5 mm.  - . 7 5 mm.  long)  this  ified,  form i n  l o n g ) a s opposed t o t h e of this  specimen, and  9u. - I 3 n , i n s t e a d o f l O u - l l u d i a m e t e r .  t h e s p e c i e s o f Badhamia l i s t e d  o f the  by Macbride  None  ( 1 4 ) i n a n y way  s p e c i e s , b u t i n t h e genus Physarum i t w o u l d be  a c c o r d i n g t o h i s k e y , a s P. o b l a t u m , and f i t s h i s  class-  - 12 d e s c r i p t i o n o f the lime-knots  are  species.  "dense and  badhamioid nature  Macbride  identified  o f the e a p i l l i t i u m .  a s P. M a y d i s  nomenclature), the  and  fits  Lister  f o r m o f P.  was  concluded  Douglas f i r l y i n g  the  Salt  t h a t the  a few  being •5  mm.,  first  and  first  s p e c i e s must be  a  eapillitium. 511  on  twigs  be  on  satisfactorily  a cedar  of willow  C o l l e c t e d once o r t w i o e  the  twig.  from those  in a  summer. were made o f  f a i r l y numerous  this  sporangia  second g a t h e r i n g c o n s i s t s T h e s e much w e a t h e r e d  o f the f i r s t  .5  mm.  -  gathering i n  from .6  mm.  .25  mm.  - ?u a v e r a g i n g  8.2u.  g a t h e r i n g have p u r p l e - b r o w n s p o r e s ,  ~  i n the  also i n possessing smaller violet-brown f r o m 8u  and  identified.  i n diameter  o p p o s e d to t h e r a n g e o f  ranging i n diameter the  present  g a t h e r i n g the  d i f f e r mainly  s p o r a n g i a ) , and  in  ground.  s m a l l e r , (the head r a n g i n g as  the  specimen.  H e r b . Ho.  f i r bark, w h i l e  sporangia  sporangia  in  a p p e a r s m a l l e r and  slightly differing collections  In the on w i l l o w  the  f a i r l y well also;  S p r i n g I s l a n d , i n the  s p e c i e s , which c o u l d not  of  in this  loosely gregarious  on  d r y wooded a r e a on  are  to  (carneum?).  Sporangia  Two  key  the  ( l j ) t h i s m a t e r i a l would  oblatum w i t h badhamioid  Physarum  From t h e  lime-knots  U.B.G. Myc. (8)  the  does not mention  this description  f a r more numerous t h a n It  that  (P. oblatum a c c o r d i n g to Macbride*s  i l l u s t r a t i o n however t h e  threads  (14) n o t e s  abundant", but  s p e c i e s o f P h y s a r u m g i v e n by be  -  The  other  spores,  sporangia  8p. - l i p . ,  •» 13 a v e r a g i n g 9.1)1 i n d i a m e t e r . a pale yellowish-white; pale yellowish-white  The  « stipe  i n the l a r g e r  o r c l e a r orange  T h i s m a t e r i a l c a n n o t he P.  c a r n e u m , on a c c o u n t  h e a d and  s t i p e , and  s p o r a n g i a o f the t h a n t o any  other  c o l o u r o f the  spore  measurements.  Macbride  although  (14).  The  difficulty  i n the  dimensions.  The  spore  The  slightly  the  o f the  yellowish-white  than  i n one  sporangia  the  larger  sporangia  stipes  and  as both  smaller  oameum  the  stipe  sporangium  i s not n o t i c e -  than  that given  first  stipe  and  gathering present the l a r g e r  clear  t h e m s e l v e s a r e more o f a yellow.  dingy  This suggests  an are  d e s c r i b e d a s h a v i n g b r i g h t brown o r r e d brown s t i p e s ,  and  10n  -  ranging 12u  nodulosum i n which the w h i t e  (Macbride  occurrence  f r o m 8p. - l l u . ( L i s t e r  i n diameter (14)).  o f f o r m s o f P.  (13)  Lister  still  i n some o f t h e  t o be  sporangia  c o n s i d e r e d the  from  the  eapillitium,  in this material.  sporangia  w i t h the p a l e y e l l o w i s h s t i p e s , be m e n t i o n e d t h a t P.  or  p u s i l l u m (P. nodulosum a c c o r d i n g to  Macbride*s nomenclature) w i t h badhamioid i s found  (13))  also notes  a  spore  group o f s p o r a n g i a are  a definite  by  by  sporangia  spores  spored  r a n g e comes w i t h i n t h a t g i v e n  c o l o u r o f the  o r a n g e r e d , and  a p p r o a c h t o P.  sporangia,  s p e c i e s o f Physarum. a l t h o u g h  The  i s either  classified  s e c o n d g a t h e r i n g come c l o s e r t o P.  ably flesh-tinted. (13),  stipe  i n colour.  o f the  the  s m a l l e r form i s  form the  definitely  head i s n e a r e r w h i t e t h a n y e l l o w ,  Lister  i n the  and  o f the  second  i n this  carneum i s d e s c r i b e d b y  such  as  There  are  gathering  connection Lister  (13)  it  may as  - 14 having both P»  either  these  f l e s h - c o l o u r e d or d u l l  c o l o u r s m i g h t be  oameum, o n l y the From t h e  herbarium matter; P.  stipes  at  gatherings  a t h a n d , and  t h a t the  t h e same t i m e  c o l l e c t e d may  spored  not  be  s m a l l e r spored  U.B.C, Myc.  the  of  i t i s p o s s i b l e that a l l the the  same s p e c i e s o f P.  spored  H e r b . Ho.  H e r b . Ho.  the  nodulosum, o f P . oaraeum.  f ornu512 form:-  515  s c a t t e r e d on d e c a y i n g wood.  much w e a t h e r e d m a t e r i a l was  collected  i n the  This  fall  scanty  i n the  o f Vancouver. The  sporangia form d u l l b l a c k plasmodiocarps,  single w a l l being without  deposits of lime.  The  connected  by many membranous t h r e a d s . disappeared  place o f the  lime-knot.  t h r e a d s and  lime-knots  l e a v i n g an almost  the  capillitium  a b u n d a n t , c o n t a i n i n g numerous l a r g e , t h i c k , w h i t e  show t h e  of  (vernum?).  Sporangia  l i m e has  nodulosum.  done t o d e c i d e  Second g a t h e r i n g , s m a l l e r spored  vicinity  to P>  f o r m b e i n g more n e a r l y t y p i c a l  gathering, larger  while  typical  s p e c i e s i s a form  represent  U.B.G. Myc.  Physarum  so t h a t  i n the absence  form perhaps b e i n g a v a r i a t i o n  First  (9)  of  r e d d i s h ones c o u l d b e l o n g  i t seems p r o b a b l e  material  the  In  m a t e r i a l n o t h i n g f u r t h e r can  earneum, b u t  larger  found  red stipes,  lime-knots  I n some s p o r a n g i a  proved  t  the  c o l o u r l e s s membrane i n  A t t e m p t s t o mount t h e c a p i l l i t i u m  lime-knots  is  unsuccessful, since  seem t o d i s i n t e g r a t e when mounted i n 2%  to the  potassium  * 15 « hydroxide,  and n e i t h e r the threads  lime-knots  c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  spores are u s u a l l y globose, sometimes o v a l , f l a t t e n e d 12u,  usually with The  Macbride the  on one s i d e , a v e r a g i n g a b o u t 10u x  absence o f l i m e  o f dehiscence. In the w a l l s  difficult.  of this  According  specimen  to t h e key g i v e n by  s p e c i e s P. s e r p u l a : P. l a t e r i t i u m ;  only three  account  11,In, b u t a r e  ( 1 4 ) f o r t h e s p e c i e s o f P h y s a r u m t h i s w o u l d be one o f  three  simple  The d a r k brown s p i n u l o s e  l O n - 12u a v e r a g i n g  a p a l e r area  makes i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  n o r the o u t l i n e s o f t h e  P. vernum, t h e  s p e c i e s l i s t e d which a r e plasmodiocarpous with a  peridium.  T h i s s p e c i e s must t h e n  be P. vernum on  o f t h e w h i t e c a l c a r e o u s d e p o s i t s , a s opposed t o t h e  y e l l o w d e p o s i t s o f P. s e r p u l a . and t h e r e d d e p o s i t s o f P. l a t e r i t i u m . ,. The o c c u r r e n c e would suggest by M a c b r i d e allied  (14), but mentioned by L i s t e r  to both  in  spores  a n a p p r o a c h t o P. o v i s p o r u m , a s p e c i e s n o t l i s t e d (13) a s b e i n g  P . vernum and P. compressum.  however show no w h i t e l i n e spores  o f o c c a s i o n a l oval-shaped  o f dehiscence,  The o v a l  closely  spores  such as c h a r a c t e r i z e s  o f P. o v i s p o r u m . a n d i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y  shape may be due t o t h e f a c t  q u i t e m a t u r e when c o l l e c t e d . P. vernum — - P . vernum v a r .  t h a t t h e s p o r a n g i a were n o t  Lister  (13)  gives a variety o f  i r i d e s o e n s i n which the sporangia  a r e d a r k brown f r o m a b s e n c e o f l i m e  i n the w a l l s .  From t h e f o r e g o i n g s c a n t y d e s c r i p t i o n reasonable  to suggest  that this  i t seems  specimen i s an i m p e r f e c t  o f P. v e r n u m . U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . Ho. 514  form  ~ 16 3•  Craterium  Trentepohl.  T h i s genus i s r e p r e s e n t e d single  s p e c i e s , which  therefore  he e a s i l y  Craterium  Douglas  i n a l l r e s p e c t s and c o u l d  (Pers.)  Ditmar.  g r e g a r i o u s on f a l l e n h o r s e c h e s t n u t  f i r twigs and needles.  exposed a r e a s  by a  identified.  leucocephalum  Sporangia and  i s typical  i n the c o l l e c t i o n  on S a l t  C o l l e c t e d twice  leaves  i n dry  S p r i n g I s l a n d i n t h e summer.  U.B.C. M y c . H e r b . No. £15 4.  Leocarpus The  collected material  (Link) Rost. single  s e v e r a l times being  Leocarpus  of  fragllls  the  l o c a l i t i e s , a l l the  Rost.  g r e g a r i o u s , on f a l l e n t w i g s and l e a v e s , o r living salal  i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver  growing on a w i n d f a l l from  different  (Dickson)  i n bunches from  times  from  genus was  typical.  Sporangia hanging  s p e c i e s b e l o n g i n g to t h i s  o f f i r needles  stems.  C o l l e c t e d a number  i n the f a l l . and t w i g s was  A specimen collected  a r e g i o n i n t h e c o a s t mountains of B r i t i s h Columbia, but sporangia are similar  altitude,  being  to t h o s e  quite typical  gathered  a t the lower  o f the s p e c i e s .  U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . No. 516  DIDYMIACEAE !•  Dldymium ( S c h r a d . ) F r . In  this  genus f i v e  s p e c i e s have b e e n r e c o r d e d , b u t  - 17 o n l y one allied the  c o u l d he  species to  rest I.  of these  i d e n t i f i e d with  ease, a tendency f o r  i n t e r g r a d e making i t d i f f i c u l t  o f the m a t e r i a l  Sporangia  into d e f i n i t e  t i n y lime  crystals;  a  columella  (1) D. Sporangia  outer wall  c r u s t o f c l o s e l y combined a l m o s t i n -  distinguishable  II.  up  species.  snow-white, f l a t t e n e d , s e s s i l e ;  smooth " b r i t t l e  to d i v i d e  white or grey,  none.  difforme.  rounded, u s u a l l y  stipitate;  o u t e r w a l l a c r u s t o f l o o s e l y combined,  easily  distinguishable  columella  stellate  lime  crystals;  present• A.  Sporangia carps;  stipitate  stipe  columella  or s e s s i l e  stout, black  light  or dark  forming  or very  d a r k brown, opaque;  brown. (2) P.  S.  Sporangia  always d i s t i n c t l y  yellowish,  white, yellowish-white,  yellow  ( a ) S t i p e and  concolorous,  yellowish-white,  rarely  pale  orange o r  or  white,  columella orange.  white  or  pale  orange. D.  squamulosum.  r e d d i s h brown, t r a n s l u c e n t ,  brown a b o v e , b l a c k  white  stipe  or r a r e l y  (3) (b) S t i p e  melanospermum.  stipitate;  orange o r c l e a r red-brown;  columella  plasmodio-  opaque below;  or  columella  yellow.  ( i ) Columella  yellow,  lax colourless  roughened; c a p i l l i t i u m  threads. (4)  P.  eximium.  of  • (ii)  » 18  »  Columella white rigid  smooth; e a p i l l i t i u m  purplish-brown  threads• (j>) D«  (1)  s c a t t e r e d on t h e h a r k o f an  l y i n g among d e c a y i n g ed  leaves*  o f the  (14)  i n the U n i t e d  notes  S i d y m i u m melanospermum Sporangia  s i d e wood o f a v e r y  was  $VJ  H e r b . Ho.  This material,  collected  i n the  sporangia,  extremely twigs  typical  summer i n a d r y wooded  Salt  sporangia  Macbride  (14)  separates  spermum a s a d i s t i n c t and  S p r i n g I s l a n d i n the  o f Douglas f i r . form i n h a v i n g and  constant  This  eapillitium  spores  8.7ji i n d i a m e t e r ;  r e s e m b l e D.  melanospermum  numerous, g r o w i n g a l l  slender flexuose c o l o u r l e s s threads,  o n l y f r o m 8}i - l O u , a v e r a g i n g  crumbling i n -  A g a t h e r i n g o f D.  wooded a r e a on  m a t e r i a l d i f f e r s from the  r e s p e c t s the  i s "evidently  o l d D o u g l a s f i r stump.  o v e r a heap o f b r a n c h e s and  very  difforme  ( P e r s . ) Maobr.  Spring Island.  grey  t h a t B.  the  made i n a v e r y w e t  s p r i n g , the  i s absolutely  g r e g a r i o u s , a b u n d a n t on  w h i c h i s t y p i c a l , was r e g i o n on S a l t  and  collect-  States*  U.B.C. Myc. (2)  branch,  species*  Macbride rare"  old  T h i s s c a n t y m a t e r i a l was  i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver i n the f a l l ,  typical  xanthopus.  Buoy.  Sidymium d i f f o r m e Sporangia  of  of  ranging  i n these  two  minus. D.  minus f r o m D.  species, while  melanoLister  (13)  d e s c r i b e s i t as a v a r i e t y o n l y o f D. melanospermum. n o t i n g t h a t  - 19  -  " I n t e r m e d i a t e f o r m u n i t i n g t h e v a r . m i n u s and t h e t y p i c a l a r e so f r e q u e n t distinct  that  species".  t h e f o r m e r c a n n o t be r e g a r d e d a s a Macbride  (14)  D. melanospermum o n t h e b a s i s present  s e p a r a t e s D. m i n u s f r o m  o f sporangium  s p e c i e s w o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y be  spermum on a c c o u n t o f t h e l a r g e stipes.  size,  classified  s p o r a n g i a and  However t h e c a p i l l i t i u m  and t h e  a s D.  show a n a p p r o a c h Material  t o D.  typical  of very slender  colourless  Material  showing •TJ.B.C.  (3)  Didymium squamulosum  melanospermum:-  H e r b . No.  518  an a p p r o a c h t o D.  Myc.  typical  minus.  o f P,  U.B.C. Myc.  melano-  short , stout  t h r e a d s , a n d t h e s p o r e s , so much s m a l l e r t h a n i n t h e form,  form  Herb. ¥ 0 .  minus:-  $19  ( A l b , and Schw.) F r i e s .  S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s o n f a l l e n a l d e r , w i l l o w and maple l e a v e s Vancouver  and  t w i g s and b r a c k e n s t a l k s .  vicinities  colourless,  immature  i n the f a l l •  Abundant i n  Plasmodium  praotically  sporangia transparent white  I n some o f t h e g a t h e r i n g s made o f t h i s s p o r a n g i a a r e l a r g e , a b o u t 1 mm. confluent,  concave  the s t i p e  probably an imperfect A slight  (stipe  .1 mm  -  .2 mm.  the often long)  b e i n g completely hidden i n the  base o f the sporangium.  c o l u m e l l a i s u s u a l l y b r o a d and  species  i n diameter, f l a t t e n e d ,  and s o s h o r t l y s t i p i t a t e  as t o appear s e s s i l e ,  or y e l l o w i s h .  In these s p o r a n g i a the w h i t i s h flattened also.  development  o f D.  This i s  squamulosum.  v a r i a t i o n from the t y p i c a l  f o r m was  found i n  ~ 20 « w h i c h the s t i p e and c o l u m e l l a o f t h e s p o r a n g i a range i n c o l o u r from  p a l e greyish-brown  have b o t h the  stipe  stipe,  case  to dark  orange.  and c o l u m e l l a orange  orange a t the base,  the c o l u m e l l a i s a l s o  Some o f t h e s p o r a n g i a  i n colour, while  i n others  shades t o y e l l o w above, i n which  y e l l o w i s h ; i n these  forms t h e dark  brown h y p o t h a l l u s i s n o t c o n s p i c u o u s . Lister this white to  (13)  r e m a r k s t h a t numerous v a r i e t i e s  s p e c i e s and t h a t t h e s t i p e to orange.  occur i n  a n d c o l u m e l l a may v a r y  In a l l other r e s p e c t s these  from  sporangia  conform  t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f D. squamul0sum, a n d s i n c e t h e y were  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h normal s p o r a n g i a  found  t h e r e was no h e s i t a t i o n i n  i d e n t i f y i n g them a s 3). squamulosum a l s o . Typical material:U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . No. 520 V a r y i n g form, s p o r a n g i a  flattened,  nearly  sessile;-  U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . No. 521 Varying  form, s t i p e  and c o l u m e l l a n o t t y p i c a l i n  colour:U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . No. 522 (4)  Didymium e x i m i u m Sporangia  plentiful,  Peck.  g r e g a r i o u s o n f a l l e n maple l e a v e s .  collected  once i n t h e v i c i n i t y  Material  o f Vancouver,  late  fall. In these  sporangia the c o l u m e l l a i s a  depressed  saddle-shaped  surface.  The s p o r e s  conspicuous,  structure, d u l l yellow with  are pale violet-brown, ranging  roughened from  - 21 7*5u:•• 9«5^» a v e r a g i n g Sporangia fern fronds  in  f r o m t h e same g a t h e r i n g h u t  columella i s extremely  much f l a t t e n e d .  v i o l a c e o u s r a n g i n g f r o m 8u  The  g a t h e r i n g as c e r t a i n xanthopus and  D.  D.  Lister  d e s c r i b e s D.  o f the  are very  encountered  are  xanthopus and  D»  as d i s t i n c t  in  diameter.  in classifying  the  nlgripes.  blended  in this  three together  eximium as v a r i e t i e s  f i n d s that the forms blend Macbride  the  pale  8.In. i n  c h a r a c t e r s o f D.  ( l j ) Includes these  completely.  separate,  spores  e x i m i u m seem t o be  n i g r i p e s , s i n c e he  another  They  on  large, circular  - lip., averaging  Some d i f f i c u l t y was  species.  growing  a b o v e as w e l l a s u m b i l i c a t e b e n e a t h , and  roughened y e l l o w  P.  diameter.  show a few d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r u c t u r e .  often depressed  o u t l i n e , and  8.6p.  -  and of  into  (14) k e e p s t h e t h r e e  s p e c i e s , s t a t i n g that they  one  one  forms  are  quite  distinguishable. The t o be  the most i m p o r t a n t  species; fit  the  the o t h e r description  exceptions depressed o f D. Lister  l a r g e r o u g h e n e d y e l l o w c o l u m e l l a was  are  globose,  i n the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , with g i v e n by M a c b r i d e  as f o l l o w s : nor  are  the  (lj),  while  identification a few  a definite  h y p o t h a l l u s such  n i g r i p e s i s present  hypothallus i s supposedly  scant  i n this or none.  this  eximium.  not  they minute, f e a t u r e s ( 1 4 ) , but  of  exceptions, also  ( 1 4 ) o f D.  sporangia are  eximium a c c o r d i n g t o M a c b r i d e  d e s c r i b e s f o r D. the  feature  considered  The  always  characteristic  not mentioned  by  as M a c b r i d e  (14)  s p e c i e s i n which The  spore  range  is the  l a r g e r than that given range  given  varieties.  by L i s t e r  by Macbride  ( 1 4 ) , b u t comes w i t h i n  (13) f o r P. n i g r i p e s a n d i t s  The s p o r e c o l o u r w h i c h i s commonly d a r k e r i n  P. e x i m i u m t h a n i n P. n i g r i p e s o r 33. x a n t h o p u s i s i n t h i s material  quite pale; with  reference  t o D. eximium and  P. x a n t h o p u s s p o r e c o l o u r a p p e a r s t o b e a n i n c o n s t a n t since are  i n s p e o i m e n s o f 3). x a n t h o p u s d e v e l o p e d  dark, n o t pale,  violaceous.  presence o r absence o f r e f u s e  Lister  on s o i l  feature, the spores  (13) makes u s e o f t h e  matter i n the s t i p e to help  d i s t i n g u i s h P. n i g r i p e s f r o m P. melanospermum, P. n i g r i p e s possessing matter.  translucent  o r a n g e brown s t i p e s w i t h o u t  refuse  I n t h e s p e c i m e n s u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n , however,  m a t t e r i s f o u n d t o be p r e s e n t  refuse  e i t h e r a t the base o r i n t h e  l o w e r h a l f o f t h e s t i p e , m a k i n g i t opaque; t h e s t i p e o f P. n i g r i p e s i s b l a c k  a n d opaque a c c o r d i n g  Prom t h e f o r e g o i n g this  to Macbride ( 1 4 ) •  d i s c u s s i o n i t would appear  i s a f o r m o f P. e x i m i u m s h o w i n g c h a r a c t e r s  that  both o f  P. n i g r i p e s a n d o f P. x a n t h o p u s . Material  on m a p l e l e a v e s ,  columella  saddle-shaped:-  U.B.G. Myc. H e r b . No. 523 Material  on f e r n f r o n d s ,  columella  circular,  flattened:U.B.G. M y c . H e r b . No. 324 (3)  Pidymium x a n t h o p u s Sporangia  was  (Pitmar) FT.  s c a t t e r e d , d e v e l o p e d on s o i l .  c o l l e c t e d i n t h e s p r i n g from bean f l a t s  The m a t e r i a l  i n a greenhouse.  This instead  i s u n d o u b t e d l y D. x a n t h o p u s and y e t t h e  o f being  s m a l l , 7.5u  - 8.5u,  smooth, a r e d a r k a n d w a r t e d , r a n g i n g 9ju i n d i a m e t e r * as  On t h e o t h e r  P. eximium t h e s p o r e s  l a r g e r and darker,  gives the  spores  f r o m 8u - lOn., a v e r a g i n g  hand. I n the m a t e r i a l  o f D. x a n t h o p u s .  i n spore s i z e  the s p o r e range  nearly  525  Persoon.  four species having  certain I«  forms, but  smooth.  T h i s genus i s q u i t e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d  countered  lister (lj)  o f D. n l g r i p e s a s 8)1 - l i p . a n d d e s c r i b e s  as pale violet-brown,  Diderma  classified  between the t h r e e  U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . Ho. 2*  and almost  a r e s m a l l e r and p a l e r , i n s t e a d o f  than those  makes no d i s t i n c t i o n  pale violaceous  spores  been recorded.  i n the c o l l e c t i o n ,  Some d i f f i c u l t y was e n -  i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e m a t e r i a l due t o t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f  o f the s p e c i e s . Sporangia  usually stipitate,  a b o v e , more wall A.  o r l e s s p e r s i s t e n t below; o u t e r  calcareous,  Two  sporangium w a l l  brittle,  the i n n e r  adhering;  very l a r g e , roughened, yellow;  p u r p l e - b r o w n , 9u « 12p  Two  spores  l a y e r s o f sporangium w a l l  easily  radlatum.  separable;  c o l u m e l l a u s u a l l y s m a l l , reddish-brown; spores violet-brown,  7.^u  dark  diameter. (1) D.  B*  layer of  membranous.  l a y e r s o f sporangium w a l l c l o s e l y  columella  rupturing  - 9.5u  pale  diameter. ( 2 ) D.  montanum.  II*  S p o r a n g i a u s u a l l y s e s s i l e , sporangium w a l l r u p t u r i n g i n t o p e t a l - l i k e r e f l e x i n g lobes; outer layer of w a l l membranous, the i n n e r c a l c a r e o u s . A*  S p o r a n g i a s m a l l , about .75 mm. i n d i a m e t e r ; p e r i d i u m o f two a d h e r i n g l a y e r s ; e a p i l l i t i u m o f s l e n d e r colourless threads. (3)  B.  33. a s t e r o l d e s .  S p o r a n g i a l a r g e r , about 1 mm. - 1 . 5 mm. i n d i a m e t e r ; peridium o f three c l o s e l y adhering l a y e r s ; e a p i l l i t i u m o f s t o u t e r r i g i d , mostly dark p u r p l i s h brown t h r e a d s . ( 4 ) 33. T r e v e l y a n i .  (1)  Uidejrma r a d i a t u m ( L i n n . ) Morg. S p o r a n g i a l o o s e l y g r e g a r i o u s on t h e b a r k o f a t w i g  l y i n g on a heap o f dead l e a v e s .  C o l l e c t e d once o n l y , Vancouver  v i c i n i t y , i n the f a l l . T h i s specimen i s a p p a r e n t l y t y p i c a l o f 3). r a d i a t u m , a l t h o u g h t h e d e h i s c e n c e o f t h e sporangium w a l l i s i r r e g u l a r , n o t s t e l l a t e , and t h e l o b e s a r e seldom r e f l e x e d .  This i r r e g u l a r  d e h i s c e n c e o f t h e drab s p o r a n g i a i s s u g g e s t i v e o f 3). r a d i a t u m v a r . u m b l l i c a t u m , w h i c h L i s t e r (13) c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o 33. montanum. c l o s e l y resemble  d e s c r i b e s as b e i n g v e r y  S u p e r f i c i a l l y these sporangia  those o f 33. montanum, the c o l l e c t i o n s h a v i n g  been made o f b o t h s p e c i e s a t t h e same time o f y e a r and i n t h e same l o c a l i t y . Macbride  (14) s t a t e s t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s i s r a r e .  U.B.G. Myc. H e r b . No. 526 (2)  D i d e r m a montanum M e y l a n . Sporangia  gregarious  often occurring i n l i n e s along substratum. collected  This species  on moss a n d b a r k o f o l d l o g s , cracks  i s very  abundant  o f t e n i n Vancouver v i c i n i t i e s .  c r e a m y - w h i t e , opaque; the s p o r a n g i a  to black,  t h e mature s p o r a n g i a  i n t h e f a l l a n d was Plasmodium  when f i r s t  c h a n g i n g f r o m w h i t e t o fawn, and from grey  i n t h e wood o f t h e  scarce,  formed a r e w h i t e ,  fawn t h r o u g h brown and  being w h i t i s h or pale  buff-  coloured. Of the  the species  o f Diderma l i s t e d by Macbride ( 1 4 ) ,  one m o s t n e a r l y l i k e t h i s m a t e r i a l  present nature fits  species  i s D. r a d i a t u m , b u t t h e  d i f f e r s f r o m D. r a d i a t u m  considerably i n the  o f the sporangium'wall, c o l u m e l l a and s p o r e s , w h i l e i t  the d e s c r i p t i o n given by L i s t e r  (13) o f D. montanum.  Moreover L i s t e r  ( 1 3 ) n o t e s t h a t D. montanum i s c l o s e l y  to  v a r . u m b i l i c a t u m . b e i n g d i s t i n g u i s h e d from i t by  the  D. r a d i a t u m  two l a y e r s o f t h e s p o r a n g i u m w a l l , w h i c h a r e e a s i l y  separable,  instead of closely  p a l e r , s m a l l e r and smoother. material  adhering,  and by t h e spores  I t i s i n these  respects  d i f f e r s f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l c l a s s i f i e d as D.  (U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . No. 5 2 6 ) , the  allied  present  species  that  being this  radiatum  and i n a d d i t i o n t h e c o l u m e l l a o f  i s s m a l l and dark red-brown, w h i l e  that o f  D. r a d i a t u m . a s shown b y t h e s p e c i m e n s a t h a n d , i s e x t r e m e l y large and pale  yellow.  T h i s s p e c i e s h a s the r e f o r e  c l a s s i f i e d a s D. montanum d e s p i t e  the f a c t  been  t h a t Macbride (14)  26  has  no r e c o r d , o f i t h a v i n g  teen  In a l l t h e g a t h e r i n g s remarkably ranging P«  radiatum  ever,  i n size  violet-brown,  the spores  i n diameter  of from  a n d c o l o u r o f t h e c o l u m e l l a , how-  i s a considerable  variation  i n the d i f f e r e n t  a n d one o r two f o r m s were c o l l e c t e d  which appear to  t r a n s i t i o n a l b e t w e e n 33* montanum a n d P* r a d i a t u m  nature  continent.  o f B . montanum t h e s p o r e s a r e  are dark purple-brown ranging  there  on t h i s  and c o l o u r , b e i n g p a l e  I n t h e shape s i z e  sporangia,  i n the  o f the c o l u m e l l a * In the f i r s t  about o n e - h a l f and  i s pale  the  very  D*  f o u n d "before  i n d i a m e t e r f r o m 7*5p. - 9*5u, w h i l e  9p- - 1 2 u *  be  constant  -  the s i z e  o f these  forms t h e c o l u m e l l a  of a columella  o r dark reddish-brown.  conspicuous columella,  typical  i s large,  of D .  These s p o r a n g i a ,  are similar  radiatum, apart  from  t o ones t y p i c a l o f  montanum» The  also  large,  33* r a d i a t u m  columella  about  o f sporangia  o n e - t h i r d the s i z e  and i s p a l e  reddish  i n the second g a t h e r i n g i s of a columella t y p i c a l of  or yellow-brown,  sometimes  creamish. A third  gathering  as  i n the preceding  or  creamish*  the D»  shows t h e c o l u m e l l a t h e same  form, but concolorous  The  increase  i n size  columella  i n these  three  with  the s t i p e , white  and t h e v a r i a t i o n  In colour o f  f o r m s , show an a p p r o a c h t o  r a d i a t u m . b u t t h e s p o r a n g i u m w a l l o f two e a s i l y  layers,  and t h e s m a l l p a l e  size  spores,  distinguish  separating  them a s f o r m s  o f D t montanum. The  t y p i c a l g a t h e r i n g s o f D. montanum. as w e l l as t h e  t h r e e v a r y i n g forms were c o l l e c t e d a t the same t i m e o f y e a r , i n one r e g i o n , and on s i m i l a r s u b s t r a t a . Typical material:U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 527 F i r s t v a r y i n g •form:U.B.C. Myc..Herb. Ho. 528 Second v a r y i n g form: U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 529 Third v a r y i n g form:U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 530 (3)  Siderma a s t e r o i d e s Sporangia  willow twigs.  List.  gregarious  on f a l l e n a r b u t u s l e a v e s and  C o l l e c t e d t w i c e on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , s p r i n g  and summer, i n d r y wooded r e g i o n s . This m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l o f the s p e c i e s . U.B.C• Myc. Herb. Ho. 531 (4)  Diderma T r e v e l y a n i (Grev.) FT. Sporangia  log.  gregarious  on t h e bark o f a d e c a y i n g  alder  T h i s s c a n t y , much weathered m a t e r i a l was c o l l e c t e d i n t h e  s p r i n g , i n a wet wooded a r e a on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d . some s i m i l a r s p o r a n g i a were g a t h e r e d  I n the f a l l  i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver  on d e c a y i n g maple l e a v e s , b u t they were a p p a r e n t l y immature a t the time o f c o l l e c t i o n , and were o f no use f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  •» 28 purposes. The  sporangia  o f the weathered m a t e r i a l f i t the  d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n by l i s t e r  (13) a n d M a c b r i d e  33. T r e v e l y a n i w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e the  sporangium.  The l o w e r  to be t h i c k e n e d , f o r m i n g area, almost  like  (14) o f o f the base o f  q u a r t e r o f t h e sporangium  a broad  a flattened  appears  c i r c u l a r y e l l o w i s h roughened  o r concave c o l u m e l l a , from t h e  edge o f w h i c h t h e l o b e s o f t h e r u p t u r e d  sporangium w a l l a r e  reflexed. The  three-layered wall,  t h e method o f d e h i s c e n c e and  t h e d a r k much b r a n c h e d n e t w o r k o f c a p i l l i t i a l distinguish this  threads  s p e c i e s a s 33. T r e v e l y a n i , w h i l e  the basal  t h i c k e n e d r o u g h a r e a may be due t o a b n o r m a l d e v e l o p m e n t  o f the  sporangia. U.B.G. Myc. H e r b . Ho. 532  3.  Lepidoderma  33eBary.  T h i s g e n u s i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y one s p e c i e s w h i c h abundant fall.  i n wet wooded r e g i o n s o n v a r i o u s s u b s t r a t a , i n t h e  A l l the gatherings a r e quite t y p i c a l  was e x p e r i e n c e d  i n identifying  Sporangia frequently  difficulty  Rost.  s c a t t e r e d on moss c o v e r e d  i n the f a l l ,  a n d no  the m a t e r i a l .  Lepidoderma t l g r i n u m (Schrad.)  orange  i s very  Vancouver v i o i n i t y .  logs.  Collected  P l a s m o d i u m deep  yellow. According  t o Macbride  (14) t h i s  species i s rare.  U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 333  .» g o ,  ORDER I I STEMQHITAIES. The  order Stemonitales  Into three f a m i l i e s , and  t h e Amaurochaetaceae. t h e Stemonitaoeae  t h e Lamprodermaeeab.  f a m i l y were found, represented  i s d i v i d e d by Macbride (14;  No s p e c i e s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e f i r s t  b u t t h e two r e m a i n i n g  families  i n the c o l l e c t i o n .  In the Stemonitaoeae specie s b e l o n g i n g of  f o u r g e n e r a were c o l l e c t e d ,  atives and  being  the l a r g e s t  i n t h e genus S t e m o n l t i s  doubtful  s p e c i e s have b e e n p l a c e d  a  s p e c i e s i n t h e genus D i a c h a e a .  of  to three out  number o f r e p r e s e n t -  i n which three  four doubtful species are recorded.  single  are w e l l  definite  Two d e f i n i t e  a n d one  i n t h e genus C o m a t r i o h a , a n d Ho g a t h e r i n g s were made  Brefeldia. Species  o f genera belonging  Lamprodermaeeab a r e n o t o f s u c h  to t h e f a m i l y  frequent occurrence  as are  members o f t h e S t e m o n i t a o e a e . o n l y two o u t o f f o u r g e n e r a being and  represented.  three d e f i n i t e  been l i s t e d , Clastoderma  A single  s p e c i e s o f t h e genus E n e r t h e n e m a ,  a n d one d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s o f hamproderma have  no g a t h e r i n g s h a v i n g been made o f s p e c i e s o f or Echinostelium.  STEMOHITACEAE I..  Stemonltis This  presented  (Gleditsoh)  Rost.  genus , w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d  many t a x o n o m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  i n the collection, s i n c e much o f t h e  - 30 m a t e r i a l was listed  not t y p i c a l  b y Macbride  o f any  o f the s p e c i e s of S t e m o n i t i s (13).  (14) or l i s t e r  Only three s p e c i e s  were d e f i n i t e l y  i d e n t i f i e d , w h i l e f o u r o t h e r s , s h o w i n g marked  v a r i a t i o n s from  typical  species.  D i f f i c u l t y was  characters most  forms,  experienced  i n finding  size  o f the c a p i l l i t i u m ,  surface net,  seem t o be  and and  c o l o u r o f the the nature  recorded here;  I.  capillitial of variation.  b e s i d e s the  ones  t h e s e a p p e a r f o r t h e most p a r t t o he v a r y i n g below, but  time  d i d not permit  of  in detail.  Spores marked w i t h d i s t i n c t  A.  sporangia,  s u b j e c t t o a g r e a t range  phases o f the s p e c i e s l i s t e d study  since i n  o f the  A number o f f o r m s were c o l l e c t e d  their  constant  on w h i c h t o s e p a r a t e t h e v a r i o u s f o r m s ,  o f the s p e c i e s t h e  density  have b e e n r e c o r d e d a s d o u b t f u l  or f a i n t  Sporangia  dusky purplish-brown;  diameter,  purple-brown  reticulated with (a) Sporangia  reticulations.  6.5ji - 8u  spores  or v i o l e t - g r e y ,  strongly  b a n d s o r rows o f s t o u t s p i n e s .  6 mm.  - 13 mm.  in total  height.  ( 1 ) S. f u s c a . (b) Sporangia (i)  2 mm.  Sporangia  «* 3.5  mm.  in total  height.  slender, c y l i n d r i c a l ;  threads s l e n d e r , branched  and  surface net w e l l developed;  capillitial anastomosing;  spores  reticulated  w i t h rows o f s p i n e s . (2) (ii)  Sporangia  broad,  S.  (fusca?).  elongated-ovate;  threads s t o u t , l i t t l e  branched;  capillitial  surface net  i r r e g u l a r , d i s a p p e a r i n g n e a r the summit o f the sporangium; spores r e t i c u l a t e d w i t h  continuous  r a i s e d hands, o r c o n f l u e n t s p i n e s . (3) S. ( n l g r e s e e n s ? ) . B.  S p o r a n g i a p a l e l i l a c - b r o w n or p i n k i s h - f a w n ;  spores  5»5u. - 6,5u. d i a m e t e r , p a l e v i o l a c e o u s o r y e l l o w i s h , v e r y f a i n t l y and i r r e g u l a r l y r e t i c u l a t e d . (4) S. ( h y p e r o p t a ? ) . II.  Spores n e a r l y smooth, or m i n u t e l y w a r t e d . A.  S p o r e s 4u. - 6n. d i a m e t e r , p a l e r e d d i s h o r y e l l o w i s h , n e a r l y smooth. (a) Sporangia b r i g h t rusty-brown,  about 15 mm.  meshes o f s u r f a c e net 8p. - 30u wide; j?ji - 6u  high;  spores  diameter. (5) S. a x i f e r a .  .-••(b) S p o r a n g i a d u l l v i o l e t - b r o w n , about 7 mm* meshes o f s u r f a c e n e t 2On. - 6Op. wide; 4.3u - 3 . 5 u  high;  spores  diameter. (6) S. ( a x i f e r a ? ) .  B.  Spores 6p. - 8ji d i a m e t e r ,  pale v i o l e t - g r e y , minutely  warted. (7) S. h e r b a t i c a . (l)  S t e m o n i t i s f u s c a (Roth) Eost. S p o r a n g i a c l u s t e r e d on d e c a y i n g maple wood and  leaves.  C o l l e c t e d once o r t w i c e i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver,  i n the f a l l . A range o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h e h e i g h t o f the s p o r a n g i a  i s shown i n t h e t h r e e g a t h e r i n g s made o f t h i s s p e c i e s .  I n the  f i r s t g a t h e r i n g t h e s p o r a n g i a range i n h e i g h t from ? mm. 13 mm.;  t h e second c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n s s p o r a n g i a about 8 mm.  h i g h , w h i l e i n t h e t h i r d c l u s t e r t h e y average about 6 mm. i n height.  The d e n s i t y o f the e a p i l l i t i u m , and the n a t u r e o f t h e  u s r f a c e n e t v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y even i n s p o r a n g i a from the same g a t h e r i n g , b u t i n a l l t h e m a t e r i a l examined t h e spore c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are very constant. M a t e r i a l c o n t a i n i n g s p o r a n g i a 9 mm. - 13 mm. h i g h : U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 534 M a t e r i a l c o n t a i n i n g s p o r a n g i a 8 mm. h i g h r U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 333 M a t e r i a l c o n t a i n i n g s p o r a n g i a 6 mm. h i g h : U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . No. 536 (2)  Stemonltis (fusca?). S p o r a n g i a in a s m a l l c l u s t e r on a maple t w i g .  C o l l e c t e d i n t h e e a r l y summer i n a wet wooded a r e a on S a l t Spring Island. T h i s s p e c i e s d i f f e r s from t y p i c a l g a t h e r i n g s o f S. f u s o a p r i n c i p a l l y i n s i z e , t h e s l e n d e r c y l i n d r i c a l s p o r a n g i a r a n g i n g i n h e i g h t f r o m 3.23 mm. - 3.5 mm.; i n t h i s r e s p e c t the m a t e r i a l f i t s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n by M a c b r i d e (14) o f S. n i g r e s c e n s , and by L i s t e r (13) o f S. f u s c a v a r . n i g r e s c e n s . Macbride (14) d i s t i n g u i s h e s S. n i g r e s c e n s from S. f u s c a by i t s s m a l l s i z e , 3 mm. - 3 mm.,  intensely black colour, very short  s t i p e , .3 mm. l o n g , and i n c o m p l e t e s u r f a c e n e t . The s p o r a n g i a  - 33 of the present  m a t e r i a l , b e s i d e s "being s m a l l , a r e a v e r y  purple-brown, but the s t i p e 1.3 mm.,  and the s u r f a c e n e t i s p r e s e n t  f o r m s o f S.. f u s c a . dark  this  species i s r e a l l y  -  o f S. f u s c a a r e a l s o  (U.B.C. M y c . H e r b . Ho. 534), so t h a t e x c e p t  f o r size  i d e n t i c a l w i t h S. f u s c a .  I t may be n o t e d difference  l o n g 1.25 mm.  j u s t as i n t y p i c a l  Some o f t h e g a t h e r i n g s  very  those  i s comparatively  dark  that there  i s o n l y a few m i l l i m e t r e s  i n h e i g h t between the s p o r a n g i a  of this  s p e c i e s and  o f t h e s h o r t e r f o r m s o f S. f u s c a . (U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . Ho.  536). U.B.C. M y c . H e r b . Ho. 537 (3)  Stemonitis  (nigrescens?).  Sporangia f i r wood. on S a l t  gregarious  i n scattered clusters  on D o u g l a s  C o l l e c t e d once, e a r l y summer, i n a wet wooded  region  Spring Island. T h i s s p e c i e s d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be q u i t e t y p i c a l o f  S. n i g r e s c e n s a s d e s c r i b e d b y M a c b r i d e recorded cal  as d o u b t f u l .  The s p o r a n g i a  are elongated-ovate,  stipe  broader  i s s l i g h t l y longer than  surface n e t i s only incomplete  6.5U. - 7.5p. d i a m e t e r , r a i s e d bands, a l t h o u g h distinguished. &  instead of being  a t t h e base than  i s typical,  .75 mm.  cylindri-  above; t h e long; the  n e a r t h e apex o f t h e sporangium,  the meshes v a r y i n g g r e a t l y i n s i z e sporangia, large i n others  ( 1 4 ) , and so h a s b e e n  and shape - s m a l l i n some  -, w h i l e  the pale v i o l e t - g r e y  a p p e a r t o be r e t i c u l a t e d w i t h i n some c a s e s  spores,  continuous  c o n f l u e n t s p i n e s c a n be  „ _ „ , „ __ U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . Ho. 538 0  • 34 (4)  Stemonltis  (hyperopta?).  Sporangia  gregarious, clusterd  spreading along cracks  i n decaying  in little  tufts or  D o u g l a s f i r wood.  once i n a n e x p o s e d swampy a r e a on S a l t  Collected  S p r i n g Island, i n the  spring. This material i s not absolutely t y p i c a l species l i s t e d but of  ( 1 4 ) or L i s t e r  a c c o r d i n g t o the key g i v e n by Macbride Stemonltis  account  spores  spores.  spore  Macbride  o f .S. v i r g i n i e n s i s  o r twelve  connected or l e s s  mm.  - 3.23  to i d e n t i f y  are very  by f a i n t  lines;  these  the spore  o f more  surface, while  and a n g u l a r ,  o f S. h y p e r o p t a t o S.  i t by the l e s s  more u n e v e n r e t i c u l a t i o n  so t h a t  which  These Lister  virginiensis.  complete  surface net  o f the spores.  respects that this material d i f f e r s  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f S. v i r g i n i e n s i s ,  In the  irregularly  to r u n p a r a l l e l around the hemisphere.  (13) g i v e s a s a s p e c i e s n e a r l y r e l a t e d  the f a i n t e r  that the  i n others a l a x r e t i c u l a t i o n  spore markings a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  with  o f small-meshed network  c i r c u l a r meshes seems t o c o v e r  being d i s t i n g u i s h e d from  on  and  the species.  f a i n t l y and  some show a few p a t c h e s  the bands a p p e a r  in just  mm.,  c o n s p i c u o u s l y banded  i n many t h e me she s a r e n a r r o w , e l o n g a t e d  and  (14) f o r t h e s p e c i e s  meshes t o t h e h e m i s p h e r e , a n d n o t e s  species the spores  reticulated;  genus,  ( 1 4 ) , however, d e s c r i b e s t h e  as b e i n g  markings are s u f f i c i e n t  present  (13) f o r t h i s  i t w o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d a s S. v i r g i n i e n s i s .  o f t h e s h o r t s p o r a n g i a , 2.5  reticulated  ten  by Macbride  o f any o f t h e  a n d r e s e m b l e s S.  It i s  from hyperopta.  - 35 It  d i f f e r s f r o m S. h y p e r o p t a however, a n d t e n d s t o a p p r o a c h  S> v i r g i n i e n s i s  i n possessing  5»5ji -  s l i g h t l y l a r g e r spores,  6.5^-, a n d l o n g e r s t i p e s , ( a b o u t 1 mm.  i n length).  W i t h o u t t h e u s e o f an o i l i m m e r s i o n l e n s t h i s m i g h t be c l a s s i f i e d (Lister  as Comatricha p u l c h e l l a v a r .  gracilis  ( 1 3 ) ) , a s t h e s p o r e m a r k i n g s a r e t o o i n d i s t i n c t t o be  seen c l e a r l y w i t h sequently  ordinary magnifications  Stemonitis  con-  539  a x i f e r a ( B u l l . ) Macbr.  Sporangia Collected  and t h e s p o r e s  a p p e a r almost smooth o r w a r t e d . U.B.G. Myc• H e r b . Ho*  (5)  species  gregarious  i n tufts  once i n t h e s p r i n g on S a l t  on d e c a y i n g  Spring  maple wood.  I s l a n d , a n d once i n  Vancouver i n the f a l l • The  g r e a t e r development  o f branches near and at the  apex o f t h e c o l u m e l l a , and t h e uneven s u r f a c e p r o j e c t i n g ends, suggest  net with  an a p p r o a c h t o t h e a l l i e d  species  S. f l a v o g e n i t a , b u t t h e l a r g e l o n g - s t i p e d s p o r a n g i a height 5.4u,  about  13 mm.)  definitely  and t h e v e r y  small  identify t h i s gathering  spores  free  (total  5P- - 6 u ,  average  a s S. a x i f e r a .  U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . Ho. 540 (6)  Stemonitis  (axifera?).  Sporangia in  the f a l l , The  to  gregarious  Vancouver  on d e c a y i n g  leaves; gathered  once  vicinity.  most c o n s p i c u o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of this  species i s  be f o u n d i n t h e s m a l l n e a r l y c o l o u r l e s s , a b s o l u t e l y smooth  —  •»  s p o r e s , r a n g i n g f r o m 4.5u  - 5.5U  two  l i s t e d by Macbride  species of Stemonitis  spores s i m i l a r and  S.  axifera*  include the in  the  height.  as w e l l a s  f r o m 2.5  f r o m S.  sporangia  o f b r i g h t rusty-brown; the  delicate,  flexuose threads  20u. - 60u  w i d e , and  Sporangia  show an  2.5  mm.  -5.5  surface net.  a p p r o a c h to S. mm.,  little  Lister  (15)  adds t h a t d i f f e r e n t  one  or other  of these  in  mm.  size,  brown of  surface of  the  a x i f e r a the s u r f a c e net i s  vicinity  are not  l a r g e r than  j50u i n w i d t h .  541  of  on maple wood.  Vancouver.  quite typical  splendens  i n the  o f S. h e r b a t i c a ,  longer  b r a n c h e d c a p i l l i t i u m and r e m a r k s t h a t S.  i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n between S. and  « 7  Pk.  once i n t h e f a l l ,  but  and  i s composed  gregarious, growing i n a t u f t  These s p o r a n g i a  to  l a r g e i r r e g u l a r meshes  toward the  f o r m s o f S.  Stemonitis herbatica  (14)  mm.  axifera also,  U.B.C• Myc. H e r b . Ho.  Collected  Smithii  only,  f r o m 5.5  surface net  f i n e - m e s h e d , t h e me she s a s a r u l e n o t  (7)  - 5 mm.  onlypossess  being a d u l l v i o l e t  surrounding  i s incomplete  In t y p i c a l  mm.  s p e c i e s range  specimens d i f f e r  i n c o l o u r , the  sporangium.  (14) w h i c h  S. S m i t h i i however i s s a i d by M a c b r i d e  o f the p r e s e n t  The  There are  ones j u s t d e s c r i b e d , n a m e l y , S.  forms v a r y i n g i n s i z e  sporangia  instead  to  i n diameter.  firm  S.  an  splendens,  show a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d  allies.  U.B.C. Myc• H e r b . Ho.  very  h e r b a t i c a holds  f l a v o g e n i t a and  g a t h e r i n g s may  stipes,  542  2.  Comatricha Two  (Preuss) Rost.  o f the t h r e e s p e c i e s r e c o r d e d f o r t h i s genus were  e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d , "but the t h i r d , l i s t e d as d o u b t f u l , i n c l u d e s t h r e e v a r y i n g forms, w h i c h , a l t h o u g h q u i t e d i s t i n c t from  one  a n o t h e r , n e v e r t h e l e s s appear to be phases o f a s i n g l e s p e c i e s . The  e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s of the s p o r a n g i a , and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the c p a i l l i t i u m i n these forms v a r y so much t h a t no s a t i s f a c t o r y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c o u l d be made.  One  o r two somewhat  s i m i l a r v a r y i n g forms were c o l l e c t e d , but owing t o l a c k o f time these c o u l d not be examined c r i t i c a l l y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y a r e o m i t t e d from t h i s I.  list.  S p o r a n g i a s m a l l , 1 mm.  - l . j j mm.  i n total height,  v i o l a c e o u s o r p i n k i s h brown; sporangium at  base o f sporangium  wall persistent  f o r m i n g a d i s t i n c t brownish mem-  branous cup, which i s a t t a c h e d to the c a p i l l i t i u m . ( 1 ) C . rufrens. II.  S p o r a n g i a l a r g e r , u s u a l l y 2 mm.  - 7 nu&. i n t o t a l h e i g h t ,  s i l v e r y - g r e y , v i o l e t - or dusky-brown; sporangium evanescent,  wall  or more o r l e s s p e r s i s t e n t as a s i l v e r y - g r e y  membranous s h e a t h . A.  S p o r a n g i a c y l i n d r i c a l , sporangium w a l l  silvery-grey,  p a r t i a l l y or w h o l l y p e r s i s t e n t e n v e l o p i n g t h e s t i p e and sporangium  head; s p o r e s 6u - 7)i d i a m e t e r , marked  w i t h s c a t t e r e d prominent w a r t s ( o r p a t c h e s o f t i n y w a r t s ) t h r e e or f o u r to the  hemisphere. (2)  C. t y p h o i d e s .  B.  Sporangia  o v a t e - c y l i n d r i c a l or ov o i d ,  evanescent;  spores  sporangium w a l l  7.5n - ? u d i a m e t e r ,  minutely  warted. (3) G. ( n i g r a ? ) . (l)  Comatricha rubens Sporangia  on wet d e c a y i n g the  vicinity  Lister.  loosely gregarious  alder leaves.  d e s c r i b e d by L i s t e r  threads  one-third, rarely in  typical  (14))  i s not quite  fall, in  (14), a s l i g h t  o f the c o l u m e l l a  and s p o r e s .  one-half,  o f t h e s p e c i e s as  The c o l u m e l l a  the height  two-thirds"  sporangium; t h e e a p i l l i t i u m purplish-brown,  variation  and t h e c o l n u r o f t h e is usually  o f t h e sporangium,  f o r m s i t i s "more t h a n h a l f t h e h e i g h t "  o r "about  almost  typical  (13) and M a c b r i d e  i n the nature  capillitial  C o l l e c t e d once, l a t e  o f Vancouver•  This material  occurring  o r s c a t t e r e d , abundant  the h e i g h t "  (Lister  only while  (Macbride  (13)) o f t h e  i s b r i g h t reddish-brown, not  and the spores  very  pale  reddish or l i l a c ,  colourless, instead o f lilac-brown. In other  respects the material  i s typical of  C. r u b e n s . U.B.G. Myc. H e r b . I o . 543 (2)  Gomatricha typhoides Sporangia  D o u g l a s f i r wood. area  on S a l t  Spring  ( B u l l . ) Rost.  gregarious  forming  l a r g e c o l o n i e s on r o t t i n g  C o l l e c t e d once i n t h e summer,  i n a wooded  Island.  This gathering  c o n f o r m s i n a l l r e s p e c t s b u t one t o t h e  d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n by L i s t e r (13) and Macbride (14) o f C. t y p h o i d e s . Both a u t h o r s g i v e t h e t o t a l h e i g h t o f t h e s p o r a n g i a as r a n g i n g o n l y f r o m 2 mm. - 3 mm., w h i l e t h e s p o r a n g i a o f t h i s m a t e r i a l show a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r range I . 7 3 mm. - 3 mm.. b u t a r e o t h e r w i s e t y p i c a l o f the s p e c i e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 5 4 4 (3)  Comatricha ( n i g r a ? ) . Under t h i s h e a d i n g a r e grouped t h r e e forms, w h i c h  w h i l e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from one another y e t appear t o resemble C. n i g r a more than t h e y resemble any o t h e r s p e c i e s o f C o m a t r i c h a l i s t e d by M a c b r i d e (14) o r L i s t e r (13); s i n c e t h e s e g a t h e r i n g s a r e so d i s t i n c t from one a n o t h e r , t h e y w i l l be d e a l t with separately. I n t h e f i r s t form t h e s p o r a n g i a , s c a t t e r e d i n l o o s e a g g r e g a t i o n s , were f o u n d on t h e bark o f a Douglas f i r l o g , i n a d r y wooded a r e a on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n the s p r i n g .  These  s p o r a n g i a seem to show a v e r y c l o s e approach t o C. S u k s d o r f i i i n the dark sooty-brown, almost b l a c k c o l o u r o f t h e o v a l o r o v a t e - c y l i n d r i c a l s p o r a n g i a ; i n t h e v e r y dark p u r p l i s h - b r o w n c o l o u r o f the t h r e a d s , which a r i s e from a l l p a r t s o f the c o l u m e l l a , and i n t h e d a r k v i o l a c e o u s , o r purp1ish-brown of the spores.  colour  L i s t e r (13) n o t e s t h a t C. n i g r a i s connected  by i n t e r m e d i a t e forms w i t h C. S a k s d o r f i i , a c l o s e a l l y ; the s p o r e s o f t h e l a t t e r s p e c i e s however, a r e l a r g e , 9u. - lj>p. ( L i s t e r ( 1 3 ) ) , o r l O u - 12u. - (Macbride ( 1 4 ) ) , w h i l e i n t h e p r e s e n t s p e c i e s t h e spores resemble those o f C. n i g r a , b e i n g  •» 40 —  7»5u. - 9u., a v e r a g i n g 8.4u i n d i a m e t e r .  much s m a l l e r , It  i s possible that  development o f the very at  irregular,  the  surface  species,  being  t h i s m a t e r i a l shows a n  since the  conspicuously  of the  gregarious  sporangia  on  fall.  I n immature  of the  specimens the sporangia  the  third  gatherings  547)  second g a t h e r i n g  i n the v i c i n i t y  These  and  b e i n g much t a l l e r ,  l e s s t h a n 3.5  mm.  brown h e a d s a r e  3 mm.  in total  differ  n i g r a , but  total  he i g h t o f the  Lister  (13);  (U.B.C. Myc. « 7 mm.,  sporangia  violaceous-brown c a p i l l i t i a l  the  8u. -  ed, b u t  evenly  the  ovoid, violaceous  the  are  columella,  t o be  giving rise  sootyand  are  distinct  These a r e  The  by to  the  and  sporangium, while  i r r e g u l a r markings l i k e it.  are  noted.  the  scatter-  A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the  i n g s i n t h e w a l l , o r a d h e s i o n s to  and  descriptions  a r e more numerous  9u. i n d i a m e t e r , a r e m a r k e d w i t h  f r o m t h i s m a t e r i a l have added  stipes,  of  tips.  fits  b a s a l r e g i o n o f the  spaced warts.  the  others  i s l a r g e r than that given  threads,  late  545  H e r b . Nos.  while  peculiarities  the branches o f the  spores,  i n the  long slender flexuose  o r two  u s u a l l y l a r g e r i n the  Douglas f i r needles.  c o n s i d e r a b l y from those  s l i g h t l y plumose a t t h e  one  loosely  i s opaque w h i t e ,  I n most r e s p e c t s t h e m a t e r i a l o f 0.  are  of Vancouver  head  height;  mounted on  u s u a l l y n o d d i n g and  and  545  H e r b . Ho.  stipe black. first  are  warted, e s p e c i a l l y near  r o t t i n g m o s s - c o v e r e d wood and  They were c o l l e c t e d  threads  sporangium,  U.B.C. Myc. The  capillitial  abnormal  spores  thicken-  seldom  4 1 •»  «B  extensive  but  f o r m d a r k p a t c h e s on  the  s u r f a c e of the  spore  wall.  546  U.B.G. Myc. H e r b . Ho. The aggregated  third gathering  i n small c l u s t e r s  maple wood.  Salt  are  o f C.  Of t h e  nigra.  s h o r t , 1.2,5  quite  umbilicate  beneath.  o f the e a p i l l i t i u m  once i n t h e  S p r i n g I s l a n d , and  Vancouver v i c i n i t y .  three  threads  periphery, o f the  i s most n e a r l y  mm.  - 3.25  They v a r y and  mm.,  sporangia  are  slightly  forms i n t h e  the branches o f the  a t the apex, t h a n  s u r f a c e net  majority  of spores  i n the are  elsewhere; the  lower  o f the  second g a t h e r i n g  U.B.C. Myc. C. C.  l a x a and  nigra i s said  (U.B.C. Myc.  H e r b . Ho.  by M a c b r i d e  C . aequalis. while  Lister  very variable species, c l o s e l y a l l i e d intermediate  forms w i t h  C.  C.  l a x a , and  elegans.  t h e s p e c i e s may  account  i d e n t i f y i n g the  three  the three  (14) (13;  found  546).  H e r b . Ho.  t o be  allied  describes  t o , and  to  i t as  connected  a  by  Suksdorfii,  range o f v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n  f o r the d i f f i c u l t y  forms l i s t e d  some  547  s p e c i e s C.  This great  region  t y p i c a l but  o f them show e x t r a t h i c k e n i n g s or a d h e s i o n s s u c h a s a r e i n spores  nature  columella  much more s l e n d e r t o w a r d  irregular  The  e r e c t , and  from t y p i c a l  spores;  dry  fall,  s h o r t l y o v o i d , d a r k brown  an  sporangium.  once i n t h e  The  become p a l e r and forming  summer i n a  forms t h i s  a r e more numerous n e a r t h e b a s e and the  sporangia  o r s c a t t e r e d on D o u g l a s f i r and  C o l l e c t e d twice,  wooded a r e a o n  typical  i s composed o f  experienced  a b o v e , (U.B.C. Myc.  in Herb.  <» 42 — 546,-547)• 3»  Diachaea  Fries.  T h i s genus  i s represented  single  s p e c i e s , which  Lister  (13)  i s not l i s t e d  by Macbride  (14), but which  d e s c r i b e s as a l i m e l e s s s p e c i e s .  Diachaea  cerifera  Sporangia Collected  i n t h e e o l l e c t i o n by a  G.  Lister.  gregarious  s e v e r a l times  on v e r y w e t moss c o v e r e d  i n the f a l l ,  i n Vancouver  wood.  vicinities.  Plasmodium s c a r c e , a p p a r e n t l y n e a r l y c o l o u r l e s s , heaping little  t r a n s p a r e n t , almost  sporangia take stipe  g r e e n i s h - b r o w n above a n d b e l o w , b l a c k i n t h e m i d d l e  cream-colour,  black.  until  Diachaea present  both  t o w h i t e and  head and s t i p e  the sporangia are i r i d e s c e n t  are d u l l  dark brownish  to L i s t e r  (13)  the l i m e l e s s forms o f  c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e some s p e c i e s o f Lamproderma, and t h e s p e c i e s was f i r s t  var. s e s s i l e . resemblance  d e s c r i b e d a s Lamproderma  This m a t e r i a l , while  bearing a  columbinum  superficial  t o members o f t h e g e n u s Lamp roderma, on a c c o u n t  iridescent,  distinguishable  limeless peridium,  i s nevertheless  capillitial  of  quite  f r o m a n y o f t h e l a m p r o d e r m a s by t h e v e r y  dark,  t h r e a d s w h i c h f o r k a n d a n a s t o m o s e , b u t do n o t  form a n e t w o r k , t h e p a l e and  finally  changing  e  purple.  According  rigid  t u r n s b l a c k , t h e head  At maturity  or g r e e n i s h  the  As t h e  f o r m t h e h e a d becomes t r a n s p a r e n t y e l l o w i s h , t h e  Gradually the stipe then  colourless globules,  into  irregularly  s h a p e d and marked  by the absence o f a c o l u m e l l a , - the t h r e a d s  spores,  s p r i n g i n g from  a "basal d i s c formed by t h e broad t i p o f t h e s t i p e .  This species  can be s e p a r a t e d i n a d d i t i o n from lamp ro derma columbinum i n p a r t i c u l a r , by t h e n a t u r e  o f i t s s p o r a n g i a l development, i n t h e  manner d e s c r i b e d above, f r o m a t r a n s p a r e n t , a l m o s t c o l o u r l e s s Plasmodium, w h i l e t h e observed  development o f s p o r a n g i a o f  L. columbinum from t r a n s p a r e n t o r opaque w h i t e P l a s m o d i a i s quite  different,,  D. e e r i f e r a , a l i m e l e s s s p e c i e s o f D i a c h a e a , i s n o t l i s t e d by M a c b r i d e (14) a s o c c u r r i n g i n A m e r i c a ; these specimens howe v e r seem t o be v e r y n e a r l y t y p i c a l o f 33. o e r i f e r a as r e p r e s e n t ed by L i s t e r s d e s c r i p t i o n and i l l u s t r a t i o n s , w h i l e t h e y do n o t T  conform t o any o f M a c b r i d e * s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s p e c i e s o f Lamproderma, S i a o h a e a o r a l l i e d g e n e r a .  No y e l l o w waxy c o l l a r  i s apparent i n t h e s p o r a n g i a , b u t L i s t e r (13) mentions t h a t t h i s f e a t u r e i s p e c u l i a r t o Japanese specimens; t h e s p o r e s , °ji - l 6 u d i a m e t e r , do n o t show q u i t e such a l a r g e range i n diameter as i s g i v e n by L i s t e r (13), b u t a r e v e r y s i m i l a r s i n c e i n h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s they a r e d e p i c t e d as i r r e g u l a r  i n shape and marked  w i t h e i t h e r close or s c a t t e r e d warts or s p i n u l e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. ^48  LAMPRO bERMAC EAE 1.  Enerthenema Bowman. Of the two s p e c i e s l i s t e d i n t h i s genus by Machride  (14),  one i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n , and s i n c e the m a t e r i a l  i s t y p i c a l i n a l l r e s p e c t s i t was n o t d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y .  Enerthenema p a p i l l a t u m ( P e r s . ) Sporangia  gregarious  Rost.  on r o t t i n g a l d e r and f i r wood.  C o l l e c t e d t w i c e i n t h e s p r i n g on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , i n a wet wooded a r e a . According r a r e on t h i s  to M a c b r i d e (14) t h i s w e l l marked s p e c i e s i s  continent. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 549  2.  Lamproderma R o s t . T h i s genus i s w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d , f o u r s p e c i e s  been c o l l e c t e d .  having  I n t h r e e o f these t h e m a t e r i a l i s f a i r l y  t y p i c a l and so o f f e r e d no p a r t i c u l a r taxonomic d i f f i c u l t i e s , but the f o u r t h s p e c i e s c o u l d not be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y and i s t h e r e f o r e r e c o r d e d I.  identified,  as d o u b t f u l •  Sporangia u s u a l l y b r i l l i a n t l y i r i d e s c e n t with b l u e , g r e e n , p u r p l e , bronze o r g o l d r e f l e c t i o n s . A.  S p o r a n g i a l a r g e , 2.75  mm.  - 3.75  mm.  i n t o t a l height;  e a p i l l i t i u m dark from t h e c o l u m e l l a out t o t h e p e r i p h e r y , becoming p a l e a t t h e t i p s ; spores d a r k , c l o s e l y s p i n u l o s e , l i p - l j p i n diameter. (1) L. columbinum. B.  Sporangia  s m a l l , 1 mm.  - 1.2J5 mm.  i n total  height;  e a p i l l i t i u m pale f o r a short distance a f t e r l e a v i n g the c o l u m e l l a , t h e n a b r u p t l y dark; spores p a l e , marked w i t h s c a t t e r e d w a r t s , 6.5p - 8 .^p. i n d i a m e t e r . (2) 1. s c i n t i l l a n s . II.  Sporangia u s u a l l y d u l l , dark s i l v e r y black, or s i l v e r y  » 45  -  v i o l e t , sometimes w i t h f a i n t A.  iridescence.  S p o r a n g i a subglobose, d e e p l y u m b i l i c a t e  beneath,  p e r i d i u m d a r k , t h e same c o l o u r t h r o u g h o u t ;  capillit-  i a l t h r e a d s p a l e brown or almost c o l o u r l e s s ,  arising  u s u a l l y from t h e upper h a l f o f t h e c o l u m e l l a ; s p o r e s 9f- - 12u. a v e r a g i n g 10.7u i n d i a m e t e r . t  O) B.  L. violaceum.  S p o r a n g i a subglobose or o b o v o i d , not u m b i l i c a t e , p e r i d i u m s i l v e r y - v i o l a c e o u s above, dark  reddish-brown  below f o r m i n g a cup a t t h e base o f t h e sporangium; capillitial  t h r e a d s deep r e d - o r purple-brown,  a r i s i n g c h i e f l y from t h e l a r g e main d i v i s i o n s o f t h e apex o f t h e c o l u m e l l a ; s p o r e s 7«5p- - 9f-- a v e r a g i n g 8.6u  i n diameter. (4)  (l)  L. (aroyrlonema?).  lamproderma columbinum ( P e r s . ) R o s t . Two v e r y d i s t i n c t forms o f t h i s s p e c i e s were c o l l e c t -  ed; t h e f i r s t  i s more o r l e s s t y p i c a l o f t h e s p e c i e s as  d e s c r i b e d by l i s t e r ( 1 2 ) and Macbride  ( 1 4 ) , w h i l e the second  c o r r e s p o n d s i n e v e r y way t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n by L i s t e r (15) of L. columbinum v a r . g r a c i l e . I n t h e t y p i c a l form t h e s p o r a n g i a a r e g r e g a r i o u s , f o r m i n g l a r g e c o l o n i e s on t h e mossy s u r f a c e s o f v e r y o l d Douglas f i r logs. Vancouver.  Abundant i n t h e f a l l , c o l l e c t e d i n the v i c i n i t y o f The Plasmodium i s u s u a l l y opaque w h i t e , r a r e l y grey,  the immature s p o r a n g i a on s t o u t b l a c k s t i p e s a r e opaque w h i t e  •=» 46 —  and c l a v a t e a t f i r s t ,  soon c h a n g i n g i n shape to globose i n  c o l o u r from w h i t e to p i n k i s h fawn and f i n a l l y t o b l a c k . A t m a t u r i t y the p e r f e c t l y globose heads are b r i l l i a n t l y  iridescent,  b r i g h t green b e i n g t h e p r e d o m i n a t i n g c o l o u r i n a l l t h e c o l l e c t i o n s made, p u r p l e and bronze t i n t s o c c u r r i n g r a r e l y .  A  p e c u l i a r i t y was n o t e d i n the f a c t t h a t t h e s p o r a n g i a a r e seldom s o l i t a r y , b u t t e n d t o o c c u r i n twos and t h r e e s , t h e s t i p e s , o f t e n j o i n e d f o r a q u a r t e r o f t h e i r l e n g t h , d i v e r g i n g from a common b a s e .  I n t h i s m a t e r i a l the columella i s shorter than  t h e approximate  l e n g t h L i s t e r (13)  g i v e s as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ,  w h i l e t h e s p o r e s have a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r d i a m e t e r range ( l l u . - ljp.) than i s r e c o r d e d by M a c b r i d e ( 1 4 ) . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 550 The  s p o r a n g i a o f t h e second form are g r e g a r i o u s on  the mossy b a r k o f r o t t i n g l o g s , and were c o l l e c t e d f r e q u e n t l y i n Vancouver v i c i n i t i e s i n t h e f a l l •  A t no t i m e were t h e y  found a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p o r a n g i a o f t h e f i r s t t y p e (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho.  5j>0),  a l t h o u g h t h e two forms are abundant on s i m i l a r  s u b s t r a t a a t t h e same time o f y e a r , and i n one l o c a l i t y .  The  Plasmodium i s w a t e r y w h i t e and t h e immature s p o r a n g i a a r e completely w h i t e a t f i r s t ; the c e n t r a l part o f the s t i p e , ( i n the l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s ) then becomes b l a c k l e a v i n g a t r a n s p a r e n t w h i t i s h p a r t on e i t h e r s i d e , and f i n a l l y b o t h head and s t i p e turn black.  A t m a t u r i t y t h e s o l i t a r y obovoid s p o r a n g i a mounted  on s l e n d e r c u r v e d s t i p e s , a r e i r i d e s c e n t b r i g h t b l u e o r p u r p l i s h , t h e p e r i d i u m b e i n g much f i r m e r and t h e c o l u m e l l a  l o n g e r , than i n t h e o t h e r  form.  M a c b r i d e (14) does not d e s c r i b e any v a r i e t i e s under L. oolumbinum. but the s p o r a n g i a of the two t y p e s r e c o r d e d here agree f a i r l y w e l l w i t h h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s p e c i e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. (3)  551  Lamproderma s c i n t i l l a n s ( B e r k , and B r . ) Morgan. S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on maple and a l d e r l e a v e s , f i r  t w i g s and d e c a y i n g herbaceous stems, f o r m i n g e x t e n s i v e c o l o n i e s . C o l l e c t e d i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver i n the l a t e  fall.  Immature s p o r a n g i a a r e y e l l o w i s h - w h i t e on w h i t e s t i p e s ; as the s t i p e becomes dark the head changes t o y e l l o w , and from y e l l o w to  a d i n g y mauve, u n t i l e v e n t u a l l y both head and s t i p e are  black.  A t m a t u r i t y some o f t h e s p o r a n g i a are i r i d e s c e n t b l u e  and p u r p l i s h - b r o n z e , w h i l e o t h e r s a r e golden o r s i l v e r y - b r o n z e . The d u l l g o l d and s i l v e r y s p o r a n g i a are q u i t e e a s i l y  separable  on a b a s i s o f c o l o u r f r o m t h o s e w i t h b l u e and p u r p l e  iridescent,  and as f a r a s c o u l d be made out the s p o r a n g i a o f the two grow i n s e p a r a t e , a l t h o u g h o f t e n a d j a c e n t , p a t c h e s •  forms  This  suggests t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a v a r i e t a l d i f f e r e n c e , but the forms c o u l d not be c o n s t a n t l y s e p a r a t e d on differences.  structural  While t h e r e i s a s t r o n g tendency f o r the  p e r i d i u m to be w h o l l y p e r s i s t e n t and adherent ium i n the b l u e and p u r p l e forms, t h i s was case i n one  two  to the  eapillit-  a l s o found to be  the  o r two o f the d u l l e r s i l v e r y s p o r a n g i a , i n w h i c h as  a r a l e the p e r i d i u m i s evanescent f a l l i n g away i n l a r g e f l a k e s . Much b r a n c h e d , f l e x u o s e c a p i l l i t i a l  t h r e a d s appear o n l y to be  p r e s e n t i n t h e b l u e and p u r p l e forms, h u t c a p i l l i t i u m o f s t r a i g h t , seldom u n i t i n g t h r e a d s a l s o o c c u r s i n t h e s e , as w e l l as i n t h e g o l d e n s p o r a n g i a .  On t h e whole no d e f i n i t e  s e p a r a t i o n c o u l d be made, t h e s p e c i e s as r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n b e i n g v e r y v a r i a b l e as t o t h e c o l o u r and n a t u r e o f t h e sporangium w a l l .  I n a l l , the c a p i l l i t i u m i s character-  i s t i c a l l y p a l e a t t h e base where i t l e a v e s the c o l u m e l l a , and the s p o r e s a r e t y p i c a l Macbride  throughout.  (14) n o t e s t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s i s r a r e , and  a l s o adds t h a t i t i s an e a r l y s p e c i e s , whereas t h i s m a t e r i a l was  c o l l e c t e d i n the l a t e  fall.  B l u e and p u r p l e i r i d e s c e n t s p o r a n g i a : U.B.C• Myc. Herb. No. 552 D u l l golden and s i l v e r y s p o r a n g i a : U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 553 (3)  Lamproderma v i o l a e e u m  (Fries) Best.  S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on moss and b a r k e x t e n s i v e c o l o n i e s on r o t t i n g Douglas f i r l o g s .  forming Collected i n  Vancouver, l a t e f a l l .  Plasmodium b r i g h t c a n a r y - y e l l o w , t h i c k  opaque and e x t e n s i v e .  Immature s p o r a n g i a b r i g h t y e l l o w a t  f i r s t , t h e s t i p e l a t e r becoming d a r k , and t h e head  changing  t h r o u g h shades o f y e l l o w and o r a n g e - b u f f t o greenish-brown; mature s p o r a n g i a d u l l b r o w n i s h o r s i l v e r y b l a c k . T h i s c o l l e c t i o n does n o t seem t o be q u i t e t y p i c a l o f L.  v i o l a e e u m ; t h e s p o r a n g i a a r e d a r k e r and l e s s c o l o u r f u l  than  would be expected from t h e d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n by Macbride ( 1 4 ) ,  - 49 -  i n w h i c h they a r e said, t o be m e t a l l i c b l u e o r p u r p l e .  The  s t i p e i s d i s t i n c t l y t a p e r i n g , n o t even, and t h e s p o r e s  decided-  l y s p i n u l o s e , w i t h a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r d i a m e t e r range (9/a - I 2 u ) than i s t y p i c a l f o r the species.  M a c b r i d e (14) n o t e s t h a t the  Plasmodium i s t r a n s p a r e n t and t h e n a m b e r - t i n t e d , to l i s t e r ( l j ) i t i s sometimes y e l l o w .  but a c c o r d i n g  On t h e whole t h i s may  be t a k e n as a s l i g h t l y v a r y i n g form o f h. v i o l a o e u m , and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e l a c k o f m e t a l l i c i r i d e s c e n c e may be connected i n some way, w i t h t h e c o l o u r o f the Plasmodium, w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y i s unusual a l s o . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 554 (4)  Lamproderm  (arcyrlonema?).  Sporangia  c l u s t e r e d i n l a r g e c o l o n i e s on d e o a y i n g  maple l e a v e s and herbaceous stems. Vancouver v i c i n i t y .  C o l l e c t e d once, i n t h e f a l l ,  Plasmodium e x t e n s i v e  creamish-buff,  immature s p o r a n g i a c h a n g i n g from cream-colour t o b l a c h t h r o u g h shades o f brown and v i o l e t - b r o w n , the head a t m a t u r i t y  being  s i l v e r y - v i o l e t , the s t i p e b l a c k . T h i s g a t h e r i n g does n o t f i t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f any of t h e s p e c i e s o f lamproderma l i s t e d by Macbride (14) o r L i s t e r ( 1 3 ) , b u t i t approaches L. a r c y r l o n e m a i n some r e s p e c t s , although  i t d i f f e r s from i t i n o t h e r s .  The b r a n c h i n g o f the  c o l u m e l l a and t h e e a p i l l i t i u m i s v e r y C o m a t r l c h a - l i k e , and i n t h i s way i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f L. a r c y r l o n e m a .  The b l a c k  c o l u m e l l a , r e a c h i n g h a l f the h e i g h t o f t h e sporangium, d i v i d e s a t t h e t i p i n t o two (sometimes more) main d i v i s i o n s ; s m a l l e r  - 50 ~ l a t e r a l branches may be g i v e n o f f a s w e l l . brown c a p i l l i t i a l  The deep p u r p l e -  t h r e a d s , f l e x u o s e and much l o o p e d form an  Areyria-like  network, e s p e c i a l l y i n the o u t e r p a r t o f t h e  sporangium.  I n these r e s p e c t s t h e m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l o f  L. a r c y r l o n e m a . sporangia  but i t d i f f e r s i n the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s .  The  a r e subglobose or o b o v o i d , n o t g l o b o s e , w h i l e the  p r e s e n c e o f a d e f i n i t e r e d d i s h , r i b b e d b a s a l cup i s d i s t i n c t i v e the spore mass i s brown, n o t b l a c k , the spores l a r g e r (7.571 9pi d i a m e t e r ) , and marked w i t h prominent i r r e g u l a r l y s c a t t e r e d w a r t s , and s h o r t 1 i n e s formed by c o n f l u e n t w a r t s , c o v e r i n g t h e spore s u r f a c e w i t h b r o k e n , i r r e g u l a r  reticulations.  With the exception of the p e r s i s t e n t peridium  this  s p e c i e s b e a r s a s t r o n g resemblance t o C o m a t r i c h a l u r i d a as d e s c r i b e d by l i s t e r (15) , and would c o n s e q u e n t l y  appear t o be  on t h e b o r d e r l i n e between t h e two genera Lamproderma and Comatricha. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 555  ORDER I I I CRIBRARIALES. I n t h i s o r d e r f i v e f a m i l i e s a r e l i s t e d by Macbride (14),  b u t o n l y s p e c i e s b e l o n g i n g to one o f these  - the  C r i b r a r i a c e a e - a r e i n c l u d e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n , no g a t h e r i n g s h a v i n g been made o f members o f t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r f a m i l i e s .  In  the genus C r i b r a r i a , . t h e f i r s t o f t h e two genera b e l o n g i n g to the C r i b r a r i a c e a e , f o u r d e f i n i t e and t e n d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s have  • 51 been l i s t e d , f o r any  one  -  t h i s b e i n g the l a r g e s t genus i n the  second genus, Dictydium.  collection; was  the  single  also collected,  o r d e r C r i b r a r i a l e s as a w h o l e , may here,  number o f f o r m s  not  be  recorded  species of  the  so t h a t w h i l e  the  very well  represented  the f a m i l y C r i b r a r i a c e a b most c e r t a i n l y i s .  CRIBRARIACEAE. 1.  ; Cribraria  (Pers»)  This in  the  g e n u s i s b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t e d t h a n any  collection,  been c o l l e c t e d . such  The  variation,  The  g i v e n by  distinct  types  lodes Cup  were  definitely  o f the p e r i d i a l  and M a c b r i d e  identification represented  sequently l i s t e d  A.  i n the n a t u r e  (13)  Lister  encountered  s p e c i e s have b e e n  f e a t u r e s d i f f e r i n g so w i d e l y  satisfactory  I.  taxonomic d i f f i c u l t i e s  as  (14)  cup  and  forms,  c o u l d b e made o f t h e  I n the m a t e r i a l •  d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s o f the  w e l l defined; threads  of net-  from d e s c r i p t i o n s  of typical  o f p e r i d i a l network l i t t l e  genus  having  r e m a i n i n g m a t e r i a l shows a g r e a t r a n g e  chiefly  work, t h e s e  other  f o u r t e e n d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r i n g forms  that o n l y f o u r of these  identified.  no  Schrader.  that  ten  These a r e  con-  genus•  enlarged.  little  b r a n c h e d ; meshes o f  network l a r g e . ( 1 ) C. B.  Cup of  small, indefinite;  rufa.  t h r e a d s much b r a n c h e d ; meshes  n e t w o r k numerous , s m a l l •  (a) Sporangia  long-stipitate,  usually rust-coloured;  **' 5 2 ** spore mass b r i c k r e d ; t h r e a d s r e d d i s h . (2) G,  ferruginea.  (b) S p o r a n g i a s h o r t - s t i p i t a t e , c l a y - c o l o u r e d ; spore mass c l a y - c o l o u r e d ; t h r e a d s y e l l o w i s h - b r o w n • (3) C. a r g i l l a e e a . Nodes o f p e r i d i a l n e t w o r k d e f i n i t e l y e n l a r g e d . ..  A g g r e g a t i o n o f g r a n u l e s i n cup, h o r i z o n t a l ; sporangia purple. ( 4 ) C.  •  A g g r e g a t i o n o f g r a n u l e s i n cup,  purpurea.  longitudinal;  s p o r a n g i a brown, (a) Nodes o f p e r i d i a l network expanded i n t o s m a l l compact a r e a s . ( I ) Cup r e p l a c e d by r i b s . (5) C.  (diotydioides?).  ( i i ) Cup w e l l d e f i n e d . x M a r g i n of cup i n d e f i n i t e , o f t e n w i t h distinct perforations. (6) C.  (maorocarpa?).  x x M a r g i n o f cup d i s t i n c t , not p e r f o r a t e d . o S p o r a n g i a r e d d i s h - b r o w n , l e s s than .5  mm.  i n diameter. (7) C r i b r a r i a s p . (363). 00 S p o r a n g i a y e l l o w i s h - b r o w n , .5 mm.  o r more  i n diameter. # Cup s m a l l , o n e - s i x t h to o n e - f i f t h the h e i g h t o f the sporangium. (8) C r i b r a r i a sp. (364)•  - 53  -  §§ Cup l a r g e r , o n e - t h i r d the h e i g h t o f the sporangium. 4 S p o r a n g i a s m a l l , t o t a l h e i g h t 1.5  mm.  (9) C r i h r a r i a sp. (565). 44 Sporangia 2.75  l a r g e r , t o t a l height  mm. (10)  C r i h r a r i a s p . (566).  (h) Bodes o f p e r i d i a l network expanded i n t o l a r g e spreading areas. ( i ) T e e t h o f cup c o n t i n u e d i n t o network as r i b s ; e x p a n s i o n s broad c o m p a r a t i v e l y few i n number. (11)  C r i b r a r i a s p . (567).  ( i i ) T e e t h o f cup s m a l l , n o t c o n t i n u e d i n t o network as r i b s ; expansions  elongated,  the branch-  i n g numerous• x Cup o n e - t h i r d the h e i g h t o f the sporangium; nodes v a r y i n g , - broad o r narrow, sometimes q u i t e s m a l l and  compact, - b r a n c h e d . (12)  C r i b r a r i a s p . (568).  xx Cup o n e - s i x t h t o o n e - f i f t h the h e i g h t o f the sporangium; nodes narrow, much branched. o T o t a l h e i g h t o f sporangium, 1.5  mm.;  m i n u t e , i n d e f i n i t e ; nodes e l o n g a t e d ,  cup con-  t i n u i n g i n t o the t h r e a d s ; t h r e a d s 3p. - 5p. i n width. (13)  C r i b r a r i a s p . (569).  - 54  -  T o t a l h e i g h t o f sporangium. 3 mm.;  oo  larger  (one-sixth height  nodes c o n s p i c u o u s ;  of  cup  sporangium);  s l e n d e r , 2u i n  threads  width. (14) C r i b r a r i a (1)  Cribraria  rufa  Sporangia  (Roth)  Rest.  s c a t t e r e d , on d e c a y i n g wood.  once o n l y , V a n c o u v e r v i c i n i t y , The  nodes o f the p e r i d i a l but are o c c a s i o n a l l y  or  triangular  areas;  be  typical  network a r e l i t t l e extended  expand-  into rectangular  i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s the m a t e r i a l appears t o  o f the s p e c i e s . U.B.C. Myc. H e r b . Ho.  556  C r i b r a r i a f e r r u g i n e a Meylan. Sporangia  c o l o n i e s on t h e b a r k Collected thick and  Collected  i n the f a l l .  ed as a r u l e ,  (2)  s p . (570)  once  c l o s e l y gregarious, forming  a n d wood o f r o t t i n g D o u g l a s f i r l o g s .  i n the f a l l ,  i n the v i c i n i t y  opaque P l a s m o d i u m , b l a c k a t f i r s t ,  t h e s p o r a n g i a b e g i n t o form;  blue-grey,  extensive  l a t e r the s t i p e  changes i n c o l o u r from  grey  o f Vancouver.  soon turns  these a t f i r s t  t u r n s dark,  while  blue-grey  are completely  t h e s h i n i n g head  t o brown and t h e n t o  greyish-brown;  the mature s p o r a n g i a a r e b r i g h t  reddish-brown.  Plasmodium i s v e r y conspecuous,  i t s b l u e - g r e y mass b e i n g  visible  from  The e x t e n s i v e  a distance.  This material i s typical  The  i n a l l respects of  » 55  *•  C. f e r r u g i n e a as d e s c r i b e d by L i s t e r (13);  i t i s of i n t e r e s t  to n o t e t h a t the s p e c i e s i s not r e c o r d e d by Macbride  (14),  and a p p a r e n t l y has n o t been c o l l e c t e d on t h i s c o n t i n e n t b e f o r e U.B.C. Myc.  Herb, Ho.  A form o f C. f e r r u g i n e a was  557  c o l l e c t e d i n which  the  c o l o u r o f the mature s p o r a n g i a d i f f e r from t h a t o f the t y p i c a l form.  B o t h specimens were c o l l e c t e d a t the same time o f y e a r ,  b u t were growing i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the wooded a r e a .  The  immature s p o r a n g i a were a d u l l p u r p l i s h - b r o w n , the mature s p o r a n g i a a deep buffy-brown c o l o u r o f t y p i c a l forms. l a r g e r , many o f them 3 mm.  as opposed t o the b r i g h t r u s t  The s p o r a n g i a are a l s o s l i g h t l y i n t o t a l h e i g h t , and the t h r e a d s o f  the p e r i d i a l net are s t o u t e r and d a r k e r than i n the t y p i c a l sporangia. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. (3)  558  C r i b r a r i a a r g i l l a c e a Pers. S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on the bark o f f a l l e n Douglas  f i r branches.  C o l l e c t e d once i n a wet wooded a r e a on S a l t  S p r i n g I s l a n d , i n the summer.  Immature s p o r a n g i a : - s t i p e  brown, head deep g r e y c h a n g i n g t o l i g h t y e l l o w and t h e n becoming clay-coloured at maturity. A c c o r d i n g to Macbride  (14) and L i s t e r (13)  the  p e r i d i a l net o f C. a r g i l l a c e a i s w i t h o u t n o d a l t h i c k e n i n g s , but a v a r i a t i o n i s p r e s e n t i n these s p o r a n g i a where the nodes o f the n e t are sometimes s l i g h t l y expanded. m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l o f the s p e c i e s .  I n o t h e r r e s p e c t s the  - 56 U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 559 (4)  C r i b r a r i a purpurea Schrad. Sporangia  l o o s e l y gregarious  on r o t t i n g l o g s .  C o l l e c t e d once o r t w i c e i n the f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . T h i s m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l o f the s p e c i e s , w h i c h M a c b r i d e (14) d e s c r i b e s as r a r e . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 560 (5)  Cribraria  (dictydioides?).  Sporangia  gregarious  on d e c a y i n g wood.  Collected i n  the f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . T h i s s p e c i e s r e s e m b l e s C. d i c t y d i o i d e s i n e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s , ( t h e cup b e i n g r e p l a c e d by r i b s ) and the n a t u r e o f the s p o r e s , b u t d i f f e r s i n the s t r u c t u r e o f the p e r i d i a l n e t . L i s t e r (13) d e s c r i b e s t h e nodes o f t h e network as b e i n g j o i n e d by s l e n d e r t h r e a d s and h a v i n g many f r e e ends, w h i l e Macbride (14) says t h e " s t e l l a t e n o d u l e s emit f i l a m e n t a l r a y s i n a l l directions"•  I n the present  s p e c i e s the s m a l l i r r e g u l a r l y  shaped s?/ollen nodes g i v e o f f s e v e r a l s t o u t c o n n e c t i n g  threads  and one o r two s h o r t f r e e ends b u t a r e n o t i n t h e l e a s t "stellate".  There i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e specimen may be  a form o f C. s p l e n d e n s , r e p l a c e d by r i b s .  s i n c e i n t h i s s p e c i e s a l s o , t h e cup i s  The p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l d i f f e r s however i n  h a v i n g a small-meshed n e t w i t h c o n s p i c u o u s and d i s t i n c t nodes; L i s t e r (13)  n o t e s t h a t C. splendens i s connected by i n t e r -  mediate forms w i t h C. a u r a n t i a e a and other a l l i e d s p e c i e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 56I  -  (6)  Cribraria  57  -  (macrocarpa?).  Sporangia  l o o s e l y gregarious  on r o t t i n g wood*  C o l l e c t e d i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver i n t h e f a l l . The m a t e r i a l r e p r e s e n t e d  i n the c o l l e c t i o n i s n o t  a b s o l u t e l y t y p i c a l o f C. m a c r o c a r p a , because w h i l e the m a r g i n o f the cup i s u s u a l l y p e r f o r a t e d , t h e amount o f p e r f o r a t i o n v a r i e s g r e a t l y and i s v e r y s m a l l i n some s p o r a n g i a ; t h e s t i p e i s u n u s u a l l y l o n g , 2 * 2 5 mm.,  and numerous l o n g o r s h o r t f r e e  ends a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e network.  M a c b r i d e (14) n o t e s t h a t t h i s  " r a r e " s p e c i e s i s o n l y r i v a l l e d i n s i z e by C. a r g i l l a c e a , but t h e s e s p r o a n g i a a r e s i m i l a r i n s i z e and g e n e r a l appearance t o sporangia  i n some o f the u n i d e n t i f i e d g a t h e r i n g s w h i c h p o s s e s s  unperforated  cups and somewhat resemble C. a u r a n t i a c a .  suggests that the present  This  s p e c i e s m i g h t be a phase o f some such  s p e c i e s as G. a u r a n t i a c a showing an a p p r o a c h t o C. macrocarpa, s i n c e L i s t e r ( 1 3 ) remarks t h a t C. a u r a n t i a c a i s connected by i n t e r m e d i a t e forms w i t h a group o f a l l i e d s p e c i e s , i n c l u d i n g C. m a c r o c a r p a . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 5 6 2 (7)  C r i b r a r i a sp. Sporangia  s c a t t e r e d on c h a r r e d Douglas f i r wood.  C o l l e c t e d once i n a d r y wooded a r e a on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , i n the s p r i n g . These s p o r a n g i a a r e v e r y m i n u t e , . 2 5 mm. - .4 mm. r a r e l y . 5 mm. 1 . 5 mm.  i n diameter,  and u s u a l l y o n l y about 1 mm.,  rarely  i n t o t a l h e i g h t ; i n c o l o u r they a r e r e d d i s h o r orange-  — 58 — brown; the r i b b e d r e g u l a r l y t o o t h e d cup i s o n e - t h i r d the h e i g h t o f the sporangium and the meshes o f the network s m a l l , p o l y g o n a l , the nodes expanded i n t o compact t r i a n g u l a r or quadrangular  areas g i v i n g o f f s e v e r a l s t r a i g h t  connecting  t h r e a d s ; f r e e ends none; spores almost smooth, y e l l o w i s h , 6u  -  8u i n d i a m e t e r . A c c o r d i n g to the key g i v e n by Macbride (14) f o r the s p e c i e s o f C r i b r a r i a . t h i s would be c l a s s i f i e d as C. m i n u t i s s i ma,  0. t e n e l l a , o r C. m i c r o c a r p a . o n account o f i t s s m a l l s i z e ;  however, the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n above doesn't f i t any o f these three species.  The  c o l o u r o f the s p o r a n g i a and  characters of  t h e p e r i d i a l net and cup suggest an approach t o C. a u r a n t i a c a , but M a c b r i d e (14) says t h i s s p e c i e s i s e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d i t s l a r g e s p o r a n g i a , .8 mm.  -  mm.  i n diameter;  the  by  spores  o f the p r e s e n t s p e c i e s a r e a l s o l a r g e r than i n C. a u r a n t i a c a . I n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n g i v e n by L i s t e r ( 1 3 )  t h i s s p e c i e s comes  close to G . v u l g a r i s var. aurantiaca. U.B.C. Myc. (8)  Cribraria  Herb. Ho.  sp.  Sporangia  g r e g a r i o u s , f o r m i n g e x t e n s i v e c o l o n i e s on  d e c a y i n g b a r k l e s s Douglas f i r l o g s . o f Vancouver, i n the The .75  mm.  563  C o l l e c t e d i n the  vicinity  fall.  y e l l o w i s h b u f f - c o l o u r e d s p o r a n g i a are l a r g e  i n d i a m e t e r , and about 3.75  mm.  i n t o t a l h e i g h t ; the  cup i s o n l y o n e - s i x t h or o n e - f i f t h the h e i g h t o f the sporangium and has numerous l o n g s l e n d e r t e e t h ; the meshes o f the net are  s m a l l , the nodes expanded i n t o d e f i n i t e t r i a n g u l a r or q u a d r a n g u l a r a r e a s o f t e n somewhat rounded; f r e e ends  few;  s p o r e s y e l l o w i s h j?u - 7p. i n d i a m e t e r . T h i s s p e c i e s h e a r s a c o n s i d e r a b l e resemblance t o C. a u r a n t i a c a , but the cup long.  i s v e r y s m a l l and t h e s t i p e r a t h e r  M a c b r i d e (14) n o t e s t h a t i n the dusky forms o f  C. a u r a n t i a c a , s e t o f f by S e h r a d e r as C. v u l g a r i s , the s t i p e s are u s u a l l y l o n g e r , b u t a p p a r e n t l y sporangia  the s i z e and c o l o u r of  o f t h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y v a r i a b l e depending upon  c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a l e n t a t the time of f r u i t i n g (14))•  The  (Macbride  d a r k compact, o f t e n rounded, nodes of the network  somewhat resemble those o f C. t e n e l l a ; L i s t e r ( 1 3 ) notes t h a t the forms o f C. a u r a n t i a c a w i t h a c l o s e r e g u l a r net approach G. t e n e l l a o r C.  intricata. U.B.C. Myc.  (9)  Cribraria  Herb. No.  564  sp.  Sporangia l o o s e l y gregarious  on r o t t i n g l o g s ; c o l l e c t -  ed i n the f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . T h i s s p e c i e s i s s i m i l a r to the p r e c e d i n g Myc.  Herb. No.  p e r i d i a l cup.  564), The  one  (U.B.C.  but d i f f e r s i n h e i g h t and  the s i z e o f the  s p o r a n g i a are s m a l l , .5 mm.  i n d i a m e t e r , or  l e s s , and the s t i p e s h o r t , about 1 mm. the h e i g h t o f the sporangium.  l o n g ; the cup  The m a t e r i a l p r o b a b l y  one-third represents  a s h o r t form o f C. a u r a n t i a c a , but i s q u i t e e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the p r e c e d i n g  s p e c i e s (U.B.C. Myc.  w h i c h a l s o appears to be a form of C.  Herb. No.  aurantiaca.  564)  U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 565 (10)  C r i b r a r i a sp. Sporangia gregarious extending i n large c o l o n i e s  o v e r t h e d e c a y i n g wood o f Douglas f i r l o g s *  C o l l e c t e d i n the  v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver i n the f a l l . The  very dark b u f f - c o l o u r e d sporangia of t h i s  i n g c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from those  of the preceding  gather-  species  (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 5S5) by t h e i r h e i g h t ( t o t a l h e i g h t 2*75 mm., head .75 mm* d i a m e t e r ) , by the presence o f numerous f r e e ends i n t h e p e r i d i a l n e t , and by t h e s l i g h t l y l a r g e r spore r a n g e , 5u - Bjx d i a m e t e r . Ho.  From s p e c i e s (8) - U.B.C. Myc. Herb.  564, i t can be s e p a r a t e d by t h e d a r k e r c o l o u r , l a r g e r cup  ( o n e - t h i r d t h e h e i g h t o f t h e sporangium), f r e e ends o f the n e t and l a r g e r spore range.  This apparently i s y e t another  form  o f C. aurantiaca,, a l t h o u g h t h e development o f numerous f r e e ends i n the p e r i d i a l network i s u n u s u a l  for that species.  U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 566 (11)  C r i b r a r i a sp. S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on o l d l o g s ; c o l l e c t e d i n the  f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . T h i s g a t h e r i n g i s n o t t y p i c a l o f any o f t h e s p e c i e s o f C r i b r a r i a l i s t e d by Macbride ( 1 4 ) o r l i s t e r ( 1 3 ) . The s p o r a n g i a - t o t a l h e i g h t I.25 mm., head .5 mm. diameter  - are  nut-brown; c u p , o n e - t h i r d t h e h e i g h t o f t h e sporangium w i t h jagged m a r g i n , p a s s i n g o v e r t o t h e network by means o f i r r e g u l a r ,  - 61  -  n o d e - l i k e r i b s w h i c h may have c r o s s - c o n n e c t i o n s  between them  g i v i n g a p e r f o r a t e d appearance i n p l a c e s to the m a r g i n , l e t work i r r e g u l a r , nodes l a r g e and g l a t t e n e d , o f t e n s t e l l a t e , or l o n g n a r r o w a n g u l a r and e x t e n s i v e ; s h o r t f r e e ends many; spores 7p- *» 8u  diameter. The m a t e r i a l somewhat r e s e m b l e s C. v u l g a r i s as  d e s c r i b e d by L i s t e r (13),  b u t has much l a r g e r spores; the  c o n s p i c u o u s net w i t h s t e l l a t e nodes e m i t t i n g f r e e r a y s , and the i r r e g u l a r cup are s u g g e s t i v e  o f C . d i c t y d i o i d e s , but the  expanded, f l a t a r e a s a t the nodes, c o m p a r a t i v e l y  few i n  number, g i v e to the p e r i d i a l n e t a d i s t i n c t i v e appearance unl i k e a n y t h i n g d e s c r i b e d by M a c b r i d e ( 1 4 ) o r L i s t e r S u p e r f i c i a l l y t h i s g a t h e r i n g resembles s p e c i e s C. ( d i c t y d i o i d e s ? ) . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 561,  (13).  (5), but the n a t u r e  o f t h e p e r i d i a l cup and n e t i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 567 (12)  C r i b r a r i a sp. Sporangia  g r e g a r i o u s on d e c a y i n g a l d e r wood;  c o l l e c t e d i n t h e e a r l y summer i n a wet wooded r e g i o n on S a l t Spring Island. T h i s s p e c i e s comes c l o s e r t o C. d i c t y d i o i d e s t h a n to any o t h e r s p e c i e s o f C r i b r a r i a . b u t i s by no means t y p i c a l o f that species.  The t o t a l h e i g h t o f the orange-brown or b u f f -  coloured sporangia .7 mm.  i n diameter;  i s about 2 mm.,  the head b e i n g .jj mm.  -  cup o n e - t h i r d t h e h e i g h t o f the sporangium,  w i t h s h a l l o w m a r g i n a l t e e t h ; network i r r e g u l a r ; nodes numerous  - 62 l a r g e f l a t b r a n c h i n g a r e a s as a r u l e , sometimes s m a l l e r and compact, w i t h numerous s l e n d e r c o n n e c t i n g t h r e a d s and f r e e ends; s p o r e s 6n - 8jx i n d i a m e t e r .  A c c o r d i n g t o Macbride  (14) t h e cup  o f C, d i c t y d i o i d e s i s v a r i a b l e , sometimes w e l l d e v e l o p e d , somet i m e s r u d i m e n t a r y o r r e p l a c e d by r i b s .  The s p o r e s o f t h e  p r e s e n t s p e c i e s a r e l a r g e r t h a n i s t y p i c a l o f C. d i c t y d i o i d e s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 568 (13)  C r i b r a r i a sp. S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on d e c a y i n g wood; c o l l e c t e d i n  the f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . In t h i s m a t e r i a l t h e s p o r a n g i a a r e d u l l  ochraceous-  brown, about 1.25 mm. i n t o t a l h e i g h t , the head u s u a l l y .5 mm. i n d i a m e t e r , b u t sometimes a s s m a l l as .3 mm. and as l a r g e as •75 mm. i n d i a m e t e r ; cup o n e - s i x t h t h e h e i g h t o f t h e sporangium;  meshes s m a l l ; nodes f l a t broad and a n g u l a r ,  o c c a s i o n a l l y narrow and a n g u l a r , v e r y i r r e g u l a r i n shape, o f t e n much e l o n g a t e d ; spores 5jx - Jjx i n d i a m e t e r .  This description  does n o t f i t any o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n b y Macbride  ( 1 4 ) or  L i s t e r (13) f o r t h e s p e c i e s o f C r i b r a r i a . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 569 (14)  C r i b r a r i a sp. S p o r a n g i a l o o s e l y g r e g a r i o u s on o l d Douglas f i r  wood; c o l l e o t e d i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver;  fall*  S p o r a n g i a y e l l o w i s h - b r o w n ; t o t a l h e i g h t about 3 mm., head . 9 mm. - 1 mm* d i a m e t e r ; cup o n e - f i f t h t h e h e i g h t o f t h e  - 63  ~  sporangium, d e e p l y t o o t h e d ; nodes c o n s p i c u o u s , numerous, expanded and b r a n c h i n g i n t o a n g u l a r a r e a s g i v i n g o f f s e v e r a l c o n n e c t i n g t h r e a d s and many f r e e ends; s p o r e s y e l l o w i s h , 3P- - Gjx, T h i s s p e c i e s resembles but d i f f e r s i n the presence  C. a u r a n t i a c a i n some r e s p e c t s ,  o f the numerous f r e e ends o f the  p e r i d i a l n e t , and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e nodes; the much expanded n o d a l a r e a s d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s s p e c i e s from the o t h e r forms r e c o r d e d i n t h i s l i s t as a p p r o a c h i n g 0, a u r a n t i a c a . U.B.C. Myc.  Herb. No.  570  The t h r e e s p e c i e s (8), (9) and (10) o f t h i s s e r i e s (U.B.C. Myc.  Herb. Nos. 564,  565,  566)  a l l resemble  C. a u r a n t i a c a more c l o s e l y t h a n t h e y resemble o f C r i b r a r i a d e s c r i b e d by L i s t e r (13)  any o t h e r s p e c i e s  o r Macbride  ( 1 4 ) , but a t  t h e same time t h e y can be s e p a r a t e d from one another  by  c h a r a c t e r s which seem t o be c o n s t a n t i n the s p o r a n g i a o f a group.  I f these a l l r e p r e s e n t a s i n g l e s p e c i e s - C. a u r a n t i a c a  - the range o f v a r i a t i o n i n such a s p e c i e s must be v e r y g r e a t ; i n a d d i t i o n i t may  be n o t e d t h a t s p e c i e s (5), (6) and (7) o f  t h i s s e r i e s (U.B.C. Myc.  Herb. l o s . 561,  362,  563)  are  apparent-  l y w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d from one a n o t h e r , and from s p e c i e s (8), (9) and (10),  and y e t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e s e , a l s o , b e i n g  v a r y i n g form o f C. a u r a n t i a c a has been suggested. t o (14) i n the s e r i e s (U.B.C. Myc.  Herb. Nos. 567  Species - 570)  (11)  are  s e p a r a t e d from the forms mentioned above by a d i f f e r e n c e i n the n a t u r e o f the nodes o f the p e r i d i a l network, but i n one  of  ~ 64  ~  these forms a l s o , s p e c i e s (14) (U.B.C. Myc.  Herb. Ho.  c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r s o f C. a u r a n t i a c a are found. and  (12)  Species  (11)  somewhat resemble C. d i c t y d i o i d e s . but d i f f e r from  one a n o t h e r , and a r e q u i t e d i s t i n c t from s p e c i e s (5) Myc.  570)  Herb. Ho. 561)  w h i c h a l s o approaches C.  (U.B.C.  dictydioides.  A c c o r d i n g to L i s t e r (13) the f o l l o w i n g f i v e s p e c i e s , - C. a u r a n t i a c a , C. macrooarpa. C. t e n e l l a . C. l n t r i c a t a C. s p l e n d e n s - a r e c l o s e l y a l l i e d and are connected by g r a d i n g forms.  This suggests  and  inter-  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the m a j o r i t y  o f t h e forms r e c o r d e d here a r e v a r y i n g phases o f one or two  of  t h e s e s p e c i e s , the taxonomic d i f f i c u l t i e s b e i n g accounted f o r by t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n t e r m e d i a t e , as w e l l as  typical,  c h a r a c t e r s , and t h e consequent great range o f v a r i a t i o n shown i n the m a t e r i a l . 2.  Diotydium  (Schrad.) Rost*  T h i s genus i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a t y p i c a l g a t h e r i n g o f the s i n g l e s p e c i e s b e l o n g i n g t o i t . Dictydium  cancellatum  (Batsoh) Macbr.  S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on the c r u m b l i n g i n n e r wood o f a v e r y o l d Douglas f i r l o g . fall  9  C o l l e c t e d once o n l y , i n the l a t e  Vaneouver v i c i n i t y . The  sporangia,, b l a c k when immature , a r e dark brown  a t m a t u r i t y , the s t i p e s d a r k brown or b l a c k ; t o t a l h e i g h t about 3 mm.;  head 1 mm.  i n diameter. U.B.C. Myc.  Herb. Ho.  571  — 65 ***  ORDER I T LYC OGALALES . The o r d e r L y c o g a l a l e s c o n t a i n s t h e s i n g l e genus L y c o g a l a , and t h i s i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n by one species. Lycogala M i c h e l i . M a c b r i d e ( 1 4 ) l i s t s f o u r s p e c i e s under t h i s genus, b u t o n l y one o f these has been c o l l e c t e d h e r e , t h e g a t h e r i n g s quite  being  typical.  L y c o g a l a epidendrum (Buxb.) F r i e s . Sporangia Douglas f i r l o g s .  s o l i t a r y o r c l u s t e r e d on d e c a y i n g maple and T h i s s p e c i e s i s common i n the summer and  f a l l , and numerous c o l l e c t i o n s were made b o t h on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d and i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Yancotiver. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 5 7 2  ORDER ¥ TRICHIALES. T h i s o r d e r i s d i v i d e d by Macbride (14) i n t o f i v e f a m i l i e s , o f which three - A r c y r i a c e a e , the P r o t o t r i c h l a c e a e and t h e T r i e h i a c e a e - a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n .  No  specimens o f t h e two s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s , t h e Dianemaceae and t h e Perichaenaceae, The  were  found.  f a m i l y A r c y r i a c e a e comprises t h r e e g e n e r a ,  L a c h n o b o l u s , A r o y r i a and H e t e r o t r i c h i a .  The a r c y r i a s a l o n e  w i l l be d e a l t w i t h , s i n c e no members o f t h e other two genera  •» 66  were c o l l e c t e d .  —  M a c b r i d e (14) l i s t s t w e l v e  s p e c i e s of A r c y r i a ,  and o f t h a t number f o u r d e f i n i t e and t h r e e d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s represented  i n this  are  collection.  The f a m i l y P r o t o t r i o h i a e e a e c o n t a i n s a s i n g l e genus, Prototrichia,  and a s i n g l e s p e c i e s , w h i c h was  collected several  times. M a c b r i d e (14) g i v e s f o u r genera i n the T r i c h i a c e a e H e m i t r i o h i a , Calonema. T r i c h i a and the l a s t two  are r e p r e s e n t e d  Oiigonema.  -  Of these o n l y  i n the c o l l e c t i o n .  I n the genus  T r i c h i a numerous specimens were g a t h e r e d ; e i g h t o f the  fourteen  s p e c i e s l i s t e d by M a c b r i d e (14) have been d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d , some o n l y w i t h d i f f i c u l t y , w h i l e two as d o u b t f u l . two  o t h e r s have been  recorded  S e v e r a l v a r y i n g forms are i n c l u d e d under one  or  o f the s p e c i e s , so t h a t on the whole t h i s genus i s v e r y w e l l  represented.  Two  s p e c i e s o f Oiigonema are r e c o r d e d  here;  M a c b r i d e (14) l i s t s o n l y f o u r s p e c i e s f o r t h e genus.  ARCYRIACEAE A r c y r i a ( H i l l ) Pers. Four d e f i n i t e and t h r e e d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s are i n t h i s genus. dpecies  was  The m a t e r i a l o f the f o u r d e f i n i t e l y c l a s s i f i e d  i s t y p i c a l f o r the most p a r t , and  the s p o r a n g i a  and  s i n c e the c o l o u r of  e a p i l l i t i u m i s d i a g n o s t i c i n these s p e c i e s i t  not d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y them.  the s p o r a n g i a  recorded  I n the r e m a i n i n g  show v a r i a t i o n s from t y p i c a l forms,  and  c o n s e q u e n t l y c o u l d not be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i d e n t i f i e d .  material  - 67 !•  Spores 6p. - 8ji i n d i a m e t e r . A.  Capillitium  i n t y p i c a l forms l o o s e l y a t t a c h e d to the  cup by few t h r e a d s . (a)  C a p i l l i t i u m p i n k o r r o s y , expanded but not i n g ; t h r e a d s w i t h numerous r i n g - l i k e (1)  (b)  A.  droop-  expansions.  incarnata.  C a p i l l i t i u m y e l l o w o r y e 1 1 o w i s h - b u f f , much expanded, d r o o p i n g ; t h r e a d s w i t h o u t r i n g - l i k e expansions. ( 2 ) A.  B.  nutans.  C a p i l l i t i u m i n t y p i c a l f o r m s more o r l e s s p e r s i s t e n t l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e cup by many t h r e a d s • (a)  C a p i l l i t i u m b r i g h t , or brownish-red; threads marked w i t h prominent  cogs and  half-rings.  (3) (b)  A.  C a p i l l i t i u m w h i t i s h , cream-white,  denudata. g r e y i s h or d u l l  y e l l o w ; t h r e a d s w a r t e d o r banded, and s p i n u l o s e . ( i ) C a p i l l i t i u m grey, w h i t i s h or  cream-white.  x C a p i l l i t i u m s c a r c e l y expanded, grey o r whitish. ( 4 ) A. c i n e r e a . x x C a p i l l i t i u m d e f i n i t e l y expanded, creamwhite • (5) A.  (cinerea?).  ( i i ) Capillitium d u l l yellow. (6) A. ( p o m i f o r m i s ? ) .  *» 68 — II*  Spores 9ja - l i p . I n diameter; dull  s p o r a n g i a and c a p i l l i t i u m  orange-red. (7) A. ( v e r s i c o l o r ? ) .  (l)  A r c y r i a Inoarnata  Pers,  S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on Douglas f i r , maple and cedar wood.  C o l l e c t e d a number o f t i m e s on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d and i n  the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver, i n the summer and e a r l y f a l l . G a t h e r i n g s o f t h i s s p e c i e s were t y p i c a l f o r t h e most p a r t , b u t one c o l l e c t i o n was made i n which t h e s p o r a n g i a a r e more o r l e s s o v a l i n shape, w h i l e the c a p i l l i t i u m i s n o t as e l a s t i c a s i n t y p i c a l forms, and v a r i e s i n c o l o u r from a p a l e p i n k i s h - r e d , to a darker rosy red.  According to L i s t e r  (13)  t h i s specimen w o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as A. i n o a r n a t a v a r . f u l g e n s on a c c o u n t o f t h e c o l o u r o f the s p o r a n g i a ; Macbride (14) however, d e s c r i b e s t h e c o l o u r o f A. i n o a r n a t a as f l e s h - c o l o u r e d o r r o s y , making no m e n t i o n o f any v a r i e t y . Typical material:U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 573 V a r y i n g m a t e r i a l , A. i n o a r n a t a v a r . f u l g e n s : U.B.C. Myc. Herb. l o . 574 (2)  A r c y r i a nutans ( B u l l . ) Grev. Sporangia  cedar wood.  g r e g a r i o u s on d e c a y i n g Douglas f i r and  C o l l e c t e d once o r t w i c e i n d r y wooded areas on  S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n t h e s p r i n g , and i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver i n t h e summer.  - 6° -  T h i s m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l of the species as described by L i s t e r (13)  and Macbride ( 1 4 ) . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 575  (?)  A r c y r i a denudata ( L i n n . )  Sheldon.  S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on Douglas f i r and maple l o g s , and t w i g s o f e i t h e r d e c i d u o u s o r evergreen  trees.  Collected  f r e q u e n t l y i n d r y and wet wooded areas on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n t h e s p r i n g and summer, and i n Vancouver v i c i n i t i e s i n t h e summer and f a l l . Some c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e s p e c i e s show v a r i a t i o n s i n the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c a p i l l i t i u m , t h e t h r e a d s b e i n g much roughened and s p i n u l o s e ; t h i s i s p r o b a b l y due t o weather c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e time o f development o f the s p o r a n g i a .  The  c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c a p i l l i t i u m i n c e r t a i n specimens suggests an approach t o A. s t i p a t a n o t e v i d e n t i n t y p i c a l forms o f t h i s species•  The expanded c a p i l l i t i u m i n these g a t h e r i n g s i s  s m o 0 t h e r - 1 0 o k i n g and o f a p a l e r c o l o u r t h a n i n t h e o t h e r s ; t h e attachment o f t h e c a p i l l i t i u m i s by fewer t h r e a d s ; t h e cogs a r e not so prominent and a r e w i d e r based, w h i l e f r e e rounded ends and a s u g g e s t i o n o f f a i n t s p i r a l bands a r e v i s i b l e i n some mounts.  The occurrence  mentioned by L i s t e r  o f such forms o f A. denudata i s  (13).  U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 37b (4)  Arcyria cinerea (Bull.) Pers. S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on ro t t i n g maple wood and  Douglas f i r l o g s .  C o l l e c t e d t w i c e i n wet wooded r e g i o n s on  Salt Spring Island i n the spring. These s p o r a n g i a , u s u a l l y g r e y , sometimes d i n g y yellowish-white, are t y p i c a l o f the species, i n t h e i r early s t a g e s o f development both sporangium  head and s t i p e a r e w h i t e  and o f a s t i c k y c o n s i s t e n c y ; the w h i t e c o l o u r g r a d u a l l y changes t o g r e y , and from grey t o s h i n i n g b l a c k .  As t h e  sporangium matures t h e b l a c k fades f i r s t t o a d u l l y e l l o w c o l o u r and f i n a l l y back a g a i n t o g r e y . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 577 (5)  Arcyria  (cinerea?).  Two c o l l e c t i o n s were made on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n the e a r l y summer, o f what appears t o be a v a r y i n g form o f A. c i n e r e a . In one g a t h e r i n g a group o f three s p o r a n g i a were found on t h e b a r k o f a maple t w i g .  The c a p i l l i t i u m i s c r e a m i s h  w h i t e i n c o l o u r , and i s expanded f o r m i n g c u r v e d o r somewhat procumbent s u b c y l i n d r i c a l columns about 5 mm. l o n g . In the o t h e r c o l l e c t i o n a group o f twenty s p o r a n g i a are s c a t t e r e d o v e r a s m a l l a r e a o f Douglas f i r b a r k .  I n these  the c a p i l l i t i u m - w h i t e a t f i r s t , becoming d i n g y w i t h age - i s expanded t o form e r e c t c y l i n d r i c a l o r o v o i d . t u f t s about 2 mm. l o n g and 1 mm. w i d e , more l o o s e l y expanded a t t h e t i p than the base. The most c o n s p i c u o u s d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s form and the t y p i c a l form o f A. c i n e r e a l i e s i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e  e a p i l l i t i u m w h i c h i s v e r y d e f i n i t e l y expanded i n these s p o r a n g i a h u t i s almost i n e l a s t i c and h a r d l y expanded a t a l l i n s p o r a n g i a t y p i c a l o f A. c i n e r e a , so t h a t o u t w a r d l y , a t least  s  the two specimens appear v e r y d i f f e r e n t .  As r e g a r d s  m i c r o s c o p i c a l c h a r a c t e r s t h i s form i s very hard t o separate from A. c i n e r e a . h u t the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s may be noted.  The s p i n e s on t h e t h r e a d s a r e o f t e n more p r o m i n e n t ,  and the s w e l l i n g s o f t h e b a s a l t h r e a d s v e r y c o n s p i c u o u s and f a r more numerous t h a n i n t h e t y p i c a l form, w h i l e t h e spores average o n l y 6.2u i n d i a m e t e r a s opposed t o 7«2p. - t h e average d i a m e t e r o f t h e spores o f t h e t y p i c a l m a t e r i a l examined. Only a few mounts o f t h e v a r y i n g form c o u l d be made, s i n c e t h e m a t e r i a l i s so s c a r c e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y  i t was  d i f f i c u l t to determine whether o r n o t these m i c r o s c o p i c a l characters are constant. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 578 (6)  A r c y r i a (pomiformis?)« Sporangia  s c a t t e r e d on the i n n e r wood and d e c a y i n g  b a r k o f a n o l d Douglas f i r l o g l y i n g i n damp e a r t h i n a c o n i f e r o u s wood.  C o l l e c t e d once on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n the  e a r l y summer. T h i s m a t e r i a l f i t s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f A. pomiformis g i v e n by L i s t e r (13)  but d i f f e r s from t h a t g i v e n by Macbride  (14) i n the s i z e and c o l o u r o f the s p o r a n g i a ; these a r e d u l l ochraceous-yellow, are about 1 mm.,  o r b u f f c o l o u r e d , n o t " b r i g h t y e l l o w " , and sometimes l e s s , i n t o t a l h e i g h t .  Sporangia  i n which t h e h u f f - c o l o u r e d c a p i l l i t i u m i s expanded, may measure 4 mm. i n h e i g h t . L i s t e r (13) n o t e s t h a t A. p o m i f o r m i s can he d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m A. c i n e r e a by t h e s c a t t e r e d b u f f  sporangia  with looser c a p i l l i t i u m . U.B.C. Myc, Herb. Ho. 57? (7)  Arcyria (versicolor?). Sporangia gregarious  on maple wood.  o n l y , l a t e f a l l , i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver. sporangia  b r o w n i s h - p i n k , mature s p o r a n g i a  C o l l e c t e d once Immature  orange-red.  T h i s g a t h e r i n g d i f f e r s from t y p i c a l forms o f A. v e r s i c o l o r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s .  According to Macbride  (14) t h e c a p i l l i t i u m i s " b r i g h t g o l d e n y e l l o w o r orange", whereas i n t h i s m a t e r i a l t h e c a p i l l i t i u m i s r a t h e r d u l l orange, o r y e l l o w i s h - r e d ; the s t i p e i s u s u a l l y l o n g  r  .5 mm. o r .6 mm.,  and p a l e o r d a r k r e d above, p i n k i s h below, w h i l e L i s t e r (13) d e s c r i b e s i t as ".2 mm. l o n g , y e l l o w - b r o w n " i n t h e t y p i c a l s p e c i e s ; t h e sporangium w a l l as a r u l e i s o n l y p e r s i s t e n t i n the l o w e r h a l f o r q u a r t e r , f o r m i n g a deep r e d d i s h cup; t h e s p o r e s a r e l a r g e r t h a n u s u a l , r a n g i n g from °ji ~ l l u ,  averaging  10.5u, and are marked w i t h s c a t t e r e d p a t c h e s o f w a r t s . The  sporangium w a l l i n the p r e s e n t  species i s very  d i s t i n c t l y p a p i l l a t e on the i n n e r s i d e , a f e a t u r e which i s used by L i s t e r (13) t o separate  A. v e r s i c o l o r from A. f e r r u g i n e a , a  c l o s e l y a l l i e d s p e c i e s i n which t h e i n n e r s i d e o f t h e sporangium w a l l i s marked w i t h round-meshed r e t i c u l a t i o n .  U.B.C, Myc. Herb. No. 580  PROTQTRICHIACEAE. Prototrichia  Rost.  T h i s genus c o n t a i n s a s i n g l e s p e c i e s w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n by s e v e r a l t y p i c a l  gatherings.  P r o t o t r i c h i a m e t a l l i o a ( B e r k . ) Mass. Sporangia Douglas f i r wood.  l o o s e l y g r e g a r i o u s on w i l l o w bark and C o l l e c t e d i n f r e q u e n t l y , once on S a l t S p r i n g  I s l a n d i n t h e summer and once i n t h e f a l l , i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver. l i s t e r (13) n o t e s t h a t i n p e r f e c t development t h e s t r a n d s o f t h e c a p i l l i t i u m a r e deep red-brown, b u t a l s o says t h a t t h e s p e c i e s i s v e r y s e n s i t i v e t o changes o f temperature and w e a t h e r .  T h i s p r o b a b l y accounts  f o r the fact that the  spores and c a p i l l i t i u m i n t h e specimens examined were p a l e o r nearly colourless.  I n o t h e r r e s p e c t s the m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l .  U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 5 8 I  TRICHIACEAE. 1.  T r i c h i a ( H a l l e r ) Rost. The  t r i c h i a s are b e t t e r represented  i n the c o l l e c t i o n  t h a n any o t h e r genus, s i n c e t e n d i s t i n c t forms ( e i g h t d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d s p e c i e s and two d o u b t f u l ones) were c o l l e c t e d , and M a c b r i d e (14) l i s t s o n l y f o u r t e e n s p e c i e s f o r the whole genus; i n a d d i t i o n one o r two v a r y i n g forms a r e mentioned under s e v e r a l  o f the s p e c i e s .  The  d i a g n o s t i c c h a r a c t e r s o f the  different  s p e c i e s are on the whole w e l l marked and c o n s t a n t , so t h a t i t was  not so d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y the v a r y i n g forms i n t h i s  genus as i t was  i n some o f the o t h e r genera ( e . g . Cribraria)»  where c h a r a c t e r s o f s e v e r a l s p e c i e s may  he b l e n d e d i n a s i n g l e  specimen. I.  Spores marked w i t h d i s t i n c t A.  reticulations.  R e t i c u l a t i o n s c l o s e , even, f o r m i n g a s m a l l meshed net over the spore s u r f a c e . (1) T.  B.  scabra.  R e t i c u l a t i o n s l a r g e , sometimes i r r e g u l a r , f o r m i n g  a  complete o r i n c o m p l e t e , wide meshed net over the spore surface. (a) S p o r a n g i a  s e s s i l e , c l o s e l y crowded.  ( i ) E l a t e r s 7 »2u. - 8u i n w i d t h ; s p o r e s e v e n l y reticulated. (2) T.  favoginea.  ( i i ) E l a t e r s *>jx - 5»5u, i n w i d t h ; s p o r e s u n e v e n l y reticulated. (3)  T.  (favoginea?).  (b) S p o r a n g i a u s u a l l y s t i p i t a t e ; s t i p e s weak, u n i t e d i n small c l u s t e r s . (4) II.  T.  verrucosa.  Spores m i n u t e l y w a r t e d , o r o n l y p a r t l y covered  with  minute r e t i c u l a t i o n s . A.  Sporangia  y e l l o w ; s p i r a l s o f e l a t e r s two• (5) T.  varia.  ~ 75 B*  ~  S p o r a n g i a "brown; s p i r a l s o f e l a t e r s t h r e e o r more, usually (a)  four.  Sporangia s e s s i l e , r a r e l y s h o r t l y (6)  (b)  Sporangia d e f i n i t e l y  stipitate.  T. o o n t o r t a ,  stipitate.  ( i ) Sporangium w a l l marked w i t h conspicuous p a l e l i n e s of dehiscence. x S t i p e dark brown, opaque, f i l l e d w i t h r e f u s e matter. (7) T.  Botrytis.  x x S t i p e deep r e d d i s h , t r a n s l u c e n t , w i t h o u t refuse matter. (8) T.  lateritia.  ( i i ) Sporangium w a l l even i n c o l o u r , not showing l i n e s o f dehiscence; s t i p e f i l l e d w i t h sporelike  cells.  x E l a t e r s smooth, 5u - 6.3u (9) x x E l a t e r s s p i n o s e , 6.3u  T. d e c i p i e n s .  - ? . 2 n i n width. (10)  (1)  i n width.  T.  (decipiens?).  T r i c h i a scabra Rost. Sporangia c l o s e l y gregarious forming extensive c o l o n i e s  on r o t t i n g Douglas f i r l o g s . Vancouver.  C o l l e c t e d i n the f a l l , v i c i n i t y o f  The Plasmodium, w h i t e a t f i r s t , t u r n s g r a d u a l l y t o  p a l e y e l l o w as the s p o r a n g i a b e g i n t o take form, and t h e n from p a l e t o a deeper y e l l o w u n t i l as the s p o r a n g i a near m a t u r i t y t h e y become ochraceous-orange  i n colour.  - 76 The e l a t e r s a r e somewhat w i d e r (6u. - 7.2p.) t h a n would he e x p e c t e d from t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s p e c i e s g i v e n byL i s t e r (13; and Macbride ( 1 4 ) , b u t i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s t h e material i s typical. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 582 (2)  T r i o h i a favoginea (Batsch) Pers. S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s crowded i n s m a l l o r l a r g e  c o l o n i e s on maple, a l d e r and Douglas f i r wood.  C o l l e c t e d on  S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n t h e s p r i n g and e a r l y summer, wet wooded a r e a , and i n t h e f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . The m a t e r i a l i s t y p i c a l o f t h e s p e c i e s as d e s c r i b e d by L i s t e r (I3) and M a c b r i d e (.14). U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho, 383 (3)  T r i c h i a (favoginea?). S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on d e c a y i n g a l d e r l e a v e s and  Douglas f i r b a r k .  C o l l e c t e d once, i n t h e f a l l , v i c i n i t y o f  Vancouver. L i s t e r (13) notes t h a t i n t e r m e d i a t e forms f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r between T. f a v o g i n e a and T. p e r s i m i l i s , and t h e p r e s e n t s p e c i e s appears t o be one o f t h e s e .  The c o l o u r o f t h e  s p o r a n g i a and c a p i l l i t i u m f a v o u r s T. f a v o g i n e a w h i l e the shape o f t h e sporangium i s l i k e t h a t o f T. p e r s i m i l i s . r e t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e s p o r e s suggests  Broken  an approach t o t h e spore  m a r k i n g o f T. p e r s i m i l i s , b u t the s i z e o f t h e spores (14.4p. l6n  i n d i a m e t e r ) and t h e w i d t h o f the spore b o r d e r i s s u g g e s t i v e  • 77 o f IE* f a v o g i n e a .  -  The w i d t h o f the e l a t e r s (5u - 5.Jju) approaches  the w i d t h o f e l a t e r s o f I . p e r s i m i l i s ; t h e s p i r a l hands, i n some c a s e s , a r e produced i n t o two o r t h r e e d i v e r g i n g p o i n t s a t the t i p s o f the e l a t e r s , a s i n T. p e r s i m i l i s , hut t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l s t r i a e are quite  conspicuous,  U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 584 (4)  T r i c h i a verrucosa  Berk.  S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on r o t t e n Douglas f i r wood. C o l l e c t e d once o n l y , i n the l a t e f a l l , Vancouver v i c i n i t y . Plasmodium w h i t e , t h i c k and opaque; t h e immature s p o r a n g i a t u r n from w h i t e to l i g h t y e l l o w , becoming d u l l y e l l o w or b u f f coloured j u s t before m a t u r i t y . The m a t e r i a l appears t o be t y p i c a l o f t h e s p e c i e s , w h i c h M a c b r i d e (14) says i s t o be expected  i n the s o u t h e r n  U n i t e d S t a t e s s i n c e specimens i n t h e herbarium U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa a r e from  o f the S t a t e  Mexico.  U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 585 (5)  T r i c h i a v a r i a (Pers.) Rost. I n t h i s s p e c i e s a number o f forms v a r y i n g i n e x t e r n a l  and cap i n i t i a l c h a r a c t e r s were found •  I n some c o l l e c t i o n s t h e  s p o r a n g i a a r e a l l s e s s i l e , i n o t h e r s t h e r e a r e s t i p i t a t e and s e s s i l e s p o r a n g i a , w h i l e i n two o r t h r e e g a t h e r i n g s a l l t h e sporangia are d i s t i n c t l y  stipitate.  I n t y p i c a l specimens the s p o r a n g i a a r e c l o s e l y g r e g a r i o u s , u s u a l l y on w i l l o w and maple wood.  C o l l e c t e d i n the  - 78  -  summer on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , and f r e q u e n t l y i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver. white, t u r n i n g pale  Plasmodium w h i t e ,  fall,  immature  sporangia  yellow.  U.B.C, Myc.  Herb. I o .  586  A s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n o f the t y p i c a l form o f T. v a r i a was  c o l l e c t e d i n the s p r i n g on the r o t t i n g wood o f an o l d  maple l o g .  The  sporangia  m o s t l y s e s s i l e , a few s h o r t l y  s t i p i t a t e are f a r l a r g e r t h a n those i n a t y p i c a l c o l l e c t i o n T. v a r i a , hut Plasmodium and  t h i s might he due  of  t o the abundance o f the  f a v o u r a b l e w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s a t the time o f  development o f the s p o r a n g i a .  The  c a p i l l i t i u m d i f f e r s from  t h a t o f t y p i c a l forms i n h a v i n g v e r y i r r e g u l a r , t w i s t e d e l a t e r s w h i c h o c c a s i o n a l l y p o s s e s s s p i n e - l i k e branches or s p i n e s . o u t l i n e o f the e l a t e r s o f t e n appears roughened where the i r r e g u l a r , i n d e f i n i t e , c l o s e l y would s p i r a l bands p r o j e c t either side.  The  spines are of r a t h e r infrequent  and none o f the mounts show more t h a n one  The two on  occurrence  spine on a s i n g l e  elater. U.B.C. Myc.  Herb. No.  587  S e v e r a l s p o r a n g i a were found, a l s o i n the w h i c h were p a r t i a l l y d e s t r o y e d  spring,  by some minute fungus.  The  specimen has been c l a s s i f i e d as T. v a r i a s i n c e i t comes c l o s e r to t h i s s p e c i e s than to any o t h e r s p e c i e s of T r i c h i a .  The  e l a t e r s a r e v e r y l o n g , o r q u i t e s h o r t , t e r m i n a t i n g sometimes i n a l a r g e b u l b o u s s w e l l i n g , sometimes i n a s w e l l i n g and a l o n g  - 79 point. two,  E l a t e r s r o u g h l o o k i n g , 4u. » 5.4u. w i d e , s p i r a l s  probably  perhaps t h r e e i n p l a c e s , v e r y f a i n t , i r r e g u l a r and  d i f f i c u l t to count; spores 12.6u -  IJ.JJU  i n diameter.  U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Wo. 588 I n a n o t h e r g a t h e r i n g , made i n the s p r i n g on w i l l o w wood, a more d i s t i n c t v a r i a t i o n o f T. v a r i a was found.  The  b r o w n i s h - y e l l o w s p o r a n g i a d i f f e r f r o m the t y p i c a l form o f T. v a r i a i n t h e c o l o u r and n a t u r e  o f the sporangium w a l l , and  i n the spiny character o f the c a p i l l i t i u m .  The sporangium w a l l  i s n o t t r a n s l u c e n t when mounted; t h e e l a t e r s a r e sometimes t y p i c a l , b u t o f t e n p o s s e s s t i p s w h i c h a r e s w o l l e n and c l u b shaped, w i t h s e v e r a l l a t e r a l o r t e r m i n a l b l u n t s p i n e s .  Occasion-  a l s p i n e s a r e a l s o found a l o n g the l e n g t h o f the e l a t e r s , so t h a t on t h e whole t h e c a p i l l i t i u m c a n be termed d e f i n i t e l y spiny. U.B.C, Myc. Herb. Ho. 589 A c o l l e c t i o n o f T. v a r i a was made i n t h e f a l l  near  Vancouver, i n w h i c h t h e s p o r a n g i a a r e b r o w n i s h , and s t i p i t a t e . The  sporangium w a l l i s hard and t h e c a p i l l i t i a l mass c l o s e l y  compacted; e l a t e r s c o m p a r a t i v e l y  few, l o n g f r e q u e n t l y  twined  around each o t h e r i n t h e m i d d l e , i r r e g u l a r and t w i s t e d i n outline • U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 59O Other s t i p i t a t e s p o r a n g i a  o f T. v a r i a c o l l e c t e d i n  the f a l l near Vancouver a l s o have t h e c a p i l l i t i a l mass c l o s e l y  ~ 80 « compacted.  The c a p i l l i t i u m i t s e l f d i f f e r s from t h a t found i n  t y p i c a l forms, i n t h a t t h e ends o f the e l a t e r s t e r m i n a t e a b r u p t l y i n obtuse p o i n t s , and t h a t t h e e l a t e r s themselves a r e sometimes branched. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 591 From t h e f o r e g o i n g l i s t i t can be seen t h a t t h e s p e c i e s T. v a r i a i n c l u d e s a number o f d i v e r s i f i e d forms, a l l showing s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s from the t y p i c a l form, b u t n e v e r t h e less , a l l d e f i n i t e l y belonging (6)  to t h i s  species.  T r i c h i a eontorta (Ditmar) Rost. v a r inconspicua Sporangia l o o s e l y gregarious  ed once i n t h e f a l l , n e a r Vancouver.  on maple wood. These s p o r a n g i a ,  Lister. Collectdull  orange i n t h e i r e a r l y s t a g e s o f development, took from one t o two weeks t o become f u l l y mature. The  e l a t e r s are p e c u l i a r i n t h a t they are o f t e n  s w o l l e n a t i n t e r v a l s a l o n g t h e i r l e n g t h , w i t h a more o r l e s s s w o l l e n t i p t e r m i n a t i n g i n one o r sometimes two, curved o r straight points. T h i s specimen i s u n d o u b t e d l y a v a r i e t y o f T. e o n t o r t a , and y e t no m e n t i o n i s made, e i t h e r by L i s t e r (13) ( 1 4 ) , o f the s w e l l i n g s i n t h e e l a t e r s .  o r Macbride  However L i s t e r  (13)  n o t e s t h a t the o c c u r r e n c e o f bulbous s w e l l i n g s i n the e l a t e r s i s so f r e q u e n t , and a t the same time so i n c o n s t a n t , i n many s p e c i e s o f T r i c h i a t h a t i t cannot be r e c e i v e d as a s p e c i f i c character. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. I\ o. 5?2 T  - 81 (7)  T r i c h i a B o t r y t i s Pers. S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on d e c a y i n g Douglas f i r and  Maple wood.  C o l l e c t e d once on S a l t S p r i n g  Island i n the e a r l y  summer, and f r e q u e n t l y i n Vancouver v i c i n i t i e s i n t h e f a l l . The  immature s p o r a n g i a mounted on d a r k p u r p l i s h s t i p e s , a r e  opaque w h i t e i n t h e i r e a r l y s t a g e s o f development, and t u r n dark purple o r black j u s t before maturing. This material  i s q u i t e t y p i c a l o f T. B o t r y t i s as  by L i s t e r (13) and Macbride ( 1 4 ) .  described  U.B.C. Myc. Herb. I o . 593 A c o l l e c t i o n o f t h i s s p e c i e s was made i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver i n t h e f a l l ,  containing  sporangia which are  y e l l o w i s h , n o t p u r p l e brown, and i n w h i c h t h e e l a t e r s a r e perhaps a l i t t l e p a l e r i n c o l o u r , t h e s p i r a l s c l o s e r , and t h e s p o r e s l a r g e r (11.7u ~ 12.6u i n d i a m e t e r ) than i n t h e t y p i c a l form o f T. B o t r y t i s ; t h e immature s p o r a n g i a a r e q u i t e a l i g h t orange  colour. It  i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h i s i s m e r e l y a form o f  T. B o t r y t i s showing a l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n c o l o u r and c a p i l l i t i a l characters,  s i n c e Macbride (14) d e s c r i b e s  t h e s p e c i e s as  remarkable f o r i t s v a r i a t i o n i n c o l o u r . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. I o . 594 (8)  T r i o h i a l a t e r i t i a Lev. S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on Douglas f i r wood.  Collected  once i n a wet wooded a r e a , e a r l y summer, on S a l t S p r i n g  Island.  T h i s specimen, which i s t y p i c a l o f t h e s p e c i e s , was found on a l o g t h a t was l y i n g i n a stream, so t h a t the s p o r a n g i a were a c t u a l l y i n r u n n i n g w a t e r when they were c o l l e c t e d . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 595 (9)  T r i c h i a d e c i p i e n s ( P e r s . ) Macbr. T h i s s p e c i e s shows d i v e r s i f i e d forms, s e v e r a l  v a r i a t i o n s from t h e t y p i c a l T. d e c i p i e n s b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d i n the  collection. The  s p o r a n g i a o f t h e t y p i c a l form a r e g r e g a r i o u s on  r o t t i n g l o g s , and were c o l l e c t e d i n t h e f a l l i n Vancouver vicinities. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 596 lister  (13) n o t e s t h a t s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s o f t h i s  s p e c i e s have been d e s c r i b e d b u t t h a t t h e y appear t o r e p r e s e n t forms r a t h e r t h a n important v a r i e t i e s , and i n t h i s  connection  he mentions t h e v a r i e t y " o l i v a c e a " , which d i f f e r s from the t y p i c a l form o n l y i n e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r s . c o l l e c t e d f r e q u e n t l y i n the f a l l maple wood.  T h i s form was  on d e c a y i n g Douglas f i r and  When immature the s p o r a n g i a a r e p a l e p i n k i s h -  orange, t h e s t i p e s b e i n g w h i t e •  The m a t e r i a l e x a c t l y f i t s the  d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n by L i s t e r (13) o f T. d e c i p i e n s v a r o l i v a c e a . b u t a l s o f i t s t h a t g i v e n by M a c b r i d e ( 1 4 ) , o f t h e t y p i c a l  form.  U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 597 S e v e r a l c o l l e c t i o n s o f s p o r a n g i a were made on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , w h i c h seem t o show a g r a d a t i o n from a s l i g h t l y  v a r y i n g form, o f T. d e c i p i e n s to t h e more n a t u r a l form. The f i r s t o f these g a t h e r i n g s was made i n t h e summer, on w i l l o w wood.  Immature s p o r a n g i a orange c o l o u r e d w i t h w h i t e  s t a l k s , mature s p o r a n g i a s h i n i n g d u l l brown, v e r y m i n u t e , about 1 mm. i n t o t a l h e i g h t .  T h i s specimen d i f f e r s from t h e  t y p i c a l f o r m o f T. d e c i p i e n s i n t h e s i z e o f t h e s p o r a n g i a , t h e w i d t h o f t h e e l a t e r s ( 3u - 4.5pJ and t h e nature o f t h e spores w h i c h a r e e c h i n u l a t e , 9p. - l i p . i n d i a m e t e r . U.B.C. Myc, Herb. No. 598 A specimen r e s e m b l i n g t h e t y p i c a l form more c l o s e l y was f o u n d on d e c a y i n g maple wood.  The s p o r a n g i a a r e about .  1.5 mm. i n t o t a l h e i g h t , the e l a t e r s range from 3.6u - 5p: i n w i d t h ; the s p o r e s a r e e c h i n u l a t e . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 599 In another c o l l e c t i o n t h e sporangia are s i m i l a r i n appearance t o those r e f e r r e d t o above (U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 599), but a r e about 2.5 mm. i n t o t a l h e i g h t ; t h e e l a t e r s a r e almost  t y p i c a l r a n g i n g from 4.5p. - 6ji i n w i d t h , and t h e s p o r e s ,  w h i l e they a r e e c h i n u l a t e , a r e the same s i z e as those  found  i n t y p i c a l forms o f T. d e c i p i e n s . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. No. 600 (10)  Trichia (decipiens?). S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s on d e c a y i n g wood; c o l l e c t e d  once o n l y , i n a wooded a r e a near Vancouver, i n the f a l l . The  smooth e l a t e r s , v e r y g r a d u a l l y t a p e r i n g a t t h e  ~ 8 4 «•  ends, t h e f o u r e v e n l y wound s p i r a l s , the s p o r e - l i k e c e l l s f i l l i n g the s t i p e , and t h e p a r t i a l l y r e t i c u l a t e d t h i s s p e c i e s as T, d e c i p i e n s .  spores place  Howe\ er t h e w i d t h o f t h e e l a t e r s , r  a v e r a g i n g 3.6u i n T. d e c i p i e n s , hut ?n. i n t h i s f o r m , the r e g u l a r o c c u r r e n c e i n the c a p i l l i t i u m o f s p i n e s , tranches and b i f u r c a t e distinct variation  spine-like  t i p s d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h t h i s as a  o f T. decipiens„ and one w h i c h i s n o t  mentioned e i t h e r by L i s t e r (13)  o r by Macbride (14  U.B.C. Myc. Herb. Ho. 601  2.  01 i gone ma H o s t . T h i s s m a l l genus i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n by  two  c l o s e l y a l l i e d s p e c i e s w h i c h a r e c h i e f l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  the  nature of t h e i r c a p i l l i t i u m .  The m a t e r i a l was r a t h e r  d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y s i n c e t h e markings o f t h e c a p i l l i t i a l t h r e a d s a r e so o b s c u r e . I.  E l a t e r s marked w i t h a s e r i e s  o f f a i n t c l o s e l i n e s and  minute w a r t s ; s p o r e s 11,7u - 13u i n d i a m e t e r ,  regularly  r e t i c u l a t e d w i t h c o n t i n u o u s bands j b o r d e r Iji w i d e . (1) II.  Elaters  0. flavidum.  marked w i t h i n d e f i n i t e s p i r a l bands; spores  12u - l b u i n - d i a m e t e r , i r r e g u l a r l y r e t i c u l a t e d  with  p i t t e d bands, b o r d e r 1.5p. w i d e , (2) 0 . n i t e n s . (1)  Oligonema f l a v i d u m (Peck) Mass. S p o r a n g i a g r e g a r i o u s , heaped i n a c l u s t e r on a p i e c e  -  85  -  o f Douglas f i r b a r k w h i c h was embedded i n boggy s o i l .  Collected  once on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , i n t h e s p r i n g . The m a t e r i a l f i t s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s p e c i e s g i v e n by L i s t e r (13) and Macbride ( 1 4 ) . U.B.C. Myc. Herb. I o . 602 (2)  Oiigonema n l t e n s ( L i b . ) R o s t . I n t h i s g a t h e r i n g , which i s t y p i c a l o f t h e s p e c i e s  as d e s c r i b e d by L i s t e r (13) and M a c b r i d e ( 1 4 ) , t h e s p o r a n g i a are g r e g a r i o u s , c l u s t e r e d on Douglas f i r wood. was made on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d i n t h e summer. U.B.C. Myc. Herb. I o . 603.  The c o l l e c t i o n  — 86  —  SUMMARY. T h i s paper d e a l s with, a study o f B r i t i s h Columbia slime-moulds as r e p r e s e n t e d i n a c o l l e c t i o n gathered o v e r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e y e a r s i n wooded areas on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , B. C.,  and  i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver, B.  C.  B o t h s u b - c l a s s e s o f the Myxomycetes a r e the Exosporeae by the s i n g l e  genus Ceratiomyxa,  represented;  the Myxogastres  by a number o f genera i n each o f i t s f i v e o r d e r s - a t o t a l o f one hundred and t h r e e forms b e l o n g i n g t o n i n e t e e n genera i n eight families  being recorded.  Of t h e s e , f i f t y a r e s p e c i e s  w h i c h have been d e f i n i t e l y I d e n t i f i e d , forms o f c e r t a i n  twenty-eight are v a r y i n g  known s p e c i e s , seventeen are l i s t e d as doubt-  f u l , w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g s p e c i e s , e i g h t i n number, c o u l d not  be  identified at a l l . I n the f a m i l y Physaraoeab a t o t a l o f n i n e t y p i c a l four doubtful species i s recorded:-  two  and  s p e c i e s o f Badhamia;  f i v e d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d and f o u r d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s o f Physarum; a s i n g l e  s p e c i e s o f C r a t e r i u m , C*  leuoocephalum,  w h i c h a c c o r d i n g to Macbride ( 1 4 ) i s "not common"; and single  s p e c i e s of Leocarpus.  the  The f a m i l y Didymiaeeae i s  r e p r e s e n t e d by t e n s p e c i e s , f i v e b e l o n g i n g t o the genus Didymium; f o u r to Diderma and one to Lepidoderma.  Three o f the  s p e c i e s r e c o r d e d , Didymium d i f f o r m e , Diderma r a d i a t u m  and  Lepidoderma t i g r i n u m are s a i d by Macbride (.14) to be r a r e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , w h i l e Diderma montanum i s n o t l i s t e d by  him  87  »  as o c c u r r i n g on t h i s  -  continent.  S i x t y p i c a l and f i v e d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s a r e r e c o r d e d i n t h e f a m i l y Stemonitaoeae:-  t h r e e d e f i n i t e and f o u r doubt-  f u l s p e c i e s i n S t e m o n i t i s : two d e f i n i t e and one d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s i n Comatricha and a s i n g l e s p e c i e s o f D i a c h a e a, t h e l a t t e r a l i m e l e s s s p e c i e s D. c e r l f e r a not mentioned by Macbride (14) as o c c u r r i n g i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Lamprodermaceae i s r e p r e s e n t e d f u l species.  The f a m i l y  by f o u r d e f i n i t e and one doubt-  The s i n g l e s p e c i e s i n the genus Enerthenema,  S. p a p i l l a t u m i s s a i d by Macbride (14) t o be r a r e , w h i l e o f the f o u r forms l i s t e d under t h e genus LamprOderma, one L . s c i n t i l l ans  t  i s apparently rare a l s o . Five t y p i c a l species are recorded  Cribrariaceae:Cribraria.  one s p e c i e s o f D i c t y d i u m  i n the  and f o u r o f  Of these f o u r C r i b r a r i a p u r p u r e a i s s a i d by  M a c b r i d e (14) t o be r a r e , and a n o t h e r C r i b r a r i a f e r r u g i n e a has not been p r e v i o u s l y r e c o r d e d  f o r t h i s continent.  Besides  these  t y p i c a l s p e c i e s two d o u b t f u l and e i g h t u n i d e n t i f i a b l e s p e c i e s have been r e c o r d e d  i n t h e genus C r i b r a r i a .  A s i n g l e common s p e c i e s o f L y e o g a l a i s l i s t e d . I n the f a m i l y A r c y r i a c e a e d o u b t f u l s p e c i e s are r e c o r d e d , single species belonging  f o u r d e f i n i t e and t h r e e  a l l i n t h e genus A r c y r i a ; the  t o the genus P r o t o t r i c h i a o f the  f a m i l y P r o t o t r i c h i a e e a e was c o l l e c t e d , w h i l e the f a m i l y Triohiaceae  i s represented  doubtful species:-  by a t o t a l o f t e n t y p i c a l and two  two s p e c i e s o f Oiigonema, and e i g h t o f  - 88 T r i c h i a , t h e two v a r y i n g forms b e l o n g i n g t o t h e l a t t e r genu  U.O e  T r i c h i a e o n t o r t a I s r a r e a c c o r d i n g t o Macbride ( 1 4 ) , w h i l e t h e same a u t h o r says t h a t T. v e r r u c o s a i s t o be expected i n t h e s o u t h e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s , s i n c e specimens i n t h e herbarium o f t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa were c o l l e c t e d i n M e x i c o . Many taxonomic d i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered i n c l a s s i f y i n g c e r t a i n s p e c i e s o f Physarum, S t e m o n i t i s , Comatricha and C r i b r a r i a .  The range o f v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n a s i n g l e s p e c i e s  i s o f t e n v e r y g r e a t , and t h e need f o r a r e v i s i o n o f t h e genus C r i b r a r i a , I n p a r t i c u l a r , seems t o be i n d i c a t e d .  A more  d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e c r i b r a r i a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , might l e a d t o the s e p a r a t i o n i n t o d i s t i n c t and p o s s i b l y new s p e c i e s , o f some o f t h e u n i d e n t i f i a b l e forms r e p r e s e n t e d  i n t h e genus.  Species  of the genera S t e m o n i t i s and C o m a t r i c h a were a l s o , on t h e w h o l e , d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y , s i n c e t h e c a p i l l i t i a l  characters  appear t o be i n c o n s t a n t , and i n some cases d i f f i c u l t y was experienced  even i n s e p a r a t i n g t h e two g e n e r a .  I t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o note t h a t o f t h e one hundred and t h r e e forms l i s t e d i n t h i s work, o n l y f i f t y a r e a b s o l u t e l y t y p i c a l o f the s p e c i e s t h e y  represent.  The Myxomycetes, a s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e specimens i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n , appear t o be s u b j e c t t o a g r e a t range o f v a r i a t i o n b o t h i n e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s and c a p i l l i t i a l  characters,  and w h i l e t h e cause o f t h i s tendency t o v a r y i s n o t d e f i n i t e l y known, i t i s p r o b a b l y l a r g e l y due to the e f f e c t o f environmenta l c o n d i t i o n s upon t h e d e v e l o p i n g  sporangia.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Cook, W.R.I, and M i s s E.M. H o l t : - Some o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e g e r m i n a t i o n o f the s p o r e s o f some s p e c i e s o f Mycetozoa. M y c o l o g i a J20: 340 - 352. 1?28. G i l b e r t , F.A.:- On t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f b i f l a g e l l a t e swarm c e l l s i n c e r t a i n Myxomycetes. M y c o l o g i a 1 ? : 277 • 283.  1927o  G i l b e r t , F.A.:- F e e d i n g h a b i t s o f the svarm c e l l s o f t h e myxomycete D i c t y d i a e t h a l i u m plumbeurn. Am. J o u r . B o t . 15: 123 - 131. 192b. G i l b e r t , F.A.:- A study o f t h e method o f spore g e r m i n a t i o n i n Myxomycetes. Am. J o u r . B o t . 15: 3^5 - 352. 1928.  G i l b e r t , F.A.:- O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e f e e d i n g h a b i t s o f t h e swarm c e l l s o f Myxomycetes. Am. J o u r . B o t . 15: 473 « 484.  1928.  G i l b e r t , F.A.:- F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e g e r m i n a t i o n o f myxomycetous s p o r e s . Am. J o u r . B o t . 16: 280 -  286.  1929.  G i l b e r t , F.A.:- Spore g e r m i n a t i o n i n the Myxomycetes: a comparative s t u d y o f spore g e r m i n a t i o n by f a m i l i e s . Am. J o u r . B o t . IjS: 421.- 432. 1929. H a r p e r , R.A. and Dodge.:The f o r m a t i o n o f t h e c a p i l l i t i u m i n c e r t a i n Myxomycetes. Ann. B o t . 28: 1 - 1 8 . 1914. •\  Howard, F.L.:- L a b o r a t o r y c u l t i v a t i o n o f myxomycete P l a s m o d i a . Am. J o u r . B o t . 18: 624 - 628.  1931*  L i s t e r , A.:- Notes on the Plasmodium o f Badhamia u t r i c u l a r i s and B r e f e l d i a maximaT AnnT B o t . 2: 1 - 23. 18*88. ' ~ L i s t e r , A.:- Notes on Chondrioderma d i f f o r m e and o t h e r M y c e t o z o a . Ann. B o t . ±: 281 - 29b. I889. L i s t e r , A.:- On t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f Mycetozoa from J o u r . B o t . j$2: 5 - 8 . 1901.  spores.  13®  L i s t e r , A,:- A Monograph, o f the Mycetozoa; T h i r d Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . I925.  14.  M a c b r i d e , T . H . T h e N o r t h American Slime-moulds; Second edition. The M a c m i l l a n Company, New Y o r k . 1922.  13•  S m i t h , E.G.:- The l o n g e v i t y o f myxomycete s p o r e s . M y c o l o g i a 21: 321 - 323. I 9 2 9 .  lb o  S m i t h , E.G.:* Some phases o f spore g e r m i n a t i o n o f Myxomycetes. Am. J o u r . B o t . 16: 645 - 650. 1929. ~~  edition.  

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