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Street use & servicing planning : an investigation of design possibilities and feasibility of underground… Wiles, Franklin Arthur 1964

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STREET USE & SERVICING PLANNING: AN INVESTIGATION OF DESIGN POSSIBILITIES AND FEASIBILITY OF UNDERGROUND PUBLIC UTILITY STRUCTURES IN LOCAL RESIDENTIAL STREETS by FRANKLIN ARTHUR WILES B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1957 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Ap r i l , 1964 In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publi-cation of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community and Regional Planning The University of B r i t i s h Columbia,. Vancouver 8, Canada. Date May 8 . 1 9 6 4 . ABSTRACT This thesis was prompted by the belief that local residential streets could be better used and serviced i f a common underground structure were provided for a l l u t i l i t i e s . Such a structure could not only get wiring underground, a desirable aim in i t s e l f , but also gather a l l of the u t i l i t i e s together in a narrow portion of the street. This would free the remainder of the street from the restrictions imposed by the u t i l i t i e s , and allow designers to create more interesting and pleasant environments. It was further believed that such structures might be feasible i f the designing and servicing of local streets were considered comprehensively. These beliefs have been investigated by formulating and testing the general hypotheses that installing u t i l i t i e s in specially designed underground structures in local residential streets would: a) permit better use and design of such streets than is possible by current servicing practices; b) be feasible (from functional, physical, social, staging, administrative, p o l i t i c a l , financial, and economic points of view) i f comprehensively designed. The scope of this investigation has been limited to future local streets in single-family residential districts of Metropolitan Vancouver for these reasons. Future streets would allow maximum f l e x i b i l i t y in design and savings in servicing costs by proposed practices. Local streets generally have simpler and smaller-sized f a c i l i t i e s which are most widely spread. Single-family residential d i s t r i c t s are and w i l l be the largest land use and hence, have the most increase in streets. Metropolitan Vancouver has been studied because of i t s proximity and familiarity to the investigator and i t s variety of servicing practices. Street use is the use made of streets including such ones as playing not currently facilitated. The 1 servicetnent1 is that part of the physical environment created by property service f a c i l i t i e s in the streets. Property services are those public services providing service to property as distinct from people. Current practice is the ways of designing and instal-ling f a c i l i t i e s followed at the present time. The term 'better' in the f i r s t hypothesis is interpreted in terms of elements of the public interest. These include public health, safety, convenience, amenity, welfare, and economy. Criteria of fe a s i b i l i t y have been established for the evaluation of the proposed practices. These include functional, physical, social staging, administrative, p o l i t i c a l , functional, and economic f e a s i b i l i t y . They are essentially different ways of looking at a complex problem. Three general types of public u t i l i t y structures have been considered in three different conditions. The three types are trough, tunnel, and tube-conduit. A trough is open to the surface and covered by a sidewalk. A tunnel is a single under-ground space, usually tubular, between manholes. The tubed-conduits have several cells or tubes. The three conditions are when the structure contains a l l u t i l i t i e s , a l l but the drainage, and only e l e c t r i c a l and communicative u t i l i t i e s . A l l public services to property involving permanent f a c i l i t i e s in streets that are or could conceivably be provided by public or private agencies have been considered. They have been classified into ten classes by functional characteristics of interest in the investigation. The f i r s t class is the access services. The next four are the u t i l i t i e s : baric (or pressure), communicative, drainage and el e c t r i c a l . The remainder are called other services and include: furnishing, gardening,'holding indicating, and 'keeping' services. iv Current practices have been described in terms of 'best', 'normal', and 'worst' practices because of the wide range of practices that exist. Proposed practices that would be involved or could result from installing u t i l i t i e s in common underground struc-tures have been described in comparison to current practice. These proposed practices have been evaluated in effect by testing specific hypotheses about each practice by application of appropriate f e a s i b i l i t y c r i t e r i a . The proposed designing practices have been found to be feasible in almost a l l respects, with a few qualifications as follows: 1) functional layouts involving roads and parking areas close to houses would have to be tested for public acceptance by full-scale development projects. 2) i t is functionally unfeasible to i n s t a l l gas pipes in structures because of the potential safety hazard involved. The f e a s i b i l i t y of the proposed practices has been found to be as follows: a) the a l l - u t i l i t y trough and tunnel structures are unfeasible except for those few people willing to pay highly for the benefits that would accrue. b) The a l l - u t i l i t y tubed-conduit appears to be economically feasible. Indeed, i t might provide savings that could be passed on to those served or taxpayers generally, or used to provide additional services or a higher quality of service. c) The other u t i l i t y structures appear to be generally feasible, or so nearly so economically that people would be willing to pay for the extra benefits. It i s suggested that the design and f e a s i b i l i t y possibi-l i t i e s of the a l l - u t i l i t y tubed-conduit be investigated by means of a f u l l scale experimental development. This should be done at V the same time as a nearby development following current practices. This would allow careful evaluation of the costs, and public reaction to the proposed practice in comparison to current practices. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This investigation could not have been carried out without the co-operation of many o f f i c i a l s of municipal and other public service agencies including the privately owned u t i l i t y companies. Several gave up a considerable amount of time to answer numerous questions about their services which could be answered only by persons having a great deal of knowledge and experience on such highly specialized subjects. These o f f i c i a l s are listed in the Bibliography. For this co-operation and assistance I am most grateful. I particularly appreciate the information and assistance given by Mr. Douglas Kenyon, City Engineer of Port Moody, without which the economic analysis would have been much more d i f f i c u l t and less satisfactory. This thesis is unlikely to have been completed without the encouragement of friends and family over the several years that have been spent on i t , and the assistance of the latter during the f i n a l stages of putting together such a large report. I am particularly indebted to my long-suffering wife for the many weekends and evenings spent typing drafts, instead of following more pleasurable pursuits. The form of the thesis would have been less satisfactory than at present without the suggestions of the several thesis advisors involved over the years, and for these I offer my thanks. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 I. DEFINITIONS AND CRITERIA - Definitions and Classification of Structures and Services Investigated, and Criteria for Evaluating Them . . 17 Definitions of Terms Used 17 Outdoor Room Analogy 24 Types of U t i l i t y Structures Investigated 26 Classification of Services 29 Elements of the Public Interest as Criteria for Evaluating Street Use and Servicing Practices. . 34 Principles of Street Use and Servicing (integration, payment for benefit, and maximum benefit) 39 Plan Elements and Feasibility Tests 48 Summary 56 II. CURRENT PRACTICES - A Description of Current Street Use and Servicing Practices in Ten Municipalities of Metropolitan Vancouver. , . . . . ! 57 Areal Scope of Current Practices Investigated. . . 63 Street Uses 65 Current Process of Designing Street Use and Servicement. . . . . 67 Current Process of Installing Property Service F a c i l i t i e s 72 Composite Best, Normal and Worst Servicing Practices 76 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . 85 v i i i CHAPTER • PAGE •III. PROPOSED DESIGNING PRACTICES - A Description of the Proposed Process of Designing Property Service F a c i l i t i e s for Local Residential Street Use and Servicement. . . . . . . 86 Assumptions and Principles of Proposed Practices . 87 Proposed Process of Designing Street Use and Servicement 88 Designing Street Use and Servicement of Intersections 117 Designing the Subdivision 131 Future Services 135 Summary of Proposed Designing Practices 138 IV. PROPOSED INSTALLING PRACTICES - A Description of the Proposed Process of Installing Property Services F a c i l i t i e s for Local Street Use and Servicement. . 141 Proposed Process of Installing Subdivision Plats . 142 Proposed Process of Preparing the Street for Servicing. . 144 Proposed Process of Installing U t i l i t y Structures 147 Proposed Process of Installing U t i l i t i e s 147 Proposed Process of Installing Pavements (and Curb-Gutters) 151 Proposed Process of Installing Plants. . . . . . . 151 Proposed Process of Installing Other Service F a c i l i t i e s . 153 Summary of Proposed Process of Installing Service F a c i l i t i e s 156 ix CHAPTER ' PAGE V. EVALUATION OF PROPOSED PRACTICES - Determination of the Feasibility of the Proposed Street Use and Servicing Practices. « 158 Evaluation of Proposed Street Use and Design . . . 159 Evaluation of Proposed Designing Practices . . . . 161 Evaluation of the Feasibility of the Proposed Practices of Installing Property Service F a c i l i t i e s 168 Summary and Conclusions 184 BIBLIOGRAPHY 187 APPENDIX - Table of Contents for Appendices . 192 A. CURRENT SERVICING PRACTICES - A Detailed Description and Ranking for Ten Selected Metropolitan Municipalities, and Comparison With Practices Elsewhere 193 B. INSTALLING UTILITY STRUCTURES - A Description of Possible Processes for the Various Types 243 Co COST DATA«• j 255 x: LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Classification of Services . „ 29a II. Land Values - Municipality of Richmond 46 III. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Trees and Supply Lines . . 71 IV. Estimated U t i l i t y Costs per Foot 174 V. Underground Wiring Costs for Transformer -Secondary Combination to Serve Back-to-Back Lots .255 VI. 1963 Estimating Costs for Sewers, City of Port Moody 2.56 xi.. LIST OF DIAGRAMS DIAGRAM PAGE 1. Types of Proposed U t i l i t y Structures . 27 2. Types of Proposed U t i l i t y Structures 96 3. Effect of Location on Depth of Drains 97 4. Effect of Street Slope and Manhole Spacing on Depth of Drains 99 5. Functional Layouts of Electric Power Service F a c i l i t i e s . . 103 6. Illustrative Layout of Pavements Near Natural Features 107 7. F a c i l i t i e s at the Intersection of Two Local Streets 120 8. Proposed Design of Intersection of Two Local Streets „ 122 9. Comparison of Pavement Designs of Current and Proposed Practices in Typical Grid Subdivision . . 123 10. 'Servi-Center' at Intersections of Collector Streets 126 11. Suggested Designs of 'Servi-Center 1 129 12. Comparison of Cross-Sectional Areas Involved in Grading 146 13. Suggested Modifications to Lighted Street Name Signs . 155 14. Suggested Pedestrian Signs 155 15. Suggested A l l - U t i l i t y Tubed-Conduit 181 16. Modified A l l - U t i l i t y Tubed-Conduit 181. 17. Possible Types of A l l - U t i l i t y Trough Structures. . . 247 18. Electric Trough-Curb-Gutter 250 19. Curb-Gutter Electric Tubed-Conduit . 252 x i i ; LIST OF MAPS MAP PAGE 1. Large-Scale Developments in Vancouver . 59 2. Metropolitan Vancouver Areas Investigated 64 2. Metropolitan Vancouver Areas Investigated 194 3. City of Vancouver Development at 54th & Kerr 199 INTRODUCTION Streets have always been, and are likely to remain essential parts of human settlements. When men claim parcels of land for their use and from trespass by others, they must set aside portions for streets to permit access to their land from outside the settlement and movement between parcels without trespass. Even temporary settlements of nomads (including week-end campers) demonstrate this fact. Animal and Insect "settlements 8 also usually involve the equivalent of streets, some of which are perhaps more sophistif cated than man9s most complex creations. This is partly due to the fact that some animals and most insects can move on vertical or under horizontal surfaces, whereas man can not. Generally, he Is unable to operate effectively with his limbs above his head. Also, man has not yet been willing to accept the degree of communal living practiced by such "social 8 insects as ants and bees. Man has developed various devices such as stairs, elevators, and escalators for vertical movement within buildings but the buildings must s t i l l be linked by streets. Helicopters and similar devices allow movement between separated sites, but the sites generally must be accessible by fuel and repair vehicles requiring streets. Two current trends in inventions suggest the need for streets for movement may be reduced in the future. One is the development of means of communication that reduce the need for personal contact. The former are unlikely to become practicable for everyone including children and handicapped persons« On the other hand, the more people using them, the greater would be the trespass of space above sites and consequent invasion of privacy. 2. Means of communication are being conceived that theoretically could eliminate a l l movement except for changes of residence upon marriage. However, these involve connection of each dwelling by cables and/or electric power wires running in streets. Streets are also used as rights-of-way for the f a c i l i t i e s of services supplying such commodities as water and gas, or removing such wastes as storm water and sewerage. Thus, even i f streets were not required for movement, they would be required i for u t i l i t i e s unless each dwelling were made completely indepen-dent and self-^sufficient. Such a possibility is conceivable. Indeed j, research for the space program is solving the techno-logical problems of living for extended periods in self-contained environments.*- However, this is unlikely to be sociologically or p o l i t i c a l l y acceptable, and the historical tendency has been to increase,, not reduce, the number of u t i l i t i e s in streets. Streets required only for u t i l i t i e s need not be so wide as when also used for movement8 but they perform other functions requiring width. These include acting as a firebreak between buildings and ensuring that adequate light and air is available to buildings. Also, streets are used as locations for the f a c i l i t i e s of other services best supplied communally but required only intermittently 8 such as mail collection and delivery,. Streets provide an open space which gives r e l i e f through contrast with adjacent development, especially when the street is planted and the development is intensive. Indeed„ facades of buildings as we know them would not exist without streets„ Fi n a l l y 9 these open spaces provided by streets are public — people can meet, socialize„ and play on common ground. Thus streets f u l f i l l many basic human needs. 1,,Space Breakthrough Claimed as 5 Live Sealed Up 30 Days,M Vancouver Sun. 2 April 1964, p. 1„ 3. A c c e p t a n c e o f the need f o r s t r e e t s i s u n i v e r s a l , but the manner o f m e e t i n g t h i s need v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y between c u l t u r e s . F o r example, the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e approach i n N o r t h A m e r i c a and Europe i s comparable t o the d i f f e r e n c e i n approach t o the n e c e s s i t y f o r e a t i n g . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n a t t i t u d e seems t o be " i f we must e a t , t h e n l e t ' s spend as l i t t l e time and e f f o r t as p o s s i b l e so t h a t we can save i t f o r t h i n g s we want t o do". I n c o n t r a s t , the European a t t i t u d e seems t o be " i f we must e a t , then l e t ' s spend s u f f i c i e n t time and e f f o r t t o make i t as p l e a s u r a b l e as p o s s i b l e " . The c h o i c e o f whi c h approach one a c c e p t s on such m a t t e r s as time and e f f o r t spent on such n e c e s s i t i e s as e a t i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y an i n d i v i d u a l one, c o n d i t i o n e d o f c o u r s e by one's c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The c h o i c e o f which approach i s f o l l o w e d i n m e e t i n g the need f o r s t r e e t s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p u b l i c one, however, s i n c e o n l y p u b l i c a c t i o n can p r o t e c t the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n h a v i n g an e f f i c i e n t and e c o n o m i c a l s t r e e t system. T h i s i n v o l v e s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t a n d a r d s and pr o c e d u r e s f o r s e t t i n g a s i d e s t r e e t s t o meet the needs o f the e n t i r e e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n , i n s t e a d o f j u s t the immediate needs o f i n d i v i d u a l s . Thus the p u b l i c can, and does, d e l i b e r a t e l y b r i n g about changes i n the way s t r e e t s a r e s e t a s i d e o r used t h a t a r e deemed t o be i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . The q u e s t i o n i s , a r e s t r e e t s b e i n g s e t a s i d e and used as w e l l as th e y m i g h t be, o r a r e t h e r e some changes t h a t c o u l d be made f o r the b e t t e r ? I n the o p i n i o n o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r , the answers a r e no, and y e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y — a t l e a s t f o r l o c a l s t r e e t s i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s o p i n i o n a r e t h a t s t r e e t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d e i t h e r t o occupy an e x c e s s i v e amount o f l a n d f o r the use t h a t i s made o f them, o r a r e not w e l l d e s i g n e d o r de v e l o p e d f o r the uses t h a t c o u l d be made o f them, and t o r e s u l t i n e x c e s s i v e c o s t s . 4. Land is the platform of a l l human activity and an irreplaceable resource. It behoove man to use It prudently, yet on this continent vast amounts of land are taken out of productive uses for streets apparently without f u l l y compensating benefits. The proportion of land occupied by streets (including lanes) in urban and suburban areas can vary from about one-fifth to one-half,2 but is generally around thirty percent. A study of central c i t i e s i n the United States found streets to be a f a i r l y constant proportion averaging 28.1 percent of the developed area.3 Even assuming the rarely attained one-fifth can be attained in a l l future local residential streets, the total area involved w i l l be great because of the tremendous growth anticipated i n single family residential d i s t r i c t s . Streets w i l l continue to be the second largest urban land use. Hence, anything which allows either better use of streets or reduction of the area occupied by them would be to everyone's benefit. Servicing costs for future local residential streets also w i l l be tremendous in total because of the anticipated spread of development and consequent length of streets involved. The costs w i l l be proportionately greater than past ones because of the higher standards of service being demanded and 2 An area in Steveston, Richmond, having 100 f t . wide streets and small square blocks had streets occupying 47.8 per-cent. 3 Harland Bartholomew, Land Uses in American Cit i e s , Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1955, (Harvard City Planning Studies IV), p. 63, which also provides the following data: No.of Cities Population Group Streets-Percentage of Total Developed Area 28 50,000 or less 28.33 13 50,000 - 100,000 33.27 7 100,000 - 250,000 27.57 5 250,000 and over 24.75 5, w i l l be h i g h e r on a per l o t b a s i s because of the s t r o n g tendency towards wider l o t s . Any savings i n these c o s t s r e s u l t i n g from i n n o v a t i o n s c o u l d be shared by the community or used to provide more s e r v i c e s or r a i s e the standard of them. There are three main approaches to these problems of land use and s e r v i c i n g c o s t s . One i s to reduce the t o t a l amount of land used and the consequent s e r v i c i n g c o s t s by c o n t r o l l i n g the spread o f development. This i n v o l v e s such land use p l a n n i n g d e v i c e s as zoning of p e r m i t t e d uses, and programming of c a p i t a l expenditures on such p u b l i c works as trunk water mains and sewers. The second approach i s to reduce the t o t a l amount of land used and c o s t s of s e r v i c i n g by reducing the area and c o s t s of i n d i v i d u a l s t r e e t s e c t i o n s . T h i s i n v o l v e s r e d u c i n g the width of s t r e e t s , the lengths of b l o c k s , and c o s t s of i n s t a l l i n g s e r v i c e s . Except f o r the l a t t e r , these matters are a l s o u s u a l l y o f concern i n the best land use p l a n n i n g . The t h i r d g e n e r a l approach i s to i n c r e a s e the b e n e f i t d e r i v e d from g i v e n s t r e e t areas and c o s t s of s e r v i c e s . T h i s approach c u r r e n t l y seems to be c o n s i d e r e d o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e o f land use p l a n n i n g . Indeed, i t i s a p p a r e n t l y o u t s i d e the s p e c i f i c j u r i s d i c t i o n of any one p r o f e s s i o n , which may p a r t l y e x p l a i n the l a c k o f f o l l o w e r s . T h i s t h e s i s i s an attempt to e x p l o r e t h i s r a t h e r n e g l e c t e d f i e l d of what i s h e r e i n termed ' s t r e e t use p l a n n i n g ' . C o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n where p e r t i n e n t to the f i r s t two approaches mentioned above, e s p e c i a l l y the c o s t s of s e r v i c i n g . The main f o c u s , however, i s on the use made o f , and environment c r e a t e d by s t r e e t s and the s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s i n them. The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to determine the d e s i g n p o s s i b i l i t i e s and f e a s i b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n proposed p r a c t i c e s of accommodating s t r e e t uses and p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c 6 . services in future local streets of single family residential d i s t r i c t s of Metropolitan Vancouver, in comparison to current practice The proposed practices of accommodating street uses di f f e r from current practices in that each street section would be custom designed to meet the specific needs of the users of i t , particularly the adjacent residents. For example, playing and other forms of recreation would be provided for, while car parking would be accommodated only where, and to the extent needed. Design possibilities for accommodating these uses and creating desirable environments would be considerably greater than in current practice. This is because the services would occupy or affect less of the street and be less rigidly placed than i n current practice, thus freeing space and making flexible the placement of street uses. This would be accomplished by installing most or a l l of the u t i l i t i e s in underground struc-tures specially designed for this purpose, and by placing the structures and pavements in the most advantageous locations in the street. It is primarily for these practices that the f e a s i b i l i t y must be determined. Three basic types of structure with minor variations are considered, called 'trough', 'tunnel', and 'tubed-conduit8, respectively. A l l would form a continuous space or spaces for a l l or most of the ' u t i l i t i e s ' . These are the continuous f a c i l i t i e s of those public services providing such commodities as water, gas and electric power; and such services as telephone and other means of communication; drainage and sewerage. The trough would be open to the surface making the u t i l i t i e s accessible throughout their length. It would be covered by the sidewalk. Tunnels and tubed-condults would be installed at the depth required for the storm drains and sewers. The u t i l i t i e s would be accessible only at intervals via manholes. These structures need not always be under the sidewalk, although there 7. are advantages to this location. Two other cases are considered for a l l three structures — when the drainage and sewerage f a c i l i t i e s are not included in the structure, and when the structures contain only e l e c t r i c a l and communicative u t i l i t i e s . The concepts behind these structures are certainly not new. They are essentially expressions of the principle of economy through integration. In these cases, the main savings are in the costs of excavation and backfilling of trenches for each u t i l i t y eliminated when several u t i l i t i e s are installed together. Troughs under precast concrete 'flagstone' sidewalks have been used for many years in England to carry electric wires, telephone cables, and gas pipes. The famous sewers of Paris can be considered tunnels as defined herein because they have several u t i l i t i e s installed i n them. Ducts or conduits having multiple 'cells' or spaces can be considered tubed-conduits, although they currently carry only e l e c t r i c a l and communicative f a c i l i t i e s . Furthermore, either the prevalence or apparent logic of these concepts is evidenced by queries such as "Why are the wires and things not put under the sidewalk (or in ducts, etc.)?" Such queries most often arise in discussions about under-ground wiring. They are usually raised as Ideas which might yield solutions to one or more of the problems associated with underground wiring. For instance, one problem is the protection of electric wires from damage and people from electrocution by inadvertent contact such as while digging. Several means have been tried to protect wires laid directly in the s o i l to save the cost of conduits, such as covering them with wooden or concrete planks. Since the planks add to the cost of the under-ground wiring, means of protecting wires not involving extra costs are sought, and the idea of using the sidewalk arises. However, this presents the problem that wires laid under 8-. sidewalks make detection and repair of faults more d i f f i c u l t or costly. Much research and experimentation has been and is being undertaken in the United States and Canada to find means of reducing the costs of underground wiring, while maintaining acceptable standards of safety and convenience, so that more wiring w i l l be placed underground. Some efforts have been remarkably successful, and the proportion of wiring being installed underground is increasing steadily. In practically a l l instances, underground wiring s t i l l costs more i n i t i a l l y than overhead wiring, but the difference has been reduced to an amount acceptable to either u t i l i t y companies or developers.^ Some u t i l i t y companies accept a l l or part of the extra costs because underground wiring involves long-term savings due to lower maintenance, repair, and replacement costs. Others accept the extra costs where developers guarantee to i n s t a l l appliances that w i l l consume specified quantities of electric power. Some developers have accepted a l l or part of the extra costs in order to obtain higher prices or easier sales than competitors not installing wiring underground.^ In Metropolitan Vancouver, a few individuals or developers have accepted substantial extra costs for underground wiring in special circumstances, but the u t i l i t y company has neither encouraged nor contributed substantially to underground wiring installations. With some just i f i c a t i o n , the former privately-owned u t i l i t y company argued that people w i l l not bear the extra "There's No Need for Ugly Wirescapes Now That Wires Can be Buried for $100 a Lot," House & Home, vol. XXIV, no. 2 (August 1963), pp. 126-129. ^"Underground Wiring Is a Major Sales Feature of New Florida Community," House & Home, vol. XXII, no. 6 (December 1962) p. 65, and Richmond Gardens Development in the Township of Richmond are examples. 9. costs of underground wiring, and that i t would be unfair for those already served by overhead wiring to subsidize those being served by underground wiring.^» ^ These problems apparently have been resolved satisfactorily in other places mainly by reducing the extra costs of underground wiring. Perhaps the lack of incentive on this score is due to the lack of competition with other suppliers of energy, since the el e c t r i c a l u t i l i t y company also controls the gas service. Considerable research and experimentation also has been undertaken to find new or improved materials, designs, and installing techniques for f a c i l i t i e s of various services in order to reduce their costs, improve their appearance, or improve some other aspect of the service they provide. Examples of new or improved materials are plastic for gas and water pipes, asbestos cement for water pipes and sewers, plastic insulations for wires, and reflectorized metal for signs. New or improved designs are being developed for joints in pipes and sewers, for the manholes giving access to thes% for street lamps and their supports, and for other f a c i l i t i e s or parts thereof. Often new or improved techniques of installing f a c i l i t i e s either result from changes i n materials and design, or make changes in these possible. For example, signs can now be installed easily on metal poles or posts because of new designs for attachment devices, and manholes can be constructed without forms because of precast sections. On the other hand, new techniques of solvent welding for jointing and tapping make i t possible and The B. C. Electric was taken over by the Provincial Government in 1961 and made part of the B. C. Hydro & Power Authority. ^In a release entitled "Views of the B. C. Electric with Respect to Underground Electric Service," (7 June 1956), and a pamphlet "Should Electric Service Wires be Placed Underground?" 10. economical to use plastic pipe. In addition, new techniques can reduce costs so that materials, or designs formerly too expensive can be more widely used. For example, machines which can extrude concrete or asphalt curbs without forms makes curbing of more streets economically>feasible. Nearly a l l such research and experimentation pertaining to single-family residential d i s t r i c t s has been aimed at improving or reducing the cost of installing f a c i l i t i e s of individual or a few related types of services. Probably the most services involved directly in any one project are when underground wiring involves integrated installation of the f a c i l i t i e s of the electric power, street lighting, telephone, and cable-television services. The f a c i l i t i e s of two services are occasionally installed to-gether such as drains and sewers or curbs and sidewalks. But most improvements or changes occur in only one service at a time. This situation is probably a natural consequence of the tendency to specialization since the scope of interest of specialists tends to become limited. Considering for the moment only pavements and u t i l i t i e s , there is specialization in responsibility for the designing and installing of f a c i l i t i e s , and in manufacturing necessary materials and machines, while municipalities have some responsibility of ensuring adequate standards for a l l services, in practice the main responsibility f a l l s on the agency providing the services. Designing of the systems and f a c i l i t i e s of the services provided by municipalities is usually further divided among sections of engineering departments, or may be contracted out to consultants. Installing of f a c i l i t i e s may be done by forces of the agencies responsible, by contractors for them, or by developers. Finally the manufacturers are usually highly specialized as to type of material used, or product or machine produced. Each separate organization strives to reduce its costs 11. while either increasing the quality or usage of the service, or increasing i t s share of the business of providing the service. The aim of the private organizations is the obvious one of increasing profits by reducing costs and by either increasing revenues through serving more customers and improved service for which more can be charged, or by doing more towards provision of the service. The aim of public organizations, where similar comparisons between costs and revenues for specific services cannot be made, is the provision of the most service in terms of quality or extent for the monies available. Whatever research and experimentation that is undertaken by these organizations is geared to their aims. Thus, private telephone and electric power companies seek cheaper installations or expanded services and have the resources to do so. Municipal engineering sections seek less expensive designs for f a c i l i t i e s . Contractors seek faster techniques for installing f a c i l i t i e s . Both usually have limited resources for research. Developers are interested in the total costs of the services they have to i n s t a l l , but like contractors, can only undertake research when they can spread the costs over many miles of serviced roads, and such research is mainly to find faster techniques for installing the services. Manufacturers often spend much money on research, but this is understandably only on their product or material. In these circumstances, perhaps i t is not surprising that l i t t l e research or experimentation involves more than one or two services. A praiseworthy exception to the foregoing general situation is 'Project Dapper', the acronym for Distribution Appearance Engineering Research Project.** This project is a joint undertaking of the Arizona Public Service and General Electric Company directed primarily at overhead distribution °"Total System is Dapper Project Focus," E l e c t r i c a l World. New York, McGraw-Hill, vol. 160, no. 9 (26 August 1963), pp. 47 - 49. 12. lines, poles, and whatever the poles support, but keeping the total system in focus. The approach is especially interesting. Economics are forgotten u n t i l the time of practical application in the hope of accelerating industrial progress.^ Two principles are involved which: ... c a l l for a shifting of mental gears by u t i l i t y men: That the public may not agree with the designer's usual assumption that his functional design is attractive; and that economics can be sacrificed somewhat for appearance.10 Streamlining of overhead distribution f a c i l i t i e s by eliminating such 'dispensable baggage' as crossarms has so far resulted in the best-looking f a c i l i t i e s being the least costly.H In this investigation, an attempt has been made to take a general but comprehensive and imaginative planning approach to the whole problem of street use and servicing. This was done in the belief that this would yield better results than would the sum of detailed specific engineering and financial investigations of each street use and service. By 'better' is meant either less total cost for the same number and quality of street uses and services, or more street uses and services or higher quality at the same cost. Each of the three proposed practices of providing services has been investigated to determine whether i t is better than current practices. Since current practice is far from being homogeneous, i t has been found necessary to describe i t in terms of several ranks of which the most important are best, normal, and worst. To test each of the three proposed practices against these three ranks potentially could involve nine tests. However, only the three relating to best practice have been tested, and the results used to determine the relationships to the other current practices. 13. The testing of the proposed practices consists of determining their f e a s i b i l i t y in relation to current practices. The types of f e a s i b i l i t y considered are functional, physical, social, staging, administrative, p o l i t i c a l , financial, and economic. For a l l but the last type, determination of whether the proposed practices are feasible or not purely from these points of view has been established in relation to current practices in Metropolitan Vancouver or elsewhere. Where addi-tional costs are involved, they are considered in the examination of economic f e a s i b i l i t y . Thus, i f otherwise feasible, the important test is that of economic f e a s i b i l i t y . The specific hypotheses to be tested in this investi-gation are that installing u t i l i t i e s in specially designed underground structures in local residential streets would: a) permit better use and design of such streets than is possible by current servicing practices; b) be feasible (from functional, physical, social, staging, administrative, p o l i t i c a l , financial, and economic points of view) i f comprehensively designed. The scope of this investigation has been limited to future local streets in single-family residential d i s t r i c t s of Metropolitan Vancouver for the reasons outlined below. Future streets, that is streets to be serviced in the future whether legally existing now or not, would allow the maximum f l e x i -b i l i t y in layout of street uses and savings in servicing costs by the proposed practices. Hence, the proposed practices are most likely to be feasible in streets having no services. Local streets are defined herein as those which carry •local' non-through t r a f f i c and 'local' f a c i l i t i e s of a l l services. The latter are the simpler and generally smaller-sized f a c i l i t i e s of the service systems such as those near the beginning of a collection system and end of a distribution 14. system. These are easiest to deal with because of their simplicity, consistency, and greater number — the larger f a c i -l i t i e s in systems tending to be more complex, variable, and fewer in number. Single-family residential d i s t r i c t s are those districts designated by municipal zoning by-laws in which only single-family dwellings and ancilliary structures such as garages and carports can be constructed. Such di s t r i c t s constitute the largest proportion of the total area of a metropolis and of most municipalities, and w i l l constitute the largest proportion of areas to be developed in the future. They also tend to have more street per unit of land use than other types of land uses. Hence, future single-family residential d i s t r i c t s w i l l have the most miles of streets and services. Metropolitan Vancouver has been chosen partly because of it s proximity and familiarity to the investigator, and partly because of i t s range of topographic, s o i l , and climatic condi-tions, and resultant range of servicing practices. Practices outside of this scope are mentioned when they do not occur within i t , but the f e a s i b i l i t y of the proposed practices in relation to them are only discussed briefly in the concluding chapter. / Within the area thus limited, however, the investigation embraces a l l public services to property involving permanent f a c i l i t i e s in streets that currently are or conceivably could be provided by public or private agencies. It covers not only the ordinary, taken-for-granted services, but also some uncommon or rather exotic ones. Thus, besides roads and sidewalks which f a c i l i t a t e access of vehicles and pedestrians to property, consideration is given to services providing pavements to f a c i l i t a t e access by other modes of travel such as by cycle or 15. h o r s e b a c k . A l l u t i l i t i e s o r c o n t i n u o u s f a c i l i t i e s a r e c o n s i -d e r e d . Drainage and sewerage a r e o f prime c o n c e r n . B e s i d e s p i p e s p r o v i d i n g under p r e s s u r e s uch commodities as water and gas , c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o ones p r o v i d i n g such commodities as f u e l o i l . I n a d d i t i o n t o the f a m i l i a r t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e , s uch l e s s common o r w e l l known communicative s e r v i c e s as tho s e p r o v i d i n g f i r e , b u r g l a r y , and a t t a c k a l a r m systems; s t r e e t l i g h t i n g and t r a f f i c c o n t r o l systems a re i n c l u d e d . E l e c t r i c power and s t r e e t l i g h t i n g must o f c o u r s e be i n c l u d e d as i m p o r t a n t u t i l i t i e s , but some c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s a l s o g i v e n t o such an e x o t i c e l e c t r i c s e r v i c e as h e a t i n g o f pavements. While the s e r v i c e s mentioned thus f a r a r e the more o b v i o u s and i n some r e s p e c t s more i m p o r t a n t ones, they r e p r e s e n t o n l y about one h a l f o f those c o n s i d e r e d . The o t h e r s p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s t h a t a r e u s u a l l y s e p a r a t e o r d i s c r e t e ( i . e. non-c o n t i n u o u s ) , and o f t e n f a r - b e t w e e n . Examples a re boxes f o r h o l d i n g l e t t e r s and p a r c e l s f o r c o l l e c t i o n ; m a i l and newspapers f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n ; s h e l t e r s f o r t e l e p h o n i n g from o r w a i t i n g f o r t r a n s i t v e h i c l e s ; and s i g n s , s i g n a l s o r markings i n d i c a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n s , and h a z a r d s . S e r v i c e s which o c c a s i o n a l l y do o r might i n v o l v e f a c i l i t i e s such as garbage c o l l e c t i o n and v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s f o r k e e p i n g s t r e e t s c l e a n and s a f e ( e . g. sweeping, p r u n i n g o f t r e e s ) a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . F i n a l l y , but a t l e a s t second most i m p o r t a n t i n terms o f a r e a and v i s u a l i m p act, a r e what are h e r e i n termed the 'g a r d e n i n g ' s e r v i c e s . These i n c l u d e the p r o v i s i o n o f t r e e s , s h r u b s , g r a s s and o t h e r p l a n t s , and t h e i r maintenance. Some o f the s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d might n ot o r d i n a r i l y be c o n s i d e r e d p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , but ar e c o n s i d e r e d so here because they a r e p r o v i d e d f o r the b e n e f i t o f the p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y , by o r f o r p u b l i c o r q u a s i p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , and a r e m a i n t a i n e d by them. 16. The organization of the thesis is as follows: Chapter I more fully defines the problem and the terms and c r i t e r i a used. Chapter II describes current practice and defines the practices against which the proposed practices are to be evaluated. Proposed designing practices are described and discussed in Chapter III, and proposed installed practices in Chapter IV. These are evaluated in Chapter V. CHAPTER I DEFINITIONS AND CRITERIA: DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURES AND SERVICES INVESTIGATED, AND CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING THEM This chapter is devoted to forging the 'tools' necessary for the purposes of this investigation. These include the basic tools of written communication — the words used. These are defined f i r s t . Then an 'outdoor room analogy' is introduced for use throughout this report to e x p r e s s some uncommon concepts in terms of common experience. The types of u t i l i t y structures and the services being investigated are then described, the latter by a functional classification required in view of the number of services involved. Elements of the public interest have been developed as c r i t e r i a for evaluating street use and servicing practices. Some principles of street use and servicing are stated to avoid repetition of the arguments supporting them. These are followed by a description of 'plan elements' which essentially are various ways of looking at the processes and practices involved. Finally, f e a s i b i l i t y c r i t e r i a relating to each of the plan elements are stated. These are later used for evaluating proposed street use and servicing practices in com-parison to current practices of servicing. I. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED In attempting to discuss various aspects of the many subjects involved in this investigation, i t was found that the problem of communication of meaning was complicated by the plethora of meanings or connotations attached to many of the words relating to the subjects. It is suggested that such lack of definition and common acceptance of explicit meaning is evidence of the lack of disciplined thought in this f i e l d . There are two possible approaches towards a solution of this 18. dilemma. One is to invent new words having explicit meanings, but this necessitates learning a new vocabulary before being able to appreciate what is being conveyed. The other approach is to restrict the meanings, or give special meaning to commonly used words for a particular purpose. With a few exceptions noted below, the second approach has been used in this investi-gation. However, in some instances i t has been considered necessary to introduce modified forms of words to express meanings for which there are no simple terms in common usage. Insofar as possible, without getting too far away from the commonly accepted connotations of the words used, two principles have been followed in establishing the definitions of the terms used in this report. One is that generic terms have been used where convenient to pertain to things of the same kind or class, or when dealing with groups rather than individual items, especially when discussing the characteristics of groups. The application of this principle permits simplification of the general discussion by avoiding the necessity of l i s t i n g a l l items in a group. Also, the undesirable omission of items in the in-terest of brevity or due to the probability of oversight in such a complex discussion is avoided by using generic terms. For example, the term 'access services' covers a l l services f a c i l i -tating access to property regardless of mode of travel. The second principle applied to the definitions is that they should be specific and exclusive. This has led in many instances to the division of a particular aspect of the investi-gation into a definite number of mutually exclusive possibilities ranging from a simple 'either-or' situation up to one involving perhaps twenty poss i b i l i t i e s . In other instances, after specific and exclusive definitions had been assigned to various aspects of a particular f i e l d of interest, there has been •something le f t over'. In such instances the remaining portion 19. usually has been referred to as 'other aspects' of the particular f i e l d where a specific term has not been assigned. For example, the access services are usually divided into 'pedestrian access', 'vehicular access', and 'other access services', where the latter includes other modes of travel such as cycles, horseback, and vehicles with special requirements. The most important application of the second principle is the reduction of the meaning of certain forms of words to one specific meaning in an attempt to avoid confusion. The six forms of key words used and their general meaning are illustrated below for the word 'service'. 1. the i n f i n i t i v e , usually transitive, verb form (to ) expressing an action; e.g. to service a d i s t r i c t means to provide a service or services to the d i s t r i c t . 2. the adjective form (-able. -ible) expressing the condition in which the action is possible and/or practicable; e.g. this d i s t r i c t is too steep and rocky to be serviceable, or this d i s t r i c t is un-serviceable. 3. the verb or noun form ( -ing) expressing the actual performing of the action; e.g. The City is servicing this area; servicing is required in that d i s t r i c t . 4. the noun form ( -er, -or) meaning the person who, the agency or that which performs the action; e.g. the City is the servicer for this d i s t r i c t . 5 . the adjective form ( -ed) indicating the completed performance of the action; e.g. That d i s t r i c t is now completely serviced. 6. the noun form ( -sion. or -ment) expressing the state or condition which exists after the action has been performed; the result of the action; e.g. The servicement of that d i s t r i c t is of a low standard. The term 'servicement' is an example of a word derived or constructed to express concepts, usually of the sixth form, for 20. which t h e r e i s no commonly a c c e p t e d s i m p l e term. On the o t h e r hand, the s i x t h form o f words i n common usage are the ones most o f t e n h e r e i n s t r i p p e d o f one o r more c h i e f meanings. F o r i n s t a n c e , an attempt has been made t o r e s t r i c t the meaning o f words l i k e ' s u b d i v i s i o n * and 'development' t o the s t a t e o r c o n d i t i o n which e x i s t s a f t e r the a c t i o n o f ' s u b d i v i d i n g ' o r ' d e v e l o p i n g ' has been performed. Thus the common c o n n o t a t i o n o f the a c t o f p e r f o r m i n g t h e s e a c t i o n s has been removed and r e l e g a t e d t o the t h i r d o r - i n g form e x c l u s i v e l y . I n the above i l l u s t r a t i o n , the term s e r v i c e has been used i n the g e n e r a l sense c o v e r i n g a l l p u b l i c s e r v i c e b e i n g c o n s i -d e r e d . I n a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n the term i s used more o f t e n i n r e f e r e n c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e . Thus the v a r i o u s forms a r e apt t o appear more o f t e n w i t h an a d j e c t i v e , a d v e r b , o r c l a u s e r e s t r i c t i n g the meaning to the s e r v i c e o r s e r v i c e s i n q u e s t i o n . For example, t o s e r v i c e a d i s t r i c t e l e c t r i c a l l y and w i t h sewers, the d i s t r i c t must be s e r v i c e a b l e e l e c t r i c a l l y and w i t h sewers; the e l e c t r i c a l and sewerage s e r v i c i n g must be done by the e l e c t r i c a l and sewerage s e r v i c e r , and when the d i s t r i c t has been s e r v i c e d e l e c t r i c a l l y and w i t h sewers, the e l e c t r i c a l and sewerage s e r v i c e m e n t s h o u l d be i n s p e c t e d and m a i n t a i n e d t o p r o l o n g i t s u s e f u l l i f e . Two e x c e p t i o n s t o the g e n e r a l approach of r e s t r i c t i n g meanings of commonly used words a r e the terms ' b a r i c ' and ' h o l d i n g ' . Both a r e g e n e r i c terms f o r a number o f s e r v i c e s h a v i n g a common f u n c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t i n c t from o t h e r s e r v i c e s , and o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f o r which t h e r e i s no common term a t p r e s e n t . These terms were s e l e c t e d p a r t l y t o a v o i d r e s t r i c t i n g the meaning of words r e q u i r e d f o r o t h e r purposes and p a r t l y t o f i t i n t o an a l p h a b e t i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e g r o u p s . The ' b a r i c ' s e r v i c e s a r e tho s e s u p p l y i n g commodities t o s i t e o r s t r e e t s t h r o u g h p i p e s under p r e s s u r e . The d i c t i o n a r y 21. defines baric as meaning "of or pertaining to weight, especially of air; barometric". It is used here for services functioning under (non-electric) pressure such as water and gas. The term •holding' pertains to services providing 'holders' in streets in which goods or waste materials are temporarily held for later collection or distribution. The term is deliberately unusual to emphasize the concern with the f a c i l i t i e s provided in streets rather than the collection or delivery aspects of such public services as postal or newspaper distribution. The division of the various aspects discussed in this report into discrete parts, and the specific and exclusive defi-nitions employed in many cases may admittedly seem rather arbitrary. This arbitrariness should be of l i t t l e concern considering the need for consistency and c l a r i t y . Undoubtedly, with more study, the divisions and definitions could be refined to improve consistency and cl a r i t y , or to permit wider applica-tion. These 'tools', i t is hoped, have been refined sufficiently for the job at hand; that of communicating the various aspects, concepts, and ideas discussed. Further refining has been left to others at a later date. Some awkwardness or stiltedness is bound to occur when, as in this report, an attempt is made to introduce consistency in the arrangement of the elements of phrases and in the use of terms or phrases to a language such as English. These departures from normal practice may cause the reader to re-read something that does not 'look right'. Although these stumbling blocks occasionally may be somewhat i r r i t a t i n g , i t is believed that they serve the useful function of making the reader aware that a more specific and precise interpretation than that of common usage is intended. Funk & Wagnalls, Standard Dictionary of the English Language, International Edition, New York, Funk & Wagnalls, 1958; or any 'desk' size dictionary. 2 2 . Key definitions of terms have been introduced as required throughout the report. The ones introduced in the remainder of this section are those necessary to establish the scope of the investigation. They are based upon and abstracted from dictionary definitions, modified as noted in the footnotes. Current Practice versus Proposed Practice Throughout this report, the terms 'current practice' and 'proposed practice' shall be interpreted as distinguishing the prevailing or customary manner in which certain things are done from a manner in which they might be done in the future. These terms have been used particularly with certain of the six forms mentioned above of words such as 'subdivide', 'service','improve•, •control', and •land-develop•. They are also used with the various actions involved in each of these broad processes where the proposed manner in which these actions are performed is significantly different from current practice. The interpre-tation of the distinctions meant by the use of these terms in conjunction with a term such as 'servicing' has been made the subject of later chapters in this report, so that only rather formal definitions are given below in this section. Current practice, actual performance, or application of knowledge (as distinct from theory). including repeated or habitual action, that is commonly acknowledged or accepted, or is a matter of general use. ^  Proposed practice, actual performance, or application of knowledge (as distinct from theory), including repeated or habitual action, that has been propounded or offered (in this report) for consideration or adoption.^ zNoah Webster, Third New Dictionary of the English  Language. unabridged, Springfield, Mass., Merriam (cl961). 3 Ibid., words in parentheses added. 23. Public Services = Personal Services + Property Services The interpretation of the term 'public service' shall be The business of supplying some commodity to any or a l l members of a community or of providing some service where exercise of the calling involves ^ some legal privilege or a natural or virtual monopoly. This term shall be considered the generic term for a l l services of which there are two basic types - services to persons and services to property. Personal services. Personal services, or as they are known more commonly, social services, involve the health, welfare, and social assistance types of services. The f i r e and police protection services are also involved insofar as they pertain to the protection of persons. To avoid the d i f f i c u l t y of establishing this proportion when i t is not crucial to this investigation, these services have been assumed to apply solely to property. The f a c i l i t i e s involved in the provision of the personal services include structures such as hospitals, libraries, and art galleries. These personal services are outside the scope of this investigation. Property services. A property service shall be inter-preted as: The business of supplying some commodity (as gas, ele c t r i c i t y , power, water) to any or a l l properties of a community or of providing some service (as transportation, as by railroad or bus or by pipe line; communication, as by telegraph or telephone....) where exercise of the calling involves some legal privilege or a natural or virtual monopoly.-* The property services together with street uses are the subject of this investigation. Because of their different 24. natures and the consequent need for separate treatment herein, the property services have been segregated into three groups. These are access services, u t i l i t y services (or ' u t i l i t i e s ' ) , and other services. The access services are those providing pavements to f a c i l i t a t e access to and movement between property. The u t i l i t y services shall be interpreted as: those property services requiring permanent continuous f a c i l i t i e s (commonly called ' u t i l i t i e s ' ) installed in a public right-of-way (or easement) in order to make a commodity (as gas, water e l e c t r i c i t y , power), or some service (as communication, as by telephone; o r waste c o l l e c t i o n as by sewers), o t h e r than access services, available to any or a l l properties in a community.6 The third group of 'other services' is comprised of the remaining services - that i s , those that are neither access nor u t i l i t y services - considered in this investigation. Some of these may not ordinarily be considered as public services, or may not ordinarily be provided in local residential streets in Metropolitan Vancouver. However, they have a l l been provided somewhere at sometime in more important streets, other use d i s t r i c t s , or other urban areas and could be provided in local residential streets with modifications where necessary. Before proceeding to a further classification of the services being considered, an analogy useful for this and other purposes in this report is interjected below. II. •OUTDOOR ROOM ANALOGY' Analogies to familiar phenomena are often effective means of expressing views or communicating ideas about less familiar phenomena. It has been deemed helpful for the purposes of this report to supplement explanations or discussions about street use °Derived from above definitions modified by restricting location and excluding access services. 25. and servicing practices by rephrasing them in terms of the more common knowledge or experience relating to rooms or houses. The street is considered as an outdoor room whose floor is the pavement or other horizontal surfaces, whose walls are the facades of adjoining buildings, and whose ceiling is the sky or overhead wiring, and whose furnishings are the various f a c i l i t i e s installed in them. This concept and the related one of 'street furniture' are not new. They were used by Peter Oberlander in an eloquent plea for better design of the visual aspects of streets based on a case study of streets in Vancouver.? The concept has merely been broadened, refined, and changed in emphasis somewhat for the purposes of this investigation. It has been broadened to give more consideration to what is under the floor. Thus, the wires and pipes of the various property services can be thought of i n terms of their counterparts in buildings. The 'street' furnishings' concept has been refined to segregate several types of street furnishings of which furniture is but one. Finally, the emphasis has been changed from an essentially static descriptive analogy to one also considering functional relation-ships and processes involved in producing the furnished street. For example, processes of installing services in streets are described in terms of house building operations. Also, the principles and problems of the various property services can be expressed in terms of the familiarity people have with building services. For example, the problem of locating discharges from water mains or buried cables can be likened to that of finding a leak in the water system or a short c i r c u i t in the e l e c t r i c a l system of a house. 'Peter Oberlander, "Furnishing the Street," Community  Planning Review. Ottawa, Community Planning Association of Canada, vol. I, no. 4 (November 1951), pp. 118-128* 26. The 'outdoor room 1 analogy i s used thr o u g h o u t the remainder of t h i s r e p o r t where i t i s deemed h e l p f u l i n e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e p t s , p r o c e s s e s , and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s c o n t i n u i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y i s c o n s i d e r e d p r e f e r a b l e t o s e p a r a t e a n a l o g i e s t h a t might be more a p p r o p r i a t e i n s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s , because the p a r t s can more e a s i l y be f i t t e d i n t o the whole p i c t u r e and be seen i n t h e i r p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e . I I I . TYPES OF UTILITY STRUCTURES INVESTIGATED Three b a s i c types o f underground s t r u c t u r e s f o r u t i l i t i e s have been i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t degrees of i n t e g r a t i o n -a t o t a l o f n i n e p o s s i b l e types o f u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s . The t h r e e b a s i c types are t r o u g h s , t u n n e l s , and t u b e d - c o n d u i t s . The t h r e e degrees of i n t e g r a t i o n a r e : complete which i s termed ' a l l -u t i l i t y ' ; complete e x c e p t f o r d r a i n a g e f a c i l i t i e s termed 'non-d r a i n a g e ' ; and h a v i n g o n l y e l e c t r i c a l and communicative s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s termed ' e l e c t r i c a l ' f o r the sake of b r e v i t y . These n i n e p o s s i b l e types o f s t r u c t u r e s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d on Diagram 1. on the f o l l o w i n g page. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n shape are p o s s i b l e . F o r example, t u n n e l s c o u l d be square o r r e c t a n g u l a r i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n i n s t e a d o f round. However, the t y p e s i l l u s t r a t e d a r e t y p i c a l and c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t the range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s . They a r e not t o be c o n s i d e r e d m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e i n the sense t h a t o n l y one type would be used i n a system. F o r example, an a l l - u t i l i t y t r o u g h might r u n a l o n g the s t r e e t , a n o n - d r a i n a g e t u b e d - c o n d u i t a c r o s s the s t r e e t , and an e l e c t r i c a l t u n n e l t o houses. The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t r o u g h s are t h a t they a r e open t o the s u r f a c e and c o v e r e d by a w a l k , thus making u t i l i t i e s a c c e s s i b l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r l e n g t h w i t h o u t manholes. In e f f e c t , they a r e l i n e d t r e n c h e s ; the l i n i n g b e i n g o f c o n c r e t e e i t h e r c a s t i n p l a c e o r p r e c a s t . The c o v e r i n g walk would be 27. TYPES OF STRUCTURES | T T T T ^ T T T " T r T f i.LL- U x 11,11 X 7 1 : r ELECTRICAL ( " l i n e d t r e none -open t o sur-faoif - u t i l i t i e s c o m p l e t e l y acee s s i b l e -covered by s i d e w a l k - p r e c a s t c o n c r e t e ^9 TUNNELS * u n d e r g r o u n d between man-h o l e s - u t i l i t i e 3 a c c e « ? i b l e o n l y •°.t man-h o l e s - p r e c a st c o n e r e te NOTE: c o u l d a l : be square o r r e c t a n g u l a r I n c r o s s - s': c t i on, I . e . d u c t I n -s t e a d o f tube rUBED-COXDUIT! •underground between nan-h o l e s e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l t u b e d - c o n d u i t • u t i l i t i e s a c c e s s i b l e o n l y at manholes e l e c t r i c a l t u b e d - c o n s u l t forms s i d e w a l k , o t h e r s may ?.lso o r be under s i d e w a l k e x t r u d e d o r DJ.AU.'. 1. Til"; 0? P R O P O S E D U T I L I T Y S T R U C T U R E S 28. precast in sections. Tunnels are completely underground structures forming one continuous open space between manholes, so the u t i l i t i e s are accessible only at manholes. They could be cast in place, or more likely precast. Tubed-conduits are similar to tunnels in that they require manholes to provide access to the u t i l i t i e s , but have several separate spaces or •tubes'. Also, the e l e c t r i c a l tubed-conduit need not be under-ground. It could serve as a sidewalk, or looking at i t the other way, the sidewalk could contain tubes for wires and c a b l e s . S u c h a structure and a l l trough covers must be strong enough to carry vehicles at driveway crossings or be specially strengthened there. The depth of the bottoms of structures depends upon the u t i l i t i e s contained. Indeed, the degrees of integration could be thought of as resulting in structures that are deep, inter-mediate, and shallow, respectively. The a l l - u t i l i t y types are deepest because of the drainage u t i l i t i e s which must be below inlets in buildings and on sites to receive waste fluids from them by gravity flow.^ The depth of non-drainage structures is dependent upon two considerations; namely the protection of the structure from damage and baric u t i l i t i e s from freezing. Damage is only likely under roads. It is probably only a problem in the case of the tunnel because the tubed-conduit would be quite strong and the trough would have to be specially strengthened whenever crossing a road. The serious problem of baric u t i l i -ties freezing in underground spaces is dealt with under discussion of functional feasibility.1° o Connections would require some form of lined space beneath the e l e c t r i c a l tubed-conduit, although i t may not be a manhole in the sense that a man could get into i t . ^This assumes the ordinary condition where sump pumps or force drains (i.e. under pressure) are not involved. l^see page 161. 29. For present purposes, i t has been assumed that the depth of baric u t i l i t i e s could be the same as when installed in the ground i f the manholes are completely covered (i.e. no holes). The depth of el e c t r i c a l tunnels (and tubed-conduits i f Installed underground) Is dependent only upon consideration of potential damage. IV. CLASSIFICATION OF SERVICES The number and variety of property services that can be Installed in streets to-day is quite surprising* One's f i r s t impression Is that there are relatively few, but 'ticking them o f f on the fingers may yield a dozen or so. Closer scrutiny of what is actually in streets yields many more. The exact number is unimportant and depends upon what one is willing to accept as a separate service. Almost forty 'services' are considered herein, but some of these actually represent groups of what might be considered separate services, so the total could be perhaps twice that many. Such numbers and variety are unmanage-able without classification. The services have been classified by relevant functional characteristics into ten groups to which have been assigned generic terms expressing the purpose or functional characteristic of the group of services. Except for the last group which is somewhat different from the others, the principal f a c i l i t i e s of these services have also been assigned generic terms. These service groups, the services in them, and their principal f a c i l i t i e s are summarized in Table I on the following page and discussed more fu l l y below. They are roughly in descending order of importance. The space devoted to each is not proportionate to importance because, as is often the case, the unusual and unfamiliar require the most explanation. 29a. TABLE I. CLASSIFICATION OF SERVICES AND THEIR FACILITIES OTHER SERVICES: ACCESS SERVICES: Pavements: Vehicular Pedestrian Other access: Cycle Equestrian Emergency veh. Transit UTILITIES: BARIC SERVICES: Water Gas Other baric: Fuel o i l Steam roads walks paths: eye le bridle emerg. transit Pipes: Cables: COMMUNICATIVE SERVICES: Telephone Cable television T.V.cable & radio Other communicative: Fire alarm * Burglary alarm * Traffic control * Telegraph * DRAINAGE SERVICES:Drains: Storm drainage * Sanitary drainage * (or sewerage) (or sewer) ELECTRICAL SERVICES: Wires: Power * Street lighting * Other el e c t r i c a l : Trolley bus * Heating * FURNISHING SERVICES: Furniture Finishes Finishes Other furnishing: Decorations Ornaments Decorative Lighting GARDENING SERVICES: Planting services HOLDING SERVICES: Collection holding Distribution holding Furnishings: benches, fences, shelters, cabinets, floor & wall surfaces banners, etc. statues, pools, floodlights, etc. Plants: trees, shrubs, flowers, grass, ground covers. Holders: letter, parcel boxes mail, newspaper INDICATING SERVICES: Indicators Informative Regulatory Demarcative Advertising KEEPING SERVICES: Services keeping f a c i l i t i e s : in sound condition functioning clean and tidy signs signs, signals markings signs such as: roads roads, pipes road8, drains * Same term as for service, e.g. Other keeping services water pipes 30. The f i r s t class of services is the access one whose services f a c i l i t a t e access to property abutting a street by providing pavements upon which people and vehicles or other modes of travel can move easily to and into each property from others, or wait to do so. They include vehicular, pedestrian, and other access services for modes of travel such as cycle, horseback, transit and emergency vehicles. These provide respectively roads, walks, and paths such as cycle, bridle, and special paths for transit or emergency vehicles. These are analogous to driveways and walks or hallways giving access to a room. The next four classes of services are the u t i l i t y ser-vices or u t i l i t i e s which have continuous f a c i l i t i e s installed in streets to provide commodities or services to property or remove waste products from i t . They are the baric, communicative, drainage, and elec t r i c a l services. The baric or pressure services are those which supply commodities to property or streets through pipes under pressure. They include the services supplying water, gas, and other commo-dities such as fuel o i l or steam. Their pipes and other fittings are analogous to those in buildings. For example, a f i r e hydrant can be thought of as a street hose bibb or tap. The communicative services are those which make possible several types of communication by installing cables and related f a c i l i t i e s in streets. The most important of these is the telephone service, but the cable-television and cable radio services are becoming important in areas having poor reception. The other communicative services are the alarm, control, and telegraph services. The alarm services communicate alarms about f i r e , burglary, attack by enemy action, radiation, or toxic gas. See page 20. for explanation and definition of the term 'baric'. The control services communicate impulses to control remotely such conditions as illumination, temperature, moisture, and t r a f f i c flow. These are analogous to such household services as those providing •intercom', closed-circuit television, and f i r e or .burglary alarm systems between rooms or parts of a building.. The drainage services are those which collect and remove storm water and sewage by gravity flow through drains and consist only of the storm drainage and sanitary drainage (or sewerage) services. The f a c i l i t i e s of these services are analogous to similar household services. For example, the curb-gutter, grating, and lateral to the street storm drain are like the eavestrough or roof gutter, screen, and downspout on houses. The road is formed with crests and valleys just like a roof, only the slopes are less obvious. The sanitary drain or sewer is like that in buildings except that there are few 'stacks' or ve r t i c a l sewers and no vents since manholes serve the functions performed by these f a c i l i t i e s . The e l e c t r i c a l services are those supplying ele c t r i c i t y through wires as a source of power for private purposes, light for streets, and light, heat, and electric charge for certain other public purposes. They are analogous to the house wiring and(built-in) lighting systems. The remaining five classes of services are collectively termed 'other services' as distinct from the access class and u t i l i t i e s group. They have l i t t l e i n common except that when f a c i l i t i e s are involved, they are generally small and discrete (i.e . not continuous like u t i l i t i e s ) . The classes of services included are furnishing, gardening, holding, indicating, and keeping services. The furnishing services are those which enhance the environment of which the street forms an important part, and 32. make the street more livable by providing furnishings. Street furniture, finishes, and such other furnishings as decorations, ornaments, and decorative lighting, which are described in terms of analogous household furnishings, are considered. For example, street furniture includes benches, fences, and cabinets which are analogous to couches, playpens, and bu i l t - i n cabinets in the house. Similarly, finishes on the 'floor' and 'walls' of the streets, decorations, and ornaments, can be related to those in houses. The gardening services are those concerned with instal-ling and caring for plants in streets. Trees and grass are the most important plants because of their prominence and the coverage of the latter, which is second only to pavements. The planting services i n s t a l l trees, grass, shrubs, flowers, and such ground covers as ivy and moss. The plant care services maintain plants by pruning, mowing, watering and such operations as f e r t i l i z i n g , spraying, and weeding. These services are comparable to the planting of and caring for plants indoors except for grass and ground covers. The latter two are analogous in terms of function to the portions of a floor not covered by carpet since the pavement, like the carpet, is ordinarily used for movement. Unfortunately, some confusion may arise because of the common metaphor likening grass to a carpet on the basis of textures which are reversed for f a c i l i t i e s analogous functionally. The holding services are those providing holders for the temporary storage of goods or waste materials for later col-lection or distribution and use. The services have been arbitrarily s p l i t into two groups - those holding for collection and those for distribution. The concern here is with the f a c i l i t y installed in the street and not the collection and distribution or delivery aspects of the services involved. Analogous f a c i l i t i e s in houses are bags or containers in kitchens 33. holding garbage, later 'collected' and taken to a can in the lane; and boxes holding milk or mail later 'distributed' to refrigerator and recipient. T n e indicating services are those providing indicators such as signs, signals, and markings to indicate information, regulations, demarcations, and advertisements of various types by words, symbols, and other means. The information includes names and numbers of streets, blocks, buildings, and routes; directions to specific places, and other facts. Regulations include those governing vehicular and pedestrian movement. Demarcations indicate boundaries of movement ways or hazards. Advertisements indicate names of the Installer or manufacturer of f a c i l i t i e s , property for sale, events, and products for sale. There are few analogous f a c i l i t i e s in houses because there is not the same need for them. Room name and direction signs are not required because residents know them and guests can ask. They are required in buildings such as hospitals, which also exhibit most other types of indicative f a c i l i t i e s . Certain f a c i l i t i e s within houses and from house to house are somewhat better standardized than comparable street f a c i l i t i e s . For example, one of the rare instances of an informative service in a household is the 'H' indicating the hot water tap. Position-ing this to the l e f t of the cold tap is so well standardized in North America that reversed positioning usually requires special warning si g n s . ^ On the other hand, i t could be argued that many poorly designed houses should be better served with indicators of hazards, including embarassment for those un-familiar with room layout or faulty locks. Some houses during such social gatherings as cocktail parties seemingly would benefit from t r a f f i c signals! ^ T h i s is not the case in Europe where an English speaking person has the additional d i f f i c u l t y in France of remembering that 'C» means hot (sometimes). 34. The keeping services are those which have no f a c i l i t i e s in streets, but keep f a c i l i t i e s of other services in states of sound physical condition, proper functional condition, and cleanliness and tidyness. They involve some highly specialized equipment whose requirements and limitations should be taken into account in the design of the f a c i l i t i e s of other services. The operations involved have their counterpart in the house. Sweeping and flushing roads are obvious examples. Patching holes in pavement is like replacing damaged floor t i l e s . Repairing leaks in pipes or wires involves similar operations. An exception is meter-reading, one of the other keeping services. The whole range of services in each of these ten functional classes and their respective f a c i l i t i e s are more fully discussed in the following chapter. V. ELEMENTS OF THE PUBLIC INTEREST AS CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING STREET USE AND SERVICING PRACTICES The public interest is a determinant of street use and servicing practices in the same sense that Chapin shows i t to be a determinant of land use.^ AS he points out, the public interest "connotes the notion of control ... not only in the conventional action sense of imposing regulatory measures, passing on street and u t i l i t y locations, ... but also in the preaction sense which is involved in the city planning process i t s e l f " . 1 4 By treating elements of the public interest as abstrac-tions, they can be used as c r i t e r i a in evaluating street use and servicing practices in terms of the control exercised over them 1 J F . Stuart Chapin, Jr., Urban Land Use Planning. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1957, pp. 40-56. Ibid.. p. 41 35. by the public. Consequently, Chapin's 'elements of the public interest' have been used as a basis for such c r i t e r i a with appropriate modifications for the purposes of this investi-gation. As with Chapin, the concern here is with the public interest in land development, particularly that public action seeking to assure soundness and l i v a b i l i t y using soundness in the financial sense, and l i v a b i l i t y to refer broadly to those qualities in the physical environment ... which tend to induce in citizens a feeling of mental, physical and social well-being according to the extent to which their fundamental day-to-day living needs and wants are satisfied.15 Elements of the Public Interest In a restricted sense, a barometer of what is generally held to be the limits of the public interest is provided by the courts. According to Chapin, The public interest is frequently used in law to refer to what the courts w i l l sanction as a public purpose, whether under the police power, the power of eminent domain, or the power of taxation. For example, health welfare, morals, and safety have become generally recognized tests of the public interest in American jurisprudence. Convenience, comfort, and prosperity are sometimes cited, but are less frequently allowed by the courts and usually only in combination with the other four tests.16 Chapin points out that the public interest concept in a legal sense, as indicated by the history of court actions, is an evolving one. It tends ... to broaden in time as new elements become more generally sanctioned in a cultural context, but also tending to lag behind their social acceptance.! 7 15 i b i d . 41 16 Ibid.. p. 42 17 Ibid. 36. He then states that for planning purposes, ... a more advanced concept of the public interest is warranted, one which builds on the legal tests but which seeks forward-looking guideposts taken directly from the social currents of the times. In land use planning, the purposes usually identified with the public interest are five: health, safety, convenience, economy, and amenity.1® He emphasizes that "in the context of land use planning each of the five public purposes has broader meaning than that ascribed to i t by the courts alone".^ Chapin's interpretation of the elements of the public interest has been accepted generally but modified for the purposes of this investigation. Much of his interpretation applies to land use, and is either ignored here or transposed to street use or servicing. The major modification is the addition of a sixth element, welfare. This includes the welfare, and to a lesser extent the morals aspects included in court tests of public interest which Chapin partially covers in his broadened elements. These aspects are considered more important for street use than land use and warrant separate consideration. Also, Chapin's interpretation is too general for present pur-poses, BO specific definitions are stated below» Each criterion can be expressed positively as a state or condition, or negatively as a 'freedom from' an undesirable state or occurrence. Stated positively, the states or condi-tions are abstractions that can be neither defined precisely nor subjected to evaluation. On the other hand, the states or occurrences i t is desirable to be free from can be stated f a i r l y easily in a manner that leaves l i t t l e room for misin-terpretation. Also, s t a t i s t i c a l data and other information pertaining to these c r i t e r i a are inherently of the negative form of recording when persons have not been free from certain 1 8Chapin, 0 £ . c i t . , p. 42 1 9 l b i d . 37. undesirable conditions or occurrences. For example, health is measured in terms of the absolute number of sicknesses or deaths or the number in relation to a unit of population (usually 1000). Similarly, safety is considered in terms of accident rates. Convenience and amenity as Interpreted herein can be measured in terms of the number of complaints. In view of these consider-ations, the negative type of interpretation follows the positive type based on dictionary definitions. Several of the definitions are further amplified by statements of the c r i t e r i a considered tests of an adequate environment by the Housing Committee of the American Public Health Association. 2 0 Each definition is followed by a reference of the criteria's relative importance for the various services. Public Health; 1. The health of a community. 2. Freedom from disease, infection, etc. 3. Protection against contagion and provisions for maintenance of cleanliness. This criterion i s important for the water, sewerage, and storm drainage services particularly, and to a lesser extent for gas, gardening and keeping services, but is relatively unimportant for the others. Public Safety: 1. State or condition of being safe or of giving confidence. 2. Freedom from danger, harm, loss, and anxiety or fear. 3. Protection against accident hazards. The public safety criterion applies to a l l services, but the importance varies considerably. It is most important for the access and electrical services. zuCommittee on the Hygiene of Housing, American Public Health Association, Planning the Neighbourhood. Public Administration Service, 1948, p. v i i ; cited by Chapin, pj>. c i t . . p. 43. 38. Public Convenience: 1. State or quality of being convenient, as of place, time, etc. 2. Freedom from discomfort or trouble as would be caused by an interruption in the provision of a service, or obstruction to i t s use. This criterion applies to a l l services; i t s importance depending upon the frequency, duration, and intensity of the discomfort or trouble resulting from the interruption or obstruction. Public Economy: 1. Quality or state of being efficient in terms of municipal expenditures and cost to the user of the services. 2. Freedom from excessive municipal expenditure and freedom from excessive cost to the user of the services. This criterion, in effect, has been treated as the measure of various means of obtaining a given attainment of the other c r i t e r i a and is discussed more fully later. Public Amenity: 1. Quality or state of being pleasant or agreeable. 2. Freedom from ugliness. 3. Provision of possibilities for reasonable aesthetic satisfaction. This criterion is involved in a l l visible f a c i l i t i e s of the property services. Public Welfare: 1. The condition of faring well; well-being. 2. Freedom from pain or discomfort; prosperity. 3. Provision of adequate daylight, sunshine, and ventilation. Protection against excessive noise and atmospheric pollution. Provision of adequate privacy and opportunities for normal family and community l i f e , and protection against moral hazards. This criterion covers discomfort or trouble caused indirectly or by partial failure of a service, and long-run health considerations 39. such as effects of continued conditions of inadequate sunshine and ventilation or excessive noise and atmospheric pollution. It is also a 'catch-all 1 for relatively minor aspects not f i t t i n g neatly into any of the other categories. For example, when pedestrians are splashed by vehicles, their health, con-venience, and economy may be adversely affected through the danger of wearing wet clothes and the bother;and.cost of cleaning same. VI. PRINCIPLES OF STREET USE AND SERVICING Certain other measures or c r i t e r i a have been used in this investigation to evaluate street use and servicing practices that are based upon what are herein referred to as principles of such practices. These are statements of conclusions about certain relevant matters whioh are essentially judgements — perhaps value judgements in some cases — on the part of the investigator. They ought to be acceptable i f the premises or assumptions they are based upon are granted. The principles, premises and the measures or c r i t e r i a are discussed below with examples where considered helpful. They are presented here for convenience of reference and to avoid repetition of the reasoning involved„ Principle of Integration The principle of integration is that sharing of common f a c i l i t i e s or operations by two or more services is better in terms of cost and appearance than installing them independently. Certain types of ancillary f a c i l i t i e s such as supports and conduits, and certain operations such as excavating and back-f i l l i n g are required for several services and can sometimes be shared by two or more of them. When a f a c i l i t y installed or an operation carried out for one service has been shared by others, the need for additional independent f a c i l i t i e s or operations for these other services has been eliminated. Thus, the total costs 40. are reduced. The saving can be shared by a l l of the services involved through those services sharing another's f a c i l i t y or operation rebating part of their saving. When support f a c i l i t i e s have been eliminated by integration the resultant appearance is also usually better than would be the case with independent supports. For example, poles supporting trolley wires also support street lights; t r a f f i c signals and their control boxes; f i r e alarm, police and transit supervisor's c a l l boxes; some of the wiring and cabling necessary for a i l of the foregoing including e l e c t r i c a l supply wires for the trolley wires; street name,traffic and parking regulation signs; letter and newspaper boxes, and street decorations; While some of these f a c i l i t i e s such as street decorations would probably not be installed i f partial support were not already available, most have been and often s t i l l are installed on independent supports. Although many of our major streets are visually cluttered with trolley and other overhead wiring, the overall appearance of them i f a l l of the above-mentioned f a c i l i t i e s were on independent supports would be far worse. Unplanned integration however, can produce results that are unattractive and a disservice in that individual f a c i l i t i e s become ineffective. This situation occurs at many intersections of major streets where, as Mr. Oberlander points out, the t r a f f i c signals piled on top of one another create "... a veritable Christmas tree with glittering toys hanging on i t a l l year round and the multiplicity of signs cause confusion and diminish each other's value". x The degree of integration involved in the various ser-vicing practices being investigated w i l l be evaluated in relation 21 Peter Oberlander, "Furnishing the Street," Community  Planning Review. Ottawa, Community Planning Association of Canada, vol. 1, no. 4 (November 1951), p. 123. 41. to what is considered feasible. Feasibility of integration, whenever possible, has been based upon acceptance in practice in areas of Metropolitan Vancouver, in other places, or in com-parable circumstances. Principle of Payment for Benefit The principle of payment for benefit is simply that those, and only those who benefit from use of local streets and ser-vices, should pay for them in proportion to their benefit. This principle should be acceptable on the basis of such principles as equity, fairness, and justice, and may seem to not need stating. However, the principle is not followed in some instances and must be defined to enable evaluation of departures from i t . The principle can not be rigorously applied to a l l benefits because of the twin d i f f i c u l t i e s of placing values on some intagible, infrequent, and highly subjective benefits, and of finding means of collecting payment for them. Some can be transposed to benefits of those for whom methods of payment are available. For example, a tourist (i.e. a non-resident) benefits from street name signs, pavements and other f a c i l i t i e s in finding his way, driving to, and parking in front of the dwelling he is vi s i t i n g . It would be d i f f i c u l t to assess and collect for these benefits from the tourist. Such benefits could be trans-posed into benefits that the owner of the dwelling derives from the visitor's presence, and for which he is willing to pay a share of the cost of the f a c i l i t i e s through property taxes, albeit a small one. The benefit that commercial, industrial, and other activities derive from the consumers or employees on local streets is reflected in the value of the land upon which the activities are located. Indeed, the land value could be thought of as being proportional to the length of local streets within 42. the activity's zone of influence. Thus a portion of the cost of the f a c i l i t i e s on the street which assist in getting to or otherwise dealing with the activities (e.g. telephone and postal service), could be charged to the land value of the site of the activity. A similar argument could be made when the activity actually uses the street such as for delivery of merchandise, although licences and fuel taxes are the more common source of payment for such benefits. A l l such indirect benefits are outside the scope of this investigation. The concern here is with the more important and direct benefits that are, or can be derived when services are provided in or through a street. These are the benefits to users of abutting sites, which in this investigation are the dwellers in single family residences. The benefit is almost n i l when no services are available since the land cannot be used without them. Some benefit can be derived when vehicular access service is provided because the site can be used for recreational purposes such as picnics, for exercise from clearing operations, or for supplying firewood or other natural products. Benefit from being able to live on the site usually can be derived only when water service is available, and often only when drainage, e l e c t r i c a l , and perhaps sewerage services are available. Benefit increases as other services are made available. The f u l l benefit of services such as planting trees may not be derived for some years. Potential benefits are reflected in land value which is practically n i l without services, tends to jump significantly when vehicular access and water services are provided, and continues to rise as other services are provided. Land values also seem to be higher or to be held longer than in otherwise comparable areas where there are ample full-grown trees. However, this is d i f f i c u l t to prove because of other factors 4 3 . tending to affect land values such as quality and condition of housing, social prestige value, and changes in use (e.g. conversion from single-family to multi-dwellings). In general then, land values are a good indicator of potential benefit to be derived from services and a just means of apportioning at least their costs of installation. Potential and/or actual benefit is often paid for on a local improvement basis. This consists either of an equal tax on each site, or more usually a tax related to the length of site frontage on the street, with special provisions for corner and odd-shaped sites. Such taxes follow the payment for benefit principle for the part paid directly, but usually a portion is paid by the municipality out of general revenue.^ Thus, for example, people in areas without adequate street lighting are contributing to the expense of adequate lighting in other areas. These are usually the less and more wealthy respectively because of their relative willingness to pay extra taxes. Since only so much is budgeted each year for services such as street lighting, improved lighting tends to be installed mainly in wealthy areas where people are willing to pay for i t . This contributes to the feeling of people in the low income areas that they are getting less and paying more since they see services deteriorate while property taxes rise. A policy based upon need would probably concentrate street lighting expenditures in the areas in which various social problems such as juvenile delinquency are concentrated, possibly Assuming this is paid out of Property Tax revenue (i.e . that other revenues are used for other purposes) about half of this comes from other people's improvements. This is because while land is taxed at 100 percent of assessed value and improvements at only 50 percent (by most municipalities), improvements are worth about twice as much in total. 4 4 . at the expense of other works programs such as roads. Such improvements in service might not be reflected in land value increases. However, they could be ju s t i f i e d on the grounds that taxes on the relatively high land values (on a front footage basis) in these areas had been paid for many years since the original f a c i l i t i e s had been paid for. Actual benefits accruing to the user of a service should be paid for by the user in proportion to either the costs he entails or the proportion he uses. Thus, charges for service connections from the street f a c i l i t y to the dwelling, and service charges on amount of commodities such as water, gas, el e c t r i c i t y , consumed, can be jus t i f i e d on the basis of the payment for benefit principle. Flat rate charges for use of such services as water and telephone can be justifi e d on this principle only to the extent that there are different rates for different classes of users based on average usages. Since the difference from the average of values within a group can be more than those between group averages, high users can in effect be sub-sidized by low users. Also, high users tend to be wealthy people who own swimming pools, automatic washing machines and multiple or private phones, whereas the low users tend to be those not able to afford such luxuries. However, complete rectification of these inequities would necessitate metering a l l service usage at a cost liable to result in increased service charges to everyone, including the low users. Hence, the best that can be done is to keep charges reasonably representative by having many segregated groups with frequent checks of average usage, and by installing meters on exceptionally heavy users such as those with swimming pools. Taxes on 'improvements' to sites such as houses, garages, and paved driveways are not considered by this investigator to be equitable sources of payment for the benefit from the 45. services. They bear no relation to the cost of the f a c i l i t i e s installed in streets as do taxes on land values because services must go by a site whether improved or not. They provide a poor basis of financing services because the number and value of improvements to be constructed in a given area is uncertain. If sites remain unimproved for some time, an unfair burden is placed on owners of other land or improvements. Improvements also do not necessarily reflect use as well as do service charges, although owners of the more valuable houses tend to also own luxuries resulting in higher usage of some services. However, there are significant exceptions to this general tendency such as in blighted areas where the assessed Improvement values are depreciated the maximum amount while usage of services has increased because more people are crowded into the area.23 The most serious departure from the payment for benefits principle, in the opinion of this investigator, occurs when those subdividing land into sites for houses do not pay for the services required for the area. While subdividers as such do not benefit from the use of any services, (other than perhaps vehicular access), they benefit in the price they receive for lots sold from the portion of the value attributable to the services that have been or that are expected to be installed.24 When the subdivider has paid for installation of the services, he receives from the purchaser of the lot payment for the benefits It should be noted that taxes on improvements would not accord with the 'ability to pay1 c r i t e r i a (considered only indirectly herein) in such cases either, since slum landlords are wealthy in proportion to the extent to which they let their properties depreciate and to which they crowd in people. But land values in such areas tend to be relatively high. 24 If they are also builders, they may benefit from use of services during construction and in display houses, but pay service connection and other service charges and property taxes prior to selling property. 46. that the purchaser w i l l derive. When he has not paid for them, he receives an unearned increment in that he did nothing to add this portion of the value. This increment is theoretically equal to the reduction in price that buyers would demand to prevent in effect paying for the services a second time through taxes. Except for any local improvement taxes however, the buyer is unaware of increased taxes due to the municipality having installed the services he w i l l benefit from, because i t has been spread over a l l taxpayers and is small for each one. The burden of a l l such taxes accumulated over the time required to pay for the installation of the service, f a l l s mainly on the majority who do not benefit from the service. This surely is a gross injustice when the subdivider may have received the equivalent of f u l l benefit without paying anything. It should be noted that when required to pay for services, subdividers cannot necessarily raise prices to cover the added costs, because of market resistance. They may have to reduce their profit margin, what they pay for raw land, or both. The effect of increased service costs on raw land values can be seen in Table II. TABLE II. Land Values - Municipality of Richmond*^ Sewers not required Where sewers required 1954 $1,000 per acre 1958 $2,200 to $5,000 per acre 1959 $2,200 to $5,000 per acre $1,000 to $1,200 per acre Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Countryside  to Suburb. New Westminster, L. M. R. P. B., 1961. (Supplementary Study 3 to Land for Living). p. 7; quoting Vancouver Real Estate Board, Real Estate and Business Trends. 1961, Vancouver, p. F-7. 4 7 . P r i n c i p l e of Maximum B e n e f i t The p r i n c i p l e of maximum b e n e f i t i s that the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i s best served when a l l f a c i l i t i e s to be i n s t a l l e d i n s t r e e t s are i n s t a l l e d immediately p r i o r to occupation of a l l of the d w e l l i n g s being served. F a c i l i t i e s i n s t a l l e d f o r some p e r i o d s p r i o r to oc c u p a t i o n of a l l d w e l l i n g s t h a t could be ser v e d , means that some p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t from the s e r v i c e s has not been r e a l i z e d . S i m i l a r l y , f a c i l i t i e s i n s t a l l e d some time a f t e r o c c u p a t i o n of d w e l l i n g s being served means that some b e n e f i t has not been d e r i v e d from these s e r v i c e s . N e i t h e r are i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . The former l o s s of b e n e f i t c o n s t i t u t e s a waste of resources i n c l u d i n g the land i n unused s i t e s , the land i n s t r e e t s , and the f a c i l i t i e s not r e q u i r e d to serve the occupied d w e l l i n g s i f they were i n a compact development. Looking a t i t another way, the people who could have occupied these unused s i t e s r e q u i r e e q u i v a l e n t resources of land and s e r v i c e s elsewhere. Where the f a c i l i t i e s have been i n s t a l l e d by the s u b d i -v i d e r and any maintenance c o s t s are paid f o r out of taxes on la n d , the waste i s a t the expense of the landowner. Other s e r v i c i n g and t a x a t i o n p o l i c i e s tend to s h i f t the expense to oth e r s who cannot b e n e f i t from the s e r v i c e s and thus reduce the pres s u r e on the landowner to u t i l i z e the s i t e . T h e r e f o r e , i t may remain unused f o r many years i n some cases. The o t h e r l o s s of b e n e f i t i s c o n t r a r y to the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h a t d e l a y i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n r e s u l t s i n r e d u c t i o n i n convenience at l e a s t , i n amenity and s a f e t y f r e q u e n t l y , i n h e a l t h and w e l f a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y , and i n economy p r a c t i c a l l y always. The l a t t e r i s due p a r t l y to the waste of expenditure on temporary f a c i l i t i e s (e.g. s e p t i c t a n k s ) , p a r t l y to the e x t r a c o s t s of i n s t a l l i n g s e r v i c e s a f t e r roads have been paved and lawns p l a n t e d , and p a r t l y because of r i s i n g c o s t s . B e n e f i t from such f a c i l i t i e s as t r e e s may be i n s i g n i f i c a n t 4 8 . immediately after being installed and only partial for some time thereafter i f saplings are planted. The loss in benefit of either type could be expressed in terms of 'service years'. A means of weighting and summing the loss of various services would provide an objective measure for comparing servicing practices, but this has not been considered necessary for the purposes of this investigation. VII. PLAN ELEMENTS AND FEASIBILITY TESTS The plans of street uses and f a c i l i t i e s being investigated in this report are considered to have eight aspects which are interdependent and overlapping, but must be looked at separately. These are functional, physical, social, staging, administrative, financial, economic, and p o l i t i c a l . Each aspect could be considered as a special type of plan (e.g. physical plan, etc.), and i f they were separate and distinct elements, a simple putting together of them would yield the overall plan. Since this is not the case and the term 'plan' has so many meanings, separate terms have been used for each element and the term 'plan' has been reserved for the whole complex. Essentially these aspects represent the different ways of looking at a particular problem that are considered necessary for a complete understanding of it s complicated nature. In order to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of a plan, the f e a s i b i l i t y of each element of i t must be checked, and in some cases must be checked for several phases of the lifetime of the projected represented by the plan. The principal phases are: installation ( i n i t i a l and secondary), operation and maintenance (during construction and the useful l i f e of project), and replacement. These elements and their f e a s i b i l i t y tests are outlined below to introduce the terms and concepts involved. As an aid to interpretation of their meaning and relationships to one 4 9 . another, the terms are accompanied by examples from a situation analogous to the one being considered here and more readily comprehended. This is that of a man considering purchasing or renting new accommodation for himself and his parents. Further c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the interpretation of these concepts has been l e f t to their application later in the report. Plan Elements The elements of a street use and f a c i l i t y plan, their f i e l d of concern, and the house-buying analogy are as follows: Functional layout is that part of the plan dealing with the organization of activity and sensory zones and operation of service systems, including dynamic and time considerations. House 'plans' do not often show activity zones, though they should form the basis of the plan view design. Exceptions are indications of activity zones smaller than a room such as a 'conversation' area in a living room or various zones of well-designed kitchens. Activity zones often are indicated on plot plans, however. Sensory zones relating to temperature, light, noise, and smell are occasionally indicated and often implied on drawings. They normally coincide with activity zones or groups of them. The 'mechanical services' part of the set of drawings for a house includes diagrams of the heating, plumbing, and wiring systems which show symbolically the organization of the parts of the systems and note pertinent characteristics of their operation (pressure, voltage, etc.). Physical design is that part of the plan dealing with the deployment of material objects in three-dimensional space and their physical attributes;•that i s , the adaptation of physical means to the ends being considered. This is analogous to the 'blue prints' for a house including elevations, plan views, sections, details of construction materials and techniques, and specifications of materials and finishes. These show respectively 5 0 . appearance, spatial relationships, structural system, special designs for particular construction problems, and the quality of material and workmanship that must be provided. Social provision is that part of the plan dealing with special provision of f a c i l i t i e s , or deployment of them, with the intention of serving social needs as distinct from such physical needs as food and shelter or such personal needs as privacy. Analogous social provisions in houses are formal living rooms or parlors as distinct from family rooms, or such special f a c i l i t i e s as liquor cabinets or cocktail bars in recreation rooms. Staging schedule is that part of the plan dealing with the order or sequence in which parts of the physical design are put together and in which functioning systems are put into operation, including tests of the systems and their operational characteristics. It is analogous to the schedule that wise builders prepare to avoid delays caused by poor receiving and handling of materials, by tradesmen getting in each other's way or waiting for others to finish their job, and by waits for inspections. Such matters are the builder's concern and increase in importance with the number of units being built. They do not enter the prospective homeowner's deliberations unless he builds the house himself, but other staging considerations do. These are ones dealing with the scale and scope of construction undertaken i n i t i a l l y . For example, certain parts of the eventual building (e.g. extra bedroom, recreation room, carport) or construction operation (e.g. interior painting,) might be l e f t to a later secondary phase. Both types of staging considerations are important in public projects because of their effects on other parts of the plan as discussed later in this report. Administrative arrangement is that part of the plan dealing with the management of the project during the 51. construction, operation, and replacement phases, including matters of jurisdiction and responsibility. In house building, only the financial arrangements are important to the prospective owner (unless he is also the builder). The builder normally, (or architect occasionally) handles other administrative arrange-ments such as obtaining permits; hiring and paying subcontractors, carpenters and labourers; ordering and paying for materials; arranging for inspections; and supervising the whole construction process. Financial budget is that part of the plan dealing with the 'financing* of the project. This includes consideration of the sources of revenue, the costs of borrowing at various rates for various periods, the sharing of costs, and the means of repayment. Continuing the analogy, such a budget would involve not only consideration of mortgage costs, but also such matters as whether the parents would pay rent, help pay off the mortgage, or make a cash settlement. Economic scheme is that part of the plan dealing with the worth of the project in relation to its costs considering primary and secondary benefits and costs, regardless of to whom they accrue. In house buying, such considerations generally are made on a highly subjective basis. However, in the situation being used for purposes of il l u s t r a t i o n , the man might make a careful analysis of the relative advantages and costs of such possibilities as: building or renting two houses, a duplex, a house with an 'in-law' suite; building a house and renting an apartment, or renting two apartment suites. P o l i t i c a l program is that part of the plan dealing with the promotion and propagandization of the merits of the plan compared with existing or other proposed plans. This could embrace the dissemination of information to, and sol i c i t i n g of support from, the public and private agencies directly 52. involved (including municipal councils, u t i l i t y companies, and labour unions), special interest groups (such as Community Planning Association of Canada, Community Arts Council, Good Roads Association, Traffic Safety Council), and the public generally in order to gain support for the plan. An analogous situation would be that of an individual wanting to build a house of unusual appearance or unorthodox construction who seeks support from owners of adjacent property, a group of architects, a labour union, and anyone else he thinks might help influence responsible authorities to relax or amend regulations prohibiting such a house. Feasibility Tests The f e a s i b i l i t y of a plan for a project is the measure of its practicability, that i s , what can be dealt with successfully. It depends upon many factors of varying importance and is neither obvious nor simple in such a complicated problem. Indeed, i t may not be as obvious and simple as some people would have i t in other problems, i f a l l factors were considered. For instance, the most feasible plan may have neither the best possible physical design and functional layout, nor the least cost of those possibilities being considered, but some compromise of a l l factors. Because of the complexity of the problem in question, the f e a s i b i l i t y of each element of the plan is treated separately before attempts are made to evaluate the overall f e a s i b i l i t y of a plan. An investigation of f e a s i b i l i t y is essentially a c r i t i c a l examination of proposals in relation to the objectives of the proposals, to accepted standards, and to possible alternative proposals. The form of test for f e a s i b i l i t y used in this report is that of questioning aspects of the plan. Obviously, the more and better the questions, the more rigorous w i l l be the test. Outlined below are the main questions pertaining to the plan 53. elements t o show the n a t u r e and scope o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p l a c e d upon ' f e a s i b i l i t y * i n t h i s r e p o r t . The h o u s e - b u i l d i n g analogy i s i n t r o d u c e d whenever i t might a i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . F u n c t i o n a l f e a s i b i l i t y i s an e v a l u a t i o n of the degree t o w h i c h f u n c t i o n a l l a y o u t s s e r v e the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n terms o f a l l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t c r i t e r i a e x c e p t a m e n i t y , o f s e r v i c e s i n o p e r a t i o n under a l l c o n d i t i o n s ; t h e i r s t a n d a r d s ; and a l t e r n a t i v e means o f p r o v i d i n g the same s e r v i c e s . Q u e s t i o n s on t h i s would be of the t y p e , " W i l l t h i s system f u n c t i o n s a f e l y under a l l c o n d i t i o n s ? " T h i s s h o u l d be done f o r each system and c r i t e r i a a p p l i e d f i r s t g e n e r a l l y , and th e n s u c c e s s i v e l y t o ev e r y s e p a r a b l e p a r t and f u n c t i o n . The q u e s t i o n s a l s o s h o u l d be a p p l i e d i n each r e l e v a n t case under v a r i o u s c r i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s such as abnormal w e a t h e r , i n t e r r u p t i o n o f s e r v i c e , o r l o n g - t e r m s i t u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h p r o s p e c t i v e homeowners seldom q u e s t i o n such m a t t e r s , t h e r e a r e some f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f ho u s e h o l d systems which s h o u l d be g i v e n due c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , one might q u e s t i o n how w e l l h e a t i n g and plumbing systems would work i n s e v e r e c o l d s p e l l s ; how much i n c o n v e n i e n c e would be s u f f e r e d i f e l e c t r i c power, domest i c g a s , o r o t h e r s e r v i c e were i n t e r r u p t e d ; and what a r e l o n g - t e r m p r o s p e c t s f o r plumbing systems h a v i n g two ty p e s o f m e t a l t h a t c o u l d c o r r o d e t h r o u g h e l e c t r o l y t i c a c t i o n . P h y s i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y i s an e v a l u a t i o n o f the degree t o which p h y s i c a l d e s i g n s s e r v e the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t under normal c o n d i t i o n s i n terms o f a l l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t c r i t e r i a , t h e i r s t a n d a r d s , and a l t e r n a t i v e means o f p r o v i d i n g the same s e r v i c e s . A p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n s would range from the g e n e r a l one, "How w e l l i s the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s e r v e d by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s ? " t o "How w e l l c o m p a r a t i v e l y would the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t be s e r v e d by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e means o r m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s s e r v i c e ? " These a r e analogous t o the p r o s -p e c t i v e homeowner a s k i n g "Does t h i s d e s i g n b e s t s e r v e my i n t e r e s t ? 54. Are the rooms large enough? Can I arrange my furniture in them? Should there be more fixed e l e c t r i c a l outlets or baseboard wiring channels with moveable outlets?" Social f e a s i b i l i t y is an evaluation of the degree to which special provisions for social purposes provide the possibility or potential for meeting social needs, without forcing undesire-able or unwanted socializing. This condition is. included to avoid creation of situations in which social contact and relationships are unavoidable and impinge on the a b i l i t y to achieve privacy, such as when two or more households share bathroom f a c i l i t i e s . Staging f e a s i b i l i t y is an evaluation of the degree to which a project can be separated into discrete parts, functions, or construction procedures that can be carried out independent of, and hence, at a different stage than other ones. The effect on public interest of such separation must be checked for each criterion in terms of a l l the other c r i t e r i a since a given separate stage might be feasible in terms of several c r i t e r i a , but not the remaining ones. The objective is to find the most feasible separations considering scale and sequence. Questions toward this objective range from "Is i t feasible to i n s t a l l this service separately from a l l others?" to "Is i t feasible to per-form this particular construction procedure separately from the others?" The f i r s t type are primarily to establish the scale of the i n i t i a l major construction stage, which is governed by considerations of financial and economic f e a s i b i l i t y . The second type deals with the effect of sequence on efficiency and economy, and consequently, on economic f e a s i b i l i t y . Analogous questions would be "Could I leave the garage, extra bedroom, finishing of basement, interior painting and other items out of the contract or provide them later when I could better afford them?" Also, "Should I do the interior painting before the contractor finishes the floors, installs lighting fixtures and wood trim to avoid 55. expense and bother of cleaning paint from them?" Administrative f e a s i b i l i t y is an evaluation of the degree to which the public interest is served by the management of installation and operation of services in terms of convenience, efficiency and economy. Pertinent questions are: "Who should be responsible for doing or supervising what, and how?", and "How w i l l disputes and unforeseen problems be handled?" Financial f e a s i b i l i t y i s an evaluation of the degree to which the various stages of the project can be afforded by those paying for them. The following series of questions must be asked: "Who benefits from this stage of the project and by how much? Can they a l l afford to pay for i t in proportion to the benefit they receive? Who should pay for i t and how? How should the stages be financed - over what period and at what rate of interest?" Financial f e a s i b i l i t y may be the over-riding consi-deration in house buying and place severe limitations on desirable physical, functional, and economic aspects. Indeed, i t seems that as a general rule when financial limitations are most stringent, the extent to which advantage can be taken of the more economically feasible schemes is least. To change the analogy for a moment, a Rolls-Royce might be the most economical car to own in the long run, but few could afford to realize the potential savings. Economic f e a s i b i l i t y is an evaluation of the degree to which benefits of a project (or stage thereof) exceed costs. The most economically feasible project is that having the maximum net benefit; that is, the maximum excess of benefits over cost. This is determined by adjusting the scale and scope of projects selected on the basis of maximum benefit-cost ratio. This adjusting process involves asking "Would the excess of benefits over costs be greater or less i f this part or function were added or deleted?" 56. P o l i t i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y i s an e v a l u a t i o n o f the degree t o which the p r o j e c t ( o r s t a g e t h e r e o f ) c o u l d be made a c c e p t a b l e t o the p u b l i c o r i n t e r e s t e d o r a f f e c t e d groups such as t r a d e u n i o n s , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t e d by t h e s e g r o u p s , and the o f f i c i a l s a p p o i n t e d by t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The q u e s t i o n i s " W i l l t h i s p r o j e c t ( o r s t a g e t h e r e o f ) be a c c e p t a b l e t o t h i s group i f p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r manner?" V I I I . SUMMARY The ' t o o l s * used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n have now been f o r g e d - the p r i n c i p a l d e f i n i t i o n s have been s t a t e d ; the types of s t r u c t u r e s and s e r v i c e s b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d have been des-c r i b e d and c l a s s i f i e d ; and c r i t e r i a have been dev e l o p e d f o r e v a l u a t i n g s t r e e t use and s e r v i c i n g p r a c t i c e . These c r i t e r i a i n c l u d e elements o f the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , p r i n c i p l e of s t r e e t use and s e r v i c i n g , and f e a s i b i l i t y c r i t e r i a r e l a t e d t o s e v e r a l ways o f l o o k i n g a t the o v e r a l l p l a n . CHAPTER II CURRENT PRACTICES A DESCRIPTION OF CURRENT STREET USE AND SERVICING PRACTICES IN TEN MUNICIPALITIES OF METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER In order to compare properly any proposal with an existing situation, one should know both well. The better each is described or defined, the better should be the quality of the comparison between them in terms of certainty and accuracy. For the purposes of this investigation, current street use and servicing practces are described and defined in this chapter in terms of the services and c r i t e r i a mentioned in the preceding chapter. The description is confined to local streets in single-family residential areas except where mention of practices outside these confines serves to c l a r i f y or place in a proper perspective the practices of principal concern herein. The description of current street use practice is reason-ably straightforward and simple since the uses made of streets are universal, and the ones specially accommodated or facilitated in local single-family residential streets are practically always the same. The description of current servicing practices including the f a c i l i t a t i n g of such uses, however, is far from simple. Looking carefully at the result of servicing practices -what is herein terms •servicement•1 - one finds l i t t l e complete homogeneity, even in relatively small areas. Exceptions are areas that have been serviced by one developer in a short time, especially recently. Even in areas once serviced in the same manner, differences arise between streets because of the continuing process of adding services, and upgrading and/or replacing their f a c i l i t i e s . But few areas, especially large see page 19. for definition of this term 58. ones, are serviced at one time in Metropolitan Vancouver, and there are differences between them in the manner in which they have been serviced. These differences are due largely to differences in the minimum standards required by municipalities and to changes that have been made in them over the years. However, some differences arise when large-scale developers i n s t a l l services at a standard above the minimum required at the time of development by the municipality in which the development occurs. The most significant instances of such large-scale developments are introduced together here because repeated reference is made to them throughout this chapter and related Appendix A. A l l but one of these are shown on Map 1 on the following page. The earliest sample is what is now called the 'Old Shaughnessy' area of Vancouver that was developed by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company in the 1910's. This was done to a high standard, especially of planting, and is s t i l l a desirable 'prestige' area. The C. P. R. has subdivided the former Quilchena Golf Course and the Oakridge area since World War II, but both have been serviced by the City in the usual (low standard) manner.2 The Shaughnessy Golf Course is to be sub-divided soon and serviced to a standard comparable to Old Shaughnessy. The fate of Langara Golf Course, the remainder of a 6000 acre grant to the C. P. R., is uncertain at present. The Provincial Government developed for leasehold a portion of the University Endowment Lands (U.E.L.) during the late 1920's to a high standard including partial underground wiring. These areas also were designed for the C. P. R. by the City Planning Department to include a mixture of uses such as various types of apartment, commercial, and institutional buildings. It is anticipated that future developments of C. P. R. land w i l l be designed by the Planning Department as well. 59. MAP 1. SELECTED LARGE-SCALE DEVELOPMENTS IN VANCOUVER 60. Various schemes to develop the remainder have resulted only i n clearing of the northerly portion of the area, but this has since become overgrown. Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation has developed Renfrew Heights and Fraserview as low rent a l housing d i s t r i c t s for Second World War veterans. The/have a high standard of u t i l i t i e s and pavements, p a r t i c u l a r l y for this low income part of the City, but lack adequate tree growth. The Ci t y i s currently developing an area i t owns south of 54th. Avenue, east of Kerr Street (and the Fraserview development), and north of the Fraserview Gold Course, which the City owns and w i l l r e t a i n . This development w i l l have a very high standard of service including complete underground wiring and spe c i a l planting areas. It i s hoped to develop the remaining City owned land to the east i n a s i m i l a r manner. The other large-scale development considered i s the •Richmond Gardens* development i n the Township of Richmond (see Map 2, page 64.). This i s being developed by Consolidated Building Corporation, the f i r s t large-scale builder to move into what has been e s s e n t i a l l y a small-scale builders preserve. Richmond Gardens w i l l have complete underground wiring and land-scaping i n addition to the high standard of servicement now required i n Richmond. While these large-scale developments are s i g n i f i c a n t i n many respects, they occupy only a small portion of the metro-po l i t a n area and required s p e c i a l circumstances that are becoming constantly less prevalent, at least f or i n l y i n g areas. These consist of corporate control of large unsubdivided tracts of land plus adequate f i n a n c i a l resources and 'know how1. Except for the outlying m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , there are few large unsub-divided tracts of land remaining that are suitable for r e s i d e n t i a l development. Most should be preserved for a g r i c u l -t u r a l or recreational purposes. There are considerable areas of 61. p a r t i a l l y s u b d i v i d e d land which are not being developed f o r v a r i o u s reasons. These i n c l u d e m u n i c i p a l ownership coupled w i t h i n a b i l i t y o r u n w i l l i n g n e s s to cope w i t h f u r t h e r development f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons, or m u l t i p l e ownership and complex s u b d i v i s i o n . The l a t t e r circumstances cannot be d e a l t w i t h e c o n o m i c a l l y by p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s who l a c k the necessary powers, or by muni-c i p a l i t i e s who have the powers but l a c k the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , and sometimes the 'know how'.-* Thus, f o r the reasons o u t l i n e d above and assuming no dramatic changes, most f u t u r e development w i l l continue to take p l a c e on a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s c a l e . A s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of f u t u r e s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l development w i l l occur on land that i s a l r e a d y s u b d i v i d e d . Some of t h i s w i l l occur as i n f i l l i n g of p r e v i o u s l y 'by-passed' or 'side garden' l o t s which are of no concern here. Much development, however, w i l l occur on land s u b d i v i d e d i n s p e c u l a t i v e sprees as f a r back as the t u r n of the c e n t u r y . The servicement of such land ranges from n o n - e x i s t e n t to as good as adjacent developed a r e a s , but i s r a r e l y of a h i g h s t a n d a r d . ^ The o p p o r t u n i t y has been l o s t to r e q u i r e an adequate servicement as a c o n d i t i o n of s u b d i v i s i o n i n these areas. However, s i n c e s e r v i c e s would have to be added, upgraded, and o f t e n r e p l a c e d i n these areas to b r i n g them to to-day's standards, such areas are of concern h e r e i n . The main concern i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , of course, i s w i t h f u t u r e development i n new s u b d i v i s i o n s , because i t would be i n these that the b e n e f i t s - t o - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p of the proposed -The D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver i s a n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d , but i s a l s o w i t h h o l d i n g from development much of i t s land t h a t ought to be developed f o r the good of the whole m e t r o p o l i t a n area. ^The ' B r i t i s h P r o p e r t i e s ' area of West Vancouver has paved roads with c u r b s , and watermains through c o n s i d e r a b l e undeveloped areas. T h i s can be c o n s i d e r e d an expensive h i g h -c l a s s 'sprawl' area that w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be i n f i l l e d . 62. practices of designing and installing services in new subdi-visions are given prime consideration. Completion of the servicement of existing subdivisions with poor servicement is of secondary concern, and the reservicing of existing developments is of tertiary concern. In order to describe and define current street use and servicing practices as simply as possible for the purposes of this investigation without losing too much of the variety and complexity, the following approach has been employed. The survey of current servicing practices has been restricted to the ten municipalities in Metropolitan Vancouver which have had the most servicing activity recently and have the greatest potential for further activity. Then the street use practices and designing and installing processes which apply generally have been analyzed. The problems of describing and defining servicing practices where some services are not provided, some are provided consi-derably later than others, and nearly a l l are provided at different standards of quality in different municipalities or parts of them, has been resolved as outlined below. A detailed description of the servicing practices for each type of property service has been made in terms of five ranks - best, better, normal, worse, and worst. The •normal1 rank has been assigned to the most common or prevalent practice for each particular service, and the other practices have been ranked in relation to i t . f,Best' and 'worst' ranks have been assigned respectively to the best and worst practices found in the municipalities surveyed. The 'better' and 'worse' ranks have been assigned respectively to practices different from the normal practice, but neither so good nor so bad as the best and worst practices. This detailed description is contained in Appendix A (see page 193.), along with descriptions of actual practice in terms of the distribution or prevalence of the 63. ranked practices in the ten municipalities surveyed, and descriptions of significantly different practices elsewhere. This detailed description of current servicing practice has been summarized into 'composite' best, normal, and worst practices as defined generalizations suitable to the purposes of this investigation. These follow in this chapter the further description and definition of the areal scope, the street uses, and the designing and installing processes investigated. I. AREAL SCOPE OF THE CURRENT PRACTICES INVESTIGATED Ten municipalities in Metropolitan Vancouver have been selected for investigation of current servicing practices on the basis of recent activity and future potential in the subdividing and servicing of land. They are the City of Vancouver, the surrounding Districts of West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby, and the Township of Richmond; and the outlying municipalities of the City of Port Moody, the Districts of Port Coquitlam, Coquitlam, Surrey, and Delta. These are shown on Map 2. on the following page. With the exception of occasional mention of certain practices peculiar to the University Endowment Lands, the other municipalities and unorganized areas in Metropolitan Vancouver have not been included because there has been l i t t l e recent activity, there is l i t t l e potential for expansion, or there is some special circumstance. These include the Cities of North Vancouver, New Westminster, and White Rock; Fraser M i l l s ; and the unorganized areas of District Lot 172 (D.L. 172), and the University Endowment Lands (U.E.L.). The specific reasons are as follows. North Vancouver City owns practically a l l of the undeveloped land within its boundaries and either services i t before sale or sells i t on the condition that i t be serviced to the City's satisfaction. A 64. Vancouver Surrounding Municipalities Outlying Certain delta, agricultural and mountainous lands excluded MAP 2. METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER - AREAS INVESTIGATED 65. r e c e n t s a l e f o r a comprehensive development of commercial and m u l t i p l e r e s i d e n t i a l uses was c o n d i t i o n a l upon p r o v i s i o n of h i g h standards of s e r v i c i n g i n c l u d i n g a s p h a l t roads with concrete curbs, and underground w i r i n g . New Westminster and White Rock are p r a c t i c a l l y completely s u b d i v i d e d except i n the Queens-borough area of New Westminster where s u b d i v i d i n g f o r 'small h o l d i n g s ' o c c a s i o n a l l y o c c u r s . F r a s e r M i l l s i s an i n d u s t r i a l enclave and 'company town'. D i s t r i c t Lot 172 i s an anomally t h a t should be p a r t of e i t h e r New Westminster o r Burnaby. I t i s almost completely developed, and i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by New Westminster as f a r as most s e r v i c e s are concerned. The U.E.L. i s o n l y p a r t l y developed on a l e a s e h o l d b a s i s that was supposed to h e l p support the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The developed area has been s e r v i c e d to a h i g h standard i n c l u d i n g c o n c r e t e curbs and p a r t i a l underground w i r i n g , and i s now one of the best r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver.^ I I . STREET USES S t r e e t s can be and have been used f o r p r a c t i c a l l y a l l kinds of human a c t i v i t y from, and on o c c a s i o n i n c l u d i n g , b i r t h to death. Of concern here are those uses made of l o c a l s t r e e t s i n s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver which i n v o l v e p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s - t h a t i s , f a c i l i t i e s f o r which the p u b l i c i s normally r e s p o n s i b l e , though i t may not provide them. Thus, while s t r e e t s are 'used' to m a i n t a i n space between b u i l d i n g s to ensure that adequate l i g h t and a i r reaches them and f i r e does not spread to them, such uses are of concern onl y when hindered by f a c i l i t i e s . For i n s t a n c e , t r e e s may shut out l i g h t (though r a r e l y to an u n d e s i r a b l e extent) and bridge The combination of expensive s e r v i c i n g and r e l a t i v e l y low P r o v i n c i a l property taxes suggest that the r e s i d e n t s , i n s t e a d of the U n i v e r s i t y , have been endowed. 66. the firebreak normally formed by the street. The prime use of streets i s for the movement of pedestrians and vehicles, and the waiting or parking of them, which i s f a c i l i t a t e d by pave-ments. The second most important use of streets i s as r i g h t -of-ways for u t i l i t i e s . A t h i r d major use i s as a space for planting trees and grass, e s p e c i a l l y i n the type of street being considered. A fourth major use i s as a location for the f a c i -l i t i e s of other services, for example, mail boxes and telephone booths. Local r e s i d e n t i a l streets are used for other purposes of course, but rarely are permanent f a c i l i t i e s of public responsi-b i l i t y involved. Perhaps the greatest such use is by c h i l d r e n for playing. If any f a c i l i t i e s are involved, they are provided by the children or t h e i r parents. Local streets also are occasionally used by children for s e l l i n g lemonade or odds and ends, but the f a c i l i t i e s involved are neither public nor very permanent. The only use involving s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n the manner i n which i t i s f a c i l i t a t e d i s that of vehicular parking. The normal practice i s to accommodate this use on both sides of the vehicular access roadway by allowing p a r a l l e l parking adjacent to the roadway throughout i t s length, except i n and near intersections, and driveways. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s generally have accepted not only the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to allow and provide for vehicular parking, but also the p r i n c i p l e that everyone should be able to park i n front of his dwelling. This p r i n c i p l e i s waived when parking i s permitted on only one side of dead-end streets such as culs-de-sac, but the loss of convenience i s often n e g l i g i b l e because there i s either adequate parking on the one side or people use t h e i r driveways. A more serious departure from this p r i n c i p l e occurs when parking i s prohibited on one side of a street i n order to ease the flow of t r a f f i c , 67. and is completely abandoned when parking is prohibited on both sides of a street for this reason.6 These are considered worse and worst practices respectively. The parking use is accommodated or facilitated by installing a pavement on the surface of the parking area, which sometimes has a curb along the edge of i t , and the pavement on the roadway which gives access to and allows maneuvering into the parking area. These f a c i l i t i e s are discussed with pavements for the vehicular access service. III. CURRENT PROCESS OF DESIGNING STREET USE AND SERVICEMENT The current practice of designing the street use and servicement of particular local residential streets is hardly a •design process' in the sense of there being much opportunity for a designer to create a really exciting and distinctive streetscape. This is because most of the important design decisions have been made in establishing the standard locations for f a c i l i t i e s . These are often so complete that decisions are required on only relatively minor matters, at least with regard to the visual result. Furthermore, there is rarely one person or a tightly-knit team responsible for a l l design decisions not incorporated into standards. Usually particular streets are •designed' by completing or modifying appropriate standard designs to meet the specific requirements of individual services, often with no more design co-ordination than that provided by such design standards as typical cross-sections and intersection plan views. Thus, one must analyse these design standards to understand the whole process. Fortunately these departures rarely occur in single family d i s t r i c t s (they cannot occur on local streets by definition). Unfortunately they often occur in districts having houses converted to more intensive residential use where the need for parking is greater. 68. These design standards usually take a l l ordinary property service f a c i l i t i e s into consideration, regardless of whether they are required to be installed upon subdivision, or are likely to be installed at a l l . This is for the very good reason that i t is d i f f i c u l t to add f a c i l i t i e s for which no consideration has been given, as evidenced by the problems of installing gas pipes in some areas, for example. There is ordinarily a design standard for the ubiquitous 66 foot wide, with a modified design for either hillsides (e.g. Districts of Burnaby and Delta) or reduced widths (e.g. for 56 feet in Richmond). An exception is the District of North Vancouver which has standards for fl a t to moderate and steep cross slopes (up to a maximum limit for subdividing of 20 percent), for 66 and 50 foot wide roads, and in fopen ditch' and storm drain designs - a total of six combinations.7 The design decisions involved in these standards have been analyzed and are discussed below by what are considered to be the major elements. They are the street uses, pavements, u t i l i t i e s , planting, and other f a c i l i t i e s . Designing of Street Uses In current practice, designing of street uses per se really involves only the decisions relating to parking on narrow streets. Decisions must be made as to whether or not parking should be accommodated or not on narrow streets, and i f so, on which side. A l l other uses currently accommodated are accepted by tradition, and l i t t l e thought seems to be given to possible additional ones. Designing of Pavements 1 Designing of the vehicular pavement or road is mainly District of North Vancouver, Standard Plans/Specif1  cations - Subdivision Services, available to subdividers on loan with revision service. 69. limited to a decision on its width, since i t is always laid out symmetrically on the centerline of the street. It has parallel parking strips seven or eight feet wide down both sides except for narrow streets lacking one or both strips. The vehicular access or movement portion of the road varies from the equivalent of one wide moving lane to two f u l l lanes; that Is, from about 11 to 24 feet. Thus the total width of pavement can be from 25 to 40 feet in width, but is usually in the 30 to 36 foot range for a 66 foot street. A decision must also be made on the width of permanent type pavement (i.e. asphalt or concrete) which is ordinarily applied only to the movement portion, except In Richmond. There are two decisions to be made with respect to side-walks. One is whether to locate them on one or both sides, or not at a l l as in the case of culs-de-sac. The other decision involves the relationship of the sidewalk to the road. There are two schools of thought on this. One holds that the sidewalk should be near the road to save costs by excavating for i t at the same time as the road, and by constructing i t integrally with the curb; and to avoid splitting the space available for planting trees. The other school holds that the sidewalk should be away from the road so that pedestrians do not get splashed, so that the sidewalk can have a different configuration than the road, and so that the road can be widened without moving the sidewalk. Designing of U t i l i t i e s Designing of standard locations for u t i l i t i e s involves a t r i a l and test process to achieve an acceptable compromise. Usually i t is a matter'of modifying previous standards to meet changing needs or adapting standards of other municipalities to local conditions. Perhaps none of the u t i l i t i e s end up in an ideal location, but a l l must be able to function properly. For example, the ideal location for sewers and storm drains is on the 70. center line where streets have no cross slope, and the low side otherwise. Thus, unless they are installed together as 'twin* drains as in Vancouver, at least one must be moved away from the ideal location. Both may be far removed from the ideal location i f they are not installed under roads as in Richmond. The other underground f a c i l i t i e s are so located as to achieve adequate vertical and horizontal separation between sewers and water pipes, ^ and between a l l drains, pipes, and conduits and tree roots. The latter is an important consideration because u t i l i t i e s other than drains are seldom located under pavements, and hence must be below the only area available for tree planting. A similar conflict arises above this non paved area between tree branches and overhead wiring. It is no wonder some u t i l i t y men consider trees the bane of their lives. As an il l u s t r a t i o n of the range of factors that ought to be considered in such designs, a table prepared for a street tree and electric u t i l i t y conference has been reproduced as Table III on the following page. Once design standards have been established, designing of installations for most u t i l i t i e s is mainly a matter of locating connections to individual dwellings. The exceptions are drains, which must be designed in relation to the topography of the street considering certain functional limitations such as gradient and manhole spacing. Designing of Planting Current design standards establish the line upon which trees are to be placed and the area in which grass can be planted. Where not noted ex p l i c i t l y otherwise, the tree lines are midway between the edges of road and sidewalk on both sides of the street. Grass can be planted on a l l areas not paved. A l i s t of acceptable species gf trees with required spacing may also be incorporated in design standards. Thus, designing of planting TABLE I I I cn tu z 5 Q. Q_ D CO Q Z < cn LU LU tr r-O z H O LU LL LL < cn tr o i-u < UL o cn cn > _j < z < z < »— z « ° 2 5 cn J|> O LU * 3 I m w » it o « •o * O • • • M •1 H-* m E c • E •*-M • c 1 a, to ^ 1 E to O J= ^ T-^LU < B z > - 5 • * c • m $ ± ~- «_> o — *» • «p «* c •* • ** \ I • -*= O <J> •» m C * m m m 8 « ± £ o _ - • i »- , -T3 ^ C v — m o £ - j * 5 • o M • e o o - — - 5 2 c <• JJ O s 1 O O -TJ c — • * 2 c m m m E 2 u * -o ^ J « ^ C -4 w m m O TYPE OF FACILITY INSTALLED • hich include! — •*- C •*- *» * k. cw ftS "3 cs- o 3 -<n c «-» 5 | CO « ^ * t o t c « » Q- C — a. «• >i CO 2 «• Ot. «« o « -1 •4 CO QUALITY OF SERVICE is measured by s • « — m o -o -*— o 3 ~ o 3 1 • c o o > *-« 2 i 3 0 ~o — c — »^ m <m. — o 1 -m «i M c m O E < -~ / »** o / 15 / 3E - u i o / «-» ^/ o **% o 0 1 / H / L U / R . _l 1 • ,LU LU [ \ LO » \ Source: "Our S t r e e t s Can Be B e a u t i f u l • Proceedings of the F i r s t S t r e e t Tree And U s e f u l " and U t i l i t y Conference. Cleveland, Ohio, 3 March 1955. 71. TABLE III UNDERGROUND WIRING COSTS FOR TRANSFORMER-SECONDARY COMBINATION TO SERVE BACK TO BACK LOTS Number of Diversified Transformer Transformer Homes Demand KW Size and Secondary I n i t i a l Costs per House 4 24 25 $ 186 6 30 37.5 168 8 36 37.5 148 10 40 37.5 138 12 46 50 137 14 50 50 134 16 56 50 133 18 61 75 145 20 66 75 150 22 70 75 148 24 74 75 157 Source: C. F. Danforth, "Huge Development in Virginia Served Underground," Elec t r i c a l World. New York, McGraw-Hill, vol. 160, no. 8 (19 August 1963), p. 26. 72. for a particular street may involve only the selection of the variety of tree to be planted. Vancouver now usually plants two alternating varieties of trees, one flowering, which are located with consideration of street lamps, but the various combinations involved could be covered in design standards. Designing of Other F a c i l i t i e s The f a c i l i t i e s of other property services installed in streets are not covered by municipal design standards, although the responsible agencies have established c r i t e r i a for their location. For example, mail box location depends upon the number of households served, maximum walking distances, and convenient routes for mail collection. Each such f a c i l i t y is designed independently of others, except that some are located on the supports of other services when in a suitable location. In summary, the process of designing the street use and servicement of local residential streets is largely carried out by establishing design standards which for the most part require relatively minor modification for adaptation for particular streets. IV. CURRENT PROCESS OF INSTALLING PROPERTY SERVICE FACILITIES The overall process of installing property service f a c i -l i t i e s in current practice is to prepare the whole street for servicing, and then to i n s t a l l the service f a c i l i t i e s independently in roughly this order: u t i l i t i e s , pavements, and planting.** The process of installing each f a c i l i t y is the same in terms of the general types of operations involved. These operations are excavating, preparing a 'bed', installing the f a c i l i t y , back-f i l l i n g , and cleaning up. The specific operations involved in Street uses have been omitted because they are not installed themselves, but are facilitated by one or more of the f a c i l i t i e s which are installed. t h e s e p r o c e s s e s and the e x c e p t i o n s t o the p r e c e d i n g g e n e r a l i -z a t i o n s are o u t l i n e d below. P r e p a r i n g the S t r e e t f o r S e r v i c i n g The c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e o f p r e p a r i n g a s t r e e t f o r s e r v i c i n g i s t o ' c l e a r and g r ade' the f u l l w i d t h of the s t r e e t . T h i s i s r e q u i r e d upon s u b d i v i s i o n by a l l o f the s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l 9 by-laws o r r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s t u d i e d . A l t h o u g h the i n t e n t i s the same, the g e n e r a l terms ' c l e a r ' and 'grade' are l e s s d e s c r i p t i v e than the terms used i n c e r t a i n by-laws o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s which a r e employed h e r e i n . One muni-c i p a l i t y s p e c i f i e s c l e a r i n g o f a l l t r e e s and brush by complete removal o r b u r n i n g ; g r u b b i n g out o f a l l main r o o t c l u s t e r s e n t i r e l y and r o o t s o f v a r i o u s s i z e s t o p r e s c r i b e d d e p t h s ; and s t r i p p i n g o f a l l t o p s o i l and v e g e t a b l e m a t t e r b e f o r e g r a d i n g commences.*-0 Another m u n i c i p a l i t y (Burnaby) d e s c r i b e s the l a t t e r o p e r a t i o n as " e x c a v a t i o n o f o r g a n i c t o p s o i l m a t e r i a l s " . The term ' g r a d i n g ' embraces a l l o p e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n s h a p i n g the ground i n and near the s t r e e t t o p r e s c r i b e d d e s i g n s . C u t t i n g c o n s i s t s o f a l l o p e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n e x c a v a t i n g m a t e r i a l above d e s i r e d grade ( o r s h a p e ) . These i n c l u d e b u l l - d o z i n g , s h o v e l l i n g , s c r a p i n g , and b l a s t i n g of r o c k where r e q u i r e d . F i l l i n g c o n s i s t s o f those o p e r a t i o n s which b r i n g the n a t u r a l ( b u t s t r i p p e d ) topography up t o the r e q u i r e d g r a d e . These i n c l u d e b u l l - d o z i n g , s h o v e l l i n g , and s c r a p i n g where n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s s u i t a b l e ; and h a u l i n g and dumping o t h e r w i s e . Compacting c o n s i s t s o f those o p e r a t i o n s which c o n s o l i d a t e the f i l l e d m a t e r i a l t o See l i s t of t h e s e i n B i b l i o g r a p h y . ^ D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver, S t a n d a r d P l a n s & S p e c i f 1 -c a t i o n s , a manual loaned t o s u b d i v i d e r s and k e p t r e v i s e d . ^ D i s t r i c t o f Burnaby, S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the C o n s t r u c t i o n  o f M u n i c i p a l S t r e e t s and Lanes. J u l y , 1962. 74. acceptable standards by tamping or r o l l i n g . Fine-grading (or shaping or forming) consists of those operations which bring the street to the desired shape. They include a l l of the above grading operations except blasting, but are carried out in a more controlled manner involving finer or closer tolerances. If properly carried out, the process described above prepares the street for installing of the road, and sometimes the sidewalk, without special excavation for these f a c i l i t i e s . A road 'bed' or partial pavement such as a gravel sub-base is ordinarily installed at this stage to f a c i l i t a t e movement of vehicles involved in the processes of installing f a c i l i t i e s of other services or constructing of dwellings. Installing U t i l i t i e s U t i l i t i e s are installed following preparation of the street and installation of a road bed, but before pavements in the best current practice to avoid damage to pavements. The ideal order would be from the bottom (or deepest) up, but to some extent i t does not matter so long as the various operations are staged to avoid conflicts. Thus, the order might be sewers, storm drains, water pipes, gas pipes, and then underground or overhead wiring and cabling. The process of installing a l l underground u t i l i t i e s involves the same general types of operations. These general operations are excavating a trench, shaping the trench bottom or preparing a bed for the f a c i l i t y , laying the f a c i l i t y i t s e l f , testing the f a c i l i t y , covering the f a c i l i t y , backfilling the trench, and cleaning up. Excavating involves digging by power shovels, backhoes, or trenchers; and shoring when the trench is deep or the sides are unstable. Shaping the trench bottom to f i t f a c i l i t i e s usually involves hand work with shovels, and with trowels when there are hubs on drains. Beds are laid by placing and shaping sand, gravel, or concrete in the trench bottom. 75. L a y i n g of f a c i l i t i e s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s p l a c i n g s e c t i o n s o f d r a i n , p i p e , o r c o n d u i t i n the t r e n c h and j o i n i n g them t o g e t h e r . F a c i l i t i e s a r e t e s t e d t o ensure t h a t they w i l l f u n c t i o n p r o p e r l y . F a c i l i t i e s a r e c o v e r e d w i t h one o f the be d d i n g m a t e r i a l s ; u s u a l l y the same one used i n the bed. T h i s i s done w i t h s p e c i a l c a r e t o prev e n t damage t o the f a c i l i t y . B a c k f i l l i n g i n v o l v e s p l a c i n g s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l , u s u a l l y the e x c a v a t e d s p o i l , i n the re m a i n d e r o f the t r e n c h i n l a y e r s , each o f which i s c a r e f u l l y compacted by tamping. The c l e a n i n g up o p e r a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f removing a l l unwanted m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g s u r p l u s e x c a v a t e d m a t e r i a l . The p r o c e s s o f i n s t a l l i n g overhead u t i l i t i e s d i f f e r s i n the f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s . I n s t e a d o f t r e n c h e s , h o l e s a re e x c a v a t e d by d r i l l i n g o r s h o v e l l i n g . S u p p o r t s a r e e r e c t e d i n the h o l e s i n s t e a d of l a y i n g beds, and the h o l e s a r e b a c k f i l l e d b e f o r e , r a t h e r t h a n a f t e r the w i r e s and c a b l e s a r e i n s t a l l e d . These are i n s t a l l e d by s t r i n g i n g from s u p p o r t t o s u p p o r t , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g p u l l e d t h rough c o n d u i t s from manhole t o manhole. I n s t a l l i n g Pavements The p r o c e s s o f i n s t a l l i n g p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s pavements, o r s i d e w a l k s , i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r u t i l i t i e s . A s h a l l o w t r e n c h i s e x c a v a t e d and shaped, a bed o f sand o r g r a v e l may be l a i d , and then the f a c i l i t y i t s e l f i s i n s t a l l e d . When the s i d e w a l k i s o f c o n c r e t e , t h i s i s done by c o n s t r u c t i n g forms, c a s t i n g c o n c r e t e , f i n i s h i n g the s u r f a c e , and l a t e r removing t h e form. A s p h a l t s i d e w a l k s a r e c a s t h o t o r c o l d w i t h o u t f o r m s , and r o l l e d . " S c r e e n i n g s " s i d e w a l k s a r e made o f f i n e l y c r u s h e d r o c k c a s t w i t h -out forms and r o l l e d . B a c k f i l l i n g i s r e q u i r e d o n l y a t the s i d e s o f c o n c r e t e s i d e w a l k s . The p r o c e s s o f i n s t a l l i n g v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s pavements, o r r o a d s , a l s o f o l l o w s the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n , but has s e v e r a l 76. c o m p l i c a t i o n s . E x c a v a t i o n i s o r d i n a r i l y r e q u i r e d o n l y f o r c o n n e c t i o n s t o d r i v e w a y s and f o r c r u b - g u t t e r s , s i n c e the g r a d i n g o p e r a t i o n s shape the ground f o r the r o a d . A l s o , t h e road bed i s u s u a l l y p a r t i a l l y i n s t a l l e d p r i o r t o u t i l i t i e s , but d i s t u r b e d d u r i n g the pr o c e s s of i n s t a l l i n g them. Thus, g r a v e l must be added t o form a temporary pavement, o r bed f o r a permanent one. Sand o r g r a v e l i s p l a c e d as a bed f o r t h e c u r b - g u t t e r . When t h i s i s o f c o n c r e t e , i t i s e i t h e r c a s t i n forms o r e x t r u d e d from a ' c u r b i n g ' machine. A s p h a l t curbs a r e e x t r u d e d e i t h e r by s i m i l a r machines o r by attachments on the ' p a v i n g ' machine. The l a t t e r e x t r u d e s the a s p h a l t pavement between the c u r b s , which i s the n r o l l e d . B a c k f i l l i n g i s r e q u i r e d o n l y b e h i n d the c u r b s . I n s t a l l i n g P l a n t s The manner o f i n s t a l l i n g p l a n t s i s f a m i l i a r t o everyone. I n the terms employed h e r e , t r e e s and shrubs a re i n s t a l l e d by e x c a v a t i n g a h o l e , l a y i n g a bed o f humus o r f e r t i l i z e r , i n s t a l -l i n g t he p l a n t , and b a c k f i l l i n g . I n s t a l l i n g Other F a c i l i t i e s Where they a r e not i n s t a l l e d on lamp s u p p o r t s , the f a c i l i t i e s o f o t h e r p r o p e r t y s e r v i c e s a r e i n s t a l l e d by e x c a v a t i n g a h o l e , i n s t a l l i n g a s u p p o r t , b a c k f i l l i n g , and then a t t a c h i n g the f a c i l i t y t o the s u p p o r t . Thus, the p r o c e s s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f i n s t a l l i n g overhead u t i l i t i e s . V. COMPOSITE BEST, NORMAL, AND WORST SERVICING PRACTICES The d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f c u r r e n t s e r v i c i n g p r a c t i c e s c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix A has been g e n e r a l i z e d i n t o t h r e e 'composite' p r a c t i c e s f o r the purposes o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . These a re composite b e s t , n o r m a l , and w o r s t p r a c t i c e s , a g a i n s t w h i c h proposed p r a c t i c e s have been t e s t e d . As g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s must, they l e a v e o u t much o f the v a r i a t i o n i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e , but t h i s s i m p l i f i e s t he comparison w i t h the proposed p r a c t i c e s . They a l s o do not r e p r e s e n t the p r a c t i c e i n any one m u n i c i p a l i t y 77. or area thereof, because any one area may be serviced by a mixture of practices from best to worst. The municipality or area closest to each of the composite practices established herein is mentioned with comments on the differences. The ranking of current servicing practices forming the basis of these composite practices involved the application of the public interest c r i t e r i a and/or principles presented in the preceding chapter. For instance, servicing practices signi-ficantly superior (or inferior) to others in terms of public health, safety, convenience, welfare, amenity or economy have been up-graded (or down-graded). Practices in which subdlviders i n s t a l l services have been ranked above others in accordance with the principle of payment for benefit. Similarly practices where f a c i l i t i e s are installed prior to f i r s t occupancy of dwellings have been ranked above others according to the principle of maximum benefit. Lowest ranks have been assigned to those where services are provided the longest time after f i r s t occupancy because the number of years the service was available would be minimized. Ranks apply only to practices where services are provided, the absence of services being noted in the detailed descriptions in Appendix A. In the discussions of actual practice, the areas with more services are rated higher than others, since i t is generally better to have a service than not. Exceptions to this generality might occur where such poor f a c i l i t i e s have been installed that they are seldom used and are counter to some elements of the public interest. An example might be a 'screenings* walk that is seldom used because of i t s dampness, has a poor appearance, and is expensive to maintain. The composite practices derived from the detailed ranking of current practices are defined below by the major functional classifications of services. 78. Composite Best Practice The composite best practice is simply a compilation of the best and better practices for a l l of the services currently provided. For this purpose, the normal practice has been taken as the best practice where none better than normal exists for a particular service. Thus, the best practice of street use is the n o r m a l one of accommodating parking on both sides of the vehicular access roadway on a parallel parking strip adjacent to the roadway throughout i t s length except at intersections. The best practices of providing the various services are summarized below by l i s t i n g for each group of services the f a c i l i t i e s that are installed by the subdivider, except where noted, prior to f i r s t occupancy of the dwellings in the area being served.. These are: Access Services: an asphalt pavement between concrete curb-gutters on a gravel or sand base to specifications established by municipal engineers, and concrete side-walks on both sides of the street. Baric Services: a cast iron water pipe of minimum six inches diameter, and a plastic coated welded steel gas pipe installed by the B. C. Hydro & Power Authority. Communicative Services: a conduit for telephone cable installed by B. C. Telephone Co. and, i f required, cable for cable T.V., alarm, and control services installed by their respective u t i l i t y companies. Drainage Services: twin storm and sanitary drains plus concrete curb-gutters. Elec t r i c a l Services: conduits for electric power wires installed by the B. C. Hydro & Power Authority and street lighting wires installed by the subdivider who Installs the lamps and their supports. 79. Furnishing Services: transformer kiosks. Gardening Services: boulevard trees and grass to be pruned by municipality or parks board, but otherwise cared for by adjacent residents. Holding Services: no holders, since f a c i l i t i e s for the postal service are assumed to be located on collector or more important streets, and garbage cans to be provided by residents. Indicating Services: street name signs installed by 12 the municipality on the lamp p o s t s . The keeping services are not the concern of the subdivider since the municipality takes over ownership and responsibility for the f a c i l i t i e s either upon subdivision or one year later. The keeping service practice however, would tend to be better than normal because of the existence of curbs and good pavements and the elimination of costs to control growth of wild grass and noxious weeds. Comparison with actual practice. The composite best practice of street use and servicing practices in Metropolitan Vancouver is most closely matched by the Richmond Gardens development in Richmond. Departures from the composite best practice are that this development w i l l have only one sidewalk, asbestos cement instead of cast iron water pipes, and separate instead of twin drains. The loss of potential savings on drains is at the expense of the subdivider, and the other departures w i l l not reduce benefit derived from services significantly. Therefore, for most purposes this development can be considered to represent best practice. See Appendix A, p. 230 from which this has been derived. 80. The n e x t c l o s e s t a c t u a l p r a c t i c e i s Vancouver's sub-d i v i s i o n o f i t s own l a n d a t 54th Avenue and K e r r S t r e e t . The b e s t composite p r a c t i c e w i l l be f o l l o w e d e x a c t l y i n s o f a r as the f a c i l i t i e s a re c o n c e r n e d , but the pavements, c u r b s , and s t r e e t l i g h t i n g a r e t o be p a i d f o r on a l o c a l improvement b a s i s . T h i s p r a c t i c e can be c o n s i d e r e d b e t t e r t h a n n o r m a l . The U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands can a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d t o have f o l l o w e d a b e t t e r p r a c t i c e s i n c e the d e p a r t u r e s from c o m p o s i t e b e s t p r a c t i c e a r e the p a r t i a l overhead w i r i n g and lower s t a n d a r d o f l i g h t i n g . N e i t h e r i s as s e r i o u s as they would be i n most a r e a s . The p o l e l i n e s a r e f a i r l y w e l l h i d d e n by t r e e s , and on most s t r e e t s , the wide open lawns and y a r d l i g h t i n g tend to o f f s e t the p o o r e r s t r e e t l i g h t i n g p r o v i d e d by u p r i g h t lamps than by the modern hanging t y p e s . As a s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d o f s u b d i v i d e r s by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t h e composite b e s t p r a c t i c e i s most c l o s e l y matched by Richmond i n t h o s e a r e a s where sewers a r e r e q u i r e d . The d e p a r t u r e s a r e the same as t h o s e mentioned f o r Richmond Gardens, p l u s not r e -q u i r i n g any l a n d s c a p i n g . I t i s b e t t e r t h a n the proposed r e q u i r e -ment f o r e s s e n t i a l u r b an r e s i d e n t i a l s e r v i c e s recommended by the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s . There a r e two p a r k i n g s t r i p s and s i d e w a l k s i n s t e a d o f one. C u r b s , g u t t e r s , and storm d r a i n s a r e i n c l u d e d i n a l l c i r c u m -s t a n c e s . W i r i n g and c a b l i n g i s underground, and b o u l e v a r d t r e e s and g r a s s a r e p l a n t e d . 1 - * Composite Normal P r a c t i c e Composite normal p r a c t i c e o f s t r e e t use and s e r v i c i n g i s s i m i l a r l y d e r i v e d from the p r a c t i c e s d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix A. Normal s t r e e t use p r a c t i c e i s t o accommodate o n l y p a r k i n g by p r o v i d i n g pavement f o r p a r a l l e l p a r k i n g on both s i d e s o f the — Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , Land f o r  L i v i n g . New W e s t m i n s t e r , B. C., June 1963, p. 16. 81. road throughout i t s length except at intersections. The normal practices of servicing are listed below: Access Services: subdivider installs only a gravel road; municipality installs asphalt road and concrete sidewalk later on local improvement basis. Baric Services: subdivider installs asbestos cement water pipe; B. C. Hydro & Power Authority installs plastic coated steel gas pipe prior to pavements being installed. Communicative Services: B. C. Telephone Co. and any other u t i l i t y companies i n s t a l l cables overhead on power poles using integrated cable and support wire to minimize unattractiveness. Drainage Services: subdivider installs ditches with culverts under driveway and front walk connections; munici-pality later replaces these by storm drains and occasionally curb-gutters on local improvement basis. E l e c t r i c a l Services: B. C. Hydro & Power Authority installs wires overhead on poles placed in lanes or rear easements and street lights at intersections; municipality later installs lamps on painted steel poles with underground wiring on a local improvement basis. Furnishing Services: no furnishings are installed other 7 than those related to other services. Gardening Services: municipality or parks board installs trees only; planting of grass l e f t to residents. Holding Services: no holding services are installed on local streets, postal f a c i l i t i e s being assumed to be on collector or more important streets. 82. Indicating Services; municipality installs reflective sheet metal signs on separate metal posts. Keeping Services; Keeping services for f a c i l i t i e s installed i n i t i a l l y in normal practice would be mainly grading of gravel road and cleaning ditches. Comparison with actual practice. As might be expected, the composite normal practice is exactly matched nowhere, but when slight or partial departures are allowed for, i t represents the majority of practices. It is thus a f a i r l y reasonable representation of the normal or typical practices. Specifically, municipalities were considered as conforming to the normal practice when the only serious negative departure from composite best practice was not requiring sewers. The reason is that sewers are required in many, i f not a l l areas of these muni-cip a l i t i e s by mortgage institutions. Several of the municipalities have compensating, higher standards for other f a c i l i t i e s , particularly roads. The six municipalities thus considered to match most closely the composite normal practice and their departures from i t are discussed below in what is considered to be diminishing rank. Delta requires a 20 foot wide, two inch thick asphalt road instead of the normal gravel one, but otherwise conforms to composite normal practice. West Vancouver requires a similar asphalt pavement and 'sewer accommodation'.*-^ The next four municipalities do not require sewers, and hence are below the composite normal practice in this respect. Port Moody is placed next even though not yet o f f i c i a l l y re-quiring higher standards in other f a c i l i t i e s , is in fact In effect this means only reservicing easements for sewers in subdivisions contiguous to sewered areas. Statement by Mr. D. Walton, Municipal Planning Officer, West Vancouver,B.Co 83. a c h i e v i n g much b e t t e r , i f not b e s t p r a c t i c e . R e c e n t l y sub-d i v i d e r s have i n s t a l l e d a s p h a l t r o a d s , c o n c r e t e c u r b - g u t t e r s , s t r e e t l i g h t i n g and underground w i r i n g . 1 ^ The D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver r e q u i r e s a 26 f o o t a s p h a l t r o a d , whereas Burnaby and S u r r e y r e q u i r e o n l y the normal g r a v e l r o a d . However, these m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f t e n have power p o l e s on s t r e e t s because t h e r e a re no l a n e s i n some a r e a s . Composite Worst P r a c t i c e The composite w o r s t p r a c t i c e o f s t r e e t use and s e r v i c i n g i s an amalgam of the worse and wo r s t p r a c t i c e s . The w o r s t s t r e e t use p r a c t i c e i s r e s t r i c t i n g p a r k i n g on one o r both s i d e s o f s t r e e t s e x c e p t i n s h o r t c u l s - d e - s a c w i t h ample p r i v a t e d r i v e w a y s . The w o r s t s e r v i c i n g p r a c t i c e s a r e l i s t e d below: A c c e s s S e r v i c e s : s u b d i v i d e r i n s t a l l s o n l y a g r a v e l o r s o i l cement r o a d , and the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n s t a l l s l a t e r n o t h i n g b e t t e r than f l u s h c o a t i n g on the r o a d and a s p h a l t o r s c r e e n i n g s w a l k s on a l o c a l improvement b a s i s . B a r i c S e r v i c e s : s u b d i v i d e r i n s t a l l s u n d e r s i z e d water p i p e s o r m u n i c i p a l i t y i n s t a l l s w a t e r p i p e s o u t o f g e n e r a l revenue; B. C. Hydro & Power A u t h o r i t y i n s t a l l s gas p i p e s a f t e r pavements and p l a n t i n g . Communicative S e r v i c e s : B. C. Telephone Co. and any a l a r m o r c o n t r o l u t i l i t y companies i n s t a l l s c a b l e s on s e p a r a t e t e l e p h o n e p o l e s i n s t r e e t s . D r a i n a g e S e r v i c e s : s u b d i v i d e r i n s t a l l s d i t c h e s and c u l v e r t s which a r e e i t h e r l e f t o r r e p l a c e d by m u n i c i p a l i t y t o i n t e r c e p t f l o w s on o t h e r s t r e e t s ; sewers a r e not i n s t a l l e d . Telephone conversation with Mr. Hiebert, Municipal Clerk, Port Moody. 84. Electrical Services: B. C. Hydro & Power Authority installs wires on separate power poles in streets with single lamps at intersections only. Furnishing Services: no furnishings are installed. Gardening Services: no plants are installed, but wild growth and noxious weeds are cut down or sprayed with herbicide. Holding Services: no holders are installed. Indicating Services: municipality installs wooden posts with vertical non-reflecting street name signs. Keeping Services: Keeping services are mainly grading of gravel roads and cleaning ditches. Comparison with actual practice. None of the munici-palities ordinarily follow the worst practice with regard to street use, although parking is either prohibited or is impractical on some streets in delta areas having deep and wide ditches as in parts of Richmond and Delta. However, the re-maining municipalities follow several of the worst servicing practices. Port Coquitlam and Coquitlam seem to be the worst overall. Vancouver is included because i t requires subdividers to i n s t a l l only the bare minimum required by any municipality and installs some other f a c i l i t i e s out of general revenue. The fact that i t follows the best practices in installing water and drainage f a c i l i t i e s (i.e. cast iron pipe and twin drains) is probably not appreciated so much by those served, as the fact that an asphalt road is not provided as in most of the surrounding municipalities. Furthermore, the roads have tended to remain uncurbed and unpaved for long periods or be flush coated instead of paved with asphalt. It is rather ironic that this situation results largely from the high standards formerly insisted upon for permanent f a c i l i t i e s and that one of the better practices 85. In the Metropolitan area is being followed in a part of Vancouver. VI. SUMMARY Current practices of street use and servicing have been described in this chapter for ten municipalities of Metropolitan Vancouver, selected on the basis of recent and future potential servicing activity. The processes of designing and installing applying generally to a l l services have been described. Then •composite* best, normal, and worst practices derived from the detailed description and ranking of servicing practices contained in Appendix A have been defined for comparison with the proposed practices described in the next chapter. The standards for curbing and paving in single-family residential areas are currently being examined by the City with a view to establishing less expensive ones that are more likely to be installed, thus raising the actual standard of development. CHAPTER III PROPOSED DESIGNING PRACTICES A DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROCESS OF DESIGNING PROPERTY SERVICE FACILITIES FOR LOCAL RESIDENTIAL STREET USE AND SERVICEMENT1 The proposed street use and servicing designing practices for future local streets of single-family residential d i s t r i c t s are defined and described in this chapter for later evaluation in relation to the current practices described in the preceding chapter. The proposed process of designing the property service f a c i l i t i e s is described in comparison to the best current practices where pertinent to point up the differences evaluated in the next chapter. The practices discussed herein actually constitute a proposed approach to servicing that could result in better street use and servicement, and thus better total development and environment. This approach would be more comprehensive, yet more flexible, than that of current practice, thus allowing greater freedom for imaginative designers to create streets that are more useful and interesting parts of our environments. The approach is described in terms of various possible practices of designing property services. Before proceeding with this description, the assumptions and principles underlying the proposed practices are outlined below. I. ASSUMPTIONS AND PRINCIPLES OF PROPOSED PRACTICES The basic assumption of the proposed practices is that the provision in local residential streets of an underground structure in which u t i l i t i e s could be installed would allow The term servicement means the condition or state existing when services have been installed. See page 19. for definition. 87. better use and servicement of these streets than does current practices. By better use is meant more use of streets - through both greater intensity of present uses and new uses - because of special provisions for such uses. Better servicement means a better physical environment due to the greater degree to which the f a c i l i t i e s of the property meet the needs and desires of the people served. The reason for this is that the current practices of installing u t i l i t i e s place such severe limitations on the design of other f a c i l i t i e s that there is l i t t l e f l e x i b i l i t y in their placement. It is further assumed that people would prefer what is herein considered to be better street use and servicement. This is undoubtedly presumptive and 'begging the question' but is necessary at this point because i t is not known whether people would accept some of the proposals, having no experience with them. It can be safely assumed that, cost considerations aside, people would prefer the whole range of property services, and at as high a standard as possible. For example, they would prefer concrete curb-gutters to anything less, underground to overhead wiring, and 'lots of nice trees' to a few spindly ones. However, whether they would be prepared to walk a few extra steps from parking areas in exchange for some benefits of a perhaps intangible nature i s not known. Psychological studies in depth might provide the answers, but i t is more likely to require actual experimental installations. Neither is within the com-petences of this investigator. Therefore, value judgements are made where necessary on the basis of observed behaviour of people in comparable circumstances. Specifically, the assumptions made regarding proposed practice, with the principles upon which they are based are:^ 1) A l l u t i l i t i e s (i.e. including wiring and cabling) should be installed underground with as many as -See pages 39 - 48 for discussion of these principles. 88 feasible in u t i l i t y structures. 2) U t i l i t i e s , pavements, planting, and other f a c i l i t i e s should be comprehensively designed for each section considering needs and desires of resident users of streets. 3) Faci l i t i e s should be installed: - by the subdivider (in accordance with principle of payment for benefit). - prior to occupancy of dwellings (principle of maximum benefit). - in integrated installations (principle of integration). - by logical stages (e.g. u t i l i t i e s before pavements; pavements before planting) (principle of maximum benefit). II. PROPOSED PROCESS OF DESIGNING STREET USE AND SERVICEMENT The proposed process of designing street use and service-ment would differ from the current practice in two main ways. It would be more comprehensive in terms of the number of factors considered in each design decision,and i t would be more intimately related to the problems and possibilities of individual street sections. The process would be more comprehensive partly because of the aim of making greater use of streets which necessitates consideration of some social and additional functional factors. Partly i t would be due to changed and variable relationships between f a c i l i t i e s of different services. The more intimate design relationship of f a c i l i t i e s with individual street sections would make i t possible to avoid or minimize topographic and drainage problems and thus reduce costs. On the other hand, i t would allow advantage to be taken of special features of the terrain such as rock outcroppings or groups of attractive trees, and to enhance the street environment and the benefit derived from i t . The f i r s t step in the process of designing a particular 89. section of a local residential street would be to establish the probable needs and wants of the people likely to live on the street section. This would depend upon the number of sites abutting the section, their size and shape, and the anticipated income of the residents. The number of sites, coupled with estimates of various average characteristics related to income, would provide estimates of the number of people of various age groups, the number of cars and other pertinent factors. The size and shape of lots would give an indication of the extent to which various needs can be met on the site. For example, large sites tend to have ample space for recreational purposes, and wide sites ample space for driveways on which cars can be parked. Thus the need to accommodate some types of recreation and parking on the street is less in such dis t r i c t s than in others. Unfor-tunately, the need for street uses is generally greatest where there is least street space available to accommodate them, and vice versa. The second step in the proposed design process is the examination of problems and possibilities of the particular street section. The terms 'problems' and 'possibilities' are relative in that a problem for one service may well present possibilities for another. For example, rock outcroppings present problems for the access and u t i l i t y services, but present opportunities for the gardening service in that they could be incorporated into a landscaping design. Hence, the need for comprehensive consideration. The third step in the proposed design process would be the'creative one of preparing a comprehensive design for the particular street section. This is essentially a matter of compromising between the fulfillment of needs and desires, solution of problems and realization of possibilities to achieve an optimum design. The design of particular street sections 90. would also be related to that of adjoining sections and the street system of the surrounding d i s t r i c t . Thus, while each street section could have a character of its own, i t should form part of a larger unit of several blocks in extent. Trees are probably the best design element to provide unity throughout such an area because of their visual prominence (when of a f a i r size) and variety of species or combinations of them. Other plants, especially shrubs, might also be used for this purpose in combi-nation with trees, but only to a limited extent because plants are also probably the best means of achieving variety of design within the street section. Other f a c i l i t i e s are unsuitable for achieving unity over relatively small 'neighbourhoods' distinct from other areas because either they cannot be changed signi-ficantly visually or to do so would destroy desirable standardi-zation. Thus, such f a c i l i t i e s should provide unity over much larger areas, i f not the whole metropolitan area. However, the layout and shape of some of them can be manipulated to provide variety and interest within street sections. Although a l l factors would be considered comprehensively in the proposed design process, there are six main aspects which can be discussed separately for the sake of simplicity. These are street uses, u t i l i t y structures, u t i l i t i e s , pavements, planting, and other f a c i l i t i e s . They are discussed below in comparison with current practice for two conditions. In the f i r s t , i t is assumed that an area is subdivided but not serviced. In the second, i t is assumed an area is neither subdivided nor serviced, so that the proposed practice of subdividing can be discussed in relation to the preceding discussion of servicing practices. In both cases i t is further assumed that the street section being dealt with is a local street in a single-family residential d i s t r i c t , and w i l l remain so throughout the lifetime of the houses. 91. The f i r s t condition exists in many parts of the metro-politan area because of excessive subdividing activity for speculative purposes during past land booms. It can be consi-dered to exist at that stage in the subdividing process after staking-out of sites and streets, but prior to registration and commencement of the servicing process. It would also exist in the developed or partially developed areas having so few or such poor property service f a c i l i t i e s that they could be ignored in redesigning the street. The typical chain wide (66 feet) street is assumed. Proposed Designing of Street Uses The proposed practice of designing street uses involves both more uses and more designing than current practice. The latter fa c i l i t a t e s the parking use by providing paved parking strips beside the movement portion of the road. Designing involves only the decisions of whether to allow parking on one or both sides and the width of pavement required. Ordinarily both decisions have been incorporated into pavement design standards, so for a particular local street the only decision is the selection of the appropriate standard for the street -typical or cul-de-sac. The street uses that would be considered in designing new streets (or redesigning existing ones in developed areas)** are parking or storing cars, and playing or other forms of recreational activity. The extent to which, and manner in which these would be accommodated in a particular street would be based upon the particular needs or desires of the people to be served. The amount of parking would be based upon an estimate of the need or demand for i t including parking for visitors to The parenthetical comments in this section are included because of the possibility of redesigning existing streets in developed or partially developed areas along similar lines. 92. the future residents of the area. Since this is the most c r i t i c a l use in terms of the space i t consumes, the estimate of the amount of parking required is discussed separately below, followed by discussion of the need for playing space. Parking, whether storage of cars in such shelter f a c i -l i t i e s as carports and garages would be accommodated on streets and the extent of such accommodation would depend on the need or desire for this. The need would be related to such factors as the total need for storage, the amount that could be provided on sites, and the climate. Except for the latter, these factors are similar to those for parking which is discussed below. The desires for on-street storage of cars involve the balance of people's preferences and prejudices regarding convenience of getting to their vehicles, use of their lot site, use of public streets, and ownership of such storage f a c i l i t i e s . The estimate of the amount of parking required would be based upon consideration of such factors as the presence of lanes and driveways, the frontage widths of lots; and the probable car ownership, income, and behaviour of the future residents. These factors are either interrelated or tend to appear in certain combinations and the relationships are often not simple ones. For example, where lanes exist and provide access to garages, i t could be argued there is no need for parking on the street except for v i s i t o r s . However, there seems to be a tendency for more parking to occur on the street during the day in those areas with lanes than those without. On the one hand, people cannot be bothered to use the lanes during the day i f they can park in front of their house on the street. On the other hand, areas without lanes usually have driveways which are convenient to use during the day. In either case, as lot sizes and incomes increase the number of cars on the street tends to decrease, except when 93. someone has many visitors at one time. This occurs even though car ownership also usually increases with income because driveways tend to be built that can accommodate the cars of the resident and one or two v i s i t o r s . The behavioural factors include a l l those factors of a sociological nature which influence the ways in which people use their cars. For example, in socio-economic groups where car ownership or ownership of more than the normal number or quality of cars is rare, there is a tendency to park the rare cars in the most prominent place possible, which is usually on the street in front of the house. At the other end of the scale, where cars may or may not be status symbols, there seems to be a tendency for cars to be parked discreetly out of sight for fear of appearing excessively ostentatious. Most such behavioural factors can be correlated with income and the income of future residents of an area being developed can usually be forecast f a i r l y accurately. Recreation. The amount and type of playing or other recreational activities accommodated would similarly be based on consideration of needs and desires. In most areas this probably would involve accommodating the needs of children of various ages. For small children, sand boxes and similar suitable f a c i l i t i e s might be provided in on-street 'tot lots'. These should be safe i f fenced or otherwise protected and supervised by adults for whom benches should be provided. Such f a c i l i t i e s seem popular with both mothers and children in the new towns of Sweden.7 While communal f a c i l i t i e s like this are practically unknown here, they might provide an alternative to the much cri t i c i z e d suburban 'coffee klatches• and the opportunity for mothers to be out-of-doors with their children. 7 The Swedish new towns of Vallingby and Farsta were visited by the investigator. 94. Probably the greatest need for playing space is for those too old or big to play on single-family residential sites, but not old or big enough to travel to neighbourhood parks which tend to be monopolized by older children. The children in this group like to try playing the group games that older children play, such as baseball and football, for which backyards are too small. They are either not permitted by their parents to go to the parks, or not permitted by older children to play with them on the same park because of their size or Inexperience at these games. Consequently, they play on the streets. This i s dangerous for them because of vehicular t r a f f i c and the presence of parked cars and also subjects the cars to possible damage. For these children, a turfed area of reasonable size would be provided away from intersections and off the road, but clearly visible by approaching drivers. The needs or desires of other ages and natures of people might also be f u l f i l l e d by installing f a c i l i t i e s in the street not currently provided. For example, seating areas might be installed for elderly people to get together to chat with their cronies or to watch children playing. The latter would f u l f i l l both their desire to see activity and the children's desire to be seen. While i t is granted that people in the Vancouver area generally do not s i t out in local streets in single-family residential areas, i t may be that this i s because no f a c i l i t i e s are provided and the environment is inhospitable for such uses.** In some areas, special f a c i l i t i e s might be installed for certain One can observe how well used are some benches on streets at transit stops or near parks and where citizens have erected their own crude benches so that they can 'watch the world go by'. Unfortunately, many benches are poorly placed or oriented, and are either not used or require people to turn around to watch the more interesting activities behind the benches. Since some people prefer sitting backwards so they can put their arms on the backs of benches, perhaps the benches should be redesigned or placed in pairs facing opposite directions. 95. n a t i o n a l groups when they would be b e t t e r p r o v i d e d communally on the s t r e e t than i n back y a r d s . An example i s the I t a l i a n game o f bocce which when p l a y e d by I t a l i a n s tends t o be somewhat n o i s y and hence u n d e s i r a b l e c l o s e t o houses whose occupants m ight n o t e n j o y such n o i s e . 9 These needs and d e s i r e s , and the f a c i l i t i e s t o f u l f i l l them, would be e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f the a r e a and any minimum dim e n s i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r them f o r the s t r e e t b e i n g d e s i g n e d . These c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as g o a l s o r s t a n d a r d s f o r the s t r e e t w hich i t would be d e s i r a b l e t o a c h i e v e where f e a s i b l e . D e s i g n i n g U t i l i t y S t r u c t u r e s The d e s i g n i n g o f u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s , o f c o u r s e , i s a u n i q u e a s p e c t o f the proposed d e s i g n i n g p r o c e s s . The proposed d e s i g n i n g p r a c t i c e s v a r y somewhat f o r the d i f f e r e n t t ypes o f s t r u c t u r e because of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . These t y p e s o f s t r u c t u r e s are i l l u s t r a t e d and b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d on the f o l l o w i n g page. They are d i s c u s s e d below i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f d i f f i c u l t y . The most d i f f i c u l t s t r u c t u r e t o d e s i g n i s the most h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d one - the a l l - u t i l i t y t r o u g h . T h i s i s because the l o c a t i o n and depth o f i t s bottom a r e governed by d r a i n a g e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i l e i t s t o p i s governed by p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , as i t s c o v e r forms the s i d e w a l k . S i n c e t h e s e f a c t o r s can be i n c o n f l i c t , i t would sometimes be n e c e s s a r y t o compromise between i d e a l l o c a t i o n s f o r the d r a i n a g e and p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s f a c i l i t i e s . Such compromises would p r o b a b l y have t o f a v o u r the d r a i n a g e f a c i l i t i e s i n v i e w o f the c o s t s i n v o l v e d . The d r a i n a g e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which a p p l y t o the t h r e e types o f a l l - u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s and d r a i n s i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e , a r e A p r o t e s t t o t h i s e f f e c t r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c i t y i n Vancouver newspapers. 9 6 . STRUCTURES f M i n e d treat -open to - u t i i i t i . e s comple t e l y accessible -covered by side walk -precast concrete -underground between man-u t i l . l t i ac c e s s i b l e only at man-holes errcast con ere te NOTE: could als< ? square or re c t s n g u l e r i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n , i.e.duct i n -stead of i-ube -u b h f nderg 51 .vee ole s l e c t r ubeJ-i t l l i t . cce ss .t man l e c t r ube d-orms t ie r s r be ide tp xtrud round n nan-except i o a l conduit l e s i b l e only| hole a l e a l c o nd u i t side ,v s 1 <, may r j l s under lk ed or DIAGEAK i . TYPE 3' 0? PROPOSED UTILITY STRUCTURES 97. * minimum d r a i n s l o p e a) no c r o s s s l o p e b) c r o s s s l o p e Diagram 3. E f f e c t o f L o c a t i o n on Depth o f D r a i n s those a f f e c t i n g the depth and consequent c o s t s f o r v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the s t r e e t . As can be seen from Diagram 3, the s h a l l o w e s t l o c a t i o n i s on the c e n t e r l i n e when the p r o p e r t y on b o t h s i d e s o f the s t r e e t i s a t the same e l e v a t i o n , and on the low s i d e when one s i d e i s h i g h e r than the o t h e r . I n areas h a v i n g basementless h o u s i n g , the depth would be l e s s , p r o v i d i n g s u f f i c i e n t c o v e r were m a i n t a i n e d above the d r a i n s . 1 0 A l l -u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s might be p l a c e d on o r near the c e n t e r l i n e where t h e r e i s no c r o s s s l o p e , but would be p l a c e d towards the low s i d e where t h e r e was a c r o s s s l o p e . The t r o u g h a l l - u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e would be p l a c e d as c l o s e t o the s e l e a s t c o s t l o c a t i o n s as the d i c t a t e s of the p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s s e r v i c e would a l l o w . The o t h e r a l l - u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s - t u n n e l and tubed c o n d u i t -c o u l d be p l a c e d on them w i t h o u t such r e s t r i c t i o n s . A second f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g depth o f d r a i n a g e f a c i l i t i e s i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e i r s l o p e t o t h a t of the ground a l o n g the s t r e e t . T h i s i n v o l v e s the complex r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s l o p e o f d r a i n s and t h e i r s i z e , and the f l o w and v e l o c i t y o f In c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e , such l e a s t c o s t l o c a t i o n s can be used by o n l y one of the two d r a i n a g e s e r v i c e s e x c e p t f o r the be s t p r a c t i c e o f i n s t a l l i n g ' t w i n ' d r a i n s . The c e n t e r l i n e l o c a t i o n i s not used f o r e i t h e r i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s such as D e l t a and Richmond where s t r e e t d r a i n s are not i n s t a l l e d under pavements. 98. flow in them. Of interest here is that for a given size and flow, there is a minimum slope to provide sufficient velocity to keep the drain clear, and a maximum slope that avoids excessive scouring of the drain. Three general cases, which are illustrated on Diagram 4 on the following page, are considered. Where the ground slope is gentle, taken here as between the minimum and maximum slope for drains, the drain can parallel the ground slope (see Diagram 4-b). Hence, the drain can be at the minimum depth for adequate cover or to receive site drains. Where the ground slope is level or less than the minimum drain slope, the depth of the drain increases from the minimum depth for adequate cover or to receive house drains at the upper end (Diagram 4-a). For these two cases, there is no difference between proposed and current practice. There is a difference however, in the third case where the ground slope exceeds the maximum drain slope. In this case, depth increases from a minimum at the lower end at a manhole or intercepting drain towards the upper end. The drain can be stepped up to the minimum depth at ramp or drop manholes, but manholes are expensive. Theoretically, on a long straight run, the spacing of manholes would be reduced from the maximum (usually 300 feet) to a distance such that savings resulting from reduced depth of the drain balanced the cost of extra manholes. In practice however, runs are relatively short between manholes required at junctions or changes in direction. Hence, i t is often a matter of having one or two manholes between those at intersecting streets. The extra one is installed only when the depth otherwise would involve much greater costs, or rock excavation could be avoided. In the proposed practice, the u t i l i t y structure would be stepped more frequently than drains in current practice because 9 9 . ~~" (a) L e v e l S t r e e t Note: i n d i c a t e s minimum d r a i n s l o p e ^ i n d i c a t e s minimum cover (c-1) Maximum manhole spacing (c-2) Manhole added a t midpoint (c-3) Two manholes a t t h i r d p o i n t s (c) S t e e p l y Sloped S t r e e t ( i . e . above max. d r a i n s l o p e ) DIAGRAM 4 - EFFECT OF STREET SLOPE AND MANHOLE  SPACING ON DEPTH OF DRAINS 100. manholes or their equivalent would be installed at relatively short intervals for other reasons discussed below. The effect on depth below minimum cover, and hence cost, ignoring that of manholes, is Inversely proportionate to the total number of steps. For example, adding one manhole midway between two others to make two steps reduces the maximum depth, the average depth, and the longitudinal sectional area below minimum cover to-one half the former values. Similarly, two equidistant additional manholes (three steps) would reduce the values to one-third. These effects on drain depths of additional manholes are illustrated in Diagrams 4-a,-b, and-c. Designing U t i l i t i e s The process of designing the f a c i l i t i e s of the u t i l i t y services is the aspect most comparable to the best current practice, allowing for differences due to the existence of the u t i l i t y structure and in pavement and planting layouts. In the best current practice, a copy of a tentative or preliminary subdivision plat is sent by the municipal planning department to each u t i l i t y service agency for comments and cost estimates. The functional layouts and physical designs for each service are designed for the subdivision plat mainly by modifying standard layouts and designs to suit the plat. Each agency suggests modi-fications to the plat, particularly the addition of easements, to meet their requirements. The planning department Incorporates these modifications as requirements for f i n a l approval of the plat. Problems relating to location of f a c i l i t i e s are resolved by a committee of technical representatives of a l l u t i l i t y agencies. In the proposed practice, a tentative or preliminary layout of the u t i l i t y structure prepared by the municipal planning departments would be sent to the u t i l i t y agencies. They would design the functional layouts for their services and submit their requirements and suggestions for modifications to the planning 101. department. After incorporating any modifications considered desirable, the planning department would prepare the physical design of the u t i l i t y structure on the basis of the requirements. Copies of the design would then be sent to the agencies so that they could prepare detailed designs for their f a c i l i t i e s . The technical committees that currently review subdivision plats and settle differences in servicing problems would perform similar functions for the proposed practices. The functional layouts of the baric f a c i l i t i e s would require l i t t l e designing because they would simply follow the branching pattern of the u t i l i t y structures. The a l l - u t i l i t y structures would have been designed to meet the requirements of the drainage services. Therefore, designing of drainage f a c i l i t i e s would be required only for the other types of struc-tures. Thus, special designing of layout would be required mainly for the communicative and el e c t r i c a l services. The communicative and electric power layouts would be composed mainly of repetitive standard units of several lots with extensions or modifications to f i t the situation at hand. These units would be related to those of the u t i l i t y structure, and based upon careful analysis of the whole range of possible layouts so that they would be practicable and economic as pos-sible. For example, the Virginia Electric and Power Company used computers to determine economic underground wiring layouts for a development having 7,200 living units of which 3,400 are detached residences.^ A cable-conduit combination was used to simplify replacement of primary and secondary cables, i f necessary. The most economic arrangement was found to be a unit C. F. Danforth, "Huge Development in Virginia Served Underground," Elec t r i c a l World, McGraw-Hill, vol. 160, no. 8 (19 August 1963), p. 24. 102. of 16 lots back to back employing an 'extended services concept'.12 The latter involved the substitution of individual service cables for a portion of the secondary circuit and associated materials and accessories.*-* This is illustrated on Diagrams 5a and 5b on the following page. Diagrams 5c and 5e show how this sixteen lot unit could be related symmetrically to the four and eight lot u t i l i t y structure units respectively. Assymmetric layouts are shown in Diagrams 5d and 5f which reduce the length and number of connections of the secondary circuits (by one-quarter and one-half respectively) compared with the symmetric layout. Designing street lighting however, would be quite different from current practice. It would be done in conjunction with decorative lighting. Therefore, the functional layout would involve a variety of levels and types of illumination to suit, the needs of different areas and uses along the street, and provide interest through variety. The wiring layout would involve links from each lamp or group of similar lamps to the nearest transformer via plastic conduit and the u t i l i t y structure. The wiring outside the structure would be minimized where economic by connecting lamps through the nearest manhole. The conversion of the functional layouts for the u t i l i t i e s into physical designs should be almost as simple and straight-forward as i t is in current practice. This is because there would be standard designs for the various parts of the u t i l i t y structure. Thus, the physical design for a particular street section would be mainly composed of standardized parts, and only Danforth, op., c i t . . p. 25; see Table V in Appendix C for results for back-to-back lots., (p. 255). 13... Loc,. c l . t . 103. / 1 1 I 1 i \ \ \ f \ \ \ 1 1 1 \ \ > ,001 1 1 \ \ \ ; / / t i \ \ \ \ \ \ \ P 1 | - — 1f=zr > \ \ \ \ \ \ I / 1 1 I i i \ \ \ I / / / ,001 \ V / \ \ \ \ \ \ / / / a) Virginia Electric 16-lot  layout o o / 1 -t- •+ b) Virginia Electric Extended Services Layout(ftExt.serv.) = g ? ( j ^ E m 1 <n o o c) Symmetric 4-Lot Layout d) Assymetrlc 4-Lot Layout (lef t half) ,001 j * \ •s X \ > N \ 1 <s> 1 CO >N \ a l t e r n a t i v e s ^ ^ / O o e) Symmetric 8-ldt Layout f) Assymetrlc 8-lot Layout (l e f t half) • transformer primary circuit service Z Z Z 1 u t i l i t y str. • connect.boxes second, cir c u i t connection Q manhole DIAGRAM 5 FUNCTIONAL LAYOUTS OF ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE FACILITIES 104. modifications need be shown in special detail. Each u t i l i t y would have a standard assigned location in the various parts of the u t i l i t y structures for their main and a l l related f a c i l i t i e s . A l l of the joints and f a c i l i t i e s where connections to site services were made also would be standardized. F a c i l i t i e s such as transformers and large valves which occur periodically would either be alternated so that only one occurred at each con-nection point, or grouped together in a specially designed part of the u t i l i t y structure. For example where manholes are involved, many could be essentially large connection boxes, while others were enlarged to accommodate a l l such periodic f a c i l i -t ies. In any case, such f a c i l i t i e s as transformers and meters would be designed to take up a minimum of space, yet function eff i c i e n t l y in the u t i l i t y structures. Designing Pavements Designing of pavements for particular sections of a local residential street is straightforward and simple in current practice. Indeed, in the sense employed here, l i t t l e designing is involved. The alignment, location within the street, width, and details at intersections are a l l established by design standards. The only decisions involved in completing the plan-view are the location of catch basins, and they are placed according to standards relating to topography. Driveway connections are added where requested by adjacent property owners, except for minor modifications to maintain standards of clearance from f a c i l i t i e s such as poles and hydrants. The profile or vertical configuration of the pavements is largely determined by the subdivision. Except for rare instances of substantial regrading to improve road gradients, the designing mainly involves establishing the proper profile at intersections on the basis of standards. 105. In contrast, the proposed practice would involve custom designing the pavements for each street section in relation to topography and desired street uses. Since the u t i l i t i e s would be confined to a small portion of the street, the road and sidewalk could 'wander' almost from side to side. The wandering should not be aimless, of course, but deliberately planned to meet certain objectives. These include the practical ones of avoiding excessive costs, taking advantage of natural features, and accommodating various street uses ef f i c i e n t l y . They also include aesthetic objectives such as creating a varied and i n t e r e s t i n g environment that is pleasant to be in and move through. Although a l l pavements would be considered in designing new streets (or redesigning existing ones), the most important are those for pedestrians and vehicles moving along the street, the connections from these to private walks and drives and to the parking areas, and the parking areas themselves. The pedestrian f a c i l i t y running along or through the street w i l l continue to be referred to as a 'sidewalk' for the sake of simplicity, although i t would not always be at the side of the street. The walks from the sidewalk to the private 'front' walks ordinarily are not provided publicly in current practice. They would be provided publicly in the proposed practice because the sidewalk would be a varying distance from the front property line. 1- 4 Also, the connection could form part of the u t i l i t y structure (e.g. cover of trough) carrying the f a c i l i t i e s to the dwellings. Theoretically, the vehicular access pavement should be custom-designed to accommodate anticipated t r a f f i c volumes. In practical application to local streets in a well-designed system of roads, the volumes are usually such that they could be carried The distance varies between municipalities depending upon the standard sidewalk location, but is ordinarily the same within a municipality. 106. on one lane. If people were prepared to accept a one-way street system in single-family residential d i s t r i c t s and the subdivisior and street pattern were properly designed for i t , only one movin lane would be needed on each street. This would reduce the cost of paving and either free almost fourteen percent of the street for street uses and planting, or make i t possible to reduce the width of streets.15 However, to maintain comparability with current practice, one moving lane in each direction is assumed to be required ordinarily. The connections to driveways and parking areas would be only one lane or about ten feet wide. Instead of the current parallel and usually symmetric placement of pavements about the centre line of the street, the functional layout and resultant physical design would be as follows. Where trees, rock, or other natural features worth retaining occurred within the street, only one sidewalk and a road of width adequate for one moving lane in each direction wouU be installed. The placement would be such as to minimize the damage to the natural attributes of the street. For example, the sidewalk might pass on one side of the feature to be retained and the road on the other. Where a particularly interesting rock formation or tree grouping was to be preserved, the street could not be widened, and t r a f f i c was especially light, the road might even be made a single-width two-way lane for a short distance. In other places, one lane of the road might be placed on either side of the feature. The pavements could be placed similarly to one side of the street, or the road on one side and the sidewalk on the other to leave adequate space for playing or other street uses. These ideas are illustrated on Diagram 6 on the following page. Based on a two-way road twenty feet wide and one-way eleven feet wide in sixty-six foot wide street. 1C7. play erea |* /natural/ fe^fui I i I ! 1 I I l i ! I • T — I a) Road and S i d e w a l k S p l i t A r o u n d F e a t u r e and Use A r e s p l a y area ~\ low hedge and other \ planting to discourage J pedestrian crossing at / Ihls point . ^ b) S i n g l e Lane Road S e c t i o n O p p o s i t e F e a t u r e 3) Rosd S p l i t A r o u n d F e a t u r e d) S i d e w a l k O n l y S h i f t e d A r o u n d F e a t u r e DIA.3RAM 6 - IL L U S T R A T I V E LAYOUT OF PAVEMENTS NEAR NATURAL FEATURES 108. In a l l of the above-mentioned cases, the vehicular pavement was only for moving vehicles. There would be no provision along these stretches of the allowance for parking of vehicles. Assuming municipalities have the responsibility for providing parking on streets in new single-family residential areas (a debatable point), the proposed practice would dif f e r from the current practice of providing parallel parking along one side, or more usually both sides of the street. The amount of parking would be based on an estimate of the need or demand for i t Including parking for visitors to the future residents of the area. Decisions on the functional layout and physical design of parking areas also would involve consideration of several factors. These include the estimated number of spaces required for residents and their v i s i t o r s , the distances which residents and visitors w i l l walk between parking spaces and dwellings, the direction of approach, whether spaces w i l l be reserved or not, whether parking areas should be screened from view or not, the location of natural features to be retained, desirable locations of other street uses such as playing areas, and costs. The number of parking spaces provided could conceivably range from that requiring a l l of the space in the street not used for moving vehicles and pedestrians, to a few per block which would allow a high degree of f l e x i b i l i t y i n their placement. Walking distances would be important i f there were a small number of spaces provided at infrequent intervals along the allowance or when parking spaces were reserved for individual residents or their v i s i t o r s . This would be mainly a problem of arriving at a reasonably equitable balance of walking distance between the parking spaces and individual dwellings. Reservation or assigning of specific parking spaces to individual residents or their visitors is probably undesirable 109. because of the problems i t would create. Besides probably requiring that more spaces be provided, reservation might be administratively or p o l i t i c a l l y unfeasible because of the d i f f i c u l t y of policing such an arrangement. However, i t may be desirable in some places to try to r e s t r i c t on-street parking to v i s i t o r s . The direction of approach might be considered in the detailed functional layout and physical design of the parking areas in the interests of convenience and safety for both habi-tual users and strangers. For example, where strangers are likely to approach from one direction, the parking areas for their destination might be located past their destination so that they could easily turn into i t after location their desti-nation. The question of screening relatively unattractive parking areas from view is complicated by the desirability of having such parking areas under surveillance for security reasons. An imaginative designer should be able to achieve a compromise in which a parking area can be under surveillance of several houses even though the area is partly screened, but having main views from a l l houses towards more attractive things such as the natural features that have been retained, or playing areas. Designing of the other access services is unlikely to involve separate f a c i l i t i e s on local streets, but may involve modification of the design of f a c i l i t i e s of other services. Equestrian pavements are unlikely to be provided on local streets in single-family residential areas except in peculiar areas such as the Southlands area of Vancouver. Although small non-scheduled buses might be running on local streets to pick up passengers upon c a l l for delivery to the stops of scheduled transit vehicles, these would require no special f a c i l i t i e s . Separate pavements would seldom be provided for cycles, but 110. special ramps might be provided from the sidewalk to the road where the curb had been eliminated. Thus, bicycles and wheel chairs could cross the road from one sidewalk to the other without going over curbs.^ Similarly, separate pavements are unlikely to be required for emergency vehicles, but provision might have to be made for them to get to otherwise inaccessible portions of the street during emergencies. Designing Planting Designing of planting is currently limited to decisions on the type or types of boulevard tree to be installed and their spacing along the line established by design standards considering relationship to u t i l i t i e s . In the best current practice the spacing is considered in relation to street lighting and driveway requirements. The proposed practice would be similar to current practice only in that practically a l l of the street not covered with pavements would be planted. However, the area would be greater by whatever the amount occupied by the parking use was reduced. More important from a designer's point-of-view is that the areas available for planting would be of varied sizes and shapes. Instead of the current long, narrow strips there would be some fair-sized, roughly rectangular or e l l i p t i c a l open areas for playing, and many triangular or odd-shaped areas around parking or other street use areas. The planting would be radically different from current practice in several ways. Natural features such as small creeks, rock outcroppings, and individual or groups of trees that *"^This assumes that the riding of bicycles would be permitted on sidewalks which seems reasonable in present day living conditions where sidewalks are used less than roads, and accidents involving bicycles are rare on sidewalks but more frequent on roads. 111. could be retained, would be available for incorporation in the design. There would be few restrictions on the type or size of plants that could be installed because the u t i l i t i e s would be safely out of the way. There would be no worry about the branches of trees becoming entangled in overhead wiring, nor about roots getting into sewers, drains, and conduits. Thus some types of trees not f i t t i n g the narrow confines of the strip boulevard or not having tidy root systems might be planted. Shrubs would be introduced for screening, defining use areas, and tying the natural features in with the design. Flowering plants could also be introduced to provide a variety of colour and texture. Finally, instead of ubiquitous grass that probably contributes to the current monotonous conformity, there could be a variety of ground covers such as ivy, clover, moss, or other low maintenance types. A l l of these factors constitute an opportunity for creative and imaginative landscape design. There would also be a few challenges. The incorporation of natural features into the design is one. Another is the screening of parking areas while permitting surveillance of them. Perhaps the greatest challenge is to create a design that provides interest throughout the year and over the years with a minimum of maintenance. Besides installing mostly plants requiring l i t t l e maintenance, planting layout should be designed for easy maintenance, provided other considerations are not unduly compromised. For example, grassed areas could be shaped for easy mowing and connected by grass strips requiring an odd number of passes by the mower to avoid back-tracking. Similarly, the detailed physical design should permit easy maintenance. For instance, grass areas might be edged with bricks so that mowers could run on them and leave a neat looking edge without trimming. The matter of maintenance is important because the pride, sense of duty, or social 112. compulsion which now causes each resident to maintain the boulevard in front of his dwelling would be lacking when there were no obvious area that 'belonged' to each resident. However, the feeling of pride in local environment might be fostered and put to good use by encouraging individuals, groups, or clubs to maintain features such as flower beds and rockeries. The aim of the designer would be to create a streetscape that was attractive and interesting from the beginning, during the year, and over the years. There should be sensations for senses other than sight such as scented flowers or shrubs, an abundance of textures, and the song of birds. This alone might jus t i f y setting aside relatively wild or natural areas. However, there should be some formal areas i f only for contrast, and regularly spaced trees on either side of the road would have their place, perhaps a most frequent one in the overall design. For example, 'tunnels' formed of overhanging branches would be most effective when leading to wide open spaces. Designing Other Local Residential Street F a c i l i t i e s Designing of the f a c i l i t i e s of the other services in the proposed practice involves services not provided or considered comprehensively in current practice. The designing of planting has been discussed separately above including consideration of plant care operations, so the gardening services have been covered. This leaves the furnishing, holding, indicative, and keeping services. The designing of f a c i l i t i e s for particular local residential streets is discussed f i r s t , followed by a discussion of f a c i l i t i e s related to the needs of local street residents, but not installed in local streets. Furnishing services. Designing of furnishings for particular local residential streets would relate mainly to furniture and decorative lighting. The furniture would depend 113. on the type of people living in the area. Where there would be many young children, outdoor 'playpens' or 'tot lots' would be laid out in areas safe from t r a f f i c and having interesting views or nearby activ i t i e s . These 'playpens' would consist of a small area surrounded by a fence containing a sand box and other suitable furniture for the children, and a bench for adults. In dis t r i c t s having an ethnic group that enjoys social recreations requiring special f a c i l i t i e s , these could be provided on the street. For example, in districts having Italian residents, bocce coursts might be installed in streets instead of backyards where the noise of exuberant players can bother neighbors. Where there would be elderly people, quiet conversation areas could be designed with benches and possibly checker-chess tables. Furniture and f a c i l i t i e s related to the needs of residents on local streets but not usually installed in them would be designed comprehensively on a somewhat larger scale. Instead of the current practice of almost completely independent designing of the functional layout of such f a c i l i t i e s , they would be gathered together, integrated in design, and laid out as units serving coincident areas. Such units are herein termed 'servi-centers'. They would be laid out in relation to the functional street system, probably where either long or otherwise important local streets meet collector streets, or where minor collector streets meet a more important one. There would be l i t t l e other furniture to design. Most of the cabinets currently necessary for valves, meters, transformers, and such ancilliary f a c i l i t i e s would be eliminated because these f a c i l i t i e s would be in the u t i l i t y structures. Thus, the only lids or doors showing would be manhole covers, and they would not require any designing. The few other pieces of furniture See footnote 9, page 95. 114c n o t p l a c e d on more i m p o r t a n t s t r e e t s such as f i r e a l a r m boxes would be l a i d out a t s t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n s a t f a i r l y r e g u l a r l y spaced i n t e r v a l s . The e x c e p t i o n t o t h e s e g e n e r a l i t i e s would be the f i r e h y d r a n t . D e s i g n i n g o f f i n i s h e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r i n l o c a l s t r e e t s , would be l i m i t e d t o those o f s m a l l r e t a i n i n g w a l l s o r s p e c i a l pavements i n such s p e c i a l use a r e a s as p l a y p e n s and c o n v e r s a t i o n a r e a s , s i n c e most f i n i s h e s would have been e s t a b l i s h e d by s t a n d a r d s o r o t h e r d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n i s the f i n i s h of s i d e w a l k s formed o f t r o u g h c o v e r s o r e l e c t r i c a l t u b e d - c o n d u i t s . S i n c e t h e s e would be p r e c a s t i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t s , the o p p o r t u n i t y would e x i s t t o p r o v i d e v a r i e d p a t t e r n s o r t e x t u r e s i n v o l v i n g exposed a g g r e g a t e s , f o r i n s t a n c e . The p a t t e r n o r t e x t u r e c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t f o r each neighbourhood o r l o c a l ' c e l l ' , so t h a t p e d e s t r i a n s had t h e i r own i n d i c a t i o n o f change. Perhaps J u n i o r c o u l d be t o l d t o " s t a y on the p i n k s i d e w a l k s J " . The d e s i g n i n g o f o t h e r f u r n i s h i n g s would be m a i n l y t h a t f o r d e c o r a t i v e l i g h t i n g , w h i c h would be done i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the s t r e e t l i g h t i n g . There would p r o b a b l y be no d e c o r a t i o n s and o n l y r a r e ornaments such as p o o l s , s t a t u e s , o r an o c c a s i o n a l ' p l a y s c u l p t u r e ' . Some of the lamps f o r d e c o r a t i v e l i g h t i n g m i ght be c o n s i d e r e d as ornaments i n d e s i g n i n g s p e c i a l use a r e a s , an example b e i n g the mushroom-shaped t y p e . H o l d i n g s e r v i c e s . H o l d e r s would be even more r e s t r i c t e d t o c o l l e c t o r o r more i m p o r t a n t s t r e e t s than i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e . However, some l e t t e r boxes may be r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n c o n v e n i e n t w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e s . They would be l o c a t e d a t s t r e e t i n t e r -s e c t i o n s and l a i d out i n a s i m p l e p a t t e r n ; f o r i n s t a n c e , e v e r y second o r t h i r d b l o c k i n b oth d i r e c t i o n s . H o l d e r s f o r garbage might be p r o v i d e d p u b l i c l y i n s t e a d o f by r e s i d e n t s as i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e . T h i s c o u l d be done i n two 115. ways. Enclosures for i n d i v i d u a l garbage cans could be l a i d out i n lanes or parking areas to serve two or four l o t groups. They would prevent dogs from getting at and scattering garbage, and be less disorderly than otherwise. These holders could be s i m i l a r to the a t t r a c t i v e •trashmaster' with easy-to-open r o l l - u p doors recently introduced. 1^ Another way of providing garbage holders publicly would be by setting removable p l a s t i c or fiberglass containers into the a l l - u t i l i t y structures. These would be l a i d out for the convenience of residents, possibly i n two or four lot groups. The garbage would be deposited i n p l a s t i c bags supplied p u b l i c l y i n the i n t e r e s t of sanitation and quietness. In the case of the tunnel and tubed-conduit structures, the manholes would provide l i t t l e space for such purposes, so this idea would only be practicable where houses had i n c i n e r -ators to -dispose of everything except t i n cans and other incombustible materials. Indicating services. The proposed practice would aim at having more informative and demarcative, less regulatory, and the same or less advertising indicators i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets than i n current practice. Street name and house number signs would be the only informative signs o r d i n a r i l y provided. The former would be i n standard locations at intersections. The l a t t e r would be provided on the curb i n front of houses and parking spaces i f reserved, and on meters and garbage holders. Thus, l i t t l e designing i s involved, assuming the assigning of parking spaces has been dealt with i n designing the parking areas. A few other informative signs may be required such as those indicating non-through ( i . e . dead-end) s t r e e t s , sections of one-way road, or playing areas ahead. Preferably these would involve symbols rather than words when required. However, an attempt would be made to obviate t h e i r need by c a r e f u l design of the "New Products", House & Home, v o l . XXXV, no. 1 (January 1964), p. 134. 116. street system, road, and planting to make such situations obvious. Regulatory signs would similarly be avoided as much as possible, or have informative or demarcative indicators in their place. The fact that parking would not be permitted on the road should be made obvious by its design and that of the parking areas. A 'yield' sign might be required on one side of a one-way road section. The only demarcative indicators in local streets would be center line and parking space markings, and warning markings or signals where the road divides around a natural feature. The only advertising permitted, other than f a c i l i t y manufacturer's names, would be those for the sale of property. Keeping services. Requirements and limitations of equipment of the keeping service would have been considered in the designing of the f a c i l i t i e s of the other services, particularly roads and parking spaces. The roads could be efficiently swept and plowed because of the presence of curbs, absence of parked cars, and a minimum number of curb openings. The latter would not be f i l l e d by snow plows because a controllable gate designed by the National Research Council would be fitted to the discharge end of the blade. i 9 Cars parked in the parking areas would be neither partially buried by plows, nor sprayed with sand or salt. They would also be partially protected from storms by the surrounding screen of* trees and shrubs. Streets could be kept clean and tidy by a machine such as the heavy duty 'Litter-Vac' that picks up: 7"NRC Is Incubator For Equipment Ideas," Financial Post (13 April 1963), p. 53. 117* a 30-lnch swath of paper plates and cups, cartons, scraps, leave, grass clippings . . . almost any kind of l i t t e r thrown by man or machine.20 III. DESIGNING STREET USE AND SERVICEMENT OF INTERSECTIONS Designing the street use and servicement of intersections is discussed separately here because i t would be essentially different from that of local streets between intersections. Instead of striving for variety and individuality, the aim would be to achieve consistency and uniformity for Intersections of the same type. This would be done by having standard designs for each type to which only minor modifications would be required to meet a l l conditions. Thus, designing intersections for a parti-cular d i s t r i c t would be simply a matter of deciding upon the type, and hence, standard of each intersection. Intersections are designed by application of standard designs in current practice, but the proposed practice differs in several important respects. The proposed standards would embody a greater area, number of types of intersections, dis-tinction between types, and range of services involved. Intersection standards currently usually involve only the area of intersection or 'overlap 1 of streets defined by projecting property lines. The proposed standards would include the portion of street 'legs' whose design is affected by the intersection. Instead of a 'typical' standard for a local, major, and (somefcti. times) collector street intersections, there would be a standard for each possible combination. Of concern here are those involving local streets which intersect with other local, collector, and ar t e r i a l streets. Each can either have three or four "legs' - that i s , be a 'T' or cross intersection. There would also be standard designs for such special situations as culs-de-sac, bends, and for cross intersections being converted 2° MHeavy Duty Litter-Vac, " Public Works in Canada. Vancouver, Mitchell Press, vol. II, no. 6 (June 1963), p. 70. 118. to two bends to modify a grid to create a functional street system. Distinction between types of intersections would be greater than in current practice primarily because of deliberate differentiation between local, collector, and major streets. The aim would be to remove any doubt about which street had priority over the other, or whether they were equal in terms of users of them having the right-of-way. A l l visible f a c i l i t i e s would be considered in an attempt to create sufficient d i f f e r -entiation between such dominant elements as pavements, planting, and lighting, that regulatory signs would be unnecessary. To keep the focus on local streets, i t has been assumed that there is sufficient differentiation between local and arterial streets since the latter are usually wider and have more t r a f f i c lanes, brighter lighting from different types of lamps, and different planting. Unfortunately, the latter often means lack of planting. It is further assumed that three-legged intersections are not a problem in that the priority is obviously with the bar rather than the stem of the 'T1, and that designs for them would be essentially modifications of comparable four-legged or cross intersections. Thus the main problem is one of differentiating between local and collector streets, while maintaining sufficient differentiation between the latter and a r t e r i a l streets. However, some differentiation between two crossing similar streets might be desirable since intersections with no priority differences are accident prone. Collector streets could be differentiated from local ones in several ways. Their pavements should be wider for f a i r l y rapid movement compared to that desired on local streets. The center line markings could be solid in contrast to dashed ones on local streets. The collector street might have trees evenly spaced for some distance back from the intersection, while the local street has no trees near the intersection. Lighting on 119. the collector might be brighter, and Involve t a l l e r , regularly spaced lamps near the intersection, whereas those on the local street were kept back. Thus, the lighting and prominent planting at the intersection would be that of the priority street, making *it obvious on approach. Finally, a l l other visible f a c i l i t i e s would be comprehensively designed to reinforce the distinction. The other visible f a c i l i t i e s ordinarily are Installed at intersections in current practice, but are not usually designed in relationship to one another. They tend to congregate on collector street intersections, especially around transit stops, but in a haphazard fashion. In the proposed practice, inter-sections of two local streets would have only those f a c i l i t i e s required at a l l or almost a l l intersections. These include f i r e hydrants, street name signs, and street lights. Other f a c i l i t i e s would be gathered together at intersections with collector streets to reinforce the appearance of priority, while providing a common and known location for a l l of them. These f a c i l i t i e s would have a highly integrated design in terms of the f a c i l i t i e s themselves, and their relationship with others in the street. Possible designs for intersections of local streets with other local and collector streets are discussed separately below. Intersections of two local streets would have a f i r e hydrant on one corner and street name signs and lamps on diagonally opposite corners. These locations would be standard-ized as much as possible (see Diagram 7 on the following page). They may occasionally have a fi r e alarm box. The road would be only two moving lanes wide even where parallel parking was provided further back on a street, so that turning movements must be made slowly and carefully and pedestrians cross a minimum width of road. However, the curb returns or the curb from one street to the other around the corner would be related to the path of a turning vehicle instead of a simple quarter c i r c l e . 120. PROPOSED PRACTICE DIAGRAM 7 - FACILITIS3 AT THE INTERSECTION OF TWO LOCAL STREETS 121. The sidewalk would have a ramp down to the road for baby carriages, cycles, and wheelchairs. Although the sidewalk i t s e l f could be ramped down, i t is probably better to have a separate ramp. Pedestrians might not like ramps because of their slopeand slipperyness when wet or icy. Also, children on b i -cycles would be tempted to dash straight across. The offset ramp might be so arranged that the inside wheels of f i r e depart-ment ladder trucks and large moving vans could 'cut the corner' over them. On the assumption that non-signalized intersections should always have streets of non-equal p r i o r i t i e s , the following modifications might be made to this standard (see Diagram 8). The centerline of the priority street could be carried through the intersection while that on the other street is cut off by a line at the sidewalk. The lamps could be set back slightly along the priority street and tie in visually with a few others. The trees could be similarly designed. Before discussing the other types of intersections, i t may be well to put them in a frame work to show their relationships. Diagram 9 on page 123 shows a section of a typical grid subdivision which is to be serviced or 'reserviced' by redesigning and upgrading i t s f a c i l i t i e s . The above assumption of non-equal priorities is made instead of the more drastic one that streets must be cut off by various means to make them non-continuous. The bounding streets are assumed to be part of a system at quarter-mile spacing as is often the case. In such a situation, the east-west streets on which the lots front would have priority everywhere except at the 'major' collectors' A and D. These would be given priority to compensate for the otherwise more d i f f i c u l t travel in the north-south directions. Thus, there are three remaining types of intersection: local streets with minor and major collectors, and minor with major collectors. 122. PROPOSED PRACTICE DIAGRAM 8 - PROPOSED DEST3N OF INTERSECTIONS OF TWO LOCAL STREETS 'DIAGRAM 9 - COMPARISON OF PAVEMENT DESIGNS OF CURRENT AND PROPOSED PRACTICES IN TYPICAL GRID SUBDIVISION , 124. The local collector Intersections may not require any more differentiation between the streets than that already discussed. Where other measures are deemed necessary the following could be tried: a line or coloured section of pavement on the local street at the collector. If i t proves to be necessary, 'yield' signs could be placed on the local streets at minor collectors, and 'stop' signs at the major collectors. One of the major collectors would be a transit route and require pullouts for buses, a 'bus stop' sign, and a box for the morning newspaper at inbound stops (those for evening papers being downtown). The alternate street 'far side' layout preferred by the transit company for bus pullouts is shown for 'D' street on Diagram 9 . For a given resident on an east-west street, either the inbound or outbound stop is on his street, and the other is only one street away along the major collector. The far-side stop past an intersection is safer for pedestrians because they must cross behind the bus where they can see and be seen by approaching motorists. Although the main concern in this investigation is with local streets, the intersection of two collectors is considered briefly here to suggest possible ways of dealing with the f a c i l i -ties that would not be provided in local streets in the proposed practice, but are required to serve residential d i s t r i c t s . In current practice, the only f a c i l i t y that is ordinarily located at intersections of collectors is a letter box, due to the post office's dual concern with convenience to those served and for collection. For similar reasons, parcel and mail boxes are located at intersections of collectors, but less frequently. For the proposed practice, i t is suggested that a l l intersections of collectors have letter, newspaper, and l i t t e r holders, and a f i r e alarm. They may also have some provision for advertising local events. At every other intersection, there would also be a parcel holder and telephone and possibly vending machines for 125. c i g a r e t t e s and s i m i l a r 'convenience' i t e m s . M a i l boxes might be l o c a t e d a t these i n t e r s e c t i o n s o r the a l t e r n a t i v e 'minor' ones l a c k i n g the b u l k y p a r c e l h o l d e r . In e i t h e r case the p o s t a l f a c i l i t i e s would be t o g e t h e r f o r the c o n v e n i e n c e o f m a i l t r u c k d r i v e r s and l e t t e r c a r r i e r s . F or example, the l a t t e r o f t e n have to r e a d d r e s s and r e m a i l l e t t e r s , and c o u l d do t h i s upon p i c k i n g up a bundle from the m a i l h o l d e r , o r a t the end o f a r o u t e e n d i n g a t a c o l l e c t o r i n t e r s e c t i o n . The i n t e r s e c t i o n s w i t h the t e l e p h o n e , p a r c e l box, and v e n d i n g machines would be a t a h a l f - m i l e s p a c i n g i n each d i r e c t i o n , and on d i a g o n a l l y o p p o s i t e c o r n e r s such as A-5 and D-l on Diagram 9. Diagram 10 shows a s u ggested l a y o u t f o r these i n t e r s e c t i o n s of c o l l e c t o r s based upon the assumption t h a t the f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y f o r the c o n v e n i e n c e o f m o t o r i s t s . One r e a s o n f o r t h i s assumption i s t h a t the i n c r e a s e i n use o f c a r s to m a i l l e t t e r s and p i c k up a package of c i g a r e t t e s seems to have p a r a l l e l e d the growth of a u t o m o b i l e o w n e r s h i p . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t people w i l l use c a r s f o r such purposes i f they have them, a n d t h a t t h i s use w i l l i n c r e a s e w i t h a n t i c i p a t e d i n c r e a s e s i n a u t o m o b i l e ownership. The o t h e r r e a s o n f o r the assumption i s t h a t d e s i g n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r c o n v e n i e n t use by m o t o r i s t s c o u l d make the s t r e e t s more c o n v e n i e n t and s a f e f o r o t h e r s t r e e t u s e r s . F o r i n s t a n c e , m a i l t r u c k s and c a r s parked b e s i d e p o s t a l f a c i -l i t i e s f o r c e f o l l o w i n g c a r s t o w a i t o r swing out i n t o t h e oncoming l a n e and b l o c k the v i e w of p e d e s t r i a n s c r o s s i n g i n f r o n t o f them. The m o t o r i s t s s t o p p i n g to m a i l l e t t e r s o r buy news-papers o f t e n endanger t h e i r own s a f e t y by o p ening t h e i r c a r door and s t e p p i n g out w i t h o u t l o o k i n g . The s a f e t y and convenience of p e d e s t r i a n s i s not i g n o r e d , however. Indeed the suggested l a y o u t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t t e r f o r them i n these r e s p e c t s . They would o n l y have t o c r o s s one v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c l a n e a t a time i n c r o s s i n g the i n t e r s e c t i o n o r g o i n g t o the s e r v i c e 127. f a c i l i t i e s , a l l of which would be partially sheltered on the island 'servi-center•.21, 22 The suggested layout would probably only be applicable to intersections of two lane collectors in 66 foot wide streets, or intersections of a two lane with a four lane collector when the latter was in a wider street at the intersection. In any case, widening either or both streets near the intersection would allow more generous curvatures and space between pavements for planting. Providing the streets are truly collectors and not carrying long distance through trips that ought to be on arter i a l streets or freeways, the vehicular t r a f f i c flow should be such as to cause l i t t l e inconvenience in terms of delay. On the major collector, the through and right turn movements would have priority over other movements including pedestrians. Those making l e f t turns would wait for opposing t r a f f i c i f necessary, without blocking following t r a f f i c by turning into the median space. Traffic on the minor collector would only have to stop to yield to the priority of t r a f f i c on the major collector when there was any. The through and le f t turns could be made with less delay than currently on some collectors because openings or breaks are required in the flows on the major collector in only one direction at a time instead of both, by crossing into the median. The term 1servi-center• refers to the integrated installation of such service f a c i l i t i e s as letter, parcel and nespaper boxes and telephones in the center of collector street intersections. 00 "The total distance would be equal for pedestrians arriving from a l l eight directions (each side of the four street legs) and equivalent to crossing one street. At present, to reach a f a c i l i t y installed on a corner, pedestrians from two directions cross no streets, those from four cross one, and those from two directions cross two streets. Thus, i t would be •averaged out' for everyone. 128. One situation that could block a street would arise when either both spaces beside the'servi-center• were occupied and another driver was waiting to enter, or when one was occupied and a driver of a waiting car f e l t he could not make a U-turn into the other space because of his car's maneuverability or t r a f f i c conditions. Such a situation would likely be infrequent and short-lived, and would probably be remedied by the waiting driver going to another servi-center. Vehicles such as fi r e trucks and long moving vans might make le f t turns through the right turn lane short of the servi-center. Designs for the servi-center are shown on Diagram 11 merely to suggest the possibilities that would exist. The actual design could be made the subject of a competition amongst architects and industrial designers. The f a c i l i t i e s should be so designed that they can be easily used from cars including low-slung sports models. For instance, the telephone probably should be the type with the dialing mechanism in the handpiece which is on an extension cord. Probably the most d i f f i c u l t problem in this respect is designing devices to collect money for services rendered. Ideally, there would be a single device that made change, col-lected for a l l services, recorded each transaction separately and warned of tampering. Change making devices are becoming common in vending machines, and ones that can make change for (American) dollar b i l l s were a feature of the Seattle World's Fair. These devices could remove one problem people have in using public services. Indeed, money changing might become a public serive in i t s e l f . For instances, people might go to servi-centers to get change for bus fares or parking meters. The latter would be especially important in downtown areas where the servi-center could be located on the left side of one-way streets. The changers should at least partially recirculate money received by 1 2 9 . DIAGRAM 11 - SUGGESTED DESIGN OF 'SERVI-CENTER• 130. giving i t out in change to reduce the total held in them, thus reducing the frequency of collection and temptation to p i l f e r from them. For example, soft drink vending machines give out nickels received, as change for quarters. Ordinary vending machines do not record transactions because the consumption of a given commodity or brand is obvious by what is l e f t . Machines have been recently introduced in parts of the United States as automated local post offices and grocery stores that accept money, debit the price of items selected, and return the remaining credit as change.2^ Similar operations could be performed by a relatively simple mechanism in each of the major servi-centers controlled by a centrally located computer linked by telephone cable. The pilferage problem could be lessened by designing stronger money holders than currently installed by the telephone and newspaper companies. When tampered with, the changing mechanism might trigger alarms or cameras, or both. Since the 'get-away setup* would be favourable for theft, alarms are probably of l i t t l e avail. Cameras could record the appearance of the person or car involved. For recording licence plate numbers, a camera might be mounted in the median island facing the front of one car and the back of another. They would have to be theft-proof themselves, and remain unobstructed. This might require an electric eye that sounded an alarm whenever blocked for more than a few seconds. Alarm systems might also be installed to be triggered by interruptions in power or telephone services. Such measures are expensive, and i t would probably be better to have strong money holders with l i t t l e in them. To be practicable, the money changing and recording Statement by Mr. Dale Johnson, Dale Distributors (B.C.) Ltd., in telephone interview. 131. devices should cater to as many services and replace as many f a c i l i t i e s as possible. It could replace the coin acceptance devices and holders of the telephone, newspaper and postage stamp services; the latter a new service in residential d i s t r i c t s . It could also replace the coin mechanisms in a vending machine for cigarettes, matches, and possibly other 'convenience1 items. The vending machine could be installed publicly and leased to private firms to supply and service i t , or such firms could i n s t a l l the vending machine and coin mechanism at less or no rent. Either way, the public would be better served than currently. IV. DESIGNING THE SUBDIVISION The preceding description and discussion of the proposed process of designing local residential street use and servicement was based on the assumption that the subdivision existed. However f u l l benefit from the proposed street use and servicing practices could only be derived when the designing of the subdivision was an integral part of the process. The proposed process of designing a subdivision w i l l be described by f i r s t summarizing the best current practice, and then describing differences in the proposed practice. The process of designing a subdivision for a f a i r l y large area in the best current practice involves surveying the general topography by aerial photography, reconnoitering by the designers to get the 'feel' of the site, designing preliminary plats, checking the same on the ground, revising on the basis of this check incorporation of easement for u t i l i t i e s , and preparation of the fi n a l plat. The checking and revising steps may be repeated several times when d i f f i c u l t terrain or meticulous designers are involved. The factors taken into consideration include: 132. 1. Natural features such as ravines, steep slopes and rock formations that are worth preserving for their aesthetic or recreational value, or because of the costs or loss of safety that might be involved due to the drainage and s o i l s t a b i l i t y problems created by their removal. 2. Relatively level areas suitable for economic and safe (i.e. stable) construction of playing fields. 3. Areas having desirable views of either the panoramic type, of which the best are from the top of steep banks, or those with close views of ravines or park areas for prime dwelling sites. 4. Areas or features such as rock outcroppings likely to cause excessive servicing costs. 5. Areas which appear to require special investigation of s o i l drainage, or other conditions such as marshy areas. 6. Slopes of possible road alignments within acceptable ranges (including minimums) for the various classifications of roads involved. 7. The need for lanes, right-of-ways, or easements for u t i l i t i e s and the alignment of them. 8. Design standards for the subdivision plat (size and shape of lots; width of road and lane allowances; width of right-of-ways and easements) and for the roads and lanes (grades, angle of intersection, type of intersections) established by the Provincial Government or municipality. 9. The quality of development that is wanted in the area. This influences the size of lots reqdred and need for lanes since they can be eliminated in some instances when lots are wide enough to have driveways. 10. Desirable attributes of a functional street system including a systematic hierarchy of street types, minimum number of intersections avoidance of cross intersection of local streets and minimum lengths of straight runs on local streets. These influence layout and size of streets. 133. No attempt need be made here to describe the processes by which designers consider these factors. They are somewhat subjective, and at best highly creative. The proposed process of designing subdivisions would give greater attention to certain of the above listed considerations, and would add some sociological and behavioural ones. Much more consideration would be given to natural features in and near potential streets. Besides the minor topographic features and rock formations, interesting individual and groups of trees would be considered for possible incorporation in the design of the street. Since the boundaries of the street would not be fixed at this stage, the possibilities of avoiding problems and taking advantage of opportunities would be greater than i f the sub-division existed. For example, the alignments of the road and u t i l i t y structures could deviate even more from the center line of the tentative street to avoid rock formations or improve grades. Attractive trees would be avoided to save them for incorporation in the planting design. Only when a satisfactory compromise between alignments for the pavements and u t i l i t y structures, preservation of natural features, and reservation of space for street uses had been achieved, would the street boundaries.be established. The street boundaries would differ radically from the current practice - they would no longer always be parallel. Where there were natural features or areas wanted for special uses the street would be wide - where there were not, i t might be narrow. It would also be widened or 'flared out' at inter-sections of two collector streets to allow for more generous curvatures and spaces around servi-centers. These variations in street width would affect the depth of abutting sites, of course, i f their rear property line paralleled the centerline of the street. However, the streets on either side could be 134. either shifted slightly or narrowed and the rear property line 'averaged' to maintain reasonably comparable depths. Assuming the practice of establishing building setbacks were maintained, this variation in street width would tend to produce naturally the variation in setbacks of houses that architects and planners desire but seldom achieve. The sociological considerations are the relationships between the physical environment and social phenomena. L i t t l e is known about these relationships, or about the effects of changes the environment has on these phenomena. There is a great need to increase our knowledge in this sphere. In the meantime, what knowledge is available should be put to use. For example, one study found that in a lower income working class area where friendships with neighbours seemed important, the pattern and number of friendships formed were adversely affected by several aspects of the subdivision design. These are unusual horizontal or vertical separation between facing houses, absence of a lane along the rear of the lots, arid presence of a lane at the side of l o t s . 2 4 Behavioural characteristics that ought to be considered in subdivision design are similarly lacking in fundamental research. There are some, however, either well known or easily obtainable from observation and experience. One example is the tendency of people to park on the side of the street nearest their home or other destination. Since vehicles must park on the right hand side of two-way streets in British Columbia, people often make somewhat indirect approaches to their destination. Failure to consider this tendency could result in people consi-dering inconvenient a street system that has a perfect 'branching' pattern. 24 R. A. Williams, The Sociological Effects of Subdivision  Design - A Micro-ecological Study. unpublished thesis, University of British Columbia, 1958. 135. V. FUTURE SERVICES The proposed practices would take into consideration the possibility that new services would be provided to property, or that existing services might become u t i l i t i e s . This has been the historical tendency in the process of evolution of services to to-day's situation, and there is no reason to assume that i t w i l l not continue. It is d i f f i c u l t to predict what w i l l happen, but worthwhile speculating on the po s s i b i l i t i e s , and perhaps making some provision for the more promising ones. Changes occur in services when i t becomes more efficient or economical to do something communally, or this becomes necessary in the interests of health and safety. These consider-ations are related to density of development in that the need for communal services increases with density, while becoming more efficient and economic. For instance, rural areas may be served only by roads, or also by drainage ditches, e l e c t r i c i t y , and telephone. They can be considered to become suburban when served by water pipes in place of wells and usually septic tanks instead of outhouses or toilets connected to rock pits. Urban areas require sewerage service in place of septic tanks. Other services may become necessary or economically feasible as either density increases further or the extent of a given density spreads. As far as local residential streets are concerned, these would be mainly communicative services such as cable-TV and f i r e alarm systems. Changes in services to property also occur as a result of technological innovations or sociological and economic revolutions, especially in those involving delivery or collection. For example, ice delivery service was eliminated by refrigerators. Coal, wood, and sawdust fuel delivery services have almost been replaced by fuel o i l and natural gas. Milk, bread, fr u i t and vegetable delivery services may soon disappear since they seem 1 3 6 . to be caught In a vicious spiral of having to reduce the quality of service, especially in frequency, which causes loss of customers and a further need for quality reductions. The postal service is relatively immune to such forces. The question for the future is whether such communal services w i l l be merely abandoned or replaced by a u t i l i t y ser-vice as the natural gas u t i l i t y replaced other fuel delivery services. Somewhat facetious suggestions have been made to this investigator that i t would be nice to have beer 'on tap' by having i t 'piped in'. There are two main problems that make beer or milk pipe systems unlikely. One is .that of ensuring purity and freshness. This might be possible to overcome but only at remendous expense. The other problem is that of pro-viding a selection of brands or grades. Also, such systems would only supply single commodities, unlike the variety provided by the 'milkman'. A more promising possibility is a u t i l i t y service that could deliver and collect capsules containing almost anything that would f i t into them. Such a service could deliver not only dairy products, bread, beer and mail; but also drugs and perhaps groceries. It could collect not only empty capsules and mail, but also unburnable refuse such as tin cans i f everyone had incin-erators, or possibly a l l types of household garbage not handled by sink disposal units. The capsules for certain commodities, particularly the liquids such as milk and beer, might be specially designed and used as the containers and be re-usable. Other capsules could be general purpose ones. The f a c i l i t y carrying the capsules might be some type of enclosed conveyor system, but a baric or pressure system seems more promising. This might be a pneumatic system similar to those in some office buildings or department stores. However, there would be serious switching problems with the number of destinations or 'stations' involved. The capsules might also 137. be transported through pipes carrying liquids as is being considered on a larger scale for bulk cargoes of coal and wheat.2^ An interesting possibility is that of modifying normal baric services for a dual purpose. The gas service is considered unsuitable because i t would be outside the proposed u t i l i t y structures, subject commodities to possible contamination, and present operating d i f f i c u l t i e s . The latter would arise not only in switching, but also in that pressure differentials adequate to move capsules would be incompatible with the require-ments of gas service. On the other hand, the water service seems promising, provided that the capsules were automatically ste r i l i z e d at inlets and the pipe system could be redesigned to carry them. Although i t may be possible to devise a one pipe system, a two pipe system would probably be simpler. This might be an advantage in areas where potable water is expensive because one pipe could carry potable water for drinking and cook-ing while the other carried slightly brackish or saline water suitable for flushing t o i l e t s , watering lawns, and f i l l i n g swimming pools when treated which chlorine. Another possibility would be to d i s t i l l necessary potable water in each dwelling, perhaps in the same unit as the capsule s t e r i l i z e r . The designing of a system to deliver and collect capsules to single-family residences is beyond the scope of this investigation. There are many problems to be solved, particularly in switching given capsules to given destinations instead of merely carrying a few staples that are constantly circulating u n t i l removed by pushing a selector button. However, switching and detecting devices are constantly being improved. For example, railway boxcar numbers can now be detected from patterns of radioactive buttons while the car i s moving. It must be 25* Frank Dolphin, "Pipeline'Trains' No Longer Dream", Financial Post. 30 March 1963, p. 3. 138. assumed that technological progress w i l l continue, and that what one man conceives, another w i l l someday do. Looking further into the future, Marvin Camras, the inventor of the magnetic recorder, foresees more startling p o s s i b i l i t i e s . He suggests that . . . goods consumed daily such as foods, drugs, and fuel w i l l be piped into each home in elementary form of fluid or suspension. Memory packs w i l l control complex electro-chemical-mechanical processing equipment that w i l l convert or separate the piped materials into the desired products.26 The memory packs would hold information on products in the market, entertainment, education, telephone numbers, receipts, income tax and other personal data constantly being updated via the telephone, and viewable on a viewing console.27 The point of interest here is that future u t i l i t y systems would be more feasible to i n s t a l l in u t i l i t y structures than otherwise, and that consideration should be given to reserving space for them. VI. SUMMARY OF PROPOSED DESIGNING PRACTICES The proposed process of designing the street use and servicement of local residential streets has been described and discussed above in relation to current practice. It differs from current practice in two main ways. It would be more compre-hensive in terms of the number of factors considered in each design, especially sociological and behavioural ones. Secondly, i t would be more intimately related to the needs, problems, and o f. Arthur J. Snider, "Pocket-Size Memory Packs Will Shop, Bank, Entertain", Vancouver Sun. 24 January 1964, p. 6. 27. Loc. c i t . 139. possibilities of each particular street section, especially relating to such natural features as rock outcroppings and attractive trees. On the assumption that the subdivision plat existed, six main aspects of the proposed designing process were examined with these results. Designing of street uses would involve uses other than parking such as playing and other recreation, and relating a l l of them to the needs and desires of various age groups. Designing of u t i l i t y structures would be unique. It would vary for different types of structures, being most com-plicated for the a l l - u t i l i t y trough because of i t s high degree of integration and need to compromise between drainage and pedestrian requirements. Designing of u t i l i t i e s would be most comparable to current practice, allowing for differences due to the u t i l i t y structure. It would be mainly a matter of modifying standard designs to f i t particular situations. Pave-ments and planting would be custom designed to accommodate special use areas and take advantage of natural features; in the former's case by passing to one or both sides of them. Designing of other property service f a c i l i t i e s would be limited to the few that would be installed in local residential streets; most would be located at intersections. Designing of inter-sections was considered separately to show how these f a c i l i t i e s would be dealt with, including description of 'servi-centers* for intersections of collector streets. The assumption was then made that the subdivision plat did not exist to describe how the designing of subdivision plats would be made an integral part of the whole process. This would involve greater attention to natural features and sociological and behavioural considerations. Finally, the possibilities of future service that could be installed in u t i l i t y structures has been considered. 140. The next chapter discusses the process of installing property service f a c i l i t i e s in local residential streets. CHAPTER IV PROPOSED INSTALLING PRACTICES A DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING PROPERTY SERVICE FACILITIES FOR LOCAL RESIDENTIAL STREET USE AND SERVICEMENT1 The proposed practices of installing property service f a c i l i t i e s for local street use and servicement are described and discussed in this chapter in a fashion similar to that for the proposed designing process in the preceding chapter. That i s , the process is briefly described generally and then in more detail by major aspects. As before, these aspects are the u t i l i t y structures, u t i l i t i e s , pavements, planting, and other f a c i l i t i e s . This time, however, the proposed practice of •installing* a subdivision plat w i l l be discussed f i r s t . This is i t s logical position in the complete process of developing an area, and i t is unnecessary here to distinguish between existing and proposed subdivision plats. This is because i t is assumed that existing subdivisions would often have to be newly established on the ground. The reason for this is that even where subdivision had been completely established on the ground, many of the survey posts have shifted or disappeared. Furthermore, the proposed practices apply almost as well to ordinary subdivision plats as to the proposed designs. An aspect not requiring designing - preparation of the street for servicing - is introduced after the discussion of the process of installing subdivision plats. The proposed process of installing subdivision and property service f a c i l i t i e s is similar to the best current practice in general terms of staging and operations involved. U t i l i t i e s would be installed before pavements, pavements before The term 'servicement' means the condition or state existing when services have been installed. See page 19. for definition^ 142. p l a n t i n g and p l a n t i n g b e f o r e o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s so t h a t damage to i n s t a l l e d f a c i l i t i e s w h i l e i n s t a l l i n g o t h e r s would be m i n i m i z e d . O p e r a t i o n s such as e x c a v a t i n g and b a c k f i l l i n g would be c a r r i e d out i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , though not f o r the same f a c i l i t i e s . O p e r a t i o n s f o r l a y i n g f a c i l i t i e s would be b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r , but may be s i m p l i f i e d o r c o m p l i c a t e d somewhat by d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r i s e m a i n l y because o f the presence o f the u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s . T h e i r i n s t a l l a t i o n , o f c o u r s e , i s the most fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between the proposed and c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e . The d i f f e r e n c e s from c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e a r e d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . I . PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING SUBDIVISION PLATS The proposed p r o c e s s o f i n s t a l l i n g new s u b d i v i s i o n p l a t s , o r r e - i n s t a l l i n g o l d ones, would d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y from the b e s t c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e o n l y i n the way s u r v e y i n g o p e r a t i o n s were c a r r i e d o u t . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g and r e g i s t e r i n g o f the p l a t would be the same, o r would n o t be i n v o l v e d i n the case o f o l d s u b d i v i s i o n s . The b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e would be the c a r e t a k e n i n p e r f o r m i n g the s u r v e y i n g o p e r a t i o n s t o p r e s e r v e n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s w o r t h r e t a i n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y t r e e s . C u r r e n t l y no such c a r e i s t a k e n nor need be, because s t r e e t s a r e l a t e r c l e a r e d c o m p l e t e l y , as are o f t e n the s i t e s as w e l l . S i g h t l i n e s a r e c l e a r e d o f a l l growth wherever c o n v e n i e n t f o r e f f i c i e n t s u r v e y i n g . Rock o u t c r o p p i n g s are s c a l e d and marked t o e s t a b l i s h r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s o f v a r y i n g degrees o f permanency. Many d i s a p p e a r when the r o c k i s l a t e r removed, j u s t as t h e c u t s t h r o u g h the t r e e s f o r s i g h t l i n e s d i s a p p e a r when more t r e e s a r e c l e a r e d , so they a r e c u r r e n t l y of l i t t l e c o n c e r n . When i t i s d e s i r e d t o p r e s e r v e n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s however, t h e s e p r a c t i c e s become a m a t t e r o f c o n c e r n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t 143. is as easy to cut down attractive trees as others, and size matters l i t t l e with to-day's power saws. The most prominent parts of rock outcroppings are often the most attractive and also most suitable for survey marks. The damage occurs during two surveying operations. The f i r s t is that undertaken to determine the detailed topography along potential street align-ments. A sight line is cleared along the centerline of the potential street and measurements are taken at regular intervals and changes in slopes to determine the profile of the centerline. Measurements are also taken on lines perpendicular to the centerline to determine the cross-section of the street. Features such as creeks and rock likely to affect the design of the street or road are accurately located. It is during this operation that rock outcroppings are marked with relatively permanent and easily locatable reference points for other surveying work later. The other surveying operation of concern is that of 'staking out' the subdivision plat. This is the operation that actually 'installs' the plat on the ground. It involves more clearing to get sight lines to the comers of every lot. The most efficient way might be down the property lines bounding the street. In the proposed practice, such damage would be minimized by either training the survey crews to do so, or supervising them to ensure i t . Clearing for the survey of detailed topo-graphy would follow the tentative road alignment, but would not include trees worth preserving or growth on previously unknown rock formations. These would be carefully surveyed to establish their location and size so that the road could be diverted around them and they could be incorporated in the planting design. Even when the road could not be diverted to preserve especially attractive trees, they should be preserved for moving to other locations. Techniques would be worked out for establishing 144. reference points on rock outcroppings without defacing them. For example, bench marks might be set on top or back from the face with temporary indicators above them for surveying purposes. Probably the best way of preserving natural features would be for a design-oriented person to accompany the clearing crew to mark features for preservation and make on-site adjustments in the survey reference line. The proposed practice of staking out the subdivision plat would involve a minimum of clearing and avoidance of trees worth preserving. This could be done by working from the previously established reference line to which trees marked for preservation and the plat design would have been related. Trees on property lines would be preserved by surveying around them instead of •over their dead bodies'. Rear property markers could be established from a clearing for the lane. Otherwise, the side property lines would be projected back from the front corners. Where there were good trees, a marker might be set short of the rear corner which would be referenced from set marker. Thus, a screen of trees along the rear of lots could be l e f t intact. II. PROPOSED PROCESS OF PREPARING STREETS FOR SERVICING The f i r s t few general stages of the proposed servicing practices - those preparing the street for servicing - are similar to current practice in terms of the operations involved. These stages are clearing, culverting, rough and fine grading, and installing a road bed. The same operations and machines would be involved for the same purposes, but the extent and resultant costs of these operations would dif f e r considerably. The whole street would not be cleared and graded as is usually required in current practice. Instead i t would be cleared and graded only to the extent required for pavements and such street uses as f a i r sized playing areas. 145. The c l e a r i n g p r o c e s s would be c o n f i n e d t o the a r e a a s s i g n e d f o r pavements and open p l a y i n g a r e a s e x c e p t f o r the r e m o v a l o f s p e c i a l l y marked t r e e s t h a t a r e unwanted and would be dangerous o r d i f f i c u l t t o remove l a t e r . The r e m a i n d e r o f the s t r e e t would be improved l a t e r by s e l e c t i v e r e m o v a l o f t r e e s and under-b r u s h as p a r t o f the p r o c e s s o f i n s t a l l i n g the g a r d e n i n g s e r v i c e . I n the areas b e i n g c l e a r e d , a l l growth would be removed i n c l u d i n g r o o t s . S o i l s u i t a b l e f o r p l a n t i n g purposes would be s t o c k - p i l e d on a r e a s not r e q u i r i n g g r a d i n g f o r l a t e r use i n a r e a s t o be p l a n t e d , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g s o l d as i s o f t e n the case c u r r e n t l y . U n s u i t a b l e o r g a n i c o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l would be removed as a t p r e s e n t . C u l v e r t s would be i n s t a l l e d p r i o r t o o r d u r i n g t h e rough g r a d i n g o p e r a t i o n on w a t e r c o u r s e s c r o s s i n g the r o a d as i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e , but would be l a r g e enough f o r a t l e a s t boys t o c r a w l through s a f e l y . Where the d r a i n a g e u t i l i t i e s would p e r m i t , c u l v e r t s l a r g e enough f o r a d u l t s might be i n s t a l l e d , e s p e c i a l l y where the w a t e r c o u r s e was made a park s t r i p w i t h a w a l k through i t . The c u l v e r t c o u l d have s t e p p i n g s t o n e s o r l e d g e s f o r d r y passage i n a l l but heavy s t o r m c o n d i t i o n s . The rough g r a d i n g o p e r a t i o n s would be c o n f i n e d t o the same a r e a s , but would c o n c e n t r a t e on c u t t i n g and f i l l i n g t o e s t a b l i s h the d e s i g n e d r o a d grade. The f i n e - g r a d i n g o p e r a t i o n s would f i n i s h t h i s j o b and the g r a d i n g o f p l a y i n g a r e a s , and t h e n t i e them i n t o the n a t u r a l grades a c c o r d i n g t o the d e s i g n . I n r e l a t i v e l y rugged t e r r a i n , c o n n e c t i o n s t o d r i v e w a y s would a l s o be graded t o d e s i g n e d a l i g n m e n t s and g r a d i e n t s . I n s t a l l i n g the roadbed would c o n s i s t as c u r r e n t l y o f r o l l i n g o r tamping the r o a d grade t o form a f i r m f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e r o a d , and p l a c i n g sand o r g r a v e l where n e c e s s a r y t o p e r m i t use o f the roadbed by equipment i n v o l v e d i n s e r v i c i n g o r c o n s t r u c t i n g d w e l l i n g s . 146. The proposed process of preparing streets for servicing thus differs from current practice mainly in terms of the areas involved. This affects costs directly, and also indirectly in that smaller volumes would be involved in the grading operations. Diagram 12. shows how the cross-sectional area decreases for a narrower graded area. Diagram 12. Comparison of Cross-sectional Areas Involved in Grading The total area of cut and f i l l in the longitudinal section would also be reduced because the road could be more closely fitted to the topography. These two factors would combine to produce substantial reductions in volume of earth moved. There would also be savings due to the decreased width and area of the road-bed for such items as culverts and sand or gravel. On the other hand, there may be somewhat higher unit costs for some operations because of d i f f i c u l t y of maneuvering equipment in small areas. Substantial saving could be realized in rock areas because the design would minimize the amount to be removed. The proposed practices could yield substantial benefits for property owners where there was a steep cross-slope. Driveway gradients could be lowered because of the greater distance to the road when perpendicular (as illustrated by the dotted line on Diagram 12.) or slanting across the site and part of the street. Furthermore, the need for and the cost of retaining walls would be largely eliminated i f regrading were kept within the street. Current Practice Proposed Practice 147. III. PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING UTILITY STRUCTURES2 The proposed practice differs considerably from current practice in that u t i l i t y structures would be installed, but the processes of installing most of them are generally comparable to current processes of installing certain f a c i l i t i e s , particu-larly those of the drainage services. As for the latter, the three main operations in installing the structures are excavating, installing the structure, and backfilling. Excavating and backfilling techniques for a l l u t i l i t y structures could be the same as for installing drains or multi-tubed conduits of comparable size, which may be larger than those ordinarily found in local residential streets. The techniques of installing the tunnel and tubed-conduits could also be the same as for drains and multi-tubed conduits of comparable size. Thus the main differences are in the techniques of installing troughs, especially the a l l - u t i l i t y type. However, there are certain other techniques for the tunnel and tubed-conduit structures not currently employed in Metropolitan Vancouver that would be employed where found to be feasible. For instance, several methods involving precasting or extrusion have been considered. Also there is the possibility of installing non-drainage and ele c t r i c a l structures over drains. These different techniques are described and discussed below in Appendix B (see page 243. ). IV. PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING UTILITIES The proposed process of installing the f a c i l i t i e s of the u t i l i t y services would differ from current practices mainly in that there would be no excavation or backfilling required for any f a c i l i t i e s installed in u t i l i t y structures. The laying and joining techniques would be generally the same in some cases, See Diagram 1., page 27. for summary of types of u t i l i t y -structures. 148. but quite different in others. Street lamps and their supports, though not the wiring to them, would be installed as in current practice regardless of the type of u t i l i t y structure. Other similarities and differences are described below, f i r s t for the various types of structures, and then for manholes. A l l - u t i l i t v trough. U t i l i t i e s could be installed in the a l l - u t i l i t y trough in almost any order or weather conditions; the latter because the trough could be covered easily and would be deep enough to work in. A transparent or translucent cover would make lighting less necessary. Where the bottom of the trough were not shaped to form drainage channels, drains would be simply laid on the bottom and held against the wall by wedges. Pipes might be laid between them, possibly raised on special concrete blocks, but probably should be installed part way up the wall. Where there were no diaphrams with special cutouts, this could be done by means of attachments to brackets cast in the wall during i t s construction (perhaps those installed for form work) or attached by 'shooting' in fastening devices. Brackets for wires and cables would be similarly installed or hung from the top of the trough wall. Wires and cables would then by simply strung from bracket to bracket i n a similar fashion to overhead wiring. Since the manholes would be f a i r l y closely spaced, brackets might be required only at manholes. A l l - u t i l i t y tunnel. U t i l i t i e s would have to be installed in the a l l - u t i l i t y tunnel in a definite order. The storm drain would be f i r s t because of i t s large size, and the sewer next because both should be at the bottom. Dividers would then be inserted, i f they had not been placed during construction of the u t i l i t y structure. These would be thin, f l a t or slightly curved sheets of a material such as asbestos cement, but pref-erably something cheaper so long as i t were non-perishable. 149. They would support the other u t i l i t i e s , though not necessarily continuously. Pipes would be installed next against the wall. The drains and pipes would be installed by inserting sections into the tunnel at a manhole, joining a section to i t , and pushing them into the tunnel. This procedure would be repeated u n t i l the f i r s t section reached the next manhole. It is currently employed in rare instances such as Installing new gas pipes under roads through old, larger pipes. Finally, wires and cables would be pulled through. To avoid d i f f i c u l t i e s in getting a pulling string or wire through the structure, especially where the divider was not continuous, a string or wire could be attached to one of the pipes and pulled through by i t . A L U u t i l i t y tubed-condult. Drains and pipes would be installed in a l l - u t i l i t y tubed-conduits in the same way as in the a l l - u t i l i t y tunnel where they had not been prefabricated into i t , except that no divider would be needed. For both kinds of construction the pulling of wires and cables would be the same as in current mult1-tubed conduits. Non-drainage u t i l i t y structures. For a l l three types of non-drainage u t i l i t y structures, the drains would have been installed prior to the structure. They would be installed as twin drains according to the best current practice, but back-f i l l i n g and construction of manholes would stop short of the structure location. Pipes, wires, and cables would be simply laid in the trough. In the other two types, they would be installed in the same manner as for the comparable type of a l l -u t i l i t y structure. * E l e c t r i c a l u t i l i t y structure. Both the drainage and baric u t i l i t i e s would have been installed according to the best current practice prior to installation of the e l e c t r i c a l u t i l i t y structures. Wires and cables would be simply laid in the trough. 150. They would be p u l l e d t h rough th e t u n n e l and t u b e d - c o n d u i t s i n the same way as f o r s i n g l e and m u l t i - t u b e d c o n d u i t s i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e . I n s t a l l i n g u t i l i t i e s i n manholes. The proposed p r a c t i c e s o f i n s t a l l i n g a l l a n c i l l i a r y f a c i l i t i e s o f the u t i l i t y s e r v i c e s i n manholes and o f making a l l c o n n e c t i o n s t o s i t e s e r v i c e s i n manholes, p r e s e n t s problems of space a l l o c a t i o n . However, i t a l s o p r e s e n t s the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r p r e f a b r i c a t i o n o f l a r g e numbers o f h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d f a c i l i t i e s and consequent s a v i n g s compared w i t h c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , a manhole s e c t i o n o r i n s e r t u n i t c o u l d be f a b r i c a t e d w i t h a l l o f t h e meter mounts, s w i t c h e s , v a l v e s , and r e l a t e d w i r i n g and p i p i n g f o r the f o u r o r e i g h t l o t s t h a t would be s e r v e d from the manhole. S p e c i a l p o s s i b l y l a r g e r u n i t s would have t r a n s f o r m e r s i n s t a l l e d i n them. These u n i t s would c o n t a i n as much of the s e r v i c e systems as p o s s i b l e , o t h e r t h a n the f a c i l i t i e s r u n n i n g between manholes, so t h a t t h e r e would be a minimum number o f c o n n e c t i o n s t o make i n the f i e l d . P r e f a b r i c a t e d underground sewage pumping s t a t i o n s a r e an example o f the degree o f i n t e g r a t i o n p o s s i b l e , some h a v i n g a u t o m a t i c m o n i t o r i n g c o n t r o l s and l i g h t i n g and v e n t i l a t i n g systems w h i c h t u r n on when the c o v e r h a t c h i s opened. The manhole f a c i l i t y u n i t s would be d e s i g n e d t o reduce c o s t s b o t h through i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s f o r i n s t a l l i n g s e r v i c e s upon the b a s i s o f r e s e a r c h . F o r example, the number o f f i t t i n g s and s i z e o f p i p e s would be r e d u c e d i n much the same way as domestic plumbing systems a r e b e i n g made more e c o n o m i c a l . The number o f t r i p s made by s e r v i c e men o f each u t i l i t y agency would be r e d u c e d . F o r example, underground e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c e c o n n e c t i o n s c u r r e n t l y can i n v o l v e t h r e e t r i p s ; one t o i n s t a l l a meter and temporary c o n n e c t i o n f o r t h e house b u i l d e r , a second t o i n s t a l l the c o n n e c t i o n t o a r i s e r o u t l e t n e a r th e house under c o n s t r u c t i o n , and a t h i r d t o c onnect 151. completed house wiring to the meter through site u t i l i t y structure. V. PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING PAVEMENTS(AND CURB-GUTTERS) The proposed process of installing curb-gutters and roads would probably be the same as in the best current practice, although the layout would be different. The process of instal-ling the sidewalk would be completely different. Curb-gutters would be extruded i n place, except where they served as el e c t r i c a l tubed-conduits. In this case, they would more likely be factory .cast or extruded. The road would be paved by s l i p form pavers laying concrete or asphalt. The sidewalk might also be installed by a s l i p form paver where independent of u t i l i t y structures, and provided a machine were developed to pattern the surface. Otherwise, the sidewalk would be precast. The precast units would be installed simply be being placed on the trough structure or in a prepared excavation. They would be linked by dowels to maintain the position except for special sections of trough covers providing access to manholes. VI. PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING PLANTS The proposed process of installing plants would be almost completely different from current practices, which at best only involve planting saplings and seeding boulevards on local residential streets. The difference would begin with the clearing operation and carry through a process involving different plants and techniques for installing a l l plants. In the f i r s t place, some areas might not be cleared at a l l , but instead would be l e f t in a natural state. What clearing was done would be by chain saws, axes and bush hooks, instead of by bulldozers, in order to save selected trees. Although such hand clearing would take more time, time could be saved by using the following technique instead of burning or hauling away 152. debris: Small trees (up to 5" in diameter) and underbrush are fed into the macerating machine which grinds them up and spews out shavings and small chips that settle into the ground as a mulch.3 The next stage would involve tying the natural features into the overall design by installing plants. As many suitable trees and bushes as possible would be transplanted from the areas that had to be cleared for pavements or special use areas. These would not only be free of capital cost, but would be less expensive to move and more likely to survive than plants brought in. The appearance of rock outcroppings would be enhanced, particularly where cut for pavements by adding rocks and earth into which shrubs and rockery plants would be installed. Finally, a l l other areas not to be in grass would be planted with ground covers such as moss and ivy. Grass would be installed in three different ways for different situations. Playing areas would be turfed with a tough and resilient type of grass. Level and open areas would have blankets containing grass seed and f e r t i l i z e r spread on them. These would be laid by spiked rollers which press the blanket into the ground to prevent i t blowing in the wind.4 Steep or odd-shaped areas would have grass installed by spraying them hydraulically with an emulsion of seed, f e r t i l i z e r , water and a cellulose fiber mulch.^ "Mulch-making Machine Speeds Land Clearing," House & Home, vol. XXIV, no. 4, (October 1963), p. 54. ~ 4 "You Can Get a Lawn in a Hurry with this Grass-seed Carpet," House & Home, vol. XXI, no. 1 (January 1962), p. 165. ^"Brochure Shows One-step, Spray-on Grass and Erosion-control System," House & Home, vol. XXIII, no. 2, (February 1963), p. 169. 153. VII. PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING OTHER SERVICE FACILITIES The proposed process of installing other property service f a c i l i t i e s would be the same as current practice in a few instances, straighforward for some not currently installed, and quite different for others, especially for those installed in servi-centers. Those installed the same way as in current practice are f i r e hydrants, painted centerlines on roads, letter and f i r e alarm boxes, and reflective metal stop and yield signs standards. The f a c i l i t i e s not currently installed in Metropolitan Vancouver that could be installed in a straightforward manner are mainly the various furnishings. For instance, the manner of installing the proposed 'outdoor playpen', benches, pools, and other furniture and ornaments is f a i r l y obvious. The only other f a c i l i t i e s that would be different in local streets would be garbage containers and meters. The former would be installed simply by dropping them into holes in troughs or manholes for which they were designed to f i t . Meter mounts would have been installed as part of prefabricated units. The gas and electric meters would be mounted so they could be read by residents through a transparent panel cast into the special sidewalk manhole cover section. The meters would be read remotely for b i l l i n g purposes as follows: . . . a customer's telephone would (without his knowing i t ) contact his meter periodically, get the meter reading electronically and transmit the information to a b i l l i n g machine. The.billing machine would print the customer's b i l l and mail i t to him. No human eyes would see the meter.6 "Residential Gas and Electric Meter Reading Over Telephone Lines Faces Test in Owosso", Gas Age. New York, Moore, vol. 129, no. 19 (13 September 1962), p. 69. 154. There would be several differences at intersections, however. Lighted acrylic street name signs would be adapted to f i t on street light poles instead on the top of separate posts as in Brampton, Ontario.? They might be further adapted by means of a clear or open slot in the bottom and a reflector at the end to light f a c i l i t i e s such as letter and f i r e alarm boxes or other signs (see Diagram 13.). Stop signs could be lighted in this fashion, but might be better l e f t to reflect car head-lights, or be l i t internally i n the same manner as the street name signs. In any case, stop signs would be installed lower than is becoming the practice, because there would be no parked cars to block the view of them. Pedestrian yield signs would be painted onto or cast integrally with precast sidewalks at collector and major streets. They would also be painted on the facing curb as shown on Diagram 14. The curbs around the servi-center and at the ends of the nearby safety islands would be made of special permanent-white reflector concrete to eliminate Q painting while providing a brighter appearance. Coloured pavements would be installed i n the same manner as ordinary pavements in small areas, that i s spreading by shovel and r o l l i n g . Rumble strips on the approaches to stop signs or divided roads might be formed simply by placing corrugated metal forms on hot asphalt and running over them with r o l l e r s . Finally, the f a c i l i t i e s in the servi-center would be installed as a unit by mounting i t on bolts set in the concrete island, or onto a central lamp or shelter support, depending upon the design of the unit. "Acrylic Invades Street Signs", Progressive Plastics. Toronto, Maclean-Hunter, vol. .5, no. 11 (October 1963), pp. 25 - 26. g "White Concrete for Safety Island," Street Engineering. Chicago, Donnelley, vol. 6, no. 11, (November 1961), p. 14. 155. rp> ~rr\— s4w\ Existing Lighted Plastic Street Sign on Post Suggested Adaptation For Street Lighting Pole Proposed Street Name Light DIAGRAM 13 - SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS TO LIGHTED STREET NAME SIGNS DIAGRAM 14 - SUGGESTED PEDESTRIAN SIGNS 156. VIII. SUMMARY OF PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING SERVICE FACILITIES The proposed practices of installing property service f a c i l i t i e s in local residential streets are similar to the best current practice in general terms of staging and operations involved. The differences have been described for several major aspects of the process. The proposed process of installing (or re-installing) subdivision plats would dif f e r substantially from the best current practice only in the way surveying operations were carried out. These differences result from the desire to preserve natural features, especially trees, both in the street and on sites. The proposed process of preparing the street for servicing is similar to the best current practice in terms of the operations involved, but they are performed on a reduced area. The proposed u t i l i t y structures would be an innovation for local streets, but their installation would be generally similar to that of f a c i l i t i e s such as the drains. An exception is the a l l - u t i l i t y trough for which several special techniques are mentioned. The tunnels and tube-conduits would be installed in the same way as drains, except for e l e c t r i c a l tubed-conduits; these would be installed as curbs or sidewalks, or as they would be i f precast. The proposed process of installing u t i l i t i e s would dif f e r from current practice mainly in that excavation and backfilling would be eliminated for u t i l i t i e s installed in u t i l i t y structures. Otherwise they are installed i n a similar manner to current practice, although a certain order must be followed for tunnels. In some cases pipes and drains could be prefabricated with the structures. F a c i l i t i e s in manholes would be installed by placing prefabricated manhole sections or insert units. Pavements would be Installed in the same manner as in the best current practice, allowing for the layout being different. 157. However, the process of installing plants would be considerably different. It begins with hand clearing of natural features and involves use of existing trees as much as possible. Several new techniques of planting grass would be used. F a c i l i t i e s of other property services would be the same in a few instances, straightforward for some not currently installed, and different for others, especially those in servi-centers. V CHAPTER V EVALUATION OF PROPOSED PRACTICES DETERMINATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF THE PROPOSED STREET USE AND SERVICING PRACTICES The two preceding chapters described and discussed proposed processes of designing and installing property service f a c i l i t i e s for local residential street use and servicement in comparison with current practices in Metropolitan Vancouver. The practices involved in the proposed processes are evaluated in this chapter in terms of the c r i t e r i a and principles stated in Chapter I to test the hypotheses of this investigation. The general hypotheses to be tested are that installing u t i l i t i e s in specially designed underground structures in local residential streets would; a) permit better use and design of such streets than is possible by current servicing practices. b) be feasible (from functional, physical, social, staging, administrative, p o l i t i c a l , financial, and economic points-of-view) i f comprehensively designed. The f i r s t hypothesis may be accepted as proven by the range of possibilities for designing street use and servicement described in Chapter III from which anyone could select what he considered to be better. This assumes only that everyone could find some-thing he considered better than current practice. Acceptance of a l l of the proposed designing practice, particularly the more radically different ones, is unnecessary because only those which prove to be acceptable need be followed. However, the proposed practices would hardly be worth following, even i f feasible, unless accepted to a substantial degree. Consequently, acceptance of the proposed designing practices are discussed more fully in this chapter. 159. Any a c c e p t a n c e o f the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , o f c o u r s e i s c o n d i t i o n a l upon a c c e p t a n c e o f the second - t h a t i s , t h a t the proposed p r a c t i c e s a r e f e a s i b l e . The f e a s i b i l i t y o f the p r o -posed p r a c t i c e s i s n o t always o b v i o u s from the d e f i n i t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e must be t e s t e d and e v a l u a t e d . The g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s about f e a s i b i l i t y must be t e s t e d by a s e r i e s of s p e c i f i c hypotheses about s e p a r a b l e p r a c t i c e s . T h i s has been done by d e t e r m i n i n g the f e a s i b i l i t y o f the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s d e s c r i b e d i n the two p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s f o r each k i n d o f f e a s i -b i l i t y where a p p l i c a b l e . P r a c t i c e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be f e a s i b l e , and the s p e c i f i c h ypotheses a c c e p t a b l e , when they can be shown t o be f o l l o w e d i n o t h e r u r b a n a r e a s o r i n comparable s i t u a t i o n s . I . EVALUATION OF PROPOSED STREET USE AND DESIGN Complete t e s t i n g o f the f i r s t g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s c o u l d i n v o l v e the f o r m u l a t i o n and t e s t i n g o f a s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s f o r each o f the proposed p r a c t i c e s by a p p l i c a t i o n o f the a p p r o p r i a t e c r i t e r i a o r p r i n c i p l e . T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d u n n e c e s s a r y f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , the p r i n c i p l e s formed the b a s i s of the assumptions about the proposed p r a c t i c e s and the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t c r i t e r i a . W h i l e i t would be d e s i r a b l e t o make such t e s t s , i t can h a r l y be done by the p e r s o n who has made the judgements i n v o l v e d . I n the second p l a c e , the proposed p r a c t i c e i n v o l v e s accommodating more s t r e e t uses and p r o v i d i n g more s e r v i c e s whose f a c i l i t i e s would be i n s t a l l e d a t the same o r b e t t e r s t a n d a r d t h a n i n the b e s t c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e . I t i s o n l y n e c e s s a r y to assume t h a t p e o p l e would c o n s i d e r these c o n d i t i o n s ' b e t t e r ' t o a c c e p t the h y p o t h e s i s . I n e f f e c t , the h y p o t h e s i s must be a c c e p t e d by d e f i n i t i o n , i f t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s a c c e p t e d . V a l i d i t y o f the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t p e o p l e would c o n s i d e r the proposed p r a c t i c e b e t t e r t h a n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s would r e q u i r e a c t u a l s e r v i c i n g o f a s t r e e t by t h e s e p r a c t i c e s s i n c e even a 160. p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d y i n depth i s u n l i k e l y t o r e v e a l how peopl e would r e a c t t o such u n f a m i l i a r s i t u a t i o n s . F e a t u r e s o f the proposed p r a c t i c e s w h i c h might b o t h e r some peopl e a re the c l o s e n e s s of the ro a d t o houses i n some s e c t i o n s , the presence o f p l a y i n g areas o r n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s i n f r o n t o f houses, and the l a c k o f u n i f o r m i t y o f t r e a t m e n t f o r e v e r y house. The l a t t e r p o i n t c o v e r s p o s s i b l e r e a c t i o n s t h a t the proposed p r a c t i c e s would be ' u n f a i r ' , ' i n e q u i t a b l e ' , and somehow 'undemocratic'. I n an attempt t o a l l a y such p o t e n t i a l c r i t i c i s m s , the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s a r e n o t e d . The proposed p r a c t i c e o f s t r e e t use and s e r v i c e m e n t which a f f e c t s the p h y s i c a l environment have been d e l i b e r a t e l y made somewhat extreme t o show the range o f p o s s i -b i l i t i e s t h a t would e x i s t when some o f the l i m i t a t i o n s o f c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e were removed. Any s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l such as h a v i n g the road c l o s e t o one s i d e o f the s t r e e t t h a t proved t o be u n a c c e p t a b l e would be experimented w i t h t o f i n d a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s . F o r example, e i t h e r the road c o u l d be p l a c e d l e s s c l o s e t o the houses, o r more i n t e n s i v e p l a n t i n g c o u l d be p l a c e d between the houses and the r o a d . However, i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t u n l i k e such s i t u a t i o n s i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e , t h e r e would be compensating advantages to these s i t u a t i o n s . These s i t u a t i o n s c o u l d be o f l i m i t e d e x t e n t and o n l y where e s p e c i a l l y l a r g e p l a y -i n g a r e a s o r n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s were t o be a v o i d e d ; the major p a r t of s t r e e t l e n g t h c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y s y m m e t r i c a l . W i th r e g a r d t o the m a t t e r s o f f a i r n e s s and e q u i t y , i t i s assumed t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s would be r e f l e c t e d i n market p r i c e s and t a x e s . While i t may be d e m o c r a t i c t o l e v e l s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s o p i n i o n i t s h o u l d n o t mean r e d u c i n g the p h y s i c a l environment t o the ' l e a s t common denominator'. T h i s u s u a l l y means e l i m i n a t i n g the b e s t a l o n g w i t h the w o r s t t o produce m e d i o c r i t y . I n s t e a d , the i n v e s t i g a t o r b e l i e v e s t h e r e s h o u l d be the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r an optimum o f c h o i c e o f the 161. environment in which one could live. Those who wished to live in the sections of streets having uniform servicement should be able to do so - but there also should be provision for others. For example, those who so wished could'hide' behind the preserved natural features. They are more likely than most suburbanites to attain the goal of enjoying urban services in a natural or rustic environment,, Others might prefer being exposed to activity such as would be likely to occur in the areas designed for playing, or even being close to the road - for as the saying goes, "one man's meat is another man's poison.". The result of such a variety of choice of physical en-vironment within single family residential areas could well be a variety of types of people. In the opinion of many planners and sociologists, this would make for better communities than the extreme homogeneity of many such areas to-day in terms of human relationships and even possibly mental health. II. EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DESIGNING PRACTICES The f e a s i b i l i t y of the proposed designing practices is evaluated in this section for each of the plan elements. Functional Layouts and Their Feasibility The f e a s i b i l i t y of the proposed functional layouts of the various main aspects of the designing process are discussed below. Street uses. The functional layout of street uses would be related to the layouts of pavements and planting in two opposite ways - by exclusion and inclusion - depending upon the use in question. The open space laid out for playing must exclude pavements and include planting (turf). On the other hand, areas laid out for parking include pavements, but exclude planting. Special use areas for conversation or recreation, preferably in or near natural features, may exclude both pavements and planting because they could be accommodated by furniture and 162. • f l o o r ' f i h i s h e s . The l a y o u t s o f open p l a y i n g and s p e c i a l use a r e a s would be f e a s i b l e i f pavements c o u l d be l a i d out so as t o p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y w i d t h and a v o i d n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s . S t r u c t u r e . The f u n c t i o n a l l a y o u t o f p u b l i c u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s would be r e l a t e d t o the d r a i n a g e s e r v i c e s i n most c a s e s , and the p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s s e r v i c e i n the case of t r o u g h s . They a r e r e l a t e d i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e ( a l l p a r a l l e l ) , so what i s new i s t h a t they would n o t be s t r a i g h t and i n the same l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e to the s t r e e t boundary. Thus, t h e y may be c o n s i d e r e d f e a s i b l e i f the 'wandering' o f the p e d e s t r i a n pavement i s f e a s i b l e . U t i l i t i e s . The u t i l i t i e s would a l l be r e l a t e d t o the u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e ' b r a n c h i n g ' p a t t e r n s , so t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l l a y o u t i s f e a s i b l e w i t h the same • q u a l i f i c a t i o n as above. Pavements. S i d e w a l k s a r e c u r r e n t l y l a i d out b o t h b e s i d e and as f a r as p o s s i b l e from roads and p a r k i n g a r e a s . The o n l y f u n c t i o n a l r e a s o n f o r n o t wandering between the s e extremes seems to be p r o b a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n l e n g t h . However, the i n c r e a s e s would be s l i g h t compared t o b e n e f i t s o f a more p l e a s a n t passage. Hence, the proposed l a y o u t s can be c o n s i d e r e d f e a s i b l e . Roads would be l a i d o ut t o a v o i d n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , open p l a y i n g a r e a s , and p a r k i n g a r e a s , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a r e a s o n a b l y f r e e - f l o w i n g v e h i c u l a r r o u t e . Both the road and p a r k i n g areas would be much c l o s e r t o houses i n p l a c e s a l o n g the s t r e e t t h a n a t p r e s e n t where e v e r y house i s o r d i n a r i l y s e t back the same minimum d i s t a n c e . However, they would n o t be c l o s e r t h a n roads a t the ends o f b l o c k s c u r r e n t l y a r e t o houses, on c o r n e r l o t s which o f t e n f a c e such a ' s i d e ' o r ' f l a n k i n g ' s t r e e t . Undoubtedly many 163. people would consider i t undesirable to have a road close to their house. However, besides having l i t t l e t r a f f i c this road would have no parking, and thus no noise from car doors slamming and party-leavers talking loudly. There would usually be a compensating feature across the road such as an open area, a natural feature, or landscaping, including that around parking areas. The latter would have only a narrow opening in the planted screen and i t would not be opposite houses. The road i t s e l f might be partially screened by a low hedge. In view of these considerations, roads close to houses might be acceptable. Indeed, some people who like to watch activity might consider such a situation desirable. If not, either the houses could be moved back, or the road placed further away with perhaps more landscaping between. It should be noted that the layouts ill u s t r a t i n g the proposed practice were somewhat extreme examples to show the range of possibilities. When actually put into practice, less extreme layouts might be used, or such extreme ones might be used infrequently. The limits and frequency of layouts having roads close to houses would be based upon people's reaction to them. Since this requires a full-scale experiment, the feasi-b i l i t y of proposed practices is at present indeterminate for the extreme cases, at least. Planting. The proposed functional layout of planting is similar to that of some parks where natural features are either worked into the overall design, or the design is adapted to the feature. There seems no functional reason for not doing the same in local streets; therefore, i t is considered feasible. Other f a c i l i t i e s . In general, the proposed functional layout of the f a c i l i t i e s of other property services is mainly a rationalization of existing layouts and the tendency to congre-gate at certain intersections, so functionally feasible. The 164. •servi-center' functional layout might prove to be unfeasible in streets of ordinary width having more t r a f f i c than assumed, but should be feasible when streets can be widened and t r a f f i c is light. Physical Designs and Their Feasibility Designing of the detailed physical design of particular street sections should be feasible, provided the functional layout is feasible. It would mainly involve putting together or modifying standard designs, most of which are found in current practice though not necessarily in local streets. For example, the proposed designs for roads and parking areas and related planting are similar to those in some of the better designed parks. Social Provisions and Their Feasibility The social provisions are the accommodations made for certain street uses by functional layout and installation of f a c i l i t i e s , particularly furniture and finishes including plants. The proposed designing should be socially feasible because i t is aimed at providing the opportunity for greater social use of streets without forcing undesired social contact. For instance, children w i l l probably always play in streets, but given the opportunity to play in a variety of areas, they would tend to stay off the road. They would have the choice of playing on turfed open areas, paved parking areas, and the natural areas. The latter might have partial forts and tunnels (of large drains, for example) for team games, or areas for individual exploration. Similarly, the provision for younger children and adults of various age ^groups would provide the opportunity of using the street for social purposes. The proposed outdoor 'playpens' would provide the opportunity for mothers of young children to get together.for a chat out-of-doors with their children, or with several children whose mothers had things to do which were 165. b e s t done w i t h o u t the c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t . Such f a c i l i t i e s appeared to be w e l l used i n the Swedish new town of F a r s t a . S o c i a l c o n t a c t might be f o r c e d t o some e x t e n t on p e o p l e s h a r i n g s m a l l p a r k i n g a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y i f p a r k i n g spaces were r e s e r v e d . W i t h t h i s p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n , the proposed d e s i g n i n g p r a c t i c e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be s o c i a l l y f e a s i b l e . S t a g i n g Schedules and T h e i r F e a s i b i l i t y The proposed d e s i g n i n g programme would have f o u r main s t a g e s . The f i r s t would i n v o l v e p r e p a r i n g a t e n t a t i v e f u n c t i o n a l l a y o u t f o r s t r e e t use a r e a s , pavements, p l a n t i n g , the u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e , and the s u b d i v i s i o n . The second would i n v o l v e m u t u a l a d j u s t m e n t of the f i r s t t h r e e , and d e s i g n i n g o f the f u n c t i o n a l l a y o u t o f the u t i l i t i e s . The t h i r d s t a g e would i n v o l v e a com-promise d e s i g n f o r a l l the a s p e c t s m e n t i o n e d , the u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e l a y o u t b e i n g m o d i f i e d i f n e c e s s a r y f o r the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the u t i l i t i e s . F i n a l l y , d e t a i l e d d e s i g n s would be p r e p a r e d f o r a l l a s p e c t s i n c l u d i n g any o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d . The p r o c e s s i s s i m i l a r t o t h e b e s t p r a c t i c e now f o l l o w e d i n Richmond i n s o f a r as the u t i l i t i e s and s u b d i v i s i o n a r e c o n c e r n e d . The o t h e r a s p e c t s r e q u i r e more f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i -d e r e d , but would not change the b a s i c p r o c e s s s i g n i f i c a n t l y , so s h o u l d be f e a s i b l e f o r s t a g i n g . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Arrangements and T h e i r F e a s i b i l i t y The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangement f o r the d e s i g n i n g p r o c e s s would be r e l a t e d t o the s t a g e s mentioned above. The f i r s t s t a g e would be done by e i t h e r the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g department o r p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s f o r the s u b d i v i d e r . I n the l a t t e r c a s e , F o r t h o s e o u t l y i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s n o t h a v i n g p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s , t h i s f u n c t i o n c o u l d be performed f o r them by the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board o r p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s . 166. the plans would be reviewed by the planning department. In either case, the planning department might hire consultants for assistance or advice on large subdivisions. Either the planning consultants or the planning department should have a landscape architect or designer and possibly other specialists on their design team as staff member or consultant. The important thing is the creativity, imagination, and a b i l i t y to handle such complex matters comprehensively of the team or individual doing the designing. Perhaps a new profession of street architects or designers might evolve! The second stage of designing functional layouts of u t i l i t i e s would be done by the respective u t i l i t y agencies. The third and fourth stages would be handled by the same agency as the f i r s t - the planning department - for a l l plan elements except the f i n a l design of u t i l i t i e s . A committee of technical representatives of the various u t i l i t y agencies and the planning department would resolve any problems that arose. These arrangements would be similar to those in the best current practice of administering the subdivision process, such as in Richmond. Although the matters dealt with would be more complex, the arrangements could be basically the same and hence administratively feasible. Financial Budgets and Their Feasibility The financing of the major costs of designing would be done by the subdivider by paying fees to either consultants or to the municipality. The latter would ensure equity between those hiring consultants or not and be in accordance with the principle of payment for benefit. Some u t i l i t y agencies whose design costs attributable to particular areas are relatively slight (e.g. telephone) might continue to pay their costs out of general revenue such as from service charges. In a l l instances, a portion of design costs would be paid for out of general 167. revenue because of the general benefit that would result. Residents of areas benefitting from the proposed practices would pay slightly more than a proportionate share of this, assuming their land values were higher. The practice of charging fees for designing is followed in the best current practice in Richmond, and is therefore feasible. 2 Economic Feasibility of Proposed Designing Practices A l l of the major aspects of the proposed process of designing street use and servicing would be more expensive than current practice, with the possible exception of that for u t i l i t i e s . However, the extra care in designing would result in savings in costs of installing roads and u t i l i t i e s , especially where rock was involved, and in extra benefits. The latter would accrue from the accommodation of more uses (e.g. playing), from having planting that was complete and effective from the start, and from a more interesting and distinctive environment. These potential savings and benefits are d i f f i c u l t to evaluate; the former because they would depend upon detailed investigation of conditions in a particular street section; the latter because there is no experience with the proposed practices i If they were significant, they would be reflected in either higher profits for subdivider-servicers, or increased land values relative to areas serviced by other practices. Assuming these economic benefits exceeded the designing costs, the proposed designing practices would be economically feasible. Criteria might be established to ensure that, on balance, this would be the case. -Richmond, Notes for the Information and Guidance of Land  Owners. Subdlviders and Land Developers Relevant to the Sub- division of Residential Land Within the Municipality of Richmond. Planning Department, Richmond, September, 1961, p. 8. 168. P o l i t i c a l Program and Its Feasibility Public acceptance of the proposed street use and servi-cing practices would require a demonstration project to show in terms most people could understand (i.e. a complete physical environment) what streets could be like. Such a project could be carried out by a private developer or municipality in an area having one ownership. It might be simpler for the municipality to do i t because the municipality is involved in any case, and could relax i t s by-laws (e.g. for clearing the whole street) for i t s e l f with less p o l i t i c a l problems than for private developers. Thus, a municipal council would have to be persuaded to undertake such a project by i t s planning department, or civic-minded organizations such as the Community Planning Association of Canada, and the Community Arts Council. Such an experiment could be conducted in a similar manner to Vancouver's •experimental' servicing of i t s subdivision at 54th Avenue and Kerr Street with underground wiring. Summary of Evaluation of Proposed Designing Practices The proposed designing process for street use and servicin in local residential streets appears to be feasible from a l l points of view with the following qualifications. The public acceptance of roads close to houses and 'communal' parking areas and the assumption regarding the relationship between benefits and costs could only be determined by full-scale experiment. This should be done at the same time as an adjacent area served by current practices so that comparisons can be easily made. II. EVALUATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF THE PROPOSED PRACTICES OF INSTALLING PROPERTY SERVICE FACILITIES The proposed practices of installing the f a c i l i t i e s of property services are evaluated in this section for most of the f e a s i b i l i t y points of view. Social and p o l i t i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y hav been discussed in relation to designing and need not be repeated. 169. Functional f e a s i b i l i t y was also covered above for a l l aspects in terms of functional relationships. It is discussed below only in terms of operation of the u t i l i t i e s over time. Thus, a l l aspects are considered only for physical, staging, admini-strative, financial, and economic f e a s i b i l i t y . Functional Feasibility of Proposed Practices of Installing F a c i l i t i e s . , There are several operational problems presented by the proposed practice of installing u t i l i t i e s in underground struc-tures. Among the potentially serious ones, in increasing order of importance, are rodents in the structures, reduced efficiency of transformers, freezing of pipes and drains, and gas leaks. Rodents might enter structures via drains and damage wires and cables, although some of the new materials may be less subject to such damage. This possibility would be best countered by preventive . measures such as careful design of openings to the structures and screening of drain outfalls. Tests of transformers and capacitors installed in under-ground enclosures indicate that considerable derating is neces-sary, except where ventilation is adequate.3 This is because the heat-conducting capabilities of s o i l drops off rapidly as i t loses moisture.^ This suggests that the structures, at least those with transformers, should be well ventilated in the summer In cold climates, the ventilation of structures should be reduced in the winter to retain the heat given off by transforme and wires. This would reduce the possibility of pipes freezing or the need for insulation. Knowledge of temperature conditions "Total System is Dapper Project Focus," El e c t r i c a l  World. New York, McGraw-Hill, vol. 169, no. 9 (26 August 1963), p. 47. 4 Ibid. 170. underground I s r a t h e r meagre f o r o r d i n a r y s i t u a t i o n s , l e t a l o n e f o r the complex ones i n v o l v e d i n underground s t r u c t u r e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t u t i l i t i e s . S o m e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been made o f the problems o f i n s t a l l i n g u t i l i t i e s i n p e r m a f r o s t , but they s e r v e m a i n l y t o show how l i t t l e i s r e a l l y k n o w n . R e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s about t h e r m a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r underground w i r i n g have produced r e s u l t s c o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s , and s u g g e s t t h a t much more r e s e a r c h i s needed i n t h i s f i e l d as w e l l . 7 However, f o r the c l i m a t e o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, the problem o f f r e e z i n g s h o u l d n o t be such t h a t normal p r e c a u t i o n s would n o t be adequate. The problem o f gas l e a k s i s e x t r e m e l y s e r i o u s because gas c o u l d s p r e a d o v e r e x t e n s i v e a r e a s i n the u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s would i n c r e a s e the d i f f i c u l t y o f d e t e c t i n g l e a k s , the p r o b a b i l i t y o f an e x p l o s i o n , and the e x t e n t o f damage r e s u l t i n g from an e x p l o s i o n . The c o s t o f g a s - t i g h t bulkheads and d e t e c t i o n d e v i c e s would p r o b a b l y exceed the b e n e f i t s from h a v i n g gas p i p e s i n under-ground s t r u c t u r e s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d u n f e a s i b l e t o i n s t a l l gas p i p e s i n u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s . "*C. B. C r a w f o r d and R.F. L e g g e t , Ground Temperature  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n Canada. Ottawa, N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , ( D i v i s i o n o f B u i l d i n g R e s e a r c h , R e s e a r c h Paper No. 34), R e p r i n t e d from The E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l , v o l . 40, no. 3 (March 1957). ^S. C. Copp, C. B. C r a w f o r d and J . W. G r a i n g e , P r o t e c t i o n  of U t i l i t i e s A g a i n s t P e r m a f r o s t i n N o r t h e r n Canada. Ottawa, N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , ( D i v i s i o n o f B u i l d i n g R e s e a r c h , Research Paper No. 34). R e p r i n t e d from J o u r n a l o f American Water Works  A s s o c i a t i o n , v o l . 48, no. 9,(September 1956). see a l s o : H. B. D i c k e n s , Water Su p p l y and Sewage D i s p o s a l i n P e r m a f r o s t Areas o f N o r t h e r n Canada. Ottawa, N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , ( T e c h n i c a l Paper No. 30, August 1959); R e p r i n t e d from The P o l a r R e c o r d . v o l . 9, no. 62 (May 1959), pp. 421-432. 7Dapper P r o j e c t , l o c c i t . 171. However, to avoid having to trench across and repair roads to i n s t a l l gas pipes, the following practices are proposed. Main gas pipes crossing roads would either be installed before the roads, or a conduit would be installed through which the gas pipe would later be pushed. Road crossings for house connections would be restricted for example, to every two or four lots. They would be installed in either a sealed u t i l i t y structure or a separate conduit installed with the structure. Physical Designs and Their Feasibility The proposed physical designs have been designed, insofar as possible at this stage, to be practicable. There would be certain problems such as ensuring that the u t i l i t y structures were watertight, and in f i t t i n g a l l necessary f a c i l i t i e s into relatively small manholes. Also, the design of the f a c i l i t i e s in •servi-centers 1 would have to be more carefully worked out than has been done for this investigation. This ought to be made the subject of a design competition amongst architects and indus-t r i a l designers. Other than these problems the physical design is consi-dered feasible. Much of i t is similar to current practices, although not necessarily in local streets. The structures are similar to large drains except for the troughs. The pavement and planting designs are similar to those in well designed parks. Staging Schedules and Their Feasibility The general schedule for the proposed practice would be as follows. The subdivision plat would be installed f i r s t followed by preparation of the street for servicing. Then the u t i l i t y structure would be installed. The u t i l i t i e s would be installed next, and then the pavements and planting. Finally, the f a c i l i t i e s of other property services would be installed. The street uses would have been facilitated by certain pavement, planting, and other f a c i l i t i e s installations. 172. Each of the major stages may have schedules for the operations involved, or the order may not matter. Such is the case1 for installing u t i l i t i e s in a structure, except for a l l -u t i l i t y tunnels which must have f a c i l i t i e s installed in a definite order. With this exception and a few modifications because of the presence of the structure, the proposed staging schedules would be similar to those of comparable current practices. They might be 'tighter' or involve less total time because many operations would be eliminated or performed in factories beforehand. Administrative Arrangements and Their Feasibility The proposed administrative arrangements for installing f a c i l i t i e s are similar to current practice. Installing of f a c i l i t i e s for street uses would be the responsibility of those installing the various f a c i l i t i e s . Municipal engineers would be responsible for the installing of the u t i l i t y structures, pavements, and municipally provided u t i l i t i e s or other services. U t i l i t y companies and public service agencies such as the Post Office would be responsible for their own f a c i l i t i e s . Planting would be the responsibility of parks boards where they existed; otherwise that of engineering departments. Conflicts of responsibility or other problems would be resolved by a committee of technical representatives of the various service agencies. This could be the same committee which would deal with designing problems. Since these arrangements are similar to existing ones, they are considered administratively feasible. Economic Schemes and Their Feasibility The proposed process of insta l l i n g property service f a c i l i t i e s involves the considerable extra expense of the u t i l i t y structure. It saves expenses by eliminating f a c i l i t i e s or operations, particularly those of excavating and backfilling. These savings are estimated below to determine what can be offset against the cost of the structure. 173. In order to estimate the savings of the proposed practices, i t Is necessary to know the costs of the materials or operations eliminated. These costs are d i f f i c u l t to determine for two reasons. One is that they may not be known in the detail or breakdown required here because this is not required in current practice. For instance, sufficiently accurate estimates for many purposes can be made by applying unit costs for the whole process or major parts of i t that have been derived from past experience. In such cases, i t is unnecessary to know the costs by breakdowns of interest here. The other problem is that many organizations are reluctant to disclose their costs to compe-ti t o r s , including municipalities versus contractors. In the face of these problems, i t has been necessary to make do with what information was obtainable, and make assumptions about what is not. Unfortunately, satisfactory information on costs of under-ground wiring for this area was not obtained. Consequently, the elect r i c a l and communicative are omitted from the estimates below, but discussed thereafter. The gas service has been omitted because i t is considered functionally unfeasible to i n s t a l l gas pipes in the proposed u t i l i t y structures. Thus, the only u t i l i t i e s to consider are drains and water pipes. Side-walks are also of interest, but roads are not because they have no direct involvement with the u t i l i t y structure. The costs for drains are the most important because of their magnitude, and also because certain operations are most comparable to those of the proposed practice. Fortunately, an excellent breakdown of costs of installing drains separately was made available by the City Engineer of Port Moody. These costs are reproduced as Table V in Appendix C and used as the basis for the estimates summarized in Table IV on the following page. They are based on an average depth of 8 feet in conditions involving no rock excavation and minimal shoring. Unfortunately, 174. TABLE IV ESTIMATED UTILITY COSTS PER FOOT OF STREET A c t u a l s / f t . R e l a t i v e to Best P r a c t i c e ITEM UNIT EXISTING PROPOSED PRACTICES COSTS $ / f t . PRACTICES Nor I? a l Best Trough Tunne1 Tubed-C o n d u i t DRAINS: Sep. 'Twin 1 L a i d Pushed I n t e g r a l E x c a v a t i o n f o r 1.55 3.10 1.55* = = = Bedding sand i n p l a c e .40 .80 .60 =or- = . = 8" w i t h gasket .90) 2.05 2.05 = = -2.05 12" p l a i n 1.15) L a y i n g o f .59 1.18 1.18 =or- =or+ -1.18 Manholes 1.03 2.06 2.061 -2.061 = . = B a c k f i l l i n g 1.48 2.96 1.481 =or+ =or+ =or+ Clean-up S u p e r v i s i o n ,74 1.48 .74 =or- =or- =or-Overhead Sub T o t a l 13.63 9.661 -2.061 =orl -3.23t E n g . C o n t i n -g e n c i e s 15% 2.04 1.45 .31 = .47 T o t a l 15.67 11.11* -2.371 =orl -3.70^ WATER PIPE: A 0Cem. C. I r o n A.Cem. A.Cem. A.Cem. E x c a v a t i o n , back- 1.75+ 1.68 -1.68 -1.68 -1.68 f i l l i n g , e t c . L a y i n g o f I n c l . .70 =or- =or+ =or+ 6" p i p e , h y d r a n t s e t c . 2.00 2.62 - .62 - .62 -2.12 T o t a l 3.75+ 5.00 -2.30- -2.30+ -3.80+ SIDEWALK: 4'wide T o t a l 3.18 3.18+ 6.36+ -3.18+ -3.18+ -3,18+ TOTAL: 22^60+ 22.47 -Zi§5l -5^481 10£68l 175. cost breakdowns for the 'twin' sewers presently being installed in Port Moody have not been prepared yet. Also, this information is not available from Vancouver, the only other municipality following this best practice. Consequently, i t has been necessary to make a number of assumptions to get a breakdown for twin sewers against which the proposed practices can be compared. As shown in Table IV, only the cost of the drains and the laying of them has been assumed to be the same for twin drains^ as in the normal practice of installing them separately. Excavation, backfilling, and clean-up costs have been assumed to be the same as for an individual drain. These costs could be somewhat greater because the trench may have to be wider, but there should be a saving as a result of installing manholes for the two drainage services in a common excavation. The supervision and overhead costs also have been assumed to be the same as an individual drain, since the same Port Moody crew that installs drains separately is now installing twin drains. Manholes costs have been assumed to be the same as for two drains installed separately. The costs could be slightly higher because the common concrete base must be somewhat larger than separate ones, or lower because the formwork and labour costs may be reduced for a base common to two manholes. The costs of bedding sand in place has been assumed to be half way between that for an indi-vidual drain and that for two installed separately. These assumptions are considered reasonable by the City Engineer for Port Moody on the basis of his limited experience with twin sewers. He suggests that laying or overhead costs may be reduced with more experience.^ This is supported by the two relation-ships supplied by the Vancouver Sewer Engineer as follows: Interview with Mr. Douglas Kenyon, City Engineer, ' Port Moody, B. C. 176. In general, an 8" and 12" twin sewer costs about 25% more than a 12" sewer i f built under the same conditions. Similarly, the cost of the 'twin' sewer is about two-thirds the cost of similar separate sewers.9 Applying these relationships, the total cost would be approxi-mately $10.00 and $10.45 respectively, so the estimates can be considered to be somewhat high. The costs for installing water pipe in the best practice involving cast iron pipe were also supplied by Port Moody. The normal practice costs for asbestos cement pipe are from Richmond. The excavation costs are unusually low because of favourable s o i l conditions and should be considered a minimum. For instance, subtracting the material cost of $2.00 from the $4.25 total unit cost employed by Delta gives an excavating cost of $2.25 which is close to the $2.38 amount for Port Moody. The sidewalk costs are for a four foot wide sidewalk in Richmond, which again is low compared with other municipalities, some of whom i n s t a l l sidewalks five feet wide. The difference between best and normal practices is simply that the f o r m e r installs sidewalks on both sides, the latter on only one. It is interesting to note the closeness of the total costs for the two practices. In effect, the possible gain by switching from normal to the best practice is one sidewalk and cast iron instead of asbestos cement water pipes. The estimated savings of the proposed practices have been related to the best practice costs for a l l - u t i l i t y structures and shown by differences. As indicated on Table IV, the exca-vation and backfilling costs for a l l three types of structures have been assumed to be the same as twin drains - that i s , there Letter to investigator from Mr. Arthur Gordon, Sewer Engineer, City of Vancouver. 177. would be no saving. In fact, as suggested by the 'or' the backfilling costs might be greater because more excavated material would have to be removed. The necessity for this could be reduced by considering this material as 'cut' In the •cut and f i l l ' design of the street. The costs for placing bedding sand have been assumed to be equal to the best practice, except that they would be eliminated (for a $0.60 saving) where bedding sand was not required for troughs cast in place. Drain costs would be the same for troughs and tunnels, but have been omitted at this point for the tube-conduit since the drains might be incorporated into the structure. The cost of laying has similarly been omitted for the tubed-conduit. Laying costs for the other structures have been assumed to be the same as for twin sewers. However, the costs should be less for troughs because of more favourable conditions, and might be more for tunnels because drains would have to be pushed through them. Manholes have been assumed to cost the same for tunnels and tubed-conduits as for twin drains. They are unnecessary with a l l - u t i l i t y troughs, so yield a saving. Finally, the supervision and overhead costs have been assumed to be the same or less than for twin sewers. The non-material non-laying costs of installing water pipes in u t i l i t y structures ( i . e . excavation, backfilling etc.) haave been assumed to be completely eliminated for a saving of $1.68 compared with best current practice. There would be an additional saving of $0.62 i f asbestos cement pipes were sub-stituted for cast iron. This seems reasonable when the superior strength and other characteristics of cast iron are not required when water pipes are enclosed in structures. In the case of the tubed-conduit, the pipe costs have been omitted, but not those for hydrants and valves. 178. The cost*of installing one sidewalk has been assumed to be completely eliminated for a saving of at least $3.18. It should be more because the costs are ordinarily higher than this in current practice, and sidewalk sections would be precast to eliminate the need for formwork and a l l but a minimum of f i e l d labour. The total savings in the costs of installing these few u t i l i t i e s in a l l - u t i l i t y structures is thus estimated to be in the order of $7.85 for the trough, $5.48 for the tunnel, and $10.68 for the tubed-conduit. These can be considered minimum in that in addition there should be substantial savings in the costs of installing the communicative and e l e c t r i c a l services underground. The excavating and backfillingcosts would be completely eliminated, but may be offset to an unknown extent by costs not otherwise incurred. Furthermore, no consideration has been given to potential savings in operating costs during the lifetime of the f a c i l i t i e s or upon their partial or complete replacement. In the latter case, compared to current practice there would be a saving in a l l costs except the relatively minor ones of removing the old and laying a new f a c i l i t y , including repair costs for damage done to other f a c i l i t i e s such as pave-ments necessarily Involved at present. Nor do they include possible savings in the costs of roads. These comments should be kept! • in mind during the following discussion of the cost of the u t i l i t y structures and the test of their f e a s i b i l i t y . A l l - u t i l i t y trough. The cost of the a l l - u t i l i t y trough, can be estimated roughly from unit estimating costs for retaining walls of $60 per cubic yard of concrete in place (i.e. cast in forms). Only $15 per cubic yard is for the concrete i t s e l f . A trough 8 feet deep, 4 feet wide, with 6" walls and base has a cross-sectional area of 9.5 square feet. The volume of this section is 9.5 x 1 4 27 = 0.35 cubic yards which would cost 179. $21.12. This exceeds the estimated saving of $7.85 by $13.27 so this structure must be considered unfeasible when constructed by casting in forms. The total unit cost used above is for one-of-a-kind projects and may be too high for what might become standard procedures. Also, techniques involving casting without forms or installing precast sections might be employed as discussed in Appendix A. The estimated saving of $7.85 covers the cost of concrete for this section at $5.28 per lineal foot, but leaves l i t t l e for costs of placing the concrete. Thus, either an ex-tremely efficient technique or more savings must be found before the a l l - u t i l i t y trough could become feasible compared to best current practice. A l l - u t i l i t y tunnel. It has been assumed that the most practical means of constructing the a l l - u t i l i t y tunnel is by installing spun reinforced concrete drains. To enclose a 12 inch storm drain, an 8 inch sewer, and a 6 inch water main, requires a 30 inch tunnel costing $7.77 (including tax). To estimate the cost of laying this, the City Engineer of Port Moody suggested working back from the total unit cost used by the Greater Vancouver Water and Sewerage District Board, although he considers i t too high at $17. Since excavation, bedding sand, manholes, backfilling and supervision and overhead costs have been allowed for in the estimate of costs of installing the tunnel, $5.20 can be accounted for ($1,554-0.40 + 1.03 • 1.48 * .74). Subtracting this $5.20 and the $7.77 drain cost from $17.00 leaves $4.03 for the costs of laying the tunnel plus extra costs in above items, which seems excessive. Adding this to the tunnel cost of $7.77 gives a total of $11.80 which exceeds the estimated saving of $5.48 by $6.42. The more common size storm drain for local streets of 10 inches would reduce the required size of tunnel to 24 inches. 180. This would reduce the cost of the tunnel considerably and the estimate of savings only slightly (the difference in cost between a 12 inch and 10 inch drain). A l l - u t i l i t y tubed-condult. The estimate of costs for the a l l - u t i l i t y tubed-conduit are based on costs of hollow core concrete slabs supplied by Superior Concrete Ltd. of North Vancouver. It has been assumed that the proposed tubed-conduits could have comparable costs to these hollow core slabs i f they were produced in sufficient volume to warrant construction of a special extrusion machine. Costs of the slabs are quoted in square feet of deck area. Two types are two feet wide and six and eight inches deep costing $1.00 and $1.20 per square foot. Since they are two feet wide, a lineal foot costs $2.00 and $2.40 respec-tively. Dividing by their net cross-sectional areas yields costs per square inch of cross-section of $0.22 and $0.24. A suggested 'economy' design for the a l l - u t i l i t y is shown in Diagram 15, which meets or exceeds the design requirements for the extrusion process. The cross-sectional area is 185.63 square inches. Applying the average unit cost of $0.23, the cost of this section would be $4.46. Since the estimated saving is $10.68, there is a surplus $6.22 which would more than cover laying costs. Thus, this structure appears to be economically feasible. This 'economy' structure could be made to function effectively i f the extruded material were dense and water-tight, and the joints were perfect. The water tube might be lined with plastic. However, the potential danger to public health of contamination of the water supply would always exist. A better design would be that shown in Diagram 16 which has an enlarged tube for inserting an independent water pipe. Adding the cost of asbestos cement pipe of $2.12 and laying of $0.70 back in, the surplus would be $3.40 which is s t i l l ample for covering the 6" water tube S V tube f o r 6" Asbes-tos cement water p i p e •3" secondary e l e c t r i c 2 % n t e l e p h o n e and f i r e a l a r m tube 8" sewer* 2 V p r i m a r y e l e c t r i c tube 2 V c a b l e TV tube. 1 2 " storm d r a i n -A l l - U t i l i t y Tubed-Conduits Suggested Diagram 15 M o d i f i e d Diagram 16 c o s t s of l a y i n g the s t r u c t u r e . I f p l a s t i c p i p e were us e d , the c o s t o f the p i p e i t s e l f would p r o b a b l y be h i g h e r , but j o i n t s would be fewer and l a y i n g f a s t e r . A l s o , the s i z e of the v o i d and consequent amount of m a t e r i a l i n the s t r u c t u r e c o u l d be reduced s l i g h t l y . Thus, the a l l - u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e appears t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . Indeed, i t may p r o v i d e a s u r p l u s , e s p e c i a l l y when p o s s i b l e s a v i n g s on underground w i r i n g and c a b l i n g c o s t s are c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s s u r p l u s c o u l d e i t h e r be passed on as s a v i n g s to l o t p u r c h a s e r s and t a x p a y e r s , o r be used t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l o r h i g h e r q u a l i t y s e r v i c e s . O t her types of s t r u c t u r e s . The o t h e r types of s t r u c t u r e s have not been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n d e t a i l , s i n c e i t i s n e c e s s a r y o n l y to f i n d one f e a s i b l e type t o make the proposed s t r e e t uses p o s s i b l e . However, some of these o t h e r t y p e s may be o t h e r w i s e more f e a s i b l e than a l l - u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , For example, where topography d i c t a t e s u n u s u a l l o c a t i o n s f o r •182. drains, the non-drainage types could be used. Generally speaking, they should be economically feasible because their costs would be substantially reduced when the relatively large drains were not involved, while the savings would not be reduced so much. Most of the estimated savings arise from reductions in costs of Installing water pipes and a sidewalk and these would remain for the non-drainage types. Excavation and backfilling costs would be n i l where these structures were installed above and in the trench excavated for drains. Finally, a u t i l i t y structure such as the e l e c t r i c a l tubed-conduit might well be provided at less cost than an ordinary sidewalk while also serving as a sidewalk because of the economy of reduced cross-sectional area and prefabrication. Per lot costs. The above estimates are a l l on a lineal foot basis. Perhaps the relationships in terms of costs per lo t are more significant. Assuming lots 66 x 120 feet, which seems to be becoming a standard except in Vancouver, about 40 feet of u t i l i t i e s are required per lot when side streets are included. 1 0 Taking the differences between estimated savings and costs before consideration of factors likely to narrow them, the a l l - u t i l i t y trough and tunnel costs exceed savings by an estimated $13.27 and $6.42 respectively. The a l l - u t i l i t y struc-ture could yield a saving of say, for the sake of i l l u s t r a t i o n , $0.50. This means extra costs of $531.00 and $257.00 or a saving of $20.00 This is just for the street f a c i l i t y . The differences for connections to dwellings must be considered. The average length of them would be slightly more than half the street width plus the minimum setback or front yard. For a 66 Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Countryside to  Suburb. New Westminster, LtsLM.R.P.B., 1961 (Supplementary Study 3 to Land for Living). p. 33. 183. foot road and 30 foot setback, this would be 63 feet. Assuming the differences to be about one-third that for the street f a c i l i t y because of the smaller u t i l i t y sizes involved, these differences per foot would be $4.42, $2.14 and $0,166 respec-tively. The amounts would be $278, $135, and $10.50 for total extra costs of $809 for the trough, $391 for the tunnel and saving of $30.50 for the tubed-conduits. In each case the amounts are higher than would normally result i f lots were narrower, streets were narrower, or the setback were less. How significant are these costs? Costs in excess of $809 have been paid merely to have wires and cables installed underground, although by few people. The number who have paid more than $392 is substantial, especially in the United States. Since these people have considered the benefits that w i l l accrue to them worth such extra costs, in this sense underground wiring is economically feasible. In the same sense, a proportion of people would accept the extra costs of the proposed practices as being economically feasible. For a given cost the proportion should be higher than for underground wiring because the benefits should be greater. The proportion of people willing to pay such extra costs increases as the costs decrease, of course On the other hand, the a b i l i t y to decrease costs depends, partly on the proportion willing to accept such costs in that some costs can be reduced when dealing with large numbers or volumes. Summary of economic f e a s i b i l i t y . The proposed a l l -u t i l i t y trough and tunnel structures have been found to be unfeasible compared to current practice, for the assumptions made concerning their costs. They might be accepted as being feasible by those people placing a high value on the benefits that would accrue from them; the proportion of people of this opinion would tend to increase as the cost differential compared to current practice decreased. This diffe r e n t i a l would tend to decrease with increased use of such structures. 184, H o w e v e r , t h e a l l - u t i l i t y t u b e d - c o n d u i t h a s b e e n f o u n d t o b e e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e p r o v i d e d a l l o f t h e n e c e s s a r y a s s u m p t i o n s a r e v a l i d . I n d e e d , i t m i g h t w e l l p r o d u c e a n e t s a v i n g t h a t c o u l d b e p a s s e d o n t o t h o s e s e r v e d o r t a x p a y e r s g e n e r a l l y . T h e o t h e r t y p e s o f u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s a p p e a r t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e , o r s o n e a r l y s o t h a t t h e e x t r a c o s t s w o u l d p r o b a b l y be a c c e p t e d i n e x c h a n g e f o r t h e b e n e f i t s t h a t w o u l d a c c r u e . Summary o f E v a l u a t i o n o f P r o p o s e d P r a c t i c e s o f I n s t a l l i n g F a c i l i t i e s  S i n c e t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c f e a s i b i l i t y h a s b e e n s u m m a r i z e d i m m e d i a t e l y a b o v e , o n l y t h e o t h e r a s p e c t s h a v e b e e n I n c l u d e d h e r e . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e p r o p o s e d p r a c t i c e s o f i n s t a l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e f e a s i b l e , p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e . T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , m o s t o f w h i c h c a n be d e a l t w i t h r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y . A n e x c e p t i o n i s t h a t i t i s c o n s i d e r e d u n f e a s i b l e t o i n s t a l l g a s p i p e s i n t h e p r o p o s e d u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s . T h e p r o p o s e d p h y s i c a l d e s i g n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be f e a s i b l e i n t h a t t h e y a r e b a s e d u p o n e x i s t i n g o n e s . S t a g i n g i n t h e p r o p o s e d p r a c t i c e w o u l d i n v o l v e ' t i g h t e r * s c h e d u l e s , b u t i s o t h e r w i s e c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e b e s t c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e . T h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s p r o p o s e d a r e b a s i c a l l y m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e b e s t e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s , a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d f e a s i b l e . I V . SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N S T h e p r o p o s e d s t r e e t u s e a n d d e s i g n d e f i n e d a n d d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I I a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e b e t t e r t h a n t h e b e s t c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e , o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t c h o i c e f o r p e o p l e t o f i n d w h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r e d b e t t e r . S u b j e c t t o t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s c a n b e a c c e p t e d . T h e a s s u m p t i o n 185. could only be checked by actual experimentation with the proposed practices. The proposed designing process for street use and servicing in local residential streets appears to be feasible from a l l points of view with the following qualifications. Public acceptance jof roads close to houses and 'communal' parking areas and the assumption regarding the relationship be-tween benefits and costs could only be determined by full-scale experiment. The proposed practices of installing property service f a c i l i t i e s appear to be feasible with minor qualifications from a l l points of view except economically. The a l l - u t i l i t y trough and tunnel structures are economically feasible on the basis of the assumptions made, although they might be accepted by some people.who value the resultant benefits highly. The a l l - u t i l i t y tubed-conduit, however, appears to be not only economically feasible, but possibly able to yield savings compared to the best current practice. These could be either shared by those served and taxpayers, or used to provide additional services or a higher quality of services. The other types of structures appear to be economically feasible or so nearly so that the extra costs would be accepted in exchange for the added benefits that would accrue. It is suggested that the design possibilities possible with u t i l i t y structures and the apparent f e a s i b i l i t y of a l l -u t i l i t y tubed-conduits are worth investigating further. An actual full-scale experiment on the basis of the proposed practices should be undertaken. This should be accom-panied by development of a nearby area at the same time so that detailed cost and public reaction can by analyzed and evaluated on comparable bases. 186. Certain aspects, such as the design of the proposed •servi-center' or typical 'problem' streets might be made the subject of competitions for architects and landscape designers. Eventually, a new profession of street architects or designers might evolve who would concern themselves with this important part of our environment. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY A. 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"Pipeline Trains No Longer Dream", Fina n c i a l  Post. 30 March 1963, p. 3. "Gas Furnaces Die i n 'Deep Freeze'." Vancouver Sun. 3 January 1959, p. 1. "NRC i s Incubator for Equipment Ideas." Fi n a n c i a l Post. 13 A p r i l 1963, p. 53. "Saskatoon Dumps Home Incinerators." F i n a n c i a l Post, 2 November 1963, p. 1. Snider, Arthur J. "Pocket-size Memory Packs w i l l Shop, Bank, Entertain," Vancouver Sun, 24 January 1964, p. 6. "Snorkel Mailbox." Vancouver Sun, 18 February 1959, p. 15, "Space Breakthrough Claimed as 5 Live Sealed Up 30 Days," Vancouver Sun, 2 A p r i l 1964, p. 1. "Stop Sign Hidden, City Pays $2,879." Vancouver Sun. 6 May 1959, p. 24. F. MUNICIPAL BY-LAWS & SPECIFICATIONS Burnaby D i s t r i c t , Specifications for the Construction pf  Municipal Streets and Lanes. July 1962. Delta. Typical Cross-Sections for 66 Foot Roads, Drawing No. B-R1002. North Vancouver D i s t r i c t . Ordinances, A By-Law to Regulate the Subdivision of Land. 27 March 1957, By-Law No. 2169. North Vancouver D i s t r i c t . Standard Plans Specifications -Subdivision Services, (revised to date). Richmond Township. Notes for the Information and Guidance of  Land Owners. Subdividers and Land Developers Relevant  to the Subdivision of Residential Land Within the  Municipality of Richmond. Planning Department. September 1961. Richmond Township. Standard Layout of 56' Subdivision Roads, Drawing No. SB.6. 191. S u r r e y D i s t r i c t . O r d i n a n c e s . A By-Law t o R e g u l a t e the  S u b d i v i s i o n o£ Land, 1962, By-Law No. 1990. Vancouver, O r d i n a n c e s . S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l By-Law, By-Law No. 3334, 1955 (Amended 1955 and 1959). West Vancouver D i s t r i c t . O r d i n a n c e s . S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l By- Law No. 1504. 1955 (Amendments up to and i n c l . By-Law No. 1824, 1961 i n c o r p o r a t e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e ) . G. INTERVIEWS Bowors, F., E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r , E l e c t r i c a l Dept., C i t y of Vancouver. Ferman, Ben., and Gary B a r c l a y . Design E n g i n e e r s , S u p e r i o r C o n c r e t e P r o d u c t s L t d . , 551 Seymour B l v d . , N o r t h Vancouver. H i c k l e y , D. i / c C i v i c D e s i g n S e c t i o n , P l a n n i n g Dept., C i t y of Vancouver. H i e b e r t , J . E., M u n i c i p a l C l e r k , C i t y of P o r t Moody. Johnson, Dale. P r e s i d e n t , Dale D i s t r i b u t o r s (B.C.) L t d . Kenyon, Douglas. C i t y E n g i n e e r , C i t y of Port Moody. L i b b e y , Hugh. Manager, Gas D i s t r i b u t i o n , B. C. Hydro'& Power A u t h o r i t y . H a c L e l l a n , Len., U t i l i t i e s E n g i n e e r , E n g i n e e r i n g Dept., C i t y o f Vancouver. T a y l o r , J . B. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of S e r v i c e R e q u i r e m e n t s , C e n t r a l P o s t O f f i c e , Vancouver, B. C. Wa l t o n , Dennis. M u n i c i p a l P l a n n i n g O f f i c e r , D i s t r i c t of West Vancouver. Welsh, Douglas. E n g i n e e r , D i s t r i c t of N o r t h Vancouver. APPENDICES TABLE OF CONTENTS APPENDIX PAGE A. CURRENT SERVICING PRACTICES - A Detailed Description and Ranking for Ten Selected Metropolitan Municipalities, and Comparison with Practices Elsewhere 193 Access Services (vehicular, pedestrian, other) . . 197 Baric Services (water, gas, other) . . . . . . . . 202 Communicative Services (telephone, cable TV and radio, other) .206 Drainage Services (storm, sanitary). 211 Electrical Services (power, street lighting,other) 214 Furnishing Services (furniture, finishes, other) . 217 Gardening Services (planting, plant care Holding Services (for collection, distribution). . 224 Indicating Services (informative, regulatory, demarcative, advertising). . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Keeping Services (keeping f a c i l i t i e s in sound condition, functioning, clean and tidy, other) . 235 B. INSTALLING UTILITY STRUCTURES - A Description of Possible Processes for the Various Types . . . . . 243 Trough Structures. . . . . . . . . . 243 Tunnel Structures. 249 Installing Non-drainage and Ele c t r i c a l Structures Over Drains 253 C. COST DATA Table V. - Underground Wiring Costs for Transformer-Secondary Combination to Serve Back-to-Back Lots 255 Table VI. - Sewer Costs, City of Port Moody. . . . 256 APPENDIX A CURRENT SERVICING PRACTICES: A DETAILED DESCRIPTION AND RANKING FOR TEN SELECTED METROPOLITAN MUNICIPALITIES, AND COMPARISON WITH PRACTICES ELSEWHERE. This appendix presents the detailed description and evaluation of current servicing practices in local residential streets in metropolitan Vancouver from which the composite best, normal, and worst practices described in Chapter II were derived for the purposes of this investigation. Ten municipalities have been selected for this detailed examination on the basis of recent subdivision and servicing activity and future potential. They are the City of Vancouver; the surrounding Districts of West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby, and the Township of Richmond; and the outlying munici-palities of the City of Port Moody, Districts of Port Coquitlam, Coquitlam, Surrey, and Delta. These are shown on Map.2 on the following page. The reasons for not including the other municipalities in metropolitan Vancouver are outlined in Chapter II (see page 63). The servicing practices have been evaluated qualitatively and are described below in terms of five ranks - best, better, normal, worse and worst. The normal rank is assigned to the most common or widespread practice for a given service, and the other ranks are related to i t . Best and worst ranks are assigned to practices that are superior and inferior respectively to the normal practice in some significant aspect. The better and worse ranks are introduced whenever there are practices significantly distinct from the others. Thus, 'better* refers to a practice significantly superior to the normal practice, but inferior to the best practice for that particular service'. The evaluation of current servicing practices involved i \ ' ;'**' < . . 1 9 4 . Vancouver Surrounding M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Outlying Certain d e l t a , a g r i c u l t u r a l and mountainous lands excluded MAP 2. METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER - AREAS INVESTIGATED 195 . Che a p p l i c a t i o n of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t c r i t e r i a and/or the p r i n c i p l e s presented i n Chapter I. For i n s t a n c e , a s e r v i c i n g p r a c t i c e that was s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r (or i n f e r i o r ) to others i n terms of p u b l i c h e a l t h , s a f e t y , convenience, w e l f a r e , amenity, or economy has been up-(or down-) graded. A l s o , p r a c t i c e s i n which subdividers i n s t a l l f a c i l i t i e s which have been ranked above others on the basis of the p r i n c i p l e of payment f o r b e n e f i t . S i m i l a r l y , p r a c t i c e s where f a c i l i t i e s are i n s t a l l e d p r i o r to f i r s t occupancy have been ranked above others according to the p r i n c i p l e of maximum b e n e f i t . I t should be noted that these ranks apply only to p r a c t i c e s where s e r v i c e s are provided. The format of t h i s appendix i s as f o l l o w s . The various p r a c t i c e s of a given s e r v i c e are described by t h e i r ranks. The a c t u a l p r a c t i c e i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i s then described by noting which m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or parts of them f o l l o w the various p r a c t i c e s . This d e s c r i p t i o n i s based upon the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s knowledge of the area and'an examination of municipal s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l by-laws. F i n a l l y , p r a c t i c e elsewhere than i n the ten s e l e c t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s mentioned when p e r t i n e n t . In some cases, t h i s involves areas i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver not other-wise considered, p a r t i c u l a r l y the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands (U.E.L.). Most of such comments, however, p e r t a i n to p r a c t i c e s elsewhere i n North America and i n Europe. Those f o r North America are based upon a perusal over the past f i v e years of newspapers and magazines, p a r t i c u l a r l y the F i n a n c i a l Post and House & Home. The comments about Europe are based mainly upon observations made by the i n v e s t i g a t o r on a tour from June to November i n 1961. The order i n which the s e r v i c e s are discussed f o l l o w s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I , beginning wi t h the access s e r v i c e s . For the convenience of the reader, Table I showing a summary of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s i s reproduced on the f o l l o w i n g page. 196. TABLE I. CLASSIFICATION OF SERVICES AND THEIR FACILITIES OTHER SERVICES: ACCESS SERVICES: Pavements: Vehicular Pedestrian Other access: Cycle Equestrian Emergency veh. Transit UTILITIES: BARIC SERVICES: Water Gas Other baric: Fuel o i l Steam roads walks paths: cycle bridle emerg. transit Pipes: Cables: COMMUNICATIVE SERVICES: Telephone Cable television T.V.cable & radio Other communicative: Fire alarm * Burglary alarm * Traffic control * Telegraph * DRAINAGE SERVICES:Drains: Storm drainage * Sanitary drainage * (or sewerage) (or sewer) ELECTRICAL SERVICES: Power Street lighting Other elec t r i c a l : Trolley bus Heating Wires: FURNISHING SERVICES: Furniture Finishes Finishes Other furnishing: Decorations Ornaments Decorative Lighting GARDENING SERVICES: Planting services HOLDING SERVICES: Collection holding Distribution holding INDICATING SERVICES Informative Regulatory Demarcative Advertising KEEPING SERVICES: Services keeping f a c i l i t i e s : in sound condit functioning clean and tidy Furnishings: benches, fences, shelters, cabinets. floor & wall surfaces banners, etc, statues, pools, floodlights, etc. Plants: trees, shrubs, flowers, grass, ground covers. Holders: letter, parcel boxes mail, newspaper Indicators: signs signs, signals markings signs such as: ion roads roads, pipes roads, drains * Same term as for service, e.g. Other keeping services water pipes 197. II. ACCESS SERVICES The services herein c l a s s i f i e d as access services are those f a c i l i t a t i n g access to the property abutting a street by providing pavements upon which people and vehicles or other modes of t r a v e l can move e a s i l y to and into each property from others, or wait to do so. The current practice of providing vehicular, pedestrian, and other access service f a c i l i t i e s are discussed separately below. Vehicular Access The vehicular access service provides roads and connec-tions to driveways on abutting property upon which vehicles of most types can drive, wait, and park. In current practice, the road i s always centered i n the street, and i s usually symmetrical i n functional layout and physical design. The central portion used for the movement of vehicles along the street o r d i n a r i l y has a s t r i p on either side for parking vehicles p a r a l l e l to the s t r e e t . Exceptions are unusually narrow streets and short culs-de-sac which may have parking on only one side or none at a l l . These parking s t r i p s are seven or eight feet wide and may be paved with a d i f f e r e n t material than the movement portion. Currently, the l a t t e r usually accommodates two f u l l movement lanes (one for each direction) i n preference to e a r l i e r practices involving a compromise width roughly equivalent to a lane and a h a l f . Since the lanes can be anything from eight to twelve feet wide, l o c a l roads with parking s t r i p s on both sides range from t h i r t y to forty feet i n width. The variations i n current practice of providing vehicular pavements are outlined below. A l l practices. The best practice of f a c i l i t a t i n g the vehicular access service i s for the subdivider to i n s t a l l an asphalt pavement between concrete curb-gutters on gravel or sand sub-bases to s p e c i f i c a t i o n s established by municipal engineers. Better than normal practices are i n s t a l l i n g an asphalt pavement with an asphalt curb or no curb. The normal practice i s for the 198. s u b d i v i d e r to i n s t a l l a g r a v e l pavement on l y and the m u n i c i p a l i t y to i n s t a l l an a s p h a l t pavement l a t e r , on a l o c a l improvement b a s i s . A worse p r a c t i c e i s i n s t a l l i n g f l u s h coats i n s t e a d of a s p h a l t on the same b a s i s . The worst p r a c t i c e i s the p r o v i s i o n by the s u b d i v i d e r of a g r a v e l or s o i l cement pavement with no l a t e r a d d i t i o n of a more durable s u r f a c e . A c t u a l p r a c t i c e . The best p r a c t i c e i s f o l l o w e d f u l l y o n l y i n Richmond. Asphal t pavements with c o n c r e t e curbs have been or are being i n s t a l l e d i n oth e r areas i n s p e c i a l c i rcumstances, such as i n s t i t u t i o n a l or m u n i c i p a l land ownership. The U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands and C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n developments such as Fr a s e r v i e w and Renfrew Heights have these f a c i l i t i e s . A city-owned area being developed i n Vancouver w i l l have them.*" Some l a r g e - s c a l e developments have a s p h a l t pavement and con c r e t e curbs i n s t a l l e d f o r c o m p e t i t i v e reasons r a t h e r than as a m u n i c i p a l requirement, but these are e x c e p t i o n s . The b e t t e r than normal p r a c t i c e s are f o l l o w e d i n D e l t a , West Vancouver, and North Vancouver, the l a t t e r r e q u i r i n g an a s p h a l t curb i n a d d i t i o n to the a s p h a l t pavement. The o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o l l o w the o t h e r p r a c t i c e s except i n the s p e c i a l circumstances mentioned. Whether the p r a c t i c e i s a p a r t i c u l a r area w i l l f o l l o w the normal, worse, o r worst p r a c t i c e s depends on the w i l l i n g n e s s of both the m u n i c i p a l i t y and r e s i d e n t s to pay f o r the pavements. G e n e r a l l y speaking, the tendency to i n s t a l l a s p h a l t o r f l u s h coat pavements i s g r e a t e r near Vancouver and near s t r e e t s a l r e a d y paved, although f l u s h c o a t i n g i s more common than a s p h a l t i n Vancouver i t s e l f . I t i s somewhat i r o n i c t h a t the a c t u a l standard of paving i n many areas of Vancouver has been lower than i n areas of o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s because the standards s e t f o r permanent type pavements were h i g h e r . One such standard was f o r c a s t co n c r e t e pavements and curbs.which were ^At 54th. f o l l o w i n g page). Avenue and K e r r S t r e e t ; (see diagram on 200. i n s t a l l e d i n o n l y those few b l o c k s where the r e s i d e n t s were w i l l i n g to pay f o r them. The m a j o r i t y of s t r e e t s have a l e s s permanent type r e q u i r i n g more maintenance. The C i t y i s c u r r e n t l y embarking on a ' l o w - c o s t p a v i n g program' t o r a i s e the a c t u a l s t a n d a r d o f pavements and reduce maintenance c o s t s . P r a c t i c e e l s e w h e r e . Some r e c e n t developments i n the 2 U n i t e d S t a t e s have c o n c r e t e roads i n s t a l l e d by p a v i n g machines. P e d e s t r i a n Access The p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s s e r v i c e p r o v i d e s a pavement whose p r i m a r y purpose i s t o f a c i l i t a t e movement of p e d e s t r i a n s a l o n g the s t r e e t . The p e d e s t r i a n pavement i s commonly c a l l e d a s i d e w a l k because i t i s a t the s i d e o f the s t r e e t . I t may be l o c a t e d any-where between the edge o f the road and the boundary of the s t r e e t . I t i s u s u a l l y o f f s e t a t l e a s t one f o o t from the boundary t o a l l o w work t o be done on i t o r t o take up d i f f e r e n c e s i n grade between s i d e w a l k and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . There a r e two s c h o o l s o f thought on l o c a t i o n of the s i d e w a l k i n the s t r e e t . One h o l d s t h a t s i d e w a l k s s h o u l d be near the r o a d so t h a t c l e a r i n g and e x c a v a t i n g f o r them can be c a r r i e d out w i t h t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s f o r t h e r o a d so t h a t the s i d e w a l k can be b u i l t i n t e g r a l l y w i t h the c u r b t o save c o s t s , and so t h a t the space a v a i l a b l e f o r p l a n t i n g t r e e s i s n ot s p l i t . The o t h e r h o l d s t h a t the s i d e w a l k s h o u l d be away from t h e r o a d so t h a t p e o p l e w a l k i n g on i t w i l l not g e t s p l a s h e d , so t h a t the s i d e w a l k can have a d i f f e r e n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n t h a n the r o a d , and so t h a t the road can be widened w i t h o u t moving th e s i d e w a l k . The l a t t e r p o i n t s h o u l d not a p p l y t o l o c a l s t r e e t s , but u n f o r t u n a t e l y does i n some c a s e s . S i d e w a l k s a r e u s u a l l y f o u r o r f i v e f e e t wide. A l l p r a c t i c e s . The b e s t p r a c t i c e o f p r o v i d i n g p e d e s t r i a n pavements i s f o r the s u b d i v i d e r t o i n s t a l l c o n c r e t e s i d e w a l k s on b o t h s i d e s o f the s t r e e t p r i o r t o occupancy o f d w e l l i n g s i n the a r e a . A b e t t e r t h a n normal p r a c t i c e i s f o r the s u b d i v i d e r t o ^ A c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n magazines such as House & Home. 201. i n s t a l l one sidewalk. The normal practice is for municipalities to i n s t a l l sidewalks on one or both sides some time after f i r s t occupancy on a local improvement basis. A worse practice is installing asphalt pavements because they require more mainten-ance and more frequent replacement than concrete ones, and thus can cost more in the long run, though being cheaper i n i t i a l l y . Installing screenings walks by the. municipality out of general revenue is the worst practice because the fine-screen crushed rock particles settle unevenly and become scattered, resulting in damp spots, puddles, and an untidy appearance. Actual practice. The best practice has only been followed in Vancouver's recent subdivision and the University Endowment Lands where the servicers happened to be the owners. Richmond requires subdividers to follow the better practice of providing one concrete sidewalk, and also requires an asphalt pavement where walkways are provided at the rear of lots. A l l other municipalities including Vancouver ordinarily follow the other practices with the normal practice of adding concrete walks on a local improvement basis being more common in Vancouver and the surrounding municipalities. Screenings pavements are installed by municipalities in older developments, especially along the flanking street of a block where a concrete sidewalk cannot be paid for on a local improvement basis. Other Access Services The other access services are those providing pavements for modes of travel other than by ordinary motor vehicles and walking including cycle, wheelchair, equestrian, emergency vehicles, and transit. Transit and equestrian can be excluded from local streets by definition, and the other modes ordinarily require only special consideration in the layout of streets and provision of ramps to avoid the curb. Actual practice. Special consideration or provision for these other modes is practically non-existent on local streets 202. in Metropolitan Vancouver, and rare on other streets. Motor cycles use the road. Bicyles, tricycles, and wheelchairs usually travel on the sidewalk, even though bicycles are often prohibited on sidewalks by municipal by-law. There is a special two foot wide asphalt cycle path on a one block section of Chancellor Boulevard in the Endowment Lands for children going to University K i l l School. There are wheelchair ramps at Twelfth Avenue and Heather Street for the Vancouver General Hospital. The hospital also has a special sidewalk crossing for emergency vehicles on Twelfth Avenue at Willow Street. Bridle paths on streets are confined to Southwest Marine Drive and the 'Southlands' area of Vancouver, which is a small holdings or limited agricul-tural d i s t r i c t . III. BARIC SERVICES The baric or pressure services are those which supply commodities to property or streets through pipes under pressure. Water and 'domestic' gas are the only commodities ordinarily supplied to residential d i s t r i c t s . However, such commodities as fuel o i l and steam have been supplied through pipes installed in streets elsewhere and conceivably could be supplied in residential d i s t r i c t s . Consequently, they have been included in the baric services considered below. Water Water is supplied for such private purposes as drinking and cooking for which i t must be potable; washing, bathing, and swimming for which i t must be clean; sprinkling of gardens arid flushing of pavements for which i t must have adequate pressure; and cooling for which i t must be cool. The important public purposes requiring water under adequate pressure and available through hydrants in the streets are fire-fighting and flushing of streets and sewers. Water also may be provided for such public 203. purposes as supplying fountains for drinking, cooling, or their amenity value; and for sprinkling of lawns and plants, but rarely on local residential streets. Best, normal, worse, and worst practices. The installing of cast iron water pipes has been taken as the best practice when the normal practice is to use asbestos cement pipes. In either case, they are supplied by the subdivider, or by the municipality at the subdivider*s expense, and are a minimum of six inches in diameter to ensure adequate pressure for fire-fighting purposes. A worse practice, regardless of material or size, is considered to be that of the municipality supplying the water service at i t s own expense. There are two main reasons for this. One is that the municipality may be unable to control the spread of develop-ment into areas which are uneconomic to service because of the p o l i t i c a l pressure to provide water service. The other is that i t is believed to be inequitable because on the one hand the land owner receives the market value of serviced land when he did not pay for the services. On the other hand the land buyer pays the market price which includes the cost of servicing and then has to help pay through taxes, for the cost of the munici-pality providing these services. This is contrary to the principle of payment for benefit. The worst practice is installing undersized pipes - that i s , pipes whose diameter is too small to either provide adequate pressure for fire-fighting purposes or to meet the needs of the ultimate development in the area served. This is a matter of financial f e a s i b i l i t y , because i t is done where there is a provincial government limitation on the amount of costs that can be charged to the people being served, and a limitation on the financial resources of the municipality to supply services in areas having a low density of development. Actual practice. The larger-sized water transmission pipelines are of precast concrete or welded steel installed by the Greater Vancouver Water District Board. Distribution pipes 204. are of cast iron in Vancouver and normally of asbestos cement in the other municipalities, except for the larger sizes where cast iron is used. Vancouver is the only municipality not requiring the subdivider to Install the water service. The problem of under-sized water pipes has been mainly confined to parts of Surrey. Gas Natural gas is supplied i n Metropolitan Vancouver by the B. C. Hydro & Power Authority for such domestic purposes as home and water heating, cooking, and outdoor lighting. Normal, worst, and actual practice. The actual practice of installing the f a c i l i t i e s of the gas distribution service is homogeneous throughout the area studied because only one agency is involved and i t s own forces do the work. The distinction is made heuln between what is now the normal practice of installing f a c i l i t i e s prior to pavements and planting in developments and what is considered to be the worst practice of installing them afterwards. The former privately owned B. C. Electric Company tried to maintain favourable public relations when installing f a c i l i t i e s i n developed areas by striving "to restore everything 3 as near as possible and practical to the original condition." This policy included careful replacement of sod, reseeding where necessary, requesting inspection by householder of work done on rockeries and flower beds, and restitution for plants k i l l e d . Cuts in driveways were to be kept small, were temporarily "cold patched", and then permanently repaired with hot asphalt mix 4 after settlement. The present publicly owned company seems to be following this policy reasonably well on private property but does not repair cuts in streets as well as i t might. 3 "Our Conscientious Gardeners.1", Service Digest, Vancouver, B. C. Electric, vol. 2, no. 3 (March/April 1961) p. 5. 4 Loco c i t . 2 0 5 . Gas pipe has been mainly steel coated with asphalt and wrapped with paper, but the competition from plastic pipes has forced steel pipe companies to produce a polyvinylchloride (P.V.C.) coated pipe that is becoming the standard for this area. The new portions of the distribution system are under high pressure and require only one-half inch diameter house connections and two or three inch street f a c i l i t i e s . The former are usually installed a minimum twelve inches deep or below normal digging, but deeper where regrading i s expected. Street f a c i l i t i e s are installed eighteen inches deep and quite close to trees because roots usually do them no harm. They must be deeper under roads. Practice elsewhere. The gas u t i l i t y company serving Metropolitan Vancouver also serves parts of the Fraser Valley and has a f a i r sized plastic pipe test installation at Abbotsford. While the pipe i t s e l f is cheaper than steel pipe, several problems and expenses were encountered, which, together with reservations about the long-term durability of the pipe make the company reluctant to i n s t a l l much more at present. One problem is that present plastic valves are considered unsuitable so metal ones are used, but i t is uneconomic to provide cathodic protection to these when separated e l e c t r i c a l l y by plastic pipe. Other Baric Services There are no other baric services currently installed in local residential streets in Metropolitan Vancouver. There are a few in downtown Vancouver such as steam pipes leading to the building served by the steam plant in the Hotel Vancouver. The University of British Columbia has an extensive steam heating system that is partly underground, occasionally in structure ~*The information in this paragraph was derived from an interview with Mr. Hugh Libbey, Manager of Gas Distribution, B. C. Hydro &. Power Authority. 6 I b i d . 206. containing f a c i l i t i e s of other services. However, the system is not related to the street system - indeed, i t seems to avoid streets to minimize crossings. Practice elsewhere. Fuel o i l distribution systems have been installed i n the streets of a few residential developments in New York State by a developer who found them to be less expensive than installing either a gas system or fuel o i l tanks for each house. Those served by this system get these advantages: no f u e l - o i l tanks to replace or repair; no worry about running out of o i l when roads are blocked by snow; no o i l trucks running over lawns; year-round monthly f i l l i n g ; no short-term price increases during o i l shortages.8 IV. COMMUNICATIVE SERVICES The communicative services are those which make possible several types of communication by installing cables and other f a c i l i t i e s in streets. The telephone service is by far the most important, but the alarm and control ones are often necessary and cable-television is gaining in popularity and importance. Telephone The telephone service is provided primarily for communi-cating by voice. It can be used for communicating by various types of signals such as high-speed transmission of data for computers and other machines. The main private use of the telephone is for conversation between two persons, but there is a growing use of telephone answering devices which either record the message of the person calling or give out such information 7"This Pipeline Carries Metered Fuel O i l to New Houses", House & Home. (November 1961), p 0 174. Loc. c i t . 207. as the time, a standard musical tone, weather forecasts, and current entertainment events. Such devices are provided by private companies on rental basis or by charges for advertisements given out with other information. Public 'pay' phones serve the 9 same purposes. These and certain other f a c i l i t i e s are considered separately because their requirements and the services they provide are different. These include public 'taxi' phones, and police and transit supervisor c a l l boxes, a l l having direct lines to the respective office or headquarters. A l l telephone f a c i l i -ties are provided by the B. C. Telephone Company. Best, normal, and worst practices. The best practice of providing the telephone service i s installing telephone cables underground in conduits laid i n a common trench with those of the electric power and lighting services. The normal practice is to i n s t a l l cables overhead on power poles using an integrated cable and having support wire to minimize the unattractiveness of the f a c i l i t y . The worst practice is installing cables on separate telephone poles using hangers to suspend the cable from an independent support wire. Actual practice. Telephone cables have been installed underground only in small areas in Vancouver, North Vancouver, Port Moody, and Richmond. Vancouver is currently placing cables underground in a City-owned subdivision that i t is servicing. These are exceptions to the general rule of overhead installation. _ Few public pay phones (called 'pay stations' by the telephone company) actually are installed on streets in Metro-politan Vancouver, unlike most other parts of North America. An o f f i c i a l of the telephone company states that the company is unable to provide as many public pay phones as i t thinks are required for adequate service, especially in downtown Vancouver, because the City w i l l not permit them on the streets and there are few places where they can be placed on private property. Some of the existing locations may be lost when the site upon which they are located is more intensively developed. The reason given for the City policy was that the phone booths block the view of motorists and are therefore unsafe. 208. Practice elsewhere. There is a trend in other parts of North America towards installing telephone cables underground. The Bell Telephone System, which controls 81 percent of the telephones in the United States, asked i t s 22 operating companies to bury their cables whenever possible. It is expected that vi r t u a l l y a l l new service w i l l be installed underground by 1970.1 Many of the more recent underground installations have been by the direct burial method. In this method, special underground cables are laid directly in the earth rather than being pulled through conduits. They are sometimes placed in a common trench with electric power wires with a separation of only a few inches. A new 'random' laying technique is being used by I l l i n o i s Bell and Commonwealth Edison that has reduced their trenching costs by 25 percent. Phone cables and power wires are laid at the same time in a 30 inch trench that requires only one b a c k f i l l . Separation trenching recommended by the National Safety Code calls for a 36 inch trench and one foot vertical separation requiring two laying and backfilling operations. 1 1 One of the most interesting techniques i s the direct burial of telephone cables by ploughing. This is done by pulling a cable into the space opened up in the earth by a point attached to the bottom of a blade pulled through the earth by a tractor. This technique obviates the need for excavating and backfilling a trench, but is suitable only in certain s o i l conditions. Cable-television and Cable-radio Services supplying television and radio signals (video and audio) via coaxial cable from a master antenna are herein termed cable-television (or cable TV) and cable-radio. The two are normally supplied together, but the radio may be frequency 1 0"There's no Need for Ugly Wirescapes Now that Wires Can be Buried for $100 a Lot," House & Home, vol. XXIV, no. 2, (August 1963), p. 127. 1 1 I b i d . . p. 128. 209. modulated CFM) only. These s e r v i c e s are becoming popular i n areas where e i t h e r normal reception i s poor or where expensive and u n s i g h t l y i n d i v i d u a l antennas would be required to receive d i s t a n t s t a t i o n s properly. Normal and a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . The normal p r a c t i c e i s to i n s t a l l cables on telephone poles or on power poles with telephone cables. A m p l i f i e r s are required at the master antenna and at i n t e r v a l s along the cable to maintain s i g n a l strength. other Communicative Services - Alarm. C o n t r o l , Telegraph The alarm and c o n t r o l s e r v i c e s are discussed together here because they are s i m i l a r i n most respects. Their purpose i s to communicate alarms or c o n t r o l impulses from d e t e c t i n g or re p o r t i n g s t a t i o n s to s t a t i o n s at which a c t i o n occurs as a r e s u l t of the alarm or c o n t r o l impulse. The d e t e c t i n g and r e p o r t i n g can be done e i t h e r manually or a u t o m a t i c a l l y and the r e s u l t a n t a c t i o n can also be automatic or manual. The alarm s e r v i c e i s concerned with communicating alarms about f i r e , b urglary, and attack by enemy a c t i o n , r a d i a t i o n , or t o x i c gas. F a c i l i t i e s f o r f i r e alarms are the most common and the only ones o r d i n a r i l y i n s t a l l e d i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s . They c o n s i s t of a simple r e p o r t i n g device - the common ' f i r e alarm box.' or s t a t i o n - cable to the nearest f i r e h a l l , and devices there f o r r i n g i n g a b e l l and i n d i c a t i n g the l o c a t i o n of the r e p o r t i n g device. Automatic f i r e d e t e c t i n g devices are u s u a l l y only i n s t a l l e d on commercial or i n d u s t r i a l property where they r i n g a l o c a l f i r e b e l l as w e l l as sending an alarm to the f i r e h a l l . P u b l i c f i r e alarm systems are provided by the m u n i c i p a l i t y . burglary d e t e c t i o n devices are al s o normally confined to commercial and i n d u s t r i a l property and are u s u a l l y automatic. They a l s o u s u a l l y r i n g a b e l l on the premises as w e l l as sending 12 Vancouver has a City-owned f i r e alarm company. Sa r n i a , Kingston, and some suburbs of Montreal have systems provided by p r i v a t e l y owned telephone companies. 210. an alarm to the police station. The exceptions are banks which during the day use a manually operated reporting device that does not ring a b e l l on the premises, but may start a movie camera. Eurglary alarm systems are provided by separate companies or the telephone company. The attack alarm service operates in the reverse fashion in that the alarm is sounded by devices such as sirens located around the areas served, usually on public buildings such as firehalls. The alarm is communicated from a central manually operated reporting device. Automatic radiation detecting devices are currently being installed in the United States by the federal government. The control service is comprised of those f a c i l i t i e s dealing with the control of such conditions as illumination, temperature, moisture, and t r a f f i c flow. The level of illumi-nation is the only condition ordinarily controlled on local residential streets. This involves switching street lights on and off when the level of natural illumination is below or above the minimum desired level. This can be done either by control impulses sent from centrally located manual or automatic reporting devices, or from automatic detecting devices attached to each lamp or one of those on a common ci r c u i t . Control of temperature and moisture conditions is currently confined to buildings except perhaps, for heated pavements which are practically unknown in this area. Control of t r a f f i c conditions is required where t r a f f i c volumes are high such as on major and downtown streets. Traffic signals are normally controlled by timing devices located in boxes attached to poles at one of the corners of the intersection. Vancouver has one installation in which a series of t r a f f i c signals are controlled by an analog computer on the basis of the t r a f f i c volumes entering a system as counted by infra-red detectors installed over the t r a f f i c lanes- Control service f a c i l i t i e s are installed by the municipality. Telegraph cables are similar to and installed with telephone cables both overhead and underground, and since they r a r e l y o c c u r i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a r e o f no f u r t h e r c o n c e r n h e r e . Best and normal p r a c t i c e . The b e s t p r a c t i c e of i n s t a l l i n g t he a l a r m and c o n t r o l c a b l e s i s i n c o n d u i t s p r o v i d e d by the s u b d i v i d e r a l o n g w i t h e l e c t r i c power and l i g h t i n g ones. The normal p r a c t i c e i s to s t r i n g the c a b l e s on power o r t e l e p h o n e p o l e s . A c t u a l p r a c t i c e . A l l f i r e a l a r m main c a b l e s are under-ground i n Vancouver, u s u a l l y i n space i n l a r g e c o n d u i t s r e n t e d from the t e l e p h o n e company t h a t was s e t a s i d e a t the C i t y ' s r e q u e s t . Leads from f i r e a l a r m boxes t o main c a b l e a r e underground whenever o t h e r w i r e s and c a b l e s are underground but are u s u a l l y on t e l e p h o n e p o l e s . ^ V. DRAINAGE SERVICES The d r a i n a g e s e r v i c e s are t h o s e which c o l l e c t and remove s t o r m w a t e r and sewage by g r a v i t y f l o w t h r o u g h d r a i n s and c o n s i s t of o n l y the storm d r a i n a g e and s a n i t a r y d r a i n a g e o r sewerage s e r v i c e s . Storm Drainage The storm d r a i n a g e s e r v i c e c o l l e c t s and removes exc e s s s t o r m and ground w a t e r from p r o p e r t y and s t r e e t s by p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o c o l l e c t o r i n t e r c e p t f l o w i n g water and c o n c e n t r a t e and c h a n n e l the f l o w away from the a r e a . On p r o p e r t y , s t o r m water ( r a i n , m e l t e d snow, e t c . ) i s c o l l e c t e d and i n t e r c e p t e d by the v a l l e y s and g u t t e r s of r o o f s and f l o w s through downspouts t o the s i t e d r a i n . Ground water i s i n t e r c e p t e d by d r a i n s o f t i l e o r p e r f o r a t e d p i p e u s u a l l y p l a c e d around b u i l d i n g s which a l s o connect t o the s i t e d r a i n . The s i t e d r a i n c a r r i e s the f l o w s from these s o u r c e s and any o t h e r s such as g u t t e r s o r g r a t i n g s i n d r i v e w a y s t o the s t r e e t s t o r m d r a i n . The s t o r m d r a i n s on s i t e s o r s t r e e t s may be 'open' ( i . e. uncovered) d r a i n s c o n s i s t i n g o f — I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. Len M a c L e l l a n , U t i l i t i e s E n g i n e e r , E n g i n e e r i n g Dept., C i t y of Vancouver. 212. trenches lined with concrete, corrugated metal, or wood; or ditches simply cut into the earth. Storm water on streets is intercepted by open drains, particularly gutters, collected by catch-basins, and carried by laterals to the street storm drains. Ground water under pavements is sometimes collected by t i l e or perforated pipes in gravel beds either under or alongside the 14 pavements and carried by laterals to the street storm drain. A l l practices. The best practice i s considered to be installing storm drains integrally with sanitary drains as *twin' drains, and c.concrete curb-gutters by the subdivider. A better practice than normal is installing concrete curb-gutters and separate storm drains by the subdivider. The normal practice is for the subdivider to i n s t a l l ditches with culverts under driveway and front walk connections that are often later replaced by storm drains and less often supplemented by curb-gutters, installed on a local improvement basis. A worse practice is installing ditches with culverts and later adding storm drains and catch basins out of general revenues on some streets to intercept the flow in the ditches on other streets. The worst practice is installing ditches and culverts only. Actual practice. The best practice has been followed only in the City-owned land that Vancouver is currently subdividing and servicing. Vancouver ordinarily i n s t a l l s twin drains in new subdivisions at i t s own expense and ins t a l l s curb-gutters later on a local improvement basis when requested, but this is relatively uncommon. The better practice is required only in Richmond but has been followed in several of the better recent developments in other municipalities and the University Endowment Lands. The other practices are followed in the other municipalities consi-dered, and judging by recent practice the adding of storm drains is the exception rather than the rule. The term 'storm sewer' has been avoided so that the term sewer can be restricted to the sanitary drainage (i.e.sewerage) services. 213. Sanitary Drainage or Sewerage The sanitary drainage or sewerage service collects and removes sewage and waste fluids from plumbing f a c i l i t i e s of buildings through plumbing stacks and a sewer connection to the sanitary drain or sewer in the street. A l l practices. The best practice is for the subdivider to i n s t a l l sanitary drains with storm drains as twins. A better than normal practice is for the subdivider to i n s t a l l sewers separately. The normal practice is for the municipality to allow the installation of septic tanks by developer or homeowner, and to i n s t a l l sanitary drains later on a local improvement basis. The practice of the municipality installing sewers at the time of subdivision is considered worse than the normal one in terms of the principle of payment for benefit, although i t is better than one involving septic tanks from the standpoint of health* The worse practice is to allow installation of septic tanks and not provide sewers later. Actual practice. The best practice has been followed only in Vancouver's recent subdivision of its own land (at 54th. Ave. and Kerr Street). The better practice is required in some areas of Richmond and Delta, and is followed in some other areas where required by mortgage institutions. The normal practice is followed in areas not covered by the other practices. The worse practice is followed by Vancouver which is considered best practice when i t s own land is involved. The worst practice is followed in the least dense portions of the outlying municipalities. Practice elsewhere. Some developments in the United State's beyond economic extension of trunk sewers are being served by sewers and small sewage treatment plants. The sewers are designed to tie in with the trunk when extended, and the treatment plant can be moved to other locations. This allows development at urban densities without the problems of septic tanks in poorly drained s o i l s , and eliminates the extra costs of the tanks and sewer installation (repairing pavements, etc.) 214. VI. ELECTRICAL SERVICES Electr i c a l services are those supplying e l e c t r i c i t y through wires as a source of power for private purposes, light for streets, and light, heat and elec t r i c a l charge for certain other public purposes discussed below. Electric Power The private uses to which electric power is put are many are varied, and ever increasing. The major types are lighting, heating - including water heating, cooking, clothes drying, and ironing - and powering motors of the host of appliances available to-day. The B. C. Hydro & Power Authority Installs electric 16 power f a c i l i t i e s in a l l of the areas being considered. A l l practices. The best practice of installing the electric power service is for the Authority to lay wires in conduits provided by the subdivider in.a oommon bed with conduits of other services. A better practice than normal is Installing wirings underground across streets and confining overhead wires to easements along rear property lines. The normal practice is wiring overhead from poles placed in lanes or easements along the rear property line which also carry telephone service f a c i l i -ties. A worse practice is having the overhead wiring and telephone cabling on poles installed In the streets. The worst practice is having separate poles for the electric power and telephone services installed on streets. ^"Package Sewerage Plant Saves a Subdivision. . . and Permits 44% More Lots on the Same Tract", House & Home, vol. XXIII, no. 2, (February 1963), p. 53. ^New Westminster buys electric power in bulk and retails i t through its own distribution system. 215. Actual practice. Underground wiring has been installed only in a few small areas of Vancouver, North Vancouver, Richmond, New Westminster, and Port Moody. The combination of underground and overhead wiring has been used only in the University Endowment Lands. The majority of areas are served by overhead wiring by either the normal practice where there are lanes or the worse practice where there are not, since the electric power company has discouraged using rear easements. Separate poles for electric power and telephone services have seldom been installed in recent years but vast areas.remain served by this worst practice. Practice elsewhere. Prior to about 1960, electric power installations in residential d i s t r i c t s involving only underground wirings were severely limited in number and extent in North America and the prospects were none too encouraging. In Canada there were only a few in Ontario. Most such installations were considered as tests or experiments to determine the practicality of underground wiring and had widely varying success in achieving the aim of reducing costs to that of overhead wiring. A survey in 1956 found that underground wiring had been installed in small developments in Peterborough at no extra charge because of expected savings, and in Toronto at less cost than overhead in favourable s o i l conditions and in co-operation with the telephone company.^ Most el e c t r i c a l u t i l i t y companies, however, either refused to consider underground wiring or charged so much extra that i t could be afforded by very few. A more recent survey in the United States has found a marked change of attitude which is attributed to a policy change Ruth Martin Thompson, "To Bury or Not to Bury", Ontario  Planning Supplement. Toronto, Community Planning Branch of Department of Planning and Development, vol. 3, no. 5 (May-June 1956). 216. by the B e l l Telephone System i n favour of underground w i r i n g . 1 ^ Where telephone cables are i n s t a l l e d underground, the e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y companies not only lose p o t e n t i a l r e n t a l for use of t h e i r poles, but also are put i n a sensit i v e p o s i t i o n . An e l e c t r i c company executive i s quoted as saying: With a l l the other u t i l i t y l i n e s out of sight, we're the only ones l e f t messing up the landscape, and we're r e a l l y beginning to f e e l the public pressure. It's good public relations for us to go underground as fast as we can.19 Street Lighting The street l i g h t i n g service provides i l l u m i n a t i o n for streets by i n s t a l l i n g lamps on supports and wires to supply them with e l e c t r i c i t y . Best, better, normal, and worst practices. The best practice of i n s t a l l i n g the street l i g h t i n g service i s considered to be that of the subdivider i n s t a l l i n g lamps on 'ornamental' aluminum poles with underground wiring. I n s t a l l i n g aluminum poles i s considered better than the normal practice of i n s t a l l i n g painted s t e e l poles because maintenance costs are lower and they are more a t t r a c t i v e . Both are on a l o c a l improvement basis and have underground wiring i n conduits with other wires or i n separate conduits i n s t a l l e d alongside the curb or sidewalk. By far the worst practice i s for the e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y company to hang a single lamp at intersections from wooden power poles. Actual practice. The best practice i s required only i n Richmond. However, underground wiring by the better and normal practices i s becoming more common i n recent i n s t a l l a t i o n s and is replacing the worst practice i n older areas. 18 "There's No Need for Ugly Wirescapes Now that Wires Can Be Buried for $100 a Lot", House & Home, v o l . XXIV, no. 2 (August 1963), p. 127. (see also p. ). 19 Loc. c i t . 217. Practice elsewhere. Streets in a few recent developments in the U. S. have been l i t by lamps installed in the front yards of private property by the oilers as a condition for being served by underground wiring. In Europe, particularly on narrow streets in England and Germany, both incandescent and fluorescent lamps are installed on brackets attached to buildings with wiring running along ledges of the building. Lamps are also installed in Germany by hanging them from support wires suspended between rings attached to buildings. Other Electrical Services The other e l e c t r i c a l services considered are those pro-viding e l e c t r i c i t y through wires as a source of light, heat and e l e c t r i c a l charge for the following public purposes. The light is for shelters, special use areas (e.g. conversation, playing) and decorative lighting - the lamps themselves being considered furnishings. Heat would be supplied for such purposes as melting snow and ice from pavements, protecting pipes from freezing, and possibly heating s o i l for plants. The latter is a rather exotic service likely to be installed only i n planting boxes in civi c squares. An electric charge is applied to metal pipes and fittings installed in the s o i l to prevent electrolytic action. Actual practice. Light is provided only in telephone shelters. Heating is not considered to be required in the climate of this area. Anti-cathodic protection is generally only provided for gas pipes in adverse s o i l conditions. VII. FURNISHING SERVICES The furnishing services are those which enhance the environment of which the street forms an important part and make the street more livable by providing furnishings. These furnishings are either f a c i l i t i e s or properties of f a c i l i t i e s not essential to the provision of other services, but which 218. increases the convenience, amenity, and welfare of those using streets, usually at the expense of economy. They are analogous to the furnishings of rooms which makes them more comfortable and pleasant. The concept is a broadening and refining of the 'street furniture' one, often used by those expressing the need for better design of visible f a c i l i t i e s in streets. The term furniture has been restricted herein to f a c i l i t i e s analogous to things usually thought of as furniture in houses as distinct from other furnishings. Besides discussing some of these other fur-nishings .more fully than is customary, the concept of finishes on 20 visib l e surfaces is more f u l l y developed. Furniture Services The furniture services are those providing such f a c i l i t i e s as benches, fences, guardrails, shelters, cabinets, and t o i l e t s . Benches, which are analogous to couches, are for sitting while waiting for transit vehicles, supervising children at play, conversing with neighbours, or simply 'watching the world go by'. Fences would form 'outdoor cribs' to enclose play areas for small children containing a sand box and perhaps other furniture for playing. Guardrails are analogous to handrails or bannisters. Shelters might be provided for people waiting for transit vehicles, making telephone calls or using toi l e t s , and for cycles or vehicles temporarily stored in the street. Cabinets enclose such f a c i l i t i e s as power transformers installed at or near ground level, and various valves and other devices that must be accessible from the surface. Toilets are toilets wherever they are. Actual practice. The only furniture besides cabinets for valves and other devices currently installed in local residential The whole concept of furnishings is developed s t i l l further in Chapter III. 219. s t r e e t s are t r a n s f o r m e r ' k i o s k s ' where t h e r e i s underground w i r i n g . These a r e u s u a l l y i n easements a d j a c e n t t o l a n e s . Telephone s h e l t e r s o r 'booths' a r e l o c a t e d on more i m p o r t a n t s t r e e t s , u s u a l l y i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s . S h e l t e r s f o r p e o p l e w a i t i n g f o r t r a n s i t v e h i c l e s are q u i t e r a r e . B e s i d e s s i z e a b l e ones at the t e r m i n i o f s e v e r a l t r a n s i t r o u t e s and s m a l l ones on a few r u r a l r o u t e s , p r o v i d e d by the t r a n s i t companies, t h e r e are t r a n s i t s h e l t e r s o n l y a t such p l a c e s as the U n i v e r s i t y , O a k r i d g e Shopping C e n t r e , and on Broadway n e a r A r b u t u s S t r e e t i n Vancouver. These were i n s t a l l e d r e s p e c t i v e l y by the U n i v e r s i t y , the Shopping c e n t r e , and a b akery o u t s i d e i t s head o f f i c e . T o i l e t s are not i n s t a l l e d because of the problems of k e e p i n g them c l e a n , t i d y , and f u n c t i o n i n g , and the f e a r o f c h i l d r e n b e i n g m o l e s t e d . P r a c t i c e e l s e w h e r e . I n the Swedish new town of F a r s t a , s m a l l f e n c e d areas w i t h sand boxes f o r s m a l l c h i l d r e n and benches f o r t h e i r mothers appeared t o be w e l l used and a p p r e c i a t e d by b o t h , even though o n l y about f i f t e e n f e e t from the r o a d . The d e s i g n o f s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e i n Europe i s g e n e r a l l y o f a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d than t h a t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . F i n i s h e s S e r v i c e s The f i n i s h e s s e r v i c e s are those p r o v i d i n g s u r f a c e f i n i s h e s t o f a c i l i t a t e c e r t a i n uses o r t o improve the appearance o f f a c i l i t i e s . C o n s i d e r i n g the s t r e e t as an o u t d o o r room h a v i n g pavements as c a r p e t s on a g r a s s f l o o r ( a n a l o g y by f u n c t i o n i n s t e a d o f t e x t u r e ) , areas of s p e c i a l p a v i n g f o r such s t r e e t uses as c o n v e r s i n g o r w a i t i n g f o r t r a n s i t v e h i c l e s can be c o n s i d e r e d as ' s c a t t e r r u g s ' and 'welcome mats'. L i k e such f u r n i s h i n g s i n the home, th e y s h o u l d have a p p e a l i n g t e x t u r e s o r c o l o u r s t o p r o v i d e v a r i e t y and i n t e r e s t as w e l l as d i s t i n g u i s h i n g them from more u t i l i t a r i a n pavements. U n l i k e s t r e e t s i n o t h e r d i s t r i c t s w hich can have i n t e r e s t i n g ' w a l l s ' , the w a l l s o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s have the n e u t r a l c h a r a c t e r o f window w a l l s i n l i v i n g rooms which expose and s e r v e as a frame f o r the v i e w beyond. 220. Solid, opaque walls are thus confined to such vertical surfaces as retaining walls which are rare on residential streets since differences in elevation are usually taken up on the property off the street. Actual practice. .Mo examples of floor or wall finishes in the sense used,herein were found by the investigator in the local residential districts studied. This is perhaps fortunate because in his opinion, many of the examples in other dis t r i c t s are rather appalling. Waiting areas at bus stops are often paved with screenings or poor quality asphalt. Even where there was a desire and opportunity to create a 'pedestrian island' for the block containing the Queen Elizabeth Theatre by special finishes on the sidewalks surrounding the block, the result was a rather dismal failure. The alternating brushed and dimpled sections are barely distinguishable from ordinary sidewalks and certainly less effective than alternative designs involving extension of the bold line pattern of the plaza at a smaller scale which had been 21 prepared. R-etaining walls installed by municipalities to allow for road widening are undoubtedly well-designed structurally, but seem to lack other design considerations. Usually no attempt is made to give the concrete surfaces texture or pattern. Some sections of retaining walls have been built of granite paving blocks (from beside former street car tracks) that are excellent in themselves, but look out of place between adjoining concrete walls, usually of different heights. On the other hand, to show what can be done, the Parks Board improved the appearance of the obsolete bath house terrace at English Bay by constructing a stone retaining wall to form a planting box. Practice elsewhere. In Europe finishes are also much more carefully considered than in North America, not only for special Interview with Mr. D. Hickley, Civic Design Section, Planning Dept., City of Vancouver. 221. .-' - "•• 22 use areas, but often In the u t i l i t a r i a n pavements as well. Other Furnishing Services The other furnishing services are those providing such furnishings as decorations, ornaments and decorative lighting. As in the home decorations are mainly for special occasions when gaily coloured strings of lights, pictures, and other things such as greenery, a r i hung about. Banners are perhaps more analogous to curtains or drapes that frame the view.. Ornaments are more permanent:furnishings such as statues and pools which are like figurines and aquariums. Decorative lighting includes any lighting primarily for such aesthetic purposes as highlighting the special features such as ornaments or planted areas. In the latter case, the lamp i t s e l f may constitute a furnishing when attractively designed. AcfcuaI practlce. Such other furnishings are practically unknown in local residential streets, but ornamental pools and decorative lighting are becoming common at entrances of develop-ments for which an attempt is being made to create a favourable •image*. Otherwise, ornaments and decorative lighting i n streets is rare though i t occurs i n parks. Decorations however, are common on major streets i n commercial d i s t r i c t s , especially for the Christmas seasori, and Vancouver is becoming justly famous- for the banners and pavement paintings on i t s Georgia and Burrard •amenity streets'. These streets have permanent brackets for banners and a few sections of other streets plus the bridges crossing false Creek have permanent sockets for flags attached to lamp supports. VIII. GARDENING SERVICES The gardening services are those concerned with installing and caring for plants in streets. The more important plants are 22 See Elizabeth Beazley, Design and Detail of the Space  Between Buildings. London, Architectural Press, 1960. 222. , trees because of their prominence and grass because the area covered is second only to pavements. The other types of plants that can be installed in streetstare shrubs, flowers and ground covers such as ivy, moss, and rockery plants. Planting Services The planting services are those concerned with Installing trees, shrubs, flowers, grass, and other ground covers. Best, normal, and worst practices. The best practice for the planting services i s for the subdivider to i n s t a l l boulevard trees and grass by seeding. A more normal practice is for the municipality to Install the trees and leave planting of grass to adjacent property owners. The worst practice is also leaving the tree planting to the property owners who may choose unsuitable types such as those which drip sticky substances on cars parked beneath them or berries on sidewalks. Actual practice. The best practice is being followed in The Richmond Gardens development but has been followed otherwise on no other local streets recently, and on only parts of certain major streets with median strips such as King Edward Avenue and Cambie Street in Vancouver, The planting of these streets is being done in stages with several years elapsing between installation of pavements and plants, during which time the area to be planted grows wild. The planting on these streets is not finished yet. When the normal practice is followed, the trees are usually installed a considerable time after most other services have been installed. Planting of grass on the boulevard by adjacent property owners usually does not take place u n t i l they have completed the landscaping of their own property, which may take a year or two. In many areas, especially those in the outlying municipalities having low densities of development, the boulevard i s allowed to grow wild. The worst practice is less common than formerly because municipalities or their parks boards are better able to supply appropriate types of trees for 223. boulevards, Vancouver has been removing large old trees and replacing them with hew ones, generally of smaller flowering varieties. Unfortunately this has been done usually, be removing a l l of the old trees at one time and then planting the new ones. This exposes houses of styles and conditions better l e f t partly screened from view and creates a bare look that lasts for several years. Formerly well-treed areas such as the West End have had their character largely spoiled by replacement carried out i n this manner in a short time. Practice elsewhere. Several of the more progressive developers in the U. S. are planting trees and grass as sales attractions, and a few i n s t a l l fair-sized trees to make the development look complete and mature. However, such finishing is s t i l l less common than in Europe where trees are planted after the u t i l i t i e s are installed and grass is planted as soon as the pavements are installed. Another practice observed i n Europe and considered desir-able is that of progressive replacement of trees. Such famous treed streets as the Champs Elysees give the impression of having trees of uniform size and spacing. Closer Inspection reveals a wide range of ages and spacing. The appearance of uniformity is partly the result of careful pruning, but also due to the replacement program. Fair sized trees (trunks about four inches in diameter) are planted beside aging or diseased trees and given a chance to establish themselves before removal of the unwanted tree. Consequently there are never any noticeable gaps. The process can be carried out rather unobtrusively (except that chltin saws are now used) because there is no need to jackhammer holes in concrete and patch up old holes. Instead, the granite blocks i n the planting strip and the cast iron g r i l l e around the trees are simply rearranged. 224. fflfl"t, SNK? Services The plant care services are those which maintain plants i n a safe and attractive condition. Trees are kept safe by pruning of branches that have broken or grown i n the way of pedestrians and vehicles or overhead wiring. Pruning may be done by the municipality, parks board, electric power or telephone u t i l i t y companies, or adjacent property owners. Grass is cared for by mowing, watering, and f e r t i l i z i n g and other planted areas by weeding, watering, f e r t i l i z i n g , and spraying. These operations are performed by the municipality, parks board, or the adjacent property owners. Actual practice. Except for pruning of trees, care of plants on local residential streets is l e f t i n the hands of the adjacent property owners. They generally take reasonably good care of 'their' boulevard because normally they have planted the grass and consider i t an extension of the lawn on their property. Some property owners also take care of the trees on the boulevard to some extent, including pruning occasionally. Pruning is usually done by the parks board, however, except where there i s overhead wiring. In this case i t i s often done by the electric power or telephone u t i l i t y company. Their interest is to keep their wires and cables free of branches and they succeed i n this respect, but not i n enhancing the appearance of the trees. On streets with planted medians such as Cambie and King Edward, the plants i n the median ar£ completely and generally well cared for by the parks board. Some such as Cambie are treated, in effect, as extensions of a park. IX. HOLDING SERVICES The holding services are those providing holders in streets for the temporary storage of goods or waste materials : for later collection or distribution and use. 225. Collection Holding Services The collection holding services are those providing f a c i -l i t i e s in which are held for later collection such goods as letters and parcels and such waste materials as l i t t e r and garbage. A l l practices. For holding letters and parcels deposited by people for later collection by mail trucks, the best practices are installing either ordinary boxes or 'snorkel* boxes placed for use by motorists from their car. The latter are ordinary parcel boxes with a 'snorkel'attachment protruding upwards and backwards through which motorists can deposit letters or parcels without leaving their car. A better than normal practice i s Installing either letter boxes on the support for another service such as street lighting, or letter and parcel boxes on a common post. The normal practice i s to Install letter boxes on separate posts and parcel boxes on four-legged stands, often attached to a concrete slab base. A worse practice is installing the temporary olive drab coloured 'suburban* or group type box, because they must be replaced later by the above types of boxes. The worst practice i s considered to be installing the rural type box in non-rural areas because of the resultant appearance, costs, and lack of security, although providing more convenient deposit of mail than any of the above types. The normal and worst practices of installing holders for garbage collection respectively are installing garbage cans in lanes, and carrying them out to streets on collection day. Actual practices. There is only one example of each of the two best practices of inst a l l i n g mail boxes - an ordinary box on a gasoline service station site at Lougheed and Bainbridge in Burnaby and a snorkel box at No. 3 Road and Cook, in Richmond. The latter i s the only result of a survey reported underway in 23 1959. The problem has been that the post office prefers 23 Picture and comment in Vancouver Sun. February 18, 1959, p. 15* 226. locations on heavily travelled roads and usable from the driver's side of cars for convenient service, but municipalities w i l l not accept stoppages of a lane of t r a f f i c on heavily travelled roads b^:ipexsbns usingithe boxes. Locations on one-way streets or in medians would be suitable, especially i f provided with pull*out bays. However, such locations are rare or present other problems such as for pedestrians, and municipalities have been unwilling 24 to provide the pull-out bays. The better than normal practice of Installing boxes on other supports i s followed when possible, but boxes have been removed from wooden power poles at the request of the u t i l i t y company because of the danger to linemen. Even steel stop sign supports have been considered, but only one was found to be in a suitable location,; The better and normal practices are followed wherever letter-carrier delivery service is extended. This is done when the yardage a carrier would have to walk to serve an area divided by the number of calls (i.e. households) does not exceed 40 yards. When this condition i s not met, the worse practice of installing 'suburban1 boxes is followed, except where rural route delivery exists, because the Post Office is loath to force people in these areas to walk to group boxes. A l l of the boxes discussed above are of metal and are painted except for rural boxes which are aluminum galvanized Steel. Fiberglass letter boxes have been installed on an experi-mental basis, and the main post office has two stainless steel •curbside 1 boxes. The latter were specially designed i n con-junction with the post office and are connected to i t by underground conveyor belts. A l l post office holders except rural boxes are usually installed at corners of intersections of relatively heavily 24 This and other information on post office practices from interview and telephone conversations with Mr, J. B. Taylor, Superintendent of Service Requirements, Central Post Office, Vancouver. 227. : travelled streets for the convenience of street users. However, their precise placement is often related to the convenience of post office truck drivers without due consideration to other factors in the opinion of the investigator. The large and bulky parcel and mail holders often block the view of motorists. This i s especially noticeable i n Vancouver's West End where mail holders are placed as close as possible to the corner apparently because mall truck drivers usually have to park beside the stop sign i n front of solid rows of parked cars. In this position, the mail trucks present a further hazard. For garbage collection, the normal practice is followed wherever there is a lane and the worst practice otherwise. In either case, the cans are supplied by the residents. Substantial areas of the outlying municipalities require residents to take their garbage to a municipal dump, and hence, involve no service i n streets. Holders for l i t t e r collection are confined to downtown, commercial and park areas, and a few locations on major streets. Practice elsewhere. A private company took over garbage collection i n Kingston, Ontario, and supplied residents with green plastic bags for their garbage. These are simply thrown quietly into a truck so there is no need to return cans. The colour makes them unobtrusive on boulevards, hides the garbage and keeps out sunlight. Saskatoon attempted to reduce garbage collection costs by encouraging the installation of gas-fired incinerators In new subdivisions. These burn a l l garbage except items such as t i n cans which were collected monthly. A five year experiment was ended nine months early because residents complained that the system was '"unsanitary, unhealthy, and a-nuisance because of the 25 large amount of noncombustible refuse piled up each month." "Saskatoon Dumps Home Incinerators," Financial Post. 2 November 1963, p. 1. 228. Distribution Holdings Services The distribution holding services are those providing holders in which are held for distribution such goods as mail (including letters, parcels, magazines, etc.), newspapers and other commodities for sale and sand for improving traction on icy h i l l s . Normalf worse1and worst practices. For holding mail deposited by mail trucks, the normal practice is installing the olive-drab coloured boxes on four-legged stands and concrete slab bases. The worse and worst practices respectively are installing 'suburban* and rural type boxes. For holding newspapers deposited by trucks for sale to customers, the normal and worse practices are installing open-fronted boxes on other supports and separate supports respectively. The worst practice is Installing open-ended sheet metal boxes with integral stands, because these blow over easily and generally look 'scattered about*. For holding sand, the normal practice is installing a wooden box with a slide covered opening at the base near the bottom of h i l l s . Actual practice. The normal practice of installing mail holders is followed wherever densities warrant letter-carrier service. Otherwise the suburban boxes are installed, except on rural routes. The suburban or group boxes have individual locked boxes assigned to the dwelling served. Newspaper boxes are not ordinarily installed i n local streets because of home delivery service by •carrier-salesmen', but are Installed on major streets, particularly at transit stops and in denser residential d i s t r i c t s such as the West End of Vancouver. The normal practice has been followed where other supports were available; otherwise the worst practice. The worst practice of installing sheet metal boxes is becoming more common in the denser areas at least. In downtown Vancouver there are a few manned newspaper stands, some having shelters for their Operators. 229. There are no other holders Installed permanently on streets In Metropolitan Vancouver for other commodities for sale, although there are some outdoors just off the street. These include vending machines for ice and holders for pressed chip fireplace logs on gasoline service station sites. A popcorn cart seems almost permanently established at English Bay Beach in the summer and at Crystal Pool (2 blocks away) In the winter. Nothing else is sold legally in streets that involves holders. A few things are sold that do not require holders such as flowers 26 in downtown Vancouver. Sand boxes are installed ordinarily only on major streets. Practice elsewhere. Some newspapers in the United States, for example, those in Seattle, i n s t a l l cylindrical holders for rolled newspapers on the posts supporting rural mail boxes. Streets in many European towns and ci t i e s have holders from which are sold flowers, art, and tidbits such as chestnuts, leaving aside markets where practically everything is sold from carts or stands. Some holders are relatively permanent while others are carried or wheeled into place daily. X. INDICATING SERVICES The indicating services are those providing indicators such as signs, signals, and markings to indicate information, regulations, demarcations, and advertisements of various types by words, symbols, and other means. Informative The informative indicating services are those concerned with providing information such as names and numbers of streets, blocks, buildings, and routes; directions to specific places; road and weather conditions; facts of interest to tourists; At Pender and Granville Sts. using the deep window s i l l s of a bank as a shelf. 230. instructions for use of services; and various information for service management purposes (e. g. numbers on street lamp supports). In current practice, street name or number signs, sometimes with the block number, are the only information f a c i l i -ty ordinarily installed publicly in local streets. Building numbers are assigned by the municipality but signs showing them are Installed by their owners on the building and occasionally painted on the curb. A l l practices. The best practice is installing reflective street name signs on the supports of another service such as lamp posts. A better than normal practice i s installing non-reflective, but easily readable signs i n the same manner. The normal practice is installing reflective signs on separate metal posts. The worse and worst practices are to i n s t a l l separate wooden posts having lettering on arms and vertically down the post 27 respectively. Actual practice. The best practice is followed i n new developments (except i n Vancouver) where supports exist, especially those for so-called ornamental lighting, but more often the normal practice i s followed. Vancouver follows the better practice by installing cast metal signs with raised letters painted black on a white non-reflective background. The sur-rounding municipalities use aluminum sheet signs with reflecting lettering or backgrounds to make them legible at night. The worse practice was followed in Vancouver previously, but now most wooden posts have been replaced. The outlying municipalities such as Surrey follow the worst practice. Signs indicating route numbers and names, including C i v i l Defense survival routes, are generally of metal and installed on The street name is often set i n the concrete sidewalk near intersections with the year of construction, but these cannot be seen from cars, and are probably seldom used as a source of information. 231. other supports - the best practice. An exception is the types of sign installed by boards of trade, tourist bureaus, or automobile clubs. These are generally of painted wood and u n t i l recently on a wood post. They are currently being installed by nailing them to a block strapped to other supports, and somehow do not look quite right. In Vancouver the word •Fire* is being emblazoned in re-flective paint directly onto the supports of other services above f i r e alarm stations. Regulatory The regulatory indicating services are those indicating regulations regarding vehicular and pedestrian movements and standing and parking. Although these are prevalent on major and downtown streets, they do not occur on local residential streets except for 'Stop* or *Yield' signs at intersections with more important streets. The former often also state 'no parking within 20 feet'. A l l practices. The best practice of installing regulatory f a c i l i t i e s i s reflective metal signs on the supports of other services, since this obviates the need for excavations which often involve breaking through concrete walks. A better than normal practice involves reflective metal signs on separate metal supports since these are more durable than wooden ones. The normal practice Is to ; i n s t a l l reflective metal signs on wooden posts. The worse and worst practices respectively involve non-reflective metal and painted wood signs on separate wood posts. Actual practice. A l l of the practices have been followed in the past so a l l types of signs can be seen i n Metropolitan Vancouver. The trend is towards reflective metal signs installed (usually, but not always) by the best practice when other supports are available, and otherwise by the better than normal practice. Vancouver has replaced most of i t s wooden signs and sign posts. Most 'Stop' signs have been converted to the national 232. standard red colour and are reflective. The practice recently has been to i n s t a l l new signs at a height visible above parked cars, which in some instances makes them d i f f i c u l t to see from some cars and because they are not illuminated by car head-lights on the low beam. Practice elsewhere. Some ci t i e s i n the U. S. have solved the above-mentioned problem by installing two 'Stop' signs on the same post, one at a level that can be seen above parked cars from a distance, and another at eye level that can be seen when past the parked cars. Demarcative The demarcative services are those Indicating boundaries of movement ways by markings, and hazards by markings or other devices. Boundary markings include centerline, lane and shoulder lines along roads and stop lines and pedestrian cross-ings at intersections. Permanent hazards can be marked by hatch marks and blinker lights. Temporary hazards are usually marked by barricades with lamps or blinker lights. Best, normal, worst practice. The best practice of install i n g boundary and hatch markings i s with white reflecting paint, 'cat's eyes' on centerlines, and yellow paint for shoulders and 'no passing' zones. Normal practice uses white reflecting paint only, and in the worst practice i t i s non-reflecting. Other markings are f a i r l y well standardized. Actual practice. In actual practice, boundary markings are rarely installed on local residential streets partly because the pavements are often such that they cannot be so marked. However, the boundary between the shoulder or parking area and roadway is often marked by a change in material as from gravel or concrete to asphalt. Stop lines and a few feet of centerlines are painted at intersections with more important streets in some but not i n a l l parts of Vancouver. 233. Practice elsewhere. In Europe different uses of pavements such as for parking and moving vehicles are frequently marked by changes In material Instead of painting a line. Occasionally the boundary Is marked by a different material along It, such as a row of granite blocks set In asphalt. Advertising The advertising services are those providing signs (or symbols) in streets to indicate such things as: the agency pro-viding a service, manufacturers of f a c i l i t i e s ; property for sale or open for Inspection; events; candidates for elective offices; and products or non-public services for sale. Actual practice. Services provided by public agencies generally do not need advertising in the commercial sense since they are essentially monopolies. They tend also to be unique, so need no special identification. Their names, or more usually i n i t i a l s , appear on such f a c i l i t i e s as manhole covers as raised 28 cast letters. The coat of arms of Canada is transferred onto postal f a c i l i t i e s . The names of other agencies providing public services such as newspapers are usually f a i r l y prominently displayed on f a c i l i t i e s they installed. In other instances, such as when service clubs or private firms i n s t a l l benches, they are permitted only a 'courtesy of......' sign of prescribed size. The names of manufacturers of f a c i l i t i e s are indicated on them in various ways depending on the nature or material of the f a c i -l i t y . The letters are usually raised in cast metal f a c i l i t i e s such as manhole covers, valve cabinet l i d s , catch-basin g r i l l e s , f i r e hydrants, and valves. They are stamped or stencilled on most other materials. Signs indicating property for sale are usually of the Such indicators could be classified as Information identifying for workmen the ownership of manholes, but are i n -cluded here because of their similarity with other forms of advertising. 234. stakes in the grass type, although some rather permanent ones can be seen attached to some properties. Signs indicating coming events and candidates for elective office are temporary in nature, though sometimes stay up longer than they should. They are often installed on supports or shelters for services, particularly wooden ones. Signs advertising products or services other than ones projecting from commercial buildings are rarely installed in streets. The exceptions are advertisements on l i t t e r cans and benches that are permitted in exchange for the advertisers pro-viding these f a c i l i t i e s . Advertising on l i t t e r cans i s permitted only in New Westminster. Bench advertisements are permitted in Vancouver, but not in residential areas because of a vigorous campaign by such civic organizations as the Community Planning Association of Canada and the Community Arts Council. Practice elsewhere. Special f a c i l i t i e s are provided in European streets for 1advertising of a l l sorts. They impose a control on size and location of this advertising and may be partly responsible for the high standard of graphic arts by forcing each poster to compete with the surrounding ones. The justly famous advertising kiosks of Paris are covered by color-f u l and changing montages. Lucerne, Switzerland, has telephone booths whose height has been increased by half to provide four surfaces for signs above the booth. A new residential section of Bremen, Germany, as a well designed group of f a c i l i t i e s including a telephone and l i t t e r basket whose major element is a sort of neighbourhood notice board. Besides these special f a c i l i t i e s , a practice of installing posters advertising candi-dates for office in the recent German federal election Impressed this investigator. This was to place about twenty to f i f t y posters bearing the candidates picture side by side along fences facing railways near stations, and facing ramps leading from the autobahns. The effect upon one moving by them was somewhat hypnotic, though not dangerously so. It was so much like a movie 235 that; one half expected the expression to change. Perhaps someone w i l l try that someday! XI. KEEPING SERVICES The keeping services are those which keep street's In acceptable states for the health, welfare, safety, convenience, and amenity of those using or dwelling beside them. These states Include sound physical condition, proper functional condition, cleanliness and tidiness of f a c i l i t i e s . The service which keep these acceptable states require no f a c i l i t i e s installed i n streets, but may involve the Operation of equipment on streets, some of which is highly specialized. The operational problems and characteristics of this equipment should be consi-dered in the functional layout and physical design of affected f a c i l i t i e s . The various keeping services are discussed below in four groups. These are services keeping f a c i l i t i e s in sound condition, functioning properly, clean and tidy, and other keeping services. Services Keeping F a c i l i t i e s In Sound Condition The services keeping f a c i l i t i e s i n a sound condition or state of repair include the repair of damage, repair of wear and weathering, and replacement of lamps and meters. Damage is dis-tinguished from wear and weathering in that i t occurs relatively 29 quickly, often as a result of some accident or 'act of God1. Damage is taken to include that done to one f a c i l i t y when installing another, such as to a pavement when installing a u t i l i t y under i t . The nature of the repair depends of course on the nature and extent of the damage. It may range from •Galling the effects of natural phenomenon on man's constructions 'acts of God' seems somewhat sacrilegious when man has usually shown lack of respect for nature (e.g. building in former stream beds, removing natural cover, installing overhead wiring, etc.). 236. replacement of substantial portions of service systems to mere reconnection of parted f a c i l i t i e s . When the damage is substantial as during a storm, temporary repairs may be made in order to restore service quickly. Permanent repairs are made later when there is more time and the weather conditions are more favourable. Temporary repairs are also often made when s o i l settlement is expected as in repairs to pavements where u t i l i t i e s have been installed. Repair of wear, weathering and shifting, or in a n t i c i -pation of them depends upon the material involved. Wood and metal surfaces are painted either when wear and weathering begins to show or periodically on the basis of anticipated deterioration. Repainting of markings on asphalt and concrete is considered to be replacement of an indicative f a c i l i t y . Holes and ruts worn in gravel pavements are repaired by grading, while those in other materials are repaired by f i l l i n g them with the same material. Leaks in pipes, drains, and wires are repaired by remaking joints or replacing faulty sections of the f a c i l i t y . Shifting of f a c i l i t i e s from their proper alignment is caused by uneven settlement, and root or ice action. It is mainly confined to concrete sidewalks but can affect pipes. Repair usually involves removing part of the f a c i l i t y and whatever is causing the shifting and then backfilling and replacing the f a c i l i t y carefully. Replacements of lamps and meters, other than damaged ones, are somewhat special cases and their classification here or elsewhere must be rather arbitrary. Lamps are replaced either when they have burned out or on a regular program based on their expected l i f e . In the former i n s t a n c e t h e i r replacement could be considered replacement (i.e. reninstailing) of the service. Meters are replaced periodically so that they can be tested for accuracy. Best, normal, and worst practices. The best practice of keeping f a c i l i t i e s in a sound condition is considered to be 237. that involving programming of work upon a priority basis. Damage involving interruptions to services of course has highest priority and the program must be sufficiently flexible to allow rapid adjustment to changes in priority as a result of substantial damage. The normal practice is a sort of 'hit and miss' mixture partly based upon priority, but influenced by complaints. The worst practice i s to repair or replace only following complaints. Actual practice. Current practice of keeping f a c i l i t i e s sound has not been f u l l y examined herein because It is not completely germane to the purposes of this investigation. However, two practices are worth mentioning. The Vancouver City Engineering Department recently conducted a survey of the condition of a l l pavements to determine what repairs were neces-sary. The information was transferred to data processing cards and sorted by priority ratings to form the basis of a repair program. The B. C. Hydro & Power Authority has a gas and electric trouble center to receive complaints about service by telephone and dispatch repair crews by two-way radio. The center 30 handles up to 300 calls on quiet days, but 16,858 between Friday and Tuesday as a result of 'Typhoon Frieda' in October 31 1962. Services Keeping F a c i l i t i e s Functioning The services keeping f a c i l i t i e s functioning are those which keep pavements, pipes, and drains in service, that i s , •passable' or 'open'. They are required during repair of f a c i -l i t i e s or during storms or their aftermath to keep the services safe and reasonably convenient. During repairs, pavements are "Trouble i s Their Business," The Buzzer. Vancouver, B, C. Electric Railway Company, vol. 44, no. 5 (January 1959), pp. 1 - 2 . 3 IDennis Orchard, "City Cleans Up After Typhoon Frieda", Civic Administration. (November 1962), vol. 14, No. 11, p. 42. 238. kept at least partially open to t r a f f i c by installing temporary brid^.ng across excavations, and pipes and drains are kept in service by installing temporary diversions or supply or collection tanks. During storms and their aftermath, pavements are kept in service by removing snow, ice, and accumulated water; by spreading sand to improve traction; and by spreading salt to melt ice or prevent i t s formation. Snow and ice are removed from pavements by plowing, scraping, or shovelling. Where snowfall is heavy or long-lasting, street systems should be laid out to minimize back-tracking or dead runs by equipment by avoiding dead ends and culs-de-sac. Pavements and curbs should be designed for easy manoeuvering. Accumulated water is removed by pumping or by unblocking the drainage system. Sand and salt are spread by shovel or special spreaders on trucks, often together. Pipes and drains go out of service as a result of freezing temperatures rather than storms as such, except when blockages occur in drains during storms. Frozen pipes can be thawed by electric conduction heaters i f they are metal; otherwise by externally applied heat. Frozen drains can be thawed by electric immersion heaters or steam jets. Pipes and drains can be kept from freezing by applying heat in these manners, or by maintaining flows through them. For example, water may be 'wasted* into drains, thereby maintaining flows in both the water pipes and drains. Natural gas service can be cut off when water vapor droplets i n the gas freeze and cause a blockage in the meter. In one cold spell, 900 complaints of dead furnaces were received 32 in one day. The need for services to keep f a c i l i t i e s functioning should be avoided or minimized in the layout, design, and instal-lation of the f a c i l i t i e s . For instance, areas having heavy Gas Furnaces Die in 'Deep Freeze', Vancouver Sun 3 January 1959, p. 1. 239. snowfalls should be avoided or have carefully laid out street systems. Pipes and drains should be placed below frost penetration or otherwise insulated. F a c i l i t i e s susceptible to blockage such as gas meters should be designed or installed so as to avoid this (e.g. by insulation or heating). The following practices are based on the assumption that this has not or could not have been done for some reason such as economic i n f e a s i b i l i t y . Best, normal, and worst practices. The best practice of keeping f a c i l i t i e s functioning is to take precautionary or preventive measures before interruptions to service occur. For example, spreading salt;on wet pavements before ice has formed, wasting water down drains or insulating gas meters before block-ages have occurred. The normal practice is to return f a c i l i t i e s to service quickly after notification that they are out of service. This implies having the equipment available to render such service quickly. The worst practice is to close off f a c i l i -ties during cold weather or let residents on local streets fend for themselves while keeping only major f a c i l i t i e s in service. Actual practice. The upper levels of development on the North Shore mountains are the only areas ordinarily subjected to heavy and long-lasting snowfalls and low temperatures. The Districts of North and West Vancouver generally have sufficient snow removal and pipe thawing equipment to follow the normal practice of restoring service reasonably quickly. Other munici-palities lack sufficient equipment to hand severe infrequent snowfalls or cold spells. This forces them to follow the worst practice, at least for a while. F a c i l i t i e s such as roads with steep grades are closed off and residents of local streets are l e f t to fend for themselves while major f a c i l i t i e s are kept open. The latter might even include such best practices as salting before freezing. Generally, the resultant inconvenience is short lived because the storms are short lived and either the snow is removed by melting, rain, and t r a f f i c , or the equipment is able 240. to clear local streets after completing the major ones. However, residents in the meantime may have to thaw their own pipes or c a l l a plumber. Services Keeping F a c i l i t i e s Clean and Tidy The services keeping f a c i l i t i e s clean and tidy, or cleaning services, are those which remove accumulated dirt and l i t t e r in the interest of health, safety, convenience, and amenity. They consist of cleaning pavements, drains, and other f a c i l i t i e s , and tidying' up the street. Cleaning of pavements is done by flushing with tank trucks or sweeping by mechanical sweepers or brooms. Cleaning of drains is done by flushing with hoses connected to f i r e hydrants and by scouring with brushes or scrapers pulled through them. These operations are made easier when manholes are near hydrants, and drains are straight or nearly so between manholes. Ditches are cleaned by shovelling or otherwise removing accumulated debris, and regrading. Catch-basins are cleaned by suction pumps on special trucks or by long-handled scoops. Some municipalities such as the District of North Vancouver are avoiding this operation and the possibility of mosquitoes breeding in the catch-basin by eliminating the catch-basin. Storm water is led directly from a grating i n the gutter to the street drain via 33 a lateral drain. Cleaning of other f a c i l i t i e s such as lamps, glass in shelters, and toilets is done by wiping or washing. Tidying of streets is done by raking leaves and sweeping, shovel-ling, spearing, or otherwise picking up l i t t e r . As for the services keeping f a c i l i t i e s functioning, the practices for cleaning services listed are based upon the assump-tion that f a c i l i t i e s have not or could not have been designed so as to avoid the need for them. Best, normal, and worst practices. The best practices of the cleaning services are considered to be those involving Interview with Mr. Douglas Welsh, Design Engineer, District of North Vancouver. 241. mechanical equipment because of Its efficiency. Normal practice is taken to be a combination of mechanical equipment and manual labor where the worst practice involves only the latter. Actual practice. Flushing and sweeping of pavements is rather impractical where there are no curbs and since curbs are relatively rare i n local residential streets, so are these operations* Drains are cleaned everywhere, but at varying fre-quencies. Vancouver is well equipped with suction pump trucks for cleaning catch-basins, but the other municipalities s t i l l clean them by scoop. Tidying up is generally confined to com-mercial and park areas or major streets, and l e f t to residents in local streets. Other Keeping Services The other keeping services are those concerned with •keeping track 1 of the condition of f a c i l i t i e s by inspecting and testing them, and of the consumption of commodities by reading meters. F a c i l i t i e s are inspected and tested ordinarily by agents of the provider of the service, but there are exceptions. After settling a claim for damages for a c o l l i s i o n blamed on a stop sign being hidden by branches, the Vancouver City Council decided to ask the police force to ensure that signs are kept free from such obstruction. This was because the police force patrols the streets more often and has more vehicles than the 34 engineering department. Gas and electric meters are read monthly by employees of the B. C. Hydro & Power Authority; Water meters are read quarterly or monthly depending upon size by employees; of the municipal engineering departments. Best, normal and worst practices. The best practice of inspecting services is on a regular basis and more than one at a time, which is.the normal practice. The worst practice is J "Stop Sign Hidden. Cltv Pays $2.879". Vancouver Sun. 6 May 1959, p. 24. 242. non-regular, unsystematic inspection. The practices of installing meters is discussed here because of the effect on meter-reading practices. The best practice is considered to be installing meters in streets because this obviates trespass on private pro-perty by meter-readers, and leaks in site f a c i l i t i e s would be at the expense of the responsible property owner. The normal and worst practices are installing them on and in buildings since this involves trespass onto sites and into buildings respectively. Actual practice. The survey or inspection of pavement conditions i n Vancouver covered both the pedesttian and vehicular pavements. Ordinarily the normal practice of inspecting one at a time i s followed, but obvious faults in the f a c i l i t i e s of a service are usually reported by inspectors of other services. Water meters are installed i n streets, but gas and electric meters are normally installed on buildings. The worst practice of installing gas meters Inside is followed less often than formerly. They are installed usually on the side of buildings within three feet of the front so they do not spoil the appear-ance of the front. They are kept away from driveways and carports so that cars do not damage them accidentally. Electric meters are at the back of houses when wires are in the lane, and at the side when wires are in the street. Practice elsewhere. In the U. S. one developer installs 35 e l e c t r i c i t y meters in the transformer kiosk, and a house-builder installs glass blocks so that water meters inside the 36 house can be read from outside. This protects the meter from frozen droplet blockage, and the house from invasion of privacy. "New Transformer Mount Speeds Underground Wiring", Hpuse & Home, vol. XI, no. 6 (June 1961), p. 175. 36 "Want a Water-meter Window? Try This," House & Home, vol. XX, no. 1 (July 1961), p. 212. APPENDIX B INSTALLING UTILITY STRUCTURES: A DESCRIPTION OF POSSIBLE PROCESSES FOR THE VARIOUS TYPES The proposed processes of installing most types of u t i l i t y structures are comparable to current processes of installing certain f a c i l i t i e s , particularly those of the drainage services. The excavating and backfilling techniques for a l l u t i l i t y structures could be the same as for drains or multi-tubed conduits of comparable size, which may be larger than those ordinarily found in local residential streets. Thus, the main differences are in the techniques of installing troughs, especially the a l l - u t i l i t y type, several of which involve pre-casting or extruding of the concrete structures. Certain techniques not currently employed in Metropolitan Vancouver have been considered for the other types of structures and for the possibility of installing them over drains. These different techniques are described and discussed below by types of structure. I. TROUGH STRUCTURES A l l - u t i l i t y Troughs The a l l - u t i l i t y trough is the type of u t i l i t y structure most different from current practice. It is essentially a lined trench covered by a sidewalk that would be deeper than the other troughs, and hence could require different techniques for instal-ling i t . Two basic techniques and a number of variations of one of them have been considered. One involves three special methods of casting concrete in place using trench walls as forms. The other involves the use of various precast concrete units with the possibility of installing them with and without shoring in each case. Casting in place. One method of casting in place would involve excavating and shaping a trench in the usual manner, 244. suspending internal forms, inserting reinforcement bars or grids where necessary, and casting concrete between the forms and walls of the trench. The forms would be re-usuable metal ones shapped to produce the desired bottom of the trough and internal buttresses where required. A second method would be to extrude at least the bottom of the trough by adapting machines that can extrude sewers by winching themselves along a shaped trench.1 One adaptation is to eliminate or block off the ingenious part that shapes the top of an extruded sewer. Another adaptation would be to extend the interior form upwards so that the walls could be cast higher. Where walls could not be thus cast high enough, reinforcing bars and brackets could be inserted into the wet concrete. When set, f l a t forms could be mounted on the bracket and braced apart to allow casting of the remainder of the wall. •Milan method'. Casting in place could also be done by an adaptation of the so-called Milan method of constructing subways for rapid transit service. 2 As proposed here, i t would involve the following operations. A narrow trench (of four to eight inches width depending on depth) would be excavated to the depth required for the drainage f a c i l i t i e s . As the trench was being dug, the Milan Method of f i l l i n g It would be followed: . . . with a special slurry composed of water, Bentonite and a special catalyst. The Bentonite forms a suspension of more or less gelatinous characteristics, forming an impermeable film on the walls of the excavation; hydrostatic pressure i,,New Pipe Machine Casts 55' of Sewer per Hour, Can Cut Costs 30%," House & Home vol. .XVIII, no. 3 (September I960) p. 169. 2 D. W. Beadle, "The Milan Method in Action, " Metropolitan  Transportation. Wheaton, I l l i n o i s , Hitchcock Publications, vol. 57, no. 12 (December 1961), pp. 30 - 34. 245. within the trench prevents caving of the trench walls.3 Prefabricated steel reinforcing mats would then be set in the trench and concrete poured through tubes suspended below the level of previous pours to prevent films of Bentonite forming between successive pours. This would create one wall of the trough. When the concrete has set sufficiently the process would be repeated for the other wall of the trough. The earth between the two walls would then be excavated to the required depth. Whatever support was required for the walls during ex-cavating would be later replaced by permanent support such as by precast concrete dlaphrams that were wedged and possibly grouted into place. The bottom of the trough would be completed by excavating under the cast walls, shaping the bottom of the trench, and then casting and shaping concrete to form the bottom of the trough. These techniques obviously would not be suitable for a l l s o i l conditions, particularly highly unstable ones in which such a trench would be impossible to dig and maintain during the , i casting operation. However, with care and ingenuity they might be used in much less than ideal conditions. For example, unstable s o i l at the upper portion of the trench might be removed so that forms could be constructed to make i t possible to cast the complete wall of the trough. In the case of the Milan method, large boulders in the way of the trench might be simply l e f t and the wall cast down to, and i f possible around them. When the earth between the walls was being excavated, these could be removed i f they were more in the trough than out, or simply sealed into the wall to prevent water entering the structure. While both of these methods could be used in suitable soils at any of the depths likely to be encountered, they would probably D. W. Beadle, oj>. c i t . . p. 32. 246. be less economic than methods involving precast units at shallower depths, say those less than that at which shoring would be required. Precast methods. The type of precast unit and method of installing them to form the trough would depend upon the depth of the structure and the surrounding s o i l conditions. The d i f f e r -ences are in the walls and the means of supporting them, since the bottom and top units would be the same, the latter being a sidewalk unit. The 'buttress' type is probably best suited for shallower depths and better s o i l conditions where either shoring is not necessary, or is relatively straightforward and inexpensive. This type of wall is supported by a buttress protruding approximately one-third of the way into the trough, and is formed out of the short leg of an 'L' shaped precast wall unit. The upper sections of the buttress would be shaped or pierced to form supports for the non-drainage f a c i l i t i e s . Where the buttress alone provided inadequate strength, the buttress i t s e l f could be strengthened by joining the units to-gether vertically or by bridging the gap between opposite buttresses. The latter possibility either impedes the a b i l i t y to travel along the trough and i n s t a l l f a c i l i t i e s easily, or would involve rather 'tricky' means of bridging to maintain these advantages of the trough. At greater depths and in worse s o i l conditions, i t would probably be better to use the other type of precast wall sup-ported by diaphragms. These would be precast and preferably pre-stressed concrete units designed to hold apart walls formed of fla t precast pannels. Except for a special U-shaped unit at the top, the diaphragms would be rectangles with a truncated diamond shaped opening in the middle (see Diagram 17). Like the buttress the upper portion of the web of the U-shaped diaphragm would be shaped so as to form supports for the non-drainage f a c i l i t i e s . 247. DIAFHRA3M TYPE ALTERNATIVE BOTTOM UNIT DIAGRAM 17 - POSSIBLE TYPES OF ALL UTILITY TROUGH STRUCTURES 248. There are several conceivable ways of installing the diaphragms and panels in various s o i l conditions, with or without shoring, whose relative practicability could really only be established by actual f u l l scale t r i a l s . Only the more interesting poss-i b i l i t i e s are mentioned here. One is that the diaphragms could be used to support the shoring during excavation and u n t i l the bottom of the structure was installed. The shoring would be removed as the wall panels were fitted into the diaphragms and the trench behind them was backfilled. Another possibility for unstable s o i l conditions that would not involve shoring, might be called a 'caison' method. In this, several sections of wall would be assembled on top of the desired location. With the bottom edges of the lower panels protected and the ends covered and protected, the trench for the trough would be excavated from within the caison thus formed. A variation of this method for somewhat more stable soils could be called a 'coffer' method. The coffers would be formed by f i r s t lowering the diaphragms into excavations across the line of the tunnel, and lowering the wall panels in the slots of the diaphragms as the earth between and under them was excavated. The problem in this case would be to keep cleann those surfaces which must ultimately form water-tight joints. Trough cover. Regardless of the technique involved in installing the trough, i t s upper edge would be shaped to f i t v into the cover. The cover would be precast concrete sections with a patterned or textured upper Surface and as long as could be conveniently handled. Specially designed and strengthened unit6 would be laid where vehicles would cross to driveways. The sidewalkunits might not be laid u n t i l most u t i l i t i e s had been installed. Non-drainage and electric troughs. The shallower non-drainage and electric troughs would probably be completely pre-249. cast U-shaped concrete units that would be installed by simply lowering them into a prepared trench. The units would be pulled or pushed together and onto the correct alignment to seal their joints. The joints would have a neoprene or similar material gasket to make the trough watertight. There would be relatively few joints because the units would be as long as practicable to handle, probably the forty foot limit for trucks without special permits. The laying of the troughs should be f a i r l y easy in spite of the weight of the units because the work would be done practically at ground level. The portion of the trench not occupied by troughs would then be backfilled with suitable material to within a few inches of the top of the trough. These materials might be sand, gravel, crushed rock, or the excavated* material depending upon the anticipated drainage conditions. The trough would be completed when precast concrete sidewalk units were laid on top of the U-shaped trough units, as in the case of the;-all-utility trough. It is possible however, that the troughs might be extruded by a machine running on temporary r a i l s similar to that which installs curb-gutters. El e c t r i c a l troughs might actually be extruded with the curb as shown in Diagram 18, a location well suited for street lighting wires. The same section could be precast as would be the precast cover. II. TUNNEL STRUCTURES The tunnel u t i l i t y strctures are essentially tubular conduits between manholes and could be installed in the same way as large conduits or drains and their manholes are currently installed. This involves excavating a trench, shaping the bottom or casting a bed of concrete, laying precast cylindrical sections, and backfilling in a prescribed manner. 250. iiihi(iimniHiir;.i: .. o; •: •••9y»—precast c o v e r ^ r : S ^ A \ i ^ - c u r b - g u t t e r ( p r e c a s t o r e x t r u d e d ) 0 0 ''///^y/z/^ys/s^w Diagram 18 E l e c t r i c a l t r o u g h - c u r b - g u t t e r An a l t e r n a t i v e way of i n s t a l l i n g t h e tube i n p l a c e s where i t must be deep o r i n s o i l c o n d i t i o n s making t r e n c h i n g e x p e n s i v e would be p u s h i n g the tube from one manhole t o the n e x t . T h i s p u s h i n g t e c h n i q u e i s used i n B r i t a i n i n s o f t ground as w e l l as the s a f e , s t a b l e s o i l s t o which the Americans c o n f i n e i t , and i s c a r r i e d out as f o l l o w s : U s u a l procedure i s t o push p i p e f o r w a r d s e v e r a l f e e t ; "muck o u t " s o i l and mud accumulated i n f o r w a r d end; check a l i g n m e n t ; make s t e e r a g e a d j u s t -ments f o r a c c u r a c y ; then r e s e t b u f f e r s and space b l o c k s f o r a n o t h e r t h r u s t . 4 - ' The proposed p r a c t i c e would use t h i s t e c h n i q u e wherever the c o s t o f p u s h i n g were l e s s t h a n by o r d i n a r y t e c h n i q u e s ; t h a t i s , when e x t r a c o s t s were more th a n o f f s e t by s a v i n g s i n c o s t o f e x c a v a t i n g , s h o r i n g and b a c k f i l l i n g a t r e n c h , and l a y i n g and bedding the tube. T h i s t e c h n i q u e would a l s o be used t o c a r r y the tube under s u b s t a n t i a l w a t e r c o u r s e s , r a i l w a y embankments, h e a v i l y - t r a v e l l e d s t r e e t s , and s i m i l a r o b s t a c l e s . The t u n n e l might a l s o be e x t r u d e d by a machine t h a t winches i t s e l f a l o n g a shaped t r e n c h o f the type b e i n g used t o Gerd H o l b o r n , " ' P i p e l i n e P u s h i n g 1 Now a F i n e A r t With New B r i t i s h C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g System," P u b l i c Works i n Canada. Vancouver, M i t c h e l l P r e s s , v o l . 11, no. 6 (June 1963), p. 12. 251. Install sewers in the United States.-* To be practicable with the more frequent manholes in the proposed practice, the machine would have to run through the manholes. By appropriate shaping of the excavation for the manholes and cutting off the flow of concrete to the upper portion of the tunnel, the manhole could be cast by the machine up to the level of the top of the tunnel. When i t had passed the manhole, reinforcing could be inserted and the top of the cast portion shaped to the design. After the concrete had set sufficiently, a precast cover with a hole in i t would be placed to carry standard precast concrete manhole sections. III. TUBED-CONDUIT STRUCTURES Tubed-conduits could be Installed in the same manner as multi-tubed telephone or electric conduits are at present. This is to excavate a trench, lay and join asbestos cement or fiber tubes with spacers between them, and cast concrete around them. The only differences in the proposed practice would be the size and possibly type of tubes involved, and the possible need for testing some of them before the concrete was poured. For example, the water pipe and drains probably should be tested f i r s t . However, there are other perhaps better ways to i n s t a l l a tubed-conduit. One possible way of installing tubed-conduits that would speed up the installation process, would be to cast the conduit in a factory. In effect, this would amount to manufacturing hollow core sections using tested pipes and drains instead of fiber cores. Some fiber cores would be used to form tubes for wires and cables. An alternative would be to extrude concrete sections with appropriately sized circular openings in the "*"New Pipe Machine Casts 55' of Sewer per Hour, Can Cut Costs 30%", House & Home, vol. XVIII, no. 3 (September 1960), p. 169. 252. same way in which hollow core slabs are manufactured. Pipes and drains would be inserted in their assigned tube, either at the factory or where being installed. In either case the manufac-tured sections would be as long as can be handled. The combina-tion of long sections and closely spaced manholes could mean that there would be only two or three joints between manholes. These joints would be designed for easy connection in the f i e l d . Steel dowels would be used to ensure proper alignment, and the conduit would be sealed by neoprene gaskets or epoxy cement. The tubes and drains would have their own ordinary joints. The electrical tubed-oonduit presents some interesting pos s i b i l i t i e s . The sidewalk version could be factory cast with fiber cores and various integral patterns or textured surface, or could be extruded and have patterns or textures added, A curb-gutter version as shown in Diagram 19 could be factory hollow cast or extruded, or be extruded in place by adapting present curbing machines. street lighting Curb-gutter (precast or extruded) /Secondary electric / |Telephone, Cable TV Primary electric Diagram 19 Curb-gutter Electric Tubed-Conduit 253. IV. INSTALLING NON-DRAINAGE AND ELECTRICAL STRUCTURES OVER DRAINS The utilitysitanactures not containing drains, the non-drainage and e l e c t r i c a l ones, could be installed over the twin drains. This would be done ordinarily in the proposed practice because of the possible savings, but would be departed from wherever i t was more practicable to do so. The savings would result from sharing common trenches and manholes, thus reducing excavation and manhole costs. „ The u t i l i t y structures could be installed above the drains in three ways: centered, offset, or benched. The centered location would be to make connection with manholes simple and straighforward, but would make i t d i f f i c u l t to get at the drains later. This would not be as serious a fault as at present because there would rarely be a need to get at the drains since service connections would be made in the manholes. The offset locations at one side of the trench excavated for the drains would probably only be practical for the smaller ele c t r i c a l u t i l i t y structure. It could remain offset at manholes, or be curved into them when short sections with flexible joints were used. The benched location would involve excavating a wider trench to the depth required for the u t i l i t y structure than necessary for the drains, It would thus probably be more ex-pensive than a trench for drains alone, but less expensive than separate trenches. The savings in manhole costs would arise mainly from sharing them and thereby reducing the number required. Additional savings should be realized by installing prefabricated manhole sections designed for simple installation of the u t i l i t y struc-ture to or through the manhole. The troughs would further 254. reduce the costs of manholes by reducing their height and obviating the need for expensive covers. Special short trough sections with a hole in the bottom would be fitted on top of the precast manhole sections. The sidewalk unit covering this section of trough would provide the means of access to the manhole. 255. TABLE V UNDERGROUND WIRING COSTS FOR TRANSFORMER-SECONDARY COMBINATION TO SERVE BACK-TO-BACK LOTS Number of Diversified Homes Demand KW I n i t i a l Transformer Size Transformer and Secondary Costs per House 4 24 25 $ 186 6 30 37.5 168 8 36 37.5 148 10 40 37.5 138 12 46 50 137 14 50 50 134 16 56 50 133 18 61 75 145 20 66 75 150 22 70 75 148 24 74 75 157 Source: C. F. Danforth, "Huge Development in Virginia Served Underground," Electrical World. New York, McGraw-Hill, vol. 160, no. 8 (19 August 1963), p. 26. 256, TABLE VI 1963 Estimating Costs for Sewers City of Port Moody Cost/foot Excavation Cost/Hr. Cost/Day @9a?/day 1. 3/4 yd. Shovel & Operator 16.50 132.00 2. 1 Labourer (shoring) 2.05 16.40 1.55 P i p e l a y i n g 1. 2 Pipe Layers (2.26 x 2) 4.52 36.16 2. Labourer 2.05 16.40 .59 Backfilling & Cleanup 1. Loader & Operator 7.50 60.00 2. Truck <S Driver 5.00 40.00 3. 2 Labourers (2.05 x 2) 4.10 32.80 1.48 Supervision & Overhead 1. Lead Hand 2.48 19.84 2. Overhead -Benefits -20% on Labour (1/5 x22.39) 4.48 35.84 3. 1/4 Survey Crew 1.29/ 10.32 .74 $ 49.97 $ 399.76 $ 4.36 Materials Cost/foot Pipe: 8" sanitary - with gasket .90 12" storm - plain 1.15 Bedding sand .40 Manholes: - 7* - 81 deep 42" Manhole Sections $ 92.75 42" Con. l i d 19.00 C.I. Frame and Cover 35.00 Cone. Base and Bricks 20.00 Labour 40.00 $206.74 1.03* * At 200 foot average spacing TABLE VI (cont.) 257 . Total costs per foot: Excavation, etc. Pipe Bedding sand Manholes + 15% Engineering Contingencies TOTAL 8'1 Sewers 12" Storm Drains i (catch basins extra) 4.36 4.36 .90 .40 1.03 6.69 1.15 .40 1.03 6.94 U00 7.69 1.04 7.98 Source: Mr. Douglas Kenyon, City Engineer, City of Port Moody, letter to writer. 

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