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Street use & servicing planning : an investigation of design possibilities and feasibility of underground… Wiles, Franklin Arthur 1964

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STREET USE & SERVICING PLANNING: AN INVESTIGATION OF DESIGN POSSIBILITIES AND FEASIBILITY OF UNDERGROUND PUBLIC UTILITY STRUCTURES IN LOCAL RESIDENTIAL STREETS  by FRANKLIN ARTHUR WILES B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1964  In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study.  I further agree that per-  mission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i -  cation of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The University of B r i t i s h Columbia,. Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  May 8 .  1964.  ABSTRACT This thesis was prompted by the b e l i e f that l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets could be better used and serviced i f a common underground structure were provided  for a l l u t i l i t i e s .  Such a structure could not only get wiring underground, a desirable aim i n i t s e l f , but also gather a l l of the u t i l i t i e s together i n a narrow portion of the s t r e e t .  This would free  the remainder of the street from the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by the u t i l i t i e s , and allow designers and pleasant environments.  to create more interesting  I t was further believed that such  structures might be feasible i f the designing and servicing of l o c a l streets were considered  comprehensively.  These b e l i e f s have been investigated  by formulating and  testing the general hypotheses that i n s t a l l i n g u t i l i t i e s i n s p e c i a l l y designed underground structures i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets would: a) permit better use and design of such streets than i s possible by current servicing practices; b) be feasible (from functional, physical, s o c i a l , staging, administrative, p o l i t i c a l , f i n a n c i a l , and economic points of view) i f comprehensively designed. The scope of this investigation has been limited to future l o c a l streets i n single-family r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s of Metropolitan Vancouver for these reasons.  Future streets would  allow maximum f l e x i b i l i t y i n design and savings costs by proposed practices.  i n servicing  Local streets generally have  simpler and smaller-sized f a c i l i t i e s which are most widely spread. Single-family r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s are and w i l l be the largest land use and hence, have the most increase i n s t r e e t s . Metropolitan Vancouver has been studied because of i t s proximity and f a m i l i a r i t y to the investigator and i t s variety of servicing practices.  Street use i s the use made of streets including such ones as playing  not currently f a c i l i t a t e d .  The servicetnent i s 1  1  that part of the physical environment created by property service f a c i l i t i e s i n the streets. public services providing people.  Property services are those  service to property as d i s t i n c t from  Current practice i s the ways of designing  l i n g f a c i l i t i e s followed  at the present time.  and i n s t a l -  The term  'better'  in the f i r s t hypothesis i s interpreted i n terms of elements of the public i n t e r e s t .  These include public health,  convenience, amenity, welfare, and economy. f e a s i b i l i t y have been established proposed practices.  C r i t e r i a of  f o r the evaluation of the  These include functional, physical, s o c i a l  staging, administrative, feasibility.  safety,  p o l i t i c a l , functional, and economic  They are e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t ways of looking at  a complex problem. Three general types of public u t i l i t y structures have been considered i n three d i f f e r e n t conditions. are trough, tunnel, and tube-conduit. surface and covered by a sidewalk.  The three types  A trough i s open to the  A tunnel i s a single under-  ground space, usually tubular, between manholes. conduits have several c e l l s or tubes.  The tubed-  The three conditions are  when the structure contains a l l u t i l i t i e s , a l l but the drainage, and only e l e c t r i c a l and communicative u t i l i t i e s . A l l public services to property involving permanent f a c i l i t i e s i n streets that are or could conceivably  be provided  by public or private agencies have been considered.  They have  been c l a s s i f i e d into ten classes by functional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of interest i n the investigation. services.  The f i r s t class i s the access  The next four are the u t i l i t i e s : baric (or pressure),  communicative, drainage and e l e c t r i c a l . c a l l e d other services and include: i n d i c a t i n g , and 'keeping' services.  The remainder are  furnishing, gardening,'holding  iv Current practices have been described 'best',  'normal', and  i n terms of  'worst' practices because of the wide  range of practices that e x i s t . Proposed practices that would be involved or could r e s u l t from i n s t a l l i n g u t i l i t i e s tures have been described  i n common underground struc-  i n comparison to current practice.  These proposed practices have been evaluated  i n e f f e c t by  testing s p e c i f i c hypotheses about each practice by application of appropriate  feasibility  criteria.  The proposed designing practices have been found to be feasible i n almost a l l respects, with a few q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as follows: 1) functional layouts involving roads and parking areas close to houses would have to be tested for public acceptance by f u l l - s c a l e development projects. 2) i t i s functionally unfeasible to i n s t a l l gas pipes i n structures because of the potential safety hazard involved. The  f e a s i b i l i t y of the proposed practices has been found  to be as follows: a) the a l l - u t i l i t y trough and tunnel structures are unfeasible except for those few people w i l l i n g to pay highly for the benefits that would accrue. b) The a l l - u t i l i t y tubed-conduit appears to be economically f e a s i b l e . Indeed, i t might provide savings that could be passed on to those served or taxpayers generally, or used to provide additional services or a higher quality of service. c) The other u t i l i t y structures appear to be generally f e a s i b l e , or so nearly so economically that people would be w i l l i n g to pay for the extra benefits. It i s suggested that the design and f e a s i b i l i t y p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the a l l - u t i l i t y tubed-conduit be investigated by means of a f u l l scale experimental development.  This should be done at  V  the same time as a nearby development following current practices.  This would allow c a r e f u l evaluation of the costs,  and public reaction to the proposed practice i n comparison to current practices.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This investigation could not have been carried out without the co-operation  of many o f f i c i a l s of municipal and  other public service agencies including the privately owned u t i l i t y companies.  Several gave up a considerable  time to answer numerous questions  amount of  about their services which  could be answered only by persons having a great deal of knowledge and experience on such highly s p e c i a l i z e d subjects. These o f f i c i a l s are l i s t e d i n the Bibliography. operation and assistance I am most g r a t e f u l .  For this co-  I particularly  appreciate the information and assistance given by Mr. Douglas Kenyon, City Engineer of Port Moody, without which the economic analysis would have been much more d i f f i c u l t and less satisfactory. This thesis i s unlikely to have been completed without the encouragement of friends and family over the several years that have been spent on i t , and the assistance of the l a t t e r during the f i n a l stages of putting together I am p a r t i c u l a r l y indebted  such a large report.  to my long-suffering wife f o r the  many weekends and evenings spent typing d r a f t s , instead of following more pleasurable  pursuits.  The form of the thesis would have been less s a t i s f a c t o r y than at present without the suggestions of the several thesis advisors involved over the years, and f o r these I o f f e r my thanks.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE  INTRODUCTION I.  1  DEFINITIONS AND CRITERIA - Definitions and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Structures and Services Investigated, and C r i t e r i a for Evaluating Them . . 17 Definitions of Terms Used  17  Outdoor Room Analogy  24  Types of U t i l i t y Structures Classification  Investigated  26  of Services  29  Elements of the Public Interest as C r i t e r i a f o r Evaluating Street Use and Servicing Practices. . 34 Principles of Street Use and Servicing (integration, payment f o r benefit, and maximum benefit)  II.  39  Plan Elements and F e a s i b i l i t y Tests  48  Summary  56  CURRENT PRACTICES - A Description of Current Street Use and Servicing Practices i n Ten M u n i c i p a l i t i e s of Metropolitan Vancouver. , . . . . ! Areal Scope of Current Practices Investigated.  57  . . 63  Street Uses  65  Current Process of Designing Street Use and Servicement. . . . . Current Process of I n s t a l l i n g  67 Property Service  Facilities  72  Composite Best, Normal and Worst Servicing Practices Summary. . .  76 . . . . . . . .  85  viii CHAPTER • •III.  PAGE  PROPOSED DESIGNING PRACTICES - A Description of the Proposed Process of Designing Property Service F a c i l i t i e s f o r Local Residential Street Use and Servicement. . . . . . . 86 Assumptions and Principles  of Proposed Practices . 87  Proposed Process of Designing Street Use and Servicement  88  Designing Street Use and Servicement of Intersections  IV.  117  Designing the Subdivision  131  Future Services  135  Summary of Proposed Designing Practices  138  PROPOSED INSTALLING PRACTICES - A Description of the Proposed Process of I n s t a l l i n g Property Services F a c i l i t i e s for Local Street Use and Servicement. . 141 Proposed Process of I n s t a l l i n g Subdivision Plats . 142 Proposed Process of Preparing the Street for Servicing. .  144  Proposed Process of I n s t a l l i n g U t i l i t y Structures Proposed Process of I n s t a l l i n g U t i l i t i e s  147 147  Proposed Process of I n s t a l l i n g Pavements (and Curb-Gutters)  151  Proposed Process of I n s t a l l i n g Plants. . . . . . . 151 Proposed Process of I n s t a l l i n g Other Service Facilities  . 153  Summary of Proposed Process of I n s t a l l i n g Service F a c i l i t i e s  156  ix CHAPTER V.  '  PAGE  EVALUATION OF PROPOSED PRACTICES - Determination of the F e a s i b i l i t y of the Proposed Street Use and Servicing Practices.  « 158  Evaluation of Proposed Street Use and Design . . . 159 Evaluation of Proposed Designing Practices . . . . 161 Evaluation of the F e a s i b i l i t y of the Proposed Practices of I n s t a l l i n g  Property Service  Facilities  168  Summary and Conclusions  184  BIBLIOGRAPHY  187  APPENDIX - Table of Contents for Appendices A.  B. Co  . 192  CURRENT SERVICING PRACTICES - A Detailed Description and Ranking f o r Ten Selected Metropolitan M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and Comparison With Practices Elsewhere  193  INSTALLING UTILITY STRUCTURES - A Description of Possible Processes f o r the Various Types  243  COST DATA«•  j  255  x: LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. II. III.  PAGE C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Services . „  29a  Land Values - Municipality of Richmond  46  An Analysis of Factors Affecting Trees and Supply Lines  IV. V.  VI.  . . 71  Estimated U t i l i t y Costs per Foot Underground Wiring Costs f o r Transformer Secondary Combination to Serve Back-to-Back  174  Lots  .255  1963 Estimating Costs for Sewers, City of Port Moody  2.56  xi.. LIST OF DIAGRAMS DIAGRAM  PAGE  1.  Types of Proposed U t i l i t y Structures  . 27  2.  Types of Proposed U t i l i t y Structures  96  3.  Effect of Location on Depth of Drains  97  4.  Effect of Street Slope and Manhole Spacing on Depth of Drains  5.  Functional Layouts of E l e c t r i c Power Service Facilities  6.  99  . .  103  I l l u s t r a t i v e Layout of Pavements Near Natural Features  7.  Facilities  107 at the Intersection of Two Local  Streets 8.  Proposed Design of Intersection of Two Local Streets  9.  120 „  122  Comparison of Pavement Designs of Current and Proposed Practices i n Typical Grid Subdivision . . 123  10.  'Servi-Center' at Intersections of C o l l e c t o r Streets  126  11.  Suggested Designs of 'Servi-Center  12.  Comparison of Cross-Sectional Areas Involved  1  i n Grading 13.  129 146  Suggested Modifications to Lighted Street Name Signs  . 155  14.  Suggested Pedestrian Signs  155  15.  Suggested A l l - U t i l i t y Tubed-Conduit  181  16.  Modified A l l - U t i l i t y Tubed-Conduit  181.  17.  Possible Types of A l l - U t i l i t y Trough Structures. . . 247  18.  E l e c t r i c Trough-Curb-Gutter  19.  Curb-Gutter E l e c t r i c Tubed-Conduit  250 . 252  xii; LIST OF MAPS MAP  PAGE  1.  Large-Scale Developments i n Vancouver  .  59  2.  Metropolitan Vancouver Areas Investigated  64  2.  Metropolitan Vancouver Areas Investigated  194  3.  City of Vancouver Development at 54th & Kerr  199  INTRODUCTION Streets have always been, and are l i k e l y to remain e s s e n t i a l parts of human settlements.  When men claim parcels of  land f o r t h e i r use and from trespass by others, they must set aside portions for streets to permit access to their land from outside the settlement trespass.  and movement between parcels without  Even temporary settlements  of nomads (including week-  end campers) demonstrate this fact. Animal and Insect  "settlements  8  also usually involve the  equivalent of s t r e e t s , some of which are perhaps more s o p h i s t i f cated than man s most complex creations.  This i s partly due to  9  the fact that some animals and most insects can move on v e r t i c a l or under h o r i z o n t a l surfaces, whereas man can not.  Generally, he  Is unable to operate e f f e c t i v e l y with his limbs above his head. Also, man has not yet been w i l l i n g to accept the degree of communal l i v i n g practiced by such " s o c i a l  8  insects as ants and  bees. Man has developed various devices such as s t a i r s , elevators, and escalators for v e r t i c a l movement within buildings but the buildings must s t i l l be linked by streets. and s i m i l a r devices allow movement between separated  Helicopters s i t e s , but  the s i t e s generally must be accessible by f u e l and repair vehicles requiring s t r e e t s . Two current trends i n inventions suggest the need f o r streets for movement may be reduced i n the future.  One i s the  development of means of communication that reduce the need f o r personal contact.  The former are u n l i k e l y to become practicable  for everyone including children and handicapped persons«  On the  other hand, the more people using them, the greater would be the trespass of space above s i t e s and consequent invasion of privacy.  2. Means of communication are being conceived that t h e o r e t i c a l l y could eliminate a l l movement except f o r changes of residence upon marriage.  However, these involve connection of each dwelling  by cables and/or e l e c t r i c power wires running i n streets. Streets are also used as rights-of-way f o r the f a c i l i t i e s of services supplying such commodities as water and gas, or removing such wastes as storm water and sewerage.  Thus, even i f  streets were not required f o r movement, they would be required i  for u t i l i t i e s unless each dwelling were made completely independent and self-^sufficient.  Such a p o s s i b i l i t y i s conceivable.  Indeed j, research f o r the space program i s solving the technol o g i c a l problems of l i v i n g f o r extended periods i n self-contained environments.*  -  However, this i s unlikely to be s o c i o l o g i c a l l y or  p o l i t i c a l l y acceptable, and the h i s t o r i c a l tendency has been to increase,, not reduce, the number of u t i l i t i e s i n streets. Streets required only f o r u t i l i t i e s need not be so wide as when also used f o r movement but they perform other functions 8  requiring width.  These include acting as a firebreak between  buildings and ensuring that adequate l i g h t and a i r i s available to buildings.  Also, streets are used as locations f o r the  f a c i l i t i e s of other services best supplied communally but required only i n t e r m i t t e n t l y delivery,.  8  such as mail c o l l e c t i o n and  Streets provide an open space which gives r e l i e f  through contrast with adjacent development, especially when the street i s planted and the development i s intensive.  Indeed„  facades of buildings as we know them would not e x i s t without streets„  Finally  9  these open spaces provided by streets are  public — people can meet, socialize„ and play on common ground. Thus streets f u l f i l l many basic human needs. Space Breakthrough Claimed as 5 Live Sealed Up 30 Vancouver Sun. 2 A p r i l 1964, p. 1„ 1,,  Days,  M  3. A c c e p t a n c e o f t h e need f o r s t r e e t s manner o f m e e t i n g t h i s need v a r i e s For  example, the d i f f e r e n c e  i s u n i v e r s a l , but the  considerably  between c u l t u r e s .  between t h e approach i n N o r t h  America and Europe i s comparable t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e to the n e c e s s i t y  for eating.  t o be " i f we m u s t e a t , effort do".  as p o s s i b l e  it  The as  t h e n l e t ' s s p e n d as l i t t l e  seems  time and we want t o  t h e E u r o p e a n a t t i t u d e seems t o be " i f we  then l e t ' s  as p l e a s u r a b l e  The N o r t h A m e r i c a n a t t i t u d e  s o t h a t we c a n s a v e i t f o r t h i n g s  In contrast,  must e a t ,  i n approach  s p e n d s u f f i c i e n t t i m e a n d e f f o r t t o make  as p o s s i b l e " .  c h o i c e o f w h i c h a p p r o a c h one a c c e p t s on s u c h m a t t e r s  time and e f f o r t s p e n t on such n e c e s s i t i e s  e s s e n t i a l l y an i n d i v i d u a l one, c o n d i t i o n e d c u l t u r a l environment.  as e a t i n g i s  o f c o u r s e by o n e ' s  The c h o i c e o f w h i c h a p p r o a c h i s f o l l o w e d  i n m e e t i n g t h e need f o r s t r e e t s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p u b l i c o n e , however, s i n c e  only  public action can protect  the public  i n h a v i n g an e f f i c i e n t and e c o n o m i c a l s t r e e t system. involves  This  t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t a n d a r d s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r  s e t t i n g aside and  interest  streets  potential future  t o meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e e n t i r e e x i s t i n g population,  instead  o f j u s t t h e immediate  needs o f i n d i v i d u a l s . Thus t h e p u b l i c can,  and does, d e l i b e r a t e l y b r i n g  c h a n g e s i n t h e way s t r e e t s a r e s e t a s i d e t o be i n t h e p u b l i c being s e t aside  interest.  o r u s e d t h a t a r e deemed  The q u e s t i o n i s , a r e s t r e e t s  and used as w e l l as t h e y m i g h t b e , o r a r e t h e r e  some c h a n g e s t h a t c o u l d  be made f o r t h e b e t t e r ?  of  t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r , t h e answers a r e no, and y e s ,  at  least f o rl o c a l streets  The  about  In the opinion respectively—  i n single-family r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  reasons f o r t h i s opinion  are that  streets are considered  e i t h e r t o o c c u p y a n e x c e s s i v e amount o f l a n d  f o r the use that  i s made o f them, o r a r e n o t w e l l d e s i g n e d o r d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e uses that could  be made o f them, a n d t o r e s u l t i n e x c e s s i v e  costs.  4. Land i s the platform of a l l human a c t i v i t y and an irreplaceable resource.  I t behoove man to use I t prudently,  yet on this continent vast amounts of land are taken out of productive uses f o r streets apparently without f u l l y compensating benefits.  The proportion of land occupied by streets (including  lanes) i n urban and suburban areas can vary from about o n e - f i f t h to one-half,2 but i s generally around t h i r t y percent.  A study  of central c i t i e s i n the United States found streets to be a f a i r l y constant proportion averaging 28.1 percent of the developed  area.3  Even assuming the r a r e l y attained o n e - f i f t h  can be attained i n a l l future l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets, the t o t a l area involved w i l l be great because of the tremendous growth anticipated i n single family r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s . Streets w i l l continue to be the second largest urban land use. Hence, anything which allows either better use of streets or reduction of the area occupied by them would be to everyone's benefit. Servicing costs f o r future l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets also w i l l be tremendous i n t o t a l because of the anticipated spread of development and consequent length of streets involved. The costs w i l l be proportionately greater than past ones because of the higher standards of service being demanded and 2 An area i n Steveston, Richmond, having 100 f t . wide streets and small square blocks had streets occupying 47.8 percent. 3 Harland Bartholomew, Land Uses i n American C i t i e s , Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1955, (Harvard City Planning Studies IV), p. 63, which also provides the following data: No.of C i t i e s Population Group Streets-Percentage of Total Developed Area 28 50,000 or less 28.33 13 50,000 - 100,000 33.27 7 100,000 - 250,000 27.57 5 250,000 and over 24.75  5, will  be  higher  tendency  and  amount o f  spread  planning  programming  could  savings be  w a t e r m a i n s and  total  amount o f  the  area  and  costs  reducing  the  width of  One  as  expenditures The  l a n d u s e d and  s t r e e t s , the Except  seems t o be  jurisdiction the  lack of  costs  considered  one  field  attempt  o f what i s h e r e i n  i s given  The design  s t r e e t s and purpose of  possibilities  practices  uses,  and as  second approach i s to of  of  l a n d use the  the  these  involves costs  matters  planning.  This  derived approach  province  outside  reducing  and  benefit  of s e r v i c e s . outside  This  blocks,  latter,  best  reduce  s e r v i c i n g by  lengths  to explore termed  where p e r t i n e n t  m a i n f o c u s , h o w e v e r , i s on by  such  s u c h p u b l i c works  the  of  land  specific  partly explain  of  the this  and  the use  this  rather  ' s t r e e t use  to  approaches mentioned above, e s p e c i a l l y the  created  involves  p r o f e s s i o n , w h i c h may  t h e s i s i s an  Consideration  The  by  followers.  This neglected  and  of  total  on  Indeed, i t i s a p p a r e n t l y o f any  problems the  or  them.  permitted  approach i s to i n c r e a s e  s t r e e t areas  of  of  f o r the  third  planning.  community  individual street sections.  services.  general  costs  standard  This  costs  The  use  the  i s to reduce  zoning  sewers.  of  strong  consequent s e r v i c i n g c o s t s  a l s o u s u a l l y o f c o n c e r n i n the  currently  by  r a i s e the  are  from g i v e n  the  i n these  shared  of development.  of c a p i t a l  installing  the  devices  the  of  Any  servicing costs.  the  because o f  three main approaches to these  l a n d u s e d and  controlling l a n d use  lots.  more s e r v i c e s o r  There are land use  l o t basis  from i n n o v a t i o n s  to provide  trunk  a per  towards w i d e r  resulting used  on  the  first  costs  two  of s e r v i c i n g .  made o f , and  service f a c i l i t i e s  planning'.  environment  i n them.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to determine  feasibility  the  of c e r t a i n proposed  accommodating s t r e e t u s e s and  providing  public  6.  services i n future l o c a l  streets  of single family r e s i d e n t i a l  d i s t r i c t s of Metropolitan Vancouver, i n comparison to current practice  The proposed practices of accommodating street uses  d i f f e r from current practices i n that each street section would be custom designed to meet the s p e c i f i c needs of the users of i t , p a r t i c u l a r l y the adjacent residents.  For example, playing  and other forms of recreation would be provided f o r , while car parking would be accommodated only where, and to the extent needed.  Design p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r accommodating these uses and  creating desirable environments would be considerably greater than i n current practice.  This i s because the services would  occupy or a f f e c t less of the street and be less r i g i d l y placed than i n current practice, thus freeing space and making f l e x i b l e the placement of street uses.  This would be accomplished by  i n s t a l l i n g most or a l l of the u t i l i t i e s i n underground  struc-  tures s p e c i a l l y designed f o r this purpose, and by placing the structures and pavements i n the most advantageous locations i n the street.  I t i s primarily for these practices that the  f e a s i b i l i t y must be determined. Three basic types of structure with minor variations are  considered, c a l l e d 'trough', 'tunnel', and  respectively.  'tubed-conduit , 8  A l l would form a continuous space or spaces f o r  a l l or most of the ' u t i l i t i e s ' .  These are the continuous  f a c i l i t i e s of those public services providing such  commodities  as water, gas and e l e c t r i c power; and such services as telephone and other means of communication;  drainage and sewerage.  The  trough would be open to the surface making the u t i l i t i e s accessible throughout t h e i r length. sidewalk.  I t would be covered by the  Tunnels and tubed-condults would be i n s t a l l e d at the  depth required f o r the storm drains and sewers.  The  would be accessible only at intervals v i a manholes.  utilities These  structures need not always be under the sidewalk, although there  7. are advantages to this location.  Two other cases are considered  for a l l three structures — when the drainage and sewerage f a c i l i t i e s are not included i n the structure, and when the structures contain only e l e c t r i c a l and communicative u t i l i t i e s . The concepts behind these structures are c e r t a i n l y not new.  They are e s s e n t i a l l y expressions of the p r i n c i p l e of  economy through integration.  In these cases, the main savings  are i n the costs of excavation and b a c k f i l l i n g of trenches f o r each u t i l i t y eliminated when several u t i l i t i e s are i n s t a l l e d together.  Troughs under precast concrete 'flagstone' sidewalks  have been used f o r many years i n England to carry e l e c t r i c wires, telephone cables, and gas pipes.  The famous sewers of  Paris can be considered tunnels as defined herein because they have several u t i l i t i e s i n s t a l l e d i n them.  Ducts or conduits  having multiple ' c e l l s ' or spaces can be considered tubedconduits, although they currently carry only e l e c t r i c a l and communicative f a c i l i t i e s .  Furthermore, either the prevalence  or apparent logic of these concepts i s evidenced by queries such as "Why are the wires and things not put under the sidewalk (or i n ducts, etc.)?" Such queries most often arise i n discussions about underground wiring.  They are usually raised as Ideas which might  y i e l d solutions to one or more of the problems associated with underground wiring.  For instance, one problem i s the protection  of e l e c t r i c wires from damage and people from electrocution by inadvertent contact such as while digging.  Several means have  been t r i e d to protect wires l a i d d i r e c t l y i n the s o i l to save the cost of conduits, such as covering them with wooden or concrete planks.  Since the planks add to the cost of the under-  ground wiring, means of protecting wires not involving extra costs are sought, and the idea of using the sidewalk a r i s e s . However, this presents the problem that wires l a i d under  8-. sidewalks make detection and repair of faults more d i f f i c u l t or c o s t l y . Much research and experimentation  has been and i s being  undertaken i n the United States and Canada to find means of reducing the costs of underground wiring, while  maintaining  acceptable standards of safety and convenience, so that more wiring w i l l be placed underground.  Some e f f o r t s have been  remarkably successful, and the proportion of wiring being i n s t a l l e d underground i s increasing s t e a d i l y .  In p r a c t i c a l l y  a l l instances, underground wiring s t i l l costs more i n i t i a l l y than overhead wiring, but the difference has been reduced to an amount acceptable  to either u t i l i t y companies or  developers.^  Some u t i l i t y companies accept a l l or part of the extra costs because underground wiring involves long-term savings due lower maintenance, r e p a i r , and replacement costs. the extra costs where developers  to  Others accept  guarantee to i n s t a l l appliances  that w i l l consume specified quantities of e l e c t r i c power. developers  have accepted  Some  a l l or part of the extra costs i n order  to obtain higher prices or easier sales than competitors  not  i n s t a l l i n g wiring underground.^ In Metropolitan Vancouver, a few individuals or have accepted  developers  substantial extra costs for underground wiring i n  special circumstances,  but the u t i l i t y company has neither  encouraged nor contributed substantially to underground wiring installations.  With some j u s t i f i c a t i o n , the former p r i v a t e l y -  owned u t i l i t y company argued that people w i l l not bear the extra  "There's No Need for Ugly Wirescapes Now That Wires Can be Buried for $100 a Lot," House & Home, v o l . XXIV, no. 2 (August 1963), pp. 126-129. ^"Underground Wiring Is a Major Sales Feature of New F l o r i d a Community," House & Home, v o l . XXII, no. 6 (December p. 65, and Richmond Gardens Development i n the Township of Richmond are examples.  1962)  9. costs of underground wiring, and that i t would be u n f a i r for those already served by overhead wiring to subsidize those being served by underground wiring.^» ^  These problems  apparently have been resolved s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n other places mainly by reducing the extra costs of underground wiring. Perhaps the lack of incentive on this score i s due to the lack of competition with other suppliers of energy, since the e l e c t r i c a l u t i l i t y company also controls the gas service. Considerable research and experimentation also has been undertaken to find new or improved materials, designs, and i n s t a l l i n g techniques f o r f a c i l i t i e s of various services i n order to reduce t h e i r costs, improve t h e i r appearance, or improve some other aspect of the service they provide.  Examples of new  or improved materials are p l a s t i c for gas and water pipes, asbestos cement f o r water pipes and sewers, p l a s t i c insulations for wires, and r e f l e c t o r i z e d metal for signs. designs are being developed  New or improved  for j o i n t s i n pipes and sewers, f o r  the manholes giving access to thes% for street lamps and t h e i r supports, and for other f a c i l i t i e s or parts thereof.  Often new  or improved techniques of i n s t a l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s either r e s u l t from changes i n materials and design, or make changes i n these possible.  For example, signs can now be i n s t a l l e d e a s i l y on  metal poles or posts because of new designs for attachment devices, and manholes can be constructed without forms because of precast sections.  On the other hand, new techniques of  solvent welding f o r j o i n t i n g and tapping make i t possible and  The B. C. E l e c t r i c was taken over by the P r o v i n c i a l Government i n 1961 and made part of the B. C. Hydro & Power Authority. ^In a release e n t i t l e d "Views of the B. C. E l e c t r i c with Respect to Underground E l e c t r i c Service," (7 June 1956), and a pamphlet "Should E l e c t r i c Service Wires be Placed Underground?"  10. economical to use p l a s t i c pipe.  In addition, new techniques  can reduce costs so that materials, or designs formerly too expensive can be more widely used.  For example, machines which  can extrude concrete or asphalt curbs without forms makes curbing of more streets  economically>feasible.  Nearly a l l such research and experimentation pertaining to single-family r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s has been aimed at improving or reducing  the cost of i n s t a l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l or a  few related types of services.  Probably the most services  involved d i r e c t l y i n any one project are when underground wiring involves integrated i n s t a l l a t i o n of the f a c i l i t i e s of the e l e c t r i c power, street l i g h t i n g , telephone, and c a b l e - t e l e v i s i o n services. The f a c i l i t i e s of two services are occasionally i n s t a l l e d together such as drains and sewers or curbs and sidewalks.  But  most improvements or changes occur i n only one service at a time. This s i t u a t i o n i s probably a natural consequence of the tendency to s p e c i a l i z a t i o n since the scope of i n t e r e s t of s p e c i a l i s t s tends to become limited. Considering  f o r the moment only pavements and u t i l i t i e s ,  there i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the designing and i n s t a l l i n g of f a c i l i t i e s , and i n manufacturing necessary materials and machines,  while municipalities have some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  ensuring adequate standards for a l l services, i n practice the main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f a l l s on the agency providing the services. Designing of the systems and f a c i l i t i e s of the services  provided  by municipalities i s usually further divided among sections of engineering  departments, or may be contracted out to consultants.  I n s t a l l i n g of f a c i l i t i e s may be done by forces of the agencies responsible, by contractors f o r them, or by developers.  Finally  the manufacturers are usually highly specialized as to type of material used, or product or machine produced. Each separate organization s t r i v e s to reduce i t s costs  11. while either increasing the quality or usage of the service, or increasing i t s share of the business of providing the service. The aim of the private organizations i s the obvious one of increasing p r o f i t s by reducing costs and by either increasing revenues through serving more customers and improved service for which more can be charged, or by doing more towards provision of the service. comparisons  The aim of public organizations, where s i m i l a r between costs and revenues f o r s p e c i f i c services  cannot be made, i s the provision of the most service i n terms of quality or extent for the monies available.  Whatever research  and experimentation that i s undertaken by these organizations i s geared to t h e i r aims.  Thus, private telephone and e l e c t r i c  power companies seek cheaper i n s t a l l a t i o n s or expanded services and have the resources to do so.  Municipal engineering sections  seek less expensive designs for f a c i l i t i e s .  Contractors seek  faster techniques f o r i n s t a l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s . limited resources f o r research.  Both usually have  Developers are interested i n  the t o t a l costs of the services they have to i n s t a l l , but l i k e contractors, can only undertake research when they can spread the costs over many miles of serviced roads, and such research i s mainly to find faster techniques f o r i n s t a l l i n g the services. Manufacturers often spend much money on research, but this i s understandably only on their product or material.  In these  circumstances, perhaps i t i s not surprising that l i t t l e research or experimentation involves more than one or two services. A praiseworthy exception to the foregoing general s i t u a t i o n i s 'Project Dapper', the acronym f o r D i s t r i b u t i o n Appearance Engineering Research Project.**  This project i s a  j o i n t undertaking of the Arizona Public Service and General E l e c t r i c Company directed primarily at overhead  distribution  °"Total System i s Dapper Project Focus," E l e c t r i c a l World. New York, McGraw-Hill, v o l . 160, no. 9 (26 August 1963), pp. 47 - 49.  12. l i n e s , poles, and whatever the poles support, but keeping the t o t a l system i n focus.  The approach i s especially i n t e r e s t i n g .  Economics are forgotten u n t i l the time of p r a c t i c a l application i n the hope of accelerating i n d u s t r i a l progress.^  Two  principles  are involved which: ... c a l l for a s h i f t i n g of mental gears by u t i l i t y men: That the public may not agree with the designer's usual assumption that his functional design i s a t t r a c t i v e ; and that economics can be s a c r i f i c e d somewhat for appearance.10 Streamlining  of overhead d i s t r i b u t i o n f a c i l i t i e s by  eliminating  such 'dispensable baggage' as crossarms has so far resulted i n the best-looking  f a c i l i t i e s being the least  In this investigation, an attempt has a general but comprehensive and  costly.H been made to take  imaginative planning approach to  the whole problem of street use and s e r v i c i n g .  This was  done i n  the b e l i e f that this would y i e l d better results than would the sum  of detailed s p e c i f i c engineering and  of each street use and service.  By  f i n a n c i a l investigations  'better' i s meant either less  t o t a l cost for the same number and quality of street uses and services, or more street uses and services or higher quality at the same cost.  Each of the three proposed practices of  providing  services has been investigated to determine whether i t i s better than current practices.  Since current practice i s far from being  homogeneous, i t has been found necessary to describe i t i n terms of several ranks of which the most important are best, normal, and worst.  To test each of the three proposed practices  these three ranks p o t e n t i a l l y could involve nine t e s t s .  against However,  only the three r e l a t i n g to best practice have been tested,  and  the results used to determine the relationships to the other current  practices.  13. The testing of the proposed practices consists of determining t h e i r f e a s i b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n to current practices. The types of f e a s i b i l i t y considered  are functional, physical,  s o c i a l , staging, administrative, p o l i t i c a l , f i n a n c i a l , and economic.  For a l l but the l a s t type, determination  of whether  the proposed practices are feasible or not purely from these points of view has been established i n r e l a t i o n to current practices i n Metropolitan Vancouver or elsewhere. t i o n a l costs are involved, they are considered of economic f e a s i b i l i t y .  Where addi-  i n the examination  Thus, i f otherwise f e a s i b l e , the  important test i s that of economic f e a s i b i l i t y . The s p e c i f i c hypotheses to be tested i n this i n v e s t i gation are that i n s t a l l i n g u t i l i t i e s i n s p e c i a l l y designed underground structures i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets would: a) permit better use and design of such streets than i s possible by current s e r v i c i n g practices; b) be feasible (from functional, physical, s o c i a l , staging, administrative, p o l i t i c a l , f i n a n c i a l , and economic points of view) i f comprehensively designed. The scope of this investigation has been limited to future l o c a l streets i n single-family r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s of Metropolitan Vancouver for the reasons outlined below.  Future  s t r e e t s , that i s streets to be serviced i n the future whether l e g a l l y e x i s t i n g now  or not, would allow the maximum f l e x i -  b i l i t y i n layout of street uses and savings by the proposed practices.  i n s e r v i c i n g costs  Hence, the proposed practices are  most l i k e l y to be feasible i n streets having no services. Local streets are defined herein as those which carry • l o c a l ' non-through t r a f f i c and services.  ' l o c a l ' f a c i l i t i e s of a l l  The l a t t e r are the simpler and generally smaller-  sized f a c i l i t i e s of the service systems such as those near the beginning of a c o l l e c t i o n system and end of a d i s t r i b u t i o n  14.  system.  These are easiest to deal with because of t h e i r  s i m p l i c i t y , consistency, and greater number — the larger f a c i l i t i e s i n systems tending to be more complex, variable, and fewer i n number. Single-family r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s are those d i s t r i c t s designated by municipal zoning by-laws i n which only singlefamily dwellings and a n c i l l i a r y structures such as garages and carports can be constructed.  Such d i s t r i c t s constitute the  largest proportion of the t o t a l area of a metropolis and of most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and w i l l constitute the largest proportion of areas to be developed  i n the future.  They also tend to have  more street per unit of land use than other types of land uses. Hence, future single-family r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s w i l l have the most miles of streets and services. Metropolitan Vancouver has been chosen partly because of i t s proximity and f a m i l i a r i t y to the investigator, and partly because of i t s range of topographic, s o i l , and climatic conditions, and resultant range of servicing practices.  Practices  outside of this scope are mentioned when they do not occur within i t , but the f e a s i b i l i t y of the proposed practices i n r e l a t i o n to them are only discussed b r i e f l y i n the concluding chapter.  /  Within the area thus limited, however, the investigation embraces a l l public services to property involving permanent f a c i l i t i e s i n streets that currently are or conceivably could be provided by public or private agencies.  It covers not only  the ordinary, taken-for-granted services, but also some uncommon or rather exotic ones.  Thus, besides roads and sidewalks which  f a c i l i t a t e access of vehicles and pedestrians to property, consideration i s given to services providing pavements to f a c i l i t a t e access by other modes of t r a v e l such as by cycle or  15. horseback. dered. pipes gas, as  A l l utilities  o r continuous f a c i l i t i e s  are consi-  D r a i n a g e and sewerage a r e o f prime c o n c e r n . p r o v i d i n g under pressure  consideration  fuel o i l .  i s given  Besides  s u c h c o m m o d i t i e s as w a t e r a n d  t o ones p r o v i d i n g s u c h c o m m o d i t i e s  I n a d d i t i o n to the f a m i l i a r telephone s e r v i c e , such  l e s s common o r w e l l known c o m m u n i c a t i v e s e r v i c e s as t h o s e providing  fire,  burglary,  l i g h t i n g and t r a f f i c  and a t t a c k a l a r m s y s t e m s ; s t r e e t  c o n t r o l systems a r e i n c l u d e d .  Electric  power and s t r e e t l i g h t i n g m u s t o f c o u r s e be i n c l u d e d utilities,  b u t some c o n s i d e r a t i o n  exotic electric  i s also given  s e r v i c e as h e a t i n g  as i m p o r t a n t  t o such an  o f pavements.  W h i l e t h e s e r v i c e s m e n t i o n e d t h u s f a r a r e t h e more o b v i o u s and i n some r e s p e c t s only  a b o u t one h a l f o f t h o s e c o n s i d e r e d .  facilities  holding  The o t h e r s  represent  provide  t h a t a r e u s u a l l y s e p a r a t e o r d i s c r e t e ( i . e. n o n -  continuous),  for  more i m p o r t a n t o n e s , t h e y  and o f t e n f a r - b e t w e e n .  letters  and p a r c e l s  Examples a r e boxes f o r  f o r c o l l e c t i o n ; m a i l and n e w s p a p e r s  d i s t r i b u t i o n ; shelters for telephoning  from o r w a i t i n g f o r  t r a n s i t v e h i c l e s ; and s i g n s , s i g n a l s o r m a r k i n g s i n d i c a t i n g information,  r e g u l a t i o n s , and h a z a r d s .  Services  o c c a s i o n a l l y do o r m i g h t i n v o l v e f a c i l i t i e s c o l l e c t i o n and v a r i o u s safe  which  such as garbage  s e r v i c e s f o r k e e p i n g s t r e e t s c l e a n and  ( e . g. s w e e p i n g , p r u n i n g  of trees) are also  considered.  F i n a l l y , b u t a t l e a s t second most i m p o r t a n t i n terms o f a r e a and visual  i m p a c t , a r e what a r e h e r e i n  services. and  other  These i n c l u d e  the provision of trees, shrubs,  p l a n t s , and t h e i r maintenance.  included might not o r d i n a r i l y are of  termed t h e 'gardening'  considered  Some o f t h e s e r v i c e s  be c o n s i d e r e d  public services, but  so here because they a r e p r o v i d e d  f o r the benefit  t h e p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y , by o r f o r p u b l i c o r q u a s i  agencies,  a n d a r e m a i n t a i n e d b y them.  grass  public  16.  The organization of the thesis i s as follows:  Chapter I  more f u l l y defines the problem and the terms and c r i t e r i a used. Chapter II describes current practice and defines the practices against which the proposed practices are to be evaluated. Proposed designing practices are described and discussed i n Chapter I I I , and proposed i n s t a l l e d These are evaluated i n Chapter V.  practices i n Chapter IV.  CHAPTER I DEFINITIONS AND DEFINITIONS AND  CRITERIA:  CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURES AND  INVESTIGATED, AND  CRITERIA FOR  SERVICES  EVALUATING THEM  This chapter i s devoted to forging the 'tools' necessary for the purposes of this investigation.  These include the basic  tools of written communication — the words used. defined f i r s t .  These are  Then an 'outdoor room analogy' i s introduced  for  use throughout this report to e x p r e s s some uncommon concepts i n terms of common experience.  The  types of u t i l i t y structures and  the services being investigated are then described, the  latter  by a functional c l a s s i f i c a t i o n required i n view of the number of services involved.  Elements of the public interest have been  developed as c r i t e r i a for evaluating street use and servicing practices.  Some p r i n c i p l e s of street use and servicing are  stated to avoid r e p e t i t i o n of the arguments supporting them. These are followed by a description of 'plan elements' which e s s e n t i a l l y are various ways of looking at the processes and practices involved.  F i n a l l y , f e a s i b i l i t y c r i t e r i a r e l a t i n g to  each of the plan elements are stated.  These are l a t e r used f o r  evaluating proposed street use and servicing practices i n comparison to current practices of s e r v i c i n g . I.  DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED  In attempting to discuss various aspects of the many subjects involved i n this investigation, i t was problem of communication of meaning was  complicated  plethora of meanings or connotations attached words r e l a t i n g to the subjects.  found that the by the  to many of the  It i s suggested that such lack  of d e f i n i t i o n and common acceptance of e x p l i c i t meaning i s evidence of the lack of d i s c i p l i n e d thought i n this f i e l d . There are two possible approaches towards a s o l u t i o n of this  18.  dilemma.  One i s to invent new words having e x p l i c i t meanings,  but this necessitates learning a new vocabulary before being able to appreciate what i s being conveyed.  The other approach  is to r e s t r i c t the meanings, or give s p e c i a l meaning to commonly used words  f o r a p a r t i c u l a r purpose.  With a few exceptions  noted below, the second approach has been used i n this i n v e s t i gation.  However, i n some instances i t has been considered  necessary to introduce modified forms of words to express meanings for which there are no simple terms i n common usage. Insofar as possible, without getting too f a r away from the commonly accepted connotations of the words used,  two  p r i n c i p l e s have been followed i n establishing the d e f i n i t i o n s of  the terms used i n this report.  One i s that generic terms  have been used where convenient to pertain to things of the same kind or c l a s s , or when dealing with groups rather than i n d i v i d u a l items, especially when discussing the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of groups. The application of this p r i n c i p l e permits s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the general discussion by avoiding the necessity of l i s t i n g a l l items i n a group.  Also, the undesirable omission of items i n the i n -  terest of brevity or due to the probability of oversight i n such a complex discussion i s avoided by using generic terms.  For  example, the term 'access services' covers a l l services f a c i l i tating access to property regardless of mode of t r a v e l . The second p r i n c i p l e applied to the d e f i n i t i o n s i s that they should be s p e c i f i c and exclusive. This has led i n many instances to the d i v i s i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the i n v e s t i gation into a d e f i n i t e number of mutually exclusive p o s s i b i l i t i e s ranging from a simple 'either-or' s i t u a t i o n up to one involving perhaps twenty p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  In other instances, after  s p e c i f i c and exclusive d e f i n i t i o n s had been assigned to various aspects of a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d of i n t e r e s t , there has been •something l e f t over'.  In such instances the remaining portion  19. usually has been referred to as 'other aspects' of the p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d where a s p e c i f i c term has not been assigned.  For example,  the access services are usually divided into 'pedestrian 'vehicular access', and  access',  'other access services', where the  latter  includes other modes of t r a v e l such as cycles, horseback, and vehicles with s p e c i a l requirements. The most important application of the second p r i n c i p l e i s the reduction of the meaning of c e r t a i n forms of words to one s p e c i f i c meaning i n an attempt to avoid confusion.  The s i x forms  of key words used and t h e i r general meaning are i l l u s t r a t e d below for the word 'service'.  The  1.  the i n f i n i t i v e , usually t r a n s i t i v e , verb form (to ) expressing an action; e.g. to service a d i s t r i c t means to provide a service or services to the d i s t r i c t .  2.  the adjective form (-able. - i b l e ) expressing the condition i n which the action i s possible and/or practicable; e.g. this d i s t r i c t i s too steep and rocky to be serviceable, or this d i s t r i c t i s unserviceable.  3.  the verb or noun form ( -ing) expressing the actual performing of the action; e.g. The C i t y is servicing this area; servicing i s required i n that d i s t r i c t .  4.  the noun form ( -er, -or) meaning the person who, the agency or that which performs the action; e.g. the C i t y i s the servicer for this d i s t r i c t .  5.  the adjective form ( -ed) i n d i c a t i n g the completed performance of the action; e.g. That d i s t r i c t i s now completely serviced.  6.  the noun form ( -sion. or -ment) expressing the state or condition which exists a f t e r the action has been performed; the r e s u l t of the action; e.g. The servicement of that d i s t r i c t i s of a low standard.  term 'servicement' i s an example of a word derived  constructed  or  to express concepts, usually of the s i x t h form, for  20. which there  i s no commonly a c c e p t e d s i m p l e t e r m .  hand, the s i x t h often herein instance,  f o r m o f w o r d s i n common u s a g e a r e t h e ones m o s t  s t r i p p e d o f one o r more c h i e f m e a n i n g s .  a n a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made t o r e s t r i c t  words l i k e  On t h e o t h e r  For  t h e meaning o f  ' s u b d i v i s i o n * and 'development' t o t h e s t a t e o r  c o n d i t i o n which e x i s t s a f t e r the a c t i o n o f ' s u b d i v i d i n g ' o r 'developing' of  has been performed.  Thus t h e common  the a c t of performing these actions  relegated  to the t h i r d  connotation  h a s b e e n removed and  o r - i n g form e x c l u s i v e l y .  I n t h e above i l l u s t r a t i o n , t h e t e r m s e r v i c e has been u s e d i n the general dered.  a l l public s e r v i c e being  to a particular service.  t o a p p e a r more o f t e n w i t h  restricting  Thus t h e v a r i o u s  t h e meaning t o t h e s e r v i c e o r s e r v i c e s  example, t o s e r v i c e a d i s t r i c t e l e c t r i c a l l y  the  d i s t r i c t must be s e r v i c e a b l e  the  electrical  electrical serviced  electrically  and w i t h  life. approach of  Both a r e generic  of interest i n this  common t e r m a t p r e s e n t . restricting  site  restricting  ' b a r i c ' and  t e r m s f o r a number o f s e r v i c e s  a common f u n c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t i n c t investigation,  from o t h e r  These terms were s e l e c t e d  t h e m e a n i n g o f words r e q u i r e d  The ' b a r i c ' s e r v i c e s  i s no  partly to  f o r o t h e r purposes  a r e those supplying  o r s t r e e t s through pipes under pressure.  having  services,  f o r which there  p a r t l y t o f i t i n t o an a l p h a b e t i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  groups.  sewers;  and m a i n t a i n e d t o p r o l o n g  m e a n i n g s o f commonly u s e d w o r d s a r e t h e t e r m s  and  and w i t h  sewers,  s e w e r s , t h e e l e c t r i c a l and  Two e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e g e n e r a l  avoid  and w i t h  and s e w e r a g e s e r v i c e r , a n d when t h e d i s t r i c t h a s b e e n  s e w e r a g e s e r v i c e m e n t s h o u l d be i n s p e c t e d  'holding'.  i n question.  a n d s e w e r a g e s e r v i c i n g m u s t be done by t h e  electrically  its useful  forms a r e  an a d j e c t i v e , a d v e r b , o r c l a u s e  For  and  consi-  I n a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n t h e t e r m i s u s e d more o f t e n i n  reference apt  sense c o v e r i n g  of service  commodities t o  The d i c t i o n a r y  21. defines baric as meaning "of or pertaining to weight, e s p e c i a l l y of a i r ; barometric".  I t i s used here for services functioning  under (non-electric) pressure  such as water and gas.  •holding' pertains to services providing  The term  'holders' i n streets  i n which goods or waste materials are temporarily held for l a t e r c o l l e c t i o n or d i s t r i b u t i o n .  The term i s deliberately unusual  to emphasize the concern with the f a c i l i t i e s provided i n streets rather than the c o l l e c t i o n or delivery aspects of such public services as postal or newspaper d i s t r i b u t i o n . The d i v i s i o n of the various aspects discussed i n this report into discrete parts, and the s p e c i f i c and exclusive d e f i nitions employed i n many cases may admittedly arbitrary.  seem rather  This arbitrariness should be of l i t t l e concern  considering the need f o r consistency and c l a r i t y .  Undoubtedly,  with more study, the d i v i s i o n s and d e f i n i t i o n s could be refined to improve consistency and c l a r i t y , or to permit wider application.  These 'tools', i t i s hoped, have been refined s u f f i c i e n t l y  for the job at hand; that of communicating the various concepts, and ideas discussed.  aspects,  Further r e f i n i n g has been l e f t  to others at a l a t e r date. Some awkwardness or stiltedness i s bound to occur when, as i n this report, an attempt i s made to introduce  consistency  i n the arrangement of the elements of phrases and i n the use of terms or phrases to a language such as English.  These departures  from normal practice may cause the reader to re-read something that does not 'look r i g h t ' .  Although these stumbling blocks  occasionally may be somewhat i r r i t a t i n g , i t i s believed that they serve the useful function of making the reader aware that a more s p e c i f i c and precise i n t e r p r e t a t i o n than that of common usage i s intended. Funk & Wagnalls, Standard Dictionary of the English Language, International E d i t i o n , New York, Funk & Wagnalls, 1958; or any 'desk' size dictionary.  22.  Key d e f i n i t i o n s of terms have been introduced throughout the report.  The ones introduced  as  required  i n the remainder of  t h i s section are those necessary to e s t a b l i s h the scope of the investigation.  They are based upon and abstracted  d e f i n i t i o n s , modified as noted i n the  from dictionary  footnotes.  Current Practice versus Proposed Practice Throughout t h i s report, the terms 'current practice' and 'proposed practice' s h a l l be interpreted as distinguishing the prevailing or customary manner i n which c e r t a i n things are done from a manner i n which they might be done i n the future.  These  terms have been used p a r t i c u l a r l y with c e r t a i n of the s i x forms mentioned above of words such as 'subdivide', •control', and  •land-develop•.  'service','improve•,  They are also used with the  various actions involved i n each of these broad processes where the proposed manner i n which these actions are performed i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from current practice.  The  interpre-  t a t i o n of the d i s t i n c t i o n s meant by the use of these terms i n conjunction  with a term such as 'servicing' has been made the  subject of l a t e r chapters i n t h i s report, so that only  rather  formal d e f i n i t i o n s are given below i n t h i s section. Current practice, actual performance, or application of knowledge (as d i s t i n c t from theory). including repeated or habitual action, that i s commonly acknowledged or accepted, or i s a matter of general use. ^ Proposed practice, actual performance, or application of knowledge (as d i s t i n c t from theory), including repeated or habitual action, that has been propounded or offered ( i n this report) for consideration or adoption.^  Noah Webster, Third New Dictionary of the English Language. unabridged, S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass., Merriam (cl961). z  3  Ibid., words i n parentheses added.  23.  Public Services = Personal Services + Property Services The interpretation of the term 'public service' s h a l l be The business of supplying some commodity to any or a l l members of a community or of providing some service where exercise of the c a l l i n g involves ^ some legal p r i v i l e g e or a natural or v i r t u a l monopoly. This term s h a l l be considered  the generic term for a l l services  of which there are two basic types - services to persons and services to property. Personal services.  Personal services, or as they are  known more commonly, s o c i a l services, involve the health, welfare, and s o c i a l assistance types of services.  The f i r e and  police protection services are also involved insofar as they pertain to the protection of persons.  To avoid the d i f f i c u l t y  of establishing this proportion when i t i s not c r u c i a l to t h i s investigation, these services have been assumed to apply s o l e l y to property.  The f a c i l i t i e s involved i n the provision of the  personal services include structures such as hospitals, l i b r a r i e s , and art g a l l e r i e s .  These personal services are  outside the scope of t h i s investigation. Property services.  A property  service s h a l l be i n t e r -  preted as: The business of supplying some commodity (as gas, e l e c t r i c i t y , power, water) to any or a l l properties of a community or of providing some service (as transportation, as by r a i l r o a d or bus or by pipe l i n e ; communication, as by telegraph or telephone....) where exercise of the c a l l i n g involves some l e g a l p r i v i l e g e or a natural or v i r t u a l monopoly.-* The property  services together with street uses are the  subject of t h i s investigation.  Because of t h e i r d i f f e r e n t  24.  natures and the consequent  need f o r separate treatment herein,  the property services have been segregated into three groups. These are access services, u t i l i t y services (or ' u t i l i t i e s ' ) , and other services.  The access services are those providing  pavements to f a c i l i t a t e access to and movement between property. The u t i l i t y services s h a l l be interpreted as: those property services requiring permanent continuous f a c i l i t i e s (commonly c a l l e d ' u t i l i t i e s ' ) i n s t a l l e d i n a public right-of-way (or easement) i n order to make a commodity (as gas, water e l e c t r i c i t y , power), or some service (as communication, as by t e l e p h o n e ; o r waste c o l l e c t i o n as by s e w e r s ) , o t h e r than access services, available to any or a l l properties i n a community.6 The third group of 'other services' i s comprised of the remaining services - that i s , those that are neither access nor u t i l i t y services - considered i n this investigation.  Some of  these may not o r d i n a r i l y be considered as public services, or may  not o r d i n a r i l y be provided i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets i n  Metropolitan Vancouver.  However, they have a l l been provided  somewhere at sometime i n more important s t r e e t s , other use d i s t r i c t s , or other urban areas and could be provided i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets with modifications where necessary. Before proceeding to a further c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the services being considered, an analogy useful for this and other purposes i n this report i s interjected below. II.  •OUTDOOR ROOM ANALOGY'  Analogies to f a m i l i a r phenomena are often e f f e c t i v e means of expressing views or communicating ideas about less f a m i l i a r phenomena.  It has been deemed h e l p f u l for the purposes of this  report to supplement explanations or discussions about street use °Derived from above d e f i n i t i o n s modified by r e s t r i c t i n g location and excluding access services.  25. and servicing practices by rephrasing  them i n terms of the more  common knowledge or experience r e l a t i n g to rooms or houses. street i s considered  The  as an outdoor room whose f l o o r i s the  pavement or other horizontal surfaces, whose walls are the facades of adjoining buildings, and whose c e i l i n g i s the sky or overhead wiring, and whose furnishings are the various  facilities  i n s t a l l e d i n them. This concept and the related one of 'street f u r n i t u r e ' are not new.  They were used by Peter Oberlander i n an eloquent  plea for better design of the v i s u a l aspects of streets based on a case study of streets i n Vancouver.?  The concept has merely  been broadened, refined, and changed i n emphasis somewhat for the purposes of this investigation.  It has been broadened to  give more consideration to what i s under the f l o o r .  Thus, the  wires and pipes of the various property services can be thought of i n terms of t h e i r counterparts  i n buildings.  The 'street'  furnishings' concept has been refined to segregate several types of street furnishings of which furniture i s but one.  Finally,  the emphasis has been changed from an e s s e n t i a l l y s t a t i c descriptive analogy to one also considering functional r e l a t i o n ships and processes involved i n producing the furnished s t r e e t . For example, processes of i n s t a l l i n g services i n streets are described i n terms of house building operations.  Also, the  p r i n c i p l e s and problems of the various property services can be expressed i n terms of the f a m i l i a r i t y people have with building services.  For example, the problem of locating discharges  from  water mains or buried cables can be likened to that of finding a leak i n the water system or a short c i r c u i t i n the e l e c t r i c a l system of a house.  'Peter Oberlander, "Furnishing the Street," Community Planning Review. Ottawa, Community Planning Association of Canada, v o l . I, no. 4 (November 1951), pp. 118-128*  26. The  'outdoor  room  1  analogy  i s used throughout  the  remainder  o f t h i s r e p o r t where i t i s deemed h e l p f u l i n e x p r e s s i n g p r o c e s s e s , and  relationships.  T h i s c o n t i n u i t y and  considered preferable to separate appropriate i n specific easily  be f i t t e d  proper  perspective.  III.  consistency i s  a n a l o g i e s t h a t m i g h t be more  i n s t a n c e s , b e c a u s e t h e p a r t s c a n more  i n t o t h e w h o l e p i c t u r e and  TYPES OF  concepts,  be  seen i n t h e i r  U T I L I T Y STRUCTURES INVESTIGATED  Three b a s i c types of underground s t r u c t u r e s f o r have been i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t degrees of a t o t a l of nine p o s s i b l e types of u t i l i t y basic  t y p e s a r e t r o u g h s , t u n n e l s , and  complete except  tubed-conduits.  f o r drainage  facilities  d r a i n a g e ' ; and h a v i n g o n l y e l e c t r i c a l and facilities  termed ' e l e c t r i c a l '  integration-  structures.  d e g r e e s o f i n t e g r a t i o n a r e : c o m p l e t e w h i c h i s termed utility';  utilities  The  three  The  three  'all-  termed  'non-  communicative s e r v i c e  f o r the sake of b r e v i t y .  These 1.  n i n e p o s s i b l e t y p e s o f s t r u c t u r e s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d on D i a g r a m on  t h e f o l l o w i n g page.  shape are p o s s i b l e .  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d  that variations  F o r e x a m p l e , t u n n e l s c o u l d be s q u a r e  r e c t a n g u l a r i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n i n s t e a d of round. types  i l l u s t r a t e d a r e t y p i c a l and  range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  considered  However,  or the  to represent  They a r e n o t t o be c o n s i d e r e d  in  the  mutually  e x c l u s i v e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t o n l y one  t y p e w o u l d be u s e d i n a  system.  trough might run along  the  across  an  F o r e x a m p l e , an a l l - u t i l i t y  s t r e e t , a non-drainage tubed-conduit electrical The  tunnel to houses. d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of troughs  t h e y a r e o p e n t o t h e s u r f a c e and utilities In  effect,  t h e s t r e e t , and  a c c e s s i b l e throughout  covered their  e i t h e r cast i n place or precast.  The  that  by a w a l k , t h u s  length without  they are l i n e d t r e n c h e s ; the  are  making  manholes.  l i n i n g being of  concrete  c o v e r i n g walk would  be  27.  TYPES OF  | T T  TT^TT  i.LL- U x  STRUCTURES  T "  T r T  f  11,11 X  7  1  :  r  ^9  ( " l i n e d t r e none - o p e n t o sur-faoif -utilities completely acee s s i b l e  -covered by sidewalk -precast concrete  TUNNELS *underground b e t w e e n manholes -utilitie3 acce«?ible o n l y •°.t manholes - p r e c a st c o n e r e te NOTE: c o u l d a l : be s q u a r e o r rectangular In c r o s s - s' c t i o n , :  I.e.duct I n stead  o  f tube  rUBED-COXDUIT! •underground between nanholes except electrical tubed-conduit •utilities a c c e s s i b l e only at manholes electrical tubed-consul t forms sidewalk, o t h e r s may ?.lso o r be u n d e r sidewalk extruded or  DJ.AU.'.  1. Til";  ELECTRICAL  0?  PROPOSED  UTILITY  STRUCTURES  28.  precast i n sections.  Tunnels are completely underground  structures forming one continuous open space between manholes, so the u t i l i t i e s are accessible only at manholes. be cast i n place, or more l i k e l y precast.  They could  Tubed-conduits  are  s i m i l a r to tunnels i n that they require manholes to provide access to the u t i l i t i e s , but have several separate spaces or •tubes'. ground.  Also, the e l e c t r i c a l tubed-conduit need not be underI t could serve as a sidewalk, or looking at i t the  other way,  the sidewalk could contain tubes f o r wires and  c a b l e s . S u c h a structure and a l l trough covers must be strong enough to carry vehicles at driveway crossings or be s p e c i a l l y strengthened  there.  The depth of the bottoms of structures depends upon the u t i l i t i e s contained.  Indeed, the degrees of integration could  be thought of as r e s u l t i n g i n structures that are deep, i n t e r mediate, and shallow, respectively.  The a l l - u t i l i t y types are  deepest because of the drainage u t i l i t i e s which must be below i n l e t s i n buildings and on sites to receive waste f l u i d s from them by gravity flow.^  The depth of non-drainage structures i s  dependent upon two considerations; namely the protection of the structure from damage and baric u t i l i t i e s from freezing. i s only l i k e l y under roads.  Damage  I t i s probably only a problem i n  the case of the tunnel because the tubed-conduit would be quite strong and the trough would have to be s p e c i a l l y strengthened whenever crossing a road.  The serious problem of baric u t i l i -  t i e s freezing i n underground spaces i s dealt with under discussion of functional feasibility.1° o  Connections would require some form of lined space beneath the e l e c t r i c a l tubed-conduit, although i t may not be a manhole i n the sense that a man could get into i t . ^This assumes the ordinary condition where sump pumps or force drains ( i . e . under pressure) are not involved. l^see page 161.  29. For present purposes, i t has been assumed that the depth of baric u t i l i t i e s could be the same as when i n s t a l l e d i n the ground i f the manholes are completely covered ( i . e . no holes). The depth of e l e c t r i c a l tunnels (and tubed-conduits i f Installed underground) Is dependent only upon consideration of potential damage. IV.  CLASSIFICATION OF SERVICES  The number and variety of property services that can Installed i n streets to-day i s quite surprising* impression Is that there are r e l a t i v e l y few, off  on the fingers may  but  y i e l d a dozen or so.  what i s actually i n streets y i e l d s many more.  be  One's f i r s t 'ticking them  Closer scrutiny of The exact number  i s unimportant and depends upon what one i s w i l l i n g to accept as a separate service.  Almost forty 'services' are considered  herein, but some of these actually represent groups of what might be considered separate services, so the t o t a l could perhaps twice that many.  be  Such numbers and variety are unmanage-  able without c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The services have been c l a s s i f i e d by relevant  functional  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s into ten groups to which have been assigned generic terms expressing the purpose or functional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the group of services.  Except for the l a s t group which i s  somewhat d i f f e r e n t from the others, the p r i n c i p a l f a c i l i t i e s of these services have also been assigned generic  terms.  These  service groups, the services i n them, and t h e i r p r i n c i p a l f a c i l i t i e s are summarized i n Table I on the following page and discussed more f u l l y below. of importance.  They are roughly i n descending order  The space devoted to each i s not  proportionate  to importance because, as i s often the case, the unusual and unfamiliar require the most  explanation.  29a.  TABLE I. CLASSIFICATION OF SERVICES AND THEIR FACILITIES OTHER SERVICES: ACCESS SERVICES: Pavements: roads Vehicular walks Pedestrian Other access: paths: Cycle eye le bridle Equestrian emerg. Emergency veh. transit Transit UTILITIES: BARIC SERVICES: Water Gas Other b a r i c : Fuel o i l Steam  Pipes:  COMMUNICATIVE Cables: SERVICES: Telephone Cable t e l e v i s i o n T.V.cable & radio Other communicative: Fire alarm * Burglary alarm * T r a f f i c control * Telegraph * DRAINAGE SERVICES:Drains: Storm drainage * Sanitary drainage * (or sewerage) (or sewer)  FURNISHING SERVICES: Furnishings: benches, Furniture fences, shelters, Finishes cabinets, f l o o r & wall Finishes surfaces Other furnishing: banners, etc. Decorations statues, Ornaments pools, floodlights, Decorative etc. Lighting GARDENING SERVICES: Planting services  Plants: trees, shrubs, flowers, grass, ground covers.  HOLDING SERVICES: Collection holding Distribution holding  Holders: letter, parcel boxes mail, newspaper  INDICATING SERVICES: Indicators Informative signs Regulatory signs, signals Demarcative markings Advertising signs  KEEPING SERVICES: Services keeping such as: facilities: in sound condition roads roads, functioning pipes road8, clean and tidy drains Other keeping services * Same term as for service, e.g. water pipes  ELECTRICAL SERVICES: Wires: Power * Street l i g h t i n g * Other e l e c t r i c a l : Trolley bus * Heating *  30. The  f i r s t class of services i s the access one whose  services f a c i l i t a t e access to property abutting a street by providing pavements upon which people and vehicles or other modes of t r a v e l can move e a s i l y to and into each property from others, or wait to do so. They include vehicular,  pedestrian,  and other access services for modes of t r a v e l such as cycle, horseback, t r a n s i t and emergency vehicles.  These provide  respectively roads, walks, and paths such as cycle, b r i d l e , and special paths for t r a n s i t or emergency vehicles.  These are  analogous to driveways and walks or hallways giving access to a room. The next four classes of services are the u t i l i t y services or u t i l i t i e s which have continuous f a c i l i t i e s i n s t a l l e d i n streets to provide commodities or services to property or remove waste products from i t . They are the b a r i c , communicative, drainage, and e l e c t r i c a l services. The baric or pressure services are those which supply commodities to property or streets through pipes under pressure. They include the services supplying water, gas, and other commod i t i e s such as f u e l o i l or steam.  Their pipes and other  f i t t i n g s are analogous to those i n buildings.  For example, a  f i r e hydrant can be thought of as a street hose bibb or tap. The communicative services are those which make possible several types of communication by i n s t a l l i n g cables and related f a c i l i t i e s i n streets.  The most important of these i s the  telephone service, but the c a b l e - t e l e v i s i o n and cable radio services are becoming important i n areas having poor reception. The other communicative services are the alarm, c o n t r o l , and telegraph services. f i r e , burglary,  The alarm services communicate alarms about  attack by enemy action, r a d i a t i o n , or toxic gas.  See page 20. for explanation and d e f i n i t i o n of the term 'baric'.  The control services communicate impulses to control remotely such conditions as illumination, temperature, moisture, and traffic  flow.  These are analogous to such household services as  those providing  •intercom', c l o s e d - c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n , and  fire  or .burglary alarm systems between rooms or parts of a building.. The drainage services are those which c o l l e c t and remove storm water and sewage by gravity flow through drains and consist only of the storm drainage and sanitary drainage (or sewerage) services.  The f a c i l i t i e s of these services are analogous to  s i m i l a r household services.  For example, the  curb-gutter,  grating, and l a t e r a l to the street storm drain are l i k e the eavestrough or roof gutter, screen, and downspout  on houses.  The road i s formed with crests and valleys just l i k e a roof, only the slopes are less obvious.  The sanitary drain or sewer  is l i k e that i n buildings except that there are few 'stacks' or v e r t i c a l sewers and no vents since manholes serve the functions performed by these f a c i l i t i e s . The e l e c t r i c a l services are those supplying  electricity  through wires as a source of power f o r private purposes, l i g h t for s t r e e t s , and l i g h t , heat, and e l e c t r i c charge f o r c e r t a i n other public purposes.  They are analogous to the house wiring  and(built-in) l i g h t i n g systems. The remaining f i v e classes of services are c o l l e c t i v e l y termed  'other services' as d i s t i n c t from the access class and  u t i l i t i e s group.  They have l i t t l e i n common except that when  f a c i l i t i e s are involved, they are generally small and discrete ( i . e . not continuous l i k e u t i l i t i e s ) .  The classes of services  included are furnishing, gardening, holding, i n d i c a t i n g , and keeping services. The furnishing services are those which enhance the environment of which the street forms an important part, and  32.  make the street more l i v a b l e by providing furnishings. Street furniture, f i n i s h e s , and such other furnishings as decorations, ornaments, and decorative l i g h t i n g , which are described i n terms of analogous household furnishings, are considered.  For example,  street furniture includes benches, fences, and cabinets which are analogous to couches, playpens, and b u i l t - i n cabinets i n the house.  S i m i l a r l y , finishes on the 'floor' and 'walls' of the  streets, decorations, and ornaments, can be related to those i n houses. The gardening  services are those concerned with i n s t a l -  l i n g and caring for plants i n streets.  Trees and grass are the  most important plants because of t h e i r prominence and the coverage of the l a t t e r , which i s second only to pavements.  The  planting services i n s t a l l trees, grass, shrubs, flowers, and such ground covers as ivy and moss.  The plant care services maintain  plants by pruning, mowing, watering and such operations as f e r t i l i z i n g , spraying, and weeding.  These services are comparable  to the planting of and caring f o r plants indoors except for grass and ground covers.  The l a t t e r two are analogous i n terms of  function to the portions of a f l o o r not covered by carpet since the pavement, l i k e the carpet, i s o r d i n a r i l y used for movement. Unfortunately, some confusion may a r i s e because of the common metaphor likening grass to a carpet on the basis of textures which are reversed f o r f a c i l i t i e s analogous functionally. The holding services are those providing holders f o r the temporary storage of goods or waste materials f o r l a t e r c o l l e c t i o n or d i s t r i b u t i o n and use.  The services have been  a r b i t r a r i l y s p l i t into two groups - those holding for c o l l e c t i o n and those for d i s t r i b u t i o n .  The concern here i s with the  f a c i l i t y i n s t a l l e d i n the street and not the c o l l e c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n or delivery aspects of the services involved. Analogous f a c i l i t i e s i n houses are bags or containers i n kitchens  33. holding garbage, l a t e r 'collected' and taken to a can i n the lane; and boxes holding milk or mail l a t e r 'distributed' to r e f r i g e r a t o r and r e c i p i e n t . T n e  indicating services are those providing indicators  such as signs, signals, and markings to indicate information, regulations, demarcations, and advertisements of various types by words, symbols, and other means.  The information includes  names and numbers of s t r e e t s , blocks, buildings, and routes; directions to s p e c i f i c places, and other f a c t s .  Regulations  include those governing vehicular and pedestrian movement. Demarcations  indicate boundaries of movement ways or hazards.  Advertisements indicate names of the I n s t a l l e r or manufacturer of  f a c i l i t i e s , property f o r sale, events, and products f o r s a l e .  There are few analogous f a c i l i t i e s i n houses because there i s not the same need f o r them.  Room name and d i r e c t i o n signs are  not required because residents know them and guests can ask. They are required i n buildings such as h o s p i t a l s , which also exhibit most other types of indicative f a c i l i t i e s .  Certain  f a c i l i t i e s within houses and from house to house are somewhat better standardized than comparable street f a c i l i t i e s .  For  example, one of the rare instances of an informative service i n a household i s the 'H' indicating the hot water tap. ing  Position-  this to the l e f t of the cold tap i s so well standardized i n  North America that reversed positioning usually requires s p e c i a l warning s i g n s . ^  On the other hand, i t could be argued that  many poorly designed houses should be better served with indicators of hazards, including embarassment f o r those unf a m i l i a r with room layout or faulty locks.  Some houses during  such s o c i a l gatherings as c o c k t a i l parties seemingly would benefit from t r a f f i c signals!  ^ T h i s i s not the case i n Europe where an English speaking person has the additional d i f f i c u l t y i n France of remembering that 'C» means hot (sometimes).  34. The keeping services are those which have no  facilities  in streets, but keep f a c i l i t i e s of other services i n states of sound physical condition, proper functional condition, and cleanliness and tidyness.  They involve some highly specialized  equipment whose requirements and limitations should be taken into account i n the design of the f a c i l i t i e s of other services. The operations  involved have t h e i r counterpart  i n the house.  Sweeping and flushing roads are obvious examples.  Patching  holes i n pavement i s l i k e replacing damaged f l o o r t i l e s . Repairing leaks i n pipes or wires involves s i m i l a r operations. An exception i s meter-reading, one of the other keeping services. The whole range of services i n each of these ten functional classes and their respective f a c i l i t i e s are more f u l l y discussed i n the following V.  ELEMENTS OF THE  chapter. PUBLIC INTEREST AS CRITERIA FOR  EVALUATING STREET USE AND  SERVICING PRACTICES  The public interest i s a determinant of street use  and  servicing practices i n the same sense that Chapin shows i t to be a determinant of land u s e . ^  AS he points out, the public  interest "connotes the notion of control ... not only i n the conventional action sense of imposing regulatory measures, passing on street and u t i l i t y locations, ... but also i n the preaction sense which i s involved i n the c i t y itself".  planning process  1 4  By treating elements of the public interest as abstractions, they can be used as c r i t e r i a  i n evaluating street use  and  servicing practices i n terms of the control exercised over them F . Stuart Chapin, J r . , Urban Land Use Planning. York, Harper & Brothers, 1957, pp. 40-56. 1 J  Ibid.. p. 41  New  35. by the public.  Consequently, Chapin's 'elements of the public  i n t e r e s t ' have been used as a basis for such c r i t e r i a with appropriate modifications for the purposes of this i n v e s t i gation. As with Chapin, the concern here i s with the public interest i n land development, p a r t i c u l a r l y that public action seeking to assure soundness and l i v a b i l i t y using soundness i n the f i n a n c i a l sense, and l i v a b i l i t y to r e f e r broadly to those q u a l i t i e s i n the physical environment ... which tend to induce i n c i t i z e n s a feeling of mental, physical and s o c i a l well-being according to the extent to which t h e i r fundamental day-to-day l i v i n g needs and wants are satisfied.15 Elements of the Public Interest In a r e s t r i c t e d sense, a barometer of what i s generally held to be the l i m i t s of the public i n t e r e s t i s provided by the courts.  According  to Chapin,  The public interest i s frequently used i n law to r e f e r to what the courts w i l l sanction as a public purpose, whether under the police power, the power of eminent domain, or the power of taxation. For example, health welfare, morals, and safety have become generally recognized tests of the public i n t e r e s t i n American jurisprudence. Convenience, comfort, and prosperity are sometimes c i t e d , but are less frequently allowed by the courts and usually only i n combination with the other four tests.16 Chapin points out that the public i n t e r e s t concept i n a l e g a l sense, as indicated by the h i s t o r y of court actions, i s an evolving one.  I t tends  ... to broaden i n time as new elements become more generally sanctioned i n a c u l t u r a l context, but also tending to lag behind t h e i r s o c i a l acceptance.! 15  ibid.  41  16  Ibid.. p. 42  17  Ibid.  7  36.  He then states that f o r planning purposes, ... a more advanced concept of the public i n t e r e s t is warranted, one which builds on the legal tests but which seeks forward-looking guideposts taken d i r e c t l y from the s o c i a l currents of the times. In land use planning, the purposes usually i d e n t i f i e d with the public i n t e r e s t are f i v e : health, safety, convenience, economy, and amenity.1® He emphasizes that " i n the context of land use planning each of the f i v e public purposes has broader meaning than that ascribed to i t by the courts  alone".^  Chapin's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the elements of the public interest has been accepted generally but modified  f o r the  purposes of this i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Much of h i s interpretation applies to land use, and i s e i t h e r ignored here or transposed to street use or s e r v i c i n g .  The major modification i s the  addition of a s i x t h element, welfare.  This includes the welfare,  and to a lesser extent the morals aspects included i n court tests of public i n t e r e s t which Chapin p a r t i a l l y covers i n h i s broadened elements.  These aspects are considered more important  for street use than land use and warrant separate consideration. Also, Chapin's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s too general f o r present purposes, BO s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n s are stated below» Each c r i t e r i o n can be expressed p o s i t i v e l y as a state o r condition, or negatively as a 'freedom from' an undesirable state or occurrence.  Stated p o s i t i v e l y , the states or condi-  tions are abstractions that can be neither defined p r e c i s e l y nor subjected to evaluation.  On the other hand, the states  or occurrences i t i s desirable to be free from can be stated f a i r l y e a s i l y i n a manner that leaves l i t t l e room for misinterpretation.  Also, s t a t i s t i c a l data and other  information  pertaining to these c r i t e r i a are inherently of the negative of recording when persons have not been free from c e r t a i n 18  C h a p i n , 0 £ . c i t . , p. 42  1 9  lbid.  form  37. undesirable conditions or occurrences.  For example, health i s  measured i n terms of the absolute number of sicknesses or deaths or the number i n r e l a t i o n to a u n i t of population (usually 1000). S i m i l a r l y , safety i s considered i n terms of accident rates. Convenience and amenity as Interpreted herein can be measured i n terms of the number of complaints.  In view of these consider-  ations, the negative type of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n follows the p o s i t i v e type based on dictionary d e f i n i t i o n s .  Several of the d e f i n i t i o n s  are further amplified by statements of the c r i t e r i a considered tests of an adequate environment by the Housing Committee of the American Public Health A s s o c i a t i o n .  20  Each d e f i n i t i o n i s followed  by a reference of the c r i t e r i a ' s r e l a t i v e importance for the various services. Public Health; 1. 2. 3.  The health of a community. Freedom from disease, i n f e c t i o n , etc. Protection against contagion and provisions for maintenance of c l e a n l i n e s s .  This c r i t e r i o n i s important  f o r the water, sewerage, and storm  drainage services p a r t i c u l a r l y , and to a lesser extent f o r gas, gardening and keeping services, but i s r e l a t i v e l y unimportant f o r the others. Public Safety: 1. 2.  State or condition of being safe or of giving confidence. Freedom from danger, harm, loss, and anxiety or fear.  3.  Protection against accident  hazards.  The public safety c r i t e r i o n applies to a l l services, but the importance varies considerably.  I t i s most important  f o r the  access and e l e c t r i c a l services. Committee on the Hygiene of Housing, American Public Health Association, Planning the Neighbourhood. Public Administration Service, 1948, p. v i i ; c i t e d by Chapin, pj>. c i t . . p. 43. zu  38. Public Convenience: 1. 2.  State or quality of being convenient, as of place, time, etc. Freedom from discomfort or trouble as would be caused by an interruption i n the provision of a service, or obstruction to i t s use.  This c r i t e r i o n applies to a l l services; i t s importance depending upon the frequency, duration, and intensity of the  discomfort  or trouble r e s u l t i n g from the interruption or obstruction. Public Economy: 1. 2.  Quality or state of being e f f i c i e n t i n terms of municipal expenditures and cost to the user of the services. Freedom from excessive municipal expenditure and freedom from excessive cost to the user of the services.  This c r i t e r i o n , i n e f f e c t , has been treated as the measure of various means of obtaining a given attainment of the other c r i t e r i a and i s discussed more f u l l y  later.  Public Amenity: 1. 2. 3.  Quality or state of being pleasant or agreeable. Freedom from ugliness. Provision of p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r reasonable aesthetic satisfaction.  This c r i t e r i o n i s involved i n a l l v i s i b l e f a c i l i t i e s of the property services. Public Welfare: 1. 2. 3.  The condition of faring w e l l ; well-being. Freedom from pain or discomfort; prosperity. Provision of adequate daylight, sunshine, and v e n t i l a t i o n . Protection against excessive noise and atmospheric p o l l u t i o n . Provision of adequate privacy and opportunities for normal family and community l i f e , and protection against moral hazards.  This c r i t e r i o n covers discomfort or trouble caused i n d i r e c t l y or by p a r t i a l f a i l u r e of a service, and long-run health considerations  39. such as effects of continued conditions of inadequate sunshine and v e n t i l a t i o n or excessive noise and atmospheric I t i s also a ' c a t c h - a l l  pollution.  f o r r e l a t i v e l y minor aspects not  1  f i t t i n g neatly into any of the other categories. For example, when pedestrians are splashed by vehicles, their health, convenience, and economy may be adversely affected through the danger of wearing wet clothes and the bother;and.cost of cleaning same. VI.  PRINCIPLES OF STREET USE AND SERVICING  Certain other measures or c r i t e r i a have been used i n this investigation to evaluate street use and servicing practices that are based upon what are herein referred to as p r i n c i p l e s of such practices.  These are statements of conclusions about c e r t a i n  relevant matters whioh are e s s e n t i a l l y judgements — perhaps value judgements i n some cases — on the part of the investigator. ought to be acceptable i f the premises or assumptions based upon are granted.  They  they are  The p r i n c i p l e s , premises and the  measures or c r i t e r i a are discussed below with examples where considered h e l p f u l .  They are presented here f o r convenience of  reference and to avoid r e p e t i t i o n of the reasoning involved„ P r i n c i p l e of Integration The p r i n c i p l e of integration i s that sharing of common f a c i l i t i e s or operations by two or more services i s better i n terms of cost and appearance than i n s t a l l i n g them independently. Certain types of a n c i l l a r y f a c i l i t i e s such as supports and conduits, and c e r t a i n operations such as excavating and backf i l l i n g are required f o r several services and can sometimes be shared by two or more of them.  When a f a c i l i t y i n s t a l l e d or an  operation carried out f o r one service has been shared by others, the need f o r additional independent f a c i l i t i e s or operations f o r these other services has been eliminated.  Thus, the t o t a l costs  40. are reduced.  The saving can be shared by a l l of the services  involved through those services sharing another's f a c i l i t y or operation rebating part of t h e i r saving. When support f a c i l i t i e s have been eliminated by integration the resultant appearance i s also usually better than would be the case with independent supports.  For example, poles  supporting  t r o l l e y wires also support street l i g h t s ; t r a f f i c signals and t h e i r c o n t r o l boxes; f i r e alarm, police and t r a n s i t  supervisor's  c a l l boxes; some of the wiring and cabling necessary for a i l of the foregoing including e l e c t r i c a l supply wires f o r the t r o l l e y wires; street name,traffic and parking regulation signs; l e t t e r and newspaper boxes, and street decorations;  While some of  these f a c i l i t i e s such as street decorations would probably not be i n s t a l l e d i f p a r t i a l support were not already available, most have been and often s t i l l are i n s t a l l e d on independent  supports.  Although many of our major streets are v i s u a l l y cluttered with t r o l l e y and other overhead wiring, the o v e r a l l appearance of them i f a l l of the above-mentioned f a c i l i t i e s were on independent supports would be f a r worse. Unplanned integration however, can produce results that are unattractive and a d i s s e r v i c e i n that i n d i v i d u a l f a c i l i t i e s become i n e f f e c t i v e .  This s i t u a t i o n occurs at many intersections  of major streets where, as Mr. Oberlander points out, the t r a f f i c signals p i l e d on top of one another create " . . . a v e r i t a b l e Christmas tree with g l i t t e r i n g toys hanging on i t a l l year round  and the m u l t i p l i c i t y of signs cause confusion and diminish  each other's value".  x  The degree of integration involved i n the various serv i c i n g practices being investigated w i l l be evaluated  i n relation  21 Peter Oberlander, "Furnishing the Street," Community Planning Review. Ottawa, Community Planning Association of Canada, v o l . 1, no. 4 (November 1951), p. 123.  41. to what i s considered  feasible.  F e a s i b i l i t y of integration,  whenever possible, has been based upon acceptance i n practice i n areas of Metropolitan Vancouver, i n other places, or i n comparable circumstances. P r i n c i p l e of Payment for Benefit The p r i n c i p l e of payment for benefit i s simply that those, and only those who benefit from use of l o c a l streets and serv i c e s , should pay for them i n proportion to their benefit. p r i n c i p l e should be acceptable  This  on the basis of such p r i n c i p l e s  as equity, fairness, and j u s t i c e , and may seem to not need stating.  However, the p r i n c i p l e i s not followed i n some instances  and must be defined to enable evaluation of departures from i t . The p r i n c i p l e can not be rigorously applied to a l l benefits because of the twin d i f f i c u l t i e s of placing values on some i n t a g i b l e , infrequent, and highly subjective benefits, and of finding means of c o l l e c t i n g payment f o r them.  Some can be  transposed to benefits of those for whom methods of payment are available.  For example, a t o u r i s t ( i . e . a non-resident) benefits  from street name signs, pavements and other f a c i l i t i e s i n finding his way, d r i v i n g to, and parking i n front of the dwelling he i s v i s i t i n g .  I t would be d i f f i c u l t to assess and c o l l e c t f o r  these benefits from the t o u r i s t .  Such benefits could be trans-  posed into benefits that the owner of the dwelling derives from the v i s i t o r ' s presence, and for which he i s w i l l i n g to pay a share of the cost of the f a c i l i t i e s through property  taxes,  a l b e i t a small one. The benefit that commercial, i n d u s t r i a l , and other a c t i v i t i e s derive from the consumers or employees on l o c a l streets i s r e f l e c t e d i n the value of the land upon which the a c t i v i t i e s are located.  Indeed, the land value could be thought  of as being proportional to the length of l o c a l streets within  42.  the a c t i v i t y ' s zone of influence.  Thus a portion of the cost of  the f a c i l i t i e s on the street which a s s i s t i n getting to or otherwise dealing with the a c t i v i t i e s (e.g. telephone and  postal  s e r v i c e ) , could be charged to the land value of the s i t e of the activity.  A s i m i l a r argument could be made when the a c t i v i t y  actually uses the street such as for delivery of merchandise, although licences and f u e l taxes are the more common source of payment for such benefits. A l l such i n d i r e c t benefits are outside the scope of this investigation.  The concern here i s with the more important and  d i r e c t benefits that are, or can be derived when services are provided  i n or through a s t r e e t .  These are the benefits to users  of abutting s i t e s , which i n this investigation are the i n single family residences.  dwellers  The benefit i s almost n i l when no  services are available since the land cannot be used without them.  Some benefit can be derived when vehicular access service  i s provided  because the s i t e can be used for recreational  purposes such as p i c n i c s , for exercise from c l e a r i n g operations, or for supplying firewood or other natural products.  Benefit  from being able to l i v e on the s i t e usually can be derived  only  when water service i s available, and often only when drainage, e l e c t r i c a l , and perhaps sewerage services are a v a i l a b l e . increases as other services are made a v a i l a b l e . benefit of services such as planting trees may  The  Benefit  full  not be derived  for some years. Potential benefits are r e f l e c t e d i n land value which i s p r a c t i c a l l y n i l without services, tends to jump s i g n i f i c a n t l y when vehicular access and water services are provided, and continues to r i s e as other services are provided.  Land values  also seem to be higher or to be held longer than i n otherwise comparable areas where there are ample full-grown  trees.  However, this i s d i f f i c u l t to prove because of other factors  43. tending to affect land values such as quality and condition of housing, s o c i a l prestige value, and changes i n use (e.g. conversion from single-family to multi-dwellings).  In general  then, land values are a good indicator of potential benefit to be derived from services and a just means of apportioning at least their costs of i n s t a l l a t i o n . Potential and/or actual benefit i s often paid for on a l o c a l improvement basis.  This consists either of an equal tax  on each s i t e , or more usually a tax related to the length of s i t e frontage on the street, with special provisions f o r corner and odd-shaped s i t e s .  Such taxes follow the payment f o r benefit  p r i n c i p l e f o r the part paid d i r e c t l y , but usually a portion i s paid by the municipality out of general revenue.^  Thus, f o r  example, people i n areas without adequate street l i g h t i n g are contributing to the expense of adequate l i g h t i n g i n other areas. These are usually the less and more wealthy respectively because of their r e l a t i v e willingness to pay extra taxes.  Since only so  much i s budgeted each year f o r services such as street l i g h t i n g , improved l i g h t i n g tends to be i n s t a l l e d mainly i n wealthy where people are w i l l i n g to pay for i t .  areas  This contributes to  the f e e l i n g of people i n the low income areas that they are getting less and paying more since they see services deteriorate while property taxes r i s e . A policy based upon need would probably concentrate street l i g h t i n g expenditures i n the areas i n which various s o c i a l problems such as juvenile delinquency are concentrated, possibly Assuming this i s paid out of Property Tax revenue ( i . e . that other revenues are used f o r other purposes) about half of this comes from other people's improvements. This i s because while land i s taxed at 100 percent of assessed value and improvements at only 50 percent (by most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ) , improvements are worth about twice as much i n t o t a l .  44.  at the expense of other works programs such as roads.  Such  improvements i n service might not be reflected i n land value increases.  However, they could be j u s t i f i e d on the grounds  that taxes on the r e l a t i v e l y high land values (on a front footage basis) i n these areas had been paid f o r many years since the o r i g i n a l f a c i l i t i e s had been paid f o r . Actual benefits accruing to the user of a service should be paid for by the user i n proportion to either the costs he e n t a i l s or the proportion he uses.  Thus, charges for service  connections from the street f a c i l i t y to the dwelling, and service charges on amount of commodities such as water, gas, e l e c t r i c i t y , consumed, can be j u s t i f i e d on the basis of the payment f o r benefit p r i n c i p l e .  Flat rate charges for use of such services  as water and telephone can be j u s t i f i e d on this p r i n c i p l e only to the extent that there are d i f f e r e n t rates f o r d i f f e r e n t classes of users based on average usages.  Since the difference  from the average of values within a group can be more than those between group averages, high users can i n e f f e c t be subs i d i z e d by low users.  Also, high users tend to be wealthy  people who own swimming pools, automatic washing machines and multiple or private phones, whereas the low users tend to be those not able to afford such luxuries.  However, complete  r e c t i f i c a t i o n of these inequities would necessitate metering a l l service usage at a cost l i a b l e to r e s u l t i n increased service charges to everyone, including the low users.  Hence, the best  that can be done i s to keep charges reasonably representative by having many segregated groups with frequent checks of average usage, and by i n s t a l l i n g meters on exceptionally heavy users such as those with swimming pools. Taxes on 'improvements' to s i t e s such as houses,  garages,  and paved driveways are not considered by t h i s investigator to be equitable sources of payment for the benefit from the  45. services.  They bear no r e l a t i o n to the cost of the f a c i l i t i e s  i n s t a l l e d i n streets as do taxes on land values because services must go by a s i t e whether improved or not.  They provide a poor  basis of financing services because the number and value of improvements to be constructed  i n a given area i s uncertain.  If  s i t e s remain unimproved f o r some time, an u n f a i r burden i s placed on owners of other land or improvements.  Improvements also do  not necessarily r e f l e c t use as well as do service charges, although owners of the more valuable houses tend to also luxuries r e s u l t i n g i n higher usage of some services. there are s i g n i f i c a n t exceptions  own  However,  to this general tendency such  as i n blighted areas where the assessed Improvement values depreciated  are  the maximum amount while usage of services has  increased because more people are crowded into the area.23 The most serious departure from the payment for benefits p r i n c i p l e , i n the opinion of this investigator, occurs when those subdividing land into s i t e s f o r houses do not pay for the services required for the area.  While subdividers as such do  not benefit from the use of any services, (other than perhaps vehicular access), they benefit i n the price they receive f o r lots sold from the portion of the value a t t r i b u t a b l e to the services that have been or that are expected to be installed.24 When the subdivider has paid f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n of the services, he receives from the purchaser of the l o t payment for the benefits It should be noted that taxes on improvements would not accord with the ' a b i l i t y to pay c r i t e r i a (considered only i n d i r e c t l y herein) i n such cases e i t h e r , since slum landlords are wealthy i n proportion to the extent to which they l e t t h e i r properties depreciate and to which they crowd i n people. But land values i n such areas tend to be r e l a t i v e l y high. 1  24 If they are also builders, they may benefit from use of services during construction and i n display houses, but pay service connection and other service charges and property taxes p r i o r to s e l l i n g property.  46. that the purchaser w i l l derive.  When he has not paid for them,  he receives an unearned increment i n that he did nothing to add this portion of the value.  This increment i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y equal  to the reduction i n price that buyers would demand to prevent i n e f f e c t paying for the services a second time through taxes. Except for any l o c a l improvement taxes however, the buyer i s unaware of increased taxes due to the municipality having i n s t a l l e d the services he w i l l benefit from, because i t has been spread over a l l taxpayers and i s small for each one.  The burden of a l l  such taxes accumulated over the time required to pay for the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the service, f a l l s mainly on the majority who not benefit from the service.  do  This surely i s a gross i n j u s t i c e  when the subdivider may have received the equivalent of f u l l benefit without paying anything. It should be noted that when required to pay for services, subdividers cannot necessarily raise prices to cover the added costs, because of market resistance.  They may have to reduce  t h e i r p r o f i t margin, what they pay f o r raw land, or both.  The  e f f e c t of increased service costs on raw land values can be seen i n Table I I . TABLE I I . Land Values - Municipality of Richmond*^ 1954 1958 1959  Sewers not required  Where sewers required  $1,000 per acre $2,200 to $5,000 per acre $2,200 to $5,000 per acre  $1,000 to $1,200 per acre  Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Countryside to Suburb. New Westminster, L. M. R. P. B., 1961. (Supplementary Study 3 to Land f o r Living). p. 7; quoting Vancouver Real Estate Board, Real Estate and Business Trends. 1961, Vancouver, p. F-7.  47. Principle  o f Maximum B e n e f i t  The interest streets the  p r i n c i p l e o f maximum b e n e f i t i s t h a t t h e p u b l i c  i s best  s e r v e d when a l l f a c i l i t i e s  are i n s t a l l e d  dwellings being  periods  prior  immediately  served.  to occupation  prior  t o be i n s t a l l e d i n  to occupation  Facilities  installed  of a l l dwellings  been r e a l i z e d .  a f t e r occupation has  facilities  of dwellings being  n o t been d e r i v e d from these  public of  Similarly,  interest.  resources  streets,  sites  including  t h e s e r v i c e s has  installed  services.  l o s s o f b e n e f i t c o n s t i t u t e s a waste sites,  the land i n  not r e q u i r e d t o serve  who c o u l d h a v e o c c u p i e d  require equivalent resources Where t h e f a c i l i t i e s  the occupied Looking  these  have been i n s t a l l e d  land,  t h e waste i s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e l a n d o w n e r . tend  f o r o u t o f taxes  to shift  on the landowner t o u t i l i z e  may r e m a i n u n u s e d The interest  other  f o r many y e a r s  the s i t e .  i n some  reduce the  cases.  loss of b e n e f i t i s c o n t r a r y to the p u b l i c  i n that delaying i n s t a l l a t i o n  results  i n reduction i n  at least,  and  welfare  o c c a s i o n a l l y , and i n economy p r a c t i c a l l y  The  latter  i n a m e n i t y and s a f e t y f r e q u e n t l y , i n h e a l t h  i s due p a r t l y facilities  costs of i n s t a l l i n g  t o t h e waste o f e x p e n d i t u r e  (e.g.  septic  tanks), partly  s e r v i c e s a f t e r roads  lawns p l a n t e d , and p a r t l y Benefit  Other  Therefore, i t  convenience  temporary  on  the expense t o  o t h e r s who c a n n o t b e n e f i t f r o m t h e s e r v i c e s and t h u s pressure  elsewhere.  by t h e s u b d i -  and any m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s a r e p a i d  and t a x a t i o n p o l i c i e s  at i t  unused  o f l a n d and s e r v i c e s  vider  servicing  time  Neither are i n the  i f t h e y were i n a compact d e v e l o p m e n t .  way, t h e p e o p l e  some  s e r v e d means t h a t some b e n e f i t  the land i n unused  and t h e f a c i l i t i e s  dwellings another  The f o r m e r  f o r some  t h a t c o u l d be  s e r v e d , means t h a t some p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t f r o m not  of a l lof  from such  on  t o the e x t r a  h a v e b e e n paved and  because o f r i s i n g facilities  always.  costs.  as t r e e s may be  insignificant  48.  immediately after being i n s t a l l e d and only p a r t i a l for some time thereafter i f saplings are planted. The loss i n benefit of either type could be expressed i n terms of 'service years'.  A means of weighting and summing the  loss of various services would provide an objective measure f o r comparing servicing practices, but this has not been considered necessary f o r the purposes of this investigation. VII.  PLAN ELEMENTS AND  FEASIBILITY TESTS  The plans of street uses and f a c i l i t i e s being investigated i n this report are considered to have eight aspects which are interdependent and overlapping, but must be looked at separately. These are functional, physical, s o c i a l , staging, administrative, f i n a n c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l .  Each aspect could be  considered as a s p e c i a l type of plan (e.g. physical plan, e t c . ) , and i f they were separate and d i s t i n c t elements, a simple putting together of them would y i e l d the o v e r a l l plan.  Since this i s  not the case and the term 'plan' has so many meanings, separate terms have been used f o r each element and the term 'plan' has been reserved f o r the whole complex.  E s s e n t i a l l y these aspects  represent the d i f f e r e n t ways of looking at a p a r t i c u l a r problem that are considered necessary for a complete understanding of i t s complicated nature. In order to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of a plan, the f e a s i b i l i t y of each element of i t must be checked, and i n some cases must be checked for several phases of the l i f e t i m e of the projected represented by the plan.  The p r i n c i p a l phases are:  i n s t a l l a t i o n ( i n i t i a l and secondary), operation and maintenance (during construction and the useful l i f e of project), and replacement. These elements and t h e i r f e a s i b i l i t y tests are outlined below to introduce the terms and concepts involved.  As an aid  to interpretation of t h e i r meaning and relationships to one  49.  another, the terms are accompanied by examples from a s i t u a t i o n analogous to the one being considered comprehended. renting new  This i s that of a man  here and more readily considering purchasing or  accommodation for himself and his parents.  Further  c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the interpretation of these concepts has been l e f t to their application l a t e r i n the report. Plan Elements The elements of a street use and f a c i l i t y plan, t h e i r f i e l d of concern, and the house-buying analogy are as follows: Functional layout i s that part of the plan dealing with the organization of a c t i v i t y and sensory zones and operation of service systems, including dynamic and time considerations. House 'plans' do not often show a c t i v i t y zones, though they should form the basis of the plan view design.  Exceptions are  indications of a c t i v i t y zones smaller than a room such as a 'conversation' area i n a l i v i n g room or various zones of welldesigned kitchens. plans, however.  A c t i v i t y zones often are indicated on plot  Sensory zones r e l a t i n g to temperature, l i g h t ,  noise, and smell are occasionally indicated and often implied on drawings.  They normally coincide with a c t i v i t y zones or  groups of them.  The  'mechanical services' part of the set of  drawings for a house includes diagrams of the heating, plumbing, and wiring systems which show symbolically the organization of the parts of the systems and note  pertinent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  t h e i r operation (pressure, voltage, e t c . ) . Physical design i s that part of the plan dealing with the deployment of material objects i n three-dimensional  space and  t h e i r physical attributes;•that i s , the adaptation of physical means to the ends being considered.  This i s analogous to the  'blue p r i n t s ' f o r a house including elevations, plan views, sections, d e t a i l s of construction materials and techniques, s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of materials and f i n i s h e s .  and  These show respectively  5 0 .  appearance, s p a t i a l relationships, s t r u c t u r a l system, s p e c i a l designs for p a r t i c u l a r construction problems, and the quality of material and workmanship that must be  provided.  S o c i a l provision i s that part of the plan dealing with s p e c i a l provision of f a c i l i t i e s , or deployment of them, with the intention of serving s o c i a l needs as d i s t i n c t from such physical needs as food and shelter or such personal needs as privacy. Analogous s o c i a l provisions i n houses are formal  l i v i n g rooms  or parlors as d i s t i n c t from family rooms, or such s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s as liquor cabinets or c o c k t a i l bars i n recreation rooms. Staging schedule is that part of the plan dealing with the order or sequence i n which parts of the physical design  are  put together and i n which functioning systems are put into operation, including tests of the systems and their operational characteristics.  I t i s analogous to the schedule that wise  builders prepare to avoid delays caused by poor receiving and handling of materials, by tradesmen getting i n each other's  way  or waiting for others to f i n i s h their job, and by waits for inspections.  Such matters are the builder's concern and  i n importance with the number of units being b u i l t .  increase  They do not  enter the prospective homeowner's deliberations unless he builds the house himself, but other staging considerations do.  These  are ones dealing with the scale and scope of construction undertaken i n i t i a l l y .  For example, c e r t a i n parts of the  eventual  building (e.g. extra bedroom, recreation room, carport) or construction operation (e.g. i n t e r i o r painting,) might be l e f t to a later secondary phase.  Both types of staging  considerations  are important i n public projects because of t h e i r effects on other parts of the plan as discussed  l a t e r i n this report.  Administrative arrangement i s that part of the plan dealing with the management of the project during  the  51.  construction, operation, and replacement phases, including matters of j u r i s d i c t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  In house building,  only the f i n a n c i a l arrangements are important to the prospective owner (unless he i s also the b u i l d e r ) .  The builder normally,  (or architect occasionally) handles other administrative arrangements such as obtaining permits; h i r i n g and paying carpenters arranging  subcontractors,  and labourers; ordering and paying for materials; for inspections; and supervising the whole construction  process. Financial budget i s that part of the plan dealing with the 'financing* of the project.  This includes consideration of  the sources of revenue, the costs of borrowing at various rates for various periods, the sharing of costs, and the means of repayment.  Continuing  the analogy, such a budget would involve  not only consideration of mortgage costs, but also such matters as whether the parents would pay rent, help pay o f f the mortgage, or make a cash  settlement.  Economic scheme i s that part of the plan dealing with the worth of the project i n r e l a t i o n to i t s costs considering primary and secondary benefits and costs, regardless of to whom they accrue.  In house buying, such considerations generally are  made on a highly subjective basis.  However, i n the s i t u a t i o n  being used for purposes of i l l u s t r a t i o n , the man might make a c a r e f u l analysis of the r e l a t i v e advantages and costs of such p o s s i b i l i t i e s as:  building or renting two houses, a duplex, a  house with an 'in-law' suite; building a house and renting an apartment, or renting two apartment suites. P o l i t i c a l program i s that part of the plan dealing with the promotion and propagandization  of the merits of the plan  compared with existing or other proposed plans. embrace the dissemination  This could  of information to, and s o l i c i t i n g  of support from, the public and private agencies d i r e c t l y  52.  involved (including municipal councils, u t i l i t y companies, and labour unions), special interest groups (such as Community Planning Association of Canada, Community Arts Council, Good Roads Association, T r a f f i c Safety Council), and the public generally i n order to gain support for the plan.  An analogous  s i t u a t i o n would be that of an i n d i v i d u a l wanting to build a house of unusual appearance or unorthodox construction who  seeks  support from owners of adjacent property, a group of a r c h i t e c t s , a labour union, and anyone else he thinks might help influence responsible authorities to relax or amend regulations prohibiting such a house. Feasibility  Tests  The f e a s i b i l i t y of a plan for a project i s the measure of its practicability,  that i s , what can be dealt with successfully.  It depends upon many factors of varying importance and i s neither obvious nor simple i n such a complicated may  problem.  Indeed, i t  not be as obvious and simple as some people would have i t i n  other problems, i f a l l factors were considered. the most feasible plan may  For instance,  have neither the best possible  physical design and functional layout, nor the least cost of those p o s s i b i l i t i e s factors.  being considered, but some compromise of a l l  Because of the complexity of the problem i n question,  the f e a s i b i l i t y of each element of the plan i s treated separately before attempts are made to evaluate the o v e r a l l f e a s i b i l i t y of a plan. An investigation of f e a s i b i l i t y i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c r i t i c a l examination of proposals i n r e l a t i o n to the objectives of the proposals, to accepted standards, and to possible alternative proposals.  The form of test for f e a s i b i l i t y used i n this report  is that of questioning aspects of the plan.  Obviously, the more  and better the questions, the more rigorous w i l l be the test. Outlined below are the main questions pertaining to the plan  53. e l e m e n t s t o show t h e n a t u r e a n d s c o p e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p l a c e d upon ' f e a s i b i l i t y * is  introduced  i n this report.  feasibility  which f u n c t i o n a l layouts public  operation  i s an e v a l u a t i o n  serve the public  interest criteria  applied part  t h e same s e r v i c e s .  Q u e s t i o n s o n t h i s w o u l d be s a f e l y under a l l  T h i s s h o u l d be done f o r e a c h s y s t e m and c r i t e r i a  f i r s t generally,  and f u n c t i o n .  relevant  i n t e r e s t i n terms o f  t h e i r s t a n d a r d s ; and a l t e r n a t i v e  the type, " W i l l t h i s system f u n c t i o n  conditions?"  of t h e degree t o  except amenity, of services i n  under a l l c o n d i t i o n s ;  means o f p r o v i d i n g of  analogy  whenever i t might a i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  Functional  all  The h o u s e - b u i l d i n g  and t h e n s u c c e s s i v e l y  t o every  separable  The q u e s t i o n s a l s o s h o u l d be a p p l i e d  case under v a r i o u s  c r i t i c a l conditions  i n each  s u c h as a b n o r m a l  weather, i n t e r r u p t i o n of s e r v i c e , o r long-term s i t u a t i o n . Although prospective  homeowners s e l d o m q u e s t i o n s u c h m a t t e r s ,  t h e r e a r e some f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f h o u s e h o l d s y s t e m s w h i c h s h o u l d be g i v e n due c o n s i d e r a t i o n . q u e s t i o n how w e l l h e a t i n g  For instance,  one m i g h t  and p l u m b i n g s y s t e m s w o u l d work i n  s e v e r e c o l d s p e l l s ; how much i n c o n v e n i e n c e w o u l d be s u f f e r e d i f electric and  power, d o m e s t i c g a s , o r o t h e r s e r v i c e were  interrupted;  w h a t a r e l o n g - t e r m p r o s p e c t s f o r p l u m b i n g s y s t e m s h a v i n g two  types of metal that could Physical  corrode through e l e c t r o l y t i c  feasibility  i s an e v a l u a t i o n  which p h y s i c a l designs serve the p u b l i c conditions  i n terms o f a l l p u b l i c  action.  o f the degree t o  i n t e r e s t under normal  interest criteria,  s t a n d a r d s , and a l t e r n a t i v e means o f p r o v i d i n g  their  t h e same  services.  A p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n s w o u l d r a n g e f r o m t h e g e n e r a l o n e , "How w e l l i s the public of  services?"  i n t e r e s t s e r v e d by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n  t o "How w e l l c o m p a r a t i v e l y w o u l d t h e p u b l i c  i n t e r e s t be s e r v e d by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e means o r material pective  f o r this service?" homeowner a s k i n g  These a r e a n a l o g o u s t o t h e p r o s -  "Does t h i s d e s i g n b e s t s e r v e my  interest?  54. Are the rooms large enough?  Can I arrange my  furniture i n them?  Should there be more fixed e l e c t r i c a l outlets or baseboard wiring channels with moveable outlets?" Social f e a s i b i l i t y i s an evaluation of the degree to which s p e c i a l provisions for s o c i a l purposes provide the p o s s i b i l i t y or potential f o r meeting s o c i a l needs, without forcing undesireable or unwanted s o c i a l i z i n g .  This condition is. included to avoid  creation of situations i n which s o c i a l contact and relationships are unavoidable and impinge on the a b i l i t y to achieve privacy, such as when two or more households share bathroom f a c i l i t i e s . Staging f e a s i b i l i t y i s an evaluation of the degree to which a project can be separated  into discrete parts, functions,  or construction procedures that can be c a r r i e d out independent of, and hence, at a d i f f e r e n t stage than other ones.  The e f f e c t on  public i n t e r e s t of such separation must be checked for each c r i t e r i o n i n terms of a l l the other c r i t e r i a since a given separate stage might be f e a s i b l e i n terms of several c r i t e r i a , but not the remaining ones.  The objective i s to find the most  feasible separations considering scale and sequence.  Questions  toward this objective range from "Is i t f e a s i b l e to i n s t a l l this service separately from a l l others?" to "Is i t feasible to perform t h i s p a r t i c u l a r construction procedure separately from the others?"  The f i r s t type are primarily to e s t a b l i s h the scale of  the i n i t i a l major construction stage, which i s governed by considerations of f i n a n c i a l and economic f e a s i b i l i t y .  The second  type deals with the e f f e c t of sequence on e f f i c i e n c y and economy, and consequently, on economic f e a s i b i l i t y .  Analogous questions  would be "Could I leave the garage, extra bedroom, f i n i s h i n g of basement, i n t e r i o r painting and other items out of the contract or provide them l a t e r when I could better afford them?" Also, "Should I do the i n t e r i o r painting before the contractor finishes the f l o o r s , i n s t a l l s l i g h t i n g fixtures and wood trim to avoid  55. expense and bother of cleaning paint from them?" Administrative f e a s i b i l i t y i s an evaluation of the degree to which the public interest i s served by the management of i n s t a l l a t i o n and operation of services i n terms of convenience, e f f i c i e n c y and economy.  Pertinent questions  are: "Who  should  be responsible f o r doing or supervising what, and how?", and "How w i l l disputes and unforeseen problems be handled?" Financial f e a s i b i l i t y i s an evaluation of the degree to which the various stages of the project can be afforded by those paying for them.  The following series of questions must be  asked: "Who benefits from this stage of the project and by how much?  Can they a l l afford to pay for i t i n proportion to the  benefit they receive? Who should pay f o r i t and how?  How  should  the stages be financed - over what period and at what rate of interest?"  Financial f e a s i b i l i t y may be the over-riding consi-  deration i n house buying and place severe limitations on desirable physical, functional, and economic aspects.  Indeed,  i t seems that as a general rule when f i n a n c i a l limitations are most stringent, the extent to which advantage can be taken of the more economically  feasible schemes i s least.  To change the  analogy f o r a moment, a Rolls-Royce might be the most economical car to own i n the long run, but few could afford to r e a l i z e the potential  savings.  Economic f e a s i b i l i t y i s an evaluation of the degree to which benefits of a project (or stage thereof) exceed costs. The most economically  feasible project i s that having the maximum  net benefit; that is, the maximum excess of benefits over cost. This i s determined by adjusting the scale and scope of projects selected on the basis of maximum benefit-cost r a t i o .  This  adjusting process involves asking "Would the excess of benefits over costs be greater or less i f this added or deleted?"  part or function were  56. Political  feasibility  which the p r o j e c t  i s an e v a l u a t i o n  ( o r stage thereof)  could  of the degree t o  be made a c c e p t a b l e  t o t h e p u b l i c o r i n t e r e s t e d o r a f f e c t e d g r o u p s s u c h as unions, the representatives officials "Will  elected  by t h e s e g r o u p s , and t h e  a p p o i n t e d by t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  this project  trade  ( o r stage thereof)  The q u e s t i o n  is  be a c c e p t a b l e t o t h i s  g r o u p i f p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r manner?" VIII. The forged  ' t o o l s * used i n t h i s  SUMMARY i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a v e now  been  - t h e p r i n c i p a l d e f i n i t i o n s have been s t a t e d ; t h e types  of s t r u c t u r e s  and s e r v i c e s  b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d have been des-  c r i b e d and c l a s s i f i e d ; and c r i t e r i a have been d e v e l o p e d f o r evaluating include use  s t r e e t use and s e r v i c i n g p r a c t i c e .  These  criteria  elements of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , p r i n c i p l e of s t r e e t  and s e r v i c i n g , and f e a s i b i l i t y  criteria  ways o f l o o k i n g a t t h e o v e r a l l p l a n .  related to several  CHAPTER II CURRENT PRACTICES A DESCRIPTION OF CURRENT STREET USE AND  SERVICING PRACTICES  IN TEN MUNICIPALITIES OF METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER In order to compare properly any proposal with an e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , one described  should know both well.  or defined,  The better each i s  the better should be the quality of the  comparison between them i n terms of certainty and accuracy. the purposes of this investigation, current servicing practces  are described  and defined  street use  For  and  in this chapter in  terms of the services and c r i t e r i a mentioned in the preceding chapter.  The description i s confined  to l o c a l streets i n single-  family r e s i d e n t i a l areas except where mention of practices outside  these confines  perspective  serves to c l a r i f y or place i n a proper  the practices of p r i n c i p a l concern herein.  The description of current street use practice i s reasonably straightforward are universal, and  and simple since the uses made of streets  the ones s p e c i a l l y accommodated or f a c i l i t a t e d  in local single-family r e s i d e n t i a l streets are p r a c t i c a l l y always the same.  The description of current servicing practices  including the f a c i l i t a t i n g of such uses, however, i s far from simple.  Looking c a r e f u l l y at the r e s u l t of servicing practices -  what i s herein terms •servicement•1 - one  finds l i t t l e complete  homogeneity, even in r e l a t i v e l y small areas.  Exceptions are  areas that have been serviced by one developer in a short time, especially recently.  Even i n areas once serviced i n the same  manner, differences arise between streets because of continuing  the  process of adding services, and upgrading and/or  replacing their f a c i l i t i e s .  see page 19.  But few areas, especially large  for d e f i n i t i o n of this term  58. ones, are serviced at one  time i n Metropolitan  Vancouver, and  there are differences between them i n the manner i n which they have been serviced.  These differences are due  largely to  differences i n the minimum standards required by municipalities and  to changes that have been made i n them over the  years.  However, some differences arise when large-scale developers i n s t a l l services at a standard above the minimum required at the time of development by the municipality i n which the development occurs. The most s i g n i f i c a n t instances of such large-scale developments are introduced reference  together here because repeated  i s made to them throughout this chapter and related  Appendix A.  A l l but one of these are shown on Map  following page.  The e a r l i e s t sample i s what i s now  'Old Shaughnessy' area of Vancouver that was  1 on the called  developed by  Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company i n the 1910's.  This was  the the done  to a high standard, e s p e c i a l l y of planting, and i s s t i l l a desirable 'prestige' area.  The C. P. R. has subdivided  former Quilchena Golf Course and War  the  the Oakridge area since World  I I , but both have been serviced by the C i t y i n the usual  standard) manner.  2  (low  The Shaughnessy Golf Course i s to be sub-  divided soon and serviced to a standard comparable to Old Shaughnessy.  The fate of Langara Golf Course, the remainder of  a 6000 acre grant to the C. P. R.,  i s uncertain at present.  The P r o v i n c i a l Government developed for leasehold a portion of the University Endowment Lands (U.E.L.) during the late 1920's to a high standard including p a r t i a l underground wiring. These areas also were designed for the C. P. R. by the City Planning Department to include a mixture of uses such as various types of apartment, commercial, and i n s t i t u t i o n a l buildings. It i s anticipated that future developments of C. P. R. land w i l l be designed by the Planning Department as well.  59.  MAP 1.  SELECTED LARGE-SCALE DEVELOPMENTS IN VANCOUVER  60. Various schemes to develop  the remainder have r e s u l t e d only i n  c l e a r i n g of the n o r t h e r l y p o r t i o n o f the area, but t h i s has s i n c e become overgrown. developed  C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n has  Renfrew Heights  and F r a s e r v i e w as low r e n t a l  d i s t r i c t s f o r Second World War v e t e r a n s .  housing  The/have a h i g h  standard of u t i l i t i e s and pavements, p a r t i c u l a r l y  f o r t h i s low  income p a r t of the C i t y , but l a c k adequate t r e e growth.  The  C i t y i s c u r r e n t l y developing an area i t owns south o f 54th. Avenue, east of K e r r S t r e e t (and the Fraserview  development),  and north of the Fraserview Gold Course, which the C i t y owns and w i l l retain.  This development w i l l have a v e r y h i g h standard of  s e r v i c e i n c l u d i n g complete underground w i r i n g and s p e c i a l p l a n t i n g areas.  I t i s hoped to develop  the remaining C i t y owned  land to the east i n a s i m i l a r manner. The other l a r g e - s c a l e development c o n s i d e r e d i s the •Richmond Gardens* development i n the Township of Richmond (see Map 2, page 64.). This i s being developed B u i l d i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , the f i r s t  by C o n s o l i d a t e d  l a r g e - s c a l e b u i l d e r to move i n t o  what has been e s s e n t i a l l y a s m a l l - s c a l e b u i l d e r s preserve. Richmond Gardens w i l l have complete underground w i r i n g and lands c a p i n g i n a d d i t i o n to the h i g h standard of servicement  now  r e q u i r e d i n Richmond. While these l a r g e - s c a l e developments are s i g n i f i c a n t i n many r e s p e c t s , they occupy only a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f the metrop o l i t a n area and r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l circumstances  t h a t a r e becoming  c o n s t a n t l y l e s s p r e v a l e n t , a t l e a s t f o r i n l y i n g areas. c o n s i s t of c o r p o r a t e c o n t r o l of l a r g e unsubdivided  t r a c t s of  land plus adequate f i n a n c i a l resources and 'know how . 1  for  These  Except  the o u t l y i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , there are few l a r g e unsub-  d i v i d e d t r a c t s of land remaining r e s i d e n t i a l development.  t h a t are s u i t a b l e f o r  Most should be preserved f o r a g r i c u l -  t u r a l o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes.  There are c o n s i d e r a b l e areas of  61. partially various  s u b d i v i d e d land which are not  reasons.  being developed  These i n c l u d e m u n i c i p a l ownership  inability  o r u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o cope w i t h  financial  reasons, or m u l t i p l e ownership  The  latter  private  circumstances  c o r p o r a t i o n s who  cipalities and  who  a b o v e and  a s s u m i n g no d r a m a t i c  significant  subdivided. 'by-passed'  'side garden'  s p e c u l a t i v e s p r e e s as of such  adjacent developed The as  been l o s t  s e r v i c e s would h a v e t o be  of  muni-  resources, outlined  small  scale. family  i s already  infilling  of p r e v i o u s l y concern  here.  land subdivided i n  t u r n of the century.  The  f r o m n o n - e x i s t e n t t o as good  is rarely  of a high  standard.^  t o r e q u i r e an a d e q u a t e i n these  areas.  servicement  However, s i n c e  a d d e d , u p g r a d e d , and  them t o t o - d a y ' s  as  often replaced i n  standards, such areas  are  concern herein. The  main c o n c e r n  w i t h f u t u r e development be  the  by  f u t u r e development  land that  o c c u r on  f a r b a c k as  a r e a s , but  to bring  Thus, f o r the reasons  l o t s w h i c h a r e o f no  a condition of s u b d i v i s i o n  these areas  the f i n a n c i a l  o c c u r as  land ranges  o p p o r t u n i t y has  lack  o c c u r on  will  subdivision.  p o w e r s , o r by  c h a n g e s , most  Much d e v e l o p m e n t , however, w i l l  servicement  complex  proportion of future s i n g l e  Some o f t h i s or  and  p l a c e on a r e l a t i v e l y  r e s i d e n t i a l development w i l l  with  f u r t h e r development f o r  the n e c e s s a r y  'know how'.-*  c o n t i n u e to take A  lack  coupled  be d e a l t w i t h e c o n o m i c a l l y  h a v e t h e powers b u t  sometimes t h e  will  cannot  for  i n these  that  i n this i n new  investigation, subdivisions,  the b e n e f i t s - t o - c o s t  of course, i s  because i t would  r e l a t i o n s h i p of the  proposed  The D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r i s a n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d , b u t i s a l s o w i t h h o l d i n g f r o m d e v e l o p m e n t much o f i t s l a n d t h a t o u g h t t o be d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e good o f t h e whole metropolitan area. ^The ' B r i t i s h P r o p e r t i e s ' a r e a o f West V a n c o u v e r has p a v e d r o a d s w i t h c u r b s , and w a t e r m a i n s t h r o u g h c o n s i d e r a b l e undeveloped areas. T h i s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d an e x p e n s i v e h i g h c l a s s ' s p r a w l ' a r e a t h a t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be i n f i l l e d .  62. practices of designing  and i n s t a l l i n g services i n new subdi-  visions are given prime consideration.  Completion of the  servicement of e x i s t i n g subdivisions with poor servicement i s of secondary concern, and the reservicing of existing developments i s of tertiary concern. In order to describe and define current street use and servicing practices as simply as possible for the purposes of this investigation without losing too much of the variety and complexity, the following approach has been employed.  The  survey of current servicing practices has been r e s t r i c t e d to the ten municipalities i n Metropolitan  Vancouver which have had the  most servicing a c t i v i t y recently and have the greatest for further a c t i v i t y .  potential  Then the street use practices and designing  and  i n s t a l l i n g processes which apply generally have been analyzed.  The  problems of describing and defining servicing practices  where some services are not provided, some are provided considerably l a t e r than others, and nearly a l l are provided at d i f f e r e n t standards of quality i n d i f f e r e n t municipalities or parts of them, has been resolved as outlined below. A detailed description of the servicing practices f o r each type of property service has been made i n terms of five ranks - best, better, normal, worse, and worst.  The •normal  rank has been assigned to the most common or prevalent  1  practice  for each p a r t i c u l a r service, and the other practices have been ranked i n r e l a t i o n to i t .  f,  Best' and 'worst' ranks have been  assigned respectively to the best and worst practices found i n the municipalities surveyed.  The 'better' and 'worse' ranks  have been assigned respectively to practices d i f f e r e n t from the normal practice, but neither so good nor so bad as the best and worst practices.  This detailed description i s contained i n  Appendix A (see page 193.), along with descriptions of actual practice i n terms of the d i s t r i b u t i o n or prevalence of the  63. ranked practices i n the ten municipalities surveyed, and descriptions of s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t practices elsewhere. This detailed description of current servicing practice has been summarized into 'composite' best, normal, and worst practices as defined generalizations suitable to the purposes of t h i s investigation.  These follow i n t h i s chapter the further  description and d e f i n i t i o n of the areal scope, the street uses, and  the designing I.  and i n s t a l l i n g processes investigated.  AREAL SCOPE OF THE CURRENT PRACTICES INVESTIGATED Ten municipalities i n Metropolitan  Vancouver have been  selected f o r investigation of current servicing practices on the basis of recent a c t i v i t y and future potential i n the subdividing and servicing of land.  They are the C i t y of Vancouver, the  surrounding D i s t r i c t s of West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby, and  the Township of Richmond; and the outlying municipalities of  the City of Port Moody, the D i s t r i c t s of Port Coquitlam, Coquitlam, Surrey, and Delta.  These are shown on Map 2. on the  following page. With the exception of occasional mention of certain practices peculiar to the University Endowment Lands, the other municipalities and unorganized areas i n Metropolitan  Vancouver  have not been included because there has been l i t t l e  recent  a c t i v i t y , there i s l i t t l e potential for expansion, or there i s some s p e c i a l circumstance.  These include the C i t i e s of North  Vancouver, New Westminster, and White Rock; Fraser M i l l s ; and the unorganized areas of D i s t r i c t Lot 172 (D.L. 172), and the University Endowment Lands (U.E.L.). The s p e c i f i c reasons are as follows.  North Vancouver City  owns p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the undeveloped land within i t s boundaries and either services i t before sale or s e l l s i t on the condition that i t be serviced to the City's s a t i s f a c t i o n . A  64.  Vancouver  Surrounding Municipalities  Outlying  Certain delta, a g r i c u l t u r a l and mountainous lands excluded MAP 2. METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER - AREAS INVESTIGATED  65. recent  s a l e f o r a comprehensive development of  multiple high  standards of  curbs, are  r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s was  and  borough area holdings' enclave that is  completely  should  part  concrete the  the  on  o f human a c t i v i t y Of  involve  which the provide  out  fire  to a high  have been u s e d  f r o m , and  on  by  including i s now  one  Vancouver.^  for practically a l l  occasion  - that  s t r e e t s are  to ensure t h a t  does n o t  and  supposed The  standard  spread  including,  t h o s e u s e s made o f  facilities  Thus, w h i l e  t h a t was  STREET USES  local  of M e t r o p o l i t a n is, facilities  i s normally responsible,  when h i n d e r e d light  basis  B r i t i s h Columbia.  residential districts  public  public  them.  them and  U.E.L.  i n Metropolitan  concern here are  between b u i l d i n g s  only  and  It  The  concerned.  p a r t i a l underground w i r i n g ,  be  anomally  are  and  can  i s an  New  curbs  areas  industrial  by  a leasehold  U n i v e r s i t y of  residential  'small  i s administered  been s e r v i c e d  single family  which  172  Queens-  for  i s an  has  Streets  in  Lot  W h i t e Rock  i n the  area  best  to death.  Mills  concrete  Westminster o r Burnaby.  d e v e l o p e d , and  II.  kinds  District  f a r as most s e r v i c e s  support  except  Fraser  o f e i t h e r New  p a r t l y developed  developed  subdivided  'company town'. be  W e s t m i n s t e r and  and of  roads with  W e s t m i n s t e r where s u b d i v i d i n g  almost completely  only  New  occasionally occurs.  and  to help  of  servicing including asphalt  o f New  W e s t m i n s t e r as is  c o n d i t i o n a l upon p r o v i s i o n  underground w i r i n g .  practically  commercial  though  for not  'used' to m a i n t a i n  adequate  For  streets Vancouver  i t may  light  and  t o them, s u c h u s e s a r e  facilities.  birth  instance,  ( t h o u g h r a r e l y t o an u n d e s i r a b l e  space  a i r reaches of  concern  t r e e s may  e x t e n t ) and  shut  bridge  The c o m b i n a t i o n o f e x p e n s i v e s e r v i c i n g and r e l a t i v e l y low P r o v i n c i a l p r o p e r t y t a x e s s u g g e s t t h a t the r e s i d e n t s , i n s t e a d o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y , have been endowed.  66. the  f i r e b r e a k normally formed by the  street.  The  s t r e e t s i s f o r the movement of p e d e s t r i a n s and  prime use  vehicles,  the w a i t i n g  or parking of them, which i s f a c i l i t a t e d by  ments.  second most important use  The  of-ways f o r u t i l i t i e s . p l a n t i n g t r e e s and considered.  and pave-  of s t r e e t s i s as r i g h t -  A t h i r d major use  i s as a space f o r  g r a s s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the  A f o u r t h major use  of  type of s t r e e t being  i s as a l o c a t i o n f o r the  l i t i e s of other s e r v i c e s , f o r example, m a i l  boxes and  faci-  telephone  booths. L o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s are used f o r o t h e r purposes of c o u r s e , but bility for by  r a r e l y are permanent f a c i l i t i e s  involved.  playing.  Perhaps the g r e a t e s t  I f any  f a c i l i t i e s are  the c h i l d r e n or t h e i r p a r e n t s .  such use  involved,  the f a c i l i t i e s  involved  responsi-  i s by  children  they are  Local streets also  o c c a s i o n a l l y used by c h i l d r e n f o r s e l l i n g ends, but  of p u b l i c  provided are  lemonade or odds  are n e i t h e r  p u b l i c nor  and  very  permanent. The  only use  involving significant variations in  manner i n which i t i s f a c i l i t a t e d The  i s that of v e h i c u l a r  normal p r a c t i c e i s to accommodate t h i s use  of the v e h i c u l a r access roadway by a l l o w i n g  on both  the parking. sides  p a r a l l e l parking  a d j a c e n t to the roadway throughout i t s l e n g t h , except i n near i n t e r s e c t i o n s , and  driveways.  have accepted not  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a l l o w and  for  vehicular  should be able  only  Municipalities  p a r k i n g , but a l s o the  i s waived when p a r k i n g i s permitted on only one s t r e e t s such as c u l s - d e - s a c ,  but  the  generally  p r i n c i p l e that  to park i n f r o n t of h i s d w e l l i n g .  provide  everyone This p r i n c i p l e  s i d e of dead-end  l o s s of convenience i s  o f t e n n e g l i g i b l e because there i s e i t h e r adequate parking the one  s i d e o r people use  and  t h e i r driveways.  A more  on  serious  departure from t h i s p r i n c i p l e occurs when p a r k i n g i s p r o h i b i t e d on one  s i d e of a s t r e e t i n o r d e r to ease the  flow of  traffic,  67. and i s completely abandoned when parking i s prohibited on both sides of a street for this reason.6  These are considered worse  and worst practices respectively. The parking use i s accommodated or f a c i l i t a t e d by i n s t a l l i n g a pavement on the surface of the parking area, which sometimes has a curb along the edge of i t , and the pavement on the roadway which gives access to and allows maneuvering into the parking area. for  These f a c i l i t i e s are discussed with pavements  the vehicular access service.  III.  CURRENT PROCESS OF DESIGNING STREET USE AND  SERVICEMENT  The current practice of designing the street use and servicement of particular l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets i s hardly a •design process' i n the sense of there being much opportunity for a designer to create a r e a l l y e x c i t i n g and d i s t i n c t i v e streetscape.  This i s because most of the important design  decisions have been made i n establishing the standard locations for  facilities.  These are often so complete that decisions are  required on only r e l a t i v e l y minor matters, at least with regard to the v i s u a l r e s u l t .  Furthermore, there i s rarely one  person  or a t i g h t l y - k n i t team responsible f o r a l l design decisions not incorporated into standards.  Usually p a r t i c u l a r streets are  •designed' by completing or modifying appropriate standard designs to meet the s p e c i f i c requirements  of i n d i v i d u a l services,  often with no more design co-ordination than that provided by such design standards as t y p i c a l cross-sections and plan views. understand  intersection  Thus, one must analyse these design standards to the whole process.  Fortunately these departures r a r e l y occur i n single family d i s t r i c t s (they cannot occur on l o c a l streets by d e f i n i t i o n ) . Unfortunately they often occur i n d i s t r i c t s having houses converted to more intensive r e s i d e n t i a l use where the need for parking i s greater.  68. These design standards usually take a l l ordinary property service f a c i l i t i e s into consideration, regardless of whether they are required to be i n s t a l l e d upon subdivision, or are l i k e l y to be i n s t a l l e d at a l l .  This i s f o r the very good reason that i t  i s d i f f i c u l t to add f a c i l i t i e s f o r which no consideration has been given, as evidenced by the problems of i n s t a l l i n g gas pipes i n some areas, f o r example.  There i s o r d i n a r i l y a design  standard f o r the ubiquitous 66 foot wide, with a modified design for either h i l l s i d e s (e.g. D i s t r i c t s of Burnaby and Delta) or reduced widths (e.g. f o r 56 feet i n Richmond).  An exception i s  the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver which has standards for f l a t to moderate and steep cross slopes (up to a maximum l i m i t f o r subdividing of 20 percent), f o r 66 and 50 foot wide roads, and i n open d i t c h ' and storm drain designs - a t o t a l of s i x f  combinations.  7  The design decisions involved i n these standards have been analyzed and are discussed below by what are considered to be the major elements.  They are the street uses, pavements,  u t i l i t i e s , planting, and other f a c i l i t i e s . Designing of Street Uses In current practice, designing of street uses per se r e a l l y involves only the decisions r e l a t i n g to parking on narrow streets.  Decisions must be made as to whether or not parking  should be accommodated which side.  or not on narrow s t r e e t s , and i f so, on  A l l other uses currently accommodated  are accepted  by t r a d i t i o n , and l i t t l e thought seems to be given to possible additional ones. Designing of Pavements  1  Designing of the vehicular pavement or road i s mainly D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, Standard Plans/Specif1 cations - Subdivision Services, available to subdividers on loan with r e v i s i o n service.  69. limited to a decision on i t s width, since i t i s always l a i d out symmetrically on the centerline of the street.  I t has p a r a l l e l  parking s t r i p s seven or eight feet wide down both sides except for narrow streets lacking one or both s t r i p s .  The vehicular  access or movement portion of the road varies from the equivalent of one wide moving lane to two f u l l lanes; that Is, from about 11 to 24 feet.  Thus the t o t a l width of pavement can be from  25 to 40 feet i n width, but i s usually i n the 30 to 36 foot range for a 66 foot street.  A decision must also be made on the width  of permanent type pavement ( i . e . asphalt or concrete) which i s o r d i n a r i l y applied only to the movement portion, except In Richmond. There are two decisions to be made with respect to sidewalks. One i s whether to locate them on one or both sides, or not at a l l as i n the case of culs-de-sac.  The other decision  involves the relationship of the sidewalk to the road. two schools of thought on t h i s .  There are  One holds that the sidewalk  should be near the road to save costs by excavating f o r i t at the same time as the road, and by constructing i t i n t e g r a l l y with the curb; and to avoid s p l i t t i n g the space available f o r planting trees.  The other school holds that the sidewalk should be away  from the road so that pedestrians do not get splashed, so that the sidewalk can have a d i f f e r e n t configuration than the road, and so that the road can be widened without moving the sidewalk. Designing of U t i l i t i e s Designing of standard locations f o r u t i l i t i e s involves a t r i a l and test process to achieve an acceptable compromise. Usually i t i s a matter'of modifying previous standards to meet changing needs or adapting standards of other municipalities to l o c a l conditions. Perhaps none of the u t i l i t i e s end up i n an i d e a l location, but a l l must be able to function properly. For example, the ideal location f o r sewers and storm drains i s on the  70. center l i n e where streets have no cross slope, and the low side otherwise.  Thus, unless they are i n s t a l l e d together as 'twin*  drains as i n Vancouver, at least one must be moved away from the i d e a l location.  Both may  be far removed from the ideal location  i f they are not i n s t a l l e d under roads as i n Richmond.  The other  underground f a c i l i t i e s are so located as to achieve adequate v e r t i c a l and horizontal separation between sewers and water pipes, ^ and between a l l drains, pipes, and conduits and tree roots.  The  l a t t e r i s an important consideration because u t i l i t i e s other than drains are seldom located under pavements, and hence must be below the only area available f o r tree planting.  A similar  c o n f l i c t arises above this non paved area between tree branches and overhead wiring.  It i s no wonder some u t i l i t y men consider  trees the bane of t h e i r l i v e s . of  As an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the range  factors that ought to be considered i n such designs, a table  prepared for a street tree and e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y conference has been reproduced as Table III on the following page. Once design standards have been established, designing of  i n s t a l l a t i o n s for most u t i l i t i e s i s mainly a matter of  locating connections to i n d i v i d u a l dwellings.  The exceptions  are drains, which must be designed i n r e l a t i o n to the of  topography  the street considering c e r t a i n functional limitations such as  gradient and manhole spacing. Designing of Planting Current design standards establish the l i n e upon which trees are to be placed and the area i n which grass can be planted. Where not noted e x p l i c i t l y otherwise, the tree lines are midway between the edges of road and sidewalk on both sides of the street.  Grass can be planted on a l l areas not paved.  of acceptable species gf trees with required spacing may be incorporated i n design standards.  A list also  Thus, designing of planting  TABLE I I I m w » it  »— °  z  «  2  5  cn  cn tu  O  J|>  z  1  Q.  Q_ D CO  Q Z <  • M •1  *  c  $  ±  •  ^ 1E to  O  J=  ^T-^LU  <  B  ~-  o *»  «p «*  8  •»  m *  «  ± £  o  _  -  •  »-  i  ,  ^  -T3  v  C  M  —  s  * 5 INSTALLED  • hich include!  TYPE OF  cn tr o iu <  ftS  "3  cs-  J  C 4 w  -o  ^  «  ^ -  ^ to  c  »  Q-  C  «•  Ot. ««  —  3  o  -  <n  c  «-»  «• >i  a.  |  « •4  -1  CO  CO  is measured by  SERVICE  15 / »** o  2  u  *  o  5  OF  QUALITY  *k».  s  •  «  —  o -o  *— 3  o *-  0  ~o — c —  2 i  m «i  3  -  »^ —  1  1  o  /  o >  «  o  ~  c 2  • CO  m  3  -~  /  •**-  —  m m O  « * t «  C  cw  UL  o cn cn > _j  • *  —  FACILITY  <  c  c m m m  •*-  E 2  O -TJ  <• JJ O  •  o  LU LL LL  O  2  c  z  1  o  -—  - 5  -j  O  m  <m. o  -  M  c  m  O  E <  /  -  o 01  u i  «-»  _l  /LU/ •  ^/  <J>  -5  £  o  O  z  r-  3E  m m m  **  C  •*  e o  z <  M • c  • -*=  «_>  — •  c  tr  < z <  E  •*-  \ I  m  •  H O  c •  H-  •  to  m •o  LU LU  m E  I  >  cn  « •o  O  *  a,  o  •  *  LU  3  5  * •  ,LU  / H R  1  .  LU  LO  [\  »  \  o **%  S o u r c e : "Our S t r e e t s Can Be B e a u t i f u l • And U s e f u l " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i r s t S t r e e t T r e e and U t i l i t y  Conference. Cleveland, Ohio, 3 March 1955.  71. TABLE I I I UNDERGROUND WIRING COSTS FOR  TRANSFORMER-SECONDARY  COMBINATION TO SERVE BACK TO BACK LOTS  Number of Homes  Diversified Demand KW Initial  Transformer Size  Transformer and Secondary Costs per House $ 186  4  24  25  6  30  37.5  168  8  36  37.5  148  10  40  37.5  138  12  46  50  137  14  50  50  134  16  56  50  133  18  61  75  145  20  66  75  150  22  70  75  148  24  74  75  157  Source:  C. F. Danforth, "Huge Development i n V i r g i n i a Served Underground," E l e c t r i c a l World. New York, McGraw-Hill, v o l . 160, no. 8 (19 August 1963), p. 26.  72. for a particular street may involve only the selection of the variety of tree to be planted.  Vancouver now usually plants  two alternating v a r i e t i e s of trees, one flowering, which are located with consideration of street lamps, but the various combinations  involved could be covered i n design standards.  Designing of Other F a c i l i t i e s The f a c i l i t i e s of other property services i n s t a l l e d i n streets are not covered by municipal design standards, although the responsible agencies have established c r i t e r i a for t h e i r location.  For example, mail box location depends upon the  number of households  served, maximum walking distances, and  convenient routes for mail c o l l e c t i o n .  Each such f a c i l i t y i s  designed independently of others, except that some are located on the supports of other services when i n a suitable location. In summary, the process of designing the street use and servicement of l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets i s largely carried out by establishing design standards which f o r the most part require r e l a t i v e l y minor modification for adaptation f o r p a r t i c u l a r streets. IV.  CURRENT PROCESS OF INSTALLING PROPERTY SERVICE FACILITIES The o v e r a l l process of i n s t a l l i n g property service  faci-  l i t i e s i n current practice i s to prepare the whole street f o r s e r v i c i n g , and then to i n s t a l l the service f a c i l i t i e s  independently  in roughly this order: u t i l i t i e s , pavements, and planting.**  The  process of i n s t a l l i n g each f a c i l i t y i s the same i n terms of the general types of operations involved.  These operations are  excavating, preparing a 'bed', i n s t a l l i n g the f a c i l i t y , backf i l l i n g , and cleaning up.  The s p e c i f i c operations involved i n  Street uses have been omitted because they are not i n s t a l l e d themselves, but are f a c i l i t a t e d by one or more of the f a c i l i t i e s which are i n s t a l l e d .  t h e s e p r o c e s s e s and z a t i o n s are Preparing  to  outlined  current  ' c l e a r and  required  exceptions  t o the  preceding  generali-  below.  the S t r e e t  The is  the  for Servicing  p r a c t i c e of preparing  g r a d e ' the  full  upon s u b d i v i s i o n by  a street for servicing  width of  a l l of the  the  street.  This  is  subdivision control 9  by-laws or r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s t u d i e d . A l t h o u g h the 'grade' are  i n t e n t i s the  same, t h e g e n e r a l  l e s s d e s c r i p t i v e than the  by-laws or s p e c i f i c a t i o n s which are cipality  entirely  and  g r u b b i n g out  roots of v a r i o u s  s t r i p p i n g o f a l l t o p s o i l and commences.*operation  "excavation  term  s h a p i n g the  g r o u n d i n and  shovelling, scraping, Fillingconsists  of  and  near the  hauling  those operations See  depths;  to the  list  of  and  the  latter  materials".  involved  involved  These i n c l u d e  in  designs.  i n excavating  material  bull-dozing,  where  required.  which b r i n g the  required grade.  natural  These  which consolidate  the  Compacting  filled  (but  include  s c r a p i n g where n a t i v e m a t e r i a l  dumping o t h e r w i s e .  these i n  and  grading  s t r e e t to prescribed  b l a s t i n g of rock  b u l l - d o z i n g , s h o v e l l i n g , and s u i t a b l e ; and  topsoil  embraces a l l o p e r a t i o n s  those operations  t o p o g r a p h y up  muni-  complete  vegetable matter before  above d e s i r e d grade ( o r s h a p e ) .  stripped)  One  b r u s h by  s i z e s to prescribed  of organic  'grading'  and  of a l l main root c l u s t e r s  C u t t i n g c o n s i s t s of a l l operations  of  employed h e r e i n .  Another m u n i c i p a l i t y (Burnaby) describes  0  as  The  'clear'  terms used i n c e r t a i n  s p e c i f i e s c l e a r i n g o f a l l t r e e s and  removal or burning;  terms  material  is  consists to  Bibliography.  ^ D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, Standard Plans & S p e c i f 1 c a t i o n s , a m a n u a l l o a n e d t o s u b d i v i d e r s and k e p t r e v i s e d . ^ D i s t r i c t of Burnaby, S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the o f M u n i c i p a l S t r e e t s and L a n e s . J u l y , 1962.  Construction  74. acceptable standards  by tamping or r o l l i n g .  Fine-grading (or  shaping or forming) consists of those operations which bring the street to the desired shape.  They include a l l of the above  grading operations except b l a s t i n g , but are carried out i n a more controlled manner involving f i n e r or c l o s e r tolerances. If properly carried out, the process described above prepares  the street f o r i n s t a l l i n g of the road, and sometimes  the sidewalk, without s p e c i a l excavation f o r these A road  facilities.  'bed' or p a r t i a l pavement such as a gravel sub-base i s  o r d i n a r i l y i n s t a l l e d at this stage to f a c i l i t a t e movement of vehicles involved i n the processes of i n s t a l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s of other services or constructing of dwellings. Installing  Utilities  Utilities  are i n s t a l l e d following preparation of the  street and i n s t a l l a t i o n of a road bed, but before pavements i n the best current practice to avoid damage to pavements.  The  i d e a l order would be from the bottom (or deepest) up, but to some extent i t does not matter so long as the various operations are staged to avoid c o n f l i c t s .  Thus, the order might be sewers,  storm drains, water pipes, gas pipes, and then underground or overhead wiring and cabling. The process of i n s t a l l i n g a l l underground u t i l i t i e s involves the same general types of operations.  These general  operations are excavating a trench, shaping the trench bottom or preparing a bed for the f a c i l i t y , laying the f a c i l i t y  itself,  testing the f a c i l i t y , covering the f a c i l i t y , b a c k f i l l i n g the trench, and cleaning up.  Excavating involves digging by power  shovels, backhoes, or trenchers; and shoring when the trench i s deep or the sides are unstable.  Shaping the trench bottom to  f i t f a c i l i t i e s usually involves hand work with shovels, and with trowels when there are hubs on drains.  Beds are laid by placing  and shaping sand, gravel, or concrete i n the trench bottom.  75. Laying of f a c i l i t i e s  usually involves placing sections of drain,  p i p e , o r c o n d u i t i n t h e t r e n c h and j o i n i n g  them  together.  Facilities  a r e t e s t e d t o ensure t h a t they w i l l  Facilities  a r e c o v e r e d w i t h one o f t h e b e d d i n g m a t e r i a l s ;  usually  t h e same one u s e d i n t h e b e d .  care t o prevent  damage t o t h e f a c i l i t y .  function properly.  T h i s i s done w i t h Backfilling  p l a c i n g s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l , u s u a l l y the excavated  special  involves  s p o i l , i n the  remainder o f t h e t r e n c h i n l a y e r s , each o f which i s c a r e f u l l y c o m p a c t e d by t a m p i n g .  The c l e a n i n g up o p e r a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f  r e m o v i n g a l l unwanted m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g s u r p l u s  excavated  material. The  process  o f i n s t a l l i n g overhead u t i l i t i e s d i f f e r s i n  the f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s . by d r i l l i n g  Instead o f trenches, holes are excavated  or shovelling.  Supports  are erected i n the holes  i n s t e a d o f l a y i n g beds, and t h e h o l e s a r e b a c k f i l l e d  before,  r a t h e r than a f t e r t h e w i r e s and c a b l e s a r e i n s t a l l e d . installed pulled  by s t r i n g i n g  through  Installing  from support  to support,  c o n d u i t s from manhole t o manhole.  process  of i n s t a l l i n g p e d e s t r i a n access  sidewalks, i s similar to that f o ru t i l i t i e s .  and  excavated then  of concrete, t h i s  itself  i s installed.  of concrete  forms,  Backfilling  laid,  casting concrete, Asphalt  and r o l l e d .  s i d e w a l k s a r e made o f f i n e l y c r u s h e d  forms and r o l l e d .  trench  When t h e s i d e w a l k i s  t h e s u r f a c e , and l a t e r r e m o v i n g t h e form.  "Screenings"  The  A shallow  i s done by c o n s t r u c t i n g f o r m s ,  sidewalks are cast hot or cold without  out  pavements, o r  and s h a p e d , a b e d o f s a n d o r g r a v e l may be  the f a c i l i t y  finishing  instead of being  Pavements  The  is  These a r e  rock cast w i t h -  i s required only at the sides  sidewalks. process  o f i n s t a l l i n g v e h i c u l a r access  pavements, o r  r o a d s , a l s o f o l l o w s t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n , b u t has s e v e r a l  76.  complications. connections operations is  Excavation  t o d r i v e w a y s and f o r c r u b - g u t t e r s , s i n c e t h e g r a d i n g shape t h e g r o u n d f o r t h e r o a d .  usually partially  during  i s o r d i n a r i l y required only f o r  the process  installed  A l s o , t h e road bed  prior to u t i l i t i e s ,  of i n s t a l l i n g  them.  but disturbed  T h u s , g r a v e l must be  added t o form a temporary pavement, o r bed f o r a permanent one. Sand o r g r a v e l i s p l a c e d is of concrete,  as a bed f o r t h e c u r b - g u t t e r .  i t i s e i t h e r c a s t i n forms o r extruded  'curbing' machine.  Asphalt  curbs  a r e extruded  When t h i s from a  e i t h e r by s i m i l a r  m a c h i n e s o r by a t t a c h m e n t s o n t h e ' p a v i n g ' m a c h i n e .  The l a t t e r  extrudes  t h e a s p h a l t pavement b e t w e e n t h e c u r b s , w h i c h i s t h e n  rolled.  Backfilling  Installing The  i s r e q u i r e d only behind  Plants manner o f i n s t a l l i n g p l a n t s i s f a m i l i a r  I n t h e terms employed h e r e , excavating ling  the curbs.  a hole,  t o everyone.  t r e e s and s h r u b s a r e i n s t a l l e d by  l a y i n g a b e d o f humus o r f e r t i l i z e r ,  t h e p l a n t , and b a c k f i l l i n g .  I n s t a l l i n g Other  Facilities  Where t h e y facilities  a r e n o t i n s t a l l e d o n lamp s u p p o r t s , t h e  of other  property  services are installed  a hole, i n s t a l l i n g a support,  backfilling,  the  Thus, t h e process  facility  to the support.  that o f i n s t a l l i n g overhead V.  by e x c a v a t i n g  and then a t t a c h i n g i s similar to  utilities.  COMPOSITE BEST, NORMAL, AND WORST SERVICING PRACTICES The  detailed description of current servicing practices  contained  i n A p p e n d i x A has been g e n e r a l i z e d i n t o t h r e e  practices  f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s  investigation.  proposed p r a c t i c e s have been t e s t e d .  'composite'  These a r e  c o m p o s i t e b e s t , n o r m a l , and w o r s t p r a c t i c e s , a g a i n s t  they  instal-  which  As g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s must,  l e a v e o u t much o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e , b u t  this simplifies  t h e comparison w i t h the proposed p r a c t i c e s .  They a l s o do n o t r e p r e s e n t  t h e p r a c t i c e i n a n y one m u n i c i p a l i t y  77. or area thereof, because any one area may  be serviced by a  mixture of practices from best to worst.  The municipality or  area closest to each of the composite practices established herein i s mentioned with comments on the differences. The ranking of current servicing practices forming the basis of these composite practices involved the application of the public interest c r i t e r i a and/or p r i n c i p l e s presented i n the preceding chapter.  For instance, servicing practices s i g n i -  f i c a n t l y superior (or i n f e r i o r ) to others i n terms of public health, safety, convenience, welfare, amenity or economy have been up-graded (or down-graded). install  Practices i n which subdlviders  services have been ranked above others i n accordance with  the p r i n c i p l e of payment for benefit. facilities  S i m i l a r l y practices where  are i n s t a l l e d p r i o r to f i r s t occupancy of  have been ranked above others according maximum benefit.  dwellings  to the p r i n c i p l e of  Lowest ranks have been assigned to those where  services are provided  the longest time a f t e r f i r s t occupancy  because the number of years the service was  available would be  minimized. Ranks apply only to practices where services are provided, the absence of services being noted i n the detailed descriptions in Appendix A.  In the discussions of actual practice, the areas  with more services are rated higher than others, since i t i s generally better to have a service than not.  Exceptions to this  generality might occur where such poor f a c i l i t i e s  have been  i n s t a l l e d that they are seldom used and are counter to some elements of the public i n t e r e s t .  An example might be a  'screenings*  walk that i s seldom used because of i t s dampness, has a poor appearance, and i s expensive to maintain. The composite practices derived from the detailed ranking of current practices are defined below by the major functional c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of services.  78. Composite Best Practice The composite best practice i s simply a compilation of the best and better practices for a l l of the services currently provided.  For this purpose, the normal practice has been taken  as the best practice where none better than normal exists for a p a r t i c u l a r service. the  normal  Thus, the best practice of street use i s  one of accommodating parking on both sides of the  vehicular access roadway on a p a r a l l e l parking s t r i p adjacent to the roadway throughout  i t s length except at intersections.  The best practices of providing the various services are summarized below by l i s t i n g  for each group of services the  f a c i l i t i e s that are i n s t a l l e d by the subdivider, except where noted, prior to f i r s t occupancy of the dwellings i n the area being served..  These are:  Access Services:  an asphalt pavement between concrete curb-  gutters on a gravel or sand base to specifications established by municipal engineers, and concrete sidewalks on both sides of the s t r e e t . Baric Services:  a cast iron water pipe of minimum s i x inches  diameter, and a p l a s t i c coated welded s t e e l gas pipe i n s t a l l e d by the B. C. Hydro & Power Authority. Communicative Services:  a conduit for telephone cable  i n s t a l l e d by B. C. Telephone Co. and, i f required, cable for cable T.V.,  alarm, and control services  i n s t a l l e d by t h e i r respective u t i l i t y companies. Drainage Services:  twin storm and sanitary drains plus  concrete curb-gutters. E l e c t r i c a l Services:  conduits for e l e c t r i c power wires  i n s t a l l e d by the B. C. Hydro & Power Authority and street l i g h t i n g wires i n s t a l l e d by the subdivider who I n s t a l l s the lamps and their supports.  79. Furnishing Services: Gardening Services:  transformer kiosks. boulevard trees and grass to be  pruned by municipality or parks board, but otherwise cared f o r by adjacent residents. Holding Services:  no holders, since f a c i l i t i e s for the  postal service are assumed to be located on c o l l e c t o r or more important s t r e e t s , and garbage cans to be provided Indicating Services:  by residents.  street name signs i n s t a l l e d by 12  the municipality o n the  lamp  posts.  The keeping services are not the concern of the  subdivider  since the municipality takes over ownership and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the f a c i l i t i e s either upon subdivision or one year l a t e r . The keeping service practice however, would tend to be better than normal because of the existence of curbs and good pavements and  the elimination of costs to control growth of wild grass and  noxious weeds. Comparison with actual practice.  The composite best  practice of street use and s e r v i c i n g practices i n Metropolitan Vancouver i s most c l o s e l y matched by the Richmond Gardens development i n Richmond.  Departures from the composite best  practice are that this development w i l l have only one  sidewalk,  asbestos cement instead of cast iron water pipes, and separate instead of twin drains.  The  loss of p o t e n t i a l savings on drains  i s at the expense of the subdivider, and the other departures w i l l not reduce benefit derived from services s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Therefore,  for most purposes this development can be  to represent  considered  best practice.  See Appendix A, p. 230  from which this has been derived.  80. The  next  c l o s e s t a c t u a l p r a c t i c e i s Vancouver's  d i v i s i o n o f i t s own  l a n d a t 54th A v e n u e and  best composite p r a c t i c e w i l l facilities  be  are c o n c e r n e d , but  sub-  Kerr Street.  The  f o l l o w e d e x a c t l y i n s o f a r as  t h e p a v e m e n t s , c u r b s , and  street  l i g h t i n g a r e t o be p a i d f o r on a l o c a l i m p r o v e m e n t b a s i s . p r a c t i c e c a n be The  considered  b e t t e r than  U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s c a n a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d  composite best p r a c t i c e are  be and to  standard  of  lighting.  i n most a r e a s .  The  pole  N e i t h e r i s as  s e r i o u s as  l i n e s are f a i r l y  o f f s e t the poorer  street lighting  t h e modern h a n g i n g As  a standard  they  provided  those  would  by  lighting  by u p r i g h t  r e q u i r e d o f s u b d i v i d e r s by  a r e a s where s e w e r s a r e r e q u i r e d .  tend  lamps  municipalities,  The  Richmond  departures  are  t h e same as t h o s e m e n t i o n e d f o r R i c h m o n d G a r d e n s , p l u s n o t q u i r i n g any  landscaping.  trees,  types.  t h e c o m p o s i t e b e s t p r a c t i c e i s m o s t c l o s e l y m a t c h e d by in  and  w e l l hidden yard  to  from  the p a r t i a l overhead w i r i n g  on most s t r e e t s , t h e w i d e o p e n l a w n s and  t h a n by  This  normal.  have f o l l o w e d a b e t t e r p r a c t i c e s i n c e the departures  lower  the  I t i s b e t t e r than  re-  the proposed r e q u i r e -  ment f o r e s s e n t i a l u r b a n r e s i d e n t i a l s e r v i c e s recommended by Lower M a i n l a n d T h e r e a r e two  Regional P l a n n i n g Board i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s . p a r k i n g s t r i p s and  C u r b s , g u t t e r s , and stances.  W i r i n g and  and  are  grass  the  storm  sidewalks  d r a i n s are  i n s t e a d of  one.  included i n a l l circum-  c a b l i n g i s u n d e r g r o u n d , and  boulevard  trees  planted. -* 1  Composite Normal P r a c t i c e Composite n o r m a l p r a c t i c e of s t r e e t use  and  servicing is  s i m i l a r l y d e r i v e d from the p r a c t i c e s d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix Normal s t r e e t use  p r a c t i c e i s t o accommodate o n l y p a r k i n g  p r o v i d i n g pavement f o r p a r a l l e l p a r k i n g on b o t h  s i d e s of  A. by  the  —  Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , L a n d f o r L i v i n g . New W e s t m i n s t e r , B. C., J u n e 1963, p. 16.  81.  road throughout i t s length except at i n t e r s e c t i o n s .  The normal  practices of servicing are l i s t e d below: Access Services:  subdivider i n s t a l l s only a gravel road;  municipality i n s t a l l s asphalt road and  concrete  sidewalk l a t e r on l o c a l improvement basis. Baric Services:  subdivider i n s t a l l s asbestos cement  water pipe; B. C. Hydro & Power Authority  installs  p l a s t i c coated s t e e l gas pipe p r i o r to pavements being  installed.  Communicative Services:  B. C. Telephone Co. and any  other  u t i l i t y companies i n s t a l l cables overhead on power poles using integrated cable and support wire to minimize unattractiveness. Drainage Services:  subdivider i n s t a l l s ditches with culverts  under driveway and front walk connections;  munici-  p a l i t y later replaces these by storm drains and occasionally curb-gutters on l o c a l improvement basis. E l e c t r i c a l Services:  B. C. Hydro & Power Authority i n s t a l l s  wires overhead on poles placed i n lanes or rear easements and street lights at i n t e r s e c t i o n s ; municipality l a t e r i n s t a l l s lamps on painted s t e e l poles with underground wiring on a l o c a l improvement basis. Furnishing Services:  no furnishings are i n s t a l l e d other  than those related to other services. Gardening Services:  municipality or parks board i n s t a l l s  trees only; planting of grass l e f t to residents. Holding Services:  no holding services are i n s t a l l e d on  l o c a l s t r e e t s , postal f a c i l i t i e s being assumed to be on c o l l e c t o r or more important s t r e e t s .  7  82. Indicating Services;  municipality i n s t a l l s r e f l e c t i v e  sheet metal signs on separate metal posts. Keeping Services;  Keeping services f o r f a c i l i t i e s  installed  i n i t i a l l y i n normal practice would be mainly grading of gravel road and cleaning ditches. Comparison with actual practice.  As might be expected,  the composite normal practice i s exactly matched nowhere, but when s l i g h t or p a r t i a l departures are allowed f o r , i t represents the majority of practices.  I t i s thus a f a i r l y reasonable  representation of the normal or t y p i c a l practices. municipalities were considered  Specifically,  as conforming to the normal  practice when the only serious negative departure from composite best practice was not requiring sewers.  The reason i s that  sewers are required i n many, i f not a l l areas of these munic i p a l i t i e s by mortgage i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Several of the  municipalities have compensating, higher standards for other f a c i l i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y roads. The six municipalities thus considered  to match most  c l o s e l y the composite normal practice and t h e i r departures from i t are discussed below i n what i s considered  to be diminishing  rank. Delta requires a 20 foot wide, two inch thick asphalt road instead of the normal gravel one, but otherwise conforms to composite normal practice.  West Vancouver requires a s i m i l a r  asphalt pavement and 'sewer accommodation'.*-^ The next four municipalities do not require sewers, and hence are below the composite normal practice i n this respect. Port Moody i s placed next even though not yet o f f i c i a l l y r e quiring higher standards i n other f a c i l i t i e s , i s i n fact In e f f e c t this means only reservicing easements f o r sewers i n subdivisions contiguous to sewered areas. Statement by Mr. D. Walton, Municipal Planning O f f i c e r , West Vancouver,B.Co  83. achieving  much b e t t e r ,  i f not best p r a c t i c e .  d i v i d e r s have i n s t a l l e d street lighting The asphalt gravel  asphalt  and u n d e r g r o u n d  District  Recently sub-  roads, concrete  curb-gutters,  wiring. ^ 1  o f North Vancouver r e q u i r e s  a 26  r o a d , whereas Burnaby and S u r r e y r e q u i r e road.  foot  only  the normal  H o w e v e r , t h e s e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f t e n h a v e power  p o l e s o n s t r e e t s b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e no l a n e s i n some a r e a s . Composite Worst The is  Practice  composite w o r s t p r a c t i c e o f s t r e e t use and s e r v i c i n g  a n amalgam o f t h e w o r s e and w o r s t p r a c t i c e s .  s t r e e t use p r a c t i c e of  i s restricting  s t r e e t s except i n short  driveways.  parking  Access Services:  o n one o r b o t h  culs-de-sac with  The w o r s t s e r v i c i n g p r a c t i c e s subdivider  installs  The w o r s t  ample  private  are listed  only  a gravel  below: or s o i l  cement r o a d , a n d t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y  installs  nothing better  o n t h e r o a d and  asphalt  than f l u s h c o a t i n g  o r s c r e e n i n g s walks on a l o c a l  sides  later  improvement  basis. Baric Services:  subdivider  or m u n i c i p a l i t y  installs  undersized water  pipes  i n s t a l l s water pipes out of general  r e v e n u e ; B. C. H y d r o & Power A u t h o r i t y  i n s t a l l s gas  p i p e s a f t e r p a v e m e n t s and p l a n t i n g . Communicative S e r v i c e s : or c o n t r o l u t i l i t y  B. C. T e l e p h o n e C o . and a n y a l a r m companies i n s t a l l s  c a b l e s on  separate telephone poles i n s t r e e t s . Drainage Services:  subdivider  installs  which a r e e i t h e r l e f t o r replaced intercept  ditches  and c u l v e r t s  by m u n i c i p a l i t y t o  f l o w s on o t h e r s t r e e t s ; sewers a r e n o t  installed.  Telephone conversation with Mr. Hiebert, Municipal Clerk, Port Moody.  84. E l e c t r i c a l Services:  B. C. Hydro & Power Authority  i n s t a l l s wires on separate power poles i n streets with single lamps at intersections only. Furnishing Services: Gardening Services:  no furnishings are i n s t a l l e d . no plants are i n s t a l l e d , but wild  growth and noxious weeds are cut down or sprayed with herbicide. Holding Services:  no holders are i n s t a l l e d .  Indicating Services:  municipality i n s t a l l s wooden posts  with v e r t i c a l non-reflecting street name signs. Keeping Services:  Keeping services are mainly grading  of gravel roads and cleaning ditches. Comparison with actual practice.  None of the munici-  p a l i t i e s o r d i n a r i l y follow the worst practice with regard to street use, although parking i s either prohibited or i s impractical on some streets i n delta areas having deep and wide ditches as i n parts of Richmond and Delta.  However, the re-  maining municipalities follow several of the worst servicing practices. overall.  Port Coquitlam and Coquitlam seem to be the worst Vancouver i s included because i t requires  subdividers  to i n s t a l l only the bare minimum required by any municipality and i n s t a l l s some other f a c i l i t i e s out of general revenue.  The  fact that i t follows the best practices i n i n s t a l l i n g water and drainage f a c i l i t i e s ( i . e . cast iron pipe and twin drains) i s probably not appreciated so much by those served, as the fact that an asphalt road i s not provided as i n most of the surrounding municipalities.  Furthermore, the roads have tended to remain  uncurbed and unpaved for long periods or be f l u s h coated instead of paved with asphalt.  It i s rather i r o n i c that this s i t u a t i o n  results largely from the high standards formerly insisted upon for permanent f a c i l i t i e s and that one of the better practices  85. In the Metropolitan  area i s being followed VI.  i n a part of Vancouver.  SUMMARY  Current practices of street use and servicing have been described  i n this chapter for ten municipalities of  Metropolitan  Vancouver, selected on the basis of recent and future potential servicing a c t i v i t y .  The processes of designing  and  installing  applying generally to a l l services have been described.  Then  •composite* best, normal, and worst practices derived from the detailed description and ranking of servicing practices contained i n Appendix A have been defined practices described  for comparison with the proposed  i n the next chapter.  The standards for curbing and paving i n single-family r e s i d e n t i a l areas are currently being examined by the City with a view to establishing less expensive ones that are more l i k e l y to be i n s t a l l e d , thus r a i s i n g the actual standard of development.  CHAPTER I I I PROPOSED DESIGNING PRACTICES A DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROCESS OF DESIGNING PROPERTY SERVICE FACILITIES FOR LOCAL RESIDENTIAL STREET USE AND SERVICEMENT  1  The proposed street use and s e r v i c i n g designing practices for  future l o c a l streets of single-family r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s  are defined and described i n this chapter f o r l a t e r evaluation i n r e l a t i o n to the current practices described i n the preceding chapter.  The proposed process of designing the property service  f a c i l i t i e s i s described i n comparison to the best current practices where pertinent to point up the differences evaluated i n the next chapter. The practices discussed herein actually constitute a proposed approach to servicing that could r e s u l t i n better street use and servicement, environment.  and thus better t o t a l development and  This approach would be more comprehensive, yet  more f l e x i b l e , than that of current practice, thus allowing greater freedom f o r imaginative designers to create streets that are more useful and interesting parts of our environments.  The  approach i s described i n terms of various possible practices of designing property services.  Before proceeding with this  description, the assumptions and p r i n c i p l e s underlying the proposed practices are outlined below.  I.  ASSUMPTIONS AND PRINCIPLES OF PROPOSED PRACTICES  The basic assumption of the proposed practices i s that the provision i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets of an underground structure i n which u t i l i t i e s could be i n s t a l l e d would allow The term servicement means the condition or state e x i s t i n g when services have been i n s t a l l e d . See page 19. f o r definition.  87. better use and servicement of these streets than does current practices.  By better use i s meant more use of streets - through  both greater intensity of present uses and new uses - because of special provisions for such uses. better physical environment  Better servicement means a  due to the greater degree to which  the f a c i l i t i e s of the property meet the needs and desires of the people served.  The reason f o r this i s that the current practices  of i n s t a l l i n g u t i l i t i e s place such severe limitations on the design of other f a c i l i t i e s that there i s l i t t l e f l e x i b i l i t y i n their  placement. It i s further assumed that people would prefer what i s  herein considered to be better street use and servicement. This i s undoubtedly presumptive and 'begging the question' but i s necessary at this point because i t i s not known whether people would accept some of the proposals, having no experience with them.  It can be safely assumed that, cost considerations aside,  people would prefer the whole range of property services, and at as high a standard as possible.  For example, they would  prefer concrete curb-gutters to anything less, underground to overhead wiring, and 'lots of nice trees' to a few spindly ones. However, whether they would be prepared to walk a few extra steps from parking areas i n exchange for some benefits of a perhaps intangible nature i s not known.  Psychological studies i n depth  might provide the answers, but i t i s more l i k e l y to require actual experimental i n s t a l l a t i o n s . petences of this investigator.  Neither i s within the com-  Therefore, value judgements are  made where necessary on the basis of observed behaviour of people i n comparable circumstances. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the assumptions made regarding proposed practice, with the principles upon which they are based are:^ 1) A l l u t i l i t i e s ( i . e . including wiring and cabling) should be i n s t a l l e d underground with as many as  -  See pages 39 - 48 f o r discussion of these p r i n c i p l e s .  88 feasible i n u t i l i t y  structures.  2) U t i l i t i e s , pavements, planting, and other f a c i l i t i e s should be comprehensively designed f o r each section considering needs and desires of resident users of streets. 3) F a c i l i t i e s should be i n s t a l l e d : - by the subdivider ( i n accordance with p r i n c i p l e of payment f o r benefit). - p r i o r to occupancy of dwellings ( p r i n c i p l e of maximum benefit). - i n integrated i n s t a l l a t i o n s ( p r i n c i p l e of integration). - by l o g i c a l stages (e.g. u t i l i t i e s before pavements; pavements before planting) (principle of maximum b e n e f i t ) . II.  PROPOSED PROCESS OF DESIGNING STREET USE AND SERVICEMENT The proposed process of designing street use and service-  ment would d i f f e r from the current practice i n two main ways. It would be more comprehensive i n terms of the number of factors considered i n each design decision,and i t would be more intimately related to the problems and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l street sections.  The process would be more comprehensive partly because  of the aim of making greater use of streets which consideration  necessitates  of some s o c i a l and additional functional  Partly i t would be due to changed and variable between f a c i l i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t services.  factors.  relationships  The more intimate  design relationship of f a c i l i t i e s with i n d i v i d u a l street would make i t possible  sections  to avoid or minimize topographic and  drainage problems and thus reduce costs.  On the other hand, i t  would allow advantage to be taken of s p e c i a l features of the t e r r a i n such as rock outcroppings or groups of a t t r a c t i v e trees, and  to enhance the street environment and the benefit derived  from i t . The  f i r s t step i n the process of designing a p a r t i c u l a r  89. section of a l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l street would be to establish the probable needs and wants of the people l i k e l y to l i v e on the street section.  This would depend upon the number of sites  abutting the section, their size and shape, and the anticipated income of the residents. The number of s i t e s , coupled with estimates of various average c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s related to income, would provide estimates of the number of people of various age groups, the number of cars and other pertinent factors.  The size  and shape of lots would give an i n d i c a t i o n of the extent to which various needs can be met on the s i t e .  For example, large  s i t e s tend to have ample space for recreational purposes,  and  wide s i t e s ample space f o r driveways on which cars can be parked. Thus the need to accommodate some types of recreation and parking on the street i s less i n such d i s t r i c t s than i n others.  Unfor-  tunately, the need f o r street uses i s generally greatest where there i s least street space available to accommodate them, and v i c e versa. The second step i n the proposed design process i s the examination of problems and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the p a r t i c u l a r street section.  The terms 'problems' and  ' p o s s i b i l i t i e s ' are  r e l a t i v e i n that a problem f o r one service may well present p o s s i b i l i t i e s for another.  For example, rock outcroppings present  problems f o r the access and u t i l i t y services, but present opportunities f o r the gardening service i n that they could be incorporated into a landscaping design.  Hence, the need f o r  comprehensive consideration. The third step i n the proposed design process would be the'creative one of preparing a comprehensive design for the p a r t i c u l a r street section.  This i s e s s e n t i a l l y a matter of  compromising between the f u l f i l l m e n t of needs and desires, solution of problems and r e a l i z a t i o n of p o s s i b i l i t i e s to achieve an optimum design.  The design of p a r t i c u l a r street sections  90. would also be related to that of adjoining sections and the street system of the surrounding d i s t r i c t .  Thus, while each  street section could have a character of i t s own, i t should form part of a larger unit of several blocks i n extent.  Trees are  probably the best design element to provide unity throughout  such  an area because of their v i s u a l prominence (when of a f a i r size) and variety of species or combinations  of them.  Other plants,  especially shrubs, might also be used f o r this purpose i n combination with trees, but only to a limited extent because plants are also probably the best means of achieving variety of design within the street section.  Other f a c i l i t i e s are unsuitable f o r  achieving unity over r e l a t i v e l y small 'neighbourhoods' d i s t i n c t from other areas because either they cannot be changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y v i s u a l l y or to do so would destroy desirable standardization.  Thus, such f a c i l i t i e s should provide unity over much  larger areas, i f not the whole metropolitan area. layout and shape of some of them can be manipulated  However, the to provide  v a r i e t y and interest within street sections. Although a l l factors would be considered  comprehensively  in the proposed design process, there are s i x main aspects which can be discussed separately f o r the sake of s i m p l i c i t y .  These  are street uses, u t i l i t y structures, u t i l i t i e s , pavements, planting, and other f a c i l i t i e s . comparison  They are discussed below i n  with current practice f o r two conditions.  In the  f i r s t , i t i s assumed that an area i s subdivided but not serviced. In the second, i t i s assumed an area i s neither subdivided nor serviced, so that the proposed practice of subdividing can be discussed i n r e l a t i o n to the preceding discussion of servicing practices.  In both cases i t i s further assumed that the street  section being dealt with i s a l o c a l street i n a single-family residential district, of  the houses.  and w i l l remain so throughout  the lifetime  91. The f i r s t condition exists i n many parts of the metrop o l i t a n area because of excessive subdividing a c t i v i t y for speculative purposes during past land booms.  I t can be consi-  dered to exist at that stage i n the subdividing process a f t e r staking-out of s i t e s and streets, but p r i o r to r e g i s t r a t i o n and commencement of the servicing process. the developed  or p a r t i a l l y developed  I t would also exist i n  areas having so few or  such poor property service f a c i l i t i e s that they could be ignored i n redesigning the s t r e e t .  The t y p i c a l chain wide (66 feet)  street i s assumed. Proposed Designing of Street Uses The proposed practice of designing street uses involves both more uses and more designing than current practice.  The  l a t t e r f a c i l i t a t e s the parking use by providing paved parking s t r i p s beside the movement portion of the road.  Designing  involves only the decisions of whether to allow parking on one or both sides and the width of pavement required.  Ordinarily  both decisions have been incorporated into pavement design standards, so for a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l street the only decision i s the selection of the appropriate standard f o r the street t y p i c a l or cul-de-sac. The street uses that would be considered i n designing new  streets (or redesigning e x i s t i n g ones i n developed areas)**  are parking or storing cars, and playing or other forms of recreational a c t i v i t y .  The extent to which, and manner i n which  these would be accommodated i n a p a r t i c u l a r street would be based upon the p a r t i c u l a r needs or desires of the people to be served.  The amount of parking would be based upon an estimate  of the need or demand for i t including parking f o r v i s i t o r s to The parenthetical comments i n this section are included because of the p o s s i b i l i t y of redesigning existing streets i n developed or p a r t i a l l y developed areas along s i m i l a r l i n e s .  92. the future residents of the area.  Since this i s the most  c r i t i c a l use i n terms of the space i t consumes, the estimate of  the amount of parking required i s discussed separately below,  followed by discussion of the need f o r playing space. Parking,  whether storage of cars i n such shelter f a c i -  l i t i e s as carports and garages would be accommodated on streets and the extent of such accommodation would depend on the need or desire f o r t h i s .  The need would be related to such factors as  the t o t a l need f o r storage, the amount that could be provided on s i t e s , and the climate.  Except for the l a t t e r , these factors are  s i m i l a r to those for parking which i s discussed below.  The  desires f o r on-street storage of cars involve the balance of people's preferences and prejudices regarding convenience of getting to their vehicles, use of t h e i r l o t s i t e , use of public streets, and ownership of such storage f a c i l i t i e s . The estimate of the amount of parking required would be based upon consideration of such factors as the presence of lanes and driveways, the frontage widths of l o t s ; and the probable car ownership, income, and behaviour of the future residents.  These  factors are either i n t e r r e l a t e d or tend to appear i n c e r t a i n combinations and the relationships are often not simple ones. For example, where lanes exist and provide access to garages, i t could be argued there i s no need for parking on the street except for v i s i t o r s .  However, there seems to be a tendency f o r more  parking to occur on the street during the day i n those areas with lanes than those without.  On the one hand, people cannot be  bothered to use the lanes during the day i f they can park i n front of  t h e i r house on the street.  On the other hand, areas without  lanes usually have driveways which are convenient to use during the day.  In either case, as l o t sizes and incomes increase the  number of cars on the street tends to decrease, except when  93. someone has many v i s i t o r s at one time.  This occurs even though  car ownership also usually increases with income because driveways tend to be b u i l t that can accommodate the cars of the resident and one or two  visitors.  The behavioural factors include a l l those factors of a s o c i o l o g i c a l nature which influence the ways i n which people use t h e i r cars.  For example, i n socio-economic groups where car  ownership or ownership of more than the normal number or quality of cars i s rare, there i s a tendency to park the rare cars i n the most prominent place possible, which i s usually on the street i n front of the house. where cars may  or may  At the other end of the scale,  not be status symbols, there seems to be a  tendency for cars to be parked d i s c r e e t l y out of sight f o r fear of appearing excessively ostentatious.  Most such  behavioural  factors can be correlated with income and the income of future residents of an area being developed can usually be forecast fairly  accurately. Recreation.  The amount and type of playing or other  recreational a c t i v i t i e s accommodated would s i m i l a r l y be based on consideration of needs and desires.  In most areas this probably  would involve accommodating the needs of children of various ages.  For small children, sand boxes and s i m i l a r suitable  f a c i l i t i e s might be provided  i n on-street  'tot l o t s ' .  should be safe i f fenced or otherwise protected and by adults for whom benches should be provided.  supervised  Such f a c i l i t i e s  seem popular with both mothers and children i n the new of Sweden.  7  These  towns  While communal f a c i l i t i e s l i k e this are p r a c t i c a l l y  unknown here, they might provide an a l t e r n a t i v e to the much c r i t i c i z e d suburban 'coffee klatches• and the opportunity mothers to be out-of-doors with t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The Swedish new towns of Vallingby and Farsta were v i s i t e d by the investigator. 7  for  94. Probably the greatest need f o r playing space i s f o r those too old or big to play on single-family r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s , but not old or big enough to t r a v e l to neighbourhood parks which tend to be monopolized by older children.  The children i n this  group l i k e to try playing the group games that older children play, such as baseball and f o o t b a l l , for which backyards are too small.  They are either not permitted  the parks, or not permitted  by t h e i r parents to go to  by older children to play with them  on the same park because of their s i z e or Inexperience at these games. for  Consequently, they play on the s t r e e t s .  This i s dangerous  them because of vehicular t r a f f i c and the presence of parked  cars and also subjects the cars to possible damage.  For these  children, a turfed area of reasonable s i z e would be provided away from intersections and o f f the road, but c l e a r l y v i s i b l e by approaching d r i v e r s . The needs or desires of other ages and natures of people might also be f u l f i l l e d by i n s t a l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n the street not currently provided.  For example, seating areas might be  i n s t a l l e d for e l d e r l y people to get together to chat with their cronies or to watch children playing.  The l a t t e r would f u l f i l l  both t h e i r desire to see a c t i v i t y and the children's desire to be seen.  While i t i s granted that people i n the Vancouver area  generally do not s i t out i n l o c a l streets i n single-family r e s i d e n t i a l areas, i t may  be that this i s because no  facilities  are provided and the environment i s inhospitable for such uses.** In some areas, s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s might be i n s t a l l e d f o r c e r t a i n One can observe how well used are some benches on streets at t r a n s i t stops or near parks and where c i t i z e n s have erected t h e i r own crude benches so that they can 'watch the world go by'. Unfortunately, many benches are poorly placed or oriented, and are either not used or require people to turn around to watch the more i n t e r e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s behind the benches. Since some people prefer s i t t i n g backwards so they can put their arms on the backs of benches, perhaps the benches should be redesigned or placed i n pairs facing opposite d i r e c t i o n s .  95. n a t i o n a l g r o u p s when t h e y w o u l d be b e t t e r p r o v i d e d on  the s t r e e t than i n back y a r d s .  game o f b o c c e w h i c h when p l a y e d by  An  communally  example i s the  Italians  tends  t o be  n o i s y and h e n c e u n d e s i r a b l e c l o s e t o h o u s e s whose might not enjoy such  noise.  These n e e d s and  dimensions  i n t e r m s o f t h e a r e a and  fulfill  any  minimum  Utility  These  f o r the s t r e e t which i t  feasible.  Structures  designing of u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s , of course, i s a unique  aspect of the proposed d e s i g n i n g p r o c e s s . p r a c t i c e s v a r y somewhat f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t because of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a c t o r s s t r u c t u r e s are i l l u s t r a t e d page.  to  r e q u i r e d f o r them f o r t h e s t r e e t b e i n g d e s i g n e d .  w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e t o a c h i e v e w h e r e  The  occupants  the f a c i l i t i e s  c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as g o a l s o r s t a n d a r d s  Designing  somewhat  9  d e s i r e s , and  them, w o u l d be e x p r e s s e d  Italian  and  The  i n t e g r a t e d one l o c a t i o n and  involved.  These t y p e s  b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d on  the  order of  of  following difficulty.  s t r u c t u r e t o d e s i g n i s the most h i g h l y  - the a l l - u t i l i t y t r o u g h .  depth  designing  types of s t r u c t u r e  They a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w i n d e s c e n d i n g The m o s t d i f f i c u l t  proposed  This i s because  o f i t s b o t t o m a r e g o v e r n e d by  the  drainage  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i l e i t s t o p i s g o v e r n e d by p e d e s t r i a n  access  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , as  these  i t s c o v e r forms the s i d e w a l k .  f a c t o r s c a n be i n c o n f l i c t , compromise between i d e a l p e d e s t r i a n access  Since  i t w o u l d s o m e t i m e s be n e c e s s a r y  l o c a t i o n s f o r the drainage  facilities.  have to f a v o u r the d r a i n a g e  and  Such compromises would  facilities  to  i n view of the  probably costs  involved. The  drainage  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which apply  o f a l l - u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s and  to the three  drains i n current practice,  A p r o t e s t to t h i s e f f e c t r e c e i v e d considerable p u b l i c i t y i n Vancouver newspapers.  types  are  96.  STRUCTURES f M i n e d treat -open t o -utiiiti.es comple t e l y accessible -covered by side walk -precast concrete  -underground between manutil.lt i accessible only at manholes errcast con ere te NOTE: could als< ? square o r rectsnguler i n cross-section, i.e.duct i n stead o f i-ube -u nderg round b51 .vee n nanh ole s except lectr ioal ubeJ- conduit i t l l i t les i b l e only| . cce ss .t manh o l e a lectr leal ube d- c o nd u i t f orms side ,v s 1 <, t ie r s may l s r be under ide tp lk xtrud ed o r r j  DIAGEAK i . TYPE 3' 0? PROPOSED UTILITY STRUCTURES  97.  * minimum d r a i n  slope  a) no c r o s s s l o p e  b) c r o s s  slope  D i a g r a m 3. E f f e c t o f L o c a t i o n on D e p t h o f D r a i n s those  affecting  t h e d e p t h and c o n s e q u e n t c o s t s f o r v a r i o u s  l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the s t r e e t . shallowest  As c a n be s e e n f r o m D i a g r a m 3, t h e  l o c a t i o n i s on t h e c e n t e r  l i n e when t h e p r o p e r t y  on  b o t h s i d e s o f t h e s t r e e t i s a t t h e same e l e v a t i o n , and o n t h e low  s i d e when one s i d e i s h i g h e r  having  basementless housing,  s u f f i c i e n t cover utility  The  above t h e d r a i n s .  1 0  providing A l l -  s t r u c t u r e s m i g h t be p l a c e d o n o r n e a r t h e c e n t e r l i n e s l o p e , b u t w o u l d be p l a c e d  s i d e w h e r e t h e r e was a c r o s s s l o p e .  s t r u c t u r e w o u l d be p l a c e d as  I n areas  t h e d e p t h w o u l d be l e s s ,  were m a i n t a i n e d  w h e r e t h e r e i s no c r o s s low  than the other.  as c l o s e t o t h e s e  the d i c t a t e s of the p e d e s t r i a n access other  all-utility  c o u l d be p l a c e d  The t r o u g h  towards the all-utility  least cost locations  s e r v i c e would  allow.  s t r u c t u r e s - t u n n e l and tubed c o n d u i t  o n them w i t h o u t  such  -  restrictions.  A second f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g depth o f drainage  facilities is  the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e i r s l o p e t o t h a t o f the ground a l o n g the street.  This  i n v o l v e s t h e complex r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  s l o p e o f d r a i n s and t h e i r s i z e , a n d t h e f l o w a n d v e l o c i t y o f  I n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e , s u c h l e a s t c o s t l o c a t i o n s c a n be u s e d by o n l y one o f t h e two d r a i n a g e s e r v i c e s e x c e p t f o r t h e best p r a c t i c e of i n s t a l l i n g 'twin' d r a i n s . The c e n t e r l i n e l o c a t i o n i s n o t used f o r e i t h e r i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s such as D e l t a and R i c h m o n d where s t r e e t d r a i n s a r e n o t i n s t a l l e d u n d e r pavements.  98. flow i n them. Of i n t e r e s t here i s that f o r a given size and flow, there i s a minimum slope to provide s u f f i c i e n t v e l o c i t y to keep the drain c l e a r , and a maximum slope that avoids scouring of the drain.  excessive  Three general cases, which are i l l u s t r a t e d  on Diagram 4 on the following page, are considered.  Where the  ground slope i s gentle, taken here as between the minimum and maximum slope for drains, the drain can p a r a l l e l the ground slope (see Diagram 4-b).  Hence, the drain can be at the minimum  depth f o r adequate cover or to receive s i t e drains.  Where the  ground slope i s l e v e l or less than the minimum drain slope, the depth of the drain increases from the minimum depth for adequate cover or to receive house drains at the upper end (Diagram 4-a). For these two cases, there i s no difference between proposed and current practice. There i s a difference however, i n the t h i r d case where the ground slope exceeds the maximum drain slope.  In this case,  depth increases from a minimum at the lower end at a manhole or intercepting drain towards the upper end.  The drain can be  stepped up to the minimum depth at ramp or drop manholes, but manholes are expensive.  T h e o r e t i c a l l y , on a long straight run,  the spacing of manholes would be reduced from the maximum (usually 300 feet) to a distance such that savings r e s u l t i n g from reduced depth of the drain balanced the cost of extra manholes. In practice however, runs are r e l a t i v e l y short between manholes required at junctions or changes i n d i r e c t i o n .  Hence, i t i s  often a matter of having one or two manholes between those at intersecting s t r e e t s .  The extra one i s i n s t a l l e d only when the  depth otherwise would involve much greater costs, or rock excavation could be avoided. In the proposed practice, the u t i l i t y structure would be stepped more frequently than drains i n current practice because  99.  ~~" Note:  (a) Level  i n d i c a t e s minimum d r a i n ^ i n d i c a t e s minimum c o v e r  Street slope  (c-1) Maximum m a n h o l e  spacing  (c-2) M a n h o l e added a t m i d p o i n t  (c-3) Two m a n h o l e s a t t h i r d  points  (c) Steeply Sloped S t r e e t ( i . e . above max. d r a i n s l o p e ) DIAGRAM 4 -  E F F E C T OF STREET SLOPE AND MANHOLE SPACING ON DEPTH OF DRAINS  100. manholes or their equivalent would be i n s t a l l e d at r e l a t i v e l y short intervals for other reasons discussed below.  The e f f e c t  on depth below minimum cover, and hence cost, ignoring that of manholes, i s Inversely proportionate to the t o t a l number of steps.  For example, adding one manhole midway between two  others to make two steps reduces the maximum depth, the average depth, and the longitudinal s e c t i o n a l area below minimum cover to-one half the former values.  S i m i l a r l y , two equidistant  additional manholes (three steps) would reduce the values to one-third.  These effects on drain depths of a d d i t i o n a l manholes  are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Diagrams 4-a,-b, and-c. Designing  Utilities  The process of designing the f a c i l i t i e s of the u t i l i t y services i s the aspect most comparable to the best current practice, allowing for differences due to the existence of the u t i l i t y structure and i n pavement and planting layouts.  In the  best current practice, a copy of a tentative or preliminary subdivision plat i s sent by the municipal planning department to each u t i l i t y service agency for comments and cost The functional layouts and physical designs  estimates.  for each service are  designed for the subdivision plat mainly by modifying layouts and designs  to s u i t the plat.  standard  Each agency suggests modi-  f i c a t i o n s to the p l a t , p a r t i c u l a r l y the addition of easements, to meet t h e i r requirements.  The planning department  Incorporates  these modifications as requirements for f i n a l approval of the plat. Problems r e l a t i n g to location of f a c i l i t i e s are resolved by a committee of technical representatives of a l l u t i l i t y  agencies.  In the proposed practice, a tentative or preliminary layout of the u t i l i t y structure prepared by the municipal departments would be sent to the u t i l i t y agencies.  planning  They would  design the functional layouts for t h e i r services and submit their requirements and suggestions  for modifications to the planning  101. department.  After incorporating any modifications considered  desirable, the planning department would prepare the physical design of the u t i l i t y structure on the basis of the requirements. Copies of the design would then be sent to the agencies so that they could prepare detailed designs f o r t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s .  The  technical committees that currently review subdivision plats and s e t t l e differences i n servicing problems would perform s i m i l a r functions f o r the proposed practices. The functional layouts of the baric f a c i l i t i e s would require l i t t l e designing because they would simply follow the branching pattern of the u t i l i t y structures.  The a l l - u t i l i t y  structures would have been designed to meet the requirements of the drainage services.  Therefore, designing of drainage  f a c i l i t i e s would be required only f o r the other types of structures.  Thus, special designing of layout would be required  mainly for the communicative The communicative  and e l e c t r i c a l services.  and e l e c t r i c power layouts would be  composed mainly of r e p e t i t i v e standard units of several lots with extensions or modifications to f i t the s i t u a t i o n at hand.  These  units would be related to those of the u t i l i t y structure, and based upon careful analysis of the whole range of possible layouts so that they would be practicable and economic as possible.  For example, the V i r g i n i a E l e c t r i c and Power Company used  computers to determine economic underground  wiring layouts f o r a  development having 7,200 l i v i n g units of which 3,400 are detached r e s i d e n c e s . ^ A cable-conduit combination was used to simplify replacement of primary and secondary cables, i f necessary.  The most economic arrangement was found to be a unit  C. F. Danforth, "Huge Development i n V i r g i n i a Served Underground," E l e c t r i c a l World, McGraw-Hill, v o l . 160, no. 8 (19 August 1963), p. 24.  102. of 16 lots back to back employing an 'extended services concept'.12  The l a t t e r involved the substitution of i n d i v i d u a l  service cables for a portion of the secondary c i r c u i t associated materials and accessories.*-*  This i s i l l u s t r a t e d on  Diagrams 5a and 5b on the following page. show how  and  Diagrams 5c and  this sixteen l o t unit could be related  5e  symmetrically  to the four and eight l o t u t i l i t y structure units respectively. Assymmetric layouts are shown i n Diagrams 5d and 5f which reduce the length and number of connections  of the secondary c i r c u i t s  (by one-quarter and one-half respectively) compared with the symmetric layout. Designing  street l i g h t i n g however, would be quite d i f f e r e n t  from current practice. decorative l i g h t i n g .  It would be done i n conjunction with  Therefore, the functional layout would  involve a variety of levels and types of i l l u m i n a t i o n to suit, the needs of d i f f e r e n t areas and uses along the s t r e e t , and provide interest through v a r i e t y .  The wiring layout would  involve links from each lamp or group of s i m i l a r lamps to the nearest transformer v i a p l a s t i c conduit and the u t i l i t y structure. The wiring outside the structure would be minimized where economic by connecting  lamps through the nearest manhole.  The conversion of the functional layouts f o r the u t i l i t i e s into  physical designs  should be almost as simple and s t r a i g h t -  forward as i t i s i n current practice. would be standard designs structure.  This i s because there  for the various parts of the u t i l i t y  Thus, the physical design for a p a r t i c u l a r street  section would be mainly composed of standardized parts, and only Danforth, op., c i t . . p. 25; see Table V C for results for back-to-back lots., (p. 255). 13... Loc,. c l . t .  i n Appendix  103.  f  ,001  /  \ \ \  I  1  1  i  \ \ \  1  \ \ \  I  \ 1 \ 1 \ 1 \  \ \  | 1\  P  /  1  i  i  I  -  1f=zr  —  // /  1  I  \  \  \  V  \  /  t  ;  \ \  > /  / \ \  \  i  \ \  \ \ \  \ \ \  /  \  //  ,001  a) V i r g i n i a E l e c t r i c layout  1 1  >  16-lot  b) V i r g i n i a E l e c t r i c Extended Services Layout(ftExt.serv.) o o  /  1  •+  -t-  =g?  m  1  (j^E  <n  o o c) Symmetric 4-Lot Layout ( l e f t half)  d) Assymetrlc 4-Lot Layout  ,001  X  j >  *  \  \  •s  N \ 11  <s> CO  >\ N  alternatives^^  /  O  o e) Symmetric 8-ldt Layout f ) Assymetrlc 8-lot Layout ( l e f t half) • transformer primary c i r c u i t service ZZZ1 u t i l i t y str. • connect.boxes second, c i r c u i t connection Q manhole DIAGRAM 5 FUNCTIONAL LAYOUTS OF ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE FACILITIES  104. modifications need be shown i n special d e t a i l .  Each u t i l i t y  would have a standard assigned location i n the various parts of the u t i l i t y structures for t h e i r main and a l l related  facilities.  A l l of the j o i n t s and f a c i l i t i e s where connections to s i t e services were made also would be standardized.  F a c i l i t i e s such  as transformers and large valves which occur p e r i o d i c a l l y would either be alternated so that only one occurred at each connection point, or grouped together i n a s p e c i a l l y designed part of  the u t i l i t y structure.  For example where manholes are  involved, many could be e s s e n t i a l l y large connection boxes, while others were enlarged to accommodate a l l such periodic ties.  facili-  In any case, such f a c i l i t i e s as transformers and meters  would be designed to take up a minimum of space, yet function e f f i c i e n t l y i n the u t i l i t y structures. Designing Pavements Designing of pavements f o r p a r t i c u l a r sections of a l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l street i s straightforward and simple i n current practice.  Indeed, i n the sense employed here, l i t t l e designing  is involved.  The alignment, location within the street, width,  and d e t a i l s at intersections are a l l established by design standards.  The only decisions involved i n completing the  plan-view are the location of catch basins, and they are placed according to standards r e l a t i n g to topography.  Driveway  connections are added where requested by adjacent property owners, except for minor modifications to maintain standards of clearance from f a c i l i t i e s such as poles and hydrants.  The  p r o f i l e or v e r t i c a l configuration of the pavements i s largely determined  by the subdivision.  Except f o r rare instances of  substantial regrading to improve road gradients, the designing mainly involves establishing the proper p r o f i l e at intersections on the basis of standards.  105. In contrast, the proposed practice would involve custom designing the pavements f o r each street section i n r e l a t i o n to topography and desired street uses.  Since the u t i l i t i e s would  be confined to a small portion of the s t r e e t , the road and sidewalk could 'wander' almost from side to side.  The wandering  should not be aimless, of course, but d e l i b e r a t e l y planned to meet certain objectives.  These include the p r a c t i c a l ones of  avoiding excessive costs, taking advantage of natural features, and accommodating various street uses e f f i c i e n t l y .  They also  include aesthetic objectives such as creating a varied and i n t e r e s t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t that i s pleasant to be i n and move through. Although a l l pavements would be considered  i n designing  new  streets (or redesigning e x i s t i n g ones), the most important are those for pedestrians and vehicles moving along the s t r e e t , the connections from these to private walks and drives and to the parking areas, and the parking areas themselves.  The  pedestrian  f a c i l i t y running along or through the street w i l l continue to be referred to as a 'sidewalk' f o r the sake of s i m p l i c i t y , although i t would not always be at the side of the street.  The  walks from the sidewalk to the private 'front' walks o r d i n a r i l y are not provided p u b l i c l y i n current practice. provided  They would be  publicly i n the proposed practice because the sidewalk  would be a varying distance from the front property Also, the connection  line. 1  4  could form part of the u t i l i t y structure  (e.g. cover of trough) carrying the f a c i l i t i e s to the  dwellings.  Theoretically, the vehicular access pavement should  be  custom-designed to accommodate anticipated t r a f f i c volumes. p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n to l o c a l streets i n a well-designed  In  system  of roads, the volumes are usually such that they could be carried The distance varies between municipalities depending upon the standard sidewalk location, but i s o r d i n a r i l y the same within a municipality.  106. on one lane.  If people were prepared to accept a one-way street  system i n single-family r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s and the subdivisior and street pattern were properly designed f o r i t , only one movin lane would be needed on each street.  This would reduce the cost  of paving and either free almost fourteen percent of the street for street uses and planting, or make i t possible to reduce the width of streets.15  However, to maintain comparability with  current practice, one moving lane i n each d i r e c t i o n i s assumed to be required o r d i n a r i l y .  The connections to driveways and  parking areas would be only one lane or about ten feet wide. Instead of the current p a r a l l e l and usually symmetric placement of pavements about the centre l i n e of the street, the functional layout and resultant physical design would be as follows.  Where trees, rock, or other natural features worth  retaining occurred within the street, only one sidewalk and a road of width adequate for one moving lane i n each d i r e c t i o n wouU be i n s t a l l e d .  The placement would be such as to minimize the  damage to the natural attributes of the s t r e e t .  For example,  the sidewalk might pass on one side of the feature to be retained and the road on the other.  Where a p a r t i c u l a r l y interesting  rock formation or tree grouping was  to be preserved, the street  could not be widened, and t r a f f i c was  e s p e c i a l l y l i g h t , the road  might even be made a single-width two-way lane for a short distance.  In other places, one lane of the road might be placed  on either side of the feature.  The pavements could be placed  s i m i l a r l y to one side of the street, or the road on one side and the sidewalk on the other to leave adequate space for playing or other street uses.  These ideas are i l l u s t r a t e d on Diagram 6  on the following page.  Based on a two-way road twenty feet wide and one-way eleven feet wide i n s i x t y - s i x foot wide s t r e e t .  1C7.  play erea  |* /natural/ fe^fui  a) Road  and S i d e w a l k  play  Split  I I l i ! I • T—I F e a t u r e a n d Use A r e s  I i I !  Around  area  ~\  low hedge a n d other planting to discourage pedestrian crossing at Ihls point . ^  b)  Single  Lane  Road  3) R o s d  d)  Sidewalk  DIA.3RAM 6 - I L L U S T R A T I V E  1  Section  Split  Only  Opposite Feature  Around  Shifted  \ J /  Feature  Around  Feature  LAYOUT OF P A V E M E N T S NEAR NATURAL F E A T U R E S  108. In a l l of the above-mentioned cases, the vehicular pavement was only for moving v e h i c l e s .  There would be no  provision along these stretches of the allowance vehicles.  f o r parking of  Assuming municipalities have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  providing parking on streets i n new single-family r e s i d e n t i a l areas (a debatable point), the proposed practice would d i f f e r from the current practice of providing p a r a l l e l parking along one side, or more usually both sides of the street.  The amount  of parking would be based on an estimate of the need or demand for i t Including parking for v i s i t o r s to the future residents of the area. Decisions on the functional layout and physical design of parking areas also would involve consideration of several factors. These include the estimated number of spaces required f o r residents and t h e i r v i s i t o r s , the distances which residents and v i s i t o r s w i l l walk between parking spaces and dwellings, the d i r e c t i o n of approach, whether spaces w i l l be reserved or not, whether parking areas should be screened from view or not, the location of natural features to be retained, desirable locations of other street uses such as playing areas, and costs.  The  number of parking spaces provided could conceivably range from that requiring a l l of the space i n the street not used f o r moving vehicles and pedestrians, to a few per block which would allow a high degree of f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e i r placement. distances would be important  Walking  i f there were a small number of  spaces provided at infrequent intervals along the allowance or when parking spaces were reserved f o r i n d i v i d u a l residents or their v i s i t o r s .  This would be mainly a problem of a r r i v i n g at a  reasonably equitable balance of walking distance between the parking spaces and i n d i v i d u a l dwellings. Reservation or assigning of s p e c i f i c parking spaces to i n d i v i d u a l residents or their v i s i t o r s i s probably undesirable  109. because of the problems i t would create.  Besides probably  requiring that more spaces be provided, reservation might be administratively or p o l i t i c a l l y unfeasible because of the d i f f i c u l t y of policing such an arrangement.  However, i t may  be  desirable i n some places to try to r e s t r i c t on-street parking to visitors. The d i r e c t i o n of approach might be considered i n the detailed functional layout and physical design of the parking areas i n the interests of convenience t u a l users and strangers.  and safety for both habi-  For example, where strangers are  l i k e l y to approach from one d i r e c t i o n , the parking areas for t h e i r destination might be located past t h e i r destination so that they could e a s i l y turn into i t a f t e r location their d e s t i nation. The question of screening r e l a t i v e l y unattractive parking areas from view i s complicated by the d e s i r a b i l i t y of having such parking areas under surveillance for security reasons.  An  imaginative designer should be able to achieve a compromise i n which a parking area can be under surveillance of several houses even though the area i s partly screened, but having main views from a l l houses towards more a t t r a c t i v e things such as the natural features that have been retained, or playing areas. Designing of the other access services i s u n l i k e l y to involve separate f a c i l i t i e s on l o c a l s t r e e t s , but may involve modification of the design of f a c i l i t i e s of other services. Equestrian pavements are u n l i k e l y to be provided on l o c a l streets i n single-family r e s i d e n t i a l areas except i n peculiar areas such as the Southlands  area of Vancouver.  Although small non-  scheduled buses might be running on l o c a l streets to pick up passengers upon c a l l f o r delivery to the stops of scheduled t r a n s i t vehicles, these would require no s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s . Separate pavements would seldom be provided f o r cycles, but  110. s p e c i a l ramps might be provided from the sidewalk to the road where the curb had been eliminated.  Thus, bicycles and wheel  chairs could cross the road from one sidewalk to the other without going over c u r b s . ^  S i m i l a r l y , separate pavements are  u n l i k e l y to be required f o r emergency v e h i c l e s , but provision might have to be made f o r them to get to otherwise inaccessible portions of the street during emergencies. Designing Planting Designing of planting i s currently limited to decisions on the type or types of boulevard tree to be i n s t a l l e d and their spacing along the line established by design standards considering relationship to u t i l i t i e s .  In the best current practice the  spacing i s considered i n r e l a t i o n to street l i g h t i n g and driveway requirements. The proposed practice would be s i m i l a r to current practice only i n that p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the street not covered with pavements would be planted.  However, the area would be greater  by whatever the amount occupied by the parking use was reduced. More important from a designer's point-of-view i s that the areas available f o r planting would be of varied sizes and shapes. Instead of the current long, narrow s t r i p s there would be some f a i r - s i z e d , roughly rectangular or e l l i p t i c a l open areas for playing, and many triangular or odd-shaped areas around parking or other street use areas. The planting would be r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from current practice i n several ways.  Natural features such as small  creeks, rock outcroppings, and i n d i v i d u a l or groups of trees that *"^This assumes that the r i d i n g of bicycles would be permitted on sidewalks which seems reasonable i n present day l i v i n g conditions where sidewalks are used less than roads, and accidents involving bicycles are rare on sidewalks but more frequent on roads.  111.  could be retained, would be available for incorporation i n the design.  There would be few r e s t r i c t i o n s on the type or size of  plants that could be i n s t a l l e d because the u t i l i t i e s would be safely out of the way.  There would be no worry about the  branches of trees becoming entangled i n overhead wiring, nor about roots getting into sewers, drains, and conduits.  Thus  some types of trees not f i t t i n g the narrow confines of the s t r i p boulevard or not having tidy root systems might be planted. Shrubs would be introduced for screening, defining use areas, and tying the natural features i n with the design.  Flowering  plants could also be introduced to provide a variety of colour and texture.  F i n a l l y , instead of ubiquitous grass that probably  contributes to the current monotonous conformity, there could be a variety of ground covers such as i v y , clover, moss, or other low maintenance types. A l l of these factors constitute an opportunity for creative and imaginative landscape design. challenges.  There would also be a few  The incorporation of natural features into the  design i s one.  Another i s the screening of parking areas while  permitting surveillance of them.  Perhaps the greatest challenge  i s to create a design that provides interest throughout and over the years with a minimum of maintenance.  the year  Besides  i n s t a l l i n g mostly plants requiring l i t t l e maintenance, planting layout should be designed for easy maintenance, provided other considerations are not unduly compromised.  For example, grassed  areas could be shaped for easy mowing and connected  by grass  s t r i p s requiring an odd number of passes by the mower to avoid back-tracking.  S i m i l a r l y , the detailed physical design should  permit easy maintenance.  For instance, grass areas might be  edged with bricks so that mowers could run on them and leave a neat looking edge without trimming.  The matter of maintenance  i s important because the pride, sense of duty, or s o c i a l  112. compulsion which now causes each resident to maintain the boulevard i n front of his dwelling would be lacking when there were no obvious area that 'belonged' to each resident.  However,  the f e e l i n g of pride i n l o c a l environment might be fostered and put to good use by encouraging  i n d i v i d u a l s , groups, or clubs to  maintain features such as flower beds and rockeries. The aim of the designer would be to create a streetscape that was a t t r a c t i v e and interesting from the beginning, during the year, and over the years.  There should be sensations f o r  senses other than sight such as scented flowers or shrubs, an abundance of textures, and the song of birds.  This alone might  j u s t i f y setting aside r e l a t i v e l y wild or natural areas.  However,  there should be some formal areas i f only f o r contrast, and regularly spaced trees on either side of the road would have t h e i r place, perhaps a most frequent one i n the o v e r a l l design. For example, 'tunnels' formed of overhanging branches would be most e f f e c t i v e when leading to wide open spaces. Designing Other Local Residential Street F a c i l i t i e s Designing of the f a c i l i t i e s of the other services i n the proposed practice involves services not provided or considered comprehensively  i n current practice.  The designing of planting  has been discussed separately above including consideration of plant care operations, so the gardening services have been covered.  This leaves the furnishing, holding, i n d i c a t i v e , and  keeping services.  The designing of f a c i l i t i e s for p a r t i c u l a r  l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets i s discussed f i r s t , followed by a discussion of f a c i l i t i e s related to the needs of l o c a l street residents, but not i n s t a l l e d i n l o c a l s t r e e t s . Furnishing services.  Designing of furnishings f o r  p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets would r e l a t e mainly to furniture and decorative l i g h t i n g .  The furniture would depend  113. on the type of people l i v i n g i n the area.  Where there would be  many young children, outdoor 'playpens' or 'tot l o t s ' would be l a i d out i n areas safe from t r a f f i c and having interesting views or nearby a c t i v i t i e s .  These 'playpens' would consist of a small  area surrounded by a fence containing a sand box and other suitable furniture f o r the children, and a bench for adults.  In  d i s t r i c t s having an ethnic group that enjoys s o c i a l recreations requiring special f a c i l i t i e s , these could be provided on the street.  For example, i n d i s t r i c t s having I t a l i a n residents,  bocce coursts might be i n s t a l l e d i n streets instead of backyards where the noise of exuberant players can bother neighbors. Where there would be elderly people, quiet conversation areas could be designed with benches and possibly checker-chess tables. Furniture and f a c i l i t i e s related to the needs of residents on l o c a l streets but not usually i n s t a l l e d i n them would be designed comprehensively on a somewhat larger scale.  Instead of  the current practice of almost completely independent designing of the functional layout of such f a c i l i t i e s , they would be gathered together, integrated i n design, and l a i d out as units serving coincident areas. centers'.  Such units are herein termed 'servi-  They would be l a i d out i n r e l a t i o n to the functional  street system, probably where either long or otherwise important l o c a l streets meet c o l l e c t o r streets, or where minor c o l l e c t o r streets meet a more important one. There would be l i t t l e other furniture to design.  Most of  the cabinets currently necessary for valves, meters, transformers, and such a n c i l l i a r y f a c i l i t i e s would be eliminated because these f a c i l i t i e s would be i n the u t i l i t y structures.  Thus, the only  l i d s or doors showing would be manhole covers, and they would not require any designing.  The few other pieces of furniture  See footnote 9, page 95.  114c  not  placed  w o u l d be  on more i m p o r t a n t  l a i d out  fire  The  exception  of f i n i s h e s ,  limited  to these g e n e r a l i t i e s would  in particular  the  a r e a s as p l a y p e n s and  considerations.  f i n i s h of s i d e w a l k s  tubed-conduits.  Since  formed of  textures  'cell',  change.  by  covers  precast  or  exception electrical  i n manufacturing  to provide  varied  patterns  i n v o l v i n g exposed aggregates, f o r i n s t a n c e .  pattern or texture could local  conversation  A possible  trough  t h e s e w o u l d be  p l a n t s , the o p p o r t u n i t y would e x i s t or  be  in local streets,  s i n c e most f i n i s h e s w o u l d h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d  standards or other design is  boxes  to those of s m a l l r e t a i n i n g w a l l s o r s p e c i a l  pavements i n such s p e c i a l use areas,  alarm  hydrant.  Designing w o u l d be  fire  at s t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n s at f a i r l y r e g u l a r l y  spaced i n t e r v a l s . the  s t r e e t s s u c h as  so  be d i f f e r e n t  that pedestrians  Perhaps J u n i o r c o u l d  be  had told  The  f o r each neighbourhood t h e i r own  or  i n d i c a t i o n of  t o " s t a y on  the  pink  sidewalksJ". The  designing  for decorative the  of other  There would probably  o n l y r a r e o r n a m e n t s s u c h as 'play s c u l p t u r e ' .  an e x a m p l e b e i n g  be no  p o o l s , s t a t u e s , o r an  Some o f t h e  considered  Holding  that  l i g h t i n g , w h i c h w o u l d be done i n c o n j u n c t i o n  street lighting.  m i g h t be  f u r n i s h i n g s w o u l d be m a i n l y  t h e mushroom-shaped  services.  decorations  and  occasional  lamps f o r d e c o r a t i v e  as o r n a m e n t s i n d e s i g n i n g  with  lighting  s p e c i a l use  areas,  type.  H o l d e r s w o u l d be  e v e n more  restricted  t o c o l l e c t o r o r more i m p o r t a n t  s t r e e t s than i n current p r a c t i c e .  H o w e v e r , some l e t t e r b o x e s may  be  walking  distances.  s e c t i o n s and  laid  They w o u l d be out  second or t h i r d b l o c k  i n a simple  required to maintain located at s t r e e t  r e s i d e n t s as  inter-  pattern; for instance,  every  i n both d i r e c t i o n s .  H o l d e r s f o r g a r b a g e m i g h t be by  convenient  i n current practice.  provided This  publicly  instead  c o u l d be done i n  of two  115. ways. in  Enclosures  f o r i n d i v i d u a l garbage cans could be  lanes o r parking areas to serve  two  be  out  o r f o u r l o t groups.  They would prevent dogs from g e t t i n g at and and  laid  l e s s d i s o r d e r l y than otherwise.  s c a t t e r i n g garbage,  These h o l d e r s could  be  s i m i l a r to the a t t r a c t i v e •trashmaster' w i t h easy-to-open r o l l - u p doors r e c e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d . ^  Another way  1  holders  p u b l i c l y would be by s e t t i n g removable p l a s t i c  f i b e r g l a s s containers would be l a i d out two  of p r o v i d i n g garbage  i n t o the a l l - u t i l i t y  or  s t r u c t u r e s . These  f o r the convenience of r e s i d e n t s , p o s s i b l y i n  or four l o t groups.  The  garbage would be deposited  in  p l a s t i c bags s u p p l i e d p u b l i c l y i n the i n t e r e s t of s a n i t a t i o n and quietness.  In the case of the t u n n e l and  the manholes would provide  little  tubed-conduit s t r u c t u r e s ,  space f o r such purposes, so  t h i s i d e a would only be p r a c t i c a b l e where houses had i n c i n e r a t o r s to -dispose of e v e r y t h i n g incombustible  except t i n cans and  other  materials.  Indicating services. having more i n f o r m a t i v e  and  The  proposed p r a c t i c e would aim  demarcative, l e s s r e g u l a t o r y ,  the same or l e s s a d v e r t i s i n g i n d i c a t o r s i n l o c a l s t r e e t s than i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e .  former would be i n standard  l a t t e r would be provided parking  S t r e e t name and house number  Thus, l i t t l e parking  designing  spaces has  A few other  provided.  l o c a t i o n s at i n t e r s e c t i o n s .  on the curb i n f r o n t of houses  spaces i f r e s e r v e d ,  and  residential  s i g n s would be the o n l y i n f o r m a t i v e s i g n s o r d i n a r i l y The  at  and on meters and  The  and  garbage h o l d e r s .  i s i n v o l v e d , assuming the a s s i g n i n g of  been d e a l t w i t h  i n f o r m a t i v e signs may  i n designing  the parking  be r e q u i r e d such as  areas.  those  i n d i c a t i n g non-through ( i . e . dead-end) s t r e e t s , s e c t i o n s of oneway  road, or p l a y i n g areas ahead.  P r e f e r a b l y these would i n v o l v e  symbols r a t h e r than words when r e q u i r e d . would be  made to o b v i a t e  "New Products", (January 1964), p. 134.  However, an attempt  t h e i r need by c a r e f u l design of  House & Home, v o l . XXXV, no.  1  the  116. street system, road, and planting to make such situations obvious. Regulatory signs would s i m i l a r l y be avoided as much as possible, or have informative or demarcative indicators i n t h e i r place.  The fact that parking would not be permitted on the  road should be made obvious by i t s design and that of the parking areas.  A 'yield' sign might be required on one side of a one-  way road section. The only demarcative indicators i n l o c a l streets would be center line and parking space markings, and warning markings or signals where the road divides around a natural feature. The only advertising permitted, other than f a c i l i t y  manufacturer's  names, would be those f o r the sale of property. Keeping services.  Requirements and limitations of  equipment of the keeping service would have been considered i n the designing of the f a c i l i t i e s of the other services, p a r t i c u l a r l y roads and parking spaces.  The roads could be e f f i c i e n t l y swept  and plowed because of the presence of curbs, absence of parked cars, and a minimum number of curb openings.  The l a t t e r would  not be f i l l e d by snow plows because a controllable gate designed by the National Research Council would be f i t t e d to the discharge end of the b l a d e .  i9  Cars parked i n the parking areas would be  neither p a r t i a l l y buried by plows, nor sprayed with sand or salt.  They would also be p a r t i a l l y protected from storms by  the surrounding screen of* trees and shrubs.  Streets could be  kept clean and tidy by a machine such as the heavy duty  'Litter-  Vac' that picks up:  "NRC Is Incubator For Equipment Ideas," Financial Post (13 A p r i l 1963), p. 53. 7  117* a 30-lnch swath of paper plates and cups, cartons, scraps, leave, grass clippings . . . almost any kind of l i t t e r thrown by man or machine.20 III.  DESIGNING STREET USE AND  SERVICEMENT OF INTERSECTIONS  Designing the street use and servicement of i s discussed separately  intersections  here because i t would be e s s e n t i a l l y  d i f f e r e n t from that of l o c a l streets between intersections. Instead of s t r i v i n g for variety and  i n d i v i d u a l i t y , the aim would  be to achieve consistency and uniformity same type.  for Intersections  of  the  This would be done by having standard designs for  each type to which only minor modifications meet a l l conditions.  would be required  to  Thus, designing intersections for a p a r t i -  cular d i s t r i c t would be simply a matter of deciding upon the type, and hence, standard of each i n t e r s e c t i o n . Intersections designs i n current  are designed by application of standard  practice, but the proposed practice d i f f e r s  i n several important respects.  The  proposed standards would  embody a greater area, number of types of intersections, d i s t i n c t i o n between types, and range of services  involved.  Intersection standards currently usually involve only the area of intersection or 'overlap property l i n e s .  The  1  of streets defined  by  projecting  proposed standards would include the  portion  of street 'legs' whose design i s affected by the intersection. Instead of a ' t y p i c a l ' standard for a l o c a l , major, and  (somefcti.  times) c o l l e c t o r street intersections, there would be a standard for each possible combination.  Of concern here are those  involving l o c a l streets which intersect with other l o c a l , c o l l e c t o r , and a r t e r i a l streets.  Each can either have three or  four "legs' - that i s , be a 'T' or cross i n t e r s e c t i o n .  There  would also be standard designs for such s p e c i a l situations as culs-de-sac, bends, and  for cross intersections being converted  ° Heavy Duty Litter-Vac, " Public Works i n Canada. Vancouver, M i t c h e l l Press, v o l . I I , no. 6 (June 1963), p. 70. 2  M  118. to two bends to modify a g r i d to create a functional street system. D i s t i n c t i o n between types of intersections would be greater than i n current practice primarily because of deliberate d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between l o c a l , c o l l e c t o r , and major streets. The aim would be to remove any doubt about which street had p r i o r i t y over the other, or whether they were equal i n terms of users of them having the right-of-way.  A l l visible facilities  would be considered i n an attempt to create s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between such dominant elements as pavements, planting, and  l i g h t i n g , that regulatory  signs would be unnecessary.  To  keep the focus on l o c a l streets, i t has been assumed that there i s s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between l o c a l and a r t e r i a l streets since the l a t t e r are usually wider and have more t r a f f i c  lanes,  brighter l i g h t i n g from d i f f e r e n t types of lamps, and d i f f e r e n t planting.  Unfortunately, the l a t t e r often means lack of  planting.  It i s further assumed that three-legged intersections  are not a problem i n that the p r i o r i t y i s obviously with the bar rather than the stem of the be e s s e n t i a l l y modifications intersections.  'T , 1  and  that designs for them would  of comparable four-legged or cross  Thus the main problem i s one of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  between l o c a l and c o l l e c t o r streets, while maintaining s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the l a t t e r and a r t e r i a l streets. However, some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between two crossing s i m i l a r streets might be desirable since intersections with no p r i o r i t y differences are accident  prone.  C o l l e c t o r streets could be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from l o c a l ones i n several ways.  Their pavements should be wider for f a i r l y  rapid movement compared to that desired on l o c a l streets.  The  center l i n e markings could be s o l i d i n contrast to dashed ones on l o c a l streets.  The c o l l e c t o r street might have trees evenly  spaced for some distance back from the i n t e r s e c t i o n , while the l o c a l street has no trees near the i n t e r s e c t i o n .  Lighting on  119. the c o l l e c t o r might be brighter, and  Involve t a l l e r , regularly  spaced lamps near the intersection, whereas those on the l o c a l street were kept back.  Thus, the l i g h t i n g and prominent planting  at the intersection would be that of the p r i o r i t y street, making *it obvious on approach.  F i n a l l y , a l l other v i s i b l e  facilities  would be comprehensively designed to reinforce the d i s t i n c t i o n . The other v i s i b l e f a c i l i t i e s o r d i n a r i l y are Installed at intersections i n current i n relationship to one  practice, but are not usually designed  another.  They tend to congregate on  c o l l e c t o r street intersections, e s p e c i a l l y around t r a n s i t stops, but in a haphazard fashion. sections of two required  In the proposed practice, i n t e r -  l o c a l streets would have only those f a c i l i t i e s  at a l l or almost a l l intersections.  hydrants, street name signs, and  These include  street l i g h t s .  fire  Other f a c i l i t i e s  would be gathered together at intersections with c o l l e c t o r streets to reinforce the appearance of p r i o r i t y , while a common and known location for a l l of them. would have a highly integrated themselves, and  providing  These f a c i l i t i e s  design i n terms of the  facilities  their relationship with others i n the street.  Possible designs for intersections of l o c a l streets with other l o c a l and c o l l e c t o r streets are discussed separately Intersections hydrant on one  of two  ized as much as possible They may  l o c a l streets would have a f i r e  corner and street name signs and  diagonally opposite corners.  below.  lamps on  These locations would be standard-  (see Diagram 7 on the following page).  occasionally have a f i r e alarm box.  The  road would be  only two moving lanes wide even where p a r a l l e l parking  was  provided further back on a street, so that turning movements must be made slowly and c a r e f u l l y and pedestrians cross a minimum width of road.  However, the curb returns or the curb from one  street to the other around the corner would be related to the path of a turning vehicle instead of a simple quarter c i r c l e .  120.  PROPOSED PRACTICE DIAGRAM 7 - FACILITIS3 AT THE INTERSECTION OF TWO LOCAL STREETS  121. The sidewalk would have a ramp down to the road for baby carriages, cycles, and wheelchairs.  Although the sidewalk  i t s e l f could be ramped down, i t i s probably better to have a separate ramp.  Pedestrians might not l i k e ramps because of their  slopeand slipperyness when wet or i c y . Also, children on b i cycles would be tempted to dash straight across.  The o f f s e t  ramp might be so arranged that the inside wheels of f i r e department ladder trucks and large moving vans could 'cut the corner' over them. On the assumption  that non-signalized intersections should  always have streets of non-equal p r i o r i t i e s , the following modifications might be made to this standard (see Diagram 8). The centerline of the p r i o r i t y street could be carried through the intersection while that on the other street i s cut o f f by a l i n e at the sidewalk.  The lamps could be set back s l i g h t l y along  the p r i o r i t y street and t i e i n v i s u a l l y with a few others.  The  trees could be s i m i l a r l y designed. Before discussing the other types of intersections, i t may be well to put them i n a frame work to show their relationships. Diagram 9 on page 123 shows a section of a t y p i c a l grid subdivision which i s to be serviced or 'reserviced' by redesigning and upgrading i t s f a c i l i t i e s .  The above assumption of non-equal  p r i o r i t i e s i s made instead of the more d r a s t i c one that streets must be cut o f f by various means to make them non-continuous. The bounding streets are assumed to be part of a system at quarter-mile spacing as i s often the case.  In such a s i t u a t i o n ,  the east-west streets on which the lots front would have p r i o r i t y everywhere except at the 'major' c o l l e c t o r s ' A and D.  These  would be given p r i o r i t y to compensate for the otherwise more d i f f i c u l t t r a v e l i n the north-south d i r e c t i o n s .  Thus, there are  three remaining types of intersection: l o c a l streets with minor and major c o l l e c t o r s , and minor with major c o l l e c t o r s .  122.  PROPOSED PRACTICE DIAGRAM 8 - PROPOSED DEST3N OF INTERSECTIONS OF TWO LOCAL STREETS  'DIAGRAM 9 - COMPARISON OF PAVEMENT DESIGNS OF CURRENT AND PROPOSED PRACTICES IN TYPICAL GRID SUBDIVISION  ,  124. The  l o c a l c o l l e c t o r Intersections may  not require any more  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the streets than that already  discussed.  Where other measures are deemed necessary the following could tried:  a line or coloured  street at the c o l l e c t o r .  section of pavement on the  be  local  If i t proves to be necessary, ' y i e l d '  signs could be placed on the l o c a l streets at minor c o l l e c t o r s , and  'stop' signs at the major c o l l e c t o r s .  One  of the major  c o l l e c t o r s would be a t r a n s i t route and require pullouts for buses, a 'bus  stop' sign, and a box  for the morning newspaper  at inbound stops (those for evening papers being downtown).  The  alternate street 'far side' layout preferred by the t r a n s i t company for bus pullouts i s shown for 'D' street on Diagram 9 . For a given resident on an east-west s t r e e t , either the inbound or outbound stop i s on his street, and street away along the major c o l l e c t o r .  the other i s only The  one  far-side stop past  an i n t e r s e c t i o n i s safer for pedestrians because they must cross behind the bus where they can see and be seen by approaching motorists. Although the main concern i n this investigation i s with l o c a l streets, the intersection of two c o l l e c t o r s i s considered b r i e f l y here to suggest possible ways of dealing with the  facili-  t i e s that would not be provided i n l o c a l streets i n the proposed practice, but are required to serve r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s .  In  current practice, the only f a c i l i t y that i s o r d i n a r i l y located at intersections of c o l l e c t o r s i s a l e t t e r box,  due  to the post  o f f i c e ' s dual concern with convenience to those served and collection.  for  For s i m i l a r reasons, parcel and mail boxes are  located at intersections of c o l l e c t o r s , but less  frequently.  For the proposed practice, i t i s suggested that a l l intersections of c o l l e c t o r s have l e t t e r , newspaper, and f i r e alarm. l o c a l events.  They may  l i t t e r holders, and a  also have some provision for advertising  At every other i n t e r s e c t i o n , there would also be  a parcel holder and telephone and possibly vending machines for  125. cigarettes  and  similar  l o c a t e d at these  parcel holder.  w o u l d be  d r i v e r s and  together  For  example, the  readdress  up  a bundle from the m a i l h o l d e r , o r a t the  r e m a i l l e t t e r s , and  ending at a c o l l e c t o r i n t e r s e c t i o n .  spacing as A-5  p a r c e l box,  and  D - l on D i a g r a m  c o u l d do  The  l a t t e r o f t e n have t h i s upon p i c k i n g  end  of a  intersections with  and  p i c k up  and  t h a t t h i s use  cars  will  automobile ownership. that designing  o f them.  The  other  The  block  motorists  s t e p p i n g out w i t h o u t  of pedestrians layout should  i s not be  and  use  suggests  safe  by m o t o r i s t s  for other  cars parked beside  the v i e w o f p e d e s t r i a n s stopping  to m a i l  in  could  street users.  postal into  faci-  the  crossing i n front  letters  o r buy  news-  s a f e t y by o p e n i n g t h e i r c a r  looking.  The  s a f e t y and  i g n o r e d , however.  considerably  suggested  them i n t h e s e  vehicular traffic  i n t e r s e c t i o n or going  t o the  door  convenience  Indeed the  better for  They w o u l d o n l y h a v e t o c r o s s one time i n c r o s s i n g the  cars  reason f o r the assumption i s  f o r convenient  p a p e r s o f t e n e n d a n g e r t h e i r own and  This  f o r c e f o l l o w i n g cars to w a i t or swing out  o n c o m i n g l a n e and  of  f o r s u c h p u r p o s e s i f t h e y h a v e them,  i n s t a n c e , m a i l t r u c k s and  lities  One  increase with anticipated increases  facilities  should  a p a c k a g e o f c i g a r e t t e s seems t o h a v e  make t h e s t r e e t s more c o n v e n i e n t For  facilities  i n c r e a s e i n use  the growth of a u t o m o b i l e o w n e r s h i p .  t h a t people w i l l use  such  layout f o r these i n t e r s e c t i o n s  r e a s o n f o r t h i s assumption i s t h a t the  paralleled  corners  p r i m a r i l y f o r the convenience of m o t o r i s t s .  to m a i l l e t t e r s  the  9.  of c o l l e c t o r s based upon the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the designed  route  on d i a g o n a l l y o p p o s i t e  D i a g r a m 10 shows a s u g g e s t e d  be  truck  v e n d i n g m a c h i n e s w o u l d be a t a h a l f - m i l e  i n e a c h d i r e c t i o n , and and  be  postal  f o r the convenience of m a i l  letter carriers. and  In e i t h e r case the  to  telephone,  M a i l boxes m i g h t  i n t e r s e c t i o n s o r t h e a l t e r n a t i v e ' m i n o r ' ones  l a c k i n g the bulky facilities  'convenience' items.  respects.  lane a t  service  a  127. f a c i l i t i e s , a l l of which would be p a r t i a l l y sheltered on the island 'servi-center•.21, 22 The suggested  layout would probably only be applicable to  intersections of two lane c o l l e c t o r s i n 66 foot wide streets, or intersections of a two lane with a four lane c o l l e c t o r when the l a t t e r was i n a wider street at the i n t e r s e c t i o n .  In any case,  widening either or both streets near the intersection would allow more generous curvatures and space between pavements f o r planting.  Providing the streets are t r u l y c o l l e c t o r s and not  carrying long distance through trips that ought to be on a r t e r i a l streets or freeways, the vehicular t r a f f i c flow should be such as to cause l i t t l e inconvenience  i n terms of delay.  On the  major c o l l e c t o r , the through and r i g h t turn movements would have p r i o r i t y over other movements including pedestrians. making l e f t turns would wait for  opposing  Those  t r a f f i c i f necessary,  without blocking following t r a f f i c by turning into the median space.  T r a f f i c on the minor c o l l e c t o r would only have to stop  to y i e l d to the p r i o r i t y of t r a f f i c on the major c o l l e c t o r when there was any. The through and l e f t turns could be made with less delay than currently on some c o l l e c t o r s because openings or breaks are required i n the flows on the major c o l l e c t o r i n only one d i r e c t i o n at a time instead of both, by crossing into the median.  The term servi-center• refers to the integrated i n s t a l l a t i o n of such service f a c i l i t i e s as l e t t e r , parcel and nespaper boxes and telephones i n the center of c o l l e c t o r street intersections. 1  00  "The t o t a l distance would be equal f o r pedestrians a r r i v i n g from a l l eight directions (each side of the four street legs) and equivalent to crossing one street. At present, to reach a f a c i l i t y i n s t a l l e d on a corner, pedestrians from two directions cross no streets, those from four cross one, and those from two directions cross two streets. Thus, i t would be •averaged out' for everyone.  128. One  s i t u a t i o n that could block a street would arise when  either both spaces beside the'servi-center• were occupied another driver was waiting to enter, or when one was  and  occupied  and a driver of a waiting car f e l t he could not make a U-turn into the other space because of his car's maneuverability t r a f f i c conditions.  or  Such a s i t u a t i o n would l i k e l y be infrequent  and short-lived, and would probably  be remedied by the waiting  d r i v e r going to another servi-center.  Vehicles such as  fire  trucks and long moving vans might make l e f t turns through the r i g h t turn lane short of the servi-center. Designs for the servi-center are shown on Diagram merely to suggest the p o s s i b i l i t i e s that would exist.  11  The actual  design could be made the subject of a competition amongst architects and i n d u s t r i a l designers.  The f a c i l i t i e s should  be  so designed that they can be easily used from cars including lowslung sports models.  For instance, the telephone  probably  should be the type with the d i a l i n g mechanism i n the handpiece which is on an extension  cord.  Probably the most d i f f i c u l t  problem i n this respect i s  designing devices to c o l l e c t money for services rendered. Ideally, there would be a single device that made change, c o l lected for a l l services, recorded each transaction separately and warned of tampering.  Change making devices are becoming common  in vending machines, and ones that can make change for (American) d o l l a r b i l l s were a feature of the Seattle World's F a i r .  These  devices could remove one problem people have i n using public services.  Indeed, money changing might become a public serive  in i t s e l f .  For instances, people might go to servi-centers to  get change for bus fares or parking meters.  The l a t t e r would be  especially important i n downtown areas where the servi-center could be located on the l e f t side of one-way s t r e e t s .  The  changers should at least p a r t i a l l y r e c i r c u l a t e money received by  129.  DIAGRAM  11 - SUGGESTED  DESIGN OF  'SERVI-CENTER•  130. giving i t out i n change to reduce the t o t a l held i n them, thus reducing the frequency of c o l l e c t i o n and temptation to p i l f e r from them.  For example, soft drink vending machines give out  nickels received, as change f o r quarters. Ordinary vending machines do not record transactions because the consumption of a given commodity or brand i s obvious by what i s l e f t .  Machines have been recently introduced  in parts of the United States as automated l o c a l post o f f i c e s and grocery stores that accept money, debit the price of items selected, and return the remaining c r e d i t as change. ^ 2  Similar  operations could be performed by a r e l a t i v e l y simple mechanism in each of the major servi-centers controlled by a c e n t r a l l y located computer linked by telephone cable. The pilferage problem could be lessened by designing stronger money holders than currently i n s t a l l e d by the telephone and newspaper companies.  When tampered with, the changing  mechanism might trigger alarms or cameras, or both.  Since the  'get-away setup* would be favourable for theft, alarms are probably of l i t t l e a v a i l . of  Cameras could record the appearance  the person or car involved.  For recording licence plate  numbers, a camera might be mounted i n the median island facing the front of one car and the back of another.  They would have to  be theft-proof themselves, and remain unobstructed.  This might  require an e l e c t r i c eye that sounded an alarm whenever blocked for  more than a few seconds.  Alarm systems might also be  i n s t a l l e d to be triggered by interruptions i n power or telephone services.  Such measures are expensive, and i t would probably be  better to have strong money holders with l i t t l e  i n them.  To be practicable, the money changing and recording  Ltd.,  Statement by Mr. Dale Johnson, Dale Distributors (B.C.) i n telephone interview.  131.  devices  should cater to as many services and replace as many  f a c i l i t i e s as possible.  I t could replace the coin acceptance  devices and holders of the telephone, newspaper and postage stamp services; the l a t t e r a new service i n r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s . It could also replace the coin mechanisms i n a vending machine for  cigarettes, matches, and possibly other 'convenience  items.  1  The vending machine could be i n s t a l l e d p u b l i c l y and  leased to private firms to supply and service i t , or such firms could i n s t a l l the vending machine and coin mechanism at less or no rent.  Either way, the public would be better served than  currently. IV.  DESIGNING THE SUBDIVISION  The preceding description and discussion of the proposed process of designing  l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l street use and servicement  was based on the assumption that the subdivision existed.  However  f u l l benefit from the proposed street use and servicing practices could only be derived when the designing of the subdivision was an i n t e g r a l part of the process. designing  The proposed process of  a subdivision w i l l be described by f i r s t summarizing  the best current practice, and then describing differences i n the proposed practice. The process of designing  a subdivision for a f a i r l y  area i n the best current practice involves surveying  large  the general  topography by a e r i a l photography, reconnoitering by the designers to get the ' f e e l ' of the s i t e , designing  preliminary  plats, checking the same on the ground, r e v i s i n g on the basis of this check incorporation of easement for u t i l i t i e s , and preparation of the f i n a l p l a t .  The checking and revising steps  may be repeated several times when d i f f i c u l t t e r r a i n or meticulous designers are involved. consideration  include:  The factors taken into  132. 1.  Natural features such as ravines, steep slopes and rock formations that are worth preserving for t h e i r aesthetic or recreational value, or because of the costs or loss of safety that might be involved due to the drainage and s o i l s t a b i l i t y problems created by their removal.  2.  Relatively l e v e l areas suitable f o r economic and safe ( i . e . stable) construction of playing f i e l d s .  3.  Areas having desirable views of either the panoramic type, of which the best are from the top of steep banks, or those with close views of ravines or park areas f o r prime dwelling sites.  4.  Areas or features such as rock outcroppings l i k e l y to cause excessive servicing costs.  5.  Areas which appear to require special investigation of s o i l drainage, or other conditions such as marshy areas.  6.  Slopes of possible road alignments within acceptable ranges (including minimums) f o r the various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of roads involved.  7.  The need f o r lanes, right-of-ways, or easements for u t i l i t i e s and the alignment of them.  8.  Design standards f o r the subdivision plat (size and shape of l o t s ; width of road and lane allowances; width of right-of-ways and easements) and f o r the roads and lanes (grades, angle of i n t e r s e c t i o n , type of intersections) established by the P r o v i n c i a l Government or municipality.  9.  The quality of development that i s wanted i n the area. This influences the size of lots reqdred and need f o r lanes since they can be eliminated i n some instances when lots are wide enough to have driveways.  10.  Desirable attributes of a functional street system including a systematic hierarchy of street types, minimum number of intersections avoidance of cross intersection of l o c a l streets and minimum lengths of straight runs on l o c a l streets. These influence layout and size of streets.  133.  No attempt need be made here to describe the processes by which designers  consider these factors.  They are somewhat subjective,  and at best highly creative. The proposed process of designing subdivisions would give greater attention to c e r t a i n of the above l i s t e d  considerations,  and would add some s o c i o l o g i c a l and behavioural ones.  Much more  consideration would be given to natural features i n and near potential streets. rock formations, be considered street.  Besides the minor topographic features  and  interesting i n d i v i d u a l and groups of trees would  for possible incorporation i n the design of the  Since the boundaries of the street would not be fixed  at this stage, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of avoiding problems and  taking  advantage of opportunities would be greater than i f the subd i v i s i o n existed.  For example, the alignments of the road and  u t i l i t y structures could deviate even more from the center  line  of the tentative street to avoid rock formations or improve grades.  A t t r a c t i v e trees would be avoided to save them for  incorporation i n the planting design.  Only when a s a t i s f a c t o r y  compromise between alignments for the pavements and  utility  structures, preservation of natural features, and reservation of space for street uses had been achieved, would the street boundaries.be established. The street boundaries would d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y from the current practice - they would no longer always be p a r a l l e l . Where there were natural features or areas wanted for s p e c i a l uses the street would be wide - where there were not, i t might be narrow.  It would also be widened or 'flared out' at i n t e r -  sections of two c o l l e c t o r streets to allow for more generous curvatures  and spaces around servi-centers.  These variations i n  street width would a f f e c t the depth of abutting s i t e s , of course, i f their rear property of the street.  line p a r a l l e l e d the centerline  However, the streets on either side could be  134. either shifted s l i g h t l y or narrowed and  the rear property line  'averaged' to maintain reasonably comparable depths.  Assuming  the practice of establishing building setbacks were maintained, this v a r i a t i o n i n street width would tend to produce naturally the v a r i a t i o n i n setbacks of houses that architects and  planners  desire but seldom achieve. The s o c i o l o g i c a l considerations  are the relationships  between the physical environment and s o c i a l phenomena.  Little  i s known about these relationships, or about the effects of changes the environment has on these phenomena. need to increase our knowledge i n this sphere.  There i s a great In the meantime,  what knowledge i s available should be put to use. one  For example,  study found that i n a lower income working class area where  friendships with neighbours seemed important, the pattern number of friendships formed were adversely aspects of the subdivision design. or v e r t i c a l separation  affected by  and  several  These are unusual horizontal  between facing houses, absence of a lane  along the rear of the l o t s , arid presence of a lane at the side of  lots.  2 4  Behavioural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that ought to be considered i n subdivision design are s i m i l a r l y lacking i n fundamental research.  There are some, however, e i t h e r well known or e a s i l y  obtainable  from observation  and experience.  One  example i s the  tendency of people to park on the side of the street nearest t h e i r home or other destination.  Since vehicles must park on  the  right hand side of two-way streets i n B r i t i s h Columbia, people often make somewhat i n d i r e c t approaches to t h e i r destination. Failure to consider  this tendency could r e s u l t i n people consi-  dering inconvenient a street system that has a perfect  'branching'  pattern. 24 R. A. Williams, The S o c i o l o g i c a l Effects of Subdivision Design - A Micro-ecological Study. unpublished thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958.  135. V.  FUTURE SERVICES  The proposed practices would take into consideration the p o s s i b i l i t y that new services would be provided  to property, or  that e x i s t i n g services might become u t i l i t i e s .  This has been  the h i s t o r i c a l tendency i n the process of evolution of services to to-day's s i t u a t i o n , and there i s no reason to assume that i t w i l l not continue.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to predict what w i l l happen,  but worthwhile speculating on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and perhaps making some provision f o r the more promising ones. Changes occur i n services when i t becomes more e f f i c i e n t or economical to do something communally, or this becomes necessary i n the interests of health and safety.  These consider-  ations are related to density of development i n that the need for communal services increases with density, while becoming more e f f i c i e n t and economic.  For instance, r u r a l areas may be served  only by roads, or also by drainage ditches, e l e c t r i c i t y , and telephone.  They can be considered  to become suburban when  served by water pipes i n place of wells and usually septic tanks instead of outhouses or t o i l e t s connected to rock p i t s .  Urban  areas require sewerage service i n place of septic tanks.  Other  services may become necessary or economically feasible as either density increases further or the extent of a given spreads.  density  As f a r as l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets are concerned,  these would be mainly communicative services such as cable-TV and f i r e alarm systems. Changes i n services to property also occur as a r e s u l t of technological innovations  or s o c i o l o g i c a l and economic revolutions,  e s p e c i a l l y i n those involving delivery or c o l l e c t i o n . For example, i c e delivery service was eliminated by r e f r i g e r a t o r s . Coal, wood, and sawdust f u e l delivery services have almost been replaced by f u e l o i l and natural gas.  Milk, bread, f r u i t and  vegetable delivery services may soon disappear since they seem  1 3 6 .  to be caught In a vicious s p i r a l of having to reduce the quality of  service, especially i n frequency, which causes loss of  customers and a further need for quality reductions.  The postal  service i s r e l a t i v e l y immune to such forces. The question for the future i s whether such communal services w i l l be merely abandoned or replaced by a u t i l i t y service as the natural gas u t i l i t y replaced other f u e l delivery services.  Somewhat facetious suggestions have been made to  this investigator that i t would be nice to have beer 'on tap' by having i t 'piped i n ' .  There are two main problems that make  beer or milk pipe systems u n l i k e l y . purity and freshness.  One i s .that of ensuring  This might be possible to overcome but  only at remendous expense.  The other problem i s that of pro-  viding a selection of brands or grades.  Also, such systems  would only supply single commodities, unlike the variety provided by the 'milkman'. A more promising p o s s i b i l i t y i s a u t i l i t y service that could deliver and c o l l e c t capsules containing almost anything that would f i t into them.  Such a service could deliver not only  dairy products, bread, beer and mail; but also drugs and perhaps groceries.  It could c o l l e c t not only empty capsules and mail, but  also unburnable refuse such as t i n cans i f everyone had i n c i n erators,  or possibly a l l types of household garbage not handled  by sink disposal units.  The capsules f o r c e r t a i n commodities,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the liquids such as milk and beer, might be specially designed and used as the containers and be re-usable.  Other  capsules could be general purpose ones. The f a c i l i t y carrying the capsules might be some type of enclosed conveyor system, but a baric or pressure system seems more promising.  This might be a pneumatic system similar to  those i n some o f f i c e buildings or department stores.  However,  there would be serious switching problems with the number of destinations or 'stations' involved.  The capsules might also  137. be transported through pipes carrying liquids as i s being considered on a larger scale for bulk cargoes of coal and wheat. ^ 2  An interesting p o s s i b i l i t y i s that of modifying normal baric services for a dual purpose.  The gas service i s considered  unsuitable because i t would be outside the proposed u t i l i t y structures, subject commodities to possible contamination, present operating d i f f i c u l t i e s .  and  The l a t t e r would arise not  only i n switching, but also i n that pressure d i f f e r e n t i a l s adequate to move capsules would be incompatible with the requirements of gas service.  On the other hand, the water service seems  promising, provided that the capsules were automatically s t e r i l i z e d at i n l e t s and the pipe system could be redesigned to carry them.  Although  i t may  be possible to devise a one pipe  system, a two pipe system would probably be simpler.  This might  be an advantage i n areas where potable water i s expensive because one pipe could carry potable water for drinking and cooking  while the other carried s l i g h t l y brackish or saline water  suitable for flushing t o i l e t s , watering lawns, and swimming pools when treated which chlorine.  filling  Another p o s s i b i l i t y  would be to d i s t i l l necessary potable water i n each dwelling, perhaps i n the same unit as the capsule s t e r i l i z e r . The designing of a system to d e l i v e r and c o l l e c t capsules to single-family residences i s beyond the scope of this investigation.  There are many problems to be solved, p a r t i c u l a r l y  in switching given capsules to given destinations instead of merely carrying a few staples that are constantly c i r c u l a t i n g u n t i l removed by pushing a selector button.  However, switching  and detecting devices are constantly being improved.  For  example, railway boxcar numbers can now be detected from patterns of  radioactive buttons while the car i s moving.  It must be  25* Frank Dolphin, "Pipeline'Trains' No Longer Dream", F i n a n c i a l Post. 30 March 1963, p. 3.  138.  assumed that technological progress w i l l continue, and that what one man conceives, another w i l l someday do. Looking further into the future, Marvin Camras, the inventor of the magnetic recorder, foresees more s t a r t l i n g possibilities.  He suggests that  . . . goods consumed d a i l y such as foods, drugs, and f u e l w i l l be piped into each home i n elementary form of f l u i d or suspension. Memory packs w i l l control complex electro-chemical-mechanical processing equipment that w i l l convert or separate the piped materials into the desired products.26 The memory packs would hold information on products i n the market, entertainment, education, telephone numbers, receipts, income tax and other personal data constantly being updated v i a the telephone, and viewable on a viewing  console.27  The point of interest here i s that future u t i l i t y systems would be more feasible to i n s t a l l i n u t i l i t y structures than otherwise, and that consideration should be given to reserving space for them. VI.  SUMMARY OF PROPOSED DESIGNING PRACTICES  The proposed process of designing the street use and servicement of l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets has been described and discussed above i n r e l a t i o n to current practice. from current practice i n two main ways.  It differs  I t would be more compre-  hensive i n terms of the number of factors considered i n each design, especially s o c i o l o g i c a l and behavioural ones.  Secondly,  i t would be more intimately related to the needs, problems, and o  f.  Arthur J . Snider, "Pocket-Size Memory Packs W i l l Shop, Bank, Entertain", Vancouver Sun. 24 January 1964, p. 6. 27. Loc. c i t .  139. p o s s i b i l i t i e s of each p a r t i c u l a r street section, especially r e l a t i n g to such natural features as rock outcroppings and a t t r a c t i v e trees. On the assumption that the subdivision plat existed, s i x main aspects of the proposed designing with these r e s u l t s .  process were examined  Designing of street uses would involve uses  other than parking such as playing and other recreation, and r e l a t i n g a l l of them to the needs and desires of various age groups.  Designing of u t i l i t y structures would be unique. I t  would vary for d i f f e r e n t types of structures, being most complicated for the a l l - u t i l i t y trough because of i t s high degree of integration and need to compromise between drainage and pedestrian requirements.  Designing of u t i l i t i e s would be most  comparable to current practice, allowing f o r differences due to the u t i l i t y structure.  I t would be mainly a matter of  modifying standard designs to f i t p a r t i c u l a r situations.  Pave-  ments and planting would be custom designed to accommodate s p e c i a l use areas and take advantage of natural features; i n the former's case by passing to one or both sides of them. Designing of other property  service f a c i l i t i e s would be limited  to the few that would be i n s t a l l e d i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets; most would be located at intersections. sections was considered  Designing of i n t e r -  separately to show how these  facilities  would be dealt with, including description of 'servi-centers* for  intersections of c o l l e c t o r s t r e e t s . The assumption was then made that the subdivision plat  did  not exist to describe how the designing of subdivision plats  would be made an i n t e g r a l part of the whole process.  This would  involve greater attention to natural features and s o c i o l o g i c a l and behavioural  considerations.  F i n a l l y , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of future service that could be i n s t a l l e d i n u t i l i t y structures has been  considered.  140. The next chapter discusses the process of i n s t a l l i n g property service  f a c i l i t i e s in local residential  streets.  CHAPTER IV PROPOSED INSTALLING PRACTICES A DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING PROPERTY SERVICE FACILITIES FOR  LOCAL RESIDENTIAL STREET USE AND  The proposed practices of i n s t a l l i n g property facilities  for l o c a l street use and servicement are  and discussed  SERVICEMENT  1  service described  i n this chapter i n a fashion s i m i l a r to that for  the proposed designing process i n the preceding chapter.  That i s ,  the process i s b r i e f l y described generally and then i n more d e t a i l by major aspects.  As before, these aspects are the  u t i l i t y structures, u t i l i t i e s , pavements, planting, and other facilities.  This time, however, the proposed practice of  • i n s t a l l i n g * a subdivision plat w i l l be discussed  first.  This  i s i t s l o g i c a l position i n the complete process of developing an area, and i t i s unnecessary here to d i s t i n g u i s h between e x i s t i n g and proposed subdivision p l a t s .  This i s because i t i s assumed  that e x i s t i n g subdivisions would often have to be newly established on the ground.  The reason for this i s that even where subdivision  had been completely established on the ground, many of the survey posts have s h i f t e d or disappeared.  Furthermore, the  proposed practices apply almost as well to ordinary plats as to the proposed designs. designing  subdivision  An aspect not requiring  - preparation of the street for servicing - i s introduced  a f t e r the discussion of the process of i n s t a l l i n g subdivision plats. The proposed process of i n s t a l l i n g subdivision and property  service f a c i l i t i e s  i s s i m i l a r to the best  practice i n general terms of staging and operations Utilities  current involved.  would be i n s t a l l e d before pavements, pavements before  The term 'servicement' means the condition or state existing when services have been i n s t a l l e d . See page 19. for d e f i n i t i o n ^  142. p l a n t i n g and  planting before other f a c i l i t i e s  to  facilities  installed  minimized.  Operations  so t h a t damage  w h i l e i n s t a l l i n g others would s u c h as e x c a v a t i n g and  be  backfilling  would  be c a r r i e d o u t i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , t h o u g h n o t f o r t h e same facilities.  Operations  s i m i l a r , b u t may  for laying f a c i l i t i e s  w o u l d be  be s i m p l i f i e d o r c o m p l i c a t e d somewhat by  d i f f e r e n t circumstances.  The  d i f f e r e n t circumstances  m a i n l y because of the presence  between the proposed  and  current practice.  c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e a r e d e s c r i b e d and  I.  The  PROPOSED PROCESS OF  d i f f e r e n c e s from i n the  proposed  INSTALLING SUBDIVISION PLATS  p r o c e s s o f i n s t a l l i n g new  subdivision  r e - i n s t a l l i n g o l d ones, would d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g and  p l a t w o u l d be  t h e same, o r w o u l d n o t be  subdivisions.  The  plats,  from  the  s u r v e y i n g o p e r a t i o n s were  c a r r i e d out.  in  difference  d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y  b e s t c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e o n l y i n t h e way  old  Their  sections.  The or  arise  of the u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s .  i n s t a l l a t i o n , o f c o u r s e , i s the most f u n d a m e n t a l  following  basically  r e g i s t e r i n g of  the  i n v o l v e d i n the case  b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e w o u l d be  the c a r e  of  taken  p e r f o r m i n g the s u r v e y i n g o p e r a t i o n s t o p r e s e r v e n a t u r a l  f e a t u r e s worth  retaining, especially  trees.  c a r e i s t a k e n nor need be, because s t r e e t s  surveying.  Rock o u t c r o p p i n g s  such  are l a t e r c l e a r e d  c o m p l e t e l y , as a r e o f t e n t h e s i t e s as w e l l . c l e a r e d of a l l growth wherever convenient  C u r r e n t l y no  Sight lines  are  for efficient  a r e s c a l e d and m a r k e d t o  r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s o f v a r y i n g degrees o f permanency.  establish  Many  disappear  when t h e r o c k i s l a t e r r e m o v e d , j u s t as t h e c u t s t h r o u g h  the t r e e s  for  sight  l i n e s d i s a p p e a r when more t r e e s a r e c l e a r e d , s o  are c u r r e n t l y of l i t t l e  they  concern.  When i t i s d e s i r e d t o p r e s e r v e n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s h o w e v e r , t h e s e p r a c t i c e s become a m a t t e r o f c o n c e r n .  Unfortunately, i t  143.  i s as easy to cut down a t t r a c t i v e trees as others, and size matters l i t t l e with to-day's power saws.  The most prominent  parts of rock outcroppings are often the most a t t r a c t i v e and also most suitable f o r survey marks. two surveying operations. determine ments.  The damage occurs during  The f i r s t i s that undertaken to  the detailed topography  along potential street a l i g n -  A sight l i n e i s cleared along the centerline of the  p o t e n t i a l street and measurements are taken at regular intervals and changes i n slopes to determine  the p r o f i l e of the centerline.  Measurements are also taken on lines perpendicular to the centerline to determine the cross-section of the street. Features such as creeks and rock l i k e l y to a f f e c t the design of the street or road are accurately located.  It i s during  this operation that rock outcroppings are marked with r e l a t i v e l y permanent and easily locatable reference points f o r other surveying work l a t e r .  The other surveying operation of concern  i s that of 'staking out' the subdivision p l a t .  This i s the  operation that actually ' i n s t a l l s ' the plat on the ground.  It  involves more clearing to get sight lines to the comers of every l o t . The most e f f i c i e n t way might be down the property l i n e s bounding the street. In the proposed practice, such damage would be minimized by either training the survey crews to do so, or supervising them to ensure i t .  Clearing f o r the survey of detailed topo-  graphy would follow the tentative road alignment, but would not include trees worth preserving or growth on previously unknown rock formations.  These would be c a r e f u l l y surveyed to establish  t h e i r location and size so that the road could be diverted around them and they could be incorporated i n the planting design.  Even  when the road could not be diverted to preserve especially a t t r a c t i v e trees, they should be preserved for moving to other locations.  Techniques would be worked out for establishing  144. reference points on rock outcroppings without defacing them. For example, bench marks might be set on top or back from the face with temporary indicators above them f o r surveying purposes. Probably the best way  of preserving natural features would be  f o r a design-oriented person to accompany the clearing crew to mark features for preservation and make on-site adjustments i n the survey reference l i n e . The proposed practice of staking out the subdivision plat would involve a minimum of c l e a r i n g and avoidance of trees worth preserving.  This could be done by working from the previously  established reference line to which trees marked for preservation and the plat design would have been r e l a t e d .  Trees on property  lines would be preserved by surveying around them instead of •over t h e i r dead bodies'.  Rear property markers could be  established from a c l e a r i n g for the lane.  Otherwise, the side  property lines would be projected back from the front corners. Where there were good trees, a marker might be set short of the rear corner which would be referenced from set marker.  Thus, a  screen of trees along the rear of lots could be l e f t i n t a c t . II.  PROPOSED PROCESS OF PREPARING STREETS FOR SERVICING  The f i r s t few general stages of the proposed servicing practices - those preparing the street for s e r v i c i n g - are s i m i l a r to current practice i n terms of the operations involved. These stages are c l e a r i n g , c u l v e r t i n g , rough and fine grading, and i n s t a l l i n g a road bed.  The same operations and machines  would be involved for the same purposes, but the extent  and  resultant costs of these operations would d i f f e r considerably. The whole street would not be cleared and graded as i s usually required i n current practice.  Instead i t would be cleared and  graded only to the extent required f o r pavements and such street uses as f a i r sized playing areas.  145. The c l e a r i n g p r o c e s s w o u l d be c o n f i n e d t o t h e a r e a a s s i g n e d f o r p a v e m e n t s and o p e n p l a y i n g a r e a s e x c e p t f o r t h e r e m o v a l o f s p e c i a l l y m a r k e d t r e e s t h a t a r e u n w a n t e d a n d w o u l d be or d i f f i c u l t  t o remove l a t e r .  The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e  dangerous  street  w o u l d be i m p r o v e d l a t e r by s e l e c t i v e r e m o v a l o f t r e e s and b r u s h as p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f i n s t a l l i n g  under-  the gardening s e r v i c e .  I n t h e a r e a s b e i n g c l e a r e d , a l l g r o w t h w o u l d be removed including roots.  S o i l s u i t a b l e f o r p l a n t i n g purposes would  be  s t o c k - p i l e d on a r e a s n o t r e q u i r i n g g r a d i n g f o r l a t e r use i n a r e a s t o be p l a n t e d , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g s o l d as i s o f t e n t h e c a s e currently.  U n s u i t a b l e o r g a n i c o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l w o u l d be removed  as a t p r e s e n t . C u l v e r t s w o u l d be i n s t a l l e d  p r i o r to o r d u r i n g the rough  g r a d i n g o p e r a t i o n on w a t e r c o u r s e s c r o s s i n g c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e , b u t w o u l d be to crawl through s a f e l y . permit, culverts  t h e r o a d as i n  l a r g e enough f o r a t l e a s t  Where t h e d r a i n a g e u t i l i t i e s  l a r g e e n o u g h f o r a d u l t s m i g h t be  boys  would  installed,  e s p e c i a l l y w h e r e t h e w a t e r c o u r s e was made a p a r k s t r i p w i t h walk through i t .  a  The c u l v e r t c o u l d h a v e s t e p p i n g s t o n e s o r  ledges f o r dry passage i n a l l but heavy storm c o n d i t i o n s . The r o u g h g r a d i n g o p e r a t i o n s w o u l d be c o n f i n e d t o t h e same a r e a s , b u t w o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e o n c u t t i n g and f i l l i n g the designed road grade. finish  The  to e s t a b l i s h  fine-grading operations  would  t h i s j o b and t h e g r a d i n g o f p l a y i n g a r e a s , and t h e n t i e  them i n t o t h e n a t u r a l g r a d e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e s i g n .  In  r e l a t i v e l y rugged t e r r a i n , c o n n e c t i o n s t o driveways would a l s o g r a d e d t o d e s i g n e d a l i g n m e n t s and g r a d i e n t s .  Installing  the  r o a d b e d w o u l d c o n s i s t as c u r r e n t l y o f r o l l i n g o r tamping t h e r o a d g r a d e t o f o r m a f i r m f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e r o a d , and  placing  s a n d o r g r a v e l where n e c e s s a r y t o p e r m i t u s e o f t h e r o a d b e d equipment i n v o l v e d  i n servicing or constructing  dwellings.  by  be  146. The proposed process of preparing streets for servicing thus d i f f e r s from current practice mainly i n terms of the areas involved.  This affects costs d i r e c t l y , and also i n d i r e c t l y i n  that smaller volumes would be involved i n the grading operations. Diagram 12. shows how  the cross-sectional area decreases for a  narrower graded area.  Current Practice  Proposed Practice  Diagram 12. Comparison of Cross-sectional Areas Involved i n Grading The t o t a l area of cut and f i l l i n the longitudinal section would also be reduced because the road could be more closely f i t t e d to the topography.  These two factors would combine to produce  substantial reductions i n volume of earth moved.  There would  also be savings due to the decreased width and area of the roadbed for such items as culverts and sand or gravel. hand, there may  On the other  be somewhat higher unit costs f o r some operations  because of d i f f i c u l t y of maneuvering equipment i n small areas. Substantial saving could be r e a l i z e d i n rock areas because the design would minimize the amount to be removed.  The proposed  practices could y i e l d substantial benefits for property owners where there was  a steep cross-slope.  Driveway gradients could  be lowered because of the greater distance to the road when perpendicular (as i l l u s t r a t e d by the dotted line on Diagram or slanting across the s i t e and part of the s t r e e t .  12.)  Furthermore,  the need for and the cost of retaining walls would be largely eliminated i f regrading were kept within the street.  147. III.  PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING UTILITY STRUCTURES  2  The proposed practice d i f f e r s considerably from current practice i n that u t i l i t y structures would be i n s t a l l e d , but the processes of i n s t a l l i n g most of them are generally comparable to current processes of i n s t a l l i n g certain f a c i l i t i e s , particul a r l y those of the drainage services.  As f o r the l a t t e r , the  three main operations i n i n s t a l l i n g the structures are excavating, i n s t a l l i n g the structure, and b a c k f i l l i n g .  Excavating and  b a c k f i l l i n g techniques f o r a l l u t i l i t y structures could be the same as for i n s t a l l i n g drains or multi-tubed conduits of comparable s i z e , which may be larger than those o r d i n a r i l y found i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets.  The techniques of i n s t a l l i n g the  tunnel and tubed-conduits could also be the same as for drains and multi-tubed conduits of comparable s i z e .  Thus the main  differences are i n the techniques of i n s t a l l i n g especially the a l l - u t i l i t y type.  troughs,  However, there are c e r t a i n  other techniques f o r the tunnel and tubed-conduit structures not currently employed i n Metropolitan Vancouver that would be employed where found to be f e a s i b l e .  For instance, several  methods involving precasting or extrusion have been considered. Also there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n s t a l l i n g non-drainage and e l e c t r i c a l structures over drains.  These d i f f e r e n t  techniques  are described and discussed below i n Appendix B (see page 243. ). IV.  PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING UTILITIES  The proposed process of i n s t a l l i n g the f a c i l i t i e s of the u t i l i t y services would d i f f e r from current practices mainly i n that there would be no excavation or b a c k f i l l i n g required f o r any f a c i l i t i e s i n s t a l l e d i n u t i l i t y structures. The laying and joining techniques would be generally the same i n some cases, See Diagram 1., page 27. for summary of types of u t i l i t y structures.  -  148.  but quite d i f f e r e n t i n others.  Street lamps and their supports,  though not the wiring to them, would be i n s t a l l e d as i n current practice regardless of the type of u t i l i t y structure.  Other  s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences are described below, f i r s t for the various types of structures, and then for manholes. A l l - u t i l i t v trough.  Utilities  could be i n s t a l l e d i n the  a l l - u t i l i t y trough i n almost any order or weather conditions; the l a t t e r because the trough could be covered e a s i l y and would be deep enough to work i n .  A transparent or translucent cover  would make l i g h t i n g less necessary.  Where the bottom of the  trough were not shaped to form drainage channels, drains would be simply l a i d on the bottom and held against the wall by wedges.  Pipes might be l a i d between them, possibly raised on  s p e c i a l concrete blocks, but probably should be i n s t a l l e d part way  up the wall.  Where there were no diaphrams with special  cutouts, this could be done by means of attachments to brackets cast i n the wall during i t s construction (perhaps those for  installed  form work) or attached by 'shooting' i n fastening devices.  Brackets for wires and cables would be s i m i l a r l y i n s t a l l e d or hung from the top of the trough wall.  Wires and cables would  then by simply strung from bracket to bracket i n a s i m i l a r fashion to overhead wiring.  Since the manholes would be  fairly  c l o s e l y spaced, brackets might be required only at manholes. A l l - u t i l i t y tunnel.  U t i l i t i e s would have to be i n s t a l l e d  i n the a l l - u t i l i t y tunnel i n a d e f i n i t e order.  The storm drain  would be f i r s t because of i t s large s i z e , and the sewer next because both should be at the bottom.  Dividers would then be  inserted, i f they had not been placed during construction of the u t i l i t y structure.  These would be thin, f l a t or s l i g h t l y  curved sheets of a material such as asbestos cement, but preferably something cheaper so long as i t were non-perishable.  149. They would support the other u t i l i t i e s , though not necessarily continuously.  Pipes would be i n s t a l l e d next against the wall.  The drains and pipes would be i n s t a l l e d by inserting sections into the tunnel at a manhole, joining a section to i t , and pushing them into the tunnel.  This procedure would be repeated u n t i l  the f i r s t section reached the next manhole.  I t i s currently  employed i n rare instances such as I n s t a l l i n g new gas pipes under roads through o l d , larger pipes. would be pulled through.  F i n a l l y , wires and cables  To avoid d i f f i c u l t i e s i n getting a  p u l l i n g string or wire through the structure, especially where the divider was not continuous, a s t r i n g or wire could be attached to one of the pipes and pulled through by i t . A L U u t i l i t y tubed-condult.  Drains and pipes would be  i n s t a l l e d i n a l l - u t i l i t y tubed-conduits  i n the same way as i n  the a l l - u t i l i t y tunnel where they had not been prefabricated into i t , except that no divider would be needed.  For both kinds of  construction the p u l l i n g of wires and cables would be the same as i n current mult1-tubed conduits. Non-drainage u t i l i t y structures. For a l l three types of non-drainage u t i l i t y structures, the drains would have been i n s t a l l e d p r i o r to the structure. They would be i n s t a l l e d as twin drains according to the best current practice, but backf i l l i n g and construction of manholes would stop short of the structure location.  Pipes, wires, and cables would be simply  l a i d i n the trough.  In the other two types, they would be  i n s t a l l e d i n the same manner as f o r the comparable type of a l l u t i l i t y structure. *  E l e c t r i c a l u t i l i t y structure. Both the drainage and baric u t i l i t i e s would have been i n s t a l l e d according to the best current practice p r i o r to i n s t a l l a t i o n of the e l e c t r i c a l u t i l i t y structures.  Wires and cables would be simply l a i d i n the trough.  150. T h e y w o u l d be same way  as  p u l l e d through the  f o r s i n g l e and  tunnel  multi-tubed  and  tubed-conduits i n  conduits  in  the  current  practice. Installing of  utilities  i n manholes.  installing a l l ancilliary facilities  i n m a n h o l e s and  The of  proposed  the u t i l i t y  a l s o p r e s e n t s the  possibility  of h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d  eight  there  w o u l d be  the  field.  are  an e x a m p l e o f  as much o f facilities  the  of For  i n them.  s e r v i c e systems  the degree of  so  lighting  same way  b e i n g made more e c o n o m i c a l .  and  ventilating  c o v e r h a t c h i s opened.  both through i n t e g r a t i o n of  e x a m p l e , t h e number o f  stations  i n t e g r a t i o n p o s s i b l e , some  m a n h o l e f a c i l i t y u n i t s w o u l d be  designed to  facilities  f i t t i n g s and as  and  The  reduce  rationalization  basis  of  s i z e of pipes would  number o f  t r i p s made by  reduced.  For  a m e t e r and  the house b u i l d e r , a second t o i n s t a l l  be  are service  example,  underground e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c e c o n n e c t i o n s c u r r e n t l y can to i n s t a l l  research.  domestic plumbing systems  o f e a c h u t i l i t y a g e n c y w o u l d be  t r i p s ; one  as  r u n n i n g between manholes,  t e c h n i q u e s f o r i n s t a l l i n g s e r v i c e s upon the  three  or  Special  P r e f a b r i c a t e d u n d e r g r o u n d sewage p u m p i n g  r e d u c e d i n much t h e  men  four  a minimum number o f c o n n e c t i o n s t o make i n  s y s t e m s w h i c h t u r n o n when t h e The  or  the meter mounts,  p i p i n g f o r the  h a v i n g a u t o m a t i c m o n i t o r i n g c o n t r o l s and  costs  compared  l a r g e r u n i t s would have t r a n s f o r m e r s i n s t a l l e d  p o s s i b l e , o t h e r than the that  a l l of  s e r v e d from the manhole.  These u n i t s would c o n t a i n  numbers  a manhole s e c t i o n  r e l a t e d w i r i n g and  t h a t w o u l d be  large  consequent savings  instance,  fabricated with  v a l v e s , and  lots  possibly  be  For  and  in  However, i t  f o r p r e f a b r i c a t i o n of  facilities  practices.  i n s e r t u n i t could switches,  services  of making a l l c o n n e c t i o n s to s i t e s e r v i c e s  manholes, presents problems of space a l l o c a t i o n .  with current  practices  involve  temporary connection the  o u t l e t near the house under c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  connection to a and  a third  to  for  riser  connect  151. completed house wiring to the meter through s i t e u t i l i t y structure. V.  PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING PAVEMENTS(AND CURB-GUTTERS) The proposed process of i n s t a l l i n g curb-gutters and roads  would probably be the same as i n the best current practice, although the layout would be d i f f e r e n t .  The process of i n s t a l -  l i n g the sidewalk would be completely d i f f e r e n t .  Curb-gutters  would be extruded i n place, except where they served as e l e c t r i c a l tubed-conduits. be factory .cast or extruded.  In this case, they would more l i k e l y The road would be paved by s l i p  form pavers laying concrete or asphalt.  The sidewalk might  also be i n s t a l l e d by a s l i p form paver where independent of u t i l i t y structures, and provided a machine were developed to pattern the surface.  Otherwise, the sidewalk would be precast.  The precast units would be i n s t a l l e d simply be being placed on the trough structure or i n a prepared excavation.  They would  be linked by dowels to maintain the position except for special sections of trough covers providing access to manholes. VI.  PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING PLANTS  The proposed process of i n s t a l l i n g plants would be almost completely d i f f e r e n t from current practices, which at best only involve planting saplings and seeding boulevards on l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets.  The difference would begin with the  clearing operation and carry through a process involving d i f f e r e n t plants and techniques f o r i n s t a l l i n g a l l plants. In the f i r s t place, some areas might not be cleared at a l l , but instead would be l e f t i n a natural state.  What clearing  was done would be by chain saws, axes and bush hooks, instead of by bulldozers, i n order to save selected trees.  Although such  hand clearing would take more time, time could be saved by using the following technique instead of burning or hauling away  152. debris: Small trees (up to 5" i n diameter) and underbrush are fed into the macerating machine which grinds them up and spews out shavings and small chips that s e t t l e into the ground as a mulch.3 The next stage would involve tying the natural features into the o v e r a l l design by i n s t a l l i n g plants.  As many suitable trees  and bushes as possible would be transplanted from the areas that had to be cleared f o r pavements or special use areas.  These  would not only be free of c a p i t a l cost, but would be less expensive to move and more l i k e l y to survive than plants brought in.  The appearance of rock outcroppings would be enhanced,  p a r t i c u l a r l y where cut for pavements by adding rocks and earth into which shrubs and rockery plants would be i n s t a l l e d . F i n a l l y , a l l other areas not to be i n grass would be planted with ground covers such as moss and i v y . Grass would be i n s t a l l e d i n three d i f f e r e n t ways f o r d i f f e r e n t situations.  Playing areas would be turfed with a  tough and r e s i l i e n t type of grass.  Level and open areas would  have blankets containing grass seed and f e r t i l i z e r spread on them.  These would be l a i d by spiked r o l l e r s which press the  blanket into the ground to prevent i t blowing i n the wind.4 Steep or odd-shaped areas would have grass i n s t a l l e d by spraying them h y d r a u l i c a l l y with an emulsion of seed, f e r t i l i z e r , water and a c e l l u l o s e f i b e r mulch.^  "Mulch-making Machine Speeds Land Clearing," House & Home, v o l . XXIV, no. 4, (October 1963), p. 54. ~ 4 "You Can Get a Lawn i n a Hurry with this Grass-seed Carpet," House & Home, v o l . XXI, no. 1 (January 1962), p. 165. ^"Brochure Shows One-step, Spray-on Grass and Erosion-control System," House & Home, v o l . XXIII, no. 2, (February 1963), p. 169.  153. VII.  PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING OTHER SERVICE FACILITIES The proposed process of i n s t a l l i n g other property service  f a c i l i t i e s would be the same as current practice i n a few instances, straighforward for some not currently i n s t a l l e d , and quite d i f f e r e n t for others, especially for those i n s t a l l e d i n servi-centers.  Those i n s t a l l e d the same way  as i n current  practice are f i r e hydrants, painted centerlines on roads,  letter  and f i r e alarm boxes, and r e f l e c t i v e metal stop and y i e l d signs standards. The f a c i l i t i e s not currently i n s t a l l e d i n Metropolitan Vancouver that could be i n s t a l l e d i n a straightforward manner are mainly the various furnishings.  For instance, the manner  of i n s t a l l i n g the proposed 'outdoor playpen', benches, pools, and other furniture and ornaments i s f a i r l y  obvious.  The only other f a c i l i t i e s that would be d i f f e r e n t i n l o c a l streets would be garbage containers and meters.  The former  would be i n s t a l l e d simply by dropping them into holes i n troughs or manholes for which they were designed to f i t .  Meter mounts  would have been i n s t a l l e d as part of prefabricated u n i t s .  The  gas and e l e c t r i c meters would be mounted so they could be read by residents through a transparent panel cast into the s p e c i a l sidewalk manhole cover section.  The meters would be read  remotely for b i l l i n g purposes as follows: . . . a customer's telephone would (without his knowing i t ) contact his meter p e r i o d i c a l l y , get the meter reading e l e c t r o n i c a l l y and transmit the information to a b i l l i n g machine. T h e . b i l l i n g machine would print the customer's b i l l and mail i t to him. No human eyes would see the meter.6 "Residential Gas and E l e c t r i c Meter Reading Over Telephone Lines Faces Test i n Owosso", Gas Age. New York, Moore, v o l . 129, no. 19 (13 September 1962), p. 69.  154. There however.  would be several differences at intersections,  Lighted a c r y l i c street name signs would be adapted to  f i t on street l i g h t poles instead on the top of separate posts as i n Brampton, Ontario.?  They might be further adapted by  means of a c l e a r or open s l o t i n the bottom and a r e f l e c t o r at the end to l i g h t f a c i l i t i e s such as l e t t e r and f i r e alarm boxes or other signs (see Diagram 13.).  Stop signs could be lighted  i n this fashion, but might be better l e f t to r e f l e c t car headl i g h t s , or be l i t i n t e r n a l l y i n the same manner as the street name signs.  In any case, stop signs would be i n s t a l l e d  lower  than i s becoming the practice, because there would be no parked cars to block the view of them.  Pedestrian y i e l d signs would be  painted onto or cast i n t e g r a l l y with precast sidewalks at c o l l e c t o r and major streets.  They would also be painted on the  facing curb as shown on Diagram 14. The curbs around the s e r v i center and at the ends of the nearby safety islands would be made of special permanent-white r e f l e c t o r concrete to eliminate Q  painting while providing a brighter appearance.  Coloured  pavements would be i n s t a l l e d i n the same manner as ordinary pavements i n small areas, that i s spreading by shovel and r o l l i n g . Rumble s t r i p s on the approaches to stop signs or divided roads might be formed simply by placing corrugated metal forms on hot asphalt and running over them with r o l l e r s .  F i n a l l y , the  f a c i l i t i e s i n the servi-center would be i n s t a l l e d as a unit by mounting i t on bolts set i n the concrete i s l a n d , or onto a c e n t r a l lamp or shelter support, depending upon the design of the u n i t . " A c r y l i c Invades Street Signs", Progressive P l a s t i c s . Toronto, Maclean-Hunter, v o l . .5, no. 11 (October 1963), pp. 25 - 26. g "White Concrete for Safety Island," Street Engineering. Chicago, Donnelley, v o l . 6, no. 11, (November 1961), p. 14.  155.  rp>  Existing Lighted Plastic Street Sign on Post  Suggested Adaptation For Street Lighting Pole  ~rr\— 4w\ s  Proposed Street Name Light  DIAGRAM 13 - SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS TO LIGHTED STREET NAME SIGNS  DIAGRAM 14 - SUGGESTED PEDESTRIAN SIGNS  156.  VIII.  SUMMARY OF PROPOSED PROCESS OF INSTALLING SERVICE FACILITIES The proposed practices of i n s t a l l i n g property  service  f a c i l i t i e s i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets are s i m i l a r to the best current practice i n general terms of staging and involved.  The differences have been described  aspects of the process.  operations  for several major  The proposed process of i n s t a l l i n g (or  r e - i n s t a l l i n g ) subdivision plats would d i f f e r substantially from the best current practice only i n the way were carried out.  surveying  operations  These differences r e s u l t from the desire to  preserve natural features, e s p e c i a l l y trees, both i n the street and on s i t e s .  The proposed process of preparing  the street for  servicing i s s i m i l a r to the best current practice i n terms of the operations  involved, but they are performed on a reduced area.  The proposed u t i l i t y structures would be an for  innovation  l o c a l s t r e e t s , but t h e i r i n s t a l l a t i o n would be generally  s i m i l a r to that of f a c i l i t i e s such as the drains.  An  exception  i s the a l l - u t i l i t y trough f o r which several s p e c i a l techniques are mentioned.  The tunnels and tube-conduits would be i n s t a l l e d  i n the same way  as drains, except for e l e c t r i c a l tubed-conduits;  these would be i n s t a l l e d as curbs or sidewalks, or as they would be i f precast. The proposed process of i n s t a l l i n g u t i l i t i e s would d i f f e r from current practice mainly i n that excavation and would be eliminated  backfilling  for u t i l i t i e s i n s t a l l e d i n u t i l i t y  structures.  Otherwise they are i n s t a l l e d i n a s i m i l a r manner to current practice, although a c e r t a i n order must be followed for tunnels. In some cases pipes and drains could be prefabricated with the structures.  F a c i l i t i e s i n manholes would be i n s t a l l e d by placing  prefabricated manhole sections or i n s e r t u n i t s . Pavements would be Installed i n the same manner as i n the best current practice, allowing f o r the layout being d i f f e r e n t .  157.  However, the process of i n s t a l l i n g plants would be considerably different.  I t begins with hand clearing of natural features and  involves use of e x i s t i n g trees as much as possible. techniques of planting grass would be used.  Several new  F a c i l i t i e s of other  property services would be the same i n a few instances, straightforward f o r some not currently i n s t a l l e d , and d i f f e r e n t for others, e s p e c i a l l y those i n servi-centers.  V  CHAPTER V EVALUATION OF PROPOSED PRACTICES DETERMINATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF THE PROPOSED STREET USE AND SERVICING PRACTICES The two preceding chapters described and discussed proposed processes of designing and i n s t a l l i n g property service f a c i l i t i e s for l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l street use and servicement  i n comparison  with current practices i n Metropolitan Vancouver.  The practices  involved i n the proposed processes are evaluated i n this  chapter  i n terms of the c r i t e r i a and p r i n c i p l e s stated i n Chapter I to test the hypotheses of this i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The general hypotheses to be tested are that i n s t a l l i n g u t i l i t i e s i n s p e c i a l l y designed underground structures i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets would; a) permit better use and design of such streets than i s possible by current s e r v i c i n g practices. b) be feasible (from functional, physical, s o c i a l , staging, administrative, p o l i t i c a l , f i n a n c i a l , and economic points-of-view)  i f comprehensively  designed. The f i r s t hypothesis may be accepted as proven by the range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r designing street use and servicement  described  i n Chapter III from which anyone could select what he considered to be better.  This assumes only that everyone could find some-  thing he considered better than current practice. Acceptance of a l l of the proposed designing practice, p a r t i c u l a r l y the more r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t ones, i s unnecessary because only which prove to be acceptable need be followed.  those  However, the  proposed practices would hardly be worth following, even i f f e a s i b l e , unless accepted  to a substantial degree.  Consequently,  acceptance of the proposed designing practices are discussed more f u l l y i n this chapter.  159. Any a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , o f c o u r s e i s c o n d i t i o n a l upon acceptance o f the second - t h a t i s , t h a t the proposed p r a c t i c e s a r e f e a s i b l e .  The f e a s i b i l i t y  of the pro-  p o s e d p r a c t i c e s i s n o t a l w a y s o b v i o u s f r o m t h e d e f i n i t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n , a n d t h e r e f o r e m u s t be t e s t e d a n d e v a l u a t e d .  The  g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s a b o u t f e a s i b i l i t y m u s t be t e s t e d by a s e r i e s of  s p e c i f i c hypotheses  about s e p a r a b l e p r a c t i c e s .  done by d e t e r m i n i n g t h e f e a s i b i l i t y  T h i s has been  of the various aspects  d e s c r i b e d i n t h e two p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s f o r e a c h k i n d o f f e a s i bility and to  where a p p l i c a b l e .  P r a c t i c e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be  feasible,  t h e s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s a c c e p t a b l e , when t h e y c a n be shown be f o l l o w e d i n o t h e r u r b a n a r e a s o r i n c o m p a r a b l e I.  EVALUATION  OF PROPOSED STREET USE AND  Complete t e s t i n g o f the f i r s t  situations.  DESIGN  general hypothesis could  i n v o l v e t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and t e s t i n g o f a s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s f o r e a c h o f t h e p r o p o s e d p r a c t i c e s by a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c r i t e r i a or principle. following reasons.  This i s considered unnecessary f o r the  I n the f i r s t  b a s i s of the assumptions about public interest c r i t e r i a .  place, the p r i n c i p l e s  formed t h e  t h e p r o p o s e d p r a c t i c e s and t h e  While i t would  be d e s i r a b l e t o make  s u c h t e s t s , i t c a n h a r l y be done b y t h e p e r s o n who h a s made t h e judgements i n v o l v e d .  I n the second p l a c e , the proposed  practice  i n v o l v e s a c c o m m o d a t i n g more s t r e e t u s e s a n d p r o v i d i n g more s e r v i c e s whose f a c i l i t i e s  would  be i n s t a l l e d a t t h e same o r b e t t e r  standard than i n the best current p r a c t i c e .  I t i s only necessary  to  assume t h a t p e o p l e w o u l d c o n s i d e r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s  to  accept the hypothesis.  a c c e p t e d by d e f i n i t i o n ,  In effect,  'better'  t h e h y p o t h e s i s m u s t be  i f t h i s assumption i s accepted.  V a l i d i t y o f the assumption t h a t people would c o n s i d e r the proposed p r a c t i c e b e t t e r than c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s would  require  a c t u a l s e r v i c i n g o f a s t r e e t by t h e s e p r a c t i c e s s i n c e e v e n a  160. psychological would react  s t u d y i n d e p t h i s u n l i k e l y t o r e v e a l how p e o p l e  t o such u n f a m i l i a r s i t u a t i o n s .  Features of the  p r o p o s e d p r a c t i c e s w h i c h m i g h t b o t h e r some p e o p l e a r e t h e closeness of the  o f t h e r o a d t o h o u s e s i n some s e c t i o n s , t h e p r e s e n c e  p l a y i n g areas o r n a t u r a l features  i n f r o n t o f h o u s e s , and  l a c k o f u n i f o r m i t y o f treatment f o r e v e r y house.  point covers possible reactions  that  the proposed  w o u l d be ' u n f a i r ' , ' i n e q u i t a b l e ' , a n d somehow In an attempt t o a l l a y following points and  are noted.  The  latter  practices  'undemocratic'.  such p o t e n t i a l c r i t i c i s m s , the The p r o p o s e d p r a c t i c e o f s t r e e t u s e  s e r v i c e m e n t w h i c h a f f e c t s t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t have been  d e l i b e r a t e l y made somewhat e x t r e m e t o show t h e r a n g e o f p o s s i bilities current  t h a t w o u l d e x i s t when some o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s p r a c t i c e were removed.  Any s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l  of  s u c h as  h a v i n g t h e r o a d c l o s e t o one s i d e o f t h e s t r e e t t h a t p r o v e d t o be  u n a c c e p t a b l e w o u l d be e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h  solutions. close  to find  F o r example, e i t h e r the road c o u l d  acceptable  be p l a c e d  t o t h e h o u s e s , o r more i n t e n s i v e p l a n t i n g c o u l d  less  be  placed  b e t w e e n t h e h o u s e s and t h e r o a d .  H o w e v e r , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d  u n l i k e such s i t u a t i o n s i n c u r r e n t  p r a c t i c e , t h e r e w o u l d be  compensating advantages could  to these s i t u a t i o n s .  be o f l i m i t e d e x t e n t  of s t r e e t l e n g t h c o u l d With regard  These s i t u a t i o n s  and o n l y w h e r e e s p e c i a l l y l a r g e  i n g areas o r n a t u r a l features  play-  w e r e t o be a v o i d e d ; t h e m a j o r  be r e a s o n a b l y  that  part  symmetrical.  t o t h e m a t t e r s o f f a i r n e s s and e q u i t y ,  i t is  assumed t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w o u l d be r e f l e c t e d i n m a r k e t p r i c e s and t a x e s .  W h i l e i t may be d e m o c r a t i c t o l e v e l  distinctions, i n this reducing  investigator's opinion  n o t mean  t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t t o t h e ' l e a s t common d e n o m i n a t o r ' .  T h i s u s u a l l y means e l i m i n a t i n g t h e b e s t a l o n g produce m e d i o c r i t y . should  i tshould  social  Instead,  be t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  with  the worst to  the i n v e s t i g a t o r believes  f o r an optimum o f c h o i c e  there  of the  161.  environment  i n which one could l i v e .  Those who wished to live  in the sections of streets having uniform servicement should be able to do so - but there also should be provision for others. For example, those who so wished  could'hide' behind the preserved  natural features. They are more l i k e l y than most suburbanites to a t t a i n the goal of enjoying urban services i n a natural or r u s t i c environment,,  Others might prefer being exposed to a c t i v i t y  such as would be l i k e l y to occur i n the areas designed for playing, or even being close to the road - for as the saying goes, "one man's meat i s another man's poison.". The result of such a variety of choice of physical environment within single family r e s i d e n t i a l areas could well be a v a r i e t y of types of people.  In the opinion of many planners and  s o c i o l o g i s t s , this would make for better communities than the extreme homogeneity of many such areas to-day i n terms of human relationships and even possibly mental health. II.  EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DESIGNING PRACTICES  The f e a s i b i l i t y of the proposed designing practices i s evaluated i n this section for each of the plan elements. Functional Layouts and Their F e a s i b i l i t y The f e a s i b i l i t y of the proposed functional layouts of the various main aspects of the designing process are discussed below. Street uses.  The functional layout of street uses would  be related to the layouts of pavements and planting i n two opposite ways - by exclusion and inclusion - depending upon the use i n question.  The open space l a i d out f o r playing must exclude  pavements and include  planting ( t u r f ) .  On the other hand, areas  l a i d out for parking include pavements, but exclude planting. Special use areas for conversation or recreation, preferably in or near natural features, may exclude both pavements and planting because they could be accommodated by furniture and  162. •floor'  fihishes. The  be  l a y o u t s o f o p e n p l a y i n g and  f e a s i b l e i f pavements c o u l d be  necessary  width  and  Structure.  s p e c i a l use  laid  out  so as  and  to provide  the  avoid n a t u r a l features. The  f u n c t i o n a l layout of p u b l i c  s t r u c t u r e s w o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e d r a i n a g e cases,  areas would  the p e d e s t r i a n access  utility  s e r v i c e s i n most  s e r v i c e i n the case of  troughs.  They a r e r e l a t e d i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e ( a l l p a r a l l e l ) , s o w h a t i s new  i s t h a t they would not  relative  be  s t r a i g h t and  to the s t r e e t boundary.  f e a s i b l e i f the  i n t h e same l o c a t i o n  T h u s , t h e y may  be  considered  ' w a n d e r i n g ' o f t h e p e d e s t r i a n pavement i s  feasible. Utilities. utility  The  structure according  p a t t e r n s , so  r e l a t e d to  to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  the  'branching'  above.  Pavements. as  w o u l d a l l be  t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l l a y o u t i s f e a s i b l e w i t h t h e same  • q u a l i f i c a t i o n as  and  utilities  f a r as  Sidewalks  are c u r r e n t l y l a i d  p o s s i b l e f r o m r o a d s and  out  both  parking areas.  beside  The  only  f u n c t i o n a l r e a s o n f o r not wandering between these  e x t r e m e s seems  to  increases  be  probable  w o u l d be  increases  i n length.  However, the  s l i g h t c o m p a r e d t o b e n e f i t s o f a more p l e a s a n t  Hence, the proposed l a y o u t s can Roads w o u l d be p l a y i n g a r e a s , and  laid  out  be  considered  t o a v o i d n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , open  Both the road  w o u l d be much c l o s e r t o h o u s e s i n p l a c e s present  where e v e r y  distance.  house i s o r d i n a r i l y  However, they would n o t  ends o f b l o c k s c u r r e n t l y a r e o f t e n face such a  feasible.  parking areas, while providing a  free-flowing vehicular route.  'side' or  passage.  be  and  along  reasonably  parking  areas  the s t r e e t than a t  s e t b a c k t h e same minimum  c l o s e r than roads at  t o h o u s e s , on c o r n e r 'flanking' street.  lots  the  which  U n d o u b t e d l y many  163. people would consider i t undesirable to have a road close to t h e i r house.  However, besides having l i t t l e t r a f f i c this road  would have no parking, and thus no noise from car doors slamming and party-leavers talking loudly.  There would usually be a  compensating feature across the road such as an open area, a natural feature, or landscaping, including that around parking areas.  The l a t t e r would have only a narrow opening i n the  planted screen and i t would not be opposite houses.  The road  i t s e l f might be p a r t i a l l y screened by a low hedge.  In view of  these considerations, roads close to houses might be acceptable. Indeed, some people who  l i k e to watch a c t i v i t y might consider  such a s i t u a t i o n desirable.  If not, either the houses could be  moved back, or the road placed further away with perhaps more landscaping between. It should be noted that the layouts i l l u s t r a t i n g the proposed practice were somewhat extreme examples to show the range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  When actually put into practice, less  extreme layouts might be used, or such extreme ones might be used infrequently. The limits and frequency of layouts having roads close to houses would be based upon people's reaction to them.  Since this requires a f u l l - s c a l e experiment, the f e a s i -  b i l i t y of proposed practices i s at present indeterminate f o r the extreme cases, at least. Planting.  The proposed functional layout of planting i s  s i m i l a r to that of some parks where natural features are either worked into the o v e r a l l design, or the design i s adapted to the feature.  There seems no functional reason for not doing the  same i n l o c a l streets; therefore, i t i s considered f e a s i b l e . Other f a c i l i t i e s .  In general, the proposed functional  layout of the f a c i l i t i e s of other property services i s mainly a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of existing layouts and the tendency to congregate at c e r t a i n intersections, so functionally f e a s i b l e .  The  164. •servi-center' functional layout might prove to be unfeasible i n streets of ordinary width having more t r a f f i c than assumed, but should be feasible when streets can be widened and t r a f f i c i s light. Physical Designs and Their F e a s i b i l i t y Designing of the detailed physical design of p a r t i c u l a r street sections should be f e a s i b l e , provided the functional layout i s f e a s i b l e .  I t would mainly involve putting together or  modifying standard designs, most of which are found i n current practice though not necessarily i n l o c a l s t r e e t s .  For example,  the proposed designs for roads and parking areas and related planting are similar to those i n some of the better designed parks. S o c i a l Provisions and Their F e a s i b i l i t y The s o c i a l provisions are the accommodations made for c e r t a i n street uses by functional layout and i n s t a l l a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y furniture and finishes including plants. The proposed designing should be s o c i a l l y feasible because i t i s aimed at providing the opportunity for greater s o c i a l use of streets without forcing undesired s o c i a l contact.  For instance,  children w i l l probably always play i n s t r e e t s , but given the opportunity to play i n a variety of areas, they would tend to stay o f f the road.  They would have the choice of playing on  turfed open areas, paved parking areas, and the natural areas. The l a t t e r might have p a r t i a l forts and tunnels (of large drains, for example) for team games, or areas for i n d i v i d u a l exploration. S i m i l a r l y , the provision for younger children and adults of various age ^groups would provide the opportunity of using the street for s o c i a l purposes.  The proposed outdoor  'playpens'  would provide the opportunity for mothers of young children to get together.for a chat out-of-doors with t h e i r children, or with several children whose mothers had things to do which were  165. b e s t done w i t h o u t to  the c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t .  be w e l l u s e d i n t h e S w e d i s h new  c o n t a c t m i g h t be  t o be  The stages.  sharing  small With  The  Their  Feasibility  f i r s t would i n v o l v e p r e p a r i n g a t e n t a t i v e f u n c t i o n a l  s t r u c t u r e , and  a r e a s , pavements, p l a n t i n g , the  the s u b d i v i s i o n .  adjustment of the f i r s t l a y o u t of the u t i l i t i e s . promise design structure  feasible.  p r o p o s e d d e s i g n i n g programme w o u l d h a v e f o u r m a i n  l a y o u t f o r s t r e e t use  The  t h r e e , and The  second would i n v o l v e mutual  s t a g e w o u l d i n v o l v e a com-  f o r a l l the aspects mentioned, the  the u t i l i t i e s . a l l aspects  Finally,  process  i f necessary  d e t a i l e d designs  i n c l u d i n g any  other  The  requirements  w o u l d be  prepared  required.  i s s i m i l a r t o t h e b e s t p r a c t i c e now  other aspects  and  followed  s u b d i v i s i o n are  r e q u i r e more f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i -  dered,  but would not change the b a s i c p r o c e s s  should  be  significantly,  so  feasible for staging.  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A r r a n g e m e n t s and The w o u l d be  utility  f o r the  facilities  R i c h m o n d i n s o f a r as t h e u t i l i t i e s  concerned.  utility  d e s i g n i n g of the f u n c t i o n a l  third  layout being modified  The in  Social  i f p a r k i n g s p a c e s were r e s e r v e d .  socially  S t a g i n g S c h e d u l e s and  for  appeared  p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n , the proposed d e s i g n i n g p r a c t i c e s are  considered  of  town o f F a r s t a .  f o r c e d t o some e x t e n t on p e o p l e  parking areas, e s p e c i a l l y this  Such f a c i l i t i e s  Their  Feasibility  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangement f o r the d e s i g n i n g  related  t o the stages mentioned above.  The  process  first  w o u l d be done by e i t h e r t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s f o r the s u b d i v i d e r .  I n the  latter  stage or case,  For those o u t l y i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s not having planning d e p a r t m e n t s , t h i s f u n c t i o n c o u l d be p e r f o r m e d f o r them by t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d o r p l a n n i n g consultants.  166.  the plans would be reviewed by the planning department. In either case, the planning department might h i r e consultants for assistance or advice on large subdivisions.  E i t h e r the planning  consultants or the planning department should have a landscape a r c h i t e c t or designer and possibly other s p e c i a l i s t s on their design team as s t a f f member or consultant.  The important  thing  i s the c r e a t i v i t y , imagination, and a b i l i t y to handle such complex matters comprehensively of the team or i n d i v i d u a l doing the designing.  Perhaps a new  profession of street architects or  designers might evolve! The second stage of designing functional layouts of u t i l i t i e s would be done by the respective u t i l i t y agencies.  The  t h i r d and fourth stages would be handled by the same agency as the f i r s t - the planning department - for a l l plan elements except the f i n a l design of u t i l i t i e s .  A committee of technical  representatives of the various u t i l i t y agencies and the planning department would resolve any problems that arose. These arrangements would be s i m i l a r to those i n the best current practice of administering the subdivision process, such as i n Richmond.  Although the matters dealt with would be more  complex, the arrangements could be b a s i c a l l y the same and hence administratively f e a s i b l e . F i n a n c i a l Budgets and Their F e a s i b i l i t y The financing of the major costs of designing would be done by the subdivider by paying fees to either consultants or to the municipality.  The l a t t e r would ensure equity between  those h i r i n g consultants or not and be i n accordance with the p r i n c i p l e of payment for benefit.  Some u t i l i t y agencies whose  design costs a t t r i b u t a b l e to p a r t i c u l a r areas are r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t (e.g. telephone) might continue to pay t h e i r costs out of general revenue such as from service charges.  In a l l instances,  a portion of design costs would be paid for out of general  167. revenue because of the general benefit that would r e s u l t . Residents of areas benefitting from the proposed practices would pay s l i g h t l y more than a proportionate share of t h i s , assuming their land values were higher. The practice of charging fees for designing i s followed i n the best current practice i n Richmond, and i s therefore feasible.  2  Economic F e a s i b i l i t y of Proposed Designing Practices A l l of the major aspects of the proposed process of designing street use and s e r v i c i n g would be more expensive  than  current practice, with the possible exception of that for utilities.  However, the extra care i n designing would r e s u l t i n  savings i n costs of i n s t a l l i n g roads and u t i l i t i e s , where rock was involved, and i n extra benefits.  especially  The l a t t e r would  accrue from the accommodation of more uses (e.g. playing), from having planting that was complete and e f f e c t i v e from the s t a r t , and from a more interesting and d i s t i n c t i v e environment. These potential savings and benefits are d i f f i c u l t  to  evaluate; the former because they would depend upon detailed investigation of conditions i n a p a r t i c u l a r street section; the l a t t e r because there i s no experience with the proposed p r a c t i c e s i If they were s i g n i f i c a n t , they would be reflected i n either higher p r o f i t s for subdivider-servicers, or increased land values r e l a t i v e to areas serviced by other practices.  Assuming these  economic benefits exceeded the designing costs, the proposed designing practices would be economically f e a s i b l e .  Criteria  might be established to ensure that, on balance, this would be the case. Richmond, Notes for the Information and Guidance of Land Owners. Subdlviders and Land Developers Relevant to the Subd i v i s i o n of Residential Land Within the Municipality of Richmond. Planning Department, Richmond, September, 1961, p. 8.  168. P o l i t i c a l Program and Its F e a s i b i l i t y Public acceptance of the proposed street use and  servi-  cing practices would require a demonstration project to show i n terms most people could understand ( i . e . a complete physical environment) what streets could be l i k e .  Such a project could  be  carried out by a private developer or municipality i n an area having one ownership.  I t might be simpler  for the municipality  to do i t because the municipality i s involved i n any case, and could relax i t s by-laws (e.g. f o r clearing the whole street) for i t s e l f with less p o l i t i c a l problems than for private developers. Thus, a municipal such a  council would have to be persuaded to undertake  project by i t s planning department, or  organizations Canada, and  civic-minded  such as the Community Planning Association of  the Community Arts Council.  Such an experiment could be conducted i n a s i m i l a r manner to Vancouver's •experimental' servicing of i t s subdivision at 5 4 t h Avenue and Kerr Street with underground wiring. Summary of Evaluation of Proposed Designing Practices The proposed designing  process for street use and s e r v i c i n  in l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets appears to be f e a s i b l e from a l l points of view with the following q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The acceptance of roads close to houses and and  the assumption regarding  public  'communal' parking areas  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between benefits  and costs could only be determined by f u l l - s c a l e experiment. This should be done at the same time as an adjacent area served by current practices so that comparisons can be e a s i l y made. II.  EVALUATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF THE PROPOSED PRACTICES OF INSTALLING PROPERTY SERVICE FACILITIES The proposed practices of i n s t a l l i n g the f a c i l i t i e s of  property  services are evaluated  f e a s i b i l i t y points of view. been discussed  i n t h i s section for most of the  S o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y  hav  i n r e l a t i o n to designing and need not be repeated.  169. Functional f e a s i b i l i t y was also covered above for a l l aspects i n terms of functional r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  I t i s discussed below  only i n terms of operation of the u t i l i t i e s over time.  Thus,  a l l aspects are considered only f o r physical, staging, adminis t r a t i v e , f i n a n c i a l , and economic f e a s i b i l i t y . Functional F e a s i b i l i t y of Proposed Practices of I n s t a l l i n g Facilities . , There are several operational problems presented  by the  proposed practice of i n s t a l l i n g u t i l i t i e s i n underground structures.  Among the p o t e n t i a l l y serious ones, i n increasing order  of importance, are rodents i n the structures, reduced e f f i c i e n c y of transformers,  freezing of pipes and drains, and gas leaks.  Rodents might enter structures v i a drains and damage wires and cables, although some of the new materials may be less subject to such damage. preventive  This p o s s i b i l i t y would be best countered by  . measures such as c a r e f u l design of openings to the  structures and screening of drain o u t f a l l s . Tests of transformers ground enclosures  and capacitors i n s t a l l e d i n under-  indicate that considerable derating i s neces-  sary, except where v e n t i l a t i o n i s adequate.3 the heat-conducting loses moisture.^  This i s because  c a p a b i l i t i e s of s o i l drops off rapidly as i t This suggests that the structures, at least  those with transformers, should be well v e n t i l a t e d i n the summer In cold climates, the v e n t i l a t i o n of structures should be reduced i n the winter to r e t a i n the heat given o f f by transforme and wires.  This would reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of pipes freezing  or the need f o r i n s u l a t i o n . Knowledge of temperature conditions "Total System i s Dapper Project Focus," E l e c t r i c a l World. New York, McGraw-Hill, v o l . 169, no. 9 (26 August 1963), p. 47. 4 Ibid.  170. underground for  I s r a t h e r meagre f o r o r d i n a r y s i t u a t i o n s ,  t h e complex  ones i n v o l v e d i n u n d e r g r o u n d  different u t i l i t i e s . S o m e  l e t alone  structures  with  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e b e e n made o f t h e  problems o f i n s t a l l i n g u t i l i t i e s i n p e r m a f r o s t , b u t they s e r v e m a i n l y t o show how l i t t l e  i sreally known.Recent  about thermal c o n d i t i o n s f o r underground  w i r i n g have  investigations produced  r e s u l t s c o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s , a n d s u g g e s t t h a t much more r e s e a r c h i s needed i n t h i s  field  as w e l l .  c l i m a t e o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver,  7  However, f o r t h e  the problem o f f r e e z i n g should  n o t be s u c h t h a t n o r m a l p r e c a u t i o n s w o u l d n o t be a d e q u a t e . The  problem o f gas l e a k s i s e x t r e m e l y s e r i o u s because gas  could spread over e x t e n s i v e areas i n the u t i l i t y T h i s would  increase the d i f f i c u l t y of detecting  structures. leaks, the  p r o b a b i l i t y o f a n e x p l o s i o n , a n d t h e e x t e n t o f damage r e s u l t i n g from an e x p l o s i o n .  The c o s t o f g a s - t i g h t b u l k h e a d s a n d d e t e c t i o n  d e v i c e s would p r o b a b l y exceed i n under-ground  structures.  unfeasible to i n s t a l l  t h e b e n e f i t s from h a v i n g gas p i p e s Therefore, i t i s considered  gas p i p e s i n u t i l i t y  structures.  "*C. B. C r a w f o r d a n d R.F. L e g g e t , G r o u n d T e m p e r a t u r e I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n Canada. Ottawa, N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , ( D i v i s i o n o f B u i l d i n g R e s e a r c h , R e s e a r c h P a p e r No. 34), R e p r i n t e d f r o m The E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l , v o l . 40, n o . 3 ( M a r c h 1957). ^S. C. C o p p , C. B. C r a w f o r d a n d J . W. G r a i n g e , P r o t e c t i o n of U t i l i t i e s A g a i n s t P e r m a f r o s t i n N o r t h e r n Canada. O t t a w a , N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , ( D i v i s i o n o f B u i l d i n g Research, Research P a p e r No. 34). R e p r i n t e d f r o m J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n W a t e r Works A s s o c i a t i o n , v o l . 48, n o . 9 , ( S e p t e m b e r 1956). s e e a l s o : H. B. D i c k e n s , W a t e r S u p p l y a n d Sewage D i s p o s a l i n P e r m a f r o s t A r e a s o f N o r t h e r n Canada. O t t a w a , N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , ( T e c h n i c a l P a p e r No. 30, A u g u s t 1959); R e p r i n t e d f r o m The P o l a r R e c o r d . v o l . 9, n o . 62 (May 1959), pp. 421-432. 7  Dapper P r o j e c t , l o c c i t .  171.  However, to avoid having to trench across and repair roads to i n s t a l l gas pipes, the following practices are proposed. Main gas pipes crossing roads would either be i n s t a l l e d before the roads, or a conduit would be i n s t a l l e d through which the gas pipe would later be pushed.  Road crossings f o r house connections  would be r e s t r i c t e d f o r example, to every two or four l o t s . They would be i n s t a l l e d i n either a sealed u t i l i t y structure or a separate conduit i n s t a l l e d with the structure. Physical Designs and Their F e a s i b i l i t y The proposed physical designs have been designed, insofar as possible at this stage, to be practicable.  There would be  c e r t a i n problems such as ensuring that the u t i l i t y structures were watertight, and i n f i t t i n g a l l necessary f a c i l i t i e s into r e l a t i v e l y small manholes. •servi-centers  1  Also, the design of the f a c i l i t i e s i n  would have to be more c a r e f u l l y worked out than  has been done f o r this investigation.  This ought to be made the  subject of a design competition amongst architects and indust r i a l designers. Other than these problems the physical design i s considered feasible.  Much of i t i s s i m i l a r to current practices,  although not necessarily i n l o c a l streets.  The structures are  s i m i l a r to large drains except f o r the troughs.  The pavement and  planting designs are s i m i l a r to those i n well designed parks. Staging Schedules and Their F e a s i b i l i t y The general schedule for the proposed practice would be as follows.  The subdivision plat would be i n s t a l l e d f i r s t  followed by preparation of the street for servicing. u t i l i t y structure would be i n s t a l l e d .  Then the  The u t i l i t i e s would be  i n s t a l l e d next, and then the pavements and planting.  Finally,  the f a c i l i t i e s of other property services would be i n s t a l l e d . The street uses would have been f a c i l i t a t e d by certain planting, and other f a c i l i t i e s  installations.  pavement,  172. Each of the major stages may  have schedules for the  operations involved, or the order may  not matter.  Such i s the  case for i n s t a l l i n g u t i l i t i e s i n a structure, except for a l l 1  u t i l i t y tunnels which must have f a c i l i t i e s order.  installed in a definite  With this exception and a few modifications because of the  presence of the structure, the proposed staging schedules would be s i m i l a r to those of comparable current practices. be  They might  'tighter' or involve less t o t a l time because many operations  would be eliminated or performed i n f a c t o r i e s beforehand. Administrative Arrangements and Their F e a s i b i l i t y The proposed administrative arrangements for i n s t a l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s are similar to current p r a c t i c e .  I n s t a l l i n g of  f a c i l i t i e s for street uses would be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of those i n s t a l l i n g the various f a c i l i t i e s .  Municipal engineers would be  responsible for the i n s t a l l i n g of the u t i l i t y structures, pavements, and municipally provided u t i l i t i e s or other services. U t i l i t y companies and public service agencies such as the Post O f f i c e would be responsible for t h e i r own  facilities.  Planting  would be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of parks boards where they existed; otherwise that of engineering departments.  C o n f l i c t s of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or other problems would be resolved by a committee of technical representatives of the various service agencies. This could be the same committee which would deal with  designing  problems. Since these arrangements are s i m i l a r to e x i s t i n g ones, they are considered administratively f e a s i b l e . Economic Schemes and Their F e a s i b i l i t y The proposed process of i n s t a l l i n g property service f a c i l i t i e s involves the considerable extra expense of the u t i l i t y structure.  It saves expenses by eliminating f a c i l i t i e s  operations, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of excavating and These savings are estimated  or  backfilling.  below to determine what can be  o f f s e t against the cost of the structure.  173. In order to estimate the savings of the proposed practices, i t Is necessary eliminated. reasons.  to know the costs of the materials or operations  These costs are d i f f i c u l t to determine for two  One i s that they may not be known i n the d e t a i l or  breakdown required here because this i s not required i n current practice.  For instance, s u f f i c i e n t l y accurate estimates f o r  many purposes can be made by applying unit costs for the whole process or major parts of i t that have been derived from past experience.  In such cases, i t i s unnecessary to know the costs  by breakdowns of interest here.  The other problem i s that many  organizations are reluctant to disclose t h e i r costs to compet i t o r s , including municipalities versus contractors. of these problems, i t has been necessary  In the face  to make do with what  information was obtainable, and make assumptions about what i s not.  Unfortunately, satisfactory information on costs of under-  ground wiring for this area was not obtained.  Consequently, the  e l e c t r i c a l and communicative are omitted from the estimates below, but discussed thereafter.  The gas service has been  omitted because i t i s considered f u n c t i o n a l l y unfeasible to i n s t a l l gas pipes i n the proposed u t i l i t y structures. only u t i l i t i e s to consider are drains and water pipes.  Thus, the Side-  walks are also of i n t e r e s t , but roads are not because they have no d i r e c t involvement with the u t i l i t y structure. The costs for drains are the most important  because of  t h e i r magnitude, and also because c e r t a i n operations are most comparable to those of the proposed practice.  Fortunately, an  excellent breakdown of costs of i n s t a l l i n g drains separately was made available by the City Engineer of Port Moody.  These costs  are reproduced as Table V i n Appendix C and used as the basis for the estimates summarized i n Table IV on the following page. They are based on an average depth of 8 feet i n conditions involving no rock excavation and minimal shoring.  Unfortunately,  174.  TABLE I V ESTIMATED U T I L I T Y COSTS PER FOOT OF STREET Actuals/ft. ITEM  UNIT EXISTING COSTS PRACTICES $ / f t . Nor I? a l Best  DRAINS: Excavation f o r B e d d i n g sand i n place  Relative  t oBest  Practice  PROPOSED PRACTICES  Sep.  'Twin  1.55  3.10  1.55*  .40  .80  .60  1  Trough  Tunne1  TubedConduit  Laid  Pushed  Integral  =  =  =  =or-  =  . =  8" w i t h g a s k e t 12" p l a i n Laying o f  .90) 1.15) .59  2.05  2.05  =  =  -2.05  1.18  1.18  =or-  =or+  -1.18  Manholes  1.03  2.06  2.061  -2.061  = .  =  Backfilling Clean-up  1.48  2.96  1.481  =or+  =or+  =or+  ,74  1.48  .74  =or-  =or-  =or-  -2.061  =orl  -3.23t  Supervis ion Overhead Sub T o t a l  13.63  Eng.Conting e n c i e s 15%  2.04  9.661 1.45  Total  15.67  WATER P I P E :  A Cem. C . I r o n  11.11*  0  .31  =  .47  -2.371  =orl  -3.70^  A.Cem.  A.Cem.  A.Cem.  E x c a v a t i o n , backfilling, etc. Laying o f 6" p i p e , h y d r a n t s e t c .  1.75+  1.68  -1.68  -1.68  -1.68  Incl. 2.00  .70 2.62  =or- .62  =or+ - .62  =or+ -2.12  Total  3.75+  5.00  -2.30-  -2.30+  -3.80+  3.18+  6.36+  -3.18+  -3.18+  -3,18+  -Zi§5l  -5^481  10 68l  SIDEWALK: 4'wide Total TOTAL:  3.18  22^60+ 22.47  £  175. cost breakdowns f o r the 'twin' sewers presently being i n s t a l l e d in Port Moody have not been prepared yet.  Also, this information  is not available from Vancouver, the only other municipality following this best practice.  Consequently, i t has been necessary  to make a number of assumptions to get a breakdown for twin sewers against which the proposed practices can be compared. As shown i n Table IV, only the cost of the drains and the laying of them has been assumed to be the same f o r twin drains^ as i n the normal practice of i n s t a l l i n g them separately.  Excavation,  b a c k f i l l i n g , and clean-up costs have been assumed to be the same as for an i n d i v i d u a l drain.  These costs could be somewhat  greater because the trench may have to be wider, but there should be a saving as a r e s u l t of i n s t a l l i n g manholes f o r the two drainage services i n a common excavation.  The supervision and  overhead costs also have been assumed to be the same as an i n d i v i d u a l drain, since the same Port Moody crew that i n s t a l l s drains separately i s now i n s t a l l i n g twin drains.  Manholes  costs have been assumed to be the same as f o r two drains i n s t a l l e d separately.  The costs could be s l i g h t l y higher because the  common concrete base must be somewhat larger than separate ones, or lower because the formwork and labour costs may be reduced for a base common to two manholes.  The costs of bedding sand i n  place has been assumed to be h a l f way between that for an i n d i vidual drain and that f o r two i n s t a l l e d separately.  These  assumptions are considered reasonable by the C i t y Engineer f o r Port Moody on the basis of h i s limited experience with twin sewers.  He suggests that laying or overhead costs may be reduced  with more experience.^  This i s supported  by the two r e l a t i o n -  ships supplied by the Vancouver Sewer Engineer as follows:  Interview with Mr. Douglas Kenyon, City Engineer, Port Moody, B. C.  '  176. In general, an 8" and 12" twin sewer costs about 25% more than a 12" sewer i f b u i l t under the same conditions. S i m i l a r l y , the cost of the 'twin' sewer i s about two-thirds the cost of similar separate sewers.9 Applying these relationships, the t o t a l cost would be approximately $10.00 and $10.45 respectively, so the estimates can be considered to be somewhat high. The costs for i n s t a l l i n g water pipe i n the best practice involving cast iron pipe were also supplied by Port Moody.  The  normal practice costs for asbestos cement pipe are from Richmond. The excavation costs are unusually low because of favourable s o i l conditions and should be considered a minimum.  For instance,  subtracting the material cost of $2.00 from the $4.25 t o t a l unit cost employed by Delta gives an excavating cost of $2.25 which i s close to the $2.38 amount for Port Moody. The sidewalk costs are for a four foot wide sidewalk i n Richmond, which again i s low compared with other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , some of whom i n s t a l l sidewalks f i v e feet wide.  The difference  between best and normal practices i s simply that the f o r m e r i n s t a l l s sidewalks on both sides, the l a t t e r on only one.  It i s  interesting to note the closeness of the t o t a l costs for the two practices.  In e f f e c t , the possible gain by switching from  normal to the best practice i s one sidewalk and cast iron instead of  asbestos cement water pipes. The estimated savings of the proposed practices have been  related to the best practice costs for a l l - u t i l i t y structures and shown by differences.  As indicated on Table IV, the exca-  vation and b a c k f i l l i n g costs for a l l three types of structures have been assumed to be the same as twin drains - that i s , there Letter to investigator from Mr. Arthur Gordon, Sewer Engineer, City of Vancouver.  177. would be no saving.  In fact, as suggested by the 'or' the  b a c k f i l l i n g costs might be greater because more excavated material would have to be removed.  The necessity for this  could be reduced by considering this material as 'cut' In the •cut and f i l l ' design of the street.  The costs for placing  bedding sand have been assumed to be equal to the best practice, except that they would be eliminated ( f o r a $0.60 saving) where bedding sand was not required for troughs cast i n place.  Drain  costs would be the same for troughs and tunnels, but have been omitted at this point for the tube-conduit  since the drains  might be incorporated into the structure.  The cost of laying  has s i m i l a r l y been omitted for the tubed-conduit.  Laying costs  for the other structures have been assumed to be the same as for twin sewers.  However, the costs should be less for troughs  because of more favourable conditions, and might be more for tunnels because drains would have to be pushed through them. Manholes have been assumed to cost the same for tunnels tubed-conduits as for twin drains.  and  They are unnecessary with  a l l - u t i l i t y troughs, so y i e l d a saving.  F i n a l l y , the supervision  and overhead costs have been assumed to be the same or less than for twin sewers. The non-material  non-laying costs of i n s t a l l i n g water  pipes i n u t i l i t y structures ( i . e . excavation, b a c k f i l l i n g etc.) haave been assumed to be completely of $1.68  eliminated for a saving  compared with best current practice.  There would be an  additional saving of $0.62 i f asbestos cement pipes were subs t i t u t e d f o r cast i r o n .  This seems reasonable  when the superior  strength and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of cast iron are not required when water pipes are enclosed i n structures.  In the case of the  tubed-conduit, the pipe costs have been omitted, but not those for hydrants and valves.  178. The cost*of i n s t a l l i n g one sidewalk has been assumed to be completely eliminated for a saving of at least $3.18.  It  should be more because the costs are o r d i n a r i l y higher than this i n current practice, and sidewalk sections would be precast to eliminate the need for formwork and a l l but a minimum of f i e l d labour. The t o t a l savings i n the costs of i n s t a l l i n g these  few  u t i l i t i e s i n a l l - u t i l i t y structures i s thus estimated to be i n the order of $7.85 for the trough, $5.48 for the tunnel, and $10.68 for the tubed-conduit.  These can be considered minimum  i n that i n addition there should be substantial savings i n the costs of i n s t a l l i n g the communicative and e l e c t r i c a l services underground.  The excavating and b a c k f i l l i n g c o s t s would be  completely eliminated, but may by costs not otherwise  be o f f s e t to an unknown extent  incurred.  Furthermore, no consideration  has been given to potential savings i n operating costs during the lifetime of the f a c i l i t i e s or upon t h e i r p a r t i a l or complete replacement.  In the l a t t e r case, compared to current practice  there would be a saving i n a l l costs except the r e l a t i v e l y minor ones of removing the old and laying a new  f a c i l i t y , including  repair costs for damage done to other f a c i l i t i e s such as pavements necessarily Involved at present.  Nor do they include  possible savings i n the costs of roads. kept!  •  These comments should be  i n mind during the following discussion of the cost of  the u t i l i t y structures and the test of t h e i r f e a s i b i l i t y . All-utility  trough.  The cost of the a l l - u t i l i t y  trough,  can be estimated roughly from unit estimating costs for retaining walls of $60 per cubic yard of concrete i n place ( i . e . cast i n forms).  Only $15 per cubic yard i s for the concrete i t s e l f .  trough 8 feet deep, 4 feet wide, with 6" walls and base has a cross-sectional area of 9.5  square feet.  section i s 9.5 x 1 4 27 = 0.35  The volume of this  cubic yards which would cost  A  179. $21.12.  This exceeds the estimated saving of $7.85 by $13.27  so this structure must be considered unfeasible when constructed by casting i n forms. The t o t a l u n i t cost used above i s for one-of-a-kind projects and may procedures.  be too high for what might become standard  Also, techniques  involving casting without  forms  or i n s t a l l i n g precast sections might be employed as discussed i n Appendix A.  The estimated saving of $7.85 covers the cost of  concrete for this section at $5.28 per l i n e a l foot, but l i t t l e for costs of placing the concrete.  leaves  Thus, either an ex-  tremely e f f i c i e n t technique or more savings must be found before the a l l - u t i l i t y trough could become f e a s i b l e compared to best current practice. A l l - u t i l i t y tunnel.  It has been assumed that the most  p r a c t i c a l means of constructing the a l l - u t i l i t y tunnel is by i n s t a l l i n g spun reinforced concrete drains.  To enclose a 12 inch  storm drain, an 8 inch sewer, and a 6 inch water main, requires a 30 inch tunnel costing $7.77 (including tax).  To estimate  the  cost of laying t h i s , the C i t y Engineer of Port Moody suggested working back from the t o t a l u n i t cost used by the Greater Vancouver Water and Sewerage D i s t r i c t Board, although he considers i t too high at $17.  Since excavation, bedding sand, manholes, b a c k f i l l i n g  and supervision and overhead costs have been allowed for i n the estimate of costs of i n s t a l l i n g the tunnel, $5.20 can be accounted for  ($1,554-0.40 + 1.03  • 1.48 * .74).  Subtracting this $5.20  and the $7.77 drain cost from $17.00 leaves $4.03 for the costs of laying the tunnel plus extra costs i n above items, which seems excessive.  Adding this to the tunnel cost of $7.77 gives a  t o t a l of $11.80 which exceeds the estimated saving of $5.48 by $6.42. The more common size storm drain for l o c a l streets of 10 inches would reduce the required size of tunnel to 24 inches.  180. This would reduce the cost of the tunnel considerably and  the  estimate of savings only s l i g h t l y (the difference i n cost between a 12 inch and 10 inch d r a i n ) . A l l - u t i l i t y tubed-condult.  The estimate of costs for the  a l l - u t i l i t y tubed-conduit are based on costs of hollow core concrete  slabs supplied by Superior Concrete Ltd. of North  Vancouver.  I t has been assumed that the proposed tubed-conduits  could have comparable costs to these hollow core slabs i f they were produced i n s u f f i c i e n t volume to warrant construction of a s p e c i a l extrusion machine. of deck area.  Two  Costs of the slabs are quoted i n square feet types are two feet wide and six and eight  inches deep costing $1.00  and $1.20  per square foot.  Since they  are two feet wide, a l i n e a l foot costs $2.00 and $2.40 respectively.  Dividing by t h e i r net cross-sectional areas y i e l d s  costs per square inch of cross-section of $0.22 and $0.24. A suggested 'economy' design for the a l l - u t i l i t y is shown i n Diagram 15, which meets or exceeds the design requirements for  the extrusion process.  square inches.  Applying  The cross-sectional area i s 185.63  the average unit cost of $0.23, the  cost of this section would be $4.46. Since the estimated saving is $10.68, there i s a surplus $6.22 which would more than cover laying costs.  Thus, this structure appears to be  economically  feasible. This 'economy' structure could be made to function e f f e c t i v e l y i f the extruded material were dense and and the j o i n t s were perfect. plastic.  water-tight,  The water tube might be lined with  However, the potential danger to public health of  contamination of the water supply would always e x i s t . design would be that shown i n Diagram 16 which has an tube for inserting an independent water pipe. of asbestos cement pipe of $2.12  and  A better enlarged  Adding the cost  laying of $0.70 back i n ,  the surplus would be $3.40 which i s s t i l l ample for covering  the  6" w a t e r SV tos  tube  t u b e f o r 6" A s b e s cement w a t e r p i p e  •3" s e c o n d a r y  electric  2 % t e l e p h o n e and alarm tube  fire  n  8"  sewer*  2 V primary tube 2 1  electric  V c a b l e TV  2  " storm  tube.  drain-  All-Utility Tubed-Conduits Modified D i a g r a m 16  Suggested D i a g r a m 15 c o s t s of l a y i n g the s t r u c t u r e . c o s t of the pipe i t s e l f would  be f e w e r and  and c o n s e q u e n t reduced  If plastic  w o u l d p r o b a b l y be h i g h e r , b u t  laying faster.  amount o f m a t e r i a l  Also,  joints  the s i z e of the  i n the s t r u c t u r e  the  could  void be  slightly. Thus, the a l l - u t i l i t y  feasible. possible  I n d e e d , i t may  structure  wiring  or higher q u a l i t y  e s p e c i a l l y when  and c a b l i n g  t a x p a y e r s , o r be u s e d  costs  are  to provide a d d i t i o n a l  services.  Other types of s t r u c t u r e s . have n o t b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d  possible.  t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y  T h i s s u r p l u s c o u l d e i t h e r be p a s s e d on as s a v i n g s  t o l o t p u r c h a s e r s and  t o f i n d one  appears  provide a surplus,  s a v i n g s on u n d e r g r o u n d  considered.  The o t h e r t y p e s o f  in detail,  since  street  H o w e v e r , some o f t h e s e o t h e r t y p e s may structures  structures  i t i s necessary only  f e a s i b l e t y p e t o make t h e p r o p o s e d  more f e a s i b l e t h a n a l l - u t i l i t y For  p i p e were u s e d ,  uses  be o t h e r w i s e  i n c e r t a i n circumstances,  e x a m p l e , where t o p o g r a p h y d i c t a t e s u n u s u a l l o c a t i o n s f o r  •182. drains, the non-drainage  types could be used.  Generally  speaking, they should be economically feasible because their costs would be substantially reduced when the r e l a t i v e l y large drains were not involved, while the savings would not be reduced so much.  Most of the estimated savings arise from  reductions i n costs of I n s t a l l i n g water pipes and a sidewalk and these would remain for the non-drainage  types.  Excavation  and b a c k f i l l i n g costs would be n i l where these structures were i n s t a l l e d above and i n the trench excavated for drains.  Finally,  a u t i l i t y structure such as the e l e c t r i c a l tubed-conduit might well be provided at less cost than an ordinary sidewalk while also serving as a sidewalk because of the economy of reduced cross-sectional area and prefabrication. Per l o t costs. foot basis.  The above estimates are a l l on a l i n e a l  Perhaps the relationships i n terms of costs per  l o t are more s i g n i f i c a n t .  Assuming lots 66 x 120 feet, which  seems to be becoming a standard except i n Vancouver, about 40 feet of u t i l i t i e s are required per l o t when side streets are included.  10  Taking the differences between estimated savings and costs before consideration of factors l i k e l y to narrow them, the a l l - u t i l i t y trough and tunnel costs exceed savings by an estimated $13.27 and $6.42 respectively.  The a l l - u t i l i t y struc-  ture could y i e l d a saving of say, f o r the sake of i l l u s t r a t i o n , $0.50.  This means extra costs of $531.00 and $257.00 or a  saving of $20.00  This i s just for the street f a c i l i t y .  The  differences for connections to dwellings must be considered. The average length of them would be s l i g h t l y more than half the street width plus the minimum setback or front yard.  For a 66  Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Countryside to Suburb. New Westminster, LtsLM.R.P.B., 1961 (Supplementary Study 3 to Land for L i v i n g ) . p. 33.  183. foot road and 30 foot setback, this would be 63 feet.  Assuming  the differences to be about one-third that for the street f a c i l i t y because of the smaller u t i l i t y sizes involved, these differences per foot would be $4.42, $2.14 tively.  The amounts  and $0,166 respec-  would be $278, $135,  and $10.50 for  t o t a l extra costs of $809 for the trough, $391 and saving of $30.50 for the tubed-conduits.  for the tunnel In each case the  amounts are higher than would normally r e s u l t i f lots were narrower, streets were narrower, or the setback were less. How  s i g n i f i c a n t are these costs?  Costs i n excess of  $809 have been paid merely to have wires and cables underground, although by few people.  The number who  installed have paid  more than $392 i s substantial, e s p e c i a l l y i n the United States. Since these people have considered  the benefits that w i l l  accrue to them worth such extra costs, i n this sense underground wiring i s economically  feasible.  In the same sense, a proportion  of people would accept the extra costs of the proposed practices as being economically  feasible.  For a given cost the proportion  should be higher than for underground wiring because the benefits should be greater.  The proportion of  people w i l l i n g to  pay such extra costs increases as the costs decrease, of course On the other hand, the a b i l i t y to decrease costs depends, partly on the proportion w i l l i n g to accept such costs i n that some costs can be reduced when dealing with large numbers or volumes. Summary of economic f e a s i b i l i t y .  The proposed a l l -  u t i l i t y trough and tunnel structures have been found to be unfeasible compared to current p r a c t i c e , f o r the assumptions made concerning  their costs.  They might be accepted  as being  feasible by those people placing a high value on the benefits that would accrue from them; the proportion of people of this opinion would tend to increase as the cost d i f f e r e n t i a l compared to current practice decreased.  This d i f f e r e n t i a l would tend  to decrease with increased use of such structures.  184, However, to  be  the  economically  all-utility feasible  assumptions  are  saving  c o u l d be  that  valid.  tubed-conduit  provided a l l of  Indeed,  passed  i t might  on to  those  has  the  well  been  necessary  produce  served  found  or  a  net  taxpayers  generally. The o t h e r economically  types of  feasible,  would  probably  would  accrue.  be  or  summarized  the  installing because are  they  certain  with  to  proposed  that  they  practice  similar  to  the  proposed  practices,  The p r o p o s e d  practice, for  III  are  on the  people  assumption,  to  the  the  extra  other  be  practice.  that  are  'tighter* current are  the  proposed  considered ones.  to  is  practice.  but  The  be  dealt  considered structures.  feasible  i n the is  in  proposed  otherwise  administrative  modifications  therefore  There  utility  Staging  schedules,  basically  it  of  primarily  is  in  been  practices  feasible,  i n current  been  have  An exception pipes  that  has  aspects  proposed  to  costs  of  feasibility  the  be  benefits  w h i c h c a n be  considered  of  the  best  feasible.  SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N S street  use  considered  assumption  find  the  to  of  and are  IV.  Chapter  those  upon e x i s t i n g  best  the  appear  problems, most  gas  would involve  arrangements  in  only  p h y s i c a l designs based  for  economic  considered to  easily.  install  are  comparable  existing  of  speaking,  are  functional  relatively  unfeasible The  Generally  are  that  Proposed P r a c t i c e s  evaluation  facilities  so  i n exchange  immediately above,  Included here.  structures  so n e a r l y  accepted  Summary o f E v a l u a t i o n o f Installing Facilities Since  utility  what  first  they  and d e s i g n to  that  be  better  there  considered  hypothesis  c a n be  defined than  w o u l d be  and  the  described  best  current  sufficient  better. accepted.  Subject The  to  choice this  assumption  185. could only be checked by actual experimentation with the proposed practices. The proposed designing process for street use and servicing i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets appears to be feasible from a l l points of view with the following q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Public acceptance jof roads close to houses and parking areas and the assumption  'communal'  regarding the relationship be-  tween benefits and costs could only be determined by f u l l - s c a l e experiment. The proposed practices of i n s t a l l i n g property service f a c i l i t i e s appear to be feasible with minor q u a l i f i c a t i o n s from a l l points of view except economically.  The a l l - u t i l i t y  trough  and tunnel structures are economically feasible on the basis of the assumptions made, although they might be accepted by some people.who value the resultant benefits highly.  The  all-utility  tubed-conduit, however, appears to be not only economically f e a s i b l e , but possibly able to y i e l d savings compared to the best current practice.  These could be either shared by those served  and taxpayers, or used to provide a d d i t i o n a l services or a higher quality of services.  The other types of structures appear  to be economically feasible or so nearly so that the extra costs would be accepted i n exchange f o r the added benefits that would accrue. It i s suggested that the design p o s s i b i l i t i e s possible with u t i l i t y structures and the apparent f e a s i b i l i t y of a l l u t i l i t y tubed-conduits are worth investigating further. An actual f u l l - s c a l e experiment on the basis of the proposed practices should be undertaken.  This should be accom-  panied by development of a nearby area at the same time so that detailed cost and public reaction can by analyzed and evaluated on comparable bases.  186. Certain aspects, such as the design of the proposed •servi-center' or t y p i c a l 'problem' streets might be made the subject of competitions f o r architects and landscape designers. 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"Huge Development i n V i r g i n i a Served Underground." E l e c t r i c a l World. New Y o r k , M c G r a w - H i l l , v o l . 1 6 0 , no. 8 ( 1 9 August 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 2 4 - 2 6 . "Heavy Duty L i t t e r - V a c . " P u b l i c Works i n Canada. Vancouver, M i t c h e l l P r e s s , v o l . 1 1 , no. 6 (June 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 7 0 . H o l b o r n , Gerd. " ' P i p e l i n e P u s h i n g Now a F i n e A r t w i t h New B r i t i s h C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g System." P u b l i c Works I n Canada. Vancouver, M i t c h e l l P r e s s , v o l . 1 1 , no. 6 (June 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 1 2 . 1  v  O b e r l a n d e r , P e t e r . " F u r n i s h i n g t h e S t r e e t . " Community P l a n n i n g Review. Ottawa, Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada, v o l . ]., no. 4 (November 1 9 5 1 ) , pp. 1 1 8 - 1 2 8 . O r c h a r d , Dennis. " C i t y Cleans Up A f t e r Typhoon F r i e d a . " Civic A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T o r o n t o , Maclean-Hunter, v o l . 1 4 , no. 1 1 (November 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 4 2 - 4 3 . "Our C o n s c i e n t i o u s Gardeners!" S e r v i c e D i g e s t , Vancouver, B. C. E l e c t r i c , v o l . 2 , no. 3 ( M a r c h / A p r i l 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 5 . " R e s i d e n t i a l Gas and E l e c t r i c Meter Reading Over Telephone L i n e s Faces Test i n Owosso." Gas Age. New Y o r k , Moore, v o l . 1 2 9 , no. 19 ( 1 3 September 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 6 9 . " T o t a l System i s Dapper P r o j e c t Focus." E l e c t r i c a l World. New York, M c G r a w - H i l l , v o l . 1 6 0 , no. 9 ( 2 6 August 1 9 6 3 ) , pp.  47-49.  " T r o u b l e i s T h e i r B u s i n e s s . " The B u z z e r . Vancouver, B. C. E l e c t r i c Company, v o l . 4 4 , no. 5 ( 3 0 January 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 1 - 2 .  190. "White Concrete f o r Safety I s l a n d , " S t r e e t E n g i n e e r i n g . Chicago, Donnelley, v o l . 6, no. 11 (November 1961), p. 14. E.  ARTICLES IN NEWSPAPERS  Dolphin, Frank. " P i p e l i n e T r a i n s No Longer Dream", Post. 30 March 1963, p. 3. "Gas Furnaces Die i n 'Deep Freeze'." 1959, p. 1. "NRC  Vancouver Sun. 3 January  i s Incubator f o r Equipment Ideas." 13 A p r i l 1963, p. 53.  "Saskatoon Dumps Home I n c i n e r a t o r s . " 1963, p. 1.  Financial  Financial  Post.  F i n a n c i a l Post, 2 November  S n i d e r , A r t h u r J . " P o c k e t - s i z e Memory Packs w i l l Shop, Bank, Entertain," Vancouver Sun, 24 January 1964, p. 6. "Snorkel Mailbox."  Vancouver Sun, 18 February 1959,  p. 15,  "Space Breakthrough Claimed as 5 L i v e Sealed Up 30 Days," Vancouver Sun, 2 A p r i l 1964, p. 1. "Stop Sign Hidden, C i t y Pays $2,879." Vancouver Sun. 6 May p. 24. F.  1959,  MUNICIPAL BY-LAWS & SPECIFICATIONS  Burnaby D i s t r i c t , S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the C o n s t r u c t i o n pf M u n i c i p a l S t r e e t s and Lanes. J u l y 1962. Delta.  T y p i c a l C r o s s - S e c t i o n s f o r 66 Foot Roads, Drawing No.  B-R1002. North Vancouver D i s t r i c t . Ordinances, A By-Law to Regulate the S u b d i v i s i o n of Land. 27 March 1957, By-Law No. 2169. North Vancouver D i s t r i c t . Standard Plans S p e c i f i c a t i o n s S u b d i v i s i o n S e r v i c e s , ( r e v i s e d to d a t e ) . Richmond Township. Notes f o r the Information and Guidance of Land Owners. S u b d i v i d e r s and Land Developers Relevant to the S u b d i v i s i o n of R e s i d e n t i a l Land Within the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond. Planning Department. September 1961. Richmond Township. Drawing No.  Standard Layout of 56' S u b d i v i s i o n SB.6.  Roads,  191. Surrey D i s t r i c t . Ordinances. A By-Law t o R e g u l a t e t h e S u b d i v i s i o n o£ L a n d , 1962, By-Law No. 1990. Vancouver, Ordinances. S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l By-Law, By-Law No. 3334, 1955 (Amended 1955 and 1959). West V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t . Ordinances. S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l ByLaw No. 1504. 1955 (Amendments up t o and i n c l . By-Law No. 1824, 1961 i n c o r p o r a t e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e ) . G. B o w o r s , F., E l e c t r i c a l Vancouver.  INTERVIEWS Engineer, E l e c t r i c a l  Dept., C i t y of  Ferman, Ben., and Gary B a r c l a y . D e s i g n E n g i n e e r s , S u p e r i o r C o n c r e t e P r o d u c t s L t d . , 551 Seymour B l v d . , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r . H i c k l e y , D. i / c C i v i c D e s i g n S e c t i o n , P l a n n i n g D e p t . , C i t y o f Vancouver. H i e b e r t , J . E., M u n i c i p a l C l e r k , C i t y o f P o r t Moody. Johnson,  Dale.  Kenyon, Douglas.  P r e s i d e n t , Dale D i s t r i b u t o r s City  (B.C.) L t d .  E n g i n e e r , C i t y o f P o r t Moody.  L i b b e y , Hugh. M a n a g e r , Gas D i s t r i b u t i o n , Authority. H a c L e l l a n , Len., U t i l i t i e s Vancouver.  B. C. Hydro'& Power  Engineer, E n g i n e e r i n g Dept., C i t y o f  T a y l o r , J . B. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S e r v i c e R e q u i r e m e n t s , P o s t O f f i c e , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. Walton,  Dennis. Municipal Planning Officer, Vancouver.  Welsh, Douglas.  Engineer, D i s t r i c t  of North  District  Central  o f West  Vancouver.  APPENDICES  TABLE OF CONTENTS APPENDIX A.  PAGE  CURRENT SERVICING PRACTICES - A Detailed Description and Ranking f o r Ten Selected Metropolitan M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and Comparison with Practices Elsewhere 193 Access Services (vehicular, pedestrian, other) . . 197 Baric Services (water, gas, other) . . . . . . . . 202 Communicative Services (telephone, cable TV and radio, other)  .206  Drainage Services (storm, s a n i t a r y ) .  211  E l e c t r i c a l Services (power, street lighting,other) 214 Furnishing Services ( f u r n i t u r e , f i n i s h e s , other) . 217 Gardening Services (planting, plant care Holding Services ( f o r c o l l e c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n ) . . 224 Indicating Services (informative, regulatory, demarcative, advertising). . . . . . . . . . . . Keeping Services (keeping  229  f a c i l i t i e s i n sound  condition, functioning, clean and tidy, other) . 235 B.  INSTALLING UTILITY STRUCTURES - A Description of Possible Processes for the Various Types . . . . . 243 Trough Structures. . . .  . . . . . . 243  Tunnel Structures.  249  I n s t a l l i n g Non-drainage and E l e c t r i c a l Structures Over Drains C.  253  COST DATA Table V. - Underground Wiring Costs f o r Transformer-Secondary Combination to Serve Back-to-Back Lots  255  Table VI. - Sewer Costs, C i t y of Port Moody. . . . 256  APPENDIX A CURRENT SERVICING PRACTICES: A DETAILED DESCRIPTION AND RANKING FOR TEN SELECTED METROPOLITAN MUNICIPALITIES, AND COMPARISON WITH PRACTICES ELSEWHERE. This appendix presents the detailed description and evaluation of current servicing practices i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets i n metropolitan Vancouver from which the composite best, normal, and worst practices described  i n Chapter II were derived  for the purposes of this investigation. Ten municipalities have been selected for this detailed examination on the basis of recent subdivision and servicing a c t i v i t y and future potential.  They are the City of Vancouver;  the surrounding D i s t r i c t s of West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby, and the Township of Richmond; and  the outlying munici-  p a l i t i e s of the City of Port Moody, D i s t r i c t s of Port Coquitlam, Coquitlam, Surrey, and Delta. following page.  These are shown on Map.2 on  the  The reasons for not including the other  municipalities i n metropolitan Vancouver are outlined i n Chapter II (see page 63). The servicing practices have been evaluated q u a l i t a t i v e l y and  are described  below i n terms of five ranks - best, better,  normal, worse and worst.  The normal rank i s assigned to the most  common or widespread practice for a given service, and  the other  ranks are related to i t . Best and worst ranks are assigned to practices that are superior and i n f e r i o r respectively to the normal practice i n some s i g n i f i c a n t aspect. ranks are introduced  The better and worse  whenever there are practices s i g n i f i c a n t l y  d i s t i n c t from the others.  Thus, 'better* refers to a practice  s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior to the normal practice, but i n f e r i o r to the best practice for that p a r t i c u l a r service'. The evaluation of current servicing practices  involved  i  Vancouver  Surrounding Municipalities  \  '  ;'**' <  ..194.  Outlying  C e r t a i n d e l t a , a g r i c u l t u r a l and mountainous lands excluded MAP 2. METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER - AREAS INVESTIGATED  195 . Che  a p p l i c a t i o n of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t c r i t e r i a  p r i n c i p l e s p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter I . p r a c t i c e t h a t was  and/or  For i n s t a n c e ,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior  the  a servicing  (or i n f e r i o r )  to  o t h e r s i n terms of p u b l i c h e a l t h , s a f e t y , c o n v e n i e n c e , amenity, o r economy has  been u p - ( o r down-) graded.  p r a c t i c e s i n which s u b d i v i d e r s  install  welfare,  Also,  f a c i l i t i e s which have been  ranked above o t h e r s on the b a s i s of the p r i n c i p l e of payment f o r benefit.  S i m i l a r l y , p r a c t i c e s where f a c i l i t i e s are  installed  p r i o r to f i r s t occupancy have been ranked above o t h e r s a c c o r d i n g to the p r i n c i p l e of maximum b e n e f i t .  I t s h o u l d be noted  t h e s e ranks a p p l y o n l y to p r a c t i c e s where s e r v i c e s are The  format of t h i s appendix i s as f o l l o w s .  p r a c t i c e s of a g i v e n s e r v i c e are d e s c r i b e d actual practice i n Metropolitan  provided.  The  various  by t h e i r r a n k s .  T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s based upon the  various subdivision  F i n a l l y , p r a c t i c e elsewhere than i n the  s e l e c t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s mentioned when p e r t i n e n t . cases, t h i s involves  areas i n M e t r o p o l i t a n  by  investigator's  knowledge of the a r e a and'an e x a m i n a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l c o n t r o l by-laws.  The  Vancouver i s then d e s c r i b e d  n o t i n g which m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o r p a r t s of them f o l l o w the practices.  that  ten  I n some  Vancouver not  other-  w i s e c o n s i d e r e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands (U.E.L.).  Most of such comments, however, p e r t a i n to  e l s e w h e r e i n N o r t h America and are based upon a p e r u s a l  i n Europe.  practices  Those f o r N o r t h A m e r i c a  over the past f i v e y e a r s of newspapers  and  magazines, p a r t i c u l a r l y the F i n a n c i a l P o s t and  House & Home.  The  comments about Europe are based m a i n l y upon o b s e r v a t i o n s  made by the i n v e s t i g a t o r on a t o u r from June t o November i n The  o r d e r i n which the s e r v i c e s are d i s c u s s e d  1961.  follows  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the access s e r v i c e s .  For the convenience of the  reader,  T a b l e I showing a summary of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s i s reproduced on the f o l l o w i n g page.  196.  TABLE I. CLASSIFICATION OF SERVICES AND THEIR FACILITIES OTHER SERVICES: ACCESS SERVICES: Pavements: roads Vehicular Pedestrian walks Other access: paths: Cycle cycle Equestrian bridle Emergency veh. emerg. Transit transit UTILITIES: BARIC SERVICES: Water Gas Other baric: Fuel o i l Steam  Pipes:  COMMUNICATIVE SERVICES: Cables: Telephone Cable t e l e v i s i o n T.V.cable & radio Other communicative: Fire alarm * Burglary alarm * T r a f f i c control * Telegraph * DRAINAGE SERVICES:Drains: Storm drainage * Sanitary drainage * (or sewerage) (or sewer) ELECTRICAL SERVICES: Wires: Power Street l i g h t i n g Other e l e c t r i c a l : Trolley bus Heating  FURNISHING SERVICES: Furnishings: benches, Furniture fences, shelters, Finishes cabinets. f l o o r & wall Finishes surfaces Other furnishing: banners, etc, Decorations statues, Ornaments pools, Decorative floodlights, Lighting etc. GARDENING SERVICES: Planting services  Plants: trees, shrubs, flowers, grass, ground covers.  HOLDING SERVICES: Collection holding Distribution holding  Holders: letter, parcel boxes mail, newspaper  INDICATING SERVICES Informative Regulatory  Indicators: signs signs, signals markings signs  Demarcative Advertising  KEEPING SERVICES: Services keeping facilities: such as: in sound condit ion roads roads, functioning pipes roads, clean and tidy drains Other keeping services * Same term as for service, e.g. water pipes  197.  I I . ACCESS SERVICES The  services herein c l a s s i f i e d  those f a c i l i t a t i n g providing  as access s e r v i c e s  access to the property  pavements upon which people and  of t r a v e l can move e a s i l y to and or wait to do so. pedestrian, separately Vehicular  and  The  current  abutting  are  a street  by  v e h i c l e s or other modes  i n t o each property  from  p r a c t i c e of p r o v i d i n g  o t h e r access s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s  are  others,  vehicular, discussed  below. Access  The  v e h i c u l a r access s e r v i c e p r o v i d e s roads and  t i o n s to driveways on a b u t t i n g  property  most types can d r i v e , wait, and  park.  road i s always centered i n the i n f u n c t i o n a l layout  and  connec-  upon which v e h i c l e s In c u r r e n t  s t r e e t , and  p h y s i c a l design.  practice,  i s usually The  of the  symmetrical  central portion  used f o r the movement of v e h i c l e s along the s t r e e t o r d i n a r i l y has  a s t r i p on e i t h e r s i d e f o r parking  street.  Exceptions are u n u s u a l l y  culs-de-sac all.  which may  These parking  v e h i c l e s p a r a l l e l to  narrow s t r e e t s and  have parking  on only one  s t r i p s are seven or e i g h t  be paved with a d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l  short  s i d e or none at f e e t wide and  the  lanes  f o r each d i r e c t i o n ) i n p r e f e r e n c e to e a r l i e r  l a t t e r u s u a l l y accommodates two  i n v o l v i n g a compromise width roughly e q u i v a l e n t half.  Since the  lanes  wide, l o c a l roads  may  than the movement p o r t i o n .  Currently, (one  the  f u l l movement practices  to a lane and  a  can be anything from e i g h t to twelve f e e t  with parking  t h i r t y to f o r t y f e e t i n width.  s t r i p s on both s i d e s range from The  variations in  current  p r a c t i c e of p r o v i d i n g v e h i c u l a r pavements are o u t l i n e d below. All  practices.  The  best  p r a c t i c e of f a c i l i t a t i n g  v e h i c u l a r access s e r v i c e i s f o r the asphalt  subdivider  pavement between concrete c u r b - g u t t e r s  sub-bases to s p e c i f i c a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d Better  curb or no curb.  The  an  on g r a v e l or sand  by m u n i c i p a l  than normal p r a c t i c e s are i n s t a l l i n g  with an a s p h a l t  to i n s t a l l  the  engineers.  an a s p h a l t  pavement  normal p r a c t i c e i s f o r  the  198. subdivider  to i n s t a l l  to  a n a s p h a l t pavement  install  a g r a v e l pavement o n l y and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y  basis.  A worse p r a c t i c e  asphalt  on t h e same b a s i s .  by  later,  i s installing The w o r s t  the s u b d i v i d e r o f a g r a v e l o r s o i l  later  a d d i t i o n o f a more d u r a b l e Actual  only  practice.  i n Richmond.  such  coats  practice  i s the p r o v i s i o n  practice  i n other  or municipal  i s followed concrete  areas  land ownership.  as F r a s e r v i e w  have  A city-owned  h a v e them.*"  Some l a r g e - s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t s have a s p h a l t  and  curbs  as  a municipal The  installed  requirement,  curb  circumstances  on  f o l l o w the other mentioned.  and  asphalt or flush  near s t r e e t s  common t h a n  p r a c t i c e s except  Whether t h e p r a c t i c e  rather  Generally speaking, coat  the tendency t o  pavements i s g r e a t e r n e a r V a n c o u v e r  a l r e a d y paved, a l t h o u g h  flush  c o a t i n g i s more  I t i s somewhat  been  lower  of other municipalities  i n areas  s e t f o r permanent  i n the s p e c i a l  t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y and r e s i d e n t s t o  a s p h a l t i n Vancouver i t s e l f .  than  The o t h e r  p r a c t i c e s depends  o f paving  type  was f o r c a s t c o n c r e t e  i n many a r e a s  page).  ironic  o f V a n c o u v e r has because the  pavements were h i g h e r .  pavements and c u r b s . w h i c h  ^At 54th. Avenue and K e r r S t r e e t ; ( s e e d i a g r a m on following  than  i s a particular  the a c t u a l standard  standard  pavement  r e q u i r i n g an  that  standards  will  are exceptions.  f o l l o w the normal, worse, o r worst  f o r t h e pavements.  install  reasons  Vancouver, the l a t t e r  t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f both  pay  but these  i n Vancouver  i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a s p h a l t pavement.  municipalities  area w i l l  f o r competitive  these  b e t t e r than normal p r a c t i c e s a r e f o l l o w e d i n D e l t a ,  West V a n c o u v e r , and N o r t h asphalt  developed  The U n i v e r s i t y  Corporation  and R e n f r e w H e i g h t s being  have  circumstances,  facilities.  concrete  area  fully  curbs  i n special  Endowment Lands and C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g developments such  instead of  cement pavement w i t h no  pavements w i t h  installed  as i n s t i t u t i o n a l  flush  improvement  surface.  The b e s t  Asphalt  been o r a r e b e i n g  on a l o c a l  One were  such  200. installed willing  i n o n l y those  t o pay  few  f o r them.  b l o c k s where the r e s i d e n t s were  The  m a j o r i t y of s t r e e t s have a  p e r m a n e n t t y p e r e q u i r i n g more m a i n t e n a n c e . e m b a r k i n g on a standard  'low-cost  paving  o f p a v e m e n t s and  program' t o r a i s e the a c t u a l  Some r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e  U n i t e d S t a t e s have c o n c r e t e roads  installed  p e d e s t r i a n access  s e r v i c e p r o v i d e s a pavement whose  The  p e d e s t r i a n pavement i s commonly c a l l e d  because i t i s at the s i d e of the s t r e e t . w h e r e b e t w e e n t h e edge o f t h e r o a d and i s u s u a l l y o f f s e t a t l e a s t one  s i d e w a l k and  private property.  I t may  for  a  sidewalk  l o c a t e d any-  the boundary of the  d i f f e r e n c e s i n grade  T h e r e a r e two  l o c a t i o n of the s i d e w a l k i n the s t r e e t .  sidewalks  be  along  between  schools of  One  holds  thought  that  s h o u l d be n e a r t h e r o a d so t h a t c l e a r i n g and  excavating  them c a n be c a r r i e d o u t w i t h t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s f o r t h e  so t h a t t h e s i d e w a l k c a n be b u i l t s a v e c o s t s , and i s not  split.  other holds  f r o m t h e r o a d so t h a t p e o p l e  road  i n t e g r a l l y w i t h the curb  so t h a t t h e s p a c e a v a i l a b l e The  street.  f o o t from the boundary t o a l l o w  w o r k t o be done on i t o r t o t a k e up  on  machines.  p u r p o s e i s t o f a c i l i t a t e movement o f p e d e s t r i a n s  the s t r e e t .  It  by p a v i n g  to  for planting trees  t h a t t h e s i d e w a l k s h o u l d be  w a l k i n g on i t w i l l n o t g e t  away  splashed,  so t h a t t h e s i d e w a l k c a n h a v e a d i f f e r e n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n t h a n r o a d , and sidewalk.  so t h a t t h e r o a d c a n be w i d e n e d w i t h o u t m o v i n g The  l a t t e r p o i n t should not  b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y d o e s i n some c a s e s . or f i v e  apply to l o c a l Sidewalks  practices.  The  the  streets,  are u s u a l l y four  best p r a c t i c e of p r o v i d i n g p e d e s t r i a n  pavements i s f o r t h e s u b d i v i d e r t o i n s t a l l  area.  the  f e e t wide. All  both  2  Access  The primary  City i s currently  reduce maintenance c o s t s .  P r a c t i c e elsewhere.  Pedestrian  The  less  concrete  sidewalks  on  s i d e s of the s t r e e t p r i o r t o occupancy of d w e l l i n g s i n the A b e t t e r than normal p r a c t i c e  ^According a s House & Home.  i s f o r the s u b d i v i d e r to  to s e v e r a l advertisements  i n magazines  such  201. i n s t a l l one sidewalk.  The normal practice i s for municipalities  to i n s t a l l sidewalks on one or both sides some time a f t e r f i r s t occupancy on a l o c a l improvement basis.  A worse practice i s  i n s t a l l i n g asphalt pavements because they require more maintenance and more frequent replacement than concrete ones, and thus can cost more i n the long run, though being cheaper i n i t i a l l y . I n s t a l l i n g screenings  walks by the. municipality out of  general  revenue i s the worst practice because the fine-screen crushed rock p a r t i c l e s s e t t l e unevenly and become scattered, r e s u l t i n g i n damp spots, puddles, and an untidy appearance. Actual practice.  The best practice has only been followed  i n Vancouver's recent subdivision and the University Endowment Lands where the servicers happened to be the owners.  Richmond  requires subdividers to follow the better practice of providing one concrete  sidewalk, and also requires an asphalt pavement  where walkways are provided  at the rear of l o t s .  A l l other  municipalities including Vancouver o r d i n a r i l y follow the  other  practices with the normal practice of adding concrete walks on a l o c a l improvement basis being more common i n Vancouver and surrounding m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  the  Screenings pavements are i n s t a l l e d  by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n older developments, e s p e c i a l l y along  the  flanking street of a block where a concrete sidewalk cannot be paid for on a l o c a l improvement basis. Other Access Services The other access services are those providing pavements for modes of t r a v e l other than by ordinary motor vehicles and walking including cycle, wheelchair, equestrian, emergency vehicles, and t r a n s i t .  Transit and equestrian can be excluded  from l o c a l streets by d e f i n i t i o n , and the other modes o r d i n a r i l y require only s p e c i a l consideration i n the layout of streets and provision of ramps to avoid the curb. Actual practice.  Special consideration or provision for  these other modes i s p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent  on l o c a l streets  i n Metropolitan  Vancouver, and rare on other streets.  cycles use the road.  202. Motor  Bicyles, t r i c y c l e s , and wheelchairs  usually t r a v e l on the sidewalk, even though bicycles are often prohibited on sidewalks by municipal by-law. two  There i s a s p e c i a l  foot wide asphalt cycle path on a one block section of  Chancellor  Boulevard i n the Endowment Lands for children going  to University K i l l School.  There are wheelchair ramps at Twelfth  Avenue and Heather Street for the Vancouver General Hospital. The hospital also has a s p e c i a l sidewalk crossing for emergency vehicles on Twelfth Avenue at Willow Street. streets are confined  Bridle paths on  to Southwest Marine Drive and the ' S o u t h l a n d s '  area of Vancouver, which i s a small holdings or limited a g r i c u l tural district. I I I . BARIC SERVICES The baric or pressure services are those which supply commodities to property or streets through pipes under pressure. Water and  'domestic' gas are the only commodities o r d i n a r i l y  supplied to r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s .  However, such commodities as  f u e l o i l and steam have been supplied through pipes i n s t a l l e d i n streets elsewhere and conceivably districts.  could be supplied i n r e s i d e n t i a l  Consequently, they have been included i n the baric  services considered below. Water Water i s supplied for such private purposes as drinking and cooking for which i t must be potable; washing, bathing, and swimming for which i t must be clean; s p r i n k l i n g of gardens arid flushing of pavements for which i t must have adequate pressure; and cooling for which i t must be cool.  The  important public  purposes requiring water under adequate pressure and through hydrants i n the streets are f i r e - f i g h t i n g and of streets and sewers.  Water also may  available flushing  be provided for such public  203. purposes as supplying fountains for drinking, cooling, or t h e i r amenity value; and for sprinkling of lawns and plants, but rarely on l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets. Best, normal, worse, and worst practices.  The  installing  of cast i r o n water pipes has been taken as the best practice when the normal practice i s to use asbestos cement pipes.  In e i t h e r  case, they are supplied by the subdivider, or by the municipality at the subdivider*s expense, and are a minimum of s i x inches i n diameter to ensure adequate pressure  for f i r e - f i g h t i n g purposes.  A worse practice, regardless of material or size, i s considered to be that of the municipality supplying the water service at i t s own  expense.  There are two main reasons f o r t h i s .  the municipality may  One  i s that  be unable to control the spread of develop-  ment into areas which are uneconomic to service because of the p o l i t i c a l pressure  to provide water service.  The other i s that  i t i s believed to be inequitable because on the one hand the land owner receives the market value of serviced land when he did not pay for the services.  On the other hand the land buyer  pays the market price which includes the cost of servicing and then has to help pay through taxes, for the cost of the municip a l i t y providing these services. p r i n c i p l e of payment for benefit. undersized  This i s contrary to the The worst practice i s i n s t a l l i n g  pipes - that i s , pipes whose diameter i s too small to  either provide adequate pressure  for f i r e - f i g h t i n g purposes or to  meet the needs of the ultimate development i n the area  served.  This i s a matter of f i n a n c i a l f e a s i b i l i t y , because i t i s done where there i s a p r o v i n c i a l  government l i m i t a t i o n on the amount  of costs that can be charged to the people being served, and a l i m i t a t i o n on the f i n a n c i a l resources  of the municipality to  supply services i n areas having a low density of development. Actual practice.  The  larger-sized water transmission  pipelines are of precast concrete or welded s t e e l i n s t a l l e d by the Greater Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t Board.  D i s t r i b u t i o n pipes  204. are of cast iron i n Vancouver and normally of asbestos cement i n the other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , except f o r the larger sizes where cast i r o n i s used.  Vancouver i s the only municipality not requiring  the subdivider to I n s t a l l the water service. under-sized  The problem of  water pipes has been mainly confined to parts of  Surrey. Gas Natural gas i s supplied i n Metropolitan Vancouver by the B. C. Hydro & Power Authority f o r such domestic purposes as home and water heating, cooking, and outdoor l i g h t i n g . Normal, worst, and actual practice.  The actual practice  of i n s t a l l i n g the f a c i l i t i e s of the gas d i s t r i b u t i o n service i s homogeneous throughout the area studied because only one agency i s involved and i t s own forces do the work.  The d i s t i n c t i o n i s  made heuln between what i s now the normal practice of i n s t a l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s p r i o r to pavements and planting i n developments and what i s considered afterwards.  to be the worst practice of i n s t a l l i n g them  The former p r i v a t e l y owned B. C. E l e c t r i c Company  t r i e d to maintain favourable public r e l a t i o n s when i n s t a l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n developed areas by s t r i v i n g "to restore  everything  3 as near as possible and p r a c t i c a l to the o r i g i n a l condition." This policy included c a r e f u l replacement of sod, reseeding where necessary, requesting inspection by householder of work done on rockeries and flower beds, and r e s t i t u t i o n f o r plants k i l l e d . Cuts i n driveways were to be kept small, were temporarily  "cold  patched", and then permanently repaired with hot asphalt mix 4 a f t e r settlement.  The present p u b l i c l y owned company seems to  be following this policy reasonably well on private property but does not r e p a i r cuts i n streets as well as i t might.  3 "Our Conscientious Gardeners. ", Service Digest, Vancouver, B. C. E l e c t r i c , v o l . 2, no. 3 (March/April 1961) p. 5. 4 1  Loco c i t .  205.  Gas pipe has been mainly s t e e l coated with asphalt and wrapped with paper, but the competition from p l a s t i c pipes has forced s t e e l pipe companies to produce a polyvinylchloride (P.V.C.) coated pipe that i s becoming the standard for this area. The new  portions of the d i s t r i b u t i o n system are under high  pressure and require only one-half inch diameter house connections and two or three inch street f a c i l i t i e s .  The former are usually  i n s t a l l e d a minimum twelve inches deep or below normal digging, but deeper where regrading i s expected.  Street f a c i l i t i e s  are  i n s t a l l e d eighteen inches deep and quite close to trees because roots usually do them no harm. Practice elsewhere.  They must be deeper under roads.  The gas u t i l i t y company serving  Metropolitan Vancouver also serves parts of the Fraser V a l l e y and has a f a i r sized p l a s t i c pipe test i n s t a l l a t i o n at Abbotsford. While the pipe i t s e l f i s cheaper than s t e e l pipe, several problems and expenses were encountered,  which, together with  reservations about the long-term d u r a b i l i t y of the pipe make the company reluctant to i n s t a l l much more at present.  One problem  i s that present p l a s t i c valves are considered unsuitable so metal ones are used, but i t i s uneconomic to provide cathodic protection to these when separated e l e c t r i c a l l y by p l a s t i c pipe. Other Baric Services There are no other baric services currently i n s t a l l e d i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets i n Metropolitan Vancouver.  There are  a few i n downtown Vancouver such as steam pipes leading to the building served by the steam plant i n the Hotel Vancouver.  The  University of B r i t i s h Columbia has an extensive steam heating system that i s partly underground, occasionally i n structure ~*The information i n this paragraph was derived from an interview with Mr. Hugh Libbey, Manager of Gas D i s t r i b u t i o n , B. C. Hydro &. Power Authority. 6  Ibid.  containing f a c i l i t i e s of other services.  206. However, the system  i s not related to the street system - indeed, i t seems to avoid streets to minimize crossings. Practice elsewhere.  Fuel o i l d i s t r i b u t i o n systems have  been i n s t a l l e d i n the streets of a few r e s i d e n t i a l developments i n New York State by a developer who  found them to be less  expensive than i n s t a l l i n g either a gas system or fuel o i l tanks for each house.  Those served by this system get these  advantages: no f u e l - o i l tanks to replace or repair; no worry about running out of o i l when roads are blocked by snow; no o i l trucks running over lawns; year-round monthly f i l l i n g ; no short-term price increases during o i l shortages.8 IV. COMMUNICATIVE SERVICES The communicative  services are those which make possible  several types of communication by i n s t a l l i n g cables and other f a c i l i t i e s i n streets.  The telephone service i s by f a r the most  important, but the alarm and control ones are often necessary and c a b l e - t e l e v i s i o n i s gaining i n popularity and importance. Telephone The telephone service i s provided primarily for communicating by voice.  I t can be used f o r communicating by various  types of signals such as high-speed transmission of data f o r computers and other machines.  The main private use of the  telephone i s f o r conversation between two persons, but there i s a growing use of telephone answering devices which either record the message of the person c a l l i n g or give out such information " T h i s Pipeline Carries Metered Fuel O i l to New Houses", House & Home. (November 1961), p 174. 7  0  Loc. c i t .  207. as the time, a standard musical tone, weather forecasts, and current entertainment  events.  Such devices are provided by  private companies on rental basis or by charges for given out with other information. 9 same purposes.  advertisements  Public 'pay' phones serve the  These and c e r t a i n other f a c i l i t i e s are considered  separately because t h e i r requirements provide are d i f f e r e n t .  and the services they  These include public 'taxi' phones, and  police and t r a n s i t supervisor c a l l boxes, a l l having d i r e c t lines to the respective o f f i c e or headquarters.  A l l telephone  facili-  t i e s are provided by the B. C. Telephone Company. Best, normal, and worst practices.  The best practice of  providing the telephone service i s i n s t a l l i n g telephone  cables  underground i n conduits l a i d i n a common trench with those of the e l e c t r i c power and l i g h t i n g services.  The normal practice i s  to i n s t a l l cables overhead on power poles using an integrated cable and having support wire to minimize the unattractiveness of the f a c i l i t y .  The worst practice i s i n s t a l l i n g cables on  separate telephone poles using hangers to suspend the cable from an independent support wire. Actual practice.  Telephone cables have been i n s t a l l e d  underground only i n small areas i n Vancouver, North Vancouver, Port Moody, and Richmond.  Vancouver i s currently placing cables  underground i n a City-owned subdivision that i t i s s e r v i c i n g . These are exceptions to the general rule of overhead i n s t a l l a t i o n . _ Few public pay phones (called 'pay stations' by the telephone company) actually are i n s t a l l e d on streets i n Metrop o l i t a n Vancouver, unlike most other parts of North America. An o f f i c i a l of the telephone company states that the company i s unable to provide as many public pay phones as i t thinks are required f o r adequate service, especially i n downtown Vancouver, because the City w i l l not permit them on the streets and there are few places where they can be placed on private property. Some of the existing locations may be lost when the s i t e upon which they are located i s more intensively developed. The reason given for the City policy was that the phone booths block the view of motorists and are therefore unsafe.  208. Practice elsewhere.  There i s a trend i n other parts of  North America towards i n s t a l l i n g telephone  cables underground.  The B e l l Telephone System, which controls 81 percent of the telephones  i n the United States, asked i t s 22 operating companies  to bury t h e i r cables whenever possible.  I t i s expected that  v i r t u a l l y a l l new service w i l l be i n s t a l l e d underground by 1970.  1  Many of the more recent underground i n s t a l l a t i o n s have been by the d i r e c t b u r i a l method.  In this method, special underground  cables are l a i d d i r e c t l y i n the earth rather than being pulled through conduits.  They are sometimes placed i n a common trench  with e l e c t r i c power wires with a separation of only a few inches. A new 'random' laying technique i s being used by I l l i n o i s B e l l and Commonwealth Edison that has reduced t h e i r trenching costs by 25 percent.  Phone cables and power wires are l a i d at the  same time i n a 30 inch trench that requires only one b a c k f i l l . Separation trenching recommended by the National Safety Code c a l l s for a 36 inch trench and one foot v e r t i c a l separation requiring two laying and b a c k f i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s . most interesting techniques cables by ploughing.  11  One of the  i s the d i r e c t b u r i a l of telephone  This i s done by p u l l i n g a cable into the  space opened up i n the earth by a point attached to the bottom of a blade pulled through the earth by a t r a c t o r .  This  technique  obviates the need for excavating and b a c k f i l l i n g a trench, but i s suitable only i n c e r t a i n s o i l conditions. Cable-television and Cable-radio Services supplying t e l e v i s i o n and radio signals (video and audio) v i a coaxial cable from a master antenna are herein termed c a b l e - t e l e v i s i o n (or cable TV) and cable-radio.  The two  are normally supplied together, but the radio may be frequency "There's no Need for Ugly Wirescapes Now that Wires Can be Buried for $100 a Lot," House & Home, v o l . XXIV, no. 2, (August 1963), p. 127. 10  1 1  I b i d . . p. 128.  209.  modulated CFM) o n l y .  These s e r v i c e s a r e becoming p o p u l a r i n  areas where e i t h e r normal r e c e p t i o n and  i s poor o r where expensive  u n s i g h t l y i n d i v i d u a l antennas would be r e q u i r e d  distant stations  to receive  properly.  Normal and a c t u a l p r a c t i c e .  The normal p r a c t i c e i s to  i n s t a l l c a b l e s on telephone p o l e s o r on power p o l e s w i t h cables.  A m p l i f i e r s are required  i n t e r v a l s along the c a b l e  The  a t the m a s t e r antenna and a t  to maintain s i g n a l  o t h e r Communicative S e r v i c e s  telephone  strength.  - Alarm. C o n t r o l , Telegraph  alarm and c o n t r o l s e r v i c e s a r e d i s c u s s e d  here because they a r e s i m i l a r i n most r e s p e c t s .  together  Their  purpose  i s t o communicate alarms o r c o n t r o l impulses from d e t e c t i n g o r r e p o r t i n g s t a t i o n s t o s t a t i o n s at which a c t i o n o c c u r s as a r e s u l t of the alarm o r c o n t r o l i m p u l s e .  The d e t e c t i n g and r e p o r t i n g  can be done e i t h e r manually o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y  and the r e s u l t a n t  a c t i o n can a l s o be automatic o r manual. The  a l a r m s e r v i c e i s concerned w i t h communicating alarms  about f i r e , b u r g l a r y , and a t t a c k by enemy a c t i o n , r a d i a t i o n , o r t o x i c gas.  F a c i l i t i e s f o r f i r e alarms a r e the most common and  the o n l y ones o r d i n a r i l y i n s t a l l e d i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s . They c o n s i s t of a s i m p l e r e p o r t i n g d e v i c e - the common a l a r m box.' o r s t a t i o n - c a b l e  'fire  to the n e a r e s t f i r e h a l l , and  d e v i c e s there f o r r i n g i n g a b e l l and i n d i c a t i n g the l o c a t i o n o f the r e p o r t i n g d e v i c e .  Automatic f i r e d e t e c t i n g d e v i c e s a r e  u s u a l l y o n l y i n s t a l l e d on commercial o r i n d u s t r i a l  property  where they r i n g a l o c a l f i r e b e l l as w e l l as s e n d i n g an alarm to the f i r e h a l l .  P u b l i c f i r e a l a r m systems are p r o v i d e d  by the  municipality. burglary d e t e c t i o n devices are also normally confined to commercial and i n d u s t r i a l p r o p e r t y  and a r e u s u a l l y a u t o m a t i c .  They a l s o u s u a l l y r i n g a b e l l on the premises as w e l l as sending 12  Vancouver has a City-owned f i r e a l a r m company. Sarnia, K i n g s t o n , and some suburbs o f M o n t r e a l have systems provided by p r i v a t e l y owned telephone companies.  an alarm to the police s t a t i o n .  The exceptions  210. are banks which  during the day use a manually operated reporting device that does not ring a b e l l on the premises, but may Eurglary alarm systems are provided telephone company.  s t a r t a movie camera.  by separate companies or the  The attack alarm service operates i n the  reverse fashion i n that the alarm i s sounded by devices such as sirens located around the areas served, usually on public buildings such as f i r e h a l l s .  The alarm i s communicated from a central  manually operated reporting device.  Automatic radiation detecting  devices are currently being i n s t a l l e d i n the United States by the federal government. The control service i s comprised of those f a c i l i t i e s dealing with the control of such conditions as i l l u m i n a t i o n , temperature, moisture, and t r a f f i c flow.  The  level of i l l u m i -  nation i s the only condition o r d i n a r i l y controlled on r e s i d e n t i a l streets.  local  This involves switching street l i g h t s on  and off when the level of natural i l l u m i n a t i o n i s below or above the minimum desired l e v e l .  This can be done either by control  impulses sent from c e n t r a l l y located manual or automatic reporting devices, or from automatic detecting devices attached lamp or one of those on a common c i r c u i t .  to each  Control of temperature  and moisture conditions i s currently confined to buildings except perhaps, for heated pavements which are p r a c t i c a l l y unknown i n this area.  Control of t r a f f i c conditions i s required where  t r a f f i c volumes are high such as on major and downtown streets. T r a f f i c signals are normally controlled by timing devices i n boxes attached intersection.  located  to poles at one of the corners of the  Vancouver has one i n s t a l l a t i o n i n which a series  of t r a f f i c signals are controlled by an analog computer on the basis of the t r a f f i c volumes entering a system as counted by infra-red detectors i n s t a l l e d over the t r a f f i c lanes-  Control  service f a c i l i t i e s are i n s t a l l e d by the municipality. Telegraph cables are s i m i l a r to and i n s t a l l e d with telephone cables both overhead and underground, and since they  r a r e l y o c c u r i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a r e o f no B e s t and n o r m a l  practice.  The  f u r t h e r concern  best p r a c t i c e of  installing  t h e a l a r m and c o n t r o l c a b l e s i s i n c o n d u i t s p r o v i d e d by s u b d i v i d e r along w i t h e l e c t r i c normal  p r a c t i c e i s to s t r i n g  power and  the  l i g h t i n g ones.  t h e c a b l e s on power o r  here.  The  telephone  poles. Actual practice. ground  i n Vancouver,  A l l fire  usually  alarm main cables are  i n space  f r o m t h e t e l e p h o n e company t h a t was request.  Leads from f i r e  w h e n e v e r o t h e r w i r e s and on t e l e p h o n e  under-  i n large conduits rented  set a s i d e at the  City's  a l a r m boxes t o main c a b l e a r e c a b l e s are underground  underground  but are  usually  poles.^  V. DRAINAGE SERVICES The  drainage s e r v i c e s are those which  s t o r m w a t e r and  sewage by g r a v i t y  Storm  s a n i t a r y drainage  or  Drainage storm drainage s e r v i c e c o l l e c t s  s t o r m and g r o u n d facilities  water  f r o m p r o p e r t y and  snow, e t c . ) i s c o l l e c t e d  and g u t t e r s o f r o o f s and  site drain.  providing  and  concentrate  p r o p e r t y , storm  i n t e r c e p t e d by  t h e s e s o u r c e s and  The  be  b u i l d i n g s which  site drain carries  or  also  the f l o w s  from  any o t h e r s s u c h as g u t t e r s o r g r a t i n g s i n  to the s t r e e t storm d r a i n .  s t r e e t s may  water  the  G r o u n d w a t e r i s i n t e r c e p t e d by d r a i n s o f t i l e  to the s i t e d r a i n .  driveways  and  On  excess  f l o w s through downspouts t o the  p e r f o r a t e d p i p e u s u a l l y p l a c e d around connect  removes  s t r e e t s by  c h a n n e l t h e f l o w away f r o m t h e a r e a .  valleys  and  to c o l l e c t or i n t e r c e p t f l o w i n g water  ( r a i n , melted  or  remove  services.  The  and  and  f l o w t h r o u g h d r a i n s and  c o n s i s t o f o n l y t h e s t o r m d r a i n a g e and sewerage  collect  The  'open' ( i . e. u n c o v e r e d )  s t o r m d r a i n s on  sites  drains consisting  of  —  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. L e n M a c L e l l a n , U t i l i t i e s E n g i n e e r i n g Dept., C i t y of Vancouver.  Engineer,  212. trenches lined with concrete, corrugated ditches simply cut into the earth.  metal, or wood; or  Storm water on streets i s  intercepted by open drains, p a r t i c u l a r l y gutters, collected by catch-basins, and carried by l a t e r a l s to the street storm drains. Ground water under pavements i s sometimes c o l l e c t e d by t i l e or perforated pipes i n gravel beds either under or alongside the 14 pavements and carried by l a t e r a l s to the street storm drain. A l l practices.  The best practice i s considered  to be  i n s t a l l i n g storm drains i n t e g r a l l y with sanitary drains as *twin' drains, and c.concrete curb-gutters  by the subdivider.  A better  practice than normal i s i n s t a l l i n g concrete curb-gutters and separate  storm drains by the subdivider.  The normal practice i s  for the subdivider to i n s t a l l ditches with culverts under driveway and front walk connections that are often later replaced by storm drains and less often supplemented by curb-gutters, i n s t a l l e d on a l o c a l improvement basis.  A worse practice i s  i n s t a l l i n g ditches with culverts and l a t e r adding storm drains and catch basins out of general revenues on some streets to intercept the flow i n the ditches on other s t r e e t s .  The worst  practice i s i n s t a l l i n g ditches and culverts only. Actual practice.  The best practice has been followed  only  i n the City-owned land that Vancouver i s currently subdividing and s e r v i c i n g .  Vancouver o r d i n a r i l y i n s t a l l s twin drains i n new  subdivisions at i t s own expense and i n s t a l l s curb-gutters  later  on a l o c a l improvement basis when requested, but this i s r e l a t i v e l y uncommon. The better practice i s required only i n Richmond but has been followed i n several of the better recent developments i n other municipalities and the University Endowment Lands.  The  other practices are followed i n the other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s considered, and judging by recent practice the adding of storm drains i s the exception rather than the r u l e . The term 'storm sewer' has been avoided so that the term sewer can be r e s t r i c t e d to the sanitary drainage (i.e.sewerage) services.  213. Sanitary Drainage or Sewerage The sanitary drainage or sewerage service c o l l e c t s and removes sewage and waste f l u i d s from plumbing f a c i l i t i e s of buildings through plumbing stacks and a sewer connection to the sanitary drain or sewer i n the street. A l l practices.  The best practice i s f o r the subdivider  to i n s t a l l sanitary drains with storm drains as twins. than normal practice i s f o r the subdivider separately.  A better  to i n s t a l l sewers  The normal practice i s for the municipality to allow  the i n s t a l l a t i o n of septic tanks by developer or homeowner, and to i n s t a l l sanitary drains l a t e r on a l o c a l improvement basis. The  practice of the municipality i n s t a l l i n g sewers at the time  of subdivision i s considered worse than the normal one i n terms of the p r i n c i p l e of payment for benefit, although i t i s better than one involving septic tanks from the standpoint of health* The worse practice i s to allow i n s t a l l a t i o n of septic tanks and not provide sewers l a t e r . Actual practice.  The best practice has been followed  only  i n Vancouver's recent subdivision of i t s own land (at 54th. Ave. and Kerr Street).  The better practice i s required i n some areas  of Richmond and Delta, and i s followed required by mortgage i n s t i t u t i o n s . followed  i n some other areas where  The normal practice i s  i n areas not covered by the other practices.  practice i s followed  by Vancouver which i s considered best  practice when i t s own land i s involved. followed  The worse  The worst practice i s  i n the least dense portions of the outlying m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  Practice elsewhere.  Some developments i n the United State's  beyond economic extension of trunk sewers are being served by sewers and small sewage treatment plants.  The sewers are  designed to t i e i n with the trunk when extended, and the treatment plant can be moved to other locations.  This allows development  at urban densities without the problems of septic tanks i n poorly drained  s o i l s , and eliminates  the extra costs of the tanks and  214. sewer i n s t a l l a t i o n  (repairing pavements, etc.) VI. ELECTRICAL SERVICES  E l e c t r i c a l services are those supplying e l e c t r i c i t y wires as a source of power for private purposes,  through  l i g h t for  streets, and l i g h t , heat and e l e c t r i c a l charge for c e r t a i n other public purposes discussed below. E l e c t r i c Power The private uses to which e l e c t r i c power i s put are many are varied, and ever increasing. The major types are l i g h t i n g , heating - including water heating, cooking, clothes drying, and ironing - and powering motors of the host of appliances available to-day.  The B. C. Hydro & Power Authority I n s t a l l s  electric 16  power f a c i l i t i e s i n a l l of the areas being considered. A l l practices.  The best practice of i n s t a l l i n g the  e l e c t r i c power service i s for the Authority to lay wires i n conduits provided by the subdivider in.a oommon bed with conduits of other services.  A better practice than normal i s I n s t a l l i n g  wirings underground across streets and confining overhead wires to easements along rear property l i n e s .  The normal practice i s  wiring overhead from poles placed i n lanes or easements along the rear property line which also carry telephone service f a c i l i ties.  A worse practice i s having the overhead wiring and  telephone cabling on poles i n s t a l l e d  In the streets.  The worst  practice i s having separate poles for the e l e c t r i c power and telephone services i n s t a l l e d on streets. ^"Package Sewerage Plant Saves a Subdivision. . . and Permits 44% More Lots on the Same Tract", House & Home, v o l . XXIII, no. 2, (February 1963), p. 53. ^New Westminster buys e l e c t r i c power i n bulk and r e t a i l s i t through i t s own d i s t r i b u t i o n system.  215. Actual practice.  Underground wiring has been i n s t a l l e d  only i n a few small areas of Vancouver, North Vancouver, Richmond, New  Westminster, and Port Moody.  The combination  of underground  and overhead wiring has been used only i n the University Endowment Lands.  The majority of areas are served by overhead wiring by  either the normal practice where there are lanes or the worse practice where there are not, since the e l e c t r i c power company has discouraged using rear easements.  Separate poles f o r e l e c t r i c  power and telephone services have seldom been i n s t a l l e d i n recent years but vast areas.remain Practice elsewhere.  served by this worst practice. P r i o r to about 1960,  e l e c t r i c power  i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s involving only underground wirings were severely limited i n number and extent i n North America and the prospects were none too encouraging. there were only a few i n Ontario.  In Canada  Most such i n s t a l l a t i o n s were  considered as tests or experiments to determine the p r a c t i c a l i t y of underground wiring and had widely varying success i n achieving the aim of reducing costs to that of overhead wiring. i n 1956  A survey  found that underground wiring had been i n s t a l l e d i n small  developments i n Peterborough at no extra charge because of expected  savings, and i n Toronto at less cost than overhead i n  favourable s o i l conditions and i n co-operation with the company.^  telephone  Most e l e c t r i c a l u t i l i t y companies, however, either  refused to consider underground wiring or charged so much extra that i t could be afforded by very  few.  A more recent survey i n the United States has found a marked change of attitude which i s attributed to a policy change  Ruth Martin Thompson, "To Bury or Not to Bury", Ontario Planning Supplement. Toronto, Community Planning Branch of Department of Planning and Development, v o l . 3, no. 5 (May-June 1956).  216. by the B e l l Telephone System i n favour of underground w i r i n g . ^ 1  Where telephone utility  cables are i n s t a l l e d underground, the e l e c t r i c  companies not only l o s e p o t e n t i a l r e n t a l f o r use of t h e i r  p o l e s , but a l s o are put i n a s e n s i t i v e p o s i t i o n .  An e l e c t r i c  company e x e c u t i v e i s quoted as s a y i n g : With a l l the o t h e r u t i l i t y l i n e s out of s i g h t , we're the o n l y ones l e f t messing up the landscape, and we're r e a l l y beginning t o f e e l the p u b l i c p r e s s u r e . I t ' s good p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f o r us to go underground as f a s t as we can.19 Street Lighting The  s t r e e t l i g h t i n g s e r v i c e provides i l l u m i n a t i o n f o r  s t r e e t s by i n s t a l l i n g with  lamps on supports  and wires  electricity. Best, b e t t e r , normal, and worst p r a c t i c e s .  p r a c t i c e o f i n s t a l l i n g the s t r e e t to  to supply them  The best  l i g h t i n g s e r v i c e i s considered  be that of the s u b d i v i d e r i n s t a l l i n g  aluminum poles with underground w i r i n g .  lamps on 'ornamental' I n s t a l l i n g aluminum poles  i s c o n s i d e r e d b e t t e r than the normal p r a c t i c e o f i n s t a l l i n g p a i n t e d s t e e l poles because maintenance c o s t s are lower and they are more a t t r a c t i v e .  Both are on a l o c a l improvement b a s i s and  have underground w i r i n g i n conduits with o t h e r wires o r i n separate c o n d u i t s i n s t a l l e d a l o n g s i d e the curb o r sidewalk. far  By  the worst p r a c t i c e i s f o r the e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y company to  hang a s i n g l e lamp a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s from wooden power p o l e s . Actual practice. Richmond.  The best p r a c t i c e i s r e q u i r e d o n l y i n  However, underground w i r i n g by the b e t t e r and normal  p r a c t i c e s i s becoming more common i n recent i n s t a l l a t i o n s and i s r e p l a c i n g the worst p r a c t i c e i n o l d e r a r e a s . 18 "There's No Need f o r Ugly Wirescapes Now that Wires Can Be B u r i e d f o r $100 a L o t " , House & Home, v o l . XXIV, no. 2 (August 1963), p. 127. (see a l s o p. ) . 19 Loc. c i t .  217. Practice elsewhere.  Streets i n a few recent developments  i n the U. S. have been l i t by lamps i n s t a l l e d i n the front yards of private property by the o i l e r s as a condition for being served by underground wiring.  In Europe, p a r t i c u l a r l y on narrow streets  i n England and Germany, both incandescent and fluorescent lamps are i n s t a l l e d on brackets attached  to buildings with wiring  running along ledges of the building.  Lamps are also i n s t a l l e d  i n Germany by hanging them from support wires suspended between rings attached  to buildings.  Other E l e c t r i c a l Services The other e l e c t r i c a l services considered  are those pro-  viding e l e c t r i c i t y through wires as a source of l i g h t , heat and e l e c t r i c a l charge for the following public purposes. i s for shelters, s p e c i a l use areas (e.g. conversation, and decorative furnishings.  l i g h t i n g - the lamps themselves being  The  light  playing) considered  Heat would be supplied for such purposes as  melting  snow and ice from pavements, protecting pipes from freezing, and possibly heating s o i l for plants.  The  l a t t e r i s a rather  exotic service l i k e l y to be i n s t a l l e d only i n planting boxes i n c i v i c squares.  An e l e c t r i c charge i s applied to metal pipes and  f i t t i n g s i n s t a l l e d i n the s o i l to prevent e l e c t r o l y t i c action. Actual practice. shelters.  Heating i s not considered  climate of this area. provided  Light i s provided  Anti-cathodic  only i n telephone  to be required i n the protection i s generally only  for gas pipes i n adverse s o i l conditions. VII. FURNISHING SERVICES  The  furnishing services are those which enhance the  environment of which the street forms an important part and make the street more l i v a b l e by providing furnishings.  These  furnishings are either f a c i l i t i e s or properties of f a c i l i t i e s not e s s e n t i a l to the provision of other services, but which  218. increases the convenience, amenity, and welfare of those using streets, usually at the expense of economy.  They are analogous  to the furnishings of rooms which makes them more comfortable pleasant.  and  The concept i s a broadening and r e f i n i n g of the  'street f u r n i t u r e ' one, often used by those expressing the need for better design of v i s i b l e f a c i l i t i e s i n s t r e e t s .  The term  furniture has been r e s t r i c t e d herein to f a c i l i t i e s analogous to things usually thought of as furniture i n houses as d i s t i n c t from other furnishings.  Besides discussing some of these other fur-  nishings .more f u l l y than i s customary, the concept of finishes on 20 v i s i b l e surfaces i s more f u l l y developed. Furniture Services The furniture services are those providing such f a c i l i t i e s as benches, fences, guardrails, shelters, cabinets, and  toilets.  Benches, which are analogous to couches, are for s i t t i n g while waiting for transit vehicles, supervising children at play, conversing with neighbours, or simply  'watching the world go  by'.  Fences would form 'outdoor c r i b s ' to enclose play areas for small children containing a sand box and perhaps other furniture for playing.  Guardrails are analogous to handrails or bannisters.  Shelters might be provided for people waiting for t r a n s i t vehicles, making telephone  c a l l s or using t o i l e t s , and for cycles  or vehicles temporarily stored i n the street. such f a c i l i t i e s as power transformers  Cabinets  enclose  i n s t a l l e d at or near ground  l e v e l , and various valves and other devices that must be accessible from the surface.  T o i l e t s are t o i l e t s wherever they are.  Actual practice.  The only furniture besides cabinets for  valves and other devices currently i n s t a l l e d i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l The whole concept of furnishings i s developed s t i l l further i n Chapter I I I .  219. s t r e e t s are wiring.  transformer  ' k i o s k s ' where t h e r e  These are u s u a l l y i n easements a d j a c e n t t o  Telephone s h e l t e r s or  'booths' are  located  waiting  for transit vehicles  ones at the  are  t e r m i n i of s e v e r a l  r u r a l routes,  provided  t r a n s i t shelters only  quite rare.  the  at such places on  These were i n s t a l l e d  r e s p e c t i v e l y by  and  installed and  Besides  a bakery outside  as  the  University,  the  Shopping  T o i l e t s are  the  p r o b l e m s o f k e e p i n g them c l e a n ,  f u n c t i o n i n g , and  the  f e a r of c h i l d r e n being molested.  fenced areas with  In the  S w e d i s h new  sand boxes f o r s m a l l  b o t h , even though o n l y d e s i g n of  about f i f t e e n  town o f  than that  Finishes  Services  The  facilities.  Farsta, benches  f e e t from the  are  c e r t a i n uses or Considering  p a v e m e n t s as c a r p e t s  road. of a  The higher  on  the  those p r o v i d i n g  to improve the s t r e e t as  a grass f l o o r  surface  appearance  finishes of  an o u t d o o r room h a v i n g ( a n a l o g y by  function  t e x t u r e ) , areas of s p e c i a l paving f o r such s t r e e t uses  conversing  or waiting  ' s c a t t e r r u g s ' and  for transit vehicles  'welcome m a t s ' .  home, t h e y s h o u l d h a v e a p p e a l i n g v a r i e t y and  by  i n North America.  finishes services  to f a c i l i t a t e  tidy,  appreciated  s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e i n Europe i s g e n e r a l l y  standard  not  c h i l d r e n and  f o r t h e i r m o t h e r s a p p e a r e d t o be w e l l u s e d and  are  i n Vancouver.  U n i v e r s i t y , the  i t s head o f f i c e .  on  Oakridge  because of  small  i n t e r e s t as w e l l as  u t i l i t a r i a n pavements. can  sizeable  s m a l l ones  Broadway n e a r A r b u t u s S t r e e t  P r a c t i c e elsewhere.  of  f o r people  t r a n s i t companies, there  S h o p p i n g C e n t r e , and  centre,  Shelters  t r a n s i t r o u t e s and  by  lanes.  on more i m p o r t a n t  s t r e e t s , u s u a l l y i n commercial d i s t r i c t s .  a few  i s underground  Unlike  Like  textures  as  considered  or colours  to  in  as the  provide  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g them f r o m more streets i n other d i s t r i c t s  s t r e e t s have the n e u t r a l c h a r a c t e r s e r v e as  be  such f u r n i s h i n g s  have i n t e r e s t i n g ' w a l l s ' , the w a l l s of  rooms w h i c h e x p o s e and  can  instead  local  which  residential  of window w a l l s  in  living  a frame f o r the v i e w beyond.  220. S o l i d , opaque walls are thus confined to such v e r t i c a l surfaces as retaining walls which are rare on r e s i d e n t i a l streets since differences i n elevation are usually taken up on the property o f f the street. Actual practice. .Mo  examples of f l o o r or wall finishes  i n the sense used,herein were found by the investigator i n the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s studied.  This i s perhaps fortunate  because i n his opinion, many of the examples i n other d i s t r i c t s are rather appalling.  Waiting areas at bus stops are often paved  with screenings or poor q u a l i t y asphalt.  Even where there was  a  desire and opportunity to create a 'pedestrian i s l a n d ' for the block containing the Queen Elizabeth Theatre by special finishes on the sidewalks surrounding dismal f a i l u r e .  the block, the result was  a rather  The alternating brushed and dimpled sections are  barely distinguishable from ordinary sidewalks and c e r t a i n l y less e f f e c t i v e than a l t e r n a t i v e designs involving extension o f the bold l i n e pattern of the plaza at a smaller scale which had been 21 prepared.  R-etaining walls i n s t a l l e d by municipalities to allow  for road widening are undoubtedly well-designed seem to lack other design considerations.  s t r u c t u r a l l y , but  Usually no attempt i s  made to give the concrete surfaces texture or pattern.  Some  sections of retaining walls have been b u i l t of granite paving blocks (from beside former street car tracks) that are excellent i n themselves, but look out of place between adjoining concrete walls, usually of d i f f e r e n t heights.  On the other hand, to show  what can be done, the Parks Board improved the appearance of the obsolete bath house terrace at English Bay by constructing a stone retaining wall to form a planting box. Practice elsewhere.  In Europe finishes are also much more  c a r e f u l l y considered than i n North America, not only for special Interview with Mr. D. Hickley, C i v i c Design Section, Planning Dept., City of Vancouver.  221. .-' - "•• 22 use areas, but often In the u t i l i t a r i a n pavements as well. Other Furnishing Services The other furnishing services are those providing such furnishings as decorations, ornaments and decorative l i g h t i n g . As i n the home decorations are mainly f o r s p e c i a l occasions when g a i l y coloured strings of l i g h t s , pictures, and other things such as greenery, a r i hung about.  Banners are perhaps more analogous  to curtains or drapes that frame the view.. Ornaments are more permanent:furnishings  such as statues and pools which are l i k e  figurines and aquariums.  Decorative l i g h t i n g includes any  l i g h t i n g primarily for such aesthetic purposes as highlighting the s p e c i a l features such as ornaments or planted areas. l a t t e r case, the lamp i t s e l f may  In the  constitute a furnishing when  a t t r a c t i v e l y designed. AcfcuaI practlce.  Such other furnishings are p r a c t i c a l l y  unknown i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets, but ornamental  pools and  decorative l i g h t i n g are becoming common at entrances of developments f o r which an attempt i s being made to create a favourable •image*.  Otherwise, ornaments and decorative l i g h t i n g i n streets  i s rare though i t occurs i n parks.  Decorations however, are  common on major streets i n commercial d i s t r i c t s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r the Christmas seasori, and Vancouver i s becoming j u s t l y famous- f o r the banners and pavement paintings on i t s Georgia and Burrard •amenity s t r e e t s ' .  These streets have permanent brackets f o r  banners and a few sections of other streets plus the bridges crossing f a l s e Creek have permanent sockets f o r flags attached to lamp supports.  VIII. GARDENING SERVICES The gardening services are those concerned with i n s t a l l i n g and caring for plants i n streets. The more important plants are 22 See Elizabeth Beazley, Design and D e t a i l of the Space Between Buildings. London, A r c h i t e c t u r a l Press, 1960.  222. , trees because of t h e i r prominence and grass because the area covered i s second only to pavements.  The other types of plants  that can be i n s t a l l e d i n streetstare shrubs, flowers and ground covers such as i v y , moss, and rockery plants. Planting Services The planting services are those concerned with I n s t a l l i n g trees, shrubs, flowers, grass, and other ground covers. Best, normal, and worst practices .  The best practice for  the planting services i s for the subdivider to i n s t a l l boulevard trees and grass by seeding.  A more normal practice i s f o r the  municipality to I n s t a l l the trees and leave planting of grass to adjacent property owners.  The worst practice i s also leaving  the tree planting to the property owners who may choose unsuitable types such as those which d r i p sticky substances on cars parked beneath them or berries on sidewalks. Actual practice.  The best practice i s being followed i n  The Richmond Gardens development but has been followed otherwise on no other l o c a l streets recently, and on only parts of c e r t a i n major streets with median s t r i p s such as King Edward Avenue and Cambie Street i n Vancouver,  The planting of these streets i s  being done i n stages with several years elapsing between i n s t a l l a t i o n of pavements and plants, during which time the area to be planted grows wild. f i n i s h e d yet.  The planting on these streets i s not  When the normal practice i s followed, the trees  are usually i n s t a l l e d a considerable time a f t e r most other services have been i n s t a l l e d .  Planting of grass on the boulevard  by adjacent property owners usually does not take place u n t i l they have completed the landscaping of t h e i r own property, which may take a year or two.  In many areas, e s p e c i a l l y those i n the  outlying municipalities having low densities of development, the boulevard i s allowed to grow w i l d .  The worst practice i s  less common than formerly because municipalities or t h e i r parks boards are better able to supply appropriate types of trees for  223. boulevards, Vancouver has been removing large old trees and replacing them with hew ones, generally of smaller flowering v a r i e t i e s . Unfortunately this has been done usually, be removing a l l of the old  trees at one time and then planting the new ones.  This  exposes houses of styles and conditions better l e f t p a r t l y screened from view and creates a bare look that lasts for several years.  Formerly well-treed areas such as the West End have had  t h e i r character largely spoiled by replacement carried out i n t h i s manner i n a short time. Practice elsewhere.  Several of the more progressive  developers i n the U. S. are planting trees and grass as sales a t t r a c t i o n s , and a few i n s t a l l f a i r - s i z e d trees to make the development look complete and mature.  However, such f i n i s h i n g  i s s t i l l less common than i n Europe where trees are planted a f t e r the u t i l i t i e s are i n s t a l l e d and grass i s planted as soon as the pavements are i n s t a l l e d . Another practice observed i n Europe and considered d e s i r able i s that of progressive replacement of trees.  Such famous  treed streets as the Champs Elysees give the impression of having trees of uniform size and spacing. wide range of ages and spacing.  Closer Inspection reveals a  The appearance of uniformity  i s p a r t l y the r e s u l t of c a r e f u l pruning, but also due to the replacement program.  F a i r sized trees (trunks about four inches  i n diameter) are planted beside aging or diseased trees and given a chance to establish themselves before removal of the unwanted tree.  Consequently there are never any noticeable gaps.  The  process can be carried out rather unobtrusively (except that chltin saws are now used) because there i s no need to jackhammer holes i n concrete and patch up old holes.  Instead, the granite  blocks i n the planting s t r i p and the cast i r o n g r i l l e around the trees are simply  rearranged.  224. fflfl"t, SNK? Services The plant care services are those which maintain plants i n a safe and a t t r a c t i v e condition.  Trees are kept safe by pruning  of branches that have broken or grown i n the way of pedestrians and vehicles or overhead wiring.  Pruning may be done by the  municipality, parks board, e l e c t r i c power or telephone u t i l i t y companies, or adjacent property owners.  Grass i s cared f o r by  mowing, watering, and f e r t i l i z i n g and other planted areas by weeding, watering, f e r t i l i z i n g , and spraying.  These operations  are performed by the municipality, parks board, o r the adjacent property owners. Actual practice.  Except f o r pruning of trees, care of  plants on l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l streets i s l e f t i n the hands of the adjacent property owners.  They generally take reasonably good  care of ' t h e i r ' boulevard because normally they have planted the grass and consider i t an extension of the lawn on t h e i r property. Some property owners also take care of the trees on the boulevard to some extent, including pruning occasionally.  Pruning i s  usually done by the parks board, however, except where there i s overhead wiring.  In this case i t i s often done by the e l e c t r i c  power or telephone u t i l i t y company.  Their interest i s to keep  t h e i r wires and cables free of branches and they succeed i n this respect, but not i n enhancing the appearance of the trees.  On  streets with planted medians such as Cambie and King Edward, the plants i n the median ar£ completely and generally well cared for by the parks board.  Some such as Cambie are treated, i n e f f e c t ,  as extensions of a park. IX. HOLDING SERVICES The holding services are those providing holders i n streets f o r the temporary storage of goods or waste materials for l a t e r c o l l e c t i o n or d i s t r i b u t i o n and use.  :  225. C o l l e c t i o n Holding  Services  The c o l l e c t i o n holding services are those providing f a c i l i t i e s i n which are held f o r l a t e r c o l l e c t i o n such goods as l e t t e r s and parcels and such waste materials as l i t t e r and garbage. A l l practices.  For holding letters and parcels deposited  by people f o r l a t e r c o l l e c t i o n by mail trucks, the best practices are i n s t a l l i n g either ordinary boxes or 'snorkel* boxes placed for use by motorists from t h e i r car.  The  l a t t e r are ordinary  parcel boxes with a 'snorkel'attachment protruding upwards and backwards through which motorists can deposit l e t t e r s or parcels without leaving t h e i r car.  A better than normal practice i s  I n s t a l l i n g either l e t t e r boxes on the support  for another service  such as street l i g h t i n g , or l e t t e r and parcel boxes on a common post.  The normal practice i s to I n s t a l l l e t t e r boxes on  separate  posts and parcel boxes on four-legged stands, often attached a concrete slab base. o l i v e drab coloured  to  A worse practice i s i n s t a l l i n g the temporary  'suburban* or group type box, because they  must be replaced l a t e r by the above types of boxes.  The worst  practice i s considered to be i n s t a l l i n g the r u r a l type box i n non-rural areas because of the resultant appearance, costs, and lack of security, although providing more convenient deposit of mail than any of the above types.  The normal and worst practices  of i n s t a l l i n g holders f o r garbage c o l l e c t i o n respectively are i n s t a l l i n g garbage cans i n lanes, and carrying them out to streets on c o l l e c t i o n  day.  Actual practices.  There i s only one example of each of  the two best practices of i n s t a l l i n g mail boxes - an ordinary  box  on a gasoline service s t a t i o n s i t e at Lougheed and Bainbridge i n Burnaby and a snorkel box at No. 3 Road and Cook, i n Richmond. The l a t t e r i s the only result of a survey reported underway i n 23 1959.  The problem has been that the post o f f i c e prefers 23 Picture and comment i n Vancouver Sun. February 18,  p. 15*  1959,  226. locations on heavily travelled roads and usable from the driver's side of cars f o r convenient service, but municipalities w i l l not accept stoppages of a lane of t r a f f i c on heavily travelled roads b^:ipexsbns usingithe boxes.  Locations on one-way streets or i n  medians would be s u i t a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i f provided with pull*out bays.  However, such locations are rare or present other problems  such as f o r pedestrians, and municipalities have been u n w i l l i n g 24 to provide the pull-out bays. The better than normal practice of I n s t a l l i n g boxes on other supports i s followed when possible, but boxes have been removed from wooden power poles at the request of the u t i l i t y company because of the danger to linemen