UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Architecture and communication Bernholtz, Allen Irving 1963

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A R C H I T E C T U R E  AND  C O M M U N I C A T I O N  by A L L E N  I R V I N G  Member,  B E R I H O L I Z ,  Far East S o c i e t y  M. R. A. I . C.  o f A r c h i t e c t s and E n g i n e e r s  B. A r c h . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1959  A.THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS. FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE  i n the Department o f A R C H I T E C T U R E  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h August,  1963  Columbia  In the  presenting  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced  British  Columbia, I agree  available mission  f o r reference  f o r extensive  representatives..  cation  the L i b r a r y  copying of t h i s thesis  that  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada.  -tZ^U^AA^C  agree  Columbia,.  / 2-,  f f / j -  that  per-  for scholarly  by the Head o f my Department  Department o f  Date  -fulfilment of  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  I further  I t i s understood  of this thesis  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  that  i n partial  d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f  and study..  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d his  this thesis  o r by  copying, or p u b l i -  shall  n o t be a l l o w e d  ABSTRACT  In dealing with Architecture and Communication i t w i l l be necessary to e s t a b l i s h i n i t i a l l y the d i f f e r e n t thought patterns i n o r a l and v i s u a l c u l t ures.  Once this has been determined, we can more r e a d i l y assess the paths  which the newer systems of communication are taking.  The Middle Ages a f f o r d  the bridge whereby we can scan the Western world i n both i t s o r a l and v i s u a l manifestations. The mass media, i n the broad sense, deal with the systems of communication which play an important role i n determining "the things to which we attend".  I t has been suggested by various scholars, writing on the e f f e c t s  of the media of communication, that they have played a s i g n i f i c a n t part i n shaping p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and economic i n s t i t u t i o n s .  For the a r c h i t e c t ,  an enquiry into the role of communications i n determining s p a t i a l concepts may  be of great value, f o r i t may  be equally true that changes i n communic-  ation a l t e r "the things to which we Despite  attend".  the pervading concern today with this f i e l d , architects have  yet to undertake an investigation of the role of structures as messages of archetypal forms of human concern, influenced by oral, written, printed, telegraphic, photographic and e l e c t r o n i c systems of communication. Using the d i s t i n c t i v e bias of these media, one may formulate a new  and v a l i d space concept f o r our age.  yet possible, i t may  f i n d i t possible to  Even i f this i s not as  at l e a s t indicate new paths to be taken i n a  re-assess-  ment of concepts of architecture based on perspective and the printed page. Marshall McLuhan's Gutenberg Galaxy has been the motivating force of this approach and the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the mosaic pattern of the t h e s i s . In the section dealing with symbolism, i t w i l l be useful to attempt to determine the province  of a r t and language.  Through a treatment of some of  the basic anthropological, philosophical and psychological conditioning  ii  iii  a f f e c t i n g our perception of the world, we can formulate ideas about man's symbol-making processes. b o l i c process and how  Some of the basic ideas underlying a r t and the sym-  these vary with d i f f e r e n t c i v i l i z a t i o n s may suggest  new  departures f o r our e x i s t i n g s p a t i a l biases. There are today trends i n language and communication study which f a l l under the general heading "area of meaning." Western architecture?  For example:  Do p a r a l l e l s e x i s t i n recent  are the concepts  of "area of meaning" as  advanced by S.I. Hayakawa i n Language i n Thought and Action and "universal space" as exemplified by t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese architecture and the recent work of Mies van der Rohe the same things i n d i f f e r e n t contexts? McLuhan has suggested  that our departmentalized approach to viewing  things i s the outcome of f i v e hundred years of p r i n t culture.  I should l i k e  to suggest that perspective (which i s more or less contemporary with Gutenberg's invention) i s the analogy of p r i n t culture.  Can we then extend  p a r a l l e l i s m to the more recent media of communication? represent a way  this  That i s , does Ronchamp  of constructing space s i m i l a r to, say, t e l e v i s i o n , or i s i t a  throwback to the 15th century?  Is Henry Moore's concept of working from the  centre of gravity of the s o l i d s c u l p t u r a l block a prophetic statement of TV which derives i t s l i g h t from within i t s e l f i n contrast to the printed page which requires l i g h t upon i t ?  These questions, i f answered, can lead to new  insights f o r the a r c h i t e c t . Due caution must be exercised when undertaking studies of architecture as messages of forms of human experience, r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l , economic and social.  Too often there i s a tendency to place undue emphasis on e a r l y  sources.  Certainly the study of h i s t o r i c a l precursors can be a provocative  and s a t i s f y i n g adventure i n assessing the image man at a given h i s t o r i c a l period. i n such a study are many.  was attempting to project  Yet the inherent, but not always obvious dangers  I w i l l attempt to point out some of these p i t f a l l s .  A s p a t i a l concept, to be v a l i d f o r our age, ought to emphasize the  relationship of man  to man.  The concept of architecture i n a world, theoret-  i c a l l y at l e a s t , of equals, i s i r r e l e v a n t without i t s s o c i a l context. As we. are products of a l l that has gone before us, i t i s inevitable that we derive a r c h i t e c t u r a l points of departure from what has gone before. I t i s equally true that never before have there been so many new forms of communieation combining to help establish a contemporary s p a t i a l metaphor. To create a compatability between the past and the present, we ought, in the words of Marshall McLuhan, to "take a fresh look at t r a d i t i o n considered not as the i n e r t acceptance  of a f o s s i l i z e d corpus of themes and  conventions,  but as an organic habit of re-creating what has been received and i s handed on." This thesis w i l l attempt to examine the necessary "fresh look."  A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S  To Professors. Henry Elder, Wolfgang Gerson, Abraham Rogatnick and L i o n e l Thomas of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, School of Architecture, whose d i v e r s i f i e d backgrounds provided a v a r i e t y of i n s i g h t s .  To Professor Watson Thomson of the Department of English, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r the wisdom and understanding of a t r u l y "whole" man.  To Dr. Edmund Carpenter, Head of Anthropology, San Fernando Valley State College, C a l i f o r n i a , whose comments on the manuscript made i t a l l worth while.  To my wife, Nancy, whose advice, typing and encouragement were u n f a i l i n g i n the midst of her own heavy schedule.  To Professor H.M. McLuhan, of the English Department, St. Michael's College, University of Toronto, whose Gutenberg Galaxy has been a profound i n s p i r a t i o n .  TABLE OF CONTENTS  page ABSTRACT  i i  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  vi  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  I  II  THE THINGS TO WHICH WE ATTEND  7  III  ART AND LANGUAGE IN THE SYMBOL-MAKING PROCESS  35  IV  HISTORICAL RELAYS  57  V  THE GREAT HANDWRITING  71  VI  EPILOGUE  9k  BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX OF GLOSSES  1  0  I  2  1 0  v  I.  INTRODUCTION  One alphabet;  o f the most d e c i s i v e i n v e n t i o n s i n man's h i s t o r y i s the p h o n e t i c n o t merely the a b i l i t y t o r e c o r d a concept by means o f a symbol i n  w r i t i n g , as i n ideogrammic  o r h i e r o g l y p h i c o r p i c t o g r a p h i c w r i t i n g , b u t the  t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f sounds, i n d i v i d u a l sounds, i n t o w r i t t e n  symbols.  The g r e a t d i v i d i n g l i n e o f c u l t u r e s can be seen i n terms o f those havi n g the use o f a p h o n e t i c a l p h a b e t (such as have a l l the languages o f Europe) and those h a v i n g no a l p h a b e t , o r a system o f w r i t i n g o t h e r than p h o n e t i c . The former can be c l a s s e d as v i s u a l c u l t u r e s , the l a t t e r as o r a l  cultures.  The b a s i s o f t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s i n the k i n d o f mental p r o c e s s t h a t i s encouraged by t h e s e two systems.  In the p i c t o r i a l system, u s e d t o  t h i s day i n China and Japan, t h e r e a r e no sounds i n v o l v e d i n t h e w r i t i n g ; r a t h e r they a r e p i c t u r e s o f t h i n g s , o b j e c t s which s u r r o u n d man and f o r which he has names i n h i s spoken language.  I t i s a system r e q u i r i n g thousands o f  i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s t o r e c o r d thought, s o t h e r e can be no t y p e w r i t e r s , no e c o n o m i c a l a l p h a b e t t e c h n o l o g y such as we p o s s e s s .  The language w r i t t e n i n  t h i s way must be t r a n s l a t e d m e n t a l l y i n t o the o r a l v a l u e s f o r each  symbol.  In the p h o n e t i c system t h e r e i s no such o b s t a c l e t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g . There a r e o n l y so many sounds  t h a t the human mouth i s t a u g h t t o make i n any  one s o c i e t y and when a p h o n e t i c system i s used, no more than between t e n and t h i r t y i n d i v i d u a l symbols need t o be i n v e n t e d t o r e c o r d the language as i t i s spoken. the sounds  These symbols themselves.  a r e n o t p i c t u r e s o f meanings o f sounds, they r e p r e s e n t The mental p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n d e c o d i n g the symbols  i s extremely s i m p l e f o r the p r a c t i c e d eye.  Meaning  becomes a b s t r a c t e d from  sound and the v i s u a l appearance o f the p r i n t e d word i s enough t o make an imme d i a t e i m p r e s s i o n on the mind without t r a n s l a t i o n  i n t o the o r a l  equivalent.  T h i s f a c t o f o r a l o r v i s u a l o r i e n t a t i o n determines man's most b a s i c a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the w o r l d about him.  1  2  The t r a n s i t i o n i n the Western w o r l d from o r a l to v i s u a l was s p r e a d i n g over t h r e e thousand y e a r s .  a slow  one,  A b a s i c a l l y o r a l , s c r i b a l c u l t u r e rem-  a i n e d throughout the Western w o r l d u n t i l the middle o f the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y when the p r i n t i n g p r e s s h e r a l d e d and made p o s s i b l e the coming o f mass l i t e r a c y . The m e d i a e v a l x»rorld was  made up o f a n o n - l i t e r a t e mass o f people p r e s -  i d e d over by a l i t e r a t e and s e m i - l i t e r a t e r o y a l t y , c l e r g y and lawyer However, t h i s elementary l i t e r a c y was  not s u f f i c i e n t t o make the break away  from the " t y r a n n y " o f the spoken word.  The monk, the most l i t e r a t e o f a l l  , the educated m e d i a e v a l p o p u l a t i o n must have read as l i t t l e as we might r e a d i n t h r e e o r f o u r days  o r a week.  We  i n one whole y e a r  can h a r d l y  imagine,  w i t h our eyes capable o f s c a n n i n g a page o f the newspaper i n seconds p o i n t s o f i n t e r e s t , how The mediaeval man  was  class.  to f i n d  slow the mediaeval r e a d i n g p r o c e s s must have been.  not a t ease w i t h the w r i t t e n symbol,  The rooms were too i l l - l i t  as we are today.  f o r r e a d i n g q u i c k l y , the s c r i p t was  o f t e n by  o t h e r hand, u n f a m i l i a r c o n t r a c t i o n s had t o be e n l a r g e d and s p e l l i n g was  anerratic.  B e f o r e the w r i t t e n page c o u l d be p r o p e r l y understood, i t had t o be s l o w l y t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a u d i t o r y symbols  w i t h which the r e a d e r was  Our tendency i s e x a c t l y the o p p o s i t e ; w i t h an u n f a m i l i a r term, we comprehend.  c o m p l e t e l y a t home.  more o f t e n than n o t , when c o n f r o n t e d  ask t o see the word i n p r i n t b e f o r e we  can  T h i s c o n s t a n t t r a n s l a t i o n o f v i s u a l i n t o a u d i t o r y symbols made  r e a d i n g a n o i s y a f f a i r throughout the M i d d l e Ages and w e l l i n t o the age print.  fully  The monk's c a r r o l l was . I t i s always  a "singing  booth".  e a s i e r t o understand, another c u l t u r e once our own  b i a s e s have been made e v i d e n t .  of  learned  Much o f our c r i t i c i s m o f c u l t u r e s not s h a r i n g  our v i s u a l b i a s stems from our l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the v a l u e s o f o r a l culture. The i n v e n t i o n o f movable type by Gutenberg a major t u r n i n g p o i n t i n Western h i s t o r y . today, so accustomed  i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y was  It is difficult  a r e we to v i s u a l symbols,  to convince people  o f the b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s between  3 the k i n d o f c u l t u r e which e x i s t e d b e f o r e p r i n t and our own. i n h i s a r t i c l e " I n s i d e the F i v e Sense  McLuhan s t a t e s  Sensorium:" 1  People who l i v e i n an o r a l - a u r a l w o r l d know none o f the imp e r s o n a l or detached a t t i t u d e s o f a v i s u a l - l i t e r a t e p e o p l e . But i t i s not easy to e x p l a i n t h i s m a t t e r t o l i t e r a t e s o c i e t i e s . They tend t o imagine t h a t the numerous c o n v e n t i o n s o f s e e i n g and organi z i n g t h e i r w o r l d are q u i t e n a t u r a l . . . That a n o n - l i t e r a t e man has no p e r s p e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e and t h a t n a t i v e s cannot see photos o r f o l l o w movies comes as a shock a t l e a s t t o the p r o v i n c i a l Westerner. J u s t as d i f f i c u l t f o r the Westerner t o u n d e r s t a n d i s why the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the p h o n e t i c a l p h a b e t among n a t i v e s s h o u l d be a t r a u m a t i c experience. For the t r a n s l a t i o n o f the m a g i c a l o r a l world i n t o the n e u t r a l symbols o f the p h o n e t i c a l p h a b e t i s a t o t a l metamorphosis for native societies. The essence o f v i s u a l c u l t u r e - and the r e s u l t s a r e everywhere us - i s i n d i v i d u a l i s m .  Reading h a b i t u a l l y , s i l e n t l y and a l o n e permits a  t o become d i v o r c e d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y from h i s f e l l o w s . in  groups.  around  One hears o r speaks  One  cannot read  o n l y i n a c o l l e c t i v e manner.  I t was  t i l p r i n t t h a t the sounded-out r e a d i n g o f the M i d d l e Ages ceased. nique o f u n i f o r m i t y and r e p e a t a b i l i t y was  man  silently n o t un-  The t e c h -  put t o i t s most d i s t i n c t i v e use, i n  the r e p r o d u c t i o n o f the p r i n t e d word. The Renaissance,  g r i p p e d w i t h the f e r v o u r o f widening h o r i z o n s o f l e a r n -  i n g made a v a i l a b l e by the new new  p r i n t i n g p r e s s , was  a v e r i t a b l e b o i l i n g pot f o r  concepts o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t and the c h a l l e n g e i n every  sphere o f l e a r n i n g t o e s t a b l i s h e d When men  v  ideas.  come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h events and d i f f e r e n t people  through  books, i n o t h e r words w i t h e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t t h e y have not l i v e d through thems e l v e s , they b e g i n to a s s e s s these events d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y and connect them w i t h one a n o t h e r i n an l i t e r a t e man  'ordered' f a s h i o n , i n terms o f c a u s a t i o n .  can extend h i m s e l f beyond the narrow l i m i t s  and b e g i n t o see the unknown without f e a r because V i s u a l man tures.  A l s o , the h i g h l y  o f h i s town or v i l l a g e  of this preparation.  seeks f o r the e x a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f n a t u r a l forms i n p i c -  Our haughty c r i t i c i s m o f m e d i a e v a l " n a i v e t y " f o r n o t a c h i e v i n g  In Canadian A r c h i t e c t , V o l . 6, No.  6,  June, 1961,  p.50.  k representational f i d e l i t y i s most unjust. t h e i r Greek brethren was  Neither these mediaeval men  nor  s t r i v i n g f o r representative d e t a i l , rather the crea-  tion of an impression, of his own involvement paint, sculpture or architecture.  with the object immortalized i n  The f r i e z e s and vase.designs  of antiquity,  ikons and missals of the Middle Ages are ample evidence of t h i s . One of the most "unnatural" results of p r i n t culture i s the separation of the senses so that the v i s u a l takes precedence over a l l others. phasis on the single point of view, to the detriment of a l l other  Our  em-  involvements,  in various aspects of l i f e i s seen i n the proscenium stage of the theatre, the mechanistic view of h i s t o r y in which a single event i s seen to control the whole outcome of l i f e , as i n the 18th century b i o l o g i c a l "great chain of being". We constantly t r y to "picture" words, and our excessive concern f o r s p e l l i n g betrays this attachment to the v i s u a l side of language. Outward conformity leaves the v i s u a l man the important thing i s what shows.  free to deviate inside, since  We f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to understand  why  Soviet or Chinese c i t i z e n s do not f e e l free to rebel inside, why  they often  admit of crime when i t was  We tend to  only contemplated, never committed.  superimpose on a l l other cultures our assumption that every man himself and assesses for himself, that every man in his own  thinks f o r  considers himself an e n t i t y  right.  In any o r a l society, the individual's relationship to his fellows i n the community i s r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from ours. ive  t r i b a l peoples as free and easy-going,  thing could be farther from the truth. his  We u s u a l l y think of p r i m i t -  innocent and uncomplicated.  Oral man  No-  i s r i g i d l y circumscribed by  place i n society (McLuhan uses the word " t r i b a l i z e d " to express this  with no idea of self-worth i n our sense of the word.  idea)  Every attendant need of  i n d i v i d u a l i t y such as privacy and personal rights i s lacking i n oral society. Each man  i s i n d i v i d u a l only insofar as he performs a s p e c i f i c function i n the  workings of society, and study, play or work performed i n solitude i s rare.  5 Language i n an o r a l world, i n c l u d i n g the s c r i b a l manuscript  tradition,  i s a dynamic, l i v i n g f o r c e , i n v o l v i n g an i n t e r p l a y o f senses and i m a g i n a t i o n t h a t i s incomprehensible  to us.  Sounds f o r m e d i a e v a l o r a l man a r e dynamic  i n d i c a t o r s o f movement, events and a c t i v i t i e s .  There was no p a s s i v e  l i s t e n e r , much l e s s s p e c t a t o r , i n the M i d d l e Ages. P a r t i c i p a t i o n and p e r s o n a l involvement was o f a s c a l e unheard o f i n our time.  The p l a y audience d i d n o t watch the p l a y , s i l e n t , immobile and c r i t -  i c a l as we do.  A m y s t e r y - p l a y audience, l i k e the p i t which Shakespeare de-  s c r i b e s , was a n o i s y  affair.  We a r e prone t o a c c e p t  the maxim t h a t the f r u i t s  o f o r a l s o c i e t y are  o f n e c e s s i t y u n r e l i a b l e as i n d i c a t o r s o f how s o c i e t y worked and behaved.  We  assume, s i n c e t o us " s e e i n g i s b e l i e v i n g " t h a t e a r i n f o r m a t i o n i s unworthy f a c t , s u b j e c t t o change a t any moment from i n d i v i d u a l t o i n d i v i d u a l . judge so i s t o judge h a s t i l y .  To  Throughout h i s t o r y , i t can be seen t h a t the  o r a l s o c i e t i e s a r e t h e most s t a t i c , unchanging and u n p r o g r e s s i v e .  People i n  o r a l s o c i e t i e s have p r o d i g i o u s memories, f a r b e t t e r than our own, f o r t h e . simple tion  reason  t h a t i t i s the human memory, w i t h i t s immense powers o f r e t e n -  that provides  the s t a t u t e books, the moral p r e c e p t s ,  t h a t h o l d the whole f a b r i c o f s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r . t u r e , the l e a r n e r does n o t take  In t h i s k i n d o f s o c i a l s t r u c -  i t upon h i m s e l f t o change what he has l e a r n e d .  No i n v e n t i o n p r i o r t o our t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y press  the do's and don't's  i n i t s a l l - p e r v a s i v e e f f e c t s on human v a l u e s  can r i v a l the p r i n t i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n .  To i t  we owe our b e l i e f i n democracy, the d i g n i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l , our n a t i o n a l i s m , p e r s p e c t i v e , a p p l i e d knowledge and technology; o f the r e i g n i n g v a l u e s  in all,  o f Western c i v i l i z a t i o n up u n t i l  a f a i r - s i z e d portion today.  We a r e now i n the midst o f a n o t h e r major c u l t u r a l change - t h i s away from t h e p u r e l y v i s u a l , towards a " g r e a t e r ucation i s presented super-organization  i n t e r p l a y o f senses.  i n the form o f e l e c t r o n i c and o r a l media.  time Much ed-  With the  by e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e s , men a r e l o s i n g the sense o f  6  i n d i v i d u a l i s m and  are  reconsidering  the c o l l e c t i v e i d e a l , the  "global  village"  as McLuhan c a l l s i t . Our  p h y s i c a l environment i s now  often  o t h e r than the p u r e l y v i s u a l , thanks t o the Frank L l o y d Wright and p r i v a t e , but  Le C o r b u s i e r .  a l s o open and  o f Haussman's P a r i s and  interacting.  the  r e s u l t of  c r e a t i v e genius o f men  Spaces are not We  considerations  only enclosed  such as and  are moving away from the v i s t a s  the V e r s a i l l e s o f L o u i s XIV  to the a r c h i t e c t u r e  e l e c t r o n i c w o r l d i n which space l o s e s i t s s t a t i c q u a l i t y and  of  an  becomes t r u l y  dynamic. What are some o f the d i s c e r n i b l e d i s p o s i t i o n s w i t h which TV has imbued i t s p u b l i c s i n the p a s t t e n y e a r s ? I am working from the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t our t e c h n i c a l media, s i n c e w r i t i n g and p r i n t i n g , a r e e x t e n s i o n s o f our s e n s e s . The l a t e s t such e x t e n s i o n , TV, I am sugge s t i n g , i s an e x t e n s i o n , n o t j u s t o f s i g h t and sound, but o f t h a t v e r y s y n e s t h e s i a which the a r t i s t s o f the p a s t c e n t u r i e s have s t r e s s e d as a c c e s s i b l e v i a the t a n g i b l e - t a c t i l e v a l u e s o f the new v i s i o n . TV i s not j u s t s i g h t and sound, but t a n g i b i l i t y i n i t s v i s u a l , contoured, s c u l p t u r a l mode. What have been the s p e c i f i c changes i n our a t t i t u d e s to p u b l i c space, to p r i v a c y and t o the n a t u r e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s r e s u l t i n g from TV?... 2  A l l these t h i n g s  2  Ibid.,  p.5l.  are  l o n g i n coming.  II.  THE THINGS TO WHICH WE ATTEND  The mass media, i n the broad sense, deal with the systems of communication which play an important role i n determining "the things to which we attend." the  To the scanning eye they r e f l e c t those images which make concrete  inward imagery of the "average manfs" world.  role i n what i s delivered to the p u b l i c .  Facts play only a secondary  Although the l a t e s t baseball scores  must be accurately reported, news items themselves depend more on "story" content, than on f a c t s .  A world of phantasy abetted by opulent symbolism spreads  a f i l m of reverie before our eyes.  In the maze we can discern the effects of  our technology and i t s heterogeneous space i d e a l . ...Vast road nets, huge dams, towering skyscrapers, gothic " h a l l s of learning", bridges thrusting across wide canyons, great amphitheaters, enormous houses - even the huge congested mass of men and machines struggling through the canyons of our c i t i e s - are but the pomp and majesty of a technological democracy. T r a f f i c congestion wastes untold amounts of time and money and f o r Americans time i s money. U n t i l the automobile we had s u f f i c i e n t space. Technological goods and services are used to increase, not decrease, congestion. As more people pour into our c i t i e s , planners bewail the strangulation of urban l i f e and propose " l o g i c a l " t r a f f i c plans. But the congestion of c i t i e s creates great audiences and thus offers unlimited opportunities to see and be seen by others...1 The image of l i f e centred around the hearth crumbles with the invasion of the new communication  systems.  In e s s e n t i a l l y economic organizations there  is no moral imperative to t e l l the truth. the  As a source of e t h i c a l teaching  home i s invaded by these commercial interests, bringing the essence of  contemporary l i f e i n a l l i t s technological glory into the l i v i n g room.  The  f i r e p l a c e as a gathering spot f o r family exchange has made way f o r the TV room.  This new command centre dictates a new and d i f f e r e n t core f o r the home.  The v a r i e t y and richness of human achievements are v i v i d l y brought to our attention by the devices of communication. domestic and s o c i a l communication  The telephone has made possible  which do not depend on the sending of written  • H.D. Duncan, Communication and Social Order (New York: Press, 1962), p.276. L  Bedminster  7  8 or remembered messages. ded  t o i s o l a t e man,  In the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f i e l d ,  as does p r i n t c u l t u r e .  The  l i s h e s degree, p r e s t i g e and s o c i a l v a l u e s . one  ten-  automobile once more e s t a b -  I f we  o f these media, perhaps t h e i r scope and  the motor c a r has  c o n s i d e r the impact o f only-  e x t e n t can be more f u l l y  apprecia-  ted. Robert S a r n o f f , chairman o f NBC, December 5, 1962,  i n a speech d e l i v e r e d i n New  summed up the impact of the t e l e v i s i o n  York on  industry i n this  way.  ...NBC News reaches more homes than the combined c i r c u l a t i o n o f L i f e , Look, Time, Newsweek and U.S. News and World Report, p l u s the t o t a l c i r c u l a t i o n o f a l l major d a i l i e s i n New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles. And, CBS  continues  S a r n o f f , "Remember"that these f i g u r e s do n o t  include  and ABC." , Yet i n a t l e a s t one  r e s p e c t the p o p u l a r a r t s o f photography and part^-  i c u l a r l y motion p i c t u r e l e t us down.  The p o i n t b e i n g ,  t h a t as s o c i a l  func-  t i o n , and not as modes o f p e r c e p t i o n , these media p e r m i t us o n l y a form o f one  p o i n t or i n d i v i d u a l p e r s p e c t i v e .  see the p i c t u r e i n our own H.D.  Thus, i n the movie we,  perspective.  each one  o f us,  In Communication and S o c i a l Order,  Duncan quotes George Mead on the e f f e c t i v e i s o l a t i o n  o f the members o f a  compact audience a t a movie. . . . ( t h i s i s o l a t i o n ) i s i n c r y i n g c o n t r a s t w i t h the shared response those t h a t , each a t h i s own b r e a k f a s t t a b l e , read the morning p r e s s . (p.393)  of  2  F o r Mead the movie "has  no c r e a t i v e audience such as have been the  p i r a t i o n o f the moving speeches o f g r e a t a c t o r s . o r a t o r one  Under the power o f an  i s i n the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the whole community."^  I t i s i n t h i s context play a s i g n i f i c a n t role.^ 2  ins-  4  o f the whole community t h a t the e l e c t r o n i c media . " P e r s p e c t i v e " becomes a m i s l e a d i n g word.  S e e a l s o E l i a s C a n e t t i , Crowds and  Power (New  Simult-  York: V i k i n g P r e s s ,  p.36 ^Duncan, op. c i t . , p.393. ^ T h i s "is so even i f we o f low  standard.  d i s r e g a r d the p r e s e n t  l e v e l o f programming as  1962)  9  a n e i t j and i n t e r a c t i o n a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e , f o r t h e r e i s no s o c i a l to  imperative  p r o t e c t the s i l e n t r e v e r i e o f our n e i g h b o u r . We a r e a l l  s e e k i n g t o c r e a t e an environment which w i l l  l o n g i n g s and f u l f i l  the c h i e f d e s i r e s o f our h e a r t s .  justify  our  To s i m p l y adapt o r ad-  j u s t to an e x i s t i n g environment i s s u f f i c i e n t o n l y f o r a lower organism. But our  answer t o the new  t e c h n o l o g y has been one o f conspicuous f a i l u r e s ,  e r r i n g t h a t t e c h n o l o g y be glamorous  r a t h e r than e f f i c i e n t .  has had a . s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on what was  tendency  a t one time, d e s p i t e e x t e r i o r ornam-  e n t a t i o n , c o n s i d e r e d c h i e f l y as a f u n c t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . N o r t h American  This  pref-  The glamour o f the  o f f i c e b u i l d i n g nox* d i c t a t e s t h a t i t be d e s i g n e d as a p l a c e t o  s o c i a l i z e and n o t m e r e l y as a p l a c e t o work.  As Duncan has p o i n t e d out:^  Women f i n d husbands where they work, n o t where they l i v e . The " o t h e r woman" i n American p o p u l a r dramas i s n o t a s i r e n from the demi-monde, but a c o l l e a g u e i n work. She, we a r e t o l d , "understands" and i s " i n t e r e s t e d " i n the husband's work and she does so i n f a r g r e a t e r e l e g a n c e and. l u x u r y than the w i f e . The mass media have made o f c a r s , c l o t h e s and houses, h i g h l y communica b l e symbols  o f power.  Designed, a d v e r t i s e d and d i s t r i b u t e d as mass symbols,  t h e y have become o f f i c i a l i n s i g n i a t o the d e t r i m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l  achievement.  A house by C o r b u s i e r , a s c u l p t u r e by Moore i s n o t , except i n " i n n e r  circles"  a s u f f i c i e n t mark o f rank because i t i s n o t y e t i d e n t i f i e d i n the p u b l i c mind through the mass media. If  human communication  i n s o c i e t y i s an attempt t o c r e a t e symbols  use i s b e l i e v e d t o u p h o l d s o c i a l o r d e r , then i t i s l i t t l e s c h o l a r s , w r i t i n g on the e f f e c t s o f the media their v i t a l  r o l e i n shaping p o l i t i c a l ,  whose  wonder t h a t various*  o f communication,  r e l i g i o u s and economic  have suggested  empires.  Taking  speech as a c l o s e c o r r e l a t e o f man's tendency t o congregate, Dewey.has d i s cussed communication, the  w i t h a r t as the i d e a l type o f communication,  to i l l u s t r a t e  f u n c t i o n , as w e l l as the s t r u c t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  and i t s environment.  self  The tendency which marks much contemporary a r t , when i t  Duncan, op. c i t .  p.276.  10  is  s u c c e s s f u l , i s t o u s h e r i n new  modes o f a r t through  of  p e r c e p t i o n , and h e l p us to e x p e r i e n c e  e d u c a t i o n o f the organs  the w o r l d about us i n new  ways.  S i n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e c r e a t e s the s p a t i a l environment, i t s forms  offer  many c l u e s to the c l a s s p a t t e r n s o f a community. P o l i t i c a l r a l l i e s , s p o r t i n g events, a l l c i v i c s p e c t a c l e s are • a p r e s e n t a t i o n to g e n e r a l p u b l i c s - a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the community to i t s e l f . Who may come, how they are s e a t e d , how they are addressed, by what means, by whom they a r e c o n t r o l l e d , how they d r e s s , how they r e l a t e t o each o t h e r , and how they communicate w i t h the a c t o r s are i n d i c a t i o n s of how i n f e r i o r s and s u p e r i o r s r e l a t e i n a given s o c i e t y . How the g e n e r a l audience i s s t r a t i f i e d , and how those i n v a r i o u s l e v e l s r e l a t e t o each o t h e r i s another.6 The a r c h i t e c t ' s p l a n n i n g p a r t l y determines  t h e - k i n d and e x t e n t o f  these  relationships. The a r t i s t ' s i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s about the community g e n e r a l l y may may  not c o i n c i d e with those i n c o n t r o l o f the mass media, but s i n c e the  too c r e a t e s the forms by which our c i v i l i z a t i o n w i l l be judged, h i s s h i p to the communication media must become more i n t i m a t e .  or artist  relation-  Only when t h i s  occurs cans C r e n e l a t e d towers which become c l e a n s o a r i n g planes i n space f i l l e d with i n t e r l o c k i n g cubes o f g l a s s and s t e e l r e p l a c e f e u d a l with t e c h n o l o g i c a l majesty.''' A r c h i t e c t u r e i s an i n d i c a t o r o f p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e . upon the v i s i b l e products the human p a s t .  Not  We  depend  o f man's i m a g i n a t i o n f o r an extended knowledge o f  o n l y i s t h a t p a s t which i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r e s e n t exp-  e r i e n c e conveyed by these symbols, but the prophecy o f the f u t u r e i s i n h e r e n t in  our p r e s e n t a d a p t a t i o n o f these forms t o g e t h e r with our unique c o n t r i b u t i o n .  In h i s The Shape o f Time, K u b l e r a s s e s s e s  the message which these symbols of  communication convey: From a l l these t h i n g s a shape i n time emerges. A visible p o r t r a i t o f the c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y whether t r i b e , c l a s s o r n a t i o n ,  "Duncan,  op.  cit.,  7lbid. p.365.  p.295.  11  comes i n t o b e i n g . T h i s s e l f - i m a g e r e f l e c t e d i n t h i n g s i s a guide and a p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e t o the group f o r the f u t u r e , and i t eventu a l l y becomes the p o r t r a i t g i v e n t o p o s t e r i t y . (p.9) For the a r c h i t e c t then, an e n q u i r y i n t o the r o l e o f communications i n determining  s p a t i a l concepts  may  be  o f g r e a t v a l u e , f o r i t may  be e q u a l l y  t r u e t h a t changes i n communication a l t e r "the t h i n g s t o which we  attend."  Yet one must c o n s t a n t l y keep i n mind t h a t h i s t o r i c a l r e c a l l can n e v e r be comp l e t e nor e n t i r e l y c o r r e c t . s e r i e s o f sender, s i g n a l and deform the message.  Communication and  c a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d when u n d e r t a k i n g  s t u d i e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e as message sources economic and s o c i a l .  p l a c e undue emphasis on e a r l y s o u r c e s . p r e c u r s o r s must n o t be n e g l e c t e d . adventure i n a s s e s s i n g the image man torical period. study are many and  transmission  r e c e i v e r are s u b j e c t t o s u c c e s s i v e r e l a y s which  Thus, due  religious, political,  its historic  of forms o f human e x p e r i e n c e , Often,  t h e r e i s a tendency to  C e r t a i n l y the study o f h i s t o r i c a l  I t can be a p r o v o c a t i v e and was  attempting  satisfying  t o p r o j e c t at a g i v e n  Yet the i n h e r e n t , but not always obvious,  his-  dangers i n such a  I w i l l attempt i n Chapter IV to p o i n t out some o f the  pit-  falls . A mosaic p a t t e r n , taken a c r o s s the f a c e o f i n t e r a c t i n g d i s c i p l i n e s  will  be used i n the p r e s e n t work i n an attempt t o g i v e wider d e f i n i t i o n to the field  of force.  The mosaic approach i s not o n l y "much the e a s i e r " i n the study o f the simultaneous which i s the a u d i t o r y f i e l d ; i t i s the o n l y r e l evant approach. For the "two-dimensional" mosaic o r p a i n t i n g i s the mode i n which t h e r e i s muting o f the v i s u a l as such, i n o r d e r t h a t t h e r e may be maximal i n t e r p l a y among a l l o f the senses. Such was the p a i n t e r l y s t r a t e g y " s i n c e Cezanne" t o p a i n t as i f you h e l d , r a t h e r than as i f you saw, o b j e c t s . I t w i l l become apparent t h a t the e n t i r e world  i s a source  purpose and t h a t independent systems o f e x p r e s s i o n t h a t may verge a r e no l o n g e r t e n a b l e .  ^H.M.  1962), p.jL2.-  of  shared  o c c a s i o n a l l y con-  I t w i l l a l s o permit an o r c h e s t r a t i o n i n  McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy ( T o r o n t o :  U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto  Press,  12 preference to fusing of human a r t s , interests and pursuits.  Orchestration  permits discontinuity and endless v a r i e t y without the universal imposition of any one s o c i a l or economic system. Our working proof, p a r t i c u l a r l y p r i o r to the fifteenth  century, of the  existence of nearly a l l older peoples i s in the v i s u a l order.  In this role  architecture has, through i t s structures, served as messages of archetypal r  forms of human concern.  The influence of various systems of communication i n  these roles i s one of the concerns of this t h e s i s .  Using the  distinctive  bias of the media, one may find i t possible to formulate a new and v a l i d space concept for our age.  Even i f this is not as yet possible,  the  investigation  may at least indicate new paths to be undertaken i n a re-assessment of concepts of architecture based on perspective and the printed page. McLuhan notes? how two of our contemporary media have already influenced and altered "the things to which we attend." . . . I t needs no very sharp observation to note that the moving radar antennae, which feed radar screens, are as dynamic and spherical in t h e i r coverage as any auditory " f i e l d of relations" can be. And this is equally true of the TV image. It is a two-dimensional mosaic mesh, a simultaneous f i e l d of luminous vibration which ends the older dichotomy of sight and sound... What we must grasp is that TV has the power of imposing i t s own conventions and assumptions on the s e n s i b i l i t i e s of the viewer. It has the power of translating the Western l i t e r a t e back into the world of n o n - l i t e r a t e synesthesia, just as e f f e c t i v e l y as the phonetic alphabet can hoick the native out of his haptic matrix into a world of mechanistic individualism and sequential cause-and-effect r e l a t i o n s . In assessing the role of mass media Mumford has held that "as f a r as architecture is concerned the great misdemeanor of the p r i n t i n g press was not that i t took l i t e r a r y values away from architecture, but that i t caused a r c h i t ecture to derive i t s value from literature."'*'^ And with the Renaissance the great modern d i s t i n c t i o n between the ^McLuhan, "Inside the Five Sense Sensorium", p.50. L e w i s Mumford, Sticks and Stones (New York: second e d i t i o n , revised, 1955), pp.hl-2. 10  Dover Publications,  literate  13 and  illiterate  extended even t o the b u i l d i n g p r o c e s s  itself.  ...the master mason who knew h i s stone and h i s workmen and h i s t o o l s and the t r a d i t i o n o f h i s a r t gave way t o the a r c h i t e c t who knew h i s P a l l a d i o and h i s V i g n o l a and h i s Vitruvius.-*- 1  Thus masonry, f o r example, i n the Renaissance d e r i v e d from d e s c r i p t i o n r a t h e r than from a c t u a l m a t e r i a l . created according  t o the book.  a r c h i t e c t ' s B i b l e , what was  Masonry j o i n t s were both c o n c e a l e d  and  With the advent o f the p r i n t e d t e x t as  formerly  a " r o l e " became a " p r o f e s s i o n " .  implies i n t e r a c t i o n , a profession hierarchy  the A role  i n which an a r t i s a n o f t e n  divorced  from c r a f t t r a d i t i o n i n s t r u c t s those o f a lower e c h e l o n i n t h e i r d u t i e s . (This world o f . r o l e s s t i l l advanced  less technically  civilizations).  But a centre  l i n g e r s i n many " p r i m i t i v e " and  i f e l e c t r i c media p l a y no  f a v o u r i t e s and  and no p l a c e a margin, then our v e r y  c o n s e q u e n t l y any  place i s  concept o f s p a t i a l awareness i s  a l t e r e d , both i n p r i v a t e and p u b l i c e x i s t e n c e .  As McLuhan has  stated,  "the v e r y , c o n c e p t o f p r i v a c y , which o r i g i n a t e d w i t h p r i n t c u l t u r e i n the century,  can no  l o n g e r be s u s t a i n e d by  the  16th  t r a d i t i o n a l means of p a r t i t i o n i n g  space". The  i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t when sense r a t i o s change, men  i s what occurs when any  one  i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l form. these extensions'  change.13  This  sense or b o d i l y or mental f u n c t i o n i s e x t e r n a l i z e d  In The  S i l e n t Language, H a l l summarizes h i s views o f  of b o d i l y f u n c t i o n .  Today man has developed e x t e n s i o n s f o r p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y t h i n g he used t o do w i t h h i s body. The e v o l u t i o n o f weapons begins w i t h the t e e t h and the f i s t s and ends w i t h the atom bomb. C l o t h e s and houses are extensions o f man's b i o l o g i c a l t e m p e r a t u r e - c o n t r o l mechanisms. F u r n i t u r e takes the p l a c e o f s q u a t t i n g and s i t t i n g on the ground. Power t o o l s , g l a s s e s , TV, telephones and books, which c a r r y the v o i c e . a c r o s s both time and space a r e examples o f m a t e r i a l e x t e n s i o n s . Money i s a way o f e x t e n d i n g and s t o r i n g l a b o r . Our t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks  11I b i d ,  p.l|l.  12.'McLuhan, 13'See  "Inside  the  F i v e Sense Sensorium",  McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy,  p.265.  p.52  11+ now do what we used to do with our feet and backs. In fact, a l l man-made material things can be treated as extensions of what man once did with his body or some specialized part of his body. (p.79) The ultimate goal to which man's extensions w i l l reach i s , of course, unknown.  But Norbert Wiener's The Human Use of Human Beings, published in  its original form as early as 19^0 gives us some idea of what is to come. In i t Wiener discusses communication between Man and Man, Machine and Man and ultimately between Machine and Machine.  The- possibilities of machines here  outlined seem to render Stuart Chase's prediction that man will always be necessary to programme machines as either premature or chauvinistic."^  In any  case the absentee landlord picture Wiener paints for the architect may be distressing to more than a few contemporary designers who honestly like to have the good earth cling to their boots during inspection tours. In short, the bodily transmission of the architect and his documents may be replaced very effectively by the message-transmission of communications which do not entail the moving of a particle of matter from one end of the line to the other. Machines have been taught to play chess. assessed as correct but not inspiring. remark referred to earlier.  The matches have been  Perhaps this is what prompted Chase's  It is presently held that art as a machine  product may at best be a pale reflection of the spontaneous flow of man's creative s p i r i t .  Thus architecture, i f not as an engineering discipline but  as an art, may become one of the great balancing forces of the human mind. Man's ultimate function may be to immerse himself in creative endeavours as the only escape from the erector set he has fashioned and which is in turn fashioning him.  In this respect the questions raised by the work in cybern-  etics calls not for pessimism, through fear of being replaced by an electronic gadget, but for unparalleled optimism.  In -such a world man w i l l have put the  ^Stuart Chase, The Power of Words (New York:  Harcourt Brace,  19$h)  p.U8. I'D  Norbert Wiener, The Human Use of Human Beings (New York: Doubleday,  195U), P.98.  15 drudgery of the work-a-day world behind him.  Plazas, the most b a s i c a l l y  s o c i a l manifestation of the a r c h i t e c t ' s vocabulary may once more become the image of an age, and without t h e i r former l i m i t a t i o n s of class d i s t i n c t i o n s . At l e a s t one a r c h i t e c t , Le Corbusier, had the prophetic nature to env i s i o n our t e c h n o l o g i c a l (but not our s o c i a l ) world, before the coming of .the giant computers and before we had learned to use the magic words "cybernetics" and "feedback".  16  V i l l e Radieuse i s a paper c i t y ; i t s a c t i v i t y i s the motion of draftsmen, t y p i s t s , accountants, and meetings of the board. Carried on i n an atmosphere of conditioned a i r , corrected l i g h t , and b r i g h t decor, by e l e c t r i c a l communications, with e f f i c i e n c y and speed. ' 1  and i n Corbusier's own words: The c i t y that can achieve speed w i l l achieve success. Work i s today more intense and c a r r i e d on at a quicker r a t e . The whole question becomes one of d a i l y intercommunication with a view to s e t t l i n g the.state of the market and the condition of l a b o r . The more r a p i d the intercommunication, the more w i l l business be expedited.-^ But modern d a i l y intercommunication connected with i t .  has l i t t l e a e s t h e t i c enjoyment  In the competitive i n d u s t r i a l - t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y of  the 20th century, the ends of work are too f a r removedi from the tasks a t hand. Bernard Leach, speaking i n a p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w i n Kyoto, Japan, i n 1962,  said  the amount of a e s t h e t i c enjoyment v a r i e s with the distance from men's hearts. Each extension of c r a f t e d product from hand to t o o l to machine to f a c t o r y has borne out h i s observation.  S p e c i a l i z a t i o n of labour and consequent d i f f i c u l -  t i e s i n communication have created a s i t u a t i o n which i s incompatible with contemporary t h i n k i n g . For t h i s reason, many of the problems today confronting the a r c h i t e c t (mechanical equipment, l i g h t i n g problems, a c o u s t i c a l f a c t o r s ) c a l l f o r a new  1960),  -^See Goodman, Paul and. P e r c i v a l , Communitas (New York: p.hh. ^ I b i d . , p.Liu ^ I b i d . , p.Uii.  Vintage Books,  16  system of production, management and decision-making.  Authority imposed  from the top down and fixed spatial sequence are out of the same barrel. Both are too slow and segmented to f i t in with new materials and methods of construction.  Organic, integrated architectural solutions can only result  from close, constant teamwork. The qualities which make of our contemporary architecture such a. decisive turning point in the development of modern theories of design are both idealogical and technical.  Historically this has rarely been the case.  The Industrial Revolution was a momentous dual change-over - from handicraft to machine methods, from an emphasis on the craftsman to one who services a machine.  As Robert Samoff's figures have indicated, the Electronic Revol-  ution, following less than 150 years later is even more pervasive.  It under-  mines the foundations of five centuries of idealogy fashioned on linear perspective and the printed page.  Certainly never before in history have so many  new media of mass communication affecting so great a segment of population contrived to enforce a new approach to perception, to l i f e i t s e l f .  But  whereas the Industrial Revolution merely strengthened the linear format of our lives by adding the assembly-line to the specialist working in isolation, and the segmentation of interacting branches of knowledge, the Electronic Revolution scraps the fragmentary approach for a discipline of interaction. In Contemporary Sculpture, Giedion-Welcker  assesses the contemporary  situation: There is a renunciation of the old structural development, sentence by sentence, in favor of a dynamic association of ideas, accomplished by a successively penetrative effect rather than a consecutive use of words, (p.xx) One of the immediate stimuli to the creation of new forms in architecture has been a rediscovery and a reanimation of the primal visual images and oral values latent in the TV medium.  "Its two-dimensional, contoured character  fosters the tactile interplay of the senses which painters since Cezanne had  17 s t r e s s e d as n e e d f u l " .  19  TV g i v e s us the o p t i c a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n  of material  s o l i d i t y by l i g h t so as t o enable movement t o become a p l a s t i c element. i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t Reyner Banham r e f e r s t o t e l e v i s i o n as "...the  It  symbolic  20 machine o f the Second Machine The  Age".  r e t u r n t o the " p r i m i t i v e " i n a r t i s an attempt  to counteract t h a t  a r c h i t e c t u r e which Mumford suggests has been d e r i v e d from l i t e r a t u r e . as w e l l , be a good s t a r t i n g p o i n t from which to r e a s s e s s our civilization.  It  may,  contemporary  S i e g f r i e d G i e d i o n , i n h i s The E t e r n a l P r e s e n t , t e l l s us t h a t .  " A b s t r a c t i o n , t r a n s p a r e n c y , s i m u l t a n e i t y and s y m b o l i z a t i o n are means o f e x p r e s s i o n which appear both a t the dawn o f a r t and today". a r t and p r i m i t i v e a r t have i n common the.absence  s i m u l t a n e i t y o f outer and  Modern  o f l i t e r a r y i n f l u e n c e . ••  Ronchamp, C o r b u s i e r has d i s c a r d e d the l i t e r a r y format s y n t h e s i s and  (p.U6;)  In  i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . • The  i n n e r . f o r m s i s once more a contemporary  format. Today i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o d e s i g n on the b a s i s t h a t the o f e f f e c t i s not o n l y a l e g i t i m a t e but a n e c e s s a r y way t r o l o f the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s .  anticipation  to achieve organic  But d e s i g n must become a p r o c e s s o f s i m u l t a n -  eous o p e r a t i o n s , o r g a n i z e d with g r e a t a t t e n t i o n to s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n and i n g interdependence  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . .  With d e s i g n based  involv-  on p e r s p e c t i v e  effects,  the s t r u c t u r e i s t r a n s l a t e d out o f o r g a n i c and simultaneous  a static  or p i c t o r i a l mode with a p r e f e r r e d v i e w i n g p o i n t .  One  form  achieves  f e e l i n g o f o r g a n i c oneness or i n t e r p l a y o f spaces by t r e a t i n g s t r u c t u r e as f i e l d of s t a t i c  o r p i c t o r i a l space  through  t r a n s p a r e n c y and  A r c h i t e c t u r e can no l o n g e r be taken i n a t a g l a n c e .  The  eye i s  of viewing experiences.  e l e c t r o n i c age which presupposes  no c l o s u r e s or c o m p l e t i o n s , but  ^McLuhan, " I n s i d e the F i v e Sense Sensorium", ^ R e y n e r Banham, Theory and Design Praeger, I960), p.10.  into the a  interpenetration.  d i v e r t e d and l e d through a f i e l d  F.A.  con-  channeled,  The f l u x o f an ever-widening  p.51.  i n the F i r s t Machine Age  (New  York:  18 v i s t a s i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o t h e c a u s a l t h i n k i n g o f the p a s t c e n t u r i e s . A l t h o u g h the e v o l u t i o n o f e l e c t r o n i c a r c h i t e c t u r e i s y e t i n i t s i n f a n c y it  appears  as a v i t a l c r e a t i v e f o r c e , i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h the o v e r a l l  o r i e n t a t i o n o f o u r age. No a r t i s t i c u t t e r a n c e e x i s t s which does n o t r e f l e c t man's a t t i t u d e toward space. E v e r y a r t i s t i c u t t e r a n c e i s a d i r e c t , though u n c o n s c i o u s , p r o j e c t i o n o f the impact o f the w o r l d upon man; otherwise i t c o u l d n o t have been c o n c e i v e d . . 21  The p r o c e s s o f communication i s i n i t s e l f an agent without d i r e c t i o n o f its it.  own.  I t must be channeled and depends upon man's c a p a c i t y t o make use o f  Communication s p r i n g s from the whole man, mind and body but i s now o f t e n  aimed a t the subconscious and "below the b e l t " .  In a v e r y broad sense comm-  u n i c a t i o n i n c l u d e s a l l p o s s i b l e ways i n which one mind may a f f e c t w r i t t e n and o r a l speech, music, f a c t a l l o f our human b e h a v i o u r . human forms o f communication.  another:  the p i c t o r i a l a r t s , t h e a t r e , b a l l e t and i n Language and a r t a r e the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g Each i s a process o f mind whereby man begins  to a b s t r a c t symbols o f t h i n g s and happenings from a c t u a l t h i n g s and happenings. S i e g f r i e d G i e d i o n has suggested i n M e c h a n i z a t i o n  Takes Command t h a t the  s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r a new a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n : . . . i s made p o s s i b l e o n l y by a s p a t i a l v i s i o n t h a t has broken w i t h c o p y i n g and p e r s p e c t i v e ; an approach t h a t a l l o w s s t r u c t u r e , c o l o r and form t o be gathered i n t o p l a n e t a r y systems; t h a t changes b o t t l e s , glasses, p l a t e s , pipes, tables, musical instruments, into objects that l a y bare the v e r y essence o f t h e i r meaning, (p.360) For G i e d i o n both the p h y s i c i s t and the a r t i s t i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y have p e n e t r a t e d t o the h e a r t o f , t h e m a t t e r .  "Objects  (have become) t r a n s -  p a r e n t and t h e i r essence was r e v e a l e d by methods o t h e r than r a t i o n a l tive".  perspec-  2 2  Moore's s c u l p t u r e and drawings extend the range  o f the senses,  S;. G i e d i o n , T h e ' E t e r n a l P r e s e n t (New York: B o l l i n g e n S e r i e s Pantheon Books, 1962), p.6. S. G i e d i o n , M e c h a n i z a t i o n Takes Command. U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19hti)3 p.717.  (New York:  Oxford  giving  xxxv.6.1,  19 the t a c t i l e and  a u d i t o r y as much s i g n i f i c a n c e as the v i s u a l .  H i s shapes are  not s e t o f f a g a i n s t a background o f space, they are a p a r t o f space, p i e r c e d , forms a l t e r n a t i n g s o l i d and v o i d i n an i n s e p a r a b l e  their  whole.  T h i s i s what the s c u l p t o r must do. He must s t r i v e c o n t i n u a l l y to t h i n k o f , and use, form i n i t s f u l l s p a t i a l completeness. He gets the s o l i d shape, as i t were, i n s i d e h i s head r he t h i n k s o f i t , whate v e r i t s s i z e , as i f he were h o l d i n g i t completely e n c l o s e d i n the h o l l o w o f h i s hand. He m e n t a l l y v i s u a l i z e s a complex form from a l l round i t s e l f ; he knows w h i l e he l o o k s a t one s i d e what the o t h e r s i d e is like; Ee" i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f with i t s c e n t r e o f g r a v i t y , i t s mass, i t s weight; he r e a l i z e s i t s volume, as the space the shape d i s p l a c e s i n the a i r . ^ -  T h i s i s v e r y much i n keeping w i t h McLuhan's i d e a t h a t t a e t i l i t y can described  as "the mode o f i n t e r p l a y and  o f b e i n g r a t h e r than o f  be  separation  pi  and  o f l i n e a l sequence".  •  The  r e d u c t i o n of t a c t i l e q u a l i t y i n the a r t s as  w e l l , as i n our modes o f l i f e and h a b i t s o f language are marks o f a k i n d sophistication.  In i t s e l f , s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i s an a r t i f i c i a l q u a l i t y , but i n  t r y i n g t o break w i t h s t y l e , i t e s t a b l i s h e s a s t y l e o f i t s own. and  r e f i n e m e n t i n a r c h i t e c t u r e come a t the end  important o n l y a f t e r the  of an e r a .  Sophistication  D e t a i l becomes  concepts o f s p a t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n and  o f d e s i g n are f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d . and  of  Yet the d e c o r a t i v e a s p e c t s  the  of m a t e r i a l s  o b j e c t s are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r communication f u n c t i o n .  we a l l l o o k f o r n o n v e r b a l c l u e s i n b u i l d i n g s , landscapes and  philosophy  Unconsciously  interiors.  These  we know have something t o say about the s t a t u s , p r e s t i g e , t a s t e and v a l u e s those who  use,  Harold  c o n s t r u c t or own I n n i s has  of  them.  p r o v i d e d much o f the e a r l y impetus f o r the study o f  e f f e c t s o f communications on c i v i l i z a t i o n . In The B i a s of Communication sums up the r e l a t i o n o f communication to time, space and space-time:  he  ...The c h a r a c t e r o f the medium o f communication tends t o c r e a t e a b i a s i n c i v i l i z a t i o n f a v o u r a b l e to an overemphasis on the time concept  ^ F r o m Henry Moore, Notes on S c u l p t u r e , quoted i n f o o t n o t e 3, i n L.R. Rogers, " S c u l p t u r a l T h i n k i n g , " i n B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f A e s t h e t i c s , V o l . 2 , no.it, October 1962, pp.299-300. . '•McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, p.21$.  the  20  o r on t h e s p a c e c o n c e p t a n d o n l y a t r a r e i n t e r v a l s a r e t h e b i a s e s oc o f f s e t b y t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a n o t h e r medium a n d s t a b i l i t y a c h i e v e d . . . ( p . 6 k ) He s u g g e s t s the  t h a t new a r c h i t e c t u r a l f o r m s d e r i v e  mass m e d i a , i f n o t d i r e c t l y ,  from  the influence o f  t h e n b y way o f e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s .  "Increased  newspaper c i r c u l a t i o n  s u p p o r t e d a demand f o r a d v e r t i s i n g a n d f o r new m e t h o d s  of marketing, notably  the department  store".  i n 17th  century  the  rise  o f the coffee-houses  censorship  seems t o s u g g e s t ,  buildings  i n their  for  libraries  had  become m o r e t h a n  great  and r i g h t l y  own  right.  i s a direct result of  small  p r i n t i n g presses. required  w h i c h make t h e o l d e r  required  a t best  (and systems) a demand  compromise s o l u t i o n s .  the a c o u s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d broadcast  towers.  I n a d d i t i o n , as has been s u g g e s t e d ,  studios  as w e l l  the l a t t e r  n e e d s a n d demands w h i c h i n f l u e n c e  they  t o house the  outgrew t h e saloons and  Cyclorama creates  require  home a n d c r e a t e  huge a r e a s  once t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y  the p i c t u r e house.  theatres  c e r t a i n media  The n e w s p a p e r a n d t a b l o i d s , o n c e  hand o p e r a t i o n s , Movies,  so, that  M a n u s c r i p t s and books c r e a t e d  o f one s o r t o r a n o t h e r .  nickelodeons,  the  England  that  o f the press.  Innis require  E l s e w h e r e he s u g g e s t s  2 6  viewing  problems  R a d i o a n d TV as  transmission  t w o m e d i a come  our p r i v a t e l i v e s  into up t o  twenty-four hours a day. Print to  orientation implies  the detriment  naturally  o f a more f u l l y  done l i t t l e  for  advancing  But  the presentation  o f the r u s t i c ,  the senses,  ^ S e e a l s o Norbert Wiener, Harold  Toronto Press,  The i n f l u e n c e  Innis, 1951),  The B i a s p.77.  A part  of l i f e  o f man's  being  o f Zen f r o m t h e E a s t  generally  applied  as a  system  the n a t u r a l and t h e ingenuous.  o f t h e anomoly o f q u e s t i o n  into play  on a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t  developed p e r s o n a l i t y .  t o change t h e s i t u a t i o n , b e i n g  the appreciation  response brings  2 6  emphasis  s u f f e r s i n such a s i t u a t i o n .  has  2  great  and answer f o r m e d i t a t i o n  feelings, intellect  and i n t u i t i o n s .  The Human U s e o f Human B e i n g s ,  o f Communication,  and  (Toronto:  p.91-2  University of  For  21  the  Japanese, interplay i s enhanced by t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to handle concepts or  to present doctrines d i s c u r s i v e l y .  Thus a word does not f i x a notion with a  d e f i n i t e degree of abstraction or generality but rather evokes a profusion of images completely unsuited to formal p r e c i s i o n .  Kepes treats this s i t u a t i o n  in his a r t i c l e "Arts and Science" appearing i n Explorations v o l . l . The Far Eastern d i s c i p l i n e of s e n s i b i l i t i e s (the highly developed appreciation of i t s harmonies, i t s tastes and flavours) grew out of the f e e l i n g that men l i v e d most f u l l y by opening themselves to the u n i v e r s a l rhythm of Nature. Nature was approached and entered through rapt contemplation of i t s forms, to the end of v i s u a l i z i n g the world i n terms not of likeness but of what the Chinese c a l l e d 'rhythmical v i t a l i t y ' the essence of things i n t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l i f e of movement. The patterns seen were not frameworks binding d e t a i l s but patterns of l i v i n g order. Western poets have at times given us a v i s i o n of this accord between man and nature.(p.78) These considerations, combined with the breakdown of perspective systems, are  freeing a r t and architecture from both geometrical optics and from the  geometric models of regular s o l i d s .  Thus music i s free to break loose from  r e s t r i c t i n g r a t i o s , and architecture from the precise and fixed rectangle. Architecture has i n a sense decreed that musical composition be reassessed. Huge new auditoriums have c a l l e d f o r new music to be written expressly f o r them. The c l a s s i c a l composer such as Handel or Bach wrote f o r the r e l a t i v e intimacy of the drawing room.  The transfer of this music to gigantic structures breaks  up the pattern of sight and sound because of the time discrepancy between hearing and seeing.  The new a-tonal music, whose harmonies can not be s p l i t  f i t s e a s i l y into the new auditoriums. The hanging roof of Ronchamp Chapel indicates that we need no longer model ourselves on Euclidian forms.  The " f l o a t i n g " c e i l i n g designed by  Le Corbusier i s separated by a clerestory from the s o l i d concrete wall below. A free-flowing, hovering p l a s t i c hollow i s formed.  Light penetrating through  this clerestory space, i n v i s i b l e from below, suffuses the undulating majesty of the  space.  Without benefit of geometric l i n e a r perspective, but with the semi-  acoustic dimensions of f i l t e r e d l i g h t , the enclosing form of the roof balances  22  seemingly  without  support  would have d e n i e d man  i n space.  To have expressed  the s t r u c t u r a l  h i s c r e a t i v e p a r t i n the completion  supports  of the work o f a r t .  At the same time i t would have d e n i e d the b e l i e v e r the p o t e n t i a l of a t r a n s c e n dant and  immanent D e i t y m a i n t a i n i n g the r o o f i n p l a c e .  In A r c h i t e c t u r e You Ronchamp Chapel  and Me,  S i e g f r i e d G i e d i o n has p o i n t e d out t h a t  r e f l e c t s a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o a new  form o f s p a t i a l awareness.  This means t h a t the c e n t r e o f the c e i l i n g , which up t o now has been the p o s i t i o n o f maximum h e i g h t , has become i t s lowest p o i n t . The curve r i s e s toward the encompassing w a l l s , i n d i c a t i n g by t h i s t h a t i t does n o t t e r m i n a t e t h e r e , but t h a t i t extends f u r t h e r i n t o the e x t e r i o r . (P.187) Once more under C o r b u s i e r s i n f l u e n c e the c e i l i n g , as had p r e v i o u s l y 1  been the case w i t h the r o o f , has been p e r m i t t e d t o become an a r e a o f f u l l e s t freedom f o r the i m a g i n a t i o n . o f space but i n a new  Symbolic  s t r e n g t h i s g i v e n to the h o l l o w i n g  out  manner, d e s c r i b e d by McLuhan i n " I n s i d e the F i v e Sense  Sensorium": . . . t h i s new f e e l i n g ( f o r space) i s d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the h i g h l y empathic and h a p t i c TV image which evokes the immersion o f deep p a r t i c i p a t i o n , not j u s t the r e t i n a l e x p e r i e n c e , i n the v i e w e r . . . . The new a t t i t u d e to space i s h e r e . And the p r e f e r e n c e f o r the wraparound space o f the s m a l l p l a n e , the s m a l l boat, or the s m a l l c a r , i s f o r a space t h a t we don't get i n t o but which, as i t were, we put on. (P.52) T h i s i s the space o f Ronchamp and w i t h i t a way  out o f the  straight-  j a c k e t o f s t a n d a r d i z e d s i z e s and the economics o f c o n f o r m i t y imposed by a d v e r t i s i n g h u c k s t e r s has been a c h i e v e d .  The  a p a r t o f the d e s i g n as i s the i n t e r i o r .  Huge p i l g r i m a g e s can g a t h e r  o u t s i d e of the c h a p e l i s as much  the e x t e r i o r p u l p i t and become a p a r t of the s e r v i c e . e q u a l l y v i s i b l e from i n t e r i o r o r e x t e r i o r . d i s t i n c t types o f worshippers,  the  C o r b u s i e r has  round  The-.-Madonna i s as w e l l c r e a t e d  those b e l o n g i n g t o the open crowd and  two  those  27 b e l o n g i n g t o the c l o s e d . 1  With these d e p a r t u r e s  2 7  from c o n v e n t i o n a l b u i l d i n g forms the time has  S e e E l i a s C a n e t t i , Crowds and  Power, p.21-2.  come  23  a g a i n " t b ~ t h i h k about the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  o f what happens when compositions  b u i l t up about u n f a m i l i a r p o i n t s o f view, u n c o n v e n t i o n a l o f v i s i o n and a r b i t r a r y use o f c o l o u r " .  c u t t i n g o f the  are field  Design must be " a b s o l v e d from the  on i n s i s t e n t p o p u l a r demand f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l v e r i s i m i l i t u d e . " I suggest mass media.  t h a t t h i s t a s k i s , i n t e n t i o n a l l y or not, the p r o v i n c e o f the  Because o f t h e i r wide i n f l u e n c e , they are capable o f b r e a k i n g  down the c o n v e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n s which r e t a r d p r o g r e s s . e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r y , Toulouse-Lautrec w a l l s o f P a r i s were covered.  made a d v e r t i s i n g p o s t e r s w i t h which the  They c o u l d not be evaded.  l i b e r t i e s were taken w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l forms and two-dimensional  i n design....And-they a l l had  public's eyes...." ? 2  Wo  From the l890's t o the  l e s s important  colours.  "...In them g r e a t Many o f them were  t h e i r undoubted e f f e c t s on  the  were Puvis de Chauvanne, Gauguin,  Munch, B e a r d s l e y and A r t Nouveau g e n e r a l l y . The shock o f h i s p o s t e r s was f o r many people an o c u l a r l i b e r a t i o n . The p u b l i c l e a r n e d from them t h a t v e r i s i m i l i t u d e was f a r from b e i n g the b e - a l l and e n d - a l l o f p i c t u r e - m a k i n g . I n c i d e n t a l l y , these p o s t e r s made i t obvious t o even the most obtuse t h a t the I m p r e s s i o n i s t emphasis on the envelope was a f t e r a l l not much more than r e p o r t i n g and had not e s s e n t i a l l y a l t e r e d the hardened t r a d i t i o n of p i c t u r e - m a k i n g - t h a t a c t u a l l y Impressionism was o n l y a t e c h n i c a l v a r i a t i o n on the s t a n d a r d academic t h e r n e s . . . ^ Thus- the sphere  o f p e r s p e c t i v e drawing which p r o v i d e d a g e o m e t r i c a l  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r p i c t o r i a l statements What was  e s s e n t i a l l y a technique  o f space r e l a t i o n s h i p s was  invaded.  o f making i n f o r m a t i v e p i c t u r e s became b e f o r e  long a necessary p a r t of a l l p i c t u r e s .  H i g h l y p a r a d o x i c a l i n t h i s matter i s .  the f a c t t h a t a space c o n c e p t i o n which d i s r e g a r d s the way  our b r a i n a c t u a l l y  s t r u c t u r e s the world about us s h o u l d become so a l l - p e r v a d i n g .  Kepes d e a l s  w i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n i n The Language o f V i s i o n : I f any meaning o f depth i s to flow from f o r e s h o r t e n i n g and  pQ W i l l i a m I v i n s J r . , P r i n t s and V i s u a l Communications, Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1 9 5 3 ) , p . l U 9 . ~ ~" p.150.  2 9  Ibid.  3 0  I b i d . p.100.  (London:  2h d i m i n i s h i n g by the use o f p e r s p e c t i v e , the observer must be a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the o b j e c t s i n t h e i r a c t u a l t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A memory constancy,moreover, i s a t t a c h e d to f a m i l i a r t h i n g s of our surroundings. We keep a constant s i z e and shape i n our p e r c e p t i o n . . .  (P.87) The  amplified perspectives  o f photography, f i l m techniques and  adver-  t i s i n g are a l l attempts t o break w i t h or a t l e a s t s t r e t c h the l i m i t i n g o f geometric  confines  perspective.  Even n e g l e c t i n g contemporary d e t a i l i n g , i t i s a simple m a t t e r to whether the a u t h o r o f a p r o j e c t i s s t i l l our emerging space metaphor. places  tell  s p i r i t u a l l y i n the Renaissance or i n  In d i s c u s s i n g L a s z l o Moholy-Nagy, Reyner Banham  g r e a t emphasis on the i n f l u e n c e o f mass media on-his t h e o r i e s  of  perception: His e a r l y i m a g i n a t i o n was c o l o u r e d by an agency t h a t had come i n t o the world a t about the same time as h i m s e l f , the i l l u s t r a t e d magazines, to such an e x t e n t t h a t he was overcome w i t h disappointment on f i n d i n g t h a t Szeged, the n e a r e s t town o f any s i z e to h i s boyhood home i n Hungary, had no s k y s c r a p e r s . 3 1 What i s t r u l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n Moholy-Nagy's work i s h i s treatment of extensions  o f the e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l concepts o f the educated Europeans.  o n l y does h i s Von  M a t e r i a l zur A r c h i t e k t u r d i s c u s s  the Not  the i n f l u e n c e o f photography,  microphotography, c r y s t a l l o g r a p h y , k i n e t i c s c u l p t u r e , f i l m s , i l l u m i n a t e d a d v e r t i s i n g , montage and p r i m i t i v e a r t , i t gives the impression art started in  " t h a t f o r Moholy  1900."  . . . h i s v i e w does not r e a l l y extend back beyond the E i f f e l Tower. He harks back t o n e i t h e r the geometry o f Greece, nor the masonry o f the M i d d l e Ages, he i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n temples and c a t h e d r a l s , h i s t h e o r i e s are to d e r i v e t h e i r a u t h o r i t y from the p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n o f c u l t u r e , not from h i s t o r y . 3 2 Perhaps s u f f i c i e n t has  been s a i d f o r the moment to show t h a t the  inf-  l u e n c e of v a r i o u s mass communications on a r c h i t e c t u r e i s not merely w i l f u l n e s s or n o v e l t y  on my  part.  - Banham, op. il  c i t . p.315.  3 I b i d . , p.31k. 2  While t h i s t o p i c has  not been i n v e s t i g a t e d  formally,  25 i t has  occupied  the minds and  work of a r t i s t s , w r i t e r s and  c r i t i c s f o r some  time. -Great care must be "a p r i o r i " an  e x e r c i s e d l e s t we  impose a v i s u a l o r d e r based  conventions drawn l a r g e l y from-/the f i e l d o f p a i n t i n g .  extension  o f our sense r a t i o s we . James M.  on  Instead  of  would merely be s u b s t i t u t i n g one mode o f  perception  f o r another.  F i t c h has  s t a t e d i n A r c h i t e c t u r e and  the'  Aesthetics  o f P l e n t y t h a t t r a n s p a r e n c y when a p p l i e d to a r c h i t e c t u r e c a r r i e s  c e r t a i n media problems w i t h i t . Transparency, as an a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i o n , d i c t a t e s c e r t a i n formal q u a l i t i e s i n a r c h i t e c t u r e - s i m p l i c i t y , s t r u c t u r a l c l a r i t y , repose. But the t r a n s p a r e n c y a t the b i o l o g i c a l l e v e l , o f t e n r a i s e s e x a c t l y c o n t r a r y demands - c o m p l e x i t y , o p a c i t y , c h a n g e a b i l i t y . How are the two c o n t r a d i c t o r y s e t s of v a l u e s t o be reconciled?(p.22) and  i n terms o f s e t t i n g o f f a p p l i c a t i o n a g a i n s t p r i n c i p l e he  states:  . . . g l a s s does not s i m p l i f y the d e s i g n p r o c e s s whether viewed from the angle o f p h y s i c s , p h y s i o l o g y or p s y c h o l o g y . I t requires a massive assortment o f a u x i l i a r y devices.(p.22) Perspective  and  p r i n t emphasized the v i s u a l s i d e o f experience  they dominated the e n t i r e f i e l d o f a t t e n t i o n . perception  by one  trial  state  cedented r a t e .  the new  in  perceptive  Newspaper,.radio, e l e c t r i c i t y , photography and  But  as l o n g as p e r s p e c t i v e  By s e l e c t i n g only one organs pay heed, we  for  i s , a learned process, the p r e s e n t  generation  Indus-  TV  administer  introduced, f o r t h e y a l t e r the e x i s t i n g and  l i t e r a t u r e are prime determinants outside,  o f the innumerable s e n s a t i o n s  that i s  to which  the  our  get the f i x e d moment i n space, the p i c t u r e stage  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p a r a d i n g as a r c h i t e c t u r e . it  In the y e a r s s i n c e the  a r c h i t e c t u r e , b u i l d i n g w i l l i n e v i t a b l y s t a r t from the  facade.  of  systems o f communication have m u l t i p l i e d a t an unpre-  a shock t o our nervous systems when f i r s t sense r a t i o s .  o f the f i e l d  (and a f t e r ) i t i s p o s s i b l e to a c h i e v e h a p t i c homo-  through an i n t e r p l a y o f a l l the s e n s e s .  Revolution,  filling  sense o n l y i s o f t e n used as a working d e f i n i t i o n f o r h y p n o s i s .  P r i o r to the t r a n c e geneity  The  until  Once p e r s p e c t i v e  i s a c c e p t e d f o r what  i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to break - perhaps o n l y - from the a c c e p t e d " r i g h t way"  of viewing  partially our  26  structures. Far from b e i n g a normal mode o f human v i s i o n , three-dimensional p e r s p e c t i v e i s a c o n v e n t i o n a l l y a c q u i r e d mode o f s e e i n g , as much a c q u i r e d as i s the means o f r e c o g n i z i n g the l e t t e r s o f the a l p h a b e t , or o f f o l l o w i n g c h r o n o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e . 3 3 We  need o n l y l o o k at the u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d , y e t more i n c l u s i v e l y p e r c e p -  t i v e drawings o f c h i l d r e n (up t o the age The-various  o f n i n e or ten) t o r e a l i z e t h i s  a l t e r n a t e p e r s p e c t i v e methods, a e r i a l ,  r e l a t i v e h e i g h t , d i s t a n c e and  o v e r l a p t h a t we  the a r t work o f the Japanese, Chinese and  chiaroscuro,  fact.-  fixation,  c o n t i n u a l l y use, not t o mention  e a r l y Europeans, i n d i c a t e t h a t  the  a r b i t r a r y s e l e c t i o n o f a s i n g l e , s t a t i c p o s i t i o n c r e a t i n g p i c t o r i a l space w i t h a v a n i s h i n g p o i n t , i s by no means u n i v e r s a l .  Some o f the f i n e s t  modern f i g u r e work i n the Western manner i n d i c a t e how  Japanese  v e r y f o r e i g n the i d e a o f  p e r s p e c t i v e i s when c o n s c i o u s l y attempted r e l a t i v e l y l a t e i n l i f e ,  when i t i s  not a l i f e - l o n g h a b i t . In e f f e c t , p e r s p e c t i v e " f r o z e " the v i s u a l f i e l d , element i n e x p e r i e n c i n g space and between the two.  Chinese and  becomes a method o f e x p e r i e n c e  thereby  e l i m i n a t i n g the  time  d e s t r o y i n g the dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p  Japanese p a i n t i n g s r e v e r s e t h i s r o l e which r a t h e r than a s c i e n t i f i c  principle.  The newspaper format w i t h i t s v a r y i n g type s i z e s , i t s c o l l a g e - l i k e p a t t e r n determined by the simultaneous p r e s e n t a t i o n o f w i r e - p r e s s bold-face  type h e a d l i n e s , and minor h e a d l i n e s  i n a d i f f e r e n t colour a l l helped  t o break up the l i n e a r p a t t e r n o f the p r i n t e d book. collage long before r o n i c a l l y ordered  the d a d a i s t s took i t up and  collage.)  TV,  (The newspaper was I suggest, i s an  elect-  t r i p l e column heading, the t h r e e column  the f r o n t page c o r n e r column p o s t i n g the l a t e s t race  33McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, 3^See S i r H e r b e r t Children's Art.  a  Even the narrow margin s e p a r a t i n g columns o f  p r i n t d i s s o l v e d under the double and photograph and  photographs,  results.  p.16.  Read f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f  27  There  remained  approximate  little  i n common w i t h a p r i n t c u l t u r e book.  more c l o s e l y the w r i t t e n r e c o r d o f a t r i b a l c i v i l i z a t i o n w i t h a  h i g h l y developed o r a l t r a d i t i o n . Wright's  The l a y o u t o f the Talmud i s a case i n p o i n t .  p r a i r i e houses were a r e v o l t , among o t h e r t h i n g s , a g a i n s t  perspective p i c t o r i a l i s m i n architecture. is  The format does  the p a t t e r n o f the newspaper.  ' The p a t t e r n o f these p r a i r i e houses  Heavy shadowed areas below p r o j e c t i n g r o o f  l i n e s , r e p l a c e the b o l d f a c e d h e a d l i n e s , the v a r i o u s r e c e d i n g and p l a n e s and f e n e s t r a t i o n conforming inserts.  t o the l e s s e r h e a d l i n e s and  Many o f Mondrian's geometric  The t e c h n i q u e o f Cubism emphasized the two  itself.  t e n d e n c i e s i n f l u e n c i n g the  v i s i o n i n the a r t s , t h a t i s , the d e l i b e r a t e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f mass through l i g h t .  o f volumes and  The a s s o c i a t i v e dynamicism o f these  c u b i s t works evokes a continuous sequence o f mental v i s t a s . onto a u n i v e r s a l time-space  photographic  compositions a r e merely the newspaper  format w i t h emphasis on e i t h e r the margin o r the column  new  projecting  Images p r o j e c t e d  p l a n e r e p r e s e n t a c l o s e p a r a l l e l ' t o the emphasis  on  s i m u l t a n e i t y i n the TV medium. T h i s contemporary q u a l i t y , w h i l e r e c o n s t r u c t i n g s u b j e c t - m a t t e r i n t o something  t h a t i s -wholly new,  virtually  familiar.  i s , o r ought t o be, by f o r c e o f a s s o c i a t i o n ,  Thus, the e a r l y d e f i n i t i v e work o f the C u b i s t s , " h i g h l y simultaneous  fragmented  v i s i o n o f s c a t t e r e d a s p e c t s o f the v i s u a l scene"-^ was  p r e d a t e d by the newspaper format as we know i t .  B o c c i o n i and the  contemporary w i t h much C u b i s t work but l o n g a f t e r the t a b l o i d , concept o f the c i t y as a f i e l d o f i n t e r a c t i n g powers and  actually Futurists,  realized  influences.  (Yet  the f a c t t h a t a r c h i t e c t s and c i t y p l a n n e r s have been slow i n r e a l i z i n g one  the  this i s  o f the main theses o f Jane Jacob's book The Death and L i f e o f Great American  Cities.) combining  The  s i m u l t a n e i t y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the newspaper l a y o u t i n i t s  o f many v i e w p o i n t s and i m p r e s s i o n s was  Banham, op. c i t . , p.113.  to l e a d to a f i e l d  theory of  28  space i n a r c h i t e c t u r e as were the new d i s c o v e r i e s i n s c i e n c e and mathematics. It  i s t h e p l a y of space which c o n s t i t u t e s the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r e . concept  S i n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e i s a dynamic d i s c i p l i n e t h e  o f space i s an ever-changing  process.  Each s u c c e e d i n g epoch s h o u l d  determine t h e f o r m u l a t i o n which i s p e r t i n e n t t o i t s way o f l i f e . ...the f o r m u l a t i o n o f space i s fundamental t o a r c h i t e c t u r e , and ( t h a t ) i t i s the changes which occur c o n t i n u o u s l y , i n t h e f o r m a t i o n s of space t h a t p r o v i d e the u n q u e s t i o n a b l e b a s i s o f the h i s t o r y o f architecture.3o As a c o n d i t i o n e r o f modern a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h e newspaper format was o n l y a b e g i n n i n g , f o r i t r e q u i r e d , as d i d c h i a r o s c u r o and the p r i n t e d book, " l i g h t on"37 i t s s u b j e c t matter  t o render i t v i s i b l e .  As the e n c l o s i n g w a l l s o f  s t r u c t u r e s became " f r e e - a g e n t s " d i v o r c e d from the a g e - o l d t a s k o f c a r r y i n g l o a d s , cumbersome m a t e r i a l s c o u l d be r e p l a c e d by l i g h t and even t r a n s p a r e n t substances.  Thus, the m a t e r i a l - i m m a t e r i a l e r a e n t e r e d a r c h i t e c t u r e .  as I have suggested,  i s the e l e c t r o n i c o r TV phase o f a r c h i t e c t u r e ) .  E v e r y a r c h i t e c t u r a l concept s o l i d and v o i d .  (This,  f i n d s i t s b a s i s i n the dynamic d u a l i s m o f  A l l o t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s a r e combinations  of this  dualism.  Whether s o l i d , o r v o i d , o r s o l i d - v o i d predominates depends on the n a t u r e o f the p l a s t i c image which i s to be conveyed.  When a s t a b l e v i s u a l whole i s achieved,  i n e v i t a b l y both background and foreground a r e p r e s e n t i n the v i s u a l f i e l d planned  fashion.  whether fragmentary architect's  But t h e r e i s l i t t l e  o r no c h o i c e i n the m a t t e r .  o r o r g a n i z e d , f l u i d o r determined,  Background,  always e x i s t s .  The  r o l e demands t h a t he o r g a n i z e the e n t i r e v i s u a l f i e l d so t h a t even  d i s p a r a t e elements appear t o belong t o a u n i f i e d whole. a f a r e a s i e r t a s k t o accomplish most  in a  Although  i t may seem  t h i s by matching, i t i s o n l y one way and t h e  obvious. Our mind i s capable  o f o r g a n i z i n g independent and seemingly  ^ S i e g f r i e d G i e d i o n , A r c h i t e c t u r e You and Me (Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p.1127, ~ :  -^McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy,  p.105.  opposed  Harvard  29  s p a t i a l u n i t s i n t o a meaningful  whole.  The g e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g i s t s have based  t h e i r r e a s o n i n g on t h e mind's d i s l i k e o f chaos.  Whatever e n t e r s i n t o our  f i e l d o f v i s i o n i s soon o r d e r e d and a d j u s t e d by a neat and o r d e r l y process o f mind.  Whatever i s extraneous  t o the o r d e r i n g p r o c e s s i s then r e j e c t e d and may  c o n t i n u e as a p e r i p h e r a l annoyance o r d i s t u r b a n c e u n t i l we become accustomed t o i t s presence.  The l a c k o f s e n s i t i v i t y a t any given p e r i o d i s a r e s u l t o f  t h i s compromise which the mind i s c o n t i n u a l l y f o r c e d t o a c c e p t .  As a moulder  o f environment, the a r c h i t e c t then has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f r e d u c i n g j a r r i n g notes  these  (and t h i s does not simply mean g e t t i n g r i d o f o p p o s i t e s )  thus  c u t t i n g down the number o f mental compromises, and u l t i m a t e l y m a i n t a i n i n g i f not r a i s i n g the s t a n d a r d o f s e n s i t i v i t y t o one's The h i g h f i n i s h and t r a n s p a r e n c y  surroundings.  o f machine t o o l s , s t e e l and g l a s s  e s t a b l i s h a new c o n t i n u i t y between the moulded space w i t h i n our s t r u c t u r e s and the f r e e space w i t h o u t .  As has been s t a t e d , C o r b u s i e r accomplishes  i n Ronchamp Chapel by a v i s u a l s e p a r a t i o n o f w a l l and c e i l i n g . v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e s ' e n c l o s u r e s i n h i s new p a r k i n g garages.  this  effect  Paul Rudolph In Language o f  V i s i o n , Kepes d i s c u s s e s the contemporary t r e n d : Contemporary a r c h i t e c t s a r e moving away from one-sided emphasis on the facade o f a b u i l d i n g , and t h e b e s t examples o f contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r e show a p e r f e c t i n t e g r a t i o n o f the a c t u a l b u i l d i n g , the a c t i v e "envelope", the d i v i s i o n s c r e a t e d by the m a t e r i a l s and t h e l i v i n g spaces between t h e s e m a t e r i a l s . Light screens, c u r t a i n s , glass walls are employed t o a m p l i f y t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n o p t i c a l l y and t o c r e a t e a l i v i n g , f l o w i n g space a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h i n and without: a single l i v i n g unity.'" "In the e l e c t r o n i c age which succeeds the t y p o g r a p h i c and mechanical e r a o f the p a s t f i v e hundred y e a r s , we encounter human interdependence  and o f e x p r e s s i o n which are " o r a l " i n form even when the  components o f the s i t u a t i o n may be n o n - v e r b a l . " ^ G y o r g y Kepes, Language o f V i s i o n ,  p.3,2.  39  new shapes and s t r u c t u r e s o f  McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy,  p.3.  39  (Chicago:  P a u l Theobald,  1951)  30  The  reorganization  reorganization  of a r t i s t i c l i f e .  symbolic f u n c t i o n "The.culture and  of s c i e n t i f i c l i f e Our  p r e s e n t . i n a b i l i t y to understand  o f a r c h i t e c t u r e i s symptomatic o f our  o f p r i n t has  the A r c h i t e c t u r a l and  T h i s , the a u t h o r s s t a t e , " i s one  C i t y H o r r o r s t o l e r a t e d by p r e d o m i n a n t l y  thought p a t t e r n s  l a g b e h i n d the  the  t r a n s i t i o n a l age.  rendered people e x t r e m e l y i n s e n s i t i v e to the  meaning o f s p a t i a l f o r m . " ^  Our  must b r i n g w i t h i t a  language  reason f o r  book-cultures."^l  t r a n s i t i o n s b e i n g wrought by a  new  age. ...We h a v e - i n the p a s t c e n t u r y moved out o f a m e c h a n i c a l i n t o an e l e c t r i c , organic, c u l t u r e . That i s , we have i n c r e a s i n g l y moved out o f a segmental, s p e c i a l i s t phase o f knowledge i n t o a p e r i o d o f i n t e r p l a y and, as i t were, d i a l o g u e among a l l k i n d s o f knowledge.... Under c o n d i t i o n s o f s i m u l t a n e i t y o f a c c e s s to i n f o r m a t i o n , Cuba i s not a margin p o l i t i c a l l y nor i s Laps, y e t our assumptions are s t i l l o t h e r wise. Hence our confusion.^2  Contemporary a r t i s t s do n o t p e r c e i v i n g space. and  show us  chaos but  slow, m o d e l l e d medium which can be worked and The  new  paintings  i d e a o f o i l p a i n t i n g as  w i t h t h e i r cascades o f c o l o u r are l i k e  large metropolis,  and  T h e i r mode o f e x p r e s s i o n  frenzied a c t i v i t i e s .  which accompanies t h e i r u s e .  i s the new  j a z z of the p a i n t e r s ' and  p a r t f o r the a r c h i t e c t ? t e c t u r e , as  exemplified  Our  i s " o r a l " , even to  teen-age  teenagers' world.  I f , f o r a moment, the n o t i o n by Renaissance p e r s p e c t i v e  format o f the p r i n t e d book) i s s e t a s i d e ,  ^ C a r p e n t e r and McLuhan, " C u l t u r e  vol.1,  a  the  magical i n t h e i r splashing  emotions the  rock-and-rollers  p a r t a k e o f t h a t same t o t a l immersion which d i s t i n g u i s h e s " a c t i o n It  speed  reworked as f a n c y or i n s p i r a t i o n  gleaming neon tubes o f any  p u l s a t i n g hum  of  The v e r y name " a c t i o n p a i n t i n g " w i t h i t s emphasis on  the " s t r e a m o f consciousness'* breaks .the u s u a l  dictate.  a d i f f e r e n t way  painting".  Is t h e r e  a counter-  o f sequence i n a r c h i -  (growing out o f the l i n e a r  i t is possible  to e x p e r i e n c e any  Without L i t e r a c y " i n  Explorations  p.123. L l  Ibid.  ^McLuhan, "-The Association  Humanities  B u l l e t i n , v o l . 3h,  i n the E l e c t r o n i c Age",  No.l,  Fall,  1961,  p.8.  i n the  Humanities  city  31 as a v a s t polyphony  of jazz improvizations.  The raucous automobile horn, the  s c r e e c h i n g subway brakes, the hubbub o f r u s h i n g b o d i e s , the c l a n k o f h o r s e shoes, the woosh o f rubber t i r e s  over man-holes, the t i c k i n g o f the automatic  s i g n a l s , the d i s t o r t e d melody o f the organ g r i n d e r , the wheeze o f t h e h i g h speed e l e v a t o r c a r , a l l these s t r u c t u r e the c i t y e v e r y b i t as much as the v i s u a l a s p e c t which so dominates contemporary  thinking.  g i v e n an i n s i g h t i n t o the m y s t e r i o u s dimension between the spaces o f s i g h t and sound.  Perhaps  here we a r e  o f a r c h i t e c t u r e as f r o n t i e r  C o r b u s i e r has suggested t h a t  archi-  t e c t u r e i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y i n the v i s u a l mode, the f r o n t i e r s b e i n g b e s t f e l t a t night. A r c h i t e c t u r e cannot  e x i s t without f i n i t e b o u n d a r i e s .  boundaries make i n t a n g i b l e space p e r c e p t i b l e . these boundaries i s o f g r e a t importance, sense p e r c e p t i o n o r extend i t .  These l i m i t i n g  The ways i n which we s t r u c t u r e  f o r t h e y can e i t h e r l i m i t  our range o f  Our communication media have a p o s i t i v e  i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the space c o n c e p t .  role  TV, which f a v o u r s s i m u l t a n e i t y o f  v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y g e s t u r e opens the f r o n t i e r o f a u d i t o r y space.  This  a c o u s t i c space i s i n v i s i b l e and t h e r e f o r e does n o t e x i s t f o r most o f Western eye  culture. For l i t e r a t e man, we have s a i d , space i t s e l f i s d e f i n e d by " l i g h t on"  subject matter.  Darkness  i s a n enemy o b l i t e r a t i n g the s t a t i o n p o i n t s with  which we i d e n t i f y o u r s e l v e s .  But a c o u s t i c space i s d e f i n e d by man and o n l y i n  so f a r as he i s the module does i t e x i s t . it  A c o u s t i c space cannot be seen, y e t  does e x i s t , p e o p l e d by ghosts and h a l f - w o r l d c r e a t u r e s .  c h i l d r e n i s the darkness sation.  F o r how many  o f a l o n e l y room as t a n g i b l e as the most p a l p a b l e sen-  Y e t t o deny t h i s w o r l d t o a d u l t s i s n o t i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e f a c t s o f  existence.  In Crowds and Power, C a n e t t i i n d i c a t e s the p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f t h e  i d e a , i n a l l c u l t u r e s o f an a c t i v e i n v i s i b l e w o r l d . ^  That the i d e a o f an  e x t e n s i o n o f space - a u d i t o r y space - i s n o t • i d i o s y n c r a c y or w i l l f u l n e s s , we  See C a n e t t i , Crowds and Power, pp.i>2-7 and 262-272.  32 can learn from observations o f other and e a r l i e r c u l t u r e s .  I n e v i t a b l y we  must admit that f o r the adult as f o r the c h i l d , space i s occupied.  We would  do w e l l to study the workings of e a r l y c i v i l i z a t i o n s and " p r i m i t i v e " groups i n t h i s -regard.  Not to reconstruct the "voodoo menace" of space i t s e l f but  to give freer p l a y to our imagination and senses and to r e a l i z e that we are, at l e a s t i n some aspects of l i f e ,  capable of s t r u c t u r i n g "acoustic space."  Bruno Z'evi contends that "Our i l l i t e r a c y regarding space derives from the use of plans, elevations and s e c t i o n s , that i s , h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l planes which enclose and d i v i d e s p a c e . " ^  I t i s t e l e v i s i o n and some of our  recent experimental movies which are helping to redefine our s p a t i a l t h i n k i n g . The former medium p a r t i c u l a r l y w i l l gradually enable us to perceive space as a simultaneous awareness of m u l t i p l e images i n a n o n - l i n e a r f a s h i o n .  As  Edmund Carpenter states i n "The New Languages", i n Explorations i n Communication, "a given idea belongs p r i m a r i l y , though not e x c l u s i v e l y to one medium, and can be gained or communicated best through that medium."(p.67) An i n t e r r u p t i o n of a movie p l o t by a commercial would be unthinkable. In t e l e v i s i o n the commercial, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the younger generation weaned on t h i s medium,- i s not an i n t e r r u p t i o n .  I t i s a "necessary" part of the  structure  of the medium format, as i s the commercial flashed on the screen and superimposed on the action.^5  i t i s n a t u r a l f o r a c u l t u r e to e x p l o i t i t s media  biases and TV e x p l o i t s the simultaneous. • At t h i s point i n h i s t o r y the earth i s becoming a vast c o l l e c t i v e s o c i e t y under the pressure of the new media of communication, the disappearance of the time element and the breakdown of a r t i f i c i a l b a r r i e r s such as race and n a t i o n . Now, i n the e l e c t r i c age, the very instantaneous nature of c o existence among our t e c h n o l o g i c a l instruments has created a c r i s i s quite ^ B r u n o Z e v i , A r c h i t e c t u r e as Space, ed. J . Barry, t r a n s . M. Gendel, (New.York: Horizon Press, ±9U1), P » « 2 2  . ^ S e e Carpenter, "The New Languages", i n idem and H.M. McLuhan, e d s . , Explorations i n Communications (Boston: Beacon Press, I960).  33  new i n human h i s t o r y . Our extended f a c u l t i e s and senses now c o n s t i t u t e a s i n g l e f i e l d o f e x p e r i e n c e which demands t h a t they become c o l l e c t i v e l y conscious. Our t e c h n o l o g i e s , l i k e our p r i v a t e senses, now demand an i n t e r p l a y and r a t i o t h a t makes r a t i o n a l c o - e x i s t e n c e p o s s i b l e . As l o n g as our t e c h n o l o g i e s were as slow as the wheel or the a l p h a b e t or money, the f a c t t h a t they were s e p a r a t e , c l o s e d systems was s o c i a l l y and p s y c h i c a l l y s u p p o r t a b l e . This i s not t r u e now when s i g h t and sound and movement are simultaneous and g l o b a l i n t h e i r e x t e n t . A r a t i o of i n t e r p l a y among these e x t e n s i o n s o f our human f u n c t i o n s i s now as n e c e s s a r y c o l l e c t i v e l y as i t has always been f o r our p r i v a t e and p e r s o n a l r a t i o n a l i t y i n terms o f our p r i v a t e senses or " w i t s " as they were once c a l l e d . H i t h e r t o h i s t o r i a n s o f c u l t u r e have tended to i s o l a t e t e c h n o l o g i c a l events much i n the way t h a t c l a s s i c a l p h y s i c s d e a l t w i t h p h y s i c a l e v e n t s . ^ • As  the " r e t r i b a l i z a t i o n " and  the breakdown o f the  favoured point  hence interdependence o f man o f view, and  increases  with  the growth o f e l e c t r o n i c  systems o f communication, the i n d i v i d u a l uniqueness enjoyed i n a " d e t r i b a l i z e d " s o c i e t y must be n o u r i s h e d and what w i l l . b e one  He  can  as e a s i l y r e l e g a t e him  chooses the l a t t e r c o u r s e , he  t a i n i n g the d i g n i t y o f man expression  o f the " I "  culture.  r o l e of the a r c h i t e c t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r e s e r v i n g  individual. he  Here i s r a i s e d  o f modern man's g r e a t problems - the p r e s e r v a t i o n  i n a group- o r i e n t e d The  perpetuated l e s t i t disappear.  the s t a t u s  of  t o an anonymous p i g e o n - h o l e .  dams up h i s own  unique o p p o r t u n i t y  as w e l l as h i s c l i e n t ' s o p p o r t u n i t y  the If  f o r main-  for a creative  o f h i s unique p e r s o n a l i t y .  Everyone who has thought even c a s u a l l y about the s u b j e c t knows t h a t the s p e c i f i c p r o p e r t y o f a r c h i t e c t u r e - the f e a t u r e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i t from a l l other forms o f a r t - c o n s i s t s i n i t s working w i t h a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l v o c a b u l a r y which i n c l u d e s man ( i t a l i c s mine).' -7 J  I f the u l t i m a t e is,  then s t e r e o t y p e d Law  species  g o a l o f a r c h i t e c t u r e i s s o c i a l , and  a r c h i t e c t u r a l expression  Whyte a s s e r t s  t h a t "the  cannot communicate t h i s  exists in a "unitary"  7  op.  For him,  this variable  system which, much i n k e e p i n g w i t h McLuhan's  ^McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, ^ Zevi,  aim.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v a r i a b i l i t y o f the human  r e f u t e s e v e r y sharp c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . " ^  creature  I believe that i t  p.5.  c i t . , p.22.  ^ L a n c e l o t Law Whyte, The Next Development i n Man American L i b r a r y , ' Mentor Books, 1962), p.l)7.  (New  York:  New  3k formulation, ...emphasizes p r o c e s s , development and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . This i s a p e r p e t u a l l y c h a n g i n g - u n i v e r s e , and c o n c e p t i o n s o f unchanging permanence must p l a y no p a r t i n t h e b a s i c f o r m u l a t i o n s o f the s y s t e m s . ™ A w o r l d o f t r a n s i t i o n i s today a f a c t . smooth the way f o r most o f u s . It  i s a r o l e o f great  danger. endless  The mass media a r e h e l p i n g t o  They a r e h e l p i n g man  social function.  Yet inherent  While a d d i n g new ways o f s e e i n g  to bridge i n this  his differences.  r o l e i s a great  t h i n g s , the mass media a l s o  provide  d i v e r s i o n s , o f t e n s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t i n g p e o p l e ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o pay  a t t e n t i o n to things  r e q u i r i n g other  than m i n i m a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  r e q u i r e s a degree o f immersion p r e v i o u s l y unknown. p l e t e than any o t h e r  Television  I t s mandate, i s more com-  form o f communication which has i n v a d e d t h e home.  Aimed as they o f t e n a r e a t the l o w e s t common denominator o f man, t h e mass media can pursue an i n s i d i o u s and m a l i g n a n t course u n p e r c e i v e d by the r a t i o n a l s i d e o f man.-^ the  To c o n t r o l communication p r o c e s s e s demands i n i t i a l l y  r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a danger does e x i s t .  Secondly i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t man  make use o f the two d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h i s s p e c i e s , a r t and language, t o demonstrate h i s s u p e r i o r i t y over i n s t r u m e n t s o f s e r v i c e . basis  On t h i s  i t w i l l then be p o s s i b l e to s u b o r d i n a t e t h e media o f communication t o  human needs. With these o b s e r v a t i o n s the p r o v i n c e  i n mind, we may now t u r n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  o f a r t and language as they a f f e c t man's symbol-making  ^Ibid.,  processes.  p.5.  50 ee Dan Lacy,.Freedom and Communication, (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , pp.36-1+1. S  III.  ART AND LANGUAGE IN THE SYMBOL-MAKING PROCESS  A r t i s a fundamental e x p e r i e n c e . I t a r i s e s a t the.dawn o f man's need f o r e x p r e s s i o n . . I t precedes a r c h i t e c t u r e . The p e r i o d w h i c h " e l a p s e d between man's f i r s t attempts t o d i s t i l l h i s f e e l i n g s through v i s u a l forms ( o u t l i n e and c o l o u r ) and the b i r t h o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the Sumerian and E g y p t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n s . , was s e v e r a l times l o n g e r than the e n t i r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . S i e g f r i e d G i e d i o n , The E t e r n a l Present We need n o t , as d i d P l a t o , c o v e r the obscure o r i g i n s o f a r t w i t h the myth o f Prometheus.  1  Together w i t h the g i f t o f f i r e ,  s t o l e the a r t s o f weaving and metal-working c r e a t u r e , who, i n the p r i m a e v a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  Prometheus a p p a r e n t l y  from the gods., t o a i d the human o f a s s e t s was a f o r g o t t e n man.  P l a t o ' s s u c c e s s o r , A r i s t o t l e , t r e a t e d a r t as one o f two i n i t i a t i n g f o r c e s o f the w o r l d . of  More r e c e n t l y , i n P h i l o s o p h y i n a New Key,  the v e g e t a t i v e p e r i o d o f a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y ,  Susanne Langer  speaks  l i n g u i s t i c and m y t h o l o g i c a l and  r i t u a l growth as an apparent f a c e t o f p r i m i t i v e mankind. A crude p r e - A t h e n i a n peasant makes a Herm f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f h i s home, and produces a s t a t u e o f a r c h a i c beauty; an I n d i a n carves a totem-pole, and a c h i e v e s a composition; he f a s h i o n s a canoe o r molds a w a t e r - j a r , and c r e a t e s a l o v e l y form. H i s model i s the human body, the t r e e trunk, the c u r l e d , d r y l e a f f l o a t i n g , the s h e l l o r s k u l l o r cocoan u t from which he d r i n k s . B u t as he i m i t a t e s such models f o r p r a c t i c a l ends he sees more than the u t i l i t a r i a n import o f t h e i r shapes; he l i t e r a l l y sees the r e f l e c t i o n o f human f e e l i n g , the "dynamic" laws o f l i f e , power, and rhythm, i n forms on which h i s a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s s e d ; he sees t h i n g s he cannot name, m a g i c a l imports, r i g h t n e s s o f l i n e and mass, h i s hands u n w i t t i n g l y express and even overdraw what he sees, and the p r o d u c t amazes and d e l i g h t s him and l o o k s " b e a u t i f u l " . But he does n o t "know", i n d i s c u r s i v e terms, what he i s e x p r e s s i n g , o r why he d e v i a t e s from the model t o make the form more " s i g n i f i c a n t " . ( p . 2 0 k ) P r i m i t i v e man found the need f o r a r t i n the l i g h t , the darkness his  of magical n e c e s s i t y .  o r more a c c u r a t e l y  Giedion discusses t h i s i n a s e l e c t i o n  from  book on the b e g i n n i n g s o f a r t , The E t e r n a l P r e s e n t . N o t h i n g i s more d e s t r u c t i v e o f the t r u e v a l u e s o f p r i m a e v a l a r t than the g l a r e o f e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n t h i s realm o f e t e r n a l n i g h t . Flares or s m a l l stone lamps b u r n i n g animal f a t , o f which examples have been found,  •See a l s o Wiener, op. c i t . , In  p.181;.  C a r p e n t e r and McLuhan, eds.,. E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Communication, p.79.  35  36 p e r m i t one t o o b t a i n o n l y fragmentary glimpses o f the c o l o r s and l i n e s o f the o b j e c t s d e p i c t e d . In such a s o f t , f l i c k e r i n g l i g h t these take on an almost m a g i c a l movement. The engraved l i n e s , and even the c o l o r e d s u r f a c e s , l o s e t h e i r i n t e n s i t y under a s t r o n g l i g h t and sometimes • disappear altogether. Only i n t h i s way. can the f i n e v e i n i n g o f the drawings be seen unsmothered by t h e i r rough background. Maybe enough has now been s a i d t o show t h a t p r e h i s t o r i c man d i d not a s s o c i a t e the caverns w i t h a r c h i t e c t u r e . In h i s v i e w the caverns s i m p l y p r o v i d e d him w i t h p l a c e s t h a t he c o u l d use f o r h i s magic a r t s . The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e which seems to e x i s t between the need f o r a r t o f p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s and o f advanced s o c i e t i e s i s the p r o p e n s i t y of the to  want t o "know i n d i s c u r s i v e terms" what he i s e x p r e s s i n g o r why  latter  he d e v i a t e s  from the model to make the forms more " s i g n i f i c a n t " . When he emerges from.his savage s t a t e and takes d i s c u r s i v e reason s e r i o u s l y he t r i e s to copy more a c c u r a t e l y ; and the ambition f o r n a t u r a l i s t i c , l i t e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , f o r r a t i o n a l standards o f a r t , m o r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and so f o r t h , confuse h i s i n t u i t i o n s and endanger h i s v i s u a l apprehensions.3  BUT  THE NEED FOR ART  IS A PARTICULARLY HUMAN CHARACTERISTIC, A PART OF  THE  GREATER PROCESS OF SYMBOLIZATION  Thus, e v e r y s p e c i e s of a n i m a l , v e g e t a b l e and m i n e r a l which has s u r v i v e d to  the p r e s e n t has done so, t o the b e s t o f our knowledge, without the b e n e f i t  of  a r t , - e v e r y s p e c i e s except  man.  What i s l o s t i n Nature's guaranty of s a f e t y i s made up i n the advantage o f g r e a t e r p l a s t i c i t y . The human animal does not, l i k e the b e a r , grow h i m s e l f a p o l a r coat i n o r d e r to adapt h i m s e l f , a f t e r many g e n e r a t i o n s , t o the A r c t i c . He l e a r n s t o sew h i m s e l f a coat and put up a snow house. From a l l we can l e a r n o f the h i s t o r y o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i n pre-human as w e l l as human s o c i e t i e s , this, p l a s t i c i t y has been the s o i l i n which the human p r o g r e s s began and. i n which i t has m a i n t a i n e d itself. In the ages o f the mammoths, s p e c i e s a f t e r s p e c i e s without p l a s t i c i t y a r o s e , overreached i t s e l f and d i e d out, undone by the development o f the v e r y t r a i t s i t had b i o l o g i c a l l y produced i n o r d e r t o cope with i t s environment. The beasts o f p r e y and f i n a l l y the h i g h e r apes came s l o w l y t o r e l y on o t h e r than b i o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n s , and upon the consequent i n c r e a s e d p l a s t i c i t y the f o u n d a t i o n s were l a i d , b i t by b i t , f o r the development o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . ^  3Longer., P h i l o s o p h y i n a New Mentor Books, 19i>i>), pp.20u-b.  Key, (New .  York:  ^Ruth B e n e d i c t , P a t t e r n s o f C u l t u r e (Boston: New  York:  Mentor Books,  I960),  New  American  Library,  :  p.2?.  Houghton M i f f l i n ,  19l±6;  Benedict, goes on t o e l a b o r a t e the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r s u r v i v a l . must a c c e p t a l l the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f our human i n h e r i t a n c e , one important and  From the views o f an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t we to p e r s i s t , develop  the n e c e s s a r y apparatus  outgrow t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s .  In accordance  i s s a i d to be i n the p r o c e s s apparent  o f the most  o f which i s the s m a l l scope o f b i o l o g i c a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d  the enormous r o l e o f the c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s  function.  "We  behaviour,  o f the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t r a d i t i o n . " ^ f i n d t h a t organisms, i f they  f o r s u r v i v a l and d i s c a r d those  w i t h t h i s p r i n c i p l e , the human  are which  animal  o f d i s c a r d i n g the appendix which has no l o n g e r  any  But a r t , d e s p i t e P l a t o ' s f a n c i f u l e x p l a n a t i o n o f i t s o r i g i n ,  u s e l e s s i n the f i g h t f o r p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l , does not seem to be i n imminent danger o f b e i n g d i s c a r d e d . ^  In f a c t , the o p p o s i t e seems t o be the ease.  1  is  becoming a compulsion.  In the Gutenberg Galaxy,  We  have c r e a t e d a mass market f o r t h i s  Art  commodity.  McLuhan d i s c u s s e s the r o l e o f a r t as a consumer com-  modity. The p u b l i c became the p a t r o n . A r t r e v e r s e d i t s r o l e from guide t o p e r c e p t i o n i n t o convenient amenity or package. But the producer o r a r t i s t was compelled, as never b e f o r e , to study the e f f e c t o f h i s a r t . As m a n i p u l a t o r s o f the mass market t y r a n n i z e d over the a r t i s t , the a r t i s t i n i s o l a t i o n a c h i e v e d a new c l a i r v o y a n c e c o n c e r n i n g the c r u c i a l r o l e o f d e s i g n and o f a r t as a means to human o r d e r and f u l f i l m e n t . A r t has become as t o t a l i n i t s mandate f o r human o r d e r as the mass markets....(p.275) The  c o n t i n u i n g need i n man  f o r a r t , which has  spread from the  c l o s e d w o r l d o f i n i t i a t e s , p r i e s t s , , freemen and n o b l e s finds i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n , enhancement o f l i f e .  I feel,  Kepes has  relatively  to the market p l a c e ,  i n the a b i l i t y o f a r t t o p r o v i d e f o r the e x p l a i n e d i t i n Language o f V i s i o n .  In each age o f human h i s t o r y man was compelled t o s e a r c h f o r a temporary e q u i l i b r i u m i n h i s c o n f l i c t s w i t h nature and i n h i s r e l a t i o n s with o t h e r men, and thus c r e a t e d , through an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f v i s u a l imagery, a symbolic o r d e r o f h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s . These forms o f h i s c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n d i r e c t e d and i n s p i r e d , him toward . . m a t e r i a l i z i n g the p o t e n t i a l o r d e r i n h e r e n t i n each s t a g e of h i s t o r y . But  ^Ibid.,  p.28. r ^Although not g e n e r a l l y thought of today as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l , a r t , i n p r i m i t i v e communities, i s c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l i n the f i g h t f o r ' l i f e , as i t e x i s t s In the realm o f magic. Thus, the drawing o f a b u f f a l o was n e c e s s a r y • f o r the s u c c e s s o f the hunt.  38  u n t i l today, the symbolic o r g a n i z a t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n f l i c t s has been l i m i t e d i n i t s power because i t was f a s t e n e d to a s t a t i c system o f o b j e c t c o n c e p t s . Today, the dynamics o f events, and the new v i s t a s o f a m o b i l e , p h y s i c a l world, have compelled us t o exchange a s t a t i c iconography f o r a dynamic one. V i s u a l language thus must absorb the dynamic idioms o f the v i s u a l imagery t o m o b i l i z e the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n f o r p o s i t i v e s o c i a l a c t i o n , and d i r e c t i t toward p o s i t i v e s o c i a l g o a l s , (p.Iii) A r t i s , i n terms o f the G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g i s t s , an i n e v i t a b l e d r i v e f o r completion or e q u i l i b r i u m and  can be  considered  as an e x t e n s i o n  o f what  man  once d i d w i t h h i s body, as, f o r example, the dance of p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s . make t h i s l i f e a "something" beyond mere a n i m a l e x i s t e n c e art.  But  human,  symbolization.  ABILITY TO ABSTRACT BY VIRTUE OF SYMBOLS HAS  OF MAN  of  t h i s a r t i s o n l y a p a r t o f a g r e a t e r a b i l i t y which i s u n i q u e l y  t h a t i s , the power o f  THE  i s the f u n c t i o n  To  LED  TO CASSIRER'S REDEFINITION  AS A SYMBOL-MAKING ANIMAL RATHER THAN A RATIONAL ANIMAL.  Our  i n t e r c o u r s e , our d e a l i n g s , i n f a c t our v e r y  a b i l i t y . t o a b s t r a c t sense-data and  l i v e s depend upon  t o symbolize the i n f o r m a t i o n  f i c i e n t l y u n i f o r m t o c a r r y on the b u s i n e s s o f the world. most p r i m i t i v e l e v e l o f s i g n , even b e f o r e symbolism or language. which has  i n a way  This i s t r u e a t the .  our s i g n a l s have become ordered  s u f f i c i e n t e l a s t i c i t y t o be v a l i d over a wide range o f space and o f components r e p r e s e n t i n g  or  order."'''  For s e v e r a l y e a r s p s y c h o l o g i s t s knowledge o f the world about us.  Our  i m p r e s s i o n s which were a v a i l a b l e to us  7  time:  i n s i g h t by c a r e f u l l y  e s t a b l i s h e d r a t i o s , but without a p o i n t o f v i e w or l i n e a l connection  t a s t e and  suf-  McLuhan gives an up-to-date d e f i n i t i o n o f symbolism  "A c o l l o c a t i o n , a p a r a t a x i s  sequential  our  touch.  The mind f u n c t i o n s  viewed sense-data as the.key t o i n t e l l i g e n c e was  our  u l t i m a t e l y t i e d to  the  through the senses o f s i g h t , sound, s m e l l , as a r e c o r d e r  McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, p.267.  of t h i s information  and  on  39 the b a s i s o f our backlog' o f e x p e r i e n c e , i m p r e s s i o n and a s s o c i a t i o n these elements  combines  t o c r e a t e human i n t e l l i g e n c e .  In g e n e r a l , s e n s o r y impulses from the sense organs i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the body a r e t r a n s m i t t e d by the main s e n s o r y nerve t r a c t s , through the b r a i n stem and n u c l e i o f nerve c e l l s a t the t o p o f the b r a i n stem, t o . t h e c e r e b r a l c o r t e x . In one o f the n u c l e i , the o p t i c thalamus, these impulses a r e , as i t were, s o r t e d out, and those from d i f f e r e n t senses t r a n s m i t t e d t o d i f f e r e n t r e c e p t o r areas o f the c o r t e x , f o r v i s i o n , h e a r i n g , touch, and so on. S u r r o u n d i n g the r e c e p t o r a r e areas i n which the s e n s o r y messages appear t o be e l a b o r a t e d by thought and memory p r o c e s s e s on which depend our m e a n i n g f u l p e r c e p t i o n o f the world around u s . In the s e n s e - d a t a scheme we had i n e f f e c t a huge mental t a p e - r e c o r d i n g apparatus;  compared by Langer?  t o a telephone exchange, which, depending on  our n a t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e and e x p e r i e n c e , we c o u l d draw on t o o r d e r and c a t a logue any new d a t a t o which we were exposed.  C o l i n Cherry i n On Human Com-  m u n i c a t i o n s t a t e s t h a t hanger's i d e a i s a l r e a d y dated and n a i v e i n i t s limitations.  B a s i c a l l y t h i s comparison  o f the b r a i n t o a telephone  exchange  i s with "a pure C a r t e s i a n model." A more r e l e v a n t analogy, perhaps no more than a metaphor, might be t o compare the b r a i n t o a g i g a n t i c t o t a l i z a t o r , a t a race t r a c k , which a c c e p t s the tokens (money) from the o u t s i d e world ( b e t t o r s ) , c a l c u l a t e s the odds hypotheses ( h o r s e s ) t o g i v e the g r e a t e s t expect a t i o n o f g o a l a t t a i n m e n t ( p r o f i t ) a c c o r d i n g t o assumed standards o f  utility.(pp.299-300) We may here i n t e r p o l a t e the i d e a o f the simultaneous p r o c e s s e s o f which the human mind i s capable and which i t uses u n t i l we f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o commit our thoughts  t o paper.  We have i n e f f e c t the n e c e s s a r y apparatus f o r  the e l e c t r o n i c systems o f communication o f the  20th  century.  But as w r i t e r s  from Blake through Ruskin t o G i e d i o n have suggested, we are s t i l l  functioning  with o n l y p a r t i a l p o t e n t i a l because o f the t y r a n n i e s ' o f p e r s p e c t i v e and the p r i n t e d page w i t h t h e i r f i x e d s t a t i o n p o i n t and l i n e a r development.  %.D.  Vernon, The Psychology  1962), p.188. ' ?Langer,  o f P e r c e p t i o n (Middlesex: P e l i c a n Books,  :  P h i l o s o p h y i n a New Key,  :  p.2[|..  ho  THE EXAMPLE OF "GIFTED" PEOPLE WITH THE RESTRICTED USE' OF THE SENSES INDICATES THAT THE ACCUMULATION OF SENSE-DATA IS NOT THE PRIME INGREDIENT OF INTELLIGENCE  Helen K e l l e r has shown us how a human with o n l y two o f t h e f i v e i n t a c t can l i v e a l i f e intact.  immeasurably  This achievement  a b s t r a c t symbols  senses  r i c h e r than an animal w i t h a l l f a c u l t i e s  has been p o s s i b l e o n l y through the a b i l i t y t o  and t o d e a l w i t h them when the a c t u a l s t i m u l u s i s n o t p r e s e n t .  The i d e a o f a p r o c e s s o f s y m b o l i z a t i o n i n animals has been i n v e s t i g a t e d t h o r o u g h l y by Yerkes and K e l l o g g . ^ 1  n o t found, i n a n i m a l s .  A d i s t i n c t l y human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , i t i s  Although the lower l e v e l s o f the animal w o r l d make use  o f the same sense f a c u l t i e s , b e i n g a b l e t o accumulate  sense-data as a r e humans,  t h e i r use o f these c l u e s i s t o a c t i v a t e a s e t r e a c t i o n i n response t o t h e s u r vival instinct.  To the a n i m a l , one s i g n a l i s r e s t r i c t e d t o one symbol and o f  n e c e s s i t y t o one c o n t e x t u a l r e a c t i o n .  Hayakawa i n Language i n Thought and  A c t i o n has commented t h a t "a fundamental way i n which human noise-making tems d i f f e r from the c r i e s o f animals i s t h a t language (P.15)  ..  can be about  sys-  language."  .  FOR MAN AN OBJECT MAY HAVE INNUMERABLE SYMBOLIC MEAN BIGS AND SHADES OF MEANING VARYING WITH ITS CONTEXT.  R..Wittkower, i n S t u d i e s i n Communication, g i v e s us t h e example o f man's a b i l i t y t o r e i n t e r p r e t symbols  i n the f i e l d o f a r c h i t e c t u r e :  In Graeco-Roman a r c h i t e c t u r e , the gabled p o r t i c o belongs to the temple. I t d e s i g n a t e s the b u i l d i n g as a s a n c t u a r y . P a l l a d i o , i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , gave t h e m o t i f a new meaning: he i n t r o d u c e d i t i n t o domestic a r c h i t e c t u r e as a symbolic r e f e r e n c e t o the eminence o f t h e owner.. In the Age o f L i b e r a l i s m , a r t and l e a r n i n g came t o be regarded  -^W.N. K e l l o g and L.A. K e l l o g g , The Ape and the C h i l d ; R.M. Yerkes and A.W. Yerkes, The Great Apes, both quoted i n Langer, P h i l o s o p h y i n a New Key,  1+1  as s a c r e d dominions which s h o u l d be open t o a l l , and s o "temples" were e r e c t e d t o a r t and wisdom. F i n a l l y , the symbol was t r a n s f e r r e d t o r a i l w a y s t a t i o n s , banks, and exchanges. The symboT;owed i t s power t o the remembrance o f i t s s a c r e d o r i g i n ; whenever i t was r e v i v e d w i t h a new meaning, i t r e t a i n e d i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h d i g n i t y and grandeur, and gave prominence t o v a l u e s which had gained h i g h c u r r e n c y i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r a l setting.(p.120) P r e - l i t e r a t e s o c i e t i e s a t t a c h g r e a t importance t o the u t t e r e d word which assumes m a g i c a l power.  Thus, the symbol o r name f o r a god i s taken as con-  j u r i n g up t h e god i t s e l f and was n o t pronounced o t h e r than by t h e p r i e s t h o o d , on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s f o r f e a r o f i n c u r r i n g d i v i n e r e t r i b u t i o n .  Much o f the  m y s t i c i s m o f the Kabbala c e n t r e s around t h e potency- o f word magic. The n o t i o n t h a t name and essence bear a n e c e s s a r y and i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r , t h a t the name does n o t merely denote b u t a c t u a l l y i s ' t h e essence o f i t s o b j e c t , t h a t the potency o f the r e a l t h i n g i s cont a i n e d i n the name - t h a t i s one o f the fundamental assumptions o f the mythmaking c o n s c i o u s n e s s i t s e l f . H In our p r e s e n t s o c i e t y , word magic i s the c h i e f t o o l o f a d v e r t i s i n g and propaganda  campaigns.  S i n c e symbols  are the medium through which man c o n c e p t u a l i z e s o r con-  c e i v e s t h i n g s or o b j e c t s , the e x t e n t t o which our e x p e r i e n c e s can be a n a l y z e d and d e a l t w i t h s h o u l d be l i m i t e d by the a c t u a l number o f concepts we can a s s i m i l a t e and h a n d l e .  This b e i n g the case, we would r e q u i r e a d i f f e r e n t and  unique- symbol f o r e v e r y new i d e a .  We would be i n much the same p o s i t i o n as  someone l e a r n i n g the Chinese w r i t t e n language. and every d i f f e r e n t " t h i n g " would be needed. w i e l d y s t r u c t u r e w i t h which t o work.  A d i f f e r e n t ideogram f o r each But t h i s p r e s e n t s a most un-  The range o f meaning h a s t h e r e f o r e been  extended w i t h o u t a d d i n g symbols by the use o f c o n t e x t s i n the w r i t t e n language which a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by t o n a l v a l u e s i n the o r a l t r a d i t i o n . a t t a c h e d t o symbols  The meanings  themselves e x i s t i n a time dimension o r h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t .  In a d d i t i o n t o each o r i g i n a l meaning o f a symbol o f v e r b a l communication, are the compounded changes brought about by semantic t r a n s i t i o n .  1 1  London:  This  there  living  E r n s t C a s s i r e r , Language and Myth, t r a n s . S.K. Langer, (New York and Harper, 191+6), p.3.  U2 a s p e c t o f language i s r e f l e c t e d by the h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f our  dictionaries.  R e f e r r i n g a g a i n to Hayakawa: A d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s an i n v a l u a b l e guide t o interpretation. Words do not have a s i n g l e " c o r r e c t meaning"; they a p p l y to groups of s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s which might be c a l l e d areas o f meaning. The p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t w i l l h e l p us d i s c o v e r the p o i n t i n t e n d e d w i t h i n the a r e a o f m e a n i n g . 12  The  i d e a o f c o n t e x t u a l e v a l u a t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p b r i n g s us once a g a i n  t o the p r e s e n t n e c e s s i t y o f widening  our c o n t e x t s o f meanings, a p r o c e s s ham-  pered by f i v e hundred y e a r s of a s s e s s i n g t h i n g s through point.  a fixed perspective  W r i t e r s on the problems o f extended v i s i o n such as H a r o l d I n n i s ,  Edmund Carpenter and Gyorgy Kepes have suggested v i e w o f n o t h a v i n g a p o i n t o f view.  i n E x p l o r a t i o n s the p o i n t o f  I n s t e a d , the problems and  which concern us today r e q u i r e a " h o v e r i n g " a t t i t u d e ; d i v o r c e d from our c o n s t a n t l y accumulating i n r e g a r d to a s p e c i f i c problem.  situations  that i s , being  slightly  data and o b t a i n i n g c o n c l u s i o n s o n l y  By s y n t h e s i z i n g our knowledge i n  response  t o a given s t i m u l a t i o n o n l y (thus e l i m i n a t i n g the p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a )  our  answer w i l l be " c o r r e c t " i n r e l a t i o n to the s p e c i f i c problem i t s e l f a t a given moment.  In t h i s way  i t w i l l be as o r g a n i c a l l y l o g i c a l as t h i n g s i n a  o f c o n s t a n t f l u x can be.  This i s not advanced i n an attempt to do away w i t h  the n e c e s s i t y f o r judgments and i n f e r e n c e s . perhaps s i m p l e r , without v i e w and  them.  L i f e would be i n t o l e r a b l e ,  I t i s r a t h e r an e f f o r t t o extend  to broaden the v a l i d i t y o f our judgments and  the l i n e a r approach must be m o d i f i e d by the new o f simultaneous  actions.  although  our p o i n t o f The i d e a o f  c o a x i a l v i s i o n i n which a s e r i e s .  images p r e s e n t themselves t o the senses  p e r i e n c e the whole man  world  so t h a t we may  ex-  or the world i n the "round".  Every language tends to be temporal and l i n e a r ; one word must f o l l o w another. But the space-time world we are d r i v e n to comprehend, the world out t h e r e , i s curved; a s p i r a l process of e v e n t s . So the f i t i s not too close.^3  12  Hayakawa, op.  cit.jp.65.  ^ C h a s e , op. c i t . ,  p.288.  U3  NOT  ONLY DO  OUR  APPARATUS FOR  PERCEPTION DIFFER FROM INDIVIDUAL TO INDIVIDUAL;  OUR  BACKLOG OF EXPERIENCE IS ALSO DISSIMILAR.  Recent r e s e a r c h i n t o the psychology may  o f p e r c e p t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t there  be as many i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f sense-data  r e c e i v e these d a t a .  In the concluding, c h a p t e r o f The  as t h e r e are people Psychology  to  o f Percep-  t i o n , Vernon sums up the s i t u a t i o n as f o l l o w s : I t has become abundantly c l e a r from the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n t h a t p e r c e p t i o n i s by no means always a simple, s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and unambiguous p r o c e s s , but i s i n f a c t l i a b l e t o many v a r i a t i o n s and interruptions. These are caused p a r t l y by the great c o m p l e x i t y of the p e r c e i v e d f i e l d o f v i e w as c o n s t i t u t e d by our normal s u r r o u n d i n g s ; and p a r t l y by l i m i t a t i o n s i n the p e r c e p t u a l c a p a c i t y o f the o b s e r v e r . He can v i e w o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f h i s surroundings a t any one moment; and even when he scans them d e l i b e r a t e l y , t h e r e i s much t h a t he tends to o v e r l o o k or to p e r c e i v e i n c o m p l e t e l y o r i n a c c u r a t e l y . Undoubtedly d u r i n g the course of h i s l i f e he l e a r n s to p e r c e i v e more, and more c o r r e c t l y , e s p e c i a l l y when he"has an i n t e r e s t i n so doing, or when he has r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g . But the e f f e c t s o f knowledge and experience are i n themselves l i a b l e t o produce s e l e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n and the f u n n e l l i n g o f a t t e n t i o n t o o b j e c t s and events about which s p e c i a l knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e have been a c q u i r e d . The consequence i s t h a t no two observers may p e r c e i v e a given scene i n e x a c t l y the same manner, and t h a t they may d i s a g r e e c o n s i d e r a b l y as t o i t s n a t u r e and contents.(p.237) T h i s l e a d s us to observe t h a t there does not appear t o be a body o f impartial "facts".  In t h e i r a r t i c l e " P e r c e i v i n g the World" Krech  and  C r u t c h f i e l d have t h i s t o say from the p o i n t o f view o f the m a t e r i a l p e r c e i v e d : Data do not have a l o g i c o f t h e i r own t h a t r e s u l t s i n the same p e r c e p t i o n s and c o g n i t i o n s f o r a l l p e o p l e . Data are p e r c e i v e d and i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f the i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e r ' s own needs, own emotions, own p e r s o n a l i t y , own p r e v i o u s l y formed c o g n i t i v e p a t t e r n s . • A sound i n the n i g h t may  c o n j u r e up v a r i e d i d e a s o f steamboat, l u n c h ,  bomb o r p o l i c e t o d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s depending on e x p e r i e n c e , and way source  of l i f e .  But i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , each w i l l i d e n t i f y the  o f s t i m u l a t i o n as a k i n d o f w h i s t l e .  occupation original  Thus we have a s i n g l e concept  g i v i n g r i s e t o an a r r a y o f p e r s o n a l and u n r e l a t e d c o n c e p t i o n s .  Before  ll+D. Krech and R.S. C r u t c h f i e l d , " P e r c e i v i n g the World," i n W i l b u r Schramm ed., Mass Communications, (Urbana, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1.960), p.128.  deciding the  on a course o f a c t i o n , the average human w i l l attempt t o determine  context  the w h i s t l e  o f the w h i s t l e .  F o r the i n d i v i d u a l who sees the consequence o f  t o be- t o h i s d i s a d v a n t a g e , h i s r e a c t i o n w i l l be on the i n s t i n c -  tive level.  "When the chips  c a t i o n s , "the biogenic  a r e down," says W i l b u r Schramm i n Mass Communi-  ones ( d r i v e s ) a r e l i k e l y t o win over the s o c i o g e n i c . . . "  (p.210) In a d d i t i o n t o the v a r y i n g  i n d i v i d u a l r e a c t i o n to s i m i l a r symbols, as a  whole, d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s r e a c t t o s i m i l a r symbols i n s t a r t l i n g l y v a r i e d ways. Anthropologists  f i n d the examples o f d i f f e r e n t p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s u s e f u l f o r  s t u d y i n t h a t they a r e r e l a t i v e l y f r e e from extraneous c u l t u r a l Ruth B e n e d i c t ,  i n Patterns  of Culture  evaluates  overlays.  the s i t u a t i o n i n these terms:  ...the most i l l u m i n a t i n g m a t e r i a l f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f c u l t u r a l forms and p r o c e s s e s i s t h a t o f s o c i e t i e s h i s t o r i c a l l y as l i t t l e r e l a t e d as p o s s i b l e t o our own and to one a n o t h e r . With the v a s t network o f h i s t o r i c a l c o n t a c t which has spread the g r e a t c i v i l i z a t i o n s over tremendous a r e a s , p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s a r e now the one source to which- we c a n t u r n . They a r e a l a b o r a t o r y i n which we may s t u d y the d i v e r s i t y o f the human institutions. With t h e i r comparative i s o l a t i o n , many p r i m i t i v e r e g i o n s have had c e n t u r i e s i n which t o e l a b o r a t e the c u l t u r a l themes they have made t h e i r own. They p r o v i d e ready t o our hand the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the p o s s i b l e g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n human adjustments, and a c r i t i c a l examination o f them i s e s s e n t i a l f o r any u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u l t u r a l processes. I t i s the o n l y l a b o r a t o r y o f s o c i a l forms t h a t we have o r s h a l l have.(p.29) The  b e a r d i n Western a r t was o f t e n used t o c h a r a c t e r i z e m a n l i n e s s ,  v i r i l i t y and courage, w h i l e the Romans thought i t p r o c l a i m e d the u n c i v i l i z e d . In the O r i e n t , foreigner. contexts  t h i s appendage s e r v e d  t o denote the " h a i r y - f a c e d b a r b a r i a n " o r  I n any case the a b i l i t y t o a b s t r a c t symbols i n t o a v a r i e t y o f  i s a p e c u l i a r l y human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  Symbolization  s i d e r e d so b a s i c t h a t the e n t i r e framework o f human e x i s t e n c e for  survival.  can  be conducted a t a l e v e l beyond the p o i n t i n g s t a g e .  has been condepends on i t  Once a rudimentary symbolic agreement has been reached, To a t t a i n a  life  higher  l e v e l I suggest t h a t symbolism must be extended and o r d e r e d t o produce language.  The presence o f a r t a t the p r e - l i t e r a t e l e v e l i n which b e h a v i o u r ,  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o d i l y a c t i o n i s f o r m a l i z e d as the dance has a l s o been n o t e d .  Now  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e l a t e symbol, 'language and a r t . .  SYMBOLISM AS THE PRIME ABSTRACTION AND  THE PREREQUISITE TO DISCURSIVE LANGUAGE  A symbol i s an a r b i t r a r y d e s i g n a t i o n which may and o b j e c t s as w e l l as t o a b s t r a c t i d e a s .  r e f e r to actual things  In f a c t , a b s t r a c t i d e a s may  be  d e a l t w i t h o n l y through symbols, w h i l e a c t u a l t h i n g s and o b j e c t s can b e • p o i n t e d out as a means o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  The o n l y c o n d i t i o n t h a t need concern us i n  the case o f a c t u a l t h i n g s and o b j e c t s i s t h a t they be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference. communicating  I f a c e r t a i n " t h i n g " i s beyond  the e x p e r i e n c e o f one o f the  p a r t i e s , i t can be c o n j u r e d up d i s c u r s i v e l y o n l y i n terms, o f  a n a l o g y which i m p l i e s an a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g s o p h i s t i c a t e d system o f a b s t r a c t i o n . Symbols need not be i m i t a t i v e o f t h e - t h i n g s they r e p r e s e n t except i n the p o e t i c a l o r l i t e r a r y sense o f onomatopeia, where the chug-chugging o f the engines i s t a k e n - t o r e p r e s e n t a t r a i n . ^  This has, i n f a c t , been advanced  some t h e o r e t i c a l l i n g u i s t s as the g e n e s i s o f language. d u c t o r y c h a p t e r o f h i s book Language d e n i e s t h i s  by  S a p i r , i n the i n t r o -  natural-instinctive-sounds  theory. However much we may be d i s p o s e d on g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s t o a s s i g n a fundamental importance i n the languages o f p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s to the i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r a l sounds, the a c t u a l . f a c t o f the m a t t e r i s t h a t these languages show no p a r t i c u l a r p r e f e r e n c e f o r i m i t a t i v e words. Among the most p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s o f a b o r i g i n a l America, the Athabaskan t r i b e s o f the Mackenzie R i v e r speak languages i n which such words seem t o be n e a r l y or e n t i r e l y absent, w h i l e they a r e used f r e q u e n t l y enough i n languages as s o p h i s t i c a t e d as E n g l i s h and German. Such an i n s t a n c e shows how l i t t l e the e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e o f speech i s concerned w i t h the mere i m i t a t i o n o f t h i n g s , (p.8) Even when the i m i t a t i v e form i s used, the symbol does n o t suggest " t r a i n " d i r e c t l y but what " t r a i n " does.  Furthermore, i f we a r e t a l k i n g t o o t h e r humans  a l s o E.H. Gombrich, A r t and I l l u s i o n XXXV.5., Pantheon Books, 1961), p.361. !%apir's  i s the p r e s e n t l y a c c e p t e d t h e o r y .  (New York:  Bollingen Series,  U6 and we say " t r a i n " without " t r a i n "  a c t u a l l y b e i n g p r e s e n t , our e x p e r i e n c e  l e a d s us t o conclude t h a t these o t h e r people w i l l c o n c e i v e the i d e a o f t r a i n in  a manner s u f f i c i e n t l y  s i m i l a r t o t h a t envisaged by the speaker t h a t t h e r e  is  l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y of a misunderstanding.  THE TRANSITION FROM SYMBOL TO LANGUAGE THROUGH IMPOSED ORDER.  When we begin t o accumulate  symbols and p l a c e them i n a " l o g i c a l "  order  which we have predetermined by a "grammar" or " r u l e s o f syntax" so t h a t they convey meaning to o t h e r s we have graduated from symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o language.  I f , then, we a s s i g n symbols such as "dog"  17  c a n i n e , "boy"  t o a young male human and " b i t i n g "  t o a domesticated  t o an a c t i o n i n which  one  p a r t y partakes o f another, then by s a y i n g "dog b i t e s boy" we convey a  specific  meaning t o a l l those who  complete-  l y u n r e l a t e d symbols, language  have agreed upon our symbols.  each with a meaning o f i t s own,  a unified action.  Thus we have  e x p r e s s i n g by means o f  In h i g h l y a n a l y t i c languages, such as E n g l i s h ,  the phrase " b i t e s boy dog" would f a l l a p a r t as language meaning because rupted.  the normal word-order  For those who  p a t t e r n o f the language has been  m a i n t a i n t h a t a d i s r u p t i o n i n word-order  i n t e r f e r e with b a s i c communication,  l e t me  dis-  does not  take n i n e common words as an example.  While s l i g h t l y more c o m p l i c a t e d than our o r i g i n a l sentence employing  and convey no u n i f i e d  example, i t i s s t i l l a simple  o n l y one t w o - s y l l a b l e word and i n no way i n d i c a t i v e o f the  c o m p l e x i t i e s and i n t r i c a c i e s  o f compound E n g l i s h  usage:  The c h i l d asked the man t o t e l l o n l y t h i s . The c h i l d asked o n l y t o t e l l the man t h i s . The c h i l d asked o n l y t h i s , t o t e l l the man. The c h i l d asked o n l y the man t o t e l l . The c h i l d asked t o t e l l , o n l y the man (would n o t l e t h e r ) . Asked to t e l l the man t h i s , the c h i l d o n l y ( f i b b e d ) . ^  1 7  S e e a l s o Gombrich, op. c i t . , p.375.  ^ C h a r l e t o n L a i r d , The M i r a c l e o f Language (Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1957), p.1657 See a l s o I v i n s , P r i n t s and V i s u a l Communication.  hi  A simple change i n word o r d e r c r e a t e s sentences w i t h e n t i r e l y  different  meanings one from a n o t h e r . I f we  take the prime purpose o f language t o be the communication  i d e a s , i t must partake o f two e s s e n t i a l s :  1) s p e c i a l i z e d symbols  of  or  v o c a b u l a r y which can convey o n l y the meanings a r b i t r a r i l y a s s i g n e d and 2) p r o g r e s s i o n o f i d e a s i n an a r b i t r a r y o r d e r determined by thought p a t t e r n s f o r m a l i z e d i n t o "grammar." two forms We  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note how  d i f f e r e n t l y the  o f language, spoken and w r i t t e n , handle t h i s second p r e r e q u i s i t e .  do n o t , i n o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n , speak i n p e r f e c t s e n t e n c e s , and  our  speech, i n t e r l a r d e d as i t i s w i t h p e r s o n a l phrases and h a b i t s t h a t have no p l a c e i n w r i t i n g , cannot be a n a l y z e d i n terms o f the e l a b o r a t e system o f gramm a t i c a l r u l e s l a i d down t o d e s c r i b e the w r i t t e n forms o f our language. Randolph Quirk, i n h i s a r t i c l e " C o l l o q u i a l E n g l i s h and. Communication", S t u d i e s i n Communication  in  explains:  T h i s i s p a r t l y because the eye and the e a r a r e n o t used t o s h a r i n g i n d e e d are not capable o f a s s i m i l a t i n g - the same l i n g u i s t i c m a t e r i a l , any more than the tongue and pen a r e capable o f r e p r o d u c i n g the.same l i n g u i s t i c material.(p.172) Or, as T.S. E l i o t put i t i n a more l y r i c a l v e i n :  "An i d e n t i c a l  and w r i t t e n language would be p r a c t i c a l l y i n t o l e r a b l e , s i n c e no one  spoken  would  l i s t e n t o the f i r s t nor read the second.""^  PAINTING IN RELATION TO THE CATEGORIES WHICH HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED SYMBOLISM AND  FOR  LANGUAGE.  Should an a r t i s t take a canvas and i n each o f i t s f o u r corners (assuming that i t i s rectangular i n this  day o f odd-shaped  canvases) p a i n t a  symbol  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f f o u r u n r e l a t e d o b j e c t s , r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e because  of t h e i r  l ^ S e e a l s o A. L l o y d James, Our Spoken Language, d e a l i n g w i t h the a l t e r a t i o n o f our sense l i v e s through l i t e r a c y , quoted i n McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, pp.87-8  occurrence i n d a i l y l i f e , we as an audience, would look a t the canvas and enjoy the notations as e n t i t i e s i n themselves.  Gombrich discusses "the  beholder's share" in. h i s Art and I l l u s i o n : We are so t r a i n e d i n assigning t o each image i t s p o t e n t i a l l i v i n g space that we have no d i f f i c u l t y whatever i n a d j u s t i n g our reading to a configuration i n which each f i g u r e i s surrounded by i t s own p a r t i c u l a r aura. This happens every time a group o f figures i s assembled w i t h i n one frame without being intended t o share a common s p a t i a l s e t t i n g . Once more we read such images by applying a rapid t e s t of consistency. We understand without h e s i t a t i o n that the animals i n the drawing by Maria S i b y l l a Merian ( p l a t e 188, p.230) are t o be read as i n d i v i d u a l specimens.(p.230) let  the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e would convey l i t t l e meaning because the symbols  enter i n t o no e a s i l y recognizable r e l a t i o n s h i p s . There i s no reason to believe that we would e n t e r t a i n the four unrelated  ! symbols as a g e s t a l t except i n so f a r as they f a l l w i t h i n the maximum of > eight ( d i f f e r e n t ) objects which i s quoted as the upper l i m i t f o r a t r a i n e d viewer t o be able t o bring i n t o the f i e l d of perception. t h i s i n the P r i n c i p l e s of A r t Appreciation:.  Pepper discusses  ...an element pattern i s the number of things taken i n a t one grasp of a t t e n t i o n without grouping or other a i d . These may be from one to seven or e i g h t . Taking eight u n i t s as the upper l i m i t , . . . ( p . 6 2 ) Again, r e f e r r i n g to normal a s s o c i a t i v e powers, any recognizable  relation-  ship that d i d e x i s t would not be meaningful other than as a simple f i g u r e , r e c t i l i n e a r or c i r c u l a r , and the four disparate elements would have no c o n textual relationship.  1  u  Here we are a t the basis of d i f f e r e n c e between p a i n t i n g and language. Language can be compared to the integer "12" which contains i n i t the f a c t o r s "3" and "U", while p a i n t i n g can be equated to the i n t e g e r "3" which has no f a c t o r but i t s e l f .  P a i n t i n g i s , then, a "prime symbol" i n which the whole  cannot e x i s t without i t s p a r t s .  ("12" can e x i s t by v i r t u e of "6" and "2" as  w e l l as "3" and " i t " , but "3" can only e x i s t as a function of "3".) 20See a l s o Gombrich, op. c i t . , p.262,  If. our  canvas w i t h i t s f o u r symbols (which are then i t s prime symbols) were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r canvases, i t might c o n c e i v a b l y convey f o u r complete p i c t u r e s . Thus w h i l e language can be comprised o f c o m p l e t e l y u n r e l a t e d symbols, a p a i n t i n g t o be i n d i v i s i b l e can e x i s t o n l y when i t i s a c o m p l e t e l y i n t e g r a t e d symbol.  Wittkower s t a t e s t h a t " . . . f o r m a l , d e s c r i p t i v e s i g n s i s o l a t e d from  the c o n c e p t u a l whole can e i t h e r n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d a t a l l o r become ambiguous."21 For the sentence "dog b i t e s boy" we can a l s o say " d o m e s t i c a t e d canine b i t e s young male, human" and convey the same i d e a , but i f we remove a p o r t i o n of. a p a i n t i n g , we cannot s u b s t i t u t e a n y t h i n g which w i l l say the same t h i n g . This i s because p a i n t i n g ( o t h e r than p a i n t i n g which u s e s , f o r example, a c r o s s as p a r t o f i t s v i s u a l v o c a b u l a r y ) , has no v o c a b u l a r y , o n l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e r e f o r e conveys meaning as i t expresses c o n t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  I f we  have a c e r t a i n p a t t e r n which i s d u p l i c a t e d i n two e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t  pictures  and as w e l l (were i t p o s s i b l e ) c o m p l e t e l y out o f c o n t e x t , the p a t t e r n might suggest anger, h a p p i n e s s o r n o t h i n g a t a l l , the c o n t e x t .  However, i f we  took "boy" out o f c o n t e x t and p l a c e d i t i n a  c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t sentence i t would s t i l l human i n i t s new  depending on i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o  convey t h e i d e a _ o f a young male  r o l e because, as we have seen, language i s l a r g e l y dependent.,  on the r e l a t i v e l y unique meaning o f "boy". Hayakawa's " a r e a o f meaning"^ theory;  We have d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y  n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n any given h i s t o r i c a l  p e r i o d , the word "boy", f o r i n s t a n c e , must have- c e r t a i n f i x e d l i m i t s o f meaning i n o r d e r t o make i t u s a b l e . To s a y t h a t e v e r y t h i n g which expresses symbolic r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a r t , i s naturally a fallacy.  M a t h e m a t i c a l symbols e n t e r i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s and convey  concepts t o us through t h a t medium.  But mathematics cannot e x i s t w i t h o u t  language because i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e dependent on d e f i n i t i o n s . p l u s "y" equals " z " may  While "x"  r e p r e s e n t any number o f a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s , as soon as  R . Wittkower, " V i s u a l Symbols i n A r t , i n S t u d i e s i n Communication, Communications Research Centre, U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , London (London: M a r t i n 21  Seeker and Warburg, 1955), p.112. evidence o f h i s statement.  On the same page, he g i v e s e x p e r i m e n t a l  5o  we  designate  Here we  as "3"  and  "y" as " 2 " ,  e n t e r the r e g i o n o f "a p r i o r i "  tities. has  "x"  Saying  a vocabulary  "3" p l u s "2"  we have no c h o i c e but t o c a l l  11  a n a l y t i c s which a r e , i n r e a l i t y ,  i s the same as s a y i n g " 5 " .  "5".  z",  iden-  Thus mathematics  which i s u n l i k e language i n t h a t i t does not d e a l w i t h  data  i n terms o f s u b s t a n c e , but i n terms ..of r e l a t i o n s h i p s which must, n e v e r t h e l e s s , be d e f i n e d e x p l i c i t l y i n the case or problem a t hand. conveys symbolic  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t i s not a r t but  Even though mathematics  r a t h e r s p e c i a l i z e d language.  A r t i s e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - d i s c u r s i v e , w h i l e a l l the symbols employed i n mathematics  have d i s t i n c t names.  In Symbolism, Whitehead d i s c u s s e s  the d i f f e r e n c e  between language and mathematics i n h i s treatment o f a s p e c i f i c mathematical case,  that i s , algebra:  There i s a l s o another s o r t o f language, p u r e l y a w r i t t e n language, which i s c o n s t i t u t e d by the mathematical symbols o f the s c i e n c e o f algebra. In some ways, these symbols are d i f f e r e n t t o ( s i c ) those o f o r d i n a r y language, because the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the a l g e b r a i c a l symbols does y o u r r e a s o n i n g f o r you, p r o v i d e d t h a t you keep to the a l g e b r a i c rules. This i s not the case w i t h o r d i n a r y language. You can n e v e r f o r g e t the meaning o f language, and t r u s t to mere syntax to h e l p you out. (p.2)  PAINTING, WHICH HAS  NO  DISCURSIVE VOCABULARY, EXISTS AS A SYMBOLIC FORM WHICH  EXPRESSES RELATIONSHIPS AND  WHICH NEED HAVE NO  RECOURSE TO CONVENTIONAL REP-  RESENTATION. •  I f a r t , and p a r t i c u l a r l y p a i n t i n g , i s a symbol or a " t h i n g " r a t h e r than language, i t need not all.  r e p r e s e n t an o b j e c t to any  g r e a t e x t e n t , i f indeed  Even i n the case of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p a i n t i n g where u n i f i e d symbolism i s  obtained  through the use  o f f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s , the p i c t u r e i s not a d u p l i c a t e  o f what i t r e p r e s e n t s , but an image which conveys to us an i d e a . o f a vase i s n o t a v a s e but express the i d e a "vaseness." o f a nude f i g u r e we ligible  at  A painting  the j u d i c i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n o f gobs of p a i n t t o We  may  exaggerate or u n d e r s t a t e  certain parts  are r e p r e s e n t i n g but t h a t does not make i t any  less  intel-  to an audience as l o n g as they f i n d elements i n the d e l i n e a t i o n which  5i  d e p i c t the f a m i l i a r human form.  H.J.  Chaytor speaks o f an analogous  c a t i o n o f t h i s i d e a i n h i s a r t i c l e "Reading and W r i t i n g " :  appli-  2 2  The eye o f the p r a c t i c e d reader does not take the whole of. the l e t t e r i n g , but merely so much as w i l l ' s u g g e s t the remainder to h i s experienced i n t e l l i g e n c e . S i m i l a r l y , i f we l i s t e n to a speaker w i t h a d i f f i c u l t d e l i v e r y , we i n s t i n c t i v e l y s u p p l y s y l l a b l e s and even words t h a t we have f a i l e d t o hear. Nor does the eye h a l t a t each separate word. When we read our own language, we h a l t a t a p o i n t i n the l i n e , n o t i c e a few l e t t e r s on e i t h e r s i d e o f i t , and proceed t o another h a l t i n g p o i n t ; the eye has not seen the whole f o r m a t i o n o f every word, but has seen enough to i n f e r the meaning o f the passage. The v i s u a l symbol may  be s a i d t o convey concepts which we r e c e i v e and  c o l o u r or i n t e r p r e t as b e f i t s our n a t u r e , p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e and  indivi-  d u a l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s but which must c o n t a i n s u f f i c i e n t constancy t o p r e v i o u s l y known c l u e s t o be  ;  intelligible.  ...with the a i d o f the p h y s i o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n o f the eye we soon get the f e e l o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and the w o r l d assumes i t s f a m i l i a r f a c e . . Without t h i s f a c u l t y o f man and b e a s t a l i k e to r e c o g n i z e i d e n t i t i e s a c r o s s the v a r i a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n c e , t o make allowance f o r changed c o n d i t i o n s , ' a n d to p r e s e r v e the framework of a s t a b l e world, a r t c o u l d not e x i s t . . . 2 3  THE MATHEMATICAL AND CEPTUAL APPARATUS AND  LINGUISTIC SYSTEMS OF ABSTRACTION, THE VARIETY OF PERIMPRESSIONS, AND  MISSING LINK IN A WORK OF ART, FOR MODERN PAINTING, BUT  ARE  A LONG TRADITION OF SUPPLYING  SHOULD ALL BE CONDUCIVE TO A FAVOURABLE CLIMATE NOT.  I f a p a i n t i n g need not r e p r e s e n t the o b j e c t i t d e p i c t s to any c i a b l e e x t e n t , why  2  T h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n v i e w i n g works u s i n g geo-  m e t r i c shapes with t h e i r " p u r i t y " o f form was  2 2  2  In  a n t i c i p a t e d as e a r l y as the  16th  In d i s c u s s i n g the two S i n g i n g G a l l e r i e s o f the F l o r e n t i n e  C a r p e n t e r and McLuhan eds., E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Communication, p.122.  -^Gombrich, op. c i t . ,  p.52.  ^ I w i l l l a t e r suggest t h a t the newspaper format p r e p a r e d us to understand Mondrian's p a i n t i n g . 2  appre-  the b a f f l e d l o o k s which accompany the v i e w i n g o f , l e t us  say, a p a i n t i n g by M o n d r i a n ? ^  c e n t u r y by V a s a r i .  THE  ought l o n g ago  to have  52  c a t h e d r a l , one  by Luca d e l l a Robbia, the other by D o n a t e l l o ,  Vasari's  i s p e r t i n e n t because i t takes i n t o account the l i n k between the o f the a r t i s t and  comment  imagination  that of his p u b l i c :  He ( D o n a t e l l o ) l e f t i t rough and u n f i n i s h e d so t h a t from a d i s t a n c e i t looked much b e t t e r than Luca's: though Luca's i s made with goqd design and d i l i g e n c e , i t s p o l i s h and refinement cause the eye from a d i s t a n c e to l o s e i t and not t o make i t out as w e l l as t h a t by D o n a t e l l o , which i s h a r d l y more than roughed out. A r t i s t s should pay much a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s , f o r e x p e r i e n c e shows t h a t a l l t h i n g s which are f a r removed, be they p a i n t i n g s , s c u l p t u r e s , or whatever, have more beauty and g r e a t e r f o r c e when they are a b e a u t i f u l sketch (una b e l l a bozza) than when they are f i n i s h e d . And q u i t e a p a r t from the d i s t a n c e xvhich has t h i s e f f e c t , i t a l s o f r e q u e n t l y appears i n sketches which a r i s e a l l o f a sudden i n the f r e n z y o f a r t t h a t expresses the i d e a i n a few s t r o k e s , w h i l e a l a b o r e d e f f e c t and too much i n d u s t r y sometimes d e p r i v e o f f o r c e and s k i l l those who cannot e v e r l e a v e t h e i r hand from the work t h e y are doing. 5 2  Applied  to a p a i n t i n g by Mondrian, which e x i s t s p r i m a r i l y . a s an  l e c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , the  title  i s an a d d i t i o n a l , i n v a l u a b l e a i d t o  us with a context  f o r the work and  in  and. e v a l u a t i o n .  i t s perception  a "mental s e t " which we As  Gombrich s t a t e s :  intel-  preparing  can b r i n g to bear  9 f\  °  I t i s c l e a r t h a t an e n t i r e l y new i d e a o f a r t i s t a k i n g shape here. I t i s an a r t i n which the p a i n t e r ' s s k i l l i n s u g g e s t i n g must be matched by the p u b l i c ' s s k i l l i n t a k i n g h i n t s . The  extreme m o d e r n i s t s , the s o - c a l l e d " a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s t s " , or  the  a c t i o n p a i n t e r s have r e a l l y o n l y p r e s e n t e d f r e n z i e d , y e t l o g i c a l developments and  extensions  o f the theme o f the " w i l l i n g b e h o l d e r responding t o the  artist's  suggestion." We and ly  f i n d i n Gombrich again  t o the " s k i p p i n g s k i l l "  a c l u e to the a r t p a t t e r n s  i n reading  o f our  the p r i n t e d page which we  20th  have  century  previous-  referred to: The a r t i s t gives the b e h o l d e r i n c r e a s i n g l y "more t o do", he draws him i n t o the magic c i r c l e of c r e a t i o n and allows him to experience somet h i n g of the t h r i l l o f "making" which had once been the p r i v i l e g e of the artist. I t i s the t u r n i n g p o i n t which l e a d s to those v i s u a l conundrums o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y a r t t h a t c h a l l e n g e our i n g e n u i t y and make us s e a r c h our own minds f o r the unexpressed and i n a r t i c u l a t e . 7 2  2  ^ Q u o t e d i n Gombrich, op.  26Gombrich, op. 7 l b i d . , p.202. 2  c i t . , p.193.  c i t . , p.195. .  53 But i f the o b j e c t w i t h which we a r e d e a l i n g i s c o m p l e t e l y s e n t a t i v e , i t cannot r e a d i l y convey a concept  i n the n a t u r e  of f a m i l i a r things,  j u s t as language cannot convey f e e l i n g s o r emotions d i r e c t l y . i f a poet c o u l d convey the f e e l i n g o f "happiness" would, but he cannot.  (Presumably,  by s a y i n g " I am happy" he  He must imply happiness by a s s o c i a t i o n . )  Barzun, i n The House o f I n t e l l e c t , mentary on t h e p r e s e n t  non-repre-  Jacques  g i v e s us a b i t i n g , y e t i l l u m i n a t i n g com-  tendency t o v e r b a l i z e t h e e x p r e s s i v e content  painting or piece of sculpture.  This should, n o t be confused  " c l u e i n g " t i t l e s which h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h a sympathetic  of a  with t h e use o f  "mental s e t " :  H i s t o r i c a l l y , p a i n t e r s ' and s c u l p t o r s ' minds have most o f t e n been o f a v i r g i n a l innocence towards i d e a s . ' The a b i l i t y t o c o n s t r u c t by hand v i s u a l l y e x p r e s s i v e a r t i f a c t s o f t e n goes w i t h i n a r t i c u l a t e n e s s , or a t l e a s t the power t o body f o r t h makes words unnecessary. What do we f i n d today? That i n s p i r e d by the g e n e r a l pedantry, modem p a i n t e r s compose around t h e i r work statements which they b e l i e v e t o be i m p r e s s i v e and e x p l a n a t o r y . In New York t h r e e years ago,an e x h i b i t i o n was h e l d e n t i t l e d "Twelve Americans." Here i s one o f the creeds p r i n t e d i n the catalogue: 'For me t h e c h a l l e n g e o f p a i n t i n g l i e s i m p l i c i t w i t h i n the a c t - t o p e n e t r a t e i n h e r i t e d c o n c e p t u a l d e p o s i t s and attempt the p o s s i b l e impingement o f s p i r i t , the p e r s o n a l image remains the enduring command of c o n s c i e n c e . ' H a r d l y s c i e n c e , you say. True, b u t f u l l o f t h e a i r o f s c i e n c e . Note t h e g e o l o g i c a l f l a v o r o f " d e p o s i t s " , t h e pseudo-experimental s u g g e s t i v e n e s s o f " p e n e t r a t e " , " p o s s i b l e impingement o f s p i r i t " , and t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o f u n d i t y o f " p e r s o n a l image."(p.220)  CREATED AS A TOOL TO HELP US FIND OUR WAY THROUGH THE WORLD OF THINGS, OUR LANGUAGE IS NOTORIOUSLY POOR WHEN WE TRY TO ANALYZE AND CATEGORIZE THE INNER WORLD.  Gombrich, A r t and I l l u s i o n .  I f e v e r y t h i n g which i s expressed  i n p a i n t i n g c o u l d be expressed  i n every-  day d i s c u r s i v e language, t h e r e would, be no need f o r p a i n t i n g o r a r t i n g e n e r a l . What i s i t then,  t h a t a r t expresses  t h a t language i s unable t o ?  I t cannot be  a n y t h i n g which i s e x t e r i o r to- o u r s e l v e s o r we c o u l d p o i n t t o i t and come t o some agreement as t o i t s nature, whether a r i v e r , a person  or a b u i l d i n g .  Then i t must be something w i t h i n o u r s e l v e s which can o n l y be understood when i t has been e x t e r n a l i z e d .  by others  5U I f we a r e happy, we can g i v e v e n t t o t h i s happiness by jumping a i r , banging our h e e l s t o g e t h e r and s h o u t i n g w i l d l y .  i n the  I f we a r e angry, we may  a l l e v i a t e the c o n d i t i o n by k i c k i n g our grandmother d o w n s t a i r s .  But i f ,  like  most people, we o n l y t h i n k u g l y thoughts o r b e r a t e our c h i l d r e n when i n an angry s t a t e , we have s i m p l y r e d i r e c t e d our emotion, n o t e x p r e s s e d i t .  Could  we express t h i s anger o r happiness i n words, we would undoubtedly do so because o f the convenience and s i m p l i c i t y . ings i n a vague f a s h i o n o n l y .  But language expresses emotions  We may understand why a person i s happy - a  r e c e n t i n h e r i t a n c e - b u t we can never comprehend the a c t u a l f e e l i n g language.  and f e e l -  through  We must p e r f o r c e express these emotions by proxy through the a r t i s t ,  the c r e a t i v e man.  But we must r e a l i z e t h a t the e x p r e s s i o n o f an emotion  through an a r t i s t ' s symbols  has v a l i d i t y o n l y by means o f the l i f e which the  b e h o l d e r imparts t o them. The t r u e a r t i s t , by v i r t u e o f h i s s p e c i a l n a t u r e , can express f e e l i n g s and emotions  i n music, p a i n t i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e which we can o n l y f e e l .  This  s p e c i a l n a t u r e c o n s i s t s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t o f the p a t t e r n o f t r i a l and e r r o r , t h a t i s the c o n t i n u a l p r o c e s s o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n which the t r u e indulges.  In A r t and I l l u s i o n Gombrich t r e a t s the "achievements  artist o f the s u c -  c e s s f u l innovator": A r t i t s e l f becomes the i n n o v a t o r ' s instrument f o r p r o b i n g r e a l i t y . He cannot s i m p l y b a t t l e down t h a t mental s e t which makes him see the m o t i f i n terms o f known p i c t u r e s ; he must a c t i v e l y t r y t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , b u t t r y i t c r i t i c a l l y , v a r y i n g here and t h e r e t o see whether a b e t t e r match c o u l d n o t be a c h i e v e d . He must s t e p back from the canvas and be h i s own m e r c i l e s s c r i t i c , i n t o l e r a n t o f a l l easy e f f e c t s and a l l s h o r t - c u t methods. And h i s reward might e a s i l y be the p u b l i c ' s f i n d i n g h i s e q u i v a l e n t h a r d t o read and hard t o accept because i t has n o t y e t been t r a i n e d t o i n t e r p r e t these new combinations i n terms o f t h e v i s i b l e world.(p.302) The a r t i s t i s a b l e , by h i s n a t u r e and by c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t t o a r t i c u l a t e what he f e e l s .  I f we as an audience share t h i s f e e l i n g on s e e i n g o r h e a r i n g the  work, we have expressed o u r s e l v e s through the a r t i s t , who has r e v e a l e d the emotion as a p u r e l y p e r c e p t u a l t h i n g t o be grasped i n t u i t i v e l y , so t h a t , "when we understand, we understand d i r e c t l y . "  I t would be erroneous t o say t h a t the  55  a r t i s t awakens emotions and p a s s i o n s i n us which d i d n o t p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t . He has  can o n l y e x t e r n a l i z e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l those f e e l i n g s f o r which he a l r e a d y the c a p a c i t y .  These a r e n a t u r a l l y l i m i t e d by experience,- s e n s i t i v i t y  awareness o f h i s surroundings  and  and the h a b i t o f working i n a p a r t i c u l a r medium.  Thus, while the i d e a o f language p e r se i s removed from p a i n t i n g , we not take away the communication o f i d e a s and images.  do  P a i n t i n g n o t o n l y com-  municates i d e a s and images through e x p r e s s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but c r e a t e s forms symbolic  o f human f e e l i n g s and emotions as well..  TO EXTEND AND  CLARIFY OUR  TENDED TO SUMMARIZE THE  SEPARATION OF ART  FIELD OF EACH AND  AND  LANGUAGE, THE  TO ENLARGE ON  FOLLOWING IS  IN-  THE ARTIST'S POSITION.  There i s no communication without a system o f s i g n s be i t d i s c u r s i v e or n o n - d i s c u r s i v e . A r t and language are forms o f communication. We may assume t h a t s i n c e they both c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t s i d e by s i d e t h a t they do not f u l f i l l the same f u n c t i o n . What i s the p r o v i n c e then o f language and o f a r t ? 2 8 The measure o f a r t must be i n terms o f adequate or inadequate.  It is  w i t h i n the range o f p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t what i s adequate f o r one p a r t y w i l l not be so f o r a n o t h e r .  But t h i s i s n o t to suggest t h a t a r t or i t s e v a l u a t i o n and  criticism is basically willful.  A r t t o be s i g n i f i c a n t must have a c o n t e x t  for i t s creator;  none o f us can c r e a t e i n a vacuum.  The  sum  t o t a l o f a l l our  e x p e r i e n c e a t any  g i v e n moment i s a l l t h a t the o r d i n a r y human b e i n g can know.  The a r t i s t , by v i r t u e o f h i s n a t u r e , which i s more f i n e l y tuned, and o f h i s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , has a wider range o f e x p e r i e n c e sense).  The  ( i n a l i m i t e d i f not  general  g r e a t e s t a r t i s t can be the most ingenuous o f p e o p l e .  The world which can be known e m p i r i c a l l y or r a t i o n a l l y d e n i e s  the  c r e a t i v e i n t u i t i o n as b e i n g i n e f f a b l e o r unknowable and t h e r e f o r e not s u b j e c t t o p r o v a b l e systems.  But i t cannot  deny the e x i s t e n c e o f . a c r e a t i v e s y n t h e s i s  2 8 C o l i n Cherry, On Human Communication 1961),  p.7.  (New  York:  Science E d i t i o n s ,  56  which d i d not e x i s t b e f o r e , basis of his i n s i g h t .  Once the s y n t h e s i s  come to the same c o n c l u s i o n , mitted.  But  l e a d s us in  the v e r y  to c o n j e c t u r e  but which the a r t i s t was occurred,  a b l e t o deduce on presumably we  the  could a l l  i f our i n t e l l i g e n c e or t e c h n i c a l c a p a c i t y p e r -  f a c t t h a t t h i s does n o t ' o c c u r i n , l e t us say,  painting,  t h a t the a r t i s t ' s v i s i o n i s not m e r e l y a f u r t h e r s t e p  a p r e - d e t e r m i n e d d i r e c t i o n but a unique c o n t r i b u t i o n r e q u i r i n g a unique  n a t u r e and i t may  symbolism.  s u f f i c e to say  lags behind.  The  I f our r a t i o n a l t e n d e n c i e s r e v o l t a t t h i s t h a t the a r t i s t  crease  i s always contemporary w h i l e the  gestalt psychologists  range o f the a r t i s t ' s p e r c e p t i v e  hypothesis,  might p r e f e r t o r e t u r n t o the  experience.  Because o f i t he  the range of simple forms to which a l l e x p e r i e n c e can be  g r e a t e r mass o f humanity, through a d e a r t h such an extended range o f g e s t a l t s and  public greater  i s able  to i n -  reduced.  The  .  o f e x p e r i e n c e , cannot expect t o have  t h e r e f o r e must be  relatively  symbolically  naive. It  would be w e l l t o p o i n t out t h a t by the wider e x p e r i e n c e o f the  I do not mean t h a t he has  n e c e s s a r i l y e x p e r i e n c e d more of l i f e  than o t h e r  but  t h a t he has  not  e x i s t merely as episodes or happenings, but as c l a r i f i c a t i o n s  process.  g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n t o the n a t u r e o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e s .  Again t h i s does n o t mean t h a t the a r t i s t ,  w i l l be more i n harmony with i t ; the raw"  i s not a p a l l i a t i v e but an o b s e s s i o n  t h e r f o r the meaning o f e x i s t e n c e , alistic  aspects.  o f the  life life,  His view of l i f e " i n  which d r i v e s him  a t times i n d i s r e g a r d  to s e a r c h  fur-  o f i t s more m a t e r i -  Beards, d i r t y c l o t h e s , rudeness are not n e c e s s a r i l y m a n i f e s -  tations of a creative i n d i v i d u a l . mental bohemian.  people,  They do  b e i n g more aware o f  r a t h e r the o p p o s i t e .  artist  The  true  a r t i s t i s not  a p h y s i c a l but  a  IV.  HISTORICAL RELAYS  We have l o n g come t o r e a l i z e t h a t a r t i s not produced i n an empty space, t h a t no a r t i s t i s independent o f predecessors and models, t h a t he no l e s s than t h e s c i e n t i s t and the p h i l o s o p h e r i s p a r t o f a s p e c i f i c t r a d i t i o n and works i n a s t r u c t u r e d area o f problems. The degree o f mastery w i t h i n t h i s framework, and, a t l e a s t i n c e r t a i n p e r i o d s the freedom t o modify these s t r i n g e n c i e s a r e presumably p a r t o f the complex s c a l e by which achievement i s measured. Ernst We have d e a l t  Kris.  i n Chapter I I I w i t h the r e c e p t i o n o f s t i m u l i , t h e i r ab-  s t r a c t i o n i n t o symbols and the communication o f i n f o r m a t i o n by way o f t h e r e c e i v e r ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the a v a i l a b l e , i n f e r r e d and imagined d a t a .  As a r c h i t e c t s , we a r e p r i m a r i l y concerned with v i s u a l  o f t e n t o the e x c l u s i o n o f a u d i t o r y ,  symbols,  t a c t i l e and o l f a c t o r y p e r c e p t i o n .  Even  when we d e a l with o n l y v i s u a l messages, we s h a r p l y r e s t r i c t our i n t a k e o f i n f o r mation g e n e r a l l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o our p a r t i c u l a r "mental s e t " - t h a t i s , the preconceived  notions  which a r e the r e s u l t o f our p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e ,  cultural  o r i e n t a t i o n and accumulated knowledge. To s i m p l i f y l i f e we g e n e r a l l y d i s m i s s not  immediately those data which do  conform t o our p r e v i o u s l y f i x e d m e n t a l s t a t e s .  We absorb those which have  a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o our ideas by r e c a s t i n g them t o f i t those i d e a s , changing the o r i g i n a l meaning c o m p l e t e l y ) ,  (often  and a s s i m i l a t e without q u e s t i o n o r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n those data which can l a t e r be r e g u r g i t a t e d whole when required."'" It  i s unfortunate  t h a t those messages which f i n d response i n the b r a i n a r e  o n l y those which we judge i n some way o r other u s e f u l o r important t o u s .  While  t h i s l i m i t e d p e r s p e c t i v e i s u s e f u l i n some o f t h e more p r a c t i c a l aspects o f life,  such as c r o s s i n g the road o r d r i v i n g a c a r , i t tends t o l i m i t our p e r c e p -  t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o those t h i n g s we i n s t i n c t i v e l y l i k e .  Gombrich suggests  -^•Schramm, "The Nature and Behaviour o f A t t i t u d e s , " i n idem ed., Mass Communications, p . 2 0 9 . See a l s o D.K. B e r l o , The Process o f Communication (New York: H o l t R i n e h a r t and Winston, I960), p.W; a l s o J . Ruesch and W. Kees, N o n v e r b a l Communication ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . i u 2  Gombrich, op. c i t . , p.276.  57  58 that  i n our p e r c e p t i o n we are  completely s e l f - c e n t r e d ,  and a t t h e same time  states: . . . i f t h e schema remains l o o s e and f l e x i b l e , such i n i t i a l vagueness may prove n o t a h i n d r a n c e b u t a h e l p . An e n t i r e l y f l u i d system would no l o n g e r s e r v e i t s purpose; i t c o u l d n o t r e g i s t e r f a c t s because i t would l a c k p i g e o n - h o l e s . But how we arrange t h e f i r s t f i l i n g system is not very relevant.3 We have, i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n a l l perception involves  o f symbols, language and a r t , s t r e s s e d  l a r g e l y unique i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  that  The work o f a r c h i t e c -  t u r e which i s t o communicate meaning t o us does so through a w o r l d o f many removes.  F o r example, o r d i n a r i l y , we see a p a t c h o f c o l o u r  by way o f symbols as a t r e e .  In our b r a i n s  the company o f a b e a u t i f u l young l a d y . death o f a l o v e d  which we i n t e r p r e t  " t r e e " may suggest p i c n i c , g r a s s ,  I t may as e a s i l y r e p r e s e n t the t r a g i c  one k i l l e d by a t r e e f a l l i n g i n an e l e c t r i c a l storm.  the house o r o f f i c e b u i l d i n g we contemplate i s an a r c h i t e c t ' s o f a c l i e n t ' s needs and wants.  We a r e then f a c e d  But  interpretation  w i t h the v i r t u a l l y  insur-  mountable t a s k o f i n t e r p r e t i n g the symbol o f the a r c h i t e c t , which i s i n t u r n an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s own and another's way o f t h i n k i n g . a r t , t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l u n i t , i s a compound i d e a , we a r e i n v i t e d t o enjoy, a l t h o u g h i t i s g e n e r a l l y  Thus the work o f  t h e v i s u a l e x i s t e n c e o f which f a r removed from t h e o r i g i n a l  source. Can  we then expect a r c h i t e c t u r e  t o communicate meaning t o u s ?  B a s i c a l l y , a drawing o f a pyramid, a Greek temple, a G o t h i c a contemporary space frame have l i t t l e construction.  cathedral,  i n common i n shape, use or method o f  But i f asked t o i n d i c a t e the u n i f y i n g s i m i l a r i t y , one would  p r o b a b l y answer: " b u i l d i n g s . "  The term " b u i l d i n g " i n i t s e l f has n o t h i n g i n  common w i t h the a c t u a l p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e ;  i n Hayakawa's terms, the'"map i s n o t  the  territory.  and  so on, has a b a s i s  has  n e v e r seen any o f our b u i l d i n g types, o f course no s i m i l a r i t y would e x i s t .  3lbid.,  However, the image o f t h e t h i n g  p.88.  o f s i m i l a r i t y as a type.  r e p r e s e n t e d , pyramid, temple, F o r a p r i m i t i v e bushman, who  But even i f the o b s e r v e r i s aware o f , o r has e x p e r i e n c e d a p a r t i c u l a r v i s u a l symbol,  i f he has no i d e a o f the conventions o f p r e s e r v i n g the body f o r the  after-life,  o f an e t e r n a l d w e l l i n g p l a c e , the pyramid  be decoded.^  For communication,  i s a symbol which  cannot  the source must e x i s t w i t h s u f f i c i e n t  light  t o make i t v i s i b l e and then the d e s t i n a t i o n must "decode" the "encoded"  signal.  The i n a b i l i t y t o r e c e i v e or understand the conventions employed i s one. source o f m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f modern a r c h i t e c t u r e ' s unornamented s t e e l and g l a s s cage patterns.  These l a t t e r are f o r many people symbols without b e n e f i t o f t r a -  d i t i o n or customary  use;  thus, the p e r c i p i e n t s have no p r e v i o u s mental  images  t o guide t h e i r path o f a c t i o n . • The a b i l i t y t o c o n c e i v e a r c h i t e c t u r a l symbols i n a meaningful f a s h i o n e x i s t s o n l y when one i s aware o f t h e i r r e l a t e d n e s s t o a d i s t i n c t p e r i o d , way  of l i f e  o r c o n c e p t u a l whole.  This i s i n s t r u c t i v e i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f a r c h i t e c t u r e .  Too o f t e n ,  c o n c e n t r a t e our a t t e n t i o n on a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e , a d e t a i l , use i t t o i n f e r and judge the t o t a l c o n c e p t i o n .  To be o b j e c t i v e l y  we  and  critical,  a l t h o u g h o f human n e c e s s i t y . b i a s e d , one must f i r s t understand the whole p r o d u c t . Only then i s i t s a f e , and indeed f a i r , c o n t e x t u a l framework.  I f "God  and d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d god.  t o a s s e s s the d e t a i l , which has then a  i s i n the d e t a i l s , " he i s a h i g h l y segmented  Only w i t h a p r i o r knowledge o f the u n i f i e d  can the d e t a i l s serve as a key t o f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . P r e s e n t, G i e d i o n d i s c u s s e s a s p e c t s o f t h i s  In The  concept  Eternal  situation:  ...Psychology, which a l s o d e a l s w i t h sense p e r c e p t i o n s , has i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p a r t s o f a whole. The p a r t s are .derived from the whole which alone determines t h e i r r e a l c h a r a c t e r . The whole i s more than the sum o f i t s p a r t s , j u s t as the s o c i o l o g i s t s have l o n g r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the c i t y i s more than the mere sum o f i t s inhabitants.(p.lU) And the a r c h i t e c t must r e a l i z e t h a t a s t r e e t i s more than the one gem"  "isolated  which he h i m s e l f may,.contribute. As we have shown, w i t h symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i n g s and i d e a s , o n l y  %ee lications,  a l s o E. Raskin, A r c h i t e c t u r a l l y Speaking pp. 108-9, I2B":  195u),  (New  York:  R e i n h o l d Pub-  60  those a b s t r a c t i o n s which form a p a r t o f the p e r c i p i e n t ' s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e can be m e a n i n g f u l .  And, j u s t as language changes and grows, i s m o d i f i e d ,  d i s a p p e a r s and d i e s , and can t h e r e f o r e be u n d e r s t o o d o n l y i n i t s s p e c i f i c t e x t , so our v i s u a l symbols have.meaning and c o n v e n t i o n s .  con-  o n l y i n the f l u x o f changing idioms  The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l meaning t o p e r c e p t i o n o f a work o f  a r c h i t e c t u r e i s n o t the u n d e r l y i n g theme or concept any more than the work i s i n i t s e l f the t h i n g i t s y m b o l i z e s . shape may  Thus, a pyramid, w i t h i t s t r i a n g u l a r  convey t o us s t a b i l i t y , poise,, p e r f e c t i o n ;  but none o f these i s s u f -  f i c i e n t t o convey the image o f a n c i e n t Egypt u n l e s s we understand t h e i r o f permanence and o f p r e s e r v i n g the body.  Without the knowledge  that  ideas this  form was not o r i g i n a l l y p y r a m i d a l but o n l y an e x t e n s i o n o f the mastaba,-' which grew from the e a r l i e r pit-mounds, we may  a s s i g n meanings  t o a form as i f i t  were c r e a t e d "whole" r a t h e r than as a g r a d u a l r e f i n e m e n t o f an e a r l i e r shape. Nor i s i t p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d the complex i n t e r p l a y o f a c i v i l i z a t i o n by r e f e r e n c e t o a s i n g l e p o i n t o f view.  The a r c h i t e c t u r e o f a p e r i o d must be  seen i n the l i g h t o f r e l i g i o u s , economic, s o c i a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l which preceded and accompanied i t s e r e c t i o n . the m a t e r i a l s o f our.new t e c h n o l o g y - s t e e l ,  traditions  By d e f i n i n g modern s o c i e t y i n g l a s s and p l a s t i c - and a t the  same time i n c l u d i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l pediment, we attempt n a i v e l y t o e l e v a t e the contemporary by u s i n g forms grounded i n a n t i q u i t y , as i f to be a n c i e n t were synonymous w i t h goodness or a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o r Tightness. perhaps t o a t t a i n  the b e s t o f both w o r l d s .  We hope i n t h i s  way  In e x p r e s s i n g a modern concept  o f l i f e w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l forms and contemporary m a t e r i a l , the a r c h i t e c t  creates  a p o w e r f u l symbol - a symbol with h i s t o r i c p r e c e d e n t . This p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the symbol has f a r from v a n i s h e d even today. In Communication  and S o c i a l Order, H.D.  Duncan g i v e s us a contemporary i n s i g h t :  Each attempts to maximize the mystery o f h i s symbols. Even the educator, devoted t o i n q u i r y and reason and by h i s v o c a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y a g a i n s t p r i e s t l y m y s t i f i c a t i o n , d e v e l o p s awesome c e r e m o n i a l s . Gothic  P.U9.  ^See H. Gardner, A r t Through the Ages, (New York: H a r c o u r t Brace,  ;  1959),  61 a r c h i t e c t u r e ..infuses e d u c a t i o n with f e u d a l mystery. Majestic cerem o n i a l music, s t a t e l y p r o c e s s i o n a l s , and a n c i e n t f e u d a l academic gowns evoke images of a sublime r u l i n g c l a s s . The v o i c e o f the commencement o r a t o r becomes solemn and p r o p h e t i c . Flanked by the f l a g and the c r o s s , symbols o f country and God, the o r a t o r ' s r i s i n g p e r i o d s evoke the wisdom o f academia as s a v i o r o f the w o r l d . As we wend our way to the G o t h i c . t h r o n e b e f o r e which the m a j e s t i c C h a n c e l l o r stands to o f f e r us our diploma, a n c i e n t p r o c e s s i o n a l music f i l l s the nave o f the cathedral.(p.323.) To a s s e s s the worth and v a l u e o f such h y b r i d s i s a monumentally d i f f i c u l t As a contemporary o f e i t h e r p e r i o d , we  c o u l d , with some a c c u r a c y d e f i n e  r  task.  their  •  v a l i d i t y and meaning.  But, l i m i t e d i n our knowledge o f the p a s t , how  h e l p but e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n r e l a t i n g t o the s t r a n g e have p r e v i o u s l y suggested,  overlay.  As  the p e r s o n a l b i a s o f the a r t i s t i s another  f a c t o r i n our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a work o f a r t .  can  we we  key  F a i l i n g contemporaneous b i o -  g r a p h i c a l d a t a f o r a r t i s t s of the past,6 i t has been n e c e s s a r y  f o r us t o i n f e r  our i n f o r m a t i o n i n the l i g h t . o f the t r a d i t i o n from which these a r t i s t s  grew.  Where b i o g r a p h i c a l data are a v a i l a b l e , i t i s o f t e n p o s s i b l e t o determine the a r t i s t ' s p e r s o n a l l e a n i n g s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h i s executed  work.  But  today,  when our a r t i s t s are o f t e n a - s o c i a l and a n t i - t r a d i t i o n , t h e i r symbolism i s sometimes u n i n t e l l i g i b l e because of a l a c k of common: ground on which and  "consumer" can meet.  expressions  Many o f our a r c h i t e c t u r a l monuments of today are  o f w i l l f u l n e s s and egotism  c l i e n t whose needs and wants he must a s s e s s , balance  d e s i g n , without  the r o l e o f Father Confessor,  a specific  and i n t e r p r e t i n the work  More o f t e n than not, the p a i n t e r works w i t h i n the  o f a p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n o f the world  thus  in a highly social art.  The a r c h i t e c t does n o t b u i l d , a l t h o u g h he may  of a r c h i t e c t u r e .  "producer"  or l i f e as he sees i t , without  context assuming  whereas the a r c h i t e c t i s f a c e d with the t a s k o f  communicating symbols with s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s i n " c o n v e n t i o n a l thematic t o be i n t e l l i g i b l e t o h i s contemporary s o c i e t y , which i n c l u d e s the "For a f u l l e r treatment o f : a ) b i o g r a p h i c a l data, and Image i n W i l l i a m Blake, pp.5-7; b ) h i s t o r i c a l r e c a l l , The Shape o f Time, p.lei and pp.21-2; c ) t h e borrowing o f The S i l e n t Language, p.159; d) the uses o f h i s t o r y , see A r c h i t e c t u r e and the . A e s t h e t i c s of P l e n t y , pp.2lil-253.  patterns"  specific  see G.W. Digby, Symbol see G. Kubler, forms, see E. H a l l , J.M. F i t c h ,  62  client.  In a d d i t i o n , i t must c o n t a i n s u f f i c i e n t symbols o f p r i v a t e  signifi-  cance t o make the work meaningful' t o the c l i e n t as a unique i n d i v i d u a l i n a s o c i a l framework.  Finally,  the a r c h i t e c t must i n c l u d e enough a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  m a t e r i a l i n the c o n c e p t i o n t o make i t a p e r s o n a l l y c r e a t i v e a c t , r a t h e r than a mere s y n t h e s i s o f a v a r i e t y o f influences.''' With t h i s onerous  c r e a t i v e t a s k , from which we as s p e c t a t o r s a r e so f a r  removed, i s i t p o s s i b l e t o o b j e c t i f y and i n t e r p r e t r a t i o n a l l y the p a r t o f the a r t i s t ' s personal vision?  We can, by c a r e f u l i n s p e c t i o n and. a n a l y s i s , a s c e r -  t a i n those a s p e c t s o f a work o f a r c h i t e c t u r e which l e a d t o s t y l i s t i c  interpretations.  We a r e a b l e , on the b a s i s o f these d e s c r i p t i v e data, t o group s t r u c t u r e s i n p e r i o d s , epochs,  styles,  i n such a way as t o make comparisons  with other  i n g s h a v i n g s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o q u a l i f y as a s t y l e . t h i s sense, we s a y t h a t the Greeks of temple  used a modular form ( t o express t h e i r  and u n i v e r s e ) w h i l e t h e Romans used v o l u m e t r i c forms.  groupIn concept  We may d e s c r i b e  the G o t h i c as concerned w i t h man the' c r a f t s m a n , w h i l e contemporary  architecture  i s concerned w i t h machine p r e c i s i o n , and more r e c e n t l y e l e c t r o n i c  simultaneity.  But why the a r c h i t e c t s chose t o i n t e r p r e t the s p i r i t  o f t h e i r age i n t h i s o r  t h a t p a r t i c u l a r space metaphor and n o t another can n e v e r be known f a c t u a l l y , as t h e r e ' i s a l a r g e element  o f emotion  i n the a r t i s t ' s  creation.  o f motives and causes can be a most rewarding p u r s u i t . )  (The fathoming  In any case, i f the  e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t y o f a work o f a r t c o u l d be paraphrased d i s c u r s i v e l y , t h e r e would be l i t t l e let ceasing.  reason f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f a r t forms as such.  the attempts  t o communicate the e x p r e s s i v e content o f a work a r e un-  I t seems t h a t where t h e r e a r e i m i t a t i v e o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a s p e c t s  i n a work o f a r t , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r many people t o g i v e a f a i r l y interpretation.  objective  H i s t o r i c a l conventions have been s u f f i c i e n t l y c o d i f i e d t o make  i t p o s s i b l e f o r l a r g e numbers o f people t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between, l e t us say,  -  . 7He re  i s y e t another a s p e c t o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l "communication":  o n a l message o f the d e s i g n e r .  the p e r s -  6 3  E g y p t i a n , Greek and  Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e .  theme o f a p a r t i c u l a r e r a r e q u i r e s influences text.  most d i f f i c u l t  i s a term which we  task  o f the a r t i s t on  occurs when we  the  v a l u e judgments which we As  apply only i n h i s t o r i c a l retrospect.)  f o r the i n t e r p r e t i v e , we  The  a r c h i t e c t can  the  "idea" i s materialized  o n l y be  leave  the a r e a  of  i n s t r u c t u r e , we  but what the a r t i s t wanted to e x p r e s s .  The  the  meaning the a r c h i t e c t  o f an e x p r e s s i v e  have no way  dis-  i n n e r theme or  a c h i e v e d through h i s means o f  conceive of a representation  r e a l i z e d , i t may  enter  attempt t o r e v e a l the  to m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  wishes to convey i n h i s work can  be  Once we  scientifically.  c u r s i v e , communicative p r o c e s s by which we  may  i s a part.  symbols become p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s v e r i f i a b l e ,  meaning becomes more s u b j e c t  The  attempt t o superimpose the p a r t i c u l a r b i a s  cannot t e s t  our e x p r e s s i v e  the  the s t r u c t u r e i n i t s p r o p e r con-  c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n o f which he  of d e s c r i p t i v e analysis  f u r t h e r to define  a t l e a s t some s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge o f  over a wide range o f t o p i c s to see  ("Style"  the f i e l d  To be a b l e  expression.  i d e a , but  unless  o f d e t e r m i n i n g , not  how,  C o n v e r s e l y , w h i l e the b u i l d i n g form  prove incommunicative.  That i s t o say,  modern a r c h i -  t e c t s o f t e n c o n c e i v e o f forms which attempt t o e s t a b l i s h space r e l a t i o n s h i p s based on a system o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l l o g i c .  The  r e s u l t i s s i m i l a r t o the  " i n v i s i b l e i d i o t " which the e l e c t r o n i c computer o f f e r e d as a s o l u t i o n t o d a t a "out i n the As  o f s i g h t , out  o f mind."  sense t h a t i t has  no  answer the  Modern a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t e n becomes a b s t r a c t ,  equivalent  or e m o t i o n a l b a s i s  i n normal e x p e r i e n c e .  i t i s beyond the e x p e r i e n c e range of the p e o p l e f o r whom i t i s f a s h i o n e d ,  does not. communicate. worth d i d not deny the  In her  famous law  r a v i s h i n g grace and  s u i t against  the a r c h i t e c t Dr.  elegance o f her house;  she  it  Farns-  merely  Q c l a i m e d t h a t i t was i s the  shortest  logical,  uninhabitable.  T h i s r a t i o n a l i s t approach t o  r o u t e to e m o t i o n a l s t e r i l i t y .  Fortunately,  the  r a t i o n a l approach to a r c h i t e c t u r e i s c a p a b l e o f e l i c i t i n g  response - o f t e n , but not F i t c h , op.  s u f f i c i e n t l y often, u t t e r  c i t . , p.163.  disgust.  architecture overbearingly emotional  6k Our e m o t i o n a l response t o a r c h i t e c t u r e i s the r e s u l t o f p r i o r i n f l u e n c e s , customs, dogmas, ad i n f i n i t u m . d i s m i s s a l o f God and r e l i g i o n and can now  approach  determine  are o f the o p i n i o n t h a t by  we have become emancipated  a r t with s c i e n t i f i c detachment.  exchanged an o l d i d e a l f o r a new. now  We  These new  our e m o t i o n a l responses..  through the eyes o f o t h e r s .  our  from e m o t i o n a l b i a s  In r e a l i t y , we have o n l y  c o n v e n t i o n s , t a s t e s and f a s h i o n s  The purveyors  the stage f o r " p r o p e r " e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s .  training,  o f mass t a s t e now  A l l a r t i s viewed  set  discursively  Our v i s u a l images are incomplete without v e r b a l  o analysis.  How  many o f us w i l l v e n t u r e i n t o a c o n c e r t h a l l without  • r e f e r r a l t o the c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l and and o t h e r w i s e ?  prior  guides o f o t h e r s , both " e n l i g h t e n e d "  Pure music has been l e f t i n the wake o f programme  music;  some p a i n t e r s have v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n s i n the c a t a l o g u e s which are almost a p a r t of  the work p r o p e r ;  justification  v a r i o u s a r c h i t e c t s speak h a b i t u a l l y o f "male and female" i n  o f t h e i r symbolic forms.  In s h o r t , we  a l l r e q u i r e and f e e l  the  c n e c e s s i t y t o p r o v i d e "a p r i o r i " the s t a g e o r to f i x a mental of  synopses  or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , n o t merely  or e m o t i o n a l " s e t " w i t h which t o r e c e i v e our works  a r t , b u t t o do our t h i n k i n g f o r u s . The p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r p r e t e r o r c r i t i c o f a r t approaches  b i a s e s n o t u n l i k e those o f the p u b l i c he a d d r e s s e s .  tive" interpretations. "call  h i s task with  A competent c r i t i c  l i z e s and a p p r e c i a t e s these l i m i t a t i o n s and p l a c e s l i t t l e  o f the w i l d " , but they have o f f e r e d l i t t l e  rea-  v a l u e on h i s " i n t u i -  Generations o f c r i t i c s have l i v e d and preached  meaning o f e x p r e s s i v e symbols. to  to s e t  this  i n s i g h t i n t o the i n t e n d e d  With t h i s i n mind, i t i s s t i l l  unproductive  deny t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r e , o r any a r t f o r t h a t matter, becomes s i g n i f i c a n t  only  by v i r t u e o f the emotion i t evokes. The symbols o f a r c h i t e c t u r e which generate t h i s e m o t i o n a l response must ^ T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t unique to our age, nor i s i t a l l bad; but i n common w i t h e v e r y t h i n g e l s e today, i t i s "more so" than e v e r b e f o r e .  65 be i n v e s t i g a t e d . merely  No p e r i o d i n h i s t o r y i s without  o l d symbols adopted  i t s symbolic metaphors, some  as b e i n g a p p l i c a b l e , others newly i n v e n t e d t o express  new c o n c e p t s , o t h e r s m o d i f i e d t o s u i t new g e n e r a t i o n s . c a r r i e d over, many s u r v i v e i n form o n l y .  The c o n t e x t s have changed.  E g y p t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e , the h y p o s t y l e h a l l belonged the b u i l d i n g as a p l a c e f o r t h e i n i t i a t e  only.  t e c t u r e , the h i g h c e i l i n g , multi-columned in  the Exchange w i t h a new god.  Of those t h a t a r e  t o the temple,  designating  In e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y a r c h i -  h a l l was the home o f another  "initiate"  The symbol i s made p o t e n t because o f i t s  s a c r e d o r i g i n and has been r e t r a n s l a t e d t o convey t h i s sacredness o b j e c t i t ennobles  In  has undergone s i g n i f i c a n t  even when t h e  transmutations.  In.the c o n t e x t o f symbols changing meaning, we c o u l d c o n s i d e r many o f the a r t i f a c t s which f i l l  o u r museums and g a l l e r i e s as m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . ' What  was f o r an e a r l i e r o r d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t y a d r i n k i n g bowl, has f o r us become a work o f a r t . The  t a c i t acceptance,  by g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n , o f d i s t i n c t i v e  a r c h i t e c t u r a l images, v e r y o f t e n p a r a l y z e s t h e b r a i n . an e x c e l l e n t example.  Almost u n i v e r s a l l y  I w i l l mention) we a c c e p t the Parthenon  The Parthenon  (with some n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s which  as an example o f a l l t h a t i s d e s i r a b l e ,  the b e a u t i f u l , the p r e c i s e , t h e r a t i o n a l i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . t e x t , a unique  and admirable  s e r v e s as  I t was, i n i t s con-  c u l m i n a t i o n i n s t o n e and marble o f what was  o r i g i n a l l y wooden c o n s t r u c t i o n .  As t h e c u l m i n a t i n g p o i n t o f an a r c h i t e c t u r a l  movement, i t had e v e r y d e v i c e the human mind c o u l d f o r m u l a t e t o make i t a p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n o f human c a p a b i l i t y .  But t o be t r u e t o the s o - c a l l e d  "spirit"  o f o u r age, we s h o u l d p r e f e r t o a s s e s s i t as a farm house w i t h a r o o f , as d i d P i c a s s o , o r a s m a l l marble q u a r r y , as d i d P a u l V a l e r y . generation v i t a l l y o f the Parthenon  concerned  w i t h s t r u c t u r a l honesty,  1 0  In an a r c h i t e c t u r a l  the o p t i c a l  might be c o n s i d e r e d as an out-and-out " l i e . "  refinements  The s t r e t c h i n g  S e e C. 'Zervos, " C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h P i c a s s o " ' a n d P. V a l e r y , "The Course i n P o e t i c s : F i r s t Lesson", both i n B. G h i s e l i n , ed.., The C r e a t i v e Process, (New York: New American L i b r a r y o f American Lit,; 1 9 5 5 ) p p . 5 5 and 92 r e s p e c t i v e l y . i U  66 of  stone l i n t e l s  t o the b r e a k i n g p o i n t , the f i n e , almost feather-edged, f l u t i n g s  on the columns, a r e more s u i t e d t o wooden c o n s t r u c t i o n and the machine p r e c i s i o n o f s t e e l than t o the g r a n u l a r q u a l i t y o f marble.  In e f f e c t , t h i s  t u r e , l i f t e d from i t s c o n t e x t , has become .a symbol o f p e r f e c t i o n i n an whose v a l u e s a r e o f t e n a n t i t h e t i c .  I t may  1 1  struc-  age  be n o t e d here, t h a t our v i s u a l  symbols a r e , through p r o p e n s i t y t o word magic, e t e r n a l l y f u s e d w i t h the word. I f we were t o rename the Parthenon: H o r r o r s o f the P e l o p o n e s i a n War", m i t t e d image would presumably  "Conscience P a l i a t i v e A r i s i n g from  the  o r even "Marble Quarry", the c u l t u r a l l y  be s h a t t e r e d .  /  V i o l a t i o n s o f c o n v e n t i o n a r e not e a s i l y supported by the p u b l i c . the c i t y o f Tel-el-Amarna g r e a t rumblings because  was  o f the "advanced"  Eventually, i t  1  Nor i s t h i s a unique example i n h i s -  are not q u i t e so p h y s i c a l l y v i o l e n t today, a t l e a s t with r e g a r d t o  architecture.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y few p e o p l e c o n s i d e r a r c h i t e c t u r e  important t o f i g h t about. s o c i a l o s t r a c i z a t i o n , and of  symbols i t used.  sacked and attempts were made to remove t h e  a r c h i t e c t ' s name from e x i s t i n g r e c o r d s . We  When  designed i n Egypt s e v e r a l m i l l e n i a ago, i t caused  became so u n b e a r a b l e t h a t i t was  tory.  trans-  sufficiently  But we have more p o w e r f u l weapons a t our d i s p o s a l : the most dreaded f a t e o f a l l - i n d i f f e r e n c e .  Some  those i n c o n t r o l o f our mass media c o n s i d e r a r c h i t e c t u r e as something  can not j u s t i f y the space i t would occupy and so they i g n o r e i t .  which  Architecture  does not s e l l newspapers: As t o the p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , i t seems t o me t h a t t h i s i s apt t o f a l l i n the f i e l d o f t e l l i n g readers how t o d e s i g n rose t r e l l i s e s o r b u i l d c a r p o r t s (and) barbecues. How many readers can you t a l k t o , c o n s i d e r i n g always t h a t any space you take must be a t the expense o f space given some more p o p u l a r and more r e a d i l y understandable s u b j e c t : t e n p e r c e n t ? f i v e per cent? two p e r c e n t ? . . . I t i s , I t h i n k , p o s i n g t o you a f a i r q u e s t i o n : what c l a i m can you l a y upon the space o f a m a s s - c i r c u l a t i o n n e w s p a p e r ? 12  -^"....unless we f o r e v e r q u e s t i o n the b a s i c i m a g i n a t i v e c o n s t r u c t s o f our p r e d e c e s s o r s , we condemn o u r s e l v e s ' t o working a t p r o g r e s s i v e l y more d e t a i l e d and t r i v i a l l e v e l s . . . " R.W. Gerard, "The B i o l o g i c a l B a s i s o f Imagination" i n B. G h i s e l i n , ed., The C r e a t i v e Process, p.226. L e t t e r t o the author.from P a u l S t . P i e r r e , A s s o c i a t e E d i t o r , Vancouver Sun, November 27, 1962. 1 2  The  6 7  Does t h i s mean t h a t we no l o n g e r r e c o g n i z e the importance o f v i s u a l symbols?  F o r t u n a t e l y t h i s i s n o t so.  Frank L l o y d Wright has made an a r c h i -  t e c t u r a l trademark o f the Johnson's Wax  complex, Skidmore, Owings'* and M e r r i l l  i n L e v e r House, C o r b u s i e r i n h i s modulor  symbol.  When we t r e a t i n d i v i d u a l works o f a r t , we come up a g a i n s t what might appear t o be a s t r a n g e phenomenon. n e c e s s a r i l y communication.  We  f i n d t h a t the purpose o f a r t i s not  Many o f the images p l a c e d i n the E g y p t i a n temples  t o accompany e x p i r e d r o y a l t y communicated  o n l y with the d e a d , i f a t a l l .  C e r t a i n l y i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , communication i s i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s o n l y i n so f a r as the c l i e n t and a r c h i t e c t a r e a b l e . t o fathom, each the i n t e n t o f the o t h e r .  The r o l e o f communication which a r c h i t e c t u r e p l a y s , has always  been a s s e s s e d i n r e t r o s p e c t .  H i s t o r i c a l l y , we can v i e w the v a r i o u s  t u r a l symbols and ded.uce the image which man period i n history.  was  Thus, f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s may  architec-  t r y i n g to p r o j e c t a t a g i v e n ask:  what was man  in  1963  t r y i n g t o say - what were h i s v a l u e s ? We have a comparable s i t u a t i o n t o the E g y p t i a n , i n the Mauryan i n India  (321-18k). ^ 1  period  • In the B a r a t a r H i l l s , we f i n d the Lomas R i s h i cave, a  s a n c t u a r y c a r v e d out o f the " l i v i n g rock" o f stone c l i f f s .  Here we have a  symbol c r e a t e d t o convey a p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n .  But the symbol,  e x c e p t f o r a v e r y r e s t r i c t e d group o f the i n i t i a t e , had no more p h y s i c a l tence than an opening i n the side, o f a  exis-  hill.  We have i n modern a r c h i t e c t u r e , a c o u n t e r p a r t to t h i s symbol which i s n o t a symbol.  These a r e the SAGE (semi-automatic ground environment.) i n s t a l -  l a t i o n s , an example  o f which i s b u r i e d beneath f i v e hundred and s e v e n t y f e e t  o f rock at N o r t h Bay, O n t a r i o .  I f v i s i b l e , i t c o u l d convey t o the Western  w o r l d a symbol o f defence and p r o t e c t i o n , t o the Russian, a symbol o f a g r e s s i o n . However, s i n c e no symbol i s apparent, (except t o the s i x hundred people manning  ^ G a r d n e r , op. c i t . ,  p.5l6-7.  68 i t ) t h e r e i s no On  communication. ^ 1  1  the o t h e r hand, the great m a j o r i t y o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l works a r e c r e a t e d  t o communicate an i d e a o r concept The concepts  which has  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r i t s generation.  c a t h e d r a l s o f the Middle Ages had a d e c i d e d r o l e i n communicating  and  ideas.  In a c i v i l i z a t i o n  f r a u g h t w i t h the m y s t e r i e s  v e r s e , awed by the v a s t c e l e s t i a l r e g i o n s , the v a u l t e d nave had a meaning.  Today we  o f the u n i significant  are i n the p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n o f d e s i g n i n g what P a u l Rudolph  has c a l l e d background a r c h i t e c t u r e , "something" which w i l l more or l e s s in  the background and not i n t r u d e .  to be our o f f i c e and churches,  remain  These s t r u c t u r e s , Rudolph has s t a t e d , a r e  commercial b u i l d i n g s , w h i l e our "more important"  community c e n t r e s , and so on - are to be g i v e n the r e a l  edifices  -  architectural  15 treatment.  T h i s shows a seemingly  c e n t u r y a r c h i t e c t u r a l symbols a r e . a c t u a l l y happen t o be,  naive understanding What we may  o f what our  wish them to be,  are v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s .  To t r y and  20th  and what they confuse f u t u r e  g e n e r a t i o n s by p r e t e n d i n g t h a t ours i s not a m a t e r i a l i s t i c e r a i s not  the  architect's function. Yet the problem o f use  is difficult  to a s s e s s .  d i s t i n c t l y monumental o r e x p l i c i t l y u t i l i t a r i a n , communication may  What Rudolph has  the problem o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l  be approached w i t h more c o n f i d e n c e .  these extremes r e q u i r e s t h a t much thought  be  When the f u n c t i o n i s  The v a s t area between  given to the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e symbols.  c a l l e d "background a r c h i t e c t u r e " may  be another  f a c e t o f the  s e r e n e a a r c h i t e c t u r a l background which Yamasaki i n s i s t s i s n e c e s s a r y p r e s e r v e h i s s a n i t y i n today's  f o r man  to  world:  The s t a t e o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , l i k e the s t a t e o f the world, i s uneasy and c h a o t i c . The evidence i s the e x p l o s i o n o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l ideas t h a t gush f o r t h to f i l l the s t r e e t s o f our c i t i e s . T h i s f l o o d o f experiments i s p r o d u c i n g almost every c o n c e i v a b l e shape and "form, and f o r the most p a r t without reason. •^Once we know o r surmise t h a t i t i s t h e r e , i t does communicate, our assumptions c o n c e r n i n g the premises may be erroneous. •^See P e t e r C o l l i n s , August, 1961,  pp.130-33.  although  "Whither Paul. Rudolph" i n P r o g r e s s i v e A r c h i t e c t u r e ,  69  A l l t h e s e shapes, each t r y i n g t o outdo the o t h e r , when p l a c e d t o g e t h e r - as a t Miami Beach - can o n l y res.ult i n complete c o n f u s i o n . With p o l i t i c a l t u r m o i l , t r a f f i c problems, v a s t i n c r e a s e s i n p o p u l a t i o n and the tremendous impact o f the machine, we must have serenity. Man needs a serene a r c h i t e c t u r a l background t o save h i s s a n i t y i n today's world.16 Is our a r c h i t e c t u r e t o communicate s e r e n i t y o r m a t e r i a l i s m - o r both? Whatever i t may  the answer,  b e f o r e our a r c h i t e c t u r e can a c c o m p l i s h the  communication  seek, we must t h i n k s e r i o u s l y o f some s o c i a l r e l e v a n c e f o r s t r u c t u r e  and d e s i g n .in our b u i l d i n g s .  Here i s the dilemma.  Can our o f f i c e  buildings  convey a s u g g e s t i o n o f our m a t e r i a l i s t i c age w h i l e a t the same time p r o v i d i n g the s e r e n i t y so n e c e s s a r y t o our peace o f mind? "chameleon" nificance.  light,  Viewed i n t h i s m a g i c a l  the a e s t h e t i c o f background a r c h i t e c t u r e takes on a new  In a w o r l d u n f e t t e r e d by the f i x e d s p a t i a l p o i n t o f view, t h e s e  "ambiguities" are admissible. a s p e c t s o f our way  of l i f e  They a r e p o t e n t i a l l y c a p a b l e o f b r i n g i n g a l l  i n t o r e l a t i o n with one a n o t h e r .  symbol o f m a g i c a l s e r e n i t y r e q u i r e d by the w o r l d may the p a r a d o x i c a l p r o c e s s o f background a r c h i t e c t u r e . f e l t symbols symbols  sig-  c o n t a i n w i t h i n themselves t h e i r own  Thus, what i s the  e x i s t simultaneously with A l l v i t a l and p o w e r f u l l y -  opposites.  T h i s i s what makes  so p u z z l i n g and. opaque to i n t e l l e c t u a l study, w h i l e the i m a g i n a t i o n  works w i t h i n them f r e e l y ,  f o r they a r e unique i n s t r u m e n t s o f communication.  As Wittkower has s t a t e d , w i t h r e g a r d t o Church  ikons:  1 7  The Church was always aware o f the i n t r i n s i c a m b i g u i t y o f f u n c t i o n , and i n p r a c t i c e n e v e r i n t e r f e r e d w i t h i t : the same f i g u r e o f the V i r g i n w i l l be an i d e a l t o the many and a symbol t o the few. 1  The i n h e r e n t dangers i n a s s e s s i n g the communication p r o c e s s o f the v i s u a l symbols  o f a r c h i t e c t u r e has been the theme o f Chapter IV o f t h i s t h e s i s .  have attempted t o i n d i c a t e t h a t d e s c r i p t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t u r a l monuments i s now  I  o f our a r c h i t e c -  p e r t i n e n t o n l y as the source o f "data" and " f a c t " as  A r c h i t e c t M. Yamasaki, quoted i n The Vancouver Sun, Wednesday, December 12, 1962. l 6  1 7  R.  Wittkower, " V i s u a l Symbols  i n A r t " , i n S t u d i e s i n Communication,  p.123  70  background  f o r more p r e s s i n g  concerns.  Today our problem  concept which our s t r u c t u r e s must- communicate t o be  i s the new  meaningful.  space  V.  THE GREAT HANDWRITING  In the l o n g  run, whether a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e c a n be assessed, as l a n -  guage o r symbolism i s o f secondary importance. the  great h i s t o r i c a l function o f a r c h i t e c t u r e :  Coulton quotes V i c t o r Hugo on, 1  From the b e g i n n i n g o f the w o r l d , down to:the end o f the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a r c h i t e c t u r e i s the g r e a t book o f the human r a c e . . . I t f i x e d , under an e t e r n a l , v i s i b l e , p a l p a b l e form, a l l t h e f l o a t i n g symbolism ( o f the p a s t ) . . . T h u s , d u r i n g the f i r s t s i x thousand y e a r s o f the world's h i s t o r y , from t h e most immemorial pagoda o f Hindustan down t o the c a t h e d r a l o f Cologne, a r c h i t e c t u r e i s t h e g r e a t w r i t t e n document o f mankind. What m a t t e r s i n t h i s s t u d y - i s n o t the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , . but t h e effectiveness  o f a r c h i t e c t u r e as communication.  A l l a r t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a non-  v e r b a l form o f communication. Only by means o f drawings, p a i n t i n g s , s c u l p t u r e and photography are we a b l e t o g e t an i n k l i n g o f how p e o p l e who l i v e d a t a given p e r i o d attempted to symbolize - o r i n a d v e r t e n t l y succeeded i n s y m b o l i z i n g thoughts, f e e l i n g s o r even t h e e n t i r e p a t t e r n o f t h e i r l i v e s . Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n a r t i s t h e r e f o r e more than merely a code; i t always c o n t a i n s a comment, an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and a s u g g e s t i o n o f how to unders t a n d i t s symbols. The embodiment o f an i d e a i n t o a work o f a r t cont a i n s both communicative and metacommunicative messages. I f we a r e w i l l i n g t o e n v i s i o n  t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r e has been the g r e a t  hand-  w r i t i n g o f the human r a c e , and t h a t t h i s f u n c t i o n was, a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , troyed One  by the i n v e n t i o n  o f movable type, we a r e l e f t w i t h a t w o - f o l d  problem.  i s t o d e c i p h e r the " h a n d w r i t i n g " which e x i s t e d p r i o r t o Gutenberg's  t i o n i n the 15>th c e n t u r y ; function  the o t h e r i s t o p l a c e a c c u r a t e l y  by innumerable h i s t o r i a n s . S u f f i c e i t t o say,  apparent i n assessing  the v a s t  handwritings  The former problem has been handled  To add c o n j e c t u r e  at this point,  inven-  the communication  o f a r c h i t e c t u r e a f t e r i t had become one o f many g r e a t  ( i f indeed i t d i d r e t a i n t h i s f u n c t i o n ) .  des-  to c o n j e c t u r e ' i s  t h a t two d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s  continuum o f h i s t o r y .  of l i t t l e  value.  a r e a t once  The a r c h i t e c t u r e o f a  iG.G. C o u l t o n , M e d i a e v a l F a i t h and Symbolism, (New York: Harper, Torchbook, 1958) 2  R u e s c h and Kees, op. c i t . , p.30.  71  72  predominantly  o r a l t r a d i t i o n i s not h i s t o r i c a l l y e c l e c t i c , g o i n g back i n p o i n t  o f time o n l y as f a r as man's memory can r e c o r d . based upon t r a d i t i o n a l models, i t knows l i t t l e d i v o r c e d from i t s own. s c a l e - we  That i s , a l t h o u g h of the g l o r i e s o f  i t may  be  civilizations  Once p r i n t becomes a v a i l a b l e on a r e l a t i v e l y mass  must, o f c o u r s e ,  r e a l i z e t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the world's p o p u l a t i o n  is  today s t i l l i l l i t e r a t e  - man  has  immediately  He  i s a b l e to read o f the g r e a t c i v i l i z a t i o n s o f the p a s t and. o n l y then does a  r e t u r n t o former g l o r i e s become a s i g n i f i c a n t The  event.  r o l e o f b u i l d i n g s , s t r u c t u r e s , as messages o f a r c h e t y p a l forms o f  human concern and  a huge t r a n s p e r s o n a l memory.  as i n f l u e n c e d by o r a l , w r i t t e n , p r i n t ,  telegraphic,  photographic  e l e c t r o n i c systems o f communication has y e t to be undertaken.  these mass media has  a d i s t i n c t i v e b i a s and may  Each o f  i n d i c a t e to us as y e t  unexplored 3  paths c o n c e r n i n g  the c o n c e p t i o n  and  treatment  o f space i n a given p e r i o d .  t h i s b a s i s , i t behooves us, i n an e l e c t r o n i c e r a to r e a s s e s s , and necessary,  concepts  I t may  be  i n s t r u c t i v e a t t h i s p o i n t to t u r n f o r a moment to the example outgrowth o f the l a s t  Here we  s e n t l y extending  system o f senses t h a t can be found  with  may  great o r a l t r a d i t i o n o f  Western w o r l d .  cript  the  f i n d a c l u e t o p e r c e p t i o n more v a l i d , f o r our  c u l t u r e o f the G o t h i c world,  even those who  pre-  i n Renaissance c u l t u r e .  c a l l e d p r i n t the " i s o l a t i n g medium p a r e x c e l l e n c e . " 4  In the manus-  c o u l d read, d i d so a l o u d  and  difficulty. I t i s t h e r e f o r e not d i f f i c u l t  saints' lives But  discard i f  o f a r c h i t e c t u r e based on the p r i n t e d page.  o f G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e , an  Riesman has  On  to understand  the d i s p o s i t i o n to c a r v e  on the c a t h e d r a l w a l l s , f o r a l l t o "read" who  c o u l d see and  the  touch.  i t c o u l d o n l y have meaning f o r the populace because they were a l l f a m i l i a r  with  the s t o r i e s o f the g o s p e l s , ^See  eds.,  through c o u n t l e s s o r a l r e c i t a t i o n s from  I n n i s , The B i a s o f Communication,  child-  p.6k.  ko. Riesman, "The O r a l and W r i t t e n T r a d i t i o n s , " i n C a r p e n t e r E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Communication, p . I l k .  and McLuhan  73 hood on.  The  p r e s e n t a t i o n i s v i s u a l without  y e t t o be f o r m u l a t e d .  (As p o i n t e d out elsewhere p e r s p e c t i v e and p r i n t •  have e v o l v e d more or l e s s contemporaneously.  Both d e a l w i t h a p r e f e r r e d p o i n t  o f view and a form o f l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n . ) grasp o f the woes and f a c t e x i s t and be seen and  e c s t a s i e s o f s a i n t s and  I f the c r i e s  imagination  out and  t r u e to him  touch  by v i r t u e o f what he had  cause of the expense and  any  The  "The  could  a visual-  Word" r i n g -  saw  was  only r e a l  and  been passed down by  eye a b e t t e d  the e a r .  range of a v a i l a b l e s t o r i e s was  I t had  limited  be-  extremely  works - the B i b l e , the  some s e c u l a r works l i k e the Chansons de Geste - were p e r p e t u a t e d But when Gutenberg i n t r o d u c e d  the system o f c a s t i n g m e t a l type a new  e r a began.  not dominant.  to the Western  regions  W i t h i n a decade, advances i n the  p o s s i b l e the widespread p r o d u c t i o n more s e c u l a r m a t e r i a l .  image.  system  h i s t o r i c p a s t , not merely i n i t s own  a  R e l a t i v e ease o f r e p r o d u c t i o n made  o f a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e , p r i n t s and,  For the f i r s t  Com-  o f Europe i n  p r i n t s through an e a r l y form o f wood-block, made a v a i l a b l e on  l a r g e r s c a l e the e x a c t l y r e p e a t a b l e  on  world  I n n i s , i n the B i a s o f  notes t h a t p r i n t spread most r a p i d l y :in those  which the c a t h e d r a l was of producing  The  Thus, o n l y the most important  s c a l e i n w r i t t e n form.  munication,  But what man  been t o l d or what had  to g e n e r a t i o n .  i t .  I t was  time consumed i n hand-copying, as w e l l as the  high rate of i l l i t e r a c y . and  Their r e a l i t y  h e l l so r e a l t h a t the p e o p l e c o u l d  them - i f they dared.  s i g n i f i c a n c e without  Gospels,  Heaven and h e l l d i d i n  The v i s i o n o f damnation backed up by  word o f mouth from g e n e r a t i o n little  sinners.  g i v e us a. simultaneous  o f the s i n n e r s c o u l d not a c t u a l l y be heard, i t  f o r t h from the p u l p i t made heaven and  reach  carvings  f o r them t o be heard i n men's minds.  a u d i t o r y - t a c t i l e world. ing  The  they e x i s t e d i n the same xray f o r a l l men. .  felt.  needed l i t t l e  b e n e f i t of l i n e a r perspective,  time, a r c h i t e c t u r e was  t r a d i t i o n , but  i n general,  c o n f r o n t e d by a  o f the great empires o f  the  ^Movable and c a s t - m e t a l type were i n v e n t e d i n China around 800 A.D., but s o c i e t y and c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e were not ready f o r the growth o f the new d e v i c e and w i t h i t mass communication. The cumbersome number o f ideograms posed the greatest d i f f i c u l t y . ,  lh world.  That which became enscribed i n p r i n t took a new hold on the growing  body of l i t e r a t e men.  With the great c i v i l i z a t i o n s of the past so r e a d i l y  a v a i l a b l e , i t was an almost inevitable result that the symbolic forms of Greece and Rome should p r e v a i l . Let us now examine a contemporary c i v i l i z a t i o n to see how a primarily o r a l t r a d i t i o n affects the Eskimo's concept of space. The f a m i l i a r Western notion of enclosed space is foreign to the Aivilik. Both winter snow igloos and summer sealskin tents are domeshaped. Both lack v e r t i c a l walls and horizontal c e i l i n g s ; no planes p a r a l l e l each other and none intersect at 90 degrees. There are no straight l i n e s , at least none of any l e n g t h . . . • V i s u a l l y and a c o u s t i c a l l y the igloo is "open", a labyrinth a l i v e with the movements of crowded people. No f l a t s t a t i c walls arrest the ear or eye, but voices and laughter come from several directions and the eye can glance through here, past there, catching glimpses of the a c t i v i t i e s of nearly everyone. The same is true of the sealskin t e n t .  6  Acoustic space is non-directional i n that s i t t i n g , standing or l y i n g down man can experience sound.  7  It creates i t s own dimensions as a result of  i n t e n s i t y , l e v e l and p i t c h of the source.  The eye must have a background to  f i x an object i n physical space, whereas we cannot shut out acoustic space merely by c l o s i n g our eyes. For an o r a l t r a d i t i o n , the concept of privacy plays a f a r different role than i n a v i s u a l l y - o r i e n t e d culture.  Only to the former group can the  Japanese expression "to see but not observe" have any s i g n i f i c a n c e .  For  v i s i o n and v i s u a l space are not the primary modes. For the Eskimo, the "wrap-around" aspect of auditory space is shown by the manner i n which he constructs his winter home.  Surrounded by space i n a l l  i t s acoustic non-direction, he does not mould his igloo from the outside looking' i n , but from the inside working out.  Working from the centre, he builds  ^Carpenter, "The Igloo," i n Eskimo, i d e n t i c a l with Explorations, v o l . 9 (Toronto; University of Toronto Press, I960). E . S . Rasmussen, Experiencing Architecture (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1959), Chapter X, "Hearing Architecture," deals with the problem of how acoustics affect our different conceptions of space i n , say, a cathedral and a panelled den. pp.23Lr.i|,5. 7  75 a s e r i e s of concentric c i r c l e s , tapering upwards c o n i c a l l y .  When the keystone  at the apex has been set i n place, Eskimo and s t r u c t u r e are one.8  Only then  does he cut a small hole at the base, through which he crawls - i n e f f e c t , doffing his igloo. Perhaps here we have an answer to the dilemma expressed by Professor Ian Mcllairn? that "Man, the Measure" has not yet put i n an appearance i n contemporary a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e . -  I would l i k e to suggest that he i s there, but  that our generation, v i c t i m s of f i v e hundred years of p r i n t c u l t u r e and persp e c t i v e , cannot see him.  For us to experience man, he must be o p t i c a l l y  v i s i b l e i n the context of the p i c t u r e ;  f o r the younger generation, weaned on  the e l e c t r o n i c media such as TV with i t s simultaneous images, man i s d e f i n i t e l y 1  there.  But i n s t e a d of being i n space, space surrounds man and has no meaning  without  him. Of course, the younger generation i s beset with problems of c r e a t i n g  auditory and other b a r r i e r s i n the contemporary open planning systems.  The  b l a r i n g stereo i n s t a l l a t i o n s now serve to create sound b a r r i e r s with threshholds s u f f i c i e n t to discourage remain v i s u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e .  acoustic penetration of other areas which s t i l l As the s o l i d p a r t i t i o n system breaks down, new  forms of area demarcation must be devised.  D i f f e r e n t f l o o r l e v e l s are used to  create p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s , r a d i o and music, as suggested, to create acoustic ones.  F l e x i b l e d i v i d e r s , odours and plants are now used to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  areas which p r e v i o u s l y required s o l i d p a r t i t i o n s .  Perhaps f o r most of us, the  non-visual space o r i e n t a t i o n becomes meaningful only a t the summer cottage, where the water cascades down beneath the window. Although the Eskimo's m a t e r i a l i s perishable and must be replaced by the skeleton construction of the tent i n the summer, i t has perhaps a prophetic W.S. Baldinger, with H.B. Green, The V i s u a l Arts (New York: Pdnehart and Winston, I960), p.80. 8  Holt,  ?In a l e c t u r e e n t i t l e d "Man the Measure", d e l i v e r e d to the Humanities A s s o c i a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, February 12, 1963.  76 message f o r us, stressed, moulded,  a  skin-like  technologically structure,  is certainly  electronic then  as  age.  No  less  relatively  -with b u i l t - i n  a d e s i r a b l e commodity  Coupled  permit use  advanced n a t i o n .  with a f l e x i b l e  over a wide a person  "backward"  range  than  De  thermal f o r the  self-supporting,  capacities plastic  and  design  a s s e m b l y method, s u c h  of climatic,  r e g i o n a l and  T o c q u e v i l l e had  civilization  A  1 0  understood  i n the a p p l i c a t i o n  o f new  forms  of  a system  site the  easily an  would  differences.  advantage  of  1 1  a  media.  De T o c q u e v i l l e , t o s t u d y d e m o c r a c y , went t o t h e New W o r l d , f o r he r e a l i z e d t h a t c o l o n i a l A m e r i c a h a d a huge a d v a n t a g e o v e r E u r o p e . It was a b l e t o d e v e l o p a n d a p p l y s w i f t l y a l l t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f p r i n t i n g ( i n the book, t h e n e w s p a p e r and, by e x t e n s i o n , t h e a s s e m b l y - l i n e i n i n d u s t r y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n ) b e c a u s e t h e r e was n o b a c k l o g o f o b s o l e t e t e c h n o l o g y t o be l i q u i d a t e d f i r s t . Europeans had t o s t r u g g l e through a l o n g , p a i n f u l p e r i o d i n o r d e r t o c l e a r e n o u g h room t o e x p l o i t t h e new p r i n t technology. Today A m e r i c a has t h e l a r g e s t b a c k l o g o f o b s o l e t e t e c h n o l o g y i n the worlds i t s e d u c a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , b u i l t by p r i n t and methods d e r i v e d from p r i n t , a r e v a s t and p e r v a s i v e . Backward c o u n t r i e s have a huge a d v a n t a g e o v e r us: t h e y now s t a n d i n r e l a t i o n t o e l e c t r o n i c t e c h n o l o g y much a s we o n c e s t o o d i n r e l a t i o n t o p r i n t t e c h nology. What we p l a n t o do o r c a n do t o b r a i n w a s h o u r s e l v e s o f t h i s o b s o l e t e i n h e r i t a n c e h a s y e t t o be f a c e d . 1 2 However, I must p o i n t out Eskimo i s not Rather,  each  viously  the  we  accept, It  talizing  a l l "oral  extreme o f the  spatial We  1  question s t o n e by  a r e a l l aware  See  we  are a l l v i s u a l l y  headed i n the the  oral  direction  Eskimo embraces  f o r m s w h i c h he  forms,  t h a t i s , man  while  the  with acoustic  Western v i s u a l  oriented.  t h a t was  literacy,  tasks  helping to formulate  concerned  the  pre-  while  rejects.  faced simultaneously with  t h a t the accepted  B a l d i n g e r and  l C a r p e n t e r and 2  tion,  are  of existing  concepts;  more t h a n  Thus, the  p a r t i c u l a r moment i n h i s t o r y ,  space  of  revi-  contemporary  space. concept  relates  I n a p p l y i n g t h e l e s s o n , i f n o t t h e method, o f Eskimo c o n s t r u c t i o n , a arises. I s i t a n a c h r o n i s t i c t o l a y s t r u c t u r e s up, b r i c k by b r i c k , s t o n e , i n a n age when t y p e - s e t t i n g c a n be d o n e b y T e l s t a r ?  0  1 1  other.  seem t h a t we  any  this  the p r e s e n t ,  usually unconsciously,  the b a c k l o g  organic  tradition"  g r o u p seems, a t  would  that at  pp.ix-x..'  Green,  op.  McLuhan, eds.,  cit.,  p.80.  E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Communication,  Introduc  77 e v e r y t h i n g to the h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l ; the Eskimo and many contemporary of  seeing.  Perhaps,  t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r us. a f f e c t e d u n t i l we man  i s now  artists,  but the drawings  o f the E g y p t i a n s ,  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e are o t h e r ways  i n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t o f l i f e ,  these a r e more v a l i d i n -  Our r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h our environment  may  be  seriously  are a b l e t o f i n d a space concept i n k e e p i n g w i t h the image,  a t t e m p t i n g to p r o j e c t .  With the new  m a t e r i a l s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , and the new  awareness o f space, we may  and reawakened  f i n d t h a t the l i n e s and o r i e n t a t i o n o f a  need have no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the h o r i z o n t a l o r v e r t i c a l .  structure  F l a t , smooth s u r -  13 f a c e s w i l l have no more s i g n i f i c a n c e than t e x t u r e d or i n c l i n e d , s u r f a c e s . A r c h i t e c t u r e cannot e x i s t without a space c o n c e p t i o n and I am s u g g e s t i n g t h a t our new media have a t a n g i b l e r o l e i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h i s c o n c e p t . Anonymous (20th C e n t u r y ) , Leonardo  Ricci,  a r c h i t e c t s , speaks  o f "what our c e n t u r y ought t o become":  Now,  o f the " v i s i o n "  one o f the new  instead, everything i s f u l l  In  school of " t o t a l "  o f f a n t a s y and  invention.  The road has become the house, and the house, the r o a d . The house has grown l e g s and has m a r r i e d the mountain, and the mountain, too, i s house. The house has e n t e r e d the s e a , and. the boats a r e moored a t i t s d o o r s . And the a i r p l a n e s r e s t on the water, l i k e b i g sleeping seagulls. And you can no l o n g e r s e p a r a t e one t h i n g from another. C o n s t r u c t i o n s f o l l o w the r i v e r beds, down t o the r i v e r mouths. They go over the r i v e r l i k e suspension b r i d g e s ; they surge' toward, heaven l i k e mountain peaks; they ease themselves'down the s l o p e s l i k e a c o m f i e l d or condense l i k e g i a n t sequoias.(p.205) and l a t e r on: Means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n are o f a d i f f e r e n t k i n d , and p e o p l e ' s thoughts are o f a d i f f e r e n t k i n d . No l o n g e r p r i v a t e c a r s , nor c o l l e c t i v e buses. But s i n g l e elements, communicating among themselves freely. Roads t h a t move by themselves, h o r i z o n t a l l y , v e r t i c a l l y , j o i n t i n g the g a n g l i a o f t h e i r own composition.(p.206) In wishes may  each age o f h i s t o r y , man  to p r o j e c t .  must determine what c o l l e c t i v e image he  W i t h i n t h i s framework, any number o f i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s  be a c c e p t a b l e , so l o n g as they do n o t encroach upon the u n i f y i n g  concept.  13see G i e d i o n , "Space Conceptions i n P r e h i s t o r i c A r t " i n C a r p e n t e r i a n d McLuhan -eds.,- E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Communication, pp.80-81.  78 When t h i s o c c u r s , symbolism becomes confused e x p r e s s i o n a l s o becomes confused. o f man's communication, there was i n symbolic  representation.  and as a r e s u l t ,  When a r c h i t e c t u r e was no c o n f u s i o n  architectural  a direct  ( f o r the people  I t has been suggested  extension  o f the time)  t h a t w i t h the growth o f  l i t e r a c y , the p r i n t e d word began t o r e p l a c e a r c h i t e c t u r e , u n t i l the became v i s u a l imagery without n a l l i n g device.  s p e c i f i c meaning;  latter  i t s e r v e d i n s t e a d as a s i g -  I n n i s , i n the B i a s o f Communication, quotes T r e v e l y a n  on  the e f f e c t o f p r i n t on a r c h i t e c t u r e : The p r i n t i n g press became "a b a t t e r i n g - r a m to b r i n g abbeys c a s t l e s c r a s h i n g to the ground."(p.55) In e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y , man  d e v i s e d the church i n the shape o f a c r o s s ,  n o t because of i t s v i s u a l a s p e c t , which c o u l d h a r d l y be read  (particularly  b e f o r e an e r a o f a e r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e ) , but f o r i t s symbolic v a l u e . l o s e s touch with r e l i g i o n , the c r o s s , symbolic the v i s u a l c r o s s as s i g n a l becomes important. p r e s e n t not concerned  w i t h the cross-shape  as the Cross Is used t o s i g n i f y  and  As s o c i e t y  o f C h r i s t becomes secondary That i s , the church i s a t  as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e so much o f C h r i s t ,  "church".  Here, I b e l i e v e , we can f i n d the framework o f " u n i v e r s a l space" contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r e . are i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e .  In i t ,  symbols a r e not  t i t u t e o f Technology campus a r e expressed  On  The concept  of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  (as i s the f l u e ) and  i s n o t o n l y i n e v i t a b l e , but l o g i c a l and  the  signification. this  justifiable. the  At the same time, he p o i n t s out t h a t i n t e r p l a y  among our senses has been n e g l e c t e d .  P r i n t , with i t s s t a t i c s e p a r a t i o n o f  functions, c a l l i n g f o r a departmentalized, these  Ins-  r o l e o f the a b s t r a c t p a i n t e r o f today has been to make v i s i b l e  o f " a r e a o f meaning."  they  as g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r symbols and  the b a s i s o f the c u r r e n t mass media and systems o f communication,  " u n i v e r s a l space"  o f much  only f u z z i l y d e f i n e d ,  Thus, the b o i l e r room and c h a p e l o f the I l l i n o i s  r o l e o f the c r o s s i s one  and  s e p a r a t i s t o u t l o o k , has  broken down  relationships. L i t e r a r y i m i t a t i o n o f nature  t i e d to a f i x e d p o i n t of o b s e r v a t i o n  19 had k i l l e d the image as a p l a s t i c organism... N o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t c l a r i f i e d the s t r u c t u r a l laws o f the p l a s t i c image. I t ree s t a b l i s h e d the image i n i t s - o r i g i n a l r o l e as a dynamic e x p e r i e n c e based upon the p r o p e r t i e s o f the senses and t h e i r p l a s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . ' 1  We  1  e x p e r i e n c e space from .'a f i x e d p o i n t o f view which does not extend t o  i n c l u d e the space o c c u p i e d by the v i e w e r . w o r l d he e x p e r i e n c e s . we c o n c e i v e o f spaces a s  Man I s o u t s i d e , e x t e r n a l t o the  V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n has d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n a l b i a s a progression of d i f f e r e n t v i s t a s .  d e s i g n o f so many o f our town-planning schemes: l i n e a r sequence  o f views  i s presented.  Witness  a never-ending,  and the  pre-determined,  I f we e n t e r the p r o j e c t from the wrong  end, c o n t i n u i t y i s d e s t r o y e d . One  o f the g r e a t problems  c o n f r o n t i n g modern a r c h i t e c t u r e i s , then, the  dominant mode o f v i e w i n g i n sequence,  r a t h e r than comprehensively.  p r e p a r e d f o r the a r c h i t e c t u r e o f i n s i d e - o u t s i d e , o u t s i d e - i n s i d e ,  We  are un-  building-  l a n d s c a p e , l a n d s c a p e - b u i l d i n g , i n s h o r t , an a r c h i t e c t u r e unhampered by v i s u a l b a r r i e r s which p r e v e n t i t s e x i s t i n g as an integrated, whole.  S t r a n g e l y enough,  as has been suggested, i t i s the "menacing eye", TV, which i s r e d e f i n i n g for  space  man. Many people have drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the TV image as a mosaic mesh o f luminous p o i n t s comparable t o a S e u r a t p a i n t i n g . And as i n S e u r a t the e f f e c t o f the TV mesh i s to g i v e s t r o n g s t r e s s t o contour and s c u l p t u r a l q u a l i t y . .Andre G i r a r d , the French p a i n t e r who has done v i s u a l experiments f o r CBS and NBC, has s a i d t h a t i t was h i s master Rouault, who made him i n t e r e s t e d i n TV. For Rouault made h i s e f f e c t s as i f by l i g h t through r a t h e r than by l i g h t on, as occurs i n stained glass. In f a c t , says G i r a r d , Rouault was tEe" p a i n t e r o f t e l e v i s i o n b e f o r e TV. And, as i n m e d i a e v a l g l a s s , o r i n S e u r a t o r Rouault, the r e t i n a l image i s o f low d e n s i t y o r "low d e f i n i t i o n " , as broadcasters say. Yet t h i s "low d e f i n i t i o n " e l i c i t s h i g h empathy or p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the p a r t o f the v i e w e r . Perhaps i t i s j u s t because o f the low d e f i n i t i o n o f the r e t i n a l image t h a t there i s such a h i g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n t e r p l a y o f . a l l the senses i n TV. In t h i s r e s p e c t the t e l e v i s i o n v i e w e r i s a s o r t o f s k i n - d i v e r , f o r a l l the senses a r e i n p l a y , but some o f them i n r a t h e r d i m i n i s h e d i n t e n s i t y . This would seem t o be a c o n d i t i o n o f s y n e s t h e s i a , t h a t no one sense be a l l o w e d high i n t e n s i t y .  1  ^G.Kepes, The Language o f V i s i o n , p.200.  -^McLuhan, " I n s i d e The  Five-Sense Sensorium",  p.U9.  80 The eventual result w i l l be a concept of space.as simultaneous awareness of a multiplicity of unified images in a non-linear fashion. man w i l l not be at ease in the electronic age.  Until this occurs,  Although literate men them-  selves have a l l the necessary apparatus and "civilized" advantages for effective communication i n the 20th century, they continue to function on partial potential. When Frank Lloyd Wright battered down the rigid partition system of the Western dwelling, he introduced a new era in architecture.  Giedion tells us:  By 1 9 1 0 Wright had achieved a f l e x i b i l i t y of open planning unapproached hitherto. In other countries at that time the flexible ground plan and the flexibly moulded interior and exterior were almost unknown. Wright's realization of a flexible treatment of the inner space.of a building i s probably his greatest service to architecture. It brought . l i f e , movement, freedom into the whole rigid and benumbed body of modern architecture ,1b In his 193i+ project "Broadacres City", which Wright himself described as "everywhere and nowhere"-, he had assessed the distinguishing features of the new technology as "automobility" and electric communication.  To which Goodman and  Goodman, in Communitas, ask "Does he mean TV?"(p.90) There i s a thecfry that the great astronomers in history often became architects, but that the reverse never occurred.  After dealing with the vast  heavens, the particular problem of bounded space must have seemed elementary. The inability on the. part of architects for so many centuries to conceive of space other than as-'»the hollowed-out 'portion of a container i s an indication of why the reverse process did not occur.  Even today the interpenetration and  continuity•of house-and garden i s rarely achieved in practice. as refractory as stone or brick.  Glass can be  To achieve the flow of space requires a men-  tal adjustment, not merely the substitution of transparent for opaque materials. The new mass media, the newspaper, the photograph and the magazine have ^Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture (Cambridge;. Harvard University Press, 1 9 5 9 ) , V-hOT.  81 paved t h e way f o r the a r c h i t e c t s and the p a i n t e r s . format  o f the book, b u i l d i n g sentence upon sentence,  c u l m i n a t i n g i n a c a u s a l , almost  The c a r e f u l l y s t r u c t u r e d c h a p t e r upon c h a p t e r ,  i n e v i t a b l e c l i m a x had t o make room f o r t h e  heterogeneous mash o f the newspaper.  Reading by scanning, I suggest,  out o f the newspaper, w i t h i t s juxtaposed s t o r i e s from r e g i o n , then  grew  country,  c o n t i n e n t , world and f i n a l l y a l l o f space as man knows i t .  Hence t h e h e a d l i n e  the b o l d - t y p e became more important  I t was the c l i m a x  a l l t h e r e s t was d e t a i l ,  than t h e s t o r y c l i m a x .  reminding us o f the s k e p t i c who d e s i r e d t o l e a r n a l l  the B i b l e w h i l e s t a n d i n g on one f o o t .  "Do n o t do t o others what you would  not want them t o do to y o u - t h a t i s t h e B i b l e j  a l l t h e r e s t i s commentary.  Now go out and l e a r n t h e commentary."  T h i s was the h e a d l i n e answer t o man on  the move.  n o t ordered, as was the book.  The format  i s simultaneous,  Y e t the  i s o l a t i n g p r o c e s s o f the book s t i l l p e r m i t t e d t h e p l a c i n g s i d e by s i d e , o r above and below, o f c a p t i o n s , which, i f not read as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s ,  could  be h i g h l y humourous. '? 1  CLERGYMAN BACKS PROPOSAL FOR ENLIGHTENED SEX LAWS F e r r y Runs C a n c e l l e d But the u n r e l a t e d r e p o r t s o f the newspaper tend t o d e s t r o y t h e dichotomy o f time and space, and s e q u e n t i a l .  r e n d e r i n g them as r e l a t i o n s h i p s r a t h e r than s e p a r a t e , The here and now, space-time  ordered  c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the newspaper  paved the way f o r the a r c h i t e c t u r a l i d e a o f a room which i s n o t a room, an ext e r i o r which i s a l s o i n t e r i o r and b u i l d i n g which i s a l s o I t has been suggested  garden.  t h a t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e t u r n to e c l e c t i c i s m  i n a r c h i t e c t u r e was a r e s u l t o f the o u t c r y r a i s e d c o n c e r n i n g the s e n s a t i o n a l t a b l o i d s which, i t was s a i d , were- t h r e a t e n i n g t o d e s t r o y the morals In e f f e c t ,  i t was n o t i t s morals  of society.  s o c i e t y was w o r r y i n g about, b u t the i d e a o f a  -^Random c h o i c e from l o c a l d a i l y newspaper. •^See C a r p e n t e r ,  P.175.  "The New Languages" i n E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Communication,  82  new space concept replacing the linear format with i t s four centuries of tradition.  Today, airports designed on a linear system make no sense i n an age  in which i t takes one half hour to f l y from Vancouver to Seattle and twenty minutes to walk from the airport entrance to the loading platform. The new media, together with the tinted photograph, brought the East to the world's attention i n the mid-19th century..  In the Japanese dwelling, we  see the physical embodiment of what the newspaper-magazine format had suggested.. One six-mat room serves as dining room, l i v i n g room, bed room, parlour and, weather permitting, outdoor patio. In regard to the bed and i t s arrangements, the Japanese have reduced this a f f a i r to i t s simplest expression. The whole floor, the whole house indeed, i s a bed, and one can f l i n g himself down on the soft mats, i n the draught, or out of i t , upstairs or down, and find a smooth, firm and level surface upon which to sleep...19 This could be extended to any or every room, excluding perhaps the kitchen.  I  think i t proper to assess this as a reflection of the continuing "oral" tradition of the Japanese as well as of their idea of nature as a benevolent god. The trend to display pieces becomes necessary only with the introduction of perspective and i t s need for a focus.  Before print, when 'Western c i v i l i z a t i o n  was s t i l l basically "oral", i t too found'-comfort in space i t s e l f . And yet there was a medieval comfort. But i t must be sought i n another dimension, for i t cannot be measured on the material scale. The satisfaction and delight that were medieval comfort have their source i n the configuration of space. Comfort i s the atmosphere with which man surrounds himself and i n which he l i v e s . Like the medieval Kingdom of God, i t i s something that eludes the grasp of hands. Medieval comfort i s the comfort of space. A medieval room seems finished even when i t contains no furniture. I t i s never bare. Whether a cathedral, a refectory, or'a burgher chamber, i t lives i n i t s proportions, i t s materials, i t s form...20 It i s a l i v i n g instinct i n these periods that space shall be dominant, not furniture. To this everything else i s unconsciously subordinated.21 !?E. Morse, Japanese Houses and Their Surroundings (New York, Dover Publ i c a t i o n s , 1961), p.210. ~ 20  Giedion, Mechanization Takes Command, pp.301.  2 1 i d . , p.30U. Ib  83  Here, i t i s p o s s i b l e to draw a p a r a l l e l with d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s as areas of meaning, rather than as absolute values. has been replaced by a contextual r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The one " c o r r e c t " meaning A r c h i t e c t u r a l l y our range of  use, of s p a t i a l d e f i n i t i o n , i s extended by the context of f u n c t i o n . The new dynamic aspect of a r c h i t e c t u r a l space i s then pregnant with i n numerable meanings. In t h i s regard i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note one facet i n the design of the new Education B u i l d i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Here i s a  department teaching, supposedly, the l a t e s t refinements i n progressive education. A l l the audio, v i s u a l , t a c t i l e methods are preached i n a classroom with seats f i r m l y anchored to the f l o o r .  The.• immovable desk i s an outgrowth of the e a r l y  days of p r i n t c u l t u r e , when f o r the f i r s t time, teacher and student a l i k e had the same m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e to them i n the p r i n t e d book.  When teaching was  o r a l , teaching methods were flexible., approximating the c l u s t e r i n g of the t r i b e about the f i r e w i t h the c h i e f t a i n i n the centre. S o l i t a r y l e a r n i n g and study came only with the printed, page. And today when l e a r n i n g and study are switching more and more to the seminar, the round-table and the d i s c u s s i o n group, we have to note these developments as due to the decline of the p r i n t e d page as the dominant a r t form.22 And, adds.Joseph R. Royce:  "Because o f the great forces of fragmen-  t a t i o n i n contemporary l i f e we need to exert ourselves e x p l i c i t l y toward prov i d i n g educational s i t u a t i o n s where i n t e g r a t i o n , both outward and inward, can be maximally fostered..."23 The new media of l e a r n i n g suggest that such a dynamic grouping i s more i n keeping w i t h contemporary tendencies than the negating example of f i x e d seating.  Use of a given area w i l l be determined by need.  Only then w i l l i t  be v a l i d to impose a s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n a l arrangement upon an. area.  Here i s  C a r p e n t e r and McLuhan, "Culture Without L i t e r a c y " i n Explorations i n Communications, p.119. 22  23"Educating the\Generalist" i n Main Currents i n Modern Thought, MayJune 1961, vol.17, no.5.  p.101.  f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the concept o f " u n i v e r s a l space" - not i t s P l a t o n i c overtones, nor i t s r e a l - e s t a t e v a l u e , nor i t s apparent n e g a t i o n o f man individual.  little  flux.  Segmented man,  divorced  from the c u r r e n t  p l a c e i n the i n t e r p l a y o f a l l the senses b e i n g  media o f communication. is  an  In t h i s context, u n i v e r s a l space becomes o r g a n i c a l l y l o g i c a l i n  a world of constant has  as  The  "whole", man,  of  life,  reawakened by the  new  i n every f a c e t of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y ,  the l o g i c a l outgrowth of the simultaneous and  potentially unlimited archi-  t e c t u r e they c a l l f o r t h . One  questions  the r o l e o f the proscenium t h e a t r e , which not  only  imposes  severe l i m i t a t i o n s on p e r f o r m e r s , but binds the audience v i r t u a l l y to i t s s e a t . Any  conventional  theatre  i s a h i g h l y r e s t r i c t i v e room.  Canetti,in describing  the p a n i c which o f t e n s e i z e s t h e a t r e audiences when t h r e a t e n e d t h a t "...a and  normal t h e a t r e  i s arranged w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f p i n n i n g people down  a l l o w i n g them o n l y the use  l e g s i s r e s t r i c t e d as f a r as • The  o f t h e i r hands and v o i c e s ;  by newspaper, r a d i o , f i l m and  xjhen the f u n c t i o n o f t h e a t r e has  a chamber group r e q u i r e s  t i c a l l y reduced i n - s i z e , t o o b t a i n the i n t i m a c y stated: ^ 2  "Never b e f o r e  so c o n s c i o u s o f i t s l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . form i s not new,  of t h e i r  been usurped  t e l e v i s i o n , r e q u i r e s t h a t a h a l l have g r e a t  b i l i t y t o be an economic as w e l l as a r t i s t i c s u c c e s s . r e q u i r e arena p r o p o r t i o n s ,  t h e i r use  possible."^U  r o l e of the a u d i t o r i u m ,  As W h i t t a k e r has  by danger, s t a t e s  The  but i t i s a t t r a c t i n g new  A l a r g e symphony  t h a t the house be  fleximay  dras-  f o r which the music xras w r i t t e n .  i n i t s h i s t o r y has  the t h e a t r e been  b a t t l e o f proscenium v e r s u s p l a t armies o f defenders on e i t h e r s i d e ,  and  a major b a t t l e seems i n e v i t a b l e . . . . T h e  its  audience around i t , can keep c o n t r o l o f a l a r g e audience w i t h ease, and  l i t t l e c i r c l i n g about.  platform  stage,  b l a t a n t l y wrapping  I t s f a r t h e s t customer i s l e s s than h a l f as f a r away  ^ U c a n e t t i , op. c i t . ,  p.26.  ^ Q u o t e d by McLuhan i n " I n s i d e  the  F i v e Sense Sensorium", p.5"l.  a  85 because the stage p r o j e c t s out t o meet him." The  stage seems t o be p e r p e t u a t i n g  t h e Renaissance.anachronism o f the  picture-box  theatre.  What I n i g o Jones had t r i e d s u c c e s s f u l l y t o do i n the  productions  o f " F l o r i m e n e " and "SaLmacida P o l i a " was t o extend the p e r s p e c t i v e  v i s t a almost out o f the t h e a t r e . and. e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y , unsuccessfully,  o f the l a t e 19th  Appia, C r a i g , R e i n h a r d t and Jones, have t r i e d , l a r g e l y  t o d i s s o l v e t h i s r e s t r i c t i n g frame i n an e f f o r t t o r e v i t a l i z e  legitimate theatre. the "new"  But the great i n n o v a t o r s  2 6  theatre.  They emphasized l i g h t i n g and the a c t o r , as the b a s i s f o r C r a i g , i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h John S a v a c o o l ,  2 7  has s a i d t h a t  d e s p i t e a l l t h e i r e f f o r t s , a l l t h a t has happened t o the stage i n t h i s i s t h a t the e x t e r n a l t r a p p i n g s The  present  to-date,  century,  have been exchanged f o r more contemporary  dress.  t h e a t r e merely s u p p l i e s a r e - e d i t i o n o f the o l d model, brought up-  streamlined  and improved.  Shakespeare, w r i t i n g f o r an o r a l l y o r i e n t e d people, r e q u i r e d no d e s i g n e d s e t s and o n l y rudimentary p r o p s .  S e t t i n g s and p l a c e were conveyed through  verse.  I t was l e f t  t o the audience t o c o n s t r u c t  or f i l l  i n the s c e n i c e l e -  ments.  This r e q u i r e d an i n t e r p l a y o f the senses on the p a r t o f the v i e w e r s ,  who were r e a l l y a u d i t o r s and c r e a t o r s as w e l l . Maximal audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s what the p l a t f o r m  stage,  l i k e the arena  theatre, o f f e r s .  +  +  +  +  "Area o f meaning", as a p p l i e d . t o a r c h i t e c t u r e , i s more than a ment o f our s p a t i a l concept as a broad c o n t e x t u a l the a b s o l u t e  q u a l i t i e s o f other e r a s .  2  reassess-  framework i n c o n t r a s t w i t h  I t suggests as w e l l t h a t d i f f e r e n t  6see MacGowan and. M e l n i t z , The L i v i n g Stage, (Edgewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1955), pp.183, 93 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2  +  N.J.t  7Published under the t i t l e "Stage V i s i o n a r y " , i n Theatre A r t s , June  1950, vol.34, no.6.  86  d i s c i p l i n e s and competences work together across a wide f i e l d of d i v e r s i f i e d interests.  These must be incorporated i n an integrated design.  The g e n e r a l - '  l y conservative American I n s t i t u t e of A r c h i t e c t s has recognized the need f o r a smoothly functioning design team, working across many d i s c i p l i n e s .  (Whether  the recognition was a matter of progress of a re-entrenchment against the onslaught of the package-dealers i s , however, a moot p o i n t . ) The s p e c i a l i s t , working i n a corporate system, i n which order i s imposed l i n e a l l y from the top downwards i s no longer f e a s i b l e i n our e l e c t r o n i c age. The relevant f a c t o r i n t h i s obsolescence i s the use of e l e c t r o n i c tapes by which information i s fed from s e v e r a l points simultaneously and i n concert; p r e v i o u s l y , with p r i n t , there had been one u n i t followed by another u n i t . With t h i s switch from l i n e a r to c l u s t e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n , l i t e r a c y l o s t i t s main prop i n the s o c i a l structure of our time, because the motivating force i n the teaching of reading, and the development o f a h i g h l y l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e , was the s t r i c t relevance of that classroom d i s c i p l i n e to every pattern and purpose i n the outside world. Today the outside world i s abandoning that very form and p r o v i d i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s motivation f o r the teaching of reading and the achieving of l i t e r a t e culture i n our schools.28 The new formulations of e l e c t r o n i c media suggest a f i e l d attack through "organized ignorance." This s t r i k i n g phrase seems to have a r i s e n during the Second World. War, when the Operations Research people put b i o l o g i s t s and psychologists to work on weapons problems that would o r d i n a r i l y have f a l l e n to the l o t of engineers and p h y s i c i s t s . The former group swarmed a l l over each problem instead of beaming a ray of s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge at i t . I f you beam knowledge at a new s i t u a t i o n , you f i n d i t i s quite opaque; i f you organize your ignorance, t a c k l i n g , the s i t u a t i o n as an o v e r - a l l p r o j e c t , probing a l l aspects at the same time, you f i n d unexpected apertures, v i s t a s , breakthroughs. Thus the chemist Mendeleev, to discover the missing group i n the element chart, d i d not simply use a v a i l a b l e knowledge. Instead he asked: what must be the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e s t , i f those we do know are to make sense among themselves? ? 2  Dr. B . J . Muller-Thym, a business analyst at Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology, has taken up the challenge of the change-over from l i n e components to i n t e r a c t i n g d i s c i p l i n e s i n the world of management and i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The f i r s t t h i n g to be discovered was that pyramidal o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ^"Carpenter and McLuhan, eds., Explorations i n Communication, Introduction, p . x . 2  ?Ibid.  87 s t r u c t u r e , with many l a y e r s o f s u p e r v i s i o n , and with f u n c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n by s p e c i a l i t y , s i m p l y d i d n o t work. The communication c h a i n between top s c i e n t i f i c o r e n g i n e e r i n g l e a d e r s h i p and work c e n t e r s was too l o n g f o r e i t h e r the s c i e n t i f i c o r m a n a g e r i a l message t o be communicated. But i n these r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s where work a c t u a l l y got done, when one s t u d i e d them, he found t h a t whatever the o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t p r e s c r i b e d , groups o f r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h d i f f e r e n t competences as r e q u i r e d by the problem i n hand were working together, c u t t i n g a c r o s s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l lines; t h a t they were e s t a b l i s h i n g most o f t h e i r own d e s i g n c r i t e r i a f o r the work as w e l l as t h e i r i n t e n d e d p a t t e r n s o f a s s o c i a t i o n ; t h a t the p a t t e r n s o f t h e i r group a s s o c i a t i o n a t work f o l l o w e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e i r competences as human knowledges.3° The  f a c t i o n a l i z e d town-planning system, imposed from above, i s an example  o f an outgrowth o f the p y r a m i d a l area i s designated pathway;  school;  o r g a n i z a t i o n system.  this, industry;  On a master p l a n ,  t h i s , park l a n d j  this,  a l l as though man were a fragmentary and d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d  Jane Jacobs has p o i n t e d out t h e f o l l y o f t h i s s y s t e m . 3 o f use i s n e c e s s a r y  t o the l i f e b l o o d o f our c i t i e s .  1  this  pedestrian being.  For her, the d i v e r s i t y I t no l o n g e r s u f f i c e s t o  be e x t e r n a l , d i s p a s s i o n a t e , o b j e c t i v e viewers o f man's environment.  We must  walk through our s t r e e t s , breathe t h e i r a i r , f e e l t h e i r rhythm, c a t c h  their  v i t a l i t y b e f o r e we can understand the i n t r i c a c y and d i v e r s i t y o f a g r e a t task.  To e x p e r i e n c e  the l i v i n g organism t h a t i s our environment from  social  behind  a s h e a f o f s t a t i s t i c s i s n o t t h e answer t o such problems today, i f i t ever was. Does t h i s group a s s o c i a t i o n mean t h a t the a r t i s t - a r c h i t e c t i s no l o n g e r desirable?  On the c o n t r a r y ;  as l o n g as a r c h i t e c t u r e remains a p o t e n t i a l ' f o r c e  f o r c r e a t i v e environment, the a r c h i t e c t i s h i g h l y n e c e s s a r y  t o achieve  stability  i n t h i s age o f c h e s s - p l a y i n g machines. I n t e r a c t i o n a t the i n c e p t i o n o f a d e s i g n i s necessary, d e s i g n i n g .in i s o l a t i o n and farming  r a t h e r than  out work t o v a r i o u s engineers  charged  with  r e n d e r i n g the a r c h i t e c t ' s " a r t " h a b i t a b l e . When,, i n a given s t r u c t u r e , t h e . c o s t o f m e c h a n i c a l and e l e c t r i c a l appur-  30McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, p p . l h O - l . 3!The Death and L i f e o f Great American C i t i e s , Part Two, The C o n d i t i o n s f o r D i v e r s i t y , Chapter 7, The Generators o f D i v e r s i t y , (New York: Random House,  1961), p p . l i i 3 - 5 l .  88 tenances  r i s e s t o f i f t y p e r c e n t o f the o v e r a l l c o s t , i t s treatment becomes  h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t and i m p o r t a n t . often d r a s t i c a l l y affects  A change i n any one o f these  the workings o f a l l the o t h e r s .  dependent.  P a t t e r n s o f a s s o c i a t i o n must be determined  simultaneous  awareness o f t o t a l a r c h i t e c t u r e .  disciplines  A l l are mutually  i n an i n t e r l o c k i n g ,  That d i f f e r e n t branches o f  knowledge s h o u l d have t o work i n m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e p a t t e r n s (from which the a r c h i t e c t must attempt  the onerous task o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n ) i s n o t s u p p o r t a b l e .  We have today t o o many outs f o r f a u l t y d e s i g n .  The engineers make  l i v a b l e a b u i l d i n g w i t h an a r b i t r a r i l y c l o s e d facade as w e l l as the e q u a l l y a r b i t r a r y t o t a l l y open f a c a d e .  Loudspeakers  and microphones c o r r e c t  faulty  a c o u s t i c s , a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t "beefs up" bad f e n e s t r a t i o n , and e l e c t r i c a l o b v i a t e poor  ventilation.  fans  3 2  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n ' o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g p r o c e s s has been taken up by a p i l o t study i n t o communications i n the b u i l d i n g industry.  I t i s an implementation  gramme o f the whole problem Mot  o f the demand f o r "an urgent r e s e a r c h p r o -  o f communications  t o o s u r p r i s i n g l y , the study attempts  s c i e n c e s and o p e r a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . I s h a l l quote  ( i n the b u i l d i n g  a mosaic approach,  industry)...."  combining  the human  Because o f i t s t i m e l i n e s s and importance,  e x t e n s i v e l y from the r e v i e w a p p e a r i n g i n t h e May 1963 RIBA J o u r n a l  (Royal I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h  Architects).  The r e p o r t f i n d s t h a t problems o f communication a r i s e a t every stage o f the b u i l d i n g p r o c e s s from i n c e p t i o n t o f i r i a l account. Until - much more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e about the t i m i n g , c o n t e n t , and techniques o f communications, improvements w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o achieve. D i f f i c u l t i e s i n communications have been a g g r a v a t e d by comp l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g from the need t o accommodate t e c h n i c a l change. T h i s has l e d t o c o n f u s i o n i n t h e r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f members o f the b u i l d i n g team. There i s no s t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n o f what the job o f any i n d i v i d u a l member o f the team i s . The a r c h i t e c t , the b u i l d e r , t h e q u a n t i t y s u r v e y o r , the subc o n t r a c t o r , w i l l be d o i n g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t jobs depending upon which o f the many p o s s i b l e c o n t r a c t u a l arrangements they a r e c u r r e n t l y working in. As a r e s u l t , t h e r e i s an u n d e r s t a n d a b l e d e f e n s i v e n e s s on the p a r t  Fitch,  op. c i t . ,  Chapter 15", The E n g i n e e r , ' F r i e n d o r Foe, pp.229-1+0  89 o f everybody, p a r t i c u l a r l y when e n t e r i n g upon a new p r o j e c t or a new set of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 'In the absence o f g e n e r a l l y agreed r u l e s f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p game, every man wants to ensure he i s n o t a l o s i n g party.' The r e p o r t b r i e f l y t r a c e s the h i s t o r i c a l development o f the v a r i o u s r o l e s i n the b u i l d i n g team over the l a s t 300 y e a r s . I t points out t h a t many d i f f i c u l t i e s are caused by the c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l and commercial i n t e r e s t s which have deep r o o t s i n s o c i e t y , and demand r e s p e c t . The ' l a c k o f cohesion and c o - o r d i n a t i o n ' i n the i n d u s t r y ( t o which S i r H a r o l d Emmerson r e f e r r e d i n h i s r e p o r t ) i s n o t the r e s u l t o f i l l w i l l or malignancy, but the outcome of f o r c e s beyond the c o n t r o l o f any i n d i v i d u a l or group. The r e p o r t , t h e r e f o r e , suggests t h a t the f i r s t s t e p towards improvement i s a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f these f o r c e s . Knowledge and techniques i n o p e r a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and the human s c i e n c e s now e x i s t which c o u l d enable the i n d u s t r y to a s s e r t something o f ' i t s own c o n t r o l over the e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l f o r c e s which impinge upon i t . The r e p o r t gives an account o f how o p e r a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h a n a l y s i s might be used to study communications i n the b u i l d i n g p r o c e s s . In t h i s , the problem o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a a g a i n s t which to t e s t performance, and the p o t e n t i a l v a l u e o f the c r i t i c a l p a t h technique as a means of improving c o - o r d i n a t i o n , are d i s c u s s e d . B u i l d i n g i s seen as a c h a i n o f i n t e r l o c k e d o p e r a t i o n s , i n which a wide v a r i e t y o f resources must be c o - o r d i n a t e d . The c e n t r a l problem a r i s e s from the l a c k of match between the t e c h n i c a l interdependence o f the i n d u s t r y ' s resources and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l independence o f those who c o n t r o l them. The recommendation of the r e p o r t i s t h a t concurrent s t u d i e s are now needed i n t o : (a) the d e t a i l e d p a t t e r n o f i n t e r l o c k i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the b u i l d i n g process; , , . (b) the r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the members o f the b u i l d i n g team. This would i n v o l v e a s t u d y o f the r e a l n a t u r e o f the ' d i s t i n c t i v e competence' of each o f the e x i s t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l and commercial members of the team; how these, r e l a t e to each o t h e r and t o the p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d s o f e x p e r t i s e or resources each c o n t r o l s . These s t u d i e s c o u l d b e s t be c a r r i e d on as a p p l i e d , r e s e a r c h on a c t u a l b u i l d i n g s i t e s and i n design o f f i c e s . . . . ( p . 1 7 8 ) Nor  does the emphasis on i n t e g r a t i o n mean t h a t we  which e n g u l f e d cated had  the new  exponents of i n d u s t r i a l design  the p r i n c i p l e o f " u n i v e r s a l , good d e s i g n . "  a very negative  f a l l i n t o the  a f t e r 1900..  trap  They advo-  However, t h i s a e s t h e t i c u n i t y  e f f e c t i n the l o o s e envelopes i t proposed f o r the a r t s .  K u b l e r , i n The  Shape o f Time, i l l u s t r a t e s what may  result:  T h i s e g a l i t a r i a n d o c t r i n e o f the a r t s n e v e r t h e l e s s erases many important d i f f e r e n c e s o f substance. A r c h i t e c t u r e and packaging tend i n the modern s c h o o l s o f design to g r a v i t a t e t o g e t h e r under the r u b r i c o f envelopes; s c u l p t u r e absorbs the design o f a l l s o r t s o f s m a l l s o l i d s and c o n t a i n e r s ; p a i n t i n g extends t o i n c l u d e f l a t shapes and planes o f a l l s o r t s , l i k e those of weaving and p r i n t i n g . By t h i s geometric system, a l l v i s i b l e a r t can be c l a s s e d as envelopes, s o l i d s and p l a n e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f any r e l a t i o n to use...(p.15)  90 A l t h o u g h K u b l e r was t i o n s between " f i n e " and  r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to the t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t i n c -  "minor", " u s e f u l " and  "useless"  without a p p l i c a t i o n t o contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r e . and  the A e s t h e t i c s  Mies van  der  of-Plenty,  J.M.  a r t s , i t i s not Fitch, in Architecture  r e l a t e s the contemporary tendency to the work o f  Rohe.  Mies has managed to f i t i n t o h i s c l a s s i c envelope, w i t h o n l y minor adjustments i n s c a l e or s t r u c t u r e , such v a r i e d o p e r a t i o n s as a museum, a bank, a rum manufacturer, a n a t i o n a l t h e a t r e , an a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c h o o l , and i n such d i v e r s e c l i m a t e s " a s Houston, Des Moines, S a n t i a g o de Cuba, Western Germany and Chicago....(p.166) I t seems to b o i l down t o the f a c t t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r e i s today, more than ever b e f o r e , a l t h o u g h he  a problem i n o r c h e s t r a t i o n .  The  a r c h i t e c t i s the c o n d u c t o r  cannot p l a y a l l the i n s t r u m e n t s , knows the q u a l i t y and v a l u e  which each u n i t i s c a p a b l e .  L i k e a s u c c e s s f u l symphony, any  who, of  successful  b u i l d i n g today i s a c o l l e c t i v e work o f a r t , a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l symposium o f e l e c t r o n i c man's techniques and  skills.  A l t h o u g h the t e c h n i c a l and  mechanical  s i d e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e are more and more becoming the p r o v i n c e o f modern s c i e n c e , • both a r t and  science  are  ordering a c t i v i t i e s  o f the human mind.  A r t attempts to d i s c e r n order r e l a t i o n s i n n a t u r e , c r e a t i n g images o f our e x p e r i e n c e o f the world. Data are s e t out i n terms o f r e c r e a t e d sense forms; and the f e l t o r d e r i s expressed i n terms o f s e n s i b l e s t r u c t u r e s e x h i b i t i n g p r o p e r t i e s of harmony, rhythm and proportion.33 We  are  i n a s i t u a t i o n i n which P i c a s s o  Moore i s f o l l o w i n g with the key The  i s already  dated, and  perhaps  to the technique o f v i s u a l " d i s c o n t i n u i t y . "  " d i s c o n t i n u i t y " i s f o r many as y e t u n i n t e l l i g i b l e because i t c r e a t e s a  pattern  of perception.  New  i n s i g h t s can be g a i n e d only by l e a r n i n g the  When a step forward i n the f o r m u l a t i o n  of a new  language.  s p a t i a l awareness i n  a r c h i t e c t u r e i s made, i t seems t o be i n the d i r e c t i o n o f r e h a s h i n g e x i s t i n g l i n e a r forms r a t h e r than a f r e s h approach.  33j[epes, " A r t and S c i e n c e " ,  (The  work o f such i n d i v i d u a l .  i n Explorations,  v o l . 1,  p.78.  new  91 c r e a t o r s as Gaudi, G o f f and F u l l e r f i n d s few adherents and i s g e n e r a l l y a s s e s s e d as e c c e n t r i c ,  yk  But the growing body o f devotees' o f the a r c h i t e c t s o f t o t a l d e s i g n Kahn, S o l e r i and R i c c i - i n d i c a t e s t h a t pessimism f o r the f u t u r e o f a r c h i t e c t u r e is  premature. In L o u i s Kahn and P a u l Rudolph, we see attempts a t i n t e g r a t i o n o f the  m e c h a n i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l elements o f a b u i l d i n g i n t o the d e s i g n , n o t merely as e x p r e s s i o n s o f f u n c t i o n , but as c o n t r o l l i n g d e s i g n elements. the form our contemporary  ornament w i l l t a k e .  is retrenching i t s e l f i n architecture. The f a c t t h a t man  Perhaps t h i s i s  And deny i t as we w i l l ,  ornament  I do not say t h i s i n a d e p r e c a t i n g way.  has never been a b l e t o deny ornament f o r any l e n g t h o f time  (the e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s c e n t u r y i s an example) suggests t h a t i t has g r e a t communications Mies  significance. van der Rohe has b a n i s h e d ornament, i n . t h e a c c e p t e d sense, t o  r e p l a c e i t w i t h a system o f s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l ornamentation.  Louis Sullivan,  f o r a l l h i s "form f o l l o w s f u n c t i o n " , never d e n i e d d e c o r a t i o n i n h i s a c t u a l work. Frank L l o y d Wright saw the need f o r i t i n others as w e l l as i n h i m s e l f . Niemeyer has attempted t o h i d e i t by making i t p a r t o f the e n g i n e e r i n g . C o r b u s i e r , though he d e n i e d i t i n the e a r l y p a r t o f h i s c a r e e r , has i n l a t e r y e a r s been i t s most eloquent proponent i n a t r u l y contemporary  sense.  Ronchamp  i s i n i t s e l f an ornament - e v e r y t h i n g about i t i s an e x t e n s i o n o f m a t e r i a l . Rudolph's non-denominational c h a p e l a t Tuskegee t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Ronchamp.  I n s t i t u t e , Alabama, i s a r e i n -  V a r i o u s o t h e r a r c h i t e c t s have used d i f f e r e n t means  t o i n c o r p o r a t e ornamentation;  Stone's and l a m a s a k i ' s g r i l l e s and s c r e e n s have  become s u f f i c i e n t l y r e p e t i t i o u s to be r e g a r d e d as  trademarks.  the evidence f o r the r e t u r n o f ornament i s too overwhelming l i g h t l y dismissed.  A l l in a l l ,  t o be i g n o r e d or  Rather, an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o i t s communicative  3^For a reassessment o f Gaudi's~work, A n t o n i Gaudi (New York: Praeger, I 9 6 0 ) .  function  see J . J . Sweeney and J.L. S e r t ,  may  be i n o r d e r . The work o f Eero S a a r i n e n was,  forms to express the contemporary he attempted its  u n t i l h i s u n t i m e l y death, a s e a r c h f o r  idiom.  building,  t o r e n d e r a modern p l a s t i c m a t e r i a l , c o n c r e t e , so as t o r e a l i z e  fluid potential.  A measure o f h i s success may  p l a n , e l e v a t i o n and s e c t i o n method was to be c o n s t r u c t e d i n i t i a l l y ,  inadequate.  inadequate  be t h a t the c o n v e n t i o n a l  t o the d e s i g n .  Models  had  and o n l y l a t e r c o u l d they be r e c o r d e d i n conven-  t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n s . . Perhaps, themselves  P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the TWA  then, our v e r y forms o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a r e  They are t o o l s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o the emerging  spatial  idea. I f , n o t i n g these e x c e p t i o n s , a r c h i t e c t u r e i s charged w i t h " h o l d i n g t h a t l i n e " w h i l e s c i e n c e and s c u l p t u r e v e n t u r e onto new  paths, then a r c h i t e c t u r e  w i l l become the g r e a t p r e s e r v e r o f the s t a t u s quo.  U n l i k e Hugo's  o f the " g r e a t xirritten document" o f the human r a c e , i t now d e f e n d e r o f the f a i t h .  assessment  f u n c t i o n s as a  I f a r c h i t e c t u r e i s s i m p l y an anchor t o what a l r e a d y  e x i s t s , i t can r e a d i l y be r e p l a c e d by the machine.  Computers w i t h g o a l d r i v e s ,  are a l r e a d y w i t h i n man * s c a p a b i l i t i e s . I f a l l the " g r e a t " forms are those which have e x i s t e d up u n t i l p r e s e n t , i t may  the  then be p o s s i b l e t o program these known d a t a and come up w i t h  machine answers as d i f f e r e n t one from the o t h e r as many contemporary Should t h i s seem a t r i f l e  science-fiction,  i t i s o n l y because  i g n o r a n t o f the e x t e n t o f man's c a p a c i t i e s .  Automatic  structures.  we a r e l a r g e l y  systems can o f t e n s u c -  c e s s f u l l y d u p l i c a t e these human c a p a c i t i e s without the a t t e n d a n t time When the machines have assumed a g r e a t p a r t o f the day-to-day t a s k s , man  w i l l have time on h i s hands.  r e t r a n s l a t i o n o f what has f o r time.  Of prime  repetitive  An a r c h i t e c t u r e which p e r m i t s o n l y a  gone b e f o r e w i l l do l i t t l e  importance  loss.  to a l l e v i a t e t h i s  concern  i n o f f s e t t i n g the u n l i m i t e d time on our hands,  w i l l be the concern w i t h c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n the w o r l d o f the f u t u r e , w i t h i t s need f o r a new  structuring of " t r i b a l "  space, i n a c o n t r a c t e d " e a r t h - c i t y "  and  93 an extended -universe. TV,  i n f a c t a l l the mass media, have been o b j e c t s  o f much c r i t i c i s m .  I t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t media, i n which a d v e r t i s e r s wish t o a p p e a l t o the l a r g e s t number p o s s i b l e , s h o u l d and  listeners.  c a t e r to an average mental age  o f twelve among viewers  Yet the vacuum c r e a t e d by the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n  extended by the E l e c t r o n i c R e v o l u t i o n ,  must be f i l l e d .  and  The unwaning p o p u l a r i t y  o f the cowboy w i t h h i s v e r y human, y e t h e r o i c , i n d i v i d u a l i s m , i s c e r t a i n l y symptomatic of a p o p u l a t i o n  swamped by m e c h a n i c a l r o u t i n e and 'confused by  complex machinations o f a xrorld i n f l u x . c o n t r o l i t , i s the automaton, the " s l i c k , at that p r o l i f i c  fellow A.  Nony-Mous who  The new  d i c t a t o r , unless  anonymous machine."  20th  century  a l l the v i t a l i t y o f a spayed b i t c h .  overwhelmed by "Modern Times", the i n d u s t r i a l Chaplin  so m a g n i f i c e n t l y p o r t r a y e d ,  l e a r n to  a l l laughed  wrote a l l those r o u s i n g b a l l a d s i n  l i t e r a t u r e course, but the anonymous b a l l a d e e r o f the "tape" f o r a b l o o d stream and  We  we  the  (and now  our  w i l l have a To people  e l e c t r o n i c ) s c a l e which  the undaunted cowboy r e s t o r e s the human  dimension.35 The  c a p a c i t y to d e a l with the bourgeoning world w i l l a l s o be l o n g i n  coming.  35see  McLuhan, The M e c h a n i c a l B r i d e : Vanguard Press, 1951.  F o l k l o r e o f I n d u s t r i a l Man  (New  York:  VI.  EPILOGUE  This t h e s i s has sought t o advance  the case f o r s y n e s t h e s i a , o r o r g a n i c  i n t e r p l a y among our senses t o i n c r e a s e and extend the range o f our e x p e r i e n c e s and our awareness  o f the world about u s .  The r o l e o f the communications  media  i n the r e o r i e n t a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f our c a p a b i l i t i e s , has been emphasized  as  a determinant o f s p a t i a l c o n c e p t s . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e , t o the d e t r i m e n t o f the o t h e r organs o f p e r c e p t i o n , i t has been suggested, i s the r e s u l t o f the emphasis p e r s p e c t i v e and book c u l t u r e .  on  V e b l e n u n d e r l i n e s the p r o c e s s o f G e s t a l t i n be-  h a v i o u r , i n The I n s t i n c t o f Workmanship: In a l l t h e i r workings, the human i n s t i n c t s a r e . . . i n c e s s a n t l y s u b j e c t t o mutual 'contamination' whereby the working o f any one i s i n c i d e n t a l l y a f f e c t e d by the b i a s and p r o c l i v i t i e s i n a l l the r e s t . T h i s must be so because the human organism i s o f one p i e c e , and what i t does i n one department o f l i f e under the a e g i s o f one i n s t i n c t , w i l l a f f e c t i t s b e h a v i o u r i n a l l o t h e r departments. F u r t h e r the i n s t i n c t s themselves are not s e p a r a t e b i o l o g i c a l l y . 1  Susanne Langer extends t h i s concept o f o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e t o the a r t s : O b v i o u s l y a p i c t u r e o r a poem ( o r a b u i l d i n g ) does n o t r e a l l y have organs and v i t a l f u n c t i o n s . . . . ...Every element i n a work o f a r t i s so i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r elements i n the making o f t h e v i r t u a l o b j e c t , the work, t h a t when i t i s a l t e r e d . . . o n e almost always has t o f o l l o w up the a l t e r a t i o n i n s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s , o r s i m p l y s a c r i f i c e some d e s i r e d e f f e c t s . T h i s many-sided involvement o f e v e r y element w i t h the t o t a l f a b r i c o f the poem i s what g i v e s i t a semblance o f o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e ; like l i v i n g substance, a work o f a r t i s i n v i o l a b l e ; break i t s elements a p a r t and they a r e no l o n g e r what they were - the whole image i s gone.2 A r c h i t e c t u r a l space can be s t r u c t u r e d by ear, nose and hand as w e l l as by eye.  Our s e n s a t i o n o f space Is m o d i f i e d by w a l k i n g , t o u c h i n g , t e x t u r e ,  shade,  temperature, sun, shadow, age, i n f a c t by any number o f ways through which i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the human organism t o c o n s t r u c t i t s w o r l d . t r u l y a p p r e c i a t e d must be e x p e r i e n c e d from two a s p e c t s :  1  Quoted  i n Explorations, v o l . l ,  2  Problems  A b u i l d i n g , t o be when you a r e o u t s i d e i t  p.39.  i n A r t , (New York: C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1 9 5 ? ) .  pp.55-7.  9k  95 and  when i t i s o u t s i d e y o u .  o f awe, i n t i m a c y , and  experience  As symbol, a r c h i t e c t u r a l space c r e a t e s f e e l i n g s  grandeur, d e l i c a c y , f r a g i l i t y ,  a l o n g these  connected w i t h our own f e e l i n g s  lines.•  Each age has i t s own space-metaphor p r e f e r e n c e .  Some h i s t o r i a n s have  assessed, the v i e w o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l space a t any given p e r i o d i n h i s t o r y as a f u n c t i o n o f man's c o n c e p t i o n revolved'around had  o f the w o r l d .  When, f o r the Greeks, the sun  the e a r t h , as d i d the l i m i t e d galaxy  o f p l a n e t s , so the temples  a p e r i p h e r a l p e r i s t y l e t o i n d i c a t e the v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s o f the sun.  The  innermost s e c t i o n , the e a r t h so t o speak, housed t h e d e i t y and was the c e n t r e o f the u n i v e r s e .  When the concept o f the world  changed so t h a t the sun became the  c e n t r e about which t h i n g s r e v o l v e d , then a l l was l i g h t and the i n t e r i o r s Renaissance c a t h e d r a l s and p a l a c e s panded c o n c e p t i o n  show t h i s s t a r - b u r s t c o n f i g u r a t i o n i n the ex-  o f t h e i r i n t e r i o r space.  c o n f i n e d w i t h i n the l i m i t s  o f the  But a t a l l times,  o f the outermost galaxy.  t h i s space was  Today o u r e a r t h i s l o o k e d  upon as b e i n g an i n f i n i t e s m a l l y s m a l l p a r t o f an u n i m a g i n a b l y l a r g e w o r l d . Space i s u n c o n f i n e d ,  without  l i m i t , and i s expressed  breakdown o f s o l i d w a l l s and p a r t i t i o n s , the m i n g l i n g i n s h o r t the complete p l a s t i c i t y  i n our s t r u c t u r e s by t h e o f i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r ,  o f space.  The mass media and communications p l a y an e f f e c t i v e r o l e i n t h e 20th century determination  o f space.  They s u b s t i t u t e a dynamic concept o f l i f e f o r  the s t a t i c p r i n c i p l e s o f the Renaissance.  By d i s c a r d i n g l i t e r a r y  a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t p l a s t i c f o r m u l a t i o n i s f r e e t o emerge. adapted t o our world  o f computers, TV s e t s , r a d a r screens  encumbrances,  We need an a r c h i t e c t u r e and h e l i c o p t e r s .  With  the i n c r e a s e d s t r e n g t h , f l e x i b i l i t y and l i g h t n e s s o f the new m a t e r i a l s - c o n c r e t e , p l a s t i c s , epoxies,  g l a s s - and the d a r i n g e n g i n e e r i n g  s o l u t i o n s o f the N e r v i s ,  Candelas and. F u l l e r s , the o l d ponderous s o l u t i o n s a r e d i s a p p e a r i n g , to t r a n s p a r e n c y ,  l i g h t n e s s and a d a p t a b i l i t y .  g i v i n g way  The symmetry o f l i k e p a r t s has  been superseded by r h y t h m i c a l asymmetrical balance  as.an o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e .  I have advanced the i d e a t h a t t h e mass media a r e prime f o r c e s i n t h e  96 s h a p i n g o f human p e r c e p t i o n . age",  T e l e v i s i o n as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e "machine o f our  w i t h the new e l e c t r o n i c technology, w i l l p l a y a d e c i s i v e r o l e i n d e t e r -  mining our new s p a t i a l awareness. i n the younger g e n e r a t i o n , earlier cultures.  As has been shown, t h i s i s a l r e a d y apparent  who a r e a b l e t o s t r u c t u r e space a c o u s t i c a l l y as d i d  F o r the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n ,  schooled  i n bookrprint-linear  s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n s , o n l y those w i l l i n g t o d e f y the s t a t u s quo w i l l adequately.  adjust  In " C u l t u r e Without L i t e r a c y " , C a r p e n t e r and McLuhan e x p l a i n ,  why  the E n g l i s h and Americans were so p a r t i c u l a r l y overwhelmed by p r i n t . . . . i n the 16th c e n t u r y they had o n l y rudimentary defences t o s e t up a g a i n s t the new p r i n t e d word. The r e s t o f Europe, r i c h e r i n p l a s t i c and o r a l c u l t u r e , was l e s s b l i t z e d by the p r i n t i n g p r e s s . And the O r i e n t has so f a r had. many kinds o f r e s i s t a n c e t o o f f e r . The new g e n e r a t i o n and  will,  o f course,  totems t o which they a r e h e i r .  n o t be e n t i r e l y f r e e o f the taboos  l e t they w i l l be able t o enjoy t h a t  simul-  taneous " v i s i o n " which, when p r o p e r l y understood, w i l l be as much a u n i f i e d mode of perception arts.  as t h e fragmented s i n g l e v i s i o n now g e n e r a l l y p r a c t i s e d i n the  The domains o f s c i e n c e and i n d u s t r y i n d i c a t e t h a t the f i e l d approach i s  n o t i d i o s y n c r a s y b u t a n e c e s s a r y s t e p i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g our e l e c t r o n i c age. However, the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , and t h i s i n c l u d e s s c i e n t i s t s when n o t engaged i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n s , s t i l l p e r s i s t i n the Renaissance concern with  optical  f i d e l i t y o f o b j e c t appearance as the s o l e means o f a r t i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f reality. In a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e , what we c a l l d i s c o n t i n u i t y today w i l l be t h e opportunity  f o r c r e a t i v e f u l l f i l m e n t tomorrow.  simultaneous p e r c e p t i o n  I t i s an o p p o r t u n i t y  o f the t o t a l d i v e r s i f i e d f i e l d  f o r the  o f man's endeavours.  T h i s , i t has been suggested, i s a l r e a d y w i t h i n man's c a p a b i l i t i e s through the media o f newspaper, and the new e l e c t r o n i c systems w i t h t h e i r mosaic format. I f t h e book page tends to p e r s p e c t i v e , the newspaper tends t o cubism and s u r r e a l i s m . ^ '  3Explorations, ^ I b i d . , p.125.  vol.1,  p.123.  91 Art  has become f o r many a system  t e r p r e t a t i o n to be i n t e l l i g i b l e .  Language i t s e l f has l o s t much o f i t s communi-  c a t i v e power through the mass media. nature as w e l l as the means to new must l o o k f o r new  o f packaging which r e q u i r e s v e r b a l i n -  For t h e r e i s a d i l u t i n g s i d e to t h e i r  concepts  of p e r c e p t i o n and space.  Literature  ways t o s e t down words t o convey the meanings which have been  a p p r o p r i a t e d by the ad-men. Kenneth G a l b r a i t h , i n The L i b e r a l Hour: . . . r i d i c u l e s the o l d commercial n o t i o n o f a r t s as f r i v o l i t y and urges the r e l e v a n c e o f a r t as a n a v i g a t i o n a l guide i n a l l b u s i n e s s today. The supremacy o f d e s i g n i n c r e a t i n g and markets i s one f a c t o r . The o t h e r f a c t o r i s t h a t the a r t i s t ' s d e s i g n s p r o v i d e the advance models of f u t u r e development. C a r e f u l study of new a r t i s t i c models g i v e s any f i r m ten or twenty y e a r s b r e a t h i n g s p e l l i n p l a n n i n g and development. The o l d - f a s h i o n e d b u s i n e s s man who p l a y e d i t o f f the c u f f and read o n l y the c u r r e n t s i g n s i s now doomed by the speed o f the new t e c h n o l o g y . So the a r t i s t moves from the i v o r y tower t o the c o n t r o l tower i n the modern industry.5 In  our d i s c u s s i o n o f a r t , language  d i s c u r s i v e language  and symbolism, i t was  determined  that  i s o f t e n d e f i c i e n t i n conveying emotions e f f e c t i v e l y .  i s n e c e s s a r y to a p p r e c i a t e i t s l i m i t a t i o n s as w e l l as i t s s t r e n g t h s . i n A r t and I l l u s i o n ,  s t a t e s t h a t "The  c o r r e c t i v e i s t o understand  the t o o l s , t o l e a r n the s i g n i f i c a n c e and dangers t h i s n e c e s s a r y t a s k , we f a l l i n t o the dangers  o f language.  It  Gombrich,  the nature o f  I f we n e g l e c t  a w a i t i n g those who  use t o o l s  they  do not understand.(p.92) Yet, so l o n g as we brought  c o n t i n u e i n the " h y p n o t i c s t a t e " i n which one sense i s  to the f o r e and a l l others s u b o r d i n a t e d , t h e r e i s l i t t l e  w i l l adapt t o our changing w o r l d .  chance t h a t we  S t u d i e s of p r e - l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e s can be  g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r what i s to them a n a t u r a l s t a t e , i s b e i n g upon us by the new  of  reimposed  e l e c t r o n i c media.  C o r b u s i e r has, -more than any o t h e r a r c h i t e c t , broken w i t h the concept a f i x e d v i s u a l p o i n t o f view.and i t s s e p a r a t i o n of the s e n s e s .  H i s concern  ^McLuhan, "The Humanities i n the E l e c t r o n i c Age", Association Bulletin, F a l l . , 1961 , pp.3-1*.  Humanities  i n The  of with  • 98 the t a c t i l e mode i n v i s u a l forms l e n d s g r e a t s t r e s s to c o n t o u r and s c u l p t u r a l q u a l i t i e s which a r e a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e TV medium.  He  has found comfort i n t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f space, f o r e l e c t r o n i c age comfort i s once a g a i n the "comfort o f space." concept among b u i l d i n g s today.  Ronchamp i s the n o t a b l e embodiment o f t h i s  That C o r b u s i e r i s a l s o a p a i n t e r i s n o t without  influence. Through the e n t i r e range o f h i s works, and p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e "modulor"  system was f o r m u l a t e d , runs man as the measure o f a l l  l a t e s t developments  things.6  The  i n h i s p r o l i f i c c a r e e r show many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o p p o s i t e t o  h i s e a r l y i d e a s , y e t n o t i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a "growing" a r c h i t e c t i n a changing world. Today, t h e consumer i n the a r t s i s b e i n g asked t o assume a r o l e o f a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c r e a t i v e f u n c t i o n .  This i s by no means unique t o our time,  but the p r e s e n t i n t e r - a c t i o n i s on an unprecedented s c a l e .  The seemingly  b i z a r r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n space o f the a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s t s a r e merely a cont i n u a t i o n o f t h e completion p r o c e s s which a r t i s t s throughout h i s t o r y have reserved f o r t h e i r p u b l i c s .  The new themes i n a r c h i t e c t u r e were n o t p o s s i b l e  so l o n g as we adhered t o a p r i n t c u l t u r e bound by book format. s e t t h e l i m i t s o f o u r v i s u a l i m a g i n a t i o n , as do p i c t u r e  Page margins  frames.  C o n s i s t e n t l y , the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y has worked t o f r e e i t s e l f from the c o n d i t i o n s o f p a s s i v i t y . . . And t h i s dramatic s t r u g g l e o f u n l i k e modes o f human i n s i g h t and o u t l o o k has r e s u l t e d i n the g r e a t e s t o f a l l human ages, whether i n the a r t s o r i n the s c i e n c e s . ? P e r s p e c t i v e has c o n d i t i o n e d the a r c h i t e c t ' s need f o r v i s t a s , l i t t l e o f c o m p o s i t i o n t o be seen from i d e a l l o c a t i o n s .  gems  The f a c t t h a t we move through  a g i v e n space i n a time i n t e r v a l has been n e g l e c t e d , i f u n d e r s t o o d a t a l l .  Our  ^The ease w i t h which the master s w i t c h e d dimensions when c o n f r o n t e d by the average s i z e o f the North American male, compared t o the European, may cause a s m i l e . Y e t a module which r e l a t e s to a l l t h a t man can p h y s i c a l l y encompass i s o f great s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .  7McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, p.278.  99 perception  i s a panorama o f s t i m u l i being r e g i s t e r e d on the screen  Even from a f i x e d p o i n t o f view, t h e . e y e i s never s t i l l . a d j u s t i n g and  r e a d j u s t i n g , h e l p i n g us to d e f i n e and  o f our  eyes.  I t i s constantly  clarify  our d a t a .  The  a r c h i t e c t s h o u l d p r o p e r l y be concerned w i t h c o n t r o l l i n g the movement o f the through v a r y i n g rhythms, f l o w s , a r r e s t s and  rebeginnings  r a t h e r than  eye  attempting  t o glue i t t o a s i n g l e p o i n t . That we  can and do a p p r e c i a t e  been i n d i c a t e d by r e f e r e n c e  the simultaneous images p r e s e n t e d  to d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s .  came to p e r s p e c t i v e p r i o r t o the l a t e 19th drawing.  century was  T h i s d e p i c t i o n gave a simultaneous and  d e s c r i b i n g i n t e r i o r and those a r e a s .  e x t e r i o r space and  The  c l o s e s t the  t o us  has  Japanese  a form o f i s o m e t r i c  i n t e g r a t e d s e r i e s o f views  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f i n h a b i t a n t s  to  In sumi-e, the o v e r l a y p a t t e r n o f a c h i e v i n g d i s t a n c e i s u s e d .  Without b e n e f i t o f v a n i s h i n g p o i n t s , a m u l t i - f r a m e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the w o r l d was  achieved.  simultaneously  We  move e a s i l y through the s c r o l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  views from above, below and  term f o r b o t h " t o w r i t e " and  " t o draw".  head on.  The  Their i n a b i l i t y  g i v i n g us  Japanese use to.separate  only  one  what t o us  are p r i m a r i l y d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s i s symptomatic of an o r a l l y - o r i e n t e d c u l t u r e . Our at  environment has  the base o f a t r i a n g l e .  been i n t e r p r e t e d f o r f i v e hundred y e a r s w i t h our eyes The  scene d i m i n i s h e s  p o i n t or the apex of our t r i a n g l e .  from t h i s base to the  From our v i e w i n g  vanishing  p o s i t i o n a t the base,  w o r l d assumes a d i m i n i s h i n g a s p e c t , viewed i n i t s e n t i r e t y as through the o f a camera.  But  i f we  r e v e r s e the process  and p l a c e our eye a t our  i f not  lens  vanishing  p o i n t , then our scene becomes an ever-widening, growing s e r i e s of i m a g e s . f i x e d p o i n t of view r e q u i r e s a c e n t r a l p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t and,  the  0  A  symmetrical,  a t l e a s t p a s s i v e i n g r e d i e n t s t o prevent our b e i n g d i s t r a c t e d from the " c o r r e c t " view.  A system o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  process  o f s e e i n g ) seems t o me  geared to the panoramic p e r c e p t i o n  a more sympathetic and  °See J . T y r w h i t t , "The Moving Eye", E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Communication, pp.90-5.  (our normal  r e a l i s t i c basis f o r  i n C a r p e n t e r and McLuhan,  eds.,  100  a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n s today. We  cannot e x p e r i e n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the same manner i n the s o c i a l ,  u n i t i n g media o f a TV c u l t u r e as we we  c a n . i n the i s o l a t i n g media o f the book.  come t o r e a l i z e the r o l e o f the mass media i n our way  f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e the new  the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p e r s p e c -  a l l h e l p e d t o bury the G o t h i c , w i t h i t s many-faceted  w o r l d beyond;  we can more  language o f e x p r e s s i o n they open to u s .  The advent o f type, the r e p e a t a b l e p r i n t , tive,  of l i f e ,  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the  so, the motion p i c t u r e and TV a r e h e l p i n g t o break down the s o l i d  p a r t i t i o n system o f the p r e - 2 0 t h c e n t u r y p e r i o d .  As the world becomes l e s s  and l e s s segmented and more and more a m a t t e r o f i n t e r a c t i o n , space begins t o s p i l l  As  inevitably  o v e r i t s p r e c o n c e i v e d b o r d e r s , so t h a t n o t o n l y does the space  w i t h i n the v e s s e l become s i g n i f i c a n t , but a l s o the space without and as the container loses i t s s o l i d i t y ,  the space through the c o n t a i n e r as w e l l .  What w i l l be the new  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , as the o l d e r forms  judgment a r e i n t e r p e n e t r a t e d by the new face  of perception  and  e l e c t r i c age, i s the q u e s t i o n we must  today. Man  "has the power d e l i b e r a t e l y t o seek new  p a t t e r n s , and even change the shape  experience, create  new  of h i s world."9  L e a r n i n g to comprehend and s t r u c t u r e space i n a new what happens when the b l i n d l e a r n t o s e e .  way  "By k e e p i n g a t i t ,  i s s i m i l a r to t h e y can change a  s p i n n i n g mass o f l i g h t s and c o l o r s i n t o the normal panorama o f e a r t h and sky..."The new  developments,  w i t h t h e i r emphasis  t u r e and i n v e n t i v e n e s s a r e more i n tune with t r a d i t i o n a l forms. dom  In t h i s new  on space, t r a n s p a r e n c y , s t r u c -  the contemporary  c o n f i g u r a t i o n we  spirit  than the  e n j o y an unprecedented  free-  o f c h o i c e , f o r which we must assume f r e s h and g r e a t e r measures o f r e s p o n s i -  bility. We may  be s u r e t h a t our c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  9cha.se, op. c i t . , 1 0  Ibid.  p.38.  which i s one o f m a j e s t y  101  and g r e a t b r e a d t h , w i l l u l t i m a t e l y make i t s e l f known i n a new p r i n c i p l e of a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r d e r . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the o r d e r w i l l be one which w i l l admit the widest range o f f u n c t i o n a l and e v o l v i n g shapes, which w i l l acknowledge the o r g a n i c nature o f a l l b u i l d i n g s - being wedded t o a t e c h n o l o g i c a l grandeur s u r p a s s i n g a l l p r e v i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r e s - and which w i l l , above a l l , p r o c l a i m the s o c i a l n a t u r e o f an a r t made i n s e p a r a b l e from the c o l l e c t i v e w e l f a r e o f mankind. There w i l l be many who w i l l f i n d that p r i n c i p l e b e a u t i f u l . 1 1  D e a n Hudnut, A r c h i t e c t u r e and the S p i r i t o f Man, (Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1°U9), p.48. ' — — i:L  Harvard  BIBLIOGRAPHY:  APPIA, Adolph, The Work o f L i v i n g A r t , t r a n s . H..D. A l b r i g h t and Man I s the Measure o f A l l T h i n g s , t r a n s , and ed. B . H e w i t t ( F l o r i d a : U n i v e r s i t y o f Miami P r e s s , I 9 6 0 ; . ARNHELM, R u d o l f , A r t and V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f . ; C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 195U;.  BALDINGER, W.S, and H.B. Winston, I 9 6 0 ) .  GREEN, The V i s u a l A r t s (New-York; 75-6 "  U n i v e r s i t y of  Holt, Rinehart &  BALDWIN SMITH, E., The Dome ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950). BANHAM, Reyner, Theory and D e s i g n i n the F i r s t Machine Age F.A. P r a e g e r , I960). 1?, 7h, .2? BARNOUW, E r i k , Mass Communication  (New  York:  (New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t , 1956).  BARZUN, Jacques, The House o f I n t e l l e c t (New York: H a r p e r , 1959). ..BELL, C l i v e , A r t (London: Arrow Books,  1961).  BENEDICT, Ruth, P a t t e r n s o f C u l t u r e ( B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n , 19U6; Mentor Books, I 9 6 0 ) . 36-7, hh BERELSON, B e r n a r d , C o n t e n t A n a l y s i s i n Communication I l l i n o i s : The Free P r e s s , 1 9 5 2 ) . BERLO, D.K.,  The P r o c e s s o f Communication  1960).—57  :  53  New  York,  Research (Glencoe,  (New Y o r k : ' H o l t R i n e h a r t and  Winston,  ;  THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF AESTHETICS, v o l . 2 , no. h, Oct. 1 9 6 2 ; v o l . 2 , no. 2 , A p r . 1 9 6 2 ; v o l . 2 , no. 3, J u l y 1 9 6 2 . BURCHARD, J . , and A. BUSH-BROWN, The A r c h i t e c t u r e o f America ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e Brown, 1 9 6 1 ) .  Canadian A r c h i t e c t , v o l . 6, no. 6, June,  1961..  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McLuhan, eds., E x p l o r a t i o n s i n  (Boston: Beacon P r e s s , I960).  CARY, Joyce, A r t and R e a l i t y  (New York: Harper,  CASSIRER, E r n s t , Language and Myth, t r a n s . S.K. Harper, 19U6~)~ IH  32,  81  1958). Langer (New York and  An E s s a y on Man (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press, day Anchor, 1956 CHASE, S t u a r t , Power o f Words (New York:  H a r c o u r t Brace,  London:  ±9kk; N.Y.  1951;).  Double-  lh, h?-, 100  CHAYTOR, H.J,, "Reading and W r i t i n g " , i n E.S. C a r p e n t e r and H.M. 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Gendel (New H o r i z o n P r e s s , 19i>7). 32T 33  York:  I N D E X  Page 3 6  OF  G L O S S E S  But the need f o r a r t i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , a p a r t o f the g r e a t e r process o f s y m b o l i z a t i o n .  38  The a b i l i t y to a b s t r a c t by v i r t u e o f symbols has l e d t o C a s s i r e r ' s r e d e f i n i t i o n o f man. as a-symbol-making animal, r a t h e r than a r a t i o n a l animal.  kO  The example o f . " g i f t e d " people w i t h the r e s t r i c t e d use o f the senses i n d i c a t e s t h a t the accumulation o f sense-data i s not the prime ingredient of i n t e l l i g e n c e .  kO  For man, an o b j e c t may have innumerable o f meaning v a r y i n g w i t h i t s c o n t e x t .  h3  Not o n l y do our apparatus f o r p e r c e p t i o n d i f f e r from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l , our b a c k l o g o f e x p e r i e n c e i s a l s o d i s s i m i l a r .  L5  Symbolism as the prime a b s t r a c t i o n and the p r e r e q u i s i t e to d i s c u r s i v e language.  k6  The  hi  P a i n t i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o the c a t e g o r i e s which have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r symbolism and language.  50  P a i n t i n g , which has no d i s c u r s i v e v o c a b u l a r y , e x i s t s as a symbolic form which expresses r e l a t i o n s h i p s and which need have no r e c o u r s e to conventional representation.  51  The mathematical and l i n g u i s t i c systems o f a b s t r a c t i o n , the v a r i e t y o f p e r c e p t u a l apparatus and i m p r e s s i o n s , and a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f s u p p l y i n g the m i s s i n g l i n k i n a work o f a r t , s h o u l d a l l be conducive to a f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t e f o r modern p a i n t i n g , but are n o t .  53  C r e a t e d as a t o o l t o h e l p us f i n d our way through the world o f t h i n g s , our language i s n o t o r i o u s l y poor when we t r y t o a n a l y z e and c a t e g o r i z e the i n n e r w o r l d .  55  To extend and c l a r i f y our s e p a r a t i o n o f a r t and language, the f o l l o w i n g i s i n t e n d e d to summarize the f i e l d of. each and to e n l a r g e on the a r t i s t ' s p o s i t i o n .  t r a n s i t i o n from symbol t o language  symbolic meanings and shades  through imposed o r d e r .  110  

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