UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Architecture and communication Bernholtz, Allen Irving 1963

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A R C H I T E C T U R E AND C O M M U N I C A T I O N by A L L E N I R V I N G B E R I H O L I Z , M. R. A. I. C. Member, Far East Society of Architects and Engineers B. Arch., The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1959 A.THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS. FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE in the Department of A R C H I T E C T U R E We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia August, 1963 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l -fulfilment of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study.. I f u r t h e r agree that per m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives.. I t i s understood that copying, or p u b l i  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,. Vancouver 8, Canada. Date -tZ^U^AA^C / 2-, f f / j -ABSTRACT In dealing with Architecture and Communication i t w i l l be necessary to establish i n i t i a l l y the different thought patterns in oral and visual cult ures. Once this has been determined, we can more readily assess the paths which the newer systems of communication are taking. The Middle Ages afford the bridge whereby we can scan the Western world in both i t s oral and visual manifestations. The mass media, in the broad sense, deal with the systems of communic ation which play an important role in determining "the things to which we attend". It has been suggested by various scholars, writing on the effects of the media of communication, that they have played a significant part in shaping p o l i t i c a l , religious and economic institutions. For the architect, an enquiry into the role of communications in determining spatial concepts may be of great value, for i t may be equally true that changes in communic ation alter "the things to which we attend". Despite the pervading concern today with this f i e l d , architects have yet to undertake an investigation of the role of structures as messages of archetypal forms of human concern, influenced by oral, written, printed, telegraphic, photographic and electronic systems of communication. Using the distinctive bias of these media, one may find i t possible to formulate a new and vali d space concept for our age. Even i f this is not as yet possible, i t may at least indicate new paths to be taken in a re-assess ment of concepts of architecture based on perspective and the printed page. Marshall McLuhan's Gutenberg Galaxy has been the motivating force of this approach and the inspiration for the mosaic pattern of the thesis. In the section dealing with symbolism, i t w i l l be useful to attempt to determine the province of art and language. Through a treatment of some of the basic anthropological, philosophical and psychological conditioning i i i i i affecting our perception of the world, we can formulate ideas about man's symbol-making processes. Some of the basic ideas underlying art and the sym bolic process and how these vary with different civilizations may suggest new departures for our existing spatial biases. There are today trends in language and communication study which f a l l under the general heading "area of meaning." Do parallels exist in recent Western architecture? For example: are the concepts of "area of meaning" as advanced by S.I. Hayakawa in Language in Thought and Action and "universal space" as exemplified by traditional Japanese architecture and the recent work of Mies van der Rohe the same things in different contexts? McLuhan has suggested that our departmentalized approach to viewing things is the outcome of five hundred years of print culture. I should like to suggest that perspective (which is more or less contemporary with Guten berg's invention) is the analogy of print culture. Can we then extend this parallelism to the more recent media of communication? That i s , does Ronchamp represent a way of constructing space similar to, say, television, or is i t a throwback to the 15th century? Is Henry Moore's concept of working from the centre of gravity of the solid sculptural block a prophetic statement of TV which derives i t s light from within i t s e l f in contrast to the printed page which requires light upon i t ? These questions, i f answered, can lead to new insights for the architect. Due caution must be exercised when undertaking studies of architecture as messages of forms of human experience, religious, p o l i t i c a l , economic and social. Too often there i s a tendency to place undue emphasis on early sources. Certainly the study of hi s t o r i c a l precursors can be a provocative and satisfying adventure in assessing the image man was attempting to project at a given historical period. Yet the inherent, but not always obvious dangers in such a study are many. I w i l l attempt to point out some of these p i t f a l l s . A spatial concept, to be valid for our age, ought to emphasize the relationship of man to man. The concept of architecture in a world, theoret i c a l l y at least, of equals, is irrelevant without i t s social context. As we. are products of a l l that has gone before us, i t is inevitable that we derive architectural points of departure from what has gone before. It is equally true that never before have there been so many new forms of communieation combining to help establish a contemporary spatial metaphor. To create a compatability between the past and the present, we ought, in the words of Marshall McLuhan, to "take a fresh look at tradition considered not as the inert acceptance of a fossilized corpus of themes and conventions, but as an organic habit of re-creating what has been received and is handed on." This thesis w i l l attempt to examine the necessary "fresh look." A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S To Professors. Henry Elder, Wolfgang Gerson, Abraham Rogatnick and Lionel Thomas of the University of British Columbia, School of Architecture, whose diversified backgrounds provided a variety of insights. To Professor Watson Thomson of the Department of English, University of British Columbia, for the wisdom and understanding of a truly "whole" man. To Dr. Edmund Carpenter, Head of Anthropology, San Fernando Valley State College, California, whose comments on the manuscript made i t a l l worth while. To my wife, Nancy, whose advice, typing and encourage ment were unfailing in the midst of her own heavy schedule. To Professor H.M. McLuhan, of the English Department, St. Michael's College, University of Toronto, whose Gutenberg Galaxy has been a profound inspiration. TABLE OF CONTENTS page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I II THE THINGS TO WHICH WE ATTEND 7 III ART AND LANGUAGE IN THE SYMBOL-MAKING PROCESS 35 IV HISTORICAL RELAYS 57 V THE GREAT HANDWRITING 71 VI EPILOGUE 9k BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 0 2 INDEX OF GLOSSES I 1 0 v I. INTRODUCTION One of the most decisive inventions i n man's h i s t o r y i s the phonetic alphabet; not merely the a b i l i t y to record a concept by means of a symbol i n wri t i n g , as i n ideogrammic or hieroglyphic or pictographic writing, but the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of sounds, i n d i v i d u a l sounds, i n t o written symbols. The great d i v i d i n g l i n e of cultures can be seen i n terms of those hav in g the use of a phonetic alphabet (such as have a l l the languages of Europe) and those having no alphabet, or a system of writing other than phonetic. The former can be classed as v i s u a l cultures, the l a t t e r as o r a l c u l t u r e s . The basis of t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s i n the kind of mental process that i s encouraged by these two systems. In the p i c t o r i a l system, used to t h i s day i n China and Japan, there are no sounds involved i n the writing; rather they are pictures of things, objects which surround man and f o r which he has names i n his spoken language. I t i s a system re q u i r i n g thousands of i n d i v i d u a l characters to record thought, so there can be no typewriters, no economical alphabet technology such as we possess. The language written i n t h i s way must be translated mentally into the o r a l values f o r each symbol. In the phonetic system there i s no such obstacle to the understanding. There are only so many sounds that the human mouth i s taught to make i n any one s o c i e t y and when a phonetic system i s used, no more than between ten and t h i r t y i n d i v i d u a l symbols need to be invented to record the language as i t i s spoken. These symbols are not pictures of meanings of sounds, they represent the sounds themselves. The mental process involved i n decoding the symbols i s extremely simple f o r the prac t i c e d eye. Meaning becomes abstracted from sound and the v i s u a l appearance of the pr i n t e d word i s enough to make an imm ediate impression on the mind without t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o the o r a l equivalent. This f a c t of o r a l or v i s u a l o r ientation determines man's most basic a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the world about him. 1 2 The t r a n s i t i o n i n the Western world from o r a l to v i s u a l was a slow one, spreading over three thousand years. A b a s i c a l l y o r a l , s c r i b a l culture rem ained throughout the Western world u n t i l the middle of the f i f t e e n t h century when the p r i n t i n g press heralded and made possible the coming of mass l i t e r a c y . The mediaeval x»rorld was made up of a n o n - l i t e r a t e mass of people pres ided over by a l i t e r a t e and s e m i - l i t e r a t e royalty, clergy and lawyer c l a s s . However, th i s elementary l i t e r a c y was not s u f f i c i e n t to make the break away from the "tyranny" of the spoken word. The monk, the most l i t e r a t e of a l l , the educated mediaeval population must have read as l i t t l e i n one whole year as we might read i n three or four days or a week. We can hardly imagine, with our eyes capable of scanning a page of the newspaper i n seconds to f i n d points of i n t e r e s t , how slow the mediaeval reading process must have been. The mediaeval man was not at ease with the written symbol, as we are today. The rooms were too i l l - l i t f o r reading quickly, the s c r i p t was often by an other hand, unfamiliar contractions had to be enlarged and s p e l l i n g was e r r a t i c . Before the written page could be properly understood, i t had to be slowly tra n s l a t e d i n t o auditory symbols with which the reader was completely at home. Our tendency i s exactly the opposite; more often than not, when confronted with an un f a m i l i a r term, we ask to see the word i n p r i n t before we can f u l l y comprehend. This constant t r a n s l a t i o n of v i s u a l i n t o auditory symbols made reading a noisy a f f a i r throughout the Middle Ages and w e l l into the age of p r i n t . The monk's c a r r o l l was a "singing booth". . I t i s always easier to understand, another culture once our own learned biases have been made evident. Much of our c r i t i c i s m of cultures not sharing our v i s u a l bias stems from our lack of understanding of the values of o r a l c u l t u r e . The invention of movable type by Gutenberg i n the f i f t e e n t h century was a major turning point i n Western h i s t o r y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to convince people today, so accustomed are we to v i s u a l symbols, of the basic differences between 3 the kind of culture which existed before p r i n t and our own. McLuhan states i n h i s a r t i c l e "Inside the Five Sense Sensorium:" 1- People who l i v e i n an o r a l - a u r a l world know none of the im personal or detached attitudes of a v i s u a l - l i t e r a t e people. But i t i s not easy to explain t h i s matter to l i t e r a t e s o c i e t i e s . They tend to imagine that the numerous conventions of seeing and organ i z i n g t h e i r world are quite n a t u r a l . . . That a n o n - l i t e r a t e man has no perspective experience and that natives cannot see photos or f o l l o w movies comes as a shock at l e a s t to the p r o v i n c i a l Westerner. Just as d i f f i c u l t f o r the Westerner to understand i s why the i n t r o  duction of the phonetic alphabet among natives should be a traumatic experience. For the t r a n s l a t i o n of the magical o r a l world i n t o the n e u t r a l symbols of the phonetic alphabet i s a t o t a l metamorphosis fo r native s o c i e t i e s . The essence of v i s u a l culture - and the r e s u l t s are everywhere around us - i s in d i v i d u a l i s m . Reading h a b i t u a l l y , s i l e n t l y and alone permits a man to become divorced i n t e l l e c t u a l l y from h i s fellows. One cannot read s i l e n t l y i n groups. One hears or speaks only i n a c o l l e c t i v e manner. I t was not un t i l p r i n t that the sounded-out reading of the Middle Ages ceased. The tech nique of uniformity and r e p e a t a b i l i t y was put to i t s most d i s t i n c t i v e use, i n the reproduction of the p r i n t e d word. The Renaissance, gripped with the fervour of widening horizons of l e a r n  ing made a v a i l a b l e by the new p r i n t i n g press, was a v e r i t a b l e b o i l i n g pot f o r new concepts of self-expression, s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t and the challenge i n every sphere of le a r n i n g to established ideas. vWhen men come in t o contact with events and d i f f e r e n t people through books, i n other words with experiences that they have not l i v e d through them selves, they begin to assess these events dispassionately and connect them with one another i n an 'ordered' fashion, i n terms of causation. Also, the h i g h l y l i t e r a t e man can extend himself beyond the narrow l i m i t s of h i s town or v i l l a g e and begin to see the unknown without fear because of this preparation. V i s u a l man seeks f o r the exact representation of natural forms i n p i c  tures. Our haughty c r i t i c i s m of mediaeval "naivety" f o r not achieving In Canadian A r c h i t e c t , V ol. 6, No. 6, June, 1961, p.50. k representational f i d e l i t y i s most unjust. Neither these mediaeval men nor their Greek brethren was striving for representative detail, rather the crea tion of an impression, of his own involvement with the object immortalized in paint, sculpture or architecture. The friezes and vase.designs of antiquity, ikons and missals of the Middle Ages are ample evidence of this. One of the most "unnatural" results of print culture i s the separation of the senses so that the visual takes precedence over a l l others. Our em phasis on the single point of view, to the detriment of a l l other involvements, in various aspects of l i f e is seen in the proscenium stage of the theatre, the mechanistic view of history in which a single event is seen to control the whole outcome of l i f e , as in the 18th century biological "great chain of being". We constantly try to "picture" words, and our excessive concern for spelling betrays this attachment to the visual side of language. Outward conformity leaves the visual man free to deviate inside, since the important thing is what shows. We find i t d i f f i c u l t to understand why Soviet or Chinese citizens do not feel free to rebel inside, why they often admit of crime when i t was only contemplated, never committed. We tend to superimpose on a l l other cultures our assumption that every man thinks for himself and assesses for himself, that every man considers himself an entity in his own right. In any oral society, the individual's relationship to his fellows in the community is radically different from ours. We usually think of primit ive t r i b a l peoples as free and easy-going, innocent and uncomplicated. No thing could be farther from the truth. Oral man is rigidly circumscribed by his place in society (McLuhan uses the word "tribalized" to express this idea) with no idea of self-worth in our sense of the word. Every attendant need of individuality such as privacy and personal rights is lacking in oral society. Each man is individual only insofar as he performs a specific function in the workings of society, and study, play or work performed in solitude is rare. 5 Language i n an o r a l world, i n c l u d i n g the s c r i b a l manuscript t r a d i t i o n , i s a dynamic, l i v i n g force, i n v o l v i n g an i n t e r p l a y of senses and imagination that i s incomprehensible to us. Sounds f o r mediaeval o r a l man are dynamic i n d i c a t o r s of movement, events and a c t i v i t i e s . There was no passive l i s t e n e r , much less spectator, i n the Middle Ages. P a r t i c i p a t i o n and personal involvement was of a scale unheard of i n our time. The play audience d i d not watch the play, s i l e n t , immobile and c r i t  i c a l as we do. A mystery-play audience, l i k e the p i t which Shakespeare de scri b e s , was a noisy a f f a i r . We are prone to accept the maxim that the f r u i t s of o r a l s o c i e t y are of necessity u n r e l i a b l e as indi c a t o r s of how society worked and behaved. We assume, since to us "seeing i s b e l i e v i n g " that ear information i s unworthy f a c t , subject to change at any moment from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l . To judge so i s to judge h a s t i l y . Throughout h i s t o r y , i t can be seen that the o r a l s o c i e t i e s are the most s t a t i c , unchanging and unprogressive. People i n or a l s o c i e t i e s have prodigious memories, f a r better than our own, f o r the. simple reason that i t i s the human memory, with i t s immense powers of reten t i o n that provides the statute books, the moral precepts, the do's and don't's that hold the whole f a b r i c of so c i e t y together. In t h i s kind of s o c i a l s t r u c  ture, the learner does not take i t upon himself to change what he has learned. No invention p r i o r to our twentieth century can r i v a l the p r i n t i n g press i n i t s a l l - p e r v a s i v e e f f e c t s on human values and organization. To i t we owe our b e l i e f i n democracy, the d i g n i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l , our nationalism, perspective, applied knowledge and technology; i n a l l , a f a i r - s i z e d portion of the reigning values of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n up u n t i l today. We are now i n the midst of another major c u l t u r a l change - t h i s time away from the purely v i s u a l , towards a"greater i n t e r p l a y of senses. Much ed ucation i s presented i n the form of e l e c t r o n i c and o r a l media. With the super-organization by e l e c t r o n i c devices, men are l o s i n g the sense of 6 i n d i v i d u a l i s m and are reconsidering the c o l l e c t i v e i d e a l , the "global v i l l a g e " as McLuhan c a l l s i t . Our p h y s i c a l environment i s now often the r e s u l t of considerations other than the purely v i s u a l , thanks to the creative genius of men such as Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier. Spaces are not only enclosed and p r i v a t e , but also open and i n t e r a c t i n g . We are moving away from the v i s t a s of Haussman's Paris and the V e r s a i l l e s of Louis XIV to the architecture of an e l e c t r o n i c world i n which space loses i t s s t a t i c q u a l i t y and becomes t r u l y dynamic. What are some of the d i s c e r n i b l e d i s p o s i t i o n s with which TV has imbued i t s publics i n the past ten years? I am working from the observation that our t e c h n i c a l media, since w r i t i n g and p r i n t i n g , are extensions of our senses. The l a t e s t such extension, TV, I am sugg esting, i s an extension, not j u s t of s i g h t and sound, but of that very synesthesia which the a r t i s t s of the past centuries have stressed as accessible v i a the t a n g i b l e - t a c t i l e values of the new v i s i o n . TV i s not just s i g h t and sound, but t a n g i b i l i t y i n i t s v i s u a l , contoured, s c u l p t u r a l mode. What have been the s p e c i f i c changes i n our attitudes to public space, to privacy and to the nature of environmental materials r e s u l t i n g from TV?... 2 A l l these things are long i n coming. 2 I b i d . , p . 5 l . II. THE THINGS TO WHICH WE ATTEND The mass media, in the broad sense, deal with the systems of communi cation which play an important role in determining "the things to which we attend." To the scanning eye they reflect those images which make concrete the inward imagery of the "average manfs" world. Facts play only a secondary role in what is delivered to the public. Although the latest baseball scores must be accurately reported, news items themselves depend more on "story" con tent, than on facts. A world of phantasy abetted by opulent symbolism spreads a film of reverie before our eyes. In the maze we can discern the effects of our technology and i t s heterogeneous space ideal. ...Vast road nets, huge dams, towering skyscrapers, gothic "halls of learning", bridges thrusting across wide canyons, great amphitheaters, enormous houses - even the huge congested mass of men and machines struggling through the canyons of our cities - are but the pomp and majesty of a technological democracy. Traffic congestion wastes untold amounts of time and money and for Americans time is money. Until the automobile we had sufficient space. Technological goods and services are used to increase, not decrease, congestion. As more people pour into our c i t i e s , planners bewail the strangulation of urban l i f e and propose "logical" t r a f f i c plans. But the congestion of cities creates great audiences and thus offers unlimited opportunities to see and be seen by others.. .1 The image of l i f e centred around the hearth crumbles with the invasion of the new communication systems. In essentially economic organizations there is no moral imperative to t e l l the truth. As a source of ethical teaching the home is invaded by these commercial interests, bringing the essence of contemporary l i f e in a l l i t s technological glory into the l i v i n g room. The fireplace as a gathering spot for family exchange has made way for the TV room. This new command centre dictates a new and different core for the home. The variety and richness of human achievements are vividly brought to our attention by the devices of communication. The telephone has made possible domestic and social communication which do not depend on the sending of written •LH.D. Duncan, Communication and Social Order (New York: Bedminster Press, 1962), p.276. 7 8 or remembered messages. In the transportation f i e l d , the motor car has ten ded to i s o l a t e man, as does p r i n t c u l t u r e . The automobile once more estab l i s h e s degree, prestige and s o c i a l values. I f we consider the impact of only- one of these media, perhaps t h e i r scope and extent can be more f u l l y apprecia ted. Robert Sarnoff, chairman of NBC, in a speech del i v e r e d i n New York on December 5, 1962, summed up the impact of the t e l e v i s i o n industry i n this way. ...NBC News reaches more homes than the combined c i r c u l a t i o n of L i f e , Look, Time, Newsweek and U.S. News and World Report, plus the t o t a l c i r c u l a t i o n of a l l major d a i l i e s i n New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles. And, continues Sarnoff, "Remember"that these figures do not include CBS and ABC." , Yet i n at l e a s t one respect the popular arts of photography and part^- i c u l a r l y motion picture l e t us down. The point being, that as s o c i a l func t i o n , and not as modes of perception, these media permit us only a form of one point or i n d i v i d u a l perspective. Thus, i n the movie we, each one of us, see the p i c t u r e i n our own perspective. In Communication and S o c i a l Order, H.D. Duncan quotes George Mead on the e f f e c t i v e i s o l a t i o n of the members of a compact audience at a movie. . . . ( t h i s i s o l a t i o n ) i s in crying contrast with the shared response of those that, each at his own breakfast table, read the morning press. (p.393) 2 For Mead the movie "has no creative audience such as have been the i n s  p i r a t i o n of the moving speeches of great actors. Under the power of an orator one i s i n the perspective of the whole community."^ I t i s i n t h i s context of the whole community that the e l e c t r o n i c media . play a s i g n i f i c a n t role.^ 4 "Perspective" becomes a misleading word. Simult- 2See a l s o E l i a s Canetti, Crowds and Power (New York: V i k i n g Press, 1962) p.36 ^Duncan, op. c i t . , p.393. ^This "is so even i f we disregard the present l e v e l of programming as of low standard. 9 a n e i t j and i n t e r a c t i o n are more appropriate, f o r there i s no s o c i a l imperative to protect the s i l e n t reverie of our neighbour. We are a l l seeking to create an environment which w i l l j u s t i f y our longings and f u l f i l the c h i e f desires of our hearts. To simply adapt or ad j u s t to an e x i s t i n g environment i s s u f f i c i e n t only f o r a lower organism. But our answer to the new technology has been one of conspicuous f a i l u r e s , pref e r r i n g that technology be glamorous rather than e f f i c i e n t . This tendency has had a .significant e f f e c t on what was at one time, despite e x t e r i o r ornam entation, considered c h i e f l y as a f u n c t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . The glamour of the North American o f f i c e b u i l d i n g nox* di c t a t e s that i t be designed as a place to s o c i a l i z e and not merely as a place to work. As Duncan has pointed out:^ Women f i n d husbands where they work, not where they l i v e . The "other woman" i n American popular dramas i s not a s i r e n from the demi-monde, but a colleague i n work. She, we are t o l d , "understands" and i s "interested" i n the husband's work and she does so i n f a r greater elegance and. luxury than the wife. The mass media have made of cars, clothes and houses, hi g h l y communic able symbols of power. Designed, advertised and d i s t r i b u t e d as mass symbols, they have become o f f i c i a l i n s i g n i a to the detriment of i n d i v i d u a l achievement. A house by Corbusier, a sculpture by Moore i s not, except i n "inner c i r c l e s " a s u f f i c i e n t mark of rank because i t i s not yet i d e n t i f i e d i n the public mind through the mass media. I f human communication i n society i s an attempt to create symbols whose use i s believed to uphold s o c i a l order, then i t i s l i t t l e wonder that various* scholars, w r i t i n g on the e f f e c t s of the media of communication, have suggested t h e i r v i t a l r o l e i n shaping p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and economic empires. Taking speech as a close c o r r e l a t e of man's tendency to congregate, Dewey.has d i s  cussed communication, with a r t as the i d e a l type of communication, to i l l u s t r a t e the function, as well as the structure of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s e l f and i t s environment. The tendency which marks much contemporary a r t , when i t Duncan, op. c i t . p.276. 10 i s s u ccessful, i s to usher i n new modes of a r t through education of the organs of perception, and help us to experience the world about us i n new ways. Since Architecture creates the s p a t i a l environment, i t s forms o f f e r many clues to the class patterns of a community. P o l i t i c a l r a l l i e s , sporting events, a l l c i v i c spectacles are • a presentation to general publics - a presentation of the community to i t s e l f . Who may come, how they are seated, how they are addressed, by what means, by whom they are c o n t r o l l e d , how they dress, how they r e l a t e to each other, and how they communicate with the actors are i n d i c a t i o n s of how i n f e r i o r s and superiors r e l a t e i n a given s o c i e t y . How the general audience i s s t r a t i f i e d , and how those i n various l e v e l s r e l a t e to each other i s another.6 The a r c h i t e c t ' s planning p a r t l y determines the-kind and extent of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The a r t i s t ' s ideas and a t t i t u d e s about the community generally may or may not coincide with those i n c o n t r o l of the mass media, but since the a r t i s t too creates the forms by which our c i v i l i z a t i o n w i l l be judged, his r e l a t i o n  ship to the communication media must become more intimate. Only when th i s occurs cans Crenelated towers which become clean soaring planes i n space f i l l e d with i n t e r l o c k i n g cubes of glass and s t e e l replace feudal with technological majesty.''' Architecture i s an i n d i c a t o r of past, present and future. We depend upon the v i s i b l e products of man's imagination f o r an extended knowledge of the human past. Not only i s that past which i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n present exp erience conveyed by these symbols, but the prophecy of the future i s inherent i n our present adaptation of these forms together with our unique contribution. In h i s The Shape of Time, Kubler assesses the message which these symbols of communication convey: From a l l these things a shape in time emerges. A v i s i b l e p o r t r a i t of the c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y whether t r i b e , class or nation, "Duncan, op. c i t . , p.295. 7lbid. p.365. 11 comes i n t o being. This self-image r e f l e c t e d i n things i s a guide and a point of reference to the group f o r the future, and i t event u a l l y becomes the p o r t r a i t given to p o s t e r i t y . (p.9) For the a r c h i t e c t then, an enquiry i n t o the r o l e of communications i n determining s p a t i a l concepts may be of great value, f o r i t may be equally true that changes i n communication a l t e r "the things to which we attend." Yet one must constantly keep i n mind that h i s t o r i c a l r e c a l l can never be com plete nor e n t i r e l y c orrect. Communication and i t s h i s t o r i c transmission series of sender, s i g n a l and receiver are subject to successive relays which deform the message. Thus, due caution must be exercised when undertaking studies of architecture as message sources of forms of human experience, r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l . Often, there i s a tendency to place undue emphasis on e a r l y sources. C e r t a i n l y the study of h i s t o r i c a l precursors must not be neglected. I t can be a provocative and s a t i s f y i n g adventure i n assessing the image man was attempting to project at a given h i s  t o r i c a l period. Yet the inherent, but not always obvious, dangers i n such a study are many and I w i l l attempt i n Chapter IV to point out some of the p i t  f a l l s . A mosaic pattern, taken across the face of i n t e r a c t i n g d i s c i p l i n e s w i l l be used i n the present work i n an attempt to give wider d e f i n i t i o n to the f i e l d of force. The mosaic approach i s not only "much the easier" i n the study of the simultaneous which i s the auditory f i e l d ; i t i s the only r e l  evant approach. For the "two-dimensional" mosaic or painting i s the mode i n which there i s muting of the v i s u a l as such, i n order that there may be maximal i n t e r p l a y among a l l of the senses. Such was the p a i n t e r l y strategy "since Cezanne" to paint as i f you held, rather than as i f you saw, objects. I t w i l l become apparent that the e n t i r e world i s a source of shared purpose and that independent systems of expression that may occasionally con verge are no longer tenable. I t w i l l also permit an orchestration i n ^H.M. McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1962), p.jL2.-12 preference to fusing of human arts, interests and pursuits. Orchestration permits discontinuity and endless variety without the universal imposition of any one socia l or economic system. Our working proof, part icular ly prior to the fifteenth century, of the existence of nearly a l l older peoples is in the visual order. In this role architecture has, through i ts structures, served as messages of archetypal r forms of human concern. The influence of various systems of communication in these roles is one of the concerns of this thesis. Using the dist inctive bias of the media, one may find i t possible to formulate a new and va l id space concept for our age. Even i f this is not as yet possible, the investigation may at least indicate new paths to be undertaken in a re-assessment of concepts of architecture based on perspective and the printed page. McLuhan notes? how two of our contemporary media have already influenced and altered "the things to which we attend." . . . I t needs no very sharp observation to note that the moving radar antennae, which feed radar screens, are as dynamic and spherical in their coverage as any auditory "f ie ld of relations" can be. And this is equally true of the TV image. It is a two-dimensional mosaic mesh, a simultaneous f i e l d of luminous vibration which ends the older dichotomy of sight and sound... What we must grasp is that TV has the power of imposing its own conventions and assumptions on the sens ibi l i t ies of the viewer. It has the power of translating the Western l i terate back into the world of non-literate synesthesia, just as effectively as the phonetic alphabet can hoick the native out of his haptic matrix into a world of mechanistic individualism and sequential cause-and-effect relations. In assessing the role of mass media Mumford has held that "as far as architecture is concerned the great misdemeanor of the print ing press was not that i t took l i t e r a r y values away from architecture, but that i t caused archit ecture to derive i t s value from literature."'*'^ And with the Renaissance the great modern dist inction between the l i terate ^McLuhan, "Inside the Five Sense Sensorium", p.50. 1 0 Lewis Mumford, Sticks and Stones (New York: Dover Publications, second edit ion, revised, 1955), pp.hl-2. 13 and i l l i t e r a t e extended even to the b u i l d i n g process i t s e l f . ...the master mason who knew his stone and h i s workmen and his tools and the t r a d i t i o n of h i s a r t gave way to the a r c h i t e c t who knew his P a l l a d i o and his Vignola and h i s Vitruvius.-*- 1- Thus masonry, f o r example, i n the Renaissance derived from d e s c r i p t i o n rather than from a c t u a l material. Masonry j o i n t s were both concealed and created according to the book. With the advent of the p r i n t e d text as the a r c h i t e c t ' s B i b l e , what was formerly a " r o l e " became a "profession". A role implies i n t e r a c t i o n , a profession hierarchy i n which an a r t i s a n often divorced from c r a f t t r a d i t i o n i n s t r u c t s those of a lower echelon i n t h e i r d u t i e s . (This world of.roles s t i l l l i n g e r s i n many " p r i m i t i v e " and l e s s t e c h n i c a l l y advanced c i v i l i z a t i o n s ) . But i f e l e c t r i c media play no favourites and consequently any place i s a centre and no place a margin, then our very concept of s p a t i a l awareness i s a l t e r e d , both i n p r i v a t e and public existence. As McLuhan has stated, "the very,concept of privacy, which originated with p r i n t culture i n the 16th century, can no longer be sustained by the t r a d i t i o n a l means of p a r t i t i o n i n g space". i s what occurs when any one sense or b o d i l y or mental function i s externalized i n technological form. In The S i l e n t Language, H a l l summarizes h i s views of these extensions' of bodily function. Today man has developed extensions f o r p r a c t i c a l l y everything he used to do with his body. The evolution of weapons begins with the teeth and the f i s t s and ends with the atom bomb. Clothes and houses are extensions of man's b i o l o g i c a l temperature-control mechanisms. Furniture takes the place of squatting and s i t t i n g on the ground. Power t o o l s , glasses, TV, telephones and books, which carry the voice . across both time and space are examples of material extensions. Money i s a way of extending and s t o r i n g labor. Our transportation networks The implication i s that when sense r a t i o s change, men change. 13 This 11 I b i d , p . l | l . 12. 'McLuhan, "Inside the Five Sense Sensorium", p.52 13 'See McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, p.265. 11+ now do what we used to do with our feet and backs. In fact, a l l man-made material things can be treated as extensions of what man once did with his body or some specialized part of his body. (p.79) The ultimate goal to which man's extensions will reach is, of course, unknown. But Norbert Wiener's The Human Use of Human Beings, published in its original form as early as 19^0 gives us some idea of what is to come. In i t Wiener discusses communication between Man and Man, Machine and Man and ultimately between Machine and Machine. The- possibilities of machines here outlined seem to render Stuart Chase's prediction that man will always be nec essary to programme machines as either premature or chauvinistic."^ In any case the absentee landlord picture Wiener paints for the architect may be dis tressing to more than a few contemporary designers who honestly like to have the good earth cling to their boots during inspection tours. In short, the bodily transmission of the architect and his documents may be replaced very effectively by the message-transmission of communications which do not entail the moving of a particle of matter from one end of the line to the other. Machines have been taught to play chess. The matches have been assessed as correct but not inspiring. Perhaps this is what prompted Chase's remark referred to earlier. It is presently held that art as a machine product may at best be a pale reflection of the spontaneous flow of man's creative spirit. Thus architecture, i f not as an engineering discipline but as an art, may become one of the great balancing forces of the human mind. Man's ultimate function may be to immerse himself in creative endeavours as the only escape from the erector set he has fashioned and which is in turn fashioning him. In this respect the questions raised by the work in cybern etics calls not for pessimism, through fear of being replaced by an electronic gadget, but for unparalleled optimism. In -such a world man will have put the ^Stuart Chase, The Power of Words (New York: Harcourt Brace, 19$h) p.U8. I'D Norbert Wiener, The Human Use of Human Beings (New York: Doubleday, 195U), P.98. 15 drudgery of the work-a-day world behind him. Plazas, the most b a s i c a l l y s o c i a l manifestation of the architect's vocabulary may once more become the image of an age, and without t h e i r former limi t a t i o n s of class d i s t i n c t i o n s . At least one architect, Le Corbusier, had the prophetic nature to en v i s i o n our technological (but not our social) world, before the coming of .the giant computers and before we had learned to use the magic words "cybernetics" and "feedback". 1 6 V i l l e Radieuse i s a paper c i t y ; i t s a c t i v i t y i s the motion of draftsmen, t y p i s t s , accountants, and meetings of the board. Carried on i n an atmosphere of conditioned a i r , corrected l i g h t , and bright decor, by e l e c t r i c a l communications, with e f f i c i e n c y and speed. 1' and in Corbusier's own words: The c i t y that can achieve speed w i l l achieve success. Work i s today more intense and carried on at a quicker rate. The whole question becomes one of d a i l y intercommunication with a view to s e t t l i n g the.state of the market and the condition of labor. The more rapid the intercommunication, the more w i l l business be expedited.-^ But modern d a i l y intercommunication has l i t t l e aesthetic enjoyment connected with i t . In the competitive industrial-technological society of the 20th century, the ends of work are too f a r removedi from the tasks at hand. Bernard Leach, speaking i n a private interview i n Kyoto, Japan, i n 1962, said the amount of aesthetic enjoyment varies with the distance from men's hearts. Each extension of crafted product from hand to t o o l to machine to factory has borne out his observation. Specialization of labour and consequent d i f f i c u l  t i e s in communication have created a si t u a t i o n which is incompatible with con temporary thinking. For this reason, many of the problems today confronting the architect (mechanical equipment, l i g h t i n g problems, acoustical factors) c a l l f o r a new -^See Goodman, Paul and. Percival, Communitas (New York: Vintage Books, 1960), p.hh. ^ I b i d . , p.Liu ^ I b i d . , p.Uii. 16 system of production, management and decision-making. Authority imposed from the top down and fixed spatial sequence are out of the same barrel. Both are too slow and segmented to f i t in with new materials and methods of construction. Organic, integrated architectural solutions can only result from close, constant teamwork. The qualities which make of our contemporary architecture such a. decisive turning point in the development of modern theories of design are both idealogical and technical. Historically this has rarely been the case. The Industrial Revolution was a momentous dual change-over - from handicraft to machine methods, from an emphasis on the craftsman to one who services a machine. As Robert Samoff's figures have indicated, the Electronic Revol ution, following less than 150 years later is even more pervasive. It under mines the foundations of five centuries of idealogy fashioned on linear pers pective and the printed page. Certainly never before in history have so many new media of mass communication affecting so great a segment of population contrived to enforce a new approach to perception, to l i f e itself. But whereas the Industrial Revolution merely strengthened the linear format of our lives by adding the assembly-line to the specialist working in isolation, and the segmentation of interacting branches of knowledge, the Electronic Revolu tion scraps the fragmentary approach for a discipline of interaction. In Contemporary Sculpture, Giedion-Welcker assesses the contemporary situation: - There is a renunciation of the old structural development, sentence by sentence, in favor of a dynamic association of ideas, accomplished by a successively penetrative effect rather than a consecutive use of words, (p.xx) One of the immediate stimuli to the creation of new forms in architecture has been a rediscovery and a reanimation of the primal visual images and oral values latent in the TV medium. "Its two-dimensional, contoured character fosters the tactile interplay of the senses which painters since Cezanne had 17 19 stressed as needful". TV gives us the o p t i c a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of material s o l i d i t y by l i g h t so as to enable movement to become a p l a s t i c element. I t i s l i t t l e wonder that Reyner Banham refers to t e l e v i s i o n as "...the symbolic 20 machine of the Second Machine Age". The return to the " p r i m i t i v e " i n a r t i s an attempt to counteract that archi t e c t u r e which Mumford suggests has been derived from l i t e r a t u r e . I t may, as well, be a good s t a r t i n g point from which to reassess our contemporary c i v i l i z a t i o n . S i e g f r i e d Giedion, i n h i s The E t e r n a l Present, t e l l s us t h a t . "Abstraction, transparency, simultaneity and symbolization are means of expression which appear both at the dawn of a r t and today". (p.U6;) Modern a r t and p r i m i t i v e a r t have i n common the.absence of l i t e r a r y influence. •• In Ronchamp, Corbusier has discarded the l i t e r a r y format i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . • The synthesis and simultaneity of outer and inner.forms i s once more a contemporary format. Today i t i s s t i l l p ossible to design on the basis that the a n t i c i p a t i o n of e f f e c t i s not only a legitimate but a necessary way to achieve organic con t r o l of the creative process. But design must become a process of simultan eous operations, organized with great attention to synchronization and inv o l v  ing interdependence and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . With design based on perspective e f f e c t s , the structure i s t r a n s l a t e d out of organic and simultaneous form into a s t a t i c or p i c t o r i a l mode with a preferred viewing point. One achieves the f e e l i n g of organic oneness or i n t e r p l a y of spaces by t r e a t i n g structure as a f i e l d of s t a t i c or p i c t o r i a l space through transparency and interpenetration. Architecture can no longer be taken i n at a glance. The eye i s channeled, diverted and l e d through a f i e l d of viewing experiences. The f l u x of an e l e c t r o n i c age which presupposes no closures or completions, but ever-widening ^McLuhan, "Inside the Five Sense Sensorium", p.51. ^Reyner Banham, Theory and Design i n the F i r s t Machine Age (New York: F.A. Praeger, I960), p.10. 18 v i s t a s i s i n sharp contrast to the causal thinking of the past centuries. Although the evolution of e l e c t r o n i c architecture i s yet i n i t s infancy i t appears as a v i t a l c reative force, intimately connected with the o v e r a l l o r i e n t a t i o n of our age. No a r t i s t i c utterance e x i s t s which does not r e f l e c t man's att i t u d e toward space. Every a r t i s t i c utterance i s a d i r e c t , though unconscious, projection of the impact of the world upon man; other wise i t could not have been conceived.. 2 1 The process of communication i s i n i t s e l f an agent without d i r e c t i o n of i t s own. I t must be channeled and depends upon man's capacity to make use of i t . Communication springs from the whole man, mind and body but i s now often aimed at the subconscious and "below the b e l t " . In a very broad sense comm unication includes a l l possible ways i n which one mind may a f f e c t another: written and o r a l speech, music, the p i c t o r i a l a r t s , theatre, b a l l e t and i n f a c t a l l of our human behaviour. Language and a r t are the di s t i n g u i s h i n g - human forms of communication. Each i s a process of mind whereby man begins to abstract symbols of things and happenings from a c t u a l things and happenings. S i e g f r i e d Giedion has suggested in Mechanization Takes Command that the s t a r t i n g point f o r a new a r t i s t i c expression: . . . i s made possible only by a s p a t i a l v i s i o n that has broken with copying and perspective; an approach that allows structure, c o l o r and form to be gathered i n t o planetary systems; that changes b o t t l e s , glasses, pl a t e s , pipes, tables, musical instruments, into objects that l a y bare the very essence of t h e i r meaning, (p.360) For Giedion both the p h y s i c i s t and the a r t i s t i n the twentieth century have penetrated to the heart of,the matter. "Objects (have become) trans parent and t h e i r essence was revealed by methods other than r a t i o n a l perspec t i v e " . 2 2 Moore's sculpture and drawings extend the range of the senses, g i v i n g S;. Giedion, The'Eternal Present (New York: Bollingen Series xxxv.6.1, Pantheon Books, 1962), p.6. S. Giedion, Mechanization Takes Command. (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 19hti)3 p.717. 19 the t a c t i l e and auditory as much s i g n i f i c a n c e as the v i s u a l . His shapes are not set o f f against a background of space, they are a part of space, t h e i r pierced, forms a l t e r n a t i n g s o l i d and v o i d i n an inseparable whole. This i s what the sculptor must do. He must s t r i v e c o n t i n u a l l y to think of, and use, form in i t s f u l l s p a t i a l completeness. He gets the s o l i d shape, as i t were, ins i d e his head r he thinks of i t , what ever i t s s i z e , as i f he were holding i t completely enclosed i n the hollow of h i s hand. He mentally v i s u a l i z e s a complex form from a l l round i t s e l f ; he knows while he looks at one side what the other side i s l i k e ; Ee" i d e n t i f i e s himself with i t s centre of gravity, i t s mass, i t s weight; he r e a l i z e s i t s volume, as the space the shape displaces i n the a i r . - ^ This i s very much i n keeping with McLuhan's idea that t a e t i l i t y can be described as "the mode of i n t e r p l a y and of being rather than of separation pi and of l i n e a l sequence". • The reduction of t a c t i l e q u a l i t y i n the arts as well, as i n our modes of l i f e and habits of language are marks of a kind of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . In i t s e l f , s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i s an a r t i f i c i a l q u a l i t y , but i n t r y i n g to break with s t y l e , i t establishes a s t y l e of i t s own. S o p h i s t i c a t i o n and refinement i n architecture come at the end of an era. D e t a i l becomes important only a f t e r the concepts of s p a t i a l configuration and the philosophy of design are f i r m l y established. Yet the decorative aspects of materials and objects are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r communication function. Unconsciously we a l l look f o r nonverbal clues i n buildings, landscapes and i n t e r i o r s . These we know have something to say about the status, prestige, taste and values of those who use, construct or own them. Harold Innis has provided much of the e a r l y impetus f o r the study of the e f f e c t s of communications on c i v i l i z a t i o n . In The Bias of Communication he sums up the r e l a t i o n of communication to time, space and space-time: ...The character of the medium of communication tends to create a bias i n c i v i l i z a t i o n favourable to an overemphasis on the time concept ^From Henry Moore, Notes on Sculpture, quoted i n footnote 3, i n L.R. Rogers, "Sculp t u r a l Thinking," i n B r i t i s h Journal of Aesthetics, Vol . 2 , no.it, October 1962, pp.299-300. . '•McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, p.21$. 20 o r on the space concept and o n l y a t r a r e i n t e r v a l s a r e the b i a s e s oc o f f s e t by the i n f l u e n c e o f a n o t h e r medium and s t a b i l i t y achieved...(p.6k) He s u g g e s t s t h a t new a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms d e r i v e from the i n f l u e n c e o f the mass media, i f n o t d i r e c t l y , then by way o f economic systems. " I n c r e a s e d newspaper c i r c u l a t i o n s u p p o r t e d a demand f o r a d v e r t i s i n g and f o r new methods o f m a r k e t i n g , n o t a b l y t h e department s t o r e " . 2 6 Elsewhere he s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r i s e o f t h e c o f f e e - h o u s e s i n 17th c e n t u r y E n g l a n d i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f c e n s o r s h i p o f the p r e s s . I n n i s seems t o s u g g e s t , and r i g h t l y so, t h a t c e r t a i n media (and systems) r e q u i r e b u i l d i n g s i n t h e i r own r i g h t . M a n u s c r i p t s and books c r e a t e d a demand f o r l i b r a r i e s o f one s o r t o r a n o t h e r . The newspaper and t a b l o i d s , once they had become more than s m a l l hand o p e r a t i o n s , r e q u i r e d huge a r e a s t o house the g r e a t p r i n t i n g p r e s s e s . Movies, once t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y outgrew the s a l o o n s and n i c k e l o d e o n s , r e q u i r e d the p i c t u r e house. Cyclorama c r e a t e s v i e w i n g problems which make the o l d e r t h e a t r e s a t b e s t compromise s o l u t i o n s . Radio and TV r e q u i r e the a c o u s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d b r o a d c a s t s t u d i o s as w e l l as t r a n s m i s s i o n towers. In a d d i t i o n , as has been s u g g e s t e d , the l a t t e r two media come i n t o the home and c r e a t e needs and demands which i n f l u e n c e our p r i v a t e l i v e s up t o t w e n t y - f o u r hours a day. P r i n t o r i e n t a t i o n i m p l i e s g r e a t emphasis on a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f l i f e t o the d e t r i m e n t o f a more f u l l y d e v e l o p e d p e r s o n a l i t y . A p a r t o f man's b e i n g n a t u r a l l y s u f f e r s i n such a s i t u a t i o n . The i n f l u e n c e o f Zen from the E a s t has done l i t t l e t o change the s i t u a t i o n , b e i n g g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d as a system f o r a d v a n c i n g the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the r u s t i c , the n a t u r a l and the ingenuous. But the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the anomoly o f q u e s t i o n and answer f o r m e d i t a t i o n and response b r i n g s i n t o p l a y the s e n s e s , f e e l i n g s , i n t e l l e c t and i n t u i t i o n s . F o r 2 ^ S e e a l s o N o r b e r t Wiener, The Human Use o f Human B e i n g s , p.91-2 2 6 H a r o l d I n n i s , The B i a s o f Communication, ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1951), p.77. 21 the Japanese, interplay i s enhanced by their i n a b i l i t y to handle concepts or to present doctrines discursively. Thus a word does not f i x a notion with a definite degree of abstraction or generality but rather evokes a profusion of images completely unsuited to formal precision. Kepes treats this situation in his ar t i c l e "Arts and Science" appearing in Explorations v o l . l . The Far Eastern discipline of sensibilities (the highly developed appreciation of i t s harmonies, i t s tastes and flavours) grew out of the feeling that men lived most f u l l y by opening themselves to the universal rhythm of Nature. Nature was approached and entered through rapt contemplation of i t s forms, to the end of visualizing the world in terms not of likeness but of what the Chinese called 'rhythmical v i t a l i t y ' - the essence of things in their characteristic l i f e of movement. The patterns seen were not frameworks binding details but patterns of l i v i n g order. Western poets have at times given us a vision of this accord between man and nature.(p.78) These considerations, combined with the breakdown of perspective systems, are freeing art and architecture from both geometrical optics and from the geometric models of regular solids. Thus music is free to break loose from restricting ratios, and architecture from the precise and fixed rectangle. Architecture has in a sense decreed that musical composition be reassessed. Huge new auditoriums have called for new music to be written expressly for them. The classical composer such as Handel or Bach wrote for the relative intimacy of the drawing room. The transfer of this music to gigantic structures breaks up the pattern of sight and sound because of the time discrepancy between hearing and seeing. The new a-tonal music, whose harmonies can not be s p l i t f i t s easily into the new auditoriums. The hanging roof of Ronchamp Chapel indicates that we need no longer model ourselves on Euclidian forms. The "floating" ceiling designed by Le Corbusier is separated by a clerestory from the solid concrete wall below. A free-flowing, hovering plastic hollow is formed. Light penetrating through this clerestory space, invisible from below, suffuses the undulating majesty of the space. Without benefit of geometric linear perspective, but with the semi- acoustic dimensions of f i l t e r e d light, the enclosing form of the roof balances 22 seemingly without support i n space. To have expressed the s t r u c t u r a l supports would have denied man his creative part i n the completion of the work of a r t . At the same time i t would have denied the b e l i e v e r the p o t e n t i a l of a transcen- dant and immanent Deity maintaining the roof i n place. In Architecture You and Me, S i e g f r i e d Giedion has pointed out that Ronchamp Chapel r e f l e c t s a transformation i n t o a new form of s p a t i a l awareness. This means that the centre of the c e i l i n g , which up to now has been the p o s i t i o n of maximum height, has become i t s lowest point. The curve r i s e s toward the encompassing walls, i n d i c a t i n g by t h i s that i t does not terminate there, but that i t extends fur t h e r into the e x t e r i o r . (P.187) Once more under Corbusier 1s influence the c e i l i n g , as had previously been the case with the roof, has been permitted to become an area of f u l l e s t freedom f o r the imagination. Symbolic strength i s given to the hollowing out of space but i n a new manner, described by McLuhan i n "Inside the Five Sense Sensorium": .. . t h i s new f e e l i n g ( f o r space) i s d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the highly empathic and haptic TV image which evokes the immersion of deep p a r t i c i p a t i o n , not j u s t the r e t i n a l experience, i n the viewer.... The new a t t i t u d e to space i s here. And the preference f o r the wrap around space of the small plane, the small boat, or the small car, i s f o r a space that we don't get i n t o but which, as i t were, we put on. (P.52) This i s the space of Ronchamp and with i t a way out of the s t r a i g h t - jacket of standardized sizes and the economics of conformity imposed by the a d v e r t i s i n g hucksters has been achieved. The outside of the chapel i s as much a part of the design as i s the i n t e r i o r . Huge pilgrimages can gather round the e x t e r i o r p u l p i t and become a part of the s e r v i c e . The-.-Madonna i s equally v i s i b l e from i n t e r i o r or e x t e r i o r . Corbusier has as well created two d i s t i n c t types of worshippers, those belonging to the open crowd and those 27 belonging to the closed. 1 With these departures from conventional b u i l d i n g forms the time has come 2 7 S e e E l i a s Canetti, Crowds and Power, p.21-2. 23 again "tb~thihk about the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of what happens when compositions are b u i l t up about unfamiliar points of view, unconventional c u t t i n g of the f i e l d of v i s i o n and a r b i t r a r y use of colour". Design must be "absolved from the on i n s i s t e n t popular demand f o r conventional v e r i s i m i l i t u d e . " I suggest that t h i s task i s , i n t e n t i o n a l l y or not, the province of the mass media. Because of t h e i r wide influence, they are capable of breaking down the conventional patterns which retard progress. From the l890's to the e a r l y 20th century, Toulouse-Lautrec made a d v e r t i s i n g posters with which the walls of Paris were covered. They could not be evaded. "...In them great l i b e r t i e s were taken with t r a d i t i o n a l forms and colours. Many of them were two-dimensional i n design....And-they a l l had t h e i r undoubted e f f e c t s on the public's eyes...." 2? Wo le s s important were Puvis de Chauvanne, Gauguin, Munch, Beardsley and Art Nouveau generally. The shock of his posters was f o r many people an ocular l i b e r a t i o n . The p u b l i c learned from them that v e r i s i m i l i t u d e was far from being the b e - a l l and e n d - a l l of picture-making. I n c i d e n t a l l y , these posters made i t obvious to even the most obtuse that the Impressionist emphasis on the envelope was a f t e r a l l not much more than reporting and had not e s s e n t i a l l y a l t e r e d the hardened t r a d i t i o n of picture-making - that a c t u a l l y Impressionism was only a technical v a r i a t i o n on the standard academic thernes...^ Thus- the sphere of perspective drawing which provided a geometrical r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r p i c t o r i a l statements of space relationships was invaded. What was e s s e n t i a l l y a technique of making informative pictures became before long a necessary part of a l l p i c t u r e s . Highly paradoxical i n t h i s matter i s . the f a c t that a space conception which disregards the way our brain a c t u a l l y structures the world about us should become so all-pervading. Kepes deals with t h i s question i n The Language of V i s i o n : I f any meaning of depth i s to flow from foreshortening and pQ William Ivins J r . , Prints and V i s u a l Communications, (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1953) , p . l U 9 . ~ ~" 2 9 I b i d . p . 1 5 0 . 3 0 I b i d . p.100. 2h diminishing by the use of perspective, the observer must be acquainted with the objects i n t h e i r a c t u a l three-dimensional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A memory constancy,moreover, i s attached to f a m i l i a r things of our surroundings. We keep a constant s i z e and shape i n our perception... (P.87) The amplified perspectives of photography, f i l m techniques and adver t i s i n g are a l l attempts to break with or at l e a s t s t r e t c h the l i m i t i n g confines of geometric perspective. Even neglecting contemporary d e t a i l i n g , i t i s a simple matter to t e l l whether the author of a p r o j e c t i s s t i l l s p i r i t u a l l y i n the Renaissance or i n our emerging space metaphor. In discussing Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Reyner Banham places great emphasis on the influence of mass media on-his theories of perception: His e a r l y imagination was coloured by an agency that had come i n t o the world at about the same time as himself, the i l l u s t r a t e d magazines, to such an extent that he was overcome with disappointment on f i n d i n g that Szeged, the nearest town of any s i z e to h i s boyhood home i n Hungary, had no skyscrapers.31 What i s t r u l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n Moholy-Nagy's work i s his treatment of the extensions of the e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l concepts of the educated Europeans. Not only does his Von M a t e r i a l zur Architektur discuss the influence of photography, microphotography, crystallography, k i n e t i c sculpture, f i l m s , illuminated a d v e r t i s i n g , montage and p r i m i t i v e a r t , i t gives the impression "that f o r Moholy a r t s t a r t e d i n 1900." ...his view does not r e a l l y extend back beyond the E i f f e l Tower. He harks back to neither the geometry of Greece, nor the masonry of the Middle Ages, he i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n temples and cathedrals, his theories are to derive t h e i r authority from the present condition of cu l t u r e , not from history.3 2 Perhaps s u f f i c i e n t has been said f o r the moment to show that the i n f  luence of various mass communications on architecture i s not merely wilfulness or novelty on my part. While this topic has not been investigated formally, -ilBanham, op. c i t . p.315. 3 2Ibid., p.31k. 25 i t has occupied the minds and work of a r t i s t s , writers and c r i t i c s f o r some time. -Great care must be exercised l e s t we impose a v i s u a l order based on "a p r i o r i " conventions drawn l a r g e l y from-/the f i e l d of p a i n t i n g . Instead of an extension of our sense r a t i o s we would merely be s u b s t i t u t i n g one mode of perception f o r another. . James M. F i t c h has stated i n Architecture and the' Aesthetics of Plenty that transparency when applied to architecture c a r r i e s c e r t a i n media problems with i t . Transparency, as an aesthetic c r i t e r i o n , d i c t a t e s c e r t a i n formal q u a l i t i e s in architecture - s i m p l i c i t y , s t r u c t u r a l c l a r i t y , repose. But the transparency at the b i o l o g i c a l l e v e l , often raises exactly contrary demands - complexity, opacity, changeability. How are the two contradictory sets of values to be reconciled?(p.22) and i n terms of s e t t i n g o f f a p p l i c a t i o n against p r i n c i p l e he states: ...glass does not s i m p l i f y the design process whether viewed from the angle of physics, physiology or psychology. I t requires a massive assortment of a u x i l i a r y devices.(p.22) Perspective and p r i n t emphasized the v i s u a l side of experience u n t i l they dominated the e n t i r e f i e l d of a t t e n t i o n . The f i l l i n g of the f i e l d of perception by one sense only i s often used as a working d e f i n i t i o n f o r hypnosis. P r i o r to the trance state (and a f t e r ) i t i s possible to achieve haptic homo geneity through an i n t e r p l a y of a l l the senses. In the years since the Indus t r i a l Revolution, the new systems of communication have m u l t i p l i e d at an unpre cedented rate. Newspaper,.radio, e l e c t r i c i t y , photography and TV administer a shock to our nervous systems when f i r s t introduced, f o r they a l t e r the e x i s t i n g sense r a t i o s . But as long as perspective and l i t e r a t u r e are prime determinants i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , b u i l d i n g w i l l i n e v i t a b l y s t a r t from the outside, that i s the facade. By s e l e c t i n g only one of the innumerable sensations to which our perceptive organs pay heed, we get the f i x e d moment i n space, the p i c t u r e stage representation parading as a r c h i t e c t u r e . Once perspective i s accepted for what i t i s , a learned process, i t w i l l be possible to break - perhaps only p a r t i a l l y f o r the present generation - from the accepted " r i g h t way" of viewing our 26 s t r u c t u r e s . Far from being a normal mode of human v i s i o n , three-dimensional perspective i s a conventionally acquired mode of seeing, as much acquired as i s the means of recognizing the l e t t e r s of the alphabet, or of following chronological narrative.3 3 We need only look at the unsophisticated, yet more i n c l u s i v e l y percep t i v e drawings of children (up to the age of nine or ten) to r e a l i z e t h i s fact.- The-various alternate perspective methods, a e r i a l , chiaroscuro, f i x a t i o n , r e l a t i v e height, distance and overlap that we c o n t i n u a l l y use, not to mention the a r t work of the Japanese, Chinese and e a r l y Europeans, i n d i c a t e that the a r b i t r a r y s e l e c t i o n of a s i n g l e , s t a t i c p o s i t i o n creating p i c t o r i a l space with a vanishing point, i s by no means u n i v e r s a l . Some of the f i n e s t Japanese modern f i g u r e work i n the Western manner in d i c a t e how very foreign the idea of perspective i s when consciously attempted r e l a t i v e l y l a t e i n l i f e , when i t i s not a l i f e - l o n g habit. In e f f e c t , perspective "froze" the v i s u a l f i e l d , e l i m i n a t i n g the time element i n experiencing space and thereby destroying the dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. Chinese and Japanese paintings reverse t h i s role which becomes a method of experience rather than a s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e . The newspaper format with i t s varying type s i z e s , i t s c o l l a g e - l i k e pattern determined by the simultaneous presentation of wire-press photographs, bold-face type headlines, and minor headlines i n a d i f f e r e n t colour a l l helped to break up the l i n e a r pattern of the p r i n t e d book. (The newspaper was a collage long before the dadaists took i t up and TV, I suggest, i s an e l e c t  r o n i c a l l y ordered collage.) Even the narrow margin separating columns of p r i n t dissolved under the double and t r i p l e column heading, the three column photograph and the front page corner column posting the l a t e s t race r e s u l t s . 33McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, p.16. 3^See S i r Herbert Read f o r a discussion of The S i g n i f i c a n c e of Children's Art. 27 There remained l i t t l e i n common with a p r i n t culture book. The format does approximate more c l o s e l y the written record of a t r i b a l c i v i l i z a t i o n with a hi g h l y developed o r a l t r a d i t i o n . The layout of the Talmud i s a case i n point. Wright's p r a i r i e houses were a r e v o l t , among other things, against perspective p i c t o r i a l i s m i n architecture. ' The pattern of these p r a i r i e houses i s the pattern of the newspaper. Heavy shadowed areas below p r o j e c t i n g roof l i n e s , replace the bold faced headlines, the various receding and p r o j e c t i n g planes and fenestration conforming to the l e s s e r headlines and photographic i n s e r t s . Many of Mondrian's geometric compositions are merely the newspaper format with emphasis on e i t h e r the margin or the column i t s e l f . The technique of Cubism emphasized the two tendencies i n f l u e n c i n g the new v i s i o n i n the a r t s , that i s , the deliberate s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of volumes and the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of mass through l i g h t . The as s o c i a t i v e dynamicism of these cubist works evokes a continuous sequence of mental v i s t a s . Images projected onto a u n i v e r s a l time-space plane represent a close p a r a l l e l ' t o the emphasis on simultaneity i n the TV medium. This contemporary q u a l i t y , while reconstructing subject-matter i n t o something that i s -wholly new, i s , or ought to be, by force of association, v i r t u a l l y f a m i l i a r . Thus, the e a r l y d e f i n i t i v e work of the Cubists, "highly fragmented simultaneous v i s i o n of scattered aspects of the v i s u a l scene"-^ was a c t u a l l y predated by the newspaper format as we know i t . Boccioni and the F u t u r i s t s , contemporary with much Cubist work but long a f t e r the t a b l o i d , r e a l i z e d the concept of the c i t y as a f i e l d of i n t e r a c t i n g powers and influences. (Yet the f a c t that a r c h i t e c t s and c i t y planners have been slow i n r e a l i z i n g t h i s i s one of the main theses of Jane Jacob's book The Death and L i f e of Great American C i t i e s . ) The simultaneity that characterizes the newspaper layout i n i t s combining of many viewpoints and impressions was to lead to a f i e l d theory of Banham, op. c i t . , p.113. 28 space i n architecture as were the new discoveries i n science and mathematics. I t i s the play of space which constitutes the di s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r e . Since architecture i s a dynamic d i s c i p l i n e the concept of space i s an ever-changing process. Each succeeding epoch should determine the formulation which i s pertinent to i t s way of l i f e . ...the formulation of space i s fundamental to architecture, and (that) i t i s the changes which occur continuously, i n the formations of space that provide the unquestionable basis of the h i s t o r y of architecture.3 o As a conditioner of modern arc h i t e c t u r e , the newspaper format was only a beginning, f o r i t required, as d i d chiaroscuro and the printed book, " l i g h t on"37 i t s subject matter to render i t v i s i b l e . As the enclosing walls of structures became "free-agents" divorced from the age-old task of carrying loads, cumbersome materials could be replaced by l i g h t and even transparent substances. Thus, the material-immaterial era entered a r c h i t e c t u r e . (This, as I have suggested, i s the e l e c t r o n i c or TV phase of a r c h i t e c t u r e ) . Every a r c h i t e c t u r a l concept finds i t s basis i n the dynamic dualism of s o l i d and vo i d . A l l other manifestations are combinations of this dualism. Whether s o l i d , or void, or s o l i d - v o i d predominates depends on the nature of the p l a s t i c image which i s to be conveyed. When a stable v i s u a l whole i s achieved, i n e v i t a b l y both background and foreground are present i n the v i s u a l f i e l d i n a planned fashion. But there i s l i t t l e or no choice i n the matter. Background, whether fragmentary or organized, f l u i d or determined, always e x i s t s . The ar c h i t e c t ' s role demands that he organize the e n t i r e v i s u a l f i e l d so that even disparate elements appear to belong to a u n i f i e d whole. Although i t may seem a f a r easier task to accomplish t h i s by matching, i t i s only one way and the most obvious. Our mind i s capable of organizing independent and seemingly opposed ^ S i e g f r i e d Giedion, Architecture You and Me (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958), p.1127, : ~ -^McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, p.105. 29 s p a t i a l units into a meaningful whole. The ge s t a l t psychologists have based t h e i r reasoning on the mind's d i s l i k e of chaos. Whatever enters into our f i e l d of v i s i o n i s soon ordered and adjusted by a neat and orderly process of mind. Whatever i s extraneous to the ordering process i s then rejected and may continue as a peri p h e r a l annoyance or disturbance u n t i l we become accustomed to i t s presence. The lack of s e n s i t i v i t y at any given period i s a r e s u l t of thi s compromise which the mind i s co n t i n u a l l y forced to accept. As a moulder of environment, the a r c h i t e c t then has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of reducing these j a r r i n g notes (and t h i s does not simply mean getting r i d of opposites) thus c u t t i n g down the number of mental compromises, and u l t i m a t e l y maintaining i f not r a i s i n g the standard of s e n s i t i v i t y to one's surroundings. The high f i n i s h and transparency of machine t o o l s , s t e e l and glass e s t a b l i s h a new con t i n u i t y between the moulded space within our structures and the free space without. As has been stated, Corbusier accomplishes this e f f e c t i n Ronchamp Chapel by a v i s u a l separation of wall and c e i l i n g . Paul Rudolph v i r t u a l l y eliminates' enclosures i n his new parking garages. In Language of Vi s i o n , Kepes discusses the contemporary trend: Contemporary a r c h i t e c t s are moving away from one-sided emphasis on the facade of a b u i l d i n g , and the best examples of contemporary archit e c t u r e show a perfect in t e g r a t i o n of the a c t u a l b u i l d i n g , the ac t i v e "envelope", the d i v i s i o n s created by the materials and the l i v i n g spaces between these materials. Light screens, curtains, glass walls are employed to amplify t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n o p t i c a l l y and to create a l i v i n g , flowing space a r t i c u l a t e d within and without: a s i n g l e l i v i n g u n i t y . ' " "In the e l e c t r o n i c age which succeeds the typographic and mechanical era of the past f i v e hundred years, we encounter new shapes and structures of human interdependence and of expression which are " o r a l " i n form even when the 39 components of the s i t u a t i o n may be non-verbal." ^Gyorgy Kepes, Language of V i s i o n , (Chicago: Paul Theobald, 1951) p.3,2. 39 McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, p.3. 3 0 The reorganization of s c i e n t i f i c l i f e must bring with i t a reorganization of a r t i s t i c l i f e . Our p r e s e n t . i n a b i l i t y to understand the symbolic function of architecture i s symptomatic of our t r a n s i t i o n a l age. "The.culture of p r i n t has rendered people extremely i n s e n s i t i v e to the language and meaning of s p a t i a l f o r m . " ^ This, the authors state, " i s one reason f o r the A r c h i t e c t u r a l and C i t y Horrors tolerated by predominantly book-cultures."^l Our thought patterns l a g behind the t r a n s i t i o n s being wrought by a new age. ...We have-in the past century moved out of a mechanical i n t o an e l e c t r i c , organic, c u l t u r e . That i s , we have i n c r e a s i n g l y moved out of a segmental, s p e c i a l i s t phase of knowledge in t o a period of i n t e r  play and, as i t were, dialogue among a l l kinds of knowledge.... Under conditions of simultaneity of access to information, Cuba i s not a margin p o l i t i c a l l y nor i s Laps, yet our assumptions are s t i l l other wise. Hence our confusion.^- 2 Contemporary a r t i s t s do not show us chaos but a d i f f e r e n t way of p e r c e i v i n g space. The very name "action painting" with i t s emphasis on speed and the "stream of consciousness'* breaks .the usual idea of o i l p a i n t i n g as a slow, modelled medium which can be worked and reworked as fancy or i n s p i r a t i o n d i c t a t e . The new paintings with t h e i r cascades of colour are l i k e the gleaming neon tubes of any large metropolis, magical i n t h e i r splashing emotions and f r e n z i e d a c t i v i t i e s . Their mode of expression i s " o r a l " , even to the p u l s a t i n g hum which accompanies t h e i r use. Our teen-age rock-and-rollers partake of that same t o t a l immersion which distinguishes "action painting". I t i s the new jazz of the painters' and teenagers' world. Is there a counter part f o r the a r c h i t e c t ? I f , f o r a moment, the notion of sequence i n a r c h i  tecture, as exemplified by Renaissance perspective (growing out of the l i n e a r format of the p r i n t e d book) i s set aside, i t i s possible to experience any c i t y ^ C a r p e n t e r and McLuhan, "Culture Without Literacy" i n Explorations v o l . 1 , p . 1 2 3 . L l I b i d . ^McLuhan, "-The Humanities i n the E l e c t r o n i c Age", i n the Humanities Association B u l l e t i n , v o l . 3h, No.l, F a l l , 1 9 6 1 , p . 8 . 31 as a vast polyphony of jazz improvizations. The raucous automobile horn, the screeching subway brakes, the hubbub of rushing bodies, the clank of horse shoes, the woosh of rubber t i r e s over man-holes, the t i c k i n g of the automatic s i g n a l s , the d i s t o r t e d melody of the organ grinder, the wheeze of the high speed elevator car, a l l these structure the c i t y every b i t as much as the v i s u a l aspect which so dominates contemporary thinking. Perhaps here we are given an i n s i g h t into the mysterious dimension of architecture as f r o n t i e r between the spaces of sight and sound. Corbusier has suggested that a r c h i  tecture i s only p a r t i a l l y i n the v i s u a l mode, the f r o n t i e r s being best f e l t at night. Architecture cannot exist without f i n i t e boundaries. These l i m i t i n g boundaries make int a n g i b l e space pe r c e p t i b l e . The ways i n which we structure these boundaries i s of great importance, f o r they can e i t h e r l i m i t our range of sense perception or extend i t . Our communication media have a p o s i t i v e role i n the determination of the space concept. TV, which favours simultaneity of v i s u a l and auditory gesture opens the f r o n t i e r of auditory space. This acoustic space i s i n v i s i b l e and therefore does not e x i s t f o r most of Western eye c u l t u r e . For l i t e r a t e man, we have said , space i t s e l f i s defined by " l i g h t on" subject matter. Darkness i s an enemy o b l i t e r a t i n g the s t a t i o n points with which we i d e n t i f y ourselves. But acoustic space i s defined by man and only i n so f a r as he i s the module does i t e x i s t . Acoustic space cannot be seen, yet i t does e x i s t , peopled by ghosts and half-world creatures. For how many chi l d r e n i s the darkness of a l o n e l y room as tangible as the most palpable sen s a t i o n . Yet to deny t h i s world to adults i s not i n keeping with the facts of existence. In Crowds and Power, Canetti indicates the pervasiveness of the idea, i n a l l cultures of an active i n v i s i b l e w o r l d . ^ That the idea of an extension of space - auditory space - i s not•idiosyncracy or w i l l f u l n e s s , we See Canetti, Crowds and Power, pp.i>2-7 and 262-272. 32 can learn from observations of other and e a r l i e r cul tures . Inevi tably we must admit that for the adult as for the c h i l d , space i s occupied. We would do w e l l to study the workings of ear ly c i v i l i z a t i o n s and "pr imi t ive" groups i n this -regard. Not to reconstruct the "voodoo menace" of space i t s e l f but to give freer play to our imagination and senses and to r ea l i ze that we are, at leas t i n some aspects of l i f e , capable of s t ructur ing "acoustic space." Bruno Z'evi contends that "Our i l l i t e r a c y regarding space derives from the use of plans, elevations and sections, that i s , hor izonta l and v e r t i c a l planes which enclose and divide s p a c e . " ^ I t i s t e l ev i s ion and some of our recent experimental movies which are helping to redefine our spa t i a l th ink ing . The former medium p a r t i c u l a r l y w i l l gradually enable us to perceive space as a simultaneous awareness of mul t ip le images i n a non-linear fashion. As Edmund Carpenter states i n "The New Languages", i n Explorations i n Communication, "a given idea belongs p r imar i l y , though not exc lus ive ly to one medium, and can be gained or communicated best through that medium."(p.67) An in ter rupt ion of a movie p lo t by a commercial would be unthinkable. In t e l ev i s ion the commercial, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the younger generation weaned on th is medium,- i s not an in te r rup t ion . I t i s a "necessary" part of the structure of the medium format, as i s the commercial flashed on the screen and super imposed on the action.^5 i t i s natural for a culture to explo i t i t s media biases and TV explo i t s the simultaneous. • At th i s point i n h i s to ry the earth i s becoming a vast c o l l e c t i v e society under the pressure of the new media of communication, the disappearance of the time element and the breakdown of a r t i f i c i a l barr iers such as race and na t ion . Now, i n the e l e c t r i c age, the very instantaneous nature of co existence among our technological instruments has created a c r i s i s quite ^Bruno Zevi , Architecture as Space, ed. J . Barry, t rans. M. Gendel, (New.York: Horizon Press, ±9U1), P » 2 2 « . ^See Carpenter, "The New Languages", i n idem and H.M. McLuhan, eds. , Explorations i n Communications (Boston: Beacon Press, I960). 33 new i n human h i s t o r y . Our extended f a c u l t i e s and senses now constitute a s i n g l e f i e l d of experience which demands that they become c o l l e c t i v e l y conscious. Our technologies, l i k e our private senses, now demand an i n t e r p l a y and r a t i o that makes r a t i o n a l co-existence p o s s i b l e . As long as our technologies were as slow as the wheel or the alphabet or money, the f a c t that they were separate, closed systems was s o c i a l l y and p s y c h i c a l l y supportable. This i s not true now when sight and sound and movement are simultaneous and global i n t h e i r extent. A r a t i o of i n t e r  play among these extensions of our human functions i s now as necessary c o l l e c t i v e l y as i t has always been f o r our p r i v a t e and personal r a t i o n  a l i t y i n terms of our private senses or "wits" as they were once c a l l e d . Hitherto h i s t o r i a n s of culture have tended to i s o l a t e technological events much i n the way that c l a s s i c a l physics dealt with phy s i c a l events.^ • As the " r e t r i b a l i z a t i o n " and hence interdependence of man increases with the breakdown of the favoured point of view, and the growth of e l e c t r o n i c systems of communication, the i n d i v i d u a l uniqueness enjoyed i n a " d e t r i b a l i z e d " s o c i e t y must be nourished and perpetuated l e s t i t disappear. Here i s r a i s e d what will.be one of modern man's great problems - the preservation of the " I " i n a group- oriented c u l t u r e . The r o l e of the a r c h i t e c t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n preserving the status of the i n d i v i d u a l . He can as e a s i l y relegate him to an anonymous pigeon-hole. I f he chooses the l a t t e r course, he dams up hi s own unique opportunity f o r main t a i n i n g the d i g n i t y of man as well as h i s c l i e n t ' s opportunity f o r a creative expression of his unique pe r s o n a l i t y . Everyone who has thought even c a s u a l l y about the subject knows that the s p e c i f i c property of architecture - the feature d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i t from a l l other forms of a r t - consists i n i t s working with a three- dimensional vocabulary which includes man ( i t a l i c s mine).'J-7 I f the ultimate goal of architecture i s s o c i a l , and I believe that i t i s , then stereotyped a r c h i t e c t u r a l expression cannot communicate this aim. Law Whyte asserts that "the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v a r i a b i l i t y of the human species refutes every sharp c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . " ^ For him, t h i s v a r i a b l e creature exists i n a "unitary" system which, much i n keeping with McLuhan's ^McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, p.5. ^ 7 Z e v i , op. c i t . , p.22. ^ L a n c e l o t Law Whyte, The Next Development i n Man (New York: New American Library,' Mentor Books, 1962), p.l)7. 3k formulation, ...emphasizes process, development and transformation. This i s a perpetually changing-universe, and conceptions of unchanging permanence must play no part i n the basic formulations of the systems.™ A world of t r a n s i t i o n i s today a f a c t . The mass media are helping to smooth the way f o r most o f us. They are helping man to bridge h i s d i f f e r e n c e s . I t i s a role of great s o c i a l function. Yet inherent i n t h i s role i s a great danger. While adding new ways of seeing things, the mass media also provide endless diversions, often s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t i n g people's willingness to pay attention to things r e q u i r i n g other than minimal p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T e l e v i s i o n requires a degree of immersion previously unknown. Its mandate, i s more com pl e t e than any other form of communication which has invaded the home. Aimed as they often are at the lowest common denominator of man, the mass media can pursue an in s i d i o u s and malignant course unperceived by the r a t i o n a l side of man.-^ To con t r o l communication processes demands i n i t i a l l y the recognition that a danger does e x i s t . Secondly i t i s e s s e n t i a l that man make use of the two d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of his species, a r t and language, to demonstrate h i s s u p e r i o r i t y over instruments of s e r v i c e . On t h i s basis i t w i l l then be possible to subordinate the media of communication to human needs. With these observations i n mind, we may now turn to a consideration of the province of a r t and language as they a f f e c t man's symbol-making processes. ^ I b i d . , p.5. 50See Dan Lacy,.Freedom and Communication, (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1 9 6 1 ) , pp.36-1+1. I I I . ART AND LANGUAGE IN THE SYMBOL-MAKING PROCESS Art i s a fundamental experience. I t arises at the.dawn of man's need f o r expression.. I t precedes a r c h i t e c t u r e . The period which " elapsed between man's f i r s t attempts to d i s t i l l his f e e l i n g s through v i s u a l forms (outline and colour) and the b i r t h of arch i t e c t u r e , at the beginning of the Sumerian and Egyptian c i v i l i z a t i o n s . , was several times longer than the en t i r e h i s t o r i c period. S i e g f r i e d Giedion, The Ete r n a l Present We need not, as d i d Plato, cover the obscure or i g i n s of ar t with the myth of Prometheus. 1 Together with the g i f t of f i r e , Prometheus apparently st o l e the arts of weaving and metal-working from the gods., to a i d the human creature, who, i n the primaeval d i s t r i b u t i o n of assets was a forgotten man. Plato's successor, A r i s t o t l e , treated a r t as one of two i n i t i a t i n g forces of the world. More recently, i n Philosophy i n a New Key, Susanne Langer speaks of the vegetative period of a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y , l i n g u i s t i c and mythological and r i t u a l growth as an apparent f a c e t of p r i m i t i v e mankind. A crude pre-Athenian peasant makes a Herm f o r the protection of his home, and produces a statue of archaic beauty; an Indian carves a totem-pole, and achieves a composition; he fashions a canoe or molds a water-jar, and creates a l o v e l y form. His model i s the human body, the tree trunk, the curled, dry l e a f f l o a t i n g , the s h e l l or s k u l l or cocoa- nut from which he drinks. But as he imitates such models f o r p r a c t i c a l ends he sees more than the u t i l i t a r i a n import of t h e i r shapes; he l i t e r a l l y sees the r e f l e c t i o n of human f e e l i n g , the "dynamic" laws of l i f e , power, and rhythm, i n forms on which hi s attention i s focussed; he sees things he cannot name, magical imports, rightness of l i n e and mass, his hands unwittingly express and even overdraw what he sees, and the product amazes and delights him and looks " b e a u t i f u l " . But he does not "know", i n d i s c u r s i v e terms, what he i s expressing, or why he deviates from the model to make the form more "significant".(p. 2 0 k ) Primitive man found the need f o r a r t i n the l i g h t , or more accurately the darkness of magical necessity. Giedion discusses t h i s i n a se l e c t i o n from hi s book on the beginnings of a r t , The Et e r n a l Present. Nothing i s more destructive of the true values of primaeval art than the glare of e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n t h i s realm of etern a l night. Flares or small stone lamps burning animal f a t , of which examples have been found, •See also Wiener, op. c i t . , p.181;. In Carpenter and McLuhan, eds.,. Explorations i n Communication, p.79. 35 36 permit one to obtain only fragmentary glimpses of the colors and l i n e s of the objects depicted. In such a s o f t , f l i c k e r i n g l i g h t these take on an almost magical movement. The engraved l i n e s , and even the colored surfaces, lose t h e i r i n t e n s i t y under a strong l i g h t and sometimes • disappear altogether. Only i n t h i s way. can the f i n e v e i n i n g of the drawings be seen unsmothered by t h e i r rough background. Maybe enough has now been sa i d to show that p r e h i s t o r i c man d i d not associate the caverns with a r c h i t e c t u r e . In his view the caverns simply provided him with places that he could use f o r his magic a r t s . The only difference which seems to e x i s t between the need f o r a r t of p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s and of advanced s o c i e t i e s i s the propensity of the l a t t e r to want to "know i n d i s c u r s i v e terms" what he i s expressing or why he deviates from the model to make the forms more " s i g n i f i c a n t " . When he emerges from.his savage state and takes d i s c u r s i v e reason s e r i o u s l y he t r i e s to copy more accurately; and the ambition f o r n a t u r a l i s t i c , l i t e r a l representation, f o r r a t i o n a l standards of a r t , moral i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and so f o r t h , confuse h i s i n t u i t i o n s and endanger hi s v i s u a l apprehensions.3 BUT THE NEED FOR ART IS A PARTICULARLY HUMAN CHARACTERISTIC, A PART OF THE GREATER PROCESS OF SYMBOLIZATION Thus, every species of animal, vegetable and mineral which has survived to the present has done so, to the best of our knowledge, without the b e n e f i t of a r t , - every species except man. What i s l o s t i n Nature's guaranty of safety i s made up i n the advantage of greater p l a s t i c i t y . The human animal does not, l i k e the bear, grow himself a polar coat i n order to adapt himself, a f t e r many generations, to the A r c t i c . He learns to sew himself a coat and put up a snow house. From a l l we can l e a r n of the h i s t o r y of i n t e l l i g e n c e i n pre-human as well as human s o c i e t i e s , this, p l a s t i c i t y has been the s o i l i n which the human progress began and. in which i t has maintained i t s e l f . In the ages of the mammoths, species a f t e r species without p l a s t i c i t y arose, overreached i t s e l f and died out, undone by the development of the very t r a i t s i t had b i o l o g i c a l l y produced i n order to cope with i t s environment. The beasts of prey and f i n a l l y the higher apes came slowly to r e l y on other than b i o l o g i c a l adaptations, and upon the consequent increased p l a s t i c i t y the foundations were l a i d , b i t by b i t , f o r the development of i n t e l l i g e n c e . ^ 3Longer., Philosophy in a New Key, (New York: New American Library, Mentor Books, 19i>i>), pp.20u-b. : . ^Ruth Benedict, Patterns of Culture (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 19l±6; New York: Mentor Books, I960), p.2?. Benedict, goes on to elaborate the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r s u r v i v a l . "We must accept a l l the implications of our human inheritance, one of the most important of which i s the small scope of b i o l o g i c a l l y transmitted behaviour, and the enormous role of the c u l t u r a l process of the transmission of t r a d i t i o n . " ^ From the views of an anthropologist we f i n d that organisms, i f they are to p e r s i s t , develop the necessary apparatus f o r s u r v i v a l and d i s c a r d those which outgrow t h e i r usefulness. In accordance with this p r i n c i p l e , the human animal i s s a i d to be i n the process of discarding the appendix which has no longer any apparent function. But a r t , despite Plato's f a n c i f u l explanation of i t s o r i g i n , useless i n the f i g h t f o r p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l , does not seem to be in imminent danger of being discarded. 1^ In f a c t , the opposite seems to be the ease. Art i s becoming a compulsion. We have created a mass market f o r t h i s commodity. In the Gutenberg Galaxy, McLuhan discusses the r o l e of a r t as a consumer com modity. The p u b l i c became the patron. Art reversed i t s r o l e from guide to perception i n t o convenient amenity or package. But the producer or a r t i s t was compelled, as never before, to study the e f f e c t of h i s a r t . As manipulators of the mass market tyrannized over the a r t i s t , the a r t i s t i n i s o l a t i o n achieved a new clairvoyance concerning the c r u c i a l role of design and of a r t as a means to human order and f u l f i l m e n t . Art has become as t o t a l i n i t s mandate f o r human order as the mass markets....(p.275) The continuing need i n man f o r a r t , which has spread from the r e l a t i v e l y closed world of i n i t i a t e s , priests,, freemen and nobles to the market place, finds i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n , I f e e l , i n the a b i l i t y of a r t to provide f o r the enhancement of l i f e . Kepes has explained i t i n Language of V i s i o n . In each age of human h i s t o r y man was compelled to search f o r a temporary equilibrium i n his c o n f l i c t s with nature and i n his r e l a t i o n s with other men, and thus created, through an organization of v i s u a l imagery, a symbolic order of h i s psychological and i n t e l l e c t u a l experiences. These forms of h i s creative imagination d i r e c t e d and inspired, him toward . . m a t e r i a l i z i n g the p o t e n t i a l order inherent i n each stage of h i s t o r y . But ^ I b i d . , p.28. r ^Although not generally thought of today as a prerequisite f o r p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l , a r t , i n p r i m i t i v e communities, i s considered e s s e n t i a l in the f i g h t f o r ' l i f e , as i t e x i s t s In the realm of magic. Thus, the drawing of a b u f f a l o was necessary•for the success of the hunt. 38 u n t i l today, the symbolic organization of psychological and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n f l i c t s has been l i m i t e d i n i t s power because i t was fastened to a s t a t i c system of object concepts. Today, the dynamics of events, and the new v i s t a s of a mobile, p h y s i c a l world, have compelled us to exchange a s t a t i c iconography f o r a dynamic one. V i s u a l language thus must absorb the dynamic idioms of the v i s u a l imagery to mobilize the c r e a t i v e imagination f o r p o s i t i v e s o c i a l a c t i o n , and d i r e c t i t toward p o s i t i v e s o c i a l goals, (p.Iii) Art i s , i n terms of the Gestalt psychologists, an i n e v i t a b l e drive f o r completion or equilibrium and can be considered as an extension of what man once d i d with his body, as, f o r example, the dance of p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s . To make this l i f e a "something" beyond mere animal existence i s the function of a r t . But t h i s a r t i s only a part of a greater a b i l i t y which i s uniquely human, that i s , the power of symbolization. THE ABILITY TO ABSTRACT BY VIRTUE OF SYMBOLS HAS LED TO CASSIRER'S REDEFINITION OF MAN AS A SYMBOL-MAKING ANIMAL RATHER THAN A RATIONAL ANIMAL. Our intercourse, our dealings, i n f a c t our very l i v e s depend upon our a b i l i t y . t o abstract sense-data and to symbolize the information i n a way suf f i c i e n t l y uniform to carry on the business of the world. This i s true a t the . most p r i m i t i v e l e v e l of sign, even before our signals have become ordered symbolism or language. McLuhan gives an up-to-date d e f i n i t i o n of symbolism which has s u f f i c i e n t e l a s t i c i t y to be v a l i d over a wide range of space and time: "A c o l l o c a t i o n , a parataxis of components representing i n s i g h t by c a r e f u l l y established r a t i o s , but without a point of view or l i n e a l connection or sequential order."''' For several years psychologists viewed sense-data as the.key to our knowledge of the world about us. Our i n t e l l i g e n c e was u l t i m a t e l y t i e d to the impressions which were a v a i l a b l e to us through the senses of sight, sound, smell, taste and touch. The mind functions as a recorder of t h i s information and on 7McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, p.267. 39 the basis of our backlog' of experience, impression and assoc i a t i o n combines these elements to create human i n t e l l i g e n c e . In general, sensory impulses from the sense organs i n various parts of the body are transmitted by the main sensory nerve t r a c t s , through the brain stem and n u c l e i of nerve c e l l s at the top of the brain stem, to.the cerebral cortex. In one of the n u c l e i , the optic thalamus, these impulses are, as i t were, sorted out, and those from d i f f e r e n t senses transmitted to d i f f e r e n t receptor areas of the cortex, f o r v i s i o n , hearing, touch, and so on. Surrounding the receptor are areas i n which the sensory messages appear to be elaborated by thought and memory processes on which depend our meaningful perception of the world around us. In the sense-data scheme we had i n e f f e c t a huge mental tape-recording apparatus; compared by Langer? to a telephone exchange, which, depending on our native i n t e l l i g e n c e and experience, we could draw on to order and cata logue any new data to which we were exposed. Colin Cherry i n On Human Com  munication states that hanger's idea i s already dated and naive i n i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . B a s i c a l l y t h i s comparison of the brain to a telephone exchange i s with "a pure Cartesian model." A more relevant analogy, perhaps no more than a metaphor, might be to compare the brain to a gigantic t o t a l i z a t o r , at a race track, which accepts the tokens (money) from the outside world (bettors), calculates the odds hypotheses (horses) to give the greatest expec ta t i o n of goal attainment ( p r o f i t ) according to assumed standards of utility.(pp.299-300) We may here i n t e r p o l a t e the idea of the simultaneous processes of which the human mind i s capable and which i t uses u n t i l we f i n d i t necessary to commit our thoughts to paper. We have i n e f f e c t the necessary apparatus f o r the e l e c t r o n i c systems of communication of the 20th century. But as writers from Blake through Ruskin to Giedion have suggested, we are s t i l l functioning with only p a r t i a l p o t e n t i a l because of the tyrannies' of perspective and the pri n t e d page with t h e i r f i x e d s t a t i o n point and l i n e a r development. %.D. Vernon, The Psychology of Perception (Middlesex: Pelican Books, 1962), p.188. ' : : ?Langer, Philosophy i n a New Key, p.2[|.. ho THE EXAMPLE OF "GIFTED" PEOPLE WITH THE RESTRICTED USE' OF THE SENSES INDICATES THAT THE ACCUMULATION OF SENSE-DATA IS NOT THE PRIME INGREDIENT OF INTELLIGENCE Helen K e l l e r has shown us how a human with only two of the f i v e senses i n t a c t can l i v e a l i f e immeasurably r i c h e r than an animal with a l l f a c u l t i e s i n t a c t . This achievement has been possible only through the a b i l i t y to abstract symbols and to deal with them when the actu a l stimulus i s not present. The idea of a process of symbolization i n animals has been investigated thoroughly by Yerkes and K e l l o g g . 1 ^ A d i s t i n c t l y human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , i t i s not found, i n animals. Although the lower l e v e l s of the animal world make use of the same sense f a c u l t i e s , being able to accumulate sense-data as are humans, t h e i r use of these clues i s to activat e a set reaction i n response to the sur v i v a l i n s t i n c t . To the animal, one s i g n a l i s r e s t r i c t e d to one symbol and of necessity t o one contextual reaction. Hayakawa i n Language i n Thought and  Action has commented that "a fundamental way i n which human noise-making sys tems d i f f e r from the c r i e s of animals i s that language can be about language." (P.15) .. . FOR MAN AN OBJECT MAY HAVE INNUMERABLE SYMBOLIC MEAN BIGS AND SHADES OF MEANING VARYING WITH ITS CONTEXT. R..Wittkower, i n Studies i n Communication, gives us the example of man's a b i l i t y to r e i n t e r p r e t symbols i n the f i e l d of architecture: In Graeco-Roman arc h i t e c t u r e , the gabled p o r t i c o belongs to the temple. I t designates the b u i l d i n g as a sanctuary. P a l l a d i o , i n the sixteenth century, gave the motif a new meaning: he introduced i t i n t o domestic arch i t e c t u r e as a symbolic reference to the eminence of the owner.. In the Age of Liberalism, a r t and lear n i n g came to be regarded -^ W.N. Kel l o g and L.A. Kellogg, The Ape and the Child; R.M. Yerkes and A.W. Yerkes, The Great Apes, both quoted i n Langer, Philosophy i n a New Key, 1+1 as sacred dominions which should be open to a l l , and so "temples" were erected to a r t and wisdom. F i n a l l y , the symbol was transferred to railway st a t i o n s , banks, and exchanges. The symboT;owed i t s power to the remembrance of i t s sacred o r i g i n ; whenever i t was revived with a new meaning, i t retained i t s association with d i g n i t y and grandeur, and gave prominence to values which had gained high currency i n t h e i r res pective c u l t u r a l setting.(p.120) P r e - l i t e r a t e s o c i e t i e s attach great importance to the uttered word which assumes magical power. Thus, the symbol or name f o r a god i s taken as con j u r i n g up the god i t s e l f and was not pronounced other than by the priesthood, on s p e c i a l occasions f o r fear of i n c u r r i n g divine r e t r i b u t i o n . Much of the mysticism of the Kabbala centres around the potency- of word magic. The notion that name and essence bear a necessary and i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n to each other, that the name does not merely denote but a c t u a l l y i s ' t h e essence of i t s object, that the potency of the r e a l thing i s con tained i n the name - that i s one of the fundamental assumptions of the mythmaking consciousness i t s e l f . H In our present society, word magic i s the c h i e f t o o l of a d v e r t i s i n g and propaganda campaigns. Since symbols are the medium through which man conceptualizes or con ceives things or objects, the extent to which our experiences can be analyzed and dealt with should be l i m i t e d by the actual number of concepts we can assimilate and handle. This being the case, we would require a d i f f e r e n t and unique- symbol f o r every new idea. We would be i n much the same p o s i t i o n as someone learning the Chinese written language. A d i f f e r e n t ideogram f o r each and every d i f f e r e n t "thing" would be needed. But this presents a most un wieldy structure with which to work. The range of meaning has therefore been extended without adding symbols by the use of contexts i n the written language which are represented by tonal values i n the o r a l t r a d i t i o n . The meanings attached to symbols themselves e x i s t i n a time dimension or h i s t o r i c a l context. In addition to each o r i g i n a l meaning of a symbol of verbal communication, there are the compounded changes brought about by semantic t r a n s i t i o n . This l i v i n g 1 1 E r n s t Cassirer, Language and Myth, trans. S.K. Langer, (New York and London: Harper, 191+6), p.3. U2 aspect of language i s r e f l e c t e d by the h i s t o r i c a l character of our d i c t i o n a r i e s . Referring a gain to Hayakawa: A d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n , therefore, i s an invaluable guide to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Words do not have a single "correct meaning"; they apply to groups of s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s which might be c a l l e d areas of meaning. The p a r t i c u l a r context w i l l help us discover the point intended within the area of meaning. 1 2 The idea of contextual evaluation and r e l a t i o n s h i p brings us once again to the present necessity of widening our contexts of meanings, a process ham pered by f i v e hundred years of assessing things through a f i x e d perspective point. Writers on the problems of extended v i s i o n such as Harold Innis, Edmund Carpenter and Gyorgy Kepes have suggested i n Explorations the point of view of not having a point of view. Instead, the problems and s i t u a t i o n s which concern us today require a "hovering" a t t i t u d e ; that i s , being s l i g h t l y divorced from our constantly accumulating data and obtaining conclusions only i n regard to a s p e c i f i c problem. By synthesizing our knowledge i n response to a given stimulation only (thus eliminating the preconceived idea) our answer w i l l be "correct" i n r e l a t i o n to the s p e c i f i c problem i t s e l f at a given moment. In t h i s way i t w i l l be as o r g a n i c a l l y l o g i c a l as things i n a world of constant f l u x can be. This i s not advanced i n an attempt to do away with the necessity f o r judgments and inferences. L i f e would be i n t o l e r a b l e , although perhaps simpler, without them. I t i s rather an e f f o r t to extend our point of view and to broaden the v a l i d i t y of our judgments and actions. The idea of the l i n e a r approach must be modified by the new coaxial v i s i o n i n which a s e r i e s . of simultaneous images present themselves to the senses so that we may ex perience the whole man or the world i n the "round". Every language tends to be temporal and l i n e a r ; one word must follow another. But the space-time world we are driven to comprehend, the world out there, i s curved; a s p i r a l process of events. So the f i t i s not too close.^3 1 2Hayakawa, op. cit. jp.65. ^Chase, op. c i t . , p.288. U3 NOT ONLY DO OUR APPARATUS FOR PERCEPTION DIFFER FROM INDIVIDUAL TO INDIVIDUAL; OUR BACKLOG OF EXPERIENCE IS ALSO DISSIMILAR. Recent research into the psychology of perception indicates that there may be as many i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of sense-data as there are people to receive these data. In the concluding, chapter of The Psychology of Percep  t i o n , Vernon sums up the s i t u a t i o n as follows: I t has become abundantly c l e a r from the preceding discussion that perception i s by no means always a simple, straightforward and unambiguous process, but i s i n f a c t l i a b l e to many v a r i a t i o n s and i n t e r r u p t i o n s . These are caused p a r t l y by the great complexity of the perceived f i e l d of view as constituted by our normal surroundings; and p a r t l y by l i m i t a t i o n s i n the perceptual capacity of the observer. He can view only a small part of his surroundings at any one moment; and even when he scans them d e l i b e r a t e l y , there i s much that he tends to overlook or to perceive incompletely or inaccurately. Undoubtedly during the course of h i s l i f e he learns to perceive more, and more c o r r e c t l y , e s p e c i a l l y when he"has an i n t e r e s t i n so doing, or when he has received s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g . But the e f f e c t s of knowledge and experience are i n themselves l i a b l e to produce s e l e c t i v e perception and the f u n n e l l i n g of attention to objects and events about which s p e c i a l knowledge and experience have been acquired. The consequence i s that no two observers may perceive a given scene i n exactly the same manner, and that they may disagree considerably as to i t s nature and contents.(p.237) This leads us to observe that there does not appear to be a body of i m p a r t i a l " f a c t s " . In t h e i r a r t i c l e "Perceiving the World" Krech and C r u t c h f i e l d have t h i s to say from the point of view of the material perceived: Data do not have a l o g i c of t h e i r own that r e s u l t s i n the same perceptions and cognitions f o r a l l people. Data are perceived and int e r p r e t e d in terms of the i n d i v i d u a l perceiver's own needs, own emotions, own personality, own previously formed cognitive patterns. • A sound i n the night may conjure up varied ideas of steamboat, lunch, bomb or p o l i c e to d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s depending on experience, occupation and way of l i f e . But i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , each w i l l i d e n t i f y the o r i g i n a l source of stimulation as a kind of whistle. Thus we have a single concept g i v i n g r i s e to an array of personal and unrelated conceptions. Before ll+D. Krech and R.S. C r u t c h f i e l d , "Perceiving the World," i n Wilbur Schramm ed., Mass Communications, (Urbana, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1.960), p.128. deciding on a course of ac t i o n , the average human w i l l attempt to determine the context of the whistle. For the i n d i v i d u a l who sees the consequence of the whistle to be- to his disadvantage, his reaction w i l l be on the i n s t i n c  t i v e l e v e l . "When the chips are down," says Wilbur Schramm i n Mass Communi cations, "the biogenic ones (drives) are l i k e l y to win over the s o c i o g e n i c . . . " (p.210) In addition to the varying i n d i v i d u a l reaction to s i m i l a r symbols, as a whole, d i f f e r e n t cultures react to s i m i l a r symbols i n s t a r t l i n g l y v a r i e d ways. Anthropologists f i n d the examples of d i f f e r e n t p r i m i t i v e cultures u s e f u l f o r study i n that they are r e l a t i v e l y free from extraneous c u l t u r a l overlays. Ruth Benedict, i n Patterns of Culture evaluates the s i t u a t i o n i n these terms: ...the most i l l u m i n a t i n g material f o r a discussion of c u l t u r a l forms and processes i s that of s o c i e t i e s h i s t o r i c a l l y as l i t t l e r e l a t e d as possible to our own and to one another. With the vast network of h i s  t o r i c a l contact which has spread the great c i v i l i z a t i o n s over tremendous areas, p r i m i t i v e cultures are now the one source to which- we can turn. They are a laboratory i n which we may study the d i v e r s i t y of the human i n s t i t u t i o n s . With t h e i r comparative i s o l a t i o n , many p r i m i t i v e regions have had centuries i n which to elaborate the c u l t u r a l themes they have made t h e i r own. They provide ready to our hand the necessary information concerning the possible great v a r i a t i o n i n human adjustments, and a c r i  t i c a l examination of them i s e s s e n t i a l f o r any understanding of c u l t u r a l processes. I t i s the only laboratory of s o c i a l forms that we have or s h a l l have.(p.29) The beard i n Western a r t was often used to characterize manliness, v i r i l i t y and courage, while the Romans thought i t proclaimed the u n c i v i l i z e d . In the Orient, t h i s appendage served to denote the "hairy-faced barbarian" or foreigner. In any case the a b i l i t y to abstract symbols i n t o a v a r i e t y of contexts i s a p e c u l i a r l y human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Symbolization has been con sidered so basic that the entire framework of human existence depends on i t f o r s u r v i v a l . Once a rudimentary symbolic agreement has been reached, l i f e can be conducted at a l e v e l beyond the pointing stage. To a t t a i n a higher l e v e l I suggest that symbolism must be extended and ordered to produce language. The presence of a r t at the p r e - l i t e r a t e l e v e l i n which behaviour, associated with bodily action i s formalized as the dance has also been noted. Now i t i s necessary to r e l a t e symbol, 'language and a r t . . SYMBOLISM AS THE PRIME ABSTRACTION AND THE PREREQUISITE TO DISCURSIVE LANGUAGE A symbol i s an a r b i t r a r y designation which may r e f e r to ac t u a l things and objects as well as to abstract ideas. In f a c t , abstract ideas may be dealt with only through symbols, while ac t u a l things and objects can be•pointed out as a means of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The only condition that need concern us i n the case of ac t u a l things and objects i s that they be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference. I f a ce r t a i n "thing" i s beyond the experience of one of the communicating p a r t i e s , i t can be conjured up d i s c u r s i v e l y only i n terms, of analogy which implies an already e x i s t i n g sophisticated system of abstraction. Symbols need not be i m i t a t i v e of the-things they represent except i n the p o e t i c a l or l i t e r a r y sense of onomatopeia, where the chug-chugging of the - engines i s taken-to represent a t r a i n . ^ This has, in f a c t , been advanced by some t h e o r e t i c a l l i n g u i s t s as the genesis of language. Sapir, i n the i n t r o  ductory chapter of his book Language denies this natural-instinctive-sounds theory. However much we may be disposed on general p r i n c i p l e s to assign a fundamental importance i n the languages of p r i m i t i v e peoples to the im i t a t i o n of n a t u r a l sounds, the a c t u a l . f a c t of the matter i s that these languages show no p a r t i c u l a r preference f o r i m i t a t i v e words. Among the most p r i m i t i v e peoples of a b o r i g i n a l America, the Athabaskan t r i b e s of the Mackenzie River speak languages i n which such words seem to be nearly or e n t i r e l y absent, while they are used frequently enough i n languages as so p h i s t i c a t e d as English and German. Such an instance shows how l i t t l e the e s s e n t i a l nature of speech i s concerned with the mere imitat i o n of things, (p.8) Even when the i m i t a t i v e form i s used, the symbol does not suggest " t r a i n " d i r e c t l y but what " t r a i n " does. Furthermore, i f we are t a l k i n g to other humans also E.H. Gombrich, Art and I l l u s i o n (New York: Bollingen Series, XXXV.5., Pantheon Books, 1961), p.361. ! % a p i r ' s i s the presently accepted theory. U6 and we say " t r a i n " without " t r a i n " a c t u a l l y being present, our experience leads us to conclude that these other people w i l l conceive the idea of t r a i n i n a manner s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r to that envisaged by the speaker that there i s l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y of a misunderstanding. THE TRANSITION FROM SYMBOL TO LANGUAGE THROUGH IMPOSED ORDER. When we begin to accumulate symbols and place them i n a " l o g i c a l " order which we have predetermined by a "grammar" or "rules of syntax" so that they convey meaning to others we have graduated from symbolic representation to language. 1 7 I f , then, we assign symbols such as "dog" to a domesticated canine, "boy" to a young male human and " b i t i n g " to an action i n which one party partakes of another, then by saying "dog bi t e s boy" we convey a s p e c i f i c meaning to a l l those who have agreed upon our symbols. Thus we have complete l y unrelated symbols, each with a meaning of i t s own, expressing by means of language a u n i f i e d action. In highly a n a l y t i c languages, such as English, the phrase "bites boy dog" would f a l l apart as language and convey no u n i f i e d meaning because the normal word-order pattern of the language has been d i s  rupted. For those who maintain that a d i s r u p t i o n i n word-order does not i n t e r f e r e with basic communication, l e t me take nine common words as an example. While s l i g h t l y more complicated than our o r i g i n a l example, i t i s s t i l l a simple sentence employing only one two-syllable word and i n no way i n d i c a t i v e of the complexities and i n t r i c a c i e s of compound English usage: The c h i l d asked the man to t e l l only t h i s . The c h i l d asked only to t e l l the man t h i s . The c h i l d asked only t h i s , to t e l l the man. The c h i l d asked only the man to t e l l . The c h i l d asked to t e l l , only the man (would not l e t her). Asked to t e l l the man t h i s , the c h i l d only ( f i b b e d ) . ^ 1 7 S e e also Gombrich, op. c i t . , p.375. ^ C h a r l e t o n L a i r d , The Miracle of Language (Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett Publications, 1957), p.1657 See also Ivins, Prints and V i s u a l Communication. hi A simple change i n word order creates sentences with e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t meanings one from another. I f we take the prime purpose of language to be the communication of ideas, i t must partake of two e s s e n t i a l s : 1) s p e c i a l i z e d symbols or vocabulary which can convey only the meanings a r b i t r a r i l y assigned and 2) progression of ideas i n an a r b i t r a r y order determined by thought patterns formalized i n t o "grammar." I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note how d i f f e r e n t l y the two forms of language, spoken and written, handle this second p r e r e q u i s i t e . We do not, i n ordinary conversation, speak i n perfect sentences, and our speech, i n t e r l a r d e d as i t i s with personal phrases and habits that have no place i n wri t i n g , cannot be analyzed i n terms of the elaborate system of gram matical rules l a i d down to describe the written forms of our language. Randolph Quirk, i n his a r t i c l e " C o l l o q u i a l English and. Communication", i n Studies i n Communication explains: This i s p a r t l y because the eye and the ear are not used to sharing - indeed are not capable of a s s i m i l a t i n g - the same l i n g u i s t i c material, any more than the tongue and pen are capable of reproducing the.same l i n g u i s t i c material.(p.172) Or, as T.S. E l i o t put i t i n a more l y r i c a l v e i n : "An i d e n t i c a l spoken and written language would be p r a c t i c a l l y i n t o l e r a b l e , since no one would l i s t e n to the f i r s t nor read the second.""^ PAINTING IN RELATION TO THE CATEGORIES WHICH HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED FOR SYMBOLISM AND LANGUAGE. Should an a r t i s t take a canvas and i n each of i t s four corners (assuming that i t i s rectangular i n t h i s day of odd-shaped canvases) paint a symbol representative of four unrelated objects, r e a d i l y recognizable because of t h e i r l^See also A. Lloyd James, Our Spoken Language, dealing with the a l t e r a  t i o n of our sense l i v e s through l i t e r a c y , quoted i n McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, pp.87-8 occurrence in d a i l y l i f e , we as an audience, would look at the canvas and en joy the notations as e n t i t i e s i n themselves. Gombrich discusses "the beholder's share" in. his Art and I l l u s i o n : We are so trained i n assigning to each image i t s potential l i v i n g space that we have no d i f f i c u l t y whatever in adjusting our reading to a configuration i n which each figure i s surrounded by i t s own p a r t i c u l a r aura. This happens every time a group of figures i s assembled within one frame without being intended to share a common s p a t i a l s e t t i n g . Once more we read such images by applying a rapid test of consistency. We understand without hesitation that the animals i n the drawing by Maria S i b y l l a Merian (plate 188, p.230) are to be read as i n d i v i d u a l specimens.(p.230) l e t the ove r a l l picture would convey l i t t l e meaning because the symbols enter into no e a s i l y recognizable relationships. There i s no reason to believe that we would entertain the four unrelated ! symbols as a gestalt except i n so far as they f a l l within the maximum of > eight (different) objects which i s quoted as the upper l i m i t f o r a trained viewer to be able to bring into the f i e l d of perception. Pepper discusses t h i s i n the Principles of Art Appreciation:. ...an element pattern i s the number of things taken i n at one grasp of attention without grouping or other a i d . These may be from one to seven or eight. Taking eight units as the upper limit,...(p.62) Again, referring to normal associative powers, any recognizable r e l a t i o n  ship that did e x i s t would not be meaningful other than as a simple figure, r e c t i l i n e a r or c i r c u l a r , and the four disparate elements would have no con 1 textual relationship. u Here we are at the basis of difference between painting and language. Language can be compared to the integer "12" which contains i n i t the factors "3" and "U", while painting can be equated to the integer "3" which has no factor but i t s e l f . Painting i s , then, a "prime symbol" i n which the whole cannot ex i s t without i t s parts. ("12" can exi s t by virtue of "6" and "2" as well as "3" and " i t " , but "3" can only exist as a function of "3".) If. our 20See also Gombrich, op. c i t . , p.262, canvas with i t s four symbols (which are then i t s prime symbols) were divided i n t o four canvases, i t might conceivably convey four complete p i c t u r e s . Thus while language can be comprised of completely unrelated symbols, a pa i n t i n g to be i n d i v i s i b l e can e x i s t only when i t i s a completely integrated symbol. Wittkower states that "...formal, d e s c r i p t i v e signs i s o l a t e d from the conceptual whole can e i t h e r not be interpreted at a l l or become ambiguous."21 For the sentence "dog bit e s boy" we can also say "domesticated canine bites young male, human" and convey the same idea, but i f we remove a portion of. a painting, we cannot substitute anything which w i l l say the same thing. This i s because p a i n t i n g (other than p a i n t i n g which uses, f o r example, a cross as part of i t s v i s u a l vocabulary), has no vocabulary, only r e l a t i o n s h i p s and therefore conveys meaning as i t expresses contextual r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I f we have a c e r t a i n pattern which i s duplicated i n two e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t pictures and as well (were i t possible) completely out of context, the pattern might suggest anger, happiness or nothing at a l l , depending on i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the context. However, i f we took "boy" out of context and placed i t i n a completely d i f f e r e n t sentence i t would s t i l l convey the idea_of a young male human i n i t s new r o l e because, as we have seen, language i s l a r g e l y dependent., on the r e l a t i v e l y unique meaning of "boy". We have discussed previously Hayakawa's "area of meaning"^ theory; nevertheless, i n any given h i s t o r i c a l period, the word "boy", f o r instance, must have- ce r t a i n f i x e d l i m i t s of meaning in order to make i t usable. To say that everything which expresses symbolic r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a r t , i s n a t u r a l l y a f a l l a c y . Mathematical symbols enter i n t o r e l a t i o n s h ips and convey concepts to us through that medium. But mathematics cannot e x i s t without language because i t s re l a t i o n s h i p s are dependent on d e f i n i t i o n s . While "x" plus "y" equals "z" may represent any number of abstract q u a l i t i e s , as soon as 2 1R. Wittkower, "Visual Symbols i n Art, i n Studies i n Communication, Communications Research Centre, U n i v e r s i t y College, London (London: Martin Seeker and Warburg, 1955), p.112. On the same page, he gives experimental evidence of h i s statement. 5o we designate "x" as "3" and "y" as " 2 " , we have no choice but to c a l l 11 z", " 5 " . Here we enter the region of "a p r i o r i " a n a l y t i c s which are, i n r e a l i t y , iden t i t i e s . Saying "3" plus "2" i s the same as saying " 5 " . Thus mathematics has a vocabulary which i s unlike language in that i t does not deal with data i n terms of substance, but i n terms ..of relationships which must, nevertheless, be defined e x p l i c i t l y i n the case or problem at hand. Even though mathematics conveys symbolic r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t i s not a r t but rather s p e c i a l i z e d language. Art i s e s s e n t i a l l y non-discursive, while a l l the symbols employed i n mathe matics have d i s t i n c t names. In Symbolism, Whitehead discusses the d i f f e r e n c e between language and mathematics i n h i s treatment of a s p e c i f i c mathematical case, that i s , algebra: There i s also another s o r t of language, purely a written language, which i s constituted by the mathematical symbols of the science of algebra. In some ways, these symbols are d i f f e r e n t to (sic) those of ordinary language, because the manipulation of the a l g e b r a i c a l symbols does your reasoning f o r you, provided that you keep to the algebraic r u l e s . This i s not the case with ordinary language. You can never forget the meaning of language, and t r u s t to mere syntax to help you out. (p.2) PAINTING, WHICH HAS NO DISCURSIVE VOCABULARY, EXISTS AS A SYMBOLIC FORM WHICH EXPRESSES RELATIONSHIPS AND WHICH NEED HAVE NO RECOURSE TO CONVENTIONAL REP RESENTATION. • I f a r t , and p a r t i c u l a r l y painting, i s a symbol or a "thing" rather than language, i t need not represent an object to any great extent, i f indeed at a l l . Even i n the case of representative painting where u n i f i e d symbolism i s obtained through the use of f a m i l i a r objects, the picture i s not a duplicate of what i t represents, but an image which conveys to us an idea. A p a i n t i n g of a vase i s not a vase but the judicious a p p l i c a t i o n of gobs of paint to express the idea "vaseness." We may exaggerate or understate c e r t a i n parts of a nude figure we are representing but that does not make i t any l e s s i n t e l  l i g i b l e to an audience as long as they f i n d elements i n the delineation which 5 i depict the f a m i l i a r human form. H.J. Chaytor speaks of an analogous a p p l i  cation of t h i s idea i n h i s a r t i c l e "Reading and W r i t i n g " : 2 2 The eye of the pr a c t i c e d reader does not take the whole of. the l e t t e r i n g , but merely so much as will'suggest the remainder to his experienced i n t e l l i g e n c e . S i m i l a r l y , i f we l i s t e n to a speaker with a d i f f i c u l t d e l i very, we i n s t i n c t i v e l y supply s y l l a b l e s and even words that we have f a i l e d to hear. Nor does the eye h a l t at each separate word. When we read our own language, we h a l t at a point i n the l i n e , notice a few l e t t e r s on e i t h e r side of i t , and proceed to another h a l t i n g point; the eye has not seen the whole formation of every word, but has seen enough to i n f e r the meaning of the passage. The v i s u a l symbol may be s a i d to convey concepts which we receive and colour or i n t e r p r e t as b e f i t s our nature, previous experience and i n d i v i  d u a l i s t i c tendencies but which must contain s u f f i c i e n t constancy to previous l y known clues to be i n t e l l i g i b l e . ...with the a i d of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l adaptation of the eye we soon get the f e e l of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and the world assumes i t s f a m i l i a r face. . Without t h i s f a c u l t y of man and beast a l i k e to recognize iden t i t i e s across the v a r i a t i o n s of d i f f e r e n c e , to make allowance f o r ; changed conditions,'and to preserve the framework of a stable world, a r t could not e x i s t . . . 2 3 THE MATHEMATICAL AND LINGUISTIC SYSTEMS OF ABSTRACTION, THE VARIETY OF PER CEPTUAL APPARATUS AND IMPRESSIONS, AND A LONG TRADITION OF SUPPLYING THE MISSING LINK IN A WORK OF ART, SHOULD ALL BE CONDUCIVE TO A FAVOURABLE CLIMATE FOR MODERN PAINTING, BUT ARE NOT. I f a p a i n t i n g need not represent the object i t depicts to any appre c i a b l e extent, why the b a f f l e d looks which accompany the viewing of, l e t us say, a p a i n t i n g by Mondrian? 2^ This d i f f i c u l t y i n viewing works using geo metric shapes with t h e i r " p u r i t y " of form was a n t i c i p a t e d as e a r l y as the 16th century by V a s a r i . In discussing the two Singing G a l l e r i e s of the Florentine 2 2 I n Carpenter and McLuhan eds., Explorations i n Communication, p.122. 2-^Gombrich, op. c i t . , p.52. 2 ^ I w i l l l a t e r suggest that the newspaper format ought long ago to have prepared us to understand Mondrian's painting. 52 cathedral, one by Luca d e l l a Robbia, the other by Donatello, Vasari's comment i s pertinent because i t takes i n t o account the l i n k between the imagination of the a r t i s t and that of his p u b l i c : He (Donatello) l e f t i t rough and unfinished so that from a distance i t looked much better than Luca's: though Luca's i s made with goqd design and d i l i g e n c e , i t s p o l i s h and refinement cause the eye from a distance to lose i t and not to make i t out as well as that by Donatello, which i s hardly more than roughed out. A r t i s t s should pay much attention to t h i s , f o r experience shows that a l l things which are f a r removed, be they paintings, sculptures, or whatever, have more beauty and greater force when they are a b e a u t i f u l sketch (una b e l l a bozza) than when they are f i n i s h e d . And quite apart from the distance xvhich has t h i s e f f e c t , i t also frequently appears in sketches which a r i s e a l l of a sudden in the frenzy of a r t that expresses the idea i n a few strokes, while a labored e f f e c t and too much industry sometimes deprive of force and s k i l l those who cannot ever leave t h e i r hand from the work they are doing. 2 5 Applied to a painting by Mondrian, which exists primarily.as an i n t e l  l e c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , the t i t l e i s an a d d i t i o n a l , invaluable a i d to preparing us with a context f o r the work and a "mental set" which we can bring to bear 9 f\ i n i t s perception and. evaluation. As Gombrich states: ° I t i s c l e a r that an e n t i r e l y new idea of a r t i s taking shape here. I t i s an a r t i n which the painter's s k i l l i n suggesting must be matched by the public's s k i l l i n taking h i n t s . The extreme modernists, the s o - c a l l e d "abstract expressionists", or the action painters have r e a l l y only presented frenzied, yet l o g i c a l developments and extensions of the theme of the " w i l l i n g beholder responding to the a r t i s t ' s suggestion." We f i n d i n Gombrich again a clue to the a r t patterns of our 20th century and to the "skipping s k i l l " i n reading the printed page which we have previous l y r e f e r r e d to: The a r t i s t gives the beholder in c r e a s i n g l y "more to do", he draws him into the magic c i r c l e of creation and allows him to experience some thing of the t h r i l l of "making" which had once been the p r i v i l e g e of the a r t i s t . I t i s the turning point which leads to those v i s u a l conundrums of twentieth-century a r t that challenge our ingenuity and make us search our own minds f o r the unexpressed and i n a r t i c u l a t e . 2 7 2^Quoted i n Gombrich, op. c i t . , p.193. 26Gombrich, op. c i t . , p.195. . 27lbid., p.202. 53 But i f the object with which we are dealing i s completely non-repre sentative, i t cannot r e a d i l y convey a concept i n the nature of f a m i l i a r things, j u s t as language cannot convey feel i n g s or emotions d i r e c t l y . (Presumably, i f a poet could convey the f e e l i n g of "happiness" by saying "I am happy" he would, but he cannot. He must imply happiness by association.) Jacques Barzun, i n The House of I n t e l l e c t , gives us a b i t i n g , yet i l l u m i n a t i n g com mentary on the present tendency to ver b a l i z e the expressive content of a painting or piece of sculpture. This should, not be confused with the use of "clueing" t i t l e s which help to e s t a b l i s h a sympathetic "mental set": H i s t o r i c a l l y , painters' and sculptors' minds have most often been of a v i r g i n a l innocence towards ideas. ' The a b i l i t y to construct by hand v i s u a l l y expressive a r t i f a c t s often goes with i n a r t i c u l a t e n e s s , or a t l e a s t the power to body f o r t h makes words unnecessary. What do we f i n d today? That i n s p i r e d by the general pedantry, modem painters compose around t h e i r work statements which they believe to be impressive and explanatory. In New York three years ago,an e x h i b i t i o n was held e n t i t l e d "Twelve Americans." Here i s one of the creeds printed i n the catalogue: 'For me the challenge of pain t i n g l i e s i m p l i c i t within the act - to penetrate i n h e r i t e d conceptual deposits and attempt the possible impingement of s p i r i t , the personal image remains the enduring command of conscience.' Hardly science, you say. True, but f u l l of the a i r of science. Note the geological f l a v o r of "deposits", the pseudo-experimental sug- gestiveness of "penetrate", "possible impingement of s p i r i t " , and the psychological profundity of "personal image."(p.220) CREATED AS A TOOL TO HELP US FIND OUR WAY THROUGH THE WORLD OF THINGS, OUR LANGUAGE IS NOTORIOUSLY POOR WHEN WE TRY TO ANALYZE AND CATEGORIZE THE INNER WORLD. Gombrich, Art and I l l u s i o n . I f everything which i s expressed i n painting could be expressed i n every day d i s c u r s i v e language, there would, be no need f o r painting or ar t i n general. What i s i t then, that a r t expresses that language i s unable to? I t cannot be anything which i s e x t e r i o r to- ourselves or we could point to i t and come to some agreement as to i t s nature, whether a r i v e r , a person or a b u i l d i n g . Then i t must be something within ourselves which can only be understood by others when i t has been externalized. 5U I f we are happy, we can give vent to th i s happiness by jumping i n the a i r , banging our heels together and shouting w i l d l y . I f we are angry, we may a l l e v i a t e the condition by kick i n g our grandmother downstairs. But i f , l i k e most people, we only think ugly thoughts or berate our ch i l d r e n when i n an angry state, we have simply redirected our emotion, not expressed i t . Could we express t h i s anger or happiness i n words, we would undoubtedly do so because of the convenience and s i m p l i c i t y . But language expresses emotions and f e e l  ings i n a vague fashion only. We may understand why a person i s happy - a recent inheritance - but we can never comprehend the actu a l f e e l i n g through language. We must perforce express these emotions by proxy through the a r t i s t , the creative man. But we must r e a l i z e that the expression of an emotion through an a r t i s t ' s symbols has v a l i d i t y only by means of the l i f e which the beholder imparts to them. The true a r t i s t , by v i r t u e of his s p e c i a l nature, can express f e e l i n g s and emotions i n music, painting, architecture which we can only f e e l . This s p e c i a l nature consists to a great extent of the pattern of t r i a l and error, that i s the continual process of experimentation i n which the true a r t i s t indulges. In Art and I l l u s i o n Gombrich treats the "achievements of the suc c e s s f u l innovator": Art i t s e l f becomes the innovator's instrument f o r probing r e a l i t y . He cannot simply b a t t l e down that mental set which makes him see the motif i n terms of known pictures; he must a c t i v e l y t r y that i n t e r p r e  t a t i o n , but t r y i t c r i t i c a l l y , varying here and there to see whether a better match could not be achieved. He must step back from the canvas and be h i s own merciless c r i t i c , i n t o l e r a n t of a l l easy e f f e c t s and a l l short-cut methods. And his reward might e a s i l y be the public's f i n d i n g his equivalent hard to read and hard to accept because i t has not yet been trained to i n t e r p r e t these new combinations i n terms of the v i s i b l e world.(p.302) The a r t i s t i s able, by his nature and by concentrated e f f o r t to a r t i c u l a t e what he f e e l s . I f we as an audience share t h i s f e e l i n g on seeing or hearing the work, we have expressed ourselves through the a r t i s t , who has revealed the emotion as a purely perceptual thing to be grasped i n t u i t i v e l y , so that, "when we understand, we understand d i r e c t l y . " I t would be erroneous to say that the 55 a r t i s t awakens emotions and passions i n us which d i d not previously e x i s t . He can only externalize f o r the i n d i v i d u a l those fee l i n g s f o r which he already has the capacity. These are n a t u r a l l y l i m i t e d by experience,- s e n s i t i v i t y and awareness of h i s surroundings and the habit of working i n a p a r t i c u l a r medium. Thus, while the idea of language per se i s removed from painting, we do not take away the communication of ideas and images. Painting not only com municates ideas and images through expressive r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but creates forms symbolic of human f e e l i n g s and emotions as well.. TO EXTEND AND CLARIFY OUR SEPARATION OF ART AND LANGUAGE, THE FOLLOWING IS IN TENDED TO SUMMARIZE THE FIELD OF EACH AND TO ENLARGE ON THE ARTIST'S POSITION. There i s no communication without a system of signs be i t d i s  cursive or non-discursive. Art and language are forms of communication. We may assume that since they both continue to e x i s t side by side that they do not f u l f i l l the same function. What i s the province then of language and of art?28 The measure of a r t must be i n terms of adequate or inadequate. I t i s within the range of p r o b a b i l i t y that what i s adequate f o r one party w i l l not be so f o r another. But t h i s i s not to suggest that a r t or i t s evaluation and c r i t i c i s m i s b a s i c a l l y w i l l f u l . Art to be s i g n i f i c a n t must have a context f o r i t s creator; none of us can create i n a vacuum. The sum t o t a l of a l l our experience at any given moment i s a l l that the ordinary human being can know. The a r t i s t , by v i r t u e of h i s nature, which i s more f i n e l y tuned, and of his experimentation, has a wider range of experience ( i n a l i m i t e d i f not general sense). The greatest a r t i s t can be the most ingenuous of people. The world which can be known e m p i r i c a l l y or r a t i o n a l l y denies the cre a t i v e i n t u i t i o n as being i n e f f a b l e or unknowable and therefore not subject to provable systems. But i t cannot deny the existence of.a creative synthesis 28Colin Cherry, On Human Communication (New York: Science E d i t i o n s , 1961), p.7. 56 which d i d not e x i s t before, but which the a r t i s t was able to deduce on the basis of his i n s i g h t . Once the synthesis occurred, presumably we could a l l come to the same conclusion, i f our i n t e l l i g e n c e or t e c h n i c a l capacity per mitted. But the very fact that t h i s does not'occur i n , l e t us say, painting, leads us to conjecture that the a r t i s t ' s v i s i o n i s not merely a f u r t h e r step i n a pre-determined d i r e c t i o n but a unique contribution r e q u i r i n g a unique nature and symbolism. I f our r a t i o n a l tendencies r e v o l t at t h i s hypothesis, i t may s u f f i c e to say that the a r t i s t i s always contemporary while the p u b l i c lags behind. The gestalt psychologists might prefer to return to the greater range of the a r t i s t ' s perceptive experience. Because of i t he i s able to i n  crease the range of simple forms to which a l l experience can be reduced. The . greater mass of humanity, through a dearth of experience, cannot expect to have such an extended range of gestalts and therefore must be r e l a t i v e l y symbolically naive. I t would be well to point out that by the wider experience of the a r t i s t I do not mean that he has n e c e s s a r i l y experienced more of l i f e than other people, but that he has greater i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of his experiences. They do not e x i s t merely as episodes or happenings, but as c l a r i f i c a t i o n s of the l i f e process. Again t h i s does not mean that the a r t i s t , being more aware of l i f e , w i l l be more i n harmony with i t ; rather the opposite. His view of l i f e " i n the raw" i s not a p a l l i a t i v e but an obsession which drives him to search f u r  ther f o r the meaning of existence, at times i n disregard of i t s more materi a l i s t i c aspects. Beards, d i r t y clothes, rudeness are not n e c e s s a r i l y manifes tations of a creative i n d i v i d u a l . The true a r t i s t i s not a p h y s i c a l but a mental bohemian. IV. HISTORICAL RELAYS We have long come to r e a l i z e that a r t i s not produced i n an empty space, that no a r t i s t i s independent of predecessors and models, that he no les s than the s c i e n t i s t and the philosopher i s part of a s p e c i f i c t r a d i t i o n and works i n a structured area of problems. The degree of mastery within this framework, and, at l e a s t i n certain periods the freedom to modify these stringencies are presumably part of the complex scale by which achievement i s measured. Ernst K r i s . We have dealt i n Chapter I I I with the reception of s t i m u l i , t h e i r ab s t r a c t i o n i n t o symbols and the communication of information by way of the re ceiver's reconstruction or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a v a i l a b l e , i n f e r r e d and imagined data. As a r c h i t e c t s , we are p r i m a r i l y concerned with v i s u a l symbols, often to the exclusion of auditory, t a c t i l e and o l f a c t o r y perception. Even when we deal with only v i s u a l messages, we sharply r e s t r i c t our intake of i n f o r  mation generally i n reference to our p a r t i c u l a r "mental set" - that i s , the preconceived notions which are the r e s u l t of our p r i o r experience, c u l t u r a l o r i e ntation and accumulated knowledge. To s i m p l i f y l i f e we generally dismiss immediately those data which do not conform to our previously f i x e d mental states. We absorb those which have a r e l a t i o n s h i p to our ideas by recasting them to f i t those ideas, (often changing the o r i g i n a l meaning completely), and assimilate without question or in t e r p r e t a t i o n those data which can l a t e r be regurgitated whole when required."'" I t i s unfortunate that those messages which f i n d response i n the brain are only those which we judge i n some way or other u s e f u l or important to us. While t h i s l i m i t e d perspective i s u s e f u l i n some of the more p r a c t i c a l aspects of l i f e , such as crossing the road or d r i v i n g a car, i t tends to l i m i t our percep- t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to those things we i n s t i n c t i v e l y l i k e . Gombrich suggests -^ •Schramm, "The Nature and Behaviour of Attitudes," i n idem ed., Mass Communications, p.209. See al s o D.K. Berlo, The Process of Communication (New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, I960), p.W; a l s o J . Ruesch and W. Kees, Nonverbal Communication (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1956), p.iu 2Gombrich, op. c i t . , p.276. 57 58 that i n our perception we are completely se l f - c e n t r e d , and at the same time states: . . . i f the schema remains loose and f l e x i b l e , such i n i t i a l vagueness may prove not a hindrance but a help. An e n t i r e l y f l u i d system would no longer serve i t s purpose; i t could not r e g i s t e r f a c t s because i t would lack pigeon-holes. But how we arrange the f i r s t f i l i n g system i s not very relevant.3 We have, i n our discussion of symbols, language and a r t , stressed that a l l perception involves l a r g e l y unique i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The work of a r c h i t e c  ture which i s to communicate meaning to us does so through a world of many removes. For example, o r d i n a r i l y , we see a patch of colour which we i n t e r p r e t by way of symbols as a tree. In our brains "tree" may suggest p i c n i c , grass, the company of a b e a u t i f u l young lady. I t may as e a s i l y represent the t r a g i c death of a loved one k i l l e d by a tree f a l l i n g i n an e l e c t r i c a l storm. But the house or o f f i c e b u i l d i n g we contemplate i s an a r c h i t e c t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a c l i e n t ' s needs and wants. We are then faced with the v i r t u a l l y i n s u r  mountable task of i n t e r p r e t i n g the symbol of the a r c h i t e c t , which i s i n turn an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of his own and another's way of thinking. Thus the work of a r t , the a r c h i t e c t u r a l u n i t , i s a compound idea, the v i s u a l existence of which we are i n v i t e d to enjoy, although i t i s generally f a r removed from the o r i g i n a l source. Can we then expect architecture to communicate meaning to us? B a s i c a l l y , a drawing of a pyramid, a Greek temple, a Gothic cathedral, a contemporary space frame have l i t t l e i n common i n shape, use or method of construction. But i f asked to indic a t e the u n i f y i n g s i m i l a r i t y , one would probably answer: "buildings." The term "building" i n i t s e l f has nothing i n common with the actu a l p h y s i c a l structure; i n Hayakawa's terms, the'"map i s not the t e r r i t o r y . However, the image of the thing represented, pyramid, temple, and so on, has a basis of s i m i l a r i t y as a type. For a p r i m i t i v e bushman, who has never seen any of our b u i l d i n g types, of course no s i m i l a r i t y would e x i s t . 3 l b i d . , p.88. But even i f the observer i s aware of, or has experienced a p a r t i c u l a r v i s u a l symbol, i f he has no idea of the conventions of preserving the body f o r the a f t e r - l i f e , of an eternal dwelling place, the pyramid i s a symbol which cannot be decoded.^ For communication, the source must e x i s t with s u f f i c i e n t l i g h t to make i t v i s i b l e and then the destination must "decode" the "encoded" s i g n a l . The i n a b i l i t y to receive or understand the conventions employed i s one. source of misunderstanding of modern architecture's unornamented s t e e l and glass cage patterns. These l a t t e r are f o r many people symbols without benefit of t r a  d i t i o n or customary use; thus, the percipients have no previous mental images to guide t h e i r path of act i o n . • The a b i l i t y to conceive a r c h i t e c t u r a l symbols i n a meaningful fashion e x i s t s only when one i s aware of t h e i r relatedness to a d i s t i n c t period, way of l i f e or conceptual whole. This i s i n s t r u c t i v e i n the evaluation of a r c h i t e c t u r e . Too often, we concentrate our attention on a small portion of the structure, a d e t a i l , and use i t to i n f e r and judge the t o t a l conception. To be o b j e c t i v e l y c r i t i c a l , although of human necessity.biased, one must f i r s t understand the whole product. Only then i s i t safe, and indeed f a i r , to assess the d e t a i l , which has then a contextual framework. I f "God i s i n the d e t a i l s , " he i s a hi g h l y segmented and departmentalized god. Only with a p r i o r knowledge of the u n i f i e d concept can the d e t a i l s serve as a key to fur t h e r understanding. In The Eternal  Present, Giedion discusses aspects of t h i s s i t u a t i o n : ...Psychology, which also deals with sense perceptions, has inves t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the parts of a whole. The parts are .derived from the whole which alone determines t h e i r r e a l character. The whole i s more than the sum of i t s parts, j u s t as the s o c i o l o g i s t s have long recognized that the c i t y i s more than the mere sum of i t s inhabitants.(p. l U ) And the a r c h i t e c t must r e a l i z e that a s t r e e t i s more than the one " i s o l a t e d gem" which he himself may,.contribute. As we have shown, with symbolic representation of things and ideas, only % e e also E. Raskin, A r c h i t e c t u r a l l y Speaking (New York: Reinhold Pub l i c a t i o n s , 195u), pp. 108-9, I2B": 60 those abstractions which form a part of the percipient's previous experience can be meaningful. And, j u s t as language changes and grows, i s modified, disappears and dies, and can therefore be understood only in i t s s p e c i f i c con text, so our v i s u a l symbols have.meaning only i n the f l u x of changing idioms and conventions. The representational meaning to perception of a work of archit e c t u r e i s not the underlying theme or concept any more than the work i s i n i t s e l f the thing i t symbolizes. Thus, a pyramid, with i t s t r i a n g u l a r shape may convey to us s t a b i l i t y , poise,, perfection; but none of these i s suf f i c i e n t to convey the image of ancient Egypt unless we understand t h e i r ideas of permanence and of preserving the body. Without the knowledge that this form was not o r i g i n a l l y pyramidal but only an extension of the mastaba,-' which grew from the e a r l i e r pit-mounds, we may assign meanings to a form as i f i t were created "whole" rather than as a gradual refinement of an e a r l i e r shape. Nor i s i t possible to understand the complex i n t e r p l a y of a c i v i l i z a t i o n by reference to a s i n g l e point of view. The architecture of a period must be seen i n the l i g h t of r e l i g i o u s , economic, s o c i a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n s which preceded and accompanied i t s erection. By d e f i n i n g modern society i n the materials of our.new technology - s t e e l , glass and p l a s t i c - and at the same time i n c l u d i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l pediment, we attempt naively to elevate the contemporary by using forms grounded i n a n t i q u i t y , as i f to be ancient were synonymous with goodness or appropriateness or Tightness. We hope i n this way perhaps to a t t a i n the best of both worlds. In expressing a modern concept of l i f e with t r a d i t i o n a l forms and contemporary material, the a r c h i t e c t creates a powerful symbol - a symbol with h i s t o r i c precedent. This preoccupation with the symbol has f a r from vanished even today. In Communication and S o c i a l Order, H.D. Duncan gives us a contemporary i n s i g h t : Each attempts to maximize the mystery of h i s symbols. Even the educator, devoted to inquir y and reason and by h i s vocation s p e c i f i c a l l y against p r i e s t l y m y s t i f i c a t i o n , develops awesome ceremonials. Gothic ^See H. Gardner, Art Through the Ages, (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1959), P.U9. ; 61 architecture ..infuses education with feudal mystery. Majestic cere monial music, s t a t e l y processionals, and ancient feudal academic gowns evoke images of a sublime r u l i n g c l a s s . The voice of the com mencement orator becomes solemn and prophetic. Flanked by the f l a g and the cross, symbols of country and God, the orator's r i s i n g periods evoke the wisdom of academia as s a v i o r of the world. As we wend our way to the Gothic.throne before which the majestic Chancellor stands to o f f e r us our diploma, ancient processional music f i l l s the nave of the cathedral.(p.323.) To assess the worth and value of such hybrids i s a monumentally d i f f i c u l t task. As a contemporary of e i t h e r period, we could, with some accuracy define t h e i r r • v a l i d i t y and meaning. But, l i m i t e d i n our knowledge of the past, how can we help but experiencing d i f f i c u l t y i n r e l a t i n g to the strange overlay. As we have previously suggested, the personal bias of the a r t i s t i s another key f a c t o r in our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a work of a r t . F a i l i n g contemporaneous b i o  graphical data f o r a r t i s t s of the past,6 i t has been necessary f o r us to i n f e r our information i n the l i g h t . o f the t r a d i t i o n from which these a r t i s t s grew. Where biographical data are a v a i l a b l e , i t i s often possible to determine the a r t i s t ' s personal leanings i n conjunction with h i s executed work. But today, when our a r t i s t s are often a - s o c i a l and a n t i - t r a d i t i o n , t h e i r symbolism i s sometimes u n i n t e l l i g i b l e because of a lack of common: ground on which "producer" and "consumer" can meet. Many of our a r c h i t e c t u r a l monuments of today are thus expressions of w i l l f u l n e s s and egotism i n a highly s o c i a l a r t . The a r c h i t e c t does not b u i l d , although he may design, without a s p e c i f i c c l i e n t whose needs and wants he must assess, balance and i n t e r p r e t in the work of a r c h i t e c t u r e . More often than not, the painter works within the context of a personal expression of the world or l i f e as he sees i t , without assuming the role of Father Confessor, whereas the a r c h i t e c t i s faced with the task of communicating symbols with s u f f i c i e n t basis i n "conventional thematic patterns" to be i n t e l l i g i b l e to his contemporary society, which includes the s p e c i f i c "For a f u l l e r treatment of: a)biographical data, see G.W. Digby, Symbol  and Image i n William Blake, pp.5-7; b ) h i s t o r i c a l r e c a l l , see G. Kubler, The Shape of Time, p.lei and pp.21-2; c)the borrowing of forms, see E. H a l l , The S i l e n t Language, p.159; d) the uses of h i s t o r y , see J.M. F i t c h , Architecture and the .Aesthetics of Plenty, pp.2lil-253. 62 c l i e n t . In addition, i t must contain s u f f i c i e n t symbols of private s i g n i f i  cance to make the work meaningful' to the c l i e n t as a unique i n d i v i d u a l i n a s o c i a l framework. F i n a l l y , the a r c h i t e c t must include enough autobiographical material i n the conception to make i t a personally creative act, rather than a mere synthesis of a v a r i e t y of influences.''' With t h i s onerous creative task, from which we as spectators are so f a r removed, i s i t possible to o b j e c t i f y and i n t e r p r e t r a t i o n a l l y the part of the a r t i s t ' s personal v i s i o n ? We can, by c a r e f u l inspection and. a n a l y s i s , ascer tai n those aspects of a work of archit e c t u r e which lead to s t y l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . We are able, on the basis of these d e s c r i p t i v e data, to group structures i n periods, epochs, s t y l e s , i n such a way as to make comparisons with other group ings having s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to q u a l i f y as a s t y l e . In this sense, we say that the Greeks used a modular form (to express t h e i r concept of temple and universe) while the Romans used volumetric forms. We may describe the Gothic as concerned with man the' craftsman, while contemporary architecture i s concerned with machine p r e c i s i o n , and more recently e l e c t r o n i c simultaneity. But why the ar c h i t e c t s chose to i n t e r p r e t the s p i r i t of t h e i r age i n th i s or that p a r t i c u l a r space metaphor and not another can never be known f a c t u a l l y , as there'is a large element of emotion i n the a r t i s t ' s creation. (The fathoming of motives and causes can be a most rewarding pursuit.) In any case, i f the expressive q u a l i t y of a work of a r t could be paraphrased d i s c u r s i v e l y , there would be l i t t l e reason f o r the existence of a r t forms as such. l e t the attempts to communicate the expressive content of a work are un ceasing. I t seems that where there are i m i t a t i v e or representational aspects i n a work of a r t , i t i s possible f o r many people to give a f a i r l y objective i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . H i s t o r i c a l conventions have been s u f f i c i e n t l y c o d i f i e d to make i t p ossible f o r large numbers of people to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between, l e t us say, - . 7He re i s yet another aspect of a r c h i t e c t u r a l "communication": the pers onal message of the designer. 6 3 Egyptian, Greek and Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e . To be able further to define the theme of a p a r t i c u l a r era requires at l e a s t some s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge of influences over a wide range of topics to see the structure i n i t s proper con t e x t . ("Style" i s a term which we apply only i n h i s t o r i c a l retrospect.) The most d i f f i c u l t task occurs when we attempt to superimpose the p a r t i c u l a r bias of the a r t i s t on the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n of which he i s a part. Once we leave the f i e l d of d e s c r i p t i v e analysis f o r the i n t e r p r e t i v e , we enter the area of value judgments which we cannot t e s t s c i e n t i f i c a l l y . As our expressive symbols become progressively l e s s v e r i f i a b l e , the d i s  cursive, communicative process by which we attempt to reveal the inner theme or meaning becomes more subject to misinterpretation. The meaning the a r c h i t e c t wishes to convey i n h i s work can only be achieved through his means of expression. The a r c h i t e c t can conceive of a representation of an expressive idea, but unless the "idea" i s m a t e r i a l i z e d i n structure, we have no way of determining, not how, but what the a r t i s t wanted to express. Conversely, while the b u i l d i n g form may be r e a l i z e d , i t may prove incommunicative. That i s to say, modern a r c h i  tects often conceive of forms which attempt to e s t a b l i s h space relationships based on a system of technological l o g i c . The r e s u l t i s s i m i l a r to the answer " i n v i s i b l e i d i o t " which the e l e c t r o n i c computer offered as a s o l u t i o n to the data "out of sight, out of mind." Modern architecture often becomes abstract, i n the sense that i t has no equivalent or emotional basis i n normal experience. As i t i s beyond the experience range of the people f o r whom i t i s fashioned, i t does not. communicate. In her famous law s u i t against the a r c h i t e c t Dr. Farns- worth d i d not deny the ravishing grace and elegance of her house; she merely Q claimed that i t was uninhabitable. This r a t i o n a l i s t approach to architecture i s the shortest route to emotional s t e r i l i t y . Fortunately, the overbearingly l o g i c a l , r a t i o n a l approach to architecture i s capable of e l i c i t i n g emotional response - often, but not s u f f i c i e n t l y often, u t t e r disgust. F i t c h , op. c i t . , p.163. 6k Our emotional response to arch i t e c t u r e i s the r e s u l t of p r i o r t r a i n i n g , influences, customs, dogmas, ad i n f i n i t u m . We are of the opinion that by our d i s m i s s a l of God and r e l i g i o n we have become emancipated from emotional bias and can now approach a r t with s c i e n t i f i c detachment. In r e a l i t y , we have only exchanged an old i d e a l f o r a new. These new conventions, tastes and fashions now determine our emotional responses.. The purveyors of mass taste now set the stage f o r "proper" emotional reactions. A l l a r t i s viewed d i s c u r s i v e l y through the eyes of others. Our v i s u a l images are incomplete without verbal o a n a l y s i s . How many of us w i l l venture i n t o a concert h a l l without p r i o r •referral to the c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l and guides of others, both "enlightened" and otherwise? Pure music has been l e f t i n the wake of programme music; some painters have v e r b a l explanations i n the catalogues which are almost a part of the work proper; various a r c h i t e c t s speak h a b i t u a l l y of "male and female" i n j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r symbolic forms. In short, we a l l require and f e e l the c necessity to provide "a p r i o r i " synopses or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , not merely to set the stage or to f i x a mental or emotional "set" with which to receive our works of a r t , but to do our thinking f o r us. The p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r p r e t e r or c r i t i c of a r t approaches h i s task with biases not unlike those of the public he addresses. A competent c r i t i c rea l i z e s and appreciates these l i m i t a t i o n s and places l i t t l e value on his " i n t u i  t i v e " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Generations of c r i t i c s have l i v e d and preached t h i s " c a l l of the wild", but they have offered l i t t l e i n s i g h t i n t o the intended meaning of expressive symbols. With t h i s i n mind, i t i s s t i l l unproductive to deny that architecture, or any a r t f o r that matter, becomes s i g n i f i c a n t only by v i r t u e of the emotion i t evokes. The symbols of architecture which generate t h i s emotional response must ^This s i t u a t i o n i s , of course, not unique to our age, nor i s i t a l l bad; but i n common with everything else today, i t i s "more so" than ever before. 65 be investigated. No period i n h i s t o r y i s without i t s symbolic metaphors, some merely o l d symbols adopted as being applicable, others newly invented to express new concepts, others modified to s u i t new generations. Of those that are c a r r i e d over, many survive i n form only. The contexts have changed. In Egyptian architecture, the hypostyle h a l l belonged to the temple, designating the b u i l d i n g as a place f o r the i n i t i a t e only. In e a r l y 20th century a r c h i  tecture, the high c e i l i n g , multi-columned h a l l was the home of another " i n i t i a t e " i n the Exchange with a new god. The symbol i s made potent because of i t s sacred o r i g i n and has been retranslated to convey t h i s sacredness even when the object i t ennobles has undergone s i g n i f i c a n t transmutations. In.the context of symbols changing meaning, we could consider many of the a r t i f a c t s which f i l l our museums and g a l l e r i e s as misrepresentations. ' What was f o r an e a r l i e r or d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t y a drinking bowl, has f o r us become a work of a r t . The t a c i t acceptance, by generation a f t e r generation, of d i s t i n c t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r a l images, very often paralyzes the brain. The Parthenon serves as an e x c e l l e n t example. Almost u n i v e r s a l l y (with some notable exceptions which I w i l l mention) we accept the Parthenon as an example of a l l that i s desirable, the b e a u t i f u l , the precise, the r a t i o n a l i n architecture. I t was, i n i t s con text, a unique and admirable culmination i n stone and marble of what was o r i g i n a l l y wooden construction. As the culminating point of an a r c h i t e c t u r a l movement, i t had every device the human mind could formulate to make i t a per f e c t expression of human c a p a b i l i t y . But to be true to the s o - c a l l e d " s p i r i t " of our age, we should prefer to assess i t as a farm house with a roof, as d i d Picasso, or a small marble quarry, as d i d Paul V a l e r y . 1 0 In an a r c h i t e c t u r a l generation v i t a l l y concerned with s t r u c t u r a l honesty, the o p t i c a l refinements of the Parthenon might be considered as an out-and-out " l i e . " The s t r e t c h i n g i U S e e C. 'Zervos, "Conversation with Picasso"'and P. Valery, "The Course i n Poetics: F i r s t Lesson", both i n B. G h i s e l i n , ed.., The Creative Process, (New York: New American L i b r a r y of American Lit,; 1 9 5 5 ) pp . 5 5 and 92 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 66 of stone l i n t e l s to the breaking point, the f i n e , almost feather-edged, f l u tings on the columns, are more suited to wooden construction and the machine pre- c i s i o n of s t e e l than to the granular q u a l i t y of marble. In e f f e c t , t h i s s t r u c  ture, l i f t e d from i t s context, has become .a symbol of perfection i n an age whose values are often a n t i t h e t i c . 1 1 I t may be noted here, that our v i s u a l symbols are, through propensity to word magic, e t e r n a l l y fused with the word. I f we were to rename the Parthenon: "Conscience P a l i a t i v e A r i s i n g from the Horrors of the Peloponesian War", or even "Marble Quarry", the c u l t u r a l l y trans mitted image would presumably be shattered. / Vi o l a t i o n s of convention are not e a s i l y supported by the p u b l i c . When the c i t y of Tel-el-Amarna was designed in Egypt several m i l l e n i a ago, i t caused great rumblings because of the "advanced" symbols i t used. Eventually, i t became so unbearable that i t was sacked and attempts 1 were made to remove the a r c h i t e c t ' s name from e x i s t i n g records. Nor i s t h i s a unique example in h i s  tory. We are not quite so p h y s i c a l l y v i o l e n t today, at l e a s t with regard to a r c h i t e c t u r e . Unfortunately few people consider arch i t e c t u r e s u f f i c i e n t l y important to f i g h t about. But we have more powerful weapons at our d i s p o s a l : s o c i a l o s t r a c i z a t i o n , and the most dreaded fate of a l l - i n d i f f e r e n c e . Some of those i n c o n t r o l of our mass media consider architecture as something which can not j u s t i f y the space i t would occupy and so they ignore i t . Architecture does not s e l l newspapers: As to the popularization of architecture, i t seems to me that t h i s i s apt to f a l l i n the f i e l d of t e l l i n g readers how to design rose t r e l l i s e s or b u i l d carports (and) barbecues. How many readers can you t a l k to, considering always that any space you take must be at the expense of space given some more popular and more r e a d i l y understandable subject: ten per cent? f i v e per cent? two per cent?... I t i s , I think, posing to you a f a i r question: what claim can you l a y upon the space of a mass-circulation newspaper? 1 2 -^"....unless we forever question the basic imaginative constructs of our predecessors, we condemn ourselves'to working at progressively more d e t a i l e d and t r i v i a l l e v e l s . . . " R.W. Gerard, "The B i o l o g i c a l Basis of Imagination" i n B. G h i s e l i n , ed., The Creative Process, p.226. 1 2 L e t t e r to the author.from Paul St. Pierre, Associate Editor, The Vancouver Sun, November 27, 1962. 6 7 Does t h i s mean that we no longer recognize the importance of v i s u a l symbols? Fortunately this i s not so. Frank Lloyd Wright has made an a r c h i  t e c t u r a l trademark of the Johnson's Wax complex, Skidmore, Owings'* and M e r r i l l i n Lever House, Corbusier i n his modulor symbol. When we tre a t i n d i v i d u a l works of a r t , we come up against what might appear to be a strange phenomenon. We f i n d that the purpose of a r t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y communication. Many of the images placed i n the Egyptian temples to accompany expired r o y a l t y communicated only with the dead,if at a l l . C e r t a i n l y i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , communication i s involved i n the creative process only i n so f a r as the c l i e n t and a r c h i t e c t are able.to fathom, each the in t e n t of the other. The r o l e of communication which architecture plays, has always been assessed i n retrospect. H i s t o r i c a l l y , we can view the various a r c h i t e c  t u r a l symbols and ded.uce the image which man was t r y i n g to project at a given period i n h i s t o r y . Thus, future generations may ask: what was man i n 1963 t r y i n g to say - what were his values? We have a comparable s i t u a t i o n to the Egyptian, i n the Mauryan period i n India (321-18k).1^ • In the Baratar H i l l s , we f i n d the Lomas R i s h i cave, a sanctuary carved out of the " l i v i n g rock" of stone c l i f f s . Here we have a symbol created to convey a p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n . But the symbol, except f o r a very r e s t r i c t e d group of the i n i t i a t e , had no more phys i c a l e x i s  tence than an opening i n the side, of a h i l l . We have in modern architecture, a counterpart to t h i s symbol which i s not a symbol. These are the SAGE (semi-automatic ground environment.) i n s t a l  l a t i o n s , an example of which i s buried beneath f i v e hundred and seventy fe e t of rock at North Bay, Ontario. I f v i s i b l e , i t could convey to the Western world a symbol o f defence and protection, to the Russian, a symbol of agression. However, since no symbol i s apparent, (except to the s i x hundred people manning ^Gardner, op. c i t . , p.5l6-7. 68 i t ) there i s no communication. 1^ 1 On the other hand, the great majority of a r c h i t e c t u r a l works are created to communicate an idea or concept which has s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r i t s generation. The cathedrals of the Middle Ages had a decided r o l e i n communicating concepts and ideas. In a c i v i l i z a t i o n fraught with the mysteries of the u n i  verse, awed by the vast c e l e s t i a l regions, the vaulted nave had a s i g n i f i c a n t meaning. Today we are i n the p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n of designing what Paul Rudolph has c a l l e d background ar c h i t e c t u r e , "something" which w i l l more or l e s s remain in the background and not intrude. These structures, Rudolph has stated, are to be our o f f i c e and commercial buildings, while our "more important" e d i f i c e s - churches, community centres, and so on - are to be given the r e a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l 15 treatment. This shows a seemingly naive understanding of what our 20th century a r c h i t e c t u r a l symbols are. What we may wish them to be, and what they a c t u a l l y happen to be, are v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t things. To t r y and confuse future generations by pretending that ours i s not a m a t e r i a l i s t i c era i s not the a r c h i t e c t ' s function. Yet the problem of use i s d i f f i c u l t to assess. When the function i s d i s t i n c t l y monumental or e x p l i c i t l y u t i l i t a r i a n , the problem of a r c h i t e c t u r a l communication may be approached with more confidence. The vast area between these extremes requires that much thought be given to the representative symbols. What Rudolph has c a l l e d "background architecture" may be another facet of the sereneaarchitectural background which Yamasaki i n s i s t s i s necessary f o r man to preserve h i s sanity i n today's world: The state of architecture, l i k e the state of the world, i s uneasy and chaotic. The evidence i s the explosion of a r c h i t e c t u r a l ideas that gush f o r t h to f i l l the streets of our c i t i e s . This f l o o d of experiments i s producing almost every conceivable shape and "form, and f o r the most part without reason. •^Once we know or surmise that i t i s there, i t does communicate, although our assumptions concerning the premises may be erroneous. •^See Peter C o l l i n s , "Whither Paul. Rudolph" in Progressive Architecture, August, 1961, pp.130-33. 69 A l l these shapes, each t r y i n g to outdo the other, when placed together - as at Miami Beach - can only res.ult i n complete confusion. With p o l i t i c a l turmoil, t r a f f i c problems, vast increases i n population and the tremendous impact of the machine, we must have ser e n i t y . Man needs a serene a r c h i t e c t u r a l background to save h i s sanity i n today's world.16 Is our architecture to communicate serenity or materialism - or both? Whatever the answer, before our architecture can accomplish the communication i t may seek, we must think s e r i o u s l y of some s o c i a l relevance f o r structure and design .in our b u i l d i n g s . Here i s the dilemma. Can our o f f i c e buildings convey a suggestion of our m a t e r i a l i s t i c age while at the same time providing the se r e n i t y so necessary to our peace of mind? Viewed i n t h i s magical "chameleon" l i g h t , the aesthetic of background architecture takes on a new s i g  n i f i c a n c e . In a world unfettered by the f i x e d s p a t i a l point of view, these "ambiguities" are admissible. They are p o t e n t i a l l y capable of bringing a l l aspects of our way of l i f e i nto r e l a t i o n with one another. Thus, what i s the symbol of magical se r e n i t y required by the world may e x i s t simultaneously with the paradoxical process of background architecture. A l l v i t a l and powerfully- f e l t symbols contain within themselves t h e i r own opposites. This i s what makes symbols so puzzling and. opaque to i n t e l l e c t u a l study, while the imagination works within them f r e e l y , for they are unique instruments of communication. As Wittkower has stated, with regard to Church i k o n s : 1 7 The Church was always aware of the i n t r i n s i c ambiguity of function, and i n p r a c t i c e never i n t e r f e r e d with i t : the same1 f i g u r e of the V i r g i n w i l l be an i d e a l to the many and a symbol to the few. The inherent dangers i n assessing the communication process of the v i s u a l symbols of architecture has been the theme of Chapter IV of this t h e s i s . I have attempted to i n d i c a t e that d e s c r i p t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of our a r c h i t e c  t u r a l monuments i s now pertinent only as the source of "data" and " f a c t " as l 6 A r c h i t e c t M. Yamasaki, quoted i n The Vancouver Sun, Wednesday, December 12, 1962. 1 7R. Wittkower, "Vi s u a l Symbols i n Art", i n Studies i n Communication, p.123 70 background f o r more pressing concerns. Today our problem i s the new space concept which our structures must- communicate to be meaningful. V. THE GREAT HANDWRITING In the long run, whether a r t and architecture can be assessed, as l a n  guage or symbolism i s of secondary importance. Coulton quotes V i c t o r Hugo on, the great h i s t o r i c a l function of a r c h i t e c t u r e : 1 From the beginning of the world, down to:the end of the f i f t e e n t h century, architecture i s the great book of the human race... I t f i x e d , under an et e r n a l , v i s i b l e , palpable form, a l l the f l o a t i n g symbolism (of the past)...Thus, during the f i r s t s i x thousand years of the world's h i s t o r y , from the most immemorial pagoda of Hindustan down to the cathedral of Cologne, ar c h i t e c t u r e i s the great written document of man kind. What matters i n th i s study-is not the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , . but the effectiveness of archit e c t u r e as communication. A l l art i s e s s e n t i a l l y a non ve r b a l form of communication. Only by means of drawings, paintings, sculpture and photography are we able to get an i n k l i n g of how people who l i v e d at a given period attempted to symbolize - or inadvertently succeeded i n symbolizing - thoughts, fee l i n g s or even the entire pattern of t h e i r l i v e s . Symbolic representation i n a r t i s therefore more than merely a code; i t always contains a comment, an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and a suggestion of how to under stand i t s symbols. The embodiment of an idea into a work of a r t con tains both communicative and metacommunicative messages. I f we are w i l l i n g to envision that architecture has been the great hand w r i t i n g of the human race, and that t h i s function was, at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , des troyed by the invention of movable type, we are l e f t with a two-fold problem. One i s to decipher the "handwriting" which existed p r i o r to Gutenberg's inven t i o n i n the 15>th century; the other i s to place accurately the communication function of archit e c t u r e a f t e r i t had become one of many great handwritings ( i f indeed i t d i d r e t a i n this f u n c t i o n ) . The former problem has been handled by innumerable h i s t o r i a n s . To add conjecture to conjecture'is of l i t t l e value. S u f f i c e i t to say, at this point, that two d i s t i n c t i v e features are at once apparent i n assessing the vast continuum of h i s t o r y . The architecture of a iG.G. Coulton, Mediaeval Faith and Symbolism, (New York: Harper, Torchbook, 1958) 2Ruesch and Kees, op. c i t . , p.30. 71 72 predominantly o r a l t r a d i t i o n i s not h i s t o r i c a l l y e c l e c t i c , g o i n g back i n point of time only as f a r as man's memory can record. That i s , although i t may be based upon t r a d i t i o n a l models, i t knows l i t t l e of the g l o r i e s of c i v i l i z a t i o n s divorced from i t s own. Once p r i n t becomes a v a i l a b l e on a r e l a t i v e l y mass scale - we must, of course, r e a l i z e that the majority of the world's population i s today s t i l l i l l i t e r a t e - man has immediately a huge transpersonal memory. He i s able to read of the great c i v i l i z a t i o n s of the past and. only then does a return to former g l o r i e s become a s i g n i f i c a n t event. The role of b u i l d i n g s , structures, as messages of archetypal forms of human concern as influenced by o r a l , written, p r i n t , telegraphic, photographic and e l e c t r o n i c systems of communication has yet to be undertaken. Each of these mass media has a d i s t i n c t i v e bias and may i n d i c a t e to us as yet unexplored 3 paths concerning the conception and treatment of space i n a given period. On t h i s basis, i t behooves us, i n an e l e c t r o n i c era to reassess, and d i s c a r d i f necessary, concepts of architecture based on the printed page. I t may be i n s t r u c t i v e at t h i s point to turn for a moment to the example of Gothic architecture, an outgrowth of the l a s t great o r a l t r a d i t i o n of the Western world. Here we may f i n d a clue to perception more valid, f o r our pre s e n t l y extending system of senses that can be found i n Renaissance c u l t u r e . Riesman has c a l l e d p r i n t the " i s o l a t i n g medium par excellence. " 4 In the manus c r i p t culture of the Gothic world, even those who could read, d i d so aloud and with d i f f i c u l t y . I t i s therefore not d i f f i c u l t to understand the d i s p o s i t i o n to carve the s a i n t s ' l i v e s on the cathedral walls, f o r a l l to "read" who could see and touch. But i t could only have meaning f o r the populace because they were a l l f a m i l i a r with the s t o r i e s of the gospels, through countless o r a l r e c i t a t i o n s from c h i l d - ^See Innis, The Bias of Communication, p.6k. ko. Riesman, "The Oral and Written Traditions," i n Carpenter and McLuhan eds., Explorations i n Communication, p . I l k . 73 hood on. The presentation i s v i s u a l without b e n e f i t of l i n e a r perspective, yet to be formulated. (As pointed out elsewhere perspective and p r i n t • have evolved more or less contemporaneously. Both deal with a preferred point of view and a form of l i n e a r progression.) The carvings give us a. simultaneous grasp of the woes and ecstasies of saints and sinners. Heaven and h e l l d i d i n f a c t e x i s t and they existed i n the same xray f o r a l l men. . Their r e a l i t y could be seen and f e l t . I f the c r i e s of the sinners could not a c t u a l l y be heard, i t needed l i t t l e imagination f o r them to be heard i n men's minds. I t was a v i s u a l - auditory- t a c t i l e world. The v i s i o n of damnation backed up by "The Word" r i n g  ing f o r t h from the p u l p i t made heaven and h e l l so r e a l t h a t the people could reach out and touch them - i f they dared. But what man saw was only r e a l and true to him by v i r t u e of what he had been t o l d or what had been passed down by word of mouth from generation to generation. The eye abetted the ear. I t had l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e without i t . The range of a v a i l a b l e s t o r i e s was l i m i t e d be cause of the expense and time consumed i n hand-copying, as w e l l as the extremely high rate of i l l i t e r a c y . Thus, only the most important works - the B i b l e , the Gospels, and some secular works l i k e the Chansons de Geste - were perpetuated on any scale i n written form. But when Gutenberg introduced to the Western world the system of casting metal type a new era began. Innis, i n the Bias of Com- munication, notes that p r i n t spread most r a p i d l y :in those regions of Europe i n which the cathedral was not dominant. Within a decade, advances i n the system of producing p r i n t s through an e a r l y form of wood-block, made a v a i l a b l e on a l a r g e r scale the exactly repeatable image. Relative ease of reproduction made possible the widespread production of ancient l i t e r a t u r e , p r i n t s and, i n general, more secular material. For the f i r s t time, architecture was confronted by a h i s t o r i c past, not merely i n i t s own t r a d i t i o n , but of the great empires of the ^Movable and cast-metal type were invented in China around 800 A.D., but s o c i e t y and conditions there were not ready f o r the growth of the new device and with i t mass communication. The cumbersome number of ideograms posed the greatest d i f f i c u l t y . , lh world. That which became enscribed in print took a new hold on the growing body of l i terate men. With the great c iv i l izat ions of the past so readily available, i t was an almost inevitable result that the symbolic forms of Greece and Rome should preva i l . Let us now examine a contemporary c i v i l i z a t i o n to see how a primarily oral tradition affects the Eskimo's concept of space. The familiar Western notion of enclosed space is foreign to the A i v i l i k . Both winter snow igloos and summer sealskin tents are dome- shaped. Both lack ver t i ca l walls and horizontal cei l ings; no planes para l le l each other and none intersect at 90 degrees. There are no straight l ines , at least none of any length. . . • Visual ly and acoustically the igloo is "open", a labyrinth al ive with the movements of crowded people. No f la t static walls arrest the ear or eye, but voices and laughter come from several directions and the eye can glance through here, past there, catching glimpses of the act iv i t ies of nearly everyone. The same is true of the sealskin t e n t . 6 Acoustic space is non-directional in that s i t t ing , standing or lying down man can experience sound. 7 It creates i ts own dimensions as a result of intensity, level and pitch of the source. The eye must have a background to f ix an object in physical space, whereas we cannot shut out acoustic space merely by closing our eyes. For an oral tradit ion, the concept of privacy plays a far different role than in a visually-oriented culture. Only to the former group can the Japanese expression "to see but not observe" have any significance. For vis ion and visual space are not the primary modes. For the Eskimo, the "wrap-around" aspect of auditory space is shown by the manner in which he constructs his winter home. Surrounded by space in a l l i t s acoustic non-direction, he does not mould his igloo from the outside look ing' i n , but from the inside working out. Working from the centre, he builds ^Carpenter, "The Igloo," in Eskimo, identical with Explorations, v o l . 9 (Toronto; University of Toronto Press, I960). 7 E . S . Rasmussen, Experiencing Architecture (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1959), Chapter X, "Hearing Architecture," deals with the problem of how acoustics affect our different conceptions of space i n , say, a cathedral and a panelled den. pp.23Lr.i|,5. 75 a series of concentric c i r c l e s , tapering upwards conically. When the keystone at the apex has been set i n place, Eskimo and structure are one.8 Only then does he cut a small hole at the base, through which he crawls - i n e f f e c t , doffing his igloo. Perhaps here we have an answer to the dilemma expressed by Professor Ian Mcllairn? that "Man, the Measure" has not yet put i n an appearance i n contem porary art and architecture.- I would l i k e to suggest that he i s there, but that our generation, victims of f i v e hundred years of p r i n t culture and pers pective, cannot see him. For us to experience man, he must be o p t i c a l l y v i s i b l e i n the context of the picture; f o r the younger generation, weaned on the electronic 1 media such as TV with i t s simultaneous images, man i s d e f i n i t e l y there. But instead of being i n space, space surrounds man and has no meaning without him. Of course, the younger generation i s beset with problems of creating auditory and other barriers i n the contemporary open planning systems. The blaring stereo i n s t a l l a t i o n s now serve to create sound barriers with thresh- holds s u f f i c i e n t to discourage acoustic penetration of other areas which s t i l l remain v i s u a l l y accessible. As the s o l i d p a r t i t i o n system breaks down, new forms of area demarcation must be devised. Different f l o o r levels are used to create psychological barriers, radio and music, as suggested, to create acoustic ones. Flexible dividers, odours and plants are now used to d i f f e r e n t i a t e areas which previously required s o l i d p a r t i t i o n s . Perhaps for most of us, the non-visual space orientation becomes meaningful only at the summer cottage, where the water cascades down beneath the window. Although the Eskimo's material i s perishable and must be replaced by the skeleton construction of the tent i n the summer, i t has perhaps a prophetic 8W.S. Baldinger, with H.B. Green, The Visual Arts (New York: Holt, Pdnehart and Winston, I960), p.80. ?In a lecture e n t i t l e d "Man the Measure", delivered to the Humanities Association, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, February 12, 1963. 76 message f o r us, as a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y advanced n a t i o n . 1 0 A s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , s t r e s s e d , s k i n - l i k e s t r u c t u r e , -with b u i l t - i n t h e r m a l c a p a c i t i e s and e a s i l y moulded, i s c e r t a i n l y a d e s i r a b l e commodity f o r the p l a s t i c d e s i g n forms o f an e l e c t r o n i c age. C o u p l e d w i t h a f l e x i b l e assembly method, s u c h a system would then permit use over a wide range o f c l i m a t i c , r e g i o n a l and s i t e d i f f e r e n c e s . 1 1 No l e s s a p e r s o n than De T o c q u e v i l l e had u n d e r s t o o d the advantage o f a r e l a t i v e l y "backward" c i v i l i z a t i o n i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f new media. De T o c q u e v i l l e , t o s t u d y democracy, went t o the New World, f o r he r e a l i z e d t h a t c o l o n i a l America had a huge advantage o v e r Europe. I t was a b l e t o d e v e l o p and a p p l y s w i f t l y a l l the consequences o f p r i n t i n g ( i n the book, the newspaper and, by e x t e n s i o n , t h e a s s e m b l y - l i n e i n i n d u s t r y and o r g a n i z a t i o n ) because t h e r e was no b a c k l o g o f o b s o l e t e t e c h n o l o g y t o be l i q u i d a t e d f i r s t . Europeans had t o s t r u g g l e through a l o n g , p a i n f u l p e r i o d i n o r d e r t o c l e a r enough room t o e x p l o i t the new p r i n t t e c h n o l o g y . Today America has the l a r g e s t b a c k l o g o f o b s o l e t e t e c h n o l o g y i n the worlds i t s e d u c a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , b u i l t by p r i n t and methods d e r i v e d from p r i n t , a r e v a s t and p e r v a s i v e . Backward c o u n t r i e s have a huge advantage o v e r us: they now s t a n d i n r e l a t i o n to e l e c t r o n i c t e c h n o l o g y much as we once s t o o d i n r e l a t i o n to p r i n t t e c h  n o l o g y . What we p l a n t o do o r can do to brainwash o u r s e l v e s o f t h i s o b s o l e t e i n h e r i t a n c e has y e t t o be faced.12 However, I must p o i n t out t h a t a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r moment i n h i s t o r y , the Eskimo i s n o t a l l " o r a l t r a d i t i o n " any more than we a r e a l l v i s u a l l y o r i e n t e d . Rather, each group seems, a t the p r e s e n t , headed i n the d i r e c t i o n t h a t was p r e  v i o u s l y the extreme o f the o t h e r . Thus, the Eskimo embraces l i t e r a c y , w h i l e we a c c e p t , u s u a l l y u n c o n s c i o u s l y , the o r a l forms which he r e j e c t s . I t would seem t h a t we a r e f a c e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the t a s k s o f r e v i  t a l i z i n g the b a c k l o g o f e x i s t i n g forms, w h i l e h e l p i n g t o f o r m u l a t e contemporary o r g a n i c s p a t i a l c o n c e p t s ; t h a t i s , man c o n c e r n e d w i t h a c o u s t i c space. We a r e a l l aware t h a t the a c c e p t e d Western v i s u a l space concept r e l a t e s 1 0 I n a p p l y i n g the l e s s o n , i f n o t the method, o f Eskimo c o n s t r u c t i o n , a q u e s t i o n a r i s e s . I s i t a n a c h r o n i s t i c t o l a y s t r u c t u r e s up, b r i c k by b r i c k , s t o n e by s t o n e , i n an age when t y p e - s e t t i n g can be done by T e l s t a r ? 1 1 S e e B a l d i n g e r and Green, op. c i t . , p.80. l 2 C a r p e n t e r and McLuhan, eds., E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Communication, I n t r o d u c t i o n , pp.ix-x..' 77 everything to the h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l ; but the drawings of the Egyptians, the Eskimo and many contemporary a r t i s t s , i n d i c a t e that there are other ways of seeing. Perhaps, i n the present context of l i f e , these are more v a l i d i n  terpretations f o r us. Our r e l a t i o n s h i p with our environment may be s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d u n t i l we are able to f i n d a space concept i n keeping with the image, man i s now attempting to p r o j e c t . With the new materials of architecture, and the new and reawakened awareness of space, we may f i n d that the l i n e s and o r i e n t a t i o n of a structure need have no r e l a t i o n s h i p to the h o r i z o n t a l or v e r t i c a l . F l a t , smooth sur- 13 faces w i l l have no more s i g n i f i c a n c e than textured or inclined, surfaces. Architecture cannot e x i s t without a space conception and I am suggesting that our new media have a tangible r o l e i n the determination of t h i s concept. In Anonymous (20th Century), Leonardo R i c c i , one of the new school of " t o t a l " a r c h i t e c t s , speaks of the " v i s i o n " of "what our century ought to become": Now, instead, everything i s f u l l of fantasy and invention. The road has become the house, and the house, the road. The house has grown legs and has married the mountain, and the mountain, too, i s house. The house has entered the sea, and. the boats are moored at i t s doors. And the airplanes r e s t on the water, l i k e b i g sleeping s e a g u l l s . And you can no longer separate one thing from another. Constructions follow the r i v e r beds, down to the r i v e r mouths. They go over the r i v e r l i k e suspension bridges; they surge' toward, heaven l i k e mountain peaks; they ease themselves'down the slopes l i k e a com f i e l d or condense l i k e giant sequoias.(p.205) and l a t e r on: Means of transportation are of a d i f f e r e n t kind, and people's thoughts are of a d i f f e r e n t kind. No longer private cars, nor c o l  l e c t i v e buses. But si n g l e elements, communicating among themselves f r e e l y . Roads that move by themselves, h o r i z o n t a l l y , v e r t i c a l l y , j o i n t i n g the ganglia of t h e i r own composition.(p.206) In each age of h i s t o r y , man must determine what c o l l e c t i v e image he wishes to project. Within t h i s framework, any number of i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s may be acceptable, so long as they do not encroach upon the u n i f y i n g concept. 13see Giedion, "Space Conceptions i n P r e h i s t o r i c Art" i n Carpenteriand McLuhan -eds.,- Explorations i n Communication, pp.80-81. 78 When th i s occurs, symbolism becomes confused and as a r e s u l t , a r c h i t e c t u r a l expression also becomes confused. When architecture was a d i r e c t extension of man's communication, there was no confusion ( f o r the people of the time) i n symbolic representation. I t has been suggested that with the growth of l i t e r a c y , the p r i n t e d word began to replace architecture, u n t i l the l a t t e r became v i s u a l imagery without s p e c i f i c meaning; i t served instead as a s i g  n a l l i n g device. Innis, i n the Bias of Communication, quotes Trevelyan on the e f f e c t of p r i n t on a rchitecture: The p r i n t i n g press became "a battering-ram to bring abbeys and c a s t l e s crashing to the ground."(p.55) In e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y , man devised the church i n the shape of a cross, not because of i t s v i s u a l aspect, which could hardly be read ( p a r t i c u l a r l y before an era of a e r i a l perspective), but f o r i t s symbolic value. As s o c i e t y loses touch with r e l i g i o n , the cross, symbolic of C h r i s t becomes secondary and the v i s u a l cross as s i g n a l becomes important. That i s , the church i s at present not concerned with the cross-shape as representative so much of C h r i s t , as the Cross Is used to s i g n i f y "church". Here, I believe, we can f i n d the framework of " u n i v e r s a l space" of much contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r e . In i t , symbols are not only f u z z i l y defined, they are interchangeable. Thus, the b o i l e r room and chapel of the I l l i n o i s Ins t i t u t e of Technology campus are expressed as generally s i m i l a r symbols and the role of the cross i s one of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (as i s the f l u e ) and s i g n i f i c a t i o n . On the basis of the current mass media and systems of communication, t h i s " universal space" i s not only i n e v i t a b l e , but l o g i c a l and j u s t i f i a b l e . The role of the abstract p a i n t e r of today has been to make v i s i b l e the concept of "area of meaning." At the same time, he points out that i n t e r p l a y among our senses has been neglected. P r i n t , with i t s s t a t i c separation of functions, c a l l i n g f o r a departmentalized, s e p a r a t i s t outlook, has broken down these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . L i t e r a r y imitation of nature t i e d to a f i x e d point of observation 19 had k i l l e d the image as a p l a s t i c organism... Non-representational a r t c l a r i f i e d the s t r u c t u r a l laws of the p l a s t i c image. I t re established the image i n i t s - o r i g i n a l role as a dynamic experience based upon the properties of the senses and t h e i r p l a s t i c organization. 1'- 1 We experience space from .'a f i x e d point of view which does not extend to include the space occupied by the viewer. Man Is outside, external to the world he experiences. V i s u a l perception has d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n a l bias and we conceive of spaces a s a progression of d i f f e r e n t v i s t a s . Witness the design of so many of our town-planning schemes: a never-ending, pre-determined, l i n e a r sequence of views i s presented. I f we enter the project from the wrong end, continuity i s destroyed. One of the great problems confronting modern architecture i s , then, the dominant mode of viewing i n sequence, rather than comprehensively. We are un- prepared f o r the a r c h i t e c t u r e of inside-outside, outside-inside, b u i l d i n g - landscape, landscape-building, i n short, an architecture unhampered by v i s u a l b a r r i e r s which prevent i t s e x i s t i n g as an integrated, whole. Strangely enough, as has been suggested, i t i s the "menacing eye", TV, which i s redefining space f o r man. Many people have drawn attention to the TV image as a mosaic mesh of luminous points comparable to a Seurat painting. And as i n Seurat the e f f e c t of the TV mesh i s to give strong stress to contour and s c u l p t u r a l q u a l i t y . .Andre Girard, the French painter who has done v i s u a l experiments f o r CBS and NBC, has said that i t was h i s master Rouault, who made him i n t e r e s t e d i n TV. For Rouault made h i s e f f e c t s as i f by l i g h t through rather than by l i g h t on, as occurs i n stained glass. In f a c t , says Girard, Rouault was tEe" painter of t e l e v i s i o n before TV. And, as i n mediaeval glass, or i n Seurat or Rouault, the r e t i n a l image i s of low density or "low d e f i n i t i o n " , as broadcasters say. Yet t h i s "low d e f i n i t i o n " e l i c i t s high empathy or p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the part of the viewer. Perhaps i t i s j u s t because of the low d e f i n i t i o n of the r e t i n a l image that there i s such a high p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n t e r p l a y of . a l l the senses i n TV. In t h i s respect the t e l e v i s i o n viewer i s a s o r t of skin-diver, f o r a l l the senses are i n play, but some of them i n rather diminished i n t e n s i t y . This would seem to be a condition of synesthesia, that no one sense be allowed high i n t e n s i t y . 1^G.Kepes, The Language of V i s i o n , p.200. -^McLuhan, "Inside The Five-Sense Sensorium", p .U9. 80 The eventual result will be a concept of space.as simultaneous awareness of a multiplicity of unified images in a non-linear fashion. Until this occurs, man will not be at ease in the electronic age. Although literate men them selves have a l l the necessary apparatus and "civilized" advantages for effec tive communication in the 20th century, they continue to function on partial potential. When Frank Lloyd Wright battered down the rigid partition system of the Western dwelling, he introduced a new era in architecture. Giedion tells us: By 1 9 1 0 Wright had achieved a flexibility of open planning unap- proached hitherto. In other countries at that time the flexible ground plan and the flexibly moulded interior and exterior were almost unknown. Wright's realization of a flexible treatment of the inner space.of a building is probably his greatest service to architecture. It brought . l i f e , movement, freedom into the whole rigid and benumbed body of modern architecture ,1b In his 193i+ project "Broadacres City", which Wright himself described as "every where and nowhere"-, he had assessed the distinguishing features of the new technology as "automobility" and electric communication. To which Goodman and Goodman, in Communitas, ask "Does he mean TV?"(p.90) There is a thecfry that the great astronomers in history often became architects, but that the reverse never occurred. After dealing with the vast heavens, the particular problem of bounded space must have seemed elementary. The inability on the. part of architects for so many centuries to conceive of space other than as-'»the hollowed-out 'portion of a container is an indication of why the reverse process did not occur. Even today the interpenetration and continuity•of house-and garden is rarely achieved in practice. Glass can be as refractory as stone or brick. To achieve the flow of space requires a men tal adjustment, not merely the substitution of transparent for opaque materials. The new mass media, the newspaper, the photograph and the magazine have ^Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture (Cambridge;. Harvard University Press, 1 9 5 9 ) , V-hOT. 81 paved the way f o r the arc h i t e c t s and the pai n t e r s . The c a r e f u l l y structured format of the book, b u i l d i n g sentence upon sentence, chapter upon chapter, culminating i n a causal, almost i n e v i t a b l e climax had to make room f o r the heterogeneous mash of the newspaper. Reading by scanning, I suggest, grew out of the newspaper, with i t s juxtaposed s t o r i e s from region, then country, continent, world and f i n a l l y a l l of space as man knows i t . Hence the headline the bold-type became more important than the story climax. I t was the climax a l l the rest was d e t a i l , reminding us of the skeptic who desired to learn a l l the Bible while standing on one foot. "Do not do to others what you would not want them to do to you - that i s the B i b l e j a l l the r e s t i s commentary. Now go out and lea r n the commentary." This was the headline answer to man on the move. The format i s simultaneous, not ordered, as was the book. Yet the i s o l a t i n g process of the book s t i l l permitted the placing side by side, or above and below, of captions, which, i f not read as separate e n t i t i e s , could be highly humourous.1'? CLERGYMAN BACKS PROPOSAL FOR ENLIGHTENED SEX LAWS Ferry Runs Cancelled But the unrelated reports of the newspaper tend to destroy the dichotomy of time and space, rendering them as relationships rather than separate, ordered and sequential. The here and now, space-time configuration of the newspaper paved the way f o r the a r c h i t e c t u r a l idea of a room which i s not a room, an ex t e r i o r which i s also i n t e r i o r and b u i l d i n g which i s also garden. I t has been suggested that the nineteenth century return to e c l e c t i c i s m i n architecture was a re s u l t of the outcry raised concerning the sensational tabloids which, i t was said, were- threatening to destroy the morals of so c i e t y . In e f f e c t , i t was not i t s morals socie t y was worrying about, but the idea of a -^Random choice from l o c a l d a i l y newspaper. •^See Carpenter, "The New Languages" i n Explorations i n Communication, P.175. 82 new space concept replacing the linear format with i t s four centuries of tra dition. Today, airports designed on a linear system make no sense in an age in which i t takes one half hour to f l y from Vancouver to Seattle and twenty minutes to walk from the airport entrance to the loading platform. The new media, together with the tinted photograph, brought the East to the world's attention in the mid-19th century.. In the Japanese dwelling, we see the physical embodiment of what the newspaper-magazine format had suggested.. One six-mat room serves as dining room, li v i n g room, bed room, parlour and, weather permitting, outdoor patio. In regard to the bed and i t s arrangements, the Japanese have reduced this a f f a i r to i t s simplest expression. The whole floor, the whole house indeed, is a bed, and one can f l i n g himself down on the soft mats, in the draught, or out of i t , upstairs or down, and find a smooth, firm and level surface upon which to sleep...19 This could be extended to any or every room, excluding perhaps the kitchen. I think i t proper to assess this as a reflection of the continuing "oral" tra dition of the Japanese as well as of their idea of nature as a benevolent god. The trend to display pieces becomes necessary only with the introduction of perspective and i t s need for a focus. Before print, when 'Western c i v i l i z a t i o n was s t i l l basically "oral", i t too found'-comfort in space i t s e l f . And yet there was a medieval comfort. But i t must be sought in another dimension, for i t cannot be measured on the material scale. The satisfaction and delight that were medieval comfort have their source in the configuration of space. Comfort i s the atmosphere with which man surrounds himself and in which he live s . Like the medieval Kingdom of God, i t i s something that eludes the grasp of hands. Medieval comfort is the comfort of space. A medieval room seems finished even when i t contains no furniture. I t is never bare. Whether a cathedral, a refectory, or'a burgher chamber, i t lives in i t s proportions, i t s materials, i t s form...20 It i s a l i v i n g instinct in these periods that space shall be dominant, not furniture. To this everything else is unconsciously subordinated.21 !?E. Morse, Japanese Houses and Their Surroundings (New York, Dover Pub lications, 1961), p.210. ~ 2 0Giedion, Mechanization Takes Command, pp.301. 21 I bid., p.30U. 83 Here, i t i s possible to draw a p a r a l l e l with dictionary d e f i n i t i o n s as areas of meaning, rather than as absolute values. The one "correct" meaning has been replaced by a contextual relationship. A r c h i t e c t u r a l l y our range of use, of s p a t i a l d e f i n i t i o n , i s extended by the context of function. The new dynamic aspect of architectural space i s then pregnant with i n  numerable meanings. In this regard i t i s interesting to note one facet i n the design of the new Education Building at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Here i s a department teaching, supposedly, the l a t e s t refinements i n progressive education. A l l the audio, v i s u a l , t a c t i l e methods are preached in a classroom with seats firmly anchored to the f l o o r . The.• immovable desk i s an outgrowth of the early days of p r i n t culture, when for the f i r s t time, teacher and student a l i k e had the same material available to them i n the printed book. When teaching was o r a l , teaching methods were flexible., approximating the clustering of the tr i b e about the f i r e with the c h i e f t a i n i n the centre. S o l i t a r y learning and study came only with the printed, page. And today when learning and study are switching more and more to the seminar, the round-table and the discussion group, we have to note these developments as due to the decline of the printed page as the dominant art form.22 And, adds.Joseph R. Royce: "Because of the great forces of fragmen tation i n contemporary l i f e we need to exert ourselves e x p l i c i t l y toward pro viding educational situations where integration, both outward and inward, can be maximally fostered..."23 The new media of learning suggest that such a dynamic grouping i s more i n keeping with contemporary tendencies than the negating example of fixed seating. Use of a given area w i l l be determined by need. Only then w i l l i t be v a l i d to impose a s p e c i f i c functional arrangement upon an. area. Here i s 2 2Carpenter and McLuhan, "Culture Without Literacy" i n Explorations i n Communications, p.119. 23"Educating the\Generalist" i n Main Currents i n Modern Thought, May- June 1961, vol.17, no.5. p.101. f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the concept of "universal space" - not i t s Platonic overtones, nor i t s real-estate value, nor i t s apparent negation of man as an i n d i v i d u a l . In t h i s context, u n i v e r s a l space becomes o r g a n i c a l l y l o g i c a l i n a world of constant f l u x . Segmented man, divorced from the current of l i f e , has l i t t l e place i n the i n t e r p l a y of a l l the senses being reawakened by the new media of communication. The "whole", man, i n every facet of his personality, i s the l o g i c a l outgrowth of the simultaneous and p o t e n t i a l l y unlimited a r c h i  tecture they c a l l f o r t h . One questions the role of the proscenium theatre, which not only imposes severe l i m i t a t i o n s on performers, but binds the audience v i r t u a l l y to i t s seat. Any conventional theatre i s a highly r e s t r i c t i v e room. Ca n e t t i , i n describing the panic which often seizes theatre audiences when threatened by danger, states that "...a normal theatre i s arranged with the i n t e n t i o n of pinning people down and allowing them only the use of t h e i r hands and voices; t h e i r use of t h e i r legs i s r e s t r i c t e d as f a r as possible. " ^ U • The role of the auditorium, xjhen the function of theatre has been usurped by newspaper, radio, f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n , requires that a h a l l have great f l e x i  b i l i t y to be an economic as well as a r t i s t i c success. A large symphony may require arena proportions, a chamber group requires that the house be dras t i c a l l y reduced i n - s i z e , to obtain the intimacy f o r which the music xras written. As Whittaker has s t a t e d : 2 ^ "Never before i n i t s h i s t o r y has the theatre been so conscious of i t s l i v i n g quarters. The b a t t l e of proscenium versus p l a t  form i s not new, but i t i s a t t r a c t i n g new armies of defenders on e i t h e r side, and a major b a t t l e seems inevitable....The platform stage, b l a t a n t l y wrapping i t s audience around i t , can keep control of a large audience with ease, and a l i t t l e c i r c l i n g about. Its f a r t h e s t customer i s l e s s than h a l f as f a r away ^ U c a n e t t i , op. c i t . , p.26. ^Quoted by McLuhan in "Inside the Five Sense Sensorium", p.5"l. 85 because the stage projects out to meet him." The stage seems to be perpetuating the Renaissance.anachronism of the picture-box theatre. What Inigo Jones had t r i e d s u c c e s s f u l l y to do i n the productions of "Florimene" and "SaLmacida P o l i a " was to extend the perspective v i s t a almost out of the t h e a t r e . 2 6 But the great innovators of the l a t e 19th and. e a r l y 20th century, Appia, Craig, Reinhardt and Jones, have t r i e d , l a r g e l y unsuccessfully, to dissolve this r e s t r i c t i n g frame i n an e f f o r t to r e v i t a l i z e legitimate theatre. They emphasized l i g h t i n g and the actor, as the basis f o r the "new" theatre. Craig, i n an interview with John S a v a c o o l , 2 7 has sa i d that despite a l l t h e i r e f f o r t s , a l l that has happened to the stage i n t h i s century, i s that the external trappings have been exchanged f o r more contemporary dress. The present theatre merely supplies a r e - e d i t i o n of the o l d model, brought up- to-date, streamlined and improved. Shakespeare, w r i t i n g f o r an o r a l l y oriented people, required no designed sets and only rudimentary props. Settings and place were conveyed through verse. I t was l e f t to the audience to construct or f i l l i n the scenic e l e  ments. This required an i n t e r p l a y of the senses on the part of the viewers, who were r e a l l y auditors and creators as well. Maximal audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s what the platform stage, l i k e the arena theatre, o f f e r s . + + + + + "Area of meaning", as applied.to architecture, i s more than a reassess ment of our s p a t i a l concept as a broad contextual framework i n contrast with the absolute q u a l i t i e s of other eras. I t suggests as w e l l that d i f f e r e n t 26see MacGowan and. Melnitz, The L i v i n g Stage, (Edgewood C l i f f s , N.J . t P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1955), pp.183, 93 res p e c t i v e l y . 27Published under the t i t l e "Stage Visionary", i n Theatre Arts, June 1950, vol.34, no.6. 86 d i s c i p l i n e s and competences work together across a wide f i e l d of d i v e r s i f i e d in t e re s t s . These must be incorporated i n an integrated design. The general - ' l y conservative American Ins t i tu te of Archi tects has recognized the need for a smoothly functioning design team, working across many d i s c i p l i n e s . (Whether the recognition was a matter of progress of a re-entrenchment against the ons laught of the package-dealers i s , however, a moot po in t . ) The s p e c i a l i s t , working i n a corporate system, i n which order i s imposed l i n e a l l y from the top downwards i s no longer feasible i n our e lec t ronic age. The relevant factor i n th i s obsolescence i s the use of e lect ronic tapes by which information i s fed from several points simultaneously and i n concert; previously , with p r i n t , there had been one un i t followed by another u n i t . With th i s switch from l i n e a r to c lus te r configurat ion, l i t e r a c y l o s t i t s main prop i n the s o c i a l structure of our time, because the motivating force i n the teaching of reading, and the development of a highly l i t e r a t e cul ture , was the s t r i c t relevance of that classroom d i s c i p l i n e to every pattern and purpose i n the outside world. Today the outside world i s abandoning that very form and providing increas ingly less motivation for the teaching of reading and the achieving of l i t e r a t e culture i n our schools.28 The new formulations of e lec t ronic media suggest a f i e l d attack through "organized ignorance." This s t r i k i n g phrase seems to have arisen during the Second World. War, when the Operations Research people put b io log i s t s and psychologists to work on weapons problems that would o rd ina r i l y have f a l l en to the l o t of engineers and phys i c i s t s . The former group swarmed a l l over each problem instead of beaming a ray of spec ia l ized knowledge at i t . I f you beam knowledge at a new s i t ua t i on , you f ind i t i s quite opaque; i f you organize your ignorance, tackl ing, the s i tua t ion as an o v e r - a l l project , probing a l l aspects at the same time, you f ind unexpected apertures, v i s t a s , breakthroughs. Thus the chemist Mendeleev, to discover the missing group i n the element chart, d id not simply use avai lable knowledge. Instead he asked: what must be the charac ter i s t ics of the rest , i f those we do know are to make sense among themselves? 2? Dr. B . J . Muller-Thym, a business analyst at Massachusetts Ins t i tu te of Technology, has taken up the challenge of the change-over from l i n e components to in te rac t ing d i s c i p l i n e s i n the world of management and i n d u s t r i a l organizat ion. The f i r s t th ing to be discovered was that pyramidal organizat ional ^"Carpenter and McLuhan, eds., Explorations i n Communication, Introduction, p . x . 2 ? I b i d . 87 structure, with many layers of supervision, and with f u n c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n by s p e c i a l i t y , simply d i d not work. The communication chain between top s c i e n t i f i c or engineering leadership and work centers was too long f o r e i t h e r the s c i e n t i f i c or managerial message to be communicated. But i n these research organizations where work a c t u a l l y got done, when one studied them, he found that whatever the organization chart prescribed, groups of researchers with d i f f e r e n t competences as required by the problem i n hand were working together, cutting across organizational l i n e s ; that they were e s t a b l i s h i n g most of t h e i r own design c r i t e r i a f o r the work as well as t h e i r intended patterns of asso c i a t i o n ; that the patterns of t h e i r group association at work followed the organization of t h e i r competences as human knowledges.3° The f a c t i o n a l i z e d town-planning system, imposed from above, i s an example of an outgrowth of the pyramidal organization system. On a master plan, this area i s designated school; t h i s , industry; t h i s , park landj t h i s , pedestrian pathway; a l l as though man were a fragmentary and departmentalized being. Jane Jacobs has pointed out the f o l l y of t h i s system.3 1 For her, the d i v e r s i t y of use i s necessary to the l i f e blood of our c i t i e s . I t no longer s u f f i c e s to be external, dispassionate, objective viewers of man's environment. We must walk through our s t r e e t s , breathe t h e i r a i r , f e e l t h e i r rhythm, catch t h e i r v i t a l i t y before we can understand the i n t r i c a c y and d i v e r s i t y of a great s o c i a l task. To experience the l i v i n g organism that i s our environment from behind a sheaf of s t a t i s t i c s i s not the answer to such problems today, i f i t ever was. Does this group association mean that the a r t i s t - a r c h i t e c t i s no longer desirable? On the contrary; as long as architecture remains a p o t e n t i a l ' f o r c e f o r creative environment, the a r c h i t e c t i s highly necessary to achieve s t a b i l i t y i n t h i s age of chess-playing machines. Interaction at the inception of a design i s necessary, rather than designing .in i s o l a t i o n and farming out work to various engineers charged with rendering the a r c h i t e c t ' s " a r t " habitable. When,, i n a given structure, the.cost of mechanical and e l e c t r i c a l appur- 30McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, pp.lhO-l. 3!The Death and L i f e of Great American C i t i e s , Part Two, The Conditions f o r D i v e r s i t y , Chapter 7, The Generators of D i v e r s i t y , (New York: Random House, 1961), pp . l i i 3 - 5 l . 88 tenances r i s e s to f i f t y percent o f the o v e r a l l cost, i t s treatment becomes highly s i g n i f i c a n t and important. A change i n any one of these d i s c i p l i n e s often d r a s t i c a l l y a f f e c t s the workings of a l l the others. A l l are mutually dependent. Patterns of asso c i a t i o n must be determined i n an i n t e r l o c k i n g , simultaneous awareness of t o t a l a r c h i t e c t u r e . That d i f f e r e n t branches of knowledge should have to work i n mutually exclusive patterns (from which the a r c h i t e c t must attempt the onerous task of co-ordination) i s not supportable. We have today too many outs f o r f a u l t y design. The engineers make l i v a b l e a bu i l d i n g with an a r b i t r a r i l y closed facade as well as the equally a r b i t r a r y t o t a l l y open facade. Loudspeakers and microphones correct f a u l t y acoustics, a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t "beefs up" bad fenestration, and e l e c t r i c a l fans obviate poor v e n t i l a t i o n . 3 2 An investigation' of the implications of the fragmentation of the b u i l d i n g process has been taken up by a p i l o t study i n t o communications i n the b u i l d i n g industry. I t i s an implementation of the demand f o r "an urgent research pro gramme of the whole problem of communications (in the b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y ) . . . . " Mot too s u r p r i s i n g l y , the study attempts a mosaic approach, combining the human sciences and operational research. Because of i t s timeliness and importance, I s h a l l quote extensively from the review appearing i n the May 1963 RIBA Journal (Royal I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s ) . The report finds that problems of communication a r i s e a t every stage of the b u i l d i n g process from inception to f i r i a l account. U n t i l - much more d e t a i l e d information i s a v a i l a b l e about the timing, content, and techniques of communications, improvements w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to achieve. D i f f i c u l t i e s i n communications have been aggravated by com p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g from the need to accommodate t e c h n i c a l change. This has l e d to confusion i n the roles and rel a t i o n s h i p s of members of the b u i l d i n g team. There i s no stable d e f i n i t i o n of what the job of any i n d i v i d u a l member of the team i s . The a r c h i t e c t , the builder, the quantity surveyor, the sub contractor, w i l l be doing quite d i f f e r e n t jobs depending upon which of the many possible contractual arrangements they are currently working i n . As a r e s u l t , there i s an understandable defensiveness on the part F i t c h , op. c i t . , Chapter 15", The Engineer, ' Friend or Foe, pp.229-1+0 89 of everybody, p a r t i c u l a r l y when entering upon a new project or a new set of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 'In the absence of generally agreed rules f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p game, every man wants to ensure he i s not a l o s i n g party.' The report b r i e f l y traces the h i s t o r i c a l development of the various roles i n the b u i l d i n g team over the l a s t 300 years. I t points out that many d i f f i c u l t i e s are caused by the c o n f l i c t i n g values of p r o f e s s i o n a l and commercial i n t e r e s t s which have deep roots i n society, and demand respect. The 'lack of cohesion and co-ordination' i n the industry (to which S i r Harold Emmerson referred i n his report) i s not the r e s u l t of i l l w i l l or malignancy, but the outcome of forces beyond the c o n t r o l of any i n d i v i d u a l or group. The report, therefore, suggests that the f i r s t step towards improvement i s a better understanding of these forces. Knowledge and techniques i n operational research and the human sciences now e x i s t which could enable the industry to assert something o f ' i t s own c o n t r o l over the external and i n t e r n a l forces which impinge upon i t . The report gives an account of how operational research a n a l y s i s might be used to study communications i n the b u i l d i n g process. In t h i s , the problem of e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a against which to t e s t performance, and the p o t e n t i a l value of the c r i t i c a l path technique as a means of improving co-ordination, are discussed. B u i l d i n g i s seen as a chain of i n t e r l o c k e d operations, i n which a wide v a r i e t y of resources must be co-ordinated. The c e n t r a l problem arises from the lack of match between the technical interdependence of the industry's resources and the organizational independence of those who c o n t r o l them. The recommendation of the report i s that concurrent studies are now needed i n t o : (a) the d e t a i l e d pattern of i n t e r l o c k i n g operations involved i n the b u i l d i n g process; , , . (b) the roles and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the members of the b u i l d i n g team. This would involve a study of the r e a l nature of the ' d i s t i n c t i v e competence' of each of the e x i s t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l and commercial members of the team; how these, r e l a t e to each other and to the p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d s of expertise or resources each controls. These studies could best be c a r r i e d on as applied, research on actual b u i l d i n g s i t e s and i n design offices....(p.178) Nor does the emphasis on i n t e g r a t i o n mean that we f a l l i n t o the trap which engulfed the new exponents of i n d u s t r i a l design a f t e r 1900.. They advo cated the p r i n c i p l e of "universal, good design." However, t h i s aesthetic u n i t y had a very negative e f f e c t in the loose envelopes i t proposed f o r the a r t s . Kubler, i n The Shape of Time, i l l u s t r a t e s what may r e s u l t : This e g a l i t a r i a n doctrine of the arts nevertheless erases many important differences of substance. Architecture and packaging tend i n the modern schools of design to gravitate together under the rubric o f envelopes; sculpture absorbs the design of a l l sorts of small s o l i d s and containers; p a i n t i n g extends to include f l a t shapes and planes of a l l s o rts, l i k e those of weaving and p r i n t i n g . By t h i s geometric system, a l l v i s i b l e a r t can be classed as envelopes, s o l i d s and planes, regardless of any r e l a t i o n to use...(p.15) 90 Although Kubler was r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to the t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t i n c  tions between " f i n e " and "minor", "useful" and "useless" a r t s , i t i s not without a p p l i c a t i o n to contemporary ar c h i t e c t u r e . J.M. F i t c h , i n Architecture  and the Aesthetics of-Plenty, relates the contemporary tendency to the work of Mies van der Rohe. Mies has managed to f i t i n t o his c l a s s i c envelope, with only minor adjustments i n scale or structure, such v a r i e d operations as a museum, a bank, a rum manufacturer, a nati o n a l theatre, an a r c h i t e c t u r a l school, and i n such diverse climates"as Houston, Des Moines, Santiago de Cuba, Western Germany and Chicago....(p.166) I t seems to b o i l down to the f a c t that architecture i s today, more than ever before, a problem i n orchestration. The a r c h i t e c t i s the conductor who, although he cannot play a l l the instruments, knows the q u a l i t y and value of which each u n i t i s capable. Like a successful symphony, any successful b u i l d i n g today i s a c o l l e c t i v e work of a r t , a three-dimensional symposium of e l e c t r o n i c man's techniques and s k i l l s . Although the t e c h n i c a l and mechanical sides of architecture are more and more becoming the province of modern science, • both a r t and science are ordering a c t i v i t i e s of the human mind. Art attempts to discern order r e l a t i o n s i n nature, creating images of our experience of the world. Data are set out i n terms of recreated sense forms; and the f e l t order i s expressed in terms of sensible structures e x h i b i t i n g properties of harmony, rhythm and proportion.33 We are i n a s i t u a t i o n i n which Picasso i s already dated, and perhaps Moore i s following with the key to the technique of v i s u a l " d i s c o n t i n u i t y . " The " d i s c o n t i n u i t y " i s f o r many as yet u n i n t e l l i g i b l e because i t creates a new pattern of perception. New i n s i g h t s can be gained only by learning the language. When a step forward i n the formulation of a new s p a t i a l awareness i n ar c h i t e c t u r e i s made, i t seems to be i n the d i r e c t i o n of rehashing e x i s t i n g l i n e a r forms rather than a fresh approach. (The work of such individual. 33j[epes, "Art and Science", i n Explorations, v o l . 1, p.78. 91 creators as Gaudi, Goff and F u l l e r finds few adherents and i s generally assessed as ec c e n t r i c , yk But the growing body of devotees' of the a r c h i t e c t s of t o t a l design - Kahn, S o l e r i and R i c c i - indicates that pessimism f o r the future of architecture i s premature. In Louis Kahn and Paul Rudolph, we see attempts at integration of the mechanical and s t r u c t u r a l elements of a b u i l d i n g i n t o the design, not merely as expressions of function, but as c o n t r o l l i n g design elements. Perhaps t h i s i s the form our contemporary ornament w i l l take. And deny i t as we w i l l , ornament i s retrenching i t s e l f i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . I do not say t h i s i n a deprecating way. The f a c t that man has never been able to deny ornament f o r any length of time (the e a r l y part of t h i s century i s an example) suggests that i t has great com munications s i g n i f i c a n c e . Mies van der Rohe has banished ornament, in.the accepted sense, to replace i t with a system of s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l ornamentation. Louis S u l l i v a n , f o r a l l his "form follows function", never denied decoration i n his a c t u a l work. Frank Lloyd Wright saw the need f o r i t i n others as well as i n himself. Niemeyer has attempted to hide i t by making i t part of the engineering. Corbusier, though he denied i t i n the e a r l y part of his career, has i n l a t e r years been i t s most eloquent proponent i n a t r u l y contemporary sense. Ronchamp i s i n i t s e l f an ornament - everything about i t i s an extension of material. Rudolph's non-denominational chapel at Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, i s a r e i n - t e r p r e t a t i o n of Ronchamp. Various other architects have used d i f f e r e n t means to incorporate ornamentation; Stone's and lamasaki's g r i l l e s and screens have become s u f f i c i e n t l y r e p e t i t i o u s to be regarded as trademarks. A l l i n a l l , the evidence for the return of ornament i s too overwhelming to be ignored or l i g h t l y dismissed. Rather, an i n v e s t i g a t i o n into i t s communicative function 3^For a reassessment of Gaudi's~work, see J . J . Sweeney and J.L. Sert, Antoni Gaudi (New York: Praeger, I 9 6 0 ) . may be i n order. The work of Eero Saarinen was, u n t i l his untimely death, a search f o r forms to express the contemporary idiom. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the TWA b u i l d i n g , he attempted to render a modern p l a s t i c material, concrete, so as to r e a l i z e i t s f l u i d p o t e n t i a l . A measure of his success may be that the conventional plan, elevation and section method was inadequate to the design. Models had to be constructed i n i t i a l l y , and only l a t e r could they be recorded i n conven t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n s . . Perhaps, then, our very forms of representation are themselves inadequate. They are tools inappropriate to the emerging s p a t i a l idea. I f , noting these exceptions, architecture i s charged with "holding that l i n e " while science and sculpture venture onto new paths, then architecture w i l l become the great preserver of the status quo. Unlike Hugo's assessment of the "great xirritten document" of the human race, i t now functions as a defender of the f a i t h . I f architecture i s simply an anchor to what already e x i s t s , i t can r e a d i l y be replaced by the machine. Computers with goal drives, are already within man * s c a p a b i l i t i e s . I f a l l the "great" forms are those which have exis t e d up u n t i l the present, i t may then be possible to program these known data and come up with machine answers as d i f f e r e n t one from the other as many contemporary structures. Should t h i s seem a t r i f l e s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n , i t i s only because we are l a r g e l y ignorant of the extent of man's c a p a c i t i e s . Automatic systems can often suc c e s s f u l l y duplicate these human capacities without the attendant time l o s s . When the machines have assumed a great part of the day-to-day r e p e t i t i v e tasks, man w i l l have time on his hands. An architecture which permits only a r e t r a n s l a t i o n of what has gone before w i l l do l i t t l e to a l l e v i a t e this concern f o r time. Of prime importance i n o f f s e t t i n g the unlimited time on our hands, w i l l be the concern with c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n the world of the future, with i t s need f o r a new s t r u c t u r i n g of " t r i b a l " space, i n a contracted " e a r t h - c i t y " and 93 an extended -universe. TV, i n f a c t a l l the mass media, have been objects of much c r i t i c i s m . I t i s i n e v i t a b l e that media, i n which advertisers wish to appeal to the l a r g e s t number possible, should cater to an average mental age of twelve among viewers and l i s t e n e r s . Yet the vacuum created by the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution and extended by the E l e c t r o n i c Revolution, must be f i l l e d . The unwaning popularity of the cowboy with hi s very human, yet heroic, individualism, i s c e r t a i n l y symptomatic of a population swamped by mechanical routine and 'confused by the complex machinations of a xrorld i n f l u x . The new d i c t a t o r , unless we l e a r n to c o n t r o l i t , i s the automaton, the " s l i c k , anonymous machine." We a l l laughed at that p r o l i f i c f e llow A . Nony-Mous who wrote a l l those rousing ballads i n our l i t e r a t u r e course, but the anonymous balladeer of the 20th century w i l l have a "tape" f o r a blood stream and a l l the v i t a l i t y of a spayed b i t c h . To people overwhelmed by "Modern Times", the i n d u s t r i a l (and now e l e c t r o n i c ) scale which Chaplin so magnificently portrayed, the undaunted cowboy restores the human dimension.35 The capacity to deal with the bourgeoning world w i l l a lso be long i n coming. 35see McLuhan, The Mechanical Bride: Vanguard Press, 1951. Folklore o f I n d u s t r i a l Man (New York: VI. EPILOGUE This thesis has sought to advance the case f o r synesthesia, or organic i n t e r p l a y among our senses to increase and extend the range of our experiences and our awareness of the world about us. The r o l e of the communications media i n the reorientation and extension of our c a p a b i l i t i e s , has been emphasized as a determinant of s p a t i a l concepts. The concentration on the v i s u a l experience, to the detriment of the other organs of perception, i t has been suggested, i s the r e s u l t of the emphasis on perspective and book cul t u r e . Veblen underlines the process of Gestalt i n be haviour, i n The I n s t i n c t of Workmanship: In a l l t h e i r workings, the human i n s t i n c t s are... incessantly subject to mutual 'contamination' whereby the working of any one i s i n c i d e n t a l l y a f f e c t e d by the bias and p r o c l i v i t i e s i n a l l the r e s t . This must be so because the human organism i s of one piece, and what i t does i n one department of l i f e under the aegis of one i n s t i n c t , w i l l a f f e c t i t s behaviour i n a l l other departments. Further the i n s  t i n c t s themselves are not separate b i o l o g i c a l l y . 1 Susanne Langer extends t h i s concept of organic structure to the a r t s : Obviously a p i c t u r e or a poem (or a building) does not r e a l l y have organs and v i t a l functions.... ...Every element i n a work of a r t i s so involved with other elements i n the making of the v i r t u a l object, the work, that when i t i s altered...one almost always has to follow up the a l t e r a t i o n i n several d i r e c t i o n s , or simply s a c r i f i c e some desired e f f e c t s . This many-sided involvement of every element with the t o t a l f a b r i c of the poem i s what gives i t a semblance of organic structure; l i k e l i v i n g substance, a work of a r t i s i n v i o l a b l e ; break i t s elements apart and they are no longer what they were - the whole image i s gone.2 A r c h i t e c t u r a l space can be structured by ear, nose and hand as well as by eye. Our sensation of space Is modified by walking, touching, texture, shade, temperature, sun, shadow, age, i n fact by any number of ways through which i t i s possible f o r the human organism to construct i t s world. A bu i l d i n g , to be t r u l y appreciated must be experienced from two aspects: when you are outside i t 1Quoted i n Explorations, v o l . l , p.39. 2Problems i n Art, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 195?) . pp.55-7. 9k 95 and when i t i s outside you. As symbol, a r c h i t e c t u r a l space creates f e e l i n g s of awe, intimacy, grandeur, delicacy, f r a g i l i t y , connected with our own feelings and experience along these l i n e s . • Each age has i t s own space-metaphor preference. Some hist o r i a n s have assessed, the view of a r c h i t e c t u r a l space at any given period i n h i s t o r y as a function of man's conception of the world. When, f o r the Greeks, the sun revolved'around the earth, as d i d the l i m i t e d galaxy of planets, so the temples had a peripheral p e r i s t y l e to in d i c a t e the various positions of the sun. The innermost section, the earth so to speak, housed the dei t y and was the centre of the universe. When the concept of the world changed so that the sun became the centre about which things revolved, then a l l was l i g h t and the i n t e r i o r s of the Renaissance cathedrals and palaces show th i s star-burst configuration i n the ex panded conception of t h e i r i n t e r i o r space. But at a l l times, t h i s space was confined within the l i m i t s of the outermost galaxy. Today our earth i s looked upon as being an i n f i n i t e s m a l l y small part of an unimaginably large world. Space i s unconfined, without l i m i t , and i s expressed i n our structures by the breakdown of s o l i d walls and p a r t i t i o n s , the mingling of i n t e r i o r and ex t e r i o r , i n short the complete p l a s t i c i t y of space. The mass media and communications play an e f f e c t i v e r o l e i n the 20th century determination of space. They substitute a dynamic concept of l i f e f o r the s t a t i c p r i n c i p l e s of the Renaissance. By discarding l i t e r a r y encumbrances, a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t p l a s t i c formulation i s free to emerge. We need an architecture adapted to our world of computers, TV sets, radar screens and he l i c o p t e r s . With the increased strength, f l e x i b i l i t y and lightness of the new materials - concrete, p l a s t i c s , epoxies, glass - and the daring engineering solutions of the Nervis, Candelas and. F u l l e r s , the old ponderous solutions are disappearing, giving way to transparency, lightness and a d a p t a b i l i t y . The symmetry of l i k e parts has been superseded by rhythmical asymmetrical balance as.an organizing p r i n c i p l e . I have advanced the idea that the mass media are prime forces i n the 96 shaping of human perception. T e l e v i s i o n as the representative "machine of our age", with the new e l e c t r o n i c technology, w i l l play a decisive r o l e i n deter mining our new s p a t i a l awareness. As has been shown, t h i s i s already apparent i n the younger generation, who are able to structure space a c o u s t i c a l l y as d i d e a r l i e r cultures. For the older generation, schooled i n bookrprint-linear sequential patterns, only those w i l l i n g to defy the status quo w i l l adjust adequately. In "Culture Without L i t e r a c y " , Carpenter and McLuhan explain, why the E n g l i s h and Americans were so p a r t i c u l a r l y overwhelmed by p r i n t . . . . i n the 16th century they had only rudimentary defences to set up against the new p r i n t e d word. The rest of Europe, r i c h e r i n p l a s t i c and o r a l culture, was les s b l i t z e d by the p r i n t i n g press. And the Orient has so f a r had. many kinds of resistance to of f e r . - The new generation w i l l , of course, not be e n t i r e l y free of the taboos and totems to which they are h e i r . l e t they w i l l be able to enjoy that simul taneous " v i s i o n " which, when properly understood, w i l l be as much a u n i f i e d mode of perception as the fragmented si n g l e v i s i o n now generally p r a c t i s e d i n the a r t s . The domains of science and industry i n d i c a t e that the f i e l d approach i s not idiosyncrasy but a necessary step i n understanding our e l e c t r o n i c age. However, the general p u b l i c , and th i s includes s c i e n t i s t s when not engaged i n t h e i r professions, s t i l l p e r s i s t i n the Renaissance concern with o p t i c a l f i d e l i t y of object appearance as the sole means of a r t i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n of r e a l i t y . In a r t and architecture, what we c a l l d i s c o n t i n u i t y today w i l l be the opportunity f o r creative f u l l f i l m e n t tomorrow. I t i s an opportunity f o r the simultaneous perception of the t o t a l d i v e r s i f i e d f i e l d of man's endeavours. This, i t has been suggested, i s already within man's c a p a b i l i t i e s through the media of newspaper, and the new e l e c t r o n i c systems with t h e i r mosaic format. I f the book page tends to perspective, the newspaper tends to cubism and surrealism.^' 3Explorations, v o l . 1 , p.123. ^ I b i d . , p.125. 91 Art has become f o r many a system of packaging which requires verbal i n  t e r p r e t a t i o n to be i n t e l l i g i b l e . Language i t s e l f has l o s t much of i t s communi cative power through the mass media. For there i s a d i l u t i n g side to t h e i r nature as well as the means to new concepts of perception and space. L i t e r a t u r e must look f o r new ways to set down words to convey the meanings which have been appropriated by the ad-men. Kenneth Galbraith, i n The L i b e r a l Hour: . . . r i d i c u l e s the old commercial notion of a r t s as f r i v o l i t y and urges the relevance of a r t as a navigational guide i n a l l business today. The supremacy of design i n creating and markets i s one f a c t o r . The other f a c t o r i s that the a r t i s t ' s designs provide the advance models of future development. Careful study of new a r t i s t i c models gives any f i r m ten or twenty years breathing s p e l l i n planning and development. The old-fashioned business man who played i t o f f the c u f f and read only the current signs i s now doomed by the speed of the new technology. So the a r t i s t moves from the i v o r y tower to the co n t r o l tower i n the modern industry.5 In our discussion of a r t , language and symbolism, i t was determined that di s c u r s i v e language i s often d e f i c i e n t i n conveying emotions e f f e c t i v e l y . I t i s necessary to appreciate i t s l i m i t a t i o n s as well as i t s strengths. Gombrich, i n Art and I l l u s i o n , states that "The c o r r e c t i v e i s to understand the nature of the to o l s , to learn the s i g n i f i c a n c e and dangers of language. I f we neglect t h i s necessary task, we f a l l i n t o the dangers awaiting those who use tools they do not understand.(p.92) Yet, so long as we continue i n the "hypnotic state" i n which one sense i s brought to the fore and a l l others subordinated, there i s l i t t l e chance that we w i l l adapt to our changing world. Studies of p r e - l i t e r a t e cultures can be of great s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r what i s to them a natural state, i s being reimposed upon us by the new e l e c t r o n i c media. Corbusier has, -more than any other a r c h i t e c t , broken with the concept of a f i x e d v i s u a l point of view.and i t s separation of the senses. His concern with ^McLuhan, "The Humanities i n the E l e c t r o n i c Age", i n The Humanities  Association B u l l e t i n , F a l l . , 1961 , pp.3-1*. • 98 the t a c t i l e mode i n v i s u a l forms lends great s t r e s s to contour and s c u l p t u r a l q u a l i t i e s which are also d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the TV medium. He has found comfort i n the configuration of space, f o r e l e c t r o n i c age comfort i s once again the "comfort of space." Ronchamp i s the notable embodiment of t h i s concept among buildings today. That Corbusier i s also a painter i s not without influe n c e . Through the enti r e range of his works, and p a r t i c u l a r l y since the "modulor" system was formulated, runs man as the measure of a l l things.6 The l a t e s t developments i n his p r o l i f i c career show many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s opposite to his e a r l y ideas, yet not inconsistent with a "growing" a r c h i t e c t i n a changing world. Today, the consumer i n the arts i s being asked to assume a role of act i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the crea t i v e function. This i s by no means unique to our time, but the present i n t e r - a c t i o n i s on an unprecedented scale. The seemingly bi z a r r e representations i n space of the abstract expressionists are merely a con tinuation of the completion process which a r t i s t s throughout h i s t o r y have reserved f o r t h e i r p u b l i c s . The new themes i n architecture were not possible so long as we adhered to a p r i n t culture bound by book format. Page margins set the l i m i t s of our v i s u a l imagination, as do picture frames. Consistently, the twentieth century has worked to free i t s e l f from the conditions of p a s s i v i t y . . . And t h i s dramatic struggle of unlike modes of human i n s i g h t and outlook has resulted i n the greatest of a l l human ages, whether i n the arts or i n the sciences.? Perspective has conditioned the a r c h i t e c t ' s need f o r v i s t a s , l i t t l e gems of composition to be seen from i d e a l l o c a t i o n s . The f a c t that we move through a given space i n a time i n t e r v a l has been neglected, i f understood at a l l . Our ^The ease with which the master switched dimensions when confronted by the average s i z e of the North American male, compared to the European, may cause a smile. Yet a module which relates to a l l that man can p h y s i c a l l y encompass i s of great s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 7McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy, p.278. 99 perception i s a panorama of s t i m u l i being registered on the screen of our eyes. Even from a f i x e d point of view, the.eye i s never s t i l l . I t i s constantly adjusting and readjusting, helping us to define and c l a r i f y our data. The a r c h i t e c t should properly be concerned with c o n t r o l l i n g the movement of the eye through varying rhythms, flows, arrests and rebeginnings rather than attempting to glue i t to a s i n g l e point. That we can and do appreciate the simultaneous images presented to us has been indi c a t e d by reference to d i f f e r e n t cultures. The c l o s e s t the Japanese came to perspective p r i o r to the l a t e 19th century was a form of isometric drawing. This depiction gave a simultaneous and integrated s e r i e s of views describing i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r space and the relationships of inhabitants to those areas. In sumi-e, the overlay pattern of achieving distance i s used. Without benefit of vanishing points, a multi-frame representation of the world was achieved. We move e a s i l y through the s c r o l l representation, giving us simultaneously views from above, below and head on. The Japanese use only one term f o r both "to write" and "to draw". Their i n a b i l i t y to.separate what to us are p r i m a r i l y d i f f e r e n t functions i s symptomatic of an o r a l l y - o r i e n t e d c u l t u r e . Our environment has been interpreted f o r f i v e hundred years with our eyes at the base of a t r i a n g l e . The scene diminishes from t h i s base to the vanishing point or the apex of our t r i a n g l e . From our viewing p o s i t i o n at the base, the world assumes a diminishing aspect, viewed in i t s e n t i r e t y as through the lens of a camera. But i f we reverse the process and place our eye at our vanishing point, then our scene becomes an ever-widening, growing seri e s of images. 0 A f i x e d point of view requires a c e n t r a l point of i n t e r e s t and, i f not symmetrical, at l e a s t passive ingredients to prevent our being d i s t r a c t e d from the "correct" view. A system of representation geared to the panoramic perception (our normal process of seeing) seems to me a more sympathetic and r e a l i s t i c basis f o r °See J . Tyrwhitt, "The Moving Eye", i n Carpenter and McLuhan, eds., Explorations i n Communication, pp.90-5. 100 a r c h i t e c t u r a l designs today. We cannot experience architecture i n the same manner i n the s o c i a l , u n i t i n g media of a TV culture as we can.in the i s o l a t i n g media of the book. As we come to r e a l i z e the role of the mass media i n our way of l i f e , we can more f u l l y appreciate the new language of expression they open to us. The advent of type, the repeatable p r i n t , the determination of perspec t i v e , a l l helped to bury the Gothic, with i t s many-faceted presentation of the world beyond; so, the motion p i c t u r e and TV are helping to break down the s o l i d p a r t i t i o n system of the pre-20th century period. As the world becomes l e s s and le s s segmented and more and more a matter of i n t e r a c t i o n , space i n e v i t a b l y begins to s p i l l over i t s preconceived borders, so that not only does the space within the v e s s e l become s i g n i f i c a n t , but also the space without and as the con t a i n e r loses i t s s o l i d i t y , the space through the container as w e l l . What w i l l be the new configurations, as the older forms of perception and judgment are interpenetrated by the new e l e c t r i c age, i s the question we must face today. Man "has the power d e l i b e r a t e l y to seek new experience, create new patterns, and even change the shape of his world. " 9 Learning to comprehend and structure space i n a new way i s s i m i l a r to what happens when the b l i n d learn to see. "By keeping at i t , they can change a spinning mass of l i g h t s and colors into the normal panorama of earth and sky..."- The new developments, with t h e i r emphasis on space, transparency, s t r u c  ture and inventiveness are more i n tune with the contemporary s p i r i t than the t r a d i t i o n a l forms. In t h i s new configuration we enjoy an unprecedented f r e e  dom of choice, f o r which we must assume fresh and greater measures of responsi b i l i t y . We may be sure that our c i v i l i z a t i o n , which i s one of majesty 9cha.se, op. c i t . , p.38. 1 0 I b i d . 101 and great breadth, w i l l u l t i m a t e l y make i t s e l f known i n a new p r i n c i p l e of a r c h i t e c t u r a l order. I t i s probable that the order w i l l be one which w i l l admit the widest range of f u n c t i o n a l and evolving shapes, which w i l l acknowledge the organic nature of a l l buildings - being wedded to a technological grandeur surpassing a l l previous architectures - and which w i l l , above a l l , proclaim the s o c i a l nature of an ar t made inseparable from the c o l l e c t i v e welfare of mankind. There w i l l be many who w i l l f i n d that p r i n c i p l e b e a u t i f u l . 1 1 i : LDean Hudnut, Architecture and the S p i r i t of Man, (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1°U9), p.48. ' — — BIBLIOGRAPHY: APPIA, Adolph, The Work of L i v i n g A r t , t r a n s . H..D. 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Gh i s e l i n , ed., The Creative Process (New York: New American- L i b r a r y of American L i t e r a t u r e , 1955). 66 GHISELIN, Brewster, ed., The Creative Process (New York: New American L i b r a r y of American L i t e r a t u r e , 1955). GIEDION, S i e g f r i e d , Space, Time and Architecture (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959). BTj Architecture You and Me (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958). 22, 28 Mechanization Takes Command (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 19k8). "Space Conceptions i n P r e h i s t o r i c Art," i n E.S. Carpenter and H.M. McLuhan, eds., Explorations i n Communication (Boston: Beacon Press, 1960). 77 The E t e r n a l Present: The Beginnings of Art (New. York: Bollingen Series XXXV.6.1., Pantheon Books, 1962). 17-8, 35-6, 59 GIEDION-WELCKER, Carola, Contemporary Sculpture (New York: G. Wittenbom, 1955). 16 GILBERT, K.E. and H. KUHN, A History of Aesthetics (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 195k). GOMBRICH, E.H., Art and I l l u s i o n (New York: Bollingen Series XXXV.5, Pantheon Books, 196TT: k5-6, 1*8, 5l-k, 57-8 GOODMAN, Paul with GOODMAN, P e r c i v a l , Communitas (New York: Random House; New York: Vintage Books, I960). 11, 15, 80 GROVE, V i c t o r , The Language Bar (New York: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1950). HALL, Edward, T., The S i l e n t Language (New York: Doubleday, 1959). 13-k, 61 HALL, Robert A., L i n g u i s t i c s and Your Language (New York: Doubleday, I960). HAMLIN, Talbot, Architecture an Art f o r A l l Men (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 19WT. HATZFELD, Helmut A., L i t e r a t u r e Through Art (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1952). : io5 HAYAKAWA, S.I, with B.H, PILLARD, Language i n Thought and Action (New York: Harcourt Brace, 191+9). i i i , W, 1+2 : ' Henry Moore, Sculpture and Drawings, i n t r o . S i r Herbert Read (London: Lund Humphries, 19Uh). HOGBEN,. Lancelot. From Cave Painting to Comic S t r i p (New York: Chanticleer Press, 19497: HOVLAND, C.I., ed., The Order of Presentation,in Persuasion (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957). HUDNUT, J., Architecture and the S p i r i t of Man (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 19k9). 100-1 Humanities Association B u l l e t i n , v o l . 3k, n o . l , F a l l , 1961. INNIS, Harold, Empire and Communications (Oxford; Clarendon Press, 1950). Bias of Communication (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1951). 19-20, 12-3, 78 Changing Concepts of Time (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1952). IVINS, William M., J r . , Prints and V i s u a l Communication (London: Rout-ledge .and Kegan Paul, 19$3)~. 23 ; JACOBS, Jane, The Death and L i f e of Great American C i t i e s (New York: Random House, 1961). 21, a 7 • JACOBS, Norman, ed., Culture f o r the M i l l i o n s (Princeton: D. van Nostrand.,1959). JANSON, H.W,, History of Art (New York: H.N, Abrams, 1962). JESPERSON, Otto, Language (New York; Henry Holt, 1921+). JONES, Robert Edmond, The Dramatic Imagination (New York: Theatre Art Books, 191+1). KEPES, Gyorgy, ed., The V i s u a l Arts Today (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Press, I960). The Language of Vision (Chicago: Paul Theobald, 195l). 23-1+, 29, 37-8, 19 "Arts and Science," i n E.S. Carpenter, ed.., Explorations, v o l . l (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1953)1! 21, 90 KRECH, David, and R.S. CRUTCHFIELD, "Perceiving the World", in Wilbur Schramm, ed.., Mass Communications, second e d i t i o n , (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, I960). k3 KUBLER, George, The Shape of Time (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1962). 10-1, 61, 89-90 106 LACY, Dan, Freedom and Communications (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press. 1961). 3U : : LAIRD, Charlton, The Miracle of Language (Greenwich, Conn: Fawcett Publications, 1957).. L6" LANGER, Susanne K., Philosophy i n a New Key (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 191*8; New York, New American Library,. Mentor Books, 1955). 35-6, 39-1*0 Problems i n Art (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1957). 9l* • Symbolic Logic (New York: Dover Publications, second e d i t i o n , 1953). LARSON, O r v i l l e K., ed., Scene Design f o r Stage and Screen (Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961). LAW WHYTE, Lancelot, The Next Development i n Man (New York: New American Lib r a r y , Mentor Books, 1962). JFH : Le Corbusier 1910-60, Boesiger/Girsberger (Zurich: Girsberger E d i t i o n s , I960). LE CORBUSIER, Creation Is a Patient Search, trans. James Palmes (New York: Praeger, I960). LOWRY, Bates,.The V i s u a l Experience (New York: H.N. Abrams, 1961). MACGOWAN, Kenneth and William MELNITZ, The L i v i n g Stage (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1955). 85 MCLUHAN, Marshall, ed. with E.S. Carpenter, Explorations i n Communication (Boston: Beacon Press, I960). Gutenberg Galaxy (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1962). i i , i v , 11, 19, 26, 28-30, 32-3, 37-8, 87, 98.. V I "Inside the Five Sense Sensorium," i n Canadian A r c h i t e c t , v o l . 6, no.6, June, 1961. 3, 6, 12, 13, 16-7, 22, 79 "The Humanities i n the E l e c t r o n i c Age," i n Humanities Association B u l l e t i n , vol.3U, n o . l , F a l l , 1961. 30, 97 The Mechanical Bride: Folklore of I n d u s t r i a l Man (New York: Vanguard Press, 1951). ~Th : : ~~ and E.S. Carpenter, "Acoustic Space," i n idem eds., Explorations i n Communication MCNAIRN, Ian, "Man the Measure," a lecture delivered to the meeting of the Humanities Association, Feb. 12, 1963, at the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. 75 MOHOLY-NAGY, L. Vi s i o n i n Motion (Chicago: Paul Theobald, 19l*7). MORSE, Edward S., Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings (New York: Dover Publications, 1961). 82" 10? MUMFORD, Lewis, Art and Technics (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, I960). The C i t y i n H i s t o r y (New York: Harcourt Brace & World, 1961). . 12-3 S t i c k s and Stones (New York: Dover Publications, second e d i t i o n , revised, ±955). 12-3 NAGLER, A.M. A Source Book i n T h e a t r i c a l History (New York: Dover Publications, 1952). ; NEUTRA, Richard, S u r v i v a l Through Design (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 195h). : World and Dwelling (New York: Universe Books, 1962). OGDEN, C.K.' and I.A. RICHARDS, The Meaning of Meaning (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1 9 U 6 ) . " OZENFANT, A., Foundations of Modern Art, trans. John Rodker (New York: Dover Publications, 1952). PET, Mario, The Story of Language (New York: Mentor Books, I960). PEPPER, Stephen C , P r i n c i p l e s of Art Appreciation (New York: Harcourt Brace, PEVSNER, Nikolaus, Pioneers of Modern Design (Middlesex: Penguin Books, I960). PHILIPSON, Morris, ed., Aesthetics Today (Cleveland: Meridian, 1961). PONTI, Gio, In Praise of Architecture (New York: F.W. Dodge, I960). POPPER, K.R. The Open Society and Its Enemies, v o l . l , (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 19i>7). Progressive Architecture, August, 1961. QUIRK, Randolph, " C o l l o q u i a l E n g l i s h and Communication", i n Studies i n Communication, Communications Research Centre, U n i v e r s i t y College, London. (London: Martin Seeker & Warburg, 1955). 1+7 RASKIN, Eugene, A r c h i t e c t u r a l l y Speaking (New York: Reinhold Publications, RASMUSSEN, E.S., Experiencing Architecture, (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1959). 1W RASMUSSEN, Henry N., A r t "Structure (New York: McGraw H i l l , 1950). READ, Herbert, The Meaning-of A r t (Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1961). The Philosophy of Modern Art; Collected Essays (London: Faber & Faber, r^fj- • 108 READ, Herbert, The Sig n i f i c a n c e of Children's Art, a l e c t u r e , (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957). 26' RICCI, Leonardo, Anonymous (20th Century) (New York: George B r a z i l l e r , 1962). 77 : ~ RIESMAN,' David, "The Oral and Written T r a d i t i o n s , " i n E.S. Carpenter and H.M. McLuhan, eds., Explorations i n Communication (Boston: Beacon Press, 1960). . 72 ROGERS, L.R., "Sculp t u r a l Thinking," i n The B r i t i s h Journal of Aesthetics, vol.2, no.k, October, 1962. 19 RODITI, Edouard, Dialogues on Art (New York: Horizon Press, 1961). Royal i n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s Journal, May, 1963. 88-9 ROYCE, Joseph R.,."Educating the Generalist", i n Main Currents i n Modern Thought, May-June 1961, vol.17, no.5. 83 RUESCH, J., and W. KEES, Nonverbal Communication (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1956). 7 1 SAARINEN, Aline B., ed., Eero Saarinen on His Work (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1962). SAARINEN, E l i e l , Search f o r Form (New York: Reinhold, 19U8). SAPIR, Edward, Language (New. York: Harcourt Brace, 1997). k5 SAVACOOL, John, "Stage Visionary," i n Theatre Arts, June 1950, vol.3 h , no.6. 85 SCHRAMM, Wilbur, ed., Mass Communications, second e d i t i o n (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, I960). EC The Process and E f f e c t s of Mass Communication (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 195k). "The Nature and Behaviour of Attitudes," i n idem ed., Mass Communications (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, I960). 57 SOROKIN, P i t i r i m , S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l Dynamics,vol.1 of k v o l s . (New York: American Book Company, 1937). STOLNITZ, J., Art C r i t i c i s m , ed. L. Garvin (Cambridge: Riverside Press, I960). STONE, Irving, The Agony and the Ecstasy (Toronto: The New American Library of Canada, 1963). Studies i n Communication, Communications Research Centre, U n i v e r s i t y College, London (London: Martin Seeker & Warburg, 1955). SULLIVAN, Louis H., Kindergarten Chats, rev.1918, (New York: George Wittenborn, 1955) ' ! SWEENEY, J . J . and J.L. SERT, Antoni Gaudi (New York: Praeger, I960). 91 109 TYRWHITT, Jacqueline, "The Moving Eye," i n E.S. Carpenter and H.M. McLuhan, eds., Explorations i n Communication (Boston: Beacon Press, I960). 99 VALERY, Paul, "The Course i n Poetics: F i r s t Lesson," i n B. G h i s e l i n , ed., The Creative Process (New York: New American Library of World L i t e r a t u r e , 1955')." 65 VERNON, M.D., The Psychology of Perception (Middlesex: Pelican Books, 1962)., 39, U3 VITRUVIUS, The Ten Books on Architecture, trans. M.H. Morgan (New York: Dover Publications, I 9 6 0 ) . WIENER, Norbert, The Human Use of Human Beings (New York: Doubleday,, 1951+). I l l , 20 : ; i WHITEHEAD, A.N., Symbolism (New York: Capricorn Books, 1927) . 50 WITTKOWER, R., " V i s u a l Symbols i n Art," i n Studies i n Communication, Communi cations Research Centre;, U n i v e r s i t y College, London. (London: Martin Seeker & Warburg, 1955) . U o-l, 1+9, 69 WURMAN, R.S. and E. FELDMAN, eds., -The- Notebooks and Drawings of Louis I. Kahn (Philadelphia: Falcon Press, 1962).. ZERVOS, C, "Conversation With Picasso," i n B. Gh i s e l i n , ed., The Creative Process (New York: New American L i b r a r y of World L i t e r a t u r e , 1955) . 65 ZEVI, Bruno, Architecture as Space, ed. J . Barry, trans. M. Gendel (New York: Horizon Press, 19i>7). 32T 33 I N D E X O F G L O S S E S Page 3 6 But the need f o r a r t i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , a part of the greater process of symbolization. 3 8 The a b i l i t y to abstract by v i r t u e of symbols has l e d to Cassirer's r e d e f i n i t i o n of man. as a-symbol-making animal, rather than a r a t i o n a l animal. kO The example o f . " g i f t e d " people with the r e s t r i c t e d use of the senses indicates that the accumulation of sense-data i s not the prime ingredient of i n t e l l i g e n c e . kO For man, an object may have innumerable symbolic meanings and shades of meaning varying with i t s context. h3 Not only do our apparatus f o r perception d i f f e r from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l , our backlog of experience i s also d i s s i m i l a r . L5 Symbolism as the prime abstraction and the p r e r e q u i s i t e to d i s c u r s i v e language. k 6 The t r a n s i t i o n from symbol to language through imposed order. hi Painting i n r e l a t i o n to the categories which have been established f o r symbolism and language. 50 Painting, which has no d i s c u r s i v e vocabulary, e x i s t s as a symbolic form which expresses r e l a t i o n s h i p s and which need have no recourse to conventional representation. 51 The mathematical and l i n g u i s t i c systems of abstraction, the v a r i e t y of perceptual apparatus and impressions, and a long t r a d i t i o n of supplying the missing l i n k i n a work of a r t , should a l l be conducive to a favourable climate f o r modern painting, but are not. 53 Created as a t o o l to help us f i n d our way through the world of things, our language i s notoriously poor when we t r y to analyze and categorize the inner world. 55 To extend and c l a r i f y our separation of a r t and language, the following i s intended to summarize the f i e l d of. each and to enlarge on the a r t i s t ' s p o s i t i o n . 110 

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