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The effect of isometric muscle training on the strength and endurance of junior secondary school boys Smith, William 1964

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THE EFFECT OF ISOMETRIC MUSCLE TRAINING ON THE STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL BOYS  By WILLIAM SMITH  B.P.E., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957  A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of The Requirements  f o r t h e Degree o f  Master. of A r t s i n t h e Department of Education  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h September, 1964.  Columbia  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study.  I further agree that per-  mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that, copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  EDUCATION  The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date  SEPTEMBER 1964  ii  ABSTRACT  The e f f e c t o f i s o m e t r i c muscle t r a i n i n g on t h e s t r e n g t h and endurance o f j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l boys i n t e s t s o f t r u n k f l e x i o n was investigated.  A group o f f i f t y - o n e boys was t e s t e d f o r t r u n k f l e x o r  strength by the cable-tensiometer,  and f o r endurance b y a s i x t y - s e c o n d  s i t - u p t e s t and t h e n matched on t h e b a s i s o f s t r e n g t h s c o r e s . matched s u b j e c t s were t h e n randomly d i v i d e d i n t o two groups.  The One group  performed a s i n g l e , s i x - s e c o n d , maximal, i s o m e t r i c t r u n k f l e x i o n e x e r c i s e f i v e days a week f o r f i v e weeks, w h i l e t h e o t h e r group d i d n o t .  A t t h e end o f t h e f i v e week t r a i n i n g p e r i o d t h e two groups were r e t e s t e d f o r s t r e n g t h and endurance. the d a t a i t was concluded  From t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f  ( l ) t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t mean i n c r e a s e s  i n performance i n t h e s t r e n g t h and endurance t e s t s b y t h e i s o m e t r i c muscle t r a i n i n g group and t h e c o n t r o l group, and (2) t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e g a i n s i n s t r e n g t h and endurance made b y t h e t r a i n i n g group and t h e gains i n s t r e n g t h and endurance made b y t h e c o n t r o l group.  iii  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  The -writer w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s h i s g r a t i t u d e t o those i n d i v i d u a l s whose c o - o p e r a t i o n made i t p o s s i b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s study.  I n p a r t i c u l a r , thanks a r e due t o Mr. Lorne Brown and D r .  S t a n l e y Brown w i t h o u t whose c o n t i n u e d i n t e r e s t a n d generous a s s i s t a n c e t h i s s t u d y c o u l d n o t have been s u c c e s s f u l l y  completed.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES  v  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  1  JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM  S  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  6  CHAPTER I II III TV V VI  METHODS AND PROCEDURE  17  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  30  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  38  BIBLIOGRAPHY  41  I N I T I A L TENSIOMETER TESTS - RAW SCORES I N POUNDS .  47  MUSCLE TRAINING GROUP - RAW SCORES ( STRENGTH AND ENDURANGE )  48  CONTROL GROUP - RAW SCORES (STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE)  49  MATCHED PAIRS - RAW SCORES (STRENGTH)  50  ENDURANCE TESTS - RAW SCORES  51  APPENDIX  LIST OF TABLES  TABLE I  II  III  IV V VI  PAGE PEARSON r COEFFICIENTS FOR THE INITIAL STRENGTH TESTS  30  RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL TESTRETEST SCORES  31  RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL AND FINAL TEST SCORES  32  PERCENT GAINS FOR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE  33  RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STRENGTH SCORES OF MATCHED PAIES RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FINAL ENDURANCE SCORES OF THE TWO GROUPS  34 35  CHAPTER I  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t o f i s o m e t r i c muscle t r a i n i n g on the s t r e n g t h and endurance o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r muscles o f j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l b o y s .  The h y p o t h e s i s t o be t e s t e d i s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  between two equated groups o f boys, w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t r e n g t h and endurance o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r muscles, would o c c u r when one o f t h e groups performed a s i n g l e , s i x second, maximal i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e f i v e times a week f o r f i v e weeks w h i l e the o t h e r group d i d n o t p e r f o r m t h e e x e r c i s e .  Delimitations  1*  T h i s s t u d y d e a l s w i t h a group o f f i f t y - o n e male s t u d e n t s i n grade e i g h t o r grade n i n e .  2.  The t e s t o f s t r e n g t h o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r muscles i n v o l v e s one item only, the cable-tensiometer  3.  test.  The t e s t o f endurance o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r muscles i n v o l v e s t h e s i x t y second, f e e t f r e e s i t - u p  only  test.  Limitations  All  s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y were boys who v o l u n t e e r e d f o r a muscle  t r a i n i n g experiment and were t h u s n o t randomly s e l e c t e d .  Definitions  I s o m e t r i c muscle t r a i n i n g i s a method of p h y s i c a l  training  2  t h r o u g h the development o f t e n s i o n .  T e n s i o n i s produced i n a muscle  when i t attempts t o c o n t r a c t , or s h o r t e n , a g a i n s t an immovable  resistance.  CHAPTER I I  JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM I n 1953,  H e t t i n g e r and M u l l e r ( l ) advanced a method o f s t r e n g t h  t r a i n i n g through i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n o f muscles.  I n the t e n years  f o l l o w i n g t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e i r f i n d i n g s c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h has been done i n t h i s  area.  The m a j o r i t y o f t h i s r e s e a r c h has been done w i t h r a n g i n g i n age f r o m e i g h t e e n t o f o r t y .  subjects  I t has been g e n e r a l l y c o n c l u d e d  t h a t f o r t h i s age range i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s a r e e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g muscle s t r e n g t h .  I n f a c t t o d a y many p r o f e s s i o n a l a t h l e t e s and teams use  i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s as p a r t o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g r o u t i n e .  R e l a t i v e l y f e w s t u d i e s have been done o f t h e e f f e c t o f i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e on t h e s t r e n g t h o r endurance o f young a d o l e s c e n t b o y s .  Eriksson's  (2) l a t e s t l i s t o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s done by Canadians c o n t a i n s no r e f e r e n c e whatsoever t o i s o m e t r i c muscle t r a i n i n g . I f i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g f o r a d o l e s c e n t boys s h o u l d prove e f f e c t i v e i t w o u l d p r o v i d e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s w i t h a way o f muscle t r a i n i n g w h i c h i s s i m p l e , consumes l i t t l e t i m e , and may be l e a r n e d f o r use i n l a t e r  life.  I n t h e p e r i o d o f r a p i d growth d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e , many y o u n g s t e r s have a preponderance o f abdominal t i s s u e . not j u s t muscle.  Unfortunately this tissue i s  I n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e w r i t e r many s u c h y o u t h s s u f f e r  s e v e r e embarrassment d u r i n g a r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p e r i o d because of t h e a c u t e weakness o f t h e i r abdominal m u s c l e s .  I n a d d i t i o n t o the  y o u t h s j u s t d e s c r i b e d i t has a l s o been e v i d e n t t h a t o t h e r y o u t h s , w i t h a  4 more normal p h y s i q u e , hare d i f f i c u l t y p e r f o r m i n g some p h y s i c a l s t u n t s and s k i l l s because t h e i r abdominal muscles a r e l a c k i n g i n s t r e n g t h and endurance.  I t has been o b s e r v e d t h a t many o f t h e s e y o u t h s a r e n o t a b l e t o s u c c e s s f u l y complete even one s i t - u p .  T h i s i n a b i l i t y m i g h t be due t o  l a c k o f s t r e n g t h o f t h e abdominal muscles o r a n " u n u s u a l " c e n t e r o f gravity.  I n e i t h e r c a s e , f a i l u r e t o complete a n e x e r c i s e t h e y a r e asked  t o p e r f o r m , does n o t i n c r e a s e t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e .  There i s need, t h e n , f o r a n e x e r c i s e t h a t w i l l do more t o encourage t h e s e boys t o a t t a i n a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s t r e n g t h and endurance of t h e abdominal m u s c l e s .  I f isometric t r a i n i n g i s effective i n  i n c r e a s i n g t h e s t r e n g t h and endurance o f abdominal m u s c l e s , t h i s t y p e o f t r a i n i n g c o u l d be recommended t o t h e s e boys f o r use a t home.  5 REFERENCES  1.  H e t t i n g e r , T. H. and M u l l e r , E. A. " M u s k e l l e i s t u n g und M u s k e l t r a i n i n g , " A r b e i t p h y s i o l o g i e , 15, 111-126, 1953,  2*  E r i k s s o n , A r t h u r W. E. "Graduate R e s e a r c h b y C a n a d i a n s , " J o u r n a l of t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , 5:26-28, 1963,  CHAPTER I I I  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  The  s u b j e c t o f human s t r e n g t h has f a s c i n a t e d many w o r k e r s  engaged i n a v a r i e t y o f f i e l d s .  M e d i c a l workers have used s t r e n g t h  measurements as i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e r a t e o f r e c o v e r y f r o m d i s e a s e s  (1,2).  P h y s i c a l e d u o a t o r s have used s t r e n g t h t e s t s as c l a s s i f y i n g d e v i c e s ( 3 , 4, 5) and as i n d i c e s o f growth ( 6 , 7 ) .  Tests o f s t r e n g t h have been g i v e n t o s u b j e c t s o f a l l a g e s , and a v a r i e t y o f methods have been used. One method, dynamometric measurement, has been i n use f o r over h a l f a century.  S a r g e n t (8) was one o f t h e m a i n proponents o f s t r e n g t h  t e s t i n g and h i s w o r k i n t h e l a t e 1800's (9,10) was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n stimulating f u r t h e r studies i n the f i e l d of strength t e s t i n g .  Nearly  f i f t y y e a r s l a t e r Rogers ( 3 ) r e v i s e d S a r g e n t ' s I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e  Strength  T e s t and,  i n so d o i n g , c o n s t r u c t e d norms f o r t h e s t r e n g t h index  (Si)  thus c r e a t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s index ( P F I ) .  F o r many y e a r s t h e dynamometer remained t h e most w i d e l y used instrument  f o r strength testing.  other instruments  During the past f i f t e e n years s e v e r a l  have been i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e f i e l d o f s t r e n g t h t e s t i n g .  Among t h e s e i s t h e c a b l e - t e n s i o n method i n t r o d u c e d b y C l a r k e I n t h i s method he used a c a l i b r a t e d t e n s i o m e t e r t e n s i o n e x e r t e d on a c a b l e .  (11,12,13).  t o t e s t t h e amount o f  The c a b l e c a n be a t t a c h e d b y b e l t s o f  v a r i o u s s i z e s and d e s i g n t o t h e body p a r t t o be t e s t e d .  The c a l i b r a t i o n  of t h e tensiometer  i s i n pounds and i s r e g i s t e r e d on t h e d i a l b y a s e l f -  recording needle.  Complete d e t a i l s o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s and a p p a r a t u s may"  7  be f o u n d i n C l a r k e ' s ( 1 4 ) t e s t i n g manual.  I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t s t r e n g t h i s o f two k i n d s ( 1 5 ) , i s o m e t r i c and i s o t o n i c .  I s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h i s t h e amount o f t e n s i o n a muscle c a n  produce when i n a f i x e d p o s i t i o n , when l i t t l e o r no s h o r t e n i n g o f t h e muscle f i b r e s o c c u r s ,  I I s o t o n i c s t r e n g t h i s t h e amount o f f o r c e a  m u s c l e c a n produce t h r o u g h a g i v e n range of movement, when much f i b r e c o n t r a c t i o n occurs*  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , p h y s i c a l educators  have used i s o t o n i c e x e r c i s e s ,  e x e r c i s e s i n v o l v i n g movement, as a means o f i n c r e a s i n g m u s c u l a r s t r e n g t h and endurance.  I n 1953 two German p h y s i o l o g i s t s , H e t t i n g e r and M u l l e r  (16) , r e p o r t e d t h a t i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s seemed t o i n c r e a s e t h e s t r e n g t h o f m u s c l e s t o t h e e x t e n t o f f i v e p e r c e n t p e r week. The p o s s i b l e v a l u e o f i s o m e t r i c s was p o i n t e d o u t b y (17) .  Steinhaus  The p r o s p e c t o f b e i n g a b l e t o b u i l d up t h e s t r e n g t h o f muscles  t h r o u g h a s i m p l e , q u i c k e x e r c i s e t h a t u s u a l l y does n o t r e q u i r e equipment o r a g r e a t d e a l o f space has a p p e a l e d g r e a t l y t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a l i s t s and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s  alike.  Gersten  (18) r e p o r t s t h a t *  "... because o f t h e s h o r t e r time element, t h e l a c k o f j o i n t movement, and use i n home programs, i s o m e t r i c t h e r a p y i s a d i s t i n c t advantage i n many c a s e s . "  H e t t i n g e r and M u l l e r r e p o r t e d t h a t a s i n g l e , d a i l y ,  six-second  c o n t r a c t i o n o f t w o - t h i r d s maximal s t r e n g t h was as e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g s t r e n g t h as a p r o l o n g a t i o n o f t r a i n i n g f r e q u e n c y and a n i n c r e a s e i n t r a i n i n g strength.  8  Crakes (19) came c l o s e t o d u p l i c a t i n g the f i n d i n g s o f  Hettinger  and M u l l e r r e p o r t i n g a s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e of about two p e r c e n t per week. R a r i c k and L a r s e n (20) r e p o r t e d t h a t a s i n g l e , s i x - s e c o n d a t t w o - t h i r d s maximum s t r e n g t h was  j u s t as e f f e c t i v e as  contraction frequent  c o n t r a c t i o n s a t f o u r - f i f t h s maximum s t r e n g t h f o r grade e l e v e n and  twelve  boys.  Wolbers and S i l l s ( 2 1 ) , i n a s t u d y of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s t a t i c c o n t r a c t i o n s i n i n c r e a s i n g the s t r e n g t h of h i g h s c h o o l boys, c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t a t i c c o n t r a c t i o n s of s i x seconds' d u r a t i o n w i l l cause s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n s t r e n g t h .  Gardner (22) employed a s i x - s e c o n d ,  t w o - t h i r d s maximal i s o m e t r i c  c o n t r a c t i o n i n h i s s t u d y of t h e knee e x t e n s o r s and r e p o r t e d t h a t i t caused a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n t o t a l  Taylor  strength.  (23) i n a s t u d y of d i f f e r e n t s t a t i c t r a i n i n g methods f o u n d  t h a t no one way was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y best.  Some s t u d i e s , however, i n d i c a t e t h a t b e t t e r s t r e n g t h gains be o b t a i n e d are v a r i e d .  can  i f the f o r c e o f c o n t r a c t i o n and t h e number of r e p e t i t i o n s Rasch ( 2 4 ) , i n a r e v i e w of i s o t o n i c and  exercises, reported i s accumulating."  "...  isometric  a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f c o n t r a d i c t o r y e v i d e n c e  Littlefield  (25) r e p o r t e d t h a t a t e n - s e c o n d , e i g h t y  p e r c e n t maximal c o n t r a c t i o n performed t h r e e t i m e s a week f o r e i g h t weeks was  s u f f i c i e n t t o cause a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n the r i g h t - h a n d  s t r e n g t h of t w e l v e and t h i r t e e n y e a r o l d b o y s .  Asa  grip  (26) f o u n d t h a t  9  i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s r e p e a t e d t w e n t y times gave b e t t e r r e s u l t s t h a n did single contractions.  The t r a i n i n g was  n e x t n a t u r a l s t e p i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of i s o m e t r i c muscle a c o m p a r i s o n of i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s w i t h i s o t o n i c e x e r c i s e s .  In a comparison of s h o r t periods  of s t a t i c c o n t r a c t i o n t o s t a n d a r d  weight  t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s L o r b a c k (27) f o u n d t h a t b o t h methods i n c r e a s e d s t r e n g t h and muscle g i r t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y b u t t h a t t h e r e was d i f f e r e n c e between t h e groups.  significant  Other s t u d i e s (28,29,30,31) a l s o  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between i s o m e t r i c and used t o i n c r e a s e s t r e n g t h .  no  the  reported  isotonic exercises  as  Marley (32), i n a study of the strength  of  the elbow f l e x o r s of t h r e e groups of s t u d e n t s , r e p o r t e d t h a t a f t e r t e n weeks of t r a i n i n g , s t r e n g t h as measured by the c a b l e - t e n s i o m e t e r  appeared  t o be i n c r e a s e d e q u a l l y w e l l by b o t h i s o t o n i c and i s o m e t r i c methods. B e r g e r (33) t e s t e d the s t a t i c and dynamic s t r e n g t h of u n i v e r s i t y males b e f o r e  seventy-eight  and a f t e r a 12 week t r a i n i n g p e r i o d .  t r a i n e d s t a t i c a l l y , t h e o t h e r group t r a i n e d d y n a m i c a l l y . showed an i n c r e a s e i n b o t h  One  group  B o t h groups  strengths.  Not a l l s t u d i e s , however, have r e v e a l e d u n e q u i v o c a l  findings,  Rasch and Morehouse (34) r e p o r t e d t h a t i s o t o n i c e x e r c i s e s produced b e t t e r r e s u l t s t h a n i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s , and C a r r  (35) r e p o r t e d t h a t f o r c o l l e g e  women n e i t h e r p r o g r e s s i v e body c o n d i t i o n i n g nor i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e produced a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t h a n d i d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e q u i r e d badminton c l a s s .  I n s p i t e o f the few d i s s e n t i n g o p i n i o n s , i t i s now  g e n e r a l l y agreed  10  (30,36) t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g s t i m u l u s t o i n c r e a s e d m u s c u l a r s t r e n g t h i s t h e development o f t e n s i o n .  B e s i d e s e x h i b i t i n g a keen i n t e r e s t i n s t r e n g t h , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s have l o n g b e e n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e problem o f endurance, b o t h i n maintenance and i n improvement.  C u r i o u s l y , t h e r e l a t i o n between s t r e n g t h  and endurance i s n o t a s d i r e c t as m i g h t f i r s t be i m a g i n e d .  Clarke (37)  r e p o r t e d a n i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between t e n s i o m e t e r s t r e n g t h o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r s and s i t - u p s o f o n l y 0.13.  I t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d ( 3 8 , 3 9 ) , how-  e v e r , t h a t a n i n c r e a s e i n m u s c u l a r endurance f o l l o w s a n i n c r e a s e i n muscular strength.  T r a d i t i o n a l concepts o f endurance t r a i n i n g were c h a l l e n g e d b y t h e i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e concept.  L i b e r s o n a n d A s a (30) f o u n d t h a t a f t e r a  twelve-week e x e r c i s e program, t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e f o r c e o f & s u s t a i n e d maximum i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n t o drop t o z e r o was as f o l l o w s :  Group  Holding  Time  A  i s o t o n i c (DeLorme method)  200 s e c .  B  i s o m e t r i c (1 c o n t r a c t i o n p e r d a y )  180 s e c .  C  i s o m e t r i c (as group B ) ( t h e n 20 c o n t r a c t i o n s p e r ) (day d u r i n g f i n a l 3 weeks)  240 s e c .  W a l t e r s e t a l . ( 4 0 ) , i n s t u d y i n g t h e e f f e c t on endurance o f t h r e e e x e r c i s e groups, r e p o r t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g percentage  increases:  11  Group  Endurance  isotonic  8%  2/3 maximal i s o m e t r i c maximal  Increase  12$  isometric  Two groups o f s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia were s u b j e c t e d t o an i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n and a w e i g h t t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n t w i c e a week f o r e i g h t weeks. t h a t although the weight-trained  Dennison e t a l . ( 4 1 ) , r e p o r t e d  groups made g r e a t e r g a i n s i n upper  amu  endurance, t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means o f improvement of t h e groups was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  Three groups o f e l e v e n s u b j e c t s were equated on the b a s i s of b i c y c l i n g f o r two m i n u t e s a t f o u r t e e n k i l o g r a m s ' al.  (42).  r e s i s t a n c e by Howell e t  Group I f o l l o w e d a r e g u l a r w e i g h t t r a i n i n g program, group I I  performed t h e commander s e t of e x e r c i s e s , and group I I I f o l l o w e d normal a c t i v i t i e s .  The e x p e r i m e n t l a s t e d e i g h t weeks.  their  A t the c o n c l u s i o n  of e i g h t weeks t h e s u b j e c t s were r e t e s t e d on a b i c y c l e ergometer under original conditions.  I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d  from the r e s u l t s t h a t  increases  i n m u s c u l a r endurance may be e f f e c t e d by c e r t a i n programs of i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s as w e l l as by i s o t o n i c e x e r c i s e s .  Swegan (43) l i k e w i s e a t t e m p t e d t o determine t h e e f f e c t o f s t a t i c c o n t r a c t i o n and s t a n d a r d w e i g h t t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s on endurance. c o n c l u d e d t h a t m u s c u l a r endurance, based on composite s c o r e s , i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f t e r t r a i n i n g b y each method. d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two groups were n o t  obtained.  was  Significant  I t was  12 The present accepted opinion regarding isometric and isotonic exercise as reported by Parkinson ( 4 4 ) and Lawther ( 4 5 ) i s that research indicates that isometric t r a i n i n g methods are as good as dynamic t r a i n ing methods i n increasing strength and endurance of muscles.  13 REFERENCES  1. DeLorme, T. L., W a t k i n s , A. L., P r o g r e s s i v e R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e , New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . , 1951* 2. L o v e t t , R. W., M a r t i n , E. 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A., " M u s k e l l e i s t u n g und M u s k e l t r a i n i n g " , A r b e i t p h y s i o l o g i e , 15:111-126, 1953. 17. S t e i n h a u s , A. H., How t o Keep F i t and L i k e I t , C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s , The D a r t u e l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1957, p. 40. 18. G e r s t e n , J . W., " I s o m e t r i c E x e r c i s e s i n t h e P a r a p l e g i c and i n the P a t i e n t w i t h Weakness o f iJJuadrioeps and H a m s t r i n g s " , A r c h i v e s o f P h y s i c a l M e d i c i n e and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 42:498-506, 1961. 19. C r a k e s , i f . 0., "An A n a l y s i s of Some A s p e c t s o f an E x e r c i s e and T r a i n i n g Program Developed by H e t t i n g e r and M u l l e r " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, 1957. 20. R a r i c k , G. L., L a r s e n , G. L., "Observations on Frequency and I n t e n s i t y of I s o m e t r i c M u s c u l a r E f f o r t i n D e v e l o p i n g S t a t i c S t r e n g t h i n P o s t - P u b e s c e n t M a l e s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 29:333, October 1958. 21. W o l b e r s , C. P., S i l l s , F. D., "Development o f S t r e n g t h i n H i g h S c h o o l Boys b y S t a t i c M u s c l e C o n t r a c t i o n s " , R e s e a r c h 'Quarterly, 27:446, December 1956. 22. Gardner, G. W., " S p e c i f i c i t y o f S t r e n g t h Changes of the E x e r c i s e d N o n - E x e r c i s e d Limb F o l l o w i n g I s o m e t r i c T r a i n i n g " , R e s e a r c h ^Quarterly, 34:98-101, 1963.  and  23. T a y l o r , W. E., "A S t u d y Comparing t h e E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Four S t a t i c C o n t r a c t i o n T r a i n i n g Methods f o r I n c r e a s i n g t h e C o n t r a c t i l e S t r e n g t h o f Two Body Movements", U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1954. 24. Rasch, P. J . , " P r o g r e s s i v e R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e : I s o t o n i c and I s o m e t r i c : A Review," J o u r n a l o f the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r P h y s i c a l and M e n t a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 15:46-50, M a r c h - A p r i l 1961. 25. L i t t l e f i e l d , J . C., "The Development o f S t r e n g t h i n J u n i o r H i g h School Boys by a Ten-Second S t a t i c Muscle C o n t r a c t i o n " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , Alabama P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e , 1957. 26. A s a , M., " E f f e c t of I s o t o n i c and I s o m e t r i c E x e r c i s e s Upon the Strength of Muscle", Unpublished Doctor's D i s s e r t a t i o n , S p r i n g f i e l d C o l l e g e , 1958. 27. L o r b a c k , M., "A S t u d y Comparing the E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f S h o r t P e r i o d s of S t a t i c C o n t r a c t i o n t o S t a n d a r d Weight T r a i n i n g P r o c e d u r e s " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1955.  15  28. B a e r , A. D., G e r s t e n , J . W., R o b e r t s o n , B. M., B i n k e n , H., " E f f e c t of V a r i o u s E x e r c i s e Programs on I s o m e t r i c T e n s i o n , Endurance, and R e a c t i o n Time i n t h e Human", A r c h i v e s o f P h y s i c a l M e d i c i n e and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 36:495, A u g u s t 1955. 29. Meadows, P. E., "The E f f e c t o f I s o t o n i c M u s c l e C o n t r a c t i o n T r a i n i n g on Speed, F o r c e , and S t r e n g t h " , U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1959. 30. L i b e r s o n , W. T., A s a , M. M., " F u r t h e r S t u d i e s o f B r i e f I s o m e t r i c E x e r c i s e s " , A r c h i v e s o f P h y s i c a l M e d i c i n e and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 40:330-336, August, 1959. 31. D a r c u s , H. D. and S a l t e r , N., "The E f f e c t o f Repeated Muscle E x e r t i o n on Muscle S t r e n g t h " , J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o l o g y , 129:325336, August 1955. 32. M a r l e y , W. P., "The Comparative E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f I s o m e t r i c E x e r c i s e and I s o t o n i c E x e r c i s e i n t h e Development o f M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h , Endurance and G i r t h " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d , 1962. 33. B e r g e r , R. A., "Comparison o f S t a t i c and Dynamic S t r e n g t h R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 33:329-333, 1962.  Increases",  34. R a s c h , P. J . , Morehouse, L.E., " E f f e c t o f S t a t i c and Dynamic E x e r c i s e on M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and H y p e r t r o p h y " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P h y s i o l o g y , 12:29, J u l y 1957. 35. C a r r , N. J . , "The E f f e c t o f I s o m e t r i c C o n t r a c t i o n a n d P r o g r e s s i v e Body C o n d i t i o n i n g E x e r c i s e s on S e l e c t e d A s p e c t s o f P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s and Badminton Achievement o f C o l l e g e Women", U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1962.  i  36. Rasch, P. J . , P i e r s o n , W. R., " R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Maximum I s o m e t r i c T e n s i o n and B r e a k i n g S t r e n g t h o f Forearm F l e x o r s " , R e s e a r c h % i a r t e r l y , 31:534-535, 1960. 37. C l a r k e , H. H., " R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f S t r e n g t h and A n t h r o p o m e t r i c Measures t o P h y s i c a l Performances I n v o l v i n g t h e Trunk and L e g s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 28:223-232, October 1957. 38. J o s e n k a n s , W. K. T., "An E v a l u a t i o n o f Some Methods o f Improving Muscle S t r e n g t h " , Revue Canadienne de B i o l o g i e , 21:314-323, September-December 1962. 39. Capen, E. K., "A Study o f Four Programs o f Heavy R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e s f o r Development o f M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 27:132, May 1956.  16 40. W a l t e r s , C. E., S t e w a r t , C. L., L e C l a i r e , J . F., " E f f e c t of S h o r t Bouts of I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c C o n t r a c t i o n s on Muscular S t r e n g t h and Endurance", A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l M e d i c i n e , 39:131-141, August 1960. 4 1 . Dennison, J . D., H o w e l l , M. L., M o r f o r d , W. R., " E f f e c t of I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c E x e r c i s e on M u s c u l a r Endurance", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 32:348-352, October 1961. 42. H o w e l l , M. L. Kimoto, R., M o r f o r d , W. R., " E f f e c t of I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c E x e r c i s e Programs Upon M u s c u l a r Endurance," R e s e a r c h t & J a r t e r l y , 33:536-540, December 1962. 43. Swegan, D. B., "The Comparison of S t a t i c C o n t r a c t i o n W i t h S t a t i c T r a i n i n g i n E f f e c t on C e r t a i n Movement Speeds and Endurance", U n p u b l i s h e d Ed.D. T h e s i s , P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1957. 44. P a r k i n s o n , G. J . , "A Summary of C u r r e n t R e s e a r c h i n I s o m e t r i c E x e r c i s e " , Unpublished P h y s i c a l Education Graduating Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1964.  The  4 5 . Lawther, J . D., "The P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s on S t r e n g t h Decrement, Maintenance and R e l a t e d A s p e c t s " , S i x t y - F i r s t A n n u a l P r o c e e d i n g s o f the C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1958, p. 142.  CHAPTER IV  METHODS AND PROCEDURES T h i s s t u d y was a comparison o f g a i n s i n s t r e n g t h and endurance o f two equated groups o f j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l boys.  One of t h e s e  groups performed a s i n g l e , s i x - s e c o n d , maximal i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n o f the t r u n k f l e x o r m u s c l e s once a day, f i v e days a week f o r f i v e weeks w h i l e t h e o t h e r group d i d n o t do t h e e x e r c i s e .  F o r t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r muscles was measured b y t h e C a b l e - T e n s i o n Method ( l ) and t h e endurance o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r m u s c l e s was d e t e r m i n e d by a s i x t y - s e c o n d f e e t - f r e e sit-up test  (2).  The s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s t u d y were chosen f r o m a v o l u n t e e r group of f i f t y - o n e grade e i g h t o r grade n i n e boys i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g p a r t i n a muscle t r a i n i n g e x p e r i m e n t .  A l l t h e s e boys were i n r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e  a t Edmonds J u n i o r Secondary S c h o o l , Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e duration of the study.  P i l o t Study A p i l o t s t u d y i n v o l v i n g a s i m i l a r group o f v o l u n t e e r boys was completed i n the p r e v i o u s y e a r .  These boys were equated on t h e r e s u l t s  o f t e n s i o m e t e r t e s t s of t h e t r u n k f l e x o r muscles and randomly p l a c e d i n a c o n t r o l group and a t r a i n i n g group. t h i s procedure.  Ten equated p a i r s r e s u l t e d f r o m  These two groups were a l s o t e s t e d on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o  do f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p s t o e x h a u s t i o n .  The t r a i n i n g group t h e n underwent  a t r a i n i n g p e r i o d o f t h r e e weeks i n v o l v i n g a d a i l y , s i n g l e , s i x - s e c o n d ,  18 maximal i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r m u s c l e s .  The c o n t r o l  group u n d e r t o o k o n l y t h e i r normal p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e t h r e e week p e r i o d .  A t t h e end o f t h i s p e r i o d b o t h groups were r e t e s t e d f o r  s t r e n g t h and endurance o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r m u s c l e s .  Two s o u r c e s o f d i f f i c u l t y were o b s e r v e d by t h e w r i t e r d u r i n g t h e p i l o t study.  F i r s t l y , the subjects experienced great d i f f i c u l t y i n  p u l l i n g c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h t h e t e n s i o m e t e r a p p a r a t u s and s e c o n d l y , many s u b j e c t s were unable t o overcome t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r i n h e r e n t i n p e r f o r m i n g an endurance t e s t t o e x h a u s t i o n ( 3 ) .  I t was f e l t t h a t i n any  f u t u r e s t u d y a n a t t e m p t would have t o be made t o m i n i m i z e t h e s e two difficulties.  F i n a l Study  A t t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g o f t h e boys who v o l u n t e e r e d f o r t h e s t u d y the n a t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t was e x p l a i n e d and a p r a c t i c e program was arranged.  The purpose o f t h i s p r a c t i c e program was t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e  s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e t e s t s and a p p a r a t u s t o be used.  I t was hoped t h a t t h i s  would e l i m i n a t e t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f performance t h a t were so a p p a r e n t during the p i l o t study.  The P r a c t i c e Procedure Used W i t h The Tensiometer The f i f t y - o n e v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s were a r b i t r a r i l y p l a c e d i n groups of f i v e or fewer.  1.  The groups i n s p e c t e d t h e t e n s i o m e t e r a p p a r a t u s , watched a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t and t h e n performed two p u l l s i n t h e  19  required position.  As t h e t e n s i o m e t e r  c o u l d n o t be o b t a i n e d a t  t h i s t i m e s c o r e s f o r t h e s e p u l l s ( P P l ) c o u l d n o t be 2.  recorded.  A few days l a t e r t h e s u b j e c t s were a g a i n a l l o w e d two p u l l s i n the r e q u i r e d p o s i t i o n .  A g a i n t h e t e n s i o m e t e r was n o t a v a i l a b l e  and these p u l l s (PP2) were n o t r e c o r d e d .  A f t e r each p u l l the w r i t e r c o r r e c t e d the technique s u b j e c t and encouraged him as much as p o s s i b l e .  of the  From t h e i n t e r e s t and  e f f o r t shown b y t h e s u b j e c t s i t appeared t h a t a h i g h degree o f m o t i v a t i o n was o b t a i n e d .  I t was f e l t t h a t a f t e r t h e s e f o u r p r a c t i c e p u l l s w i t h t h e  c a b l e - t e n s i o n apparatus,  t h e s u b j e c t s were r e a d y t o c a r r y on w i t h t h e  i n i t i a l strength tests. The endurance t e s t was n o t done u n t i l e x h a u s t i o n , b u t was designed  so t h a t t h e number o f r e p e t i t i o n s completed i n a g i v e n t i m e  i n t e r v a l were c o u n t e d . no t i m e l i m i t was used.  I n the p i l o t study a f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t w i t h I n t h i s p i l o t s t u d y , s u b j e c t s showing a h i g h  l e v e l o f endurance i n t h e i n i t i a l t e s t , seemed, on r e t e s t , t o v i e w t h e t a s k o f m a t c h i n g o r b e t t e r i n g t h e i r p r e v i o u s mark as h o p e l e s s , and d e s p i t e p r o m p t i n g , gave up w e l l s h o r t o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s s c o r e .  I n an  a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h i s problem a s i x t y - s e c o n d , f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t was s e l e c t e d t o measure endurance.  The P r a c t i c e Procedure F o r The S i t - U p  Test  The v o l u n t e e r s f i r s t watched a d e m o n s t r a t i o n feet-free sit-up test.  of the s i x t y - s e c o n d ,  The s u b j e c t s were p a i r e d and a f i f t e e n second  20  t r i a l s i t - u p t e s t was  performed by one s u b j e c t w i t h t h e second  one  s c o r i n g and t h e n b y t h e second w i t h the f i r s t s u b j e c t k e e p i n g s c o r e .  As  t h i s i s a s i m p l e t e s t t o p e r f o r m and s c o r e one p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n seemed adequate.  Initial  Tests  One week a f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n the s u b j e c t s were measured f o r t r u n k f l e x i o n s t r e n g t h by t h e t e n s i o m e t e r . Each o f t h e f i f t y - o n e s u b j e c t s was ing  o f two t r i a l s .  There was  between t h e s e two t e s t s .  tested twice w i t h both tests c o n s i s t -  a time i n t e r v a l o f from t h r e e t o f o u r days  The s c o r e s from t h e s e t e s t s were r e c o r d e d as  i n i t i a l t e n s i o m e t e r t e s t 1 ( I T ) and i n i t i a l t e n s i o m e t e r t e s t 2 ( I T ). 2  1  Two  days a f t e r t h e l a s t t e n s i o m e t e r t e s t had been g i v e n t h e s i x t y - s e c o n d  f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t ( I E ) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e f i f t y - o n e s u b j e c t s . P r e l i m i n a r y e v i d e n c e from the p i l o t s t u d y w i t h the c a b l e - t e n s i o n t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y  o f b e s t s c o r e s f o r T r i a l s IT^ and  ITg w o u l d be b e t t e r t h a n , o r a t l e a s t e q u a l t o , t h e r e l i a b i l i t y average s c o r e s f o r T r i a l s IT^  and ITg.  of t h e  'Best s c o r e s ' were t h e r e f o r e  used i n t h i s s t u d y as the performance s c o r e s o f the s u b j e c t s i n t h e tensiometer t e s t .  The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e or f i n a l t e n s i o m e t e r s c o r e s used f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y ( I T S ) were t h e b e s t o f t h e f o u r s c o r e s made by t h e s u b j e c t s i n t e s t s I T j and ITg. i n d i v i d u a l was  S i m i l a r l y the average s c o r e of each  the averaged s c o r e s from b o t h t e s t s IT^ and ITg.  be r e p r e s e n t e d s c h e m a t i c a l l y as f o l l o w s :  T h i s can  21  Best  )  a  c  Matching  Average Scores  Scores  b e s t o f two) ) ) ITS - b e s t of ) f o u r chosen b e s t o f two) )  IT.  1  IT  a average  b  average o f f o u r chosen  c 2  average  d  of Subjects  The s u b j e c t s were matched i n p a i r s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r b e s t s t r e n g t h s c o r e s o b t a i n e d i n t e n s i o m e t e r t e s t s IT  and IT •  The m a t c h i n g  procedure was as f o l l o w s :  a)  A l l s u b j e c t s were p l a c e d i n r a n k o r d e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r b e s t strength score.  b)  S u b j e c t s who were n o t w i t h i n two pounds o f another s u b j e c t were e l i m i n a t e d from t h e s t u d y .  The o t h e r s were p a i r e d , s t a r t i n g  f r o m t h e t o p o f t h e r a n k o r d e r and w o r k i n g down. c)  S i x t e e n matched p a i r s were o b t a i n e d by t h i s method.  d)  The s u b j e c t ' s name, a l o n g w i t h an i d e n t i f y i n g number, was  then  w r i t t e n on a c a r d and p l a c e d i n a c o n t a i n e r . e)  Cards were drawn randomly one a t a time f r o m t h i s c o n t a i n e r and p l a c e d i n a p i l e u n t i l t h e r e were s i x t e e n cards i n t h e p i l e . S u b j e c t s who were r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s e c a r d s formed t h e muscle t r a i n i n g group.  f)  Whenever cards were drawn f o r b o t h members of a matched p a i r , t h e one drawn l a s t was p l a c e d i n a second p i l e .  S u b j e c t s who were  r e p r e s e n t e d b y these c a r d s were p l a c e d i n the c o n t r o l group a l o n g  22 w i t h those whose cards remained i n the c o n t a i n e r a t t h e completion g)  of the draw,  T h i s formed two matched groups w i t h one member of a matched p a i r i n each group.  F o r t h e n e x t f i v e weeks t h e members o f the muscle t r a i n i n g group performed a d a i l y , s i n g l e , s i x - s e c o n d , maximal i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e o f the t r u n k f l e x o r m u s c l e s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r normal p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . D u r i n g t h i s f i v e - w e e k p e r i o d t h e c o n t r o l group t o o k p a r t i n t h e i r normal p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s  The  only.  s i x t e e n matched p a i r s were l a t e r r e d u c e d t o f i f t e e n p a i r s  f o l l o w i n g an i n j u r y t o one  of t h e  subjects.  I s o m e t r i c E x e r c i s e Procedures i  The  i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s e s s i o n s began on t h e s c h o o l day f o l l o w i n g  the s e l e c t i o n of t h e two groups.  The members of the e x p e r i m e n t a l  r e p o r t e d t o the gymnasium Monday t h r o u g h F r i d a y a t 8:30  a.m.  Here t h e y  performed a s i n g l e , s i x - s e c o n d , maximal i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e of t h e f l e x o r muscles,  A d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d was  t r a i n i n g group, group M, was d a i l y p r o c e d u r e was 1,  kept.  The  group  trunk  i s o m e t r i c muscle  d i v i d e d i n t o p a i r s ( P a r t n e r s A and B ) ,  The  as f o l l o w s :  P a r t n e r A assumed a b a c k - l y i n g p o s i t i o n on the f l o o r , f e e t f i r m l y p l a c e d i n a s l o t a t the bottom o f the gymnasium w a l l w i t h arms c l a s p e d around h i s c h e s t ,  2.  P a r t n e r B k n e l t a t the head of A N  N  and h e l d "A's"  shoulders  to  23 the f l o o r . 3.  On t h e command " b e g i n " , p a r t n e r A attempted a "V" s i t - u p w h i l e p a r t n e r B r e s t r a i n e d him from d o i n g t h e "V" s i t - u p .  4.  A maximum e f f o r t was made u n t i l t h e command " s t o p " . was  5.  This e f f o r t  f o r a p e r i o d o f s i x seconds t i m e d on a s t o p w a t c h .  P a r t n e r B t h e n performed  the exercise while partner A restrained  him.  F i n a l Tests  All  s u b j e c t s were r e t e s t e d w i t h two t e n s i o m e t e r t e s t s o f two p u l l s  each (FT., and FT ) and one f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t o f s i x t y seconds d u r a t i o n (FE).  The b e s t s c o r e a c h i e v e d on t h e t e n s i o m e t e r t r i a l s was r e c o r d e d  (FTS) as t h e performance s c o r e . S t a t i s t i c a l Methods S i n c e t h e two groups c o n s i s t e d o f r a n d o m l y - s e l e c t e d matched p a i r s from a v o l u n t e e r p o p u l a t i o n o f grade e i g h t and grade n i n e boys, and s i n c e t h e number o f s u c h p a i r s was fewer t h a n f i f t y , methods were used i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l  s m a l l sample t h e o r y  analysis.  Strength Test A n a l y s i s The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between means o f i n i t i a l and f i n a l s t r e n g t h s c o r e s was t e s t e d b y means o f F i s h e r ' s t s t a t i s t i c f o r matched d a t a . f o r t  1.  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group a l o n e  24  2*  t h e c o n t r o l group a l o n e  3.  t h e two matched groups t o g e t h e r , where t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l means were a c t u a l l y mean d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p a i r e d s c o r e s of t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l  tests.  The f o r m u l a ( 4 ) used f o r t h e p a i r e d s t r e n g t h s c o r e d a t a was  t(df»N-l)  =  D  ' i?" —  where  1  N = t h e number o f D - v a l u e s ( p a i r s ) i n t h e sample D = t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n g a i n shown b y e a c h matched  pair  D m t h e mean o f t h e sample o f D - v a l u e s Sj}= t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e sample o f D - v a l u e s df» degrees o f freedom The s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses t e s t e d f o r p a i r e d s t r e n g t h s c o r e d a t a were:  1.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n i n i t i a l and f i n a l mean s c o r e s f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l (muscle t r a i n i n g ) group.  M  F-I  -  0  F-I  >  0  1 U  2.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n i n i t i a l and f i n a l mean s c o r e s f o r c o n t r o l group.  H:  /D U  F-I  ~  0  H: / D F-I  3.  >  0  D i f f e r e n c e s between mean d i f f e r e n c e s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l group.  25  H : / D ,  Hs f  0 > 0  D,  Endurance Test A n a l y s i s The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between means o f i n i t i a l and f i n a l endurance s c o r e s was t e s t e d b y means o f F i s h e r ' s t s t a t i s t i c f o r : 1.  t h e muscle t r a i n i n g group a l o n e .  2.  t h e c o n t r o l group a l o n e .  Each o f t h e f o r e g o i n g groups was t r e a t e d as matched p a i r s , i . e . , t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l s c o r e s f o r each i n d i v i d u a l were t r u l y matched criterion).  (infallible  The same s t a n d a r d e r r o r f o r m u l a used i n a n a l y s i n g t h e  s t r e n g t h performance s c o r e s was used f o r 1 and 2 above. 3.  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups t o g e t h e r where t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l means were a c t u a l l y mean d i f f e r e n c e s between i n i t i a l and f i n a l s c o r e s o f e a c h group. S i n c e t h e s u b j e c t s o f b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups were  not  matched i n p a i r s on i n i t i a l s i t - u p t e s t performance, t h e q u e s t i o n a r o s e as t o whether or n o t t h e r e was a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e n g t h and endurance scores.  T h i s was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n o r d e r t o c o n s i d e r whether o r n o t t h e  s u b j e c t s were r e a s o n a b l y matched on a f a l l i b l e c r i t e r i o n .  The c o r r e l a t i o n  between s t r e n g t h and endurance s c o r e s f o r f i f t y - o n e s u b j e c t s was 0.17 w h i c h was t o o l o w t o i n c r e a s e p r e c i s i o n any more t h a n w o u l d be o b t a i n e d b y u s i n g a f o r m u l a f o r unmatched  data.  26  The s t a n d a r d e r r o r f o r m u l a +  S  2  was used f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e endurance s c o r e s a l t h o u g h i n a n a l t e r n a t i v e but equivalent form ( 5 ) ,  The s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s i s t e s t e d were 1*  f o r t h e muscle t r a i n i n g group Ht / D  M  0  < F-I  Hi/D.  2.  f o r t h e c o n t r o l group H: /> D F-I H:  D  0  > °F-I  3.  f o r d i f f e r e n c e between mean d i f f e r e n c e s o f muscle t r a i n i n g and c o n t r o l groups Hi /'D..  H:  ^  0  - / D„ > °F-I  0  - /D ?-I  D  V l  F-I  The s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t u s i n g equated p a i r s p r o v i d e d a p o w e r f u l  27  t e s t o f the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . was  0.10.  I t was  The l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e chosen f o r t h i s  c o n s i d e r e d t h a t s i n c e t h e main c o n c e r n o f the s t u d y  study was  t o determine whether or n o t i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e was an e f f e c t i v e means o f i n c r e a s i n g s t r e n g t h of the t r u n k f l e x o r s , and t h a t s i n c e i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s , i f e f f e c t i v e , would be advantageous over o t h e r methods i n terms o f space, t i m e , and equipment i n s c h o o l s , t h e danger o f a type I e r r o r s h o u l d be m i n i m i z e d .  I n o t h e r words, i f a procedure has  reasonable  p r o b a b i l i t y o f b e i n g e f f e c t i v e and i f a t the same time t h e r e i s no  real  d i s a d v a n t a g e i n u s i n g i t even though i t m i g h t i n t r u t h be i n e f f e c t i v e , t h e n t h e r e i s no p o i n t i n s e t t i n g a h i g h l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e .  A o n e - t a i l e d t e s t was  used f o r t h e c r i t i c a l r e g i o n s i n c e t h e r e  was  no cause t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s would n o t show improvement. R e l i a b i l i t y o f the Test Items Pearson r c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g i n i t i a l t e s t s I T ^ and I T ^ . s t u d y i t was  S i n c e t h e problem of r e l i a b i l i t y was  tensiometer  important i n t h i s  d e c i d e d t o examine o t h e r measures o f r e l i a b i l i t y as w e l l .  An attempt was made t o examine the group s t a b i l i t y from t e s t t o r e t e s t on t h e i n i t i a l t e n s i o m e t e r t e s t s by a n a l y s i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means o f the two t e s t s . chosen was  The l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e  0.05 w i t h a t w o - t a i l c r i t i c a l r e g i o n .  Another aspect of r e l i a b i l i t y  ( a b s o l u t e r e l i a b i l i t y ) was  determined  b y t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f measurement of t h e i n i t i a l t e s t s o f s t r e n g t h and " n o t i n g those s u b j e c t s whose s c o r e s v a r i e d b y more t h a n pl;«ss or minus two  28  t i m e s t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f measurement.  The f o r m u l a used f o r t h i s  purpose was S.E. = S_ . . .i| 1 - r T r i a l 1, T r i a l 'meas. T r i a l l\  2  29  REFERENCES  1.  C l a r k e , H. H. A Manualt C a b l e - T e n s i o n S t r e n g t h T e s t s , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , Brown-Murphy Company, 1953.  Chicopee,  2.  Yuhasz, M. S. "The 5 Minute M u s c u l a r Enduranoe T e s t " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , 5:13-14, 1963.  3.  I k a i , M., S t e i n h a u s , A. H. H e a l t h and F i t n e s s i n t h e Modern W o r l d , The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , 1961, pp. 148-161.  4.  Blommers, P., L i n d q u i s t , E. F., E l e m e n t a r y S t a t i s t i c a l Methods, B o s t o n , Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1960, p. 350.  5.  I b i d . , p. 347.  CHAPTER V RESULTS AND  DISCUSSION  Reliability  Pearson r c o e f f i c i e n t s  f o r t e s t s I t l and I T 2 , u s i n g b e s t  scores  and average s c o r e s , a r e g i v e n i n Table I . As p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter IV t h e " b e s t s c o r e " method was chosen f o r t h i s study as t h e r e appeared t o be no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e l i a b i l i t y between "average s c o r e s and "best s c o r e " methods.  The "average s c o r e s " method was used i n t h e p i l o t  s t u d y and d i d n o t produce c o n s i s t e n t s t r e n g t h s c o r e s *  TABLE I  PEARSON r COEFFICIENTS FOR THE INITIAL STRENGTH TESTS ( I T 1 , I T 2 ) S c o r i n g Method  N  Pearson r  b e s t scores  51  .72  average s c o r e s  51  .74  The problem o f o b t a i n i n g c o n s i s t e n t s c o r e s w i t h t h e c a b l e - t e n s i o n a p p a r a t u s a p p a r e n t l y does n o t i n v o l v e t h e s c o r i n g method used as much as i t i n v o l v e s t h e number o f t r i a l s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s a r e a l l o w e d w i t h t h e apparatus.  I n a r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y , Brown and F i e l d ( l ) f o u n d t h a t when  s u b j e c t s were g i v e n f o u r t r i a l s on t h e same t e s t , w i t h adequate r e s t between t r i a l s , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e means o f e a r l y t r i a l s o c c u r r e d i n most i n s t a n c e s , b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between means o f t r i a l s 3 and 4 were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  These t e s t s were motor f i t n e s s i t e m s ; i . e . ,  31  items o f t h e AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s T e s t . R e s u l t s such as these seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a h i g h degree o f c o n s i s t e n c y ( r e l i a b i l i t y )  on a p h y s i c a l t e s t o f  s t r e n g t h , s u b j e c t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g a d e q u a t e l y m o t i v a t e d , s h o u l d be t e s t e d a g a i n and a g a i n u n t i l t h e r e i s no l o n g e r improvement f r o m practice alone.  T h i s p r o c e d u r e , however, was n o t f e a s i b l e i n t h i s  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e s t a t i s t i c s  study.  obtained i n an a n a l y s i s  o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between means o f i n i t i a l ( p r e experimental) t e s t - r e t e s t strength scores.  TABLE I I RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL TEST - RETEST SCORES  N 51  Means IT1 IT2  Mean Diff.  Stand. Dev. IT1 ,:. IT2  ^•^•fr  59.67 66.67  +7.0  20.45 21.66  4.22  * Stat.  C. R.  +1.65  +1.605  Accept/Reject No D i f f e r e n c e Accept  The means o f t h e i n i t i a l s t r e n g t h measurements IT1 and IT2 appeared t o be r e a s o n a b l y s t a b l e .  A n a l y s i s of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the  d i f f e r e n c e between means produced a ' t ' s t a t i s t i c s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e .  o f 1.65 w h i c h was n o t  The l o w r e l i a b i l i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t o f .72 d i d show, however, t h a t some i n d i v i d u a l s f a i l e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r rank order from t e s t t o r e t e s t .  A t h i r d measure o f r e l i a b i l i t y - t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f measurement -  32 was  12.6  l b s . f o r the i n i t i a l t e s t s .  P l u s o r minus two s t a n d a r d e r r o r s  o f measurement (+ 2 x 12.6) a b o u t an observed s c o r e can be c o n s i d e r e d a r e g i o n w i t h i n w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r u e s c o r e w o u l d f a l l 95.4 of t h e t i m e .  percent  Of t h e f i f t y - o n e v o l u n t e e r s i n t h e s t u d y , seven i n d i v i d u a l s  were f o u n d whose s c o r e s from IT1 t o IT2 v a r i e d b y more t h a n 25.2 l b s . (+ 2 S.E. measurement).  F i v e o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s were among t h o s e  e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e experiment  d u r i n g t h e procedure  of o b t a i n i n g matched  pairs.  Statistical  Analysis  Table I I I shows r e s u l t s o f the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f i n i t i a l and f i n a l mean s c o r e s made by each o f t h e groups on t h e i r t e s t s of s t r e n g t h and endurance. was  t o determine  The  purpose  i f over the e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d s i g n i f i c a n t mean changes  i n s t r e n g t h and endurance o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r m u s c l e s d i d occur i n each group. TABLE I I I  RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL AND  FINAL TEST SCORES  Means Mean Initial Final Diff.  N  Variable  M  15  Strength  68.67  M  15  Endurance  30.6  35.4  , c .  15  Strength  68.86  c  15  Endurance  30.53  Group  Stand. Dev.  S  ' -D E  t Stat.  C.R.  Acc/Rej No D i f f .  15.20  4.06  3.59  1.35  Reject  4.80  2.64  .71  6.80  1.35  Reject  81.87 12.99  17.80  4.76  2.73  1.35  Reject  3.28  .88  3.27  1.35  Reject  83.27 14.60  33.40  2.87  33 I n a l l f o u r a n a l y s e s t h e ' t ' s t a t i s t i c was  s u f f i c i e n t l y large  t o show r e j e c t i o n o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s i s of no d i f f e r e n c e between means. A l l o f t h e i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d show s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s between i n i t i a l and f i n a l measures. These g a i n s were u s u a l l y s i m i l a r t o those a c h i e v e d by o t h e r groups w h i c h were matched w i t h t h e i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g group b u t w h i c h used o t h e r methods o f s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g .  Table IV shows percentage  g a i n s of groups M and C f o r b o t h  s t r e n g t h and endurance.  TABLE TV PERCENT GAINS FOR  STRENGTH AND  ENDURANCE  Group  Strength  Endurance  M  21.2  15.1  C  18.9  9.1  Percentage  g a i n s of the e x p e r i m e n t a l group have a marked  s i m i l a r i t y t o those o f o t h e r s t u d i e s (2,3,4,5) i n w h i c h w e e k l y s t r e n g t h g a i n s o f two t o f i v e p e r c e n t were r e p o r t e d . The  reasons f o r t h e l a r g e g a i n s made by the c o n t r o l group over  t h e f i v e - w e e k p e r i o d a r e unknown, b u t a r e p o s s i b l y due t o one or more of several factors.  Members of the c o n t r o l group were e x t r e m e l y  i n the proposed experiment  and e x h i b i t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e  interested  disappointment  when t o l d t h a t t h e y w o u l d n o t be p a r t o f the muscle t r a i n i n g group.  34  D u r i n g the f i n a l t e n s i o m e t e r t e s t s many of the c o n t r o l group e x p r e s s e d a n x i e t y about d o i n g b e t t e r t h a n the muscle t r a i n i n g group.  The  unexpected changes i n the s t r e n g t h s c o r e s of the c o n t r o l group c o u l d have r e s u l t e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , from e x t r a o r d i n a r y d e s i r e t o surpass  the  members of the e x p e r i m e n t a l group.  A l t h o u g h the c o n t r o l group was  a s k e d not t o p r a c t i c e  exercises  t h a t w o u l d s p e c i f i c a l l y s t r e n g t h e n the t r u n k f l e x o r s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t e x e r c i s e s were done i n w h i c h the s t r e n g t h and  endurance of these  muscles m i g h t have been i n c r e a s e d w h i l e a c t i n g as  synergists.  F i n a l l y , because of the r a p i d growth i n p h y s i c a l m a t u r a t i o n t h a t o c c u r s a t t h i s age,  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some of t h e improvement of  c o n t r o l group over t h e f i v e - w e e k p e r i o d was i n s t r e n g t h cannot be  due  to a natural  the  increase  overlooked.  Table V shows the s t a t i s t i c s o b t a i n e d  i n an a n a l y s i s of  the  r e l i a b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n c e between the matched p a i r s i n the s t r e n g t h  test.  TABLE V  RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STRENGTH SCORES OF MATCHED PAIRS N  15  Mean Diff. +1.40  The  Standard Deviation 18.4  S.E.—. D  7.33  t Statistic .285  C.R.  Accept/Reject No D i f f e r e n c e  1.35  Accept  t s t a t i s t i c o f 0.285 r e s u l t e d i n a c c e p t a n c e of t h e h y p o t h e s i s  of no d i f f e r e n c e between mean g a i n s of the equated groups.  Failure to  35  show a d i f f e r e n c e between mean gains o f two groups i s sometimes t h e r e s u l t of u n r e l i a b l e data.  I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o determine whether o r  not the data are h i g h l y u n r e l i a b l e i n t h i s study.  The g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e  between i n i t i a l and f i n a l mean s c o r e s o f t h e c o n t r o l group was i n marked c o n t r a s t t o t h e t e s t - r e t e s t mean s c o r e s o f t h i s group b e f o r e t h e e x p e r i m e n t began.  There was no a p p a r e n t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s .  It is  p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e c o n t r o l group was v e r y determined t o do w e l l on t h e f i n a l t e s t and t h a t t h e t e s t i t e m i s s u b j e c t t o l a r g e s c a l e c o n t a m i n a t i o n by such m o t i v a t i o n a l e f f e c t s .  The c o m p a r a t i v e l y l o w r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .72 shows t h a t r e p e a t e d t e s t i n g b e f o r e t h e experiment  f o r a minimum o f s i x  r e c o r d e d t e s t s may be n e c e s s a r y as p a r t o f t h e p r e p a r a t o r y t r a i n i n g f o r c a b l e - t e n s i o n t e s t s w i t h a group o f s c h o o l b o y s *  Table V I shows t h e s t a t i s t i c s  obtained i n an a n a l y s i s o f the  r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between mean d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e endurance s c o r e s o f t h e muscle t r a i n i n g and c o n t r o l  groups.  TABLE V I  RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FINAL ENDURANCE SCORES OF THE TWO GROUPS  C  Mean Diff.  Standard Deviation M C  35.4 33.4  2.0  4.06 4.06  Means N 15  M  s  » »?r E  D  1.53  * Stat.  C. R.  Accept/Reject No D i f f e r e n c e  1.31  1.35  Accept  A t s t a t i s t i c of 1.31 i n d i c a t e s t h e acceptance  o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f no  36 d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means a t the 0.10  l e v e l of  confidence.  E q u a t i n g the groups on one v a r i a b l e o n l y ; i . e . , s t r e n g t h o f the t r u n k f l e x o r m u s c l e s , was  a disadvantage,  s i n c e s t r e n g t h had a  c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h endurance and t h u s reduced p r e c i s i o n i n the used.  low  statistics  37  REFERENCES  1.  Brown, S. R., F i e l d , A., " R e l i a b i l i t y a n d E r r o r s o f Measurement o f t h e &AHPER Youth F i t n e s s T e s t " , U n p u b l i s h e d Paper, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1964.  2.  H e t t i n g e r , T. H., M u l l e r , E. A., " M u s k e l l e i s t u n g und M u s k e l t r a i n i n g " , A r b e i t p h y s i o l o g i e , 15:111-126, 1953.  3.  C r a k e s , J . G., "An A n a l y s i s o f Some A s p e c t s o f an E x e r c i s e and T r a i n i n g Program Developed b y H e t t i n g e r and M u l l e r " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, 1957.  4.  C l a r k e , H. H., " I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c T r a i n i n g " , P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s News L e t t e r , Eugene, Oregon, S e r i e s V I , Number 8, A p r i l 1960.  5.  S t e i n h a u s , A. H., How t o Keep F i t and L i k e I t , C h i c a g o , The D a r t u e l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1957, p. 4 0 .  Illinois,  CHAPTER V I  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS  The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t o f i s o m e t r i c muscle t r a i n i n g on t h e s t r e n g t h and endurance o f j u n i o r secondary school boys.  F i f t y - o n e v o l u n t e e r grade e i g h t o r grade n i n e boys a t t e n d i n g Edmonds J u n i o r Secondary S c h o o l were t e s t e d f o r t r u n k f l e x o r s t r e n g t h b y t h e c a b l e - t e n s i o n method and f o r t r u n k f l e x o r endurance b y a s i x t y second f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t .  The boys were matched on t h e b a s i s o f  t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r s as measured b y t h e c a b l e  tensiometer.  S t u d e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be matched i f t h e i r s t r e n g t h s c o r e s were w i t h i n two pounds o f one a n o t h e r .  F i f t e e n p a i r s r e s u l t e d from matching  b y t h i s method.  Two groups were formed b y random s e l e c t i o n so t h a t one member o f each matched p a i r was i n each group.  One group was c a l l e d t h e muscle  t r a i n i n g group (group M) t h e o t h e r was c a l l e d t h e c o n t r o l group (group C Group M u n d e r t o o k a s i n g l e , d a i l y , s i x - s e c o n d , maximal i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r s f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e weeks.  Group C  u n d e r t o o k o n l y t h e i r normal p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e f i v e week period.  A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d t h e two groups were r e t e s t e d f o r s t r e n g t h and endurance f o l l o w i n g t h e i n i t i a l t e s t procedure  In the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h e data Pearson £ c o e f f i c i e n t s  39  were c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e i n i t i a l t e n s i o m e t e r t e s t s and s i x F i s h e r ' t * s t a t i s t i c s were o b t a i n e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means o f groups f o r v a r i a b l e s o f s t r e n g t h and endurance.  The P e a r s o n r r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e i n i t i a l t e n s i o m e t e r t e s t t r i a l s was 0.72.  The magnitude o f t h i s  reliability  c o e f f i c i e n t i n d i c a t e d some change i n r a n k o r d e r o f s u b j e c t s between t e s t s .  B o t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups made mean changes i n s t r e n g t h s c o r e s t h a t were v e r y s i m i l a r .  The s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e between  them was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  I n t h e endurance t e s t f o r s i x t y  significant.  seconds, t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group showed a mean d i f f e r e n c e o f two s i t - u p s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e c o n t r o l group. between groups was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  This d i f f e r e n c e  significant.  Conclusions  1.  I t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o come t o any c o n c l u s i o n s about t h e e f f e c t o f t h e i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g program used i n t h i s s t u d y upon t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r muscles o f a d o l e s c e n t b o y s .  2.  There was a mean raw s c o r e i n c r e a s e o f 4.8 s i t - u p s i n s i x t y seconds f o r t h e t r a i n i n g group compared w i t h a mean raw s c o r e i n c r e a s e o f 2.87 s i t - u p s f o r t h e c o n t r o l group.  The mean  d i f f e r e n c e between groups f e l l j u s t b e l o w t h a t r e q u i r e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e 0.10 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e .  T h e r e f o r e i t must  be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n endurance for  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group a s measured b y t h e s i x t y - s e c o n d , f e e t -  40 free sit-up t e s t .  Re c ommendati ons 1.  I n a n y s t u d y u s i n g t h e c a b l e - t e n s i o m e t e r t e c h n i q u e t o measure t h e s t r e n g t h o f the t r u n k f l e x o r muscles of adolescent boys, i t i s recommended t h a t r e p e a t e d t r i a l s s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e s u b j e c t s u n t i l t h e r e i s no l o n g e r a n y improvement t h a t c o u l d be attributable t o practice.  T h i s m i g h t be f o r as many as s i x o r  e i ght s e p a r a t e t r i a l s . 2.  To make a more v a l i d assessment o f t h e e f f e c t o f i s o m e t r i c musole t r a i n i n g on endurance o f t h e t r u n k f l e x o r muscles o f a d o l e s c e n t b o y s , i t i s recommended t h a t a two-minute, f e e t - f r e e be used i n p l a c e o f t h e s i x t y - s e c o n d , f e e t - f r e e in this  3.  sit-up test  s i t - u p t e s t used  study.  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T h e s i s , P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1957. T a y l o r , W. E., "A Study Comparing the E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Four S t a t i c C o n t r a c t i o n T r a i n i n g Methods f o r I n c r e a s i n g t h e C o n t r a c t i l e S t r e n g t h of Two Body Movements", U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1954. Thompson, C. W., "The P h y s i o l o g i c E f f e c t s o f I s o m e t r i c Work on Man", U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1950. W a l t e r s , C. E., S t e w a r t , C. L., L e C l a i r e , J.F., " E f f e c t o f S h o r t Bouts of I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c C o n t r a c t i o n s on M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and Endurance", A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l M e d i c i n e , 39:131-141, August 1960. W o l b e r s , C. P., S i l l s , F. D., "Development of S t r e n g t h i n H i g h School Boys by S t a t i c Muscle C o n t r a c t i o n s " , R e s e a r c h % i a r t e r l y , 27:446, December 1956. Yuhasz, M. S., "The F i v e - M i n u t e M u s c u l a r Endurance T e s t " , J o u r n a l of the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , 5:13-14, 1963  46  APPENDIX  47  INITIAL TENSIOMETER TESTS - RAW SCORES (LBS.)  Subject MN TC CL JD GP BG DM DT KJ RA GP RM RT JM GM SR TP BW LL PM WL LB JP JR PL CW  IT1 38 87 25 56 43 23 49 73 75 56 36 48 29 53 45 36 56 53 31 29 51 53 83 73 78 83  22 126 22 29 38 40 45 72 56 32 22 45 26 45 46 59 61 57 56 19 53 49 68 65 75 70  IT2 63 107 33 70 75 68 36 109 54 56 43 45 41 56 38 68 28 65 69 31 87 45 75 102 59 73  54 90 36 52 65 49 37 92 57 31 31 31 24 46 40 72 41 75 59 28 76 41 48 89 38 80  Subject RV JM JM BR JT ML TW JC TB TM MR RT DS CS GM MR BT LH TH FP GS GD RS RR DG  IT1 54 48 56 75 31 68 30 102 43 52 57 54 45 42 42 51 57 94 109 89 51 61 52 68 69  51 31 41 78 46 63 49 87 22 59 43 54 32 38 45 48 59 70 111 92 43 59 53 80 65  IT2 63 59 54 126 53 70 51 59 56 49 56 69 68 52 57 41 56 85 124 68 53 83 67 80 76  42 40 46 83 48 69 45 70 51 56 48 67 56 37 33 31 67 78 105 102 56 85 78 87 72  48  MUSCLE TRAINING GROUP - RAW SCORES (STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE)  Subject  Strength Initial Final IT1 IT2 FT1 FT2  Endurance Initial Final  1.  JP  36322  43 31  42 36  59 41  25  30  2.  RM  48 45  45 31  63 48  61 49  39  40  ">3.  JT  31 46  53 48  75 65  53 42  30  33  4.  TW  30 49  51 45  68 69  85 56  29  35  5.  TB  43 22  56 51  48 57  69 63  35  38  6.  GS  51 43  53 56  68 63  97 87  31  35  7.  GM  42 45  57 33  78 56  61 72  29  33  8.  TM  52 59  49 56  73 57  48 46  29  37  9.  BT  57 59  56 67  56 56  70 70  24  31  10.  RT  54 54  69 67  72 69  102 59  25  32  11.  BW  53 57  65 75  80 63  99 69  35  44  12.  JP  83 68  75 48  76 53  65 61  30  33  13.  GD  61 59  83 85  85 63  51 72  33  34  14.  FP  89 92  68 102  107 83  109 75  34  43  15.  TC  87 126  109 87  70 63  31  33  107 90  49  CONTROL GROUP - RAW SCORES (STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE)  Strength Subject  Initial  Endurance Initial Final  Final  1.  RT  29  26  41  24  46  42  42  40  26  34  2.  DM  49  45  36  37  65  54  75  63  32  39  3.  LB  53  49  45  41  48  46  56  53  31  32  4.  MR  51  48  41  31  57  51  45  37  27  28  5.  JM  56  41  54  46  70  75  96  80  25  28  6.  RA  56  32  56  31  56  54  68  61  34  34  7.  MR  57  43  56  48  75  67  70  61  34  36  8.  JM  48  31  59  40  43  40  49  46  34  35  9.  LL  31  56  69  59  75  69  82  73  36  35  10.  DS  45  32  68  56  82  99 109  73  29  32  11.  DG  69  65  76  72  96  94  72 105  27  38  12.  CW  83  70  73  80  109  96  99  99  41  40  13.  RR  68  80  80  87  78  89  65  75  29  31  14.  JR  73  65 102  89  100  63 115 115  23  25  15.  BR  75  78 126  83  97  82  30  34  63  52  50 MATCHED PAIRS - RAW SCORES (STRENGTH)  Group M No.  Group C  ITS  PTS  ITS  FTS  1  43  59  41  46  2  48  63  49  75  3  53  75  53  56  4  51  85  51  57  5  56  69  56  96  6  56  97  56  68  7  57  78  57  75  8  59  73  59  49  9  67  70  69  82  10  69  102  68  109  11  75  99  76  105  12  83  76  83  109  13  85  85  87  89  14  102  109  102  115  15  126  109  126  97  51  ENDURANCE TESTS - RAW SCORES Group M  Group C  No.  IE  FE  IE  FE  1  25  30  26  34  2  39  40  32  39  3  30  33  31  32  4  29  35  27  28  5  35  38  25  28  6  31  35  34  34  7  29  33  34  36  8  29  37  34  35  9  24  31  36  35  10  25  32  29  32  11  35  44  27  38  12  30  33  41  40  13  33  34  29  31  14  34  43  23  25  15  31  33  30  34  

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