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The effect of isometric muscle training on the strength and endurance of junior secondary school boys Smith, William 1964

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THE EFFECT OF ISOMETRIC MUSCLE TRAINING ON THE STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL BOYS By WILLIAM SMITH B.P.E., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957 A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of The Requirements f o r the Degree of Master. of A r t s i n the Department of Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia September, 1964. In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that, copying or publi-cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of EDUCATION The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date SEPTEMBER 1964 i i ABSTRACT The e f f e c t of i s o m e t r i c muscle t r a i n i n g on the s t r e n g t h and endurance of j u n i o r secondary school boys i n t e s t s of tr u n k f l e x i o n was i n v e s t i g a t e d . A group of f i f t y - o n e boys was t e s t e d f o r trunk f l e x o r s t r e n g t h by the cable-tensiometer, and f o r endurance by a sixty-second s i t - u p t e s t and then matched on the b a s i s of s t r e n g t h scores. The matched subjects were then randomly d i v i d e d i n t o two groups. One group performed a s i n g l e , six-second, maximal, i s o m e t r i c t r u n k f l e x i o n e x e r c i s e f i v e days a week f o r f i v e weeks, w h i l e the other group d i d not. At the end of the f i v e week t r a i n i n g p e r i o d the two groups were r e t e s t e d f o r s t r e n g t h and endurance. From the s t a t i s t i c a l treatment of the data i t was concluded ( l ) t h a t there were s i g n i f i c a n t mean increases i n performance i n the s t r e n g t h and endurance t e s t s by the i s o m e t r i c muscle t r a i n i n g group and the c o n t r o l group, and (2) t h a t there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the gains i n s t r e n g t h and endurance made by the t r a i n i n g group and the gains i n st r e n g t h and endurance made by the c o n t r o l group. i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT The -writer would l i k e to express h i s g r a t i t u d e t o those i n d i v i d u a l s whose co-operation made i t p o s s i b l e t o accomplish t h i s study. In p a r t i c u l a r , thanks are due t o Mr. Lorne Brown and Dr. Sta n l e y Brown without whose continued i n t e r e s t and generous a s s i s t a n c e t h i s study could not have been s u c c e s s f u l l y completed. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 I I JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM S I I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 6 TV METHODS AND PROCEDURE 17 V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 30 VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 38 BIBLIOGRAPHY 41 APPENDIX INITIAL TENSIOMETER TESTS - RAW SCORES IN POUNDS . 47 MUSCLE TRAINING GROUP - RAW SCORES ( STRENGTH AND ENDURANGE ) 48 CONTROL GROUP - RAW SCORES (STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE) 49 MATCHED PAIRS - RAW SCORES (STRENGTH) 50 ENDURANCE TESTS - RAW SCORES 51 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I PEARSON r COEFFICIENTS FOR THE INITIAL STRENGTH TESTS 30 II RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL TEST-RETEST SCORES 31 III RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL AND FINAL TEST SCORES 32 IV PERCENT GAINS FOR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE 33 V RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STRENGTH SCORES OF MATCHED PAIES 34 VI RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FINAL ENDURANCE SCORES OF THE TWO GROUPS 35 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The purpose of t h i s study i s to investigate the e f f e c t of isometric muscle t r a i n i n g on the strength and endurance of the trunk f l e x o r muscles of junior secondary school boys. The hypothesis to be tested i s that a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between two equated groups of boys, with respect to strength and endurance of the trunk f l e x o r muscles, would occur when one of the groups performed a s i n g l e , s i x second, maximal isometric exercise f i v e times a week f o r f i v e weeks while the other group d i d not perform the exercise. Delimitations 1* This study deals with a group of f i f t y - o n e male students i n grade eight or grade nine. 2. The t e s t of strength of the trunk f l e x o r muscles involves one item only, the cable-tensiometer t e s t . 3. The t e s t of endurance of the trunk f l e x o r muscles involves only the s i x t y second, f e e t free s i t - u p t e s t . Limitations A l l subjects i n t h i s study were boys who volunteered f o r a muscle t r a i n i n g experiment and were thus not randomly selected. D e f i n i t i o n s Isometric muscle t r a i n i n g i s a method of phys i c a l t r a i n i n g 2 through the development of tension. Tension i s produced i n a muscle when i t attempts to contract, or shorten, against an immovable r e s i s t a n c e . CHAPTER I I JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM In 1953, Hettinger and M u l l e r ( l ) advanced a method of s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g through i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n of muscles. I n the t e n years f o l l o w i n g the r e l e a s e of t h e i r f i n d i n g s considerable research has been done i n t h i s a r e a . The m a j o r i t y of t h i s r e s e a r c h has been done w i t h subjects ranging i n age from eighteen t o f o r t y . I t has been g e n e r a l l y concluded t h a t f o r t h i s age range i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s are e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g muscle s t r e n g t h . In f a c t today many p r o f e s s i o n a l a t h l e t e s and teams use i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s as p a r t of t h e i r t r a i n i n g r o u t i n e . R e l a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s have been done of the e f f e c t of i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e on the s t r e n g t h or endurance of young adolescent boys. Er i k s s o n ' s (2) l a t e s t l i s t of resea r c h s t u d i e s done by Canadians contains no reference whatsoever t o i s o m e t r i c muscle t r a i n i n g . I f i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g f o r adolescent boys should prove e f f e c t i v e i t would provide p h y s i c a l educators w i t h a way of muscle t r a i n i n g which i s simple, consumes l i t t l e time, and may be learned f o r use i n l a t e r l i f e . I n the p e r i o d of r a p i d growth during adolescence, many youngsters have a preponderance of abdominal t i s s u e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s t i s s u e i s not j u s t muscle. In the opi n i o n of the w r i t e r many such youths s u f f e r severe embarrassment during a r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l education p e r i o d because of the acute weakness of t h e i r abdominal muscles. In a d d i t i o n t o the youths j u s t d e s c r i b e d i t has a l s o been evident t h a t other youths, w i t h a 4 more normal physique, hare d i f f i c u l t y performing some p h y s i c a l stunts and s k i l l s because t h e i r abdominal muscles are l a c k i n g i n s t r e n g t h and endurance. I t has been observed t h a t many of these youths are not able t o s u c c e s s f u l y complete even one s i t - u p . This i n a b i l i t y might be due t o l a c k of s t r e n g t h of the abdominal muscles or an "unusual" center of g r a v i t y . In e i t h e r case, f a i l u r e t o complete an e x e r c i s e they are asked t o perform, does not increase t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . There i s need, then, f o r an e x e r c i s e t h a t w i l l do more t o encourage these boys t o a t t a i n a higher l e v e l of s t r e n g t h and endurance of the abdominal muscles. I f i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g i s e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g the s t r e n g t h and endurance of abdominal muscles, t h i s type of t r a i n i n g could be recommended t o these boys f o r use a t home. 5 REFERENCES 1. H e t t i n g e r , T. H. and M u l l e r , E. A. "Muskelleistung und M u s k e l t r a i n i n g , " A r b e i t p h y s i o l o g i e , 15, 111-126, 1953, 2* E r i k s s o n , A r t h u r W. E. "Graduate Research by Canadians," J o u r n a l  of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and  Re c r e a t i o n , 5:26-28, 1963, CHAPTER I I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The s u b j e c t of human st r e n g t h has f a s c i n a t e d many workers engaged i n a v a r i e t y of f i e l d s . Medical workers have used s t r e n g t h measurements as i n d i c a t o r s of the r a t e of recovery from diseases (1,2). P h y s i c a l eduoators have used s t r e n g t h t e s t s as c l a s s i f y i n g devices (3, 4, 5) and as i n d i c e s of growth (6,7). Tests of s t r e n g t h have been given t o subjects of a l l ages, and a v a r i e t y of methods have been used. One method, dynamometric measurement, has been i n use f o r over h a l f a century. Sargent (8) was one of the main proponents of s t r e n g t h t e s t i n g and h i s work i n the l a t e 1800's (9,10) was instrume n t a l i n s t i m u l a t i n g f u r t h e r s t u d i e s i n the f i e l d of s t r e n g t h t e s t i n g . Nearly f i f t y years l a t e r Rogers (3) r e v i s e d Sargent's I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e Strength Test and, i n so doing, c o n s t r u c t e d norms f o r the s t r e n g t h index ( S i ) thus c r e a t i n g the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s index ( P F I ) . For many years the dynamometer remained the most w i d e l y used instrument f o r s t r e n g t h t e s t i n g . During the past f i f t e e n years s e v e r a l other instruments have been introduced i n the f i e l d of s t r e n g t h t e s t i n g . Among these i s the c a b l e - t e n s i o n method introduced by Clarke (11,12,13). I n t h i s method he used a c a l i b r a t e d tensiometer t o t e s t the amount of t e n s i o n e x e r t e d on a c a b l e . The cable can be attached by b e l t s of var i o u s s i z e s and design to the body p a r t to be t e s t e d . The c a l i b r a t i o n of the tensiometer i s i n pounds and i s r e g i s t e r e d on the d i a l by a s e l f -r e c o r d i n g needle. Complete d e t a i l s of the procedures and apparatus may" 7 be found i n Clarke's (14) t e s t i n g manual. I t i s recognized t h a t s t r e n g t h i s of two kinds (15), i s o m e t r i c and i s o t o n i c . Isometric s t r e n g t h i s the amount of t e n s i o n a muscle can produce when i n a f i x e d p o s i t i o n , when l i t t l e or no shortening of the muscle f i b r e s occurs, I Isotonic s t r e n g t h i s the amount of f o r c e a muscle can produce through a given range of movement, when much f i b r e c o n t r a c t i o n occurs* T r a d i t i o n a l l y , p h y s i c a l educators have used i s o t o n i c e x e r c i s e s , e x e r c i s e s i n v o l v i n g movement, as a means of i n c r e a s i n g muscular s t r e n g t h and endurance. In 1953 two German p h y s i o l o g i s t s , H e t tinger and M u l l e r (16) , reported t h a t i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s seemed t o increase the s t r e n g t h of muscles to the extent of f i v e percent per week. The p o s s i b l e value of i s o m e t r i c s was pointed out by Steinhaus (17) . The prospect of being able t o b u i l d up the s t r e n g t h of muscles through a simple, quick e x e r c i s e t h a t u s u a l l y does not r e q u i r e equipment or a great deal of space has appealed g r e a t l y to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a l i s t s and p h y s i c a l educators a l i k e . Gersten (18) re p o r t s t h a t * "... because of the s h o r t e r time element, the l a c k of j o i n t movement, and use i n home programs, i s o m e t r i c therapy i s a d i s t i n c t advantage i n many cases." H e t t i n g e r and M u l l e r reported t h a t a s i n g l e , d a i l y , six-second c o n t r a c t i o n of two-thirds maximal s t r e n g t h was as e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g s t r e n g t h as a p r o l o n g a t i o n of t r a i n i n g frequency and an increase i n t r a i n i n g s t r e n g t h . 8 Crakes (19) came clos e t o d u p l i c a t i n g the f i n d i n g s of Hettinger and M u l l e r r e p o r t i n g a s t r e n g t h increase of about two percent per week. R a r i c k and Larsen (20) reported t h a t a s i n g l e , six-second c o n t r a c t i o n a t two-thirds maximum s t r e n g t h was j u s t as e f f e c t i v e as frequent c o n t r a c t i o n s a t f o u r - f i f t h s maximum s t r e n g t h f o r grade eleven and twelve boys. Wolbers and S i l l s (21), i n a study of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s t a t i c c o n t r a c t i o n s i n i n c r e a s i n g the s t r e n g t h of h i g h school boys, concluded t h a t s t a t i c c o n t r a c t i o n s of s i x seconds' d u r a t i o n w i l l cause s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n s t r e n g t h . Gardner (22) employed a six-second, two-thirds maximal i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n i n h i s study of the knee extensors and re p o r t e d t h a t i t caused a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n t o t a l s t r e n g t h . Taylor (23) i n a study of d i f f e r e n t s t a t i c t r a i n i n g methods found th a t no one way was s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e s t . Some s t u d i e s , however, i n d i c a t e t h a t b e t t e r s t r e n g t h gains can be obtained i f the f o r c e of c o n t r a c t i o n and the number of r e p e t i t i o n s are v a r i e d . Rasch (24), i n a review of i s o t o n i c and i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s , reported "... a considerable body of c o n t r a d i c t o r y evidence i s accumulating." L i t t l e f i e l d (25) reported t h a t a ten-second, e i g h t y percent maximal c o n t r a c t i o n performed three times a week f o r e i g h t weeks was s u f f i c i e n t t o cause a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n the right-hand g r i p s t r e n g t h of twelve and t h i r t e e n year o l d boys. Asa (26) found t h a t 9 i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s repeated twenty times gave b e t t e r r e s u l t s than d i d s i n g l e c o n t r a c t i o n s . The next n a t u r a l step i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of i s o m e t r i c muscle t r a i n i n g was a comparison of i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s w i t h i s o t o n i c e x e r c i s e s . In a comparison of s h o r t periods of s t a t i c c o n t r a c t i o n t o standard weight t r a i n i n g procedures Lorback (27) found t h a t both methods increased the s t r e n g t h and muscle g i r t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y but t h a t there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the groups. Other s t u d i e s (28,29,30,31) a l s o re p o r t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between i s o m e t r i c and i s o t o n i c e x e r c i s e s as used t o increase s t r e n g t h . Marley (32), i n a study of the s t r e n g t h of the elbow f l e x o r s of three groups of students, reported t h a t a f t e r t e n weeks of t r a i n i n g , s t r e n g t h as measured by the cable-tensiometer appeared t o be i n c r e a s e d e q u a l l y w e l l by both i s o t o n i c and i s o m e t r i c methods. Berger (33) t e s t e d the s t a t i c and dynamic s t r e n g t h of seventy-eight u n i v e r s i t y males before and a f t e r a 12 week t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . One group t r a i n e d s t a t i c a l l y , the other group t r a i n e d dynamically. Both groups showed an increase i n both s t r e n g t h s . Not a l l s t u d i e s , however, have revealed unequivocal f i n d i n g s , Rasch and Morehouse (34) reported t h a t i s o t o n i c e x e r c i s e s produced b e t t e r r e s u l t s than i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s , and Carr (35) reported t h a t f o r c o l l e g e women n e i t h e r progressive body c o n d i t i o n i n g nor i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e produced a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater increase i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s than d i d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e q u i r e d badminton c l a s s . In s p i t e of the few d i s s e n t i n g o p i n i o n s , i t i s now g e n e r a l l y agreed 10 (30,36) t h a t the t r a i n i n g stimulus t o increased muscular s t r e n g t h i s the development of t e n s i o n . Besides e x h i b i t i n g a keen i n t e r e s t i n s t r e n g t h , p h y s i c a l educators have long been i n t e r e s t e d i n the problem of endurance, both i n maintenance and i n improvement. C u r i o u s l y , the r e l a t i o n between s t r e n g t h and endurance i s not as d i r e c t as might f i r s t be imagined. Clarke (37) reported an i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between tensiometer s t r e n g t h of the tru n k f l e x o r s and s i t - u p s of only 0.13. I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted (38,39), how-ever, t h a t an increase i n muscular endurance f o l l o w s an increase i n muscular s t r e n g t h . T r a d i t i o n a l concepts of endurance t r a i n i n g were challenged by the i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e concept. L i b e r s o n and Asa (30) found t h a t a f t e r a twelve-week e x e r c i s e program, the time r e q u i r e d f o r the f o r c e of & sustained maximum i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n t o drop t o zero was as f o l l o w s : Group Holding Time A i s o t o n i c (DeLorme method) 200 sec. B i s o m e t r i c (1 c o n t r a c t i o n per day) 180 sec. C i s o m e t r i c (as group B ) (then 20 c o n t r a c t i o n s per) (day d u r i n g f i n a l 3 weeks) 240 sec. Walters e t a l . (40), i n study i n g the e f f e c t on endurance of three e x e r c i s e groups, reported the f o l l o w i n g percentage i n c r e a s e s : 11 Group Endurance Increase i s o t o n i c 8% 2/3 maximal i s o m e t r i c 12$ maximal i s o m e t r i c Two groups of students a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia were subjected t o an i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n and a weight t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n twice a week f o r e i g h t weeks. Dennison e t a l . (41), reporte d t h a t although the w e i g h t - t r a i n e d groups made greater gains i n upper amu endurance, the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of improvement of the groups was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Three groups of eleven subjects were equated on the b a s i s of b i c y c l i n g f o r two minutes a t f o u r t e e n kilograms' r e s i s t a n c e by Howell e t a l . (42). Group I f o l l o w e d a r e g u l a r weight t r a i n i n g program, group I I performed the commander s e t of e x e r c i s e s , and group I I I f o l l o w e d t h e i r normal a c t i v i t i e s . The experiment l a s t e d e i g h t weeks. At the c o n c l u s i o n of e i g h t weeks the subjects were r e t e s t e d on a b i c y c l e ergometer under o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n s . I t was hypothesized from the r e s u l t s t h a t increases i n muscular endurance may be e f f e c t e d by c e r t a i n programs of i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s as w e l l as by i s o t o n i c e x e r c i s e s . Swegan (43) l i k e w i s e attempted t o determine the e f f e c t of s t a t i c c o n t r a c t i o n and standard weight t r a i n i n g procedures on endurance. I t was concluded t h a t muscular endurance, based on composite scores, was increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f t e r t r a i n i n g by each method. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups were not obtained. 12 The present accepted opinion regarding isometric and isotonic exercise as reported by Parkinson ( 44 ) and Lawther ( 4 5 ) is that research indicates that isometric training methods are as good as dynamic train-ing methods i n increasing strength and endurance of muscles. 13 REFERENCES 1. DeLorme, T. L., Watkins, A. L., Progressive Resistance E x e r c i s e , New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1951* 2. L o v e t t , R. W., M a r t i n , E. G., "The Spring Balance Muscle Test", American Journa l of Orthopeadio Surgery, 10:415-424, J u l y 1916. 3. Rogers, F. R., "A Review of Recent Strength T e s t i n g L i t e r a t u r e " , Journal of Health and P h y s i c a l Education, 5:8-10:64-65, March 1934. 4. , " P h y s i c a l Capacity Tests i n the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l Education", C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Education, Teachers Co l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 173, 1925. 5. , "The S i g n i f i c a n c e of Strength Tests i n Revealing P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n " , Research -Quarterly, 5:43-46, October 1934. 6. Jones, H. E., Motor Performance and Growth, Berkley, C a l i f o r n i a , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a PreBs, 1949. 7. , "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n P h y s i c a l A b i l i t i e s " , Human B i o l o g y , 19:12-25, February 1947. 8. Sargent, D. A., "Strength Tests and the Strong Men of Harvard", American P h y s i c a l Education Review, 2:108-119, June 1897. 9. , " I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e Strength Tests", American P h y s i c a l Education Review, 2:216, 1897. 10. p "Twenty Years of Progress i n E f f i c i e n c y Tests", Amerioan P h y s i c a l Education Review, 17:453, 1913. 11. C l a r k e , H. H., "Objective Strength Tests of A f f e c t e d Muscle Groups Involved i n Orthopedic D i s a b i l i t i e s " , Research (Quarterly, 19:118, May 1948. 12. , "Improvement of Objective Strength Tests of Muscles by Cable Tension Methods", Research % i a r t e r l y , 21:399, December 1950. 13. , B a i l e y , T. L., Shay, C. T., "New Objective Strength Tests of Muscle Groups by Cable Tension Methods", Research Q u a r t e r l y , 23:136-148, May 1952. 14. , A Manual: Cable Tension Strength Tests, Chicopee, Massachusetts, Brown-Murphy Company, 1953. 14 15. Karpovich, P. V., Physiology of Muscular A c t i v i t y , P h i l a d e l p h i a , W. B. Saunders Company, 1959, p. 13. 16. H e t t i n g e r , T., M u l l e r , E. A., "Muskelleistung und M u s k e l t r a i n i n g " , A r b e i t p h y s i o l o g i e , 15:111-126, 1953. 17. Steinhaus, A. H., How t o Keep F i t and L i k e I t , Chicago, I l l i n o i s , The D a r t u e l Corporation, 1957, p. 40. 18. Gersten, J . W., "Isometric E x e r c i s e s i n the P a r a p l e g i c and i n the P a t i e n t w i t h Weakness of iJJuadrioeps and Hamstrings", Archives  of P h y s i c a l Medicine and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 42:498-506, 1961. 19. Crakes, if. 0., "An A n a l y s i s of Some Aspects of an E x e r c i s e and T r a i n i n g Program Developed by Hettinger and M u l l e r " , Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1957. 20. R a r i c k , G. L., Larsen, G. L., "Observations on Frequency and I n t e n s i t y of Isometric Muscular E f f o r t i n Developing S t a t i c Strength i n Post-Pubescent Males", Research Q u a r t e r l y , 29:333, October 1958. 21. Wolbers, C. P., S i l l s , F. D., "Development of Strength i n High School Boys by S t a t i c Muscle C o n t r a c t i o n s " , Research 'Quarterly, 27:446, December 1956. 22. Gardner, G. W., " S p e c i f i c i t y of Strength Changes of the E x e r c i s e d and Non-Exercised Limb F o l l o w i n g Isometric T r a i n i n g " , Research  ^Quarterly, 34:98-101, 1963. 23. T a y l o r , W. E., "A Study Comparing the E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Four S t a t i c C o n t r a c t i o n T r a i n i n g Methods f o r I n c r e a s i n g the C o n t r a c t i l e Strength of Two Body Movements", Unpublished Master's Thesis, Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y , 1954. 24. Rasch, P. J . , "Progressive Resistance E x e r c i s e : I s o t o n i c and Isometric: A Review," Journal of the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r P h y s i c a l and Mental  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 15:46-50, March-April 1961. 25. L i t t l e f i e l d , J . C., "The Development of Strength i n J u n i o r High School Boys by a Ten-Second S t a t i c Muscle C o n t r a c t i o n " , Unpublished Master's Thesis, Alabama P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e , 1957. 26. Asa, M., " E f f e c t of I s o t o n i c and Isometric E x e r c i s e s Upon the Strength of Muscle", Unpublished Doctor's D i s s e r t a t i o n , Spring-f i e l d C o l l e g e , 1958. 27. Lorback, M., "A Study Comparing the E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Short Periods of S t a t i c C o n t r a c t i o n t o Standard Weight T r a i n i n g Procedures", Unpublished Master's Thesis, Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y , 1955. 15 28. Baer, A. D., Gersten, J . W., Robertson, B. M., Binken, H., " E f f e c t of Various E x e r c i s e Programs on Isometric Tension, Endurance, and Reaction Time i n the Human", Archives of P h y s i c a l Medicine  and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 36:495, August 1955. 29. Meadows, P. E., "The E f f e c t of I s o t o n i c Muscle C o n t r a c t i o n T r a i n i n g on Speed, Force, and Strength", Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1959. 30. L i b e r s o n , W. T., Asa, M. M., "Further Studies of B r i e f Isometric E x e r c i s e s " , Archives of P h y s i c a l Medicine and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 40:330-336, August, 1959. 31. Darcus, H. D. and S a l t e r , N., "The E f f e c t of Repeated Muscle E x e r t i o n on Muscle Strength", J o u r n a l of Physiology, 129:325-336, August 1955. 32. Marley, W. P., "The Comparative E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Isometric E x e r c i s e and I s o t o n i c E x e r c i s e i n the Development of Muscular Strength, Endurance and G i r t h " , Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Maryland, 1962. 33. Berger, R. A., "Comparison of S t a t i c and Dynamic Strength Increases", Research Q u a r t e r l y , 33:329-333, 1962. 34. Rasch, P. J . , Morehouse, L.E., " E f f e c t of S t a t i c and Dynamic E x e r c i s e on Muscular Strength and Hypertrophy", Journal of A p p l i e d  Physiology, 12:29, J u l y 1957. 35. C a r r , N. J . , "The E f f e c t of Isometric C o n t r a c t i o n and Progressive Body C o n d i t i o n i n g E x e r c i s e s on Selected Aspects of P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s and Badminton Achievement of College Women", Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1962. i 36. Rasch, P. J . , P i e r s o n , W. R., " R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Maximum Isometric Tension and Breaking Strength of Forearm F l e x o r s " , Research  % i a r t e r l y , 31:534-535, 1960. 37. C l a r k e , H. H., "R e l a t i o n s h i p s of Strength and Anthropometric Measures t o P h y s i c a l Performances I n v o l v i n g the Trunk and Legs", Research  Q u a r t e r l y , 28:223-232, October 1957. 38. Josenkans, W. K. T., "An E v a l u a t i o n of Some Methods of Improving Muscle Strength", Revue Canadienne de B i o l o g i e , 21:314-323, September-December 1962. 39. Capen, E. K., "A Study of Four Programs of Heavy Resistance E x e r c i s e s f o r Development of Muscular Strength", Research Q u a r t e r l y , 27:132, May 1956. 16 40. Walters, C. E., Stewart, C. L., L e C l a i r e , J . F., " E f f e c t of Short Bouts of Isometric and I s o t o n i c Contractions on Muscular Strength and Endurance", American Journal of P h y s i c a l Medicine, 39:131-141, August 1960. 41. Dennison, J . D., Howell, M. L., Morford, W. R., " E f f e c t of Isometric and I s o t o n i c E x e r c i s e on Muscular Endurance", Research Q u a r t e r l y , 32:348-352, October 1961. 42. Howell, M. L. Kimoto, R., Morford, W. R., " E f f e c t of Isometric and I s o t o n i c E x e r c i s e Programs Upon Muscular Endurance," Research  t&Jarterly, 33:536-540, December 1962. 43. Swegan, D. B., "The Comparison of S t a t i c C o n t r a c t i o n With S t a t i c T r a i n i n g i n E f f e c t on C e r t a i n Movement Speeds and Endurance", Unpublished Ed.D. Thesis, Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y , 1957. 44. Parkinson, G. J . , "A Summary of Current Research i n Isometric E x e r c i s e " , Unpublished P h y s i c a l Education Graduating Essay, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1964. 45. Lawther, J . D., "The Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y Studies on Strength Decrement, Maintenance and Related Aspects", S i x t y - F i r s t  Annual Proceedings of the College P h y s i c a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1958, p. 142. CHAPTER IV METHODS AND PROCEDURES This study was a comparison of gains i n s t r e n g t h and endurance of two equated groups of j u n i o r secondary school boys. One of these groups performed a s i n g l e , six-second, maximal i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n of the t r u n k f l e x o r muscles once a day, f i v e days a week f o r f i v e weeks wh i l e the other group d i d not do the e x e r c i s e . For the purpose of t h i s study the s t r e n g t h of the t r u n k f l e x o r muscles was measured by the Cable-Tension Method ( l ) and the endurance of the t r u n k f l e x o r muscles was determined by a s i x t y - s e c o n d f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t (2). The subjects f o r t h i s study were chosen from a volunteer group of f i f t y - o n e grade e i g h t or grade nine boys i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g p a r t i n a muscle t r a i n i n g experiment. A l l these boys were i n r e g u l a r attendance a t Edmonds J u n i o r Secondary School, Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r the d u r a t i o n of the study. P i l o t Study A p i l o t study i n v o l v i n g a s i m i l a r group of volunteer boys was completed i n the previous year. These boys were equated on the r e s u l t s of tensiometer t e s t s of the trunk f l e x o r muscles and randomly placed i n a c o n t r o l group and a t r a i n i n g group. Ten equated p a i r s r e s u l t e d from t h i s procedure. These two groups were a l s o t e s t e d on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o do f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p s t o exhaustion. The t r a i n i n g group then underwent a t r a i n i n g p e r i o d of three weeks i n v o l v i n g a d a i l y , s i n g l e , six-second, 18 maximal i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n of the t r u n k f l e x o r muscles. The c o n t r o l group undertook only t h e i r normal p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r the t h r e e -week p e r i o d . At the end of t h i s p e r i o d both groups were r e t e s t e d f o r s t r e n g t h and endurance of the trunk f l e x o r muscles. Two sources of d i f f i c u l t y were observed by the w r i t e r d u r ing the p i l o t study. F i r s t l y , the subjects experienced great d i f f i c u l t y i n p u l l i n g c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h the tensiometer apparatus and secondly, many subjects were unable to overcome the p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r inherent i n performing an endurance t e s t t o exhaustion (3 ) . I t was f e l t t h a t i n any f u t u r e study an attempt would have to be made t o minimize these two d i f f i c u l t i e s . F i n a l Study A t the f i r s t meeting of the boys who volunteered f o r the study the nature of the experiment was expl a i n e d and a p r a c t i c e program was arranged. The purpose of t h i s p r a c t i c e program was t o f a m i l i a r i z e the subj e c t s w i t h the t e s t s and apparatus t o be used. I t was hoped t h a t t h i s would e l i m i n a t e the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s of performance t h a t were so apparent d u r i n g the p i l o t study. The P r a c t i c e Procedure Used With The Tensiometer The f i f t y - o n e v o l u n t e e r subjects were a r b i t r a r i l y placed i n groups of f i v e or fewer. 1. The groups inspected the tensiometer apparatus, watched a demonstration of the t e s t and then performed two p u l l s i n the 19 r e q u i r e d p o s i t i o n . As the tensiometer c o u l d not be obtained a t t h i s time scores f o r these p u l l s ( P P l ) could not be recorded. 2. A few days l a t e r the subjects were again allowed two p u l l s i n the r e q u i r e d p o s i t i o n . Again the tensiometer was not a v a i l a b l e and these p u l l s (PP2) were not recorded. A f t e r each p u l l the w r i t e r c o r r e c t e d the technique of the subject and encouraged him as much as p o s s i b l e . From the i n t e r e s t and e f f o r t shown by the subjects i t appeared t h a t a h i g h degree of m o t i v a t i o n was obtained. I t was f e l t t h a t a f t e r these f o u r p r a c t i c e p u l l s w i t h the c a b l e - t e n s i o n apparatus, the subjects were ready t o c a r r y on w i t h the i n i t i a l s t r e n g t h t e s t s . The endurance t e s t was not done u n t i l exhaustion, but was designed so t h a t the number of r e p e t i t i o n s completed i n a given time i n t e r v a l were counted. In the p i l o t study a f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t w i t h no time l i m i t was used. In t h i s p i l o t study, subjects showing a h i g h l e v e l of endurance i n the i n i t i a l t e s t , seemed, on r e t e s t , t o view the t a s k of matching or b e t t e r i n g t h e i r previous mark as hopeless, and de s p i t e prompting, gave up w e l l short of t h e i r previous score. In an attempt t o solve t h i s problem a si x t y - s e c o n d , f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t was s e l e c t e d t o measure endurance. The P r a c t i c e Procedure For The Sit-Up Test The volunteers f i r s t watched a demonstration of the s i x t y - s e c o n d , f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t . The subjects were p a i r e d and a f i f t e e n second 20 t r i a l s i t - u p t e s t was performed by one s u b j e c t w i t h the second one s c o r i n g and then by the second w i t h the f i r s t s u b j e c t keeping score. As t h i s i s a simple t e s t t o perform and score one p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n seemed adequate. I n i t i a l Tests One week a f t e r the completion of the p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n the subjects were measured f o r t r u n k f l e x i o n s t r e n g t h by the tensiometer. Each of the f i f t y - o n e subjects was t e s t e d twice w i t h both t e s t s c o n s i s t -i n g of two t r i a l s . There was a time i n t e r v a l of from three t o f o u r days between these two t e s t s . The scores from these t e s t s were recorded as i n i t i a l tensiometer t e s t 1 (IT ) and i n i t i a l tensiometer t e s t 2 (IT ). 1 2 Two days a f t e r the l a s t tensiometer t e s t had been given the sixty-second f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t (IE) was administered t o the f i f t y - o n e s u b j e c t s . P r e l i m i n a r y evidence from the p i l o t study w i t h the c a b l e - t e n s i o n t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y of best scores f o r T r i a l s IT^ and ITg would be b e t t e r than, or a t l e a s t equal t o , the r e l i a b i l i t y of the average scores f o r T r i a l s IT^ and ITg. 'Best scores' were t h e r e f o r e used i n t h i s study as the performance scores of the subjects i n the tensiometer t e s t . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e or f i n a l tensiometer scores used f o r the experimental study (ITS) were the best of the f o u r scores made by the subjects i n t e s t s I T j and ITg. S i m i l a r l y the average score of each i n d i v i d u a l was the averaged scores from both t e s t s IT^ and ITg. This can be represented s c h e m a t i c a l l y as f o l l o w s : 21 Best Scores Average Scores a ) best of two) ) IT. 1 b a average c ) ITS - best of ) four chosen c average of four chosen best of two) ) IT 2 d average Matching of Subjects The subjects were matched i n p a i r s on the b a s i s of t h e i r b est s t r e n g t h scores obtained i n tensiometer t e s t s IT and IT • The matching procedure was as f o l l o w s : a) A l l subjects were placed i n rank order according t o t h e i r b est s t r e n g t h s c o r e . b) Subjects who were not w i t h i n two pounds of another s u b j e c t were e l i m i n a t e d from the study. The others were p a i r e d , s t a r t i n g from the top of the rank order and working down. c) S i x t e e n matched p a i r s were obtained by t h i s method. d) The subject's name, along w i t h an i d e n t i f y i n g number, was then w r i t t e n on a card and placed i n a c o n t a i n e r . e) Cards were drawn randomly one a t a time from t h i s container and placed i n a p i l e u n t i l there were s i x t e e n cards i n the p i l e . Subjects who were represented by these cards formed the muscle t r a i n i n g group. f ) Whenever cards were drawn f o r both members of a matched p a i r , the one drawn l a s t was placed i n a second p i l e . Subjects who were represented by these cards were placed i n the c o n t r o l group along 22 w i t h those whose cards remained i n the container a t the completion of the draw, g) This formed two matched groups w i t h one member of a matched p a i r i n each group. For the next f i v e weeks the members of the muscle t r a i n i n g group performed a d a i l y , s i n g l e , six-second, maximal i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e of the trunk f l e x o r muscles i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r normal p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . During t h i s five-week p e r i o d the c o n t r o l group took p a r t i n t h e i r normal p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o nly. The s i x t e e n matched p a i r s were l a t e r reduced to f i f t e e n p a i r s f o l l o w i n g an i n j u r y t o one of the s u b j e c t s . Isometric E x e r c i s e Procedures i The i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e sessions began on the school day f o l l o w i n g the s e l e c t i o n of the two groups. The members of the experimental group reported t o the gymnasium Monday through F r i d a y a t 8:30 a.m. Here they performed a s i n g l e , six-second, maximal i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e of the t r u n k f l e x o r muscles, A d a i l y attendance r e c o r d was kept. The i s o m e t r i c muscle t r a i n i n g group, group M, was d i v i d e d i n t o p a i r s (Partners A and B ) , The d a i l y procedure was as f o l l o w s : 1 , Partner A assumed a b a c k - l y i n g p o s i t i o n on the f l o o r , f e e t f i r m l y placed i n a s l o t a t the bottom of the gymnasium w a l l w i t h arms clasped around h i s chest, 2. Partner B k n e l t a t the head of N A N and h e l d "A's" shoulders t o 23 the f l o o r . 3. On the command "begin", partner A attempted a "V" s i t - u p w h i l e partner B r e s t r a i n e d him from doing the "V" s i t - u p . 4. A maximum e f f o r t was made u n t i l the command "stop". This e f f o r t was f o r a p e r i o d of s i x seconds timed on a stopwatch. 5. Partner B then performed the e x e r c i s e w h i l e partner A r e s t r a i n e d him. F i n a l Tests A l l subjects were r e t e s t e d w i t h two tensiometer t e s t s of two p u l l s each (FT., and FT ) and one f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t of s i x t y seconds d u r a t i o n (FE). The best score achieved on the tensiometer t r i a l s was recorded (FTS) as the performance score. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods Since the two groups c o n s i s t e d of randomly-selected matched p a i r s from a volunteer p o p u l a t i o n of grade e i g h t and grade nine boys, and since the number of such p a i r s was fewer than f i f t y , s m a l l sample the o r y methods were used i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Strength Test A n a l y s i s The r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e s between means of i n i t i a l and f i n a l s t r e n g t h scores was t e s t e d by means of F i s h e r ' s t s t a t i s t i c f o r matched d a t a . f o r t 1. the experimental group alone 24 2* the c o n t r o l group alone 3. the two matched groups together, where the i n i t i a l and f i n a l means were a c t u a l l y mean d i f f e r e n c e s between the p a i r e d scores of the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s . The formula (4) used f o r the p a i r e d s t r e n g t h score data was t ( d f » N - l ) = D ' i ? " 1 — where N = the number of D - values ( p a i r s ) i n the sample D = the d i f f e r e n c e i n g a i n shown by each matched p a i r D m the mean of the sample of D - values Sj}= the standard d e v i a t i o n of the sample of D - values df» degrees of freedom The s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses t e s t e d f o r p a i r e d s t r e n g t h score data were: 1. D i f f e r e n c e s i n i n i t i a l and f i n a l mean scores f o r experimental (muscle t r a i n i n g ) group. M F - I - 0 1 U F - I > 0 2. D i f f e r e n c e s i n i n i t i a l and f i n a l mean scores f o r c o n t r o l group. H: /D U F - I ~ 0 H: / D F - I > 0 3. D i f f e r e n c e s between mean d i f f e r e n c e s of experimental and c o n t r o l group. 25 H : / D , 0 Hs f D, > 0 Endurance Test A n a l y s i s The r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e between means of i n i t i a l and f i n a l endurance scores was t e s t e d by means of F i s h e r ' s t s t a t i s t i c f o r : 1. the muscle t r a i n i n g group alone. 2. the c o n t r o l group alone. Each of the fo r e g o i n g groups was t r e a t e d as matched p a i r s , i . e . , the i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores f o r each i n d i v i d u a l were t r u l y matched ( i n f a l l i b l e c r i t e r i o n ) . The same standard e r r o r formula used i n a n a l y s i n g the st r e n g t h performance scores was used f o r 1 and 2 above. 3. the experimental and c o n t r o l groups together where the i n i t i a l and f i n a l means were a c t u a l l y mean d i f f e r e n c e s between i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores of each group. Since the subjects of both experimental and c o n t r o l groups were not matched i n p a i r s on i n i t i a l s i t - u p t e s t performance, the question arose as to whether or not there was a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e n g t h and endurance scores. This was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n order t o consider whether or not the subjects were reasonably matched on a f a l l i b l e c r i t e r i o n . The c o r r e l a t i o n between s t r e n g t h and endurance scores f o r f i f t y - o n e subjects was 0.17 which was too low t o increase p r e c i s i o n any more than would be obtained by using a formula f o r unmatched data. 26 The standard e r r o r formula + S 2 was used f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the endurance scores although i n an a l t e r n a t i v e but e q u i v a l e n t form ( 5 ) , The s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis t e s t e d were 1* f o r the muscle t r a i n i n g group Ht / D < 0 M F-I H i / D . 2. f o r the c o n t r o l group H: /> D F-I H: D > 0 °F-I 3. f o r d i f f e r e n c e between mean d i f f e r e n c e s of muscle t r a i n i n g and c o n t r o l groups Hi /'D.. - / D ^ 0 ?-I F-I H: D - / D„ > 0 V l °F-I The s t a t i s t i c a l treatment u s i n g equated p a i r s provided a powerful 27 t e s t of the n u l l hypothesis. The l e v e l of confidence chosen f o r t h i s study was 0.10. I t was considered t h a t since the main concern of the study was t o determine whether or not i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e was an e f f e c t i v e means of i n c r e a s i n g s t r e n g t h of the t r u n k f l e x o r s , and t h a t s i n c e i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s , i f e f f e c t i v e , would be advantageous over other methods i n terms of space, time, and equipment i n schools, the danger of a type I e r r o r should be minimized. I n other words, i f a procedure has reasonable p r o b a b i l i t y of being e f f e c t i v e and i f a t the same time there i s no r e a l disadvantage i n u s i n g i t even though i t might i n t r u t h be i n e f f e c t i v e , then there i s no p o i n t i n s e t t i n g a h i g h l e v e l of confidence. A o n e - t a i l e d t e s t was used f o r the c r i t i c a l r e g i o n s i n c e there was no cause t o b e l i e v e t h a t the subjects would not show improvement. R e l i a b i l i t y of the Test Items Pearson r c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d using i n i t i a l tensiometer t e s t s IT^ and IT^. Since the problem of r e l i a b i l i t y was important i n t h i s study i t was decided t o examine other measures of r e l i a b i l i t y as w e l l . An attempt was made to examine the group s t a b i l i t y from t e s t t o r e t e s t on the i n i t i a l tensiometer t e s t s by a n a l y s i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the two t e s t s . The l e v e l of confidence chosen was 0.05 w i t h a t w o - t a i l c r i t i c a l r e g i o n . Another aspect of r e l i a b i l i t y (absolute r e l i a b i l i t y ) was determined by the standard e r r o r of measurement of the i n i t i a l t e s t s of s t r e n g t h and "noting those subjects whose scores v a r i e d by more than pl;«ss or minus two 28 times the standard e r r o r of measurement. The formula used f o r t h i s purpose was S.E. = S_ . . .i| 1 - r 'meas. T r i a l l\ T r i a l 1, T r i a l 2 29 REFERENCES 1. C l a r k e , H. H. A Manualt Cable-Tension Strength Tests, Chicopee, Massachusetts, Brown-Murphy Company, 1953. 2. Yuhasz, M. S. "The 5 Minute Muscular Enduranoe Test", Journal of the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Rec r e a t i o n , 5:13-14, 1963. 3. I k a i , M., Steinhaus, A. H. Health and F i t n e s s i n the Modern World, The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , 1961, pp. 148-161. 4. Blommers, P., L i n d q u i s t , E. F., Elementary S t a t i s t i c a l Methods, Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1960, p. 350. 5. I b i d . , p. 347. CHAPTER V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION R e l i a b i l i t y Pearson r c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t e s t s I t l and IT2, using b e s t scores and average sc o r e s , are given i n Table I . As p r e v i o u s l y described i n Chapter IV the "best s c o r e " method was chosen f o r t h i s study as there appeared t o be no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e l i a b i l i t y between "average scores and "best s c o r e " methods. The "average s c o r e s " method was used i n the p i l o t study and d i d not produce c o n s i s t e n t s t r e n g t h scores* TABLE I PEARSON r COEFFICIENTS FOR THE INITIAL STRENGTH TESTS (IT1,IT2) S c o r i n g Method N Pearson r b e s t scores 51 .72 average scores 51 .74 The problem of o b t a i n i n g c o n s i s t e n t scores w i t h the c a b l e - t e n s i o n apparatus ap p a r e n t l y does not i n v o l v e the s c o r i n g method used as much as i t i n v o l v e s the number of t r i a l s t h a t the subjects are allowed w i t h the apparatus. I n a r e l i a b i l i t y study, Brown and F i e l d ( l ) found t h a t when subjects were given f o u r t r i a l s on the same t e s t , w i t h adequate r e s t between t r i a l s , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the means of e a r l y t r i a l s occurred i n most in s t a n c e s , but the d i f f e r e n c e between means of t r i a l s 3 and 4 were not s i g n i f i c a n t . These t e s t s were motor f i t n e s s items; i . e . , 31 items of the AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s Test. Results such as these seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i n order t o o b t a i n a h i g h degree of consistency ( r e l i a b i l i t y ) on a p h y s i c a l t e s t of s t r e n g t h , s u b j e c t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o being adequately motivated, should be t e s t e d again and again u n t i l there i s no longer improvement from p r a c t i c e alone. This procedure, however, was not f e a s i b l e i n t h i s study. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the s t a t i s t i c s obtained i n an a n a l y s i s of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e between means of i n i t i a l (pre-experimental) t e s t - r e t e s t s t r e n g t h scores. TABLE I I RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL TEST - RETEST SCORES Means Mean Stand. Dev. ^ • ^ • f r * Accept/Reject N IT1 IT2 D i f f . IT1 ,:. IT2 S t a t . C. R. No D i f f e r e n c e 51 59.67 66.67 +7.0 20.45 21.66 4.22 +1.65 +1.605 Accept The means of the i n i t i a l s t r e n g t h measurements IT1 and IT2 appeared t o be reasonably s t a b l e . A n a l y s i s of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e between means produced a ' t ' s t a t i s t i c of 1.65 which was not s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l of confidence. The low r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .72 d i d show, however, t h a t some i n d i v i d u a l s f a i l e d t o ma i n t a i n t h e i r rank order from t e s t t o r e t e s t . A t h i r d measure of r e l i a b i l i t y - the standard e r r o r of measurement -32 was 12.6 l b s . f o r the i n i t i a l t e s t s . Plus or minus two standard e r r o r s of measurement (+ 2 x 12.6) about an observed score can be considered a r e g i o n w i t h i n which an i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r u e score would f a l l 95.4 percent of the time. Of the f i f t y - o n e volunteers i n the study, seven i n d i v i d u a l s were found whose scores from IT1 t o IT2 v a r i e d by more than 25.2 l b s . (+ 2 S.E. measurement). F i v e of these i n d i v i d u a l s were among those e l i m i n a t e d from the experiment during the procedure of o b t a i n i n g matched p a i r s . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s Table I I I shows r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e of i n i t i a l and f i n a l mean scores made by each of the groups on t h e i r t e s t s of s t r e n g t h and endurance. The purpose was t o determine i f over the experimental p e r i o d s i g n i f i c a n t mean changes i n s t r e n g t h and endurance of the trunk f l e x o r muscles d i d occur i n each group. TABLE I I I RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL AND FINAL TEST SCORES Group N V a r i a b l e Means I n i t i a l F i n a l Mean D i f f . Stand. Dev. S' E-D t S t a t . Acc/Rej C.R. No D i f f . M 15 Strength 68.67 83.27 14.60 15.20 4.06 3.59 1.35 R e j e c t M 15 Endurance 30.6 35.4 4.80 2.64 .71 6.80 1.35 Reject , c . 15 Strength 68.86 81.87 12.99 17.80 4.76 2.73 1.35 Reject c 15 Endurance 30.53 33.40 2.87 3.28 .88 3.27 1.35 R e j e c t 33 In a l l f o u r analyses the ' t ' s t a t i s t i c was s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o show r e j e c t i o n of the s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis of no d i f f e r e n c e between means. A l l of the i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g s t u d i e s reviewed show s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gains between i n i t i a l and f i n a l measures. These gains were u s u a l l y s i m i l a r t o those achieved by other groups which were matched w i t h the i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g group but which used other methods of s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g . Table IV shows percentage gains of groups M and C f o r both s t r e n g t h and endurance. TABLE TV PERCENT GAINS FOR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE Group Strength Endurance M 21.2 15.1 C 18.9 9.1 Percentage gains of the experimental group have a marked s i m i l a r i t y t o those of other s t u d i e s (2,3,4,5) i n which weekly s t r e n g t h gains of two t o f i v e percent were r e p o r t e d . The reasons f o r the large gains made by the c o n t r o l group over the five-week p e r i o d are unknown, but are p o s s i b l y due t o one or more of s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . Members of the c o n t r o l group were extremely i n t e r e s t e d i n the proposed experiment and e x h i b i t e d considerable disappointment when t o l d t h a t they would not be p a r t of the muscle t r a i n i n g group. 34 During the f i n a l tensiometer t e s t s many of the c o n t r o l group expressed a n x i e t y about doing b e t t e r than the muscle t r a i n i n g group. The unexpected changes i n the s t r e n g t h scores of the c o n t r o l group could have r e s u l t e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , from e x t r a o r d i n a r y d e s i r e t o surpass the members of the experimental group. Although the c o n t r o l group was asked not t o p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s t h a t would s p e c i f i c a l l y strengthen the trunk f l e x o r s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t e x e r c i s e s were done i n which the s t r e n g t h and endurance of these muscles might have been increased w h i l e a c t i n g as s y n e r g i s t s . F i n a l l y , because of the r a p i d growth i n p h y s i c a l maturation t h a t occurs a t t h i s age, the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some of the improvement of the c o n t r o l group over the five-week p e r i o d was due to a n a t u r a l increase i n s t r e n g t h cannot be overlooked. Table V shows the s t a t i s t i c s obtained i n an a n a l y s i s of the r e l i a b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n c e between the matched p a i r s i n the s t r e n g t h t e s t . TABLE V RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STRENGTH SCORES OF MATCHED PAIRS N Mean Standard S.E.—. t Accept/Reject D i f f . D e v i a t i o n D S t a t i s t i c C.R. No D i f f e r e n c e 15 +1.40 18.4 7.33 .285 1.35 Accept The t s t a t i s t i c of 0.285 r e s u l t e d i n acceptance of the hypothesis of no d i f f e r e n c e between mean gains of the equated groups. F a i l u r e t o 35 show a d i f f e r e n c e between mean gains of two groups i s sometimes the r e s u l t of u n r e l i a b l e data. I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o determine whether or not the data are h i g h l y u n r e l i a b l e i n t h i s study. The great d i f f e r e n c e between i n i t i a l and f i n a l mean scores of the c o n t r o l group was i n marked c o n t r a s t t o the t e s t - r e t e s t mean scores of t h i s group before the experiment began. There was no apparent e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the c o n t r o l group was v e r y determined t o do w e l l on the f i n a l t e s t and t h a t the t e s t item i s subject t o l a r g e s c a l e contamination by such m o t i v a t i o n a l e f f e c t s . The comparatively low r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .72 shows t h a t repeated t e s t i n g before the experiment f o r a minimum of s i x recorded t e s t s may be necessary as p a r t of the preparatory t r a i n i n g f o r c a b l e - t e n s i o n t e s t s w i t h a group of schoolboys* Table VI shows the s t a t i s t i c s obtained i n an a n a l y s i s of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e between mean d i f f e r e n c e s i n the endurance scores of the muscle t r a i n i n g and c o n t r o l groups. TABLE VI RELIABILITY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FINAL ENDURANCE SCORES OF THE TWO GROUPS Standard Mean D e v i a t i o n s»E»?r * Accept/Reject D i f f . M C D S t a t . C. R. No Di f f e r e n c e 2.0 4.06 4.06 1.53 1.31 1.35 Accept 1.31 i n d i c a t e s the acceptance of the hypothesis of no Means N M C 15 35.4 33.4 A t s t a t i s t i c of 36 d i f f e r e n c e between the means a t the 0.10 l e v e l of confidence. Equating the groups on one v a r i a b l e only; i . e . , s t r e n g t h of the trunk f l e x o r muscles, was a disadvantage, since s t r e n g t h had a low c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h endurance and thus reduced p r e c i s i o n i n the s t a t i s t i c s used. 37 REFERENCES 1. Brown, S. R., F i e l d , A., " R e l i a b i l i t y and E r r o r s of Measurement of the &AHPER Youth F i t n e s s Test", Unpublished Paper, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1964. 2. H e t t i n g e r , T. H., M u l l e r , E. A., "Muskelleistung und M u s k e l t r a i n i n g " , A r b e i t p h y s i o l o g i e , 15:111-126, 1953. 3. Crakes, J . G., "An A n a l y s i s of Some Aspects of an Exer c i s e and T r a i n i n g Program Developed by Hettinger and M u l l e r " , Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1957. 4. C l a r k e , H. H., "Isometric and I s o t o n i c T r a i n i n g " , P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s News L e t t e r , Eugene, Oregon, S e r i e s V I , Number 8, A p r i l 1960. 5. Steinhaus, A. H., How to Keep F i t and L i k e I t , Chicago, I l l i n o i s , The D a r t u e l Corporation, 1957, p. 40. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t of i s o m e t r i c muscle t r a i n i n g on the s t r e n g t h and endurance of j u n i o r secondary school boys. F i f t y - o n e volunteer grade e i g h t or grade nine boys a t t e n d i n g Edmonds J u n i o r Secondary School were t e s t e d f o r t r u n k f l e x o r s t r e n g t h by the c a b l e - t e n s i o n method and f o r t r u n k f l e x o r endurance by a s i x t y -second f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t . The boys were matched on the b a s i s of the s t r e n g t h of the trunk f l e x o r s as measured by the cable tensiometer. Students were considered to be matched i f t h e i r s t r e n g t h scores were w i t h i n two pounds of one another. F i f t e e n p a i r s r e s u l t e d from matching by t h i s method. Two groups were formed by random s e l e c t i o n so t h a t one member of each matched p a i r was i n each group. One group was c a l l e d the muscle t r a i n i n g group (group M) the other was c a l l e d the c o n t r o l group (group C Group M undertook a s i n g l e , d a i l y , six-second, maximal i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n of the tr u n k f l e x o r s f o r a p e r i o d of f i v e weeks. Group C undertook only t h e i r normal p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s during the f i v e week p e r i o d . A t the co n c l u s i o n of the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d the two groups were r e t e s t e d f o r s t r e n g t h and endurance f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l t e s t procedure In the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the data Pearson £ c o e f f i c i e n t s 39 were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the i n i t i a l tensiometer t e s t s and s i x F i s h e r ' t * s t a t i s t i c s were obtained to t e s t the hypothesis of no d i f f e r e n c e between the means of groups f o r v a r i a b l e s of stre n g t h and endurance. The Pearson r r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the i n i t i a l tensiometer t e s t t r i a l s was 0.72. The magnitude of t h i s r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i n d i c a t e d some change i n rank order of subjects between t e s t s . Both the experimental and c o n t r o l groups made mean changes i n s t r e n g t h scores t h a t were very s i m i l a r . The s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e between them was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . In the endurance t e s t f o r s i x t y seconds, the experimental group showed a mean d i f f e r e n c e of two s i t - u p s greater than the mean d i f f e r e n c e of the c o n t r o l group. This d i f f e r e n c e between groups was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Conclusions 1. I t was not p o s s i b l e t o come to any conclusions about the e f f e c t of the i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g program used i n t h i s study upon the st r e n g t h of the tr u n k f l e x o r muscles of adolescent boys. 2. There was a mean raw score increase of 4.8 s i t - u p s i n s i x t y seconds f o r the t r a i n i n g group compared w i t h a mean raw score increase of 2.87 s i t - u p s f o r the c o n t r o l group. The mean d i f f e r e n c e between groups f e l l j u s t below t h a t r e q u i r e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the 0.10 l e v e l of confidence. Therefore i t must be concluded t h a t there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n endurance f o r the experimental group as measured by the si x t y - s e c o n d , f e e t -40 f r e e s i t - u p t e s t . Re c ommendati ons 1. In any study using the cable-tensiometer technique t o measure the st r e n g t h of the tr u n k f l e x o r muscles of adolescent boys, i t i s recommended t h a t repeated t r i a l s should be given t o the subjects u n t i l there i s no longer any improvement t h a t could be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o p r a c t i c e . This might be f o r as many as s i x or e i ght s e parate t r i a l s . 2. To make a more v a l i d assessment of the e f f e c t of i s o m e t r i c musole t r a i n i n g on endurance of the trunk f l e x o r muscles of adolescent boys, i t i s recommended t h a t a two-minute, f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t be used i n place of the si x t y - s e c o n d , f e e t - f r e e s i t - u p t e s t used i n t h i s study. 3. There does not seem t o be any reason f o r matching the subjects as c l o s e l y as was done i n t h i s study. Almost h a l f of the volunteer group was l o s t by the matching of the subjects w i t h i n a tensiometer s t r e n g t h score of two pounds. A more reasonable technique would, have been t o match subjects whose s t r e n g t h scores were w i t h i n f i v e pounds of each other. BOOKS 41 BIBLIOGRAPHY Blommers, P., L i n d q u i s t , E. F., Elementary S t a t i s t i c a l Methods, Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1960. i C l a r k e , H. H., A Manual: Cable-Tension Strength Tests, Chicopee, Massachusetts, Brown-Murphy Company, 1953. DeLorme, T. L., Watkins, A. L., Progressive Resistance E x e r c i s e , New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Incorporated, 1951. I k a i , M., Steinhaus, A. H., Health and F i t n e s s i n the Modern World, The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , 1961. Jones, H. E., Motor Performance and Growth, Be r k l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1949. Karpovich, P. V., Physiology of Muscular A c t i v i t y , P h i l a d e l p h i a , W. B. Saunders Company, 1959, p. 13. Mathews, D. K., Measurement i n P h y s i c a l Education, P h i l a d e l p h i a , W. B. Saunders Company, 1959. Steinhaus, A. H., How t o Keep F i t and L i k e I t , Chicago, I l l i n o i s , The Da r t u e l Corporation, 1957, p. 40. W e l l s , K. F., K i n e s i o l o g y , P h i l a d e l p h i a , W. B. Saunders Company, 1960. PERIODICALS Asa, M., " E f f e c t of I s o t o n i c and Isometric E x e r c i s e s Upon the Strength of Muscle", Unpublished Doctor's D i s s e r t a t i o n , S p r i n g f i e l d C o l l e g e , 1958. Baer, A. D., Gersten, J . W., Robertson, B. M., Dinken, H., " E f f e c t of Various E x e r c i s e Programs on Isometric Tension, Endurance, and Reaction Time i n the Human", Archives of P h y s i c a l Medicine and  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 36:495, August 1955. Berger, R. A., "Comparison of S t a t i c and Dynamic Strength Increases", Research Jfotarterly, 33:329-333, 1962. Brown, S. R. F i e l d , A., " R e l i a b i l i t y and E r r o r s of Measurement of the AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s Test", Unpublished Paper, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1964. Capen, E. K., "The E f f e c t of Systematic Weight T r a i n i n g on Power, Strength, and Endurance", Research i&uarterly, 21:83, May 1950. 42 , "A Study of Four Programs of Heavy Resistance E x e r c i s e s f o r Development of Muscular Strength", Research .Quarterly, 27:132, May 1956. Carr, N. J . , "The E f f e c t of Isometric C o n t r a c t i o n and Progressive Body Co n d i t i o n i n g E x e r c i s e s on S e l e c t e d Aspects of P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s and Badminton Achievement of College Women", Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1962. C l a r k e , D. H., "The Energy Cost of Isometric E x e r c i s e " , Research  •Quarterly, 31:3, March 1960. C l a r k e , H. H., "Objective Strength Tests of A f f e c t e d Muscle Groups Involved i n Orthopedic D i s a b i l i t i e s " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , 19:118, May 1948. _, "Improvement of Objective Strength Tests of Muscles by Cable-Tension Methods", Research Q u a r t e r l y , 21:399, December 1950. , "Isometric and I s o t o n i c T r a i n i n g " , P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s News L e t t e r , Eugene, Oregon, S e r i e s VI, Number 8, A p r i l 1960. , B a i l e y , T. L., Shay, C. T., "New Objective Strength Tests of Muscle Groups by Cable-Tension Methods", Research ^Quarterly, 23:136-148, May 1952. , " R e l a t i o n s h i p s of Strength and Anthropometric Measures t o P h y s i c a l Performances I n v o l v i n g the Trunk and Legs", Research  (Quarterly, 28:223-232, October 1957. Crakes, J . G., "An A n a l y s i s of Some Aspects of an E x e r c i s e and T r a i n i n g Program Developed by Hettinger and M u l l e r " , Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1957. Cureton, T. K., "Endurance of Young Men", Monographs of the S o c i e t y f o r  Research i n C h i l d Development, 10, 1945. Darcus, H. D., S a l t e r , N., "The E f f e c t of Repeated Muscular E x e r t i o n on Muscle Strength", Journal of Physiology, 129:325-336, August 1955. Dennison, J . D., Howell, M. L., Morford, W. R., " E f f e c t of Isometric and I s o t o n i c E x e r c i s e on Muscular Endurance", Research Q u a r t e r l y , 32:348-352, October 1961. DeVries, H. A., "Electromyographic Observations of the E f f e c t s of S t a t i c S t r e t c h i n g Upon Muscular D i s t r e s s " , Research 4£uarterly, 32:468-479, 1961. 43 E r i k s s o n , A. W. E., "Graduate Research by Canadians", Journal of the  Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Rec r e a t i o n , 5:26-48, 1963. Gardner, G. W., " S p e c i f i c i t y of Strength Changes of the Ex e r c i s e s and Nonexercises Limb Fo l l o w i n g Isometric T r a i n i n g " , Research i j u a r t e r l y , 34:98-101, 1963. Gersten, J . W., "Isometric E x e r c i s e s i n the P a r a p l e g i c and i n the P a t i e n t w i t h Weakness of flguadriceps and Hamstrings", Archives of  P h y s i c a l Medicine and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 42:498, 1961. H e t t i n g e r , T., M u l l e r , E. A., "Muskelleistung und M u s k e l t r a i n i n g " , A r b e i t p h y s i o l o g i e , 15:111-126, 1953. Howell, M. L., Kimoto, R., Morford, W. R., Effect of Isometric and Is o t o n i c E x e r c i s e Programs Upon Muscular Endurance", Research  d&uarterly, 33:536-540, December 1962. Jones, H. E., "Sex Di f f e r e n c e s i n P h y s i c a l A b i l i t i e s " , Human B i o l o g y , 19:12-25, February 1947. Josenkans, W. K. T., "An E v a l u a t i o n of Some Methods of Improving Muscle Strength", Revue Canadienne de B i o l o g i e , 21:314-323, September -December 1962. Lawther, J . D., "The Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y Studies on Strength Decrement, Maintenance and Related Aspects", S i x t y - F i r s t Annual  Proceedings of the College P h y s i c a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1958, p. 142. Li b e r s o n , W. T., Asa, M. M., "Further Studies of B r i e f Isometric E x e r c i s e s " , Archives of P h y s i c a l Medicine and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 40: 330, August 1959. L i t t l e f i e l d , J . C., "The Development of Strength i n J u n i o r High School Boys by a Ten-Second S t a t i c Muscle C o n t r a c t i o n " , Unpublished Master's Thesis, Alabama Polyechnic I n s t i t u t e , 1957. Lorback, M., "A Study Comparing the E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Short Periods of S t a t i c C o n t r a c t i o n to Standard Weight T r a i n i n g Procedure", Unpublished Master's Thesis, Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y , 1955. Lo v e t t , R. W., M a r t i n , E. G., "The Spring Balance Muscle Test," American  Journal of Orthopedic Surgery, 10:415-424, J u l y 1916. Marley, W. P., "The Comparative E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Isometric E x e r c i s e and Is o t o n i c E x e r c i s e i n the Development of Muscular Strength, Endurance and G i r t h " , Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Maryland, 1962. 44 Mathews, D. K., Kruse, R., " E f f e c t s of Isometric and I s o t o n i c E x e r c i s e s on Elbow F l e x o r Muscle Groups", Research i ^ u a r t e r l y , 28:26, March 1957. Meadows, P. E., "The E f f e c t of I s o t o n i c Muscle C o n t r a c t i o n T r a i n i n g on Speed, Force and Strength", Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1959. M u l l e r , E. A., " T r a i n i n g Muscle Strength", Ergonomics, 2:216-222, February 1959. Parkinson, G. J . , "A Summary of Current Research i n Isometric E x e r c i s e " , Unpublished P h y s i c a l Education Graduating Essay, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1964. R a r i c k , G. L., Larsen, G. L., "Observations on Frequency and I n t e n s i t y of Isometric Muscular E f f o r t i n Developing S t a t i c Strength i n Post-Pubescent Males", Research Q u a r t e r l y , 29:333, October 1958. Rasch, P. J . , "Progressive Resistance E x e r c i s e : I s o t o n i c and Isometric: A Review", Journa l of the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r P h y s i c a l and Mental  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 15:46-50, March-April 1961. Rasch, P. J . , Morehouse, L. E., " E f f e c t of S t a t i c and Dynamic E x e r c i s e on Muscular Strength and Hypertrophy", J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Physiology, 12:29, J u l y 1957. Rasch, P. J . , P i e r s o n , W. R., " R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Maximum Isometric Tension and Breaking Strength of Forearm F l e x o r s " , Research  Q u a r t e r l y , 31:534-535, 1960. Rogers, F. R., " P h y s i c a l Capacity Tests i n the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l Education", C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Education, 173, 1925. , "A Review of Recent Strength T e s t i n g L i t e r a t u r e " , J o u r n a l of Health and P h y s i c a l Education, 5, 1934. , "The S i g n i f i c a n c e of Strength Tests i n Revealing P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n " , Research % i a r t e r l y , 5:43-46, October 1934. Royce, J . , "Isometric Fatigue Curves i n Human Muscle With Normal and Occluded C i r c u l a t i o n " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , 29:204, May 1958. Sandow, A., "A Theory of A c t i v e State Mechanisms i n Isometric Muscular C o n t r a c t i o n " , Science, 127:760-762, A p r i l 4, 1958. Sargent, D. A., "Strength Tests and the Strong Men of Harvard", American  P h y s i c a l Education Review, 2:108-119, June 1897. , " I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e Strength Tests", American P h y s i c a l Education Review, 2:216, 1897. 45 , "Twenty Years of Progress i n E f f i c i e n c y Tests", American P h y s i c a l Education Review, 17:453, 1913. Swegan, D. B., "The Comparison of S t a t i c C o n t r a c t i o n With S t a t i c T r a i n i n g i n E f f e c t on C e r t a i n Movement Speeds and Endurance", Unpublished Ed.D. Thesis, Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y , 1957. T a y l o r , W. E., "A Study Comparing the E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Four S t a t i c C o n t r a c t i o n T r a i n i n g Methods f o r Increasing the C o n t r a c t i l e Strength of Two Body Movements", Unpublished Master's Thesis, Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y , 1954. Thompson, C. W., "The P h y s i o l o g i c E f f e c t s of Isometric Work on Man", Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , State U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1950. Walters, C. E., Stewart, C. L., L e C l a i r e , J.F., " E f f e c t of Short Bouts of Isometric and I s o t o n i c Contractions on Muscular Strength and Endurance", American Journal of P h y s i c a l Medicine, 39:131-141, August 1960. Wolbers, C. P., S i l l s , F. D., "Development of Strength i n High School Boys by S t a t i c Muscle C o n t r a c t i o n s " , Research % i a r t e r l y , 27:446, December 1956. Yuhasz, M. S., "The Five-Minute Muscular Endurance Test", J o u r n a l of the  A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation, 5:13-14, 1963 46 APPENDIX 47 INITIAL TENSIOMETER TESTS - RAW SCORES (LBS.) Subject IT1 IT2 Subject IT1 IT2 MN 38 22 63 54 RV 54 51 63 42 TC 87 126 107 90 JM 48 31 59 40 CL 25 22 33 36 JM 56 41 54 46 JD 56 29 70 52 BR 75 78 126 83 GP 43 38 75 65 JT 31 46 53 48 BG 23 40 68 49 ML 68 63 70 69 DM 49 45 36 37 TW 30 49 51 45 DT 73 72 109 92 JC 102 87 59 70 KJ 75 56 54 57 TB 43 22 56 51 RA 56 32 56 31 TM 52 59 49 56 GP 36 22 43 31 MR 57 43 56 48 RM 48 45 45 31 RT 54 54 69 67 RT 29 26 41 24 DS 45 32 68 56 JM 53 45 56 46 CS 42 38 52 37 GM 45 46 38 40 GM 42 45 57 33 SR 36 59 68 72 MR 51 48 41 31 TP 56 61 28 41 BT 57 59 56 67 BW 53 57 65 75 LH 94 70 85 78 LL 31 56 69 59 TH 109 111 124 105 PM 29 19 31 28 FP 89 92 68 102 WL 51 53 87 76 GS 51 43 53 56 LB 53 49 45 41 GD 61 59 83 85 JP 83 68 75 48 RS 52 53 67 78 JR 73 65 102 89 RR 68 80 80 87 PL 78 75 59 38 DG 69 65 76 72 CW 83 70 73 80 48 MUSCLE TRAINING GROUP - RAW SCORES (STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE) Strength Endurance I n i t i a l F i n a l I n i t i a l F i n a l Subject IT1 IT2 FT1 FT2 1. JP 36322 43 31 42 36 59 41 25 30 2. RM 48 45 45 31 63 48 61 49 39 40 ">3. JT 31 46 53 48 75 65 53 42 30 33 4. TW 30 49 51 45 68 69 85 56 29 35 5. TB 43 22 56 51 48 57 69 63 35 38 6. GS 51 43 53 56 68 63 97 87 31 35 7. GM 42 45 57 33 78 56 61 72 29 33 8. TM 52 59 49 56 73 57 48 46 29 37 9. BT 57 59 56 67 56 56 70 70 24 31 10. RT 54 54 69 67 72 69 102 59 25 32 11. BW 53 57 65 75 80 63 99 69 35 44 12. JP 83 68 75 48 76 53 65 61 30 33 13. GD 61 59 83 85 85 63 51 72 33 34 14. FP 89 92 68 102 107 83 109 75 34 43 15. TC 87 126 107 90 109 87 70 63 31 33 49 CONTROL GROUP - RAW SCORES (STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE) Strength Endurance Subject I n i t i a l F i n a l I n i t i a l F i n a l 1. RT 29 26 41 24 46 42 42 40 26 34 2. DM 49 45 36 37 65 54 75 63 32 39 3. LB 53 49 45 41 48 46 56 53 31 32 4. MR 51 48 41 31 57 51 45 37 27 28 5. JM 5 6 41 54 4 6 70 75 96 80 25 28 6. RA 56 32 56 31 56 54 68 61 34 34 7. MR 57 43 56 48 75 67 70 61 34 36 8. JM 48 31 59 40 43 40 49 46 34 35 9. LL 31 56 69 59 75 69 82 73 36 35 10. DS 45 32 68 56 82 99 109 73 29 32 11. DG 69 65 76 72 96 94 72 105 27 38 12. CW 83 70 73 80 109 96 99 99 41 40 13. RR 68 80 80 87 78 89 65 75 29 31 14. JR 73 65 102 89 100 63 115 115 23 25 15. BR 75 78 126 83 97 82 63 52 30 34 50 MATCHED PAIRS - RAW SCORES (STRENGTH) Group M Group C No. ITS PTS ITS FTS 1 43 59 41 46 2 48 63 49 75 3 53 75 53 56 4 51 85 51 57 5 56 69 56 96 6 56 97 56 68 7 57 78 57 75 8 59 73 59 49 9 67 70 69 82 10 69 102 68 109 11 75 99 76 105 12 83 76 83 109 13 85 85 87 89 14 102 109 102 115 15 126 109 126 97 51 ENDURANCE TESTS - RAW SCORES Group M Group C No. IE FE IE FE 1 25 30 26 34 2 39 40 32 39 3 30 33 31 32 4 29 35 27 28 5 35 38 25 28 6 31 35 34 34 7 29 33 34 36 8 29 37 34 35 9 24 31 36 35 10 25 32 29 32 11 35 44 27 38 12 30 33 41 40 13 33 34 29 31 14 34 43 23 25 15 31 33 30 34 

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