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Origins and development of Croat nationalism and the Croat-Magyar controversy, 1790-1847 Stipac, Boris 1964

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ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF CROAT NATIONALISM AND THE CROAT-MAGYAR CONTROVERSY 1790  - I8U7 by  BORIS STIPAC B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS  In the Department of SLAVONIC STUDIES  We accept this thesis as conforming required standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH A p r i l , 196U.  to the  COLUMBIA  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of • British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study.  I further agree that per-  mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that, copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission,.  Department of S l a v o n i c  Studies  The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8 Canada ?  Date  A p r i l 5, 196k  ABSTRACT  The  p u r p o s e o f t h i s w o r k i s t o e x a m i n e t h e o r i g i n s and  development o f Croat n a t i o n a l i s m relations  from the p e r i o d  i n the l i g h t  of Enlightened  of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y year of lS^S.  o f t h e Croat-Magyar  Absolutism  Since  t o t h e eve  the development o f  C r o a t n a t i o n a l i s m was s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e M a g y a r n a t i o n a l movement o f t h a t  period, the bulk  o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s devoted  t o an a n a l y s i s o f t h e Croat-Magyar c o n t r o v e r s y Magyars  1  The place  d e s i r e t o magyarize t h e Croat  nation.  m a i n s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n t h e two o p p o s i n g f o r c e s  i n t h e Common D i e t  nations.  c a u s e d by t h e  composed o f t h e d e l e g a t e s  h a v e any d i r e c t  who, as a r u l e , d i d n o t  Under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e C z e c h ,  S l o v a k and P o l i s h n a t i o n a l i s t s , t h e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e t o t h e Croat n a t i o n .  basis  c u l t u r a l renaissance  f o r the struggle The  against  T h e i r work r e s u l t e d i n as t h e  Hungary.  author presupposes that  particular.  r e n d e r e d an  which subsequently served  the reader possesses  knowledge o f Croat h i s t o r y i n g e n e r a l in  originated  i n f l u e n c e on t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e C r o a t  l e g i s l a t i v e house, the Sabor.  Croatia's  from both  H o w e v e r , t h e C r o a t n a t i o n a l movement i t s e l f  among t h e young n a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s  took  adequate  and o f t h e p e r i o d  discussed  T h e r e f o r e no a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made t o d e s c r i b e  e x p l a i n some., f u n d a m e n t a l a s p e c t s o f C r o a t i a ' s  p o l i t i c a l and  or  Ill  cultural history.  Any such endeavour would inevitably remove  us from the topic and would be inconsistent with the task of this work. Chapters I and II deal with the background of the problem. Chapter I offers a b r i e f explanation of Croatia's p o l i t i c a l status within the Habsburg Monarchy.  Chapter II describes the  origins and background of the Croat national movement which developed, following the. year 1832, as the I l l y r i a n Movement. It enables the reader to acquaint himself with the fundamentals and character of the Croat-Magyar controversy and with the p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n prevailing among the various Croat regions. Chapter I I I concentrates on the I l l y r i a n Movement i t s e l f . It describes extensively the c u l t u r a l renaissance of the Croats and points out the role and effects of the I l l y r i a n Movement on the Croat-Magyar r e l a t i o n s .  Here again the author  on the p o l i t i c a l effects of the c u l t u r a l renaissance.  concentrates The  l i t e r a r y works of the I l l y r i a n s are mentioned and described i n so f a r as they had a direct bearing upon the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Croatia. In Chapter IV, the p o l i t i c a l nature of the struggle between the two nations reaches i t s peak.  Following the formation of  the f i r s t . p o l i t i c a l parties and the c r i s i s i n the Croat national movement caused by the defeat of the I l l y r i a n s at the hands of the Magyarons i n the e l e c t i o n of 18U5, the Croat national idea was f i n a l l y emancipated.' The Croat language f i n a l l y became  IV  the o f f i c i a l language f o r C r o a t i a . I l l y r i a n s was accomplished.  Thus the main aim of the  In the l a s t moment, C r o a t i a  emerged f u l l y prepared to face the r e v o l u t i o n a r y year of l8*+8.  C O N T E N T S  I - HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Page 1 1 '.. 1 8  A. C r o a t i a ' s P o s i t i o n i n t h e Habsburg Monarchy B. The P e r i o d o f E n l i g h t e n e d A b s o l u t i s m 1 C. F o r e r u n n e r s o f 1 9 t h Century N a t i o n a l i s m I I - BEFORE THE ILLYRIAN MOVEMENT ( 1 7 9 0 - 1 8 3 2 ) A. B. C. D. E.  Voluntary Surrender 3 C r o a t i a D u r i n g the N a p o l e o n i c Wars ^ Elements o f N a t i o n a l i s m Among t h e R u l i n g C l a s s . F i r s t N a t i o n a l Awakeners and T h e i r Work 7 S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of C r o a t i a i n the F i r s t H a l f of t h e 1 9 t h Century 9  5 5 5 8 5 6  I I I - DURING THE ILLYRIAN MOVEMENT ( 1 8 3 2 - 1 8 ^ 3 ) A. B. C. D. E.  Count Janko D r a s k o v i c and t h e D i e t o f 1 8 3 2 - 3 6 . . 1 2 C u l t u r a l Renaissance o f t h e N a t i o n 1 3 1 The Croat R u l i n g Class at t h e D i e t o f l 8 3 9 - + 0 . . 1 5 The I l l y r i a n P a r t y v . t h e C r o a t - H u n g a r i a n P a r t y 1 6 5 P r o h i b i t i o n o f t h e Name " I l l y r i s m " 1 8 0 l  IV - AFTER THE ILLYRIAN MOVEMENT ( 1 8 ^ 3 - 1 8 U 7 ) A. The People.'s P a r t y i n L e g i s l a t i v e Bodies 18 43- + 4 1  I  2  1  0  B. The V i c t o r y o f t h e I l l y r i a n N a t i o n a l i s t s C. The C r i s i s i n t h e Croat N a t i o n a l Movement D. F i n a l E m a n c i p a t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l Ideas V - CONCLUSIONS."  Bibliography....  2  2  6  7  5  2 1 5 2 2 6 2 3 6 7  9  I.  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND  Croatia's Position i n the Habsburg Monarchy After the Battle of Mohacs (29 August 1526), Hungary, Croatia  and the other lands belonging to the Crown of S t .  Stephen were l e f t without a king.  Young Louis I I , the last  member of the house of J a g i e l l o , perished during the battle and l e f t Bohemia and Hungary without a ruling dynasty.  Of a l l the  candidates for the vacant throne, the most l o g i c a l choice appeared to be the Archduke of Austria, Ferdinand I.  According  to the agreement of 1515 between Maximilian I and Ladislas I I , "Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia were to become Habsburg lands i f 2  Louis II died without leaving a successor". The majority of the Magyar n o b i l i t y refused to recognize Ferdinand as the King of Hungary.  They argued that, according  to the decision of the Hungarian Diet of 1505? no foreigner could become a candidate for the Croat-Magyar throne.  Their choice  was Ivan Zapolya, a prominent member of the Magyar n o b i l i t y from Transylvania.  He was also supported by the majority of the  Croat n o b i l i t y from Slavonia which was strongly influenced by Hungary because of i t s geographic p o s i t i o n .  J  In the meantime the nobles of Croatia proper met i n Cetin  -2-  on January 1,  1527,  of a l l Croat lands.  and unanimously elected Ferdinand I as King The Slavonian n o b i l i t y refused to recognize  the v a l i d i t y of this decision and, on January 6, i t s members met i n Dubrava, near Cazma, to elect Ivan Zapolya.  As a result the  T r i p l e Kingdom ended with two kings, one i n Croatia proper and one i n Slavonia. inevitable.  Conflict between the two opposing'forces  was  The n o b i l i t y of Croatia proper f e l t that, i n view  of the constant danger from their aggressive Turkish neighbour, Croatia and Hungary were not strong enough to maintain their freedom, and a union with Austria would offer f a r greater s e c u r i t y . The problem was f i n a l l y solved, by the defeat of Zapolya's followers i n the C i v i l War  (Grad.ianski r a t ) . With Ferdinand's  assistance the Croats of Croatia proper defeated Zapolya's followers who were then forced to seek Turkish help.  The  Turks  u t i l i z e d this opportunity to conquer additional lands i n Slavonia and Southern Hungary. The problem of succession was f i n a l l y solved after the death of Ivan Zapolya i n 15^0.  Ferdinand I became the sole  master of the remnants of Hungary and Croatia.  The decision  reached by the Slavonian n o b i l i t y on January 6, 1527, validity.  lost i t s  Slavonia and Croatia proper were together incorporated  i n t o Austria on the basis of the above mentioned decision reached at Cetin.  However, i n accordance with the terms of this  agreement, Ferdinand consented to respect and protect a l l the rights and freedoms the Croat n o b i l i t y had enjoyed under the rule of Hungarian kings. Diploma) read:  Cetinska izborna diploma (the Cetin E l e c t o r a l  -3-  Having examined the v a l i d i t y of the afore mentioned rights of this King ( i . e . Ferdinand)...to hereditary succession i n the Hungarian Kingdom...and having considered that of a l l the Christian rulers only His Royal Majesty defended us and the Croat Kingdom from the wild Turks...we recognize His Highness King Ferdinand...as the lawful King and master of the entire famous Croat Kingdom.... ^ Thus, for the f i r s t time i n her h i s t o r y , Croatia was united with Austria by means of a personal union.  Its p o l i t i c a l  status i n this newly created empire became more complicated. Up to that time' Croatia had recognized only one master, the King of Hungary. The o r i g i n and character of the ties connecting Croatia with Hungary for over nine hundred years must be made clear i f the relations between these two countries i n the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century are to be understood.  A l l the arguments  of the Croat n o b i l i t y against Magyarization i n the Common Diet at Pozony were based e n t i r e l y upon the agreement reached between their forefathers and Koloman, the King of Hungary, and i t s subsequent amendments made by the King's successors. The c r u c i a l event which dictated the course of Croatia's history f o r several centuries took place i n 1102. .After a long war, Koloman f i n a l l y defeated the forces of Croatia's King Peter (1093-1097) who himself perished i n the b a t t l e .  But, recognizing  the strength of his defeated opponents, Koloman decided to conclude a peaceful agreement with the Croat n o b i l i t y according to which the Croat nobles would recognize the authority of the Hungarian kings.  The result was a document signed by representa-  tives of the twelve most prominent Croat tribes (plemena), often  -It-  r e f e r r e d t o as the Pacta Conventa.  This document  J  specifically  d e s c r i b e s the v o l u n t a r y nature of the union between the two c o u n t r i e s and p o i n t s o u t : ...that the a f o r e mentioned (nobles) and t h e i r f a m i l i e s w i l l never.be d e p r i v e d of t h e i r r i g h t t o enjoy t h e i r e s t a t e s and p o s s e s s i o n s ; -that the a f o r e mentioned (nobles) and members o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s w i l l never be compelled t o pay taxes or t r i b u t e t o the K i n g , except i n case of enemy a t t a c k when, i f the King demands, each of the mentioned noble f a m i l i e s w i l l send t e n armed horsemen...whose duty w i l l be t o s t a y w i t h the King u n t i l the end of such hostilities. ° The  p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s agreement were e n f o r c e d without  any major d i f f i c u l t i e s  and the two nations continued t o l i v e  under t h i s arrangement f o r seven hundred the n e c e s s i t y t o change i t s fundamentals. t h i s l i e s i n the f a c t  y e a r s , never  feeling  The main reason f o r  that the i n t e r e s t s of both Magyar and  Croat n o b i l i t y were almost i d e n t i c a l .  N a t i o n a l ideas and a  sense o f b e l o n g i n g t o a p a r t i c u l a r n a t i o n d i d not e x i s t among  7 the members of t h e i r c l a s s ,  and t h e r e were s e v e r a l s t r o n g  motives which drew them together i n t o a c l o s e r u n i o n . The main f a c t o r which made the union of the two c o u n t r i e s p o s s i b l e was t h e i r common r e l i g i o n . Ladislas  S i n c e Dmitar Zvonimir and  I , who, at the time of the s p l i t  among the C h r i s t i a n s  i n 105^5 d e c i d e d to r e c o g n i z e the Pope i n Rome as the head of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e churches, both C r o a t i a and Hungary had accepted C a t h o l i c i s m , and the L a t i n language  as the o f f i c i a l language of  administration. The union between the two countries-was f u r t h e r strengthened  by the fact that they were forced to form a common defence against the same enemies.  In the early Middle Ages Venice  denied Croatia-Hungary the right to establish I t s authority i n Dalmatia and the islands along the A d r i a t i c Coast.  Later,  from the f i f t e e n t h century, "the need f o r a common defence was Q  j u s t i f i e d more than ever"  by the war against the Turkish on-  slaught which threatened to destroy not only Croatia and Hungary, but their new master, Austria, as w e l l .  However, i t was not  u n t i l the end of the eighteenth century that cooperation between the Croat and Magyar nobles reached a point where the Croats were w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e t h e i r rights as a nation and state i n order to defeat the centralism and Germanization imposed upon them by the Habsburgs, and preserve their old c o n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement. The old constitution actually placed the Croat nobles i n a better position than was enjoyed by the Magyar nobles; i n addition to the rights and privileges enjoyed by a l l the nobles of Croatia-Hungary, the Croat nobles enjoyed their own s p e c i a l rights and privileges guaranteed them by various Hungarian kings i n diverse forms since 1 1 0 2 . Thus, i n spite of the double yoke imposed upon Croatia, a direct one by Hungary and an i n d i r e c t one by Austria, the Croat upper class held i n their hands an excellent t o o l with which to combat the reforms of the enlightened despot, Joseph I I .  Unfortunately, the Croat n o b i l i t y ,  controlled by i t s conservative narrowmindedness which dictated and orientated i t s strategy only towards protection of i t s economic i n t e r e s t s , v o l u n t a r i l y surrendered Croatia's rights  -6-  as a n a t i o n i n 1790 i n f a v o u r of the c e n t r a l H u n g a r i a n d i e t l e a v i n g C r o a t i a w i t h o u t a- s i n g l e , e f f e c t i v e  constitutional  weapon i n h e r s t r u g g l e t o p r e s e r v e h e r n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y culture.  Had  t h e s e nobles r e a l i z e d i n time t h a t by  the Magyars they were endangering  t h e i r own  and  appeasing  e x i s t e n c e as a  r u l i n g c l a s s i n C r o a t i a , the s e r i o u s s t r u g g l e which i n the 1830's  --  developed  and lS^O's would have ended w i t h much more f a v o u r -  a b l e c o n d i t i o n s and l e s s s a c r i f i c e s f o r C r o a t i a . The system of government i n C r o a t i a a l l o w e d the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . c a l l y every governmental  i n s t i t u t i o n was  by the n a t i v e r u l i n g c l a s s . was  The  more or l e s s  Practicontrolled  j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Croat Sabor  v e r y e x t e n s i v e , and. i n c l u d e d such i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s as taxes  and r e c r u i t m e n t .  The powers of the Sabor, c o u p l e d w i t h those of  the Ban's o f f i c e , p r e s e n t e d a s t r o n g l e g a l b a r r i e r a g a i n s t Magyarization.  F u r t h e r m o r e , b o t h C r o a t i a and S l a v o n i a were  s u b d i v i d e d i n t o l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s , the zupani.ias ( c o u n t i e s ) , which possessed almost e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over m a t t e r s of l o c a l i m p o r t a n c e .  Each of the c o u n t i e s sent i t s  d e l e g a t e s t o the Croat Sabor where they were t o f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o them by t h e i r c o u n t i e s ' s k u p s t l n a s ( a s s e m b l i e s ) . D u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Ban was d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d . l o n g e r the supreme power i n the governmental  He was  machinery  C r o a t i a as had been the case d u r i n g the M i d d l e Ages. ^  no  of With  the appearance of a b s o l u t i s m d u r i n g the r e i g n of M a r i a Theresa and Joseph I I , h i s d i s c r e t i o n t o c a l l the Sabor i n t o s e s s i o n  was  abolished.  The o f f i c e of the Ban became "the supreme  administrative organ which acts i n the name of the King and 10  instead of the King".  In view of the fact that the Ban  owed his appointment to the King, i t i s not surprising that, during absolutism, the independence of his actions was  sub-  s t a n t i a l l y reduced, especially after the candidacy was  opened  to foreign nationals. But, i n r e l a t i o n to Hungary, the Croat Ban continued to be independent i n spite of the fact that Maria Theresa gave the Crown's Council for Hungary executive j u r i s d i c t i o n over the Croat a f f a i r s  (1779).  In the case of a  disagreement, with the Crown's Council for Hungary, the Ban could appeal to the central government i n Vienna, or he could bring the mattertto the next meeting of the Sabor, or the Common Diet.  These meetings, however, were not frequent u n t i l  the turn of' the century when the Magyar national movement made  12 i t s appearance. During the struggle against Magyarization the Croat zupani.ias (counties) played a very important r o l e . The skupstinas (assemblies) of the counties were composed of n o b i l i t y and they performed " a l l functions of a governmental n a t u r e — l e g i s l a t i v e , 13  executive and j u d i c i a l " .  -' During Joseph II's reign, of  a b s o l u t i s t i c centralism the counties' regional autonomy was further increased. session, as was  I f the King f a i l e d to c a l l the Sabor into  the case during the period of Germanization,  Croat n o b i l i t y used the counties' assemblies as a weapon against such a n t i - c o n s t i t u t i o n a l measures by the sovereign.  the  -8-  Consequently, the counties refused to carry out Joseph's religious  and s o c i a l reforms, and stood f o r the preservation  of the old system which guaranteed the n o b i l i t y i t s feudal rights and p r i v i l e g e s .  S i m i l a r l y , during the period of  Magyarization, the counties became one of the f i r s t governmental organs to protect the Croat national movement. The administrative head of the county was the V e l i k i zupan (comes suprimus) who was appointed by the King while a l l the • other counties' o f f i c i a l s were elected by the upper n o b i l i t y . On several occasions the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y was also allowed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the work of the counties' assembly. exception of l8k5, the  With the  when the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y won elections i n  County of Zagreb, i t s interests as a separate class were  subordinated to those of the upper n o b i l i t y which was the actual r u l i n g class i n the country. The v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y had no right to any kind of representation i n the highest l e g i s l a t i v e body of Croatia, the Sabor. The only exception was the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y of Turopolje, which was allowed to elect one representative to the Sabor.  Although  the  t e r r i t o r y of Turopolje was included i n the County of Zagreb,  the  entire d i s t r i c t enjoyed separate autonomous r i g h t s , granted  to i t s n o b i l i t y by Matias I Corvinus (1^58-1^90.) as a reward for i t s help i n the war against Turkey. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the Sabor was an assembly of the entire n o b i l i t y which met from time to time to solve major grievances between the King and the nobles.  The f i r s t record of the Sabor's  ill  meeting dates back to 1273*  The main purpose of the Sabor  -9-  was  t o protect the interests  centralistie  tendencies  of the n o b i l i t y  of the sovereign.  a g a i n s t any  I n the course of  t h e S a b o r ' s d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y was from i t s s e s s i o n s . was  Thus, by t h e seventeenth  composed o f t h e u p p e r n o b i l i t y  formed t h e r u l i n g The  excluded  century,  and c l e r g y which  t h e Sabor  together  class of C r o a t i a .  s t r e n g t h o f t h e Sabor v a r i e d w i t h t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e  c e n t r a l government.  During  theMiddle  Ages i t was c a l l e d  s e s s i o n b y t h e B a n who f r e q u e n t l y p o s s e s s e d  into  t h e power- t o s a n c t i o n  1K  "'its p r o p o s a l s . (first half  '  However, d u r i n g  the period  of the nineteenth century)  c o u l d be c o n v e n e d o n l y b y t h e K i n g . be h e l d e v e r y inclined  three years.  under-discussion  t h e meeting o f t h e Sabor  Regular  meetings were t o  Nevertheless, sovereigns  who w e r e  towards a b s o l u t i s m , l i k e F r a n c i s I , d i s r e g a r d e d  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e and r e f u s e d t o permit  this  t h e Sabor t o meet.  The c e n t r a l H u n g a r i a n d i e t , t o w h i c h t h e S a b o r s e n t i t s d e l e g a t e s , e x p e r i e n c e d t h e same h a r d s h i p s d u r i n g t h e f r e q u e n t periods  of un-constitutional rule.  The C r o a t  delegates  to the  c e n t r a l H u n g a r i a n d i e t , o r t h e Common D i e t , r e p r e s e n t e d t h e interests  o f t h e Croat  instructions  c l a s s i n accordance w i t h the  i s s u e d them b y t h e S a b o r .  c o u l d not enact and  ruling  privileges  a n y new l a w i n v o l v i n g o f t h e Croat  Thus t h e Common D i e t a change i n t h e r i g h t s  n o b i l i t y without  the approval of  1 the  Croat Any  delegates. a t t e m p t t o d o so. w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  C o n s t i t u t i o n , and t h e Croat  executive organs,  a breach  of the  especially  i n t h e c o u n t i e s , would r e f u s e t o c a r r y out such  laws.  those  -10-  The Diet  S a b o r u s u a l l y met b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a m e e t i n g  o f Common  t o e l e c t i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a n d d e c i d e on t h e p o s i t i o n  t o b e t a k e n by t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . regarded  the instructions  c o u l d always  I f t h e Common D i e t  dis-  o f t h e Croat d e l e g a t e s , t h e Croats  a p p e a l t o t h e K i n g , demanding t h e r e f u s a l o f t h e  r o y a l assent t o t h e l e g i s l a t i v e proposals they To sum i t u p , t h e S a b o r c o u l d a c t a l m o s t t h e Common D i e t .  On C r o a t t e r r i t o r y  opposed. independently of  i t was c o m p l e t e l y i n -  d e p e n d e n t o f H u n g a r y i n s u c h i m p o r t a n t l e g i s l a t i v e f i e l d s as t a x a t i o n , r e c r u i t m e n t o f new s o l d i e r s , r e l i g i o n ,  c u l t u r e and  education. As we h a v e s e e n , t h e p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s o f C r o a t i a i n t h e . M o n a r c h y , a l t h o u g h p e c u l i a r a n d somewhat u n c e r t a i n , c o u l d h a v e been used by i t s r u l i n g  class  T h i s o p p o r t u n i t y was u t i l i z e d ,  t o t h e advantage o f t h e i r as we s h a l l s e e l a t e r  o n l y l i m i t e d s u c c e s s b e c a u s e i t was a d o p t e d s t o o d almost h e l p l e s s b e f o r e a s t r o n g Magyar movement.  on, w i t h  when t h e c o u n t r y nationalistic  The C r o a t n o b l e s h a d s u c c e s s f u l l y f o u g h t s i d e b y s i d e  w i t h t h e Magyars t o r e s i s t ancient rights  of their  e n l i s t i n g Vienna's  G e r m a n i z a t i o n and t o p r o t e c t t h e  class.  They f a i l e d  t o r e a l i z e t h a t , by  h e l p , they c o u l d a l s o defeat a g g r e s s i v e  Magyar n a t i o n a l i s m w i t h o u t d e p r i v i n g l i m i t e d independence.  t h e i r homeland o f i t s  The p o s i t i o n o f C r o a t i a i n t h e H a b s b u r g  Monarchy a l l o w e d i t s r u l i n g  class  t o a c t u a l l y b a r g a i n between  t h e t w o more p o w e r f u l f o r c e s , A u s t r i a a n d H u n g a r y , c o n s t a n t l y fought Empire.  country.  which  each o t h e r f o r t h e dominant p o s i t i o n i n t h e  -11-  Croatia, however, only used her unique p o l i t i c a l status when the majority of her n o b i l i t y f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d that,after the death of Joseph I I , the immediate and direct danger to their rights and the rights of the nation as a whole, came not from Vienna, but from their "constitutional brothers", the Magyars. The Period of the Enlightened Absolutism Throughout  the reign of Maria Theresa (17^0-1780) and her  son, Joseph II (1780-1790), the entire p o l i t i c a l l i f e of Croatia was centred around the struggle against centralism and Germanization.  During the reign of Maria Theresa, who prepared  the scene f o r the promulgation of the s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s reforms of her son, general d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among the Croat n o b i l i t y resulted i n the formation of a common defence with the Magyar aristocracy against Vienna, whose main purpose was to form an e f f i c i e n t , centrally controlled administrative apparatus. In Croatia i t s e l f , unlike i n Austria, s o c i a l and economic conditions were extremely unfavourable f o r the establishment 17  of an e f f i c i e n t administrative apparatus.  ' F i r s t of a l l ,  i t s t e r r i t o r y had been greatly reduced by the Turks who were slowly advancing into the Croatian and Magyar lands, and who l a t e r represented a perpetual danger to any region they had not yet conquered.  The entire Croatian t e r r i t o r y was reduced to  only s i x counties, Zagreb, Varazdin, Krizevci (or so c a l l e d Croatia proper), Srijem, V i r o v i t i c a , and Pozega (or Slavonia). A wide s t r i p of t e r r i t o r y along the Turkish border, known as the  -12-  M i l i t a r y Frontier, was under the direct rule of the Habsburgs. Secondly, these long and costly'wars with the Turks, who were constantly intruding across the M i l i t a r y Frontier, almost completely "destroyed the agriculture, destroyed manufacture and trade, and the richest parts of the Croat regions". ^ 1  T h i r d l y , Joseph II did not have the powerful support of the Croatian bourgeois class* necessary to back up his s o c i a l reforms because such a class did not e x i s t .  The policy of the  Habsburgs i n Croatia and Hungary was to prevent the two nations from developing their own industry by the "conscious and planned usage of t h e i r power" which aimed to "keep the two 20  states i n the condition of c o l o n i a l underdevelopment". In short, Maria Theresa and Joseph II did very l i t t l e to improve the economy of Croatia and Hungary.  Their main aim was  to submerge these lands completely to their rule by enforcing Germanization and a centralized administration.  Even those  reforms introduced by Joseph II which were designed to improve the status of the serfs i n r e l a t i o n to their landlords, f a i l e d to'bring any s i g n i f i c a n t results because of the lack of e f f e c t i v e means f o r their  enforcement.  Meetings of the diets were hardly ever c a l l e d , and rule by decree became the only way of introducing new measures i n the Monarchy. c a l l e d i n 1765,  The meeting of the Common Diet at Poszony was but only because Maria Theresa was forced to do  so because the Monarchy was exhausted by the Seven-Year War  (1756-1763) and the Queen's treasury empty. Having f a i l e d to obtain the Diet's approval of the tax increase, Maria Theresa  -13-  decided of  never  Joseph,  up,  to  call  it  who b e c a m e  i n . 1767,  again.  her  a separate  Acting instead  co-ruler  on t h e  i n 1765., M a r i a  government  for  advice  Theresa  C r o a t i a w h i c h was  set to  be  21 completely  independent  new g o v e r n m e n t , extremely the  instructions  utional  practice  of  30,  and handed  over  move  Hungarian authorities.  became  it  with  acted  only  and c o m p l e t e l y  abolished  to.the  over  the  Crown's  Croatia.  because  it  (the  The  Council (consilium regium),  i n administration.  1779,  jurisdiction this  Crown's  unpopular because  Queen's  July  the  from the  The  i n accordance  disregarded  Consequently,  Crown's  Croat  nobility)  constit-  the  Council for  Council for  any  Hungary  decree  Croatia, complete  nobility actually  lacked  national  welcomed  feeling  2 and f a i l e d Its  only  to  see  a i m was  i n Hungary a p o t e n t i a l danger to  defeat  c e n t r a l i s m by  to  its  uniting with  own the  rights. Magyar  nobility. In Maria  spite  Theresa  and  peasantry  and  actions  of  her  became because  "because  disagreement extremely of of  her  w i t h the  popular  amond t h e  educational  which the  wise  higher  nobility, lower  nobility  and h u m a n i t a r i a n  Queen d e s e r v e d  to  views be  2^ called  the  Jesuit  Order  for  the  S h e was  mother  its  nations".  educational  of  numerous  also  be  i n favour  classes. burden of the  and used  a l l her  establishment  would better  of  of  She the  nobles  known t o the  economic  .  J  She  institutions  elementary of  c o n d i t i o n of  abolished  some the  and  the estates  and secondary  social  reforms  schools. which  underprivileged  i n t r o d u c e d s e v e r a l measures d e s i g n e d to ease the peasants by d e f i n i n g and l i m i t i n g the a u t h o r i t y over  their  subjects.  2k  The  r u l e of M a r i a Theresa i s c o n s i d e r e d  o f t h e f a r more i m p o r t a n t r u l e of her  successor,  o n l y as  a  preview,  events which took place during  the  Joseph I I .  The r e i g n - o f E m p e r o r J o s e p h i s t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e f e u d a l H a b s b u r g M o n a r c h y b e g a n t o be g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by t h e m o d e r n one. The t h e o r i e s o f " e n l i g h t e n e d a b s o l u t i s m " o f w h i c h J o s e p h I I was an e n e r g e t i c a p o s t l e , s t a r t e d t h e g r o w t h o f p o l i t i c a l and n a t i o n a l i s t i c i d e a s w h i c h m a t u r e d i n t o t h e f u n d a m e n t a l movement w h i c h caused a l l the n a t i o n s t o a r i s e . . . f r o m the Alps t o the Danube and t o t h e C a r p a t h i a n s . 5 2  Joseph very  ambitiously decided  a powerful,  u n i t a r y s t a t e i n w h i c h t h e r e w o u l d be  r u l e d by  one  constitution.  aimed at the r e f o r m a t i o n  t o p a s s some r e f o r m s t o  Although  his first  of r e l i g i o u s  life,  power o f t h e h i g h e r  his  c o n t r o l , Joseph confronted  The  Pope's i n s t r u c t i o n s h a d  t h e y were v a l i d , and  those  and  of t h e i r  C a t h o l i c c l e r g y and the bishops  had  civil  a b o l i s h e d a l l the monasteries, I n 1785, and,  Joseph r e p l a c e d  the c i t i e s  and  he  and  and to  diminish  orders.  their  1782  about  i t to  before activities  only. respectively  non-Catholics,  confiscated their  o f C r o a t i a by  the  lands.  Governor  i s s u e d a d e c r e e f o r 'the  peasants according  t h e f r e e d o m t o move, t h e r i g h t to  rights  t h e Ban  what i s more i m p o r t a n t ,  p a t i o n of the  w i t h two  to l i m i t  A d d i t i o n a l d e c r e e s i s s u e d i n 1781  were  subordinate  t o have Joseph's a p p r o v a l  the bishops  and  decrees  Aiming to  clergy to r e l i g i o u s matters  gave equal, r e l i g i o u s  nation  they brought  some f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e s i n C r o a t i a as w e l l . the  one  create  emanci-  t o w h i c h t h e l a t t e r were  to s e l l  l e a r n a t r a d e and  their  l a n d s , and  attend schools".  given  "to  go  In a l l  public  offices  and  c o u r t s t h e German l a n g u a g e became t h e  only  means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  This r u l e c l o s e d the c i v i l s e r v i c e  to  know German.  a l l t h o s e who The  war  d i d not  w i t h Turkey  r e v o l u t i o n a r y France and  (1787-1790) and  the danger  from  f o r c e d J o s e p h t o r e c a l l most o f h i s  reforms,  t o r e s t o r e t h e o l d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e g i m e i n C r o a t i a and  Hungary  (28  reforms  were s u c c e s s f u l l y  nobility  January  and  1790).  c l e r g y , who  E v e n b e f o r e t h e war  established i n Croatia. represented  the c o u n t r y , b a l k e d at c a r r y i n g out decrees,  especially  peasants.  With  none o f h i s  the decree  the death  The  higher  the only r u l i n g  class  the p r o v i s i o n s of  the  f o r the emancipation  of  the  o f the Emperor t h e r e appeared  immediate danger t o the Croat  nobility.  in  no  I t s members j o i n e d  t h e i r f o r c e s w i t h a s t r o n g movement w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d i n H u n g a r y and was  o r g a n i z e d f o r two  reasons—to  a g a i n s t f u t u r e a b s o l u t i s m and • c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and  establish  to destroy  Germanization.  Now,  safeguards  the remnants f o r ' the f i r s t  t h e i r h i s t o r y , the Croats worked i n r e a l l y  of time i n  close cooperation  27  w i t h the Magyars. Croat accept to  counties strengthened the orders  cope w i t h t h i s  going  U n i t e d w i t h t h e M a g y a r s i n t h i s way,  i s s u e d by  their  a u t h o r i t y and  the Emperor.  refused  J o s e p h I I was  p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e as t h e M o n a r c h y was  i t s major c r i s i s ;  t h e T u r k i s h war  was  a failure,  the  to unable underBelgium  r e v o l t e d , J o s e p h ' s o p p o n e n t s i n H u n g a r y made c o n t a c t w i t h h i s rival  (the King  t r o o p s was  o f P r u s s i a ) , and  painfully  slow.  the process  of r e c r u i t i n g  Joseph r e a l i z e d t h a t , under  new  such  - 1 6 -  eonditions, his policy for c e n t r a l i z a t i o n could no longer be pursued.  He decided to y i e l d to the centrifugal forces of  Hungary and Croatia.  A l l his rescripts r e l a t i n g to the lands  of the Crown of St. Stephen were revoked except for the Toleration Patent, the Peasant Patent and the Livings Patent.  On  January 2 8 , 1 7 9 0 , he promised to convoke a Diet and ordered the Crown of St. Stephen to be brought back to Hungary. the defenders of the old constitutional system won. centralism of the era of Enlightened Absolutism was defeated.  Thus  The finally  The old Emperor, however, did not l i v e long enough  to witness the complete downfall of his i d e a l s .  He died three •  weeks l a t e r on February 2 0 . It was during the short reign of his successor, Leopold II ( 1 7 9 0 - 1 7 9 2 ) ,  that relations between Hungary and Croatia began  to swing very rapidly i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n .  Leopold I I , to  whom his older brother, Joseph, had l e f t a completely disorganized state, found i t impossible to r e s i s t demands put forward by the n a t i o n a l i s t i c a l l y minded Magyars.  Leopold handled  this dangerous s i t u a t i o n with great s k i l l although he had to y i e l d to the Magyar demands.  He promised to convoke the Diet  t r i e n n i a l l y and to rule by law only, and not by patent. The Magyars' c o n s t i t u t i o n a l v i c t o r i e s induced a. substantial segment of the n o b i l i t y to continue the struggle with the purpose of achieving even greater autonomy and independence from the central government.  Within a r e l a t i v e l y short time,  -17-  t h e movement d e v e l o p e d  into  a powerful  nationalistic  apparatus  aimed at r e o r g a n i z i n g the Monarchy f o r the b e n e f i t of Hungary. As  f a r as  C r o a t i a was  the Magyar r u l i n g of her  political  c o n c e r n e d , t h i s new  class  d i d not  status.  The  seem t o o f f e r  belonging  to the lands  t o be m a g y a r i z e d and  any  Magyar n a t i o n a l i s t  wanted t o f r e e o n l y t h e Magyar n a t i o n . ally  tendency p r e v a i l i n g  among  improvement movement  Other nations h i s t o r i c -  o f t h e Crown o f S t . S t e p h e n w e r e  made i n t o mere p r o v i n c e s  of the  Hungarian  state. The  Croat  nobles  w e r e much t o o p r e o c c u p i e d  struggle against c e n t r a l i z a t i o n struggle to preserve r e a l i z e t h e new  and  Germanization,  t h e i r ancient rights  danger.  They c o n t i n u e d  Magyars were the o n l y l o g i c a l a l l i e s from f u t u r e absolutism.  .only a f t e r  itself  that the Croat  of M a g y a r i z a t i o n . allowed  completely  by  to the  w o u l d p r o t e c t them t o meet  o f C r o a t i a as l o n g as as a s o c i a l  these class.  the development of n a t i o n a l i s m i n C r o a t i a n o b i l i t y began t o r e a l i z e  H o w e v e r , by  destroyed  that time  the  the Croat  t h e autonomy o f t h e c o u n t r y .  b e e n c r e a t e d w h i c h c o u l d no  peaceful parliamentary  b e t w e e n t h e two  their  privileges  t h e p a s s a g e o f a number o f l a w s w h i c h  a s i t u a t i o n had  and  to believe that  e n c r o a c h upon t h e i r i n t e r e s t s  I t was  had  who  and  their  They w e r e t h e r e f o r e p r e p a r e d  M a g y a r demands f o r t h e M a g y a r i z a t i o n demands d i d n o t  with  action,  but  Diet  (Sabor)  almost Consequently,  l o n g e r be  o n l y by  n a t i o n a l i s t i c movements.  purpose  resolved  open s t r u g g l e  -18-  Forerunners of 1 9 t h Century  Nationalism  I t w o u l d he i m p r o p e r t o g e n e r a l i z e by s a y i n g . t h a t in  Croatia favoured  nobody  Joseph's a n t i f e u d a l reforms and t h a t a l l  c l a s s e s were u n i t e d i n t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t h i s r a d i c a l T h e r e w e r e p e o p l e i n C r o a t i a who, w h i l e r e j e c t i n g  ideas.  Germanization,  w e l c o m e d t h e E m p e r o r ' s p r o g r e s s i v e r e f o r m s and a d v o c a t e d tance  against  t h e backward Croat  t h e m i d d l e c l a s s was e x t r e m e l y  and M a g y a r f e u d a l i s m .  weak a n d n u m e r i c a l l y  resisSince  small,  s p o k e s m e n f o r t h e a n t i f e u d a l movement o r i g i n a t e d w i t h members of the higher  nobility,  c l e r g y and i n t e l l e c t u a l s  e d u c a t e d a b r o a d a n d i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i d e a s revolutionaries. they  prepared  nationalism.  T h e i r work and t e a c h i n g  who w e r e  of French  i s significant for  t h e scene f o r t h e development o f modern.Croat Considering  the fact  that Joseph's reforms  caused  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among a l l t h e c l a s s e s i n C r o a t i a — i n c l u d i n g t h e P r o t e s t a n t s whose p o s i t i o n d i d n o t i m p r o v e by t h e T o l e r a t i o n Patent—it  i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t e a r l y 'Croat  no s u p p o r t  f o r their  consequently  limited  who h o p e d t o a c h i e v e  teaching t o very  radicals  among t h e C r o a t s .  found  They w e r e  s m a l l groups o f p r o g r e s s i v e  something w i t h the h e l p o f t h e i r  thinkers  radically  minded Emperor. From t h e b e g i n n i n g basically  of the e r a of Josephinism  there  were  two g r o u p s o f p r o g r e s s i v e . t h i n k e r s i n C r o a t i a , e a c h  o f them i n f a v o u r  of a n t i f e u d a l laws, but d i f f e r i n g  concepts o f the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s t a t e . group, so c a l l e d J o s e p h i n i s t s , f a i l e d  to attract  i n their The f i r s t  a larger  -19-  following for their r a d i c a l ideas because they were enforced i n a ruthless and u n s k i l l f u l manner by Joseph's Governor, Francis Balassa.  Therefore their attempt to induce Croats to  adopt and further develop their own Croat language and l i t e r a t u r e f a i l e d to attract a substantial number of educated people. This project, however, found some devoted supporters among the most talented and educated members of the higher c l a s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the persons of Maximilian Vrhovac and Nikola Skrlec. Vrhovac, Joseph's bishop of Zagreb, i s considered among the best Croat national teachers who preached the ideas of Josephinism to the people at the end of the 1 8 t h and beginning of the 1 9 t h century. ' His work on the development and defence of the I l l y r i a n language, and his c o l l e c t i o n of f o l k l o r e were to play a s i g n i f i cant role i n the national development of Croatia. ° 2  Vrhovac;did not advocate the formation of a national movement i n the modern sense of the word. king he was  As a l o y a l subject of h i s  not i n favour of Croatia's independence from  Austria and Hungary.  His views were progressive.because  he  r e a l i z e d that the Monarchy ( s t i l l patterned after a mediaeval form of government) sorely needed reforms to aid i t s s o c i a l and economic development, and that, successfully  executed,  these reforms would ultimately benefit Croatia h e r s e l f .  In  addition to t h i s , he instructed his subordinates, the parish p r i e s t s , to organize a c o l l e c t i o n of folksongs and forms of speech as they existed i n each p a r t i c u l a r parish. ^ 2  B u t  d u e  to the'ignorance of the clergy and their lack of f e e l i n g for the native s p i r i t , this attempt f a i l e d to produce the results  -20-  hoped f o r .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , by u s i n g  his influence  of Joseph I I and l a t e r h i s b r o t h e r , succeeded i n g e t t i n g  c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e f a t h e r s  H i s m a i n a s s i s t a n t , who i s  of nationalism  S k r l e c , Joseph's commissar ( V e l i k i  of Zagreb.  He was h i g h l y  Skrlec's  the  i n 1790.  Common D i e t  Marczali, s a i d about  progressive  i n C r o a t i a , was  supan) f o r t h e County  esteemed, n o t only  C r o a t i a , b u t a l s o by t h e p r o g r e s s i v e  acquainted with  printing  a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e Croat c l a s s i c s  written i n theKajkavian d i a l e c t .  in  Leopold I I , Vrhovac  permission to establish a private  o f f i c e where he p u b l i s h e d  Nikola  at t h e courts  by h i s  contemporaries  M a g y a r n o b i l i t y who became  views during  the meeting of  A w e l l known M a g y a r h i s t o r i a n , H e n r y  an e x p e r t on t h e l a s t  t w o d e c a d e s o f t h e 18th c e n t u r y ,  Skrlec:  " N i k o l a S k r l e c was p e r h a p s t h e g r e a t e s t political t a l e n t " not only i n C r o a t i a , but a l s o i n t h e whole o f Hungary. As w e l l as h i s " e x p e r t k n o w l e d g e o f e c o n o m i c s h e p r o d u c e d numerous p r o o f s o f h i s d e e p i n s i g h t i n t o t h e e n t i r e s o c i a l and s t a t e s i t u a t i o n " . The i n t r o d u c t o r y s p e e c h , w h i c h S k r l e c d e l i v e r e d a t t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e c o u n t y o f Z a g r e b , 15 A p r i l 1790, "was v e r y w e l l known" a n d was p r i n t e d n o t o n l y i n t h e M a g y a r K u r i r , b u t a l s o i n t h e L a t i n n e w s p a p e r o f B u d a . ~>® H o w e v e r , S k r l e c , l i k e V r h o v a c , g a v e no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t h e favoured the preservation autonomy. 1790,  and f u r t h e r " d e v e l o p m e n t o f Croat  On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  h e demanded " t h a t  w i t h Hungary s o that  a t a m e e t i n g o f t h e Common D i e t i n  C r o a t i a must e s t a b l i s h t h e c l o s e s t  t h e e x e c u t i v e government w i l l  never ^1  be  able t o cross As  the limits  of i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n " .  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y ,  t h e s e demands f o r  J  various  ties  again  - 2 1 -  reforms  o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the French  advocated lost  by  Revolution.  The  a more r a d i c a l segment o f t h e F r e n c h  some o f t h e i r  of Joseph I I .  i n t e n s i t y by  ideas bourgeois  the time they reached  the  The ' J o s e p h i n i s t s i n C r o a t i a d i d n o t want w i t h i n the  to  change the c o u n t r y ' s  political  Monarchy.  t o them, t h e o l d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s .  According  s t a t u s quo  court  Habsburg  w h i c h d e f i n e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f C r o a t i a "have t o be  strictly  enforced  advocate  and  preserved".  While  J  t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e M o n a r c h y and  they would not establishment  of a  republic,  the l e a s t  t h e y d i d was  t o p u l l the country from i t s f e u d a l ,  mediaeval  darkness  improve the p o s i t i o n of i t s u n d e r p r i v i -  and  leged classes. V r h o v a c and  S k r l e c d i d not r e p r e s e n t  c u r r e n t i n the p o l i t i c a l intellectuals almost  life  t h e most  of C r o a t i a .  Other p r o g r e s s i v e  went s e v e r a l s t e p s f u r t h e r and  i d e n t i c a l to those  of the French  preached  ideas  revolutionaries.  t h e J o s e p h i n i s t s t h i s g r o u p , c a l l e d J a c o b i n s , was w o r k u n d e r g r o u n d as an i l l e g a l ,  radical  Unlike  forced to  subversive organization.  In  C r o a t i a t h e r e were s e v e r a l s m a l l groups of J a c o b i n s ,  organized  and  as  l e d by  the l e a d i n g Jacobins  M a r t i n o v i c s , I v a n L a c k o v i c z and  i n the Monarchy such Joseph Hajnoczy.  movement o r i g i n a t e d i n H u n g a r y , b u t was national lines.. in  s t r u c t u r e of the Monarchy along bourgeois  century.  entire  organized  along  I t c o n s i s t e d o f t h e most p r o g r e s s i v e e l e m e n t s  t h e M o n a r c h y whose m a i n p u r p o s e was  French  not  The  Ignat  to reform  the l i n e s  c l a s s i n the l a s t  the  social  l a i d down by  decade of the  the  eighteenth  I n C r o a t i a and H u n g a r y t h e s e g r o u p s c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y  -22-  of i n t e l l e c t u a l s because the peasants were neither interested i n nor understood  the slogan " l i b e r t y , f r a t e r n i t y and equality",  and the bourgeois class was  numerically weak due to a compara-  t i v e l y underdeveloped economy.  Apart from some trade and  home.manufacture, the middle class of these countries had no other means of increasing i t s economic power.  A handful of  larger i n d u s t r i a l units produced a very limited quantity of consumer goods for the needs of the home market. the consumer goods was  The bulk of  imported from abroad to s a t i s f y the needs 33  of the well-to-do nobles.  J  In order to increase the economic potential of the nations i n the Monarchy, Martinovies wanted to reform i t s p o l i t i c a l system and said " . . . i t i s wrong for a nation to allow i t s upper classes to take i t s . n a t u r a l right to l e g i s l a t e because the upper classes represent only their i n t e r e s t s , and not the 3k  interests of society i n general".  .  The Jacobins demanded  freedom for every nation and pointed out that i n Croatia "both yokes have to be destroyed s.o that freedom can be triumphant". During the reign of Joseph I I , Martinovies was  a history  professor at the University of Lvov ( i n German "Lemberg", i n Ukrainian " L v i v " ) .  Although a Serb by o r i g i n , he l i v e d and  worked i n Hungary where he was born and brought up.  After the  death of Joseph I I , he became a personal adviser to Leopold II who was  trying to continue the work of his late brother.  Martinovies favoured Joseph's s o c i a l reforms and t r i e d to i n fluence Leopold's  successor, Francis, to reform the Monarchy's  J  -23-  f e u d a l s o c i a l system.  However, f e a r a r i s i n g  of the French R e v o l u t i o n reactionary position. t h e new  ruler  a democratic motivated he  and  As  from the  c a u s e d F r a n c i s t o assume an a result,  organized  Magyar-Croat r e v o l u t i o n " . ^  the purpose of Martinovics  i d e o l o g y whose m a i n  wanted t o e s t a b l i s h i n the H u n g a r i a n s t a t e .  pointed  o u t , he  Croatia.  But  extremely  "Martinovics b i t t e r l y  a plot with  by F r e n c h b o u r g e o i s  results  F r a n c i s ' p o l i c e and 179^+, M a r t i n o v i c s  staging was  principles  As  already  f o u n d a number o f f o l l o w e r s i n H u n g a r y  t h e i r p l o t t i n g was  and  unfortunately discovered  a l l t h e i r leaders  caught.  opposed  by  I n the s p r i n g  and h i s c l o s e s t a s s o c i a t e s w e r e t r i e d  and  of the  on  m a j o r i t y o f them, i n c l u d i n g h i m s e l f , e x e c u t e d . B o t h H a j n o c z y and the r e f o r m a t i o n  Lackovicz  shared  of Magyar f e u d a l i s m .  J  '  M a r t i n o v i c s ' scheme f o r  Although  they were from o o  noble f a m i l i e s , they had  "hated  the Magyar n o b i l i t y "  come t o t e r m s w i t h V i e n n a and  because i t  i t opposed Joseph's s o c i a l  Hajnoczy, l i k e L a c k o v i c z , advocated complete emancipation p e a s a n t c l a s s and  c o n f i s c a t i o n of the  "surplus  of  land of the  reforms. the  upper  39  clergy  and  nobility".  the peasant c l a s s . t o be  taxed  and  -  >/  This  l a n d was  In addition to t h i s ,  t o be d i s t r i b u t e d a l l the nobles  t h e money u s e d f o r e d u c a t i o n a l and  among  were  cultural  purposes. The  a c t i o n s of M a r t i n o v i c s  are s i g n i f i c a n t ment o f t h e of the  Croat  and h i s c o l l e a g u e s  because of the part they  Croat  J a c o b i n movement.  Jacobins  is relatively  played  i n Hungary  i n the  Unfortunately, unknown f o r t h e  the  developwork,  trial  in  -2k-  Pest r e v e a l e d o n l y l i m i t e d evidence in  o f the Croat's r o l e i n t h e  the p l o t a g a i n s t Francis,. One o f t h e main l e a d e r s o f t h e Croat J a c o b i n s was J o s i p  K r a l j , d i r e c t o r of a r o y a l estate i n S l a v o n i a .  He was " t h e ko  main o r g a n i z i n g f o r c e l i n k i n g the Magyar and Croat  Jacobins".  As s u c h , he was one o f t h e key f i g u r e s i n the above mentioned trial.  However, he was never q u e s t i o n e d by t h e c o u r t because  he committed s u i c i d e w h i l e i n p r i s o n .  As a. r e s u l t t h e c o u r t k\  " l o s t t h e t h r e a d and c o u l d not d i s c o v e r f u r t h e r c o n n e c t i o n s " . This f a c t , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e d e n i a l o f M a r t i n o v i e s and h i s c o l l e a g u e s t h a t they had been i n c o n t a c t w i t h K r a l j , l e f t t h e Croat h i s t o r i a n s i n t h e d a r k as t o the s i z e and a c t i v i t i e s o f the Croat J a c o b i n s .  During  the t r i a l  a s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t took  p l a c e when t h e c o u r t q u e s t i o n e d Marko D e l i v u k , who i s c o n s i d e r e d to.be the- second most i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n a l i t y among the Croat J a c o b i n s . H i s Magyar f r i e n d s ( i . e . t h e J a c o b i n s ) " d i d not r e v e a l h i s t i e s w i t h t h e s e c r e t o r g a n i z a t i o n and he ( D e l i v u k ) defended h i m s e l f v e r y s k i l f u l l y d u r i n g t h e t r i a l . . . s o t h e r e was k2 • l i t t l e known o f h i s r o l e I n M a r t i n o v i e s ' p l o t " . A f t e r the m a j o r i t y of M a r t i n o v i e s executed  1  J a c o b i t e f o l l o w e r s we're  ( 1 7 9 5 ) , t h e movement d i s s o l v e d c o m p l e t e l y  and F r a n c i s  succeeded i n r e s t o r i n g the f e u d a l a b s o l u t i s t i c system as i t had e x i s t e d b e f o r e t h e age o f J o s e p h i n i s m . evidence  submitted  During  the t r i a l , the  a g a i n s t M a r t i n o v i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t he had  e s t a b l i s h e d c o n t a c t w i t h B i s h o p Vrhovac who, i t was s a i d , had h e l p e d t h e J a c o b i n s i n Zagreb o r g a n i z e a p u b l i c d i s p l a y o f l i b e r a l  -25-  ideas i n the form of "'the tree of freedom' (arbor l i b e i f ^ t a t i s ) as a symbol of protest against the ruling class" ( 1 7 9 0 ) .  J  A  poem attached to "the tree of freedom" called the Croats "to unite kk  with the French against their enemies"  and condemned the  n o b i l i t y and clergy f o r exploiting the peasantry.  During the  t r i a l Martinovics denied'that he was on f r i e n d l y terms with Vrhovac.  His denial, coupled with the influence Vrhovac had  among some of the highest members of the Court, saved Vrhovac's life. The work of the Croat Jacobins goes down i n Croat history as a small experiment i n the development of the Croat r a d i c a l movement.  The conditions prevailing i n the country during  this period indicated that, without a strong middle  class,  a b o l i t i o n or reform of the present s o c i a l system and i t s feudal values waseimpossible.  And i n Croatia, as we already know,  "there was no t h i r d class which would dare to think of only i t s UK  rights and progress".  y  The Jacobin movement was the last time any Croat p a t r i o t i c national leaders would attempt to work i n cooperation with the Magyars.  Future Croat-Magyar relations not only forced Croat  progressive thinkers to discontinue the Jacobins' democratic a c t i v i t i e s , but also to organize the Croat national movement along conservative l i n e s .  In addition to t h i s , f o r a decade or  two following the disappearance  of the Jacobin movement, Croatia  did not produce a single national awakener who would speak out for s o c i a l reforms.  -26-  T h u s , when C r o a t  r a d i c a l i s m d i e d out before  the century, the c o n s e r v a t i v e n o b i l i t y politically  machinery.  remained the only  organized force i n the country.  absolutism r e l i e d  t o a great extent  the turn of  Francis  on h i s e f f e c t i v e  P o l i c e agents put a c l o s e watch on every  individual.'  Under s u c h  nobility  r e a c t i o n a r y regime.  Consequently,  suspected  movement.  i n favour  disliked  of the preservation of  F r a n c i s ' concept  t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e Croat n o b i l i t y ,  p r o g r e s s i v e s , t r i e d t o continue working servative nobility  police  was b i t t e r l y o p p o s e d t o F r a n c i s '  Although  feudalism, the n o b i l i t y  reactionary  c o n d i t i o n s i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o  o r g a n i z e an a n t i - f e u d a l r a d i c a l Even t h e Croat  1  because t h e i r  of i t .  like  former  w i t h t h e Magyar  con-  causes appeared i d e n t i c a l .  the meantime, t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e Magyars had j o i n e d ranks the f a s t  developing  nationalist  movement.  In with  Magyar n a t i o n a l i s m  was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as p r o g r e s s i v e , b u t o n l y as f a r as t h e M a g y a r n a t i o n was c o n c e r n e d .  Croat  acceptance  of the ideas motivating  t h e M a g y a r ' s n a t i o n a l movement w o u l d mean c o m p l e t e M a g y a r i z a t i o n and  d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Croat  was' s l o w e r  nation.  i n d e v e l o p i n g , t h e Croat  the danger presented  nobility,  by H u n g a r y , was l e f t  what p o s i t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n . relatively  S i n c e Croat n a t i o n a l i s m  s m a l l group o f Croat  campaign f o r t h e c u l t u r a l  after  realizing  i n a d i l e m m a as to.  A t t h e same t i m e , a intellectuals  revival  organized  a  of the nation recognizing  t h a t , b e f o r e n a t i o n a l autonomy c o u l d be c l a i m e d , C r o a t i a n e e d e d its  own l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e a n d o r t h o g r a p h y .  This group  achieved  -27-  tremendous success and  enabled  over a r e l a t i v e l y  the n o b i l i t y  Croatia's t r a d i t i o n a l The new l e a d e r s little  by t h e i d e a s  short  period of time,  to regain i t s lost  right  g r o u n d and c l a i m  t o autonomy w i t h i n t h e M o n a r c h y .  o f Croat  n a t i o n a l i s m were i n f l u e n c e d  o f t h e f o r m e r J o s e p h i n i s t s and  The new n a t i o n a l i s t i c  spirit  Jacobins.  was n o t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e  e x t r e m e r a d i c a l i s m o f t h e J o s e p h i n i s t s and J a c o b i n s lived  and a c t e d  o n l y a decade ago.  who h a d  The new movement was  g r e s s i v e i n s o f a r as i t demanded t h e u s e o f t h e C r o a t and  literature.  very  Some r a d i c a l i d e a s  d i d indeed  exist  pro-  language  among  t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , b u t a t t e m p t s t o p u t them i n t o p r a c t i c e r e m a i n e d largely  isolated  and l i m i t e d .  ment f o u n d i t s e l f  i n a p o s i t i o n where, f o r the sake o f n a t i o n a l  p r e s e r v a t i o n , i t was n e c e s s a r y by and  allying  U n l i k e a d e c a d e a g o , t h e move-  t o combat M a g y a r r a d i c a l i s m  w i t h the conservative forces of the n a t i v e  the court  o f the Emperor.  Thus t h e C r o a t  the f i r s t h a l f of the 19th century, found i t very  nationalists  aims.  l i k e former J o s e p h i n i s t s ,  The d i f f e r e n c e was  t h a t J o s e p h i n i s t s were  o f . p r o g r e s s i v e reforms while l a t e r  were f u n d a m e n t a l l y  conservative.  nationalists  I n the former case, the  r a d i c a l i s m of the Josephinists forced the conservative nobles the  t o j o i n f o r c e s w i t h t h e Magyar c o n s e r v a t i v e s  progressive  Croat  of  u s e f u l t o seek Vienna's a s s i s t a n c e f o r the r e a l i -  z a t i o n of t h e i r supporters  nobility  reforms of Joseph I I .  Croat  against  I n the l a t t e r case, the  n o b l e m e n , as w e l l as t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , w e r e l e f t  c h o i c e b u t t o j o i n f o r c e s w i t h V i e n n a (now t h e c e n t r e  no  of reaction)  -28-  against  t h e M a g y a r movement whose p l a t f o r m i n c l u d e d some v e r y  progressive ideas. The  Croat  n a t i o n a l movement u n d e r w e n t s e v e r a l s t a g e s  d e v e l o p m e n t , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e p o l i t i c a l of a f f a i r s  w i t h Hungary.  the n a t i o n s p l i t  the establishment  and  c l e r g y who,  will  composed o f members  and  demanded a c c e p t a n c e  Croatia's o f f i c i a l  language.  The  a few  and  members  of the  next  and  Croat following  a n a l y z e i n d e t a i l the a c t u a l development of  n a t i o n a l i s m , and  i t s aims and  formed u n t i l  the middle  introductory  chapter  characteristics  of the c e n t u r y .  The  as t h e y  i s t o p r o v i d e t h e r e a d e r w i t h an  w h i c h i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t  problem i n v o l v e d i n the next  b7  '  this  under-  relations,  to gain insight i n t o  chapters.  Croat  were  purpose of  standing, of the g e n e r a l background of Croat-Magyar without  found  a t t h a t t i m e , demanded  of i n t e l l e c t u a l s  f r o m t h e h i g h e r n o b i l i t y who  chapters  first  of c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Magyars,  t h e s e c o n d composed m a i n l y  l a n g u a g e as  state  At i t s b e g i n n i n g , t h e movement  i n t o two. g r o u p s - - t h e  from the h i g h e r n o b i l i t y  s i t u a t i o n and  of  the  -29-  FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I 1 The term Croatia" had a twofold meaning, A l l the Croat lands together formed the T r i p l e Croat Kingdom composed of Croatia proper., Slavonia and Dalmatia. Very frequently the T r i p l e Kingdom was referred to as Croatia. Thus "Croatia" meant either Croatia proper or a l l three parts together. In this paper the term i s used i n i t s broader sense. Whenever necessary the proper d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l be made. ,;  2 T. Smiciklas, Poviest Hrvatska, Zagreb, Matica Hrvatska, v o l . 2, 1879, p. 93 The status of Slavonia i n the lands of the Crown of St. Stephen i s described b r i e f l y i n footnote 6. k J . Sidak, H i s t o r i j s k a citanka za hrvatsku novijest, Zagreb, Skolska Knjiga, 1952, pp. 107-108. Before this decision was reached Ferdinand had been compelled to respect a l l the rights the Croat n o b i l i t y had enjoyed up to that time. 5 The o r i g i n a l of this document has not been preserved. Its present text dates back to the f i r s t h a l f of the fourteenth century. It was discovered among the works of Tomo, a Croat monk-historian from T r o g i r . However, a number of Croatia's present historians doubt the authenticity, of Tomo's t r a n s c r i p t . Some of themj l i k e 0 . Mandic, believe that the text of the document found i n Tomo's works was based on a forgery of the o r i g i n a l document made between the years 1222 and 1235. Nada K l a i c , for example, argues that the text of the Pacta Conventa (also c a l l e d the Qualiter or Trogirska Apendicula) has no l e g a l foundation since the o r i g i n a l never did e x i s t i Furthermore, she argues that "the noblemen of. the twelve Croat t r i b e s " referred to i n the Pacta Conventa actually did not exist u n t i l the fourteenth century, when they slowly emerged, as a s p e c i a l , p r i v i leged class and were recognized as such by various Hungarian kings. Although a controversy s t i l l remains about the actual existence of the Pacta Conventa. the majority of the Croat h i s t o r i a n s , past and present, concur that some kind of agreement between Koloman and Croats did e x i s t . It has also been established that the terms of this • agreement applied to Croatia and Dalmatia, but not to Slavonia which held a somewhat d i f f e r e n t position i n r e l a t i o n to Hungary (see footnote 7).  -30-  For further discussion concerning the Pacta Conventa see N. K l a i c , "Tzv. 'Pacta Conventa' i i i toboznji ugovor izmedju plemstva dvanaestero plemena i k r a l j a Kolomana 1102 godine", I s t o r i s k i Pregled, v o l . 6 , ( I 9 6 0 ) , pp. 1 0 7 - 1 2 0 ; "Plemstvo dvanaestero plemena kraljevine Hrvatske", Histori.jski Zbornik, v o l . 9 (1956), pp. 83-100. For^the opposite point of view on this problem see 0. Mandic, "'Pacta Conventa' i 'dvanaest' hrvatskih bratstava", Histori.jski Zbornik, v o l s . 11-12 (1958-1959), pp. 1 6 5 - 2 0 6 . Mandic defends the opinion of the majority of the older Croat h i s t o r i a n s , such as L j . Hauptmann, M. Barada, V. K l a i c , F. §isic, D. Surmin and others, who believed i n the existence of such an agreement. See, for example, F. S i s i c , P r i r u c n i k izvora hrvatske h i s t o r i j e , Zagreb, Kraljevska Hrvatsko-Slavonsko-Dalmatinska.Vlada, v o l . 1, 191k,  pp. 459-6^9.  A l l the Magyar historians of the pre-World War I period emphaticallyjdenied the existence of any kind of agreement between the Croats and Koloman. Like the Magyar radicals of the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century, they maintained that Slavonia was an i n t e g r a l part of Hungary, conquered by the Magyar kings before Koloman. ' 6 Sidak, Histori.lska citanka, pp. 3^-35. The terma of this agreement represented the basis of the s p e c i a l rights and privileges that the Croat n o b i l i t y had i n the lands of the Crown of St. Stephen. The greater part of the Croat defence against Magyarization was based on the terms of this agreement. 7 Hence the significance of the Pacta Conventa.was not of c r u c i a l importance u n t i l the last decades of the eighteenth century when the s t i r r i n g of n a t i o n a l i s t i c s p i r i t began t o ' s p l i t the two nations. U n t i l then the question of Slavonia's position i n the Hungarian kingdom was not r a i s e d . It i s important to point out that, u n t i l 1526, the name "Slavonia" was not included i n the royal title. Consequently, Magyar nationalists of the nineteenth century argued that Slavonia had always been considered a part of the Hungarian state. According to them, even i f an agreement between the Croats and Koloman had taken . place, i t s terms did not apply to Slavonia, but only to Croatia proper. It cannot be denied, however, that Slavonia was never considered an i n t e g r a l part of Hungary. Although i t s status was somewhat d i f f e r e n t from that of Croatia and Dalmatia, i t had i t s own Ban and Sabor. Because Slavonia had already f a l l e n to Hungary during the reign of the Magyar K i Ladislas I (1077 - 1095), the Slavonian n o b i l i t y , unlike the Croat one, was forced to pay property taxes (marturina).  The Croat and Slavonian Sapors met together only when some important issue was to be discussed. Dating from 1558 both Sabors were united into one, the Croat-Slavonian-Dalmatian Sabor. The o f f i c e of the Slavonian Ban was abolished i n favour of the Croat Ban i n Zagreb. Thus a l l the differences between Croatia and Slavonia, including the system for c o l l e c t i o n of taxes, were abolished completely. However, following the year 1751? Slavonian counties sent t h e i r delegates d i r e c t l y to the Hungarian Diet. The counties of Croatia proper continued to elect their delegates to this Diet during the meeting of the Sabor--two to the lower house and one to the upper. Dalmatia f e l l to Venice i n 1*426 where i t remained u n t i l 1797. , For further information see F. S i s i c , Pregled p o v i j e s t i hrvatskog haroda, Zagreb, Matica Hrvatska, 1962, or T. Smiciklas, Poviest Hrvatska, Zagreb, Matica Hrvatska, 1879, 2 vols. . v  v  8  F. S i s i c , Hrvatska povijest, Zagreb, Matica Hrvatska, v o l . 3 , 1913, P.. 6. 9. See F. Culinovic, Drzavopravna h i s t o r i j a jugoslavenskih zemalja, Zagreb, Skolska Knjiga, 1961, p. 59. 10  Ibid., p. 59.  11  See S i s i c , Pregled p o v i j e s t i , p. 332.  12 For a more detailed presentation of the evolution of the Ban's o f f i c e , see S i s i c , Hrvatska povijest. The role of the Ban i n the Croat national movement w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t l y explained i n subsequent pages. 13  Culinovic, Drzavnopravna h i s t o r i j a , p. 60.  Ik  See Sidak, H i s t o r i j s k a citanka, pp.  15  See Culinovic, Drzavnopravna h i s t o r i j a , p. 6 l .  52-56  16 These rights and privileges of the Croat n o b i l i t y were often referred to as the "municipal r i g h t s " of the T r i p l e Kingdom. The "municipal-rights" were equally v a l i d i n Slavonia. Thus the leaders of the Magyar national movement had no l e g a l foundation i n claiming Slavonia for Hungary. 17 Croat economic conditions during the era of the Enlightened Absolutism are described i n R. Bicanic, Doba Manufakture u Hrvatskoj i S l a v o n i j i , Zagreb, Jugoslavenska,  -32-  Akademija. Znanosti i Umjetnosti, 1951, PP- 2-39. A considerable amount of Croat c a p i t a l was i n the hands of "foreigners", Germans and Magyars, who formed a large part of the Croat n o b i l i t y . This fact represented a major obstacle to the development of Croat nationalism i n the 1820's and 1830's. 18 The origins of the M i l i t a r y Frontier go back to the pre1526 period when the Croats and Magyars b u i l t a number of f o r t i f i c a t i o n s to protect themselves from the Turks. During the 1530's the M i l i t a r y Frontier became a permanent i n s t i t u t i o n for defence which was d i r e c t l y administered by the central government. The s i z e of i t s t e r r i t o r y varied depending upon the length of the Austro-Turkish border. See B. Djurdjev and others, H i s t o r i j a Naroda Jugoslavije, Zagreb, Skolska Knjiga, v o l . 2, 1959, pp. 416-421, R. K i s z l i n g , Die Kroaten, Graz-Kttln, Verlag Hermann Btthlaus Nachf., 1956, pp. 40-48, and G.E. Rothenberg, The Austrian M i l i t a r y Border i n Croatia, 1522-1747, Urbana, The University of I l l i n o i s Press, i 9 6 0 , pp. 28-39 and pp. 103-111. 19 V. Bogdanov, H i s t o r i j a p o l i t i c k i h stranaka u Hrvatskoj, Zagreb, Novinarsko Izdavacko Poduzece, 1958, p. 16. 20  Ibid., p. 16  21 See S. S r k u l j , I z v o r i za hrvatsku povijest, Zagreb, Tiskara Hrvatske Stranke Prava, 1911, pp. 137-139. 22 Such an attitude led the Croat n o b i l i t y to make the f a t a l mistake i n 1790/91. See Chapter I I , "Voluntary Surrender", pp. 35-45. 23  Smiciklas, Poviest Hrvatska, v o l . 2, p. 349.  24 See Urbar Marije Terezije za Slavoniju g. 1756" i n Sidak, H i s t o r i j s k a citanka, pp. 159-164. n  25  S i s i c , Hrvatska Povijest, v o l . 3 , p. 8.  26  Smiciklas, Poviest Hrvatska, v o l . 2, p. 361.  27 Croat men and women even began to wear Magyar f o l k costumes to manifest t h e i r opposition to c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and Germanization. See D. Surmin, Hrvatski preporod, Zagreb, Tisak Dionicke Tiskare, v o l . 1, 1903, pp. 3 - 4 . 28  Bogdanov, H i s t o r i j a p o l i t i c k i h stranaka, p. 25.  29 Vrhovac's l e t t e r s to the Croat parish priests have never been published. This i s also true of the greater part of his correspondence with the prominent personalities of Croatia,  -33-  A u s t r i a and Hungary. T h i s m a t e r i a l , h i s d i a r y and many v a l u a b l e documents are a v a i l a b l e i n the a r c h i v e s of the Archbishop of Zagreb. P u b l i s h e d c o l l e c t i o n s o f the o r i g i n a l documents ( i n the Serbo-Croat language) o f t e n c o n t a i n d i f f e r e n t excerpts of the same document. Hence, I had no c h o i c e but t o use d i f f e r e n t sources w h i l e ' r e f e r r i n g t o the same o r i g i n a l . Two s h o r t excerpts from the l e t t e r w r i t t e n by Vrhovac i n 1813 are t o be found i n V. Novak, Antologi.ia Jugoslavenske m i s l i i narodnog j e d i n s t y a , B e l g r a d e , Stampa DrSavne Stampari^e, 1930, pp. ^-UU. See a l s o F. Fancev, Dokumenti z a nase p o d r i j e t l o hrvatskoga preporoda (17901 8 3 2 ) " , G r a d j a za p o v i j e s t k n j i z e v n o s t i h r v a t s k e , v o l . l!  12 (1933) pp. 60-62.  30  Bogdanov, H i s t o r i j a p o l i t i c k i h s t r a n a k a , p. 27.  31  S i s i c , H r v a t s k a P o v i j e s t , v o l . 3? p. 15.  32  Bogdanov, op. c i t . , p. 28.  33  See S r k u l j , I z v o r i z a h r v a t s k u povi.jest, pp.  3*+  Bogdanov, op. c i t . , p. 3*+.  35  Loc. c i t .  Ik5-lk8.  36 V. Bogdanov, 'JHrvatska r e v o l u c i o n a r n a pjesma i z godine 179k i ucesc'e H r v a t a i Srba u z a v j e r i M a r t i n o v i c e v i h j a k o b i n a c a . " S t a r i n e , v o l . ^6 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 3*+2. 37  See I b i d . , pp.  38  I b i d . , p. 373.  39  I b i d . , p. 3 7 1 .  kO  I b i d . , p. k$k.  k$k-kk2.  kl K. Benda and L . H a d r o v i c s , " K r o a t i s c h e s F r e i h e i t s g e d i c h t aus dem J a h r e 179k", A c t a S l a v i c a Academiae S c i e n t i a r u m Hungaricae, v o l . 2 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 382. k2  Bogdanov, "Hrvatska r e v o l u c i o n a r n a pjesma...", p. ^55.  ^3  S m i c i k l a s , P o v i e s t H r v a t s k a . V o l . 2, p. ^00.  kk J . Sidak, "V. Bogdanov ^Hrvatska r e v o l u c i o n a r n a pjesma i z godine 179*+ i ucesc'e H r v a t a i Srba u z a v j e r i M a r t i n o v i c e v i h j a k o b i n a c a ' " , H i s t o r i j s k i Zbornik, v o l . 9  ( 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 18k.  H5  Surmin, H r v a t s k i preporod, v o l . 1, p. 10.  U6 The Croat n o b i l i t y remained i n this dilemma u n t i l 1832 when i t f i n a l l y began to adopt the cause of the.Croat national movement. The period between 1790 and 1832 was the "period of appeasement" which ended during the meetings of the Diet i n 1832/36. , h7 The scope and task of this paper does not allow a detailed presentation of the pre-1790 Croat p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l development.  II  BEFOBE THE ILLYRIAN MOVEMENT (1790 - 1832) Voluntary Surrender The meeting of the Common Diet i n Pozsony ( i n German "Pressburg", i n Slovak and Czech "Bratislava") i n 1790/91 i s considered the main cornerstone i n the development of CroatMagyar r e l a t i o n s .  I t was at this meeting f o r the f i r s t  time  that the Magyar n o b i l i t y openly demanded that the Croat delegates accept proposals aimed at the complete Magyarization of Croatia.  The Croat n o b i l i t y , the hated rule of Joseph II  s t i l l fresh i n their minds, was w i l l i n g to accept these proposals providing that the new policy would not change i t s p o s i t i o n i n the lands of the Crown of St. Stephen i n any way. In practice this meant that the Croats would be w i l l i n g to s a t i s f y a l l Magyar demands as long as such a policy would not encroach upon the n o b i l i t y ' s ancient rights and p r i v i l e g e s . As indicated i n the previous chapter, these ancient rights and p r i v i l e g e s , known as .jura municipalia, guaranteed the Croat n o b i l i t y a s p e c i a l position i n Croatia-Hungary the Habsburg Monarchy.  and l a t e r i n  While w i l l i n g to accept the Magyar  language as an optional subject i n the schools, and otherwise a l l y - i t s forces with Hungary, the Croat n o b i l i t y emphatically disagreed with those Magyar demands which c a l l e d for replacing L a t i n by the Magyar language i n administration, giving equal  -36-  rights  t o the Protestants  ( t h i s would  e n a b l e Magyar P r o t e s t a n t s  t o s e t t l e i n C r o a t i a ) , a n d t a k i n g some C r o a t t e r r i t o r i e s ( f o r example,  R i j e k a and t h e S l a v o n i a n c o u n t i e s ) from t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n  of t h e Ban and p l a c i n g  them u n d e r  t h e Crown's C o u n c i l f o r  Hungary.  ,  The m e e t i n g  o f t h e Common D i e t i n 1790 was t h e l a s t  the Croat d e l e g a t e s would b e l i e v e i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y i n c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e Magyar r u l i n g t h i s moment, t h e C r o a t - M a g y a r rapidly  relations  class.  time  of working 1  From  began t o d e t e r i o r a t e  a n d t h e C r o a t s b e g a n t o t u r n more a n d more t o V i e n n a ,  and l a t e r  to their  At t h e m e e t i n g  own n a t i o n a l i s t i c movement f o r a s s i s t a n c e .  o f t h i s D i e t , t h e C r o a t s showed t h e i r  "unpre-  2  paredness  f o r i m p o r t a n t events and changes".  According  t o established, c o n s t i t u t i o n a l procedure, the  C r o a t l e g i s l a t i v e - a s s e m b l y , t h e S a b o r , u s u a l l y met b e f o r e t h e meeting  o f t h e Common D i e t i n o r d e r t o d e c i d e o n t h e . p o s i t i o n  t o be t a k e n a t P o z s o n y . Pozsony  a n d g a v e them s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s  were t o v o i c e t h e w i s h e s meeting  The S a b o r e l e c t e d i t s d e l e g a t e s t o  of Croatia.  o f t h e Sabor i t s e l f ,  S e v e r a l days b e f o r e t h e  their delegates t o the  and t o i s s u e a statement o f t h e i r views on t h e c u r r e n t  political County  they  a l l t h e C r o a t c o u n t i e s met i n  their separate skupstinas t o elect Sabor  on w h i c h b a s i s  issues.  Of a l l t h e s e m e e t i n g s , t h e m e e t i n g  o f Z a g r e b was t h e most i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e  only t h e county with t h e l a r g e s t political,  of the  Z a g r e b was n o t  p o p u l a t i o n , but also t h e  c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l c e n t r e o f a l l C r o a t i a .  I t was  -37-  on the proposal of this county that Leopold I I , after the resignation of Joseph's governor, Francis Balassa, appointed a new Ban for Croatia, Ivan Erd5dy (1790-1806).  At i t s  meeting the County of Zagreb agreed on the establishment of a elos'er union with Hungary so that "never again w i l l the . existence of our Constitution be threatened by the executive 3  government and i t s direct or i n d i r e c t helpers...".  J  The  decisions reached at the meetings of the other Croat counties indicated that the n o b i l i t y throughout  Croatia was unanimous  i n i t s demand for the formation of a closer c o n s t i t u t i o n a l union with Hungary.  That such an attitude should be common  among the nobles i n a l l the Croat counties i s not surprising for the composition of a l l the skupstinas was almost  identical,  i . e . only- the higher and middle nobles and members of the clergy had the right to attend and vote at such  meetings.  The decisions reached at the meeting of this Sabor must be discussed to some d e t a i l because they had a tremendous impact on the development of Croat nationalism.  The entire p o l i t i c a l  a c t i v i t y of the future leaders of nationalism stemmed from the desire to n u l l i f y the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l laws which were passed on the basis of these proposals.  In addition to  t h i s , an analysis of the instructions given by the Sabor t o the Croat delegates to the Common Diet w i l l show the true character of the tendencies prevailing among the Croat ruling c l a s s , and enable the reader to see to what extent the Magyars misinterpreted the laws of 1790/91 and u t i l i z e d them  -38-  for  t h e i r cause,  and a g a i n s t t h e C r o a t s .  The S a b o r f i n a l l y  met on 11 May  1790.  After  their  f o r m a l a p p r o v a l o f t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f t h e new B a n a n d the e l e c t i o n of o f f i c i a l s the Sabor, the delegates  after  who w e r e t o c o n d u c t t h e w o r k o f proceeded t o d i s c u s s the f u t u r e  p o s i t i o n of t h e i r country i n r e l a t i o n t o Hungary.  In the  a b s e n c e o f any k i n d o f o p p o s i t i o n t h e d e b a t e s on t h e i s s u e s i n q u e s t i o n were s h o r t and d e c i s i o n s were r e a c h e d  very '  rapidly. The S a b o r d e c i d e d  that i t sdelegates  were t o r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l i d i t y  t o t h e Common D i e t  of the m a j o r i t y vote i n a l l k  discussions proposals  of "general p u b l i c nature"  "do n o t a f f e c t  of C r o a t i a " . plicitly  told  y  but only i f such  the separate rights  o f t h e Kingdom  Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , the delegates  were ex-  t o r e f u s e t o r e c o g n i z e any m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e  law which prevented In addition to t h i s ,  n o n - C a t h o l i c s f r o m owning l a n d i n C r o a t i a . on t h e b a s i s o f M a r i a T h e r e s a ' s u n c o n s t i t -  u t i o n a l a c t w h i c h a b o l i s h e d t h e Crown's  Council f o r Croatia,  t h e d e l e g a t e s were t o propose t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a Senate o f the Kingdom (senatus  r e g n i ) w h i c h w o u l d be a common  ment composed o f a n e q u a l number o f C r o a t s secure  the r i g h t s  of both nations.  i n power-and r u l e over  Turkey".  and M a g y a r s t o  The S e n a t e was t o r e m a i n  Croatia's s i x counties only  Croatia regains a l l i t s t e r r i t o r y  govern-  "until  now o c c u p i e d by V e n i c e  and  I n a s e p a r a t e document a t t a c h e d t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s ,  the Sabor f o r m a l l y surrendered  i t s right  t o l e g i s l a t e on t h e  -39-  question  of Croatia's  finances:  . . . t h a t any i n c r e a s e i n t a x e s f o r t h e u p k e e p o f troops ( c o n t r i b u t i o ) payable d i r e c t l y t o t h e King, must i n f u t u r e be d i s c u s s e d a n d d e c i d e d e x c l u s i v e l y a t t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e Common D i e t a n d nowhere e l s e . But o n l y i f C r o a t i a n taxes a r e d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h e Magyar ones. 7 Regarding  the relations  o f Croatia-Hungary with A u s t r i a  and  i t s p o s i t i o n i n t h e M o n a r c h y , t h e S a b o r demanded t h a t  all  t h e l a w s i s s u e d by J o s e p h I I be f o r m a l l y  that and  t h e u s e o f t h e German l a n g u a g e be a b o l i s h e d i n C r o a t i a i n Hungary, that t h e King  clude  treaties  was t o d e c l a r e w a r s a n d c o n -  only with the approval  finally,  t h a t t h e K i n g was t o r e s p e c t  and  a meeting o f D i e t every  call The  .20  abolished,  According  third  year.  submitted  t o t h e M a g y a r demands t h a t new k i n g s f o r  t o recognize  i n s t a l l e d i n Buda.  the validity  he agreed w i t h t h e p r o p o s a l  enforced  o n l y w i t h agreement o f t h e D i e t . Leopold  He  of a l l the other  although  a r r i v a l i nVienna,  s e s s i o n on  t o h i s e a r l i e r d e c l a r a t i o n , Leopold  C r o a t i a - H u n g a r y be o f f i c i a l l y refused  the old Constitution  Common D i e t a t P o z s o n y o p e n e d i t s f i r s t  J u n e 1790.  readily  o f t h e Common D i e t , a n d ,  proposals,  t h a t new l a w s w o u l d be Shortly after his  formed, on t h e r e q u e s t s  o f t h e Serbs  in  C r o a t i a a n d t h e M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r , who w e r e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d  in  the Diet, a separate  skilfully  Illyrian  by-passed t h e Croat  O f f i c e i n Vienna.  laws w h i c h d e n i e d  This  religious  decision  t o l e r a t i o n t o the Orthodox f a i t h s . the  'Illyrian'  necessary The right  people  and  i n case  Croat  to decide  D i e t and  promised o f an  I n r e t u r n "the  chiefs  Vienna  ^0,000 t r o o p s o emergency".  whenever  p r o p o s a l f o r the v o l u n t a r y s u r r e n d e r  of  C r o a t i a ' s taxes i n the Sabor to the  t h e Crown's C o u n c i l f o r H u n g a r y ( L e o p o l d r e f u s e d  b o t h h o u s e s o f t h e D i e t v e r y q u i c k l y and  this  shortly  after.  No  important  o c c a s i o n i n view of the f a c t  w e l c o m e d by crease  t h e i r demands.  The  r e c e i v e d the  that the and  any  on was  i n s p i r e d them t o i n to  surrender  greater resistance.  However, w i t h . t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of the language the atmosphere p r e v a i l i n g  royal  C r o a t move  Croats, appeared w i l l i n g  offering  to  passed  debates took place  a l l the Magyar d e l e g a t e s  completely without  The  their  Common  s a n c t i o n the p r o p o s a l f o r the f o r m a t i o n of a Senate)  assent  of  i n the D i e t changed  problem  completely.  M a g y a r s demanded t h a t f u t u r e d e b a t e s i n t h e D i e t w e r e t o  be h e l d i n t h e M a g y a r l a n g u a g e and cisions  that the  j o u r n a l and  de-  o f t h e D i e t w e r e t o be w r i t t e n i n t h e i r l a n g u a g e  as  9 well. to  '  The  resist  C r o a t s w e r e a s t o n i s h e d and  this  were caught  sudden o u t b u r s t o f Magyar n a t i o n a l i s m .  q u e s t i o n o f r e p l a c i n g L a t i n by  o n l y a mere c h a n g e o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s  but  a l s o t h e p r o b l e m o f a b o l i s h i n g some f u n d a m e n t a l  o f the Kingdom of C r o a t i a .  in  The  official  language, rights  r e s i s t a n c e o r g a n i z e d by  a g a i n s t t h i s M a g y a r demand r e p r e s e n t e d  the development of Croat  The  the Magyar language i n v o l v e d ,  not  Croats  unprepared  nationalism.  The  the f i r s t Croats  the step  d i d not  -41-  argue  f o r the sake  mere f a c t  o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r own  t h a t they attempted  to r e s i s t  language,  the Magyar  but  the  language  c o n s t i t u t e d the f i r s t . s t e p i n the s t r u g g l e f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of C r o a t i a ' s s t a t e r i g h t s . "under Joseph had language  and  U n l i k e ' t h e M a g y a r s , who, '  progressed i n the development of  l i t e r a t u r e more t h a n t h e y o t h e r w i s e w o u l d h a v e  i n a h u n d r e d y e a r s " , ^° t h e C r o a t s h a d of u s i n g t h e i r language country.  yet to accept  as t h e o f f i c i a l  For the present they argued  w e r e s a n c t i o n e d and in  t h e use  t h e p u b l i c b u s i n e s s was  of " t h i s  language  and  (Latin)  a b o l i s h e d , t h i s w o u l d harm  t h e Magyar l a n g u a g e , language  their  a n c i e n t language  would l o s e a l l the p r o t e c t i o n guaranteed  "cultural"  of  the i d e a  t h a t i f s u c h a change  s u c h a move w o u l d u n d e r m i n e t h e A g r e e m e n t , and  Furthermore  their  the  Croats  them b y . t h e  t h e y a r g u e d , was  Croatia;  not  law".  1 1  a  the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of the Croat  and  M a g y a r n o b i l i t y s p o k e o n l y L a t i n o r German. The  proposals f i n a l l y  approval reflected First  of a l l ,  only l i m i t e d success  of the Croat  resistance.  the p r o p o s a l . c a l l e d f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of  Magyar language subject.  s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Emperor f o r  i n a l l elementary  Secondly,  the Magyar language o f t h e C r o a t s ) was  s c h o o l s as an  t h e D i e t ' s j o u r n a l was and t o be  the  optional  t o be w r i t t e n i n  i t s Latin translation  (on the  request  c o n s i d e r e d as an e q u a l l y v a l i d  and  a u t h e n t i c copy ( " a u t h e n t i c a v e r s i o d i a r i i h u n g a r i c i a u c t o r i 1 2  tate comitiorum  procurata").  T h i r d l y , Magyar d e l e g a t e s  were a l l o w e d t o d e l i v e r t h e i r speeches i n t h e D i e t i n t h e i r  -1+2-  n a t i v ' e l a n g u a g e and continue  t o use  the  C r o a t s , i f they so wished,  could  Latin.  W i t h a l l t h e i r r i g h t s , the Croats c o u l d have r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t the Magyar language i n the D i e t i t s e l f b e c a u s e a t t h a t t i m e t h e r e w e r e v e r y few p e o p l e who knew t h a t l a n g u a g e ; this i s e n t i r e l y understandable s i n c e t h e l a n g u a g e o f d i p l o m a c y was L a t i n and s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l s p o k e L a t i n , C r o a t o r German. Realizing  their failure  t o p r e v e n t t h e amendment  the  old Constitution regarding  the  Croats,  the use  of the L a t i n language  somewhat b e l a t e d l y , a t t e m p t e d t o r e s t r i c t  modify t h e i r formerly of a u t h o r i t y of the  accepted-proposals  f o r the  disregarded,  and  Their  tardy  the  protest  i n 1 7 9 1 ? the b i l l  was  V i e n n a where the  Emperor p r o m p t l y s a n c t i o n e d  it.  this  b r i n g a b o u t any  change  for  law d i d not the  t a x a t i o n law)  i n Croatian p o l i t i c s .  C o u n c i l f o r H u n g a r y , as we official who  had  a t t e m p t on  the  s i t u a t i o n as  the  part  ment i n t h e  know h a d  In  l e g a l and  d e s i r a b l e was  become  as w e l l , and  (except  the Theresa The  to accept such  a  evidence of i t s complete  Diet  of 1 7 9 0 / 9 1 f i n a l l y  Croat n o b l e s t o r e a l i z e t h a t i f C r o a t i a d i d not  suffer  reality  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f an autonomous g o v e r n -  The  substantial political  to  Crown's  the r u l e of M a r i a  o f t h e .Croat n o b i l i t y  country.  The  was sent  Crown's C o u n c i l f o r C r o a t i a .  l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n the  the  already  Croat government d u r i n g abolished  significant  and  recognition  Crown's C o u n c i l f o r H u n g a r y as  supreme government f o r C r o a t i a . completely  of  forced have  independence t h e i r i n t e r e s t s would  that  the i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  -43-  partners  w e r e no  longer  the  same as  their  own,  but  entirely  different. The  Diet  o f 1790/91  development of ruling as  played  a positive role i n  the  Croat n a t i o n a l i s m because i t f o r c e d  the  c l a s s t o t h i n k i n terms o f the  a w h o l e and  aristocratic  to accept  i n t e r e s t of the  the i d e a t h a t , besides  c l a s s , i t was  also a part  of the  whose i n t e r e s t s i t must p r o t e c t  i f i t s aristocratic  were t o s u r v i v e p o l i t i c a l l y  economically.  is  not  s u r p r i s i n g that  energetic  supporters  and  a number o f t h e . C r o a t  of developing  course,  e v e n a f t e r 1791?  did  l e a r n a l e s s o n , and  not  t h e r e were s t i l l still  an nation  members  Therefore i t nobles  Croatia's  nation  being Croat  Croat  became  nationalism.  many n o b l e s  b e l i e v e d i n the  Of  who  closest  14  possible co-operation a t e l y , the  a f f e c t e d the  Croatia.  Common D i e t no  i m p a c t on  the  very  nationalistic  have examined so f a r the  directly in  the Magyar n o b i l i t y .  number o f s u c h n o b l e s was  significant We  with  two  s m a l l and  i m m e d i a t e o r d i r e c t i m p a c t on  not  nationalism  less significant,  nationalism.  surrender  of the most i m p o r t a n t f i e l d  (finance)  d i d not  stir  no  main d e c i s i o n s which .  r e a c h e d at the meeting o f  i n 1790/91? a l t h o u g h  c a u s e any  had  movement.  process of the development of  Other d e c i s i o n s  Magyars showed the  Fortun-  o f any  among t h e  t r u e n a t u r e of t h e i r  The  the had  voluntary  legislative  Croats  policy.  until  body the  Immediately,  throughout  C r o a t i a simultaneous meetings of a l l c o u n t i e s '  skupstinas  were c a l l e d  and  official  protests  against  the  -^it-  Magyar demands f i l e d i n Vienna and i n Pozsony i t s e l f .  In  s p i t e of the f a c t that these p r o t e s t s made by the Croat counties had no impact on the d e c i s i o n s of the D i e t , the gesture in  i t s e l f i n d i c a t e d a sudden change of p u b l i c  C r o a t i a and i l l u s t r a t e d a unanimous outlook  opinion  of the r u l i n g  class. Upon h i s r e t u r n from Pozsony, the Ban, the Sabor i n s e s s i o n i n order  t o o b t a i n i t s formal  of the new laws approved by the Emperor. the Sabor f i r m l y d e c i d e d Croats  Ivan Erdody, c a l l e d sanction  The delegates t o  that i n the next Common Diet the  would e n e r g e t i c a l l y demand the amendment of a l l those  laws concluded i n Pozsony which d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y encroached upon the s t a t e r i g h t s of C r o a t i a . Sabor undertook measures t o organize  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the  the c h a i r s of the Magyar  language i n elementary and secondary schools  as "an o p t i o n a l 1 5  s u b j e c t , i . e . f o r a l l students  who t h i n k they w i l l need i t " .  y  Promulgation of the d e c i s i o n s reached by the Common Diet represented  the only f u n c t i o n of the Croat  after 1791.  legislative  assembly  I n f a c t , i t became a mere agent of the Crown's  C o u n c i l f o r Hungary and the t o o l of Magyar  nationalism.  ...from now on f o r the h i s t o r y of the Croat n a t i o n the events which took p l a c e during the long s e s s i o n s at Pozsony are more important and more s i g n i f i c a n t than the d e c i s i o n s made i n the narrow c i r c l e s of the Croat Sabor. ,This type of r e l a t i o n f i n a l l y brought about  IBW7  1 6  Such an i n t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n i n C r o a t i a ( c r e a t e d with the  -45-  h e l p o f t h e Croat n o b i l i t y  through i t s delegates t o the  Common D i e t ) c o u p l e d w i t h e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s  - the Napoleonic  wars and t h e work o f t h e Czech, S l o v a k and P o l i s h P a n - S l a v i s t s made p o s s i b l e t h e r e l a t i v e l y nationalism.  '  f a s t development o f Croat  The p e r i o d when t h e F r e n c h r u l e d i n t h e  Croat r e g i o n s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y c o n t r i b u t e d a great d e a l t o the  Croat cause by i n i t i a t i n g  ment o f n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g  among  and i n f l u e n c i n g  the develop-  Croats of a l l c l a s s e s .  ever s h o r t , t h i s  p e r i o d succeeded  some f u n d a m e n t a l  i d e a s o f t h e Age o f R e a s o n w h i c h  the Croat n a t i o n a l i s t i c mediaeval  i nbringing  a presentation of thehighlights the French r u l e w i l l  to Croatia  l e a d e r s b r e a k away f r o m  c o n c e p t i o n s o f s t a t e and s o c i e t y . of l i f e  How-  helped  their  For this  reason,  i n Croatia during  be v e r y u s e f u l f o r i t r e p r e s e n t s a n  i m p o r t a n t s t a g e i n t h e development o f Croat n a t i o n a l i s m . C r o a t i a During After  t h e N a p o l e o n i c Wars  t h e d e a t h o f L e o p o l d I I , o n 1 M a r c h 1792, t h e  H a b s b u r g M o n a r c h y r e c e i v e d a new r u l e r i n t h e p e r s o n o f h i s e l d e s t s o n F r a n c i s I I (1792-1835)'. Francis  Unlike his father,  I I was a s t r o n g o p p o n e n t o f everyfenew  r e f o r m and  p r o g r e s s d i c t a t e d b y t h e new age a n d i n s t e a d a i m e d a t a strengthening of absolutism. rule  During t h e f i r s t  half of h i s  (1792-1815), t h e M o n a r c h y was i n v o l v e d i n s e v e r a l  dangerous wars w i t h F r a n c e w h i c h , a t t i m e s , t h r e a t e n e d t o destroy i t completely.  A l t h o u g h F r a n c i s I I was l o s i n g .  -he-  one  territory  a strict  after  a n o t h e r , h e was d e t e r m i n e d  a b s o l u t i s t i c regime  remaining  t o enforce  and p o l i c e s t a t e i n t h e  p a r t s o f t h e Monarchy.  Thus, b e f o r e the a r r i v a l  o f t h e F r e n c h t r o o p s he c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d t h e p r o g r e s s i v e movements o f J o s e p h i n i s t s policy  t h e Groat  and J a c o b i n s .  As a r e s u l t  of this  n a t i o n a l i s t s were f o r c e d t o s t a r t t h e 1 8  d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e n a t i o n a l movement f r o m According  the beginning..  t o t h e terms o f t h e peace t r e a t y  concluded  between A u s t r i a and F r a n c e , F r a n c i s I I ' s compensation f o r the loss  of Belgium  territories after  was t h e V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c a n d i t s  on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e A d r i a t i c S e a . ..Shortly  the conclusion of this  treaty  A p r i l 1 8 9 7 ) , Napoleon caused Republic  on 1 8  the downfall of the Venetian  ( 1 2 May 1 8 9 7 ) and A u s t r i a n t r o o p s w e r e a l l o w e d t o  occupy a l l i t s t e r r i t o r y , i n c l u d i n g The  ( a t Campo F o r m i o ,  D a l m a t i a and Boka K o t o r s k a .  C r o a t s o f D a l m a t i a w e l c o m e d t h e A u s t r i a n t r o o p s as a  liberating  f o r c e w h i c h was g o i n g t o make t h e u n i o n o f  D a l m a t i a and C r o a t i a p o s s i b l e . representatives Francis  The p e t i t i o n s i g n e d by  of a l l the Dalmation  cities  I I c l e a r l y shows t h a t a d e g r e e ,  of n a t i o n a l i s t i c  sentiment  and sent t o  no m a t t e r how  limited,  e x i s t e d among t h e C r o a t s o f  D a l m a t i a i n s p i t e o f t h e i r l o n g e x i s t e n c e as a s e p a r a t e r e g i o n of the Venetian Republic: " B e c a u s e t h e K i n g d o m o f D a l m a t i a was l e f t w i t h o u t a l a w f u l government,...and because the e i g h t y - f o u r representatives of a l l the Dalmatian regions expressed a d e s i r e . . . t o u n i t e w i t h t h e people o f t h e Kingdom o f C r o a t i a w i t h whom i t was u n i t e d i n t h e o l d t i m e s , we beg H i s M a j e s t y . . . t o a l l o w t h i s u n i o n . . . " 19  -47-  The  Austrian authorities  the Dalmatians  and  promised  t o ensure  t o r e s p e c t the wishes  success sent General  Rukavina,  a C r o a t , w i t h t h e A u s t r i a n army t o e s t a b l i s h l a w and However, the expected u n i f i c a t i o n d i d not Instead, F r a n c i s I I appointed a governor ponsible directly D a l m a t i a was 1805, at  and  to Vienna.  very s h o r t .  order.  take p l a c e . f o r Dalmatia  Fortunately Francis  1  res-  rule i n  A f t e r the B a t t l e of A u s t e r l i t z i n  a c c o r d i n g t o the terms o f t h e t r e a t y  Pozsony  of  concluded  ( P r e s s b u r g ) on 2 December i n t h e same y e a r ,  N a p o l e o n o c c u p i e d . b o t h D a l m a t i a and B o k a K o t o r s k a a n d , i n 20 1806  ( 2 6 May)  a b o l i s h e d the Dubrovnik  progress i n the f i e l d s  o f c u l t u r e and  French r u l e i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t The  new  governor  Republic.  economics d u r i n g  the  to us.  f o r Dalmatia, Vincenzo  accomplished g r e a t e r success  Dalmatia's  Dandolo,  i n D a l m a t i a t h a n had been  case d u r i n g the e n t i r e p e r i o d of Venetian  the  rule.  The f i r s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e o f b a c k w a r d D a l m a t i a was t h e w e e k l y ' I I r e g i o D a l m a t a K r a l j s k i Dalmatin' (the King's Dalmatian), the f i r s t C r o a t i a n n e w s p a p e r , whose f i r s t e d i t i o n a p p e a r e d on S a t u r d a y , 12 J u l y I806 21 The  " K i n g ' s D a l m a t i a n " s e r v e d as an o r g a n f o r t h e  g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e masses i n t h e t e c h n i q u e s  o f modern  a g r i c u l t u r e . D a n d o l o i r r i g a t e d many a c r e s o f . a r a b l e l a n d 2 2  and i n v i t e d f o r e i g n e x p e r t s " t o i n s t r u c t  people  on  the  23 utilization  of t h e i r s m a l l plots  abolished Dalmatia's mediaeval  of l a n d " .  J  The  forms of government  French and  re-  established institutions  similar  F r a n c e ' s modern government. in  to the o r g a n i z a t i o n s  of  I n s h o r t , t h e F r e n c h d i d more  s e v e r a l years t h a n the Dalmatians would have ever been  a b l e t o do u n d e r  t h e former forms  of f o r e i g n r u l e .  As  r e s u l t , D a l m a t i a ' s economy became more d e v e l o p e d and o r g a n i z e d t h a n d i d C r o a t i a ' s under  a  better  the r u l e of Hungary  and  Austria. By b o o s t i n g t h e e c o n o m i c improving  progress of the r e g i o n ,  educational f a c i l i t i e s ,  the French  u n c o n s c i o u s l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development nationalism. hardly  P r i o r t o the a r r i v a l  any s c h o o l s .  and  authorities of Croat  of Dandolo,  D a l m a t i a had  However, w i t h i n t h r e e y e a r s o f F r e n c h  r u l e and w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e a n n u a l I t a l i a n c o n t r i b u t i o n  of  t h r e e m i l l i o n f r a n c s , every major  a  Dalmatian c i t y received  number o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s and v a r i o u s vocational institutes. native  The  language  Croat language because  r e c o g n i z e any  o f i n s t r u c t i o n was  "the F r e n c h government d i d not  o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t y but the Croat.one which  t r a n s l a t e d i n the I t a l i a n e d i t i o n of the as  'illirica'". In  was  'King's D a l m a t i a n '  2 h t  s p i t e o f a l l t h e p r o g r e s s t h a t was  made t h e  p o p u l a t i o n g r e w t o h a t e t h e F r e n c h as " a t h e i s t s and  the  enemies o f the Church.  local  and J a c o b i n s "  On one h a n d , most o f t h e p o p u l a -  t i o n d i d n o t a c t u a l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e new  p r o g r e s s i v e and  r a d i c a l i d e a s a d v o c a t e d by t h e F r e n c h a n d , on t h e o t h e r , t h e local  priests  p e o p l e who  and monks h a d  a t r e m e n d o u s i n f l u e n c e among t h e  c o u l d n o t u n d e r s t a n d why  the French r e s t r i c t e d  the  power o f t h e c l e r g y .  The l o c a l p a r i s h p r i e s t s • w e r e e n r a g e d by  t h e m e a s u r e s i n t r o d u c e d by t h e F r e n c h a u t h o r i t i e s w h i c h tricted  the p r i v i l e g e s  o f t h e c l e r g y and s e p a r a t e d t h e Church  f r o m t h e s t a t e , and u t i l i z e d by  Their success i n creating  among t h e D a l m a t i a n s national feeling it  this  c o n f u s i o n among t h e m a s s e s  a d v o c a t i n g an open r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t t h e " g o d l e s s  ers".  i s i n d i c a t i v e of the lack of a strong  among t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t  i n t e l l e c t u a l s were l a r g e l y  Native  that  Dalmatian  p r o - I t a l i a n and w e r e t a u g h t t o  view, i n I t a l i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s  of higher education, the native  D a l m a t i a n c u l t u r e and language  as b a c k w a r d . a n d u n w o r t h y o f  i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n and s t u d y . that  foreign-  an a n t i - F r e n c h s e n t i m e n t  favoured a union with Croatia proper.  reasons  res-  T h i s was one o f t h e m a i n  t h e Croats o f D a l m a t i a produced  very few l e a d e r s 26  during and  t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the Croat n a t i o n a l i s m .  cultural  p r o g r e s s made i n D a l m a t i a d u r i n g t h e F r e n c h  h a d more i m p a c t in  on t h e t h i n k i n g  made i n t h e w h o l e o f C r o a t i a . among t h e D a l m a t i a n s  caused  rule  o f t h o s e n a t i o n a l i s t s who  C r o a t i a p r o p e r and who w a n t e d t o s e e a s i m i l a r  system  The e c o n o m i c  lived  progress  Despite the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  by t h e c l e r g y , t h e F r e n c h  taxation  a n d c o n s c r i p t i o n l a w s , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e F r e n c h on  p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n C r o a t i a became more p r o n o u n c e d w i t h t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e F r e n c h domain i n t h e B a l k a n s . N a p o l e o n expanded h i s t e r r i t o r y i n t h e Balkans A u s t r i a n attempt Following for  to regain i t s lost  territory failed  a f t e r an completely.  t h e b a t t l e a t Wagram, A u s t r i a was c o m p e l l e d t o s u e  p e a c e w h i c h was c o n c l u d e d i n S c h t t n b r u n n o n lk O c t o b e r  1809.  -50-  On t h a t o c c a s i o n , N a p o l e o n r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l  territory:  I s t r i a , W e s t e r n C a r n i o l a , C a r i n t h i a and t h e C r o a t on  the r i g h t  Jasenovac.  regions  b a n k o f t h e S a v a up t o t h e m o u t h o f t h e Una a t Napoleon u n i t e d these newly a c q u i r e d r e g i o n s  with 27  French (les  Dalmatia  provinces  Ljubljana.  u n d e r a new name, " I l l y r i a n P r o v i n c e s " i l l y r i e n n e s ) whose c a p i t a l was t o be i n  This  great success  '  same name, I l l y r i a , was l a t e r a d o p t e d  by t h e Croat  n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s whose  purpose  was t o u n i t e a l l t h e S o u t h S l a v s , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y u n d e r one name w h i c h w o u l d a t t r a c t  a l l different  The new g o v e r n o r o f t h e I l l y r i a n P r o v i n c e s  Professor S i s i c says:  "Hardly  the Croats,  nationalities. was N a p o l e o n ' s  w e l l known m a r s h a l A u g u s t de Marmont who, as h i s D a n d o l o , d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f as a v e r y  with  predecessor  progressive  ruler.  ever b e f o r e d i d our people  have  pO  a more h o n e s t and more j u s t r u l e r  t h a n Marmont...".  M a r m o n t , who knew C r o a t i a n h i m s e l f , c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o the development o f the Croat lishing by  For  of the f i r s t  l a n g u a g e by s p o n s o r i n g  t h e pub-  Italian-Illyrian-Latin dictionary edited  t h e monk S t u l l i i n 1810. I n e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s Marmont d e c i d e d t o i n t r o d u c e C r o a t i a n ( I l l y r i a n ) i n I l l y r i a as t h e o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i l e F r e n c h was t o be used i n the i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of the Empire, e s p e c i a l l y i n communication w i t h the c e n t r a l government. 29 this reason,  Marmont, l i k e D a n d o l o , r e o r g a n i z e d  the education-  a l s y s t e m a n d e s t a b l i s h e d many a d d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e l a n g u a g e o f i n s t r u c t i o n was t h e n a t i v e C r o a t  where  tongue.  With a s s i s t a n c e of the native s c h o l a r s , the French  authorities  also published language.  a number o f t e x t b o o k s  "The  King's  Dalmatian"  paper, Telegraphe o f f i c i e l O f f i c i a l Gazette published  Croat.  During  was  provinces  a  new  Illyriennes  languages,. French,  (The was  Italian,  -  3°  the F r e n c h o c c u p a t i o n ,  C r o a t s , who  r e p l a c e d by  Croat  of the I l l y r i a n P r o v i n c e s ) , which  i n four different  German and  the  des  w r i t t e n i n the  Napoleon h i m s e l f  were p r o t e s t i n g s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t  decision to s a c r i f i c e s a v e t h e M o n a r c h y , and  almost h a l f of pointed  out  addressed  Francis'  C r o a t i a i n order  to  that r e p l a c i n g the  "back-  31 ward A u s t r i a n governmental s t r u c t u r e " F r e n c h r u l e meant t h e b e g i n n i n g c u l t u r a l progress l i v i n g , but  w h i c h not  also provided  of•an  J  by  a new,  progressive  e r a of economic  and  o n l y improved the s t a n d a r d  a b a s i s f o r the  "awakening  of  •  of  32 n a t i o n a l consciousness  among a l l S o u t h S l a v s " .  N a p o l e o n ' s I l l y r i a was  the f i r s t  experiment i n the h i s t o r y  of the South Slavs which attempted to u n i t e Groats, and it  S l o v e n e s i n t o one  national state.  During  the  Serbs short.time  e x i s t e d , the system of government i n the I l l y r i a n  provided  the. l e a d i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l m i n d s among t h e S o u t h  w i t h f i r s t - h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s formation formerly S e r b s and  provinces  of  the  o f an e v e n g r e a t e r S o u t h S l a v i c s t a t e w h i c h been thought i m p o s s i b l e Slovenes, had  to achieve.  t h e many c e n t u r i e s o f t h e i r s e p a r a t e succeeded i n doing  What t h e  not been a b l e t o a c h i e v e  almost o v e r n i g h t .  Slavs  had Croats,  throughout  e x i s t e n c e , Napoleon Because Napoleon  had  -52-  suddenly his  a c h i e v e d t h e " i m p o s s i b l e " , t h e n a t i o n s p l a c e d under  r u l e were caught  politically  unprepared.  Being  c u l t u r a l l y , and  i m m a t u r e t h e y d i d n o t know how b e s t t o u t i l i z e  t h e v a r i o u s f r e e d o m s g i v e n t o them by t h e F r e n c h , a n d t h e y let  this golden opportunity, s l i p  practically Groat  untouched.  language  literature  through  their  I t was n o t o n l y t h e f r e e u s e o f t h e  and t h e p r o j e c t s f o r d e v e l o p i n g a n a t i o n a l  and i n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d the o v e r a l l progress i n the l i v e s in  the I l l y r i a n  Provinces.  s t r u c t u r e was d e s i g n e d to  The e n t i r e  t o speed  which o f t h e people  governmental  up t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i o n  t h e maximum. With  old  fingers  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r , where t h e  A u s t r i a n m i l i t a r y , t y p e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was p r e s e r v e d ,  I l l y r i a was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s i x p r o v i n c e s w h i c h w e r e n o t 33 organized along e t h n i c l i n e s .  J  J  I n each  of the provinces  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t o employ as many n a t i v e s o n s as possible.  However, t h e r u l e s  prevented  s e r v i n g i n h i s home t o w n . o r d i s t r i c t .  ah o f f i c i a l  from  As a r e s u l t , a m o b i l e  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c l a s s was f o r m e d e n a b l i n g t h e n a t i v e i n t e l lectuals  and o t h e r educated  with the l i f e Judicial  people t o acquaint  themselves  and p e o p l e i n a l l t h e r e g i o n s o f " I l l y r i a " . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was s e p a r a t e d f r o m s t a t e  i s t r a t i o n which  admin-  enabled the courts t o dispense a g r e a t e r  amount o f j u s t i c e  than had ever been t h e case b e f o r e .  Code N a p o l e o n c o m p e l l e d  the courts t o provide equal  The  protection  -53-  of a l l c l a s s e s , i n c l u d i n g the pated.  The  the great  language of the  majority  p e a s a n t r y w h i c h had  courts  of o f f i c i a l s  was  Croat  were n a t i v e  been emanci-  (Illyrian) sons.  I n a d d i t i o n to the improved a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of I l l y r i a was  a l s o made f i n a n c i a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t .  a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was f a c t o r i e s , f u r t h e r i n g the building land.  facilities  increase  forces  in.production  r e s u l t e d i n the  although s t i l l  improving the and  the  centres  of the  new  resources,  cultivation  improved  R i j e k a and  of the Thus  of  trade  c r e a t i o n of a b o u r g e o i s c l a s s  i n the development of n a t i o n a l i s m . c i t i e s , Karlovac,  I n d u s t r i a l and  by b u i l d i n g  r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , became one  trading  justice,  e x p l o i t a t i o n of n a t u r a l  c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n e s , and  The  obtained  and  which,  leading  Illyria's.  S e n j became t h e  C r o a t n a t i o n a l movement a f t e r t h e  main  fall  of  Napoleon. A f t e r the 18  defeat  O c t o b e r 1813), t h e  of the  occupied the Croats,  r a p i d e c o n o m i c and  I l l y r i a n Provinces  Austrian generals,  as  Francis  cultural  came t o a s t a n d s t i l l . T o m a s i c and  pointed  development By  1814,  the  difficulty.  out, d i s l i k e d  The  t h e F r e n c h hegemony  o v e r C r o a t i a , i n s p i t e o f a l l the. p r o g r e s s t h a t N a p o l e o n made p o s s i b l e .  J  T h e r e f o r e . t h e p e o p l e , l e d by  c l e r g y , welcomed the  Austrians  as  the  and  Todor M i l u t i n o v i c , had  e n t i r e t e r r i t o r y w i t h o u t any  previously  17  o f t h e F r e n c h army a t L e i p z i g ( 1 6 ,  the  had  Catholic  l i b e r a t o r s of  their  homeland. Croatia's  expectations  t h a t she  would f i n a l l y  be  rewarded  and compensated f o r a l l the s a c r i f i c e s she had made i n order to save the Monarchy were not f u l f i l l e d once again.  The  u n i f i c a t i o n of her lost t e r r i t o r i e s with their mother country did  not take place.  Dalmatia, whose t e r r i t o r y stretched from  the Zrmanja to Budva, f e l l again under the direct authority of Vienna as had been the case from 1797 to 1805-  The  t e r r i t o r y of the M i l i t a r y Frontier was further expanded and also restored to i t s former status.  The remaining part of the  Croat provinces which had been under French rule was given to the Austrian administration of Carinthia which was subsequently transformed into the "Kingdom of I l l y r i a "  (3 August 1816).  However, after a long and b i t t e r dispute between the Croat n o b i l i t y and the Emperor, this part of Croatia proper was r e turned to the Ban (1822), minus the Kvarner islands which were given to I s t r i a . ^  The t i t l e "King of I l l y r i a " was  preserved u n t i l the f a l l of the Monarchy i n 1918. Thus the Napoleonic wars ended with two results f o r Croatia - on one hand she lost some t e r r i t o r y to Vienna, but on the other hand her people gained some healthy national ideas. These ideas could not be taken away by an Imperial decree or any other p o l i t i c a l action.  The former l o c a l barriers which  had prevented the people of one region from i d e n t i f y i n g themselves with the nationality of the neighbouring region, began to f a l l .  Prior to that the differences among the Croat  regions, which manifested themselves through the use of d i f f e r e n t dialects of the language, represented a major obstacle  -55-  t o the development of n a t i o n a l i s m .  Now  the d i a l e c t s began  to  37  be  considered  idea that  as  the  same l a n g u a g e .  This  a common l a n g u a g e meant a common n a t i o n a l i t y was  a c c o m p a n i e d by all  forms of speech of the  the  next l o g i c a l consequence, u n i f i c a t i o n  territories  i n h a b i t e d by  of  t h e same p e o p l e .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e I l l y r i a n name b e g a n t o i n f l u e n c e our p e o p l e f o r the f i r s t time t o c r e a t e a b r o a d e r b a s i s f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y w h i c h h a d b e e n s t a r t e d and p a r t i a l l y r e a l i z e d i n Napoleon's I l l y r i a . This seed grew i n t o a p o w e r f u l t r e e from the time the Croat n a t i o n c l a s h e d w i t h the tendencies of t h e M a g y a r s . 38 . Strangely  enough, f u r t h e r development of  did  not  the  Croat t e r r i t o r i e s  fall  take place,  as  one on  during  of  the r i g h t bank of the Sava. the  centre  C r o a t i a w h i c h had  the N a p o l e o n i c wars.  national activities  was  nationalism  w o u l d e x p e c t , i n D a l m a t i a and  of Napoleon's I l l y r i a ,  to the heart  Croat  This  c a u s e d by  in  After  of n a t i o n a l i s m  moved  remained under Hungary shift  of the  centre  several equally  the  even  of  important  factors. F i r s t l y , we  must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t  which developed i n Dalmatia during government d i d not  seem t o f a v o u r  p e a s a n t s w e r e f r e e d and e m a n c i p a t i o n came t o o p e a s a n t , who for part  centuries  had had  the  period  their  French  creator.  True,  to regard the  l a n d , but  too suddenly.  been s u b j u g a t e d t o v a r i o u s learned  circumstances  of  made owners o f t h e i r  e a r l y and  of h i s masters w i t h  the  The  foreign  every concession  greatest  the their  Dalmatian overlords on  the  possible suspicion.  His  -56-  past  experience  t o l d him  that behind  each reform  always h i d d e n i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h would not but  o n l y make h i s l i f e  r u l e was  too short  r o l e and  political status.  prevented  who  from seeing  interests,  p e r i o d of the r e a l  French  improvement  naturally  conserv-  i n perspective his  p o s i t i o n i n t h e modern s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h  j u s t been c r e a t e d . living  him  His  were  favour his  The  t o e f f e c t i v e l y show h i m  i n h i s e c o n o m i c and ative outlook  more m i s e r a b l e .  there  under the  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , he was  tremendous i n f l u e n c e of the  assumed t h e r o l e o f h i s p r o t e c t o r d u r i n g  occupation  and  t o l d him  I t was  e a s i e r f o r him  priest  and  to. r e b e l a g a i n s t  to accept  r e j e c t the i d e a s  t h a n t o t r y and  the  had  accustomed  the  French  "faithless  of the newly a r r i v e d f o r e i g n e r s r a d i c a l reforms.  t a s k of e x p l a i n i n g t o t h e i r  t h e a d v a n t a g e s f o r t h e n a t i o n i n t h e new  country  was  i n a short bound t o  Secondly, the as was was  the  In  Republic.  This  reforms,  would people attempt  fail.  Dalmatian Croats  the  had  Italian nobility  s i t u a t i o n , coupled  no  native ruling  Their native of the  w i t h the f a c t  i n t e l l e c t u a l s were l a r g e l y  Italianized,* left  the only c l a s s t o organize  the f o r m a t i o n  Furthermore, Dalmatia  any  the  p e r i o d of time such reforms i n a backward  case i n the r e s t of C r o a t i a .  a s s i m i l a t e d by  Jacobins' parish  a b s e n c e o f a s t r o n g g r o u p o f n a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , who  to enforce  to  Catholic' clergy  the e x p l a n a t i o n of h i s  u n d e r s t a n d t h e new  t a k e upon themselves the  new  had  no d i e t  and  class  nobility  Venetian that  Dalmatian  the peasants  as  o f a n a t i o n a l movement.  no- c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  -57-  privileges action.  which would provide  Re-  i t with a basis f o r p o l i t i c a l  Even a f t e r the f a l l  of the Venetian  Dalmatia d i d not improve i t s p o l i t i c a l departure  democratic experience  the s t a t u s  and r a d i c a l i d e a s  Instead,  an i d e a l  D a l m a t i a was directly  given sub-  t o the authority of Vienna. shift  of nascent n a t i o n a l i s t  activity  t o .the  o f C r o a t i a u n d e r t h e r u l e o f t h e Crown's C o u n c i l f o r H u n g a r y  was a l o g i c a l move b e c a u s e ' i t was t h i s most i n n e e d o f a s t r o n g  the  Croat n a t i o n l e f t  but  to f a l l  political  t h e Croat r u l i n g  o f C r o a t i a t h a t was  .In f a c t , status  t h e Magyar  and e l i m i n a t e  c l a s s no o t h e r  choice  b a c k on a n a n t i - M a g y a r n a t i o n a l movement.  t h e r e was no s u c h movement i n e x i s t e n c e Magyars' f i r s t a very  part  national ideal.  attempts t o a b o l i s h Croatia's  s m a l l group o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s  o f t h e famous P a n - S l a v i c  Since  a t .the t i m e o f t h e  a t t a c k , i t h a d t o be c r e a t e d .  t h e n a t i o n a l movements i n o t h e r  part  could f i n d  of a second-rate Austrian province  Thirdly, this part  from  C r o a t i a , w h e r e i t s new  and a v a i l a b l e p r o t e c t i o n .  ordinated  Following the  o f t h e F r e n c h t r o o p s , D a l m a t i a was p r e v e n t e d  u n i t i n g w i t h i t s mother c o u n t r y ,  outlet  status.  Republic,  I t was c r e a t e d by  who w e r e i n f l u e n c e d by  E u r o p e a n s t a t e s and t h e works  leaders.  And, u n l i k e D a l m a t i a ,  this  o f C r o a t i a h a d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means t o p r o t e c t i t s  n a t i o n a l movement and u s e i t a g a i n s t  i t s p o t e n t i a l enemy.  At  t h e same t i m e , b e c a u s e t h e C r o a t n a t i o n a l movement was t h e w e a k e r o f t h e two movements a n d t h e l e s s d a n g e r o u s t o t h e c e n t r a l government, i t r e c e i v e d o c c a s i o n a l backing  from the  -58-  E m p e r o r w h i c h was o f d e c i s i v e i m p o r t a n c e a t t i m e s .  In short,  t h e M a g y a r a t t a c k o n C r o a t n a t i o n a l i t y was t h e c a t a l y s t w h i c h started  t h e development o f n a t i o n a l i s m  movement h a d t o h a v e i t s own l i t e r a r y nationalism  and o t h e r  of c r e a t i n g a l i t e r a r y  literary  l a n g u a g e and s o C r o a t  nobility  worked w i t h  official  t o surrender  l a n g u a g e and (2)  movement o r g a n i z e d  Class  united i t s forces with the  by t h e n a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , i t s s t r u g g l e  against  Magyarization  endless  debates i n the l e g i s l a t i v e house, the Diet  positively in  arena  i t s i n t e r e s t s and a c c e p t  Among t h e R u l i n g  B e f o r e t h e Croat n o b i l i t y  majority  the  Magyarization.  Elements o f N a t i o n a l i s m  The  the problem  f o u g h t t h e Magyars i n t h e p o l i t i c a l  at Pozsony and r e f u s e d terms o f  Croats  l a n g u a g e w h i c h w o u l d be common t o a l l  c o u l d be u s e d as C r o a t i a ' s  Croat h i g h e r  the  This  d e v e l o p e d i n two d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s : ( 1 ) t h e  intellectuals  and  i n Croatia..  was l a r g e l y i s o l a t e d a n d l i m i t e d t o  o f t h e n o b l e s was n o t i m p r e s s e d o r  at Pozsony.  otherwise  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p r o g r e s s t h e F r e n c h h a d  the I l l y r i a n Provincesj  l i k e Francis  r e l i e v e d when F r a n c e was f i n a l l y s y s t e m c o u l d be r e s t o r e d  defeated  achieved  I , t h e y were g r e a t l y because t h e o l d f e u d a l  and t h e i r p o s i t i o n s t r e n g t h e n e d .  They t h e r e f o r e w e l c o m e d F r a n c i s ' d e s i r e t o e l i m i n a t e t h e s e e d s o f r a d i c a l i s m t h e F r e n c h h a d sown i n t h e M o n a r c h y . when F r a n c i s " absolutist "lesser  p o l i c y again  b e g a n t o show s i g n s  regime, t h e Croat nobles decided  o f two e v i l s " ,  However,  of the hated  t o choose the  and p r e p a r e d t h e m s e l v e s t o a p p r o a c h  -59-  the Magyar n o b i l i t y precious  state  put  to  recognize  was  t h e new  the Napoleonic  of c a l l i n g  reluctant  of S t . Stephen.  taken  Jacobins  ( a move w h i c h was  t o impose a b l o c k a d e which would  r e v o l u t i o n a r y ideas  from spreading  open  e l i m i n a t e d the  above  welcomed  c o n s e r v a t i v e n o b i l i t y i n C r o a t i a and H u n g a r y ) ,  Emperor d e c i d e d  he  place  c o u l d e a s i l y l e a d t o an hp Having  and He  the D i e t i n t o s e s s i o n f o r  the throne.  m e n t i o n e d J o s e p h i n i s t s and the  lands  the e v e n t s w h i c h had  the D i e t ' s s e s s i o n s  r e b e l l i o n against  by  w a r s , F r a n c i s was  t h e autonomy o f t h e  t h a t , i n f l u e n c e d by  'in France,  Croatia's  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l a w s o f 1790/91 i n t o p r a c t i c e  never i n favour  feared  s a c r i f i c e some more o f  rights.  Even d u r i n g to  and  the  prevent  among h i s s u b j e c t s .  The  m e e t i n g s o f t h e D i e t w e r e c a l l e d i n 1792,  1796  only  additional recruit-  t o approve the i n c r e a s e i n taxes  ment o f s o l d i e r s f o r t h e war  and  against France.  1802,  and  but  These meetings h3  were v e r y  short  and  no  H o w e v e r , f r o m 1802 opportunity to  t o use  the  o t h e r m a t t e r s c o u l d be  t h e Magyar n o b i l i t y r e a l i z e d i t s c h a o t i c s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d by  gain a d d i t i o n a l concessions  t h e M a g y a r l a n g u a g e as t h e lands.  S u c h demands p l a c e d  position.  Their p o l i t i c a l  government w h i c h had completely, province  and  and  discussed.  t o t h e i r demands t o  the  introduce  o f f i c i a l , language i n the the  Croats  s t a t u s was  i n a. v e r y  planned to transform  i t s p e o p l e i n t o Germans.  the c e n t r a l  Constitution  C r o a t i a i n t o an On  Hungarian  difficult  e n d a n g e r e d by  begun t o d i s r e g a r d : t h e  war  the  Austrian  other hand,  the  - 6 0 -  Magyars, who appeared to be defending the Constitution, denied any c o n s t i t u t i o n a l rights to Croatia and planned to transform i t into.a Hungarian province and i t s people into Magyars.  This s i t u a t i o n remained unchanged u n t i l the end of  absolutism i n the m i d - 2 0 ' s when the central government at Vienna r e a l i z e d the danger of Magyar nationalism and decided to extend an occasional helping hand to the Croats i n order to weaken.its (Vienna's) more dangerous  opponent.  The next Diet met i n Pozsony on 1 7 A p r i l l 8 0 5 .  Francis'  main purpose f o r c a l l i n g this session was the same as before more money and more r e c r u i t s .  Nevertheless, the Magyar  delegates succeeded i n organizing a strong debate against the a c t i v i t i e s of the secret police and the new system of censorship which prevented the development of the Magyar language. They demanded that their language be used i n a l l  communications  with the Crown's Council for Hungary and i n the administration of j u s t i c e .  The clash between the> Hungarian and Croat  delegates took place immediately after the proposal suggesting that the Magyar language be taught i n a l l the schools of Hungary and Croatia.  While the Croats did not question the  Magyars' right to introduce their own language i n Hungarian schools and o f f i c e s , they d i d protest against any s i m i l a r proposal which would include the Croat lands.  The Bishop of  Zagreb, Vrhovac, who represented Croatia i n the upper house, the House of Magnates, pointed out: "...the Kingdom of Croatia has the same right to use i t s native language as has Hungary  -61-  to use i t s  language"  and that any sueh p r o p o s a l " w i l l  never  4*  be accepted by the C r o a t s ;  we w i l l f i g h t i t  forever".  As the spokesman of the m i n o r i t y group i n the Vrhovac went a s t e p f u r t h e r and announced t h a t ,  J  Sabor,  i n the same  way the Magyars were s t r u g g l i n g f o r the r i g h t s of  their  language, the Croats would a l s o r e j e c t L a t i n and accept language (Croat) Croatia.  their  as the o f f i c i a l language i n the Kingdom of  Although h i s  attempt had no s i g n i f i c a n t  on the t h i n k i n g of the Croat d e l e g a t e s , i t  impact  i n d i c a t e d that  there were some Croat nobles who thought i t  necessary  to  r e p l a c e L a t i n i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by the n a t i v e C r o a t .  The  majority  in  of the Croat nobles were s t i l l very s t r o n g l y  favour of the L a t i n language and f e l t  its  preservation  in  the p u b l i c o f f i c e s , i n C r o a t i a was a symbol of the Croat autonomy.  T h e i r p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e i n the Common Diet  was s t i l l s t r o n g enough to f o r c e that body to amend the above p r o p o s a l by the i n c l u s i o n of a statement which s p e c i f i e d that the new law would not be enforced i n the Croat l a n d s . Owing to the weakness by many of i t s  of the Magyar n a t i o n a l movement caused  members, who doubted the l i t e r a r y  language and c o n s i d e r e d i t s tration, p o l i t i c a l l y Diet's  power of  their  adoption i n the s t a t e a d m i n i s -  u n f e a s i b l e , the Croat amendment of  d e c i s i o n s was r e l a t i v e l y  easy to o b t a i n .  the  The amendment  was f o r m a l l y s a n c t i o n e d by the Croat Sabor which met  after  the r e t u r n of the Croat delegates from Pozsony (28 November):  -62-  " . . . t h a t i n these Kingdoms and t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n n e i t h e r the Magyar language nor any other w i l l ever be used, but only the L a t i n language because i n t h i s language, which i s as o l d as t h i s Kingdom, a l l our laws are w r i t t e n . . . a n d i f i t i s a b o l i s h e d then our c u l t u r e and n a t i o n w i l l be destroyed because we would ^ no longer be able t o understand our laws and r i g h t s " . ' 4  Two  years l a t e r , i n 1807 (5 A p r i l ) , the meeting of the  Common Diet i n Buda i n d i c a t e d that the Magyar n o b i l i t y had l a r g e l y overcome the f o r c e s which had d i s u n i t e d the n a t i o n a l movement.  This was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of the lower house where  the Magyar p a t r i o t s by a m a j o r i t y vote adopted the new policy:  "Our mother tongue i s a more important  factor  than  the C o n s t i t u t i o n and the p r i v i l e g e s of the n o b i l i t y " .  The  C r o a t s , who c o u l d not a c t u a l l y demand the same r i g h t s f o r the Croat language as long as C r o a t i a was r u l e d by the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r Hungary, manifested  t h e i r n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g by  demanding that R l j e k a ' s i n c l u s i o n i n t o C r o a t i a be f o r m a l l y recognized. ^ F r a n c i s assented  The Diet passed t o the b i l l .  t h i s p r o p o s a l and,  i n 1808,  As a r e s u l t , Pdjeka was r e -  q u i r e d t o send i t s delegates t o both l e g i s l a t i v e houses, the Common Diet and the Sabor, and was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a component part of C r o a t i a and of Hungary. The  questions o f S l a v o n i a and the regions i n c l u d e d i n the  M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r enabled  the Groat  nobility  i l l u s t r a t e i t s n a t i o n a l i s t i c tendencies. Croat d e l e g a t e s very s u c c e s s f u l l y fought  to further  At Pozsony, the the a g g r e s s i v e Magyar  demand that S l a v o n i a be g i v e n the s t a t u s of a Magyar and be i n c l u d e d i n t o Hungary proper.  county  The Magyar argument, based  -63-  on some h i s t o r i c a l S l a v o n i a had always  c l a i m s w h i c h were s u p p o s e d t o " p r o v e " t h a t belonged  t o Hungary a l t h o u g h i t had been  " i m p r o p e r l y " c o n s i d e r e d as a p a r t o f C r o a t i a , f a i l e d  completely.  S l a v o n i a r e m a i n e d a component p a r t o f t h e K i n g d o m o f C r o a t i a and, in  as s u c h , was r e p r e s e n t e d , n o t i n t h e H u n g a r i a n  t h e Croat Sabor.  felt  D i e t , but  The C r o a t s o f S l a v o n i a t h e m s e l v e s  very c l o s e t o t h e Croats from  always  C r o a t i a proper•and  o f t e n showed f a r g r e a t e r n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g  than t h e i r  very country-  51  men f r o m The  Zagreb. Croat r u l i n g  class  they d e a l t w i t h the second  achieved only l i m i t e d success q u e s t i o n - the problem  lands i n c l u d e d i n the M i l i t a r y  Frontier.  when  o f t h e Croat  T h i s q u e s t i o n was  n o t d e c i d e d a t P o z s o n y s i n c e t h e a r e a was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e c e n t r a l government i n V i e n n a . part with this  territory  s i n c e i t was a n e x c e l l e n t s o u r c e o f  g o o d s o l d i e r s who, i n c a s e  o f w a r , c o u l d be m o b i l i z e d q u i c k l y  and w i t h o u t any d i f f i c u l t i e s the approval of the D i e t . recognize the v a l i d i t y two  cities  The E m p e r o r was u n w i l l i n g t o  b e c a u s e he d i d n o t h a v e t o s e e k  Consequently,  o f t h e Croat  he r e f u s e d t o  c l a i m s on t h i s  area.  Only  o f t h e a r e a i n q u e s t i o n , K a r l o v a c and G l i n a , were  r e t u r n e d t o the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Ban. of the French  the departure  troops a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n developed  t o D a l m a t i a w h i c h was f o r c e f u l l y of I l l y r i a "  With  i n regard  i n c l u d e d i n t o t h e "Kingdom  i n s p i t e o f i t s people's  d e s i r e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t o  5?  the Croat  lands. ~  politically  v  F r a n c i s and h i s a d v i s o r s c o n s i d e r e d i t  disadvantageous  t o a l l o w t h e Croats t o u n i t e and  -6k-  o r g a n i z e a s t r o n g n a t i o n a l movement a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d  completely  t h e Magyar a t t a c k s . The the  Croat  b a s i s o f t h e problem r e g a r d i n g the i n t e g r a t i o n o f a l l l a n d s h a d b e e n c r e a t e d as e a r l y as 1809 when A u s t r i a ,  d e f e a t e d by N a p o l e o n , h a d b e e n f o r c e d t o t u r n o v e r the aforementioned The  Croat  nobles  Croat  regions s i t u a t e d across  t o the French  the Sava.  w e r e v e r y much d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h t h e t e r m s  o f t h e t r e a t y s i g n e d i n S c h 5 n b r u n n and s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e d t h a t . Napoleon c o u l d have been d e f e a t e d to  i n C r o a t i a had Vienna  u n i t e D a l m a t i a w i t h t h e Kingdom o f C r o a t i a .  agreed  The b i s h o p  Vrhovac had a d v i s e d t h e c e n t r a l government: " I f you i s s u e a d e c l a r a t i o n t o the people be  of Dalmatia  that Dalmatia  will  u n i t e d w i t h t h e Kingdom o f C r o a t i a , i . e . w i t h t h e H u n g a r i a n  lands i n accordance w i t h i t s ancient r i g h t s , then, I b e l i e v e , we c o u l d q u i c k l y d e f e a t p r o p o s a l on t h e C r o a t s French  the French". and S e r b s '  1  J  Vrhovac based h i s  s u c c e s s f u l war a g a i n s t t h e  i n C r o a t i a , and b e l i e v e d t h a t w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e Croat  patriots  from Dalmatia  the French  t©oops c o u l d be p u s h e d o u t  5 H  from C r o a t i a completely.  '  S i n c e t h e c e n t r a l government would not even c o n s i d e r t h e possibilities  o f a n n o u n c i n g any s u c h  C r o a t i a was g r e a t l y r e d u c e d  proposal t o the Dalmatians,  i n s i z e and t h e r e f o r e weakened i n  her s t r u g g l e against the aggressive Hungarian s t a t e . s i t u a t i o n i n t h e e n t i r e M o n a r c h y was v e r y o f t h e war t h e E m p i r e was r a p i d l y economic b a n k r u p t c y .  critical.  approaching  The As a r e s u l t  f i n a n c i a l and  To i m p r o v e e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e  s t a t e , F r a n c i s was o f the n o b i l i t y . .  f o r c e d once a g a i n t o s e e k the Consequently  he  agreed  co-operation  to c a l l  a meeting  of  Owing t o  the  the D i e t . The  D i e t met  i n P o z s o n y on 25  Emperor's stubbornness  A u g u s t 1811.  about m o d i f y i n g h i s p o l i c y  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e E m p i r e and h i s new delegates  t o the Diet r e f u s e d t o co-operate  g o v e r n m e n t and off  fiscal  policy,  w i t h the  no d e c i s i o n s c o u l d be r e a c h e d .  t h e m e e t i n g and  f o r the  economic  the  central  Francis  called 1825.  t h e D i e t d i d n o t meet a g a i n u n t i l  A c t i n g i n s t e a d on t h e a d v i c e o f h i s m a i n p o l i c y m a k e r , M e t t e r n i c h , F r a n c i s suspended the  Croat  and M a g y a r c o n s t i t u t i o n s  d u c e d t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f a b s o l u t i s m and F r a n c i s ' d e c i s i o n to conclude enforced r e l a t i v e l y  delegates language.  and  to organize a united  the q u e s t i o n of the  Hungarian  T h e i r demands f o r t h e M a g y a r i z a t i o n o f C r o a t i a h a d s i n c e 1805.  o c c a s i o n s , i n 1805  on.the Croats, they nobles  failed  (Croat  was  I n a v e r y u n t i m e l y move, t h e M a g y a r  a g a i n managed t o b r i n g up  not.changed i n substance previous  the meeting of the D i e t  t o g e t h e r , and  o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s measure.  intro-  centralization.  e a s i l y because the delegates  Magyar) c o u l d not get  and  and  attempted  1807,  Having  Croat  on  t o impose t h e i r  t o do s o i n 1811.  s u c c e s s f u l l y defended the s t a t e r i g h t s  spokesman f o r the  failed  Again  two language the  of C r o a t i a ;  delegation said:  As b e f o r e , t h e C r o a t s do n o t o p p o s e t h e M a g y a r s ' attempt t o o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l r i g h t s f o r the use o f t h e i r l a n g u a g e a t home Cin H u n g a r y ) . The C r o a t s h a v e e v e n gone as f a r as t o a l l o w t h e i r c o u n t r y m e n t o u s e the Magyar language at the h i g h e s t l e v e l of government and t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r them t o l e a r n i t i f t h e y want t o . . .  Croat the  -66-  I f C r o a t i a c o u l d use Ci.e. Latin} without years then i t s h o u l d our r e l a t i o n s i n t h e  a d i f f e r e n t language from Hungary any d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r e i g h t hundred not present any major o b s t a c l e t o f u t u r e e i t h e r . 55  F o l l o w i n g t h e meeting o f t h e D i e t i n 1811, developing  the r a p i d l y  c o n t r o v e r s y between C r o a t i a and Hungary came t o a .  standstill.  B o t h C r o a t i a and Hungary f a c e d t h e i r o l d enemy,  absolutism.  S i n c e t h e meeting o f t h e D i e t was not c a l l e d , t h e  C r o a t , as w e l l as t h e H u n g a r i a n n o b l e s , d e c i d e d  t o organize a  p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e t o c e n t r a l i s m by u s i n g t h e i r r e m a i n i n g of government, namely t h e a s s e m b l i e s individual counties.  forms  and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f  The Croat c o u n t i e s sabotaged d e c i s i o n s  c h a n n e l l e d t o them by t h e c e n t r a l government and v e r y  often  r e f u s e d t o e f f e c t i v e l y promulgate new r o y a l d e c r e e s .  However,  a f t e r t h e d e f e a t o f Napoleon and t h e Congress o f V i e n n a . i n M e t t e r n i c h appointed  1815,  an A u s t r i a n g o v e r n o r t o each county who  p l a c e d pro-German elements, i n t h e key posts o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s S e d l n i t z k y ' s p o l i c e a g e n t s , r e i n f o r c e d by the A u s t r i a n t r o o p s , .prevented  t h e f o r m a t i o n o f any a n t i -  A u s t r i a n movement by i m p r i s o n i n g t h e more r a d i c a l c i t i z e n s and c o n t r o l l i n g and c e n s o r i n g t h e press and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . The expected.  p e r i o d o f a b s o l u t i s m came t o i t s end b e f o r e  anybody  When F r a n c i s attempted t o r e c r u i t 30,000 men t o  combat r e v o l u t i o n s i n S p a i n and I t a l y a l l t h e Croat and Magyar c o u n t i e s unanimously r e f u s e d any c o - o p e r a t i o n u n l e s s t h e D i e t was c a l l e d i n t o s e s s i o n .  M e t t e r n i c h f i n a l l y y i e l d e d and  announced t h a t t h e Diet' was t o meet on 11 September  1825.  -67-  During  t h i s p e r i o d the Croat n o b i l i t y  expressed i t s  n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g by demanding that the c e n t r a l government r e t u r n to C r o a t i a those  Croat r e g i o n s which had been i n c o r p o r a t e d 57  i n t o the Kingdom of I l l y r i a a f t e r the defeat of Napoleon. T h i s movement had i t s c e n t r e i n Zagreb because i t was of Zagreb which l o s t  County  a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of i t s t e r r i t o r y  a f t e r the T r e a t y of Schonbrunn. of t h i s  the  Already by 1813,  county had d i s p a t c h e d l e t t e r s  the  nobles  to every h i g h o f f i c e i n  the Monarchy demanding the r e - i n c o r p o r a t i o n of  Prekosavska  58  C r o a t i a i n t o the Kingdom of C r o a t i a . I n these l e t t e r s the nobles d e s c r i b e how these r e g i o n s were s a c r i f i c e d f o r the Monarchy and taken from C r o a t i a and the County of> Zagreb to be submerged to the n o t o r i o u s French r u l e . . . . In s p i t e of a l l that the p o p u l a t i o n i n the regions across the Sava s t i l l remained l o y a l to i t s former s o v e r e i g n . . . . At the end of each of these l e t t e r s the nobles appeal that the r e c e i v e r s of the l e t t e r s h e l p s o l v e t h i s problem as soon as p o s s i b l e by s u p p o r t i n g at the Emperor's o f f i c e the Croats' l a w f u l d e s i r e of the r e g i o n s i n q u e s t i o n . ?° During  the r u l e of a b s o l u t i s m , the problem of the i n c o r -  p o r a t i o n of Prekosavska political life  C r o a t i a remained the main i s s u e i n the  of C r o a t i a , and  the Croat-Magyar c o n t r o v e r s y  pushed i n t o the background f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d of time.  was  The  c e n t r a l government became a more immediate danger to C r o a t i a than Hungary which was  f a c e d w i t h s i m i l a r problems.  In 1822,  this  s t r u g g l e f o r t h e i r l o s t regions ended w i t h p a r t i a l success the Croat n o b l e s .  The  county  of Zagreb was  t e r r i t o r y , but c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r u l e was years  l a t e r , i n 1825.  for  returned i t s l o s t  not r e s t o r e d u n t i l  three  •  -68-  Thus i n t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d a b s o l u t i s t i c a n d a n t i c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p e r i o d t h e C r o a t s , who w e r e d e p r i v e d of t h e i r S a b o r . n e v e r t h e l e s s s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d to the s o l u t i o n of the question of Prekosavska Croatia's r e - i n c o r p o r a t i o n . . . w i t h t h e h e l p o f some o u t s t a n d i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s a n d o t h e r p a t r i o t s . . . i n s o f a r as t h e d e c i s i o n was f i n a l l y p r o m u l g a t e d f r o m a b o v e . 60 The in  e n t h u s i a s m w h i c h h a d emerged among a l l s o c i a l  C r o a t i a when t h i s  decision regarding  was a n n o u n c e d was s t i l l  burning  their lost  felt  Croat  nobles  had achieved  t h a t a b s o l u t i s m was f i n a l l y  to the r u l i n g remaining  defeated.  regions  The  The l o n g  nobles  awaited  r e s t o r e d a n d b r o u g h t new h o p e s  class of Croatia.  Croat  I t seemed as i f  a complete v i c t o r y .  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r u l e was f i n a l l y  territories  v e r y s t r o n g l y when M e t t e r n i c h  a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e D i e t w o u l d meet i n 1825. the  classes  The r e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e  (particularly  Dalmatia)  i n t o t h e Kingdom  o f C r o a t i a seemed t o b e more f e a s i b l e a n d c l o s e r t o b e i n g r e a l i z e d than ever b e f o r e . • In view of the enthusiasm p r e v a i l i n g n a t i o n i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  t h a t Croat  among t h e C r o a t  nobles  tended t o f o r g e t -  t h e p a s t d i s p u t e s w i t h t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p a r t n e r and were prepared  once a g a i n t o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e  Magyars i n o r d e r absolutistic  t o erect s u f f i c i e n t safeguards  tendencies  against  of the c e n t r a l government.  future  On t h e  o t h e r hand, M e t t e r n i c h v i e w e d t h e meeting o f t h e D i e t from an entirely different actionary spread  point of view.  He r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e -  c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d no l o n g e r p r e v e n t t h e  of the r a d i c a l , r e v o l u t i o n a r y ideas without  the help of  -69-  the upper clergy and n o b i l i t y .  In i t s struggle against a n t i -  feudal tendencies, Vienna could f i n d no better a l l i e s than the members of the.upper class who likewise feared such ideas.  democratic  F i n a l l y , the Magyar nobles, while welcoming this change  of the p o l i t i c a l course, saw another opportunity to press f o r further concessions regarding the use of the Magyar language i n the lands belonging to the Crown of St. Stephen.  Therefore  the Magyars, unlike the Croats, who s t i l l f e l t no strong need to e s t a b l i s h Croat as their o f f i c i a l language, came to this Diet well prepared and determined  to r e a l i z e their n a t i o n a l i s t i c  aims. The Diet of  1825/27  stands as the landmark i n the r e -  lations between Hungary and Croatia i n the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century.  The s i t u a t i o n i n Croatia and the eastern  part of the Monarchy i n general was much the same as i t was i n 1790.  This s i m i l a r i t y of the two p o l i t i c a l situations was  underlined by the fact that the Croatsaagain wanted to establish a close union with Hungary.  This Diet d i f f e r e d from the Diet  of 1790 i n that the Magyars now achieved a substantial 61  success i n t h e i r attempt to magyarize Croatia. The Croat Sabor met on 22 August 1825 and elected i t s representatives to the Common Diet - Stjepan Ozegovic  and Antun  Kukuljevic to the lower house and A l o j z i j e Buzan to the upper. The instructions of the Sabor to i t s delegates contained the following s p e c i f i c a t i o n s : 1.  To demand that Dalmatia and the M i l i t a r y Frontier be  re-  united with 2.  Croatia.  To ask that a l l S l a v o n i a n counties pay  the same taxes  as other Croat counties f o r they too belonged the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the  under  Ban.  3-  To r e s t r i c t  f u r t h e r the movement of peasantry i n C r o a t i a .  k.  To e s t a b l i s h c l o s e r a l l i a n c e with Hungary and i t s upper 62 class.  For our purpose i t i s s u f f i c i e n t debates  to examine only  i n the Diet which d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y  p o l i c y of the M a g y a r i z a t i o n of C r o a t i a .  those  affected  the  This Diet d i d not only  c o n f i r m the laws of 1790/91, but a l s o reached some important d e c i s i o n s which had a very unfavourable As i n 1807 that i t was  and 1811  effect  on  Croatia.  the Magyars repeated t h e i r demands  a b s o l u t e l y necessary f o r C r o a t i a .to accept  the  Magyar language i n a l l i t s schools and p u b l i c o f f i c e s . Groat defence was  based  The  on the same arguments that had been  used b e f o r e : "...they reali.ze the advantage and need of l e a r n i n g Magyar and  promise to do as much as p o s s i b l e to enable  Croat youth t o master t h i s language".  ^  However, the Magyars  were no longer s a t i s f i e d w i t h such promises new,  more e x p l i c i t  according  the  and demanded that a  law be enacted to r e p l a c e the o l d one  to which Magyar was  not compulsory i n Croat s c h o o l s .  The Magyar proposals d i d not only imply the M a g y a r i z a t i o n of C r o a t i a , but a l s o the a b o l i t i o n of the Croat autonomy. argued  that " C r o a t i a ' s s t a t u s was  Northern Hungarian  They  the same as that of the  counties ( i . e . S l o v a k i a ) . . . b e c a u s e C r o a t i a  -71-  OH  was  a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d by  The  l o w e r h o u s e , w h i c h was  the upper house, passed protests.  the  Crown's C o u n c i l f o r H u n g a r y . . . "  more n a t i o n a l i s t i c a l l y m i n d e d  this  p r o p o s a l i n s p i t e of the  ( o r L a t i n i n the D i e t ) .  and  However, under p o w e r f u l p r e s s u r e  from  that Croatia should  a c c e p t M a g y a r as a c o m p u l s o r y l a n g u a g e i n a l l i t s  schools. the  who  s p o k e o n l y German  t h e lower house, the upper house a l s o agreed  in  Croat  I n t h e u p p e r h o u s e t h e r e w e r e many M a g y a r n o b l e s  d i d n o t know t h e i r . l a n g u a g e t h e m s e l v e s  at l e a s t  than  S i n c e t h e demand f o r - t h e u s e  Croat  delegates  p u b l i c o f f i c e s was  agreed  o f the Magyar  language  t e m p o r a r i l y postponed, the  Croat  t o s u b m i t the above m e n t i o n e d p r o p o s a l t o  the  65  Sabor f o r a p p r o v a l . The  Croat  '  S a b o r met  t h e M a g y a r l a n g u a g e was i n a l l the  Croat  s i d e r e d t o be  on 10 t o be 65a  schools.  S e p t e m b e r 1827 taught  J  the major success Although  a f o r e i g n language i n s c h o o l s i s not  by  contemporary  s i g n - o f weakness i n a n a t i o n , i n the Croat meant more t h a n a mere a c a d e m i c a s s e t .  Croats  case such  a decision the  This d e c i s i o n d i m i n i s h e d the  t o l e a r n Magyar i f they were t o o b t a i n i m p o r t a n t state.  a  o f the Magyar  r e c o g n i z e d the need f o r . t h e i r younger  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the  policy  considered  of C r o a t i a ' s s t a t u s w i t h i n Hungary because  thus  con-  standards  I t meant t h a t  Croats' l e g a l l y r e c o g n i z e d the s u p e r i o r i t y  portance  subject  that the M a g y a r i z a t i o n  teaching  own.  that  This d e c i s i o n of the Sabor i s  i n Croatia.  their  decided  as a ^ c o m p u l s o r y  achieved  language over  and  im-  the  generation jobs i n the  -72-  Having  a c c o m p l i s h e d s u c h s u c c e s s i n 1827, t h e M a g y a r s  were p r e p a r e d - t o go f u r t h e r a t t h e next meeting w h i c h met o n 8 S e p t e m b e r 1830.  The M a g y a r s w a n t e d t o r e a c h  two i m p o r t a n t g o a l s a t t h i s D i e t : a c c e p t t h e Magyar language obtain religious  i ntheir  public offices  f o r t h e non-  t o l e r a t i o n i n Croatia, but t o give  t o own l a n d t o t h e M a g y a r P r o t e s t a n t s whom H u n g a r y  wanted t o s e t t l e i n S l a v o n i a .  A l t h o u g h t h e Magyars  t h a t s u c h r e f o r m was n e c e s s a r y a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e way  a n d (2) t o  The l a t t e r q u e s t i o n was n o t p r o p o s e d  only t o introduce r e l i g i o u s the r i g h t  (1) t o f o r c e t h e C r o a t s t o  e q u a l i t y and c i t i z e n s ' r i g h t s  Catholics i n Croatia.  of the Diet  of l i f e ,  argued  w i t h t h e new  the Croats r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e the v a l i d i t y o f  t h e a r g u m e n t b e c a u s e t h e y saw " b e h i n d t h e mask o f s u c h a t i o n and l i b e r a l i s m o n l y t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  of creating  tolera new  66 way  for Magyarization".  Owing t o V i e n n a ' s u n w i l l i n g n e s s  t o r e c o g n i z e and s u p p o r t t h e Magyar arguments, t h e C r o a t s were again s u c c e s s f u l i n postponing these proposals t o f u t u r e Their defence  o f t h e C r o a t S t a a t s r e c h t was w e l l  Diets.  prepared  owing t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f J o s i p K u s e v i c ' s I u r a  Municipalia  i n which the author e x c e l l e n t l y describes the e v o l u t i o n of  67 the Croat r i g h t s  i n t h e Croat-Magyar  union.  '  His historical  a r g u m e n t b e g i n s w i t h 1102 a n d ends w i t h t h e 1830's, that  C r o a t i a had always  q u i t e independent  from Hungary.  pamphlet and t h e impact Croat p o l i t i c i a n s  held a separate p o l i t i c a l  cannot  showing  position,  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s  i t had on t h e t h i n k i n g o f t h e be d e n i e d .  For the f i r s t  time i n  -73-  Crbat h i s t o r y  a l a r g e segment o f t h e C r o a t n o b i l i t y was  acquainted with the r e a l  nature o f the problem  facing  Croatia  and w i t h i t s e x a c t p o s i t i o n i n t h e K i n g d o m o f H u n g a r y . I n s u m m a t i o n , up t o 1830 n a t i o n a l i s m among t h e C r o a t nobility  d i d n o t r e a c h t h e s t a g e where t h e i r d e l e g a t e s t o t h e  Common 'Biet w o u l d demand, o r , a t l e a s t , r e a l i z e t h e n e e d f o r the development o f t h e Croat language.  T h e i r m a i n a i m was t o  p r e s e r v e t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i n i t s f e u d a l form and w i t h i t t h e L a t i n language status.  w h i c h was t h e s y m b o l o f t h e i r s p e c i a l  They w e r e m o t i v a t e d b y n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g  other aspects of the p o l i t i c a l  life  political  i n a l l the  o f t h e d a y . However  conservative i n i t s p r i n c i p l e s , their nationalism (although based  on t h e i r  own i n t e r e s t s , h e l p e d p r e v e n t  becoming a H u n g a r i a n  Croatia  from  c o u n t y whose p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d be  completely Magyarized.  The C r o a t n o b i l i t y w a n t e d t o e x i s t  i n c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n and c l o s e u n i o n w i t h t h e Magyar n o b l e s , but  o n l y as l o n g as such'common c o n c e r t w o u l d r e s p e c t t h e  Croat S t a a t s r e c h t and o t h e r s p e c i a l r i g h t s The  .Croats were, p r e p a r e d  to sacrifice  of the n o b i l i t y .  a l o t for this  a c t u a l l y d i d g i v e u p , as we saw,, some f u n d a m e n t a l the Croat n a t i o n . marked t h e l i m i t  cause and  rights of  H o w e v e r , t h e d e c i s i o n s . o f t h e D i e t o f 1825/27  t o which  t h e Croat d e l e g a t e s were p r e p a r e d t o  go i n o r d e r t o a p p e a s e M a g y a r n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t s .  From now  on t h e C r o a t n o b i l i t y r e a l i z e d t h a t a n y f u r t h e r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e M a g y a r s w o u l d be a b s o l u t e l y i m p s s i b l e s i n c e t h e M a g y a r s w a n t e d t o d e s t r o y C r o a t autonomy a n d w i t h i t t h e powers of t h e Croat r u l i n g  class.'  Thus, t h e Croat d e l e g a t e s t o t h e  Diet  o f 1830 r e p o r t e d t o t h e S a b o r u p o n t h e i r r e t u r n f r o m .  Pozsony:  "...this  we a r e a f r a i d  t i m e we s u c c e e d e d  i n defending  our laws, but  t h a t i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e t o do s o a t t h e n e x t  68 meeting  o f t h e Common D i e t . "  Another  e l e m e n t o f n a t i o n a l i s m among t h e C r o a t  nobility  was i t s d e s i r e f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f a l l t h e C r o a t i n t o one C r o a t s t a t e . territorial  regions  The C r o a t n o b l e s r e a l i z e d t h a t s u c h a  expansion, which would i n c l u d e Dalmatia, t h e  M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r and t h e c i t y  o f R i j e k a , w o u l d make  Croatia  p o w e r f u l enough t o w i t h s t a n d t h e a t t a c k o f Magyar n a t i o n a l i s m on  Croat autonomy.  which  Thus, i n s p i t e o f t h e i r c o n s e r v a t i s m ,  (for  t h e C r o a t s c o u l d n o t be b l a m e d s i n c e l i b e r a l i s m a i m e d t o  render i n e f f e c t i v e  t h e n a t i o n and i t s r i g h t s ) t h e Croat  nobility  represented the only force i n the f i r s t quarter of the ninet e e n t h c e n t u r y w h i c h was a b l e t o d e f e n d  C r o a t i a and w h i c h ,  e v e n t h o u g h i t made some f a t a l m i s t a k e s , a c t u a l l y  succeeded  in  p r e v e n t i n g t h e Magyars from becoming t h e complete  of  t h e Kingdom o f C r o a t i a .  ary  f o r our purpose  T h e r e f o r e , i t was a b s o l u t e l y  t o observe  Common D i e t b e c a u s e d u r i n g t h i s  p e r i o d C r o a t i a l a c k e d any  t h e development o f t h e Croat language  The movement  was i n i t s embryo  and u n a b l e , as y e t , t o make i t s e l f . f e l t i n t h e l i f e nation.  This l e f t  of the  t h e Croat n o b i l i t y w i t h o u t a n y t h i n g t o f a l l  back on because even h a d they w i s h e d at  necess-  t h e work o f t h e Sabor and t h e  o t h e r way o f e x p r e s s i n g i t s n a t i o n a l t e n d e n c i e s . for  masters  P o z s o n y t h e same r i g h t s  t o , t h e y c o u l d n o t demand  f o r t h e Croat language,  f o ri tlacked  -75-  a unified literary D i e t o f 183P  f o r m and  that the  Groat  orthography.  I t was  only a f t e r  intellectuals, fearing  the  quences of the next  D i e t , began t o work v e r y r a p i d l y  important•problem.  D r i v e n by  i n f l u e n c e d by the Croats  First  achieved remarkable This aspect  success  of Croat  N a t i o n a l A w a k e n e r s and d e c i s i o n s and  w i t h i n a very  ment among t h e  intellectuals.  Croat  Croats were t o c o n t i n u e t o be r e f o r m e d  and  art.  short  pages.  to exist a d o p t e d by  meeting  They r e a l i z e d  t h a t i f the  as a n a t i o n , t h e C r o a t a l l c l a s s e s as t h e  At t h e b e g i n n i n g  language  language  public discussions,  o f 1831,  Croat  poet-  c l e r g y m a n P a v a o S t o o s , summed up t h e s i t u a t i o n p r e v a i l i n g C r o a t i a a f t e r 1830  i n h i s poem K i p d o m o v i n e (The  "Yet  and  a l l h e r s o n s and  t h e i r language Croats  in  Statue of  H o m e l a n d ) w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e h o m e l a n d as a woman d r e s s e d b l a c k , d e s e r t e d by  the  o f deep n a t i o n a l s e n t i -  o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , p r i v a t e and and  and  n a t i o n a l i s m w i l l be  g e n e r a l atmosphere at the l a s t  caused a f e e l i n g  literature  this  T h e i r Work  of the D i e t suddenly  had  on  the f e a r of M a g y a r i z a t i o n  of our d i s c u s s i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g  The  conse-  t h e i d e a s o f o t h e r S l a v i c n a t i o n a l movements,  p e r i o d of time. subject  the  the in  mourning: want  6Q To f o r g e t , and  another  n a t i o n t o become".  y  H o w g v e r , " a t t h i s f a t a l moment t h e r e a p p e a r e d among t h e n a t i o n a f e e l i n g , of n a t i o n a l consciousness" v e r y r a p i d changes i n the n a t i o n ' s l i f e .  Croat  ?® w h i c h c a u s e d  The  main problem, of  course,  was t o c r e a t e a l i t e r a r y  Croats.  During  this  p e r i o d Croat  appeared i n d i f f e r e n t  Croat  Croat  stand not  the dialects  of t h e i r neighbours,  adopt s u c h l i t e r a t u r e  very  Such works were n o t r e a d  counties;- not because t h e readers  s i o n s were s o s t r o n g had  w r i t e r s , who o c c a s i o n a l l y  r e g i o n s , used t h e v a r i o u s  of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r regions.. the  l a n g u a g e common t o a l l t h e  little  as t h e i r  dialects i n a l l  c o u l d not under-  but because they  own.  would  L o c a l geographic  divi-  t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f one r e g i o n f e l t i t  i n common w i t h t h e p e o p l e o f o t h e r  districts.  H o w e v e r , i f we g e n e r a l i z e o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e C o u n t y o f Z a g r e b u s e d one d i a l e c t , we c a n c o n c l u d e t h a t s u c h  literature  71  was  written basically  gradually  i n the Kajkavian  emerged more a n d more C r o a t  dialect.  There  w r i t e r s who b e g a n t o  f e e l t h e h e e d f o r one d i a l e c t w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d i n a l l t h e Croat  regions.  B u t on t h e w h o l e , a t t e m p t s t o p u b l i s h books i n  Croat  were l i m i t e d  t o very  f e w w o r k s w h i c h r e m a i n e d unknown t o  t h e l a r g e r segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . Of  a l l t h e l i t e r a r y workers o f t h i s  period,  V r h o v a c d e s e r v e s t o be m e n t i o n e d as t h e f i r s t nationalism.  A f t e r the death of"Martinovies  Maksimilian  awakener o f and t h e d e f e a t o f  t h e r a d i c a l movement, V r h o v a c b e g a n t o w o r k o n t h e r e v i v a l o f the  Croat  language.  The c e n t r e  o f h i s a c t i v i t i e s was t h e  Seminary o f Z a g r e b , where he endeavoured t o educate f u t u r e leaders  o f t h e n a t i o n a l movement.  he b e g a n t o p r e s e n t  i n this  w r i t t e n i n native Croat. works h i s s t u d e n t s  T h u s , as e a r l y as 1807>  s c h o o l a s e r i e s o f drama works  I n t h e absence o f n a t i v e  and o t h e r  literary  c l e r g y m e n t r a n s l a t e d t h e works o f  German, a u t h o r s nobility  and  and  distributed  t h e b o o k s among t h e  i n t e l l e c t u a l s w i t h the purpose of  secular  encouraging  them t o w r i t e s u c h w o r k s i n t h e i r n a t i v e t o n g u e . , I n f l u e n c e d by  such progressive S l a v i c  K o p i t a r , H e r d e r and ideas  later  and  the b r o t h e r s  i n c l u d e d not  l i v i n g w i t h i n the Habsburg Monarchy, but  under T u r k i s h r u l e i n B o s n i a . first  Croats  to appreciate  ities  t o i n t r o d u c e one  Therefore  he was  t h e a t t e m p t by  also one  the''  those of  the F r e n c h  the  authordialect,  Vrhovac argued that  I l l y r i a n language ( l i n g u a I l l y r i c a ) should w r i t e r s i n order  only  s i n g l e d i a l e c t , the S t o k a v i a n  a l l the I l l y r i a n P r o v i n c e s .  Croat  Dobrovsky,  S c h l e g e l , Vrhovac's  f o r the u n i f i c a t i o n of a l l Croats  Croats  in  German t h i n k e r s as  this  be u s e d by a l l  to create a strong n a t i o n a l , l i t e r a r y  t r a d i t i o n common t o a l l C r o a t  regions.  The  adoption  of  the  V  Stokavian  d i a l e c t , V r h o v a c t h o u g h t , w o u l d remove t h e  b a r r i e r between the  Croat  and  ready reformed i t s l i t e r a r y kavian dialect The  Croat  l a n g u a g e on  the b a s i s of the  u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f Vuk  Stefanovic  and  only  donians,  also influenced  of the  This  same name was  for  familiar  u n d e r m i n e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l o c a l and  differences. leaders  name was  Sto-  Karadzic.  h i s f o l l o w e r s t o a d o p t t h e name " I l l y r i a "  n a t i o n a l movement b e c a u s e t h i s  Croats  not  S e r v i a n n a t i o n , w h i c h had a l -  French experiment i n the I l l y r i a n provinces  V r h o v a c and  literary  l a t e r a d o p t e d by  the  to a l l  regional  the  Croat  I l l y r i a n movement w h i c h i n c l u d e d i n i t s scheme  C r o a t s , but Bulgarians  a l l South Slavs and  Montenegrins.  - Serbs,  Slovenes,  Mace-  However, the a d o p t i o n  of  V  t h e S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t was writers s t i l l  p r e f e r r e d t o use  the Stokavian d i a l e c t of i t s orthography. d i a l e c t had  age in  and  I t must be n o t e d orthography  and  d i d not  language.  i n t e l l e c t u a l s had  dif-  literary  o r g a n i z e d the f i r s t  organized such  was  r e c o r d o f i t s a c t i v i t i e s has  the  clubs  which  an  some young  been  preserved.  t h e c e n t e r o f t h e young i n t e l l e c t u a l s  whose m a i n l e a d e r was  people's  under  a c l u b i n V i e n n a , but u n f o r t -  G r a z w h e r e t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1827  "He  as 1813.  langu-  i n Austria,  of the development of  F o r i n s t a n c e , as e a r l y  official  More i m p o r t a n t  of our  w r i t e r s u s e d many  G r a z , where Croat u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s  were t o d i s c u s s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  later said:  reform  Kajkavian  o r i g i n a t e i n C r o a t i a , but  i n f l u e n c e o f S a f a r i k and K o l l a r  u n a t e l y no  a major  spelling.  orthography  Illyrian  and  Croat  because  t h a t even the  movement f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a u n i f o r m  Vienna  The  the K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t  c o u l d n o t be u s e d w i t h o u t  no u n i f o r m  f e r e n t ways o f The  a p a i n f u l l y slew process.  was  a students' " I l l y r i a n  Mojsije Baltic the f i r s t  one  in Club"  a b o u t whom L j u d e v i t G a j  t o show me  the i n n e r  p u r e l a n g u a g e w h i c h i s t h e o n l y one  value  worthy  of  t h e I l l y r i a n name i n g e n e r a l ( i . e . t h e S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t ) " . The  r o l e o f Safarik'-'s and K o l l a r ' s w o r k s i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s  the I l l y r i a n  C l u b assumed s i g n i f i c a n t  works G e s c h i c h t e  d e r s l a w i s c h e n S p r a c h e und  a l i e n M u n d a r t e n (1826) and provided for  Croat  proportions.  liber d i e Abkunft  the f o r m a t i o n of n a t i o n a l i s m .  of  Safarik's  Literatur der Slaven  i n t e l l e c t u a l s w i t h the fundamental  ( D  nach (1828)  principles  In these works, S a f a r i k  -  deals with the origins culture, religion,  f  y —  o f the S l a v s , t h e i r subsequent  and, f i n a l l y ,  of the nineteenth century.  their  p o s i t i o n at the beginning  I n s p i t e of the fact  works w e r e ' f u l l o f h i s t o r i c a l  history,  that  these  e r r o r s , t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i o n a l movements among t h e v a r i o u s S l a v i c 7k  p e o p l e s was o f t h e u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e . of the " I l l y r i a n  One o f t h e members  C l u b " , M i r k o B o g o v i c , s e e s t h e s e w o r k s as one  of the main f o r c e s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Croat a g a i n s t t h e Magyar l a n g u a g e .  I t follows  defence  that t h e Croat  nation-  a l i s t i c movement o r i g i n a t e d w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y P a n - S l a v i s m which had been d e s i g n e d t o b r i n g  about  t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f a l l S l a v s a n d e l e v a t e them t o t h e s t a t u s o f t h e o t h e r E u r o p e a n n a t i o n s w h i c h l o o k e d u p o n t h e S l a v s as underdeveloped capacities.  n a t i o n s and u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e i r  For this  purpose  cultural  J a n K o l l a r i n h i s work, S l a v y  Dcera, "created the i d e a of the c u l t u r a l u n i t y  of the S l a v i c  w o r l d , t h e i d e a o f S l a v i c g r e a t n e s s and p o w e r f u l p r i d e , w i t h w h i c h he f i l l e d  up many h e a r t s o f numerous s u b m e r g e d S l a v s 75  w i t h t h e hope f o r l i b e r t y logical  that  and s a l v a t i o n " .  the Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s  '/  I t was o n l y  i n A u s t r i a a c c e p t e d and  w e r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s e i d e a s , and u p o n t h e i r r e t u r n t o C r o t i a a i m e d t o p u t them i n p r a c t i c e a n d b r i n g b i r t h of the nation. while realizing literature,  about  I n C r o a t i a they found  the c u l t u r a l r e -  Croat w r i t e r s  who,  t h e n e e d f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a common C r o a t  l a c k e d s u f f i c i e n t means a n d m o r a l s u p p o r t t o c a r r y  out t h e major  reforms  necessary t o create a l i t e r a r y  language.  -ou-  However, they a l l agreed fully in  f o u g h t by d e v e l o p i n g t h e n a t i v e l a n g u a g e  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n s t e a d of L a t i n ; A l r e a d y by  had  t h a t M a g y a r i z a t i o n c o u l d he  1815,  and u s i n g i t .  '  t h e C r o a t K a j k a v i a n w r i t e r , A.  p u b l i s h e d h i s b o o k l e t , Rec  v u domorodnom j e z i k u Writing  success-  domovini  Mihanovic  od h a s n o v i t o s t i  pisanja  (Word t o t h e H o m e l a n d on ••the : M e r i t s o f  i n t h e N a t i v e Tongue) i n V i e n n a w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  Croat h i s t o r i a n , S m i c i k l a s , "represented the f i r s t  v o i c e of a -  76  Croat son which spoke a g a i n s t the L a t i n language". booklet Mihanovic  In  this  a t t a c k e d L a t i n as an " u n s u i t a b l e l a n g u a g e 77  for  the present-day  life"  and  condemned t h o s e C r o a t s  w e r e ashamed t o u s e  t h e i r own  i g n o r e the language  o f t h e p e o p l e and 78  w i t h f o r e i g n languages...." t h a t the L a t i n language  language;  /  prevented  c a u s e by b e c o m i n g t h e o f f i c i a l nobles  -  h i s , t e a c h i n g and o n l y paper  energy  p o i n t e d out  language  i t i n f l u e n c e d the  Mihanovic  tongue.  79  beCroat  d e c i d e d t o implement The  t h e L u n a Agramer  p u b l i s h e d i n German and whose e d i t o r s  care t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the development of the Because the censors  of the a b s o l u t i s t  Croat regime  Z a g r e b p r e s e n t e d an o b s t a c l e t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f a  newspaper, Mihanovic  to  the development of Croat  b e i n g p u b l i s h e d i n C r o a t i a was  national idea. in  author r i g h t l y  p u b l i s h a Croat newspaper i n V i e n n a .  Z e i t s c h r i f t w h i c h was not  t o w a s t e t i m e and  t o abandon the usage o f t h e i r mother  A f e w y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1818,  did  The  "They a r e wrong  who  decided to publish his Oglasnik  Croat  ilirski  ( I l l y r i a n N e w s l e t t e r ) i n Vienna under the e d i t o r s h i p of D j u r o •  Sporer.  A f t e r t h e p o l i c e a u t h o r i t i e s had granted  for  thepublication of the " I l l y r i a n Newsletter",  and  Sporer  Mihanovic  p u b l i s h e d a g e n e r a l programme o f t h e w o r k a n d s e n t  invitations  t o s u b s c r i b e t o t h e p a p e r t o many p r o m i n e n t  However^ owing t o the weakness o f t h e Croat and  permission  n a t i o n a l movement  the l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n the n a t i v e language,  Croats w i l l i n g  Croats.  t h e number o f  t o s u b s c r i b e was s o s m a l l a n d i n s i g n i f i c a n t I  V  that Mihanovic  and Sporer  decided  t o p o s t p o n e the. i d e a  a l a t e r date.  T h e i r f a i l u r e i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e Croat  until langu-  age's u n p o p u l a r i t y among t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s a n d w r i t e r s o f Croatia.  I n f a c t , according  t o the censor  o f Croat p u b l i c a -  t i o n s I n Z a g r e b , A n t u n Nagy o f P o z e g a , t h e C r o a t s d i d n o t p r o d u c a s i n g l e p u b l i c a t i o n i n t h e Croat 1818).  language i n e i g h t years  (1810-  "...up t o 1818, I d i d n o t h a v e t h e h o n o u r t o  He s a i d :  On  correct  a s i n g l e manuscript  Thus i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g  w r i t t e n i n t h e Croat  language"..  that the Magyars, seeing such  a situa-  t i o n i n C r o a t i a , demanded t h a t t h e c o u n t r y b e m a g y a r i z e d a n d that  their policy  successes.  o f M a g y a r i z a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n some s i g n i f i c a n t  The C r o a t s w e r e wrong t o e x p e c t  r e s p e c t and r e c o g n i z e t h e r i g h t s s t a t e when t h e y  themselves  the Magyars t o  o f t h e i r language and t h e i r  failed  t o honour i t i n t h e i r  t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . However, the Magyar p l a n s the r a p i d  called for  and t o t a l M a g y a r i z a t i o n o f C r o a t i a and they were n o t  s a t i s f i e d with just policy  litera-  thesuccesses  not only antagonized  already achieved.  t h e Croat  uals , but a l s o t h e Croat r u l i n g  patriots  Such a  and i n t e l l e c t -  class from which o r i g i n a t e d  -82-  the i d e a of the u n i o n w i t h Hungary. nobility  i t s e l f r e a l i z e d t h a t any  Suddenly  to a l l Croats.  and  conducted  a literary  literary  language,  k n o w l e d g e and means t o a c h i e v e i t .  b e s t and by  each  and  and  Croat w r i t e r s  o t h e r i n t h i s r e s p e c t and h e l d  b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r way  t h a t the d i a l e c t  realized the  i t s members l a c k e d t h e  oh t h e m a i n a s p e c t s o f s u c h a r e f o r m .  strongly felt  common  Although the Croat n o b i l i t y f i n a l l y  c r e a t i o n o f one  views  without  language  t h e need f o r the r e f o r m o f the Croat o r t h o g r a p h y  d i f f e r e d from  Croat  further struggle against  M a g y a r i z a t i o n c o u l d n o t be s u c c e s s f u l l y a broader n a t i o n a l support  the  themselves different  E a c h o f them  o f w r i t i n g was  o f t h e i r r e g i o n s h o u l d be  the  accepted  a l l o t h e r s as t h e most s u i t a b l e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  Croat l i t e r a r y  language.  Toma M i k l o u s i c , one  o f t h e b e s t known C r o a t w r i t e r s  t h a t p e r i o d , b e l i e v e d t h a t only the K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t qualified  the  to f u l f i l l  the t a s k .  Living  of  was  i n i s o l a t i o n as a  parish  p r i e s t i n J a s t r e b a s k o , he d i d n o t know w e l l t h e S t o k a v i a n dialect  and i t s a d v a n t a g e s  the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y  and was  of the  i n g e n e r a l removed  from  day.  H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e C r o a t n a t i o n a l c a u s e must  be  82 j u d g e d by h i s numerous w o r k s i n t h e K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t . w i l l be u s e f u l t o n o t e t h a t he was Vrhovac's  call  t o the c l e r g y  o t h e r forms of the l i t e r a r y a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , he  t h e o n l y p r i e s t who  to collect  It answered  Croat f o l k songs  t r a d i t i o n of the people.  In  e d i t e d many w o r k s o f t h e o l d e r C r o a t  and  -83-  writers and  and,  i n 1821,  published h i s v e r s i o n of the  cultural history  of the Croats under the t i t l e ,  dugovan.i s v a k o v r s t n e h  o f h i s t o r i c a l e r r o r s , and  identified  Slavs w i t h the ancient I l l y r i a n s l a n g u a g e s as d i a l e c t s  on one  '1822, M i k l o u s i c p r e p a r e d  and  classified  language,  p o r a t i o n of Prekosavska  a l l Slavic  the S l a v i c language.  Cottage  ing  i t s lost  he was  a very s t r o n g advocate  because, according  a r i g h t - t o i t s own other d i a l e c t  t h e a w a k e n i n g and to enable  nations.  of the  the  literature or d i a l e c t s .  and  s h o u l d n o t be  Thus he r e a l i z e d  r e n a i s s a n c e of the  t o be made.  had by  a need f o r  Croat n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e i n  the reform  of the  as a l l t h e o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l s  f i e l d was  contemp-  pushed out  the n a t i o n t o keep pace w i t h o t h e r  (just  Kajkavian  i n their respective  European Croat  agreed  s o m e t h i n g s h o u l d be done i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n ) i f any the l i t e r a r y  of  to h i s n o t i o n s , every d i a l e c t  M i k l o u s i c a l s o favoured  orthography  reincor-  to the other  orary w r i t e r s of C r o a t i a to continue w r i t i n g  order  Sava,  a w a r d e d t h e n a t i o n by r e t u r n -  d i a l e c t , M i k l o u s i c nevertheless appealed  any  drama  territory.  Although  dialects  ^  Miklousic  chose t h i s drama b e c a u s e i t d e a l s w i t h t h e l o y a l t y finally  Croat  on t h e  ceremony o f the  Croatia with Croatia.  t o t h e i r r u l e r who  full  of a l l the  the t e x t of the a n c i e n t  or Love f o r Love) f o r the o f f i c i a l  (Various  T h i s b o o k was  the o r i g i n s  H u t a p r i S a v i o r l j u b a v z a l . i u b a v (The  Croats  Izbor  za hasen i razvesel.jen.je s l u z e c e h  S e l e c t e d Works f o r E d u c a t i o n a l P u r p o s e s ) .  In  political  that  progress -  in  M i k l o u s i c s t r o n g l y recommended t h a t t h e young lectuals  f o l l o w t h e e x a m p l e o f an e a r l i e r (1760-1805), who  Brezovacki his  c o m e d i e s and  satires  thus c o n t r i b u t e d t o the ment o f t h e  Croat  had  Groat  intel-  Groat w r i t e r , T i t o  found ideas  and  material for  among t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k themes c a u s e o f n a t i o n a l i s m and  language.  comedy M a t i - j a s G r a b a n c i j a s  Miklousic published d i a k (The  t  t o the  f  and  develop-  Brezovacki's  Magic of M a t i j a s  the  M a g i c i a n ) w i t h the purpose of e n t e r t a i n i n g h i s readers  and  e n c o u r a g i n g n a t i o n a l t a l e n t s t o t r y t o do  learn  to  adopt Croat  i n their writings.  comedy condemns the. p r e s e n t satiric  The  f e u d a l way  t h e same and  c e n t r a l theme o f of l i f e  and  the  adopts  approach toward the e d u c a t i o n a l system of the  • •  a  day.  I t ( t h e comedy) was a f i r s t c l a s s s o c i a l s a t i r e f o r t h a t p e r i o d i n which the author, w i t h h i s d i s c e r n i n g e y e , knew how t o r a i s e h i m s e l f a b o v e t h o s e who w e r e . s a t i s f i e d w i t h s i m p l e t r a n s l a t i o n s of f o r e i g n authors.. The w r i t e r g r a s p e d t h e s p i r i t o f h i s t i m e w h i c h d e manded s e r i o u s and s o b e r w o r k w h i c h l e a d s t o h e a l t h y - , e d u c a t i o n andnfcowards t h e l o v e f o r one's h o m e l a n d and • nationality. ° 4  Another Croat and  adopted the S t o k a v i a n  s e v e r a l years who  w r i t e r , Djuro Sporer,  had  i n his writing.  among t h e f u t u r e C r o a t  a l r e a d y began making plans  v i v a l , he  he  i n w h i c h he  understandable  step further Having  spent  n a t i o n a l leaders i n Graz,  for the  r e a l i z e d t h a t the S t o k a v i a n  s u i t a b l e and I n 1823,  dialect  went one  Croat  d i a l e c t was  national ret h e most  to the g r e a t e r part of the  p u b l i s h e d h i s Almanak i l i r s k i  (The  Illyrian  nation. Almanac)  emphasized the need f o r the u n i t y o f language  and  -85-  the unity of the nation and suggested several proposals f o r 85 "the r e b i r t h of the Croat book".  Consequently, he giave  up the dialect of Slavonia for he f e l t that 'this d i a l e c t was equally f a m i l i a r to the majority of the nation.  He also  adopted the name " I l l y r i a " f o r Croatia which was also known to the Kajkavian writers from old L a t i n documents which they used as reference material, although they never used i t i n their writings i n Croat.  For this reason Sporer i s considered the  f i r s t "predecessor of Ljudevit Gaj. V  '  :  For Sporer the differences i n the tribes d i d not exist but only their unity. In 1823, this idea was 'too far ahead of i t s time for i t was not u n t i l ten years l a t e r that this' question (of d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s ) was brought up and f i n a l l y solved i n the Croat l i t e r a r y works. Similar proposals were made even before Sporer, but, they all'remained unanswered as well. 87 In addition to Vrhovac, Mihanovic, Miklousic, and Sporer,  there were some other Croat writers (Matija Jandric, Jakob Lovrericic and Ignjat K r i s t i j a n o v i c , for instance) who also contributed to the development of Croat l i t e r a t u r e , but f a i l e d to arrive at one uniform method for reforming 88 general.  the language i n  Each of them were too strongly influenced by  localism to gain a deeper insight i n t o the problems of their country as a whole.  It i s true that sometimes their  proposals  and work contributed s u b s t a n t i a l l y to the development of the Croat nationalism, but being as i t were, rather i s o l a t e d i n their well intended  attempts' to do something f o r their country,  their works were bound to result i n only minor successes.  What  -86-  they  l a c k e d most was  a uniform  a well organized, co-ordinating force  o u t l o o k on t h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m s o f t h e d a y .  as t h e C r o a t  n a t i o n a l awakeners worked h a p h a z a r d l y ,  p l a n and w e l l d e f i n e d a i m s , t h e r e c o u l d be any  major successes  no  the  aggressive.  was  o u t l o o k of the  c l a s s w h i c h was  T h e i r work Croat  Germanized to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t , advocated  c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h H u n g a r y and  l o o k e d down on t h e  l a n g u a g e as t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e l o w e r  a  t a l k of achieving  s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t Magyar n a t i o n a l i s t i c the s o c i a l  long  without  i n t h e n a t i o n ' s r e n a i s s a n c e and  f u r t h e r h a n d i c a p p e d by  As  and  ruling a  Croat  classes, especially  the  peasantry. Thus t h e w o r k o f t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d g e n e r a t i o n o f writers  and  activity  and  n a t i o n a l awakeners, i n the absence of w e l l a g r e a t e r number o f f o l l o w e r s , h a d  on t h e t h i n k i n g  of the contemporary Croat  indicated  t h a t C r o a t i a had  religious  b o o k s f o r t h e needs o f t h e  wrote to a t t r a c t unification Up  of the  t o 1827,  t h e n a t i o n a l and trusted and  Croat  Croat  ruling  class  n a t i o n and  peasant,  and  I t only only w r i t e but. a l s o  b r i n g about- t h e  culture.  t h e r e seemed t o be no social  d i d not  effect  p o s s i b i l i t y of  changing  o u t l o o k of the upper n o b i l i t y .  It dis-  the ideas of n i n e t e e n t h century European n a t i o n a l i s m  intended  allying  the  Croat  organized  no m a j o r  society.  some w r i t e r s who  Croat  to secure  its political  i t s e l f w i t h Hungary.  and  economic s t a t u s  However, a f t e r  1827,  y a r n o b i l i t y became t h e i r more d a n g e r o u s enemy, t h e began t o l o o k f o r h e l p elsewhere.  They f o u n d  by  when t h e MagCroat  i t i n their  nobles old  -ay-  enemy who  Vienna,  and  i n the work o f the young Croat  were a l s o p r e p a r i n g themselves  Magyarization,-but We  f o r the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t  w i t h d i f f e r e n t motives  and  methods.  have a l r e a d y mentioned the work of the  uals i n the " I l l y r i a n discussed  Club" i n Graz.  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  which would p u l l the country  In this  of a Croat out  intellectuals  Croat  intellect-  c l u b the  cultural  renaissance  of i t s f e u d a l darkness  p l a c e i t on a l e v e l w i t h t h e o t h e r E u r o p e a n n a t i o n s . p u r p o s e t h e P a n - S l a v i c movement seemed t o be source Croat was  of ideas  and m e t h o d s .  n o b i l i t y had  experienced  And  students  defeat i n the  For  t h e most  i n view of the f a c t  years  to accept  n a t i o n a l i d e a s t h a n had  this  logical that.the  Common D i e t , i t  assumed t h a t i t w o u l d be much e a s i e r t o p r e v a i l on  nobility  and  the  b e e n t h e case- t e n  earlier. •  U n t i l 1 8 3 0 , t h e C r o a t w r i t e r s h a d no i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e d e l e g a t e s t o the Sabor. A f t e r 1830, the c o n n e c t i o n bet w e e n l i t e r a t u r e and p o l i t i c s b e g a n t o be f e l t more and m o r e . . . . The g e n e r a t i o n w h i c h h a d l i v e d t h r o u g h t h e g r e a t c r i s i s d i s a p p e a r e d , and a new g e n e r a t i o n a p p e a r e d '.. w h i c h . l i v e d and r e c e i v e d i t s e d u c a t i o n a b r o a d and r e a l i z e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o s u c c e e d , i t must c h a n g e t h e p o l i c y o f i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s and c h o o s e a d i f f e r e n t r o a d to s u c c e s s . "9 The  young C r o a t  i n t e l l e c t u a l a l s o became more r a d i c a l  and  s o u g h t s u p p o r t ' f o r t h e n a t i o n a l c a u s e among t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s , especially •disliked that  among t h e members o f t h e new  t h e f e u d a l s o c i a l s y s t e m and  bourgeois  class  i t s l a w s . ^°  He  which realized  the development o f a modern n a t i o n a l M e a l r e q u i r e d the  a b o l i t i o n of p a r o c h i a l i s m , r e l i g i o u s  and  linguistic differences  -88-  and the feudal p o s i t i o n of the Croat peasant. With the a r r i v a l i n Graz of young Ljudevit Gaj, the Croat . i n t e l l e c t u a l s received an excellent leader whose q u a l i t i e s of leadership were manifested by his a b i l i t y to unite both young and old i n the national movement, whether abroad or at 91 home.  At the same time he condemned the works of the older  y  Croat writers, such as Miklousic, as useless and dangerous to the national cause.  However, after P. J . Safarik had  to him the good intentions of such writers and their  explained naive  views on the development of national l i t e r a t u r e without a unif i e d orthography, Gaj learned to disregard' such works completely and never referred to them i n the future, "just as i f they had 92 never existed before". We Slavs must be u n i f i e d i n s p i r i t and mind;' we must, among ourselves, learn to know and to enjoy the common treasure of our language and l i t e r a t u r e . This we have to spread among our countrymen, but always calmly and c a r e f u l l y . A l l i n f e r e s t s , including r e l i g i o u s ones, must be subordinated to the interests of the nation because the.nation's interests are the condition for the l i f e of the whole, while the r e l i g i o u s interests concern only the opinions of private'individuals .. 93 Gaj had shown a strong interest i n the Croat  national  culture and language from his e a r l i e s t boyhood for which reason he was  expelled from the Varazdin's high school.  As a l l writers  of the day, he began to write i n German and published a r t i c l e s i n the Luna Agramer Zeitung  several  i n which he already spoke  of the unity of a l l South Slavs, p a r t i c u l a r l y of the Croats and Servs. ^  In 1826,  he l e f t Croatia i n order to c o l l e c t h i s t o r -  -09-  ical  documents and  Graz.  I  other sources  I n G r a z he met  o f Groat  o t h e r young C r o a t  V  history  intellectuals,  and  o t h e r s who  f u t u r e l e a d e r s o f t h e I l l y r i a n movement. Stokavian dialect  lect  and  dialect  and  He  a d o p t e d t h e S t o k a v i a n one Croat  H e r e he  also learned  literary  g a v e up h i s own  as  h i m s e l f w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s  Kajkavian d i a -  t h e most common and  a s s i s t e d i n the w r i t i n g  need f o r the r e f o r m  i n Croatia.  Croat  he  adopted the  as t h e two  of the  C z e c h way  the use  orthography,  of w r i t i n g  fundamental p r i n c i p l e s  and  r e a l i z i n g , the  Gaj  published i n  Pravopisaria  o f y, x , c s , s z , t c h and exist  the S t o k a v i a n  of the '*  Croat  dialect  language.  From  "  a d o p t e d t h e l e t t e r s , c , d , 1,  s u c h sounds e i t h e r d i d not  Jan  Croat-Slav Orthography) i n which  V  C z e c h he  met  of the above m e n t i o n e d works  Pest h i s K r a t k a osnova Hrvatsko-Slavenskoga (Essential Principles  and  H e r e he  of Pan-Slavism,  e n c o u r a g e d by S a f a r i k and of the  acquainted  o f t h e M a g y a r n a t i o n a l movement  and w o r k e d w i t h t h e w e l l known a d v o c a t e  I n 1830,  suitable  language.  a i m e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e same p r i n c i p l e s  of S a f a r i k .  and  n and  s c h s h o u l d be i n Croat  argued  that  abolished for  or were borrowed f r o m 95  other n o n - S l a v i c languages such The  as German and M a g y a r .  p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s work had  i n the development of the s o l v e t h e most i m p o r t a n t  the  Stokavian  F r o m G r a z , G a j went t o P e s t i n H u n g a r y w h e r e he  K o l l a r , and  Dimitrije  w e r e t o become  r e a d the works, o f the S e r b i a n  Stefanovic Karadzic.  f o r the  and  V  Demeter, Antun S p o r e r , Pavao Stoos  w r i t e r , Vuk  i n Vienna  Croat  a two-fold  nationalism:  problem of the  Croat  (1)  7 >  significance i t helped  literary  language  -90-  and  ( 2 ) i t i n f l u e n c e d t h e young C r o a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s - a t home  and  abroad  t o a c c e p t G a j as t h e u n d i s p u t a b l e l e a d e r o f t h e  n a t i o n a l movement w h i c h was t o b r i n g of  about'a  cultural  rebirth  t h e n a t i o n a t t h e t i m e when i t was n e e d e d t h e m o s t .  K r a t k a o s n o v a he w r o t e an e l a b o r a t e a n a l y s i s  I n the  t h a t h i s i n t e n t i o n was " n o t t o p r e s e n t of orthography, but t o b r i e f l y  p o i n t out  96 what was most n e c e s s a r y " .  7  He s a i d ,  "...this  new  orthography 97  has  an immeasurable v a l u e f o r our S l a v i c In  use  Zagreb,  G r a z a n d V i e n n a t h e C r o a t y o u t h made e x t e n s i v e  o f d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s w h e r e t h e s e young i n t e l l e c t u a l s  the p o l i t i c a l  and c u l t u r a l problems o f C r o a t i a .  example, they h e l d t h e i r meetings which In  people;...".  they c a l l e d  I n Vienna, f o r  at the r e s t a u r a n t  among t h e m s e l v e s  "Danica"  analyzed  "Morgenstern"  (Morning  Star).  Z a g r e b t h e s t u d e n t s ' g r o u p was e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l  organ-  i z e d due t o t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f P r o f e s s o r M o j s e s who s u p p l i e d v a l u a b l e guidance  a n d a d v i c e on o r g a n i z a t i o n .  i n c l u d e d such prominent as B a b u k i c , D e r k o s , others.  The g r o u p  members o f t h e C r o a t n a t i o n a l  Marie, Mazuranic,  movement  R a k o v a e , Smodek, a n d  P r o f e s s o r M o j s e s and t h e s e y o u n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s a c -  cepted Gaj's  new o r t h o g r a p h y  a t u r e and c u l t u r a l l i f e  as t h e b a s i s o f t h e f u t u r e  i n general.  However, t h e o l d e r  a t i o n o f w r i t e r s d i s a g r e e d w i t h such extreme r e f o r m s . they shaped the o p i n i o n s o f Zagreb's  litergenerSince  s o c i a l c i r c l e , which  more a c c u s t o m e d t o German l i t e r a t u r e , G a j ' s  was  f o l l o w e r s had t o  be c a u t i o u s i n o r d e r t o a v o i d a c l a s h w i t h t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n . The  y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n was i n b e t t e r p o s i t i o n - i n r e g a r d t o  -91-  o r g a n i z a t i o n because i t had d e f i n i t e plans v i v a l while  their  e l d e r s were s h a r p l y  of creating a n a t i o n a l l i t e r a r y I n 1831,  Gaj returned  a movement, n o t o n l y  along  f o r the c u l t u r a l r e -  d i v i d e d as t o t h e b e s t methods  tradition.  t o Zagreb w i t h  the purpose o f o r g a n i z i n g  t h e C r o a t n a t i o n a l l i n e s , b u t a l s o t o be  i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e framework o f the r e n a i s s a n c e In h i s l e t t e r  o f F e b r u a r y 12, 1831,  a l l South  Slavs.  S a f a r i k wrote t o G a j :  Gott gebe, dass ess geschehel Alles lasst f r e i l i c h hoffen, d a s z d a R e i h e a u c h a n uns kommen w i r d . Mochten doch unsere s l a w i s c h e n V t t l k e r an dem B e i s p i e l e d e r D e u t s c h e n , E n g l a n d e r und F r a n z o s e n w e i s e r w e r d e n , u n d e i n s e h e n , d a s s s i c h d i e N a t i o n a l i t a t , u n d m i t i h r a l l e s H e h r e und H e r r l i c h e a u f E r d e n , auch b e i v e r s c h i e d e n a r t i g e u r e l i g i o s e n I n t e r e s s e n , u n g e s c h w a c h e r h a l t e n , und wenn s i e g e b r o c h e n w a r , n e u e r r i n g e n l a s s t , wenn n u r d i e E i n s i c h t i n Wesen d e r D i n g e a u f g e h e t u n d e r s t a r k t i s t . 98 Still  under, t h e i n f l u e n c e o f P a n - S l a v i s m t h e Croat youths a c -  c e p t e d t h e scheme. in  order  They w e r e e x t r e m e l y a n t a g o n i z e d by t h e f a c t  t o o b t a i n employment i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e y w e r e  t o l e a r n Magyar.  The d e s i r e t o l e a r n C r o a t i n t h e s c h o o l s  that, forced  was s o  99 strong  that  the majority  o f t h e s t u d e n t s a t t h e Academy o f Z a g r e b  appealed t o the professors s p i t e of the protests Smodek was a l l o w e d The  t o make i t p o s s i b l e .  Consequently, i n  o f t h e Magyar s t u d e n t s i n Z a b r e b ,  Professor  t o l e c t u r e i n C r o a t as a n o n - c o m p u l s o r y  Croat s t u d e n t s r e p l i e d t o t h e i r Magyar  colleagues:  " E v e r y man was b o r n f r e e and a l s o e v e r y n a t i o n , when I t f e e l s that the other nation persecutes i t u n j u s t l y , has t h e r i g h t t o f r e e i t s e l f . North America l i b e r a t e d i t s e l f from England, South America from Spain; our n a t i o n a l s o i s n o t c h a i n e d by f a t e t o H u n g a r y f o r e v e r and i f y o u t h i n k t h e o p p o s i t e t h e n down w i t h t h e Magyars. 100 .  subject.  - 9 2 -  The  d e c i s i o n t o i n t r o d u c e t h e C r o a t languag.e  Academy was encouraged fidence  the f i r s t the youths  v i c t o r y won  a p p l i c a t i o n t o the  develop  the language  general,...we mission w i l l  literary  1<  ^  1  i n i t s desire  "to  a p p l i c a t i o n and h o p e t h e This d e c i s i o n of the  been w i l l i n g  by  i t s education i n  Only  per-  County  atmosphere which  i n t o a n a t i o n a l movement.  county had  con-  newspaper i n the  thoroughly endorsed  and  i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e new  r a p i d l y shaping before, this  of the people  be g r a n t e d " .  o f Z a g r e b was  and  added t h a t  recommend t h i s  and g a v e them  f o r H u n g a r y t h a t he be •  H i s a p p l i c a t i o n was  t h e County o f Zagreb w h i c h  It  T h e r e f o r e Gaj s u b m i t t e d h i s  Crown's C o u n c i l  allowed to publish a p o l i t i c a l Croat language.  over M a g y a r i z a t i o n .  for further struggle  i n the n a t i o n a l cause.  i n the  was  a few  years  t o accept the Magyar  language.  -  A Croat newspaper, Gaj  planned, would prevent  the Magyars  f r o m e n c r o a c h i n g u p o n t h e C r o a t r i g h t s and w o u l d r e p r e s e n t a p o w e r f u l organ f o r awakening n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s e l i m i n a t i n g f o r e i g n t e n d e n c i e s among t h e C r o a t and  the r u l i n g c l a s s .  On  p r o v i d e t h e movement w i t h orthography.  I f t h e new  and f o r -  intellectuals,  the o t h e r hand, a newspaper would e x c e l l e n t means f o r i n t r o d u c i n g orthography  proved  new  successful, i t 102  w o u l d mean, a new  e r a i n the c u l t u r a l l i f e  Soon a f t e r t h i s l i s h e d h i s Genius (The G e n i u s  e v e n t , on M a r c h 1832,  of  Croatia.  I v a n D e r k o s pub-  p a t r i a e super dormlentibus f i l i i s  suis  o f the Homeland t o i t s S l e e p i n g C h i l d r e n ) . ,  a  .  -93-  pamphlet devoted  t o t h e Croats i n which  the author urged h i s 10^  c o u n t r y m e n t o t a k e , more i n t e r e s t Derkos appealed  i n t h e i r homeland.  to the nation to learn to distinguish  the ideas o f n a t i o n a l i t y  and c i t i z e n s h i p .  Stephen,  C r o a t was a l s o a member o f t h e C r o a t n a t i o n whose  n a t i o n a l r i g h t s he s h o u l d p r o t e c t . i n f l u e n c e t h e Croat r u l i n g  class  The p a m p h l e t was meant t o  t o defend  the rights of 1  their  between  According t o him,  i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g a s u b j e c t o f t h e Crown o f S t . every  J  language  a t t h e next meeting  OH  of the Diet.  And i n -  deed, the impact  o f t h i s document o n t h e t h i n k i n g  n o b l e s , who f e l t  t h a t t h e y s h o u l d no l o n g e r a p p e a s e t h e M a g y a r s ,  became e v i d e n t d u r i n g t h e m e e t i n g  o f t h e Croat  o f t h e Common D i e t i n 1 8 3 2 .  Some C r o a t n o b l e s , s u c h as J a n k o D r a s k o v i c , a c t i v e l y  supported  t h e work o f t h e Croat y o u t h and i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s t o do t h e same. by its  As a r e s u l t  the i n t e l l e c t u a l s working  t h e n a t i o n a l movement c o n c e i v e d  gained a d d i t i o n a l support  and broadened  basis.  Once t h e i d e a s o f t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n f o u n d and g a i n e d s u p p o r t  i n t h e Croat l e g i s l a t i v e house, t h e Sabor,  the e x i s t e n c e o f t h e Croat language The  was s u f f i c i e n t l y  Magyarization of C r o a t i a , designed  Croat r u l i n g  class  t h e i r way  to f i r s t  secure.  magyarize the  and t h e n a l l t h e o t h e r c l a s s e s , h a d f a i l e d .  T h i s i s t o s a y t h a t i f t h e Croat n o b l e s r e f u s e d t h e terms o f the Magyar p o l i c y i n t h e D i e t , t h e r e m a i n i n g n a t i o n w o u l d do w e l l t o s u p p o r t elop i t s language  this  cause  part ofthe  a t home a n d d e v - .  and c u l t u r e t o t h e p o i n t where i t c o u l d no  -94-  .  l o n g e r be a b o l i s h e d by a s i m p l e l e g i s l a t i v e d e c i s i o n .  Magyar-  i z a t i o n w o u l d be t h u s f a c e d w i t h a p o w e r f u l o b s t a c l e i n i t s very f i r s t  stage.  • I t ' w o u l d be m i s l e a d i n g t o i m p l y t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f the Sabor supported t i n u e d t o argue ued  t h e new i d e a s .  t h a t C r o a t i a c o u l d o n l y be s a v e d i f i t c o n t i n -  t o use the Latin' language.  accepting socially  t h e Croat language by putting  The n o b l e s f e a r e d t h a t by  they would lower  themselves  yar  I t t o o k many d e b a t e s  political  and e c o n o m i c  posi-  and t h e a g g r e s s i v e n e s s o f t h e Mag-  a t t i t u d e t o convince such nobles  not i n the Croat language,  themselves  on a l e v e l more e q u a l w i t h t h e  l o w e r c l a s s e s , a n d damage t h e i r tion.  Most o f t h e n o b l e s c o n - •  t h a t t h e r e a l danger l a y  b u t i n t h e Common D i e t .  I n s h o r t , t h e p r e . - I l l y r i a n p e r i o d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e attempts  o f t h e young i n t e l l e c t u a l s  t o define the plans f o r  the development o f a u n i f o r m l i t e r a r y  language  a n d by  their  demands t h a t M a g y a r i z a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be f o u g h t by a d h e r i n g t o the L a t i n language,  b u t by a d o p t i n g t h e Croat language  aspects of the nation's l i f e . did  not y e t b r i n g  In this  respect, their  about t h e c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h  but r a t h e r p r e p a r e d  i n a l l movement  of the nation,-  the nation f o r the f i n a l s t r u g g l e against  M a g y a r i z a t i o n which would r e s u l t  i n the creation of a powerful  C r o a t n a t i o n a l i s t i c movement a n d t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n . The  l o c a l tendencies of the older generation of w r i t e r s  w e r e done away w i t h a n d t h e S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t the m a j o r i t y o f the younger g e n e r a t i o n .  105 •  was a c c e p t e d by The m a i n  success  of the young i n t e l l e c t u a l s p e o p l e than, e v e r b e f o r e of the  n a t i o n as  by  a t t i t u d e that  the  few  members o f t h e impact of the t h o s e who and  the  and  This  science  was  lished.  as  i n L a t i n , that  the  r e s u l t of  had  e x i s t as  nation with  working basis  t o be  put  and  not  the  country.  This  Croat  1836.  the  language  f a c t alone  t h e M a g y a r .argument  a nation;, that  by  i n t o a c t i o n at f u l l  the  that.the of  the  territory..  f o r C r o a t n a t i o n a l i s m was  machinery created  the provided  t h e y were a p a r t  thus  estab-  Croat n a t i o n a l awakeners  speed to envelop the  entire  m a t e r i a l i z e dn.to a s t r o n g > n a t i o n a l i s t i c movement  only  c u l t u r a l , but  political  tendencies.  were a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e d w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y following  as  t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t when d e a l i n g w i t h  evidence to disprove  The  successfully  thought of themselves  Magyar n a t i o n , i n h a b i t i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l Magyar The  shown m a i n l y  i n s t e a d o f t h e German l a n g u a g e .  before  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s of the  ;  more  i d e a s , i t became d e f i n i t e l y , c l e a r , e v e n t o  c u l t u r e must be  Croats d i d not  outlook  C r o a t n a t i o n , i n 1832,  still-believed  sufficient  new  C r o a t l a n g u a g e c o u l d be  p e o p l e had  new  however, t h a t  began t o t h i n k i n terms of the i n t e r e s t  a whole.  used i n l i t e r a t u r e While very  i n C r o a t i a was,  the meeting of the  short  These period  goals of  Common D i e t w h i c h ;sat f r o m 1832  time to  -96-  S o c i a l Structure of Croatia i n the F i r s t Half of the 19th Century  During the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century (the period of the development of Croat nationalism, 1790-l8 f7), L  the entire Croat t e r r i t o r y was reduced to "about 350 square 107 miles",  ' or s i x counties of Croatia proper and Slavonia.  "The- number of population of Croatia and Slavonia as such, amounted i n 1805 to approximately 660,000 and i n l8*+0 to  1 nft about 8140,000". dle  Before the appearance  of the Croat mid-  class i n the l820's and l830*s, the Croat population was  divided into three basic s o c i a l classes:  the n o b i l i t y , whose  members numbered "approximately 20,000" i n 1805, clergy "with about 1,130  ecclasiats",  and the  the peasantry  which included the majority of the population and economically weak and numerically small middle c l a s s . The n o b i l i t y i t s e l f was divided into two main groupsthe upper n o b i l i t y or the big landowners and the lesser n o b i l i t y which again was distinguished by two groups, the middle n o b i l i t y and the petty v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y c a l l e d s l . j i v a r i or jednoselci.  The upper n o b i l i t y which had a  proportionally large number of nobles of non-Croat  origins,  especially German and Magyar, derived i t s entire revenue  from  their landed estates and l i v e d more often than not, abroad i n Austria or Hungary.  In the Croat Sabor, which met  from  time to time, only the upper n o b i l i t y and clergy had the  -97-  hereditary right the f a c t ity  t o have seats, and t o l e g i s l a t e .  I n view o f  t h a t t h e e n t i r e r e v e n u e and e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s  depended on t h e i r f e u d a l e s t a t e s , i t n a t u r a l l y  nobil-  opposed  e v e r y new r e f o r m w h i c h w o u l d i n v o l v e a c h a n g e i n i t s f e u d a l privileges. istic,  T h e r e f o r e , i t had b i t t e r l y  s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c and r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m s  a b s o l u t i s t , Joseph allied  i t s e l f w i t h t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e Magyar magnates and t h e  looked s u s p i c i o u s l y  which  at t h i s  F o r t h e same  s t a g e o f i t s d e v e l o p m e n t , s t o o d f o r some changes - f u n d a m e n t a l  ments i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t r y a g r i c u l t u r e and g i v e c o n c e s s i o n s i n t o business  i n order t o develop  the I l l y r i a n  improve-  - i n o r d e r to- d e v e l o p  t o those wishing t o enter  economic p o t e n t i a l o f t h e c o u n t r y . support  reason  u p o n t h e e m e r g i n g I l l y r i a n Movement,  r a d i c a l s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  to  of the enlightened  I I , and l a t e r , f o r t h e same r e a s o n , h a d  r e a c t i o n a r y government i n V i e n n a . it  opposed t h e c e n t r a l -  i n d u s t r y and s t r e n g t h e n t h e The n o b i l i t y  also refused  i d e a f o r the c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h of the  n a t i o n ; i t f e l t , t h a t a c c e p t i n g t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e masses would lower i t t o the p o s i t i o n of the peasantry which t h e o n l y segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s p e a k i n g age.  Instead, i tdecided  t o form  was  the native langu-  a strong feudal union  w i t h t h e Magyar n o b l e s w h i c h w o u l d be a b l e t o b l o c k o f f not  o n l y t h e new d e m o c r a t i c  and r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a s  from France, but a l s o a p o s s i b l e a t t a c k from tralism.  coming  A u s t r i a n cen-  T h e r e f o r e , • i t s u r r e n d e r e d some o f i t s most i m -  p o r t a n t l e g i s l a t i v e r i g h t s i n f a v o u r o f t h e Common D i e t  -98-  and  left  itself  wide open t o the Magyar a t t a c k .  M a g y a r n o b l e s , who,  u n l i k e the Croat ones, a c t i v e l y  c i p a t e d i n the s t r u g g l e f o r the r i g h t s age, and  designed proved  ity's  parti-  o f the Magyar l a n g u -  the p o l i c y f o r the M a g y a r i z a t i o n of  Croatia  t o be more d a n g e r o u s e n e m i e s o f t h e C r o a t  ancient rights  and  privileges  f e u d a l f o r c e i n the c o u n t r y . drove  The  other  anti-  T h i s newly c r e a t e d s i t u a t i o n  the Croat upper n o b i l i t y  Movement where i t r e n d e r e d  t h a n any  nobil-  i n t o the ranks  of the  Illyrian  a l l p o s s i b l e h e l p to the d e v e l -  opment o f t h e C r o a t l a n g u a g e , w h i c h h a d become i t s b e s t weapon i n t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n .  This  coupled with I l l y r i s m ' s  conservatism,  forced retreat  towards  c r e a t e d an i d e a l u n i o n i n t h e s t r u g g l e f o r t h e C r o a t nomy w h i c h was  a l s o a s s i s t e d by  fact,  auto-  the c e n t r a l government.  Never-  t h e l e s s , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t i t had  accepted the  langu-  age  continued to  op-  of the people, the Croat r u l i n g  p o s e any  improvement i n the l i v e s  class  of i t s s e r f s .  bution to,Croat nationalism manifested i t s e l f d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e t h e n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e and C r o a t i a , not and  through  economic r e f o r m s .  interests  and  the former. applied  Its contri-  through i t s  autonomy  of  t h e d e s i r e t o e n f o r c e modern s o c i a l Such changes were c o n t r a r y t o i t s  l a t e r i m p l i e d the i m p o s s i b i l i t y  of p r e s e r v i n g  W h a t e v e r c o u l d be s a i d o f t h e u p p e r  t o the upper c l e r g y  and  the middle  nobility  n o b i l i t y who  depended upon the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the f e u d a l s o c i a l  also  system.  H o w e v e r , w h i l e a l l t h e members o f t h e u p p e r c l e r g y s a t i n  -99-  the Sabor, o n l y . a few o f t h e middle n o b i l i t y  had s e a t s  b o d y and t h e n o n l y as a h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t  of t h e i r  s o r s , who, f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s ,  their  p r e s t i g e i n t h e upper The village only did  nobility  was t h a t t h e l a t t e r v e r y  the l o c a l p a r i s h priests  The v i l l a g e was w i l l i n g  right  their  possessing came s t r o n g  ative,  power.  supporters  reforms.  social  o f t h e I l l y r i a n Movement d u r i n g i t s  i t s support  The v i l l a g e  pro-Magyar P a r t y .  was r a d i c a l l y it  inclined  i n favour  nobility  its  conserv-  o f t h e movement  the Croat-Hungarian  o f t h e Croat  d i s t r i c t of of Kossuth's  I t follows that while this a n d demanded r a d i c a l . s o c i a l  l a c k e d n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t and f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e  ance o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C r o a t do  away w i t h f e u d a l i s m national rights  factor  n o b i l i t y be-  T u r o p o l j e , f o r i n s t a n c e , became t h e l e a d i n g c o r e Croat  Having ho •  any movement w h i c h  Hence t h e v i l l a g e  w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o be more r a d i c a l , 1 1 1 a  contact with  and l a t e r , when t h e movement t u r n e d  i tswitched  Party.  close  i n p o l i t i c s as a s i g n i f i c a n t  political  stages,  own l a n d as  tied to feudalism  some r a d i c a l  t o s i t i n t h e Sabor i t supported  and t h e  possessed  many common i n t e r e s t s  was much l e s s  t o support  often  who w e r e i n v e r y  and s h a r e d  nobility  p r o m i s e d i t a. r o l e  first  e s t a t e s and  circles.  one s m a l l e s t a t e and c u l t i v a t e d  it.  predeces-  main d i f f e r e n c e between t h e m i d d l e n o b i l i t y  w i t h the peasantry  and  had l o s t  i n this  language.  a n d was w i l l i n g  nobility changes, the import-  I t wanted t o  t o do s o by s a c r i f i c i n g  a n d t h e autonomy o f i t s c o u n t r y ,  i t  -100-  demanded t h e r i g h t the  t o s i t in. the Sabor i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r  p o l i c y f o r the M a g y a r i z a t i o n of C r o a t i a .  Unlike  the  l o w e r c l e r g y , whose members p r o d u c e d many C r o a t w r i t e r s the  first  n a t i o n a l awakeners,  c e p t e d the Magyar language the  Croat s c h o o l s .  the lower n o b i l i t y  and  openly ac-  and a d v o c a t e d i t s t e a c h i n g i n  Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , the n o b i l i t y  T u r o p o l j e came t o be t h e most d a n g e r o u s  enemy o f t h e  of I'lly-  112  r i a n Movement f o l l o w i n g The pletely  lQk2.  t h i r d s o c i a l c l a s s , the peasantry, remained i s o l a t e d from the events t a k i n g  and p o l i t i c a l first  the year  half  life  of C r o a t i a .  p l a c e i n the  I t s position during  of the n i n e t e e n t h century worsened.  nessed the f a i l u r e  of  t h e I l l y r i a n Movement. willing  The  wit-  status, radicalism  Croat peasant n e i t h e r  The  p e a s a n t d i d n o t s e e h i s enemy i n t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l but i n h i s immediate  under-  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n any movement w h i c h  a d v o c a t e d d e m o c r a t i c and a n t i - E m p e r o r r e f o r m s .  o v e r l o r d who  t h a t h i s o n l y h o p e was  e x p l o i t e d him  He  felt  in  t h e c a s e o f J o s e p h I I , h a d a t t e m p t e d t o do  for  the  of the p r o g r e s s i v e reforms of Joseph-  p e a s a n t r y w e r e n o t a t t r a c t e d by t h e i n i t i a l  s t o o d n o r was  cultural  Having  i n i s m w h i c h had a t t e m p t e d t o improve i t s economic the  com-  Croat system,  ruthlessly.  t h e Emperor i n V i e n n a  who,  something  t h e C r o a t p e a s a n t , b u t h a d b e e n p r e v e n t e d by h i s o v e r l o r d .  T h e r e f o r e , t h e C r o a t p e a s a n t r e m a i n e d l o y a l and h i s r u l e r c o u l d always  c o u n t on t h e h e l p o f t h e p e a s a n t r y i n c a s e o f  -101-  a dispute with the n o b i l i t y . peasant i s w e l l d e s c r i b e d  The p o s i t i o n o f t h e C r o a t  by t h e S e r b i a n  h i s t o r i a n and  s t a u n c h M a r x i s t , Vaso Bogdanov: Three-quarters of the e n t i r e Croat land belongs t o t h e f e u d a l l a n d m a s t e r s . Growing e x p l o i t a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e f e u d a l i s t s , c o n f i s c a t i o n o f t h e s e r f s ' and p u b l i c l a n d , t h e u s e o f f o r c e and f r a u d o v e r t h e p e a s a n t s , e c o n o m i c u n d e r development and b a c k w a r d n e s s , p r i m i t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l methods, consequences o f t h e wars w i t h t h e T u r k s and- t h e n r o b b e r i e s c o m m i t t e d b y t h e E m p e r o r ' s army, . . . . a l l t h i s c o n t r i b u t e d t o w a r d t h e l o w p r o d u c t i v i t y o f l a n d and t o t h e g r o w t h of pauperism i n the v i l l a g e . 3 1  The tion,  1  Croat peasant d i d not see t h e danger i n Germaniza-  o r , f o r that matter, Magyarization  a passive  e i t h e r , and assumed  a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e n a t i o n a l movement.  In addi-  t i o n t o t h i s , h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e movement was n o t d e manded.  T h e r e w e r e some i s o l a t e d a t t e m p t s b y t h e e x t r e m e  r a d i c a l g r o u p o f t h e I l l y r i a n Movement t o i n c l u d e t h e p e a s antry  i n t h e movement, b u t b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n -  volved  i n educating  forgotten.  the peasantry,  Therefore,  i n our study  s u c h a t t e m p t s were s o o n o f the development of  Croat n a t i o n a l i s m , t h e r o l e of the peasantry  is insignifi-  cant . If the  the upper Croat n o b i l i t y  l a t e r stages  rights  played  o f I l l y r i s m by d e f e n d i n g  o f C r o a t i a and s u p p o r t i n g  a decisive role i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l -  t h e development of n a t i o n a l  c u l t u r e , t h e n t h e y o u n g m i d d l e c l a s s c o u l d be r e g a r d e d as  -102-  the r e a l o r i g i n a t o r of the p o l i t i c a l the n a t i o n .  and c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h o f  A l t h o u g h e x t r e m e l y s m a l l i n number, t h e C r o a t  middle c l a s s succeeded which developed  i n o r g a n i z i n g a n a t i o n - w i d e movement  i n t o a powerful national  force.  M o s t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e C r o a t c i t i e s was composed of  f o r e i g n e r s , e s p e c i a l l y Germans a n d J e w s , who were p r o -  German i n o r i e n t a t i o n , b u t t o o k no p a r t i n t h e c u l t u r a l a n d political  life  of the nation.  S i d e by s i d e w i t h t h e s e  elements,  t h e r e e x i s t e d a s m a l l number o f t h e C r o a t  foreign  middle  c l a s s who, u n d e r the- i n f l u e n c e o f t h e m o d e r n , d e m o c r a t i c i d e a s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , adopted s i v e concepts By had ly  relatively  o f a s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l  progres-  nature.  t h e 1830's a n d 18^0's t h e number o f t h e n a t i v e m i d d l e  class  e x p a n d e d t o a modest s i z e and was r e i n f o r c e d by t h e r a p i d growing  number o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s , s o n s  n o b l e s who came t o t h e c i t i e s  of  empoverished  i n s e a r c h o f employment.  F o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C r o a t p o l i t i c s more i m p o r t a n t was t h i s c i t y e l e m e n t w h i c h was made up o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s , s t u d e n t s a n d o t h e r y o u t h s , tradesmen, merchants o f t h e Croat n a t i o n a l i t y a n d , a l t h o u g h s m a l l i n number b u t p r o g r e s s i v e , w o r k e r s a n d a l s o t h e n o b l e s who l o s t t h e i r estates.... I n t h i s way a number o f s t u d e n t s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s w a s . r e c r u i t e d f r o m a l l p r o f e s s i o n s a n d a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s , who w e r e f o r c e d t o l i v e by w o r k i n g i n t h e c i v i l . s e r v i c e and whose number g r e w c o n s t a n t l y i n . t h e p e r i o d b e f o r e 1 8 ^ 8 ; among them were w h i t e - c o l l a r work e r s , men o f l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n s , p h i l o s o p h e r s , and t h e o l o g i a n s , a l l o f whom c a n n o t f i n d employment. 5  -103-  T h i s new  i n t e l l e c t u a l element i n the  Croat  c i t i e s was  faced  w i t h the o b s t a c l e of f e u d a l i s m which d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t its  members i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  the country.  Due  t o the f a c t  government s i n c e 1779,  the p o l i t i c a l  t h a t C r o a t i a had  had  l i f e , of no  f o r e i g n a u t h o r i t i e s had  legal  filled  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s t s w i t h Germans and M a g y a r s ; e v e n Croats which remained i n p u b l i c o f f i c e s losing  their  j o b s i f t h e y d i d n o t know t h e M a g y a r  S u c h a s i t u a t i o n became one the  Croat  were i n danger  intellectuals  of the reasons  up those  of  language.  which  compelled  t o o r g a n i z e a movement f o r t h e  cult-  u r a l renaissance of the n a t i o n . In and  a somewhat s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n w e r e C r o a t  t r a d e s m e n who  ustry  found  merchants  i t impossible to develop  and m a n u f a c t u r e u n d e r C r o a t i a ' s e x i s t i n g  further ind-  feudal conditions.  For u n i n t e r r u p t e d development of t r a d e w i t h A u s t r i a , I t a l y , and H u n g a r y t h e  Bosnia,  C r o a t m e r c h a n t s n e e d e d t h e same l a w s 117  in  a l l the provinces  and  less borders.  '  " T h i s was  the  first 118  time at  t h a t these merchants f e l t  least  a l l the Croat  cities,  the middle  class  and  intelli-  conscious.  i t s f a v o u r a b l e g e o g r a p h i c , p o s i t i o n on t h e K u p a , a  o f t h e S a v a , K a r l o v a c became t h e most i m p o r t a n t in  C r o a t i a w i t h a predominantly  P d j e k a , i t was  a  goods.  g e n t s i a i n K a r l o v a c w e r e t h e most n a t i o n a l l y to  language",  i n a l l the South S l a v i c regions which provided  n a t u r a l market f o r t h e i r Of  a need f o r t h e same  economically  Croat  tributary  trading centre  population.  t h e most d e v e l o p e d  Owing  and  "Excluding the  richest  -104-  1  -j a d•u r i n g t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h , a n d  Croat  city"  first  h a l f of the nineteenth century.  economic i n t e r e s t s w i t h t h e Croat  H a v i n g no common  ruling  l a t i o n o f K a r l o v a c became t h e f i r s t  c l a s s , t h e popu-  opponent o f t h e f e u d a l  p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m a n d one o f t h e m a i n c e n t r e s  of the early  1 20  I l l y r i a n Movement.  The f i r s t  books o f t h e Croat and  P a n - S l a v i c w r i t e r s were p u b l i s h e d i n K a r l o v a c where s h i p had never been a b l e t o e n f o r c e i t s s t r i c t  censor-  r u l e s ; -its  t e r r i t o r y was i n c l u d e d i n t h e M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r w h e r e t h e Magyars h a d n e v e r been a b l e t o g a i n any s u p p o r t . the m e r c h a n t s , Mi j o K r e s i c , d e s c r i b e d K a r l o v a c b i o g r a f i j a as b e i n g  "par excellence ( i t a l i c s  t h e n a t i v e c i t y whose e n t i r e r u l i n g  One o f  i nhis  Auto-  i n the original)  c l a s s and e x e c u t i v e  body  '"-'121  supported In  t h e n a t i o n a l c a u s e w i t h a l l a v a i l a b l e means".  addition to Karlovac  and b e s i d e s  Zagreb, the n a t u r a l  c e n t r e o f C r o a t i a , t h e r e w e r e some o t h e r o a s e s i n h a b i t e d by  n a t i v e middle  c l a s s members w h i c h a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d  t i v e l y good economic progress  rela-  - R i j e k a , O s i j e k , Zemun, S i s a k ,  B r o d , V a r a z d i n and o t h e r s . I n s p i t e o f the r a p i d develop• > ment o f t r a d e a n d i n d u s t r y i n K a r l o v a c , Z a g r e b became t h e c e n t r e o f t h e I l l y r i a n Movement. seat  o f t h e Croat  trative  offices  I t was t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  government and a l l t h e h i g h e s t  o f t h e n a t i o n were l o c a t e d i n t h e b u i l d i n g  of the Sabor, the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l centre a l s o being near  adminis-  i n its  vicinity. Following  t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e Common D i e t i n 1827, t h e s e  -105-  two  s o c i a l c l a s s e s , t h e Croat r u l i n g ,  c l a s s found lQk2  themselves  defence anteed  middle  u n i t e d i n t h e . I l l y r i a n Movement  and f o r m e d two d i s t i n c t  Magyarization.  and t h e u r b a n  The r u l i n g  after  r e s i s t a n c e movements a g a i n s t  class  attempted  t o o r g a n i z e a'  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e f e u d a l c o n s t i t u t i o n which* g u a r •i 2 2 i tspecial.rights  and p r i v i l e g e s  -  i n the lands of  t h e Crown- o f S t . S t e p h e n as w e l l as i n t h e C r o a t r e g i o n s . This class  opposed e v e r y change i n t h e e x i s t i n g  a r u l e i t was n o t n a t i o n a l i s t i c a l l y support  inclined  system.  and r e f u s e d t o 1 o~\  the development o f a u n i f o r m Croat language.  the other'hand,  t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , l e a d by t h e C r o a t  u a l s , ' a i m e d t o c r e a t e one l i t e r a r y  language  As.  On  J  intellect-  f o r a l l the South  Slavs".and f a v o u r e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' o f one p o l i t i c a l  unit  composed o f a l l t h e s e n a t i o n s . The  C r o a t n o b i l i t y h o p e d t o s o l v e the' p r o b l e m  i z a t i o n i n t h e D i e t at Pozsony and, f o r t h i s t o a p p e a s e them) ,• a g r e e d  took the Croat nobles  purpose  (hoping  t o meet some o f t h e demands p u t  f o r w a r d by t h e n a t i o n a l i s t i c a l l y It  o f Magyar-  i n c l i n e d Magyar d e l e g a t e s . -  over t h r e e decades t o r e a l i z e  that  t h e c r e a t i o n o f . a c l o s e r u n i o n w i t h H u n g a r y was i m p o s s i b l e , f o r t h e M a g y a r s d i d n o t want o n l y t o m a g y a r i z e also t o e l i m i n a t e the f e u d a l r i g h t s result  C r o a t i a , but  o f the Sabor.  As a  o f t h e M a g y a r a t t a c k s , t h e C r o a t ; n o b i l i t y was  ably d r i v e n closer  inevit-  t o t h e I l l y r i a n Movement, o r t o be more  exact, i t s p o l i c y f o r the c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h of Croatia. N e v e r t h e l e s s , according t o 'Professor Sidak, i t h e l d f i r m l y  -106-  to i t s former p o s i t i o n , r e s i s t i n g existing  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  any b a s i c c h a n g e s i n C r o a t i a ' s  conditions.  He s a i d :  A l t h o u g h t h e Croat n o b i l i t y , according t o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y o u t l o o k o f S t j e p a n M o y s e s , was s t i l l on t h e whole p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g and s t r e n g t h e n i n g i t s f e u d a l r e l a t i o n s i n t h e v i l l a g e , the problem o f language b e g a n t o r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e among i t s r a n k s . 124 E v e n when i t f u l l y  a c c e p t e d the- n e e d f o r t h e c u l t u r a l  development o f t h e n a t i o n as  the o f f i c i a l  a n d became w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t  Croat  language o f C r o a t i a , t h e Groat n o b i l i t y r e -  mained f a i t h f u l and d e v o t e d t o i t s s o c i a l concepts of feudalism  which represented  and p o l i t i c a l  the fundamental 125  conditions  of the n o b i l i t y ' s  economic e x i s t e n c e .  The;  u n i o n f o r m e d b e t w e e n i t s r e s i s t a n c e movement a n d t h a t o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s was made p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e , i n v i e w o f the renewed Magyar a t t a c k on C r o a t i a ' s rights,  political  and s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s were pushed i n t o  the background and r e p l a c e d for  Croatia's  n a t i o n a l and s t a t e  existence  completely  by t h e s t r u g g l e 125a  as a s t a t e and n a t i o n .  y  This  f o r m e d a common d e n o m i n a t o r f o r b o t h movements a n d u n i t e d them i n t o o n e . ance a g a i n s t forced it  This  movement, w h i l e  Hungary, found an a l l y  t o assume a n e n t i r e l y  was t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , ' n o t  move t o t h e e x t r e m e r i g h t  i n search  of assist-  i n V i e n n a , b u t was  conservative  character;  Thus  the n o b i l i t y , which had t o  and j o i n t h e r a n k s o f c o n s e r v a -  tism i n the struggle against  Magyarization.  -107-  " E v e n d u r i n g i t s e a r l y s t a g e s , I l l y r i s m as a movement of the middle pletely feudal  c l a s s i n t e l l e c t u a l s , h a d n e v e r assumed a com-  r a d i c a l r o l e regarding Croat  regions.  1 26  the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the  No e v i d e n c e  would i n d i c a t e that the I l l y r i a n s  v  i s preserved  which  demanded o r f a v o u r e d  eman-  127 c i p a t i o n o f t h e Croat  peasant.  U n l i k e many o t h e r  c l a s s e s i n t h e West E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s , t h e C r o a t n e v e r seemed t o r e a l i z e t h a t e c o n o m i c p r o g r e s s labour supply  middle  bourgeoisie  depended on  and t h a t l a b o u r c o u l d o n l y come f r o m t h e C r o a t  v i l l a g e by a l l o w i n g t h e p e a s a n t f r e e movement a n d g i v i n g h i m the r i g h t  t o leave the landed  estate of h i s feudal master.  There were s e v e r a l r e a s o n s w h i c h caused t h e Croat class it and  t o adopt t h i s  peculiar s o c i a l outlook.  lacked a strong feeling the n o b i l i t y  still  of a l l ,  o f c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e between  itself  f o r i t was s m a l l i n number a n d , i n i t s t h i n k i n g ,  v e r y much i n f l u e n c e d by t h e f e u d a l s o c i a l  Secondly,  values.  i t was l e d by a s m a l l g r o u p o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s  w e r e r e c r u i t e d i n many c a s e s and  First  middle  from the ranks  whose a c t i o n s w e r e s u b c o n s c i o u s l y  f e u d a l background.  o f the n o b i l i t y  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r  T h i r d l y , the problem o f educating the  p e a s a n t s seemed t o be i m p o s s i b l e t o s o l v e , e s p e c i a l l y of t h e i r b l i n d  who  because  d e v o t i o n t o the Emperor, t h e o u t s t a n d i n g  personification of feudalism.  For a l l these  l e a d e r s o f t h e I l l y r i a n Movement, w h i l e b e i n g  reasons the i n favour of  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e , d i d n o t a d v o c a t e the e m a n c i p a t i o n  of the.peasantry;  t h e i r movement was  motivated  - 1 0 8 -  by  political  and c u l t u r a l c o n c e p t s w h i c h  l e a d t o the union o f the South S l a v s . failure  to attract  other South S l a v i c  outside the Hungarian  However, a f t e r i t s n a t i o n s i n s i d e and  d o m a i n , I l l y r i s m was r e d u c e d  c u l t u r a l movement among t h e C r o a t s o n l y . reflected by  political  political 4. •  servatism. The itself  they hoped would  characteristics,  And when i t a g a i n  as i t was f o r c e d t o  s i t u a t i o n o f t h e day, i t chose extreme con-  12 8  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e I l l y r i a n Movement  carried  t h e seeds  of f e u d a l s o c i a l concepts  many o f i t s members w e r e d i r e c t l y r e c r u i t e d of  to a  t h e Croat upper n o b i l i t y .  German u n i v e r s i t i e s  from  because  the ranks  Many o f them h a d a t t e n d e d  i n V i e n n a and G r a z w h e r e t h e y w e r e i n -  f l u e n c e d by 1 9 t h c e n t u r y E u r o p e a n n a t i o n a l i s m a n d , e v e n more s o , by t h e i d e a s o f P a n - S l a v i s m  as t h e y w e r e e l a b o r a t e d  in  D r i v e n by p a t r i o t i c  t h e w o r k s o f S a f a r i k and K o l l a r .  feeling  and s e e i n g t h e c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n C r o a t i a ,  were s u f f e r i n g  under t h e a t t a c k s o f t h e Magyars, they a s -  sumed t h e t a s k o f t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e C r o a t language  which  literary  and o f t h e c u l t u r a l u n i o n o f t h e South S l a v s .  These i n t e l l e c t u a l s were t h e f i r s t  to bring  the i d e a of  the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e i n t o t h e Croat Sabor and t o work there toward age.  the replacement  of L a t i n  by t h e C r o a t  langu-  Janko D r a s k o v i c , f o r example, (as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e C r o a t n o b i l i t y ) became one o f the main l e a d e r s and p o l i t i c a l  o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e move-  -109-  ment.  H i s g r o u p o f young i n t e l l e c t u a l n o b l e s i n t h e  y  S a b o r - composed o f s u c h p r o m i n e n t  Illyrians  as D r a g o j l o  K u s l a n , I v a n K u k u l j e v i c and L j u d e v i t V u k o t i n o v i c - a c t u a l l y c o n v i n c e d t h e members o f t h e S a b o r t o r e g a r d t h e C r o a t 1  language  29 a  as a n e c e s s i t y a n d t o s u p p o r t i t s d e v e l o p m e n t .  The  remaining  part of the I l l y r i a n  l e a d e r s h i p was com-  posed o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s - w i t h mostly middle  class  origins.  T h u s , f o r i n s t a n c e , one o f t h e m a i n l e a d e r s o f t h e movement, L j u d e v i t G a j , came f r o m t h e home o f a C r o a t d o c t o r who p r a c t i c e d medicine one  i n Krapina.  A l t h o u g h h e was c o n s i d e r e d t o be  o f t h e m a i n l e a d e r s o f t h e young  Croat  a f t e r h e h a d p u b l i s h e d h i s new o r t h o g r a p h y ,  intellectuals, theleadership  o f t h e I l l y r i a n Movement became more c o l l e c t i v e tied  t o any p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l .  Draskovic, popularity factors  various  I n t h e case o f G a j and  and p e r s o n a l i t y never  on a common p o l i c y  a n d t h e n w o r k e d on t h e i r own o n  a s p e c t s o f t h e movement.  was u n a b l e  Thus G a j d i d n o t p a r t i Reading. Room?'' a n d  t o enter the s e s s i o n s o f t h e Sabor.  V r a z a n d some C r o a t I l l y r i a n s  Gaj i n h i s attempt  It  l e a d e r s h i p whose members, as a r u l e ,  cipate i n the organization of the " I l l y r i a n  Stanko  emerged as d e c i s i v e  i n t h e m a k i n g o f d e c i s i o n s i n s i d e t h e movement.  was more o f a n a g g r e g a t e agreed  a n d was n o t  to print  Others,  like  as w e l l , e v e n o p p o s e d  t h e "Morning  Star" i n the C y r i l l i c  130  alphabet.  Under s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e . c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s  among t h e movement n e v e r Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s  emerged as a n i m p o r t a n t i s s u e .  The  were t o o p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e problems  -no-  i n v o l v e d i n t h e c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h o f t h e n a t i o n and w i t h t h e organization  of a defence against  attention.to class differences social  Magyarization  t o pay more  and t h e s o l u t i o n o f f e u d a l  injustice.  I n s h o r t , when s p e a k i n g o f t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f Croatia during  the period  of I l l y r i s m  a c t e r o f t h e movement, i t s h o u l d Movement i n c l u d e d t h e m a j o r i t y nobility  and o f t h e c l a s s  char-  be c l e a r t h a t t h e I l l y r i a n  o f t h e Croat upper and m i d d l e  and c l e r g y and t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , and t h a t i t s l e a d e r -  s h i p was a m i x t u r e o f b o t h e l e m e n t s .  Class  consciousness i n  the  I l l y r i a n Movement n e v e r came t o p l a y  any s i g n i f i c a n t  for  t h e movement was p r i m a r i l y o f a c u l t u r a l a n d p o l i t i c a l  nature - c u l t u r a l , f o r i t revived, the Croat n a t i o n a l and it  created  a uniform l i t e r a r y  succeeded i n p r o t e c t i n g  role  culture  l a n g u a g e and p o l i t i c a l , f o r  C r o a t i a from Magyarization  thus preserved t h e n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y  of the  Croats.  and  FOOTNOTES•TO CHAPTER II 1 However, the majority of the Sabor did not abandon the idea of close co-operation with Hungary u n t i l after 1 8 3 6 . The Croat delegates to Pozsony were among the f i r s t Croat nobles to r e a l i z e that such co-operation was impossible because the Magyars aimed to eliminate the Croat "municipal r i g h t s " . 2 . D. Surmin, Hrvatski preporod, Zagreb, Tisak Dionicke Tiskare, v o l . 1 , 1903, p. 7 . 3 F. S i s i c , Hrvats ka povi j es t, Zagreb, Matica Hrvatska, v o l . 3 , 1 9 1 3 , p. 1 5 . It i s important to point out that decisions reached at the meetings of the Croat counties had never been published. For this reason I had no choice but to r e l y on the information offered by S i s i c to whom such material was readily available, i n the archives of Zagreb. I might add that S i s i c was the most prominent of a l l Croat historians whose works are s t i l l of great importance. v  4  . I b i d . , p. 2  1  .  5 Loc. c i t .  6 S. S r k u l j , Izvori za hrvatsku povijest, Zagreb, Tiskara Hrvatske Stranke Prava, 1 9 1 1 , p. 142. 7 S i s i c , Hrvatska povijest, v o l . 3 , P- 2 3 . The complete text* of the o r i g i n a l document has not" been published. S. Srkulj i n his Izvori za. hrvatsku povi j e s t , pp. l 4 l - l 4 2 , and Si dak i n Hist'orijska citanka, pp. 1 6 9 - 1 7 0 , edited i d e n t i c a l excerpts of this document. Thus, for example, this quotation of S i s i c could not be found i n either of the two mentioned sources. 8 T. Smiciklas, Poviest Hrvatska, Zagreb, Matica Hrvatska, v o l . 2 , 1 8 7 9 , p. 3 9 5 . 9 The Croat Sabor did not keep' any records of i t s debates u n t i l after 1 8 4 7 . The central Hungarian diet kept records of debates i n i t s journal. The text of important debates taking place i n the Sabor are found i n d i a r i e s and other documents of private individuals who attended i t s meetings. Today, they are to be found with archives of Zagreb, Budapest and Vienna. No attempt has been made to publish a complete c o l l e c t i o n of these sources for scholarly use. The decisions reached by the Croat Sabor from 1 2 7 3 to 1 8 4 8 were published by I. Kukuljevic i n 1 8 6 1 i n his t h i r d  -I I  volume o f J u r a r e g n l C r o a t l a e Dalmatiae e t S l a v o n l a e ( i n the L a t i n language). This i s t h e only complete p u b l i s h e d e d i t i o n o f t h e Sabor's d e c i s i o n s . I t i s " f u l l of paleographic and c h r o n o l o g i c a l m i s t a k e s " a n d c o u l d o n l y be u s e d by. " c o m p a r i n g i t w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l s " (s'isi.c, P r i r u c n i k , p . 9h). The d e c i s i o n s o f t h e . S a b o r r e a c h e d b e t w e e n 1526 a n d 1630 w e r e p u b l i s h e d b y S i s i c i n " H r v a t s k i s a b o r s k i s p i s i " , Momumenta S p e c t a n t i a H i s t o r i a m Slavorum M e r i d i o n a l i u m , Zagreb, v o l s . 33 (1912),.36 (1915), 39 ( 1 9 1 6 ) , H i (1917) and k3 (1918). T h o s e r e a c h e d b e t w e e n 1631 a n d 1735 w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n t h r e e v o l u m e s (1958-1961) b y t h e C r o a t S t a t e A r c h i v e s , Z a g r e b , u n d e r the t i t l e , Z a k l j u c c i hrvatskog sabora. T h e r e f o r e i n my r e s e a r c h , r e g a r d i n g t h e work o f t h e Croat l e g i s l a t i v e b o d i e s , , I o b t a i n e d t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e works o f , S i s i c , Surmin, H o r v a t a n d o t h e r s ( s e e B i b l i o g r a p h y , p p . 279-286). j  10 S m i c i k l a s , o p . c i t . , 11 S u r m i n ,  op. c i t . ,  p . 396.  p . 27.  •  12 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 , p . 27. 13 S u r m i n ,  on. c i t . ,  p. 5.  •  1* N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y w e r e n o t w i l l i n g t o p a r t w i t h t h e i r s p e c i a l r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s ( e x c l u d i n g t h o s e s u r r e n d e r e d i n 1791). The l i s t ' o f t h e r e m a i n i n g " m u n i c i p a l r i g h t s " i s g i v e n i n Sidak's H i s t o r i . i s k a c i t a n k a , p p . 177-178. 1  v  15 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 , p . 55. 16 I b i d . , p. 57. 17 The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e C z e c h a n d S l o v a k P a n f S l a v i s t s . o n t h e Croat n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s i s d e s c r i b e d i n M . P r e l o g , S l a v e n s k a R e n e s a n s a , Z a g r e b ^ N a k l a d a J u g o s l o v e n s k e Stampe D.D., 192H, pp. 133-1^9, a n d S u r m i n * s H r v a t s k i p r e p o r o d , v o l . 1, p p . l l k 117 a n d 128-138. v  18 B i s h o p V r h o v a c , h o w e v e r , r e m a i n e d f a i t h f u l t o t h e C r o a t n a t i o n a l cause. He s u p p o r t e d t h e p a t r i o t i c t e n d e n c i e s among the C r o a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n G r a z a n d V i e n n a u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1827. S e e S u r m i n , H r v a t s k i p r e p o r o d , v o l . 1, p p . +7- +9. l  l  19 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 , p p . 70-71. 20 S e e S r k u l j , o p . c i t . , p . ikQ. 21 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 , P- 82. 22 S e e R. M a i x n e r , "Nesto" o l i s t u ' R e g i o D a l m a t a - K r a g l s k i D a l m a t i n ' i n j e g o v u u r e d n i k u " , Rad J u g o s l a v e n s k e Akademi.je Z n a n o s t i i U m . j e t n o s t i , v o l . 290 (1952), p p . 125-127.  -llj-  23 S i s i c , Hrvatska povi .jest, v o l . 3 , p. 06. 24 Surmin, op. c i t . , p. 19. 25 S i s i c , Hrvatska povi .jest, v o l . 3? p. 9 2 . 26 Dalmatia was also i s o l a t e d from Croatia proper from 1426. Dalmatians actually favoured u n i f i c a t i o n with the other Croat regions under Hungary, but the Emperor d i d not allow i t . See G. Novak, "Pokret za sjedinjenje Dalmacije s Hrvatskom (1797-l8l4)", Rad Jugoslayenske Akademije Znanosti i Umjetnosti, v o l . 269 (1940), pp. 1 - 3 6 . : 27 This was the f i r s t time that the name, " I l l y r i a " was o f f i c i a l l y used. Before the a r r i v a l of the South Slavs i n the Balkans, the area had been inhabited by an ancient people, c a l l e d I l l y r i a n s . Hence, many old historians referred to these Slavs as descendants of the I l l y r i a n s and t h e i r t e r r i t o r y as " I l l y r i a " . See B. Grafenauer, " I l i r s k e P r o v i n e i j e " , Enciklopedija Jugoslavije, i 9 6 0 , v o l . 4 , PP. 337-338.  28 S i s i c , Hr vats ka povi j e s t , v o l . 3 , p. 9 6 . Many Croat h i s t o r i a n s , including S i s i d , tend to overestimate the French contribution to the c u l t u r a l and economic progress of the " I l l y r i a n Provinces". 29 I b i d . , p. 9 7 . 30 Copies of this paper containing a r t i c l e s i n Croat have not been preserved. , Hence the Slovene h i s t o r i a n , M. Kos, disagrees with S i s i c and argues that such a r t i c l e s ^were printed i n Slovene instead. See his a r t i c l e , "Telegraphe O f f i e i e l i n njegove i z d a j e " , Glasnik Muzejskega Drustva za Slovenijb, v o l s . 7 - 8 , (1926-1927), pp. 5-12. 31 S i s i c , Hrvatska povi .jest, v o l . 3 , p. 9 6 . 32 V. Corovic, Istori.ja Jugoslavije, Beograd, Narodno Delo, 1933, p. 43o\ 33 The borders of the I l l y r i a n provinces are given i n Novak, "Pokret za sjedinjenje Dalmacije...", p. 79. 34 Loc. c i t .  35 Ibid., pp. 27-61. 36 See S. Antoljak, "Prekosavska Hrvatska i pitanje njene reinkorporacije (1813-1822)", Starine, v o l . 45 (1955), PP. 128-129.  -114-  3 7 H o w e v e r , no a t t e m p t h a d b e e n made as y e t t o c r e a t e a u n i f o r m l i t e r a r y language f o r a l l Croat r e g i o n s . I n f a c t some C r o a t w r i t e r s , l i k e M i k l o u s i c , f a v o u r e d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of every d i a l e c t . See S u r m i n , H r v a t s k i p r e p o r o d , v o l . 1 , pp. 5 6 - 6 2 . v  w  /  3 8 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 , p.  109.  3 9 T h i s was one o f t h e m a i n r e a s o n s why n a t i o n a l i s m f a i l e d to attract a larger following. The D a l m a t i a n p e a s a n t was n o t e d u c a t e d and was v e r y o f t e n c o m p l e t e l y illiterate. For him, h i s r e l i g i o u s denomination played a more i m p o r t a n t r o l e t h a n h i s n a t i o n a l i t y . 40 A l t h o u g h t h e o f f i c i a l , t i t l e o f t h e C r o a t d i e t was t h e C r o a t - S l a v o n i a n - D a l m a t i a n S a b o r , i t s d e c i s i o n s were not binding f o r Dalmatia. See S u r m i n , o p . c i t . , p . 2 5 . hi  See S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 ? p p . 1 1 1 - 1 1 2 .  h2. See I b i d . , p p . 1 2 7 - 1 2 9 .  '  4 3 The r i g h t t o c o n v e n e a n d t o d i s s o l v e m e e t i n g s o f t h e Diet enabled the sovereign t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l practice i n the state. T h i s r i g h t was u s e d v e r y e x t e n s i v e l y by F r a n c i s d u r i n g t h e . f i r s t t h r e e d e c a d e s o f h i s reign. .i  hh 4  " V /  S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 , p. 1 2 3 . 5 Surmin, op. c i t . ,  46 I b i d . , p. 1  2  p. 1  2  .  .  . 4 7 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 , pp. 1 2 3 - 1 2 4 . 48 F. S i s i c , P r e g l e d p o v i . j e s t i h r v a t s k o g a n a r o d a , e d . , J . S i d a k , Z a g r e b , M a t i c a H r v a t s k a , 1 9 6 2 , p. 3 8 8 . 4 9 R i j e k a was f o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o C r o a t i a i n 1 7 7 6 by M a r i a ^ T h e r e s a . ( S e e N. K l a i c , I z v o r i z a h r y a t s k u p o v i . j e s t , Z a g r e b , S k o l s k a K n j i g a , 1 9 5 9 , v o l . 4 , p p . 61-64). H o w e v e r , a f t e r t h e Crown's C o u n c i l f o r C r o a t i a h a d b e e n a b o l i s h e d ( 1 7 7 9 ) , H u n g a r y c l a i m e d R i j e k a h a d become i t s t e r r i t o r y as t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e Crown's C o u n c i l f o r C r o a t i a were g i v e n t o t h e Crown's C o u n c i l f o r H u n g a r y . 5 0 See C h a p t e r  I , pp. 1 3 - 1 4 .  5 1 The S l a v o n i a n C o u n t y o f K r i . z e v c i , f o r e x a m p l e , was known as "The I l l y r i a n C a s t l e " . See C h a p t e r I I I , p p . 1 7 3 1 7 4 .  -11!?-  52 See. G. Novak, Proslost Dalmacije, Zagreb, Hrvatski Izdavalacki B i b l i o g r a f s k i Zavod, 19HH, v o l . 2, pp. 285-286. However, by demanding the u n i f i c a t i o n of Dalmatia with Croatia, Dalmatian Croats were not motivated by any strong n a t i o n a l i s t i c idea. 53 S i s i c , Hrvatska povijest, pp. 125-126. 5H Austrian forces composed of Croats and Servs l i b e r a t e d i n Dalmatia a large t e r r i t o r y from Napoleon. See Novak, Proslost Dalmacije, v o l . 2, pp. 299-302. 55 Surmin, op. c i t . , p. 2H. 56 See  Ibid., pp.  28-32.  57 See S. Antoljak, "Prekosavska Hrvatska i pitanje njene reinkorporaci j e . . . " , pp. 10 +-107. 1  58 The term "Prekosavska Croatia" began to be used for the f i r s t time during the Austrian administration of the Kingdom of I l l y r i a . It included a l l the Croat regions situated on the r i g h t bank of the Sava, i . e . the regions ceded to Napoleon i n 1809. This area was also referred to as " C i v i l i a n Croatia" and " P r o v i n c i a l Croatia". 59 Antoljak, op. c i t . , p. 96. 60 I b i d . , p.  135.  61 Nationalism i n Croatia was s t i l l i n i t s embryo and the r u l i n g class deprived i t s e l f of some important l e g i s l a t i v e powers (see pp. 3 8 - 3 9 ) . 62 These main points of the Sabor's instructions are given on the basis of the following works: S i s i c , Hrvatska p o v i j e s t, v o l . 3j pp. 132-133; Smiciklas, op. c i t . , pp. 2829. During my research the o r i g i n a l document was not a v a i l able to me i n any accessible form. .The instructions issued by the Sabor to i t s delegates to Pozsony were carried by them and very often l o s t . However, several o r i g i n a l documents were preserved i n various private archives of Croat or Magyar noblemen which are today to be.found i n unpublished form i n the archives of Zagreb and Budapest. 63 S i s i c , Hrvatska povijest, v o l . 3, p. 6k  135.  Loc. c i t .  65 In f a c t , the Croat delegates had no instructions as to the position to be taken regarding this problem. Consequentl y , they wanted to postpone this decision pending new instructions from Zagreb. In addition to t h i s , the Sabor  -116-  h a d no j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e p r o b l e m s a l r e a d y d e c i d e d b y t h e Common D i e t . 65a I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e C r o a t p a t r i o t s r e s e n t e d t h i s d e c i s i o n because t h e Croat language i t s e l f had not reached t h i s stage at that time. 66 J . H o r v a t , P o l i t i c k a p o v i j e s t H r v a t s k e , Z a g r e b , I z d a n j e N a k l a d n o g Z a v o d a " B i n o z a - S v j e t s k i P i s c i , 1936, p p . 81-82. 67 The f u l l name o f t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n was "De m u n i c i p a l i b u s j u r i b u s e t s t a t u t i s regnorum D a l m a t i a e , C r o a t i a e e t S l a v o n i a e " . I t s t e x t i s t o be f o u n d , i n F. F a n c e v , " D o k u m e n t i z a na£e p o d r i j e t l o h r v a t s k o g p r e p o r o d a (1790-1832)", G r a d j a z a p o v i j e s t k n j i z e v n o s t i h r v a t s k e , v o l . 12 ( 1 9 3 3 ) , p p . 236-254. 68 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i j e s t , v o l . 3, p . 145. 69 S u r m i n ,  op. c i t . ,  p. 36.  70 F . S i s i c , "Uvod u p o l i t i c k u p o v i j e s t H r v a t s k e " , P o l i t i c k a p o v i j e s t H r v a t s k e , by J o s i p H o r v a t , Z a g r e b , I z d a n j e N a k l a d n o g Z a v o d a " B i n o z a - S v j e t s k i P i s c i " , 1936, p. 51. 71 A d i a l e c t i n t h e S e r b o - C r o a t l a n g u a g e i s d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f s p e l l i n g and p r o n o u n c i a t i o n o f t h e word f o r "what". I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e , t h e Croats o f t h e county o f Z a g r e b used " K a j " f o r "what". Hence t h e i r d i a l e c t i s called "Kajkavian" or"kajdialect". 72 A b r i e f b u t e x c e p t i o n a l l y ^ o o d a c c o u n t o f K a r a d z i c * s w o r k i s p r e s e n t e d by V. C o r o v i c i n "Vuk K a r a d z i c " , The S l a v o n i c and E a s t E u r o p e a n R e v i e w , v o l . 16 ( A p r i l 1 9 3 8 ) , p p . 667-675. 73 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i j e s t , v o l . 3, p. 160. 74 See P r e l o g , o p . c i t . ,  p p . 66-68.  75 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i j e s t , v o l . 3, p. 158. P r e l o g , o p . c i t . , p p . 55-62.  See a l s o  76 Surmin, o p . c i t . , v o l . 1, p . 49. S u r m i n ' s q u o t a t i o n was t a k e n f r o m T. S m i c i k l a s , " H r v a t s k a n a r o d n a i d e j a " , Rad J.A.Z.U.,  v o l . 80 ( 1 8 9 5 ) , P. 27. 77 I b i d . , p. 51.  78 F a n c e v , " D o k u m e n t i z a n a s e p o d r i j e t l o h r v a t s k o g a o d a . . . " , p. 118. 79 I b i d . , p p . 118-119. SO I b i d . , p p . 133-134.  prepor-  - 1 1 7 -  8  1 S u r m i n , o p . c i t . , p. 3  9  .  8 2 S e e S.. J e z i c , H r v a t s k a k n j i z e v n o s t od p o c e t k a do danas, Zagreb, N a k l a x U T T T T e ^  '. .. ,  8 3 See F a n c e v , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 4 9 - 1 6 9 . . Qk  S u r m i n , o p . c i t . , p. 6 7 .  8  5 I b i d . , p. 7  8  .  8  6 See F a n c e v , o p . c i t . , p . 1  8  7 S u r m i n , op. c i t . , p. 7  9  8  1  .  .  8 8 See I b i d . , pp. 4 9 - 8 0 . 8 9 S u r m i n , I b i d . , p. 114,. 9 0 A g g r e s s i v e Magyar r a d i c a l i s m caused a r a p i d change i n t h e t h i n k i n g o f t h e C r o a t i n t e l l e c t u a l who t h e n moved c l o s e r t o c o n s e r v a t i s m and t h e Croat n o b i l i t y . See C h a p t e r I V , pp. 214-215. 9 1 I do n o t i n t e n d t o d e a l w i t h G a j ' s b i o g r a p h y . However, h i s r o l e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n and development o f Croat n a t i o n a l i s m w i l l be e x t e n s i v e l y d e a l t w i t h . For the outline of h i s b i o graphy s e e , f o r example, J . S i d a k " L j u d e v i t G a j " , E n c i k i o p e d i j a J u g o s l a v i a , 1958, v o l . 3 , p p . H 1 7 - 4 2 0 . ;  9 2 S u r m i n , o p . c i t . , p. 1.16-. 9  94  3 Loc.  cit.  See h i s "Die: S c h l f l s s e r b e i K r a p i n a "  pp. 183-190.  i n F a n c e v , op. c i t . ,  9 5 Fancev, op. c i t . , pp. 2 2 5 - 2 3 0 . 9 6 I b i d . , p.. 2 2 4 . 9 7 I b i d . , p. 230..  See a l s o Novak, op. c i t . , pp.  5 2 - 5 3 .  9 8 V. D e z e l i c , " P i s m a p i s a n a D r u . L j u d e v i t u G a j u i n e k i riegovi s a s t a v c i ( 1 8 2 8 - 1 8 5 0 ) , G r a d j a z a povi j e s t k n j i z e v n o s t i h r v a t s k e , v o l . 6 (1909), p. 1 7 ^ T 1 1  9 9 The Academy o f Z a g r e b was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1776 by M a r i a Theresa. The l a n g u a g e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n w e r e L a t i n a n d German. The s c h o o l was r u n by t h e J e s u i t O r d e r a n d h a d t h r e e f a c u l t i e s : b o g o s l o v s t v o ( t h e o l o g y ) , p r o v o s l o v s t v o ( l a w ) and m u d r o s l o v s t v o (philosophy). N o t t i l l 1874 was t h e Academy g i v e n t h e s t a t u s of u n i v e r s i t y .  -118-  100 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . l e s t , v o l , 3, p. '164. . 101 S u r m i n , o p . c i t . , p. 149. 102 F u r t h e r h i s t o r y Chapter I I I .  o f G a j ' s paper w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n  103 See S. J e z i c , e d . . I l i r s k a a n t o l o g i . i a : k n . i i z e v n i d o k u m e n t i h r v a t s k o g p r e p o r o d a , Z a g r e b , M i n e r v a N a k l a d n a K n j i z a r a D. D. 1934, p p . 97-98 a n d a l s o N o v a k , o p . c i t . . p p . 54-55. 1  104 F o r t h e t e x t o f t h e p a m p h l e t s e e J e z i c , o p . c i t . ,  pp. 97-98.  105 A f t e r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f G a j ' s " K r a t k a O s n o v a " t h e C r o a t y o u n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s no l o n g e r u s e d t h e K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t w h i c h h a d no u n i f o r m o r t h o g r a p h y and t h e u s e o f w h i c h was r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e County o f Z a g r e b . See a l s o R. K i s z l i n g , D i e K r o a t e n , G r a z - K b l n , V e r l a g Hermann B b h l a u s N a c h f . , 1956, p . 92. in  106 The i d e a was p u t f o r w a r d a l r e a d y i n 1815 by M i h a n o v i c t h e "Rec d o m o v i n i " . See F a n c e v , o p . c i t . , p p . 118-119.  .1107 V. B o g d a n o v , D r u s t v e n e i p o l i t i c k e b o r b e u H r v a t s k o j , 1848/49, Z a g r e b , J u g o s l a v e n s k a A k a d e m i j a Z n a n o s t i i U m j e t n o s t i , 1949, p. 1 1 . 108 L o c . c i t . 109 I b i d . , p. 12. 110 L o c . c i t . 111  See a b o v e , p p . 39-40.  111a S e e . b e l o w , p p . 167-168. 112 See b e l o w , p p . 229-231. 113 B o g d a n o v , D r u s t v e n e i p o l i t i c k e b o r b e , p . 13. 114 S e e R. B i c a n i c , Doba m a n u f a k t u r e u H r v a t s k o j i S l a v o n i j i (1750-1860), Z a g r e b , J u g o s l a v e n s k a A k a d e m i j a Z n a n o s t i i U m j e t n o s t i , 1951, p p . 335-342. 115 B o g d a n o v , D r u s t v e n e i p o l i t i c k e b o r b e , p . l 4 . 1 1 6 S e e b e l o w , p . 13. 117 S e e B i c a n i c , Doba m a n u f a k t u r e  u H r v a t s k o j , p p . 199-203.  -119-  1 1 8 V. Bogdanov, " H i s t o r i j s k a uloga drustvenih klasa u rjesavanju Juznoslavenskog naeionalnog pitanja", Rad Jugoslavenske Akademije Znanosti i Umjetnosti, Zagreb, v o l . 300 (  1 1  9  5  4  )  ,  p.  26.  9 Loc. c i t .  1  120 However, the bourgeoisie of Karlovac f a i l e d to see the necessity f o r the emancipation of the peasantry and never seriously attacked the feudal s o c i a l concepts of Croatia. 1 2 1 Bogdanov, Drustvene i p o l i t i c k e borbe. pp.  15-16.  1 2 2 See above, p. 4. 123 For the approach of the' Croat n o b i l i t y towards the development of the Croat language before 1 8 3 2 , see above pp. 1 0 8 - 1 0 9 . 1 2 4 J . Sidak, " P r i l o z i . h i s t o r i j i stranackih odnosa u Hrvatskoj uoci 1848", H i s t o r i j s k i Zbornik. v o l . 13 (I960), p. 176. 1 2 5 Serfdom i n Croatia was abolished by Ban J e l a c i c i n 1848. See J . Sidak, H i s t o r i j s k a citanka za hrvatsku povij e s t . Zagreb, Skolska Knjiga, 1 9 5 2 , pp. 206-207 and 228-229. 1  2  5  a See below, pp. 1  7  8  -  1  7  9  .  V  126 See J . Sidak, " I l i r s k i pokret", Enciklopedija Jugos l a v i j e . I960, v o l . 4 , p. 340. 1 2 7 In his a r t i c l e , " I l i r s k i pokret" (p. 3 ^ 0 ) , Professor Sidak explains that the I l l y r i a n Movement " i n i t s s o c i a l concepts did not oppose the privileged classes" and aimed "primarily to obtain support f o r the. national idea from the upper c l a s s " because the Croat bourgeoisie was too weak, p o l i t i c a l l y and economically. v  128 See Sidak, " I l i r s k i pokret", p. 341. 1  2  9 See below, p. 1  2  3  .  129a See below, :pp. 2 5 3 - 2 5 4 . 130 See Dezelic, op. cit., p. 313.  Ill DURING THE I L L Y R I A N MOVEMENT  .  Count J a n k o D r a s k o v i c The  (1832 - 1843)  and t h e D i e t , 1832-36.  m e e t i n g o f t h e D i e t i n 1832 m a r k e d t h e b e g i n n i n g  of t h e Croat  cultural renaissance.  The f u n d a m e n t a l s  laid  down by- t h e y o u n g i n t e l l e c t u a l g r o u p h a d e x p a n d e d i n t o full By  a  s c a l e n a t i o n a l movement known as t h e I l l y r i a n Movement.  1832, t h i s movement i n c l u d e d n o t o n l y t h e y o u t h , b u t a l s o  a segment o f t h e C r o a t r u l i n g  class  e c o n o m i c a l l y weak) b o u r g e o i s i e . phere p r e v a i l i n g  and t h e new ( a n d s t i l l  I n any c a s e , t h e a t m o s -  i n C r o a t i a before the meeting of the Diet  g r e a t l y d i f f e r e d from that of e a r l i e r y e a r s . successes Croat  - Smodek's l e c t u r e s o n t h e  l a n g u a g e a t t h e Academy and G a j ' s  aroused  an i n t e r e s t  literature ness.  o f t h e young p a t r i o t s  new o r t h o g r a p h y  feeling  n o b l e s , as we h a v e s e e n ,  o f n a t i o n a l awarethoroughly  Gaj's  a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a n e w s p a p e r and c o m p l e t e l y  their  policy  toward  -  among t h e C r o a t s f o r t h e i r l a n g u a g e and  and w i t h i t a d i s t i n c t  The C r o a t  F i r s t , the  Magyarization.  a c l o s e r union w i t h Hungary.  endorsed  changed  No l o n g e r d i d t h e y  They r e a l i z e d  demand  the mistake  they  had  made i n 1790 and demanded t h a t C r o a t i a s h o u l d be r e t u r n e d  its  e x e c u t i v e g o v e r n m e n t and c o m p l e t e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r  affairs.  Croat  T h i s new o u t l o o k was f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by t h e  M a g y a r demands f o r t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f S l a v o n i a ,  Dalmatia  - 1 2 1 -  and  t h e Croat L i t t o r a l p r o v i n c e s . . On t h e e v e o f t h e m e e t i n g  to  o f t h e Common D i e t , w h i c h  c o n v e n e o n 16 December, 1832,  the f i r s t  political  language,  Disertaci.ia i l i t i  sarom zakonskim  was  Count J a n k o D r a s k o v i c p u b l i s h e d  p a m p h l e t e v e r t o be p r i n t e d i n t h e C r o a t razgovor, darovan  gospodi  pokli-  i buducem z a k o y i o t v o r c e m k r a l . i e v i n a h n a s i h ,  za buducu D i e t u ungarsku  o d a s l a n e m , d r z a n po .jednom  starom  domorodcu K r a l j e v i n a h o v i h ( D i s s e r t a t i o n o r D i s c o u r s e  pre-  s e n t e d by a n O l d I n h a b i t a n t t o t h e F u t u r e Lawmakers o f T h e s e Kingdoms Sent first by  t o t h e Next H u n g a r i a n  Diet).  As. one o f t h e  n o b l e s who s u p p o r t e d a n d s p o k e f o r t h e i d e a s  advocated  t h e Croat y o u t h , Janko D r a s k o v i c p r e s e n t e d i n h i s pamphlet  t h e I l l y r i a n Movement's f i r s t some h i s t o r i a n s r e g a r d t h i s formation of the I l l y r i a n l830 s. f  political  event  Hence,  as t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e  P a r t y w h i c h was c r e a t e d i n t h e l a t e  I n any e a s e , a l l p o l i t i c a l  s o i l up t o t h e s t a r t  programme.  p a r t i e s f o r m e d on C r o a t  o f t h e 20th c e n t u r y b a s e d  their  platforms  on t h e i d e a s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e " D i s s e r t a t i o n " . D r a s k o v i c d i d not d e a l o n l y w i t h contemporary politics,  Croat  b u t , on t h e b a s i s o f p a s t r e c o r d s , he l a i d down t h e  general foundation of the f u t u r e p o l i t i c a l p l a t f o r m s . We must remember t h a t o u r k i n g d o m s w e r e n o t c o n q u e r e d o r a n n e x e d , b u t t h a t we v o l u n t a r i l y a g r e e d t o e n t e r i n t o t h i s u n i o n w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t we w i l l be a l l o w e d t o l e g i s l a t e t o g e t h e r w i t h o u r b r o t h e r s , t h e M a g y a r s , and t o d e f e n d o u r r i g h t s i f n e c e s s a r y . I t f o l l o w s t h a t we must n o t o p p o s e t h e M a g y a r s a t t h e Common. D i e t i n any way n o r c a n t h e y i n t r o d u c e p r o p o s a l s e n c r o a c h i n g upon o u r a n c i e n t r i g h t s . 3  -122-  In addition to his p o l i t i c a l conceptions, he also i d e n t i f i e d himself with the c u l t u r a l reforms of the i n t e l lectuals by choosing the Stokavian d i a l e c t as the language 4  of his pamphlet. With his "Dissertation" Count Janko Draskovic gives I l l y r i s m a ready made programme. Immediately i n the f i r s t sentences of his pamphlet he points out that the language of the people i s the main i n s t r u ment of public c r e a t i v i t y . . . . With his pamphlet, Janko Draskovic, after many centuries, brings our language into the p o l i t i c a l l i f e . 5 His fundamental desire was to achieve the u n i f i c a t i o n of a l l Croat lands which included not only Dalmatia, the M i l i t a r y Frontier and Rijeka, but also Bosnia where "many 6  of our people l i v e " .  He advised the Croat delegates to  the Diet to demand the creation of Greater I l l y r i a which was  also to include the Slovene speaking regions of Carniola,  S t y r i a and Carinthia.  Greater I l l y r i a was to be given the  I l l y r i a n language (Stokavian d i a l e c t ) as the o f f i c i a l language of the state; the administration of government was to be carried out i n the name of the Crown by the o f f i c e of the Ban, just as had been the case before 1790. Sixteen years before the Revolution of 1848, Janko Draskovic thus sees federation as the only possible s o l u t i o n of the governmental union of the many nations which found themselves within the Habsburg Empire.... "Now", he says, "the practice has shown a l l advanced countries which are composed of d i f f e r e n t nations speaking d i f f e r e n t languages that i n order to achieve a strong and healthy government, every nation should be given i t s s p e c i a l concessions which are the most suitable for each particular situation....' 7  -123-  Having defined organization the  of -Greater  o u t l i n e d the  external relations  and  Illyria,  a u t h o r moved on  suggest  the  fundamentals of the i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of  criticized the  the  struggle  use  of p o l i t i c a l  against  on i t a l o n e , He  and  the  sensed that  Magyarization  strength  the  d e f e n c e as  of the  the  Croatia.  He  o n l y weapon i n  b e c a u s e , by  n a t i o n was  to  concentrating  being  depleted.  C r o a t d e f e n c e w o u l d c o l l a p s e i f i t was  f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d "by  securing  developing  and  its spiritual  a foothold  among t h e  m a t e r i a l p o w e r , and  not  people,  equalizing  o  its  social relations...".  the  standard  of l i v i n g  I n s h o r t , he  b e c a u s e e c o n o m i c p r o g r e s s was  f a c t o r which c o u l d guarantee the Just  as G a j  movement o f t h e  had  the  first  the  political  against  tactics  was  elected  Pozsony.  S a b o r , he  i n t e l l e c t u a l s , who Thus t o D r a s k o v i c the  of the  and  and  a l s o one  struggle.  after publishing his  "Disser-  political  t o be  field.  alone  decided  used i n the the  During  struggle  right  to  o f i t s p r o m i n e n t members  and  C r o a t i a i n t h e House o f M a g n a t e s i n became -the  o n l y hope o f t h e  a r u l e d i d not  have seats  Croat  i n the  Sabor.  h i s s m a l l group of f o l l o w e r s i n the  t a s k of persuading  cultural  The  was  main  cultural  In a d d i t i o n to having  he as  strategy  the  political  leader  I l l y r i a n Movement, he  to represent  Therefore,  the  increase  of the  a u t h o r i t y i n the  Magyarization.  i n the  fell  b e e n a c c e p t e d as  years of the  sit  s u c c e s s of the  nation, Draskovic,  t a t i o n " , became t h e  proposed to  the  l e g i s l a t u r e t o accept the  Sabor, terms  renaissance.  C r o a t S a b o r met  on  11 N o v e m b e r , 1832,  to elect i t s  -un-  d e l e g a t e s t o t h e Common D i e t and t o d e c i d e on the p o s i t i o n s t o be t a k e n on the major p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s o f the. day.  Owing t o  h i s i n f l u e n c e i n t h e Sabor, D r a s k o v i c succeeded i n p r e v a i l i n g upon i t t o accept h i s p r o p o s a l t h a t , i n case o f complete d i s agreement w i t h the Magyar d e l e g a t e s , the Croats were t o w a l k out o f the D i e t t o i n d i c a t e t h a t C r o a t i a was prepared t o h a n d l e i t s a f f a i r s w i t h o u t Hungary.  On D r a s k o v i c ' s  advice,  Ban V l a s i c a p p o i n t e d t o t h e o f f i c e o f the Podhan (deputy t o the Ban) G e n e r a l J u r a j Rukavina who, f o r the f i r s t  time i n  the. h i s t o r y o f t h e Sabor, expressed h i s g r a t i t u d e i n the 9  Croat  language. The i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n by t h e Sabor t o i t s d e l e g a t e s  c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d the e n t i r e l y new atmosphere p r e v a i l i n g among t h e Croat r u l i n g  class:  1. P r o t e s t a n t s c o u l d not be a l l o w e d t o s e t t l e i n t h e Croat t e r r i t o r y s i n c e t h i s problem i n v o l v e d the q u e s t i o n o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o s i t i o n o f C r o a t i a and c o u l d r e i n f o r c e Magyar demands f o r R i j e k a and the Croat L i t t o r a l p r o v i n c e s . 2. To t h e o f f i c e o f the Ban s h o u l d be r e s t o r e d i t s f o r m e r e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y w h i c h was t o be extended t o D a l m a t i a , the M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r and R i j e k a . 3. Should the Magyars e x e r t p r e s s u r e upon C r o a t i a demanding an i n c r e a s e i n t a x e s , the d e l e g a t e s were t o announce t h a t C r o a t i a would r e c l a i m i t s r i g h t t o d e c i d e i t s own t a x e s . h. The L a t i n language was t o r e m a i n the o f f i c i a l  language  -125-  of  C r o a t i a , b u t t h e d e l e g a t e s were t o r e f u s e t o  g r a n t any f u r t h e r c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e M a g y a r except The problem  first  f o r i t s usage w i t h i n t h e borders  that serfdom  of Hungary.  While  and i t s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o  t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e "delegates  s h o u l d be r e f o r m e d  agreed  by g i v i n g more f r e e d o m t o  t h e p e a s a n t r y , t h e House o f M a g n a t e s a n d e s p e c i a l l y o p p o s e d any r e f o r m w h a t s o e v e r . giving  the peasants  of the l a n d l o r d majority  1 0  q u e s t i o n t o be d i s c u s s e d a t P o z s o n y was t h e  of the peasantry  the n o b i l i t y .  language,  freedom.to  The C r o a t s a r g u e d  the Croats  t h a t by  move a n d a b o l i s h i n g  the r i g h t  t o employ f r e e l a b o u r o n h i s e s t a t e t h e  o f t h e C r o a t n o b l e s w o u l d s i m p l y become  Some m i n o r c h a n g e s w e r e f i n a l l y  bankrupt.  accepted, but only because '  11  t h e y w e r e s u p p o r t e d by F r a n c i s Deak's s t r o n g l i b e r a l The  group.  p e a s a n t r y was no l o n g e r r e q u i r e d t o pay f o r t h e c o s t o f  the D i e t ' s meeting  s i n c e i t h a d no r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h a t  body. Once a g a i n t h e C r o a t s h a d t o r e j e c t p r o p o s a l f o r t h e enforcement  of r e l i g i o u s  t h e l a n d s o f t h e Crown o f S t . S t e p h e n . were a g a i n based religious  the l i b e r a l  Magyar  toleration i n a l l  The C r o a t  arguments  on t h e i r a n c i e n t r i g h t w h i c h s p e c i f i e d  that  p r o b l e m s i n C r o a t i a c o u l d be s o l v e d by t h e C r o a t 12  Sabor a l o n e . validity  The M a g y a r s were c o m p e l l e d  o f t h i s r i g h t , but they argued  to recognize the  that i t excluded  D a l m a t i a , S l a v o n i a and R i j e k a w h i c h were t r a d i t i o n a l provinces.  Ban F r a n c i s V l a s i c  Magyar  and J a n k o D r a s k o v i c s u c c e s s -  -126-  f u l l y managed t e r e j e c t  and d e f e a t  t h e Magyar  interpretation  o f t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d l a w by p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e s e  regions  "are  right  and is  :  Croat  not only according  t h e i r geographic  to Croatia's'historical  p o s i t i o n , but a l s o l o g i c a l l y because i t  i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e Magyars t o c l a i m R i j e k a , f o r example, 13  w h i c h h a s no common b o r d e r  w i t h Hungary".  •>  At t h i s  point,  t h e D i e t ' s s e s s i o n was t e m p o r a r i l y i n t e r r u p t e d by t h e d e a t h o f E m p e r o r F r a n c i s o n 2 M a r c h 1835. Immediately a f t e r F r a n c i s ' successor, Ferdinand lS^),occupied  the throne,  t h e D i e t moved on t o " s o l v e " t h e  q u e s t i o n o f .the M a g y a r l a n g u a g e . cluded  V (1835-  The M a g y a r d e l e g a t e s i n -  C r o a t i a i n ' t h e i r demands f o r t h e r i g h t s  of their  l a n g u a g e a n d demanded t h a t f r o m g r a d e V M a g y a r was to.become the language o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l secondary schools all  t h o s e who p l a n n e d  t o enter  t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e must l e a r n  M a g y a r w i t h i n t e n y e a r s ' time.. in  t h e lower  so strong in  This  house and t h e p r e s s u r e  t h a t even D r a s k o v i c  failed  p r o p o s a l was i n t r o d u c e d  f o r i t s e n f o r c e m e n t was t o convince  his  colleagues  t h e u p p e r h o u s e t h a t t h e p r o p o s a l s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d as  unconstitutional.  Herman B u z a n t r i e d i n v a i n a d i f f e r e n t  a p p r o a c h and d e c l a r e d  t h a t i f C r o a t i a was t o g i v e up L a t i n ,  then she had t h e r i g h t  t o accept  lately  nicely".  to  and t h a t  progressed  t h e Croat  very  delegates  h e r own l a n g u a g e " w h i c h h a d 15 '  was t o a p p e a l  M e t t e r n i c h who was t h e power b e h i n d assent  The o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e t o Ferdinand,  left  or r a t h e r  the throne, t o refuse t o 16 t o t h e d e c i s i o n p a s s e d by t h e D i e t . S i n c e Magyar  -127-  nationalism represented a more dangerous anti-German force than Croat nationalism, Ferdinand refused to sanction this decision and thus saved the Croat's defensive position from .complete collapse.  In the Diet i t s e l f , the f a i l u r e of the  Croats to prevent the passage of this b i l l was  attributed to  the Croat delegate f r o n n V i r o v i t i c a , Ivan Salopek, who  denigd  Croatia the right to i t s language and separate privileges and argued that the Croats did not exist as a nation, that 17  they were Magyars inhabiting Magyar t e r r i t o r y .  '  His argu-  ments were counter-attacked by Kollar's pamphlet published i n 1832 in^Karlovac under the t i t l e Sollen wir Magyaren werden? (Should we. Become Magyars?) which completely unmasked the policy of. Magyarization and explained that the Magyar's main goal was to destroy a l l the Slavic nations within their state. In very short time this pamphlet was published three times which was proof that i t had arrived at the right 'time and that the Croats awoke suddenly when they were asked the question - should they become Magyars. In Pest[aJ the pamphlet caused r e a l chaos and the government i n Vienna was accused of being i n a secret agreement with the author of this booklet against the .Magyars which i t s (Vienna's) censor had allowed to be printed. 18 The Magyars could no longer argue that by introducing the question of their language they were only trying to develop i t as f a r as Hungary was even attempt  concerned.  Therefore they did not  to produce an argument against the ideas and  implications expressed i n the pamphlet.  -128-  Realizing that such debates had p o s i t i v e l y no end and that there was danger of an open fight between the Groat and Magyar delegates, Ferdinand V concluded the meeting of the Diet (2 May I 8 3 6 ) .  The results of the meeting l e f t  neither the Magyars nor the Croats s a t i s f i e d .  It was obvious  that the gap between the two nations was becoming much wider and deeper and i t seemed as i f there was no possible, peaceful s o l u t i o n to the problem.  The Magyars f e l t that the Croats  and Vienna prevented them from obtaining their national rights and the right to use their language.  More r a d i c a l  elements argued that the Croats, who represented the minority, wanted to enforce and dictate their views to the majority, the Magyars.  On the other hand, the Croats saw i n the Magyar  attempts to force the Magyar language upon them the movement which aimed to destroy the Croat nationaand i t s autonomous rights.  They equally feared that i n the near future i t would  be impossible f o r them to defend themselves successfully since' even the House of Magnates had begun to lose i t s conserva19 t i v e character and move slowly toward the l i b e r a l s i d e . The Croat Sabor met on 5 August 1 8 3 6 to hear the reports of i t s delegates to Pozsony and to discuss the highlights of this new s i t u a t i o n .  It decided that the danger which  threatened to destroy the p o l i t i c a l status quo of the country could no longer be fought without outside assistance and 20 thus "Croat p o l i t i c s began to look for help i n Vienna". Such an attitude enabled Metternich "...to l i n k Croat p o l i t i c s  -129-  w i t h the i n t e r e s t s  of Vienna  and t h e M o n a r c h y " .  became a t o o l a g a i n s t M a g y a r l i b e r a l d e m o c r a c y . Draskovic r e a l i z e d in  Croatia Count  t h e d a n g e r i n t a k i n g t h i s new c o u r s e b u t ,  the absence o f n a t i o n a l consciousness  of the delegates, t o the Sabor, h i s warning  among t h e m a j o r i t y was n o t  accepted  22  as p o l i t i c a l l y  sound.  However, a l l agreed  t h a t the Croat  l a n g u a g e s h o u l d be f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d  and h e l p g i v e n t o t h o s e  working  that the n o b i l i t y d i d  on i t .  I n s p i t e of the f a c t  not f e e l  t h e need f o r a d o p t i n g  the f a c t  t h a t i t e v e n h a d an a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e  nationalism originating found  Croat  as t h e o f f i c i a l  language,  o u t s i d e the w a l l s of the Sabor had  i t s way a n d s u p p o r t e r s  i n s i d e the l e g i s l a t u r e .  Croat h i s t o r i a n , J o s i p H o r v a t , however, tends  The  to overestimate  the r o l e of Janko D r a s k o v i c i n the Sabor d u r i n g the f i r s t years  o f t h e I l l y r i a n Movement by c o n c l u d i n g t h a t  n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h , and t h e s w i n g ,  politically  and s o c i a l l y ,  towards t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of democracy, a r e p r i m a r i l y o f Count J a n k o D r a s k o v i c " .  J  the work  A t t h e same t i m e , H o r v a t  d e s c r i b e d t h e o p i n i o n s and a c t i v i t y supported  "'Illyrism',  of those nobles  also  who  t h e Movement i n t h e S a b o r as a w e l l o r g a n i z e d and  powerful group of l e f t i s t  r a d i c a l s who a i m e d t o i n t r o d u c e  24  r a d i c a l s o c i a l reforms. f o r Janko Draskovic c o u l d n o t be s a i d that  period.  While  t h i s may h a v e b e e n t r u e  and h i s s o c i a l c o n c e p t s ,  i t certainly  o f any o t h e r member o f t h e S a b o r d u r i n g  -130-  In t h i s a c t i v i t y Count Janko Draskovic found unders t a n d i n g , support and a c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n from the s m a l l e r but b e t t e r part of the Croat a r i s t o c r a c y and nobility. A l l these men, who were preparing the s o i l f o r the r e b i r t h even before Janko D r a s k o v i c , , from R i t t e r V i t e z o v i c t o Vrhovac, Mihanovic, J e l a c i c and K u s e v i c , were aware of i t s p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l consequences, and knew that the way toward democratic e q u a l i t y i m p l i e d the a b o l i t i o n of c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s and p r i v i l e g e s - t h e i r own p o s i t i o n i n the s t a t e . 5 ;  v  2  It w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t  t o point out that although o l d Count  D r a s k o v i c p u b l i c l y supported  some fundamental s o c i a l changes  i n the f e u d a l s o c i e t y of C r o a t i a , h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n the Sabor were d e f i n i t e l y opposed to such ideas and were prepared to support  only the c u l t u r a l r e v i v a l , not s o c i a l r a d i c a l i s m and  s i m i l a r a n t i f e u d a l movements. Draskovic's work and successes were of more consequence to l e a d e r s h i p of the I l l y r i a n Movement than t o h i s attempts  o u t s i d e the Sabor  t o i n f l u e n c e the delegates t o the Sabor  t o c o n s i d e r the m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r f e u d a l s o c i a l  concepts.  He i n v i t e d L j u d e v i t Gaj t o Pozsony t o i n t r o d u c e him to Hungarian  political circles.  Both Draskovic and Gaj u t i l i -  zed t h i s opportune moment t o e x p l a i n the fundamental aims of the Croat c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h t o the Magyar delegates i n t r o d u c t i o n of the new orthography,  reform of the grammar,  p u b l i c a t i o n of a newspaper, and f o r m a t i o n of a p r i n t i n g o f f i c e which was t o p r i n t books i n the Croat language. r e s u l t was that the Magyars, f o r the f i r s t  The  time s i n c e 1790,  l e a r n e d that the Croat language was not only the language of the peasants, but a l s o of other c l a s s e s which, l i k e the  -131-  Magyars, aimed t o w i n f o r i t the p l a c e i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Many b e g a n t o s e r i o u s l y d o u b t t h e s u c c e s s p o l i c y while others f e l t  t h a t the  destroyed  at i t s beginning  the  nation.  Croat  of the  Magyarization  C r o a t movement s h o u l d  before i t gained deeper r o o t s i n  F r o m P o z s o n y , G a j went t o V i e n n a w i t h t h e p u r p o s e appealing his  t o the h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t i e s  the  Court  ing  the necessary  long the  I t was  newspaper i n t o  p e r m i s s i o n , or at l e a s t When t h e p e r m i s s i o n was  n a t i o n a l movement e x p e r i e n c e d  underwent the f i n a l  and  became o f s e c o n d a r y  importance  The and  immediate  Gaj  at  from o b t a i n -  t o p o s t p o n e i t as finally  obtained  a r a p i d growth  t h e most i m p o r t a n t  c u l t u r a l r e v i v a l of the n a t i o n .  take  t h a t Magyar elements  used a l l t h e i r i n f l u e n c e t o prevent  as p o s s i b l e . Croat  suspected  of  of the Monarchy t o  a p p l i c a t i o n f o r p u b l i s h i n g a Croat  consideration.  be  and  stage i n the  meetings of the  the c u l t u r a l  Diet  renaissance, 27  w h i c h had  some p o l i t i c a l  main aspect  Draskovic's o f 1832-36, as we of the f u l l  of the  became  the  Nation  "Dissertation"  and  the meeting of the  have a l r e a d y n o t i c e d , marked the  s c a l e n a t i o n a l movement, o r I l l y r i s m .  as t o t h e e x a c t y e a r Croat  historians  as w e l l ,  of n a t i o n a l i s m i n C r o a t i a .  C u l t u r a l Renaissance  on t h e  connotations  i n w h i c h t h e I l l y r i a n Movement  beginning However, appeared  s c e n e as t h e movement o f t h e m a j o r i t y , t h e  could never agree.  While  Diet  most o f them h a v e  Croat no  -132-  doubts that  Illyrism  as a movement e n d e d i n 1843  p r o h i b i t i o n o f t h e name " I l l y r i a " , mining  the beginning  prominent  differ.  their  with the  arguments f o r d e t e r -  Tade S m i c i k l a s , one o f t h e most  C r o a t h i s t o r i a n s and a u t h o r o f t h e f i r s t  Croat h i s t o r y ,  P o v i e s t H r v a t s k a (A H i s t o r y o f C r o a t i a ) , h e s i t a t e s t o l i m i t himself  t o any p a r t i c u l a r d a t e and s i m p l y  declares  that the  movement, w h i c h s t a r t e d i n t h e e a r l y l 8 3 0 ' s , b e g a n t o f u n c t i o n pQ  a b r o a d n a t i o n a l movement i n t h e l a t e l 8 3 0 s .  as  Djuro  r  Surmin, a s p e c i a l i s t  i n this  argues i n h i s H r v a t s k i  p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d i n Croat h i s t o r y ,  preporod (Croat  Renaissance) that the  I l l y r i a n Movement b e g a n a f t e r t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e D i e t i n 1836  - the Croatsi l a s t  attempt t o s o l v e  t h e i r p r o b l e m s by  29  co-operating  w i t h t h e Magyar n o b i l i t y .  "  1  v  Ferdo S i s i c ,  y  some-  what more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , d i v i d e s t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n 1830 and 1843  i n t o two p a r t s : (1)  "On t h e E v e . o f t h e I l l y r i a n  ( 1 8 3 0 - 1 8 3 6 ) " and (2) "The P e a k o f I l l y r i s m Finally, with in  1835, w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g  and this  the main  of the I l l y r i a n  c o u l d be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h D r a s k o v i c ' s  high-  J  To  Movement  "Dissertation"  t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e C r o a t S a b o r i n 1832 b e c a u s e i t was i n year that  t h e Sabor began t o s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r the  d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e l a n g u a g e , t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e Ban's ity  0  newspaper  u n t i l i t s end i n 1843.  s i d e , the beginning  3  o f t h e Movement  e d i t i o n of Gaj's  t o him, represented  of the c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h  on t h e s a f e  Q836-1843K'.  the beginning  the p u b l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t  light be  J o s i p Horvat i d e n t i f i e s  Movement  i n C r o a t i a and t h e demand t o r e s t o r e  Croatia's  author-  position  -133-  i n r e l a t i o n t o Hungary t o the p l a c e i t had h e l d before,1790. The  fact  that the  Croat d e l e g a t e s t o Pozsony c o u l d  answer t o the Magyars t h a t t h e i r language had i n recent years  witnessed  of the  Croat r u l i n g  t h e i r successes class.  new  orthography,  on  the  Croat n o b i l i t y  had  as  Derkos' "Genius p a t r i a e " ,  t h e E m p e r o r h i m s e l f and J  The  Draskovic's  Stoos'  "Dissertation".  i n 1833 > G a j s u c c e e d e d i n  Upon h i s a r r i v a l t o V i e n n a  of h i s paper.  The  had  and w o r k s o f C r o a t p a t r i o t s  S t a t u t e o f t h e H o m e l a n d " , and  seeing  developed  t o t e a c h t h e C r o a t l a n g u a g e a t . t h e Academy o f  Zagreb, Gaj's "The  the impact  such successes  Smodek's r i g h t  also  i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the young  i n t e l l e c t u a l s , and thinking  safely  e x p l a i n i n g t o him  o l d Emperor promised  the  to take  a p p l i c a t i o n i n t o i m m e d i a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  programme  Gaj's  ordered h i s  M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r , S e d l n i t z k y , t o submit  to  him 33  "character references concerning a c c o m p a n i e d by S e d l n i t z k y ' s own or d i s a p p r o v a l .  The  the person  of L j u d e v i t Gaj"  report explaining his  e n t i r e procedure  and  s t r u g g l e of  approval the  C r o a t s t o o b t a i n t h e i r n e w s p a p e r i s i i n d i c a t i v e o f some o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s  w h i c h the Croats f a c e d i n the development  o f t h e i r n a t i o n a l movement. . . . t h e K i n g demanded t h a t S e d l n i t z k y b r i n g as s o o n as p o s s i b l e 'character r e f e r e n c e s concerning the person o f L j u d e v i t G a j on w h i c h b a s i s i t w o u l d be d e c i d e d i f i t was o r was n o t p o s s i b l e t o g i v e Gaj p e r m i s s i o n t o p u b l i s h a p o l i t i c a l n e w s p a p e r . 3*+ 1  But  S e d l n i t z k y , who  was  " i n no h u r r y t o c o n s i d e r t h e  J J  applic-  -lig-  ation",' of  J >  had s t i l l  investigation.  s u b m i t t e d no r e p o r t a f t e r s i x months  The Crown's C o u n c i l f o r H u n g a r y , t o whom  Gaj h a d o r i g i n a l l y handed i n h i s a p p l i c a t i o n , wanted t o illustrate  i t s " w i l l i n g n e s s " t o h e l p t h e Croats and f o r m a l l y  announced t h a t G a j c o u l d p u b l i s h h i s p a p e r , b u t o n l y i f he did  n o t p u b l i s h any p o l i t i c a l  news.  G a j , h a v i n g i n m i n d h i s programme w h i c h was d e s i g n e d not only t o r e a l i z e c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h , but a l s o t o awake C r o a t i a p o l i t i c a l l y , w h i c h h e was a u t h o r i z e d to do, h a v i n g had such recommendations from t h e Croat d i s t r i c t s , was n a t u r a l l y n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n o f t h e Crown's C o u n c i l f o r H u n g a r y . 3 6 In  1 8 3 4 , G a j made h i s s e c o n d  trip  t o Vienna w i t h t h e purpose  of  seeing theMinister f o r Foreign A f f a i r s , Kolovrat, f o r  whom h e h a d a l e t t e r w r i t t e n b y J a n K o l l a r speedy a p p r o v a l o f Gaj's undertaking,  application.  recommending  As a r e s u l t  of this  Count S e d l n i t z k y s u b m i t t e d h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f  documents c o n c e r n i n g L j u d e v i t G a j t o t h e Emperor w i t h h i s own  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t t h e C r o a t s be a l l o w e d t o h a v e a news-  paper  "because i t i s not the i n t e n t i o n o f Your M a j e s t y t o  have t h e language Magyars." ^ In  o f t h e C r o a t s e l i m i n a t e d by t h a t o f t h e  7  October  I 8 3 H , after  two y e a r s o f w a i t i n g , G a j f i n a l l y  received the permission to publish the p o l i t i c a l Novine  Horvatzke  ( T h e C r o a t News) w i t h i t s w e e k l y  newspaper, literary  e d i t i o n , D a n i c z a H o r v a t z k a , S l a v o n z k a y D a l m a t i n z k a (The C r o a t , S l a v o n i a n and Dalmatian Morning  Star).  This  event  -135-  marked the t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the development of Croat alism.  The  press  assumed t h e l e a d i n g r o l e i n t h e  o f t h e n a t i o n a l movement and  formation  became t h e m a i n weapon u s e d i n  the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n . Gaj  nation-  Magyar a u t h o r i t i e s  feared  a i m e d t o educate- an i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n a l movement w h i c h  w o u l d demand t h a t C r o a t i a w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e u n i o n . the censor  i n Z a g r e b was  Hungary t h a t " i n the case  ordered  of Gaj's  o f c e n s o r s h i p h a v e t o be f u l l y meant t h a t a l l t h e p o l i t i c a l News" had  t o be  Crown s T  Council for  newspaper, a l l s t r i c t  enforced". •  rules  This  simply  news p u b l i s h e d i n t h e  "Croat  3  a l r e a d y passed  through  or  other  the hands  censor.  The and  the  c o p i e d f r o m t h e L u n a Agramer Z e i t u n g  German n e w s p a p e r s w h i c h h a d of the  by  Therefore  m a i n p r o b l e m , h o w e v e r , was  orthography  t o choose a proper  dialect  b e c a u s e , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n as many s u b s c r i b e r s  as p o s s i b l e , i t seemed p o l i t i c a l l y  unsound t o adopt the  Sto-  39 k a v i a n d i a l e c t from the very b e g i n n i n g . p a p e r was it  to gain a s o l i d  seemed l o g i c a l  dialect  and  b a s i s i n the  the o l d orthography  - t h e two  T h i s d e c i s i o n was  and  Babukic,  f a c t o r s Gaj  reached  h e l d i n J a n k o D r a s k o v i c ' s h o u s e w h i c h was  uals  news-  County o f Z a g r e b  t o a d o p t , on a t e m p o r a r y b a s i s , t h e  opposed t o the most.  prominent,  Since the  J y  Kajkavian was  at a meeting  attended  young ( t h e i r ages r a n g i n g f r o m 18  first,  by  t o 25)  a l l the intellect-  l e a d e r s o f t h e movement - D r a g u t i n R a k o v a c , V j e k o s l a v D i m i t r i j e Demeter, Antun M a z u r a n i c ,  Pavao S t o o s , Antun V a k a n o v i c ,  Ognjoslav  Ivan  Derkos,  Utjesenovic,  and  -136-  Ljudevit Vukotinovic. w e l l known O g l a s  The p r o d u c t o f t h i s m e e t i n g was t h e  (Announcement) w h i c h e x p l a i n e d t h e purpose  and t h e r o l e o f t h e C r o a t p r e s s .  From t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e  O g l a s i t was e v i d e n t t h a t G a j a i m e d the  t o u n i t e not only a l l  C r o a t s i n t o one c u l t u r a l a n d p o l i t i c a l g r o u p , b u t a l s o ko  all of  other South S l a v s .  originator  t h e i d e a o f t h e S o u t h S l a v i c u n i o n w h i c h o n l y became a f a c t  as l a t e as 1 9 1 8 . the  Thus he was t h e f i r s t  The i n t r o d u c t o r y  paragraph addressed a l l  S o u t h S l a v i c n a t i o n s as f o l l o w s : We g r e e t a l l h o n o u r a b l e g e n t l e m e n o f a l l c l a s s e s and o r d e r s o f t h e famous S l a v i c p e o p l e s i n t h e s o u t h e r n l a n d s , namely, C r o a t s , S l o v e n e s , S l a v o n i a n s , Dalmatians, Dubrovnikians, Serbs, Carniolians, Styri a n s , C a r i n t h i a n s , I s t r i a n s , B o s n i a n s , and a l l o t h e r s , as o u r b r o t h e r s , a d m i r e r s o f t h e l a n g u a g e ! 1 H  The  O g l a s ended by p o i n t i n g  the  examples  o f o t h e r European  r e s p e c t i v e language, t h e i r in  o u t .to t h e S o u t h S l a v i c  nations  n a t i o n s , which had i n t h e i r  own p r e s s , b o o k s  and l i t e r a t u r e  g e n e r a l , and by p l e a d i n g : T h e r e f o r e , b e f o r e i t i s t o o l a t e , t h i s i s t h e moment f o r u s , t h e a n c e s t o r s o f t h e guards and d e f e n d e r s o f European c u l t u r e , t o b r i n g back t h e honour o f t h e language of our dear S l a v i c mother, the language a b u n d a n t w i t h w o r d s and sweet i n p r o n o u n c i a t i o n , t h e l a n g u a g e w h i c h t i e s us l o g i c a l l y w i t h e i g h t y m i l l i o n o f o u r b r o t h e r s . k2 The  g e n e r a l e n t h u s i a s m among t h e C r o a t s w h i c h issues  accompanied  the  first  o f t h e " C r o a t News" and t h e P a n i c a s p o k e f o r  the  t r e m e n d o u s s u c c e s s a c h i e v e d by G a j . The D a n i c a f o u n d  -137-  its  supporters  and f o l l o w e r s n o t o n l y i n Z a g r e b , b u t a l s o  among t h e S l o v e n e s  and t h e S e r b s o f V o j v o d i n a .  Articles,  poems a n d o t h e r p a t r i o t i c m a t e r i a l f o r t h e D a n i c a c o m i n g f r o m many d i f f e r e n t Slovenia.  subject  p a r t s o f C r o a t i a , S e r b i a and  The poems p u b l i s h e d i n t h e D a n i c a  important  p l a y e d a most  r o l e i n awakening n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t .  of this  kept  The m a i n  p o e t r y was u s u a l l y o f p a t r i o t i c  nature  ing  t h e c o u n t r y , t h e p e o p l e , i t s c u l t u r e , and i t s  The  poetry c o n t a i n e d almost  it  no l i t e r a r y  prais-  language.  or a r t i s t i c  value f o r  i g n o r e d s t y l e , r h y t h m and s i m i l a r r u l e s i n t h e a r t o f  p o e t i c a l composition. riotic  stir  I t s m a i n p u r p o s e was t o c a u s e a p a t -  and e n t h u s i a s m  among t h e p e o p l e .  The p a p e r ' s  p i e c e s w e r e sung a t v a r i o u s p a t r i o t i c g a t h e r i n g s private nature. "Croatia w i l l  o f p u b l i c and  T h u s , f o r i n s t a n c e , by 1832 G a j ' s  never disappear  as l o n g as we l i v e ,  best  song, she w i l l  be  r a i s e d h i g h when we awake h e r u p . . . " , a v e r s i o n o f a P o l i s h song o f s i m i l a r all  n a t u r e , became a s y m b o l o f n a t i o n a l i s m among  the c l a s s e s .  Mihanovic's  f u l Homeland) e x p e r i e n c e d s e r v e d up t o t h e p r e s e n t The  Danica  found  L i j e p a nasa domovina (Our B e a u t i -  a s i m i l a r success  and has been  pre-  d a y as t h e n a t i o n a l anthem o f C r o a t i a .  a significant  correspondent  i n t h e poet  S t a n k o V r a z , who became one o f t h e most p r o m i n e n t members o f the I l l y r i a n  Movement and t h e m a i n a d v o c a t e  of i t s ideas  43  among t h e S l o v e n e s . The  initial  success  of the Danica  led<]Gaj  to believe  t h a t t h e t i m e h a d come t o a b a n d o n t h e K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t and  -1 J O -  the o l d orthography.  By s u c h a move he a i m e d t o e n l a r g e t h e  size  among t h e S l o v e n e s , D a l m a t i a n s  of his following  who w e r e n o t f a m i l i a r  with the Kajkavian d i a l e c t  n e v e r be a b l e t o a d o p t i t i n t h e i r newspaper changed i t s d i a l e c t name as w e l l .  By t h e s t a r t  literature.  and w o u l d When G a j ' s  and o r t h o g r a p h y , i t changed i t s  o f 1836, "The C r o a t News" h a d b e -  come "The I l l y r i a n News" ( I l i r s k e n a r o d n e n o v i n e ) C r o a t , S l a v o n i a n and D a l m a t i a n Morning I l l y r i a n Morning V  V  Star"  and Serbs  a n d "The  S t a r " h a d become "The  (Danica I l i r s k a ) .  According t o Ferdo  /  Sisic,  this  c h a n g e o f name r e p r e s e n t e d t h e m a i n  of L j u d e v i t G a j t o Croat n a t i o n a l u n i t y  contribution  and n a t i o n a l i s m :  By t h i s c o u r a g e o u s a n d d e c i d i n g a c t G a j made h i s most i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n because-he thus removed t h e l a s t fence which d i v i d e d Croat from Croat and, at t h a t t i m e , Croat from S e r b . U n d o u b t e d l y , t h i s i s one o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C r o a t p e o p l e b e c a u s e i t meant d e a t h t o t h e a n c i e n t p r o v i n c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s and d i v i s i o n s and gave r i s e t o an awareness o f t h e p r e s e n t day Croat n a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e a t a l l s o c i a l l e v e l s , an awareness w h i c h was unknown a n d n o n e x i s t e n t u n t i l t h i s moment. W i t h o u t t h i s move made b y G a j a n d h i s y o u n g , e n t h u s i a s t i c c o l l e a g u e s , i t would have been i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r a l l the f u t u r e Croat p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , e s p e c i a l l y t h e one f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y . Thus, w i t h t h e y e a r I 8 3 6 , t h e o l d C r o a t i a d i s a p p e a r e d a n d t h e new one was b o r n a n d , w i t h i t a new e r a i n t h e p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l l i f e o f t h e C r o a t s . ^ 4  T h i s d e c i s i v e move o f t h e C r o a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s by  the general, p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n  was f a v o u r e d  i n t h e Monarchy.  The  c e n t r a l government i n V i e n n a , i n i t s f e a r o f t h e Magyars' p o w e r f u l n a t i o n a l movement, a p p r o v e d  and welcomed t h e Croat  o p p o s i t i o n t o H u n g a r y and e v e n a s s i s t e d G a j i n h i s w o r k t o  -139-  ( J u n e 7,  e s t a b l i s h a Croat p r i n t i n g o f f i c e allowed,  I t also  i n f o r m a l l y , t h e change i n h i s n e w s p a p e r ' s name.  Croat r u l i n g  class also tolerated this  l a s t meeting of the Diet  (1832-1836)  i z e d t h e n o b i l i t y by d e m a n d i n g t h a t the  1937).  change b e c a u s e a t t h e  t h e Magyars had antagont h e p e a s a n t s be f r e e d a n d  c l e r g y by d e m a n d i n g r e l i g i o u s e q u a l i t y .  political  s i t u a t i o n , G a j saw a n o p p o r t u n i t y  practice his political  The  S i z i n g up t h i s t o put i n t o  concepts o f the formation  of national  unity. U n d e r t h e name, " I l l y r i a " , to u n i t e a l l South Slavs  Gaj hoped ( i n t h e e a r l y  i n t o one p o l i t i c a l l y  l830's)  independent  45 nation.  However, s i n c e  this  i d e a was n o t p o p u l a r among many  p r o m i n e n t members o f t h e I l l y r i a n Movement i n C r o a t i a , he r e lated his political Gaj  believed  Illyrians  that  concepts t o only  a l l South Slavs  o r i g i n a t e d from the ancient  a n d t h e r e f o r e , he d e s i r e d  South S l a v i c nations  living  a few o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s .  t o u n i t e not only  those  under t h e Habsburg Monarchy, but  a l s o those under Turkey i n the semi-independent S e r b i a n In t h i s the  respect  c r e a t i o n of Greater  (Draskovic's) Gaj  "Dissertation".  What i s more  important,  t h e L a t i n alphabet used i n C r o a t i a  t h e C y r i l l i c one u s e d i n S e r b i a .  "The I l l y r i a n News", o r r a t h e r C y r i l l i c alphabet.  concepts f o r  as i t was e x p r e s s e d i n h i s  went t o V i e n n a t o g e t p e r m i s s i o n  lish the  Illyria  a l s o wanted t o r e p l a c e  with he  he e x p a n d e d f u r t h e r o n D r a s k o v i c ' s  state.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n 1837,  from S e d l n i t z k y  t o pub-  every second column, i n  W h i l e S e d l n i t z k y was n o t d e f i n i t e l y  -140-  against this  p r o p o s a l , he t o l d G a j t h a t " i t w o u l d he more  a d v i s a b l e t o postpone  this  change u n t i l s o m e t i m e i n t h e  47 future".  '  Although this  attempt had been only  p o s t p o n e d , i t was n e v e r a g a i n s e r i o u s l y of  i t s strong In  c o n s i d e r e d because  o p p o s i t i o n f r o m t h e Movement's l e a d e r s h i p .  t h e absence  of s u f f i c i e n t h i s t o r i c a l  i m p o s s i b l e t o determine Gaj's p o l i t i c a l unity  temporarily  of the South S l a v s .  evidence, i t i s  concepts f o r the  We do n o t know w h e t h e r he v i s u a l -  i z e d s u c h a u n i o n as a c o m p l e t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e , o r j u s t as a component p a r t o f t h e H a b s b u r g on t h e p r i n c i p l e s  M o n a r c h y , b a s e d and o r g a n i z e d  of federalism.  The l a t t e r  c a s e seems t o  be more p l a u s i b l e s i n c e t h e r e was no h i s t o r i c a l for  a S o u t h S l a v i c g o v e r n m e n t a l u n i o n , a n d t h e M o n a r c h y was  still  p o w e r f u l e n o u g h t o p r e v e n t C r o a t i a , S l o v e n i a and V o j -  v o d i n a from becoming this,  part of another s t a t e .  t h e M a g y a r s w o u l d n e v e r be w i l l i n g  r e g i o n s which they c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r s to  tradition  magyarize.  In addition to  t o part with the  and w h i c h t h e y p l a n n e d  T h e r e f o r e , i t seems more l i k e l y  that Gaj  planned t o u n i t e t h e s e n a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e Monarchy, but i n a way w h i c h w o u l d g u a r a n t e e t h e S o u t h S l a v s u n l i m i t e d a n d u n i n t e r r u p t e d c u l t u r a l development of  political  a n d a r e a s o n a b l e amount  autonomy.  Gaj's ideas f o r the South S l a v i c p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r a l union, played a very i n s i g n i f i c a n t n a t i o n a l movement. the  first  Apart from the f a c t  and l a t e r ,  r o l e i n the Croat  that they represented  attempt t o c r e a t e the South S l a v i c s t a t e which  only  -141-  came into being i n 1918, after the f a l l of the Habsburg Monarchy, they had no impact  on the development of Croat  nationalism i n the f i r s t , half of the nineteenth century. The I l l y r i a n Movement became limited to Croatia only, and had no comparable effect on any other nation i n present day Yugoslavia. Most of the I l l y r i a n s i n Slovenia, including Stanko 48 Vraz,  were even opposed to the name, " I l l y r i a " , as well as  the Stokavian d i a l e c t .  Therefore, the moment Gaj began to  publish his paper i n this dialect the o r i g i n a l of  the Slovenes began to ebb very r a p i d l y .  enthusiasm  The language of  the Croat I l l y r i a n s was no longer as close to the language of the Slovenes, as i t was during the period of the Kajkavianism. This event, coupled with the appearance of the well known Slovene poet, Francis Presern - who, being a follower of Kopitar, advocated  the development of the Slovene national  l i t e r a t u r e apart from any other - caused I l l y r i s m to f a l l from favour i n the Slovene regions. In the case of the Serbs, the I l l y r i a n Movement experienced a similar f a i l u r e .  Its loss of favour among the Serbs was  caused by the rapid development of the Serbian national movement which succeeded i n unifying a l l the Serbs under the dynasty of Obrenovics  and l a t e r Karadjordjevics.  In addition to  t h i s , the Serbian national awakeners, Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic and Dositej Obradovic orthography  (somewhat e a r l i e r ) , reformed  the Serbian  and created a new l i t e r a r y language several decades  -142-  before the Croats d i d . the  The movement g r a d u a l l y s p r e a d among  S e r b s i n V o j v o d i n a whom G a j h o p e d t o i n c l u d e i n t o t h e Lq  I l l y r i a n Movement.  "The f e e l i n g  of Serbianism"  7  dictated  t h a t t h e V o j v o d i n i a n s f o l l o w t h e movement o r g a n i z e d by t h e i r c o u n t r y m e n i n t h e young S e r b i a n s t a t e .  By t h e t i m e  emerged as a s t r o n g movement, t h e S e r b s h a d t h e i r  Illyrism  own news-  paper, L e t o p i s M a t i c e Srpske (The Annals o f t h e S e r b i a n N a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n ) , w h i c h h a d b e e n f o u n d e d i n 1826 a n d was p u b l i s h e d by t h e M a t i c a S r p s k a ( S e r b i a n N a t i o n a l i n Novi Sad.  Foundation)  Thus b y I836, when "The C r o a t News" b e g a n t o  be p u b l i s h e d , "... t h e f o r m a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s  50 among t h e S e r b s h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e d " . ian  I n general, the Serb-  y  n a t i o n a l movement o p e r a t e d , u n d e r much more f a v o u r a b l e c o n -  ditions  t h a n t h e I l l y r i a n Movement i n C r o a t i a , w h i c h h a d a  d a n g e r o u s enemy i n t h e M a g y a r n a t i o n a l movement. One o f t h e r e a s o n s w h i c h l e d G a j a n d s e v e r a l o f h i s c l o s e c o l l e a g u e s t o approach t h e Serbs o p e r a t i o n was t h e f a c t a promising l i t e r a r y for  and i n v i t e  their co-  that t h e Serbs had a l r e a d y  developed  movement w h i c h c o u l d s e r v e as a f o o t h o l d  t h e development o f t h e South S l a v i c l i t e r a t u r e i n g e n e r a l .  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e S e r b s f o u n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e name " I l l y r i a " for  w h i c h s t o o d as a common d e n o m i n a t o r  t h e c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l  unity  o f the South S l a v s .  They  w e r e much t o o p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e i r c o u n t r y f r o m t h e T u r k i s h y o k e ; no o t h e r p o l i t i c a l find  a substantial following, especially  issue  could  n o t u n d e r t h e somewhat  -143-  distant  nameeof " I l l y r i a " .  e x t e n t , were p r e p a r e d  While  they approved  and, t o an  t o support t h e Croat cause,  the e x i s t a n c e o f t h e I l l y r i a n language  they  denied  as t h e l a n g u a g e  of  51  Serbia.  '  Furthermore,  some p r o m i n e n t  Serbian writers of  this  period disliked  C r o a t i a ' s L a t i n alphabet because  they  felt  i t was f o r e i g n t o t h e S l a v s and u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i r  languages. W h i l e t h e I l l y r i a n s were f o r t h e e q u a l i t y o f b o t h t h e C y r i l l i c and L a t i n a l p h a b e t s , t h e f i r s t b e i n g o u r a n c i e n t h e r i t a g e and t h e s e c o n d t h e E u r o p e a n one and t h e r e f o r e o u r s as w e l l , S e r b i a n e n e m i e s o f I l l y r i s m c o n s i d e r e d t h e L a t i n a l p h a b e t t o be a f o r e i g n o r t h o g r a p h y and u n a b l e , b e s i d e s , t o c o r r e c t l y r e c o r d t h e s o u n d s o f o u r l a n g u a g e . 52 The  r e s u l t was t h a t I l l y r i s m as a movement became  restricted caused  t o C r o a t i a and o n l y h e r e f o u n d i t s m a i n  t h e c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e o f t h e n a t i o n and d e v e l o p e d  i n t o a s t r o n g n a t i o n a l i s t movement. D a l m a t i a and B o s n i a r e m a i n e d exclude the i s o l a t e d were s e n d i n g ing  following,  Star".  o u t s i d e i t s i n f l u e n c e .- i f we  attempts  their articles  Even the Croats of  of several individuals  who  and poems t o t h e ' ? I l l y r i a n M o r n -  Dalmatia d i f f e r e d from  C r o a t i a proper because i t  l a c k e d n a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s who w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e d e velopment of t h e i r n a t i v e language strong ing  and n a t i o n a l i s t i c a l l y  and l i t e r a t u r e ,  and l a c k e d a  inclined native nobility.  t h e p e r i o d o f F r e n c h r u l e , and e v e n b e f o r e ,  Follow-  Dalmatia's  53  f e u d a l system  was v e r y weak. '  J  We f i n d  almost  exactly the  same c a s e i n B o s n i a w h i c h s u f f e r e d u n d e r t h e T u r k i s h s u z e r a i n t y .  -144-  The  only people  who  wanted t o see  the development of  I l l y r i a n Movement i n B o s n i a were t h e monks l i v i n g teries  i s o l a t e d from the main c u l t u r a l centres  the  i n monas-  of the  nation.  I t f o l l o w e d t h a t I l l y r i s m became t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c movement those  Croat  of the  r e g i o n s w h i c h were i n c l u d e d de  f a c t o i n t o the  Crown o f S t . S t e p h e n and w h i c h f o u g h t  provided  the  Croats  of C r o a t i a proper  f e c t i v e means o f r e j e c t i n g a f t e r 1843,  of forming  to preserve  the p o l i t i c a l  Monarchy.  Hence t h e  opment o f t h e  Croat  cultural  and  Magyarization.  It ef-  a s s i m i l a t i o n by H u n g a r y  s t a t u s quo  party which  of the country  I l l y r i a n s were r i g h t l a n g u a g e was  lands  S l a v o n i a w i t h an  a national political  of  t o see  and,  aimed  w i t h i n the  that the  a prerequisite for a  devel-  success-  f u l s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n and  f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of  national identity.  "Morning S t a r " c o n s t a n t l y  carried  i s s u e of the  the motto, "NationaWithout  Bones" (Narod bez Croats  Every  narodnosti  j e t i j e l o bez  kosti),  to remind  o f t h e Movement's m a i n p u r p o s e .  Up  t o 1838,  t h e I l l y r i a n Movement i n c l u d e d and  among t h e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n . o f continued  Croatia only.  of the f i r s t  i n the n a t i o n a l s t r i d e s I l l y r i a n s who  n a t i o n a l f o r c e by b r i n g i n g t h e c i r c l e was, m i n d , he  Croat  t o speak the language of the day,  no m a j o r i n t e r e s t One  N a t i o n a l i t y i s a Body W i t h o u t  hochherzige  noblewomen  German, and  of t h e i r  a powerful,  With this  took  husbands.  C r o a t women i n t o t h e  again, Janko Draskovic.  p u b l i s h e d i n 1838  an I l l y r i e n s  realized  spread  potential Illyrian  purpose i n  h i s w e l l known b o o k l e t , E i n Wort  Tochter,  w h i c h was  addressed  to  the  the  -145-  C r o a t noblewomen b e c a u s e " o n l y w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the Croat  ( I l l y r i a n ) women c o u l d a m a j o r n a t i o n a l w o r k be  54 achieved".  He u r g e d  y  to take i n t e r e s t  t h e C r o a t women t o l e a r n h i s t o r y a n d  i n t h e contemporary  He p r a i s e d t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l  affairs  of their  country.  c a p a c i t y and a s s i g n e d them a  d e c i s i v e r o l e i n t h e n a t i o n a l movement.  H i s appeal t o the  C r o a t noblewomen d i d n o t r e m a i n u n a n s w e r e d .  Within a rela-  t i v e l y s h o r t t i m e t h e y abandoned t h e German l a n g u a g e a n d adopted  t h e C r o a t one w h i c h  they taught  t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n as  well.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , i n many c a s e s where h u s b a n d s i n -  tended  to passively  wives  observe  the development o f I l l y r i s m  their  i n f l u e n c e d a n d p r e s s e d them t o t a k e a c t i v e r o l e s and  to support  the I l l y r i a n i d e a s .  F o l l o w i n g t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s b o o k l e t , the Croat women w e r e o v e r t a k e n by t h e m a g i c power o f n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; t h o s e who w e r e a l r e a d y h a l f g e r m a n i z e d began t o l e a r n and speak C r o a t , adopted t h e f o l k c o s tumes, s t a r t e d t o r e a d Croat j o u r n a l s and b o o k s , s a n g t h e C r o a t s o n g s p u b l i c l y and a t home, c o r r e s ponded i n C r o a t , a n d some e v e n a t t e m p t e d t o e n r i c h t h e C r o a t l i t e r a t u r e . 55 D r a s k o v i c ' s E i n Wort was n o t o n l y i n t e n d e d t o be r e a d by  t h e C r o a t women, b u t a l s o t o e x p l a i n t h e I l l y r i a n Movement  t o t h e Germans a b r o a d  a n d a t home.  He p o i n t e d o u t t o h i s  German r e a d e r t h a t I l l y r i s m w a n t e d t o c r e a t e one l i t e r a r y language  f o r a l l the South S l a v s , j u s t  in different  c o u n t r i e s h a d one l i t e r a r y  w o r d s , one l i t e r a r y  language.  as t h e Germans  living  t r a d i t i o n , i n other  Unlike his  "Dissertation",  -146-  Draskovic did not intend to express i n this booklet his p o l i t i c a l concepts of Greater I l l y r i a which would naturally be accepted unfavourably by the Germans. V  He aimed rather to  w  follow closely Safarik's and Kollar's concepts of  Pan-Slavism,  and to compare them with I l l y r i s m as the Croat version of the Slavic c u l t u r a l unity.  Following the Czech national pattern,  he proposed the formation of various Croat national associations which would undertake the task of spreading national l i t e r a r y works among the people. -It i s known that as early as 1829, Gaj had related to Jan Kollar his plans for organizing I l l y r i a n national societies which,could act as strongholds of national c u l t u r a l ' u n i t y . Again, i n 1836, he published several a r t i c l e s i n the "Morning Star" pointing out the necessity for the formation of such societies.  However, i t was not u n t i l 1 8 3 8 that the Croats  established their f i r s t organization set up according to the pattern recommended by Gaj.  In that year, the I l l y r i a n s of  Varazdin established the f i r s t  Croat reading room *under the -  name, P r i j a t e l j i nasega narodnoga slovstva (The Friends of Our National L e t t e r s h i p ) .  The example of Varazdin was followed  by Karlovac which, by the spring of the same year, had  founded  i t s reading room, I l i r s k o c i t a n j a drustvo (The' I l l y r i a n Reading Society), under the leadership of Karlo Klobucaric, Antun Vakanovic  and Ambroz Vranjican. F i n a l l y , i n August 1 8 3 8 ,  Janko Draskovic, magistrate Josip Stajdaher and Vjekoslav Babukic established i n Zagreb, I l i r s k a citaonica (The I l l y r i a n Reading Room) which soon became the centre, or the headquarters,  -147-  o f a l l t h e o t h e r r e a d i n g rooms w h i c h were o r g a n i z e d i n a l l t h e l a r g e r towns o f t h e c o u n t r y .  T h e s e r e a d i n g rooms n o t  o n l y p r o v i d e d t h e C r o a t s w i t h an e f f e c t i v e  t o o l f o r spreading  n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e and l i t e r a t u r e , b u t a l s o w i t h new social net  and e c o n o m i c  progress.  In this  organized  o f r e a d i n g r o o m s , t h e members o f t h e C r o a t m i d d l e  tradesmen, merchants, s m a l l a r t i s a n s p l a n s f o r the economic t h e improvement I838  centrally  ideas f o r  (1  development  and o t h e r s , d i s c u s s e d  of the country  of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l .  October), d u r i n g the f i r s t  of b u i l d i n g  J (  This  event i n d i c a t e d  i n c l u d e d not o n l y the Croat r u l i n g  as  they spoke  a paper f a c t o r y , t e x t i l e  and l e a t h e r f a c t o r y and o f d e v e l o p i n g wine t r a d e . "  As s o o n  were d i s c u s s e d  our i n d u s t r i a l underdevelopment,  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  and f o r  meeting of the e x e c u t i v e  committee, plans f o r i n d u s t r i a l development and " r e a l i z i n g  class,  a g r i c u l t u r e and  plant, the  that the reading  class  and  of  rooms  intellectuals,  b u t a l s o t h e b o u r g e o i s i e w h i c h h a d emerged as a p o w e r f u l , s o c i a l f a c t o r i n t h e C r o a t t r a d i n g c e n t r e s s u c h as K a r l o v a c , V a r a z d i n , Z a g r e b , and K r i z e v c i . middle classes helped  This reinforcement  broaden the b a s i s of the  from the  Illyrian  Movement and p r o m i s e d a more s u c c e s s f u l s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t Magyarization. The  d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e r e a d i n g rooms was  that  their  members, i n o r d e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s , ' h a d l i v e i n the near v i c i n i t y was  of t h e i r l o c a t i o n .  r e a l i z e d by t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f Z a g r e b ' s  This  to  problem  "Illyrian  Reading  -ma-  Room" a n d , a t t h e m e e t i n g  o f i t s e x e c u t i v e committee h e l d on  7 M a r c h 1839, i t s p r e s i d e n t , J a n k o D r a s k o v i c , p r o p o s e d  that  a new a s s o c i a t i o n be s e t u p , s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t u r e t o t h e C z e c h N a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n because " t h e Reading  Room was t o o n a r r o w  58 to  accomplish a l l the c u l t u r a l tasks".  H i s was t h e f i r s t  v o i c e t o speak out f o r the establishment of the M a t i c a (The  I l l y r i a n N a t i o n a l Foundation)  come i n t o b e i n g u n t i l waiting  this  which, however, d i d not  1842 b e c a u s e o f t h e l o n g p e r i o d s p e n t  f o rthe necessary  During  Ilirska  p e r m i s s i o n from  Vienna.  p e r i o d , t h e w o r k o f t h e members o f t h e " R e a d i  Room" was o c c u p i e d by a n d c o n c e n t r a t e d o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f the  C r o a t , t h e a t r e , o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l museum a n d p l a n s  for  a n a t i o n a l i n s u r a n c e a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d be a b l e t o  render f i n a n c i a l s e r v i c e s t o those wishing t o enter  into  59 business.  However, t h e i r main work towards  J /  the c u l t u r a l  r e n a i s s a n c e o f t h e n a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f the Croat t h e a t r e , e s p e c i a l l y  a f t e r G a j a n d Demeter h a d b e e n  e l e c t e d t o t h e e x e c u t i v e committee i n June During to  1839.  t h e e a r l y 1820's, t h e C r o a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s  f o r c e a way f o r t h e C r o a t l a n g u a g e  i n Z a g r e b by s u c c e e d i n g  began  i n t o t h e German t h e a t r e  t o p u t o n o c c a s i o n a l programmes o f  C r o a t s o n g s and s h o r t humorous d i a l o g u e s .  H o w e v e r , i n 1838 a  61 p l a n was made f o r t h e c o m p l e t e The  leading personality  takeover of this t h e a t r e .  i n the development o f t h e Croat  t h e a t r e was D i m i t r i j e D e m e t e r , t h e s o n o f G r e e k p a r e n t s who had  immigrated  t o Zagreb.  I n 1838, he p u b l i s h e d two drama  -149-  w o r k s , L.iubav i d u z n o s t  ( L o v e and D u t y ) and K r v n a  ( B l o o d - f e u d ) , w h i c h w e r e a c c o m p a n i e d by  osveta  a significant  d u c t o r y a r t i c l e which spoke of the importance  of the  introstage  62  in  the development of the Croat language.  argued  D e m e t e r , t h e b e s t way  p u b l i c and  t h e s u r e s t way  Stokavian dialect  by  to start  towards  the adoption of  way  the  the  S t a r " was  c o n c e r t had been h e l d i n the  able Croat  I n order t o o b t a i n a f a v o u r a b l e r e a c t i o n from w h i c h was  accustomed t o h i g h l y regarded  composers, the I l l y r i a n s had choosing  was,  the masses.  to r e p o r t that the f i r s t  audience  stage  the e d u c a t i o n of  As e a r l y as 1 8 A p r i l 1 8 3 8 , t h e " M o r n i n g  language.  The  t h e programmes.  towards  an  German  t o be e x t r e m e l y c a r e f u l i n  Although music p r o v i d e d the best  a g r a d u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the Croat works of  d r a m a , i t had  t o be  on. t h e same o r b e t t e r l e v e l o f  performance  t h a n i t h a d b e e n i n t h e German t h e a t r e . The  above mentioned  in  a more f a v o u r a b l e way  On  t h e n e x t day  c o n c e r t was  r e c e i v e d by t h e  t h a n i t s o r g a n i z e r s had  the "Morning  audience  expected.  Star" reported:  T h i s f i r s t c o n c e r t o f t h e I l l y r i a n n a t i o n , w h i c h was p r e p a r e d by o u r n o b l e l a d i e s , was a c c e p t e d by t h e a u d i e n c e w i t h immeasurable e n t h u s i a s m . . . f o r i t had never heard b e f o r e the sweetness of the n a t i v e language i n h i g h - c l a s s music. Many w e r e c o n v i n c e d o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e p u r e I l l y r i a n l a n g u a g e , and t h e i r h e a r t s w e r e f i l l e d w i t h new p a t r i o t i c d e s i r e s . ° 3 E n c o u r a g e d by Illyrians  planned  t h i s success o f the i n i t i a l c o n c e r t , the to present the f i r s t  C r o a t d r a m a on t h e s t a g e .  -150-  In  1838,  young I v a n K u k u l j e v i c p u b l i s h e d h i s d r a m a , J u r a n i  S o f i . j a i i i T u r c i kod S i s k a  ( G e o r g e and S o f i a o r t h e T u r k s  S i s h k ) , t h e c e n t r a l theme coming  from  Croat h i s t o r y  1593  when t h e C r o a t s , S e r b s and S l o v e n e s j o i n t l y  flag  o f B a n Toma Baka.5 d e f e a t e d t h e i r  Turkey. of one At  t h e I l l y r i a n i d e a l w h i c h was political  and c u l t u r a l u n i t  under  the  first  enemy,  advantages  a b l e t o s u s t a i n enemy the  C r o a t d r a m a w r i t t e n i n t h e new  acted very favourably s i m i l a r works.  ^  literary  language  Once a g a i n t h e a u d i e n c e r e -  and demanded a d d i t i o n a l p e r f o r m a n c e s  This influenced  of the  Room" t h r o u g h an a r t i c l e i n t h e " M o r n i n g S t a r "  organize a serious  effort  towards  the development  C r o a t drama and t o p r e p a r e as many w o r k s The E x e c u t i v e B o a r d o f t h e  for  w h i c h was  the f i r s t  f o r t h e s t a g e as  "Beiding  Room" met  to collect voluntary, financial  Croat t h e a t r i c a l seasons.  to  of the  2k J a n u a r y iQkO and a p p o i n t e d D e m e t e r as t h e t r e a s u r e r campaign  of  t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e German  t h e a t r e i n Zagreb, B o r n s t e i n , t o approach the leaders  possible.  attacks.  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e "George and S o f i a " r e p r e s e n t e d  and shown on t h e p u b l i c s t a g e .  "Reading  into  soldiers:  We a r e a l l t o g e t h e r t h e c h i l d r e n o f one Poor Mother, sad Mother; I n us and i n them b l o o d i s t h e same, The famous I l l y r i a n name common t o a l l .  the  the  to u n i t e a l l South Slavs  t h e end o f t h e d r a m a , an o l d S e r b t o l d  The  around  centuries-old  The m o r a l o f t h e drama i l l u s t r a t e d  at  on  of a  contributions  I n the absence  of w e l l  -151-  trained native actors, Demeter concluded a contract i n which the theatre i n Novi Sad agreed to send i t s performers for an 65 eight-months stay i n various Croat c i t i e s .  y  In addition to the new works of drama, the program of this theatre season was reinforced by the works of the Croat i c a l writers of e a r l i e r centuries such as Gundulic, V  /  class-  Cubranovic  v  and Drzic whose works were published i n the Stokavian d i a l e c t . The season ended having had complete success and this i n spired the native talents to produce more works of the same kind.  Croat theatre fans acquired new taste for music and  theatre by adapting and learning to appreciate national stage and musical productions.  At the same time they gradually and  quite unconsciously adopted the Stokavian dialect which soon became the language of educated people and remained as such up to the present Thus, by 1840,  day. the main part of the Croat  renaissance had been completed.  cultural  The I l l y r i a n Movement was  no longer the movement of a small group of i n t e l l e c t u a l s , but a national movement composed of the majority of a l l the classes, except for the .peasantry which was  largely i l l i t e r a t e and.the  petty n o b i l i t y ( s l j i v a r i ) which, i n the absence of l e g i s l a t i v e right i n the Sabor, began to side with Magyar nationalism. Among the remaining population the Stokavian d i a l e c t  was  accepted as the l i t e r a r y language of the nation and became the language of a l l educated By 1840,  Croatia was  people. no longer a country whose ruling  -1 5 2 -  class  refused  t o use t h e i r native language.  c l a s s was no l o n g e r in  a l l aspects  Common D i e t  Germanized;  of i t s l i f e  except f o r t h e meetings o f t h e  and t h e Sabor where i t u s e d t h e L a t i n l a n g u a g e  t h e Habsburg Monarchy.  Croatia's close  ruling  i t a c c e p t e d i t s own l a n g u a g e  o n l y as t h e s y m b o l o f i t s s p e c i a l p o l i t i c a l in  Croatia's  nobility  co-operation  H o w e v e r , what i s more  was no l o n g e r with  status  and r i g h t s important,  prepared t o s t r i v e  fora  t h e Magyar upper c l a s s f o r i t h a d  become more n a t i o n a l l y c o n s c i o u s  and h a d f i n a l l y  such co-operation  as l o n g  was i m p o s s i b l e  t o m a g y a r i z e C r o a t i a and i n c l u d e p a r t s  learned  as t h e M a g y a r s  that aimed  of i t s territory i n  the Hungarian s t a t e . By  l8H0,  t h e Croats  theatre, literature, of every n a t i o n . Illyrians  short  period  and other  own p r e s s ,  reading  other  achieved  South S l a v i c nations  of the i n their  move-  i t s task i n Croatia w i t h i n a very  of time - eight years,  1832-18H0.  p e r i o d i t s m a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was o f a c u l t u r a l After i t s failure  rooms,  tools necessary t o the l i f e  Thus, i n s p i t e o f t h e f a i l u r e  to include  ment, I l l y r i s m  had t h e i r  During  this  nature.  as a p o l i t i c a l movement among a l l t h e S o u t h  Slavs, i t limited i t s activities  t o c u l t u r a l ones w h i c h  e m a n c i p a t e d t h e C r o a t n a t i o n by g i v i n g i t a u n i f o r m  literary  l a n g u a g e and o r t h o g r a p h y . F r o m 18H0, o r r a t h e r D i e t met a g a i n  1839, when t h e S a b o r a n d t h e Common  to legislate,  t h e I l l y r i a n Movement r a p i d l y  d e v e l o p e d i n t o a p o l i t i c a l movement  as w e l l .  I n view of  -1  the Magyars  53-  renewed a t t a c k on t h e Croat  1  n a t i o n i n 1839/40,  I l l y r i s m was f o r c e d t o a b a n d o n any r a d i c a l i s m i t may h a v e h a d before  and u n i t e i t s f o r c e s b e h i n d  which protected  the conservative  t h e laws o f f e u d a l i s m  o f t h e c e n t r a l government i n V i e n n a . progressive  and c o n s e r v a t i v e  extreme r i g h t  upper c l a s s  and sought t h e a s s i s t a n c e Such u n i f i c a t i o n o f  e l e m e n t s d i d n o t move t o t h e  of the p o l i t i c a l  spectrum u n t i l  a f t e r 1843, 67  following  t h e p r o h i b i t i o n o f t h e name " I l l y r i a " .  t h e symptoms o f t h i s the  D i e t i n 1839.  s w i n g showed up d u r i n g  Therefore  of the c u l t u r a l renaissance we h a v e a n a l y z e d  t h e y were c r e a t e d d u r i n g  be  pointed  the meeting o f  o f C r o a t i a and r e t u r n t o i t a f t e r w i t h i n the I l l y r i a n  the meeting o f t h i s  Movement  Diet.  I t must  out t h a t a l l f u t u r e events which took p l a c e i n  C r o a t i a up t o 1848, w h e t h e r i n c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , political  However,  we w i l l b r e a k o f f o u r d i s c u s s i o n  t h e new t r e n d s  as  '  fields,  economic o r  must be v i e w e d p r i m a r i l y f r o m t h e p o l i t i c a l  p o i n t , o f v i e w , a n d as t h e i m m e d i a t e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e C r o a t s to  e a c h p a r t i c u l a r move made b y t h e M a g y a r s , o r t h e i r  in  Croatia i t s e l f .  brought a very  Into this  conservative  bow t o i t s p o l i c y i f t h e y necessary  political  shading  p i c t u r e , Vienna  by f o r c i n g t h e Croats t o  w a n t e d t o be g i v e n t h e a s s i s t a n c e  f o rtheir struggle against  radicalism.  followers  t h e dangerous Magyar  -154-  The  Croat R u l i n g  o f 1839-40  at t h e Diet  m e e t i n g o f t h e Common D i e t i n 1839 r e p r e s e n t e d  The first  Class  test  of the n a t i o n a l ideas  held  c l a s s ; t h e C r o a t n o b i l i t y was g i v e n the r e s u l t s  among t h e C r o a t  an o p p o r t u n i t y  of the c u l t u r a l renaissance  I l l y r i a n Movement.  Considering  the fact  ruling  to protect  b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e that  t h e Magyar  n a t i o n a l movement h a d d e v e l o p e d i n t o a more p o w e r f u l force  than i t had e v e r been b e f o r e ,  termination the L a t i n plicated against  to continue  the s t r u g g l e f o r the preservation of  l a n g u a g e as t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e the p o l i t i c a l  Magyarization  and f o r t h e r i g h t s  o f t h e Croat  language. language  n o b i l i t y n e v e r d a r e d t o come up w i t h s o m e t h i n g new o r  lism.  higher  t h e p a t t e r n o f Magyar  a M a g y a r museum, t h e a t r e  education,  o r a new i n s t i t u t e f o r  the Croat n o b i l i t y f o l l o w e d i n t h e i r  expressed i t s e l f i n favour  taken i n Croatia.  The n o b l e s '  to Magyar.nationalism  motives f o r such  pro-national concessions  might endanger t h e i r r i g h t  l a n g u a g e and t h e i r s p e c i a l  representatives  steps  o f s i m i l a r m e a s u r e s t o be  measures o r i g i n a t e d from t h e i r f e a r t h a t such  Latin  nationa-  T h u s , f o r i n s t a n c e , when t h e M a g y a r s e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e  to establish  the  com-  i s s u e and weakened i t s arguments  o r i g i n a l , but always f o l l o w e d  and  t o the  The n o b i l i t y ' s d e -  I n i t s d e s i r e t o s e c u r e the development o f the Croat the  political  the task assigned  C r o a t n o b i l i t y was e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t .  the  of the T r i p l e  rights  t o use the  and p r i v i l e g e s  Kingdom.  as  -155-  The  p o s i t i o n o f the Croat n o b i l i t y  i n r e l a t i o n t o the  C r o a t n a t i o n a l movement was made c l e a r f r o m t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s issued  t o i t s delegates  t o t h e Common D i e t  and d r a f t e d a t t h e  m e e t i n g o f t h e S a b o r w h i c h s a t f r o m 21 t o 26 May 1839. Croat delegates  were t o oppose any m e a s u r e i n t r o d u c e d  The by t h e  M a g y a r s w h i c h w o u l d i n v o l v e a change i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e peasantry.* the  A l t h o u g h t h e Croat n o b l e s r e a l i z e d t h e need f o r  e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f C r o a t i a and a p p r o v e d o f t h e  Illyrian  p o l i c y f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e ,  t h e y were n o t p r e p a r e d t o s u p p o r t t h e p r o g r e s s i v e  measures  for  t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f t h e s e r f s w h i c h would have  eliminated  the  s c a r c i t y of labour  centres  Croatia.  Their  p o l i c y was t o m a i n t a i n  f o r c e on t h e i r l a n d e d The  at the p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l  nationalism  a sufficient  of  labour  estates. o f t h e Croat r u l i n g  c l a s s was a l s o t o o  i m m a t u r e t o make t h e n o b i l i t y r e a l i z e t h a t  adopting  the Croat  l a n g u a g e i n s t e a d o f L a t i n as t h e o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e o f C r o a t i a w o u l d n o t weaken i t s p o s i t i o n b u t s t r e n g t h e n I l l y r i s m enjoyed strong  support outside  i t because  t h e S a b o r among t h e 68  intellectuals The did  and members o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s .  leaders  o f t h e I l l y r i a n Movement, who, as a r u l e ,  not have s e a t s  events t a k i n g place Sabor f e l t in  that  the p o l i t i c a l  discussed  i n the Sabor, remained i s o l a t e d from the i n t h e Sabor i t s e l f .  The m a j o r i t y  I l l y r i s m as a c u l t u r a l movement h a d no arena of.the  nation since  the issues  d i d not concern the c u l t u r a l renaissance  of the place t o be  and i t s  -156-  problems of the S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t  and  literature.  I t would  be m i s l e a d i n g , h o w e v e r , t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e n o b i l i t y c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e c u l t u r a l and the n a t i o n .  I t s p o s i t i o n was  t h a t more p o l i t i c a l class  and  motivated  no  development  p r i m a r i l y by i t s f e a r  interests. o f the few  active  Illyrians  the Sabor, the m a j o r i t y of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s agreed  a d e l e g a t i o n of nobles obtaining  be s e n t  to Vienna  the p e r m i s s i o n necessary  the I l l y r i a n N a t i o n a l Foundation. p r o p o s e d by "the  of  economic freedom might endanger i t s  H o w e v e r , on t h e i n i t i a t i v e in  political  saw  that  w i t h the purpose  f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t T h i s new  foundation  of was  t h e E x e c u t i v e B o a r d o f t h e " R e a d i n g Room" b e c a u s e  c u l t u r e of every  nation i s manifested  through  the  lang-  uage of i t s homeland...which i s the main f a c t o r i n the ment o f n a t i o n a l p o w e r " . ^ the t y p i c a l l y  T h i s d e c i s i o n was  t w o f o l d p o s i t i o n of the  showed t h a t t h e  Croat  ruling  develop-  indicative  Croat n o b i l i t y .  c l a s s was  still  changes i n i t s p o l i t i c a l  status.  o p p o s e d t o M a g y a r i z a t i o n , i t was  While  v e r y much i n  i t was  l a n g u a g e as t h e l a n g u a g e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  development of the  Croat  l a n g u a g e and  c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e , i t was  the  the  i n favour  the  of  the  of  the  language - the S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t which " i s  of a l l n a t i o n a l d i a l e c t s  Latin  Croat  In respect to  as a r e s u l t  definitely  new  definitely  i n f a v o u r of b o t h  l a n g u a g e as t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e n a t i o n .  of  It  a d i l e m m a as t o what p o s i t i o n t o t a k e i n o r d e r t o a v o i d  Illyrian  of  and w h i c h a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d ' a  comprised rapid  -157-  development". ' However c o n s e r v a t i v e i n i t s p o l i t i c a l S a b o r r e m a i n e d as t h e o n l y p o l i t i c a l stitutional right It  stood  on g u a r d and  d i d a l l i t knew t o p r e s e r v e It failed  a t home b e c a u s e i t h a d  r a d i c a l i s m had p o s i t i o n , but  w h i c h was  the  a l s o f o r c e d by  extreme c o n s e r v a t i s m ,  some r a d i c a l  only i t s  the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e l e f t  w i t h Hungary, the  c a n n o t be  l a b e l l e d as During  for  nobility  a s t r o n g , determined,  the  of the  s c h o o l s w h i c h c o u l d be  Croat  was Sabor  of  i n the Hence, relations  judged too h a r s h l y  anti-national force.  the m e e t i n g of the Sabor t h e r e were a l s o  an e x t e n s i v e s t u d y  Croat  i t  f o l l o w i n g o u t s i d e the  s i t u a t i o n and  and  own  A f t e r 1843,  i n view of the g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l  such  The  s t r u g g l e f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y .  Croat  political  the Magyars t o j o i n the ranks  now  con-  onslaught.  the  t o i t s autonomy.  i n this role.  Illyrian  Croat  i n Pozsony t h a t  t o d e s t r o y not  also Croatia's right  the e n t i r e  to support  experienced  been d e s i g n e d  Sabor d i d not r e m a i n alone r e i n f o r c e d by  body w h i c h had  t o p r o t e c t C r o a t i a f r o m the Magyar  autonomy o f i t s c o u n t r y . ideas  o u t l o o k , the  proposals  language i n a l l Croat  c o n d u c t e d f r o m t h e c e n t r a l c h a i r of. 71  the  "people's  s i n c e o n l y two expressed  language" of the  '  a t t h e Academy o f Z a g r e b .  Croat  c o u n t i e s , Z a g r e b and  themselves i n favour  of t h i s  o m i t t e d from the  agenda of the S a b o r .  was  unable to render  any  i d e a b e c a u s e i t was  Varazdin,  p r o p o s a l , the  was  The  However,  Croat  issue press  a s s i s t a n c e to the o r i g i n a t o r s of  prevented  by  censorship  to publish  any  this  -158-  r e p o r t on t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S a b o r . as we  a l r e a d y know, h a d  papers the  Its political  news,  t o be c o p i e d f r o m t h e German news-  and s i n c e t h e y d i d n o t p u b l i s h a n y t h i n g c o n c e r n i n g  meeting  o f t h e S a b o r , t h e " I l l y r i a n News" was  u n i n f o r m e d and i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e e v e n t s t a k i n g  kept  place i n the  legislature. The  meeting  o f t h e D i e t a t P o z s o n y was  e r o r F e r d i n a n d h i m s e l f on 6 J u n e 1839. the  T h r o n e , w h i c h was  J o s e p h Kopacsy of who  o p e n e d by Emp-  I n the Speech  d e l i v e r e d i n the Magyar  language,  demanded f r o m F e r d i n a n d t h e i m m e d i a t e  t h e Magyar r a d i c a l s , B a r o n Wesseleny  from  release  and L o u i s K o s s u t h ,  h a d b e e n i m p r i s o n e d by t h e A u s t r i a n a u t h o r i t i e s f o r  their revolutionary  activities  against  the government of  72 Vienna.  '  new war  o v e r t h e E a s t e r n Q u e s t i o n f o r c e d M e t t e r n i c h t o meet  the  The  fact  t h a t F r a n c e was  preparing i t s e l f f o r a  M a g y a r demands and r e l e a s e t h e s e p o l i t i c a l Encouraged  prisoners.  by t h i s s u c c e s s , t h e M a g y a r s e x e r t e d a  new  p r e s s u r e on t h e C r o a t d e l e g a t e s t o s u b m i t t o t h e t e r m s f o r the  M a g y a r i z a t i o n of C r o a t i a .  Magyar language had  A g a i n t h e y demanded t h a t  t o be a c c e p t e d as t h e o f f i c i a l  the  language  75 of  Croatia.  , J  This time the M a g y a r i z a t i o n p o l i c y  included  i n i t s s p h e r e o f i n f l u e n c e t h e M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r as w e l l , the  language  o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  German.  In his reply  where to the  M a g y a r demands t h e C r o a t d e l e g a t e , Herman B u z a n s a i d : • U n d e r no c i r c u m s t a n c e s do t h e C r o a t s want t o p r e v e n t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e M a g y a r l a n g u a g e a n d - t h e y them-  -1 5 9 -  s e l v e s w i s h t o l e a r n i t . H o w e v e r , as f a r as t h e L a t i n l a n g u a g e i s c o n c e r n e d , i t c a n n o t be d e n i e d t h a t t h i s i s t h e l a n g u a g e w h i c h has t o r e m a i n i n u s a g e b e c a u s e a l l t h e l a w s and documents s p e a k f o r it. I n t h e i r demands f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h i s l a n g u a g e , t h e C r o a t n o b i l i t y and c l e r g y a r e n o t m o t i v a t e d by t h e i r l o v e f o r i t , b u t by t h e i r r i g h t t o choose f r e e l y C r o a t i a ' s o f f i c i a l language. Theref o r e , i f ' t h e y f i n d i t advantageous t o change t h e i r o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e t h e y w i l l do s o by r e p l a c i n g L a t i n w i t h the language of t h e i r n a t i p n . . . b e c a u s e t h o s e C r o a t s , who p l a n t o o b t a i n employment w i t h t h e s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w i l l l e a r n M a g y a r i n any c a s e and b e c a u s e e x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t f o r c e r e s u l t s i n the o p p o s i t e consequences t o those i n t e n d e d , I advise y o u t o r e f r a i n f r o m t h e u s e o f f o r c e and l e a v e t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h e M a g y a r l a n g u a g e t o t h e C r o a t s on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . 7*+ The the  o p i n i o n e x p r e s s e d by B u z a n was  Croat Sabor.  This  was  the  first  nobility  publicly declared  official  l a n g u a g e i n C r o a t i a had  meant t h a t t h e  Croat language, under the  and  Croat,  to take  undergone s u f f i c i e n t  not  the  p l a c e , i t would  the Magyar l a n g u a g e .  experienced  of  Croat  that i f a replacement of  of the  had  opinion  time t h a t the  made i n f a v o u r  c u l t u r a l renaissance,  a l s o the  be  It  impact of the  Illyrian  s a t i s f a c t o r y progress  d e v e l o p m e n t t o be  considered  as  a  p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o the L a t i n language. Buzan a l s o pointed  out  t h a t use  f o r m e r m e e t i n g s o f t h e D i e t had  of f o r c e during  r e s u l t e d ' i n the  the  "opposite  75 consequences to those i n t e n d e d " underlined  i n this  by  statement revealed  f a c t o r s w h i c h e n a b l e d the the  , y  C r o a t n a t i o n was  Illyrian  the Magyars. t h a t one  of the  idea main  Movement t o s p r e a d among  the r e a c t i o n t o the  the Magyar p o l i c y toward C r o a t i a .  The  aggressiveness  I t showed t h a t  the  of Croat  -160-  ruling  class  counted  ment i n t h i s for  on t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e I l l y r i a n Move-  c a s e o f n e e d as t h e l a s t r e s o u r c e i n t h e s t r u g g l e  C r o a t autonomy and On  the n a t i o n ' s c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e .  the i n i t i a t i v e  o f F r a n c i s Deak, t h e l e a d e r o f  O p p o s i t i o n which denied the  Croats the r i g h t  as a s e p a r a t e n a t i o n , t h e D i e t r e j e c t e d  the  t o be Croat  the  considered argument  76  and  passed  a resolution  l e a r n the Magyar l a n g u a g e . the  C r o a t s was  giving  the  Croats t e n years  Once a g a i n t h e o n l y hope l e f t  the c e n t r a l government i n V i e n n a w h i c h ,  expected, would veto t h i s d e c i s i o n .  Every  s p e c i a l s e s s i o n s of i t s assembly  organized  asking  to  and  to  they  Croat county  held  petitions  t h a t t h e Emperor r e f u s e h i s r o y a l assent t o a l l  decisions  o f t h e D i e t w h i c h were d e s i g n e d  nationality  and  the m u n i c i p a l r i g h t s  D a l m a t i a , C r o a t i a and S l a v o n i a .  to d i m i n i s h the  o f the kingdoms  Among t h e s e t h e  of  Croat  c o u n t i e s i n c l u d e d the d e c i s i o n of the D i e t which gave  the 77  peasantry  the r i g h t  t o buy  i t s freedom from  the  landlords.  The  Emperor d e c i d e d t o v e t o the former d e c i s i o n of the D i e t  and  s a n c t i o n the l a t t e r .  Croat peasant t h e new and  d i d not improve.  law s p e c i f i e d  I n s p i t e of the f a c t  the peasant's  right  t o buy  t h e new  t o h i s f e u d a l master  l a w was  left  the  that  h i s freedom  t o become t h e owner o f h i s l a n d , t h e C r o a t p e a s a n t  mained t i e d  all  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p o s i t i o n of  re-  because the enforcement  t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e n o b l e s who  i n t h e i r power t o s a b o t a g e  i t by m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  the r e f u s a l t o acknowledge i t s e x i s t e n c e .  of did and  -161-  Other proposals made by the Magyars d i r e c t l y concerning Croatia did not reach the Emperor for the Croat delegates i n the House of Magnates, which was far more conservative than the lower chamber, were able to block their passage.  Thus,  f o r instance, the Protestants i n Croatia remained second-rate c i t i z e n s without c i t i z e n s ' r i g h t s , Slavonia remained a component part of the T r i p l e Kingdom as well as Rijeka, and Dalmatia remained as a Croat speaking region under the admini s t r a t i o n of Vienna, but belonging h i s t o r i c a l l y to Croatia, not Hungary. The Croat Sabor met on 10 August 1840 to discuss the report of the Croat delegates to Pozsony, and to make further plans for the struggle against Magyarization.  It established  two s p e c i a l commissions which were to study Croat h i s t o r i c a l documents and other material which could provide the Croat delegates to future Diets with s u f f i c i e n t evidence to prove to the Magyars the v a l i d i t y of the Croat arguments that Slavonia and Dalmatia had always belonged  to Croatia.  Thus,  the Croats hoped to take the questions of Slavonia and Dalmatia from the agenda of the Common Diet forever.  On the  basis of the reports from these two commissions, the Croats hoped to be able to compel the Magyars to recognize the v a l i d i t y of the Croat "municipal laws" not only i n Croatia proper, but also i n Dalmatia and Slavonia where, according to the Magyars, the Croat delegates to the Common Diet should 78 not oppose the policy of Magyarization.  -162-  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above p o l i t i c a l concentrating the  i t s a t t e n t i o n on t h e c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f  the f a c t that  t h e Croat Sabor had never before  important t o contribute  result  considered  t h i s d e c i s i o n was made as a  o f t h e g r o w i n g p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e I l l y r i a n Movement and  ideas The  for  Consid-  t o the development of the Croat  l a n g u a g e , i t was o b v i o u s t h a t  its  the Sabor,  n a t i o n , a l s o d e a l t w i t h some c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n s .  ering it  questions,  among t h e members o f t h e S a b o r . Sabor's d e c i s i o n t o send a p r o p o s a l  the establishment  (the Stokavian  t o t h e Emperor  o f s p e c i a l c h a i r s o f t h e Croat  language  d i a l e c t ) i n a l l C r o a t gymnasiums and t h e  Academy r e p r e s e n t e d  its first  contribution t o the general 79  development of the nation's proposal  I n the text of the  f /  t h e Sabor i n d i c a t e d that i t s i n t e n t i o n i n reaching  t h i s d e c i s i o n was t o h e l p people's language.  d e v e l o p and s p r e a d t h e u s e o f t h e  Further  d e c i s i o n i n d i c a t e d that the  language.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of this  t h e C r o a t n o b i l i t y was m o t i v a t e d by  s u c c e s s e s o f t h e Magyar n a t i o n a l movement: E n c o u r a g e d by t h e e x a m p l e s o f o t h e r n a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e M a g y a r o n e , we c o n s i d e r t h a t i t i s a l s o o u r d u t y t o s u p p o r t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f o u r l a n g u a g e b e c a u s e i t n., characterizes the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of our n a t i o n a l i t y ; From t h i s  statement i t i s c l e a r that  t o r e a l i z e i t s d u t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a w h o l e and n o t o n l y single representative  t h e Sabor had begun  t o w a r d s t h e n a t i o n as  towards t h e upper c l a s s . (excluding  v  While not a  Janko Draskovic  /  and h i s  small  -163-  g r o u p o f p a t r i o t i c n o b l e s ) had 1832 by  and 1840  1836,  and  a l l the  only  two  the  p r i n c i p l e s of n a t i o n a l i s m  proposal  done s o i n  S a b o r had  in 1839,  come t o  that n a t i o n a l sentiment i n general  r a p i d l y i n the  must h a v e d e v span of  eight  years. Influenced  the  very  had  t o the  It follows  eloped i n Croatia very, short  counties  representatives  realize i t s necessity. and  supported this  by  establishment  meeting of the  the  e x a m p l e o f t h e M a g y a r s , who  of the Magyar n a t i o n a l t h e a t r e  D i e t , the  s p e c i a l fund f o r the  had  suggested  at the  last  Sabor a l s o v o t e d f o r a u t h o r i z i n g  Croat t h e a t r e  and  a  many even, i m m e d i a t e l y Op  gave t h e i r v o l u n t a r y  contributions  of D i m i t r i j e Demeter l e d the theatre  c o u l d s e r v e as  of n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e .  the  The  Sabor, t h e r e f o r e ,  theatre The leaders  and  report  25  March  Croat  development an  chairmanship of Janko Drasa l l o c a t i o n o f t h e money f r o m  possibilities  of the  atmosphere p r e v a i l i n g i n the of the  work  the  appointed  constructing  i t s f i n d i n g s t o the Sabor.  of  l84l,  the  5  Sabor encouraged  c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h of the  they e s t a b l i s h e d the  "Society  a  -  the  I l l y r i a n Movement t o t a k e a d d i t i o n a l s t e p s  ward f u r t h e r d e v e l o p i n g On  the  The  that  an e f f e c t i v e t o o l i n t h e  to supervise  f u n d , examine the  fund.  nobles to b e l i e v e  a d d i t i o n a l commission under the k o v i c w h i c h was  to this  to-  Croats.  f o r the  Develop-  ment o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n C r o a t i a " w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t l y became known as was  t h e G o s p o d a r s k o D r u s t v o (The  formed to educate the  Economy S o c i e t y )  C r o a t p e a s a n t as w e l l as  to  and teach  -164-  him  modern a g r i c u l t u r a l Finally,  at the meeting of the leaders  Room" on 10 F e b r u a r y Matica  methods.  Ilirska  1 8 4 2 , i t was d e c i d e d  o f the "Reading  to e s t a b l i s h the  (The I l l y r i a n N a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n ) whose  p u r p o s e and t a s k , a c c o r d i n g  to i t s f i r s t  p r e s i d e n t , Janko  D r a s k o v i c , was : The m a i n p u r p o s e o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t o h e l p t h e g r o w t h and s p r e a d o f s c i e n c e and l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f o u r p e o p l e and t o g i v e a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o our youth t o educate i t s e l f i n the n a t i o n a l s p i r i t . . . . I n t h i s way, we c a n a c h i e v e r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e l i t e r a r y w o r l d a n d , a t .the same t i m e , h e l p and e n c o u r a g e n a t i v e w r i t e r s t o p r o d u c e w o r k s o f b e t t e r l i t e r a r y v a l u e . °5 The  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Matica  I l i r s k a was a p p r o v e d by  t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e members o f t h e C r o a t who o f f e r e d t h e i r  a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s work.  were even prepared needed. the  This  u p p e r c l a s s as w e l l ,  to help f i n a n c i a l l y  represented  i f their help  an a d d i t i o n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n  I l l y r i a n i d e a s had begun t o t a k e r o o t s  o f t h e Croat It  ruling  They was that  among t h e members  class.  only remained t o preserve  the r e s u l t s  of the I l l y r i a n  Movement and e n a b l e t h e u n i n t e r r u p t e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Croat  n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e , and w i t h i t ,  Croat  nationalism.  In  v i e w o f t h e r e n e w e d d a n g e r f r o m t h e M a g y a r n a t i o n a l movement, the  I l l y r i a n Movement c o u l d be p r o t e c t e d  a defence along  political  lines.  o n l y by o r g a n i z i n g  The M a g y a r n a t i o n a l move-  ment h a d c h a n g e d i t s s t r a t e g y by b e g i n n i n g I l l y r i a n elements i n C r o a t i a i t s e l f  to recruit  and f o r m i n g  anti-  a pro-Magyar  -165-  political  party.  T h i s new  aspect  of M a g y a r i z a t i o n  a f a r g r e a t e r d a n g e r s i n c e i t was n a t i o n a l i s m from i n s i d e affairs.  The  field  by i n t e r f e r i n g  to preserve  and  defeat  their  their  the b e g i n n i n g  assumed an e n t i r e l y  t h e two  political  Croat  political  cultural political  over  the Croat  Having  no  longer  the s t r u g g l e between  which occupied  political  movement f o r  Croats represented now  scene  t h e most t h e m i n d s  accomplished  of  i t s task i n  assigned a  new  party from o b t a i n i n g  i n s t i t u t i o n s , the Sabor  and  assemblies.  t o 1841  designed  political  The  the pro-Magyar p o l i t i c a l  I l l y r i a n P a r t y Versus Up  Croat n a t i o n a l  f i e l d , t h e I l l y r i a n Movement was  t a s k ; to prevent  counties'  parties  the  character.  I t was  patriotic leaders.  the c u l t u r a l  control  o f 1841  of the  the main i s s u e of the day.  utely  internal  own  newly a c h i e v e d  opponents i n the  different  the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e  The  w i t h Croat  Croat  a t home. T h u s , by  the  to destroy  C r o a t s were f o r c e d t o f o r m t h e i r  party i n order renaissance  attempting  represented  Croat-Magyar P a r t y  the e x i s t e n c e of p o l i t i c a l political  life.  the  With  p l a t f o r m s was  the i n c l u s i o n  parties  unknown t o t h e  of the  t h e movement f o r t h e c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e  Croat  g e n t s i a found  themselves  Croat  nobility  t h e r e w e r e no  p o l i t i c a l groups w h i c h c o u l d oppose the I l l y r i a n E n e m i e s o f I l l y r i s m among t h e  w i t h min-  strong  Movement.  C r o a t u p p e r c l a s s e s and  i n t h e m i n o r i t y and  into  found  intelli-  i t dangerous  -166-  to  advocate  publicly  any  pro-Magyar p o l i c y .  t h a t i f an a n t i - C r o a t movement was it  t o be  I t i s obvious  organized i n  w o u l d be done w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e M a g y a r s who  saw  I l l y r i a n Movement as t h e m a i n o b s t a c l e i n t h e way y a r i z a t i o n of  o f t h e Mag-  p a r t i e s were formed d u r i n g the  o f t h e D i e t i n 1839AO. ^  crystallized  the  Croatia.  Magyar p o l i t i c a l meeting  Croatia  Here, p o l i t i c a l  last parties  out o f t h e chaos c r e a t e d among t h e M a g y a r  by  t h e m a i n c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s o f t h e day  be  t a k e n towards  V i e n n a and i t s c e n t r a l i s m , t h e  of  p e a s a n t r y and  o t h e r s o c i a l r e f o r m s , and  nobility  - the p o s i t i o n  the  to  emancipation constitutional  Orp  status of  o f the Kingdom o f C r o a t i a .  '  I n t h e u p p e r chamber  the D i e t a s m a l l group of the h i g h e r nobles formed a pro-  A u s t r i a n c o n s e r v a t i v e party which  favoured the o l d c o n s t i t u oo  t i o n a l system  and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e .  development of the Magyar l a n g u a g e , r e c o g n i z e the v a l i d i t y of two  I t supported b u t was  willing  political  parties, liberally  F r a n c i s Deak and r a d i c a l s total  and  complete  to  o f t h e C r o a t argument f o r t h e  C r o a t i a t o i t s s p e c i a l s t a t u s i n the Monarchy.  M a g y a r i z a t i o n o f C r o a t i a and  right  The  inclined reformists  l e d by L o u i s K o s s u t h ,  the  other  l e d by  advocated the  incor-  p o r a t i o n o f t h e C r o a t r e g i o n s i n t o H u n g a r y as i t s o r d i n a r y administrative units. which  I t was  t h e w o r k o f t h e s e two  a n t a g o n i z e d the Croat n o b i l i t y  at the meetings  Common D i e t and w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t l y d r o v e of  t h e I l l y r i a n Movement.  The  r e s u l t was  groups of  them i n t o t h e that the  the ranks  Illyrian  - 1 6 7 -  Movement became a s t r o n g n a t i o n a l movement lost  a significant  and t h a t t h e M a g y a r s  a l l y which had wanted t o c r e a t e a c l o s e  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l u n i o n w i t h Hungary.  I t became c l e a r  t h e M a g y a r i z a t i o n o f C r o a t i a was t o s u c c e e d , Movement h a d t o be d e s t r o y e d by f o r m i n g ophils  i n t o a w e l l organized p o l i t i c a l  of such  a p a r t y w o u l d be " t o d e f e a t  that i f  the I l l y r i a n  t h e Croat Magyar party.  The m a i n t a s k  and i f p o s s i b l e t o e l i m i n a t e  89 Illyrism"  y  During had  i n Croatia. t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e D i e t i n 1839/40, t h e M a g y a r s  a l r e a d y b e e n a b l e t o p e r s u a d e s e v e r a l members o f t h e C r o a t  upper n o b i l i t y  to reject  I l l y r i s m as a n a n t i - C r o a t movement  w h i c h aimed t o f o r c e u p o n C r o a t i a t h e S e r b i a n dialect  and t o g i v e t h e c o u n t r y  replacing  a new name, " I l l y r i a " ,  t h e a n c i e n t name, " C r o a t i a " .  Count A l e x a n d e r  Stokavian  The M a g y a r s  promised  D r a s k o v i c , nephew o f J a n k o D r a s k o v i c ,  E r d b d y , and L e v i n and J u r a j Rauch a l l t h e a s s i s t a n c e for  by  Alexander necessary  t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a movement a g a i n s t t h e I l l y r i a n s .  These n o b l e s , w i t h t h e h e l p o f the Magyar p r o f e s s o r s at t h e Academy o f Z a g r e b and t h e l e a d e r o f t h e T u r o p o l j e  village  n o b l e s , A n t u n D a n i e l J o s i p o v i c , e s t a b l i s h e d i n December  1839  i n Zagreb t h e i r c l u b , K a s i n o , an a n t i - I l l y r i a n p o l i t i c a l The  Croat v i l l a g e  nobility  j o i n e d the ranks  party.  of the  Magyarophils  b e c a u s e i t h o p e d t o o b t a i n more p o l i t i c a l  in  The v i l l a g e n o b l e , as we a l r e a d y know, h a d no  Croatia.  right  t o be r e p r e s e n t e d  t h e r e , and was r e g a r d e d  rights  i n the Sabor or t o have h i s seat by t h e u p p e r n o b i l i t y  as a p e a s a n t  who  -168-  who  owned h i s l a n d and had  The  Magyarophils  utilized  the r i g h t s which  no f e u d a l t i e s w i t h h i s t h i s s i t u a t i o n and  to support  promised him a l l  t h e members o f t h e u p p e r c l a s s  exchange f o r these p r i v i l e g e s ,  Croat  C r o a t s o i l was initial  first  willing  t o a c c e p t Magyar  a new  political  p a r t y was  i n Z a g r e b u n d e r t h e name o f t h e C r o a t - H u n g a r i a n programme o f t h i s  In  language.  o f iQkl  I n the s p r i n g  enjoyed.  t h e v i l l a g e n o b l e was  t h e M a g y a r i z a t i o n o f C r o a t i a and  i n s t e a d o f h i s own  master.  political  formed  Party.  The  p a r t y t o e v e r be f o r m e d  on  d e s i g n e d by t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f K a s i n o whose  policy  was:  1. To e l i m i n a t e among t h e C r o a t s t h e u s a g e o f  "the  90  d a n g e r o u s I l l y r i a n name" by  a n t i - n a t i o n a l elements  destroying  the Croat  2. To a b o l i s h t h e u s e  which had been d e s i g n e d  7  w i t h the purpose  nationality.  o f t h e new  orthography  r e p l a c e t h e S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t by one  w h i c h was  the only d i a l e c t  C r o a t s and s u i t a b l e f o r t h e 3.  To p e r s u a d e  the  of  the  and  Croat K a j k a v i a n  a c c e p t a b l e t o the  language.  Croats t o support  the c r e a t i o n of a  c l o s e u n i o n w i t h Hungary i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h u n i t a r y M a g y a r s t a t e w i t h M a g y a r as t h e language  to  o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  one  official  as t h e l a n g u a g e  of  i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l Croat s c h o o l s . h.  To p r e v a i l u p o n t h e  Croats t o accept  t h e amendment  of the C o n s t i t u t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o which  each  of  the  -169-  Croat to  counties  was t o s e n d i t s d e l e g a t e s  directly  t h e Common D i e t as was done by o t h e r M a g y a r  counties.  91 T h u s , on one h a n d , t h e M a g y a r o n s for  they  supported  were  y  progressive  some r a d i c a l r e f o r m s a d v o c a t e d by t h e  Magyars a n d , on t h e o t h e r , they were backward b e c a u s e m a i n p u r p o s e was t o d e s t r o y the  I l l y r i a n Movement.  t h e Croat  their  n a t i o n a l i s m c r e a t e d by  Under t h e name " C r o a t i s m "  t o m a g y a r i z e t h e n a t i o n and t o d e s t r o y  t h e Croat  they  planned  nationality.  M a g y a r o n s h a d some r i g h t t o c a l l t h e m s e l v e s l i b e r a l f o r t h e y s u p p o r t e d t h e demands o f t h e M a g y a r O p p o s i t i o n w h i c h demanded t h a t t h e P r o t e s t a n t s i n C r o a t i a a l s o be given f u l l citizens' rights. However, t h i s p r o p o s a l was n o t b a s e d on f r e e d o m o f c o n s c i e n c e , b u t on t h e p o l i t i c a l problem which, under those c i r c u m s t a n c e s , had p r i m a r i l y t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p r i n c i p l e i n v o l v e d . 92 The  principle  i n v o l v e d was t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e C r o a t  autonomy w h i c h w o u l d be u n d e r m i n e d h a d t h e C r o a t to  t h e Common D i e t a g r e e d t o a p p e a s e t h e M a g y a r s o n t h i s  This any  delegates  question  c o u l d l e g a l l y be s o l v e d a t t h e S a b o r o n l y , and  attempt o f t h e Croats  t o s o l v e t h e problem i n Pozsony  involved a r e s t r i c t i o n i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e i r lative  issue.  legis-  body.  The Illyrians  first  s t e p t a k e n by t h e M a g y a r o n s was t o a c c u s e t h e  at Vienna o f having  organized  an a n t i - M o n a r c h y  movement w h i c h a i m e d t o u n i t e a l l S o u t h S l a v s u n d e r t h e 93 protection of Russia. the  / J  Thus t h e M a g y a r o n s h o p e d t o d e p r i v e  I l l y r i a n s of a valuable  ally  c e n t r a l government t o s u p p o r t  and t o p r e v a i l  their  cause.  upon t h e  Their  accusation  -1 7 0 -  was b a s e d on t h e f a c t  t h a t G a j h a d made a t r i p  Moscow and S t . P e t e r s b u r g w h e r e , a c c o r d i n g sought Russian a s s i s t a n c e i n the I l l y r i a n s *  t o Warsaw,  t o them, he h a d attempt  to create  an i n d e p e n d e n t S o u t h S l a v i c s t a t e .  A t t h e same t i m e a l l  t h r e e Magyar newspapers, Kossuth's  P e s t i H i r l a p , the con-  servative Vilag  and t h e l i b e r a l  J e l e n k o r , b e g a n an o r g a n i z e d  a t t a c k on t h e I l l y r i a n Movement as a t r e a c h e r o u s to  Croatia i t s e l f  t h e Magyarons began t o i n t e r p r e t t h e  I l l y r i a n Movement t o t h e v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y planned  as a movement  which  t o w i t h d r a w t h e c o u n t r y f r o m t h e u n i o n w i t h Hungary  t o submerge i t d i r e c t l y  Austrian I l l y r i a , and  designed  harm b o t h H u n g a r y and A u s t r i a . In  and  idea  t o t h e German r u l e  w h i c h w o u l d mean t h e end o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n  f r e e d o m and t h e b e g i n n i n g  Germanization. interprets  as a p a r t o f  of a b s o l u t i s t i c  On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s  c e n t r a l i s m and  f a c t P r o f e s s o r Bogdanov  t h e I l l y r i a n Movement as t h e movement o f t h e C r o a t  middle  class  only which,  itself  i n a class  according  t o Marxism-Leninism,  c o n f l i c t w i t h the upper n o b i l i t y .  He  found says:  In t h i s r e s p e c t i t i s very s i g n i f i c a n t t o note that the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s h i s t o r i o g r a p h y , Ferdo S i s i c , d i d n o t n o t i c e one o f t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e I l l y r i a n n a t i o n a l renaissance: the fact that the i d e a l o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r o f t h i s movement was t h e new, p r o g r e s s i v e b o u r g e o i s c l a s s o f C r o a t i a . 95 T h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g t o Bogdanov, t h e Croat upper continued joined  class  t o o p p o s e t h e I l l y r i a n Movement e v e n a f t e r 1836 and  t h e M a g y a r o n s i n 1841,  ^  except  f o r Janko  Draskovic  -171-  and  h i s s m a l l group o f f o l l o w e r s i n the Sabor.  i d e a was t o d e s c r i b e  t h e C r o a t u p p e r c l a s s as a n a n t i -  n a t i o n a l f o r c e w h i c h was a l w a y s w i l l i n g t o t h e Magyars i n o r d e r it  i s true that  Bogdanov's  t o preserve  the country  i t s social status.  the Croat upper n o b i l i t y  r a d i c a l s o c i a l reforms,  to s e l l  i t i s misleading  always  While  opposed  t o conclude that i t  a l w a y s l a c k e d n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t and a l w a y s o p p o s e d t h e c u l t u r a l renaissance  introduced  by t h e I l l y r i a n Movement.  an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f I l l y r i s m l e a d s clusions It  the reader  as t o t h e o r i g i n s and c h a r a c t e r  t o wrong  of Croat  nationalism.  t h e I l l y r i a n Movement became a d e c i d e d l y  conservative  movement s u p p o r t e d e q u a l l y by t h e C r o a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s described  t o the Sabor.  For the various  of view.  The c h a r a c t e r  I l l y r i a n Movement was d i c t a t e d by t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y political  conditions  i t s intellectuals)  of the  cultural  i n C r o a t i a and by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  of the Croat-Magyar r e l a t i o n s .  The C r o a t m i d d l e c l a s s ( l e d  and t h e C r o a t u p p e r c l a s s w e r e t o o  w i t h the s t r u g g l e f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the  C r o a t autonomy and f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C r o a t t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o s o c i a l p r o b l e m s o r c r e a t e s u c h i s s u e s when t h e c o u n t r y and  reasons  as P r o f e s s o r B o g d a n o v a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n f r o m  the M a r x i s t i c - L e n i n i s t i c point  preoccupied  and  a b o v e , t h e I l l y r i a n Movement n e v e r became as s o c i a l l y  progressive  by  con-  i s a f a c t t h a t , f o l l o w i n g t h e y e a r s 1836 and e s p e c i a l l y  1841,  and  Such  a conflict  was i n d a n g e r o f b e i n g  v i r t u a l l y w i p e d f r o m t h e map.  Therefore  culture over  magyarized  i t should  be c l e a r  -172-  that  the Croat-Hungarian Party found i t s supporters  Magyar o f f i c i a l s mainly  among t h e v i l l a g e  polje. by  i n Zagreb, s e v e r a l higher  On t h e o t h e r  nobility,  Croat n o b l e s , and  e s p e c i a l l y that of Turo-  s i d e , t h e I l l y r i a n Movement was s u p p o r t e d  t h e members o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , i n t e l l e c t u a l s  majority  of the upper  Following the  Illyrians  and t h e  nobility.  the establishment reacted  among t h e  of the Croat-Hungarian  by o r g a n i z i n g  u n d e r t h e name o f t h e I l l y r i a n b a s e d a l s o on t h e I l l y r i a n  their  own p o l i t i c a l  Party, party  P a r t y w h i c h h a d i t s programme  ideas:  . . . t h a t p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n C r o a t i a and H u n g a r y h a v e t o be m o d i f i e d s o t h a t t h e C r o a t , S l a v o n i a n and D a l m a t i a n r e g i o n s be u n i t e d w i t h t h e M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r a n d R i j e k a i n t o one p o l i t i c a l , t e r r i t o r i a l whole independent of Hungary, under the l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e B a n and w i t h t h e C r o a t l a n g u a g e as the o f f i c i a l language of t h e s t a t e . I n t h e l i t e r a r y f i e l d t h e p a r t y advocated c u l t u r a l u n i o n w i t h the Croats i n B o s n i a a n d a l s o w i t h t h e S l o v e n e s and S e r b s t h r o u g h one l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e , ' I l l y r i a n ' . 97 I n Zagreb i t s e l f the I l l y r i a n s  began t o wear n a t i o n a l  f o l k c o s t u m e s , h e l d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s and s a n g p a t r i o t i c w h i c h once a g a i n ing  came t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t  of national sentiment.  movement was much s t r o n g e r and  However, t h i s  r o l e i n t h e awakentime t h e pro-Magyar  and b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d  i t s f o l l o w e r s were p r e p a r e d t o e n t e r  songs  than  before  i n t o an open s t r u g g l e  98  with  t h e I l l y r i a n Movement. \ The  first  took place  political  s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n t h e two p a r t i e s  i n the Croat counties  counties' o f f i c i a l s .  during  the e l e c t i o n s f o r the  The M a g y a r o n s , "who w e r e u n t i l  yesterday  -173-  unknown and  became o v e r n i g h t  aimed t o w i n g a i n the of the  e l e c t i o n s i n a l l the  c u l t u r a l renaissance  win  e l e c t i o n s i n the  majority  political  Croat counties  c o n t r o l o f t h e S a b o r and  Pozsony to.agree w i t h the To  a powerful  destroy  the  by i n s t r u c t i n g  i n order  of  sent  necessary  by  the  outnumbered the upper n o b i l i t y w i t h h e r e d i t a r y s e a t s .  elect  any  of the upper n o b i l i t y , had  entered  with  The  expected  Croat-Hungarian Party  t h e M a g y a r o n s had  e l e c t i o n s i n those counties  first  was  e s p e c i a l l y those of f o r e i g n  the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y ,  n o b i l i t y represented  the m a j o r i t y  an  c o u n t y t o h o l d e l e c t i o n s o r , as  at K r i z e v c i w i t h a group of I l l y r i a n s  Party. any  final The  e l e c t i o n was  had  securing  s u p p o r t e d the  Krizevci.  himself  from Zagreb w i t h of  i n the  Illyrian  arrived the  nationalism  the v i c t o r y f o r the  h e l d i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n  i n c i d e n t s f o r the m a j o r i t y  heavily represented  Gaj  r e f r e s h i n g the s p i r i t  c a m p a i g n and  lower  t h e y were  of e l e c t i o n s , 1 September 1841,  p u r p o s e o f r e v i v i n g and  together  of the e l e c t o r a t e .  On  the  to  origin,  where the  c a l l e d , r e s t a u r a c i j a ( r e s t a u r a t i o n ) was  in  and  excellent  officially t h e day  In  I n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t some members  the ranks of the  chance to win  counties  could cast i t s vote  member o f t h e u p p e r n o b i l i t y who  protect i t s interests.-  to  Croatia.  meant t o s e c u r e t h e  these e l e c t i o n s the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y  to  the delegates  i n the Sabor because the d e l e g a t e s  7 7  achievements  proposed M a g y a r i z a t i o n  counties  factor",  Illyrian  without  o f t h e n o b i l i t y , w h i c h was  Illyrian  reading  c a u s e s i n c e 1836.  room o f  also  Krizevci,  Consequently,  - 1 7 4 -  the r e s u l t s  of the e l e c t i o n s showed an overwhelming  f o r the I l l y r i a n P a r t y . the " I l l y r i a n C a s t l e "  1  victory  The county of K r i z e v c i a l s o 0  0  (tvrd java i l i r s k a ) r  called  had no l o c a l  agency of the Croat-Hungarian P a r t y and a very s m a l l number of village  n o b i l i t y which made no s e r i o u s attempts to c h a l l e n g e  the I l l y r i a n s during these  elections.  The Croat-Hungarian P a r t y had prepared i t s e l f first  for  its  p u b l i c appearance i n the e l e c t i o n f o r the 'county  officials  of V a r a z d i n , which were h e l d on 2 November 1841.  Here the party had a s u b s t a n t i a l f o l l o w i n g composed of a relatively  l a r g e number of f o r e i g n n o b i l i t y  strative o f f i c i a l s .  and Magyar a d m i n i -  The e l e c t i o n i t s e l f was fought  over  the i s s u e of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Croat counties i n Common D i e t . the  The Magyarons, as we a l r e a d y know, h e l d that  Croat counties should send t h e i r delegates  directly jointly  the  and not through the Sabor to f o l l o w reached by a l l  to Pozsony  instructions  the members of the Sabor.  The I l l y r i a n s ,  a s s i s t e d by t h e i r f e l l o w members from Zagreb, D r a s k o v i c , Gaj and Buzan, d i s p u t e d the Magyar p r o p o s a l on the b a s i s such a d e c i s i o n c o u l d not be reached by any county f o r l a c k e d the j u r i s d i c t i o n to decide such m a t t e r s . d e b a t e , which l a s t e d over s i x h o u r s , f i n a l l y complete v i c t o r y  This  who had aimed to defeat  it bitter  ended with the  of the I l l y r i a n Party which was able  a t t r a c t l a r g e r f o l l o w i n g than the Magyarons.  that  to  The Magyarons,  the I l l y r i a n Movement with one s t r o k e ,  d i d not r e a l i z e that t h e i r  p r o p o s a l i n V a r a z d i n was  premature  -17*because those nobles  who  were i n c l i n e d  to support  them  on  101 some i s s u e s w e r e n o t y e t p r e p a r e d Being  by n a t u r e  o p p o s e d t o any  found  i t more p o l i t i c a l l y  new  a l l the  Gaj's  p l a t f o r m as  way.  changes, t h i s  sound t o support  Commenting on t h e e l e c t i o n s p l a i n e d the I l l y r i a n  t o go  the  nobility Illyrians.  "Illyrian  News"  ex-  follows:  . . . b e c a u s e t h e d e f e n d e r s o f C r o a t n a t i o n a l i t y , who w e r e s u p p o r t e d by t h e m a j o r i t y , p r o v e d i n a v e r y s k i l f u l and c l e a r manner t h a t , i f t h e M a g y a r p r o p o s a l was a c c e p t e d , t h e C r o a t s w o u l d l o s e n o t o n l y t h e i r n a t i o n a l l i f e , b u t a l s o t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s and m u n i c i p a l r i g h t s , I l l y r i s m won w i t h c l e a r m a j o r i t y . The M a g y a r p r o p o s a l a i m e d t o m e l d C r o a t i a w i t h H u n g a r y and t h u s f o r c e t h e C r o a t s t o commit p o l i t i c a l s u i c i d e . For many c e n t u r i e s o u r c o u n t i e s were n o t d i r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e H u n g a r i a n D i e t , b u t t h r o u g h a g e n e r a l body o f t h e Kingdoms o f D a l m a t i a , C r o a t i a and S l a v o n i a w h i c h e l e c t s d e l e g a t e s t o r e p r e s e n t the e n t i r e n a t i o n . These d e l e g a t e s are not o n l y the Hungarians' c o - p a r t n e r s i n l a w - m a k i n g i f s u c h laws, c o n c e r n b o t h C r o a t i a and Hungary, but a l s o p r o t e c t o r s of the homogeneity of the a b o v e m e n t i o n e d k i n g d o m s and d e f e n d e r s o f t h e r i g h t s and f r e e d o m o f t h e i r h o m e l a n d . T h e r e f o r e , i f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o u n t i e s were a l l o w e d t o s e n d t h e i r own d e l e g a t e s , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e above m e n t i o n e d C r o a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w o u l d be c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e d and t h e C r o a t c o u n t i e s w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as o t h e r M a g y a r c o u n t i e s , u n a b l e t o p r o t e c t t h e i r n a t i o n a l i t y and m u n i cipal rights. 102 The  Illyrian  v i c t o r y had  f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e two In  a significant opposing  i n f l u e n c e on  political  parties.  V a r a z d i n i t s e l f the Magyarons were never a g a i n a b l e  recuperate  from the l o s s  I l l y r i a n Movement.  they had  Many i m p o r t a n t  h e l d key  s u f f e r e d and and  their  p a r t y who  found  i t impossible to maintain t h e i r  the  to  endanger  the  p r o m i n e n t members o f  p o s i t