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Origins and development of Croat nationalism and the Croat-Magyar controversy, 1790-1847 Stipac, Boris 1964

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ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF CROAT NATIONALISM AND THE CROAT-MAGYAR CONTROVERSY 1790 - I8U7 by BORIS STIPAC B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1963. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In the Department of SLAVONIC STUDIES We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 196U. In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of • British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that, copying or publi-cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission,. Department of Sl a v o n i c Studies The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8 ? Canada Date A p r i l 5, 196k ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h i s work i s t o examine the o r i g i n s and development of Croat n a t i o n a l i s m i n the l i g h t o f the Croat-Magyar r e l a t i o n s from the p e r i o d of E n l i g h t e n e d A b s o l u t i s m t o the eve o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y y e a r of l S ^ S . S i n c e the development of Croat n a t i o n a l i s m was s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the Magyar n a t i o n a l movement o f t h a t p e r i o d , the b u l k o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s devoted t o an a n a l y s i s o f the Croat-Magyar c o n t r o v e r s y caused by the M a g y a r s 1 d e s i r e t o m a g y a r i z e the Croat n a t i o n . The main s t r u g g l e between the two opposing f o r c e s t o o k p l a c e i n the Common D i e t composed o f the d e l e g a t e s from b o t h n a t i o n s . However, t h e Croat n a t i o n a l movement i t s e l f o r i g i n a t e d among the young n a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s who, as a r u l e , d i d not have any d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the p r o c e e d i n g s o f the Croat l e g i s l a t i v e house, the Sabor. Under the i n f l u e n c e o f the Czech, S l o v a k and P o l i s h n a t i o n a l i s t s , t h e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l s r e n d e r e d an i n v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e t o the Croat n a t i o n . T h e i r work r e s u l t e d i n C r o a t i a ' s c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t l y s e r v e d as the b a s i s f o r the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t Hungary. The a u t h o r presupposes t h a t t h e r e a d e r possesses adequate knowledge o f Croat h i s t o r y i n g e n e r a l and o f the p e r i o d d i s c u s s e d i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h e r e f o r e no attempt has been made t o d e s c r i b e or e x p l a i n some., fu n d a m e n t a l a s p e c t s of C r o a t i a ' s p o l i t i c a l and I l l cultural history. Any such endeavour would inevitably remove us from the topic and would be inconsistent with the task of this work. Chapters I and II deal with the background of the problem. Chapter I offers a brief explanation of Croatia's p o l i t i c a l status within the Habsburg Monarchy. Chapter II describes the origins and background of the Croat national movement which developed, following the. year 1832, as the I l l y r i a n Movement. It enables the reader to acquaint himself with the fundamentals and character of the Croat-Magyar controversy and with the p o l i t i c a l and cultural situation prevailing among the various Croat regions. Chapter III concentrates on the I l l y r i a n Movement i t s e l f . It describes extensively the cultural renaissance of the Croats and points out the role and effects of the I l l y r i a n Movement on the Croat-Magyar relations. Here again the author concentrates on the p o l i t i c a l effects of the cultural renaissance. The literary works of the Illyrians are mentioned and described in so far as they had a direct bearing upon the p o l i t i c a l situation i n Croatia. In Chapter IV, the p o l i t i c a l nature of the struggle between the two nations reaches i t s peak. Following the formation of the f i r s t . p o l i t i c a l parties and the c r i s i s i n the Croat national movement caused by the defeat of the Illyrians at the hands of the Magyarons in the election of 18U5, the Croat national idea was f i n a l l y emancipated.' The Croat language f i n a l l y became IV the o f f i c i a l language for Croatia. Thus the main aim of the I l l y r i a n s was accomplished. In the l a s t moment, Croatia emerged f u l l y prepared to face the revolutionary year of l8*+8. C O N T E N T S I - HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Page A. Croatia's P o s i t i o n i n the Habsburg Monarchy 1 B. The P e r i o d of Enlightened Absolutism 1 1 C. Forerunners of 1 9 t h Century N a t i o n a l i s m '.. 1 8 I I - BEFORE THE ILLYRIAN MOVEMENT ( 1 7 9 0 - 1 8 3 2 ) A. Voluntary Surrender 3 5 B. C r o a t i a During the Napoleonic Wars ^ 5 C. Elements of Nationalism Among the Ruling Class. 5 8 D. F i r s t N a t i o n a l Awakeners and Their Work 7 5 E. S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of C r o a t i a i n the F i r s t H a l f of the 1 9 t h Century 9 6 I I I - DURING THE ILLYRIAN MOVEMENT ( 1 8 3 2 - 1 8 ^ 3 ) A. Count Janko Draskovic and the Diet of 1 8 3 2 - 3 6 . . 1 2 0 B. C u l t u r a l Renaissance of the Nation 1 3 1 C. The Croat Ruling Class at the Diet of l 8 3 9 - l + 0 . . 1 5 ^ D. The I l l y r i a n Party v. the Croat-Hungarian Party 1 6 5 E. P r o h i b i t i o n of the Name " I l l y r i s m " 1 8 0 IV - AFTER THE ILLYRIAN MOVEMENT ( 1 8 ^ 3 - 1 8 U 7 ) A. The People.'s Party i n L e g i s l a t i v e Bodies 1 8 1 4 3 - I + 1 4 2 0 5 B. The V i c t o r y of the I l l y r i a n N a t i o n a l i s t s 2 1 5 C. The C r i s i s i n the Croat N a t i o n a l Movement 2 2 6 D. F i n a l Emancipation of the N a t i o n a l Ideas 2 3 6 V - CONCLUSIONS." 2 6 7 B i b l i o g r a p h y . . . . 2 7 9 I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Croatia's Position in the Habsburg Monarchy After the Battle of Mohacs (29 August 1526), Hungary, Croatia and the other lands belonging to the Crown of St. Stephen were left without a king. Young Louis II, the last member of the house of Jagiello, perished during the battle and le f t Bohemia and Hungary without a ruling dynasty. Of a l l the candidates for the vacant throne, the most logical choice appeared to be the Archduke of Austria, Ferdinand I. According to the agreement of 1515 between Maximilian I and Ladislas II, "Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia were to become Habsburg lands i f 2 Louis II died without leaving a successor". The majority of the Magyar nobility refused to recognize Ferdinand as the King of Hungary. They argued that, according to the decision of the Hungarian Diet of 1505? no foreigner could become a candidate for the Croat-Magyar throne. Their choice was Ivan Zapolya, a prominent member of the Magyar nobility from Transylvania. He was also supported by the majority of the Croat nobility from Slavonia which was strongly influenced by Hungary because of i t s geographic position. J In the meantime the nobles of Croatia proper met i n Cetin - 2 -on January 1, 1527, and unanimously elected Ferdinand I as King of a l l Croat lands. The Slavonian nobility refused to recognize the validity of this decision and, on January 6, i t s members met in Dubrava, near Cazma, to elect Ivan Zapolya. As a result the Triple Kingdom ended with two kings, one in Croatia proper and one in Slavonia. Conflict between the two opposing'forces was inevitable. The nobility of Croatia proper f e l t that, in view of the constant danger from their aggressive Turkish neighbour, Croatia and Hungary were not strong enough to maintain their freedom, and a union with Austria would offer far greater security. The problem was f i n a l l y solved, by the defeat of Zapolya's followers in the C i v i l War (Grad.ianski rat). With Ferdinand's assistance the Croats of Croatia proper defeated Zapolya's followers who were then forced to seek Turkish help. The Turks ut i l i z e d this opportunity to conquer additional lands in Slavonia and Southern Hungary. The problem of succession was f i n a l l y solved after the death of Ivan Zapolya in 15^0. Ferdinand I became the sole master of the remnants of Hungary and Croatia. The decision reached by the Slavonian nobility on January 6, 1527, lost i t s va l i d i t y . Slavonia and Croatia proper were together incorporated into Austria on the basis of the above mentioned decision reached at Cetin. However, in accordance with the terms of this agreement, Ferdinand consented to respect and protect a l l the rights and freedoms the Croat nobility had enjoyed under the rule of Hungarian kings. Cetinska izborna diploma (the Cetin Electoral Diploma) read: -3-Having examined the validity of the afore mentioned rights of this King (i.e. Ferdinand)...to heredi-tary succession i n the Hungarian Kingdom...and having considered that of a l l the Christian rulers only His Royal Majesty defended us and the Croat Kingdom from the wild Turks...we recognize His Highness King Ferdinand...as the lawful King and master of the entire famous Croat Kingdom.... ^  Thus, for the f i r s t time in her history, Croatia was united with Austria by means of a personal union. Its p o l i t i c a l status i n this newly created empire became more complicated. Up to that time' Croatia had recognized only one master, the King of Hungary. The origin and character of the ties connecting Croatia with Hungary for over nine hundred years must be made clear i f the relations between these two countries i n the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century are to be understood. A l l the arguments of the Croat nobility against Magyarization in the Common Diet at Pozony were based entirely upon the agreement reached between their forefathers and Koloman, the King of Hungary, and i t s subsequent amendments made by the King's successors. The crucial event which dictated the course of Croatia's history for several centuries took place i n 1102. .After a long war, Koloman f i n a l l y defeated the forces of Croatia's King Peter (1093-1097) who himself perished in the battle. But, recognizing the strength of his defeated opponents, Koloman decided to conclude a peaceful agreement with the Croat nobility according to which the Croat nobles would recognize the authority of the Hungarian kings. The result was a document signed by representa-tives of the twelve most prominent Croat tribes (plemena), often -It-referred to as the Pacta Conventa. J This document s p e c i f i c a l l y describes the voluntary nature of the union between the two countries and points out: ...that the afore mentioned (nobles) and th e i r families w i l l never.be deprived of t h e i r right to enjoy t h e i r estates and possessions; -that the afore mentioned (nobles) and members of the i r families w i l l never be compelled to pay taxes or tribute to the King, except i n case of enemy attack when, i f the King demands, each of the mentioned noble families w i l l send ten armed horsemen...whose duty w i l l be to stay with the King u n t i l the end of such h o s t i l i t i e s . ° The provisions of this agreement were enforced without any major d i f f i c u l t i e s and the two nations continued to l i v e under this arrangement for seven hundred years, never f e e l i n g the necessity to change i t s fundamentals. The main reason for this l i e s i n the fact that the interests of both Magyar and Croat n o b i l i t y were almost i d e n t i c a l . National ideas and a sense of belonging to a pa r t i c u l a r nation did not exist among 7 the members of th e i r c l a s s , and there were several strong motives which drew them together in t o a closer union. The main factor which made the union of the two countries possible was t h e i r common r e l i g i o n . Since Dmitar Zvonimir and Ladislas I , who, at the time of the s p l i t among the Christians i n 105^5 decided to recognize the Pope i n Rome as the head of the i r respective churches, both Croatia and Hungary had accepted Catholicism, and the L a t i n language as the o f f i c i a l language of administration. The union between the two countries-was further strengthened by the fact that they were forced to form a common defence against the same enemies. In the early Middle Ages Venice denied Croatia-Hungary the right to establish Its authority i n Dalmatia and the islands along the Adriatic Coast. Later, from the fifteenth century, "the need for a common defence was Q justified more than ever" by the war against the Turkish on-slaught which threatened to destroy not only Croatia and Hungary, but their new master, Austria, as well. However, i t was not un t i l the end of the eighteenth century that cooperation between the Croat and Magyar nobles reached a point where the Croats were willing to sacrifice their rights as a nation and state i n order to defeat the centralism and Germanization imposed upon them by the Habsburgs, and preserve their old constitutional arrangement. The old constitution actually placed the Croat nobles i n a better position than was enjoyed by the Magyar nobles; i n addition to the rights and privileges enjoyed by a l l the nobles of Croatia-Hungary, the Croat nobles enjoyed their own special rights and privileges guaranteed them by various Hungarian kings in diverse forms since 1102. Thus, in spite of the double yoke imposed upon Croatia, a direct one by Hungary and an indirect one by Austria, the Croat upper class held in their hands an excellent tool with which to combat the reforms of the enlight-ened despot, Joseph II. Unfortunately, the Croat nobility, controlled by i t s conservative narrowmindedness which dictated and orientated i t s strategy only towards protection of i t s economic interests, voluntarily surrendered Croatia's rights -6-as a n a t i o n i n 1790 i n favour of the c e n t r a l Hungarian d i e t --l e a v i n g C r o a t i a without a- s i n g l e , e f f e c t i v e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l weapon i n her s t r u g g l e to preserve her n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y and c u l t u r e . Had these nobles r e a l i z e d i n time that by appeasing the Magyars they were endangering t h e i r own existence as a r u l i n g c l a s s i n C r o a t i a , the serious s t r u g g l e which developed i n the 1830's and lS^O's would have ended w i t h much more favour-able c o n d i t i o n s and l e s s s a c r i f i c e s f o r C r o a t i a . The system of government i n C r o a t i a allowed the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s a considerable amount of self-government. P r a c t i -c a l l y every governmental i n s t i t u t i o n was more or l e s s c o n t r o l l e d by the n a t i v e r u l i n g c l a s s . The j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Croat Sabor was very e x t e n s i v e , and. i n c l u d e d such important matters as taxes and r e c r u i t m e n t . The powers of the Sabor, coupled w i t h those of the Ban's o f f i c e , presented a strong l e g a l b a r r i e r against M a g y a r i z a t i o n . Furthermore, both C r o a t i a and S l a v o n i a were subdivided i n t o l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s , the zupani.ias ( c o u n t i e s ) , which possessed almost e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over matters of l o c a l importance. Each of the counties sent i t s delegates to the Croat Sabor where they were to f o l l o w i n s t r u c -t i o n s g iven to them by t h e i r c ounties' skupstlnas (assemblies). During the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Ban was d r a s t i c a l l y reduced. He was no longer the supreme power i n the governmental machinery of C r o a t i a as had been the case during the Middle Ages. ^ With the appearance of absolutism during the r e i g n of Maria Theresa and Joseph I I , h i s d i s c r e t i o n to c a l l the Sabor i n t o s e s s i o n was abolished. The office of the Ban became "the supreme administrative organ which acts i n the name of the King and 1 0 instead of the King". In view of the fact that the Ban owed his appointment to the King, i t is not surprising that, during absolutism, the independence of his actions was sub-stantially reduced, especially after the candidacy was opened to foreign nationals. But, i n relation to Hungary, the Croat Ban continued to be independent i n spite of the fact that Maria Theresa gave the Crown's Council for Hungary executive juris-diction over the Croat affairs ( 1 7 7 9 ) . In the case of a disagreement, with the Crown's Council for Hungary, the Ban could appeal to the central government i n Vienna, or he could bring the mattertto the next meeting of the Sabor, or the Common Diet. These meetings, however, were not frequent u n t i l the turn of' the century when the Magyar national movement made 12 i t s appearance. During the struggle against Magyarization the Croat zupani.ias (counties) played a very important role. The skupstinas (assemblies) of the counties were composed of nobility and they performed " a l l functions of a governmental nature—legislative, 13 executive and j u d i c i a l " . -' During Joseph II's reign, of absolutistic centralism the counties' regional autonomy was further increased. If the King failed to c a l l the Sabor into session, as was the case during the period of Germanization, the Croat nobility used the counties' assemblies as a weapon against such anti-constitutional measures by the sovereign. - 8 -Consequently, the counties refused to carry out Joseph's religious and social reforms, and stood for the preservation of the old system which guaranteed the nobility i t s feudal rights and privileges. Similarly, during the period of Magyarization, the counties became one of the f i r s t govern-mental organs to protect the Croat national movement. The administrative head of the county was the Veliki zupan (comes suprimus) who was appointed by the King while a l l the • other counties' o f f i c i a l s were elected by the upper nobility. On several occasions the village nobility was also allowed to participate in the work of the counties' assembly. With the exception of l8k5, when the village nobility won elections in the County of Zagreb, i t s interests as a separate class were subordinated to those of the upper nobility which was the actual ruling class i n the country. The village nobility had no right to any kind of represent-ation i n the highest legislative body of Croatia, the Sabor. The only exception was the village nobility of Turopolje, which was allowed to elect one representative to the Sabor. Although the territory of Turopolje was included in the County of Zagreb, the entire d i s t r i c t enjoyed separate autonomous rights, granted to i t s nobility by Matias I Corvinus (1^58-1^90.) as a reward for i t s help in the war against Turkey. Historically, the Sabor was an assembly of the entire nobility which met from time to time to solve major grievances between the King and the nobles. The f i r s t record of the Sabor's i l l meeting dates back to 1273* The main purpose of the Sabor -9-was t o p r o t e c t the i n t e r e s t s of the n o b i l i t y a g a i n s t any c e n t r a l i s t i e t e n d e n c i e s of the s o v e r e i g n . I n the c o u r s e of the Sabor's development, the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y was e x c l u d e d f r o m i t s s e s s i o n s . Thus, by the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the Sabor was composed of the upper n o b i l i t y and c l e r g y which t o g e t h e r formed the r u l i n g c l a s s of C r o a t i a . The s t r e n g t h of the Sabor v a r i e d w i t h the s t r e n g t h o f t h e c e n t r a l government. Du r i n g the M i d d l e Ages i t was c a l l e d i n t o s e s s i o n by t h e Ban who f r e q u e n t l y p o s s e s s e d t h e power- t o s a n c t i o n 1 K " ' i t s p r o p o s a l s . ' However, d u r i n g the p e r i o d u n d e r - d i s c u s s i o n ( f i r s t h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) the meeting o f the Sabor c o u l d be convened o n l y by the K i n g . R e g u l a r meetings were t o be h e l d e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s o v e r e i g n s who were i n c l i n e d towards a b s o l u t i s m , l i k e F r a n c i s I , d i s r e g a r d e d t h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e and r e f u s e d t o pe r m i t the Sabor t o meet. The c e n t r a l H u n g a r i a n d i e t , t o whi c h the Sabor se n t i t s d e l e g a t e s , e x p e r i e n c e d the same h a r d s h i p s d u r i n g the f r e q u e n t p e r i o d s o f u n - c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r u l e . The Croat d e l e g a t e s t o t h e c e n t r a l H u n g a r i a n d i e t , or the Common D i e t , r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e Croat r u l i n g c l a s s i n accordance w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n s i s s u e d them by the Sabor. Thus t h e Common D i e t c o u l d not enact any new law i n v o l v i n g a change i n the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s of the Croat n o b i l i t y w i t h o u t t h e a p p r o v a l of 1 t h e Croat d e l e g a t e s . Any attempt t o do so. would be c o n s i d e r e d a b r e a c h of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , and t h e Croat e x e c u t i v e o r g a n s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n t he c o u n t i e s , would r e f u s e t o c a r r y out such l a w s . - 1 0 -The Sabor u s u a l l y met b e f o r e and a f t e r a meeting of Common D i e t t o e l e c t i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and d e c i d e on the p o s i t i o n t o be t a k e n by t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I f t h e Common D i e t d i s -r e g a r d e d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f the Croat d e l e g a t e s , t h e Cro a t s c o u l d always a p p e a l t o the K i n g , demanding the r e f u s a l o f the r o y a l a s s e n t t o t h e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l s they opposed. To sum i t up, the Sabor c o u l d a c t almost i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f th e Common D i e t . On Croat t e r r i t o r y i t was c o m p l e t e l y i n -dependent o f Hungary i n such i m p o r t a n t l e g i s l a t i v e f i e l d s as t a x a t i o n , r e c r u i t m e n t of new s o l d i e r s , r e l i g i o n , c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n . As we have s e e n , t h e p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s o f C r o a t i a i n t h e . Monarchy, a l t h o u g h p e c u l i a r and somewhat u n c e r t a i n , c o u l d have been used by i t s r u l i n g c l a s s t o the advantage of t h e i r c o u n t r y . T h i s o p p o r t u n i t y was u t i l i z e d , as we s h a l l see l a t e r on, w i t h o n l y l i m i t e d s u c c e s s because i t was adopted when t h e c o u n t r y s t o o d almost h e l p l e s s b e f o r e a s t r o n g Magyar n a t i o n a l i s t i c movement. The Croat n o b l e s had s u c c e s s f u l l y f o u g h t s i d e by s i d e w i t h t h e Magyars t o r e s i s t G e r m a n i z a t i o n and t o p r o t e c t the a n c i e n t r i g h t s of t h e i r c l a s s . They f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e t h a t , by e n l i s t i n g V i e n n a ' s h e l p , they c o u l d a l s o d e f e a t a g g r e s s i v e Magyar n a t i o n a l i s m w i t h o u t d e p r i v i n g t h e i r homeland o f i t s l i m i t e d independence. The p o s i t i o n of C r o a t i a i n t h e Habsburg Monarchy a l l o w e d i t s r u l i n g c l a s s t o a c t u a l l y b a r g a i n between t h e two more p o w e r f u l f o r c e s , A u s t r i a and Hungary, wh i c h c o n s t a n t l y f o u g h t each o t h e r f o r the dominant p o s i t i o n i n the Empire. - 1 1 -Croatia, however, only used her unique p o l i t i c a l status when the majority of her nobility f i n a l l y realized that,after the death of Joseph II, the immediate and direct danger to their rights and the rights of the nation as a whole, came not from Vienna, but from their "constitutional brothers", the Magyars. The Period of the Enlightened Absolutism Throughout the reign of Maria Theresa (17^0-1780) and her son, Joseph II (1780-1790), the entire p o l i t i c a l l i f e of Croatia was centred around the struggle against centralism and Germanization. During the reign of Maria Theresa, who prepared the scene for the promulgation of the social and religious reforms of her son, general dissatisfaction among the Croat nobility resulted i n the formation of a common defence with the Magyar aristocracy against Vienna, whose main purpose was to form an efficient, centrally controlled administrative apparatus. In Croatia i t s e l f , unlike i n Austria, social and economic conditions were extremely unfavourable for the establishment 17 of an efficient administrative apparatus. ' First of a l l , i t s territory had been greatly reduced by the Turks who were slowly advancing into the Croatian and Magyar lands, and who later represented a perpetual danger to any region they had not yet conquered. The entire Croatian territory was reduced to only six counties, Zagreb, Varazdin, Krizevci (or so called Croatia proper), Srijem, Virovitica, and Pozega (or Slavonia). A wide strip of territory along the Turkish border, known as the - 1 2 -Military Frontier, was under the direct rule of the Habsburgs. Secondly, these long and costly'wars with the Turks, who were constantly intruding across the Military Frontier, almost completely "destroyed the agriculture, destroyed manufacture and trade, and the richest parts of the Croat regions". 1^ Thirdly, Joseph II did not have the powerful support of the Croatian bourgeois class* necessary to back up his social reforms because such a class did not exist. The policy of the Habsburgs in Croatia and Hungary was to prevent the two nations from developing their own industry by the "conscious and planned usage of their power" which aimed to "keep the two 20 states in the condition of colonial underdevelopment". In short, Maria Theresa and Joseph II did very l i t t l e to improve the economy of Croatia and Hungary. Their main aim was to submerge these lands completely to their rule by enforcing Germanization and a centralized administration. Even those reforms introduced by Joseph II which were designed to improve the status of the serfs i n relation to their landlords, failed to'bring any significant results because of the lack of effective means for their enforcement. Meetings of the diets were hardly ever called, and rule by decree became the only way of introducing new measures in the Monarchy. The meeting of the Common Diet at Poszony was called i n 1765, but only because Maria Theresa was forced to do so because the Monarchy was exhausted by the Seven-Year War (1756-1763) and the Queen's treasury empty. Having failed to obtain the Diet's approval of the tax increase, Maria Theresa - 1 3 -d e c i d e d n e v e r t o c a l l i t a g a i n . A c t i n g i n s t e a d o n t h e a d v i c e o f J o s e p h , who b e c a m e h e r c o - r u l e r i n 1765., M a r i a T h e r e s a s e t u p , i n . 1767, a s e p a r a t e g o v e r n m e n t f o r C r o a t i a w h i c h was t o b e 2 1 c o m p l e t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m t h e H u n g a r i a n a u t h o r i t i e s . T h e new g o v e r n m e n t , t h e C r o w n ' s C o u n c i l ( c o n s i l i u m r e g i u m ) , b e c a m e e x t r e m e l y u n p o p u l a r b e c a u s e i t a c t e d o n l y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e Q u e e n ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d c o m p l e t e l y d i s r e g a r d e d a n y c o n s t i t -u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e d e c r e e o f J u l y 3 0 , 1779, a b o l i s h e d t h e C r o w n ' s C o u n c i l f o r C r o a t i a , a n d h a n d e d o v e r t o . t h e C r o w n ' s C o u n c i l f o r H u n g a r y c o m p l e t e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r C r o a t i a . T h e C r o a t n o b i l i t y a c t u a l l y w e l c o m e d t h i s move b e c a u s e i t ( t h e n o b i l i t y ) l a c k e d n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g 2 a n d f a i l e d t o s e e i n H u n g a r y a p o t e n t i a l d a n g e r t o i t s own r i g h t s . I t s o n l y a i m was t o d e f e a t c e n t r a l i s m b y u n i t i n g w i t h t h e M a g y a r n o b i l i t y . I n s p i t e o f h e r d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e h i g h e r n o b i l i t y , M a r i a T h e r e s a b e c a m e e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r amond t h e l o w e r n o b i l i t y a n d p e a s a n t r y b e c a u s e o f h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a n d h u m a n i t a r i a n v i e w s a n d a c t i o n s " b e c a u s e o f w h i c h t h e w i s e Q u e e n d e s e r v e d t o b e 2 ^ c a l l e d t h e m o t h e r o f a l l h e r n a t i o n s " . . J S h e a b o l i s h e d t h e J e s u i t O r d e r a n d u s e d i t s e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d e s t a t e s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f n u m e r o u s e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . S h e was a l s o k n o w n t o b e i n f a v o u r o f some s o c i a l r e f o r m s w h i c h w o u l d b e t t e r t h e e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n o f t h e u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s e s . S h e i n t r o d u c e d s e v e r a l m e a s u r e s d e s i g n e d t o e a s e t h e b u r d e n o f t h e p e a s a n t s b y d e f i n i n g a n d l i m i t i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y 2k o f t h e n o b l e s o v e r t h e i r s u b j e c t s . The r u l e of M a r i a T h e r e s a i s c o n s i d e r e d o n l y as a p r e v i e w , o f t h e f a r more i m p o r t a n t events w h i c h t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g the r u l e o f h e r s u c c e s s o r , Joseph I I . The r e i g n - o f Emperor Joseph i s t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t at w h i c h the f e u d a l Habsburg Monarchy began t o be g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by the modern one. The t h e o r i e s o f " e n l i g h t e n e d a b s o l u t i s m " of w h i c h Joseph I I was an e n e r g e t i c a p o s t l e , s t a r t e d the growth of p o l i t i c a l and n a t i o n a l i s t i c i d e a s w h i c h matured i n t o the fundamental movement wh i c h caused a l l t h e n a t i o n s t o a r i s e . . . f r o m the A l p s t o t h e Danube and t o the C a r p a t h i a n s . 25 Joseph v e r y a m b i t i o u s l y d e c i d e d t o pass some re f o r m s t o c r e a t e a p o w e r f u l , u n i t a r y s t a t e i n which t h e r e would be one n a t i o n r u l e d by one c o n s t i t u t i o n . A l t h o u g h h i s f i r s t d e crees were aimed at t h e r e f o r m a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s l i f e , they brought about some f u n d a m e n t a l changes i n C r o a t i a as w e l l . Aiming t o d i m i n i s h t h e power of the h i g h e r C a t h o l i c c l e r g y and s u b o r d i n a t e i t t o h i s c o n t r o l , Joseph c o n f r o n t e d the b i s h o p s w i t h two o r d e r s . The Pope's i n s t r u c t i o n s had t o have Joseph's a p p r o v a l b e f o r e t h e y were v a l i d , and t h e b i s h o p s had t o l i m i t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and t h o s e o f t h e i r c l e r g y t o r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s o n l y . A d d i t i o n a l d ecrees i s s u e d i n 1781 and 1782 r e s p e c t i v e l y gave equal, r e l i g i o u s and c i v i l r i g h t s t o n o n - C a t h o l i c s , a b o l i s h e d a l l t h e m o n a s t e r i e s , and c o n f i s c a t e d t h e i r l a n d s . I n 1785, Joseph r e p l a c e d the Ban of C r o a t i a by t h e Governor and, what i s more i m p o r t a n t , he i s s u e d a decree f o r 'the emanci-p a t i o n o f the peasants a c c o r d i n g t o which the l a t t e r were g i v e n the freedom t o move, the r i g h t t o s e l l t h e i r l a n d s , and " t o go t o t h e c i t i e s and l e a r n a t r a d e and a t t e n d s c h o o l s " . I n a l l p u b l i c o f f i c e s and c o u r t s the German language became the o n l y means of communication. T h i s r u l e c l o s e d the c i v i l s e r v i c e t o a l l t h o s e who d i d not know German. The war w i t h Turkey (1787-1790) and the danger from r e v o l u t i o n a r y F r a n c e f o r c e d Joseph t o r e c a l l most of h i s r e f o r m s , and t o r e s t o r e the o l d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l regime i n C r o a t i a and Hungary (28 January 1790). Even b e f o r e the war none of h i s r e f o r m s were s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n C r o a t i a . The h i g h e r n o b i l i t y and c l e r g y , who r e p r e s e n t e d t h e o n l y r u l i n g c l a s s i n t h e c o u n t r y , b a l k e d at c a r r y i n g out the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e d e c r e e s , e s p e c i a l l y the decree f o r the e m a n c i p a t i o n o f the p e a s a n t s . W i t h the d e a t h o f the Emperor t h e r e appeared no immediate danger t o t h e Croat n o b i l i t y . I t s members j o i n e d t h e i r f o r c e s w i t h a s t r o n g movement wh i c h o r i g i n a t e d i n Hungary and was o r g a n i z e d f o r two r e a s o n s — t o e s t a b l i s h s a f e g u a r d s a g a i n s t f u t u r e a b s o l u t i s m and t o d e s t r o y the remnants of • c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and G e r m a n i z a t i o n . Now, f o r ' the f i r s t time i n t h e i r h i s t o r y , the C r o a t s worked i n r e a l l y c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n 27 w i t h the Magyars. U n i t e d w i t h the Magyars i n t h i s way, t h e Croat c o u n t i e s s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e i r a u t h o r i t y and r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t t h e o r d e r s i s s u e d by the Emperor. Joseph I I was unable t o cope w i t h t h i s p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e as the Monarchy was under-g o i n g i t s major c r i s i s ; the T u r k i s h war was a f a i l u r e , B e l g i u m r e v o l t e d , Joseph's opponents i n Hungary made c o n t a c t w i t h h i s r i v a l ( t h e K i n g o f P r u s s i a ) , and the p r o c e s s of r e c r u i t i n g new t r o o p s was p a i n f u l l y s l o w . Joseph r e a l i z e d t h a t , under such - 1 6 -eonditions, his policy for centralization could no longer be pursued. He decided to yield to the centrifugal forces of Hungary and Croatia. A l l his rescripts relating to the lands of the Crown of St. Stephen were revoked except for the Toler-ation Patent, the Peasant Patent and the Livings Patent. On January 2 8 , 1 7 9 0 , he promised to convoke a Diet and ordered the Crown of St. Stephen to be brought back to Hungary. Thus the defenders of the old constitutional system won. The centralism of the era of Enlightened Absolutism was f i n a l l y defeated. The old Emperor, however, did not live long enough to witness the complete downfall of his ideals. He died three • weeks later on February 2 0 . It was during the short reign of his successor, Leopold II ( 1 7 9 0 - 1 7 9 2 ) , that relations between Hungary and Croatia began to swing very rapidly i n the opposite direction. Leopold II, to whom his older brother, Joseph, had l e f t a completely disorgan-ized state, found i t impossible to resist demands put forward by the nationalistically minded Magyars. Leopold handled this dangerous situation with great s k i l l although he had to yield to the Magyar demands. He promised to convoke the Diet triennially and to rule by law only, and not by patent. The Magyars' constitutional victories induced a. substantial segment of the nobility to continue the struggle with the purpose of achieving even greater autonomy and independence from the central government. Within a relatively short time, - 1 7 -the movement d e v e l o p e d i n t o a p o w e r f u l n a t i o n a l i s t i c apparatus aimed at r e o r g a n i z i n g t h e Monarchy f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f Hungary. As f a r as C r o a t i a was c o n c e r n e d , t h i s new tendency p r e v a i l i n g among th e Magyar r u l i n g c l a s s d i d not seem t o o f f e r any improvement of h e r p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s . The Magyar n a t i o n a l i s t movement wanted t o f r e e o n l y t h e Magyar n a t i o n . Other n a t i o n s h i s t o r i c -a l l y b e l o n g i n g t o t h e l a n d s o f the Crown of S t . Stephen were t o be m a g y a r i z e d and made i n t o mere p r o v i n c e s o f the H u n g a r i a n s t a t e . The C r o a t n o b l e s were much t o o p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and G e r m a n i z a t i o n , and t h e i r s t r u g g l e t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r a n c i e n t r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s t o r e a l i z e t h e new danger. They c o n t i n u e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e Magyars were the o n l y l o g i c a l a l l i e s who would p r o t e c t them from f u t u r e a b s o l u t i s m . They were t h e r e f o r e p r e p a r e d t o meet Magyar demands f o r the M a g y a r i z a t i o n o f C r o a t i a as l o n g as t h e s e demands d i d not e n c r o a c h upon t h e i r i n t e r e s t s as a s o c i a l c l a s s . I t was .only a f t e r the development of n a t i o n a l i s m i n C r o a t i a i t s e l f t h a t t h e Croat n o b i l i t y began t o r e a l i z e the purpose o f M a g y a r i z a t i o n . However, by t h a t time the Croat D i e t (Sabor) had a l l o w e d the passage of a number of laws which almost c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d the autonomy of the c o u n t r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a s i t u a t i o n had been c r e a t e d w h i c h c o u l d no l o n g e r be r e s o l v e d by p e a c e f u l p a r l i a m e n t a r y a c t i o n , but o n l y by open s t r u g g l e between th e two n a t i o n a l i s t i c movements. - 1 8 -F o r e r u n n e r s o f 1 9 t h Century N a t i o n a l i s m I t would he improper t o g e n e r a l i z e by s a y i n g . t h a t nobody i n C r o a t i a f a v o u r e d Joseph's a n t i f e u d a l r e forms and t h a t a l l c l a s s e s were u n i t e d i n the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t h i s r a d i c a l i d e a s . There were peop l e i n C r o a t i a who, w h i l e r e j e c t i n g G e r m a n i z a t i o n , welcomed the Emperor's p r o g r e s s i v e reforms and a d v o c a t e d r e s i s -t a n c e a g a i n s t the backward Croat and Magyar f e u d a l i s m . S i n c e t h e m i d d l e c l a s s was e x t r e m e l y weak and n u m e r i c a l l y s m a l l , spokesmen f o r t h e a n t i f e u d a l movement o r i g i n a t e d w i t h members o f t h e h i g h e r n o b i l i t y , c l e r g y and i n t e l l e c t u a l s who were educ a t e d abroad and i n f l u e n c e d by the i d e a s o f F r e n c h r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . T h e i r work and t e a c h i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r they p r e p a r e d t h e scene f o r the development o f modern.Croat n a t i o n a l i s m . C o n s i d e r i n g the f a c t t h a t Joseph's r e f o r m s caused d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among a l l t h e c l a s s e s i n C r o a t i a — i n c l u d i n g the P r o t e s t a n t s whose p o s i t i o n d i d not improve by t h e T o l e r a t i o n P a t e n t — i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t e a r l y 'Croat r a d i c a l s f o u n d no s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r t e a c h i n g among the C r o a t s . They were c o n s e q u e n t l y l i m i t e d t o v e r y s m a l l groups o f p r o g r e s s i v e t h i n k e r s who hoped t o a c h i e v e something w i t h the h e l p o f t h e i r r a d i c a l l y minded Emperor. From t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the e r a of J o s e p h i n i s m t h e r e were b a s i c a l l y two groups o f p r o g r e s s i v e . t h i n k e r s i n C r o a t i a , each of them i n f a v o u r o f a n t i f e u d a l l a w s , but d i f f e r i n g i n t h e i r c oncepts o f the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s t a t e . The f i r s t g r o u p , so c a l l e d J o s e p h i n i s t s , f a i l e d t o a t t r a c t a l a r g e r -19-following for their radical ideas because they were enforced i n a ruthless and unskillful manner by Joseph's Governor, Francis Balassa. Therefore their attempt to induce Croats to adopt and further develop their own Croat language and literature failed to attract a substantial number of educated people. This project, however, found some devoted supporters among the most talented and educated members of the higher class, particularly i n the persons of Maximilian Vrhovac and Nikola Skrlec. Vrhovac, Joseph's bishop of Zagreb, is considered among the best Croat national teachers who preached the ideas of Josephinism to the people at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century. ' His work on the development and defence of the I l l y r i a n language, and his collection of folklore were to play a s i g n i f i -cant role i n the national development of Croatia. 2 ° Vrhovac;did not advocate the formation of a national movement in the modern sense of the word. As a loyal subject of his king he was not i n favour of Croatia's independence from Austria and Hungary. His views were progressive.because he realized that the Monarchy ( s t i l l patterned after a mediaeval form of government) sorely needed reforms to aid i t s social and economic development, and that, successfully executed, these reforms would ultimately benefit Croatia herself. In addition to this, he instructed his subordinates, the parish priests, to organize a collection of folksongs and forms of speech as they existed i n each particular parish. 2^ B u t d u e to the'ignorance of the clergy and their lack of feeling for the native s p i r i t , this attempt failed to produce the results - 2 0 -hoped f o r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , by u s i n g h i s i n f l u e n c e at t h e c o u r t s o f Joseph I I and l a t e r h i s b r o t h e r , L e o p o l d I I , Vrhovac succeeded i n g e t t i n g p e r m i s s i o n t o e s t a b l i s h a p r i v a t e p r i n t i n g o f f i c e where he p u b l i s h e d a l l t he a v a i l a b l e Croat c l a s s i c s w r i t t e n i n t h e K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t . H i s main a s s i s t a n t , who i s c o n s i d e r e d one o f the f a t h e r s o f n a t i o n a l i s m i n C r o a t i a , was N i k o l a S k r l e c , Joseph's commissar ( V e l i k i supan) f o r t he County o f Zagreb. He was h i g h l y esteemed, not o n l y by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i n C r o a t i a , but a l s o by t h e p r o g r e s s i v e Magyar n o b i l i t y who became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h S k r l e c ' s p r o g r e s s i v e views d u r i n g the meeting of the Common D i e t i n 1790. A w e l l known Magyar h i s t o r i a n , Henry M a r c z a l i , an e x p e r t on the l a s t two decades o f the 18th c e n t u r y , s a i d about S k r l e c : " N i k o l a S k r l e c was perhaps t h e g r e a t e s t p o l i t i c a l t a l e n t " not o n l y i n C r o a t i a , but a l s o i n the whole o f Hungary. As w e l l as h i s " e x p e r t knowledge o f economics he produced numerous p r o o f s o f h i s deep i n s i g h t i n t o t he e n t i r e s o c i a l and s t a t e s i t u a t i o n " . The i n t r o d u c t o r y s p e e c h , w h i c h S k r l e c d e l i v e r e d at t he meeting o f the county o f Zagreb, 15 A p r i l 1790, "was v e r y w e l l known" and was p r i n t e d not o n l y i n the Magyar K u r i r , but a l s o i n the L a t i n newspaper o f Buda. ~>® However, S k r l e c , l i k e V r h o v a c , gave no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he f a v o u r e d the p r e s e r v a t i o n and f u r t h e r " d e v e l o p m e n t o f Croat autonomy. On the c o n t r a r y , at a meeting o f the Common D i e t i n 1790, he demanded " t h a t C r o a t i a must e s t a b l i s h t he c l o s e s t t i e s w i t h Hungary so t h a t t h e e x e c u t i v e government w i l l never a g a i n ^1 be a b l e t o c r o s s t h e l i m i t s of i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n " . J As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s e demands f o r v a r i o u s - 2 1 -r e f o r m s o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . The i d e a s a d v o c a t e d by a more r a d i c a l segment of t h e F r e n c h b o u r g e o i s l o s t some o f t h e i r i n t e n s i t y by the time they r e a c h e d the c o u r t o f Joseph I I . The ' J o s e p h i n i s t s i n C r o a t i a d i d not want t o change th e c o u n t r y ' s p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s quo w i t h i n the Habsburg Monarchy. A c c o r d i n g t o them, the o l d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s . w h i c h d e f i n e d the p o s i t i o n o f C r o a t i a "have t o be s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d and p r e s e r v e d " . J W h i l e they would not advocate the a b o l i t i o n o f the Monarchy and e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a r e p u b l i c , the l e a s t t hey d i d was t o p u l l the c o u n t r y from i t s f e u d a l , m e d i a e v a l darkness and improve the p o s i t i o n o f i t s u n d e r p r i v i -l e g e d c l a s s e s . Vrhovac and S k r l e c d i d not r e p r e s e n t the most r a d i c a l c u r r e n t i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f C r o a t i a . Other p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s went s e v e r a l s t e p s f u r t h e r and preached i d e a s almost i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e o f the F r e n c h r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . U n l i k e t h e J o s e p h i n i s t s t h i s g r o u p , c a l l e d J a c o b i n s , was f o r c e d t o work underground as an i l l e g a l , s u b v e r s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n C r o a t i a t h e r e were s e v e r a l s m a l l groups of J a c o b i n s , o r g a n i z e d and l e d by the l e a d i n g J a c o b i n s i n the Monarchy s u c h as I g n a t M a r t i n o v i c s , I v a n L a c k o v i c z and Joseph H a j n o c z y . The e n t i r e movement o r i g i n a t e d i n Hungary, but was not o r g a n i z e d a l o n g n a t i o n a l l i n e s . . I t c o n s i s t e d of t h e most p r o g r e s s i v e elements i n the Monarchy whose main purpose was t o r e f o r m the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Monarchy a l o n g the l i n e s l a i d down by the F r e n c h b o u r g e o i s c l a s s i n the l a s t decade of t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n C r o a t i a and Hungary t h e s e groups c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y -22-of intellectuals because the peasants were neither interested i n nor understood the slogan "liberty, fraternity and equality", and the bourgeois class was numerically weak due to a compara-tively underdeveloped economy. Apart from some trade and home.manufacture, the middle class of these countries had no other means of increasing i t s economic power. A handful of larger industrial units produced a very limited quantity of consumer goods for the needs of the home market. The bulk of the consumer goods was imported from abroad to satisfy the needs 33 of the well-to-do nobles. J In order to increase the economic potential of the nations in the Monarchy, Martinovies wanted to reform i t s p o l i t i c a l system and said " . . . i t is wrong for a nation to allow i t s upper classes to take its.natural right to legislate because the upper classes represent only their interests, and not the 3k interests of society i n general". . The Jacobins demanded freedom for every nation and pointed out that i n Croatia "both yokes have to be destroyed s.o that freedom can be triumphant". J During the reign of Joseph II, Martinovies was a history professor at the University of Lvov (in German "Lemberg", in Ukrainian "Lviv"). Although a Serb by origin, he lived and worked i n Hungary where he was born and brought up. After the death of Joseph II, he became a personal adviser to Leopold II who was trying to continue the work of his late brother. Martinovies favoured Joseph's social reforms and tried to i n -fluence Leopold's successor, Francis, to reform the Monarchy's -23-f e u d a l s o c i a l s y s t e m . However, f e a r a r i s i n g from the r e s u l t s o f the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n caused F r a n c i s t o assume an e x t r e m e l y r e a c t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n . As a r e s u l t , " M a r t i n o v i c s b i t t e r l y opposed the new r u l e r and o r g a n i z e d a p l o t w i t h the purpose of s t a g i n g a d e m o c r a t i c Magyar-Croat r e v o l u t i o n " . ^ M a r t i n o v i c s was m o t i v a t e d by F r e n c h b o u r g e o i s i d e o l o g y whose main p r i n c i p l e s he wanted t o e s t a b l i s h i n the H u n g a r i a n s t a t e . As a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , he f o u n d a number of f o l l o w e r s i n Hungary and C r o a t i a . But t h e i r p l o t t i n g was u n f o r t u n a t e l y d i s c o v e r e d by F r a n c i s ' p o l i c e and a l l t h e i r l e a d e r s caught. I n the s p r i n g o f 179^+, M a r t i n o v i c s and h i s c l o s e s t a s s o c i a t e s were t r i e d and the o n m a j o r i t y o f them, i n c l u d i n g h i m s e l f , e x e c u t e d . J ' B o t h H a j n o c z y and L a c k o v i c z s h a r e d M a r t i n o v i c s ' scheme f o r t h e r e f o r m a t i o n o f Magyar f e u d a l i s m . A l t h o u g h they were from o o n o b l e f a m i l i e s , they "hated the Magyar n o b i l i t y " because i t had come t o terms w i t h V i e n n a and i t opposed Joseph's s o c i a l r e f o r m s . H a j n o c z y , l i k e L a c k o v i c z , a d v o c a t e d complete e m a n c i p a t i o n o f t h e peasant c l a s s and c o n f i s c a t i o n o f the " s u r p l u s l a n d o f t h e upper 39 c l e r g y and n o b i l i t y " . - > / T h i s l a n d was t o be d i s t r i b u t e d among th e peasant c l a s s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , a l l t h e n o b l e s were t o be t a x e d and t h e money used f o r e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s . The a c t i o n s o f M a r t i n o v i c s and h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n Hungary ar e s i g n i f i c a n t because of the p a r t they p l a y e d i n the d e v e l o p -ment of t h e Croat J a c o b i n movement. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the work, of t h e Croat J a c o b i n s i s r e l a t i v e l y unknown f o r the t r i a l i n -2k-Pest revealed only l i m i t e d evidence of the Croat's r o l e i n the i n the p l o t against Francis,. One of the main leaders of the Croat Jacobins was J o s i p K r a l j , d i r e c t o r of a r o y a l estate i n S l a v o n i a . He was "the ko main organizing f o r c e l i n k i n g the Magyar and Croat Jacobins". As such, he was one of the key f i g u r e s i n the above mentioned t r i a l . However, he was never questioned by the court because he committed s u i c i d e w h i l e i n p r i s o n . As a. r e s u l t the court k\ " l o s t the thread and could not dis c o v e r f u r t h e r connections". This f a c t , coupled w i t h the d e n i a l of Martinovies and h i s colleagues that they had been i n contact w i t h K r a l j , l e f t the Croat h i s t o r i a n s i n the dark as to the s i z e and a c t i v i t i e s of the Croat Jacobins. During the t r i a l a s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t took place when the court questioned Marko De l i v u k , who i s considered to.be the- second most important p e r s o n a l i t y among the Croat Jacobins. His Magyar f r i e n d s ( i . e . the Jacobins) " d i d not r e v e a l h i s t i e s w i t h the secret o r g a n i z a t i o n and he (Delivuk) defended hi m s e l f very s k i l f u l l y during the t r i a l . . . s o there was k2 • l i t t l e known of h i s r o l e I n M a r t i n o v i e s ' p l o t " . A f t e r the m a j o r i t y of M a r t i n o v i e s 1 J a c o b i t e f o l l o w e r s we're executed (1795) , the movement d i s s o l v e d completely and Francis succeeded i n r e s t o r i n g the fe u d a l a b s o l u t i s t i c system as i t had e x i s t e d before the age of Josephinism. During the t r i a l , the evidence submitted against Martinovies i n d i c a t e d that he had e s t a b l i s h e d contact w i t h Bishop Vrhovac who, i t was s a i d , had helped the Jacobins i n Zagreb organize a p u b l i c d i s p l a y of l i b e r a l -25-ideas in the form of "'the tree of freedom' (arbor libeif^tatis) as a symbol of protest against the ruling class" ( 1 7 9 0 ) . J A poem attached to "the tree of freedom" called the Croats "to unite kk with the French against their enemies" and condemned the nobility and clergy for exploiting the peasantry. During the t r i a l Martinovics denied'that he was on friendly terms with Vrhovac. His denial, coupled with the influence Vrhovac had among some of the highest members of the Court, saved Vrhovac's l i f e . The work of the Croat Jacobins goes down i n Croat history as a small experiment i n the development of the Croat radical movement. The conditions prevailing i n the country during this period indicated that, without a strong middle class, abolition or reform of the present social system and its feudal values waseimpossible. And i n Croatia, as we already know, "there was no third class which would dare to think of only i t s UK rights and progress". y The Jacobin movement was the last time any Croat patriotic national leaders would attempt to work i n cooperation with the Magyars. Future Croat-Magyar relations not only forced Croat progressive thinkers to discontinue the Jacobins' democratic a c t i v i t i e s , but also to organize the Croat national movement along conservative lines. In addition to this, for a decade or two following the disappearance of the Jacobin movement, Croatia did not produce a single national awakener who would speak out for social reforms. -26-Thus, when Croat r a d i c a l i s m d i e d out b e f o r e the t u r n o f th e c e n t u r y , the c o n s e r v a t i v e n o b i l i t y remained the o n l y p o l i t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d f o r c e i n the c o u n t r y . F r a n c i s 1 r e a c t i o n a r y a b s o l u t i s m r e l i e d t o a g r e a t e x t e n t on h i s e f f e c t i v e p o l i c e m a c h i n e r y . P o l i c e agents put a c l o s e watch on every s u s p e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l . ' Under s u c h c o n d i t i o n s i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o o r g a n i z e an a n t i - f e u d a l r a d i c a l movement. Even t h e Croat n o b i l i t y was b i t t e r l y opposed t o F r a n c i s ' r e a c t i o n a r y r egime. A l t h o u g h i n f a v o u r of the p r e s e r v a t i o n of f e u d a l i s m , t h e n o b i l i t y d i s l i k e d F r a n c i s ' concept o f i t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the c o n s e r v a t i v e Croat n o b i l i t y , l i k e f o r m e r p r o g r e s s i v e s , t r i e d t o c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g w i t h the Magyar con-s e r v a t i v e n o b i l i t y because t h e i r causes appeared i d e n t i c a l . I n th e meantime, t h e m a j o r i t y o f the Magyars had j o i n e d ranks w i t h t h e f a s t d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n a l i s t movement. Magyar n a t i o n a l i s m was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as p r o g r e s s i v e , but o n l y as f a r as t h e Magyar n a t i o n was c o n c e r n e d . Croat a c c e p t a n c e of the i d e a s m o t i v a t i n g t h e Magyar's n a t i o n a l movement would mean complete M a g y a r i z a t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n o f the Croat n a t i o n . S i n c e Croat n a t i o n a l i s m was' s l o w e r i n d e v e l o p i n g , the Croat n o b i l i t y , a f t e r r e a l i z i n g t h e danger p r e s e n t e d by Hungary, was l e f t i n a dilemma as to. what p o s i t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n . At the same t i m e , a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l group o f Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s o r g a n i z e d a campaign f o r the c u l t u r a l r e v i v a l of the n a t i o n r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t , b e f o r e n a t i o n a l autonomy c o u l d be c l a i m e d , C r o a t i a needed i t s own l i t e r a r y language and o r t h o g r a p h y . T h i s group a c h i e v e d -27-tremendous su c c e s s over a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e , and e n a b l e d the n o b i l i t y t o r e g a i n i t s l o s t ground and c l a i m C r o a t i a ' s t r a d i t i o n a l r i g h t t o autonomy w i t h i n the Monarchy. The new l e a d e r s o f Croat n a t i o n a l i s m were i n f l u e n c e d v e r y l i t t l e by the i d e a s o f the former J o s e p h i n i s t s and J a c o b i n s . The new n a t i o n a l i s t i c s p i r i t was not c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the extreme r a d i c a l i s m o f t h e J o s e p h i n i s t s and J a c o b i n s who had l i v e d and a c t e d o n l y a decade ago. The new movement was p r o -g r e s s i v e i n so f a r as i t demanded the use of the Croat language and l i t e r a t u r e . Some r a d i c a l i d e a s d i d i n d e e d e x i s t among the i n t e l l e c t u a l s , but attempts t o put them i n t o p r a c t i c e remained l a r g e l y i s o l a t e d and l i m i t e d . U n l i k e a decade ago, the move-ment found i t s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n where, f o r the sake o f n a t i o n a l p r e s e r v a t i o n , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o combat Magyar r a d i c a l i s m by a l l y i n g w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i v e f o r c e s o f the n a t i v e n o b i l i t y and the c o u r t o f the Emperor. Thus t h e Croat n a t i o n a l i s t s o f t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , l i k e f ormer J o s e p h i n i s t s , f o u n d i t v e r y u s e f u l t o seek Vienna's a s s i s t a n c e f o r the r e a l i -z a t i o n o f t h e i r aims. The d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t J o s e p h i n i s t s were s u p p o r t e r s o f . p r o g r e s s i v e r e forms w h i l e l a t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s were f u n d a m e n t a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e . I n the former c a s e , the r a d i c a l i s m o f t h e J o s e p h i n i s t s f o r c e d t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e Croat n o b l e s t o j o i n f o r c e s w i t h the Magyar c o n s e r v a t i v e s a g a i n s t the p r o g r e s s i v e reforms o f Joseph I I . I n the l a t t e r c a s e , t h e Croat noblemen, as w e l l as the i n t e l l e c t u a l s , were l e f t no c h o i c e but t o j o i n f o r c e s w i t h V i e n n a (now t h e c e n t r e o f r e a c t i o n ) -28-a g a i n s t the Magyar movement whose p l a t f o r m i n c l u d e d some v e r y p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a s . The Croat n a t i o n a l movement underwent s e v e r a l s t a g e s o f development, depending upon the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n and s t a t e o f a f f a i r s w i t h Hungary. At i t s b e g i n n i n g , the movement found t h e n a t i o n s p l i t i n t o two. g r o u p s - - t h e f i r s t composed of members from the h i g h e r n o b i l i t y and c l e r g y who, at t h a t t i m e , demanded t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Magyars, and t h e second composed m a i n l y o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s and a few members from the h i g h e r n o b i l i t y who demanded acc e p t a n c e o f the Croat language as C r o a t i a ' s o f f i c i a l l a nguage. The next and f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s w i l l a n a l y z e i n d e t a i l the a c t u a l development of Croat n a t i o n a l i s m , and i t s aims and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as they were formed u n t i l t h e m i d d l e of the c e n t u r y . The purpose of t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e the r e a d e r w i t h an under-s t a n d i n g , o f the g e n e r a l background of Croat-Magyar r e l a t i o n s , w i t h o u t w h i c h i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e b 7 problem i n v o l v e d i n the next c h a p t e r s . ' - 2 9 -FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I 1 The term , ;Croatia" had a twofold meaning, A l l the Croat lands together formed the Triple Croat Kingdom composed of Croatia proper., Slavonia and Dalmatia. Very frequently the Triple Kingdom was referred to as Croatia. Thus "Croatia" meant either Croatia proper or a l l three parts together. In this paper the term is used i n i t s broader sense. Whenever necessary the proper distinction w i l l be made. 2 T. Smiciklas, Poviest Hrvatska, Zagreb, Matica Hrvatska, vol. 2, 1879, p. 9-3 The status of Slavonia i n the lands of the Crown of St. Stephen is described briefly in footnote 6. k J. Sidak, Historijska citanka za hrvatsku novijest, Zagreb, Skolska Knjiga, 1952, pp. 107-108. Before this decision was reached Ferdinand had been compelled to respect a l l the rights the Croat nobility had enjoyed up to that time. 5 The original of this document has not been preserved. Its present text dates back to the f i r s t half of the fourteenth century. It was discovered among the works of Tomo, a Croat monk-historian from Trogir. However, a number of Croatia's present historians doubt the authenticity, of Tomo's transcript. Some of themj like 0 . Mandic, believe that the text of the document found in Tomo's works was based on a forgery of the original document made between the years 1222 and 1235. Nada Klaic, for example, argues that the text of the Pacta  Conventa (also called the Qualiter or Trogirska Apendicula) has no legal foundation since the original never did existi Furthermore, she argues that "the noblemen of. the twelve Croat tribes" referred to i n the Pacta  Conventa actually did not exist unt i l the fourteenth century, when they slowly emerged, as a special, p r i v i -leged class and were recognized as such by various Hungarian kings. Although a controversy s t i l l remains about the actual existence of the Pacta Conventa. the majority of the Croat historians, past and present, concur that some kind of agreement between Koloman and Croats did exist. It has also been established that the terms of this • agreement applied to Croatia and Dalmatia, but not to Slavonia which held a somewhat different position in relation to Hungary (see footnote 7). -30-For further discussion concerning the Pacta  Conventa see N. Klaic, "Tzv. 'Pacta Conventa' i i i toboznji ugovor izmedju plemstva dvanaestero plemena i kralja Kolomana 1102 godine", Istoriski Pregled, vol. 6, ( I 9 6 0 ) , pp. 107 -120; "Plemstvo dvanaestero plemena kraljevine Hrvatske", Histori.jski Zbornik, vol. 9 (1956), pp. 83-100. For^the opposite point of view on this problem see 0. Mandic, "'Pacta Conventa' i 'dvanaest' hrvatskih brat-stava", Histori.jski Zbornik, vols. 11-12 (1958-1959), pp. 1 6 5 - 2 0 6 . Mandic defends the opinion of the majority of the older Croat historians, such as L j . Hauptmann, M. Barada, V. Klaic, F. §isic, D. Surmin and others, who believed in the existence of such an agreement. See, for example, F. S i s i c , Prirucnik izvora hrvatske h i s t o r i j e , Zagreb, Kraljevska Hrvatsko-Slavonsko-Dalmatinska.Vlada, vol. 1, 191k, pp. 459-6^9. A l l the Magyar historians of the pre-World War I period emphaticallyjdenied the existence of any kind of agreement between the Croats and Koloman. Like the Magyar radicals of the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century, they maintained that Slavonia was an integral part of Hungary, conquered by the Magyar kings before Koloman. ' 6 Sidak, Histori.lska citanka, pp. 3^-35. The terma of this agreement represented the basis of the special rights and privileges that the Croat nobility had i n the lands of the Crown of St. Stephen. The greater part of the Croat defence against Magyarization was based on the terms of this agreement. - -7 Hence the significance of the Pacta Conventa.was not of crucial importance u n t i l the last decades of the eighteenth century when the stirring of nationalistic s p i r i t began to'split the two nations. Until then the question of Slavonia's position i n the Hungarian kingdom was not raised. It is important to point out that, until 1526, the name "Slavonia" was not included i n the royal t i t l e . Consequently, Magyar nationalists of the nineteenth century argued that Slavonia had always been considered a part of the Hungarian state. According to them, even i f an agreement between the Croats and Koloman had taken . place, i t s terms did not apply to Slavonia, but only to Croatia proper. It cannot be denied, however, that Slavonia was never considered an integral part of Hungary. Although i t s status was somewhat different from that of Croatia and Dalmatia, i t had i t s own Ban and Sabor. Because Slavonia had already fallen to Hungary during the reign of the Magyar Ki Ladislas I (1077 - 1095), the Slavonian nobility, unlike the Croat one, was forced to pay property taxes (marturina). The Croat and Slavonian Sapors met together only when some important issue was to be discussed. Dating from 1558 both Sabors were united into one, the Croat-Slavonian-Dalmatian Sabor. The office of the Slavonian Ban was abolished in favour of the Croat Ban in Zagreb. Thus a l l the differences between Croatia and Slavonia, including the system for collection of taxes, were abolished completely. However, following the year 1751? Slavonian counties sent their delegates directly to the Hungarian Diet. The counties of Croatia proper continued to elect their delegates to this Diet during the meeting of the Sabor--two to the lower house and one to the upper. Dalmatia f e l l to Venice in 1*426 where i t remained until 1797. v v , For further information see F. S i s i c , Pregled povijesti  hrvatskog haroda, Zagreb, Matica Hrvatska, 1962, or T. Smiciklas, Poviest Hrvatska, Zagreb, Matica Hrvatska, 1879, 2 vols. . 8 F. S i s i c , Hrvatska povijest, Zagreb, Matica Hrvatska, vol. 3 , 1913, P.. 6. 9. See F. Culinovic, Drzavopravna hi s t o r i j a jugoslavenskih zemalja, Zagreb, Skolska Knjiga, 1961, p. 59. 10 Ibid., p. 59. 11 See S i s i c , Pregled povijesti, p. 332. 12 For a more detailed presentation of the evolution of the Ban's office, see S i s i c , Hrvatska povijest. The role of the Ban in the Croat national movement w i l l be sufficiently explained in subsequent pages. 13 Culinovic, Drzavnopravna h i s t o r i j a , p. 60. Ik See Sidak, Historijska citanka, pp. 52-56 15 See Culinovic, Drzavnopravna h i s t o r i j a , p. 6 l . 16 These rights and privileges of the Croat nobility were often referred to as the "municipal rights" of the Triple Kingdom. The "municipal-rights" were equally valid in Slavonia. Thus the leaders of the Magyar national movement had no legal foundation in claiming Slavonia for Hungary. 17 Croat economic conditions during the era of the Enlightened Absolutism are described in R. Bicanic, Doba  Manufakture u Hrvatskoj i Slavoniji, Zagreb, Jugoslavenska, -32-Akademija. Znanosti i Umjetnosti, 1951, PP- 2-39. A considerable amount of Croat capital was in the hands of "foreigners", Germans and Magyars, who formed a large part of the Croat nobility. This fact represented a major obstacle to the development of Croat nationalism in the 1820's and 1830's. 18 The origins of the Military Frontier go back to the pre-1526 period when the Croats and Magyars built a number of fortifications to protect themselves from the Turks. During the 1530's the Military Frontier became a permanent in s t i t u -tion for defence which was directly administered by the central government. The size of i t s territory varied depend-ing upon the length of the Austro-Turkish border. See B. Djurdjev and others, Historija Naroda Jugoslavije, Zagreb, Skolska Knjiga, vol. 2, 1959, pp. 416-421, R. Kiszling, Die Kroaten, Graz-Kttln, Verlag Hermann Btthlaus Nachf., 1956, pp. 40-48, and G.E. Rothenberg, The Austrian Military  Border in Croatia, 1522-1747, Urbana, The University of I l l i n o i s Press, i 9 6 0 , pp. 28-39 and pp. 103-111. 19 V. Bogdanov, Historija politickih stranaka u Hrvatskoj, Zagreb, Novinarsko Izdavacko Poduzece, 1958, p. 16. 20 Ibid., p. 16 21 See S. Srkulj, Izvori za hrvatsku povijest, Zagreb, Tiskara Hrvatske Stranke Prava, 1911, pp. 137-139. 22 Such an attitude led the Croat nobility to make the fa t a l mistake i n 1790/91. See Chapter II, "Voluntary Surrender", pp. 35-45. 23 Smiciklas, Poviest Hrvatska, vol. 2, p. 349. 24 SeenUrbar Marije Terezije za Slavoniju g. 1756" in Sidak, Historijska citanka, pp. 159-164. 25 S i s i c , Hrvatska Povijest, vol. 3 , p. 8. 26 Smiciklas, Poviest Hrvatska, vol. 2, p. 361. 27 Croat men and women even began to wear Magyar folk costumes to manifest their opposition to centralization and Germanization. See D. Surmin, Hrvatski preporod, Zagreb, Tisak Dionicke Tiskare, vol. 1, 1903, pp. 3-4. 28 Bogdanov, Historija politickih stranaka, p. 25. 29 Vrhovac's letters to the Croat parish priests have never been published. This is also true of the greater part of his correspondence with the prominent personalities of Croatia, -33-Austria and Hungary. This material, his diary and many valuable documents are available i n the archives of the Archbishop of Zagreb. Published c o l l e c t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l documents ( i n the Serbo-Croat language) often contain d i f f e r e n t excerpts of the same document. Hence, I had no choice but to use di f f e r e n t sources while'referring to the same o r i g i n a l . Two short excerpts from the l e t t e r written by Vrhovac i n 1813 are to be found i n V. Novak, Antologi.ia Jugo-slavenske m i s l i i narodnog jedinstya, Belgrade, Stampa DrSavne Stampari^e, 1930, pp. ^ -UU. See also F. Fancev, l!Dokumenti za nase p o d r i j e t l o hrvatskoga preporoda (1790-1832)", Gradja za povijest knjizevnosti hrvatske, v o l . 12 (1933) pp. 60-62. 30 Bogdanov, H i s t o r i j a p o l i t i c k i h stranaka, p. 27. 31 S i s i c , Hrvatska Povijest, v o l . 3? p. 15. 32 Bogdanov, op. c i t . , p. 28. 33 See S r k u l j , Izvori za hrvatsku povi.jest, pp. Ik5-lk8. 3*+ Bogdanov, op. c i t . , p. 3*+. 35 Loc. c i t . 36 V. Bogdanov, 'JHrvatska revolucionarna pjesma i z godine 179k i ucesc'e Hrvata i Srba u z a v j e r i Martinovicevih jakobinaca." Starine, v o l . ^ 6 (1956), p. 3*+2. 37 See Ibid., pp. k$k-kk2. 38 I b i d . , p. 373. 39 I b i d . , p. 371. kO I b i d . , p. k$k. kl K. Benda and L. Hadrovics, "Kroatisches Freiheitsgedicht aus dem Jahre 179k", Acta Sl a v i c a Academiae Scientiarum  Hungaricae, v o l . 2 (1956), p. 382. k2 Bogdanov, "Hrvatska revolucionarna pjesma...", p. ^55. ^3 Smiciklas, Poviest Hrvatska. Vol. 2, p. ^ 00. kk J . Sidak, "V. Bogdanov ^Hrvatska revolucionarna pjesma i z godine 179*+ i ucesc'e Hrvata i Srba u z a v j e r i Martinovicevih jakobinaca'", H i s t o r i j s k i Zbornik, v o l . 9 (1956), p. 18k. H5 Surmin, Hrvatski preporod, v o l . 1, p. 10. U6 The Croat nobility remained i n this dilemma until 1832 when i t f i n a l l y began to adopt the cause of the.Croat national movement. The period between 1790 and 1832 was the "period of appeasement" which ended during the meetings of the Diet i n 1832/36. , h7 The scope and task of this paper does not allow a detailed presentation of the pre-1790 Croat p o l i t i c a l , cultural and social development. II BEFOBE THE ILLYRIAN MOVEMENT (1790 - 1832) Voluntary Surrender The meeting of the Common Diet in Pozsony (in German "Pressburg", i n Slovak and Czech "Bratislava") in 1790/91 is considered the main cornerstone in the development of Croat-Magyar relations. It was at this meeting for the f i r s t time that the Magyar nobility openly demanded that the Croat delegates accept proposals aimed at the complete Magyarization of Croatia. The Croat nobility, the hated rule of Joseph II s t i l l fresh i n their minds, was willing to accept these proposals providing that the new policy would not change it s position i n the lands of the Crown of St. Stephen in any way. In practice this meant that the Croats would be willing to satisfy a l l Magyar demands as long as such a policy would not encroach upon the nobility's ancient rights and privileges. As indicated in the previous chapter, these ancient rights and privileges, known as .jura municipalia, guaranteed the Croat nobility a special position in Croatia-Hungary and later in the Habsburg Monarchy. While willing to accept the Magyar language as an optional subject in the schools, and otherwise a l l y - i t s forces with Hungary, the Croat nobility emphatically disagreed with those Magyar demands which called for replacing Latin by the Magyar language i n administration, giving equal -36-r i g h t s t o t h e P r o t e s t a n t s ( t h i s would e n a b l e Magyar P r o t e s t a n t s t o s e t t l e i n C r o a t i a ) , and t a k i n g some Croat t e r r i t o r i e s ( f o r example, R i j e k a and the S l a v o n i a n c o u n t i e s ) from the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Ban and p l a c i n g them under the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r Hungary. , The meeting of the Common D i e t i n 1790 was the l a s t time t h e Croat d e l e g a t e s would b e l i e v e i n the p o s s i b i l i t y o f w o r k i n g i n c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Magyar r u l i n g c l a s s . 1 From t h i s moment, the Croat-Magyar r e l a t i o n s began t o d e t e r i o r a t e r a p i d l y and the C r o a t s began t o t u r n more and more t o V i e n n a , and l a t e r t o t h e i r own n a t i o n a l i s t i c movement f o r a s s i s t a n c e . At the meeting o f t h i s D i e t , t he Cro a t s showed t h e i r "unpre-2 paredness f o r i m p o r t a n t events and changes". A c c o r d i n g t o e s t a b l i s h e d , c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e , the Croat l e g i s l a t i v e -assembly, the Sab o r , u s u a l l y met b e f o r e the meeting o f the Common D i e t i n o r d e r t o d e c i d e on t h e . p o s i t i o n t o be t a k e n at Pozsony. The Sabor e l e c t e d i t s d e l e g a t e s t o Pozsony and gave them s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s on w h i c h b a s i s they were t o v o i c e t h e wishes of C r o a t i a . S e v e r a l days b e f o r e the meeting o f the Sabor i t s e l f , a l l the Croat c o u n t i e s met i n t h e i r s e p a r a t e s k u p s t i n a s t o e l e c t t h e i r d e l e g a t e s t o the Sabor and t o i s s u e a statement of t h e i r views on the c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s . Of a l l t h e s e m e e t i n g s , t h e meeting o f the County of Zagreb was t h e most i m p o r t a n t because Zagreb was not o n l y t h e county w i t h t h e l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n , but a l s o t h e p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l c e n t r e o f a l l C r o a t i a . I t was - 3 7 -on the proposal of this county that Leopold II, after the resignation of Joseph's governor, Francis Balassa, appointed a new Ban for Croatia, Ivan Erd5dy (1790-1806). At its meeting the County of Zagreb agreed on the establishment of a elos'er union with Hungary so that "never again w i l l the . existence of our Constitution be threatened by the executive 3 government and i t s direct or indirect helpers...". J The decisions reached at the meetings of the other Croat counties indicated that the nobility throughout Croatia was unanimous in i t s demand for the formation of a closer constitutional union with Hungary. That such an attitude should be common among the nobles i n a l l the Croat counties is not surprising for the composition of a l l the skupstinas was almost identical, i.e. only- the higher and middle nobles and members of the clergy had the right to attend and vote at such meetings. The decisions reached at the meeting of this Sabor must be discussed to some detail because they had a tremendous impact on the development of Croat nationalism. The entire p o l i t i c a l activity of the future leaders of nationalism stemmed from the desire to null i f y the constitutional laws which were passed on the basis of these proposals. In addition to this, an analysis of the instructions given by the Sabor to the Croat delegates to the Common Diet w i l l show the true character of the tendencies prevailing among the Croat ruling class, and enable the reader to see to what extent the Magyars misinterpreted the laws of 1790/91 and uti l i z e d them -38-f o r t h e i r c a u s e , and a g a i n s t t h e C r o a t s . The Sabor f i n a l l y met on 11 May 1790. A f t e r t h e i r f o r m a l a p p r o v a l o f the appointment o f the new Ban and a f t e r the e l e c t i o n o f o f f i c i a l s who were t o conduct the work o f the Sabor, t h e d e l e g a t e s proceeded t o d i s c u s s the f u t u r e p o s i t i o n o f t h e i r c o u n t r y i n r e l a t i o n t o Hungary. I n t h e absence o f any k i n d of o p p o s i t i o n the debates on the i s s u e s i n q u e s t i o n were s h o r t and d e c i s i o n s were r e a c h e d v e r y ' r a p i d l y . The Sabor d e c i d e d t h a t i t s d e l e g a t e s t o the Common D i e t were t o r e c o g n i z e the v a l i d i t y o f the m a j o r i t y v o t e i n a l l k d i s c u s s i o n s o f " g e n e r a l p u b l i c n a t u r e " but o n l y i f such p r o p o s a l s "do not a f f e c t t h e s e p a r a t e r i g h t s o f the Kingdom of C r o a t i a " . y Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e d e l e g a t e s were ex-p l i c i t l y t o l d t o r e f u s e t o r e c o g n i z e any m o d i f i c a t i o n of the l a w w h i c h p r e v e n t e d n o n - C a t h o l i c s from owning l a n d i n C r o a t i a . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , on the b a s i s o f M a r i a Theresa's u n c o n s t i t -u t i o n a l a c t w h i c h a b o l i s h e d the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r C r o a t i a , t h e d e l e g a t e s were t o propose t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a Senate o f the Kingdom ( s e n a t u s r e g n i ) w h i c h would be a common go v e r n -ment composed o f an e q u a l number o f Croats and Magyars t o s e c u r e t h e r i g h t s o f b o t h n a t i o n s . The Senate was t o rema i n i n power-and r u l e o ver C r o a t i a ' s s i x c o u n t i e s o n l y " u n t i l C r o a t i a r e g a i n s a l l i t s t e r r i t o r y now o c c u p i e d by V e n i c e and Turkey". I n a s e p a r a t e document a t t a c h e d t o the i n s t r u c t i o n s , the Sabor f o r m a l l y s u r r e n d e r e d i t s r i g h t t o l e g i s l a t e on the - 3 9 -q u e s t i o n of C r o a t i a ' s f i n a n c e s : . . . t h a t any i n c r e a s e i n ta x e s f o r the upkeep of tr o o p s ( c o n t r i b u t i o ) p a y a b l e d i r e c t l y t o t h e K i n g , must i n f u t u r e be d i s c u s s e d and d e c i d e d e x c l u s i v e l y a t the meeting o f the Common D i e t and nowhere e l s e . But o n l y i f C r o a t i a n t a x e s a r e d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y f r om t h e Magyar ones. 7 R e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s o f C r o a t i a - H u n g a r y w i t h A u s t r i a and i t s p o s i t i o n i n t h e Monarchy, t h e Sabor demanded t h a t a l l t he laws i s s u e d by Joseph I I be f o r m a l l y a b o l i s h e d , t h a t the use o f the German language be a b o l i s h e d i n C r o a t i a and i n Hungary, t h a t the K i n g was t o d e c l a r e wars and con-c l u d e t r e a t i e s o n l y w i t h the a p p r o v a l o f the Common D i e t , and, f i n a l l y , t h a t t h e K i n g was t o r e s p e c t t h e o l d C o n s t i t u t i o n and c a l l a meeting o f D i e t every t h i r d y e a r . The Common D i e t at Pozsony opened i t s f i r s t s e s s i o n on .20 June 1790. A c c o r d i n g t o h i s e a r l i e r d e c l a r a t i o n , L e o p o l d r e a d i l y s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Magyar demands t h a t new k i n g s f o r Cr o a t i a - H u n g a r y be o f f i c i a l l y i n s t a l l e d i n Buda. He r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l i d i t y o f a l l the o t h e r p r o p o s a l s , a l t h o u g h he agreed w i t h the p r o p o s a l t h a t new laws would be e n f o r c e d o n l y w i t h agreement o f the D i e t . S h o r t l y a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n V i e n n a , L e o p o l d formed, on the r e q u e s t s o f the Serbs i n C r o a t i a and the M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r , who were not r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e D i e t , a s e p a r a t e I l l y r i a n O f f i c e i n V i e n n a . T h i s d e c i s i o n s k i l f u l l y by-passed t h e Croat laws w h i c h d e n i e d r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a t i o n t o t h e Orthodox f a i t h s . I n r e t u r n "the c h i e f s o f t h e ' I l l y r i a n ' p eople promised V i e n n a ^0,000 t r o o p s whenever o n e c e s s a r y and i n case o f an emergency". The Croat p r o p o s a l f o r the v o l u n t a r y s u r r e n d e r o f t h e i r r i g h t t o d e c i d e C r o a t i a ' s t a x e s i n the Sabor t o the Common D i e t and the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r Hungary ( L e o p o l d r e f u s e d t o s a n c t i o n the p r o p o s a l f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f a Senate) passed b o t h houses of the D i e t v e r y q u i c k l y and r e c e i v e d the r o y a l a s s e n t s h o r t l y a f t e r . No i m p o r t a n t debates t o o k p l a c e on t h i s o c c a s i o n i n v i e w of the f a c t t h a t the Croat move was welcomed by a l l the Magyar d e l e g a t e s and i n s p i r e d them t o i n -c r e a s e t h e i r demands. The Croats, appeared w i l l i n g t o s u r r e n d e r c o m p l e t e l y w i t h o u t o f f e r i n g any g r e a t e r r e s i s t a n c e . However, w i t h . t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the language problem the atmosphere p r e v a i l i n g i n the D i e t changed c o m p l e t e l y . The Magyars demanded t h a t f u t u r e debates i n the D i e t were t o be h e l d i n the Magyar language and t h a t the j o u r n a l and de-c i s i o n s o f the D i e t were t o be w r i t t e n i n t h e i r language as 9 w e l l . ' The C r o a t s were a s t o n i s h e d and were caught unprepared t o r e s i s t t h i s sudden o u t b u r s t o f Magyar n a t i o n a l i s m . The q u e s t i o n o f r e p l a c i n g L a t i n by the Magyar language i n v o l v e d , not o n l y a mere change o f the c o u n t r y ' s o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e , but a l s o t h e problem of a b o l i s h i n g some fun d a m e n t a l r i g h t s o f the Kingdom of C r o a t i a . The r e s i s t a n c e o r g a n i z e d by the Croats a g a i n s t t h i s Magyar demand r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t s t e p i n t h e development of Croat n a t i o n a l i s m . The Croats d i d not - 4 1 -argue f o r t h e sake o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r own l a n g u a g e , but the mere f a c t t h a t they attempted t o r e s i s t the Magyar language c o n s t i t u t e d t h e f i r s t . s t e p i n the s t r u g g l e f o r t h e p r e s e r -v a t i o n o f C r o a t i a ' s s t a t e r i g h t s . U n l i k e ' the Magyars, who, ' "under Joseph had p r o g r e s s e d i n the development of t h e i r language and l i t e r a t u r e more t h a n they o t h e r w i s e would have i n a hundred y e a r s " , ^° t h e Croats had y e t t o a c c e p t the i d e a o f u s i n g t h e i r language as the o f f i c i a l language o f t h e i r c o u n t r y . F o r the p r e s e n t they argued t h a t i f s u c h a change were s a n c t i o n e d and the use o f " t h i s a n c i e n t language ( L a t i n ) i n the p u b l i c b u s i n e s s was a b o l i s h e d , t h i s would harm C r o a t i a ; s u c h a move would undermine the Agreement, and the C r o a t s w o u l d l o s e a l l the p r o t e c t i o n g u a r a n t e e d them by . t h e l a w " . 1 1 F u r t h e r m o r e the Magyar l a n g u a g e , they argued, was not a " c u l t u r a l " language and the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of the Croat and Magyar n o b i l i t y spoke o n l y L a t i n o r German. The p r o p o s a l s f i n a l l y s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Emperor f o r a p p r o v a l r e f l e c t e d o n l y l i m i t e d s u c c e s s o f the Croat r e s i s t a n c e . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e p r o p o s a l . c a l l e d f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the Magyar language i n a l l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s as an o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t . S e c o n d l y , the D i e t ' s j o u r n a l was t o be w r i t t e n i n the Magyar language and i t s L a t i n t r a n s l a t i o n (on the r e q u e s t o f t h e C r o a t s ) was t o be c o n s i d e r e d as an e q u a l l y v a l i d and a u t h e n t i c copy ( " a u t h e n t i c a v e r s i o d i a r i i h u n g a r i c i a u c t o r i -1 2 t a t e c o m i t i o r u m p r o c u r a t a " ) . T h i r d l y , Magyar d e l e g a t e s were a l l o w e d t o d e l i v e r t h e i r speeches i n the D i e t i n t h e i r -1+2-nativ'e language and the C r o a t s , i f they so w i s h e d , c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o use L a t i n . W i t h a l l t h e i r r i g h t s , t h e Croats c o u l d have r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t the Magyar language i n the D i e t i t s e l f because at t h a t time t h e r e were v e r y few people who knew t h a t l a n g u a g e ; t h i s i s e n t i r e l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e s i n c e the language of d i p l o m a c y was L a t i n and s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l spoke L a t i n , Croat or German. R e a l i z i n g t h e i r f a i l u r e t o p r e v e n t th e amendment of t h e o l d C o n s t i t u t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f the L a t i n language the C r o a t s , somewhat b e l a t e d l y , a t t e m p t e d t o r e s t r i c t and m o d i f y t h e i r f o r m e r l y a c c e p t e d - p r o p o s a l s f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y of the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r Hungary as the supreme government f o r C r o a t i a . T h e i r t a r d y p r o t e s t was c o m p l e t e l y d i s r e g a r d e d , and i n 1 7 9 1 ? the b i l l was s e n t t o V i e n n a where the Emperor promptly s a n c t i o n e d i t . I n r e a l i t y t h i s law d i d not b r i n g about any s i g n i f i c a n t change ( e x c e p t f o r the t a x a t i o n law) i n C r o a t i a n p o l i t i c s . The Crown's C o u n c i l f o r Hungary, as we a l r e a d y know had become the o f f i c i a l Croat government d u r i n g the r u l e o f M a r i a T h e r e s a who had a b o l i s h e d the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r C r o a t i a . The attempt on the p a r t o f the .Croat n o b i l i t y t o a c cept s u c h a s i t u a t i o n as l e g a l and d e s i r a b l e was e v i d e n c e of i t s complete l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f an autonomous g o v e r n -ment i n t h e c o u n t r y . The D i e t o f 1 7 9 0 / 9 1 f i n a l l y f o r c e d t h e Croat n o b l e s t o r e a l i z e t h a t i f C r o a t i a d i d not have s u b s t a n t i a l p o l i t i c a l independence t h e i r i n t e r e s t s would s u f f e r as w e l l , and t h a t the i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l - 4 3 -p a r t n e r s were no l o n g e r the same as t h e i r own, but e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . The D i e t of 1790/91 p l a y e d a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n the development of Croat n a t i o n a l i s m because i t f o r c e d the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s t o t h i n k i n terms o f the i n t e r e s t o f the n a t i o n as a whole and t o a c cept the i d e a t h a t , b e s i d e s b e i n g an a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s , i t was a l s o a p a r t of the Croat n a t i o n whose i n t e r e s t s i t must p r o t e c t i f i t s a r i s t o c r a t i c members were t o s u r v i v e p o l i t i c a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y . T h e r e f o r e i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a number of t h e . C r o a t n o b l e s became e n e r g e t i c s u p p o r t e r s o f d e v e l o p i n g C r o a t i a ' s n a t i o n a l i s m . Of c o u r s e , even a f t e r 1791? t h e r e were s t i l l many nobles who d i d not l e a r n a l e s s o n , and s t i l l b e l i e v e d i n t h e c l o s e s t 1 4 p o s s i b l e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Magyar n o b i l i t y . F o r t u n -a t e l y , the number of such nobles was v e r y s m a l l and had no s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the n a t i o n a l i s t i c movement. We have examined so f a r the two main d e c i s i o n s which . d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d t h e p r o c e s s o f the development of n a t i o n a l i s m i n C r o a t i a . Other d e c i s i o n s r e a c h e d at the meeting o f the Common D i e t i n 1790/91? a l t h o u g h not l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t , had no immediate or d i r e c t impact on n a t i o n a l i s m . The v o l u n t a r y s u r r e n d e r of the most i m p o r t a n t f i e l d o f any l e g i s l a t i v e body ( f i n a n c e ) d i d not cause any s t i r among the Croats u n t i l t h e Magyars showed the t r u e n a t u r e of t h e i r p o l i c y . I m m e d i a t e l y , t h r o u g h o u t C r o a t i a s i m u l t a n e o u s meetings of a l l c o u n t i e s ' s k u p s t i n a s were c a l l e d and o f f i c i a l p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t the - ^ i t -Magyar demands f i l e d i n Vienna and i n Pozsony i t s e l f . In sp i t e of the fact that these protests made by the Croat counties had no impact on the decisions of the Diet, the gesture i t s e l f indicated a sudden change of public opinion i n Croatia and i l l u s t r a t e d a unanimous outlook of the r u l i n g c l a s s . Upon his return from Pozsony, the Ban, Ivan Erdody, c a l l e d the Sabor i n session i n order to obtain i t s formal sanction of the new laws approved by the Emperor. The delegates to the Sabor firm l y decided that i n the next Common Diet the Croats would energetically demand the amendment of a l l those laws concluded i n Pozsony which d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y en-croached upon the state rights of Croatia. Nevertheless, the Sabor undertook measures to organize the chairs of the Magyar language i n elementary and secondary schools as "an optional 1 5 subject, i . e . for a l l students who think they w i l l need i t " . y Promulgation of the decisions reached by the Common Diet represented the only function of the Croat l e g i s l a t i v e assembly after 1791. In f a c t , i t became a mere agent of the Crown's Council for Hungary and the to o l of Magyar nationalism. ...from now on for the history of the Croat nation the events which took place during the long sessions at Pozsony are more important and more s i g n i f i c a n t than the decisions made i n the narrow c i r c l e s of the Croat Sabor. ,This type of r e l a t i o n f i n a l l y brought about IBW7 1 6 Such an i n t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n i n Croatia (created with the -45-h e l p o f the Croat n o b i l i t y t h r o u g h i t s d e l e g a t e s t o the Common D i e t ) c o u p l e d w i t h e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s - the N a p o l e o n i c wars and t h e work o f the Czech, S l o v a k and P o l i s h P a n - S l a v i s t s -made p o s s i b l e the r e l a t i v e l y f a s t development o f Croat n a t i o n a l i s m . ' The p e r i o d when the F r e n c h r u l e d i n t h e Croat r e g i o n s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y c o n t r i b u t e d a g r e a t d e a l t o the Croat cause by i n i t i a t i n g and i n f l u e n c i n g t he d e v e l o p -ment o f n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g among Cr o a t s of a l l c l a s s e s . How-ever s h o r t , t h i s p e r i o d succeeded i n b r i n g i n g t o C r o a t i a some f u n d a m e n t a l i d e a s o f the Age o f Reason w h i c h h e l p e d t h e Croat n a t i o n a l i s t i c l e a d e r s b r e a k away from t h e i r m e d i a e v a l c o n c e p t i o n s o f s t a t e and s o c i e t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the h i g h l i g h t s o f l i f e i n C r o a t i a d u r i n g the F r e n c h r u l e w i l l be v e r y u s e f u l f o r i t r e p r e s e n t s an i m p o r t a n t s t a g e i n the development o f Croat n a t i o n a l i s m . C r o a t i a D u r i n g the N a p o l e o n i c Wars A f t e r t he d e a t h o f L e o p o l d I I , on 1 March 1792, the Habsburg Monarchy r e c e i v e d a new r u l e r i n the p e r s o n o f h i s e l d e s t s o n F r a n c i s I I (1792-1835)'. U n l i k e h i s f a t h e r , F r a n c i s I I was a s t r o n g opponent o f everyfenew r e f o r m and p r o g r e s s d i c t a t e d by the new age and i n s t e a d aimed at a s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f a b s o l u t i s m . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f h i s r u l e (1792-1815), t h e Monarchy was i n v o l v e d i n s e v e r a l dangerous wars w i t h F r a n c e w h i c h , a t t i m e s , t h r e a t e n e d t o d e s t r o y i t c o m p l e t e l y . A l t h o u g h F r a n c i s I I was l o s i n g . -he-one t e r r i t o r y a f t e r a n o t h e r , he was d e t e r m i n e d t o e n f o r c e a s t r i c t a b s o l u t i s t i c regime and p o l i c e s t a t e i n the r e m a i n i n g p a r t s o f the Monarchy. Thus, b e f o r e the a r r i v a l o f the F r e n c h t r o o p s he c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d the p r o g r e s s i v e movements o f J o s e p h i n i s t s and J a c o b i n s . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s p o l i c y the Groat n a t i o n a l i s t s were f o r c e d t o s t a r t the 1 8 development o f t h e n a t i o n a l movement from the b e g i n n i n g . . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e terms o f the peace t r e a t y c o n c l u d e d between A u s t r i a and F r a n c e , F r a n c i s I I ' s compensation f o r t h e l o s s o f B e l g i u m was t h e V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c and i t s t e r r i t o r i e s on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f the A d r i a t i c Sea. ..Shortly a f t e r the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s t r e a t y ( a t Campo F o r m i o , on 1 8 A p r i l 1 8 9 7 ) , Napoleon caused the d o w n f a l l o f the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c ( 1 2 May 1 8 9 7 ) and A u s t r i a n t r o o p s were a l l o w e d t o occupy a l l i t s t e r r i t o r y , i n c l u d i n g D a l m a t i a and Boka K o t o r s k a . The C r o a t s o f D a l m a t i a welcomed the A u s t r i a n t r o o p s as a l i b e r a t i n g f o r c e w h i c h was g o i n g t o make t h e u n i o n of D a l m a t i a and C r o a t i a p o s s i b l e . The p e t i t i o n s i g n e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l t h e D a l m a t i o n c i t i e s and sen t t o F r a n c i s I I c l e a r l y shows t h a t a d e g r e e , no m a t t e r how l i m i t e d , o f n a t i o n a l i s t i c s e n t i m e n t e x i s t e d among the Croats o f D a l m a t i a i n s p i t e o f t h e i r l o n g e x i s t e n c e as a s e p a r a t e r e g i o n o f the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c : "Because t h e Kingdom of D a l m a t i a was l e f t w i t h o u t a l a w f u l government,...and because the e i g h t y - f o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l t h e D a l m a t i a n r e g i o n s e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e . . . t o u n i t e w i t h the peopl e o f the Kingdom o f C r o a t i a w i t h whom i t was u n i t e d i n the o l d t i m e s , we beg H i s M a j e s t y . . . t o a l l o w t h i s u n i o n . . . " 1 9 -47-The A u s t r i a n a u t h o r i t i e s promised t o r e s p e c t the wishes o f t h e Dalmatians and t o ensure s u c c e s s s e n t G e n e r a l R u k a v i n a , a C r o a t , w i t h the A u s t r i a n army t o e s t a b l i s h law and o r d e r . However, the e x p e c t e d u n i f i c a t i o n d i d not t a k e p l a c e . I n s t e a d , F r a n c i s I I a p p o i n t e d a g o v e r n o r f o r D a l m a t i a r e s -p o n s i b l e d i r e c t l y t o V i e n n a . F o r t u n a t e l y F r a n c i s 1 r u l e i n D a l m a t i a was v e r y s h o r t . A f t e r the B a t t l e of A u s t e r l i t z i n 1 8 0 5 , and a c c o r d i n g t o the terms of the t r e a t y c o n c l u d e d at Pozsony ( P r e s s b u r g ) on 2 December i n the same y e a r , Napoleon o c c u p i e d . b o t h D a l m a t i a and Boka K o t o r s k a and, i n 20 1806 ( 2 6 May) a b o l i s h e d t h e Dubrovnik R e p u b l i c . D a l m a t i a ' s p r o g r e s s i n t h e f i e l d s o f c u l t u r e and economics d u r i n g the F r e n c h r u l e i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o u s . The new g o v e r n o r f o r D a l m a t i a , V i n c e n z o Dandolo, a c c o m p l i s h e d g r e a t e r s u c c e s s i n D a l m a t i a t h a n had been the case d u r i n g the e n t i r e p e r i o d o f V e n e t i a n r u l e . The f i r s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e of backward D a l m a t i a was the weekly ' I I r e g i o Dalmata-K r a l j s k i D a l m a t i n ' ( t h e K i n g ' s D a l m a t i a n ) , the f i r s t C r o a t i a n newspaper, whose f i r s t e d i t i o n appeared on S a t u r d a y , 12 J u l y I806 21 The "King's D a l m a t i a n " s e r v e d as an organ f o r the g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e masses i n the t e c h n i q u e s o f modern a g r i c u l t u r e . 2 2 D a n d o l o i r r i g a t e d many a c r e s o f . a r a b l e l a n d and i n v i t e d f o r e i g n e x p e r t s " t o i n s t r u c t p e o p l e on the 23 u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r s m a l l p l o t s of l a n d " . J The F r e n c h a b o l i s h e d D a l m a t i a ' s m e d i a e v a l forms of government and r e -e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s s i m i l a r t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f F r a n c e ' s modern government. I n s h o r t , the F r e n c h d i d more i n s e v e r a l y e a r s t h a n t h e Dalmatians would have ever been a b l e t o do under t h e former forms of f o r e i g n r u l e . As a r e s u l t , D a l m a t i a ' s economy became more d e v e l o p e d and b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d t h a n d i d C r o a t i a ' s under the r u l e of Hungary and A u s t r i a . By b o o s t i n g t h e economic p r o g r e s s o f the r e g i o n , and i m p r o v i n g e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , the F r e n c h a u t h o r i t i e s u n c o n s c i o u s l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development o f Croat n a t i o n a l i s m . P r i o r t o the a r r i v a l of Dandolo, D a l m a t i a had h a r d l y any s c h o o l s . However, w i t h i n t h r e e y e a r s o f F r e n c h r u l e and w i t h t h e h e l p o f the a n n u a l I t a l i a n c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h r e e m i l l i o n f r a n c s , every major D a l m a t i a n c i t y r e c e i v e d a number of e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , s econdary s c h o o l s and v a r i o u s v o c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t e s . The language of i n s t r u c t i o n was the n a t i v e Croat language because "the F r e n c h government d i d not r e c o g n i z e any o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t y but t h e Croat.one w h i c h was t r a n s l a t e d i n t h e I t a l i a n e d i t i o n o f the 'King's D a l m a t i a n ' as ' i l l i r i c a ' " . 2 h t I n s p i t e o f a l l the p r o g r e s s t h a t was made t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n grew t o h a t e the F r e n c h as " a t h e i s t s and J a c o b i n s " and enemies of the Church. On one hand, most of the p o p u l a -t i o n d i d not a c t u a l l y u n d e r s t a n d the new p r o g r e s s i v e and r a d i c a l i d e a s advocated by the F r e n c h and, on the o t h e r , the l o c a l p r i e s t s and monks had a tremendous i n f l u e n c e among the p e o p l e who c o u l d not u n d e r s t a n d why the F r e n c h r e s t r i c t e d the power o f the c l e r g y . The l o c a l p a r i s h p r i e s t s • w e r e enraged by t h e measures i n t r o d u c e d by the F r e n c h a u t h o r i t i e s w h i c h r e s -t r i c t e d the p r i v i l e g e s of t h e c l e r g y and s e p a r a t e d the Church from the s t a t e , and u t i l i z e d t h i s c o n f u s i o n among the masses by a d v o c a t i n g an open r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t the " g o d l e s s f o r e i g n -e r s " . T h e i r s u c c e s s i n c r e a t i n g an a n t i - F r e n c h s e n t i m e n t among the D a l m a t i a n s i s i n d i c a t i v e of the l a c k o f a s t r o n g n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g among the p o p u l a t i o n i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t i t f a v o u r e d a u n i o n w i t h C r o a t i a p r o p e r . N a t i v e D a l m a t i a n i n t e l l e c t u a l s were l a r g e l y p r o - I t a l i a n and were taught t o v i e w , i n I t a l i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , the n a t i v e D a l m a t i a n c u l t u r e and language as backward.and unworthy o f i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n and s t u d y . T h i s was one of the main re a s o n s t h a t t h e Croats o f D a l m a t i a produced v e r y few l e a d e r s 2 6 d u r i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the Croat n a t i o n a l i s m . The economic and c u l t u r a l p r o g r e s s made i n D a l m a t i a d u r i n g the F r e n c h r u l e had more impact on t h e t h i n k i n g o f those n a t i o n a l i s t s who l i v e d i n C r o a t i a p r o p e r and who wanted t o see a s i m i l a r p r o g r e s s made i n the whole o f C r o a t i a . D e s p i t e the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among t h e D a l m a t i a n s caused by the c l e r g y , t h e F r e n c h t a x a t i o n system and c o n s c r i p t i o n l a w s , the i n f l u e n c e o f the F r e n c h on p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n C r o a t i a became more pronounced w i t h the e x p a n s i o n o f the F r e n c h domain i n the B a l k a n s . N apoleon expanded h i s t e r r i t o r y i n the Ba l k a n s a f t e r an A u s t r i a n attempt t o r e g a i n i t s l o s t t e r r i t o r y f a i l e d c o m p l e t e l y . F o l l o w i n g t h e b a t t l e at Wagram, A u s t r i a was c o m p e l l e d t o sue f o r peace w h i c h was c o n c l u d e d i n Schttnbrunn on lk October 1809. - 5 0 -On t h a t o c c a s i o n , Napoleon r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y : I s t r i a , W estern C a r n i o l a , C a r i n t h i a and the Croat r e g i o n s on the r i g h t bank o f the Sava up t o the mouth o f the Una a t J a s e n o v a c . Napoleon u n i t e d t h e s e newly a c q u i r e d r e g i o n s w i t h 27 F r e n c h D a l m a t i a under a new name, " I l l y r i a n P r o v i n c e s " ' ( l e s p r o v i n c e s i l l y r i e n n e s ) whose c a p i t a l was t o be i n L j u b l j a n a . T h i s same name, I l l y r i a , was l a t e r adopted w i t h g r e a t s u c c e s s by the Croat n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s whose purpose was t o u n i t e a l l t h e So u t h S l a v s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the C r o a t s , under one name w h i c h would a t t r a c t a l l d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s . The new g o v e r n o r o f the I l l y r i a n P r o v i n c e s was Napoleon's w e l l known m a r s h a l August de Marmont who, as h i s p r e d e c e s s o r Dandolo, d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f as a v e r y p r o g r e s s i v e r u l e r . P r o f e s s o r S i s i c s a y s : " H a r d l y ever b e f o r e d i d our peopl e have pO a more honest and more j u s t r u l e r t h a n Marmont...". Marmont, who knew C r o a t i a n h i m s e l f , c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o the development o f the Croat language by s p o n s o r i n g the pub-l i s h i n g of the f i r s t I t a l i a n - I l l y r i a n - L a t i n d i c t i o n a r y e d i t e d by the monk S t u l l i i n 1810. I n e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s Marmont d e c i d e d t o i n t r o d u c e C r o a t i a n ( I l l y r i a n ) i n I l l y r i a as the o f f i c i a l l anguage of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i l e F r e n c h was t o be used i n the i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of the Empi r e , e s p e c i a l l y i n communication w i t h the c e n t r a l government. 29 F o r t h i s r e a s o n , Marmont, l i k e Dandolo, r e o r g a n i z e d the e d u c a t i o n -a l s y stem and e s t a b l i s h e d many a d d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s where the language o f i n s t r u c t i o n was t h e n a t i v e Croat tongue. W i t h a s s i s t a n c e of the n a t i v e s c h o l a r s , t h e F r e n c h a u t h o r i t i e s a l s o p u b l i s h e d a number of t e x t b o o k s w r i t t e n i n the Croat l a n g u a g e . "The K i n g ' s D a l m a t i a n " was r e p l a c e d by a new p a p e r , T e l e g r a p h e o f f i c i e l des p r o v i n c e s I l l y r i e n n e s (The O f f i c i a l G a z e t t e o f the I l l y r i a n P r o v i n c e s ) , which was p u b l i s h e d i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t languages,. F r e n c h , I t a l i a n , -German and C r o a t . 3 ° D u r i n g the F r e n c h o c c u p a t i o n , Napoleon h i m s e l f a d d r e s s e d th e C r o a t s , who were p r o t e s t i n g s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t F r a n c i s ' d e c i s i o n t o s a c r i f i c e almost h a l f o f C r o a t i a i n o r d e r t o save the Monarchy, and p o i n t e d out t h a t r e p l a c i n g the "back-31 ward A u s t r i a n g o v e r n m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e " J by a new, p r o g r e s s i v e F r e n c h r u l e meant the b e g i n n i n g o f • a n e r a o f economic and c u l t u r a l p r o g r e s s w h i c h not o n l y improved the s t a n d a r d of • l i v i n g , but a l s o p r o v i d e d a b a s i s f o r the "awakening of 32 n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s among a l l South S l a v s " . Napoleon's I l l y r i a was t h e f i r s t experiment i n the h i s t o r y o f t h e South S l a v s w h i c h attempted t o u n i t e G r o a t s , S e r b s and S l o v e n e s i n t o one n a t i o n a l s t a t e . D u r i n g the s h o r t . t i m e i t e x i s t e d , t h e system of government i n the I l l y r i a n p r o v i n c e s p r o v i d e d the. l e a d i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l minds among the S o u t h S l a v s w i t h f i r s t - h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the f o r m a t i o n o f an even g r e a t e r South S l a v i c s t a t e w h i c h had f o r m e r l y been thought i m p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e . What the C r o a t s , Serbs and Slovenes, had not been a b l e t o a c h i e v e throughout the many c e n t u r i e s o f t h e i r s e p a r a t e e x i s t e n c e , Napoleon succeeded i n d o i n g almost o v e r n i g h t . Because Napoleon had -52-s u d d e n l y a c h i e v e d t h e " i m p o s s i b l e " , t h e n a t i o n s p l a c e d under h i s r u l e were caught u n p r e p a r e d . B e i n g c u l t u r a l l y , and p o l i t i c a l l y immature they d i d not know how b e s t t o u t i l i z e t h e v a r i o u s freedoms g i v e n t o them by the F r e n c h , and they l e t t h i s g o l d e n o p p o r t u n i t y , s l i p t h r o u g h t h e i r f i n g e r s p r a c t i c a l l y untouched. I t was not o n l y the f r e e use o f t h e Groat language and t h e p r o j e c t s f o r d e v e l o p i n g a n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and i n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e o v e r a l l p r o g r e s s i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e people i n t h e I l l y r i a n P r o v i n c e s . The e n t i r e g o v e r n m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e was d e s i g n e d t o speed up t h e pr o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i o n t o t h e maximum. W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f the M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r , where the o l d A u s t r i a n m i l i t a r y , t y p e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was p r e s e r v e d , I l l y r i a was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s i x p r o v i n c e s w h i c h were not 33 o r g a n i z e d a l o n g e t h n i c l i n e s . J J I n each o f the p r o v i n c e s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t o employ as many n a t i v e sons as p o s s i b l e . However, the r u l e s p r e v e n t e d ah o f f i c i a l from s e r v i n g i n h i s home town.or d i s t r i c t . As a r e s u l t , a m o b i l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c l a s s was formed e n a b l i n g the n a t i v e i n t e l -l e c t u a l s and o t h e r educated people t o a c q u a i n t themselves w i t h the l i f e and pe o p l e i n a l l t h e r e g i o n s o f " I l l y r i a " . J u d i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was s e p a r a t e d from s t a t e admin-i s t r a t i o n w h i c h e n a b l e d t h e c o u r t s t o d i s p e n s e a g r e a t e r amount o f j u s t i c e t h a n had ever been the case b e f o r e . The Code Napoleon c o m p e l l e d t h e c o u r t s t o p r o v i d e e q u a l p r o t e c t i o n -53-o f a l l c l a s s e s , i n c l u d i n g the p e a s a n t r y w h i c h had been emanci-p a t e d . The language of the c o u r t s was Croat ( I l l y r i a n ) and t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f o f f i c i a l s were n a t i v e s o n s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e improved a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e , I l l y r i a was a l s o made f i n a n c i a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t . I n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was o b t a i n e d by b u i l d i n g new f a c t o r i e s , f u r t h e r i n g t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , b u i l d i n g communication l i n e s , and i m p r o v i n g th e c u l t i v a t i o n o f l a n d . The i n c r e a s e i n . p r o d u c t i o n and the improved t r a d e f a c i l i t i e s r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of a b o u r g e o i s c l a s s w h i c h , a l t h o u g h s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , became one of the l e a d i n g f o r c e s i n t h e development of n a t i o n a l i s m . Thus I l l y r i a ' s . t r a d i n g c i t i e s , K a r l o v a c , R i j e k a and Senj became the main c e n t r e s o f t h e Croat n a t i o n a l movement a f t e r the f a l l o f N a poleon. A f t e r t h e d e f e a t o f the F r e n c h army at L e i p z i g ( 1 6 , 17 and 18 October 1813), t h e r a p i d economic and c u l t u r a l development o f the I l l y r i a n P r o v i n c e s came t o a s t a n d s t i l l . By 1814, the A u s t r i a n g e n e r a l s , F r a n c i s Tomasic and Todor M i l u t i n o v i c , had o c c u p i e d t h e e n t i r e t e r r i t o r y w i t h o u t any d i f f i c u l t y . The C r o a t s , as p r e v i o u s l y p o i n t e d o u t , d i s l i k e d the F r e n c h hegemony over C r o a t i a , i n s p i t e o f a l l the. p r o g r e s s t h a t Napoleon had made p o s s i b l e . J T h e r e f o r e . t h e p e o p l e , l e d by the C a t h o l i c c l e r g y , welcomed the A u s t r i a n s as the l i b e r a t o r s o f t h e i r homeland. C r o a t i a ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t she would f i n a l l y be rewarded and compensated for a l l the sacrifices she had made i n order to save the Monarchy were not f u l f i l l e d once again. The unification of her lost territories with their mother country did not take place. Dalmatia, whose territory stretched from the Zrmanja to Budva, f e l l again under the direct authority of Vienna as had been the case from 1797 to 1805- The territory of the Military Frontier was further expanded and also restored to its former status. The remaining part of the Croat provinces which had been under French rule was given to the Austrian administration of Carinthia which was subsequently transformed into the "Kingdom of I l l y r i a " (3 August 1816). However, after a long and bitter dispute between the Croat nobility and the Emperor, this part of Croatia proper was re-turned to the Ban (1822), minus the Kvarner islands which were given to I s t r i a . ^ The t i t l e "King of I l l y r i a " was preserved u n t i l the f a l l of the Monarchy in 1918. Thus the Napoleonic wars ended with two results for Croatia - on one hand she lost some territory to Vienna, but on the other hand her people gained some healthy national ideas. These ideas could not be taken away by an Imperial decree or any other p o l i t i c a l action. The former local barriers which had prevented the people of one region from identifying them-selves with the nationality of the neighbouring region, began to f a l l . Prior to that the differences among the Croat regions, which manifested themselves through the use of different dialects of the language, represented a major obstacle -55-t o t h e development of n a t i o n a l i s m . Now t h e d i a l e c t s began t o 3 7 be c o n s i d e r e d as forms of speech of the same language. T h i s i d e a t h a t a common language meant a common n a t i o n a l i t y was accompanied by t h e next l o g i c a l consequence, u n i f i c a t i o n o f a l l the t e r r i t o r i e s i n h a b i t e d by t h e same p e o p l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the I l l y r i a n name began t o i n f l u e n c e our p e o p l e f o r the f i r s t time t o c r e a t e a b r o a d e r b a s i s f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y w h i c h had been s t a r t e d and p a r t i a l l y r e a l i z e d i n Napoleon's I l l y r i a . T h i s seed grew i n t o a p o w e r f u l t r e e from the t i me th e Croat n a t i o n c l a s h e d w i t h the t e n d e n c i e s of the Magyars. 38 . S t r a n g e l y enough, f u r t h e r development of Croat n a t i o n a l i s m d i d not t a k e p l a c e , as one would e x p e c t , i n D a l m a t i a and i n t h e Croat t e r r i t o r i e s on t h e r i g h t bank of the Sava. A f t e r the f a l l o f Napoleon's I l l y r i a , the c e n t r e o f n a t i o n a l i s m moved t o t h e h e a r t o f C r o a t i a w h i c h had remained under Hungary even d u r i n g the N a p o l e o n i c wars. T h i s s h i f t o f t h e c e n t r e o f n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s was caused by s e v e r a l e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s . F i r s t l y , we must t a k e i n t o account t h a t the c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h d e v e l o p e d i n D a l m a t i a d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f F r e n c h government d i d not seem t o f a v o u r t h e i r c r e a t o r . T r u e , the peasants were f r e e d and made owners of t h e i r l a n d , but t h e i r e m a n c i p a t i o n came t o o e a r l y and t o o s u d d e n l y . The D a l m a t i a n p e a s a n t , who had been s u b j u g a t e d t o v a r i o u s f o r e i g n o v e r l o r d s f o r c e n t u r i e s had l e a r n e d t o r e g a r d every c o n c e s s i o n on the p a r t o f h i s masters w i t h the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e s u s p i c i o n . H i s -56-p a s t e x p e r i e n c e t o l d him t h a t b e h i n d each r e f o r m t h e r e were always h i d d e n i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h would not f a v o u r h i s i n t e r e s t s , but o n l y make h i s l i f e more m i s e r a b l e . The p e r i o d o f F r e n c h r u l e was t o o s h o r t t o e f f e c t i v e l y show him t h e r e a l improvement i n h i s economic and p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s . H i s n a t u r a l l y c o n s e r v -a t i v e o u t l o o k p r e v e n t e d him from s e e i n g i n p e r s p e c t i v e h i s new r o l e and p o s i t i o n i n the modern s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h had j u s t been c r e a t e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , he was accustomed t o l i v i n g under the tremendous i n f l u e n c e o f the C a t h o l i c ' c l e r g y who assumed the r o l e o f h i s p r o t e c t o r d u r i n g the F r e n c h o c c u p a t i o n and t o l d him to. r e b e l a g a i n s t the " f a i t h l e s s J a c o b i n s ' I t was e a s i e r f o r him t o accept the e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s p a r i s h p r i e s t and r e j e c t the i d e a s of the newly a r r i v e d f o r e i g n e r s t h a n t o t r y and u n d e r s t a n d the new r a d i c a l r e f o r m s . I n the absence o f a s t r o n g group o f n a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , who would t a k e upon themselves th e t a s k of e x p l a i n i n g t o t h e i r people the advantages f o r the n a t i o n i n the new r e f o r m s , any attempt t o e n f o r c e i n a s h o r t p e r i o d of time such reforms i n a backward c o u n t r y was bound t o f a i l . S e c o n d l y , the D a l m a t i a n C r o a t s had no n a t i v e r u l i n g c l a s s as was the case i n t h e r e s t o f C r o a t i a . T h e i r n a t i v e n o b i l i t y was a s s i m i l a t e d by the I t a l i a n n o b i l i t y of the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c . T h i s s i t u a t i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h the f a c t t h a t D a l m a t i a n i n t e l l e c t u a l s were l a r g e l y I t a l i a n i z e d , * l e f t the peasants as the o n l y c l a s s t o o r g a n i z e the f o r m a t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l movement. F u r t h e r m o r e , D a l m a t i a had no d i e t and no- c o n s t i t u t i o n a l -57-p r i v i l e g e s w hich would p r o v i d e i t w i t h a b a s i s f o r p o l i t i c a l Re-a c t i o n . Even a f t e r the f a l l o f the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c , D a l m a t i a d i d not improve i t s p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s . F o l l o w i n g t h e d e p a r t u r e o f t h e F r e n c h t r o o p s , D a l m a t i a was p r e v e n t e d from u n i t i n g w i t h i t s mother c o u n t r y , C r o a t i a , where i t s new d e m o c r a t i c e x p e r i e n c e and r a d i c a l i d e a s c o u l d f i n d an i d e a l o u t l e t and a v a i l a b l e p r o t e c t i o n . I n s t e a d , D a l m a t i a was g i v e n t h e s t a t u s o f a s e c o n d - r a t e A u s t r i a n p r o v i n c e d i r e c t l y sub-o r d i n a t e d t o the a u t h o r i t y of V i e n n a . T h i r d l y , t h i s s h i f t of nascent n a t i o n a l i s t a c t i v i t y t o .the p a r t of C r o a t i a under t h e r u l e o f the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r Hungary was a l o g i c a l move because' i t was t h i s p a r t of C r o a t i a t h a t was most i n need o f a s t r o n g n a t i o n a l i d e a l . . In f a c t , the Magyar attempts t o a b o l i s h C r o a t i a ' s p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s and e l i m i n a t e t h e Croat n a t i o n l e f t t h e Croat r u l i n g c l a s s no o t h e r c h o i c e but t o f a l l back on an a n t i - M a g y a r n a t i o n a l movement. S i n c e t h e r e was no s u c h movement i n e x i s t e n c e at .the time o f the Magyars' f i r s t a t t a c k , i t had t o be c r e a t e d . I t was c r e a t e d by a v e r y s m a l l group o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s who were i n f l u e n c e d by the n a t i o n a l movements i n o t h e r European s t a t e s and t h e works o f the famous P a n - S l a v i c l e a d e r s . And, u n l i k e D a l m a t i a , t h i s p a r t of C r o a t i a had the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means t o p r o t e c t i t s n a t i o n a l movement and use i t a g a i n s t i t s p o t e n t i a l enemy. At the same t i m e , because t h e Croat n a t i o n a l movement was the weaker o f the two movements and the l e s s dangerous t o t h e c e n t r a l government, i t r e c e i v e d o c c a s i o n a l b a c k i n g from the -58-Emperor w h i c h was o f d e c i s i v e i m p o r t a n c e at t i m e s . I n s h o r t , t h e Magyar a t t a c k on Croat n a t i o n a l i t y was the c a t a l y s t w h i c h s t a r t e d the development o f n a t i o n a l i s m i n Croatia.. T h i s movement had t o have i t s own l i t e r a r y language and so Croat n a t i o n a l i s m d e v e l o p e d i n two d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s : (1) the i n t e l l e c t u a l s and o t h e r l i t e r a r y Croats worked w i t h the problem of c r e a t i n g a l i t e r a r y language w h i c h would be common t o a l l and c o u l d be used as C r o a t i a ' s o f f i c i a l language and (2) the Croat h i g h e r n o b i l i t y f o u g h t the Magyars i n the p o l i t i c a l a r e n a at Pozsony and r e f u s e d t o s u r r e n d e r i t s i n t e r e s t s and ac c e p t the terms o f M a g y a r i z a t i o n . Elements o f N a t i o n a l i s m Among the R u l i n g C l a s s B e f o r e t h e Croat n o b i l i t y u n i t e d i t s f o r c e s w i t h the movement o r g a n i z e d by the n a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , i t s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n was l a r g e l y i s o l a t e d and l i m i t e d t o e n d l e s s debates i n the l e g i s l a t i v e house, the D i e t at Pozsony. The m a j o r i t y of the n o b l e s was not i m p r e s s e d or o t h e r w i s e p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p r o g r e s s the F r e n c h had a c h i e v e d i n t he I l l y r i a n P r o v i n c e s j l i k e F r a n c i s I , they were g r e a t l y r e l i e v e d when F r a n c e was f i n a l l y d e f e a t e d because t h e o l d f e u d a l system c o u l d be r e s t o r e d and t h e i r p o s i t i o n s t r e n g t h e n e d . They t h e r e f o r e welcomed F r a n c i s ' d e s i r e t o e l i m i n a t e t h e seeds of r a d i c a l i s m the F r e n c h had sown i n t h e Monarchy. However, when F r a n c i s " p o l i c y a g a i n began t o show s i g n s o f the h a t e d a b s o l u t i s t r e g i m e , t h e Croat n o b l e s d e c i d e d t o choose the " l e s s e r of two e v i l s " , and p r e p a r e d themselves t o approach - 5 9 -the Magyar n o b i l i t y and s a c r i f i c e some more of C r o a t i a ' s p r e c i o u s s t a t e r i g h t s . Even d u r i n g t h e N a p o l e o n i c w a rs, F r a n c i s was r e l u c t a n t t o put the new c o n s t i t u t i o n a l laws of 1790/91 i n t o p r a c t i c e and t o r e c o g n i z e the autonomy of the l a n d s o f S t . Stephen. He was never i n f a v o u r o f c a l l i n g the D i e t i n t o s e s s i o n f o r he f e a r e d t h a t , i n f l u e n c e d by the events w h i c h had t a k e n p l a c e ' i n F r a n c e , the D i e t ' s s e s s i o n s c o u l d e a s i l y l e a d t o an open hp r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t h e t h r o n e . Having e l i m i n a t e d t h e above mentioned J o s e p h i n i s t s and J a c o b i n s ( a move whi c h was welcomed by the c o n s e r v a t i v e n o b i l i t y i n C r o a t i a and H u n g a r y ) , t h e Emperor d e c i d e d t o impose a b l o c k a d e w h i c h would p r e v e n t r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a s f rom s p r e a d i n g among h i s s u b j e c t s . The meetings of the D i e t were c a l l e d i n 1792, 1796 and 1802, but o n l y t o approve the i n c r e a s e i n t a x e s and a d d i t i o n a l r e c r u i t -ment of s o l d i e r s f o r the war a g a i n s t F r a n c e . These meetings h3 were v e r y s h o r t and no o t h e r m a t t e r s c o u l d be d i s c u s s e d . However, from 1802 t h e Magyar n o b i l i t y r e a l i z e d i t s o p p o r t u n i t y t o use t h e c h a o t i c s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d by the war t o g a i n a d d i t i o n a l c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e i r demands t o i n t r o d u c e t h e Magyar language as t h e o f f i c i a l , language i n t h e H u n g a r i a n l a n d s . Such demands p l a c e d the C r o a t s i n a. v e r y d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . T h e i r p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s was endangered by the c e n t r a l government w h i c h had begun t o d i s r e g a r d : t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n c o m p l e t e l y , and p l a n n e d t o t r a n s f o r m C r o a t i a i n t o an A u s t r i a n p r o v i n c e and i t s p e o p l e i n t o Germans. On the o t h e r hand, the - 6 0 -Magyars, who appeared to be defending the Constitution, denied any constitutional rights to Croatia and planned to transform i t into.a Hungarian province and i t s people into Magyars. This situation remained unchanged un t i l the end of absolutism i n the m i d - 2 0 ' s when the central government at Vienna realized the danger of Magyar nationalism and decided to extend an occasional helping hand to the Croats in order to weaken.its (Vienna's) more dangerous opponent. The next Diet met i n Pozsony on 1 7 April l 8 0 5 . Francis' main purpose for calling this session was the same as before -more money and more recruits. Nevertheless, the Magyar delegates succeeded i n organizing a strong debate against the activities of the secret police and the new system of censor-ship which prevented the development of the Magyar language. They demanded that their language be used in a l l communications with the Crown's Council for Hungary and in the administration of justice. The clash between the> Hungarian and Croat delegates took place immediately after the proposal suggesting that the Magyar language be taught in a l l the schools of Hungary and Croatia. While the Croats did not question the Magyars' right to introduce their own language i n Hungarian schools and offices, they did protest against any similar proposal which would include the Croat lands. The Bishop of Zagreb, Vrhovac, who represented Croatia i n the upper house, the House of Magnates, pointed out: "...the Kingdom of Croatia has the same right to use i t s native language as has Hungary - 6 1 -to use i t s language" and that any sueh proposal " w i l l never 4* be accepted by the Croats; we w i l l f igh t i t f o reve r " . J As the spokesman of the minority group i n the Sabor, Vrhovac went a step fur ther and announced that , i n the same way the Magyars were s t ruggl ing for the r ights of the i r language, the Croats would also re ject L a t i n and accept the i r language (Croat) as the o f f i c i a l language i n the Kingdom of Croa t i a . Although his attempt had no s i gn i f i c an t impact on the thinking of the Croat de legates, i t ind icated that there were some Croat nobles who thought i t necessary to replace La t i n i n administrat ion by the native Croat. The majority of the Croat nobles were s t i l l very strongly i n favour of the L a t i n language and f e l t i t s preservat ion i n the publ ic o f f i ces , i n Croat ia was a symbol of the Croat autonomy. Their p o l i t i c a l inf luence i n the Common Diet was s t i l l strong enough to force that body to amend the above proposal by the i n c l u s i on of a statement which spec i f i ed that the new law would not be enforced i n the Croat lands. Owing to the weakness of the Magyar nat iona l movement caused by many of i t s members, who doubted the l i t e r a r y power of the i r language and considered i t s adoption i n the state adminis-t r a t ion , p o l i t i c a l l y unfeas ib le , the Croat amendment of the D i e t ' s decis ions was r e l a t i v e l y easy to obta in . The amendment was formal ly sanctioned by the Croat Sabor which met a f ter the return of the Croat delegates from Pozsony (28 November): -62-"...that i n these Kingdoms and the i r administration neither the Magyar language nor any other w i l l ever be used, but only the La t i n language because i n this language, which i s as old as this Kingdom, a l l our laws are written...and i f i t i s abolished then our culture and nation w i l l be destroyed because we would ^ no longer be able to understand our laws and r i g h t s " . 4 ' Two years l a t e r , i n 1807 (5 A p r i l ) , the meeting of the Common Diet i n Buda indicated that the Magyar n o b i l i t y had larg e l y overcome the forces which had disunited the national movement. This was especially true of the lower house where the Magyar patriots by a majority vote adopted the new pol i c y : "Our mother tongue i s a more important factor than the Constitution and the privileges of the n o b i l i t y " . The Croats, who could not actually demand the same rights for the Croat language as long as Croatia was ruled by the Crown's Council for Hungary, manifested t h e i r national f e e l i n g by demanding that Rljeka's i n c l u s i o n i n t o Croatia be formally recognized. ^ The Diet passed this proposal and, i n 1808, Francis assented to the b i l l . As a r e s u l t , Pdjeka was re-quired to send i t s delegates to both l e g i s l a t i v e houses, the Common Diet and the Sabor, and was considered to be a component part of Croatia and of Hungary. The questions of Slavonia and the regions included i n the M i l i t a r y Frontier enabled the Groat n o b i l i t y to further i l l u s t r a t e i t s n a t i o n a l i s t i c tendencies. At Pozsony, the Croat delegates very successfully fought the aggressive Magyar demand that Slavonia be given the status of a Magyar county and be included i n t o Hungary proper. The Magyar argument, based - 6 3 -on some h i s t o r i c a l c l a i m s w h i c h were supposed t o " p r o v e " t h a t S l a v o n i a had always b e l o n g e d t o Hungary a l t h o u g h i t had been " i m p r o p e r l y " c o n s i d e r e d as a p a r t o f C r o a t i a , f a i l e d c o m p l e t e l y . S l a v o n i a remained a component p a r t o f the Kingdom o f C r o a t i a and, as s u c h , was r e p r e s e n t e d , not i n t h e H u n g a r i a n D i e t , but i n the Croat S a b o r . The Croats o f S l a v o n i a themselves always f e l t v e r y c l o s e t o the Cr o a t s from C r o a t i a proper•and v e r y o f t e n showed f a r g r e a t e r n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g t h a n t h e i r c o u n t r y -51 men from Zagreb. The Croat r u l i n g c l a s s a c h i e v e d o n l y l i m i t e d s u c c e s s when they d e a l t w i t h the second q u e s t i o n - the problem o f the Croat l a n d s i n c l u d e d i n the M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r . T h i s q u e s t i o n was not d e c i d e d at Pozsony s i n c e the a r e a was a d m i n i s t e r e d by the c e n t r a l government i n V i e n n a . The Emperor was u n w i l l i n g t o p a r t w i t h t h i s t e r r i t o r y s i n c e i t was an e x c e l l e n t s o u r c e o f good s o l d i e r s who, i n case of war, c o u l d be m o b i l i z e d q u i c k l y and w i t h o u t any d i f f i c u l t i e s because he d i d not have t o seek t h e a p p r o v a l o f the D i e t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , he r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l i d i t y o f the Croat c l a i m s on t h i s a r e a . Only two c i t i e s o f the a r e a i n q u e s t i o n , K a r l o v a c and G l i n a , were r e t u r n e d t o the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Ban. W i t h the d e p a r t u r e o f the F r e n c h t r o o p s a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n r e g a r d t o D a l m a t i a w h i c h was f o r c e f u l l y i n c l u d e d i n t o t h e "Kingdom o f I l l y r i a " i n s p i t e o f i t s people's d e s i r e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t o 5 ? the Croat l a n d s . v ~ F r a n c i s and h i s a d v i s o r s c o n s i d e r e d i t p o l i t i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s t o a l l o w t h e Croats t o u n i t e and -6k-o r g a n i z e a s t r o n g n a t i o n a l movement a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d c o m p l e t e l y t h e Magyar a t t a c k s . The b a s i s o f t h e problem r e g a r d i n g the i n t e g r a t i o n o f a l l t h e Croat l a n d s had been c r e a t e d as e a r l y as 1809 when A u s t r i a , d e f e a t e d by Napo l e o n , had been f o r c e d t o t u r n over t o the F r e n c h t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d Croat r e g i o n s s i t u a t e d a c r o s s t h e Sava. The Croat n o b l e s were v e r y much d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h the terms o f the t r e a t y s i g n e d i n S c h 5 n b r u n n and s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e d t h a t . Napoleon c o u l d have been d e f e a t e d i n C r o a t i a had V i e n n a agreed t o u n i t e D a l m a t i a w i t h the Kingdom o f C r o a t i a . The b i s h o p Vrhovac had a d v i s e d t h e c e n t r a l government: " I f you i s s u e a d e c l a r a t i o n t o the pe o p l e of D a l m a t i a t h a t D a l m a t i a w i l l be u n i t e d w i t h the Kingdom o f C r o a t i a , i . e . w i t h the H u n g a r i a n l a n d s i n acc o r d a n c e w i t h i t s a n c i e n t r i g h t s , t h e n , I b e l i e v e , we c o u l d q u i c k l y d e f e a t the F r e n c h " . J Vrhovac based h i s p r o p o s a l on the Cro a t s 1 and S e r b s ' s u c c e s s f u l war a g a i n s t the F r e n c h i n C r o a t i a , and b e l i e v e d t h a t w i t h the h e l p o f the Croat p a t r i o t s from D a l m a t i a t h e F r e n c h t©oops c o u l d be pushed out 5 H from C r o a t i a c o m p l e t e l y . ' S i n c e the c e n t r a l government would not even c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f announcing any su c h p r o p o s a l t o the D a l m a t i a n s , C r o a t i a was g r e a t l y reduced i n s i z e and t h e r e f o r e weakened i n h e r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the a g g r e s s i v e H u n g a r i a n s t a t e . The s i t u a t i o n i n the e n t i r e Monarchy was v e r y c r i t i c a l . As a r e s u l t of the war the Empire was r a p i d l y a p p r o a c h i n g f i n a n c i a l and economic b a n k r u p t c y . To improve economic c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s t a t e , F r a n c i s was f o r c e d once a g a i n t o seek the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the n o b i l i t y . . Consequently he agreed t o c a l l a meeting of the D i e t . The D i e t met i n Pozsony on 25 August 1811. Owing t o t h e Emperor's s t u b b o r n n e s s about m o d i f y i n g h i s p o l i c y f o r the economic r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Empire and h i s new f i s c a l p o l i c y , t h e d e l e g a t e s t o the D i e t r e f u s e d t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h the c e n t r a l government and no d e c i s i o n s c o u l d be r e a c h e d . F r a n c i s c a l l e d o f f the meeting and the D i e t d i d not meet a g a i n u n t i l 1825. A c t i n g i n s t e a d on the a d v i c e of h i s main p o l i c y maker, M e t t e r n i c h , F r a n c i s suspended the Croat and Magyar c o n s t i t u t i o n s and i n t r o -duced the h i g h e s t degree of a b s o l u t i s m and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . F r a n c i s ' d e c i s i o n t o c o n c l u d e t h e meeting of the D i e t was e n f o r c e d r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y because the d e l e g a t e s ( C r o a t and Magyar) c o u l d not get t o g e t h e r , and f a i l e d t o o r g a n i z e a u n i t e d o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s measure. I n a v e r y u n t i m e l y move, the Magyar d e l e g a t e s a g a i n managed t o b r i n g up the q u e s t i o n o f t h e H u n g a r i a n l a n g u a g e . T h e i r demands f o r the M a g y a r i z a t i o n of C r o a t i a had not.changed i n s u b s t a n c e s i n c e 1805. Having f a i l e d on two p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n s , i n 1805 and 1807, t o impose t h e i r language on.the C r o a t s , they attempted t o do so i n 1811. A g a i n the Croat n o b l e s s u c c e s s f u l l y defended the s t a t e r i g h t s o f C r o a t i a ; the spokesman f o r the Croat d e l e g a t i o n s a i d : As b e f o r e , the Croats do not oppose the Magyars' attempt t o o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l r i g h t s f o r the use o f t h e i r language at home Cin Hungary) . The Croats have even gone as f a r as t o a l l o w t h e i r countrymen t o use the Magyar language at the h i g h e s t l e v e l of government and t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r them t o l e a r n i t i f they want t o . . . -66-I f C r o a t i a could use a d i f f e r e n t language from Hungary Ci.e. L a t i n } without any d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r eight hundred years then i t should not present any major ob s t a c l e to our r e l a t i o n s i n the f u t u r e e i t h e r . 55 Following the meeting of the Diet i n 1811, the r a p i d l y developing controversy between C r o a t i a and Hungary came to a . s t a n d s t i l l . Both C r o a t i a and Hungary faced t h e i r o l d enemy, absolutism. Since the meeting of the Diet was not c a l l e d , the Croat, as w e l l as the Hungarian nobles, decided to organize a passive r e s i s t a n c e to c e n t r a l i s m by using t h e i r remaining forms of government, namely the assemblies and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l c o u n t i e s . The Croat counties sabotaged d e c i s i o n s channelled to them by the c e n t r a l government and very o f t e n r e f u s e d to e f f e c t i v e l y promulgate new r o y a l decrees. However, a f t e r the defeat of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna.in 1815, M e t t e r n i c h appointed an A u s t r i a n governor to each county who placed pro-German elements, i n the key posts of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s S e d l n i t z k y ' s p o l i c e agents, r e i n f o r c e d by the A u s t r i a n troops, .prevented the formation of any a n t i -A u s t r i a n movement by imprisoning the more r a d i c a l c i t i z e n s and c o n t r o l l i n g and censoring the press and correspondence. The p e r i o d of absolutism came to i t s end before anybody expected. When F r a n c i s attempted to r e c r u i t 30,000 men to combat r e v o l u t i o n s i n Spain and I t a l y a l l the Croat and Magyar counties unanimously refused any co-operation unless the Diet was c a l l e d i n t o s e s s i o n . M e t t e r n i c h f i n a l l y y i e l d e d and announced that the Diet' was to meet on 11 September 1825. - 6 7 -During this period the Croat n o b i l i t y expressed i t s national f e e l i n g by demanding that the central government return to Croatia those Croat regions which had been incorporated 57 i n t o the Kingdom of I l l y r i a after the defeat of Napoleon. This movement had i t s centre i n Zagreb because i t was the County of Zagreb which lost a considerable amount of i t s t e r r i t o r y a f t e r the Treaty of Schonbrunn. Already by 1813, the nobles of this county had dispatched l e t t e r s to every high o f f i c e i n the Monarchy demanding the re-incorporation of Prekosavska 58 Croatia i n t o the Kingdom of Croatia. In these l e t t e r s the nobles describe how these regions were s a c r i f i c e d for the Monarchy and taken from Croatia and the County of> Zagreb to be submerged to the notorious French r u l e . . . . In spite of a l l that the population i n the regions across the Sava s t i l l remained l o y a l to i t s former sovereign.... At the end of each of these l e t t e r s the nobles appeal that the receivers of the l e t t e r s help solve this problem as soon as possible by supporting at the Emperor's o f f i c e the Croats' lawful desire of the regions i n question. ?° During the rule of absolutism, the problem of the incor-poration of Prekosavska Croatia remained the main issue i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of Croatia, and the Croat-Magyar controversy was pushed in t o the background for a short period of time. The central government became a more immediate danger to Croatia than Hungary which was faced with s i m i l a r problems. In 1822, this struggle for their lost regions ended with p a r t i a l success for • the Croat nobles. The county of Zagreb was returned i t s l o s t t e r r i t o r y , but c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r u l e was not restored u n t i l three years l a t e r , i n 1825. - 6 8 -Thus i n the above mentioned a b s o l u t i s t i c and a n t i -c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p e r i o d the C r o a t s , who were d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r S a b o r . n e v e r t h e l e s s s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s o l u t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n of P r e k o s a v s k a C r o a t i a ' s r e - i n c o r p o r a t i o n . . . w i t h the h e l p o f some o u t s t a n d i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s and o t h e r p a t r i o t s . . . i n s o f a r as t h e d e c i s i o n was f i n a l l y p romulgated from above. 60 The e n t h u s i a s m w h i c h had emerged among a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s i n C r o a t i a when t h i s d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i r l o s t t e r r i t o r i e s was announced was s t i l l b u r n i n g v e r y s t r o n g l y when M e t t e r n i c h announced t h a t the D i e t would meet i n 1825. I t seemed as i f th e Croat n o b l e s had a c h i e v e d a complete v i c t o r y . The no b l e s f e l t t h a t a b s o l u t i s m was f i n a l l y d e f e a t e d . The l o n g a w a i t e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r u l e was f i n a l l y r e s t o r e d and brought new hopes t o the r u l i n g c l a s s o f C r o a t i a . The r e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f the r e m a i n i n g Croat r e g i o n s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y D a l m a t i a ) i n t o the Kingdom o f C r o a t i a seemed t o be more f e a s i b l e and c l o s e r t o b e i n g r e a l i z e d t h a n ever b e f o r e . • I n v i e w o f t h e en t h u s i a s m p r e v a i l i n g among the Croat n a t i o n i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Croat n o b l e s tended t o f o r g e t -the past d i s p u t e s w i t h t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p a r t n e r and were p r e p a r e d once a g a i n t o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Magyars i n o r d e r t o e r e c t s u f f i c i e n t s a f e g u a r d s a g a i n s t f u t u r e a b s o l u t i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s of the c e n t r a l government. On the o t h e r hand, M e t t e r n i c h viewed the meeting of the D i e t from an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w . He r e a l i z e d t h a t the r e -a c t i o n a r y c e n t r a l government c o u l d no l o n g e r p r e v e n t the s p r e a d o f the r a d i c a l , r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a s w i t h o u t the h e l p o f - 6 9 -the upper clergy and nobility. In i t s struggle against anti-feudal tendencies, Vienna could find no better all i e s than the members of the.upper class who likewise feared such democratic ideas. Finally, the Magyar nobles, while welcoming this change of the p o l i t i c a l course, saw another opportunity to press for further concessions regarding the use of the Magyar language in the lands belonging to the Crown of St. Stephen. Therefore the Magyars, unlike the Croats, who s t i l l f e l t no strong need to establish Croat as their o f f i c i a l language, came to this Diet well prepared and determined to realize their nationalistic aims. The Diet of 1825/27 stands as the landmark in the re-lations between Hungary and Croatia i n the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century. The situation in Croatia and the eastern part of the Monarchy in general was much the same as i t was i n 1790 . This similarity of the two p o l i t i c a l situations was underlined by the fact that the Croatsaagain wanted to establish a close union with Hungary. This Diet differed from the Diet of 1790 i n that the Magyars now achieved a substantial 6 1 success i n their attempt to magyarize Croatia. The Croat Sabor met on 22 August 1825 and elected i t s representatives to the Common Diet - Stjepan Ozegovic and Antun Kukuljevic to the lower house and Alojzije Buzan to the upper. The instructions of the Sabor to i t s delegates contained the following specifications: 1. To demand that Dalmatia and the Military Frontier be r e -united with Croatia. 2. To ask that a l l Slavonian counties pay the same taxes as other Croat counties for they too belonged under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Ban. 3- To r e s t r i c t further the movement of peasantry i n Croatia. k. To e s t a b l i s h closer a l l i a n c e with Hungary and i t s upper 62 c l a s s . For our purpose i t i s s u f f i c i e n t to examine only those debates i n the Diet which d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y affected the policy of the Magyarization of Croatia. This Diet did not only confirm the laws of 1790/91, but also reached some important decisions which had a very unfavourable effect on Croatia. As i n 1807 and 1811 the Magyars repeated their demands that i t was absolutely necessary f o r Croatia .to accept the Magyar language i n a l l i t s schools and public o f f i c e s . The Groat defence was based on the same arguments that had been used before: "...they reali.ze the advantage and need of learning Magyar and promise to do as much as possible to enable the Croat youth to master this language". ^ However, the Magyars were no longer s a t i s f i e d with such promises and demanded that a new, more e x p l i c i t law be enacted to replace the old one according to which Magyar was not compulsory i n Croat schools. The Magyar proposals did not only imply the Magyarization of Croatia, but also the a b o l i t i o n of the Croat autonomy. They argued that "Croatia's status was the same as that of the Northern Hungarian counties ( i . e . Slovakia)...because Croatia -71-OH was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r Hungary..." The l o w e r house, w h i c h was more n a t i o n a l i s t i c a l l y minded t h a n the upper house, passed t h i s p r o p o s a l i n s p i t e o f the Croat p r o t e s t s . I n the upper house t h e r e were many Magyar n o b l e s who d i d not know t h e i r . l a n g u a g e themselves and spoke o n l y German ( o r L a t i n i n the D i e t ) . However, under p o w e r f u l p r e s s u r e from t h e l o w e r house, t h e upper house a l s o agreed t h a t C r o a t i a s h o u l d a t l e a s t a c c e p t Magyar as a compulsory language i n a l l i t s s c h o o l s . S i n c e the demand f o r - the use o f the Magyar language i n the Croat p u b l i c o f f i c e s was t e m p o r a r i l y postponed, t h e Croat d e l e g a t e s agreed t o submit the above mentioned p r o p o s a l t o the 65 Sabor f o r a p p r o v a l . ' The Croat Sabor met on 10 September 1827 and d e c i d e d t h a t the Magyar language was t o be taught as a^compulsory s u b j e c t 65a i n a l l the Croat s c h o o l s . J T h i s d e c i s i o n of the Sabor i s con-s i d e r e d t o be the major s u c c e s s t h a t t h e M a g y a r i z a t i o n p o l i c y a c h i e v e d i n C r o a t i a . A l t h o u g h by contemporary s t a n d a r d s t e a c h i n g a f o r e i g n language i n s c h o o l s i s not c o n s i d e r e d a s i g n - o f weakness i n a n a t i o n , i n the Croat case such a d e c i s i o n meant more t h a n a mere academic a s s e t . I t meant t h a t the Croats' l e g a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f the Magyar language over t h e i r own. T h i s d e c i s i o n d i m i n i s h e d the im-p o r t a n c e of C r o a t i a ' s s t a t u s w i t h i n Hungary because the Croats thus r e c o g n i z e d the need f o r . t h e i r younger g e n e r a t i o n t o l e a r n Magyar i f they were t o o b t a i n i m p o r t a n t jobs i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the s t a t e . -72-H a v i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d such s u c c e s s i n 1827, the Magyars were p r e p a r e d - t o go f u r t h e r at the next meeting of the D i e t w h i c h met on 8 September 1830. The Magyars wanted t o r e a c h two i m p o r t a n t g o a l s at t h i s D i e t : (1) t o f o r c e the Cro a t s t o ac c e p t the Magyar language i n t h e i r p u b l i c o f f i c e s and (2) t o o b t a i n r e l i g i o u s e q u a l i t y and c i t i z e n s ' r i g h t s f o r the non-C a t h o l i c s i n C r o a t i a . The l a t t e r q u e s t i o n was not proposed o n l y t o i n t r o d u c e r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a t i o n i n C r o a t i a , but t o g i v e t h e r i g h t t o own l a n d t o the Magyar P r o t e s t a n t s whom Hungary wanted t o s e t t l e i n S l a v o n i a . A l t h o u g h t h e Magyars argued t h a t s u c h r e f o r m was n e c e s s a r y and i n accordance w i t h the new way o f l i f e , the Croats r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e the v a l i d i t y o f the argument because they saw "behind the mask of such t o l e r -a t i o n and l i b e r a l i s m o n l y the p o s s i b i l i t y of c r e a t i n g a new 66 way f o r M a g y a r i z a t i o n " . Owing t o Vienna's u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e c o g n i z e and s u p p o r t the Magyar arguments, the Croats were a g a i n s u c c e s s f u l i n p o s t p o n i n g t h e s e p r o p o s a l s t o f u t u r e D i e t s . T h e i r d e f e n c e of the Croat S t a a t s r e c h t was w e l l p r e p a r e d owing t o the p u b l i c a t i o n of J o s i p K u s e v i c ' s I u r a M u n i c i p a l i a i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r e x c e l l e n t l y d e s c r i b e s the e v o l u t i o n o f 67 t h e Croat r i g h t s i n t h e Croat-Magyar u n i o n . ' H i s h i s t o r i c a l argument b e g i n s w i t h 1102 and ends w i t h the 1830's, showing t h a t C r o a t i a had always h e l d a s e p a r a t e p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n , q u i t e independent from Hungary. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s pamphlet and the impact i t had on t h e t h i n k i n g o f t h e Croat p o l i t i c i a n s cannot be d e n i e d . F o r the f i r s t time i n -73-Crbat h i s t o r y a l a r g e segment of the Croat n o b i l i t y was a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the r e a l n a t u r e o f the problem f a c i n g C r o a t i a and w i t h i t s e x a c t p o s i t i o n i n the Kingdom o f Hungary. I n summation, up t o 1830 n a t i o n a l i s m among the Croat n o b i l i t y d i d not r e a c h t h e s t a g e where t h e i r d e l e g a t e s t o t h e Common 'Biet would demand, o r , at l e a s t , r e a l i z e the need f o r t h e development o f the Croat l a n g u a g e . T h e i r main aim was t o p r e s e r v e the C o n s t i t u t i o n i n i t s f e u d a l form and w i t h i t the L a t i n language w h i c h was t h e symbol of t h e i r s p e c i a l p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s . They were m o t i v a t e d by n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g i n a l l t h e o t h e r a s p e c t s of the p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f the day. However c o n s e r v a t i v e i n i t s p r i n c i p l e s , t h e i r n a t i o n a l i s m ( a l t h o u g h based on t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s , h e l p e d p r e v e n t C r o a t i a from becoming a H u n g a r i a n county whose p o p u l a t i o n would be c o m p l e t e l y M a g y a r i z e d . The Croat n o b i l i t y wanted t o e x i s t i n c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n and c l o s e u n i o n w i t h t h e Magyar n o b l e s , but o n l y as l o n g as such'common c o n c e r t would r e s p e c t the Croat S t a a t s r e c h t and o t h e r s p e c i a l r i g h t s of the n o b i l i t y . The .Croats were, p r e p a r e d t o s a c r i f i c e a l o t f o r t h i s cause and a c t u a l l y d i d g i v e up, as we saw,, some fundamental r i g h t s o f the Croat n a t i o n . However, the d e c i s i o n s . o f the D i e t o f 1825/27 marked the l i m i t t o w h i c h t h e Croat d e l e g a t e s were p r e p a r e d t o go i n o r d e r t o appease Magyar n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t s . From now on the Croat n o b i l i t y r e a l i z e d t h a t any f u r t h e r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Magyars would be a b s o l u t e l y i m p s s i b l e s i n c e the Magyars wanted t o d e s t r o y Croat autonomy and w i t h i t t h e powers of the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s . ' Thus, the Croat d e l e g a t e s t o the D i e t of 1830 r e p o r t e d t o t h e Sabor upon t h e i r r e t u r n from . Pozsony: " . . . t h i s t i me we succeeded i n d e f e n d i n g our l a w s , but we are a f r a i d t h a t i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e t o do so at the next 68 meeting o f t h e Common D i e t . " Another element o f n a t i o n a l i s m among t h e Croat n o b i l i t y was i t s d e s i r e f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n o f a l l the Croat r e g i o n s i n t o one Croat s t a t e . The Croat nobles r e a l i z e d t h a t s u c h a t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n , w h i c h would i n c l u d e D a l m a t i a , the M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r and the c i t y o f R i j e k a , would make C r o a t i a p o w e r f u l enough t o w i t h s t a n d the a t t a c k of Magyar n a t i o n a l i s m on Croat autonomy. Thus, i n s p i t e o f t h e i r c o n s e r v a t i s m , ( f o r wh i c h the Croats c o u l d not be blamed s i n c e l i b e r a l i s m aimed t o r e n d e r i n e f f e c t i v e the n a t i o n and i t s r i g h t s ) the Croat n o b i l i t y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e o n l y f o r c e i n the f i r s t q u a r t e r o f the n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y which was a b l e t o defend C r o a t i a and w h i c h , even though i t made some f a t a l m i s t a k e s , a c t u a l l y succeeded i n p r e v e n t i n g t h e Magyars from becoming the complete masters o f t he Kingdom of C r o a t i a . T h e r e f o r e , i t was a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s -ar y f o r our purpose t o observe t h e work o f the Sabor and the Common D i e t because d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d C r o a t i a l a c k e d any o t h e r way of e x p r e s s i n g i t s n a t i o n a l t e n d e n c i e s . The movement f o r t he development of the Croat language was i n i t s embryo and u n a b l e , as y e t , t o make i t s e l f . f e l t i n the l i f e o f the n a t i o n . T h i s l e f t t he Croat n o b i l i t y w i t h o u t a n y t h i n g t o f a l l back on because even had they wished t o , they c o u l d not demand at Pozsony the same r i g h t s f o r the Croat l a n g u a g e , f o r i t l a c k e d -75-a u n i f i e d l i t e r a r y form and o r t h o g r a p h y . I t was o n l y a f t e r the D i e t o f 183P t h a t the Groat i n t e l l e c t u a l s , f e a r i n g the conse-quences of t h e next D i e t , began t o work v e r y r a p i d l y on t h i s i m p o r t a n t • p r o b l e m . D r i v e n by the f e a r of M a g y a r i z a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e d by the i d e a s o f o t h e r S l a v i c n a t i o n a l movements, the C r o a t s a c h i e v e d r e m a r k a b l e s u c c e s s w i t h i n a v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h i s a s p e c t o f Croat n a t i o n a l i s m w i l l be the s u b j e c t o f our d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages. F i r s t N a t i o n a l Awakeners and T h e i r Work The d e c i s i o n s and g e n e r a l atmosphere at t h e l a s t meeting o f the D i e t s u d d e n l y caused a f e e l i n g o f deep n a t i o n a l s e n t i -ment among the Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s . They r e a l i z e d t h a t i f the Croats were t o c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t as a n a t i o n , the Croat language had t o be r e f o r m e d and adopted by a l l c l a s s e s as t h e language o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , p r i v a t e and p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n s , l i t e r a t u r e and a r t . At the b e g i n n i n g o f 1831, Croat poet-c l e r g y m a n Pavao S t o o s , summed up t h e s i t u a t i o n p r e v a i l i n g i n C r o a t i a a f t e r 1830 i n h i s poem K i p domovine (The S t a t u e o f t h e Homeland) w h i c h d e s c r i b e s the homeland as a woman d r e s s e d i n b l a c k , d e s e r t e d by a l l her sons and mourning: "Yet and t h e i r language Croats want 6Q To f o r g e t , and another n a t i o n t o become". y Howgver, "at t h i s f a t a l moment t h e r e appeared among the Croat n a t i o n a f e e l i n g , o f n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s " ?® which caused v e r y r a p i d changes i n t h e n a t i o n ' s l i f e . The main problem, o f c o u r s e , was t o c r e a t e a l i t e r a r y language common t o a l l the C r o a t s . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d Croat w r i t e r s , who o c c a s i o n a l l y appeared i n d i f f e r e n t Croat r e g i o n s , used the v a r i o u s d i a l e c t s o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n s . . Such works were not r e a d i n a l l t h e Croat c o u n t i e s ; - not because the r e a d e r s c o u l d not under-s t a n d t h e d i a l e c t s o f t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s , but because they would not adopt such l i t e r a t u r e as t h e i r own. L o c a l g e o g r a p h i c d i v i -s i o n s were s o s t r o n g t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n o f one r e g i o n f e l t i t had v e r y l i t t l e i n common w i t h the peopl e o f o t h e r d i s t r i c t s . However, i f we g e n e r a l i z e on the assu m p t i o n t h a t t h e County o f Zagreb used one d i a l e c t , we can c o n c l u d e t h a t s u c h l i t e r a t u r e 71 was w r i t t e n b a s i c a l l y i n the K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t . There g r a d u a l l y emerged more and more Croat w r i t e r s who began t o f e e l t he heed f o r one d i a l e c t w h i c h c o u l d be used i n a l l t h e Croat r e g i o n s . But on the whole, attempts t o p u b l i s h books i n Croat were l i m i t e d t o v e r y few works w h i c h remained unknown t o th e l a r g e r segment of the p o p u l a t i o n . Of a l l t h e l i t e r a r y workers o f t h i s p e r i o d , M a k s i m i l i a n Vrhovac d e s e r v e s t o be mentioned as the f i r s t awakener o f n a t i o n a l i s m . A f t e r the d e a t h o f " M a r t i n o v i e s and the d e f e a t o f the r a d i c a l movement, Vrhovac began t o work on the r e v i v a l o f the Croat l a n g u a g e . The c e n t r e o f h i s a c t i v i t i e s was t h e Seminary o f Zagreb, where he endeavoured t o educate f u t u r e l e a d e r s o f t h e n a t i o n a l movement. Thus, as e a r l y as 1807> he began t o p r e s e n t i n t h i s s c h o o l a s e r i e s o f drama works w r i t t e n i n n a t i v e C r o a t . I n the absence o f n a t i v e l i t e r a r y works h i s s t u d e n t s and o t h e r clergymen t r a n s l a t e d the works o f German, a u t h o r s and d i s t r i b u t e d t h e books among the s e c u l a r n o b i l i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l s w i t h the purpose of e n c o u r a g i n g them t o w r i t e such works i n t h e i r n a t i v e tongue. , I n f l u e n c e d by such p r o g r e s s i v e S l a v i c and German t h i n k e r s as Dobrovsky, K o p i t a r , H e r der and l a t e r the b r o t h e r s S c h l e g e l , Vrhovac's i d e a s f o r the u n i f i c a t i o n o f a l l Croats i n c l u d e d not o n l y the'' C r o a t s l i v i n g w i t h i n the Habsburg Monarchy, but a l s o t h o s e under T u r k i s h r u l e i n B o s n i a . T h e r e f o r e he was one o f the f i r s t C r o a t s t o a p p r e c i a t e the attempt by the F r e n c h a u t h o r -i t i e s t o i n t r o d u c e one s i n g l e d i a l e c t , the S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t , i n a l l t h e I l l y r i a n P r o v i n c e s . Vrhovac argued t h a t t h i s I l l y r i a n language ( l i n g u a I l l y r i c a ) s h o u l d be used by a l l Croat w r i t e r s i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e a s t r o n g n a t i o n a l , l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n common t o a l l Croat r e g i o n s . The a d o p t i o n o f the V S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t , Vrhovac t h o u g h t , would remove the l i t e r a r y b a r r i e r between the Croat and S e r v i a n n a t i o n , w h i c h had a l -r e a d y r e f o r m e d i t s l i t e r a r y language on the b a s i s o f t h e S t o -k a v i a n d i a l e c t under the g u i d a n c e of Vuk S t e f a n o v i c K a r a d z i c . The F r e n c h experiment i n the I l l y r i a n p r o v i n c e s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d Vrhovac and h i s f o l l o w e r s t o adopt the name " I l l y r i a " f o r the Croat n a t i o n a l movement because t h i s name was f a m i l i a r t o a l l Croats and undermined th e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l o c a l and r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s same name was l a t e r adopted by t h e Croat l e a d e r s o f the I l l y r i a n movement w h i c h i n c l u d e d i n i t s scheme not o n l y C r o a t s , but a l l S o u t h S l a v s - S e r b s , S l o v e n e s , Mace-d o n i a n s , B u l g a r i a n s and M o n t e n e g r i n s . However, the a d o p t i o n o f V t h e S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t was a p a i n f u l l y s l e w p r o c e s s . The Croat w r i t e r s s t i l l p r e f e r r e d t o use t h e K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t because t h e S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t c o u l d not be used w i t h o u t a major r e f o r m o f i t s o r t h o g r a p h y . I t must be n o t e d t h a t even the K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t had no u n i f o r m o r t h o g r a p h y and w r i t e r s used many d i f -f e r e n t ways o f s p e l l i n g . The movement f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a u n i f o r m l i t e r a r y l a n g u -age and o r t h o g r a p h y d i d not o r i g i n a t e i n C r o a t i a , but i n A u s t r i a , i n V i e n n a and G r a z , where Croat u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s under the i n f l u e n c e o f S a f a r i k and K o l l a r o r g a n i z e d the f i r s t c l u b s w h i c h were t o d i s c u s s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the development of an I l l y r i a n l a n g u a g e . F o r i n s t a n c e , as e a r l y as 1813. some young i n t e l l e c t u a l s had o r g a n i z e d s u c h a c l u b i n V i e n n a , but u n f o r t -u n a t e l y no o f f i c i a l r e c o r d o f i t s a c t i v i t i e s has been p r e s e r v e d . More i m p o r t a n t was the c e n t e r of the young i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n Graz where they e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1827 a s t u d e n t s ' " I l l y r i a n C l u b " whose main l e a d e r was M o j s i j e B a l t i c about whom L j u d e v i t Gaj l a t e r s a i d : "He was t h e f i r s t one t o show me the i n n e r v a l u e o f our p e o p l e ' s pure language w h i c h i s the o n l y one worthy of t h e I l l y r i a n name i n g e n e r a l ( i . e . the S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t ) " . ( D The r o l e o f Safarik'-'s and K o l l a r ' s works i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e I l l y r i a n Club assumed s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s . S a f a r i k ' s works G e s c h i c h t e der s l a w i s c h e n Sprache und L i t e r a t u r nach  a l i e n Mundarten (1826) and l i b e r d i e Abkunft der S l a v e n (1828) p r o v i d e d Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s w i t h the f u n damental p r i n c i p l e s f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i s m . I n t h e s e works, S a f a r i k - f y — d e a l s w i t h the o r i g i n s o f the S l a v s , t h e i r subsequent h i s t o r y , c u l t u r e , r e l i g i o n , and, f i n a l l y , t h e i r p o s i t i o n at the b e g i n n i n g o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t t h e s e works w e r e ' f u l l of h i s t o r i c a l e r r o r s , t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on the development o f n a t i o n a l movements among the v a r i o u s S l a v i c 7k peoples was o f t h e utmost i m p o r t a n c e . One o f the members o f the " I l l y r i a n C l u b " , M i r k o B o g o v i c , sees t h e s e works as one o f the main f o r c e s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Cr o a t d e f e n c e a g a i n s t t h e Magyar language. I t f o l l o w s t h a t the Croat n a t i o n -a l i s t i c movement o r i g i n a t e d w i t h i n the framework o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y P a n - S l a v i s m w h i c h had been d e s i g n e d t o b r i n g about t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f a l l S l a v s and e l e v a t e them t o t h e s t a t u s o f the o t h e r European n a t i o n s w h i c h l o o k e d upon t h e S l a v s as un d e r d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s and u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e i r c u l t u r a l c a p a c i t i e s . F o r t h i s purpose J a n K o l l a r i n h i s work, S l a v y D c e r a , " c r e a t e d t h e i d e a of the c u l t u r a l u n i t y of t h e S l a v i c w o r l d , the i d e a o f S l a v i c g r e a t n e s s and p o w e r f u l p r i d e , w i t h w h i c h he f i l l e d up many h e a r t s of numerous submerged S l a v s 75 w i t h the hope f o r l i b e r t y and s a l v a t i o n " . '/ I t was o n l y l o g i c a l t h a t the Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n A u s t r i a a c c e p t e d and were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s e i d e a s , and upon t h e i r r e t u r n t o C r o t i a aimed t o put them i n p r a c t i c e and b r i n g about the c u l t u r a l r e -b i r t h o f the n a t i o n . I n C r o a t i a they found Croat w r i t e r s who, w h i l e r e a l i z i n g the need f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a common Croat l i t e r a t u r e , l a c k e d s u f f i c i e n t means and m o r a l s u p p o r t t o c a r r y out the major reforms n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e a l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e . -ou-However, they a l l agreed t h a t M a g y a r i z a t i o n c o u l d he s u c c e s s -f u l l y f o u g h t by d e v e l o p i n g the n a t i v e language and u s i n g i t i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n s t e a d o f L a t i n ; . ' A l r e a d y by 1815, the Croat K a j k a v i a n w r i t e r , A. M i h a n o v i c had p u b l i s h e d h i s b o o k l e t , Rec domovini od h a s n o v i t o s t i p i s a n j a  vu domorodnom j e z i k u (Word t o the Homeland on ••the : M e r i t s o f W r i t i n g i n the N a t i v e Tongue) i n V i e n n a w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o the Croat h i s t o r i a n , S m i c i k l a s , " r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t v o i c e o f a 76 -Croat son w h i c h spoke a g a i n s t the L a t i n language". I n t h i s b o o k l e t M i h a n o v i c a t t a c k e d L a t i n as an " u n s u i t a b l e language 77 f o r the p r e s e n t - d a y l i f e " and condemned tho s e C r o a t s who were ashamed t o use t h e i r own l a n g u a g e ; "They a r e wrong t o i g n o r e the language o f the p e o p l e and t o waste time and energy 78 w i t h f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s . . . . " / The a u t h o r r i g h t l y p o i n t e d out t h a t the L a t i n language p r e v e n t e d the development o f Croat be-cause by becoming the o f f i c i a l language i t i n f l u e n c e d the Croat - 79 n o b l e s t o abandon the usage of t h e i r mother tongue. A few y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1818, M i h a n o v i c d e c i d e d t o implement h i s , t e a c h i n g and p u b l i s h a Croat newspaper i n V i e n n a . The o n l y paper b e i n g p u b l i s h e d i n C r o a t i a was t h e Luna Agramer Z e i t s c h r i f t w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d i n German and whose e d i t o r s d i d not c a r e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the development of the Croat n a t i o n a l i d e a . Because the censors o f the a b s o l u t i s t regime i n Zagreb p r e s e n t e d an o b s t a c l e t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f a Croat newspaper, M i h a n o v i c d e c i d e d t o p u b l i s h h i s O g l a s n i k i l i r s k i ( I l l y r i a n N e w s l e t t e r ) i n V i e n n a under the e d i t o r s h i p o f D j u r o • S p o r e r . A f t e r t he p o l i c e a u t h o r i t i e s had g r a n t e d p e r m i s s i o n f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the " I l l y r i a n N e w s l e t t e r " , M i h a n o v i c and S p o r e r p u b l i s h e d a g e n e r a l programme o f the work and se n t i n v i t a t i o n s t o s u b s c r i b e t o the paper t o many prominent C r o a t s . However^ owing t o the weakness o f the Croat n a t i o n a l movement and the l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n the n a t i v e l a n g u a g e , t h e number of Cro a t s w i l l i n g t o s u b s c r i b e was so s m a l l and i n s i g n i f i c a n t I V t h a t M i h a n o v i c and S p o r e r d e c i d e d t o postpone the. i d e a u n t i l a l a t e r d a t e . T h e i r f a i l u r e i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the Croat l a n g u -age's u n p o p u l a r i t y among the upper c l a s s e s and w r i t e r s o f C r o a t i a . I n f a c t , a c c o r d i n g t o the ce n s o r o f Croat p u b l i c a -t i o n s I n Zagreb, Antun Nagy o f Pozega, t h e Croats d i d not produc a s i n g l e p u b l i c a t i o n i n the Croat language i n e i g h t y e a r s (1810-1818) . He s a i d : "...up t o 1818, I d i d not have the honour t o On c o r r e c t a s i n g l e m a n u s c r i p t w r i t t e n i n the Croat language".. Thus i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the Magyars, s e e i n g such a s i t u a -t i o n i n C r o a t i a , demanded t h a t the c o u n t r y be ma g y a r i z e d and t h a t t h e i r p o l i c y o f M a g y a r i z a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n some s i g n i f i c a n t s u c c e s s e s . The Croats were wrong t o expect the Magyars t o r e s p e c t and r e c o g n i z e t h e r i g h t s o f t h e i r language and t h e i r s t a t e when they themselves f a i l e d t o honour i t i n t h e i r l i t e r a -t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . However, the Magyar p l a n s c a l l e d f o r the r a p i d and t o t a l M a g y a r i z a t i o n o f C r o a t i a and they were not s a t i s f i e d w i t h j u s t t he s u c c e s s e s a l r e a d y a c h i e v e d . Such a p o l i c y not o n l y a n t a g o n i z e d the Croat p a t r i o t s and i n t e l l e c t -u a l s , but a l s o t h e Croat r u l i n g c l a s s f r om w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d -82-the i d e a o f the u n i o n w i t h Hungary. Suddenly the Croat n o b i l i t y i t s e l f r e a l i z e d t h a t any f u r t h e r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n c o u l d not be s u c c e s s f u l l y conducted w i t h o u t a b r o a d e r n a t i o n a l s u p p o r t and a l i t e r a r y language common t o a l l C r o a t s . A l t h o u g h the Croat n o b i l i t y f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d t h e need f o r the r e f o r m o f the Croat o r t h o g r a p h y and the c r e a t i o n o f one l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e , i t s members l a c k e d the knowledge and means t o a c h i e v e i t . Croat w r i t e r s themselves d i f f e r e d from each o t h e r i n t h i s r e s p e c t and h e l d d i f f e r e n t v i ews oh the main a s p e c t s o f s u c h a r e f o r m . Each of them s t r o n g l y f e l t and b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r way of w r i t i n g was t h e b e s t and t h a t the d i a l e c t o f t h e i r r e g i o n s h o u l d be a c c e p t e d by a l l o t h e r s as t h e most s u i t a b l e f o r the development of the Croat l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e . Toma M i k l o u s i c , one of t h e b e s t known Croat w r i t e r s o f t h a t p e r i o d , b e l i e v e d t h a t o n l y the K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t was q u a l i f i e d t o f u l f i l l t he t a s k . L i v i n g i n i s o l a t i o n as a p a r i s h p r i e s t i n J a s t r e b a s k o , he d i d not know w e l l t h e S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t and i t s advantages and was i n g e n e r a l removed from t h e p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y o f the day. H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the Croat n a t i o n a l cause must be 82 judged by h i s numerous works i n the K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t . I t w i l l be u s e f u l t o note t h a t he was t h e o n l y p r i e s t who answered Vrhovac's c a l l t o the c l e r g y t o c o l l e c t Croat f o l k songs and o t h e r forms of the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n of the p e o p l e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , he e d i t e d many works of the o l d e r Croat -83-w r i t e r s and, i n 1821, p u b l i s h e d h i s v e r s i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y o f the C r o a t s under th e t i t l e , I z b o r  dugovan.i s v a k o v r s t n e h z a hasen i razvesel.jen.je s l u z e c e h ( V a r i o u s S e l e c t e d Works f o r E d u c a t i o n a l P u r p o s e s ) . T h i s book was f u l l o f h i s t o r i c a l e r r o r s , and i d e n t i f i e d t h e o r i g i n s o f a l l t h e S l a v s w i t h t h e a n c i e n t I l l y r i a n s and c l a s s i f i e d a l l S l a v i c languages as d i a l e c t s on one l a n g u a g e , t h e S l a v i c l a n g u a g e . ^ I n '1822, M i k l o u s i c p r e p a r e d the t e x t o f the a n c i e n t Croat drama Hu t a p r i S a v i or l j u b a v z a l.iubav (The C o t t a g e on the Sava, or Love f o r Love) f o r the o f f i c i a l ceremony of the r e i n c o r -p o r a t i o n o f P r e k o s a v s k a C r o a t i a w i t h C r o a t i a . M i k l o u s i c chose t h i s drama because i t d e a l s w i t h the l o y a l t y o f t h e Croats t o t h e i r r u l e r who f i n a l l y awarded th e n a t i o n by r e t u r n -i n g i t s l o s t t e r r i t o r y . A l t h o u g h he was a v e r y s t r o n g advocate o f the K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t , M i k l o u s i c n e v e r t h e l e s s a p p e a l e d t o t h e o t h e r contemp-o r a r y w r i t e r s o f C r o a t i a t o c o n t i n u e w r i t i n g i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d i a l e c t s b e cause, a c c o r d i n g t o h i s n o t i o n s , every d i a l e c t had a r i g h t - t o i t s own l i t e r a t u r e and s h o u l d not be pushed out by any o t h e r d i a l e c t or d i a l e c t s . Thus he r e a l i z e d a need f o r t h e awakening and r e n a i s s a n c e o f the Croat n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e i n o r d e r t o e n a b l e the n a t i o n t o keep pace w i t h o t h e r European n a t i o n s . M i k l o u s i c a l s o f a v o u r e d the r e f o r m o f the Croat o r t h o g r a p h y ( j u s t as a l l the o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l s agreed t h a t something s h o u l d be done i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n ) i f any p r o g r e s s i n the l i t e r a r y f i e l d was t o be made. -M i k l o u s i c s t r o n g l y recommended t h a t t h e young Groat i n t e l -l e c t u a l s f o l l o w t h e example of an e a r l i e r Groat w r i t e r , T i t o B r e z o v a c k i (1760-1805), who had found i d e a s and m a t e r i a l f o r h i s comedies and s a t i r e s among the t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k themes and thus c o n t r i b u t e d t o the cause of n a t i o n a l i s m and t o the d e v e l o p -ment of the Croat l a n g u a g e . M i k l o u s i c p u b l i s h e d B r e z o v a c k i ' s comedy Mati-jas G r a b a n c i t j a s d fiak (The Magic o f M a t i j a s the M a g i c i a n ) w i t h the purpose of e n t e r t a i n i n g h i s r e a d e r s and • • e n c o u r a g i n g n a t i o n a l t a l e n t s t o t r y t o do the same and l e a r n t o adopt Croat i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s . The c e n t r a l theme of the comedy condemns the. p r e s e n t f e u d a l way o f l i f e and adopts a s a t i r i c a pproach toward the e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m of the day. I t ( t h e comedy) was a f i r s t c l a s s s o c i a l s a t i r e f o r t h a t p e r i o d i n w h i c h the a u t h o r , w i t h h i s d i s c e r n i n g eye, knew how t o r a i s e h i m s e l f above t h o s e who were . s a t i s f i e d w i t h s i m p l e t r a n s l a t i o n s of f o r e i g n authors.. The w r i t e r g r a s p e d th e s p i r i t of h i s time w h i c h de-manded s e r i o u s and s o b e r work w h i c h l e a d s t o h e a l t h y - , e d u c a t i o n andnfcowards th e l o v e f o r one's homeland and • n a t i o n a l i t y . ° 4 A n o t h e r Croat w r i t e r , D j u r o S p o r e r , went one s t e p f u r t h e r and adopted th e S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t i n h i s w r i t i n g . Having spent s e v e r a l y e a r s among the f u t u r e Croat n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s i n G r a z , who had a l r e a d y began making p l a n s f o r t h e Croat n a t i o n a l r e -v i v a l , he r e a l i z e d t h a t the S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t was the most s u i t a b l e and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t o the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the n a t i o n . I n 1823, he p u b l i s h e d h i s Almanak i l i r s k i (The I l l y r i a n Almanac) i n w h i c h he emphasized th e need f o r the u n i t y o f language and - 8 5 -the unity of the nation and suggested several proposals for 85 "the rebirth of the Croat book". Consequently, he giave up the dialect of Slavonia for he f e l t that 'this dialect was equally familiar to the majority of the nation. He also adopted the name " I l l y r i a " for Croatia which was also known to the Kajkavian writers from old Latin documents which they used as reference material, although they never used i t i n their writings i n Croat. For this reason Sporer is considered the f i r s t "predecessor of Ljudevit Gaj. V For Sporer the differences i n the tribes did not exist but only their unity. In 1823, this idea was 'too far ahead of its time for i t was not un t i l ten years later :' that this' question (of different dialects) was brought up and f i n a l l y solved i n the Croat literary works. Similar proposals were made even before Sporer, but, they all'remained unanswered as well. 87 In addition to Vrhovac, Mihanovic, Miklousic, and Sporer, there were some other Croat writers (Matija Jandric, Jakob Lovrericic and Ignjat Kristijanovic, for instance) who also con-tributed to the development of Croat literature, but failed to arrive at one uniform method for reforming the language i n 88 general. Each of them were too strongly influenced by localism to gain a deeper insight into the problems of their country as a whole. It is true that sometimes their proposals and work contributed substantially to the development of the Croat nationalism, but being as i t were, rather isolated i n their well intended attempts' to do something for their country, their works were bound to result in only minor successes. What - 8 6 -they l a c k e d most was a w e l l o r g a n i z e d , c o - o r d i n a t i n g f o r c e and a u n i f o r m o u t l o o k on t h e g e n e r a l problems of the day. As l o n g as t h e Croat n a t i o n a l awakeners worked h a p h a z a r d l y , w i t h o u t a p l a n and w e l l d e f i n e d aims, t h e r e c o u l d be no t a l k o f a c h i e v i n g any major s u c c e s s e s i n the n a t i o n ' s r e n a i s s a n c e and the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t Magyar n a t i o n a l i s t i c a g g r e s s i v e . T h e i r work was f u r t h e r h a n d i c a p p e d by the s o c i a l o u t l o o k o f the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s w h i c h was Germanized t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t , a d v o c a t e d a c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h Hungary and l o o k e d down on the Croat language as t h e language of the lower c l a s s e s , e s p e c i a l l y the p e a s a n t r y . Thus t h e work of the above mentioned g e n e r a t i o n of Croat w r i t e r s and n a t i o n a l awakeners, i n the absence o f w e l l o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t y and a g r e a t e r number of f o l l o w e r s , had no major e f f e c t on the t h i n k i n g of the contemporary Croat s o c i e t y . I t o n l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t C r o a t i a had some w r i t e r s who d i d not o n l y w r i t e r e l i g i o u s books f o r the needs of the Croat p e a s a n t , but. a l s o w rote t o a t t r a c t the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s and b r i n g about- t h e u n i f i c a t i o n of the Croat n a t i o n and c u l t u r e . Up t o 1827, t h e r e seemed t o be no p o s s i b i l i t y o f changing the n a t i o n a l and s o c i a l o u t l o o k o f t h e upper n o b i l i t y . I t d i s -t r u s t e d the i d e a s o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y European n a t i o n a l i s m and i n t e n d e d t o s e c u r e i t s p o l i t i c a l and economic s t a t u s by a l l y i n g i t s e l f w i t h Hungary. However, a f t e r 1827, when the Mag-y a r n o b i l i t y became t h e i r more dangerous enemy, the Croat n o b l e s began t o l o o k f o r h e l p e l s e w h e r e . They found i t i n t h e i r o l d -ay-enemy V i e n n a , and i n the work o f the young Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s who were a l s o p r e p a r i n g themselves f o r the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n , - b u t w i t h d i f f e r e n t m o t i v e s and methods. We have a l r e a d y mentioned the work of the Croat i n t e l l e c t -u a l s i n t h e " I l l y r i a n C l u b " i n G r a z . I n t h i s c l u b the s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a Croat c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e w h i c h would p u l l the c o u n t r y out of i t s f e u d a l darkness and p l a c e i t on a l e v e l w i t h the o t h e r European n a t i o n s . F o r t h i s purpose the P a n - S l a v i c movement seemed t o be the most l o g i c a l s o u r c e o f i d e a s and methods. And i n v i e w of the f a c t t h a t . t h e Croat n o b i l i t y had e x p e r i e n c e d d e f e a t i n t h e Common D i e t , i t was assumed t h a t i t would be much e a s i e r t o p r e v a i l on the n o b i l i t y t o a c c e p t n a t i o n a l i d e a s t h a n had been the case- t e n y e a r s e a r l i e r . • U n t i l 1830, t h e Croat w r i t e r s had no i n f l u e n c e upon the d e l e g a t e s t o the Sabor. A f t e r 1830, the c o n n e c t i o n be-tween l i t e r a t u r e and p o l i t i c s began t o be f e l t more and more.... The g e n e r a t i o n w h i c h had l i v e d t h r o u g h the g r e a t c r i s i s d i s a p p e a r e d , and a new g e n e r a t i o n appeared '.  w h i c h . l i v e d and r e c e i v e d i t s e d u c a t i o n abroad and r e a l i z e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o s u c c e e d , i t must change the p o l i c y of i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s and choose a d i f f e r e n t r o a d t o s u c c e s s . " 9 The young Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l a l s o became more r a d i c a l and sought s u p p o r t ' f o r the n a t i o n a l cause among the lower c l a s s e s , e s p e c i a l l y among the members of the new b o u r g e o i s c l a s s w h i c h • d i s l i k e d the f e u d a l s o c i a l system and i t s l a w s . ^° He r e a l i z e d t h a t the development of a modern n a t i o n a l M e a l r e q u i r e d the a b o l i t i o n o f p a r o c h i a l i s m , r e l i g i o u s and l i n g u i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s -88-and the feudal position of the Croat peasant. With the arrival i n Graz of young Ljudevit Gaj, the Croat . intellectuals received an excellent leader whose qualities of leadership were manifested by his ability to unite both young and old in the national movement, whether abroad or at 91 home. y At the same time he condemned the works of the older Croat writers, such as Miklousic, as useless and dangerous to the national cause. However, after P. J. Safarik had explained to him the good intentions of such writers and their naive views on the development of national literature without a uni-fied orthography, Gaj learned to disregard' such works completely and never referred to them i n the future, "just as i f they had 92 never existed before". We Slavs must be unified in s p i r i t and mind;' we must, among ourselves, learn to know and to enjoy the common treasure of our language and literature. This we have to spread among our countrymen, but always calmly and carefully. A l l inferests, including religious ones, must be subordinated to the interests of the nation because the.nation's interests are the condition for the l i f e of the whole, while the religious interests concern only the opinions of private'individuals .. 93 Gaj had shown a strong interest in the Croat national culture and language from his earliest boyhood for which reason he was expelled from the Varazdin's high school. As a l l writers of the day, he began to write in German and published several articles i n the Luna Agramer Zeitung in which he already spoke of the unity of a l l South Slavs, particularly of the Croats and Servs. ^ In 1826, he l e f t Croatia in order to collect histor-- 0 9 -I i c a l documents and o t h e r s o u r c e s o f Groat h i s t o r y i n V i e n n a and G r a z . I n Graz he met o t h e r young Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s , D i m i t r i j e V V Demeter, Antun S p o r e r , Pavao Stoos and o t h e r s who were t o become f u t u r e l e a d e r s of the I l l y r i a n movement. Here he a l s o l e a r n e d the S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t and r e a d the works, o f the S e r b i a n S t o k a v i a n w r i t e r , Vuk S t e f a n o v i c K a r a d z i c . He gave up h i s own K a j k a v i a n d i a -l e c t and adopted the S t o k a v i a n one as the most common and s u i t a b l e d i a l e c t f o r the Croat l i t e r a r y l a nguage. From G r a z , Gaj went t o Pest i n Hungary where he a c q u a i n t e d h i m s e l f w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s o f the Magyar n a t i o n a l movement and aimed t o e s t a b l i s h t h e same p r i n c i p l e s i n C r o a t i a . Here he met and worked w i t h the w e l l known advocate o f P a n - S l a v i s m , J a n K o l l a r , and a s s i s t e d i n the w r i t i n g of the above mentioned works o f S a f a r i k . I n 1830, encouraged by S a f a r i k and r e a l i z i n g , the need f o r the r e f o r m o f the Croat o r t h o g r a p h y , Gaj p u b l i s h e d i n P e s t h i s K r a t k a osnova H r v a t s k o - S l a v e n s k o g a P r a v o p i s a r i a ( E s s e n t i a l P r i n c i p l e s o f the C r o a t - S l a v Orthography) i n w h i c h he adopted the Czech way of w r i t i n g and the S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t as t h e two f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s of the Croat l a n g u a g e . From V '* " Czech he adopted the l e t t e r s , c, d, 1, and n and argued t h a t the use of y, x, c s , s z , t c h and s c h s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d f o r s u c h sounds e i t h e r d i d not e x i s t i n Croat or were borrowed f r o m 9 5 o t h e r n o n - S l a v i c languages such as German and Magyar. 7 > The p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s work had a t w o - f o l d s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the development of the Croat n a t i o n a l i s m : (1) i t h e l p e d s o l v e the most i m p o r t a n t problem of the Croat l i t e r a r y language -90-and (2) i t i n f l u e n c e d the young Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s - at home and abroad t o ac c e p t Gaj as the u n d i s p u t a b l e l e a d e r o f the n a t i o n a l movement w h i c h was t o b r i n g about'a c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h of the n a t i o n at t h e time when i t was needed t h e most. I n the K r a t k a osnova he wrote t h a t h i s i n t e n t i o n was "not t o p r e s e n t an e l a b o r a t e a n a l y s i s of o r t h o g r a p h y , but t o b r i e f l y p o i n t out 96 what was most n e c e s s a r y " . 7 He s a i d , " . . . t h i s new o r t h o g r a p h y 97 has an immeasurable v a l u e f o r our S l a v i c p e o p l e ; . . . " . I n Z a g reb, Graz and V i e n n a the Croat y o u t h made e x t e n s i v e use of d i s c u s s i o n groups where t h e s e young i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n a l y z e d t h e p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l problems o f C r o a t i a . I n V i e n n a , f o r example, they h e l d t h e i r meetings at the r e s t a u r a n t "Morgenstern" w h i c h they c a l l e d among themselves " D a n i c a " (Morning S t a r ) . I n Zagreb the s t u d e n t s ' group was e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l organ-i z e d due t o the a s s i s t a n c e o f P r o f e s s o r Mojses who s u p p l i e d v a l u a b l e g u i d a n c e and a d v i c e on o r g a n i z a t i o n . The group i n c l u d e d s u c h prominent members o f the Croat n a t i o n a l movement as B a b u k i c , Derkos, M a r i e , M a z u r a n i c , Rakovae, Smodek, and o t h e r s . P r o f e s s o r Mojses and t h e s e young i n t e l l e c t u a l s ac-c e p t e d Gaj's new o r t h o g r a p h y as the b a s i s o f the f u t u r e l i t e r -a t u r e and c u l t u r a l l i f e i n g e n e r a l . However, the o l d e r gener-a t i o n o f w r i t e r s d i s a g r e e d w i t h s u c h extreme r e f o r m s . S i n c e they shaped the o p i n i o n s o f Zagreb's s o c i a l c i r c l e , w h i c h was more accustomed t o German l i t e r a t u r e , Gaj's f o l l o w e r s had t o be c a u t i o u s i n o r d e r t o a v o i d a c l a s h w i t h the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n . The younger g e n e r a t i o n was i n b e t t e r p o s i t i o n - i n r e g a r d t o - 9 1 -o r g a n i z a t i o n because i t had d e f i n i t e p l a n s f o r the c u l t u r a l r e -v i v a l w h i l e t h e i r e l d e r s were s h a r p l y d i v i d e d as t o t h e b e s t methods o f c r e a t i n g a n a t i o n a l l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . I n 1831, Gaj r e t u r n e d t o Zagreb w i t h the purpose o f o r g a n i z i n g a movement, not o n l y a l o n g t h e Croat n a t i o n a l l i n e s , but a l s o t o be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e framework o f the r e n a i s s a n c e a l l South S l a v s . I n h i s l e t t e r o f F e b r u a r y 12, 1831, S a f a r i k wrote t o G a j : Got t gebe, dass ess g e s c h e h e l A l l e s l a s s t f r e i l i c h h o f f e n , dasz da Reihe auch an uns kommen w i r d . Mochten doch u n s e r e s l a w i s c h e n V t t l k e r an dem B e i s p i e l e d e r Deutschen, E n g l a n d e r und F r a n z o s e n w e i s e r werden, und e i n s e h e n , dass s i c h d i e N a t i o n a l i t a t , und mit i h r a l l e s Hehre und H e r r l i c h e auf E r d e n , auch b e i v e r s c h i e d e n a r t i g e u r e l i g i o s e n I n t e r e s s e n , ungeschwach e r h a l t e n , und wenn s i e gebrochen war, neu e r r i n g e n l a s s t , wenn nur d i e E i n s i c h t i n Wesen der Dinge a u f g e h e t und e r s t a r k t i s t . 98 S t i l l under, the i n f l u e n c e o f P a n - S l a v i s m t h e Croat youths ac-c e p t e d the scheme. They were e x t r e m e l y a n t a g o n i z e d by the f a c t t h a t , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n employment i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , they were f o r c e d t o l e a r n Magyar. The d e s i r e t o l e a r n Croat i n the s c h o o l s was so 99 s t r o n g t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the s t u d e n t s at the Academy o f Zagreb a p p e a l e d t o the p r o f e s s o r s t o make i t p o s s i b l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n s p i t e o f the p r o t e s t s o f the Magyar s t u d e n t s i n Zabreb, P r o f e s s o r Smodek was a l l o w e d t o l e c t u r e i n Croat as a non-compulsory s u b j e c t . The Croat s t u d e n t s r e p l i e d t o t h e i r Magyar c o l l e a g u e s : "Every man was b o r n f r e e and a l s o every n a t i o n , when I t f e e l s t h a t the o t h e r n a t i o n p e r s e c u t e s i t u n j u s t l y , has the r i g h t t o f r e e i t s e l f . N o r t h America l i b e r a t e d i t s e l f from E n g l a n d , South America from S p a i n ; our n a t i o n a l s o i s not c h a i n e d by f a t e t o Hungary f o r -e v e r and i f you t h i n k the o p p o s i t e t h e n down w i t h the  Magyars. 100 . - 9 2 -The d e c i s i o n t o i n t r o d u c e the Croat languag.e i n the Academy was t h e f i r s t v i c t o r y won over M a g y a r i z a t i o n . I t encouraged the youths f o r f u r t h e r s t r u g g l e and gave them con-f i d e n c e i n the n a t i o n a l cause. T h e r e f o r e Gaj s u b m i t t e d h i s a p p l i c a t i o n t o the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r Hungary t h a t he be • a l l o w e d t o p u b l i s h a p o l i t i c a l and l i t e r a r y newspaper i n the Croat l a n g u a g e . H i s a p p l i c a t i o n was t h o r o u g h l y endorsed by t h e County of Zagreb w h i c h added t h a t i n i t s d e s i r e " t o d e v e l o p the language o f the p e o p l e and i t s e d u c a t i o n i n general,...we recommend t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n and hope the p e r -m i s s i o n w i l l be g r a n t e d " . 1 <^ 1 T h i s d e c i s i o n of the County of Zagreb was i n d i c a t i v e o f the new atmosphere w h i c h was r a p i d l y s h a p i n g i n t o a n a t i o n a l movement. Only a few y e a r s b e f o r e , t h i s county had been w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t the Magyar la n g u a g e . -A Croat newspaper, Gaj p l a n n e d , would p r e v e n t t h e Magyars f r o m e n c r o a c h i n g upon the Croat r i g h t s and would r e p r e s e n t a -p o w e r f u l organ f o r awakening n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and f o r -e l i m i n a t i n g f o r e i g n t e n d e n c i e s among the Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s , and t h e r u l i n g c l a s s . On the o t h e r hand, a newspaper would p r o v i d e the movement w i t h e x c e l l e n t means f o r i n t r o d u c i n g new o r t h o g r a p h y . I f t h e new o r t h o g r a p h y proved s u c c e s s f u l , i t 1 0 2 would mean, a new e r a i n the c u l t u r a l l i f e o f C r o a t i a . Soon a f t e r t h i s e v e n t , on March 1832, I v a n Derkos pub- . l i s h e d h i s Genius p a t r i a e super d o r m l e n t i b u s f i l i i s s u i s (The Genius o f the Homeland t o i t s S l e e p i n g C h i l d r e n ) . , a -93-pamphlet d e v o t e d t o t h e Croats i n w h i c h the au t h o r urged h i s 1 0 ^ countrymen t o take, more i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r homeland. J Derkos appeal e d t o t h e n a t i o n t o l e a r n t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the i d e a s o f n a t i o n a l i t y and c i t i z e n s h i p . A c c o r d i n g t o him, i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g a s u b j e c t o f the Crown o f S t . Stephen, e v e r y Croat was a l s o a member o f t h e Croat n a t i o n whose n a t i o n a l r i g h t s he s h o u l d p r o t e c t . The pamphlet was meant t o i n f l u e n c e the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s t o defend the r i g h t s o f 1 O H t h e i r language at the next meeting o f the D i e t . And i n -deed, the impact o f t h i s document on the t h i n k i n g o f the Croat n o b l e s , who f e l t t h a t they s h o u l d no l o n g e r appease the Magyars, became e v i d e n t d u r i n g the meeting o f the Common D i e t i n 1 8 3 2 . Some Croat n o b l e s , s u c h as Janko D r a s k o v i c , a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t e d the work o f the Croat y o u t h and i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s t o do the same. As a r e s u l t the n a t i o n a l movement c o n c e i v e d by the i n t e l l e c t u a l s g a i n e d a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t and broadened i t s w o r k i n g b a s i s . Once the i d e a s o f the younger g e n e r a t i o n found t h e i r way and g a i n e d s u p p o r t i n the Croat l e g i s l a t i v e house, t h e Sab o r , the e x i s t e n c e o f the Croat language was s u f f i c i e n t l y s e c u r e . The M a g y a r i z a t i o n of C r o a t i a , d e s i g n e d t o f i r s t m a g y a r i z e t h e Croat r u l i n g c l a s s and the n a l l the o t h e r c l a s s e s , had f a i l e d . T h i s i s t o say t h a t i f the Croat nobles r e f u s e d the terms o f the Magyar p o l i c y i n the D i e t , the r e m a i n i n g p a r t o f the n a t i o n would do w e l l t o s u p p o r t t h i s cause at home and dev- . e l o p i t s language and c u l t u r e t o the p o i n t where i t c o u l d no - 9 4 - . l o n g e r be a b o l i s h e d by a s i m p l e l e g i s l a t i v e d e c i s i o n . Magyar-i z a t i o n would be thus f a c e d w i t h a p o w e r f u l o b s t a c l e i n i t s v e r y f i r s t s t a g e . • I t ' w o u l d be m i s l e a d i n g t o i m p l y t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the Sabor s u p p o r t e d the new i d e a s . Most o f the n o b l e s con- • t i n u e d t o argue t h a t C r o a t i a c o u l d o n l y be saved i f i t c o n t i n -ued t o use the L a t i n ' l a nguage. The n o b l e s f e a r e d t h a t by a c c e p t i n g t h e Croat language they would l o w e r themselves s o c i a l l y b y p u t t i n g themselves on a l e v e l more e q u a l w i t h the lo w e r c l a s s e s , and damage t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and economic p o s i -t i o n . I t t o o k many debates and the a g g r e s s i v e n e s s o f the Mag-y a r a t t i t u d e t o c o n v i n c e s u c h nobles t h a t the r e a l danger l a y not i n the Croat l a n g u a g e , but i n the Common D i e t . I n s h o r t , the p r e . - I l l y r i a n p e r i o d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the attempts o f the young i n t e l l e c t u a l s t o d e f i n e the p l a n s f o r the development o f a u n i f o r m l i t e r a r y language and by t h e i r demands t h a t M a g y a r i z a t i o n s h o u l d not be f o u g h t by a d h e r i n g t o the L a t i n l a n g u a g e , but by a d o p t i n g the Croat language i n a l l a s p e c t s of the n a t i o n ' s l i f e . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e i r movement d i d not y e t b r i n g about the c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h of the n a t i o n , -but r a t h e r p r e p a r e d the n a t i o n f o r the f i n a l s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n w h i c h would r e s u l t i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a p o w e r f u l Croat n a t i o n a l i s t i c movement and the e m a n c i p a t i o n of the n a t i o n . The l o c a l t e n d e n c i e s o f the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n o f w r i t e r s were done away w i t h and the S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t was a c c e p t e d by 105 the m a j o r i t y o f the younger g e n e r a t i o n . • The main s u c c e s s o f the young i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n C r o a t i a was, however, t h a t more pe o p l e than, e v e r b e f o r e began t o t h i n k i n terms of the i n t e r e s t o f the n a t i o n as a whole. T h i s new o u t l o o k was shown m a i n l y by the a t t i t u d e t h a t the C r o a t language c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l l y used i n l i t e r a t u r e and s c i e n c e i n s t e a d o f the German l a n g u a g e . W h i l e v e r y few p e o p l e had b e f o r e thought of themselves as members of the Croat n a t i o n , i n 1832, as the r e s u l t o f the i mpact of the new i d e a s , i t became d e f i n i t e l y , c l e a r , even t o t h o s e who s t i l l - b e l i e v e d i n L a t i n , t h a t the Croat language and c u l t u r e must be t a k e n i n t o account when d e a l i n g w i t h the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s o f the c o u n t r y . T h i s f a c t a l o n e p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o d i s p r o v e the Magyar .argument t h a t . t h e C r oats d i d not e x i s t as a n a t i o n ; , t h a t they were a p a r t o f the Magyar n a t i o n , i n h a b i t i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l Magyar t e r r i t o r y . . ; The w o r k i n g b a s i s f o r Croat n a t i o n a l i s m was thus e s t a b -l i s h e d . The machinery c r e a t e d by the Croat n a t i o n a l awakeners had t o be put i n t o a c t i o n at f u l l speed t o e n v e l o p the e n t i r e n a t i o n and m a t e r i a l i z e dn.to a s t r o n g > n a t i o n a l i s t i c movement w i t h not o n l y c u l t u r a l , but p o l i t i c a l t e n d e n c i e s . These g o a l s were a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e d w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f time f o l l o w i n g the meeting of the Common D i e t w h i c h ;sat from 1832 t o 1836. -96-Social Structure of Croatia i n the First Half of the 19th Century During the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century (the period of the development of Croat nationalism, 1790-l8Lf7), the entire Croat territory was reduced to "about 350 square 107 miles", ' or six counties of Croatia proper and Slavonia. "The- number of population of Croatia and Slavonia as such, amounted i n 1805 to approximately 660,000 and in l8*+0 to 1 nft about 8140,000". Before the appearance of the Croat mid-dle class in the l820's and l830*s, the Croat population was divided into three basic social classes: the nobility, whose members numbered "approximately 20,000" in 1805, and the clergy "with about 1,130 ecclasiats", the peasantry which included the majority of the population and econo-mically weak and numerically small middle class. The nobility i t s e l f was divided into two main groups-the upper nobility or the big landowners and the lesser nobility which again was distinguished by two groups, the middle nobility and the petty village nobility called sl.jivari or jednoselci. The upper nobility which had a proportionally large number of nobles of non-Croat origins, especially German and Magyar, derived i t s entire revenue from their landed estates and lived more often than not, abroad in Austria or Hungary. In the Croat Sabor, which met from time to time, only the upper nobility and clergy had the -97-h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t t o have seats, and t o l e g i s l a t e . I n v i e w o f the f a c t t h a t the e n t i r e revenue and e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s n o b i l -i t y depended on t h e i r f e u d a l e s t a t e s , i t n a t u r a l l y opposed every new r e f o r m w h i c h would i n v o l v e a change i n i t s f e u d a l p r i v i l e g e s . T h e r e f o r e , i t had b i t t e r l y opposed the c e n t r a l -i s t i c , s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c and r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m s of the e n l i g h t e n e d a b s o l u t i s t , J o s eph I I , and l a t e r , f o r the same r e a s o n , had a l l i e d i t s e l f w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i v e Magyar magnates and the r e a c t i o n a r y government i n V i e n n a . F o r the same r e a s o n i t l o o k e d s u s p i c i o u s l y upon the emerging I l l y r i a n Movement, w h i c h at t h i s s t a g e o f i t s development, s t o o d f o r some r a d i c a l s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l changes - fundamental improve-ments i n the p o s i t i o n of the p e a s a n t r y - i n o r d e r to- d e v e l o p a g r i c u l t u r e and g i v e c o n c e s s i o n s t o tho s e w i s h i n g t o e n t e r i n t o b u s i n e s s i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p i n d u s t r y and s t r e n g t h e n the economic p o t e n t i a l o f the c o u n t r y . The n o b i l i t y a l s o r e f u s e d t o s u p p o r t the I l l y r i a n i d e a f o r the c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h o f the n a t i o n ; i t f e l t , t h a t a c c e p t i n g the language o f the masses would l o w e r i t t o the p o s i t i o n of the p e a s a n t r y which was the o n l y segment o f the p o p u l a t i o n s p e a k i n g the n a t i v e l a n g u -age. I n s t e a d , i t d e c i d e d t o form a s t r o n g f e u d a l u n i o n w i t h the Magyar n o b l e s w h i c h would be a b l e t o b l o c k o f f not o n l y the new d e m o c r a t i c and r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a s coming from F r a n c e , but a l s o a p o s s i b l e a t t a c k from A u s t r i a n cen-t r a l i s m . T h e r e f o r e , • i t s u r r e n d e r e d some o f i t s most im-p o r t a n t l e g i s l a t i v e r i g h t s i n f a v o u r of the Common D i e t -98-and l e f t i t s e l f wide open t o the Magyar a t t a c k . The Magyar n o b l e s , who, u n l i k e the Croat ones, a c t i v e l y p a r t i -c i p a t e d i n the s t r u g g l e f o r the r i g h t s o f the Magyar l a n g u -age, d e s i g n e d the p o l i c y f o r the M a g y a r i z a t i o n o f C r o a t i a and proved t o be more dangerous enemies of the Croat n o b i l -i t y ' s a n c i e n t r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s t h a n any o t h e r a n t i -f e u d a l f o r c e i n the c o u n t r y . T h i s newly c r e a t e d s i t u a t i o n d r o v e the Croat upper n o b i l i t y i n t o the ranks o f the I l l y r i a n Movement where i t r e n d e r e d a l l p o s s i b l e h e l p t o the d e v e l -opment of the Croat l a n g u a g e , w h i c h had become i t s b e s t weapon i n the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n . T h i s f a c t , c o u p l e d w i t h I l l y r i s m ' s f o r c e d r e t r e a t towards c o n s e r v a t i s m , c r e a t e d an i d e a l u n i o n i n the s t r u g g l e f o r the Croat a u t o -nomy whi c h was a l s o a s s i s t e d by the c e n t r a l government. Never-t h e l e s s , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t i t had a c c e p t e d the l a n g u -age o f the p e o p l e , the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s c o n t i n u e d t o op-pose any improvement i n the l i v e s o f i t s s e r f s . I t s c o n t r i -b u t i o n t o , C r o a t n a t i o n a l i s m m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f t h r o u g h i t s d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e the n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e and autonomy of C r o a t i a , not t h r o u g h the d e s i r e t o e n f o r c e modern s o c i a l and economic r e f o r m s . Such changes were c o n t r a r y t o i t s i n t e r e s t s and l a t e r i m p l i e d the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r e s e r v i n g the f o r m e r . Whatever c o u l d be s a i d o f the upper n o b i l i t y a p p l i e d t o the upper c l e r g y and the m i d d l e n o b i l i t y who a l s o depended upon the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the f e u d a l s o c i a l s y s t e m . However, w h i l e a l l the members o f the upper c l e r g y s a t i n -99-the S a b o r , o n l y . a few o f the m i d d l e n o b i l i t y had s e a t s i n t h i s body and th e n o n l y as a h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t of t h e i r p r e d e c e s -s o r s , who, f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , had l o s t t h e i r e s t a t e s and p r e s t i g e i n the upper c i r c l e s . The main d i f f e r e n c e between the m i d d l e n o b i l i t y and the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y was t h a t the l a t t e r v e r y o f t e n p o s s e s s e d o n l y one s m a l l e s t a t e and c u l t i v a t e d t h e i r own l a n d as d i d the l o c a l p a r i s h p r i e s t s who were i n v e r y c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h the p e a s a n t r y and s h a r e d many common i n t e r e s t s w i t h i t . The v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y was much l e s s t i e d t o f e u d a l i s m and was w i l l i n g t o s u p p o r t some r a d i c a l r e f o r m s . Having ho • r i g h t t o s i t i n the Sabor i t s u p p o r t e d any movement w h i c h promised i t a. r o l e i n p o l i t i c s as a s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l f a c t o r p o s s e s s i n g p o l i t i c a l power. Hence the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y be-came s t r o n g s u p p o r t e r s of the I l l y r i a n Movement d u r i n g i t s f i r s t s t a g e s , and l a t e r , when the movement t u r n e d c o n s e r v -a t i v e , i t s w i t c h e d i t s s u p p o r t i n f a v o u r o f the movement wh i c h appeared t o be more r a d i c a l , t he C r o a t - H u n g a r i a n P a r t y . 1 1 1 a The v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y of the Croat d i s t r i c t of T u r o p o l j e , f o r i n s t a n c e , became the l e a d i n g c o r e o f Ko s s u t h ' s Croat pro-Magyar P a r t y . I t f o l l o w s t h a t w h i l e t h i s n o b i l i t y was r a d i c a l l y i n c l i n e d and demanded r a d i c a l . s o c i a l changes, i t l a c k e d n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t and f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e t he i m p o r t -ance o f the development o f the Croat l anguage. I t wanted t o do away w i t h f e u d a l i s m and was w i l l i n g t o do so by s a c r i f i c i n g i t s n a t i o n a l r i g h t s and the autonomy o f i t s c o u n t r y , i t - 1 0 0 -demanded the r i g h t t o s i t in. the Sabor i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r the p o l i c y f o r the M a g y a r i z a t i o n o f C r o a t i a . U n l i k e the l o w e r c l e r g y , whose members produced many Croat w r i t e r s and the f i r s t n a t i o n a l awakeners, t h e l o w e r n o b i l i t y o p enly ac-c e p t e d the Magyar language and advocated i t s t e a c h i n g i n the Croat s c h o o l s . Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , the n o b i l i t y of T u r o p o l j e came t o be the most dangerous enemy of the I ' l l y -112 r i a n Movement f o l l o w i n g the y e a r lQk2. The t h i r d s o c i a l c l a s s , the p e a s a n t r y , remained com-p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d from the events t a k i n g p l a c e i n the c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f C r o a t i a . I t s p o s i t i o n d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y worsened. Having w i t -n e s sed the f a i l u r e o f the p r o g r e s s i v e reforms o f Joseph-i n i s m w h i c h had a t t e m p t e d t o improve i t s economic s t a t u s , the p e a s a n t r y were not a t t r a c t e d by the i n i t i a l r a d i c a l i s m of the I l l y r i a n Movement. The Croat peasant n e i t h e r under-s t o o d nor was w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n any movement w h i c h a d v o c a t e d d e m o c r a t i c and a n t i - E m p e r o r r e f o r m s . The Croat peasant d i d not see h i s enemy i n the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l s y s t e m , but i n h i s immediate o v e r l o r d who e x p l o i t e d him r u t h l e s s l y . He f e l t t h a t h i s o n l y hope was t h e Emperor i n V i e n n a who, i n the case of Joseph I I , had attempted t o do something f o r the Croat p e a s a n t , but had been p r e v e n t e d by h i s o v e r l o r d . T h e r e f o r e , the Croat peasant remained l o y a l and h i s r u l e r c o u l d always count on the h e l p o f the p e a s a n t r y i n case o f -101-a d i s p u t e w i t h the n o b i l i t y . The p o s i t i o n of the Croat peasant i s w e l l d e s c r i b e d by the S e r b i a n h i s t o r i a n and s t a u n c h M a r x i s t , Vaso Bogdanov: T h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the e n t i r e Croat l a n d belongs t o the f e u d a l l a n d m a s t e r s . Growing e x p l o i t a -t i o n on the p a r t o f the f e u d a l i s t s , c o n f i s c a t i o n o f the s e r f s ' and p u b l i c l a n d , the use o f f o r c e and f r a u d over the p e a s a n t s , economic under-development and backwardness, p r i m i t i v e a g r i -c u l t u r a l methods, consequences o f the wars w i t h t h e Turks and- t h e n r o b b e r i e s committed by the Emperor's army, . . . . a l l t h i s c o n t r i b u t e d toward the low p r o d u c t i v i t y o f l a n d and t o the growth of pauperism i n the v i l l a g e . 1 1 3 The Croat peasant d i d not see t h e danger i n Germaniza-t i o n , o r , f o r t h a t m a t t e r , M a g y a r i z a t i o n e i t h e r , and assumed a p a s s i v e a t t i t u d e toward the n a t i o n a l movement. I n a d d i -t i o n t o t h i s , h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n the movement was not de-manded. There were some i s o l a t e d attempts by the extreme r a d i c a l group o f the I l l y r i a n Movement t o i n c l u d e the peas-a n t r y i n the movement, but because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n -v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i n g the p e a s a n t r y , s u c h attempts were soon f o r g o t t e n . T h e r e f o r e , i n our s t u d y o f the development of Croat n a t i o n a l i s m , the r o l e of the p e a s a n t r y i s i n s i g n i f i -c a nt . I f the upper Croat n o b i l i t y p l a y e d a d e c i s i v e r o l e i n the l a t e r s t a g e s o f I l l y r i s m by d e f e n d i n g the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l -r i g h t s o f C r o a t i a and s u p p o r t i n g the development of n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e , t h e n the young m i d d l e c l a s s c o u l d be r e g a r d e d as -102-t h e r e a l o r i g i n a t o r of the p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h o f the n a t i o n . A l t h o u g h e x t r e m e l y s m a l l i n number, the Croat m i d d l e c l a s s succeeded i n o r g a n i z i n g a n a t i o n - w i d e movement w h i c h d e v e l o p e d i n t o a p o w e r f u l n a t i o n a l f o r c e . Most o f the p o p u l a t i o n o f the Croat c i t i e s was composed of f o r e i g n e r s , e s p e c i a l l y Germans and Jews, who were p r o -German i n o r i e n t a t i o n , but took no p a r t i n the c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f the n a t i o n . S i d e by s i d e w i t h t h e s e f o r e i g n e l e m e n t s , t h e r e e x i s t e d a s m a l l number of the Croat m i d d l e c l a s s who, under the- i n f l u e n c e of the modern, d e m o c r a t i c i d e a s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , adopted r e l a t i v e l y p r o g r e s -s i v e c o ncepts o f a s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e . By the 1830's and 18^0's the number o f the n a t i v e m i d d l e c l a s s had expanded t o a modest s i z e and was r e i n f o r c e d by the r a p i d -l y growing number o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s , sons o f empoverished n o b l e s who came t o the c i t i e s i n s e a r c h of employment. F o r the development o f Croat p o l i t i c s more im-p o r t a n t was t h i s c i t y element w h i c h was made up o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s , s t u d e n t s and o t h e r y o u t h s , tradesmen, merchants o f the Croat n a t i o n a l i t y and, a l t h o u g h s m a l l i n number but p r o g r e s s i v e , workers and a l s o the no b l e s who l o s t t h e i r e s t a t e s . . . . I n t h i s way a number o f s t u d e n t s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s w a s . r e c r u i t e d from a l l p r o -f e s s i o n s and a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s , who were f o r c e d t o l i v e by working i n the c i v i l . s e r v i c e and whose number grew c o n s t a n t l y i n . t h e p e r i o d b e f o r e 18^8; among them were w h i t e - c o l l a r wor-k e r s , men o f l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n s , p h i l o s o p h e r s , and t h e o l o g i a n s , a l l o f whom cannot f i n d em-ployment. 5 - 1 0 3 -T h i s new i n t e l l e c t u a l element i n the Croat c i t i e s was f a c e d w i t h the o b s t a c l e o f f e u d a l i s m which d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t i t s members i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the p o l i t i c a l l i f e , o f the c o u n t r y . Due t o the f a c t t h a t C r o a t i a had had no l e g a l government s i n c e 1779, f o r e i g n a u t h o r i t i e s had f i l l e d up t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s t s w i t h Germans and Magyars; even t h o s e C r o a t s w h i c h remained i n p u b l i c o f f i c e s were i n danger o f l o s i n g t h e i r jobs i f they d i d not know the Magyar l a n g u a g e . Such a s i t u a t i o n became one of t h e reasons which c o m p e l l e d the Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s t o o r g a n i z e a movement f o r the c u l t -u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e o f t h e n a t i o n . I n a somewhat s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n were Croat merchants and tradesmen who found i t i m p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p f u r t h e r i n d -u s t r y and manufacture under C r o a t i a ' s e x i s t i n g f e u d a l c o n d i t i o n s . F o r u n i n t e r r u p t e d development of t r a d e w i t h A u s t r i a , B o s n i a , I t a l y , and Hungary the Croat merchants needed th e same laws 117 i n a l l t h e p r o v i n c e s and l e s s b o r d e r s . ' " T h i s was the f i r s t 118 t i m e t h a t t h e s e merchants f e l t a need f o r the same la n g u a g e " , at l e a s t i n a l l t h e South S l a v i c r e g i o n s w h i c h p r o v i d e d a n a t u r a l market f o r t h e i r goods. Of a l l t h e Croat c i t i e s , t h e m i d d l e c l a s s and i n t e l l i -g e n t s i a i n K a r l o v a c were t h e most n a t i o n a l l y c o n s c i o u s . Owing t o i t s f a v o u r a b l e g e o g r a p h i c , p o s i t i o n on the Kupa, a t r i b u t a r y o f the S ava, K a r l o v a c became the most i m p o r t a n t t r a d i n g c e n t r e i n C r o a t i a w i t h a p r e d o m i n a n t l y Croat p o p u l a t i o n . " E x c l u d i n g P d j e k a , i t was e c o n o m i c a l l y the most d e v e l o p e d and the r i c h e s t - 1 0 4 -1 -j a • Croat c i t y " d u r i n g t h e l a s t h a l f o f the e i g h t e e n t h , and f i r s t h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Having no common economic i n t e r e s t s w i t h the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s , t he popu-l a t i o n o f K a r l o v a c became the f i r s t opponent o f the f e u d a l p o l i t i c a l system and one of the main c e n t r e s o f the e a r l y 1 20 I l l y r i a n Movement. The f i r s t books o f the Croat and P a n - S l a v i c w r i t e r s were p u b l i s h e d i n K a r l o v a c where c e n s o r -s h i p had never been a b l e t o e n f o r c e i t s s t r i c t r u l e s ; - i t s t e r r i t o r y was i n c l u d e d i n the M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r where the Magyars had never been a b l e t o g a i n any s u p p o r t . One o f the m e r c h a n t s , Mi j o K r e s i c , d e s c r i b e d K a r l o v a c i n h i s Auto-b i o g r a f i j a as b e i n g "par e x c e l l e n c e ( i t a l i c s i n the o r i g i n a l ) the n a t i v e c i t y whose e n t i r e r u l i n g c l a s s and e x e c u t i v e body ' " - ' 1 2 1 s u p p o r t e d the n a t i o n a l cause w i t h a l l a v a i l a b l e means". In a d d i t i o n t o K a r l o v a c and b e s i d e s Zagreb, the n a t u r a l c e n t r e o f C r o a t i a , t h e r e were some o t h e r oases i n h a b i t e d by n a t i v e m i d d l e c l a s s members w h i c h a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d r e l a -t i v e l y good economic p r o g r e s s - R i j e k a , O s i j e k , Zemun, S i s a k , B r o d , V a r a z d i n and o t h e r s . I n s p i t e o f the r a p i d d e v e l o p -• > ment o f t r a d e and i n d u s t r y i n K a r l o v a c , Zagreb became the c e n t r e o f the I l l y r i a n Movement. I t was t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s e a t o f the Croat government and a l l t h e h i g h e s t a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e o f f i c e s o f the n a t i o n were l o c a t e d i n the b u i l d i n g o f the Sab o r , the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c e n t r e a l s o b e i n g i n i t s near v i c i n i t y . F o l l o w i n g the meeting o f the Common D i e t i n 1827, t h e s e - 1 0 5 -two s o c i a l c l a s s e s , the Croat r u l i n g , and the urban m i d d l e c l a s s found themselves u n i t e d i n t h e . I l l y r i a n Movement a f t e r lQk2 and formed two d i s t i n c t r e s i s t a n c e movements a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n . The r u l i n g c l a s s attempted t o o r g a n i z e a' defence on the b a s i s o f the f e u d a l c o n s t i t u t i o n which* g u a r -•i 2 2 anteed i t s p e c i a l . r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s - i n the l a n d s o f the Crown- o f S t . Stephen as w e l l as i n the Croat r e g i o n s . T h i s c l a s s opposed e v e r y change i n the e x i s t i n g system. As. a r u l e i t was not n a t i o n a l i s t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d and r e f u s e d t o 1 o~\ s u p p o r t the development o f a u n i f o r m Croat language. J On the o t h e r ' h a n d , the m i d d l e c l a s s , l e a d by the Croat i n t e l l e c t -u a l s , ' aimed t o c r e a t e one l i t e r a r y language f o r a l l t h e S o u t h Slavs".and f a v o u r e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' o f one p o l i t i c a l u n i t composed o f a l l t h e s e n a t i o n s . The Croat n o b i l i t y hoped t o s o l v e the' problem o f Magyar-i z a t i o n i n t h e D i e t at Pozsony and, f o r t h i s purpose ( h o p i n g t o appease them) ,• agreed t o meet some of the demands put f o r w a r d by the n a t i o n a l i s t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d Magyar d e l e g a t e s . -I t t o o k the Croat n o b l e s over t h r e e decades t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e c r e a t i o n o f . a c l o s e r u n i o n w i t h Hungary was i m p o s s i b l e , f o r the Magyars d i d not want o n l y t o m a g y a r i z e C r o a t i a , but a l s o t o e l i m i n a t e the f e u d a l r i g h t s o f the Sabor. As a r e s u l t o f t h e Magyar a t t a c k s , t h e Croat; n o b i l i t y was i n e v i t -a b l y d r i v e n c l o s e r t o the I l l y r i a n Movement, or t o be more e x a c t , i t s p o l i c y f o r the c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h of C r o a t i a . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a c c o r d i n g t o 'Professor S i d a k , i t h e l d f i r m l y - 1 0 6 -t o i t s former p o s i t i o n , r e s i s t i n g any b a s i c changes i n C r o a t i a ' s e x i s t i n g s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . He s a i d : A l t h o u g h the Croat n o b i l i t y , a c c o r d i n g t o the contemporary o u t l o o k o f S t j e p a n Moyses, was s t i l l on the whole p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g and s t r e n g t h e n i n g i t s f e u d a l r e l a -t i o n s i n the v i l l a g e , the problem o f language began t o r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n and s i g n i f i c a n c e among i t s r a n k s . 124 Even when i t f u l l y a c c e p t e d the- need f o r the c u l t u r a l development o f the n a t i o n and became w i l l i n g t o ac c e p t Croat as t h e o f f i c i a l language o f C r o a t i a , the Groat n o b i l i t y r e -mained f a i t h f u l and devo t e d t o i t s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o ncepts o f f e u d a l i s m w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d the fun d a m e n t a l 125 c o n d i t i o n s o f the n o b i l i t y ' s economic e x i s t e n c e . The; u n i o n formed between i t s r e s i s t a n c e movement and t h a t o f the m i d d l e c l a s s was made p o s s i b l e b e cause, i n v i e w o f -the renewed Magyar a t t a c k on C r o a t i a ' s n a t i o n a l and s t a t e r i g h t s , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s were pushed i n t o the background and r e p l a c e d c o m p l e t e l y by the s t r u g g l e 125a f o r C r o a t i a ' s e x i s t e n c e as a s t a t e and n a t i o n . y T h i s formed a common denominator f o r b o t h movements and u n i t e d them i n t o one. T h i s movement, w h i l e i n s e a r c h o f a s s i s t -ance a g a i n s t Hungary, found an a l l y i n V i e n n a , but was f o r c e d t o assume an e n t i r e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e c h a r a c t e r ; Thus i t was t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , ' n o t the n o b i l i t y , w h i c h had t o move t o the extreme r i g h t and j o i n t he ranks o f c o n s e r v a -t i s m i n t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n . - 1 0 7 -" Even d u r i n g i t s e a r l y s t a g e s , I l l y r i s m as a movement o f the m i d d l e c l a s s i n t e l l e c t u a l s , had never assumed a com-p l e t e l y r a d i c a l r o l e r e g a r d i n g the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f the 1 26 f e u d a l Croat r e g i o n s . No e v i d e n c e v i s p r e s e r v e d w h i c h would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e I l l y r i a n s demanded or f a v o u r e d eman-1 2 7 c i p a t i o n o f the Croat p e a s a n t . U n l i k e many o t h e r m i d d l e c l a s s e s i n t h e West European c o u n t r i e s , t h e Croat b o u r g e o i s i e never seemed t o r e a l i z e t h a t economic p r o g r e s s depended on l a b o u r s u p p l y and t h a t l a b o u r c o u l d o n l y come from the Croat v i l l a g e by a l l o w i n g the peasant f r e e movement and g i v i n g him the r i g h t t o l e a v e the l a n d e d e s t a t e o f h i s f e u d a l m a s t e r . There were s e v e r a l r e a s o n s w h i c h caused t h e Croat m i d d l e c l a s s t o adopt t h i s p e c u l i a r s o c i a l o u t l o o k . F i r s t o f a l l , i t l a c k e d a s t r o n g f e e l i n g o f c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e between i t s e l f and the n o b i l i t y f o r i t was s m a l l i n number and, i n i t s t h i n k i n g , s t i l l v e r y much i n f l u e n c e d by the f e u d a l s o c i a l v a l u e s . S e c o n d l y , i t was l e d by a s m a l l group o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s who were r e c r u i t e d i n many cases from the ranks o f the n o b i l i t y and whose a c t i o n s were s u b c o n s c i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r f e u d a l background. T h i r d l y , the problem o f e d u c a t i n g the peasants seemed t o be i m p o s s i b l e t o s o l v e , e s p e c i a l l y because o f t h e i r b l i n d d e v o t i o n t o the Emperor, the o u t s t a n d i n g p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f f e u d a l i s m . F o r a l l t h e s e reasons the l e a d e r s o f the I l l y r i a n Movement, w h i l e b e i n g i n f a v o u r o f the development o f i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e , d i d not advocate the e m a n c i p a t i o n o f t h e . p e a s a n t r y ; t h e i r movement was m o t i v a t e d - 1 0 8 -by p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l concepts w h i c h they hoped would l e a d t o the u n i o n o f the South S l a v s . However, a f t e r i t s f a i l u r e t o a t t r a c t o t h e r South S l a v i c n a t i o n s i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the H u n g a r i a n domain, I l l y r i s m was r e d u c e d t o a c u l t u r a l movement among the Croats o n l y . And when i t a g a i n r e f l e c t e d p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as i t was f o r c e d t o by p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n of the day, i t chose extreme con-4. • 1 2 8 s e r v a t i s m . The s t r u c t u r e o f the l e a d e r s h i p o f the I l l y r i a n Movement i t s e l f c a r r i e d the seeds o f f e u d a l s o c i a l concepts because many of i t s members were d i r e c t l y r e c r u i t e d from the ranks o f the Croat upper n o b i l i t y . Many o f them had a t t e n d e d German u n i v e r s i t i e s i n V i e n n a and Graz where they were i n -f l u e n c e d by 1 9 t h c e n t u r y European n a t i o n a l i s m and, even more s o , by the i d e a s o f P a n - S l a v i s m as they were e l a b o r a t e d i n t he works o f S a f a r i k and K o l l a r . D r i v e n by p a t r i o t i c f e e l i n g and s e e i n g the c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n C r o a t i a , which were s u f f e r i n g under t h e a t t a c k s o f the Magyars, they as-sumed the t a s k of the improvement of the Croat l i t e r a r y language and o f the c u l t u r a l u n i o n of the South S l a v s . These i n t e l l e c t u a l s were the f i r s t t o b r i n g the i d e a o f the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e i n t o the Croat Sabor and t o work t h e r e toward the repla c e m e n t of L a t i n by t h e Croat l a n g u -age. Janko D r a s k o v i c , f o r example, (as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n o f the Croat n o b i l i t y ) became one o f the main l e a d e r s and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z e r s o f the move-- 1 0 9 -ment. y H i s group o f young i n t e l l e c t u a l n o b l e s i n the Sabor - composed o f such prominent I l l y r i a n s as D r a g o j l o K u s l a n , I v a n K u k u l j e v i c and L j u d e v i t V u k o t i n o v i c - a c t u a l l y c o n v i n c e d the members o f the Sabor t o r e g a r d the Croat 1 29 a language as a n e c e s s i t y and t o s u p p o r t i t s development. The r e m a i n i n g p a r t o f the I l l y r i a n l e a d e r s h i p was com-posed o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s - w i t h m o s t l y m i d d l e c l a s s o r i g i n s . Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , one o f the main l e a d e r s of the movement, L j u d e v i t G a j , came from the home of a Croat d o c t o r who p r a c -t i c e d m e d i c i n e i n K r a p i n a . A l t h o u g h he was c o n s i d e r e d t o be one o f the main l e a d e r s o f the young Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s , a f t e r he had p u b l i s h e d h i s new o r t h o g r a p h y , the l e a d e r s h i p o f the I l l y r i a n Movement became more c o l l e c t i v e and was not t i e d t o any p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l . I n the case o f Gaj and D r a s k o v i c , p o p u l a r i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y never emerged as d e c i s i v e f a c t o r s i n the making o f d e c i s i o n s i n s i d e the movement. I t was more o f an aggre g a t e l e a d e r s h i p whose members, as a r u l e , a g reed on a common p o l i c y and then worked on t h e i r own on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the movement. Thus Gaj d i d not p a r t i -c i p a t e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the " I l l y r i a n Reading. Room?'' and was un a b l e t o e n t e r the s e s s i o n s o f t h e Sabor. O t h e r s , l i k e S t anko V r a z and some Croat I l l y r i a n s as w e l l , even opposed Gaj i n h i s attempt t o p r i n t the "Morning S t a r " i n the C y r i l l i c 130 a l p h a b e t . Under s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e . c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e movement never emerged as an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e . The Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s were t o o p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the problems -no-i n v o l v e d i n the c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h o f the n a t i o n and w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a d e f e n c e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n t o pay more a t t e n t i o n . t o c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e s o l u t i o n o f f e u d a l s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e . I n s h o r t , when s p e a k i n g of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of C r o a t i a d u r i n g the p e r i o d of I l l y r i s m and of the c l a s s c h a r -a c t e r o f the movement, i t s h o u l d be c l e a r t h a t t h e I l l y r i a n Movement i n c l u d e d t h e m a j o r i t y of the Croat upper and m i d d l e n o b i l i t y and c l e r g y and t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , and t h a t i t s l e a d e r -s h i p was a m i x t u r e o f both e l e m e n t s . C l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n th e I l l y r i a n Movement never came t o p l a y any s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e f o r the movement was p r i m a r i l y o f a c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e - c u l t u r a l , f o r i t r e v i v e d , the Croat n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e and c r e a t e d a u n i f o r m l i t e r a r y language and p o l i t i c a l , f o r i t succeeded i n p r o t e c t i n g C r o a t i a from M a g y a r i z a t i o n and thus p r e s e r v e d t h e n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y of the C r o a t s . FOOTNOTES•TO CHAPTER II 1 However, the majority of the Sabor did not abandon the idea of close co-operation with Hungary until after 1 8 3 6 . The Croat delegates to Pozsony were among the f i r s t Croat nobles to realize that such co-operation was impossible because the Magyars aimed to eliminate the Croat "municipal rights". 2 . D. Surmin, Hrvatski preporod, Zagreb, Tisak Dionicke Tiskare, vol. 1 , 1903, p. 7 . 3 F. S i s i c , Hrvats ka povi j es t, Zagreb, Matica Hrvatska, vol. 3 , 1 9 1 3 , p. 1 5 . It is important to point out that decisions reached at the meetings of the Croat counties had never been published. For this reason vI had no choice but to rely on the information offered by Sisic to whom such material was readily available, in the archives of Zagreb. I might add that Sisic was the most prominent of a l l Croat historians whose works are s t i l l of great importance. 4 . Ibid., p. 2 1 . 5 Loc. c i t . 6 S. Srkulj, Izvori za hrvatsku povijest, Zagreb, Tiskara Hrvatske Stranke Prava, 1 9 1 1 , p. 142. 7 S i s i c , Hrvatska povijest, vol. 3 , P- 2 3 . The complete text* of the original document has not" been published. S. Srkulj in his Izvori za. hrvatsku povi jest, pp. l 4 l - l 4 2 , and Si dak in Hist'orijska citanka, pp. 1 6 9 - 1 7 0 , edited identical excerpts of this document. Thus, for example, this quotation of Sisic could not be found in either of the two mentioned sources. 8 T. Smiciklas, Poviest Hrvatska, Zagreb, Matica Hrvatska, vol. 2 , 1 8 7 9 , p. 3 9 5 . 9 The Croat Sabor did not keep' any records of i t s debates un t i l after 1 8 4 7 . The central Hungarian diet kept records of debates i n i t s journal. The text of important debates taking place i n the Sabor are found in diaries and other documents of private individuals who attended i t s meetings. Today, they are to be found with archives of Zagreb, Budapest and Vienna. No attempt has been made to publish a complete collection of these sources for scholarly use. The decisions reached by the Croat Sabor from 1 2 7 3 to 1 8 4 8 were published by I. Kukuljevic i n 1 8 6 1 in his third -I I volume o f J u r a r e g n l C r o a t l a e D a l m a t i a e et S l a v o n l a e ( i n t h e L a t i n l a n g u a g e ) . T h i s i s the o n l y complete p u b l i s h e d e d i t i o n o f the Sabor's d e c i s i o n s . I t i s " f u l l o f p a l e o g r a p h i c and c h r o n o l o g i c a l m i s t a k e s " and c o u l d o n l y be used by. "comparing i t w i t h the o r i g i n a l s " ( s'isi.c, P r i r u c n i k , p. 9h). The d e c i s i o n s o f j t h e . Sabor r e a c h e d between 1526 and 1630 were p u b l i s h e d by S i s i c i n " H r v a t s k i s a b o r s k i s p i s i " , Momumenta  S p e c t a n t i a H i s t o r i a m Slavorum M e r i d i o n a l i u m , Zagreb, v o l s . 33 (1912),.36 (1915), 39 (1916), H i (1917) and k3 (1918). Those r e a c h e d between 1631 and 1735 were p u b l i s h e d i n t h r e e volumes (1958-1961) by the Croat S t a t e A r c h i v e s , Zagreb, under the t i t l e , Z a k l j u c c i h r v a t s k o g s a b o r a . T h e r e f o r e i n my r e -s e a r c h , r e g a r d i n g the work o f the Croat l e g i s l a t i v e b o d i e s , , I o b t a i n e d the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n from the works o f , S i s i c , Surmin, H o r v a t and o t h e r s (see B i b l i o g r a p h y , pp. 279-286). 10 S m i c i k l a s , op. c i t . , p. 396. 11 Surmin, op. c i t . , p. 27. • 12 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 , p. 27. 13 S u r m i n , on. c i t . , p. 5. • 11* N e v e r t h e l e s s , they were not w i l l i n g t o p a r t w i t h t h e i r s p e c i a l r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s ( e x c l u d i n g t h o s e s u r r e n d e r e d i n 1791). The l i s t ' o f t h e v r e m a i n i n g " m u n i c i p a l r i g h t s " i s g i v e n i n Sidak's H i s t o r i . i s k a c i t a n k a , pp. 177-178. 15 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 , p. 55. 16 I b i d . , p. 57. 17 The i n f l u e n c e o f the Czech and S l o v a k P a n f S l a v i s t s . on the Croat n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s i s d e s c r i b e d i n M . v P r e l o g , S l a v e n s k a  Renesansa, Zagreb^ N a k l a d a J u g o s l o v e n s k e Stampe D.D., 192H, pp. 133-1^9, and Surmin*s H r v a t s k i p r e p o r o d , v o l . 1, pp. l l k -117 and 128-138. 18 B i s h o p V r h o v a c , however, remained f a i t h f u l t o the Croat n a t i o n a l cause. He s u p p o r t e d the p a t r i o t i c t e n d e n c i e s among the Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n Graz and V i e n n a u n t i l his d e a t h i n 1827. See Surmin, H r v a t s k i p r e p o r o d , v o l . 1, pp. l+7-l+9. 19 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 , pp. 70-71. 20 See S r k u l j , op. c i t . , p. ikQ. 21 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3, P- 82. 22 See R. M a i x n e r , "Nesto" o l i s t u 'Regio D a l m a t a - K r a g l s k i D a l m a t i n ' i nje g o v u u r e d n i k u " , Rad J u g o s l a v e n s k e Akademi.je  Z n a n o s t i i Um.jetnosti, v o l . 290 (1952), pp. 125-127. - l l j -23 S i s i c , Hrvatska povi .jest, vol. 3, p. 06. 24 Surmin, op. c i t . , p. 19. 25 S i s i c , Hrvatska povi .jest, vol. 3? p. 92. 26 Dalmatia was also isolated from Croatia proper from 1426. Dalmatians actually favoured unification with the other Croat regions under Hungary, but the Emperor did not allow i t . See G. Novak, "Pokret za sjedinjenje Dalmacije s Hrvatskom (1797-l8l4)", Rad  Jugoslayenske Akademije Znanosti i Umjetnosti, vol. 269 (1940), pp. 1 - 3 6 . : 27 This was the f i r s t time that the name, " I l l y r i a " was o f f i c i a l l y used. Before the arrival of the South Slavs in the Balkans, the area had been inhabited by an ancient people, called Illyrians. Hence, many old historians referred to these Slavs as descendants of the Illyrians and their territory as " I l l y r i a " . See B. Grafenauer, "Ilirske Provineije", Enciklopedija Jugoslavije, i 9 6 0 , vol. 4, PP. 337-338. 28 S i s i c , Hr vats ka povi jest, vol. 3, p. 96. Many Croat historians, including S i s i d , tend to overestimate the French contribution to the cultural and economic progress of the "I l l y r i a n Provinces". 29 Ibid., p. 97. 30 Copies of this paper containing articles i n Croat have not been preserved. , Hence the Slovene historian, M. Kos, disagrees with Sisic and argues that such articles ^ were printed i n Slovene instead. See his ar t i c l e , "Telegraphe O f f i e i e l i n njegove izdaje", Glasnik Muzejskega Drustva za  Slovenijb, vols. 7-8, (1926-1927), pp. 5-12. 31 S i s i c , Hrvatska povi .jest, vol. 3, p. 96. 32 V. Corovic, Istori.ja Jugoslavije, Beograd, Narodno Delo, 1933, p. 43o\ 33 The borders of the Il l y r i a n provinces are given in Novak, "Pokret za sjedinjenje Dalmacije...", p. 79. 34 Loc. c i t . 35 Ibid., pp. 27-61. 36 See S. Antoljak, "Prekosavska Hrvatska i pitanje njene reinkorporacije (1813-1822)", Starine, vol. 45 (1955), PP. 128-129. - 1 1 4 -3 7 However, no attempt had been made as y e t t o c r e a t e a u n i f o r m l i t e r a r y language f o r a l l Croat r e g i o n s . I n f a c t some Croat w r i t e r s , l i k e M i k l o u s i c , f a v o u r e d the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e v e r y d i a l e c t . See Surmin, H r v a t s k i  p r e p o r o d , v o l . 1 , pp. 5 6 - 6 2 . v w / 3 8 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 , p. 109. 3 9 T h i s was one o f the main reas o n s why n a t i o n a l i s m f a i l e d t o a t t r a c t a l a r g e r f o l l o w i n g . The D a l m a t i a n peasant was not educated and was v e r y o f t e n c o m p l e t e l y i l l i t e r a t e . F o r him, h i s r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n p l a y e d a more i m p o r t a n t r o l e t h a n h i s n a t i o n a l i t y . 40 A l t h o u g h the o f f i c i a l , t i t l e o f the Croat d i e t was the C r o a t - S l a v o n i a n - D a l m a t i a n Sabor, i t s d e c i s i o n s were not b i n d i n g f o r D a l m a t i a . See Surmin, op. c i t . , p. 2 5 . hi See S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 ? pp. 1 1 1 - 1 1 2 . h2. See I b i d . , pp. 1 2 7 - 1 2 9 . ' 4 3 The r i g h t t o convene and t o d i s s o l v e meetings o f the D i e t e n a b l e d the s o v e r e i g n t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h the c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n t h e s t a t e . T h i s r i g h t was used v e r y ex-t e n s i v e l y by F r a n c i s d u r i n g t h e . f i r s t t h r e e decades o f h i s r e i g n . . i " V / hh S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 , p. 1 2 3 . 4 5 Surmin, op. c i t . , p. 1 2 . 46 I b i d . , p. 1 2 . . 4 7 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . j e s t , v o l . 3 , pp. 1 2 3 - 1 2 4 . 48 F. S i s i c , P r e g l e d p o v i . j e s t i h r v a t s k o g a naroda, ed., J . S i d a k , Zagreb, M a t i c a H r v a t s k a , 1 9 6 2 , p. 3 8 8 . 4 9 R i j e k a was f o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o C r o a t i a i n 1 7 7 6 by M a r i a ^ T h e r e s a . (See N. K l a i c , I z v o r i za h r y a t s k u p o v i . j e s t , Z a g r e b , S k o l s k a K n j i g a , 1 9 5 9 , v o l . 4 , pp. 61-64). However, a f t e r the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r C r o a t i a had been a b o l i s h e d ( 1 7 7 9 ) , Hungary c l a i m e d R i j e k a had become i t s t e r r i t o r y as t h e a f f a i r s o f the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r C r o a t i a were g i v e n t o the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r Hungary. 5 0 See Chapter I , pp. 1 3 - 1 4 . 5 1 The S l a v o n i a n County of K r i . z e v c i , f o r example, was known as "The I l l y r i a n C a s t l e " . See Chapter I I I , pp. 1 7 3 -1 7 4 . -11 ! ?-52 See. G. Novak, Proslost Dalmacije, Zagreb, Hrvatski Izdavalacki Bibliografski Zavod, 19HH, vol. 2, pp. 285-286. However, by demanding the unification of Dalmatia with Croatia, Dalmatian Croats were not motivated by any strong nationalistic idea. 53 S i s i c , Hrvatska povijest, pp. 125-126. 5H Austrian forces composed of Croats and Servs liberated i n Dalmatia a large territory from Napoleon. See Novak, Proslost  Dalmacije, vol. 2, pp. 299-302. 55 Surmin, op. c i t . , p. 2H. 56 See Ibid., pp. 28-32. 57 See S. Antoljak, "Prekosavska Hrvatska i pitanje njene reinkorporaci je..." , pp. 101+-107. 58 The term "Prekosavska Croatia" began to be used for the f i r s t time during the Austrian administration of the Kingdom of I l l y r i a . It included a l l the Croat regions situated on the right bank of the Sava, i.e. the regions ceded to Napoleon in 1809. This area was also referred to as "Civi l i a n Croatia" and "Provincial Croatia". 59 Antoljak, op. c i t . , p. 96. 60 Ibid., p. 135. 61 Nationalism i n Croatia was s t i l l i n i t s embryo and the ruling class deprived i t s e l f of some important legislative powers (see pp. 38-39). 62 These main points of the Sabor's instructions are given on the basis of the following works: Sis i c , Hrvatska  povijest, vol. 3j pp. 132-133; Smiciklas, op. c i t . , pp. 28-29. During my research the original document was not avail-able to me i n any accessible form. .The instructions issued by the Sabor to i t s delegates to Pozsony were carried by them and very often lost. However, several original docu-ments were preserved in various private archives of Croat or Magyar noblemen which are today to be.found in unpublished form in the archives of Zagreb and Budapest. 63 S i s i c , Hrvatska povijest, vol. 3, p. 135. 6k Loc. c i t . 65 In fact, the Croat delegates had no instructions as to the position to be taken regarding this problem. Consequent-ly, they wanted to postpone this decision pending new instructions from Zagreb. In addition to this, the Sabor - 1 1 6 -had no j u r i s d i c t i o n over the problems a l r e a d y d e c i d e d by the Common D i e t . 65a I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t the Croat p a t r i o t s r e s e n t e d t h i s d e c i s i o n because t h e Croat language i t s e l f had not r e a c h e d t h i s s t a g e a t t h a t t i m e . 66 J . H o r v a t , P o l i t i c k a p o v i j e s t H r v a t s k e , Zagreb, I z d a n j e Nakladnog Zavoda " B i n o z a - S v j e t s k i P i s c i , 1936, pp. 81-82. 67 The f u l l name o f t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n was "De m u n i c i p a l i b u s  j u r i b u s et s t a t u t i s regnorum D a l m a t i a e , C r o a t i a e et S l a v o n i a e " . I t s t e x t i s t o be found, i n F. Fancev, "Dokumenti z a na£e p o d r i j e t l o h r v a t s k o g p r eporoda (1790-1832)", G r a d j a z a p o v i -j e s t k n j i z e v n o s t i h r v a t s k e , v o l . 12 (1933), pp. 236-254. 68 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i j e s t , v o l . 3, p. 145. 69 Sur m i n , op. c i t . , p. 36. 70 F. S i s i c , "Uvod u p o l i t i c k u p o v i j e s t H r v a t s k e " , P o l i t i c k a  p o v i j e s t H r v a t s k e , by J o s i p H o r v a t , Zagreb, I z d a n j e Nakladnog Zavoda " B i n o z a - S v j e t s k i P i s c i " , 1936, p. 51. 71 A d i a l e c t i n t h e Se r b o - C r o a t language i s d e t e r m i n e d on the b a s i s o f s p e l l i n g and p r o n o u n c i a t i o n o f the word f o r "what". I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e , the Croats o f the county o f Zagreb used " K a j " f o r "what". Hence t h e i r d i a l e c t i s c a l l e d " K a j k a v i a n " o r " k a j d i a l e c t " . 72 A b r i e f but e x c e p t i o n a l l y ^ o o d account o f K a r a d z i c * s work i s p r e s e n t e d by V. C o r o v i c i n "Vuk K a r a d z i c " , The S l a v o n i c  and E a s t European Review, v o l . 16 ( A p r i l 1938), pp. 667-675. 73 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i j e s t , v o l . 3, p. 160. 74 See P r e l o g , op. c i t . , pp. 66-68. 75 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i j e s t , v o l . 3, p. 158. See a l s o P r e l o g , op. c i t . , pp. 55-62. 76 Surmin, op. c i t . , v o l . 1, p. 49. Surmin's q u o t a t i o n was t a k e n from T. S m i c i k l a s , " H r v a t s k a narodna i d e j a " , Rad J.A.Z.U., v o l . 80 (1895), P. 27. 77 I b i d . , p. 51. 78 Fancev, "Dokumenti z a nase p o d r i j e t l o h r v a t s k o g a p r e p o r -oda...", p. 118. 79 I b i d . , pp. 118-119. SO I b i d . , pp. 133-134. - 1 1 7 -8 1 Surmin, op. c i t . , p. 3 9 . 8 2 See S.. J e z i c , H r v a t s k a k n j i z e v n o s t od p o c e t k a do '. .. , danas, Zagreb, N a k l a x U T T T T e ^ 8 3 See Fancev, op. c i t . , pp. 1 4 9 - 1 6 9 . . Qk Surmin, op. c i t . , p. 6 7 . 8 5 I b i d . , p. 7 8 . 8 6 See Fancev, op. c i t . , p. 1 8 1 . 8 7 Surmin, op. c i t . , p. 7 9 . 8 8 See I b i d . , pp. 4 9 - 8 0 . 8 9 Surmin, I b i d . , p. 114,. 9 0 A g g r e s s i v e Magyar r a d i c a l i s m caused a r a p i d change i n the t h i n k i n g of the Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l who t h e n moved c l o s e r t o c o n s e r v a t i s m and the Croat n o b i l i t y . See Chapter IV, pp. 2 1 4 - 2 1 5 . 9 1 I do not i n t e n d t o d e a l w i t h Gaj's b i o g r a p h y . However, h i s r o l e i n the f o r m a t i o n and development of Croat n a t i o n a l i s m w i l l be e x t e n s i v e l y d e a l t w i t h . F o r the o u t l i n e o f h i s ; b i o -graphy s e e , f o r example, J . S i d a k " L j u d e v i t G a j " , E n c i k i o p e d i j a  J u g o s l a v i a , 1958, v o l . 3 , pp. H 1 7 - 4 2 0 . 9 2 Surmin, op. c i t . , p. 1.16-. 9 3 L o c . c i t . 94 See h i s "Die: S c h l f l s s e r b e i K r a p i n a " i n Fancev, op. c i t . , pp. 183-190. 9 5 Fancev, op. c i t . , pp. 2 2 5 - 2 3 0 . 9 6 I b i d . , p.. 224. 9 7 I b i d . , p. 230.. See a l s o Novak, op. c i t . , pp. 5 2 - 5 3 . 9 8 V. D e z e l i c , "Pisma p i s a n a Dru. L j u d e v i t u G a j u i n e k i r i e g o v i s a s t a v c i ( 1 8 2 8 - 1 8 5 0 ) 1 1 , G r a d j a za p o v i j e s t k n j i z e v n o s t i  h r v a t s k e , v o l . 6 (1909), p. 17^T 9 9 The Academy of Zagreb was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1776 by M a r i a T h e r e s a . The languages o f i n s t r u c t i o n were L a t i n and German. The s c h o o l was r u n by the J e s u i t Order and had t h r e e f a c u l t i e s : b o g o s l o v s t v o ( t h e o l o g y ) , p r o v o s l o v s t v o (law) and m u d r o s l o v s t v o ( p h i l o s o p h y ) . Not t i l l 1874 was the Academy g i v e n the s t a t u s of u n i v e r s i t y . - 1 1 8 -100 S i s i c , H r v a t s k a p o v i . l e s t , v o l , 3, p. '164. . 101 Surmin, op. c i t . , p. 149. 102 F u r t h e r h i s t o r y o f Gaj's paper w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I . 103 See S. J e z i c 1 , ed.. I l i r s k a a n t o l o g i . i a : k n . i i z e v n i dokumenti  h r v a t s k o g p r e p o r o d a , Zagreb, M i n e r v a N a k l a d n a K n j i z a r a D. D. 1934, pp. 97-98 and a l s o Novak, op. c i t . . pp. 54-55. 104 F o r t h e t e x t o f the pamphlet see J e z i c , op. c i t . , pp. 97-98. 105 A f t e r the appearance o f Gaj's " K r a t k a Osnova" the Croat young i n t e l l e c t u a l s no l o n g e r used the K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t w h i c h had no u n i f o r m o r t h o g r a p h y and the use o f whi c h was r e s t r i c t e d t o the County of Zagreb. See a l s o R. K i s z l i n g , D i e K r o a t e n , G r a z - K b l n , V e r l a g Hermann Bbhlaus Nachf., 1956, p. 92. 106 The i d e a was put f o r w a r d a l r e a d y i n 1815 by M i h a n o v i c i n t he "Rec d o m o v i n i " . See Fancev, op. c i t . , pp. 118-119. .1107 V. Bogdanov, Drustvene i p o l i t i c k e borbe u H r v a t s k o j , 1848/49, Zagreb, J u g o s l a v e n s k a Akademija Z n a n o s t i i U m j e t n o s t i , 1949, p. 11. 108 L o c . c i t . 109 I b i d . , p. 12. 110 L o c . c i t . 111 See above, pp. 39-40. 111a See.below, pp. 167-168. 112 See below, pp. 229-231. 113 Bogdanov, Drustvene i p o l i t i c k e b o r b e , p. 13. 114 See R. B i c a n i c , Doba manufakture u H r v a t s k o j i S l a v o n i j i (1750-1860), Zagreb, J u g o s l a v e n s k a Akademija Z n a n o s t i i U m j e t n o s t i , 1951, pp. 335-342. 115 Bogdanov, Drustvene i p o l i t i c k e b o r b e , p. l 4 . 1 1 6 See below, p. 13. 117 See B i c a n i c , Doba manufakture u H r v a t s k o j , pp. 199-203. - 1 1 9 -1 1 8 V. Bogdanov, "Historijska uloga drustvenih klasa u rjesavanju Juznoslavenskog naeionalnog pitanja", Rad Jugo-slavenske Akademije Znanosti i Umjetnosti, Zagreb, vol. 300 ( 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 26. 1 1 9 Loc. c i t . 120 However, the bourgeoisie of Karlovac failed to see the necessity for the emancipation of the peasantry and never seriously attacked the feudal social concepts of Croatia. 1 2 1 Bogdanov, Drustvene i politicke borbe. pp. 1 5 - 1 6 . 1 2 2 See above, p. 4. 123 For the approach of the' Croat nobility towards the development of the Croat language before 1 8 3 2 , see above pp. 1 0 8 - 1 0 9 . 1 2 4 J. Sidak, "Prilozi. h i s t o r i j i stranackih odnosa u Hrvatskoj uoci 1848", Historijski Zbornik. vol. 13 (I960), p. 176. 1 2 5 Serfdom in Croatia was abolished by Ban Jelacic i n 1848. See J. Sidak, Historijska citanka za hrvatsku povi-jest. Zagreb, Skolska Knjiga, 1 9 5 2 , pp. 206-207 and 228-229. 1 2 5 a See below, pp. 1 7 8 - 1 7 9 . V 126 See J. Sidak, " I l i r s k i pokret", Enciklopedija Jugo-sla v i j e . I960, vol. 4 , p. 340. v 1 2 7 In his a r t i c l e , " I l i r s k i pokret" (p. 3 ^ 0 ) , Professor Sidak explains that the I l l y r i a n Movement "in i t s social concepts did not oppose the privileged classes" and aimed "primarily to obtain support for the. national idea from the upper class" because the Croat bourgeoisie was too weak, p o l i t i c a l l y and economically. 128 See Sidak, " I l i r s k i pokret", p. 341. 1 2 9 See below, p. 1 2 3 . 129a See below, :pp. 2 5 3 - 2 5 4 . 130 See Dezelic, op. cit., p. 313. I l l DURING THE ILLYRIAN MOVEMENT . (1832 - 1843) Count Janko D r a s k o v i c and t h e D i e t , 1832-36. The meeting of the D i e t i n 1832 marked the b e g i n n i n g o f the Croat c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e . The fundamentals l a i d down by- the young i n t e l l e c t u a l group had expanded i n t o a f u l l s c a l e n a t i o n a l movement known as the I l l y r i a n Movement. By 1832, t h i s movement i n c l u d e d not o n l y the y o u t h , but a l s o a segment o f the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s and t h e new (and s t i l l e c o n o m i c a l l y weak) b o u r g e o i s i e . I n any c a s e , the atmos-phere p r e v a i l i n g i n C r o a t i a b e f o r e the meeting of the D i e t g r e a t l y d i f f e r e d from t h a t o f e a r l i e r y e a r s . F i r s t , t he s u c c e s s e s o f t h e young p a t r i o t s - Smodek's l e c t u r e s on the Croat language at the Academy and Gaj's new o r t h o g r a p h y -aro u s e d an i n t e r e s t among the Croats f o r t h e i r language and l i t e r a t u r e and w i t h i t a d i s t i n c t f e e l i n g o f n a t i o n a l aware-n e s s . The Croat n o b l e s , as we have s e e n , t h o r o u g h l y endorsed Gaj's a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a newspaper and c o m p l e t e l y changed t h e i r p o l i c y toward M a g y a r i z a t i o n . No l o n g e r d i d they demand a c l o s e r u n i o n w i t h Hungary. They r e a l i z e d the m i s t a k e they had made i n 1790 and demanded t h a t C r o a t i a s h o u l d be r e t u r n e d i t s e x e c u t i v e government and complete j u r i s d i c t i o n over Croat a f f a i r s . T h i s new o u t l o o k was f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by the Magyar demands f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f S l a v o n i a , D a l m a t i a - 1 2 1 -and t h e Croat L i t t o r a l p r o v i n c e s . . On the eve o f the meeting o f the Common D i e t , w h i c h was t o convene on 16 December, 1832, Count Janko D r a s k o v i c p u b l i s h e d t h e f i r s t p o l i t i c a l pamphlet ever t o be p r i n t e d i n the Croat l a n g u a g e , D i s e r t a c i . i a i l i t i r a z g o v o r , darovan g o s p o d i p o k l i -sarom zakonskim i buducem zakoyiotvorcem k r a l . i e v i n a h n a s i h , z a buducu D i e t u ungarsku odaslanem, d r z a n po .jednom s t a r o m  domorodcu K r a l j e v i n a h o v i h ( D i s s e r t a t i o n or D i s c o u r s e p r e -s e n t e d by an Old I n h a b i t a n t t o t h e F u t u r e Lawmakers o f These Kingdoms Sent t o the Next H u n g a r i a n D i e t ) . As. one of the f i r s t n o b l e s who s u p p o r t e d and spoke f o r the i d e a s advocated by the Croat y o u t h , Janko D r a s k o v i c p r e s e n t e d i n h i s pamphlet the I l l y r i a n Movement's f i r s t p o l i t i c a l programme. Hence, some h i s t o r i a n s r e g a r d t h i s event as the b e g i n n i n g of the f o r m a t i o n o f the I l l y r i a n P a r t y w h i c h was c r e a t e d i n the l a t e l830 fs. I n any ease, a l l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s formed on Croat s o i l up t o the s t a r t of t h e 20th c e n t u r y based t h e i r p l a t f o r m s on the i d e a s e x p r e s s e d i n the " D i s s e r t a t i o n " . D r a s k o v i c d i d not d e a l o n l y w i t h contemporary Croat p o l i t i c s , b u t , on the b a s i s o f past r e c o r d s , he l a i d down the g e n e r a l f o u n d a t i o n o f the f u t u r e p o l i t i c a l p l a t f o r m s . We must remember t h a t our kingdoms were not conquered or annexed, but t h a t we v o l u n t a r i l y agreed t o e n t e r i n t o t h i s u n i o n w i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t we w i l l be a l l o w e d t o l e g i s l a t e t o g e t h e r w i t h our b r o t h e r s , the Magyars, and t o defend our r i g h t s i f n e c e s s a r y . I t f o l l o w s t h a t we must not oppose the Magyars at the Common. D i e t i n any way nor can they i n t r o d u c e p r o p o s a l s e n c r o a c h i n g upon our a n c i e n t r i g h t s . 3 -122-In addition to his p o l i t i c a l conceptions, he also identified himself with the cultural reforms of the i n t e l -lectuals by choosing the Stokavian dialect as the language 4 of his pamphlet. With his "Dissertation" Count Janko Draskovic gives Illyrism a ready made programme. Immediately i n the f i r s t sentences of his pamphlet he points out that the language of the people is the main instru-ment of public creativity.... With his pamphlet, Janko Draskovic, after many centuries, brings our language into the p o l i t i c a l l i f e . 5 His fundamental desire was to achieve the unification of a l l Croat lands which included not only Dalmatia, the Military Frontier and Rijeka, but also Bosnia where "many 6 of our people l i v e " . He advised the Croat delegates to the Diet to demand the creation of Greater I l l y r i a which was also to include the Slovene speaking regions of Carniola, Styria and Carinthia. Greater I l l y r i a was to be given the Il l y r i a n language (Stokavian dialect) as the o f f i c i a l langu-age of the state; the administration of government was to be carried out in the name of the Crown by the office of the Ban, just as had been the case before 1790. Sixteen years before the Revolution of 1848, Janko Draskovic thus sees federation as the only possible solution of the governmental union of the many nations which found themselves within the Habsburg Empire.... "Now", he says, "the practice has shown a l l advanced countries which are composed of different nations speaking different languages that in order to achieve a strong and healthy government, every nation should be given i t s special concessions which are the most suitable for each particular situation....' 7 - 1 2 3 -H a v i n g d e f i n e d and o u t l i n e d the e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f -Greater I l l y r i a , the a u t h o r moved on t o suggest t h e fundamentals o f the i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f C r o a t i a . He c r i t i c i z e d the use o f p o l i t i c a l d e f e n c e as the o n l y weapon i n the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n b e cause, by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on i t a l o n e , the s t r e n g t h o f the n a t i o n was b e i n g d e p l e t e d . He sensed t h a t t h e Croat defence would c o l l a p s e i f i t was not f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d "by s e c u r i n g a f o o t h o l d among the p e o p l e , d e v e l o p i n g i t s s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l power, and e q u a l i z i n g o i t s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . . . " . I n s h o r t , he proposed t o i n c r e a s e the s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g because economic p r o g r e s s was the main f a c t o r w h i c h c o u l d g u a r a n t e e the s u c c e s s of the p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e . J u s t as Gaj had been a c c e p t e d as the l e a d e r o f the c u l t u r a l movement of the n a t i o n , D r a s k o v i c , a f t e r p u b l i s h i n g h i s " D i s s e r -t a t i o n " , became the a u t h o r i t y i n the p o l i t i c a l f i e l d . D u ring the f i r s t y e a r s of the I l l y r i a n Movement, he a l o n e d e c i d e d t h e p o l i t i c a l t a c t i c s and s t r a t e g y t o be used i n the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o h a v i n g the r i g h t t o s i t i n the S abor, he was a l s o one of i t s prominent members and was e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t C r o a t i a i n the House o f Magnates i n Pozsony. T h e r e f o r e , he became -the o n l y hope of the Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s , who as a r u l e d i d not have s e a t s i n the Sabor. Thus t o D r a s k o v i c and h i s s m a l l group of f o l l o w e r s i n the S abor, f e l l the t a s k o f p e r s u a d i n g the l e g i s l a t u r e t o accept the terms of the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e . The Croat Sabor met on 11 November, 1832, t o e l e c t i t s -un-delegates to the Common Diet and to decide on the p o s i t i o n s to be taken on the major p o l i t i c a l i s s ues of the. day. Owing to h i s i n f l u e n c e i n the Sabor, Draskovic succeeded i n p r e v a i l i n g upon i t to accept h i s proposal t h a t , i n case of complete d i s -agreement w i t h the Magyar delegates, the Croats were to walk out of the Diet to i n d i c a t e that C r o a t i a was prepared to handle i t s a f f a i r s without Hungary. On Draskovic's advice, Ban V l a s i c appointed to the o f f i c e of the Podhan (deputy to the Ban) General J u r a j Rukavina who, f o r the f i r s t time i n the. h i s t o r y of the Sabor, expressed h i s g r a t i t u d e i n the 9 Croat language. The i n s t r u c t i o n s g iven by the Sabor to i t s delegates c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d the e n t i r e l y new atmosphere p r e v a i l i n g among the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s : 1. P r o t e s t a n t s could not be allowed to s e t t l e i n the Croat t e r r i t o r y s i n c e t h i s problem i n v o l v e d the question of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o s i t i o n of C r o a t i a and could r e i n f o r c e Magyar demands f o r R i j e k a and the Croat L i t t o r a l p rovinces. 2. To the o f f i c e of the Ban should be r e s t o r e d i t s former executive a u t h o r i t y which was t o be extended to Dalmatia, the M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r and R i j e k a . 3. Should the Magyars exert pressure upon C r o a t i a de-manding an i n c r e a s e i n taxes, the delegates were to announce that C r o a t i a would r e c l a i m i t s r i g h t to decide i t s own taxes. h. The L a t i n language was to remain the o f f i c i a l language -125-o f C r o a t i a , but the d e l e g a t e s were t o r e f u s e t o g r a n t any f u r t h e r c o n c e s s i o n s t o the Magyar l a n g u a g e , e x c e p t f o r i t s usage w i t h i n the b o r d e r s of H u n g a r y . 1 0 The f i r s t q u e s t i o n t o be d i s c u s s e d at Pozsony was the problem o f the p e a s a n t r y and i t s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o th e n o b i l i t y . W h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y of the "delegates agreed t h a t serfdom s h o u l d be reformed by g i v i n g more freedom t o the p e a s a n t r y , the House o f Magnates and e s p e c i a l l y the Croats opposed any r e f o r m w h a t s o e v e r . The Croats argued t h a t by g i v i n g the peasants freedom.to move and a b o l i s h i n g the r i g h t o f the l a n d l o r d t o employ f r e e l a b o u r on h i s e s t a t e the m a j o r i t y of t h e Croat nobles would s i m p l y become b a n k r u p t . Some minor changes were f i n a l l y a c c e p t e d , but o n l y because ' 11 t h e y were s u p p o r t e d by F r a n c i s Deak's s t r o n g l i b e r a l g r o u p . The p e a s a n t r y was no l o n g e r r e q u i r e d t o pay f o r the c o s t o f the D i e t ' s meeting s i n c e i t had no r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h a t body. Once a g a i n the Croats had t o r e j e c t the l i b e r a l Magyar p r o p o s a l f o r the enforcement of r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a t i o n i n a l l the l a n d s o f the Crown o f S t . Stephen. The Cro a t arguments were a g a i n based on t h e i r a n c i e n t r i g h t w h i c h s p e c i f i e d t h a t r e l i g i o u s problems i n C r o a t i a c o u l d be s o l v e d by the Croat 12 Sabor a l o n e . The Magyars were c o m p e l l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s r i g h t , but they argued t h a t i t e x c l u d e d D a l m a t i a , S l a v o n i a and R i j e k a w h i c h were t r a d i t i o n a l Magyar p r o v i n c e s . Ban F r a n c i s V l a s i c and Janko D r a s k o v i c s u c c e s s --126-f u l l y managed t e r e j e c t and d e f e a t the Magyar i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the above mentioned law by p o i n t i n g out t h a t t h e s e r e g i o n s "are Croat not o n l y a c c o r d i n g t o C r o a t i a ' s ' h i s t o r i c a l r i g h t and t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n , but a l s o l o g i c a l l y because i t i s : i m p o s s i b l e f o r the Magyars t o c l a i m R i j e k a , f o r example, 13 w h i c h has no common b o r d e r w i t h Hungary". •> At t h i s p o i n t , t h e D i e t ' s s e s s i o n was t e m p o r a r i l y i n t e r r u p t e d by the d e a t h o f Emperor F r a n c i s on 2 March 1835. I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r F r a n c i s ' s u c c e s s o r , F e r d i n a n d V (1835-l S ^ ) , o c c u p i e d the t h r o n e , the D i e t moved on t o " s o l v e " the q u e s t i o n o f .the Magyar language. The Magyar d e l e g a t e s i n -c l u d e d C r o a t i a i n ' t h e i r demands f o r the r i g h t s o f t h e i r language and demanded t h a t from grade V Magyar was to.become the language o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l s econdary s c h o o l s and t h a t a l l t h o s e who pl a n n e d t o e n t e r the c i v i l s e r v i c e must l e a r n Magyar w i t h i n t e n y e a r s ' time.. T h i s p r o p o s a l was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e low e r house and the p r e s s u r e f o r i t s enforcement was so s t r o n g t h a t even D r a s k o v i c f a i l e d t o c o n v i n c e h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n the upper house t h a t the p r o p o s a l s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d as u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . Herman Buzan t r i e d i n v a i n a d i f f e r e n t a pproach and d e c l a r e d t h a t i f C r o a t i a was t o g i v e up L a t i n , t h e n she had the r i g h t t o accept h e r own language "which had 15 l a t e l y p r o g r e s s e d v e r y n i c e l y " . ' The o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e l e f t t o t h e Croat d e l e g a t e s was t o a p p e a l t o F e r d i n a n d , or r a t h e r M e t t e r n i c h who was t h e power b e h i n d the t h r o n e , t o r e f u s e t o 16 a s s e n t t o the d e c i s i o n passed by the D i e t . S i n c e Magyar - 1 2 7 -nationalism represented a more dangerous anti-German force than Croat nationalism, Ferdinand refused to sanction this decision and thus saved the Croat's defensive position from .complete collapse. In the Diet i t s e l f , the failure of the Croats to prevent the passage of this b i l l was attributed to the Croat delegate fronnVirovitica, Ivan Salopek, who denigd Croatia the right to i t s language and separate privileges and argued that the Croats did not exist as a nation, that 1 7 they were Magyars inhabiting Magyar territory. ' His argu-ments were counter-attacked by Kollar's pamphlet published i n 1832 in^Karlovac under the t i t l e Sollen wir Magyaren werden? (Should we. Become Magyars?) which completely unmasked the policy of. Magyarization and explained that the Magyar's main goal was to destroy a l l the Slavic nations within their state. In very short time this pamphlet was published three times which was proof that i t had arrived at the right 'time and that the Croats awoke suddenly when they were asked the question - should they become Magyars. In Pest[aJ the pamphlet caused real chaos and the government i n Vienna was accused of being i n a secret agreement with the author of this booklet against the .Magyars which i t s (Vienna's) censor had allowed to be printed. 18 The Magyars could no longer argue that by introducing the question of their language they were only trying to develop i t as far as Hungary was concerned. Therefore they did not even attempt to produce an argument against the ideas and implications expressed in the pamphlet. -128-Realizing that such debates had positively no end and that there was danger of an open fight between the Groat and Magyar delegates, Ferdinand V concluded the meeting of the Diet (2 May I 8 3 6 ). The results of the meeting le f t neither the Magyars nor the Croats satisfied. It was obvious that the gap between the two nations was becoming much wider and deeper and i t seemed as i f there was no possible, peaceful solution to the problem. The Magyars fe l t that the Croats and Vienna prevented them from obtaining their national rights and the right to use their language. More radical elements argued that the Croats, who represented the minority, wanted to enforce and dictate their views to the majority, the Magyars. On the other hand, the Croats saw i n the Magyar attempts to force the Magyar language upon them the movement which aimed to destroy the Croat nationaand i t s autonomous rights. They equally feared that in the near future i t would be impossible for them to defend themselves successfully since' even the House of Magnates had begun to lose i t s conserva-19 tive character and move slowly toward the l i b e r a l side. The Croat Sabor met on 5 August 1 8 3 6 to hear the reports of i t s delegates to Pozsony and to discuss the highlights of this new situation. It decided that the danger which threatened to destroy the p o l i t i c a l status quo of the country could no longer be fought without outside assistance and 20 thus "Croat politics began to look for help i n Vienna". Such an attitude enabled Metternich "...to link Croat politics -129-w i t h the i n t e r e s t s o f V i e n n a and the Monarchy". C r o a t i a became a t o o l a g a i n s t Magyar l i b e r a l democracy. Count D r a s k o v i c r e a l i z e d the danger i n t a k i n g t h i s new c o u r s e b u t , i n the absence o f n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s among the m a j o r i t y o f the d e l e g a t e s , t o the Sabor, h i s warning was not a c c e p t e d 22 as p o l i t i c a l l y sound. However, a l l agreed t h a t the Croat language s h o u l d be f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d and h e l p g i v e n t o those w o r k i n g on i t . I n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t the n o b i l i t y d i d not f e e l the need f o r a d o p t i n g Croat as the o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e , the f a c t t h a t i t even had an a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t e d t h a t the n a t i o n a l i s m o r i g i n a t i n g o u t s i d e the w a l l s o f the Sabor had found i t s way and s u p p o r t e r s i n s i d e the l e g i s l a t u r e . The Croat h i s t o r i a n , J o s i p H o r v a t , however, tends t o o v e r e s t i m a t e the r o l e of Janko D r a s k o v i c i n the Sabor d u r i n g the f i r s t y e a r s o f the I l l y r i a n Movement by c o n c l u d i n g t h a t " ' I l l y r i s m ' , n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h , and the s w i n g , p o l i t i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y , towards the r e a l i z a t i o n of democracy, are p r i m a r i l y the work of Count Janko D r a s k o v i c " . J At the same t i m e , H o r v a t a l s o d e s c r i b e d the o p i n i o n s and a c t i v i t y o f tho s e nobles who s u p p o r t e d the Movement i n the Sabor as a w e l l o r g a n i z e d and p o w e r f u l group o f l e f t i s t r a d i c a l s who aimed t o i n t r o d u c e 24 r a d i c a l s o c i a l r e f o r m s . W h i l e t h i s may have been t r u e f o r Janko D r a s k o v i c and h i s s o c i a l c o n c e p t s , i t c e r t a i n l y c o u l d not be s a i d of any o t h e r member o f the Sabor d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . - 1 3 0 -In this a c t i v i t y Count Janko Draskovic found under-standing, support and active co-operation from the smaller but better part of the Croat aristocracy and n o b i l i t y . A l l these men, who were preparing the; s o i l for the r e b i r t h even before Janko Draskovic, v , from R i t t e r Vitezovic to Vrhovac, Mihanovic, J e l a c i c and Kusevic, were aware of i t s p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l consequences, and knew that the way toward democratic equality implied the a b o l i t i o n of class differences and pri v i l e g e s - th e i r own position i n the sta t e . 2 5 It w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t to point out that although old Count Draskovic p u b l i c l y supported some fundamental s o c i a l changes i n the feudal society of Croatia, his colleagues i n the Sabor were d e f i n i t e l y opposed to such ideas and were prepared to support only the c u l t u r a l r e v i v a l , not s o c i a l radicalism and si m i l a r antifeudal movements. Draskovic's work and successes were of more consequence to leadership of the I l l y r i a n Movement outside the Sabor than to his attempts to influence the delegates to the Sabor to consider the modification of the i r feudal s o c i a l concepts. He i n v i t e d Ljudevit Gaj to Pozsony to introduce him to Hungarian p o l i t i c a l c i r c l e s . Both Draskovic and Gaj u t i l i -zed this opportune moment to explain the fundamental aims of the Croat c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h to the Magyar delegates -introduction of the new orthography, reform of the grammar, publication of a newspaper, and formation of a printing o f f i c e which was to print books i n the Croat language. The r e s u l t was that the Magyars, for the f i r s t time since 1790, learned that the Croat language was not only the language of the peasants, but also of other classes which, l i k e the -131-Magyars, aimed t o w i n f o r i t the p l a c e i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Many began t o s e r i o u s l y doubt the s u c c e s s o f the M a g y a r i z a t i o n p o l i c y w h i l e o t h e r s f e l t t h a t the Croat movement s h o u l d be d e s t r o y e d at i t s b e g i n n i n g b e f o r e i t g a i n e d deeper r o o t s i n the Croat n a t i o n . From Pozsony, Gaj went t o V i e n n a w i t h the purpose of a p p e a l i n g t o the h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t i e s of the Monarchy t o t a k e h i s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r p u b l i s h i n g a Croat newspaper i n t o immediate c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t was s u s p e c t e d t h a t Magyar elements at the Court used a l l t h e i r i n f l u e n c e t o p r e v e n t Gaj from o b t a i n -i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y p e r m i s s i o n , or at l e a s t t o postpone i t as l o n g as p o s s i b l e . When the p e r m i s s i o n was f i n a l l y o b t a i n e d the Croat n a t i o n a l movement e x p e r i e n c e d a r a p i d growth and underwent th e f i n a l and the most i m p o r t a n t s t a g e i n the c u l t u r a l r e v i v a l o f the n a t i o n . The meetings of the D i e t became of s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e and the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e , 27 w h i c h had some p o l i t i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n s as w e l l , became the main a s p e c t o f n a t i o n a l i s m i n C r o a t i a . C u l t u r a l R e n a i s s a n c e o f the N a t i o n D r a s k o v i c ' s " D i s s e r t a t i o n " and the meeting of the D i e t o f 1832-36, as we have a l r e a d y n o t i c e d , marked the b e g i n n i n g of the f u l l s c a l e n a t i o n a l movement, or I l l y r i s m . However, as t o the e x a c t y e a r i n w h i c h the I l l y r i a n Movement appeared on the Croat scene as t h e movement o f the m a j o r i t y , the Croat h i s t o r i a n s c o u l d never a g r e e . W h i l e most of them have no - 1 3 2 -doubts t h a t I l l y r i s m as a movement ended i n 1843 w i t h the p r o h i b i t i o n of the name " I l l y r i a " , t h e i r arguments f o r d e t e r -m i n i n g the b e g i n n i n g d i f f e r . Tade S m i c i k l a s , one of the most prominent Croat h i s t o r i a n s and a u t h o r of the f i r s t Croat h i s t o r y , P o v i e s t H r v a t s k a (A H i s t o r y o f C r o a t i a ) , h e s i t a t e s t o l i m i t h i m s e l f t o any p a r t i c u l a r d a t e and s i m p l y d e c l a r e s t h a t the movement, wh i c h s t a r t e d i n the e a r l y l830's, began t o f u n c t i o n pQ as a b r o a d n a t i o n a l movement i n the l a t e l 8 3 0 r s . D j u r o S u r m i n , a s p e c i a l i s t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d i n Croat h i s t o r y , argues i n h i s H r v a t s k i p r e p o r o d ( C r o a t R e n a i s s a n c e ) t h a t the I l l y r i a n Movement began a f t e r the meeting of the D i e t i n 1836 - the C r o a t s i l a s t attempt t o s o l v e t h e i r problems by 29 " v 1 c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h the Magyar n o b i l i t y . y Ferdo S i s i c , some-what more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , d i v i d e s the p e r i o d between 1830 and 1843 i n t o two p a r t s : (1) "On the Eve.of the I l l y r i a n Movement ( 1 8 3 0 - 1 8 3 6 ) " and (2) "The Peak of I l l y r i s m Q 8 3 6 - 1 8 4 3 K ' . 3 0 F i n a l l y , J o s i p Horvat i d e n t i f i e s the b e g i n n i n g o f the Movement w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the f i r s t e d i t i o n of Gaj's newspaper i n 1835, w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o him, r e p r e s e n t e d the main h i g h -l i g h t o f the c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h u n t i l i t s end i n 1843. J To be on the s a f e s i d e , the b e g i n n i n g of the I l l y r i a n Movement c o u l d be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h D r a s k o v i c ' s " D i s s e r t a t i o n " and the meeting o f the Croat Sabor i n 1832 because i t was i n t h i s y e a r t h a t the Sabor began t o s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r the development o f the lan g u a g e , the e x p a n s i o n of the Ban's a u t h o r -i t y i n C r o a t i a and the demand t o r e s t o r e C r o a t i a ' s p o s i t i o n - 1 3 3 -i n r e l a t i o n t o Hungary t o the p l a c e i t had h e l d before,1790. The f a c t t h a t the Croat d e l e g a t e s t o Pozsony c o u l d s a f e l y answer t o the Magyars t h a t t h e i r language had a l s o d e v e l o p e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the i n f l u e n c e o f the young i n t e l l e c t u a l s , and t h e impact t h e i r s u c c e s s e s had on the t h i n k i n g o f the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s . The Croat n o b i l i t y had w i t n e s s e d such s u c c e s s e s and works o f Croat p a t r i o t s as Smodek's r i g h t t o t e a c h the Croat language a t . t h e Academy of Z a g r e b , Gaj's new o r t h o g r a p h y , Derkos' "Genius p a t r i a e " , S t o o s ' "The S t a t u t e of the Homeland", and D r a s k o v i c ' s " D i s s e r t a t i o n " . Upon h i s a r r i v a l t o V i e n n a i n 1833 > Gaj succeeded i n s e e i n g the Emperor h i m s e l f and e x p l a i n i n g t o him the programme o f h i s paper. J The o l d Emperor promised t o t a k e Gaj's a p p l i c a t i o n i n t o immediate c o n s i d e r a t i o n and o r d e r e d h i s M i n i s t e r o f the I n t e r i o r , S e d l n i t z k y , t o submit t o him 33 " c h a r a c t e r r e f e r e n c e s c o n c e r n i n g the p e r s o n of L j u d e v i t G a j " J J accompanied by S e d l n i t z k y ' s own r e p o r t e x p l a i n i n g h i s a p p r o v a l or d i s a p p r o v a l . The e n t i r e procedure and s t r u g g l e o f the Croats t o o b t a i n t h e i r newspaper i s i i n d i c a t i v e o f some of t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h the Croats f a c e d i n the development of t h e i r n a t i o n a l movement. ...the K i n g demanded t h a t S e d l n i t z k y b r i n g as soon as p o s s i b l e ' c h a r a c t e r r e f e r e n c e s c o n c e r n i n g the p e r s o n o f L j u d e v i t G a j 1 on which b a s i s i t would be d e c i d e d i f i t was or was not p o s s i b l e t o g i v e Gaj p e r m i s s i o n t o p u b l i s h a p o l i t i c a l newspaper. 3*+ But S e d l n i t z k y , who was " i n no h u r r y t o c o n s i d e r the a p p l i c -- l i g -a t i o n " , ' J > had s t i l l s u b m i t t e d no r e p o r t a f t e r s i x months o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The Crown's C o u n c i l f o r Hungary, t o whom Gaj had o r i g i n a l l y handed i n h i s a p p l i c a t i o n , wanted t o i l l u s t r a t e i t s " w i l l i n g n e s s " t o h e l p the Croats and f o r m a l l y announced t h a t Gaj c o u l d p u b l i s h h i s paper, but o n l y i f he d i d not p u b l i s h any p o l i t i c a l news. G a j , h a v i n g i n mind h i s programme whi c h was d e s i g n e d not o n l y t o r e a l i z e c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h , but a l s o t o awake C r o a t i a p o l i t i c a l l y , w h i c h he was a u t h o r i z e d t o do, h a v i n g had such recommendations from the Croat d i s t r i c t s , was n a t u r a l l y not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the f i n a l d e c i s i o n of the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r Hungary. 3 6 I n 1 8 3 4 , Gaj made h i s second t r i p t o V i e n n a w i t h the purpose o f s e e i n g the M i n i s t e r f o r F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , K o l o v r a t , f o r whom he had a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by J a n K o l l a r recommending speedy a p p r o v a l o f Gaj's a p p l i c a t i o n . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g , Count S e d l n i t z k y s u b m i t t e d h i s c o l l e c t i o n of documents c o n c e r n i n g L j u d e v i t Gaj t o the Emperor w i t h h i s own recommendation t h a t t h e Croats be a l l o w e d t o have a news-paper "because i t i s not the i n t e n t i o n o f Your M a j e s t y t o have the language o f the Croats e l i m i n a t e d by t h a t o f the Magyars." ^ 7 I n October I 8 3 H , a f t e r two y e a r s o f w a i t i n g , Gaj f i n a l l y r e c e i v e d the p e r m i s s i o n t o p u b l i s h t h e p o l i t i c a l newspaper, No v i n e H o r v a t z k e (The Croat News) w i t h i t s weekly l i t e r a r y e d i t i o n , D a n i c z a H o r v a t z k a , S l a v o n z k a y D a l m a t i n z k a (The C r o a t , S l a v o n i a n and D a l m a t i a n Morning S t a r ) . T h i s event -135-marked the t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the development of Croat n a t i o n -a l i s m . The p r e s s assumed the l e a d i n g r o l e i n the f o r m a t i o n o f the n a t i o n a l movement and became the main weapon used i n the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n . Magyar a u t h o r i t i e s f e a r e d Gaj aimed t o educate- an independent n a t i o n a l movement w h i c h would demand t h a t C r o a t i a w i t h d r a w from the u n i o n . T h e r e f o r e the c e n s o r i n Zagreb was o r d e r e d by the Crown Ts C o u n c i l f o r Hungary t h a t " i n the case o f Gaj's newspaper, a l l s t r i c t r u l e s o f c e n s o r s h i p have t o be f u l l y e n f o r c e d " . •3 T h i s s i m p l y meant t h a t a l l t h e p o l i t i c a l news p u b l i s h e d i n the "Croat News" had t o be c o p i e d from the Luna Agramer Z e i t u n g or o t h e r German newspapers w h i c h had a l r e a d y passed t h r o u g h the hands o f the c e n s o r . The main problem, however, was t o choose a p r o p e r d i a l e c t and o r t h o g r a p h y b ecause, i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n as many s u b s c r i b e r s as p o s s i b l e , i t seemed p o l i t i c a l l y unsound t o adopt the S t o -39 k a v i a n d i a l e c t f r om the v e r y b e g i n n i n g . J y S i n c e the news-paper was t o g a i n a s o l i d b a s i s i n the County of Zagreb f i r s t , i t seemed l o g i c a l t o adopt, on a temporary b a s i s , the K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t and the o l d o r t h o g r a p h y - the two f a c t o r s Gaj was opposed t o the most. T h i s d e c i s i o n was r e a c h e d at a meeting h e l d i n Janko D r a s k o v i c ' s house w h i c h was a t t e n d e d by a l l the p r o m i n e n t , young ( t h e i r ages r a n g i n g from 18 t o 25) i n t e l l e c t -u a l s and l e a d e r s o f the movement - D r a g u t i n Rakovac, V j e k o s l a v B a b u k i c , D i m i t r i j e Demeter, Antun M a z u r a n i c , I v a n Derkos, Pavao S t o o s , Antun V a k a n o v i c , O g n j o s l a v U t j e s e n o v i c , and - 1 3 6 -L j u d e v i t V u k o t i n o v i c . The product o f t h i s meeting was t h e w e l l known Oglas (Announcement) w h i c h e x p l a i n e d the purpose and the r o l e o f the Croat p r e s s . From the c o n t e n t of the Oglas i t was e v i d e n t t h a t Gaj aimed t o u n i t e not o n l y a l l the C r oats i n t o one c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l g r o u p , but a l s o ko a l l o t h e r South S l a v s . Thus he was the f i r s t o r i g i n a t o r of the i d e a o f the South S l a v i c u n i o n w h i c h o n l y became a f a c t as l a t e as 1918. The i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r a g r a p h a d d r e s s e d a l l th e S outh S l a v i c n a t i o n s as f o l l o w s : We g r e e t a l l h o n o u r a b l e gentlemen o f a l l c l a s s e s and o r d e r s o f the famous S l a v i c peoples i n the s o u t h e r n l a n d s , namely, C r o a t s , S l o v e n e s , S l a v o n i a n s , D a l m a t i a n s , D u b r o v n i k i a n s , S e r b s , C a r n i o l i a n s , S t y r -i a n s , C a r i n t h i a n s , I s t r i a n s , B o s n i a n s , and a l l o t h e r s , as our b r o t h e r s , admirers o f the la n g u a g e ! H 1 The Oglas ended by p o i n t i n g out .to the South S l a v i c n a t i o n s the examples o f o t h e r European n a t i o n s , w h i c h had i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l a n g u a g e , t h e i r own p r e s s , books and l i t e r a t u r e i n g e n e r a l , and by p l e a d i n g : T h e r e f o r e , b e f o r e i t i s t o o l a t e , t h i s i s the moment f o r u s , the a n c e s t o r s o f the guards and d e f e n d e r s o f European c u l t u r e , t o b r i n g back the honour o f the language of our dear S l a v i c mother, the language abundant w i t h words and sweet i n p r o n o u n c i a t i o n , the language w h i c h t i e s us l o g i c a l l y w i t h e i g h t y m i l l i o n o f our b r o t h e r s . k2 The g e n e r a l e n t h u s i a s m among t h e Cr o a t s w h i c h accompanied the f i r s t i s s u e s of the "Croat News" and the P a n i c a spoke f o r the tremendous s u c c e s s a c h i e v e d by G a j . The D a n i c a found - 1 3 7 -i t s s u p p o r t e r s and f o l l o w e r s not o n l y i n Zagreb, but a l s o among the Sl o v e n e s and the Serbs o f V o j v o d i n a . A r t i c l e s , poems and o t h e r p a t r i o t i c m a t e r i a l f o r the D a n i c a kept coming from many d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f C r o a t i a , S e r b i a and S l o v e n i a . The poems p u b l i s h e d i n the D a n i c a p l a y e d a most i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n awakening n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t . The main s u b j e c t o f t h i s p o e t r y was u s u a l l y o f p a t r i o t i c n a t u r e p r a i s -i n g t he c o u n t r y , the p e o p l e , i t s c u l t u r e , and i t s l a n g u a g e . The p o e t r y c o n t a i n e d almost no l i t e r a r y or a r t i s t i c v a l u e f o r i t i g n o r e d s t y l e , rhythm and s i m i l a r r u l e s i n the a r t of p o e t i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . I t s main purpose was t o cause a p a t -r i o t i c s t i r and en t h u s i a s m among the p e o p l e . The paper's b e s t p i e c e s were sung at v a r i o u s p a t r i o t i c g a t h e r i n g s o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e n a t u r e . Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , by 1832 Gaj's song, " C r o a t i a w i l l never d i s a p p e a r as l o n g as we l i v e , she w i l l be r a i s e d h i g h when we awake her up...", a v e r s i o n of a P o l i s h song of s i m i l a r n a t u r e , became a symbol o f n a t i o n a l i s m among a l l t he c l a s s e s . M i h a n o v i c ' s L i j e p a nasa domovina (Our B e a u t i -f u l Homeland) e x p e r i e n c e d a s i m i l a r s u c c e s s and has been p r e -s e r v e d up t o the p r e s e n t day as the n a t i o n a l anthem o f C r o a t i a . The D a n i c a found a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e s p o n d e n t i n the poet S t a n k o V r a z , who became one o f the most prominent members o f the I l l y r i a n Movement and the main advocate of i t s i d e a s 4 3 among the Slovenes. The i n i t i a l s u c c e s s o f the D a n i c a led<]Gaj t o b e l i e v e t h a t the time had come t o abandon the K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t and -1 J O -the o l d o r t h o g r a p h y . By su c h a move he aimed t o e n l a r g e the s i z e o f h i s f o l l o w i n g among the S l o v e n e s , Dalmatians and Serbs who were not f a m i l i a r w i t h the K a j k a v i a n d i a l e c t and would never be a b l e t o adopt i t i n t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e . When Gaj's newspaper changed i t s d i a l e c t and o r t h o g r a p h y , i t changed i t s name as w e l l . By the s t a r t of 1836, "The Croat News" had be-come "The I l l y r i a n News" ( I l i r s k e narodne n o v i n e ) and "The C r o a t , S l a v o n i a n and D a l m a t i a n Morning S t a r " had become "The I l l y r i a n Morning S t a r " ( D a n i c a I l i r s k a ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Ferdo V V / S i s i c , t h i s change o f name r e p r e s e n t e d the main c o n t r i b u t i o n of L j u d e v i t Gaj t o Croat n a t i o n a l u n i t y and n a t i o n a l i s m : By t h i s courageous and d e c i d i n g a c t Gaj made h i s most i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n because-he thus removed the l a s t f e n c e w h i c h d i v i d e d Croat from Croat and, at t h a t t i m e , Croat from S e r b . Undoubtedly, t h i s i s one o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t events i n the h i s t o r y o f the Croat people because i t meant d e a t h t o the a n c i e n t p r o v i n c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s and d i v i s i o n s and gave r i s e t o an awareness of the p r e s e n t day Croat n a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e at a l l s o c i a l l e v e l s , an awareness w h i c h was unknown and n o n e x i s t e n t u n t i l t h i s moment. Without t h i s move made by Gaj and h i s young, en t h u s -i a s t i c c o l l e a g u e s , i t would have been i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r a l l the f u t u r e Croat p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , e s p e c i a l l y the one f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y . Thus, w i t h t h e y e a r I 8 3 6 , the o l d C r o a t i a d i s a p p e a r e d and the new one was b o r n and, w i t h i t a new e r a i n the p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l l i f e o f the C r o a t s . ^ 4 T h i s d e c i s i v e move o f the Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s was f a v o u r e d by the g e n e r a l , p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n the Monarchy. The c e n t r a l government i n V i e n n a , i n i t s f e a r o f the Magyars' p o w e r f u l n a t i o n a l movement, approved and welcomed the Croat o p p o s i t i o n t o Hungary and even a s s i s t e d Gaj i n h i s work t o - 1 3 9 -e s t a b l i s h a Croat p r i n t i n g o f f i c e (June 7, 1937). I t a l s o a l l o w e d , i n f o r m a l l y , the change i n h i s newspaper's name. The Croat r u l i n g c l a s s a l s o t o l e r a t e d t h i s change because at the l a s t meeting o f the D i e t (1832-1836) the Magyars had antagon-i z e d t h e n o b i l i t y by demanding t h a t the peasants be f r e e d and the c l e r g y by demanding r e l i g i o u s e q u a l i t y . S i z i n g up t h i s p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n , Gaj saw an o p p o r t u n i t y t o put i n t o p r a c t i c e h i s p o l i t i c a l concepts o f the f o r m a t i o n of n a t i o n a l u n i t y . Under the name, " I l l y r i a " , Gaj hoped ( i n the e a r l y l830's) t o u n i t e a l l S o u t h S l a v s i n t o one p o l i t i c a l l y independent 45 n a t i o n . However, s i n c e t h i s i d e a was not p o p u l a r among many prominent members o f the I l l y r i a n Movement i n C r o a t i a , he r e -l a t e d h i s p o l i t i c a l concepts t o o n l y a few o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s . Gaj b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l South S l a v s o r i g i n a t e d from the a n c i e n t I l l y r i a n s and t h e r e f o r e , he d e s i r e d t o u n i t e not o n l y t h o s e South S l a v i c n a t i o n s l i v i n g under the Habsburg Monarchy, but a l s o t h o s e under Turkey i n the semi-independent S e r b i a n s t a t e . I n t h i s r e s p e c t he expanded f u r t h e r on D r a s k o v i c ' s concepts f o r the c r e a t i o n of G r e a t e r I l l y r i a as i t was e x p r e s s e d i n h i s ( D r a s k o v i c ' s ) " D i s s e r t a t i o n " . What i s more i m p o r t a n t , Gaj a l s o wanted t o r e p l a c e t h e L a t i n a l p h a b e t used i n C r o a t i a w i t h the C y r i l l i c one used i n S e r b i a . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n 1837, he went t o V i e n n a t o get p e r m i s s i o n from S e d l n i t z k y t o pub-l i s h "The I l l y r i a n News", or r a t h e r every second column, i n the C y r i l l i c a l p h a b e t . W h i l e S e d l n i t z k y was not d e f i n i t e l y - 1 4 0 -a g a i n s t t h i s p r o p o s a l , he t o l d Gaj t h a t " i t would he more a d v i s a b l e t o postpone t h i s change u n t i l sometime i n the 47 f u t u r e " . ' A l t h o u g h t h i s attempt had been o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y p ostponed, i t was never a g a i n s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d because of i t s s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n from the Movement's l e a d e r s h i p . I n the absence o f s u f f i c i e n t h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o det e r m i n e Gaj's p o l i t i c a l concepts f o r the u n i t y o f the South S l a v s . We do not know whether he v i s u a l -i z e d s uch a u n i o n as a c o m p l e t e l y independent s t a t e , or j u s t as a component p a r t o f the Habsburg Monarchy, based and o r g a n i z e d on the p r i n c i p l e s of f e d e r a l i s m . The l a t t e r case seems t o be more p l a u s i b l e s i n c e t h e r e was no h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n f o r a South S l a v i c g overnmental u n i o n , and the Monarchy was s t i l l p o w e r f u l enough t o prevent C r o a t i a , S l o v e n i a and V o j -v o d i n a from becoming p a r t of another s t a t e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , t he Magyars would never be w i l l i n g t o p a r t w i t h the r e g i o n s w h i c h they c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r s and which they planned t o m a g y a r i z e . T h e r e f o r e , i t seems more l i k e l y t h a t Gaj pl a n n e d t o u n i t e t h e s e n a t i o n s w i t h i n the Monarchy, but i n a way which would g u a r a n t e e the S o u t h S l a v s u n l i m i t e d and u n i n t e r r u p t e d c u l t u r a l development and a r e a s o n a b l e amount of p o l i t i c a l autonomy. Gaj's i d e a s f o r the South S l a v i c p o l i t i c a l and l a t e r , c u l t u r a l u n i o n , p l a y e d a v e r y i n s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the Croat n a t i o n a l movement. Apart from the f a c t t h a t they r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t attempt t o c r e a t e the South S l a v i c s t a t e which o n l y -141-came into being i n 1918, after the f a l l of the Habsburg Monarchy, they had no impact on the development of Croat nationalism in the fi r s t , half of the nineteenth century. The I l l y r i a n Movement became limited to Croatia only, and had no comparable effect on any other nation in present day Yugoslavia. Most of the Illyrians in Slovenia, including Stanko 48 Vraz, were even opposed to the name, " I l l y r i a " , as well as the Stokavian dialect. Therefore, the moment Gaj began to publish his paper i n this dialect the original enthusiasm of the Slovenes began to ebb very rapidly. The language of the Croat Illyrians was no longer as close to the language of the Slovenes, as i t was during the period of the Kajkavianism. This event, coupled with the appearance of the well known Slovene poet, Francis Presern - who, being a follower of Kopitar, advocated the development of the Slovene national literature apart from any other - caused Illyrism to f a l l from favour in the Slovene regions. In the case of the Serbs, the I l l y r i a n Movement experienced a similar failure. Its loss of favour among the Serbs was caused by the rapid development of the Serbian national move-ment which succeeded i n unifying a l l the Serbs under the dyn-asty of Obrenovics and later Karadjordjevics. In addition to this, the Serbian national awakeners, Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic and Dositej Obradovic (somewhat earlier), reformed the Serbian orthography and created a new literary language several decades - 1 4 2 -b e f o r e the Croats d i d . The movement g r a d u a l l y s p r e a d among the Serbs i n V o j v o d i n a whom Gaj hoped t o i n c l u d e i n t o the L q I l l y r i a n Movement. "The f e e l i n g of S e r b i a n i s m " 7 d i c t a t e d t h a t the V o j v o d i n i a n s f o l l o w the movement o r g a n i z e d by t h e i r countrymen i n the young S e r b i a n s t a t e . By the time I l l y r i s m emerged as a s t r o n g movement, the Serbs had t h e i r own news-paper, L e t o p i s M a t i c e Srpske (The Annals o f the S e r b i a n N a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n ) , which had been founded i n 1826 and was p u b l i s h e d by the M a t i c a S r p s k a ( S e r b i a n N a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n ) i n N o v i Sad. Thus by I836, when "The Croat News" began t o be p u b l i s h e d , "... t h e f o r m a t i o n of n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s 50 among the Serbs had been completed". y I n g e n e r a l , the Serb-i a n n a t i o n a l movement operated, under much more f a v o u r a b l e con-d i t i o n s t h a n the I l l y r i a n Movement i n C r o a t i a , which had a dangerous enemy i n th e Magyar n a t i o n a l movement. One o f the reasons which l e d Gaj and s e v e r a l of h i s c l o s e c o l l e a g u e s t o approach t h e Serbs and i n v i t e t h e i r co-o p e r a t i o n was the f a c t t h a t the Serbs had a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d a p r o m i s i n g l i t e r a r y movement which c o u l d s e r v e as a f o o t h o l d f o r the development of the South S l a v i c l i t e r a t u r e i n g e n e r a l . On the o t h e r hand, the Serbs found i t i m p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y w i t h the name " I l l y r i a " w h ich s t o o d as a common denominator f o r t he c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l u n i t y o f the South S l a v s . They were much t o o p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e i r c o u n t r y from the T u r k i s h yoke; no o t h e r p o l i t i c a l i s s u e c o u l d f i n d a s u b s t a n t i a l f o l l o w i n g , e s p e c i a l l y not under the somewhat - 1 4 3 -d i s t a n t nameeof " I l l y r i a " . W h i l e they approved and, t o an e x t e n t , were p r e p a r e d t o su p p o r t the Croat cause, they d e n i e d the e x i s t a n c e o f the I l l y r i a n language as the language o f 51 S e r b i a . ' F u r t h e r m o r e , some prominent S e r b i a n w r i t e r s of t h i s p e r i o d d i s l i k e d C r o a t i a ' s L a t i n a l p h a b e t because they f e l t i t was f o r e i g n t o the S l a v s and u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i r l a n g u a g e s . W h i l e the I l l y r i a n s were f o r the e q u a l i t y o f b o t h the C y r i l l i c and L a t i n a l p h a b e t s , the f i r s t b e i n g our a n c i e n t h e r i t a g e and the second the European one and t h e r e f o r e ours as w e l l , S e r b i a n enemies of I l l y r i s m c o n s i d e r e d the L a t i n a l p h a b e t t o be a f o r e i g n o r t h o -graphy and u n a b l e , b e s i d e s , t o c o r r e c t l y r e c o r d the sounds o f our language. 52 The r e s u l t was t h a t I l l y r i s m as a movement became r e s t r i c t e d t o C r o a t i a and o n l y here found i t s main f o l l o w i n g , caused the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e o f the n a t i o n and deve l o p e d i n t o a s t r o n g n a t i o n a l i s t movement. Even the Croats of D a l m a t i a and B o s n i a remained o u t s i d e i t s i n f l u e n c e .- i f we e x c l u d e the i s o l a t e d attempts o f s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s who were s e n d i n g t h e i r a r t i c l e s and poems t o the ' ? I l l y r i a n Morn-i n g S t a r " . D a l m a t i a d i f f e r e d from C r o a t i a p r o p e r because i t l a c k e d n a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s who would be i n t e r e s t e d i n the de-velopment of t h e i r n a t i v e language and l i t e r a t u r e , and l a c k e d a s t r o n g and n a t i o n a l i s t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d n a t i v e n o b i l i t y . F o l l o w -i n g t he p e r i o d of F r e n c h r u l e , and even b e f o r e , D a l m a t i a ' s 53 f e u d a l system was v e r y weak. ' J We f i n d almost e x a c t l y the same case i n B o s n i a w h i c h s u f f e r e d under the T u r k i s h s u z e r a i n t y . - 1 4 4 -The o n l y people who wanted t o see the development of the I l l y r i a n Movement i n B o s n i a were the monks l i v i n g i n monas-t e r i e s i s o l a t e d from the main c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s o f the n a t i o n . I t f o l l o w e d t h a t I l l y r i s m became the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c movement of t h o s e Croat r e g i o n s w h i c h were i n c l u d e d de f a c t o i n t o the l a n d s o f the Crown of S t . Stephen and w h i c h f o u g h t M a g y a r i z a t i o n . I t p r o v i d e d the Croats o f C r o a t i a p r o p e r and S l a v o n i a w i t h an e f -f e c t i v e means o f r e j e c t i n g c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n by Hungary and, a f t e r 1843 , of f o r m i n g a n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t y which aimed t o p r e s e r v e the p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s quo o f the c o u n t r y w i t h i n the Monarchy. Hence the I l l y r i a n s were r i g h t t o see t h a t the d e v e l -opment of the Croat language was a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a s u c c e s s -f u l s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n and f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . E v e r y i s s u e o f the "Morning S t a r " c o n s t a n t l y c a r r i e d t h e motto, "NationaWithout N a t i o n a l i t y i s a Body Without Bones" (Narod bez n a r o d n o s t i j e t i j e l o bez k o s t i ) , t o remind the Croats o f the Movement's main purpose. Up t o 1838 , t h e I l l y r i a n Movement i n c l u d e d and s p r e a d among the male p o p u l a t i o n . o f C r o a t i a o n l y . Croat noblewomen c o n t i n u e d t o speak th e language of the day, German, and t o o k no major i n t e r e s t i n the n a t i o n a l s t r i d e s o f t h e i r husbands. One of the f i r s t I l l y r i a n s who r e a l i z e d a p o w e r f u l , p o t e n t i a l n a t i o n a l f o r c e by b r i n g i n g the Croat women i n t o the I l l y r i a n c i r c l e was, a g a i n , Janko D r a s k o v i c . W i t h t h i s purpose i n mind, he p u b l i s h e d i n 1838 h i s w e l l known b o o k l e t , E i n Wort  an I l l y r i e n s h o c h h e r z i g e T o c h t e r , which was a d d r e s s e d t o the - 1 4 5 -Croat noblewomen because " o n l y w i t h the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Croat ( I l l y r i a n ) women c o u l d a major n a t i o n a l work be 54 a c h i e v e d " . y He urged the Croat women t o l e a r n h i s t o r y and t o t a k e i n t e r e s t i n the contemporary a f f a i r s of t h e i r c o u n t r y . He p r a i s e d t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y and a s s i g n e d them a d e c i s i v e r o l e i n the n a t i o n a l movement. H i s a p p e a l t o the Croat noblewomen d i d not re m a i n unanswered. W i t h i n a r e l a -t i v e l y s h o r t time they abandoned the German language and adopted the Croat one whi c h they taught t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n as w e l l . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , i n many cases where husbands i n -tended t o p a s s i v e l y observe the development o f I l l y r i s m t h e i r wives i n f l u e n c e d and p r e s s e d them t o t a k e a c t i v e r o l e s and t o s u p p o r t the I l l y r i a n i d e a s . F o l l o w i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s b o o k l e t , the Croat women were o v e r t a k e n by the magic power o f n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; t h o s e who were a l r e a d y h a l f germanized began t o l e a r n and speak C r o a t , adopted the f o l k c o s -tumes, s t a r t e d t o r e a d Croat j o u r n a l s and books, sang the Croat songs p u b l i c l y and at home, c o r r e s -ponded i n C r o a t , and some even attempted t o e n r i c h the Croat l i t e r a t u r e . 55 D r a s k o v i c ' s E i n Wort was not o n l y i n t e n d e d t o be r e a d by the Croat women, but a l s o t o e x p l a i n the I l l y r i a n Movement t o the Germans abroad and at home. He p o i n t e d out t o h i s German r e a d e r t h a t I l l y r i s m wanted t o c r e a t e one l i t e r a r y language f o r a l l the South S l a v s , j u s t as the Germans l i v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s had one l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , i n o t h e r words, one l i t e r a r y language. U n l i k e h i s " D i s s e r t a t i o n " , - 1 4 6 -Draskovic did not intend to express in this booklet his p o l i t i c a l concepts of Greater I l l y r i a which would naturally be accepted unfavourably by the Germans. He aimed rather to V w follow closely Safarik's and Kollar's concepts of Pan-Slavism, and to compare them with Illyrism as the Croat version of the Slavic cultural unity. Following the Czech national pattern, he proposed the formation of various Croat national associa-tions which would undertake the task of spreading national literary works among the people. -It is known that as early as 1829, Gaj had related to Jan Kollar his plans for organizing I l l y r i a n national societies which,could act as strongholds of national cultural'unity. Again, i n 1836, he published several articles in the "Morning Star" pointing out the necessity for the formation of such societies. However, i t was not until 1838 that the Croats established their f i r s t organization set up according to the pattern recommended by Gaj. In that year, the Illyrians of Varazdin established the f i r s t Croat reading room-*under the name, P r i j a t e l j i nasega narodnoga slovstva (The Friends of Our National Lettership). The example of Varazdin was followed by Karlovac which, by the spring of the same year, had founded it s reading room, Ilirsko citanja drustvo (The' I l l y r i a n Read-ing Society), under the leadership of Karlo Klobucaric, Antun Vakanovic and Ambroz Vranjican. Finally, in August 1 8 3 8 , Janko Draskovic, magistrate Josip Stajdaher and Vjekoslav Babukic established i n Zagreb, Ilirska citaonica (The I l l y r i a n Reading Room) which soon became the centre, or the headquarters, - 1 4 7 -o f a l l the o t h e r r e a d i n g rooms w h i c h were o r g a n i z e d i n a l l the l a r g e r towns of the c o u n t r y . These r e a d i n g rooms not o n l y p r o v i d e d the Croats w i t h an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r s p r e a d i n g n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e and l i t e r a t u r e , but a l s o w i t h new i d e a s f o r s o c i a l and economic p r o g r e s s . I n t h i s c e n t r a l l y o r g a n i z e d net o f r e a d i n g rooms, the members of the Croat m i d d l e c l a s s , tradesmen, merchants, s m a l l a r t i s a n s and o t h e r s , d i s c u s s e d p l a n s f o r the economic development o f the c o u n t r y and f o r th e improvement of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l . As soon as I 8 3 8 (1 O c t o b e r ) , d u r i n g the f i r s t meeting of the e x e c u t i v e committee, p l a n s f o r i n d u s t r i a l development were d i s c u s s e d and " r e a l i z i n g our i n d u s t r i a l underdevelopment, they spoke o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f b u i l d i n g a paper f a c t o r y , t e x t i l e p l a n t , and l e a t h e r f a c t o r y and of d e v e l o p i n g a g r i c u l t u r e and the wine t r a d e . " J ( T h i s event i n d i c a t e d t h a t the r e a d i n g rooms i n c l u d e d not o n l y the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s , but a l s o the b o u r g e o i s i e which had emerged as a p o w e r f u l , s o c i a l f a c t o r i n the Croat t r a d i n g c e n t r e s s u c h as K a r l o v a c , V a r a z d i n , Zagreb, and K r i z e v c i . T h i s r e i n f o r c e m e n t from t h e m i d d l e c l a s s e s h e l p e d broaden the b a s i s of the I l l y r i a n Movement and promised a more s u c c e s s f u l s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n . The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the r e a d i n g rooms was t h a t t h e i r members, i n o r d e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s , ' h a d t o l i v e i n the near v i c i n i t y of t h e i r l o c a t i o n . T h i s problem was r e a l i z e d by the l e a d e r s h i p of Zagreb's " I l l y r i a n Reading - m a -Room" and, at the meeting of i t s e x e c u t i v e committee h e l d on 7 March 1839, i t s p r e s i d e n t , Janko D r a s k o v i c , proposed t h a t a new a s s o c i a t i o n be s e t up, s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t u r e t o the Czech N a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n because "the Reading Room was t o o narrow 58 t o a c c o m p l i s h a l l the c u l t u r a l t a s k s " . H i s was the f i r s t v o i c e t o speak out f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the M a t i c a I l i r s k a (The I l l y r i a n N a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n ) w h i c h , however, d i d not come i n t o b e i n g u n t i l 1842 because o f the l o n g p e r i o d spent w a i t i n g f o r the n e c e s s a r y p e r m i s s i o n from V i e n n a . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , the work o f the members o f the "Readi Room" was o c c u p i e d by and c o n c e n t r a t e d on the development of the Croat , t h e a t r e , o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l museum and p l a n s f o r a n a t i o n a l i n s u r a n c e a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h would be a b l e t o r e n d e r f i n a n c i a l s e r v i c e s t o t h o s e w i s h i n g t o e n t e r i n t o 59 b u s i n e s s . J / However, t h e i r main work towards the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e of the n a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t e d on the development o f the Croat t h e a t r e , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r Gaj and Demeter had been e l e c t e d t o the e x e c u t i v e committee i n June 1839. D u r i n g the e a r l y 1820's, the Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s began t o f o r c e a way f o r the Croat language i n t o the German t h e a t r e i n Zagreb by s u c c e e d i n g t o put on o c c a s i o n a l programmes o f Croat songs and s h o r t humorous d i a l o g u e s . However, i n 1838 a 6 1 p l a n was made f o r the complete t a k e o v e r o f t h i s t h e a t r e . The l e a d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y i n the development of the Croat t h e a t r e was D i m i t r i j e Demeter, the son o f Greek p a r e n t s who had i m m i g r a t e d t o Zagreb. I n 1838, he p u b l i s h e d two drama - 1 4 9 -works, L.iubav i duznost (Love and Duty) and Krvna o s v e t a ( B l o o d - f e u d ) , w h i c h were accompanied by a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t r o -d u c t o r y a r t i c l e w h i c h spoke of the i m p o r t a n c e o f the s t a g e 6 2 i n the development of the Croat language. The s t a g e was, argued Demeter, the b e s t way t o s t a r t the e d u c a t i o n of the p u b l i c and the s u r e s t way towards the a d o p t i o n of the S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t by the masses. As e a r l y as 1 8 A p r i l 1 8 3 8 , the "Morning S t a r " was a b l e t o r e p o r t t h a t the f i r s t c o n c e r t had been h e l d i n the Croat l a n g u a g e . I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a f a v o u r a b l e r e a c t i o n from an audience which was accustomed t o h i g h l y r e g a r d e d German composers, the I l l y r i a n s had t o be e x t r e m e l y c a r e f u l i n c h o o s i n g the programmes. A l t h o u g h music p r o v i d e d the b e s t way towards a g r a d u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the Croat works of drama, i t had t o be on. the same or b e t t e r l e v e l o f performance t h a n i t had been i n the German t h e a t r e . The above mentioned c o n c e r t was r e c e i v e d by the audience i n a more f a v o u r a b l e way than i t s o r g a n i z e r s had e x p e c t e d . On the next day the "Morning S t a r " r e p o r t e d : T h i s f i r s t c o n c e r t of the I l l y r i a n n a t i o n , w h i c h was p r e p a r e d by our n o b l e l a d i e s , was a c c e p t e d by the audience w i t h immeasurable e n t h u s i a s m . . . f o r i t had never h e a r d b e f o r e the sweetness of the n a t i v e language i n h i g h - c l a s s m u s i c . Many were c o n v i n c e d o f the v a l u e o f the pure I l l y r i a n l a nguage, and t h e i r h e a r t s were f i l l e d w i t h new p a t r i o t i c d e s i r e s . ° 3 Encouraged by t h i s s u c c e s s o f the i n i t i a l c o n c e r t , the I l l y r i a n s planned t o p r e s e n t the f i r s t Croat drama on the s t a g e . -150-I n 1838, young I v a n K u k u l j e v i c p u b l i s h e d h i s drama, J u r a n i  S o f i . j a i i i T u r c i kod S i s k a (George and S o f i a or the Turks at S i s h k ) , the c e n t r a l theme coming from Croat h i s t o r y around 1593 when the C r o a t s , Serbs and Slovenes j o i n t l y under the f l a g of Ban Toma Baka.5 d e f e a t e d t h e i r c e n t u r i e s - o l d enemy, Turkey. The m o r a l o f the drama i l l u s t r a t e d the advantages of the I l l y r i a n i d e a l w h i c h was t o u n i t e a l l South S l a v s i n t o one p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l u n i t a b l e t o s u s t a i n enemy a t t a c k s . At the end of the drama, an o l d Serb t o l d the s o l d i e r s : We are a l l t o g e t h e r the c h i l d r e n of one Poor Mother, sad Mother; I n us and i n them b l o o d i s the same, ^ The famous I l l y r i a n name common t o a l l . The p r e s e n t a t i o n of the "George and S o f i a " r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t Croat drama w r i t t e n i n the new l i t e r a r y language and shown on the p u b l i c s t a g e . Once a g a i n the audience r e -a c t e d v e r y f a v o u r a b l y and demanded a d d i t i o n a l performances o f s i m i l a r works. T h i s i n f l u e n c e d the D i r e c t o r of the German t h e a t r e i n Zagreb, B o r n s t e i n , t o approach the l e a d e r s o f the "Reading Room" t h r o u g h an a r t i c l e i n the "Morning S t a r " t o o r g a n i z e a s e r i o u s e f f o r t towards the development o f the Croat drama and t o p r e p a r e as many works f o r the s t a g e as p o s s i b l e . The E x e c u t i v e Board of the "Beiding Room" met on 2k J a n u a r y iQkO and a p p o i n t e d Demeter as the t r e a s u r e r of a campaign which was t o c o l l e c t v o l u n t a r y , f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s f o r the f i r s t Croat t h e a t r i c a l s e a s o n s . I n the absence o f w e l l -151-trained native actors, Demeter concluded a contract i n which the theatre in Novi Sad agreed to send i t s performers for an 65 eight-months stay in various Croat c i t i e s . y In addition to the new works of drama, the program of this theatre season was reinforced by the works of the Croat class-i c a l writers of earlier centuries such as Gundulic, Cubranovic V / v and Drzic whose works were published in the Stokavian dialect. The season ended having had complete success and this i n -spired the native talents to produce more works of the same kind. Croat theatre fans acquired new taste for music and theatre by adapting and learning to appreciate national stage and musical productions. At the same time they gradually and quite unconsciously adopted the Stokavian dialect which soon became the language of educated people and remained as such up to the present day. Thus, by 1840, the main part of the Croat cultural renaissance had been completed. The I l l y r i a n Movement was no longer the movement of a small group of intellectuals, but a national movement composed of the majority of a l l the classes, except for the .peasantry which was largely i l l i t e r a t e and.the petty nobility ( s l j i v a r i ) which, i n the absence of legislative right in the Sabor, began to side with Magyar nationalism. Among the remaining population the Stokavian dialect was accepted as the literary language of the nation and became the language of a l l educated people. By 1840, Croatia was no longer a country whose ruling - 1 5 2 -c l a s s r e f u s e d t o use t h e i r n a t i v e l anguage. C r o a t i a ' s r u l i n g c l a s s was no l o n g e r Germanized; i t a c c e p t e d i t s own language i n a l l a s p e c t s o f i t s l i f e except f o r the meetings o f the Common D i e t and the Sabor where i t used the L a t i n language o n l y as the symbol o f i t s s p e c i a l p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s and r i g h t s i n t he Habsburg Monarchy. However, what i s more i m p o r t a n t , C r o a t i a ' s n o b i l i t y was no l o n g e r p r e p a r e d t o s t r i v e f o r a c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Magyar upper c l a s s f o r i t had become more n a t i o n a l l y c o n s c i o u s and had f i n a l l y l e a r n e d t h a t s u c h c o - o p e r a t i o n was i m p o s s i b l e as l o n g as the Magyars aimed t o m agyarize C r o a t i a and i n c l u d e p a r t s o f i t s t e r r i t o r y i n the H u n g a r i a n s t a t e . By l8H0, the Croats had t h e i r own p r e s s , r e a d i n g rooms, t h e a t r e , l i t e r a t u r e , and o t h e r t o o l s n e c e s s a r y t o the l i f e o f every n a t i o n . Thus, i n s p i t e o f the f a i l u r e of the I l l y r i a n s t o i n c l u d e o t h e r South S l a v i c n a t i o n s i n t h e i r move-ment, I l l y r i s m a c h i e v e d i t s t a s k i n C r o a t i a w i t h i n a v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d of time - e i g h t y e a r s , 1832-18H0. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i t s main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was o f a c u l t u r a l n a t u r e . A f t e r i t s f a i l u r e as a p o l i t i c a l movement among a l l the South S l a v s , i t l i m i t e d i t s a c t i v i t i e s t o c u l t u r a l ones w h i c h emancipated the Croat n a t i o n by g i v i n g i t a u n i f o r m l i t e r a r y language and o r t h o g r a p h y . From 18H0, or r a t h e r 1839, when the Sabor and the Common D i e t met a g a i n t o l e g i s l a t e , the I l l y r i a n Movement r a p i d l y d e v e l o p e d i n t o a p o l i t i c a l movement as w e l l . I n vi e w o f -1 5 3 -the M a g y a rs 1 renewed a t t a c k on the Croat n a t i o n i n 1839/40, I l l y r i s m was f o r c e d t o abandon any r a d i c a l i s m i t may have had b e f o r e and u n i t e i t s f o r c e s b e h i n d the c o n s e r v a t i v e upper c l a s s w h i c h p r o t e c t e d the laws of f e u d a l i s m and sought the a s s i s t a n c e o f the c e n t r a l government i n V i e n n a . Such u n i f i c a t i o n o f p r o g r e s s i v e and c o n s e r v a t i v e elements d i d not move t o the extreme r i g h t of the p o l i t i c a l spectrum u n t i l a f t e r 1843, 67 f o l l o w i n g the p r o h i b i t i o n o f the name " I l l y r i a " . ' However, the symptoms o f t h i s swing showed up d u r i n g the meeting o f the D i e t i n 1839. T h e r e f o r e we w i l l b r e a k o f f our d i s c u s s i o n o f the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e of C r o a t i a and r e t u r n t o i t a f t e r we have a n a l y z e d the new t r e n d s w i t h i n the I l l y r i a n Movement as they were c r e a t e d d u r i n g the meeting o f t h i s D i e t . I t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t a l l f u t u r e events which t o o k p l a c e i n C r o a t i a up t o 1848, whether i n c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , economic or p o l i t i c a l f i e l d s , must be viewed p r i m a r i l y from the p o l i t i c a l p o i n t , o f v i e w , and as the immediate r e a c t i o n s o f the Croats t o each p a r t i c u l a r move made by the Magyars, or t h e i r f o l l o w e r s i n C r o a t i a i t s e l f . I n t o t h i s p o l i t i c a l p i c t u r e , V i e n n a brought a v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e s h a d i n g by f o r c i n g the Croats t o bow t o i t s p o l i c y i f they wanted t o be g i v e n the a s s i s t a n c e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the dangerous Magyar r a d i c a l i s m . - 1 5 4 -The Croat R u l i n g C l a s s at the D i e t o f 1839-40 The meeting of the Common D i e t i n 1839 r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t t e s t of the n a t i o n a l i d e a s h e l d among the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s ; the Croat n o b i l i t y was g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o t e c t the r e s u l t s of the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e brought about by the I l l y r i a n Movement. C o n s i d e r i n g the f a c t t h a t the Magyar n a t i o n a l movement had deve l o p e d i n t o a more p o w e r f u l p o l i t i c a l f o r c e than i t had e v e r been b e f o r e , the t a s k a s s i g n e d t o the Croat n o b i l i t y was e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . The n o b i l i t y ' s de-t e r m i n a t i o n t o c o n t i n u e the s t r u g g l e f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the L a t i n language as the language o f the l e g i s l a t u r e com-p l i c a t e d the p o l i t i c a l i s s u e and weakened i t s arguments a g a i n s t M a g y a r i z a t i o n and f o r the r i g h t s of the Croat language. I n i t s d e s i r e t o s e c u r e the development o f the Croat language the n o b i l i t y never d a r e d t o come up w i t h something new or o r i g i n a l , but always f o l l o w e d the p a t t e r n of Magyar n a t i o n a -l i s m . Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , when the Magyars e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o e s t a b l i s h a Magyar museum, t h e a t r e or a new i n s t i t u t e f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , the Croat n o b i l i t y f o l l o w e d i n t h e i r s t e p s and e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f i n f a v o u r o f s i m i l a r measures t o be t a k e n i n C r o a t i a . The n o b l e s ' m otives f o r s u c h p r o - n a t i o n a l measures o r i g i n a t e d from t h e i r f e a r t h a t s uch c o n c e s s i o n s t o M a g y a r . n a t i o n a l i s m might endanger t h e i r r i g h t t o use the L a t i n language and t h e i r s p e c i a l r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the T r i p l e Kingdom. - 1 5 5 -The p o s i t i o n of the Croat n o b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o the Croat n a t i o n a l movement was made c l e a r from the i n s t r u c t i o n s i s s u e d t o i t s d e l e g a t e s t o the Common D i e t and d r a f t e d at the meeting of the Sabor w h i c h s a t from 21 t o 26 May 1839. The Croat d e l e g a t e s were t o oppose any measure i n t r o d u c e d by the Magyars which would i n v o l v e a change i n the p o s i t i o n of the peasantry.* A l t h o u g h the Croat n o b l e s r e a l i z e d the need f o r the economic development of C r o a t i a and approved of the I l l y r i a n p o l i c y f o r the development of i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e , they were not p r e p a r e d t o s u p p o r t the p r o g r e s s i v e measures f o r the e m a n c i p a t i o n of the s e r f s w h i c h would have e l i m i n a t e d the s c a r c i t y of l a b o u r at the p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s o f C r o a t i a . T h e i r p o l i c y was t o m a i n t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t l a b o u r f o r c e on t h e i r l a n d e d e s t a t e s . The n a t i o n a l i s m o f the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s was a l s o t o o immature t o make the n o b i l i t y r e a l i z e t h a t a d o p t i n g the Croat language i n s t e a d o f L a t i n as the o f f i c i a l language of C r o a t i a would not weaken i t s p o s i t i o n but s t r e n g t h e n i t because I l l y r i s m e njoyed s t r o n g s u p p o r t o u t s i d e the Sabor among the 68 i n t e l l e c t u a l s and members o f the m i d d l e c l a s s . The l e a d e r s o f the I l l y r i a n Movement, who, as a r u l e , d i d not have s e a t s i n the Sabor, remained i s o l a t e d from the events t a k i n g p l a c e i n the Sabor i t s e l f . The m a j o r i t y o f the Sabor f e l t t h a t I l l y r i s m as a c u l t u r a l movement had no p l a c e i n the p o l i t i c a l a r e n a o f . t h e n a t i o n s i n c e the i s s u e s t o be d i s c u s s e d d i d not c o n c e r n the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e and i t s - 1 5 6 -problems of the S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t and l i t e r a t u r e . I t would be m i s l e a d i n g , however, t o b e l i e v e t h a t the n o b i l i t y saw no c o n n e c t i o n between the c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l development o f the n a t i o n . I t s p o s i t i o n was m o t i v a t e d p r i m a r i l y by i t s f e a r t h a t more p o l i t i c a l and economic freedom might endanger i t s c l a s s i n t e r e s t s . However, on the i n i t i a t i v e o f the few a c t i v e I l l y r i a n s i n the Sabor, the m a j o r i t y of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s agreed t h a t a d e l e g a t i o n of n o b l e s be s e n t t o V i e n n a w i t h the purpose of o b t a i n i n g the p e r m i s s i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the I l l y r i a n N a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n . T h i s new f o u n d a t i o n was proposed by the E x e c u t i v e Board of the "Reading Room" because "th e c u l t u r e of e v e r y n a t i o n i s m a n i f e s t e d t h r o u g h the l a n g -uage of i t s homeland...which i s the main f a c t o r i n the d e v e l o p -ment of n a t i o n a l power". ^ T h i s d e c i s i o n was i n d i c a t i v e of the t y p i c a l l y t w o f o l d p o s i t i o n of the Croat n o b i l i t y . I t showed t h a t t h e Croat r u l i n g c l a s s was s t i l l v e r y much i n a dilemma as t o what p o s i t i o n t o t a k e i n o r d e r t o a v o i d new changes i n i t s p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s . W h i l e i t was d e f i n i t e l y opposed t o M a g y a r i z a t i o n , i t was i n f a v o u r of b o t h the L a t i n language as the language of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the Croat language as the language of the n a t i o n . I n r e s p e c t t o the development of the Croat language and as a r e s u l t o f the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e , i t was d e f i n i t e l y i n f a v o u r o f the I l l y r i a n language - the S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t w h i c h " i s comprised o f a l l n a t i o n a l d i a l e c t s and which a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d ' a r a p i d -157-development". ' However c o n s e r v a t i v e i n i t s p o l i t i c a l o u t l o o k , the Croat Sabor remained as the o n l y p o l i t i c a l body w h i c h had the con-s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t t o p r o t e c t C r o a t i a from the Magyar o n s l a u g h t . I t s t o o d on g u ard and d i d a l l i t knew t o p r e s e r v e the p o l i t i c a l autonomy of i t s c o u n t r y . I t f a i l e d t o s u p p o r t some r a d i c a l i d e a s at home because i t had e x p e r i e n c e d i n Pozsony t h a t s u c h r a d i c a l i s m had been d e s i g n e d t o d e s t r o y not o n l y i t s own p o s i t i o n , but a l s o C r o a t i a ' s r i g h t t o i t s autonomy. The Croat Sabor d i d not r e m a i n a l o n e i n t h i s r o l e . A f t e r 1843, i t was r e i n f o r c e d by the e n t i r e I l l y r i a n f o l l o w i n g o u t s i d e the Sabor w h i c h was a l s o f o r c e d by the Magyars t o j o i n the ranks o f extreme c o n s e r v a t i s m , now the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e l e f t i n the s t r u g g l e f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . Hence, i n v i e w of the g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n and the r e l a t i o n s w i t h Hungary, the Croat n o b i l i t y cannot be judged t o o h a r s h l y and l a b e l l e d as a s t r o n g , d e t e r m i n e d , a n t i - n a t i o n a l f o r c e . D u r i n g the meeting of the Sabor t h e r e were a l s o p r o p o s a l s f o r an e x t e n s i v e s t u d y o f the Croat language i n a l l Croat s c h o o l s w h i c h c o u l d be conducted from the c e n t r a l c h a i r of. 71 the "people's language" ' at the Academy o f Zagreb. However, s i n c e o n l y two of the Croat c o u n t i e s , Zagreb and V a r a z d i n , e x p r e s s e d themselves i n f a v o u r of t h i s p r o p o s a l , the i s s u e was o m i t t e d from the agenda of the S abor. The Croat p r e s s was u n a b l e t o r e n d e r any a s s i s t a n c e t o the o r i g i n a t o r s o f t h i s i d e a because i t was p r e v e n t e d by c e n s o r s h i p t o p u b l i s h any - 1 5 8 -r e p o r t on the p r o c e e d i n g s of the Sabor. I t s p o l i t i c a l news, as we a l r e a d y know, had t o be c o p i e d from the German news-papers and s i n c e they d i d not p u b l i s h a n y t h i n g c o n c e r n i n g the meeting of the Sabor, the " I l l y r i a n News" was kept u n i n f o r m e d and i s o l a t e d from the events t a k i n g p l a c e i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . The meeting of the D i e t at Pozsony was opened by Emp-e r o r F e r d i n a n d h i m s e l f on 6 June 1839. I n the Speech from the Throne, w h i c h was d e l i v e r e d i n the Magyar language, J o s e p h Kopacsy demanded from F e r d i n a n d the immediate r e l e a s e o f the Magyar r a d i c a l s , B a ron Wesseleny and L o u i s K o s s u t h , who had been i m p r i s o n e d by the A u s t r i a n a u t h o r i t i e s f o r t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t the government of 72 V i e n n a . ' The f a c t t h a t France was p r e p a r i n g i t s e l f f o r a new war over the E a s t e r n Q u e s t i o n f o r c e d M e t t e r n i c h t o meet the Magyar demands and r e l e a s e t h e s e p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s . Encouraged by t h i s s u c c e s s , the Magyars e x e r t e d a new p r e s s u r e on the Croat d e l e g a t e s t o submit t o the terms f o r the M a g y a r i z a t i o n of C r o a t i a . A g a i n they demanded t h a t the Magyar language had t o be a c c e p t e d as the o f f i c i a l language 75 of C r o a t i a . , J T h i s time the M a g y a r i z a t i o n p o l i c y i n c l u d e d i n i t s sphere of i n f l u e n c e the M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r as w e l l , where the language of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was German. I n h i s r e p l y t o the Magyar demands the Croat d e l e g a t e , Herman Buzan s a i d : • Under no c i r c u m s t a n c e s do the Croats want t o prevent the development of the Magyar language and-they them--1 59-s e l v e s w i s h t o l e a r n i t . However, as f a r as the L a t i n language i s c o n cerned, i t cannot be d e n i e d t h a t t h i s i s t h e language which has t o r e m a i n i n usage because a l l the laws and documents speak f o r i t . I n t h e i r demands f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h i s l a n g u a g e , the Croat n o b i l i t y and c l e r g y are not m o t i v a t e d by t h e i r l o v e f o r i t , but by t h e i r r i g h t t o choose f r e e l y C r o a t i a ' s o f f i c i a l l anguage. There-f o r e , i f ' t h e y f i n d i t advantageous t o change t h e i r o f f i c i a l language they w i l l do so by r e p l a c i n g L a t i n w i t h the language of t h e i r n a t i p n . . . b e c a u s e t h o s e C r o a t s , who p l a n t o o b t a i n employment w i t h the s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w i l l l e a r n Magyar i n any case and because e x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t f o r c e r e s u l t s i n t h e o p p o s i t e consequences t o t h o s e i n t e n d e d , I a d v i s e you t o r e f r a i n from the use of f o r c e and l e a v e the l e a r n i n g of the Magyar language t o the Croats on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . 7*+ The o p i n i o n e x p r e s s e d by Buzan was a l s o the o p i n i o n o f the Croat Sabor. T h i s was the f i r s t time t h a t the Croat n o b i l i t y p u b l i c l y d e c l a r e d t h a t i f a replacement of the o f f i c i a l language i n C r o a t i a had t o t a k e p l a c e , i t would be made i n f a v o u r of the C r o a t , not the Magyar language. I t meant t h a t the Croat language, under the impact of the I l l y r i a n c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e , had e x p e r i e n c e d s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o g r e s s and undergone s u f f i c i e n t development t o be c o n s i d e r e d as a p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o the L a t i n l anguage. Buzan a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t use o f f o r c e d u r i n g the f o r m e r meetings of the D i e t had r e s u l t e d ' i n the " o p p o s i t e 75 consequences t o t h o s e i n t e n d e d " , y by the Magyars. The i d e a u n d e r l i n e d i n t h i s statement r e v e a l e d t h a t one o f the main f a c t o r s w h i c h e n a b l e d the I l l y r i a n Movement t o s p r e a d among the Croat n a t i o n was the r e a c t i o n t o the a g g r e s s i v e n e s s o f the Magyar p o l i c y toward C r o a t i a . I t showed t h a t the Croat - 1 6 0 -r u l i n g c l a s s counted on the a s s i s t a n c e o f the I l l y r i a n Move-ment i n t h i s case o f need as the l a s t r e s o u r c e i n the s t r u g g l e f o r Croat autonomy and the n a t i o n ' s c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . On the i n i t i a t i v e of F r a n c i s Deak, the l e a d e r of the O p p o s i t i o n w h i c h d e n i e d the Croats t h e r i g h t t o be c o n s i d e r e d as a s e p a r a t e n a t i o n , the D i e t r e j e c t e d the Croat argument 76 and passed a r e s o l u t i o n g i v i n g the Croats t e n y e a r s t o l e a r n the Magyar language. Once a g a i n the o n l y hope l e f t t o the Croats was the c e n t r a l government i n V i e n n a w h i c h , they e x p e c t e d , would v e t o t h i s d e c i s i o n . Every Croat county h e l d s p e c i a l s e s s i o n s o f i t s assembly and o r g a n i z e d p e t i t i o n s a s k i n g t h a t t h e Emperor r e f u s e h i s r o y a l assent t o a l l d e c i s i o n s o f the D i e t w h i c h were d e s i g n e d t o d i m i n i s h the n a t i o n a l i t y and the m u n i c i p a l r i g h t s o f the kingdoms of D a l m a t i a , C r o a t i a and S l a v o n i a . Among t h e s e the Croat c o u n t i e s i n c l u d e d the d e c i s i o n of the D i e t w h i c h gave the 7 7 p e a s a n t r y the r i g h t t o buy i t s freedom from the l a n d l o r d s . The Emperor d e c i d e d t o v e t o the former d e c i s i o n o f the D i e t and s a n c t i o n the l a t t e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p o s i t i o n o f the Croat peasant d i d not improve. I n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t t h e new l a w s p e c i f i e d the peasant's r i g h t t o buy h i s freedom and t o become the owner of h i s l a n d , the Croat peasant r e -mained t i e d t o h i s f e u d a l master because the enforcement of the new law was l e f t t o the d i s c r e t i o n o f the n o b l e s who d i d a l l i n t h e i r power t o sabotage i t by m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the r e f u s a l t o acknowledge i t s e x i s t e n c e . - 1 6 1 -Other proposals made by the Magyars directly concerning Croatia did not reach the Emperor for the Croat delegates i n the House of Magnates, which was far more conservative than the lower chamber, were able to block their passage. Thus, for instance, the Protestants in Croatia remained second-rate citizens without citizens' rights, Slavonia remained a com-ponent part of the Triple Kingdom as well as Rijeka, and Dalmatia remained as a Croat speaking region under the admin-istration of Vienna, but belonging historically to Croatia, not Hungary. The Croat Sabor met on 10 August 1840 to discuss the re-port of the Croat delegates to Pozsony, and to make further plans for the struggle against Magyarization. It established two special commissions which were to study Croat historical documents and other material which could provide the Croat delegates to future Diets with sufficient evidence to prove to the Magyars the validity of the Croat arguments that Slavonia and Dalmatia had always belonged to Croatia. Thus, the Croats hoped to take the questions of Slavonia and Dalmatia from the agenda of the Common Diet forever. On the basis of the reports from these two commissions, the Croats hoped to be able to compel the Magyars to recognize the validity of the Croat "municipal laws" not only in Croatia proper, but also in Dalmatia and Slavonia where, according to the Magyars, the Croat delegates to the Common Diet should 78 not oppose the policy of Magyarization. - 1 6 2 -I n a d d i t i o n t o the above p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s , the Sabor, c o n c e n t r a t i n g i t s a t t e n t i o n on the c u l t u r a l development of the n a t i o n , a l s o d e a l t w i t h some c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n s . C o n s i d -e r i n g the f a c t t h a t the Croat Sabor had never b e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d i t i m p o r t a n t t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the development of the Croat l a n g u a g e , i t was obvious t h a t t h i s d e c i s i o n was made as a r e s u l t of the growing p o p u l a r i t y of the I l l y r i a n Movement and i t s i d e a s among the members o f the Sabor. The Sabor's d e c i s i o n t o send a p r o p o s a l t o the Emperor f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s p e c i a l c h a i r s o f the Croat language ( t h e S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t ) i n a l l Croat gymnasiums and the Academy r e p r e s e n t e d i t s f i r s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the g e n e r a l 7 9 development of the n a t i o n ' s language. f / I n the t e x t of the p r o p o s a l the Sabor i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t s i n t e n t i o n i n r e a c h i n g t h i s d e c i s i o n was t o h e l p d e v e l o p and s p r e a d the use o f the peop l e ' s language. F u r t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s d e c i s i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Croat n o b i l i t y was m o t i v a t e d by the s u c c e s s e s o f the Magyar n a t i o n a l movement: Encouraged by the examples o f o t h e r n a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the Magyar one, we c o n s i d e r t h a t i t i s a l s o our duty t o s u p p o r t the development of our language because i t n. , c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y of our n a t i o n a l i t y ; From t h i s statement i t i s c l e a r t h a t the Sabor had begun t o r e a l i z e i t s duty and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards the n a t i o n as a whole and not o n l y towards the upper c l a s s . W h i l e not a v / s i n g l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ( e x c l u d i n g Janko D r a s k o v i c and h i s s m a l l - 1 6 3 -group of p a t r i o t i c n o b l e s ) had s u p p o r t e d t h i s p r o p o s a l i n 1832 and 1836, and o n l y two c o u n t i e s had done so i n 1839, by 1840 a l l the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o the Sabor had come t o r e a l i z e i t s n e c e s s i t y . I t f o l l o w s t h a t n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t and the p r i n c i p l e s o f n a t i o n a l i s m i n g e n e r a l must have dev-e l o p e d i n C r o a t i a v e r y , v e r y r a p i d l y i n the span of e i g h t s h o r t y e a r s . I n f l u e n c e d by the example of the Magyars, who had s u g g e s t e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the Magyar n a t i o n a l t h e a t r e at the l a s t m eeting of the D i e t , the Sabor a l s o v o t e d f o r a u t h o r i z i n g a s p e c i a l f u n d f o r the Croat t h e a t r e and many even, i m m e d i a t e l y O p gave t h e i r v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h i s f u n d . The work of D i m i t r i j e Demeter l e d the n o b les t o b e l i e v e t h a t the Croat t h e a t r e c o u l d s e r v e as an e f f e c t i v e t o o l i n the development of n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e . The Sabor, t h e r e f o r e , a p p o i n t e d an a d d i t i o n a l commission under the c h a i r m a n s h i p o f Janko Dras-k o v i c w h i c h was t o s u p e r v i s e the a l l o c a t i o n o f the money from the f u n d , examine the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the c o n s t r u c t i n g o f a t h e a t r e and r e p o r t i t s f i n d i n g s t o the Sabor. -5 The atmosphere p r e v a i l i n g i n the Sabor encouraged the l e a d e r s o f the I l l y r i a n Movement t o t a k e a d d i t i o n a l s t e p s t o -ward f u r t h e r d e v e l o p i n g the c u l t u r a l r e b i r t h o f the C r o a t s . On 25 March l84l, they e s t a b l i s h e d the " S o c i e t y f o r the Develop-ment of A g r i c u l t u r e i n C r o a t i a " w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t l y became known as the Gospodarsko D r u s t v o (The Economy S o c i e t y ) and was formed t o educate the Croat peasant as w e l l as t o t e a c h - 1 6 4 -him modern a g r i c u l t u r a l methods. F i n a l l y , at t h e meeting of the l e a d e r s o f the "Reading Room" on 10 F e b r u a r y 1 8 4 2 , i t was d e c i d e d t o e s t a b l i s h the M a t i c a I l i r s k a (The I l l y r i a n N a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n ) whose purpose and t a s k , a c c o r d i n g t o i t s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t , Janko D r a s k o v i c , was : The main purpose o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t o h e l p the growth and s p r e a d of s c i e n c e and l i t e r a t u r e i n the language o f our people and t o g i v e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o our y o u t h t o educate i t s e l f i n the n a t i o n a l s p i r i t . . . . I n t h i s way, we can a c h i e v e r e c o g n i t i o n i n the l i t e r a r y w o r l d and, at .the same t i m e , h e l p and encourage n a t i v e w r i t e r s t o produce works of b e t t e r l i t e r a r y v a l u e . °5 The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the M a t i c a I l i r s k a was approved by the m a j o r i t y of the members of the Croat upper c l a s s as w e l l , who o f f e r e d t h e i r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s work. They were even p r e p a r e d t o h e l p f i n a n c i a l l y i f t h e i r h e l p was needed. T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d an a d d i t i o n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n t h a t t h e I l l y r i a n i d e a s had begun t o t a k e r o o t s among the members o f the Croat r u l i n g c l a s s . I t o n l y remained t o p r e s e r v e the r e s u l t s o f the I l l y r i a n Movement and enable the u n i n t e r r u p t e d development of the Croat n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e , and w i t h i t , Croat n a t i o n a l i s m . I n v i e w o f the renewed danger from the Magyar n a t i o n a l movement, the I l l y r i a n Movement c o u l d be p r o t e c t e d o n l y by o r g a n i z i n g a d e f e n c e along p o l i t i c a l l i n e s . The Magyar n a t i o n a l move-ment had changed i t s s t r a t e g y by b e g i n n i n g t o r e c r u i t a n t i -I l l y r i a n elements i n C r o a t i a i t s e l f and f o r m i n g a pro-Magyar - 1 6 5 -p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . T h i s new aspect of M a g y a r i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d a f a r g r e a t e r danger s i n c e i t was a t t e m p t i n g t o d e s t r o y Croat n a t i o n a l i s m from i n s i d e by i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h Croat i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s . The Croats were f o r c e d t o form t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r newly a c h i e v e d c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e and d e f e a t t h e i r opponents i n the p o l i t i c a l f i e l d at home. Thus, by the b e g i n n i n g o f 1841 the Croat n a t i o n a l scene assumed an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r . The movement f o r the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e of the Croats r e p r e s e n t e d no l o n g e r the main i s s u e of the day. I t was now the s t r u g g l e between the two p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s w hich o c c u p i e d the most the minds of t h e Croat p a t r i o t i c l e a d e r s . Having a c c o m p l i s h e d i t s t a s k i n t h e c u l t u r a l f i e l d , the I l l y r i a n Movement was a s s i g n e d a new t a s k ; t o p r e v e n t the pro-Magyar p o l i t i c a l p a r t y from o b t a i n i n g c o n t r o l over the Croat p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , the Sabor and c o u n t i e s ' a s s e m b l i e s . The I l l y r i a n P a r t y Versus the Croat-Magyar P a r t y Up t o 1841 the e x i s t e n c e o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s w i t h min-u t e l y d e s i g n e d p o l i t i c a l p l a t f o r m s was unknown t o the Croat p o l i t i c a l l i f e . W i t h the i n c l u s i o n of the Croat n o b i l i t y i n t o t h e movement f o r the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e t h e r e were no s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l groups w h i c h c o u l d oppose the I l l y r i a n Movement. Enemies of I l l y r i s m among the Croat upper c l a s s e s and i n t e l l i -g e n t s i a found themselves i n the m i n o r i t y and found i t dangerous - 1 6 6 -t o advocate p u b l i c l y any pro-Magyar p o l i c y . I t i s obvious t h a t i f an a n t i - C r o a t movement was t o be o r g a n i z e d i n C r o a t i a i t would be done w i t h the h e l p o f the Magyars who saw the I l l y r i a n Movement as the main o b s t a c l e i n the way o f the Mag-y a r i z a t i o n of C r o a t i a . Magyar p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s were formed d u r i n g the l a s t meeting of the D i e t i n 1839AO. ^ Here, p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s c r y s t a l l i z e d out of the chaos c r e a t e d among the Magyar n o b i l i t y by the main c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s o f the day - the p o s i t i o n t o be t a k e n towards V i e n n a and i t s c e n t r a l i s m , the e m a n c i p a t i o n of p e a s a n t r y and o t h e r s o c i a l r e f o r m s , and the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l Orp s t a t u s o f the Kingdom of C r o a t i a . ' I n the upper chamber of the D i e t a s m a l l group of the h i g h e r nobles formed a p r o -A u s t r i a n c o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y w h i c h f a v o u r e d the o l d c o n s t i t u -o o t i o n a l system and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . I t s u p p o r t e d the development of the Magyar language, but was w i l l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e the v a l i d i t y of the Croat argument f o r the r i g h t o f C r o a t i a t o i t s s p e c i a l s t a t u s i n the Monarchy. The o t h e r two p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , l i b e r a l l y i n c l i n e d r e f o r m i s t s l e d by F r a n c i s Deak and r a d i c a l s l e d by L o u i s K o s s u t h , advocated t o t a l and complete M a g y a r i z a t i o n of C r o a t i a and the i n c o r -p o r a t i o n of the Croat r e g i o n s i n t o Hungary as i t s o r d i n a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s . I t was the work of t h e s e two groups w h i c h a n t a g o n i z e d the Croat n o b i l i t y at the meetings o f the Common D i e t and w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t l y drove them i n t o the ranks of the I l l y r i a n Movement. The r e s u l t was t h a t the I l l y r i a n - 1 6 7 -Movement became a s t r o n g n a t i o n a l movement and t h a t the Magyars l o s t a s i g n i f i c a n t a l l y w hich had wanted t o c r e a t e a c l o s e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l u n i o n w i t h Hungary. I t became c l e a r t h a t i f the M a g y a r i z a t i o n of C r o a t i a was t o s u c c e e d , the I l l y r i a n Movement had t o be d e s t r o y e d by f o r m i n g the Croat Magyar -o p h i l s i n t o a w e l l o r g a n i z e d p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . The main t a s k o f s u c h a p a r t y would be " t o d e f e a t and i f p o s s i b l e t o e l i m i n a t e 89 I l l y r i s m " y i n C r o a t i a . D u r i n g the meeting of the D i e t i n 1839/40, the Magyars had a l r e a d y been a b l e t o persuade s e v e r a l members o f the Croat upper n o b i l i t y t o r e j e c t I l l y r i s m as an a n t i - C r o a t movement w h i c h aimed t o f o r c e upon C r o a t i a the S e r b i a n S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t and t o g i v e the c o u n t r y a new name, " I l l y r i a " , by r e p l a c i n g the a n c i e n t name, " C r o a t i a " . The Magyars promised Count A l e x a n d e r D r a s k o v i c , nephew o f Janko D r a s k o v i c , A l e x a n d e r E r d b d y , and L e v i n and J u r a j Rauch a l l the a s s i s t a n c e n e c e s s a r y f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a movement a g a i n s t the I l l y r i a n s . These n o b l e s , w i t h the h e l p of the Magyar p r o f e s s o r s at the Academy of Zagreb and the l e a d e r o f the T u r o p o l j e v i l l a g e n o b l e s , Antun D a n i e l J o s i p o v i c , e s t a b l i s h e d i n December 1839 i n Zagreb t h e i r c l u b , K a s i n o , an a n t i - I l l y r i a n p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . The Croat v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y j o i n e d t h e ra n k s o f the M a g y a r o p h i l s because i t hoped t o o b t a i n more p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s i n C r o a t i a . The v i l l a g e n o b l e , as we a l r e a d y know, had no r i g h t t o be r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Sabor or t o have h i s s e a t t h e r e , and was r e g a r d e d by the upper n o b i l i t y as a peasant who -168-who owned h i s l a n d and had no f e u d a l t i e s w i t h h i s m a s t e r . The M a g y a r o p h i l s u t i l i z e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n and promised him a l l t h e r i g h t s w h i c h t h e members of the upper c l a s s e n j o y e d . I n exchange f o r t h e s e p r i v i l e g e s , the v i l l a g e n o b l e was w i l l i n g t o s u p p o r t the M a g y a r i z a t i o n of C r o a t i a and t o accept Magyar i n s t e a d of h i s own Croat language. I n the s p r i n g o f iQkl a new p o l i t i c a l p a r t y was formed i n Zagreb under the name of the C r o a t - H u n g a r i a n P a r t y . The programme of t h i s f i r s t p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t o ever be formed on Croat s o i l was d e s i g n e d by the l e a d e r s h i p of K a s i n o whose i n i t i a l p o l i c y was: 1. To e l i m i n a t e among the Croats the usage of "the 9 0 dangerous I l l y r i a n name" 7 which had been d e s i g n e d by a n t i - n a t i o n a l elements w i t h the purpose of d e s t r o y i n g the Croat n a t i o n a l i t y . 2. To a b o l i s h the use of the new o r t h o g r a p h y and t o r e p l a c e the S t o k a v i a n d i a l e c t by the Croat K a j k a v i a n one which was the o n l y d i a l e c t a c c e p t a b l e t o the Croats and s u i t a b l e f o r the language. 3. To persuade the Croats t o s u p p o r t the c r e a t i o n of a c l o s e u n i o n w i t h Hungary i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h one u n i t a r y Magyar s t a t e w i t h Magyar as the o f f i c i a l language o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and as the language o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l Croat s c h o o l s . h. To p r e v a i l upon the Croats t o accept the amendment of the C o n s t i t u t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h each of the -169-Croat c o u n t i e s was t o send i t s d e l e g a t e s d i r e c t l y t o the Common D i e t as was done by o t h e r Magyar c o u n t i e s . 91 Thus, on one hand, the Magyarons y were p r o g r e s s i v e f o r they s u p p o r t e d some r a d i c a l r e f orms advocated by the Magyars and, on the o t h e r , they were backward because t h e i r main purpose was t o d e s t r o y the Croat n a t i o n a l i s m c r e a t e d by the I l l y r i a n Movement. Under the name " C r o a t i s m " they p l a n n e d t o m a g y a r i z e the n a t i o n and t o d e s t r o y the Croat n a t i o n a l i t y . Magyarons had some r i g h t t o c a l l themselves l i b e r a l f o r they s u p p o r t e d the demands o f the Magyar O p p o s i t i o n w h i c h demanded t h a t the P r o t e s t a n t s i n C r o a t i a a l s o be g i v e n f u l l c i t i z e n s ' r i g h t s . However, t h i s p r o p o s a l was not based on freedom o f c o n s c i e n c e , but on the p o l i t i c a l problem w h i c h , under those c i r c u m s t a n c e s , had p r i m a r i l y the c h a r a c t e r of the p r i n c i p l e i n v o l v e d . 92 The p r i n c i p l e i n v o l v e d was the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the Croat autonomy which would be undermined had the Croat d e l e g a t e s t o the Common D i e t agreed t o appease the Magyars on t h i s i s s u e . T h i s q u e s t i o n c o u l d l e g a l l y be s o l v e d at the Sabor o n l y , and any attempt of the Croats t o s o l v e the problem i n Pozsony i n v o l v e d a r e s t r i c t i o n i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e i r l e g i s -l a t i v e body. The f i r s t s t e p t a k e n by the Magyarons was t o accuse the I l l y r i a n s at V i e n n a o f h a v i n g o r g a n i z e d an an t i - M o n a r c h y movement which aimed t o u n i t e a l l South S l a v s under the 93 p r o t e c t i o n of R u s s i a . / J Thus the Magyarons hoped t o d e p r i v e the I l l y r i a n s o f a v a l u a b l e a l l y and t o p r e v a i l upon the c e n t r a l government t o s u p p o r t t h e i r cause. T h e i r a c c u s a t i o n -1 7 0 -was based on the f a c t t h a t Gaj had made a t r i p t o Warsaw, Moscow and S t . P e t e r s b u r g where, a c c o r d i n g t o them, he had sought R u s s i a n a s s i s t a n c e i n the I l l y r i a n s * attempt t o c r e a t e an independent South S l a v i c s t a t e . At t h e same time a l l t h r e e Magyar newspapers, Kossuth's P e s t i H i r l a p , the con-s e r v a t i v e V i l a g and the l i b e r a l J e l e n k o r , began an o r g a n i z e d a t t a c k on the I l l y r i a n Movement as a t r e a c h e r o u s i d e a d e s i g n e d t o harm b o t h Hungary and A u s t r i a . I n C r o a t i a i t s e l f the Magyarons began t o i n t e r p r e t the I l l y r i a n Movement t o the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y as a movement w h i c h plann e d t o wi t h d r a w the c o u n t r y from the u n i o n w i t h Hungary and t o submerge i t d i r e c t l y t o the German r u l e as a p a r t of A u s t r i a n I l l y r i a , w h i c h would mean the end of the C o n s t i t u t i o n and freedom and the b e g i n n i n g of a b s o l u t i s t i c c e n t r a l i s m and G e r m a n i z a t i o n . On the b a s i s o f t h i s f a c t P r o f e s s o r Bogdanov i n t e r p r e t s the I l l y r i a n Movement as the movement o f the Croat m i d d l e c l a s s o n l y w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , found i t s e l f i n a c l a s s c o n f l i c t w i t h the upper n o b i l i t y . He s a y s : I n t h i s r e s p e c t i t i s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h i s h i s t o r i o g r a p h y , F erdo S i s i c , d i d not n o t i c e one o f the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the I l l y r i a n n a t i o n a l r e n a i s s a n c e : the f a c t t h a t the i d e a l -o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r o f t h i s movement was t h e new, p r o g r e s s i v e b o u r g e o i s c l a s s of C r o a t i a . 95 T h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g t o Bogdanov, the Croat upper c l a s s c o n t i n u e d t o oppose the I l l y r i a n Movement even a f t e r 1836 and j o i n e d the Magyarons i n 1841, ^ except f o r Janko D r a s k o v i c - 1 7 1 -and h i s s m a l l group o f f o l l o w e r s i n the Sabor. Bogdanov's i d e a was t o d e s c r i b e the Croat upper c l a s s as an a n t i -n a t i o n a l f o r c e w h i c h was always w i l l i n g t o s e l l the c o u n t r y t o the Magyars i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e i t s s o c i a l s t a t u s . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t the Croat upper n o b i l i t y always opposed r a d i c a l s o c i a l r e f o r m s , i t i s m i s l e a d i n g t o co n c l u d e t h a t i t always l a c k e d n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t and always opposed the c u l t -u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e i n t r o d u c e d by the I l l y r i a n Movement. Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of I l l y r i s m l e a d s the r e a d e r t o wrong con-c l u s i o n s as t o the o r i g i n s and c h a r a c t e r of Croat n a t i o n a l i s m . I t i s a f a c t t h a t , f o l l o w i n g the ye a r s 1836 and e s p e c i a l l y 1841, the I l l y r i a n Movement became a d e c i d e d l y c o n s e r v a t i v e movement s u p p o r t e d e q u a l l y by the Croat i n t e l l e c t u a l s and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o the Sabor. F or the v a r i o u s reasons d e s c r i b e d above, the I l l y r i a n Movement never became as s o c i a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e as P r o f e s s o r Bogdanov attempted t o e x p l a i n from the M a r x i s t i c - L e n i n i s t i c p o i n t of v i e w . The c h a r a c t e r o f the I l l y r i a n Movement was d i c t a t e d by the contemporary c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n C r o a t i a and by the development of the Croat-Magyar r e l a t i o n s . The Croat m i d d l e c l a s s ( l e d by i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l s ) and the Croat upper c l a s s were t o o p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the s t r u g g l e f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the Croat autonomy and f o r the development of the Croat c u l t u r e t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o s o c i a l problems or c r e a t e a c o n f l i c t over s u c h i s s u e s when the c o u n t r y was i n danger of b e i n g m a g y a r i z e d and v i r t u a l l y wiped from the map. T h e r e f o r e i t s h o u l d be c l e a r -172-t h a t the C r o a t - H u n g a r i a n P a r t y found i t s s u p p o r t e r s among the Magyar o f f i c i a l s i n Zagreb, s e v e r a l h i g h e r Croat n o b l e s , and m a i n l y among the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of Turo-p o l j e . On the o t h e r s i d e , the I l l y r i a n Movement was s u p p o r t e d by the members of the m i d d l e c l a s s , i n t e l l e c t u a l s and the m a j o r i t y of the upper n o b i l i t y . F o l l o w i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the C r o a t - H u n g a r i a n P a r t y , t h e I l l y r i a n s r e a c t e d by o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l p a r t y under the name of the I l l y r i a n P a r t y w h i c h had i t s programme based a l s o on the I l l y r i a n i d e a s : . . . t h a t p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s between C r o a t i a and Hungary have t o be m o d i f i e d so t h a t the C r o a t , S l a v o n i a n and D a l m a t i a n r e g i o n s be u n i t e d w i t h the M i l i t a r y F r o n t i e r and R i j e k a i n t o one p o l i t i c a l , t e r r i t o r i a l whole independent of Hungary, under the l e a d e r s h i p o f the Ban and w i t h the Croat language as the o f f i c i a l language of the s t a t e . I n the l i t e r a r y f i e l d the p a r t y advocated c u l t u r a l u n i o n w i t h the Croats i n B o s n i a and a l s o w i t h the S l o v e n e s and Serbs t h r o u g h one l i t e r a r y l a nguage, ' I l l y r i a n ' . 97 I n Zagreb i t s e l f the I l l y r i a n s began t o wear n a t i o n a l f o l k costumes, h e l d p u b l i c meetings and sang p a t r i o t i c songs w h i c h once a g a i n came t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the awaken-i n g of n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t . However, t h i s time the pro-Magyar movement was much s t r o n g e r and b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d t h a n b e f o r e and i t s f o l l o w e r s were p r e p a r e d t o e n t e r i n t o an open s t r u g g l e 98 w i t h the I l l y r i a n Movement. \ The f i r s t p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e between the two p a r t i e s t o o k p l a c e i n the Croat c o u n t i e s d u r i n g the e l e c t i o n s f o r the c o u n t i e s ' o f f i c i a l s . The Magyarons, "who were u n t i l y e s t e r d a y - 1 7 3 -unknown and became o v e r n i g h t a p o w e r f u l p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r " , 7 7 aimed t o w i n e l e c t i o n s i n a l l the Croat c o u n t i e s i n o r d e r t o g a i n the c o n t r o l of the Sabor and d e s t r o y the achievements o f the c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e by i n s t r u c t i n g the d e l e g a t e s t o Pozsony t o . a g r e e w i t h the proposed M a g y a r i z a t i o n of C r o a t i a . To win e l e c t i o n s i n the c o u n t i e s meant t o s e c u r e the n e c e s s a r y m a j o r i t y i n the Sabor because the d e l e g a t e s sent by the c o u n t i e s outnumbered the upper n o b i l i t y w i t h h e r e d i t a r y s e a t s . I n t h e s e e l e c t i o n s the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y c o u l d c a s t i t s v o t e and e l e c t any member of the upper n o b i l i t y who was e x p e c ted t o p r o t e c t i t s i n t e r e s t s . - I n v i e w o f the f a c t t h a t some members of the upper n o b i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y those of f o r e i g n o r i g i n , had e n t e r e d the r anks of the C r o a t - H u n g a r i a n P a r t y t o g e t h e r w i t h the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y , the Magyarons had an e x c e l l e n t chance t o w i n e l e c t i o n s i n those c o u n t i e s where the lower n o b i l i t y r e p r e s e n t e d the m a j o r i t y of the e l e c t o r a t e . The f i r s t county t o h o l d e l e c t i o n s o r , as they were o f f i c i a l l y c a l l e d , r e s t a u r a c i j a ( r e s t a u r a t i o n ) was K r i z e v c i . On the day of e l e c t i o n s , 1 September 1841, Gaj h i m s e l f a r r i v e d a t K r i z e v c i w i t h a group of I l l y r i a n s from Zagreb w i t h the purpose of r e v i v i n g and r e f r e s h i n g the s p i r i t of n a t i o n a l i s m i n the f i n a l campaign and s e c u r i n g the v i c t o r y f o r the I l l y r i a n P a r t y . The e l e c t i o n was h e l d i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n w i t h o u t any i n c i d e n t s f o r the m a j o r i t y of the n o b i l i t y , w h i c h was a l s o h e a v i l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the I l l y r i a n r e a d i n g room of K r i z e v c i , had s u p p o r t e d the I l l y r i a n cause s i n c e 1836. C o n s e q u e n t l y , - 1 7 4 -the resu l ts of the e lect ions showed an overwhelming v i c to ry fo r the I l l y r i a n Party. The county of Kr izevc i a lso ca l l ed the " I l l y r i a n Cast le" 1 0 0 (tvrd rjava i l i r s k a ) had no l o c a l agency of the Croat-Hungarian Party and a very small number of v i l l a g e nob i l i t y which made no serious attempts to challenge the I l l y r i ans during these e l e c t i ons . The Croat-Hungarian Party had prepared i t s e l f for i t s f i r s t publ ic appearance i n the e l ec t i on for the 'county o f f i c i a l s of Varazdin, which were held on 2 November 1841. Here the party had a substant ia l fol lowing composed of a r e l a t i v e l y large number of fore ign nob i l i t y and Magyar admini-s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l s . The e lec t ion i t s e l f was fought over the issue of the representat ion of the Croat counties i n the Common D ie t . The Magyarons, as we already know, held that the Croat counties should send the i r delegates to Pozsony d i r e c t l y and not through the Sabor to fo l low ins t ruc t ions j o i n t l y reached by a l l the members of the Sabor. The I l l y r i a n s , ass is ted by the i r fe l low members from Zagreb, Draskovic, Gaj and Buzan, disputed the Magyar proposal on the basis that such a dec is ion could not be reached by any county for i t lacked the j u r i s d i c t i o n to decide such matters. This b i t t e r debate, which lasted over s i x hours, f i n a l l y ended with the complete v i c tory of the I l l y r i a n Party which was able to a t t rac t larger fo l lowing than the Magyarons. The Magyarons, who had aimed to defeat the I l l y r i a n Movement with one s t roke , d id not r ea l i ze that the i r proposal i n Varazdin was premature -17*-because th o s e n o b l e s who were i n c l i n e d t o s u p p o r t them on 101 some i s s u e s were not y e t p r e p a r e d t o go a l l the way. B e i n g by n a t u r e opposed t o any new changes, t h i s n o b i l i t y f o u n d i t more p o l i t i c a l l y sound t o s u p p o r t the I l l y r i a n s . Commenting on the e l e c t i o n s Gaj's " I l l y r i a n News" ex-p l a i n e d t h e I l l y r i a n p l a t f o r m as f o l l o w s : ...because the d e f e n d e r s o f Croat n a t i o n a l i t y , who were s u p p o r t e d by the m a j o r i t y , proved i n a v e r y s k i l f u l and c l e a r manner t h a t , i f the Magyar p r o p o s a l was a c c e p t e d , t h e Croats would l o s e not o n l y t h e i r n a t i o n a l l i f e , but a l s o t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s and m u n i c i p a l r i g h t s , I l l y r i s m won w i t h c l e a r m a j o r i t y . The Magyar p r o p o s a l aimed t o meld C r o a t i a w i t h Hungary and thus f o r c e the C r o a t s t o commit p o l i t i c a l s u i c i d e . F o r many c e n t u r i e s our c o u n t i e s were not d i r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the H u n g a r i a n D i e t , but t h r o u g h a g e n e r a l body of the Kingdoms of D a l m a t i a , C r o a t i a and S l a v o n i a which e l e c t s d e l e g a t e s t o r e p r e s e n t the e n t i r e n a t i o n . These d e l e g a t e s are not o n l y the H u n g a r i a n s ' c o - p a r t n e r s i n law-making i f such laws, c o n c e r n b o t h C r o a t i a and Hungary, but a l s o p r o t e c t o r s of the homogeneity of the above mentioned kingdoms and d e f e n d e r s o f the r i g h t s and freedom of t h e i r homeland. T h e r e f o r e , i f the i n -d i v i d u a l c o u n t i e s were a l l o w e d t o send t h e i r own d e l e -g a t e s , the i m p o r t a n c e o f the above mentioned Croat r e p r e s e n t a t i o n would be c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e d and the Croat c o u n t i e s would be c o n s i d e r e d as o t h e r Magyar c o u n t i e s , unable t o p r o t e c t t h e i r n a t i o n a l i t y and muni-c i p a l r i g h t s . 102 The I l l y r i a n v i c t o r y had a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on the f u r t h e r development of the two opposing p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . I n V a r a z d i n i t s e l f the Magyarons were never a g a i n a b l e t o r e c u p e r a t e from the l o s s they had s u f f e r e d and endanger the I l l y r i a n Movement. Many i m p o r t a n t and prominent members of t h e i r p a r t y who h e l d key p o s i t i o n s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n found i t i m p o s s i b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r o f f i c e s and so r e s i g n e d - 1 7 6 -and moved back t o Hungary. Those o f f i c e s were f i l l e d w i t h t h e Croat p a t r i o t s who, encouraged by t h e i r v i c t o r y , f e l t s t r o n g enough t o e l i m i n a t e c o m p l e t e l y the pro-Magyar t e n d -e n c i e s i n t h e i r c o u n t y . And i n d e e d , f o l l o w i n g the e l e c t i o n s o f 1841, t h e r e i s no r e c o r d l e f t w h i c h would i n d i c a t e any a c t i v i t y o f the C r o a t - H u n g a r i a n P a r t y i n V a r a z d i n . The o n l y hope l e f t t o the Magyarons was t o w i n e l e c t i o n s i n the most i m p o r t a n t Croat c o u n t y , Zagreb, which was not o n l y the c e n t r e o f the C r o a t - H u n g a r i a n P a r t y but of the I l l y r i a n Movement as w e l l . C o n s i d e r i n g the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y i n the County of Zagreb, the Magyarons had a v e r y good chance t o d e f e a t the I l l y r i a n s . The n o b i l i t y ' s i n t e r e s t i n the a f f a i r s o f the s t a t e a f t e r the e l e c t i o n s i n V a r a z d i n i n c r e a s e d t o an e x t e n t never b e f o r e 103 known i n h i s t o r y o f C r o a t i a . J P r a c t i c a l l y a l l the members of the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y a r r i v e d at Zagreb t o c o n t r i b u t e t o -ward the success o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . They became c o n s c i o u s o f the f a c t t h a t , because the outcome of t h e e l e c t i o n depended on t h e i r v o t e , they had come t o p l a y the r o l e of an i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l f o r c e w h i c h was c a l l e d upon t o d e c i d e the f a t e o f C r o a t i a . However, w h i l e the n o b l e s o f T u r o p o l j e remained f a i t h f u l t o the Magyar cause the m a j o r i t y of the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y of S v e t i I v a n Z e l i n a , M o r a v c i and D r a g a n i c i came t o the s u p p o r t of the I l l y r i a n P a r t y be-cause of the campaign o r g a n i z e d i n t h e i r v i l l a g e s by B i s h o p H a u l i k and h i s c l e r g y who enjoyed the c o n f i d e n c e of the l o w e r - 1 7 7 -c l a s s e s . S e v e r a l days b e f o r e the e l e c t i o n s were h e l d on 31 May 1 8 4 2 , the p o l i t i c a l campaigns o r g a n i z e d by the two opposing p a r t i e s r e s u l t e d i n the " f i r s t b l o o d y s t r u g g l e s of the Croat p o l i t i c s i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y " . During one of t h e s e s t r e e t f i g h t s , G a j , who was one o f the main t a r g e t s o f the T u r o p o l j i a n s , n a r r o w l y escaped d e a t h by t a k i n g s h e l t e r i n the house of the Ban. Such b l o o d y f i g h t s c h a r a c t e r i z e d the Croat p o l i t i c a l l i f e " u n t i l the b l o o d s h e d on the Square of S t . Marcus on 29 J u l y 1845 a f t e r the e l e c t i o n i n the County of Zagreb w h i c h was t h e main p o l i t i c a l a r e n a i n the s t r u g g l e 105 between the I l l y r i a n s and the Magyarons". 7 Owing t o the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y ' s s u p p o r t of the above mentioned d i s t r i c t s o f the County of Zagreb and t o the a s s i s t a n c e r e n d e r e d t o the I l l y r i a n P a r t y by the e x i s t i n g c o u n t y o f f i c i a l s , t h e I l l y r i a n s won a g a i n and s e c u r e d t h e i r v i c t o r y i n a l l o f C r o a t i a . The Magyarons, who c o u l d p r e d i c t t h e i r d e f e a t , d e c i d e d t o s e t t l e t h e i r d i s p u t e s w i t h the I l l y r i a n s p h y s i c a l l y so t h a t " o n l y w i t h the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the r e g u l a r t r o o p s c o u l d the e l e c t i o n s o f the county's o f f i c i a l s be c o m pleted". As one would e x p e c t , the I l l y r i a n v i c t o r y i n Zagreb r e p r e s e n t e d one of the main v i c t o r i e s o f the I l l y r i a n Move-ment and, as s u c h , was the main f a c t o r f o r i t s enormous growth f o l l o w i n g 1842. The impact of t h i s v i c t o r y was n i c e l y summed • up i n the l e t t e r from Maksim P r i c a of K a r l o v a c t o G a j , who was - 1 7 8 -g i v e n the main c r e d i t f o r t h i s v i c t o r y by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s 107 "due t o h i s u n r e s i s t a b l e s k i l l i n a g i t a t i o n " . ' ...your c o n t r i b u t i o n was g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t of the g r e a t e s t w r i t e r s because i t i s e a s i e r t o h a n d l e the pen t h a n a c t i v e l y b r i n g t o l i f e the r o t t e n and s p o i l e d masses. Your s h i e l d a g a i n s t a l l arrows i s the f r u i t - o f your work. The e l e c t i o n of 1 8 4 2 d i d more f o r , and brought more l i f e t o our people t h a n „ a l l the books and b o o k l e t s w r i t t e n by our a u t h o r s . 1 0 ° Never b e f o r e had the I l l y r i a n Movement succeeded i n i n c l u d i n g so l a r g e a f o l l o w i n g i n i t s r anks as d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e s e e l e c t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n t o the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y ( e x c e p t f o r t h a t of T u r o p o l j e ) , the l a r g e s t segment o f the p o p u l a t i o n a f t e r the p e a s a n t r y , the ranks o f the I l l y r i a n Movement were r e i n f o r c e d by those members o f the upper c l a s s who r e a l i z e d t h a t , by s u p p o r t i n g the Magyarons, they worked a g a i n s t t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s as a c l a s s and as a s e p a r a t e n a t i o n a l i t y . The e l e c t i o n s had taught them t h a t , c o n t r a r y t o t h e i r propaganda, the. Magyarons d i d not s u p p o r t the Croat c a u s e , but t h a t of Hungary w h i c h was u s i n g the C r o a t - H u n g a r i a n P a r t y t o r e a l i z e t h o s e aims which i t s d e l e g a t e s t o the Common D i e t had t r i e d t o a c h i e v e w i t h no s u c c e s s . R e a l i z i n g t h a t " p a t r i o t i s m had moved i n a l l the Croat c o u n t i e s and t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of the n o b i l i t y was on the 109 s i d e o f the I l l y r i a n l e a d e r s " y i t was d e c i d e d t h a t i t was an opportune moment t o suggest the acceptance o f the Croat language as the language o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The p r o p o s a l was put f o r w a r d by Baron F r a n j o Kulmer at the p r i v a t e meeting - 1 7 9 -h e l d i n the house of Janko D r a s k o v i c and a t t e n d e d by G a j , S t o o s , B a b u k i c , and V a k a n o v i c . Gaj assumed the t a s k o f i n t r o d u c i n g i t t o the p u b l i c and f o r t h i s purpose he wrote h i s a r t i c l e i n the " I l l y r i a n News" addr e s s e d m a i n l y t o the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y as t h e l a r g e s t l i t e r a t e s o c i a l f a c t o r : As a r e s u l t , Gaj p r i n t e d an a r t i c l e i n h i s newspaper i n w hich he p o i n t e d out t h a t the C r o a t s , and e s p e c i a l l y the v i l l a g e n o b i l i t y , w i l l never need any o t h e r language but the Croat one 'and even l e s s i f the I l l y r i a n p a t r i o t s s u c c e e d , as they hope t o , i n i n t r o -d u c i n g the Croat language (as t h e o f f i c i a l language) i n a l l the o f f i c e s ( i n the p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) ' . However, t h i s p r o p o s a l had t o be postponed t o a l a t e r d a t e s i n c e the Magyars o r g a n i z e d , w i t h the h e l p o f the Magyarons, a new a t t a c k on the I l l y r i a n Movement. The l e a d e r s o f the Magyarons i n C r o a t i a , e s p e c i a l l y the l e a d e r of the T u r o p o l j e n o b i l i t y , J o s i p o v i c , demanded t h a t the c e n t r a l government i n V i e n n a and the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r Hungary i n Buda d e c l a r e t h e r e s u l t s o f the e l e c t i o n s v o i d because of what they termed 111 " u n l a w f u l and i l l e g a l p r a c t i c e s " employed by the o r g a n i z e r o f t h e s e e l e c t i o n s , zupan Zdencaj and B i s h o p H a u l i k who, due t o the i l l n e s s o f Ban V l a s i c , had e x e c u t e d the d u t i e s o f the Ban. J o s i p o v i c c l a i m e d t h a t a l a r g e number of h i s n o b i l i t y had been p r e v e n t e d f rom c a s t i n g t h e i r v o t e s by the I l l y r i a n s and Zdencaj who c l a s s i f i e d them as p e a s a n t r y and l i m i t e d e l e c t o r a l s u f f r a g e t o o n l y the s u p p o r t e r s o f I l l y r i s m . W i t h the h e l p o f the Magyar nobles the p e t i t i o n o f the Magyarons, s i g n e d by 300 of T u r o p o l j e n o b l e s , was t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n -180-by the h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t i e s who promised t o l o o k i n t o t h i s m a t t e r and examine the v a l i d i t y of the a c c u s a t i o n . As a r e s u l t of t h i s p r o t e s t , w h i c h became "the c o r n e r - s t o n e o f t h e hope of the enemies o f the I l l y r i a n P a r t y t h a t the r e s u l t 112 o f the e l e c t i o n s w i l l be c a n c e l l e d " , t h e r u l i n g p o s i t i o n o f t h e I l l y r i a n P a r t y i n C r o a t i a seemed t o be g r e a t l y en-d angered. The I l l y r i a n s f e a r e d t h a t the c e n t r a l government would t u r n a g a i n s t them and h e l p the Magyarons w i n new e l e c t i o n s i f the r e s u l t s o f the e l e c t i o n s o f 1842 were can-c e l l e d . To make the s i t u a t i o n worse, the Magyar p r e s s assumed a p a t r o n i z i n g tone towards C r o a t i a and c a l l e d upon those a u t h o r i z e d " t o p r o t e c t the Croat n a t i o n a g a i n s t the I l l y r i a n s 113 who wanted t o d e p r i v e i t of i t s l anguage". J Thus, once a g a i n the Magyarons, a f t e r f a i l i n g t o d e f e a t I l l y r i s m d i r e c t l y , adopted an i n d i r e c t method hoping t h a t by f e e d i n g the h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h f a l s e i n f o r m a t i o n they would g a i n an a l l y i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the I l l y r i a n Movement. I n C r o a t i a i t s e l f they c r e a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e chaos by a c c u s i n g the I l l y r i a n s of i n t e n d i n g t o c r e a t e the German system of g o v e r n -ment ( w h i c h t a x e d a l l the n o b i l i t y ) and by e n c o u r a g i n g the Croats t o r e f u s e t o obey the " i l l e g a l " government of t h e i r .. 114 c o u n t i e s . P r o h i b i t i o n of the Name " I l l y r i s m " From the Croat p o i n t of v i e w the government i n V i e n n a responded t o the Magyar a c c u s a t i o n s ..in an u n f a v o u r a b l e way. - 1 8 1 -Thus the I l l y r i a n s ' f e a r o f r e m a i n i n g i s o l a t e d i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t Hungary was e n t i r e l y j u s t i f i e d . By the end of 1842 i t l o o k e d as i f V i e n n a was w i l l i n g t o t a k e the Magyar s i d e . F i r s t of a l l , on the a d v i c e o f the Crown's C o u n c i l f o r Hungary, the Emperor a p p o i n t e d i n C r o a t i a a new Ban, F r a n c i s H a l l e r , who had been brought up i n Hungary and was known t o be s y m p a t h e t i c t o the Magyar cause. S e c o n d l y , i n h i s doubt of the l e g a l i t y of the e l e c t i o n s h e l d i n Zagreb, t h e Emperor a p p o i n t e d a s p e c i a l commissioner f o r C r o a t i a , J o s i p . S i s k o v i c , w i t h the purpose of c o n d u c t i n g an i n v e s t i g a -t i o n o f the e l e c t i o n p r o c e e d i n g s i n the County of Zagreb. B o t h H a l l e r and S i s k o v i c were t o submit the r e p o r t s on t h e i r f i n d i n g s t o the c e n t r a l government w i t h appendixes d e s c r i b i n g t h e r o l e o f the I l l y r i a n Movement i n the development of Croat n a t i o n a l i s m . The I l l y r i a n s r e a l i z e d the s e r i o u s n e s s of the c r i s i s . i n t o w h i c h t h e i r movement had been thrown and d e c i d e d t o e x p l a i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l programme t o the Croats and the c e n t r a l government and t o j u s t i f y t h e i r r o l e as the p a r t y i n power. T h i s c o m p l i c a t e d t a s k was s h o u l d e r e d by f o u r I l l y r i a n l e a d e r s , Rakovac, K u k u l j e v i c , V u k o t i n o v i c and G a j , who i n d i v i d u a l l y produced f o u r d i f f e r e n t documents e x p l a i n i n g t h e I l l y r i a n Movement as a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . D r a g u t i n Rakovac e x p l a i n e d the I l l y r i a n Movement i n a c a t e c h i s m a l form i n h i s b o o k l e t M a l i k a t e k i z a m z a v e l i k e l j u d e (A S m a l l Catechism f o r the Grown-ups) wh i c h c o n c e n t r a t e d on - 1 8 2 -the e x p l a n a t i o n of the M a g y a r - I l l y r i a n r e l a t i o n s from the I l l y r i a n p o i n t of v i e w . Rakovac p o i n t e d out t h a t i t was the C r o a t - H u n g a r i a n P a r t y , not the I l l y r i a n P a r t y w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o e l i m i n a t e the Croat n a t i o n a l i t y because t h i s p a r t y "does n o t h i n g f o r the good o f C r o a t i s m and e v e r y t h i n g 1 1 5 f o r Magyarism". y A l t h o u g h the Croats p r e s e n t l y use L a t i n , Rakovac s a i d , they have the u n q u e s t i o n a b l e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t h e Magyar language and, i f the change has t o ta k e p l a c e , t o accept t h e i r own language which i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t o the e n t i r e n a t i o n . We c a l l o u r s e l v e s I l l y r i a n s and not o n l y Croats be-cause we want t o have our own l i t e r a t u r e and we know t h a t t h r e e Croat c o u n t i e s cannot d e v e l o p a l i t e r a t u r e w i t h i n the p r e s e n t Croat b o r d e r s . T h e r e f o r e the • l i t e r a t u r e i s t o be extended t o our o t h e r b r o t h e r s by b l o o d and language, namely S l a v o n i a n s , D a l m a t i a n s , S e r b s , Slovenes - t o a l l S o u t h - w e s t e r n S l a v s . 1 1 ° On the b a s i s o f t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n , Rakovac p r e s e n t e d a s h o r t summary of the I l l y r i a n programme w h i c h d e f i n e d I l l y r i s m by d e s c r i b i n g i t s aims, the t h i n g s w h i c h the movement opposed and i t s p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . What do we want? We want: 1 . To have our people's language w h i c h was g i v e n t o us by n a t u r e . We know t h a t w i t h the d e a t h of the people's language the n a t i o n must a l s o d i e . 2 . To have our n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e ; w i t h o u t a n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e the same language cannot e x i s t . 3 . To educate our p e o p l e ; t h i s i s o n l y p o s s i b l e t o do i n the language o f the p e o p l e . F o r e i g n languages can o n l y broaden the e d u c a t i o n o f l i t e r a t e p e r s o n s , but never the e n t i r e n a t i o n . H . To p r e s e r v e our m u n i c i p a l r i g h t s u n a l t e r e d ; they a re the b a s i s of our p o l i t i c a l e x i s t e n c e . 5. To remain b r o t h e r s t o the Magyars under the C o n s t i t u t i o n , i n the f u t u r e as we have been i n the p a s t . - 1 8 3 -What we do not want? We do not want: 1. To be c o n s i d e r e d by any n a t i o n as the m a t e r i a l f o r the enla r g e m e n t . o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n . 2 . To be a t t a c k e d and i n s u l t e d by o t h e r s w i t h o u t h a v i n g r i g h t t o p r o t e c t o u r s e l v e s and t o speak f o r our n a t i o n . What do we t h i n k under the p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s ? We t h i n k the f o l l o w i n g : I t i s a l r e a d y s a d t h a t i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y we have t o s t r u g g l e f o r our n a t i o n a l l i t y and language; i t i s sadder t h a t we have t o p r o t e c t our n a t i o n a l i t y and language from our c o n s t i t u t i o n a l b r o t h e r s who s h o u l d be our best f r i e n d s ; i t i s saddest t h a t our n a t i v e sons b i t t e r l y oppose the development o f t h e i r own language and n a t i o n a l i s m . We r o s e t o p r e s e r v e f o r our people t h e i r language and n a t i o n a l i t y and because o f t h i s a. p a r t of our n a t i o n i s a g a i n s t us and accuses us o f wanting t o d e s t r o y the homeland. 1 1 7 T h i s b o o k l e t caused the Magyars i n V i e n n a t o double t h e i r e f f o r t s t o d e s c r i b e the I l l y r i a n s as t r a i t o r s and a c o n s p i r a -t o r i a l , s u b v e r s i v e group o f a n t i - M o n a r c h i s t s who, under the l e a d e r s h i p o f L j u d e v i t G a j , aimed t o u n i t e a l l South S l a v s a g a i n s t t h e Emperor under the p r o t e c t i o n o f the R u s s i a n C z a r . A c c o r d i n g t o the Magyars' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n C r o a t i a , the Magyarons were the o n l y f o r c e w h i c h f o u g h t f o r the Croat n a t i o n and f o r the i n t e r e s t s o f the Monarchy i n g e n e r a l . T h i s l e d the I l l y r i a n s t o e x p l a i n pub-l i c l y t h e i r p o s i t i o n towards the c e n t r a l government and t o deny the Magyar a c c u s a t i o n t h a t the I l l y r i a n s were R u s s o p h i l s w o r k i n g a g a i n s t the Habsburg Monarchy. F o r t h i s purpose I v a n K u k u l j e v i c p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e i n the Agramer Z e i t u n g w r i t t e n i n German under the t i t l e D ie N a t i o n a l i t a t i n K r o a t i e n und  S l a v o n i e n i n which he d i d not deny t h a t the I l l y r i a n s f a v o u r e d the c r e a t i o n of a c u l t u r a l u n i o n w i t h o t h e r South S l a v s . He d e n i e d , however, the e x i s t e n c e o f any p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n - 1 8 4 -f o r the c r e a t i o n of a South S l a v i c s t a t e which would be i ndependent from V i e n n a . The main d e s i r e of the I l l y r i a n s , i n a d d i t i o n t o the c r e a t i o n of a c u l t u r a l u n i o n of the S o u t h S l a v s , s a i d K u k u l j e v i c , was t o u n i t e a l l the Croat l a n d s , e s p e c i a l l y those s t i l l under the T u r k i s h yoke. Are not our k i n g s a l s o o b l i g e d t o work a g a i n s t the Moslem t y r a n n y i n o r d e r t o r e t u r n t o the Croat n o b i l i t y t h o s e l a n d s o f w h i c h i t had been d e p r i v e d i n the T u r k i s h wars? T h i s i s a l s o the tendency p r e v a i l i n g among some p a t r i o t s and does i t endanger C r o a t i a , S l a v o n i a , Hungary or the e n t i r e Monarchy? A l l o t h e r t e n d e n c i e s we are s a i d t o have are n o t h i n g but the c r e a t i o n of p h a n t a s y . 1 1 ° Thus K u k u l j e v i c r s main purpose i n t h i s a r t i c l e was t o d e s c r i b e I l l y r i s m as a c u l t u r a l movement l a c k i n g any p o l i t i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n . The I l l y r i a n s , i n g e n e r a l , t r i e d v e r y h a r d t o deny the e x i s t e n c e of any p o l i t i c a l t e n d e n c i e s i n t h e i r move-ment and e s p e c i a l l y those w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o the Magyar a c c u s a t i o n , i m p l i e d a n t i - m o n a r c h i a l a c t i v i t i e s . Such e x p l a n -a t i o n s were n e c e s s a r y because the I l l y r i a n Movement was i n danger of l o s i n g a v e r y u s e f u l a l l y w h i c h , i f i t chose the Magyars' s i d e , c o u l d become i t s e x e c u t i o n e r . F o l l o w i n g K u k u l j e v i c ' s a r t i c l e , L j u