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Baptists in British Columbia : a struggle to maintain "sectarianism" Richards, John Byron 1964-12-31

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BAPTISTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: A STRUGGLE TO MAINTAIN "SECTARIANISM" by JOHN BYRON RICHARDS BiA., University of British Columbia, 1952 B.D., Northwest Baptist Theological College, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of History We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1964 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted fay the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of History The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. A p r i l 8, 1964. ABSTRACT It i s generally agreed that Baptists represent one of the largest bodies of " s e c t a r i a n " opinion. The term "sectarianism" i s used i n a s o c i o l o g i c a l rather than a polemical or derogatory sense. It serves to indica t e the basic a t t i t u d e of a s o c i a l l y exclusive or "sect-type" r e l i g i o u s organization as d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from a "church-type", or s o c i a l l y i n c l u s i v e and accommodative, r e l i g i o u s body. U n t i l recently i t has been an accepted procedure to explain r e l i g i o u s d i v e r s i t y i n purely t h e o l o g i c a l terms. Since the turn of the century an e f f o r t has been made to examine the s o c i a l and economic factors i n r e l i g i o u s development. The " f r o n t i e r t h e s i s " has been evoked to ex p l a i n sectarianism, and s o c i o l o g i s t s have tended to place a l l t h e i r con clusions within the framework of environmental determinism. Such an approach appears to involve a denial of the i n t r i n s i c v a l i d i t y and s p i r i t u a l relevance of th e o l o g i c a l ideas. It i s the contention of t h i s thesis that r e l i g i o u s d i v e r s i t y among Baptists i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s to be explained both i n terms of environmental influences and i n terms of ideas which were "imported" from the Old World and the United States. In the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n such ideas came mediately from Western Europe, which i n turn had "imported" them from P a l e s t i n e . Immediately, these ideas came from the Scriptures, which were regarded by sectarians as a u t h o r i t a t i v e . While the author holds to the i n t r i n s i c v a l i d i t y of B i b l i c a l t h e o l o g i c a l concepts, no attempt i s made here to substantiate t h i s view, t h i s task being l e f t to the C h r i s t i a n apologist. Within the scope of i i i . t h i s thesis i t s h a l l s u f f i c e to demonstrate that B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were strongly influenced by the "imported 1' ideas of B i b l i c a l theology and by the "imported" concepts of r e l i g i o u s l i b e r a l i s m . The f r o n t i e r environment was not the o r i g i n a t o r of these ideas, but gave an opportunity for the free i n t e r p l a y of these ideas. The net r e s u l t of t h i s i n t e r p l a y i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been Baptist groups which bear a resemblance to Old World counterparts, and which, at the same time, bear the stamp of American influence and Canadian national character i s t i c s . B r i t i s h Columbia Baptists are what they are because of economic, s o c i a l , t h e o l o g i c a l and s p i r i t u a l f a c t o r s . None of these factors can be completely segregated and viewed i n splendid i s o l a t i o n . Baptist sectarianism i s r e l a t e d not only to society but also to the ideas of the New Testament. In the B r i t i s h Columbia context, "the struggle to maintain sectarianism" was a struggle to maintain the sectarian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of New Testament p r i n c i p l e s , i n s p i t e of the challenge of other t h e o l o g i c a l ideas, i n the m i l i e u of the s o c i a l and economic influences of f r o n t i e r and modern society. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Source material for the greater part of t h i s thesis has not been of easy access. Secondary sources have proved to contain many errors i n f a c t as well as inaccuracies of p r i n t i n g . Primary sources are a v a i l  able i n profusion, and a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution to Canadian church h i s t o r y has been made by/'Convention" B a p t i s t s , who have c o l l e c t e d material at the Baptist Union O f f i c e i n Edmonton, i n addition to the sources a v a i l a b l e i n the Canadian Baptist H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n at McMaster D i v i n i t y College, Hamilton. The Fellowship of Evangelical Baptist Churches has inaugurated a H i s t o r i c a l Library i n Toronto. For B r i t i s h Columbia researchers, these c o l l e c t i o n s have the disadvantage of being outside the province. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the more "sectar i a n " Baptist groups have made no concerted attempt, u n t i l recently, to c o l l e c t and preserve the most pertinent and valuable documents r e l a t i n g to Baptist h i s t o r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n of the Regular Baptist Churches of B r i t i s h Columbia i s s t i l l i n the embryo stage. In contrast to the disorder of documents, however, the author wishes to acknowledge the genuine i n t e r e s t and cooperation of many persons who have loaned materials and offered h e l p f u l information i n order to research upon t h i s p r o j e c t . Special acknowledgment should be given to those Ba p t i s t organiza tions with whose h i s t o r y t h i s thesis i s d i r e c t l y involved. The Con vention of Baptist Churches of B r i t i s h Columbia made valuable records a v a i l a b l e to the author, and he received complete cooperation from the X Baptist Union Office during his v i s i t s to Edmonton. The entire records and f i l e s of the Regular Baptists were made accessible. Southern Baptist leaders displayed a cordial willingness to help in the project. The writer would like to thank Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby and Dr. Margaret E. Prang, of the Department of History, University of British Columbia, for their advice and helpful criticisms during his research. Finally, he is deeply indebted to his wife, Mrs. Barbara M. Richards, for her diligence in typing the manuscript. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE 1 CHAPTER I. "SECTARIANISM" AMONG BAPTISTS 4 Analysis of Statistics Relating to Religious Division. . 4 Definition of Terms Used to Describe Religious Division. 7 Explanations Which Have Been Given for Religious Division 12 The Factors of Leadership, Persecution, and Theology as They Relate to "Sectarianism" 19 "Sectarianism" in Early Christianity 24 "Sectarian" Ideas and Divisive Tensions among Baptists . 26 Summary of Events in Baptist History Which Illustrate these Tensions 32 II. THE "HIDDEN BAPTISTS" OF VANCOUVER ISLAND 38 Beginnings of the Religious Denominations in British Columbia, with Special Emphasis upon the Role of the Negro 38 The Earliest Baptists—Negro and White 47 The Organization of First Baptist Church as a Negro-White Congregation 50 Tension and Controversy in Fir s t Baptist Church 54 The Collapse of the First Baptist Congregation and Reorganization to Form Calvary Baptist Church 57 v i CHAPTER PAGE Analysis of Underlying Causes for Division among Early Baptists in British Columbia 60 III. THE YOUNG CONVENTION 65 The Founding of Early Congregations 65 Organizational Developments in the Pacific Northwest Which Led to the Establishment of an Independent Convention in British Columbia 70 The New Convention, Its Constitution and Its Boards. . . . 80 The Early Struggles of the Mission Board 85 The Formation of the Baptist Union of Western Canada . . . 91 Ventures in the Field of Education - Brandon College and Okanagan College 93 Rumblings of Controversy during the Pre-War Era 96 Financial Crisis and the World War Years 100 IV. THE TROUBLED TWENTIES 105 Post-War Optimism Followed by Disillusionment and Theological Dispute 105 The "Modernist-Fundamentalist" Controversy, Its General History and Its Rise within the Churches of the Baptist Union of Western Canada 107 Conflict between the British Columbia Convention and the Baptist Union, Centering in a Dissatisfaction over Brandon College 115 v i i CHAPTER PAGE Concessions Granted by the Union, Including the Appointment of Brandon College Commission 123 The Disruptive Influence of "Interdenominationalism" within the "Conservative Forces" 129 The Report of Brandon College Commission 134 Repercussions of the Price Healing Campaign 137 The Committee of Ten and Its Indecisive Report 140 The Formation of the B. C. Baptist Missionary Council in 1925 145 The Final Division of the British Columbia Baptist Convention in 1927 149 V. SEPARATE LINES OF DEVELOPMENT 154 The Immediate Reaction to the Division of 1927 154 Relationships between Regular and Convention Baptists since the Division 156 Controversy within the Regular Convention before the Second World War 162 Problems of Convention Baptists during the Depression and Pre-War Period 174 The Influence of the Second World War 178 The Formation of the Baptist Federation of Canada 181 Efforts of Regular Baptists to Move toward a Wider Fellowship 183 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE The Southern Baptist Issue 187 The Solidifying of Regular Baptist Denominational Sentiment and Organization 192 Contrasts among Baptists 195 Prospects of Continuing Struggle 198 APPENDICES 203 BIBLIOGRAPHY . 209 PREFACE Baptist work in Br i t i s h Columbia suffers from no lack of diversity. Quite apart from a number of independent churches and smaller Baptist groups, the majority of the Baptists in the province are divided into five bodies. The largest of these is known as the Convention of Baptist Churches of Br i t i s h Columbia. Second i n size is the Convention of Regular Baptist Churches of Br i t i s h Columbia. In addition to these two main organizations there are churches in Br i t i s h Columbia which are a f f i l i a t e d with the Washington-Oregon Southern Baptist Convention. Two other major groups are of ethnic origin. These are the North American Baptist General Conference, formed from German-speaking churches; and the Baptist General Conference, which was formerly Swedish in member ship but is rapidly losing i t s original identity. Baptists, who seem to have a genius for unwieldly t i t l e s , have also a f l a i r for succinct abbreviations. Thus, in common speech, the above organizations are known respectively as "Convention Baptists", "Regular Baptists", "Southern Baptists", "German Baptists", and "Conference Baptists". It is not the purpose of this thesis to record the history of individual Baptist churches in the province, or even to trace the growth of the Baptist organizations l i s t e d above. The author wishes to focus attention upon those significant developments which have led to division in the Baptist ranks, making an analysis of the divisive influences at work. For this reason the thesis w i l l be almost entirely concerned with Convention, Regular, and Southern Baptist groups. German and Conference Baptists have not been d i r e c t l y involved i n the tensions to be discussed i n these pages. The "congregational" form of church government i s pra c t i c e d among Ba p t i s t s . From the time of i t s "organization" a Baptist church i s an independent autonomous body. The church i s "organized" when a r o l l of charter members i s drawn up and the i n t e r n a l structure necessary for self-government i s i n s t i t u t e d and placed i n operation. Previous to the time or organization, preaching services may have been conducted for an i n d e f i n i t e period by a home missionary. Thus, i n the normal course of events, the date of the beginning of a Baptist cause and the date of i t s organization are separated by some months or years. These two dates should not be confused. It should also be kept c l e a r l y i n mind that a Baptist "Convention or "Conference" i s not a governing body. It i s a group of autonomous churches i n voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n . As such i t cannot d i c t a t e the p o l i c i e s of an i n d i v i d u a l church. It has, of course, the r i g h t to decid the nature and extent of i t s a s s o c i a t i o n s ; therefore i t can receive churches and dismiss them from i t s fellowship. One f i n a l observation should be made. This thesis must, by i t s very nature, be p r i m a r i l y concerned with r e l i g i o u s c o n f l i c t and discord. Space does not permit the discussion of brighter and more ed i f y i n g aspects of Baptist growth i n the province. It i s not v a l i d to conclude that the course of Baptist work i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been merely or e s s e n t i a l l y a t a l e of tension. In the h i s t o r y of the C h r i s t i a n Church i n t e r n a l r e l i g i o u s c o n f l i c t s have been by no means confined to the B a p t i s t s . Neither i s r e l i g i o u s tension of necessity an e v i l thing. In every era C h r i s t i a n s have been faced w i t h two imperatives, that of main t a i n i n g a d i s t i n c t i v e witness to the world and, at the same time, that of making the u n i t y of a l l b e l i e v e r s a p r a c t i c a l and continuous r e a l i t y . Does not the very nature of the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , which enjoins l o v e , and yet emphasizes man's s i n and the need of D i v i n e Redemption, suggest the p r o b a b i l i t y of c o n t i n u i n g r e l i g i o u s t e n s i o n , both w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l and i n h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the world at large? CHAPTER I "SECTARIANISM" AMONG BAPTISTS P a r t i c u l a r l y on t h i s continent, one of the observed s o c i a l phenomena.of our. present century has been the r i s e of a m u l t i p l i c i t y of r e l i g i o u s groups. Because information on some groups i s very d i f f i c u l t to obtain and r e l i g i o u s alignments are i n a state of constant change i t i s v i r t u a l l y impossible to compile exact s t a t i s t i c s . It has been estimated that some four hundred such groups exist i n North America. Elmer T. Clark gives t h i s approximate f i g u r e f o r the United States alone. 1 In addition, Canada contributes at least a few extra names to t h i s impressive and, to some minds, scandalous l i s t . In recent years, t h i s d i v e r s i t y of r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s has given r i s e to a great deal of comment. Among those outside any r e l i g i o u s group, r e l i g i o u s fragmentation i s often given as a reason, or excuse, for the i n d i v i d u a l to remain s p i r i t u a l l y uncommitted. Among the r e l i g i o u s l y com mitted themselves there have been various reactions. Spokesmen of some larger r e l i g i o u s bodies have viewed the s i t u a t i o n as a r e v o l t from proper authority and have c a l l e d upon smaller groups to repent of t h e i r ways and "return home". Other professedly devout persons have seen i n d i v i s i o n an in e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of general apostasy from God, and an evidence of man's desire to hew his own independent r e l i g i o u s path. S t i l l others, notably those represented i n the Ecumenical Movement of modern Protestantism, ^Elmer T. Clark, The Small Sects i n America. New York, Abingdon Press, 1949, p. 13. 5* reject the idea that division is an inevitable e v i l and regard the present situation as a clarion c a l l to action upon a workable program of union for religious bodies. Then too, there are those puzzled people who "just can't understand why there are so many denominations". Perplexing or perverse as i t may appear, the situation is explicable in terms of theology, history and social structure. Before attempting an analysis of causes, however, i t might be well to point out that religious fragmentation is not as severe as sta t i s t i c s , or some writers, might indicate. While divisiveness is generally laid at the door of Christendom, and particularly, Protestantism, yet i t should be noted that the "four hundred" include the various divisions of Liberal and Orthodox Judaism; such religions as Buddhism and Islam; and also a group of eclectic and orientalized cults, such as Baha'i and Theosophy, which cannot with any degree of correctness be regarded as coming within the Christian tradi tion. Nor i s i t completely f a i r to lay a l l the blame for division upon Protestantism. On this point Elmer T. Clark writes: . . . no church anywhere has been able to avoid split s and schisms, and this is true of non-Christian religions as well as of Christian churches. It w i l l probably remain true as long as theo logical convictions are regarded as important. The Roman Catholic Church, which is often supposed to possess a unity that is lacking in Protestantism, has actually experienced more divisions than any other; in fact i t may be said that every other Christian group in the world represents a break from Catholicism. . . . Furthermore, among the various orders of the Catholic Church there are di f f e r  ences and animosities as marked as those which exist between the various Protestant denominations, but actual separation is pre vented by the overhead authority of the hierarchy. 2 2Elmer T. Clark, loc. c i t . 6 . This strongly-worded statement i n v i t e s challenge, of course, and a more moderate view i s that of S. D. Clark: Disruption and schism have been more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Protestant than of the Roman Catholic Church . . . but neither has escaped movements wreaking havoc upon denominational unity; the chief d i f f e r e n c e has been that the one Church has tended to cry up the other to cry down, the e f f e c t s of r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n . While the majority of r e l i g i o u s groups i n Canadian society f a l l w i thin the scope of the Protestant t r a d i t i o n , i t should be observed that s t a t i s t i c s which give simple t o t a l s of the number of groups are somewhat deceptive and tend to indi c a t e greater t h e o l o g i c a l divergence than i s a c t u a l l y the case. Some groups, f o r example, are ethnic i n o r i g i n , worshipping i n languages other than E n g l i s h . These groups u s u a l l y have almost i d e n t i c a l t h e o l o g i c a l counterparts among the English-speaking r e l i g i o u s organizations. Other organizations are geographical u n i t s , possessing no basic d o c t r i n a l differences from s i m i l a r groups i n other regions. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the more lo o s e l y - k n i t organiza t i o n a l structure of those denominations which stress congregational forms of government. A relevant case, u n t i l recently, was that of the Conven t i o n of Regular B a p t i s t s of B r i t i s h Columbia, the Regular Baptist Missionary Fellowship, and the Fellowship of Evangelical Baptist Churches, three regional organizations which operate r e s p e c t i v e l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n the P r a i r i e s , and i n Eastern Canada. These may have appeared on l i s t s as separate groups, but at present they are i n p r a c t i c a l co-operation and i t i s expected that they w i l l enter into f u l l JS. D. Clark, Church and Sect i n Canada. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1949, p. x i . 7. participation in the Trans-Canada Fellowship of Evangelical Baptist Churches which is now being organized.^ Furthermore, i t should be noted that most of the liste d religious bodies are relatively small. The major part of the religious population is to be found concentrated in the few large groups or in organizations which bear a more or less close relation to the largest bodies. In Canada, for example, the chief groupings are Roman Catholic, Anglican, United Church, Presbyterian, Lutheran, and Baptist. Many of the remain ing groups are related, and can be classified together. For example, the Salvation Army, the Free Methodist Church, the Church of the Nazarene, as well as many "Holiness" and "Pentecostal" bodies a l l find their roots in early Methodism. In recent years informed writers have seen the f u t i l i t y of drawing conclusions from "padded" l i s t s of religious organizations and have sought to identify the underlining influences which have brought about division. An attempt has been made to find some simple and yet valid means of class i f i c a t i o n for religious bodies. The chief terms which have been used in this connection are "denomination", "church", "sect", and "cult". Unfortunately, each of these terms is open to more than one interpretation; hence some definition is in order. "Denomination" is probably the least disputed term. Meaning l i t e r a l l y "that to which a name is given"; the word is a general term and may be used to describe any religious group, large or small. There are, of course, some religious groups which insist that they have no name and ^Thirty-fourth Annual Convention. [Vancouver), Convention of Regular Baptists, 1961, pp. 47-50. 8, "are not a denomination". One of the best known "nameless, non- denominational" denominations i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s the Plymouth Brethren, a C h r i s t i a n movement which i s i t s e l f divided into eight "name l e s s " groups which, for convenience, are c i t e d by authors as "Plymouth Brethren I" to "Plymouth Brethren V I I I " . 5 It i s true that the word "denomination" c a r r i e s with i t , i n the minds of some people, connotations of "the big denomination", "the s p i r i t u a l l y - d e a d i n s t i t u t i o n " or "the machine". Nevertheless, the terra has d i s t i n c t advantages, for i t i s never applied to ei t h e r a l o c a l assembly of Ch r i s t i a n s or to C h r i s t i a n i t y as a whole. Unfortunately, the same cannot be s a i d of the word "church"--one of the most common, most abused, and most ambiguous terms used i n r e l i g i o u s c i r c l e s . It i s used of a b u i l d i n g f o r worship, of the l o c a l congregation worshipping within the b u i l d i n g , of a denomination, of Christendom at large, of the s p i r i t u a l fellowship of true C h r i s t i a n s of a l l generations, and, most recently, of the large i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r e l i g i o u s group, as contrasted with the "sect". To add further to the confusion, our Eng l i s h word "church" i s derived from the Greek K u p i w o v meaning "belong- ing to the Lord", and hence bears no r e l a t i o n whatever to the Greek word GKKXvvrto* meaning "called-out assembly", which i s the word •'Frank S. Mead, Handbook of Denominations. New York, Abingdon Press, 1961, pp. 58, 59. /: H. E. Dana, A Manual of E c c l e s i o l o g y . Kansas C i t y , Kansas, Central Seminary Press, 1944, p. 14. The S c o t t i s h " k i r k " and German "kirc h e " have the same d e r i v a t i o n . 9, i n the New Testament commonly tra n s l a t e d "church". In Sc r i p t u r e e K K X Y \ c n c * i s used to describe either a pagan assembly,^ a l o c a l C h r i s t i a n assembly, or the body of C h r i s t i a n b e l i e v e r s of a l l genera- 9 ti o n s . According to the understanding of B a p t i s t s , the word "church" i s never used i n the singular to describe a group of l o c a l congregations. 1^ For t h i s reason, Baptists are resolute i n t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of the idea that t h e i r denomination can be properly c a l l e d a "church". This explains why the word "church" i n the singular never appears i n the t i t l e of any Baptist convention or as s o c i a t i o n . No such e n t i t y as "The Baptist Church" e x i s t s , or i s l i k e l y to ex i s t i n the foreseeable future, despite the use of such terminology by otherwise well-informed p e r s o n s . 1 1 The phrase "Baptist churches" i s co n s i s t e n t l y used by Baptists when r e f e r  ence i s made to more than one l o c a l congregation. This may seem, to many people, a rather picayune d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , but i t i s v i t a l l y r e l a t e d to the Baptist concept of the nature of Ch r i s t ' s church as the society of the redeemed rather than the redeeming society. It i s commonly acknowledged that "the primary p r i n c i p l e [of Baptists] . . . 'Acts 19:32, 39, 41. 8 A c t s 14:23. Colossians 4:15. 9Ephesians 1:22, 23. Hebrews 12:23. l^Note the use of the p l u r a l i n I Corinthians 16:19 and Galatians 1:2, 22 f o r example. 1 1 T o i l l u s t r a t e , the term i s so employed i n C l a r i s E. Silcox, Church Union i n Canada, New York, I n s t i t u t e of S o c i a l and Religious Research, 1933, p. 132, and i n James C r o i l , Genesis of Churches, Montreal, Foster Brown, 1907,.p. 266. 10. i s that of baptism as the b a s i s of a Since i t i m p l i e s a sharp d e l i n e a t i o n "world" t h i s p r i n c i p l e alone commits from the s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view, B a p t i s t s r e j e c t the word "church" as evident that B a p t i s t s must s e r i o u s l y term "church" as employed by the soc b e t t e r term seems to be a v a i l a b l e an Church of regenerate b e l i e v e r s " , between the C h r i s t i a n group and the B a p t i s t s to a p o s i t i o n which i s , " s e c t a r i a n " . Furthermore, s i n c e a p p l i e d to a denomination, i t i s a l s o question the appropriatness of the L o l o g i s t . Nevertheless, s i n c e no I s i n c e the term "church" has been given s o c i o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , i t seems imperative to examine t h i s use of the term, as w e l l as the terms " s e c t " and " c u l t " . On the subject of "church" and " s e c t " S. D. C l a r k w r i t e s : The c o n f l i c t between f o r c e s of order and s e p a r a t i o n i s fundamental i n r e l i g i o u s development. I t i s the c o n f l i c t between the church and the sect forms of r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n . The church seeks the accommodation of r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n to the community; the welfare of s o c i e t y i s something f o r which i t f e e l s r e s p o n s i b l e . The sect emphasizes the exclusiveness of r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n ; the w o r l d l y s o c i e t y i s something e v i l of no concern to the s p i r i t u a l l y minded. While no sharp l i n e can be drawn between the two forms of r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n (the church always contains some of the a t t r i b u t e s of the sect w h i l e the sect i s never "pure," completely ot h e r - w o r l d l y i n c h a r a c t e r ) , w i t h i n the church the s p i r i t of accommodation tends to dominate, w i t h i n the sect the s p i r i t of s e p a r a t i o n . I t i s the d i f f e r e n c e i n outlook, i n a t t i t u d e of mind, which i s so important i n s e t t i n g the one o f f from the o t h e r . ^ While most w r i t e r s recognize the c o n f l i c t of "church" and " s e c t " , they are quick to p o i n t out a process by which the " s e c t " tends to de velop i n t o a "church" and the "church", i n t u r n , tends to spawn " s e c t s " . 1 9 Newton H. M a r s h a l l , " B a p t i s t s " , Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a . 1951, V o l . 3, p. 87. 1 3 S . D. C l a r k , op. c i t . . p. x i i . 11- In the second generation the sect begins to lose i t s character. The need for indoctrination of the young in the peculiar doctrines arises, and those who are trained in the sect seldom espouse i t s principles with the same devotion of those who were initiated therein by personal experience. The virtues of frugality and industry bear fr u i t in prosperity, and when prosperity comes the reasons for the sectarian revolt disappear and the manner of l i f e against which the fathers rebelled is embraced by their children. Thus the spiritual need and economic forces which in one generation drew the sect out of the church turn about to transform the sect into a church.^ Thus the "church" and "sect" are regarded as sociologically related groups. The "cult", on the other hand, is defined as a group which l i e s outside this relationship. For example, W. E. Mann maintains that . . . whereas sects emphasize recovery of primitive, f i r s t - century Christian doctrine, cults tend to blend alien religious or psychological notions with Christian doctrine with a view to obtain ing a more "adequate" or "modern" faith. For this reason they are labelled heresies by both the churches and the sects and especially denounced by the latter. . . . Besides this syncretism, cults are found to possess a number of other common characteristics. Their services are generally lacking in s t i r r i n g emotional manifestations; dramatic exhortations or preaching are consistently eschewed and new members are won by "reasoned" or speculative argument rather than by emotional appeals. Most cults accept the validity of modern science and i t s assumption of a rational cosmic system. In a sense, these groups are post- sc i e n t i f i c in outlook, and professedly metaphysical, while sects and churches are prescientific. . . . Their attitude to the established churches is generally one of condescension or enlightened superi ority. They consider that they have discovered new truth which the churches w i l l eventually be forced to accept. Cults are further distinguished from sectarian bodies by their moral outlook. Seldom do they take a strong ascetic stand or press upon their followers a programme of s t r i c t moral self-denial. . . . In membership regulations they are less r i g i d and exclusive than sects. The same is true of their attitude toward the Holy Scriptures. In fact, the conventional cult approach to Holy Writ, far from being l i t e r a l i s t i c and r i g i d , is quite speculative and hElmer T. Clark, op.- eft.. p. 17. 12., a l l e g o r i c a l . 1 5 During most of the history of Christendom i t has been the accepted practice to explain religious divergence in terms of conflict over doc tr i n a l tenets. In recent years, however, efforts have been made to analyse the situation in terms other than theological. The lectures of William James on The Varieties of Religious Experience were among the f i r s t attempts at such an approach, and provoked a variety of reactions within Christendom at the turn of this century. In the opinion of James, religious diversity is to be traced to the leadership of "exceptional and eccentric" persons of "exalted emotional s e n s i b i l i t y " . 1 ^ The various religious groups find their source in the psychological differences of individuals: . . . Ought i t , indeed, to be assumed that the lives of a l l men should show identical religious elements? In other words, is the existence of so many religious types and sects and creeds re grettable? To these questions I answer "No" emphatically. And my reason is that I do not see how i t is possible that creatures in such different positions and with such different powers as human individuals are, should have exactly the same functions and the same duties. No two of us have identical d i f f i c u l t i e s , nor should we be expected to work out identical solutions. 1 7 •I Q Writing as one who rejected "popular Christianity", James 19 evinced his a f f i n i t y for the Buddhist doctrine of Karma. As would be 15W. E. Mann, Sect.' Cult, and Church in Alberta. Toronto, Univer sity of Toronto Press, 1955, p. 6. •^William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience. New York, Modern Library, 1902, p. 7. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 476. 1 8 I b i d . . p. 511. 19, Ibid.. p. 512. 13. expected, he placed his conclusions within the framework of Pragmatism. Conservative Christian theologians, committed as they were to a concept of absolutes, could not accept his theories, but theological liberals began to make a fashion of interpreting Christianity in psychological terms. After a time, however, even liberals became rather concerned lest, in "explaining Christianity" they had "explained i t away". In the opinion of Walter M. Horton, a prominent Baptist theological professor: . . . If there is one thing that we miss in the liberal Christian ity which more and more prevails, i t is that sense of the presence of a great sustaining moral power which used to be the glory of the evangelical churches. Ethical sensitiveness is here aplenty in the lib e r a l movement, but I am not so sure about moral power. If this diagnosis be correct, liberalism needs to recover the experience of the Living C h r i s t . 2 0 However, upon closer examination, Horton's "Living Christ" turns out to be hardly more than a pale personification of "Psychological- factors-at-work". What is this experience of the Living Christ, psychologically speaking? I suppose i t might be described as the reinforcement of the individual w i l l by conscious and continual submission to the influence of a personified ideal—an ideal which, moreover, the believer feels to be grounded in the nature of things and really as well as imaginatively present in power. This ideal may have l i t t l e to do with the actual character of Jesus of Nazareth. Often, i f not generally, the ideal i s derived from elsewhere. What seizes and transforms the drunkard is the ideals he was taught in childhood. What a youth embraces when he joins the Church is the moral standard prevalent in his church—often copied from the popular morality of the d i s t r i c t . Sometimes conversion is an even more fundamental overturn than this, a recrudescence under some favoring stimulus of the deep-lying social instincts, too long supressed under a mass of selfis h impulses and habits. 2 1 2 0Walter M. Horton, A Psychological Approach to Theology. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1931, p. 161. 2 1 l b i d . . p. 156. 14. More recently, writers on r e l i g i o u s v a r i a t i o n have s h i f t e d emphasis from i n d i v i d u a l psychology to s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s . S o c i o l o g i c a l l y , sects are generally viewed as i n s t i t u t i o n s of s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s protest, as bulwarks of c e r t a i n disadvantaged s o c i a l groups i n t h e i r struggle against the s o c i a l power, moral con ventions, and ethos of the middle classes, and against i n s t i t u t i o n a l  ized and formalized r e l i g i o n . On the other hand, the church i s con sidered to be a r e l i g i o u s structure which has become well accommodated to the secular world, and i s , f o r the most part, aligned with the middle and upper classes.22 For over a quarter century such views respecting the s o c i a l o r i g i n s of r e l i g i o u s groups have held a prominent place i n Protestant thought. One of the e a r l i e s t and most i n f l u e n t i a l writers on the subject i n North America was the Portestant theologian Richard Niebuhr who set f o r t h such ideas i n The S o c i a l Sources of Denominationalism. While some s o c i o l o g i s t s regard "church" and "s e c t " forms as s o c i a l l y i n e v i t a b l e , Niebuhr r e j e c t s such a conclusion and i s sharply c r i t i c a l of r e l i g i o u s "castes": . . . one hears no word of a common C h r i s t i a n system of values to which a l l can express a l l e g i a n c e . Each r e l i g i o u s group gives ex pression to that code which forms the morale of the p o l i t i c a l or economic class i t represents. They function as p o l i t i c a l and cl a s s i n s t i t u t i o n s , not as C h r i s t i a n churches.^3 Niebuhr concludes that the d i v i s i o n s of Christendom must be regarded as an evidence of e t h i c a l f a i l u r e : . . . the denominations, churches, sects, are s o c i o l o g i c a l groups whose p r i n c i p l e of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s to be sought in t h e i r con formity to the order of s o c i a l classes and castes. It would not be true to a f f i r m that the denominations are not r e l i g i o u s groups 2 9 Mann, op. c i t . . p. 5. Richard Niebuhr, The S o c i a l Sources of Denominationalism. New York, Henry Holt, 1929, p. 23. 15. with religious purposes, but i t is true that they represent the accommodation of religion to the caste system. They are emblems, therefore, of the victory of the world over the church, of the secularization of Christianity, of the church's sanction of that divisiveness which the church's gospel condemns.2^ Niebuhr makes extensive use of historical material and his analysis is penetrating and provocative. Possible weaknesses in Niebuhr's viewpoint are his over-emphasis on the secular nature of religious divis ion and his assumption that Protestantism is essentially "middle-class" in outlook.2-* A more recent writer, Hugh T. Kerr attacks the latter opinion: S t i l l another common but questionable stereotype of America C s i c l denominationalism is that our Protestant churches are for the most part "middle class". . . . Protestant church membership, i t is said, draws most heavily from this middle-class range, with not so many from the upper or lower economic or educational levels. This reproach is often magnified by setting Protestantism over against Roman Catholicism which allegedly enjoys a broader and more inclusive social structure. . . . One reason that this impression persists is the d i f f i c u l t y of securing comprehensive evidence about the social structure of our churches. But in recent years some pertinent figures have been gathered and sifted, and i t now seems clear that this judgment on Protestantism is a stereotype, a half-truth, an oversimplification. Kerr makes reference to a survey conducted in 1948 by Princeton University for the Federal Council of Churches. This investigation is valid only for our present era, but i t is of interest to note that i t 2^Niebuhr, op. c i t . , p. 25. 2 5 I b l d . , p. 77. 2 6Hugh T. Kerr, What Divides Protestants Today. New York, Association Press, 1958, pp. 43-45. 16, failed to uncover an anticipated close relationship between denomination and social class. The classifications used were somewhat arbitrary, nevertheless the conclusions were indicative. On a national average, the population was adjudged to be 13.1 percent "upper class", 30.7 percent "middle class", and 56.2 percent "lower class". Based upon these c r i t e r i a , the all-inclusive figures for Protestants followed the national average quite closely, with 13.8 percent in the "upper class", 32.6 per cent in the •'middle class", and 53.6 percent in the "lower class". Of the nine major denominations listed in the survey, Baptists had the smallest percentage of members in the "upper" and "middle" classes. The Baptists, including the large negro Baptist population of the South, were divided into 8 percent "upper class", 24 percent "middle class" and 68 percent "lower class". Curiously enough, the Roman Catholics showed an almost identical distribution. "Smaller bodies" were found to have a slightly higher percentage of membership in "upper" and "middle" class than either Baptists or Roman Catholics, while the Episcopal Church, the leading "upper class" body with 24.1 percent, nevertheless l i s t e d 42.2 percent of i t s membership in the "lower class".^ 7 The figures would lead one to the conclusion that economic factors, while significant, are not as important as some have supposed. 'Statistics from a survey conducted for the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America fnow the National Council! in 1948 and cited in Kerr, op. c i t . . pp. 46-47. See Appendix A for details. The stati s t i c s for Baptists would be much more valuable and con clusive i f the survey had made a closer study of individual Baptist groups, both negro and white, sectarian or otherwise. Nevertheless, the figures for more centralized denominations indicate the general pattern of a spread in membership among the various economic classes. 17. Due consideration should be given to the relation of sectarianism to frontier society. . . . the church has been dependent upon a condition of social s t a b i l i t y and when such a condition has not been present i t has given way to the sect form of religious organization. Thus developments in religious organization, on the one side, in the direction of greater order and union and, on the other side, in the direction of disorder and separation, have been closely related to movements of social order and disorder in the wider community. The church has grown out of the conditions of a mature society; the sect has been a product of what might be called frontier conditions of social l i f e . Within the broad pattern of the social development of Canada, the persistent conflict between these two forms of religious organization takes on meaning. Early settlers in British Columbia, as on other frontiers, tended to be drawn from the younger, more venturesome and more individualistic members of older communities. Furthermore, they were brought together in an association which was f l u i d and formative, with a minimum of social pressures. In fact, in the earliest instances, they found a condition of no "society", and set about to form one. It is understandable therefore, that frontier religious l i f e should reflect this pioneer individualism, particularly in denominations such as the Baptists, which give consider able scope and leadership to the individual. Such observations regarding the frontier would appear to substan tiate the "frontier hypothesis" of the American historian Frederick Jackson Turner. At the close of the last century Turner put forward the theory that the most significant influence upon the history of the United States was the westward advance of pioneer settlement with i t s quest for cheap f e r t i l e s o i l , easy economic gains, and freedom from conventional society. S. D. Clark, op. c i t . . p. x i i . It should be noted that sects are not confined to rural frontiers, however, but are urban phenomena as well. 18. According to Turner, the frontier was the chief factor in moulding the character of the American people and the structure of American social and p o l i t i c a l institutions. To a greater or lesser degree, most recent his torians in North America have been willing to grant that Turner's views 29 have some weight. The "frontier hypothesis" has helped to shape the thinking of writers in the f i e l d of sociology and church history. There appears to be a growing tendency to modify Turner's thesis, however. It has been pointed out that the frontier was a haven for racial and religious minorities. It has been suggested that the frontier could be restrictive and conservative. It has been argued that, on the frontier, " i t is the primary or economic mores which undergo the greatest degree of change or variation. The secondary mores. such as government, law, religion, and social institutions change to a far less degree".^ Some recent historians have taken the view that the metropolis i s one of the most significant factors in North American history. It is contended that the roots of frontier culture are to be found in the metropolitan community, from which education and ideas radiate. One such historian, J. M. S. Careless, states, "True, there may be frontier religious movements, but these begin with preachers going out to the frontier and end in the 31 focusing of the sect on the city" . 9Q 'Morris Zaslow, "The Frontier Hypothesis in Recent Historiography", Canadian Historical Review. June, 1948, pp. 154-157. 30 George F. G. Stanley, "Western Canada and the Frontier Thesis", Canadian Historical Association Annual Report. 1940, p. 107. 31j. M. S. Careless, "Frontierism, Metropolitanism, and Canadian History", Canadian Historical Review. March, 1954, p. 18. 19. It would seem that only a modified form of the frontier theory can apply to Canada. Here the period of the "open frontier" was much shorter and more recent than in the United States. The essentials of law and order, along with the means of transportation, such as the r a i l  way, tended to be established previous to settlement. Canada never had a "Wild West". Furthermore, ties with the Old World of Britain and France were stronger among Canadians. The very simplicity of the Turner thesis makes i t suspect. It should not be concluded, however, that i t has no validity. To deny any degree of environmental determinism is to assume that a l l developments took place in a geographical vacuum. On the other hand, due weight must be given to the formative influence of the traditions and ideals which were "imported" to the New World from the Old. This immigration of ideas was particularly valid in the case of social and religious in stitutions. Recent literature on the subject of sectarianism has been careful to point out the importance of social and economic determinants in our religious l i f e . L i t t l e stress, however, has been placed upon three other factors which have often proved to be v i t a l in the development of sects--leadership, persecution, and theology. A study of religious movements reveals the importance of the role of leadership. The dynamic personality of the teacher, the preacher, the theologian, the reformer, has been a potent formative influence within most, i f not a l l , religious groups. The history of Christianity is re plete with examples of this. It is d i f f i c u l t to conceive of Christendom without i t s Paul, Augustine, Aquinas, Luther, or Wesley. In fact 20. Christianity i t s e l f , of a l l the world's religions, is the example par excellence of a spiritual movement built around a great leader. In the New Testament the most stupendous and, i f untrue, the most extravagant claims are made on behalf of Jesus of Nazareth—nothing less than the affirmation that he is God incarnate in human flesh and the resurrected Saviour of the World. Christian literature down through the centuries has been f i l l e d with reiterations of these claims and many of the "sects'* received i n i t i a l impetus from the labours of men, such as John Wesley, who sincerely believed that there existed a need to reemphasize the Person of Jesus Christ and his appeal for the allegiance of mankind. Unlike Methodists, Lutherans, and many other groups, the Baptists can trace their history as a denomination to no prominent single per sonality or group of persons. Balthasar Hubmaier and Menno Simmons were significant leaders of the Anabaptists during the time of the Protestant Reformation, but the connection between Anabaptists and Baptists is one of spiritual kinship rather than organizational continuity. John Smyth and Thomas Helwys, who were instrumental in the founding of English Baptist churches during the early 1600's,^ a r e b u t names in a history book. In America, Roger Williams is noted as the founder of Rhode Island and champion of religious liberty. He was also largely respon sible for the establishment in 1639 of Firs t Baptist Church, Providence, 33 Rhode Island, probably the f i r s t Baptist congregation in America. 32Robert G. Torbet, A History of the Baptists. Philadelphia, Judson Press, 1952, pp. 62-69. 33ibld.. pp. 220-221. 21., Shortly after, the individualistic and somewhat erratic Williams for feited much of the credit for this achievement when he withdrew his membership from the church. Despite the absence among Baptists of historically prominent leaders, the role of leadership should not be underestimated. Because of the autonomy of the Baptist congregation, the individual pastor is often more influential than he would be in a more tightly-organized denomination. In fact, he often proves to be a key influence in determining the enlistment, outlook, and associations of a local church. This is never more true than during times of distress and dissension within the group. From time to time, fires of persecution have served to consume or to refine the sect. The sect is recognized as a protest and "other worldly" group, but more emphasis might be given to the sociological corollary of this observation. Not only does the sect tend to reject the world, the world tends to reject the sect. The "church" form of religious institution has a l l too often, for good or i l l , been the guard ian of vested interests, dedicated to the religious, moral, social and p o l i t i c a l status quo, and openly antagonistic to the sect. The "church" has generally displayed tolerance of the sect only to the degree that the existence of the "church" is not threatened. Both Judaism and Pagan Rome persecuted early Christianity because they f e l t threatened by i t . The medieval church exterminated the Albigenses for the same reason. The early Anabaptists and Baptists were persecuted by Roman Catholics and Protestants alike. Nor does such opposition need to take the form of military force or physical torture. "Churches" have not 22, hesitated to mass the forces of wealth, respectability, social pressure and secular power in order to absorb or obliterate sects. Even in our present more tolerant age such antagonism may take the form of ridicule or subtle disdain. In brief, the "church" has often tended to regard the sect as a dark blot upon the bright landscape of social and religious' conformity. The usual effect of this attitude has been to consolidate the sect, reinforcing i t s viewpoint and kindling i t to aggressive pro- pagation. Current sociology tends to regard sectarian theology as a con venient justification for the social and economic conditions in which the sect finds i t s e l f . This view seems to be a dangerous generalization. That economics may influence one's theological position is freely granted. It is also acknowledged that the factors which determine the theological viewpoint of a religious leader may not be, and indeed usually are not, identical with the forces which bring together a group around that leader. In many cases the latter forces may be more social than theolog i c a l . To take the position, however, that economics determines theology is to conclude not only that theology has no intrinsic validity, but also that "primary" religious experience is of no real significance.^ As has 34wa Iter Houston Clark, Dean of Hartford School of Religious Education, classifies religious behaviour as "primary", "secondary", and "tertiary". He defines primary behaviour as "an authentic inner experience of the divine combined with whatever efforts the individual may make to harmonize his l i f e with the divine". He states that: . . . a vivid conversion experience may f i t the category of primary behavior. As the result of this the individual may join a church and punctiliously present himself for worship every Sunday for the rest of his days. But most of those Sundays may represent a very routine and uninspired carrying out of what he considers an obligation undertaken under very solemn circumstances. We do not 23. 35 been noted above, the anticipated high correlation between sectarianism and the "lower" classes proves to be only relative. How does the theory that theology is economically determined explain the rise of an Apostle Paul, a Francis of Assissi, or a Count Zinzendorf? Surely theology is of some validity and significance quite apart from economic considerations? On this point Niebuhr writes: There are indications in the Christ-against-culture movement [""sectarianism"! that the d i f f i c u l t i e s the Christian faces as he deals with his dilemma are not only ethical but theological; and that ethical solutions depend quite as much on theological under standing as vice versa. Questions about divine and human nature, about God's action and man's, arise at every point, as the radical Christian undertakes to separate himself from the cultural society, and as he engages in debate with members of other Christian groups.^ One seems driven to the conclusion that Christian theology is a valid factor worthy of consideration in an analysis of "church" and "sect". If this is acknowledged, one is logically faced with the necessity of giving consideration to what has been, historically, the main source book of Christian theology. In short, what does the New necessarily have to hold that such is useless. There is a function for secondary religious behavior to perform, and i t certainly is much more common than the primary type. But there is a quite obvious distinction between the two. . . . Of "tertiary" religious behaviour Clark remarks: . . . This has nothing of the primary about i t . . . but is simply a matter of religious routine or convention accepted on the author ity of someone else. . . . we get the impression that a rather considerable number of repectable [ s i c j churchgoers have never f e l t the remotest approach to a spiritual experience, however thorough their performance of a l l the l i t e r a l duties that their churches enjoin. Walter H. Clark, The Psychology of Religion^ New York, Macmillan, 1958, pp. 23-25. 3 5See p. 16. 36H. Richard Niebuhr, Christ and Culture, New York, Harper & Brothers, 1951, p. 76. 24, Testament have to say on the subject of sectarianism? Can the a t t i t u d e of the sect toward the community at large be j u s t i f i e d on the basis of the teachings of Jesus? Is C h r i s t i a n i t y , i n essence, sectarian? Was the early church a sect? These and a score of other basic questions are suggested to the mind. The inquiry as to whether early C h r i s t i a n i t y was a sect i s usually answered by the s o c i o l o g i s t i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . Elmer T. Clark remarks: A l l denominations began as sects. . . . This i s true of C h r i s t i a n  i t y i t s e l f , which was three hundred years o l d before i t a t t r a c t e d considerable numbers of the s o c i a l l y w e l l - p l a c e d . 3 7 It i s evident from the Acts of the Apostles that the early church was most c e r t a i n l y regarded as a sect by i t s opponents. Jewish par tisans at Caesarea r e f e r r e d to the C h r i s t i a n s as "the sect of the Nazarenes", and interested Jews i n Rome sought to know more of " t h i s sect . . . that every where [ s i c ] . . . i s spoken a g a i n s t " . 3 9 In replying to h i s accusers, Paul spoke of himself as one who worshipped " a f t e r the way which they c a l l heresy [or 'a sect'j " . ^ The Greek word employed i n each of these passages i s c*ip€<ns, l i t e r a l l y a "choice" or "decision", the root of our modern word "heresy", although the term had not, at t h i s time, developed a l l the connotations which are now associated with 41 i t . Nevertheless, t h i s early use of the term by a majority r e  l i g i o u s group when r e f e r r i n g to a minority group does have a J / E l m e r T. Clark, op. c i t . . p. 16. -"'Acts 24:5. 3 9 A c t s 28:22. 4 0 A c t s 24:14. 4•'•Hermann Cremer, B i b l i o - T h e o l o g i c a l Lexion of New Testament  ,Greek, (William Urwick trans.), Edinburgh, T & T Clark, 1954, p. 614. parallel in the later origin of the English term "sect", a fact which accounts for the use of the English word in the translation of the New Testament. To recapitulate, i t should be noted that, sociologically, the terms "church" and "sect" gain meaning because of the difference in attitude of these groups to the society at large. It might be argued therefore that the Jewish use of the term "sect" does not in i t s e l f prove the essential "sectarianism" of early Christianity. However one does not have to read far in the New Testament to find in the recorded teaching of Christ and his disciples doctrines which would, beyond doubt, be immediately classified by the sociologist as "sectarian". Men are admonished by Jesus that "narrow is the way . . . and few there be that find i t " . Christians are reminded that they are "not of the world" 4 3 and are to "love not the world". 4 4 A warning is given that riches may be a spiritual s n a r e i t i s observed that "not many mighty, not many noble, are called"j 4** and the rich self-sufficient 47 church at Laodicea is condemned. The church of Christ is depicted as 48 a society which transcends a l l social and racial barriers,*° and members 49 of the church are not to be "conformed to this world". It seems evident that a strong case can be made from the Christ ian Scriptures to support the idea that there is something essentially ^Matthew 7il4. 4 4 I John 2:15. 4 6 I Corinthians 1:26. 4 8Galatians 3:26-28. 4 3John 15:19. 45Matthew 19:16-30. 4 7Revelation 3:14-19. 49Romans 12:2. 26. "sectarian" about Christianity. This is not to say that " a l l sects are right" and " a l l churches are wrong". Nevertheless, reason is given for reflection upon the degree to which our society and our modern church l i f e conforms to New Testament Christianity. The religious group which is conformed to i t s society has no v i t a l message to give to that society. Niebuhr comments: The evils of denominationalism do not l i e , however, in this differentiation of churches and sects. On the contrary, the rise of new sects to champion the uncompromising ethics of Jesus and "to preach the gospel to the poor" has again and again been the effective means of recalling Christendom to i t s mission. This phase of de nominational history must be regarded as helpful, despite the break in unity which i t brings about. The evil of denominationalism l i e s in the conditions which makes rsicl the rise of sects desirable and necessary: in the failure of the churches to transcend the social conditions which fashion them into caste-organizations, to sublimate their loyalties to standards and institutions only remotely relevant i f not contrary to the Christian ideal, to resist the temptation of making their own self-preservation and extension the primary object of their endeavor.5° In common with other groups within the Protestant tradition, Baptists, throughout their history, have sought to lay claim upon the principles of New Testament Christianity. How successful they have been is a matter of opinion, but the very fact that they have striven to do so has committed them to sectarianism. Baptist principles, in part, have been summarized in a "Report on . . . Church Union" issued in 1907 after Baptists were invited to join in the proposed United Church of Canada. The Baptist people regard a l l truly religious a f f i l i a t i o n s as reposing, on the one hand, on God's gracious self-communication to human souls, and on the other hand, on each man's free acceptance to the Divine grace and obedience to the Divine W i l l . As we understand the Scriptures, only those who are the subjects of such a spiritual experience are capable of participation in Christian fellowship or 5°Niebuhr, Sources of Denominationalism, p. 21. 27. entitled to membership in a Christian church. . . . Hence the practice of infant baptism and the consequences which follow i t are a fatal impediment to organic union between the Baptists and Paedo-Baptist churches. Hence also the impossibility of Baptists consenting to an alteration of the original mode of baptism, because without the immersion i t s representation of the believer's union with Christ in His death and resurrection is lost. Further, the doctrine of the s p i r i t u a l i t y of the Christian church demands that i t avoid a l l alliance with secular authorities. 5 1 Commenting on this report, a United Church leader, Claris E. Silcox, writes: . . . an interesting sequel may perhaps be found in the fact that in i t s endeavor to c l a r i f y i t s own mind as to the distinctive prin ciples which Baptists cherish, that denomination in Ontario and Quebec has since s p l i t into a number of groups which have engaged in bitter and severe controversy. At the present time there seems no clear agreement as to what the distinctive principles a r e . 5 2 Elsewhere, Silcox relates the situation in more det a i l : This denomination, [Baptists] in spite of i t s genuine v i t a l i t y , has not effected as yet a Dominion-wide inner consolidation which would provide i t with an effective machinery for self-propagation. What is more, in recent years the denomination has manifested more centrifugence than centripetence, especially in Ontario and Quebec. No Canadian denomination has been more torn by the Fundamentalist- Modernist issue. The conflict arose over teaching at McMaster University, simmered between 1910 and 1926 and resulted in schism. . . . Canadian Baptists . . . have achieved neither organiza tional nor temperamental u n i f i c a t i o n . 5 3 The observations of Silcox, regarding the dismembering effect of the Fundamentalist-Modernist issue upon Canadian Baptists, must be acknowledged as true. Nevertheless, this same issue has given rise to repercussions throughout Christendom; why then should i t have such a t e l l i n g effect upon Baptists? The answer would appear to l i e in the 5*See Appendix B for f u l l text of the report. 5 2 S i l c o x , op. c i t . . p. 132. 53ibid., pp. 40-41. 28. fact that Baptists may be regarded as the oldest and largest body of sectarian opinion within Protestantism. Niebuhr describes the Anabaptists as "the f i r s t Protestant sect, as distinct from the churches of the Reformat i o n " . ^ Baptists, rooted in the Anabaptist sentiments of the Pre- Reformation period, have grown in numbers to become the largest Protestant denomination in the United States.^ Increasing membership, wealth, and respectability have placed great strains upon the original sectarianism of Baptists, and, as a whole, they have moved a considerable distance on the road to becoming a "church-type" organization. Nevertheless, the per sistence of sectarian convictions has been a notable aspect of Baptist history, and the struggle to maintain sectarianism has given rise to a great deal of controversy in Baptist ranks. Significantly related to such controversy is the fact that Baptists, as a denomination, have failed to achieve unity of thought in at least four important areas. Other de nominations are faced with the same problem areas, but, in most cases, 5 4N iebuhr, Sources of Denominationalism. p. 38. ^Baptists in the United States have a membership of some 20,500,000, including a l l groups. Methodism is the second largest denomination among Protestants, claiming over 13,600,000, adherents. The Methodist Church, with over 9,900,000 members was, un t i l recently, the largest single Protestant organization. None of these figures include children. See Mead, op. c i t . . pp. 32, 151, 155. During 1963 the Southern Baptist Convention took the lead as the largest Protestant group. See news report in Eternity. February, 1964, p. 37. It should be kept in mind that comparative stati s t i c s on church membership are not as indicative as they may seem. Various methods of reckoning are employed and church r o l l s may include a sizeable percentage of nominal members. In general, the "sects" and smaller groups inspire in their adherents a higher degree of actual support and participation. 2 9 . seem to have resolved t h e i r differences i n a manner more conducive to denominational unity. The f i r s t of these areas i s i n the realm of theology; i t embraces the vexing question of the r e l a t i o n of Divine sovereignty to human res p o n s i b i l i t y . On t h i s issue Protestant theologians are divided into two main schools of thought, popularly known as Calvinism and Arminianism. Calvinism i s that body of opinion which follows Augustine and Calvin i n pl a c i n g emphasis on the operation of God's sovereign w i l l i n h i s t o r y and in the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s . Arminianism takes i t s name from James Arminius, a Dutch theologian of the l a t e sixteenth century, who reacted strongly against the predestinarian aspects of Calvinism and stressed man's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the freedom of the human w i l l . The great English-speaking exponent of Arminian thought was John Wesley, whose work and influence made Arminianism the theology of the majority of Methodists. There was nothing ephemeral about the clash of opinion between Calvinism and Arminianism; the controversy i s s t i l l relevant today; and both sides dealt with basic issues which have profound rami f i c a t i o n s i n the f i e l d of theology. In general, Calvinism has tended to stress d o c t r i n a l r e f l e c t i o n and Arminianism has emphasized e x p e r i e n t i a l r e l i g i o n . While the majority of modern Baptists are moderate C a l v i n i s t s , Arminian thought has had a s i g n i f i c a n t influence i n Baptist h i s t o r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y among Baptists of England and the European continent. The second problem for Baptists i s i n the area of church p o l i t y . -'"George W h i t e f i e l d and Methodists of the "Lady Huntingdon Connection" were C a l v i n i s t i c . 30. Of the three basic viewpoints on church government--episcopacy, presbyterianism, and congregationalism--Baptists, from their early history, have been committed to Congregationalism for reasons which they have f e l t were in harmony with statements in the New Testament. As they grew from small beginnings, however, Baptists found, as the early Christians evidently discovered, that increased size posed organizational problems. From time to time, agitation for a more centralized form of government arose, countered by aggressive reaction against such a ten dency. Nevertheless, pressure toward centralization s t i l l persists. As a result, while in theory a l l Baptist churches are autonomous and thoroughly democratic, in practice they may be guided, i f not directed, in their decisions by prominent leaders in the denomination. In such a situation an aggressive leader may gain great respect or, on the contrary, s t i r great antagonism. The same situation can develop within a local church. The leadership role of the pastor is often not too clearly de fined, and members of the congregation may lack a sense of spiritual responsibility. Thus, while ideally Jesus Christ is Head over a l l , in reality, anarchy may rule. At i t s best, congregational church government can evoke a high degree of cooperation and enthusiasm among the church members. At i t s worst, i t may be less than constructive. A third source of tension among Baptists is related to doctrinal discipline among individual members. Baptists have no authoritative creed. Various statements of faith have been employed throughout Baptist history, but only the Scriptures are regarded as fin a l authority. 31, However, as has been common i n church h i s t o r y , there have been times when divergent int e r p r e t a t i o n s of the B i b l e , or doctrines regarded as being contrary to the Scriptures, have been promulgated. It has been i n such seasons of stress as, for example, the period of the Council of Nicea, that a g i t a t i o n s have sprung up i n favour of an a u t h o r i t a t i v e creed which would be binding upon a l l church members. In s i m i l a r s i t u a  tions B a p t i s t s , b e l i e v i n g as they do i n the voluntary and personal nature of the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , are torn between a desire to promote soul-freedom and a desire to preserve e s s e n t i a l doctrine. Thus Confessions of F a i t h have often become bones of contention. The l a s t of these four i n t e r r e l a t e d issues has to do with the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Baptists to other denominations. At the heart of t h i s question l i e s the controversy of "open communion" versus "close communion". There i s a wide scope of opinion on t h i s question, varying on the one hand from an "open membership" such as i s p r a c t i c e d by some Baptist churches i n England'which extend membership to the non-immersed, and at the other extreme including the "Landmarkers" of Southern United States who refuse communion to a l l but members of the church i n which the communion service i s h e l d . 5 7 In general, however, "open communion- i s t s " i n v i t e members of other denominations to p a r t i c i p a t e at the Lord's Supper, while "close communionists" do not give such an i n v i t a t i o n . There has never been any agreement among Baptists on t h i s point, and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to decide which p o s i t i o n i s more "sectarian", since many of •''The name "Landmarker" ori g i n a t e d from the text of Proverbs 22:28, "Remove not the ancient landmark, which thy fathers have set". 32, the "churches" have been close communionistic in theory, i f not in practice. In our present generation, because public sentiment is against close communion, sects are more apt to maintain i t s observance. The history of Baptists illustrates the persistence of the tensions which have been mentioned above. The f i r s t known Baptist Church in England,-*8 founded in 1611 or early 1612 by Thomas Helwys, was Arminian in doctrine. English Calvinistic Baptists date from c. 1638. The Arminian group came to be known as General Baptists, while the Calvinists took the name Particular Baptists. The names originate in their res pective views of the Atonement of Christ as being for the world in general, or particularly for the e l e c t . ^ Baptist sentiments flourished during the period of the Common wealth and many Baptists embraced republican ideas. Consequently, the Protectorate and Restoration brought stress and persecution such as was typified in John Bunyan's imprisonment as a Baptist dissenter. However, when a measure of religious liberty was gained through the Act of Toleration in 1689, a period of spiritual decline followed. The General Baptists by this time had developed a more centralized type of church government than the Particular Baptists; in fact, some "presbyterian" ideas were in evidence. At the same time, General Baptists had resisted the development of definite statements of faith and hence were gravely affected by the theological speculations of late seventeenth and early 58xhis church was an offshoot of an English-speaking Baptist church founded in Holland by John Smyth about 1609. Torbet, op. c i t . . pp. 64-66. ->9In this connection, note the two ideas expressed in I Timothy 4:10. 33., eighteenth century England. During this period numerous General Baptist churches defected to Unitarianism. As Torbet notes, "Having failed to face frankly a doctrinal issue, the influence of General Baptists declined". 6 0 Particular Baptists, in contrast, were slow in organizational development, but much more inclined to formulate statements of faith such as the London Confession of 1689. As a consequence they were much better able to weather doctrinal storms, and they became the dominant group. During the nineteenth century there was a gradual amalgamation of General and Particular Baptist forces to form the Baptist Union of Great Britain and Ireland, a union which was completed in 1891. In the mean time, however, one of the most influential leaders of English Baptists, Charles Haddon Spurgeon, had withdrawn from the Union in 1887 because of 61 the liberal doctrinal views held by some of i t s members. An important distinctive characteristic of most English Baptists has been the practice of open communion. This approach was typical of both General and Particular Baptists and was maintained by such leaders 62 as Spurgeon. The predominance of open communion may be traced, in part, to the power and prestige which was enjoyed by the Established Church. Baptists found themselves in no position to compete on equal terms, and found open communion a practical approach to winning respect 6 0Torbet, op. c i t . . p. 89. 6 1 l b i d . . p. 137. P o l i t i c a l l y , Spurgeon was a Liberal and a friend of Gladstone. 62 A smaller group, the "Strict Baptists" adhere to close communion. 34.. and participation from Anglicans, particularly those of Low Church evangelical persuasion. In contrast, Scottish Baptists had to compete with the Presbyterians who held views on soteriology and democratic church government similar to Baptists. The insistence of Scottish 63 Baptists on "plurality of elders" and close communion was a defensive reaction against Presbyterianism. Baptists of both General and Particular persuasion emigrated to the New World, but religious developments in New England were of such a nature that the Calvinistic strain of Baptists tended to prevail. The spiritual revival known as "The Great Awakening", which began about 1726, was predominantly Calvinistic in outlook and greatly influenced the growth of Baptists. In 1742 the Philadelphia Association, the f i r s t organization of Baptists in America, adopted the London Confession of 64 1689 with some minor changes. This was followed in 1833, by the New Hampshire Confession which was somewhat shorter than the lengthy In the Baptist view the New Testament "elders" were also identified as "bishops" (sometimes translated "overseers"), as in Acts 20:17, 28. The "bishops" of a local church were contrasted with "deacons" (Philippians 1:1) but not with the pastor, who himself was a bishop or elder. In the middle of the nineteenth century Dr. Alexander Carson, a prominent Scottish Baptist and a convert from Presbyterianism, was a strong advocate that each Baptist church should have a board of elders, even i f only one, the pastor, were financially supported by the congregation. This would offset any claim that the Presbyterians were "more scriptural" than Baptists. See Torbet, op. c i t . . p. 119, and Alexander Carson, Baptism in i t s Mode and Subjects. London, Houlston and Stoneman, 1844, pp. 12-15. 6 4 E . T. Hiscox, The New Directory For Baptist Churches. Philadelphia, Judson Press, 1894, p. 537. 35. Philadelphia Confession, and definitely Calvinistic in tone.**5 The later Confession, in various versions, has been widely approved by Baptist churches on this continent and has given a Calvinistic direction to the Baptists of the United States. Along with Calvinism, close communion sentiments have been typical of the Baptists of America, particularly in the Southern States. On the American frontier, Baptists were able to compete with other denominations on virtually equal terms, were individualistic and aggressive, and were not subject to the pressures which prompted the "openness" of English Baptists. The name "Particular" was dropped and the name "Regular" adopted.6** Thus the term "Regular Baptist" came to connote regularity of doctrine, and observance of the ordinances in their "regular" order, that i s , f i r s t immersion, then church membership and communion. The history of Baptists in Canada reflects the tensions and the developments which have been noted above. The f i r s t Baptist congregation in Canada is usually recognized to have been the church at Wolfville, Nova Scotia, founded in 1763, although the church at Sackville, New Brunswick, apparently dates from the same year. 6^ Soon after this time Baptist work in the Maritimes received special impetus as a result of the influence of "The Great Awakening" which spread northward from New England. The early The New Hampshire Confession is by no means brief, as w i l l be seen from the f u l l text which is given in Hiscox, op. c i t . . pp. 543-563. G^The term also came into common use without capitalization, v i z . "a regular Baptist church". ^Stuart Ivison, "Baptist Beginnings in Canada", Our Baptist  Fellowship. Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec, 1939, p. 17. 36. congregations were of the Regular, or Calvinistic type but about 1795 Free (Arminian) Baptist made their appearance. In 1906 these two groups joined to form the United Baptists. The f i r s t Baptists in Upper and Lower Canada were evidently United Empire Loyalists. Although the Loyalists included relatively few Baptists, 0 0 those of Baptist faith were hardy and enthusiastic pioneers and Baptist work began to flourish along the international boundary. In 1816, Scottish Baptists settled in the Ottawa Valley.°9 There was also a gradual influx of English immigrants. Baptists of Upper and Lower Canada were slow in attaining any sort of unity, largely because of their independent s p i r i t and the doctrinal differences between settlers of English and American stock, particularly on the subject of communion.70 The beginnings of cooperation were fi n a l l y achieved with the formation, in 1851, of the Regular Baptist Missionary Convention of Canada West. This was followed by a similar grouping of Quebec and Ottawa Valley churches in 1858. The two bodies united in 1888 to form the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec. In 1873 the Baptists of Ontario sent the Rev. Alexander McDonald as the f i r s t Baptist missionary to Manitoba. The Manitoba Baptist Convention was established in 1884. Of a l l the Canadian Provinces, however, i t is probably British Columbia that presents the best il l u s t r a t i o n of the forces which have tended to segment Baptists. Diverse from other provinces in population, °8Stuart Ivison and Fred Rosser, The Baptists in Upper and Lower  Canada before 1820, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1956, p. 8. 6 9 l b i d . , p. 94. 7 0 S i l c o x , op c i t . . p. 39. 37. c l i m a t e and topography, Canada's most Western Province e x e m p l i f i e s the wedding of B r i t i s h sentiment and American i n f l u e n c e . In r e l i g i o u s ideas, as i n other aspects, i t has been a "Meeting of the Waters". The t a l e of these c o n f l i c t i n g i n f l u e n c e s and of the s t r u g g l e which ensued, w i l l occupy the f o l l o w i n g pages. CHAPTER II THE "HIDDEN BAPTISTS" OF VANCOUVER ISLAND Contrary to a widely-accepted opinion, 1 John Morton was not the f i r s t Baptist to settle in what is now British Columbia. Morton came to New Westminster in the autumn of 1862 and was one of the "Three Green horn Englishmen" who took up a pre-emption on 550 acres of land in Granville, later to be the site of downtown Vancouver. In the following year, Morton and his two associates built their cabin on a spot just west of the present corner of Granville and Hastings Streets. Shortly after ward, the decision was made to extend the Canadian Pacific Railway from i t s original terminal at Port Moody to a new location at Coal Harbour. Consequently, the city of Vancouver was incorporated in 1886 and began to make rapid growth. Morton became a man of considerable wealth, donated large sums to the Baptist cause, and became prominent as one of the Baptist pioneers in the Province of Bri t i s h Columbia. There i s , however, no reason for believing him to be the f i r s t Baptist in the Province, for the beginnings of Baptist work are to be found, not on the Mainland, but on the southern tip of Vancouver Island in the city of Victoria. The early history of Victoria was linked to the fortunes of the Hudson's Bay Company, which, in 1821, was granted a Royal Licence for exclusive trade with the Indians in the territory west of the Rockies. •'•See, for example, E. R. Fitch, The Baptists of Canada. Toronto, Standard Publishing Co., 1911, p. 231. ^Margaret A. Ormsby, Bri t i s h Columbia: a History. Toronto, Macmillan, 1958, p. 296. Fort Vancouver, near the mouth of the Columbia River, was made the west ern depot of the Company, but when i t became evident that the boundary between British territory and the United States would be placed further north, a decision was made to re-locate the depot on southern Vancouver Island. In the spring of 1843, under the leadership of James Douglas, work was commenced on the new fort, which was soon to be o f f i c i a l l y known as Fort Victoria. The f i r s t missionary in the new post was the Rev. Jean-Baptiste Bolduc, a Roman Catholic priest who accompanied Douglas to Victoria in March, 1843. In the spring of 1849 an Anglican, the Rev. Robert John Staines, arrived in Victoria to act as chaplain for the Hudson's Bay Company, a position which had remained vacant for ten years. Staines proved to be unpopular, came into conflict with the o f f i c i a l s of the Company, and was replaced by the Rev. Edward Cridge, who was an uncompromising member of the Evangelical Party within the Anglican Church. The new chaplain, who arrived from England in 1855, was favour- ably received by the inhabitants of Victoria^ and gained the support of James Douglas, who had become Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1845. As part of his arrangement with the Company, Cridge was given a grant of one hundred acres of land. This fact, in addition to other actions of Douglas, gave rise to an apprehension in some minds that the Frank A. Peake, The Anglican Church in British Columbia. Vancouver, Mitchell Press, 1959, p. 19. Anglican Church would become the State Church of the new colony.^ Until 1858, events seemed to point in that direction. At the close of 1857 Victoria, a relatively quiet trading post of some 600 to 800 inhabitants, possessed two churches; one the Roman Catholic, the other the Anglican Church of Victoria District, now known as Christ Church, of which Edward Cridge was Rector. The city gave l i t t l e hint of the sweeping changes which were about to engulf i t , but already there were reports of the discovery of gold on the North Thompson River. The year 1858 was the great year of the Fraser River Gold Rush. Drawn by the lure of quick riches, hundreds of prospectors flooded into Victoria en route to the goldfields qn the Thompson and Fraser Rivers. The population of Victoria mushroomed to some 20,000 inhabitants who were housed, for the most part, in tents. The f i r s t contingent of miners from San Francisco arrived in Victoria in April, aboard the paddle-wheel steamer Commodore. By a curious coincidence, the same vessel also brought a f i r s t contingent of a quite different nature—a group of sixty- five American negroes who had come to settle in Victoria. During the following years, before and during the American C i v i l War of 1861-1865, an estimated 300 to 400 negro adults immigrated to Victoria and v i c i n i t y . 5 This influx had profound repercussions on the religious l i f e of the new colony, for in the early 1860's one-half of the church-going 4F. W. Howay and E. 0. S. Scholefield, Br i t i s h Columbia from the  Earliest Times to the Present, Vancouver, S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1914, Vol. II, p. 616. ^Matthew MacFie, Vancouver Island and British "Columbia. London, Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green, 1865, p. 388. 4 1 . c. colonists were coloured. It was not the attraction of gold which brought the negroes to Victoria. Few of the coloured population joined the gold miners. The Gold Rush, in fact, was one of the instruments which shattered the hopes and dreams of the negroes, who had come to Victoria in search of freedom and equality in a new land. The former home of the negro immigrants had been California, to which a multitude of new settlers had come following the news of the discovery of gold in 1849. Among these newcomers were free negro families, mostly of mulatto background, from the eastern United States. These settled in San Francisco and formed a permanent coloured community, which, on occasion, was reinforced by individuals who had escaped slavery in the South. While the practice of slavery was i l l e g a l in California, the coloured population did not find themselves emancipated from pre judice or persecution and they yearned for better circumstances. Almost a decade before the arrival of the negroes, the Hudson's Bay Company had been granted a Royal Charter, which had become effective in January 1849 and which had given to the Company the responsibility of government, protection, and colonization of Vancouver Island for a period of ten years. James Douglas, faced with the task of enforcing the Company's policy of "controlled" colonization, found that Victoria was badly in need of labourers. In hope of supplying this need, he approached Jeremiah Nagle, Captain of the steamer Commodore which plied between 6James W. Pilton, "Early Negro Settlement in Victoria", un published graduating essay in the library of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1949, p. 63. 42. Victoria and San Francisco.^ Douglas asked Nagle to invite the California negroes to move to Victoria. Nagle's presentation of the case at a meeting in Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church in San Francisco met with instant response and an advance party of sixty-five negroes lef t on April 20, 1858, aboard the Commodore. The negroes were welcomed to Victoria by Douglas, who himself had the skin colouring, and perhaps the ancestry, of a mulatto. They were also befriended by the Rev. Edward Cridge, who, upon hearing of their arrival, paid them a v i s i t and invited them to worship in Christ Church. The coloured folk readily accepted this proposal and made i t clear to Cridge that their former minister in San Francisco, the Rev. J. J. Moore, of Zion Methodist Church, had announced that the emigrants would join an existing church in their adopted c i t y . 8 Moore had done this to offset a move on the part of some Methodist leaders in California to collect funds to build a "coloured church" in Victoria. The attitude of the negroes was clear. They did not wish to have a church of their own. They had no desire to be regarded as a "coloured sect" but wanted to be accepted by the white community on equal terms. Social acceptance, however, was never granted to the negroes in Victoria. The responsibility for this situation seems to be mainly accreditable to white prejudice against them, rather than to the 'James W. Pilton, "Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858- 1871", unpublished M.A. thesis in the library of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1951, p. 30. 8Edward Cridge, "Diary", May 6, 1858. Original manuscript in the Provincial Archives, Victoria. 43. failure of the negroes themselves. They presented, as a group, a cross- section of humanity and i t s failings, yet they appear, on the average, to have equalled, i f not excelled, their white brethren in a b i l i t y and conduct. Because of the increase in the value of property during the Gold Rush, many of their number acquired .considerable wealth through the resale of their land. Others became prominent in the business l i f e of the community. Their most outstanding leader, M i f f l i n Wistar Gibbs, son of a Methodist minister, was a partner in the large merchant store "Lester and Gibbs" and in later l i f e became United States Consul in the Island of Madagascar.9 In Victoria, among the whites of British stock, the general attitude toward the negroes ranged from open friendliness to "tolerance". However, the "Americanization" of Victoria during the Gold Rush inten s i f i e d the social problems of the negroes. Americans, who were accustomed to policies of segregation, took exception to the status given negroes in Victoria. In August, 1858, one American, in a letter to the Gazette, complained about the "perspiring Ethiopians" in the congregation of Christ Church, and suggested that the negroes be con fined to a special section of the church. 1^ The Rector, Edward Cridge, refused the suggestion, basing his argument on the fact that while people's skins might be different, their sins were very much the same colour! 1 1 When the Rev. J. J. Moore, pastor of Zion Methodist Church, 9 P i l t o n , "Negro Settlement in British Columbia", pp. 48, 73, 87-88. 1 0 V i c t o r i a Gazette. August 24, 1858. ^ P i l t o n , "Negro Settlement in Victoria", p. 62. 44. San Francisco, visited Victoria in September, 1858, he made contact with the former members of his flock, and established a friendly relationship with Cridge. Nevertheless, in spite of the efforts of both Moore and Cridge, the members of the negro community began to d r i f t from their i n i t i a l allegiance to Christ Church. Some, such as M i f f l i n Gibbs, retained their connection with the Anglican Church; 1 2 but others sought new a f f i l i a t i o n s . At this juncture two factors entered into the situation and accelerated religious changes among the negroes. The f i r s t was an alteration in the structure of the coloured community i t s e l f . It has been noted that the f i r s t negroes to arrive in Victoria were of the Methodist Episcopal persuasion; soon, however, they were followed by negroes of diversified religious convictions, including, as early as 1859, negro Baptists. The second factor which affected the negro community was the arrival in Victoria of Protestant clergymen of de nominations other than Anglican. For the purpose of promoting missions in British North America, an abortive attempt was made in Montreal in 1827 to organize a Home Missionary Society, consisting chiefly of Baptists and Congregational- i s t s . 1 3 After this organization proved a failure, the Congregational- ists of England and Hales formed the Colonist Missionary Society in i ZChildren of M i f f l i n Gibbs were baptized at Christ Church. See "Christ Church Cathedral Parish Register, Baptisms", October 24, 1860 and November 16, 1862. Transcript in the Provincial Archives, Victoria. 1 3 C l a r i s E. Silcox, Church Union in Canada. New York, Institute of Social and Religious Research, 1933, p. 43. 45. 1836. The aim of the Society was to promote Congregational missions in the Br i t i s h Colonies. To this end, the Rev. William F. Clarke was sent to Victoria, where, in 1859, he established a Congregational Church and gained a following among both whites and negroes. Since Baptists and Congregationalists are similar in church polity, i t is probable that colonists of Baptist sympathies attended Clarke's church. The Rev. Matthew MacFie, who was sent to be Clarke's associate, parted company with Clarke and established his own congregation. A dispute arose between the two men on the question of racial segregation in the church services. 1 4 MacFie, who had spent some time in the United States, favoured seating negroes separately from the whites. Clarke supported the cause of equality for negroes. The immediate result of Clarke's stand was that he lost the bulk of his white congregation to MacFie and gained the attendance of a great many negroes. However, when the coloured folk saw that Clarke's church was in danger of becoming a "Negro Church" they deserted him, for they wished to mingle with whites rather than be cut . off from them. In 1860 the Colonial Missionary Society withdrew i t s support from Clarke and he was forced to leave Victoria. Nevertheless, he gained a moral victory, when in the follow ing year, the Society ruled against segregation in churches.1-* It was apparently at this same period that Baptists began to arrive in the new colony. 1" Since no Baptist congregation was formed V i c t o r i a Gazette, October 22, 1859. ^ B r i t i s h Colonist. January 11, 1861. 1 6See pp. 47-50. u n t i l some years later, i t would seem probable that Baptists may have attended the services of the Congregational Church, but this is con jectural. Other events in Victoria bear evidence to the f l u i d state of religious organizations in this frontier community. Following William Clarke's departure his church disintegrated; but MacFie continued his ministry u n t i l 1864, at which time he went home to England. His con gregation was incorporated into that of Fi r s t Presbyterian Church, which had been founded by the Rev. John Hall, who had arrived in Victoria in April, 1861, as the f i r s t Presbyterian Missionary. 1^ This fusion of Congregational and Presbyterian elements seems to have been the chief cause of the internal s t r i f e which developed in Fir s t Presbyterian Church. Control of the church building f e l l into the hands of three trustees. In 1867 the minister, the Rev. Thomas Somer- v i l l e , withdrew from the building, along with a major portion of the congregation, and formed St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church. 1 8 F i r s t Presbyterian was le f t without a regular minister un t i l 1876, when the Rev. John Reid, a former Congregational pastor, took the pulpit. During most of the period from 1867 to 1876 the Fi r s t Church building remained closed, but was used on special occasions. In 1874 i t was the scene of the ecclesiastical t r i a l of Dean Edward Cridge, who had quarrelled with his Bishop, the Rev. George H i l l s . H i l l s , f i r s t *-7Mervyn E. Kennedy, "The History of Presbyterianism in B r i t i s h Columbia", unpublished M.A. thesis in the library of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1938, p. 17. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 30. Bishop of Columbia, had arrived in Victoria in 1860, had selected Christ Church as his Cathedral in 1865 and had appointed Cridge as Dean. The dispute which arose began with theological tensions--Cridge was an Evangelical, H i l l s , a Tractarian. 1 9 Later, matters came to a climax when Cridge challenged the Bishop's authority. The Ecclesiastical Court suspended Cridge, who in October 1874 formed the Church of Our Lord, a Reformed Episcopal Congregation. This new group could be re garded as a type of frontier sectarianism among Anglicans. Meanwhile, during this same era, the Methodists had been establishing churches both on Vancouver Island and the Mainland. A party of four Methodist missionaries arrived in Victoria in February 1859. Of these, the Rev. Ephraim Evans, leader of the party, remained in Victoria. The Rev. Arthur Browning went f i r s t to Nanaimo, then to Yale and Hope; the Rev. Edward White went to Queensborough, later named New Westminster. The Rev. Ebenezer Robson spent his f i r s t year at Hope and Yale; then, in May 1860, he replaced Browning in the large Nanaimo f i e l d , which in- eluded Salt Spring Island. u Just what percentage of the negro population began to attend the Methodist services is unknown, but Robson records that on one of his v i s i t s to Salt Spring Island he preached to a congregation 21 of some twenty persons, only three of whom were white. Among those who came to Salt Spring Island was a young negro, l^Peake, pp. c i t . . p. 78. 2 0Ebenezer Robson, "Diary", May 24, 1860. Original manuscript in the Provincial Archives, Victoria. 2 1 I b i d . . February 21, 1861. 48. Fielding Spotts, one of the earliest Baptists to immigrate to the West Coast of British North America. Spotts, a cooper by trade, arrived in Victoria in 1859, leaving behind his wife Julia, and his infant son 22 William, in San Francisco. He settled on Salt Spring Island in the summer of 1859, and was joined by his family in the following year. Early in the 1860's he moved from Salt Spring to South Saanich on Van- 23 couver Island. J There on his farm of one hundred acres he built a cabin of hand-hewn logs. His pioneer home remained standing un t i l 1936. 2 4 In the f a l l of 1861 an ardent Methodist, Charles Alexander, moved into South Saanich with his family. Soon after, probably in 1862 or 1863, a community church, including Methodists and Baptists, was established through the i n i t i a t i v e of Alexander, a negro, with the co operation of Spotts and other negro and white neighbours. This church was the forerunner of the present Shady Creek United Church. 2 5 Spotts took an active part in the affairs of the community and for some time during the 1860's he served as a school trustee in Saanich. Other Baptist negroes from the United States arrived in Victoria about the same time as Fielding Spotts. The name of Augustus Christopher appears with that of Spotts on a l i s t of applications for citizenship, 22 Pilton, "Negro Settlement in British Columbia", p. 67. 2 3 V i c t o r E. Virgin, History of North and South Saanich Pioneers  and Di s t r i c t . Victoria, Saanich Pioneer Society, [no date] p. 32." 2 4 P i l t o n , loc. c i t . 2 5G. H. Glover, History of the United Church of Canada. North and  South Saanich Areas. [1952], pp. 4-5. 49. published in December, 1861. 2 6 Included in this l i s t i s the name of Fortune Richard, who later joined the First Baptist Church in Victoria, but i t is not clear i f Richard was of Baptist persuasion when he f i r s t arrived. Mr. and Mrs. Madison [or Maddison] Fineas Bailey, who are known to have been Baptists, evidently arrived in the city sometime 27 before late 1863. Also Baptists were Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Whitney 28 Pierre who may have arrived as early as 1860. Pierre, well known in early Victoria, conducted a tailoring business for many years. The charter r o l l of First Baptist Church, Victoria, gives the name of a Mrs. Sally Page, who is lis t e d by McLaurin as coloured, 2 9 but her identity or time of arrival cannot be established. The identity of the f i r s t Baptist to set foot on the British Pacific Coast remains undecided. Although Fielding Spotts was certainly one of the f i r s t immigrants to declare himself as a Baptist, there is no way of knowing how many Baptists may have been absorbed into other denominations, particularly the Congregationalists. It is interesting to note that no Baptist church was formed in Victoria un t i l after the 2 qCoionist. December 4, 1861. 2?The British Columbian and Victoria Guide and Directory. Victoria, Frederick P. Howard and George Barnett, 1863, p. 54, l i s t s U. F. Bailey fsic~| but the correct i n i t i a l , with the same address, is given in Guide  to Province of British Columbia for 1877-8. Victoria, T. N. Hibben, 1877, p. 288. 2 8 I n Shady Creek Cemetery the grave of Mary C. Spotts, daughter of T. W. Pierre, bears the dates 1860-1931. Mrs. Spotts was reported to have been brought to Victoria as a baby. Victoria Times. May 12, 1931. 2 9C. C. McLaurin, Pioneering in Western Canada. Calgary, C. C. McLaurin, 1939, p. 245. It seems evident that a l l charter members of First Church were Baptists when they arrived in Victoria. No baptism by immersion was held in British Columbia unt i l 1877. 50, 30 Congregational Church had ceased to exist, but i t is d i f f i c u l t to determine whether this fact is significant. Curiously, none of the miners who came in the Gold Rush of 1858 appear to have been identified as Baptists. This observation might be interpreted in one of two ways— either Baptists do not participate in gold rushing; or, conversely, Baptists who rush for gold prefer to remain discreetly unidentified. 31 It would seem from one of the earliest accounts that a few Baptists were already meeting for worship in their homes when Alexander Clyde and his family arrived from Stratford, Ontario, in December 1874. Clyde, an earnest Baptist, immediately began to promote the formation of a Baptist church in Victoria and appealed to his former pastor, »the Rev. C. Walker of Stratford, for aid in enlisting a suitable missionary pastor 32 for the new congregation. In 1875 the Rev. William Carnes of Chesley, Ontario, accompanied by a member of his congregation, John Sluggett, made an exploratory trip 3 0See pp. 45-46. 3 1[Walter Barss (?)], "Historical Sketch of the Calvary Baptist Church", [Victoria, 1886], quoted in J. C. Baker, Baptist History of the  North Pacific Coast. Philadelphia, American Baptist Publication Society, 1912, p. 257. 3 2 [ w i l l i a m Marchant], "Beacon Lights in Baptist History of British Columbia", [victoria, 1926], p. 2. Unpublished essay in the Provincial Archives, Victoria. William Marchant was a former Mayor of Victoria and a prominent Baptist layman. A native of Bristol, England, he came to British Columbia in 1889 and was a member of Calvary Church, Victoria, for some years. In 1894 he joined Emmanuel Baptist Church, Victoria, and became one of the leading members of that congregation. In 1922 he was elected President of the Baptist Union of Western Canada. Western Baptist. May, 1922. 51. 33 to the West Coast. Both men returned home impressed with the po s s i b i l i t i e s of Vancouver Island. In March, 1876, Carnes arrived back in Victoria in response to a c a l l from the Baptists of the city to be their pastor. Sluggett came with his family later in the same year and settled on a farm in Saanich. He became a prosperous landowner, acquiring over one thousand acres of property, and was well known for his leader ship in community and church a c t i v i t i e s . 3 4 For some time he was super intendent of the united Sunday School which Alexander and others had 35 founded on East Saanich Road. Sluggett participated in the i n i t i a t i o n of Baptist work in both Victoria and Saanich. Following his death in 36 1909, a small Baptist church, the Sluggett Memorial Church at Brentwood, was built in his memory by members of his family. The arrival of the Rev. William Carnes in Victoria seems to have stirred a good deal of enthusiasm among Baptists and immediate steps were taken to form a local church. According to the Colonist. Rev. Mr. Carnes preached morning and evening to good congregations at Philharmonic Hall on Sunday. . . . We understand that a Baptist congregation has been formed with excellent prospects of obtaining a large membership. 3 3"Mr. John Sluggett" [no datej. Unpublished manuscript in the Provincial Archives, Victoria. 3 4 V i r g i n , op. c i t . . p. 34. 3^"Saanich Baptist Church" [no date]. Unpublished manuscript in the Provincial Archives, Victoria. See also p. 48. 3 o H i s gravestone in Shady Creek Cemetery records the dates 1829- 1909. Other members of the family are buried in the same plot. 37colonist. April 4, 1876. 52. The First Baptist Church of Victoria was organized 3 8 in May, 1876, with a charter membership of sixteen 3 9 [or f i f t e e n ] . 4 ^ In July, 1876, the new church in Victoria was visited by the Rev. J. C. Baker of San Francisco, Pacific agent and "Sunday-school missionary" for the American Baptist Publication Society, who gave the "right hand of fellowship" to the pastor. 4 1 Preparations were made to 42 build a church building and in September the church was received into the Puget Sound Baptist Association. Although i t is certain that Pastor Carnes, John Sluggett, and the Clydes were Canadians, no question appears to have been raised regarding the American a f f i l i a t i o n of the church. 4 3 3 8 F o r use of the term "organized" see p. 2. 3 9[Barss (?)], "Calvary Baptist Church", quoted in Baker, loc. c i t . 4^[Marchant], "Beacon Lights", p. 3. Sixteen would seem to be the more lik e l y number. These included: Pastor William Carnes Augustus Christopher Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Clyde John Sluggett Mr. and Mrs. Fielding Spotts Caleb Bishop Mr. and Mrs. Thomas W. Pierre Alfred Oldershaw Mr. and Mrs. Madison F. Bailey Thomas Matthews or Mathews Mrs. Sally Page The name of a Mrs. Johnson appears in Fitch, op. c i t . , p. 244. Her identity is not clear however. Marchant l i s t s a Miss Johnson as one of fifteen members in "Beacon Lights", p. 3. 4^-Coionist. July 19, 1876, and Baker, op. c i t . . pp. 5-6. J. C. Baker was a prominent leader among the Baptists of the Pacific Northwest. In the f a l l of 1877 he moved to Salem, Oregon, and became the President of the Mission Board of the North Pacific Coast Convention. From 1882 to 1887 he was Superintendent of Missions on the Pacific Coast for the American Baptist Home Mission Society. Baker, op. c i t . . pp. 23, 356 and 440. 42 Colonist. July 20, 1876. ^ 3There is no indication that any of the white members of the church were Americans. 53. Baker had evidently painted a favourable picture of the future, and the congregation was impressed by the prospect of fellowship and financial cooperation with their brethren across the border. The new First Baptist Church building cost "within a t r i f l e of $6,000",44 not including the volunteer labour of members of the con gregation, and was dedicated on Sunday, January 21, 1877. 4 5 It was an imposing structure for that period and possessed at least one distinctive feature. The Colonist declared: The church edifice is admired by a l l who have seen i t for i t s neatness and comfort. We believe the seats are the best in the city for comfort.46 This emphasis on comfortableness was a witness to the fact that Baptists shared in that Protestant tradition of worship which gives cen- t r a l i t y to the sermon. Nothing was to be allowed to distract the hearer from attention to the Gospel message. It was expected that the worshipper would consider church-going as a delight rather than as an act of personal sacrifice involving penitential overtones. The "Wooden Gothic" style of the new church building in Victoria bore evidence to the conservative and imitative nature of frontier church architecture, a fact which argues for the carry-over of religious ideas from the Old World rather than for pioneer originality. On February 19, 1877, the new building was crowded to capacity for the f i r s t baptism by immersion ever to be witnessed in British Columbia. 4 7 The Rev. J. C. Baker was guest preacher upon this occasion. During his 44, Colonist. January 26, 1877. 45ibid.. January 23, 1877. 46 Ibid.. January 26, 1877. 47 ibid.. February 23, 1877. 54., v i s i t to Victoria he was impressed with the po s s i b i l i t i e s of the f i e l d . On February 23 he wrote: Of the more than two million Baptists of America, some have already found their way here, and many more w i l l come. Among the people here, Baptist sentiments prevail as largely, perhaps, as in other places. Most of the school d i s t r i c t s are without Sunday- schools; there are some Baptists in a l l the towns, and Baptist families scattered over a l l the settled portion of the country. 4 8 Although he did not specifically mention the fact in 1877, Baker's 49 later statements hinted that Baptists of American background in Victoria were refusing to support the work of First Baptist Church because of the negro group in the congregation. Baker took a special interest in the infant church and dubbed i t the "North Star Mission of the Baptists".^ 0 Through preaching and correspondence he sought to obtain financial support for the Baptists of Victoria, who, in their i n i t i a l enthusiasm, had saddled themselves with a heavy mortgage at an interest rate of ten percent."*1 The response was inadequate to meet the need and the Victoria church entered a period of struggle which involved financial d i f f i c u l t i e s , f r i c t i o n between the white and coloured members, and what McLaurin has termed "lack of sane 52 leadership". These three problems were interrelated. Pastor Carnes was apparently not a tactful young man, for he made himself unpopular with the members of the church, who withdrew their H 0 F i e l d notes taken by J. C. Baker in 1877, cited in Baker, op. c i t . . p. 259. 4 9See p. 56, point 3 of Baker's comments. ->°Baker, op. c i t . , p. 258. -^McLaurin, op. c i t . , p. 245. 5 2Loc. c i t . 55. f i n a n c i a l support as a r e s u l t . He resigned i n May 1877, a f t e r the church refused to pay his salary. At th i s time, one of the deacons wrote to J . C. Baker regarding the s i t u a t i o n : . . . Brother Carnes had l e f t with a threat that i f he ceased to be pastor, the church would not secure the money you were c o l l e c t i n g f o r them. . . . A business meeting was held, i n which i t developed that the pastor had charged some of the members with dishonesty, and used other expressions of l i k e character while, at the same time, the members had been doing a l l they could for him.53 Carnes was followed by the Rev. J . H. Teale, an American pastor from C a l i f o r n i a , who served from September 1877 to the end of December 54 1878. During h i s b r i e f term, Teale i n i t i a t e d the second Baptist church i n the province, O l i v e t Church i n New Westminster. The next pastor was the Rev. George Everton of Woodstock, Ontario, who a r r i v e d i n March 1879. Everton could not have been a man of strong Baptist convictions, f o r when he l e f t the church a year l a t e r he joined the Presbyterians.-*-* According to McLaurin, Everton was followed by the Rev. J . Spanswich, but nothing i s recorded regarding h i s b r i e f pastorate.-* 0 During t h i s period of rapid turnover i n pasto r a l leadership, the troubles of F i r s t Baptist Church deepened, and i n March, 1881, J . C. Baker v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a i n an e f f o r t to resolve the tensions within the pastorless congregation. A meeting of the membership was c a l l e d together, with J . C. Baker acting as chairman.-*7 During the discussion which 53Letter to J . C. Baker, dated May 7, 1877, quoted i n Baker, op. c i t . . p. 260. -*4Loc. c i t . See also personal sketch of Teale, i b i d • , p. 462. 5 5[Marchant], "Beacon Lights", p. 4. ^°McLaurin, op. c i t . , p. 249. ^ 7Baker, op. c i t . , p. 262. 56. followed, i t became evident that business management of the church was one of the sources of contention between negro and white members. The church decided to appoint a special committee of six, composed of three coloured and three white members, to investigate the situation and recommend a solution. The committee reported as follows: Your committee, appointed to recommend a plan for the more successful prosecution of the work of the Firs t Baptist Church of Victoria, taking a l l the circumstances of the case into consideration, and the present embarrassment of our work, would respectfully recommend that the entire business and management of the church be given into the hands of either the colored members or the white members as the church shall decide by vote. Respectfully submitted, Dea. C. Bishop, A. Clyde, T. W. Pierre, A. J. Clyde, Dea. M. F. Bailey, F. Richard, Victoria, B. C , March 31, 1881. Committee.58 Before a vote on the committee's report, J. C. Baker gave an address to the congregation in which he attributed the situation to 59 "race prejudice on the one hand, and race sensitiveness on the other". He proceeded to give his interpretation of the recommendation: If you adopt this plan heartily, and in a Christian s p i r i t , I think the following points w i l l be gained: 1. It w i l l open the way for the party taking charge of the business and management of the church to mature plans for the settlement of a pastor and the payment of the mortgage in which there could be unanimity . . . . 2. It w i l l open the way for the other party quietly to withdraw from the church, and to organize a new church . . . . 3. Under such management the fi n a l result w i l l be, I believe, to draw to the support of the Baptist cause the entire Baptist element in the city, both white and colored. 58, Quoted in Baker, loc. c i t . J7Sermon delivered by the Rev. J. C. Baker, March 31, 1881, quoted in Baker, op. c i t . . p. 263. 57.. 4. It w i l l , I believe, secure the hearty co-operation of our Board with the party taking the management of the church, whether white or colored . . . . 5. I believe such a course would fin a l l y result in the organization of a second Baptist church. o 0 When a vote was taken on the recommendation, the coloured members voted for the whites to assume the church management and the whites voted for the coloured. Marchant attributes these actions to chivalry"*- but i t should be remembered that the business of the burdened church involved heavy responsibilities. The result of the vote was apparently a t i e which was broken by the chairman, Baker, who cast a deciding vote in favour of the whites." 2 Following this decision most of the coloured members, possibly some two dozen in number, withdrew from the church. The Rev. Joseph Beaven of California was called to be the new pastor. He arrived in May 1881. By this time the membership was reduced to only twenty-six. The financial struggles continued u n t i l early in 1883, when the mortgage was foreclosed." 4 After the loss of their building the members of Fir s t Baptist, who again lacked a pastor, continued to meet in a rented ha l l , but after some months the discouraged congregation was fi n a l l y dis banded on June 3, 1883. Within a short space, the enthusiasm of some of the Baptists of Victoria was rekindled by Rev. D. J. Pierce, pastor of Fir s t Baptist 6 0Quoted in loc.- c i t . 6 1[Marchant], "Beacon Lights", p. 5 6 2Loc. c i t . 63Report from the church to the Puget Sound and British Columbia Association, June 1881, quoted in Baker, op. c i t . . p. 265. 64coIonist. January 13, 1883. 58, Church, Seattle, and Chairman of the Home Mission Committee of the Puget Sound Association, who happened to be vis i t i n g in the city at the time. On his suggestion, twenty-three of the former members of Firs t Church met on June 5 and reorganized to form Calvary Baptist Church. 6 5 The covenant of the new church specifically condemned discrimination on the basis of race, colour or c l a s s . ^ Interest mounted, and in October a new building-site was purchased. In February, 1884, a c a l l was extended to Walter Barss of Nova Scotia, who was then a student at the Baptist Theological Seminary in Rochester, N.Y.67 Barss was recommended to the Victoria church by J. C. Baker, who had visited the Rochester seminary in 1882 with a view to enlisting student interest in the mission fields of the Pacific Northwest. 6 8 Upon completion of his studies, the Rev. Walter Barss and his bride arrived in Victoria in September 1884. Under the leadership of the new pastor the congregation of Calvary Church experienced phenomenal growth. Financial support came from the American Baptist Home Mission Society, and this, along with the generosity of the membership, enabled the church to open i t s new building free of debt. v Barss was an able and sincere man, well received by his people and by the Victoria community. After three years of strenuous pastoral labour the church 6 5Baker, op. c i t . . p. 266 66McLaurin, op. c i t . . p. 248. 6 7Walter Barss. Memorial. [l89l], p. 12. In the private library of his son, Dr. Alden F. Barss, Vancouver, B. C. 6 8Baker, op. c i t . . pp. 27 and 463. 6 9Colonlst. December 15, 1885. 59.. grew to 108 members.7^ Unfortunately, because of i l l health, Barss was forced to leave Victoria in 1887. He died in Geneva, N.Y., on April 5, 1891, at the age of thirty-three. 7 1 Rev. M. L. Rugg, who succeeded Barss in 1887, was also a Rochester graduate and a man with a g i f t for spiritual leadership. At the close of his pastorate, four years later, Calvary Church had become a well established and influential congregation. In the meantime, the negro Baptists of Victoria made no move to found a negro church, although financial support was offered from the 72 United States to help in such a project. Apparently a few continued to worship in Calvary Baptist Church. J Fielding Spotts was one of these and his action illustrated the triumph of religious conviction over social pressure. He maintained his interest in Baptist work throughout his l i f e . 7 4 One of Spott's sons, Wendell, became a Baptist minister. 7-* But, in most instances, the second generation of negroes drifted from Baptist 7"Baker, op. c i t . . p. 268. 7 1Walter Barss. Memorial, pp. 1 and 30. 7 2Report from First Baptist Church to the Mission Board of the North Pacific Coast Convention, quoted in Baker, op. c i t . . p. 264. 7 3[Barss (?)], "Calvary Baptist Church", quoted in Baker, op. c i t . . p. 257, states that seven of the original members of Fir s t Church are s t i l l connected with Calvary Church. Not a l l of these could have been white. Carnes, for example, had l e f t . 7 4 0 n March 23, 1902, Spotts, aged 74, collapsed while attending the morning service at Calvary Baptist Church and, shortly after, died in his home of a heart attach. Victoria Times. March 24, 1902, and Registration of Death, Department of Vital Statistics, Victoria. Fielding Spotts was honoured by a special obituary in the Convention Report. -1902, p. 17., which described him as "a simple trusting consistent child of God, respected by a l l who knew him". ^Interview with William H. Roberts, North Saanich pioneer, June 19, 1961. 60,. a f f i l i a t i o n s . Many of these gave up church-going altogether. The early struggles to establish Baptist work in Victoria i l l u s t r a t e some of the tensions and tendencies among Baptists which have been previously noted. The conflict between negroes and whites in First Baptist Church apparently was not rooted in economic distinction. According to reports, the coloured members were not less prosperous than the whites.7** Racial prejudice played i t s part in the conflict, yet i t was not the only factor. It would seem that one of the causes of f r i c t i o n was a di f f e r  ence in the social outlook of the negroes and whites. The whites appear to have been more "sectarian" than the negroes. The negroes regarded church membership as a sign of social acceptance. The whites were more inclined to think in terms of the maintenance of a distinctive Baptist witness in the community and hence i t was the whites, not the negroes, who took action to ensure the continuance of the Baptist cause. The controversy in the Victoria church must also be linked to American views on racial segregation 7 7 similar to those which touched off criticism of the negroes in Christ Church, and which were the basis of division in Congregational ranks during an earlier period. 7 8 The importance of the influence of the Rev. J. C. Baker in this regard should not be minimized. He appears to have striven to maintain what he f e l t / DBaker, opv c i t . . p. 260. 7 7R. C. Mayne, Four Years in British Columbia and Vancouver  Island. London, John Murray, 1862, p. 351. 7 8See pp. 43 and 45. 61. was a s p i r i t of charity, yet some of his terminology seems to indicate an underlying prejudice against negroes. Obviously, he was firmly committed to segregation. These points are illustrated in his later comments upon the Fi r s t Baptist Church in Victoria: . . . It was evident, however, that the union of the two classes in one church could not exist for many years; but i t was hoped and believed that i t would continue un t i l the church had grown to such numbers and a b i l i t y that, when the change did come, there would be a brotherly division, and each would be ready and able to take up a separate work marked by the color l i n e . 7 9 Negro members of the church fel t that Baker was prejudiced against them and sensed that racial integration was foreign to his thinking. In on January 1882, Fortune Richard, one of the special committee of s i x , o u published a letter in which he attacked the attitude of a Baptist leader who had written articles regarding the racial controversy among Baptists in V i c t o r i a . 8 1 These articles had appeared in May and November of the preceding year, in issues of the Baptist Beacon, an American periodical. Although he is not named, i t seems evident from the content of the letter that the author of the articles was J. C. Baker. The objection of the negroes was not primarily a criticism directed against individuals, but was essentially a protest against the influx of American ideas. Baptist work in Victoria was instigated by white Baptists from eastern Canada, such as Clyde and Sluggett, who were able to cooperate harmoniously with the coloured Baptists from the United States. Later, when the Victoria congregation came into / yBaker, op. c i t . , p. 260. 81Coionist. January 28, 1882. SOsee p. 56. 62.. association with the Baptists of the state of Washington, white American pastors with white American concepts came into the church. "Business management" was stated to be the basic reason for division, but i t is more than likely that the "business" of calling a pastor figured largely in the racial dispute. Baker hinted at this when he spoke of the need of "unanimity" in "plans for the settlement of a pastor. . . ."®2 There is no evidence that the congregation had, at this time, any significant number of members from either British or white American backgrounds. The membership appears to have been made up almost entirely of white Cana dians and coloured Americans. It would seem, therefore, that a good deal of the blame for the conflict in the Victoria Church'must be laid upon the shoulders of Baker himself, because of his racial attitudes and his influence upon the choice of pastors. The early history of Baptist work in Victoria demonstrates the importance of pastoral leadership, particularly in the f l u i d society of the frontier. In such a situation, people tend to be drawn to an out standing leader, regardless of denominational l o y a l t i e s . 8 3 To pioneer in the establishment of a church is a challenging task for any leader. Baptists in Victoria were plagued with leadership d i f f i c u l t i e s . Early pastors faced problems, some of which were of their own making, and having failed to find solutions, l e f t the f i e l d . Even after the racial dispute was resolved, First Baptist Church did not prosper. ° zSee p. 56, text of Baker's sermon. 8 3The career of the Rev. Edward Cridge was an example of this. See p. 47. 63. In contrast, the success of the Rev. Walter Barss i s , in a large measure, explainable in terms of his background, a b i l i t y , and training. A native of Nova Scotia, he was aware of the sufferings of the negroes in that province and was sympathetic to their cause. 8 4 His parents were earnest Christians of Baptist persuasion. During his training at Rochester Seminary he was under -the instruction of one of the spiritual and intellectual giants of the Baptist denomination, Dr. Augustus Hopkins Strong. In addition, Barss possessed a winning personality, and spiritual qualities which gained the respect of the Victoria community. These assets, along with the fact that the reorganized church was able to make a "fresh start", contributed to the success of his ministry. While the frontier tends to attract the individualist, paradox i c a l l y , as the young settlement grows, strong pressures in the direction of social conformity develop. The need for cooperation of each individual is recognized by the community, and the new society tends to become closely-knit. In such a situation, those who elsewhere held to Baptist views must choose either to "stand up and be counted" or to conform to the majority. If local opinion i t s e l f is "sectarian" or i f a sizeable group of non-Baptist "sectarians" is already in existence in the community, a shift in denominational allegiance is easily made. In this way, many former Baptists have been lost from the Baptist cause. These factors were Most of the negroes in the Maritimes had become Baptists. Kenneth Scott Latourette, A History of the Expansion of Christianity, New York, Harper & Brothers, 1943, Vol. 5, p. 28. 8^Who, incidentally, officiated at the wedding of Mr. and Mrs. Barss. Walter Barss, Memorial", p. 18. 64, operative i n early V i c t o r i a . In 1881, J . C. Baker was most concerned over the f a c t that only a portion of the "Baptist element" i n V i c t o r i a had joined F i r s t Church, and he traced the s i t u a t i o n to the r a c i a l d i s - unity of that congregation. This f a c t o n c e r t a i n l y was s i g n i f i c a n t at the time, but the problem of "unenlisted" Baptists antedates the r a c i a l issue and i l l u s t r a t e s the f l u i d and formative nature of f r o n t i e r r e l i g i o u s groups. It must be concluded that "the Baptist denomination was l a t e i n 87 e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s e l f i n B r i t i s h Columbia", not because Baptists were l a t e i n a r r i v i n g , but because of basic d i s u n i t i e s within the denomination. In V i c t o r i a these d i s u n i t i e s were expressed i n congregational d i v i s i o n . Elsewhere these d i s u n i t i e s hindered the development of a strong home mission program. If Baptists had been able to send adequate leadership and finances to V i c t o r i a i n the years immediately following the Fraser Gold Rush, the story might have been far d i f f e r e n t . As the s i t u a t i o n stood i t was a case of "too l i t t l e and almost too l a t e " . °°See p. 56. 8 7Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , op. c i t . . p. 650. CHAPTER III THE YOUNG CONVENTION The period between the mid 1880's and the end of World War I was an era of rapid growth for Baptists in British Columbia. From two struggling causes in 1883, the number of congregations multiplied to over forty before the outbreak of the war. There was a "boom" in church building as congregations sought to keep pace with increased membership. To a great extent this advance was a reflection of the phenomenal in crease in population and the economic enthusiasm of the pre-war years. Baptists, in fact, allowed themselves to be carried along by the s p i r i t of the age to such an extent that they embarked upon overly-optimistic projects without a cushion of monetary reserves. Consequently, recession and war caused serious financial repercussions within the Baptist de nomination. During this same period Baptists of Bri t i s h Columbia severed their organizational t i e with the United States and formed their own independent convention. The two opening decades of the twentieth century were characterized by organizational development. Definite strides were taken in the direction of a "church-type" denominational structure, in spite of some rumblings of opposition. No major division took place during this period, but tensions were mounting and the stage was being set for the controversies which rocked Baptists during the 1920's. Olivet Church, the second oldest Baptist congregation in British Columbia, was organized at New Westminster in 1878 by the Rev. J. H. 66, Teale, pastor of Fi r s t Baptist, Victoria. He was assisted in this work by the Rev. J. T. Huff, general missionary of the Baptist Missionary and Educational Society. The experiences of the two men were recorded by Teale on August 13, 1878: On Tuesday, the sixth, we went aboard the steamer Enterprise, of the Hudson Bay Company, crossed the Straits of Georgia, and proceeded up the Fraser River to the beautiful town of New Westminster. Here we found the brethren glad to welcome us, and the streets strewn with posters announcing service for the evening. There was very manifest humility and willingness to do whatever the Lord directed, so on Thursday evening the Fi r s t [ s i c ] Baptist Church of New Westminster was regularly organized with seven members. . . . Two were received for baptism, and Brother Huff administered the ordinance on Sunday. There are about a dozen more Baptists in the place, who w i l l unite soon, and several of them by baptism. 2 A recognition council 3 was called in New Westminster on August 20 and the Olivet Church was recognized as a "regularly organized Baptist Church"^ in fellowship with the Puget Sound and B r i t i s h Columbia Associa tion.^ 1-See p. 55. 2 J . H. Teale, letter to the Rev. J. C. Baker, August 13, 1878, quoted in J. C. Baker, Baptist History of the North Pacific Coast. Philadelphia, American Baptist Publication Society, 1912, p. 271. 3Before a Baptist church is received into an Association (or a Convention) i t is customary for a "recognition council", composed of re presentatives from each of the churches in the Association (or Convention) to examine the Constitution and Statement of Faith of the church, in vestigate the church's aims and practices, and thus to decide upon i t s e l i g i b i l i t y for membership. 4 J . H. Teale, letter to the Baptist Beacon. August 28, 1878, quoted in Baker, op. c i t . . p. 272. Note the use of the term "regularly" here and in Teale's letter of August 13, 1878. -'See p. 52. The name of the association had been lengthened to include B r i t i s h Columbia. 67, In spite of a promising beginning, the new church languished for some years because of the lack of a pastor and a church building. Fruit less attempts were made to obtain leadership for the struggling cause. Then, in November 1884, the New Westminster f i e l d was visited by the Rev. Robert Lennie, who had recently accepted the pastorate of Firs t Baptist Church, Whatcom (now Bellingham), Washington Territory. Lennie was of Scottish Baptist background, a native of the Orkney Islands, and a graduate of Spurgeon's College, London, England. Before coming to the West Coast he had been a pastor in Dundas, Ontario.*' The prospects for Baptist work in New Westminster were attractive to Lennie. The city lacked the strong British element which had tended to make the Anglican church supreme in Victoria. The appeal of sectarianism was already evidence in the success of the Methodists. Lennie agreed to become mission pastor of the Olivet congregation, and he began his ministry in the New Westminster courthouse in February 1885. The congregation grew, and a building lot was purchased. On December 12, 1886, the original Olivet Church, a brick structure valued at $10,000, was dedicated. 7 In 1885 the closing of the last gap in the Canadian Pacific Railway meant the opening of new opportunities on the British Columbia Mainland. Soon after his arrival in New Westminster, Robert Lennie sensed the im portance of establishing Baptist work on the site of Vancouver, the "Interview with Dr. Theodore Lennie of Vancouver, son of the Rev. Robert Lennie, July 17, 1961. 7 J . Lewis Sangster, Seventy-five Years of Service. A History of  Olivet Baptist Church 1878-1953. New Westminster, Olivet Board of Manage ment, 1953, p. 13. 68. projected f i n a l terminus of the railway. He purchased a horse and buggy, and the t a l l , lean, bearded missionary became a f a m i l i a r sight each week as he drove the t h i r t e e n mile journey, i n a l l kinds of weather, to con duct h i s regular week-night service. On Sunday, June 6, 1886, the f i r s t B a ptist Sunday School i n Vancouver was organized at a most u n l i k e l y spot-- a h a l l at the rear of the B l a i r Saloon. The following Sunday, h a l l , saloon, and embyro c i t y were destroyed by the "Great F i r e " . The next week Lennie held a meeting i n the open a i r and, s h o r t l y afterwards, with the cooperation of O l i v e t Church, he began to conduct regular Sunday services i n Vancouver once a month. In November, 1886, an e l d e r l y clergyman, the Rev. J . W. Daniels, took over the work as interim pastor. On March 16, 1887, the F i r s t Baptist Church of Vancouver was organized and a few weeks l a t e r the congregation moved from the S u l l i v a n H a l l to i t s own b u i l d i n g , a small frame structure on Westminster Avenue (now Main S t r e e t ) . 9 Later i n that year, the Rev. J . B. Kennedy, a young graduate of Woodstock Baptist College and the University of Toronto, a r r i v e d i n Van couver as pastor of F i r s t Church. Under h i s ministry the congregation soon outgrew the o r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g and i n September, 1889, a new church, seating eight hundred, was dedicated. This structure, at the corner of Hamilton and Dunsmuir Streets, was used by F i r s t Church u n t i l 1911, and remained as "Hamilton H a l l " , minus i t s o r i g i n a l steeple, u n t i l i t was torn down i n 1941. 1 0 8W. M. Carmichael, These Sixty Years 1887-1947. Vancouver, 1947, p. 4. 9it,id., pp. 6-8. 1 0 P r o v l n c e . July 26, 1941. o 69. In August, 1887, the Rev. Robert Lennie resigned from the pastorate of Olivet Baptist because of personality frictions between himself and some of the members of the church. Lennie was an aggressive leader whose resolute opinions were not always shared by his congregation. Although he remained an ardent Baptist, for a time he and his family worshipped at St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, where the pastor was a personal friend. Lennie's r i f t with Olivet was not permanent, and after serving two pastorates in Eastern Canada from 1894 to 1900, he returned to New West minster and joined his former church.^ He was in semi-retirement during the following years, but served as chaplain to the British Columbia Penitentiary, and was active in denominational work unt i l his death at the age of ninety-one on November 16, 1925. For many years the three original Baptist churches occupied a place of leadership and influence among Baptists of British Columbia. In July 1897, First Church, Vancouver, reported a membership of 312; Calvary Church, Victoria, a membership of 201; and Olivet Church, New Westminster, a membership of 191. The only other church which approached these in size was Emmanuel Church, Victoria, with 109 members. Emmanuel Church was the f i f t h Baptist Church to be founded in British Columbia and was organized in 1890, the year following the organization of Fir s t Baptist Church, Nanaimo. In Vancouver, Mount Pleasant Baptist Church was organized in 1891 and Jackson Avenue Baptist in 1894. First Church, Chilliwack, 12 organized in 1895, was the eighth Baptist church in the province. A l l H i n t erview with Dr. T. Lennie, July 17, 1961. 1 2 B r i t i s h Columbia Baptist Convention, Convention Report. 1897, p. 47. of these churches were associated with the Baptists of Washington, but wide changes were taking place in denominational organization. The f i r s t organization of Baptist churches in the Pacific North west was the Willamette Association, founded by five churches of Oregon Territory in 1848. As the number of churches multiplied, other associa tions were formed, including the Puget Sound Baptist Association which was organized in 1871. 1 3 During the same period attempts were made to form a more general organization, covering a larger area, but d i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered. Baptists of Northern and Southern background were divided on the issue of the C i v i l War. Disputes also arose over local church autonomy and the communion question. A general organization was gradually formed, however, and in 1871 i t took the name of the Baptist Convention of Oregon and Washington Territory.*- 4 Friction continued, and in 1875 the churches of the Puget Sound Association withdrew from the convention. From this time the convention became, for a l l practical purposes, defunct.1-' In June, 1877, the convention was reorganized to form The Baptist Missionary and Educational Society of Oregon, Washington, Idaho and 16 British Columbia. It was the intention that the Society should exist as a self-contained organization separate from associations and 1 3Baker, op. c i t . . p. 3. 1 4Baker, loc. c i t . 1 5 I b i d . , p. 5. lbMinutes of the Baptist Missionary and Educational Society. Salem, Oregon, A. L. Stinson, 1878, p. 3. Printed copy in the Provincial Archives, Victoria. 71, conventions. As a Baptist Society, the new organization could s o l i c i t the i n t e r e s t and support of Baptist churches i n the f i e l d of home missions and i n a projected program for the education of pastors and missionaries. P a r t i c i p a t i o n and representation i n the society was on a voluntary b a s i s . Churches which did not wish to contribute to the work of the society need not do so. The aims of the society were set f o r t h i n an e d i t o r i a l i n the Baptist Beacon of November, 1878: . . . It i s not our purpose to b u i l d up a Baptist Convention which w i l l be subject to i n e v i t a b l e changes as the churches i n the various parts of our f i e l d multiply, and need Conventions of t h e i r own. We have not been laboring to b u i l d up a Convention, but a Missionary Society, around which we could r a l l y a l l our forces f o r a l l time. Such a society so broad i n i t s grasp, so concise i n i t s plans, so judicious i n i t s management, and so e f f e c t i v e i n i t s work that i t w i l l grow into the heart and confidence of our people, u n t i l neither the growth of States, the increase of churches, the v i c i s s i t u d e s of Associations or State Conventions, the death of old men, or the coming of new, the caprice of factions or geographical j e a l o u s i e s , w i l l any more change the purpose of the society's labor than you could change the current of the Columbia . . . Such a society, and such only, w i l l draw to i t s support the resources of our denomination.17 It was hoped that the f r i c t i o n s which had plagued previous orga nizations could be avoided by the "society method", but the plan i t s e l f became a source of f r i c t i o n . The Rev. J . C. Baker was a strong supporter of the new Society and had a part i n d r a f t i n g i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n . ^ 8 Opponents of the "society method" argued that the Society and i t s leader ship were too independent of the control of the l o c a l churches. More d i r e c t control through a convention was presented as the a l t e r n a t i v e . In 1878, a f t e r one year of operation, the name of the Society was changed to The Baptist Convention of the North P a c i f i c Coast. In the Baker, op. c i t . . p. 11. I S i b i d . , p. 5. o p i n i o n of J . C. Baker, and some other B a p t i s t l e a d e r s , t h i s move changed 19 the purpose of the o r g a n i z a t i o n to some extent. Baker had e v i d e n t l y v i s u a l i z e d the S o c i e t y as an a u x i l i a r y to the American B a p t i s t Home M i s s i o n S o c i e t y , under which he served as Superintendent of Mi s s i o n s f o r the West Coast. In 1880 a p l a n of cooperation between the North P a c i f i c Coast Convention and the Home M i s s i o n S o c i e t y was adopted, by which the convention was to supply o n e - t h i r d of the funds f o r home m i s s i o n work i n i t s t e r r i t o r y . The remaining finances were to be r a i s e d by the Home M i s s i o n S o c i e t y , which was supported by the B a p t i s t churches of Northern United S t a t e s . 2 0 D i s c o r d w i t h i n the North P a c i f i c Coast Convention continued. 21 There were strong Southern B a p t i s t and "Landmarker" sentiments w i t h i n the Convention, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Oregon. Those who were of t h i s persuasion opposed the " s o c i e t y method" and became c r i t i c a l of the leadership of J . C. Baker. F i n a l l y , i n October 1886, the Convention was d i s s o l v e d . A State Convention was formed i n Oregon, and i n a d d i t i o n , the "Landmarkers" formed a convention of t h e i r own. U n t i l the present day, B a p t i s t s of the North and of the South are d i v i d e d on the question of missionary methods; the North favouring the " s o c i e t y method" and the South the "convention method". 2 2 Both sides have had t h e i r advocates i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A f t e r the d i s s o l u t i o n of the North P a c i f i c Coast Convention the 'Baker, op. c i t . , p. 11. 2 0 l b i d . , p. 16 2 1 S e e p. 31. 2 2 R o b e r t G. Torbet. A H i s t o r y of the B a p t i s t s . P h i l a d e l p h i a , Judson P r e s s , 1952, p. 310. churches of Western Washington and British Columbia s t i l l retained their organizational framework within the Puget Sound Association. In June, 1888, this association was reorganized to form the Northwest Baptist Con vention. By i t s constitution the new body was pledged "to co-operate with the great American Baptist Home Mission Society". 2 3 From the very inception of the Northwest Convention there was a conscious effort to promote harmony between the Canadian and American churches within i t s membership. At the convention's f i r s t meeting i t was stressed that "no national boundaries" were to be recognized. 2 4 The Canadian churches were much in the minority, and by 1895 the British Columbia Baptists comprised only one-fifth of the total convention member- 25 ship of 4,712. J Nevertheless, i t became a practice for the convention to meet in Canada more frequently than the remote location and relative strength of the British Columbia churches would appear to have warranted. In 1890 the third session of the convention was held in Calvary Church, Victoria. In 1892 the convention met in New Westminster at Olivet Church, whose building had been renovated and enlarged the previous year. Calvary Church, Victoria, was again the site of the convention sessions in 1895. In 1896 the Rev. J. H. Best, pastor of Olivet Church, was elected presi dent of the convention. The above facts might be taken to indicate an effort on the part of the American Baptists to promote American nationalism on the West Coast. Such an interpretation is conjectural, however. It may have been 'Convention Proceedings, cited in Baker, op,~ c i t . . p. 71. Proceedings, in ibid.. p. 70. 2 5CoIonist. October 11, 1895. 74. that the Americans sought to maintain an international organization in order that i t might serve in the event that annexation of British Columbia to the United States were to occur. If this were true, they failed to understand the thinking of British Columbians, the majority of whom had never seriously entertained the idea of annexation. 2" Anti- Confederationism north of the border did not mean p o l i t i c a l Pro- Americanism. In the minds of British Columbians, there was always the possibility of reversion to British colonial status as an alternative to the link with Canada. It is important to note, however, that talk of annexation was always taken much more seriously in the United States than in British Columbia. As late as 1883, the imminent annexation of British 27 Columbia was being proclaimed by American newspapers. ' In spite of the amiable relations which existed between Canadian and American Baptists, there was a growing desire in British Columbia for some sort of provincial organization. The p o l i t i c a l and social concepts 28 of Eastern Canada had been brought to the West by Canadian settlers. Among the religious groups in British Columbia, Methodists and Roman 2Q Catholics had developed strong links with the East. 7 Since the majority 2 oThere has been a tendency to overestimate the p o l i t i c a l influence of the Fraser River Gold Rush. Many of the miners were not native Ameri cans, and those who were American-born could be classified as adventurers, not American nationalists. See Willard E. Ireland "British Columbia's American Heritage", Canadian Historical Association Annual Report. 1948, p. 67. 2 7 I b i d . , p. 72. 2%argaret A. Ormsby, "Canada and the New British Columbia", Canadian Historical Association Annual Report. 1948, p. 74. 2 9 l b i d . , p. 84. 75. of Baptists in the province appear to have been of Canadian background, i t was only natural that they too should begin to think of some organi zation suitable to the context of Confederation. It was also natural that the churches tended to c a l l pastors of Canadian background. A div ision of the Northwest Baptist Convention along the lines of nationalism was indicated. By the 1890's, the leadership in the Baptist churches of British Columbia was predominantly Canadian, and the pastors willingly promoted such a division. In addition to their own sentiments, they saw that there were practical values in local administration. The fi n a l independence of the British Columbia Baptists was furthered by the financial recession which prevailed within the territory of the Northwest Convention after 1893. The progress of the churches was seriously affected, particularly in Washington. The lack of advance was also attributed to the "disturbed state of pastoral r e l a t i o n s " 3 0 but no details regarding this were made public. Because of economic conditions, the American Baptist Home Mission Society was unable to increase i t s grants to the British Columbia f i e l d . There was a growing conviction among British Columbia Baptist leaders that more should be done to pro mote home mission work in the province. The Rev. W. T. Stackhouse, pastor of First Baptist Church, Vancouver, a " t a l l , rangy" native of Nova Scotia,31 summarized this opinion: . . . We had no organized relation as Baptist Churches in this 30colonist. June 8, 1894. 31carmichael, op.- c i t . . p. 17. Stackhouse, a graduate of Acadia University, became a popular preacher and leader in the West. See C. C. MeLaurin, Pioneering in Western Canada. Calgary, C. C. McLaurin, 1939, p. 143. 76, Province. The limited number of delegates who could spare the time and money attended the annual meetings of the North Western Asso ciation and the Northwest Convention of Washington and British Columbia. But conventions as a rule are to [sic,] large, and general business too pressing to admit of a discussion of the particular functions essential to the greater unification of the work in any one section of the Convention f i e l d . Such was our case. While we were loyal supporters of a l l the schemes of our Northwest Convention, and were doing our best to help to carry forward the work in general, we did not feel that the highest po s s i b i l i t i e s of our churches were being u t i l i z e d . We felt the need of a Provincial nucleus around which our people could ra l l y . . .32 In March, 1896, a conference of Baptist leaders was held in Van couver to discuss the possibility of forming a local organization which would assist the work of the Northwest Convention. The meeting was in formed that the Home Mission Board of the Convention was favourable to receiving such assistance.33 Consequently, a convention of the British Columbia churches was called in Fir s t Baptist Church, Vancouver, and on April 14, 1896, the British Columbia Baptist Church Extension Society was organized. The Rev. J. .H. Best was elected President; the Rev. W. T. Stackhouse, Secretary; and the Rev. R. W. Trotter, pastor of Calvary Church, Victoria, was made Financial Agent. Treasurer of the new body was William Marchant, a prominent Victoria layman. It would seem to be more than mere coincidence that Best was also elected Presi dent of the Northwest Convention later in the same year, while both Stackhouse and Trotter were made members of the Convention Board. The American churches were evidently willing to go out of their way in order 32w. T. Stackhouse, "A Brief History of the British Columbia Baptist Church Extension Society", in Convention Report, 1897, p. 39. 3 3 l b i d . . p. 40. 34ibid.. p. 38. 77, to retain the British Columbia churches within their ranks. In i t s f i r s t year of operation the Church Extension Society met with i n i t i a l success. New churches were organized in T r a i l , Rossland, and Chemainus. The Rev. R. W. Trotter toured the Baptist churches of Eastern Canada in the interests of home missions and was able to raise over $4,800 for the cause.35 The R e v > n. D. Proper, General Missionary of the Northwest Convention, showed a great interest in the British Columbia f i e l d and made an extensive tour of the Kootenays. Proper addressed the Annual Convention of the Church Extension Society in Apri l , 1897, and "in a manner that would wake the dead, he outlined the work to be done in east B.C."36 Proper appealed to the American Baptist Home Mission Society for further aid, but the Society was forced to refuse the request because of financial stringency. Shortly after this, the Board of the Society, meeting in New York, informed Proper that a l l aid to British Columbia churches would be discontinued after October 1, 1897.37 To meet the financial c r i s i s , a convention of the British Columbia churches was called in July 1897. At this meeting the relationship to the Northwest Convention in the United States was severed, the British Columbia Church Extension Society was dissolved, and an indigenous organization, the British Columbia Baptist Convention was formed, with the Rev. P. H. McEwen as i t s President. 35stackhouse, op. c i t . , p. 42. ^Convention Report. 1897, p. 16. 3 6 I b i d . , p. 44. 78, While financial conditions were given as the reason for the new convention, i t seems evident that they provided the occasion rather than the cause for the change. Feelings of national distinctiveness lay at the heart of the situation. The link with the United States must have been a source of some embarrassment to British Columbia Baptists. Those who did not understand the nature of a Baptist convention inter preted the existence of the Northwest Convention as an evidence of American domination. In June, 1897, an a r t i c l e in the Colonist news paper understandably, but erroneously, concluded that the proposed Bri t i s h Columbia Convention was an indication of coming "home rule" for Baptists in the province. 3 8 In reality, the Baptists of Washington had given every evidence of a willingness to "go the second mile" in order to give their B r i t i s h Columbia brethren a f a i r share in the activities and leadership of the Northwest Convention. In contrast, when a need arose for economy within the American Baptist Home Mission Society, the New York Board decided the question of a cut-back of grants on the basis of national distinctions. The British Columbia churches, in turn, were willing, i f not anxious, to make the decision of the New York Board the occasion for founding an independent convention. There was really no economic urgency for such a move on the part of Br i t i s h Columbia. By 1897 the financial condition of the Pacific Northwest had begun to im prove. The churches of Eastern Canada were already sending aid to Br i t i s h Columbia under the existing organizational structure. At the British Columbia Convention of July, 1897, there were some who cautioned 'Colonist, June 2, 1897. 79. against hasty ac t i o n . Yet when the vote was taken on the question of the immediate formation of an indigenous convention, f i f t y - f o u r delegates were favourable, and s i x opposed. When i t was moved that "the vote be 39 unanimous" the motion was " c a r r i e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y " . According to reports given at the time, however, the most s i g n i f i c a n t thing about the formation of the B r i t i s h Columbia Baptist Convention was not the national d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s involved, but rather the ease and c o r d i a l understanding with which the d i v i s i o n was accomplished. The Rev. D. D. Proper was present at the founding of the new convention and gave f r i e n d l y advice and support.40 During the following year, the American Baptist Home Mission Society gave token grants to B r i t i s h Columbia missionaries Thus f r a t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s with the American churches were maintained. Consequently, Baptist churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia were more open to American ideas and influences than were the churches of the Canadian p r a i r i e s , which had o r i g i n a l l y been established as a r e s u l t of the home missionary program of Baptists i n Eastern Canada. Over the years since 1897 the influence of the United States upon B r i t i s h Columbia Baptists has continued and only recently does i t appear to be diminishing. Along with the rest of the population of the pro vince, Baptists are exposed to American ideas as a r e s u l t of American media of mass communication and the mutual proximity of some of the larger centres of population on the West Coast. But, in addition to these f a c t o r s , Baptists i n B r i t i s h Columbia have some p a r t i c u l a r 3 9Convention Report. 1897, p. 23. ^Convention Report. 1898, p. 11. 40lbid.. p. 21ff. 80. a f f i n i t i e s with their brethren "across the line". The fact that the United States contains the largest Baptist population in the world has contributed to the strength of American influence. Through the years, the British Columbia Baptist churches have made extensive use of Ameri- can publications and Sunday School material. Some American Baptist pastors have been called to British Columbia churches, while other Canadian-born pastors have received their training in the United States. Americans have often been guest speakers at Baptist Conventions. Further more, the accidents of geography and the subtle influences of p o l i t i c a l separatism have tended to cut off the British Columbia Baptists from their brethren in the rest of Canada. The original constitution of the British Columbia Baptist Con vention made provision for an annual convention to which "each regular Baptist church" 4 3 Was entitled to send two or more delegates, depending upon the size of the congregation. A Convention Executive of four members was elected annually and appointments were made to five boards: a Home Mission Board, a Foreign Mission Board, a Publication Board, a Board of Education, and a Women's Missionary Board. 4 4 The Convention was This has been true of a l l groups, including Convention Baptists. The Convention Baptist churches in Ontario and Quebec make considerable use of Sunday School material which is published in cooperation with the United Church, but this material has never been popular in the West. At present, the Convention churches of both the West and the Maritimes are fina l i z i n g plans to use Canadian-edited material from the Judson Press, Philadelphia, publishing house of the American (formerly, the Northern) Baptist Convention. 4 3Conventiori Report. 1897, p. 8. Note the use of "regular" with out capitalization. 4 4 I b i d . . p. 9. 81. incorporated in the name of the Executive in 1901. 4 5 Soon after the founding of the Convention a number of important constitutional changes took place. In 1898 the idea of a British Columbia Foreign Mission Board was dropped and a practice was adopted by which twenty percent of Convention receipts were forwarded to the Baptist Foreign Mission Board of Ontario and Quebec. Consequently, the Home Mission Board came to be known, simply, as "the Mission Board". In 1899 the Convention Executive was increased to six members and these also were made ex-officio members of the Mission Board.4^ In 1900 the members of the Mission Board, the home missionaries appointed by the Board, and the Superintendent of Missions, were a l l granted the right to A O vote at Annual Conventions. Thus none of these personnel need be appointed as delegates by the churches in order to exercise the fran chise. This gave the delegates less control upon the actions of the Board, and weakened the Board's responsibility to the local churches. In 1902 the incorporation of the Convention was transferred to the "Board of Baptist Missions for British Columbia" and the Board was given 49 t i t l e to a l l property of the Convention. The purpose of this transfer was to enable the Mission Board to borrow money for home mission work. 4->Baptist Convention of British Columbia, Minutes of Executive Committee of the Mission Board, [hereafter referred to as Mission Board Minutes], October 26, 1901. 4 6Convention Report. 1898, p. 39. 4 7Convention Report. 1899, pp. 14, 18. 4 8Convention Report. 1900, pp. 7, 11. 4 9Mission Board Minutes, April 16, 1902. 82., As a result of the constitutional changes which took place follow ing 1897, the Mission Board gained much more authority than was envisaged at the time of the formation of the Convention. Since, in the early years, most of the churches were not self-sustaining, the Mission Board exercised a good deal of influence in the supervision of churches and appointment of mission pastors. Furthermore, the Board apportioned to a l l the churches set amounts of money which were to be raised for home mission purposes. As long as the Convention remained a relatively small organization, the members of the Board maintained close contact with the people and enjoyed their confidence. As the Convention grew, much of this personal contact was lost and "the Board" became an object of criticism. Because the Board and i t s appointees had the right to vote at the annual convention meetings, the Mission Board attained a certain degree of power to perpetuate i t s own ideas and personnel. This control was regarded by c r i t i c s as a contravention of local church autonomy and, hence, "un-Baptistic". These sentiments were later to come to the fore, particularly during the controversy of the 1920's. In fact, i t became a common quip that the only "boards" which had any scriptural warrant were those mentioned in connection with the shipwreck of the Apostle Paul-- "some on boards, and some on broken pieces of the ship . . . they escaped a l l safe to land". 5 0 But Boards there were. It became a practice, after 1899, to elect the President of the Women's Board as Third Vice-President of the Con vention. In November, 1899, the f i r s t issue of the Western Baptist was 5 0Acts 27 :44. 83., published by the Publication Board. 5 1 Because this monthly periodical did not receive the subscription support which was expected, i t became involved in financial d i f f i c u l t i e s . At the 1903 Annual Convention there was talk of discontinuing the paper. 5 2 In early 1904, publication was suspended for a time. At the Convention meeting in July, 1904, i t was decided to resume publication and to give the Mission Board the responsi b i l i t y of financing the paper. 5 4 Behind this decision was the conviction that, while i t might never be a "paying proposition", yet the Western  Baptist was a most useful medium through which denominational interest and loyalty might be fostered. The early history of the Education Board was a tale of grand, but frustrated, ambitions. At the f i r s t Annual Convention of 1897, A. J. Pineo, a Victoria high school teacher, presented an Educational Committee report in which he outlined a plan for a Baptist University in British Columbia. The report cited the example of the two existing Baptist in stitutions in Eastern Canada--Acadia University, which had been founded in Nova Scotia in 1840; and Toronto Baptist College, which had been established at Toronto in 1880, and which, in 1887, had united with Wood stock College to form McMaster University. The committee recommended "a bold, vigorous, and progressive educational policy" in spite of the 5 1Convention Report. 1900, p. 35. The Rev. W. B. HInson of F i r s t Baptist Church, Vancouver, was the f i r s t editor of the Western Baptist. 5 2 F . W. Auvache, Secretary's notes taken at Annual Convention, July, 1903. 53Mission Board Minutes, February 17, 1904. 5 4Convention Report. 1904, p. 32. 84. recent "lamented failure of the two denominational schools—Grace Seminary [[at Centralia, Washington] and the University of Seattle" with which British Columbia and Washington Baptists were connected. 5 5 The project was received with enthusiasm and Pineo was appointed chairman of the new Education Board. The University scheme proved to be too ambitious for the limited resources of the Convention. In 1898 the Education Board reported "but l i t t l e tangible progress". 5 0 In 1899 the Board recommended "immediate action, upon a somewhat subdued scale" and suggested correspondence courses and night classes under the supervision of pastors. 5 7 In the same year, the formation of Brandon College in Manitoba diverted some attention from educational work in British Columbia but, in 1900, the . Education Board appealed to the members of the British Columbia churches to "join heart and hand and pocket in the great work of building a Baptist University in British Columbia, and thus complete the chain of Baptist educational fortresses from the Atlantic to the P a c i f i c " . 5 8 The appeal failed, the pastors found themselves too busy to continue 59 night classes, and the chain was lef t dangling unt i l 1906. ^Convention Report. 1897, p. 34. ^Convention Report. 1898, p. 17. 57Convention Report, 1899, pp. 34-35. 5 8Convention Report. 1900, p. 31. 5 9A. J. Pineo, a teacher at Victoria High School, was evidently frustrated by the failure of the Education Board's plans. He l e f t the Baptist denomination and, in 1909, he founded the Fir s t Unitarian Church, Vancouver. Pineo established a similar congregation in Victoria in 1910 and for some time commuted on Sundays between the two c i t i e s . 85, In the meantime, the Mission Board struggled to cope with a heavy home mission program. Efforts were made to reach as many fields as poss ible on a limited budget, which, in 1899, stood at only $6,000.60 To further this objective, the Board sought for an experienced leader to act as Superintendent of Missions. In September, 1899, the Rev. Dr. D. Spencer was appointed to this post, but after three and one-half months he resigned and "advised against the. appointment of a successor",*^ presumably because of the Convention's limited resources. The Board dis agreed with the suggestion and, early in 1899, the Rev. J. E. Coombs of Colfax, Washington, assumed the o f f i c e . ^ 2 Coombs resigned the following year and was replaced by the Rev. P. H. McEwen. The d i f f i c u l t i e s which McEwen faced during his five years of office were a reflection of general economic and social developments in British Columbia. In the years following the South African War of 1899-1902, there was a great increase of immigration into the Canadian West. The general influx of new settlers into British Columbia presented a l l religious groups in the province with a challenging opportunity for home mission work. During this period, many immigrants of British stock were attracted to the West Coast. These were a new type of Britisher, in contrast to the older Br i t i s h colonists of Vancouver Island. Since they were drawn chiefly from the working classes, they brought with them trade-union sympathies and 6 0Mission Board Minutes, July 11, 1899. 6 1Convention Report. 1899, p. 32. 6 2Loc. c i t . 63see population s t a t i s t i c s , Appendix C. 86. 64 left-wing p o l i t i c a l ideas. A portion of these new settlers were of Baptist persuasion and their reception into the Baptist churches of the province meant the strengthening of Pro-British sentiment in the churches, as well as the reinforcement of those theological views which were typical of British Baptists. During the incumbency of McEwen, the economy of the province was in an unsettled condition, marked by social unrest and a series of labour' strikes. In 1901 a six-month work stoppage among the miners of Rossland had a noticeable effect upon the finances of the infant Baptist congre gation which had been organized there in 1896. The results of adverse economic conditions were manifest throughout the Convention. In addition to lack of money, McEwen was faced with a lack of mission pastors. In October, 1900, the Executive Committee of the Mission Board voted to contact a number of men regarding mission work in British Columbia and offered "a maximum [annual] salary of $800 and a minimum of $700 according to location". These new recruits were sought in Manitoba and Eastern Canada. Since there was l i t t l e response, in December i t was moved "that the Superintendent be authorized to procure as many young men 66 for our work as possible". The economic situation hit hard at the self-sustaining churches as well as at mission work. In January, 1901, Emmanuel Church, Victoria, was "^Margaret A. Ormsby, British Columbia: a History. Toronto, Macmillan, 1958, p. 329. 6 5Mission Board Minutes, October 5, 1900. 6 6 I b i d . . December 28, 1900. 87. forced to apply to the Mission Board for help, which was granted because of the "existing conditions".°7 Later in that year, hope of financial aid rose as a result of developments in Manitoba. The Rev. A. J. Vining, Superintendent of Home Missions for the Baptist Convention of Manitoba and Northwest Territories, resigned his post and was replaced by the Rev. W. M. Stackhouse, who had relinquished his pastorate at Rossland. Vining, by reputation a good "money-raiser", was planning a tour of Great Britain in order to raise funds for the Baptists of Western Canada. In May, 1901, the British Columbia Mission Board offered to pay one-third of the expenses of the trip on condition that one-third of the donations collected in Britain would be forwarded to the British Columbia f i e l d . Apparently the plan was never carried through, but the overture to the Manitoba Convention was one of the f i r s t of a series of negotiations which led to the formation of the Baptist Union of Western Canada. The financial state of the British Columbia Convention grew steadily worse. The Seventh Annual Convention in July, 1903, dropped the practice of giving to foreign missions a twenty percent share of the income received from the Convention's churches. The churches were l e f t to give independently to foreign missions, and a committee was formed to 68 collect and forward these donations. In the same year, only $2,855 of the home mission budget was expected to come from the British Columbia churches, which were urged "to put forth strenuous efforts to raise the a 7Mission Board Minutes, January 8, 1901. o 8Western Baptist. August 1903. 88.. amount assigned them". 6 9 No r e a l advance could be made i n home mission work and some e x i s t i n g pastorates were vacant. The state of the churches mirrored the demoralized state of the province i n 1903, a s i t u a t i o n which brought Richard McBride to power as Premier of B r i t i s h Columbia i n October of that y e a r . 7 0 The leadership problem i n home mission churches became acute. The work was such as would challenge the a b i l i t i e s of the most experienced pastor; the a v a i l a b l e remuneration was such as would be discouraging to the most inexperienced young man. E a r l y i n 1903, as a r e s u l t of a b u i l d  ing loan, the pastorless church at Rossland faced a grave f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s . The Rev. M. V. Vansickle, an experienced leader and former pastor of the Nanaimo Church, went to Rossland to a i d the church and report to the Mission Board. In September, 1903, Vansickle received a succinct telegram: "Board w i l l assume loan i f you assume pastorate. Letter coming".^ 1 Vansickle declined the p o s i t i o n , but the Board assumed the debt. Later, i n July 1904, Superintendent McEwen was offered the Rossland 72 post and also declined. Records of the period bear testimony to the hardships of home mission work. In the f a l l of 1903 the Rev. A. W. Gazeley came to Saanich Church, from Strathcona, [presumably Strathcona, Ontario] but a f t e r f i v e months he resigned. In a l e t t e r to the Mission Board he "recounted h i s b yMission Board Minutes, July 13, 1903. 7 00rmsby, British Columbia, p. 336. 7•'•Mission Board Minutes, September 14, 1903. 7 2 I b i d . . August 31, 1904. 89. disappointments and discouragements as a Missionary since coming to the Coast" and requested $150 to enable him to return home. After prolonged discussion, the Board granted him $100 "in view of his apparent need, on fraternal grounds". 7 3 The stringency of finances gave rise to a debate within the Con vention with regard to the office of the Superintendent of Missions. Some wished to abolish the post. Others fel t that instead of an itinerant superintendency there was more need for a "general missionary", a man of experience, who could not only i n i t i a t e new churches, but who could also, in turn, act as temporary pastor of each newly-established church, in order to strengthen and instruct the congregation. At the 1903 Annual Convention sessions this matter was thoroughly discussed and the dele gates voted 42 to 12 in favour of retaining the office of Superintendent, with the understanding that he was to act as a general missionary. 7 4 This issue was revived at the 1904 Convention, and after a "keen debate" the vote was 32 to 29 in favour of continuing the post of Superinten dent. 7 5 By this time the financial condition of the British Columbia Convention had become c r i t i c a l . The f i s c a l policy of the Mission Board apparently ruled out any idea of accumulating cash reserves to cover emergencies. This attitude may have indicated a lack of foresight, but, more probably, i t may have stemmed from a desire to promote church giving 7 3Mission Board Minutes, April 5, 1904. 7 4Auvache, Secretary's notes of Annual Convention, 1903. 7 5 C o l o n i s t . July 12, 1904. 90. by fostering a sense of urgent need. Concepts of loyalty to denominational objectives, of systematic budgeting, and of proportionate giving had not yet taken firm hold upon the minds of Baptists. The individualism of frontier sectarianism was manifest. Consequently, the Convention was financially vulnerable. During periods of economic depression, the self- sustaining churches f i r s t sought to meet their own local needs, thus re ducing their donations to Convention projects. At the same time, home mission churches tended to apply to the Mission Board for additional grants. In 1904 the Board's solution was r i g i d economy and a bank over d r a f t . 7 6 Austerity continued in 1905. In January, a grant was refused to the church at Summerland because of lack of funds. 7 7 In February, arrange ments were made to assure the new home missionary at Grand Forks a total 7 8 salary "of Eighty Three & 33/100 Dollars per month". Superintendent McEwen resigned his position to assume the pastorate at Ladner. 7 9 Some months later, he became the Pastor of Fairview Church in Vancouver. The Mission Board entered into negotiations with the Manitoba Convention to arrange for a joint superintendency of home mission fields in the four OA western provinces. " Toward the end of 1905 the economic situation in British Columbia began to improve. An added encouragement was the favourable response of Manitoba to the idea of a Joint Superintendent. It was agreed that 7 6Mis sion Board Minutes, October 7, 1904. 7 7 l b i d . . January 11, 1905. 7 8 I b i d . . April 7, 1905. 7 9Loc. c i t . 8 0Loc. c i t . British Columbia pay one-quarter of the Superintendent's salary, plus travel expenses, in return for the use of his services for three months of each year. It was also agreed that the two conventions cooperate on a similar basis in sending a representative to Eastern Canada in order to raise funds for missions in the West. British Columbia's share of such funds was to be one-quarter of a l l undesignated g i f t s . A further pro vision was made for the appointment of a Missionary Evangelist to assist the Joint Superintendent, each convention agreeing to pay one-half of the Q -I Q O Evangelist's s a l a r y . 1 - The Rev. W. M. Stackhouse was made Joint Super intendent, and the Rev. D. E. Hatt was appointed Missionary Evangelist. The period from 1906 to 1912 was one of rapid progress for Baptists in British Columbia as well as on the Prairies. In June, 1907, Superintendent Stackhouse presented an ambitious plan to the Executive of the Mission Board. He said that he had discovered "1000 openings" for Baptist work in Western Canada. In 1906 about 172,000 people had settled in the West, including "about 20,000 Baptists not identified with our churches", while "our present membership is but 8,500". Stackhouse pro posed to 'establish 200 new congregations and set as a financial objective the raising of $100,000 a year for three years. To accomplish this, he recommended the amalgamation of the British Columbia and Manitoba Con ventions. " A l l the Brethren present expressed their admiration of the 83 plan as outlined. . . . " o lCopies of the agreements are preserved in Mission Board Minutes, November 18, 1905. 8 2See p. 87. 8 3Mission Board Minutes, June 7, 1907. 92. Later in June the Convention of Manitoba and the North-West, meeting in Edmonton, approved the plan for a united organization. Similar action was taken, in July 1907, by British Columbia Baptists, meeting in a memorable Annual Convention at Summerland, site of the newly- established Okanagan College. 8 4 In November, 1907, delegates from a l l the Baptist churches of the West met at Calgary and organized the Baptist Con vention of Western Canada. 8 5 The two periodicals, the Western Baptist, of British Columbia, and the North-West Baptist, published in Manitoba, were amalgamated as the Western Outlook on January 1, 1908. The name was changed,' in March 1916, to the Western Baptist. The constitution of the united convention called for direct rep resentation from each local church.8*' This arrangement had i t s supporters, but others, such as William Marchant, f e l t that one large convention "was unwieldy in operation, and d i f f i c u l t to administer". 8 7 The constitution also made provision for associations in each of the four provinces. The churches in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta formed such lesser units of organization, but the British Columbia Convention refused to recon stitute i t s e l f as an association. Some years afterward, the British 8 4See p. 94. 8 5 B a p t i s t Convention of Western Canada, Year Book - '1907. p. 5. [Later published by the Baptist Union of Western Canada, and hereafter referred to as BUYB - plus date. The date refers to the year covered by the reports, not the date of publication, which is not given .J 86BUYB - 1907. p. 9. 8 7 [ w i l l i a m Marchant], "Beacon .Lights in Baptist History of British Columbia", Victoria, 1926 *, p. 26. 93, Columbia Baptists took some pride in the fact that their organization was "the oldest convention in the West, for i t has never yielded the whole of 88 it s powers or identity to any other body". In November, 1908, the Baptist Convention of Western Canada met in First Baptist Church, Vancouver. Because of the dissatisfaction which was evident, a new type of organization was proposed, to be known as the Baptist Union of Western Canada. Instead of four associations, there were to be four Provincial Conventions, which would meet annually. Each of these, in proportion to i t s total membership, would appoint representa tives to the Baptist Union. 8 9 The plan met with general approval, and in November, 1909, the Convention of Western Canada was re-organized at 90 Moose Jaw to form the Baptist Union. The new arrangement proved to be more efficient, but, because i t involved "indirect representation" of the churches, there were some delegates at the 1910 British Columbia Con vention who felt that the new constitution "implied a departure from the principles of democracy".9''" The years following the formation of the Baptist Union were years of advance for the two existing Baptist colleges in Western Canada, Brandon College and Okanagan College, which were l e f t under the control of their respective boards. Brandon College in Manitoba was the f u l  fillment of a dream which dated as far back as the early 1880's, when a small institution known as Prairie College was initiated at Rapid City, 88[~Marchant], "Beacon Lights", p. 15. 89BUYB - 1908. p. 24. 90BUYB - 1909. p. 9ff. 9*Auvache, Secretary's notes of Annual Convention, July, 1910. 94, north of Brandon. z Plans for the future of Rapid City did not material ize and Prairie College did not survive. Nevertheless, early a n t i c i  pations came to fruition with the establishment of a Baptist college at Brandon in 1899. 9 3 Okanagan College at Summerland was also an outgrowth of previous v i s i o n s . 9 4 These began to assume tangible form in January, 1906, when a joint meeting of convention Boards was held in Victoria for the purpose of discussing a proposal by the Rev. A. J. Saunders to found a college at 95 Summerland. This was the era when the Okanagan Valley fruitlands were being ambitiously developed and the idea of a college in that area had an appeal to the majority of Baptists. The plan was approved and, in March, 1907, the Educational Board of the Baptist Convention of British Columbia was incorporated under the Benevolent Societies Act.9** Some objection was raised to a location so far from centres of population, but i t was argued that the college would be free from "the excitement, the feverish unrest, the atmosphere of soulless commercialism that belongs to the c i t y " . 9 7 Such arguments manifested a sectarian attitude and were no doubt calculated to appeal to those of sectarian s p i r i t within the Convention, but the chief factor in the choice of the site had been the financial support which had been given the project by the Ritchie family of Summerland. By July, 1907, 92 Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec, Baptist Year Book 1882. p. 108. 93, Special College Edition of Brandon Daily Sun. February 2, 1960. 9 4See pp. 83-84. 9 6 I b i d . . March 6, 1907. 95colonist. January 20, 1906. 97BUYB - 1907. p. 66. 95. the f i r s t of two main buildings was in the process of erection on "College 98 H i l l " . The college opened that f a l l with the Rev. E. W. Sawyer, formerly of Acadia University, as i t s Principal. During the following year, Premier Richard McBride, while on a p o l i t i c a l tour of the province, promoted the idea of a provincial univer- 99 si t y . It became evident that the new Baptist college would soon be faced with a formidable contender, located at Vancouver, the population centre of the province. It was the intention that Okanagan College offer a f u l l selection of f i r s t and second year Arts courses, as well as high school work. However, the school was plagued by academic and financial problems. According to the 1910 Report of Okanagan College, there were "internal d i f f i c u l t i e s " in connection with staff and curriculum re-organization. Listed among "external d i f f i c u l t i e s " was the hesitation of McMaster Univer sity to give recognition to Okanagan College, 1"^ a fact which "nearly wrecked" the Arts courses. It was further noted that "the desire for big things and large accomplishments swings many of our people toward the provincial u n i v e r s i t y " . 1 0 1 9 8Vernon News. July 25, 1907. 990rmsby, British Columbia, p. 353. lOOjkis hesitation was apparently based upon doubts regarding the standard of courses and the future of the school. LOIB-UYB - 1910. p. 55. The site for U.B.C. was chosen in 1910. It was expected that the majority of denominational schools would a f f i l i a t e with the proposed provincial university. A secular source stated, "The Baptist denomination alone has evinced a desire to retain an independent attitude, and the future of their college at Summerland is not yet f i n a l l y determined". A. G. Brown (editor), British Columbia. Its History. People.  Commerce. Industries and Resources. London, Sells Ltd., 1912, p. 128. The "independent attitude" of Baptists was no doubt traceable, fin part, to Baptist views on separation of Church and State, but i t was also 9 6 . During the period before World War I, the reports of Brandon College and Okanagan College contained l i t t l e foreshadowing of the theo logical upheavals which were to rend Baptists in the years following the war. Nevertheless, liberalism was beginning to make a definite impact upon Protestants, and significant events were taking place in Baptist ci r c l e s . This was the era during which Walter Rauschenbusch was teaching the "Social Gospel" to his students in Rochester Theological Seminary. Dr. Shailer Mathews was Dean of the Divinity School of the University of Chicago, which had been so richly endowed through the munificence of the 102 Baptist industrialist, John D. Rockefeller. Yet no hint of future events was to be found in the announcement that Mr. Harry L. MacNeill had 103 been added to the staff of Brandon College in 1 9 0 3 , J nor was any apparent significance seen in the fact that Mr. MacNeill was granted leave of absence, in 1 9 0 6 , in order that he might spend three years in advanced study at the University of Chicago. 1 0 4 Mr. MacNeill, who was later to become the center of a storm of controversy, obtained his Doctor of Philosophy Degree from Chicago in 1 9 1 0 . 1 0 5 motivated by hard economic r e a l i t i e s . Having made a considerable invest ment in Okanagan College, Baptists were in no position to consider moving the institution to the new university site. 1 0 2Rockefeller gave ten million dollars to the University, includ ing $ 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 for the construction of a chapel. Western Outlook. January 1 6 , 1 9 1 1 . 1Q3BUYB - 1 9 0 4 . p. 2 1 6 . IO&BUYB - 1 9 0 9 . p. 1 8 . l°5when asked i f his sojourn in Chicago had altered his previous theological outlook Dr. MacNeill wrote that "It increased my knowledge, liberalism, and faith". Letter of Dr. MacNeill to the author, March 2 6 , 1 9 6 3 . 97. There was some discussion of lib e r a l theological trends in the Western Baptist. In May, 1907, an a r t i c l e on "The New Theology" of Rev. R. J. Campbell, pastor of City Temple, London, quoted Campbell's state ment that "the starting point in the New Theology is belief in the 106 immanence of God and the essential oneness of God and Man". The a r t i c l e proceeded to c r i t i c i z e Campbell's views. A further a r t i c l e , published in November of the same year, gave the gist of an address by G. B. Smith of the University of Chicago, omitting c r i t i c a l comment. Smith was quoted as saying: "The strength of the new theology is in the fact that i t enables multitudes of noble men with the new world-view to be Christmas f s i c ] . Its weakness is the p e r i l of degeneration into an intellectual c u l t " . 1 0 7 The Rev. A. A. Shaw, pastor of First Baptist Church, Winnipeg, was guest preacher at the 1908 Baptist Convention of Western Canada, held in Vancouver. It is somewhat astonishing, in view of later events, that his sermons on "The Social Ministry of the Church" did not cause any apparent repercussions. 1 0 8 His three Convention sermons were f u l l y recorded in the Baptist Union Year Book. They reveal him as an ardent exponent of the "Social Gospel". They also express his "anti-sectarian" outlook, as in the following: I am sure there is much in Dr. [w. j j Dawson's picture of the 1 0 6Western Baptist. May 1907. 1 0 7 I b i d . . November 1907. 108shaw may not have been popular with everyone in his own con gregation. During his pastorate from 1907 to 1911, First Church, Winnipeg, lost 200 members. The rise of suburban churches was given as the reason. Ibid., March 1925. i 98. church of the future that should be realized and might be realized in the church of today: "It w i l l have neither creeds, nor forms, nor subscriptions. Its law w i l l be freedom; i t s condition, service . . . . It w i l l attract everybody, for i t w i l l include everybody". The general absence of doctrinal controversy during the pre-war years can be explained in terms of a number of factors. Liberal theo logical trends did not reach the Canadian West as quickly as some other parts of the world. British Columbia Baptists were slow to recognize the f u l l impact of the trends. Furthermore, the developing denominational loyalties of many Baptists made them hesitate to i n i t i a t e division. During this period only two significant cases of local church division can be identified. One involved Jackson Avenue Church in Van couver, whose pastor, the Rev. George Fair, l e f t the church in July, 1898 and, with a portion of his former flock, organized a "non- denomination" group, 1 1 0 which apparently held to a "Pentecostal" variety of doctrine. The other local division occurred at Calvary Baptist Church, Victoria, in 1907. The trouble seemed to centre in personality differ ences and particularly implicated the pastor of the church, the Rev. F. T. Tapscott. Some sixty members began a new church, 1 1 1 but the Calvary 112 building was destroyed by the "Victoria Fire" some months later, and Tapscott resigned in the following year. In July, 1908, most of the 1 0 9BUYB - 1908. p. 126. 1 1 0Convention Report. 1898, p. 25. 1 1 1 V i c t o r i a Times. April 5, 1907. 1 1 2 C o l o n i s t . July 25, 1907. It is of interest to note that while the news ar t i c l e gives a history of the church, no mention is made of the negro question. This seems to indicate that Baptists considered i t best that the matter be forgotten. 99, discordant elements were reunited to form a new congregation, which took 113 the older name of First Baptist Church, Victoria. Open doctrinal controversy was noticeably absent, yet toward the end of the period there were some indications of undercurrents of unrest. Discussion arose regarding the nature of Baptist doctrinal distinctiveness. The Rev. G. Kiersted, in an address to the Baptist Union at Regina in 1914, stressed the point that Baptists "cling to the New Testament because we cling to the only experience that makes i t real to us. Other denominations have established creedal tests. The danger is a doctrine of salvation [that is] external and formal and consequently false". 1''" 4 However, on the subject of creeds, the Western Outlook printed the following: But have Baptists made no written creeds? Yes, they have formu lated several that have become historic, and each Baptist church has "articles of f a i t h " setting forth i t s beliefs. Baptists have never hesitated to t e l l the world what they believe; but they have never consented to t e l l the world, nor have the world t e l l them, what they must believe. H5 Particularly in British Columbia, misgivings with regard to organizational, doctrinal, and spiritual developments were in evidence. In the British Columbia Convention there were expressions of dis satisfaction over the conduct of affairs within the Baptist Union. At the 1917 Annual Convention, a British Columbia pastor used the term "domi neering" to describe past actions of the Union, but he admitted that this U 3 V i c t o r i a Times. July 18, 1908. ll^BUYB - 1913. p. 181. At this time the Union meeting was held early in the year and the account of i t s sessions was customarily printed in the Year Book for the previous year, hence the seeming discrepancy of dates. •L15Western Outlook. March 1, 1915. 100.. attitude "had been removed of l a t e " . 1 1 6 To this remark, another responded "we have too much independence and not enough interdependence". 1 1 7 B r i t i s h Columbia Baptists were concerned over the possibility of serious spiritual decline within their ranks. In 1 9 1 3 the Committee on the State of Religion reported that the average number of worshippers at morning congregations in the churches was somewhat below the number on the church membership r o l l s , but evening congregations were "somewhat 118 larger". It had also been distressing to learn that more than half the churches reported "no deep concern among the members for the salvation of the l o s t " but that "a large proportion" were "concerned for a better 119 citizenship and social justice". In addition to such spiritual problems, the British Columbia Con vention was faced in 1 9 1 3 with a serious financial c r i s i s , brought on by economic depression. "A very trying year", was the comment in the British Columbia Report to the Baptist Union in February 1 9 1 5 ; "Until the tide of depression turns we can only mark time". 1 2 0 Actually the situation was even more serious than "marking time". The Convention's failure to accumulate adequate financial reserves 121 proved to be disastrous. Even before the depression of 1 9 1 3 the Con vention had been faced with a shortage of funds and, in some locations, as H^Auvache, Secretary's notes of Annual Convention, 1 9 1 7 . "•7 L o c c i t . H S B U Y B - 1 9 1 3 . p. 1 2 6 . 1 1 9 I b i d . , p. 1 2 8 . 1 2 0BUYB - 1 9 1 4 . pp. 2 0 - 2 1 . l 2 l S e e p. 8 9 . 101, an economy measure, home mission churches were grouped under one pastor. Furthermore, many local churches had incurred large building debts. Follow ing the c r i s i s , in the years 1913 to 1915, five churches closed completely. Severe measures were taken to meet the c r i t i c a l financial situation. The Mission Superintendent, the Rev. H. G. Estabrook, resigned and a lay man, J. J. Wallace, took over some of his responsibilities. Home mission grants were cut in half.*- 2 2 The Convention office was c l o s e d , 1 2 3 and eventually even the typewriter was sold because " i t was not being used".*-24 The greatest disaster of the period was the loss of Okanagan College. For some years i t had been in debt and appeared to be a dying cause. The outbreak of war administered a "coup de grace". The operating defi c i t for the year ending September 20, 1914, was over $5,000 and almost 12S $10,000 was owing teachers for back salaries. J Student enrollment, which was 91 for the year 1913-14, dropped to 59 in the f a l l of 1 9 1 4 . 1 2 6 This decrease meant a crucial loss of income. In 1915 the College permanently closed i t s doors and eventually i t s assets were placed in the hands of i t s creditors. The remaining war years were occupied with hopeful planning for post-war advance. Since financial conditions began to improve, by the end 1 2 2BUYB - 1914. p. 117. *- 2 3Mission Board Minutes, February 6, 1914. 1 2 4 I b i d . . May 20, 1914. 1 2 5BUYB - 1914. p. 50. 1 2 6 I b i d . . p. 49. In i t s f i r s t year of operation, 1907-8, the C o l l r ege registered 72 students. Enrollment apparently reached a peak of 120 students in the year 1912-13. McLaurin, op. c i t . . pp. 319-320. 102. of 1917 the British Columbia Convention was out of debt. The Baptist Union was particularly encouraged by a contribution of $10,000 which was 127 given by John D. Rockefeller to aid missions in Western Canada. On January 1, 1917, a Five Year Program for future development was in- troduced. It was with an air of genuine optimism that British Columbia Baptists looked forward to the close of the war and the return of their young men from overseas. This optimism was not just a by-product of better economic circum stances. Baptists f e l t a sense of buoyancy because of a number of success ful sallies into the f i e l d of p o l i t i c a l and social reform. They were able to play a significant part, along with other churches, in winning the 129 franchise for women and in the introduction of Prohibition. Both of these matters were settled by plebiscites in September, 1916, on the same day that the provincial election swept the Liberal Party into power with British Columbia's f i r s t and only Baptist Premier, Harlan Carey Brewster, as i t s leader. The defeat of the Conservative Party at the polls was to some extent attributable to the p o l i t i c a l activity of the Protestant churches in British Columbia. In Apr i l , 1915, the Ministerial Union of the Lower Mainland issued a pamphlet, The Crisis in British Columbia, which charged the government of Sir Richard McBride with corruption and the exercise of p o l i t i c a l patronage. At this time the Rev. Nelson A. Harkness, a 'BUYS - 1915, pp. 18, 41. 1 2 8Western Baptist, February 1917. 1 2 9BUYB - 1917, pp. 136, 145. 103. Baptist, was President of the Ministerial Union, and the Rev. A. E. 130 Cooke, a Congregationalist, was i t s Secretary. The controversy which followed resulted in the overthrow of the government of McBride's 131 successor, W. J. Bowser, in the 1916 election. At least four Baptists were elected to the Provincial Legislature 132 in 1916. Of these, three were Liberals. It would appear that there was considerable support for Brewster and for the Liberal Party among Baptists of this period. It would be wrong to suppose that such support came only from those who displayed li b e r a l theological tendencies. There were staunch p o l i t i c a l Liberals among the fundamentalists as well. The rise of Liberal p o l i t i c a l sentiments can be traced to the in flux of Bri t i s h working-class immigrants in the era before the First World War. The influence of this group, along with the new emphasis on the "social gospel", was beginning to have a definite effect upon the social outlook of Baptists. At the same time British Baptist elements in the churches were reinforced. It was evident that B r i t i s h Columbia 1 3 0 J . Castell Hopkins, Canadian Annual Review of Public Affairs.  1915. Toronto, Annual Review Publishing Co., 1916, pp. 729-730. 131p o r election details see the Vancouver Province. September 15, 1916. 1 3 2Walter E. W. E l l i s , "Some Aspects of Religion in British Columbia P o l i t i c s " , unpublished M.A. thesis in the library of the University of Bri t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1959, pp. 182-183. Baptists were f i r s t represented in the Legislature at the turn of the century. During most of the period since that time, an average of one or two members have been Baptist. However, Baptists have not had as large a representation as they had in the Brewster administration u n t i l the Social Credit victory of 1952, when five Baptists, including four Social Credit candidates and one Liberal, were elected. See ibid.. pp. 170-189. B a p t i s t s were moving away from a s e c t a r i a n viewpoint and were g a i n i n g a consi d e r a b l e degree of s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n . Premier Brewster's untimely 133 death from pneumonia i n March, 1918, s i g n a l l e d the beginning of a p e r i o d of gradual p o l i t i c a l d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t f o r B a p t i s t s and the stage was set f o r the r e a c t i o n against s o c i a l accommodation. This r e a c t i o n began at the c l o s e of the war. 133see Province. March 4 and 5, 1918, f o r b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch of Brewster and accounts of h i s f u n e r a l . .CHAPTER IV THE TROUBLED TWENTIES The end of the Firs t World War ushered in a period of an t i c i  pation among British Columbia Baptists. On the surface at least, i t appeared that the separatist and sectarian s p i r i t of Baptists had de clined. Peace, i t was hoped, would bring the end of war-time problems and the beginning of an era of united denominational advance. These hopes, however, were doomed to frustration, for the early 1920*s proved to be years of internal conflict, which culminated in the f i n a l division of Baptist ranks in 1927. Shortage of finances and shortage of manpower were two major d i f f i c u l t i e s of the war years. At the end of the war the financial pro blem was already well on the way to solution; and under the leadership of the Rev. F. W. Patterson, who was appointed General Secretary of the Baptist Union of Western Canada in 1919, the churches united in the "Forward Movement".1 This movement was an interdenominational project in which Presbyterians, Methodists, Anglicans, Congregationalists and Bap ti s t s pooled their resources in a joint promotional campaign. Each individual denomination, however, raised i t s own funds and expended them 2 according to i t s own objectives. Baptists of the West, through the success of the "Forward Movement", were able to pay off some of the debts C. C. McLaurin, Pioneering in Western Canada. Calgary, C. C. McLaurin, 1939, p. 196. 2Western Baptist. January 1, 1920. 106.. of home mission churches and promote the general advance of denominational work. Lack of manpower proved to be a more d i f f i c u l t problem than lack of finances. Over one-tenth of the population of British Columbia had joined the armed forces. The war had taken some of the churches' best young men and l e f t congregations without pastoral recruits and adequate lay leader ship. At the provincial convention in June, 1917, i t was reported that 3 twelve churches in British Columbia were without pastors. Not a l l the Baptist men who lef t for the Front returned to the churches at the close of the war. Apart from the tragic loss of l i f e , the war had i t s moral and spiritual casualties. Experience in the armed services fostered the interchange of religious and irreligious ideas, exposed men to the brutalities of battle, and confronted men with the challenge of indifferent moral conduct. The t e l l i n g effect of these in fluences upon some servicemen was related in the Report of the Mission Board to the Annual British Columbia Convention in June, 1920: . . . we cannot see that post-war conditions are more favorable to Christian work than pre-war conditions were. We have been dis illusioned. We were assured that the returning men would bring such a whole-hearted devotion to Christ as would compel a lukewarm church to become very enthusiastic. We have not found i t so. 4 However, among Baptists of Western Canada, the most disturbing feature of the post-war years was the rise of a theological controversy which tended to overshadow a l l other events for some seven years. This BUYB - 1917. p. 138. This situation was not caused by the en listment of the settled pastors, but by a shortage of new pastors to man the smaller churches. 4BUYB - 1920. p. 117. 107. dispute was not merely a matter of personality differences, although conflict of personalities figured in the dispute. Neither was the disturbance primarily a matter of differences of opinion over adminis tration and finances. The controversy was confined neither to the Baptist denomination nor to the locale of Western Canada.5 It must be understood as an extension of the so-called "modernist-fundamentalist1' controversy which involved most Protestant denominations and which, in North America, was particularly in evidence during the third decade of the twentieth century. Modernism, as a school of thought, was rooted in an effort to reconcile Christian theology to the rationalistic philosophical ideas of the "Age of Enlightenment". The new movement became prominent among the theologians of Germany, where i t displayed considerable variation. Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834), for example, stressed subjective experience and intuition, rather than "rational arguments". Schleier macher believed that the essence of religion was a feeling of dependence upon the universe and one's fellow men. Ferdinand Baur (1792-1860), a In the pre-war era, for example, the "Jackson Case" provoked considerable s t i r among the Methodists of Canada. In 1909 the Rev. George Jackson, professor at Victoria University, Toronto, a man des cribed by C. B. Sissons as "evangelical" in his method, was attacked from within his own denomination when he suggested that the f i r s t chapters of Genesis need not be taken l i t e r a l l y . Members of other denominations, including Baptists, took sides in the ensuing controversy, which was f i n a l l y resolved during the General Conference at Victoria, B r i t i s h Columbia, in August, 1910. Jackson was allowed to retain his post, but eventually returned home to Britain. See C. B. Sissons, A History of  Victoria University, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1952, pp. 233-240, and H. H. Walsh, The Christian Church in Canada. Toronto, Ryer- son Press, 1956, pp. 291-292, 318. 108. disciple of Hegel, saw a thesis-antithesis relationship between the Jesus of Judaism and the Universal Saviour proclaimed by the Apostle Paul. The Catholic Church was regarded as the resultant synthesis. Baur held radical views on the authenticity of the New Testament and gave second- century dates to most of the New Testament books. Albrecht Ritschl (1822-1889) had l i t t l e patience with metaphysics, stressed practicality in religion, and regarded the Church as a value-creating community. David Strauss, a student of Baur, wrote his Life of Jesus in 1835, in which he cast doubts upon the hist o r i c i t y of the New Testament narratives, including the accounts of Christ's virgin birth and resurrection. Later in l i f e , Strauss completely repudiated his profession of Christianity. 6 In general, the theologians of the new movement embraced the ideas of the so-called "Wellhausen" school of higher cr i t i c i s m . 7 Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918) taught the post-Mosaic and composite authorship of the Pentateuch. The publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species in 1859 reinforced the tendency to apply an evolutionary philosophy, not only to the history of religion within Israel, but also to the general moral development of man. Thus l i t t l e room was le f t for the traditional ideas of Christian soteriology. In the United States, as in other parts of the world, theologians began seriously to question many of the accepted Christian ideas. Horace Bushnell, a Congregationalist, was a notable c r i t i c of the substitutionary Kenneth Scott Latourette, A History of Christianity. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1953, pp. 1121-1128. 7 A term applied to the historical-literary analysis of Scripture, as distinguished from "lower" or textual criticism. 109.. view of Christ's atonement. As the author of Christian Nurture, published in 1846, he also opposed revivalism and rejected the idea of the necessity for a conversion experience. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, evolutionary ideas of human perfectability were typical within the school of l i b e r a l thought which later came to be identified as "modernism". "Modernism", as a term, was apparently f i r s t applied to the neo- scholastic movement which arose during the pontificate of Leo XIII and 9 which was condemned by his successor, Pius X, in 1907. In the following decade the term began to be used in England to describe the Broad Church Movement10 and following the Fir s t World War the designation was commonly applied to indicate " l i b e r a l " theology. By the middle 1920's the "l i b e r a l s " were making general use of the term to describe their own position.*-* As early as 1909, a movement to combat " l i b e r a l " theology was organized in the United States when two wealthy California laymen, Lyman and Milton Stewart, contributed $300,000 toward the publication of twelve 12 booklets. These began to appear the following year under the t i t l e , The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth. From this t i t l e the term 8Latourette, op. c i t . . pp. 1262-1263. 9Henry D. A. Major, "Modernism", Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1951, Vol. 15, p. 637. Loc. c i t . *-*-Note, for example, the a r t i c l e of J. A. Lindsay, "A Layman's View of Modernism", Canadian Journal of Religious Thought. November - December, 1926, pp. 444-450. 1 2 Earle E. Cairns, Christianity Through the Centuries. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan Publishing House, 1954, p. 481. 110,. "fundamentalist" was later derived. The booklets contained articles on 13 theological subjects by notable conservative leaders, and served to crystalize conservative thinking. In order to further this same end, the World's Christian Fundamentals Association was formed in 1919. 1 4 The Rev. Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick has been given credit for popularizing the term "fundamentalist", to denote a person holding "conservative" or "evangelical" views. 1 5 Dr. Fosdick, a Baptist, was appointed supply pastor of F i r s t Presbyterian Church, New York, N. Y. One Sunday morning in May 1922 he preached to his congregation on the topic "Shall the Fundamentalists Win?" Without his instigation or per mission, the sermon was printed in pamphlet form. A prominent Presby terian minister, the Rev. Clarence E. Macartney, countered with a sermon entitled "Shall Unbelief Win?" which was also printed and circulated. 1*' The resultant controversy forced Dr. Fosdick's return to his own de nomination and he became pastor of Riverside Baptist Church, New York. Through his sermons and books he became one of the best known "modernists" in Baptist ci r c l e s . While the terms "modernist" and "fundamentalist" are useful categories, i t should be observed that there was considerable variation ^Canadian contributors included Canon Dyson Hague and Dr. W. G r i f f i t h Thomas, both of Wycliffe College, Toronto, and the Rev. John McNicol of Toronto Bible College. 1 4Latourette, op. c i t . . p. 1421. 1 5Clarence E. Macartney, The Making of a Minister. Great Neck, N.Y., Channel Press, 1961, p. 183. 16 Loc. c i t . 111. of thought and attitude within each group. In the 1920's, during the heat of controversy, quite distinct lines tended to be drawn between two hos t i l e camps. Because of this, some writers have made rather incautious generalizations. Norman Furniss, for example, in The Fundamentalist  Controversy, has described the "Characterististics of the Fundamentalists" as "vaguely defined fear", "longing for certainty", "violence of thought and language", "ignorance", "egotism", and "sentimentality" regarding children. 1 7 Admittedly, examples of these characteristics can be readily found among fundamentalists, but the picture painted by Furniss i s , at best, a stereotype. The same sort of stereotyped thinking i s often evi dent when the doctrinal views of fundamentalists are described as including "pre-millenialism" "mechanical" inspiration, or " l i t e r a l interpretation". Pre-millenialism is common, but by no means universal, among fundamental i s t s . With respect to inspiration, the Rev. James Gray, Dean of Moody Bible Institute, expressed the typical fundamentalist position when he wrote: But we are insisting upon no theory—not even the verbal theory--if i t altogether excludes the human element in the transmission of the sacred word. As Dr. Henry B. Smith says, "God speaks through the personality as well as the lips of His messengers," and we may pour into that word "personality" everything that goes to make it--the age in which the person lived, his environment, his degree of culture, his temperament and a l l the rest.*- 8 In view of the furor engendered by the famous Scopes T r i a l in 1925, i t is a l l the more surprising to read in The Fundamentals the statement of i/Norman F. Furniss, The Fundamentalist Controversy. 1918-1931. Hamden, Connecticut, Archon Books, 1963, pp. 35-45. i&The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth. Chicago, Testimony Publishing Co., [no date], vol. 3, p. 14. 112. Dr. James Orr, a professor at United Free Church College, Glasgow:. . . . few are disquieted in reading their Bibles because i t is made certain that the world i s immensely older than the 6,000 years which the older chronology gave i t . Geology is felt only to have expanded our ideas of the vastness and marvel of the Creator's operations through the aeons of time during which the world, with i t s teeming populations of fishes, birds, reptiles, mammals, was preparing for man's abode . . . . 1 9 Orr was hardly a " l i t e r a l i s t " and, in fact, his ideas involved a type of theistic evolution. Some fundamentalist leaders, such as J. Gresham Machen, a pro fessor at Princeton Seminary, heartily disliked the term "fundamentalist": The term fundamentalism is distasteful to the present writer and to many persons who hold views similar to his. It seems to suggest that we are adherents of some strange new sect, whereas in point of fact we are conscious simply of maintaining the historic Christian faith and of moving in the great central current of Christian l i f e . 2 0 The fundamentalists offered nothing novel in the realm of theology. Their position was basically that of the ancient creeds and of orthodox Protestant theology. What was new was . . . the widespread character of the movement, the missionary enthusiasm which [was] . . . brought to i t by i t s advocates and the consciousness on their part of interests transcending denominational lines and calling for a new alignment, with the Fundamentalists of a l l denominations on one side and the liberals on the other.21 It i s significant that the "modernist-fundamentalist" controversy reached i t s peak in the decade following World War I. The war had caused 1 9The Fundamentals, vol. 4, pp. 100-101. 20j. Gresham Machen, quoted in Ned B. Stonehouse, Jv Gresham  Machen, Grand Rapids, Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1954, p. 337. 2 1 W i l l iam Adams Brown, "Fundamentalism and Modernism", Encyclopae dia Britannica, 1951, vol. 9, p. 921. 113. many people to become sceptical of a l l religion; others had become c r i t i c a l of the "shibboleths" of organized Christianity. Furthermore, the war had undermined previous standards of conduct. Fundamentalists were strongly opposed to the "worldliness" of the post-war era while, at the same time, the prosperity of the 1920's fostered "worldly" tendencies. Many young men had made direct contact with Europe during the war; hence the importation of European theological ideas became more li k e l y . On the other hand, the deliberate racial propaganda of the Canadian government during the war years seemed to intensify the reaction of some fundamental ists to "liberalism", which was described as "The Menace of German 22 Theology". Quite apart from the direct influence of the war, however, the post-war decade in North America was the era when both modernists and fundamentalists were struggling for f i n a l control of the major denomina tions. The modernists were in the minority during the pre-war years; hence they were often on the defensive. By the late 1920's, in Canada and the Northern United States, the tide had turned and fundamentalists were either in the defensive position or had already l e f t the older denomina tions. On this point William Hordern comments: As time passed, liberals began to win more and more of the battles. The leading seminaries became the centers of liberalism, and fundamentalists either withdrew in discomfort or, upon retirement, were replaced by liberals. In a sense, i f you want a date for the end of the fundamentalist-liberal controversy, i t came in 1929. In that year Machen [ j . Gresham Machen] failed in his opposition to a re organization of Princeton Seminary, where he taught. As a result, he resigned and helped to found Westminster Seminary in Philadelphia. . . . by the thirties i t was the fundamentalists, not the liberals, who were finding i t necessary to leave Churches and seminaries. Z W^. Arnold Bennett, Facts Concerning Brandon College. Vancouver, 1922, p. 14. 114,. When one speaks of the end of the fundamentalist-liberal con troversy, i t does not mean that the fundamentalists disappeared. It does mean that the active battle died away. By the end of the thirties the liberals, as we shall see, were fighting for their lives on another front and had no time for continuing the battle with the fundamentalists. The pattern had been set so that liberals were found in one congregation and fundamentalists in another. Frequently, separate seminaries, one liberal and one fundamentalist, supplied ministers to the congregations even when they were of the same de nomination. A large number of fundamentalists found their spiritual home among the smaller sects where, unrestrained by scholarship, they became lost in a maze of esoteric emotional extravagances. . . . The end of the controversy may be called a truce rather than a peace. Theologians of the two groups ignore each other. It is the parish minister, rather than the theologian, who must carry on the struggle today.23 In Canada the earliest open manifestation of the " l i b e r a l - conservative" struggle among Baptists occurred in Ontario. In 1910, Dr. Elmore Harris of Toronto Bible College objected to Professor I. G. Matthews of McMaster University.on the ground of his " l i b e r a l " tendencies. No action was taken however, but after the voluntary resignation of Matthews in 1919 his place was taken by a conservative.24 In the follow ing years further exception was taken to other McMaster teachers, includ ing Professor L. H. Marshall. The objecting conservatives were led by the Rev. Dr. T. T. Shields, pastor of Jarvis Street Baptist Church, Toronto. In many respects the course of the controversy parallelled events in British Columbia. The struggle ended with the division of the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec in 1927. A similar controversy also developed on the Canadian Prairie. In 2 % i l liam Hordern, A Layman's Guide to Protestant Theology. New York, Macmillan, 1955, p. 73. The author, who is not a fundamentalist, gives a very f a i r appraisal of both fundamentalism and liberalism. ^Gospel Witness. January 31, 1924. 115. this case the chief centre of events was Westbourne Baptist Church in Calgary, where William Aberhart, later premier of Alberta, was a leading personality. Here, however, developments took a quite different turn, largely because of the distinctive doctrinal views of Aberhart, who divided the conservative Baptist ranks and organized the Prophetic Bible Institute. The chief events in the Alberta controversy occurred after 1927. Unquestionably the "modernist-fundamentalist" struggle in British Columbia was influenced both by similar events in Eastern Canada and the Northern United States, as well as by the polemical literature which was published in these areas. Nevertheless, i t would be a mistake to con clude that developments in British Columbia were merely echoes of events which took place elsewhere. In fact, the debate followed i t s own dis tinctive lines and the "conservative fore es" 2^ in British Columbia formed their own distinctive organization in 1925, some time before similar action was taken in Ontario, 2 d and s t i l l later, in the Northern Baptist Convention of United States. -'Following the example of Poucett, the term "conservative forces" is used to denote the group which later came to be known as "Regular Baptists". The use of the term is not meant to imply that there were no others within the British Columbia Baptist Convention who held to con servative theology. See Gordon H. Poucett, "The History of the Regular Baptists of British Columbia", unpublished B.D. thesis in the library of McMaster University, Hamilton, 1956, p. 52, footnote 50. 2&In January, 1927, a fundamentalist organization, the Regular Baptist Missionary and Educational Society, was formed within the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec. Gospel Witness. January 13, 1927. After the f i n a l division of the Convention in October, 1927, this funda mentalist group formed the Union of Regular Baptist Churches of Ontario and Quebec. Ibid.. October 20, 1927. 116., Both sides in the British Columbia controversy were undoubtedly sincere and both were motivated by a desire, not to divide the Convention, but to control i t , shaping i t s policies and future according to prin ciples which they considered to be of v i t a l importance. This struggle for ascendancy manifested i t s e l f in numerous ways. Since issues were decided by popular vote, both sides were eager to muster as many votes as possible in the British Columbia Convention and in the Baptist Union. Each party desired to elect i t s own partisans to Convention and Union offices. The conservatives sought to use economic pressure by withholding funds, and both parties attempted to control the expenditure of funds. The f i n a l and key issues proved to be the educational policies both of the individual church Sunday Schools and, more particularly, of the denominational c o l l  ege at Brandon. 2 7 Linked to the latter issue was the determination of the "conservative forces" to require definite creedal tests of professors. During the course of the struggle i t appeared, for a time, that the f i n a l result would be the severance of the whole British Columbia Conven tion from the Baptist Union of Western Canada. However, the Union made definite concessions to British Columbia and, in the process of a number of years, was able to enlist considerable support within the British Columbia Convention. Thus the f i n a l outcome was the division of the "conservative forces" within Br i t i s h Columbia from both the Convention and the Union. Similar divisions took place in Alberta, and in Ontario and Quebec. These events w i l l be traced in some detail. ^'Brandon was basically an Arts College, but also had a Depart ment of Theology. 117. In spite of the discordant p o l i t i c a l and economic condition of the province, the general situation among British Columbia Baptists during 1920 was encouraging. Contributions to the budget were up-to-date 28 and receipts for the Forward Movement were "coming in very well". For some months efforts were made to secure a new Superintendent of Missions for the province. Finally, in November, 1920, Dr. J. Willard Litch, pastor of Ruth Morton Church, a popular personality and a definite con- servative in theological outlook, was persuaded to undertake the task. * There had been some rumours of unorthodox teaching at Brandon College. However, when the Rev. H. H. Bingham, pastor of Fi r s t Baptist Church, Calgary, visited the school in February, 1920, he reported, "I must confess I came away from Brandon College with greatly increased faith in the institution, in the professors, and in the character of work 30 being done". It was therefore a surprise to some, when, later in the year, at a meeting of the Baptist Ministerial Association of Greater Vancouver, the Rev. W. Arnold Bennett, the young pastor of Emmanuel Baptist Church, Vancouver, and a former student of Brandon, charged that Dr. Harris (Harry) L. MacNeill, 3 1 Brandon's professor of New Testament Interpretation and Greek, was heretical in some of his views. The Ministerial Association referred this matter to the British Columbia Mission Board, requesting that Brandon College Board of 2 8Mission Board Minutes, October 12, 1920. 2 9 I b i d . , November 4, 1920. 3 0Western Baptist. June 1, 1920. 3 1See p. 96. 118. Governors be asked to investigate. In response, the Brandon Board submitted the following four questions to Dr. MacNeill on behalf of the Vancouver Baptist Ministerial Association: 1. (a) Do you believe that the Scriptures teach that Christ was born of a Virgin? (b) If so, do you accept the teaching? 2. (a) Do you believe that the Scriptures teach that Christ's body was raised from the dead? (b) If so, do you receive and teach the same? 3. Do you believe the shedding of Christ's blood to be essential for salvation? 4. Do you believe and teach that God holds men responsible for s t r i c t obedience to the teaching of the whole Bible, when pro perly interpreted. In other words, do you believe that the whole Bible is the f i n a l authority, and binding as to what one shall believe and p r a c t i c e . 3 4 In March, 1921, Dr. MacNeill gave the following replies to the Brandon Board: 1. (a) Yes. (b) Yes, I accept i t and present i t as the teaching of Scrip ture. Personally, however, I find d i f f i c u l t y in thinking through, satisfactorily to my mind, this question. I, therefore, emphasize the Incarnation. I firmly and positively believe and teach that the word f sic, without capitalization] became flesh and dwelt among us. I believe in the Incarnation of God in Jesus Christ. 2. (a) Yes. (b) Yes, I receive and teach i t as the teaching of the Scrip ture. I find d i f f i c u l t y , however, from the teaching of 3 % i s s i o n Board Minutes, January 18, 1921. 3 3The action was immediate. Bennett, op. c i t . . p. 1, suggests that there was a lengthy delay. This is incorrect. 3 4Report of the Brandon College "Commission, [hereafter referred to as Brandon Commission]. 1923, p. 18. 119. the Scriptures themselves, in forming a satisfactory con ception of the nature of Christ's Resurrection body. Luke 24:39, and John 20:20, 25; 21,13 [ s i c ] emphasize the material aspects, while Paul in an earlier account (I Cor. ch. 15) says i t was a "Spiritual body" not "the body that was" (I Cor. 15:44), not "the image of the earthly" but "the image of the heavenly" (I Cor. 15:49). That He was a body of some form is clear enough. Here again, however, the important thing is not the body but the l i f e and per sonality. I believe that Jesus is a living, active personality, triumphant over death and the grave and so I believe in the Resurrection. 3. Yes. 4. Yes, when properly interpreted. May I add briefly that through either misrepresentation or misunderstanding or both, the Vancouver Baptist Ministerial Association seems to have been placing me in a wrong category, viz., in the number of those destructive c r i t i c s who either deliberately or through religious indifference seek to undermine the fundamentals of Christianity. Doubtless there are some such c r i t i c s but I refuse to be associated with them.35 On March 21, 1921, the Baptist Ministerial Association of Greater Vancouver expressed i t s unanimous satisfaction with Dr. MacNeill's answers,36 and on April 12, 1921, Dr. Gabriel Reid Maguire, pastor of Firs t Baptist Church, Vancouver, reported to the Mission Board that "satisfactory replies had been given". 3 7 Later, however, the claim was made that the Ministerial Association only accepted Dr. MacNeill's statements "on definite understanding that MacNeill was 'leaving anyway at the end of the year' and Van. M. Assn. did not wish him to leave 'under a cloud'".38 j n the light of subsequent events, i t would appear 3 5Brandon Commission, pp. 18-19 3 6 I b i d . . p. 19. 37Mission Board Minutes, April 12, 1921. 38interview with Mr. G. R. S. Blackaby, Vancouver, July 29, 1961. The quotation is from a pencilled remark on the margin of Mr. Blackaby's copy of the Brandon Commission, p. 12. 120. that the "unanimity" of the Association's decision must not be taken too seriously. Nevertheless, at the time, the pastors o f f i c i a l l y expressed their approval of Dr. MacNeill's replies: Having heard the answers to the questions . . . we . . . hereby express our satisfaction with the same, and, in view of the assurance they give us, declare our purpose to do what we can to restore the f u l l confidence of our people in our work at Brandon, and to lead them to i t s hearty and generous support. 3 9 Around this same time, the Baptist Union budget, which included Brandon College within i t s scope, became an object of open criticism. Mrs. A. A. McLeod, wife of a returned Baptist missionary, in an undated pamphlet entitled Western Baptists and Foreign Missions, charged that provision should be made to permit extra contributions to be given to foreign missions quite apart from the regular budget allotment for for eign mission work. 4 0 She also c r i t i c i z e d the "high administration expense of the Union". 4 1 Such a provision as Mrs. McLeod suggested would have made i t possible for fundamentalists, such as herself, to direct their donations to foreign missions and by-pass those Union objectives with which she disapproved. Her proposal was an expression of what she considered to be her individualistic Baptist right, and was an effort to exert financial pressure. At the Annual British Columbia Convention in June, 1921, the budget "called forth much discussion" but a motion "That this Convention express i t s confidence in the Baptist Union of Western 3 9Brandon Commission, p. 19. 4 0 F . S. McLeod, Western Baptists and Foreign Missions, pp. 3-4. 4 1 lb i d . . p. 10. 121. Canada . . . ." was adopted unanimously. 4 2 Criticism of the Baptist Union continued, however, and in November, 1921, an anonymous group who called themselves "Interested Laymen" published a pamphlet in which they attacked Union financial p o l i c i e s . 4 3 It was claimed that British Columbia was not receiving a f a i r share of budget allotments, that administrative costs of the Union were too high, and that Brandon College was heretical. The pamphlet suggested that British Columbia withdraw i t s financial support from the Union unt i l matters were corrected. 4 4 In December, 1921, a second pam phlet by "Interested Laymen" protested against modernistic trends in religious education. The Religious Education Committee of the British Columbia Convention was c r i t i c i z e d for i t s association with the Religious Education Council of Bri t i s h Columbia, which was deemed, in part, to be l i b e r a l i s t i c . Superintendent J. Willard Litch, who had recently been asked to act as Religious Education Secretary of the Convention, 4 5 was involved in the criticism contained in the pamphlet. Both pamphlets caused considerable s t i r . Events moved rapidly in the month of January, 1922, as the various segments of opinion in British Columbia prepared for a "showdown" with the Baptist Union at the projected annual meeting of the Union in 42BUYB-- 1921. p. 137. 43Mission Board Minutes, December 19, 1921. The "Interested Lay men" included members of Fir s t Baptist Church, Vancouver, and Mount Pleasant Baptist Church, Vancouver. Mr. R. W. Sharpe of Mount Pleasant Church was one of them. 4 4Poucett, op-.- c i t . . p. 47 . 4 5Convention Report. 1921. p. 26. 122.. February. On January 4, the British Columbia Mission Board Executive prepared a resolution which would recommend to the Union that a l l designated gifts be considered "specials" and not part of the Union budget.^0 On January 6, at a gathering of pastors and deacons held in Fir s t Baptist Church, Vancouver, a request was made for a special meeting of the British Columbia Convention in March "to consider charges against Brandon College and our relation to the Union". 4 7 Superintendent Litch, evidently distressed by the course of events and by criticism of his leadership, tendered his resignation at the Quarterly Meeting of the Mission Board on January 10. It was not accepted, and the Board declared i t s "absolute and complete confidence in our Brother". 4 8 Some days after, on January 28, a pamphlet entitled Facts  Concerning Brandon College was issued by the Rev. W. Arnold Bennett, of Emmanuel Baptist Church, Vancouver. In this pamphlet Bennett related his student impressions regarding the teaching of Dr. Harris MacNeill. He also recorded the impressions of some other former students of Brandon, including those of the Rev. James B. Rowell and the Rev. John Linton. Each testified that Dr. MacNeill was modernistic in many of his view points. The argument of the pamphlet was weakened by Linton's supposed verbatim report of a classroom conversation which he had with Dr. MacNeill some six years before. 4 9 Nevertheless the pamphlet displayed the fact 4 oMission Board Minutes, January 4, 1922. 4 7 I b i d . , January 10, 1922. 4 8Loc. c i t . 4 9Bennett, op. c i t . . p. 9. 123. that some former students of Brandon were obviously disturbed over recent trends in Dr. MacNeill s teaching. Reference was made to the opinion of one layman "that the Doctor was alright u n t i l he went to Chicago University 5 0 to complete his studies". 5 1 In addition to the criticisms of Dr. MacNeill, the Facts also challenged another Brandon professor, C. H. Lager, for his use of a modernistic text-book, The Hebrew Prophets. written by Georgia L. Chamberlin and published by the University of Chicago. 5 2 Even before this time, i t was obvious to the leaders of the Baptist Union that there was considerable support in the British Columbia Con vention for the views which were being expressed by Bennett and by the "Interested Laymen". As a move to restore confidence, arrangements were made for a special meeting of the British Columbia Mission Board and the Executive of the Baptist Union. This joint meeting was convened at Fi r s t Baptist Church, Vancouver, on January 31, 1922. " D i f f i c u l t i e s between B. C. and Brandon College" were "discussed quite f r e e l y " ; 5 3 and a com mittee of eight was appointed to report that evening. The committee re commended that a commission be appointed "to review the whole work of Brandon College". 5 4 A second recommendation suggested substantial changes in the financial arrangements between the Union and the British Columbia Convention. British Columbia was to contribute $12,000 to the foreign 5 0See p. 96. 5 2 l b i d . , p. 4. 5 4Loc. c i t . Bennett, op. c i t . . p. 13. 5 3Mission Board Minutes, January 31, 1922. 124. mission budget of the Union, but a l l funds raised in British Columbia for the Union's home mission budget were to be returned to the British Columbia Convention to be administered by i t . 5 5 This meant that the Convention was to be given a large measure of control over i t s own f i n  ances and could withhold support from Brandon College i f i t so desired. In return for these concessions, the British Columbia Mission Board withdrew i t s previous motion regarding designated gifts.56 xhe recom mendations of the committee of eight were passed on to the Union, to be considered at i t s annual meeting. The following morning, February 1, the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Baptist Union of Western Canada opened i t s sessions at Firs t Baptist Church, Vancouver. In his report to the Union, Superintendent Litch spoke of "serious problems" in Br i t i s h Columbia, but added that the year had been "one of the most encouraging in our history". 5 7 The British Columbia Convention had attempted the largest Union budget in i t s history and had exceeded i t by $932.69. In addition, over $4,000 had been given to the Forward Movement and over $16,000 had been spent on home mission causes in British Columbia. The individual churches had reduced their building debts by some $21,000 and had spent $18,000 on new buildings. 5 8 Dr. Litch ended his report with a plea for unity, stating that , MA Long p u l l , a Strong pull and a pull Altogether' is demanded to carry out the Great commission [ s i c 1 of Christ in British Columbia". 5 9 55Mission Board Minutes, January 31, 1922. 56see p. 122. 57BUYB - 1921. p. 32. 5 8 I b i d . , pp. 32-33. 5 9 I b i d . . p. 35. 125. The General Secretary of the Union, Dr. F. W. Patterson, introduced the following resolution: Whereas i t has come to the knowledge of this Union that certain leaflets attacking the financial policies of the Union and the work and a f f i l i a t i o n s of the Board of Religious Education of the Union have been prepared and circulated by certain unnamed "Interested Laymen;" And Whereas, an effort has been made to influence the decisions of this Union by distributing among it s members a leaflet attacking, not only Brandon College, but the personal integrity of honored leaders of the denomination in Western Canada; Therefore be i t resolved, That this Baptist Union of Western Canada do now condemn as despicable, unchristian and immoral, a l l such methods of propaganda; and that this Union do further express the conviction that such methods adopted professedly in the interests of spiritual religion and of truth are the grossest caricature of both; and, further, that such methods are a direct contradiction of fundamental Baptist principles, and that those using them have no rightful place in any Baptist church.*'0 According to the printed report, the resolution was "adopted 61 unanimously by a standing vote". Whether this comment truly expressed the feelings of a l l representatives at the meeting is a d i f f i c u l t ques tion to determine. 6 2 Certainly the resolution did not express the feelings of many Bri t i s h Columbia Baptist "conservatives" in the local churches, and was interpreted by them as an attempt on the part of the ouBUYB - 1921. p. 56. 0 1Loc. c i t . 62 " A so-called "unanimous" opinion may simply indicate that there was no contrary vote. It was not the usual practice to record the number of delegates who abstained from voting, unless that number were large. Another unfortunate Baptist practice was that of re-voting on an issue, i f the opposition on the f i r s t vote was small, in order that the meeting might be "declared unanimous". This neither contributed to historical accuracy, nor did i t , in reality, resolve a l l dissident opinions. However, there is no reason to believe that this procedure was followed on the occasion recorded above. 126., Union to squelch a l l opposition. Others, equally "conservative" in doctrine, considered the leaflets to be too drastic an approach to what were, in their opinion, modernistic tendencies within the Union. S t i l l other "conservatives" f e l t that no such tendencies existed and that the pamphlets were most unjust. The Baptist Union Meeting of February, 1922, gave i t s approval both to the proposed financial changes regarding British Columbia,"3 a n d to the recommendation respecting the appointment of a Brandon College commission. Such a commission was established, and i t s task was set forth by the Executive Board of the Union: Your Board, after consultation with the Board of the B. C. Con vention, and with i t s hearty approval, would recommend, therefore, that the Union appoint a special committee to co-operate with the Senate of Brandon College in making a thorough review of the cur riculum and methods of instruction in i t s theological department and to consider and recommend ways and means of enabling the College to attain an increasingly influential place in the work of the Baptist churches of Western Canada.° 4 The commission consisted of eleven members, including the General Secretary of the Union and representatives from each of the four western provinces. The three Br i t i s h Columbia members were Dr. L. N. Wolverton, a missionary on leave from India, Dr. Gabriel R. Maguire, pastor of F i r s t Church, Vancouver, and Mr. Charles Bentall, a highly-respected layman and a wealthy Vancouver businessman. Mr. Bentall found himself unable to attend the last of three sittings of the commission and was replaced by the Rev. A. F. Baker, pastor of Mount Pleasant Baptist Church, 6 3See pp. 123-124. 64BUYB - 1921. p. 21. 127.. 65 Vancouver. During the year in which the Brandon College Commission conducted i t s investigation there were some other changes in Union and Commission personnel, including the departure of Dr. Patterson, the 66 Union General Secretary, who became President of Acadia University. Complaints were registered in Br i t i s h Columbia that some of the remain ing seven commissioners from the prairie provinces were also Directors of Brandon College, and hence could not be considered as disinterested parties. A Vancouver layman, Mr. R. E. Knight, expressed his appre hension over the reports: A rumor is current in some quarters that is giving friends of the College, who are not in possession of the facts, serious con cern. There are those who insist that some of the members of this Commission are also members of the College Board[.] This rumor surely cannot be true . . . .**7 According to the Year Book of the Baptist Union, six prairie members of the original Brandon College Commission were also members of the Board of Directors of Brandon College. 6 8 Of these, two members, Dr. Patterson and Rev. A. S. Lewis, resigned during the year 1922, the 69 latter being replaced by Rev. A. Ward. Since he was the acknowledged author of one of the condemned ft5Brandon Commission, p. 3. 6 6Loc. c i t . 6 7R. E. Knight in a letter to the editors of the Baptist Herald. November 1922. fi8From a comparison made between the personnel of each body, as li s t e d in BUYB - 1921. p. 5. The "Board of Directors" apparently was also called the "Board of Governors". Note the interchange of terms in Brandon Commission, pp. 18-19. ^Brandon Commission, p. 3. 128. pamphlets, the Rev. Arnold Bennett had, in particular, been censured by the Union's motion regarding " l e a f l e t s " . 7 0 He lost no time in formulat ing a reply, and in March, 1922, Bennett published another leaflet, Jesuit Methods Used by Baptist Union of Western Canada. In this missive he accused the Baptist Union leaders of p o l i t i c a l intrigue, of modernistic tendencies, and of attempting to whitewash the situation at Brandon College.7*- So strong was the language of Bennett's leaflet that i t be came a source of concern to more moderate "conservatives". Evidently efforts were made to direct the enthusiasm of the young pastor of Emmanuel Church into more positive channels. In June, 1922, the f i r s t issue of a new monthly periodical, the Baptist Herald, appeared in Vancouver, co- edited by the Rev. Arnold Bennett, Dr. G. R. Maguire, and the Rev. H. L. Kempton. The avowed objective of this magazine was to serve "the cause 7 2 of Evangelical Christianity and Orthodox Theology". It contained articles and reprints from leading Baptist fundamentalists of the time, as well as some comments on the Baptist situation in Western Canada. By these, and other means, the Herald sought to educate members of the Bap t i s t congregations in British Columbia regarding the "modernist- fundamentalist" controversy, and thus definitely to enlist them on the side of "conservative" leaders. By the summer of 1922 i t seemed that the "conservative forces" were not only holding their own in British Columbia but were gaining / uSee p. 125. ''•Poucett, op. c i t . . p. 50. 7 2Baptist Herald. June 1922. 129., ground within the Convention and the Union. The Union had conceded to the British Columbia Convention on many of the issues which had been raised by the fundamentalists. During the provincial Convention of June, 1922, the name of the Religious Education Committee was changed 7 3 to "The Christian Education Committee", in response to "conservative" objections. However, the fundamentalists continued to c r i t i c i z e the committee because of i t s interdenominational connection with the Religious Educational Council of Br i t i s h Columbia. At this time, plans for a United Church of Canada were already well developed. Among British Columbia Baptists there was also some discussion of greater cooperation with other denominations. At the 1921 Convention a "Motion on Church Union" was introduced, to be considered the following year. 7 4 However, at the 1922 Convention, consideration of the motion was postponed 7 5 and evidently the matter was dropped com pletely. In their determination to avoid a l l compromise with liberalism, fundamentalists reacted strongly against projects for organic unity, and against Protestant ecumenicalism in general. At the same time, however, a new type of interdenominationalism was developing among fundamentalists. One of the phenomena associated with this movement was the rise of inter denominational, or so-called "non-denominational" Bible Schools and Institutes. The f i r s t Bible-school type of institution in North America was 73BUYB - 1922. p. 142. 7 5 I b i d . . 1922, p. 14. Convention Report. 1921, p. 13. 130, Nyack Missionary College, Nyack, N. Y., established in 1882 by the Rev. A. B. Simpson, founder of the Christian and Missionary Alliance de nomination. This was closely followed, in 1886, by the founding of an interdenominational school, Moody Bible Institute, in Chicago. 7 6 i n 1894, Dr. Elmore Harri s , 7 7 a c r i t i c of the denominational outlook of McMaster University, established Canada's f i r s t Bible School, Toronto Bible College, along lines similar to Moody Institute. Until 1898, classes of the institution were held in Walmer Road Baptist Church, of which Dr. Harris was pastor. 7 8 The f i r s t Bible School in the Canadian West was the inter denominational Prairie Bible Institute, begun in 1922 at Three H i l l s , Alberta. It has since become the largest institution of i t s kind in the Dominion, with an enrollment of over 1,000 students in Bible School and High School courses. 7 9 Its founder, the Rev. L. E. Maxwell, was reputed to be an ordained Baptist minister, but he had received his training at the Christian and Missionary Alliance school in Kansas City, Kansas, and in the early years of his ministry was favourable to that denomination. Three H i l l s helped to supply the prairie Alliance Churches with pastors un t i l the Alliance opened i t s own school, Canadian Bible Institute, Regina, in 1948. From i t s inception, Prairie Bible Institute regarded / b S . A. Witmer, The Bible College Story: Education with  Dimension. Manhasset, N*Y., Channel Press, 1962, pp. 34-35. 7 7See p. 114. 7 8Witmer, op. c i t . . p. 38. 7 9 I b i d . . p. 87. 131. 80 i t s e l f as "an unsectarian institution", but i t was, from the sociolo gical standpoint, a decidedly sectarian organization. Many similar schools were established on the Canadian prairies, particularly during the following two decades. In 1962, according to Witmer, of the f i f t y - four known Bible Institutes in Canada, twelve were located in Alberta, 8 twelve in Saskatchewan, eight in Manitoba, and five in British Columbia. Many of these schools, particularly the larger ones, are "non-denomina tional" institutions. The rise of the interdenominational Bible Schools strengthened the fundamentalist movement, and yet, at the same time, divided i t . Some fundamentalists were influenced to take an "interdenominational" stand, which tended, in some cases, to become an "anti-denominational" view point. To such people "denominationalism" was equated with liberalism and "big-churchism". Other fundamentalists regarded themselves as "denominational" conservatives and interpreted "denominationalism" as adherence to historic views which had been held by their respective de nominations prior to the introduction of liberal ideas. Such "de nominational" conservatives were themselves divided over the question of how to deal with the new liberalism within their own denominational organizations. Should they fight i t , seek to persuade i t , tolerate i t , seek to contain i t , or withdraw from i t ? Such was the dilemma of "denominational" conservatives within the British Columbia Baptist °°It was so described on the masthead of the Institute's periodical The Prairie Pastor and Overcomer. 8 % i t m e r , op. c i t . . p. 49. 132.. Convention. In 1922 the most usual answer of fundamentalists appeared to be both to fight and to seek to persuade, but by a l l means to con trol and to conquer liberalism. In this era the British Columbia Baptist Convention had i t s liberals and i t s "non-denominational" fundamentalists, but more s i g n i f i  cant was the apparent presence of a larger percentage of "denominational" fundamentalists than was the case within the prairie conventions. The prairie churches were more directly under the influence of the Baptist Union, Brandon College, and li b e r a l ideas from Eastern Canada. Baptists on the Prairies, particularly in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, had moved toward a "church-type" organization. "Sectarian" reaction to this tend ency developed within the local churches and usually followed non- denominational lines. In the urban centres, where prairie Baptists were strongest, much of the sectarian strength was lost to independent "undenominational" movements. For example, in the city of Winnipeg, during 1922, a total of 397 members left four Baptist congregations with- 82 out asking for letters of transfer. This exodus coincided with the growth of non-denominational causes in Winnipeg. Developments followed a different course in the rural centres. Here Baptists found i t d i f f i c u l t to compete with Methodists, Presby terians and, after 1925, with the United Church. In the period from 1914 to 1944 over eighty Baptist Union churches on the Prairies were forced to close. Most of these were in the smaller centres. As a BUYB - 1922. p. 181. 133. r e s u l t , i n 1944 there were only h a l f as many r u r a l congregations as i n 83 1914. Baptist churches i n r u r a l areas were us u a l l y able to survive only when they succeeded i n e n l i s t i n g the "secta r i a n " elements of the community. I f a r u r a l Baptist church was the f i r s t sectarian group to be established i n a l o c a l i t y i t had a good chance of becoming a strong congregation, provided that i t maintained i t s sectarian appeal. L i b e r a l Baptists i n r u r a l areas tended to support the chief Protestant church of the d i s t r i c t , which, a f t e r the Union of 1925, was usually a United Church congregation. The net r e s u l t of these trends was a cleavage within the Baptist Union between the c i t y congregations and more fundamentalist r u r a l churches. B r i t i s h Columbia was more urban than the P r a i r i e s , but, i n s p i t e of t h i s , Baptist sectarianism tended to be strong i n the c i t i e s . This was p a r t l y due to the influence of American ideas. It could also be traced to the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of the province and the population move ment from the r u r a l areas of the P r a i r i e s to the urban centres i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This r e s u l t e d i n masses of uprooted people who were open to the sect's message. Once a sect was established i n the c i t y , i t was easier f or i t to compete with the churches, and with other sects, than would be the case i n a r u r a l area where the sect had only a very l i m i t e d population to draw upon and where the s o c i a l pressures tended to promote conformity. Because of these f a c t o r s , B r i t i s h Columbia Baptists had °-}L. M. Wenham, "The Baptist Home Mission Problem i n Western Canada", unpublished B.D. thesis i n the l i b r a r y of McMaster University, Hamilton, 1947, pp. 40-41, c i t e d i n W. E. Mann, Sect, Cult, and Church i n  Alb e r t a . Toronto, Un i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1955, p. 93. 134.. greater numerical strength, in relation to the total population of their area, than did the Baptists of the three Prairie Provinces. Throughout 1922 the Baptists of Western Canada looked forward to the publication of the report of the Brandon College Commission. In May, the Western Baptist pleaded that the Commission be given time to do i t s work, and that continued support be given to Baptist Union objects. 8 4 In June, when discussion was raised on the Convention floor regarding Bennett's pamphlet Jesuit Methods, a motion was passed requesting that " a l l propaganda on this question cease" unt i l the next Convention. 8 5 That autumn the Baptist Herald lost an editor and Brandon College lost a 86 c r i t i c when the Rev. Arnold Bennett moved to Portland. The Report of the Brandon -College Commission was presented to the annual Baptist Union meeting at Calgary in January 1923. In i t s printed form the Report covered twenty-two pages. The commission's procedure had been to obtain comparative information from McMaster and from seven other Baptist theological institutions in the United States, to send question naires to Brandon graduates, to contact Brandon's c r i t i c s , and to inter view Brandon professors, particularly Dr. Harry MacNeill. The commission reported that other colleges, without exception, gave f u l l and frank classroom consideration to "the results of modern investigations". 8 7 Other institutions considered text books to be "of small importance in comparison with the beliefs and personality of the 8 4Western Baptist. May 1922. 8 5Convention Report. 1922, p. 15. 8 6Baptist Herald. October 1922. 8 7Brandon Commission, p. 5. man who stands before the students". 135. Out of a total of one hundred and twenty living Arts graduates, forty-two returned the questionnaires which had been sent to them. From a total of twenty-five graduates in Theology, fifteen replies were re ceived. Of those graduates who responded, the vast majority gave a 89 favourable evaluation of their Alma Mater. With respect to the pamphlets which had c r i t i c i z e d Brandon College, the Report condemned the methods of the pamphleteers and judged 90 the accusations to be "both false and unchristian". Concerning Dr. MacNeill, the commission reported: 1. He believes in the great fact of the Inspiration of the Scriptures . . . . And while he does not hold to the traditional verbal theory, he holds most profoundly to the great throbbing, v i t a l i z i n g fact of inspiration. 2. . . . Concerning the Virgin Birth as the method of realizing the incarnation, he frankly states his uncertainty . . . . He emphatically states that he does not deny the Virgin Birth, and thinks of i t as possibly the method of the incarnation, and holds in his mind the hope that some day he may see i t clearly. 5. . . . He believes in the resurrection of the living Christ, ""Loc. c i t . This was obviously a defence of Professor Lager, (see p. 123 of this thesis). Lager had already dropped The Hebrew  Prophets as a text. 89ihe Report makes an effort to explain the reasons why more replies were not received. "Many were not returned--some . . . being of other de nominations did not care to reply—and some . . . had graduated so long ago they were unable to make any contribution of value to the question under discussion". Eight graduates living outside Canada failed to reply. "About fiftee n " letters were returned through the Dead Letter Office. Brandon Commission, pp. 6-11. 90lbid.. p. 5. 136, distinguishing between the great fact of the resurrection and the nature of the bodily form in which He appeared. 6. In the last place he believes in and trusts the gracious hope of the Lord's return, making, however, a clear distinction between the essential fact and hope and the manner in which He may appear.9*- It was the recommendation of the Report that "the splendid asset we have in the remarkable personality, the consecration, the evangelistic fervour . . . of Dr. MacNeill be conserved to the denomination and the 92 Master's work in this West". However, i t was suggested that Dr. MacNeill's lectures to Arts students be assigned to a new professor of practical theology and that the lectures be of an expositional nature, "rather than a c r i t i c a l study". 9 3 The commissioners were unanimous in their conclusions, except for two of the British Columbia representatives, Dr. G. R. Maguire and the Rev. A. F. Baker, who dissented from some of Dr. MacNeill's views and refused to recommend that he be retained at Brandon. 9 4 It was later reported that the third British Columbia representative, Dr. L . N. Wolverton, "stated that he might not have signed the report i f he had not known that Dr. MacNeill intended to resign in order to pursue further studies in England" 9 5 at the end of the year. In the opinion of the Baptist Union President, Mr. William Marchant, Brandon College was clearly vindicated by the Report. 9 6 "There 9lBrandon Commission, p. 20. 9 2 l b i d . . p. 22. 93L O C. c i t . 94L O C. c i t . 95Gospel Witness. March 27, 1924. Dr. MacNeill did not carry out this intention. 96 Colonist. February 2, 1923. 137, was a sigh of r e l i e f that Brandon was cleared of a l l accusations of false teaching". 9 7 Not everyone joined in. The practice of indirect or "secondary" representation in the 98 Union had been under attack by the conservatives. Consequently, to allay criticism, i t was decided at the 1923 Baptist Union meeting to change the constitution in order to give each church the right to send 99 i t s own delegates directly to the Union. Nevertheless, criticism of voting arrangements continued, due to the fact that a sizeable number of Union o f f i c i a l s , in addition to church delegates, had voting powers in the Union meetings. Among fundamentalist Baptists in Br i t i s h Columbia there was a great deal of dissatisfaction with the Brandon College Commission's report. Just as opposition was mounting, however, the "conservative forces" received a set-back which seriously weakened their ranks. In the spring of 1923 the Rev. Charles S. Price, an "unattached" Congregational clergyman and an exponent of "faith h e a l i n g " , 1 0 0 came from the United States to hold mass r a l l i e s in Victoria and Vancouver. The Vancouver meetings in May drew large crowds 1 0 1 and enlisted the support of conservatives from a l l denominations. Dr. Maguire of Fir s t Baptist Church and the Rev. Andrew Grieve of Ruth Morton Memorial Baptist Church 9 7McLaurin, op. c i t . . p. 201. 9 8 B a p t i s t Herald. January 1923. 99BUYB - 1922. p. 42. 1°°H. P. Plumptre, "Spiritual Healing", Canadian Journal of  Religious Thought, January - February, 1925. 1 0 1Province. May 19, 1923. 138.. were, at the f i r s t of the Price campaign, strongly favourable and ex pressed their opinions to their respective congregations. However, in the course of the meetings, both pastors began to reach other conclusions, and came to regard Dr. Price's claims as fraudulent. Opinions on Price became sharply delineated and, at the end of May, Dr. Maguire l e f t Van couver, rather hurriedly, to take a new pastorate in Eastern Canada, leaving behind a divided church. The Rev. Andrew Grieve chose to weather the storm and some sixty members of Ruth Morton Memorial Church lef t to begin a "Pentecostal" cause.*-02 As a result of Dr. Maguire's departure, the Baptist Herald ceased publication. During the following year, First Baptist Church, Vancouver, lost 164 members in addition to those who asked for letters of transfer.*- 0 3 These "untransferred" losses apparently represented gains for the Pentecostal congregations of Vancouver. Dr. Maguire was succeeded by Dr. J. J. Ross, a conservative, but not a supporter of the "conservative forces". The defection of Baptists to the Pentecostal movement was related to the modernist-fundamentalist issue in Baptist ranks. The controversy had sapped the spiritual v i t a l i t y of the churches and le f t many individ uals open to a more emotionally gratifying type of religious expression. To such persons, Pentecostalism was not only soul-satisfying; i t s "manifestations" were considered to be a conclusive apology against the modernists. *-02Telephone interview with the Rev. Andrew Grieve, August 3, 1962. 1 0 3Convention Report, 1924, p. 47. 139.. The controversy over Dr. Price continued through the remainder of 1923 and undermined the resources of Baptist fundamentalists. The General Ministerial Association of Vancouver appointed a committee to investigate some 350 alleged cases of healing. The findings of the 104 committee were most unfavourable to Price, but this fact did not deter his supporters. From this time there was a tendency for more radical Baptist fundamentalists to gravitate toward the Pentecostal churches. As a result of the Price episode, in addition to this loss of numerical support, the "conservative forces" had lost the leadership and influence of the pastor of British Columbia's largest Baptist congregation, Fir s t Church in Vancouver. There was evidence that the churches, particularly in British Columbia, were withholding funds from the Baptist Union because of the inclusion of Brandon College in the Union budget. Consequently, at the annual meeting of the Union in January, 1924, Brandon College was put on a separate budget of $25,000 for Western Canada. When Dr. T. T. Shields suggested that this action could be interpreted as Union rejection of Brandon, Union o f f i c i a l s replied that the Baptist Union was "solidly behind Brandon College".*- 0 5 About the same time, six British Columbia pastors declared their opposition to Brandon in a letter to Dr. Shield's periodical, The Gospel Witness.*-00 During the Annual British Columbia Baptist Convention in July, 1 0 4Vancouver Sun. December 22, 1923. 1 0 5Gospel Witness. March 27, 1924. 1 0 6 L o c . c i t . 140. 1924, the Christian Education Committee announced that i t s membership in the Religious Education Council of British Columbia had been the reason for "the evident lack of readiness on the part of many pastors, churches, and schools . . . to co-operate with the committee". 1 0 7 In the opinion of Baptist fundamentalists the Council was predominantly liberal in i t s theological complexion. "After considerable discussion" i t was decided that the Committee should sever relations with the interdenominational C o u n c i l . 1 0 8 At the 1924 Annual Convention the Rev. Andrew Grieve presented a resolution that: . . . We, the delegates to the Baptist Convention of British Columbia . . . do hereby place ourselves on record as supporting our Commissioners in their dissent, and also as disapproving the action of the Baptist Union of Western Canada in the endorsation of, and fellowship with, the unscriptural teaching of Brandon College. 1° 9 After prolonged debate the resolution was tabled for one year, and a committee of ten members was appointed to "take into consideration the whole question of the relation of this convention to the Baptist Union of Western Canada . . . , " 1 1 0 The Convention session also took action to give Life Members power to v o t e . I t is doubtful, however, i f this move made any difference in 112 the relative voting strength of any particular segment of opinion. 1 0 7Convention Report, 1924, p. 16. See also p. 129 of this thesis. 1 0 8 I b i d . , p. 14. 1 0 9 I b i d . , p. 9. 1 1 0 lb i d . , p. 10. m I b i d . , p. 8. i n 1924 there were only seven l i f e members, including the Rev. _R. Lennie, William Marchant, the Rev. F. W. Auvache, and Mrs. Ruth Morton, widow of John Morton. Ibid., p. 6. Although "Life Membership" was 141. The Committee of Ten brought i t s findings to the 1925 British Columbia Convention but announced that i t had been unable to reach agree ment on the major issue, Brandon College. This failure had necessitated a major and a minority report. The majority report suggested that Brandon follow the requirements of the Charter of McMaster University which specified that every instructor in the University must be a member of "an Evangelical Christian Church"; and that every Governor, and every teacher in the faculty of theology, must be "a member in good standing of a Regular Baptist Church". 1 1 3 The minority report gave a detailed Statement of Faith, to which a l l Governors and teachers at Brandon were to sub s c r i b e . 1 1 4 The minority report had the support of the "conservative forces". Opponents of the minority report objected to i t on the ground that i t set up a "Baptist creed". After a great deal of discussion, an amendment to the majority report was introduced as a compromise gesture. This amendment gave a definition of a " r e g u l a r 1 1 5 Baptist Church", which was understood to be: . . . a church composed of persons who have been baptized on a personal confession of their faith in Christ, holding and maintaining substantially the following doctrines: intended to honour worthy individuals, the practice weakened Baptist polity, since Life Members were given the same voting powers as church delegates. The policy of "Life Membership" was carried over into the constitution of the Regular Baptists, but was dropped when the con stitution was revised in 1956. 1 1 3Charter of McMaster University, as cited in Convention Report, 1925, pp. 9-10. H^Convention Report, 1925, p. 11. ^There was no consistency in the use of the capital letter "R". The majority report had used i t . 142, (1) The Bible as being given by inspiration of God, and hence i t s integrity and authority in a l l matters that pertain to Christian faith and conduct. (2) The Pre-Existence and the conception of Christ by the Holy Spirit into human nature; His natural birth through Mary the Virgin into the human family; His Deity, Atoning Death, Resurrection, Ascension, Session [ s i c ] at the right hand of the Father, and His visible coming again in glory. (3) The Personality, Deity and Work of the Holy Spirit in Re generation and Sanetification. (4) The creation and f a l l of man; the universal depravity of mankind by nature and hence the necessity for the work of grace lead ing to salvation; the eternal happiness of the righteous and the everlasting punishment of the wicked. (5) The resurrection of the dead, both of the just and the unjust. (6) The immersion of the believer in water in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, as the only B i b l i c a l baptism, and the Lord's Supper a privilege peculiar to baptized believers. (7) The complete autonomy, independence and sovereignty of the local church. (8) The separation of Church and State, a free church within a free state being the scriptural ideal. (9) The competency and freedom of the individual soul through Christ to serve God, when, where and how enlightened conscience may dictate. (10) Our supreme obligation to give the Gospel of Jesus Christ unto the whole world. The amendment was virtually a statement of faith, without actually being identified as such. Its whole tone was distinctly "conservative" and i t even favoured "close communion", for i t referred to the Lord's Supper as "a privilege peculiar to baptized believers". *-*-7 Nonetheless, 1 1 6Convention Report. 1925, p. 12. l 1 7 L o c . c i t . 143. the "conservative forces" f e l t that i t did not bear directly on the problem of Brandon College since i t merely defined a Regular Baptist Church without requiring Brandon faculty, or anyone else, to subscribe to the definition. According to the printed record, the discussion occupied most of the morning and afternoon Convention sessions on June 24, 1925. The meeting approached what was to be a crucial vote. The majority report was moved by Rev. Geo. Reynolds and W. C. Kelly; the minority report by Rev. A. Grieve and Rev. F. W. Auvache; the amendment by Rev. G. Reynolds and Rev. J. J. Ross. The result of the voting was: For the amendment, 63; against, 80. For the minority report, 49; against, 88. For the majority report, 89; against, 54. Session closed with prayer by the Rev. P. C. Parker.*-18 No further information is given by the report; therefore any analysis of the voting must be conjectural, but fascinating. There is every indication that few of the delegates abstained from voting on the issues. Since a total of 143 votes were cast on both the f i r s t and the third ballot i t seems probable that this was the total number of dele gates present. The results indicate that the Convention was s p l i t into three groups: liberals, the militant "conservative forces", and a party of "moderates" who were basically conservative in theology. The personalities involved in the motions bear out this conclusion. Andrew Grieve and F. W. Auvache were leaders of the "conservative forces", G. Reynolds and Dr. Ross were known to be "moderates", while W. C. Kelly was a layman of acknowledged liberal convictions.*-*-9 From the second *• ^ convention Report, p. 13. ^ I n t e r v i e w with Mr. G. R. S. Blackaby, June 29, 1961. 144, ballot, i t seems quite obvious that 49 delegates voted on the side of the militant conservatives. If a l l of these voted against the proposal of the "moderates" on the f i r s t ballot, who then were the 31 who also opposed the "moderates"? It would appear that they were liberals who could not, in a l l conscience, subscribe to the views set forth in the "moderates" amendment. On the second ballot, at least six delegates abstained from voting against the "conservative forces". The general pattern of opinion seems to be verified by the last ballot, when most of the "moderates" joined the liberals, but five voted on the conservative side. These observations, i f valid, would lead to the deduction that the "conservative forces" comprised about one-third of the British Columbia Convention. Later developments seemed to substantiate this conclusion. The vote on the report of the Committee of Ten sharply delineated the division of opinion within the British Columbia Convention. During the remainder of the sessions the Convention was "a house divided" into two camps. During the election of officers each group proposed i t s own candidates and, in each case, the "conservative forces" were defeated by close to a two-thirds majority. The conservatives' candidates were Dr. Arthur I. Brown,*-20 a Vancouver physician and a member of Firs t Baptist Church, for President; Rev. Andrew Grieve for First Vice-President; and Rev. F. W. Auvache for Secretary-Treasurer.*-2*- A particular blow to con servatives was the defeat of Auvache, who had been Secretary of the *-20See Furniss, op. c i t . . pp. 31, 54. *-2*-Convention Report. 1925, p. 21. 145, 122 Convention for some twenty-three years. Dr. J. J. Ross, a "moderate", was elected Convention President. It became obvious to the "conservative forces" that they were in the minority and that they could not count on the support of other con servatives within the Convention. Consequently they decided to form their own distinct organization, and on July 17, 1925, the "B. C. Baptist Missionary Council" was organized. It was the purpose of the Council to act within the framework of the British Columbia Convention, or perhaps a bit to one side of the framework, and to receive and dispense the mission ary funds of those churches and individuals who supported the "conservative forces". It was also to be an agency for the propagation of fundamentalist views. Its literature stated: . . . We are blamed for trying to s p l i t the Denomination. That is untrue. The s p l i t is already there. It has been for some time. It has been caused by the inroads of Modernism into our ranks and the failure of brethren in our midst to stand against i t . The B. C. Baptist Missionary Council is not organized to divide the body, but because the body is divided. *-23 From the time of i t s inception the Council had the support of twelve churches, most of which were situated in or near Vancouver.*-24 In addition, the Council could count on the cooperation of laymen in other 125 churches. The Council also formed i t s own distinctive organization for 1 2 2B. C. Baptist. March 1928. 123xhe B. C. Baptist Missionary Council. Q.925], p. 3. A four-page folder of information published and circulated by the Council. 124xhe notable exception was First Baptist, Kamloops, where Rev. J. B. Rowell (see p. 122) was pastor. l 2 5 p o u r of the seventeen members of the Council's Board were also members of Fir s t Church, Vancouver. BY C. Baptist Missionary Council, p. 2. 146.. women as well as another for young people. In November, 1925, the Council began to publish i t s own periodical, the British Columbia Baptist, later 126 known simply as the B. C. Baptist. Its f i r s t issue attacked the policy of ex-officio membership, as followed by both the Br i t i s h Columbia Con vention and the Western Baptist Union. It was charged that the o f f i c i a l s and board members who had been given ex-officio voting powers could con t r o l both Convention and Union in spite of the opposition of church delegates. The case against the Union was succinctly put: . . . i t is practically impossible under the Constitution of the Baptist Union of Western Canada for the churches to register their w i l l . The Union is an unrepresentative and undemocratic machine under whose p i t i l e s s wheels true Baptist principles in the West w i l l be ground to powder. . . . This so-called 'Baptist' Union is not Baptist at a l l ; and Baptist interests in the West can never be served unti l the constitution of the Baptist Union of Western Canada is scrapped and utterly abandoned, and a new constitution, founded upon representative Baptist principles, takes i t s place.127 By this time the controversy had reached major proportions. Con vention income had dropped and personal feelings were running high. Late in 1925 the Bri t i s h Columbia Convention Home Mission Board, deeply con cerned with the loss of support from the "Council" churches, published a leaflet entitled Information for British Columbia Baptists, in which the Council was denounced. The Council claims that i t s object is not to disrupt the de nomination or the Convention, yet they are doing that very thing to the f u l l strength of their influence. . . . The Council misrepresents a l l who do not join them in this movement. They insinuate that a l l s t i l l later, known as the "Beastly Baptist", when the financing of i t s publication became a constant problem during the de pression of the 1930's. l 2 7 B r i t i s h Columbia Baptist. November 1925. 147.. who do not join the Bible Union and the Council are, at least, tainted with modernism. The movement, resulting in the organization of the Council, is an importation from the United States. It is not for Canadians to judge whether there is or is not justification for i t "over the li n e , " but i t certainly is not jus t i f i e d in B. C.*-28 The "Bible Union" mentioned in the leaflet was the Baptist Bible Union of America, a continent-wide organization of Baptist fundamental i s t s , which had many members in British Columbia. The B. C. Baptist Missionary Council was a separate organization, but in sympathy with the Bible Union. During this time Dr. J. J. Ross came under personal attack. In the Gospel Witness he was held to be partly responsible for the "deplor- 129 able state of part of B. C. Baptists". In an anonymous pamphlet Dr. Ross was also charged with having f a l s i f i e d his academic degrees.*-30 In the spring of 1926 Dr. Ross and a number of other pastors l e f t the Vancouver Baptist Ministerial Association, of which the Rev. F. W. Auvache was President, and formed "The Baptist Ministerial Brotherhood of Vancouver and Vicinity".*- 3*- Dr. Ross presided at the British Columbia Convention in June 1926. Since preparations were made for changes in the constitution, "Council" 128charles Bentall and J. J. Wallace, Information for B r i t i s h  Columbia Baptists. [Vancouver, 1925], p. 2. 1 2 9Gospel Witness. September 5, 1925. 1 3 0Statement of Facts Relative to J. J. Ross. P.P. A leaflet c r i t i c a l of Ross, published sometime after April, 1926. 1 3 1B. C. Baptist. June 1926, and March 1928. This move le f t "Council" pastors in control of the Ministerial Association. 148.. delegates presented a statement of faith which, they proposed, should be included in the new constitution. Later in the sessions, in order to allay any question regarding his orthodoxy, Dr. Ross read his own personal statement of faith. Sensing the strategic moment, "Council" delegate Mr. G. R. S. Blackaby moved "That this Convention place i t s e l f on record as heartily endorsing the statement of faith as read by Dr. Ross as his 132 own". The motion placed those conservatives who were outside the Missionary Council in a very awkward position. In the midst of the con fusion the Vice-President took the chair and the resolution was ruled out of order as not being "in the interests of the Baptist churches of this province", a ruling based upon Artic l e 3 of the Convention constitu t i o n . 1 3 3 The meeting sustained the ruling. Earlier in the 1926 Convention, a much-debated and much-amended motion was passed by the Convention delegates: That Brandon College should be re-organized in the Department of Theology and . . . equipped with scholarly men . . . who believe and stand loyally by the Bible and i t s teachings as interpreted by regular Baptists, and who are willing to pledge themselves accord ingly ; And, further, that the Baptist Union of Western Canada is hereby requested to take steps immediately to effect such reorganization.*- 3 4 Upon this action, Poucett comments: It seemed that although B.C. Baptists could not agree on the ex tent of the test of faith to be applied to the College and i t s faculty, they had f i n a l l y agreed on this one thing -- that i t was in the interests of everyone that Dr. MacNeill should move on and the theological department be reorganized. But the Baptist Union took •^Convention Report. 1926, p. 34. 1 3 4 I b i d . , p. 24. 1 3 3 I b i d . , p. 3. 149. no action upon this recommendation, and before another Convention came, the controversy had taken a new turn. Following the 1926 Convention the members of the Baptist Missionary Council began to dispair of ever turning the tide of Convention affairs in their direction. Few of their leaders had been elected to Convention offices and the motion to introduce a statement of faith into the revised constitution*^ 0 appeared to be a lost cause. There were some rays of hope, for the work of the individual "Council" churches prospered and other congregations were added to their number, which totalled sixteen at the end of 1926. There was, however, no joyful anticipation of the forth coming Convention. . . . There exists the same unfortunate division in the ranks, that has existed for years. As the years have passed, the breach has been widened and deepened rather than otherwise. With the widening of the breach, feelings have been intensified, so that brother does not meet brother with the same brotherliness that used to obtain.137 The 1927 Convention was held in Grandview Baptist Church, Vancouver, from June 27 to June 30. After a "free f u l l discussion" the motion for a Creedal Statement was defeated "by a large majority vote".138 The new constitution was adopted, to become operative on July 1, 1927. In i t , the incorporation of the Convention was changed from the Mission Board to 1 19 the "Convention of Baptist Churches of British Columbia". The revised constitution contained a clause to the effect that: . . . The Convention may from time to time at any annual or special 1 -'-'Poucett, op. c i t . , p. 57. 137B.- C- Baptist. June 1927. 139ibid., p. 16. *-36convention Report. 1926, p. 25. 138conventlon Report. 1927, p. 17. 150,. meeting, by resolution passed by a vote of three-fifths of the dele gates present and voting, declare [that] any Church, the conduct or attitude of which, in the opinion of the said Convention, is not in harmony and co-operation with the work and objects of the said Con vention, shall cease to be entitled to send any delegates . . . . *-40 The clause was never envoked. The delegates of "Council" churches rose from the Convention floor and withdrew. The breach was complete. The Missionary Council was incorporated under the name "The Convention of Regular Baptists of British Columbia" on July 6, 1927. 1 4 1 The sp l i t in Baptist ranks followed an interesting pattern. Most of the Regular Baptist churches were located in Vancouver and the north side of the Lower Fraser Valley. Fi r s t Baptist Church, Vancouver, the largest Baptist Church in British Columbia, remained with the older con vention, but lost a considerable bloc of members, particularly to Mount Pleasant Church, Vancouver. 1 4 2 The latter, in terms of active member ship, was the second largest Baptist Church in the province, and i t joined the Regular Baptists. In general, the Regular Baptists in Vancouver were strongest in working-class areas. There was no Regular Baptist cause west of Granville Street, with the exception of the Broadway'West Baptist Church, and a mission in Dunbar Heights which had been opened by the Missionary Council in 1926. 1 4 3 In the interior of British Columbia the distribution of the Regular ^convention Report. 1927, p. 4. 1 4 1Photostat of the Certificate of Incorporation in the author's possession. 1 4 2Note statistics in Convention Report. 1927, p. 63. 1 4 3B. C. Baptist. November 1926. 151.. Baptist Churches gave evidence of the importance of pastoral influence in determining the stand of individual congregations. First Baptist, Kamloops, where the Rev. J. B. Rowell was pastor, joined the Regular Convention, along with the churches at Salmon Arm, Armstrong, and Enderby. In the Okanagan Valley, no church turned to the Regular Baptists, but, at a later date, divisions developed in local congregations and Regular Baptist churches were formed at Vernon and Kelowna. On Vancouver Island no church joined the Regular Baptist Convention in July 1927. This situation was changed when, later in that year, the Rev. J. B. Rowell moved to Victoria and founded Central Baptist Church. As a result of Dr. Rowell's able leadership this congregation became one of the largest in the Regular Convention and a "mother-church" to a number of Vancouver Island home mission causes. The published s t a t i s t i c s 1 4 4 record that there were 6,244 members in British Columbia Convention churches before the division of 1927. Of these, however, 1,074 were non-resident. Three churches which remained in the "old convention" reported a combined total of 586 non-resident mem bers. Of these churches, Fairview Baptist, by reputation the most " l i b e r a l " of Baptist Churches in the province, reported 212 non-resident and 295 resident members. Thus, before June, 1927, the total active mem bership in British Columbia stood at about 5,000 or less, making allow ances for the fact that "resident" members are not always "active". In a l l , some 1600 members le f t to form the Regular Baptist Convention. 1 4 5 1 4 4Convention Report. 1927, pp. 62-63. 1 4 5B. C. Baptist. May 1926, and July 1928. 152., The division of 1927 brought a measure of peace into Baptist ci r c l e s . The loss of the Regular Baptists from the "old convention" reconstituted the latter body along theological lines which were more in accord with the Baptist Union churches on the Prairies, and this promoted more harmonious relationships within the Union. However, this was not the end of the struggle, for each of the two conventions s t i l l had their own internal tensions. During the ensuing years i t became evident that the struggle over sectarianism was by no means resolved by the division of Baptists into two groups. The "old convention" s t i l l contained liberal and conserva tive elements, united around a common allegiance to "denomination". The conservative elements within the "old convention" perpetuated the sec- . . 146 tarian s p i r i t . Among the Regular Baptists, a common fundamental theology was the r a l l y i n g - p o i n t 1 4 7 but the inner tensions created by "denominational" and "non-denominational" viewpoints had yet to be resolved. In this case, both schools of thought were sectarian in outlook, but with the passage of time i t became evident that those of the "denominational" persuasion were moving in the direction of a "church-type" organization. This tendency created tension within this school of thought, and eventually led to the schism from Regular Baptist ranks of those who f e l t they could "hurry" the movement toward greater denominationalism by joining i 4 o F o r a discussion of continuing tension within the Baptist Union see BUYB - 1959. pp. 108-111. ^R e g u l a r Baptists had a Statement of Faith. 153,. the Southern Baptists of the United States. Those who held to the "non- denominational" viewpoint among Regular Baptists were generally highly individualistic. As the major portion of Regular Baptists gradually moved away from extreme and separatistic sectarianism toward a more denominational viewpoint, these individualists either became reconciled to the trend or lost sympathy with the movement and lef t the Regular Baptist fold. CHAPTER V SEPARATE LINES OF DEVELOPMENT In general, the immediate reaction of Baptist Union leaders to the s p l i t in British Columbia Baptist ranks was an attempt to dismiss the division as a mere "bad dream", of no lasting significance. The report of the 1927 British Columbia Convention, as published in the September issue of the Western Baptist, contained no mention whatever of the division, but i t was admitted that the report had been "consider ably shortened". 1 On the other hand, an effort was made to bolster con fidence in Brandon College. In June 1927, the Western Baptist referred to Brandon as "a Dominant Spiritual Force in the West" and the Rev. A. J. Brace reported that he "found Dr. MacNeill enthroned in the affec- tions of the students . . . ." The next issue of the Western Baptist evidently alluded to the controversy when i t mentioned that Dr. MacNeill had been given a year's leave of absence "in order that he may recuperate from the strain of the past year". 4 There was, however, a notable lack of discussion of the B r i t i s h Columbia schism within the pages of the Baptist Union's o f f i c i a l organ. Such reticence could not disguise the fact that the fundamentalist- modernist controversy had seriously disrupted the growth and influence of ^Western Baptist. September 1927. 2lbid., June 1927. 3LQC. c i t . 4lbld.. August 1927. In 1929 Dr. MacNeill was ordained, and accepted the pastorate of Fairview Baptist Church, Vancouver. In 1932 he was appointed to the faculty of McMaster University as Professor of New Testament. Canadian Baptist. July 14, 1932. 155,. Baptists across Canada. In B r i t i s h Columbia, for example, census figures reveal that B a p t i s t s increased from 20,225 to 23,577 i n the period from 1921 to 1931, a rate of growth which neither kept pace with the population increase nor with the general progress of the other de nominations. 5 During the same decade, the Pentecostal movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia made outstanding gains, increasing from 247 to 2,298 adherents. In addition to i t s e f f e c t on numerical growth the controversy had disrupted the l o c a l programs of many churches, divided old f r i e n d s , and created a general atmosphere of c r i t i c i s m . In f a c t , i n some Ba p t i s t s , the habit of "heresy-hunting" had become almost an "occupational disease". Nevertheless, i t must not be concluded that the controversy was i t s e l f an unmitigated e v i l . The dispute was based upon very r e a l issues and the acuteness of the debate was, i n part, an expression of the v i t a l i t y of Baptist work i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Even during the d i s  ruption, some i n d i v i d u a l churches made progress under the leadership of capable pastors. Paradoxically, i n the years since the d i v i s i o n , Baptist 5see Appendix C f o r census d e t a i l s . Note that Methodist and Presbyterian s t a t i s t i c s f o r t h i s period are somewhat complicated by the formation of the United Church of Canada i n 1925. It should be borne i n mind that census s t a t i s t i c s on r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s are only i n d i c a t i v e of general trends. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of larger denominations, census figures are customarily i n con siderable excess of the actual membership figures published by the de nominations themselves. Such membership fi g u r e s , i n turn, do not u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e the number of a c t i v e and p a r t i c i p a t i n g members. However, i n the case of the smaller sects, which tend to have a high degree of membership p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the census figures give a f a i r l y accurate p i c - Fure of actual strength. 156., work has made greater progress in British Columbia and Alberta, the two western provinces most involved in the controversy of the 1920's, than in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, where the local churches were less effected. In the latter provinces, particularly in Manitoba, Baptists, under the influence of liberalism, tended to d r i f t into a middle-of-the-road posi tion in which they lost their distinctiveness. Too conservative to be good liberals and too liberal to be good conservatives, they failed to appeal to either side. In British Columbia, the struggle to maintain sectarianism revealed the more sectarian bias of the Baptist witness in that province, and the resultant division had a chastening effect upon lib e r a l elements within Convention Baptists. After an i n i t i a l period of f r i c t i o n , the two conventions settled into separate courses of develop ment and the general situation became much more stable than in the 1920's. In spite of depression, in spite of the outbreak of war, and in spite of the internal divisions which beset the Regular Baptists, the total Baptist population of British Columbia grew to 29,860 in 1941, a rate of increase which outstripped the rate of increase in population. 7 In the i n i t i a l period following the breach of 1927 there were a number of important matters l e f t to be resolved. These centred around the question of legal rights to names and to property. The necessary discussion of these issues perpetuated open antagonism between the two Baptist conventions for a period of some months. The most pressing of these matters, which began to develop even before the f i n a l s p l i t in June 1927, involved the property t i t l e s of 7See census figures in Appendix C. 157.. some of the churches which joined the Missionary Council and, later, the Regular Baptists. In a number of cases, the deeds of the church property were held by the Convention, not by the local congregations. In view of previous home mission investment in these causes, the Convention leaders were reluctant to release the properties and only after much persuasion Q were the deeds given to the churches concerned. A second source of continuing antagonism was the incorporated name q of the Regular Baptist Convention. The speedy action of Regular Baptists had secured their incorporation some three months before the registration of the new name of the "Convention of Baptist Churches of British Columbia". 1 0 On October 11, 1927, the Convention Board of Trustees re solved to protest the use of the name "Convention of Regular Baptists". 1 1 On December 20 a petition was lodged with the Lieutenant Governor in Council asking for the dissolution of the incorporation of Regular 12 Baptists. In January, 1928, representatives of both conventions appeared 13 in Victoria before the Attorney General, the Hon. A. M. Manson. The ^Mission Board Minutes, April 14, 1925, et seqq.. and Minutes of the Board of Trustees of the Convention of Baptist Churches of British Columbia, [hereafter referred to as Convention Board Minutes], August 4, 1927, et seqq. Under the revised constitution of the Convention, in 1927 the Board of Trustees took over the functions of the former Mission Board. 9See p. 150. In 1963 the incorporated name was o f f i c i a l l y changed to "Convention of Regular Baptist Churches of Bri t i s h Columbia". 1 0See p. 149. ^Convention Board Minutes, October 11, 1927. 12B. C. Baptist, February 1928. ^Colonist, January 19, 20, and 21, 1928. In the press reports the conventions were identified respectively as "modernist" and "fundamentalist" groups. 158.. Convention of Baptist Churches, through i t s lawyer, objected to the use of "Convention" and "Regular" by the Regular Baptists, claiming a priority on the use of these terms. Following a discussion by the legal counsel of both groups, the Rev. J. B. Rowell presented the theo logical aspects of the Regular Baptist case. The dispute centred around the word "Regular", a term which had been in common use some decades before, 1 4 but which had been o f f i c i a l l y dropped from the con stitution of British Columbia Baptists in 1911. 1 5 The Rev. J. B. Rowell recorded his arguments in the B. C. Baptist: . . . there has been a d r i f t from the position then [in 1897] recognized among Baptists, so much so that within the denomination today there are those who deny the fundamentals of the faith and those who remain loyal to the old-time fundamentals, while others try to occupy a "middle-of-the-road" position. Therefore, i t was our contention before the Attorney General, that those who maintain their stand on the old ground are s t i l l "Regular," and consequently have the right to the name and principles which have never been surrendered. Emphasis was given to the fact that our convention does hold to the old ground whereas the other convention has forsaken the his toric Baptist position . . . . . . . We hold to the position of the absolute autonomy of the local church, for which "Regular" Baptists have always stood. . . . we remain absolutely "Regular" in our desire to have a statement of faith which openly declares our attitude toward the Bible and toward outstanding doctrines. Before the division came in the Convention, we repeatedly asked the Convention to declare i t  self in a statement of faith as a basis of fellowship, but such statement of faith was every time rejected. 1 4Note pp. 35, 66, 80. 1 5B. C. Baptist, July 1928. Note, however, that the term had continued in use. See p. 141 of this thesis. 159. Our own statement of faith was produced before the Attorney General as evidence. On the other hand, the other convention has no statement of faith leaving the element of uncertainty in this day of embarrassing compromise. . . . As "Regular" Baptists we teach in relation to the Lord's Supper that the Scriptural order is (1) Regeneration, (2) Baptism, and (3) the Lord's Supper: Whereas the d r i f t inclines to an open invitation to a l l , and this finds i t s logical outcome in open membership as is the case in the Northern Baptist Convention. . . . loyalty to the original position, involved in the word "Regular," is the ground on which we base our rightful claim to the use of the distinctive word "Regular." Consequently, those who have drifted from that original position have forfeited their right to that word. The principles involved in such word have been for saken and therefore they have become the seceders and have grad ually but perhaps unwittingly, developed into a new Baptist body. " Pastor Rowell compared the position of Regular Baptists to that of the "continuing" Presbyterians. Attorney General Manson, an earnest Presbyterian, grasped this point and refused to take action against the Regular Baptists. 1 7 The decision of the Attorney General was a distinct "victory" for the Regular Baptists, for by i t they gained the right to o f f i c i a l and legal recognition as "Baptists". At f i r s t the Convention Baptists were loathe to concede such recognition and sought to speak on behalf of a l l Baptists in the province, but the years have brought a gradual change of attitude, tempered at present by the realization that the Convention Baptists, while s t i l l the largest single group, represent only about one-half of the total Baptist membership and one-third of the total of Baptist congregations in the province. 1 6B. C. Baptist. February 1928. *-7Loc. c i t . . also interview with Dr. J. B. Rowell, August 17, 1957. 160. From time to time another legal matter forced the two conventions into mutual discussion and negotiation. On occasion, the wills of individuals granted bequests to "Baptists" in British Columbia, without any indication of a particular group to whom the bequest was to be given. In such circumstances, representatives of both conventions, and of the smaller Baptist groups,met together to decide upon an amicable and proportionate division of such bequests; usually on the basis of total membership. To the credit of a l l concerned, i t must be said that such decisions were made with a minimum of f r i c t i o n . It would appear that the f i r s t of these occasions occurred in 1935 and involved the 18 estate of James Howard. The most outstanding case of this nature was the John Morton Estate. At his death in 1913, John Morton 1 9 bequeathed a sum of $100,000 to the educational and religious work of Baptists in British Columbia. This g i f t took the form of a Trust Fund, to be distributed upon the death of his widow, Mrs. Ruth Morton. The Mortons had no children, and 20 at her death on December 4, 1939 Mrs. Morton l e f t additional sums to the Regular Baptists, particularly to Ruth Morton Memorial Baptist Church and to the Regular Baptist Women's Missionary Society. The Wills of the Mortons were contested by relatives, who after prolonged l i t i  gation, lost their case. When the John Morton Estate was f i n a l l y i BConvention Board Minutes, April 2, 1935. i ySee p. 38. 2 0Personal diary of the Rev. H. C. Phi l l i p s , pastor of Marpole Baptist Church, Vancouver. In 1939, Mr. Phillips was pastor of Ruth Morton Memorial Baptist Church, Vancouver, where Mrs. Morton was a member. 161., settled in 1942, taxes, succession duties, and legal fees had pared down the Trust Fund to $75,381.67. This sum was distributed on the basis of proportionate total membership—$47,490.45 to Convention Baptists, $21,106.86 to Regular Baptists, and $6,784.36 to independent 21 Baptist churches. A number of other contacts were made between the two conventions. During the depression there was some interchange of home mission stations in the interests of economy. It was also agreed to avoid, i f possible, the overlapping of Baptist effort, particularly in the smaller centres of 22 Bri t i s h Columbia. A move was made by Convention Baptists in October, 1930, to obtain the cooperation of a l l Baptist groups in the preparation 23 of a History of the British Columbia Baptists, but apparently nothing came of the venture. Earlier that same year, when Mr. William Marchant raised the question of a reconciliation with the Regular Baptists, "a unanimous desire was expressed that i t might be so, but i t was f e l t that the time was not yet". Through the years, there has generally been very l i t t l e communication between the two Baptist Conventions on the 2"5 o f f i c i a l level and each group has gone i t s separate way, though always 21 Minutes of the Executive Council of the Regular Baptist Churches of British Columbia, [hereafter referred to as Regular Baptist Council Minutes], February 13, 1942. 2 2Convention Board Minutes, November 11, 1930, and January 13, 1931. The groups did not always adhere to this tacit agreement. 2 3 I b i d . . October 14, 1930. 2 4 I b i d . . January 13, 1930. 25There have been numerous unofficial contacts and personal friendships between the pastors and the laymen of each group. 162, with a wary eye upon "what the competition was doing". While relationships between the two conventions were reaching a f a i r degree of equilibrium, the Regular Baptists, in particular, were torn by internal division. It has already been noted that tension existed between "denominational" and "non-denominational" elements within the Regular Baptist Convention. Now that the modernist foe was no longer in the camp, internecine s t r i f e began to manifest i t s e l f . The largest Regular Baptist congregation, Mount Pleasant Church in Vancouver, became one of the f i r s t battlefields. Beginning as early as the spring of 1926, members of First Baptist Church, Vancouver, began to gravitate toward Mount Pleasant Church. By June of that year, some thirty-five members of Fir s t Church had joined 27 Mount Pleasant. During the following year the total increased to about one hundred. These new recruits were fundamentalist in doctrine, but had joined Mount Pleasant for a variety of reasons. Some appreciated the gentle pastoral manner and forceful preaching of the pastor of Mount Pleasant, the Rev. A. F. Baker. Others joined because they liked a "big church" and yet had become unpopular at Fir s t Baptist. Among the latter there were those who began to agitate in favour of a new pastor at Mount Pleasant. The harmony of the congregation was so upset that Baker ten- 28 dered his resignation in January, 1927, ° but remained at his post un t i l September, when he became "Pastor-at-large" for the Regular Convention. 2 f iSee pp. 131 and 152. 2 8 I b i d . . January 1927. 2 7B. C. Baptist. June 1926. 163. He was succeeded by the Rev. W. M. Robertson, formerly of Toxteth Tab ernacle in Liverpool, England, who had been recommended to the church by Dr. T. T. Shields. 2 9 A note of high optimism was sounded at the f i r s t Regular Baptist Convention, held in Mount Pleasant Church during June, 1928, but behind the scenes a l l was not well. In the following month a news item from Mount Pleasant Church announced that, "after a stormy pastorate", Robertson had resigned his pulpit and begun an "undenomina tional" work "of a nondescript character". 3 0 The account in the B.- C.  Baptist was most outspoken: . . . We looked for great things . . . and have been terribly disappointed. We are saddened also when we consider that the division was not due to difference of opinion on the great doc trines of the faith, but to suspicions engendered by faulty leader ship in the management of the church.3*- Robertson took with him approximately one-half of the 510 members of Mount Pleasant, including many of the recent additions to the con gregation. The new cause was named "Metropolitan Tabernacle" after the famous church of Mr. Charles H. Spurgeon in London, England. In October, 1928, the Rev. Charles Fisher became the new pastor 32 of Mount Pleasant Church. A former Anglican clergyman from England, Fisher was also recommended to the church by Dr. Shields. While apparently capable, scholarly, and popular with his congregation, Fisher found d i f f i c u l t y in adjusting to Canadian l i f e , and in June, 1929, he resigned in order to return to England. 3 3 He was succeeded in October, 2 9B. C. Baptist. September 1927. 3 0 l b i d . . July 1928. 3 1Loc- c i t . 3 2 I b i d . . October 1928. 3 3 I b i d . , July 1929. 1929, by Dr. R. E. Neighbour, an American who was very active in the work of the Baptist Bible Union, too active, in fact, to properly care for his flock at home. He was followed in February, 1932, by another 34 American, the Rev. Arno Q. Weniger, whose youth and inexperience 35 proved inadequate to prevent a further division in the church. In the short space of five years, Mount Pleasant had tried dynamism, scholarship, flamboyancy, and youthful energy, but, like Queen Anne, had failed to find a permanently f r u i t f u l formula. In addition to the unsettled state of the pastorate of i t s chief church, the Regular Baptist Convention suffered loss through the deaths of some of the prominent leaders in the movement. The Rev. F. W. 36 Auvache, the f i r s t Secretary of the Regular Baptist Convention, died in February 1928. The Rev. D. G. MacDonald, a strong denominationalist who was f i r s t President of the new Convention, died in December 1931.37 In the same month the death of Mrs. A. A. McLeod 3 8 also occurred. Mrs. McLeod had been most active and influential in the Regular Baptist Women's Missionary Society. The growing need for enlistment of new pastors was obvious. In their struggle to maintain sectarianism Regular Baptists had cut them selves off from the Canadian denominational centres of training, with 3 4B. C. Baptist. June - July 1932. 35 This division was the result of the controversy over North West Kiangsi Mission, for an account of which, see infra, pp. 170-171. 3 6See pp. 143-145, 147. 37B.- C. Baptist, December 1931, and January 1932. 3 8See p. 120. 165.. whose liberal tendencies they could not agree. They were therefore forced to turn to interdenominational schools for pastoral recruits, or else to rely upon "imports" from Britain or the United States. The situation proved to be most unsatisfactory. Such new pastors had l i t t l e understanding of local needs, no background of denominational experience in British Columbia and, in many cases, no concept of denominational loyalty. Although there was much talk of "adherence to principles", by the middle of the 1930's it"seemed apparent, by the actions of some pastors, that individuality, self-interest, and even opportunism, were taking precedent over concern for the flock and for the future of the Regular Baptist cause. The necessity of a local institution for the training of pastors became obvious. From the very beginning of the Regular Baptist Convention far- sighted leaders realized that the founding of a Regular Baptist College 39 was "an item of no small importance". This need had been a matter of concern in the days of the Missionary Council. 4 0 The Vancouver Bible Institute, founded by a Presbyterian, Dr. Walter E l l i s , in 1919, had received generous support from Mr. R. W. Sharpe, a wealthy member of Mount Pleasant Baptist Church and one of the "Interested Laymen".41 Although some Regular Baptists supported this school, i t s interdenomina tional approach was not completely satisfactory to many in the Regular Convention. In order to provide f u l l y suitable instruction, Regular J*B.--C- Baptist. July 1928. 4 1See p. 121. 4 0 I b i d . , June 1927. 166. Baptists opened the Regular Baptist Bible Institute in the f a l l of 1929. The school began i t s operations with night classes, which were conducted in Mount Pleasant Church. The project did not continue long and after 1930 nothing more was heard of i t , but similar night classes were taught for a time in Broadway West Church, Vancouver, and Central Baptist Church, Victoria. It was not unt i l the close of the Second World War that the question of an educational institution for Regular Baptists was again given serious consideration. 4 4 In the 1930's, a controversy over foreign missions brought to the fore the latent disunities within the Regular Baptist Convention. As a result of the formation of the B. C. Missionary Council in 1925, the Regular Baptists had been cut off from their denominational foreign mission fields. This created a major problem for the new Convention, which must now find new outlets for foreign mission work. A possible solution was the support of "non-denominational" fundamentalist missions, which were then being established a l l over the world. Such a course could hardly commend i t s e l f to the denominational elements within the Regular Convention. Even before the sp l i t of June 1927, the B. C. Baptist stated the case: . . . Another real need is that of a definite Foreign Mission work large enough to u t i l i z e every gi f t of God's people for the spreading of the Gospel in other lands. Since the refusal of the Canadian Foreign Mission Board to take any money from the B. C. Missionary Council, we have been without a definite f i e l d of service in foreign parts. . . . 4 2B. C. Baptist. August 1929. 4 3 I b i d . . October 1930. 4 4Note that the events recorded above were similar to events in the early 1900's. See p. 84. 167. As Baptists who are Baptists because of convictions concerning the teaching of the Scriptures, we hope to be supporting to a man the great Baptist mission work in the world to-day. And we have prospects which we hope w i l l materialize in the near future and provide for God's people in fellowship with the Missionary Council a f i e l d abroad that w i l l demand a l l that can be given out of their f u l l consecration to God for the great work in other lands.^5 The Regular Baptists of British Columbia hoped to join forces with the Regular Baptists of Ontario and Quebec in establishing a mission f i e l d in Liberia, but the plan did not materialize. The Rev. 46 A. A. McLeod, a retired missionary from India, and the f i r s t Treasurer of the Regular Convention, was a strong supporter of denominational missions and impatient to see action on the matter. In July, 1929, McLeod reported to the Regular Baptist Executive Council that the Rev. E. J. Blandford, director of an independent mission in Central China, was about to retire and wished to place the work in other hands. 4 7 Since Blandford was then vi s i t i n g Vancouver, i t was arranged that he meet with a special session of the Executive Council on August 22, 1929, to discuss details. Blandford informed the Council that the f i e l d , known as North West Kiangsi Mission, involved property worth $5,000 in Canadian funds, and a total of ten mission workers, including himself and Mrs. Blandford. It was moved that the Regular Baptist Convention take over the mission, with Blandford as director. The missionaries A O were to endorse the Regular Baptist Statement of Faith, ° and were to retain their present sources of support, but a l l new missionaries were 45 'By C. Baptist. June 1927. ee pp. 120 and 164. 47 Regular Baptist Council Minutes, July 11, 1929. 48 Ibid.. August 22, 1929. 168. Ar t to be appointed by the Regular Convention. 7 The Rev. L. G. Baker and his wife, were sent out as missionaries in the spring of 1930.5^ They were greeted by a dismaying situation. According to their reports from the f i e l d , Blandford had misrepresented the mission and was not a man to be trusted. He had formerly been associated with the "Plymouth Brethren" and had received much financial support from them, but had eventually been dismissed from their fellowship. 5 1 Much of the mission property was owned personally by various missionaries. The character of the mission was "strongly undenominational" and some of the workers had not understood that they must sign the Regular Baptist Statement of 52 Faith. Furthermore, the Regular Baptists did not have f u l l control of the f i e l d , but only of their missionaries, the Bakers, and Miss Esther Peacock, who had been sent out in May 1931. The reports from the Bakers caused a storm of controversy and confusion at home. Opinion among Regular Baptists was divided at least four ways. Some of those who were ardent supporters of denominational missions, including the Rev. A. A. McLeod, discounted the statements of the Rev. L. G. Baker and refused to admit that a grave error had been made. Other denominationalists agreed with the Bakers, were appalled by the developments, and saw the Convention saddled with an "inter- 4 9B. C. Baptist. September 1929. 5 0 I b i d . . April 1930. 5*-Letters from L. G. Baker to Executive Council, January 12, 1931 and February 5, 1932. These, along with other f i l e s of the mission are to be found in the Regular Baptist Historical Collection, Vancouver. ^Questionnaires received from Hilda M. Holms and Victoria A. Holms. In f i l e s of the North West Kiangsi Mission, Regular Baptist Historical Collection. 169. denominational" mission. Those who sympathized with "interdenomina- tionalism" gleaned from the controversy arguments against any further attempts to establish a denominational mission, but they, in turn, were divided among themselves in their evaluation of the situation in China, depending upon how they interpreted Mr. Baker's reports and the subsequent actions of the Executive Council. Furthermore, personal loyalties and antipathies were involved, since L. G. Baker was the son of the Rev. A. F. Baker. In the spring of 1932 the Executive Council appointed a committee to investigate the charges which had been made concerning Kiangsi Mission. The committee's conclusion was indecisive, a majority report favoured continuing in Kiangsi while a minority report recommended that the Con vention abandon the project and seek a new f i e l d . The Council did not adopt either report, but referred the matter to another committee, which recommended "That the work in North West Kiangsi be continued with bold ness and vigour in accordance with the plans in mind at the commencement of the work . . . ."53 ^he Executive Council adopted the recommendation, but by this time the Regular Baptist missionaries in China were facing a most dissatisfying personal situation, which the Council had done nothing to alter. Unrest continued, and in February, 1933, the Council voted to c a l l a Special Convention in March to consider the i s s u e . 5 4 The de cisions of this convention supported the actions of the Council. 5 3B.C. Baptist. November 1932. 5 4B. C. Baptist Bulletin. February 1933. The By C. Baptist  Bulletin was the new name of the By C. Baptist. As an economy measure, a mimeographed form was used unt i l March 1936. 170.. For the missionaries, decisions at home could not change re a l i t i e s abroad and, in the spring of 1933, the Bakers and Miss Peacock l e f t Kiangsi for the city of Harbin in North Manchuria. There they began a new mission work with the friendship and assistance of Southern Baptist missionaries, Dr. and Mrs. Charles Leonard. This action resulted in fresh criticism at home, for the move had been made without approval of the Executive Council. Furthermore, the Regular Convention s t i l l had financial obligations to Blandford. At the Annual Convention in June, 1933, i t was decided to give support to the missionaries in Manchuria only to the extent that the local churches designated funds for the purpose. The same policy of specific designation was to be used to honour the remaining financial obligations connected with Kiangsi Mission. 5 5 Such a financial plan differed but l i t t l e from a policy of individual churches supporting independent missions and was a far cry from the original proposal for a united denominational effort. In fact, the proposal bore the seeds of further dissension, for each local church must now rejudge the whole issue. Mount Pleasant Baptist Church was seriously divided on the foreign missionary question and, after a series of stormy church meetings, a large group of members, with most of the o f f i c i a l s of the church, with drew from the building. They began immediately to conduct services in the Cambrian Hall which was located near the church edifice. This group retained the name of the church and voiced i t s approval of the Bakers and the North Manchuria Baptist Mission. The remaining members and 5 5Minutes of the Sixth Annual Convention, 1933. 171. their pastor, the Rev. Arno Q. Weniger, 5 a continued to worship in the Mount Pleasant Church building. For three years both groups claimed to be the true Mount Pleasant Baptist Church. In 1935 Weniger resigned and was succeeded by the Rev. W. Arnold Bennett in the spring of 1936.57 In 1937 the Cambrian Hall group dropped the Mount Pleasant name to become Douglas Park Baptist Church, which was later renamed Oakridge Baptist Church. In March, 1936, the North Manchuria Mission was o f f i c i a l l y adopted as the Regular Baptist Convention foreign mission f i e l d . This action followed a favourable vote, 597 to 101, on a referendum which was sub- mitted to the membership of the churches. By this time, chiefly as a result of the missionary upheaval, a number of congregations had ceased to support the Regular Baptist Con vention. In August, 1936, Sapperton Baptist Church in New Westminster withdrew from the Convention, followed by Broadway West Church in January 1937. Both became independent churches. In May, 1937, Maple Ridge Church in Haney divided on a number of issues, including the matter of foreign mission policy. One group remained in the Regular Convention; the other became independent in 1942. In October, 1938, Mount Pleasant Church also withdrew from the Regular Baptists. At this period the sense of denominational identity was so blunted that the Regular Baptist 5 6See p. 164. 5 7See p. 134. From the United States, Bennett had gone to England and then, in 1935, returned to become pastor of Broadway West Baptist Chur ch, Van c ouver. 5 8B. C. Baptist Bulletin. March 1936. 172. Ministerial Association retained the Rev. Arnold Bennett as i t s President unti l January, 1939, even though Bennett himself had offered to resign 59 because his church had l e f t the Regular Convention. Bennett had not yet come to the end of his spiritual pilgrimage. Another division of Mount Pleasant Church occurred in 1946 when Bennett le f t to form a nondenominational "community" church of sectarian outlook. This group was later disbanded. In 1954 Mount Pleasant Church joined the Baptist General Conference. In less than three decades the wheel had come almost to f u l l c i r c l e . Bennett, who had been a leading figure among the fundamentalists of the 1920's, was by the 1940's, completely out of sympathy with Regular Baptists. It was not that his viewpoints had essentially changed. It was rather that the Regular Baptist Convention, in moving toward a more integrated type of denominational organization, had le f t Bennett, the individualist and rugged separatist, behind. Similar, though not ab solutely identical, forces were involved in 1949 when Dr. T. T. Shields, along with Jarvis Street Church and a number of other churches, l e f t the Union of Regular Baptists of Ontario and Quebec. But, in contrast to Bennett, Shields rejected any thought of nondenominationalism, and main tained friendly contacts with churches of like persuasion in the United States. By the late 1930's, the foreign mission controversy among Regular Baptists of British Columbia had extended over almost a decade and had .Minutes of the Regular Baptist Ministerial Association, October 17, 1938. 173. sapped the spiritual resources of the denomination during a period of financial d i f f i c u l t y . The losses were such that the total membership of the Convention had dropped from close to 2,000 in 1932 to about 1,400 in 1939. A more serious consequence was the lack of solidarity and direction which was manifest among those who remained. Furthermore, the controversy had cast the whole foreign mission effort of the Regular Convention into a mold which was d i f f i c u l t to break. It was true that the North Manchuria Mission proved a success, and that the furlough itinerary of the Bakers in 1938 did much to promote support of the mission, both in British Columbia 60 and Alberta. Nevertheless, much missionary interest and support had been diverted into interdenominational and independent channels during the period of the controversy, both as a result of the dispute i t s e l f , and 61 because of the influence of some of the pastors in the Convention. De dicated young people from the churches had been enlisted as missionaries in non-Baptist missions and their home churches f e l t a sense of responsi b i l i t y for their financial support. Thus i t became d i f f i c u l t to alter the situation and, up to the present, the Regular Baptists have found no solution. In 1962, a total of approximately $38,000 was given to foreign missions by Regular Baptists. Of this sum, only about $10,000 went to 6 2 the Regular Baptist mission f i e l d in Japan, which, in 1952, replaced the Manchurian f i e l d , when the latter was closed because of war and 0 U B . C Baptist Bulletin. September 18, 1938. D iSee p. 165. o 2 T h i r t y - f i f t h Annual Convention. Vancouver, Convention of Regular Baptists, 1962, pp. 27 and 31. Note that out of a total of over $16,000 given to the Japan f i e l d , over $6,000 came from outside British Columbia. 174.. Communist occupation. The remaining $28,000 of this total was given directly by the churches to other missions. During the period since 1927 the Baptist Convention of British Columbia also faced d i f f i c u l t i e s , but experienced a higher degree of de nominational solidarity, as a Convention, than the Regular Baptists. At the same time the Convention Baptists of British Columbia always remained somewhat distinct from the remainder of Baptist Union churches on the Prairies, and, in general, pursued an independent line of thought and action. In June, 1925, the University of British Columbia offered Baptists a site for a theological school on U.B.C. campus.63 Following the division of 1927, the Convention Baptists discussed a proposal for the incorpora tion of a British Columbia Baptist Divinity School, but the following resolution was adopted: "Resolved that we most heartily approve the work being done by the Baptist Bible Institute of Vancouver, but we do not 64 think the time opportune for the incorporation of a school". This decision, however, was not an indication that the Convention Baptists were whole-heartedly in support of Brandon College as the alter native to a local seminary. Brandon had not fared well on an independent 65 66 budget and was at this time in "special need of funds". The Con- 6 3Mission Board Minutes, June 23, 1925. 6 4Convention Board Minutes, October 11, 1927. The Baptist Bible Institute was an embryo school conducted for a number of years with the aid of some of the Baptist pastors, apparently those of "moderate" con servative viewpoint. It should not be confused with the Vancouver Bible Institute mentioned on p. 165. 6 5See p. 139. 6 6Convention Board Minutes, April 10, 1928. 175, vention Board of Trustees formulated a plan for the promotion of Brandon 67 College, but the proposal met with some opposition in the churches and was dropped. The representative of Brandon was l e f t to make his own 68 promotional arrangements with individual congregations. In the years from 1927 to the Second World War the Baptists in the Convention of British Columbia, and in the Baptist Union, were faced with financial d i f f i c u l t i e s . I n i t i a l l y these problems were caused by the loss of fundamentalist churches, coupled with the fact that the overhead of both organizations was rather high because of salaried officers and the financial requirements of a college of the size and with the equipment of Brandon. The depression of the 1930's forced some retrenchment. In Brit i s h Columbia some mission churches were closed, while others were com bined under the leadership of one pastor. 6 9 In October, 1931, as an economy measure, the Convention Baptists offered the Rayagadda Mission f i e l d in India to the Regular B a p t i s t s , 7 0 but nothing came of the matter. After 1930 the Theological Department of Brandon College virtually ceased to exist, although some theological lectures were given on occasion.7''' In the following years the financial position of Brandon grew steadily worse, u n t i l , in 1938, the Baptist Union was forced to re linquish a l l connection with the college, which passed into the control of "'Convention Board Minutes, April 10, 1928. b g I b i d . . June 4, 1928. 6 9 l b i d . . September 16, 1931. 70lbid.. October 13, 1931. 71c. C. McLaurin, Pioneering in Western Canada. Calgary, C. C. McLaurin, 1939, pp. 310-311. 176,. the University of Manitoba. The loss of Brandon College was, in the opinion of C. C. McLaurin, "the sorest experience in the history of 72 Western Baptists". While "lack of funds" was given as the reason for 73 the disaster, this could hardly be the basic explanation. During this same period the Bible Schools on the Canadian Prairies had begun to thrive. Brandon f e l l behind because i t had failed to commend i t s e l f to the constituency which i t had been called to serve. The College had l i t t l e attraction for fundamentalists either within or outside the Baptist Union; the liberal Baptists could muster neither the recruits nor the resources necessary to keep Brandon in operation as a Baptist school; and the general public was not interested in maintaining a de nominational institution. Other changes were taking place within the Baptist Union. In Manitoba the total membership in Union churches dropped from 3,749 in 1921 to 2,539 in 1959. In the same period, membership in the Union churches of British Columbia rose from 4,929 to 6,165 and in Alberta from 3,930 to 5,995 in spite of controversy and withdrawal of members during the late 1920's. Figures for Saskatchewan were 2,647 members in 1921 and 3,336 in 1959. 7 4 Because of this pattern of development, Winnipeg gradually became less important. In 1928 the British Columbia Board of Trustees suggested a "more central location" for the Union O f f i c e . 7 5 7 2McLaurin, op. c i t . . p. 231. 7 3Province. July 15, 1938. 7 4A11 statistics are from BUYS - 1922. pp. 181-195, and BUYB  1959. p. 235. 7Convention Board Minutes, April 10, 1928. 177. Since Alberta was rapidly becoming the Union's "centre of gravity" the 7 6 office was re-located at Edmonton in 1930. A need was also f e l t for a reorganization of the structure of the Union, dispensing with the provincial conventions and creating in their place two associations in each province. Such a procedure would streng then the Union i t s e l f and, at the same time, foster the closer fellowship of the churches within the smaller units. In 1938 this plan was put into operation in the three prairie provinces and six associations were organized. 7 7 The British Columbia Convention, however, refused to im plement the plan and has remained to the present a decided "big brother" in the Union family. 7 8 In 1938 the Firs t Baptist Church, Winnipeg, which had been the leading Baptist Church in Manitoba in earlier years, was forced to close i t s doors. McLaurin, who regarded this event as a "disaster", gave his explanation for the closure of the church: . . . the city's rapid growth did not favor i t s continuance, as families moved out into residential d i s t r i c t s . New churches were organized that absorbed many of the members. The men and women who had been the leaders during the days of i t s great strength . . . had departed this l i f e , and the down-town population did not contribute towards the congregation. To maintain such an institution, under these conditions, became an impossibility. This experience is duplicated in many ci t i e s in America and the old land. 7 9 McLaurin's comments failed to take cognisance of the fact that F i r s t Baptist building was sold to a Pentecostal assembly and immediately 7 6McLaurin, op." c i t . , p. 221 7 7 I b i d . . p. 234. 7 8 See p. 97. Note also that Fi r s t Baptist was one of the four Winnipeg congregations mentioned on p. 132. 79 McLaurin, op. c i t . . p. 231. 17 8,, occupied by a large and enthusiastic congregation who renamed the building Calvary Temple. First Church had lost a sizeable portion of i t s member ship as a result of the modernist-fundamentalist controversy. Many con servatives had withdrawn from the church and tne remaining congregation had failed to evangelize the community. In the opinion of Baptist conservatives, the loss of Firs t Church was an object lesson to a l l the Baptists of Manitoba. Liberalism was blamed for the di s a s t e r . 8 0 If Baptists were to retain their spiritual v i t a l i t y and their denominational identity they must eschew modernism and return to the conservative theology of the historic Baptist Faith. By the opening of the Second World War, reflective liberals were themselves beginning to question the modernistic approach. The events of the war fostered their misgivings. Ideas of the inherent goodness of Man and the ab i l i t y of Man to progress through the use of science did not seem to square with grim facts of mutual human destructiveness. If God were essentially an Immanent Being, i f Man's natural relation to God was one of sonship and intimacy, then why the war and i t s horrors? Such inquiries were related to the growing influence of the views of Karl Barth upon Protestant theology in general. Barth, a Swiss theologian and a former lib e r a l had, in turn, been influenced strongly by the writings of the Danish existentialist S^ren Kierkegaard. During the years following World War I, Barth had begun to expound his new theological outlook, which stressed Divine transcendency, human sinfulness, and the priority of 8 UTelephone interview with the Rev. Leslie Tarr, pastor of East Kildonan Baptist Church, Winnipeg, September 4, 1962. 179. personal religious experience over philosophical vapourings. The basic approach of Barth, though not a l l his personal conclusions, received widespread approval from theologians. Virtually every Protestant theo logian has been influenced by Barth, i f only to react against him. The "Barthian" movement began to transform the face of liberalism and, particularly after the Second World War, spread to America, where the new view has become known as "neo-orthodoxy", with Reinhold Niebuhr of Union Seminary, New York, as one of i t s leading exponents. Some fundamentalists refer to "Barthianism" as "the new modernism".ox Other fundamentalists classify neo-orthodoxy in a category by i t s e l f . Some churchmen of ecumenical s p i r i t have sought to make use of neo-orthodox ideas in order to mediate between modernists and fundamentalists. In Canada the trend toward neo-orthodoxy seems most pronounced in the United and Presbyterian Churches with the theological schools of these denominations setting the course. Among Convention Baptists, most of the liberals have been wittingly or unwittingly influenced in the direction of neo-orthodoxy and this, along with the apparently growing influence of the evangelicals, has made the Convention Baptists more con servative in the general tone of their theology. A corresponding swing to conservatism has not taken place in the general ethical outlook of Convention Baptists, however, and there are signs of a definite weakening The term was evidently coined by Dr. Cornelius Van T i l of West minster Seminary, (see p. 95) who published an appraisal of Barthianism entitled The New Modernism, in 1946. Not a l l evangelicals agree with Van T i l ' s appraisal, and Barth has said that the work presents an in correct picture of himself. 180, of traditional Baptist asceticisms. To a lesser extent, the same is true of Regular Baptists and other Baptist groups. Opposition to the use of tobacco remains a Baptist "hallmark", especially among those of evangelical persuasion, and "total abstinence" from alcoholic beverages is the usual position of English-speaking Baptists. In other areas of conduct, alterations in social attitude are evident. This is particularly true with respect to the motion picture and the theatre. The advent of television, coupled with increasing economic prosperity among Baptists, has been a most potent force effecting this change. Among "sectarian" Baptists there is a rising interest in educa tion, art, music, travel, Canadian p o l i t i c s , and world affa i r s . These shifts of attitude in the present generation provide a fresh demonstration of the forces which tend to move the sect away from i t s separatist posi- 82 tion in society. Furthermore, i t must be noted that similar social changes are taking place within other sectarian groups, whose members share in the general economic prosperity of British Columbia. While some voices are heard to rise in protest, a widespread revolt against the ten dencies does not seem too probable. The Second World War did not appear to have the debilitating go effect upon Baptist youth which was a result of World War I. The churches made a definite effort to keep in touch with their own young people in uniform and, at the same time, sought to contact service per sonnel in nearby military camps and stations. The Soldiers' and Airmens' 8 2See pp. 10-11. 8 3See p. 106. 181. Christian Association, an interdenominational organization, evangelical in doctrinal persuasion, was one of the agencies which acted as a co ordinating force in these efforts, and i t received the support of many Baptist churches. This, and other organizations, such as the Salvation Army, brought together young people of various denominations, favoured the interchange of ideas, promoted personal evangelism, and, in general, sought to strengthen the witness of Christians in the Forces, as well as to challenge them to earnestly consider the pastorate or the mission f i e l d as a vocation. At the close of the war many young people, includ ing both Regular and Convention Baptists, sought to prepare for full-time Christian service. The war also gave impetus to proposals for more widespread fellow ship of Baptist groups. An all-Canadian organization of Baptists had been the dream of many years. As early as 1880 the "Baptist Union of Canada" had been formed with the Hon. William McMaster as i t s f i r s t pres ident. Despite the name, this organization never included Maritime or British Columbia Baptists, and Manitoba was included for only a brief period. Consequently, the "Baptist Union" was reorganized in 1888 to form the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec. 84 In 1900 a "National Baptist Convention" met in Winnipeg, and in cluded representatives from a l l of Canada, but no permanent organization was initiated. A similar meeting took place at Ottawa in 1908, but the formation of a Canada-wide organization was opposed by Jarvis Street 84Wat son Kirkconnell, "Seven Years of Federation", Minutes of the  Council of the Baptist Federation of Canada. 1951, p. 3. 182. o r Baptist Church in Toronto and a number of McMaster University leaders, 86 including C. J. Holman, a prominent Toronto lawyer. Those in opposition 87 to the plan f e l t that such a Union was premature. Understandably, the matter of an all-Canadian Baptist fellowship lay dormant during the controversy of the 1920's. Nothing further was done to promote a nation-wide Baptist organization until September, 1943, when a committee of fourteen Convention Baptists met in Toronto to dis cuss the subject. This committee, with Dr. Watson Kirkconnell of McMaster University as chairman, was composed of representatives from three groups: the Baptist Union of Western Canada, the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec, and the United Baptist Convention of the Maritime Provinces. Dr. J. R. Sloat, the pastor of Olivet Church, New Westminster, represented British Columbia. As a result of these deliberations the Baptist Federa- 88 tion of Canada was formed in 1944. In 1951 the Western Baptist was merged with the Canadian Baptist, which was published in Toronto. The Baptist Federation has sought to operate with a minimum of organizational machinery and overhead. By nature, i t involves the vol untary cooperation of three autonomous bodies in such matters as standards 85 S ee p. 114. At this time Jarvis Street Church was giving heavy financial support to Canadian Baptist work. Holman was a member of Jarvis Street Church and figured largely in the modernist-fundamentalist controversy of the 1920's. He was the author of a number of pamphlets on the controversy and a supporter of Dr. Shields. 87 Letter from the Rev. H. F. Laflamme to Dr. Watson Kirkconnell, June 9, 1944, cited in Kirkconnell, op. c i t . . p. 4. 8 8 I b i d . . p. 10. 183. for ordination of ministers, ministerial superannuation, missions, ecu menical fellowship, education, and the publication of denominational literature. The Federation i s , to some degree, a loosely-knit religious counterpart of Canadian p o l i t i c a l Confederation, and i t shares many of Canada's regional separatistic tendencies. The Federation participates in the fellowship of the Baptist World Alliance and is a member of the Canadian Council of Churches. Many Baptist leaders in the Federation feel that i t should join the World 89 Council of Churches. The Ontario and Quebec Convention is favourable to this idea, but opposition of theologically conservative elements in both the Western Baptist Union and the Maritime Convention has blocked such a move. The desire of British Columbia Convention Baptists for a wider fellowship found i t s expression in the Baptist Federation. In recent years a similar desire for some type of wider fellowship made i t s e l f mani fest among Regular Baptists of the province. In their case, however, the goal was none too clear, and the path, thorny. In the f i r s t years of i t s organization the Convention of Regular Baptists remained somewhat isolated, but sustained unofficial relation ships with Baptist conservatives in United States and in Eastern Canada. In June, 1930, three Alberta churches formed the Regular Baptist Mission ary Fellowship, but this modest group appears to have attracted l i t t l e attention in British Columbia until the following year, when a brief Kirkconnell, op. c i t . . p. 10. 184. 90 account of the organization appeared in the B. C. Baptist Bulletin. In 1934 the Alberta group founded the Western Baptist Bible College in Calgary, a small school which began to gain the support of some of the Regular Baptist churches in British Columbia. There were, however, some differences between the Regular Baptists in British Columbia and those in Alberta. The latter were, in general, less "dispensational" in theology and more denominational in outlook. These characteristics were a result of the reaction of the Alberta group against the speculative prophetic teachings of William Aberhart. Aberhart was representative of the most extreme and individualistic type of sec tarianism to be found among prairie Baptists and he had gathered such elements around him in his Prophetic Bible Institute. The Regular Baptists of Alberta were at least one step removed from extreme sectarianism. Their anti-dispensational tendencies were strength ened by the influence of Toronto Baptist Seminary and i t s President, Dr. T. T. Shields, who was strongly denominational in viewpoint. Shield's doctrinal position was essentially that of a Reformed theologian, and in the pages of his weekly periodical, the Gospel Witness, he was most out spoken in his opposition to the dispensational views set forth in the Scofield Reference Bible. During this period two Regular Baptist leaders in Alberta, teachers at Western Baptist Bible College, both experienced a dramatic change from a dispensational to an anti-dispensational theological position. This reversal of view came largely as a result of their study 9 0B. C Baptist Bulletin, February 1931. 185. of the Scriptures and the Reformed Theology in preparation for their 91 lectures. In 1941 the college in Calgary closed because of the war and, in 1945, the British Columbia Regular Baptists opened the Northwest Baptist Bible College with the support of the Alberta Fellowship. This school was f i r s t located in Port Coquitlam, but was moved to a new location in Vancouver in 1958. In 1959 the College received a Provincial Charter giving i t power to grant theological degrees, and it s name was changed to the Northwest Baptist Theological College. When the College was begun, not every Regular Baptist was an enthusiastic supporter, but the in stitution has proved to be a major influence in bringing a sense of direction and denominational identity to Regular Baptists. At present, almost one-half of the Regular Baptist pastors in British Columbia are graduates of the shcool. Up to the 1940*s there was a strong dispensational element within the Convention of Regular Baptists of British Columbia. Many of the pastors in the Regular Convention had closer a f f i n i t i e s with their dis- pensationally-minded brethren in the United States than with Alberta. In 1944 Dr. R. L. Powell, the pastor of Temple Baptist Church, Tacoma, was guest speaker at the Annual Convention of Regular Baptists, held in Vancouver. On this occasion Dr. Powell suggested closer fellowship be tween Regular Baptists of Bri t i s h Columbia and the General Association ' T h e i r new viewpoints were expressed in pamphlet form. See Morley R. Hall, The Blessed Hope versus A Sentimental Hope. [Calgary, no date] and G. R. Dawe, Christ Returning--When?, Calgary, 1938. Mr. Hall was the f i r s t to change his theological position. 186. 92 of Regular Baptists, with which he was connected. The suggestion met with approval and in March, 1945, the Northwest Baptist Fellowship, later known as the International Baptist Fellowship, was organized. The new group was to meet semi-annually for conference and for inspirational fellowship. At f i r s t the venture appeared promising. Enthusiasm reached a high point in June, 1949, when a large number of American pastors were present at an International Fellowship Meeting in Mount 93 Pleasant Church, Vancouver. Soon after this, however, the organization began to lose i t s impetus and after a few years failed to function com pletely, although friendly personal relations continued to be maintained between some of the Canadian and American pastors. The reasons for the failure of the International Baptist Fellowship lay in the fact that the American group was almost solidly "dispensational" in theology and favoured a more loosely-knit type of denominational organization than their British Columbia brethren, who, in their theology, were moving away from dispensationalism. Furthermore, some of the British Columbia Regular Baptists had begun to advocate fellowship with a " r i v a l " American organ ization, the Southern Baptists. ^By C. Baptist Bulletin. January 1945. The B. C. Baptist Bulletin became the Western Regular Baptist, in January, 1949, and from that time, unti l 1956, was published jointly by the British Columbia and the Alberta Regular Baptists. In July, 1956, this arrangement was dropped, at the request of Alberta, but the Regular Baptists of British Columbia continued to issue the periodical under the new name. 9 3Western Regular Baptist. May-June 1949. Mount Pleasant Church was at that time an independent Baptist congregation. The Rev. Arnold Bennett had ceased to be pastor of the church. The fact that the Inter national Fellowship Meeting was invited to Mount Pleasant was an evidence that the church was moving back in the direction of some denominational connection. See p. 172 of this thesis. 187. The Southern Baptists had made rapid progress in the Pacific Northwest States during the post-war period and had organized the Baptist General Convention of Oregon, with the Rev. Dr. R. E. Milam as it s Executive Secretary-Treasurer. This organization was soon extended to include the State of Washington. In the spring of 1951, Dr. Milam was invited to speak at a conference of British Columbia Regular Baptist pastors which was held at the Northwest Baptist Bible College. His account of Southern Baptist success attracted wide interest. On May 15, 1951, the Regular Baptist Executive Council appointed three of the pastors to attend, as unofficial "observers", at the Southern Baptist Regional Conference in Portland during August. 9 4 Those appointed were the Rev. L. G. Baker, Convention President; the Rev. H. C. Ph i l l i p s , of Ruth Morton Memorial Church; and the Rev. Ross MacPherson, of Emmanuel Baptist Church, Vancouver. Of these, only the Rev. Ross MacPherson was able to attend, and he returned to Vancouver with a very favourable 95 report. This was the beginning of a number of contacts between the two Conventions. In June, 1952, Dr. J. D. Grey, President of the Southern Baptist Convention, and Dr. R. E. Milam were guest speakers at the annual Regular Baptist Convention in Vancouver. 9 0 As a result of their v i s i t , many Regular Baptists caught a glimpse of the electrifying p o s s i b i l i t i e s of 9 4Regular Baptist Council Minutes, May 15, 1951. 9 5Westem Regular Baptist. October 1951. 9 6 l b i d . . September 1952. 188. further fellowship with Southern Baptists. The Convention President, the Rev. L. G. Baker, had pleasant memories of past kindnesses bestowed upon 97 Canadian missionaries in Manchuria. Many of the pastors were impressed with Southern Baptist methods, which involved visitation evangelism, extensive use of literature, and a "pupil-centred" approach to Sunday School teaching. Some pastors, especially the Rev. Ross MacPherson, pressed for immediate a f f i l i a t i o n with Southern Baptists. On the other hand, there were other pastors, particularly those who were more "dis pensational" in outlook, who began vigorously to oppose any such action. Among this latter group were most of the older men who had participated in the controversies.of the 1920's. There was personal resentment against MacPherson, who was from a Pentecostal background, who had no personal knowledge of past Baptist history in British Columbia, and who was, by nature, impetuous. It was further charged that Southern Baptists contained modernistic elements, that they practised "close communion", that they were "worldly" in attitude, and that, in some tobacco-growing 98 areas of the South, they sanctioned the use of tobacco. There was some weight to a l l of these charges, but objectors tended to lose sight of the 9 7See p. 170. 98 Those opposed to Southern Baptists made use of the arguments found in Noel Smith, Should a Bible Believing Baptist Support the Co  operative Program of the Southern Baptist Convention?, Springfield, Missouri, Baptist Bible Tribune, 1952. The question of the Southern Baptist position on racial segregation does not seem to have figured in the controversy among Regular Baptists. Most British Columbians had very l i t t l e first-hand knowledge regarding the issue, and o f f i c i a l statements of Southern Baptists implied that the racial problem was gradually being solved. 189. fact that Southern Baptists were by no means monolithic. The Oregon- Washington Convention was, in general, more sectarian in outlook than 99 most Southern Baptists, and displayed strong ,,Landmarker,, tendencies. Social Credit was becoming a byword in British Columbia during the period between the indecisive provincial election of June, 1952, and the Social Credit victory of June 1953. In an action reminiscent of the days of H. C. Brewster, 1 0 0 the Rev. Ross MacPherson openly declared him self to be a Social Credit supporter. He may have been encouraged to do this by the fact that in the United States, Baptists tended to make somewhat public p o l i t i c a l commitments. A number of the other pastors followed MacPherson's lead. The majority of his fellow pastors tended to regard his action with some degree of dismay. Even those who were privately favourable to Social Credit f e l t that MacPherson was being unwise as a minister of the Gospel and that he should seek to manifest p o l i t i c a l n e u t r a l i t y . 1 ^ 1 MacPherson began to take on the image of a 9 % o t e the persistence of "Landmarker" doctrine in Oregon. See p. 72. 1 0 0See pp. 102-104. 1 0 1 I t would appear that the Social Credit Party has a good deal of support among the sects of British Columbia, but a positive correlation between theological conservatism and p o l i t i c a l conservatism cannot be con clusively demonstrated. There is a need for greater research in this area, but such research may not be f r u i t f u l . The investigator meets with a high degree of resistance and a deliberate absence of s t a t i s t i c s . Neither churches nor p o l i t i c a l parties consider such research to be in their own best interests. Churches do not wish to be identified with any p o l i t i c a l party and p o l i t i c a l parties do not wish to be identified with any particular church. The history of Canadian Baptists would seem to indicate that they are quick to rebel against p o l i t i c a l corruption and respond at the polls to a p o l i t i c a l leader who has an image of personal integrity, particularly i f such a leader is one of their own denomination. These factors make i t simple for some Baptists to cross party lines. This 190,. "young man in too big a hurry". In 1953, MacPherson precipitated a strong surge of opposition to himself by leading Emmanuel Church into a f f i l i a t i o n with the Baptist General Convention of Oregon-Washington. The name of the church was changed to Kingcrest Southern Baptist Church and the congregation retained 1 0 2 i t s membership in the Regular Baptist Convention. This so-called "dual a f f i l i a t i o n " was a cause for much criticism. Since the action was rem iniscent of the days of the B. C. Missionary C o u n c i l , 1 0 3 i t was inter preted as a move in opposition to the Regular B a p t i s t s . 1 0 4 Kingcrest Church, after the "Landmarker" fashion, began to re st r i c t i t s communion service to members of the local congregation. MacPherson defended this position on the ground that the Regular Baptist Statement of Faith specified "close communion".105 The Statement did not really specify this sort of "close communion" however, and Mac Pherson' s opponents were quick to point this out. The Pastor of Kingcrest is understandable, since a man w i l l change his vote quicker than he w i l l change his religious convictions. This principle seems to be born out in the apparent popularity among Baptists of H. C. Brewster, William Aberhart, E. C. Manning, T. C. Douglas, and John Diefenbaker. Conversely, President Truman lacked this image and was not particularly popular among those of his own denomination in the United States. 102 Regular Baptist Council Minutes, January 19, 1954. 1 03see p. 145. *-04Regular Baptist Council Minutes, February 16, 1954. 1 0 5MacPherson stated his case in a discussion on the floor of the 1954 Annual Convention. U DSee p. 159, comments of Dr. J. B. Rowell upon the Statement of Faith. 191. had, nevertheless, touched a "sore spot", for no great stress had been placed upon "close communion" for many years and some of the Regular Baptist churches were virtually "open communion" in practice. As a result of the controversy, Kingcrest Church ceased to support the Regular Baptists. Eventually, in 1955, i t withdrew from the Regular Baptist Convention, 1 0 7 and was joined by two other smaller churches in Burnaby and Whalley. The Southern Baptist issue was also the cause of a division in the First Baptist Church, Kamloops. Another Southern Baptist cause, King's Road Church in North Vancouver, was organized in 1954 around a nucleus of Regular Baptists, but never joined the Regular Con vention. For some time after the controversy there were fears among Regular Baptists and Convention Baptists that the Southern Baptists in British Columbia might become a formidable "third force". Up to the present, however, the Southern Baptist movement has failed to "catch f i r e " , and while there has been progress in Southern Baptist churches, there has been no spectacular growth. In 1956 Mr. MacPherson resigned from the Kingcrest Church and, unt i l early in 1964, was secularly employed. The Southern Baptists of Canada expected whole-hearted moral and financial support from the Southern Baptist Convention. This support has only partly materialized. Some financial aid has been given, but the Southern Baptist Convention has refused to seat "messengers" from Canada *°7Regular Baptist Council Minutes, November 15, 1955. 192. 108 at i t s Annual Convention. This refusal was a result of negotiations between the Baptist Federation of Canada and the Southern Baptist Con vention. The Federation was opposed to such recognition being given to Canadian Southern Baptist churches, and the Southern Convention did not wish to jeopardize i t s friendly relationship to the Federation within 1 rjq the Baptist World Alliance. * In 1963 the Southern Baptists in Bri t i s h Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan formed their own organization, the Canadian Southern Baptist Conference. It is not entirely clear as to what may be the future relation of the churches in this organization to Southern Baptists of the United States. The Southern Baptist movement arose as a protest against inter- denominationalism within the Regular Baptist Convention. It is s i g n i f i  cant that i t gained the support of a number of students from the de nominational school at Port Coquitlam. In essence, i t was an attempt to gain a denominational outlook by "importing" i t . The movement failed to properly assess the strength of Canadian national feeling. Even in Brit i s h Columbia i t is now evident that an American organizational con nection is more of a hinderance than a help to a Baptist group. The effect of the Southern Baptist issue upon Regular Baptists has been to reinforce their determination to maintain their denominational identity and the Regular Baptist Convention now appears to have gained a f a i r degree of solidarity. 108canadian messengers have been seated at the Oregon-Washington General Convention meetings however. 1 0 % i n u t e s and Reports of the Annual Meeting of the Council of the Baptist Federation of Canada. 1958, pp. 12-13, 25. 193.., In recent years centripetal rather than centrifugal forces have been evident among Regular Baptists. Former animosities have died away. In 1961 the Maple Ridge Baptist Church in Haney 1 1 0 rejoined the Regular Baptist Convention. In 1963 a graduate of the Northwest Baptist Theo logical College, Mr. .William Clayton, became pastor of the Metropolitan Tabernacle in Vancouver. 1 1 1 Over the years cordial links have been established between Regular Baptists and other groups of similar doc trinal position, particularly the German Baptists and the Mennonite Brethren. There are young people from both of the latter groups in the student body of the Northwest Baptist Theological College in Vancouver. The Southern Baptist controversy has caused Regular Baptists to cease any attempt to find fellowship with American churches. At present, 112 plans for a Transr-Canada Fellowship are well advanced, and even now are beginning to reflect the social and p o l i t i c a l pattern of the nation. In 1933, the dominating personality of Dr. T. T. Shields had been the chief reason for the separation of the Fellowship of Independent Baptist Churches from the ranks of Regular Baptists in Eastern Canada. When Dr. Shields le f t the Regular Baptist Union of Ontario and Quebec in 1949, the chief obstacle to re-union with the Independent Fellowship was removed. In 1953 this merger took place under the name of the Fellowship of Evangelical Baptists in Canada. 1 1 0See p. 171. Hl-See p. 163. Mr. Clayton was formerly the pastor of Parksville Regular Baptist Church, Parksville, B. C. H 2See pp. 6-7. 194. The new Fellowship made overtures to the two Regular Baptist groups 113 in Alberta and in British Columbia regarding national cooperation. The Baptists of the West responded to the plan with considerable enthusiasm. No significant theological differences existed which might preclude such a merger and there appeared to be definite practical advantages to the proposal. Home and foreign mission work would be strengthened. The larger number of churches would make the publication of Canadian periodi cals and Sunday School literature financially feasible. Furthermore, a Canada-wide organization would be a means of united witness to the nation. This did not mean that the three Baptist groups f e l t there was any theo logical imperative which demanded organizational unity. A unity of doc trine and purpose was already assumed to exist and the external organiza tion would testify to the world regarding this unity. In 1961 the Trans-Canada Fellowship of Evangelical Baptist Churches was launched in the form of a flexible cooperation between the three bodies and involved some 320 churches. A more concrete organization was to be set up later as the circumstances demanded. In the autumn of 1963 the Alberta Fellowship joined as one closely-knit convention with the Evangelical Baptists in the East.1'''4 There are no indications at present that British Columbia w i l l follow in similar course. On the contrary, in keeping with the typical separatist s p i r i t of the province, i t seems more likely that British Columbia Baptists w i l l seek to hold out for "Better H^Regular Baptist Council Minutes, December 20, 1955. H 4The Alberta churches plan to continue their provincial organiza tional structure however. 195.. Terms" and a f a i r l y high degree of autonomy within the framework of the Trans-Canada Fellowship. In recent years there have been some attempts to promote fellow ship between the Regular Baptists and the Convention Baptists. Friendly relationships do exist, and over the years there has been some inter change of members by letters of transfer between the two groups. There are some who have suggested that a liaison between the two groups is a possibility. However there would seem to be l i t t l e likelihood of such a move. Each group has developed independently upon national lines and each organization has become, for a l l intents and purposes, a distinct denomination. The difference between Baptists in the Baptist Federation of Canada and Baptists in the Trans-Canada Fellowship is based upon some thing more than the crystalization of their respective organizations and institutions. Each group expresses some of the distinctions which have been inherent in Baptists from the beginning of their history. In comparison to "Fellowship" Baptists, "Federation" Baptists resemble the General Baptists of an earlier era and have closer a f f i n i t i e s with the English Baptists of today. In general, their theology is more experiential in outlook and less Calvinistic in tone. Rejecting the idea of creedal tests, the Federation includes within i t s scope those of l i b e r a l , neo-orthodox, and evangelical persuasion. There is a definite tendency toward "open communion" and, in some cases, toward "open member ship". 1 1 5 In matters of church government, pure Congregationalism has This term describes the practice, not uncommon in England, of admitting to membership in a Baptist church those who have not been bap tized by immersion. 196... given way to a system which may be described as a form of "modified presbyterianism". It w i l l be remembered that a similar development took place among General Baptists in England. 1 1 6 In contrast, the Baptists in the Trans-Canada Fellowship are in many respects the spiritual successors of the Particular Baptists of England, the school of thought which tended to predominate in the United States. In the early years of Baptist development in Canada this view was introduced by American missionaries and immigrants. It is under standable, therefore, that Fellowship Baptists are more receptive to American than to English Baptist influences. Contrasted with that of Federation Baptists, the theology of Fellowship Baptists is more con fessional in emphasis, with evangelical creedal tests. Ideas of "open membership" are rejected and the principle of "close communion" continues to gain considerable support. The autonomy of the local church is stressed. While the contrasts described above are valid, in a general way, for the whole of Canada, i t should be noted that the western wing of each national organization differs from the eastern wing. Furthermore, from east to west, these differences seem to heighten, and are particularly evident in the province of Bri t i s h Columbia. Collectively, the Baptists of British Columbia appear to be more individualistic in mental attitude, more "sectarian" in social outlook, more American in their a f f i n i t i e s , and, in the case of Convention Baptists, more conservative in theology 'See p. 32. 197. than B a p t i s t s i n the East. This independent s p i r i t of t h e i r brethren beyond the " b a r r i e r of the Rockies" has sometimes proved to be f r u s t r a t  ing and enigmatic to B a p t i s t s of Eastern Canada, and even of the P r a i r i e s . That t h i s "separatism" of B r i t i s h Columbians has a counterpart i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the province i s demonstrated by the success of the S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y . 1 1 7 The " p e c u l i a r i t i e s " of B r i t i s h Columbia B a p t i s t s manifest them selves i n va r i o u s ways. Although part of the B a p t i s t Union of Western Canada, Convention B a p t i s t s s t i l l m a intain t h e i r own p r o v i n c i a l 118 o r g a n i z a t i o n , to which, i n p r a c t i c e , they give t h e i r b a s i c a l l e g i - 119 ance. Regular B a p t i s t s , w i t h a f o r e i g n m i s s i o n f i e l d and a t h e o l o g i c a l c o l l e g e which are d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to t h e i r Convention, have a more f u l l y - d e v e l o p e d denominational program than the r e s t of t h e i r brethren w i t h i n the Trans-Canada F e l l o w s h i p . Another m a n i f e s t a t i o n of " p e c u l i a r i t y " i s the f a c t t h a t , i n a l l of Canada, the only organized body * - 1 7 I t would seem that the present s t r e n g t h of S o c i a l C r e d i t i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s based on a number of f a c t o r s . I t began as the party of " p r o t e s t " and s t i l l continues as such i n the eyes of many people. S o c i a l C r e d i t has e v i d e n t l y been s u c c e s s f u l i n wedding together the elements of economic and s o c i a l conservatism i n the province. I t has , gained the image of the pa r t y of progress and upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , the "only p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e " to s o c i a l i s m . S o c i a l C r e d i t i s a l s o an ex p r e s s i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's p r o v i n c i a l i s m and d i s t r u s t of the Fede r a l Government. 118 One s i g n i f i c a n t reason f o r t h i s i s the "competition" of the Regular B a p t i s t s . I f Convention B a p t i s t s were to d i s s o l v e the p r o v i n c i a l u n i t of o r g a n i z a t i o n , Regular B a p t i s t s would a u t o m a t i c a l l y become the " l a r g e s t Convention" i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 1 1 9 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that they are known as "Convention B a p t i s t s " , not "Union B a p t i s t s " . 198. which holds to "Landmarker" views i s the recently-formed Canadian Southern Baptist Conference, whose membership is confined almost en ti r e l y to British Columbia and Alberta. It should also be observed that Convention and Regular Baptists in British Columbia hold more in common, in terms of doctrine and outlook, than do their respective counterparts in Eastern Canada. A l l of these traits of British Columbia Baptists are explainable in terms of the general historical development of the pro vince and the struggle of Baptists to maintain themselves as a "sect- type" of religious expression. The question arises as to whether further struggle is indicated. The present situation among Regular Baptists seems to have reached a degree of sta b i l i t y but is by no means static. Among Regular Baptists there are forces at work which tend to favour movement toward a "church- type" structure, while other forces favour the maintenance of "sectarianism". Continuing prosperity and social mobility are altering the complexion of the Regular Baptist churches. The churches are gain ing some members from the "upper-middle" class. Professional men are 120 more in evidence. There are manifestations of "second-generation" 121 Christianity and, chiefly because of this, Regular Baptists have lost members to other sects. i Z uAn interesting i l l u s t r a t i o n of this is to be found in the fact that the only two doctors in the South Delta area of the Lower Mainland are active members in the congregation of South Delta Regular Baptist Church, and the only two doctors at Enderby, B. C. are prominent leaders in the local Regular Baptist Church. 12-'-See p. 11, cited comments of S. D. Clark. 19?. The forces do not work in one direction only, however, and Regular Baptist losses to other sects tend to be offset by membership gains, through evangelism, from among the socially uprooted. At the other end of the social spectrum, membership gains are, to some degree, offset by losses to the secular world or to churches of libe r a l persuasion. It should be remembered that a Baptist church is not a '•closed1* organiza tion basically confined to i t s membership and their descendents. Rejec tion of infant baptism, along with stress upon evangelism, "primary religious experience", 1 2 2 and adult commitment, have made Baptists much more socially "open" than any of the other major denominations. An apparent failure to realize this is the basic fallacy of a l l sociological approaches which contend that theology is economically determined. The observations of S. D. Clark, for example, display this weakness. Not a l l the "second generation" are brought into the membership of Baptist churches and many members are gained from "outside" the church families. In such a situation the theology of the sect becomes the rallying-point around which the structure group is organized and the doctrinal con victions of the sect's leadership become a key to the future structure of the organization. 1 2 3 Those holding views which are fundamentally divergent from the leadership tend to drop out of the group, regardless of their social and economic class. 1 2 2See p. 22, footnote 34, for comments of Walter H. Clark re garding "primary religious experience". 1 2 3Note the observations which were made regarding the role of leadership, pp. 19-21, 30. 200,. For Regular Baptists, the very principles of Christianity are at stake in the "sect" versus "social accommodation" issue. Regular Baptists can envisage no rapprochement between Christianity and our Post-Christian society. Nor do they regard the present ecumenical movement to be the answer to Christianity's lack of influence upon the present age. Baptists in the Trans-Canada Fellowship have taken a strong stand against current ecumenism, which they regard as a d r i f t toward Roman Catholicism.*- 2 4 In contrast, many leaders among Convention Baptists, particularly in Eastern Canada, have become strong supporters of the ecumenical move- 125 ment. J This has resulted in a definite cleavage of opinion between Baptists within the Baptist Federation. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the Rev. Dr. J. Gordon Jones, a prominent Convention Baptist and former pastor of Firs t Baptist Church, Vancouver, was the Protestant speaker at a mass r a l l y of Roman Catholics and Pro- testants held in Vancouver on January 26, 1964. The announcement of Dr. Jones' participation in this r a l l y brought the public opposition of 1 2 4The Trans-Canada Fellowship of Evangelical Baptists is asso ciated with other Baptists of like persuasion in the newly-organized Fundamental Baptist Congress of North America. The f i r s t sessions of the Congress were held in the large Temple Baptist Church, Detroit, from September 30 to October 3, 1963, with over 5,000 present, including over 2,000 pastors from the major fundamentalist Baptist groups in North America. Dr. J. H. Pickford, Dean of the Northwest Baptist Theological College, Vancouver, was one of the principal speakers. The Congress declared i t s e l f to be "unalterably opposed to the present ecumenical movement". The B i b l i c a l Faith of Baptists. Detroit, Fundamental Baptist Congress of North America, 1964, p. 8. 1 2 sCanadian Baptist. March 1, 1964, p. 9. 1 2 6Province. January 27, 1964. 201. another Convention Baptist, the Rev. David Forbes of Reidville Baptist Church, North Surrey, who stated that "any Baptist taking part in the ecumenical movement can only represent himself, but not the churches of 127 the convention". Mr. Forbes also wrote an ar t i c l e in the Canadian 128 Baptist which delineated his position. At present, division within the ranks of Convention Baptists is becoming quite evident, with the sectarian and theologically conservative forces within the Federation arraying themselves against the supporters of the ecumenical movement. The issue has yet to be resolved. It is impossible to escape the conclusion that, in general, Baptists in British Columbia are moving in the direction of the "middle class". The situation seems to indicate an upward social mobility rather than a broadening of the social appeal of Baptists. Post-war prosperity has had a definite impact on the churches and many attractive church buildings have been erected since the Second World War. In theology there has been a noticeable shift in eschatology, that realm of doctrine which is most susceptible to modification on the basis of change in social out look. Dispensationalism appears to be definitely on the wane in Baptist circles and millennial expectations tend to be regarded as matters for academic discussion rather than "truths that grip the soul". Nor is there any sign of a c h i l i a s t i c upsurge, a reactionary movement which would in i t i a t e an additional group of Baptists in the province. The Pentecostal 127 Vancouver Sun. January 18, 1964. 128 Canadian Baptist. March 1, 1964, pp. 8-9. 2 0 2 . churches and other smaller sects have occupied s o c i a l areas vacated by B a p t i s t s . It i s p o s s i b l e that the present tendencies among Baptists may be arrested. The economic opportunities of f r o n t i e r B r i t i s h Columbia were of such a nature that a premium was placed upon p h y s i c a l strength and endur ance. At the p h y s i c a l l e v e l the c a p a b i l i t i e s of most men are, at least to some extent, r e l a t i v e l y equal. The demands of modern technology are p l a c i n g a high premium on academic and technical performance. In future, upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y may be p o s s i b l e only for those who have i n t e l l e c t u a l compe tence and educational opportunity. Thus the s o c i a l structure of Canada may become more and more s t r a t i f i e d . A s t r a t i f i e d s o c i a l structure could lead to greater s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n the r e l i g i o u s l i f e of B r i t i s h Columbia and the nation. It may be, as S. D. Clark suggests, "that the r e l i g i o u s sect of 129 today may be the r e l i g i o u s sect of tomorrow", and that sectarian Bap t i s t s may maintain a place i n Canadian society s i m i l a r to that which they have at present. For those who accept the idea of the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of a r e l i g i o u s "caste" system, such a s i t u a t i o n i s to be expected. For those who i n s i s t that the essence of the Gospel of Christ c a l l s f o r some wider con cept, the present lessening of the B a p t i s t s ' h i s t o r i c contact with the lower economic groups i s a source of concern, and the future p o s s i b i l i t y that the Baptist f a i t h may become, predominantly, a "middle-class r e l i g i o n " i s a d i s q u i e t i n g prospect. 1 2 9 S . D. Clark, "Religious Organization and the Rise of the Canadian Nation, 1850-85", Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Annual Report. 1944, p. 96. APPENDICES APPENDIX A DISTRIBUTION OF DENOMINATIONS BY CLASS Statistics for the United States, given in percentages. Upper Middle Lower National sample 13.1 30.7 56.2 A l l Protestant groups 13.8 32.6 53.6 Episcopal 24.1 33.7 42.2 Congregational 23.9 42.6 33.5 Presbyterian 21.9 40.0 38.1 Reformed 19.1 31.3 49.6 Methodist 12.7 35.6 51.7 Lutheran 10.9 36.1 53.0 Christian (Disciples) 10.0 35.4 54.6 Roman Catholic 8.7 24.7 66.6 Baptist 8.0 24.0 68.0 Smaller bodies 10.0 27.3 62.7 Undesignated 12.4 24.1 63.5 1-Statistics from a survey conducted for the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America [now the National Council] in 1948 and cited in Hugh T. Kerr, What Divides Protestants Today, New York, Association Press, 1958, pp. 46-47. APPENDIX B ' REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF THE BAPTIST CONVENTION OF ONTARIO AND QUEBEC ON CHURCH UNION2 On behalf of the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec we desire to express to the united Committees of the Presbyterian, Methodist and Congregational bodies our deep appreciation of the Christian courtesy in inviting us to conference with a special Com mittee on the question of the union of Protestant Christian bodies in Canada. We also desire to congratulate them on the substantial progress which appears to have been made toward such a union by the three bodies which have hitherto been engaged in these negotiations. In regard to our relation to this movement permit us to present the following state ment as expressive of the position which we feel compelled to take:- The Baptist people rejoice in a l l the manifestations of mutual love among the followers of Jesus Christ and seek on their own part to cultivate a holy fellowship with a l l Christians. They recognize with thankfulness the gracious operation of the Spirit of God among their brethren of other denominations and feel themselves to be one with them in many of those things which concern the progress of the Kingdom of God on earth. At the same time they do not admit that the organic union of a l l Christians is an essential condition of Christian unity or even necessarily promotive of i t . For Christians who differ on ques tions which some of them hold to be of v i t a l importance i t is surely better to admit the impracticability of corporate union than to seek to compass such a Union at the cost of sacrificing cherished convictions. In their organization of independent local churches and in their associational gatherings and conventions Baptists have not infrequently made use of brief statements of doctrines which they hold to be Christ ian, as a basis of mutual co-operation, but do not seek to establish a uniform confession for a l l their churches, nor do they regard assent to any fixed confessional statement as a pre-requisite to membership in a Baptist church or to a place in the Baptist ministry. They feel that the free and independent interpretation of the Scriptures by each man for himself, combined with the s p i r i t of love and obedience, is not only promotive of earnest reflection on divine things and strength of personal conviction, but is a surer and more enduring way of securing unity among Christians. They oppose any tendency to erect a human zAs quoted, in i t s entirety, in Claris E. Silcox, Church Union  in Canada, New York, Institute of Social and Religious Research, 1933, pp. 471-472. 206. standard of authority over the conscience, to lessen the sense of direct personal responsibility to God, or to obscure the consciousness of immediate relationships with Him. Accordingly, while they enter tain a deep respect for various historic Christian creeds they are not solicitous to identify themselves with these creeds or to claim any organic relation with the churches that established them as standards of belief. The Baptist people regard a l l truly religious a f f i l i a t i o n s as reposing, on the one hand, on God's gracious self-communication to human souls, and on the other hand, on each man's free acceptance to the Divine grace and obedience to the Divine Will. As we understand the Scriptures, only those who are the subjects of such a spiritual experience are capable of participation in Christian fellowship or entitled to membership in a Christian church. Believing, therefore, in the s p i r i t u a l i t y of the Christian church, that i s , that a Christian church is constituted by voluntary union of those alone who by personal repentance and faith,—not by natural birth, nor by proxy, nor by ceremony, nor by any overt act of the Church,--have come into fellow ship with God in Christ, they do not regard the claim to ecclesiastical succession in any of i t s forms as a matter of concern to them. They acknowledge an historical succession from Christ and his apostles; but i t s nature is spiritual, not ecclesiastical; coming through personal influence and the proclamation of the Gospel, not by means of forms, rit e s , or ceremonies. The same principle prevents them from admitting knowingly to Church membership any except those who have been spi r i t u a l l y renewed. Thus they cannot regard the children of Christian parents as entitled by birth or membership in a Christian household to a place in a Christ ian church or as proper subjects of i t s ordinances. It cannot be granted that the Christian ordinances of Baptism or the Lord's Supper convey in any sense to their recipients the spiritual grace which they symbolize, for they have meaning and value, only as they express the faith and grace already possessed by those who in these acts of obedience confess their relation to Christ. Hence the practice of i n  fant baptism and the consequences which follow i t are a fatal impedi ment to organic union between the Baptists and Paedo-Baptist churches. Hence also the impossibility of Baptists consenting to an alteration of the original mode of baptism, because without the immersion i t s representation of the believer's union with Christ in His death and resurrection is lost. Further, the doctrine of the sp i r i t u a l i t y of the Christian church demands that i t avoid a l l alliance with secular authorities. Such alliances have been f r u i t f u l of e v i l . The Baptist belief in the immediacy of each man's relations with God and in the necessity of personal faith in Christ in order to sal vation carries with i t the rejection of a l l forms of church polity, which admit the spiritual distinction of clergy and l a i t y or the 207, subjection of the individual Christian to any spiritual authority but Christ himself. This does not exclude the necessary disciplinary function of the local church, but in reality, carries with i t the dignity and autonomy of that organization and i t s freedom from a l l sub jection to a higher authority. It is because of these principles which represent to them the Divine Will that the Baptists find i t necessary to maintain a separate organized existence. In relation to these matters, they can feel them selves under a Divinely imposed obligation to propagate their views throughout the world. APPENDIX C COMPARATIVE STATISTICS FOR THE MAJOR DENOMINATIONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: Year Total Population Baptist Anglican Lutheran Mennonite Pentecostal Presbyterian Roman Catholic United Church 1961 1,629,082 49,481 367,096 100,393 19,932 19,998 90,093 285,184 504,317 1951 1,165,210 39,445 315,469 60,641 15,387 11,781 97,151 168,016 341,914 1941 817,861 29,860 246,191 41,884 5,119 5,249 94,554 109,929 201,357 1931 694,263 23,577 206,867 36,938 1,095 2,298 84,941 88,106 166,233 1921 524,582 20,225 161,494 17,709 173 247 123,419 64,180 Methodist 65,019 1911 392,480 17,325 101,582 19,483 191 2 82,735 58,760 52,463 1901 178,657 6,586 41,457 5,395 11 - 34,478 34,020 25,329 1891 98,173 3,167 24,196 2,129 - - 15,655 21,350 14,646 1881 49,459 575 10,913 632 - - 5,752 14,141 4,938 S t a t i s t i c s for 1881-1951 from Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Census of Canada. 1951. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1953, vol. 10, Table 36. Figures for 1961 are found in Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Census of Canada. 1961. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1962, vol. 1, part 2, Table 44. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY A. PRIMARY SOURCES MINUTES Minutes and Reports of the Annual Meeting of the Council of the Baptist Federation of Canada. Toronto, Baptist Federation of Canada, 1958. Minutes of the Baptist Missionary and Educational Society. Salem, Oregon, A. L. Stinson, 1878. Printed copy in the Provincial Archives, Victoria. Minutes of the B. C. Missionary Council. July 17, 1925 to July 1, 1927. Minutes of the Board of Trustees of the Convention of Baptist Churches of British Columbia. June 30, 1927 to October 21, 1952. Minutes of the Council of the Baptist Federation of Canada. 1951. Minutes of Executive Committee of the Mission Board, Baptist Convention of British Columbia. July 11, 1899 to June 28, 1928. Minutes of the Executive Council of the Regular Baptist Churches of Bri  tish Columbia. August 11, 1927 to May 19, 1959. Minutes of the Regular Baptist Ministerial Association. January 14, 1935 to January 12, 1942. Minutes of the Sixth Annual Convention of Regular Baptist Churches of British Columbia. 1933. LETTERS Baker, L. G. Letter to Regular Baptist Executive Council, January 12, 1931. Baker, L. G. Letter to Regular Baptist Executive Council, February 5, 1932. Holms, Hilda M. Questionnaire returned to North West Kiangsi Mission. In f i l e s of North West Kiangsi Mission, Regular Baptist Historical Collection, Vancouver. Holms, Victoria A. Questionnaire returned to North West Kiangsi Mission. In f i l e s of North West Kiangsi Mission, Regular Baptist Historical Collection, Vancouver. 211. MacNeill, Harris L. Letter to J. B. Richards, March 26, 1963. INTERVIEWS Interview with Dr. J. B. Rowell, pastor emeritus of Central Baptist Church, Victoria, August 17, 1957. Interview with Dr. Theodore Lennie, son of the Rev. Robert Lennie, Vancouver, July 17, 1961. Interviews with Mr. G. R. S. Blackaby, retired bank manager, Vancouver, June 29, 1961 and July 29, 1961. Interview with Mr. William H. Roberts, North Saanich pioneer, Sidney, B. C , June 19, 1961. Telephone interview with the Rev. Andrew Grieve, retired Baptist pastor, Maillardville, B. C , August 3, 1962. Telephone interview with the Rev. Leslie Tarr, pastor of East Kildonan Baptist Church, Winnipeg, September 4, 1962. DENOMINATIONAL REPORTS Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec. Baptist Year Book - 1882. Baptist Union of Western Canada. Year Book - 1908 to Year Book - 1959. Issued annually, with no date of publication given. When f i r s t issued i t was entitled, Baptist Convention of Western Canada, Year Book - 1907. British Columbia Baptist Convention. Convention Report. 1897 to 1927. Issued annually, with considerable variation in the t i t l e . Report of the Brandon College Commission. 1923. Thi r t y - f i f t h Annual Convention. Vancouver, Convention of Regular Bap ti s t s , 1962. Reports prepared for use in the 1962 Convention at Vancouver. Thirty-fourth Annual Convention. [.Vancouver], Convention of Regular Baptists, 1961. Reports prepared in Vancouver, for use in the 1961 Convention at Victoria. BAPTIST PERIODICALS Baptist Herald. June 1922 to April 1923. 212, B. C. Baptist. November 1925 to October 1948. Firs t issued under the t i t l e B ritish Columbia Baptist. then called the B. C. Baptist, and s t i l l lat er, entitled B. C. Baptist Bulletin. Canadian Baptist. July 14, 1932 and March 1, 1964. Gospel Witness. January 31, 1924 to October 20, 1927. Western Baptist. August 1903 to September 1927. Western Outlook. January 16, 1911 to March 1, 1915. Western Regular Baptist. January 1949 to March 1964. PAMPHLETS AND BOOKLETS B. C. Baptist Missionary Council. [~1925J. A four-page folder of infor mation published and circulated by the Council. Bennett, W. Arnold. Facts Concerning Brandon College. Vancouver, 1922. Bentall, Charles and Wallace, J. J. Information for Br i t i s h Columbia  Baptists. [Vancouver, 1925]. Dawe, G. R. Christ Returning—When?. Calgary, 1938. Fundamentals; A Testimony to the Truth. Chicago, Testimony Publishing Co., [no date], vol. 3-11. Hall, Morley, R. The Blessed Hope versus A Sentimental Hope. [Calgary, no date]. McLeod, F. S. Western Baptists and Foreign Missions. [No date]. Smith, Noel. Should a Bible Believing Baptist Support the Co-operative Program of the Southern Baptist Convention?. Springfield, Missouri, Baptist Bible Tribune, 1952. Statement of Facts Relative to J. J. Ross. D. D. [_No date]. Published sometime after A p r i l , 1926. Walter Barss. Memorial. [1891]. In the private library of his son, Dr. Alden F. Barss, Vancouver, B. C. MISCELLANEOUS UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL Auvache, F. W. Secretary's notes taken at Annual Convention. 1903 to 1917. Rough notes, in the Regular Baptist Historical Collection, Vancouver. 213, Certificate of Incorporation, the Convention of Regular Baptists of British Columbia. July 6, 1927. Photostat in the author's possession. "Christ Church Cathedral Parish Register, Baptisms". October 24, 1860, and November 16, 1862. Transcript in the Provincial Archives, Victoria. Cridge, Edward. "Diary". May 6, 1858. Original manuscript in the Provincial Archives, Victoria. [Marchant, William], "Beacon Lights in Baptist History of British Columbia", [victoria, 1926]. Unpublished essay in the Provincial Archives, Victoria. A brief account, generally accurate in details, by a prominent British Columbia Baptist. The author writes in an interesting manner, but tends to adulate Baptists. "Mr. John Sluggett". [No date]. Unpublished manuscript in the Pro vincial Archives, Victoria. Ph i l l i p s , H. C. "Diary". December 4, 1939. Personal diary of the Rev. H. C. Ph i l l i p s , Vancouver. Robson, Ebenezer. "Diary". May 24, 1860 to February 21, 1861. Origi nal manuscript in Provincial Archives, Victoria. "Saanich Baptist Church". [No date]. Unpublished manuscript in the Provincial Archives, Victoria. NEWSPAPERS Brandon Daily Sun. February 2, 1960. Vancouver Province. September 15, 1916 to January 27, 1964. Formerly known as the Vancouver Daily Province. Vancouver Sun. December 22, 1923 and January 18, 1964. Vernon News. July 25, 1907. Victoria Colonist. January 11, 1861 to January 21, 1928. Known as the British Colonist in the early years of i t s publication. Victoria Gazette. August 24, 1858 and October 22, 1859. Victoria Times. March 24, 1902 to May 12, 1931. B. SECONDARY SOURCES ACADEMIC THESES AND ESSAYS E l l i s , Walter E. "Some Aspects of Religion in Br i t i s h Columbia Po l i t i c s Unpublished M.A. thesis in the library of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1959. Kennedy, Mervyn E. "The History of Presbyterianism in British Columbia" Unpublished M.A. thesis in the library of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1938. Pilton, James W. "Early Negro Settlement in Victoria". Unpublished graduating essay in the library of the University of Br i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1949. "Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858-1871". Unpublished M.A. thesis in the library of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1951. Poucett, Gordon H. "The History of the Regular Baptists of British Columbia". Unpublished B.D. thesis in the library of McMaster University, Hamilton, 1956. ARTICLES IN JOURNALS AND REPORTS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES Careless, J. M. S. "Frontierism, Metropolitanism, and Canadian History" Canadian Historical Review, March 1954, pp. 1-21. Clark, S. D. "Religious Organization and the Rise of the Canadian Nation, 1850-85". Canadian Historical Association Annual Report. 1944, pp. 86-97. Ireland, Willard E. "British Columbia's American Heritage". Canadian  Historical Association Annual Report. 1948, pp. 67-73. Lindsay, J. A. "A Layman's View of Modernism". Canadian Journal of  Religious Thought. November - December, 1926, pp. 444-450. Ormsby, Margaret A. "Canada and the New British Columbia". Canadian  Historical Association Annual Report, 1948, pp. 74-85. Plumptre, H. P. "Spiritual Healing". Canadian Journal of Religious  Thought, January - February, 1925, pp. 6-12. Stanley, George F. G. "Western Canada and the Frontier Thesis". Canadian Historical Association Annual Report, 1940, pp. 105-117. 215. Zaslow, Morris. "The Frontier Hypothesis in Recent Historiography". Canadian Historical Review, June 1948, pp. 153-166. BOOKS: GENERAL HISTORY AND CHURCH HISTORY Brown, A. G. (editor). British Columbia. Its History, People, Commerce.  Industries and Resources. London, Sells Ltd., 1912. Helpful for background information. Reflects the buoyant economic optimism of the period before the Fir s t World War. Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan Publishing House, 1954. A Church History written from the viewpoint of a theological conservative. Croil, James. Genesis of Churches. Montreal, Foster Brown, 1907. A useful reference for information on early church buildings in Canada. Howay, F. W. and Scholefield, E. 0. S. Br i t i s h Columbia from the Earliest Times to the Present. Vancouver, S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1914, vol. 2. Contains a brief general account of early religious developments in British Columbia. Latourette, Kenneth Scott. A History of Christianity. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1953. The author is a well known historian, a Baptist by denomination. ________ A History of the Expansion of Christianity. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1943, vol. 5. In the second chapter of this volume of his monumental work, Latourette deals with Canada during the period 1800-1914 and makes a penetrating analysis of the contrasts between Canadian and American Christianity. MacFie, Matthew. Vancouver Island and British Columbia. London, Long man, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green, 1965. Mayne, R. C. Four Years in British Columbia and Vancouver Island. London, John Murray, 1862. Ormsby, Margaret A. British Columbia: a History. Toronto, Macmillan, 1958. Peake, Frank A. The Anglican Church in British Columbia. Vancouver, Mitchell Press, 1959. 216. Sissons, C. B. A History of Victoria University. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1952. A history of the Methodist (now United Church) University in Toronto. Walsh, H. H. The Christian Church in Canada. Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1956. The author has set himself to the prodigious task of fusing the religious history of Canada into an integrated whole. His con tribution is noteworthy. Unfortunately, the sections on sectarian Baptists contain numerous inaccuracies of fact, possibly because adequate source material was not available to the author. Witmer, S. A. The Bible College Story: Education with Dimension. Manhasset, N.Y., Channel Press, 1962. Gives an account of the Bible College movement in North America, with exhaustive l i s t s of schools, along with s t a t i s t i c s . BOOKS: HISTORY AND THEOLOGY OF BAPTISTS Baker, J. C. Baptist History of the North Pacific Coast. Philadelphia, American Baptist Publication Society, 1912. A well-documented work written by a pioneer Baptist leader. Contains source material not available elsewhere. B i b l i c a l Faith of Baptists. Detroit, Fundamental Baptist Congress of North America, 1964. Gives the f u l l text of a l l sermons delivered at the Fundamental Baptist Congress in Detroit, September 30 to October 3, 1963. Carson, Alexander. Baptism in it s Mode and Subjects. London, Houlston and Stoneman, 1844. In this volume the author, a Scottish Baptist leader, sets forth his views. Christian, John T. A History of the Baptists. Nashville, Tennessee, Broadman Press, 1922, 2 vols. Contains ideas of "Baptist Succession", the view that groups holding essentially Baptist principles have existed from Apostolic times. Such conclusions are, to say the least, debatable. Fitch, E. R. The Baptists of Canada. Toronto, Standard Publishing Co., 1911. The brief section on Western Canada strikes a note of optimism such as was typical of the period before depression, war and controversy. Hiscox, E. T. The New Directory For Baptist Churches. Philadelphia, Judson Press, 1894. A time-honoured manual, s t i l l in use. 217. Ivison, Stuart and Rosser, Fred. The Baptists in Upper and Lower Canada  before 1820. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1956. The f i r s t chapter gives a summary of Baptist history in England and America. McLaurin, C. C. Pioneering in Western Canada. Calgary, C. C. McLaurin, 1939. The author, a pioneer missionary on the Prairies, had a f i r s t  hand knowledge of many of the events he recorded. Regrettable, the work is marrec by numerous typographical errors. Robinson, H. Wheeler. The Life and Faith of the Baptists. London, Kingsgate Press, 1946. An excellent reference work, giving British Baptist viewpoints. Torbet, Robert G. A History of the Baptists. Philadelphia, Judson Press, 1952. One of the best of the more recent works on Baptist history. Foreword written by Kenneth Scott Latourette. Trinier, Harold U. A Century of Service. Board of Publication of The Baptist Convention of Ontario & Quebec, 1955. The story of the publication of the Canadian Baptist from 1854- 1954. The author comments upon the actions of Dr. T. T. Shields and the role of the Canadian Baptist during the fundamentalist- modernist controversy, pp. 98-102. Underwood, A. C. A History of the English Baptists. London, Carey Kingsgate Press, 1947. The f i r s t chapter discusses "church" and "sect" in the English context. Vedder, Henry C. A Short History Of The Baptists. London, Baptist Tract and Book Society, 1898. A Baptist "classic". BOOKS: RELIGIOUS AND SOCIOLOGICAL SUBJECTS Bible, King James Version. Clark, Elmer T. The Small Sects in America. New York, Abingdon Press, 1949. A valuable source for information concerning small religious groups in the United States. Economic factors are given as the chief explanation for the rise of sects. Clark, S. D. Church and Sect in Canada. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1949. In spite of i t s t i t l e , the book is chiefly concerned with 218.. religious developments in Eastern Canada, particularly stressing the Maritimes. The volume contains much valuable and detailed information, but the reader is apt to feel that he is faced with a mass of only partly-digested material. The author's line of argument is not always clear, and some of his conclusions are highly debatable. Emphasis is placed upon economic factors in religious development. Clark, Walter H. The Psychology of Religion. New York, Macmillan, 1958. The author presents more moderate views than those of William James, and makes an analysis of the religious l i f e of local con gregations . Cremer, Hermann. Biblio-Theological Lexion of New Testament Greek. (William Urwick trans.). Edinburgh, T & T Clark, 1954. Dana, H. E. A Manual of Ecclesiology. Kansas City, Kansas, Central Seminary Press, 1944. Furniss, Norman F. The Fundamentalist Controversy, 1918-1931. Hamden, Connecticut, Archon Books, 1963, (copyright 1954, Yale University Press). Contains much valuable information. The author, however, displays an unsympathetic attitude toward fundamentalism and tends to present a stereotyped picture of "fundamentalists". Most Baptist con servatives would not appreciate being placed in the same category as George McCready Price, a Seventh-Day Adventist, see pp. 16, 18, 27, 44. Hordern, William. A Layman's Guide to Protestant Theology. New York, Macmillan, 1955. A balanced and constructive presentation of the various schools of theology among Protestants, including a perceptive account of modernism and fundamentalism. Horton, Walter M. A Psychological Approach to Theology. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1931. The author, a Baptist, is a radical religious l i b e r a l . James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experience. New York, Modern Library, 1902. One of the earliest works on the psychology of religion. James regards religious experience as basically an individual rather than a social phenomenon. Kerr, Hugh T. What Divides Protestants Today. New York, Association Press, 1958. A thoughtful study of the complexities of modern denominationalism. Macartney, Clarence E. The Making of a Minister. Great Neck, N.Y., Channel Press, 1961. 2 1 9 . . An autobiography of one of the prominent leaders of fundamentalism among Presbyterians. Mann, W. E. Sect. Cult, and Church in Alberta. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1 9 5 5 . The author follows the economic thesis of S. D. Clark quite closely. The work is well-organized, well-documented, and makes interesting reading. Mead, Frank S. Handbook of Denominations. New York, Abingdon Press, 1 9 6 1 . An excellent reference text, giving a concise account of most of the religious groups in the United States, with stati s t i c s of membership. Niebuhr, H. Richard. Christ and Culture. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1 9 5 1 . A discussion of the relationship of the Christian to his society. . The Social Sources of Denominationalism. New York, Henry Holt, 1 9 2 9 . The writer attributes the rise of denominationalism to the failure of the Christian Church to transcend the economic and social barriers within American society. Silcox, Claris E. Church Union in Canada. New York, Institute of Social and Religious Research, 1 9 3 3 . An important contribution to research in Canadian church history. Since the author regards church union as a norm, his interpretations are related to this viewpoint. Stonehouse, Ned B. J. Gresham Machen. Grand Rapids, Wm. E. Eerdmans, 1 9 5 4 . A biography of Dr. J. G. Machen, professor at Princeton, and later, at Westminster Seminary. A quite lengthy account, well documented, describing Machen's part in the fundamentalist-modernist controversy. BOOKLETS ON HISTORICAL SUBJECTS Carmichael, W. M. These Sixty Years 1 8 8 7 - 1 9 4 7 . Vancouver, 1 9 4 7 . A history of First Baptist Church, Vancouver. Glover, G. H. History of the United Church of Canada. North and South  Saanich Areas. [ 1 9 5 2 J . Ivison, Stuart. "Baptist Beginnings'in Canada". Our Baptist Fellowship. Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec, 1 9 3 9 , pp. 1 - 1 5 . 220. Sangster, J. Lewis. Seventy-five Years of Service, A History of Olivet  Baptist Church 1878-1953. New Westminster, Olivet Board of Manage ment, 1953. Virgin, Victor E. History of North and South Saanich Pioneers and  Di s t r i c t . Victoria, Saanich Pioneer Society, [no date]. PERIODICALS, ANNUAL REPORTS AND GUIDES, GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS British Columbian and Victoria Guide and Directory. Victoria, Frederick P. Howard and George Barnett, 1863. Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Census of Canada, 1951. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1953, vol. 10. Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Census of Canada, 1961. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1962, vol. 1, part 2. Eternity. February 1964. An interdenominational monthly magazine, evangelical in theological approach, inclined toward Presbyterianism. Guide to Province of British Columbia for 1877-8. Victoria, T. N. Nibben, 1877. Hopkins, J. Castell. Canadian Annual Review of Public Affairs, 1915. Toronto, Annual Review Publishing Co., 1916. ENCYCLOPAEDIA ARTICLES Brown, William Adams. "Fundamentalism and Modernism". Encyclopaedia  Britannica. 1951, vol. 9, pp. 921-922. Major, Henry D. A. "Modernism". Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1951, vol. 15, pp. 637-638. Marshall, • Newton H. "Baptists". Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1951, vol. 3, pp. 87-88. 


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