UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Five main novels of Nikiforov : a critical discussion Rosval, Sergei James 1964

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1964_A8 R6.pdf [ 7.79MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105480.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105480-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105480-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105480-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105480-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105480-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105480-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105480-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105480.ris

Full Text

FIVE MAIN NOVELS OF NIKIFOROV A CRITICAL DISCUSSION  by  S e r g e i James R o s v a l , J r . B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In t h e Department o f Slavonic  Studies.  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1964  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of • B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study, mission f o r extensive  I f u r t h e r agree that per-  c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y '  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  I t i s understood that, c o p y i n g or p u b l i -  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department of  Slavonic Studies.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date  S Z ^ ^ s  /?6<f.  Abstract The p u r p o s e of main n o v e l s (1927),  t h i s paper i s to d i s c u s s  of G e o r g i i N i k i f o r o v , "Beside the  "The Woman",  (1929),  "Into the Wind",  (1933), "The M a s t e r c r a f t s m e n " , separately ation,  and c o m p a r a t i v e l y ,  (1936).  throughout  opment o f  v a r i o u s contemporary Nikiforov's  Party is  attacks  counterbalanced  presenting  (1920-1935)  Soviet  old  of  devel-  Bureaucrats.  upon t h e r o l e of t h e  Communist in  Soviet  the  an e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e  o v e r a l l o u t l i n e of t h e p a p e r .  time d e s c r i b i n g N i k i f o r o v ' s personal l i f e  life  as'  i n formulating N i k i f o r o v ' s realism through i n t h e new  Chapter I , corrupt Soviet  and e a r l y 1 9 3 0 s . to launch a d i r e c t  same  internal the  case  complete  state.  "Beside the Street bureaucracy  that  Lamp",  describes  existed d u r i n g the  Through the b u r e a u c r a t s attack  Abstract  At the  and t h e  t h a t were b e n e f i c i a l o r a h i n d r a n c e ,  disillusionment  the  of the  time.  and p r e s e n t s  may b e ,  situ-  element  by h i s p e r s o n a l o b j e c t i v i t y  The I n t r o d u c t i o n i s  influences  discussed  psychological  a v i v i d unfalsified representation  during t h i s  be  "Unity",  character,  The u n i f y i n g  compared w i t h the  Lamp",  (1930),  N i k i f o r o v ' s works i s h i s development  p r o f e s s i o n a l worker as  five  Street  They w i l l  p o i n t i n g out  and p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s .  the  upon the P a r t y .  Nikiforov is He a l s o  1920s able  presents  a  new  t y p e of i n d i v i d u a l .  I n t h e m i d s t o f the b u i l d i n g a.new  s o c i a l i s t s t a t e during the e a r l y N . E . P .  p e r i o d , the appearance  of Ramzaev, a former member of the n o b l e m a n - i n t e l l i g e n t s i a c l a s s i s q u i t e s t a r t l i n g to any S o v i e t r e a d e r .  But Ramzaev's  moral r e g e n e r a t i o n i n t o a " f i r s t r a t e Communist" i s c o n s t r a s t e d w i t h the degeneration  of a P a r t y  Chapter I I , "The  bureaucrat.  Woman", p r e s e n t s the r o l e of the  women i n the S o v i e t system d u r i n g the l a s t stages of N.E.P. and i n t o the F i r s t F i v e Year P l a n .  Nikiforov s "professional T  l a b o u r e r t y p e " has now  s l o w l y begun e v o l v i n g and reaches i t s  climax i n t h i s novel.  The  p o s i t i o n of Trade Unions and  the  P a r t y f o r m a sub-theme. I n Chapter I I I , " I n t o the Wind", N i k i f o r o v d i s c u s s e s the t r u t h concerning For t h i s he was  c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n and the k u l a k  t a k e n to t a s k by the P a r t y .  question.  He p o r t r a y e d  the  peasant q u e s t i o n w i t h an a l a r m i n g amount of t r u t h and d i d not devote i t t o t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l phase of t h e F i r s t F i v e Year P l a n as d i d Sholokhov " ( V i r g i n S o i l U p t u r n e d ) " , Leonov, and the o t h e r s . concerning  He a l s o p r e s e n t e d  the " c i t y - v i l l a g e "  question  i t s e l f i n d i r e c t l y w i t h c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n and i n -  dustrialization.  N i k i f o r o v d e v e l o p e d t h i s n o v e l f r e q u e n t l y by  mere h i n t s , c o n s e q u e n t l y  the l i t e r a r y v a l u e of i t s u f f e r e d .  I n c o n t r a s b t o " I n t o the Wind", N i k i f o r o v w r o t e " U n i t y " , a h a s t i l y p o o r l y w r i t t e n F i v e Year P l a n type  novel  d e p i c t i n g • i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n t h r o u g h the attempted a d a p t a t i o n  of  t h e a u t h o r i n t o t h i s sphere of t h e " p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n " of the c o u n t r y . But N i k i f o r o v f a i l e d because of complete l a c k of c h a r a c t e r a n a l y s e s and the absence of a d e f i n i t e p l o t .  The  theme of complete s u b o r d i n a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l t o I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was  the main element t h r o u g h o u t .  Chapter IV, "The  Mastercraftsmen",  indirectly  deals  w i t h the q u e s t i o n of S o v i e t r e a l i t y and C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l i s m . N i k i f o r o v develops h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s a g a i n s t the background of the Japanese War One  of the most s i g n i f i c a n t  and t h e 190$  Revolution.  elements i n N i k i f o r o v ' s w r i t i n g s  i s h i s complete and f i n a l development of t h e i d e a l man, p h i l o s o p h e r on one the o t h e r .  hand, and the p r o f e s s i o n a l l a b o u r e r  This i d e o l o g i c a l representation i s f u l l y  a on  realized  i n t h i s c h a p t e r t o g e t h e r w i t h an i n d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of S t a l i n i s t Russia through t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l ideology. The  l a s t c h a p t e r , Chapter V, attempts to t r a c e the  l i n e of the o l d p r o f e s s i o n a l worker and h i s p s y c h o l o g y t h r o u g h a l l of N i k i f o r o v ' s works.  The  different  character  t y p e s , the p a r t y b u r e a u c r a t s , the p r o f e s s i o n a l l a b o u r e r s , the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n d i v i d u a l - a l l are d i s c u s s e d  here.  A l s o , N i k i f o r o v ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the T r o t s k y i t e f a c t i o n of the p a r t y and h i s sympathy toward t h e i r i n d u s t r i a l ment programme i s mentioned.  develop-  Acknowledgement  I w i s h t o express my s i n c e r e thanks t o Mr. V a l e r i a n Revutsky f o r t h e genuine i n t e r e s t and s c h o l a r l y a d v i c e which he so f r e e l y extended to me d u r i n g my graduate s t u d i e s and t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f this thesis. unveiling  I am e x t r e m e l y g r a t e f u l t o him f o r  b e f o r e me an e n t i r e l y new and i n t e r e s t -  i n g f i e l d of study - S o v i e t R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e .  CONTENTS  Page Introduction Chapter I :  i B e s i d e t h e Street-Lamp  1  Chapter I I : The Woman  42  C h a p t e r I I I : ( i ) I n t o the Wind  81  ( i i ) Unity  104  Chapter IV;  The M a s t e r c r a f t s m e n  110  C h a p t e r V:  Conclusion  156  Bibliography  161  i  Introduction N e i t h e r S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , nor c r i t i c a l  literature  o u t s i d e t h e S o v i e t Union can b o a s t of any .' i n f o r m a t i o n about Nikiforov  (b.  I n t h e S o v i e t Union t h e r e c o n t i n u e s t o  be a d e f i n i t e s i l e n c e c o n c e r n i n g  h i s works.  The r e a s o n  b e i n g t h a t N i k i f o r o v c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a g r e a t r i v a l t o Maxim Gorky. The r i v a l r y of N i k i f o r o v can be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t a n c e s : (1) Both N i k i f o r o v and Gorky o r i g i n a t e from almost t h e same r e g i o n and f r o m p u r e l y p r o l e t a r i a t surroundings.  N i k i f o r o v was born i n S a r a t o v  into the family  of an u p h o l s t e r e r ; ( 2 ) Both N i k i f o r o v and Gorky gave much o f t h e i r s t r e n g t h working i n r e v o l u t i o n a r y c i r c l e s .  From t h e  age o f t h i r t e e n , N i k i f o r o v worked a t a f a c t o r y , and f r o m s i x teen he t o o k p a r t i n r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y ; a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e events of 1 9 0 5 .  ( 3 ) Both took an  Gorky was i m p r i s o n e d f o r  h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y i n the Petropavlovsk  P o r t r e s s , and  N i k i f o r o v was a p a r t i c i p a n t o f t h e armed r e v o l t of 1 9 0 5 i n Moscow.  He was a r r e s t e d a t t h e end o f t h a t y e a r ;  (4) Like  Gorky, N i k i f o r o v went t h r o u g h h a r d s h i p s , changing h i s occupat i o n many t i m e s .  He was a l a t h e - o p e r a t o r , book-keeper, dock-  worker and a p r o j e c t i o n i s t .  He v a l u e d l a b o u r as h i g h l y as d i d  Gorky. While w o r k i n g a t a r a i l w a y c a r f a c t o r y i n C h e l y a b i n s k i n 1 9 1 7 , N i k i f o r o v j o i n e d t h e p a r t y and thus e s t a b l i s h e d h i s formal  c o n t a c t w i t h t h e October R e v o l u t i o n .  The growth o f h i s  p r o l e t a r i a n s o l i d a r i t y with the r e v o l u t i o n continued his  emergence i n t o p r i n t i n 1923-  until  From 1923-1924, N i k i f o r o v  may be r e f e r r e d t o as a p r o l e t a r i a n o b j e c t i v i s t w r i t e r . A f t e r 1930 t h e r e began a g r a d u a l and s t e a d i l y d i s i l l u s i o n ment i n t h e S o v i e t regime.  T h i s ended i n 1937 i n a  concentra-  t i o n camp. Here, t h e l a s t p e r i o d o f h i s l i f e d i f f e r s from t h a t o f Gorky. f e r e n t from Gorky.  But N i k i f o r o v had g e n e r a l l y been d i f Nikiforov's l i f e  ment o f a w o r k e r - w r i t e r .  shows t h e i d e a l d e v e l o p -  Ascending t h e h e i g h t s he pauses,  studies o b j e c t i v e l y the surrounding usioned.  distinctly  r e a l i t y and i s d i s i l l -  The p a t h of t h e a s c e n t and e v o l u t i o n a r y  disillusion-  ment, l i k e Gorky's p a t h , went z i g z a g . When he became an a c t i v e member i n t h e s o c i e t y o f p r o l e t a r i a n w r i t e r s " K u z n e t s a " (Smithy),  N i k i f o r o v brought t o  i t , as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n ,  h i s deepest  e x p e r i e n c e as a p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r , h a v i n g been " f o r g e d " i n the r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e against  tsarism.  But w h i l e he was a c t i v e i n t h e " K u z n e t s a " h i s p o s i t i o n may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t h a t o f b e i n g  i n t h e r i g h t wing o f  the o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h a n k s t o h i s "psychologism" and " i n d i v i d u a l ism".  From here one can u n d e r s t a n d N i k i f o r o v ' s r a p p o r t  with  Voronsky's " P e r e v a l " ,  (The P a s s ) , and w i t h t h e sympathies of  the l i t e r a r y o u t l o o k s  of T r o t s k y .  During t h e e a r l y p e r i o d o f t h  " K u z n e t s a " , ( 1 9 2 0 - 2 2 ) , when the o r g a n i z a t i o n  put.forward the  programme of s t u d y and development, N i k i f o r o v t o o k much upon himself. 1922 was  He t h e n f e l t t h a t he was  able to speak out  after  when the prose w r i t e r s o f " K u z n e t s a " gained s t a t u r e .  1923,  a l s o a i d e d by t h e d e c l a r a t i o n of t h e " K u z n e t s a " i n  when the problem of t r a n s i t i o n from study t o t h a t i s to an a c t i v e p a r t i n the p r e s s ,  struggle,  began.  That i s what  happened to N i k i f o r o v who  started his writing career.in  "Workers' J o u r n a l " a t the  end  of 1924.  This  the  T h i s came about a f t e r  a g r e a t d e a l of s e l f e f f o r t . He was  not  i n p r i n t b e f o r e the r e v o l u t i o n but  he  p o s s e s s e d a b r i g h t i n t e l l e c t , and t o g e t h e r w i t h a minimum of opportunities  he g r a d u a l l y  His objectiveness,  developed i n t o a t a l e n t e d w r i t e r .  t h a t i s h i s condemnation of the  f r o n t s " of S o v i e t ' l i f e p l a c e d him reality.  i n c o n f l i c t with  (Vorobej),  192$.  style  Sparrow"  L a t e r N i k i f o r o v moved f u r t h e r away from  r e a l i s t i c descriptions.  I n h i s l a t e r p e r i o d he o f t e n  to a r e a l i s t i c symbolism, o c c a s i o n a l l y p r e s e n t i n g o p h i c a l problems of the N i k i f o r o v was  short  Soviet  From here began the search of a.new a r t i s t i c  which f i r s t appeared i n the a l l e g o r i c a l t a l e "The  career.  "false  the  referred philos-  future. o b j e c t i v e from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of h i s  He at once drew a t t e n t i o n to t h i s o b j e c t i v i t y i n h i s  s t o r y "Ivan B r y n d a " (1925) and  s t o r i e s under the t i t l e  t h e n a book o f  " E i t h e r - or",  (Hi, iii),  short 1926.  For  iv  Ivan Brynda t h e r e i s the same " e i t h e r - o r " as Hamlet's " t o be  or not to be".  For the worker - Brynda was  p r i v a t e owner a t the head of h i s e n t e r p r i s e worker w i t h a p a r t y  t i c k e t i n h i s pocket.  or h i s own The  deeper, the  co-  official  c r i t i q u e understood Brynda as the d e c l i n e of the w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of N.E.P.  either a  revolution  However, the s i t u a t i o n went  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e worker Brynda i s one  more t r u t h f u l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a p r o f e s s i o n a l  of  the  Soviet  Worker. Through these personages, N i k i f o r o v emerges t r i u m p h ant as compared t o Gorky.  N i k i f o r o v ' s s k i l l e d workers are  d e f i n i t e , g l o w i n g , i n d i v i d u a l s , and  more a t t r a c t i v e t h a n  Gorky's p r o t o t y p e s . But here N i k i f o r o v goes f u r t h e r . enamoured by t h i s c h a r a c t e r . may  evolve into a middle-class  i n t o t h e m i d s t of the S o v i e t s k i l l e d worker may  He  shows how  this  bourgeoisie, "apparat".  character  when he  i s plunged  H i s q u a l i t i e s as a  be saved o n l y by h i s r e t u r n t o h i s  h a b i t a t , of f a c t o r y  native  labour.  A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g the w o r k i n g man, us the c h a r a c t e r s  He i s  t y p i c a l of t h e  1920s;  N i k i f o r o v shows  the  saboteur,  the  b u r e a u c r a t , the K u l a k , even the d e s c r i p t i o n of a " g r e y " party  secretary.  prominent and  The  f i r s t three characters  are the more  t h e y d i s p l a y the t a c t i c s t h a t t h e y employ i n  lawful situations.  At the same t i m e i n the  e a r l y works of  V  N i k i f o r o v , t h e r e i s p o r t r a y e d an i n t e l l e c t u a l , i n p a r t i c u l a r the t e c h n i c a l i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , t h e o l d , t h e new, and an i n d i v i d u a l from abroad, t h e o r g a n i z e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , both s u c c e s s f u l and u n s u c c e s s f u l . Because o f h i s knowledge o f t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l S o v i e t w r i t e r s , many c r i t i c s have c a l l e d N i k i f o r o v the " S o v i e t Z o l a " .  But t h e " S o v i e t Z o l a " was a l s o t h e " S o v i e t  O r w e l l " . The a l l e g o r i c a l s t o r y "The Sparrow" (Vorobey) i s t h e p r e c u r s o r of O r w e l l ' s  "Animal Farm".  found t h a t i t c r i t i c i z e d t h e a d a p t o r s ,  The S o v i e t  critique  the b u r e a u c r a t s the  " a p p a r a t c h i k i " , t h e p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e , and the i n t e l l e c t u a l individualists.  But i t would not n o t i c e t h e p r i n c i p a l theme,  t h a t "Vorobey" was t o p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n p a r t y i n t o an apparatus o f new e x p l o i t e r s . B e s i d e s N i k i f o r o v ' s broad attack focussed who b e i n g  d i r e c t l y upon h i s  of the  this, colleagues,  s a t i s f i e d by t h e i r b e i n g c a l l e d p r o l e t a r i a n w r i t e r s ,  were t u r n e d i n t o " c h i r p i n g sparrows", u n w i l l i n g t o l e a r n how to s i n g from " n i g h t i n g a l e s " , and moreover, became t h e l o v e r s of t h e p h i l o s o p h y  o f t h e "dark raven",  t h a t I s , the p h i l o s o p h y  of t h e r u l i n g p a r t y c l i q u e or t h e " c u l t o f p e r s o n a l i t y " . However, t h e " S o v i e t Z o l a and O r w e l l " d e c l a r e d h i s own " c r e d o " o f t h e f u t u r e .  I f B o r i s P a s t e r n a k was " i n a u s p i c i o u s "  i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e 1930s and o n l y a f t e r t h e p a s s i n g o f twenty y e a r s had spoken openly i n "Doctor Z h i v a g o " , then N i k i f o r o v had  spoken o p e n l y about t h e s e t h i n g s a l r e a d y i n 1935, t h a t i s  vi  to  say, t h e u n i t y of i d e a l s - c h r i s t i a n  and s o c i a l .  I  w i l l a n a l y z e t h i s problem l a t e r . . At the moment we w i l l d w e l l on i t b r i e f l y .  This b r i l l i a n t l y  of t h e p r o f o u n d e s t  i l l u s t r a t e s N i k i f o r o v as one  humanists.  The dominant p a r t o f N i k i f o r o v ' s w r i t i n g s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e n o v e l s a n a l y z e d here are d e v o t e d t o i t .  A t t h i s time we  l i m i t o u r s e l v e s t o o n l y f i v e n o v e l s . The n o v e l s "The S t r e e t Lamp" (U Fonarya)., and "The Woman", ( Z h e n s h c h i n a ) , show t h e c h a r a c t e r s of S o v i e t l i f e from t h e present moment t o t h e future.  The n o v e l s " I n t o t h e Wind", ( V s t r e c h n i i V e t ' e r ) ,  and " U n i t y " , ( Y e d i n s t v o ) , a r e concerned w h i l e "The M a s t e r c r a f t s m e n " ,  only t o the present,  ( M a s t e r a ) , p r e s e n t s ' a p i c t u r e of  the p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e . As we can see, N i k i f o r o v was ever s t r i v i n g f o r w a r d w i t h f u l l r e a l i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y  and t h i s i n i t s e l f i s  enough, i n o r d e r t o say t h a t even i n these f i v e n o v e l s he s t a n d s above most S o v i e t w r i t e r s .  Chapter I " B e s i d e t h e S t r e e t Lamp" (U F o n a r y a ) I n t h e n o v e l (U F o n a r y a ) i s shown an e n t i r e g a l l e r y of t y p e s of i n d i v i d u a l s of our e p o c h a g a i n s t a b a c k g r o u n d o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and working of a large scale f a c t o r y with four thousand w o r k e r s . The c e n t r a l theme o f t h i s n o v e l - t h i s lantern - i s the Party. The P a r t y e l l u c i d a t e s and d i r e c t s a l l o f our l i v e s i n a l l of i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l s , P a r t y members, and non P a r t y memb e r s on whom t h e P a r t y d i r e c t s h e r l i g h t , w i l l a t once r e c e i v e t h e d i s t i n c t c l a s s physiognomy; a l l t h a t i s n o t c l e a r w i l l become c l e a r . Throughout the e n t i r e n o v e l , i s f e l t a strong f a i t h i n the Party - ( i n i t ) , i n the Party i s l a i d an i r o n i c t r u t h , w h i c h w i l l be o f a s s i s t a n c e t o i t , i t s h i s t o r i c a l purpose. S i m p l i c i t y , a c c u r a c y and some l y r i c i s m s - a l l c h a r a c t e r i z e the language of N i k i f o r o v . . . The a r t i c l e f r o m "The W o r k e r s ' N e w s p a p e r , " 192$, the  sums up t h e n o v e l "U F o n a r y a " . P a r t y o f 192$  i s felt  i n this  was  A l l was  see  of how  c r i t i c a l reins at t h i s  f o r the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of the P a r t y , whether i t  o f good l i t e r a r y  almost a d e i f i c a t i o n majority  strong w i l l  a r t i c l e and we  t i g h t l y the Party held the l i t e r a r y time.  The  April  q u a l i t y or not. of the Party  T h e r e was  an  extreme,  and i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s by t h e  of the contemporary w r i t e r s . It  i s . t r u e t h a t t h e " P a r t y " theme p r e v a i l s t h r o u g h o u t  the n o v e l , but a strong b a s i c mood.  This  element of h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m forms t h e  e l e m e n t was  a rare quality that  appeared  2  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  of the l a t e  1920s.  A f t e r r e v i s i n g t h e 1925 policy  r e s o l u t i o n c o n c e r n i n g Party-  t o w a r d s l i t e r a t u r e and a r t t h e P a r t y u r g e d a  and g u a r d e d  a t t i t u d e towards f e l l o w - t r a v e l l e r s ,  tactful  peasant  writers,  and even t o w a r d b o u r g e o i s w r i t e r s s u p p o r t i n g t h e S o v i e t so a s t o  'hasten t h e i r approach  t o communist i d e a l o g y ' .  r e s o l u t i o n w e n t on t o s t a t e t h a t t h e p r o l e t a r i a t may p o s s e s s an e x a c t c r i t e r i o n o f t h e s o c i a l p o l i t i c a l literary all  works.  The  already  contents of  But i t does not p o s s e s s d e f i n i t e answers  questions concerning a r t i s t i c  form.  Therefore the  s h o u l d a i d t h e s e p r o l e t a r i a n w r i t e r s m a t e r i a l l y and Thus t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e P a r t y i s f i r m l y  In the midst of the b u i l d i n g  to  Party  morally.  stated.  I n h i s n o v e l , N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s a new idual.  regime,  o f a new  type of  socialist  indivlife  d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f N.E.P. t h e a p p e a r a n c e  o f Ramzaev,  a f o r m e r member o f t h e n o b l e m a n - i n t e l l i g e n t s i a  class, i s  quite startling.  B u t t h e m o r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n and r e b i r t h  Ramzaev i s j u s t a s a m a z i n g .  He p a s s e s t h r o u g h a  complete  p r o c e s s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d m o r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n and as a " f i r s t  r a t e Communist".  emerges  Ramzaev i s an e x a m p l e o f  the R u s s i a n n o b i l i t y adapted i t s e l f under the S o v i e t B u t N i k i f o r o v was  of  how  influence.  accused of t u r n i n g e v e r y t h i n g u p s i d e  down i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g Ramzaev a s a d e c e n t man,  capable of  g r e a t s e r v i c e i n t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i s c o u n t r y .  He i s  3  portrayed  a g a i n s t the  Communist-director Chuvyakin, a  smug, s e l f - s a t i s f i e d b u r e a u c r a t harbour not  who  because of a b i l i t y  but  C o n s e q u e n t l y N i k i f o r o v was bureaucracy of the 1 9 2 0 s .  H e r e was  'found h i m s e l f a snug because of P a r t y membership a b l e to attack the  Soviet  a s y s t e m w h i c h was  bour-  geois ridden while building a S o c i a l i s t bureaucratic tendencies way  of  s y s t e m was  country.  " r o t t e n to the core".  The  entire  The  bourgeois  h e l d a f a r g r e a t e r f a s c i n a t i o n than the  socialist  life. "U '. F o n a r y a " was  forov.  I t was  'dedicated  the f i r s t to the  w i t h a l l o f i t s c o m p l e x i t i e s and The  dull,  author  unconstrained  sheer happiness f o r every 5 success.' The  author The  gradual  character analyses  and  'all  day  one other, of  our  c a r r i e d i t out  Soviet  Russia  o f i t s c o m p l e x i t i e s and  constrained problems' together  with the  'embourgeoisiement'  t h e Communist d i r e c t o r and  eventual  " s o c i a l i z a t i o n " of  "dvoryanin"  the  - c o m m u n i s t Ramzaev.  sue  descriptions clearly  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s o c i a l i s t  d u r i n g t h e N.E.P. p e r i o d w i t h  From  from the  f o r every  d e f i n e d h i s p u r p o s e and  reality  - i s t o show t h e  shortcomings,  step forward,  Niki-  problems.'^  with their faults.  p o i n t o f v i e w - a s a t i r e on o u r  show t h e  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of our  s t a t e d : 'the theme o f t h e n o v e l  f a c e t s of the heroes together  cessfully.  l o n g work o f G e o r g i i  unof the  4  N i k i f o r o v was a b l e t o p o r t r a y h i s c h a r a c t e r s w i t h a p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l  life  w h i c h a r e i n s e p a r a b l y bound  Thus a more o r l e s s p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o r t r a y a l b e g i n s and  h i s p e r s o n a l i t i e s develop i n t o complex, but  together.  t o appear  'conscious'  communists. The preceding  c l i m a t e o f N.E.P. was m i l d e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e  C i v i l War P e r i o d ; l i t e r a r y  c h a r a c t e r s no  longer  knew t h e ' s h a r p a n t a g o n i s m ' b e t w e e n r e v o l u t i o n a r y t a s k a n d duty. war  b u t was g r a d u a l l y d r o p p e d i n l a t e r w o r k s .  arose and  T h i s theme a p p e a r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r k s on t h e c i v i l  within literary  psychological.  t h a t were e n t i r e l y and  now  characters, not only p h y s i c a l but moral  The 'hew men' o f N.E.P. l e d p e r s o n a l subjected  to the social  D a s h a C h u m a l o v , ("Cement", b y G l a d k o v ) .  "machine l i k e  Conflicts  lives  t a s k , i . e . Gle.b These were  i n d i v i d u a l s " w i t h i n whom l o v e d o e s n o t l e a d t o  a c o m p l i c a t i o n i n t h e i r l i v e s but r a t h e r , as a stimulus to b e t t e r work. But  N i k i f o r o v was a b l e t o s e e b e y o n d t h i s  type" i n d i v i d u a l who f e l t the  and p o r t r a y e d  "machine  h i s characters as i n d i v i d u a l s  human e m o t i o n s , h a d p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i z a t i o n s , b u t a t  same t i m e d e v e l o p e d a g r e a t  i n t e r e s t and d e v o t i o n  to the  P a r t y and i t s f u n c t i o n i n g . N i k i f o r o v was a b l e t o e x c e l G l a d k o v i n c h a r a c t e r trayal.  Gladkov's novel  por-  i s about i n d u s t r y , i n which t h e  machine i s t r e a t e d as t h e p r o l e t a r i a n s ' f r i e n d and s a v i o u r .  5  "U Fonarya"  s t r e s s e s t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n process and b u i l d i n g  of a f a c t o r y , but a t the same time produces i n d i v i d u a l  per-  s o n a l i t i e s who experience p s y c h o l o g i c a l and emotional upheavals. Gladkovs'  c h a r a c t e r s are s t e r e o - t y p e s machines, with  the e x c e p t i o n of Dasha Chumalov, the emancipated woman, f i g h t i n g f o r emancipation,  r e m i n i s c e n t of Dostoyevsky's  'infernal  woman'. Gladkov's "Cement" l a c k s both v e r b a l a r t i s t r y and psyc h o l o g i c a l power, while the a r t i s t i c d e s c r i p t i v e nature of N i k i f o r o v has y e t t o be challenged by any S o v i e t w r i t e r . Gladkov's work was an e x p l i c i t p h i l o s o p h y with strong overtones  statement  o f Freudism.  of M a r x i s t  I t became the  model and prototype f o r the v a s t i n d u s t r i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g the l a t e t w e n t i e s and t h i r t i e s . N i k i f o r o v ' s n o v e l was an "out and out" a t t a c k upon Party bureaucracy,  a work which was 'dedicated to the rep-  r e s e n t a t i o n of our r e a l i t y with a l l o f i t s c o m p l e x i t i e s and unconstrained  problems'.  In 1927 N i k i f o r o v p u b l i s h e d excerpts from the novel "Denis Ramzaev" i n t h e j o u r n a l " T h i r t y days". novel was again r e l e a s e d under the t i t l e was  In 1928 t h i s  "U Fonarya".  It  a p p a r e n t l y reworked from the 1927 e d i t i o n to 'play down the  6  political  and i d e a l o g i c a l  implications.'  D e n i s Ramzaev was a " d v o r y a n i n " a n d a f o r m e r a d herent  of t h e Whites.  o r i g i n and secured the P a r t y .  He h a d managed t o c o n c e a l h i s  an i m p o r t a n t  In his f i r s t  ' e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y honest, of v a l i a n t  p o s i t i o n i n i n d u s t r y and w i t h i n  n o v e l N i k i f o r o v p i c t u r e d Ramzaev a s h i g h minded and e n e r g e t i c ,  e f f o r t s and s e r v i c e i n t h e r e b u i l d i n g  country.'^  social  capable  of the  The i m p l i c a t i o n g i v e n b y N i k i f o r o v was t h a t t h e  P a r t y h a d no m o r a l r i g h t t o c a s t a s i d e a man i n whom  such  q u a l i t i e s were p r e s e n t  In the  i n r e t a l i a t i o n f o r h i s past.  n o v e l u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n , Ramzaev i s a much l e s s h e r o i c The  figure.  g r a d u a l m o r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n , o r even " r e b i r t h " o f  Ramzaev a s a Communist i s t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e n o v e l .  Ram-  z a e v i s p i c t u r e d a s an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a s t r o n g s e n s e o f g u i l t f o r h i s past interwoven  into a psychological paranoid.  p s y c h o l o g i c a l f i x a t i o n t h a t he must p r o v e t o h i m s e l f  The  through  P a r t y a n d i n d u s t r i a l work h i s d e v o t i o n t o t h e P a r t y a n d t h e d i s m i s s a l of t h e past, almost  l e a d s him t o a p h y s i c a l and  m e n t a l breakdown. In order to understand  Ramzaev a n d g a i n a n i n s i g h t  i n t o h i s mind, mannerisms, and m o t i v e s , flash-back technique clear understanding processes  N i k i f o r o v used t h e  o f l e t t e r s and d i a r i e s .  Through t h e s e a  o f Ramzaev's p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d p h y s i c a l  o c c u r s a n d we s e e t h e r e b i r t h  o f a c o m p l e x , "new  7  type" of i n d i v i d u a l ,  - a 'conscious'  communist.  Ramzaev's l i f e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d as seen t h r o u g h t h e l e t t e r s he wrote t o M a r i n k a , h i s s i s t e r , who l i v e d i n I t a l y . H i s development as a ' c o n s c i o u s ' continual internal  communist i s slow due t o t h e  s t r u g g l e and s t r i f e t h a t has t o r n him a p a r t .  I n h i s f i r s t l e t t e r he wanders o f f about t h e l i f e t h a t used to be, t e l l s manor house.  o f h i s f l i g h t from t h e i r  'gnezdo' (nest) o r f a m i l y  He i s no l o n g e r t h e nobleman V y a c h e s l a v Anosov,  but Denis Ramzaev, P a r t y member. Thus t h e b e g i n n i n g  o f t h e d u a l person, one a former  i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , the other, f a i t h f u l to Party d i c t a t e .  He i s  t o r n between h i m s e l f and h i s p a s t ... ... I t seems t h a t I am becoming p r i m i t i v e . I f e e l a discordance. From one s i d e - t h e nobleman Anosov, from t h e o t h e r - t h e peasant Ramzaev, and t h e t r u t h of t h e m a t t e r i s , I don't know, which o f t h e two i s s t r o n g e r ; but t h e f o r m e r me, I do not f e e l , o f t e n I do not hear him. and i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r me to revive the past. (31)• I t i s on t h i s note t h a t we w i l l c a r r y t h r o u g h a det a i l e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f Ramzaev. The  i d e a t h a t t h e p a s t was "wrong" and one must make  amends f o r h i s " e v i l " p r e - 1 9 1 7 Ramzaev's c o n f l i c t .  l i f e , i s t h e f o c a l point of  He i s a f r a i d  t o t e l l anyone o f h i s p a s t ,  f o r f e a r t h a t he w i l l be e x p e l l e d from t h e P a r t y . devoted t h e l a s t e i g h t y e a r s t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l  He has  development o f  The  new  Russia  i n the  p e r i o d of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  He  has  become  a t r u s t e d p a r t y member and  i s r e g a r d e d as a dependable,  able i n d i v i d u a l .  extreme p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t  But  this  c o n t i n u a l l y growing w i t h i n  o f an  accomplice'.  that i s b i t t e r l y exaggerated out with in  Elena She  him  and  Vladimirova  stands before  symbolizes  the  of a l l proportions shame.  continually derides  and  him  his  w i t h the  decadent past,  imbedded upon h i s s o u l .  i t s l o a d o f g u i l t and  was  him.  With the appearance of E l e n a reaches i t s climax.  cap-  A past  i s now  conflict "gaze a  past  t h a t he  burdening  has him  A shame t h a t f e s t e r s w i t h -  and  debauches h i s mental  stability. ... And now Ramzaev b e g a n t o f e a r t h e m e e t i n g s w i t h Anna - b e c a u s e o f h i s g r e a t shame. He b e g a n t o h i d e h i m s e l f , l o c k h i m s e l f i n h i s room when he w o r k e d a t home. ... he a v o i d e d t h e t a l k s w i t h T s e p i l o v . (130) Ramzaev and to h i s " r e b i r t h " .  E l e m a h a v e had  She  "dvoryanin"  the  stage of a " s u r v i v a l f o r l i f e " . officials?  Will  the  Ramzaev,  Ramzaev's i n n e r c o n f l i c t  she  truth w i l l  W i l l Elena  not  life, o n l y be  a new  only  the  All will  hope.  t o l d through  Ramzaev i s on t h e v e r g e o f t e l l i n g anyone who  prior  reaches  tell  incriminate herself?  be l o s t , P a r t y m e m b e r s h i p , a new But  engagements  know t h e r e b o r n  the  Party  Anosov.  does not  previous  will  Elena.  listen.  9  He w r i t e s t o h i s s i s t e r and  expresses  all.  A great  personal  r e l i e f u s u a l l y f o l l o w s b e c a u s e he h a s b e e n p o u r i n g o u t  the  g u i l t w i t h i n h i s s o u l t o someone, e v e n i f i t i s o n l y on paper. T h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l he a l w a y s a t t h e l a s t moment he  i s ready  to t e l l  but  c h a n g e s h i s m i n d , t h e mood c h a n g e s ,  or a complete d e f l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l occurs. be  Anna,  Could i t  t h a t he d o e s n o t h a v e f a i t h i n h i m s e l f , o r i s i t a deep  f e a r of the  Party?  ... Then t h e r e o c c u r r e d a g r e a t d e s i r e t o t e l l a l l , b u t i t became s t r a n g e t o r e l a t e t h i s , and i t seemed a s i f t h e r e was n o t enough s t r e n g t h i n h i s s o u l , a damp s i c k n e s s was c r e e p i n g t h r o u g h h i s h e a r t , and o f t e n a c l e a r , m y s t e r i o u s and f e a r f u l w h i s p e r i n g was h e a r d , " d o n ' t t e l l , d o n ' t t e l l , a l l w i l l p a s s , a l l w i l l be forgotten. How can y o u t e l l i t ? Soon enough Anna w i l l know, and t h e n i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e t o go t o  h e r ....  T h i s was able to f i n d  (153).  a l l mentally tormenting  relief.  U s u a l l y the  and  emotional  w i t h extreme p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l e x h a u s t i o n .  Ramzaev was  situation  passed  He w a n t e d t o  s c r e a m i t o u t t o someone, t o a n y o n e , so t h a t t h i s shame c o u l d be  not  guilt-ridden  released.  He w r i t e s t o ... I am i n do n o t know the past, I t o s c a r e me  Marinka: a l l e a r n e s t n e s s D e n i s Ramzaev, and I anyone e l s e b y t h i s name. I s u f f e r f o r c u r s e t h e p a s t , but i t s t i l l c o n t i n u e s with i t s absurdity, with i t s ugliness.(156)  Ramzaev g o e s on t o s a y t h a t he  c a n n o t r u n away f r o m a l l  10  o f t h i s because r u n n i n g away not o n l y from h i m s e l f but from e v e r y t h i n g e l s e w i l l b r i n g about h i s " g r a z h d a n s k i i " death. He i s n o t a b l e to run to t h o s e who  were c l o s e t o him i n the  p a s t because h i s t i e s w i t h them a r e broken, i n t e r e s t s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  are l o s t ?  our common  (156).  Ramzaev i s on t h e v e r g e of a complete e m o t i o n a l down.  G r a d u a l l y he develops  an a v i d i n t e r e s t i n the  break-  industrial-  i z a t i o n programme a t the f a c t o r y and becomes "wrapped" up i n Party a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  H i s e m o t i o n a l problems are o n l y  by h i s l o n e l i n e s s and g r e a t l o v e f o r Anna  aroused  Golandina.  At t h i s p o i n t , a complete r e g e n e r a t i o n or r e b i r t h o f Ramzaev has t a k e n p l a c e .  He i s no l o n g e r the p a r a n o i c  indiv-  i d u a l , but i s g r a d u a l l y becoming a ' c o n s c i o u s ' communist.  This  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l r e b i r t h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l l a t e r on i n t h i s  chapter.  Ramzaev's p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e reaches i t s c l i m a x when he meets E l e n a V l a d i m i r o v n a w h i l e w a l k i n g i n Moscow.  Upon  r e t u r n i n g t o her apartment he f i n d s h i m s e l f g r a d u a l l y s l i p p i n g back i n t o h i s p r e v i o u s f r e n z i e d s t a t e of mind, ...  'he saw  be-  f o r e him h i s d i s t a n t p a s t r e a r i n g i t s u g l y head and a l l began to w h i r l  .... ... Ramzaev a r o s e , and was not a b l e t o a n a l y z e t h e s i t u a t i o n , he went over t o where he thought he would f i n d h i s way o u t : f o r what r e a s o n was t h i s punishment,  11  is  i t p o s s i b l e t o cleanse o n e s e l f from the past?  E l e n a a n s w e r s : No, you  d o n ' t h a v e t o go, T h i s can be  no y o u  cannot,  s t a y , s t a y w i t h me  you  ....  cannot leave, (280).  i n t e r p r e t e d i n the l i t e r a l  t h a t Ramzaev d o e s n o t h a v e t o l e a v e p h y s i c a l l y , d e l v e d e e p e r and c o u l d be emotional and  s t e p a h e a d o f Ramzaev. she  i s h i n d e r i n g h i s chances of  f o r a l l completely  Although  e a r l i e r she  P a r t y members t o o v e r t h r o w m e n t s c o u l d be  rationalizing  t h a t much  been i n l e a g u e Therefore,  his  Persondepth  with the t h e above  other state-  interpreted meaningfully.  Elena, h i t s her  s t a t e rages  a c r o s s h e r m o u t h , and  o n w a r d , and  madly b e g i n s  Ramzaev i s n o t o n l y c h o k i n g E l e n a , b u t a l s o  t h e p a s t , w h i c h he is  had  can  Elena  d e s t r o y i n g h i s mind.  Ramzaev.  Ramzaev's e m o t i o n a l  her.  o r one  Possibly, realizing  N i k i f o r o v d i d n o t f e e l t h a t E l e n a had  her.  sense meaning  seek t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g .  state,  o n c e and  ally, to  one  (280)  concentrated  sees symbolized w i t h i n her.  on k i l l i n g  himself completely.  '...  the past, k i l l i n g t h a t woman w i l l  to  he  grabs  choke  crushing  A l l his  rage  Elena, cleansing  be my  vengeance upon  the o l d regime.' ... And t h e n t h e r e p u g n a n c e , a damp, h e a v y r e p u g n a n c e , and Ramzaev b e n t down t o h e r f a c e and s p a t i n t o h e r e y e s , w h i c h w e r e a s y e t a l i v e and m a l i c i o u s ... (281)  12  The c o m p l e t i o n  of Ramzaev's p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e b i r t h  and  h i s escape from t h e p a s t i s f i n a l i z e d when he t a k e s t h e l e t t e r s t h a t he wrote t o h i s s i s t e r and g i v e s them t o Anna. ... But the l e t t e r s - here they a r e . They a r e a g r e a t burden. They must be g i v e n t o them. They w i l l judge... (26*5). Her h e a r t t o r n asunder, Anna t a k e s them t o t h e C e n t r a l Committee.  A t r i a l i s held.  At t h i s p o i n t we must r.etumto t h e o t h e r s i d e of Ramzaev, h i s moral r e g e n e r a t i o n , as a b u i l d e r o f a new S o c i a l i s m , of t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a S o v i e t R u s s i a ; as a communist.  'conscious'  By o b s e r v i n g t h e complete c h a r a c t e r change w i t h -  i n Ramzaev we see t h a t N i k i f o r o v developed h i s "new of i n d i v i d u a l  type"  t o g e t h e r w i t h a p e r s o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i f e .  Ramzaev i s not the s t e r e o t y p e d Gleb Chumalov, but an i n dividual  w i t h a mind of h i s own, b u t , w i t h enough sense t o  d i s c e r n r i g h t from wrong. Ramzaev p o i n t e d out t o h i s s i s t e r i n h i s e a r l i e r l e t t e r t h a t t h e people do n o t p r o t e s t ; they do n o t even argue with the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n processes.  Millions  the path of s o c i a l i s m , c o n s e q u e n t l y  t h e y do not argue or d i s -  p l a y any outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . reconstruct without  do n o t u n d e r s t a n d  They o n l y want t o l i v e and  s o c i a l i s m , each i n h i s own way.  "zheev, seet i s l a v a bogu ..." (17)  13  T h r o u g h Ramzaev, N i k i f o r o v p o i n t s o u t and  the  apathy of these  people.  for  what i s h a p p e n i n g t o t h e m and As m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e ,  zaev i s c l o s e l y interwoven His  shame can be  the  ignorance  T h e i r complete unconcern to t h e i r  country.  the moral regeneration  w i t h the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  o f Ram-  regeneration.  seen f r o m b o t h s i d e s of h i s d u a l  person.  . . . I saw p e o p l e , I o b s e r v e t h e i r l i v e s , t h e i r w o r k , and I do n o t h a v e any w o r d s , f o r y o u t o u n d e r s t a n d , w h a t i s t h i s v e r i t a b l e humane, v e r i t a b l e h e r o i c a n d g e n u i n e s t r u g g l e . Do y o u u n d e r s t a n d .... (6*1). Ramzaev can  see  and  feel  t h a t sweeps a c r o s s t h e n a t i o n .  h i m s e l f the great  He  s a y s t h a t i f he w e r e t o  see h i m s e l f r e f l e c t e d i n a m i r r o r a s he was he w o u l d t u r n away i n d i s g u s t . "unhealthy"  The  p a s t has  'conscious'  created  then  this  d e v e l o p m e n t o f Ramzaev emerges  g r e a t l y a s he  r e a l i z e s the uselessness  futile  o f e v e r y o n e and  nature  e x i s t e d , but  t h a t he  i n the past,  inhuman e n v i r o n m e n t .  The  "One  struggle  i s not  d i d not  a fatalist,  of h i s p a s t l i f e ;  everything  l i v e . " He  of  concerned with i t .  p o i n t s out  to Marinka  b u t w r i t e s about h i s p u n i s h m e n t ,  the  punishment f o r the past.  H i s e x t r e m e shame and  for  a l l t h a t has  a l l t h a t he h a s  happened and  guilt  seen;  ... b u t I was n o t o n l y an o b s e r v e r , I c a r r i e d o v e r a g r e a t b u r d e n , saw t h e s u f f e r i n g o f o t h e r s and suffered myself. (82).  the  14  He d e s c r i b e s War, t h e h a r d s h i p s during  t h e s t r u g g l e and s u f f e r i n g o f t h e C i v i l and i n h u m a n t r i a l s  both wars.  with great  t h a t p e o p l e were put t o  T h e s e p e o p l e must now c l e a n s e  s t r e n g t h and b u i l t  the earth  a c u l t u r e , t h a t i s a new l i f e .  No w o n d e r t h e p e o p l e d i d n o t p r o t e s t , t h e y a r e d e f e a t e d , s t a r v e d , weak, c o m p l e t e l y construct  demobilized.  a new R u s s i a .  B u t why?  and p a r t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  factory  He i s n o t o n l y b u i l d i n g  a new l a n d , a new s o c i e t y , b u t a new man, a Communist. i f o r o v presents one  half  They b u i l d and r e -  Ramzaev becomes more a n d more i n v o l v e d w i t h building  (6*3)  Nik-  Ramzaev a s n e e d i n g someone t o h e l p h i m , some-  t o l o v e h i m t o f u l f i l an e m p t i n e s s w i t h i n h i m ,  thus,  Anna G o l a n d i n a ,  still  r e t a i n i n g a few emotional  - a crutch  a staunch p r o l e t a r i a n l i b r a r i a n , but feminine  i d e a l s , not  completely  " m e c h a n i z e d " a s so many o f h e r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w e r e . t o be an " e m o t i o n a l  o u t l e t " f o r Ramzaev.  e n t i t y t o whom he must e v e n t u a l l y t e l l ways a f r a i d t h a t s h e w i l l  be r e p u l s e d  He h a s become a s u p p o r t e r A n o s o v i s dead f o r e v e r .  She seems  A psychological  the t r u t h but i s a l by him.  of the Soviet  regime,  N i k i f o r o v , under the guise Russia's  o f Ramzaev  addresses the world.  He p u t s f o r w a r d  claim that  the r e s t of t h e world  w a t c h e s a n d t h i n k s t h a t we a r e d e a d ,  but  i n r e a l i t y we a r e c o n s t r u c t i n g o u r s t a t e , r e p l e n i s h i n g  our  p o w e r , and y o u w i l l  s o o n enough f e e l  our strength  ...  and power.  15  We  s h a l l a r i s e a great  toward the  foundation  nation. i n the  ....  each b r i c k w i l l  fundamental o f our  go  reconstruction.  (155). Ramzaev t e l l s gone, l i f e  has  ...  s t r e e t s o f new  here.  I am  they too  i n t h e m i d s t o f my  own  I am r e b o r n a g a i n d i f f e r e n t people.  characteristics.  are gone.  begins the  s t r i v e s to f i n d the of c o n s t r u c t i o n . be  regained,  and  He  roubles  As  I gaze about  on my  abruptly  not  own  .... Ramzaev and (156)  a  me  stranger  land.  (155)  Anosov  looses  are  are  the  L i k e t h e o l d s t r e e t s o f Moscow,  Reconstruction  l o v e f o r Anna a r e h i s m a i n He  o l d Moscow s t r e e t s  Moscow... I f e e l t h a t I am  As Ramzaev e m b r a c e s Communism he "dvoryanin"  the  changed,nBver to r e t u r n .  on t h e  ... two  Marinka  of t h e f a c t o r y and  a  pure  concerns.  life  o f an  i n d u s t r i a l bureaucrat  l e a s t e x p e n s i v e and feels that must be  the  and  t i m e consuming methods  faith  of t h e  spent i n order  w o r k e r s must  to achieve  any  k i n d of r e s u l t s . ... we w a n t t o s p e n d o u r r o u b l e w i t h s e n s e , i n o r d e r t h a t r e s u l t s can be s e e n ; we a r e o f t e n a v a r i c i o u s , through t h i s o f t e n a delay occurs. (164) Ramzaev and tion. take  Kotelnikov  N i k i f o r o v p o i n t s out place.  discuss  Universal  Mechaniza-  that complete mechanization  will  16  ... t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l e v e n t u a l l y become t h e o n l y master of t h e e a r t h . And n o t o n l y o f t h e e a r t h , b u t o f t h e U n i v e r s e . ... And what w i l l happen i f a l l t h e e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y i s c o n t r o l l e d ? - Communism w i l l o c c u r , ... we a r e p r o g r e s s i n g t o w a r d i t a n d w i l l e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h i t , b u t we have a t t h e moment a b i t t e r class struggle. (263). N i k i f o r o v g o e s on t o s a y t h a t us,  'Europe s t a n d s  we must overcome h e r i n t e c h n o l o g y , w i t h b e t t e r  ... M u s t Communism be b r o k e n by r e s i s t a n c e ? a good m a c h i n e w h i c h w i l l  before  machines  ... No I am f o r  break the r e s i s t a n c e . '  (264).  N i k i f o r o v goes on t o p r e d i c t what we now know a s t r u e : 'a c o u n t r y strength,  w i t h many m i l l i o n s o f p e o p l e i s l a t e w i t h i n order  that  to her enemies. ( 2 6 $ )  she may  l a t e r g i v e a good  Nikiforov, like  the other  "wedge i t i n " t h r o u g h h i s ' c o n s c i o u s '  Communist  director  i s complete.  the knowledge of K o t e l i n k o v ,  completed  psychological  able  c o m m u n i s t , and t h e  who  'conscious'  He s t r i v e s t o g a i n  t h e f r a n k n e s s and  and t h e s t r e n g t h  come a l l t e m p t a t i o n s , the  He was  Kotelnikov.  Ramzaev's r e b i r t h  of Tsepilov,  struggle w r i t e r s of  N.E.P. p r o p h e s i e d P a r t y d o c t r i n e and p r o p a g a n d a . to  her  ingenuousness  o f t h o s e who were a b l e t o o v e r -  survived  e x i l e and p r i s o n .  communist who  h a s overcome h i s  f r u s t r a t i o n s a n d f e a r s , overcome  personal  t r a g e d y , a n d emerged a s a s h i n i n g e x a m p l e , a c c o r d i n g N i k i f o r o v , as a "top n o t c h " At h i s t r i a l ,  communist.  Tsepilov  states:  Ramzaev,  to  17  ... Ramzaev was r e b o r n , h e , b e f o r e t h e o t h e r s , u n d e r s t o o d , t h a t w i t h o u t t h e knowledge o f a c t i v i t y , w i t h o u t t h e p r o l e t a r i a t s he h a d n o w h e r e t o g o , i t m e a n t t h e e n d f o r h i m . He u n d e r s t o o d t h i s . ... I saw t h a t Ramzaev was a g o o d w o r k e r ... No I do n o t want t o b l a m e h i m . . . O n l y remember what we h a v e j u s t b e e n t h r o u g h a n d w h a t we saw. No t h i s i s n o t s t r a n g e . Y e s , I am f o r a c q u i t t a l . I t i s enough f o r h i m , t h a t he l i v e d t h r o u g h i t , t h a t w h i c h I h a v e j u s t r e l a t e d ... (290) Nikiforov  'conveyed t h e i d e a t h a t t h e R u s s i a n  g o o d - n a t u r e d and f o r e b e a r i n g  d i d n o t want t o e l e v a t e  people, anger, 7  hatred  and v i n d i c t i v e r e t a l i a t i o n t o t h e s t a t u s o f t h e l a w ' . '  They w e r e r e a d y t o l e t t h e dead p a s t b u r y i t s d e a d .  The  demand f o r h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m was h e l d a b o v e t h e P a r t y  principles.  This idea put forward principles.  b y N i k i f o r o v d i d n o t s p a r e the. P a r t y  The e n t i r e n o v e l  was b a s e d a s a n a t t a c k  upon  t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a n d t h e b u r e a u c r a c y w h i c h u p h e l d them f o r t h e i r own c o n v e n i e n c e . C h u v y a k i n , a h e r o o f t h e C i v i l War, c o u l d o n l y s e e a life  of bourgeois luxury i n h i s p o s i t i o n .  bureaucrats  at this time,  as an i n d i v i d u a l preserving  powerful  N i k i f o r o v presented  h i s own c a r e e r .  bureaucratic  C h y v y a k i n was t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f  (Not by B r e a d A l o n e ) ,  (The Thaw).  and E h r e n b e r g ' s  He was t h e " a v a n t e g u a r d " o f t h e c l a s s of people which Dudintsev  a s a k i n d o f "new c l a s s " w i t h v a l u e s the o t h e r s  Chuvyakin  whose c h i e f i n t e r e s t l a y i n p r o t e c t i n g a n d  D u d i n t s e v ' s Drozdov, Zhuravlov,  L i k e so many o f t h e  that  and i n t e r e s t s t h a t have n o t h i n g  portrayed  s e t them a p a r t t o do w i t h  from  b a s i c human  16"  values, The  such a s freedom,  Drozdovs  power a t t h i s  equality,  and i n d i v i d u a l  integrity.  and Z h u r a v l o v s w e r e j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o a d v a n c e i n time.  L i k e D u d i n t s e v , N i k i f o r o v exposes shame t h e v u l g a r m a t e r i a l i s t i c  t o r i d i c u l e and  s t a n d a r d s and alow m o r a l and  c u l t u r a l l e v e l s o f t h e b a r b a r i a n s who w i e l d t h i s  power.  N i k i f o r o v d e r i d e s Chuvyakin f o r h i s bourgeois ment t o c r e a t u r e c o m f o r t s , f o r h i s f i n e c l o t h e s , ard a u t o m o b i l e and h i s l u s t f u l  attach-  s l e e k Pack-  t a s t e f o r women.  B a s i c a l l y C h u v y a k i n was j u s t l e f t h i s v i l l a g e and h i s w i f e t o f i g h t  a n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l who i n t h e C i v i l War. When  i t w a s f i n i s h e d he d i d n o t r e t u r n home b u t j o i n e d t h e P a r t y and r o s e q u i c k l y .  He d i d n o t s e n d f o r h i s w i f e a l t h o u g h s h e  h e a r d t h a t he was i n Moscow. ... E i g h t y e a r s h a d p a s s e d . The n i n t h b e g i n s when t h e May g r a s s i s dew l a d e n , a n d s t i l l C h u v y a k i n i s n o t h e r e , he d o e s n o t l o n g f o r h i s n a t i v e v i l l a g e n o r f o r V e v e y a , a n d d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r he h a s n o t s e n t one w o r d a b o u t h i m s e l f . (35) Chuvyakin's head.  s u c c e s s i n t h e p a r t y went s t r a i g h t t o h i s  H i s p o s i t i o n was n o t d u e t o h i s a b i l i t y  P a r t y membership.  but to h i s  T h u s he e x e m p l i f i e s t h e t y p i c a l  bureaucrat  of N i k i f o r o v ' s time. He began t o l i v e t h e l i f e  of a "bourgeois b u r e a u c r a t "  19  and  abused h i s p o s i t i o n .  The f i r s t  voice of r e b e l l i o n  t h e s e b o u r g e o i s t e n d e n c i e s was t h a t o f h i s c h a u f f e u r , a "communist t o t h e c o r e " . t h a t he i s a communist.  against Golandin,  I n h i s l e t t e r t o T s e p i l o v he s t a t e s  One should n o t c a r r y on i n t h e manner  of your d i r e c t o r , Comrade C h u v y a k i n , of t h e F a c t o r y  "Red S t a r " .  But p o s s i b l y , he may n o t be a comrade a t a l l , i f one i s t o consider h i s d i s c i p l i n e .  (60)  G o l a n d i n goes on t o d e s c r i b e C h u v y a k i n s p r i v a t e f  and wonders where he o b t a i n s the money t o l e a d a l i f e  life  like  this. Chuvyakin b e g i n s h i s P a r t y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e c l i n e . The tendency of e x p o s i n g the b u r e a u c r a t as a h i d d e n b o u r g e o i s in  h i s p r i v a t e l i f e , as an enemy o f t h e f u t u r e communist  s o c i e t y i s an i m p o r t a n t sub-theme i n many o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a n writers.'  N i k i f o r o v used t h i s t o g e t h e r w i t h an honest  rendering  of ' l i v i n g man' and the complex S o v i e t r e a l i t y w i t h o u t d o i n g away w i t h o r s i m p l i f y i n g c o n f l i c t s and d i f f i c u l t i e s . N i k i f o r o v s l o w l y b e g i n s t e a r i n g o f f Chuvyakin's mask by g i v i n g a r e a l i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s f a u l t s .  The p r o c e s s of the  ' i r o n communist' g r a d u a l l y d e g e n e r a t i n g i n t o a N.E.P. bureauc r a t becomes e v i d e n t . S l o w l y b u t s u r e l y Chuvyakin's p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e c l i n e b o r d e r s on p e r s o n a l  h y s t e r i a . Subconsciously  he knows what  he has been d o i n g and how he has been l i v i n g f r a u d e n t l y , b u t  20  he hasn n e v e r openly f a c e d up t o t h i s f a c t .  H i s l i f e , mor-  a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y has s l o w l y been d e t e r i o r a t i n g . i s a greedy bourgeois  He  i n p r i v a t e l i f e , - a man who l o n g ago  l o s t h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a l , though he h i m s e l f i s not conscious of t h i s .  He has been p e r v e r t e d by h i s b o u r g e o i s i e  partner, Elena Vladimirova.  The 'embourgeoisiement' o f  Chuvyakin can be c o n t r a s t e d t o t h e m o r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n of the b o u r g e o i s - i n t e l l e c t Ramzaev who i s p a r t l y c o n v e r t e d  under  the i n f l u e n c e of h i s l o v e f o r t h e p r o l e t a r i a n g i r l Anna Golandina. N i k i f o r o v draws t h e c h a r a c t e r o f an i n d i v i d u a l t o r n by a deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l g u i l t .  A g u i l t t h a t c o u l d be t r a c e d  back t o e a r l y R e v o l u t i o n a r y t i m e s . ... No, Onisim Chuvyakin d i d not r u n from t h e f r o n t he fought f o r t h a t one r e a s o n , t o be t h e m a s t e r of the m a s t e r s and o f h i m s e l f . ... (1$4) But d i d he become master o f h i m s e l f ?  A f t e r t h e ep-  i s o d e a t t h e meeting when he d r i v e s h i s auto onto t h e second f l o o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g , Chuvyakin f e l t h i m s e l f t o be master of a l l .  A c t u a l l y he was d e g e n e r a t i n g  rapidly.  ... Chuvyakin f e l t h i m s e l f t o be t h e hero a f t e r t h a t e v e n i n g . ... he d i d n o t c o n s i d e r a n y t h i n g and thought even l e s s , ... and a l r e a d y had concluded t o marry, he moved i n t o h e r ( E l e n a ' s ) apartment. (16*4). But here he had a pang of c o n s c i o u s and r e a l i z e d t h a t he had a w i f e i n M o t y i g a .  A g e n e r a l s t a t e o f n o s t a l g i a came  21  over him and Chuvyakin Veveya.  A guilt  regressed into h i s thoughts  ridden feeling  about  arose...  ... T h o u g h t s f l o w a n d f l o w , and i t seems s t r a n g e t o C h u v y a k i n t h a t he o c c a s i o n a l l y t h i n k s a b o u t one t h i n g b u t d o e s what he t h o u g h t o f b e f o r e . How many t i m e s had he p r e p a r e d h i m s e l f t o c l e a r h i s name, t o c l e a n s e t h e r o a d , and e v e r y t i m e s o m e t h i n g u n e x p l a i n a b l e o c c u r r e d , p u s h i n g i t t o t h e s i d e . ... He w a n t e d t o show h i m s e l f t h a t i n one summer he c o u l d b u i l d t h e worker's hovels but... Then t h e e x p e n s i v e g i f t s f o r E l e n a V l a d i m i r o v n a , one must a l w a y s h a v e money. The f i r s t f r i e n d l y s p r e e , t h e n t h e s e c o n d , t h e d r i v e s a c r o s s t h e b o r d e r w i t h company i n t h e a u t o nobile... (185) The  e m o t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t i s b u i l d i n g up  slowly within himself.  U n c o n s c i o u s l y he i s r e a l i z i n g h i s  p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n , h i s chances o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e P a r t y i f he i s d i s c o v e r e d . Suddenly reads  i n Pravda  Chuvyakin's  i d e a l w o r l d i s s h a t t e r e d when he  t h a t t h e C e n t r a l Committee c a l l s him f o r  questioning. F i n a l l y the climax i s reached  and we s e e t h e c o m p l e t e  p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l breakdown o f t h e c o m m u n i s t - d i r e c t o r . He h a s l i v e d  i n d r e a d f e a r o f t h i s moment, somehow  always  r e a l i z i n g t h a t i t w o u l d some d a y come b u t h o p i n g t h a t i t n e v e r r e a l l y would.  He e v e n knows t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t t h e p r o s e c u t o r  Migunova w i l l ask. ComradeChuvyakin, - asks Migunova w i t h a c o l d h a r d u n f e e l i n g f a c e - comrade C h u v y a k i n , d i d we r e c e i v e the m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e worker's houses. T e l l u s what i s g o i n g on t h e r e ?  22  ... W i t h whom a r e y o u l i v i n g , comrade C h u v y a k i n ? Whom do y o u l o v e ? , w i t h whom a r e y o u i n l e a g u e ? Who a r e y o u r e n e m i e s ? (1$$) His almost h y s t e r i c a l through endless  s t a t e o f mind i s o n l y  calmed  g l a s s e s o f vodka and f i n a l l y t o o drunk and  t o o p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y e x h a u s t e d he goes t o E l e n a . Throughout h i s t r i a l , charges.  Chuvyakin denies  a l l of the  H i s o n l y answer i s : Might y e a r s i n t h e p a r t y , Chuvyakin pounded his chest, - eight years I I j o i n e d d u r i n g t h e most dangerous times. I am n o t a n i n t r i g u e r , l i k e t h e o t h e r s , who a s p e t t y o f f i c i a l s a r e a l r e a d y g r e a t functionaries. I n f a c t , I am l i k e a w r e s t l e r . I am i n n e e d o f n o t h i n g . I t m e r e l y r e q u i r e s , comrade M i g u n o v a , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f why and w h e r e f o r e . You c h a r g e d me t h r o u g h t h e n e w s p a p e r , a s i f I w e r e a d e l i n q u e n t , c o n c l u d e d C h u v y a k i n , and t h e comrades l o o k a t me w i t h s t r a n g e e y e s . B u t w h a t d i d I d o ? I t was, i n f a c t , n o t h i n g ! (195). C h u v y a k i n becomes p a n i c k y  is  f i g h t i n g an inner  as t h e t r i a l  lies  Until  t r i a l w e a r s on a n d C h u v y a k i n ' s m a i n  Again examplifying t h e i n d i v i d u a l  o f h i s own " c l a s s " o f men. values,  such as t r u t h ,  death  interest  i n p r o t e c t i n g a n d p r e s e r v i n g h i s own c a r e e r .  a l l t h e charges;  He  conflict.  ... G e t a h o l d o f y o u r s e l f , O n i s i m ! i t s e l f , n o t h i n g w i l l h a p p e n ! (195) The  goes o n .  He  denies  traits  He d e f i e s a l l t h e b a s i c human  s e l f esteem, and i n d i v i d u a l  integrity,  t h i n k i n g o n l y o f h i s own i n t e r e s t a n d c a r e e r . G r o v e l l i n g a n d  23  humbling h i m s e l f Chuvyakin a p p e a l s t o Migunova ... b u t I appeal t o you as a t o v a r i s h c h , l i k e a comrade-in-arms who s e r v e d a t t h e f r o n t ... You s u f f e r e d as I s u f f e r e d , comrade Migunova! ... As soon a s I saw your name, when they c a l l e d me o u t , I thought t o myself. "You a r e f o r t u n a t e , Onisim, you w i l l go b e f o r e a comrade, who w i l l u n d e r s t a n d . And I s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y d e c l a r e d : To me a l l i s s l a n d e r on my communist c o n s c i e n c e . " (197) When t h e p r o s e c u t o r Migunova f i n a l l y  r e a d t h e docu-  ment a c c u s i n g C h u v y a k i n , he suddenly remembered ... Of c o u r s e , I u n d e r s t a n d t h e t r e a c h e r y , comrade - s c o u n d r e l - ... I agree t o t h e a c c u s a t i o n . But u n d e r s t a n d , comrade Migunova, a l l was n o t done c o n s c i o u s l y , but i n a drunken manner. I don't even know m y s e l f , how a l l of t h i s happened, but n o t because I wanted t o do i t c o n s c i o u s l y . (198) Then Chuvyakin stomped o u t o f t h e c o u r t room w i t h h i s p o r t f o l i o - h i s one and o n l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l c r u t c h .  To him  t h i s p o r t f o l i o symbolizes  h i s p o s i t i o n and t h e power i t h e l d .  W i t h o u t i t he i s nobody.  Once a g a i n N i k i f o r o v p o r t r a y s t h e  decadent b u r e a u c r a t i c sciously  mannerisms t h a t Chuvyakin has uncon-  acquired. When he i s e x p e l l e d from t h e P a r t y Chuvyakin i s com-  pletely  dumbfounded.  He wanders t h r o u g h the s t r e e t s , h e a r s  the w i n d c a l l i n g t o him: ... Have p i t y f o r me - p i t y me, p l e a d f o r p i t y I I want t o l i v e , I want t o be happy. What has happened w i t h me, What w i l l happen t o me now? ... Where am I t o go, and why shame? Why s i l e n c e from t h e shame? ... ( 2 0 2 )  24  But t h e n he t h i n k s about h i s l i f e and has been.  Nothing  t o comfort him,  how  useless i t  no c h i l d , n o t h i n g .  We  are a l m o s t ready to f o r g i v e Chuvyakin i n h i s hour o f shame and need.  But a g a i n N i c k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s the  superfluous  decadent b u r e a u c r a t i c s i d e o f C h u v y a k i n . ... T h i s knowledge Chuvyakin t r i e d t o remember, the p r e s e n t was impregnated w i t h i n him, t h a t he began t o j u s t i f y h i m s e l f f o r h i s misdeeds. What i s wrong, i f he wishes t o have a b e a u t i f u l woman, a s t r a n g e r by b i r t h , i f he a l l o w s h i m s e l f t h e s m a l l l u x u r y of t a k i n g a d r i v e once i n a w h i l e i n an a u t o m o b i l e , to w a l k w i t h 'the p o r t f o l i o ' a l t h o u g h w i t h o u t any r e a l i z a t i o n . ... t o eat i n a good r e s t a u r a n t and o t h e r t h i n g s ? What i s wrong? ( 2 0 3 ) Chuvyakin f o r g e t s about a l l , about l i f e , how  he  was  b o r n poor, and hungry, about t h e knowledge o f p r a y e r i n the t e m p l e , about God  H i m s e l f , when he d i s c o v e r s t h a t h i s  "purse"  has been taken away. Chuvyakin - an empty s h a l l o w s h e l l of an who  i s l o s t within himself.  individual  N i k i f o r o v ' s a t t a c k on the  e a u c r a c y p o i n t s to t h e f a c t t h a t i t was  not o n l y t h i s man's  f a u l t b u t the f a u l t of the b u r e a u c r a t i c P a r t y system. i t was  bur-  Thus,  an a t t a c k i n d i r e c t l y upon the P a r t y . Chuvyakin i s shunned by a l l of h i s comrades.  v i s i t s T s e p i l o v and c o n f i d e s t o him h i s g r e a t shame and There i s no " l o v e l o s t between the two,"  He sorrow.  a l t h o u g h we f e e l t h a t  T s e p i l o v does p o s s e s s humane f e e l i n g s toward  him.  25  T s e p i l o v p o i n t s out t h a t Chuvyakin walked around w i t h ' p o r t f o l i o , but t h e r e was no work 1  attached.  ... What i s w i t h you? D i d you t h i n k t h a t you would impress f o o l s w i t h i t ? That i s t o s a y , i f I were more i m p o r t a n t , then no one would know what an i d l e r I was!... You a r e not t h e o n l y one l i k e t h i s , I o n l y want t o a s k , how i s i t t h a t a l l of you f o r g e t who you are and what i t i s you a r e t o do? ... ( 2 0 4 ) Through T s e p i l o v , N i k i f o r o v i s once a g a i n a t t a c k i n g the b u r e a u c r a c y and i t s a s s o c i a t e d f u n c t i o n a r i e s .  Tsepilov  goes on t o say t h a t Chuvyakin s h o u l d go back t o h i s v i l l a g e , work f o r t h e p a r t y , w i t h o u t  a p a r t y t i c k e t , and prove t o  h i m s e l f and to the P a r t y t h a t he i s an honest w o r t h w h i l e individual. ... An honest f e l l o w i s n o t e x p e l l e d from t h e P a r t y . Once you know your o r i g i n and do n o t f o r g e t i t , then you w i l l always be i n o u r ( P a r t y ) l i n e . As f a r a s your P a r t y t i c k e t i s concerned, what o f i t , they w i l l r e t u r n t h e t i c k e t , when you have worked and proved y o u r s e l f - they w i l l r e t u r n i t . What more am I to say? Go! What I d i d n o t s a y , you r e a l i z e y o u r s e l f , you o n l y have to t h i n k . ( 2 0 4 ) Chuvyakin v i s i t s I n y a k i n .  He r e a l i z e s t h a t i t was he  who w r o t e t h e l e t t e r s t o T s e p i l o v . Chuvyakin lunges"  at  I n y a k i n and b e a t s him. R e a l i z i n g t h a t he w i l l  onl}r f i n d peace and s e l f con-  s o l a t i o n i n h i s v i l l a g e , Chuvyakin r e t u r n s t o M o t i g a , w i f e Veveya.  But Veveya does n o t w a i t f o r him.  t h e i r doorstep.  He i m p l o r e s h e r t o s t a y .  to h i s  They meet a t  26  ... t o you I have come, e n t i r e l y . P l e a s e s t a y Veveya, do n o t f o r g e t about me, where a r e you going? (16*2) All  of h i s words were f u l l o f sadness, h o p e l e s s n e s s , -  a c o m p l e t e l y broken i n d i v i d u a l , humbling and g r o v e l l i n g b e f o r e his  wife.  But she o n l y answers  ...  - no, I t o o wish t o see t h e l i g h t ; I am s t i f l e d by t h i s p l a c e , i t i s t i m e f o r a r e s t , - and she t u r n s to t h e r i g h t , and d i d not wish t o l o o k back. (I63) In the  c o n t r a s t t o Chuvyakin t h e r e i s t h e p o r t r a y a l o f  b u r e a u c r a t Bad'in i n Gladkov's "Cement".  Here t h e bureau-  c r a t i s p o r t r a y e d as a minor c h a r a c t e r and t h e c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e main f i g u r e s who a r e more c o m p l i c a t e d i s s t r o n g l y marked. Thus B a d ' i n i s d e p i c t e d as a r e p e l l e n t 'in  work and a debauched  ' b u r e a u c r a t , a pusher'  l i b e r t i n e i n h i s private l i f e .  (311) But  u n l i k e Chuvyakin he i s u p h e l d by t h e purge committee  because  of  I n con-  h i s t a l e n t s as an e x c e l l e n t P a r t y a d m i n i s t r a t o r .  t r a s t to B a d ' i n t h e r e i s t h e h e r o Gleb Chumalov, a Communist of  m o r a l decency, who t u r n s on B a d ' i n i n d i s g u s t . The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s o f T s e p i l o v I n y a k i n , and  Chessosov a r e e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e Communist-Builders of  t h e N.E.P. e r a .  These men a r e P a r t y members devoted t o t h e i r  work, but a t t h e same t i m e they d i s p l a y a common human element, they l a c k c u l t u r e . S o v i et  They a r e t h e o r i g i n a l b u i l d e r s o f new  indus t r y . The f i g u r e o f I n y a k i n p r e s e n t s u s w i t h t h e p i c t u r e of  27  n e g a t i v e p a r t y member. of an a b l e Communist.  Here i s a man who had a l l t h e makings He b r i n g s about h i s own d o w n f a l l t h r o u g h  the embezzlement o f t h e company's funds.  The r e s u l t i s an  extreme g u i l t r i d d e n moral t r i a l w i t h i n h i m s e l f . A g a i n we see t h e i n f l u e n c e o f E l e n a V l a d i m i r o v a , w i t h whom he was i n l o v e . to  He t e l I F h e r o f t h e woman he would l i k e  marry . .. ... t h e beard o f Marx i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e eyes o f o u r communist women. I want a r e a l woman; she must be a l l woman, t h a t i s , she must d i s p l a y an i n t e r e s t i n me. ( 5 5 ) I n y a k i n w r i t e s t o h i s mother and from these  letters  we can p i e c e h i s l i f e t o g e t h e r , h i s a m b i t i o n s and h i s accomplishments.  He t h i n k s very h i g h l y o f h i m s e l f a n d hopes t o  r i s e w i t h i n the Party bureaucracy. N i k i f o r o v presents within himself.  H i s s e l f d e s t r u c t i o n reaches i t s climax w i t h  the a c c u s a t i o n o f embezzling materials.  t h e monies f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n  He s u s p e c t s everyone o f t r y i n g t o prove h i s g u i l t .  His p r i v a t e l i f e on p a r a n o i a .  Inyakin gradually "withering"  i s u n b e a r a b l e and h i s m e n t a l s t a b i l i t y  G u i l t r i d d e n he goes t o T s e p i l o v .  hinges  I n t h e course  of t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n T s e p i l o v t h i n k s ... ... S u r p r i s i n g l y t h i s communist i s h a s t i l y t r y i n g t o convince everyone o f h i s l o y a l t y t o t h e p r o l e t a r i a t .  26*  I n y a k i n s t a t e s ... Tsepilov,  f o r you  and  I am  f o r your plans  Inyakin i s completely tries  devotion  for  the  at the ally ing  cause.  clever Tsepilov.  He  this.  outlook,  I n y a k i n out  mercy o f T s e p i l o v .  to Tsepilov h i s great  But  same t i m e r e m a i n i n g  easing  stead  to the  he  i s not  convincing  his cool rational  self  of h i s predicament w i t h o u t be  d e m o r a l i z i n g t h e man  " l e t s him  enough  o f f the  and  but gener-  him  realis-  commended f o r h i s humane  h i s " f a i r n e s s " when d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s e  diplomatically  He  faith  sees through a l l of t h i s ,  T s e p i l o v must a g a i n  of completely  comrade  of s o c i a l i s t r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  at the  t o p r o v e t o h i m s e l f and  and  always ready,  people.  In-  Tsepilov slowly  and  hook".  ... M o t h e r d e a r ! ( w r i t e s I n y a k i n ) ... I h a v e f i n i s h e d my c a r e e r . I am s t r i k e n w i t h a deep s i c k n e s s w i t h i n my h e a r t ; a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e y do n o t a p p r e c i a t e t h e g r e a t d e v o t i o n t o t h e d u t y and t h e f e e l i n g s o f my s o u l .... And I am g o i n g away, away by my own w i s h e s , n o t on t h e t r i u m p h o f my e n e m i e s , who w o u l d be a b l e t o s a y : "We d i s m i s s e d Inyakin".(291) T h i s was  I n y a k i n ' s way  of t e l l i n g h i s mother of  d i s g r a c e f u l removal from the p a r t y . away, l o o k e d ...  around h i s o f f i c e , No,  we  I n y a k i n had do ing  will  But  threw h i s party  ticket  said:  go t o R a z i a n .  b e e n demoted and  'independent work'. t h a t h e r e was  not  and  He  his  the reader  (291)  t r a n s f e r r e d to Razian i s l e f t w i t h the  a v a l u a b l e l i f e wasted.  A life  that  to  feelcould  29  p o s s i b l y have been spent i n a b r i l l i a n t c a r e e r d u r i n g t h e reconstruction.  I t i s presumed t h a t I n y a k i n committed s u i c i d e  shortly thereafter. T s e p i l o v i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e S o v i e t b u r e a u c r a c y . W i t h i n him we see a s t r o n g d e v o t i o n toward the P a r t y and i t s d i s c i p l i n a r y actions.  But h i s p o s i t i o n i n t h i s n o v e l i s t o a c t  as a m i d d l e man, an i n d i v i d u a l t h a t has n o t t h e n e g a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y of I n y a k i n , n o r t h e f l e x i b l e s n a k e - l i k e i n d i v i d u a l i t y of Chessosov.  H i s b u r e a u c r a t i c p o s i t i o n does n o t h i n d e r  him t o any g r e a t e x t e n t i n s u r v e y i n g the s i t u a t i o n and exp r e s s i n g an honest o p i n i o n .  He i s an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a human  and n o t an m e c h a n i c a l heart.. As f a r as t h e f u t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l i s t s t a t e , he says ... we have a l o n g way, many r a i l s have s t i l l t o be l a i d . U n i t y i s what we must depend upon - we must have  strength...(65)  T s e p i l o v e x c e l s as a b u i l d e r o f S o c i a l i s m .  He  observes t h e e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n w i t h t h e knowledge o f an eng i n e e r and t h e o u t l o o k of a p h i l o s o p h e r .  He i n f o r m s  about t h e d i s c o r d a n c e  Ramzaev f e e l s t h e r e  among t h e w o r k e r s .  i s a general uneasiness The lower echelons Party bureaucrats  Ramzaev  among t h e w o r k e r s , a c l a s s r i v a l r y .  f e e l t h a t t h e e n g i n e e r - b u i l d e r s and t h e do not take t h e i r cause i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Wages a r e low, c o n d i t i o n s poor. T s e p i l o v says t h a t t h e workers must be shown t h a t we  30  are not f o o l s .  The workers l i k e t o see us 'sweat' b e f o r e  But we s h a l l n o t be a f r a i d o f our m i s t a k e s .  They " w i l l "  work, we o n l y have t o show them " t h a t we mean b u s i n e s s " . i s no c l a s s h a t r e d  among them.  There  I t i s up t o us, t h e b u i l d e r s  of s o c i a l i s m , t o g u i d e and d i r e c t them.  Ramzaev d e c l a r e s  t h a t t h e w o r k e r s s t i l l l i s t e n t o Chessosov a f t e r e i g h t What i s wrong?  them.  years.  Undoubtedly T s e p i l o v f e e l s t h a t Ramzaev does  not know and u n d e r s t a n d the w o r k e r s . ...you cannot go t o t h e w o r k e r s p r e a c h i n g one t h i n g s o c i a l i s m - t h i s i s t h e way o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . 0-51). You must have Chessosov.  patience.  T h i s i s why t h e y l i s t e n t o  They have t r o u b l e c a r r y i n g t h e burdens o f e v e r y -  day l i f e , more so than you o r I . You are p e r h a p s c o n s o l e d  with  a good book, but what w i l l c o n s o l e a worker who has worked a l l of h i s l i f e , now  continues  l i v e d i n some k i n d of a d i r t y h o v e l and even to l i v e there?  c o n s o l a t i o n f o r him,  Come now t h i n k o f some k i n d o f  so t h a t he c o u l d walk w i t h h i s head h e l d  h i g h and a c l e a r s o u l . You patience.  a r e t o o r e a d y t o a t t a c k them, you must have  What w i l l  e v e n t u a l l y happen?  ... L a t e r the workers w i l l be c o n v i n c e d , t h a t t h e i r m a s t e r s l e d them t o e r r o r , but n o t h i n g good w i l l come out o f t h i s work. ... Only you comrade Ramzaev, do not r u s h , ... do n o t rush w i t h a c c u s a t i o n s t o t h e workers. You work, you c a r r y o u t a s t e a d f a s t s u r v e i l l a n c e f o r the w o r k e r s ' v i l l a g e . (151)  31  T s e p i l o v r e a l i z e s the r a t i o n a l way g r e a t problem of u t i l i z i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g p o i n t s t h i s out to Ramzaev.  the masses.  a- p e r s o n , he can h e l p hirn without  individual.  He can  his realizing i t .  guide  In  s t e r n i n h i s r e p r i m a n d ; but a t  same time he d i s p l a y e d a c e r t a i n  He (151)  'Do not a n t a g o n i z e them'.  T s e p i l o v i s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Chuvyakin's case he was  to approach the  the  degree o f l e n i e n c y , a  spirit  of humanitarianism. T h i s was  a g a i n e v i d e n t i n Ramzaev's t r i a l .  Tsepilov  c o u l d have t u r n e d a g a i n s t Ramzaev but i n s t e a d he p o i n t e d t o t h e C e n t r a l C o n t r o l Commission t h a t Ramzaev had enough due t o h i s p e r s o n a l agony.  He swayed the  out  suffered  Commission  i n i t s judgment a g a i n s t Ramzaev. T s e p i l o v was  an i n d i v i d u a l who  c o u l d see both s i d e s  of the s i t u a t i o n , always s u r v e y i n g the f a c t s and r a t i o n a l solution  t h a t was  compromising but a t t h e same time  a c c o r d e d j u s t i c e where i t was s o l u t i o n was,  i t was  one  due.  I t seems whatever t h e  i n which he h i m s e l f and t h e  were made t o l o o k s u p e r i o r , i n a humane way. q u a l i t i e s of a "seasoned" d i p l o m a t his socialist-communist  a r r i v i n g at a  Party  He d i s p l a y e d  a t t h e same t i m e  upholding  philosophy.  The t h i r d member of " s o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t o r s " Chessosov - a man  the  possessing  a religio-philosophical  was outlook,  32  but  a t the same time r e t a i n i n g h i s Communist v i e w s .  an i n d i v i d u a l who  could  f l e x i b l e personality.. c l a s s i f y him him  e x i s t under any I n f a c t you  as a " s n a k e - l i k e "  circumstances, a  c o u l d go as f a r as  i n d i v i d u a l ; i f you  i n t h i s or t h a t d i r e c t i o n , he w i l l q u i c k l y  Chessosov's main aim  i n l i f e was  a p o s i t i o n as p o s s i b l e . much "lea-way" i n any for  him  and  for  actions.  he was  t o s e c u r e as  to  press  change. comfortable  A p o s i t i o n that could a f f o r d  d i r e c t i o n , as l o n g as i t was  not h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r any  him  profitable  unaccounted  His emotions b l e n d e d themselves w i t h  p e n t i l e n a t u r e and  He i s  t h i s ser-  his r e l i g i o - p h i l o s o p h i c a l digressions  produce a p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t was  to  capable of a d a p t i n g i t s e l f  to  any s i t u a t i o n . Chessosov can be compared to the p h i l o s o p h e r A l f e y , i n N i k i f o r o v ' s l a s t novel, was  "The  Mastercraftsmen".  more of a "pure" p h i l o s o p h e r than Chessosov.  But  Alfey  I n compara-  t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h A l f e y , Chessosov would be an  ordinal  member o f the masses, whereas A l f e y would be a n a t u r a l  phil-  osopher. Chessosov's e x p r e s s i o n s on the s t a t e of the  govern-  ment, h i s r e l i g i o u s v i e w s , and h i s t h o u g h t s on the people l i f e i n the S o v i e t Union are a r e f l e c t i o n on N i k i f o r o v . t h i s manner N i k i f o r o v was  a b l e to convey h i s own  personal  i n g s t h r o u g h t h e i n s t a b i l i t y of Chessosov's n a t u r e .  and In feel-  33  Chessosov was a man who drank t o t h e 'brotherhood o f f e l l o w w o r k e r s ' , and p r o p h e s i e d  'he who works - e a t s and  d r e s s e s , b u t he who does n o t work - s t a r v e s , and i n h i s stomach t h e r e i s o n l y a g r e a t p e l l u c i d n e s s ' . (73) A man who  s t e r n l y q u e s t i o n s h i m s e l f about a c c e p t i n g r e l i g i o n and  searches h i s s o u l f o r f a i t h . . - Can you Fadeey, endure t o r e - e s t a b l i s h y o u r f a i t h ? - I t i s s i n f u l , - I answer m y s e l f . - I cannot r e establish i t . P o s s i b l y some k i n d of s i n c e r e hards h i p might e x i s t w i t h i n t h e r e a l ... Fadeey Chessosov? (74) Thus we have seen t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f s o c i a l i s t constructors.  I n y a k i n , t h e n e g a t i v e p a r t y member, Chessosov t h e  p h i l o s o p h i c a l s n a k e - l i k e i n d i v i d u a l , and T s e p i l o v , t h e s t e r n but h u m a n i t a r i a n The  Party  bureaucrat.  t r e a t m e n t o f t h e l o v e theme i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  t o p i c i n "U F o n a r y a " as compared w i t h t h e Love theme i n Gladkov's "Cement". N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s E l e n a V l a d i m i r o v a a s a champion of f r e e l o v e .  Here i s a b o u r g e o i s i e woman who l i v e s w i t h  Chuvyakin o n l y because of h i s s o c i a l p r e s t i g e and i m p o r t a n c e . She  t y p i f i e s a t y p e o f woman t h a t i s present  i n any era whether  i n a democracy o r i n communism. Her moral v i e w s a r e shown as p r e f e r a b l e t o t h o s e o f P a r t y members who i n t h e p r e t e x t of f r e e l o v e l e a d a l o o s e  34  life.  T h i s i s her o n l y purpose i n the n o v e l . I n most of the works d u r i n g N.E.P. i t i s u s u a l l y the  woman who  becomes the adherent of the o l d m o r a l i t y .  The  p e r i o d i s o f t e n compared to t h e p e r i o d of t h e c i v i l war  N.E.P. and  i t i s suggested t h a t the d e p l o r a b l e r e s u l t s o f f r e e l o v e ing  dur-  the N.E.P. must p a r t l y be a s c r i b e d to the p e r n i c i o u s  example of the b o u r g e o i s influence.  Former Red  and l i c e n t i o u s l i f e ;  c l a s s e s which appear to e x e r t a  Army heroes are now  bad  leading a lazy  i n the v u l g a r r e a l i t y of t h e N.E.P. they  seem to f o r g e t the h e r o i c days of the r e v o l u t i o n .  Chuvyakin  and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h E l e n a p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t example in this novel. I n comparing Chuvyakin w i t h the b u r e a u c r a t t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e due to t h e "Freudian of Gladkov.  Bad'in  Party bureaucrat  who  tendencies"  i s p i c t u r e d as a d r u n k a r d and a l i c e n t i o u s f o r c e s h i m s e l f upon the f e m a l e r e v o l u t i o n -  a r y P o l j a , a deeply d i s a p p o i n t e d communist. t h e v i c t i m of t h e  Bad'in,  'sensual l i c e n t i o u s n e s s ' o f  She  has become  Bad'in.  U n l i k e N i k i f o r o v , Gladkov was more d e e p l y by F r e u d than by Marx.  influenced  The u n d e r l y i n g mood of "Cement" would  be "Marxism w i t h s t r o n g F r e u d i a n  overtones."  ... Gladkov saw the u n b r i d l e d s e x u a l i n s t i n c t a s s e r t i n g i t s e l f i n an endeavour t o o f f s e t the e f f e c t s o f the r e v o l u t i o n . The l u s t of the f l e s h t r a n s l a t e d man's attempt to make the l o s s of h i s ego, ... by i n d u l g i n g i n a f e a s t of the senses.  35  But s e n s u a l p a s s i o n might a l s o be t r a n s m i t t e d i n t o dynamic energy and thus l e a d t o c r e a t i v e activity. Such a t r a n s m u t a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d t h e p r o c e s s of d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y and p e r m i t t e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o become a s m a l l b u t i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e storm which raged about him. I t i s on t h i s b a s i s t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r s Dasha Chumalov, Glek's w i f e , and Bad'in were e v o l v e d . 9  N i k i f o r o v ' s n o v e l d i d n o t have t h e F r e u d i a n o f "Cement" b u t p r e s e n t e d t h e analogous treatment  overtones  of l o v e and  embourgeoisiement. The theme o f b o u r g e o i s - p r o l e t a r i a n l o v e i s e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e f o r m e r b o u r g e o i s  Ramzaev who passes through a  p r o c e s s of moral r e g e n e r a t i o n b e f o r e he can w i n t h e l o v e o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a n , Anna G a l a n d i n a . the  An e x c e l l e n t p i c t u r e i s shown as  'pioneers o f a new s e x u a l m o r a l i t y ' a r e c o n v i n c e d  l o v e and l a b o u r can be harmoniously  combined.  that  But can i t ?  Gladkov p o i n t s out t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y t i e s a r e broken.  A l o o s e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e two f a m i l y p a r t n e r s  count as t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e form.  Both husband and w i f e a r e  so o c c u p i e d w i t h P a r t y work t h a t t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n o f a home life.  Dasha t h i n k s : 'my husband stands alone and I s t a n d  a l o n e . ... We a r e communists i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e  (127).  After  a heavy day's work they meet i n t h e i r room, t h e y f e e l , t h a t the t h o u g h t o f a p e r s o n a l happiness i s ' w o r t h l e s s , and h a r m f u l t o t h e cause'  (296).  ignominious  Dasha even a l l o w s t h e i r  c h i l d t o d i e i n a c h i l d r e n ' s home, because P a r t y work must  36  come f i r s t .  Thus t h e p i c t u r e of f a m i l y l i f e i s woven by  Gladkov and o t h e r p r o l e t a r i a n w r i t e r s d u r i n g the N.E.P.. P a r t y l i f e t a k e s precedence over f a m i l y l i f e . On the o t h e r hand, the embourgeoisiement of Chuvyakin i s e q u i v a l e n t to a l l k i n d s of f r a u d u l e n t debauches ' i n o r d e r to  s a t i s f y t h e e x i g e n c i e s of h i s b e l o v e d ' , " ^  Elena.  But  the  'embourgeoisiement' of Chuvyakin, the communist p a r t n e r i s not o n l y due to the p e r n i c i o u s i n f l u e n c e of h i s b o u r g e o i s but a l s o due to the b o u r g e o i s ibility  l e a n i n g s of h i m s e l f .  love,  The  poss-  of l o s i n g h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a l i s w i t h i n h i m s e l f  but he has not put a c o n t i n u o u s  s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t h i s bad i n -  clinations . "U F o n a r y a " d i f f e r s from "Cement". Ramzaev and Anna, as two p a r t y members, one  It pictures an ardent Commun-  i s t Worker, t h e o t h e r an i n t e l l e c t u a l " r e b o r n " Both a r e i n l o v e w i t h each o t h e r . first.  There are few,  i f any,  u s u a l l y very n a i v e l y presented. t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n s from any f a c t o r y or P a r t y p l a n s . c h o l o g i c a l emotional  communist.  But a g a i n P a r t y work comes  t e n d e r moments and t h e s e The  are  individuals usually divert  emotional  s t i m u l a t i o n and  discuss  But N i k i f o r o v does p r e s e n t the psy-  f e e l i n g s of the i n d i v i d u a l .  These are  not s t i f l e d by P a r t y i d e a s and p r i n c i p l e s but b e g i n to  reflect  a character with personal f e e l i n g s - with a heart. "Cement" does not p i c t u r e any r e a l l o v e , except p o s s -  37  i b l y M o t i a and Savchuk.  Here a f a m i l y u n i t e x i s t e d which  t h r i v e d upon s t r o n g s e x u a l l o v e .  N i k i f o r o v does n o t p r e s e n t  such a v i v i d coarse l o v e between h i s c h a r a c t e r s .  Gladkov's  main c h a r a c t e r s a r e t y p i c a l F i v e Year P l a n i n d i v i d u a l s whose personal  l i f e i s e n t i r e l y s u b j e c t e d t o t h e t a s k of r e c o n -  s t r u c t i o n , whether i t be p h y s i c a l l a b o u r , o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work.  Love does not n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o a c o m p l i c a t i o n i n t h e  l i v e s o f these characters but i s rather a stimulus to b e t t e r work. Dasha, a f r e e S o v i e t c i t i z e n , l i b e r a t e d f r o m t h e v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f b e i n g a c a p t i v e of man's sensual sees Gleb as more o f a comrade than as a husband.  passions She has  f o r c e d t r a i t s t h a t make h e r appear as a machine and not as a woman.  She has p a i d w i t h h e r l i f e f o r h e r p a r t i n t h e r e v o l u -  t i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s and a f t e r h e r l i b e r a t i o n has become accustomed t o f r e e s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h o t h e r comrades. Gleb c o u l d n o t a c c e p t t h i s new way o f l i f e as he was s t i l l a 'slave of t h e o l d bourgeois m o r a l i t y ' .  But w i t h con-  c e n t r a t e d P a r t y work and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , Gleb f i n d s a l l h i s h a p p i n e s s i n h i s work and a l l p e r s o n a l  sorrows l e a v e him.  Both Gleb and Dasha l e a d s e p a r a t e Party.  l i v e s r u n by t h e  The r e a d e r f e e l s t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t  inadequacy  l a c k i n g i n both of them - " l o v e " . On t h e o t h e r hand, Anna and Ramzaev l e a v e much t o be  3$  desired.  B u t s t i l l t h e r e remains t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g o f a  warm l o v e and e v e n t u a l l y t h e development o f a p e r s o n a l love.  T h i s i s sensed by a few s k e t c h y  sensual  scenes i n which a gen-  u i n e warmth i s f e l t by t h e r e a d e r and t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t o each o t h e r . ... why then d i d you do i t ? Because I l o v e you, l o v e you, I l o v e you... ( 2 3 5 )  I  N i k i f o r o v g i v e s h i s c h a r a c t e r s f a i t h i n each o t h e r , something which i s l a c k i n g i n Gladkov's n o v e l .  A f a i t h bound  by t h e l i n k o f l o v e . Anna's d e v o t i o n t o Ramzaev i s f u l l y shown a f t e r t h e d i s c o v e r y o f h i s i d e n t i t y when a f u l l  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s made  by t h e C e n t r a l C o n t r o l Commission. And you d i d n o t know who was h i d i n g under the name o f Denis Ramzaev? t h e B o l s h e v i k T s e p i l o v asked Anna G o l a n d i n a , Ramzaev's w i f e . (23$). No,  I o n l y know Ramzaev ... t h e honest Communist  Ramzaev, - she added, a f t e r a few h e s i t a t i o n s . I want t o know - s a i d t h e p r o s e c u t o r - how would you r e a c t , i f d e c i s i o n r e s t e d on you a l o n e ? (2$$) An avenue o f escape opens b e f o r e Anna she can e i t h e r completely  condemn h e r husband t h e r e b y f r e e i n g h e r s e l f , w i t h  only her conscience  t o contend w i t h , or she can r e f u s e to g i v e  e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t him.  39  I cannot accuse him, I cannot, she c r i e s out w i t h complete d e s p e r a t i o n and a few h y s t e r i c a l sobs. (26*9) N i k i f o r o v e x c e l s Gladkov i n c h a r a c t e r and genuine human emotion p o r t r a y a l .  H i s main c h a r a c t e r s manage t o have  f a i t h and l o v e f o r each o t h e r , combined w i t h a g r e a t hope and d e v o t i o n t o t h e P a r t y and i t s cause.  Whereas Gleb and Dasha  do n o t p o s s e s s p e r s o n a l emotions o r f e e l i n g .  They j u s t  live  f o r t h e P a r t y and i t s d i c t a t e s , whether t h e s e a r e p h y s i c a l o r administrative. I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f t h i s n o v e l was a n t i - P a r t y and not f o r the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of i t as s t a t e d previously.  I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t N i k i f o r o v meant t h e n o v e l t o  be an a t t a c k on t h e P a r t y , i t s b u r e a u c r a t s c o n d i t i o n s at that time.  and t h e g e n e r a l  But he d i d succeed i n " t o e i n g " t h e  P a r t y l i n e as f a r as d e s c r i b i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n programmes and i n t r o d u c i n g P a r t y propaganda i n t o t h e d i a l o g u e . But t h e s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e i s h i s c h a r a c t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n ; the types he p o r t r a y s were t h e f o r e r u n n e r s o f i n d i v i d u a l s introduced only a f t e r S t a l i n ' s death.  These c h a r a c t e r s had  " l i f e " and were not "mechanized i n d i v i d u a l s " s t r i c t l y adhering to Party doctrines. The portant r o l e .  humanitarian  element i n t r o d u c e d a l s o p l a y e d an im-  Here was a new element, a new approach t h a t  c o m p l e t e l y threw t h e P a r t y " o f f i t s guard".  But t h e p r i n c i p l e  40  o f P a r t y d i s c i p l i n e was the S o v i e t  subordinated  to h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m  c r i t i c s h a i l e d the P a r t y f o r t h i s .  and  41  Reference 1.  G e o r g i i K. N i k i f o r o v , U. F o n a r y a , Moscow, L e n i n g r a d Radochaya Gazeta ( A p r i l 1928), p. 299. ( t r a n s l a t e d and quoted d i r e c t l y from t h e Russian text)  2.  H a r r i e t B o r l a n d , S o v i e t L i t e r a r y Theory and P r a c t i c e (New York 1950) p. 1 4 .  3.  Vyacheslav Z a v a l i s h i n , Early Soviet Writers, York, 1 9 5 8 ) , 'p. 32"6^  4.  I b i d 1, p. 3 . - P r e f a c e - d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n and quote. F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be noted i n the t e x t of t h i s c h a p t e r . A l l q u o t a t i o n s from the t e x t a r e t r a n s l a t e d d i r e c t l y by t h e w r i t e r o f t h i s paper.  5.  I b i d 4 , p. 3«  6.  I b i d 3, p« 326.  7.  Ibid  8.  A.M. Van Der E n g - L i e d m e i e r - S o v i e t L i t e r a r y  (New  6.  (Amsterdam, 1 9 5 9 ) , 9.  ...  I b i d 3, p. 290.  1 0 . I b i d 8 , p. 4 0 .  p. 3 4 .  Characters,  42  CHAPTER I I "The  Woman"  I n 1929 N i k i f o r o v w r o t e t h e n o v e l , (Zhenshchina).  He was more c a u t i o u s  "The Woman",  i n t h i s novel  of t h e s e v e r e a d m o n i t i o n he r e c e i v e d from t h e his  l a s t novel  'protested  against  thetransformation  due t o  o f t h e P a r t y i n t o an  o f new e x p l o i t e r s . ' " ^ " Z h e n s h i n a "  r o l e o f t h e women i n t h e S o v i e t  stages  party  "The S p a r r o w " ( " V o r o b e y " , 192$), i n w h i c h he  exclusive caste the  because  system d u r i n g  o f t h e N.E.P. a n d i n t o t h e F i r s t F i v e T e a r  N i k i f o r o v g o e s on t o show t h e g e n e r a l  presents the last Plan.  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of these  women i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e F i v e Y e a r P l a n , t h e i r  relation-  s h i p s w i t h P a r t y members, t h e Komsomol, t h e p e a s a n t - w o r k e r s , and  t h e n o n - p a r t y members.  ists"  He p o i n t s o u t t h e r o l e o f " s p e c i a l -  i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and r a i s e s t h e l a r g e r i s s u e of t h e r e l a -  t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e o l d a n d new i n t e l l i g e n t s i a a t t h i s This  question  o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a was a p r e s s i n g  during t h e F i v e Year Plan. sia,  to thelevel  Socialist  of the old i n t e l l i g e n t s i a  s t a t e could not only  intelligent-  so t h a t t h e  " f o r g e " ahead i n c o n s t r u c t i o n  p r o d u c e i t s own " S o v - i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " .  The unstable was  problem  composed o f f o r m e r w o r k e r s a n d p e a s a n t s , h a d t o r a i s e  itself  but  The new s e m i - e d u c a t e d  time.  i n t e l l i g e n t s i a was r e g a r d e d b y M a r x a s a r a t h e r  group because o f i t s p o s i t i o n between c l a s s e s .  It  a c t u a l l y neither bourgeois nor p r o l e t a r i a n ; therefore  .<:'•-"' I  <'  43  no one was  s u r p r i s e d when i t wobbled i n i t s a t t i t u d e towards  the R e v o l u t i o n . the i n t e l l e c t u a l s  At f i r s t ,  the government was  f o r c e d to handle  t a c t f u l l y because they h e l d a v i r t u a l  monopoly of s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l knowledge. s c i e n t i s t remarked: wealth i s here!"  "You  As an  old  cannot e x p r o p r i a t e u s . . . . A l l my  ( s t r i k i n g h i s forehead).  By  1931,  however, t h e hope of a c a p i t a l i s t r e s t o r a t i o n or of a n o t h e r c a p i t a l i s t - s o c i a l i s t compromise (as d u r i n g the N.E.P. p e r i o d ) was  v i r t u a l l y dead; and the s u c c e s s e s of the f i r s t  y e a r s of  the F i v e Year P l a n caused the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a to r u s h  'to  get  on t h e band wagon'. The  fellow travellers  were b e t t e r f i t t e d than  p r o l e t a r i a n w r i t e r s to handle, both a r t i s t i c a l l y and i s t i c a l l y , t h e adjustment problems of the  real-  intelligentsia  s i n c e t h e y b e l o n g e d to t h i s c a t e g o r y t h e m s e l v e s . had  the  They had  p e r s o n a l l y to conform t o the S o v i e t p r i n c i p l e s t h a t  the  g r e a t e s t growth of t h e i n d i v i d u a l o c c u r s o n l y through  social-  i s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s a p r o t e s t  against  the " s t a t u s quo" travellers.  i n society.  Leonov and F e d i n were f e l l o w  Both chose t o handle the problem of t h e  e c t u a l i n t h e r e a l m of a b s t r a c t s c i e n c e , and l a b o r a t o r y we the o l d and  intell-  even i n the  a g a i n f i n d the c l a s s s t r u g g l e going on between  the new  intelligentsia.  N i k i f o r o v took a d i f f e r e n t stand on t h i s  question.  He  44  p l a c e d the new  i n t e l l i g e n t s i a o p p o s i t e the o l d and d e v e l o p e d  the t h e s i s t h a t i t was  a l m o s t i m p e r a t i v e f o r the new  semi-  e d u c a t e d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a through study and c o n t a c t , e i t h e r s o c i a l o r c o n s t r u c t i v e , w i t h the o l d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , to r a i s e to t h e l e v e l of t r u e i n t e l l e c t u a l s .  The new  itself  group w i l l form  the " S o v - i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " and w i l l r e c o g n i z e t h a t the s u p e r i o r i t y of t h e o l d group was The new a new  m a i n l y a method of s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n .  i n t e l l i g e n t s i a w i l l e v e n t u a l l y outnumber the o l d  and  s t a t e w i l l be c o n s t r u c t e d , complete w i t h i t s own i n -  tellectuals,  s t r i v i n g f o r the u l t i m a t e good of Communism  through S o c i a l i s m . The theme of t h e n o v e l c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as  the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a w i t h P a r t y and Komsomol members i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f S o c i a l i s m .  The  the f r i c t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d between t h e two  novel depicts groups, t h e f r u s -  t r a t i o n s t h a t are p r e v a l e n t i n r e c o n s t r u c t i n g a country new  along  l i n e s , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of workers i n r e l a t i o n to  the P a r t y . N i k i f o r o v j o i n s the r a n k s of the F i v e Y e a r P l a n W r i t e r s i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a b r i d g e and  vivid  d e s c r i p t i o n s of the meetings of the w o r k e r s and P a r t y members. But he  d i f f e r s from them i n t h a t he p o r t r a y s d i s t i n c t  types,  contemporary i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h f e e l i n g s , e m o t i o n a l  p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and a human s o u l .  He shows the staunch  member; the s p i n e l e s s Sharanov, who  character and party  i s " t o o " p e r f e c t an i n -  45  dividual;  t h e engineer  Seema B a r o b i n a ;  i n t e l l e c t u a l Pokrovsky;  h e r b r o t h e r F e d y a , a member o f t h e "new"  generation; Bryakin, the o l d proletarian F a i k a Pokrovsky, as a b u i l d e r  is  s k i l l e d labourer;  a member o f t h e o l d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a  regenerated  o f S o c i a l i s m a n d e m e r g i n g a s a member o f t h e new  intellectual milieu; Pokrovsky's  t h e Komsomolka  and S o f i a  Konstantinova  (Sonichka),  common-law w i f e whose s o l e p u r p o s e i n l i f e  t o be a "bedroom a c c e s s o r y " f o r some man.  Thus  -  Nikiforov  d r a w s t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h i s woman who i s a c h a m p i o n o f f r e e l o v e and F a i k a Pokrovsky,  an e d u c a t e d g i r l ,  who e x c h a n g e s  t h e c l o a k o f t h e o l d f o r t h a t o f t h e new i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . The  general  stress i n literature at this  i m p o r t a n c e o f man's p a r t i c i p a t i o n personal task.  experiences  participate ities  were e n t i r e l y  But again Nikiforov  as p a r t i c i p a t i n g  does not p r e s e n t  b u t a t t h e same t i m e  they  to  their  aspects;  immediate  U n l i k e t h e gen-  the F i v e Year P l a n a c t i v i t i e s .  1917-1929,  optimism But t h i s  b o u n d up w i t h a c h a n g e i n t h e P a r t y ' s  l i t e r a t u r e ; books were regarded  They  human q u a l -  p e r i o d of Soviet l i t e r a t u r e ,  t h e defeat o f t h e worker i s excluded.  ment i s c l o s e l y  h i s characters  to t h e i r  and not a c c o r d i n g t o party d i c t a t e .  there i s a tendency to avoid t r a g i c vails,  social  c o l l e c t i v e work.  retain  themselves according  e r a l works o f t h e f i r s t  work; h i s  subjected to this  t o the utmost i n t h e i r  and express  feelings  i n collective  t i m e was t h e  predevelopattitude  a s a p r o p a g a n d a means f o r  Authors  were g i v e n  definite  46  themes; t h e h e r o i s m o f s o c i a l i s t struggles; the hero-of-labour; must b e d e s c r i b e d . gramme.  c o n s t r u c t i o n and c l a s s  a d e f i n i t e type of i n d i v i d u a l  -RAPP was o b l i g e d t o c a r r y o u t t h i s  B u t V o r o n s k i i ' s i d e a s had n o t l o s t  pro-  their influence.  He h a d s t i m u l a t e d t h e p r o l e t a r i a n w r i t e r s t o more s e l f criticism.  Some o f t h e m , i n c l u d i n g N i k i f o r o v , a d v o c a t e d a  k i n d o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i s m w h i c h was b a s e d on M a r x i a n principles.  But t h i s  programme d i d n o t t a l l y w i t h  demands a n d was s h a r p l y a t t a c k e d ,  the Party's  i n f a c t the psychological  p o r t r a i t o f t h e new S o v i e t man was s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d . theory  o f t h e p o r t r a y a l o f " l i v i n g man" a n d h i s  p s y c h o l o g y was e x p r e s s l y But  The  N i k i f o r o v continued  i n s i g h t technique  S t r e e t Lamp".  i g e n t s i a " takes  Faika's  role,  life  s o c i a l task  regeneration  i n "Beside  into a "Sov-intelland p s y c h o l o g i c a l  The i d e a o f l o v e p l a y s an  and l o v e does n o t l e a d t o a c o m p l i c a t i o n  should  important  P e r i o d works, t h e  o f an i n d i v i d u a l i s e n t i r e l y s u b j e c t e d  t o b e t t e r work.  theme o f t h e P a r t y was i n s t i l l e d conclusion  h i s ' l i v i n g man'  t h a t was so p r e v a l e n t  but i s rather a stimulus  3  "Zhenshchina" continues t h e  b u t a s so o f t e n i n t h e R e c o n s t r u c t i o n  personal  life,  t o present  p l a c e w i t h much e m o t i o n a l  torment w i t h i n herself.-  individual  condemned i n P r a v d a , May 9 , 1 9 3 2 .  with h i s i n d i v i d u a l psychology. character  The  t othe in his  The p r o p a g a n d a  throughout these works.  The  t h e n be t h a t a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o l l e c t -  47  i v e work l e a d s t o t h e moral r e g e n e r a t i o n n o t o n l y o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l , but a l s o of the working i n d i v i d u a l . N i k i f o r o v t r i e s t o show through F a i k a .  T h i s i s what  Owing t o t h e regener-  a t i o n f o r c e o f c o l l e c t i v e work i n a c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t , she becomes a  " S o v - i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " , an o l d member r e b o r n w i t h a  Marxian b a s i s .  But l o v e i s n o t squelched  completely  and t h i s  " S o v - i n t e l l e c t u a l w i t h a M a r x i a n base" c o n t i n u e s to c a r r y t h e t o r c h f o r Sharanov. G e n e r a l l y , t h e t h r e e p a r t s o f t h e n o v e l can be d i s cussed s e p a r a t e l y o r c o l l e c t i v e l y .  Throughout we a r e p r e s -  ented w i t h a v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s so t h a t a d e f i n i t e conc l u s i o n can be r e a c h e d and each s e c t i o n concluded  separately.  P a r t one concerns i t s e l f w i t h p r e s e n t i n g F a i k a as an " o l d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " member. and o u t l o o k on l i f e ;  She i s d o u b t f u l about h e r p h i l o s o p h y  she cannot seem t o f i n d peace w i t h i n  h e r s e l f and h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h S o f i a o n l y h i n d e r s  this.  P a r t two i s concerned w i t h B r y a k i n a P a r t y member and an e n g i n e e r who r e p r e s e n t s t h e o l d s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r , one who does n o t a c c e p t a l l t h a t t h e P a r t y d i c t a t e s and q u e s t i o n s i t s authority. The t h i r d p a r t concerns F a i k a ' s r e g e n e r a t i v e and i t s c o m p l e t i o n .  process  I t p r e s e n t s a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s from p a r t s  one and two and a l s o b r i n g s t h e P a r t y i n t o t h e vogue. The t h r e e p a r t s can be l a b e l l e d :  Intelligentsia-  4$  Proletarian, Proletarian, Intelligentsia.  We can go f u r t h e r  and p r o p o s e t h e t h e o r y t h a t p a r t one i s t h e T h e s i s , p a r t two the A n t i t h e s i s , and p a r t t h r e e t h e S y n t h e s i s .  Faika's "re-  b i r t h " can be l o o k e d upon a s a M a r x i s t s o c i o l o g i c a l t i o n t h a t has passed through t h e t h r e e necessary  regenera-  and s u c c e s s i v e  s t a g e s t o produce a new S o c i e t i n t e l l e c t u a l , or i t can be d e s c r i b e d i n Hegelian discussed  principles.  The l a t t e r p o i n t w i l l be  later. An a n a l y s i s o f F a i k a i s n e c e s s a r y  to understand the  unhappiness w i t h h e r p r e v i o u s way o f l i f e and h e r m o r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n , and i t s e f f e c t upon h e r i n h e r new r o l e as a "Sov-intelligentsia". was  But i t s h o u l d be kept i n mind t h a t F a i k a  i n h e r own way a woman who was t h e c r e a t o r o f a new way  of l i f e  - a l i f e t h a t a c c o r d e d equal r i g h t s and r e p r e s e n t -  a t i o n f o r t h e S o v i e t woman. concluded  F o r t h i s r e a s o n a l o n e i t can be  t h a t F a i k a was v i c t o r i o u s .  She had succeeded i n  overcoming the t r a n s i t i o n from one s o c i a l m i l i e u t o a n o t h e r . In e f f e c t h e r outward s o c i a l p o s i t i o n d i d n o t change, b u t i n w a r d l y she was aware o f h e r p o t e n t i a l , she had a purpose in  l i f e , a p o s i t i o n t h a t n o t o n l y gave h e r " s o c i a l "  satis-  f a c t i o n b u t a l s o a p l a c e i n t h e new s o c i e t y t h a t was b e i n g built.  A p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e echelons  o f t h e new " S o v - i n t e l l -  igentsia". I n comparison t o h e r we have S o f i a K o n s t a n t i n o v a was  who  a woman whose purpose was t o be a " d e c o r a t i o n of l i f e " ,  49  one  who b e l i e v e d i n t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f l i v i n g l i f e  fullest  and o b t a i n i n g from  i t a s much p l e a s u r e a s p o s s i b l e ,  w h e t h e r t h i s p l e a s u r e was p h y s i c a l o r s p i r i t u a l . be r e g a r d e d  to i t s  Sofia  could  as t h e champion o f f r e e l o v e a t t h i s t i m e .  To  h e r a woman s h o u l d j u s t b e a " b e d - c o m p a n i o n " f o r a man, a decoration f o r h i s salon, completely feminine isms, always submissive  to his desires.  i n h e r manner-  W h e r e a s F a i k a was  v i c t o r i o u s i n t h e s t r u g g l e f o r h e r ascendance t o a b e t t e r life,  t o o b t a i n a p o s i t i o n i n a new c l a s s , t o g a i n  and p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e w a r d s , to  a dead c l a s s ,  S o f i a was d e f e a t e d .  She b e l o n g e d  an i n d i v i d u a l t h a t d i d n o t b e l o n g  S o c i a l i s t r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . S o f i a would not belong society,  spiritual  i n the  i n any  she j u s t l i v e d by h e r emotions and s e n s u a l  Through S o f i a and Pokrovsky,  instincts.  N i k i f o r o v was a b l e t o r i d i c u l e  the r i d i c u l o u s n e s s o f the marriage  laws and customs o f t h e  1920's t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e S o v i e t Union.  By w e s t e r n  stand-  a r d s t h e i r u n i o n w o u l d be l o o k e d upon a s a common-law m a r r i a g e . W h i l e F a i k a was c o m p l e t e l y r e g e n e r a t e d new  life,  S o f i a s l o w l y degenerated.  a n d began a  She h a d f a l l e n  from  being  t h e " d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e o l d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " t o t h a t o f a common s t r e e t w a l k e r , a gypsy d r e s s e d i n ' y e l l o w s i l k ' .  We s e e t h a t  she now a t t r a c t s t h e new g e n e r a t i o n o f men, l i k e F e d y a b i n o v i c h who seek t h e i r p l e a s u r e f r o m t h e l o w e r t y p e o f women. to  Baro-  bourgeoisie  T h i s c o u l d be N i k i f o r o v ' s way o f e x p l a i n i n g  t h e w o r l d t h a t t h e S o v i e t woman h a s become s o m e c h a n i c a l  50  in  nature  t h a t t h e a r t o f l o v e c a n no l o n g e r h o l d a n y i n t e r e s t  or pleasure to  f o r her.  As m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e  a n y c o m p l i c a t i o n i n t h e i r l i v e s b u t became a s t i m u l u s f o r  g r e a t e r work p r o d u c t i o n  r a t h e r t h a n an e l e m e n t f o r  s a t i s f a c t i o n and p l e a s u r e .  personal  N i k i f o r o v has portrayed  the a n t i t h e s i s o f F a i k a and every other too  love d i d not lead  S o f i a as  S o v i e t Woman; s h e i s  sensual, too interested i n the erotic  pleasures  of l i f e .  L i f e f o r S o f i a i s l i k e a ' b u f f e t - she t a k e s what she wants'. But  then a s o c i e t y cannot e x i s t w i t h stereotyped  i n d i v i d u a l s , no m a t t e r how h a r d everyone. ity,  mechanical  t h e system t r i e s t o convert  T h e r e m u s t be e x c e p t i o n s ,  t h e r e must be i n d i v i d u a l -  t h e s h e e p c a n n o t a l l f o l l o w t h e same l e a d e r .  outcast  i n t h i s s o c i e t y because she i s d i f f e r e n t ,  "woman" a n d h a s s t r o n g f a i t h  i n herself.  Dasha Chumalovs i n S o v i e t l i t e r a t u r e ; i l l u s i o n e d P o l y a Mekhovas,  S o f i a i s an she i s a  T h e r e a r e t o o many  and n o t enough  Elena Vladimirovas,  dis-  or Sofia  Konstantinovas. N i k i f o r o v p o i n t s o u t t h e p o s i t i o n o f a n o l d e r woman who  was d i s a p p o i n t e d  i n the revolution Materina  Seema's m o t h e r , t e l l s F a i k a o f h e r l i f e N i k i f o r o v expresses  Semenova,  and t h r o u g h h e r  t h e l i v e s o f m i l l i o n s upon m i l l i o n s o f  m o t h e r s i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n who l i v e d t h r o u g h t h e - R e v o l u t i o n . T h e i r l i v e s have been c o m p l e t e l y  wasted.  she a l s o w o u l d l i k e t o go o u t s i d e , p a r t a k e see how o t h e r s  live.  Materina  says t h a t  i nt h e joys o f l i f e ,  51  ... F o r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s I have t o l e r a t e d through this suffering. I had g r e a t hopes f o r m y s e l f i n my thoughts c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e v o l u t i o n . I thought t h a t l i f e f o r me would be s p a c i o u s and p l e n t i f u l . Look, t a k e a l o o k around - y e a r a f t e r y e a r , c h i l d r e n were b o r n , t h e n , ah, what t h e n . Y e s t e r d a y p o v e r t y , tomorrow p o v e r t y , y e a r i n y e a r o u t . . . But then I t h o u g h t ; l e t t h e o t h e r s go, t h o s e who need t o . I can manage, and here I s i t and watch. F a i k a l i s t e n s t o M a t e r i n a and she i s ashamed o f h e r a c t i o n s , o f h e r l o v e and o f h e r l i f e w i t h S o f i a .  She f e e l s  a pang o f remorse f o r M a t e r i n a , b u t then she t h i n k s t o h e r self ; ... Who knows t h i s woman-... Maybe even now she has h e r t h o u g h t s about t h e r e v o l u t i o n . The woman i s s m i l i n g ... She i s happy because h e r daughter, Seema, knows h e r own r o l e and purpose i n l i f e . ( 4 6 ) The r e g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r o f F a i k a e v o l v e s through t h e t h r e e p a r t s o f t h e n o v e l .  I n p a r t one F a i k a  i s p r e s e n t e d as a young g i r l o f t h e o l d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . one who i s t o r n a p a r t i n l i f e . to  She doesn't know which  Someroad  take i n l i f e . ... I am n o t a b l e t o d e c i d e which path t o f o l l o w . That t o which my own w i l l i s p u s h i n g me; t h e one t h a t S o f i a K o n s t a n t i n o v a i s p u s h i n g me toward; i t does n o t tempt me; o r t h e t h i r d - t h e path of Seema - i t i s unknown t o me, b u t I w i s h t o know t h i s way o f l i f e , t h i s path winds down t o t h e d e p t h s , i t i s as though i t were t h e path o f t h e w a t e r - e l f . ( 3 0 ) . The c h a r a c t e r o f S o f i a K o n s t a n t i n o v a i s i n t r o d u c e d  so t h a t a v i v i d comparison  o f t h e two women can be made. S o f i a  52  t r i e s t o " c o n v e r t " F a i k a to h e r way o f l i f e , woman.  t o become a  B u t F a i k a i s t o o i n t e r e s t e d i n h e r "bearded w r i t e r s "  and t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i e s .  F a i k a r e a d s and r e - r e a d s  Marx, pon-  d e r s h i s t h e o r i e s and wonders j u s t what i s h e r purpose i n life.  The i n n e r c o n f l i c t d e v e l o p s w i t h i n her, what i s she t o  do i n l i f e ,  how i s she t o go about i t , i s S o f i a c o r r e c t ?  F a i k a i s t o l d by S o f i a : .... L i s t e n t o me! A woman must be smart, t h a t i s , she must o f t e n appear n a i v e and a l s o a l i t t l e dumb t h a t i s , she must judge by t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a t hand. Do you u n d e r s t a n d , F a i k a ? I want t o say t h a t you cannot be o u t w a r d l y b r i l l i a n t , and t h a t which you know, w i l l be o f n e c e s s i t y o n l y f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n , l e a s t o f a l l f o r l i f e .... ( 2 0 ) Sofia represents  t h e o l d c l a s s where a woman s h o u l d  j u s t be "seen and n o t h e a r d " , so to speak.  She i s f i g h t i n g  an i n n e r s t r u g g l e w i t h F a i k a , an o l d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , who has the i n c l i n a t i o n s o f becoming a " S o v - i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " .  Sofia  i s aware o f t h i s and sees F a i k a emerging a s a complete S o v i e t woman, a woman who i s outspoken i n h e r own way, a woman who can and w i l l compete a g a i n s t men i n h e r new l i f e , d i v i d u a l who can " h o l d h e r own".  an i n -  S o f i a i s t r y i n g t o save  F a i k a f r o m t h i s , t o remake h e r i n t o h e r own image, i n t o a woman. .... i n t h e l i f e o f t h e b e a u t i f u l woman. - T h i s i s o n l y i f t h e woman p r e p a r e s h e r s e l f f o r bedroom p l e a s u r e s - answers F a i k a . - Every woman ... p r e pares h e r s e l f f o r t h i s pleasure - a s s e r t s S o f i a . -  53  A l l i s r e m a i n i n g from h y p o c r i s y . D i d you not know t h a t u g l y women a r e smarter than p r e t t y ones? Oh, t h i s i s v e r y c u r i o u s I Women a r e a l l o t t e d t h e i r share. Think t o y o u r s e l f , she does n o t even have a t u f t o f h a i r on h e r head w h i c h would c u r l o r f a l l p o e t i c a l l y above h e r eyes. What i s she t o do? She would be ready t o p r e s e n t t h e l o v i n g p a r t o f h e r body, o f t e n a l l u r i n g and charming, b u t i n h e r , a l l i s v u l g a r and bad. then w i t h what i s l e f t of h e r s t r e n g t h , she c l i m b s t h e l a d d e r of knowledge, she reads about a l l the v u l g a r n e s s o f men, who do n o t r e c o g n i z e h e r , but are a t t r a c t e d t o t h e empty-headed, b u t b e a u t i f u l women. She bear m a l i c e , she becomes j e a l o u s , and j e a l o u s y makes h e r seek more wisdom, seek p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . (20) T h i s p i c t u r e t h a t S o f i a p r e s e n t s t o F a i k a has an ironic t w i s t to i t .  She i s t e l l i n g  F a i k a i n d i r e c t l y what w i l l  happen t o h e r i f she c o n t i n u e s t o r e a d and not p a r t a k e i n t h e " j o y s o f l i f e " and l i v e l i f e t o t h e f u l l e s t . Ulyana,  F a i k a s maid T  a l s o t e l l s h e r t h a t she s h o u l d be t h i n k i n g o f m a r r i a g e ,  c h i l d r e n , and n o t o f s o l v i n g problems and s e e k i n g t h e answers to l i f e ' s e t e r n a l q u e s t i o n s . F a i k a t e l l s S o f i a t h a t s e e k i n g and g a i n i n g satisfaction  i s a good t h i n g .  personal  But S o f i a argues t h a t i t i s  o n l y good f o r t h a t k i n d o f a woman, a woman w i t h whom men can t a l k , w i t h whom they a r e a b l e t o agree o r d i s a g r e e ; they  will  r e a l i z e t h a t she i s b e t t e r than they, t h a t she i s a b l e t o succeed a t a n y t h i n g .  They w i l l come, b u t o n l y t o t a l k , t o  marvel and t o admire you f o r y o u r i n t e l l i g e n c e .  But t h e  p r e t t i e r , more s e d u c t i v e woman w i l l g a i n t h e i r l o v e and p h y s i c a l  54  attractions. S o f i a t e l l s F a i k a t h a t she must: ... always know what she wants. Often i t seems good to a f f i x o n e s e l f to someone t h a t you l o v e , t o walk w i t h him to the end of the w o r l d . . . You o f t e n have r e g r e t s t h a t you don't have a c h i l d . Do you not have t h e s e t h o u g h t s , and the most d i f f i c u l t are they not a l l u r i n g ? T h i s I am s a y i n g f o r your benefit Faika! (50) S o f i a i s t a k i n g the p l a c e of a mother f o r F a i k a .  She  i s i n f o r m i n g her of t h e p l e a s u r e s of l i f e t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s disappointments.  But a t the same time she seems t o be s u b t l y  u n d e r m i n i n g F a i k a i n her way  of t h i n k i n g ; she i s remaking h e r .  But F a i k a has the s t r e n g t h to r e a l i z e what i s happening; the courage of her c o n v i c t i o n s to f o l l o w her own  path, i n a c t u a l i t y ,  t h a t of Seema, t o f o r g e ahead and prepare her own  life.  She  b e g i n s to abhor S o f i a and e v e r y t h i n g t h a t she s t a n d s f o r . F a i k a r e a l i z e s t h a t S o f i a had been c a r r y i n g on i l l i c i t l y her f a t h e r b e f o r e her mother d i e d .  Now  " S o n i c h i k " had  with  lost  i n t e r e s t i n P o k r o v s k y and i s c o n c e n t r a t i n g a l l her a t t e n t i o n onto F a i k a i n o r d e r t o make her f o r g e t a l l her books and l e a r n i n g , t o remodel t h i s g i r l a l o n g her own  lines.  F a i k a ' s a f f a i r w i t h Fedya s h o u l d o n l y be mentioned i n p a s s i n g s i n c e i t was  her " f i r s t  love".  Faika realizes  t h a t Fedya d i d not r e a l l y l o v e h e r , but o n l y wanted to seduce her t o prove h i s v i r i l i t y .  She h o n e s t l y b e l i e v e d t h a t  she  55  l o v e d him but Seema t e l l s h e r t h a t i t was o n l y i n h e r imagination.  P o s s i b l y t h i s was t r u e , b u t F a i k a has g r e a t  difficulty  i n s w a l l o w i n g h e r p r i d e and t h e i d e a t h a t t h i s was o n l y a passing love a f f a i r .  Her r e f e r e n c e t o Fedya t h r o u g h o u t t h e  n o v e l shows us t h a t she s t i l l r e t a i n e d a " s o f t s p o t " i n h e r h e a r t f o r him,  even though he o n l y t r i e d t o use h e r .  But  then a g a i n F a i k a seemed t o encourage him and a t t h e c l i m a x of t h e i r rendezvous she c o m p l e t e l y to  s h a t t e r s him b y r e c o u n t i n g  him what h i s s i s t e r had s a i d c o n c e r n i n g  she had been t h e r e  t h e i r l o v e , when  earlier.  F a i k a ' s p r i d e i s deeply h u r t and o n l y when she swallows i t , has she t a k e n t h e f i r s t step toward h e r r e g e n e r a tion.  S o f i a ' s remark: .... When you l e a r n t o l o v e y o u r s e l f , t h e n you w i l l l o v e o t h e r s . Only u n t i l then. ( 8 6 ) But wounded p r i d e t a k e s much time t o h e a l and F a i k a  must f i n d a d i v e r s i o n . right.  She r e a l i z e s t h a t Seema's path was  She j o i n s t h e c l u b and o c c u p i e s h e r s e l f w i t h v a r i o u s  activities. Through F a i k a , N i k i f o r o v i s a b l e t o d i s c u s s t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e woman i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n .  F a i k a compares a  woman t o a b l a d e o f g r a s s : .... I n my h e a r t l i v e a l l t h e women o f t h e w o r l d . At t h e f i r s t g l a n c e , t h e r e a r e many, but i n t h e l o n g r u n and i f i t i s t h o u g h t out r a t i o n a l l y , t h e  56  number o f women i n t h e w o r l d i s a l t o g e t h e r v e r y s m a l l . They are more abundant i n o u r r e p u b l i c . Throughout the w o r l d a r e a c u r i o u s l o t . Our women are l i k e young b l a d e s o f g r a s s . They o n l y a r i s e f r o m out o f t h e ground, they as y e t do n o t know w i l l t h e sun have p i t y on them, o r w i l l i t , b u r n them t o t h e i r c o r e . They do n o t know what winds w i l l t e a r them o u t by t h e i r r o o t s , what storms w i l l wash them away, what dew w i l l e n g u l f them. The woman makes a thousand m i s t a k e s , because t h e r e i s not y e t a s c h o o l which w i l l mold t h e woman i n t o a human, and as y e t t h e woman has not d e c l a r e d h e r s e l f a c c o r d i n g t o h e r m e r i t . (73) Thus N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s t h e problem o f t h e r o l e o f the woman i n t h e S o v i e t Union. i s her place?  Where does she s t a n d ?  What  Through F a i k a and t h e o t h e r women members a t t h e  c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t we see t h e i r p o s i t i o n .  I t i s one o f  e q u a l i t y w i t h men, t h e women do manual l a b o u r t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e men,  t h e y a r e j u s t as f l u e n t i n P a r t y p r i n c i p l e s and d o c t r i n e  as t h e men a r e .  A c l a s s i c example o f t h e new S o v i e t woman i s  Dasha Chumalov, ("Cement"), a woman who has n o t o n l y been emancipated b u t a l s o i s a g r e a t i n d u s t r i a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c builder.  F a i k a i s n o t t h i s t y p e of an i n d i v i d u a l .  Her  r e g e n e r a t i o n i s completed by p a s s i n g through a p r o l e t a r i a n stage and consequently  emerging as a new S o v - i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  whereas Dasha j u s t became a member o f t h e P a r t y and a i d e d i n the i n d u s t r i a l development o f S o c i a l i s m .  Faika's  training  a t t h e p r o j e c t l e d h e r t o r e g e n e r a t i o n and e v e n t u a l ance i n t o t h e Komsomol. processes  She l e a r n e d f i r s t hand t h e t e c h n i c a l  t h a t she s t u d i e d a t h e r s c h o o l .  l e a r n technology  accept-  She d i d n o t o n l y  b u t a l s o t h e s c i e n c e of l i f e - t h e new S o v i e t  57  way o f l i f e .  E v e n t u a l l y she emerges as a v i c t o r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l  who has overcome a g r e a t t r a n s i t i o n and p e r s o n a l emerging as a new S o v i e t  strife,  intellectual.  F a i k a l e f t Moscow and went t o work on t h e b r i d g e construction project.  Here N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s a g a l l e r y o f i n -  d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t aspects of S o v i e t i n d u s t r i a l , t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and b u r e a u c r a t i c l i f e . d i v i d u a l s p l a y an important  These i n -  r o l e i n b r i n g i n g about F a i k a ' s  r e g e n e r a t i o n ; t h e i r i n f l u e n c e upon h e r , e i t h e r v e r b a l l y o r s p i r i t u a l l y , s e p a r a t e l y o r c o l l e c t i v e l y open h e r eyes t o t h e surrounding  environment and mold h e r l i f e i n t o t h a t of a new  S o v i e t woman. F a i k a ' s i n n e r c o n f l i c t i s once a g a i n r e k i n d l e d , t h i s time between P a r t y l o y a l t y and p e r s o n a l d e v o t i o n .  When h e r  f a t h e r i s accused o f b e i n g a s a b o t e u r , h e r immediate f e e l i n g s a r e d e v o t i o n t o f a m i l y t i e s , but a t t h e same time t h e r e i s Party l o y a l t y .  F a i k a t u r n s a g a i n s t h e r f a t h e r c o m p l e t e l y be-  cause o f h i s i d e a s and h i s i l l i c i t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Seema. But t h e development o f t h i s extreme h a t r e d o f both Seema and P o k r o v o s k y c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by t h e mere f a c t t h a t Seema was g r a d u a l l y breaking the remaining  f a m i l y t i e s between Pokrovsky  and F a i k a ; she was h a v i n g an a f f a i r w i t h him, she was b e i n g l o v e d , w h i l e F a i k a goes t h r o u g h an e n d l e s s p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f r u s t r a t i o n t r y i n g t o prove h e r s e l f an a b l e  58  Komsomol c a n d i d a t e  and a t t h e same time b e i n g  f r u s t r a t e d i n h e r l o v e f o r Sharanov.  completely  Seema was b e i n g  she was wanted by someone, c a r e d f o r , w h i l e F a i k a  loved;  struggled  w i t h i n h e r s e l f f o r t h e l o v e o f Sharanov, to prove h e r s e l f an a b l e r e c i p i e n t of h i s l o v e .  I t was an e n d l e s s  struggle  f o u g h t a g a i n s t t h e ever p r e s e n t b i o l o g i c a l f o r c e s and t h e compelling  nature  of F a i k a t o g e t h e r w i t h a s l o w l y  developing  new o u t l o o k on l i f e . At t h i s p o i n t N i k i f o r o v i n t r o d u c e s B r y a k i n , a superv i s o r and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e t r a d e u n i o n s . represents  Bryakin  t h e o l d s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s who have j o i n e d t h e  P a r t y and have become s u c c e s s f u l . views c o n c e r n i n g the P a r t y .  He i s outspoken i n h i s  e v e r y t h i n g from the c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t t o  N i k i f o r o v p o r t r a y s him as a p r o f e s s i o n a l worker  w i t h h i s c r i t i c i s m s and c o n f l i c t of t h e P a r t y and i t s d i c t a t e s . Through B r y a k i n , N i k i f o r o v , i s a b l e not o n l y t o g i v e a v i v i d p i c t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l P a r t y worker and t h e o l d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a - P o k r o v s k y , b u t a l s o t o show t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e t r a d e u n i o n s and t h e degree o f i m p o r t a n c e that they held at t h i s The  time.  theory t h a t N i k i f o r o v developed - t h a t i s  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e o l d and new i n t e l l i g e n t s i a d u r i n g t h e S o c i a l i z a t i o n of t h e c o u n t r y  to produce a new c l a s s of S o v i e t  i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i s i l l u s t r a t e d here.  But B r y a k i n i s t o o head-  59  strong an i n d i v i d u a l .  He r e p r e s e n t s the P a r t y and i n s t e a d of  f r a t e r n i z i n g with Pokrovsky, him;  he i s i n constant c o n f l i c t  - a c l a s h of p e r s o n a l i t i e s  with  arises.  Through Bryakin N i k i f o r o v i s able to expound h i s views on women i n g e n e r a l , on the nature of t r u t h , and v a r i o u s o t h e r aspects t h a t were of importance  at this  time.  N i k i f o r o v ' s views on Party d i c t a t e are s t r o n g l y put f o r t h through  Bryakin i n h i s meeting with the Party committee. In  a d i s c u s s i o n with Klement'ev, Bryakin s t a t e s t h a t  t r u t h i s presented as being white on Saturday Sunday.  and b l a c k on  In l i f e there i s a m u l t i t u d e of d i f f e r e n t words.  these words wish to express t r u t h , but there was constant t r u t h . you  'There i s not such a t h i n g as t r u t h .  any Yesterday  sought f o r t r u t h , t o l d the t r u t h , but tomorrow you  lie.' for  never  He goes on to say that he has l i v e d f o r f i f t y  these f i f t y  All  will  years  and  years he has l i v e d under someone's mastery.  .... and here to you has come anguish and oppression through t r u t h . Now we have overthrown the masters, now the t r u t h i s ours, and a l l w i l l s i n g our t r u t h . (105) ....Only you, my f r i e n d s ; you had i n c l i n a t i o n s t o ward t r u t h . . . - Once God b l e s s us, twice - God b l e s s us - but i f t h i s is s a i d once more then i t i s a b l a s phemy r a t h e r than a b l e s s i n g . (106) N i k i f o r o v i s a b l e to a t t a c k " S o v i e t t r u t h " and t r a y i t s "two  facedness"; - white today, b l a c k tomorrow.  s i t u a t i o n between Bryakin and Pokrovsky  porThe  i s i n t e n s i f i e d when  60  B r y a k i n r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e dimensions o f t h e b r i d g e a r e o u t . P o k r o v s k y r e f u s e s t o take a c t i o n i n d i s m a n t l i n g i t and B r y a k i n threatens to quit.  N i k i f o r o v ' s t h e s i s concerning  s h i p between t h e two groups i s n o t w o r k i n g out.  the relationBoth a r e a b l e  men i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s b u t they cannot seem t o r e a c h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  P o k r o v s k y w i l l n o t g i v e i n , even I f he i s  wrong, t h i s i s h i s n a t u r e .  - a stubborn  man o f t h e o l d i n t e l l -  i g e n t s i a , whereas B r y a k i n , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t r a d e u n i o n , i s t r y i n g t o speed up t h e work and c o r r e c t i t . iculties  i n v o l v e d and i s p r e s e n t e d  discovered the saboteur."  He sees t h e d i f f -  as the "engineer  who has  T h i s i s a common theme i n most o f  the works o f t h e F i v e Year P l a n . But B r y a k i n i s an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a mind of h i s own and f e e l s t h a t Pokrovsky i s wrong i n h i s o u t l o o k , whether i t concerns t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e b r i d g e o r h i s p e r s o n a l  life.  Pokrovsky sends f o r t h e commission from Moscow and f o r the F i r s t E n g i n e e r  Sharanov; an a b l e p a r t y t e c h n i c i a n , who  i s s p i n e l e s s and weak c o n c e r n i n g faith  i nhimself f o r love  p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t and no  matters.  B r y a k i n ' s views on women a r e s t r i c t l y and c o h e r e n t l y expressed.  He f e e l s t h a t a woman must be c o n s i d e r e d  extreme u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  with  She i s t h e 'sap o f l i f e ' .  .... We have many words f o r her, but f o r t h e i n sistence of a c t u a l intercourse - there i s none.(137)  61  B r y a k i n b e l i e v e s i n t h e woman f o r o n l y one r e a s o n . He i s a g a i n m i s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p a r t y because of h i s " i r o n i c " p l a y o f words. to b e t t e r work.  The p a r t y o n l y l o o k e d upon l o v e a s a s t i m u l u s B r y q k i n does not i m p l y t h i s i n h i s  expression.  B r y a k i n a l s o b e l i e v e s i n human emotions and f e e l i n g s , as exe m p l i f i e d i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with Solomina. Another p i c t u r e of t h e S o v i e t woman i s p r e s e n t e d t o us by t h e engineer t i v e nature  of t h e i n s p e c t i n g committee.  i s s t a r t l e d t o see a working woman; he o n l y sees  'a woman l i k e a p a i n t e d p i c t u r e of l i f e , boring).'  H i s conserva-  (but l i f e i s d u l l and  He h i m s e l f cannot imagine a 'woman-machinist, a  female l a t h e o p e r a t o r ' .  He cannot comprehend t h i s i d e a o f  female - l a b o u r e q u a l i t y , t h a t i s t o make t h e woman on a p a r with the vulgar p h y s i c a l hardships  of l i f e t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d  w i t h manual l a b o u r . .... God b l e s s us, what w i l l happen then? he cannot comprehend t h i s ... (129). In a c t u a l i t y  t h e k i n d o f woman t h a t would s u i t him  would be S o f i a K o n s t a n t i n o v a .  The e n g i n e e r  i s from t h e o l d  i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , and as s t a t e d above, he cannot imagine what l i f e would be w i t h a woman-machinist.  She i s n o t a woman but  a mechanical d o l l . When F a i k a speaks a b r u p t l y t o him, P o k r o v s k y and does n o t answer.  he t u r n s t o  We can w e l l imagine t h a t t h e  62  l i t t l e round cheeked gentleman, w i t h 'rose p e t a l l i p s ' , c u r l e d up " i n s i d e " was r e p u l s e d by t h i s "working woman" w i t h b l o o d d r i p p i n g from her hand, who spoke out a g a i n s t him.  "What was  the w o r l d coming to w i t h a woman l i k e t h a t ? " N i k i f o r o v completed p a r t one of h i s n o v e l w i t h F a i k a ' s growing r e p u l s i o n of h e r f a t h e r .  She i s so u p s e t as t o what  happened between Seema and h e r f a t h e r t h a t she t r i e s t o commit s u i c i d e b u t B r y a k i n saves h e r . its  climax.  The c o m p l e t i o n  F a i k a ' s s e l f p i t y has reached  of p a r t one, t h e T h e s i s , c l o s e s  t h e door on F a i k a ' s o l d i n t e l l e c t u a l and s e m i - p r o l e t a r i a n l i f e . Her complete r e g e n e r a t i o n - b e g i n s t h e A n t i t h e s i s a s Hegel wrote.  N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s p a r t two as t h e p r o l e t a r i a n e p i -  sode o f t h e n o v e l , t h e development of F a i k a as a p r o l e t a r i a n worker, a c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e Komsomol. t h e complete d e g e n e r a t i o n  But i t a l s o  presents  o f Fedya, t h e p a r t i a l d o w n f a l l of  Seema, a v a s c i l l a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l who thought t h a t she was f o l l o w i n g t h e path of P a r t y r i g h t e o u s n e s s but a t t h e same t i m e u n a b l e to f i n d a n i c h e f o r h e r s e l f a l o n g i t s p a t h . The P r o l e t a r i a n episode of t h e n o v e l d e a l s w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g of t h e F i v e Year program b u t i n g e n e r a l i t p r e s e n t s the p e r i o d o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e U.S.S.R.  We are g i v e n a  v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e b r i d g e c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the t r a d e u n i o n s  on t h e P a r t y .  Once more, N i k i f o r o v s t r a y s  from t h e P a r t y ' s l i t e r a r y path and d e s c r i b e s - h i s c h a r a c t e r s  63  as r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t p a r t y d i c t a t e s and d e v e l o p s h i s "psychological  individual". Whereas p a r t one  d e a l t w i t h F a i k a and her  inner  s t r u g g l e , t h i s p a r t i s r e l a t e d by B r y a k i n and p r e s e n t s p l e t e development of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . development, N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s  this  a g a l l e r y of i n d i v i d u a l s who  are t y p i c a l F i v e Year P l a n w o r k e r s . between t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a and  Together w i t h  the com-  He a g a i n  the new  shows the  struggle  Soviet i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  the  a v i d P a r t y member Solomina, and the v a s c i l l a t i n g Kornsomolka Seema. Through B r y a k i n , N i k i f o r o v i s a b l e to a t t a c k p a r t y and  i t s policies.  unions versus  The  the  q u e s t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a d e  the P a r t y organs a r i s e s .  Throughout h i s  N i k i f o r o v emphasizes the problem of t r a d e u n i o n s and important  the  r o l e s that they played during the twenties.  These  u n i o n s w i e l d e d a tremendous i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e c o u n t r y could go as f a r as to say t h a t the P a r t y was to them. worker.  almost  novels  and  one  subordinate  Everyone t r i e d to become a member, a p r o f e s s i o n a l The  P a r t y was  j u s t an i n s t r u m e n t  i n t h e hands of  the Trade Unions, whereas today t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l Unions are weapons of the P a r t y i t s e l f . p o s i t i o n of the u n i o n s was i n t o a U n i v e r s i t y without  D u r i n g the 1 9 2 0 ' s the  such t h a t one belonging  could not even e n t e r  to a u n i o n .  Nikiforov  shows t h e p o s i t i o n and s t r e n g t h of t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l u n i o n s  64  and c r i t i c i z e s the d e f e a t of the S o v i e t system t o g e t h e r  with  the P a r t y b u r e a u c r a c y . Another problem p r e s e n t e d  by N i k i f o r o v i s the use  of  t h e " o l d s p e c i a l i s t s " as compared to the p r o f e s s i o n a l workers. P o k r o v s k y i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l who P a r t y matters. eer who  cannot e n t e r v e r y deeply  In f a c t , he doesn't even t r y .  He i s an  into engin-  i s c o l l a b o r a t i n g w i t h the h i g h e r p a r t y o f f i c i a l s i n  o v e r s e e i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t .  He i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n  h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Seema than w i t h the f u l f i l l m e n t of project.  the  He can be compared t o Ramzaev, a "has-been", who  "regenerated  i n t o the realm of s o c i a l i s m " .  s e n t e d as a former nobleman who  was  Ramzaev i s pre-  c o m p l e t e l y adapted h i m s e l f to  the S o v i e t i n f l u e n c e ; an e n e r g e t i c i n d i v i d u a l devoted t o t h e P a r t y and  i t s cause - the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e c o u n t r y  Socialist principles.  He i s an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a back-bone,  one might almost accuse him of b e i n g a c a r e e r i s t . Pokrovsky w i t h t h i s man  along  we  Comparing  see t h a t the former i s not  ested i n b e t t e r i n g himself, i n regenerating h i s  inter-  philosophy  and p l a c i n g h i s i n t e l l e c t b e f o r e the P a r t y to a i d i n the reconstruction. man  He i s not Gladkov's t e c h n o l o g i s t K l e i s t , a  opposed to t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , but upon f o r c i n g him  use h i s t a l e n t s , he i s p e r s o n a l l y rewarded through the  to  succ-  ess of t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Cement f a c t o r y , and i n the end i s made a hero o f l a b o u r .  K l e i s t went t h r o u g h an i n -  d u s t r i a l - t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e g e n e r a t i o n w h i l e P o k r o v s k y i s con-  65  t e n t t o serve t h e P a r t y o n l y t o " f e a t h e r " h i s n e s t and r e t a i n h i s f o r m e r way of l i f e .  He does not have t h e i n i t i a t i v e  nor t h e p e r s o n a l i n c e n t i v e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e P a r t y eaucracy.  He i s an o l d " s p e c i a l i s t " content w i t h  b o r a t i n g with the Party o f f i c i a l s .  bur-  colla-  But as N i k i f o r o v p o i n t s  o u t , these men were q u i c k l y v a n i s h i n g from t h e i r p o s i t i o n s and were r e p l a c e d w i t h a l e r t P a r t y  technologist-intellectuals  who were i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n t h e P a r t y , i t s cause and i t s a i d i n t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n programme. B r y a k i n i s an o l d s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r , a t r a d e  union  member, b u t an i n d i v i d u a l who has t h e i n t e r e s t of t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l worker a t h e a r t .  N i k i f o r o v presents  a realistic  p i c t u r e of t h e w o r k e r s and t h e c o n s t r u c t i v e s i t u a t i o n s . draws B r y a k i n , not as a hero o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n gramme b u t as a p r o l e t a r i a n who i s not c o m p l e t e l y  He  pro-  s o l d on t h e  P a r t y and i t s d i c t a t e s , n o r does he agree w i t h t h e o l d s p e c i a l i s t s or the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a .  B r y a k i n c o u l d be c l a s s e d  as an i n d i v i d u a l who has matured w i t h o u t much e x t e r n a l p r e s sure b e i n g a p p l i e d on him. Even i f such a f o r c e were p r e s e n t , he would p r o b a b l y  s c r u t i n i z e the s i t u a t i o n according to h i s  own p e r s o n a l m e r i t and n o t t o t h e whims and h a t u r e Party.  of the  But he h i m s e l f f e e l s t h a t he has made a m i s t a k e i n  life. ... P o s s i b l y , here i s where I made my m i s t a k e , and I should n o t judge a person o n l y by h i s f a c e v a l u e , b u t  66  s h o u l d l o o k deeper. That i s F a i k a , t h i s i s what I cannot say. (190). B r y a k i n f e e l s t h a t he r e a l l y does not know F a i k a , o n l y saw stand how  her f o r what he wanted her to be. and why  S o f i a was  connected i n her l i f e .  the whole, B r y a k i n i s an honest i n d i v i d u a l . t r u e a p p r a i s a l of t h e s i t u a t i o n . stand and f e e l l o v e .  He c o u l d not But  but  underon  He p r e s e n t s  a  He i s human enough to under-  He h i m s e l f i s i n l o v e w i t h F a i k a ,  but  would n e v e r show t h i s t o anyone, because he r e a l i z e s t h a t F a i k a i s i n l o v e w i t h Sharanov and  he w i t h her.  Sharanov does not want t o admit t h i s t o  Although  himself.  B r y a k i n says t h a t he has doubts c o n c e r n i n g of p r o l e t a r i a n i s m .  t h e path  Great o b s t a c l e s must y e t be overcome  an abundant q u a n t i t y of m a t e r i a l s must be p r o v i d e d t h a t S o c i a l i s m must be b u i l t q u i c k e r .  and  i n order  He says t h a t h i s d i s -  i l l u s i o n m e n t i n people stems from the f a c t t h a t they do  not  have f a i t h i n the t r u e i d e o l o g i e s , but p l a c e a g r e a t e r r e s p e c t on the "ten r o u b l e p i e c e " . t u a l l y d i s t o r t e d and  completely  T h e i r i d e o l o g i e s are r e p l a c e d by f a l l a c i e s .  evenHe  ... How many t i m e s d i d I tempt F a i k a Pokrovsky on m e n t a l e x a m i n a t i o n s , and not once was I a b l e to det e c t a note of f a l s e n e s s about her. And then I was happy t h a t these people a i d us i n our s e l e c t i o n . F a i k a P o k r o v s k y i m p a r t e d to him, among o t h e r t h i n g s , the c e n t r a l r e s i s t a n c e of the b r i d g e - as i f i t were weakening, i n d i c a t i n g the poor d e s i g n of her f a t h e r . ... I wanted to ask and d i d not know a n y t h i n g and  67  F a i k a c o n c e a l e d i t , and no one knew about i t not even A n t o n i n a . (151) B r y a k i n was a b l e to t r u s t F a i k a w h i l e a t t h e same time he f e l t t h a t t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n processes time and p o s s i b l y not be completed.  would t a k e  But w i t h t h e a i d o f  people l i k e F a i k a h i s f a i t h was renewed. Through Sharanov, B r y a k i n ' s c h a r a c t e r i s brought out to i t s f u l l e s t . B r y a k i n ' s l o v e f o r F a i k a has caused uneasy moments w i t h i n h i m s e l f .  Sharanov's l a c k of e m o t i o n a l  real-  i z a t i o n o n l y t e n d s t o f r u s t r a t e B r y a k i n and t h i s produces ill  f e e l i n g s toward Sharanov. B r y a k i n a s k s h i m s e l f : ... can p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n t h e manner of t h e r e v o l u t i o n e x i s t t o g e t h e r w i t h a woman l a c k i n g a p r e j u d i c e toward s o c i a l a c t i o n s and w i t h o u t a d i v e r s i o n from t h i s a c t i o n ? Here he i s t h i n k i n g of Sharanov and F a i k a because he  f e e l s t h a t both o f them a r e not s u i t e d f o r each o t h e r . anov i s a p a r t y t e c h n i c i a n - b u r e a u c r a t emotional cause.  to t h e core.  Shar-  He l a c k s  f e e l i n g s ; n o t h i n g m a t t e r s to him except t h e P a r t y ' s  Whereas F a i k a i s w i t h o u t  to become a p a r t y member.  p r e j u d i c e s and i s s t r i v i n g  E m o t i o n a l l y speaking  Sharanov a r e t h e a n t i t h e s i s of each o t h e r .  F a i k a and  Faika - a noble,  e n e r g e t i c , determined i n d i v i d u a l , Sharanov - a s p i n e l e s s party technician.. As mentioned b e f o r e N i k i f o r o v i s a b l e to a t t a c k t h e  66*  p a r t y and p r e s e n t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l u n i o n s t h r o u g h the c h a r a c t e r of  Bryakin.  N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s the shortcomings of the p a r t y  and o f i t s t e c h n o l o g i s t s and b u r e a u c r a t s t h r o u g h B r y a k i n ' s and Serdobova's d i s c u s s i o n p r i o r t o t h e meeting. The g r e y t r a i n "C" w i l l be the w i t n e s s from my s i d e , t o v a r i s h c h Serdobova, ( s a i d B r y a k i n ) . I don't, need anymore w i t n e s s e s . Your p r o d u c t i o n programme has b u r s t asunder, your g o o d - f o r - n o t h i n g s smoked up your p r o d u c t i o n programme. ... On t h i s r e a s o n we w i l l have a d i s c u s s i o n a t t h e e x t r a meeting of t h e p a r t y p r o d u c t i o n e r s answers Serdobva. - I t i s our r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ours t o d i s c u s s . ... V e r y good, t o v a r i s h c h Serdobova, - says B r y a k i n , a g r e e i n g w i t h her words. - L e t i t be o n l y y o u r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but I am not t a l k i n g about t h a t ; how can you c a l l an e x t r a m e e t i n g , i f t h e r e w i l l soon be a g e n e r a l meeting? The g e n e r a l meeting can w a i t , ... We a r e communists, we must p r e p a r e beforehand. I s t h a t not c o r r e c t , tovarishch Bryakin? Yes ... but you know, t o v a r i s h c h Serdobova, t h e cons i d e r a t i o n , t h a t t h e w o r k i n g masses b e f o r e t h e i r d i c t a t o r s h i p , a r e not g o i n g t o put up w i t h f o o l i s h n e s s , even though t h e y themselves a r e f o o l s and a p a r t y t i c k e t i n a l l of t h e i r p o c k e t s . (196) B r y a k i n ' s speech i l l u s t r a t e s the degree o f freedom of  speech t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e S o v i e t Union d u r i n g t h e l a t e  twenties.  I t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the d o m i n a t i n g p o s i t i o n of t h e  t r a d e u n i o n s over t h e P a r t y o f f i c i a l .  The o f f i c i a l was com-  p l e t e l y s u b o r d i n a t e to the t r a d e u n i o n s . ed a t B r y a k i n ' s words.  Serdobova was  shock-  He h i m s e l f was a p p a l l e d a t what was  s a i d and q u i c k l y r e a l i z e d t h a t Serdobova must be put a t ease, l e s t he be accused of c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y .  He  felt  6 9  t h a t she would c a l l i n the 'Zavkom'.  He would e x p l a i n t o them  t h a t he d i d n o t s a y a n y t h i n g t h a t would o f f e n d t h e P a r t y or i t s officials.  Suddenly Serdobova l a u g h s .  Thats enough r i d i c u l o u s n e s s , Makvech! So I s a i d f o o l i s h n e s s , and I c o n f e s s i t p u b l i c l y . ... I w i l l c a l l t h e meeting a t once. ... I , so t o speak, r a r e l y am t h e type t o c o n f e s s my own m i s t a k e s and t a k e c r i t i c i s m w i t h o u t i n s u l t , i t i s a c t u a l l y l i k e medicine. ( 1 9 6 ) N i k i f o r o v has succeeded i n " t r i p p i n g up" a P a r t y b u r e a u c r a t and showing t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h e P a r t y t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e underhand t a c t i c s employed by t h e s e b u r e a u c r a t s . But B r y a k i n b e g i n s t o weaken and back down from h i s o r i g i n a l statements.  A g a i n he c o n f u s e s ' t h e i s s u e by s a y i n g  I s a i d what I d i d , t o v a r i s h c h Serdobova, from t h e sharp a t t a c k o f your words, t h a t i s t h a t t h e meeting, so to say, can w a i t , t h e n I thought about i t , and I t u r n e d my words around. ( 1 9 7 ) Here B r y a k i n i s p r o b a b l y t r y i n g t o t r i c k her because he t h i n k s t o h i m s e l f : I f you agree w i t h me, then I w i l l f i n d disagreement w i t h you. ( 1 9 7 ) Serdobova i s c o m p l e t e l y confused by B r y a k i n ' s s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g h i s agreement w i t h her o r i g i n a l p o i n t of  view. ... That i s l e t t h e meeting w a i t , t h a t w i l l be b e t t e r . To t h e masses a p l e a s i n g b e g i n n i n g s h o u l d always t u r n away the s t e r n f a c e s , and t h a t no p a i n and l e a s t of a l l no f e a r s h o u l d appear on t h e i r f a c e s . With t h e masses,  70  t o v a r i s h c h Serdobova, one must t a l k and show o n e s e l f to them, but t h e p u b l i c w i l l t u r n a g a i n s t i t s e l f ... and human u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i l l develop. (19$) By t h i s time B r y a k i n has h i m s e l f and Serdobova so comp l e t e l y confused ing  t h a t he does not know h i m s e l f what he i s t a l k -  about. P o s s i b l y N i k i f o r o v wanted t o p o i n t out t h e manner i n  which the b u r e a u c r a t s  can be swayed so e a s i l y a r r L c o n t r a d i c t not  o n l y t h e m s e l v e s but t o be c o n t r a d i c t e d by o t h e r s and  not  realize i t . I n comparison to B r y a k i n , N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t e d  Sharanov  as a " p o s i t i v e " member of the p a r t y .  He i s not drawn as a  schematic nor as a human i n d i v i d u a l .  Sharanov i s " t o o " p e r -  f e c t a man  to be r e a l .  His l i f e has been devoted t o P a r t y  work, he has not had time f o r a n y t h i n g n o l o g i c a l work.  Subconsciously  whelming but he i s too stubborn  o t h e r than h i s t e c h -  h i s l o v e f o r F a i k a i s overt o admit t h i s to h i m s e l f .  Bryakin states: ... Here l i v e s an i n d i v i d u a l . He jumps mountains as i f t h e y were ant h i l l s . A l l the s m a l l and g r e a t mountains he s t e p s over, h i s l e g s are not e n t a n g l e d , but suddenly i n one hour, not too b a d l y , nor not too good, he stumbled i n t o a c a n a l and s t o p p e d . (153) B r y a k i n goes on t o say t h a t he i s s o r r y f o r Sharanov; he i s an i n d i v i d u a l of g r e a t v a l u e , he cannot f o r g e t h i m s e l f , and he cannot d i v e r t h i m s e l f i n l o v e a f f a i r s ,  ' i f behind  him  71  t h e r e i s an i r o n r o a d which must be l i f t e d t o the h e i g h t s . ' The man  i s completely  devoted to h i s work, but a t t h e  same time he i s a s p i n e l e s s i n d i v i d u a l matters.  (176)  concerning  He cannot conduct h i m s e l f a c c o r d i n g l y .  personal Nikiforov  p r e s e n t s him as the " p e r f e c t p a r t y member, i n c a p a b l e of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n " - a mechanical  individual.  Bryakin  any  tells  Sharanov. Break i t N i k i t a , to t h e d e v i l s ' mother w i t h i t , break the p a r t i t i o n w i t h i n y o u r s e l f . Beyond t h i s p a r t i t i o n you have a b o o k i s h p e r s o n who i s s i t t i n g and gnawing w i t h i n you. Throw out t h i s b o o k i s h i n t e l l e c t u a l and l e t i n a l l the l i f e g i v i n g p r o l e t a r i a t i t w i l l be b e t t e r f o r you. And then F a i k a w i l l come, and you w i l l embrace her w i t h a l l y o u r p l a i n n e s s . (194) But Sharanov does not want t o " r e l a x " or e l s e he i s afraid  to.  The man  has been too m e c h a n i c a l  l o s t h i s touch w i t h r e a l i t y and  too l o n g and  has  simple human emotions.  ... because he sees p r o d u c t i o n i n a l l i t s awareness, w i t h b u s i n e s s l i k e eyes, and you cannot h i d e a n y t h i n g from him .... ( 2 0 3 ) The  s t r u g g l e between F a i k a and her f a t h e r reaches i t s  climax during t h i s chapter.  The h a t r e d f o r her  intelligentsia  f a t h e r grows w i t h i n her to such a degree t h a t she t r i e s to murder him a t t h e b e g i n n i n g . individual  who  We  have the i n n e r s t r u g g l e of an  has not as y e t c o m p l e t e l y  " p r o l e t a r i a n i z e d " but  i s r e p u l s e d by the a c t i o n s of the o l d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a as a whole. She p r o j e c t s h e r s e l f even more toward the s o c i a l i s t p o i n t of  72  v i e w , a s s i m i l a t i n g t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of t h e c o u n t r y  while  a t t h e same time r e t a i n i n g much o f t h e o l d i n t e l l e c t u a l f e a tures.  F a i k a can be compared t o t h e growth o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a -  t i o n i n Russia.  As t h e c o u n t r y  e v o l v e s t o w a r d s o c i a l i s m , so does  F a i k a ; She a l s o must s t a r t from a new f o u n d a t i o n ,  she must  r e b u i l d h e r s e l f s p i r i t u a l l y , m o r a l l y , and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . She  has t h e fundamental b a s i s f o r t h i s development and o n l y  needs g u i d a n c e .  T h i s i s g i v e n t o her, to a degree, by  Solomina, h e r f r i e n d and a s t a u n c h P a r t y member, and by Bryakin.  But she o n l y g a i n s h e r knowledge  throughexperience.  I t i s s u r p r i s i n g how q u i c k l y she becomes o f a p r o l e t a r i a n n a t u r e when h e r s e l f p i t y and p r i d e have  vanished.  F a i k a r e a l i z e s t h a t Sharanov l o v e s her and makes t h e f i r s t move b u t a g a i n Sharanov remains immovable, a  staunch,  s o l i d , c o l d i n d i v i d u a l , who wants l o v e but doesn't know how t o go about p u r s i n g i t . F a i k a ' s a d m i r a t i o n f o r Sharanov g r a d u a l l y grows u n t i l her i n n e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t a l m o s t reaches a b r e a k i n g point.  Sharanov a l s o l o v e s F a i k a .  He o h l y c o n f e s s e s  this  when B r y a k i n f o r c e s him t o expose h i s weakness o f h e a r t and p o i n t s out h i s complete l a c k of e x p r e s s i v e  emotions.  B r y a k i n ' s p o s i t i o n i s t h a t of a m i d d l e man between F a i k a and Sharanov; an i n d i v i d u a l who r e a l i z e s t h e s i t u a t i o n b u t c o n t i n u e s to l o v e F a i k a s e c r e t l y  He i s aware of Sharanov's l o v e f o r  73  F a i k a and t h i s l o v e i s more p o w e r f u l to  than h i s can ever hope  be - so he t e l l s F a i k a . F a i k a s regenerative process T  i s now complete.  She has  become a p r o l e t a r i a n member, a member o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l unions,  and a c a n d i d a t e  f o r t h e Komsomol.  Bryakin notices  her p o p u l a r i t y w i t h t h e w o r k e r s , n o t o n l y a t t h e p r o j e c t , but a t t h e meeting, and a t t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r .  Faika i s  q u i c k l y a s s e r t i n g h e r s e l f i n t o t h e r o l e of a new S o v i e t woman, a l e a d e r i n h e r own r i g h t a b u i l d e r of t h e S o c i a l i s t  recon-  struction. A comparison can now be made of F a i k a , Seema, and Fedya. F a i k a , t h e o l d i n t e l l e c t u a l who has r e g e n e r a t e d  i n t o a new  member o f t h e S o v - i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , a p o t e n t i a l S o v i e t l e a d e r . Fedya i s a member o f t h e new c l a s s of i n d i v i d u a l s t h e lower b o u r g e o i s i e . ual,  As q u i c k l y as F a i k a became a "new" i n d i v i d -  Fedya degenerated.  Born of a p r o l e t a r i a n f a m i l y , Fedya had  a l l t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f r i s i n g w i t h i n i t s r a n k s , but i n s t e a d he f e l l l o w e r and lower, and had t o l o o k t o t h e lower bourg e o i s i e f o r h i s s e n s u a l f u l f i l l m e n t and s t i m u l a t i o n . Konstantinova w i t h her.  i s dragging  Sofia  him down i n t o complete degeneracy  I t seems t h a t he now o n l y l i v e s f o r t h e s e n s u a l  pleasures of l i f e . The t h i r d member o f t h e t r i a d i s Seema. she a p p e a r s as an a b l e - b o d i e d  Komsomolka.  Ostensibly  An i n d i v i d u a l  with  74  a purpose i n l i f e ,  according to Faika.  But as the n o v e l wears  on Seema s c h a r a c t e r t a k e s on an u n s t a b l e n a t u r e and T  she  even-  t u a l l y becomes a v a s c i l l a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l u n a b l e t o f i n d s e l f and her purpose i n l i f e .  her-  Her moral i n s t a b i l i t y i s shown  i n her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h P o k r o v s k y .  She  i s completely the a n t i -  t h e s i s of the supreme S o v i e t woman, the high i d e a l she out to a t t a i n i n h e r e a r l y l i f e .  She  can now  set  be c l a s s i f i e d  as an i n d i v i d u a l somewhere between F a i k a and Fedya.  Vascil-  l a t i n g f r o m s i d e t o s i d e t r y i n g to g e t the b e s t out of l i v e s and not s u c c e e d i n g  anywhere.  W i t h the c o n c l u s i o n of the second p a r t we now why  t h e H e g e l i a n term " A n t i t h e s i s " was  can  D u r i n g F a i k a s complete r e g e n e r a t i o n  presented  a p r o l e t a r i a n p o i n t o f view.  T  Nikiforov  Not o n l y were a l l of  subject matter p r o l e t a r i a n  compared w i t h the f i r s t p a r t , t h i s episode was  i n nature,  picture  but  i t s Antithesis.  The s i t u a t i o n s , the i n d i v i d u a l s , the problems p r e s e n t e d e v e r y t h i n g was  see  referred to i n t h i s  chapter.  h i s c h a r a c t e r s and  two  f o r m u l a t e d i n t h i s manner; t o p r e s e n t  -  the  of a complete and encompassing p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n  w h i l e c o n t r a s t i n g i t w i t h a few of t h e o l d i n t e l l e c t u a l s and t h e v a s c i l l a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s o f the new The  generation.  development o f the cause and t h e e f f e c t - t h e  s y n t h e s i s - can best be u n d e r s t o o d i n the t h i r d p a r t , - t h e I n t e l l i g e n t s i a episode.  The new  " S o v - i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " i s rep-  75  resented  i n F a i k a , an i n d i v i d u a l who has become a staunch  p a r t y member.  She h e r s e l f i s s l o w l y becoming a mechanized  i n d i v i d u a l , b u t a t t h e same t i m e she r e a l i z e s what i s happening. N i k i f o r o v presents  the p r o l e t a r i a n i n d i v i d u a l s from  p a r t two as t h e new S o v i e t p e o p l e .  They d i s p l a y human emot-  i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o a much g r e a t e r degree than t h e y previously did.  The o n l y i n d i v i d u a l who i s out of p l a c e i s  F a i k a - a Communist - d e d i c a t e d t o h e r work. becomes drab and l o n e l y .  But t h e n  life  The p o i n t t h a t N i k i f o r o v i s making  i s an o l d one. I t i s f i n e t o a s s i m i l a t e a p h i l o s o p h y  and a  way o f l i f e b u t one must have mutual l o v e and a f f e c t i o n i n i t also.  The human b e i n g t h r i v e s on t h i s .  The women answered  the c a l l of t h e P a r t y toward t h e r e s t o r a t i o n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n of s o c i a l i s t i n d u s t r y .  They gave a new upsurge i n l a b o u r  p r o d u c t i v i t y and i n t h e i r c r e a t i v e i n i t i a t i v e , b u t a t t h e same they had t o expect t o l o s e something, e v e r y t h i n g cannot be g a i n e d .  The d e s t r u c t i o n o f a l l t r a c e s o f i n e q u a l i t y o f  women and t h e i r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o a c t i v e b u i l d e r s o f t h e new s o c i e t y caused them to f o r f e i t t h e i r f e m i n i n e  q u a l i t i e s and i n  some i n s t a n c e s , t h e i r r e s p e c t among t h e men.  Nikiforov points  out t h a t t h e new S o v i e t woman should r e v e r t back t o b e i n g a woman and n o t a l i n k on a " p r o d u c t i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r he p r e s e n t s ian  chain".  the feminine  Consequently  s i d e of h i s p r o l e t a r -  t e c h n i c i a n s , t h e same t e c h n i c i a n s who were  "able-bodied  76  b u i l d e r s " o f S o c i a l i s m and l e a d e r s of t h e new c l a s s . Serdobova i s presented a life  of s e m i - s e p a r a t i o n .  as a m a r r i e d woman who l e a d s  She o n l y sees h e r husband  occasion-  a l l y , b u t then t h i s l e a d s t o a b e t t e r m a r r i a g e , as she p o i n t s out.  A t t h e same time N i k i f o r o v p o r t r a y s h e r as t r u l y  feminine was. was  i n n a t u r e and n o t t h e h a r d c o l d t e c h n i c i a n t h a t she  Solomina was a n o t h e r .  A t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t she  a l m o s t m a s c u l i n e i n h e r h a b i t s and conduct.  Now F a i k a i s  shocked t o s e e ... Solomina, a woman - an o r d i n a r y woman w i t h copious b r e a s t s .  (243)  A woman who has made a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  and a g a i n became a woman - she s a i d t h i s h e r s e l f . ... she l i v e d (226)  through i t a l l .  F a i k a r e a l i z e s h e r l o n e l i n e s s but i s a f r a i d t o t e l l anyone about i t . is lacking.  She f e e l s t h a t h e r l i f e i s empty, something  Bryakin probably  senses h e r l o n e l i n e s s and he .  compares l i f e t o a s m a l l stone, c o l d , hard, and b o t h are  very  much a l o n e . A cause has been put forward and now an e f f e c t must take p l a c e .  N i k i f o r o v presents the e f f e c t of l o n e l i n e s s t o  such a degree t h a t the r e a d e r  cannot h e l p b u t imbibe some o f  the i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s t h a t must have been p o u r i n g F a i k a ' s mind.  Not o n l y B r y a k i n s 1  through  statements b u t S o f i a ' s  l e t t e r t o F a i k a produce t h e utmost e f f e c t of sheer i s o l a t i o n . At t h i s c l i m a c t i c p o i n t Sharanov appears.  Nikiforov implies  77  t h a t Sharanov has heeded B r y a k i n ' s words and a complete r e g e n e r a t i o n has o c c u r r e d .  Sharanov has now become a member o f  t h e P r o l e t a r i a t and appeals t o F a i k a w i t h an open h e a r t . F a i k a has n o t o n l y overcome h e r i n i t i a l  h u r d l e of c a s t i n g  a s i d e t h e l i f e o f an i n t e l l e g e n t s i a and assuming t h e p r o l e t a r iat  c h a r a c t e r and d e v e l o p i n g  i n t o an ardent Communist, but a t  the same time she has matured i n and through l o v e , she does not r e a l i z e t h i s . a young g i r l  although  As S o f i a t o l d her when she was  still  ... when you l e a r n t o l o v e y o u r s e l f , t h e n and  o n l y t h e n w i l l you l o v e o t h e r s . (86)  F a i k a has l e a r n e d t o  l o v e h e r s e l f and through t h i s l o v e she had matured i n t o an i n d i v i d u a l t h a t knows no b o u n d a r i e s as f a r a s l o v e i s concerned f o r Sharanov.  A strong s p i r i t u a l regeneration,  w i t h a m o r a l and c l a s s r e g e n e r a t i o n h a s taken  together  place w i t h i n  Faika. N i k i f o r o v concludes from S o f i a K o n s t a n t i n o v a . a s e l f m o r a l i z i n g process. want o u t o f l i f e ?  the novel with a t e s t i m o n i a l  She s t a t e s t h a t she i s g o i n g  through  She a s k s h e r s e l f ... What do I  ... (245) and she cannot answer because she  does n o t know h e r s e l f .  F a i k a has found t h e r i g h t  life,  ... I knocked ... you d i d t h e r i g h t t h i n g F a v s t a , - you d i d n o t a l l o w a common i n d i v i d u a l i n t o your new l i f e . (245) S o f i a goes on t o s t a t e t h a t she does not have a t r u t h , a p h i l o s o p h y o f t r u t h t h a t she can l i v e and s e t h e r s t a n d a r d s  78  by. ... you have some s o r t o f t r u t h , but I have o n l y a t r u t h today - tomorrow i t i s not a t r u t h . F o r what t r u t h must you k i l l an i n d i v i d u a l ? ... I am d y i n g from t h e torment o f shame toward you, w i t h t h e knowledge t h a t I cannot be as you a r e . {21+5) S o f i a i s s l o w l y d y i n g w i t h i n h e r s e l f , an a g o n i z i n g s e l f r e p r o a c h i n g death. l i n e s s o f the w o r l d ,  She warns F a i k a of t h e b i t t e r l o n e -  of the f e a r t h a t i s i n one's h e a r t .  . . . I am q u i c k l y s e a r c h i n g f o r c o n s o l a t i o n , ... and b e f o r e t h e end, when t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i t seems t h a t you want c o n s o l a t i o n . (264) L i k e B r y a k i n , S o f i a compares l i f e  left,  t o a stone a t t h e  edge o f t h e s e a . ... And h e r e w i l l I l a y , on t h e shore o f t h e s e a , l i k e a g r e a t r o c k , open t o t h e waves and t h e sun. C e n t u r i e s w i l l pass, thousands, m i l l i o n s o f cent u r i e s ' . How many p e o p l e w i l l I see and hear? W i t h what k i n d o f l o v e , w i t h what d e s i r e s and s u f f e r i n g s ? (246) N i k i f o r o v concludes a bitter taste. Sofia?  h i s novel l e a v i n g the reader  Why s h o u l d l i f e be so h a r s h ?  with  And was i t t o  I t i s t r u e t h a t she d i d not belong t o t h i s s o c i e t y ,  but a t the same time t h e w o r l d i s f u l l o f S o f i a s i n each and every to  s o c i e t y , whether d e m o c r a t i c  say t h a t S o f i a d i d not belong,  belonged and Solomina and Seema.  or s o c i a l i s t .  I t i s wrong  she d i d , j u s t as F a i k a They a r e the v a r i o u s i n -  .  d i v i d u a l s t h a t make up t h e s o c i e t y - i t cannot be a l l F a i k a s and Dashas, but must be i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h Seemas, E l e n a s , and  79  I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e main themes brought out by t h i s n o v e l were important  i n 1929.  N i k i f o r o v presented  the v a r i o u s  problems f r o m a c r i t i c a l and n o n - c r i t i c a l p o i n t o f view.  He  d i s c u s s e d t h e s e problems o f t e n a s a s u b t l e a t t a c k upon t h e p a r t y , p o i n t i n g out i t s s h o r t c o m i n g s , or as a d i r e c t upon P a r t y p r i n c i p l e .  T h i s l a t t e r p o i n t i s best  from t h e p a r t y l i t e r a r y p r i n c i p l e s .  attack  exemplified  Here was a n o v e l t h a t was  i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p l a n s , but a t t h e same t i m e i t presented  " l i v i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y emotional  individuals".  People t h a t were t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e educated m i l i e u and not s t e r e o t y p e d  pre " p y a t i i l e t n y e " c a r i c a t u r e s .  The most i m p o r t a n t  p o i n t of t h e n o v e l was t h e r o l e o f  the t r a d e u n i o n and i t s g r e a t impact upon the P a r t y the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  N i k i f o r o v draws t h i s problem very  t o t h e r e a d e r s ' a t t e n t i o n through B r y a k i n . to the Party o f f i c i a l  during clearly  He i s made s u p e r i o r  Sharanov; e n a b l i n g N i k i f o r o v t o show  t h a t t h e P a r t y was a t o o l o f the t r a d e u n i o n s and t h e i r i t u d e toward the P a r t y .  att-  80  References 1.  Vyacheslov Z a v a l i s h i n , E a r l y Soviet Writers, York, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 3 2 7 .  (New  2.  Gleb S t r u v e , Twenty F i v e Y e a r s o f S o v i e t R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e (1918-1943). (London, 1946), p. 2 3 5  3.  A.M. Van Der Eng-Liedmeier, S o v i e t L i t e r a r y C h a r a c t e r s (The Hague, 1959), p. 75.  4.  G e o r g i i K. N i k i f o r o v , - The Woman, (Moscow, 1929), p. 4 5 . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s f r o m t h i s n o v e l w i l l be noted i n t h e t e x t o f t h i s c h a p t e r . A l l q u o t a t i o n s from t h e t e x t a r e t r a n s l a t e d d i r e c t l y by t h e w r i t e r o f t h i s paper.  81  Chapter "Into Upon p u b l i c a t i o n o f f o r o v was t a k e n t o t a s k Kulak  opposition'  faithful  the  by t h e P a r t y  Government  o p p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the v i l l a g e s  t h e power  of the whole peasant  fied  groups,  Kulaki  i n three  the  (Middle peasants)  who p o s s e s s e d  B o l s h e v i k s then  no c a t t l e  of  class  food  devised  for to  by d i v i d i n g  delegated  succeeded  (rich peasants),  communism i n t h e "loot  one  classi-  the  of g r a i n .  authority i n village seize  effectively  The s l o g a n o f  i n h a b i t a n t s were  or s t o r e s  from the r i c h e r peasants.  warfare"  the  and t h e p o o r p e a s a n t s B e d n i a k i ,  t h e p o o r who w e r e empowered t o  Bolsheviks  because of  break  p o p u l a t i o n i n t o s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s and s e t t i n g The v i l l a g e  cattle  coll-  had t o  A method was  the o t h e r .  those  the  being  o f t h e p e a s a n t s who p r o v i d e d t h e  group a g a i n s t  Seredniaki,  'underestimating  question.  t h e army a n d t h e c i t y p r o l e t a r i a t .  the v i l l a g e  Niki-  of the t r u t h concerning  and 1928 t h e S o v i e t  stubborn r e s i s t a n c e  neutralize  for  Once a g a i n N i k i f o r o v p a i d f o r  e c t i v i z a t i o n and t h e Kulak  the peasant  Wind"  HInto the Wind" i n 1931,  in his representation  I n 1927  III  any  The  affairs  to  surplus grain  or  By t h e s e m e a s u r e s i n p l a n t i n g i n the  the "class  villages. the  looters"  w i t h which r i c h  and  82  poor peasant a l i k e had j u s t i f i e d the s e i z u r e of l a n d from the  l a r g e landowners was now t u r n e d a g a i n s t many of t h o s e who  had a t f i r s t p r o f i t e d by i t .  The committees of t h e poor  worked w i t h a w i l l and w i t h i n a s h o r t time had brought about a s e r i o u s d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e and g r e a t h a r d s h i p s f o r a l l classes.  F o r t h e B o l s h e v i k s , however, t h i s d i d a c c o m p l i s h  one purpose.  The r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e w h i c h had t h u s been  t r a n s p o r t e d t o the v e r y h e a r t of the v i l l a g e community comp l e t e l y a b s o r b e d the powers of the whole peasant c l a s s , the  and  government was f r e e t o p r o c e e d w i t h o t h e r p l a n s . From the economic p o i n t o f v i e w t h e " d e k u l a k i z a t i o n "  o r d e r e d by the government, seemed t o be an a c t of c r u e l madness. The k u l a k s were t h e most e f f i c i e n t group among t h e whole ant  class.  peas-  To knock out t h i s m a i n s t a y of R u s s i a n a g r i c u l t u r e  seemed the c e r t a i n way t o b r i n g the whole s t r u c t u r e down i n ruins.  The k u l a k s were e l i m i n a t e d b e f o r e the c o l l e c t i v e s were  s t r o n g enough t o s u p p o r t the whole n a t i o n a l w e i g h t .  As a r e -  s u l t a g r i c u l t u r e was p l u n g e d once more i n t o chaos, and as p r o d u c t i o n slumped t o new lows the t h r e a t o f s t a r v a t i o n a g a i n hung o v e r t h e whole c o u n t r y . N i k i f o r o v p o r t r a y e d the peasant q u e s t i o n w i t h an a l a r m i n g amount of t r u t h and d i d not devote i t t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l phase of t h e F i r s t F i v e Year P l a n . more i d e o l o g i c a l p i t f a l l s  The theme p r e s e n t e d  f o r the n o v e l i s t than he had counted  on, but on t h e whole t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t i m e s i s p r e -  $3  s e n t e d from a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t p o i n t of v i e w . Z a v a l i s h i n p o i n t s out t h a t N i k i f o r o v saw d i f f e r e n c e of k i n d between the bedniaki.  the s e r e d n i a k i . , and  t h o s e who,  groups: 'those who  p o s t s i n the  N i k i f o r o v l i k e Leonov i n "The  Badgers,"  p r e s e n t e d c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n as a s t r u g g l e between t h e t h e m s e l v e s , t h a t i s , the  peasants  ' c o n s e r v a t i v e s ' , ( c o m p o s e d of the  remained on t h e l a n d and  p r i o r t o the r e v o l u t i o n , and the  p e a s a n t s who  the  c a r r y i n g P a r t y c a r d s as a reward f o r  S o v i e t government .  peasant groups) who  split  continued to t i l l  t h e i r s e r v i c e s d u r i n g the C i v i l War were g i v e n  before,  the  He t a k e s the stand t h a t t h e R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n  the p e a s a n t r y i n t o two s o i l , and  feulaks,  no  tilled  three  i t as  'progressives',  abandoned the l a n d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  those  state  -2  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as b u r e a u c r a t s or t e c h n i c i a n s . the s t r u g g l e w i t h i n a c l a s s of people, the s t r i f e ' d i d not bear any described  r e l a t i o n to the  Consequently  'fratricidal  class struggle  as  by Marx.^ The  i n t r a - c l a s s struggle, according  to Z a v a l i s h i n ,  dermined the n a t i o n s '  s t r e n g t h because of the f r a t r i c i d a l  t e n t i o n f o r power and  existence.  c o r r e c t then the government was w i t h t h e i r own  p l a n s . But  p e a s a n t r y , not  the b e d n i a k i  o f the t h r e e  groups.  If Nikiforov's thesis f r e e t o step i n and  the v i c t o r s would s t i l l be  un-  conwas  proceed the  nor the s e r e d n i a k i , but a m i x t u r e  84  The  value  o f t h i s book i s g r e a t l y i m p a i r e d  N i k i f o r o v developed the by mere h i n t s .  t h e s i s of  Often the  "Into  because  the Wind" f r e q u e n t l y  m e a n i n g must be  read between  the  lines. "Into  t h e W i n d " may  be  compared w i t h  Sholokhov's  " V i r g i n S o i l Upturned" only i n s o f a r as  i t presents  to c o l l e c t i v i z e the  their  any  p e a s a n t m a s s e s and  collectivization.  Sholokhov's novel  a g r i c u l t u r a l phase of t h e P l a n , but distinguished a r t i s t i c a l l y . seredniak,  and  was  effort  struggle  against  devoted to  the  i t i s e a s i l y t h e more  Sholokhov t r e a t s the  bedniak question  the  Kulak,  from a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t of  view  t h a n does N i k i f o r o v . According stratum, class.  were the The  'at the felt  e x p l o i t e r s and  cause of  had  the  t o be  collectivization.  wealthiest  l i q u i d a t e d as  the bedniaki The  crossroads  b e t w e e n c a p i t a l i s m and  greatest task  c o l l e c t i v e f a r m i n g was  he  was  placed  socialism'.^  s e r e d n i a k i emulated the k u l a k w h i l e  S t a l i n f e l t that  a  would  o v e r t h e s e r e d n i a k i , t h e m a j o r i t y , whom S t a l i n  t h a t the  them.  the Kulaks,  exploited semi-proletarians,  f l o c k t o the to win  to S t a l i n ,  He  exploited  needed to  se-  cure a t e c h n i c a l base f o r a g r i c u l t u r e s i m i l a r t o t h a t of i n dustry. It  i s on  the above note t h a t Sholokhov w r o t e h i s  Sholokhov's c o n t r i b u t i o n to winning the s t r u g g l e f o r al  collectivization  c a n be  a t t r i b u t e d t o the harsh  novel.  agricultur-  realities  85  o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t he p o r t r a y e d . i n t h e S o v i e t Union d u r i n g t h i s t i m e .  He d i d not l a c q u e r l i f e He d i d not s u b o r d i n a t e  h i s l i t e r a r y t e c h n i q u e f o r t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t but p r e s e n t e d t h e a c t u a l p h y s i c a l s t r u g g l e t h a t was p r e v a l e n t i n t h e Cossack v i l l a g e o f Gremachy Log where a c o l l e c t i v e farm was b e i n g s e t up. N i k i f o r o v drew R u s s i a as i t r e a l l y was d u r i n g t h e period of s o c i a l upheaval.  The c o n f l i c t s p r e s e n t e d a r e be-  tween t h e abandonment of o l d R u s s i a and t h e i n s t i g a t i o n of c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ; t h e complete d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e K u l a k s as a c l a s s and t h e e v e n t u a l semi-enforcement o f the s e r e d n i a k i and b e d n i a k i t o embrace a g r i c u l t u r a l ization.  collectiv-  N i k i f o r o v a l s o presented the " ' c i t y - v i l l a g e " question  i n which he showed t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e "sovkhoz"  and i t s de-  pendence upon t h e "zavod Stohod" f o r i n d u s t r i a l and economic a i d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n i n the r u r a l areas.  In  t u r n t h e c i t y was dependent upon t h e c o l l e c t i v e farms f o r i t s agrarian  necessities. As b e f o r e , N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t e d a v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u -  a l s who were e x p r e s s i v e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l t y p e s p r e v a l e n t a t t h i s time.  The "rags t o P a r t y r i c h e s " s t o r y of t h e b u r e a u c r a t -  t e c h n i c i a n Daniela O s s i n i n ; the agronom-technician  Victor  Suhorukov; t h e Komsomolka R a i s s a H v o r o s t i n i n a , t h e t h i r d memb e r o f t h e l o v e - t r i a d ; t h e c a t t l e h e r d e r ' Serafeema; t h e o l d P a r t y d i r e c t o r B o r o d i n ; t h e engineer V e t l u g i n ; t h e K u l a k s Kukuev  86  and P h i l i p Suhorukov, and an e x c e l l e n t c r o s s s e c t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t s t r a t a of peasants. N i k i f o r o v developed " V s t r e c h n i i V e t ' e r " i n comparison t o a wind storm.  G r a d u a l l y t h e wind develops f r o m an uneasy  breeze i n t o a v i o l e n t h u r r i c a n e .  F i n a l l y " a l l h e l l breaks  l o o s e " and a h o w l i n g g a l e sweeps a c r o s s t h e pages.  The r e a d e r  f e e l s t h e wind w h i s t l i n g around and through each l e t t e r , word.  each  Through t h e wind, N i k i f o r o v had succeeded i n impart-  i n g t o t h e r e a d e r n o t o n l y the p h y s i c a l s t r u g g l e but a l s o t h e p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s t h a t were p r e v a l e n t . The main p o i n t t h a t he was e x p r e s s i n g was t h e complete r e j e c t i o n by the k u l a k s of t h e S o v i e t p r i n c i p l e s of c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n and i n dustrialization.  The r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t a n y t h i n g and e v e r y -  t h i n g t h a t was s o c i a l i s t i n n a t u r e .  This was p r e v a l e n t not  o n l y among t h e p e a s a n t s b u t a l s o t h r o u g h o u t R u s s i a . ... Oh I know what you a r e t a l k i n g about D a n i e l a ! Twenty y e a r s I have s t u d i e d t h i s r e g i o n ; I know the 'Muzhik, I know t h e sap o f t h e l a n d , I know the s k y ; I have l i v e d t h r o u g h t h e movements o f t h e storm c l o u d s , I have f e l t t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e oncoming w i n d . * The on-coming wind? ... What do you want t o say, V i c t o r ? The on-coming wind i s n o t o n l y i n t h e f i e l d s , above a l l , i t i s l e s s i n t h e f i e l d s . Do you know o f t h i s ? ... The Kulak element...^ Through Suhorukov, N i k i f o r o v a l s o ' p r e s e n t e d t i o n of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a .  t h e ques-  Ossinin implies that the i n t e l l -  i g e n t s i a would not be a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h i s * my own u n d e r l i n i n g - S.R.  87  'on-coming wind'.  But Suhorukov  said:  ... I d i d n o t r e a l i z e you thought t h a t , t h a t some i n t e l l i g e n t s i a who doubted, whined, and complained a t the judgement had l o n g ago d i e d ? ... The ' i n t e l l i g e n t i k ' wed... - on t h e o t h e r hand the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i s l e f t , the a u t h e n t i c r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , - t h a t which t r a i n e d the p r o l e t a r i a t s t r i f e , i n s p i r e d i t , r e v e a l s b e f o r e i t , the manner o f i t s enemies. T h i s i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , D a n i e l a , i s not a f r a i d of any on-coming wind. ( 2 3 6 ) N i k i f o r o v brought f o r w a r d the c i t y - v i l l a g e problems. The n o v e l was w r i t t e n i n two main p a r t s .  The f i r s t  w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g of the sovkhoz ' K r a s n o p o l j e '  dealing  i n the v i l l a g e  and the d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h the p e a s a n t s ,  the kulaks  i n g e n e r a l ; and the second p a r t , w i t h the o p e r a t i o n of t h e factory  'Stohod' i n the c i t y .  N i k i f o r o v showed how t h e v i l l a g e  depended upon the c i t y f o r i t s i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t s factories.  Without equipment to c o n s t r u c t these  from the  sovkhozes  and produce a g r i c u l t u r a l implements, t h e c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n programme would not f u n c t i o n .  I n t u r n , the sovkhozes would  supply t h e c i t i e s w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l and d a i r y p r o d u c t s . the system would be an i n t e r - d e p e n d e n t the  Thus  one, each r e l y i n g on  other. The o t h e r p o i n t t h a t N i k i f o r o v emphasized was the  cohesion  of c i t i e s and v i l l a g e s i n t o one l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l and  a g r i c u l t u r a l area. point.  D a n i e l a and V i c t o r Suhorukov d i s c u s s e d  V i c t o r p o i n t s out t h a t a c e r t a i n ' C e n t r a l B l a c k  area must be c o n c e n t r a t e d  on,  this  Soil'  88  ... encompassing Voronezh, Tamkov, Penza. ... one end a t S t a l i n g r a d , t h e o t h e r a t Samar. The V o l g a forms t h e end of t h e o t h e r s i d e . - R e g i o n onel ... From here we w i l l s t a r t an a t t a c k i n g movement, f i r s t of a l l we w i l l s t r e n g t h e n our p o s i t i o n . We w i l l e l e c t r i f i c a t e macademize, c u l t i v a t e , i n d u s t r i a l i z e . ... I n one word, here w i l l l i e the h e a r t , which w i l l s u p p l y t h e n o u r i s h i n g power f o r t h e c o u n t r y . Here the b e s t f a c t o r i e s and machines w i l l be b u i l t , t h e C e n t r a l Committee w i l l g i v e t h e b e s t s t r e n g t h here ... (235)  Another f a c t o r ation the  c o n c e r n i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n was t h e adapt-  o f a l l people e i t h e r  i n t o sovkhoz or k o l h o z w o r k e r s and  a b o l i t i o n of p e a s a n t r y as a  class.  ... There i s no p e a s a n t r y ! T h i s must be changed. There a r e o n l y sovkhoz and k o l h o z workers - t h e most i m p o r t a n t w o r k e r s , t h e ones which we know a t the f a c t o r i e s , a t the m i l l s , a t the r a i l r o a d s . . . (79)  V i c t o r Suhorukov mentions b o t h o f t h e s e p o i n t s o f view to Raissa. ... I p l a c e d t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e peasant movement t o the k o l h o z e s i n our d i s t r i c t . I hold t h i s point of v i e w , t h a t p e a s a n t r y as a c l a s s must be a b o l i s h e d , o t h e r w i s e , we w i l l not surmount p r i v a t e ownership, a l l our governmental p l a n n i n g w i l l remain on p a p e r . ... M i l l i o n s of i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s must i n r e a l i t y f u s e w i t h m i l l i o n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l workers ... (154) With t h e a b o l i s h m e n t o f the p e a s a n t r y and o n l y an i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l group r e m a i n i n g , a more u n i f i e d stratum of i n d i v i d u a l s  w i l l be formed, t h e r e b y g i v i n g more  unified strength i n building  the S o c i a l i s t s t a t e .  I f the  two groups are formed then Suhorukov's p l a n s c o n c e r n i n g  89  g e n e r a l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r a l development would be r e a l i z e d . T h e r e f o r e N i k i f o r o v ' s i d e a of t h e c i t y - v i l l a g e can be e x p l a i n e d as a g e n e r a l economic and s o c i a l c o - o p e r a t i v e f u s i o n of b o t h i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y can f u n c t i o n hand i n g l o v e w i t h each o t h e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e S o v i e t S t a t e . The  second major i s s u e d i s c u s s e d by N i k i f o r o v was t h e  peasantry q u e s t i o n . picture.  He t r i e d t o p r e s e n t b o t h s i d e s of t h e  The P a r t y o f f i c i a l s a d v o c a t e d  complete  o f t h e peasants as a c l a s s and not as i n d i v i d u a l  abolition groups.  N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t e d t h e p e a s a n t s as a f o r c e a g a i n s t S o c i a l i s m , not as a u n i f i e d f o r c e , but one which was t o r n between c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n and p r i v a t e ownership.  The p e a s a n t r y  a g a i n s t any k i n d o f r e f o r m o r enforcement A b i t t e r resentment t h e sovkhoz.  toward  rebelled collectivization.  a r o s e when t h e y were s u b j e c t e d t o j o i n  N i k i f o r o v d i d n o t p r e s e n t t h e p e a s a n t r y as  b e i n g composed o f t h r e e separate groups b u t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n was t h a t t h e K u l a k s i n g e n e r a l must be d i s p o s s e s s e d , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y took m a t t e r s i n t o t h e i r own hands and burned t h e h a y s t a c k s on t h e c o l l e c t i v e  farm.  The k u l a k s were t h e f o r c i n g power behind t h e masses because they had t h e most t o l o s e .  They r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e  Communist t r o o p s were moving about t h e c o u n t r y s i d e b u r n i n g t h e homes and c o n f i s c a t i n g t h e i r p r o p e r t y .  90  The a t t i t u d e o f the p e a s a n t s t o t h e sovkhoz was one of complete i g n o r a n c e .  They f e l t t h a t they were b e i n g  cheated  and a t t h e same time c o u l d not see t h e b e n e f i t s t h a t would enable them t o l i v e a b e t t e r  life.  - The government has i t s own p l a n s c o n c e r n i n g the development of t h e l a n d , t h e peasant and t h e k u l a k t h e i r own ... - Then i t w i l l be our death V i c t o r S t e p a n o v i c h . - Then you v a i l have a f u l l l i f e , t o v a r i s h c h D j i n i n . I don't know i f you u n d e r s t a n d me or n o t , o n l y have f a i t h i n me; i f a l l t h e l a n d w i l l be c u l t i v a t e d . then you w i l l have a .prosperous f u l l l i f e . (50) But t h e peasants were always c o m p l a i n i n g .  The govern-  ment e v e n t u a l l y c o n f i s c a t e d t h e i r l a n d and t h e r e was n o t h i n g l e f t f o r them t o do b u t t o j o i n t h e sovkhoz.  N i k i f o r o v pre-  s e n t s a v i v i d and c o l o u r f u l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t r y throughout t h e e n t i r e n o v e l . D a n i e l a O s s i n i n can best be d e s c r i b e d as t h e " r a g s t o Party r i c h e s " i n d i v i d u a l . crat.  He r o s e from n o t h i n g t o a P a r t y bureau-  He can be compared w i t h Suhorukov o n l y by t h e f a c t t h a t he  ascended t h e s o c i a l s c a l e and had reached Suhorukov's p o s i t i o n on the i n d u s t r i a l l e v e l , r a t h e r than t h e a g r a r i a n .  But as f a r as  r e a c h i n g Suhorukov's i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l O s s i n i n was much As a n . i n d u s t r i a l i s t and P a r t y b u r e a u c r a t iov.  inferior.  he was s u p e r i o r t o Suhoru-  He was n o t t h e i d e o l o g i s t t h a t Suhorukov was, but a more  p r a c t i c a l person.  O s s i n i n was a f a i t h f u l p a r t y member ad-  v o c a t i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Soviet s t a t e through  collect-  91  i v i s m and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . As a c h i l d O s s i n i n wanted t o have m i l l i o n s .  He even-  t u a l l y reached t h a t g o a l . . . - I now have a m i l l i o n , ... and n o t o n l y m i l l i o n s , but hundreds of m i l l i o n s . ... We now have hundreds of m i l l i o n s . - Have you been t o t h e f a c t o r y ? Have you seen i t ? I t i s o n l y an i n s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t . (199)  O s s i n i n was one o f t h e s t e r o t y p e d S o v i e t heroes.  literary  He had r i s e n from t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , has spent time  i n j a i l , and i n g e n e r a l has reached t h e t o p o f t h e S o v i e t b u r e a u c r a c y t h e hard way.  H i s c a r e e r c o u l d a l m o s t be com-  pared w i t h t h a t of a W a l l S t r e e t t y c o o n .  An i n d i v i d u a l who  s t i l l r e t a i n e d a b i t o f t h e p a s t , enough so as not t o f o r g e t the t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s , t h e h a r d s h i p s t h a t made him t h e man he i s . i t p a r t y meetings he was an a b l e speaker, always prof e s s i n g S o c i a l i s m , C o l l e c t i v i s m and I n d u s t r i a l i s m .  He was  p o p u l a r w i t h t h e w o r k e r s and never once f o r g o t t h a t he worked as t h e y now do; a man n o t ashamed t o " r o l l up h i s s l e e v e s " and work w i t h t h e men.  O s s i n i n was a S o v i e t b u r e a u c r a t ,  a  t y p i c a l f l a w l e s s i n d i v i d u a l who f u r t h e r e d t h e P a r t y ' s cause t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s own.  The a n t i t h e s i s o f Sharanov, t h e s p i n e -  l e s s Soviet bureaucrat,  t o o p e r f e c t an i n d i v i d u a l , w h i l e  O s s i n i n - was a " S o v i e t Dynamo", an e f f i c i e n t t e c h n i c a l bureau-  92  c r a t b u t a t t h e same t i m e an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h human f e e l i n g s and d e s i r e s .  He was not the pure l i l y i n d i v i d u a l t h a t  Sharanov was, nor t h e l i c e n t i o u s b u r e a u c r a t  t h a t Bad'in  O s s i n i n was p r o b a b l y t h e t r u e s t type o f t e c h n i c a l t h a t N i k i f o r o v drew. a group of a m b i t i o u s  emotional  was.  bureaucrat  He was a member of t h e " P a r t - T y i s a c f a n y k h , " young men who went t o u n i v e r s i t y and were  groomed by the P a r t y f o r top government or i n d u s t r i a l p o s i t i o n s . They were t h e f u t u r e l e a d e r s of the c o u n t r y . of t h i s type o f i n d i v i d u a l was P o b e d i n o s i k o v  A n o t h e r example i n "Banja".  To complete t h i s p e r f e c t r o l e O s s i n i n was t h e " a s s a s i n " of 'Old R u s s i a ' , t h e b u r e a u c r a t  who w i l l s t o p a t n o t h i n g t o  f u r t h e r t h e cause of t h e new r e g i m e . ... I a s s a s s i n a t e d O l d R u s s i a , R a i s s a , d a r k , r a p a c i o u s o l d R u s s i a . (259) O s s i n i n was the t h i r d member of t h e l o v e t r i a n g l e between R a i s s a , Sukorukov, and h i m s e l f . i d e a l S o v i e t woman.  To him R a i s s a was t h e  She was a member of t h e Komsomol , an a b l e  i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a r a t h e r " f e m i n i n e " o u t l o o k on l i f e when comp a r e d t o N i k i f o r o v ' s o t h e r "new h e r o i n e s " .  She had b r o a d e r  views t h a n F a i k a P o k r o v s k y ; she was an emancipated S o v i e t Woman.  A woman of t h e t h i r t i e s , a P a r t y b u r e a u c r a t ,  F a i k a was g r a d u a l l y r e g e n e r a t e d  whereas  i n t o an emancipated woman.  R a i s s a c o u l d be compared t o Solomina, a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d S o v i e t t y p e of woman, one who b e l i e v e s i n a "a p r i v a t e l i f e " . speaking  Generally  R a i s s a f a l l s somewhere between F a i k a and Seema.  93  N i k i f o r o v was  f i n a l l y a b l e to produce the t r u e S o v i e t Woman.  Through the c h a r a c t e r of V i c t o r Suhorukov N i k i f o r o v presented  his psychological individual.  He was  not the  s t a b l e Chuvyakin nor the Ramzaev type o f p e r s o n . was  an i d e a l i s t , an i n t e l l e c t u a l i d e a l i s t .  become a b u r e a u c r a t i n g one,  as O s s i n i n was.  one of complete f u t i l i t y .  b e f o r e he s t a r t e d . pointless.  Suhorukov  He c o u l d  not  H i s r o l e -was a p e r p l e x The  Even h i s death was  N i k i f o r o v c r e a t e d a man  who  man  was f r u s t r a t e d  completely  futile  saw t h e  difficulty  i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l - i n d u s t r i a l bond. was  and  He  not a b l e to l e a v e the v i l l a g e and a t the same time  r e a l i z e d t h a t p r o g r e s s must o c c u r . new  un-  He wanted t o embrace the  regime w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  t o r n between two w o r l d s .  A  man  He r e a l i z e d the c i t y - v i l l a g e problem  and t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of each on t h e o t h e r .  But he  did  not, or p o s s i b l y c o u l d not t a k e a c t i o n i n h i s c o n v i c t i o n s . Suhorukov can be d e s c r i b e d as a S o v i e t man,  one who  thoughts.  superfluous  d i d not have the stamina to f o l l o w through on h i s  He l a c k e d the courage of h i s c o n v i c t i o n s .  In com-  p a r i n g him t o O s s i n i n N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s two d i s t i n c t l y erent i n d i v i d u a l s .  Suhorukov cannot be a b u r e a u c r a t  he l a c k e d f a i t h i n h i m s e l f . O s s i n i n had himself.  diff-  because  He c o u l d c o n t r o l h i m s e l f whereas  complete p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l s t a b i l i t y w i t h i n  Suhorukov was  i n t e l l i g e n t s i a who  an i n t e l l e c t u a l , a member of the  c o u l d not make the adjustment t o t h e  quick-  94 l y changing t i m e s .  He was more o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l i s t t h a n  O s s i n i n , a c a r e e r i s t . But because o f h i s f u t i l e a t t i t u d e and n a t u r e and t h e i n a b i l i t y t o comprehend t h e p r e s e n t  situation  h i s d e a t h was t h e o n l y l o g i c a l event t h a t c o u l d happen. Suhorukov and O s s i n i n c o u l d be compared t o Leonov's Skutarevsky  and h i s a i d e Cherimov. Both o f them were f r i e n d s  i n e a r l i e r l i f e , b o t h were educated and grew up together.'. Both had managed t o o b t a i n r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the Party.  Here t h e d i f f e r e n c e ends.  O s s i n i n ' s path  d i f f e r e d from t h a t o f Suhorukov. one  a s u c c e s s f u l bureaucrat,  w i t h an u n s t a b l e e m o t i o n a l  completely  Each went h i s s e p a r a t e way,  the other a successful technician nature.  Suhorukov's i n n e r c o n f l i c t a r i s e s from extreme emotiona l t e n s i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n .  He does n o t know h i m s e l f who he  l o v e s and who he does n o t l o v e .  During t h e f i r s t p a r t he  p r o f e s s e s a s t r o n g l o v e f o r R a i s s a , but when she appears h i s a t t i t u d e changes.  Meanwhile he had d e c l a r e d h i s l o v e f o r  Serafeema a c a t t l e h e r d e r  a t t h e sovkhoz.  Both women r e a l i z e Suhorukov's m e n t a l i n s t a b i l i t y , and o f course  t u r n t o someone e l s e .  Both a r e aware o f h i s  f r u s t r a t e d n a t u r e and t r y t o h e l p , but a t the same time f e e l i n g g r e a t p i t y f o r him. The  l o v e c o n f l i c t w i t h i n Suhorukov was enhanced when  R a i s s a was o b v i o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d i n O s s i n i n .  The pangs of  95  j e a l o u s y a r o s e w i t h i n him; g r a d u a l l y he grows t o d e s p i s e O s s i n i n , b u t a t t h e same time he took no a c t i o n a g a i n s t O s s i n i n nor Raissa.  The man's t h o u g h t s b o i l e d w i t h i n him  but he was i n c a p a b l e o f any p h y s i c a l or mental a c t i o n .  The  r e a d e r f e e l s t h a t he r e a l i z e s h i s n a t u r e b u t a c t i o n s f o r o r a g a i n s t t h e cause would be f u t i l e .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , Suhorukov  was d e f e a t e d b e f o r e he s t a r t s . The  l o v e t r i a n g l e between t h e i n d i v i d u a l was broken  when R a i s s a r e a l i z e s Suhorukov's s u p e r f l u o u s n a t u r e .  She  p r e f e r r e d O s s i n i n because o f h i s dynamic a c t i o n s and t h e a b i l i t y t o c a r r y out h i s c o n v i c t i o n s . F i v e Y e a r theme, N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t e d  I n keeping  with the  O s s i n i n as t h e hero of  i n d u s t r i a l l a b o u r , t h e r e f o r e R a i s s a "must" admire him because of h i s great p r o l e t a r i a n nature  and s o c i a l i s t  outlook.  In p a r t one a t t h e sovkhoz, N i k i f o r o v expressed t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Suhorukov and t h e k u l a k s .  Suhorukov was  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these men because o f h i s t i e s w i t h t h e o l d v i l l a g e and a l l i t s t o o d f o r .  N i k i f o r o v was a b l e t o show t h e  problems t h a t e x i s t e d among t h e K u l a k s and t h e p e a s a n t r y . Suhorukov spent much t i m e w i t h t h e p e a s a n t s t r y i n g t o persuade them t o j o i n t h e sovkhoz and a t the same t i m e he e x p l a i n e d t h e p l i g h t t o them.  The gap between the K u l a k s and t h e o t h e r pea-  s a n t s had widened. The former d i d not w i s h t o j o i n t h e sovkhoz because t h e y would l o s e e v e r y t h i n g t h a t they worked f o r , w h i l e  96  the o t h e r s began t o r e a l i z e t h e p o t e n t i a l of t h e  sovkhoz.  - Yes- i t has begun,, s a i d Suhorukov. - and comrade peasants i t w i l l o n l y end when you u n d e r s t a n d and master the p l a i n t r u t h , o n l y y o u r knowledge and your o r g a n i z e d s t r e n g t h can break the kulaks.- You must end t h i s war w i t h the k u l a k s , e q u a l i z e f r o n t s , u n i f y your power. (147) S u h o r u k o v s p o s i t i o n i n the second p a r t of the  novel  ?  was  not as i m p o r t a n t  ease i n a f a c t o r y .  as i n the f i r s t  because he was  His i n n e r emotional  not a t h i s  c o n f l i c t reached i t s  h e i g h t d u r i n g t h i s t i m e and h i s f r u s t r a t i o n s mounted t o such a l e v e l t h a t he l e f t f o r t h e v i l l a g e . was  In a sense, the v i l l a g e  a p l a c e o f s e c u r i t y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m f o r t f o r Suhorukov's d e a t h was  as f u t i l e as h i s l i f e  him. was.  A c t u a l l y N i k i f o r o v had no c h o i c e but to put him out of h i s misery.  I t c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d e n t i r e l y t o h i s  emotional  s t a t e which reached such p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t death was solution. symbolic  the  only  H i s death, by t h e hand of the g i r l he loved,was of t h e c o l l a p s e of t h e o l d i n t e l l e c t u a l regime and  the r i s e of the new  S o v i e t i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , a s t r a t u m of i n -  d i v i d u a l s a c t i n g on b e h a l f of the P a r t y c o m p l e t e l y a f r a i d t o pursue t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n s .  c l a s s i n t o the new  not  Through h i s d e a t h N i k i f o r o v  a l s o t r i e d t o show t h e c o l l a p s e o f the v i l l a g e , t h e of the p e a s a n t r y  and  adaptation  S o v i e t c l a s s o f workers  and the a l l embracing S o v i e t r e a l i t y e n g u l f i n g everyone. N i k i f o r o v presented  a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s who  97  were a s s o c i a t e d ' 1930's.  ing  w i t h the i n d u s t r i a l processes  The c h a r a c t e r o f t h e e n g i n e e r  d u r i n g the e a r l y  V e t l u g i n i s an i n t e r e s t -  one because he can be compared w i t h P o k r o v s k y , a t t h e same  time d i s p l a y i n g one o f t h e main q u a l i t i e s o f Ramzaev - t h e a b i l i t y t o o r g a n i z e the i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s  and d i s p l a y a  keen i n t e r e s t i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . V e t l u g i n was a member of the o l d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a a i d e d t h e P a r t y d u r i n g the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d s . P o k r o v s k y , he was an a b l e e n g i n e e r ing  who  Like  i n h i s own r i g h t , d i s p l a y -  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t were l a c k i n g i n t h e new S o v i e t t e c h -  nicians. H i s most o u t s t a n d i n g  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was h i s g r e a t  a b i l i t y t o o r g a n i z e and t a k e command of the c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n s o f . f a c t o r i e s d u r i n g t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and F i v e Year periods.  L i k e Ramzaev h i s mind f u n c t i o n e d as a machine d i s -  p l a y i n g a g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and t e c h n i c a l fields.  He was s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d and the  w o r k e r s e v e n t u a l l y admired and r e s p e c t e d him.  He worked i n  R u s s i a because - I agreed - and w i l l work. Where can I work i f not i n R u s s i a , lam an e n g i n e e r . ... What a r e you s a y i n g t o me, you, o l d m a s t e r ? ... Oh p a t r i o t i s m ? I a c c e p t t h i s summons! Yes, and p a t r i o t i s m . . ... I want t o be v i c t o r i o u s over the work and the w o r k e r s . (18*5) V e t l u g i n was a b l e t o cope w i t h the work.  Whether  or  98  not he was v i c t o r i o u s over the l a b o u r e r s or t h e y over him i s not made c l e a r .  But V e t l u g i n was s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s j o b and  the P a r t y w i t h him. The s e c r e t a r y o f t h e sovkhoz, Shementov can be comp a r e d w i t h Serdobova,  t h e p a r t y s e c r e t a r y i n "The Woman".  Both t y p e s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f P a r t y members who were semiliterate.  Shementov was p r o b a b l y a s e m i - l i t e r a t e worker who  j o i n e d the P a r t y .  He r e p r e s e n t s t h e type of i n d i v i d u a l s who  were on f a c t o r y committees,  l o c a l c o u n c i l s and o t h e r j o b s  d u r i n g t h e t w e n t i e s and t h i r t i e s u n t i l f o r m a l l y  educated  P a r t y members stepped i n and took o v e r . The d i r e c t o r of t h e f a c t o r y "Stohod", M i k h a i l B o r o d i n i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e and can be compared w i t h t h e exd i r e c t o r Chuvyakin i n " B e s i d e t h e S t r e e t Lamp". B o r o d i n was a man who b e l i e v e d i n h i m s e l f and f e l t t h a t he was  infallible.  His  p o s i t i o n was of extreme importance but he passed t h e p l a n s  for  a ridiculous invention.  O s s i n i n heard o f t h i s from t h e  Komsomol members and i m m e d i a t e l y t o o k a c t i o n . d i s m i s s e d and sent t o work somewhere e l s e .  B o r o d i n was  Nikiforov presents  an ego c e n t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l who f e e l s t h a t t h e P a r t y w i l l  call  him back. .. .Do you t h i n k t h a t t h e y can g e t a l o n g w i t h o u t me? Nonsense, b r o t h e r , I don't b e l i e v e i t . I went t o t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s c h o o l , I was hardened. I f they are g o i n g t o use f o r p r o d u c t i o n , then t h e y might as w e l l get r i d of the o t h e r s . ( 2 4 6 )  99  Defeat m i s s a l worse.  i s d i f f i c u l t to t a k e , and d i s h o n o u r a b l e B o r o d i n was  dis-  reduced to drunken i n d i v i d u a l  s t i l l b e l i e v i n g i n h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s , not f a c i n g up t o r e a l i t y . In a drunken stupour he t e l l s h i s w i f e  ...  - They w i l l c a l l y e t , Manusha! l e s , Yes, don't t h i n k what you a r e t h i n k i n g . ... They have a l r e a d y t o l d me: "come M i s h a . I n two or t h r e e months you w i l l have a good p o s t ! " They s a i d t h i s Manusha, I a s s u r e you w i t h c l e a r communist words. But I w i l l improve them, I w i l l ask them a g a i n . I know my own importance and w i l l n o t take a demotion. No B o r o d i n can i n s i s t . Let the o t h e r s bow t o the b u r e a u c r a t s and s e r v e them, I w i l l not agree, w i l l not agree, Manusha, and t h a t ' s final! (253) Another problem t h a t N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s i s the a b i l i t y of S o v i e t R u s s i a to overcome and  surpass the  United  S t a t e s . A u t h o r s were r e q u i r e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s theme i n t o t h e i r n o v e l s and compare the growth of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n R u s s i a t o t h a t of t h e Western Hemisphere. was  The g e n e r a l i d e a  t o show the super advancement of a P r o l e t a r i a t s t a t e over  the C a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s .  N i k i f o r o v showed how much freedom  was a l l o w e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s through a d i s t o r t e d m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of American i n d u s t r y . a l l o t t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s who writes Nikiforov.  ' M i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s are  have s c a t t e r b r a i n e d i d e a s '  (224)  Through the l a b o u r e r Mamahin, N i k i f o r o v  p o i n t s out t h a t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i f you have a "head on your s h o u l d e r s then they w i l l "Rush" out w i t h b i l l i o n s of dollars t o a i d you i n your scheme. The  i d e a of s u r p a s s i n g the w e s t e r n hemisphere  has  100  always been o f p r i m a r y  concern to the S o v i e t Union.  f o r o v b r i n g s t h i s p o i n t o u t i n "The of. m i n o r c o n s e q u e n c e a t t h e t i m e , " U n i t y " ; but  He  and  i s not  Nikiforov continues  proletariat,  novel  that everything i s  enough i n d i v i d u a l  to present  was  attacking  freedom.  his professional lab-  F o l l o w i n g i n t h e f o o t s t e p s o f C h e s s o s o v and  i s E p i m o v , an  i t  i n his industrial  gives the impression  s t a t e c o n t r o l l e d and t h e r e  ourer.  Woman", a l t h o u g h  i n t h i s n o v e l N i k i f o r o v c o u l d a l s o be  Soviet Russia.  Niki-  outspoken l a t h e - o p e r a t o r , the  Bryakin  spokesman f o r t h e  the defender of s o c i a l i s m , the type  of the  Soviet  regime. - Workers, P r o l e t a r i a t of a l l c o u n t r i e s ! ... L i s t e n h e r e , I w i l l c r o s s - e x a m i n e e v e r y t h i n g c l e a r l y . Now, w h i c h o f you w o r k e d w i t h a w l s b e f o r e t h e war, who owned t h e i r own f i r m ? L i f t up y o u r h a n d s . None? T h a t i s g o o d ! ... I n d i f f e r e n t ? ... Nony y o u n g comrade, we w i l l s a y f a l s e h o o d , d e c e i t a b o u t a l l ! Now, a s k me how many m e r c h a n t s worked i n the f a c t o r i e s f o r d e f e n c e were saved from the war? Here i s y o u r on-coming w i n d ! The r e v o l u t i o n came up t o t h e g a t e s o f t h e f a c t o r i e s and t h e y o u n g m e r c h a n t s who f l e d t o t h e i r s h i p s d i d n o t h a v e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o them, b u t we won't t a l k o f t h i s . (244)  E p i m o v was oped t h o r o u g h l y son was  an  i n each n o v e l .  reached i n the  last novel.  i n d i v i d u a l t h a t N i k i f o r o v had  "The  T h i s w i l l be  The  climax of t h i s  Mastercraftsmen",  type  develof  Nikiforov's  discussed i n the next  N i k i f o r o v d i s c u s s e s the great d e t a i l .  The  now  chapter.  question of the Kulaks  m a i n p o i n t o f " I n t o t h e W i n d " was  the  in  per-  101  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e K u l a k s and t h e i r p o s i t i o n d u r i n g t h i s time.  U n l i k e Sholokhov, N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s h i s Kulaks on a  sympathetic  note.  After a l l ,  they were a l s o human b e i n g s and  not animals a s Sholokhov i m p l i e d .  N i k i f o r o v added a p e r s o n a l  t o u c h and drew them i n a f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t .  T h i s o f c o u r s e was  against a l l Party r e g u l a t i o n s . The two main K u l a k s , Kukuev and D j i n i n were r i c h and p o w e r f u l men.  Both were bothered by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y had  worked h a r d a l l t h e i r l i v e s t o o b t a i n t h e i r r i c h farms and now t h e Communists want t o c o n f i s c a t e e v e r y t h i n g and p o r a t e t h e i r l a n d s i n t o t h e sovkhoz.  Consequently  dncor-.  t h e r e was n o t  too much t h a t c o u l d be done except keep up a r e s i s t a n c e f o r as l o n g as p o s s i b l e . Kukuev r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p e a s a n t r y t h a t was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e sovkhoz b u t r e a l i z e d t h a t e v e n t u a l l y hs would lose to i t .  H i s brother P h i l i p a f a n a t i c a l i n d i v i d u a l rep-  r e s e n t e d t h e o t h e r p e a s a n t r y f o r c e t h a t was c o m p l e t e l y opposed to any c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n a t a l l . raiders.  They o n l y advocated  They were t h e b a n d i t s , t h e  p r i v a t e ownership.  Philip,  t o g e t h e r w i t h D j i n i n and o t h e r s h i d i n t h e woods w i t h t h e i r grain.  They d i d not want t h e sovkhoz and t h e government agents  to c o l l e c t i t as p a r t of t h e i r t a x l e v y . Through Kukuev, N i k i f o r o v g i v e s an e x c e l l e n t l i t e r a r y account  i n t o t h e l i v e s o f t h e K u l a k s , how they oppose c o l l e c t -  102  i v i z a t i o n ; how  t h e y h i d e t h e i r g r a i n ; t h e i r s e c r e t meetings  and many o t h e r d e t a i l s t h a t Sholokhov does not show.  Nikifor-  ov a l s o d i s c u s s e s the r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g t h a t i s p r e v a l e n t among the K u l a k s .  They have a s t r o n g f a i t h i n God.  Together  w i t h t h e i r f a i t h they b e l i e v e i n hard p h y s i c a l work and  feel  g r e a t l y rewarded, not only s p i r i t u a l l y but p h y s i c a l l y when the t a s k s are a c c o m p l i s h e d . E v e n t u a l l y Kukuev l o s t h i s farm and was i n t o t h e sovkhoz.  incorporated  N i k i f o r o v does not d e s c r i b e Kukuev's a c t i o n s  from t h i s time on, u n t i l an announcement appears t h a t he been f r e e d from the sovkhoz and was  not d e s t r o y e d .  can r e t u r n t o h i s home w h i c h  The a r t i c l e goes on t o say t h a t he  been " l i q u i d a t e d as a c l a s s " and  has  now  had  has t h e r i g h t to go any-  where i n R u s s i a , or e l s e r e t u r n t o h i s untouched home. Presenting, the K u l a k s i n t h i s way N i k i f o r o v ' s p o p u l a r i t y w i t h i n the P a r t y .  d i d not He had  increase  shown them  as a c l a s s not h a r m f u l t o t h e P a r t y , o n l y r e b e l l i o u s a g a i n s t any c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n . and p r o b a b l y was  e a s i l y put down by t h e Red Army.  Serafeema was in this novel. i g i n a l l y she was  T h i s r e b e l l i o u s n e s s c o u l d have been  She was  N i k i f o r o v ' s f r u s t r a t e d feminine a c a t t l e h e r d e r a t t h e sovkhoz.  personage Or-  of Kulak p a r e n t a g e but she d i d not know t h i s .  Kukuev o n l y r e v e a l s t h i s when he f i n d s a d i a r y i n h i s mausoleum where he s t o r e s h i s g r a i n .  Serafeema i s a l o s t  individual.  103  She thought she was i n l o v e w i t h Suhorukov b u t a t the same t i m e she was i n l o v e w i t h P h i l i p . Serafeema was an i n d i v i d u a l whose m e n t a l i t y b o r d e r e d on the b o u n d a r i e s of h y s t e r i a .  Eventually  she goes mad when P h i l i p i s shot but u n t i l t h i s moment, Niki f o r o v p o r t r a y s h e r as s l o w l y m e n t a l l y d e g e n e r a t i n g .  She  seems t o always be i n a m o r b i d , depressed s t a t e o f mind. Suhorukov h e r f r u s t r a t i o n s r e a c h snaps when P h i l i p i s k i l l e d . she does not r e c o g n i z e  Like  such a c l i m a x t h a t h e r mind  Upon meeting Suhorukov l a t e r ,  him a t f i r s t .  Her mind s t o p p e d a t  P h i l i p s s death, she does not remember a n y t h i n g p a s t T  that.  Suddenly she r e a l i z e s who he was and m o r t a l l y s t a b s him w i t h a  scythe. N i k i f o r o v ' s c h a r a c t e r s were a l l beyond t h e l i m i t o f  P a r t y d i c t a t e , as was h i s s u b j e c t . was c o m p l e t e l y  He p r e s e n t e d  a topic that  i n o p p o s i t i o n t o Sholokhov and t h e other w r i t e r s .  He wrote t h e t r u t h as he saw i t and was not concerned w i t h d e s c r i b i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n as seen through the P a r t y eyes.  One  of t h e main p o i n t s i n q u e s t i o n t h a t he brought out i n t h e end was t h e death o f t h e o l d decadent regime.  T h i s was a  sub-theme t h a t N i k i f o r o v developed throughout t h e n o v e l and i t was p o r t r a y e d  a g a i n s t t h e on-coming new regime,  g l o r i f y i n g the Party.  thereby  104  "Unity" N i k i f o r o v was  s e v e r e l y t a k e n t o task by the Communist  P a r t y f o r d a r i n g to w r i t e such a n o v e l as " I n t o the Wind". His o f f e n s e was  a l l the more r e p r e h e n s i b l e i n t h a t he was  not  a peasant w r i t e r , but an o l d worker i n the r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement and a Communist s i n c e 1917."*" N i k i f o r o v h a s t i l y wrote an e x t r e m e l y bad  novel  " U n i t y " ( l e d i n s t v o ) , to r e g a i n h i s r e p u t a t i o n ; w i t h i n t h e P a r t y . " U n i t y " was  w r i t t e n i n 1933-an.d can be. .considered  as v e r y  rep-  r e s e n t a t i v e of the l i t e r a t u r e of the l a s t stages of the F i v e Year P l a n .  I t meets t h e b a s i c p o l i c y put f o r w a r d by the  lit-  e r a r y d i c t a t e s of t h a t time, t h a t i s , i t adheres to the theme of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of R u s s i a . e r a r y achievement i t f a i l e d , but aganda n o v e l .  The  of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was  Five  r e a s o n t h a t he f a i l e d i n h i s p o r t r a y a l because he t r i e d t o adapt h i m s e l f  i n t o t h i s sphere of " p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n " of the  country.  not a "hack w r i t e r " of i n d u s t r y and p r o d u c t i o n  or p r o c e s s e s .  lit-  succeeded as:a P a r t y prop-  N i k i f o r o v wrote i n t h e t r a d i t i o n of the  Year P l a n w r i t e r s .  was  As a  He p r e s e n t e d  He  quotas  h i s c h a r a c t e r s as " l i v i n g  o g i c a l i n d i v i d u a l s " . They a r e absent i n t h i s n o v e l .  psycholInstead  he developed t h e theme of c o n s t r u c t i o n i n C e n t r a l A s i a t i c Russia.  He d e s c r i b e d the backwardness and  s l o v e n l y methods  employed p r i o r to r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . W i t h t h e i n s t i g a t i o n of S o v i e t r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s t h e r e was  a great  "awakening"  10$  w i t h i n t h i s area.  N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s the tempo o f t h e  c o n s t r u c t i o n , the p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e enthusiasm, and o b j e c t i o n s of the A s i a t i c R u s s i a n s  who  the  lived i n this region.  Complete i n d i v i d u a l s are l a c k i n g w i t h i n t h i s  novel  because of the importance of the p o s i t i o n of the c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l development.  A l l the characters are  and developed around t h i s theme. subordinate  centered  They are p r e s e n t e d  or even secondary t o i t .  as b e i n g  I n . r e a l i t y , the  i d u a l was made to f e e l t h i s s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e S o v i e t Union.  industrializaEverything  everyone was s a c r i f i c e d f o r the b e n e f i t of b u i l d i n g a state.  indiv-  and new  In h i s p r e v i o u s works, N i k i f o r o v p o r t r a y e d h i s  c h a r a c t e r s as b u i l d e r s of a new  s o c i e t y t h a t was  g e t h e r w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new  evolving to-  s t a t e . " U n i t y " sac-  r i f i c e s c h a r a c t e r development and p r e s e n t s the t y p i c a l  propa-  ganda - n o v e l of the N.E.P.and F i r s t F i v e Year P l a n . T h i s complete s u b o r d i n a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l was theme t h a t was  used by many S o v i e t w r i t e r s a t t h i s time.  a The  e n t i r e mass of t h e U.S.S.R.'s p o p u l a t i o n had been c a l l e d upon to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the b u i l d i n g of a new c u l t u r e , ... Hence, each and everyone of us i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e r r o r s , shortcomings, s p o i l a g e i n p r o d u c t i o n , and a l l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . o f p h i l i s t i n e v u l g a r i t y , meanness, c u p l i c i t y and u n s c r u p u l o u s n e s s . T h i s means t h a t our c r i t i c i s m must be genuine s e l f - c r i t i c i s m , t h a t we must evolve a system of s o c i a l i s t e t h i c s t o r e g u l a t e our work and mutual r e l a t i o n s . 0  106  Maxim Gork3>" g o e s on t o the  F i r s t A l l Union Congress  1934, the  that  Like  all  in his  participate  enthusiasm  and s t r o n g  will  works.  a similar  The i d e a o f  of the people  into the S t a l i n g r a d t r a c t o r  construction which.eclipses  plant.  an  At  and t h e n  the  to  Pogodin introduced  he was h o r r i f i e d by R u s s i a n s l o v e n l y methods by t h e tempo o f  only  l i t e r a r y members and o f t h e i r  an A x e " and " T e m p o " .  to  17,  s u b o r d i n a t i o n of not  i n this reconstruction.  American engineer  delivered  W r i t e r s , August  N i k i f o r o v , N i k o l a y Pogodin expressed "Poem a b o u t  embracing  i n h i s address  Soviet  t h e r e must be c o m p l e t e  i n d i v i d u a l but of the  theme  of  say  first  amazed  a l l American  re-  cords. Nikiforov the people Central  himself  pictures  i n b u i l d i n g the r a i l r o a d through the  Russia.  But beneath  this  mains t h e u n r e s t  and b i t t e r n e s s  of the T a r t a r s .  But over  the p r o l e t a r i a n element.  l a c k i n g and a d i r e c t  consists  desert  enthusiasm there  toward the  Communists b y  T h i s i s done w i t h l i t t l e t h i s type  approach  a definite  M a r x i a n p h i l o s o p h y of t h e U n i v e r s a l v i c t o r y  plot  is  o v e r C a p i t a l i s m i s t h e m a i n theme  o f most o f  des"Unity"  speeches.  of  the  these  some  success.  and p r i n c i p l e s .  and p r o p a g a n d a  re-  portray  i s used i n g i v i n g v i v i d  of c o n s t r u c t i o n techniques of many mass m e e t i n g s  in  still  a l l , N i k i f o r o v manages t o  As i n a l l w o r k s o f  criptions  the great p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  The  Proletariat meetings.  107  Fellow workers I M a t e r i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e ; t h e events appear t o be t h e n e c e s s a r y o b l i g a t i o n o f each c o n s c i o u s c i t i z e n o f t h e Union o f S o v i e t S o c i a l i s t s Republic. The growth of t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement throughout t h e w o r l d and the d e c a y i n g o f the b o u r g e o i s i d e a l o g y , as i f i t were o b s o l e t e , appears t o be an u n q u e s t i o n a b l e p r o o f t h a t t h e cen- • t u r y of t h e supremacy of t h e c a p i t a l i s t i c system, the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c a t t i t u d e , i s a p p r o a c h i n g i t s l o g i c a l c o m p l e t i o n . ... A new f o r c e i s coming i n t o the w o r l d - t h e p r o l e t a r i a t . I t w i l l reconstruct the w o r l d , i t w i l l change t h e f a c e of t h e e a r t h . . . ^ The managers and d i r e c t o r s a r e no l o n g e r i n d i v i d u a l s but mechanical r o b o t s devoted t o i n d u s t r y , t o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , and t o t h e P a r t y .  They h o l d t h e P a r t y i n such esteem t h a t one  f e e l s they worship i t . country  T h e i r p a t r i o t i s m not only t o t h e  but t o t h e P a r t y i s a s t o u n d i n g .  o p p o s i t i o n toward the b u r e a u c r a t i c  There i s no outspoken  or t e c h n o c r a t i c  institutions  as t h e r e ifas i n "The Woman" o r " I n t o t h e Wind". The  r o l e o f f o r e i g n e n g i n e e r s was a l s o a common f e a -  ture i n Soviet l i t e r a t u r e .  Pogodin's American engineer  an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n "Tempo".  Pogodin u t i l i z e d him i n com-  p a r i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f S o v i e t i n d u s t r y to American. f o r o v ' s German e n g i n e e r s a r e a b l y drawn i n d i v i d u a l s . p r e s e n t e d them as c o m p l e t e l y  played  NikiHe  i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r work but a t t h e  same time t h r o u g h them he showed t h e e q u a l i t y and o r supremacy of R u s s i a n i n d u s t r y as compared to European and American i n dustry.  The g e n e r a l  tendency t o use f o r e i g n a i d and t e c h n i c a l  a d v i c e was p r a c t i s e d i n t h e U.S.S.R. p r i o r t o and d u r i n g period.  this  D n i e p o s t r o i Dam, one o f t h e l a r g e s t dams i n t h e w o r l d  108  was c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h f o r e i g n a i d and f o r e i g n t e c h n i c i a n s d u r i n g t h e F i r s t F i v e Year P l a n . Throughout t h e n o v e l N i k i f o r o v t r i e d t o prophesy the connection  o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l to s o c i a l i s t r e a l i s m .  T h i s image  was not s u c c e s s f u l because N i k i f o r o v c o u l d not adapt nor proj e c t h i m s e l f t o r e f l e c t t h e s o c i a l i s t r e a l i t i e s and s o c i a l i s t i c m e n t a l i t y t h a t was put f o r t h by P a r t y d i c t a t e . c o u l d o n l y show t h e t r u e r e a l i s m t h a t was p r e s e n t , f a l s e g l o s s y e f f e c t t h a t was expected by the P a r t y . saw t h e P a r t y , i t s b u r e a u c r a t s  He  not the Nikiforov  and t e c h n i c i a n s f o r what t h e y  were and n o t what t h e P a r t y wanted t h e w r i t e r s to show. N i k i f o r o v s s p e c i a l t y was t h e p o r t r a y a l o f t h e " L i v i n g i n d i v i d u a l " , t h e underlining a t t a c k s upon P a r t y p r i n c i p l e s and systems, and c l a s s c o n f l i c t s , r a t h e r than d e s c r i p t i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s and  techniques.  109  Referenc es 1.  Vyacheslav Z a v a l i s h i n , " E a r l y Soviet  Writers",  (New York, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 3 2 7 . 2.  I b i d 1.  3. 4.  I b i d 1, a summary o f Z a v a l i s h i n ' s s t a t e m e n t s . E r n e s t J . Simmons, " R u s s i a n f i c t i o n and S o v i e t I d e o l o g y , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o F e d i n , Leonov, and Sholokhov", (New York, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 2 2 2 .  5.  G e o r g i i N i k i f o r o v , " I n t o t h e Wind ", (Moscow-Leningrad, 1 9 3 1 ) , p. 2 3 4 . T r a n s l a t e d and quoted d i r e c t l y . The quotes h e r e a f t e r w i l l appear t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r page numbers i n t h e t e x t of t h i s  6. 7. 8.  chapter.  I b i d 1, p. ' 3 2 8 . Maxim Gorky, "On L i t e r a t u r e " , s e l e c t e d a r t i c l e s , (Moscow), pp. 2 5 5 - 6 . G e o r g i i N i k i f o r o v , " U n i t y " , (Moscow, 1 9 3 3 ) , p. 9 7 . T r a n s l a t e d and quoted d i r e c t l y . The quotes h e r e a f t e r w i l l appear t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r page numbers i n the t e x t of t h i s c h a p t e r .  110  CHAPTER "The  IV  Mastercraftsmen"  A f t e r the completion of "Unity", N i k i f o r o v s repuT  t a t i o n was t e m p o r a r i l y r e s t o r e d and t h e a c c u s a t i o n s a g a i n s t him were g i v e n some weight by h i s w r i t i n g s from  1933-1936.  These d e a l w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e l a b o u r movement i n R u s s i a , and i n c l u d e "Gray Days", " T h i r t y - t h r e e Adventures", S p r i n g " , and a n o v e l , . "The M a s t e r c r a f t s m e n " ,  1  "Belated  written during  1935-36.  The h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e n t i n a l l of t h e s e n o v e l s c o u n t e r t o t h e B o l s h e v i k attempt  t o f a l s i f y Russian  history,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the h i s t o r y o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement. "The M a s t e r c r a f t s m e n "  runs  In  N i k i f o r o v made use o f t h e p a s t t o c r i t i -  c i z e contemporary S t a l i n i s t R u s s i a . T h i s c r i t i c i s m o f h i s c o u n t r y emerged f r o m h i s compl e t e disillusionment o f Soviet r e a l i t y ,  N i k i f o r o v ' s l a s t novel  p r e s e n t e d a panorama of the p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e bound t o g e t h e r through p h i l o s o p h i c a l - s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s problems overshadowed by h i s r e a l i s t i c symbolism and o b j e c t i v i t y . The  i n d i r e c t a t t a c k a g a i n s t S t a l i n i s t R u s s i a was  launched through a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y E u s s i a .  Through t h e development  o f t h e i d e a l i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y , whether p h i l o s o p h e r o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y , N i k i f o r o v was a b l e t o p r e s e n t t h e c o n d i t i o n s and t h e  Ill  i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t were p r e v a l e n t i n S o v i e t R u s s i a d u r i n g t h e 1920s  and 1 9 3 0 s .  He a t t a c k s t h e v e r y core of t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n  government. T h i s n o v e l p r e s e n t s t h e c l i m a c t i c development of Nikiforov s idealistic personality. T  An i n d i v i d u a l t h a t was  g r a d u a l l y b u i l t up i n "The Woman" and " I n t o t h e Wind" and "matured" i n "The M a s t e r c r a f t s m e n " .  Also, Nikiforov f i n a l l y  reaches t h e u l t i m a t e stage o f c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n h i s i d e a l type o f l a b o u r e r and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y . The theme o f t h e n o v e l i s not o n l y r e s t r i c t e d t o an a t t a c k upon S t a l i n i s t R u s s i a through an h i s t o r i c a l approach but concerns i t s e l f w i t h t h e "problem o f t h e g e n e r a t i o n s " , that i s the older generation i n c o n f l i c t not only with but w i t h t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n a s w e l l .  itself  Nikiforov raises  the q u e s t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l i s m , i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d the a f f i n i t i e s and t h e needed c o r r e c t i v e s t h a t must e x i s t i n o r d e r t o combine b o t h r e l i g i o n and s o c i a l i s m t o b u i l d a truly Socialist state. Together w i t h these themes, N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s a g a l l e r y o f m a s t e r c r a f t s m e n , p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s , and r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , a l l a s s o c i a t e d d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e Lange Family, a wealthy i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t f a m i l y that e x p l o i t e d t h e working people a t t h e same time d i s p l a y i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s of t h e S t a l i n i s t government toward these  people.  112  "The  w  astereraftsmen"  "The A r t o m o n o v B u s i n e s s " ,  can be  an e p i c  compared w i t h  Gorky's  novel d e p i c t i n g the  emergence  o f an i n d u s t r i a l e m p i r e b u i l t b y an e m a n c i p a t e d s l a v e N i k i f o r o v ^ s s i m i l a r i t y to Gorky's novel i s through ations  character representation. of t h e  Artomonov f a m i l y and d e v e l o p s  while N i k i f o r o v presents i l a r i t y stops. as  in his revolutionary, As a r e s u l t ,  and l e f t  the others  class  was c o n c e r n e d ,  Gorky o n l y developed  b u t was a " m a s t e r c r a f t s m a n " the  completely, Here t h e  labourer  himself  Thus N i k i f o r o v ' s s e c o n d a r y  characters  miserably  representat-  h i s main  characters  his chief  But  characters  i n presenting the  and t h e i d e a l i s t  sim-  personages  as p a r t o f t h e h a z e b e h i n d t h e m . developed  gener-  but f a i l e d  l a b o u r e r and i d e a l o g i c a l  N i k i f o r o v not o n l y completely  tionary,  t o draw complete  carried  three  them  o n l y two g e n e r a t i o n s .  G o r k y was a b l e  f a r as the merchant  ions.  Gorky d e p i c t s  family.  revolu-  to his f u l l e s t  content.  d i d not fade i n t o  the  b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e n o v e l b u t o c c u p i e d a p o s i t i o n t h a t was equal to that o f est "par  the main c h a r a c t e r .  o f t h e work-ing c l a s s  H i s knowledge  c a n n o t be e x c e l l e d ,  almost  and i n t e r -  he i s a  master  excellence". The s c o p e o f  Gorky's novel extends  while N i k i f o r o v only wrote t h e l a t t e r was a b l e  to give  o f 1 9 0 5 - 1 9 1 0 as f a r a s w i t h the  of t h e p e r i o d s  from 1861-1917,  1861-1910.  a d e t a i l e d account  character  p o l i t i c a l developments  of the  t y p e s were c o n c e r n e d of the  times.  But period together  113;  " M a s t e r a " can be connected t o S o v i e t r e a l i t y . during these f i v e years t h a t N i k i f o r o v concentrated  I t was  oh h i s  a n a l o g y w i t h t h e S t a l i n i s t regime. The n o v e l ended i n 1910, t h i s was a "moment of r e a c t i o n " i n p r e - S o v i e t h i s t o r y . Revolution  The  of 1905 and "Bloody Sunday" had i g n i t e d t h e s p a r k .  L e n i n had j u s t i s s u e d h i s " M a t e r i a l i s m and E m p i r i c o - C r i t i c i s m " i n 1909,  and t h e t h i r d Duma was more t h a n h a l f way t h r o u g h  i t s uninterrupted session had  On t h e l i t e r a r y f i e l d  j u s t t u r n e d t o the 'God-Seekers" group.  Lunarcharsky  A l s o , many R u s s i a n  w r i t e r s who supported t h e 1905 R e v o l u t i o n now t u r n e d i t j i i i i . e . Andreev. of u n r e s t , a l t h o u g h  The p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f t h e time was one p o l i t i c a l e q u i l i b r i u m was r a t h e r s t a b l e  i f compared t o 1914-1921. was  But N i k i f o r o v ' s contemporary  also i n a chaotic state.  country  against  Russia  The purges were r a v a g i n g t h e  and S t a l i n ' s d i c t a t o r i a l p o l i c i e s were s e v e r a l l y f e l t  throughout.  The r e a c t i o n a r y f o r c e s o f 1936 and 1937 were such  t h a t N i k i f o r o v ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l independence was destroyed  completely  and he was sent t o a c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp s h o r t l y  after. N i k i f o r o v emphasized t h e f a c t t h a t h i s w o r k e r s d i d n o t d i s t i n g u i s h between B o l s h e v i k s , Mensheviks, and S o c i a l i s t R e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e s against the t s a r i s t  regime.  Z a v a l i s h i n p o i n t s out t h a t they were " m o t i v a t e d c h i e f l y b y d e s i r e t o b e t t e r t h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s " , which, "at times p  f e l l i n with the ambition  t o change t h e e n t i r e s o c i a l  (I d i s a g r e e w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t } .  order".  The f a c t t h a t N i k i f o r o v d i d  11U  not mention the v a r i o u s f a c t i o n s does not mean t h a t he d i s r e g a r d e d them.  I t must be remembered t h a t he was  indirectly  a t t a c k i n g t h e S t a l i n i s t Regime as a whole and by t h i s t i m e t h e r e were n o t any a c t u a l prominent p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s i n existence i n Russia.  The B o l s h e v i k s were the main group, w h i l e  the Mensheviks, i f i n e x i s t e n c e , were o f a t h e o r e t i c a l n a t u r e only.  The w o r k e r s were, s t r u g g l i n g under S t a l i n i s t  a g a i n s t h i s s e c r e t p o l i c e and t h e p u r g e s .  principles,  In e f f e c t ,  Nikifor-  ov was p r e s e n t i n g S t a l i n i s t R u s s i a under a t h i n v e i l o f d i s guise.  T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the sub c h a p t e r o f C h a p t e r  IV.) N i k i f o r o v ' s main c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s n o v e l was Karp Poludnnov, symbol of a "boor". The e n t i r e n o v e l d e p i c t s the l i f e of t h i s i n d i v i d u a l , h i s c h i l d h o o d , y o u t h , m a t u r i t y , m a r r i a g e , and i t c o n c l u d e s w i t h the p i c t u r e o f an o l d man  who  has amassed a g r e a t f o r t u n e , has become the g e n e r a l manager of a f a c t o r y but s t i l l  remains a boor.  Karp's l i f e  progres-  s i v e l y r i s e s throughout t h e two volumes f r o m a poor peasant boy t o t h a t o f a m i l l i o n a i r e c a p i t a l i s t .  To a degree h i s l i f e  c o u l d be compared w i t h the r i s e o f a r a g s to r i c h e s Western businessman.  But Karp has not changed d u r i n g h i s ascendence.  He s t i l l remains the u n e d u c a t e d , u n i n t e l l e c t u a l i n d i v i d u a l t h a t he was.  H i s ascendency b e g i n s when he j o i n s t h e household o f  the Lange B r o t h e r s .  Thus t h e development of t h e c o m b i n a t i o n  of r e s p e c t and cowardice t h a t remains w i t h i n h i s c h a r a c t e r  115  throughout h i s l i f e - " p o c h t i t e l ' n a y a  robost ." 1  -His work at the L n g e f a c t o r y o r i g i n a l l y was a  as a spy,  an informer  f o r the b r o t h e r s  watch the workers, inform of any  Lange.  disturbances  f a c t i o n s t h a t could be brewing among them.  He was or  to a c t to  dissatis-  Thus the develop-  ment of cowardice, yet a t the same time a b o o r i s h a i r of s u p e r i o r i t y i s r e a l i z e d by Karp.  In a c t u a l i t y , he i s not  s u p e r i o r to the workers but h i s a c t i o n s toward them and i r o n i c y e t s e r v i l e response to him  their  are a l l b e n e f i c i a l i n  p r o j e c t i n g t h i s f a l s e s u p e r i o r i t y w i t h i n him.  Gradually  he  saves h i s money and through a scheming plan he managed t o purchase a small i n n .  From t h i s i n n a r i s e s a r e s t a u r a n t  that  e v e n t u a l l y becomes the meeting p l a c e of r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s and professional labourers. had  Karp r e - i n v e s t e d the c a p i t a l t h a t  i n t o . t h e Lange i n d u s t r y and  soon becomes a l a r g e  he  share-  holder i n the company, e v e n t u a l l y assuming managership of i t .  Nikiforov portrayed  Karp as a t y p i c a l man  a capitalistic - imperialistic  regime,  (1861-1910).  r i s i n g in But  neath the s u r f a c e N i k i f o r o v portrayed him  as r e p r e s e n t i n g  t y p i c a l manager of the S t a l i n i s t  Here was  ated, u n c u l t u r e d industry.  An i n d i v i d u a l who  d i v i d u a l was the men  who  i n d i v i d u a l who was  regime.  bethe  an uneduc-  rose to top p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a boor, a "kham".  t y p i c a l throughout S t a l i n i s t R u s s i a . succeeded only through g r a f t and  the  This i n These were  scheming, these  116  uncouth, u n c u l t u r e d b o o r s .  P o s s i b l y t h e y had  e x p e r i e n c e or t r a i n i n g but masses.  S t a l i n was  they g e n e r a l l y arose from  He  o n l y f o r t h e m s e l v e s but  c o u l d t r u s t them to the  would operate the f a c t o r i e s time, S t a l i n was  S t a l i n f e a r e d the  o p p o r t u n i s t s - not  the new trusted.  degree t h a t they but  at the  men  idealists.  same  of h i g h p r i n c i p l e s  and  idealisms.  t o be  long  cunning  ideals,  o l d i n t e l l e c t u a l s remained a f t e r the  c l a s s of i n t e l l e c t u a l s were not  methods.  In h i s  of Karp's c a l i b r e - c r a f t y ,  "bogged - down" i n symbols and  of the  the  easy prey to h i s p o l i c i e s and  i n t e l l e c t u a l s , the  range p l a n s he needed men  a few  successfully,  for  shrewd enough to r e a l i z e t h a t b e i n g u n i n -  t e l l e c t u a l they would be  would be  the  a b l e to. employ them i n i n d u s t r y because  of t h e i r shrewdness, not s t a t e as w e l l .  some b u s i n e s s  who  Possibly purges,  completely  Thus S t a l i n t u r n e d t o Karp's t y p e of i n d i v i d u a l  e n t r u s t e d i n d u s t r i a l development to Nikiforov  was  and  him.  a l s o a t t a c k i n g the  state for i t s  u n c u l t u r a l n a t u r e , f o r p r o d u c i n g i n d u s t r i a l and b u r e a u c r a t s , c o m p l e t e l y v o i d of any  but  technical  i n t e l l e c t u a l or  cultural  background. Karp's p o s i t i o n f u l l responsibility  and  at t h e control.  F r e d r i c k Lange i n h i s d e c i s i o n s . has  f a c t o r y enabled him He managed t o  to assume  out-manoeuvre  Lange, r e a l i z e s t h a t Karp  amassed a f o r t u n e at Lange's expense, but  still  can  only  117  a c c e p t him as an e q u a l .  One has t h e f e e l i n g that Lange d e s -  p i s e s Karp, but t h i s i s due t o t h e l a t t e r ' s  "pochtitel'naya  robost", h i s s e r v i l e y e t cunning nature. Karp i s a m o r a l l y u n c o n s c i o u s i n d i v i d u a l .  When Gury,  h i s son i s shot and c r a w l s home, Karp u n m e r c i f u l l y t u r n s him out.  "You l i v e d f o r y o u r s e l f , now d i e f o r y o u r s e l f . " - ^  a t t i t u d e toward h i s son was an u n n a t u r a l one.  Karp's  I n s p i t e of t h e  f a c t t h a t Gury was a member o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement Karp s h o u l d have t a k e n him i n when t h e boy was d y i n g , i f o n l y from a h u m a n i t a r i a n p o i n t of v i e w . d i d not b o t h e r him.  But Karp's c o n s c i e n c e  He l o v e d t h e boy, but upon r e a l i z i n g t h a t  Gury was u s i n g t h e r e s t a u r a n t t o h o l d meetings f o r t h e movement and o f h i s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t , him.  Karp r e j e c t e d  But as Epimax s a i d t o Karp l a t e r on: ... you, Karp S e r a f i m o v i c h Poludonov wanted t o devote your l i f e t o y o u r son and t h r o u g h t h a t you .wanted t o g a i n c o m f o r t ; you amassed a f o r t u n e , and suddenly t h e r e came an i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and your son t u r n e d t o t h e s i d e o f our enemies, he f o r g o t h i s f a t h e r and d i d not c o n s i d e r h i s age - ... Your Gury cannot be brought back ... n o t from p i t y f o r your f a l l e n son ... ( 2 3 4 ) . Epimakh t r i e s t o c o n s o l e Karp b u t does not succeed  because Gury's death does n o t t o u c h Karp a s i t would a normal father. N i k i f o r o v presents the wealthy i n d u s t r i a l Lange as c a p i t a l i s t e x p l o i t e r s .  family  Here a r e t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s ,  1-18  F r e d r i c k , P a v e l , and  H e i n r i c h who  r a p i d l y b u i l t up a s m a l l  factory into a national industry. soon a f t e r and  P a v e l and  Heinrick  die  the s t o r y r e v o l v e s around F r e d r i c k , or Dreeks  I v a n i c h , as Karp c a l l s him, a manager of the o l d s t y l e .  a man  with a strong personality,  I f Karp i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of  the S t a l i n i s t m a n a g e r i a l c l a s s , then F r e d r i c k i s h i s a n t i thesis.  He was  an i n d i v i d u a l who  a s t r o n g dynamic n a t u r e t h a t was o n l y concern was its potential. incorporated  had no r e g a r d  f o r anyone,  a l m o s t overpowering.  His  t h e i n d u s t r y , i t s growth, i t s p r o d u c t i o n  and  This phase of h i s n a t u r e c o u l d be e a s i l y  i n t o t h e S t a l i n i s t economy.  He took  little  i n t e r e s t i n the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s e s and o n l y e x p l o i t e d them f o r his  own  c a p i t a l gains.  complete n e g l e c t and  o p p o s i t i o n . F r e d r i c k was  the sense t h a t Karp was, cultural milieu.  His a t t i t u d e toward them was  but he was  one  of  not a boor i n  a l s o not a member of  He came f r o m an " o l d f a m i l y " , but was  the pro-  g r e s s i v e enough to r e a l i z e t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n and t o t a k e f u l l advantage of i t ; i n f a c t to e x p l o i t i t to h i s  own  advantage. F r e d r i c k ' s nephew, Yakov Lange was Yakov was  a  Westernizer.  educated i n Europe where he s t u d i e d . e n g i n e e r i n g  European methods.  Upon h i s a r r i v a l a t the Lange f a c t o r y he  was r e p u l s e d by the management, t h e c o n d i t i o n and ing  along  the a p p a l l -  n a t u r e of the f a c t o r y . - Now t h e r e , t e l l me, what d i d you see? Yakov was s i l e n t - s e n s i b l y and u n u s u a l l y b u s i n e s s l i k e .  119  - What i s one t o say, s a i d he, ... I saw a l l and n o t h i n g ... " A z i a t c h i n a " . ( A s i a t i c ) The nephew was p r e c i s e and c a t a g o r i c a l : - I t i s n e c e s s a r y to change the system. - Which system: - F r e d r i c k d i d not u n d e r s t a n d . - The system of the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the f a c t o r y . In the f i r s t p l a c e - t o the d e v i l w i t h t h e s e wooden b a r n s ! A f a c t o r y must have form. - To have form, t o have form ... - Under our s u p e r v i s i o n , thank God, work went a l o n g f i n e . You want much, Yashenka ... One has t o t h i n k t h i s over. (121) Yakov a r r i v e d i n R u s s i a w i t h European i d e a s  and  t r i e d t o model the Lange f a c t o r y a l o n g t h e s e  principles.  Of course he was  Fredrick  met  w i t h o p p o s i t i o n by a l l .  p e r s o n a l l y f e l t the change s h o u l d not be made because t h e i r system was  a g r e e a b l e , not o n l y to them f i n a n c i a l l y , but a l s o  to the w o r k e r s i n g e n e r a l . But Yakov would not accept the R u s s i a n system and condemned i t from t h e b e g i n n i n g . demned e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was at  every o p p o r t u n i t y .  He  industrial con-  R u s s i a n , p r a i s i n g European methods  He l a b e l l e d e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was  back-  ward or non-European as " A z i a t c h i n a " ( A s i a t i c ) . At f i r s t h i s f a t h e r and h i s u n c l e s laugh a t him and  say:  - He gave us a t a s k t h a t son of yours, t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o say ... - He has been s p o i l e d w h i l e he was abroad, oh, how he has been s p o i l e d ! (121). L a t e r t h e y r e a l i z e t h a t second thoughts be g i v e n t o h i s o p i n i o n s , but F r e d r i c k t a k e s the f i r s t s t e p i n "educating'' the young man  i n l i f e and i n h i s r e l a t i o n s toward  people:  120  - To t h e i n d i v i d u a l , i f he i s worth i t , you must have good approach, and a l s o a good word. You Yashenka, must u n d e r s t a n d t h e R u s s i a n way as f a r as w e s t e r n i d e a s a r e concerned. When an i n d i v i d u a l i s not u s e f u l t o you any l o n g e r - you s i m p l y g e t r i d o f him ...  (123).  Yakov c o u l d n o t accept t h e R u s s i a n p o i n t o f v i e w . He was c o m p l e t e l y r e p u l s e d by e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was "Aziatehina". surroundings  But he approached e v e r y t h i n g i n h i s immediate w i t h t h e i d e a t h a t he would r e m o d e r n i z e i t ,  Europeanize R u s s i a !  Yakov d i d n o t r e a l i z e t o approach any-  t h i n g w i t h one's mind made up beforehand i s u t t e r f u t i l i t y because t h e s t r u g g l e t o change o r attempt t o change i s almost beyond human comprehension. he even s t a r t e d .  Thus Yakov was d e f e a t e d  He was h i s own worst enemy.  proach t o Yakov's i n t e n t i o n s c o u l d be t a k e n .  before  But a n o t h e r apRealizing  the backwardness o f R u s s i a . Yakov s u b c o n s c i o u s l y f e l t 4 a second " P e t e r t h e G r e a t " . Yakov's c h a r a c t e r .  T h i s i s g o i n g t o o deeply  He p r o b a b l y  himself into  f e l t t h i s i n d i r e c t l y but h i s  main i d e a was t h a t e v e r y t h i n g European was good, e v e r y t h i n g R u s s i a n was bad,  consequently  he was c a r r y i n g on a "one man  re-vamping campaign" t o E u r o p e a n i z e R u s s i a i n o r d e r t o make i t good. What he d i d n ' t r e a l i z e was t h a t R u s s i a would p r o g r e s s a t h e r own speed and d e v e l o p a c c o r d i n g l y . Yakov had a s s i m i l a t e d t h e European c h a r a c t e r t o such a degree t h a t he was r e p u l s e d by e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , and i n t u r n he r e p u l s e d anyone who had c o n t a c t w i t h him due t o h i s  121.  f a l s e l y s u p e r i o r European n a t u r e . to R u s s i f i c a t i o n , but t h i s was  G r a d u a l l y he  submitted  due o n l y t o the immediate  s u r r o u n d i n g f o r c e s which p l i e d a t h i s c r u s t y e x t e r i o r . Yakov e v e n t u a l l y d e s i r e s t o r e t u r n t o Europe. The r e a d e r f e e l s h i s g r e a t l o v e f o r t h i s Europe through discussions with h i s uncle. in  He i s c o m p l e t e l y  the  Europeanized  s p i t e of h i s l e n g t h y s t a y i n R u s s i a . F r e d r i c k , a f i r m b e l i e v e r t h a t Russia's path to  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was  a l o n g her own n a t u r a l course, f e l t  must take advantage of every s i t u a t i o n . were d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed to one  one  The two men's views  another.  But F r e d r i c k and Yakov managed t o r e a c h a  com-  p r o m i s i n g s i t u a t i o n w h i c h t h e y h e l d u n t i l Yakov s r e t u r n t o Europe.  Of course F r e d r i c k y i e l d e d t o some of Yakov's  European methods but on the whole both were not a n t a g o n i z i n g to  each o t h e r .  F r e d r i c k was broadminded enough to r e a l i z e t h a t  R u s s i a ' s i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n would e v o l v e i t s e l f but a c e r t a i n degree of E u r o p e a n i z a t i o n would be  necessary.  Another q u e s t i o n t h a t N i k i f o r o v d e a l s w i t h i n t h i s n o v e l i s the problem o f the g e n e r a t i o n s .  As i n most  t h e r e i s the c o n f l i c t between the e l d e r g e n e r a t i o n and younger.  cases the  But c o n f l i c t s a r i s e w i t h i n the same g e n e r a t i o n s .  "The M a s t e r c r a f tsmen" can once a g a i n be. compared w i t h Artomonov B u s i n e s s " by Gorky.  "The  Here the p o s i t i o n o f t h e Langes,  122  ( F r e d r i c k , P a v e l and H e i n r i c h ) can be c o n t r a s t e d tEDthat o f I l y a Artomonov S e n i o r .  The l a t t e r was an emancipated s e r f , t h e  founder o f the f a m i l y ' s p r o s p e r i t y , a s t r o n g s e l f - w i l l e d man. An u n c u l t u r e d i n d i v i d u a l who c o u l d a l m o s t be l i k e n e d t o Rousseau's "noble young savage", c o m p l e t e l y  u n s p o i l e d by  s o c i e t y , i f compared t o h i s sons and grandsons i n whom t h e r e a r e s i g n s o f imment decay.  The Langes were r e f i n e d i n d i v i d -  u a l s o r i g i n a t i n g from t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . men  They were  business  who were i n a d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n , f i n a n c i a l l y ' a n d s o c i a l -  l y , than was I l y a Artomonov.  But both 'the Langes and Artomonov  had a common enemy - the r i s i n g working c l a s s and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . Both o f these groups were out t o undermine t h e c a p i t a l i s t e x p l o i t e r s and f u r t h e r R u s s i a ' s  develop-  ment, n o t o n l y i n d u s t r i a l l y but d e m o c r a t i c a l l y , t o g e t h e r  with  t h e i r own. The Langes and the Artomonovs had t o p u t up a r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t these, " r e v o l u t i o n a r y " f o r c e s and e v e n t u a l l y e i t h e r g i v e i n t o t h e i r demands or l o s e e v e r y t h i n g .  The  Artomonovs l o s t t h e i r f a c t o r y t o t h e S o v i e t s i n 1 9 1 7 as. presumably d i d the Langes. The  o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n was a l s o i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e  younger c o n c e r n i n g  the development o f new p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u -  tionary policies.  The o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n wished t o r e t a i n t h e i r  contemporary system, o r e l s e a moderate e d i t i o n o f i t ,  where-  as t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n wanted a complete r e v o l u t i o n a r y change.  123  The completely  younger g e n e r a t i o n was  i t s e l f hesitant  u n o r g a n i z e d as f a r as any  r e v o l u t i o n s were c o n c e r n e d .  political  Gury Poludonov was  the r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement t h a t a d v o c a t e d : "We f r i e n d l y a t t a c k s on our m o r t a l  or  and  industrial  a member of w i l l commit  enemies - a u t o c r a c y  and  capitalism". He can be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h Yakov Artomonov the grandson o f I l y a Artomonov.  Yakov l i k e  Gury a l s o j o i n s  the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s and i s a l t o g e t h e r a u s e l e s s i n d i v i d u a l far  as c a r r y i n g on the Artomonov t r a d i t i o n . Both Yakov  Gury are l o s t i n d i v i d u a l s who their fathers.  They a r e not  as  and  are great disappointments to q u a l i f i e d t o do a n y t h i n g .  An  analogy can be drawn between them and the t h e o r e t i c a l r e a c t i o n a r i e s of the m i d d l e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a l t h o u g h l a t t e r seemed t o be more a c t i v e .  The  the  f u t i l i t y o f both t h e i r  l i v e s i s e x e m p l i f i e d when Gury and h i s i d e a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n a r y t e a c h e r B o r i s Krakov were shot at t h e  barricades.  P o s s i b l y t h e blame r e s t s on t h e i r p a r e n t s . parents  of both young men  t o get ahead.  were r i c h self-made men  struggled  Upon a c h i e v i n g s u c c e s s t h e y "paved l i f e ' s  w i t h g o l d f o r t h e i r sons.  path"  These o f f s p r i n g s q u i c k l y showed  s i g n s of imminent decay and degeneracy. wealth,  who  The  Possessing  and a sense of a d v e n t u r e , these men  youth,  -stumbled upon t h e  r e v o l u t i o n a r y p h i l o s o p h i e s t h a t w e l l a f f o r d e d them the e x c i t e -  124 ' ment l a c k i n g i n t h e i r s t i l t e d l i v e s . The r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i n t u r n "used" t h e s e young men, not o n l y f o r p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n purposes, b u t a l s o f o r t h e i r s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l positions. The  second group r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n  were Yakov Lange and M i r o n Artomonov. Both were European e n g i n e e r s - i n t e l l e c t u a l s who were c o m p l e t e l y aware o f the s u r r o u n d i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s and t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o this  circumstance. Yakov Lange, as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s  wanted t o c o m p l e t e l y E u r o p e a n i z e  chapter,  t h e Lange F a c t o r y .  At the  same t i m e he was an i n d i v i d u a l who c o u l d see t h e end of the r o a d on which R u s s i a n a u t o c r a c y was t r a v e l l i n g .  He was a  r e a l i s t , t o a c e r t a i n degree, because o f h i s f i r m n e s s and level-headedness  concerning the r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s that  had been going on i n h i s a r e a .  He d i d not p a r t a k e i n any o f  t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s nor d i d he condemn them. M i r o n Artomonov, t h e grandson o f I l y a , and the e l d e s t son of A l e k s e y was a l s o a European t r a i n e d  engineer.  An i n d i v i d u a l who u p h e l d the contemporary t r u t h and r e a l i z e d i t s consequences.  I n comparison  t o Gury and Yakov Aromonov,  M i r o n and Yakov Lange d i d n o t d i s p l a y t h e same d e g e n e r a t i n g q u a l i t i e s t h a t were p r e v a l e n t among t h e i r  contemporaries.  They cannot be compared w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r s , g r a n d f a t h e r s o r u n c l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , because t h e s e men were s t r o n g , s e l f -  125  w i l l e d i n d i v i d u a l s who f a i l u r e s and  s t r o v e ahead i n s p i t e of t h e i r  shortcomings.  generation, although  Generally speaking  the younger  d i v i d e d as i t were i n t o two  classes,  a l r e a d y d i s p l a y e d s i g n s of degeneracy. N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s the r e a d e r w i t h a g a l l e r y of m a s t e r c r a f t s m e n , p r o f e s s i o n a l workers and r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . J u s t as Gorky d e v e l o p s the s e l f - m a d e b o u r g e o i s  merchant  f a m i l y , N i k i f o r o v d e l v e s i n t o the masses and produces e n t i r e i n d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g the v a r i o u s s t r a t a of t h e w o r k i n g class.  These i n d i v i d u a l s r i s e above the masses and a r e dev-  eloped i n t o f u l l personages w i t h a complete l e v e l of  conscious-  ness t h a t r e f l e c t s t h e i r knowledge or t h e i r i g n o r a n c e  o f the  contemporary, t r u t h s .  L i k e Gorky, N i k i f o r o v combines g r e a t  v i g o r and v i t a l i t y w i t h i n h i s c h a r a c t e r s . Both w r i t e r s d i s p l a y a keen v i s i o n of the gloomy, sombre s i d e of l i f e ,  not  o n l y i n i t s outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n s but a l s o i n the i n n e r w o r k i n g s of human n a t u r e .  This i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that i s  more p r e v a l e n t throughout Gorky's works and present  to a l e s s e r  degree i n N i k i f o r o v ' s . As mentioned b e f o r e , N i k i f o r o v c l i m a c t i c a l l y d e v e l o p s his  i d e a l type of p r o f e s s i o n a l - l a b o u r e r i n t h i s n o v e l .  Both Leonty C h e m e r y i t s i n  and Matvey Gryaznov are r e p r e s e n t a t -  i v e s of the S o v i e t p r o f e s s i o n a l l a b o u r group t h a t e x i s t e d up to  t h i s time.  N i k i f o r o v g r a d u a l l y developed t h i s type  out h i s e a r l i e r n o v e l s ,  through-  ( B r y a k i n , the o l d p r o f e s s i o n a l l a b o u r e r  12.6  i n "The  Woman", and Efimov, the t y p i c a l outspoken r e p r e s e n t -  a t i v e of the p r o l e t a r i a n i n " I n t o the Wind"), u n t i l he p e r f e c t e d the type i n t h i s n o v e l .  N i k i f o r o v was  the  had  last  t o w r i t e about the p r o f e s s i o n a l l a b o u r e r and i n l a t e r S o v i e t n o v e l s t h e r e was  a complete s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of the  labour  characterizations.  No d i s t i n c t i o n s were made i n t h i s  proletarian after  1936.  Chemeryitsin  i s an i n d i v i d u a l who  has  working  completely  a s s i m i l a t e d the p r o l e t a r i a n c l o a k . As a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l working c i s i o n and  exactness.  c l a s s he performs h i s t a s k w i t h ' '. p r e He i s a s e m i - i n t e l l e c t u a l l a b o u r e r  who  has wandered about the c o u n t r y most o f h i s l i f e , h e l p i n g the working  c l a s s i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the o p p r e s s i o n s  c a p i t a l i s m , and p r o f i t i n g from p a s t e x p e r i e n c e guide new  groups o f workers.  to organize  and  He t e l l s the workers o f t h e  Lange F a c t o r y to u n i t e t o g e t h e r , form a workers'  union  F r e d r i c k Lange. Stand up and demand your r i g h t s as and as a p r o l e t a r i a n mass.  of  against  individuals  " U n i t e so the c a p i t a l i s t s cannot  c r u s h you beneath t h e i r f e e t " , t h i s i s h i s slogan. ... Two y e a r s ago the w o r k e r s i n Harkove drove out a l l the p o l i c e t o g e t h e r w i t h the governor but we cannot c o n s o l i d a t e o u r s e l v e s a g a i n s t F r e d r i c k Lange ... (145) ' C h e m e r y i t s i n p l a y s the r o l e of a p r o f e s s i o n a l l a b o u r or g a n i z e r without a p p e a r i n g as a l a b o u r a g i t a t o r . He approaches the masses p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y r e a l i z i n g t h a t the  fate  127  of R u s s i a n i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n l i e s i n t h e i r hands.  I f the  masses are guided d i r e c t l y a l o n g the s t r a i g h t and narrow, then c a p i t a l i s m w i l l not p r o s p e r i n R u s s i a .  One must have f a i t h i n  the masses and be prepared to guide them a c c o r d i n g l y . But the workers o n l y l a u g h e d a t him.  H i s i d e a s were  too p r o g r e s s i v e f o r the s o c i e t y o f the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h early twentieth centuries.  and  He was the f o r e r u n n e r of the  modern b u s i n e s s agent and t h e e x e c u t i v e u n i o n o f f i c i a l , o n l y e x c e p t i o n b e i n g , a t t h a t t i m e h i s o u t l o o k and was  the  philosophy  r a t h e r i d e a l i s t i c a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e a c t i o n s of the  masses. C h e m e r y i t s i n was sense of the word.  not an educated man  H i s e d u c a t i o n was  and from h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n l i f e . average i n d i v i d u a l .  i n t h e exact  gained from the world  He r ^ a d more than  the  He c o u l d be c a l l e d a l a b o u r p h i l o s o p h e r .  He was not a t r u l y i d e a l i s t i c p e r s o n , as was A l f e y nor was a Chessosov type of i n d i v i d u a l .  H i s p h i l o s o p h y was  he  a blend  of s e l f i n s i g h t and w o r l d l y e x p e r i e n c e - the b e s t p h i l o s o p h y available.  A l f e y was more of a pure i d e o l o g i s t w h i l e  C h e m e r y i t s i n was a p h i l o s o p h e r of human n a t u r e and u n d e r standing. C h e m e r y i t s i n d e s c r i b e s a mutual f r i e n d of h i s and of h i s a p p r e n t i c e , M i t k a Tururok,  but the u n d e r l i n i n g meaning  i s o b v i o u s l y meant t o a p p l y to the e n t i r e w o r k i n g mass.  12$,  . . . P e t r o v w i l l d r i n k w h i l e w o r r y i n g about h i s l a s t kopeks, then he w i l l sober up and w i l l l o o k f o r work ... He! J u s t t r y and f i n d work when you don't have a recommendation, and w i t h out e x c e p t i o n , t h e r e are many o t h e r s s e e k i n g work. What i s to be done P e t r o v ? Very s i m p l e ! When he has r e a c h e d the end, he w i l l hang hims e l f or e l s e w i l l , drown h i m s e l f , here i n the Yaze, t h a t ' s a l l . ' I cannot say any more. Each has h i s own f a t e . One w i l l p r o t e c t h i s p r o p e r t y (the b r o t h e r s Lange must possess by now over a thousand a c r e s ) - the o t h e r w i l l p r a i s e f a t e f o r t h a t which a l l o w s him a hunk of b r e a d , the t h i r d w i l l d r i n k on the days of c e l e b r a t i o n - "Do c h o r t i k o v " . He! L i f e i s m e r c i f u l to a l l ... ( I 4 6 ) The people a r e i r r e s p o n s i b l e and cannot even t r u s t themselves. emotions,  The m a j o r i t y of them l i v e e n t i r e l y by  but " l i f e i s m e r c i f u l to a l l . . . . !  their  Chemeryitsin  r e a l i z e s t h e p l i g h t o f the masses but he a l s o i s aware t h a t they do n o t h i n g to h e l p themselves,, c o n s e q u e n t l y many are out of work, many s t a r v e , and the employers take advantage of them, f o r c i n g them t o work under p r e c a r i o u s and dangerous conditions. As the n o v e l p r o g r e s s e s , C h e m e r y i t s i n g r a d u a l l y moves away from the l a b o u r type of i n d i v i d u a l and s l o w l y dons t h e " h a b i t " of a r e v o l u t i o n a r y . A t t h e end of t h e f i r s t volume, have a r e v o l u t i o n a r y l a b o u r e r s u p p o r t i n g both But i n h i s d u a l r o l e he s t i l l  causes.  c o n t i n u e s to support the pro-  letariat. (... I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o mention, t h a t C h e m e r y i t s i n c o n c e a l e d an a c t i n g s p a r k . T h i s he h i m s e l f d i d not know. At the time o f h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y he s k i l f u l l y taught h i m s e l f to evade the p o l i c e ; p r e -  129 p r e t e n d ; when i t was n e c e s s a r y , be a s i m p l e ton and p l a y a t r i c k . He became so s k i l l e d a t t h i s r o l e and w i t h o u t b e i n g aware o f how i t happened i t became a necessity,0> (319) Chemeryitsin married A l f e y ' s daughterAlevtina who bore him a son Yefimka, who l a t e r became a s u p p o r t e r o f the S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n a r y movement and was sent t o t h e U r a l s . C h e m e r y i t s i n c o n t i n u e d h i s d u a l r o l e although, i t became one of a r e v o l u t i o n a r y importance  r a t h e r than l a b o u r e r movement.  He went away f o r e i g h t y e a r s and i t was d u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h a t h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y n a t u r e developed.  Upon h i s r e t u r n  he j o i n t e d f o r c e s w i t h the r e v o l u t i o n a r y members, Semon Rorbax and Krakov, both o f whom b e f o r e had worked f o r t h e Langes; p a r t i c i p a t i n g as b e f o r e i n t h e p r o l e t a r i a t movement. 'When C h e m e r y i t s i n heard t h a t h i s son had been sent to a p r i s o n camp i n the. n o r t h ... I t would have been b e t t e r t o have sent me, thought Leonty, — I am g e t t i n g o l d , j u s t the same, i t i s a l l t h e same t o me, b e s i d e s them A l e v t i n a would l i v e b e t t e r . Now,in h e r o l d age, t h e b e s t t h i n g f o r h e r would be t o be near h e r son. A mother l o o s e s a l l i f she l o o s e s h e r son. (251) Gradually h i s l i f e  comes t o a c l o s e .  goes t o l i v e w i t h Yefimka i n U r a l s .  His wife  He remains a t t h e work-  shop d o i n g what he can c o n t e m p l a t i n g l i f e i n g e n e r a l . ... And l i v e i s l i k e t h e r i n g i n g o f t h e church b e l l s .... And what use am I f o r anyone anymore?  130  Chemeryit s i n ' s death was, as h i s l i f e , a v i o l e n t and unexpected one.  H  e  d i e d a s d i d so many r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s a t  t h i s time , a t the hands o f t h e p o l i c e , b u t succeeded i n b l o w i n g up t h e workshop and h i m s e l f w i t h a bomb. N i k i f o r o v ' s meaning here i s o b v i o u s when r e f e r r e d t o t h e S t a l i n i s t regime. He g i v e s an a c c u r a t e  d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e entrance  o f the.  s e c r e t p o l i c e , a d e t a i l e d study r i g h t down t o t h e i r c l o t h e s . At t h i s time  (1935-1936)  t h e purges were r a v a g i n g  Many f a m i l i e s were c o m p l e t e l y police.  Chemeryitsin's  Russia.  a n n i h i l a t e d by t h e s e c r e t  v i o l e n t death was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  these " r a i d s " fey S t a l i n ' s s e c r e t p o l i c e .  They descended  on t h e i r chosen v i c t i m w i t h warning. N i k i f o r o v ' s second i d e a l t y p e of l a b o u r e r was the m a c h i n i s t Gryaznov who was accused o f l e a d i n g t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e s i n t h e 1905 R e v o l u t i o n i n Moscow. N i k i f o r o v t a k e s f u l l advantage i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s t r i a l to  present a t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d a t t a c k against S t a l i n i s t  T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r on i n p a r t two.  Russia.  Through  Gryaznov, N i k i f o r o v was a b l e to p r e s e n t t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a n i n early twentieth century  Russia.  Gryaznov was a m a s t e r c r a f t s m a n .  The presence of  F r e d r i c k Lange i n d i c a t e s t h e importance o f t h e l a b o u r e r revolutionary.  Lange p r a i s e s him as f a r as i n d u s t r i a l and  t e c h n o l o g i c a l work i s concerned, but he o n l y w i s h e s to s a t i s f y  131  his  own  ego  i n s e e i n g t h a t Gryaznov i s f i n a l l y hung.  Lange  has managed to c r e a t e a " f a t h e r image" among the people f o r his  concern i n the r e c o v e r y of Gryaznov, who was b e a t e n and  then sent t o t h e h o s p i t a l .  But the e x t e r i o r  superficiality  t u r n s i n w a r d l y to a deep h a t r e d f o r t h i s young man. the Lange p r o l e t a r i a t i n the 1905  revolution,  He l e d  consequently  he i s a t h r e a t not only- to Lange but to a l l the  capitalists.  He c o u l d a c t as an a g i t a t i n g f o r c e i n a g e n e r a l u p r i s i n g t h a t would d e s t r o y the c a p i t a l i s t i c  system i n R u s s i a .  Gryaznov r e p r e s e n t s the l a b o u r movement i n g e n e r a l . His i d e a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and h i s f i r m n e s s i n h i s c o n v i c t i o n s almost c o n v i n c e s the examining  m a g i s t r a t e t h a t t h i s man  g u i l t y , but f r o m a h u m a n i t a r i a n  p o i n t of view he should  saved.  T h i s was  the t y p e of i n d i v i d u a l t h a t was  save R u s s i a i n her f i r s t decade. T h i s was who  is be  needed t o  a leader, a  man  had f a i t h not o n l y i n the p r o l e t a r i a t but a l s o i n h i m s e l f . - My w o l f i s h h a b i t s a r e known t o me, s a i d Gryaznov, - and, moreover, I do not want mercy, i t cannot be t h a t we have mercy f o r each o t h e r , your honour, yes, and t h i s h y p o c r i t i c a l mercy i s not demanded, we w i l l not come to terms w i t h your, no we w i l l not r e c o n c i l e ... I have a l a r g e f a m i l y , your honour, v e r y l a r g e , the e n t i r e R u s s i a n p r o l e t a r i a t ; t h e r e f o r e i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r me to ask f o r mercy, my f-amily w i l l be p e r p l e x e d by my cause, they w i l l say, he seccumbed, comrade Matvey bent to t h e i r w i l l . . . (260). Here was  an i n d i v i d u a l who  understood  the  people  132  and t h e s i t u a t i o n .  G i v e n t h e chance, he p o s s i b l y would have  found a s o l u t i o n t o t h e problems o f the p r o l e t a r i a t . But men l i k e F r e d r i c k Lange and Karp Poludonov r e a l i z e d t h e g r e a t t h r e a t t o t h e i r s t a b i l i t y and c o n s e q u e n t l y wanted him out of the  way.  P r o k u r o a r sums i t up: ... P a r t i c u l a r l y t h e a c c u s e d , Matvey Gryaznov, l e d the t r a i n e d workers i n t o t h e b a t t l e a g a i n s t the army; he appears t o be t h e i n s t i g a t o r o f the u n t i m e l y deaths of many ... g r e a t sons of the c i t i z e n r y . There i s no word, no s t r e n g t h , i n o r d e r to pass t h e blame of t h e a c t i o n s on t o t h e accused; he r e j o i c e d o n l y because he f e l t t h e odour of human b l o o d s p i l t i n t h e name of t h e s a l v a t i o n of our m o t h e r l a n d from c o n f u s i o n and a n a r c h i s m ; he was i n l e a g u e w i t h those who a s s a s s i n a t e d t h e c l o s e s t s e r v a n t o f the t e a r , d e s t r o y e d t h e towns, v i l l a g e s and t h e l a r g e s t e s t a t e s of t h e landowners. (263) D u r i n g the t r i a l B r a s gave a d e t a i l e d account o f  the  h i s t o r y of t h e l a b o u r movement ... ... a s h o r t b i o g r a p h y of t h e R u s s i a n p r o l e t a r i a t , he t o l d t h e h a r d s h i p s t h a t i t endured a l o n g i t s p a t h , about how t h e l i b e r a l s , r a t h e r t h e (uneducated) b o o r i s h h i s t o r i a n s accused t h e p r o l e t a r i a t w i t h . p a r t i a l i t y toward l i q u o r , b o i s t r o u s l i v i n g and v i o l e n t behaviour.  Matvey Gryaznov was sentenced t o be hung. h i m s e l f was b a s i c a l l y a p e a c e f u l i n d i v i d u a l . i d e a l o g i s t t o a c e r t a i n degree. peace w i t h i n h i m s e l f .  He was an  That i s he was a b l e t o f i n d  As death approaches Matvey passes i n t o  a s t a t e o f l i m b o , where l i f e and happy.  The man  ..::seemed t o o p e a c e f u l , c o n t e n t , :  Death approaches Gryaznov i n t h e shape of a s e -  d u c t i v e woman ....  133  M a c h i n i s t Gryaznov a r i s e s , drops h i s f e e t t o the f l o o r ; i n a l l e a r n e s t n e s s he wants t o go to t h i s woman, he h e a r s h e r f o o t s t e p s , and he h i m s e l f h u r r i e s t o t h e rendezvous, here she i s a t t h e door; d a z z l e d by h e r s m i l e , he f a l l s t o h i s knees and suddenly, weak and w i t h an i n f i n i t e f o r t u n e , he f a l l s on h i s s i d e ... ( 2 7 5 ) N i k i f o r o v p r e s e n t s t h e r e a d e r w i t h an i n s i g h t i n t o a happy l i f e .  A l i f e t h a t N i k i f o r o v was t r y i n g t o a t t a i n ,  a p e a c e f u l limbo-type  world.  You can almost f e e l N i k i f o r o v ' s  l o n g i n g t o exchange p l a c e s w i t h Gryaznov, t o escape t h e c r u e l r e a l i t i e s of S t a l i n i s t R u s s i a and f l y t o a Shangri-La.. N i k i f o r o v s second type of c h a r a c t e r t h a t was devT  eloped was h i s p o r t r a y a l o f the " i d e a l man".  "Mastera"  d e a l s w i t h t h r e e d i s t i n c t i n d i v i d u a l s , each d i f f e r i n g f r o m t h e o t h e r o n l y i n h i s type o f i d e o l o g y . A l f e y , t h e "pure" n o b l e savage type  philosopher;  Epimakh, t h e drunken p h i l o s o p h e r ; and K-rakov t h e i d e a l i s t i c revolutionary. A l f e y was an i d e a l i n d i v i d u a l .  He was  completely  u n s p o i l e d by s o c i e t y , a p u r i s t i n t h e t r u e sense o f t h e word. H i s main l o v e s were h i s daughter A l e v t i n a , Nature and b i r d s , thus t h e name " p t i t s i l o v " . A l f e y ' s i n d i v i d u a l i t y p r o c l a i m e d him a t r u e p h i l o s o p h e r , a s c a l e r o f Olympian h e i g h t s . r e v o l v e d around the pure n a t u r a l p l e a s u r e s o f l i f e . a c t i o n s were o f t e n those o f a s i m p l e t o n , but t h e n ,  His world His according  to Rousseau, s o c i e t y s p o i l s t h e i n d i v i d u a l , and A l f e y was un-  134  i n h i b i t e d , v o i d of a l l maliciousness.  He can be compared t o  Turgenev's P o e t i c a l Nature P h i l o s o p h e r i n t h e t a l e s K r a s i v o y M e c h i " , c o n t a i n e d i n a Sportsman's  "Kasian  Sketches.  ...As i t happened A l f e y was found i n t h e same i n s p i r e d frame o f mind, and t h e t r i f l e s o f every day l i f e d i d not overshadow t h e eminent s o u l o f the b i r d l o v e r . M i t k a saw, w i t h what n e g l i g e n t g e n e r o s i t y t h i s f e l l o w wasted h i s f e s t i v e s m i l e s , and does not accept t h e drunkness o f t h e s e days (a s o f t b i r d w i l l not s u r v i v e a watery s c e n t ) , was drunk o n l y from h i s c h i r p i n g o f t h e b i r d s . ( 1 7 2 ) . But a t t h e same time h i s sharp tongue was n o t k i n d to  t h e e x i s t i n g regime and to r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s .  This  complete r e v e r s a l from a s o f t spoken a v e r i a n o l d man i n t o a s t r o n g c r i t i c o f t h e e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s was one o f h i s most remarkable q u a l i t i e s .  But A l f e y d i d not o f t e n change h i s  c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s way. Perhaps A l f e y was one of t h e most d i f f e r e n t als  i n the novel.  individu-  Through him N i k i f o r o v was a b l e t o a t t a c k  the S t a l i n i s t regime. A l f e y t o l d many a l l e g o r i c a l t a l e s t o whoever would l i s t e n .  These t a l e s took t h e form o f simple  human i d e a l o g i c a l s t o r i e s , p o i n t i n g o u t t h e f a l l a c i e s of l i f e , the h u r d l e s t h a t must be overcome i n o r d e r to a t t a i n a peacef u l e x i s t e n c e w i t h t h e w o r l d and w i t h o n e s e l f ; some of them were Aesopean i n n a t u r e w h i l e o t h e r s showed t h e f r a i l t i e s and pitfalls 11  of l i f e .  To t h e n o v i c e r e a d e r these appear a s s m a l l  f a b l e t s " w i t h i n t h e s t o r y , but i n a l l a c t u a l i t y t h e s e  stories  135  were d i r e c t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f S t a l i n i s t R u s s i a . They showed the  b l e a k n e s s and complete d i s p a r i t y t h a t e x i s t e d . This  s u b j e c t w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n P a r t I I . A l f e y ' s l i f e r e v o l v e d around h i s b i r d s and through them he found peace and contentment.  As would be e x p e c t e d ,  when he f e l t t h a t d e a t h was near, he opened h i s cages and l e t the b i r d s f l y away t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s s o u l . Epimakh was N i k i f o r o v ' s drunken p h i l o s o p h e r .  He was  employed by t h e Lange B r o t h e r s i n t h e i r o f f i c e . Together w i t h Karp Poludnnov they managed t o r u n the f a c t o r y .  Epimakh  p h i l o s o p h i z e s about l i f e ' s t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s , j o y s and disappointments.  I n comparison fro Karp, Epimakh a r i s e s as t h e  completed i n d i v i d u a l , n o t o n l y l i t e r a l l y , but p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and s o c i a l l y .  Karp i s a "Kham" a boor,  whereas Epimakh, though n o t e x a c t l y a member of t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l m i l l i e u , cannot be compared t o Karp, an empty, c o l d , y e t shrewd and scheming i n d i v i d u a l .  I n t h e i r many c o n v e r s a t i o n s  Karp n e i t h e r j o i n s Epimakh nor v o i c e s an o p i n i o n . s i l e n t t h r o u g h o u t , always l i s t e n i n g .  He remains  The r e a d e r c o n c l u d e s  t h a t Karp does not have t h e d e p t h to him t h a t i s r e q u i r e d t o be a f o i l f o r Epimakh, c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e l a t t e r e n j o y s freedom of  speech. But t h e s e p h i l o s o p h i c a l meanderings a r e n o t a t a l l  empty. As mentioned i n t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n , " M a s t e r a " p r e s e n t s  136 a picture  of not  of the f u t u r e .  o n l y the past Epimakh i s  and the present  able to f o r e c a s t  but  the  also  future.  T h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l he makes r e f e r e n c e s t o v a r i o u s that  take  place years  events  later.  Epimakh f o r e c a s t s  the  1917  Revolution:  I t i s n o t e w o r t h y , how t h e s i g n o f t h e t i m e s - and t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s p o i n t t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e cup o f s t e a m i n g R u s s i a n government a l r e a d y b o i l s and w i l l s o o n e x p l o d e i n t o t h e f a c e s o f many o f t h e s u f f e r s of o u r c o u n t r y , j u s t as i t was shown i n t h e w i s e b o o k s . . . a n d t h e m e r c h a n t s of t h e l a n d w i l l sob a n d c r y . . . (185). The c h a r a c t e r of h i s p o s i t i o n i n the revolutionary,  of K r a k o v i s story.  He i s  a member o f t h e  He became a l e a d e r  the p r i n c i p l e of  an  because  ideological  i n t e l l i g e n t s i a who was  s a t i s i f e d with, the e x i s t i n g regime movement.  a n u n u s u a l one  and j o i n e d t h e  dis-  underground  i n t h e L a n g e a r e a and  advocated  " R u s s i a n S o c i a l - D e m o c r a t i c Workers  Party,  (Bolshevik)"., K r a k o v was G u r y P o l u d o n o v ' s f o r m e r t e a c h e r later  he becomes t h e  r e v o l u t i o n a r y m a s t e r who g u i d e d  i n h i s underground a c t i v i t y .  He was n o t  confident  but  life,  c o n s e q u e n c e s and t h e p i t f a l l s .  the  nificance  a d v i s e d Gury, as to the  throughout  the development This struggle into  of  the  story  the c l a s s  existed  and  is  that  struggle  Gury  o n l y a f r i e n d and  different  roads  to  K r a k o v ' s main  Nikiforov through t h i s  discusses individual  p r i o r to the r e v o l u t i o n and r i g h t  the middle t h i r t i e s ,  (although  there  is very  sig-  up  definitely  #  137  a c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n the S o v i e t Union a t the  present).  As the o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , Krakov was a t the b a r r i c a d e s t o g e t h e r w i t h Gury.  The  killed  younger  revo-  l u t i o n a r y c a r r i e d the body of h i s dead teacher u n t i l he was  wounded and  too  died.  Nikiforov portrayed  the p r o f e s s i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y  through the c h a r a c t e r of Rorbach.  Like  Chemeryitsin,  he f o u g h t f o r the l a b o u r movement but a l w a y s - t h r o u g h the underground c h a n n e l s .  In comparing Rorbach t o Krakov, a d e f i n i t e  s i g n i f i c a n c e can be seen, t h e l a t t e r c o m p l e t e l y l i f e on i d e o l o g i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s  patterning his  and t h e o r e t i c a l p r a c t i c e s ,  w h i l e Rorbach f a c e s r e a l i t y and r e a c t s a c c o r d i n g l y . Rorbach was  a non-Russian i n d i v i d u a l who  movements.  T h i s was  j o i n e d the r e v o l u t i o n a r y  a commonplace a c t i o n and  i s mentioned  by N i k i f o r o v i n numerous o c c a s i o n s . N i k i f o r o v r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n  of C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l -  ism - t h a t i s the u n i t y of i d e a s , C h r i s t i a n and throughout t h i s n o v e l . r e l i g i o n and  I t was  Social, -  a movement t o combine both  s o c i a l i s m to b u i l d a S o c i a l i s t s t a t e .  Nikiforov  openly spoke about the u n i t y of t h e s e i d e a s i n 1935. not u n t i l 1956  It  was  t h a t B o r i s Pasternak mentioned them i n "Doctor  Zhivago", thereby  remaining  N i k i f o r o v ' s main a t t a c k was  s i l e n t f o r almost two  decades!  on the c l a s s s t r u g g l e t h a t  was  13$  going on, and t h i s he i n c o r p o r a t e d he f e l t t h a t t h e r e should  i n t o h i s novels.  be a s t r o n g e r  return to  But  true  s o c i a l i s m ; r e c o g n i t i o n of i t s good t r a i t s , such as  socializa-  t i o n of i n d u s t r y , c o l l e c t i v i s m , common governmental ownership of e v e r y t h i n g .  The  people must f o r g e t about c l a s s s t r a g g l e s  and put an emphasis on r e l i g i o n so t h a t u n i t y can be and  then a r e t u r n to t r u e s o c i a l i s m can  restored  occur.  N i k i f o r o v ' s c h i e f advocate of C h r i s t i a n - S o c i a l i s m was  Soluntsev.  Concerning the c l a s s s t r u g g l e he  says:  ... During t h e r e v o l u t i o n one has to be a b i t of a poet, m u s i c a l l y i n c l i n e d and most e x p l i c i t l y a r o m a n t i c . Our argument about the c l a s s s t r u g g l e w i l l arouse a s p i t e f u l , l o w - l y i n g c h a r a c t e r . The c l a s s s t r u g g l e t h e n w i l l be good, when i t i s of n o b i l i t y ( l i v e l i n e s s , cheer, a p p l a u s e , and the merry c l i n k i n g of g l a s s e s ) . (315) N i k i f o r o v goes on t o d i s c u s s the s o c i a l i s t r e l i g i o n ' within Russia. by the  Why  ' c r e a t i o n of a  cannot people l i v e  Bible? ... Do you remember, how i t was w r i t t e n ? .... - ... "Do unto o t h e r s , as you would have them do unto you." - and i f we were a b l e to l i v e a c c o r d i n g to t h e B i b l e , then a l l would have come about o t h e r w i s e . ( 2 7 7 ) . Soluntsev  and h i s f r i e n d s c o n t i n u e  discussing  the  B i b l e and r e l i g i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s complete a d o p t i o n i n t o the R u s s i a n way  of l i f e .  l i k e heaven; i t i s so l i g h t and  They say  " l i f e i s rather  a i r y t h a t i t seems i t i s  1 3 9  i s drawn, t h i s - t y p e of l i f e i s based on t h a t which i s f o u n d only i n the B i b l i c a l t r u t h " .  (277).  ... You speak r e m a r k a b l y w e l l , S e r g e i A n d r i e e v i c h , but t h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e ... - we have a raw m a t e r i a l i s t i c c e n t u r y - and suddenly a b i b l i c a l t r u t h , t h i n k about S e r g e i I ... I must say t h a t your i d e a ... of t r a n s f o r m i n g the B i b l e , and B i b l i c a l t r u t h , q u i t e p o s s i b l y w i l l be r e a l i z e d b e t t e r i n R u s s i a , where one can s t i l l see God i n the pure s o u l of our p e a s a n t r y , but namely what i s t o be done f o r the e x t e n s i o n of your i d e a ? ... i t i s unknown to us ... the s o c i a l i s t r e l i g i o n ... ... Yes, yes, namely i n t h i s manner .... - The c r e a t i o n of a s o c i a l i s t r e l i g i o n ! q What can be h i g h e r t h a n God? What can-be b r i g h t e r and more g l o r i o u s than t h i s ? And d i d the i d e a of l i b e r a t i n g R u s s i a a r i s e f r o m C h r i s t i a n i t y ? (277). Thus N i k i f o r o v i s p u t t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n during S t a l i n i s t Russia.  forward  Cannot C h r i s t i a n i t y be  to e x i s t f r e e l y t o g e t h e r w i t h S o c i a l i s m ? ism and r e l i g i o n e v o l v e t o form a new  allowed  Cannot s o c i a l -  state?  These  questions  were p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g t h e dark m i d d l e 1 9 3 0 ' s and N i k i f o r o v was  the o n l y one who  spoke out.  Pasternak  was  e x i s t e n c e but d i d not o p e n l y d i s c u s s them. The  aware of t h e i r significant  f e a t u r e of N i k i f o r o v ' s d i s c u s s i o n on C h r i s t i a n s o c i a l i s m i s h i s mention of the B i b l e and l i v e by i t . "liquidated".  how  i n d i v i d u a l s would be a b l e to  For t h i s reason a l o n e N i k i f o r o v would have been But he d i d not stop here i n h i s c r i t i c i s m  the S t a l i n i s t regime.  of  140  Part Throughout references  reference  " M a s t e r a " , N i k i f o r o v made many  and d i r e c t a t t a c k s  the purpose of  this  II.  chapter to  derogatory  upon t h e S t a l i n i s t e r a . discuss.these  remarks  to the events which occurred d u r i n g  It  is  in  1920-1935.  A s t o r y t o l d by A l f e y was o b v i o u s l y meant t o be a d i r e c t d e s c r i p t i o n o f 193 5 S t a l i n i s t R u s s i a .  N i k i f o r o v wrote  this tale  interspersed  win the s t y l e  "Symbolical  r e a l i s m " which a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y to  The m a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c common " p e a s a n t Symbolical  of Russian f o l k t a l e s  of R u s s i a n f o l k t a l e s  type" words.  r e a l i s m and  Soviet is  Russia.  i t s use  Nikiforov successfully  with  of  combines  folklore.  . . . The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i n t h i s s t o r y i s t h a t t h e r e was a d a r k c o u n t r y where p e o p l e n e v e r l a u g h e d f r o m t h e t i m e t h e y were b o r n , and f r o m t h e i r b i r t h w e r e b e s e t by a g r e a t d e j e c t i o n , as t h o u g h , you m i g h t say, t h e y f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s i n a c e m e t e r y on a r a i n y d a y ; t h e c l o u d s d r o o p down t o e a r t h a n d hang f r o m t h e t r e e s , t h e d e a d , as i t i s t h e i r custom, a r e s i l e n t , t h e b i r d s a r e a l l h u n c h e d u p , t h e w i n d h a n g s i t s h e a d and h i d e s i n t h e m o u n t a i n s , and n o t h i n g moves on e a r t h ; s i l e n c e - a s i f i t w e r e by s o r c e r y , o n l y t h e r a i n f a l l s on t h e l e a v e s K r a p , K r a p . . . . B u t t h e p e o p l e who w e r e a p p o i n t e d by f a t e t o r e s i d e i n t h i s s t a t e w a n d e r a b o u t as i f t h e y w e r e a s l e e p . The a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e p e o p l e i s g r a y , and t h e i r e y e s are b i t t e r - they cannot s h e l t e r from w e a r i n e s s . .. (37) 1 . Nikiforov's of the S o v i e t of  regime  stark attack  on t h e g r e y  gloomy  nature  i s portrayed through the barren f u t i l i t y  symbolical realism.  141  ... And t h e r e l i v e d i n t h a t s t a t e one meek i n d i v i d u a l , h u n t i n g was t h e means of subs i s t e n c e f o r h i m s e l f and f o r h i s w i f e . He t r a p p e d s m a l l a n i m a l s . Once he approaches an overgrown path and sees t h a t an o l d badger had f a l l e n i n t o h i s t r a p . The badger w a i t s f o r t h e h u n t e r , m o t i o n i n g w i t h h i s paw he says "Come t o me, you a r e my s a l v a t i o n " . The h u n t e r was s u r p r i s e d and began t o l o o k around; who i s speaking t o him? Again t h e badger c r i e d o u t : "come h e r e , come h e r e , I w i s h t o speak w i t h y o u . " - m o t i o n i n g a g a i n w i t h h i s paw. The hunter, dumbfounded by t h e nature of t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e l e a s e d t h e s p r i n g of t h e t r a p , t h e badger jumped t o t h e s i d e , f o r t i f i e d h i m s e l f between r o c k s and l a u g h i n g l y • c a l l e d out from t h e r e : "Eh, you n u m b s k u l l , you l o s t your l u c k ! But t h a t ' s l i f e , s a i d he, - f o r your s i m p l i c i t y your w i f e w i l l bear f o r you a daughter Vyidumka, w i t h h e r you m i l f i n d h a p p i n e s s on e a r t h " . ... (37 - 38) 1. T h i s was d e f i n i t e l y w r i t t e n i n t h e s t y l e o f t h e Russian f o l k t a l e s ;  t h e use of such peasant words "rnelkyu  zverugy", "moey v o l e n " , " b e z - u m a - g o l o v i i " , "durak-Chudak", clearly exemplifies t h i s .  N i k i f o r o v employs s y m b o l i c a l r e a l -  ism i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e badger who r e p r e s e n t s t h e e v i l f o r c e s t h a t were caught i n t h e t r a p o f t h e b a s i c a l l y godd b u t simple hunger.  T h i s can be l i k e n e d t o S o v i e t r e a l i t y .  The badger  r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e S o v i e t government, q u i c k , smart, always on the a l e r t but a l s o b e i n g i n f a l l i b l e . The hunger r e p r e s e n t s t h e simple but pure peasant.  N i k i f o r o v switches from the  formal composition of the f i r s t p a r t i n t o the r o l l i c k i n g language and t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t i n f o l k l o r e . ... The hunter r e t u r n e d t o h i s hut and sees a m a r v e l l o u s m i r a c l e ; h i s w i f e i s s i t t i n g on t h e t h r e s h o l d , and i n h e r arms she i s h o l d i n g a new b o r a baby daughter, -Vyidumka. ... (38) 1.  142  With the appearance of Vydumka, N i k i f o r o v r e t a i n s the f o l k l o r e t e c h n i q u e . i s t state.  She was  Vydumka r e p r e s e n t s the i d e a l commun-  a symbol o f t h e new  S t a l i n i s t regime.  The  language i s once more peasant i n t o n e . ... Vydumka s eyes - are ocean-blue; wherever her gaze f a l l s , t h e r e the sun a l s o f a l l s , the woods bloom, the a p p l e s f i l l w i t h honey, the b i r d s s i n g , and boredom i s gone. "Ah, what a wonder you a r e l - t h i n k s the h u n t e r . - Now i n our s t a t e we can l i v e w i t h o u t g r i e f " . He took h i s daughter from h i s w i f e , and p r e s s e d her t o h i s h e a r t , w i t h f r e e f l o w i n g s t r i d e s he s e t s o f f i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , i n o r d e r to spread j o y i n l i f e . Wherever he goes t h e r e storm c l o u d s t u r n p i n k and the sky s h i n e s , golden r a i n d r o p l e t s f a l l . The h u n t e r c o n t i n u e s w a l k i n g and speaks w i t h h i s daughter Vydumka. They come to t h e shores of a r i v e r where grapes and a p p l e s are growing. The h u n t e r wanted t o eat a grape, he p i c k e d a few, - s o u r , he broke a c l u s t e r of grapes and p l a c e d the grapes i n h i s mouth - b i t t e r , he p l u c k e d a plum ... how was he t o l i v e - he d i d not know. And here Vydumka n o t i c e d her f a t h e r ' s t e a r s . ... "Don't worry, - ... don't c r y , I w i l l h e l p you w i t h your w o r r i e s " . And "she o r d e r s him: "Take a spade, f a t h e r , d i g a h o l e , p i c k out the g r a n u l e s from the h o l e and g i v e t h o s e g r a n u l e s t o me." Thus d i d t h e hunter. ... "Now watch, s a i d Vydumka. She p l a c e d a few i n her hand, and c a s t them t o the e a s t - a p p l e s grew; c a s t t o the west plums grew - c a s t to t h e n o r t h - g r a p e s entwined. The h u n t e r p i c k e d an a p p l e - sugar f l o w e d ; he p l a c e d a grape i n h i s mouth/- i t m e l t s i t s e l f ; he t a s t e d a plum - he almost swallowed h i s tongue. The hunter was o v e r j o y e d and t h o u g h t : "Now .1 w i l l not s t a r v e . I w i l l l i v e and i n v i t e g u e s t s " . He g l a n c e d a r o u n d , a l l i s i n bloom, i t was as i f boredom had never been. He wanted to take h i s daughter i n t o h i s arms, so he c o u l d c a r r y her a c r o s s the w o r l d , but Vydumka arose i n t o the a i r above the g l o w i n g garden, and c a l l s from above: "Good-bye f a t h e r ! When you need me, c a l l rne, and I w i l l appear a t once, " - and she ascended and the 1  143  f u r t h e r she went the b r i g h t e r i t became, a l l was tempting ... ( 3 8 - 3 9 ) 1. The  l a s t episode was  i s abundant i n s y m b o l i c a l  written i n a formal style  but  r e a l i s m with f o l k l o r e overtones.  Vydumka c o n s t r u c t s  an i d e a l communist s t a t e i n which  the storm c l o u d s are p i n k , golden r a i n d r o p l e t s f a l l ,  i t is  the l a n d of p l e n t y ; f o o d i s not s c a r c e , a r e f e r e n c e to  the  g r e a t f a m i n e s , Vydumka s c a t t e r s seeds t o the west; the hope of p l a n t i n g seeds of Communism i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s .  The  hunter  wanted to c a r r y h i s daughter a c r o s s t h e e a r t h , s i g n i f y i n g c r e a t i o n of a w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n , but Vydumka r o s e above s h i n i n g garden, i m p l y i n g f a i l u r e , the  a s c e n t the r e g i o n became b r i g h t e r .  gone; w i t h  N i k i f o r o v could  But  be  saying  i t s penetrating  "apparatchiki" during  bureaucratic  (69)1.  personal-  influence.  N i k i f o r o v ' s next attack  na R o s s i i kham ..."  future  the b r i g h t l i g h t from Vydumka's  ascent c o u l d a l s o symbolize the growth of S t a l i n ' s  of t h e  a  her  h o p e f u l l y t h a t w i t h the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the s t a t e the  i t y c u l t and  the  t h a t the u n i v e r s a l r e v o l u t i o n was  s t a t e j u s t went poof, i t was  w i l l become b r i g h t e r .  the  was  upon the S o v i e t  system  the S t a l i n i s t epoch. "Gryadet He  c r i t i c i z e s the e n t i r e  Soviet  system, as i n ' " U F o n a r y a " , he w r o t e t h a t R u s s i a  i s b e i n g overrun w i t h  boors.  Epimakh expresses h i s views on an a u t h o r i t a r i a n govern-  144  ment.  In r e a l i t y  magnanimousness but a l s o  N i k i f o r o v s a y s t h a t one  and d a r i n g n e s s  i n his thoughts;  should  possess  not only i n one's  actions  t h a t t h e l a w s of t h e  country  s h o u l d n o t g o v e r n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s t h i n k i n g a n d i m p a i r h i s actions. ties  Freedom of  speech  o f an a u t h o r i t a r i a n Alfey  tells  e s c a p e of Asmodey, He t e r r o r i z e s country,  and a c t i o n ,  story  a s p i r i t of e v i l  i n w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s ( z l o y dykh)  the people w h i l e a g r e a t  completely destroying  d e s c r i b i n g the purges  binding  state.  another  them t o g r e a t h a r d s h i p s .  and not t h e  It  and t h e  (115)  storm l a s h e s  the 1.  the  t h e i r f a i t h and s u b m i t t i n g  is obvious that e v i l that  Nikiforov is  resulted during  that  time. Once a g a i n ,  Nikiforov attacks  the d i c t a t o r i a l nature  of S t a l i n through a d e s c r i p t i o n of t s a r i s t  Russia.  . . . Our R u s s i a i s l i k e a bed of s u b m i s s i v e n e s s and humbleness, . . . a t t h e head of w h i c h s i t s t h e t s a r , l i k e an o l d woman s i t t i n g a t t h e f o r e f r o n t , and f r o m t h i s o l d woman a r e i n v i s i b l e r e i n s d i r e c t l y to the heavenly t r a n s m i s s i o n . This g o d - b u i l d i n g . When y o u bow t o t h e t s a r d o n ' t b e n d y o u r head . . . (163) 1. T s a r i s t R u s s i a was a n a u t o c r a c y . tator.-  The t s a r s  believed  in building a personality Nikiforov  Stalin is a dic-  i n t h e i r d i v i n e nature, cult for himself.  p o i n t s o u t what i s t h e  difference  and S t a l i n  Consequently between the  two?  H5  E i t h e r way  the people l o s e .  He w r i t e s about t h e government t a k i n g the youth from the v i l l a g e s and  f o r c i n g them to the c i t i e s where  they work i n u n f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s . u n t r a i n e d f o r t h e i r work.  Soviet  They are  completely  Through A l f e y ' s s t o r y N i k i f o r o v  d e s c r i b e s the problems t h a t a r i s e and the t a s k s s e t out f o r the  youth. "Nyet, y e h a t , ubezhat ot etovo nevozmozhno." (193) Chemeryitsin  1.  and V i k u l d i s c u s s the c o n d i t i o n s f o r  people i n o t h e r l a n d s but i n d i r e c t l y N i k i f o r o v s a y s t h a t escape from R u s s i a i s i m p o s s i b l e .  N i k i f o r o v washes to  escape from l i f e i t s e l f through s p i r i t u a l  satisfaction,  through the development o f the i d e a l s t a t e . that l i f e dens.  But he  realizes  i s i n e s c a p a b l e and one must c a r r y on w i t h h i s bur-  You  cannot escape from S o v i e t R u s s i a w i t h i t s t e r r o r i s t  purges and d i c t a t o r i a l powers. N i k i f o r o v d i s c u s s e s the g r e a t f a m i n e s t h a t ravaged • the c o u n t r y , i n p a r t i c u l a r f a m i n e s o f . t h e U k r a i n e Caucasus a r e a and the V o l g a r e g i o n d u r i n g t h e  the  thirties.  ... Today I r e t u r n e d from t h e V o l g a r e g i o n ; I w i l l t e l l you t h e t r u t h - I ran away. A g e n e r a l famine a p l a g u e i s t h e r e , t h e people t h a t have s t r e n g t h are m u t i n y i n g along the shores, the o t h e r s d i e d from c h o l e r a , a few of t h e cossacks f l e d t o S i b e r i a . (21$) 1.  146  The  famines spread t h r o u g h o u t R u s s i a . The peasants,  i t was r e p o r t e d ,  were e a t i n g "bark from t h e t r e e s , i n t e s t i n e s  and hay, and from t h i s they w i l l d i e ... and j u s t t h i n k how many w i l l d i e w i t h o u t a s t r u g g l e . ' " ( 2 4 7 ) 1 . N i k i f o r o v makes r e f e r e n c e were f o r m i n g d u r i n g t h e t h i r t i e s .  to t h e bread l i n e s  that  The term " b e z r a b o t n i i t s a "  s y m b o l i c a l l y r e f e r s t o a q;,ueueing o f t h e p e o p l e .  I n 1933  e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e U k r a i n e and Voronhez d i s t r i c t s t h e r e was no b r e a d .  Thousands s t a r v e d . ... R a s s o h i n (a minor c h a r a c t e r ) , walks down t h e street, i t i s l i k e a graveyeard, l i n e d with bodies. (171)  11.  ... I n s l e i g h s t h e dead a r e p i l e d one on'top o f the o t h e r , a woman w i t h a w a t t l e d hand-bag l i e s on the t o p o f t h e s l e i g h ... ( 1 7 0 ) 1 1 . There e x i s t e d a t t h i s t i m e , 1 9 3 5 , a g r e a t f e e l i n g of hope among t h e p e o p l e , an a n t i c i p a t i o n f o r something b e t t e r t o come about. terrorism.  A better l i f e ,  a l e s s e n i n g o f t h e governmental  But i n s t e a d t h e p e o p l e were met w i t h more purges  and t h e outbreak of World War 11 soon a f t e r . echos t h e p e o p l e s ' c r y f o r a b e t t e r l i f e .  Nikiforov  "Not a r i s i n g up,  my dear V a s i l i T i m o f e e v i c h , b u t an. a n t i c i p a t i n g time as t o success."  ("Ne v o s p a r e n i e ,  liubezneeshi V a s i l i  Timofeevich,  a vsechasnoe b d e n i e e s t ' z a l o g yspekha: ) 2 2 9 ) 1 . But t h e i r hopes were not f u l f i l l e d . A f t e r t h e war the people a g a i n f e l t t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be a r e l a x a t i o n b u t  147  S t a l i n r e t a i n e d h i s i r o n g r i p on them. The  hope o f t h e people i s a g a i n expressed by Rorbach.  He s t a t e s : ... Truth w i l l come i n time and V a a l w i l l f a l l ....Those who a r e g u i l t y f o r t h e p o v e r t y of t h e n a t i o n a r e many. Don't g i v e up hope, comrade B o r i s . I n t h e open s t r u g g l e t h e r e w i l l be many s a c r i f i c e s and you y o u r s e l f w i l l beg f o r pardon. In t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e a l l i s l i k e n a t u r e , a l l i s f o r e c a s t . Be c a r e f u l not t o i n f r i n g e on t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e masses. (246) 1. N i k i f o r o v n o t o n l y e x p r e s s e d t h e thought o f t h e people but he f e l t h i m s e l f t h a t a "thaw" must come.  Un-  fortunately i t did not. N i k i f o r o v w r i t e s about the thousands, even m i l l i o n s o f people who stream i n t o t h e c i t y t o work f o r t h e Lange factory.  This again i s a reference t o the previous  actions  of t h e S o v i e t s i n c o l l e c t i v i z i n g t h e y o u t h , i n p a r t i c u l a r the c h i l d r e n of t h e K u l a k s , who were sent t o t h e c i t y t o work, while t h e i r parents  were sent t o o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t y ,  e i t h e r under S o v i e t s u p e r v i s i o n or t o wander and beg f o r themselves. Lange.  He a t t a c k s t h e S o v i e t government through F r e d r i c k  I t i s too powerful,  i t can do whatever i t p l e a s e s ,  i t i s t o o s t r o n g , no one w i l l c o n t r a d i c t nor a t t a c k i t .  A  r e s t r a i n t must be f o u n d . But N i k i f o r o v mentions f u r t h e r ( 3 0 3 ) 1, t h a t many of the p e a s a n t s who opposed t h i s c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n moved t o  148  Siberia  o r t o t h e Don r e g i o n t o e s c a p e t h e S o v i e t  only eventually into  influence,  e i t h e r t o be b r o u g h t b a c k o r i n c o r p o r a t e d  c o l l e c t i v e farms Nikiforov  and i n d u s t r y i n t h a t  attacks  s t a t e s t h a t Epimakh i s  area.  c a r e e r i s m through Epimakh.  He  c o n t e n t o n l y when he i s i n command o f  t h e s i t u a t i o n ; he became a c c u s t o m e d t o  the  adaptations  s o m e t h i n g and . d e v o u r  that led to greed,  to grab  other  necessary  it'. . . . A t y o u r g l o r i f y i n g e u l o g y we w i l l p r a i s e y o u r d e s c e n d e n t . i f y o u d i d n o t s a c r i f i c e them f o r y o u r s e l f . (325) 1. But  Nikiforov  He s t a t e s t h a t own b e n e f i t . not  is including careerism i n  t h e men w i l l  sacrifice  They a r e g r e e d y ,  content u n l e s s  they are at the t o p ,  realizing  t h a t they are  they  in their  rise  Nikiforov people  everything for  grasping,  accustomed to t h e i r p o s i t i o n s .  general. their  hoarding i n d i v i d u a l s and q u i c k l y  become  They become d e m a n d i n g n o t  s l o w l y d e s t r o y i n g t h e i r image  as  career. c r i t i c i z e s the lack  of i n t e r e s t  t o work i n t h e K o l k h o z e s and s o v k h o z e s .  among t h e  There  is  c o m p l e t e a p a t h y among t h e m ; t h e y a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e conditions that  exist,  t h e r e i s no s o c i a l s e c u r i t y  aged.  A person works f o r  years"  (328) and what d o e s he g e t  lifetime  "ten,  twenty,  t h i r t y , even  in return.  a n d d o e s n o t h a v e any r e w a r d .  for  the  fifty  One w o r k s a  Surely there  is  some-  149  t h i n g wrong'.  Thus the apathy w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l .  should he work? the end?  Yes,  What i s he working f o r ? the c o n s t r u c t i o n  eventually  attacks  I s t h e r e a means t o  of a S o c i a l i s t s t a t e .  the r e a d e r f e e l s N i k i f o r o v i s not c e r t a i n l y the people are not.  Why  s a t i s f i e d with  But  t h i s answer,  As would be e x p e c t e d , N i k i f o r o v  the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n ^ of t h i n k i n g .  Be f i r m i n your c o n v i c t i o n s b e f o r e s u b m i s s i o n . Those who oppose f i n d t h e m s e l v e s beneath the axe (331)  ...  1.  S t a l i n purged i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y c o n s e q u e n t l y people were r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s because o f the a b l e i f t h e y were m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . standardization  as the  inevit-  Nikiforov regards t h i s  supreme element of a d i c t a t o r s h i p .  Freedom of speech should be a l l o w e d . Thoughts w i t h h e l d eventually But  burst  f o r t h and s e r i o u s  S t a l i n r e a l i z e d t h i s and  successful.  will  consequences w i l l r e s u l t .  i n t h i s way  the purges were  They managed to d e s t r o y the " c o r e " and  Russia  remained a d i c t a t o r s h i p . The  " c u l t of p e r s o n a l i t y " i s found t h r o u g h o u t  N i k i f o r o v ' s book.  I t i s o n l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y developed i n  A l f e y ' s f i r s t s t o r y about Vydumka. " c u l t " i n the form of two e x i s t e d on e a r t h , but no  people who one  had  Nikiforov presents t h i s believed that  seen i t s f a c e .  truth  For t h i s  reason alone everyone speaks of t r u t h as b e i n g shrouded. w i s e men  declared:  The  150  . . . I t i s b e a u t i f u l , so b e a u t i f u l t h a t t h e e a r t h cannot c o n t a i n i t s beauty, f o r t h i s r e a s o n t r u t h r e m a i n s i n h e a v e n . . . B u t t h e r e w e r e p e o p l e who spoke a b o u t t h e g r e a t a p p r o a c h o f m i s f o r t u n e , when p e o p l e w i l l o v e r t h r o w t r u t h and t h e i r humble a d o r a t i o n to the earth . . . - then t r u t h w i l l w a l l o w i n t h e p r o s a i c s i d e o f l i f e , and the w o r l d w i l l t h i n k o f a n o t h e r t r u t h , one w h i c h w i l l be o f a s s i s t a n c e t o i t , a c o n d e s c e n d i n g t r u t h , which w i l l j u s t i f y the c r i m e s ; war, t h i e v e r y , greed, t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f one i n d i v i d u a l b y a n o t h e r , a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f God a n d H i s s e r v a n t s l ( 1 7 - 1 8 ) 1 1 . Thus N i k i f o r o v was a b l e t o e x p r e s s  h i s o p i n i o n of  S t a l i n t h r o u g h t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t r u t h . The hope will  fall  and the  tify  his actions  will  restore  establishment i n the  of  that  Stalin  a regime w h i c h w i l l  eyes o f t h e p e o p l e ,  a regime  jus-  which  faith.  . . . A t i m e w i l l come, mumbled R u d e n k o , - when t h e earth w i l l shrug i t s e l f f r e e from the debauchery of thoughts . . . (182)11. A l f e y has always dreams he w a l k e d a c r o s s his  previous works,  references Soviet with  to  l o n g e d t o go t o A m e r i c a and i n h i s  i t w i t h a l l of h i s b i r d s .  ( " U n i t y , " " I n t o the Wind"), N i k i f o r o v s T  America express  citizen.  As i n  a l o n g i n g of  the i n d i v i d u a l  H i s dream o f A m e r i c a w i t h i t s  gold could never  come t r u e .  I t was  streets  forbidden.  L i k e Rorbach, N i k i f o r o v adapted h i m s e l f to the regime.  He w r o t e t h e l i t e r a r y u n s u c c e s s f u l  b u t as f a r a s But  paved  Soviet  novel "Unity",  t h e F i v e Y e a r P l a n was c o n c e r n e d i t was a  success.  N i k i f o r o v had to adapt h i m s e l f i n t o the regime because  of  151  of t h e p r e s s u r e from t h e government and t h e l i t e r a r y organizations.  Thus Rorbach must adapt h i m s e l f to t h e  c o n d i t i o n s around him, t o t h e w o r l d  i n general, but  ... t o f r e e o n e s e l f from t h i s hum-drum e x i s t e n c e a r e v o l u t i o n must o c c u r . The r e v o l u t i o n w i l l be the f i r s t n o t t h e hum-drum b e g i n n i n g i n a l l t h e h i s t o r y o f man ... ( 2 4 ) 1 1 . N i k i f o r o v f o r e c a s t s the c l a s s s t r u g g l e , i n h i s earl i e r n o v e l , " I n t o t h e Wind".  He says t h a t ' b r o t h e r w i l l  a g a i n s t b r o t h e r ; t h e son w i l l s t r i k e class struggle w i l l  father' (109) 11.  rise The  come about but an i n c i t e r i s needed, one  who w i l l a g i t a t e , rouse up t h e people. and a complete new.regime s e t up.  A l l must be d e s t r o y e d  E v e r y t h i n g and everyone  w i l l be purged. P h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i o n was scorned  at i n Russia.  It  was o n l y f o r t h e ' s t u p i d i n d i v i d u a l s ' a c c o r d i n g t o Epimakh. He t r i e d t o connect t h i s a c t i o n w i t h the i d e a t h a t people would n o t a s s o c i a t e w i t h you, f r i e n d s would not r e c o g n i z e you i f you f e l t  t h i s way toward them.  N i k i f o r o v shows t h e  a t t i t u d e t h a t people had toward each o t h e r . Chemeryitsin  was a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e o l d com-  munist guard who were d i s a p p o i n t e d i n t h e S t a l i n i s t regime. There was a g r e a t s i m i l a r i t y between N i k i f o r o v and Chemeryitsin.  I t has been suggested t h a t C h e m e r y i t s i n  b i o g r a p h i c a l f i g u r e of N i k i f o r o v .  was an auto-  Consequently, the d i s -  i l l u s i o n m e n t i n the S t a l i n i s t regime.  Nikiforov's attitude  152  toward the  r e g i m e and h i s a p p r a i s a l o f  four previous  i t . can be f e l t  i n w h i c h he l o s e s  feelings  are  expressed  a l l touch w i t h r e a l i t y ,  ...  t h r o u g h a dream and he  t h i s r e a l i t y w i t h such sadness and m e l a n c h o l y , days were o f j o y t o him . . .  The S o v i e t .  reality  the reader  a chance  immediate past  The q u e s t i o n t h a t thought  that  (252)  i s best expressed  approache not  even  11.  by the  following  . . . I s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t we h a v e a n g e r e d o u r God t o s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t he a l l o w e d s u c h a b e a s t , a h e l l i s h crew, i n t o our u n i v e r s a l f a m i l y ? Is i t p o s s i b l e t h a t i n r e a l i t y we have r e t u r n e d t o t h e t i m e o f b a r b a r i t y and s a v a g e n e s s ? I s i t p o s s i b l e , I ask y o u , t h a t y o u w i l l l e a v e t h i s s p i t t l e t o r e m a i n on e a r t h , t h a t which i s apt to spread e v i l through o u r f a m i l i e s and m i s a n t h r o p y ? No, my God I do not b e l i e v e t h i s . I t h i n k , that a great love s t i l l l i v e s i n t h e h e a r t s o f many, t h i s i s why I c a l l o u t t o y o u and hope t h a t y o u w i l l d e s t r o y t h e c o r e o f t h i s , d i f f u s i n g e v i l , s p i t t l e . . . (26.3) 11 • Through the f i g u r e  the  the  nevels.  Chemeryitsin's  the b r i g h t e s t  in  of  to d e c i d e  Bras N i k i f o r o v for  h i m s e l f whether  and even t h e p r e s e n t Bras puts forward i s  o f many t i m e s b u t n e v e r  i s able  i s worth one t h a t  or  to not  while. has  been  said:  . . . Why i s t h e h i s t o r y of s t a t e , t h e development of e v o l v i n g a l o n g t h e p a t h of r e b e l l i o n and s t r u g g l e s ? this? (267) 11.  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of o u r our i n d u s t r y s t i l l i n s u r r e c t i o n , armed What i s t h e r e a s o n f o r  give  153  Thus N i k i f o r o v has p r e s e n t e d S o v i e t regime.  He l e t s t h e reader  "the" question of the  decide f o r h i m s e l f .  ... We bow t o j u s t i c e , t o our j u s t i c e , your honour, an i m p a r t i a l p e r i o d b e f o r e h i s t o r y . (26$) 11. N i k i f o r o v p o s s i b l y f e e l s t h a t t h i s i s t h e end o f the regime.  I t i s d e c l i n i n g and t h r o u g h t h i s s e n t e n c e he i s  f o r e c a s t i n g i t s d e c l i n e but a t the same t i m e  ironically  submitting t o i t . P e r e l ' i i v k i n expresses t h e o p i n i o n of t h e l a b o u r c l a s s and d e s c r i b e s the complete d e s t r u c t i o n of human i n d i v iduality.  He i s an o l d p r o f e s s i o n a l worker, and s a y s t h a t he  was never able t o g a i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s throughout h i s e n t i r e life,  he s e r v e d t h e t s a r , then t h e S o v i e t s , never g a i n i n g  enough s t r e n g t h t o overcome t h e s e f o r c e s and d e v e l o p h i s individuality.  N i k i f o r o v - f e e l s that a l l personal  and thought i s governed by t h e s t a t e .  activity  Thus he m e r c i l e s s l y  opposes t h e S t a l i n i s t regime. I n comparing N i k i f o r o v w i t h Y u r y Olesha we can see t h a t t h e l a t t e r made use of i n t e l l e c t u a l s r a t h e r than t h e l a b o u r i n g c l a s s t o make a c c u s a t i o n s  against the Party.  N i k i f o r o v ' s n o v e l caused a g r e a t s e n s a t i o n when i t appeared i n t h e S o v i e t ,.Union i n 1936. had d i s a p p e a r e d  By 1937 N i k i f o r o v  and i t was presumed t h a t he was dead.  As  154  the r e a d e r o b v i o u s l y r e a l i z e s by now, N i k i f o r o v was prob a b l y one of very few known w r i t e r s a t t h i s time t o draw so much c r i t i c i s m a g a i n s t t h e S t a l i n i s t regime. t h i s with h i s l i f e .  But he p a i d f o r  "Mastera" i s one of t h e . g r e a t e s t books  ever w r i t t e n i n S o v i e t l i t e r a t u r e . information concerning  I t g i v e s a w e a l t h of  the l a b o u r i n g and r e v o l u t i o n a r y c l a s s e s  and a c t s as an e x p r e s s i o n of t h e thought and the t h a t were p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g t h e v i o l e n t  thirties.  suppressions  155  R e f e r e n c es 1.  Vyacheslav York,  Zavalishin, Early Soviet 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 325\  2.  I b i d 1;  329-  3.  G e o r g i i K . N i k i f o r o v , The M a s t e r c r a f t s m e n , (Moscow, 1937) p . 2 2 2 . T r a n s l a t e d and q u o t e d d i r e c t l y . The q u o t e s h e r e a f t e r w i l l a p p e a r t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r page numbers i n t h e t e x t o f t h i s c h a p t e r .  4.  W h i l e N i k i f o r o v was w r i t i n g t h i s n o v e l A l e x i T o l s t o y h a d j u s t c o m p l e t e d " P e t e r The G r e a t " . I t was e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r i n R u s s i a , a n d p o s s i b l y t h i s h a d an i n f l u e n c i n g e f f e c t upon N i k i f o r o v , as f a r as d e s c r i b i n g the Western i n f l u e n c e .  p.  Writers,  (New  156  Chapter ¥ Conclusion As mentioned i n t h e e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s N i k i f o r o v ' s i n d i v i d u a l s were p o r t r a y e d w i t h a p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l which was i n s e p a r a b l y bound t o g e t h e r .  life  Consequently a  p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o r t r a y a l began t o appear and t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s developed  i n t o complex but " c o n s c i o u s " communists.  This idea  o f " p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s " was t h o r o u g h l y developed i n his e a r l i e r novels.  Together w i t h these i n d i v i d u a l s N i k i f o r o v  s t r o v e t o p e r f e c t h i s l a b o u r and r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n d i v i d u a l . This was f i n a l l y accomplished l i t e r a l mastercraftsman  i n "Mastera"  by N i k i f o r o v , a  himself.  N i k i f o r o v ' s party bureaucrats f o l l o w a pattern of s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , y e t a t the same time d i f f e r i n g i n their personalities.  A l l a r e d e d i c a t e d men, d e g e n e r a t i n g and  r e g e n e r a t i n g as t h e case may be, b u t s t i l l men who a r e f a i t h f u l t o t h e cause. T h i s " f a i t h " i s p o s s i b l y o n l y p r o f e s s e d because they r e a l i z e t h a t t h e p a r t y i s a means to an end, or p o s s i b l y they a r e genuine i d e a l type i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n s ijj. t h e P a r t y . N i k i f o r o v ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l l a b o u r e r was p r e c i s e l y and almost p e r f e c t l y drawn .  He p r e s e n t e d t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f  labour o r g a n i z a t i o n ; trade unions - Bryakin; r e v o l u t i o n a r y l a b o u r movements - Gryaznov and C h e m e r y i t s i n ; l a b o u r a t t h e  157  c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l , Epimov, and  the p o s i t i o n of women i n  l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and movements, F a i k a , Serdobova,  and  Seema. N i k i f o r o v was  the l a s t w r i t e r to attempt t o d i s c u s s  the s u b j e c t of l a b o u r p s y c h o l o g y . A f t e r N i k i f o r o v t h e r e a general  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of l a b o u r c h a r a c t e r s , so t h a t h i s  i n d i v i d u a l s a r e p o r t r a y a l s r a r e l y found i n any o t h e r novels.  was  Soviet  P o s s i b l y a p o r t r a y a l 'could be found i n a few of the  F i v e Year P l a n works, but t h i s i s d o u b t f u l . a b i l i t y to p o r t r a y such i n d i v i d u a l s was by eminent w r i t e r s but a l s o by the a r t i s t i c  Nikiforov's  recognized  the P a r t y .  not  only  They r e a l i z e d  q u a l i t y o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s but  sacrificed  N i k i f o r o v because of the harm t h a t he had done to them. w r i t e r s would p r o b a b l y  f o l l o w i n h i s wake and the r e a l i t i e s of  t h e P a r t y , i t s f a l l a c i e s and n o n - i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t , e v e n t u a l l y be The  Other  would  destroyed. l i n e of the o l d p r o f e s s i o n a l worker can be  from "U F o n a r y a " t h r o u g h "Zhenshchina" and to " M a s t e r a " . Chessosov was  traced  " I n t o t h e Wind,"  the s n a k e - l i k e p a r t y b u r e a u c r a t  of  "U F o n a r y a " , but at the same time he c o u l d not be d i s c u s s e d as primary r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s movement. B r y a k i n , was  an o l d p r o f e s s i o n a l worker who  the  "Zhenshchina"  f i n a l l y j o i n e d the  Party.  He i s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Trade Unions and N i k i f o r o v s t r o n g l y a t t a c k s b o t h the P a r t y and t h e t r a d e u n i o n s through  him.  -  The  158  c h a r a c t e r of Epimov f o l l o w e d q u i c k l y the f o o t -  steps of Chessosov and B r y a k i n .  He was  the spokesman of  t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , the defender of s o c i a l i s m , the  typical  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the S o v i e t regime. C h e m e r y i t s i n  and  Graznov  were the u l t i m a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of N i k i f o r o v ' s c h a r a c t e r type. was  The  former was  a "labour-psychology"  a r e a c t i o n a r y l a b o u r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y who  individual. u n d e r s t o o d the  psychology of the masses and t r i e d t o h e l p them. But N i k i f o r o v he too was  i d s i l l u s i o n e d i n the S t a l i n i s t  and gave up from d e s p a i r . Gryaznov was  an i d e a l  and r e a l i z e d the importance o f the l a b o u r and struggle.  But l i k e the r e s t he d i d not  like regime  individual  revolutionary  succeed.  N i k i f o r o v ' s i d e o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r s were f o r reason o n l y .  He  one  As a mask under which he c o u l d a t t a c k  the  S t a l i n i s t regime, an a t t a c k t h a t was  p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and  ably  c a r r i e d out. An a t t a c k t h a t o n l y one  who  dis-  was  completely  i l l u s i o n e d i n the system c o u l d c a r r y out. But N i k i f o r o v o v e r s t e p p e d h i s ' . d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and t r i e d to p r e s e n t  an  un-  b i a s e d p o i n t of view. N i k i f o r o v was  accused of b e i n g  T r o t s k y i t e p r i n c i p l e "Industry  a supporter  of  i n the f i r s t p l a c e " .  Thus  the i n d u s t r i a l development went "hand i n g l o v e " w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l trade unions. and l a t e r N i k i f o r o v was  T h i s of c o u r s e was  the  anti-Party  accused of T r o t s f e y i t e l e a n i n g s .  f a i r l y obvious that Trotskyism  the  p l a y e d an important  It is  r o l e i n the  159  u n d e r l y i n g theme of "U F o n a r y a " and p o s s i b l y i n Z h e n s h c h i n a , " but i t i s d o u b t f u l i n t h e case of t h e l a t t e r . A f t e r h i s d i s a p p e a r a n c e N i k i f o r o v was s e v e r a l l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r h i s a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e T r o t s k y i t e f a c t i o n and h i s works were c o m p l e t e l y banned i n 1938. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the r e f e r e n c e s to the past t h a t N i k i f o r o v has made throughout h i s n o v e l s , i n p a r t i c u l a r t o those i n "Mastera". The i n f l u e n c e o f S e r g e i E i s e n s t e i n ' s f i l m " B a t t l e s h i p P o t e m k i n " i s r e f l e c t e d i n Krakov's l e t t e r t o Gury o f the Odessa u p r i s i n g i n 1905. f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e events.  N i k i f o r o v gives a colour-  S i n c e E i s e n s t e i n ' s f i l m was  popular a t t h i s time, i t i s presumed t o have i n f l u e n c e d N i k i f o r o v i n writing this.  N i k i f o r o v mentions t h e 1905 R e v o l u t i o n i n de-  t a i l throughout t h e n o v e l , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e "Blood Sunday" r i o t l e d by F a t h e r Gapon. A l s o t h e r e a r e numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e Russo-Japanese War, 1904. But t h e most important  reference  s t i l l remains t h e T r o t s k y i t e i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h o u t h i s e a r l i e r works. In p a s s i n g i t should be mentioned t h a t many w r i t e r s were r e h a b i l i t a t e d some post-humously - f o r i n s t a n c e Issak  Babel',  S e r g e i Budantsev, Ivan Katayev, and B o r i s P i l ' n y a k t o mention a few, - and t h e a d m i s s i o n  has been made by t h e S o v i e t  t h a t they were a l l s u b j e c t e d t o a r b i t r a r y and u n j u s t  press  treatment.  But G e o r g i i K o n s t a n t i n o v i c h N i k i f o r o v has n o t been r e h a b i l i t a t e d ,  160  nor have h i s works even appeared as have t h o s e o f Y u r i Anna Okhomatova, M a r i n a T s e v t a y a v a and o t h e r s .  Olesha,  This i s  to be expected because many of h i s a t t a c k s were d i r e c t e d t o the very core of t h e p a r t y .  But because o f t h e d e - S t a l i n i z -  a t i o n t h a t has taken p l a c e , one wonders why N i k i f o r o v has n o t been r e s u r r e c t e d and even g l o r i f i e d f o r s p e a k i n g out a g a i n s t the  dictator. In c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s t a t e t h a t N i k i f o r o v  was. "ever s t r i d i n g f o r w a r d w i t h f u l l r e a l i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y " and h i s f i v e n o v e l s a r e c l a s s i c examples t h a t human e x p r e s s i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l i t y cannot be s u p p r e s s e d .  161  BIBLIOGRAPHY Books and  Periodicals  B o r l a n d , H a r r i e t , S o v i e t L i t e r a r y Theory and P r a c t i c e d u r i n g the F i r s t F i v e Year P l a n , 1 9 2 8 - 3 2 , New Y o r k , K i n g ' s Crown P r e s s , 1950. Brown, Edward J . , Russian L i t e r a t u r e s i n c e t h e R e v o l u t i o n , New York, C o l l i e r Books, 1963. D j i l a s , M i l o v a n , The New  C l a s s , P r a e g e r , New  York,  1957.  Ermolaev, Herman, S o v i e t L i t e r a r y T h e o r i e s , 1917-1934, The G e n e s i s of S o c i a l i s t R e a l i s m , B e r k e l e y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1963. Gladkov, Feodor, Cement, London, Marten Lawrence ( t r a n s l a t e d from R u s s i a n by A.S. A r t h u r and C. A s h l e i g h ) . H i s t o r y of the Communist P a r t y of t h e S o v i e t Union T o r o n t o , Graphic O f f s e t P r i n t e r s , 1952.  (Bolshevik),  I s t o r i y a R u s s k o j S o v e t s k o j l i t e r a t u r i i , torn 1, 1917-1929, Moskva, I z d a t e l ' s t v o Academii Nayk SSR. L i t e r a t u r n a j a E n t s i k l o p e d i j a , Kommunisticheskija Academija, torn vos'mof, Moskva, Gosudarstvennoe S l o v a r n o E n t i s i k lopedicheskoe I z d a t e l ' s t v o "Sovetskaja e n t s i k l o p e d i j a , " 1934. Mathewson, Rufus, V/., The P o s i t i v e Hero i n R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e , New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. Muchnic, Helen, From Gorky to P a s t e r n a k , New York, Ramdom House, 1961. N i k i f o r o v , G e o r g i i , U Fonarya ( B e s i d e the Street-Lamp) Moskva - L e n i n g r a d , deshovaja b i b l i o t e k a , 1929. Zhenshchina, (The Woman), Moskva, Moskovsko t o v a r i s h c h e s t v o P i s a t e l e j , 1932. V s t r e c h n i i V e t ' e r ( i n t o the Wind), Moskva L e n i n g r a d , g o s u d a r s t v e n n o e i z d a t e l ' s t v o hudozhestvennoj l i t e r i t u r i i , 1931* Y e d i n s t v o , ( U n i t y ) , Moskva, S o v e t s k a j a L i t e r a t u r a , 1933.  162  _  M a s t e r a (The M a s t e r c r a f t s m e n ) Moskva hudozhestvennoe l i t e r a t u r a , 1936, 2 v o l s .  Red, John, Ten Days t h a t Shook t h e World, New York, Ramdom House, I 9 6 0 . R e s h e t a r , John 3., J r . , A C o n c i s e H i s t o r y of t h e Communist P a r t y of the S o v i e t Union, New York, Praeger, 1962. Sholokhov, M i k h a i l , V i r g i n S o i l Upturned, London, Putnam P r e s s , 1935. Simmons, E r n e s t J . , Through t h e G l a s s of S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953. Russian F i c t i o n and S o v i e t I d e o l o g y , New Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958.  York,  S t r u v e , Gleb, S o v i e t R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e , London, George R o u t l e d g e and Sons L t d . , 1935. 25 Y e a r s of S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , 1913-43, London, Lowe and Brydone L t d . , 1944. S o v i e t R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e 1917-1950, Norman, U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma P r e s s , 1951. Tompkins, S t u a r t Ramsay, The R u s s i a n I n t e l l i g e n t s i a , Norman, U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma P r e s s , 1951. Van Der Eng-Liedmeier, S o v i e t L i t e r a r y C h a r a c t e r s , an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e p o r t r a y a l o f S o v i e t men i n R u s s i a n Prose, 1917-1953, The Hague, Mouton and Co., P r i n t e r s , 1959. Z a v a l i s h i n , Vyacheslov, E a r l y Soviet W r i t e r s , Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1958.  New  York,  .Articles K r i t i k a i B i b l i o g r a p h i j a , A . Wiesbrod, G e o r g i i  Nikiforov,  K r i t i k a i Bibliographi.ja, A V o i j t o l o v s k i i , Georgii 1927. Obozrenie I s k u s s t v Georgii Nikiforov,  i literaturii, 1928. ~  Victor  Nikiforov,  Krasil'nikov,  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105480/manifest

Comment

Related Items