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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Mythopoesis of Lawrence Durrell Reeve, Phyllis Margery Parham 1965

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THE  MYTHOPOESIS OF LAWRENCE DURRELL  by PHYLLIS MARGERY REEVE B.A., B i s h o p ' s U n i v e r s i t y , 1958  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of English  We accept t h i s t h e s i s a s conforming required  THE  t o the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an a d v a n c e d degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall m a k e it freely available for reference and study* I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes m a y be granted by the H e a d of m yD e p a r t m e n t or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without m y written permission*  D e p a r t m e n t of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, C a n a d a ^e  D  ^UJ/  £Q  T  ff^S  ii  ABSTRACT  In The A l e x a n d r i a Quartet Lawrence D u r r e l l develops a s e r i e s of images i n v o l v i n g m i r r o r s , t o suggest  that t r u t h , e s p e c i a l l y the  t r u t h about o n e s e l f , i s t o be approached o n l y through t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f many memories, t i m e s and s e l v e s . i t s e l f through o t h e r s e l v e s , t h e a r t i s t  S i n c e t h e s e l f must  i s concerned  find  w i t h l o v e and  f r i e n d s h i p , where s e l f i s r e v e a l e d i n i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r . In n a r c i s s i s m and i n c e s t , t h e s e l f becomes t h e o t h e r , i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s own d i v i d e d  being.  The use o f m i r r o r a l l u s i o n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of self-knowledge  i s apparent  not o n l y i n t h e Q u a r t e t , but a l s o  i n D u r r e l l s p o e t r y and i n t h e e a r l y n o v e l s The B l a c k Book and The 1  Dark L a b y r i n t h .  I n t h e s e works t h e m i r r o r of self-knowledge i s  r e l a t e d t o t h e problem of a c t i o n .  Obsessive preoccupation with the  r e f l e c t i o n , t h e inward v i s i o n , p r e v e n t s one from a c t i n g o r c r e a t i n g or l o o k i n g outward.  When D u r r e l l * s man u n i f i e s t h i s r e f l e c t i o n o f  h i s v a r i o u s s e l v e s and t i m e s , he i s a b l e t o l i v e p r o d u c t i v e l y , as D a r l e y i s b e g i n n i n g t o do a t t h e end of t h e t e t r a l o g y . Both d e n o t a t i o n s of " r e f l e c t i o n " , t h e o u t e r image and t h e i n n e r thought,  are involved i n D u r r e l l * s a l l u s i o n s t o mirrors, since  both a r e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f , s i n c e t h e outward i s c o n t i n u a l l y t o suggest  used  t h e i n n e r , and s i n c e t h e g o a l i s t o u n i t e outward and  inner i n the u n i t a r y s e l f .  The p r o c e s s i s never  completed, and  D u r r e l l d e l i b e r a t e l y l e a v e s unanswered q u e s t i o n s about h i s major characters.  iii  F r e q u e n t l y t h e attempt t o f i n d an a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n ceeds through  pro-  " i " whose words o r person  t h e means of another  may  serve as a m i r r o r .  The " m i r r o r ' may be a l o v e r , a f r i e n d o r even  a mere acquaintance  or a stranger.  r  The A l e x a n d r i a n s o f t e n watch  each o t h e r i n m i r r o r s , so t h a t t h e i n s i g h t g a i n e d may be not i n t o o n e s e l f o n l y , but a l s o i n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f another. The m u l t i p l e - v i e w m i r r o r , which r e f l e c t s and d i s t o r t s one o b j e c t i n v a r i o u s ways, i s important  i n D u r r e l l * s scheme.  There  are always s e v e r a l ways of v i e w i n g a n y t h i n g , and t h e d i s p a r i t y may occur w i t h i n t h e v i s i o n of one p e r s o n , as w e l l as among t h o s e of a number o f p e o p l e .  The d i s u n i f i e d  s e l f , w i t h i t s c o n f l i c t s and  p o l a r i t i e s , i s a distorting mirror.  To s a t i s f y t h e need f o r  d e f i n i t i o n o f o n e s e l f , one c r e a t e s from " s e l e c t e d f i c t i o n s " , from t h e r e l a t i v e t r u t h s o f l i f e ,  a s e l f and a w i l l which can  l o v e and a c t i n r e l a t i o n to o t h e r s e l v e s and w i l l s . s e l f must be c r e a t e d , t h e a r t i s t  Because t h e  i s a c r u c i a l symbolic  figure.  The m u l t i p l e - v i e w m i r r o r p r o v i d e s a n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e Quart e t , t h e f o u r n o v e l s p r o v i d i n g f o u r views o f one s e r i e s of e v e n t s .  W i t h i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e , e p i s o d e s , images and phrases a r e  echoed i n v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s t o q u a l i f y and i l l u m i n a t e each o t h e r . Important t y p e s o f m i r r o r s a r e t h e a r t i s t , who h o l d s t h e m i r r o r up t o nature; t h e l o v e r , who sees o t h e r s i n c l o s e r e l a t i o n t o h i m s e l f , e s p e c i a l l y i f h i s l o v e i s homosexual o r i n c e s t u o u s ; the p a t i e n t o r hypochondriac, p a r a l l e l s a mental  whose o b s e s s i o n w i t h h i s p h y s i c a l s e l f  preoccupation.  iv  The  settings, Alexandria,  Greece and England are  of the i n n e r l a n d s c a p e s of t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s . the m u l t i p l e t u m u l t s of the n o n - r a t i o n a l f o r i d e a l of c l a r i t y and  calm, and  microcosm.  s e l f , Greece i s a l o n g e d -  i s a comprehensive system of  hinged m i r r o r s , i n which i n n e r s e l f and  cosm and  reflects  civilization.  D u r r e l l * s "Heraldic Universe"  s e l f and  Alexandria  England i s "Pudding I s l a n d " , the  r e p r e s s i v e c o n v e n t i o n s of western  o t h e r , as do one  extensions  o u t e r world r e f l e c t  another s e l f , c r e a t o r and  Symbolism i s not  each  c r e a t i o n , macro-  merely a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e  but  a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of even the f a c t u a l l a n d s c a p e of h i s t r a v e l books. Temporal and  s p a t i a l p o s i t i o n s a r e r e l a t i v e and  prismatic.  h e r a l d r y i s both a m u l t i p l i c i t y of p o s s i b i l i t i e s and interrelated  a u n i t y of  realities.  T h i s t h e s i s proposes t o show the c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s m i r r o r s and w i t h i n the  a s s o c i a t e d m o t i f s and context  of D u r r e l l * s w r i t i n g and  argument f o l l o w s the g e n e r a l  theory,  and  general  the  in relation  psychologists.  sequence o u t l i n e d above,  w i t h the v a r i o u s uses of a c t u a l m i r r o r images, proceeds t o l o v e , a r t , i l l n e s s and  of  t o suggest t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e  t o the work of some contemporary w r i t e r s , c r i t i c s and The  Durrell*s  landscape as r e f l e c t o r s and  l o o k at the " H e r a l d i c " t o t a l i t y .  beginning consider  concludes w i t h  a  V  C O N T E N T S  Abbreviations Summary o f A l e x a n d r i a n s Introduction: A l i c e i n Alexandria CHAPTER I : A. B. C. D. E. F. G.  The M i r r o r Image  Motifs Related t o the Mirror The Two Meanings of " R e f l e c t i o n " The S i n g l e Image R e f l e c t i o n i n Another S e l f R e f l e c t i o n o f Another S e l f Multiple-View M i r r o r s : Prism-Sightedness The M u l t i p l e - V i e w P l o t  CHAPTER I I : A. B. C.  12 21 24 31 35 37 48  The M i r r o r of A r t  A r t i n Alexandria A r t & A r t i s t and A l e x a n d r i a The A r t i s t as a M i r r o r of S o c i e t y  CHAPTER I I I : A. B. C. D. E.  1 2 5  59 62 74  The M i r r o r o f Love  The Language o f Love Love as Knowledge The M u l t i p l e Views of Love The M i r r o r o f Incest The F i v e - S e x e d M i r r o r  CHAPTER IV: CHAPTER V:  The M i r r o r o f Malady;  79 81 86 93 102 I l l n e s s and M u t i l a t i o n .  112  The Landscapes of t h e Mind  A. B.  Alexandria Greece  122 132  C.  England  133  CHAPTER V I : APPENDIX:  Conclusion:  Time and t h e H e r a l d i c U n i v e r s e  D u r r e l l as an E l i z a b e t h a n  BIBLIOGRAPHY  ..  135 142 154  1  ABBREVIATIONS  i In references to books by Lawrence D u r r e l l , the following abbreviations have been used:  A & 0  Art and Outrage (London, 1959)  B  Balthazar (New York, 1961)  BL  B i t t e r Lemons (London, 1957)  BB  The Black Book (New York, 1963)  C  Clea (New York, 1961)  PL  The Dark Labyrinth (London, 1961)  J_  Justine (New York, 1962)  Key  A Key to Modern Poetry (London, 1952)  M  Mountolive (New York, 1961)  P  The Poetry of Lawrence D u r r e l l (New York, 1962)  Pope  Pope Joan (London, 1960)  Cor  A Private Correspondence (New York, 1963)  PC  Prospero's C e l l (London, 1945)  MV  Reflections on a Marine Venus (London, 1953)  S  Sappho (London, 1950)  A l l page references w i l l be included i n the body of the text.  2 A B r i e f Summary of the  The  Alexandrians  p l o t of The A l e x a n d r i a n  Quartet  d e f i e s summary, but  b r i e f o u t l i n e of c h a r a c t e r s and  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s might be  f u l t o readers  The  of t h i s t h e s i s .  i s arranged r o u g h l y Darley:  i n order  of  Pursewarden:  importance.  and  works i n the  Egyptian  and D a r l e y  office.  He  spokesman f o r D u r r e l l .  are  often suicide  novels.  a n e u r o t i c Jewish C l e o p a t r a , f o r m e r l y the of a w r i t e r A r n a u t i and now She  Nessim:  British-  His unexplained  i s a c e n t r a l problem f o r a l l f o u r Justine:  i s mistress  of  Clea.  a s u c c e s s f u l w r i t e r , who war  help-  f o l l o w i n g dramatis personae  a n o t - y e t - s u c c e s s f u l w r i t e r , the n a r r a t o r Justine, Balthazar  a  married  of both D a r l e y  and  wife  t o Nessim. Pursewarden.  a wealthy Copt, engaged i n s u b v e r s i v e  attempts  t o smuggle arms t o P a l e s t i n e . Melissa:  a frail and,  Greek p r o s t i t u t e , the m i s t r e s s of  b r i e f l y , of Nessim.  Her  Darley  former l o v e r i s a  Jewish businessman Cohen, through whom she  learns  compromising f a c t s about Nessim*s a c t i v i t i e s . Clea:  an a r t i s t , the f r i e n d , and Darley;  the l e s b i a n l o v e r of J u s t i n e , and  confidante Balthazar:  an aging  l a t e r the m i s t r e s s ,  of n e a r l y  the  everyone.  doctor, philosopher,  l e a d e r of the A l e x a n d r i a n  pederast  cabal.  He  and  a  reveals to  of  3  D a r l e y t h e double meaning of t h e events c h r o n i c l e d i n J u s t i n e and i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n o t h e r moments of truth. Mountolive;  the B r i t i s h ambassador t o Egypt.  Leila:  Nessim*s mother and m i s t r e s s o f t h e y o u t h f u l p r e ambassadorial  Liza:  Pursewarden*s b l i n d Mountolive*s  Narouz:  Mountolive. s i s t e r and m i s t r e s s , l a t e r  wife.  Nessim*s b o r t h e r , i n l o v e w i t h C l e a . physically  He i s  g r o s s , t h e o p p o s i t e of t h e suave Nessim,  and remains on t h e l a n d .  He i s at times  possessed  by strange powers o f speech which he employs f a n a t i c a l l y i n the Coptic Scobie:  cause.  a comic c h a r a c t e r , an o l d wanderer f i n a l l y more o r l e s s i n t h e employ of t h e p o l i c e The  major c h a r a c t e r s spend many pages r e t e l l i n g  his t a l l tales. connected  with  He i s homosexual and vaguely Tiresias.  Pombal:  a Frenchman, f r i e n d  Capodistria:  a pleasantly satanic friend f o r p o l i t o a l reasons  Amaril:  department.  of Darley.  and dabbles  a d o c t o r , once G l e a ' s l o v e r . i n t h e r o m a n tic  of everyone.  He d i s a p p e a r s  i n b l a c k magic,  He i s t h e p r i n c i p a l  p u r s u i t o f Semira, f o r whom, w i t h  the a s s i s t a n c e o f p l a s t i c s u r g e r y and C l e a * s a r t he f a s h i o n s a nose.  4  Maskelyne:  officer  i n t h e war o f f i c e , aware of Nessim*s  s u b v e r s i o n , and unsympathetic towards him and h i s f r i e n d s . Keats:  a journalist, Pursewarden.  t h e would-be  b i o g r a p h e r of  5  INTRODUCTION Alice  i n Alexandria " L e t ' s c o n s i d e r who i t was t h a t dreamed i t a l l ... He was p a r t of my dream of course - but then I was p a r t o f h i s dream too!"1-  So speaks a b e w i l d e r e d its at  s e l f confronted with the p o s s i b i l i t y that  e x i s t e n c e depends on t h e p e r c e p t i o n s , t h e i l l u s o r y p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t , of another  s e l f whose view may d i f f e r from i t s own.  No  matter how much she may " c o n s i d e r " , t h e r e i s no way of knowing which view i s r i g h t o r p a r t l y r i g h t , o r whether one o r both a r e f a l s e . t h i s s e l f cannot how i t appears  know t h e t r u t h about i t s own s e l f h o o d without  i n t h e dream of t h e o t h e r .  The name of t h i s  And  knowing  particular  s e l f i s A l i c e , t h e o t h e r i s t h e Red K i n g , and t h e s e t t i n g i s L o o k i n g G l a s s Land.  The image b a s i c t o Lewis C a r r o l l ' s f a n t a s y , t o g e t h e r w i t h  the o t h e r images and m o t i f s which emerge from i t a r e remarkably to  similar  those i n Lawrence D u r r e l l ' s A l e x a n d r i a n Q u a r t e t . A l i c e never  s o l v e s t h e problem o f t h e Red King's dream, t h e  problem o f h e r own e x i s t e n c e i n space and t i m e .  She h e r s e l f i s  Lewis C a r r o l l . Through t h e Looking G l a s s and What A l i c e Found T h e r e . ( P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1897), p . 209. x  ®In t h e Key D u r r e l l quotes a l e t t e r from Lewis C a r r o l l t o a l i t t l e g i r l , as an example o f "detachment o f t h e o b j e c t from i t s frame o f r e f e r e n c e " and as an a n t i c i p a t i o n of s u r r e a l i s m : "'And I l i k e two o r t h r e e h a n d f u l s of h a i r , o n l y t h e y should always have a l i t t l e g i r l ' s head beneath them t o grow on, o r e l s e , whenever you open t h e door, t h e y get blown a l l over t h e room, and then t h e y get l o s t , you know.*" ( p . 87) He l i n k s C a r r o l l w i t h Rimbaud, L a f o r g u e and N i e t z s c h e as important f i g u r e s i n t h e "Semantic D i s t u r b a n c e " (pp. 39 - 40) and quotes t h e Cambridge H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e an A l i c e ' s p r o blems w i t h space and t i m e . (p. 69)  6 a r e f l e c t i o n i n the m i r r o r , ans  so i s t h e Red  King whose dream  c o n t a i n s her e x i s t e n c e , and who  f i n a l l y appears t o be not a k i n g  or  even a chessman, but a b l a c k k i t t e n .  in  an i n v o l u t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n w i t h i n r e f l e c t i o n .  is  expressed i n terms of t h e geography of L o o k i n g - G l a s s Land,  which bears comparison  Her i d e n t i t y i s enmeshed Her  dilemma  w i t h the geography of D u r r e l l * s A l e x a n d r i a .  The t e r r a i n i s a chessboard and the c h a r a c t e r s are chessmen;  Alice  h e r s e l f i s a pawn and thus r e s t r i c t e d , though not p a r a l y s e d i n her movement, w h i l e around perspectives. of  her r e a l i t y moves i n many d i r e c t i o n s  A game of chess goes on and on through f o u r volumes  the A l e x a n d r i a Q u a r t e t .  I t i s a game by correspondence,  l i k e B a l t h a z a r ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e s e a r c h e s , begins i n the tic  and  search f o r u n i t y .  and,  cabbalis-  The game, c a r r i e d on by t e l e g r a m and i n  code, becomes i n v o l v e d i n M o u n t o l i v e * s u n c o v e r i n g of Nessim*s subv e r s i o n , and i n D a r l e y ' s p e n e t r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which he h i m s e l f i s concerned. Dostoevsky,  i n h i s Notes from Underground, uses t h e  board t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s c o n t e n t i o n thfct man but  chess-  strives for certainty,  s h r i n k s from the r e a l i z a t i o n of h i s g o a l .  Conscious  man  i s a f r i v o l o u s and incongruous c r e a t u r e , and perhaps, l i k e a chess p l a y e r , l o v e s the p r o c e s s of the game, not the end of i t . And who knows ( t h e r e i s no s a y i n g w i t h c e r t a i n t y ) ^ , perhaps t h e o n l y g o a l on e a r t h t o which mank i n d i s s t r i v i n g l i e s i n the i n c e s s a n t p r o c e s s of a t t a i n i n g , i n o t h e r words, i n l i f e i t s e l f , and not i n t h e t h i n g t o be a t t a i n e d , which must always be expressed as a f o r m u l a , as p o s i t i v e as t w i c e two makes f o u r , and such p o s i t i v e n e s s i s not l i f e , gentlemen, but the b e g i n n i n g of death.- 1  i n E x i s t e n t i a l i s m from Dostoevsky t o S a r t r e , ed. W a l t e r Kaufmann (New York 1957), p. 77, h e r e a f t e r c i t e s as Notes. D u r r e l l uses a q u o t a t i o n from Notes t o head h i s c r i t i c a l essay e n t i t l e d "The World W i t h i n " . (Key, p. 49)  7  The  s e a r c h f o r t h e knowledge of s e l f i s d e s i r a b l e , but  knowledge of s e l f  achieved  suggests the r e d u c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i t y t o  mathematical a b s t r a c t i o n . O t t o Rank d i s c u s s e s the m y t h o l o g i c a l o r i g i n s of l i n k i n g i t with p r i m i t i v e maternity  symbols and w i t h the " p r i m i -  t i v e symbolism of death and r e s u r r e c t i o n . " ggyptian  snake game, was  I t s ancestor, the  the s u b j e c t of a legend i n which  b r o t h e r s t u r n e d t h e game i n t o a d u e l i n which one an e y e .  chess,  of them l o s t snake, and  her  sons engage i n a s t r u g g l e which r e s u l t s i n Narouz's death and  the  1  D u r r e l l s L e i l a i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a pet  two  1  l o s s of Nessim*s  eye.  In L o o k i n g - G l a s s walking  away from i t ,  leaving i t .  Land, A l i c e can approach her o b j e c t o n l y by and D a r l e y understands  Alexandria only a f t e r  T h i s r e v e r s a l of s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s i s one of t h e major  i l l u s i o n s c r e a t e d by a m i r r o r . A l i c e f i n d s t h a t time t o o assumes t h i s p r o p e r t y of space; White Queen screams b e f o r e she i s h u r t , and H a t t a i s t r i e d he  commits h i s  before  crime.  Loding-Glass m i r r o r , and  the  p o e t r y , t o be r e a d , must be seen r e f l e c t e d i n a  i s even then not understood  Dumpty's e x e g e s i s .  until  s u b j e c t e d t o Humpty  Similarly, Justine i s puzzling u n t i l  reflected  J-Art and A r t i s t , (New York, 1932), pp. 308, 310. c f . V l a d i m i r Nabokov, The Defense (New York, 1964), and the review by Robefct J . Clements i n Saturday Review, 26 September 1964, 45-46.  8  and  r e v i s e d by t h r e e o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e s . B e s i d e s the paradox of t h e Red  King's dream, the  of t h e s e l f i n t h e o t h e r i s suggested dum  reflection  i n the t w i n s h i p of Tweedle-  and Tweedledee, i d e n t i c a l b r o t h e r s w i t h arms around each o t h e r ' s  necks.  One  i s i n c l i n e d t o suspect t h a t t h e y s u f f e r from what  D u r r e l l ' s S c o b i e d e l i c a t e l y r e f e r s t o as " t e n d e n c i e s " .  Supposing  t h e i r b a t t l e t o p a r a l l e l the snake-game d u e l , t h e y have the problem of Nessim and Narouz,which i s both i n c e s t u o u s and homosexual, as w e l l as t h a t of L i z a and Pursewarden, which i s merely i n c e s t u o u s . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the phenomenon of r e v e r s e d movement i n time and  space i s the memory of L o o k i n g - G l a s s  people.  Remembrance  i s not o n l y of t h i n g s p a s t , but of t h i n g s f u t u r e too; one what has not yet o c c u r r e d .  Time, memory and  remembers  i d e n t i t y are d i s a r r a n g e d  so as t o become r i d i c u l o u s c o n c e p t s , and t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e major image of t h e m i r r o r , an image of As e a r l y as 1936,  space.  1  D u r r e l l wrote t o Henry M i l l e r :  I AM SLOWLY BUT VERY CAREFULLY AND WITHOUT CONSCIOUS THOUGHT DESTROYING TIME. I have d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e i d e a of d u r a t i o n i s f a l s e . We have i n v e n t e d i t as a p h i l o s o p h i c jack-up t o the i d e a of p h y s i c a l d i s i n t e g r a tion. THERE IS ONLY SPACE. A s o l i d o b j e c t has o n l y t h r e e dimensions. Time, t h a t o l d appendix, I've lopped off. So i t needs a new a t t i t u d e . An a t t i t u d e without memory. A s p a t i a l e x i s t e n c e i n terms of the paper I'm w r i t i n g on now at the moment. (Cor. p. 19, D u r r e l l ' s c a p i t a l s )  -••Note the r e f e r e n c e t o A l i c e i n My F a m i l y and Other A n i m a l s by D u r r e l l ' s b r o t h e r G e r a l d . See the Penguin e d i t i o n (1962), pp. 9, 221, 225, 261.  9  In A l e x a n d r i a ,  the t r u e s e l f  i s t o be approached, never q u i t e  a c h i e v e d , o n l y through the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of many memories, t i m e s , selves. other  There can be no  s e l v e s , and  l o v e and  solipsism.  the a r t i s t  mental i n v e r s i o n , and neuroses. of the  To  the  itself  through  i s concerned w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s ;  f r i e n d s h i p , where s e l f  i d e n t i t y of s e l f w i t h o t h e r  S e l f must f i n d  i s revealed  i n the other;  with  i n narcissism, incest, physical  s e l f - o b s e s s i o n s of hypochondria  m i r r o r , the t r i c k m i r r o r and  the  the  and  and  suggest t h e s e p a t t e r n s , D u r r e l l develops the  conventional  with  image  multiple-view-  mirror. A l e x a n d r i a n s meet i n m i r r o r s , t a l k . t o themselves i n m i r r o r s ,  speak t o each other  s i t naked i n f r o n t of m i r r o r s ,  on m i r r o r s , p o i n t guns at m i r r o r s .  sum  As m i r r o r  a f t e r mirror  of them a l l i s not  z i n g of n a r r a t i v e and  p i e c e of background  and  of images.  a heap of g l a s s , but  a simultaneous  symbol, a c t i o n , c o n s c i o u s n e s s and  He  therefore alludes frequently to  i t s p u r s u i t of the One,  p h y s i c a l breakages. n i s e " , and  The  furni-  i s o f f e r e d f o r mention i n p a s s i n g ,  and  t o medicine and  the  crystalli-  unconscious.  For the d i s i n t e g r a t e d s e l f , D u r r e l l p r e s c r i b e s u n i t y , focussing  write  Each m i r r o r as i t o c c u r s i n the  course of the n a r r a t i v e i s an u n o b t r u s i v e ture.  i n mirrors,  the Gnosticism  i t s healing  of  a r t i s t wants " t o combine, r e s o l v e and  harmo-  comes up w i t h a world view which s t a r t s from D u r r e l l ' s  v e r s i o n of " r e l a t i v i t y " , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the s e l f t o i n c l u d i n g i t s own  and  other  everything,  selves  'a note of a f f i r m a t i o n - the c u r v a t u r e of an embrace, the w o r d l e s s n e s s of a l o v e r s * code - some f e e l i n g t h a t the world we l i v e i n i s founded on something too simple  10  t o be o v e r d e s c r i b e d as cosmic law, but as easy t o g r a s p , as say, an a c t o f t e n d e r n e s s i n t h e p r i m a l r e l a t i o n between animal and p l a n t , r a i n and s o i l , seed and t r e e s , man and God. A r e l a t i o n s h i p so d e l i c a t e t h a t i t i s a l l t o o e a s i l y broken by t h e i n q u i r i n g mind and c o n s c i e n c e . ' (C_, pp. 238 - 239) When t e n d e r n e s s without d e c e p t i o n i s a c h i e v e d , t h e a r t i s t b e g i n s t o be s u c c e s s f u l . D i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s paper w i l l not be l i m i t e d t o t h e Q u a r t e t , because  t h i s v e r y l a c k of l i m i t a t i o n seems v i t a l t o D u r r e l l ' s  and a r t .  thought  As t h e l e t t e r quoted above s u g g e s t s , t h e Quartet was not  a sudden c r e a t i o n , d e s p i t e t h e b r i e f time of a c t u a l  composition.  These i d e a s o f space-time, s e l f , t e n d e r n e s s , and t h e images which suggest them appear t r a v e l books.  i n D u r r e l l ' s e a r l y n o v e l s , h i s p o e t r y and h i s  In t h e t e t r a l o g y t h e y a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d and developed  t o u n i t y , but t h e y have been t h e r e a l l a l o n g .  A c o l l e c t i o n of h i s  p r i m a r y m o t i f s o c c u r s i n t h e poem,. " C i t i e s , P l a i n s and People": the m i r r o r :  0 world of l i t t l e  mirrors i n the l i g h t ,  The f a c e s of t h e i n n o c e n t s i n w e l l s . p h y s i c s and p s y c h o l o g y : The t i d e b o u n d , t e p i d , c a u s e l e s s Continuum o f t e r r o r s i n t h e s p i r i t .  Ego, my dear, and i d L i e so p r o f o u n d l y h i d In space-time v o i d . illness:  U n t i l your p a i n became l i t e r a t u r e .  Yet here was a window I n t o t h e g r e a t sick-room,  Europe.  • ••  ... through i n t r o s p e c t i o n and d i s e a s e . l o v e as  communication: ... how sex became A l e s s e r s o r t of speech, and t h e members d o o r s . (P, 134 - 149)  11  The  first  m o t i f t o be d e a l t w i t h w i l l be t h e m i r r o r , s i n c e  t h i s image, o r some n o t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n , i s c o n t i n u a l l y present i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e o t h e r themes of t h e v a r i o u s forms o f l o v e , illness,  landscape  The  and p h i l o s o p h y .  " h i n g e d - m i r r o r " view has taken v a r i o u s forms i n t h e  t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y n o v e l , p r o b a b l y most i m p r e s s i v e l y i n P r o u s t . V i r g i n i a Woolf*s Orlando has "a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f s e l v e s t o c a l l upon", and i s seeking " t h e key s e l f , which amalgamates and c o n t r o l s them a l l " .  1  V l a d i m i r Nabokov's n o v e l P a l e F i r e p r e s e n t s two a u t o -  b i o g r a p h i e s , each of which i s a l s o a commentary on t h e o t h e r , and one  o f which i s by a s c h i z o p h r e n i c t o f u r t h e r m u l t i p l y e n t i t i e s ;  and i t p r e s e n t s them by means o f such a maze o f c r i s s - c r o s s ences as t o i n f i n i t e l y m u l t i p l y t h e b a s i c two views.  refer-  Zemblan, t h e  language of h i s m y t h i c a l kingdom, i s c a l l e d " t h e tongue of t h e mirror".^  These and o t h e r works w i l l be mentioned where comparison  seems i n t e r e s t i n g and r e l e v a n t .  1(London, 1928), pp. 278, 279. 2(New York, 1962), p . 242.  12  CHAPTER ONE.  A.  The M i r r o r Image  Motifs related t o the M i r r o r .  In D u r r e l l ' s poem "On M i r r o r s " , t h e m i r r o r s have been t u r n e d t o t h e w a l l , so t h e i n h a b i t a n t o f t h e house i s d e p r i v e d means o f viewing  of t h i s  himself. You gone, t h e m i r r o r s a l l r e v e r t e d , Lay banging i n t h e empty house, Redoubled t h e i r e f f o r t s t o impede Waterlogged images of f a c e s p l e a d i n g . So F o r t u n a t u s had a m i r r o r which I m p e r i l l e d h i s reason when i t broke; The s l e e p e r s i n t h e i r d o r m i t o r y o f g l a s s S t i r r e d once and s i g h e d but never woke. Time amputated so w i l l b l e e d no more But f l o w l i k e r e f u s e now i n c l o c k s On c l i n i c w a l l s , i n l i b r a r i e s and b a r r a c k s , Not made t o spend but k i l l and n o t h i n g more. Yet m i r r o r s abandoned d r i n k l i k e ponds: (Once t h e y resumed t h e c h i l d h o o d o f l o v e ) And o v e r f l o w i n g , s p r e a d i n g , swallowing L i k e water l i g h t , show one a v e r t e d f a c e , As i n t h e c a p s u l e of t h e human eye Seen at i n f i n i t y , t h e o u t e r end o f t i m e , A man and woman l y i n g sun-bemused In a blue v i n e y a r d by t h e L a t i n s e a , Steeped i n each o t h e r ' s minds and b r e a t h i n g L i k e wicks i n h a l i n g deep i n golden o i l .  there  (P, p. 27) At t h e same time t h i s i n h a b i t a n t s u f f e r s another d e p r i v a t i o n i n the departure  o f h i s companion, who a l s o served as a s o r t o f  m i r r o r i n which he c o u l d l o o k f o r knowledge o f h i m s e l f .  T h i s double  l o s s , o f m i r r o r s and o f a l o v e d p e r s o n , i s d e s c r i b e d i n M o u n t o l i v e . At t h e C o p t i c wake, as p a r t of t h e d u t i e s t o t h e dead, " t h e m i r r o r s were s h i v e r e d i n t o a thousand fragments". (M, 313)  The dead i s  13  Narouz, t h e mourner i s Nessim and t h e image o f t h e s h i v e r e d m i r r o r s suggests  their  The  division.  r e v e r s e d m i r r o r s of t h e poem become h o s t i l e t o attempted  r e f l e c t i o n s , "redoubled of  faces pleading".  t h e i r e f f o r t s t o impede/Waterlogged images  Water, i s r e l a t e d t o t h e m i r r o r because i t t o o  can r e f l e c t ; N a r c i s s u s , t h e prime l o v e r of s e l f , saw h i m s e l f i n t h e water, of  but water has wider c o n n o t a t i o n s ;  e s p e c i a l l y i t i s symbolic  b i r t h and r e b i r t h i n t h e p e r e n n i a l l i t e r a r y theme o f t h e j o u r n e y  by water.  The f a c e s i n t h e poem a r e "waterlogged".  t o o much water, t o o much s e a r c h i n g o f t h e s e l f .  They have had  Excessive  intro-  v e r s i o n i s an impediment t o i n t r o s p e c t i o n o r t o a view of t h e s e l f * as i t r e a l l y i s .  The f a c e s p l e a d f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o be r e f l e c t e d  a c c u r a t e l y , but they a r e a l r e a d y w a t e r l o g g e d , and t h e m i r r o r s do not  help. The  poem a l l u d e s t o F o r t u n a t u s ' m i r r o r which " i m p e r i l l e d h i s  reason when i t b r o k e " .  The m i r r o r i s supposed t o r e v e a l a t r u e  image o f t h i n g s as they a r e , as reason would l o g i c a l l y deduce them. The  self reflected  i n t h i s m i r r o r i s a s c i e n t i f i c a l l y proven  r e d u c i b l e t o a formula. and  The s e l f r e v o l t s a g a i n s t t h i s  self,  reflection,  by i m p l i c a t i o n a g a i n s t r e a s o n , because, i n t h e words o f Dostoevsky's  underground man,  R e a s o n . i s n o t h i n g but reason and s a t i s f i e s o n l y t h e  r a t i o n a l s i d e of man's n a t u r e , w h i l e w i l l whole l i f e ,  i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h e  t h a t i s , o f t h e whole human l i f e  i n c l u d i n g reason and  14  a l l the  impulses".  1  This " w i l l "  seems t o be the " s e l f " we  d i s c u s s i n g , or at l e a s t the p r e s e r v e r most important  have been  of the u n i t a r y e x i s t e n c e ,  i s most p r e c i o u s  and  - that  i s , our p e r s o n a l i t y ,  individuality".  D u r r e l l ' s A l e x a n d r i a n s have been c r i t i c i s e d  "what our  for their  2 l a c k of w i l l ,  but  of what t h e y are Also,  t h i s c r i t i c i s m misses the p o i n t t h a t w i l l i s p a r t  seeking  and  t h e r e f o r e t h e y cannot yet p o s s e s s i t .  such o b j e c t i o n s assume t h a t w i l l must always be  itself  i n a c t i o n , and  I am  c o n t r a r y t o r e a s o n , and  not  sure t h a t t h i s i s so.  t o break the m i r r o r  c a l l y to achieve a better r e f l e c t i o n .  manifesting W i l l may  of reason i s  be  paradoxi-  In. R e f l e c t i o n s on a Marine  Venus,^ D u r r e l l a l l u d e s t o the inadequacy of reason and r e l i g i o n as m i r r o r s , t h a t i s , as a i d s t o s e l f - k n o w l e d g e . One r e q u i r e s a degree of knowledge t o r e c o g n i z e its  one's own  r e f l e c t i o n and  realize  implications. (Reason and r e l i g i o n ) are e q u a l l y s u s p e c t . They are both fogged m i r r o r s , b a d l y i n need of c l e a n i n g . But the i g n o r a n t man can get n o t h i n g from e i t h e r - not even a r e f l e c t i o n of h i s own s t u p i d i t y . (MV, p. 169)  Notes, pp. 73, 74. See a l s o F r e d e r i c k J . Hoffman, Samuel Becket: the Language of S e l f (Carbondale, 111., 1962), pp. 4, 7, 9. The underground man i s " d e f e a t e d by the m i r r o r of s e l f w i l l " . "The power of the w i l l ... i s ... turned almost e n t i r e l y inward ... a p e r v e r s e i n t e r e s t i n t o r t u r e d s e l f - a n a l y s i s " . The b e l o v e d " i s a m i r r o r i n which the underground man sees o n l y the e f f e c t s of a c l o s e d s e l f " . e.g. L i o n e l T r i l l i n g , "The Q u a r t e t : Two Reviews", i n The World of Lawrence D u a e l l , ed. H a r r y T. Moore (Carbondale, 111., 1962), pp. 56-60. T h i s volume w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be r e f e r r e d t o as World. 2  ^ D u r r e l l ' s mirror i s i n n o n - f i c t i o n too. Note the t i t l e " R e f lections". T r a v e l , as w i l l be seen i n the d i s c u s s i o n of l a n d s c a p e , i s f o r him a form of i n t r o s p e c t i o n .  15  Reason a l s o c o u l d i n s i s t irrational  self  on s e l f - a n a l y s i s beyond t h e p o i n t which t h e  can b e a r .  Time i s "amputated" i n t h e poem because t h e o t h e r meaning of " r e f l e c t i o n " i n v o l v e s memory, b r i n g i n g past c a r d i n g t h e s u p e r f l u o u s time between. " t i m e " , as an impersonal  Also, Durrell  of the l i f e  shown, " i n c l o c k s " , i s " r e f u s e " now.  eliminates  i s no l o n g e r a p a r t o f l i f e .  processes.  Time, as i t i s  I t " w i l l b l e e d no more", because  The c l o c k s i n which i t f l o w s  refuse are i n c l i n i c s , places of sickness; l i b r a r i e s , and memory; and b a r r a c k s , p l a c e s o f r e g i m e n t a t i o n and  a l l these  p l a c e s a r e important  t h e f a c e even  Ponds do not d r i n k ,  The key t o t h e paradox i s t h e m i r r o r .  pond i n r e f l e c t i n g t h e f a c e " d r i n k s " i t , t a k e s The  p l a c e s of a r t ,  t o D u r r e l l ' s Alexandrians.  though i t i s a v e r t e d , t h e y " d r i n k l i k e ponds". a r e what we d r i n k .  like  and d e s t r u c t i o n ;  The. abandoned m i r r o r s become a c t i v e and r e f l e c t  but  and d i s -  means of s c i e n t i f i c measurement and r e c o g -  n i z e s i t o n l y as one aspect  it  i n t o present,  The  i t w i t h i n t h e water.  mention of l o v e i s i n p l a c e , f o r t h i s r e f l e c t i o n i s not c o n s c i o u s l y  sought by t h e s e l f  r e f l e c t e d but i s a g r a t u i t o u s o f f e r i n g , and t h e  " m i r r o r " o f t e n t a k e s t h e form o f another person through whom t h e s e l f is  found, o r perhaps t h e form o f one's own a r t .  The m i r r o r t h e n  seems t o be t h e human eye which " s e e s " i n v a r i o u s ways, " p e r c e i v e s " , o r , i n t h e way i n which a seer sees - i n t o " i n f i n i t y , t h e o u t e r end of t i m e " . The  f i n a l m i r r o r i n t h e poem i s a b l e n d of t h e m i r r o r s which  D u r r e l l most t r u s t s . "steeped  The l o v e r s r e f l e c t  each o t h e r ' s  i n each o t h e r ' s minds", i n v o l v i n g i n t e l l e c t  s e l f , are as w e l l as sense,  16  the u n i t a r y image. anean' landscape  T h e i r s e t t i n g i s "by t h e L a t i n sea", a M e d i t e r r -  l i k e the i s l a n d t o which D u r r e l l sends D a r l e y t o  c l a r i f y h i s r e f l e c t i o n i n both senses of t h a t word. m i r r o r , as from a lamp w i t h "wicks l i g h t , i l l u m i n a t i o n , new  From t h i s ,  i n h a l i n g deep i n g o l d e n  oil",  knowledge come.  I n t o t h i s poem, D u r r e l l has  crowded s u g g e s t i o n s of the v a r i o u s  forms which the m i r r o r s i n the Quartet a r e t o t a k e : reason and  s c i e n c e , time, n a r c i s s i s i s m , s i c k n e s s , a r t ,  d e s t r u c t i o n , seascape The  and  l a n d s c a p e , and l o v e .  s e l f ^ m i r r o r i n g i t s e l f was  Quartet was  written.  Gregory  D u r r e l l ' s theme l o n g b e f o r e the  i n the B l a c k Book s u f f e r s from  extreme s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and  i s always aware of h i m s e l f "as  a c t o r on an empty s t a g e , h i s o n l y audience the c r i t i c a l pp. 200-201). ego",  Gregory  an an  self".  (BB,  In h i s room, t h e " l a b o r a t o r y which I have made of  my  rages i n r e v e r i e u n t i l e v e r y t h i n g becomes i n t o l e r a b l e ;  then he sobers h i m s e l f by l o o k i n g i n the m i r r o r . The B l a c k Book i s a b e g i n n e r ' s work, and the m i r r o r symbolism i s much l e s s s u b t l e than i t i s i n the A l e x a n d r i a Q u a r t e t , but  this  l a c k of s u b t l e t y l e a v e s c l u e s t o some of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of D u r r e l l ' s l a t e r uses of s i m i l a r d e v i c e s . the e f f i g y which he would hex  Gregory  aspires to invultuation,  i s h i s own.  But  he i s u n s u c c e s s f u l :  " D a i l y I p i e r c e the image of m y s e l f , and n o t h i n g happens". reflecting  s e l f has no power over t h e a c t i n g s e l f .  t i o n where t h e r e should be a u n i t y : imagined  my  actions.  Self reflecting  " A l l my  life  There i s a  impotent,  The separa-  I have done t h i s  I have never t a k e n p a r t i n them". (BB, p.  s e l f i s s p e l l b o u n d and  and  split  -  196)  i n t o unconnected  17  parts: 'Ended. I t i s a l l ended. I r e a l i z e t h a t now, l i v i n g here on t h e green carpet and l i v i n g t h e r e i n t h e m i r r o r .... T h i s i s my e t e r n a l t o p i c , I , Gregory S t y l i t e s , d e s t r o y e d by t h e problem of p e r s o n a l a c t i o n . ' (BB, p . 228) Gregory's statement o f h i s problem f o l l o w s mention o f another s e p a r a t i o n i n what s h o u l d be u n i f i e d , t h e g u l f "between t h e people and t h e i r makers - t h e a r t i s t s " , r e s u l t i n g i n an impotent c i v i l i z a t i o n and a new Dark Age. The problem of p e r s o n a l a c t i o n a r i s e s when t h e s e l f l o s e s contact with the s e l f r e f l e c t e d .  Will  reflecting  cannot produce  action,  which l e a d s outward, because t h i s w i l l i s d i r e c t e d inward o n l y . V i c t o r Brombert  1  sees D u r r e l l ' s time as "a mode o f a c t i o n "  distinct  from P r o u s t ' s which i s a "mode o f memory", and t h i s time i s r e l a t e d t o " t h e m i r r o r - d i s e a s e of thought, t h e s o l i p s i s t i c awareness o f 'others', the w a l l e d - i n q u a l i t y of experience  While concerned w i t h  t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n of v a r i o u s s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n s and v a r i o u s t i m e s p a s t , B a r l e y cannot a c t and cannot c r e a t e a r t . When he r e c o n c i l e s t h e r e -  L a w r e n c e D u r r e l l and h i s F r e n c h R e p u t a t i o n , "World, pp. 174, 183. lM  T h e d i s t i n c t i o n between P r o u s t ' s and D u r r e l l ' s uses o f "time", " r e f l e c t i o n " , and "memory" i s f a r from c l e a r . In a sense memory r e p l a c e s a c t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s o f P r o u s t i a n t i m e . As Joseph Wood K r u t c h e x p l a i n s , "The q u a l i t y o f a d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e always eluded one and ... o n l y i n r e c o l l e c t i o n c o u l d we grasp i t s r e a l flavour". (Remembrance of T h i n g s P a s t , New York, 1934, v o l . I , p. v i i ) . A s i m i l a r t h e o r y i s suggested by t h e v e r y s t r u c t u r e o f the.cQuartet, but f o r D u r r e l l t h e memory "which c a t c h e s s i g h t o f i t s e l f i n a m i r r o r " (B, p . 14) by t h a t a c t o f s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n does become a c t i o n , memory p r o j e c t i n g beyond i t s e l f i n t o t h e f u t u r e of C l e a - remembering t h e f u t u r e , as i n A l i c e ' s l o o k i n g glass. 2  18  f l e c t i o n s , he a l s o moves forward i n time and can b e g i n t o c r e a t e . The  s t a t e of n o n - a c t i o n , which Brombert  c a l l s " e x a s p e r a t e d and i m -  potent d e s i r e " , f i n d s i t s symbol i n t h e m i r r o r . here t h e importance  Brombert  notes  o f t h e eye i n a l o o k i n g - g l a s s world and i n  Durrell's visually rich Alexandria.  The eye o f f e r s t e m p t a t i o n s  and arouses d e s i r e s which i t i s powerless t o s a t i s f y .  Hence t h e  p r o p h e t i c eye and t h e b l i n d eye a r e major p a r t s of t h e m i r r o r imagery. Bombert t h i n k s D u r r e l l * s mirror-complex  resembles  a game.  Perhaps t h i s i s another commentary on B a l t h a z a r ' s chessboard. The  s e a r c h f o r D u r r e l l ' s hidden m i r r o r s i s something  game i n i t s e l f .  of a  P r o b a b l y , l i k e most i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of l i t e r a r y  catchwords,  i t can be p r e s s e d t o o f a r .  unsuspected  and i n t r i g u i n g bypaths on t h e road t o A l e x a n d r i a .  s i d e r t h e case of Maskelyne, M o u n t o l i v e i s ambassador.  But i t can a l s o l e a d t o Con-  t h e head o f t h e War O f f i c e i n Egypt  while  He i s a p r a c t i c a l man, a man o f " a c t i o n " ,  i n t h e sense of " g e t t i n g t h i n g s done", and has no p a t i e n c e w i t h Mounto l i v e ' s unexplained delays.  F o r him, t h e problem  of Nessim i s a matter  of s t a r k b l a c k and w h i t e , u n c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e mesh of human which b i n d s M o u n t o l i v e and t u r n s h i s c u r r e n t s awry.  relativity  In Time and Western  Man, a book which i n t e r e s t e d B u r r e l l and i n f l u e n c e d him c o n s i d e r a b l y , Wyndham Lewis d i s c u s s e s t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h i n g s a r e as t h e y appear t o one's senses  (a s t i c k seen p a r t l y i n water i s bent) and r e f e r s t o  "Maskelyne*s  illusions".  T h i s Maskelyne was a c o n j u r o r who m y s t i f i e d  a u d i e n c e s at t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y .  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r y Lewis  19  Is examining, an i l l u s i o n "would be r e a l - s i n c e i t appeared Now  we  r e t u r n t o the  real".  mirror:  As most of Maskelyne's i l l u s i o n s are e f f e c t e d by arrangements of l o o k i n g g l a s s e s , t h e y would v e r y w e l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s t h e o r y , which i s almost e n t i r e l y based on the e x p e r i e n c e s of a l o o k i n g g l a s s w o r l d . I t i s a world i n which the image comes t o l i f e , and t h e p i c t u r e , under s u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s moves and l i v e s i n s i d e i t s frame. The  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s passage f o r the A l e x a n d r i a  various.  In the  Balthazar's  first  proof  place, Darley's  of t h e i r f a l s i t y .  s t o r y , d i s c a r d i n g red h e r r i n g and arguable b a s i c t r u t h . for  Darley  i s not  t r u e f o r him. object  and  image of s e l f , the  Maskelyne c o n s t r u c t e d who  played  c a r d s and  t h i s does not  present  un-  what i s t r u e  make i t l e s s  many r e f l e c t i o n s of  c r e a t i o n of a work of a r t .  one  that  The  historical  automata, the most famous of which were Psycho, may  t h e r e f o r e bear some remote r e l a t i o n t o  drew p i c t u r e s , an a r t i s t - r o b o t ,  2  symbols; and  of concern f o r human r e l a t i o n s .  law  and  the  who an  h i s lack  Psycho's i n t r o s p e c t i v e m y s t i c i s m  among h i s s t r o n g  T i m e and Western Man  Zoe  D u r r e l l ' s Maskefyne resembles  automaton i n h i s s c r u p u l o u s adherence t o the l i t e r a l  1  single  are concerned w i t h the making of images,  t o the T a r o t  Zoe's a r t are not  despite  r e f l e c t i o n becomes as r e a l as  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the psyche and  and  are  a detective  i s r e l a t i v e i n Alexandria;  The  A g a i n we  Quartet i s not  p r o c e e d i n g towards the  Many l o o k i n g - g l a s s e s  of each o t h e r .  i l l u s i o n s are t r u e ,  The  t r u e f o r J u s t i n e , but  which i t r e f l e c t s . the  Truth  Quartet  points.  (Boston, 1957)  p.  403.  E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , (1951), v o l . I I , p. 789b; v o l . V I , p. 263b.  20  Maskelyne c o n s t r u c t s automata i n t h a t h i s d i s c o v e r y of Nessim*s s e c r e t r e n d e r s Nessim, M o u n t o l i v e and Pursewarden unable t o d i r e c t t h e course Still  o f events by t h e i r own w i l l s . u s i n g Maskelyne's t r i c k s as i l l u s t r a t i o n , Lewis  l a t e s a magical  t r i c k i n which t h e p s y c h o - c o n j u r o r  Then i f each p i e c e were put i n t o a separate g l a s s r e c e p t a c l e , not o n l y t h e same s e l f , but t h e whole s e l f , would be found s t a r i n g at t h e s p e c t a t o r out of each of i t s p r i s o n s .  postu-  c u t s up t h e s e l f :  1  Perhaps t h i s p i c t u r e of t h e d i v i d e d but i n s e p a r a b l e s e l f i s behind C a p o d i s t r i a ' s homunculi, who, even i n an atmosphere of formaldehyde, l a n g u i s h w i t h l o v e and j e a l o u s y .  These p i c k l e d people s t a r e at t h e  s p e c t a t o r as a r e f l e c t i o n r e t u r n s t h e gaze o f t h e person  reflected.  Maskelyne performs a s i m i l a r t r i c k i n h i s s e p a r a t i o n of h i s o f f i c i a l s e l f from h i s human But,  self.  i n the m u l t i p l e m i r r o r s of the l o o k i n g - g l a s s world, i t i s  Maskelyne who i s r i g h t , as M o u n t o l i v e and Pursewarden must concede. He knows t h e f a c t s , knows what should be done about them, and does it.  T h i s i s one p o i n t at which one q u e s t i o n s what D u r r e l l means by  " a c t i o n " and whether he c o n s i d e r s i t d e s i r a b l e . l i e s with the w i l l . according t o r u l e .  The answer  probably  Maskelyne a c t s not a c c o r d i n g t o h i s w i l l , but He i s what Dostoevsky*s r e c l u s e c a l l s a "normal"  man, a "man o f c h a r a c t e r , an a c t i v e man", and t h i s s o r t of man i s "pre-eminently to  a limited creature".  a c t , you know, you must f i r s t  2  Dostoevsky e x p l a i n s , "To b e g i n  have your mind completely  iTime and B e s t e r n Man, p . 406 ^Notes, pp. 55, 65.  at ease  21  and no t r a c e of doubt l e f t  in it".  To anyone who sees h i m s e l f  r e f l e c t e d i n many m i r r o r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ,  such a s t a t e i s i m -  possible.  B.  The Two Meanings of " R e f l e c t i o n "  The  two meanings o f " r e f l e c t i o n " , t h e o u t e r image and t h e  i n n e r thought,' a r e both i n v o l v e d i n D u r r e l l ' s a l l u s i o n s t o m i r r o r s , s i n c e both a r e r e f l e c t i o n s of v a r i o u s a s p e c t s  of the s e l f ,  since  the outward i s c o n t i n u a l l y used t o suggest t h e i n n e r , and sincet h e g o a l i s t o u n i t e outward and i n n e r i n t h e u n i t a r y The  3  self.  i n n e r sense o f " r e f l e c t i o n " , d e f i n e d by S a r t r e as " t h e  attempt on t h e p a r t o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s  t o become i t s own o b j e c t " , i s 1  always concerned w i t h time and memory, l o o k i n g back and o r d e r i n g the past  i n the l i g h t  of present  thought.  I t rearranges  without a l t e r i n g i t , as a l l m i r r o r s r e a r r a n g e  reality  s p a t i a l and dimen-  s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o r t h e v i s u a l i l l u s i o n t h e r e o f , without a c t u a l l y moving  anything. Memory i s r e f l e c t e d r e a l i t y — l i k e t h e m i r r o r , the c r y s t a l o r t h e echo. The t h i n g remembered i s not q u i t e as i t was; c u r i o u s l y , i t i s t h e same, though changed.... Perhaps t h e f a s c i n a t i o n i n a l l r e f l e c t i o n i s t h e essence o f p o e t r y . ^  Art  i s a means o f r e f l e c t i o n i n e i t h e r sense, whether i t h o l d s t h e  m i r r o r up t o n a t u r e i n a d e l i b e r a t e l y p a t t e r n e d  comment on present  J-Being and Nothingness (New York, 1956), p . 633. 2  E.A.  C o l l a r d , e d i t o r i a l i n t h e Montreal  January 11, 1964, p . 8.  Gazette,  22  r e a l i t y , or r e c o l l e c t s emotion i n t r a n q u i l l i t y i n an e q u a l l y l i b e r a t e r e - c r e a t i o n of past  de-  experience.  S a t r e ' s d e f i n i t i o n a p p l i e s e q u a l l y w e l l t o i n n e r and reflection;  i n both cases, the  at or t h i n k i n g about i t s e l f . m i r r o r , one  them, and "My  1  subject  object,  Pressing h i s face  sees o n l y h i s eye,  enormous and  i n order t o  a f t e r l i v i n g away from A l e x a n d r i a , D a r l e y  (C, p.  discovered  a new  looking  i s t o see one's s e l f i n a  A l i c e walked away from the f l o w e r s  sympathy had  ment."  I f one  i s i t s own  must step back s e v e r a l p a c e s .  a g a i n s t the g l a s s , the grotesque.  subject  could  element i n s i d e i t s e l f  say,  - detach-  From the  self's  point  of view, i t i s a d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of u n i t a r y p e r s o n a l i t y i n t o p a r t s , s u b j e c t and  o l i v e and  object.  separate  But  two  from an o u t s i d e view, i t i s a  c o n c e p t s , of s u b j e c t  Maskelyne are both r i g h t and  are opposed.  reach  33)  T h i s detachment i s p a r a d o x i c a l .  u n i o n of two  outer  They are d e a l i n g w i t h the  and  of o b j e c t .  Mount-  both wrong, a l t h o u g h t h e y same s i t u a t i o n , but  the  s i t u a t i o n as viewed by M o u n t o l i v e d i f f e r s r a d i c a l l y from t h a t viewed by Maskelyne, and  the d i f f e r e n c e i s i n t h e v i e w e r .  t h i s r e l a t i v e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n the  Moreover,  individual.  Jung's i n t r o v e r t has t o d e a l w i t h the e x t e r i o r w o r l d , and t h e i o r world pursues h i s e x t r a v e r t i n t o h i s o u t e r l i f e :  " i f a man  f i x e d upon t h e o u t e r r e a l i t y , he must l i v e h i s myth; i f he  interis  i s turned  Icf. J u s t i n e and Messim, " t h e i r open eyes s t a r i n g i n t o each o t h e r . w i t h the s i g h t l e s s n e s s of inhuman o b j e c t s " . (M, p. 215)  23  towards the real  i n n e r r e a l i t y , then must he dream h i s o u t e r , h i s s o - c a l l e d  life". The  1  q u e s t i o n , as A l i c e and t h e Red  the l i n e between dream and t h e r e i s ho l i n e ; each o t h e r . d r i a , but  King knew, i s where t o draw  r e a l i t y , t r u t h and  perhaps i n n e r and  the Alexandrians  own  Groddeck contends t h a t "man  image, t h a t a l l h i s i n v e n t i o n s and  finance, l i t e r a t u r e , vocabulary, a s p e c i a l sense symbolic  1  c o l l e c t i v e s e l v e s , and  and  primitive  the world  ...'my w i l l ' and  between t h e o u t e r world and No",  3  and  by what I accept  'my  "'I've  (M, p . 145)  each a r t i f a c t  Jung t o o d e f i n e s "the w o r l d " as "how  experience".  wish f o r t h e  C i v i l i z a t i o n i s a mirror a minor of i t s d e s i g n e r .  I see the w o r l d , my  presentation'".  Even the d i f f e r e n c e s  210  2  G r o d d e c k , p.  3  J u n g , p.  237  25  Yes  the p r e - n a t a l e x i s t e n c e , " i t  seems l i k e l y t h a t I must then have taken e v e r y t h i n g t h a t  J u n g , p.  attitude to  reject.  Groddeck s p e c u l a t e s c o n c e r n i n g  1  2  always b e l i e v e d  t h e i n n e r dream are c r e a t e d by "my or  in his  p h i l o s o p h i e s are i n  s e c r e t w i s h e s , and we  of the city-man, don't we? "  the  a c t i v i t i e s , h i s science, a r t ,  i n d u s t r i e s and  of h i s n a t u r e  t h a t our i n v e n t i o n s m i r r o r our  of our  Alexan-  Alexandrians  c r e a t e s the world  D u r r e l l ' s C l e a remarks about bombing-planes:  end  to  t h a t A l e x a n d r i a i s p a r t of a landscape of  mind, so t h a t at t i m e s t h e r e i s no d i s t i n c t i o n between and A l e x a n d r i a .  Perhaps  o u t e r are the same, or images of  Sometimes D u r r e l l s u b o r d i n a t e s  i t t u r n s out  falsehood.  surrounded  24  me t o be p a r t o f m y s e l f , s e l f and environment being T h i s p r i m i t i v e s t a t e endures i n A l e x a n d r i a , being one  a l s o d e s c r i p t i o n of s e l f .  o f t h e most p r e v a l e n t Discussing  one u n i t e d  whole".  d e s c r i p t i o n o f environment  The r e c u r r e n c e  of the mirror  image i s  and s u b t l e examples o f t h i s tendency.  p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l i s m , Wyndham Lewis  postulates  a world i h which a l l phenomena of t h e environment a r e p r o j e c t i o n s from the  s e l f , which, i n t h e e x t e r i o r w o r l d , i s i t s e l f a mere r e f l e c t i o n : The i m p r e s s i o n of r e a l i t y t h a t you r e c e i v e from w i t h i n has t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y , namely, t h a t t h e i l l u s i o n i n t h i s case i s y o u r s e l f . . . . In t h e case o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y , i f you c o n s i d e r the e x t e r i o r world as a m i r r o r w o r l d , you a r e i n s i d e the image i n t h e m i r r o r (Lewis's i t a l i c s ) . . . . The ' o b j e c t s * t h a t a r e i t s o r i g i n a l s e x i s t merely f o r i t . . . t h e s o l i d p r o j e c t i o n s as i t were o f t h i s one, i m m a t e r i a l t h i n g . Looked a t i n t h a t way, t o be c o l o u r e d . and t o be extended i s , c o n v e r s e l y , i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t o be u n r e a l . ^  Here t h e i n n e r i s p r o j e c t e d dependent on t h e i n n e r .  i n t o t h e outer  so t h a t t h e o u t e r  becomes  There i s an i d e n t i t y o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s and  environment, and t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e " r e f l e c t i o n " o f thought and  t h e " r e f l e c t i o n " o f t h e m i r r o r becomes b l u r r e d .  C.  The S i n g l e Image The  simplest  form o f t h e m i r r o r  image i s t h a t  person sees h i s own r e f l e c t i o n i n a s i n g l e - v i e w , o r garden m i r r o r . It and  even o f t i m e .  non-magical common  In a sense, t h e m i r r o r has an e x t r a  i s , - i n actual fact  i n which a  dimension.  a plane s u r f a c e , but usurps t h e q u a l i t y o f depth  When an Alexandrian  looks  i n t h e m i r r o r he i s l i k e l y  t o see not o n l y h i s f a c e , but h i s mind and h e a r t , p a s t , present and  x  p.  92  2  j3p. 405, 406  25 f u t u r e , r e t u r n i n g h i s gaze.  J u s t i n e , whose s e l f - o b s e s s i o n i s  severe  enough t o have at l e a s t p r e t e n s i o n s t o n e u r o s i s , spends an i n o r d i n a t e amount of time b e f o r e a m i r r o r . the time she  s c a r c e l y sees her present  former husband and  beauty at a l l .  Arnauti,  her  companion i n her w i l d goose chase a f t e r a n a l y s t s ,  quotes her as s a y i n g , "'I aging  V a n i t y i s not her motive; most of  f u r y * " . ( J , p. 192)  always see i n the m i r r o r the image of She  an  t a l k s t o the m i r r o r r a t h e r than t o  her l o v e r , about a c t i o n s performed " t o i n v i t e s e l f - d i s c o v e r y " . What she  says r e v e a l s a m i r r o r - m i n d , r e f l e c t i n g the words and thoughts of  o t h e r minds. ( J , pp. an i n n e r m i r r o r . political  and  202-203)  The  outer mirror i s u s u a l l y r e l a t e d t o  A f t e r a t e n s e d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Nessim of i n t r i g u e s  e r o t i c , a d i s c u s s i o n c o n t a i n i n g many unspoken  she goes t o the m i r r o r t o study "her own p. 212)  But  sorrowful,haunted  the r e v e l a t i o n which f o l l o w s i s Nesslm's, not  S e l f - d i s c o v e r y has  something t o do w i t h the  suggestions, face". her  (J_,  own.  s e l f ' s relationship to  other  selves. Nessim encounters m i r r o r s as o f t e n as J u s t i n e does, though l e s s deliberately.  He  Examining h i s own  t r i e s t o see h i m s e l f as he appears t o J u s t i n e . ( M , r e f l e c t i o n , he i s s i c k w i t h  s e l f - l o a t h i n g and  contempt, s t r i c k e n w i t h the m u l t i p l i c i t y of h i s own Under the  s t r a i n , he t o o becomes p r e o c c u p i e d  addresses h i s r e f l e c t i o n as i f i t were a s e p a r a t e was,  and  mind  e n t i t y , but  should be a g a i n , p a r t of h i m s e l f : Now t o o he n o t i c e d t h a t he i n v o l u n t a r i l y r e p e a t e d phrases a l o u d t o which h i s c o n s c i o u s mind r e f u s e d t o l i s t e n . 'Good', she heard him t e l l one of h i s m i r r o r s , 'so you are f a l l i n g i n t o a n e u r a s t h e n i a * . (J_, p. 159)  195)  self-  m o t i v e s / (M,. p.  w i t h h i s own  p.  202)  and one  that  26  The  split  i n h i m s e l f becomes so acute t h a t he  sees i n a complete  s t r a n g e r "a s t r o n g yet d i s t o r t e d resemblance t o h i m s e l f as he i n t h e m i r r o r " . (J_, p. 194) the m i r r o r , and the on i t s  He  separated  imagines the r e f l e c t i o n coming out  p a r t of the s e l f assuming an  from  existence  own. A p u b l i c o f f i c i a l w i t h power t o command a c t i o n and,  t o r e a l i z e h i s own  dream image of h i m s e l f , Mountolive  r e v e a l i n g glimpses  i n m i r r o r s as he p a s s e s by.  t i o n s i s p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h another's  t h e m i r r o r and  t h i s banishes  i n a m i r r o r " . (M, p. 130)  ficial  s e l f obscures  But,  h i s neurasthenia, Mountolive  encounter w i t h h i s own  wonders, "Am  regarding  w i t h the  super-  and the s t a t e ' s . As Nessim  I s l o w l y becoming  i n t o t h e low  Here he f i n d s h o r r o r s enough t o r e f l e c t  sym-  handsome he  His  questioned irresistible  w i t h L e i l a , which i s an  s e l f and w i t h the Egypt of h i s p a s t ,  d i s g u i s e s h i m s e l f and v e n t u r e s  Seeing  illusions  This preoccupation  A f t e r h i s re-encounter past  reflec-  once a r r a y e d i n h i s own  t h e r e a l problems, h i s own  (M, p. 141)  of these  several  shortcomings with h i m s e l f i n  c o n d i t i o n i s s t a t i c , when the need i s f o r a c t i o n .  to myself?"  catches  i s " q u i t e s u r p r i s e d t o see how  looked  supposedly,  S i r L o u i s , the  some of M o u n t o l i v e ' s  t h e i r e x a l t e d rank. (M, pp. 76, 79) b o l i c f i n e r y , Mountolive  One  reflection.  ambassador t o R u s s i a , d i s c u s s e s h i s own  scious.  turned  l i f e of t h e Arab  he  Quarter.  the h o r r o r s of h i s own  uncon-  h i s i n c o g n i t o s e l f i n the m i r r o r , he i s a g a i n " q u i t e  s u r p r i s e d " , t h i s time at the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  (M, p. 285)  Mountolive's  s u r p r i s e at h i s r e f l e c t i o n s i m p l i e s a deeper s o r t of s u r p r i s e . image of t h e handsome ambassador g i v e s way w i t h t h e l i v e s of o t h e r men,  t o t h a t of a man  The  involved  f i n d i n g h i m s e l f a major c h a r a c t e r i n a  27  story of treason, s u i c i d e , f r a t r i c i d e , of M o u n t o l i v e ' s  i n c e s t and a d u l t e r y .  The p r o c e s s  s e l f - d i s c o v e r y i s marked by h i s s u r p r i s e at t h e unexpec-  t e d c h a r a c t e r of h i m s e l f and t h e o t h e r  s e l v e s on whose r e l a t i v e  existence  h i s own depends. Pursewarden's use o f m i r r o r s i s a c o n s c i o u s  one.  a r t i s t , whose a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s a r e v e r y l i k e those and  he understands t h e n a t u r e  mirror  of t h e symbol.  o f Mr. D u r r e l l ,  He s c o l d s h i m s e l f  (B_, p. 121) and mocks t h e r e f l e c t i o n of " t h e great  himself"  He i s an  i n the  Pursewarden  (M, p. 158), c a s t i n g an e v e r - s o - s l i g h t shade o f mockery onto  the hundreds o f pages o f h i s p o n t i f i c a t i o n s which s w e l l t h e A l e x a n d r i a Quartet.  He has a h a b i t of w r i t i n g on t h e m i r r o r w i t h h i s shaving  sometimes a q u o t a t i o n f o r contemplation t i m e s a mock e p i t a p h , which i s d e a d l y  or f o r s a t i r e  stick,  (B_, p. 123); some-  s e r i o u s i n i t s s u g g e s t i o n of  fundamental u n c e r t a i n t y : 'I never knew which s i d e my a r t was b u t t e r e d ' Were t h e Last Words t h a t poor Pursewarden u t t e r e d ! F i n a l l y , t h e m i r r o r r e c e i v e s h i s s u i c i d e message, w i t h i t s warning t o Nessim, t h e r e a l e p i t a p h t h i s t i m e . (B_, p. 150; M, p. 214). mirror i s multiple-viewed,  Pursewarden's  however, and t h i s man who p r o c l a i m s  h i s views  a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y throughout t h e book, remains an enigma, w i t h at l e a s t t h r e e motives f o r s u i c i d e ; t o h i s f r i e n d Mountolive; i n l o v e w i t h Mountolive;  h i s necessary  h i s incestuous  b e t r a y a l o f h i s f r i e n d Nessim l o v e f o r L i z a , who i s f a l l i n g  o r h i s awareness t h a t he had reached t h e apex  of h i s a r t i s t i c accomplishment and u s e f u l n e s s . a satisfactory Besides  None of t h e motives i s  explanation. these  continuous  m i r r o r m o r t i f s , each r e f l e c t i n g a  major c h a r a c t e r , t h e r e a r e r e f l e c t i n g images s c a t t e r e d though t h e f o u r  28  books, always showing at l e a s t  a h i n t of some t r u t h not  h i t h e r t o apparent.  Narouz sees h i s c r i p p l e d f a t h e r p o i n t i n g a p i s t o l at h i s r e f l e c t i o n r e a l i z e s the i n t i m a c y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s which b i n d h i s p a r e n t s Mountolive,  Nessim and M o u n t o l i v e ,  (B, p. 249;  M,  p. 37  - 38)  Nessim and Narouz and  their  and  parents.  D a r l e y and M e l i s s a say good-bye i n a cab  t a l k of the q u a d r i l a t e r a l l o v e which i n c l u d e d them w i t h Nessim and and  and  and  Justine,  are aware t h a t "the d r i v e r watched us i n the m i r r o r l i k e a spy....  He watched us as one  might watch c a t s making l o v e " . ( J , p. 225  In t h i s s i m i l e , the t e n d e r l o v e , pornography and f i n d i n g himself  l e a v e - t a k i n g becomes a strange  bestiality.  -  226).  complex of  Pombal, the casanova, confused  i n l o v e , a d d r e s s e s h i s own  r e f l e c t i o n ; he "who  at  believed  so many t h i n g s about l o v e " i s s e e i n g unsuspected t r u t h s about  himself  and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r s .  and,  one  D a r l e y and  Pombal  g a t h e r s , most of t h e male c h a r a c t e r s i n the Q u a r t e t ,  s e l v e s and The  (C_, p. 41)  each o t h e r  barber's  i n the barber-shop m i r r o r s  ( J , p. 36;  name, Mnemjian, suggests memory, time and  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n or image of t r u t h . l i k e t h e m i r r o r , he  He  B, p.  24).  a l s o mimesis, a  knows e v e r y t h i n g about everyone;  contains hidden t r u t h .  In h i s shop i s a group p h o t o -  graph, which s e r v e s as a m i r r o r f o r memories. " t h e p e r f e c t e d image of a s c h o o l t e a c h e r " .  The  pictured Darley i s  (B_, p.24)  e f f e c t u a l f i g u r e i s not the f i n a l form of D a r l e y , but b e f o r e he looked  gaze at them-  The  threadbare  in-  i t i s Darley  i n t o the m u l t i p l e m i r r o r s .  At C a r n i v a l the whole group, d i s g u i s e d , anonymous, i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from one  another even i n sex,  find in their collective  a perception i n t o t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e nature  reflection  and the a m b i g u i t i e s  t i o n s which b i n d them a l l t o g e t h e r : They put on t h e v e l v e t e e n capes and a d j u s t e d t h e i r masks l i k e the a c t o r s t h e y were, comparing  and  decep-  29  t h e i r i d e n t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n s as t h e y stood s i d e by s i d e i n t h e two s w o l l e n m i r r o r s among the palms.... The i n q u i s i t o r s of p l e a s u r e and p a i n , the A l e x a n d r i a n s . (B_, pp.198 - 199) The  portentous  works a l s o .  g l a n c e i n the m i r r o r o c c u r s i n D u r r e l l ' s  lesser  In The Dark L a b y r i n t h , Fearmax becomes aware of h i s  l o n e l i n e s s and  own  l a c k of humor o n l y when he f o c u s s e s on h i s r e f l e c t i o n  i n a h o t e l m i r r o r and  i n shopwindows. (PL, pp.  115,  117)  And  Joanna,  i n D u r r e l l ' s v e r s i o n of R o y i d i s ' Pope Joan, b e g i n s her a l a r m i n g a f t e r contemplating  her own  career  beauty m i r r o r e d i n a pond. (Pope, pp.  A l l t h i s g a z i n g i n m i r r o r s i s not e n t i r e l y a c c i d e n t a l on p a r t of D u r r e l l * s p e o p l e . ism and  comment on i t ,  multiple mirrors. perceptions.  Most of them r e c o g n i z e t h e i r own  as w i l l be  27)  the  narciss-  seen more i n the d i s c u s s i o n of  They use m i r r o r metaphors i n t h e i r own  Mountolive  26 -  i n t h e embassy i n R u s s i a "had  comments and  a sudden image  of them a l l f l o a t i n g b e l l y upward i n a snowy l a k e , l i k e b o d i e s of t r a p p e d f r o g s gleaming upward through t h e m i r r o r of i c e " , (M, p. O f t e n t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h e i r problem, the s t a t i c examination and,  of  self,  as Pursewarden says, t h e y "are i n c a p a b l e of t h i n k i n g f o r o u r s e l v e s ;  about, y e s " .  (C_, p.  134)  D u r r e l l ' s Sappho, l i k e J u s t i n e , sees the r e f l e c t i o n of an fury  62)  (and l i k e J u s t i n e i s i n v o l v e d i n a c o n f u s i o n of l o v e and  aging  politics):  The moment at the m i r r o r i s t h e worst of the day. We measure our self-contempt w r i n k l e by w r i n k l e , Our d i s g u s t i s at the s t a l e b r e a t h , l a c k l u s t r e eye, A l l the wear and t e a r of b e i n g without ever becoming. (S^ P. 79) Being  i s s t a t i c , becoming i s a c t i v e .  l o g y , but ments.  D u r r e l l does not end h i s t e t r a -  s u f f i x e s a number of suggested  s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r new  develop-  D a r l e y has f r e e d h i m s e l f from the s t a g n a t i o n of b e i n g and a t t a i n e d  30  a kinetic  s t a t e of becoming.  The  What the a r t i s t  creates i s himself.  s e l f i n the B l a c k Book i>s f r u s t r a t e d by the v e i l of  which h i d e s i t s own  essence:  " i am  again  s t a n d i n g naked i n f r o n t of  the m i r r o r , p u z z l e d by the o b s t r u c t i n g f l e s h " . does see the r e f l e c t i o n , i t i s not  (BB,  (BB,  b a s i c and  p. 222)  p. 203)  i s unable t o  There i s something unknown w i t h i n h i m s e l f ,  quiescent  and  unreachable:  present  (BB,  p. 71)  flesh.  consciousness" totality'".  The  germ of s e l f i s b e i n g ,  Jung has d e f i n e d t h e ego i n c o n t r a s t t o the  my  something fig-  f a c e i n the  essence, hidden by  as " o n l y the  s u b j e c t of  my  s e l f , which i s "the  s u b j e c t of  my  Groddeck d e s c r i b e s the problem of the i n e s c a p a b l e  1  "he  outstare  "the o t h e r , the not-me, the  ment, t h e embryo, the white something which l i e s behind mirror".  When he  q u i t e what he wished i t t o be:  f i n d s h i m s e l f f a c e t o f a c e w i t h h i s anonymity, and it".  flesh  the  I:  ' I am I* - we cannot get away from i t , and even w h i l e I a s s e r t t h a t the p r o p o s i t i o n i s f a l s e , I am o b l i g e d t o act as i f i t were t r u e . r  2  But  " i am  i " i s a tautology;  the problem i s t o f i n d a meaningful sub-  s t i t u t e phrase f o r t h e second " i " . t o me and  t o be  s e l f - l i b e r a t i o n and  "But  the key t o e v e r y t h i n g  s e l f - d i s c o v e r y - an important  a r t i s t i c b i a s of mind". (A & 0, p. 24)  seems religious  D u r r e l l means t h e s e  words  t o a p p l y t o Henry M i l l e r ' s Sexus, but t h i s " b i a s of mind", concerned w i t h f r e e i n g the it,  s e l f f o r a c t i o n by u n r a v e l l i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s which b i n d  i s the b i a s of h i s own  !p. 2  p.  mind and  of the minds of h i s puppets.  540 82  J o h n Press f i n d s that D u r r e l l ' s poetry " r e v e a l s the patterns of a mind t h a t s h i f t s c o n t i n u a l l y l i k e s u n l i t water r e f l e c t e d i n a m i r r o r " . The Chequer*d Shade (London, 1958), p. 40. Sometimes one s u s p e c t s D u r r e l l ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h mirrors i s i n e v i t a b l e and compulsive. 3  31  D.  R e f l e c t i o n i n Another S e l f  F r e q u e n t l y , t h e r e f l e c t i o n of t h e s e l f i s not a simple I t o I r e l a t i o n s h i p , but proceeds  through t h e means o f another  words o r person may serve as a m i r r o r . t h i s sort  whose  The most obvious m i r r o r of  i s l o v e , i n which p a r t n e r s r e f l e c t  s u b j e c t w i l l warrant  "i",  a chapter t o i t s e l f .  each o t h e r ; and t h i s  F o r t h e moment, l e t us  c o n s i d e r t h e m i r r o r i n g of t h e s e l f i n o t h e r s e l v e s .  Pursewarden,  w i t h h i s p r o l i f i c i n s i g h t s i n t o e v e r y t h i n g , f u n c t i o n s as a c r u e l l y a c c u r a t e m i r r o r o f D a r l e y , t h e o t h e r a r t i s t , and, p r o b a b l y c r u e l l y , of other c h a r a c t e r s .  Balthazar describes t h i s  less  quality,  t h e m i r r o r being t h e s e e i n g , p e r c e i v i n g , r e f l e c t i n g eye:  " H i s (Purse-  warden's) eyes ... looked i n t o o t h e r eyes, i n t o o t h e r i d e a s , w i t h a r e a l candour, r a t h e r a t e r r i f y i n g  sort of l u c i d i t y " .  (B_, p. I l l )  He i s not a c o m f o r t a b l e s o r t of companion, even t o h i m s e l f , as h i s suicide indicates.  He i s c o n s c i o u s of t h e m i r r o r i n g o f s e l v e s by  o t h e r s e l v e s , and, as u s u a l o n l y p a r t l y i n j e s t , uses t h e i d e a t o j u s t i f y t h e B r i t i s h monarchy: A R o y a l F a m i l y i s a m i r r o r image o f t h e human, a l e g i t i m a t e i d o l a t r y . . . . No, t h e y a r e a b i o l o g i c a l necessity, Kings. Perhaps they m i r r o r t h e v e r y c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e psyche? (M, pp. 62, 63)  F o r Pursewarden who works f o r t h e F o r e i g n o f f i c e , as w e l l as f o r M o u n t o l i v e  t h e ambassador and Nessim t h e c o n s p i r a t o r , t h e  B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l t r a d i t i o n complete w i t h s t i f f  upper l i p i s p a r t of  32 v i t a l personal  problems.  1  But, Pursewarden's g l a s s c o u l d be seen o n l y d a r k l y .  The s e l v e s  which m i r r o r one another a l s o confuse one another w i t h masks o f s u p e r f i c i a l i t i e s and obscure t h e t r u t h s which might  have been r e f l e c t e d :  "we  l i v e i n t h e s h a l l o w s of one another's p e r s o n a l i t i e s and cannot r e a l l y see i n t o t h e depths beneath".  (B_, p . 141)  N a r c i s s u s ' s pond i s clouded over  w i t h t h e p a l e cast of t h o u g h t - r e f l e c t i o n , i t s waters  stagnant.  D a r l e y h i m s e l f i s a m i r r o r , o b s e r v i n g , a b s o r b i n g , and r e f l e c t i n g all  i n his writing.  I n a b a l l r o o m w i t h " s h i v e r i n g m i r r o r s " C l e a asks  him, "Why do you p r e f e r t o s i t a p a r t and study us a l l ? " The  (B_, p . 233)  s h i v e r i n g m i r r o r s a r e p a r t o f an e f f e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of s e t t i n g ,  but t h e y serve as a symbolic complement t o C l e a ' s q u e s t i o n .  Durrell's  i m i r r o r s u s u a l l y e x h i b i t t h i s d u a l n a t u r e , simuUtaheously  tangible  and  characteristic  symbol o f i n t a n g i b l e .  of any s u c c e s s f u l The  self  impassioned  Perhaps t h i s i s t h e e s s e n t i a l  thing  symbol.  sees i t s r e f l e c t i o n i n c u r i o u s p l a c e s .  A f t e r Narouz*s  o r a t i o n f o l l o w s " t h e g e r m i n a l s i l e n c e i n which you can  hear t h e v e r y seeds i n t h e human psyche wards t h e l i g h t  of s e l f - r e c o g n i t i o n " .  Pursewarden*s remark.  s t i r r i n g , t r y i n g t o move t o -  (M, p . 125)  T h i s again i s  Narouz i s c l o s e t o t h e b a s i c n a t u r e o f t h i n g s ,  The p o s s i b i l i t y of a p o l i t i c a l theme f o r t h e A l e x a n d r i a Quartet i s suggested by C h a r l e s R o l o i n h i s review of M o u n t o l i v e : " i t may be t h a t t h e theme o f t h e s e r i e s w i l l t u r n out t o be t h e f a t a l t e n dency of t h e E n g l i s h i n t h e M i d d l e E a s t t o be b l i n d e d by r o m a n t i c i s m " . ( A t l a n t i c , C C I I I , No. 4 ( A p r i l , 1959), p . 134). M o u n t o l i v e and L e i l a are England and Egypt, west and e a s t . The l i g h t e r books, E s p r i t de Corps and S t i f f Upper L i p , a r e based on D u r r e l l ' s e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e d i p l o m a t i c c o r p s . Two thousand y e a r s a f t e r Caesar, A n t o n i e s a r e s t i l l f i n d i n g t h e i r downfalls i n Egypt.  33 a man of t h e l a n d , u n c i v i l i z e d . face of h i s consciousness,  The a r c h e t y p a l forms a r e near t h e s u r -  and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h h i s p a r e n t s , h i s  b r o t h e r , and h i s v a i n l y l o v e d C l e a a r e fundamental and q u i t e simple i n themselves.  F o r him, c o m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s e from w i t h o u t .  Because he i s  i n t o u c h w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l t h i n g s , he i s a s e e r , and h i s own nature  i s capable  simple  o f m i r r o r i n g t h e t r u t h of many s o p h i s t i c a t e d s e l v e s .  E u t h Adams i n The Dark L a b y r i n t h f i n d s t h e t r u t h about l i f e i n her b r o t h e r . looking-glass  H i s death i s a removal i n t o h i s a p p r o p r i a t e w o r l d , a world:  'I l e a r n e d from him t h a t death doesn't e x i s t except i n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . Thus I was h a r d l y sad when h i s d i s c o n t e n t c a r r i e d him through t o the other side - l i k e stepping i n t o a m i r r o r * . (PL, p . 249) There i s no d e a t h , T h i s i s suggested  o n l y t h e m i r r o r i s t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , t h e mind, t h e s e l f . a l s o i n P a r l e y ' s o b s e r v a t i o n on Pursewarden's  death:  Nor, f o r t h e purpose of t h i s w r i t i n g , has he ceased t o e x i s t ; he has simply stepped i n t o t h e q u i c k s i l v e r o f a m i r r o r as we a l l must t o leave our i l l n e s s e s , our e v i l a c t s , the h o r n e t s * nest o f o u r d e s i r e s , s t i l l o p e r a t i v e i n t h e r e a l world - which i s t h e memory o f o u r f r i e n d s . ( J , p . 118) A few hours b e f o r e h i s s u i c i d e , Pursewarden s p i t s upon t h e m i r r o r , and h i s r e f l e c t i o n l i q u e f i e s , d i s i n t e g r a t e s as he h i m s e l f was soon t o do, death a l l o w i n g t h e " r e a l " s e l f t o become i d e n t i c a l with t h e m i r r o r  self.  ( J , p . 119) In P u r r e l l ' s poem "The P i l o t " , t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n as t o who t h e p o t t e r i s and who t h e p o t . Sure a l o v e l y day and a l l weather L e a d i n g westward t o I r e l a n d and On t h e q u a r t e r s of heaven, h e l d The Hunter and A r c t u r u s g e t t i n g The e l e c t of heaven a l l b u r n i n g  our childhood. by s t a r s , ready on t h e wheel.  T h i s l o v e l y morning must t h e p i l o t l e a n i n g In t h e eye o f heaven f e e l t h e i s l a n d  34 T u r n i n g beneath him, b u r n i n g s o f t and b l u e And a l l t h i s m o r t a l globe l i k e a g r e a t lamp With spines of r i v e r s , f a m i l i e s of c i t i e s Seeming t o t h e s o l i t a r y boy so L o c a l and queer yet so much a p a r t of him. The enemies o f s i l e n c e have come n e a r e r , T u r n , t u r n t o t h e morning on w i l d elbows: Look down through t h e f i v e senses l i k e s t a r s To where our l i v e s l i e s m a l l and e q u a l l i k e two g r a i n s B e f o r e Chance - t h e hawk's eye o r t h e p i l o t ' s Round and s h i n i n g on t h e open sky, R e f l e c t i n g back t h e innocent world i n i t . (P, P. 9) The world r e f l e c t s t h e l i f e o f t h e p i l o t , and h i s eye i n t u r n r e f l e c t s " t h e innocent w o r l d " . m i r r o r s another  We a r e a l l m i r r o r s t o g e t h e r .  s e l f which i s m i r r o r i n g i t ,  the o t h e r , each a l s o m i r r o r s i t s e l f .  The s e l f  and t h e r e f o r e i n m i r r o r i n g  T h i s crosseyed r e f l e c t i n g  process  may be e l u c i d a t e d by r e f e r e n c e t o E r i c h K a h l e r ' s essay "The Nature of t h e Symbol"." " 1  Inasmuch as t h e human being has come t o extend h i s e x i s t e n c e over m a n i f o l d spheres, h i s communication w i t h h i s o u t e r world t u r n s i n t o a communication w i t h h i s s e l f , o f h i s p r a c t i c a l work w i t h h i s t h e o r e t i c a l mind, and - s i n c e t h e o u t e r expansion r e f l e x i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n an i n n e r , p s y c h i c expansion - of h i s Ego w i t h h i s I d , w i t h t h e l i g h t e d depths of h i s u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The  i n v o l u t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n s and communications seems t o be approach-  ing the desired r e u n i f i c a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l  self.  S y m b o l i s m i n R e l i g i o n and L i t e r a t u r e , e d . R o l l o May (New York, 1961), p . 52. 1  Rank shows how t h e Pythagoreans brought t h e numbers o f man and t h e u n i v e r s e i n t o "an inward r e l a t i o n " , so t h e y a r e "mirror-images of one a n o t h e r " . ( A r t and A r t i s t , p . 117, Rank's I t a l i c s ) I t i s n o t , as i n t h e p o p u l a r song, " I see t h e moon, t h e moon sees me, but " I see me i n t h e moon; t h e moon sees t h e moon i n me" - a s o r t of cosmic solipsism. 2  35 E.  R e f l e c t i o n s o f Another  Self  Sometimes t h e s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t o f someone e l s e .  r e f l e c t i o n i s not one's own, but  One comes t o know t h e other b e t t e r by s t u d y i n g  his reflection.  D a r l e y l i k e s t o d e s c r i b e h i s m i s t r e s s e s as they  pose  before m i r r o r s .  We have n o t i c e d J u s t i n e ' s h a b i t of h o l d i n g l o n g  con-  versations with her r e f l e c t i o n . has  M e l i s s a ' s m i r r o r , as R i c h a r d  Aldington  p o i n t e d out, not o n l y r e f l e c t s but i s a r e f l e c t i o n of h e r :  s i n g l e poignant  s t r i p of cracked m i r r o r " . (J_, p. 1 9 9 )  M e l i s s a , s o l i t a r y , "poignant" Nessim's servant  and broken.  "a  That i s  1  I n t h i s m i r r o r she sees  S e l i m appear t o r e f l e c t Nessim's g r i e f , which i s i n  t u r n a r e f l e c t i o n o f h e r own g r i e f .  Here a r e m i r r o r s w i t h i n m i r r o r s ,  Darley l e a r n i n g about M e l i s s a , M e l i s s a l e a r n i n g about Nessim.  And  each r e f l e c t i o n o f someone c l o s e t o o n e s e l f i s a l s o a r e f l e c t i o n of one's s e l f , and l o v e r s a r e r e f l e c t i o n s m i r r o r s a r e r e l a t e d , because, D a r l e y o t h e r * s oondit i o n ;  of each o t h e r .  suggests,  they are "fellow-bankrupts".  M e l i s s a and  he and she r e f l e c t (J_, p . 23)  M e l i s s a ' s o l d , r i c h , u g l y l o v e r Cohen i n a mirror, D a r l e y "for the f i r s t  time t h a t he p r o b a b l y  the poignant  Seeing  realizes  l o v e d M e l i s s a as much as I d i d " .  T h i s r e f l e c t i o n r e v e a l s t h e ambiguous and complex n a t u r e the p o s s i b i l i t y of a tender  each  of love:  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e g r o s s Cohen and  M e l i s s a , t h e hardness i n t h i s poignancy and t h e f r i e n d l i -  ness i n enmity, which t a k e s D a r l e y t o Cohen's deathbed when M e l i s s a  refuses  t o go. The  m i r r o r and a sudden r e a l i z a t i o n  often coincide.  En r o u t e  t o t h e f a t e f u l duckhunt, t h e c u l m i n a t i o n of t h e many m y s t e r i e s  of t h e  36  first  n o v e l , D a r l e y r e c o g n i z e s t h e i r mutual f r i e n d C a p o d i s t r i a as  "the a u t h o r of a l l J u s t i n e ' s m i s f o r t u n e s " , hood.  the r a p i s t  of her  "From time t o time", he catches Nessim*s eye i n t h e  mirror.  Nessim*s r e f l e c t e d  answers t o many q u e s t i o n s .  s m i l e c o n t a i n s , but does not ( J , p.  To know a n o t h e r , one presented  t o one's own  the n a t u r a l i s t perception.  driving  r e v e a l , the  210)  must have more views of him t h a n t h a t  naked eye.  In D u r r e l l ' s poem "Fabre" (P, p .  i s f a u l t l e s s i n "exact  He may  child-  o b s e r v a t i o n " , but  i n e p t i n human  have mastered the t h i r t e e n s c i e n t i f i c ways of  i n g at a b l a c k b i r d , but not  106),  the c o u n t l e s s ways of l o o k i n g at a man  lookor  woman: I f r e a l women were l i k e moths he d i d n ' t n o t i c e . There was not a l o o k i n g - g l a s s i n t h e whole house. F a b r e ' s s c i e n t i f i c method cannot cope w i t h human r e a l i t y , because i t depends t o t a l l y on h i s own communication w i t h o t h e r The  m i r r o r may  detached s e l f , never on involvement  selves.  be a f f e c t e d by i t s own  A l e x a n d r i a , as a m i r r o r of t h e s e p e o p l e , the mind, w i t h a human c h a r a c t e r .  The  another f i n d s a l s o h i s own  Again,  and  pot.  The  truth.  Greek poet, C.P.  act of  reflection.  becomes them, a landscape of  s e l f r e v e a l i n g t r u t h about i t i s an ambiguity of p o t t e r  Cavafy, i d o l i z e d i n the Quartet  " o l d poet of the c i t y " , has a poem which i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s . boy  and  as  the  A handsome  l o o k s b r i e f l y at h i m s e l f i n a l a r g e o l d m i r r o r i n amansion t o  which he goes on  business:  The o l d m i r r o r was g l a d now And was proud t o have r e c e i v e d upon i t s e l f That e n t i r e beauty f o r a few m i n u t e s . 1  T h e m i r r o r i n t h e H a l l " , The Poems of C.P. John Mavrogordato (London, 195]), p. 192. l n  Cavafy, t r a n s .  37  Darley's  attempt t o r e f l e c t  n a r r a t i v e i s the d e t e r m i n i n g  h i s fellow Alexandrians  act i n h i s own  in his  development.  George S t e i n e r d i s c u s s e s the manner i n which D u r r e l l ' s c h a r a c t e r s m i r r o r each o t h e r , and "although  f i n d s t h e s e m i r r o r s "dangerous" because  t h e y m u l t i p l y v i s i o n and  o f f from the o u t s i d e " ' .  1  The  d r i v e i t inward, they a l s o shut i t  o u t s i d e becomes i n s i d e , so t h e r e i s no  o b j e c t i v i t y , o n l y an e x c e s s i v e  s u b j e c t i v i t y , and  mind i s t o "watch the m i r r o r watching Vou". C a v a f y ' s m i r r o r r e t u r n s a p e r c e p t i o n not but  only to  F.  Multiple-View  the main a c t i v i t y  ("Cradle Song", P_, p.  t o t h e boy who  of 16)  looks i n t o i t ,  itself.  Mirrors:  Prism-Sightedness  I remember her s i t t i n g b e f o r e the m u l t i p l e m i r r o r s at the dressmaker's, b e i n g f i t t e d f o r a s h a r k s k i n costume, and s a y i n g : "Look! f i v e d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e s of the same s u b j e c t . Now i f I wrote I would t r y f o r a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l e f f e c t i n c h a r a c t e r , a s o r t of p r i s m - s i g h t e d n e s s . Why should not p e o p l e show more t h a n one p r o f i l e at a t i m e ? " ( J , p. 27) J u s t i n e i s a d v i s i n g D a r l e y t o do p r e c i s e l y what t h e i r has  set out t o do.  creator  This l i t t l e  scene i s a p a r a b l e of the method  D u r r e l l employs i n the Q u a r t e t .  He g i v e s at l e a s t f i v e views of  J u s t i n e , f o r i n s t a n c e , not And  t h i s whole c o n t i n u e s  p a r t s , but  one  of which shows her whole p e r s o n .  t o elude  condensation  remains p r i s m - l i k e , complete but  and  refractive.  We  and  which p r o f i l e we  i n t o the sum  shattered,  of i t s  scintillating  cannot look e q u a l l y at a l l the m i r r o r s at once, see depends on which m i r r o r we  "Lawrence D u r r e l l :  The  use and  Baroque N o v e l " , World, p.  on where  21.  38  we a r e s t a n d i n g w h i l e we use i t .  The p r i s m i n t h e poem "By t h e  Lake", r e f l e c t s a woman who i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f both J u s t i n e and Melissa: I f seen by many minds at once your image As i n a p r i s m f a l l i n g breaks i t s e l f , Or l o o k i n g upwards from a gleaming spoon Defies: a s m i l e squeezed up and v a n i s h i n g In r o u n d e l s o f d i v e r s i o n l i k e t h e moon. Yet t h e r e you a r e confirmed by t h e s m a l l e s t Wish o r k i s s upon t h e r i s i n g darkness But r o o t l e s s as a wick a f l o a t i n water, F a t h e r l e s s as shoes w a l k i n g over dead l e a v e s ; A p a t i e n t whom no envy s t i r s but j o y And what t h e h a r s h chords o f e x p e r i e n c e l e a v e s T h i s dark s o f t eye, so l i q u i d now and hoarse W i t h p l e a s u r e : o r your arms i n m i r r o r s Combing out s o f t l y h a i r As l o v e l y as a p l a n e t ' s and remote. How many Whispered Melissa, Captured How many  several small forevers i n the rind of the ear by t h i s M e d i t e r r a n e a n sea-edge, and t o l d ? additions t o the t o t a l silence?  S u r e l y we i n c r e a s e d you by v e r y l i t t l e , But as w i t h a net o r gun t o make your v i c t i m s men? (P,  p . 84)  The image ' d e f i e s " c a p t u r e , p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t f a c t t o each of t h e "many minds".  The s u b s t i t u t i o n o f mind f o r eye suggests a g a i n t h e  two t y p e s o f " r e f l e c t i o n " . images i s a q u e s t i o n :  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f any o r a l l o f t h e  "How many s e v e r a l s m a l l forevers..,?/How  additions t o the t o t a l s i l e n c e ? "  many  The sum of t h e prismed views makes  a t o t a l which i s s i l e n c e , empty, incomplete and i n a r t i c u l a t e .  So  a l t h o u g h t h e minds v i e w i n g t h e woman a r e many, t h e y i n c r e a s e t h e concepts of h e r u n i t a r y s e l f "by v e r y l i t t l e " ,  and t h e e f f e c t has been  on themselves as much as on h e r , s i n c e t h e y have made i t p o s s i b l e f o r  39  her t o ensnare " v i c t i m s " , and f o r t h e s e v i c t i m s t o be  men.  The m i r r o r - p r i s m i s m u l t i p l e - v i e w e d i n two ways:  i t presents  s e v e r a l views of a s i n g l e o b j e c t , and t h e o b j e c t i s viewed persons.  View and viewer a r e both The  symbolism  by  several  prismatic.  i n t r i c a t e e f f e c t which may  be a c h i e v e d by u s i n g m i r r o r -  and m u l t i p l e p o i n t s of view i s suggested by Lawrance Thompson's  d e s c r i p t i o n of W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r ' s The  Sound and t h e F u r y  Each of t h e s e f o u r s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s , t h u s c o n t i g u o u s , h i n g e d , set at a d i f f e r e n t angle from t h e o t h e r s , might be c a l l e d analagous t o t h o s e hinged and c o n t i g u o u s haberdashery m i r r o r s which permit us t o contemplate the immediate p i c t u r e r e f l e c t e d i n any s i n g l e one of t h o s e m i r r o r s , and t h e n t o contemplate secondary o r s u b o r d i n a t e p i c t u r e s which a r e r e f l e c t i o n s of r e f l e c t i o n s i n each of the separate m i r r o r s . 1  T h i s i s l i k e J u s t i n e ' s m i r r o r and similar to Durrell's.  2  suggests a n a r r a t i v e  principle  Each of t h e f o u r s e c t i o n s might c o n c e i v a b l y  be r e a d as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y , b u t , t h u s r e a d , i t i s not t h e same s t o r y as i t i s i n c o n t e x t .  The r e f l e c t i o n s of r e f l e c t i o n s w i t h i n  reflections  l e a d t h e r e a d e r deep i n t o a world where s e l f i s e n c l o s e d on a l l s i d e s by i t s e l f .  • -  .  In a comment on the Undergroyn.d  Man,  F r e d e r i c k J . Hoffman  speaks of " t h e m i r r o r images, which m u l t i p l y and f r a c t i o n a t e the  self,  " M i r r o r Analogues i n The Sound and t h e F u r y " i n W i l l i a m Faulkner: Three Decades of C r i t i c i s m , ed. E . J . Hoffman and Olga W. V i c k e r y (New York, 1963), p. 224. 1  0 n e i s u n l i k e l y t o mistake D u r r e l l ' s v o i c e f o r F a u l k n e r ' s . , N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e a r e resemblances: m i r r o r s r e p l a c i n g time, v a r i o u s views e l i m i n a t i n g t h e need f o r c h r o n o l o g y , i n c e s t c o m p l i c a t i n g the p r o c e s s of s e l f - d i s c o v e r y ; l a n d s c a p e made i n s e p a r a b l e from c h a r a c t e r ; G o t h i c elements shadowing t h e p r e s e n t . 2  40  so t h a t one s e l f becomes many fragments, i n c l o s e - o r d e r d u p l i c a t i o n s of i t s e l f " .  1  T h i s h i n t s at t h e s i n i s t e r aspect  c o n f i n i n g and d i s i n t e g r a t i n g n a t u r e  of  of the mirror-view, the  prism-sightedness.  D u r r e l l l i k e s t o appeal t o t h e p h y s i c i s t s t o support matic t h e o r y o f f i c t i o n . presented  One might once have imagined a n o v e l which  various different  viewpoints,  t h e sum o f which was a f u l l y  rounded p i c t u r e o f something o r someone. a book i m p o s s i b l e .  his pris-  But E i n s t e i n has made such  The n a r r a t o r can no l o n g e r pretend  t o be anonymous  or d i s i n t e r e s t e d , because now he h i m s e l f i s a f a c t o r t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n the a n a l y s i s of anything that  he o b s e r v e s .  Werner Heisenberg  explains  s c i e n t i f i c laws " d e a l no l o n g e r w i t h t h e p a r t i c l e s themselves but  w i t h our knowledge" o f t h e m .  2  The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s extend f a r beyond  t h e bounds o f a p p l i e d s c i e n c e : F o r t h e f i r s t time i n t h e course o f h i s t o r y man on e a r t h f a c e s o n l y h i m s e l f . . . The f a m i l i a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e world i n t o s u b j e c t and o b j e c t , i n n e r and o u t e r w o r l d , body and s o u l , somehow no l o n g e r q u i t e a p p l i e s .... In s c i e n c e , a l s o , t h e o b j e c t o f r e s e a r c h i s no l o n g e r n a t u r e i n i t s e l f but r a t h e r n a t u r e exposed t o man's q u e s t i o n i n g , and t o t h i s extent man here a l s o meets h i m s e l f . We a r e back a g a i n t o t h e i d e a t h a t e v e r y t h i n g  i s a mirror.  Heisenberg  i m p l i e s t h a t a l l man's s e a r c h f o r knowledge i s a s e a r c h f o r h i s at l e a s t t h a t t h e two searches  are inseparable.  self,  In o r d e r t o come  anywhere near t h e o b j e c t , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r must d i s c o v e r which i s o b j e c t  ^Samuel B e c k e t , p . 43 " T h e R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Nature i n Contemporary P h y s i c s " , M#y, pp. 221, 226 - 227, See D u r r e l l ' s Key, passim, e s p e c i a l l y Chapter 2. 2  41  and which s u b j e c t and The  Because he  He  cannot see beyond h i m s e l f , t h e  does not know whether or not  makes Pursewarden, who  may  scientist  as Wyndham Lewis  the theory  i s true.  be p a r t i a l l y modelled on Lewis,  Durrell  exclaim,  dares t o dream of c a p t u r i n g t h e f l e e t i n g image of t r u t h i n a l l i t s  gruesome m u l t i p l i c i t y ? * " the  other.  t o e j e c t t h e word " t r u e " from h i s v o c a b u l a r y ,  p o i n t s out."'"  "'Who  from the  disentanglement i s never complete and t h e o b j e c t i n i t s e l f  i s unattainable. has had  d i s e n t a n g l e one  'real*  and  the  (C, p . 136)  'unreal', the noneelf  Lewis mentions the " m i r r o r - i m a g e r y " as Whitehead and  D i s c u s s i n g t h e impingement and  t h e s e l f upon each  of such p o s t - r e l a t i v i t y  R u s s e l l ; subjective experience,  h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , i s the l o c a t i o n of ' r e a l i t y ' . t h i n g i t s e l f , but  installed itself  "The  other,  philosophers  i n c l u d i n g dreams and  What i s r e a l i s not  the image of t h a t t h i n g - one  d a r k l y , never f a c e t o f a c e .  of  the  can see o n l y i n a g l a s s  r e a l i t y " , says Mr.  Lewis, "has  definitely  i n s i d e t h e contemporary mind".  Jung a l s o speaks of "images", and subjectively conditioned:  he t o o warns t h a t t h e y  are  " i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e image s h a l l  not  immediately be assumed t o be i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e o b j e c t ; i t i s w i s e r r e g a r d i t as an image of t h e s u b j e c t i v e r e l a t i o n of t h e o b j e c t " . ^ d e c i s i v e r e a l i t y i s t h a t of t h e " p r i m o r d i a l images" or which " i n t h e i r t o t a l i t y r e p r e s e n t m i r r o r r e p r e s e n t s the present  of c o n s c i o u s n e s s  "somewhat as a m i l l i o n - y e a r o l d c o n s c i o u s n e s s becoming, being  and  ^•pp. 367, 2  pp.  600,  The  "archetypes",  a psychic mirror-world".  contents  to  Jung's  i n a form  might see them", s e e i n g  p a s s i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h whatever precedes becoming  368, 500.  453.  42  and endures beyond p a s s i n g . moment i s improbably'.  "To t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h e p r e s e n t  I t i s p o s s i b l e t o see how  m i r r o r view e l i m i n a t e s t h e need f o r s t r i c t c l o c k time;  chronology i s l e s s important  for a novelist  the  adherence t o t h e o r d e r of  than the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among  human e x p e r i e n c e s and p e r c e p t i o n s . These p r i m o r d i a l images a r e t h e a r c h e t y p e s which Narouz f i n d s i n h i s own of  mind at C a r n i v a l , when t h e r e i s a  c o n c e n t r a t i o n ' o f images,  " d e s i r e s engendered i n t h e f o r e s t s of the mind, b e l o n g i n g not t o  themselves  but t o remote a n c e s t o r s speaking through them". (B, p.  165)  They a r e what D a r l e y c a l l s "the mythopoeic r e f e r e n c e which u n d e r l i e s f a c t " , s u p e r s e d i n g t h e d e t a i l s o f d a t a and i n f o r m a t i o n , "the g r a v e y a r d of  relative fact".  (C, p. 176)  I f t h e s e images are r e a l i t y , and i f t h e y  a r e t i m e l e s s ^ t h e n r e a l i t y i s t i m e l e s s , and D u r r e l l , w i t h Jung's a s s i s t a n c e , has succeeded  i n " e l i m i n a t i n g time";  (Cor, p. 19.  Above p.  But even t h e s e images do not appear t h e same t o everyone, Jung d e c l a r e s , "The world e x i s t s not merely appears t o me",  and "One  sees what one  8)  and  i n i t s e l f , but a l s o as i t  can best see from oneself".' ' 1  P r o u s t , c o n t e m p l a t i n g the s e v e r a l v e r s i o n s of M. Swann, agrees t h a t "each t i m e we  see the f a c e o r hear t h e v o i c e i t i s our  own  r e c o g n i s e and t o which we  i d e a s of him which we  Groddeck*s world c o n s i s t s of p o l a r i t i e s ; i t s o p p o s i t e w i t h i n i t s e l f " and and an outward cause".  He  listen  "everything contains  can be shown t o have "both an  16  'Swann's Way,  p.  inward  sees a worldwide tendency towards " t h i n k i n g " ,  c o n s c i o u s r e f l e c t i o n , which i s f o r each person an attempt  pp.- 472,  .  15  to chart a  43  world outside h i m s e l f T h e o r d e r t o chart t h a t w o r l d .  problem i s t o get o u t s i d e t h e s e l f i n I f t h i s cannot be done, t h e maps w i l l  a l l be d i f f e r e n t , each one c h a r t i n g o n l y i t s c a r t o g r a p h e r ' s mind. D u r r e l l d e s c r i b e s Groddeck's system o f p o l a r i t i e s as a s e e k i n g " t o f r e e h i m s e l f from t h e o p p o s i t e s o f b e i n g , and t o emerge i n t o Reality  .... The keynote i s r e i n t e g r a t i o n and acceptance  r i n g o p p o s i t e s " . (Key, p . 83)  T h i s i s what o c c u r s i n C l e a .  p o l a r i t i e s , the opposite mirror-views not proved the l i f e  incorrect  stream  of t h e war-  of t h e f i r s t  The  three novels are  o r d i s m i s s e d , but a r e a c c e p t e d , a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o  of the s u r v i v o r s .  The acceptance  of the p o l a r i t i e s i s  a l s o an escape from them, because t h e s e l f i s no l o n g e r d i s t o r t e d and tormented by them, but h a v i n g a c c e p t e d them f o r what t h e y a r e , can d e a l w i t h them, t a k e them i n t o account by them.  and not be thrown o f f balance  T h i s i s r e i n t e g r a t i o n o f i n n e r and o u t e r r e a l i t y , s e l f and  n o t - s e l f , and a l s o s e l f and s e l f , a p p l i e s a l s o t o human n a t u r e .  since the p r i n c i p l e of p o l a r i t i e s  The " r e a l i t y " i n t o which one i s t o  emerge may be a condition i n which a c t i o n i s d e s i r a b l e and p o s s i b l e . And  i t may a l s o be J u n g i a n R e a l i t y , s i n c e i t i s i n C l e a t h a t D a r l e y  comes t o terms w i t h h i s a r c h e t y p e s r e b i r t h which a r e almost the r e s u l t  and e x p e r i e n c e s , a death and a  t o o Jungian t o be t r u e .  i s r e i n t e g r a t i o n , t h e s e l f made whole.  a l s o i n t h e sense o f " h e a l e d " .  In e i t h e r  case,  T h i s i s "made whole"  D u r r e l l quotes E i n s t e i n on t h e g o a l o f  the s e a r c h i n g mind which " l o o k s on i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e as a s o r t o f p r i s o n and wants t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e u n i v e r s e as a s i n g l e  pp. 90, 81, 105.  significant  44  whole". (Key, p . 34)  In o r d e r t o e x p e r i e n c e  t h e whole, he must  first  know t h e p a r t which i s h i s " i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e " and p l a c e i t i n p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e whole. lifted  Neither  s e l f nor universe  out o f t h i s s i n g l e s i g n i f i c a n t whole.  Alexandrians  can be  The i n t e n t i o n o f t h e  then seems t o be r e p a i r i n g t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n brought  about by p r i s m - s i g h t e d n e s s ,  b r i n g i n g multiple m i r r o r s i n t o j u x t a p o s i t i o n ,  from many and from o p p o s i t e s r e b u i l d i n g t h e one. It i s no easy t a s k which i s f o r m u l a t e d Balthazar.  i n the epigraph t o  The words a r e de Sade's, from J u s t i n e , h i s t e r r i b l e  on t h e a m b i g u i t i e s  farce  o f good and e v i l and o f human views o f t h e s e .  His  J u s t i n e , l i k e Durrell's„has t o d e a l w i t h t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p r i s m sightedness: 'The m i r r o r sees t h e man as b e a u t i f u l , t h e m i r r o r l o v e s t h e man; another m i r r o r sees t h e man as f r i g h t f u l and h a t e s him; and i t i s always t h e same being who produces t h e impressions'. Bonamy Dobree has p o i n t e d out t h a t i n t h i s q u o t a t i o n d i f f e r e n t  mirrors  have d i f f e r e n t  As e x -  emotions, as w e l l as v a r y i n g p o i n t s o f v i e w " .  1  p l a i n e d by Sade's monk Clement, h i m s e l f a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f v i o l e n t p o l a r i t i e s , t h e motions which t h e man arouses i n t h e m i r r o r a r e c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e n a t u r e the  o f t h e m i r r o r , t h e s e l f ' s response determined by  s e l f , a response inward r a t h e r t h a n outward as i t seems.  He uses  t h e image o f t h e m u l t i p l e m i r r o r , t h e t r i c k m i r r o r such as one f i n d s i n a Pun House at t h e f a i r , "some of which d i m i n i s h o b j e c t s , o t h e r s of which e n l a r g e them; some render  f r i g h t f u l images o f t h i n g s , some l e n d  "Durrell's Alexandrian  S e r i e s " , World, p . 189.  45  them charm".  The f r i g h t f u l n e s s o r charm depends not on t h e o b j e c t t o  which i t i s a t t r i b u t e d but on t h e s u b j e c t which a t t r i b u t e s i t .  1  D u r r e l l ' s people a r e v e r y much aware o f t h e gruesome m u l t i p l i c i t y of t r u t h .  B a l t h a z a r speaks o f t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f ever  a t t a i n i n g " t r u t h naked and unashamed", because "we always see h e r as she  seems, never as she i s .  (B, p . 233)  Each man has h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " .  And Pursewarden w r i t e s , "There a r e o n l y as many r e a l i t i e s  as you c a r e t o i m a g i n e " . (B, p . 152) same t h i n g . many.  They a r e not s a y i n g q u i t e t h e  B a l t h a z a r i s seeing each man's view as one m i r r o r o f  Pursewarden here p l a c e s t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y w i t h i n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n .  The m u l t i p l e - m i r r o r i s a m u l t i p l e o f a m u l t i p l i c i t y .  Again,  i n n e r and  o u t e r w o r l d s m i r r o r one another; t h e i n n e r s e l f , l i k e t h e o u t e r i s d i s u n i f i e d and unable t o r e a c h a s i n g l e c o n c l u s i o n about a  world,  simple  truth.  Darley  s p e c u l a t e s on B a l t h a z a r ' s r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s own  story:  " i mean t h a t I must t r y and s t r i p t h e opaque membrane which  stands between me and t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e i r a c t i o n s - and which I suppose i s composed o f ray own l i m i t a t i o n s o f v i s i o n and temperment. My envy of Pursewarden, my p a s s i o n f o r J u s t i n e , my p i t y f o r M e l i s s a . D i s t o r t i n g m i r r o r s , a l l of them". (B_, p . 28) everything  He wants t o s t r i p away  but f a c t , a t a s k never t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d .  emotions which Sade a l s o p r e s e n t s t h e same s e l f .  The v a r i o u s  as d i s t o r t i n g m i r r o r s a r e a l l w i t h i n  He must d e a l not o n l y w i t h o t h e r persons whose views  c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s but a l s o w i t h t h e c l a s h i n g views w i t h i n h i m s e l f . The  hinged  m i r r o r i s an image of t h e s e l f as much as o f t h e w o r l d .  The  J u s t i n e of C l e a has changed c o n s i d e r a b l y from t h e J u s t i n e o f t h e  "••D.A.F. de Sade, J u s t i n e ( P a r i s , 1953), pp. 171 - 172.  46  first  n o v e l - o r has she?  She s a y s , "*You see a d i f f e r e n t me  ... But  once a g a i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n you, i n what you imagine you s e e l * " (C, p . 53)  Not "what you s e e " but "what you imagine you s e e " . The  d i f f e r e n c e between seer and seen i s g r e a t e r  than i t seems, obscured  by a v e i l of d e l u s i o n . If the s e l f not  a unity.  contains  c o n f l i c t s and p o l a r i t i e s , t h e s e l f i s  The view which p r e s e n t s t h e concept of one s e l f i s a  d i s t o r t e d view.  D u r r e l l has s a i d , o u t s i d e  t h e Q u a r t e t , " I imagine  t h a t what we c a l l p e r s o n a l i t y may be an i l l u s i o n , and i n . t h i n k i n g of it  as a s t a b l e t h i n g we a r e t r y i n g t o put a l i d on a box w i t h no s i d e s "  1  Pursewarden s a y s , " ' P e r s o n a l i t y as something w i t h f i x e d a t t r i b u t e s i s an i l l u s i o n - but a n e c e s s a r y i l l u s i o n i f . we a r e t o l o v e * * " 15)  The n e c e s s i t y  t o o t h e r selvws:  (B_, pp. 14 -  of a u n i t a r y s e l f a r i s e s because of our r e l a t i o n s h i p "Our view of r e a l i t y i s c o n d i t i o n e d  by our p o s i t i o n  i n space and time - not by our p e r s o n a l i t i e s as we l i k e t o t h i n k " . Where we a r e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o b j e c t  determines our view o f i t . The  d i s t o r t i n g emotions do not proceed from a u n i f i e d p e r s o n a l i t y ;  no  s i n g l e commanding view d i r e c t s D a r l e y t o envy, d e s i r e o r p i t y . i s a rather unsatisfactory more aware of t h e o t h e r . of o n e s e l f ,  s t a t e of a f f a i r s , e s p e c i a l l y as one becomes There i s a need f o r d e f i n i t i o n and d i s t i n c t i o n  and so one. c r e a t e s  C, pp. 55, 277)  from " s e l e c t e d f i c t i o n s " .  (B_, pp. 14 - 15;  These a r e " f i c t i o n s " not because t h e y a r e f a l s e but  because t h e y a r e o n l y . r e l a t i v e l y t r u e . and  This  From them i s c o n s t r u c t e d . a  self  a w i l l , which can l o v e and a c t i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s e l v e s and w i l l s .  "The  K n e l l e r Tape", World, p . 163  47  Because the s e l f must be c r e a t e d , the a r t i s t i n A l e x a n d r i a , and Quartet  i s an important  figure  because the s e l f i s c r e a t e d i n o r d e r t o l o v e , the  can c l a i m t o be an " i n v e s t i g a t i o n of modern l o v e " . The  n o t i o n t h a t the s e l f i s an i l l u s i o n or a d e l i b e r a t e  f a b r i c a t i o n from h a l f - t r u t h s i s not t o t h i n k of h i m s e l f as an i l l u s i o n . Balthazar's,saying  a comfortable  one;  no one  likes  On t h e o t h e r hand, as D a r l e y  " T r u t h i s what most c o n t r a d i c t s i t s e l f  recalls  in.time*";  he  a l s o remembers Pursewarden's " ' I f t h i n g s were always what t h e y  seemed,  howimpoverished would be the i m a g i n a t i o n  The  of man!*" (B, p. 23)  t i n u a l c r e a t i o n of o n e s e l f means t h a t l i f e w i t h o t h e r dynamic, f o r c e s .  con-  i s dynamic, i n communication  There i s m u l t i p l i c i t y w i t h i n the mind, but  a p r i s m i s an a t t r a c t i v e o b j e c t , " t h i s e t e r n a l r e f r a c t i o h / O f t h e t h i n k i n g mind t o u c h i n g  reality".  (Sappho, p. 134)  "Touching r e a l i t y " because the  view of e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s i s s u b j e c t i v e l y c o n d i t i o n e d ; one t h e world  as w e l l as o n e s e l f , making a coherent  jointed planet.  Again,  the p r o c e s s  pondences, and t h e o u t e r world  i s creating  sphere from t h e  deals with r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c o r r e s -  i s c r e a t e d by a b s o r p t i o n i n t o the  To see and a t t r a c t w i t h i n myself The sweetest and most naked correspondences Of n a t u r e , d e s c r i b e d t h r o u g h t h e l o o k i n g - g l a s s I (Sappho, p. T h i s , as Pursewarden o b s e r v e s , p. 159)  i s "not  Everyone can be an a r t i s t .  s e l e c t e d and  separated  inner:  am.  75)  o n l y t h e w r i t e r ' s problem".  (M,  "Growing up means s e p a r a t i o n i n t h e  i n t e r e s t s of a b e t t e r , more l u c i d j o i n i n g up". must be  dis-  The  desirable f i c t i o n s  out, t o be r e f a s h i o n e d  which can f u n c t i o n i n " l u c i d j o i n i n g s up" w i t h  others.  into a personality  48  G.  The M u l t i p l e - V i e w  The  s t r u c t u r e of t h e A l e x a n d r i a Quartet  t o t h e hinged and  Plot  mirrors.  The s t o r i e s o f D a r l e y * s  i s itself  analagous  a f f a i r s with J u s t i n e  C l e a , o f Nessim's p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e , M o u n t o l i v e * s  c o n f l i c t of  l o y a l t i e s and d u t i e s , and Pursewarden*s s u i c i d e , a l l i n t r i c a t e l y mixed w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h s m a l l e r r e l e v a n t s t o r i e s , a r e seen from d i f f e r e n t  p o i n t s o f view, each o f which c o n t r a d i c t s something  i n t h e o t h e r s and adds some new d e t a i l s not seen elsewhere. not  Where i t does  c o n t r a d i c t o r add, i t r e c a s t s events innew p e r s p e c t i v e s ,  shifting  r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s , and thus o f t e n a l t e r i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a happening.  The f o u r t h book a s s i m i l a t e s t h e o t h e r views and addssnew  l i g h t , but s t i l l  does not present  a complete s i n g l e r e f l e c t i o n .  There a r e more than f o u r m i r r o r s , however, because t h e n a r r a t o r s a r e generous i n q u o t i n g Pursewarden and A r n a u t i . episode  others, e s p e c i a l l y  Balthazar,  Events are r e t o l d , l i t e r a l l y r e c r e a t e d .  o f t h e b r o t h e l t e n t i s t o l d from D a r l e y * s viewpoint  from Narouz*s t h r o u g h B a l t h a z a r ; i s expressed,  The  and l a t e r  i n t h e one d i s g u s t and s e l f - l o a t h i n g  i n t h e o t h e r a grotesque wonder.  The v a r i o u s  versions  of D a r l e y ' s a l l i a n c e w i t h J u s t i n e a r e never r e s o l v e d ; we a r e not sure how much o f J u s t i n e i s p a s s i o n and how much i s p o l i t i c s .  The l o s s o f  B a l t h a z a r ' s watch-key i s examined from s e v e r a l a n g l e s and t h i s mystery t o o i s not completely  solved.  T h i s r e t e l l i n g of episodes  from v a r i o u s a n g l e s  d e v i c e and c o u l d be r a t h e r a r t i f i c i a l . kaleidoscope  i s a fairly  What t u r n s t h e Quartet  simple  into a  o f many c o m p l e x i t i e s and i n v o l u t i o n s , i n s t e a d of a s c e n i c  t o u r which p r e s e n t s p h o t o g r a p h i c  views w i t h o n l y t h e d i r e c t i o n changed,  49 i s t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l o c c u r r e n c e and r e c u r r e n c e of p a r t i a l l y remembered f a c e s , o b j e c t s , events and p h r a s e s .  R e c o g n i t i o n of one of t h e s e r e -  p e t i t i o n s b r i n g s the r e a d e r up s h o r t and depths of memory - h i s own,  sends him d e l v i n g i n t o the  D a r l e y ' s and t h e " c o l l e c t i v e " memory f o r  the a s s o c i a t i o n i t has awakened.  Pursewarden's shaving m i r r o r ,  B a l t h a z a r ' s watch-key, Nessim's R o l l s Royce w i t h d a f f o d i l hubcaps, t h e c h i l d r e n ' s b l u e h a n d p r i n t s on t h e Arab w a l l s , the song "Jamais de l a vie",  t h e scent of Jasmine, t h e c o l o u r mauve i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of l a n d -  scape.  O b v i o u s l y t h e s e are not a l l of e q u a l s t a t u r e s y m b o l i c a l l y , but  t h e y serve a s i m i l a r purpose i n b u i l d i n g up through r e p e t i t i o n s connections a r i c h - t e x t u r e d world. framework of r e p e t i t i o n s .  and  A f t e r a l l , l i f e does proceed  in a  D a r l e y n o t e s t h a t he found " C l e a at t h e  exact s t a t i o n i n p l a c e and time where I had once found M e l i s s a . " (C, p. but most of t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s - w i t h - a - d i f f e r e n c e a r e not commented t h e y o c c u r and  i n s i d i o u s l y work upon t h e r e a d e r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  76),  on; Several  t i m e s D a r l e y and h i s m i s t r e s s awake t o the song of a b l i n d muessin. ( J , p. 25; C,  p. 99)  The m i s t r e s s and t h e p l a c e v a r y , and t h e former  situation  i s not mentioned, but t h e b l i n d muezzin i s c o n s t a n t , and t h e r e a d e r knows he has been here b e f o r e .  The words " s e l e c t e d " (or " s e l e c t i v e " )  fictions  appear i n at l e a s t t h r e e c o n t e x t s , and make t h e i r p o i n t ; t h a t t h e whole f a b r i c of A l e x a n d r i a i s composed of such f i c t i o n s pp. 55,  277)  (B, pp. 14 - 15;  C,  Twice we w i t n e s s t h e b u t c h e r i n g of l i v e camels, once w i t h i n  t h e c i t y and onee i n the d e s e r t  ( J , p. 62; 81, pp.  121-122)  1  •^-Gilbert Murray r e p o r t s S t . N i l u s * account of "the sacramental e a t i n g of a camel by an Arab t r i b e " . "The camel was devoured on a p a r t i c u l a r day at the r i s i n g of t h e morning s t a r . He was cut t o p i e c e s a l i v e , and every fragment of him had t o be consumed b e f o r e t h e sun r o s e . I f the l i f e had once gone out of the f l e s h and b l o o d , t h e s a c r i f i c e would have been s p o i l t ; i t was t h e s p i r i t , t h e v i t a l i t of the camel t h a t h i s t r i b e s m e n wanted". ( F i v e Stages of Greek R e l i g i o n (Doubleday Anchor e d i t i o n ) , p. 20. Cf F r e u d , Totem and Taboo, i n The B a s i c W r i t i n g s (New York, 1938), pp. 913, 924.  50  Both t i m e s the h o r r o r i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the immediate scene and  also  to  people  who  something t e r r i b l e and mysterious observe  them.  i n g - g l a s s world; its  intrinsic  The  about the b u t c h e r s and the  r e p e t i t i o n s are r e f l e c t i o n s i n D u r r e l l ' s  at each o c c u r r e n c e t h e r e p e a t e d m o t i f c a r r i e s not  s i g n i f i c a n c e , but t h a t of the m i r r o r as w e l l and  the d e s c r i p t i o n back towards the memory, back w i t h i n the In  look-  the f i r s t  only  directs  self.  n o v e l , when J u s t i n e i n t r o d u c e s D a r l e y t o Nessim,  she i s compared t o a gun-dog b r i n g i n g the prey t o her master, and D a r l e y observes t h a t "whatever she had done had for  him".  ( J , p. 32)  sense  In the f o u r t h n o v e l , she d e l i v e r s D a r l e y t o  Nessim as i f he were a p a r c e l his  been done i s a  e a r l i e r o b s e r v a t i o n was  (C, p. 49) and now  Darley r e a l i z e s that  t r u e r than he had thought.  s i m i l e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e now  The  gun-dog  t h a t he r e a l i z e s what J u s t i n e  and Nessim were doing at t h e i r s p e c t a c u l a r duck-hunt. r e l a t i o n s h i p has become immensely c o m p l i c a t e d and Here, i n t h e normal sense, D a r l e y has proceeded  The  triangular  yet i t i s t h e same.  onward i n t i m e ,  but  by such means as t h i s d u p l i c a t i o n of metaphors he a c h i e v e s a c o n n e c t i o n of  past and p r e s e n t , t h a t i s t e c h n i c a l l y and t h e o r e t i c a l l y almost  a  juxtaposition. In  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of J u s t i n e and Nessim, D u r r e l l ' s m u l t i p l e -  mirror technique  i s at i t s most i n t r i c a t e and e f f e c t i v e .  p i n p o i n t the essence  of what i s between them, and  s i n c e whatever i t i s i s dynamic.  Darley*s f i r s t  m a g n i f i c e n t two-headed animal a marriage  can be".  cannot  We  never  expect  do  to,  i m p r e s s i o n i s of "the ( J , p. 32)  This  i d e n t i t y p e r s i s t s even when t h e y a r e estranged; t h e i r moods and s t a t e s of  mind are r e f l e c t i o n s of each o t h e r .  both commit, t h e y s t i l l  No matter how  seem w e l l matched.  many i n f i d e l i t i e s  I t i s J u s t i n e who  speaks of  51  p r i s r a - s i g h t e d n e s s , and a f f a i r s which may  she i s seen i n a p r i s m ,  or may  not  i n fragments of  be s i n c e r e , i n fragments of  i n t r i g u e , s o c i a l c o n v e r s a t i o n and  intellectual  love  political  speculation.  Her  appearance i s sometimes b e a u t i f u l , sometimes d e f i n i t e l y u n a t t r a c t i v e and  even d u l l , a peasant w i t h brown paws.  sometimes t h e charming but omniscient,  simple  s i n i s t e r and pcLished.  cuckold,  Nessim t o o i s p r i s m a t i c , sometimes t h e  arch-deceiver,  His r e l a t i o n s h i p s with h i s  and  h i s l a n d are s i m i l a r l y ambiguous.  and  stupid.  He  brother  i s s t r o n g and weak, b r i l l i a n t  When Nessim r e v e a l s h i s p l a n s t o h e r , J u s t i n e f i n d s that m i r r o r s have been t r a n s c e n d e d . and  They are f a c e t o f a c e , mind t o mind,  the o n l y m i r r o r they need i s one  another.  The  surface Justine i s  "the J u s t i n e thrown back by p o l i s h e d m i r r o r s , or engraved i n expensive c l o t h e s and  f a r d s " , and her body i s "a p l e a s u r e — s e e k e r ,  to r e a l i t y " .  (M, p. 201)  But  now  a  mirror—reference  she i s r e a l i t y i t s e l f , not merely a  m i r r o r - r e f e r e n c e of i t . Nessim's p e r c e p t i o n goes beyond t h e ties.  They use t h e m i r r o r - t r i c k s of d i s t o r t i o n and  d e l i b e r a t e l y and At the  i n the i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r  superficiali-  ambiguity,  but  cause.  s t a r t of h i s a f f a i r w i t h J u s t i n e , D a r l e y t h i n k s of  "Nessim's handsome f a c e s m i l i n g at her from every m i r r o r i n the room". ( J , p. 47) men.  T h i s m i r r o r r e f l e c t s the t r u t h about her l i a i s o n s w i t h  Nessim watches her w i t h D a r l e y "as  enormous t e l e s c o p e ; own  hopes and  plans".  i s unaware how i s a plan.  seeing our  The  much he  i f through the wrong end  of  an  s m a l l f i g u r e s away on t h e s k y l i n e of h i s  ( J , p. 85)  At the time he w r i t e s t h i s ,  Darley  i s i n v o l v e d i n Nessim's p l a n , or even t h a t  t e l e s c o p e i s something l i k e the m a r v e l l o u s  t o have been atop the l e g e n d a r y  both  there  g l a s s supposed  l i g h t h o u s e of Pharos at A l e x a n d r i a .  52  D a r l e y t h i n k i n g of Nessim o b s e r v i n g them seems t o be heeding D u r r e l l ' s " C r a d l e Song" a d v i c e t o "watch t h e m i r r o r watching B a l t h a z a r ' s watch-key i s a p p a r e n t l y  s t o l e n by e i t h e r J u s t i n e  or Nessim f o r any  of s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e reasons  and/or j e a l o u s y .  The  key becomes a symbolic  you".  connected w i t h  means t o u n l o c k i n g  s e c r e t of one's v a r i o u s m i r r o r s and hence of o n e s e l f . he  c o u l d not  (B, p. 98)  he has f a i l e d ,  not, a f t e r a l l ,  failed.  says  signally",  s i n c e the r e l a t i o n s h i p i n q u e s t i o n  has  D a r l e y , q u e s t i o n i n g Nessim's motives i n l o v i n g  M e l i s s a , a s k s , "Where does one p. 134)  the  Balthazar  " f i n d the key t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p which f a i l e d  and  espionage  hunt f o r the key t o such a p a t t e r n ? "  T h i s l o v e i s m i r r o r - l i k e t o o , Nessim w i t h D a r l e y ' s  mistress  r e f l e c t i n g D a r l e y w i t h Nessim*s w i f e , a l l f o r ambiguous motives. Nessim does produce t h e l o s t addressed  key,  ( J , pp.  174  - 175)  When  he accompanies the act w i t h wards  t o J u s t i n e i n the m i r r o r and w i t h a b o l d s t a r e at h i s  reflection.  (B,  own  T h i s scene comes at a h i g h p o i n t of  t e n s i o n when p o l i t i c s and p a s s i o n are at t h e i r c r i s e s , and when Nessim i s e x p e r i e n c i n g a p e c u l i a r s e l f - a p p r a i s a l i n h i s concern and  over Narouz.  over J u s t i n e  Here occur h i s strange dreams of h i s c i t y ' s  past.  Many k i n d s of r e f l e c t i o n s of h i s s e l f are t r y i n g t o come t o l i g h t once.  He appears a " v u l g a r double of h i m s e l f , a m i r r o r  unexpected d i s t o r t i o n s " .  reflecting  In the Key D u r r e l l t a l k s of the theme of  the double i n l i t e r a t u r e as symptomatic of a s p l i t  i n t h e psyche, (p.42)  T h i s i s what he makes the metaphor mean f o r Nessim, h i s own l i v i n g on s e v e r a l level's'at once. ( J , p. 240; r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r m u l t i l e v e l l i f e own  at  f r i e n d s h i p f o r Nessim had  M,  p. 191)  double, Mouhtolive's  comes w i t h an awareness t h a t h i s  prevented  h i s s e e i n g the t r u t h about  him;  53  he i s f o r c e d by h i s p o s i t i o n t o take a m u l t i v i e w e d i s uncomfortable.  The  t h i n g s s e v e r a l ways at once.  Mountolive  another metaphor t h a t  process  sees  He hates not Nessim but an "image" of  of t h e m u l t i p l e views of the man.  In t h i s confused  sees an u n s e t t l i n g r e f l e c t i o n of h i m s e l f ;  h a l l he caught  The  f e a t u r e s of Nessim and Maskelyne are somehow  merged i n a " t r i c k of double exposure",  Nessim, one  look.  s i g h t of h i s own  state,  "Crossing the  f a c e i n the great p i e r g l a s s and  was  s u r p r i s e d t o n o t i c e t h a t i t wore an e x p r e s s i o n of f e e b l e p e t u l a n c e " . F e e b l e p e t u l a n c e i s the s o r r y attainment  of h i s w i l l t o a c t i o n .  Nessim t o o p r e s e n t s a problem of a c t i o n , but a d i f f e r e n t He a c t s when he l e a s t  appears  by r e p e t i t i o n of p h r a s e .  t o do so, and t h i s i s a g a i n  one.  suggested  A f t e r C a p o d i s t r i a ' s f a k e d death and  after  T o t o ' s murder, D a r l e y n o t i c e s t h a t Nessim wears the e x p r e s s i o n o f one  r e s t i n g a f t e r a " g r e a t e x p e n d i t u r e of energy".  pp. 12,  218)  Mountolive;  The  reasons  ( J , p. 205;  B_,  f o r the e x p r e s s i o n a r e not r e v e a l e d u n t i l  t h e y aie h i n t s of another view of Nessim.  u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y g l a n c e d i n a m i r r o r he was  Darley  not i n t e n d e d t o  has  see.  Reading Pursewarden*s l e t t e r s t o h i s s i s t e r , D a r l e y wonders, "if  two  or more e x p l a n a t i o n s of a s i n g l e human a c t i o n are as good  as each o t h e r then what does a c t i o n mean but an i l l u s i o n ? " H i s query i s i l l u s t r a t e d who  immediately  has read Pursewarden*s l e t t e r s t o h i s w i f e and  pression opposite to Darley*s. and  as he i s c o n f r o n t e d by  a good man;  (C, p. Keats,  r e c e i v e d an  To L i z a , Pursewarden i s a great  t o h i s w i f e , he i s d e s p i c a b l e .  The  176)  imgenius  act i n q u e s t i o n i s  h i s s u i c i d e , and t h e r e i s doubt as t o whether i t i s an a c t i o n at a l l . I t appears  t o be immediately  motivated  by M e l i s s a ' s disclosure made w h i l e  54 "examining t h e c a v i t i e s i n her t e e t h w i t h a hand m i r r o r " , a r e f l e c t i o n of the  something  repellent  i n an a t t r a c t i v e f a c e , as Nessim's crime i s i n  context of h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Pursewarden.  (M, p. 177)  In h i s  s u i c i d e l e t t e r t o M o u n t o l i v e , Pursewarden says h i s death " w i l l o t h e r deeper problems views of h i s a c t .  t o o " (M, p. 184)  and suggests t h e r e are o t h e r  He d e n i e s i t i s an a c t , and t e l l s M o u n t o l i v e ,  must a c t where I cannot b r i n g myself t o " . blem o f Nessim  solve  or the problem of L i z a ?  "You  I s he r e f e r r i n g t o the p r o -  But t o M o u n t o l i v e , Pursewarden's  death i s an a c t , "the bare a c t of Pursewarden ( t h i s i n c o n v e n i e n t plunge i n t o anonymity)", because  i t i s kinetic;  i t s e t s i n motion f o r c e s  compel him t o o t o a c t . (M, p. 186, D u r r e l l ' s i t a l i c s ) " s o l i t a r y a c t of cowardice", one who  which  I t i s Pursewarden's  (M, p. 214) a n e g a t i v e a c t i o n on the p a r t of  performs i t , but p o s i t i v e t o o t h e r s .  It a l t e r s " a l l the d i s p o s i -  t i o n s on t h e chessboard", A l i c e ' s chessboard j a r r e d p i e c e s have s h i f t e d t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s .  suddenly so a l l t h e  For M o u n t o l i v e and Nessim,  t h i s ends the d e l u s i o n of "a p e r f e c t f i n i t e a c t i o n , f r e e and h e e d l e s s as the d i r e c t e d w i l l " .  The a c t i o n d i r e c t e d by Nessim's w i l l has been  c r o s s e d by t h e act of another w i l l where c h o i c e i s p o s s i b l e , caught the  " t i m e - s p r i n g o f our a c t s " .  and both are d i s t o r t e d beyond the p o i n t  i n the f l o w of u n i v e r s a l f o r c e s  from  Nessim and J u s t i n e r e a l i z e t h i s i n the  m i r r o r of each o t h e r , " t h e i r open eyes s t a r i n g i n t o each o t h e r w i t h the s i g h t l e s s n e s s of inhuman o b j e c t s , m i r r o r s made of q u a r t z , dead (M, p. 215)  W i l l s are deadlocked and no l o n g e r p o t e n t .  stars".  In C l e a ,  B a l t h a z a r announces t o h i s m i r r o r t h a t "the most t e n d e r , t h e most of  tragic  i l l u s i o n s i s perhaps t o b e l i e v e t h a t our a c t i o n s can add or s u b t r a c t  from the t o t a l q u a n t i t y  of good and e v i l i n thw w o r l d " . (C, p. 71)  There  are so many m i r r o r - v i e w s  t h a t t h e r e can be no " f i n i t e  i s always something beyond the  scope of t h e  touch of r i d i c u l e  In i t s immediate c o n t e x t ,  The of S c o b i e , books and  i t does a great  must a l l pass".  (B, p.  deal.  seems t o have l i t t l e  important  t o do w i t h the  theme i n t h e Q u a r t e t .  at  F i n a l l y , he  "left  little  from h i s  H i s j o b i n the S e c r e t  Service  old lady  He has  and his  only  i l l n e s s e s i n the n o v e l .  death".  He  H i s attempt  of a poisonous a l c o h o l i c brew. tragedy,  i s p a r t of the l e g e n d a r y  c o e t e r n a l p r e s e n t , a " t r u e s u b j e c t of myth". ( J , pp. 122,  past 217)  often gives clues to D u r r e l l ' s i n t e n t i o n , creates a  c h a r a c t e r v e r y l i k e S c o b i e t o be a meeting place f o r v a r i o u s thoughts themes. (M, pp.  one  p i e c e s of h i s f l e s h a l l over t h e w o r l d " , match-  i s a g e l e s s , t i m e l e s s , " o l d e r t h a n the b i r t h of  Pursewarden, who  being  i s i n fact a mirror  of o t h e r i n v e r t e d l o v e s , and  c r e a t i o n i s a bathtub f u l l  younger than the A t h e n i a n and  He  i s a s t r u g g l e of t h e w i l l .  the numerous m u t i l a t i o n s and artistic  s t o r y apart  H i s "tendency" t o d r e s s as a l i t t l e  struggle to c o n t r o l himself  ing  appears i n a l l f o u r  i t p r o v i d e s an e a r l y h i n t of Nessim's h i g h l y s e r i o u s  s a i l o r s i s a w i l d counterpart  has  through  115)  a m a s t e r p i e c e of a comic c h a r a c t e r , who  subversion p l o t s .  eye and  For Pursewarden, the  m i r r o r of t h e r i d i c u l o u s r e f l e c t s c o n t i n u a l l y i n t h e person  i s a f a r c e , but  accost  exclaims,  o l d sexual t u r n s t i l e  a s o r t of mascot t o a l l the major c h a r a c t e r s . of every  Justine,  can do t o a Higher Emotion!" (B, p.  dark s i n i s t e r Venus J u s t i n e i s "a t i r e s o m e which presumably we  there  will.  B a l t h a z a r , commenting on Pursewarden and "imagine what one  a c t i o n " , and  and  L i k e S c o b i e , t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t o be a " s e n s u a l i s t T i r e s i a s " . 164  - 165)  i s shown i n the way  Scobie*s  r o l e as p a r t of the i n n e r l i v e s of  h i s s t o r y i s t o l d , seldom at f i r s t  others  hand, or even i n  115)  56  the d i r e c t words of D a r l e y , who i s i m i t a t i n g S c o b i e * s The the C a r n i v a l .  but u s u a l l y by D a r l e y q u o t i n g  someone e l s e  storytelling.  comic m i r r o r has i t s c h i l l i n g  aspects,  Here a r e " t h e f e a r e d and beloved  as manifested i n  shapes and o u t l i n e s o f  f r i e n d s and f a m i l i a r s now d i s t o r t e d i n t o t h e semblance o f clowns and zanies".  (B, pp. 192 - 193)  This distortion i s a deliberate effort to  make one's s e l f p a r t o f t h e r e f l e c t i o n i n a m u l t i p l e - m i r r o r . dresses and  l i k e everyone e l s e , i n t h e b l a c k domino, "which shrouds  d e s i r e s above a l l ... a freedom which man has seldom  dared t o imagine f o r himself'.' bondage of o u r s e l v e s " .  T h i s d i s g u i s e , t h i s freefdom, i s "from t h e  (B, pp. 188 - 189),  from whatever b o t h e r s one, when  l i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y l o o k s i n a m i r r o r :  of t h e c a r n i v a l b a l l s p e r m i t t e d had  The m u l t i p l e view c a n c e l s out i d e n t i t y .  domino c o n f e r s " u t t e r anonymity ... t h e d i s g u i s e which each man i n  h i s secret heart  one  identity  sex, p r e v e n t s one d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between man and woman, w i f e and l o v e r ,  f r i e n d and enemy". (B, p . 188) The  Everyone  "Only t h e b l a c k  domino  him (Narouz) t o d i s g u i s e t h e f a c e he  come t o l o a t h e so much t h a t he c o u l d no l o n g e r bear t o see i t even  in a mirror".  (B, p. 9 4 )  1  P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h i s r e n u n c i a t i o n of t h e s e l f  i s a plunge i n t o t h e deepest r e c e s s e s  of the s e l f , t o the i d e n t i t y of the  r a c e , s i n c e a l l have d i s c a r d e d t h e i r s e l v e s and found a r e f l e c t i o n o f themselves i n every i d e n t i c a l f i g u r e .  I t i s as i f one had t o c a n c e l t h e t y p e  l D i s c u s s i n g t h e F r e u d i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of dreams, D u r r e l l e x p l a i n s t h a t " t h e unpleasant s e c r e t s which w e r e a l l b r i c k e d up i n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s elude t h e censor because t h e y were got up i n p o e t i c a l f a n c y - d r e s s , t h e y were d i s g u i s e d " . (Key, p. 52) i(  57 to  reach t h e a r c h e t y p e .  Jung d e s c r i b e s such a p r o c e s s :  In o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r t h e u n i f o r m i t y o f t h e human psyche I must descend i n t o t h e v e r y ' f o u n d a t i o n s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Only t h e r e do I f i n d wherein a l l a r e a l i k e . 1  In o r d e r t o f i n d o n e s e l f , one must l i t e r a l l y of m u l t i p l e m i r r o r s .  complexity  As B a r l e y remarks, " I must l e a r n t o see even  s e l f i n a new c o n t e x t , a f t e r r e a d i n g those (B, p. 47)  lose i t i n the  my-  c o l d c r u e l words of B a l t h a z a r " .  The mask, t h e d i s g u i s e , t h e merging i n a g e n e r a l  anonymity  shows t h e s e l f r e f l e c t e d i n t h e d i s g u i s e d s e l v e s around, or p r o v i d e s self to reflect having 233)  the f i r s t .  t o act a part: Masked, l i t e r a l l y  another  J u s t i n e i s h o r r i f i e d at the thought of not  "Then I shout! not know who I was".  (M, pp. 232 -  o r n o t , one has no i d e n t i t y , o r one has two  i d e n t i t i e s t o c l a r i f y and q u a l i f y one a n o t h e r . D u r r e l l has used t h e m u l t i p l e m i r r o r b e f o r e .  In t h e B l a c k  o Book, as H a r r y T. Moore has p o i n t e d o u t , "from one abrupt  t h e c h a r a c t e r s are m i r r o r e d  angle a f t e r another i n h i s e f f o r t t o capture  of p e r s o n a l i t i e s ... i n a l l i t s b e a u t i f u l m u t a t i o n s ' " . multiplicity  *the  logic  Here t o o t h e  comes from w i t h i n t h e s e l f as w e l l as from without;  it is  p o s s i b l e t o "both l o v e and hate t h e same woman at t h e same t i m e " . (BB, p. 176)  The a c t o r d i s c o v e r s t h a t t h e " i d e n t i t y " of t h e anonymous  audience  i s c o l l e c t i v e l y h i s own i d e n t i t y , "my own f a c e i n i t s i n c e s s a n t r e d u p l i c a t i o n s " (BB, p. 223), m u l t i p l e masks as i n A l e x a n d r i a ' s  carnival.  Dark L a b y r i n t h a l s o i s b u i l t  No one c h a r a c t e r  on t h e m u l t i p l e - v i e w  plan.  The  knows t h e whole s t o r y , but each r e f l e c t s a p a r t i c u l a r angle of t h e " t r u t h " , and  each uses i t as a means of d i s c o v e r i n g h i s s e l f . p. 624. ' " D u r r e l l ' s B l a c k Book" i n World, p. 101  58  The  hinged m i r r o r s t a k e v a r i o u s forms i n D u r r e l l ' s work and  are r e l a t e d t o s e v e r a l other important  c a t e g o r i e s of metaphor.  Groddeck*s book i s e n t i t l e d The World of Man, i n Words and  i n Disease.  "As  as r e f l e c t e d i n A r t ,  r e f l e c t e d " - there i s the mirror  again.  C l e a t e l l s D a r l e y , "There a r e o n l y t h r e e t h i n g s t o be done w i t h a woman . . . You  can l o v e h e r , s u f f e r f o r h e r , or t u r n her i n t o  D a r l e y * s problem i s t h a t he i s " e x p e r i e n c i n g a f a i l u r e mains of f e e l i n g " . "literature"),  (J_, p. 22)  l o v e and  The  literature".  i n a l l these  m i r r o r s then a r e a r t  (including  d i s e a s e o r s u f f e r i n g , t o which D u r r e l l  i m p l i c a t i o n adds l a n d s c a p e . e x p l i c i t l y an involvement  In t h e Q u a r t e t ,  do-  by  each of these m o t i f s i s  of the s e l f w i t h some r e a l i t y e x t e r n a l t o i t ,  whether t h a t r e a l i t y t a k e s the form of an a c t of communication, a r e a c h i n g towards another  s e l f , an awareness of one's own  o b j e c t , or a r e a c t i o n t o t h e environment. they provide  body as  They are " m i r r o r s " i n t h a t  c o u n t e r p a r t s of i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y o r c l u e s t o the  about the s e l f . i n t h e subsequent  These v a r i a t i o n s of t h e m i r r o r image w i l l be chapters.  an  truth examined  59  CHAPTER I I : A.  The  M i r r o r of A r t  Art i n Alexandria The A l e x a n d r i a Quartet  artists.  Three major male c h a r a c t e r s , D a r l e y , Pursewarden and  are w r i t e r s , as i s Keats, who The with  i s an a r t i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  heroine  becomes s i g n i f i c a n t  of the f i n a l volume, C l e a , i s a p a i n t e r .  a r t , the m i r r o r  and  i s t o h o l d , as  as an a r t i s t to reflect reflect  Art  of a r t . The  The  connection A purpose  1  and  now,  Durrell,  creates a mirror  a r t i s t - c h a r a c t e r s and  each o t h e r and themselves and A l e x a n d r i a ;  i n the work of f o u r  process  'twere, the m i r r o r up t o n a t u r e " .  theories.  story.  "both at t h e f i r s t  whose a r t i s concerned w i t h a r t i s t s ,  h i s own  In  symbolism f u n c t i o n s i n v a r i o u s ways.  of a r t , as everyone knows, i s t o r e f l e c t : was  l a t e i n the  Arnauti  t h e i r works  Justine i s reflected  artists.  i n Alexandria  i s a m i r r o r of the A l e x a n d r i a n s .  The  artistic  l e a d s t o t h e a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i o n of h i s s e l f , as w e l l as t o a work In t h i s sense, the t e c h n i c a l l y n o n - a r t i s t s a r e a l s o a r t i s t s .  c r e a t i o n of a r t i s a p o s i t i v e a c t , p e r s o n a l l y d i r e c t e d , and  of w i l l e d a c t i s the A l e x a n d r i a n  h i s characters discuss i t c o n t i n u a l l y .  upon the  Moreover,  those whom he acknowledges as mentors - Groddeck, Rank, Henry M i l l e r have w r i t t e n e x t e n s i v e l y on the i s possible to d i s t i l l  Ham.  kind  goal.  D u r r e l l qua D u r r e l l f r e q u e n t l y d i s c o u r s e s ex cathedra n a t u r e of a r t , and  this  subject.  -  From the mass of commentary i t  a t h e o r y of a r t which i s r e a l i z e d i n the Quartet  Ill.ii.  and  60  which c o i n c i d e s w i t h the present  problem of the  self-obsessed  self  and  the w i l l t o a c t i o n . In the B l a c k Book, D u r r e l l w r i t e s , i n i t a l i c s : be b u i l t  of one's t i s s u e or not  e x p e r i e n c e but P o e t r y he  to record  oneself".  (BB,  s t r u g g l e i s not  p. 125)  should  to  In the Key  record  t o Modern  remarks on the i n c r e a s i n g s u b j e c t i v i t y of a r t , spurred  o b s c u r i t y of the and  at a l l . The  "Books  subject-object  f i n d s t h a t "the  (Key,  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the E i n s t e i n i a n world,  v i s i o n of the a r t i s t  inwards upon h i m s e l f " .  by  p. 22) Man  seems t o be g r a d u a l l y  turning  can excape the bounds of  f o u r dimensions o n l y i n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n  the  o r h i s u n c o n s c i o u s , and  only  thus " i n h a b i t the whole" of a r e a l i t y i n d e f i n a b l e by even great  art.  "if  a r t has  any  message i t must be t h i s :  without having p r o p e r l y  l i v e d " . %Key,  t o remind us t h a t we  p. 5)  w h i l e unable t o c o m p l e t e l y express the One and  of space-time, can  t h e r e and  that  The  creative  dying  imagination,  r e a l i t y of the u n i t y of  at l e a s t c o n c e i v e of i t , i n d i c a t e t h a t  i t i s the r e a l i t y of  are  self  it is  life.  W r i t i n g t o Henry M i l l e r about the B l a c k Book, D u r r e l l i n s i s t e d t h a t "the to write  root of the i s r e a l l y the  f a i l i n g s go  and  The  problem w i t h  g i z e s on r e r e a d i n g ,  the  struggles.  a r t i s t - a d o l e s c e n t working o f f both t y p e s of problems,  painting a portrait  present,  struggle  A l l a r t i s t i c d i s l o c a t i o n s and  a u t h o r " . (Cor, p. 99)  w r i t t e n w h i l e the p r o c e s s was  appear - i f t h e r e  l i k e the  i t does look r a t h e r too much l i k e both t h e s e  i s a product of the  artist  at  struggle to l i v e .  r i g h t back t o the  B l a c k Book i s t h a t It  s t r u g g l e which on paper l o o k s  "Let me  i s a man".  s t i l l going on;  of h i s young s e l f . kill  the  Therefore,  ' a r t i s t ' i n me  M i l l e r had  almost too much of a one.  t h i s was  advised  You  and  him:  not  the mature  Durrell  the man "You  apolo-  will  are a w r i t e r  need o n l y t o become more  and  -  61  more y o u r s e l f , i n l i f e  and  (Cor, p. 98) The  on paper  p a r t l y a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s  Quartet  is  p r o c e s s , but n o t , as t h e B l a c k Book i s ,  an example of i t . M i l l e r r e p e a t e d  h i s i d e a i n A r t and Outrage, t h i s  time a p p l y i n g i t t o h i m s e l f : My i n t e n t i o n was t h e r e - as I s a i d , merely t o w r i t e . Or, t o be a w r i t e r , more j u s t l y . W e l l , I've been i t . Now I j u s t want t o be. (A&O, p. 32) The h i g h e s t a r t i s the a r t of l i v i n g ... w r i t i n g i s but a p r e l u d e or form of i n i t i a t i o n f o r t h i s purpose. (A&O, p. 40) As D u r r e l l r e a l i z e d about the B l a c k Book, the a r t i s t concerned o n l y w i t h t h e machinations produce i n f e r i o r a r t .  He  of h i s own  who  is  mentality i s l i k e l y  to  sees t h e tendency of modern l i t e r a t u r e as a  curve inward through Lawrence, Joyce and p r o b a b l y M i l l e r , and then  a  l i t t l e more outward, "away from a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l form.  must  become aware of t h e n e c e s s i t y t o t r a n s c e n d T h i s does not mean the a r t i s t  i s t o exclude  s u b j e c t of h i s a r t , but i n c l u d e i t and of  The  artist  p e r s o n a l i t y " . (Key, pp. 66, h i s own  87)  p e r s o n a l i t y from the  pass beyond i t . Campion, the  artist  The Dark L a b y r i n t h , d e f i n e s "the a r t i s t ' s j o b " as the p r e s e n t a t i o n of  " c o n c r e t e f i n d i n g s about t h e unknown i n s i d e h i m s e l f and p. 152,  153)  He  i s not  imprisoned  i n h i s s e l f , but  other people".  reaches  outward t o  (DLj other  The t r i p l e a u t h o r s h i p of A r t and Outrage - D u r r e l l and A l f r e d P e r l e s w r i t i n g about M i l l e r , and M i l l e r r e p l y i n g - l e a d s t o a m i x i n g of m i r r o r metaphors. D u r r e l l c a l l s f o r "a p o r t r a i t not of t h e man, f o r you have done t h a t a l r e a d y - but of t h e a r t i s t , m i r r o r e d i n h i s work", (p. 8) Four pages l a t e r , P e r l e s c l a i m s t o have " p o r t r a y e d t h e man and scamped h i s work, hoping t h e man would m i r r o r h i s work", (p. 12) P e r l e s admits h i s hope f a i l e d ; p o s s i b l y D u r r e l l ' s succeeds.  62  selves.  B,  The " r e a l a r t i s t "  A r t and A r t i s t It  to tic  i s "a s u f f e r i n g member o f t h e w o r l d " .  and A l e x a n d r i a  i s obvious from t h e r e a d i n g of t h e Q u a r t e t , without  hiscritical  statements,  recourse  t h a t D u r r e l l i s c o n t i n u a l l y aware o f t h e a r t i s -  i m p l i c a t i o n s of p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r i e s .  Proofs are Justine's i n t e r -  view w i t h Freud, t h e a r c h e t y p a l images at C a r n i v a l , t h e r e b i r t h by water in  Clea.  He has admitted  (Key, Chapter  t o an i n t e r e s t  i n O t t o Rank's A r t and A r t i s t .  4, e s p e c i a l l y p. 88; A&O, p. 16)  The p i c t u r e o f t h e a r t i s t  as i t emerges i n t h e Q u a r t e t , e s p e c i a l l y i n C l e a , i s c l o s e t o Rank's picture.  I have suggested  be a curve inward,  t h a t D u r r e l l ' s diagram of t h e a r t i s t ' s l i f e  then outward.  would  Rank b e g i n s by p l a c i n g t h e o r i g i n o f  the human c r e a t i v e junpulsse i n t h e need t o harmonize t h e "fundamental d u a l i s m o f a l l l i f e " , t h e d u a l i s m o f i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e , p e r s o n a l and  s o c i a l , i n n e r and o u t e r .  1  T h i s harmonizing  t a k e s t h e form of a  f r e e i n g of t h e a r t i s t ' s s e l f from dependence and t h u s o f c r e a t i n g o n e s e l f . (A, preface, x x i i i ) and t h e c e n t r a l problem i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e l f i s t h e problem o f w i l l i n g The  (A, p. 9)  r e l a t i o n of a r t and s e l f o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e p r i m i t i v e  e f f o r t t o present " t h e i d e a of t h e s o u l i n c o n c r e t e form.  The c o n c r e t e  form which he gave t o t h e s o u l was t h e shape o f a god. (A_, p. 13) when Pursewarden t a l k s about t h e a r t i s t r e f e r r i n g t o t h e attempt in  t h e most p e r f e c t  So  wanting t o be God, he may be  t o present t h e essence  form p o s s i b l e .  artist's  of t h e i d e a of t h e s o u l  The word " g e n i u s " , from " g i g n e r e " , t o  Rank, p . 13. F o r t h i s chapter o n l y , r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be g i v e n i n my t e x t , w i t h t h e t i t l e a b b r e v i a t e d as A_  63  beget, d e s i g n a t e s o r i g i n a l l y a part  of the  s o u l which can  what i s immortal, whether c h i l d or work of a r t . (A, pp. The artist The  artist,  a c c e p t s the  artist's first  i n t o the (A, p.  artist".  s e l f and  i s self-obsessed,  proceeds t o i t s g l o r i f i c a t i o n ,  creation i s himself,  "the  -  20)  but  the  (p.  27)  s e l f m a k i n g of the  Subsequent creat i o n s express and  1  personality  justify this  aim.  28) The  i n the  l i k e the n e u r o t i c ,  19  originate  l i f e - i m p u l s e , the urge t o u n i t e the p o l a r i t i e s of  c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y becomes the  i s able t o w i l l create.  The  and  t o c o n t r o l her  i s a neurotic  down the p e r s o n a l i t y and  of l i f e ,  actions  of the w i l l . she  to  i t s e l f , not  s e l f , h a l t e d i n the p r o c e s s of  unable t o b u i l d i t up  dilemma f o r Rank's a r t i s t  i s that  he must s a c r i f i c e l i f e . ( A , p. 48)  he t a k e s the e x p e r i e n c e i n t o h i m s e l f , sends f o r t h something new,  When C l e a  i s able a l s o  c r e a t i v e s e l f which remains bound w i t h i n  j e c t e d t o the w i l l ,  The  own  servant  reality,  a creation.  again.  39  breaking -  41)  i n o r d e r t o make a r t  Instead  reshapes and The  (A, pp.  sub-  of simply recreates  modern a u t h o r , i n  our  expressing, i t , and contrast  -"-The A l e x a n d r i a n C h i l d r e n are worth a p a s s i n g g l a n c e . There are the c h i l d r e n of J u s t i n e , M e l i s s a , Cohen, L i z a , M o u n t o l i v e , C l e a ; the c h i l d p r o s t i t u t e s , the dead c h i l d i n the box. Most of them are g i r l s . D u r r e l l ' s poems "For a N u r s e r y M i r r o r " (B_, p. 15) and " C r a d l e Song" (p. 16) d e a l w i t h m i r r o r s and images, the " N o n s e l f and the S e l f " . Compare Groddeck's emphasis on the bond between mother and c h i l d a f t e r b i r t h (p. 145), and h i s t h e o r y of man's double-age, the c h i l d - a d u l t (p. 135) and the immense age of the newborn (p. 208). Compare a l s o the t r a n s l a t o r of June: "One might attempt t o f o r m u l a t e the c h i e f aim of the i n d i v i d u a l as the e f f o r t t o c r e a t e out of o n e s e l f the most s i g n i f i c a n t product of which one i s c a p a b l e . On the b i o l o g i c a l l e v e l t h i s i s c l e a r l y the c h i l d ... Hence the budding p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h i t s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r good or i l l i s f r e q u e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n dreams i n the form of a c h i l d " , (p. xx)  64  t o the " c o l l e c t i v e  c r e a t o r s of f o l k e p i c " makes h i m s e l f t h e " r e a l  of h i s s t o r y " . (A, p. 81) artist  suffers  Because of the  from " f e a r of L i f e " .  caused, as i s the r e l i g i o u s  hero  s a c r i f i c e he must make, the  Fear i s u n r e a l , nebulous and  feeling.  The  i s midway, " r e a l i s i n g the u n r e a l and  love-experience  rendering  un-  is real.  i t concrete",  Art  seeking  "to  prove by o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n the e m o t i o n a l r e a l i t y of what has never been r e a l and  can never be made r e a l " .  D u r r e l l ' s Alexandrians  do w i t h t h e i r  making something from n o t h i n g , his  a r t i s t has The  The  T h i s i s what  (A_, p. 240)  creating,  He  has w i l l e d  i s no l o n g e r bound by the  has  and  determining  an a c t . (A, p.  something t o show f o r h i s  s u c c e s s f u l a r t i s t achieves and  By  attempts t o a s s e r t  making of a work of a r t i s i t s e l f  done something and  o u t e r , of i n d i v i d u a l  - 104)  the a r t i s t at l e a s t  produced something; he  f o r c e s of l i f e .  103  selected f i c t i o n s .  independence of t h a t which e x i s t s .  h i s w i l l has  The  (A, pp.  207)  efforts.  a j u x t a p o s i t i o n of i n n e r  and  c o l l e c t i v e , i h short, a unity;  The h i g h e s t t y p e of a r t i s t i s he who can use the t y p i c a l c o n f l i c t of humanity w i t h i n h i m s e l f t o produce c o l l e c t i v e v a l u e s , which, though a k i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l i n form and content - because i n p r i n c i p l e t h e y s p r i n g from the same c o n f l i c t - are yet i n d i v i d u a l and new c r e a t i o n s of the c o l l e c t i v e v a l u e s , i n t h a t t h e y present the p e r s o n a l i d e o l o g y of the a r t i s t who i s the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of h i s age. (A, p. 362) In s u c c e s s f u l a r t , the d u a l i t i e s of i n n e r and blended.  A r t i s "not  T h i s complex b l e n d  a means of l i v e l i h o o d ,  outer experience but  life  itself"',  i s a l s o the mark of a s u c c e s s f u l l i f e .  sorbs the world w i t h i n h i m s e l f a g a i n t o save h i s i n d i v i d u a l ,  The  are w e l l (A_, p.  371).  artist  ab-  and t h e n throws h i s cosmic i d e n t i t y non-cosmic i d e n t i t y .  (A, p.  outward,  377)  Modern a r t i s i n danger from an o v e r l y " s c i e n t i f i c " a n a l y t i c  65  attitude. to  The aim i s "hot t o express h i m s e l f i n h i s work, but t o get  know h i m s e l f by i t " .  unable  But as he succeeds i n h i s aim, he becomes  t o c r e a t e , s i n c e presumably then t h e r e i s no more need f o r h i s  c r e a t i o n , and a l s o because i l l u s i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r a r t as t h e y a r e for  life.  S i m i l a r l y , once one knows o n e s e l f , t h e r e i s no need t o c o n -  tinue l i v i n g  - i f knowing o n e s e l f i s one's main purpose.  n e g l e c t i n g t h e o u t e r h a l f of t h e d u a l i s m . w i l l renounce a r t , which has usurped his  T h i s view i s  Rank poses as an a r t i s t  who  the place of r e a l experience i n  l i f e , a n d devote h i s c r e a t i v e energy t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y ,  t h u s , a p p a r e n t l y , p r e c i p i t a t i n g t h e milennium by e l i m i n a t i n g a r t (A, pp. 430 - 4 3 1 ) .  1  D u r r e l l ' s a r t i s t , Pursewarden, says t h a t "the o b j e c t o f w r i t i n g i s t o grow a p e r s o n a l i t y which i n t h e end enables man t o t r a n s c e n d a r t " . (B, p. 141)  T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y what Rank s a y s .  Again,  Pursewarden  d e l i b e r a t e l y p l a n s a " l a s t " book and w r i t e s t o C l e a about " t h i s c r e a t u r e we a r t i s t s a r e h u n t i n g problemsvhich  for".  His l i f e  new  and h i s a r t a r e "two  i n t e r c o n n e c t " , but t h e y a r e p r o c e e d i n g  i n opposite  direc-  tions: "Now i n my l i f e I am somewhat i r r e s o l u t e and shabby, but i n my a r t I am f r e e t o be what I most d e s i r e t o seem - someone who might b r i n g r e s o l u t i o n and harmony i n t o t h e d y i n g l i v e s around me". (B_, p . 239) T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y not a r t f o r a r t ' s sake. "harmony".  Pursewarden uses Rank's word  Once t h i s harmony i s a c h i e v e d , t h e r e i s no more need f o r t h e  !"0nce you f u l l y understand a work o f a r t you no l o n g e r have any need o f i t " . D u r r e l l , Key, p. 39.  66  means by which i t was  achieved:  " i n my a r t , indeed, t h r o u g h my a r t , I want r e a l l y t o a c h i e v e myself shedding the work, which i s of no importance, as a snake sheds its Conversely,  skin".  i f one  (B_, p. 239, D u r r e l l ' s i t a l i c s )  wishes t o become o n l y an a r t i s t ,  "the whole complex of egotisms which l e d t o the as the o n l y means of growth". (C, p. 128) as i m p o s s i b l e .  A p p r o p r i a t e l y , both a r t i s t s  during t h i s conversation. the ego  should not  theory at  may  be unable t o c r e a t e .  suggests t h a t the purpose of a r t i s t o achieve  The  transcends  a r t i s t i c process  of the s e l f ,  a r t and  difficulty, life.  the a r t i s t human?  artist  Pursewarden's  a harmony of  and  Pursewarden's d i f f i c u l t y ,  Are t h e y  inward.  transcend  i t too.  apart  He  from h i s a r t ?  Or,  Does  as a c r e a t o r , i s he  i s g u i l t - r i d d e n f o r vaguely  can achieve  The  non-  i s i n t r o u b l e , because h i s a r t i s turned  He has usurped the r o l e of c r e a t o r .  I f he  selves.  i s t h e r e l a t i o n between a r t  s u b s t i t u t e s f o r each o t h e r , or complements?  have a s e l f  reality,  i t s e l f i n v o l v e s another t r a n s c e n d e n c e , t h a t  escape from the n e c e s s i t y f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g life".  Clea  that the  d e f i n e d reasons,  o f which appear t o suggest a d e l i b e r a t e r e n u n c i a t i o n of h i s humanity.  and  i n t r o s p e c t i o n completed t u r n i n g outward towards o t h e r  Rank's modern a r t i s t  completely  says,  r e - e n t e r s the realm of e x p e r -  Rank seems t o want t o have h i s a r t and  and  are looking i n t o m i r r o r s  d u r i n g her l e s b i a n episode  anguish  which p o i n t t h e a r t i s t  ience.  obstacle i s himself,  t o t u r n t h i s t o m i s e r y . (C, p. 110)  experience  obsessed w i t h p e r s o n a l  life,  c h o i c e of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n  C r e a t i o n should be " f u n , j o y " , he  be allowed  knows from her own  sheds  Pursewarden r e j e c t s t h i s  He t e l l s C l e a t h a t the a r t i s t ' s  "mirror-worship".  one  and  most  collective  He has made a cowardly hence from the " f e a r of  a r t i s t i c i m m o r t a l i t y , he does not need t o f e a r  67  life  and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n of death:  "He  becomes non-human i n t h a t  impulse t o c r e a t e i s the i n s t i g a t i n g f a c t o r , r a t h e r t h a n the to  l o v e or even t o l i v e " .  "magical  sources  and  as F a u s t , who s o u l , having  sacred powers".  1  The  This guilt  and  f e s t e r s on l i m i t i n g the completion modern a r t i s t  that art i s "wholly  great  ism between h i s l i f e and  of both a r t and  life  work".  Romantic c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the  itself  submissiveness", p e r s o n a l i t y (A, so he  insists  Thus, h i s withdrawal from l i f e can r e p l a c e each  into  other.  can f r e e h i m s e l f from the p a r a l y s i n g  w i t h the s u b j e c t i s apparent.  "parallel-  H i s a r t i s an o b j e c t , whose n o n - i d e n t i t y The  lesser artist  - f o r Rank, t h i s i s the  superior C l a s s i c a l w r i t e r - puts h i s  the  subject  i n t o t h e o b j e c t , and  ian  terms, h i s a r t i s a m i r r o r of h i m s e l f  p o s i t i o n , he has  guilty  sells his  does not want t o admit t h i s , and  true to l i f e " .  artist  i s as  h i s p l a c e i n the  c o u n t e r - f o r c e of r e l i g i o u s  i s l e g i t i m a t e , i f a r t and The  ... tamper-  can no l o n g e r as i n e a r l i e r ages work  c r e a t i v e l y t h r o u g h "the  The  the  i s "tapping  artist  adopted a d i s t o r t e d view of h i m s e l f and  out  art  artist  t r a d i t i o n a l l y l o s e s h i s m i r r o r image when he  Chain of B e i n g .  p. 425)  The  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of our e x i s t e n c e  i n a s e c u l a r manner, w i t h  impulse  Wyndham Lewis speaks of  q u a l i t y i n a r t i s t i c expression".  the s u p e r n a t u r a l ing,  (A, p. 371)  the  concentrates  brought about the s p l i t  on t h a t image.  alone.  self,  In D u r r e l l -  Since t h i s i s a f a l s e  i n psyche which b o t h e r s  the  Alexandrians. The he does not  artist  does f i n d h i s s e l f i n the p r o c e s s  confuse t h e two.  of h i s work, but  D u r r e l l ' s Keats says t h a t t h e v e r y t a s k of  Time and Western Man,  p.  193  68  art,  " t h e a c t of w r e s t l i n g  up' .  (C_, p. 184)  c  This  w i t h an i n s o l u b l e problem grows t h e w r i t e r  i s what happens t o Keats and t o D a r l e y and C l e a ,  who a r e t h e a r t i s t s of t h e f u t u r e .  I t does not happen t o Pursewarden;  a l t h o u g h Keats says Pursewarden r e a l i z e s t h i s , he does not "grow up". His art, the  s e l f i s i n fragments and, knowing he cannot escape e x p e r i e n c e i n he escapes i n s u i c i d e .  H i s i s t h e dilemma of Rank's a r t i s t o f  present. In another sense, a r t and e x p e r i e n c e and s e l f a r e connected.  Rank t r a c e s t h e h i s t o r y of a r t t o p r i m i t i v e r e l i g i o n ' s e x p r e s s i o n of the  s o u l i d e a , and t h e motto f o r t h e a r t i s t  to lose h i s l i f e  i s a r e l i g i o u s one - he i s  i n order t o f i n d i t :  The s e l f - r e n u n c i a t i o n which t h e a r t i s t f e e l s when c r e a t i n g i s r e l i e v e d when he f i n d s h i m s e l f a g a i n i n h i s accomplished work, and t h e s e l f - r e n u n c i a t i o n which r a i s e s t h e e n j o y e r above t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y becomes, though, not i d e n t i f i c a t i o n but t h e f e e l i n g o f oneness w i t h t h e s o u l l i v i n g i n the work o f a r t , a g r e a t e r and h i g h e r e n t i t y .... They ( i . e . a r t i s t s ) have y i e l d e d up t h e i r m o r t a l ego f o r a moment, f e a r l e s s l y and even j o y f u l l y , t o r e c e i v e i t back i n t h e n e x t , t h e r i c h e r f o r t h i s u n i v e r s a l f e e l i n g . (A_, pp. 109 - 110; Rank's i t a l i c s ) So C l e a And  l o s e s h e r "horror' , r  h e r f e a r of l i f e ,  " j o y f u l l y ' " i s the precise  and i s a b l e t o p a i n t .  adverb f o r D a r l e y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s  a r t i s t i c "coming of age": I wrote: 'Once upon a time ...' And I f e l t as i f t h e whole u n i v e r s e had g i v e n me a nudge! (C^, p. 282) The f e e l i n g of oneness" r e s u l t s from t h e r e s o l u t i o n of t h e r  d u a l i t i e s of i n n e r between s u b j e c t  and o u t e r i n t h e c o n t r o l l e d c r e a t i o n of a r e l a t i o n s h i p  and o b j e c t ,  story are united which t h e Quartet  a r t and a r t i s t .  with the four  The f o u r words which b e g i n a  l e t t e r s and f o u r f a c e s  set out t o i n v e s t i g a t e .  of t h e modern  love  They u n i t e t h e w r i t e r w i t h t h e  past and  of h i s s p e c i e s , w i t h "every  story-teller  w i t h t h e men who l i s t e n t o them.  statement expressed artist  s i n c e t h e world  began",  "Once upon a t i m e " i s a temporal  i n s p a t i a l terms.  The a r t i s t  f i n d s h i m s e l f as both  and man, " q u i t e serene and happy, a r e a l human b e i n g , an a r t i s t  at l a s t " .  (C_, p. 281) G e r a l d Sykes has c h a r t e d t h e form o f t h e Quartet  as a p r o g r e s s i o n  c u l m i n a t i n g ±1 t h e problem of t h e a r t i s t : As J u s t i n e had symbolized ( D a r l e y * s ) e d u c a t i o n through p a s s i o n , B a l t h a z a r through detachment, M o u n t o l i v e through h i s t o r y , C l e a now l e a d s him t o t h e most important phase o f h i s c a r e e r , f o r which a l l t h e r e s t was p r e p a r a t i o n , t h e p r a c t i c e of h i s own a r t . 1  T h i s i s a f a i r enough c a t a l o g u i n g . about r e b i r t h on t h e p a r a b l e  D u r r e l l has c a l l e d C l e a a "mime  plane".  2  Darley*s  r e v i v i n g of the n e a r l y  drowned C l e a symbolizes  t h e l o v e - a c t and a l s o t h e "break-through t o  poetic illumination".  "The achievement o f ' a r t i s t h o o d ' i s connected  with  sex and knowing", a r e a l i z a t i o n of o n e s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o another, and a r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e d i r e c t i o n one must take t o be a b l e t o c r e a t e . l i k e a r t , i s a human r e f l e c t i o n of cosmic c r e a t i o n . l o v e r who r e v i v e s h e r , C l e a i s not o n l y r e b o r n and woman. and  C l e a and D a r l e y " r e f l e c t  "discover the fulcrum  Sex,  Since i t i s her  but r e c o n c e i v e d ,  back t h e b i s e x u a l nature  as a r t i s t  of t h e psyche"  i n themselves t o be o u t s i d e t h e p o s s e s s i o n  of each  o t h e r , but i n t h e domain o f s e l f - p o s s e s s i o n . " S e l f - p o s s e s s i o n i s the opposite of s e l f - o b s e s s i o n ; i t i s p u t t i n g one's s e l f i n i t s proper  "One  p l a c e i n r e l a t i o n t o a whole, and i s perhaps t h e  Vote f o r t h e Sun"', World, p. 150  teller  Tape, World, pp. 166-167  70  "self-renunciation" In p r e s e n t i n g  which l e a d s Rank's a r t i s t  7  the achievement of a r t i s t h o o d i n terms of l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  D u r r e l l i s t r y i n g to, say " t h a t l i f e men  being  blem.  sleeping a r t i s t s " .  1  i s r e a l l y an a r t i s t i c problem, a l l  C l e a awakes and  which appears i n a r t i s not  equivalent  the t r i n i t y may  life.  relevant distinctions.  The  "Life"  t o s e l f i n any narrow sense, but  be  shown i n c a r n a t e i n a s i n g l e f i g u r e " .  2  C l e a are the b i s e x u a l psyche i n the a c t of c r e a t i o n .  foundation  paradox c o u l d a p p l y t o the process and  transcends himself  the a r t i s t :  ,r  No  man  w i t h the human s o u l " .  Such a one  7  and  Oneness  criterion:  presents  then a c h i e v e s  context  " t e a r s out  2  G r o d d e c k , p.  122.  3  G r o d d e c k , pp.  51 -  and  54.  feeling  concerned s o l e l y  with  a p a r t of the t r u t h from 3  T h i s detachment of  167  This  artist  transcends h i s  i s f o r Groddeck the p e c u l i a r  l-Kneller Tape, World, p.  of  sole  f o r a l l time whose concern i s  i t t o us as the whole"'.  from h i s background and  "The  by Rank, i n which the  t h a t a r t can be  can be an a r t i s t  Darley  yet a p a r t of something b e t t e r . "  described  and  L i k e Rank, Groddeck denies  the web  So  of a r t i s t h i s power of l o s i n g one's separateness,  o n e s e l f at the same time a whole and  achieves  is  of the human t r i n i t y - male, female, c h i l d - though  through s e l f - r e n u n c i a t i o n i s the e s s e n t i a l a r t i s t i c  art.  pro-  the wholeness, the oneness, the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of d u a l i t i e s , and  "always symbolic  and  s o l v e s her a r t i s t i c  T h i s amounts almost t o an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a r t and Groddeck makes some u s e f u l and  is  t o a f e e l i n g of oneness.  man  disease  71 o f modern, p o s t - r e n a i s s a n c e man  but  Europe.  The  whole i s not  o n l y t h e whole  the whole u n i v e r s e , macrocosm as w e l l as microcosm.  example of an a r t i s t  Groddeck*s  a c h i e v i n g t h e u n i v e r s a l oneness i s Leonardo.  cause of h i s l a n d s c a p e s ,  Be-  p a i n t i n g , u n l i k e t h e o t h e r a r t s , " c o u l d never  g i v e i t s e l f up e n t i r e l y t o the e x a l t a t i o n and  a d o r a t i o n of man*s  i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i t i e s , c o u l d never a g a i n become w h o l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l " . In the work of Leonardo and Rembrandt, Groddeck f i n d s a reverence all  of n a t u r e  and  at one  and  a r e a l i z a t i o n " t h a t they are p a r t of the  with i t " .  landscape"  I t i s C l e a , the p a i n t e r , who  1  of a r t b e f o r e D a r l e y , the w r i t e r , and  " r e b o r n " t h a t he - t o o i s r e b o r n D u r r e l l * s p o e t r y has  as an  for  universe  f i n d s the "secret  i t i s because she i s  artist.  been c a l l e d the " r e c o r d of a c o n s t r u c t i v e  it 2 mind working out  a program f o r the ego  A l e x a n d r i a Quartet ego  and It  of l i f e ,  i n l i t e r a r y terms .  t h i s program i s worked out  literature in their  the  exemplified,  with  context.  would appear t h a t a r t should not at l e a s t not  and  In  be t o o l i t e r a l l y a m i r r o r  of immediate e x p e r i e n c e  or of l i f e  now.  But i f  the m i r r o r o b j e c t i f i e s t h e s u b j e c t r a t h e r than merely d u p l i c a t i n g i t , then a r t as seen by D u r r e l l and  h i s psychoanalytic  c r i t i c s i s a mirror.  M i r r o r s , moreover, always r e f l e c t the background as w e l l as the t h a t i s , t h e y put  the r e f l e c t e d  s e l f i n the context  P h i l i p S h e r r a r d , d i s c u s s i n g C.P. t h i s r e b i r t h of past would seem t o l i e ;  experience  !  of a whole.  Cavafy, remarks t h a t " i t i s i n  t h a t the meaning of e x p e r i e n c e  i t i s i n thejpoem d i s t i l l e d  Groddeck, p.  subject,  itself  years a f t e r the p h y s i c a l  68.  Hayden C a r r u t h , "Nougat f o r the O l d B i t c h , " World, p.  125  72  event t h a t t h e event i t s e l f g i v e s meaning and of the t e t r a l o g y .  is fulfilled".  C l e a ' s p a r a b l e of  wholeness t o t h e events i n the f i r s t But  even i n J u s t i n e , D a r l e y had  t o show i t s s i g n i f i c a n t  s i d e " . ( J , p. 17)  who  i s w a i t i n g and  receptive.  i n the  s i l e n c e s of  reworked and made  image" come t o the  In t h i s r e o r d e r i n g of  reality,  which i s emotion r e c o l l e c t e d i n t r a n q u i l l i t y , the p a i n of l i f e art.  (£, p.  reali-  I t i s the " s i l e n c e s "  because t h e impulse t o c r e a t e and t h e " p r e v i o u s artist  three-quarters  known, without  z i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the i d e a , t h a t " o n l y t h e r e t h e p a i n t e r or the w r i t e r can r e a l i t y be r e o r d e r e d ,  rebirth  becomes  17)  Some of t h e s e  i d e a s appear i n the work of an o l d e r n o v e l i s t ,  C h a r l e s Morgan, whom D u r r e l l once p l a c e d i n a l i s t which i n c l u d e d Shaw and Huxley. (Cor, p. 76)  of l i t e r a r y  notables  In h i s p r e f a c e t o  the  The World of Man,  Groddeck's t r a n s l a t o r quotes Morgan's d e s c r i p t i o n  of the  of a work of a r t :  conception  In each case, h i s (the a r t i s t ' s ) j o y of i t , o r d i n a r i l y c a l l e d c r e a t i v e , i s a r e c e p t i v e joy; t h e r e i s a c l o s e analogy i n the f e m i n i n e a r t of l o v e , which i s at once f i e r c e and p e a c e f u l , a f u l f i l l m e n t and an i n i t i a t i o n . The making of the work of a r t - the h a r v e s t i n g of the o r i g i n a l t r u t h - i s a l e s s intense experience t h a n the c o n c e i v i n g of i t , f o r i n t h e moment of c o n c e p t i o n , and perhaps at no o t h e r time, the a r t i s t f u l l y apprehends h i s gods and sees w i t h t h e i r eyestheir r e a l i t y . T h i s power t o be impregnated, and not the w r i t i n g of poems, the p a i n t i n g of p i c t u r e s , or the composition of music, i s the essence of a r t , the being an a r t i s t . 3  J-The Marble T h r e s h i n g - F l o o r  (London, 1956), p.. 121  D a r l e y says i t i s r e a l i t y which reworks us, not the around. (C, p. 12) 2  way  3  Portrait  i n a Mirror  (London, 1929), p. 44;  other  Groddeck, p.  32  73  This quotation  c o u l d be an a b s t r a c t i o n of D a r l e y * s  b i r t h " or "reconception". artist and  waiting  artist  "re-  There i s a l s o Pursewarden's n o t i o n of t h e  a t t a i n i n g t h e l e v e l o f t h e gods.  receptiveness  and C l e a ' s  And t h e whole a i r of p a s s i v i t y  suggests t h e f i n a l chapter  o f C l e a where t h e p a t i e n t l y  at l e a s t r e c e i v e s t h e " s e c r e t l a n d s c a p e " , t h e " p r e c i o u s  image". (C_, p . 282) In R e f l e c t i o n s , an a p p r o p r i a t e l y t i t l e d c o l l e c t i o n of e s s a y s , Morgan sees a r t as a m i r r o r which e n a b l e s man " t o p e r c e i v e h i m s e l f as a p a r t o f Nature and perhaps, t o r e c o g n i z e  a god i n h i m s e l f  a g a i n a r e t h e concepts o f oneness and o f t h e a r t i s t in Portrait  i n a M i r r o r experiences  .  as god.  Here  The a r t i s t  a moment of epiphany when he f e e l s  h i m s e l f "absorbed i n t h e open v a s t n e s s  of t h e u n i v e r s e  about me";  this  i s accompanied by t h e awakening of " t h e courage t o c r e a t e " , and t h e whole s e n s a t i o n  i s connected w i t h  r e b i r t h and c r e a t i o n i n n a t u r e as he  i s " i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h a t day of sap and r e s u r r e c t i o n " . The  t i t l e Portrait  an o b s e r v a t i o n  2  i n a Mirror i s relevant t o t h i s discussion.  which Morgan a l s o uses aa a t i t l e - p a g e e p i g r a p h ,  the p r o t a g o n i s t ,  portrait  Nigel,  says, " i t was i n my mind t o say t h a t a p o r t r a i t  be t h e image o f one s p i r i t r e c e i v e d i n the m i r r o r o f a n o t h e r " . o f C l a r e shows h e r as she i s seen by him.  In  should His  He c o n s i d e r s an  i n t e r e s t i n g r e f l e c t i o n problem, p a i n t i n g a r o s e as i t i s r e f l e c t e d not i n an a c t u a l m i r r o r but i n t h e g l o s s y whiteness of a t a b l e c l o t h . d i f f i c u l t y i s that the r e f l e c t i n g must be conveyed:  The  s u r f a c e has q u a l i t i e s o f i t s own which  " F o r here i t was n e c e s s a r y w h i l e  from t h e r e f l e c t e d f l o w e r , t o p r e s e r v e  borrowing  colour  the opaque whiteness o f t h e  ^ ' C r e a t i v e I m a g i n a t i o n " i n R e f l e c t i o n s i n a M i r r o r , Second S e r i e s (London, 1954), pp. 96 - 97. 2  P o r t r a i t , pp. 151 - 152.  74 reflecting and  s u r f a c e and  p l i a b i l i t y of l i n e n " .  i n h i s method. and  t o suggest beneath t h e s t i f f  events and  1  T h i s i s a problem D u r r e l l has had  When people and landscapes,  g l o s s , the  events and  landscapes  reflect  texture to  solve  people  a l l e n t i t i e s , r e f l e c t e d or r e f l e c t i n g ,  or  both, must c o n t a i n , i n a d d i t i o n t o the image of the o t h e r , a " r e a l n e s s " of t h e i r  own.  Morgan's works c o n t a i n v a r i o u s m i r r o r t r i c k s . w a i t i n g f o r her  lover, recognizes  i n g t i m e , i t i s the s e l f of past  i n the m i r r o r her  Burning  Glass  C.  The A r t i s t  The  2  telescop-  "'It i s I ,  Mary T e r r i f o r d  Fountain,  who  i n the  sees i n a m i r r o r the r e f l e c t i o n of another  c h a r a c t e r p o i s o n i n g h i m s e l f , and i s f r e e t o w i l l and  s e l f and,  as w e l l as p r e s e n t :  wondered so o f t e n what would become of me". p l a y The  J u l i e i n The  she does not  act on h i s own.  i n t e r f e r e because  he  3  as a M i r r o r of S o c i e t y  r o l e of the a r t i s t  i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r human beings i s ,  i n Pursewarden*s view, almost e n t i r e l y the r o l e of a m i r r o r : 'Aware of e v e r y d i s c o r d , of e v e r y c a l a m i t y i n the n a t u r e of man h i m s e l f , he can do n o t h i n g t o warn h i s f r i e n d s , t o p o i n t , t o c r y out i n time and t o t r y t o save them. Ifc would be u s e l e s s . For they are t h e d e l i b e r a t e f a c t o r s of t h e i r own u n h a p i n e s s . A l l the a r t i s t can say as an i m p e r a t i v e i s " R e f l e c t and weep'. (B_, p. 141) T h i s extreme awareness of m u l t i p l e f a c e t s of l i f e , i n a b i l i t y t o do anything  with  the  about what he p e r c e i v e s , i s Pursewarden's  1  P o r t r a i t , pp.  2  (New York, 1933), p.  3  Henry Charles D u f f i n .  (London, 1959), p.  coupled  3, 87  149.  - 88;  p.  80.  247. The  Novels and  P l a y s of C h a r l e s Morgan  anguish i n h i s involvement  w i t h Nessim and M o u n t o l i v e  l e a s t p a r t of t h e reason f o r h i s s u i c i d e . bear t h e weight o f i t s r e f l e c t i o n s . i t s o t h e r sense  and i s at  The m i r r o r i s unable t o  He uses t h e word " r e f l e c t " i n  i n t h e i m p e r a t i v e , i n an attempt  t o t r a n s f e r the  burden o f t h e " r e f l e c t i o n " from t h e m i r r o r - a r t i s t t o t h e m i r r o r e d  self.  What has been r e f l e c t e d i s a p e r v e r t e d use o f f r e e w i l l by those who are t h e " d e l i b e r a t e f a c t o r s o f t h e i r own unhappiness".  He r e s o r t s  t o t h e i n s e r t i o n of a b l a n k page of h i s book i n o r d e r t o throw t h e r e a d e r "back upon h i s own r e s o u r c e s " , presumably w i t h r e g a r d t o h i s own a c t i o n as w e l l as t o t h e r e a d e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e book. (B_, p. 143)  D u r r e l l has w r i t t e n t h a t " p o e t r y by an a s s o c i a t i v e app-  r o a c h t r a n s c e n d s i t s own syntax i n o r d e r not t o d e s c r i b e but t o be the cause o f apprehension  i n others"." " 1  P o e t r y i s l i k e Morgan's t a b l e -  c l o t h , r e f l e c t i n g r e a l i t y , but a t t h e same time r e t a i n i n g a d e f i n i t e c h a r a c t e r and being o f i t s own which demand a c t i v e r e a c t i o n from the reader.  Pursewarden t e l l s C l e a t h a t a l l r e a l r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g i s  done "between t h e l i n e s " , and t h i s i s p r o b a b l y what D u r r e l l means by "an a s s o c i a t i v e approach" syntax.  of i t s own  The p o e t r y means more than, i t s words, and p a r t of t h a t  meaning can be found The  and by p o e t r y ' s transcendence  only i f the reader " r e f l e c t s " w i t h i n h i m s e l f .  l a t e r D a r l e y d e f i n e s a r t i s t s as "an u n i n t e r r u p t e d c h a i n of humans  born t o e x p l o r e t h e inward  r i c h e s of t h e s o l i t a r y l i f e on b e h a l f o f t h e  unheeding u n f o r g i v i n g community". (C_, p. 177)  In t h i s passage he i s  t a l k i n g about time and t h e " h e r a l d i c universe'" (of which more l a t e r ) . The  artist  r e f l e c t s f o r t h e r e a d e r h i s s e l f and a l s o t h e c o l l e c t i v e  l i n P e r s o n a l Landscape, quoted by Derek S t a n f o r d i n "Lawrence D u r r e l l : an E a r l y View o f h i s P o e t r y " i n World, p. 39  76 s e l f of h i s s o c i e t y .  Darley's  audience, l i k e Pursewarden's i s  heeding u n f o r g i v i n g " , u n a p p r e c i a t i v e artist  i n s p a r i n g them the  depths of t h e i r non-solitude,  s e r v i c e done them by  anguish of being the f i r s t  s o l i t u d e and  a timeless  of the  i n showing the  "To  the  oneness.  been i n v e s t i g a t i n g , and  It i s h i s own  the problem of  c r e a t i v i t y i s s u r p r i s i n g l y h i s problem, s i n c e a l l men artists.  t o explore  the  s o l i t u d e t o be p a r t of a  D u r r e l l ' s reader i s d e f i n i t e l y i n v o l v e d . n o n - a c t i o n he has  "un-  self  and  artistic  are  sleeping  awaken not merely the impulses of the f o r e b r a i n w i t h  i t s l i m i t e d formulations,  but  the  s l e e p i n g beauty underneath - the  p o e t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s which l a y c o i l e d l i k e a s p r i n g , i n the heart everyone".  (M,  p. 231)  T h i s i s Narouz's purpose.  The  of  i n n e r world  w i t h which he d e a l s goes deeper t h a n N e s s i m ' s ' p o l i t i c a l c h e s s b o a r d " . To  awaken t h a t p o e t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a l s o " t o i n f l a m e  will".  The  artist  artist, reflects:  the  impulse t o c r e a t i v e a c t i o n . who  as  Pursewarden i n -  can make t h i n g s r e a l l y happen".  Nessim r e c a l l s t h e s e words when he and  deadlocked and  sleeping  i s t o awaken t h a t p a r t of the r e a d e r which he,  s i s t e d t h a t " i t i s o n l y the a r t i s t (M, p . 216)  the  a c t i o n l e s s on the p o l i t i c a l  Mountolive  are  chessboard, w h i l e even i n  death Pursewarden i s making t h i n g s happen, i s f o r c i n g them i n t o p o s i t i o n s i n which t h i n g s must happen t o them. When he proposed t o J u s t i n e , a s k i n g which i n s p i r e d h i s l i f e , Nessim had p. 198)  At  t h a t t i m e , he  her t o share the "monomania"  himself  c o u l d w i l l and  resembled an a r t i s t .  a c t , and  was  (M,  i n fact setting  f o r c e s i n motion. Pursewarden a s s e r t s the a r t i s t  as the hope of the w o r l d .  must w i l l , a c t , f u l f i l l t h e i r p o t e n t i a l s e l v e s , l i v e :  "'Heed  Men me,  77 reader, f o r the a r t i s t engage i t s e l f to l i v e " . artist  The b l o c k o f marble disengages  i n man must c r e a t e h i m s e l f i n w i l l e d and potent  then w i l l f i n d " t h e unborn c h i l d i n themselves, p. 140)  Pombal and D a r l e y mourn t h e f a l l  i t s e l f , and t h e action.  People  t h e i n f a n t J o y ! " (C,  of France as a " f a i l u r e of  the human w i l l " , but t h e y b e l i e v e France w i l l  c o n t i n u e t o l i v e "so  l o n g as a r t i s t s were b e i n g born i n t o t h e w o r l d " , art  dis-  from t h e d u l l b l o c k o f marble which houses i t and s t a r t  (C_, p. 119)  1  i s you, a l l o f us - t h e s t a t u e which must  (C, p ; 36) because  i s a s u c c e s s o f t h e human w i l l . The  p s y c h i a t r i s t Hogarth i n The Dark L a b y r i n t h sees a r t as "a  dangerous t h i n g t o p l a y w i t h , s i n c e i t demand s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n and self-knowledge, p. 45)  and many people do not r e a l l y wish f o r e i t h e r " : (DL,  A r t f o r c e s i t s audience t o a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r t , and  the f i r s t  s u b j e c t of t h e i r a r t i s t h e m s e l v e s .  his portrait  When Campion d e s t r o y s  o f h e r , Mrs. Truman f e e l s t h a t he i s r e f u s i n g " t o l e t h e r  l e a r n about h e r s e l f " ,  ( p . 157)  The q u e s t i o n "how do a r t i s t s happen?"  o c c u r s t o h e r as she l o o k s i n t h e m i r r o r ; i t i s as i f t h e work o f a r t corresponded  w i t h h e r need t o become both a r t and a r t i s t .  The a r t i s t  c r e a t e s not o n l y h i s s e l f , but h i s world a l s o ; i n n e r and o u t e r a r e t o reflect  t h e t r u t h i n each o t h e r .  Frank Kermode suggests t h a t t h e  Quartet o f f e r s "an a l t e r n a t i v e n a t u r e w i t h another p h y s i c s "  1  Purse-  warden's p l a n f o r t h e " f o u r - c a r d t r i c k " n o v e l i s t o show t h e p e r s o n a l i t y " a c r o s s a continuum" so i t becomes " p r i s m a t i c " , (C, p. 136), thus  rais-  i n g q u e s t i o n s of c a u s a l i t y and i n d e t e r m i n a c y . In t h e Key t o Modern P o e t r y , D u r r e l l o f f e r s p o e t r y as "one d i a l e c t  Frank Kermode, P u z z l e s and E p i p h a n i e s  (London, 1963), p. 223.  78  of a g r e a t e r language comprising Art  i s one way  i s not the o n l y  t h e whole u n i v e r s e of i d e a s " , (p. x i )  of t a l k i n g about t h e s e l f and w i l l and a c t i o n , but i t way.  79  CHAPTER I I I : A.  The M i r r o r of Love  The Language o f Love "An  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f modern l o v e " - t h i s , D u r r e l l c l a i m s , i s t h e  c e n t r a l t o p i c of t h e Ale x a n d r i a good and e v i l ,  i s relative;  Quart e t .  Darley  i n which f o u r persons a r e i n v o l v e d " .  and J u s t i n e ' s D a r l e y  For each o f t h e f o u r , t h e r e It i s i m p o s s i b l e  like  of J u s t i n e , D u r r e l l quotes Freud:  am accustoming myself t o t h e i d e a o f r e g a r d i n g  a process  Modern l o v e ,  i t depends on how one ..looks at i t and on  who l o o k s at i t . At t h e b e g i n n i n g "i  (B_, note)  every s e x u a l a c t as  There a r e D a r l e y ' s  and J u s t i n e ' s J u s t i n e and D a r l e y ' s i s a different  Justine.  perspective of the a f f a i r .  t o conclude which persons and which p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e  " t r u e " and which a r e i l l u s i o n . The  l o v e r sees h i m s e l f  r e f l e c t e d i n the loved.  d i s t o r t i n g t h e image r e t u r n e d  But she may be  t o him, as J u s t i n e does.  One must  c l a r i f y the d i s t o r t i o n s , but somehow t h e d i s t o r t e d image i s a l s o t r u e . Darley it  decides  t h e l o v e has been r e a l and e n r i c h i n g f o r him, even i f  was a d e c e p t i o n  on J u s t i n e ' s p a r t . (B, p . 130)  J u s t i n e says she  would not know who she was i f she d i d not have t o a c t a p a r t . she p l a y s f o r D a r l e y  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y any l e s s t r u e t h a n any o f t h e  o t h e r p a r t s she p l a y s .  I f a l l f o u r persons a r e e q u a l l y r e a l , we a r e  once more f a c i n g t h e problem of t h e s p l i t D u r r e l l has e x p l a i n e d p l a y o f human p a s s i o n s i s an i l l u s i o n " . universe,  The p a r t  self.  t h a t he wanted "by my r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e  t o suggest t h a t t h e human p e r s o n a l i t y as such  T h i s i s part of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of a p o s t - E i n s t e i n  s i n c e , as D u r r e l l has remarked, " r a i s i n g q u e s t i o n s  l i k e t h e Pr  c i p l e o f Indeterminacy a f f e c t s t h e whole b a s i s o f human p e r s o n a l i t y " . (Young, p . 64)  80  It  i s a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t the  F o r s t e r p o i n t s out, i t was  setting i s Alexandria.  the A l e x a n d r i a n s  theme of l i t e r a t u r e and who  chests".  1  being f i c t i o n s . of l o v e and  D u r r e l l says, "Only the But  t h e r e a l c i t y has  the i l l u s i o n s of l o v e , and  E.M.  made l o v e the c e n t r a l  developed the v a r i o u s c o n v e n t i o n a l  o r i e s f o r t h e l o v e s t o r y , t h e " d a r t s and and  who  As  h e a r t s , s i g h s and  access-  eyes, b r e a s t s  c i t y i s r e a l " , the  characters  a p a r t i c u l a r atmosphere, r e d o l e n t i s therefore inseparable  from  the " u n r e a l " characters. Love, l i k e a r t , i s a way it  of e x p r e s s i n g  something about t h e  i s a "means of communication". (B, p. 167)  self;  U s u a l l y t h e message  conveys becomes a message t o the s e l f about the s e l f .  Durrell  one  fre-  q u e n t l y uses terms a s s o c i a t e d w i t h language when d i s c u s s i n g l o v e . i n s t a n c e of t h i s i s the grotesque episode J u s t i n e ' s a c t of l o v e re-enacted,- by two He  and  when D a r l e y  sees h i s  terms.(J,  There i s a cracked m i r r o r o u t s i d e the b r o t h e l booth, t o r e c o r d The  episode  p o i n t of view of Narouz, who now  The  the  p. 166  - 167)  And  and  sense i n l o v e " .  "Aphrodite The  sub—human l o v e r , and  his unattainable  beloved,  i s commented on as i f i t were a permits  every  conjugation  of t h e mind  i n c i d e n t , s u p e r f i c i a l l y a d e s c r i p t i o n of  at i t s most animal l e v e l i s an important  c l a u s e i n the  (Garden C i t y , N.Y.,  lust  self-description  of s e v e r a l major c h a r a c t e r s .  Alexandria  the  Clea i s eventually Darley's truest love.  T h i s i n t r i c a t e prism-sightedness grammatical e x e r c i s e :  185)  h i d e o u s o l d p r o s t i t u t e i s a com-  p o s i t e image of Narouz's mother, L e i l a , and Clea.(B,  p.  i s r e t o l d i n B a l t h a z a r from t h e  i s probably  the g r o s s l o v e i s e x a l t e d .  and  d i s g u s t i n g sub-human b e i n g s .  J u s t i n e and M e l i s s a a r e reduced t o t h e i r lowest  distorted reflection.  An  1961), pp. 32 -  38.  81  Melissa of l o v e . "Was  she  i s discussed  v a r i o u s l y i n connection  From the detachment of t h e f o u r t h volume, D a r l e y simply  a nexus of l i t e r a r y c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s  margins of a minor poem?'  r  ambiguities volved  w i t h t h i s language  (C, p. 41)  wonders  scribbled i n the  Much e a r l i e r , he had  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which she and  used  the  J u s t i n e were i n -  t o i l l u s t r a t e the ambiguity of the word " l o v e " : My " l o v e f o r h e r , M e l i s s a ' s " l o v e " f o r me, Nessim's " l o v e " f o r her, her " l o v e " f o r Pursewarden - t h e r e should be a whole v o c a b u l a r y of a d j e c t i v e s w i t h which t o q u a l i f y the noun - f o r no two contained the same p r o p e r t i e s ; yet a l l c o n t a i n e d the one i n d e f i n a b l e q u a l i t y , one common unknown i n t r e a c h e r y . (B_, p. 131) r  "Love" i s always l i a b l e t o be " u n l o v e " , but some other  perspective  "Unlove" i s not M e l i s s a , but on h e r .  may  then be  the o p p o s i t e  seen as  l i v i n g p e o p l e but  D a r l e y never " h a t e s "  w i t h her he  sees h i s " l o v e r s and  as c o l o u r e d  times what i s important  love.  of " l o v e " .  sometimes i n h i s contact  From h i s i s l a n d he  the unlove viewed from  i s not  focusing  f r i e n d s no  longer  t r a n s f e r s of the mind". (B, p. 14)  i s the r e f l e c t i o n of one's s e l f i n the  as Some-  lover,  but meanwhile the l o v e r e x i s t s as a person, as a s e l f t o be r e f l e c t e d i n turny:. l i k e Morgan's m i r r o r i n g t a b l e - c l o t h . B.  Love as Knowledge Turning  a pun  t o a l i t e r a l meaning, C l e a says, "Sexual l o v e i s  knowledge, both i n etymology and  i n cold f a c t " .  ledge i s not  o n l y c a r n a l l y of the o t h e r  of o n e s e l f .  E x p l a i n i n g the C l e a i n c i d e n t i n which one  the o t h e r , D u r r e l l e l a b o r a t e s  on t h i s  but  (C_, p. 113)  idea:  a l s o mentally  and  lover  The  know-  spiritually revives  82  The s e x u a l a c t becomes i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a l l knowledge, a l l knowing; and the act ( l i f e s a v i n g , l i f e - g i v i n g ) seems a s o r t of b i o l o g i c a l c o n t a g i o n whose o b j e c t i s not o n l y the r a c e ' s s u r v i v a l , but a l s o the awakening of the p s y c h i c f o r c e s l a t e n t i n the human b e i n g . 1  From t h i s a c t , both l o v e r s are awakened t o w i l l e d knowledge probes deep and  creativity.  The  searches wide, f o r " l o v e i s a form of  ir 2 metaphysical  enquiry  ,  I t seems t h a t t o l i m i t h i s t o p i c t o the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of modern l o v e i s not t o l i m i t has  i t at a l l .  Kermode  a p p r o p r i a t e l y s a i d t h a t Quart et i s a book about e v e r y t h i n g . It  3  i s , however, an e v e r y t h i n g which t u r n s out t o be a k a l e i -  d o s c o p i c view of one t h i n g , t h e s e l f . o n l y world  C a r l Bode comments,  i s the world of s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n - l o v e g i v e s us  means", and the v a l u e of sex i s "what i t can t e a c h us about  "Our the our-  selves" R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s p r o v i d e s the o n l y means of tion.  In h i s p r i s m a t i c n o v e l , Proust  p a s s i o n s of o t h e r s t h a t we t o f i n d out about our own shown u s " .  5  and the man  Our who  own  pp.  " i t i s only with  are ever r e a l l y f a m i l i a r , and what we can be no more than what o t h e r people  view of o u r s e l v e s i s d i s t u r b e d by  t u r n s inward  does not  l-The K n e l l e r Tape, World, p. 2  observed,  ^ D u r r e l l and Others", 214 - 227. "A  5  Swann's Way,  99  come have  cannot a c t .  161 Q u e s t i o n s " , World, p.  P u z z l e s and E p i p h a n i e s  Guide t o A l e x a n d r i a " , World, pp. p.  the  imagination,  g a i n knowledge and  "Lawrence D u r r e l l Answers a Few  4  self-explora-  206  -  (London,  207  157 1963)  83  E v e n t u a l l y he an eye  can do n o t h i n g  i s t o see i t s e l f  but  c u r l up i n a c o r n e r underground.  If  i t must l o o k at something e l s e which sees i t  and i'n which i t i s r e f l e c t e d : T h i s i t can do by l o o k i n g i n the eye p e r s o n , i n which, as i n a m i r r o r , i t i t s e l f r e f l e c t e d ; i n o t h e r words, an see i t s e l f , must look at an eye. So same way, the s o u l , i f i t i s t o know must look at a s o u l .  of another w i l l see eye, t o i n the itself,  1  T h i s o t h e r , m i r r o r s o u l resembles what Jung c a l l s t h e D e f i n i n g t h e s o u l as "the  "soul-image".  i n n e r a t t i t u d e of the u n c o n s c i o u s " ,  f i n d s i t "represented  by d e f i n i t e persons whose p a r t i c u l a r  correspond  of the  w i t h those  most always of o p p o s i t e  soul".  2  The  knowledge i s a c r i t e r i o n f o r l o v e :  " d e f i n i t e persons" are a l -  "We  so the a c q u i r i n g of  recognize  as symbolic  l o v e s another because he l o v e s h i m s e l f . B l a c k Book: "They say we  of o u r s e l v e s Narcissus  , p. 167)  his production". artistic.  The  4  T h i s may  l o v e o n l y our own  a l s o a muse, a " w i t n e s s  .  problem when he  194.  596.  2  p.  3  G r o d d e c k , pp.  4  pp.  51  -  60.  The  lover  r e f l e c t i o n i n the faces i n a who  235,  240.  river".  needs not  of h i s l i f e t o  danger i s t h a t the b i o l o g i c a l w i l l h i n d e r  be D a r l e y ' s  •••Sherrard, p.  self-  3  Rank e x p l o r e s the d i f f i c u l t y of the a r t i s t  o n l y t h e soul-image, but  as  appears e x p l i c i t y  f a c e s of o t h e r s , l i k e c a t t l e d r i n k i n g from t h e i r own (BB  Just  can o n l y l o v e what i s w i t h i n tt  i n The  qualities  sex t o t h a t of t h e s o u l they r e f l e c t .  l o v e i s the o n l y means t o self-knowledge,  o u r s e l v e s , what we  Jung  justify the  stops w r i t i n g d u r i n g  84  his  l i a i s o n with Clea.  "the c i t y ' s grey-eyed  A f t e r t h e i r " r e b i r t h " ' , she becomes h i s Muse, muse", and l e a d s him back t o h i s a r t . (C, p. 245)  There seems t o be hope f o r t h e r e u n i o n of t h e l o v e r and the muse.  In  Rank's terms, t h i s would p a r a l l e l a p r o g r e s s i o n i n a r t from the Romantic a t t i t u d e to the C l a s s i c a l . C l e a r i d e s w i t h the n a r r a t i v e f o r t h r e e volumes, b u t , when i n t h e l a s t n o v e l she becomes t h e h e r o i n e , i t seems t h a t she must have been so all  a l o n g , i f o n l y D a r l e y and t h e r e a d e r had not been t o o b l i n d t o  realize i t .  She i s f u l l  r e c a l l s with surprise.  of depths and paradoxes which one f o r g e t s and She s u f f e r s e x p e r i e n c e s as t e r r i b l e as a n y t h i n g  J u s t i n e b r i n g s upon h e r s e l f :  her entanglements w i t h A m a r i l , J u s t i n e  and Narouz, her s t r u g g l e s w i t h her a r t , t h e n i g h t m a r i s h a t t a c k s which she c a l l s t h e " h o r r o r " , t h e l o s s of her hand. c r e a t e s i s one of l i g h t to  her o u t e r blondeness.  Yet t h e i m p r e s s i o n  she  and c l a r i t y , an i n n e r c h a r a c t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g Although  she i s t h e i n t i m a t e f r i e n d and even  a d v i s o r o f everyone from J u s t i n e t o S c o b i e , she seems t o be always alone and v u l n e r a b l e .  She i s g e n t l e and f e m i n i n e , but enjoys p a i n t i n g  p i c t u r e s of B a l t h a z a r ' s p a t i e n t s and t h e i r most  revolting  accurate  sores.  Her s t r a n g e name may have s e v e r a l sources which appear t o be r e l a t e d t o her r o l e i n t h e Q u a r t e t .  The Greek " K l e a " means rumour.,  r e p o r t , common fame, news, good r e p o r t , fame o r g l o r y .  Clea i s l i t e r -  a l l y a b e a r e r of good t i d i n g s , and each of P a r l e y ' s t h r e e books ends w i t h a l e t t e r from h e r c l a r i f y i n g and r e s t o r i n g e q u i l i b r i u m .  Less  t a n g i b l y , t h i s word may have something t o do w i t h the c l a r i t y which she exudes and a l s o t o h e r a l d D a r l e y ' s emergence of  success.  Cleia  towards some degree  ("famous") was one of t h e Greek Hyades, nymphs  who  85  s u p p l i e d moisture immortalised  t o the e a r t h , nursed  as s t a r s .  the i n f a n t Dionysus,  and were  D u r r e l l ' s C l e a i s p a r t of the symbolism of r e -  b i r t h by water and of the r e v i v i f y i n g of s t e r i l e life and  art.  The  Hyades' a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Dionysus r e i n f o r c e s t h i s m o t i f and r e l a t e s i t t o t h e f i g u r e of the a r t i s t . t o her c h a r a c t e r and  The  nymph, l i k e C l e a , had  several facets  came t o be surnamed "the p a s s i o n a t e " .  Hyades are s i t u a t e d i n the forehead and  The  stellar  eye of the c o n s t e l l a t i o n  Taurus,  i n the organs of t h i n k i n g and  s e e i n g , p e r c e i v i n g and r e f l e c t i n g i n the  double  C l e a a c c o r d i n g l y p e r c e i v e s and  senses  of both words.  inspires  p e r c e p t i o n i n o t h e r s , and her c l a r i t y i s a m i r r o r f o r D a r l e y . t h i n k s she i s meant t o p a r a l l e l t h e S t a r card of the T a r o t . card a blonde She  C a r l Bode On  female f i g u r e i s p o u r i n g Water of L i f e from two ewers.  i s " T r u t h u n v e i l e d , g l o r i o u s i n undying  beauty, p o u r i n g on the waters  of the s o u l some p a r t and measure of her p r i c e l e s s p o s s e s s i o n " . the Hyades' C l e i a , As the "grey-eyed and h e r o i c p o e t r y .  she i s concerned Muse," she may  Like  w i t h a s o r t of i r r i g a t i o n of the mind.  be r e l a t e d t o C l i o , t h e muse of  C l i o t o o i s a r a t i o n a l , r a t h e r c o l d maiden who  b r i e f l y into i r r a t i o n a l passion. miraculous  this  s t e e l replacement  a v a r i a n t of " c l a w " .  history lapses  F i n a l l y , C l e a ' s severed hand and i t s  might be l i n k e d t o t h e Old E n g l i s h " c l e a " ,  1  •'•Sources f o r the etymology of C l e a are: Bode, "A Guide t o A l e x a n d r i a " , i n World, pp. 211 f f . Robert Graves, The Greek Myths ( P e l i c a n Book), v o l . I, c h a p t e r s 27 and 39. The Oxford Companion t o C l a s s i c a l L i t e r a t u r e , ed. S i r P h i l i p Harvey (Oxford, 1962). The Larousse E n c y c l o p a e d i a of Mythology (London, 1959), pp. 178 - 185. A L e x i c o n , a b r i d g e d from L i d d e l l and S c o t t , G r e e k - E n g l i s h L e x i c o n (Oxford, 1958). The Oxford U n i v e r s a l D i c t i o n a r y (Oxford, 1955). H.J. Rose, A Handbook of Greek Mythology (London, 1960). A.E. Waite, The P i c t o r i a l Key t o the T a r o t (New York, 1959), pp. 136 - 139.  86  C.  The  M u l t i p l e Views of Love  In The  F a e r i e Queene, Spenser d e f i n e d t h r e e k i n g s of l o v e :  '  The deare a f f e c t i o n unto k i n d r e d sweete, Or r a g i n g f i r e of l o v e t o womankind, Or z e a l e of f r i e n d s cOmbynd w i t h v e r t u e s meet: But of them a l l the band of vertuous mind, Me seemes, the g e n t l e h a r t should most assured b i n d .  S p e n s e r ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the f a c e s of l o v e i s p r e t t i e r than D u r r e l l ' s v i s i o n of them, and n a r r a t i v e , but  a l s o p r e t t i e r than t h e y a c t u a l l y appear i n Spenser's  the bases are s i m i l a r .  i s l i a b l e t o spread  t o any  a f f e c t i o n unto k i n d r e d the anguished and t h e i r parents.  In A l e x a n d r i a , the " r a g i n g  s o r t of l o v e , p r o d u c i n g ,  i n p l a c e of "the  sweete", t h e i n c e s t of Pursewarden and  Liza  c S n f l i c t i n g entanglement of Nessim and Narouz  The  fire"  or  and  " z e a l e of f r i e n d s " i n A l e x a n d r i a i s o f t e n j u s t  t h a t , the f r i e n d s h i p which l i n k s D a r l e y and B a l t h a z a r and Nessim and rest  of t h e i r c i r c l e , but  i t a l s o becomes B a l t h a z a r ' s homosexuality  t h e l e s b i a n i s m which t e m p o r a r i l y b i n d s C l e a t o J u s t i n e . p a s s i o n - l o v e may Nessim and  deare  the and  Conversely,  become a marriage of t r u e minds, as i t i s w i t h  J u s t i n e at t h e i r b e s t , or w i t h D a r l e y and  Whatever t h e c a t e g o r y  Clea.  of the l o v e , t h e f o u n d a t i o n  i s always t h e  same; as D u r r e l l ' s Sappho phrases i t , "the o b j e c t i s s e l f - p o s s e s s i o n always". (S, p. 75) "as t h y s e l f " .  To " l o v e " t h y neighbour i s n e c e s s a r i l y t o l o v e  Pursewarden says, "There i s no Other; t h e r e i s o n l y one-  s e l f f a c i n g f o r e v e r the problem of one's s e l f - d i s c o v e r y ! " (C_, pp. T h i s was The (p.  him  98 -  a l s o the d e f i n i t i o n of l o v e g i v e n by t h e younger D u r r e l l i n  B l a c k Book:  " i f I take  your hand i t i s my  own  hand I am  kissing",  67)  S p e n s e r , The F a e r i e Queene (Everyman E d i t i o n ) , IV, 9, ( v o l . I I , p. 102)  i  99)  87  As D a r l e y and  C l e a become each o t h e r ' s m i r r o r s , he  " t h a t C l e a would share eVen t h e l o o k : o f (C_, p. 99)  The  o n l y where one where one  e v e r y t h i n g w i t h me,  withholding nothing  - not  c o m p l i c i t y which women r e s e r v e o n l y f o r t h e i r m i r r o r s ' look i s one  of c o m p l i c i t y because t h e m i r r o r i s not  l o o k s f o r the whole t r u t h about o n e s e l f , but  also  l o o k s f o r guidance i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the d i s g u i s e s t o  be worn B e f o r e t h e w o r l d . than D a r l e y and 204  realizes  - 205)  Clea;,  Nessim and  J u s t i n e exemplify  this better  t h e i r p a s s i o n "came from c o m p l i c i t y " .  Here i s another i n s t a n c e of D u r r e l l ' s echoing  cant words.  of  (M,  signifi-  " C o m p l i c i t y " i s an a r r e s t i n g word i r b o t h c o n t e x t s ,  is italicized  i n the e a r l i e r o c c u r r e n c e ,  i n the mind.  C l e a and D a r l e y ,  through anguish  and  of t h e meaning of t h e i r shared  lives.  and  so i t s reappearance resounds  l i k e J u s t i n e and Nessim, are t o  estrangement and  pp.  r e b i r t h t o a shared Nessim and  go  discovery  Justine discover  "the t r u e s i t e of l o v e " which i s "each o t h e r ' s inmost weakness". They s t a r e i n t o each o t h e r s ' minds, u s i n g a s i g h t more p e r c e p t i v e t h a t of the eye. less".  (M, p.  When s u s p i c i o n e n t e r s the s t a r e , i t becomes " s i g h t -  209)  J u s t i n e denies that f a l l i n g and  i n l o v e i s a "correspondence of minds'  d e f i n e s i t as "a simultaneous f i r i n g  autonomous act of growing up". himself;  so, i n s t e a d of two  simultaneously  than  contemplating  of two  s p i r i t s engaged i n t h e  Each l o v e s t h e o t h e r as a m i r r o r  minds communicating, t h e r e are two their respective reflections:  'The l o v e d o b j e c t i s amply one t h a t has shared an e x p e r i e n c e at the same moment of t i m e , n a r c i s s i s t i c a l l y ; and the d e s i r e t o be near  of  selves  88  the beloved o b j e c t i s at f i r s t not due t o the i d e a of p o s s e s s i n g i t , but simply t o l e t the two e x p e r i e n c e s compare themselves, l i k e reflections i n different mirrors.' ( J , pp. 49 - 50) T h i s view, D a r l e y  emphasizes, may  be t r u e o n l y of J u s t i n e h e r s e l f ; another  view might be t r u e f o r someone e l s e .  The  "comparison" of shared  i e n c e becomes something more i n t r i c a t e than mere comparison. parison i s a f u r t h e r experience, from each o t h e r " .  ( J , p. 47)  The  and  i s a soul-image, and her  sharing. and  s h a r i n g of e x p e r i e n c e ,  s h a r i n g i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the i s p a r t of  f r i e n d s h i p s w e l l s i n t o a need f o r p o s s e s s i o n . become l o v e r s , t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p "had a l r e a d y become i n a way  Before  ripened  the  himself, Justine  to a point  had  p. 48)  They are v i c t i m s of "a f r i e n d s h i p so profound t h a t we  p a r t -ownerj^ of each o t h e r " . (J_,  The  possessed.  f o r the l o v e r ' s own  the o t h e r who own  In a double way,  a l s o to preserve  inviolate his  subject.  Morgan's N i g e l says of C l a r e at one an o b j e c t  t h i s i s a con-  p e r s o n a l i t y , s i n c e he f i g h t s t o p o s s e s s  r e f l e c t s h i m s e l f , and  i d e n t i t y as  also to  They "contend f o r the t r e a s u r e s of each  o t h e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t i e s " . ( J , p. 198) tending  shall  love r e l a t i o n s h i p develops  i n t o a four-way s t r u g g l e , each l o v e r f i g h t i n g t o possess and escape being  loved  lover's  when we  become bondsmen f o r e v e r " . ( J , p. 26)  com-  which i s  i n the m i r r o r process;  Then, as the l o v e r ' s soul-image, she  and D a r l e y  The  l o v e r s "have something t o l e a r n  f r i e n d s h i p , i s g r a d u a l l y swallowed up one  exper-  of d e s i r e , but  time t h a t Bhe  a c e n t r e of r e v e l a t i o n " .  1  The  "was  centre  r e v e l a t i o n , as she becomes more c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the  P o r t r a i t , pp.  93 -  94.  not  then of  subject  89 she  i s r e v e a l i n g , becomes an o b j e c t of d e s i r e . The  development from f r i e n d s h i p t o p a s s i o n may  be r e v e r s e d  in a  r e l a t i o n s h i p which p r o v i d e s n e i t h e r p a r t n e r w i t h a soul-image. A m a r i l , u n t i l he meets h i s n o s e l e s s Semira, f i n d s a l l h i s r a p i d l y becoming f r i e n d s h i p s . (B, p.132) In another way,  So  passions perhaps  i m p l y i n g another meaning o f " f r i e n d s h i p " , the r e v e r s a l i s b e n e f i c i a l . Cohen's l o v e f o r M e l i s s a i s seen t o "mature as a l l l o v e should a consuming and  depersonalized  f r i e n d s h i p " . (J_, p. 110)  t o a t r a n s c e n d e n c e of s e l f - o b s e s s i o n . time D a r l e y observes i t , i s one Quartet. it  Love t u r n e d  becomes  into  T h i s amounts  Cohen's l o v e , as i t i s by  of the l e a s t  inwards i s p o s s e s s i o n ;  the  s e l f i s h emotions i n the turned  outwards  selflessly,  tenderness.  J u s t i n e meets both D a r l e y and A r n a u t i i n a m i r r o r , and the  mirrored  exchanges between her and Nessim have been noted above ( J , pp.  65,  71)  loves  She  i s i n p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h m i r r o r s because her  p r o v i d e a major p l o t  l i n e f o r t h e whole t e t r a l o g y , and t h e  c h a r a c t e r of her a f f a i r s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e l a t i v e n a t u r e "truth".  The  answer t o the q u e s t i o n :  depends on which of the hinged  70  -  ambiguous  of a l l human  "Whom d i d J u s t i n e r e a l l y  m i r r o r s the i n q u i r e r c o n s u l t s .  love?"  She  has  a "mania f o r s e l f - j u s t i f i c a t i o n " , a compulsive need f o r s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . ( J , pp. p. 136) 1  132  ff.)  A n a l y s i n g h e r s e l f , she  M e l i s s a , naked b e f o r e a m i r r o r , f i n d s t h a t the  o t h e r must proceed through the "Yes, p. 54)  s i t s i n f r o n t of a m i r r o r . ( J ,  I am  s e l f i n t h e converse of  l o o k i n g at myself but  At the  i t h e l p s me  self-analysis:  t o t h i n k about you". (J_,  s i g h t of Sveva s i m i l a r l y viewing  i n danger of b e i n g  s e a r c h f o r the  h e r s e l f , Pombal f e e l s  p o s s e s s e d , as i f she p e r c e i v e s h i s r e f l e c t i o n  through  90  her own. Mountolive*s  first  r e a l i s a t i o n of h i s love f o r L e i l a i s described  i n terms o f t h e m i r r o r , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e s h a t t e r i n g o f l i g h t at  and image  t h e p o i n t where t h e s u b j e c t touches i t s own r e f l e c t i o n f a c e t o f a c e .  He i s "stumbling  forward  l i k e a man i n t o a m i r r o r " .  T h e i r two images  meet " l i k e r e f l e c t i o n s on a s u r f a c e o f l a k e water".  Since t h i s i s  a meeting of minds as w e l l as of b o d i e s , t h e s h a t t e r e d images a p p l y f i g u r a t i v e l y also: (M, p. 28) questions himself Leila  " H i s mind d i s p e r s e d i n t o a thousand p i e c e s " .  L a t e r , r e a l i z i n g what i s happening t o him, M o u n t o l i v e  himself  i n a mirror  (M, p. 27) as A r n a u t i had q u e s t i o n e d  i n another time and p l a c e . ( J , p. 73)  i s at f i r s t  The m i r r o r t h a t i s  a l i b e r a t i n g f o r c e , f r e e i n g i n him a "whole new  range of emotions".  T h i s g r a d u a l l y becomes a mental r e l a t i o n s h i p and  then not even t h a t ; t h e s e l v e s a r e no l o n g e r r e f l e c t e d i n each and no l o n g e r have a common o b s e s s i o n t o share. they a r e a p a r t , they e x i s t Alexandrian  trait.  i n each o t h e r ' s minds.  Heliodorus  For a long time,  knew about t h i s p a s s i o n t h a t i s p a r t l y o f t h e mind.  H i s Theagenes and C h a r i c l e a seem " r a t h e r t o have been f o r m e r l y ed, t h a n t o have now met f o r t h e f i r s t  remembering t h e f u t u r e .  1  Arnauti's f i r s t  1  "The  similar  of A l i c e ' s White Queen  glimpse of J u s t i n e s e r v e s as a encounter.  r e l a t i o n s h i p with L e i l a i s Alexandrian  ment w i t h mind, memory and t i m e .  acquaint-  t i m e , and t o be r e t u r n i n g g r a d u a l l y  This i s reminiscent  r e v e r s e d remembering o f D a r l e y ' s Mountolive's  while  This i s a peculiarly  of t h e mind and t h e m y s t e r i o u s doings i n t h e t i m e - p r o c e s s  i n t o each o t h e r ' s memory".  other  Once he has severed  i n i t s involve-  both the p a s s i o n a t e  E t h i o p i c s " i n The Greek Romance o f H e l i o d o r u s ,  Longus  and A c h i l l e s T a t i u s , t r a n s . Rowland Smith (London, 1901), p . 68  91  and  the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i n k s , M o u n t o l i v e f i n d s h i m s e l f without a s o u l -  image and,  without her h e l p , he  "save a t e r r o r and Apparently,  can f i n d no  s e l f behind h i s own  u n c e r t a i n t y which were e n t i r e l y new".  s e l f - p o s s e s s i o n had  depended on p o s s e s s i o n  mask,  (M, p.  236)  of L e i l a .  When  t h e y do meet a g a i n , he f i n d s t h a t the o l d soul-image, a l t h o u g h powerl e s s i n i t s p r o p e r f u n c t i o n and formation  of any new  even l u d i c r o u s , i s a b l e t o prevent  mirror-relationship.  L e i l a i n a sense f o r c e s time t o stand  the  H o r r i b l y changed h e r s e l f ,  still:  Sometime i n the d i s t a n t past t h e y had exchanged images of one another l i k e l o c k e t s .... She would remain f o r e v e r b l i n d e d by the o l d l o v e ... He was suddenly f a c e t o f a c e w i t h the meaning of l o v e and t i m e . (M, p. 281) T h i s meaning i n c l u d e s the l o s s of p a s s i o n but fecundate each o t h e r ' s minds". the  s p r i n g s of a c t i o n i n one  D u r r e l l ' s concept of time:  T h e i r two  another.  of r e f e r e n c e " .  liberate  out  flat  ... the map  The  cages of the  of time which  s i n g i n g b i r d s are The  "full  l o v e songs of  b i r d s t o companions t h e y imagined - which were o n l y r e f l e c t i o n s  t h e y l o v e t h e i r own The  The  image i n a n o t h e r , s i n c e t h e r e  b i r d s sing to non-existent  l o v e does not  of  b i r d s are " i l l u s t r a t i o n s of human l o v e " ;  b i r d s t o o are l i v i n g by s e l e c t e d The  one  i t i n w i t h known p o i n t s  of m i r r o r s t o g i v e them the i l l u s i o n of company.  t h e m s e l v e s ! " (M, p. 285)  in  rendezvous w i t h L e i l a , M o u n t o l i v e  t o the o t h e r , f i l l i n g  (M, p. 285)  longer  m u t a b i l i t y , a change i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  has the " i l l u s i o n of time spread end  s e l v e s no  power t o  T h i s i s what i s important  In the Arab Q u a r t e r a f t e r h i s l a s t  c o u l d read from one  a l s o of "the  i s l i t e r a l l y no  other.  fictions. l o v e r s , and  l e s s e n the q u a l i t y of the  song.  the f a l s i t y of Darley  the  finds this  out  92  when B a l t h a z a r  shows him he was  ntot J u s t i n e ' s most f a v o u r e d  lover:  And y e t , even now I can h a r d l y b r i n g myself t o f e e l r e g r e t f o r the strange e n o b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t o which she plunged me - presumably h e r s e l f f e e l i n g n o t h i n g of i t s power - and from which I myself was t o l e a r n so much. (B, p. 130) T h i s independence of t r u t h i s a " r e a l l y h o r r i b l e t h i n g " , l e a d i n g t o t h e unanswerable q u e s t i o n , "Are we by l i e s ? "  (B, p.  Pursewarden*s:  140)  The  then n o u r i s h e d  i s t r u e of everybody".  t h e q u a l i t y - i n - i t s e l f of an e x p e r i e n c e  t o be i n l o v e , can one  morally  least  This implies that  does not matter; the l e v e l s of  relative position.  I f one  does not  c r e a t e a sham l o v e and  i n o r d e r t o have a r e f l e c t i o n of At  fictions,  o n l y answer he produces at the time i s  "Everything  v a l u e depend on one's own  o n l y by  p l a y at  p. 195^,  He  passion  oneself?  a t e n t a t i v e answer i s suggested throughout t h e f o u r books.  Nessim suggests " l o v e c o n t r a c t s f o r those whose s o u l s aren't loving".  happen  c a l l s t h i s a tendresse  yet up  i n s t e a d of an amour-passion.  Pursewarden i s the major champion of t h i s t e n d r e s s e .  amour-passion i s not t h e most important l a t i o n , because "sex  thing,not  i s a p s y c h i c and not  c o u p l i n g of human b e i n g s  to  (M,  The  even i n a l o v e r e -  a physical act.  The  clumsy  i s simply a b i o l o g i c a l paraphrase of t h i s t r u t h -  a p r i m i t i v e method of i n t r o d u c i n g minds t o each o t h e r , engaging them". (B, p.124)  An  i n t r o d u c t i o n demands r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e o t h e r  i n v o l v e d as w e l l as an acknowledgement of one's own experience o n l y one two  great  achieved  from t h i s i n i t i a l  identity.  person The  engagement of minds seems t o  f a c t o r i n what D u r r e l l means by " t e n d e r n e s s " :  be  " E n g l i s h has  f o r g o t t e n words,namely 'helpmeet' which i s much g r e a t e r  t h a n ' l o v e r * and  * l o v i n g - k i n d n e s s ' which i s so much g r e a t e r than  'love*  93  or even 'passion*'*.  (B, p. 128)  C l e a sees Pursewarden as " t o r t u r e d  beyond endurance by the l a c k of t e n d e r n e s s i n the w o r l d " , (J_, p. and  Scobie  says t h a t the d i f f i c u l t y w i t h h i s t e n d e n c i e s  of t e n d e r n e s s " .  (B, p. 36)  g e n t l e i n sympathy and i s the  i s the " l a c k  Tenderness goes outward as w e l l as  This  sometimes between Nessim  J u s t i n e , f o r a w h i l e between D a r l e y and M e l i s s a and most f u l l y D a r l e y and  Clea.  Pursewarden, p l a n n i n g h i s l a s t " t o combine, r e s o l v e and  should  volume, speaks of h i s i n t e n t i o n  harmonise".  H i s tone now  something t o o simple  p r i m a l r e l a t i o n between a n i m i l and God".  the  s e l f - o b s e s s e d and  and  conscience".  of t h e  (B, pp.  238  as cosmic law  as easy  soil,  seed  and  T h i s s i m p l i c i t y i s not  for  In such p r i m a l r e l a t i o n s , such outward t u r n i n g s scope f o r man",  d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t t h i s i s o f f e r e d not  but  as Pursewarden*s.  D.  The  the  - but  simple t e n d e r n e s s i n the  The  M i r r o r of  l i v e i n i s founded i n  p l a n t , r a i n and  - 239)  It  i t i s too d e l i c a t e f o r the " i n q u i r i n g mind  s e l f , l i e "hope f o r man,  Narcissus  one  of a f f i r m a t i o n , w i t h  we  t o be o v e r - d e s c r i b e d  t o grasp a s , say, an act of t e n d e r n e s s ,  and  i s t o be not  of an embrace, the w o r d l e s s n e s s of a l o v e r s * code.  convey some f e e l i n g t h a t the world  t r e e s , man  between  mind" and"gentle h a r t " .  of anguished s o u l - s e a r c h i n g or p a s s i o n , but curvature  and  I t i s the type of l o v e recommended by Spenser, based  on a j u d i c i o u s b i n d i n g of "vertuous  "the  inward,  dynamic i n i t s power t o promote a c t i o n .  s o r t of l i n k t h a t seems t o e x i s t  244)  And  the p o s s i b i l i t y of j o y .  as D u r r e l l ' s s o l u t i o n ,  Pursewarden commits s u i c i d e .  Incest  should have been an A l e x a n d r i a n .  He w i l l not  accept  l o v e of Echo, even though an echo i s a s o r t of m i r r o r t o the  ear,  94  and  a l l h i s love i s concentrated  t h e p o o l , i s not a l i v e ,  inward.  The m i r r o r he  and demands n o t h i n g from him.  chooses,  His fate  has been f o r e t o l d by t h e b l i n d hermaphrodite seer T e i r e s i a s .  In  some v e r s i o n s o f h i s s t o r y , t h e l o v e he has r e j e c t e d i s t h a t of a male f r i e n d Ameinias.  I t has a l s o been s a i d t h a t t h e reason f o r  t h i s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h h i s own appearance i s t h e death of h i s t w i n sister,  whose f e a t u r e s he attempts t o r e c a l l  r e a s o n s , and a l s o t o f u l f i l l  i n h i s own.  For various  t h e v e n g e f u l i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e gods,  N a r c i s s u s d i e s o r commits s u i c i d e , and i s changed i n t o a f l o w e r .  1  H i s legend reads l i k e a d i s t i l l a t i o n o f some p a ^ a f A l e x a n d r i a n themes: the m i r r o r and echo, t h e prophecy o f T e i r e s i a s , homosexuality, i n c e s t , s u i c i d e , a l l based on t h e i r r a t i o n a l  passion f o r the s e l f .  the r e n d i t i o n g i v e n here, t h e r e i s a reason f o r N a r c i s s u s ' s l o v e ; i t might a l s o be suggested for  that love f o r s e l f  In  self-  came b e f o r e l o v e  the twin. I n c e s t i s a l i t e r a l form of m i r r o r - l o v e , s i n c e t h e o b j e c t o f  l o v e i s p h y s i c a l l y as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e s e l f . In " w e s t e r n ' c u l t u r e s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y regarded ration.  as a r e v o l t i n g  Sade r e f e r s t o " t h e s i n k of i n c e s t and i n f a m y " .  and Renaissance  tragedy,  whatever gods t h e r e be. civilizations,  i t provokes t h e most t e r r i b l e  2  aber-  In c l a s s i c a l  punishments from  In a n c i e n t Egypt and some o t h e r " e a s t e r n "  on t h e o t h e r hand, i n c e s t was r a r e because i t was an  e x c l u s i v e p r i v i l e g e , r a t h e r than because i t was c r i m i n a l .  iThomas B u l f i n c h , The Age o f F a b l e (London, 1919), pp. 106 110. E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a (1951), v o l . XVI, p. 117. 2  J u s t i n e , p . 105  95  The  Ptolemies  They claimed male and  made A l e x a n d r i a a " c i t y of i n c e s t " . ( J , pp.  96 -  t o be " s u c c e s s i v e emanations of the D e i t y , i n p a i r s of  female".  Through g e n e r a t i o n s ,  1  seemed t o develop,  the men  a process  of sex  transference  becoming s o f t e r , the women h a r d e r ,  weaving t h e dynasty w i t h " t e r r i f i c  queens".  2  inter-  D u r r e l l echoes F o r s t e r ' s  d e s c r i p t i o n when D a r l e y , watching J u s t i n e , i s reminded of " t h a t of t e r r i f i c incestuous ( J , p. 20)  queens which l e f t  behind  Pursewarden has no d i f f i c u l t y  i n v o l k i n g the legends of O s i r i s and  sun and moon, of C l e o p a t r a h e r s e l f , of the s i s t e r who  the dead k i n g t o l i f e ,  and  l i n k i n g both a r t and  Marie D e l c o u r t  s i s t e r symbolizes  s e r i e s of m y t h i c a l  syntheses,  ' ' e t i o l a t i o n of the heart He  such as t h a t of the  and  conventional  r e i n s " , so one 1  "The  family".  (J_, p.  There i s o n l y one  literally  t h a t of Pursewarden and  restores  of  sun and  love-making  brother  ^ A l e x a n d r i a , p.  t h e moon. causes  lover mirrors himself,  like  97)  incestuous  h i s s i s t e r , but  F o s t e r , A l e x a n d r i a , p.  a  must " ' t u r n inwards upon  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the  the cbud on the  subconscious hovers everywhere i n v a r y i n g degrees of  ,M.  Isis,  i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p a s s o c i a t e d with  continues:  i n h i s own  finding  the r e t u r n t o u n i t y , so t h a t the a r t i f e x i s  B a l t h a z a r t r i e s t o show how  one's s i s t e r ' " .  Quartet,  Alexandrian  intensity.  16.  23  Hermaphrodite: Myths and R i t e s of the B i s e x u a l F i g u r e i n C l a s s i c a l A n t i q u i t y (London, 1961), p. 81. 3  in  i n c e s t t o d e i t y . (C_,  notes t h a t i n alchemy the union  a s s i s t e d by h i s s o r o r m y s t i c a ,  Narcissus  subconscious".  In t h i s c i t y of extreme i n v e r s i o n , s e l f d i s s e c t s i t s e l f  p r e c e d e n t s f o r h i s crime,  p. 191)  race  them the ammoniac s m e l l of t h e i r  l o v e s t o hover l i k e a c l o u d over the A l e x a n d r i a n  an unhygenic o p e r a t i o n on i t s e l f .  the  97)  96 M o u n t o l i v e i n v a r i a b l y d e v e l o p s earache on h i s v i s i t s home and can be cured o n l y by h i s mother.  She i s t h e c e n t r e of h i s " c u r r e n t o f memor-  i e s " , o f a p a t t e r n o f t i m e . (M, pp. 95, 99) a key p a r t o f h i s own time p r o c e s s e s w i t h time:  To C l e a ' s f a t h e r , she i s  and he i s d e s c r i b e d i n c o n n e c t i o n  he must be home by m i d n i g h t , he t h i n k s o f t h e f u t u r e o n l y  as i t i n v o l v e s her; he w a l t z e s  w i t h h e r " l i k e a clockwork man" r e g u l a t e d  by t h e machinery t o t i m e , and D a r l e y o b s e r v e s , than a w i f e " .  (B_, pp. 227, 234)  M o u n t o l i v e and C l e a a r e s t i l l but  anguish  parents.  "A daughter i s c l o s e r  f a r short of Oedipus and E l e c t r a ,  e n t e r s t h e entanglement o f Nessim, Narouz and t h e i r  The c o n f l i c t  here c u t s a c r o s s  sexes and i n v o l v e s t h e f o u r  p r i n c i p a l s i n ambivalent r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Nessim and Narouz a r e l i k e two  s i d e s o f one c o i n :  awkward and b a r b a r i c . but  Nessim, handsome and urbane; Narouz, u g l y , They a r e i d e n t i c a l not o n l y i n f l e s h and b l o o d ,  a l s o i n what they l o v e most, t h e i r mother, t h e i r l a n d s ,  country.  their  They a r e " l i k e two b l i n d p e o p l e i n l o v e who can o n l y express  themselves through t o u c h :  the subject of t h e i r lands".  (B_, p. 72)  Both sons have a more than d u t i f u l a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e i r mother. i s h e r f a v o u r i t e and Narouz i s " h e a r t s i c k " over t h i s . f a t h e r i s rough and u n a t t r a c t i v e , but he i s l o v e d . " l u s t f u l tenderness"  (B_, p . 75) The  Narouz has a  f o r him, (M, p . 3 9 ) , and i n h i s " f a c e l i k e a  mirror r e f l e c t e d the various f e e l i n g s of (his father's) (M, p . 44)  Nessim  conversation".  Narouz i s i n o t h e r ways a m i r r o r of h i s f a t h e r ( o r v i c e  v e r s a ) , i n h i s j e a l o u s l o v e f o r L e i l a and h i s z e a l f o r t h e C o p t i c cause, e s p e c i a l l y .  Nessim resembles L e i l a ,  so t h a t M o u n t o l i v e  l o o k s "through t h e f a c e of Nessim and i n t o t h a t of L e i l a " .  (M, p . 17)  97  As L e i l a ' s l o v e r , M o u n t o l i v e i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e f a m i l y Leila  wonders even i f he may be a s u b l i m a t i o n  situation.  of h e r i n c e s t u o u s  desires: ' I t was a shock, I mean, t o suddenly see Nessim's naked body f l o a t i n g i n t h e m i r r o r ... I wondered suddenly whether my attachment f o r you wasn't lodged here somehow among t h e f e e b l e i n c e s t u o u s d e s i r e s of t h e i n n e r h e a r t * . (M,  pp. 53 - 54)  Narouz a l s o a s s o c i a t e s Nessim w i t h M o u n t o l i v e , at t h e same time i d e n t i f y i n g himself  with h i s father's jealousy.  f e e l s t h a t he i s t o o much o f a m i r r o r , t h a t Leila,  (M, p . 227) Nessim  some of h i s l i f e  so t h a t he t h i n k s he may "never be a b l e t o f a l l  p e r l y " w h i l e she l i v e s ,  i n love  pro-  (M, p . 195), and when she d i e s , h i s p r i v a t e  r e a c t i o n i s a f e e l i n g of new l i f e . The  is in  (C, p . 266)  l o v e o f Pursewarden and L i z a i s a major key t o t h e s u b t l e  arcana of t h e Quart e t , but t h e key does not t u r n e a s i l y and t h e door does not swing wide open. strous f i g u r e . it  Pursewarden i s a s t r a n g e ,  almost a mon-  He i s a s u c c e s s f u l a r t i s t , a p p a r e n t l y  a great  seems r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e views on a r t and l i f e  pronounces at l e n g t h a r e g e n e r a l l y D u r r e l l ' s v i e w s . s u i c i d e , while Darley,  which he  But he commits  who i n comparison seems i n e p t as w r i t e r and  p e r s o n , s u r v i v e s , even t r i u m p h s . there  one, and  Somewhere i n Pursewarden's sbheme  i s a flaw.  Pursewarden's a r t i s t , l i k e Rank's, i s a F a u s t .  As c r e a t o r , he  u s u r p s suprahuman powers, and he c o n t i n u a l l y contends w i t h t h e s e powers l e s t  t h e y c o n t r o l i n s t e a d o f obeying him.  This struggle en-  gages a l l men, t h e a r t i s t more o n l y because he i s more c r e a t i v e and t h e r e f o r e more o f a t h r e a t t o t h e gods; " ' I b e l i e v e t h a t Gods a r e men  98  and men  Gods; t h e y i n t r u d e on each o t h e r ' s l i v e s t r y i n g t o e x p r e s s  themselves  through each o t h e r - hence such apparent  confusion i n  our human s t a t e s of mind, our i n t i m a t i o n s of powers w i t h i n or beyond us'".  (B, p.  124)  In Sade's J u s t i n e , Roland outdoes t h e merely F a u s t i a n i n h i s double crime of i n c e s t  and murder.  He brags t h a t he "most i n s o l e n t l y t a u n t s  t h e hand of heaven and c h a l l e n g e s Satan's own".  1  Roland's m i s t r e s s  i s h i s s i s t e r and t h e i r u n i o n i s a worse crime than her murder, it  i s o u t s i d e the r u l e s of both good and e v i l .  because  S t u d y i n g the O s i r i s  myths, Pursewarden would f i n d t h a t " t h e k i n g m a r r i e s h i s s i s t e r he as God  ( s t a r ) wandering  on e a r t h , i s immortal and may  because  t h e r e f o r e not  propagate h i m s e l f i n the c h i l d r e n of a strange woman - any more t h a n he i s a l l o w e d t o d i e a n a t u r a l d e a t h " . immortal, as a r t i s t  i f not as man.  2  The  a r t i s t , l i k e the god, i s  Pursewarden observes both  i n l o v i n g L i z a and i n a r r a n g i n g h i s own  death.  rules,  His immortality i s  t e s t i f i e d t o i n the volumes of q u o t a t i o n s from h i s works and  conversa-  t i o n , which o c c u r i n t h e speech of the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s a f t e r h i s death.  In f a c t , he v e r y seldom appears d i r e c t l y i n D a r l e y ' s n a r r a t i v e ;  people r e m i n i s c e about  him or quote him, and most of t h e e p i s o d e s i n  which he does appear are made t o r e l a t e t o h i s d e a t h . The a r t i s t ' s s u i c i d e i s an aspect of the s u b j e c t - o b j e c t s p l i t i n the s e l f .  Rank says t h a t "a l i f e has t o be s a c r i f i c e d  l i v e on i m m o r t a l l y i n the work".  so t h a t  This sacrifice i s usually  i t may  carried  out f i g u r a t i v e l y as the s a c r i f i c e o f immediate e x p e r i e n c e t o the  p. :  273.  Rank; p. 145  note.  99  creation of experience. the s e t s of doubles and Remus.  One  But the myth of the s a c r i f i c e i s r e l a t e d  i n legend - f o r i n s t a n c e , C a i n and A b e l , Romulus  of the m o r t a l doubles "must be s a c r i f i c e d  m o r t a l ego i s t o l i v e on i n the work". Nessim.  1  Narouz i s k i l l e d  I t i s Pursewarden*s h a l f of the double  f i c e d , w h i l e L i z a goes on t o e x p e r i e n c e l i f e h e r own his  life.  to  I f h i s "immortal  ego",  i f the  im-  i n s t e a d of  s e l f which i s s a c r i -  as a whole s e l f  with  h i s " i " , i s t o l i v e on i n  a r t , and t h e o u t e r l i f e of e x p e r i e n c e i s t o l i v e i n L i z a  and  her l o v e f o r M o u n t o l i v e , t h e r e i s no need f o r Pursewarden h i m s e l f to  continue l i v i n g .  Frank Kermode suggests t h a t t h i s i n c e s t may  "meant t o i n d i c a t e a n a r c i s s i s m of the s o r t t h a t s e t s up an  be  oscilla-  t i o n between an a r t i s t ' s i n n e r and o u t e r l i f e t h a t o n l y an Empedoclean s u i c i d e can e n d " . is  suggested  The o s c i l l a t i S n between the i n n e r and o u t e r  2  i n Pursewarden*s j u s t i f y i n g h i s l o v e w i t h the myths and  symbols of h i s a r t . is  He and L i z a are so c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d t h a t L i z a  part of h i s i n n e r l i f e .  "*He  converted my  w i t h my  eyes!"  Describing t h e i r childhood, L i z a  blindness into poetry.  (C, p. 190)  Pursewarden sees w i t h her-  I saw  with h i s brain,  he  i s the " r e a l " world f o r them o n l y .  "eyes" which are the i n n e r eyes, of imagina->  t i o n , the a r t i s t ' s eyes, and  she " s e e s " through the p r o d u c t s of h i s  brain. Ten t h i r s t y f i n g e r s of my b l i n d Muse Confer upon my f a c e t h e i r s e n s u a l s p e l l i n g . (C, P. 188)  iRank, p.  says,  L i z a ' s e x i s t e n c e i s o n l y i n n e r , so the  world t h e y c r e a t e f o r themselves  2  life  202.  P u z z l e s and E p i p h a n i e s , p.  221.  100  These l i n e s , and  supposed t o be Pursewarden's, show t h e b l e h d j n g  i n n e r , sense and i m a g i n a t i o n .  Her r e a d i n g  of books and men depend on h e r sense o f t o u c h , It  i s a l s o a"sensual  and h e r r e c o g n i t i o n a ""sensual  s p e l l i n g " f o r him i n t h a t h e r touch  i n s p i r a t i o n f o r him.  She i s h i s " b l i n d Muse".  of outer  Their  spelling". s p e l l s out  interchange  of p a r t s o f each o t h e r ' s mind and senses makes them more than m i r r o r r e f l e c t i o n s , but t h e g e n e r a l metaphor i s a p p l i c a b l e . as soul-images, they r e f l e c t  t h e i r double s e l v e s .  sode i n which L i z a seems t o be l o o k i n g i n a m i r r o r .  As t w i n s and  There i s an e p i Her b l i n d  i s " l u c i d " , a c l e a r m i r r o r f o r an e a s i l y read r e f l e c t i o n .  She i s  i n a sense a c t u a l l y " e x p l o r i n g h e r own b l i n d n e s s i n t h e great because t h e f a c t  face  of h e r i n r e l a t i o n t o a m i r r o r has p a r t i c u l a r  mirror", impli-  cations: T h i s caged r e f l e c t i o n g i v e s h e r n o t h i n g back Thfct women d r i n k l i k e t h i r s t y stags from m i r r o r s . (C, p. 189) L i z a exchanges no look of c o m p l i c i t y w i t h h e r m i r r o r as C l e a , J u s t i n e and M e l i s s a do.  The e x t r a o r d i n a r y p a l l o r of h e r f a c e , p o s s i b l y  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i t s l u c i d i t y , i s uncamouflaged because she cannot e n list and  t h e m i r r o r ' s a i d i n masking i t . (C_, p. 168) Theere i s no mask no s e l f - d e c e p t i o n .  Her b l i n d n e s s p r o v i d e s  a s o r t of c l a r i t y ; h e r  l a c k o f a m i r r o r makes h e r a b e t t e r m i r r o r of h e r s e l f and o t h e r s . " B l i n d n e s s " has a f i g u r a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n  which Pursewarden i m p l i e s  i n h i s wish f o r "someone t o whom he could speak f r e e l y - but i t must be  someone who c o u l d not f u l l y understand?"(M, p. 174, D u r r e l l ' s i t a l i c s )  M e l i s s a s e r v e s here,  but she, " b l i n d " though she i s , " s e e s "  much f o r Pursewarden's good, f i r s t  f a r too  r e a d i n g h i s hand a c c u r a t e l y and  101 l a t e r r e v e a l i n g Nessim's p l o t . Kermode c a l l e d the s u i c i d e "Empedoclean". was  t r y i n g t o prove h i s a r t i s t i c godhead and  Perhaps Pursewarden immortality.  His  death,  however, s e r v e s s e v e r a l other c a u s e s ; l e a v i n g L i z a f r e e t o l o v e Mounto l i v e , and  exempting h i m s e l f ffom the r e s u l t s of h i s d u t i f u l r e p o r t i n g  of Nessim's s u b v e r s i o n t o M o u n t o l i v e Nessim.  and h i s subsequent warning t o  To both c a s e s , h i s a d v i c e t o J u s t i n e a p p l i e s , " L a s t l y i t i s  honourable  i f you can't win t o hang y o u r s e l f " .  (B, p. 125,  Durrell's  italics) D u r r e l l has l i n k e d h i s i n c e s t theme w i t h t h a t i n Herman M e l v i l l e ' s Pierre.  Near t h e end  1  of t h a t book i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of a p o r t r a i t  of  Beatrice Cenci: So sweetly and s e r a p h i c a l l y blonde a b e i n g , b e i n g double-hooded as i t were, by the b l a c k crape of t h e two most h o r r i b l e c r i m e s . . . p o s s i b l e t o c i v i l i s e d humanity - i n c e s t and parricide. L i z a i s blonde, but Pursewarden makes her dye her h a i r b l a c k t o mask t h e i r resemblance and hence t h e i r g u i l t , an attempt revealing  t o drape the t o o -  mirror.3  l-in a l e t t e r t o Jean F a n c h e t t e , dated 31 March 1958, i n World, p. 223.  printed  ( L o n d o n , 1923), p. 489. P i e r r e also i s a w r i t e r i n love with h i s s i s t e r , who i s dark. H i s o t h e r l o v e i s v e r y blonde - and she i s an a r t i s t . But the d a r k - f a i r dichotomy i n l i t e r a t u r e i s not a simple matter of b l a c k and w h i t e , bad and good. In P i e r r e , dark I s a b e l i s more r e a l ^ v i b r a n t , h e a l t h i l y a l i v e , than the c o l d l y c h a s t e , f a i r Lucy. See Northrup F r y e , Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m ( P r i n c e t o n 1957), p . 101. 2  c f . Hawthorne's Marble Faun, which employs v a r i o u s m o t i f s s i m i l a r t o some of D u r r e l l ' s : a Mediterranean s e t t i n g with Gothic d e t a i l s ; dark Miriam and f a i r H i l d a ; a r t i s t s ; t h e h i s t o r i c present of Rome and B e a t r i c e C e n c i l i k e A l e x a n d r i a and C l e o p a t r a ; the c l i m a x of t h e c a r n i v a l which sweeps up Kenyon, as the A l e x a n d r i a n c a r n i v a l does D a r l e y , t h e a r t i s t - o b s e r v e r , who i s at t h e time unaware of t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of events; the anonymity of costumes. 3  102  Perhaps t h e r e i s a c o n n e c t i o n a l s o w i t h t h e c o n t r a s t between  blonde  C l e a , who i s an a c c u r a t e m i r r o r , and dark J u s t i n e , who d e c e i v e s . D u r r e l l p l a c e s two c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g scene from h i s poem "Mneiae";; both a r e "my s e l v e s " .  They a r e I and I .  I, t h e watcher, smoking at a t a b l e , And I , my s e l v e s , observed by human c h o i c e , A d i s i n h e r i t e d p o r t i o n of t h e whole: With you t h e s i b l i n g o f my s e l f - d e s i r e . ("Mneiae", P, p . l ) The of The  f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e two I's makes each a " d i s i n h e r i t e d p o r t i o n t h e whole", not i n t e g r a t e d i n a u n i t y o f s e l f o r o f c r e a t i o n . literal  " s i b l i n g o f my s e l f ' d e s i r e " i s t h e o b j e c t o f i n c e s t u o u s  love.  E.  The Five-Sexed  Mirror  In A l e x a n d r i a one may l o v e whom one p l e a s e s as one p l e a s e s . There a r e "more than f i v e  sexes" i n t h e c i t y which i s i n f u s e d w i t h  "something s u b t l y androgynous, i n v e r t e d upon i t s e l f " . The  (J_, p. 14)  v e r y l a y o u t map of A l e x a n d r i a i s a map o f t h e landscape  mind, showing t h e s p a c i n g of t h o u g h t s .  of t h e  From t h e i n t r o v e r t e d p l a c e ,  from t h e d e s i r e whose o b j e c t i s t h e d e s i r e r , come " t h e s i c k men, t h e s o l i t a r i e s , t h e p r o p h e t s " - t h o s e who l i k e t o be alone and "who have been d e e p l y wounded i n t h e i r sex". ( J , p. 14)  The l o g i c a l  f a t e o f t h e s e l f - d e s i r e r s i s t o become "hermaphrodites o f c o n s c i e n c e , c o p u l a t i n g w i t h o u r s e l v e s " . (S, p. 81)  The homosexual makes one sex  do t h e work o f two, and t h i s a p p a r e n t l y i s an important of  achievement  t h e A l e x a n d r i a n s , of "a whole heaving heap/of i n e f f a b l y herbaceous  A l e x a n d r i a n hermaphrodites"'.  (S_, p. 65)  The A l e x a n d r i a n god o f l o v e  103  i s no modern u p s t a r t invoked t o j u s t i f y "the  o l d , double-sexed E r o s of P l a t o " .  space-age  i m m o r a l i t y , but  1  In t h e Aegean, e s p e c i a l l y on Cyprus, D u r r e l l encountered t h e legend of the double-sexed, bearded A p h r o d i t e , whose worshippers wore t h e d r e s s of the o p p o s i t e sex.  She was  symbolic "not of l i c e n c e  and sensuousness, but of t h e d u a l n a t u r e of man". the  self-sufficient  (BL, p. 1 7 1 )  A p h r o d i t e i s not an obscure C y p r i o t  That  2  i s shown by  Spenser's d e s c r i p t i o n of Venus: Both male and female, both under one name: She s y r e and mother i n here s e l f e a l o n e , Begets and she c o n c e i v e s , ne needeth o t h e r n o n e . T h i s i s the u n i f i e d b i s e x u a l s e l f .  3  Most s e l v e s are not u n i f i e d  r e q u i r e another as soul-image t o complete the s e l f .  and  That o t h e r i s  u s u a l l y of the o p p o s i t e sex s i n c e i t i s t o m i r r o r the s o u l which, i n an attempt  at b a l a n c e , i s l i k e l y t o possess q u a l i t i e s o p p o s i t e t o t h o s e  e x h i b i t e d i n the c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e . In t h e c r e a t i o n myths of G n o s t i c i s m , Hermetism, Orphism and Judaism, the o r i g i n a l l y is  c r e a t e d human b e i n g i s androgynous  s u b s e q u e n t l y d i v i d e d i n t o two b e i n g s of o p p o s i t e sex.  m o r d i a l bise«uality  pri-  remains as a f o r c e d r i v i n g the psyche t o seek  a r e s t o r a t i o n of u n i t y . In  The  and  Groddeck*s  4  v e r s i o n of the u n i f i e d  s e l f , t h e " i t - u n i t " of  an i n d i v i d u a l i n c l u d e s not o n l y a male I t p l u s a female I t , but  •^"Lawrence D u r r e l l Answers p. 62. 2 a l s o D e l c o u r t , p.  World, p. 157. c f . Young,  27.  3 F a e r i e Queene, IV, 10,- x l i ( V o l . I I , p. 121). d e l c o u r t , pp. 68, 77, 78.  also  Groddeck,  pp. 127,  129.  104  " a l l t h e I t - b e i n g s of t h e a n c e s t r a l c h a i n " . i s one of  of time as w e l l as of sex.  conscious  and u n c o n s c i o u s ,  Both a r t and  artist  Once a g a i n th&  1  unity  I t i s a union of i n n e r and  " t o make up a balanced  have h e r m a p h r o d i t i c  outer,  psyche".  qualities.  2  In a r t , the  b i s e x u a l symbol i s the s u b j e c t i n Greek s t a t u e s of l i t e r a l hermaphrod i t e s , i n renaissance  romances of t r a n s v e s t i s m , and  anonymous c a r n i v a l dominoes.  The  concept,  s c i o u s , i s welcomed by the a r t i s t his  o r i g i n s and t o symbolise  depict h i s progress  in Durrell's  o r i g i n a t i n g i n the uncon-  as "the f i g u r e best a b l e t o sum  up  c e r t a i n of h i s a s p i r a t i o n s " , t h a t i s , t o  away from and  return to unity.  Delcourt  describes  a Pompeian p a i n t i n g of a hermaphrodite r e c e i v i n g a m i r r o r from a bearddd E r o s i n f e m i n i n e  dress.  The  m i r r o r i s here a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  b i s e x u a l i t y i n a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e d u a l nature ambiguous n a t u r e The work.  artist  must be b i s e x u a l as the p a r t h e n o g e n i c  parent  He must a l s o e s t a b l i s h t h e cosmic u n i t w i t h i n h i m s e l f  complete human being and  "Male, female and  4  Delcourt  b e i n g t o the phoenix which f e r t i l i s e s and  p.  2  Delcourt  75. (Quoting  Jung),  ^ D e l c o u r t , pp. x i , 60, 4  5  G r o d d e c k , p. p.  71.  child  make up  of h i s and the  o n l y when they are u n i t e d w i t h i n h i m s e l f  become C r e a t o r and L o r d " .  X  the  of e r o s .  become a whole i n d i v i d u a l :  can man  of the psyche and  184.  63.  p. x i i .  compares t h e double  engenders i t s e l f .  105  D a r l e y , l i k e the phoenix, emerges from h i s own h i s former s e l f and The  becoming an  ashes,  transcending  artist.  homosexual, l i k e the hermaphrodite, i s connected w i t h  i d e a of the i n t e g r a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y . u n i f y , the a r t i s t most c l o s e l y .  chooses the m i r r o r which w i l l r e f l e c t  The  than of b l o o d .  In an extreme &$$m&  s e l f , attempting  f i e s "a p o r t i o n of i t s own  rather  to idealise i t s e l f ,  i n another  personi-  individual"." "  The  relation-  s h i p i s both i d e a l i s a t i o n and h u m i l i a t i o n of the s e l f .  The  loved  object  ego  to  himself  l i k e n e s s i s based on i d e n t i t y of sex  The  the  1  i s as l i k e the s e l f as p o s s i b l e , because " t h i s  of a f r i e n d i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y  self-glorification".  glorification  In h i s poem  " E l e g y on the C l o s i n g of the French B r o t h e l s " , D u r r e l l the "bodies  of boys" as mere s u b s t i t u t e s , "the temporary/refuge f o r  a k i s s on the  s i l v e r backs of m i r r o r s " . (P_, p.  B a l t h a z a r e x e m p l i f i e s the ambiguity perhaps of any r e l a t i o n s h i p . a d o c t o r of mind and  He  196)  of the homosexual c o n d i t i o n ,  i s a wise man  and a p h i l o s o p h e r ,  body, a l i v i n g key t o depths of A l e x a n d r i a ,  " i t s P l a t o n i c daimon, mediator between i t s , G o d s and 72,  91)  At the same time, he  c y n i c a l l y about h i s l o v e r f a l l i n g Armenian g i r l ' . r  (B_, p. 170)  i t s men".  ( J , pp.  can a l l o w p a s s i o n f o r a boy t o drag  i n t o the s q u a l o r i n which D a r l e y f i n d s him  behind  describes  But  i n Clea.  He  can  him  joke  i n l o v e w i t h "a h e a v i l y moustached t h e r e i s a l s o a sort of  philosophy  h i s a b e r r a t i o n t h a t e l i m i n a t e s any " q u a l i f i c a t i o n of h i s i n n a t e  -'•Rank, pp.  52,  56,  61.  106  m a s c u l i n i t y of mind". ( J , p. 92)  The  homosexual i s not  a criminal  but merely a p r a c t i t i o n e r of a p a r t i c u l a r s o r t of l o v e . the t r a u m a t i c  d i f f e r e n c e i n sex,  l o v e can become a companionship  or an empathy, r a t h e r than an o b s e s s i o n . own  soul-image, and  Without  The  subject r e t a i n s h i s  the r e f l e c t i o n r e c e i v e d from the m i r r o r of  l o v e r i s an o b j e c t i v e  the  one:  'At l e a s t t h e i n v e r t escapes t h i s f e a r f u l struggle to give oneself to another. Lying w i t h one's own k i n d , e n j o y i n g an e x p e r i e n c e one can s t i l l keep f r e e the p a r t of one's mind which d w e l l s i n P l a t o , or g a r d e n i n g , or t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l c a l c u l a s * . ( J , pp. 96 - 97) B a l t h a z a r does not m a i n t a i n  t h i s l o f t y plane  perhaps because h i s l o v e r s are not excessive  r e a l l y h i s "own  i d e a l i z a t i o n of h i s s e l f i n t h e  B a l t h a z a r i s p h y s i c a l l y u g l y , and They a r e a l s o s t u p i d and mirror to r e f l e c t been a c q u a i n t e d of him  i n his actual a f f a i r s ,  superficial.  h i s young men  are  beautiful.  I t i s as though he  the o p p o s i t e of h i m s e l f .  He  chose a  i s supposed t o have  w i t h the poet Cavafy, and D u r r e l l ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n  i n a crowded A l e x a n d r i a n 1  an  other.  resembles Cavafy's poems about the a g i n g  he w o r s h i p s .  k i n d " but  The  lover waiting, usually  c a f e f o r the a r r i v a l of a youth whose beauty  beauty i s " e x q u i s i t e " , " i d e a l " , "the beauty of  natural a t t r a c t i o n s " .  2  As the wise man,  C a b a l l a , B a l t h a z a r i s a seeker  the i n t e r p r e t e r of  a f t e r a b s o l u t e s , but  i n his  the life  embodies such c o n t r a r y elements as t o c o n t r a d i c t the a s s e r t i o n of a possible absolute.  i  C a v a f y , pp. 66,  2 Cavafy, pp.  133.  163  - 164,  133  and  others.  un-  107  Homosexual l o v e r s might be expected t o f i n d f a i r l y  uncomplicated  m i r r o r s i n one a n o t h e r , but such i s not t h e case i n D u r r e l l ' s w o r l d . They seem t o be l e s s l i k e each o t h e r than t h e h e t e r o s e x u a l a r e , maybe because t h e b i s e x u a l n a t u r e image o f t h e o p p o s i t e some way.  lovers  o f t h e psyche r e q u i r e d a s o u l -  sex, and t h e o p p o s i t e - n e s s  must be found i n  B a l t h a z a r and h i s l o v e r a r e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s .  The l e s b i a n -  ism of C l e a and J u s t i n e i s p o s s i b l y even more p a r a d o x i c a l . i s the conventional  Here a g a i n  c o n t r a s t of t h e f a i r woman and t h e dark:  Clea  who c o n t i n u a l l y t r i e s t o d i s c o v e r and i l l u m i n a t e t h e t r u t h about people and l i f e and a r t ; and J u s t i n e who r e v e l s i n d e c e p t i o n when she t h i n k s she i s t r y i n g t o c o n f e s s .  even  But t h e s e o p p o s i t e s  m i r r o r s i n which each f i n d s v i t a l t r u t h s about h e r s e l f .  provide  Justine t e l l s  t h e t r u t h , as she would not t o a male l o v e r , and i s a b l e t o e x p l o r e her own problems ( J , pp. 227 - 228; B_, p . 51) is  C l e a f i n d s t h a t what  supposedly a p e r v e r s i o n becomes a " p e r f e c t l y a c h i e v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p * ,  because, as B a l t h a z a r e x p l a i n e d , t h e r e i s no problem of t h e p h y s i c a l body b e i n g  i n t h e way.  I n t h i s l o v e she f i n d s  'self-realization*,  ' s e l f - l o v e ' , a ground f o r ' h e a l t h o f t h e psyche*. (J_, pp. 129 - 130) In h e r l o v e f o r a woman, C l e a d i s c o v e r s t h e t r u t h of her own womanhood and  h e r n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n t o men. (B, p. 54) Among D u r r e l l ' s A l e x a n d r i a n s ,  t h e r e a number o f remarkable  friendships.  Some mention has been made o f those  sexual l o v e .  There a r e a l s o i n t i m a t e acquaintances  the  same sex, without  connotations  of sodomy.  related t o heterobetween members o f  The f r i e n d perhaps more  t h a n t h e l o v e r , may p r o v i d e t h e s e l f w i t h a c l e a r r e f l e c t i o n , f o r h e r e , w i t h p a s s i o n e l i m i n a t e d , t h e m i r r o r approaches o b j e c t i v i t y .  108  B a l t h a z a r does t h i s v e r y e x p l i c i t l y f o r D a r l e y w i t h h i s i n t e r l i n e a r c o r r e c t i o n of D a r l e y ' s  story.  But  more or l e s s s u b t l y t h e y a l l do  t h i s f o r each o t h e r , by a s i g n i f i c a n t v e a l i n g a new  f a c e t of t h i n g s .  appearance, a c t i o n , word, r e -  Modern f r i e n d s h i p , l i k e modern l o v e ,  i s d e p i c t e d i n terms of the r e l a t i v e , and  each of them - D a r l e y ,  B a l t h a z a r , Pursewarden, Nessim, M o u n t o l i v e and f r i n g e of the n o v e l s : each has tion  those more on  the  Narouz, A m a r i l , C a p o d i s t r i a , Mnemjian, Keats -  s p e c i a l views  and h i d d e n l i g h t s p e r c e p t i b l e from h i s p o s i -  only. But  these  f r i e n d s h i p s are a type of l o v e , and  mands upon t h e emotions. as any  Tensions  as such make de-  among the f r i e n d s prove as  among l o v e r s ; f o r i n s t a n c e , the t r i a n g l e of  Mountolive,  Pursewarden and Nessim, i n which each of the t h r e e has personal  agonising  a duty  outside  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These d u t i e s are t o f o r c e Pursewarden t o  f o r c e M o u n t o l i v e t o stop Nessim. At  i t s b e s t , the A l e x a n d r i a n  f r i e n d s h i p i s t h a t of M o u n t o l i v e  and B a l t h a z a r , a "communion of minds" over a chessboard, the a q u i e t parody of the p o l i t i c a l game M o u n t o l i v e p l a y s . i s r o o t e d i n "the fecund  The  chess communion  s i l e n c e s of the r o y a l game". (M, p.  233)  Sometimes t h e f r i e n d s h i p becomes i d e n t i t y , as when M e l i s s a bequeaths her l o v e f o r D a r l e y t o C l e a where he had The  (B, p. 135)  found M e l i s s a . (C, p.  and D a r l e y l a t e r f i n d s C l e a  76)  c a r n i v a l i s the climax of A l e x a n d r i a n  b l a c k dominoes, everyone i s b i s e x u a l , a s e x u a l  androgyny, f o r i n the or m u l t i s e x u a l .  wears costume i n s t e a d of the domino, i t i s l i k e l y , feminine  ensemble, t o suggest a nature  like  If  one  Pombal's  c o n t r a r y t o one's own  (B_, p.  179)  109  o r i r o n i c a l l y l i k e i t . T o t o de B r u n e i , t h e "gentleman o f t h e Second Declension", the sexually dispossessed",  (B_, pp. 25, 200) wears  J u s t i n e ' s r i n g and i s " t u r n e d from a man i n t o a woman," h i s outward corresponding  t o the sexual b i a s of h i s inner s e l f .  w h i l e he ceases t o be d i s p o s s e s s e d .  completely  (B, p. 25, 248)  anonymous.  For a l i t t l e  He and S c o b i e have t h e i r own  p e c u l i a r languages, p e r v e r s i o n s of phraseology, gous t o t h e f l e s h .  t h e word made a n a l a -  The c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a n t s a r e 1  The d i s g u i s e d s e l f i s f r e e t o be i t s e l f .  i s e l i m i n a t e d from a c t s performed i n costumes resembling I n q u i s i t o r s , the probers  of g u i l t .  regalia  Guilt  thfct of t h e  The ambiguous dark, amoral f i g u r e s  are "outward symbols of our own s e c r e t mind", t h e i r v e r y o b s c u r i t y making them a c c u r a t e m i r r o r s o f t h e hidden The  self.  (B, p. 201)  most p l e a s a n t hermaphrodite i n A l e x a n d r i a i s S c o b i e , t h e  comic m i r r o r d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . He i s r e p e a t e d l y e u l o g i s e d i n a r c h e t y p a l terms as t h e A n c i e n t upside-down s a i n t .  Mariner,  He i s T i r e s i a s t h e hermaphrodite prophet.  c a r n i v a l a p e c u l i a r jazz-song Old  t h e O l d Man o f t h e Sea, a s o r t o f At t h e  plays:  Tiresias  No one h a l f so breezy as H a l f so f r e e and easy as O l d T i r e s i a s . (B, pp. 44, 202) I t s composer might have belonged t o t h e s'hhool o f T.S. E l i o t ' s p e h e r i a n r a g , and C a r l Bode has suggested  t h a t Scobie  shakes-  comes from Greek  myth v i a the W.aB.te.rLand..  2  T i r e s i a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y i s v e r y o l d , he i s a s e e r , he i s b l i n d and  The word i s a p p r o p r i a t e ; comparison i s made t o dark r i t u a l s such as t h e Brocken o r Sade's account of t h e s a t y r monks. (B, pp. pp. 190 - 191, 216) ~~ 2World, p. 210  110 he i s b i s e x u a l .  1  Scobie i s "anybody's age" ( J , p. 121), he sees  C l e a ' s e p i s o d e s w i t h A m a r i l and Narouz. (C, pp. 124, 207) one  He has  b l i n d eye, and, t o add t o h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , he has t e n d e n c i e s  which i n s p i r e him t o d r e s s as a woman at f u l l moon. (B, p . 40, C, pp. 80 f f . ) A f t e r h i s death, he i s canonized as a s a i n t w i t h power t o cure s t e r i l i t y ,  by t h e Arab q u a r t e r  another  of T i r e s i a s ' s  accomplishments. D i s c u s s i n g The Waste Land i n h i s Key t o Modern P o e t r y , D u r r e l l quotes a G n o s t i c s a y i n g r 'When t h e L o r d was asked by a c e r t a i n man, When should his.'kingdom come, he s a i t h unto him: When two s h a l l be one, and t h e without and t h e w i t h i n , and t h e male w i t h t h e female, n e i t h e r male o r female'. (Key, pp. 152 - 153)  '  E.M. F o r s t e r ' s v e r s i o n o f t h e r e p l y b e g i n s , "Whenever ye put o f f the garment of shame", t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of g u i l t , as at c a r n i v a l , being necessary f o r the purgation of d e s i r e .  D u r r e l l goes on t o  o f f e r T i r e s i a s as a symbol " p o i n t i n g toward t h e f u t u r e i n t e g r a t i o n which l i e s  beyond t h e h i l l s o f s c i e n c e and metaphysics,  and even perhaps artJ i t s e l f " .  S c o b i e , j o k e though he i s , a c h i e v e s  some measure o f t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n .  C l e a p o i n t s out t h a t "He was  q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l l y h i m s e l f " . (C_, p . 120) his  bisexuality.  r i d d l e o f man:  H i s himself-ness includes  He i s , as w e l l , wise i n t h e ways of t h e Sphinx's 'Cheer up, my boyo, i t t a k e s a l i f e t i m e t o grow.  People haven't t h e p a t i e n c e any more". (C_, p. 33) s q u a l i d , but i s l o s t  1  anthropology,  i n t h e context  D e l a c o u r t , p . 42.  A l e x a n d r i a , p . 235.  H i s death i s  of h i s s a i n t h o o d and i n t h e  Ill  reminiscences of the Alexandrians.  B e s i d e s , he i s not t h e f i r s t  martyr t o d i e a d i s g u s t i n g death o f h i s own i n v i t i n g . A l e s s a t t r a c t i v e double-sexed t r a n s l a t i o n from R o y i d i s .  s a i n t i s t h e Pope Joan o f D u r r e l l ' s  She grows a beard t o escape r a p e , d i s g u i s e s  h e r s e l f as a monk, b e g i n s t o b e l i e v e she has changed sex l i k e and f i n a l l y b e a r s a c h i l d d u r i n g a p a p a l p r o c e s s i o n . v e n t i o n a l t r a p p i n g s o f t h e hermaphrodite she f a i l s t o be h e r s e l f , because, i n e s t a t e she i s overcome by i t .  1  Tiresias,  She has t h e con-  c h a r a c t e r , but u n l i k e S c o b i e  i n s t e a d o f e s c a p i n g from h e r f e m i n The r e s u l t  i s d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of  t h e s e l f she has c r e a t e d . The A l e x a n d r i a n , l i k e V i r g i n i a Woolf*s Orlando, i s man and woman and "knew t h e s e c r e t s , shared t h e weaknesses of e a c h " .  2  D e l c o u r t , p . 90. Orlando, p . 145. D e l c o u r t ( p . 87) l i s t s n i n e female s a i n t s who assumed m a s c u l i n e g u i s e ; t h r e e of t h e s e a r e Alexandrian.  CHAPTER IV:  The M i r r o r o f Malady:  I l l n e s s and M u t i l a t i o n  " I swear, gentlemen, t h a t t o be t o o c o n s c i o u s a r e a l thoroughgoing i l l n e s s " , he  c l a i m s , a " s i c k man".  1  i s an i l l n e s s -  says t h e underground man, who i s ,  Commenting on t h i s passage, F . J . Hoffman  w r i t e s , "What he has i n mind i s t h e s e n s i t i v i t y t o h i m s e l f i n terms of h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s ,  as w e l l as an almost absurd  m i r r o r r e f l e c t i o n of h i s behaviour  s e n s i t i v i t y t o the  and appearance".  The  Dostoevskian  d i s e a s e , and t h e D u r r e l l i a n , i s a s e l f - s i c k n e s s , and t h e major symp2 ton i s i n a c t i o n .  The A l e x a n d r i a n s  are accident-prone,  disease-prone,  deformity-prone.  They l o s e hands, eyes, noses and minds.  Some a r e  i n f l i c t e d w i t h i n c u r a b l e d i s e a s e s and some a r e born deformed.  They  are l o v e s i c k , t i m e s i c k , and s e l f - s i c k . S u f f e r i n g i s "an acute  form of s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e " .  ( J , p . 181)  Nessim r e a l i z e s t h i s , and knows a l s o t h a t he i s i n c a p a b l e of f o l l o w i n g P l o t i n u s ' s command t o "Look i n t o y o u r s e l f , withdraw i n t o y o u r s e l f and  look".  He cannot bear t o see a t r u e r e f l e c t i o n o f h i m s e l f .  complains o f t h e  filexandrian  Pombal  "mania f o r d i s s e c t i o n , f o r a n a l y s i n g t h e  s u b j e c t " , t h e s u b j e c t o f one's own l o v e s and a c t i o n s ( J , p. 21; D u r r e l l italics)  T h i s s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e and e x c e s s i v e i n t e r e s t  are unhealthy,  because they amount to f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h one's own d i s e a s e  l i k e picking a sore. to dissect  i n self-analysis  P l o t i n u s ' s i n t e n t i s t o diagnose and c u r e , not  and p r e s e r v e .  J u s t i n e ' s quest  among t h e p s y c h o a n a l y s t s  of h e r s e l f and o t h e r s .  Pursewarden accuses  x  N o t e s , pp. 53, 56.  2  Beckett,  pp. 30 - 31.  o f Europe i s a d e c e p t i o n h e r of u s i n g n e u r o s i s as  113  an excuse and suggests t h a t h e r i l l n e s s i s " ' j u s t self-pity*".  (B, pp. 122, 125)  due t o an i n f l a m e d  She checks h e r s e l f short o f any r e v e -  l a t i o n which might g i v e t h e a n a l y s t a c l u e .  On h i s e v e r - p e r c e p t i v e  m i r r o r , Pursewarden w r i t e s f o r her: "Oh D r e a d f u l i s t h e check! Intense t h e agony When t h e ear begins t o hear And The  t h e eye begins  r e a l agony begins  t o see!"(M, p. 174)  at t h e verge of detection,, and hence o f a n n i h i -  l a t i o n , o f t h e t r u t h about t h e s e l f . t h i s as m a l i n g e r i n g .  But i t i s t o o easy t o d i s m i s s  The agony i s r e a l because one d e s i r e s t h e t r u t h  which one i s a f r a i d t o f a c e .  J u s t i n e says, "'Perhaps our only s i c k n e s s  i s t o d e s i r e a t r u t h which we cannot bear r a t h e r than t o r e s t w i t h t h e f i c t i o n s we manufacture out of each o t h e r * "  content  (C, p. 60)  T h i s i s t h e g r e a t e r s i c k n e s s : t o be d i s c o n t e n t e d w i t h t h e l e s s e r s i c k n e s s complained of by Pombal, and diagnosed by C l e a as "' t o want t o c o n t a i n e v e r y t h i n g w i t h i n t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e o f a p s y c h o l o g y or a p h i l o s o p h y ! "  ( J , p. 77)  Groddeck b e l i e v e s t h a t a cause of any i l l n e s s i s " t o g a i n e i t h e r by e s c a p i n g guilt.  1  pleasure"  from an i n t o l e r a b l e r e a l i t y o r by e x p i a t i n g one's own  Mountolive's  earache u s u a l l y o c c u r s o n l y when h i s mother i s  near t o cure him, but makes an e x c e p t i o n a l appearance i n time t o p r e vent  him from a t t e n d i n g Pursewarden's cremation  Nessim and be f o r c e d t o a c t o r d e c i d e . f o r what he must do t o Nessim.  where he might  encounter  T h i s i s excape and a l s o g u i l t  L i k e P r o u s t ' s man, he p r e f e r s "h'is i n v a l i d ' s  cell',' w i t h h i s mother m i n i s t e r i n g t o him, t o t h e g i v e and take of human  pp.  81 - 82.  114  intercourse.  1  As i n J u s t i n e ' s case, t h e p a i n i s r e a l .  In The B l a c k Book, D u r r e l l has w r i t t e n what might be a d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s A l e x a n d r i a : The problem of the p e r s o n a l i t y grows l i k e a s t e n c h i n the a i r , i n f e c t i n g the town w i t h man's e s s e n t i a l l o n e l i n e s s . Rib t o r i b , f a c e t o f a c e w i t h the a b s o l u t e h e r a l d i c p e r s o n a l i t y which wakes i n each o t h e r ' s eyes, even the l o v e r s t r e m b l e , and become s i c k w i t h the h o r r o r and emptiness. (p.  175)  F e e l i n g t h i s i n f e c t i o n i n h i m s e l f . . D a r l e y f l e e s from the plagued .city t o h i s Greek i s l a n d . t h a t he i s a s i c k man.  The] psychosomatic  He t o o begins h i s book by  U n l i k e the underground man,  t o h e a l h i m s e l f . ( J , p.  personalityannouncing  he r e t r e a t s i n o r d e r  13) epidemic  i s a modern a i l m e n t , and D u r r e l l  t h a t Groddeck*s e q u a t i n g of mind and body does,  i n the m e d i c a l  field,  r o u g h l y what E i n s t e i n has done i n the realm of p h y s i c s w i t h the of space and t i m e " . of mind,  (Key, p. 209) The  i l l n e s s of body i s a l s o  claims  concepts  illness  R e t u r n i n g t o A l e x a n d r i a , D a r l e y has come " f a c e t o f a c e w i t h  the n a t u r e of time, t h a t ailment of the human psyche".  (C, p. 12)  He  has been a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e time as an " a i l m e n t " because of h i s f a i l u r e i n w r i t i n g about  J u s t i n e . . Events cannot  be reduced t o  chronology;  t h e r e are t o o many ways of s e e i n g any one o c c u r r e n c e and time i s subord i n a t e t o one's p o s i t i o n - r e l a t i v e t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e . c h r o n o l o g i z e , l i k e the attempt o i s o f t e n mistaken  f o r a cure.  p h i e s i s l i k e an i n v a l i d  to  t o s y s t e m a t i z e , i s a l a t e symptom which So " J u s t i n e surrounded  surrounded  i n v a l i d w i t h quack medicines  The attempt  by m e d i c i n e s " , but  by her  philoso-  she i s a c h r o n i c  and her b r a i n , attempting t o a p p l y p h i l o s o p h y ,  W i l s o n , A x e l ' s C a s t l e , p.  184  t i c k s " l i k e a cheap a l a r m - c l o c k " .  ( J , p.  133)  "To be l o v e s i c k " i s a c l i c h e which i n the Quartet " l o v e " i s d e f i n e d as "a cancerous up i t s s i t e anywhere without 106)  the s u b j e c t knowing or w i s h i n g  cancer".  (C, p. 256)  of the carcinoma maxima", (C_, p. 256) madness are i d e n t i c a l except  "You  it".  are i n l o v e "  heart i s the  The  remedy". (M, p. 156)  " i am no doubt i l l ,  but what my  and  Pursewarden*s  Swann's l o v e " , - past  T h i s has been the A l e x a n d r i a n d i s e a s e s i n c e Longus's  complained,  "site  p o s s e s s i o n of  L e i l a d i e s of " h e a r t s i c k n e s s l i k e a t r u e A l e x a n d r i a n " .  1  take  (C_, p.  and the " a e t i o l o g y of l o v e  d i s e a s e i s l i k e P r o u s t ' s "malady, which was  266)2  The  i n degree". (B_, p. 56)  a human heart i s a " d i s e a s e without  tion"." "  Here  growth of unknown o r i g i n which may  I t i s a "synonym f o r derangement or i l l n e s s " .  i s equal t o ""you have got  i s a fact.  opera-  (C, p.  Chloe  malady i s I know n o t " ,  and  i s g i v e n no p r e s c r i p t i o n , " f o r t h e r e i s no mighty magic a g a i n s t l o v e ; no medicine, and  whether i n food o r d r i n k r  n o t h i n g , i n s h o r t , save k i s s e s  embraces, and the c l o s e s t u n i o n of t h e naked body'".  3  Cavafy, w r i t e s of "an e r o t i c i n t e n s i t y , unknown t o h e a l t h " and h i s young men The  are " s i c k w i t h what l o v e meant".  heart deludes  i t s e l f because i t i s "tormented by the d e s i r e  t o be l o v e d " . (B, p. 240)  1  Swann's Way,  4  p.  The  s e l f , i n o r d e r not t o be h o p e l e s s l y i n -  237.  8 e c i l y Mackworth (World, p. 26) counts " a t l e a s t t h r e e deaths ' h e a r t s i c k n e s s ' which i t seems i s a l e t h a l A l e x a n d r i a n s p e c i a l t y " .  2  by  " D a p h n i s and C h l o e " i n The (London, 1901), pp. 272, 290~. 3  4,  "lmenos", p. 108.  Greek Romances, .trans. Rowland Smith  " i n the D r e a r y V i l l a g e " , p.  149.  116  v e r t e d , demands another s e l f as a m i r r o r and cancer  a complement.  The  delusion,  and madness, a r i s e when t h i s becomes a demand f o r mutual  i o n , when t h e l o v e i s t u r n e d w h o l l y as an image of o n e s e l f .  inward and  Love-sickness  is still  the l o v e d one  possess-  seen o n l y  self-sickness.  Love, when i t t u r n s outward as w e l l as inward i s a h e a l i n g f o r c e , "lifesaving, life-giving".  Groddeck c l a i m s t h a t "without  of E r o s no wound can h e a l , no o p e r a t i o n succeed, no E r o s i s the l i f e - f o r c e , only m i r r o r s the A popular tuberculosis. by "the  shows i t i n r e l a t i o n  disease i n Alexandrian  and  toothers.  other l i t e r a r y climates i s  M e l i s s a i s dying of i t , and  s o f t bloom of p h t h s i s " , (M, p. 166)  t i v e , and  symptom improve .  l o v e which g i v e s as w e l l as t a k e s , which not  s e l f , but  hands". ( J , p. 18)  the arrow  her l o v e r s are f a s c i n a t e d and  "her b l u e - v e i n e d  phthsic  G r a c i e , the p r o s t i t u t e i n The B l a c k Book, i s consump-  the poem "A>Bowl of Roses", addressed t o a M e l i s s a , speaks of  f l o w e r s t r a v e l l i n g "under g l a s s t o great  s a n a t o r i a " . (P, p. 2 8 )  2  The  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n of t u b e r c u l o s i s w i t h the "good" p r o s t i t u t e may and  perhaps be found i n Groddeck's t h e o r y t h a t the "hollow  the h o l l o w  womb are s y m b o l i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d " , " b r e a t h i n g  g e t t i n g " depending on "an may  be i m p l i c i t  x  p.  inward and  i n the episode  outward r h y t h m " .  3  This  i n which D a r l e y r e v i v e s C l e a  and  chest be-  theory with  189.  T h e d i r e c t o r of the sanatorium i n Mann's Magic Mountain e x c l a i m s , " i s i t my f a u l t i f p h t h s i s and concupiscence go t o g e t h e r ? " quoted i n an anonymous a r t i c l e " L i t e r a r y G i a n t " i n MP of Canada IV, no. 9 (September, 1963), p. 76. ' 2  3  p.  115.  117  artificial  r e s p i r a t i o n , r e s t o r i n g her b r e a t h , the c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y  them both,  and  a r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s both outward and  of  inward.  In so v i s u a l l y v i v i d a c i t y as D u r r e l l ' s A l e x a n d r i a , i t i s n o t e worthy t h a t many of t h e i n h a b i t a n t s are b l i n d . the c a l l of the b l i n d muezzin, who  M,  pp.  day  begins  i s a b l e t o see the nature  p e r f e c t i o n of A l l a h , and,- h i m s e l f past h e a l i n g powers. ( J , p. 25;  The  292  with  of the  c u r e , i s the d i s s e m i n a t o r - 293;  C_, pp.  90,  258)  of  Alexandri  c a n a r i e s a t t a i n a song n e a r e r t o p e r f e c t i o n i f they are b l i n d e d (M, 255)  The  c a n a r i e s are mentioned by Memlik, who  cause t h e y  see t o o much.  f o r the "second s i g h t " .  But  p r e s i d e s over Memlik's Night (M, pp.  261  - 264)  of God  The  (M, pp. 32,  118)  t i n g h i m s e l f and i s b l i n d e d i n one p o s s i b l e seer.  s i g n and  who  160  possesses  ff.);  Narouz,  a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the examining  angels.  Narouz i s an examining a n g e l , t e s t i n g and i n v e s t i g a a r o u s i n g a s i m i l a r anguished p r o c e s s eye t o evade c o n s c r i p t i o n and  (C, p. 258;  B,  p. 214;  a r e maimed i n one  the power t o a c t , t o cease and t h e eye-patch,  sheik  e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y b l u e eyes, a f e a t u r e  J , p. 148)  Hamid  Nessim l o s e s an  eye  18)  eye o n l y seem t o be a b l e t o r e g a i n  begin again.  C a p o d i s t r i a , the man  i s J u s t i n e ' s c h i l d h o o d r a v i s h e r and  presumably d i e s i n one  i n others.  becomes i n s c r u t a b l e , a  a f i n g e r when he i s f o r c e d t o stop a c t i o n . (C, p. Those who  blind  has an i n c r e d i b l e power of memory.  eyes i n whose gaze i s m o r t a l danger. (B_, pp.  d e s c r i b e d as an e v i l  He  symbol-in-reverse  Magzub the d e r v i s h i s not b l i n d , but  the s u p e r n a t u r a l l y i n s p i r e d , has  and  l o s t an eye.  be-  L i z a ' s b l i n d n e s s " g i v e s an e x p r e s s i o n of double  awareness". (C_, p. 114) unusual  b l i n d s h i s enemies  blindness i s also a  S c o b i e has  p.  n o v e l , but  l a t e r her  i s r e v i v e d i n another.  with  friend. There i s  118  no  c o n s i s t e n t symbolic  e q u a t i o n f o r the eye, but  i t i s u s u a l l y connected  w i t h e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers of p e r c e p t i o n and w i t h t h e power f o r a c t i o n . It i s above a l l the mind's eye, psyche.  and t h e unseeing  eye i s the  unperceptive  1  L i z a ' s b l i n d n e s s i s p a r t of an e e r i e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the mysterious  p a r t n e r of the a r t i s t ' s i n c e s t , hidden  story, a f a i r  l a d y d i s g u i s e d as a dark.  u n t i l w e l l on i n t h e  Her b l i n d n e s s i s i n p a r t a mask  f o r the " s e c r e t s of the f o u n d l i n g h e a r t " . (M, p. 67)  Her head i s compared  t o t h a t of a Medusa, and both her l o v e r s , Pursewarden and M o u n t o l i v e ,  are  t u r n e d t o stone, r e a c h i n g a p o i n t where a c t i o n i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e . Her  b l i n d n e s s i s l i k e t h a t of a Greek s t a t u e w i t h " b u l l e t h o l e s f o r  eyes".  (M, pp. 60,  67)  The  h o l e s are not meant t o be b l i n d , but  repre-  sent the s i t e of s i g h t , the v e r y emptiness emphasizing t h e impact that  sight.  destroyed  L i z a can " s e e " what Pursewarden cannot, so she i s not  by t h e i r l o v e , but  contexts.  of  can o b j e c t i f y i t and p l a c e i t i n a l l i t s  F i n a l l y she can go from i t t o . a more " h e a l t h y " l o v e w i t h  Mountolive.  Pursewarden cannot o b j e c t i f y and he cannot l o v e anyone  else. In A l e x a n d r i a as elsewhere, l o v e i s b l i n d . on t h i s when he r e a l i z e s J u s t i n e ' s d e c e p t i o n .  Darley  (B, p. 185)  speculates Discussing  C l e a ' s l o v e f o r J u s t i n e , he t a l k s of " t h e t r a n s f o r m i n g membrane, t h e c a t a r a c t w i t h which A p h r o d i t e  s e a l s up t h e s i c k eyes of l o v e r s , the  t h i c k , opaque form of a s a c r e d s i g h t l e s s n e s s . (B, p. The  possessed  54)  l o v e r ' s p a s s i o n s obscure h i s m i r r o r view of h i m s e l f  -••"Psychologists o f t e n compare c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o the eye: we speak of a v i s u a l - f i e l d and of a f o c a l p o i n t of c o n s c i o u s n e s s " . Jung, p. 532.  119  and a l s o h i s outward-going view of the Nessim l o s t both of t h e two  an eye and  beloved.  a f i n g e r , and t h u s s u f f e r s p a r t i a l l y  major A l e x a n d r i a n m u t i l a t i o n s .  The  disembodied  from  hand,  a p a r t of t h e s e l f , become an o b j e c t f o r comment and f o r h o r r o r , i s one of D u r r e l l ' s f a v o u r i t e m o t i f s . wearing  In The B l a c k Book, a s k e l e t o n hand  a wedding r i n g i s stuck t o a h o t e l doorknob (p. 187).  r e c e i v e s a b a t t l e s o u v e n i r , a severed arm wearing p a r t of a l i v i n g man,  i t i s now  merely  a bracelet.  (pp. 41, 43)  The Dark L a b y r i n t h l o o k s at h i s hands "as i f t h e y belonged  man"  Once  a t h i n g " w i t h no r e f e r e n c e t o  t h i s w o r l d / E x i s t i n g t h e r e i n some r e c e s s of time", in  Sappho  Baird  to  another  f o r a clue to h i s s e l f . In t h e A l e x a n d r i a n Q u a r t e t , hands are r e l a t e d t o t h e o c c u l t  which runs through the b l o o d of most of t h e c h a r a c t e r s . t r u t h from Pursewarden's hand, and  stream  M e l i s s a reads  s h o r t l y afterwards r e v e a l s t o  o t h e r t r u t h s which change, i n f a c t , end, h i s whole e x i s t e n c e .  him  Handprints  a r e the t a l i s m a n of A l e x a n d r i a - b l u e or b l a c k p r i n t s of c h i l d r e n ' s hands, supposed t o ward o f f t h e e v i l eye, one d i s t o r t e d member t o e x o r c i s e another. C, p. 146 a last  ff.)  ( J , pp. 45, 61, 189;  stand a g a i n s t t h e dark powers and the " t e r r o r s which  the darkness".  w i t h the p i t i f u l her daughter.  M, pp. 288 f f ;  These p r i n t s a r e l i k e "blows s t r u c k by c o n s c i e n c e " i n  desperate  thronged  B_, pp. 73, 174;  child  The  ( J , pp. 61, 189)  p r o s t i t u t e s among whom J u s t i n e supposedly  little  mate p i t of d e p r a v i t y .  They are f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d  hands s t r i k e f o r something beyond the  The  s t a r k encounter  w i t h t h e depths of themselves  and an i n s i g h t  w i t h e v i l i s an  finds ulti-  encounter  i n t o those w i t h them.  F o r M o u n t o l i v e , Pursewarden, J u s t i n e and D a r l e y , i t i s an  experience  120  not  immediately u n d e r s t o o d , because of i t s nearness t o the deep i n n e r  mysteries. D e s c r i b i n g B a l t h a z a r , D a r l e y remarks t h a t , i f he had hands, he would amputate them and  throw them i n t o the sea.  L a t e r on, B a l t h a z a r attempts t o do j u s t t h a t . (C, p. 69) i s almost t o o heavy h e r e . the r e l a t i v e n a t u r e work. and  .It i s Balthazar's  of t r u t h and  D a r l e y i s the n o v i c e  B a l t h a z a r t o s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n . The  life  The  91)  irony  s t o r y t h a t shows D a r l e y  l e a r n e d i n the l o r e of  i n l i f e and  m a n u s c r i p t , which B a l t h a z a r h i m s e l f had  complete mental and  ( J , p..  changes the d i r e c t i o n of h i s l i f e  B a l t h a z a r i s the o l d e r , wise man,  religion.  such u g l y  rendered  and  science  a r t , but h i s o r i g i n a l invalid, inspires  sage at t h i s time i s i n a s t a t e o f  p h y s i c a l degradation,  by the e f f o r t s of the l e s s e r beings  and must be brought back t o around him.  D a r l e y and  d i s s i m i l a r though they a r e , m i r r o r each o t h e r ' s h u m i l i a t i o n and  Balthazar, rebirth.  B a l t h a z a r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a c c i d e n t which f o r c e s D a r l e y cut o f f C l e a ' s hand, another death and c i a l hand l e a d s C l e a back t o her  self.  rebirth.  i s the mind's eye.  of the body has human hand has knows".  of i n d i v i d u a l i t y " :  i t s I , t h a t i t knows what i t does, and  C l e a ' s new  1  hand i s not  c e l l and  With or without  organ  knows t h a t i t  even more marked a specimen of i n d i v i d u a l i t y , an image of how  symbolic  so i s she,,  i t s secondary  a s s o c i a t i o n s , the hand i s always b a s i c a l l y connected w i t h  1  p.  83.  this  " i b e l i e v e the  even r e a l l y p a r t of her, and  as the whole i n d i v i d u a l , i s t o a c t .  artifi-  T h i s i s the mind's hand, as  Groddeck says t h a t every  a "consciousness  marvellous  Henry M i l l e r remarks t h a t  hand " r e s i d e s i n the psyche". (Cor, p. 363) the eye  The  to  the  121  human power t o c r e a t e . S e v e r a l o t h e r m u t i l a t i o n s should be mentioned h e r e . s e a r c h f o r t h e l o v e t h a t w i l l not end  i n f r i e n d s h i p b r i n g s him t o '"a  p a i r of anonymous hands" and a n o s e l e s s f a c e .  He  i s able to create  Semira's f a c e , i n f a c t her whole c h a r a c t e r , i n h i s own (B, p. 196;  202;  M,  pp.  148  ff.)  Amaril's  soul-image.  Narouz i s p h y s i c a l l y deformed, w i t h  a h a r e l i p and u n g a i n l y body, and.his  o u t e r form suggests  inner, since  d e f o r m i t y " c o n f e r s m a g i c a l powers i n the E a s t " . (B, p. 161,  167,  M,  self-esteem,  p. 27)  L e i l a ' s smallpox  d e p r i v e s her of both beauty and  so t h a t she cannot bear e i t h e r l i t e r a l  or metaphorical m i r r o r s .  p r a c t i s e s e x p r e s s i o n s w i t h her eyes, and suddenly  68;  i s compared t o "a man  b l i n d l e a r n i n g t o s p e l l w i t h the o n l y member l e f t  She struck  him,  his  hands". (B, p. 79)  L i k e her l a t e r r i v a l L i z a , L e i l a must l e a r n  sual s p e l l i n g .  eye and the hand are ways of c o n t a c t i n g o t h e r  The  s e l v e s , and of e x p r e s s i n g one's own  s e l f a n d . r e c e i v i n g back t h e image.  T h i s melange of i l l n e s s e s and d e f o r m i t i e s i s p a r t of t h e  obsess-  i v e p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h one's s e l f t o t h e _ e x c l u s i o n of the o u t e r and  of the o u t e r view of one's  self.  sen-  world  122  CHAPTER V:  A.  The Landscapes of t h e Mind  Alexandria The  inner self  i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e o u t e r p h y s i c a l environment.  There a r e t h r e e major s e t t i n g s i n t h e A l e x a n d r i a n  Quartet.  The p r e -  dominant one i s A l e x a n d r i a as reshaped by D u r r e l l i n t o what George S t e i n e r c a l l s "one of t h e major monuments of t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e of t h e immagination", comparable t o P r o u s t ' s other  P a r i s and Joyce's D u b l i n .  1  The  s e t t i n g s a r e D a r l e y ' s Aegean I s l a n d , which p r o v i d e s t h e scene f o r  a s m a l l p a r t of each of D a r l e y ' s n o v e l s , and England, which i s at c e n t r e stage o n l y f o r p a r t o f M o u n t o l i v e , seas and a c o n t i n e n t  but i s always t h e r e o n l y two s m a l l  away.  In a p r e f a t o r y note t o J u s t i n e and a s i m i l a r one t o B a l t h a z a r , Durrell  s t a t e s t h a t a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e imaginary  is real".  T h i s seems a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d e x p l a n a t i o n , but i t i s not t h e  whole t r u t h . or " i m a g i n a r y "  " R e a l " does not mean simply " f a c t u a l " , and " i n v e n t i o n s " a r e not t h e same as ' " f i c t i o n " . .  i s not " r e a l " . course,  I n these  the Egyptian  Past  i s certainly close  But perhaps F o r s t e r  cartographer.  t h e p r e f a t o r y n o t e , but s t i l l  at t h e b e g i n n i n g  Darley f i n d s that "the c i t y , half-imagined  J-World, p. 18. 2  Alexandria  h a r b o r - c i t y o f our o r d i n a r y a c q u a i n t a n c e .  t h e f a c t u a l c i t y i n E..M. F o r s t e r ' s guidebook.  is a novelist's  senses,  C r i t i c s who have been t h e r e i n s i s t t h a t i t i s "not, of  T h i s i s another h a l f - t r u t h , f o r D u r r e l l ' s A l e x a n d r i a to  and " o n l y t h e c i t y  S t e i n e r , World, p. 18.  (yet wholly  of Balthazar,  real),  begins  123  and  ends i n us, r o o t s lodged  i n our memory". (B, p. 13)  The  imagined  i n c l u d e s the r e a l , and what i s r e a l about t h e c i t y i s what i s i n the c h a r a c t e r s , t h e i r imagined and says A l e x a n d r i a subconscious".  invented  selves.  C e c i l y Mackworth  i s " i n f l a t e d i n t o the Sadean dream of the The  1  unleashed  c i t y i s an image of the s e l f , which i s " h a l f -  imafcined" because i t i s p a r t l y a product t h e conterts of c o n s c i o u s n e s s  are  of the mind.  It i s " r e a l "  as  real.  D u r r e l l has g i v e n the c i t y a s e l f and  a definite personality.  T h i s must be where i t p a r t s company from t h e A l e x a n d r i a of geography textbooks,  and  yet t h e p e r s o n a l i t y i s not p u r e l y D u r r e l l ' s i n v e n t i o n .  A c h i l l e s T a t i u s , wide-eyed at the m u l t i p l i c i t y and  i n t r i c a c y of o  A l e x a n d r i a , gave up t r y i n g t o f i t i t i n t o categoaes f o r d e s c r i p t i o n . I t has  always been a c i t y of m y s t e r i e s  l i t e r a l l y a c i t y of m i r r o r s . once was  A great  and m u l t i p l i c i t i e s ,  and  " m i r r o r " or r e f l e c t i n g  p l a c e d above the Pharos l i g h t h o u s e , and  instrument  t o i t contemporary 3  rumor and  subsequent legend  Alexandria  a t t r i b u t e d magical  powers of  i s concerned w i t h t h e i n n e r l i v e s of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s .  t i m e s i t i s drawn as a great Dobree quotes Groddeck, *I am dria " l i v e s " i t s people. subconscious,  the  4  extra-human f o r c e c o m p e l l i n g l i v e d by the I t * and  s e c r e t compulsions, and  J-World, p.  435  p.  " T h e Loves of C l i t o p h o n and - 436.  W o r l d , p.  Alexan-  i s t h e i r unleashed  i s appropriately described Therefore,  a l s o , the  29  A l e x a n d r i a , pp. 145 20T 4  At  their actions.  suggests t h a t  I f t h i s i s so, A l e x a n d r i a  w i t h ornaments of mystery, i n t r i g u e and magic.  2  perception.  194.  - 146,  Leucippe",  150.  Greek Romances,  Pharos and  Parillon  pp.  (London, 1961),  124  c i t y i s made a m o t i v a t i n g our landscape;  factor i n action:  "We a r e t h e c h i l d r e n of  i t d i c t a t e s b e h a v i o u r and even thought i n t h e measure  t o which we a r e r e s p o n s i v e  t o i t ' . ( J , p. 41) r  This observation i s  r e l a t e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n of how a c t i o n s a r e t o be judged. beings  a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d  I f human  as " p a r t o f p l a c e " , "members of a c i t y " ,  (B, p. 225) then judgement o f any a c t i o n i n v o l v e s j u d g i n g t h e whole h i s t o r y of A l e x a n d r i a : The c i t y which used us as i t s f l o r a - p r e c i p i t a t e d i n us c o n f l i c t s which were hers and which we mistook f o r our own: beloved A l e x a n d r i a ! ... I see at l a s t t h a t none o f us i s p r o p e r l y t o be judged f o r what happened i n t h e p a s t . It i s the c i t y which should be judged, though we, i t s c h i l d r e n , mast pay f h e p r i c e . (<J, p. 13) The  c i t y i s responsible f o r the sins of i t s inhabitants.  "a c h i l d  o f t h e c i t y , which d e c r e e s t h a t i t s women s h a l l be t h e v o l u p -  t a r i e s not of p l e a s u r e but o f p a i n " .  ( J , p. 47)  The human w i l l i s  inadequate t o contend w i t h A l e x a n d r i a and must surrender did,  Justine i s  "surrender  f o r - e v e r t o t h e c i t y he l o v e d " .  the A l e x a n d r i a o f t h e f i r s t  novel.  as Antony  ( J , p. 14) T h i s i s  In C l e a , i t i s d e s c r i b e d as  " A l e x a n d r i a , p r i n c e s s and whore", (p. 63)  Antony's p r i n c e s s and whore  was a human b e i n g , and was, moreover, h i m s e l f as w e l l as C l e o p a t r a . He was both s t r o n g and weak, m a g n i f i c e n t i s " r o y a l c i t y and anus mundi". not  because they a r e A l e x a n d r i a n s  The  heightened  Gothicism  t i e s of pleasure us".  and d e s p i c a b l e , as A l e x a n d r i a  T h i s i s t r u e of a l l t h e A l e x a n d r i a n s , but because they a r e men and women.  of t h e environment w i t h i t s j u x t a p o s e d  and p a i n i s not g e o g r a p h i c a l ;  The " r e a l " A l e x a n d r i a i s "a shabby l i t t l e  a sand-reef,  i t "begins seaport  polari-  and ends i n  town b u i l t  a moribund and s p i r i t l e s s backwater". (C_, p. 103)  upon  It i s  125  a town of "harsh its  i n h a b i t a n t s a r e "wicked, p l e a s u r e - l o v i n g " but they a r e a l s o "un-  romantic". and  c i r c u m s c r i b e d c o n t o u r s " , not o f unfathomed mystery;  (M, p . 154)  Cavafy d e a l t w i t h t h i s problem of t h e i n n e r  o u t e r A l e x a n d r i a , and h i s crimes t o o a r e blamed on t h e c i t y : i . i T r a v e l l e r , you w i l l not blame, I f A l e x a n d r i a n , You know t h e p a s s i o n Of o u r l i f e here, t h e p l e a s u r e and t h e f l a m e .  But  1  t h i s i s i l l u s o r y , and i n "The C i t y " , which D u r r e l l quotes, he  warns h i m s e l f not t o b e l i e v e he can escape from t h e p l a c e which torments him: . . . A h ! can you not see How j u s t as your whole l i f e you've s p o i l e d In t h i s one spot, you've r u i n e d i t s worth Everywhere now over t h e whole e a r t h ? (J,  p . 181)  E x p l i c a t i n g t h i s poem, P h i l i p S h e r r a r d f i n d s t h a t t h e poet i s t h e c i t y from which h i s romanticism  tempts him t o f l e e  "himself ... A l l i t s  waste and r o t t e n n e s s i s but a r e f l e c t i o n of ( h i s ) own c o n d i t i o n .... his  t a s k now as a poet  own c o n d i t i o n " .  2  ... i s t o make a myth o f t h a t C i t y which i s h i s  F o r s t e r says t h a t C a v a f y , l i k e t h e E l i z a b e t h a n s , i s  s i n g i n g "My mind t o me a kingdom i s " , but Dyer's c o n v e n t i o n a l p o e t i c kingdom i n Cavafy has a c q u i r e d t h e unsavoury c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a " r e a l " kingdom s u b j e c t t o m u t i n i e s and war. concept,  I t i s t h e o l d microcosm-macrocosm  man and u n i v e r s e as mutual m i r r o r s .  D u r r e l l ' s Alexandrians  have t o c o r r e c t t h e i r maps t o r e l o c a t e  A l e x a n d r i a i n an i n n e r kingdom. ing  3  At t h e end of B a l t h a z a r , i t i s becom-  e v i d e n t t h a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f "a new A l e x a n d r i a " depends on t h e i'^Tomb of I a s e s " , p . 82. 2  T h e Marble T h r e s h i n g - F l o o r , pp. 87, 89.  3  P h a r o s , p. 93.  126  s e l v e s which make i t , and  t h a t t o understand A l e x a n d r i a  c l o s e r t o "'self-possession"'. (B_, pp.  242  -243;  236  i s t o come  - 237)  Pursewarden  t e l l s D a r l e y t o t h i n k of h i m s e l f as a " s l e e p i n g c i t y " , and D a r l e y t o t h i n k t h a t the d e s t r u c t i o n of h i s p r i v a t e A l e x a n d r i a was  comes  necessary  because h i s p r i v a t e c i t y i s merely an e f f u s i o n of the mind. ( J , p. B, p. 220)  D i s c o v e r i n g the t r u t h about the c i t y w i l l r e v e a l t r u t h about  h i m s e l f , " c a r r y me proper shell  self".  a l i t t l e f u r t h e r ; i n what i s r e a l l y  (B, p. 226)  of A l e x a n d r i a and  of A l e x a n d r i a  and  Create  a search f o r  L i k e A r n a u t i , he " p i e r c e d the hard  a r t i s t h o o d , they  (J_, p. 76)  Finally,  speak of t h e i r new  as a r e v e l a t i o n of the " s e c r e t landscape",  my  banausic  d i s c o v e r e d h i m s e l f " , because the outward  i s a c r e a t i o n of the s e l f .  D a r l e y and C l e a a c h i e v e act  139;  aura  when  power t o  a view of  the inner s e l f h i t h e r t o hidden. Alexandria s c i o u s , and "the  i s a landscape of the mind as a m i r r o r of the uncon-  a l s o as a t e l e s c o p e of t i m e .  c a p i t a l of memory". ( J , p. 189;  I t i s s e v e r a l times p. 11;  Nothing i n D u r r e l l ' s A l e x a n d r i a i s allowed is  a potent  itself  and  force s t i l l .  She  Cor, pp.  i s the p r i n c e s s and whore, the  hence p a r t of the s e c r e t n a t u r e  But  imperious  -  304)  t o become dead p a s t .  of the  Even the most u n l i k e l y women seem t o be i d e n t i f i e d dark and  303  called  city  s e l f of e i t h e r with her.  passion i s c o n t i n u a l l y reminiscent  of the  first  meeting w i t h M e l i s s a and  beginnings  and  rebirths.  The  queen.  of the  and  Both i n s t a n c e s - D a r l e y ' s  h i s s a v i n g of C l e a ' s l i f e reuse  sex.  Justine's  the g e n t l e r C l e a and M e l i s s a are both, i n metaphor, b a l e d up  d e l i v e r e d t o C a e s a r . ( J , p. 56; C_, p. 253)  Qeopatra  - mark  s i m i l e underscores  new  Darley's  127  fesLing t h a t he found C l e a at the same time M e l i s s a ; two Men h i s own He  contemporary times and time  of the present  and p l a c e as he had  l o n g past are  linked.  f e e l the c o e x i s t e n c e of the p a s t .  Darley  h i s t o r y as p a r t of t h e h i s t o r i c a l f a b r i c of the p l a c e  cannot at f i r s t  respond  t o l i f e as an i n d i v i d u a l , but  s u b j e c t t o the nonhuman A l e x a n d r i a n w i l l .  But  he  found  sees  ( J , p.  190)  seems t o be  comes t o see t h a t  t h i s A l e x a n d r i a i s somewhere w i t h i n "the human e s t a t e " , and t h a t i s 7  where the d i r e c t i n g w i l l r e s i d e s ; "the seeds of f u t u r e events c a r r i e d w i t h i n o u r s e l v e s " . (C, p. 223)  are  As he comes t o terms w i t h  the p e r s o n a l meaning of time, he t a l k s about the " c o n t i n u o u s  present,  which i s the r e a l h i s t o r y of t h a t c o l l e c t i v e anecdote, the human mind". (C, p. 14)  The  of the human r a c e .  The  oneness of h i s t o r i c a l time i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c i t y , a h a b i t a t of memories, c o u l d accommodate  the memories of A l i c e ' s l o o k i n g - g l a s s , which go forward back.  I t "moves not o n l y backwards i n t o our h i s t o r y , studded  g r e a t names which mark every and  The  unified  by  the  s t a t i o n of r e c o r d e d time, but a l s o back  f o r t h i n the l i v i n g p r e s e n t " .  a way  as w e l l as  (B, p.  151)  s e l f , which the A l e x a n d r i a n i s s e e k i n g , can be i n  p a r a l l e l e d by the u n i f i e d h i s t o r y of A l e x a n d r i a : It seemed t h a t past and present had j o i n e d a g a i n without any d i v i s i o n s i n i t , t h a t a l l my memories and i m p r e s s i o n s had o r d e r e d themselves i n t o one complete p a t t e r n , whose metaphor was always the s h i n i n g c i t y of the d i s i n h e r i t e d . (C, p. 91) The  c o l l e c t i v e A l e x a n d r i a i s s t r a n g e l y manifested  i n Nessim*s  L i o n e l T r i l l i n g comments: What we of Europe and America c a l l t h e past i s p a r t of A l e x a n d r i a ' s a c t u a l p r e s e n t " . (World, p. 61) C f . "an environment t h a t brought him i n t o touch w i t h h i s f o r b e a r s and h i s s u c c e s s o r s i n t i m e " . E r n e s t Rhys. Romance (New YorkJ 1913), p. 5  128  h i s t o r i c a l dreams, a merger of " h i s past 176)  Much t h a t i s not e x p l i c i t l y  "Alexandrian"  and t h e c i t y ' s " .  connected w i t h  ( J , pp. 175,  s e t t i n g as such i s  i n t h a t i t i s concerned w i t h dark and t i m e l e s s  mysteries  which seem t o have always been t h e o b j e c t s o f p a r t i c u l a r study i n t h e city.  F o r s t e r speaks o f t h e " u s u a l A l e x a n d r i a n  up o f God and man".  1  problem - t h e l i n k i n g  D u r r e l l has remarked t h a t "from an i m a g i n a t i v e  p o i n t of view A l e x a n d r i a i s t h e hinge of our whole C h i i s t i a n c u l t u r e " .  2  I t has been a c i t y where people probe i n t o p h y s i c s and metaphysics, s c i e n c e and i n t r o s p e c t i o n , i n a l l ways t h e a p p r o p r i a t e environment f o r Durrell's s e l f - s i c k characters.  I t i s not t h a t t h e c i t y has a malignant  w i l l which i t f o r c e s upon them, but t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l mental c l i m a t e i s a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r own i n n e r  Alexandria  disease.  Because t h i s has been t h e way o f A l e x a n d r i a , o r o f t h e i d e a o f Alexandria,  since i t s founding,  C l e o p a t r a and t h e Septuagint  a way o f t h i n k i n g and l i v i n g i n which  were not f a r s e p a r a t e d ,  i t i s a setting  f o r a n o v e l demonstrating t h e r e l a t i v e n e s s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l t i m e . Nessim i s what Wyndham Lewis dubbed a " t i m e - t r i p p e r " , analagous t o "globe-trotter": F o r what i s t h e b a s i s o f these new j o u r n e y s or t r a v e l s i n time? Where do they occur? They o c c u r , o f course, i n s i d e t h e head - t h a t i s where t h e t i m e - t r a c t s l i e - t h e r e g i o n of memory and i m a g i n a t i o n as opposed t o 'matter*. I t i s i n short a mental and p s y c h o l o g i c w o r l d . 3  Lewis quotes Whitehead's phrase "mental c l i m a t e " which would be t h e  -'-Alexandria, p . 70 2  3  K n e l l e r Tape, World, p . 168  ,Time and Western Man, pp. 258 - 259. Lewis's  italics.  129  o n l y c l i m a t e f o r ' a landscape o f t h e m i n d .  1  D u r r e l l i s p u t t i n g h i m s e l f i n t h e t r a d i t i o n of A l e x a n d r i a n romance l i t e r a t u r e .  Heliodorus's  E t h i o p i c s i s a polyphonic  narrative  o f i n t r i c a t e time sequences, n a r r a t e d by v a r i o u s r e m i n i s c i n g all  of whom a r e i g n o r a n t  of some aspect  characters  o f t h e i r n a r r a t i v e ; and t e l l s  of t h e i n c e s t o f Cnemon and Demaeneta, t h e r i v a l r y of t h e b r o t h e r s Thysmis and P e l o r u s , t h e c o n t r a s t of a f a i r maid and a dark a search f o r a l o s t  child;  lady,and  and d i s c o u r s e s on l o v e as a malady.  of these p o i n t s o f technique  Each  o r theme has a p a r a l l e l i n t h e Quart e t .  A c h i l l e s T a t i u s s C l i t o p h o and,Leucippe i s another s t o r y of t h e l o v e T  d i s e a s e , i n c l u d i n g a p a t h e t i c homosexual l o v e and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f "the Ass life  celebrated c i t y of A l e x a n d r i a " ; long before Darley, i n t h e Greek Quarter  "*"cf.  2  L u c i u s A p u l e i u s was B r o t h e r  and T h e o c r i t u s * F i f t e e n t h I d y l of A l e x a n d r i a .  W a l l a c e Steven's "Crude  4  describes  D u r r e l l wrote a poem  Foyer":  That t h e r e l i e s at t h e end of thought A f o y e r of t h e s p i r i t i n a landscape Of t h e mind, i n which we s i t And wear humanity's b l e a k crown. • • •  .... s i n c e we know t h a t we use Only t h e eye as f a c u l t y , t h a t t h e mind I s t h e eye, and t h a t t h i s landscape o f t h e mind I s a landscape o n l y of t h e e y e . i n Oscar W i l l i a m s , e d . A L i t t l e T r e a s u r e y of Modern P o e t r y , p. 184. Note a l s o F o r s t e r ' s p r a c t i c e i n h i s books on A l e x a n d r i a of d e s c r i b i n g both past and present f e a t u r e s o f a g i v e n s i t e , because t h e past f e a t u r e s a r e o f t e n thought of as though s t i l l t o be seen. 2  Heliodorus,  T a t i u s and Longus a r e i n Greek Romances.  3  T h e Golden Asse (London:  4  F o r s t e r , A l e x a n d r i a , p . 35.  Abbey L i b r a r y , undated)  130  about Longus's Daphnis and C h l o e , and sang t h e i r p r a i s e s w h i l e s t e e r i n g a d i l a p i d a t e d c a r around a Greek p r e c i p i c e i n a storm, w i t h a nervous Henry M i l l e r by h i s s i d e . D u r r e l l i s d o i n g something new  1  I t would  seem a q u e s t i o n  whether  w i t h t h e n o v e l or whether he i s doing •  something v e r y o l d i n d e e d , a p r e - n o v e l comedy of confused i d e n t i t i e s and i n b r e d  passions.  The s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r of l o v e i n A l e x a n d r i a l i n k s two images tof t h e s e l f :  (e.g. M, p.  t h e l o v e r and t h e l a n d s c a p e .  and L e i l a have an e s p e c i a l l y g e o g r a p h i c a l l o v e . England and Egypt l o v i n g and l e a v i n g each o t h e r .  193) Mountolive  They a r e i n a sense But t h e metaphor  has a wider a p p l i c a t i o n , or perhaps "deeper" i s a more a c c u r a t e word. L e i l a i s Egypt, at f i r s t  because she and t h e c o u n t r y share a romantic  a l l u r e f o r t h e young Englishman; l a t e r because "she r e p r e s e n t e d somet h i n g l i k e a second, almost m y t h i c a l image of r e a l i t y which he e x p e r i e n c i n g , e x p r o p r i a t i n g day by day".  (M, pp. 147 - 148)  t i o n t o her i s t h e " p s y c h i c meaning" of Egypt f o r h i s own  His r e l a -  inner  He has t o break w i t h her and hence w i t h Egypt, t o know h i m s e l f "come of age" as D a r l e y does. had t o be outgrown".  (M, pp. 274 - 275)  s e p a r a t e from t h e women and men " d y i n g , Egypt, d y i n g " .  s e l v e s , a woman who  2  He r e p e a t s t h e name " E g y p t "  who  Egypt has never been  have l i v e d t h e r e :  Antony t o o  In a c i t y where p e o p l e s e a r c h f o r t h e i r  L e i l a i s l e s s s p e c t a c u l a r , perhaps, t h a n  •••Miller, The C o l o s s u s of M a r o u s s i (New Antony  and  e x p l o r e s and e x p l o i t s t h e p a s s i o n s becomes a  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of t h e c i t y .  2  Mfe.  I t i s "a p u b e r t y of t h e f e e l i n g s which  as i f i t were t h e name of a woman.(M, p. 12)  was  was  IV. i i ,  42.  York, 1958), p.  216.  131  J u s t i n e or C l e o p a t r a , but  she performs d r a s t i c experiments w i t h  h e a r t s and minds of M o u n t o l i v e ,  her  sons and her husband.  p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s are d e s c r i b e d as. i f t h e y were those  the  Even her  of the  environ-  ment and her r u i n e d beauty resembles "a f a m i l i a r landscape blown (M, p.  56) W r i t i n g of J u s t i n e , D a r l e y  one  up",  l o v e s one  says, "A  c i t y becomes a world when  of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s " . ( J , p. 63)  are seen i n the l i g h t  of one's own  The  c i t y and  world  p a s s i o n s , as an image of the  self.  L a t e r , of C l e a , he a g a i n w r i t e s , "When you a r e . i n . l o v e w i t h one. of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s a c i t y can become a w o r l d . Alexand±ia was  born through C l e a  t o r e p l a c e the o l d one". new  p l a c e , but  (C, pp.  i t i s a l s o the  A whole.new geography of  ... a new 228  h i s t o r y ... a new  - 229)  I t i s a new  same p l a c e , and  biography  time and  a  i n terms o f . p a r t i c u l a r .  emotions, the same time; i t i s a rearrangement. Alexandria's  surroundings,  the d e s e r t , a p l a c e of mirage and Lake M a r e o t i s 22,  151  apart  from t h e a r c h e t y p a l sea,  the l a k e , a p l a c e of  reflections.  i s c o n t i n u a l l y d e s c r i b e d as a m i r r o r or as an eye  - 152;  "Mareotis:,  P_, p. 33;  The  c a r n i v a l f i g u r e s i n the l o n e l i n e s s and  anguished s e l v e s are compared t o M a r e o t i s , by t h e s i l e n t  unjudging,  (B,  "Conon i n A l e x a n d r i a , " P_, p.  It i s an image of the r e f l e c t i o n , p e r c e i v e r , p e r c e p t i o n and i n one.  are  92).  perceived  s t a g n a t i o n of  "a dead b r a c k i s h l a k e  their surrounded  wide-eyed d e s e r t under a dead moon" (B_, p.  Deep waters of t h e s e l f are swampy and m o t i o n l e s s  i n a context  m i t t e d emptiness, r e q u i r i n g a d e c i s i o n and  will.  act of  pp.  201)  of uncom-  1  "*-An i r r e s i s t i b l e but perhaps i r r e l e v a n t comparison might be made w i t h the f a n t a s t i c landscape of t h e mind i n JJR.R. T o l k i e n ' s L o r d of the Rings, which concerns a war of w i l l s , a b a t t l e a g a i n s t p e r s o n i f i e d nightmares, a c o n t r a s t of white and dark f i g u r e s . In R i v e n d e l l , "Time doesn't seem t o pass here: i t j u s t i s " . I p. 243) A s i m i l a r s e n s a t i o n i s e x p e r i e n c e d i n L o r i e n , where G a l a d r i e l ' s magic m i r r o r r e f l e c t s p a s t , p r e s e n t , or f u t u r e without i n d i c a t i n g wh i ch.  132  B.  Greece "The  b r i g h t , l o o k i n g - g l a s s world  of Greece" i s G e r a l d D u r r e l l ' s  d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i s l a n d t o which h i s b r o t h e r t r a n s p l a n t e d When Lawrence D u r r e l l ' s p r o t a g o n i s t is  still  him.  l e a v e s A l e x a n d r i a f o r Greece, he  i n A l i c e ' s w o r l d , and the r e f l e c t i o n becomes c l e a r e r f o r  t h e move away from the o b j e c t .  It i s during h i s f i r s t  s t a y on h i s  Aegean i s l a n d t h a t D a r l e y l e a r n s of the o t h e r views of h i s own and  1  f i t s them i n t o t h e context  of h i s memories.  s t a y , he f i n d s h i m s e l f as an a r t i s t  and  a man,  During  who  story  h i s second  can c r e a t e  and  act. D u r r e l l ' s t h r e e t r a v e l books and many poems about Greece are added testimony  t o the looking—glass q u a l i t y o f  the c o u n t r y ,  t h e i s l a n d s w i t h the sea t o c l a r i f y the image. "living  eye" which seems t o p e r c e i v e i t s e l f ,  i s to perceive i t s e l f :  "Nowhere e l s e has  scape so aware of i t s e l f , of human e x i s t e n c e " .  The  landscape i s a  as the human i n n e r  eye  t h e r e ever been a l a n d -  conforming so m a r v e l l o u s l y t o t h e  (PC, p.  especially  dimensions  131)  Rank p i c t u r e s t h e Greek s t a n d i n g f i r m l y upon the ground, not it  l i k e the E g y p t i a n  Christian.  2  b u r i e d i n h i s own  o f f e r you d i s c o v e r i e s i n manners or l o r e or  scape; Greece o f f e r s you  they  My  Family  p.  146.  2  3  something harder  Colossus,  c l e a n s e d me  of h a t r e d  and Other A n i m a l s , p.  p.  210.  land-  - t h e d i s c o v e r y of y o u r s e l f " .  M i l l e r on Rhodes found t h a t t h e Greeks "brought me  f a c e w i t h myself,  1  the  T h i s c l e a r - e y e d view of t h i n g s i s o f f e r e d t o the wanderer:  "Other c o u n t r i e s may  (PC, p. 11)  depths, or above i t l i k e  under  18  and  j e a l o u s l y and  face to envy.  133  Greece puts one i n t o r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h one's s e l f and w i t h others. Greece completes t h e " e l i m i n a t i o n " of t i m e , f o r t h e past t h a t i s p r e s e n t here i s not o n l y h i s t o r i c p a s t , but a m y t h o l o g i c a l p a s t , somehow e v i d e n t i n t h e appearance p. 59)  o f o b j e c t s i n t h e l a n d s c a p e . (PC,  Aware o f t h e war e n c r o a c h i n g on t h e i s l a n d , and of i t s  e x p r e s s i o n of man's fte&jr of l i f e , D a r l e y senses t h e presence of t h e " o l d dark gods" i n t h e i r n a t u r a l h a b i t a t " f o r e v e r s i t e d i n t h e huaan w i s h " and undaunted  C.  by mechanised  man. (C, p . 274)  England T r a v e l , D u r r e l l says i n B i t t e r Lemons ( p . 15) i s "one o f t h e  most rewarding forms o f i n t r o s p e c t i o n " . adds t h a t t r a v e l i s "an outward reality",  I n The Dark L a b y r i n t h , he  symbol of an inward march upon  ( p . 59)  " R e a l i t y " i s sought i s a " r e a l " c i t y , because human s e l f .  i n A l e x a n d r i a and found i n Greece.  Alexandria  i t d e a l s w i t h t h e depths and l a b y r i n t h s of t h e  The " u n r e a l c i t y " i s t h e c a p i t a l o f t h e wasteland where  people d e a l i n s u p e r f i c i a l i t i e s and l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h themselves and t h e i r dark gods.  T h i s i s t h e s i t e of t h e " E n g l i s h d e a t h " , which  haunts D u r r e l l through a l l h i s w r i t i n g s , i n c l u d i n g h i s l e t t e r s ( e . g . BB,  p . 105). M o u n t o l i v e has been "educated not t o wish t o f e e l " ,  but t o b e l i e v e t h a t " t o l o v e was a b s u r d , l i k e b e i n g knocked mantelpiece".  (M, pp. 18 - 19)  o f f the  T h i s p a r a l y s i s , which i s l i k e a death,  s e p a r a t e s western man from h i m s e l f .  He r e f u s e s t o acknowledge t h e dark  gods and t h e i r beauty, t o "come t o terms w i t h ( h i s ) own human o b s c e n i t y " . (M, p . 63)  I n " C i t i e s , P l a i n s and People"  D u r r e l l goes "To t h e p r u d i s h  134  c l i f f s and the sad green home/Of Pudding foam". (P, p.136)  I s l a n d o'er t h e V i c t o r i a n  Pursewarden puts t h i s i n p o l i t i c a l terms t o  e x p l a i n the B r i t i s h weakness on Egypt as a l o s s of " t h e b a s i c power t o a c t " , and t h i s i s t r u e on an i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l a l s o  (M, p. 103).  England i s p a r t of the s e l v e s of D u r r e l l and h i s c h a r a c t e r s - D a r l e y , Pursewarden,  M o u n t o l i v e - and i t s u n r e a l n e s s l e a v e s incomplete t h e i r  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h themselves.  Pursewarden t h e r e f o r e t h i n k s of  home w i t h r e g r e t and r e v u l s i o n . (M, p. 161) " r i t u a l landscape".  (M, p. 94)  Pursewarden,  England t o o i s a L i z a and M o u n t o l i v e  c e l e b r a t e B l a k e ' s b i r t h d a y by w a l z i n g i n T r a f a l g a r Square, a t r i b u t e t o two heroes of t h e r e a l , not-dead England  (M, pp. 66 - 67;  see a l s o  "A B a l l a d of the Good L o r d N e l s o n " , i n W i l l i a m s ' s L i t t l e T r e a s u r y of Modern P o e t r y , p. 733) ,  1  Between the p o i n t s of D u r r e l l ' s compass i s the sea: M e d i t e r r a n e a n , Aegean.  Atlantic,  To d i s c u s s the i m p l i c a t i o n s , obvious and  p o s s i b l e , of the immersion  i n water, the j o u r n e y by water and  and r e b i r t h from water, i s beyond the scope of t h i s  paper.  under-water,  2  •'-A study of N e l s o n as a symbol of what the E n g l i s h c o u l d and should be, might b e g i n w i t h D u r r e l l ' s " B a l l a d " , the scene i n T r a f a l g a r Square and Pursewarden's comment about Emma (M, p. 6 5 ) . In " E p i l o g u e i n A l e x a n d r i a " , i n P r o s p e r o ' s C e l l s i g h t l e s s Pharos reminds D u r r e l l of N e l s o n . G e r a l d D u r r e l l r e c a l l s a c h i l d i s h v i s i o n of N e l s o n as a b i r d - w a t c h e r . (My F a m i l y , pp. 64 - 65) Compare w i t h t h e s e : C h a r l e s Morgan's essay on N e l s o n i n R e f l e c t i o n s , Second S e r i e s (pp. 177 - 184); F o r s t e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e B a t t l e of the N i l e ( A l e x a n d r i a , p. 92); r e f e r e n c e s t o N e l s o n i n M e l v i l l e ' s n o v e l s and s t o r i e s ; Noyes's "Admirals A l l " , because even here i t i s Nelson's impudent d i s obedience which makes him a hero; Shaw's note t o Caesar and C l e o p a t r a ; A l d o u s Huxley's short s t o r y " H a p p i l y Ever A f t e r " , Robert Grave's poem "1805". ^There a r e v a r i o u s A l e x a n d r i a n r e b i r t h s : of D a r l e y , C l e a , B a l t h a z a r , Semira, S c o b i e - E l Scob, Nessim, Nessim's daughter, Justine, Capodistria.  135  I s h a l l t h e r e f o r e o n l y mention the importance of water as a symbol i n i t s own  right  i n the A l e x a n d r i a n  b o l i c l a n d s c a p e , and  of one  Darley t r a v e l s across  Quartet.  v e r s i o n of the m i r r o r of  as i f I were f o r the f i r s t shaped a f t e r a man  p. 249)  The  f o r c e s him  into action:  of a c t i o n I had  s e l f meets the  " i t was  s e l f and  alter  never r e a l i z e d , r e c o g n i s e d " .  becomes m o b i l e , out  of the  (C,  "shark-  strange".  (M,  172)  CHAPTER V I I :  Conclusion:  At the end  Time and the H e r a l d i c  s t o r y of a few  or whether t h i s i s not  a green f i n g e r s t a l l , a watch-key, and  wedding-rings". ( J , p. 245)  The  the  a l s o as b e a r e r s  of i m p l i c a t i o n and  somehow conveyed by t h e . s u b s t a n t i a l  t r i a ' s black patch,  a couple  o b j e c t s appear and  appear at v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n the t e t r a l o g y , as p a r t of the scene and  simply  inanimate o b j e c t s which p r e c i p i t a t e d drama around them -  I mean a b l a c k p a t c h , of d i s p o s s e s s e d  Universe  of J u s t i n e , D a r l e y wonders "whether t h e s e pages r e c o r d  the a c t i o n s of r e a l human beings;  but  and  time c o n f r o n t i n g myself - or perhaps an  i n f e s t e d seasuof l o v e " , changed i n t o " s o m e t h i n g r i c h and P.  sym-  Narcissus.  i t t o h i s times of r e v e l a t i o n i n Greece  plunges i n t o i t when C l e a ' s a c c i d e n t  ego  I t i s p a r t of the  re-  immediate  a s s o c i a t i o n s not a r t i c u l a t e d  e x i s t e n c e of the t h i n g :  by which J u s t i n e r e c o g n i z e s  her r a v i s h e r and  Capodiswhich  preshadows Nessim's p a r t i a l b l i n d i n g ; J u s t i n e ' s green r i n g which onee longed t o a p r e h i s t o r i c p r i n c e and which Toto wears at c a r n i v a l the  be-  night  of h i s murder; B a l t h a z a r ' s watch-key, the l o s t key t o the n a t u r e of time and  the  s e c r e t of J u s t i n e ; the wedding-rings M e l i s s a never used.  Each suggests a l s o more t r u t h s and  p o s s i b i l i t i e s attached t o the  These f o u r o b j e c t s reduce t o i t s s i m p l e s t  object.  terms D u r r e l l ' s system  136  of what must be c a l l e d "symbolism"" f o r want of a b e t t e r name, a m u l t i p l i c i t y of c o n n o t a t i o n s .  The m i r r o r becomes a metaphor f o r a l l the  o b j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g , as w e l l as the t a n g i b l e t h i n g s , the l i n k s between p e r s o n s , t h e a t t i t u d e s of persnns t o t h i n g s . A l e x a n d r i a n l o o k s a t , he  sees h i m s e l f and  No matter what the  an image of h i s r e l a t i o n  h i m s e l f , t o the o b j e c t and t o t h e world around  to  him.  D u r r e l l and Pursewarden t a l k about the " H e r a l d i c U n i v e r s e " , a concept  which d e s c r i b e s the i n t e r a c t i o n i n i n f o l d i n g a  i n n e r and  simultaneously  o u t e r n a r r a t i v e h e l d t o g e t h e r by t h e s e r e c u r r e n t o b j e c t s and  events.  D u r r e l l ' s use of the word " h e r a l d i c " i s e s s e n t i a l l y the u s u a l  one,  he i s not f a r from l i o n s rampant and bars  and  sinister:  . . . i n H e r a l d r y the o b j e c t i s used i n an emotive and a f f e c t i v e sense - s t a t i c a l l y t o body f o r t h or u t t e r : not as a v i c t i m of description. The H e r a l d i c U n i v e r s e i s t h a t t e r r i t o r y of e x p e r i e n c e i n which the symbol e x i s t s - as opposed t o the emblem or badge, which are t h e c h i l d r e n of a l g e b r a and s u b s t i t u t i o n . 1  The  h e r a l d i c d e v i c e i s not j u s t  a s i g n of something; i t i s the o r g a n i c  embodiment of something, a way  of e x p r e s s i n g an i d e a l , an i n t e n t ,  awareness of past and  The  future.  l i o n p r o w l i n g about the j u n g l e  i s the h e r a l d i c l i o n l o n g b e f o r e he appears on a r o y a l s t a n d a r d . majesty and the power are i n him, h e r a l d i c meaning; he does not an emblem  the r e a l l i o n .  He  The  embodies h i s  a r b i t r a r i l y " s t a n d f o r " something  as  may.  O b j e c t s , p l a c e s and persons Alexandrian Quartet.  Emotively,  are not merely d e s c r i b e d i n the s u g g e s t i v e l y and  even  intellectually  l - D u r r e l l i n P e r s o n a l Landscape, quoted by S t a n f o r d , World, p.  an  40.  137  t h e y " u t t e r " something. Alexandria street. and  Hence, as we have seen, a s t r e e t scene i n  i s a l s o a scene i n t h e i n n e r l i v e s o f t h e people on t h e  Hence a l s o , t h e p u r p l e passages of d e s c r i p t i o n a r e f u n c t i o n a l ,  t h e i r r i c h n e s s t e s t i f i e s t o t h e t e x t u r e of p s y c h i c and p h y s i c a l  experience.  Pursewarden e x c l a i m s ,  the language i n t o poem. Scattered  "Symbolism! t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n o f  The h e r a l d i c aspect  i n s t a n c e s o f people g a z i n g  of r e a l i t y ! "  into mirrors  (C_, p. 137)  suggest as much as  many pages o f t o r t u r e d d i d a c t i c i s m about t h e i n v e r s i o n of t h e modern s e l f ; t h u s , t h e symbol a b b r e v i a t e s not m e t a p h o r i c a l  m i r r o r s i n the context  reality i s heraldic. t h i s respect.  language.  But these a r e a l s o  real,  of t h e n a r r a t i v e , and t h i s  D u r c e l l i s not doing  anything  r a d i c a l l y new i n  The s c h o l a s t i c i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e "symbol" was t h e t h i n g  i t s e l f and not t h e a r t i s t ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of i t . The r e a l lamb baai n g out i n t h e f i e l d was a symbol o f C h r i s t ; God made h i s own symbolism. As Groddeck says, "Symbols a r e not i n v e n t e d ; belong t o t h e i n a l i e n a b l e e s t a t e of man .  they a r e t h e r e and hence A g a i n , as i f t o support  D u r r e l l on t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n o f language, he e x p l a i n s : It i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r anyone t o e x p r e s s t r u t h of t h i s s o r t i n words, f o r i t i s imagery, symbol, and t h e symbol cannot be spoken. I t l i v e s and we are l i v e d by i t , one can o n l y use words t h a t a r e i n d e t e r m i n a t e and v a g u e . 2  Gerald  Sykes p o i n t s out t h a t when D u r r e l l employs r e a l i s t i c  details,  which he does everywhere, "he i s always l o o k i n g beneath them f o r t h e a r c h e t y p a l beauty t h e y  1  p.  89.  2  p . 242.  3  W o r l d , p . 153.  conceal".  3  138  The  h e r a l d i c approach becomes a way  of l i f e ,  as w e l l as a  way  of a r t , f o r i t d i r e c t s D u r r e l l ' s n o n - f i c t i o n as much as i t does h i s f i c t i o n and  poetry.  speaks of "the  Describing  the p e r s o n a l  symbol m a r r i e d t o the o b j e c t  meaning t h a t the r e a l t h i n g i s the "a cypress  meaning of Greece, prime", another way  symbol, and  goes on t o  he of  illustrate:  t r e e , a mask, an orange, a plough were extended beyond them-  s e l v e s i n t o an e t e r n a l i t y t h e y enjoyed o n l y w i t h the f u r n i t u r e of a l l good p o e t r y " .  (MV,  p. 179)  R e f l e c t i o n s on a Marine Venus i s a f a c t u a l  d e s c r i p t i o n of Rhodes, yet here he poetry,  i s t a l k i n g about symbolism  f i n d i n g , i n f a c t , books i n the running brooks.  A r t makes  "sudden r a i d s on the i n a r t i c u l a t e " , shaping "a p r e s e r v i n g s t r u c t u r e " . (Cor, p. 203) the r e a l - s y m b o l i c  his  own  As  a c r e a t o r and  creates himself  image, and  The  artist  i n the  irqge of the C r e a t o r  each o t h e r ,  i s bewildering.  f a i t h f u l t o your angle of v i s i o n , and partiality".  (C, p. 120)  r e l a t i o n t o other  One  s e l v e s and  r e f l e c t e d t r u t h s about o n e s e l f ,  and  and  in its reality.  Clea's  one  macrocosm. Clea  at the  will,  his art i n  s e l f and  says, "You  have t o  In e v e r y t h i n g ,  c l u e s t o i t s n a t u r e , but  be  recognize  must f i n d or c r e a t e one's own  t o a whole.  another  The r e s u l t i n g  same time f u l l y  look f o r o n l y t h a t i s t o f i n d o n l y a p a r t i a l  object  outer  charge of cosmic presumption.  c r e a t i o n , microcosm and  m u l t i p l i c i t y of viewpoint  and  universe,  an a c t i v e e x e r c i s e r of the  t h e n i s open t o the  o u t e r world r e f l e c t  s e l f , c r e a t o r and  in  heraldic  H e r a l d i c U n i v e r s e i s a system of hinged m i r r o r s , i n which  i n n e r s e l f and  its  makes a l i t t l e  Heraldic  s t r u c t u r e of which i s a r e a l symbol of the  Heraldic Universe. the a r t i s t  The  and  one  self can  see  t o see o n l y  symbol and  ignore  statement i m p l i e s the n e c e s s i t y of  that the  reali-  139  z i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of o t h e r a n g l e s of v i s i o n . as Norman Douglas's  The t h i n g t o  Caloveglia advises, i s "externalize  B a l t h a z a r , p r e a c h i n g from the Cabbala,  do,  yourself".  1  urges the A l e x a n d r i a n s  t o l o o k outward i n o r d e r t o f i n d what i s inward, t o " d i s c o v e r h a r monies i n space and time which corresponded of t h e i r own it  psyches".  p e r c e p t i o n of s e l f i s not the f i n a l  i s t o be p l a c e d i n the context of the one,  ing a u n i f i e d a l l , "We  The  t o the i n n e r s t r u c t u r e  a unified  self  end;  reflect-  and t h i s i n c l u d e s e v e r y t h i n g i n the symbolic  world.  are e n l i s t i n g e v e r y t h i n g i n o r d e r t o make man's wholeness match  the wholeness of t h e u n i v e r s e " .  ( J , p. 100)  Because " e v e r y t h i n g "  i n c l u d e s "the d e s t r u c t i v e g r a n u l a t i o n of the mind i n p l e a s u r e " , the s i n i s t e r s i d e of A l e x a n d r i a i s a l s o a r e f l e c t i n n of the s e l f ,  the  Sadean s u b c o n s c i o u s , and the " p l e a s u r e " i s not always " p l e a s a n t " , as B a l t h a z a r ' s own  d e g r a d a t i o n shows.  E v i l i s i n c l u d e d , i s perhaps  n e c e s s a r y , as the e p i g r a p h t o C l e a i n s i s t s : b e a u t i f u l of Nature's by means of crimes  "The  primary and most  q u a l i t i e s i s motion, which ... i s conserved  alone".  2  T h i s oneness of s e l f and n o n s e l f and u n i v e r s e and o b j e c t p l e a s u r e and p a i n and good and treatment  of t i m e .  (p. 117)  in Durrell's  In t h e Key t o Modern P o e t r y , he wrote:  and the ego a r e t h e two tury",  e v i l i s also implicit  The two  determinants determinants  and  "Time  of s t y l e f o r the t w e n t i e t h are two  cen-  ways of l o o k i n g at  t h e d r i v e towards "the symbolic act of j o i n i n g what i s s e p a r a t e d " , a c t encouraged by two  1  of D u r r e l l ' s t e x t b o o k s , the t h e o r y of  S o u t h Wind (New  York, 1925), p.  an  relati-  174  q u o t e d from Sade, c f . : " I have d i s c o v e r e d myself, w h i l e t h i n k i n g of crime, w h i l e s u r r e n d e r i n g t o i t , o r j u s t a f t e r having executed i t " . Crime i s compared w i t h s e x u a l p l e a s u r e as an a f f e c t i v e and r e v e l a t o r y f o r c e . Sade, J u s t i n e , p. 261. 2  140  v i t y and  the Cabballa::  ' " i t i s important  t h e o r y j o i n e d up s u b j e c t and j o i n e d up  space and  to r e a l i z e that E i n s t e i n ' s  o b j e c t , i n v e r y much the same way  t i m e " . (Key,  p. 26)  H e r a l d r y expressed  b o l i s m of ages i n a s p a t i a l arrangement of o b j e c t s , and t o D u r r e l l ' s arrangement of events i n the Q u a r t e t . c a r e e r , he  as i t  the  sym-  t h i s i s akin  Early in his  explained:  But what I am t r y i n g t o i s o l a t e i s the exact moment of c r e a t i o n , i n which the maker seems t o e x i s t h e r a l d i c a l l y . That i s t o say, time as a concept does not e x i s t , but o n l y as an a t t r i b u t e of matter - decay, growth, e t c . In t h a t sense t h e n , i t must be memoryless. 23)  (Cor, p. D u r r e l l remarks t h a t t h i s does not does h i n t at t h e nature  seem c l e a r even t o h i m s e l f , but i t  of time as i t e v o l v e s  i s time as i t i s f o r the c r e a t o r , whether he creating a s e l f .  To  This  i s c r e a t i n g a r t or  I t i s the " o r d e r of the i m a g i n a t i o n " which i s "not  t h a t of memory" because the i m a g i n a t i o n p. 59)  i n the Q u a r t e t .  c a l l a g a i n upon paradox:  i s t i m e l e s s . (B, p. 225;  the i m a g i n a t i o n  cause i t i n c l u d e s a l l time i n an a r c h e t y p a l moment. myth-maker i s p a r t of the mythmaking i m a g i n a t i o n  BB,  i s timeless The  artist  of the r a c e .  beas  His  time i s "memoryless" because i t i s simultaneous r a t h e r than chronological.  Time as decay, growth, m u t a b i l i t y , "an a t t r i b u t e of m a t t e r "  does e x i s t , and a cosmological  the Alexandrians force.  t h i n g s on t h i s p l a n e t . sense of t i m e , and season.  The  change w i t h age,  but tb.isi;time i s not  I t i s simply p a r t of the f u n c t i o n i n g of So the Trumans i n The  also find their l i f e  living  Dark L a b y r i n t h l o s e a l l  r e g u l a t e d by the change of  o n l y time which e x i s t s i s a c y c l i c p r o c e s s ,  always " i n a g i n g l e unlaboured GDntyinuum".. ("At  returning  S t r a t i ' s " , J?,  p.  22)  141  The  universe,  l i k e a h e r a l d i c p a t t e r n , i s a s p a t i a l arrangement and  disarrangement. and  Pursewarden says:  "The symbolism c o n t a i n e d  p a t t e r n i s o n l y a frame o f r e f e r e n c e through which, as i n a  m i r r o r , one may glimpse t h e i d e a of a u n i v e r s e in  i n form  love with i t s e l f " .  at r e s t , a u n i v e r s e -  (C, p. 143) The work o f a r t i s a h e r a l d i c de-  s i g n , r e f l e c t i n g t h e u n i v e r s a l h e r a l d i c p a t t e r n , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l s e l f f i n d s i n the universe  a r e f l e c t i o n of i t s own s e l f - l o v e and  disinclination to action.  But t h e s e l f has t o e x i s t  other  i n relation to  s e l v e s and as a part o f a t o t a l i t y , whereas t h e " u n i v e r s e "  ( i n t h e sense which would i n c l u d e a l l p a r t i c u l a r " u n i v e r s e s " . ) totality, being.  complete i n i t s e l f  and not r e l a t i v e t o any o t h e r  and from i t emanates a l l c r e a t i o n .  l o v e , on t h e o t h e r hand, t o be f r u i t f u l with other  It  equivalent  The l o v e of t h e One must t h e r e f o r e be a s e l f - l o v e , but t h i s  self-love i s fruitful  The  i s the  1  Individual  must t u r n outward, t o j o i n  s e l v e s i n a cosmic a d d i t i o n , t h e sum o f which i s One.  universe  i s r e l a t i v e not t o equals  reflects itself  but t o i t s components,  i n a macrocosmic system o f m i r r o r s , some o f them  t r i c k m i r r o r s , some d i s t o r t e d , each g i v i n g t h e image i n a g l a s s because o n l y p a r t i a l l y . of t h e Quartet  A t t h e end o f C l e a , a f t e r t h e major problems  have a p p a r e n t l y  of " w o r k p o i n t s " , s u g g e s t i n g of r e f l e c t i o n  darkly,  been r e s o l v e d , D u r r e l l hands us a l i s t  new developments o f t h e s t o r y and new  angles  .. One can never q u i t e a s s i m i l a t e a l l t h e f a c e t s o f t h e  u n i v e r s a l prism. the A l e x a n d r i a n s  D u r r e l l ' s Alexandria  i s a m i r r o r o f t h i s p r i s m and  a mirror of ourselves within i t .  Forster, Alexandria,  pp. 70 - 73.  142  APPENDIX Alexandria  and A r c a d i a :  D u r r e l l as an  Elizabethan  I admit t o having ' E l i z a b e t h a n i z e d ' ; I d e l i b e r a t e l y s e l e c t e d crude m a t e r i a l f o r the j o b . And t r i e d t o say t h a t l i f e i s r e a l l y an a r t i s t i c problem, a l l men being sleeping a r t i s t s . 1  The for  concept of the " E l i z a b e t h a n "  D u r r e l l and  i n the  f o r the form and  the  has  a particular significance  content of h i s work.  He  finds  l i t e r a t u r e of t h a t p e r i o d an "enormous range of f e e l i n g  from the utmost v u l g a r i t y and t i c a t i o n , and  bawdy t o the g r e a t e s t  delicacy,  r e f i n e m e n t " , a c o a l i t i o n of bawdry and  ... sophis-  tenderness,  attempts too produce a s i m i l a r range of f e e l i n g i n h i s Q u a r t e t . P.  and (Young,  66) The  B l a c k Book f r e q u e n t l y e x p l o i t s the E l i z a b e t h a n a l l u s i o n  (e.g. p. 48) a character  and  Gregory l i k e s t o compare h i s dark s o u l t o t h a t  from Tourneur or Marston. (pp. 40 - 41,  i n c l u d e s "Jacobean".)  The  title  53.  of  "Elizabethan"  suggests Robert Greenes The  Black  Bookes Messenger, i n which Greene promises a " B l a c k Book" which apparently  does not  p o s s i b l e crimes.  m a t e r i a l i z e , remaining a p o s s i b l e c a t a l o g u e of  In Gregory's l i b r a r y , the n a r r a t o r  such m y s t e r i o u s volume: "But  where i s the B l a c k Book - t h a t  t o r y f o r a l l the uncut gems of c r e a t i o n ? "  (p.  c a p a c i t y f o r "rude h e a l t h , o r d u r e , the n a t u r a l and T h i s and  reposi-  197)  Pursewarden i n D u r r e l l ' s J u s t i n e mentions the  p. 116)  seeks another  Elizabethan the funny". ( J ,  Tourneur*s darkness suggest a w i l l i n g n e s s t o  K n e l l e r Tape, World, p.  167.  look  143  at v a r i o u s f a c e t s of human n a t u r e , t o come t o terms w i t h one's obscenity.  Durrell's latest  Elizabethan-minded  work, The  and makes important  I r i s h Faustus,  own  i s again  use of Marlow^s  Doctor  Faustus. Groddeck c l a i m s t h a t the Renaissance marked the b e g i n n i n g a r t of an e x c e s s i v e i n t e r e s t  in  i n t h e e x p l o r a t i o n of the p e r s o n a l i t y .  Rank sees i n t h e same age t h e emergence of t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t the genius  1  type,  as a s e l f , f r e e d from t h e c o l l e c t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y of the 9  M i d d l e Ages.  The  of human n a t u r e  E l i z a b e t h a n begins t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e  and  polarities  i n the a n a l y s i s of t h e s e l f , both A l e x a n d r i a n  pre-  occupations. Sidney's A r c a d i a , from which I s h a l l draw most of my f r e q u e n t l y resembles D u r r e l l ' s Quartet n a r r a t i v e does not proceed  terrupt  each o t h e r .  i n s t r u c t u r e and m o t i f .  along a s t r a i g h t  jumps ahead, becomes e n t a n g l e d .  and  l i n e , but  P l o t s , s u b p l o t s and  and  The  doubles back, counterplots i n -  sometimes the  each of these has a d i f f e r e n t  s t o r i e s are c o n t r a d i c t o r y .  i f t o l d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , i s immensely c o m p l i c a t e d . Quartet,  3  There are a number of n a r r a t o r s , whose r e m i n i s -  cences b r i n g past events t o the p r e s e n t ; viewpoint  examples,  The  s t o r y , even  L i k e the A l e x a n d r i a  i t d e a l s w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and the l i n e s of attachment  cross  r e c r o s s i n a g r e a t m u l t i p l e l o v e a f f a i r i n c l u d i n g a l l k i n d s of l o v e ,  r e s p e c t a b l e and The  illicit.  p o i n t of view s h i f t s , and what seems t o be t r u e i s not  a r i l y so.  Euarchus's d e c i s i o n and 1  pp.  61,  65.  2  pp.  19,  24.  solemn speech near the end  necess-  of t h e book  T h e Countess of Pembroke's A r c a d i a (London, 1907), h e r e a f t e r a b b r e v i a t e d as A. ( A l l r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be g i v e n i n my t e x t ) . 3  144  appear t o be a u t h o r i t a t i v e and c o n c l u s i v e , but t u r n out t o be How  i s one t o view Amphialus,  h e r o e s , but i s almost  who  is a villain  mistaken.  i n t h a t he opposes the  a t r a g i c f i g u r e i n h i s v a i n l o v e and  fruitless  victories? Sidney and D u r r e l l both mix m o t i v e s , so t h a t t h e r e i s sometimes little  d i s t i n c t i o n between such a p p a r e n t l y d i s t a n t  politics.  Euarchus  f o r c e s as l o v e and  urges B a s i l i u s t o resume a c t i o n , because  s i s i s bad f o r the s t a t e .  his paraly-  But f o r B a s i l i u s , as f o r M o u n t o l i v e , the need  f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n i s i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c t i o n inward among h i s own  emotions.  Both t h e Quartet and the A r c a d i a end w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p o s s i b l e new  developments,  i n t o something. r e a s o n why  t h r e a d s of the s t o r y t h a t might  be p i c k e d up and woven  Commenting on t h e A r c a d i a , J . J . Jusserand f i n d s  i t should ever end"'.''"  "no  In t h e B l a c k Book, D u r r e l l d e s c r i b e s  t h e n o v e l he p l a n s t o w r i t e as "something  without b e g i n n i n g ,  something  which w i l l never end, but conclude o n l y when i t has reached i t s own g e n e s i s a g a i n : v e r y , w e l l , a p i e c e of l i t e r a r y p e r p e t u a l motion",  (p.  69) John Untermecker, i n a review of The  I r i s h Faustus says o f  D u r r e l l ' s t e c h n i q u e t h a t he " d r i v e s h i s hero through  melodramatic  a d v e n t u r e s , s p e c t a c u l a r c o n f r o n t a t i o n s , and desperate e m o t i o n a l c r i s e s - a l l of which i n the l o n g run reduce t o n o t h i n g more nor than t h e p a i n f u l p r o c e s s of s e l f - d i s c o v e r y " .  2  T h i s i s what he  less  has  done i n the A l e x a n d r i a Q u a r t e t , and i t i s what Sidney does i n t h e A r c a d i a .  1  p.  The  E n g l i s h Novel i n t h e Time o f Shakespeare,  254. 2  S a t u r d a y Review, (March 21, 1964)  p.  43.  (London,  1901)  145  The  m i r r o r image i s important,  i t s reminder o f N a r c i s s u s ,  e s p e c i a l l y t h e r e f l e c t i o n i n water w i t h  (e.g. A, pp. 11, 211, 178, 179)  i s a d e c o r a t i o n more c o n v e n t i o n a l than symbolic.  T h i s image  Yet t h e whole A r c a d i a  i s a c o n t r a p u n t a l treatment o f N a r c i s s u s ' s problems, t h e A l e x a n d r i a n f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t h e composition  of one's s e l f .  The A r c a d i a n s (the  c h a r a c t e r s of t h e book, not merely t h e c i t i z e n s o f t h a t dangerous games w i t h t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s .  state) play  The two heroes a r e i n d i s g u i s e ,  or r a t h e r , d i s g u i s e - w i t h i n - d i s g u i s e , most o f t h e book and t h e sham c h a r a c t e r o f t e n seems t o have a b e i n g and,  Dorus t h e shepherd,  even.more, Zelmane t h e Amazon, do not always eeem t h e same as  Musidorus and Pyrocles. ;  two  of i t s own.  Besides  f r i e n d s m i r r o r each o t h e r .  these  i n t e r n a l multiple-mirrors, the  The best  "the coupling of souls i n t h i s mutuality  of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s .. from whence he s h a l l be  sure t o r e c e i v e a sweet r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e same j o y , and, as i n a c l e a r m i r r o r o f s i n c e r e goodness, see a l i v e l y p i c t u r e o f h i s own gladness",  (p. 452. c f . " t h e g l a s s o f h e r own m i s e r y " , p. 92)  Musidorus says theywere made "more l i k e than t h e l i k e n e s s o f a l l o t h e r v i r t u e s , and ... more near one t o t h e o t h e r than t h e nearness of t h e i r blood  could a s p i r e i n t o " ,  ( p . 157)  Their f r i e n d s h i p i s mirrored i n  the c l o s e n e s s o f t h e two s i s t e r s whom t h e y l o v e .  The s i b l i n g  s h i p , as i n D u r r e l l , i s anbther way o f r e f l e c t i n g . m i r r o r of o n e s e l f i s t h e r e f o r e a s i g n i f i c a n t m o t i f : " h i s k i n d n e s s i s a g l a s s even t o my b l i n d eyes of my (p. 173)  relation-  The o t h e r as a f o r instance, naughtiness",  Note a l s o t h e phenomenon of s i g h t l e s s s i g h t .  Dorus s i n g s  of t h e s e l f reduced t o t h e s t a t u s of a mere r e f l e c t i o n o f something which belongs t o o t h e r s r  146  Such weight i t hath; which once i s f u l l possess'd, That 1 become a v i s i o n , Which hath i n o t h e r s h e l d h i s o n l y b e i n g , And l i v e s i n f a n c y s e e i n g , 0 wretched s t a t e of man i n s e l f - d i v i s i o n j l (p. The  word "mirror'  g l a s s " , i t may  1  has  102)  a double d e n o t a t i o n .  t y p i c a l or a r e f l e c t i o n of a l l men, ought t o be.  r e f l e c t i o n not one  the  (p. 481)  because he i s merely  because he i s t h e p a t t e r n of  In t h i s  sense, " m i r r o r " suggests the  o n l y of the present  s e l f but  a l s o of the  s e l f which  i s s t r i v i n g t o become.  i n E l i z a b e t h a n f i c t i o n are v e r y c o n s c i o u s  and most  of a r t and  characters  p o e t r y and  themselves as works of a r t ; hence t h e many o c c a s i o n a l songs eclogues  i n t h e A r c a d i a , and  romance (p. 199)  and  a l s o the  the c o n v e n t i o n a l  h e a r t " , f o l l o w e d by the b u r l e s q u e  In t h i s poems. and  Philo-  but  Perhaps p a r t l y f o r t h i s r e a s o n , A r c a d i a n s  my  "looking-  r e f e r t o a " p a t t e r n " , a r e f l e c t i o n of the i d e a l .  c l e a c a l l s P y r o c l e s the " m i r r o r of mankind", not  what men  Besides  of  and  s e l f - s a t i r e i n Mopsa's t a l e of l o v e song "My  true love hath  "0 words which f a l l " ,  (p.  466)  s p i r i t , Lodge's Rosalynde and A l i n d a c r i t i c i s e t h e i r l o v e r s * D u r r e l l i s c o n t i n u a l l y concerned w i t h the problems of a r t  2  artist  and  d e l i b e r a t e l y comments on h i s own  t o o i n j e c t s p o e t r y i n t o the body of h i s n o v e l : t o L i z a and  h i s shaving-mirror  style  (B_, p. 44)  He  Pursewarden's poem  d o g g r e l l , quotations  from C a v a f y ,  Scobie's  j a z z tune.  J-For the l o v e r as a m i r r o r of h i s beloved c f . Gascoigne: "behold my wan cheeks washed i n woe, t h a t t h e r e i n my s a l t t e a r e s may be a myrrour t o r e p r e s e n t youre own shadow, and t h a t l i k e unto N a r c i s s u s you may bee constrayned t o k i s s e the c o l d waves wherein your c o u n t e r f e i t i s so l i v e l y p o r t r a y e d " . A Hundreth Sundrie Flowres ( U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i S t u d i e s , 1942) p. 54. .V: R o s a l y n d e 2  (London, 1902).  147  D u r r e l l has made some comments on the r e l a t i o n of the artist  t o the hero of h i s c r e a t i o n , a r e l a t i o n which t u r n s out  another m i r r o r of the s e l f . f o l l o w s i t s own  advice  H i s example i s H a m l e t ,  terms of the outer  one.  1  be  Durrell  i n n e r s t r u g g l e , done i n  .. a m a r v e l l o u s p i c t u r e of p s y c h i c and  d i s o r g a n i s a t i o n i n an i n d i v i d u a l " ,  social  T h i s d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n of microcosm  macrocosm i s a l s o S i d n e y ' s s u b j e c t ; h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s not  because i t i s the  to  which e v i d e n t l y  i n h o l d i n g a m i r r o r up t o n a t u r e .  sees the play as "a p e r f e c t p i c t u r e of the  and  Elizabethan  tragic  c o r r e c t happy ending f o r a romantic comedy, but  the  c o n c l u s i o n which l o g i c a l l y a r i s e s from h i s p i c t u r e of human n a t u r e i s a c y n i c a l one.  D u r r e l l suggests t h a t Harilet's problem i s the problem of  modern E n g l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y as p r e s e n t e d ism  causes a r e c o i l from the r e a l .  by Lawrence.  Mistaken  ideal-  S i n c e Marlowe, a r t i s t s have been  t r y i n g t o t u r n the wheel back t o "the p r e - g l a c i a l age when dung dung and  a n g e l s were a n g e l s " .  as w e l l as A l e x a n d r i a , scape of h i s mind. hero who  i s not  (Cor, pp.  26 - 27)  a r e maps of what the a r t i s t  and E l s i n o r e ,  f i n d s i n the  land-  O t t o Rank sees Hamlet as the type of the modern  a hero i n t h e c l a s s i c a l  of the poet as a t y p e , who  has  sense, but  of the t h o u g h t - o b s t r u c t e d  P r i n c e Hamlet, a f t e r a l l .  a  representation  r e j e c t e d the h e r o i c r o l e and  i n h i s w i l l e d a c t i o n so t h a t h i s words a c h i e v e "godfather  Arcadia  was  nothing.  neurotic".  2  i s checked  Hamlet i s the  Perhaps P r u f r o c k  D u r r e l l ' s a r t i s t s a l s o are checked by  i n n e r entanglement, but t h e y break t h r o u g h , and  t u r n a r t and  is  an  artist  outward.  -'•Cecily Mackworth observes t h a t " E l s i n o r e has a good d e a l i n common w i t h Mr. D u r r e l l ' s A l e x a n d r i a " . World, p. 27. 2  Art  and A r t i s t , pp.  296,  333.  148  E l i z a b e t h a n l o v e does v i o l e n c e t o t h e i d e n t i t i e s o f t h e l o v e r s . Musidorus accused, "But 0 love,, i t i s thou t h a t does i t ; thou changest name upon name; thou d i s g u i s e s t our b o d i e s , (p. 91)  and d i s f i g u r i s t  our minds".  The l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a complex o f paradoxes, as i t i s i n  A l e x a n d r i a , where t h e l o v e r sees h i m s e l f also r e a l i s e that  i n h i s l o v e d one, but must  she sees h e r s e l f i n him. The r e s u l t must be both  i n c r e a s e d knowledge o f o n e s e l f and i n c r e a s e d t u r n i n g outward, away from t h e s e l f . Parthenia  S i d n e y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e b l i s s of A r g a l u s and  contains s u f f i c i e n t  paradoxes f o r  illustration:  a happy c o u p l e , he j o y i n g i n h e r , she j o y i n g i n h e r s e l f , but i n h e r s e l f , because she enjoyed him: both i n c r e a s e d t h e i r r u l e s by g i v i n g t o each o t h e r ; each making one l i f e d o u b l e , because t h e y made a double l i f e onej where d e s i r e never wanted s a t i s f a c t i o n , n o r s a t i s f a c t i o n ever bred s a t i e t y ; he r u l i n g , because she would obey, o r r a t h e r because she would obey, he t h e r e i n r u l i n g . (p, 352) There i s danger i n t h e m i r r o r o f l o v e , t h a t t h e i d e n t i t y o f r e f l e c t o r and r e f l e c t e d be e x c e s s i v e has t h e power t o " t r a n s f o r m  and become p o s s e s s i o n .  Love  t h e v e r y essence o f t h e l o v e r i n t o t h e  t h i n g l o v e d , u n i t i n g , and, as i t were, i n c o r p o r a t i n g i t w i t h a s e c r e t and  inward working".  a man. ( p . 60)  The danger i s t h a t l o v e o f a woman may "womanize"  T h i s i s i n f a c t what happens t o P y r o c l e s , and t h e  womanizatinn has t o be overcome b e f o r e he can f i n a l l y win t h e woman he  loves. The  c o n v e n t i o n s of E l i z a b e t h a n and p r e - E l i z a b e t h a n  romance have  t h e i r place i n D u r r e l l ' s world. Nessim, f o r i n s t a n c e , i s r e f e r r e d t o as a k n i g h t , a " c h e v a l i e r sans peur", " P r i n c e Nessim" (B, pp. 58 - 59; M, p . 194),  but i n t h e  149  a n t i - r o m a n t i c c o n t e x t s of an i n d i c t m e n t of the i d e a of l o v e i n t h e fragmented psyche of European man tion".  B, p. 56)  ("formed  ... a l i t e r a t u r e of  or of C l e a ' s c o o l common sense.  affecta-  Pombal c o n s i d e r s  " l o v e " a " p e t r a r c h a n o b s c e n i t y " u n t i l he meets F o s c a .  The  reality  f o r h i m i s p a r a d o x i c a l and a l s o P e t r a r c h a n - "Perhaps t h i s v e r y dom  keeps me  free-  i n p r i s o n ? " i s almost Wyatt's c o n t r a r i o u s p a s s i o n " t h a t  l o c k s nor l o o s e t h , h o l d e t h me  in prison".  1  L i z a and Pursewarden have  t h e i r i n c e s t u o u s f o r e r u n n e r s i n Webster's Duchess and F e r d i n a n d , Annabella  and  G i o v a n n i , o r even i n I s a b e l l a and  V i o l a and  Sebastian.  Claudia or the  In A r c a d i a , as i n A l e x a n d r i a , t h e r e a r e at l e a s t f i v e P^rocJeS'i-Ze'lmaB.iei^ . a man  sex l e f t  twins  sexes.  d i s g u i s e d as a woman, i s l o v e d by a man,  man's daughter and the man's w i f e . "some t h i r d  Ford's  P h i l o c l e a asks him  you, t o t r a n s f o r m y o u r s e l f i n t o " ,  the  i f he has  not  (p. 501)  The  d i s g u i s e as a member of t h e o p p o s i t e sex i s an u b i q u i t o u s d e v i c e i n E l i z a b e t h a n comedy, w i t h V i o l a and  P o r t i a as n o t a b l e examples,  and  Logde's Rosalynde, l i k e Shakespeare's R o s a l i n d , i s an "amorous g i r l e boy".  The  2  d i s g u i s e i s somehow inward  as w e l l as outward, the anony-  mous sex of the A l e x a n d r i a n domino, " t r a n s f o r m ' d transform'd  i n mind". ( A r c , p. 58)  i n shew, but more  P y r o c l e s and Musidorus must d i s c a r d  t h e i r d i s g u i s e s of both mind and body b e f o r e t h e y can act a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own through  w i l l s , a r e d i s c o v e r y of themselves which i s t o be  love.  effected  Philoclea explains:  C , pp. 41 - 42. Thomas Wyatt, " D e s c r i p t i o n of the C o n t r a r i o u s P a s s i o n s , " i n The C o n c i s e T r e a s u r y of Great Poems, ed. L o u i s Untermeyer (New York, 1953), p. 38. 1  2  p.  140.  150  'One God hath metamorphosed both, t h e one i n a shepherd, t h e o t h e r i n a woman; and we o n l y can r e s t o r e them t o themselves, and themselves t o t h e world t h a t they may grace i t w i t h t h e g l o r y o f t h e i r a c t i o n s as t h e y were wont t o do*. ( p . 444) D u r r e l l ' s B a l t h a z a r says t h a t t h e A l e x a n d r i a n s poisoned "cup  loving-cup,  of poison  pass around a  (G, pp. 266 - 267) and i n A r c a d i a t h e r e i s a  (which was d e e p l y t a s t e d o f t h e whole company)" ( p . 121)  S i c k n e s s and m u t i l a t i o n p r o v i d e metaphors f o r t h e E l i z a b e t h a n s as t h e y do f o r D u r r e l l .  D u r r e l l r e f e r s t o t h e E l i z a b e t h a n s themselves as a  d i s e a s e and says "Nash's prose he  i s one l o n g d y s e n t e r y  of d e l i g h t " , but  seems t o f e e l t h i s i s a d i s e a s e t o be i n n o c u l a t e d w i t h , r a t h e r  than  against The A r c a d i a n s b i z a r r e ways.  a r e f r e q u e n t l y dismembered and dismembering, i n  A p a i n t e r who i s not even p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the b a t t l e  l o s e s both hands ( p . 256), (p. 255),  a t a i l o r l o s e s h i s nose and then h i s head  P a r t h e n i a i s d i s f i g u r e d by d i s e a s e , b u t , u n l i k e L e i l a ,  r e c o v e r s h e r beauty, (pp. 25, 37) But  here t o o t h e worst d i s e a s e i s l o v e .  Condemned most  i n Shakespeare's Sonnet 129, i t f a r e s l i t t l e b e t t e r i n Sidney's It  i s the " p r i c e of mangled mind", a loathsome d i s e a s e which  body and b r a i n .  2  P y r o c l e s c l a i m s t h a t l o v e "hath a sport  savagely hands.  infects  sometimes  t o p o i s o n me w i t h r o s e s , sometimes t o h e a l me w i t h wormwood", ( p . 230) I t i s a d i s e a s e which t u r n s s u f f e r e r s i n t o hypochondriacs, t h e i r own f e e l i n g s and u n w i l l i n g t o be h e a l e d .  i n t e n t on  The depths t o which  Wyndham Lewis compares Nash's styfse w i t h t h a t o f Joyce i n Finnegans Wake. (Time and Western Man, pp. 106, 107) S o n n e t "Thou b l i n d man's mark", Renaissance P o e t r y , e d . Leonard Dean (New York, 1953), p. 51. 2  151 B a s i l i u s and  Gynecia  s i n k i n t h e i r p u r s u i t s of Zelmane-Pyrocles  equal  B a l t h a z a r ' s i n f a t u a t i o n and prove t h a t , as V l a d i m i r Nabokov reminds us, Dementia, as w e l l as Death, i s even i n A r c a d y .  1  Lodge's Rosader com-  p l a i n s of "a r e s t l e s s s o r e , t h a t hathno ease; a canker t h a t s t i l l  frets;  a dream t h a t t a k e t h away a l l hope of s l e e p " . A r c a d i a , l i k e A l e x a n d r i a , i s e x p l i c i t l y spoken of as a map i n n e r c o n d i t i o n , the h a b i t a t of beauty, (p. 400)  But  of  the  i t i s the whole  c l i m a t e and geography of A r c a d i a as i t u n f o l d s throughout t h e book which i s t r u l y t h e landscape A r c a d y of romance, w i t h  of the mind.  shepherds and  I t i s the  shepherdesses g a l o r e , but  a p a r t i c u l a r charm and an i l l u s i o n of t i m e l e s s n e s s . boy  p i p e s "as though he  Greek A r c a d y hears  The  should never be o l d " , (p. 8)  shepherd's  Darley i n h i s  and h e a l t h . ( A r c , pp.  i t becomes t h e scene of p o l i t i c a l upheaval,  dark, u n n a t u r a l deeds.  In analogy,  t e r r i b l e passions  v i r t u o u s , and t h e i r  a r e good, h e a l t h y l o v e s which are darkened by the p a s s i o n s and s i o n s which seem t o be  shows i t t r o u b l e d w i t h " u n h a b i t a b l e  p a i r s and hot r a g e s " , The ence and  set a b l a z e by t h i s v e r y goodness.  (p.  loves perverof  c l i m e s of c o l d  T r a v e l l e r , with i t s secret  I t t o o i s a p l a c e of e v i l and  ^Lpale F i r e , p. 237. i n t h e bombal s c r i p t u r e , R o s a l y n d e . p.  and  their  A map  f a t a l l o v e s , might be l i k e A l e x a n d r i a , a p l a c e of the  2  43)  their des-  127)  I t a l y of Nash's U n f o r t u n a t e  subconscious.  16)  42 -  P y r o c l e s and Musiaiorus, and  P h i l o c l e a and Pamela are young, s t r o n g and  " l i t t l e world"  with  a "shepherd's d r y f l u t e among t h e r o c k s " . (B, p.  It i s an i d y l l i c p a s t o r a l p l a c e of l i g h t But  conventional  94.  124)  unleashed  f a s c i n a t i o n i n t o which t h e  A l s o "Even i n A r c a d y am (p.  viol-  I , says/Death  152  t r a v e l l e r d i v e s and from which he emerges i n t o t h e l i g h t love.  The i n e v i t a b l e shipwreck b r i n g s P y r o c l e s and Musidorus t o t h e  shores of A r c a d i a , w i t h new i d e n t i t i e s f o r a new l a n d . frequent is  of a h e a l t h y  symbol h e r e , e s p e c i a l l y as N a r c i s s u s ' s m i r r o r .  d e s c r i b e d as " e n v i r o n e d  There i s something s t i l l  Philoclea  w i t h sweet r i v e r s of c l e a r v i r t u e " ,  (p. 392)  and c l e a r about h e r , g e n t l e and p a t i e n t and  i r o n - w i l l e d as she r e s i s t s enemies and unwanted l o v e r s . c h a r a c t e r i z e s C l e a as " s t i l l P h i l o c l e a * s name.  Water i s a  Durrell  waters of p a i n " , and g i v e s h e r h a l f of  The two e p i g r a p h s  each would a p p l y t o both h e r o i n e s .  c o u l d almost be i n t e r c h a n g e d Despite t h e i r a d v e r s i t i e s ,  and  Philo-  c l e a and C l e a by t h e i r v e r y presence i n t h e i r books, seem t o guarantee the r e s t o r a t i o n of o r d e r and c l a r i t y . The an event,  landscape  i s connected w i t h memory; a p l a c e reminds men of  but i t a l s o i s t h e present  embodiment of what seemed t o be  p a s t : "and here we f i n d t h a t as our remembrance came e v e r c l o t h e d unto u s i n g t h e form of t h i s p l a c e , so t h i s p l a c e g i v e s new heat t o t h e f e v e r of our l a n g u i s h i n g remembrance", (p. 2) of  t h i n g s past  i s not an e n j o y a b l e  It  i s an awareness of time, of "my dear times*  Sonnet 30 laments, and Sidney r e s t l e s s remembrance", (p. 1)  experience  The remembrance  f o r the Elizabethans. waste", Shakespeare*s  l a b e l s i t "over-busy remembrance, remembrance, Time here, as i n A l e x a n d r i a , i s c y c l i c  t i m e , m u t a b i l i t y , a p e r s o n a l problem.  B a s i l i u s has t o come t o t i m e s  w i t h m u t a b i l i t y ; i t i s u s e l e s s t o p l e a d : " L e t not o l d age d i s g r a c e my h i g h d e s i r e " , ( p . 124) is  D u r r e l l makes h i s Conon say of A r c a d i a : "'There  no f e e l i n g of " t h e r e f o r e " i n i t .  O r i g i n , r e a s o n , meaning i t has  none i n t h e sense of r e c o g n i z a b l e p a s t * " .  ("Conon t h e C r i t i c on the  153  S i x Landscape P a i n t e r s of Greece". P, p . 108) "'But  cause, e f f e c t , b e g i n n i n g , Time as p r o g r e s s  t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e . system o f d i f f e r e n t therefore into  two  different  the f i r s t use  and t h e end/Are a l l i n me'",  Both Sidney and D u r r e l l  n a r r a t o r s t e l l i n g t h e same s t o r y and making i t stories.  p o s i t i o n s as n a r r a t o r .  p e r s o n and be t h e s u b j e c t  t h e t h i r d person and be o b j e c t .  B a l t h a z a r when D a r l e y  Durrell  ( p . 285)  convey t h i s i n t h e i r  The d i v e r g e n c e  so Musidorus because of h i s s p l i t  i n which he, D a r l e y ,  says,  of c a u s e - t o - e f f e c t , b e g i n n i n g - t o - e n d , i s r e l a -  several different  can be i n t e r n a l ,  S i d n e y ' s Strephon  i n viewpoint  s e l f has t o take  I n one o f t h e s e he can speak i n o f n a r r a t i o n ; i n t h e other he must Something l i k e t h i s o c c u r s i n  has t o r e t e l l B a l t h a z a r ' s  v e r s i o n of t h e s t o r y  i s an o b j e c t o f o b s e r v a t i o n .  has not w r i t t e n an updated A r c a d i a , but n e i t h e r i s t h e  resemblance a s u p e r f i c i a l one. employing d e v i c e s  He d e l i b e r a t e l y  important t o t h e r e n a i s s a n c e :  "elizabethanizes", writers t o deal  m a t t e r s which t r o u b l e d them and which t r o u b l e him:  with  t h e problem o f  one's i d e n t i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s , t h e b i s e x u a l n a t u r e o f t h e psyche, man's r e l a t i o n t o time and p l a c e o r space, t h e n a t u r e o f a r t and  artist.  H i s enthusiasm f o r t h e Marlowe-to-Ford p e r i o d i s evident  i n h i s work, h i s l e t t e r s and h i s spoken comments. reports that the a r t i s t i n a meek t e n o r  voice".  My F a m i l y ,  And G e r a l d  as a young man sang " E l i z a b e t h a n 1  pp. 83, 125.  Durrell  love-songs  154  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  A p u l e i u s , L u c i u s . The Golden A s s e . t r a n s . W i l l i a m A d l i n g t o n . London: Abbey L i b r a r y , undated. Bellow, Saul. "The W r i t e r as M o r a l i s t " , A t l a n t i c , CCXI, I I I (March 1963), 58 - 62. Bowra, C.M.  The Creat i v e Experiment, New  B u l f i n c h , Thomas.  The Age  of F a b l e .  York,  1948.  London and T o r o n t o ,  1919.  C a r r o l l , Lewis ( C h a r l e s Lutwidge Dodgson). Through the Looking G l a s s and What A l i c e Found T h e r e . P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1897. Cavafy, C.P. London,  The Poems of C.P. C a v a f y , t r a n s , John 1951.  Mavrogordato,  Clements, Robert J . " L i f e was L i k e a Chessboard", review of V l a d i m i r Nabokov, The Defense, Saturday Review, 26 September 1964, 45 - 46. ( C o l l a r d , E.A.) " P o r t r a i t i n a M i r r o r " , The G a z e t t e , M o n t r e a l , 11 January 1964, p. 8. Dean, Leonard, ed. v o l . I I I . New  Renaissance P o e t r y , E n g l i s h M a s t e r p i e c e s , York, 1953.  D e l c o u r t , M a r i e . Hermaphrodite: Myths and R i t e s of the B i sexual Figure i n C l a s s i c a l A n t i q u i t y , t r a n s . Jennifer N i c h o l s o n . London, 1961. Dostoevsky, Fyodor M i k h a i l o v i c h . Notes from Undergronnd, Part I , i n E x i s t e n t i a l i s m from Dostoevsky t o S a r t r e , ed. W a l t e r Kaufmann, New York, 1957. Douglas, Norman.  South Wind.  D u f f i n , Henry C h a r l e s . London, 1959. D u r r e l l , Gerald. 1962.  New  York,  1925.  The N o v e l s and P l a y s of C h a r l e s Morgan.  My F a m i l y and Other A n i m a l s .  Penguin  D u r r e l l , Lawrence, and P e r l e s , A l f r e d . A r t and Outrage: correspondence about Henry M i l l e r . London, 1959. .  Balthazar.  New  B i t t e r Lemons.  York,  1961  London,  1957.  Books, a  155  BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued  D u r r e l l , Lawrence.  The B l a c k Book. New  New York, 1963.  .  Clea.  York, 1960.  .  The Dark L a b y r i n t h .  London, 1961.  "A D i a l o g u e w i t h D u r r e l l " , by Kenneth Encounter, X I I I , v i (December 1959), 61 - 68. 1  Young.  matic L i f e .  E s p r i t de Corps: New York, 1958. New  sketches from D i p l o -  .  Justine.  .  Key t o Modern P o e t r y . . Mountolive.  York, 1962.  New  London, 1952.  York, 1961.  . "No Clue t o L i v i n g " , Times L i t e r a r y Supplement, No. 3039 (27 May 1960), p. 339. . The P o e t r y of Lawrence D u r r e l l .  New York,  1962. . t r a n s . Pope Joan: a Romantic Biography by Emmanuel R o y i d i s , London, 1960.  ed.  . a n d Henry M i l l e r . A P r i v a t e Correspondence, George W i c k e s . New York, 1963.  . Prospero's C e l l : a g u i d e t o t h e landscape and manners of t h e i s l a n d of C o r c y r a . London, 1945. . R e f l e c t i o n s on a Marine Venus: t o t h e l a n d s c a p e of Rhodes. London, 1953. . Sappho:  a play i n verse.  . White E a g l e s Over S e r b i a . F o r s t e r , E(dward) M(organ). A l e x a n d r i a : Garden C i t y , N.Y., 1961. . Erance, A n a t o l e . . F r e u d , Sigmund. Nww  Balthasar. Clio.  London, 1950. New  Paris,  York, 1957.  A H i s t o r y and a Guide.  Pharos and P h a r i l l o n . Paris  a companion  London, 1961.  (1898?).  1900.  The B a s i c W r i t i n g s of Sigmund F r e u d , e d . A.A.  York, 1938.  Brill.  156 BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued  Frye, Northrup. 1957.  The Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m .  Princeton, N.J.  Gascoigne, George. A Hundreth S u n d r i e F l o w r e s , ed. C.T. P r o u t y . The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i S t u d i e s , X V I I , No. 2. Columbia, Mo., 1942. Graves, R o b e r t . The Greek Myths. 1964 and 1962. Greene, R o b e r t .  .2 v o l s .  Penguin Books,  The B l a c k e Bookes Messenger.  London, 1924.  Groddeck, G e o r g . The World o f Man as R e f l e c t e d i n A r t , i n Words and i n D i s e a s e , t r a n s . M. C o l l i n s . London, 1934. Hawthorne, N a t h a n i e l . .The Marble Faun or t h e Romance of Monte Beni. 2 v o l s . Boston, 1903. H e l i o d o r u s . The Greek Romances o f H e l i o d o r u s , Longus and A c h i l l e s Tatius, trans, t h e Rev. Rowland Smith. London, 1901. Hoffman, F r e d e r i c k J . F r e u d i a n i s m and t h e L i t e r a r y Mind. Rouge, L a . , 1957. Samuel B e c k e t t : Carbondale, 111., 1962.  Baton  The Language o f S e l f . "  j _ and Olga W. V i c k e r y , ed. W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r : Three Decades o f C r i t i c i s m . New York, 1963. Huysmans, J ( o r i s ) K ( a r l ) . Down There (La B a s ) : a Study i n Satanism, t r a n s . Keene W a l l i s , New York, 1958. Jung, C ( a r l ) G ( U s t a v ) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Types, o r t h e Psychology of I n d i v i d u a t i o n , t r a n s . H. Godwin Baynes. London, 1949. J u s s e r a n d , J . J . The E n g l i s h Novel i n t h e Time of Shakespeare, trans. E l i x a b e t h Lee. London, 1901. Kenner, Hugh.  Samuel B e c k e t t :  a C r i t i c a l Study.  Kermode, F r a n k . P u z z l e s and E p i p h a n i e s : 1958 - 1961. London, 1963.  E s s a y s and Reviews  1  L a r o u s s e E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f Mythology. Lewis, Wyndham. Lodge, Thomas.  London, 1959.  Time and Western Man. Rosalynde.  London, 1961.  B o s t o n , 1957.  London, 1902.  BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued  Longus, The Greek Romances o f H e l i o d o r u s , Longus and A c h i l l e s T a t i u s , t r a n s , t h e Rev. Rowland Smith. London, 1901. Mann, Thomas. The Magic Mountain (Per Z a u b e r b e r g ) , t r a n s . H.T. Lowe-Porter. New York, 1958. May, R o l l o , e d . 1961.  Symbolism  M e l v i l l e , Hermann. M i l l e r , Henry.  i n R e l i g i o n and L i t e r a t u r e .  P i e r r e , or the Ambiguities.  The C o l o s s u s of M a r o u s s i .  New York,  London, 1923.  New York, 1958.  . and Lawrence D u r r e l l . A P r i v a t e Corcespondence, ed. George Wickes. New York, 1963. Moore, H a r r y T., ed. 111., 1962. Morgan, C h a r l e s .  The World of Lawrence D u r r e l l .  The F o u n t a i n . Portrait  .  Carbondale,  New York, 1933.  i n a Mirror.  London, 1929.  Reflections i n a Mirror:  Second S e r i e s .  London,  1954. Murray, G i l b e r t . F i v e Stages o f Greek R e l i g i o n . Garden C i t y , N.Y. 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