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Mythopoesis of Lawrence Durrell Reeve, Phyllis Margery Parham 1965

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THE MYTHOPOESIS OF LAWRENCE DURRELL by PHYLLIS MARGERY REEVE B.A., Bishop's U n i v e r s i t y , 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of En g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study* I further agree that per mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publi- cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission* Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada D^e ^UJ/ £QT ff^S i i ABSTRACT In The Alexandria Quartet Lawrence D u r r e l l develops a serie s of images i n v o l v i n g mirrors, to suggest that t r u t h , e s p e c i a l l y the tr u t h about oneself, i s to be approached only through the j u x t a p o s i  t i o n of many memories, times and selves. Since the s e l f must f i n d i t s e l f through other selves, the a r t i s t i s concerned with love and fr i e n d s h i p , where s e l f i s revealed i n i t s r e l a t i o n to the other. In narcissism and i n c e s t , the s e l f becomes the other, i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s own divided being. The use of mirror a l l u s i o n s i n connection with the a c q u i s i  t i o n of self-knowledge i s apparent not only i n the Quartet, but also i n D u r r e l l 1 s poetry and i n the ea r l y novels The Black Book and The Dark Labyrinth. In these works the mirror of self-knowledge i s rel a t e d to the problem of a c t i o n . Obsessive preoccupation with the r e f l e c t i o n , the inward v i s i o n , prevents one from acting or creating or looking outward. When D u r r e l l * s man u n i f i e s t h i s r e f l e c t i o n of hi s various selves and times, he i s able to l i v e productively, as Darley i s beginning to do at the end of the t e t r a l o g y . Both denotations of " r e f l e c t i o n " , the outer image and the inner thought, are involved i n D u r r e l l * s a l l u s i o n s to mirrors, since both are aspects of the s e l f , since the outward i s continually used to suggest the inner, and since the goal i s to unite outward and inner i n the unitary s e l f . The process i s never completed, and D u r r e l l d e l i b e r a t e l y leaves unanswered questions about h i s major characters. i i i Frequently the attempt to f i n d an accurate r e f l e c t i o n pro ceeds through the means of another " i " whose words or person may serve as a mirror. The "mirror' r may be a lover, a f r i e n d or even a mere acquaintance or a stranger. The Alexandrians often watch each other i n mirrors, so that the insight gained may be not in t o oneself only, but also i n t o the character of another. The multiple-view mirror, which r e f l e c t s and d i s t o r t s one object i n various ways, i s important i n D u r r e l l * s scheme. There are always several ways of viewing anything, and the d i s p a r i t y may occur within the v i s i o n of one person, as well as among those of a number of people. The d i s u n i f i e d s e l f , with i t s c o n f l i c t s and p o l a r i t i e s , i s a d i s t o r t i n g mirror. To s a t i s f y the need f o r d e f i n i t i o n of oneself, one creates from "selected f i c t i o n s " , from the r e l a t i v e truths of l i f e , a s e l f and a w i l l which can love and act i n r e l a t i o n to other selves and w i l l s . Because the s e l f must be created, the a r t i s t i s a c r u c i a l symbolic f i g u r e . The multiple-view mirror provides a narrative structure f o r the Quart et, the four novels providing four views of one serie s of events. Within t h i s structure, episodes, images and phrases are echoed i n various contexts to q u a l i f y and illu m i n a t e each other. Important types of mirrors are the a r t i s t , who holds the mirror up to nature; the lover, who sees others i n close r e l a t i o n to himself, e s p e c i a l l y i f h i s love i s homosexual or incestuous; the patient or hypochondriac, whose obsession with h i s phys i c a l s e l f p a r a l l e l s a mental preoccupation. i v The s e t t i n g s , Alexandria, Greece and England are extensions of the inner landscapes of t h e i r inhabitants. Alexandria r e f l e c t s the multiple tumults of the non-rational s e l f , Greece i s a longed- f o r i d e a l of c l a r i t y and calm, and England i s "Pudding Island", the repressive conventions of western c i v i l i z a t i o n . D u r r e l l * s "Heraldic Universe" i s a comprehensive system of hinged mirrors, i n which inner s e l f and outer world r e f l e c t each other, as do one s e l f and another s e l f , creator and creation, macro cosm and microcosm. Symbolism i s not merely a l i t e r a r y device but a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of even the f a c t u a l landscape of h i s t r a v e l books. Temporal and s p a t i a l p o s i t i o n s a r e r e l a t i v e and prismatic. D u r r e l l * s heraldry i s both a m u l t i p l i c i t y of p o s s i b i l i t i e s and a unity of i n t e r r e l a t e d r e a l i t i e s . This t h e s i s proposes to show the consistent patterns of the mirrors and associated motifs and to suggest t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e within the context of D u r r e l l * s writing and theory, and i n r e l a t i o n to the work of some contemporary w r i t e r s , c r i t i c s and psychologists. The argument follows the general sequence outlined above, beginning with the various uses of actual mirror images, proceeds to consider love, a r t , i l l n e s s and landscape as r e f l e c t o r s and concludes with a general look at the "Heraldic" t o t a l i t y . V C O N T E N T S Abbreviations 1 Summary of Alexandrians 2 Introduction: A l i c e i n Alexandria 5 CHAPTER I: The Mirror Image A. Motifs Related to the Mirror 12 B. The Two Meanings of " R e f l e c t i o n " 21 C. The Single Image 24 D. R e f l e c t i o n i n Another S e l f 31 E. R e f l e c t i o n of Another Self 35 F. Multiple-View Mirrors: Prism-Sightedness 37 G. The Multiple-View Plot 48 CHAPTER I I : The Mirror of Art A. Art i n Alexandria 59 B. Art & A r t i s t and Alexandria 62 C. The A r t i s t as a Mirror of Society 74 CHAPTER I I I : The Mirror of Love A. The Language of Love 79 B. Love as Knowledge 81 C. The Mult i p l e Views of Love 86 D. The Mirror of Incest 93 E. The Five-Sexed Mirror 102 CHAPTER IV: The Mirror of Malady; I l l n e s s and M u t i l a t i o n . 112 CHAPTER V: The Landscapes of the Mind A. Alexandria 122 B. Greece 132 C. England 133 CHAPTER VI: Conclusion: Time and the Heraldic Universe .. 135 APPENDIX: D u r r e l l as an Elizabethan 142 BIBLIOGRAPHY 154 1 ABBREVIATIONS i In references to books by Lawrence Durrell, the following abbreviations have been used: A & 0 Art and Outrage (London, 1959) B Balthazar (New York, 1961) BL Bitter Lemons (London, 1957) BB The Black Book (New York, 1963) C Clea (New York, 1961) PL The Dark Labyrinth (London, 1961) J_ Justine (New York, 1962) Key A Key to Modern Poetry (London, 1952) M Mountolive (New York, 1961) P The Poetry of Lawrence Durrell (New York, 1962) Pope Pope Joan (London, 1960) Cor A Private Correspondence (New York, 1963) PC Prospero's Cell (London, 1945) MV Reflections on a Marine Venus (London, 1953) S Sappho (London, 1950) A l l page references w i l l be included in the body of the text. 2 A B r i e f Summary of the Alexandrians The plot of The Alexandrian Quartet d e f i e s summary, but a b r i e f o u t l i n e of characters and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s might be help f u l to readers of t h i s t h e s i s . The following dramatis personae i s arranged roughly i n order of importance. Darley: a not-yet-successful w r i t e r , the narrator of Justine, Balthazar and Clea. Pursewarden: a successful w r i t e r , who works i n the B r i t i s h - Egyptian war o f f i c e . He and Darley are often spokesman f o r D u r r e l l . His unexplained suicide i s a c e n t r a l problem f o r a l l four novels. Justine: a neurotic Jewish Cleopatra, formerly the wife of a writer Arnauti and now married to Nessim. She i s mistress of both Darley and Pursewarden. Nessim: a wealthy Copt, engaged i n subversive attempts to smuggle arms to P a l e s t i n e . Melissa: a f r a i l Greek p r o s t i t u t e , the mistress of Darley and, b r i e f l y , of Nessim. Her former lover i s a Jewish businessman Cohen, through whom she learns compromising f a c t s about Nessim*s a c t i v i t i e s . Clea: an a r t i s t , the f r i e n d , and l a t e r the mistress, of Darley; the l e s b i a n lover of Justine, and the confidante of nearly everyone. Balthazar: an aging doctor, philosopher, pederast and a leader of the Alexandrian cabal. He reveals to 3 Mountolive; L e i l a : L i z a : Narouz: Scobie: Pombal: Capodistria: Amaril: Darley the double meaning of the events chronicled i n Justine and i s instrumental i n other moments of t r u t h . the B r i t i s h ambassador to Egypt. Nessim*s mother and mistress of the youthful pre- ambassadorial Mountolive. Pursewarden*s b l i n d s i s t e r and mistress, l a t e r Mountolive*s wife. Nessim*s borther, i n love with Clea. He i s p h y s i c a l l y gross, the opposite of the suave Nessim, and remains on the land. He i s at times possessed by strange powers of speech which he employs f a n a t i  c a l l y i n the Coptic cause. a comic character, an old wanderer f i n a l l y more or l e s s i n the employ of the p o l i c e department. The major characters spend many pages r e t e l l i n g h i s t a l l t a l e s . He i s homosexual and vaguely connected with T i r e s i a s . a Frenchman, f r i e n d of Darley. a pleasantly satanic f r i e n d of everyone. He disappears f o r p o l i t o a l reasons and dabbles i n black magic, a doctor, once Glea's l o v e r . He i s the p r i n c i p a l i n the romantic pursuit of Semira, f o r whom, with the assistance of p l a s t i c surgery and Clea*s art he fashions a nose. 4 Maskelyne: o f f i c e r i n the war o f f i c e , aware of Nessim*s subversion, and unsympathetic towards him and h i s f r i e n d s . Keats: a j o u r n a l i s t , the would-be biographer of Pursewarden. 5 INTRODUCTION A l i c e i n Alexandria "Let's consider who i t was that dreamed i t a l l ... He was part of my dream of course - but then I was part of h i s dream too!"-1- So speaks a bewildered s e l f confronted with the p o s s i b i l i t y that i t s existence depends on the perceptions, the i l l u s o r y perceptions at that, of another s e l f whose view may d i f f e r from i t s own. No matter how much she may "consider", there i s no way of knowing which view i s ri g h t or p a r t l y r i g h t , or whether one or both are f a l s e . And t h i s s e l f cannot know the t r u t h about i t s own selfhood without knowing how i t appears i n the dream of the other. The name of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e l f i s A l i c e , the other i s the Red King, and the se t t i n g i s Looking- Glass Land. The image basic to Lewis C a r r o l l ' s fantasy, together with the other images and motifs which emerge from i t are remarkably s i m i l a r to those i n Lawrence D u r r e l l ' s Alexandrian Quartet. A l i c e never solves the problem of the Red King's dream, the problem of her own existence i n space and time. She hers e l f i s xLewis C a r r o l l . Through the Looking Glass and What A l i c e  Found There. (Philadelphia, 1897), p. 209. ®In the Key D u r r e l l quotes a l e t t e r from Lewis C a r r o l l to a l i t t l e g i r l , as an example of "detachment of the object from i t s frame of reference" and as an a n t i c i p a t i o n of surrealism: "'And I l i k e two or three handfuls of h a i r , only they should always have a l i t t l e g i r l ' s head beneath them to grow on, or e l s e , whenever you open the door, they get blown a l l over the room, and then they get l o s t , you know.*" (p. 87) He l i n k s C a r r o l l with Rimbaud, Laforgue and Nietzsche as important f i g u r e s i n the "Semantic Disturbance" (pp. 39 - 40) and quotes the Cambridge History of Engl i s h L i t e r a t u r e an A l i c e ' s pro blems with space and time. (p. 69) 6 a r e f l e c t i o n i n the mirror, ans so i s the Red King whose dream contains her existence, and who f i n a l l y appears to be not a king or even a chessman, but a black k i t t e n . Her i d e n t i t y i s enmeshed i n an i n v o l u t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n within r e f l e c t i o n . Her dilemma i s expressed i n terms of the geography of Looking-Glass Land, which bears comparison with the geography of D u r r e l l * s Alexandria. The t e r r a i n i s a chessboard and the characters are chessmen; A l i c e h e r s e l f i s a pawn and thus r e s t r i c t e d , though not paralysed i n her movement, while around her r e a l i t y moves i n many d i r e c t i o n s and perspectives. A game of chess goes on and on through four volumes of the Alexandria Quartet. It i s a game by correspondence, and, l i k e Balthazar's p h i l o s o p h i c a l researches, begins i n the c a b b a l i s  t i c search f o r unity. The game, ca r r i e d on by telegram and i n code, becomes involved i n Mountolive*s uncovering of Nessim*s sub version, and i n Darley's penetration of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which he himself i s concerned. Dostoevsky, i n h i s Notes from Underground, uses the chess board to i l l u s t r a t e h i s contention thfct man s t r i v e s f o r c e r t a i n t y , but shrinks from the r e a l i z a t i o n of h i s goal. Conscious man i s a f r i v o l o u s and incongruous creature, and perhaps, l i k e a chess player, loves the process of the game, not the end of i t . And who knows (there i s no saying with certainty)^, perhaps the only goal on earth to which man kind i s s t r i v i n g l i e s i n the incessant process of a t t a i n i n g , i n other words, i n l i f e i t s e l f , and not i n the thing to be attained, which must always be expressed as a formula, as p o s i t i v e as twice two makes four, and such positiveness i s not l i f e , gentlemen, but the beginning of death.-1- i n E x i s t e n t i a l i s m from Dostoevsky to Sartre, ed. Walter Kaufmann (New York 1957), p. 77, hereafter c i t e s as Notes. D u r r e l l uses a quotation from Notes to head h i s c r i t i c a l essay e n t i t l e d "The World Within". (Key, p. 49) 7 The search f o r the knowledge of s e l f i s d e s i r a b l e , but achieved knowledge of s e l f suggests the reduction of i n d i v i d u a l i t y to mathematical a b s t r a c t i o n . Otto Rank discusses the mythological o r i g i n s of chess, l i n k i n g i t with p r i m i t i v e maternity symbols and with the " p r i m i  t i v e symbolism of death and r e s u r r e c t i o n . " I t s ancestor, the ggyptian snake game, was the subject of a legend i n which two brothers turned the game int o a duel i n which one of them l o s t an eye. 1 D u r r e l l 1 s L e i l a i s associated with a pet snake, and her sons engage i n a struggle which r e s u l t s i n Narouz's death and the loss of Nessim*s eye. In Looking-Glass Land, A l i c e can approach her object only by walking away from i t , and Darley understands Alexandria only a f t e r leaving i t . This r e v e r s a l of s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s i s one of the major i l l u s i o n s created by a mirror. A l i c e f i n d s that time too assumes t h i s property of space; the White Queen screams before she i s hurt, and Hatta i s t r i e d before he commits h i s crime. Loding-Glass poetry, to be read, must be seen r e f l e c t e d i n a mirror, and i s even then not understood u n t i l subjected to Humpty Dumpty's exegesis. S i m i l a r l y , Justine i s puzzling u n t i l r e f l e c t e d J-Art and A r t i s t , (New York, 1932), pp. 308, 310. c f . Vladimir Nabokov, The Defense (New York, 1964), and the review by Robefct J . Clements i n Saturday Review, 26 September 1964, 45-46. 8 and revised by three other perspectives. Besides the paradox of the Red King's dream, the r e f l e c t i o n of the s e l f i n the other i s suggested i n the twinship of Tweedle dum and Tweedledee, i d e n t i c a l brothers with arms around each other's necks. One i s i n c l i n e d to suspect that they s u f f e r from what D u r r e l l ' s Scobie d e l i c a t e l y r e f e r s to as "tendencies". Supposing t h e i r b a t t l e to p a r a l l e l the snake-game duel, they have the problem of Nessim and Narouz,which i s both incestuous and homosexual, as well as that of L i z a and Pursewarden, which i s merely incestuous. C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the phenomenon of reversed movement i n time and space i s the memory of Looking-Glass people. Remembrance i s not only of things past, but of things future too; one remembers what has not yet occurred. Time, memory and i d e n t i t y are disarranged so as to become r i d i c u l o u s concepts, and t h e i r expression i s included i n the major image of the mirror, an image of space. 1 As e a r l y as 1936, D u r r e l l wrote to Henry M i l l e r : I AM SLOWLY BUT VERY CAREFULLY AND WITHOUT CONSCIOUS THOUGHT DESTROYING TIME. I have discovered that the idea of duration i s f a l s e . We have invented i t as a philosophic jack-up to the idea of physical d i s i n t e g r a  t i o n . THERE IS ONLY SPACE. A s o l i d object has only three dimensions. Time, that old appendix, I've lopped o f f . So i t needs a new a t t i t u d e . An a t t i t u d e without memory. A s p a t i a l existence i n terms of the paper I'm writing on now at the moment. (Cor. p. 19, D u r r e l l ' s c a p i t a l s ) -••Note the reference to A l i c e i n My Family and Other Animals by D u r r e l l ' s brother Gerald. See the Penguin e d i t i o n (1962), pp. 9, 221, 225, 261. 9 In Alexandria, the true s e l f i s to be approached, never quite achieved, only through the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of many memories, times, selves. There can be no solipsism. Self must f i n d i t s e l f through other selves, and the a r t i s t i s concerned with r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; with love and f r i e n d s h i p , where s e l f i s revealed i n the other; with the i d e n t i t y of s e l f with other i n narcissism, i n c e s t , physical and mental in v e r s i o n , and the self-obsessions of hypochondria and neuroses. To suggest these patterns, D u r r e l l develops the image of the conventional mirror, the t r i c k mirror and the multiple-view- mirror. Alexandrians meet i n mirrors, speak to each other i n mirrors, t a l k . t o themselves i n mirrors, s i t naked i n front of mirrors, write on mirrors, point guns at mirrors. Each mirror as i t occurs i n the course of the n a r r a t i v e i s an unobtrusive piece of background f u r n i  t u re. As mirror a f t e r mirror i s offered f o r mention i n passing, the sum of them a l l i s not a heap of glass, but a simultaneous c r y s t a l l i  zing of n a r r a t i v e and symbol, a c t i o n , consciousness and unconscious. For the disintegrated s e l f , D u r r e l l prescribes unity, the focussing of images. He therefore alludes frequently to Gnosticism and i t s pursuit of the One, and to medicine and i t s healing of p h y s i c a l breakages. The a r t i s t wants "to combine, resolve and harmo n i s e " , and comes up with a world view which s t a r t s from D u r r e l l ' s version of " r e l a t i v i t y " , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the s e l f to everything, including i t s own and other selves 'a note of a f f i r m a t i o n - the curvature of an embrace, the wordlessness of a lovers* code - some f e e l i n g that the world we l i v e i n i s founded on something too simple 10 to be overdescribed as cosmic law, but as easy to grasp, as say, an act of tenderness i n the primal r e l a t i o n between animal and plant, r a i n and s o i l , seed and trees, man and God. A r e l a t i o n s h i p so d e l i c a t e that i t i s a l l too e a s i l y broken by the in q u i r i n g mind and conscience.' (C_, pp. 238 - 239) When tenderness without deception i s achieved, the a r t i s t begins to be succe s s f u l . Discussion i n t h i s paper w i l l not be l i m i t e d to the Quartet, because t h i s very lack of l i m i t a t i o n seems v i t a l to D u r r e l l ' s thought and a r t . As the l e t t e r quoted above suggests, the Quartet was not a sudden creation, despite the b r i e f time of actual composition. These ideas of space-time, s e l f , tenderness, and the images which suggest them appear i n D u r r e l l ' s e a r l y novels, h i s poetry and h i s t r a v e l books. In the te t r a l o g y they are concentrated and developed to unity, but they have been there a l l along. A c o l l e c t i o n of h i s primary motifs occurs i n the poem,. " C i t i e s , Plains and People": the mirror: 0 world of l i t t l e mirrors i n the l i g h t , The faces of the innocents i n wells. physics and psychology: The tidebound, t e p i d , causeless Continuum of t e r r o r s i n the s p i r i t . Ego, my dear, and i d L i e so profoundly hid In space-time void. i l l n e s s : U n t i l your pain became l i t e r a t u r e . Yet here was a window Into the great sick-room, Europe. • • • ... through i n t r o s p e c t i o n and disease. love as communication: ... how sex became A le s s e r sort of speech, and the members doors. (P, 134 - 149) 11 The f i r s t motif to be dealt with w i l l be the mirror, since t h i s image, or some notion of r e f l e c t i o n , i s continually present i n conjunction with the other themes of the various forms of love, i l l n e s s , landscape and philosophy. The "hinged-mirror" view has taken various forms i n the twentieth century novel, probably most impressively i n Proust. V i r g i n i a Woolf*s Orlando has "a great v a r i e t y of selves to c a l l upon", and i s seeking "the key s e l f , which amalgamates and controls them a l l " . 1 Vladimir Nabokov's novel Pale F i r e presents two auto biographies, each of which i s also a commentary on the other, and one of which i s by a schizophrenic to further multiply e n t i t i e s ; and i t presents them by means of such a maze of c r i s s - c r o s s r e f e r  ences as to i n f i n i t e l y multiply the basic two views. Zemblan, the language of h i s mythical kingdom, i s c a l l e d "the tongue of the mirror".^ These and other works w i l l be mentioned where comparison seems i n t e r e s t i n g and relevant. 1(London, 1928), pp. 278, 279. 2(New York, 1962), p. 242. 12 CHAPTER ONE. The Mirror Image A. Motifs r e l a t e d to the Mirr o r . In D u r r e l l ' s poem "On Mirrors", the mirrors have been turned to the wa l l , so the inhabitant of the house i s deprived of t h i s means of viewing himself. You gone, the mirrors a l l reverted, Lay banging i n the empty house, Redoubled t h e i r e f f o r t s to impede Waterlogged images of faces pleading. So Fortunatus had a mirror which Imperilled h i s reason when i t broke; The sleepers i n t h e i r dormitory of glass S t i r r e d once and sighed but never woke. Time amputated so w i l l bleed no more But flow l i k e refuse now i n clocks On c l i n i c walls, i n l i b r a r i e s and barracks, Not made to spend but k i l l and nothing more. Yet mirrors abandoned drink l i k e ponds: (Once they resumed the childhood of love) And overflowing, spreading, swallowing Like water l i g h t , show one averted face, As i n the capsule of the human eye Seen at i n f i n i t y , the outer end of time, A man and woman l y i n g sun-bemused In a blue vineyard by the L a t i n sea, Steeped i n each other's minds and breathing there Like wicks in h a l i n g deep i n golden o i l . (P, p. 27) At the same time t h i s inhabitant s u f f e r s another deprivation i n the departure of h i s companion, who also served as a sort of mirror i n which he could look f o r knowledge of himself. This double l o s s , of mirrors and of a loved person, i s described i n Mountolive. At the Coptic wake, as part of the duties to the dead, "the mirrors were shivered i n t o a thousand fragments". (M, 313) The dead i s 13 Narouz, the mourner i s Nessim and the image of the shivered mirrors suggests t h e i r d i v i s i o n . The reversed mirrors of the poem become h o s t i l e to attempted r e f l e c t i o n s , "redoubled t h e i r e f f o r t s to impede/Waterlogged images of faces pleading". Water, i s rela t e d to the mirror because i t too can r e f l e c t ; Narcissus, the prime lover of s e l f , saw himself i n the water, but water has wider connotations; e s p e c i a l l y i t i s symbolic of b i r t h and r e b i r t h i n the perennial l i t e r a r y theme of the journey by water. The faces i n the poem are "waterlogged". They have had too much water, too much searching of the s e l f . Excessive i n t r o  version i s an impediment to int r o s p e c t i o n or to a view of the s e l f * as i t r e a l l y i s . The faces plead f o r an opportunity to be r e f l e c t e d accurately, but they are already waterlogged, and the mirrors do not help. The poem alludes to Fortunatus' mirror which " i m p e r i l l e d h i s reason when i t broke". The mirror i s supposed to reveal a true image of things as they are, as reason would l o g i c a l l y deduce them. The s e l f r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s mirror i s a s c i e n t i f i c a l l y proven s e l f , reducible to a formula. The s e l f r e v o l t s against t h i s r e f l e c t i o n , and by im p l i c a t i o n against reason, because, i n the words of Dostoevsky's underground man, Reason.is nothing but reason and s a t i s f i e s only the r a t i o n a l side of man's nature, while w i l l i s a manifestation of the whole l i f e , that i s , of the whole human l i f e i ncluding reason and 14 a l l the impulses". 1 This " w i l l " seems to be the " s e l f " we have been discussing, or at least the preserver of the unitary existence, "what i s most precious and most important - that i s , our personality, our i n d i v i d u a l i t y " . D u r r e l l ' s Alexandrians have been c r i t i c i s e d f o r t h e i r 2 lack of w i l l , but t h i s c r i t i c i s m misses the point that w i l l i s part of what they are seeking and therefore they cannot yet possess i t . A l s o , such objections assume that w i l l must always be manifesting i t s e l f i n a c t i o n , and I am not sure that t h i s i s so. W i l l may be contrary to reason, and to break the mirror of reason i s paradoxi c a l l y to achieve a better r e f l e c t i o n . In. R e f l e c t i o n s on a Marine Venus,^ D u r r e l l alludes to the inadequacy of reason and r e l i g i o n as mirrors, that i s , as aids to self-knowledge. One requires a degree of knowledge t o recognize one's own r e f l e c t i o n and r e a l i z e i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . (Reason and r e l i g i o n ) are equally suspect. They are both fogged mirrors, badly i n need of cleaning. But the ignorant man can get nothing from either - not even a r e f l e c t i o n of h i s own s t u p i d i t y . (MV, p. 169) Notes, pp. 73, 74. See also Frederick J . Hoffman, Samuel  Becket: the Language of S e l f (Carbondale, 111., 1962), pp. 4, 7, 9. The underground man i s "defeated by the mirror of s e l f - w i l l " . "The power of the w i l l ... i s ... turned almost e n t i r e l y inward ... a perverse i n t e r e s t i n tortured s e l f - a n a l y s i s " . The beloved " i s a mirror i n which the underground man sees only the e f f e c t s of a closed s e l f " . 2e.g. L i o n e l T r i l l i n g , "The Quartet: Two Reviews", i n The  World of Lawrence Duaell, ed. Harry T. Moore (Carbondale, 111., 1962), pp. 56-60. This volume w i l l henceforth be r e f e r r e d to as World. ^ D u r r e l l ' s mirror i s i n n o n - f i c t i o n too. Note the t i t l e "Ref l e c t i o n s " . T r a v e l , as w i l l be seen i n the discussion of landscape, i s f o r him a form of i n t r o s p e c t i o n . 15 Reason also could i n s i s t on s e l f - a n a l y s i s beyond the point which the i r r a t i o n a l s e l f can bear. Time i s "amputated" i n the poem because the other meaning of " r e f l e c t i o n " involves memory, bringing past i n t o present, and d i s  carding the superfluous time between. Al s o , D u r r e l l eliminates "time", as an impersonal means of s c i e n t i f i c measurement and recog nizes i t only as one aspect of the l i f e processes. Time, as i t i s shown, " i n clocks", i s "refuse" now. It " w i l l bleed no more", because i t i s no longer a part of l i f e . The clocks i n which i t flows l i k e refuse are i n c l i n i c s , places of sickness; l i b r a r i e s , places of a r t , and memory; and barracks, places of regimentation and destruction; and a l l these places are important to D u r r e l l ' s Alexandrians. The. abandoned mirrors become act i v e and r e f l e c t the face even though i t i s averted, they "drink l i k e ponds". Ponds do not drink, but are what we drink. The key to the paradox i s the mirror. The pond i n r e f l e c t i n g the face "drinks" i t , takes i t within the water. The mention of love i s i n place, f o r t h i s r e f l e c t i o n i s not consciously sought by the s e l f r e f l e c t e d but i s a gratuitous o f f e r i n g , and the "mirror" often takes the form of another person through whom the s e l f i s found, or perhaps the form of one's own a r t . The mirror then seems to be the human eye which "sees" i n various ways, "perceives", or, i n the way i n which a seer sees - in t o " i n f i n i t y , the outer end of time". The f i n a l mirror i n the poem i s a blend of the mirrors which D u r r e l l most t r u s t s . The lovers r e f l e c t each other's s e l f , are "steeped i n each other's minds", inv o l v i n g i n t e l l e c t as well as sense, 16 the unitary image. Their s e t t i n g i s "by the L a t i n sea", a Mediterr anean' landscape l i k e the i s l a n d to which D u r r e l l sends Darley to c l a r i f y h i s r e f l e c t i o n i n both senses of that word. From this, mirror, as from a lamp with "wicks i n h a l i n g deep i n golden o i l " , l i g h t , i l l u m i n a t i o n , new knowledge come. Into t h i s poem, D u r r e l l has crowded suggestions of the various forms which the mirrors i n the Quartet are to take: reason and science, time, n a r c i s s i s i s m , sickness, a r t , destruction, seascape and landscape, and love. The s e l f ^ m i r r o r i n g i t s e l f was D u r r e l l ' s theme long before the Quartet was w r i t t e n . Gregory i n the Black Book suf f e r s from an extreme self-consciousness, and i s always aware of himself "as an actor on an empty stage, h i s only audience the c r i t i c a l s e l f " . (BB, pp. 200-201). In h i s room, the "laboratory which I have made of my ego", Gregory rages i n r e v e r i e u n t i l everything becomes i n t o l e r a b l e ; then he sobers himself by looking i n the mirror. The Black Book i s a beginner's work, and the mirror symbolism i s much l e s s subtle than i t i s i n the Alexandria Quartet, but t h i s lack of subtlety leaves clues to some of the implications of D u r r e l l ' s l a t e r uses of s i m i l a r devices. Gregory aspires to i n v u l t u a t i o n , and the e f f i g y which he would hex i s h i s own. But he i s unsuccessful: "D a i l y I pierce the image of myself, and nothing happens". The r e f l e c t i n g s e l f has no power over the acting s e l f . There i s a separa t i o n where there should be a unity: " A l l my l i f e I have done t h i s - imagined my actions. I have never taken part i n them". (BB, p. 196) Self r e f l e c t i n g s e l f i s spellbound and impotent, s p l i t i n t o unconnected 17 parts: 'Ended. It i s a l l ended. I r e a l i z e that now, l i v i n g here on the green carpet and l i v i n g there i n the mirror .... This i s my eternal t o p i c , I, Gregory S t y l i t e s , des troyed by the problem of personal a c t i o n . ' (BB, p. 228) Gregory's statement of h i s problem follows mention of another separation i n what should be u n i f i e d , the gulf "between the people and t h e i r makers - the a r t i s t s " , r e s u l t i n g i n an impotent c i v i l i z a t i o n and a new Dark Age. The problem of personal action a r i s e s when the s e l f r e f l e c t i n g loses contact with the s e l f r e f l e c t e d . W i l l cannot produce a c t i o n , which leads outward, because t h i s w i l l i s directed inward only. V i c t o r Brombert 1 sees D u r r e l l ' s time as "a mode of a c t i o n " d i s t i n c t from Proust's which i s a "mode of memory", and t h i s time i s re l a t e d to "the mirror-disease of thought, the s o l i p s i s t i c awareness of 'others', the walled-in q u a l i t y of experience While concerned with the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of various s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n s and various times past, Barley cannot act and cannot create a r t . When he reconciles the r e - l MLawrence D u r r e l l and h i s French Reputation, "World, pp. 174, 183. 2The d i s t i n c t i o n between Proust's and D u r r e l l ' s uses of "time", " r e f l e c t i o n " , and "memory" i s f a r from c l e a r . In a sense memory replaces action i n the process of Proustian time. As Joseph Wood Krutch explains, "The q u a l i t y of a di r e c t experience always eluded one and ... only i n r e c o l l e c t i o n could we grasp i t s r e a l f l a v o u r " . (Remembrance of Things Past, New York, 1934, v o l . I, p. v i i ) . A s i m i l a r theory i s suggested by the very structure of the.cQuartet, but f o r D u r r e l l the memory "which catches sight of i t s e l f i n a mirror" (B, p. 14) by that act of self-perception does become action , memory projecting beyond i t s e l f i n t o the future of Clea - remembering the future, as i n A l i c e ' s looking g l a s s . 18 f l e c t i o n s , he also moves forward i n time and can begin to create. The state of non-action, which Brombert c a l l s "exasperated and im potent d e s i r e " , f i n d s i t s symbol i n the mirror. Brombert notes here the importance of the eye i n a looking-glass world and i n D u r r e l l ' s v i s u a l l y r i c h Alexandria. The eye o f f e r s temptations and arouses desires which i t i s powerless to s a t i s f y . Hence the prophetic eye and the b l i n d eye are major parts of the mirror imagery. Bombert thinks D u r r e l l * s mirror-complex resembles a game. Perhaps t h i s i s another commentary on Balthazar's chessboard. The search f o r D u r r e l l ' s hidden mirrors i s something of a game i n i t s e l f . Probably, l i k e most in v e s t i g a t i o n s of l i t e r a r y catchwords, i t can be pressed too f a r . But i t can also lead to unsuspected and i n t r i g u i n g bypaths on the road to Alexandria. Con sider the case of Maskelyne, the head of the War O f f i c e i n Egypt while Mountolive i s ambassador. He i s a p r a c t i c a l man, a man of "a c t i o n " , i n the sense of "getting things done", and has no patience with Mount- o l i v e ' s unexplained delays. For him, the problem of Nessim i s a matter of stark black and white, uncomplicated by the mesh of human r e l a t i v i t y which binds Mountolive and turns h i s currents awry. In Time and Western Man, a book which interested B u r r e l l and influenced him considerably, Wyndham Lewis discusses the theory that things are as they appear to one's senses (a s t i c k seen p a r t l y i n water i s bent) and r e f e r s to "Maskelyne*s i l l u s i o n s " . This Maskelyne was a conjuror who mystified audiences at the turn of the century. According to the theory Lewis 19 Is examining, an i l l u s i o n "would be r e a l - since i t appeared r e a l " . Now we return to the mirror: As most of Maskelyne's i l l u s i o n s are effected by arrangements of looking glasses, they would very well i l l u s t r a t e t h i s theory, which i s almost e n t i r e l y based on the experiences of a looking- glass world. It i s a world i n which the image comes to l i f e , and the picture, under suitable conditions moves and l i v e s i n  side i t s frame. The implications of t h i s passage for the Alexandria Quartet are various. In the f i r s t place, Darley's i l l u s i o n s are true, despite Balthazar's proof of t h e i r f a l s i t y . The Quartet i s not a detective story, discarding red herring and proceeding towards the s i n g l e un arguable basic t r u t h . Truth i s r e l a t i v e i n Alexandria; what i s true f o r Darley i s not true f o r Justine, but t h i s does not make i t l e s s true f o r him. Many looking-glasses present many r e f l e c t i o n s of one object and of each other. The r e f l e c t i o n becomes as r e a l as that which i t r e f l e c t s . Again we are concerned with the making of images, the image of s e l f , the creation of a work of a r t . The h i s t o r i c a l Maskelyne constructed automata, the most famous of which were Psycho, who played cards and may therefore bear some remote r e l a t i o n to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the psyche and to the Tarot symbols; and Zoe who drew p i c t u r e s , an a r t i s t - r o b o t , 2 D u r r e l l ' s Maskefyne resembles an automaton i n h i s scrupulous adherence to the l i t e r a l law and h i s lack of concern f o r human r e l a t i o n s . Psycho's i n t r o s p e c t i v e mysticism and Zoe's art are not among h i s strong points. 1Time and Western Man (Boston, 1957) p. 403. E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , (1951), v o l . I I , p. 789b; v o l . VI, p. 263b. 20 Maskelyne constructs automata i n that h i s discovery of Nessim*s secret renders Nessim, Mountolive and Pursewarden unable to d i r e c t the course of events by t h e i r own w i l l s . S t i l l using Maskelyne's t r i c k s as i l l u s t r a t i o n , Lewis postu l a t e s a magical t r i c k i n which the psycho-conjuror cuts up the s e l f : Then i f each piece were put i n t o a separate glass receptacle, not only the same s e l f , but the whole s e l f , would be found staring at the spectator out of each of i t s p r i s o n s . 1 Perhaps t h i s picture of the divided but inseparable s e l f i s behind Capodistria's homunculi, who, even i n an atmosphere of formaldehyde, languish with love and jealousy. These pi c k l e d people stare at the spectator as a r e f l e c t i o n returns the gaze of the person r e f l e c t e d . Maskelyne performs a s i m i l a r t r i c k i n h i s separation of h i s o f f i c i a l s e l f from h i s human s e l f . But, i n the multiple mirrors of the looking-glass world, i t i s Maskelyne who i s r i g h t , as Mountolive and Pursewarden must concede. He knows the f a c t s , knows what should be done about them, and does i t . This i s one point at which one questions what D u r r e l l means by "act i o n " and whether he considers i t de s i r a b l e . The answer probably l i e s with the w i l l . Maskelyne acts not according to h i s w i l l , but according to r u l e . He i s what Dostoevsky*s recluse c a l l s a "normal" man, a "man of character, an ac t i v e man", and t h i s sort of man i s "pre-eminently a l i m i t e d c r e a t u r e " . 2 Dostoevsky explains, "To begin to a c t , you know, you must f i r s t have your mind completely at ease iTime and Bestern Man, p. 406 ^Notes, pp. 55, 65. 21 and no trace of doubt l e f t i n i t " . To anyone who sees himself r e f l e c t e d i n many mirrors simultaneously, such a state i s im po s s i b l e . B. The Two Meanings of " R e f l e c t i o n " The two meanings of " r e f l e c t i o n " , the outer image and the inner thought,' are both involved i n D u r r e l l ' s a l l u s i o n s to mirrors, since both are r e f l e c t i o n s of various aspects of the s e l f , since the outward i s co n t i n u a l l y used to suggest the inner, and since- 3 the goal i s t o unite outward and inner i n the unitary s e l f . The inner sense of " r e f l e c t i o n " , defined by Sartre as "the attempt on the part of consciousness to become i t s own o b j e c t " , 1 i s always concerned with time and memory, looking back and ordering the past i n the l i g h t of present thought. It rearranges r e a l i t y without a l t e r i n g i t , as a l l mirrors rearrange s p a t i a l and dimen sio n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , or the v i s u a l i l l u s i o n thereof, without a c t u a l l y moving anything. Memory i s r e f l e c t e d r e a l i t y — l i k e the mirror, the c r y s t a l or the echo. The thing remembered i s not quite as i t was; curiously, i t i s the same, though changed.... Perhaps the f a s c i n a t i o n i n a l l r e f l e c t i o n i s the essence of poetry.^ Art i s a means of r e f l e c t i o n i n either sense, whether i t holds the mirror up to nature i n a d e l i b e r a t e l y patterned comment on present J-Being and Nothingness (New York, 1956), p. 633. 2E.A. C o l l a r d , e d i t o r i a l i n the Montreal Gazette, January 11, 1964, p. 8. 22 r e a l i t y , or r e c o l l e c t s emotion i n t r a n q u i l l i t y i n an equally de l i b e r a t e r e - c r e a t i o n of past experience. Satre's d e f i n i t i o n applies equally well to inner and outer r e f l e c t i o n ; i n both cases, the subject i s i t s own object, looking at or thinking about i t s e l f . If one i s to see one's s e l f i n a mirror, one must step back several paces. Pressing h i s face against the g l a s s , the subject sees only h i s eye, enormous and grotesque. 1 A l i c e walked away from the flowers i n order to reach them, and a f t e r l i v i n g away from Alexandria, Darley could say, "My sympathy had discovered a new element i n s i d e i t s e l f - detach ment." (C, p. 33) This detachment i s paradoxical. From the s e l f ' s point of view, i t i s a d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of unitary p e r s o n a l i t y i n t o two parts, subject and object. But from an outside view, i t i s a union of two separate concepts, of subject and of object. Mount o l i v e and Maskelyne are both r i g h t and both wrong, although they are opposed. They are dealing with the same s i t u a t i o n , but the s i t u a t i o n as viewed by Mountolive d i f f e r s r a d i c a l l y from that viewed by Maskelyne, and the d i f f e r e n c e i s i n the viewer. Moreover, t h i s r e l a t i v e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n i s taking place within the i n d i v i d u a l . Jung's i n t r o v e r t has to deal with the e x t e r i o r world, and the i n t e r  i o r world pursues h i s extravert i n t o h i s outer l i f e : " i f a man i s f i x e d upon the outer r e a l i t y , he must l i v e h i s myth; i f he i s turned I c f . Justine and Messim, " t h e i r open eyes s t a r i n g i n t o each other.with the sightlessness of inhuman objects". (M, p. 215) 23 towards the inner r e a l i t y , then must he dream h i s outer, h i s so-called r e a l l i f e " . 1 The question, as A l i c e and the Red King knew, i s where to draw the l i n e between dream and r e a l i t y , t r u t h and falsehood. Perhaps there i s ho l i n e ; perhaps inner and outer are the same, or images of each other. Sometimes D u r r e l l subordinates the Alexandrians to Alexan d r i a , but i t turns out that Alexandria i s part of a landscape of the mind, so that at times there i s no d i s t i n c t i o n between Alexandrians and Alexandria. Groddeck contends that "man creates the world i n h i s own image, that a l l h i s inventions and a c t i v i t i e s , h i s science, a r t , finance, l i t e r a t u r e , vocabulary, i n d u s t r i e s and philosophies are i n a s p e c i a l sense symbolic of h i s nature and p r i m i t i v e experience". 2 D u r r e l l ' s Clea remarks about bombing-planes: "'I've always believed that our inventions mirror our secret wishes, and we wish f o r the end of the city-man, don't we? 1" (M, p. 145) C i v i l i z a t i o n i s a mirror of our c o l l e c t i v e selves, and each a r t i f a c t a minor of i t s designer. Jung too defines "the world" as "how I see the world, my a t t i t u d e to the world ...'my w i l l ' and 'my presentation'". Even the d i f f e r e n c e s between the outer world and the inner dream are created by "my Yes and No", 3 by what I accept or r e j e c t . Groddeck speculates concerning the pre-natal existence, " i t seems l i k e l y that I must then have taken everything that surrounded 1Jung, p. 210 2Groddeck, p. 25 3Jung, p. 237 24 me to be part of myself, s e l f and environment being one united whole". This p r i m i t i v e state endures i n Alexandria, d e s c r i p t i o n of environment being also d e s c r i p t i o n of s e l f . The recurrence of the mirror image i s one of the most prevalent and subtle examples of t h i s tendency. Discussing p h i l o s o p h i c a l idealism, Wyndham Lewis postulates a world i h which a l l phenomena of the environment are projections from the s e l f , which, i n the ext e r i o r world, i s i t s e l f a mere r e f l e c t i o n : The impression of r e a l i t y that you receive from within has t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y , namely, that the i l l u s i o n i n t h i s case i s you r s e l f . . . . In the case of the per s o n a l i t y , i f you consider the e x t e r i o r world as a mirror world, you are in s i d e  the image i n the mirror (Lewis's i t a l i c s ) . . . . The 'objects* that are i t s o r i g i n a l s exist merely f o r i t . . . the s o l i d projections as i t were of t h i s one, immaterial t h i n g . Looked at i n that way, to be coloured . and to be extended i s , conversely, i n t h i s connection to be unreal.^ Here the inner i s projected i n t o the outer so that the outer becomes dependent on the inner. There i s an i d e n t i t y of consciousness and environment, and the d i s t i n c t i o n between the " r e f l e c t i o n " of thought and the " r e f l e c t i o n " of the mirror becomes blu r r e d . C. The Single Image The simplest form of the mirror image i s that i n which a person sees h i s own r e f l e c t i o n i n a single-view, non-magical common or garden mirror. In a sense, the mirror has an extra dimension. It i s , - i n a ctual fact a plane surface, but usurps the q u a l i t y of depth and even of time. When an Alexandrian looks i n the mirror he i s l i k e l y to see not only h i s face, but his mind and heart, past, present and x p . 92 2j3p. 405, 406 25 future, returning h i s gaze. Justine, whose self-obsession i s severe enough to have at least pretensions to neurosis, spends an inordinate amount of time before a mirror. Vanity i s not her motive; most of the time she scarcely sees her present beauty at a l l . A rnauti, her former husband and companion i n her wild goose chase a f t e r analysts, quotes her as saying, "'I always see i n the mirror the image of an aging fury*". ( J , p. 192) She t a l k s to the mirror rather than to her lover, about actions performed "to i n v i t e s e l f - d i s c o v e r y " . What she says reveals a mirror-mind, r e f l e c t i n g the words and thoughts of other minds. ( J , pp. 202-203) The outer mirror i s u s u a l l y r e l a t e d to an inner mirror. A f t e r a tense discussion with Nessim of i n t r i g u e s p o l i t i c a l and e r o t i c , a discussion containing many unspoken suggestions, she goes to the mirror to study "her own sorrowful,haunted face". (J_, p. 212) But the r e v e l a t i o n which follows i s Nesslm's, not her own. Self-discovery has something to do with the s e l f ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to other selves. Nessim encounters mirrors as often as Justine does, though l e s s d e l i b e r a t e l y . He t r i e s to see himself as he appears to Justine.(M, p. 195) Examining h i s own r e f l e c t i o n , he i s s i c k with s e l f - l o a t h i n g and s e l f - contempt, s t r i c k e n with the m u l t i p l i c i t y of h i s own motives/ (M,. p. 202) Under the s t r a i n , he too becomes preoccupied with h i s own mind and addresses h i s r e f l e c t i o n as i f i t were a separate e n t i t y , but one that was, and should be again, part of himself: Now too he noticed that he i n v o l u n t a r i l y repeated phrases aloud to which h i s conscious mind refused to l i s t e n . 'Good', she heard him t e l l one of h i s mirrors, 'so you are f a l l i n g i n t o a neurasthenia*. (J_, p. 159) 26 The s p l i t i n himself becomes so acute that he sees i n a complete stranger "a strong yet d i s t o r t e d resemblance to himself as he turned i n the mirror". (J_, p. 194) He imagines the r e f l e c t i o n coming out from the mirror, and the separated part of the s e l f assuming an existence on i t s own. A p u b l i c o f f i c i a l with power to command action and, supposedly, to r e a l i z e h i s own dream image of himself, Mountolive catches several revealing glimpses i n mirrors as he passes by. One of these r e f l e c  t i o n s i s provided through another's r e f l e c t i o n . S i r Louis, the ambassador to Russia, discusses h i s own shortcomings with himself i n the mirror and t h i s banishes some of Mountolive's i l l u s i o n s regarding t h e i r exalted rank. (M, pp. 76, 79) But, once arrayed i n h i s own sym b o l i c f i n e r y , Mountolive i s "quite surprised to see how handsome he looked i n a mirror". (M, p. 130) This preoccupation with the super f i c i a l s e l f obscures the r e a l problems, h i s own and the state's. His condition i s s t a t i c , when the need i s f o r a c t i o n . As Nessim questioned h i s neurasthenia, Mountolive wonders, "Am I slowly becoming i r r e s i s t i b l e to myself?" (M, p. 141) A f t e r h i s re-encounter with L e i l a , which i s an encounter with h i s own past s e l f and with the Egypt of h i s past, he disguises himself and ventures i n t o the low l i f e of the Arab Quarter. Here he f i n d s horrors enough to r e f l e c t the horrors of h i s own uncon scious. Seeing h i s incognito s e l f i n the mirror, he i s again "quite surprised", t h i s time at the transformation. (M, p. 285) Mountolive's surprise at h i s r e f l e c t i o n s implies a deeper sort of s u r p r i s e . The image of the handsome ambassador gives way to that of a man involved with the l i v e s of other men, f i n d i n g himself a major character i n a 27 story of treason, s u i c i d e , f r a t r i c i d e , incest and adultery. The process of Mountolive's s e l f - d i s c o v e r y i s marked by h i s surprise at the unexpec ted character of himself and the other selves on whose r e l a t i v e existence h i s own depends. Pursewarden's use of mirrors i s a conscious one. He i s an a r t i s t , whose aesthetic theories are very l i k e those of Mr. D u r r e l l , and he understands the nature of the symbol. He scolds himself i n the mirror (B_, p. 121) and mocks the r e f l e c t i o n of "the great Pursewarden himself" (M, p. 158), casting an ever-so-slight shade of mockery onto the hundreds of pages of h i s p o n t i f i c a t i o n s which swell the Alexandria Quartet. He has a habit of wr i t i n g on the mirror with h i s shaving s t i c k , sometimes a quotation f o r contemplation or f o r s a t i r e (B_, p. 123); some times a mock epitaph, which i s deadly serious i n i t s suggestion of fundamental uncertainty: 'I never knew which side my art was buttered' Were the Last Words that poor Pursewarden uttered! F i n a l l y , the mirror receives h i s suicide message, with i t s warning to Nessim, the r e a l epitaph t h i s time. (B_, p. 150; M, p. 214). Pursewarden's mirror i s multiple-viewed, however, and t h i s man who proclaims h i s views a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y throughout the book, remains an enigma, with at least three motives f o r suicide; h i s necessary betrayal of h i s f r i e n d Nessim to h i s f r i e n d Mountolive; h i s incestuous love f o r L i z a , who i s f a l l i n g i n love with Mountolive; or h i s awareness that he had reached the apex of h i s a r t i s t i c accomplishment and usefulness. None of the motives i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y explanation. Besides these continuous mirror mortifs, each r e f l e c t i n g a major character, there are r e f l e c t i n g images scattered though the four 28 books, always showing at least a hint of some t r u t h not h i t h e r t o apparent. Narouz sees h i s c r i p p l e d father pointing a p i s t o l at h i s r e f l e c t i o n and r e a l i z e s the intimacy of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s which bind h i s parents and Mountolive, Nessim and Mountolive, Nessim and Narouz and t h e i r parents. (B, p. 249; M, p. 37 - 38) Darley and Melissa say good-bye i n a cab and t a l k of the q u a d r i l a t e r a l love which included them with Nessim and Justine, and are aware that "the d r i v e r watched us i n the mirror l i k e a spy.... He watched us as one might watch cats making love". ( J , p. 225 - 226). In t h i s s i m i l e , the tender leave-taking becomes a strange complex of love, pornography and b e s t i a l i t y . Pombal, the casanova, confused at f i n d i n g himself i n love, addresses hi s own reflection; he "who believed so many things about love" i s seeing unsuspected truths about himself and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to others. (C_, p. 41) Darley and Pombal and, one gathers, most of the male characters i n the Quartet, gaze at them selves and each other i n the barber-shop mirrors ( J , p. 36; B, p. 24). The barber's name, Mnemjian, suggests memory, time and also mimesis, a representation or image of t r u t h . He knows everything about everyone; l i k e the mirror, he contains hidden t r u t h . In h i s shop i s a group photo graph, which serves as a mirror f o r memories. The pictured Darley i s "the perfected image of a schoolteacher". (B_, p.24) The threadbare i n  e f f e c t u a l f i g u r e i s not the f i n a l form of Darley, but i t i s Darley before he looked i n t o the multiple mirrors. At Carnival the whole group, disguised, anonymous, i n d i s t i n g u i s h  able from one another even i n sex, f i n d i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e r e f l e c t i o n a perception i n t o t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e nature and the ambiguities and decep t i o n s which bind them a l l together: They put on the velveteen capes and adjusted t h e i r masks l i k e the actors they were, comparing 29 t h e i r i d e n t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n s as they stood side by side i n the two swollen mirrors among the palms.... The i n q u i s i t o r s of pleasure and pain, the Alexandrians. (B_, pp.198 - 199) The portentous glance i n the mirror occurs i n D u r r e l l ' s l e s s e r works a l s o . In The Dark Labyrinth, Fearmax becomes aware of h i s own l o n e l i n e s s and lack of humor only when he focusses on h i s r e f l e c t i o n i n a hotel mirror and i n shopwindows. (PL, pp. 115, 117) And Joanna, i n D u r r e l l ' s version of Royidis' Pope Joan, begins her alarming career a f t e r contemplating her own beauty mirrored i n a pond. (Pope, pp. 26 - 27) A l l t h i s gazing i n mirrors i s not e n t i r e l y accidental on the part of D u r r e l l * s people. Most of them recognize t h e i r own n a r c i s s  ism and comment on i t , as w i l l be seen more i n the discussion of multiple mirrors. They use mirror metaphors i n t h e i r own comments and perceptions. Mountolive i n the embassy i n Russia "had a sudden image of them a l l f l o a t i n g b e l l y upward i n a snowy lake, l i k e bodies of trapped frogs gleaming upward through the mirror of i c e " , (M, p. 62) Often they recognize t h e i r problem, the s t a t i c examination of s e l f , and, as Pursewarden says, they "are incapable of thinking f o r ourselves; about, yes". (C_, p. 134) D u r r e l l ' s Sappho, l i k e Justine, sees the r e f l e c t i o n of an aging fury (and l i k e Justine i s involved i n a confusion of love and p o l i t i c s ) : The moment at the mirror i s the worst of the day. We measure our self-contempt wrinkle by wrinkle, Our disgust i s at the s t a l e breath, l a c k l u s t r e eye, A l l the wear and tear of being without ever becoming. (S^ P. 79) Being i s s t a t i c , becoming i s a c t i v e . D u r r e l l does not end h i s t e t r a  logy, but s u f f i x e s a number of suggested s t a r t i n g points f o r new develop ments. Darley has freed himself from the stagnation of being and attained 30 a k i n e t i c state of becoming. What the a r t i s t creates i s himself. The s e l f i n the Black Book i>s f r u s t r a t e d by the v e i l of f l e s h which hides i t s own essence: " i am again standing naked i n front of the mirror, puzzled by the obstructing f l e s h " . (BB, p. 203) When he does see the r e f l e c t i o n , i t i s not quite what he wished i t to be: "he f i n d s himself face to face with h i s anonymity, and i s unable to outstare i t " . (BB, p. 222) There i s something unknown within himself, something basic and quiescent and unreachable: "the other, the not-me, the f i g  ment, the embryo, the white something which l i e s behind my face i n the mirror". (BB, p. 71) The germ of s e l f i s being, essence, hidden by the present f l e s h . Jung has defined the ego as "only the subject of my consciousness" i n contrast to the s e l f , which i s "the subject of my t o t a l i t y ' " . 1 Groddeck describes the problem of the inescapable I: ' rI am I* - we cannot get away from i t , and even while I assert that the proposition i s f a l s e , I am obliged to act as i f i t were t r u e . 2 But " i am i " i s a tautology; the problem i s to f i n d a meaningful sub s t i t u t e phrase f o r the second " i " . "But the key to everything seems to me to be s e l f - l i b e r a t i o n and s e l f - d i s c o v e r y - an important r e l i g i o u s and a r t i s t i c bias of mind". (A & 0, p. 24) D u r r e l l means these words to apply to Henry M i l l e r ' s Sexus, but t h i s "bias of mind", concerned with f r e e i n g the s e l f f o r action by unravelling the complexities which bind i t , i s the bias of h i s own mind and of the minds of h i s puppets. !p. 540 2 p . 82 3John Press finds that D u r r e l l ' s poetry "reveals the patterns of a mind that s h i f t s c o n t i n u a l l y l i k e s u n l i t water r e f l e c t e d i n a mirror". The Chequer*d Shade (London, 1958), p. 40. Sometimes one suspects D u r r e l l ' s a s s o c i a t i o n with mirrors i s i n e v i t a b l e and compulsive. 31 D. R e f l e c t i o n i n Another S e l f Frequently, the r e f l e c t i o n of the s e l f i s not a simple I to I r e l a t i o n s h i p , but proceeds through the means of another " i " , whose words or person may serve as a mirror. The most obvious mirror of t h i s sort i s love, i n which partners r e f l e c t each other; and t h i s subject w i l l warrant a chapter to i t s e l f . For the moment, l e t us consider the mirroring of the s e l f i n other selves. Pursewarden, with h i s p r o l i f i c i n s i g h t s i n t o everything, functions as a c r u e l l y accurate mirror of Darley, the other a r t i s t , and, probably le s s c r u e l l y , of other characters. Balthazar describes t h i s q u a l i t y , the mirror being the seeing, perceiving, r e f l e c t i n g eye: "His (Purse- warden's) eyes ... looked i n t o other eyes, i n t o other ideas, with a r e a l candour, rather a t e r r i f y i n g sort of l u c i d i t y " . (B_, p. I l l ) He i s not a comfortable sort of companion, even to himself, as h i s suicide i n d i c a t e s . He i s conscious of the mirroring of selves by other selves, and, as usual only p a r t l y i n j e s t , uses the idea to j u s t i f y the B r i t i s h monarchy: A Royal Family i s a mirror image of the human, a legitimate i d o l a t r y . . . . No, they are a b i o l o g i c a l necessity, Kings. Perhaps they mirror the very c o n s t i t u t i o n of the psyche? (M, pp. 62, 63) For Pursewarden who works f o r the Foreign o f f i c e , as well as f o r Mountolive the ambassador and Nessim the conspirator, the B r i t i s h imperial t r a d i t i o n complete with s t i f f upper l i p i s part of 32 v i t a l personal problems. 1 But, Pursewarden's glass could be seen only darkly. The selves which mirror one another also confuse one another with masks of super f i c i a l i t i e s and obscure the truths which might have been r e f l e c t e d : "we l i v e i n the shallows of one another's p e r s o n a l i t i e s and cannot r e a l l y see in t o the depths beneath". (B_, p. 141) Narcissus's pond i s clouded over with the pale cast of thought-reflection, i t s waters stagnant. Darley himself i s a mirror, observing, absorbing, and r e f l e c t i n g a l l i n h i s w r i t i n g . In a ballroom with "shivering mirrors" Clea asks him, "Why do you prefer to s i t apart and study us a l l ? " (B_, p. 233) The shivering mirrors are part of an e f f e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of s e t t i n g , but they serve as a symbolic complement to Clea's question. D u r r e l l ' s i mirrors u s u a l l y exhibit t h i s dual nature, simuUtaheously tangible thing and symbol of i n t a n g i b l e . Perhaps t h i s i s the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of any successful symbol. The s e l f sees i t s reflection i n curious places. A f t e r Narouz*s impassioned oration follows "the germinal s i l e n c e i n which you can hear the very seeds i n the human psyche s t i r r i n g , t r y i n g to move t o  wards the l i g h t of s e l f - r e c o g n i t i o n " . (M, p. 125) This again i s Pursewarden*s remark. Narouz i s close to the basic nature of things, The p o s s i b i l i t y of a p o l i t i c a l theme f o r the Alexandria Quartet i s suggested by Charles Rolo i n h i s review of Mountolive: " i t may be that the theme of the serie s w i l l turn out to be the f a t a l t en dency of the Engli s h i n the Middle East to be blinded by romanticism". ( A t l a n t i c , CCIII, No. 4 ( A p r i l , 1959), p. 134). Mountolive and L e i l a are England and Egypt, west and east. The l i g h t e r books, E s p r i t de Corps and S t i f f Upper L i p , are based on D u r r e l l ' s experiences i n the diplomatic corps. Two thousand years a f t e r Caesar, Antonies are s t i l l f i n d i n g t h e i r downfalls i n Egypt. 33 a man of the land, u n c i v i l i z e d . The archetypal forms are near the sur face of h i s consciousness, and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with h i s parents, h i s brother, and h i s v a i n l y loved Clea are fundamental and quite simple i n themselves. For him, complications a r i s e from without. Because he i s i n touch with the e s s e n t i a l things, he i s a seer, and h i s own simple nature i s capable of mirroring the t r u t h of many sophisticated selves. Euth Adams i n The Dark Labyrinth f i n d s the t r u t h about l i f e i n her brother. His death i s a removal i n t o h i s appropriate world, a looking-glass world: 'I learned from him that death doesn't exist except i n the imagination. Thus I was hardly sad when h i s discontent c a r r i e d him through to the other side - l i k e stepping i n t o a mirror*. (PL, p. 249) There i s no death, only the mirror i s the imagination, the mind, the s e l f . This i s suggested also i n Parley's observation on Pursewarden's death: Nor, f o r the purpose of t h i s w r i t i n g , has he ceased to exi s t ; he has simply stepped i n t o the q u i c k s i l v e r of a mirror as we a l l must - to leave our i l l n e s s e s , our e v i l acts, the hornets* nest of our desi r e s , s t i l l operative i n the r e a l world - which i s the memory of our f r i e n d s . ( J , p. 118) A few hours before h i s su i c i d e , Pursewarden s p i t s upon the mirror, and h i s r e f l e c t i o n l i q u e f i e s , d i s i n t e g r a t e s as he himself was soon to do, death allowing the " r e a l " s e l f to become i d e n t i c a l with the mirror s e l f . ( J , p. 119) In P u r r e l l ' s poem "The P i l o t " , there i s a question as to who the potter i s and who the pot. Sure a l o v e l y day and a l l weather Leading westward to Ireland and our childhood. On the quarters of heaven, held by s t a r s , The Hunter and Arcturus g e t t i n g ready - The elect of heaven a l l burning on the wheel. This l o v e l y morning must the p i l o t leaning In the eye of heaven f e e l the i s l a n d 34 Turning beneath him, burning soft and blue - And a l l t h i s mortal globe l i k e a great lamp With spines of r i v e r s , f a m i l i e s of c i t i e s Seeming to the s o l i t a r y boy so Local and queer yet so much a part of him. The enemies of sile n c e have come nearer, Turn, turn to the morning on wild elbows: Look down through the f i v e senses l i k e stars To where our l i v e s l i e small and equal l i k e two grains Before Chance - the hawk's eye or the p i l o t ' s Round and shining on the open sky, Re f l e c t i n g back the innocent world i n i t . (P, P. 9) The world r e f l e c t s the l i f e of the p i l o t , and h i s eye i n turn r e f l e c t s "the innocent world". We are a l l mirrors together. The s e l f mirrors another s e l f which i s mirroring i t , and therefore i n mirroring the other, each also mirrors i t s e l f . This crosseyed r e f l e c t i n g process may be elucidated by reference to E r i c h Kahler's essay "The Nature of the Symbol"."1" Inasmuch as the human being has come to extend h i s existence over manifold spheres, h i s communication with h i s outer world turns i n t o a communication with h i s s e l f , of h i s p r a c t i c a l work with h i s t h e o r e t i c a l mind, and - since the outer expansion r e f l e x i v e l y involved i n an inner, psychic expansion - of h i s Ego with h i s Id, with the l i g h t e d depths of h i s unconsciousness. The i n v o l u t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n s and communications seems to be approach- ing the desired r e u n i f i c a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l s e l f . 1Symbolism i n R e l i g i o n and L i t e r a t u r e , ed. Rollo May (New York, 1961), p. 52. 2Rank shows how the Pythagoreans brought the numbers of man and the universe i n t o "an inward r e l a t i o n " , so they are "mirror-images of one another". (Art and A r t i s t , p. 117, Rank's I t a l i c s ) It i s not, as i n the popular song, "I see the moon, the moon sees me, but "I see me i n the moon; the moon sees the moon i n me" - a sort of cosmic so l i p s i s m . 35 E. R e f l e c t i o n s of Another S e l f Sometimes the s i g n i f i c a n t r e f l e c t i o n i s not one's own, but that of someone e l s e . One comes to know the other better by studying h i s r e f l e c t i o n . Darley l i k e s to describe h i s mistresses as they pose before mirrors. We have noticed Justine's habit of holding long con versations with her r e f l e c t i o n . Melissa's mirror, as Richard Aldington has pointed out, not only r e f l e c t s but i s a r e f l e c t i o n of her: "a single poignant s t r i p of cracked mirror". (J_, p. 199) 1 That i s Melissa, s o l i t a r y , "poignant" and broken. In t h i s mirror she sees Nessim's servant Selim appear to r e f l e c t Nessim's g r i e f , which i s i n turn a r e f l e c t i o n of her own g r i e f . Here are mirrors within mirrors, Darley learning about Melissa, Melissa learning about Nessim. And each r e f l e c t i o n of someone close to oneself i s also a r e f l e c t i o n of one's s e l f , and lovers are r e f l e c t i o n s of each other. Melissa and mirrors are r e l a t e d , because, Darley suggests, he and she r e f l e c t each other * s oondit ion; they are "fellow-bankrupts". (J_, p. 23) Seeing Melissa's o l d , r i c h , ugly lover Cohen i n a mirror, Darley r e a l i z e s " f o r the f i r s t time that he probably loved Melissa as much as I d i d " . This r e f l e c t i o n reveals the ambiguous and complex nature of love: the p o s s i b i l i t y of a tender r e l a t i o n s h i p between the gross Cohen and the poignant Melissa, the hardness i n t h i s poignancy and the f r i e n d l i  ness i n enmity, which takes Darley to Cohen's deathbed when Melissa refuses to go. The mirror and a sudden r e a l i z a t i o n often coincide. En route to the f a t e f u l duckhunt, the culmination of the many mysteries of the 36 f i r s t novel, Darley recognizes t h e i r mutual f r i e n d Capodistria as "the author of a l l Justine's misfortunes", the r a p i s t of her c h i l d  hood. "From time to time", he catches Nessim*s eye i n the d r i v i n g mirror. Nessim*s r e f l e c t e d smile contains, but does not r e v e a l , the answers to many questions. ( J , p. 210) To know another, one must have more views of him than that presented to one's own naked eye. In D u r r e l l ' s poem "Fabre" (P, p. 106), the n a t u r a l i s t i s f a u l t l e s s i n "exact observation", but inept i n human perception. He may have mastered the t h i r t e e n s c i e n t i f i c ways of look ing at a b l a c k b i r d , but not the countless ways of looking at a man or woman: If r e a l women were l i k e moths he didn't n o t i c e . There was not a looking-glass i n the whole house. Fabre's s c i e n t i f i c method cannot cope with human r e a l i t y , because i t depends t o t a l l y on h i s own detached s e l f , never on involvement and communication with other selves. The mirror may be a f f e c t e d by i t s own act of r e f l e c t i o n . Alexandria, as a mirror of these people, becomes them, a landscape of the mind, with a human character. The s e l f revealing t r u t h about another f i n d s also h i s own t r u t h . Again, i t i s an ambiguity of potter and pot. The Greek poet, C.P. Cavafy, i d o l i z e d i n the Quartet as the "old poet of the c i t y " , has a poem which i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s . A handsome boy looks b r i e f l y at himself i n a large old mirror i n amansion to which he goes on business: The old mirror was glad now And was proud to have received upon i t s e l f That e n t i r e beauty f o r a few minutes. 1 l n T h e mirror i n the H a l l " , The Poems of C.P. Cavafy, trans. John Mavrogordato (London, 195]), p. 192. 37 Darley's attempt to r e f l e c t h i s fellow Alexandrians i n h i s n a r r a t i v e i s the determining act i n h i s own development. George Steiner discusses the manner i n which D u r r e l l ' s charac t e r s mirror each other, and finds these mirrors "dangerous" because "although they multiply v i s i o n and drive i t inward, they also shut i t o f f from the outside"'. 1 The outside becomes i n s i d e , so there i s no o b j e c t i v i t y , only an excessive s u b j e c t i v i t y , and the main a c t i v i t y of mind i s to "watch the mirror watching Vou". ("Cradle Song", P_, p. 16) Cavafy's mirror returns a perception not t o the boy who looks i n t o i t , but only to i t s e l f . F. Multiple-View Mirrors: Prism-Sightedness I remember her s i t t i n g before the multiple mirrors at the dressmaker's, being f i t t e d f o r a sharkskin costume, and saying: "Look! f i v e d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e s of the same subject. Now i f I wrote I would t r y f o r a multi-dimensional e f f e c t i n character, a sort of prism-sightedness. Why should not people show more than one p r o f i l e at a time?" ( J , p. 27) Justine i s advising Darley to do p r e c i s e l y what t h e i r creator has set out to do. This l i t t l e scene i s a parable of the method D u r r e l l employs i n the Quartet. He gives at least f i v e views of Justine, f o r instance, not one of which shows her whole person. And t h i s whole continues to elude condensation i n t o the sum of i t s parts, but remains prism-like, complete but shattered, s c i n t i l l a t i n g and r e f r a c t i v e . We cannot look equally at a l l the mirrors at once, and which p r o f i l e we see depends on which mirror we use and on where "Lawrence D u r r e l l : The Baroque Novel", World, p. 21. 38 we are standing while we use i t . The prism i n the poem "By the Lake", r e f l e c t s a woman who i s reminiscent of both Justine and Melissa: If seen by many minds at once your image As i n a prism f a l l i n g breaks i t s e l f , Or looking upwards from a gleaming spoon Defies: a smile squeezed up and vanishing In roundels of div e r s i o n l i k e the moon. Yet there you are confirmed by the smallest Wish or k i s s upon the r i s i n g darkness But r o o t l e s s as a wick a f l o a t i n water, Fatherless as shoes walking over dead leaves; A patient whom no envy s t i r s but joy And what the harsh chords of experience leaves - This dark soft eye, so l i q u i d now and hoarse With pleasure: or your arms i n mirrors Combing out s o f t l y h a i r As l o v e l y as a planet's and remote. How many several small forevers Whispered i n the r i n d of the ear Melissa, by t h i s Mediterranean sea-edge, Captured and to l d ? How many additions to the t o t a l silence? Surely we increased you by very l i t t l e , But as with a net or gun to make your victims men? (P, p. 84) The image 'defies" capture, presents a d i f f e r e n t f a c t to each of the "many minds". The s u b s t i t u t i o n of mind f o r eye suggests again the two types of " r e f l e c t i o n " . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of any or a l l of the images i s a question: "How many several small forevers..,?/How many additions to the t o t a l s i l e n c e ? " The sum of the prismed views makes a t o t a l which i s s i l e n c e , empty, incomplete and i n a r t i c u l a t e . So although the minds viewing the woman are many, they increase the concepts of her unitary s e l f "by very l i t t l e " , and the e f f e c t has been on themselves as much as on her, since they have made i t possible f o r 39 her to ensnare " v i c t i m s " , and f o r these victims to be men. The mirror-prism i s multiple-viewed i n two ways: i t presents several views of a si n g l e object, and the object i s viewed by several persons. View and viewer are both prismatic. The i n t r i c a t e e f f e c t which may be achieved by using mirror- symbolism and multiple points of view i s suggested by Lawrance Thompson's de s c r i p t i o n of William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury Each of these four s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s , thus contiguous, hinged, set at a d i f f e r e n t angle from the others, might be c a l l e d analagous to those hinged and contiguous haberdashery mirrors which permit us to contemplate the immediate p i c t u r e r e f l e c t e d i n any si n g l e one of those mirrors, and then to contemplate secondary or subordinate pictures which are r e f l e c t i o n s of r e f l e c t i o n s i n each of the separate m i r r o r s . 1 This i s l i k e Justine's mirror and suggests a na r r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s i m i l a r to D u r r e l l ' s . 2 Each of the four sections might conceivably be read as a separate e n t i t y , but, thus read, i t i s not the same story as i t i s i n context. The r e f l e c t i o n s of r e f l e c t i o n s within r e f l e c t i o n s lead the reader deep i n t o a world where s e l f i s enclosed on a l l sides by i t s e l f . • - . In a comment on the Undergroyn.d Man, Frederick J . Hoffman speaks of "the mirror images, which multiply and f r a c t i o n a t e the s e l f , 1 " M i r r o r Analogues i n The Sound and the Fury" i n William  Faulkner: Three Decades of C r i t i c i s m , ed. E . J . Hoffman and Olga W. Vickery (New York, 1963), p. 224. 20ne i s u n l i k e l y to mistake D u r r e l l ' s voice f o r Faulkner's., Nevertheless, there are resemblances: mirrors replacing time, various views eliminating the need f o r chronology, incest complicating the process of self-discovery; landscape made inseparable from character; Gothic elements shadowing the present. 40 so that one s e l f becomes many fragments, i n close-order d u p l i c a t i o n s of i t s e l f " . 1 This h i n t s at the s i n i s t e r aspect of the mirror-view, the confining and d i s i n t e g r a t i n g nature of prism-sightedness. D u r r e l l l i k e s to appeal to the p h y s i c i s t s to support h i s p r i s  matic theory of f i c t i o n . One might once have imagined a novel which presented various d i f f e r e n t viewpoints, the sum of which was a f u l l y rounded picture of something or someone. But E i n s t e i n has made such a book impossible. The narrator can no longer pretend to be anonymous or d i s i n t e r e s t e d , because now he himself i s a fa c t o r to be considered i n the ana l y s i s of anything he observes. Werner Heisenberg explains that s c i e n t i f i c laws "deal no longer with the p a r t i c l e s themselves but with our knowledge" of them. 2 The implications of t h i s extend f a r beyond the bounds of applied science: For the f i r s t time i n the course of h i s t o r y man on earth faces only himself... The f a m i l i a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the world i n t o subject and object, inner and outer world, body and soul, somehow no longer quite applies .... In science, a l s o , the object of research i s no longer nature i n i t s e l f but rather nature exposed to man's questioning, and to t h i s extent man here also meets himself. We are back again to the idea that everything i s a mirror. Heisenberg implies that a l l man's search f o r knowledge i s a search f o r h i s s e l f , at least that the two searches are inseparable. In order to come anywhere near the object, the in v e s t i g a t o r must discover which i s object ^Samuel Becket, p. 43 2"The Representation of Nature i n Contemporary Physics", M#y, pp. 221, 226 - 227, See D u r r e l l ' s Key, passim, e s p e c i a l l y Chapter 2. 41 and which subject and disentangle one from the other. The disentanglement i s never complete and the object i n i t s e l f i s unattainable. Because he cannot see beyond himself, the s c i e n t i s t has had to eject the word "true" from h i s vocabulary, as Wyndham Lewis points out."'" He does not know whether or not the theory i s t r u e . D u r r e l l makes Pursewarden, who may be p a r t i a l l y modelled on Lewis, exclaim, "'Who dares to dream of capturing the f l e e t i n g image of t r u t h i n a l l i t s gruesome m u l t i p l i c i t y ? * " (C, p. 136) Discussing the impingement of the ' r e a l * and the 'unreal', the noneelf and the s e l f upon each other, Lewis mentions the "mirror-imagery" of such p o s t - r e l a t i v i t y philosophers as Whitehead and Russell; subjective experience, including dreams and h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , i s the l o c a t i o n of ' r e a l i t y ' . What i s r e a l i s not the thing i t s e l f , but the image of that thing - one can see only i n a glass darkly, never face to face. "The r e a l i t y " , says Mr. Lewis, "has d e f i n i t e l y i n s t a l l e d i t s e l f i n s i d e the contemporary mind". Jung also speaks of "images", and he too warns that they are s u b j e c t i v e l y conditioned: " i t i s e s s e n t i a l that the image s h a l l not immediately be assumed to be i d e n t i c a l with the object; i t i s wiser to regard i t as an image of the subjective r e l a t i o n of the object".^ The d e c i s i v e r e a l i t y i s that of the "primordial images" or "archetypes", which " i n t h e i r t o t a l i t y represent a psychic mirror-world". Jung's mirror represents the present contents of consciousness i n a form "somewhat as a million-year old consciousness might see them", seeing becoming, being and passing together with whatever precedes becoming ^•pp. 367, 368, 453. 2pp. 600, 500. 42 and endures beyond passing. "To t h i s consciousness the present moment i s improbably'. It i s possible to see how f o r a n o v e l i s t the mirror view eliminates the need f o r s t r i c t adherence to the order of clock time; chronology i s l e s s important than the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among human experiences and perceptions. These primordial images are the archetypes which Narouz f i n d s i n h i s own mind at C a r n i v a l , when there i s a concentration'of images, of "desires engendered i n the f o r e s t s of the mind, belonging not to themselves but to remote ancestors speaking through them". (B, p. 165) They are what Darley c a l l s "the mythopoeic reference which underlies f a c t " , superseding the d e t a i l s of data and information, "the graveyard of r e l a t i v e f a c t " . (C, p. 176) If these images are r e a l i t y , and i f they are timeless^ then r e a l i t y i s timeless, and Dur r e l l , w i t h Jung's a s s i s  tance, has succeeded i n "eliminating time"; (Cor, p. 19. Above p. 8) But even these images do not appear the same to everyone, and Jung declares, "The world e x i s t s not merely i n i t s e l f , but also as i t appears to me", and "One sees what one can best see from oneself".' 1' Proust, contemplating the several versions of M. Swann, agrees that "each time we see the face or hear the voice i t i s our own ideas of him which we recognise and to which we l i s t e n . Groddeck*s world consists of p o l a r i t i e s ; "everything contains i t s opposite within i t s e l f " and can be shown to have "both an inward and an outward cause". He sees a worldwide tendency towards "thinking", conscious r e f l e c t i o n , which i s f o r each person an attempt to chart a pp.- 472, 16 'Swann's Way, p. 15 43 world outside h i m s e l f T h e problem i s to get outside the s e l f i n order to chart that world. If t h i s cannot be done, the maps w i l l a l l be d i f f e r e n t , each one charting only i t s cartographer's mind. D u r r e l l describes Groddeck's system of p o l a r i t i e s as a seeking "to free himself from the opposites of being, and to emerge in t o R e a l i t y .... The keynote i s r e i n t e g r a t i o n and acceptance of the war r i n g opposites". (Key, p. 83) This i s what occurs i n Clea. The p o l a r i t i e s , the opposite mirror-views of the f i r s t three novels are not proved incorrect or dismissed, but are accepted, assimilated i n t o the l i f e stream of the survivors. The acceptance of the p o l a r i t i e s i s also an escape from them, because the s e l f i s no longer d i s t o r t e d and tormented by them, but having accepted them f o r what they are, can deal with them, take them i n t o account and not be thrown o f f balance by them. This i s r e i n t e g r a t i o n of inner and outer r e a l i t y , s e l f and n o t - s e l f , and also s e l f and s e l f , since the p r i n c i p l e of p o l a r i t i e s applies also to human nature. The " r e a l i t y " i n t o which one i s to emerge may be a condition i n which action i s desirable and p o s s i b l e . And i t may also be Jungian R e a l i t y , since i t i s i n Clea that Darley comes to terms with h i s archetypes and experiences, a death and a r e b i r t h which are almost too Jungian to be t r u e . In e i t h e r case, the r e s u l t i s r e i n t e g r a t i o n , the s e l f made whole. This i s "made whole" also i n the sense of "healed". D u r r e l l quotes E i n s t e i n on the goal of the searching mind which "looks on i n d i v i d u a l existence as a sort of prison and wants t o experience the universe as a single s i g n i f i c a n t pp. 90, 81, 105. 44 whole". (Key, p. 34) In order to experience the whole, he must f i r s t know the part which i s h i s " i n d i v i d u a l existence" and place i t i n p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e to the whole. Neither s e l f nor universe can be l i f t e d out of t h i s single s i g n i f i c a n t whole. The i n t e n t i o n of the Alexandrians then seems to be re p a i r i n g the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n brought about by prism-sightedness, bringing multiple mirrors i n t o j u x t a p o s i t i o n , from many and from opposites r e b u i l d i n g the one. It i s no easy task which i s formulated i n the epigraph to Balthazar. The words are de Sade's, from Justine, h i s t e r r i b l e farce on the ambiguities of good and e v i l and of human views of these. His Justine, l i k e Durrell's„has to deal with the implications of prism- sightedness: 'The mirror sees the man as b e a u t i f u l , the mirror loves the man; another mirror sees the man as f r i g h t f u l and hates him; and i t i s always the same being who produces the impressions'. Bonamy Dobree has pointed out that i n t h i s quotation d i f f e r e n t mirrors have d i f f e r e n t emotions, as well as varying points of view". 1 As ex plained by Sade's monk Clement, himself a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of v i o l e n t p o l a r i t i e s , the motions which the man arouses i n the mirror are condi tioned by the nature of the mirror, the s e l f ' s response determined by the s e l f , a response inward rather than outward as i t seems. He uses the image of the multiple mirror, the t r i c k mirror such as one f i n d s i n a Pun House at the f a i r , "some of which diminish objects, others of which enlarge them; some render f r i g h t f u l images of things, some lend " D u r r e l l ' s Alexandrian S e r i e s " , World, p. 189. 45 them charm". The f r i g h t f u l n e s s or charm depends not on the object to which i t i s a t t r i b u t e d but on the subject which a t t r i b u t e s i t . 1 D u r r e l l ' s people are very much aware of the gruesome m u l t i  p l i c i t y of t r u t h . Balthazar speaks of the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of ever a t t a i n i n g " t r u t h naked and unashamed", because "we always see her as she seems, never as she i s . Each man has his own interpretation". (B, p. 233) And Pursewarden writes, "There are only as many r e a l i t i e s as you care to imagine". (B, p. 152) They are not saying quite the same t h i n g . Balthazar i s seeing each man's view as one mirror of many. Pursewarden here places the m u l t i p l i c i t y within the imagination. The multiple-mirror i s a multiple of a m u l t i p l i c i t y . Again, inner and outer worlds mirror one another; the inner s e l f , l i k e the outer world, i s d i s u n i f i e d and unable to reach a single conclusion about a simple t r u t h . Darley speculates on Balthazar's r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s own story: " i mean that I must t r y and s t r i p the opaque membrane which stands between me and the r e a l i t y of t h e i r actions - and which I suppose i s composed of ray own l i m i t a t i o n s of v i s i o n and temperment. My envy of Pursewarden, my passion f o r Justine, my p i t y f o r Melissa. D i s t o r t i n g mirrors, a l l of them". (B_, p. 28) He wants to s t r i p away everything but f a c t , a task never to be accomplished. The various emotions which Sade also presents as d i s t o r t i n g mirrors are a l l within the same s e l f . He must deal not only with other persons whose views c o n f l i c t with h i s but also with the clashing views within himself. The hinged mirror i s an image of the s e l f as much as of the world. The Justine of Clea has changed considerably from the Justine of the "••D.A.F. de Sade, Justine (P a r i s , 1953), pp. 171 - 172. 46 f i r s t novel - or has she? She says, "*You see a d i f f e r e n t me ... But once again the di f f e r e n c e l i e s i n you, i n what you imagine you s e e l * " (C, p. 53) Not "what you see" but "what you imagine you see". The dif f e r e n c e between seer and seen i s greater than i t seems, obscured by a v e i l of delusion. If the s e l f contains c o n f l i c t s and p o l a r i t i e s , the s e l f i s not a u n i t y . The view which presents the concept of one s e l f i s a d i s t o r t e d view. D u r r e l l has said , outside the Quartet, "I imagine that what we c a l l p e r sonality may be an i l l u s i o n , and in.thinking of i t as a stable thing we are t r y i n g to put a l i d on a box with no s i d e s " 1 Pursewarden says, "'Personality as something with f i x e d a t t r i b u t e s i s an i l l u s i o n - but a necessary i l l u s i o n i f . we are to love**" (B_, pp. 14 - 15) The necessity of a unitary s e l f a r i s e s because of our r e l a t i o n s h i p to other selvws: "Our view of r e a l i t y i s conditioned by our p o s i t i o n i n space and time - not by our p e r s o n a l i t i e s as we l i k e to think". Where we are i n r e l a t i o n to the object determines our view of i t . The d i s t o r t i n g emotions do not proceed from a u n i f i e d personality; no single commanding view d i r e c t s Darley to envy, desire or p i t y . This i s a rather u n s a t i s f a c t o r y state of a f f a i r s , e s p e c i a l l y as one becomes more aware of the other. There i s a need f o r d e f i n i t i o n and d i s t i n c t i o n of oneself, and so one. creates from "selected f i c t i o n s " . (B_, pp. 14 - 15; C, pp. 55, 277) These are " f i c t i o n s " not because they are f a l s e but because theyare o n l y . r e l a t i v e l y t r u e . From them i s constructed.a s e l f and a w i l l , which can love and act i n r e l a t i o n to other selves and w i l l s . "The Kneller Tape", World, p. 163 47 Because the s e l f must be created, the a r t i s t i s an important f i g u r e i n Alexandria, and because the s e l f i s created i n order to love, the Quartet can claim to be an " i n v e s t i g a t i o n of modern love". The notion that the s e l f i s an i l l u s i o n or a deliberate f a b r i c a t i o n from h a l f - t r u t h s i s not a comfortable one; no one l i k e s to think of himself as an i l l u s i o n . On the other hand, as Darley r e c a l l s Balthazar's,saying "Truth i s what most contradicts i t s e l f in.time*"; he also remembers Pursewarden's " ' I f things were always what they seemed, howimpoverished would be the imagination of man!*" (B, p. 23) The con t i n u a l creation of oneself means that l i f e i s dynamic, i n communication with other dynamic, f o r c e s . There i s m u l t i p l i c i t y within the mind, but a prism i s an a t t r a c t i v e object, " t h i s eternal refractioh/Of the thinking mind touching r e a l i t y " . (Sappho, p. 134) "Touching r e a l i t y " because the view of external objects i s s u b j e c t i v e l y conditioned; one i s creating the world as well as oneself, making a coherent sphere from the d i s  j o i n t e d planet. Again, the process deals with r e l a t i o n s h i p s , corres pondences, and the outer world i s created by absorption i n t o the inner: To see and a t t r a c t within myself The sweetest and most naked correspondences Of nature, described through the looking-glass I am. (Sappho, p. 75) T h i s , as Pursewarden observes, i s "not only the writer's problem". (M, p. 159) Everyone can be an a r t i s t . "Growing up means separation i n the i n t e r e s t s of a better, more l u c i d j o i n i n g up". The desirable f i c t i o n s must be selected and separated out, to be refashioned i n t o a p e r s o n a l i t y which can function i n " l u c i d j o i n i n g s up" with others. 48 G. The Multiple-View Plot The structure of the Alexandria Quartet i s i t s e l f analagous t o the hinged mirrors. The s t o r i e s of Darley*s a f f a i r s with Justine and Clea, of Nessim's p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e , Mountolive*s c o n f l i c t of l o y a l t i e s and duties, and Pursewarden*s s u i c i d e , a l l i n t r i c a t e l y mixed with each other and with smaller relevant s t o r i e s , are seen from d i f f e r e n t points of view, each of which contradicts something i n the others and adds some new d e t a i l s not seen elsewhere. Where i t does not contradict or add, i t recasts events innew perspectives, s h i f t i n g r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s , and thus often a l t e r i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a happening. The fourth book assimilates the other views and addssnew l i g h t , but s t i l l does not present a complete s i n g l e r e f l e c t i o n . There are more than four mirrors, however, because the narrators are generous i n quoting others, e s p e c i a l l y Balthazar, Pursewarden and A r n a u t i . Events are r e t o l d , l i t e r a l l y recreated. The episode of the brothel tent i s t o l d from Darley*s viewpoint and l a t e r from Narouz*s through Balthazar; i n the one disgust and s e l f - l o a t h i n g i s expressed, i n the other a grotesque wonder. The various versions of Darley's a l l i a n c e with Justine are never resolved; we are not sure how much of Justine i s passion and how much i s p o l i t i c s . The l o s s of Balthazar's watch-key i s examined from several angles and t h i s mystery too i s not completely solved. This r e t e l l i n g of episodes from various angles i s a f a i r l y simple device and could be rather a r t i f i c i a l . What turns the Quartet i n t o a kaleidoscope of many complexities and in v o l u t i o n s , instead of a scenic tour which presents photographic views with only the d i r e c t i o n changed, 49 i s the contrapuntal occurrence and recurrence of p a r t i a l l y remembered faces, objects, events and phrases. Recognition of one of these r e  p e t i t i o n s brings the reader up short and sends him delving i n t o the depths of memory - h i s own, Darley's and the " c o l l e c t i v e " memory f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n i t has awakened. Pursewarden's shaving mirror, Balthazar's watch-key, Nessim's R o l l s Royce with d a f f o d i l hubcaps, the children's blue handprints on the Arab walls, the song "Jamais de l a v i e " , the scent of Jasmine, the colour mauve i n descriptions of land scape. Obviously these are not a l l of equal stature symbolically, but they serve a s i m i l a r purpose i n b u i l d i n g up through r e p e t i t i o n s and connections a rich-textured world. A f t e r a l l , l i f e does proceed i n a framework of r e p e t i t i o n s . Darley notes that he found "Clea at the exact s t a t i o n i n place and time where I had once found Melissa." (C, p. 76), but most of these s i m i l a r i t i e s - w i t h - a - d i f f e r e n c e are not commented on; they occur and i n s i d i o u s l y work upon the reader's consciousness. Several times Darley and h i s mistress awake to the song of a b l i n d muessin. ( J , p. 25; C, p. 99) The mistress and the place vary, and the former s i t u a t i o n i s not mentioned, but the b l i n d muezzin i s constant, and the reader knows he has been here before. The words "selected" (or " s e l e c t i v e " ) f i c t i o n s appear i n at least three contexts, and make t h e i r point; that the whole f a b r i c of Alexandria i s composed of such f i c t i o n s (B, pp. 14 - 15; C, pp. 55, 277) Twice we witness the butchering of l i v e camels, once within the c i t y and onee i n the desert ( J , p. 62; 81, pp. 121-122) 1 •^-Gilbert Murray reports St. Nilus* account of "the sacramental eating of a camel by an Arab t r i b e " . "The camel was devoured on a p a r t i c u l a r day at the r i s i n g of the morning s t a r . He was cut t o pieces a l i v e , and every fragment of him had to be consumed before the sun rose. If the l i f e had once gone out of the f l e s h and blood, the s a c r i f i c e would have been s p o i l t ; i t was the s p i r i t , the v i t a l i t of the camel that h i s tribesmen wanted". (Five Stages of Greek  R e l i g i o n (Doubleday Anchor e d i t i o n ) , p. 20. Cf Freud, Totem and  Taboo, i n The Basic Writings (New York, 1938), pp. 913, 924. 50 Both times the horror i s appropriate to the immediate scene and also to something t e r r i b l e and mysterious about the butchers and the people who observe them. The r e p e t i t i o n s are r e f l e c t i o n s i n D u r r e l l ' s look ing-glass world; at each occurrence the repeated motif c a r r i e s not only i t s i n t r i n s i c s i g n i f i c a n c e , but that of the mirror as well and d i r e c t s the d e s c r i p t i o n back towards the memory, back within the s e l f . In the f i r s t novel, when Justine introduces Darley to Nessim, she i s compared to a gun-dog bringing the prey to her master, and Darley observes that "whatever she had done had been done i s a sense fo r him". ( J , p. 32) In the fourth novel, she d e l i v e r s Darley to Nessim as i f he were a parcel (C, p. 49) and now Darley r e a l i z e s that hi s e a r l i e r observation was truer than he had thought. The gun-dog simile i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate now that he r e a l i z e s what Justine and Nessim were doing at t h e i r spectacular duck-hunt. The t r i a n g u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p has become immensely complicated and yet i t i s the same. Here, i n the normal sense, Darley has proceeded onward i n time, but by such means as t h i s d u p l i c a t i o n of metaphors he achieves a connection of past and present, that i s t e c h n i c a l l y and t h e o r e t i c a l l y almost a j u x t a p o s i t i o n . In the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Justine and Nessim, D u r r e l l ' s m u l t i p l e - mirror technique i s at i t s most i n t r i c a t e and e f f e c t i v e . We never do pinpoint the essence of what i s between them, and cannot expect to, since whatever i t i s i s dynamic. Darley*s f i r s t impression i s of "the magnificent two-headed animal a marriage can be". ( J , p. 32) This i d e n t i t y p e r s i s t s even when they are estranged; t h e i r moods and states of mind are r e f l e c t i o n s of each other. No matter how many i n f i d e l i t i e s both commit, they s t i l l seem well matched. It i s Justine who speaks of 51 prisra-sightedness, and she i s seen i n a prism, i n fragments of love a f f a i r s which may or may not be sincere, i n fragments of p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e , s o c i a l conversation and i n t e l l e c t u a l speculation. Her appearance i s sometimes b e a u t i f u l , sometimes d e f i n i t e l y u nattractive and even d u l l , a peasant with brown paws. Nessim too i s prismatic, sometimes the charming but simple cuckold, sometimes the arch-deceiver, omniscient, s i n i s t e r and pcLished. His r e l a t i o n s h i p s with h i s brother and h i s land are s i m i l a r l y ambiguous. He i s strong and weak, b r i l l i a n t and stupid. When Nessim reveals h i s plans to her, Justine finds that mirrors have been transcended. They are face to face, mind to mind, and the only mirror they need i s one another. The surface Justine i s "the Justine thrown back by polished mirrors, or engraved i n expensive clothes and f a r d s " , and her body i s "a pleasure—seeker, a mirror—reference to r e a l i t y " . (M, p. 201) But now she i s r e a l i t y i t s e l f , not merely a mirror-reference of i t . Nessim's perception goes beyond the s u p e r f i c i a l i  t i e s . They use the m i r r o r - t r i c k s of d i s t o r t i o n and ambiguity, but d e l i b e r a t e l y and i n the i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r cause. At the star t of h i s a f f a i r with Justine, Darley thinks of "Nessim's handsome face smiling at her from every mirror i n the room". (J, p. 47) This mirror r e f l e c t s the t r u t h about her l i a i s o n s with both men. Nessim watches her with Darley "as i f through the wrong end of an enormous telescope; seeing our small f i g u r e s away on the skyline of h i s own hopes and plans". ( J , p. 85) At the time he writes t h i s , Darley i s unaware how much he i s involved i n Nessim's plan, or even that there i s a plan. The telescope i s something l i k e the marvellous glass supposed to have been atop the legendary lighthouse of Pharos at Alexandria. 52 Darley thinking of Nessim observing them seems to be heeding D u r r e l l ' s "Cradle Song" advice to "watch the mirror watching you". Balthazar's watch-key i s apparently stolen by e i t h e r Justine or Nessim f o r any of several possible reasons connected with espionage and/or jealousy. The key becomes a symbolic means to unlocking the secret of one's various mirrors and hence of oneself. Balthazar says he could not " f i n d the key to a r e l a t i o n s h i p which f a i l e d s i g n a l l y " , (B, p. 98) and he has f a i l e d , since the r e l a t i o n s h i p i n question has not, a f t e r a l l , f a i l e d . Darley, questioning Nessim's motives i n loving Melissa, asks, "Where does one hunt f o r the key to such a pattern?" (B, p. 134) This love i s m i r r o r - l i k e too, Nessim with Darley's mistress r e f l e c t i n g Darley with Nessim*s wife, a l l f o r ambiguous motives. When Nessim does produce the l o s t key, he accompanies the act with wards addressed to Justine i n the mirror and with a bold stare at h i s own r e f l e c t i o n . ( J , pp. 174 - 175) This scene comes at a high point of tension when p o l i t i c s and passion are at t h e i r c r i s e s , and when Nessim i s experiencing a p e c u l i a r s e l f - a p p r a i s a l i n h i s concern over Justine and over Narouz. Here occur h i s strange dreams of h i s c i t y ' s past. Many kinds of r e f l e c t i o n s of h i s s e l f are t r y i n g to come to l i g h t at once. He appears a "vulgar double of himself, a mirror r e f l e c t i n g unexpected d i s t o r t i o n s " . In the Key D u r r e l l t a l k s of the theme of the double i n l i t e r a t u r e as symptomatic of a s p l i t i n the psyche, (p.42) This i s what he makes the metaphor mean f o r Nessim, h i s own double, l i v i n g on several level's'at once. ( J , p. 240; M, p. 191) Mouhtolive's r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r m u l t i l e v e l l i f e comes with an awareness that h i s own f r i e n d s h i p f o r Nessim had prevented h i s seeing the t r u t h about him; 53 he i s forced by h i s p o s i t i o n to take a multiviewed look. The process i s uncomfortable. The features of Nessim and Maskelyne are somehow merged i n a " t r i c k of double exposure", another metaphor that sees things several ways at once. He hates not Nessim but an "image" of Nessim, one of the multiple views of the man. In t h i s confused state, Mountolive sees an u n s e t t l i n g r e f l e c t i o n of himself; "Crossing the h a l l he caught sight of h i s own face i n the great pi e r glass and was surprised to notice that i t wore an expression of feeble petulance". Feeble petulance i s the sorry attainment of h i s w i l l to a c t i o n . Nessim too presents a problem of a c t i o n , but a d i f f e r e n t one. He acts when he least appears to do so, and t h i s i s again suggested by r e p e t i t i o n of phrase. A f t e r Capodistria's faked death and a f t e r Toto's murder, Darley notices that Nessim wears the expression of one r e s t i n g a f t e r a "great expenditure of energy". ( J , p. 205; B_, pp. 12, 218) The reasons f o r the expression are not revealed u n t i l Mountolive; they aie h i n t s of another view of Nessim. Darley has u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y glanced i n a mirror he was not intended to see. Reading Pursewarden*s l e t t e r s to h i s s i s t e r , Darley wonders, " i f two or more explanations of a single human action are as good as each other then what does action mean but an i l l u s i o n ? " (C, p. 176) His query i s i l l u s t r a t e d immediately as he i s confronted by Keats, who has read Pursewarden*s l e t t e r s to his wife and received an im pression opposite to Darley*s. To L i z a , Pursewarden i s a great genius and a good man; to h i s wife, he i s despicable. The act i n question i s his s u i c i d e , and there i s doubt as to whether i t i s an action at a l l . It appears to be immediately motivated by Melissa's disclosure made while 54 "examining the c a v i t i e s i n her teeth with a hand mirror", a r e f l e c t i o n of something repellent i n an a t t r a c t i v e face, as Nessim's crime i s i n the context of h i s friendship with Pursewarden. (M, p. 177) In h i s suicide l e t t e r to Mountolive, Pursewarden says h i s death " w i l l solve other deeper problems too" (M, p. 184) and suggests there are other views of h i s act. He denies i t i s an act, and t e l l s Mountolive, "You must act where I cannot bring myself t o " . Is he r e f e r r i n g to the pro blem of Nessim or the problem of Liza? But to Mountolive, Pursewarden's death i s an act, "the bare act of Pursewarden ( t h i s inconvenient plunge into anonymity)", because i t i s k i n e t i c ; i t sets i n motion forces which compel him too to a c t . (M, p. 186, D u r r e l l ' s i t a l i c s ) It i s Pursewarden's " s o l i t a r y act of cowardice", (M, p. 214) a negative action on the part of one who performs i t , but p o s i t i v e to others. It a l t e r s " a l l the d i s p o s i  t i o n s on the chessboard", A l i c e ' s chessboard jarred suddenly so a l l the pieces have s h i f t e d t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . For Mountolive and Nessim, t h i s ends the delusion of "a perfect f i n i t e a c t i o n , free and heedless as the directed w i l l " . The action directed by Nessim's w i l l has been crossed by the act of another w i l l and both are d i s t o r t e d beyond the point where choice i s possi b l e , caught i n the flow of univ e r s a l forces from the "time-spring of our acts". Nessim and Justine r e a l i z e t h i s i n the mirror of each other, " t h e i r open eyes staring i n t o each other with the sightlessness of inhuman objects, mirrors made of quartz, dead s t a r s " . (M, p. 215) W i l l s are deadlocked and no longer potent. In Clea, Balthazar announces to h i s mirror that "the most tender, the most t r a g i c of i l l u s i o n s i s perhaps to believe that our actions can add or subtract from the t o t a l q u a n t i t y of good and e v i l i n thw world". (C, p. 71) There are so many mirror-views that there can be no " f i n i t e a ction", and there i s always something beyond the scope of the w i l l . Balthazar, commenting on Pursewarden and Justine, exclaims, "imagine what one touch of r i d i c u l e can do to a Higher Emotion!" (B, p. 115) In i t s immediate context, i t does a great deal. For Pursewarden, the dark s i n i s t e r Venus Justine i s "a tiresome old sexual t u r n s t i l e through which presumably we must a l l pass". (B, p. 115) The mirror of the r i d i c u l o u s r e f l e c t s c o n tinually i n the person of Scobie, a masterpiece of a comic character, who appears i n a l l four books and seems to have l i t t l e to do with the story apart from his being a sort of mascot to a l l the major characters. He i s i n fact a mirror of every important theme i n the Quartet. His job i n the Secret Service i s a f arce, but i t provides an e a r l y hint of Nessim's highly serious subversion p l o t s . His "tendency" to dress as a l i t t l e old lady and accost s a i l o r s i s a wild counterpart of other inverted loves, and h i s struggle to control himself i s a struggle of the w i l l . He has only one eye and has " l e f t l i t t l e pieces of h i s f l e s h a l l over the world", match ing the numerous mutilations and i l l n e s s e s i n the novel. His attempt at a r t i s t i c creation i s a bathtub f u l l of a poisonous a l c o h o l i c brew. F i n a l l y , he i s ageless, timeless, "older than the b i r t h of tragedy, younger than the Athenian death". He i s part of the legendary past and coeternal present, a "true subject of myth". ( J , pp. 122, 217) Pursewarden, who often gives clues to D u r r e l l ' s i n t e n t i o n , creates a character very l i k e Scobie to be a meeting place f o r various thoughts and themes. Like Scobie, t h i s character i s to be a "sensualist T i r e s i a s " . (M, pp. 164 - 165) Scobie*s r o l e as part of the inner l i v e s of others i s shown i n the way h i s story i s t o l d , seldom at f i r s t hand, or even i n 56 the d i r e c t words of Darley, but us u a l l y by Darley quoting someone else who i s i m i t a t i n g Scobie*s s t o r y t e l l i n g . The comic mirror has i t s c h i l l i n g aspects, as manifested i n the C a r n i v a l . Here are "the feared and beloved shapes and outlines of frie n d s and f a m i l i a r s now d i s t o r t e d i n t o the semblance of clowns and zanies". (B, pp. 192 - 193) This d i s t o r t i o n i s a deliberate e f f o r t to make one's s e l f part of the r e f l e c t i o n i n a multiple-mirror. Everyone dresses l i k e everyone e l s e , i n the black domino, "which shrouds i d e n t i t y and sex, prevents one d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between man and woman, wife and lover, f r i e n d and enemy". (B, p. 188) The multiple view cancels out i d e n t i t y . The domino confers " u t t e r anonymity ... the disguise which each man i n hi s secret heart desires above a l l ... a freedom which man has seldom dared to imagine f o r himself'.' This disguise, t h i s freefdom, i s "from the bondage of ourselves". (B, pp. 188 - 189), from whatever bothers one, when one l i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y looks i n a mirror: "Only the black domino of the c a r n i v a l b a l l s permitted him (Narouz) to disguise the face he had come to loathe so much that he could no longer bear to see i t even i n a mirror". (B, p. 94) 1 Paradoxically, t h i s renunciation of the s e l f i s a plunge i n t o the deepest recesses of the s e l f , to the i d e n t i t y of the race, since a l l have discarded t h e i r selves and found a r e f l e c t i o n of them selves i n every i d e n t i c a l f i g u r e . It i s as i f one had to cancel the type lDiscussing the Freudian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of dreams, D u r r e l l explains that "the unpleasant secrets which were i (all bricked up i n the unconscious elude the censor because they were got up i n p o e t i c a l fancy-dress, they were disguised". (Key, p. 52) 57 to reach the archetype. Jung describes such a process: In order to discover the uniformity of the human psyche I must descend i n t o the very ' foundations of consciousness. Only there do I f i n d wherein a l l are a l i k e . 1 In order to f i n d oneself, one must l i t e r a l l y lose i t i n the complexity of multiple mirrors. As Barley remarks, "I must learn to see even my s e l f i n a new context, a f t e r reading those cold cruel words of Balthazar". (B, p. 47) The mask, the disguise, the merging i n a general anonymity shows the s e l f r e f l e c t e d i n the disguised selves around, or provides another s e l f to r e f l e c t the f i r s t . Justine i s h o r r i f i e d at the thought of not having to act a part: "Then I shout! not know who I was". (M, pp. 232 - 233) Masked, l i t e r a l l y or not, one has no i d e n t i t y , or one has two i d e n t i t i e s to c l a r i f y and q u a l i f y one another. D u r r e l l has used the multiple mirror before. In the Black o Book, as Harry T. Moore has pointed out, the characters are mirrored "from one abrupt angle a f t e r another i n h i s e f f o r t to capture *the l o g i c of p e r s o n a l i t i e s ... i n a l l i t s b e a u t i f u l mutations'". Here too the m u l t i p l i c i t y comes from within the s e l f as well as from without; i t i s possible to "both love and hate the same woman at the same time". (BB, p. 176) The actor discovers that the " i d e n t i t y " of the anonymous audience i s c o l l e c t i v e l y h i s own i d e n t i t y , "my own face i n i t s incessant r e d u p l i  cations" (BB, p. 223), multiple masks as i n Alexandria's c a r n i v a l . The Dark Labyrinth also i s b u i l t on the multiple-view plan. No one character knows the whole story, but each r e f l e c t s a p a r t i c u l a r angle of the " t r u t h " , and each uses i t as a means of discovering h i s s e l f . p. 624. '"Durrell's Black Book" i n World, p. 101 58 The hinged mirrors take various forms i n D u r r e l l ' s work and are r e l a t e d to several other important categories of metaphor. Groddeck*s book i s e n t i t l e d The World of Man, as r e f l e c t e d i n A r t , i n Words and i n Disease. "As r e f l e c t e d " - there i s the mirror again. Clea t e l l s Darley, "There are only three things to be done with a woman . . . You can love her, s u f f e r f o r her, or turn her i n t o l i t e r a t u r e " . Darley*s problem i s that he i s "experiencing a f a i l u r e i n a l l these do mains of f e e l i n g " . (J_, p. 22) The mirrors then are art (including " l i t e r a t u r e " ) , love and disease or s u f f e r i n g , to which D u r r e l l by i m p l i c a t i o n adds landscape. In the Quartet, each of these motifs i s e x p l i c i t l y an involvement of the s e l f with some r e a l i t y external to i t , whether that r e a l i t y takes the form of an act of communication, a reaching towards another s e l f , an awareness of one's own body as an object, or a reaction to the environment. They are "mirrors" i n that they provide counterparts of i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y or clues to the t r u t h about the s e l f . These v a r i a t i o n s of the mirror image w i l l be examined i n the subsequent chapters. 59 CHAPTER II: The Mirror of Art  A. Art i n Alexandria The Alexandria Quartet i s an a r t i s t i c representation of a r t i s t s . Three major male characters, Darley, Pursewarden and Arnauti are w r i t e r s , as i s Keats, who becomes s i g n i f i c a n t l a t e i n the story. The heroine of the f i n a l volume, Clea, i s a painter. In connection with a r t , the mirror symbolism functions i n various ways. A purpose of a r t , as everyone knows, i s to r e f l e c t : "both at the f i r s t and now, was and i s to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature". 1 D u r r e l l , as an a r t i s t whose art i s concerned with a r t i s t s , creates a mirror to r e f l e c t h i s own theories. The a r t i s t - c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r works r e f l e c t each other and themselves and Alexandria; Justine i s r e f l e c t e d i n the work of four a r t i s t s . Art i n Alexandria i s a mirror of the Alexandrians. The a r t i s t i c process leads to the a r t i s t ' s creation of h i s s e l f , as well as to a work of a r t . In t h i s sense, the t e c h n i c a l l y non-artists are also a r t i s t s . The creation of art i s a p o s i t i v e act, personally d i r e c t e d , and t h i s kind of w i l l e d act i s the Alexandrian goal. D u r r e l l qua D u r r e l l frequently discourses ex cathedra upon the nature of a r t , and h i s characters discuss i t c o n t i n u a l l y . Moreover, those whom he acknowledges as mentors - Groddeck, Rank, Henry M i l l e r - have written extensively on the subject. From the mass of commentary i t i s possible to d i s t i l l a theory of art which i s r e a l i z e d i n the Quartet and Ham. I l l . i i . 60 which coincides with the present problem of the self-obsessed s e l f and the w i l l to a c t i o n . In the Black Book, D u r r e l l writes, i n i t a l i c s : "Books should be b u i l t of one's t i s s u e or not at a l l . The struggle i s not to record experience but to record oneself". (BB, p. 125) In the Key to Modern Poetry he remarks on the increasing s u b j e c t i v i t y of a r t , spurred by the obscurity of the subject-object r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the E i n s t e i n i a n world, and finds that "the v i s i o n of the a r t i s t seems to be gradually turning inwards upon himself". (Key, p. 22) Man can excape the bounds of the four dimensions only i n h i s imagination or h i s unconscious, and only thus "inhabit the whole" of a r e a l i t y indefinable by even great a r t . " i f art has any message i t must be t h i s : to remind us that we are dying without having properly l i v e d " . %Key, p. 5) The creative imagination, while unable to completely express the One r e a l i t y of the unity of s e l f and of space-time, can at least conceive of i t , i n d i c a t e that i t i s there and that i t i s the r e a l i t y of l i f e . Writing to Henry M i l l e r about the Black Book, D u r r e l l i n s i s t e d that "the root of the struggle which on paper looks l i k e the struggle to write i s r e a l l y the struggle to l i v e . A l l a r t i s t i c d i s l o c a t i o n s and f a i l i n g s go r i g h t back to the author". (Cor, p. 99) The problem with the Black Book i s that i t does look rather too much l i k e both these struggles. It i s a product of the artist-adolescent working o f f both types of problems, and written while the process was s t i l l going on; t h i s was not the mature a r t i s t painting a p o r t r a i t of h i s young s e l f . Therefore, D u r r e l l apolo gizes on rereading, "Let me k i l l the ' a r t i s t ' i n me and the man w i l l appear - i f there i s a man". M i l l e r had advised him: "You are a writer - at present, almost too much of a one. You need only to become more and 61 more yourself, i n l i f e and on paper (Cor, p. 98) The Quartet i s p a r t l y a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s process, but not, as the Black Book i s , an example of i t . M i l l e r repeated h i s idea i n Art and Outrage, t h i s time applying i t to himself: My i n t e n t i o n was there - as I s a i d , merely to w rite. Or, to be a w r i t e r , more j u s t l y . Well, I've been i t . Now I just want to be. (A&O, p. 32) The highest art i s the art of l i v i n g ... w r i t i n g i s but a prelude or form of i n i t i a t i o n f o r t h i s purpose. (A&O, p. 40) As D u r r e l l r e a l i z e d about the Black Book, the a r t i s t who i s concerned only with the machinations of h i s own mentality i s l i k e l y to produce i n f e r i o r a r t . He sees the tendency of modern l i t e r a t u r e as a curve inward through Lawrence, Joyce and probably M i l l e r , and then a l i t t l e more outward, "away from autobiographical form. The a r t i s t must become aware of the necessity to transcend p e r s o n a l i t y " . (Key, pp. 66, 87) This does not mean the a r t i s t i s to exclude h i s own personality from the subject of h i s a r t , but include i t and pass beyond i t . Campion, the a r t i s t of The Dark Labyrinth, defines "the a r t i s t ' s job" as the presentation of "concrete f i n d i n g s about the unknown inside himself and other people". (DLj p. 152, 153) He i s not imprisoned i n h i s s e l f , but reaches outward to other The t r i p l e authorship of Art and Outrage - D u r r e l l and A l f r e d Perles w r i t i n g about M i l l e r , and M i l l e r r e p l ying - leads to a mixing of mirror metaphors. D u r r e l l c a l l s f o r "a p o r t r a i t - not of the man, f o r you have done that already - but of the a r t i s t , mirrored i n h i s work", (p. 8) Four pages l a t e r , Perles claims to have "portrayed the man and scamped h i s work, hoping the man would mirror h i s work", (p. 12) Perles admits h i s hope f a i l e d ; p o s s i b l y D u r r e l l ' s succeeds. 62 selves. The " r e a l a r t i s t " i s "a suf f e r i n g member of the world". B, Art and A r t i s t and Alexandria It i s obvious from the reading of the Quartet, without recourse to h i s c r i t i c a l statements, that D u r r e l l i s continually aware of the a r t i s  t i c i mplications of psychoanalytic t h e o r i e s . Proofs are Justine's i n t e r  view with Freud, the archetypal images at Car n i v a l , the r e b i r t h by water i n Clea. He has admitted to an i n t e r e s t i n Otto Rank's Art and A r t i s t . (Key, Chapter 4, e s p e c i a l l y p. 88; A&O, p. 16) The picture of the a r t i s t as i t emerges i n the Quartet, e s p e c i a l l y i n Clea, i s close to Rank's picture. I have suggested that D u r r e l l ' s diagram of the a r t i s t ' s l i f e would be a curve inward, then outward. Rank begins by placing the o r i g i n of the human creative junpulsse i n the need to harmonize the "fundamental dualism of a l l l i f e " , the dualism of i n d i v i d u a l and collective, personal and s o c i a l , inner and ou t e r . 1 This harmonizing takes the form of a freeing of the a r t i s t ' s s e l f from dependence and thus of creating oneself. (A, preface, x x i i i ) and the ce n t r a l problem i n the formation of the s e l f i s the problem of w i l l i n g (A, p. 9) The r e l a t i o n of art and s e l f originated i n the p r i m i t i v e a r t i s t ' s e f f o r t to present "the idea of the soul i n concrete form. The concrete form which he gave to the soul was the shape of a god. (A_, p. 13) So when Pursewarden t a l k s about the a r t i s t wanting to be God, he may be r e f e r r i n g to the attempt to present the essence of the idea of the soul i n the most perfect form p o s s i b l e . The word "genius", from "gignere", to Rank, p. 13. For t h i s chapter only, references w i l l be given i n my tex t , with the t i t l e abbreviated as A_ 63 beget, designates o r i g i n a l l y a part of the soul which can o r i g i n a t e what i s immortal, whether c h i l d or work of a r t . (A, pp. 19 - 2 0 ) 1 The a r t i s t , l i k e the neurotic, i s self-obsessed, but the a r t i s t accepts the s e l f and proceeds to i t s g l o r i f i c a t i o n , (p. 27) The a r t i s t ' s f i r s t creation i s himself, "the selfmaking of the p e r s o n a l i t y i n t o the a r t i s t " . Subsequent creat ions express and j u s t i f y t h i s aim. (A, p. 28) The l i f e - i m p u l s e , the urge to unite the p o l a r i t i e s of r e a l i t y , i n the creative p e r s o n a l i t y becomes the servant of the w i l l . When Clea i s able to w i l l and to control her own actions she i s able also to create. The creative s e l f which remains bound within i t s e l f , not sub jected to the w i l l , i s a neurotic s e l f , halted i n the process of breaking down the p e r s o n a l i t y and unable to b u i l d i t up again. (A, pp. 39 - 41) The dilemma f o r Rank's a r t i s t i s that i n order to make art our of l i f e , he must s a c r i f i c e l i f e . ( A , p. 48) Instead of simply expressing, he takes the experience i n t o himself, reshapes and recreates i t , and sends f o r t h something new, a creation. The modern author, i n contrast -"-The Alexandrian Children are worth a passing glance. There are the c h i l d r e n of Justine, Melissa, Cohen, L i z a , Mountolive, Clea; the c h i l d p r o s t i t u t e s , the dead c h i l d i n the box. Most of them are g i r l s . D u r r e l l ' s poems "For a Nursery Mirror" (B_, p. 15) and "Cradle Song" (p. 16) deal with mirrors and images, the "Nonself and the S e l f " . Compare Groddeck's emphasis on the bond between mother and c h i l d a f t e r b i r t h (p. 145), and h i s theory of man's double-age, the child-adult (p. 135) and the immense age of the newborn (p. 208). Compare also the t r a n s l a t o r of June: "One might attempt to formulate the chief aim of the i n d i v i d u a l as the e f f o r t to create out of oneself the most s i g n i  f i c a n t product of which one i s capable. On the b i o l o g i c a l l e v e l t h i s i s c l e a r l y the c h i l d ... Hence the budding personality with i t s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r good or i l l i s frequently represented i n dreams i n the form of a c h i l d " , (p. xx) 64 to the " c o l l e c t i v e creators of f o l k epic" makes himself the " r e a l hero of h i s story". (A, p. 81) Because of the s a c r i f i c e he must make, the a r t i s t s u f f e r s from "fear of L i f e " . Fear i s unreal, nebulous and un caused, as i s the r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g . The love-experience i s r e a l . Art i s midway, " r e a l i s i n g the unreal and rendering i t concrete", seeking "to prove by o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n the emotional r e a l i t y of what has never been r e a l and can never be made r e a l " . (A, pp. 103 - 104) This i s what D u r r e l l ' s Alexandrians do with t h e i r selected f i c t i o n s . By creating, making something from nothing, the a r t i s t at least attempts to assert h i s independence of that which e x i s t s . (A_, p. 240) He has w i l l e d and h i s w i l l has produced something; he i s no longer bound by the determining forces of l i f e . The making of a work of art i s i t s e l f an act. (A, p. 207) The a r t i s t has done something and has something to show f o r h i s e f f o r t s . The successful a r t i s t achieves a j u x t a p o s i t i o n of inner and outer, of i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e , i h short, a unity; The highest type of a r t i s t i s he who can use the t y p i c a l c o n f l i c t of humanity within himself to produce c o l l e c t i v e values, which, though akin to the t r a d i t i o n a l i n form and content - because i n p r i n c i p l e they spring from the same c o n f l i c t - are yet i n d i v i d u a l and new creations of the c o l l e c t i v e values, i n that they present the personal ideology of the a r t i s t who i s the representative of h i s age. (A, p. 362) In successful a r t , the d u a l i t i e s of inner and outer experience are well blended. Art i s "not a means of l i v e l i h o o d , but l i f e i t s e l f " ' , (A_, p. 371). This complex blend i s also the mark of a successful l i f e . The a r t i s t ab sorbs the world within himself and then throws h i s cosmic i d e n t i t y outward, again to save h i s i n d i v i d u a l , non-cosmic i d e n t i t y . (A, p. 377) Modern art i s i n danger from an overly " s c i e n t i f i c " a n a l y t i c 65 a t t i t u d e . The aim i s "hot to express himself i n h i s work, but to get to know himself by i t " . But as he succeeds i n h i s aim, he becomes unable to create, since presumably then there i s no more need f o r h i s creation, and also because i l l u s i o n s are necessary f o r art as they are for l i f e . S i m i l a r l y , once one knows oneself, there i s no need to con tinue l i v i n g - i f knowing oneself i s one's main purpose. This view i s neglecting the outer h a l f of the dualism. Rank poses as an a r t i s t who w i l l renounce a r t , which has usurped the place of r e a l experience i n h i s l i f e , a n d devote h i s creative energy to the formation of pe r s o n a l i t y , thus, apparently, p r e c i p i t a t i n g the milennium by eliminating art (A, pp. 430 - 431). 1 D u r r e l l ' s a r t i s t , Pursewarden, says that "the object of w r i t i n g i s to grow a pe r s o n a l i t y which i n the end enables man to transcend a r t " . (B, p. 141) This i s e s s e n t i a l l y what Rank says. Again, Pursewarden d e l i b e r a t e l y plans a " l a s t " book and writes to Clea about " t h i s new creature we a r t i s t s are hunting f o r " . His l i f e and h i s art are "two problemsvhich interconnect", but they are proceeding i n opposite d i r e c  t i o n s : "Now i n my l i f e I am somewhat i r r e s o l u t e and shabby, but i n my art I am free to be what I most desire to seem - someone who might bring r e s o l u t i o n and harmony i n t o the dying l i v e s around me". (B_, p. 239) This i s c e r t a i n l y not art f o r a r t ' s sake. Pursewarden uses Rank's word "harmony". Once t h i s harmony i s achieved, there i s no more need f o r the !"0nce you f u l l y understand a work of art you no longer have any need of i t " . D u r r e l l , Key, p. 39. 66 means by which i t was achieved: " i n my a r t , indeed, through my a r t , I want r e a l l y to achieve myself shedding the work, which i s of no importance, as a snake sheds i t s s k i n". (B_, p. 239, D u r r e l l ' s i t a l i c s ) Conversely, i f one wishes to become only an a r t i s t , one sheds l i f e , "the whole complex of egotisms which led to the choice of self-expression as the only means of growth". (C, p. 128) Pursewarden r e j e c t s t h i s as impossible. He t e l l s Clea that the a r t i s t ' s obstacle i s himself, "mirror-worship". Appropriately, both a r t i s t s are looking i n t o mirrors during t h i s conversation. Creation should be "fun, joy", he says, and the ego should not be allowed to turn t h i s to misery. (C, p. 110) Clea knows from her own experience during her lesbian episode that the a r t i s t obsessed with personal anguish may be unable to create. Pursewarden's theory suggests that the purpose of art i s to achieve a harmony of r e a l i t y , at which point the a r t i s t transcends art and re-enters the realm of exper ience. The a r t i s t i c process i t s e l f involves another transcendence, that of the s e l f , i n t r o s p e c t i o n completed turning outward towards other selves. Rank seems to want to have h i s art and transcend i t too. The d i f f i c u l t y , and Pursewarden's d i f f i c u l t y , i s the r e l a t i o n between art and l i f e . Are they substitutes f o r each other, or complements? Does the a r t i s t have a s e l f apart from h i s art? Or, as a creator, i s he non- human? Rank's modern a r t i s t i s i n trouble, because his art i s turned completely inward. He i s g u i l t - r i d d e n f o r vaguely defined reasons, most of which appear to suggest a deliberate renunciation of h i s c o l l e c t i v e humanity. He has usurped the r o l e of creator. He has made a cowardly escape from the necessity for experiencing and hence from the "f e a r of l i f e " . If he can achieve a r t i s t i c immortality, he does not need to fear 67 l i f e and the i m p l i c a t i o n of death: "He becomes non-human i n that the impulse to create i s the i n s t i g a t i n g f a c t o r , rather than the impulse to love or even to l i v e " . (A, p. 371) Wyndham Lewis speaks of the "magical q u a l i t y i n a r t i s t i c expression". The a r t i s t i s "tapping the supernatural sources and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of our existence ... tamper ing, i n a secular manner, with sacred powers". 1 The a r t i s t i s as g u i l t y as Faust, who t r a d i t i o n a l l y loses h i s mirror image when he s e l l s h i s soul, having adopted a d i s t o r t e d view of himself and h i s place i n the Chain of Being. This g u i l t can no longer as i n e a r l i e r ages work i t s e l f out c r e a t i v e l y through "the counter-force of r e l i g i o u s submissiveness", and f e s t e r s on l i m i t i n g the completion of both art and p e r s o n a l i t y (A, p. 425) The modern a r t i s t does not want to admit t h i s , and so he i n s i s t s that art i s "wholly true to l i f e " . Thus, h i s withdrawal from l i f e i n t o art i s legitimate, i f art and l i f e can replace each other. The great a r t i s t can free himself from the paralysing " p a r a l l e l  ism between h i s l i f e and work". His art i s an object, whose non-identity with the subject i s apparent. The l e s s e r a r t i s t - f o r Rank, t h i s i s the Romantic contrasted with the superior C l a s s i c a l writer - puts h i s s e l f , the subject i n t o the object, and concentrates on that image. In D u r r e l l - ian terms, h i s art i s a mirror of himself alone. Since t h i s i s a f a l s e p o s i t i o n , he has brought about the s p l i t i n psyche which bothers the Alexandrians. The a r t i s t does f i n d h i s s e l f i n the process of h i s work, but he does not confuse the two. D u r r e l l ' s Keats says that the very task of Time and Western Man, p. 193 68 a r t , "the act of wrestling with an insoluble problem grows the writer up'c. (C_, p. 184) This i s what happens to Keats and to Darley and Clea, who are the a r t i s t s of the future. It does not happen to Pursewarden; although Keats says Pursewarden r e a l i z e s t h i s , he does not "grow up". His s e l f i s i n fragments and, knowing he cannot escape experience i n ar t , he escapes i n su i c i d e . His i s the dilemma of Rank's a r t i s t of the present. In another sense, art and experience and s e l f are connected. Rank traces the h i s t o r y of art to p r i m i t i v e r e l i g i o n ' s expression of the soul idea, and the motto f o r the a r t i s t i s a r e l i g i o u s one - he i s to lose h i s l i f e i n order to f i n d i t : The s e l f - r e n u n c i a t i o n which the a r t i s t f e e l s when creating i s r e l i e v e d when he fi n d s himself again i n h i s accomplished work, and the sel f - r e n u n c i a t i o n which r a i s e s the enjoyer above the l i m i t a t i o n s of his i n d i v i d u a l i t y becomes, though, not i d e n t i f i c a t i o n but the f e e l i n g of oneness with the soul l i v i n g i n the work of a r t , a greater and higher e n t i t y .... They ( i . e . a r t i s t s ) have yielded up t h e i r mortal ego f o r a moment, f e a r l e s s l y and even j o y f u l l y , to receive i t back i n the next, the r i c h e r f o r t h i s u n i v e r s a l f e e l i n g . (A_, pp. 109 - 110; Rank's i t a l i c s ) So Clea loses her "horror' r, her fear of l i f e , and i s able to paint. And " j o y f u l l y ' " i s the precise adverb f o r Darley's d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s a r t i s t i c "coming of age": I wrote: 'Once upon a time ...' And I f e l t as i f the whole universe had given me a nudge! (C^ , p. 282) The r f e e l i n g of oneness" r e s u l t s from the r e s o l u t i o n of the d u a l i t i e s of inner and outer i n the con t r o l l e d creation of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between subject and object, art and a r t i s t . The four words which begin a story are united with the four l e t t e r s and four faces of the modern love which the Quartet set out to in v e s t i g a t e . They unite the writer with the past of h i s species, with "every s t o r y - t e l l e r since the world began", and with the men who l i s t e n to them. "Once upon a time" i s a temporal statement expressed i n s p a t i a l terms. The a r t i s t f i nds himself as both a r t i s t and man, "quite serene and happy, a r e a l human being, an a r t i s t at l a s t " . (C_, p. 281) Gerald Sykes has charted the form of the Quartet as a progression culminating ±1 the problem of the a r t i s t : As Justine had symbolized (Darley*s) education through passion, Balthazar through detachment, Mountolive through h i s t o r y , Clea now leads him to the most important phase of h i s career, f o r which a l l the rest was preparation, the prac t i c e of h i s own a r t . 1 This i s a f a i r enough cataloguing. D u r r e l l has c a l l e d Clea a "mime about r e b i r t h on the parable plane". 2 Darley*s r e v i v i n g of the nearly drowned Clea symbolizes the love-act and also the "break-through to poetic i l l u m i n a t i o n " . "The achievement of 'artisthood' i s connected with sex and knowing", a r e a l i z a t i o n of oneself i n r e l a t i o n to another, and a r e a l i z a t i o n of the d i r e c t i o n one must take to be able to create. Sex, l i k e a r t , i s a human r e f l e c t i o n of cosmic creation. Since i t i s her lover who revives her, Clea i s not only reborn but reconceived, as a r t i s t and woman. Clea and Darley " r e f l e c t back the bisexual nature of the psyche" and "discover the fulcrum i n themselves to be outside the possession of each other, but i n the domain of self-possession." Self-possession i s the opposite of self-obsession; i t i s putting one's s e l f i n i t s proper place i n r e l a t i o n to a whole, and i s perhaps the "One Vote f o r the Sun"', World, p. 150 t e l l e r Tape, World, pp. 166-167 70 "self-renunciation" 7 which leads Rank's a r t i s t to a f e e l i n g of oneness. In presenting the achievement of artisthood i n terms of love r e l a t i o n s h i p , D u r r e l l i s t r y i n g to, say " that l i f e i s r e a l l y an a r t i s t i c problem, a l l men being sleeping a r t i s t s " . 1 Clea awakes and solves her a r t i s t i c pro blem. This amounts almost to an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of art and l i f e . Groddeck makes some useful and relevant distinctions. The " L i f e " which appears i n art i s not equivalent to s e l f i n any narrow sense, but i s the wholeness, the oneness, the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of d u a l i t i e s , and i s "always symbolic of the human t r i n i t y - male, female, c h i l d - though the t r i n i t y may be shown incarnate i n a single f i g u r e " . 2 So Darley and Clea are the bisexual psyche i n the act of creation. Oneness through s e l f - r e n u n c i a t i o n i s the e s s e n t i a l a r t i s t i c c r i t e r i o n : "The sole foundation of art i s t h i s power of l o s i n g one's separateness, of f e e l i n g oneself at the same time a whole and yet a part of something better." This paradox could apply to the process described by Rank, i n which the a r t i s t achieves and transcends himself and then achieves and transcends h i s a r t . Like Rank, Groddeck denies that art can be concerned s o l e l y with the a r t i s t : ,rNo man can be an a r t i s t f o r a l l time whose concern i s with the human soul" 7. Such a one "tears out a part of the t r u t h from the web and presents i t to us as the whole"'.3 This detachment of man from h i s background and context i s for Groddeck the p e c u l i a r disease l-Kneller Tape, World, p. 167 2Groddeck, p. 122. 3Groddeck, pp. 51 - 54. 71 of modern, post-renaissance Europe. The whole i s not only the whole man but the whole universe, macrocosm as well as microcosm. Groddeck*s example of an a r t i s t achieving the u n i v e r s a l oneness i s Leonardo. Be cause of h i s landscapes, p a i n t i n g , unlike the other a r t s , "could never give i t s e l f up e n t i r e l y to the e x a l t a t i o n and adoration of man*s i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i t i e s , could never again become wholly psychological". In the work of Leonardo and Rembrandt, Groddeck f i n d s a reverence f o r a l l of nature and a r e a l i z a t i o n "that they are part of the universe and at one with i t " . 1 It i s Clea, the painter, who f i n d s the "secret landscape" of art before Darley, the w r i t e r , and i t i s because she i s "reborn" that he - too i s reborn as an a r t i s t . D u r r e l l * s poetry has been c a l l e d the "record of a constructive it 2 mind working out a program f o r the ego i n l i t e r a r y terms . In the Alexandria Quartet t h i s program i s worked out and exemplified, with ego and l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e i r context. It would appear that art should not be too l i t e r a l l y a mirror of l i f e , at least not of immediate experience or of l i f e now. But i f the mirror o b j e c t i f i e s the subject rather than merely du p l i c a t i n g i t , then art as seen by D u r r e l l and h i s psychoanalytic c r i t i c s i s a mirror. Mirrors, moreover, always r e f l e c t the background as well as the subject, that i s , they put the r e f l e c t e d s e l f i n the context of a whole. P h i l i p Sherrard, discussing C.P. Cavafy, remarks that " i t i s i n t h i s r e b i r t h of past experience that the meaning of experience i t s e l f would seem to l i e ; i t i s i n thejpoem d i s t i l l e d years a f t e r the p h y s i c a l Groddeck, p. 68. !Hayden Carruth, "Nougat f o r the Old B i t c h , " World, p. 125 72 event that the event i t s e l f i s f u l f i l l e d " . Clea's parable of r e b i r t h gives meaning and wholeness to the events i n the f i r s t three-quarters of the t e t r a l o g y . But even i n Justine, Darley had known, without r e a l i  zing the implications of the idea, that "only there i n the silences of the painter or the writer can r e a l i t y be reordered, reworked and made to show i t s s i g n i f i c a n t side". ( J , p. 17) It i s the " s i l e n c e s " because the impulse to create and the "previous image" come to the a r t i s t who i s waiting and receptive. In t h i s reordering of r e a l i t y , which i s emotion r e c o l l e c t e d i n t r a n q u i l l i t y , the pain of l i f e becomes a r t . (£, p. 17) Some of these ideas appear i n the work of an older n o v e l i s t , Charles Morgan, whom D u r r e l l once placed i n a l i s t of l i t e r a r y notables which included Shaw and Huxley. (Cor, p. 76) In h i s preface to the The World of Man, Groddeck's t r a n s l a t o r quotes Morgan's d e s c r i p t i o n of the conception of a work of a r t : In each case, h i s (the a r t i s t ' s ) joy of i t , o r d i n a r i l y c a l l e d c r e a t i v e , i s a receptive joy; there i s a close analogy i n the feminine art of love, which i s at once f i e r c e and peaceful, a f u l f i l l m e n t and an i n i t i a t i o n . The making of the work of art - the harvesting of the o r i g i n a l t r u t h - i s a l e s s intense experience than the conceiving of i t , f o r i n the moment of conception, and perhaps at no other time, the a r t i s t f u l l y apprehends h i s gods and sees with t h e i r eyestheir r e a l i t y . This power to be impregnated, and not the writing of poems, the painting of p i c t u r e s , or the composition of music, i s the essence of a r t , the being an a r t i s t . 3 J-The Marble Threshing-Floor (London, 1956), p.. 121 2 D a r l e y says i t i s r e a l i t y which reworks us, not the other way around. (C, p. 12) 3 P o r t r a i t i n a Mirror (London, 1929), p. 44; Groddeck, p. 32 73 This quotation could be an abstraction of Darley*s and Clea's " r e  b i r t h " or "reconception". There i s also Pursewarden's notion of the a r t i s t a t t a i n i n g the l e v e l of the gods. And the whole a i r of p a s s i v i t y and receptiveness suggests the f i n a l chapter of Clea where the p a t i e n t l y waiting a r t i s t at least receives the "secret landscape", the "precious image". (C_, p. 282) In R e f l e c t i o n s , an appropriately t i t l e d c o l l e c t i o n of essays, Morgan sees art as a mirror which enables man "to perceive himself as a part of Nature and perhaps, to recognize a god i n himself . Here again are the concepts of oneness and of the a r t i s t as god. The a r t i s t i n P o r t r a i t i n a Mirror experiences a moment of epiphany when he f e e l s himself "absorbed i n the open vastness of the universe about me"; t h i s i s accompanied by the awakening of "the courage to create", and the whole sensation i s connected with r e b i r t h and creation i n nature as he i s " i d e n t i f i e d with that day of sap and r e s u r r e c t i o n " . 2 The t i t l e P o r t r a i t i n a Mirror i s relevant to t h i s d iscussion. In an observation which Morgan also uses aa a t i t l e - p a g e epigraph, N i g e l , the protagonist, says, " i t was i n my mind to say that a p o r t r a i t should be the image of one s p i r i t received i n the mirror of another". His p o r t r a i t of Clare shows her as she i s seen by him. He considers an i n t e r e s t i n g r e f l e c t i o n problem, painting a rose as i t i s r e f l e c t e d not i n an actual mirror but i n the glossy whiteness of a t a b l e c l o t h . The d i f f i c u l t y i s that the r e f l e c t i n g surface has q u a l i t i e s of i t s own which must be conveyed: "For here i t was necessary while borrowing colour from the r e f l e c t e d flower, to preserve the opaque whiteness of the ^'Creative Imagination" i n Reflections i n a Mirror, Second Series (London, 1954), pp. 96 - 97. 2 P o r t r a i t , pp. 151 - 152. 74 r e f l e c t i n g surface and to suggest beneath the s t i f f gloss, the texture and p l i a b i l i t y of l i n e n " . 1 This i s a problem D u r r e l l has had to solve i n h i s method. When people and events and landscapes r e f l e c t people and events and landscapes, a l l e n t i t i e s , r e f l e c t e d or r e f l e c t i n g , or both, must contain, i n addition to the image of the other, a " r e a l - ness" of t h e i r own. Morgan's works contain various mirror t r i c k s . J u l i e i n The Fountain, waiting for her lover, recognizes i n the mirror her s e l f and, telescop ing time, i t i s the s e l f of past as well as present: "'It i s I, who wondered so often what would become of me".2 Mary T e r r i f o r d i n the play The Burning Glass sees i n a mirror the r e f l e c t i o n of another character poisoning himself, and she does not i n t e r f e r e because he i s f r e e to w i l l and act on h i s own.3 C. The A r t i s t as a Mirror of Society The r o l e of the a r t i s t i n r e l a t i o n to other human beings i s , i n Pursewarden*s view, almost e n t i r e l y the r o l e of a mirror: 'Aware of every discord, of every calamity i n the nature of man himself, he can do nothing to warn h i s f r i e n d s , to point, to cry out i n time and to t r y to save them. Ifc would be useless. For they are the deliberate f a c t o r s of t h e i r own unhapiness. A l l the a r t i s t can say as an imperative i s "Reflect and weep'. (B_, p. 141) This extreme awareness of multiple facets of l i f e , coupled with the i n a b i l i t y to do anything about what he perceives, i s Pursewarden's 1 P o r t r a i t , pp. 3, 87 - 88; p. 80. 2(New York, 1933), p. 247. 3Henry Charles D u f f i n . The Novels and Plays of Charles Morgan (London, 1959), p. 149. anguish i n h i s involvement with Nessim and Mountolive and i s at least part of the reason f o r h i s s u i c i d e . The mirror i s unable to bear the weight of i t s r e f l e c t i o n s . He uses the word " r e f l e c t " i n i t s other sense i n the imperative, i n an attempt to tr a n s f e r the burden of the " r e f l e c t i o n " from the m i r r o r - a r t i s t to the mirrored s e l f . What has been r e f l e c t e d i s a perverted use of free w i l l by those who are the "deli b e r a t e f a c t o r s of t h e i r own unhappiness". He resorts to the i n s e r t i o n of a blank page of h i s book i n order to throw the reader "back upon h i s own resources", presumably with regard to h i s own action as well as to the reader's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the book. (B_, p. 143) D u r r e l l has written that "poetry by an asso c i a t i v e app roach transcends i t s own syntax i n order not to describe but to be the cause of apprehension i n others"."1" Poetry i s l i k e Morgan's t a b l e  c l o t h , r e f l e c t i n g r e a l i t y , but at the same time r e t a i n i n g a d e f i n i t e character and being of i t s own which demand active reaction from the reader. Pursewarden t e l l s Clea that a l l r e a l reading and writing i s done "between the l i n e s " , and t h i s i s probably what D u r r e l l means by "an a s s o c i a t i v e approach" and by poetry's transcendence of i t s own syntax. The poetry means more than, i t s words, and part of that meaning can be found only i f the reader " r e f l e c t s " within himself. The l a t e r Darley defines a r t i s t s as "an uninterrupted chain of humans born to explore the inward riches of the s o l i t a r y l i f e on behalf of the unheeding unforgiving community". (C_, p. 177) In t h i s passage he i s t a l k i n g about time and the " h e r a l d i c universe'" (of which more l a t e r ) . The a r t i s t r e f l e c t s f o r the reader h i s s e l f and also the c o l l e c t i v e l i n Personal Landscape, quoted by Derek Stanford i n "Lawrence D u r r e l l : an Ea r l y View of h i s Poetry" i n World, p. 39 76 s e l f of h i s society. Darley's audience, l i k e Pursewarden's i s "un heeding unforgiving", unappreciative of the service done them by the a r t i s t i n sparing them the anguish of being the f i r s t to explore the depths of t h e i r solitude and i n showing the solitude to be part of a non-solitude, a timeless oneness. D u r r e l l ' s reader i s d e f i n i t e l y involved. It i s h i s own s e l f and non-action he has been i n v e s t i g a t i n g , and the problem of a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y i s s u r p r i s i n g l y h i s problem, since a l l men are sleeping a r t i s t s . "To awaken not merely the impulses of the forebrain with i t s l i m i t e d formulations, but the sleeping beauty underneath - the poetic consciousness which lay c o i l e d l i k e a spring, i n the heart of everyone". (M, p. 231) This i s Narouz's purpose. The inner world with which he deals goes deeper than N e s s i m ' s ' p o l i t i c a l chessboard". To awaken that poetic consciousness i s also "to inflame the sleeping w i l l " . The a r t i s t i s to awaken that part of the reader which he, as a r t i s t , r e f l e c t s : the impulse to creative a c t i o n . Pursewarden i n  s i s t e d that " i t i s only the a r t i s t who can make things r e a l l y happen". (M, p. 216) Nessim r e c a l l s these words when he and Mountolive are deadlocked and a c t i o n l e s s on the p o l i t i c a l chessboard, while even i n death Pursewarden i s making things happen, i s f o r c i n g them i n t o po s i t i o n s i n which things must happen to them. When he proposed to Justine, asking her to share the "monomania" which i n s p i r e d h i s l i f e , Nessim had himself resembled an a r t i s t . (M, p. 198) At that time, he could w i l l and act, and was i n fact s e t t i n g forces i n motion. Pursewarden asserts the a r t i s t as the hope of the world. Men must w i l l , act, f u l f i l l t h e i r p o t e n t i a l selves, l i v e : "'Heed me, 77 reader, f o r the a r t i s t i s you, a l l of us - the statue which must d i s  engage i t s e l f from the d u l l block of marble which houses i t and start to l i v e 1 " . (C_, p. 119) The block of marble disengages i t s e l f , and the a r t i s t i n man must create himself i n w i l l e d and potent a c t i o n . People then w i l l f i n d "the unborn c h i l d i n themselves, the infant Joy!" (C, p. 140) Pombal and Darley mourn the f a l l of France as a " f a i l u r e of the human w i l l " , but they believe France w i l l continue to l i v e "so long as a r t i s t s were being born i n t o the world", (C, p; 36) because art i s a success of the human w i l l . The p s y c h i a t r i s t Hogarth i n The Dark Labyrinth sees art as "a dangerous thing to play with, since i t demand self-examination and self-knowledge, and many people do not r e a l l y wish f o r eith e r " : (DL, p. 45) Art forces i t s audience to ac t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r t , and the f i r s t subject of t h e i r art i s themselves. When Campion destroys h i s p o r t r a i t of her, Mrs. Truman f e e l s that he i s refusing "to l e t her learn about h e r s e l f " , (p. 157) The question "how do a r t i s t s happen?" occurs to her as she looks i n the mirror; i t i s as i f the work of art corresponded with her need to become both art and a r t i s t . The a r t i s t creates not only h i s s e l f , but h i s world also; inner and outer are to r e f l e c t the t r u t h i n each other. Frank Kermode suggests that the Quartet o f f e r s "an a l t e r n a t i v e nature with another p h y s i c s " 1 Purse warden's plan f o r the"four-card t r i c k " novel i s to show the per s o n a l i t y "across a continuum" so i t becomes "prismatic", (C, p. 136), thus r a i s  ing questions of c a u s a l i t y and indeterminacy. In the Key to Modern Poetry, D u r r e l l o f f e r s poetry as "one d i a l e c t Frank Kermode, Puzzles and Epiphanies (London, 1963), p. 223. 78 of a greater language comprising the whole universe of ideas", (p. xi) Art i s one way of t a l k i n g about the s e l f and w i l l and actio n , but i t i s not the only way. 79 CHAPTER I I I : The Mirror of Love  A. The Language of Love "An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of modern love" - t h i s , D u r r e l l claims, i s the centr a l t o p i c of the Ale xandria Quart et. (B_, note) Modern love, l i k e good and e v i l , i s r e l a t i v e ; i t depends on how one ..looks at i t and on who looks at i t . At the beginning of Justine, D u r r e l l quotes Freud: " i am accustoming myself to the idea of regarding every sexual act as a process i n which four persons are involved". There are Darley's Darley and Justine's Darley and Justine's Justine and Darley's J u s t i n e . For each of the four, there i s a d i f f e r e n t perspective of the a f f a i r . It i s impossible to conclude which persons and which perspectives are "tru e " and which are i l l u s i o n . The lover sees himself r e f l e c t e d i n the loved. But she may be d i s t o r t i n g the image returned to him, as Justine does. One must c l a r i f y the d i s t o r t i o n s , but somehow the d i s t o r t e d image i s also true. Darley decides the love has been r e a l and enriching f o r him, even i f i t was a deception on Justine's part. (B, p. 130) Justine says she would not know who she was i f she did not have to act a part. The part she plays f o r Darley i s not n e c e s s a r i l y any l e s s true than any of the other parts she plays. If a l l four persons are equally r e a l , we are once more facing the problem of the s p l i t s e l f . D u r r e l l has explained that he wanted "by my representation of the play of human passions to suggest that the human personality as such i s an i l l u s i o n " . This i s part of the implications of a post-Einstein universe, since, as D u r r e l l has remarked, " r a i s i n g questions l i k e the Pr c i p l e of Indeterminacy a f f e c t s the whole basis of human p e r s o n a l i t y " . (Young, p. 64) 80 It i s also appropriate that the s e t t i n g i s Alexandria. As E.M. Forster points out, i t was the Alexandrians who made love the c e n t r a l theme of l i t e r a t u r e and who developed the various conventional access o r i e s f o r the love story, the "darts and hearts, sighs and eyes, breasts and c h e s t s " . 1 D u r r e l l says, "Only the c i t y i s r e a l " , the characters being f i c t i o n s . But the r e a l c i t y has a p a r t i c u l a r atmosphere, redolent of love and the i l l u s i o n s of love, and i s therefore inseparable from the "unreal" characters. Love, l i k e a r t , i s a way of expressing something about the s e l f ; i t i s a "means of communication". (B, p. 167) Usually the message one conveys becomes a message to the s e l f about the s e l f . D u r r e l l f r e  quently uses terms associated with language when discussing love. An instance of t h i s i s the grotesque episode when Darley sees h i s and Justine's act of love re-enacted,- by two disgusting sub-human beings. He and Justine and Melissa are reduced to t h e i r lowest terms.(J, p. 185) There i s a cracked mirror outside the brothel booth, to record the d i s t o r t e d r e f l e c t i o n . The episode i s r e t o l d i n Balthazar from the point of view of Narouz, who i s probably the sub—human lover, and now the gross love i s exalted. The hideous old p r o s t i t u t e i s a com posite image of Narouz's mother, L e i l a , and h i s unattainable beloved, Clea.(B, p. 166 - 167) And Clea i s eventually Darley's truest love. This i n t r i c a t e prism-sightedness i s commented on as i f i t were a grammatical exercise: "Aphrodite permits every conjugation of the mind and sense i n love". The i n c i d e n t , s u p e r f i c i a l l y a d e s c r i p t i o n of l u s t at i t s most animal l e v e l i s an important clause i n the s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n of several major characters. Alexandria (Garden C i t y , N.Y., 1961), pp. 32 - 38. 81 Melissa i s discussed v a r i o u s l y i n connection with t h i s language of l o v e . From the detachment of the fourth volume, Darley wonders "Was she simply a nexus of l i t e r a r y cross-references scribbled i n the margins of a minor poem?'r (C, p. 41) Much e a r l i e r , he had used the ambiguities of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which she and Justine were i n  volved to i l l u s t r a t e the ambiguity of the word "love": My " l o v e r f o r her, Melissa's "love" f o r me, Nessim's "love" f o r her, her "love" for Pursewarden - there should be a whole vocabulary of adjectives with which to q u a l i f y the noun - for no two contained the same properties; yet a l l contained the one indefinable q u a l i t y , one common unknown i n treachery. (B_, p. 131) "Love" i s always l i a b l e to be "unlove", but the unlove viewed from some other perspective may then be seen as love. "Unlove" i s not the opposite of "love". Darley never "hates" Melissa, but sometimes i n h i s contact with her he i s not focusing on her. From h i s i s l a n d he sees h i s "lovers and friends no longer as l i v i n g people but as coloured t r a n s f e r s of the mind". (B, p. 14) Some times what i s important i s the r e f l e c t i o n of one's s e l f i n the lover, but meanwhile the lover e x i s t s as a person, as a s e l f to be r e f l e c t e d i n turny:. l i k e Morgan's mirroring t a b l e - c l o t h . B. Love as Knowledge Turning a pun to a l i t e r a l meaning, Clea says, "Sexual love i s knowledge, both i n etymology and i n cold f a c t " . (C_, p. 113) The know ledge i s not only c a r n a l l y of the other but also mentally and s p i r i t u a l l y of oneself. Explaining the Clea incident i n which one lover revives the other, D u r r e l l elaborates on t h i s idea: 82 The sexual act becomes i d e n t i f i e d with a l l knowledge, a l l knowing; and the act ( l i f e - saving, l i f e - g i v i n g ) seems a sort of b i o l o g i c a l contagion whose object i s not only the race's s u r v i v a l , but also the awakening of the psychic forces latent i n the human being. 1 From t h i s act, both lovers are awakened to w i l l e d c r e a t i v i t y . The knowledge probes deep and searches wide, f o r "love i s a form of ir 2 metaphysical enquiry , It seems that to l i m i t h i s topi c to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of modern love i s not to l i m i t i t at a l l . Kermode has appropriately said that Quart et i s a book about everything. 3 It i s , however, an everything which turns out to be a k a l e i  doscopic view of one t h i n g , the s e l f . C a r l Bode comments, "Our only world i s the world of s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n - love gives us the means", and the value of sex i s "what i t can teach us about our selves" Relationship with others provides the only means of s e l f - e x p l o r a  t i o n . In h i s prismatic novel, Proust observed, " i t i s only with the passions of others that we are ever r e a l l y f a m i l i a r , and what we come to f i n d out about our own can be no more than what other people have shown us". 5 Our own view of ourselves i s disturbed by imagination, and the man who turns inward does not gain knowledge and cannot act. l-The Kneller Tape, World, p. 161 2"Lawrence D u r r e l l Answers a Few Questions", World, p. 157 ^ D u r r e l l and Others", Puzzles and Epiphanies (London, 1963) pp. 214 - 227. 4"A Guide to Alexandria", World, pp. 206 - 207 5Swann's Way, p. 99 83 Eventually he can do nothing but c u r l up i n a corner underground. If an eye i s to see i t s e l f i t must look at something else which sees i t and i'n which i t i s r e f l e c t e d : This i t can do by looking i n the eye of another person, i n which, as i n a mirror, i t w i l l see i t s e l f r e f l e c t e d ; i n other words, an eye, to see i t s e l f , must look at an eye. So i n the same way, the soul, i f i t i s to know i t s e l f , must look at a s o u l . 1 This other, mirror soul resembles what Jung c a l l s the "soul-image". Defining the soul as "the inner a t t i t u d e of the unconscious", Jung finds i t "represented by d e f i n i t e persons whose p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s correspond with those of the s o u l " . 2 The " d e f i n i t e persons" are a l  most always of opposite sex to that of the soul they r e f l e c t . Just as love i s the only means to self-knowledge, so the acquiring of s e l f - knowledge i s a c r i t e r i o n f o r love: "We can only love what i s within tt 3 ourselves, what we recognize as symbolic of ourselves . The lover loves another because he loves himself. Narcissus appears e x p l i c i t y i n The Black Book: "They say we love only our own r e f l e c t i o n i n the faces of others, l i k e c a t t l e drinking from t h e i r own faces i n a r i v e r " . (BB , p. 167) Rank explores the d i f f i c u l t y of the a r t i s t who needs not only the soul-image, but also a muse, a "witness of h i s l i f e to j u s t i f y h i s production". 4 The danger i s that the b i o l o g i c a l w i l l hinder the a r t i s t i c . This may be Darley's problem when he stops writing during •••Sherrard, p. 194 . 2 p . 596 . 3Groddeck, pp. 235, 240 . 4pp. 51 - 6 0 . 84 hi s l i a i s o n with Clea. A f t e r t h e i r "rebirth"', she becomes h i s Muse, "the c i t y ' s grey-eyed muse", and leads him back to h i s a r t . (C, p. 245) There seems to be hope for the reunion of the lover and the muse. In Rank's terms, t h i s would p a r a l l e l a progression i n art from the Romantic at t i t u d e to the C l a s s i c a l . Clea r i d e s with the na r r a t i v e f o r three volumes, but, when i n the l a s t novel she becomes the heroine, i t seems that she must have been so a l l along, i f only Darley and the reader had not been too b l i n d to r e a l i z e i t . She i s f u l l of depths and paradoxes which one forgets and r e c a l l s with su r p r i s e . She suffers experiences as t e r r i b l e as anything Justine brings upon h e r s e l f : her entanglements with Amaril, Justine and Narouz, her struggles with her a r t , the nightmarish attacks which she c a l l s the "horror", the loss of her hand. Yet the impression she creates i s one of l i g h t and c l a r i t y , an inner character corresponding to her outer blondeness. Although she i s the intimate f r i e n d and even advisor of everyone from Justine to Scobie, she seems to be always alone and vulnerable. She i s gentle and feminine, but enjoys painting accurate pictures of Balthazar's patients and t h e i r most r e v o l t i n g sores. Her strange name may have several sources which appear to be r e  lated to her r o l e i n the Quartet. The Greek "Klea" means rumour., report, common fame, news, good report, fame or glory. Clea i s l i t e r  a l l y a bearer of good t i d i n g s , and each of Parley's three books ends with a l e t t e r from her c l a r i f y i n g and re s t o r i n g equilibrium. Less tangibly, t h i s word may have something to do with the c l a r i t y which she exudes and also to herald Darley's emergence towards some degree of success. C l e i a ("famous") was one of the Greek Hyades, nymphs who 85 supplied moisture to the earth, nursed the infant Dionysus, and were immortalised as s t a r s . D u r r e l l ' s Clea i s part of the symbolism of r e  b i r t h by water and of the r e v i v i f y i n g of s t e r i l e life and a r t . The Hyades' ass o c i a t i o n with Dionysus re i n f o r c e s t h i s motif and r e l a t e s i t to the f i g u r e of the a r t i s t . The nymph, l i k e Clea, had several facets to her character and came to be surnamed "the passionate". The s t e l l a r Hyades are situated i n the forehead and eye of the c o n s t e l l a t i o n Taurus, i n the organs of thinking and seeing, perceiving and r e f l e c t i n g i n the double senses of both words. Clea accordingly perceives and i n s p i r e s perception i n others, and her c l a r i t y i s a mirror f o r Darley. C a r l Bode thinks she i s meant to p a r a l l e l the Star card of the Tarot. On t h i s card a blonde female f i g u r e i s pouring Water of L i f e from two ewers. She i s "Truth unveiled, glorious i n undying beauty, pouring on the waters of the soul some part and measure of her p r i c e l e s s possession". Like the Hyades' C l e i a , she i s concerned with a sort of i r r i g a t i o n of the mind. As the "grey-eyed Muse," she may be r e l a t e d to C l i o , the muse of h i s t o r y and heroic poetry. C l i o too i s a r a t i o n a l , rather cold maiden who lapses b r i e f l y i n t o i r r a t i o n a l passion. F i n a l l y , Clea's severed hand and i t s miraculous s t e e l replacement might be linked to the Old English " c l e a " , a variant of "claw". 1 •'•Sources f o r the etymology of Clea are: Bode, "A Guide to Alexandria", i n World, pp. 211 f f . Robert Graves, The Greek Myths (Pelican Book), v o l . I, chapters 27 and 39. The  Oxford Companion to C l a s s i c a l L i t e r a t u r e , ed. S i r P h i l i p Harvey (Oxford, 1962). The Larousse Encyclopaedia of Mythology (London, 1959), pp. 178 - 185. A Lexicon, abridged from L i d d e l l and Scott, Greek-English Lexicon (Oxford, 1958). The Oxford Universal D i c t i o n   ary (Oxford, 1955). H.J. Rose, A Handbook of Greek Mythology (London, 1960). A.E. Waite, The P i c t o r i a l Key to the Tarot (New York, 1959), pp. 136 - 139. 86 C. The Multiple Views of Love In The Faerie Queene, Spenser defined three kings of love: ' The deare a f f e c t i o n unto kindred sweete, Or raging f i r e of love to womankind, Or zeale of f r i e n d s cOmbynd with vertues meet: But of them a l l the band of vertuous mind, Me seemes, the gentle hart should most assured bind. Spenser's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the faces of love i s p r e t t i e r than D u r r e l l ' s v i s i o n of them, and also p r e t t i e r than they a c t u a l l y appear i n Spenser's n a r r a t i v e , but the bases are s i m i l a r . In Alexandria, the "raging f i r e " i s l i a b l e to spread to any sort of love, producing, i n place of "the deare a f f e c t i o n unto kindred sweete", the incest of Pursewarden and L i z a or the anguished and c S n f l i c t i n g entanglement of Nessim and Narouz and t h e i r parents. The "zeale of f r i e n d s " i n Alexandria i s often just that, the f r i e n d s h i p which l i n k s Darley and Balthazar and Nessim and the rest of t h e i r c i r c l e , but i t also becomes Balthazar's homosexuality and the lesbianism which temporarily binds Clea to Justine. Conversely, passion-love may become a marriage of true minds, as i t i s with Nessim and Justine at t h e i r best, or with Darley and Clea. Whatever the category of the love, the foundation i s always the same; as D u r r e l l ' s Sappho phrases i t , "the object i s self-possession always". (S, p. 75) To "love" thy neighbour i s n e c e s s a r i l y to love him "as t h y s e l f " . Pursewarden says, "There i s no Other; there i s only one s e l f facing forever the problem of one's se l f - d i s c o v e r y ! " (C_, pp. 98 - 99) This was also the d e f i n i t i o n of love given by the younger D u r r e l l i n The Black Book: " i f I take your hand i t i s my own hand I am k i s s i n g " , (p. 67) Spenser, The Faerie Queene (Everyman E d i t i o n ) , IV, 9, i ( v o l . I I , p. 102) 87 As Darley and Clea become each other's mirrors, he r e a l i z e s "that Clea would share everything with me, withholding nothing - not eVen the look:of complicity which women reserve only f o r t h e i r mirrors' (C_, p. 99) The look i s one of complicity because the mirror i s not only where one looks f o r the whole t r u t h about oneself, but also where one looks f o r guidance i n the preparation of the disguises to be worn Before the world. Nessim and Justine exemplify t h i s better than Darley and Clea;, t h e i r passion "came from complicity" . (M, pp. 204 - 205) Here i s another instance of D u r r e l l ' s echoing of s i g n i f i  cant words. "Complicity" i s an a r r e s t i n g word i r b o t h contexts, and i s i t a l i c i z e d i n the e a r l i e r occurrence, so i t s reappearance resounds i n the mind. Clea and Darley, l i k e Justine and Nessim, are to go through anguish and estrangement and r e b i r t h to a shared discovery of the meaning of t h e i r shared l i v e s . Nessim and Justine discover "the true s i t e of l o v e " which i s "each other's inmost weakness". They stare i n t o each others' minds, using a sight more perceptive than that of the eye. When suspicion enters the stare, i t becomes " s i g h t  l e s s " . (M, p. 209) Justine denies that f a l l i n g i n love i s a "correspondence of minds' and defines i t as "a simultaneous f i r i n g of two s p i r i t s engaged i n the autonomous act of growing up". Each loves the other as a mirror of himself; so, instead of two minds communicating, there are two selves simultaneously contemplating t h e i r respective r e f l e c t i o n s : 'The loved object i s amply one that has shared an experience at the same moment of time, n a r c i s s i s t i c a l l y ; and the desire to be near 88 the beloved object i s at f i r s t not due to the idea of possessing i t , but simply to l e t the two experiences compare themselves, l i k e r e f l e c t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t mirrors.' (J, pp. 49 - 50) This view, Darley emphasizes, may be true only of Justine h e r s e l f ; another view might be true f o r someone e l s e . The "comparison" of shared exper ience becomes something more i n t r i c a t e than mere comparison. The com parison i s a further experience, and lovers "have something to learn from each other". ( J , p. 47) The sharing of experience, which i s f r i e n d s h i p , i s gradually swallowed up i n the mirror process; the loved one i s a soul-image, and her sharing i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the lover's sharing. Then, as the lover's soul-image, she i s part of himself, and friendship swells i n t o a need f o r possession. Before Justine and Darley become lovers, t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p "had ripened to a point when we had already become i n a way part -ownerj^ of each other". (J_, p. 48) They are victims of "a f r i e n d s h i p so profound that we s h a l l become bondsmen forever". ( J , p. 26) The love r e l a t i o n s h i p develops i n t o a four-way struggle, each lover f i g h t i n g to possess and also to escape being possessed. They "contend f o r the treasures of each other's p e r s o n a l i t i e s " . ( J , p. 198) In a double way, t h i s i s a con tending f o r the lover's own personality, since he f i g h t s to possess the other who r e f l e c t s himself, and also to preserve i n v i o l a t e h i s own i d e n t i t y as subject. Morgan's Nigel says of Clare at one time that Bhe "was not then an object of desire, but a centre of r e v e l a t i o n " . 1 The centre of r e v e l a t i o n , as she becomes more c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d with the subject P o r t r a i t , pp. 93 - 94. 89 she i s revealing, becomes an object of d e s i r e . The development from f r i e n d s h i p to passion may be reversed i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p which provides neither partner with a soul-image. So Amaril, u n t i l he meets h i s noseless Semira, finds a l l h i s passions r a p i d l y becoming f r i e n d s h i p s . (B, p.132) In another way, perhaps implying another meaning o f " f r i e n d s h i p " , the r e v e r s a l i s b e n e f i c i a l . Cohen's love f o r Melissa i s seen to "mature as a l l love should into a consuming and depersonalized f r i e n d s h i p " . (J_, p. 110) This amounts to a transcendence of self-obsession. Cohen's love, as i t i s by the time Darley observes i t , i s one of the least s e l f i s h emotions i n the Quartet. Love turned inwards i s possession; turned outwards s e l f l e s s l y , i t becomes tenderness. Justine meets both Darley and Arnauti i n a mirror, and the mirrored exchanges between her and Nessim have been noted above ( J , pp. 65, 70 - 71) She i s i n p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n with mirrors because her loves provide a major plot l i n e f o r the whole te t r a l o g y , and the ambiguous character of her a f f a i r s i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i v e nature of a l l human " t r u t h " . The answer to the question: "Whom did Justine r e a l l y love?" depends on which of the hinged mirrors the i n q u i r e r consults. She has a "mania f o r s e l f - j u s t i f i c a t i o n " , a compulsive need f o r s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . ( J , pp. 132 f f . ) Analysing h e r s e l f , she s i t s i n front of a m i r r o r . ( J , p. 136) Melissa, naked before a mirror, f i n d s that the search f o r the 1 other must proceed through the s e l f i n the converse of s e l f - a n a l y s i s : "Yes, I am looking at myself but i t helps me to think about you". (J_, p. 54) At the sight of Sveva s i m i l a r l y viewing h e r s e l f , Pombal f e e l s i n danger of being possessed, as i f she perceives h i s r e f l e c t i o n through 90 her own. Mountolive*s f i r s t r e a l i s a t i o n of h i s love f o r L e i l a i s described i n terms of the mirror, s p e c i f i c a l l y the shattering of l i g h t and image at the point where the subject touches i t s own r e f l e c t i o n face to face. He i s "stumbling forward l i k e a man into a mirror". Their two images meet " l i k e r e f l e c t i o n s on a surface of lake water". Since t h i s i s a meeting of minds as well as of bodies, the shattered images apply f i g u r a t i v e l y also: "His mind dispersed i n t o a thousand pieces". (M, p. 28) Later, r e a l i z i n g what i s happening to him, Mountolive questions himself i n a mirror (M, p. 27) as Arnauti had questioned himself i n another time and place. (J, p. 73) The mirror that i s L e i l a i s at f i r s t a l i b e r a t i n g force, freeing i n him a "whole new range of emotions". This gradually becomes a mental relationship and then not even that; the selves are no longer r e f l e c t e d i n each other and no longer have a common obsession to share. For a long time, while they are apart, they exist i n each other's minds. This i s a p e c u l i a r l y Alexandrian t r a i t . Heliodorus knew about t h i s passion that i s p a r t l y of the mind and the mysterious doings i n the time-process of the mind. His Theagenes and Chariclea seem "rather to have been formerly acquaint ed, than to have now met f o r the f i r s t time, and to be returning gradually i n t o each other's memory".1 This i s reminiscent of A l i c e ' s White Queen remembering the future. Arnauti's f i r s t glimpse of Justine serves as a reversed remembering of Darley's s i m i l a r encounter. Mountolive's r e l a t i o n s h i p with L e i l a i s Alexandrian i n i t s i n v o l v e  ment with mind, memory and time. Once he has severed both the passionate 1"The E t h i o p i c s " i n The Greek Romance of Heliodorus, Longus and A c h i l l e s T a t i u s , trans. Rowland Smith (London, 1901), p. 68 91 and the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i n k s , Mountolive f i n d s himself without a s o u l - image and, without her help, he can f i n d no s e l f behind hi s own mask, "save a t e r r o r and uncertainty which were e n t i r e l y new". (M, p. 236) Apparently, self-possession had depended on possession of L e i l a . When they do meet again, he f i n d s that the old soul-image, although power le s s i n i t s proper function and even ludicrous, i s able to prevent the formation of any new m i r r o r - r e l a t i o n s h i p . H o r r i b l y changed h e r s e l f , L e i l a i n a sense forces time to stand s t i l l : Sometime i n the distant past they had exchanged images of one another l i k e lockets .... She would remain forever blinded by the old love ... He was suddenly face to face with the meaning of love and time. (M, p. 281) This meaning includes the l o s s of passion but also of "the power to fecundate each other's minds". Their two selves no longer l i b e r a t e the springs of a c t i o n i n one another. This i s what i s important i n D u r r e l l ' s concept of time: mutability, a change i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In the Arab Quarter a f t e r h i s l a s t rendezvous with L e i l a , Mountolive has the " i l l u s i o n of time spread out f l a t ... the map of time which one could read from one end to the other, f i l l i n g i t i n with known points of reference". (M, p. 285) The cages of the singing b i r d s are " f u l l of mirrors to give them the i l l u s i o n of company. The love songs of b i r d s to companions they imagined - which were only r e f l e c t i o n s of themselves!" (M, p. 285) The birds are " i l l u s t r a t i o n s of human love"; they love t h e i r own image i n another, since there i s l i t e r a l l y no other. The birds too are l i v i n g by selected f i c t i o n s . The birds sing to non-existent lovers, and the f a l s i t y of the love does not lessen the q u a l i t y of the song. Darley f i n d s t h i s out 92 when Balthazar shows him he was ntot Justine's most favoured lover: And yet, even now I can hardly bring myself to f e e l regret f o r the strange enobling r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t o which she plunged me - presumably he r s e l f f e e l i n g nothing of i t s power - and from which I myself was to learn so much. (B, p. 130) This independence of t r u t h i s a " r e a l l y h o r r i b l e thing", leading to the unanswerable question, "Are we then nourished only by f i c t i o n s , by l i e s ? " (B, p. 140) The only answer he produces at the time i s Pursewarden*s: "Everything i s true of everybody". This implies that the q u a l i t y - i n - i t s e l f of an experience does not matter; the l e v e l s of value depend on one's own r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n . If one does not happen to be i n love, can one morally create a sham love and play at passion i n order to have a r e f l e c t i o n of oneself? At least a t e n t a t i v e answer i s suggested throughout the four books. Nessim suggests "love contracts f o r those whose souls aren't yet up to l o v i n g " . He c a l l s t h i s a tendresse instead of an amour-passion. (M, p. 195^, Pursewarden i s the major champion of t h i s tendresse. The amour-passion i s not the most important thing,not even i n a love r e  l a t i o n , because "sex i s a psychic and not a p h y s i c a l a c t . The clumsy coupling of human beings i s simply a b i o l o g i c a l paraphrase of t h i s t r u t h - a p r i m i t i v e method of introducing minds to each other, engaging them". (B, p.124) An introduction demands recognition of the other person involved as well as an acknowledgement of one's own i d e n t i t y . The experience achieved from t h i s i n i t i a l engagement of minds seems to be only one f a c t o r i n what D u r r e l l means by "tenderness": "English has two great forgotten words,namely 'helpmeet' which i s much greater than 'lover* and *loving-kindness' which i s so much greater than 'love* 93 or even 'passion*'*. (B, p. 128) Clea sees Pursewarden as "tortured beyond endurance by the lack of tenderness i n the world", (J_, p. 244) and Scobie says that the d i f f i c u l t y with h i s tendencies i s the "lack of tenderness". (B, p. 36) Tenderness goes outward as well as inward, gentle i n sympathy and dynamic i n i t s power to promote a c t i o n . This i s the sort of l i n k that seems to exist sometimes between Nessim and Justine, f o r a while between Darley and Melissa and most f u l l y between Darley and Clea. It i s the type of love recommended by Spenser, based on a j u d i c i o u s binding of "vertuous mind" and"gentle hart". Pursewarden, planning h i s l a s t volume, speaks of h i s i n t e n t i o n "to combine, resolve and harmonise". His tone now i s to be not one of anguished soul-searching or passion, but of a f f i r m a t i o n , with "the curvature of an embrace, the wordlessness of a lovers* code. It should convey some f e e l i n g that the world we l i v e i n i s founded i n something too simple to be over-described as cosmic law - but as easy to grasp as, say, an act of tenderness, simple tenderness i n the primal r e l a t i o n between animil and plant, r a i n and s o i l , seed and t r e e s , man and God". (B, pp. 238 - 239) This s i m p l i c i t y i s not f o r the self-obsessed and i t i s too d e l i c a t e for the " i n q u i r i n g mind and conscience". In such primal r e l a t i o n s , such outward turnings of the s e l f , l i e "hope f o r man, scope f o r man", the p o s s i b i l i t y of joy. The d i f f i c u l t y i s that t h i s i s offered not as D u r r e l l ' s s o l u t i o n , but as Pursewarden*s. And Pursewarden commits s u i c i d e . D. The Mirror of Incest Narcissus should have been an Alexandrian. He w i l l not accept the love of Echo, even though an echo i s a sort of mirror to the ear, 94 and a l l h i s love i s concentrated inward. The mirror he chooses, the pool, i s not a l i v e , and demands nothing from him. His fate has been f o r e t o l d by the b l i n d hermaphrodite seer T e i r e s i a s . In some versions of h i s story, the love he has rejected i s that of a male f r i e n d Ameinias. It has also been said that the reason f o r t h i s f a s c i n a t i o n with h i s own appearance i s the death of h i s twin s i s t e r , whose features he attempts to r e c a l l i n h i s own. For various reasons, and also to f u l f i l l the vengeful intentions of the gods, Narcissus dies or commits s u i c i d e , and i s changed in t o a flower. 1 His legend reads l i k e a d i s t i l l a t i o n of some pa^afAlexandrian themes: the mirror and echo, the prophecy of T e i r e s i a s , homosexuality, i n  cest, s u i c i d e , a l l based on the i r r a t i o n a l passion f o r the s e l f . In the r e n d i t i o n given here, there i s a reason f o r Narcissus's s e l f - love; i t might also be suggested that love f o r s e l f came before love f o r the twin. Incest i s a l i t e r a l form of mirror-love, since the object of love i s p h y s i c a l l y as nearly as possible i d e n t i c a l with the s e l f . In "western'cultures, i t i s generally regarded as a r e v o l t i n g aber r a t i o n . Sade r e f e r s to "the sink of incest and infamy". 2 In c l a s s i c a l and Renaissance tragedy, i t provokes the most t e r r i b l e punishments from whatever gods there be. In ancient Egypt and some other "eastern" c i v i l i z a t i o n s , on the other hand, incest was rare because i t was an exclusive p r i v i l e g e , rather than because i t was c r i m i n a l . iThomas B u l f i n c h , The Age of Fable (London, 1919), pp. 106 - 110. Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a (1951), v o l . XVI, p. 117. 2 J u s t i n e , p. 105 95 The Ptolemies made Alexandria a " c i t y of i n c e s t " . ( J , pp. 96 - 97) They claimed to be "successive emanations of the Deity, i n p a i r s of male and female". 1 Through generations, a process of sex transference seemed to develop, the men becoming s o f t e r , the women harder, i n t e r  weaving the dynasty with " t e r r i f i c queens". 2 D u r r e l l echoes Forster's d e s c r i p t i o n when Darley, watching Justine, i s reminded of "that race of t e r r i f i c queens which l e f t behind them the ammoniac smell of t h e i r incestuous loves to hover l i k e a cloud over the Alexandrian subconscious". (J, p. 20) In t h i s c i t y of extreme inversion, s e l f d i s s e c t s i t s e l f i n an unhygenic operation on i t s e l f . Pursewarden has no d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g precedents for h i s crime, involking the legends of O s i r i s and I s i s , the sun and moon, of Cleopatra h e r s e l f , of the s i s t e r who restores the dead king to l i f e , l i n k i n g both art and incest to d e i t y . (C_, p. 191) Marie Delcourt notes that i n alchemy the union of brother and s i s t e r symbolizes the return to unity, so that the a r t i f e x i s ass i s t e d by h i s soror mystica, i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p associated with a seri e s of mythical syntheses, such as that of the sun and the moon. Balthazar t r i e s to show how conventional love-making causes ''etiolation of the heart and reins 1", so one must "'turn inwards upon one's s i s t e r ' " . He continues: "The lover mirrors himself, l i k e Narcissus i n h i s own family". (J_, p. 97) There i s only one l i t e r a l l y incestuous r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the Quartet, that of Pursewarden and h i s s i s t e r , but the cbud on the Alexandrian subconscious hovers everywhere i n varying degrees of i n t e n s i t y . ,M. Foster, Alexandria, p. 16. ^Alexandria, p. 23 3Hermaphrodite: Myths and Rites of the Bisexual Figure i n C l a s s i c a l A n t i q u i t y (London, 1961), p. 81. 96 Mountolive i n v a r i a b l y develops earache on h i s v i s i t s home and can be cured only by h i s mother. She i s the centre of h i s "current of memor i e s " , of a pattern of time. (M, pp. 95, 99) To Clea's father, she i s a key part of h i s own time processes and he i s described i n connection with time: he must be home by midnight, he thinks of the future only as i t involves her; he waltzes with her " l i k e a clockwork man" regulated by the machinery to time, and Darley observes, "A daughter i s closer than a wife". (B_, pp. 227, 234) Mountolive and Clea are s t i l l f a r short of Oedipus and E l e c t r a , but anguish enters the entanglement of Nessim, Narouz and t h e i r parents. The c o n f l i c t here cuts across sexes and involves the four p r i n c i p a l s i n ambivalent r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Nessim and Narouz are l i k e two sides of one coin: Nessim, handsome and urbane; Narouz, ugly, awkward and barbaric. They are i d e n t i c a l not only i n f l e s h and blood, but also i n what they love most, t h e i r mother, t h e i r lands, t h e i r country. They are " l i k e two b l i n d people i n love who can only express themselves through touch: the subject of t h e i r lands". (B_, p. 72) Both sons have a more than d u t i f u l a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e i r mother. Nessim i s her favou r i t e and Narouz i s "heartsick" over t h i s . (B_, p. 75) The father i s rough and un a t t r a c t i v e , but he i s loved. Narouz has a " l u s t f u l tenderness" f o r him, (M, p. 39), and i n h i s "face l i k e a mirror r e f l e c t e d the various f e e l i n g s of (his father's) conversation". (M, p. 44) Narouz i s i n other ways a mirror of h i s father (or v i c e versa), i n h i s jealous love f o r L e i l a and h i s z e a l f o r the Coptic cause, e s p e c i a l l y . Nessim resembles L e i l a , so that Mountolive looks "through the face of Nessim and i n t o that of L e i l a " . (M, p. 17) 97 As L e i l a ' s lover, Mountolive i s involved i n the family s i t u a t i o n . L e i l a wonders even i f he may be a sublimation of her incestuous desires: 'It was a shock, I mean, to suddenly see Nessim's naked body f l o a t i n g i n the mirror ... I wondered suddenly whether my attachment f o r you wasn't lodged here somehow among the feeble incestuous desires of the inner heart*. (M, pp. 53 - 54) Narouz a l s o associates Nessim with Mountolive, at the same time i d e n t i f y i n g himself with his father's jealousy. (M, p. 227) Nessim f e e l s that he i s too much of a mirror, that some of h i s l i f e i s i n L e i l a , so that he thinks he may "never be able to f a l l i n love pro p e r l y " while she l i v e s , (M, p. 195), and when she dies, h i s pri v a t e reaction i s a f e e l i n g of new l i f e . (C, p. 266) The love of Pursewarden and L i z a i s a major key to the subtle arcana of the Quart et, but the key does not turn e a s i l y and the door does not swing wide open. Pursewarden i s a strange, almost a mon strous f i g u r e . He i s a successful a r t i s t , apparently a great one, and i t seems reasonable to assume that the views on art and l i f e which he pronounces at length are generally D u r r e l l ' s views. But he commits su i c i d e , while Darley, who i n comparison seems inept as writer and person, survives, even triumphs. Somewhere i n Pursewarden's sbheme there i s a flaw. Pursewarden's a r t i s t , l i k e Rank's, i s a Faust. As creator, he usurps suprahuman powers, and he continually contends with these powers l e s t they control instead of obeying him. This struggle en gages a l l men, the a r t i s t more only because he i s more creative and therefore more of a threat to the gods; "'I believe that Gods are men 98 and men Gods; they intrude on each other's l i v e s t r y i n g to express themselves through each other - hence such apparent confusion i n our human states of mind, our intimations of powers within or beyond us'". (B, p. 124) In Sade's Justine, Roland outdoes the merely Faustian i n h i s double crime of incest and murder. He brags that he "most i n s o l e n t l y taunts the hand of heaven and challenges Satan's own".1 Roland's mistress i s h i s s i s t e r and t h e i r union i s a worse crime than her murder, because i t i s outside the r u l e s of both good and e v i l . Studying the O s i r i s myths, Pursewarden would f i n d that "the king marries h i s s i s t e r because he as God (star) wandering on earth, i s immortal and may therefore not propagate himself i n the ch i l d r e n of a strange woman - any more than he i s allowed to die a natural death". 2 The a r t i s t , l i k e the god, i s immortal, as a r t i s t i f not as man. Pursewarden observes both r u l e s , i n loving L i z a and i n arranging h i s own death. His immortality i s t e s t i f i e d to i n the volumes of quotations from h i s works and conversa t i o n , which occur i n the speech of the other characters a f t e r h i s death. In f a c t , he very seldom appears d i r e c t l y i n Darley's narrative; people reminisce about him or quote him, and most of the episodes i n which he does appear are made to r e l a t e to h i s death. The a r t i s t ' s suicide i s an aspect of the subject-object s p l i t i n the s e l f . Rank says that "a l i f e has to be s a c r i f i c e d so that i t may l i v e on immortally i n the work". This s a c r i f i c e i s usually c a r r i e d out f i g u r a t i v e l y as the s a c r i f i c e of immediate experience to the p. 273. :Rank; p. 145 note. 99 creation of experience. But the myth of the s a c r i f i c e i s r e l a t e d to the sets of doubles i n legend - f o r instance, Cain and Abel, Romulus and Remus. One of the mortal doubles "must be s a c r i f i c e d i f the im mortal ego i s to l i v e on i n the work". 1 Narouz i s k i l l e d instead of Nessim. It i s Pursewarden*s half of the double s e l f which i s s a c r i  f i c e d , while L i z a goes on to experience l i f e as a whole s e l f with her own l i f e . If h i s "immortal ego", h i s " i " , i s to l i v e on i n h i s a r t , and the outer l i f e of experience i s to l i v e i n L i z a and her love f o r Mountolive, there i s no need f o r Pursewarden himself to continue l i v i n g . Frank Kermode suggests that t h i s incest may be "meant to ind i c a t e a narcissism of the sort that sets up an o s c i l l a  t i o n between an a r t i s t ' s inner and outer l i f e that only an Empedoclean suicide can end". 2 The o s c i l l a t i S n between the inner and outer l i f e i s suggested i n Pursewarden*s j u s t i f y i n g h i s love with the myths and symbols of h i s a r t . He and L i z a are so c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d that L i z a i s part of h i s inner l i f e . Describing t h e i r childhood, L i z a says, "*He converted my blindness i n t o poetry. I saw with h i s brain, he with my eyes!" (C, p. 190) Liza's existence i s only inner, so the world they create f o r themselves i s the " r e a l " world f o r them only. Pursewarden sees with her- "eyes" which are the inner eyes, of imagina-> t i o n , the a r t i s t ' s eyes, and she "sees" through the products of h i s b r a i n . Ten t h i r s t y f i n g e r s of my b l i n d Muse Confer upon my face t h e i r sensualspelling. (C, P. 188) iRank, p. 202. 2 P u z z l e s and Epiphanies, p. 221. 100 These l i n e s , supposed to be Pursewarden's, show the blehdjng of outer and inner, sense and imagination. Her reading and her recognition of books and men depend on her sense of touch, a ""sensual s p e l l i n g " . It i s also a"sensual s p e l l i n g " f o r him i n that her touch s p e l l s out i n s p i r a t i o n f o r him. She i s his " b l i n d Muse". Their interchange of parts of each other's mind and senses makes them more than mirror r e f l e c t i o n s , but the general metaphor i s app l i c a b l e . As twins and as soul-images, they r e f l e c t t h e i r double selves. There i s an e p i  sode i n which L i z a seems to be looking i n a mirror. Her b l i n d face i s " l u c i d " , a clear mirror f o r an e a s i l y read r e f l e c t i o n . She i s i n a sense a c t u a l l y "exploring her own blindness i n the great mirror", because the fact of her i n r e l a t i o n to a mirror has p a r t i c u l a r i m p l i  cations: This caged r e f l e c t i o n gives her nothing back Thfct women drink l i k e t h i r s t y stags from mirrors. (C, p. 189) Li z a exchanges no look of complicity with her mirror as Clea, Justine and Melissa do. The extraordinary p a l l o r of her face, p o s s i b l y contributing to i t s l u c i d i t y , i s uncamouflaged because she cannot en l i s t the mirror's a id i n masking i t . (C_, p. 168) Theere i s no mask and no self-deception. Her blindness provides a sort of c l a r i t y ; her lack of a mirror makes her a better mirror of herself and others. "Blindness" has a f i g u r a t i v e connotation which Pursewarden implies i n h i s wish f o r "someone to whom he could speak f r e e l y - but i t must  be someone who could not f u l l y understand?"(M, p. 174, D u r r e l l ' s i t a l i c s ) Melissa serves here, but she, " b l i n d " though she i s , "sees" f a r too much f o r Pursewarden's good, f i r s t reading h i s hand accurately and 101 l a t e r revealing Nessim's p l o t . Kermode c a l l e d the suicide "Empedoclean". Perhaps Pursewarden was t r y i n g to prove h i s a r t i s t i c godhead and immortality. His death, however, serves several other causes;leaving L i z a free to love Mount o l i v e , and exempting himself ffom the r e s u l t s of h i s d u t i f u l reporting of Nessim's subversion to Mountolive and h i s subsequent warning to Nessim. To both cases, h i s advice to Justine applies, " L a s t l y i t i s  honourable i f you can't win to hang yourself". (B, p. 125, D u r r e l l ' s i t a l i c s ) D u r r e l l has linked h i s incest theme with that i n Herman M e l v i l l e ' s P i e r r e . 1 Near the end of that book i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of a p o r t r a i t of Beatrice Cenci: So sweetly and s e r a p h i c a l l y blonde a being, being double-hooded as i t were, by the black crape of the two most h o r r i b l e crimes... possible to c i v i l i s e d humanity - incest and p a r r i c i d e . L i z a i s blonde, but Pursewarden makes her dye her h a i r black to mask t h e i r resemblance and hence t h e i r g u i l t , an attempt to drape the too- revealing mirror.3 l-in a l e t t e r to Jean Fanchette, dated 31 March 1958, printed i n World, p. 223. 2(London, 1923), p. 489. P i e r r e also i s a writer i n love with h i s s i s t e r , who i s dark. His other love i s very blonde - and she i s an a r t i s t . But the d a r k - f a i r dichotomy i n l i t e r a t u r e i s not a simple matter of black and white, bad and good. In P i e r r e , dark Isabel i s more r e a l ^ v i b r a n t , h e a l t h i l y a l i v e , than the c o l d l y chaste, f a i r Lucy. See Northrup Frye, Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m (Princeton 1957), p. 101. 3 c f . Hawthorne's Marble Faun, which employs various motifs s i m i l a r to some of D u r r e l l ' s : a Mediterranean setting with Gothic d e t a i l s ; dark Miriam and f a i r Hilda; a r t i s t s ; the h i s t o r i c present of Rome and Beatrice Cenci l i k e Alexandria and Cleopatra; the climax of the c a r n i v a l which sweeps up Kenyon, as the Alexandrian c a r n i v a l does Darley, the a r t i s t - o b s e r v e r , who i s at the time unaware of the s i g  n i f i c a n c e of events; the anonymity of costumes. 102 Perhaps there i s a connection also with the contrast between blonde Clea, who i s an accurate mirror, and dark Justine, who deceives. D u r r e l l places two characters i n the following scene from h i s poem "Mneiae";; both are "my selves". They are I and I. I, the watcher, smoking at a t a b l e , And I, my selves, observed by human choice, A d i s i n h e r i t e d portion of the whole: With you the s i b l i n g of my s e l f - d e s i r e . ("Mneiae", P, p.l) The fact that there are two I's makes each a " d i s i n h e r i t e d portion of the whole", not integrated i n a unity of s e l f or of creation. The l i t e r a l " s i b l i n g of my s e l f ' d e s i r e " i s the object of incestuous love. E. The Five-Sexed Mirror In Alexandria one may love whom one pleases as one pleases. There are "more than f i v e sexes" i n the c i t y which i s infused with "something subtly androgynous, inverted upon i t s e l f " . (J_, p. 14) The very layout map of Alexandria i s a map of the landscape of the mind, showing the spacing of thoughts. From the introverted place, from the desire whose object i s the d e s i r e r , come "the sick men, the s o l i t a r i e s , the prophets" - those who l i k e to be alone and "who have been deeply wounded i n t h e i r sex". (J, p. 14) The l o g i c a l fate of the s e l f - d e s i r e r s i s to become "hermaphrodites of conscience, copulating with ourselves". (S, p. 81) The homosexual makes one sex do the work of two, and t h i s apparently i s an important achievement of the Alexandrians, of "a whole heaving heap/of i n e f f a b l y herbaceous Alexandrian hermaphrodites"'. (S_, p. 65) The Alexandrian god of love 103 i s no modern upstart invoked to j u s t i f y space-age immorality, but "the o l d , double-sexed Eros of P l a t o " . 1 In the Aegean, e s p e c i a l l y on Cyprus, D u r r e l l encountered the legend of the double-sexed, bearded Aphrodite, whose worshippers wore the dress of the opposite sex. She was symbolic "not of l i c e n c e and sensuousness, but of the dual nature of man". (BL, p. 171) 2 That the s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t Aphrodite i s not an obscure Cypriot i s shown by Spenser's d e s c r i p t i o n of Venus: Both male and female, both under one name: She syre and mother i n here s e l f e alone, Begets and she conceives, ne needeth other none. 3 This i s the u n i f i e d bisexual s e l f . Most selves are not u n i f i e d and require another as soul-image to complete the s e l f . That other i s u s u a l l y of the opposite sex since i t i s to mirror the soul which, i n an attempt at balance, i s l i k e l y to possess q u a l i t i e s opposite to those exhibited i n the conscious a t t i t u d e . In the creation myths of Gnosticism, Hermetism, Orphism and Judaism, the o r i g i n a l l y created human being i s androgynous and i s subsequently divided i n t o two beings of opposite sex. The p r i  mordial bise«uality remains as a force d r i v i n g the psyche to seek a r e s t o r a t i o n of u n i t y . 4 In Groddeck*s version of the u n i f i e d s e l f , the " i t - u n i t " of an i n d i v i d u a l includes not only a male It plus a female I t , but also •^"Lawrence D u r r e l l Answers World, p. 157. c f . Young, p. 62. 2also Delcourt, p. 27. 3Faerie Queene, IV, 10,- x l i (Vol. I I , p. 121). d e l c o u r t , pp. 68, 77, 78. Groddeck, pp. 127, 129. 104 " a l l the It-beings of the ancestral c h a i n " . 1 Once again th& unity i s one of time as well as of sex. It i s a union of inner and outer, of conscious and unconscious, "to make up a balanced psyche". 2 Both art and a r t i s t have hermaphroditic q u a l i t i e s . In a r t , the bisexual symbol i s the subject i n Greek statues of l i t e r a l hermaphro d i t e s , i n renaissance romances of transvestism, and i n D u r r e l l ' s anonymous c a r n i v a l dominoes. The concept, o r i g i n a t i n g i n the uncon scious, i s welcomed by the a r t i s t as "the f i g u r e best able to sum up h i s o r i g i n s and to symbolise c e r t a i n of h i s a s p i r a t i o n s " , that i s , to depict h i s progress away from and return to unity. Delcourt describes a Pompeian painting of a hermaphrodite receiving a mirror from a bearddd Eros i n feminine dress. The mirror i s here associated with b i s e x u a l i t y i n a r e f l e c t i o n of the dual nature of the psyche and the ambiguous nature of eros. The a r t i s t must be bisexual as the parthenogenic parent of h i s work. He must also e s t a b l i s h the cosmic unit within himself and become a whole i n d i v i d u a l : "Male, female and c h i l d make up the complete human being and only when they are united within himself can man become Creator and L o r d " . 4 Delcourt compares the double being to the phoenix which f e r t i l i s e s and engenders i t s e l f . X p . 75. 2Delcourt (Quoting Jung), p. x i i . ^Delcourt, pp. x i , 60, 63. 4Groddeck, p. 184. 5p. 71. 105 Darley, l i k e the phoenix, emerges from h i s own ashes, transcending h i s former s e l f and becoming an a r t i s t . The homosexual, l i k e the hermaphrodite, i s connected with the idea of the i n t e g r a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y . In an extreme &$$m& to unify, the a r t i s t chooses the mirror which w i l l r e f l e c t himself most c l o s e l y . The likeness i s based on i d e n t i t y of sex rather than of blood. The s e l f , attempting to i d e a l i s e i t s e l f , personi f i e s "a portion of i t s own ego i n another individual"." 1" The r e l a t i o n  ship i s both i d e a l i s a t i o n and humiliation of the s e l f . The loved object i s as l i k e the s e l f as possible, because " t h i s g l o r i f i c a t i o n of a f r i e n d i s fundamentally s e l f - g l o r i f i c a t i o n " . In h i s poem "Elegy on the C l o s i n g of the French Brothels", D u r r e l l describes the "bodies of boys" as mere substitutes, "the temporary/refuge f o r a k i s s on the s i l v e r backs of mirrors". (P_, p. 196) Balthazar exemplifies the ambiguity of the homosexual condition, perhaps of any r e l a t i o n s h i p . He i s a wise man and a philosopher, a doctor of mind and body, a l i v i n g key to depths of Alexandria, " i t s P l atonic daimon, mediator between its,Gods and i t s men". ( J , pp. 72, 91) At the same time, he can allow passion f o r a boy to drag him i n t o the squalor i n which Darley finds him i n Clea. He can joke c y n i c a l l y about h i s lover f a l l i n g i n love with "a heavily moustached Armenian g i r l ' r . (B_, p. 170) But there i s also a sort of philosophy behind h i s aberration that eliminates any " q u a l i f i c a t i o n of h i s innate -'•Rank, pp. 52, 56, 61. 106 masculinity of mind". (J, p. 92) The homosexual i s not a criminal but merely a p r a c t i t i o n e r of a p a r t i c u l a r sort of love. Without the traumatic difference i n sex, love can become a companionship or an empathy, rather than an obsession. The subject r e t a i n s h i s own soul-image, and the r e f l e c t i o n received from the mirror of the lover i s an objective one: 'At least the invert escapes t h i s f e a r f u l struggle to give oneself to another. Lying with one's own kind, enjoying an experience one can s t i l l keep free the part of one's mind which dwells i n Plato, or gardening, or the d i f f e r e n t i a l c a l c u l a s * . ( J , pp. 96 - 97) Balthazar does not maintain t h i s l o f t y plane i n h i s actual a f f a i r s , perhaps because h i s lovers are not r e a l l y h i s "own kind" but an excessive i d e a l i z a t i o n of h i s s e l f i n the other. Balthazar i s p h y s i c a l l y ugly, and h i s young men are b e a u t i f u l . They are also stupid and s u p e r f i c i a l . It i s as though he chose a mirror to r e f l e c t the opposite of himself. He i s supposed to have been acquainted with the poet Cavafy, and D u r r e l l ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of him resembles Cavafy's poems about the aging lover waiting, usually i n a crowded Alexandrian cafe f o r the a r r i v a l of a youth whose beauty he worships. 1 The beauty i s " e x q u i s i t e " , " i d e a l " , "the beauty of un natural a t t r a c t i o n s " . 2 As the wise man, the i n t e r p r e t e r of the Caballa, Balthazar i s a seeker a f t e r absolutes, but i n h i s l i f e embodies such contrary elements as to contradict the assertion of a possible absolute. iCavafy, pp. 66, 163 - 164, 133 and others. 2 Cavafy, pp. 133. 107 Homosexual lovers might be expected to f i n d f a i r l y uncomplicated mirrors i n one another, but such i s not the case i n D u r r e l l ' s world. They seem to be l e s s l i k e each other than the heterosexual lovers are, maybe because the bisexual nature of the psyche required a s o u l - image of the opposite sex, and the opposite-ness must be found i n some way. Balthazar and h i s lover are contradictions. The l e s b i a n  ism of Clea and Justine i s possibly even more paradoxical. Here again i s the conventional contrast of the f a i r woman and the dark: Clea who c o n t i n u a l l y t r i e s t o discover and illuminate the t r u t h about people and l i f e and art; and Justine who revels i n deception even when she thinks she i s t r y i n g to confess. But these opposites provide mirrors i n which each f i n d s v i t a l truths about h e r s e l f . Justine t e l l s the t r u t h , as she would not to a male lov e r , and i s able to explore her own problems ( J , pp. 227 - 228; B_, p. 51) Clea f i n d s that what i s supposedly a perversion becomes a " p e r f e c t l y achieved r e l a t i o n s h i p * , because, as Balthazar explained, there i s no problem of the physical body being i n the way. In t h i s love she fi n d s ' s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n * , ' s e l f - l o v e ' , a ground f o r 'health of the psyche*. (J_, pp. 129 - 130) In her love f o r a woman, Clea discovers the t r u t h of her own womanhood and her natural r e l a t i o n to men. (B, p. 54) Among D u r r e l l ' s Alexandrians, there a number of remarkable f r i e n d s h i p s . Some mention has been made of those related to hetero sexual love. There are also intimate acquaintances between members of the same sex, without connotations of sodomy. The f r i e n d perhaps more than the lover, may provide the s e l f with a clear r e f l e c t i o n , f o r here, with passion eliminated, the mirror approaches o b j e c t i v i t y . 108 Balthazar does t h i s very e x p l i c i t l y f o r Darley with h i s i n t e r l i n e a r c o rrection of Darley's story. But more or l e s s subtly they a l l do t h i s f o r each other, by a s i g n i f i c a n t appearance, action, word, r e  vealing a new facet of things. Modern f r i e n d s h i p , l i k e modern love, i s depicted i n terms of the r e l a t i v e , and each of them - Darley, Balthazar, Pursewarden, Nessim, Mountolive and those more on the fringe of the novels: Narouz, Amaril, Capodistria, Mnemjian, Keats - each has s p e c i a l views and hidden l i g h t s perceptible from h i s p o s i  t i o n only. But these friendships are a type of love, and as such make de mands upon the emotions. Tensions among the friends prove as agonising as any among lovers; f o r instance, the t r i a n g l e of Mountolive, Pursewarden and Nessim, i n which each of the three has a duty outside personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These duties are to force Pursewarden to for c e Mountolive to stop Nessim. At i t s best, the Alexandrian f r i e n d s h i p i s that of Mountolive and Balthazar, a "communion of minds" over a chessboard, the chess a quiet parody of the p o l i t i c a l game Mountolive plays. The communion i s rooted i n "the fecund silences of the r o y a l game". (M, p. 233) Sometimes the f r i e n d s h i p becomes i d e n t i t y , as when Melissa bequeaths her love for Darley to Clea (B, p. 135) and Darley l a t e r f inds Clea where he had found Melissa. (C, p. 76) The c a r n i v a l i s the climax of Alexandrian androgyny, f o r i n the black dominoes, everyone i s bisexual, asexual or multisexual. If one wears costume instead of the domino, i t i s l i k e l y , l i k e Pombal's feminine ensemble, to suggest a nature contrary to one's own (B_, p. 179) 109 or i r o n i c a l l y l i k e i t . Toto de Brunei, the "gentleman of the Second Declension", the sexually dispossessed", (B_, pp. 25, 200) wears Justine's r i n g and i s "turned from a man in t o a woman," h i s outward r e g a l i a corresponding to the sexual bias of h i s inner s e l f . For a l i t t l e while he ceases to be dispossessed. He and Scobie have t h e i r own pecul i a r languages, perversions of phraseology, the word made anala- gous to the f l e s h . (B, p. 25, 248) The c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a n t s 1 are completely anonymous. The disguised s e l f i s free to be i t s e l f . G u i l t i s eliminated from acts performed i n costumes resembling thfct of the In q u i s i t o r s , the probers of g u i l t . The ambiguous dark, amoral f i g u r e s are "outward symbols of our own secret mind", t h e i r very obscurity making them accurate mirrors of the hidden s e l f . (B, p. 201) The most pleasant hermaphrodite i n Alexandria i s Scobie, the comic mirror discussed e a r l i e r . He i s repeatedly eulogised i n arche t y p a l terms as the Ancient Mariner, the Old Man of the Sea, a sort of upside-down s a i n t . He i s T i r e s i a s the hermaphrodite prophet. At the ca r n i v a l a pec u l i a r jazz-song plays: Old T i r e s i a s No one hal f so breezy as Half so free and easy as Old T i r e s i a s . (B, pp. 44, 202) Its composer might have belonged to the s'hhool of T.S. E l i o t ' s shakes- peherian rag, and Ca r l Bode has suggested that Scobie comes from Greek myth v i a the W.aB.te.rLand..2 T i r e s i a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y i s very old, he i s a seer, he i s b l i n d and The word i s appropriate; comparison i s made to dark r i t u a l s such as the Brocken or Sade's account of the satyr monks. (B, pp. pp. 190 - 191, 216) ~~ 2World, p. 210 110 he i s b i s e x u a l . 1 Scobie i s "anybody's age" (J , p. 121), he sees Clea's episodes with Amaril and Narouz. (C, pp. 124, 207) He has one b l i n d eye, and, to add to his q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , he has tendencies which i n s p i r e him to dress as a woman at f u l l moon. (B, p. 40, C, pp. 80 f f . ) A f t e r h i s death, he i s canonized by the Arab quarter as a saint with power to cure s t e r i l i t y , another of T i r e s i a s ' s accomplishments. Discussing The Waste Land i n h i s Key to Modern Poetry, D u r r e l l quotes a Gnostic sayingr 'When the Lord was asked by a ce r t a i n man, When should his.'kingdom come, he s a i t h unto him: When two s h a l l be one, and the without ' and the within, and the male with the female, neither male or female'. (Key, pp. 152 - 153) E.M. Forster's version of the reply begins, "Whenever ye put o f f the garment of shame", the elimination of g u i l t , as at c a r n i v a l , being necessary f o r the purgation of d e s i r e . D u r r e l l goes on to o f f e r T i r e s i a s as a symbol "pointing toward the future i n t e g r a t i o n which l i e s beyond the h i l l s of science and metaphysics, anthropology, and even perhaps artJ i t s e l f " . Scobie, joke though he i s , achieves some measure of t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n . Clea points out that "He was quite s u c c e s s f u l l y himself". (C_, p. 120) His himself-ness includes h i s b i s e x u a l i t y . He i s , as we l l , wise i n the ways of the Sphinx's r i d d l e of man: 'Cheer up, my boyo, i t takes a l i f e t i m e to grow. People haven't the patience any more". (C_, p. 33) His death i s squalid, but i s l o s t i n the context of h i s sainthood and i n the 1Delacourt, p. 42. A l e x a n d r i a , p. 235. I l l reminiscences of the Alexandrians. Besides, he i s not the f i r s t martyr to die a disgusting death of h i s own i n v i t i n g . A l e s s a t t r a c t i v e double-sexed saint i s the Pope Joan of D u r r e l l ' s t r a n s l a t i o n from Royidis. She grows a beard to escape rape, disguises h e r s e l f as a monk, begins to believe she has changed sex l i k e T i r e s i a s , and f i n a l l y bears a c h i l d during a papal procession. She has the con ventional trappings of the hermaphrodite character, but unlike Scobie she f a i l s t o be h e r s e l f , because, instead of escaping from her femin ine state she i s overcome by i t . 1 The res u l t i s d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the s e l f she has created. The Alexandrian, l i k e V i r g i n i a Woolf*s Orlando, i s man and woman and "knew the secrets, shared the weaknesses of each". 2 Delcourt, p. 90. Orlando, p. 145. Delcourt (p. 87) l i s t s nine female saints who assumed masculine guise; three of these are Alexandrian. CHAPTER IV: The Mirror of Malady: I l l n e s s and Mu t i l a t i o n "I swear, gentlemen, that to be too conscious i s an i l l n e s s - a r e a l thoroughgoing i l l n e s s " , says the underground man, who i s , he claims, a " s i c k man".1 Commenting on t h i s passage, F.J. Hoffman writes, "What he has i n mind i s the s e n s i t i v i t y to himself i n terms of h i s surroundings, as well as an almost absurd s e n s i t i v i t y to the mirror r e f l e c t i o n of h i s behaviour and appearance". The Dostoevskian disease, and the D u r r e l l i a n , i s a s e l f - s i c k n e s s , and the major symp- 2 ton i s i n a c t i o n . The Alexandrians are accident-prone, disease-prone, deformity-prone. They lose hands, eyes, noses and minds. Some are i n f l i c t e d with incurable diseases and some are born deformed. They are lovesick, timesick, and s e l f - s i c k . Suffering i s "an acute form of self-importance". ( J , p. 181) Nessim r e a l i z e s t h i s , and knows also that he i s incapable of f o l l o w  ing Plotinus's command to "Look i n t o yourself, withdraw i n t o yourself and look". He cannot bear to see a true r e f l e c t i o n of himself. Pombal complains of the filexandrian "mania f o r d i s s e c t i o n , f o r analysing the subject", the subject of one's own loves and actions ( J , p. 21; D u r r e l l i t a l i c s ) This self-importance and excessive in t e r e s t i n s e l f - a n a l y s i s are unhealthy, because they amount to f a s c i n a t i o n with one's own disease l i k e picking a sore. Plotinus's intent i s to diagnose and cure, not to dissect and preserve. Justine's quest among the psychoanalysts of Europe i s a deception of h e r s e l f and others. Pursewarden accuses her of using neurosis as xNotes, pp. 53, 56. 2Beckett, pp. 30 - 31. 113 an excuse and suggests that her i l l n e s s i s " ' j u s t due to an inflamed s e l f - p i t y * " . (B, pp. 122, 125) She checks herself short of any reve l a t i o n which might give the analyst a clue. On h i s ever-perceptive mirror, Pursewarden writes f o r her: "Oh Dreadful i s the check! Intense the agony - When the ear begins to hear And the eye begins to see!"(M, p. 174) The r e a l agony begins at the verge of detection,, and hence of a n n i h i  l a t i o n , of the t r u t h about the s e l f . But i t i s too easy to dismiss t h i s as malingering. The agony i s r e a l because one desires the t r u t h which one i s a f r a i d to face. Justine says, "'Perhaps our only sickness i s to desire a t r u t h which we cannot bear rather than to rest content with the f i c t i o n s we manufacture out of each other*" (C, p. 60) This i s the greater sickness: to be discontented with the le s s e r sickness complained of by Pombal, and diagnosed by Clea as "' to want to contain everything within the frame of reference of a psychology or a philosophy!" ( J , p. 77) Groddeck believes that a cause of any i l l n e s s i s "to gain pleasure" e i t h e r by escaping from an i n t o l e r a b l e r e a l i t y or by expiating one's own g u i l t . 1 Mountolive's earache usually occurs only when h i s mother i s near to cure him, but makes an exceptional appearance i n time to pre vent him from attending Pursewarden's cremation where he might encounter Nessim and be forced to act or decide. This i s excape and also g u i l t f o r what he must do to Nessim. Like Proust's man, he prefers "h'is i n v a l i d ' s cell',' with h i s mother ministering to him, to the give and take of human pp. 81 - 82. 114 i n t e r c o u r s e . 1 As i n Justine's case, the pain i s r e a l . In The Black Book, D u r r e l l has written what might be a d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s Alexandria: The problem of the personality grows l i k e a stench i n the a i r , i n f e c t i n g the town with man's e s s e n t i a l l o n e l i n e s s . Rib to r i b , face to face with the absolute h e r a l d i c p e r s o n a l i t y which wakes i n each other's eyes, even the lovers tremble, and become sick with the horror and emptiness. (p. 175) Feeling t h i s i n f e c t i o n i n himself. . Darley f l e e s from the p e r s o n a l i t y - plagued .city to h i s Greek i s l a n d . He too begins h i s book by announcing that he i s a sick man. Unlike the underground man, he retreats i n order to heal himself. ( J , p. 13) The] psychosomatic epidemic i s a modern ailment, and D u r r e l l claims that Groddeck*s equating of mind and body does, i n the medical f i e l d , roughly what E i n s t e i n has done i n the realm of physics with the concepts of space and time". (Key, p. 209) The i l l n e s s of body i s also i l l n e s s of mind, Returning to Alexandria, Darley has come "face to face with the nature of time, that ailment of the human psyche". (C, p. 12) He has been able to recognize time as an "ailment" because of h i s f a i l u r e i n writing about Justine.. Events cannot be reduced to chronology; there are too many ways of seeing any one occurrence and time i s subor dinate to one's position- r e l a t i v e to the occurrence. The attempt to chronologize, l i k e the attempt to systematize, i s a l a t e symptom which ois often mistaken f o r a cure. So "Justine surrounded by her p h i l o s o  phies i s l i k e an i n v a l i d surrounded by medicines", but she i s a chronic i n v a l i d with quack medicines and her brain, attempting to apply philosophy, Wilson, Axel's Castle, p. 184 t i c k s " l i k e a cheap alarm-clock". ( J , p. 133) "To be l o v e s i c k " i s a c l i c h e which i n the Quartet i s a f a c t . Here "love" i s defined as "a cancerous growth of unknown o r i g i n which may take up i t s s i t e anywhere without the subject knowing or wishing i t " . (C_, p. 106) It i s a "synonym f o r derangement or i l l n e s s " . "You are i n love" i s equal to ""you have got cancer". (C, p. 256) The heart i s the " s i t e of the carcinoma maxima", (C_, p. 256) and the "aetiology of love and madness are i d e n t i c a l except i n degree". (B_, p. 56) The possession of a human heart i s a "disease without remedy". (M, p. 156) Pursewarden*s disease i s l i k e Proust's "malady, which was Swann's love", - past opera tion"." 1" L e i l a dies of "heartsickness l i k e a true Alexandrian". (C, p. 266)2 This has been the Alexandrian disease since Longus's Chloe complained, " i am no doubt i l l , but what my malady i s I know not", and i s given no p r e s c r i p t i o n , " f o r there i s no mighty magic against love; no medicine, whether i n food or drinkr nothing, i n short, save kisses and embraces, and the closest union of the naked body'".3 Cavafy, writes of "an e r o t i c i n t e n s i t y , unknown to health" and his young men are " s i c k with what love meant". 4 The heart deludes i t s e l f because i t i s "tormented by the desire to be loved". (B, p. 240) The s e l f , i n order not to be hopelessly i n - 1Swann's Way, p. 237. 2 8 e c i l y Mackworth (World, p. 26) counts "at least three deaths by 'heartsickness' which i t seems i s a l e t h a l Alexandrian s p e c i a l t y " . 3"Daphnis and Chloe" i n The Greek Romances, .trans. Rowland Smith (London, 1901), pp. 272, 290~. 4 ,"lmenos", p. 108. " i n the Dreary V i l l a g e " , p. 149. 116 verted, demands another s e l f as a mirror and a complement. The delusion, cancer and madness, a r i s e when t h i s becomes a demand f o r mutual possess ion, when the love i s turned wholly inward and the loved one seen only as an image of oneself. Love-sickness i s s t i l l self-sickness. Love, when i t turns outward as well as inward i s a healing force, " l i f e s a v i n g , l i f e - g i v i n g " . Groddeck claims that "without the arrow of Eros no wound can heal, no operation succeed, no symptom improve . Eros i s the l i f e - f o r c e , love which gives as well as takes, which not only mirrors the s e l f , but shows i t i n r e l a t i o n toothers. A popular disease i n Alexandrian and other l i t e r a r y climates i s t u b e r c u l o s i s . Melissa i s dying of i t , and her lovers are fascinated by "the soft bloom of phthsis", (M, p. 166) and "her blue-veined phthsic hands". ( J , p. 18) Gracie, the p r o s t i t u t e i n The Black Book, i s consump t i v e , and the poem "A>Bowl of Roses", addressed to a Melissa, speaks of flowers t r a v e l l i n g "under glass to great sanatoria". (P, p. 2 8 ) 2 The explanation f o r the association of tuberculosis with the "good" p r o s t i  tute may perhaps be found i n Groddeck's theory that the "hollow chest and the hollow womb are symbolically i d e n t i f i e d " , "breathing and be g e t t i n g " depending on "an inward and outward rhythm". 3 This theory may be i m p l i c i t i n the episode i n which Darley revives Clea with x p . 189. 2The d i r e c t o r of the sanatorium i n Mann's Magic Mountain exclaims, " i s i t my f a u l t i f phthsis and concupiscence go together?" quoted i n an anonymous a r t i c l e " L i t e r a r y Giant" i n MP of Canada IV, no. 9 (September, 1963), p. 76. ' 3 p . 115. 117 a r t i f i c i a l r e s p i r a t i o n , r e s t o r i n g her breath, the creative a c t i v i t y of them both, and a r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s both outward and inward. In so v i s u a l l y v i v i d a c i t y as D u r r e l l ' s Alexandria, i t i s note worthy that many of the inhabitants are b l i n d . The day begins with the c a l l of the b l i n d muezzin, who i s able to see the nature of the pe r f e c t i o n of A l l a h , and,- himself past cure, i s the disseminator of healing powers. ( J , p. 25; M, pp. 292 - 293; C_, pp. 90, 258) Alexandri canaries a t t a i n a song nearer to p e r f e c t i o n i f they are blinded (M, p. 255) The canaries are mentioned by Memlik, who blinds h i s enemies be cause they see too much. But blindness i s also a symbol-in-reverse f o r the "second s i g h t " . Scobie has l o s t an eye. The b l i n d sheik who presides over Memlik's Night of God has an i n c r e d i b l e power of memory. (M, pp. 261 - 264) L i z a ' s blindness "gives an expression of double awareness". (C_, p. 114) Magzub the dervish i s not b l i n d , but possesses unusual eyes i n whose gaze i s mortal danger. (B_, pp. 160 f f . ) ; Narouz, the supernaturally i n s p i r e d , has e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y blue eyes, a feature described as an e v i l sign and a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the examining angels. (M, pp. 32, 118) Narouz i s an examining angel, t e s t i n g and i n v e s t i g a  t i n g himself and arousing a s i m i l a r anguished process i n others. Hamid i s blinded i n one eye to evade conscription and becomes in s c r u t a b l e , a possible seer. (C, p. 258; B, p. 214; J , p. 148) Nessim loses an eye and a f i n g e r when he i s forced to stop a c t i o n . (C, p. 18) Those who are maimed i n one eye only seem to be able to regain the power to act, to cease and begin again. Capodistria, the man with the eye-patch, i s Justine's childhood ravisher and l a t e r her f r i e n d . He presumably dies i n one novel, but i s revived i n another. There i s 118 no consistent symbolic equation f o r the eye, but i t i s usually connected with extraordinary powers of perception and with the power f o r a c t i o n . It i s above a l l the mind's eye, and the unseeing eye i s the unperceptive psyche. 1 L i z a ' s blindness i s part of an eerie c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the mysterious partner of the a r t i s t ' s i n c e s t , hidden u n t i l well on i n the story, a f a i r lady disguised as a dark. Her blindness i s i n part a mask for the "secrets of the foundling heart". (M, p. 67) Her head i s compared to that of a Medusa, and both her lovers, Pursewarden and Mountolive, are turned to stone, reaching a point where action i s no longer p o s s i b l e . Her blindness i s l i k e that of a Greek statue with " b u l l e t holes f o r eyes". (M, pp. 60, 67) The holes are not meant to be b l i n d , but repre sent the s i t e of sight, the very emptiness emphasizing the impact of that sight. L i z a can "see" what Pursewarden cannot, so she i s not destroyed by t h e i r love, but can o b j e c t i f y i t and place i t i n a l l i t s contexts. F i n a l l y she can go from i t to.a more "healthy" love with Mountolive. Pursewarden cannot o b j e c t i f y and he cannot love anyone e l s e . In Alexandria as elsewhere, love i s b l i n d . Darley speculates on t h i s when he r e a l i z e s Justine's deception. (B, p. 185) Discussing Clea's love f o r Justine, he t a l k s of "the transforming membrane, the cataract with which Aphrodite seals up the s i c k eyes of lovers, the t h i c k , opaque form of a sacred sightlessness. (B, p. 54) The possessed lover's passions obscure h i s mirror view of himself -••"Psychologists often compare consciousness to the eye: we speak of a v i s u a l - f i e l d and of a f o c a l point of consciousness". Jung, p. 532. 119 and also h i s outward-going view of the beloved. Nessim l o s t an eye and a f i n g e r , and thus suffers p a r t i a l l y from both of the two major Alexandrian mutilations. The disembodied hand, a part of the s e l f , become an object f o r comment and f o r horror, i s one of D u r r e l l ' s f a v o u r i t e motifs. In The Black Book, a skeleton hand wearing a wedding r i n g i s stuck to a hotel doorknob (p. 187). Sappho receives a b a t t l e souvenir, a severed arm wearing a b r a c e l e t . Once part of a l i v i n g man, i t i s now merely a thing "with no reference to t h i s world/Existing there i n some recess of time", (pp. 41, 43) Baird i n The Dark Labyrinth looks at h i s hands "as i f they belonged to another man" f o r a clue to h i s s e l f . In the Alexandrian Quartet, hands are re l a t e d to the occult stream which runs through the blood of most of the characters. Melissa reads t r u t h from Pursewarden's hand, and sh o r t l y afterwards reveals to him other truths which change, i n f a c t , end, h i s whole existence. Handprints are the talisman of Alexandria - blue or black p r i n t s of children's hands, supposed to ward off the e v i l eye, one d i s t o r t e d member to exorcise another. ( J , pp. 45, 61, 189; B_, pp. 73, 174; M, pp. 288 f f ; C, p. 146 f f . ) These p r i n t s are l i k e "blows struck by conscience" i n a l a s t desperate stand against the dark powers and the " t e r r o r s which thronged the darkness". ( J , pp. 61, 189) They are frequently associated with the p i t i f u l c h i l d p r o s t i t u t e s among whom Justine supposedly f i n d s her daughter. The l i t t l e hands s t r i k e f o r something beyond the u l t i  mate p i t of depravity. The stark encounter with e v i l i s an encounter with the depths of themselves and an insight i n t o those with them. For Mountolive, Pursewarden, Justine and Darley, i t i s an experience 120 not immediately understood, because of i t s nearness to the deep inner mysteries. Describing Balthazar, Darley remarks that, i f he had such ugly hands, he would amputate them and throw them i n t o the sea. ( J , p.. 91) Later on, Balthazar attempts to do just that. (C, p. 69) The irony i s almost too heavy here. .It i s Balthazar's story that shows Darley the r e l a t i v e nature of t r u t h and changes the d i r e c t i o n of h i s l i f e and work. Balthazar i s the older, wise man, learned i n the l o r e of science and r e l i g i o n . Darley i s the novice i n l i f e and a r t , but h i s o r i g i n a l manuscript, which Balthazar himself had rendered i n v a l i d , i n s p i r e s Balthazar to s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n . The sage at t h i s time i s i n a state of complete mental and physical degradation, and must be brought back to l i f e by the e f f o r t s of the l e s s e r beings around him. Darley and Balthazar, d i s s i m i l a r though they are, mirror each other's humiliation and r e b i r t h . Balthazar i s responsible f o r the accident which forces Darley to cut o f f Clea's hand, another death and r e b i r t h . The marvellous a r t i f i  c i a l hand leads Clea back to her s e l f . Henry M i l l e r remarks that t h i s hand "resides i n the psyche". (Cor, p. 363) This i s the mind's hand, as the eye i s the mind's eye. Groddeck says that every c e l l and organ of the body has a "consciousness of i n d i v i d u a l i t y " : " i believe the human hand has i t s I, that i t knows what i t does, and knows that i t knows".1 Clea's new hand i s not even r e a l l y part of her, and so i s even more marked a specimen of i n d i v i d u a l i t y , an image of how she,, as the whole i n d i v i d u a l , i s to act. With or without i t s secondary symbolic associations, the hand i s always b a s i c a l l y connected with the 1p. 83. 121 human power to create. Several other mutilations should be mentioned here. Amaril's search f o r the love that w i l l not end i n friendship brings him to '"a p a i r of anonymous hands" and a noseless face. He i s able to create Semira's face, i n fact her whole character, i n h i s own soul-image. (B, p. 196; 202; M, pp. 148 f f . ) Narouz i s p h y s i c a l l y deformed, with a h a r e l i p and ungainly body, and.his outer form suggests inner, since deformity "confers magical powers i n the East". (B, p. 161, 167, 68; M, p. 27) L e i l a ' s smallpox deprives her of both beauty and self-esteem, so that she cannot bear e i t h e r l i t e r a l or metaphorical mirrors. She p r a c t i s e s expressions with her eyes, and i s compared to "a man struck suddenly b l i n d learning to s p e l l with the only member l e f t him, h i s hands". (B, p. 79) Like her l a t e r r i v a l L i z a , L e i l a must learn sen sual s p e l l i n g . The eye and the hand are ways of contacting other selves, and of expressing one's own s e l f and.receiving back the image. This melange of i l l n e s s e s and deformities i s part of the obsess ive preoccupation with one's s e l f to the_exclusion of the outer world and of the outer view of one's s e l f . 122 CHAPTER V: The Landscapes of the Mind A. Alexandria The inner s e l f i s r e f l e c t e d i n the outer physical environment. There are three major settings i n the Alexandrian Quartet. The pre dominant one i s Alexandria as reshaped by D u r r e l l i n t o what George Steiner c a l l s "one of the major monuments of the architecture of the immagination", comparable to Proust's Paris and Joyce's D u b l i n . 1 The other settings are Darley's Aegean Island, which provides the scene f o r a small part of each of Darley's novels, and England, which i s at centre stage only f o r part of Mountolive, but i s always there only two small seas and a continent away. In a prefatory note to Justine and a s i m i l a r one to Balthazar, D u r r e l l states that a l l the characters are imaginary and "only the c i t y i s r e a l " . This seems a straightforward explanation, but i t i s not the whole t r u t h . "Real" does not mean simply " f a c t u a l " , and "inventions" or "imaginary" are not the same as '"ficti o n " . . In these senses, Alexandria i s not " r e a l " . C r i t i c s who have been there i n s i s t that i t i s "not, of course, the Egyptian harbor-city of our ordinary acquaintance . This i s another h a l f - t r u t h , f o r D u r r e l l ' s Alexandria i s c e r t a i n l y close to the f a c t u a l c i t y i n E..M. Forster's guidebook. But perhaps Forster i s a n o v e l i s t ' s cartographer. Past the prefatory note, but s t i l l at the beginning of Balthazar, Darley f i n d s that "the c i t y , half-imagined (yet wholly r e a l ) , begins J-World, p. 18. 2 S t e i n e r , World, p. 18. 123 and ends i n us, roots lodged i n our memory". (B, p. 13) The imagined includes the r e a l , and what i s r e a l about the c i t y i s what i s i n the characters, t h e i r imagined and invented selves. C e c i l y Mackworth says Alexandria i s " i n f l a t e d i n t o the Sadean dream of the unleashed subconscious". 1 The c i t y i s an image of the s e l f , which i s " h a l f - imafcined" because i t i s p a r t l y a product of the mind. It i s " r e a l " as the conterts of consciousness are r e a l . D u r r e l l has given the c i t y a s e l f and a d e f i n i t e p e r s o n a l i t y . This must be where i t parts company from the Alexandria of geography textbooks, and yet the personality i s not purely D u r r e l l ' s invention. A c h i l l e s T a t i u s , wide-eyed at the m u l t i p l i c i t y and i n t r i c a c y of o Alexandria, gave up t r y i n g to f i t i t i n t o categoaes for d e s c r i p t i o n . It has always been a c i t y of mysteries and m u l t i p l i c i t i e s , and l i t e r a l l y a c i t y of mirrors. A great "mirror" or r e f l e c t i n g instrument once was placed above the Pharos lighthouse, and to i t contemporary 3 rumor and subsequent legend a t t r i b u t e d magical powers of perception. Alexandria i s concerned with the inner l i v e s of i t s inhabitants. At times i t i s drawn as a great extra-human force compelling t h e i r a ctions. Dobree quotes Groddeck, *I am l i v e d by the I t * and suggests that Alexan d r i a " l i v e s " i t s people. 4 If t h i s i s so, Alexandria i s t h e i r unleashed subconscious, the secret compulsions, and i s appropriately described with ornaments of mystery, i n t r i g u e and magic. Therefore, a l s o , the J-World, p. 29 2"The Loves of Clitophon and Leucippe", Greek Romances, pp. 435 - 436. A l e x a n d r i a , pp. 145 - 146, 150. Pharos and P a r i l l o n (London, 1961), p. 20T 4World, p. 194. 124 c i t y i s made a motivating f a c t o r i n action: "We are the children of our landscape; i t di c t a t e s behaviour and even thought i n the measure to which we are responsive to i t ' r . ( J , p. 41) This observation i s relat e d to the question of how actions are to be judged. If human beings are to be considered as "part of place", "members of a c i t y " , (B, p. 225) then judgement of any action involves judging the whole h i s t o r y of Alexandria: The c i t y which used us as i t s f l o r a - p r e c i p i t a t e d i n us c o n f l i c t s which were hers and which we mistook f o r our own: beloved Alexandria! ... I see at l a s t that none of us i s properly to be judged f o r what happened i n the past. It i s the c i t y which should be judged, though we, i t s c h i l d r e n , mast pay fhe p r i c e . (<J, p. 13) The c i t y i s responsible f o r the sins of i t s inhabitants. Justine i s "a c h i l d of the c i t y , which decrees that i t s women s h a l l be the volup- t a r i e s not of pleasure but of pain". ( J , p. 47) The human w i l l i s inadequate to contend with Alexandria and must surrender as Antony did , "surrender for-ever to the c i t y he loved". ( J , p. 14) This i s the Alexandria of the f i r s t novel. In Clea, i t i s described as "Alexandria, princess and whore", (p. 63) Antony's princess and whore was a human being, and was, moreover, himself as well as Cleopatra. He was both strong and weak, magnificent and despicable, as Alexandria i s " r o y a l c i t y and anus mundi". This i s true of a l l the Alexandrians, not because they are Alexandrians but because they are men and women. The heightened Gothicism of the environment with i t s juxtaposed p o l a r i  t i e s of pleasure and pain i s not geographical; i t "begins and ends i n us". The "real"Alexandria i s "a shabby l i t t l e seaport town b u i l t upon a sand-reef, a moribund and s p i r i t l e s s backwater". (C_, p. 103) It i s 125 a town of "harsh circumscribed contours", not of unfathomed mystery; i t s inhabitants are "wicked, pleasure-loving" but they are also "un- romantic". (M, p. 154) Cavafy dealt with t h i s problem of the inner and outer Alexandria, and h i s crimes too are blamed on the c i t y : i . i T r a v e l l e r , you w i l l not blame, If Alexandrian, You know the passion Of our l i f e here, the pleasure and the flame. 1 But t h i s i s i l l u s o r y , and i n "The C i t y " , which D u r r e l l quotes, he warns himself not to believe he can escape from the place which torments him: . . .Ah! can you not see How just as your whole l i f e you've spoiled In t h i s one spot, you've ruined i t s worth Everywhere now over the whole earth? ( J , p. 181) E x p l i c a t i n g t h i s poem, P h i l i p Sherrard f i n d s that the poet "himself i s the c i t y from which h i s romanticism tempts him to f l e e ... A l l i t s waste and rottenness i s but a r e f l e c t i o n of (his) own condition .... hi s task now as a poet ... i s to make a myth of that C i t y which i s h i s own c o n d i t i o n " . 2 Forster says that Cavafy, l i k e the Elizabethans, i s singing "My mind to me a kingdom i s " , but Dyer's conventional poetic kingdom i n Cavafy has acquired the unsavoury c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a " r e a l " kingdom subject to mutinies and war. 3 It i s the old microcosm-macrocosm concept, man and universe as mutual mirrors. D u r r e l l ' s Alexandrians have to correct t h e i r maps to relocate Alexandria i n an inner kingdom. At the end of Balthazar, i t i s becom ing evident that the p o s s i b i l i t y of "a new Alexandria" depends on the i'^Tomb of Iases", p. 82. 2The Marble Threshing-Floor, pp. 87, 89. 3Pharos, p. 93. 126 selves which make i t , and that to understand Alexandria i s to come closer to "'self-possession"'. (B_, pp. 242 -243; 236 - 237) Pursewarden t e l l s Darley to think of himself as a "sleeping c i t y " , and Darley comes to think that the destruction of h i s private Alexandria was necessary because his private c i t y i s merely an e f f u s i o n of the mind. ( J , p. 139; B, p. 220) Discovering the t r u t h about the c i t y w i l l reveal t r u t h about himself, "carry me a l i t t l e f u r t h e r ; i n what i s r e a l l y a search f o r my proper s e l f " . (B, p. 226) Like Arnauti, he "pierced the hard banausic s h e l l of Alexandria and discovered himself", because the outward aura of Alexandria i s a creation of the s e l f . (J_, p. 76) F i n a l l y , when Darley and Clea achieve artisthood, they speak of t h e i r new power to act and Create as a r e v e l a t i o n of the "secret landscape", a view of the inner s e l f h i t h e r t o hidden. Alexandria i s a landscape of the mind as a mirror of the uncon scious, and also as a telescope of time. It i s several times c a l l e d "the c a p i t a l of memory". (J , p. 189; p. 11; Cor, pp. 303 - 304) Nothing i n D u r r e l l ' s Alexandria i s allowed to become dead past. Qeopatra i s a potent force s t i l l . She i s the princess and whore, the c i t y i t s e l f and hence part of the secret nature of the s e l f of e i t h e r sex. Even the most u n l i k e l y women seem to be i d e n t i f i e d with her. Justine's dark and imperious passion i s c o n t i n u a l l y reminiscent of the queen. But the gentler Clea and Melissa are both, i n metaphor, baled up and delivered to Caesar. ( J , p. 56; C_, p. 253) Both instances - Darley's f i r s t meeting with Melissa and h i s saving of Clea's l i f e - mark new beginnings and r e b i r t h s . The reuse of the simile underscores Darley's 127 fesLing that he found Clea at the same time and place as he had found Melissa; two contemporary times and time long past are l i n k e d . Men of the present f e e l the coexistence of the past. Darley sees h i s own h i s t o r y as part of the h i s t o r i c a l f a b r i c of the place ( J , p. 190) He cannot at f i r s t respond to l i f e as an i n d i v i d u a l , but seems to be subject to the nonhuman Alexandrian w i l l . But he comes to see that t h i s Alexandria i s somewhere within "the human estate" 7, and that i s where the d i r e c t i n g w i l l resides; "the seeds of future events are c a r r i e d within ourselves". (C, p. 223) As he comes to terms with the personal meaning of time, he t a l k s about the "continuous present, which i s the r e a l h i s t o r y of that c o l l e c t i v e anecdote, the human mind". (C, p. 14) The oneness of h i s t o r i c a l time i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the human race. The c i t y , a habitat of memories, could accommodate the memories of A l i c e ' s looking-glass, which go forward as well as back. It "moves not only backwards in t o our h i s t o r y , studded by the great names which mark every s t a t i o n of recorded time, but also back and f o r t h i n the l i v i n g present". (B, p. 151) The u n i f i e d s e l f , which the Alexandrian i s seeking, can be i n a way p a r a l l e l e d by the u n i f i e d h i s t o r y of Alexandria: It seemed that past and present had joined again without any d i v i s i o n s i n i t , that a l l my memories and impressions had ordered themselves i n t o one complete pattern, whose metaphor was always the shining c i t y of the d i s i n h e r i t e d . (C, p. 91) The c o l l e c t i v e Alexandria i s strangely manifested i n Nessim*s L i o n e l T r i l l i n g comments: What we of Europe and America c a l l the past i s part of Alexandria's actual present". (World, p. 61) Cf. "an environment that brought him i n t o touch with h i s forbears and h i s successors i n time". Ernest Rhys. Romance (New YorkJ 1913), p. 5 128 h i s t o r i c a l dreams, a merger of " h i s past and the c i t y ' s " . (J, pp. 175, 176) Much that i s not e x p l i c i t l y connected with s e t t i n g as such i s "Alexandrian" i n that i t i s concerned with dark and timeless mysteries which seem to have always been the objects of p a r t i c u l a r study i n the c i t y . Forster speaks of the "usual Alexandrian problem - the l i n k i n g up of God and man".1 D u r r e l l has remarked that "from an imaginative point of view Alexandria i s the hinge of our whole C h i i s t i a n c u l t u r e " . 2 It has been a c i t y where people probe i n t o physics and metaphysics, science and i n t r o s p e c t i o n , i n a l l ways the appropriate environment f o r D u r r e l l ' s s e l f - s i c k characters. It i s not that the c i t y has a malignant w i l l which i t forces upon them, but that the t r a d i t i o n a l Alexandria mental climate i s a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r own inner disease. Because t h i s has been the way of Alexandria, or of the idea of Alexandria, since i t s founding, a way of thinking and l i v i n g i n which Cleopatra and the Septuagint were not f a r separated, i t i s a set t i n g f o r a novel demonstrating the rela t i v e n e s s of psychological time. Nessim i s what Wyndham Lewis dubbed a "time-tripper", analagous to "glo b e - t r o t t e r " : For what i s the basis of these new journeys or t r a v e l s i n time? Where do they occur? They occur, of course, i n s i d e the head - that i s where the time-tracts l i e - the region of memory and imagination as opposed to 'matter*. It i s i n short a mental and psychologic world. 3 Lewis quotes Whitehead's phrase "mental climate" which would be the -'-Alexandria, p. 70 2 K n e l l e r Tape, World, p. 168 3,Time and Western Man, pp. 258 - 259. Lewis's i t a l i c s . 129 only climate for' a landscape of the mind. 1 D u r r e l l i s putting himself i n the t r a d i t i o n of Alexandrian romance l i t e r a t u r e . Heliodorus's E t h i o p i c s i s a polyphonic narrative of i n t r i c a t e time sequences, narrated by various reminiscing characters a l l of whom are ignorant of some aspect of t h e i r narrative; and t e l l s of the incest of Cnemon and Demaeneta, the r i v a l r y of the brothers Thysmis and Pelorus, the contrast of a f a i r maid and a dark lady,and a search f o r a l o s t c h i l d ; and discourses on love as a malady. Each of these points of technique or theme has a p a r a l l e l i n the Quart e t . A c h i l l e s T a t i u s T s Clitopho and,Leucippe i s another story of the love disease, including a pathetic homosexual love and a d e s c r i p t i o n of "the celebrated c i t y of A l e x a n d r i a " ; 2 Lucius Apuleius was Brother Ass long before Darley, and Theocritus* F i f t e e n t h Idyl describes l i f e i n the Greek Quarter of A l e x a n d r i a . 4 D u r r e l l wrote a poem "*"cf. Wallace Steven's "Crude Foyer": That there l i e s at the end of thought A foyer of the s p i r i t i n a landscape Of the mind, i n which we s i t And wear humanity's bleak crown. • • • .... since we know that we use Only the eye as f a c u l t y , that the mind Is the eye, and that t h i s landscape of the mind Is a landscape only of the eye. i n Oscar Williams, ed. A L i t t l e Treasurey of Modern Poetry, p. 184. Note also Forster's p r a c t i c e i n h i s books on Alexandria of describing both past and present features of a given s i t e , because the past features are often thought of as though s t i l l to be seen. 2Heliodorus, Tatius and Longus are i n Greek Romances.  3The Golden Asse (London: Abbey L i b r a r y , undated) 4 F o r s t e r , Alexandria, p. 35. 130 about Longus's Daphnis and Chloe, and sang t h e i r praises while s t e e r  ing a d i l a p i d a t e d car around a Greek p r e c i p i c e i n a storm, with a nervous Henry M i l l e r by h i s s i d e . 1 It would seem a question whether D u r r e l l i s doing something new with the novel or whether he i s doing • something very old indeed, a pre-novel comedy of confused i d e n t i t i e s and inbred passions. The s p e c i a l character of love i n Alexandria (e.g. M, p. 193) l i n k s two images tof the s e l f : the lover and the landscape. Mountolive and L e i l a have an e s p e c i a l l y geographical love. They are i n a sense England and Egypt loving and leaving each other. But the metaphor has a wider a p p l i c a t i o n , or perhaps "deeper" i s a more accurate word. L e i l a i s Egypt, at f i r s t because she and the country share a romantic a l l u r e f o r the young Englishman; l a t e r because "she represented some thing l i k e a second, almost mythical image of r e a l i t y which he was experiencing, expropriating day by day". (M, pp. 147 - 148) His r e l a  t i o n to her i s the "psychic meaning" of Egypt f o r h i s own inner M f e . He has to break with her and hence with Egypt, to know himself and "come of age" as Darley does. It i s "a puberty of the f e e l i n g s which had to be outgrown". (M, pp. 274 - 275) He repeats the name "Egypt" as i f i t were the name of a woman.(M, p. 12) Egypt has never been separate from the women and men who have l i v e d there: Antony too was "dying, Egypt, dying". 2 In a c i t y where people search f o r t h e i r selves, a woman who explores and e x p l o i t s the passions becomes a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the c i t y . L e i l a i s l e s s spectacular, perhaps, than •••Miller, The Colossus of Maroussi (New York, 1958), p. 216. 2Antony IV. i i , 42. 131 Justine or Cleopatra, but she performs d r a s t i c experiments with the hearts and minds of Mountolive, her sons and her husband. Even her physical features are described as. i f they were those of the environ ment and her ruined beauty resembles "a f a m i l i a r landscape blown up", (M, p. 56) Writing of Justine, Darley says, "A c i t y becomes a world when one loves one of i t s inhabitants". ( J , p. 63) The c i t y and world are seen i n the l i g h t of one's own passions, as an image of the s e l f . Later, of Clea, he again writes, "When you are.in.love with one. of i t s inhabitants a c i t y can become a world. A whole.new geography of Alexand±ia was born through Clea ... a new h i s t o r y ... a new biography to replace the old one". (C, pp. 228 - 229) It i s a new time and a new place, but i t i s also the same place, and i n terms o f . p a r t i c u l a r . emotions, the same time; i t i s a rearrangement. Alexandria's surroundings, apart from the archetypal sea, are the desert, a place of mirage and the lake, a place of r e f l e c t i o n s . Lake Mareotis i s continually described as a mirror or as an eye (B, pp. 22, 151 - 152; "Mareotis:, P_, p. 33; "Conon i n Alexandria," P_, p. 92). It i s an image of the r e f l e c t i o n , perceiver, perception and perceived i n one. The c a r n i v a l f i g u r e s i n the l o n e l i n e s s and stagnation of t h e i r anguished selves are compared to Mareotis, "a dead brackish lake surrounded by the s i l e n t unjudging, wide-eyed desert under a dead moon" (B_, p. 201) Deep waters of the s e l f are swampy and motionless i n a context of uncom mitted emptiness, requiring a decision and act of w i l l . 1 "*-An i r r e s i s t i b l e but perhaps i r r e l e v a n t comparison might be made with the f a n t a s t i c landscape of the mind i n JJR.R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings, which concerns a war of w i l l s , a b a t t l e against per- s o n i f i e d nightmares, a contrast of white and dark f i g u r e s . In R i v e n d e l l , "Time doesn't seem to pass here: i t just i s " . I p. 243) A s i m i l a r sensation i s experienced i n Lorien, where G a l a d r i e l ' s magic mirror r e f l e c t s past, present, or future without i n d i c a t i n g wh i ch. 132 B. Greece "The bright, looking-glass world of Greece" i s Gerald D u r r e l l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the i s l a n d to which h i s brother transplanted him. 1 When Lawrence D u r r e l l ' s protagonist leaves Alexandria f o r Greece, he i s s t i l l i n A l i c e ' s world, and the r e f l e c t i o n becomes clearer f o r the move away from the object. It i s during h i s f i r s t stay on h i s Aegean i s l a n d that Darley learns of the other views of h i s own story and f i t s them i n t o the context of h i s memories. During h i s second stay, he f i n d s himself as an a r t i s t and a man, who can create and act. D u r r e l l ' s three t r a v e l books and many poems about Greece are added testimony to the looking—glass q u a l i t y o f the country, e s p e c i a l l y the i s l a n d s with the sea to c l a r i f y the image. The landscape i s a " l i v i n g eye" which seems to perceive i t s e l f , as the human inner eye i s to perceive i t s e l f : "Nowhere else has there ever been a land scape so aware of i t s e l f , conforming so marvellously to the dimensions of human existence". (PC, p. 131) Rank pict u r e s the Greek standing f i r m l y upon the ground, not under i t l i k e the Egyptian buried i n h i s own depths, or above i t l i k e the C h r i s t i a n . 2 This clear-eyed view of things i s offered to the wanderer: "Other countries may o f f e r you discoveries i n manners or l o r e or land scape; Greece o f f e r s you something harder - the discovery of yourself". (PC, p. 11) M i l l e r on Rhodes found that the Greeks "brought me face to face with myself, they cleansed me of hatred and j e a l o u s l y and envy. 1My Family and Other Animals, p. 18 2 p . 1 4 6 . 3 Colossus, p. 210 . 133 Greece puts one in t o r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s with one's s e l f and with others. Greece completes the " e l i m i n a t i o n " of time, f o r the past that i s present here i s not only h i s t o r i c past, but a mythological past, somehow evident i n the appearance of objects i n the landscape. (PC, p. 59) Aware of the war encroaching on the i s l a n d , and of i t s expression of man's fte&jr of l i f e , Darley senses the presence of the "ol d dark gods" i n t h e i r natural habitat "forever s i t e d i n the huaan wish" and undaunted by mechanised man. (C, p. 274) C. England T r a v e l , D u r r e l l says i n B i t t e r Lemons (p. 15) i s "one of the most rewarding forms of i n t r o s p e c t i o n " . In The Dark Labyrinth, he adds that t r a v e l i s "an outward symbol of an inward march upon r e a l i t y " , (p. 59) " R e a l i t y " i s sought i n Alexandria and found i n Greece. Alexandria i s a " r e a l " c i t y , because i t deals with the depths and labyrinths of the human s e l f . The "unreal c i t y " i s the c a p i t a l of the wasteland where people deal i n s u p e r f i c i a l i t i e s and lose contact with themselves and t h e i r dark gods. This i s the s i t e of the "English death", which haunts D u r r e l l through a l l h i s w r i t i n g s , including h i s l e t t e r s (e.g. BB, p. 105). Mountolive has been "educated not to wish to f e e l " , but to believe that "to love was absurd, l i k e being knocked o ff the mantelpiece". (M, pp. 18 - 19) This p a r a l y s i s , which i s l i k e a death, separates western man from himself. He refuses to acknowledge the dark gods and t h e i r beauty, to "come to terms with (his) own human obscenity". (M, p. 63) In " C i t i e s , P l a i n s and People" D u r r e l l goes "To the prudish 134 c l i f f s and the sad green home/Of Pudding Island o'er the V i c t o r i a n foam". (P, p.136) Pursewarden puts t h i s i n p o l i t i c a l terms to explain the B r i t i s h weakness on Egypt as a los s of "the basic power to act", and t h i s i s true on an i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l also (M, p. 103). England i s part of the selves of D u r r e l l and h i s characters - Darley, Pursewarden, Mountolive - and i t s unrealness leaves incomplete t h e i r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with themselves. Pursewarden therefore thinks of home with regret and r e v u l s i o n . (M, p. 161) England too i s a " r i t u a l landscape". (M, p. 94) Pursewarden, L i z a and Mountolive celebrate Blake's birthday by walzing i n Trafalgar Square, a t r i b u t e to two heroes of the r e a l , not-dead England (M, pp. 66 - 67; see also "A Ballad of the Good Lord Nelson", i n Williams's L i t t l e Treasury of Modern Poetry, p. 733) , 1 Between the points of D u r r e l l ' s compass i s the sea: A t l a n t i c , Mediterranean, Aegean. To discuss the impl i c a t i o n s , obvious and po s s i b l e , of the immersion i n water, the journey by water and under-water, 2 and r e b i r t h from water, i s beyond the scope of t h i s paper. •'-A study of Nelson as a symbol of what the English could and should be, might begin with D u r r e l l ' s "Ballad", the scene i n T r a f algar Square and Pursewarden's comment about Emma (M, p. 65). In "Epilogue i n Alexandria", i n Prospero's C e l l s i g h t l e s s Pharos reminds D u r r e l l of Nelson. Gerald D u r r e l l r e  c a l l s a c h i l d i s h v i s i o n of Nelson as a bird-watcher. (My Family, pp. 64 - 65) Compare with these: Charles Morgan's essay on Nelson i n R e f l e c t i o n s , Second Series (pp. 177 - 184); Forster's d e s c r i p t i o n of the B a t t l e of the N i l e (Alexandria, p. 92); references to Nelson i n M e l v i l l e ' s novels and s t o r i e s ; Noyes's "Admirals A l l " , because even here i t i s Nelson's impudent d i s  obedience which makes him a hero; Shaw's note to Caesar and Cleo- patra; Aldous Huxley's short story "Happily Ever A f t e r " , Robert Grave's poem "1805". ^There are various Alexandrian r e b i r t h s : of Darley, Clea, Balthazar, Semira, Scobie-El Scob, Nessim, Nessim's daughter, Justine, C a p o d i s t r i a . 135 I s h a l l therefore only mention the importance of water as a symbol i n i t s own r i g h t i n the Alexandrian Quartet. It i s part of the sym b o l i c landscape, and of one version of the mirror of Narcissus. Darley t r a v e l s across i t to h i s times of r e v e l a t i o n i n Greece and plunges i n t o i t when Clea's accident forces him i n t o action: " i t was as i f I were f o r the f i r s t time confronting myself - or perhaps an a l t e r ego shaped a f t e r a man of action I had never r e a l i z e d , recognised". (C, p. 249) The s e l f meets the s e l f and becomes mobile, out of the "shark- in f e s t e d seasuof love", changed into"something r i c h and strange". (M, P. 172) CHAPTER VII: Conclusion: Time and the Heraldic Universe At the end of Justine, Darley wonders "whether these pages record the actions of r e a l human beings; or whether t h i s i s not simply the story of a few inanimate objects which p r e c i p i t a t e d drama around them - I mean a black patch, a green f i n g e r s t a l l , a watch-key, and a couple of dispossessed wedding-rings". ( J , p. 245) The objects appear and r e  appear at various points i n the t e t r a l o g y , as part of the immediate scene and also as bearers of i m p l i c a t i o n and associations not a r t i c u l a t e d but somehow conveyed by the.substantial existence of the thing: Capodis- t r i a ' s black patch, by which Justine recognizes her ravisher and which preshadows Nessim's p a r t i a l b linding; Justine's green r i n g which onee be longed to a p r e h i s t o r i c prince and which Toto wears at c a r n i v a l the night of h i s murder; Balthazar's watch-key, the l o s t key to the nature of time and the secret of Justine; the wedding-rings Melissa never used. Each suggests a l s o more truths and p o s s i b i l i t i e s attached to the object. These four objects reduce to i t s simplest terms D u r r e l l ' s system 136 of what must be c a l l e d "symbolism"" f o r want of a better name, a m u l t i  p l i c i t y of connotations. The mirror becomes a metaphor f o r a l l the objects, i n c l u d i n g , as well as the tangible things, the l i n k s between persons, the a t t i t u d e s of persnns to things. No matter what the Alexandrian looks at, he sees himself and an image of h i s r e l a t i o n to himself, to the object and to the world around him. D u r r e l l and Pursewarden t a l k about the "Heraldic Universe", a concept which describes the i n t e r a c t i o n i n i n f o l d i n g a simultaneously inner and outer narrative held together by these recurrent objects and events. D u r r e l l ' s use of the word " h e r a l d i c " i s e s s e n t i a l l y the usual one, and he i s not f a r from l i o n s rampant and bars s i n i s t e r : . . . i n Heraldry the object i s used i n an emotive and a f f e c t i v e sense - s t a t i c a l l y to body f o r t h or u t t e r : not as a v i c t i m of description. The Heraldic Universe i s that t e r r i t o r y of experience i n which the symbol e x i s t s - as opposed to the emblem or badge, which are the ch i l d r e n of algebra and s u b s t i t u t i o n . 1 The h e r a l d i c device i s not just a sign of something; i t i s the organic embodiment of something, a way of expressing an i d e a l , an intent, an awareness of past and future. The l i o n prowling about the jungle i s the h e r a l d i c l i o n long before he appears on a royal standard. The majesty and the power are i n him, the r e a l l i o n . He embodies h i s h e r a l d i c meaning; he does not a r b i t r a r i l y "stand f o r " something as an emblem may. Objects, places and persons are not merely described i n the Alexandrian Quartet. Emotively, suggestively and even i n t e l l e c t u a l l y l-Durrell i n Personal Landscape, quoted by Stanford, World, p. 40. 137 they " u t t e r " something. Hence, as we have seen, a street scene i n Alexandria i s also a scene i n the inner l i v e s of the people on the st r e e t . Hence also, the purple passages of de s c r i p t i o n are f u n c t i o n a l , and t h e i r richness t e s t i f i e s to the texture of psychic and physical experience. Pursewarden exclaims, "Symbolism! the abbreviation of the language i n t o poem. The h e r a l d i c aspect of r e a l i t y ! " (C_, p. 137) Scattered instances of people gazing i n t o mirrors suggest as much as many pages of tortured d i d a c t i c i s m about the inversion of the modern s e l f ; thus, the symbol abbreviates language. But these are also r e a l , not metaphorical mirrors i n the context of the na r r a t i v e , and t h i s r e a l i t y i s h e r a l d i c . D u r c e l l i s not doing anything r a d i c a l l y new i n t h i s respect. The s c h o l a s t i c i n s i s t e d that the "symbol" was the thing i t s e l f and not the a r t i s t ' s representation of i t . The r e a l lamb baa ing out i n the f i e l d was a symbol of Chr i s t ; God made h i s own symbolism. As Groddeck says, "Symbols are not invented; they are there and hence belong to the i n a l i e n a b l e estate of man . Again, as i f to support D u r r e l l on the abbreviation of language, he explains: It i s impossible f o r anyone to express t r u t h of t h i s sort i n words, f o r i t i s imagery, symbol, and the symbol cannot be spoken. It l i v e s and we are l i v e d by i t , one can only use words that are indeterminate and vague. 2 Gerald Sykes points out that when D u r r e l l employs r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s , which he does everywhere, "he i s always looking beneath them f o r the archetypal beauty they conceal". 3 1 p . 89. 2 p . 242. 3World, p. 153. 138 The h e r a l d i c approach becomes a way of l i f e , as well as a way of a r t , f o r i t d i r e c t s D u r r e l l ' s n o n - f i c t i o n as much as i t does h i s f i c t i o n and poetry. Describing the personal meaning of Greece, he speaks of "the symbol married to the object prime", another way of meaning that the r e a l thing i s the symbol, and goes on to i l l u s t r a t e : "a cypress t r e e , a mask, an orange, a plough were extended beyond them selves i n t o an e t e r n a l i t y they enjoyed only with the f u r n i t u r e of a l l good poetry". (MV, p. 179) Reflections on a Marine Venus i s a f a c t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n of Rhodes, yet here he i s t a l k i n g about symbolism and poetry, f i n d i n g , i n f a c t , books i n the running brooks. Art makes "sudden raids on the i n a r t i c u l a t e " , shaping "a preserving Heraldic structure". (Cor, p. 203) The a r t i s t makes a l i t t l e h e r a l d i c universe, the real-symbolic structure of which i s a r e a l symbol of the outer Heraldic Universe. As a creator and an active exerciser of the w i l l , the a r t i s t creates himself i n the irqge of the Creator and h i s art i n h i s own image, and then i s open to the charge of cosmic presumption. The Heraldic Universe i s a system of hinged mirrors, i n which inner s e l f and outer world r e f l e c t each other, and one s e l f and another s e l f , creator and creation, microcosm and macrocosm. The r e s u l t i n g m u l t i p l i c i t y of viewpoint i s bewildering. Clea says, "You have to be f a i t h f u l to your angle of v i s i o n , and at the same time f u l l y recognize i t s p a r t i a l i t y " . (C, p. 120) One must f i n d or create one's own s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o other selves and to a whole. In everything, one can see r e f l e c t e d truths about oneself, cluesto i t s nature, but to see only that and look f o r only that i s to f i n d only a p a r t i a l symbol and ignore the object i n i t s r e a l i t y . Clea's statement implies the necessity of r e a l i -139 zing the p o s s i b i l i t y of other angles of v i s i o n . The thing to do, as Norman Douglas's Caloveglia advises, i s "externalize y o u r s e l f " . 1 Balthazar, preaching from the Cabbala, urges the Alexandrians to look outward i n order to f i n d what i s inward, to "discover har monies i n space and time which corresponded to the inner structure of t h e i r own psyches". The perception of s e l f i s not the f i n a l end; i t i s to be placed i n the context of the one, a u n i f i e d s e l f r e f l e c t  ing a u n i f i e d a l l , and t h i s includes everything i n the symbolic world. "We are e n l i s t i n g everything i n order to make man's wholeness match the wholeness of the universe". ( J , p. 100) Because "everything" includes "the destructive granulation of the mind i n pleasure", the s i n i s t e r side of Alexandria i s also a r e f l e c t i n n of the s e l f , the Sadean subconscious, and the "pleasure" i s not always "pleasant", as Balthazar's own degradation shows. E v i l i s included, i s perhaps necessary, as the epigraph to Clea i n s i s t s : "The primary and most b e a u t i f u l of Nature's q u a l i t i e s i s motion, which ... i s conserved by means of crimes alone". 2 This oneness of s e l f and nonself and universe and object and pleasure and pain and good and e v i l i s also i m p l i c i t i n D u r r e l l ' s treatment of time. In the Key to Modern Poetry, he wrote: "Time and the ego are the two determinants of s t y l e f o r the twentieth cen tury", (p. 117) The two determinants are two ways of looking at the drive towards "the symbolic act of j o i n i n g what i s separated", an act encouraged by two of D u r r e l l ' s textbooks, the theory of r e l a t i - 1South Wind (New York, 1925), p. 174 2quoted from Sade, c f . : "I have discovered myself, while thinking of crime, while surrendering to i t , or just a f t e r having executed i t " . Crime i s compared with sexual pleasure as an a f f e c t i v e and revelatory f o r c e . Sade, Justine, p. 261. 140 v i t y and the Cabballa:: '"it i s important to r e a l i z e that E i n s t e i n ' s theory joined up subject and object, i n very much the same way as i t joined up space and time". (Key, p. 26) Heraldry expressed the sym bolism of ages i n a s p a t i a l arrangement of objects, and t h i s i s akin to D u r r e l l ' s arrangement of events i n the Quartet. E a r l y i n h i s career, he explained: But what I am t r y i n g to i s o l a t e i s the exact moment of creation, i n which the maker seems to exist h e r a l d i c a l l y . That i s to say, time as a concept does not e x i s t , but only as an a t t r i b u t e of matter - decay, growth, etc. In that sense then, i t must be memoryless. (Cor, p. 23) D u r r e l l remarks that t h i s does not seem clear even to himself, but i t does hint at the nature of time as i t evolves i n the Quartet. This i s time as i t i s f o r the creator, whether he i s creating art or creating a s e l f . It i s the "order of the imagination" which i s "not that of memory" because the imagination i s timeless. (B, p. 225; BB, p. 59) To c a l l again upon paradox: the imagination i s timeless be cause i t includes a l l time i n an archetypal moment. The a r t i s t as myth-maker i s part of the mythmaking imagination of the race. His time i s "memoryless" because i t i s simultaneous rather than chrono l o g i c a l . Time as decay, growth, mutability, "an a t t r i b u t e of matter" does e x i s t , and the Alexandrians change with age, but tb.isi;time i s not a cosmological force. It i s simply part of the functioning of l i v i n g things on t h i s planet. So the Trumans i n The Dark Labyrinth lose a l l sense of time, and also f i n d t h e i r l i f e regulated by the change of season. The only time which e x i s t s i s a c y c l i c process, returning always " i n a gingle unlaboured GDntyinuum".. ("At S t r a t i ' s " , J?, p. 22) 141 The universe, l i k e a h e r a l d i c pattern, i s a s p a t i a l arrangement and disarrangement. Pursewarden says: "The symbolism contained i n form and pattern i s only a frame of reference through which, as i n a mirror, one may glimpse the idea of a universe at r e s t , a universe- i n love with i t s e l f " . (C, p. 143) The work of art i s a he r a l d i c de sign, r e f l e c t i n g the unive r s a l h e r a l d i c pattern, and the i n d i v i d u a l s e l f f i n d s i n the universe a r e f l e c t i o n of i t s own s e l f - l o v e and d i s i n c l i n a t i o n to acti o n . But the s e l f has to exist i n r e l a t i o n to other selves and as a part of a t o t a l i t y , whereas the "universe" (in the sense which would include a l l p a r t i c u l a r "universes".) i s the t o t a l i t y , complete i n i t s e l f and not r e l a t i v e to any other equivalent being. The love of the One must therefore be a s e l f - l o v e , but t h i s s e l f - l o v e i s f r u i t f u l and from i t emanates a l l c r e a t i o n . 1 Individual love, on the other hand, to be f r u i t f u l must turn outward, to j o i n with other selves i n a cosmic addition, the sum of which i s One. The universe i s r e l a t i v e not to equals but to i t s components, It r e f l e c t s i t s e l f i n a macrocosmic system of mirrors, some of them t r i c k mirrors, some d i s t o r t e d , each giving the image i n a glass darkly, because only p a r t i a l l y . At the end of Clea, a f t e r the major problems of the Quartet have apparently been resolved, D u r r e l l hands us a l i s t of "workpoints", suggesting new developments of the story and new angles of r e f l e c t i o n .. One can never quite assimilate a l l the facets of the uni v e r s a l prism. D u r r e l l ' s Alexandria i s a mirror of t h i s prism and the Alexandrians a mirror of ourselves within i t . Forster, Alexandria, pp. 70 - 73. 142 APPENDIX Alexandria and Arcadia: D u r r e l l as an Elizabethan I admit to having 'Elizabethanized'; I d e l i b e r a t e l y selected crude material f o r the job. And t r i e d to say that l i f e i s r e a l l y an a r t i s t i c problem, a l l men being sleeping a r t i s t s . 1 The concept of the "Elizabethan" has a p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e fo r D u r r e l l and f o r the form and the content of h i s work. He f i n d s i n the l i t e r a t u r e of that period an "enormous range of f e e l i n g ... from the utmost v u l g a r i t y and bawdy to the greatest d e l i c a c y , sophis tication, and refinement", a c o a l i t i o n of bawdry and tenderness, and attempts too produce a s i m i l a r range of f e e l i n g i n h i s Quartet. (Young, P. 66) The Black Book frequently e x p l o i t s the Elizabethan a l l u s i o n (e.g. p. 48) and Gregory l i k e s to compare h i s dark soul to that of a character from Tourneur or Marston. (pp. 40 - 41, 53. "Elizabethan" includes "Jacobean".) The t i t l e suggests Robert Greenes The Black Bookes Messenger, i n which Greene promises a "Black Book" which apparently does not m a t e r i a l i z e , remaining a possible catalogue of possible crimes. In Gregory's l i b r a r y , the narrator seeks another such mysterious volume: "But where i s the Black Book - that r e p o s i  tory f o r a l l the uncut gems of creation?" (p. 197) Pursewarden i n D u r r e l l ' s Justine mentions the Elizabethan capacity f o r "rude health, ordure, the natural and the funny". ( J , p. 116) This and Tourneur*s darkness suggest a willingness to look Kneller Tape, World, p. 167. 143 at various facets of human nature, to come to terms with one's own obscenity. D u r r e l l ' s l a t e s t work, The I r i s h Faustus, i s again Elizabethan-minded and makes important use of Marlow^s Doctor Faustus. Groddeck claims that the Renaissance marked the beginning i n art of an excessive i n t e r e s t i n the exploration of the p e r s o n a l i t y . 1 Rank sees i n the same age the emergence of the i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t type, the genius as a s e l f , freed from the c o l l e c t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y of the 9 Middle Ages. The Elizabethan begins to be interested i n the p o l a r i t i e s of human nature and i n the analysis of the s e l f , both Alexandrian pre occupations. Sidney's Arcadia, from which I s h a l l draw most of my examples, frequently resembles D u r r e l l ' s Quartet i n structure and m o t i f . 3 The n a r r a t i v e does not proceed along a straight l i n e , but doubles back, jumps ahead, becomes entangled. P l o t s , subplots and counterplots i n  terrupt each other. There are a number of narrators, whose reminis cences bring past events to the present; each of these has a d i f f e r e n t viewpoint and sometimes the s t o r i e s are contradictory. The story, even i f t o l d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , i s immensely complicated. Like the Alexandria  Quartet, i t deals with r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and the l i n e s of attachment cross and recross i n a great multiple love a f f a i r including a l l kinds of love, respectable and i l l i c i t . The point of view s h i f t s , and what seems to be true i s not necess a r i l y so. Euarchus's decision and solemn speech near the end of the book 1pp. 61, 65. 2pp. 19, 24. 3The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia (London, 1907), hereafter abbreviated as A. ( A l l references w i l l be given i n my t e x t ) . 144 appear to be a u t h o r i t a t i v e and conclusive, but turn out to be mistaken. How i s one to view Amphialus, who i s a v i l l a i n i n that he opposes the heroes, but i s almost a t r a g i c f i g u r e i n h i s vain love and f r u i t l e s s v i c t o r i e s ? Sidney and D u r r e l l both mix motives, so that there i s sometimes l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n between such apparently distant forces as love and p o l i t i c s . Euarchus urges B a s i l i u s to resume actio n , because h i s p a r a l y  s i s i s bad f o r the state. But f o r B a s i l i u s , as f o r Mountolive, the need f o r p o l i t i c a l a ction i s i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up with the p o s s i b i l i t y of ac t i o n inward among h i s own emotions. Both the Quartet and the Arcadia end with suggestions for possible new developments, threads of the story that might be picked up and woven in t o something. Commenting on the Arcadia, J . J . Jusserand finds "no reason why i t should ever end"'.''" In the Black Book, D u r r e l l describes the novel he plans to write as "something without beginning, something which w i l l never end, but conclude only when i t has reached i t s own genesis again: very, w e l l , a piece of l i t e r a r y perpetual motion", (p. 69) John Untermecker, i n a review of The I r i s h Faustus says of D u r r e l l ' s technique that he "drives h i s hero through melodramatic adventures, spectacular confrontations, and desperate emotional c r i s e s - a l l of which i n the long run reduce to nothing more nor l e s s than the p a i n f u l process of s e l f - d i s c o v e r y " . 2 This i s what he has done i n the Alexandria Quartet, and i t i s what Sidney does i n the Arcadia. 1The E n g l i s h Novel i n the Time of Shakespeare, (London, 1901) p. 254. 2Saturday Review, (March 21, 1964) p. 43. 145 The mirror image i s important, e s p e c i a l l y the r e f l e c t i o n i n water with i t s reminder of Narcissus, (e.g. A, pp. 11, 211, 178, 179) This image i s a decoration more conventional than symbolic. Yet the whole Arcadia i s a contrapuntal treatment of Narcissus's problems, the Alexandrian f a s c i n a t i o n with the composition of one's s e l f . The Arcadians (the characters of the book, not merely the c i t i z e n s of that state) play dangerous games with t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s . The two heroes are i n disguise, or rather, disguise-within-disguise, most of the book and the sham character often seems to have a being of i t s own. Dorus the shepherd, and, even.more, Zelmane the Amazon, do not always eeem the same as Musidorus ;and Pyrocles. Besides these i n t e r n a l multiple-mirrors, the two f r i e n d s mirror each other. The best of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s "the coupling of souls i n t h i s mutuality .. from whence he s h a l l be sure to receive a sweet r e f l e c t i o n of the same joy, and, as i n a clear mirror of sincere goodness, see a l i v e l y picture of h i s own gladness", (p. 452. c f . "the glass of her own misery", p. 92) Musidorus says theywere made "more l i k e than the likeness of a l l other v i r t u e s , and ... more near one to the other than the nearness of t h e i r blood could aspire i n t o " , (p. 157) Their friendship i s mirrored i n the closeness of the two s i s t e r s whom they love. The s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n  ship, as i n D u r r e l l , i s anbther way of r e f l e c t i n g . The other as a mirror of oneself i s therefore a s i g n i f i c a n t motif: f o r instance, " h i s kindness i s a glass even to my b l i n d eyes of my naughtiness", (p. 173) Note also the phenomenon of s i g h t l e s s sight. Dorus sings of the s e l f reduced to the status of a mere r e f l e c t i o n of something which belongs to othersr 146 Such weight i t hath; which once i s f u l l possess'd, That 1 become a v i s i o n , Which hath i n others held h i s only being, And l i v e s i n fancy seeing, 0 wretched state of man i n s e l f - d i v i s i o n j l (p. 102) The word "mirror' 1 has a double denotation. Besides the "looking- glass", i t may r e f e r to a "pattern", a r e f l e c t i o n of the i d e a l . P h i l o - clea c a l l s Pyrocles the "mirror of mankind", not because he i s merely t y p i c a l or a r e f l e c t i o n of a l l men, but because he i s the pattern of what men ought to be. (p. 481) In t h i s sense, "mirror" suggests the r e f l e c t i o n not only of the present s e l f but also of the s e l f which one i s s t r i v i n g to become. Perhaps p a r t l y f o r t h i s reason, Arcadians and most characters i n Elizabethan f i c t i o n are very conscious of art and poetry and of themselves as works of art; hence the many occasional songs and eclogues i n the Arcadia, and also the s e l f - s a t i r e i n Mopsa's t a l e of romance (p. 199) and the conventional love song "My true love hath my heart", followed by the burlesque "0 words which f a l l " , (p. 466) In t h i s s p i r i t , Lodge's Rosalynde and Alinda c r i t i c i s e t h e i r lovers* poems.2 D u r r e l l i s c o n t i n u a l l y concerned with the problems of art and a r t i s t and d e l i b e r a t e l y comments on h i s own s t y l e (B_, p. 44) He too i n j e c t s poetry i n t o the body of h i s novel: Pursewarden's poem to L i z a and h i s shaving-mirror doggrell, quotations from Cavafy, Scobie's j a z z tune. J-For the lover as a mirror of h i s beloved c f . Gascoigne: "behold my wan cheeks washed i n woe, that therein my s a l t teares may be a myrrour to represent youre own shadow, and that l i k e unto Narcissus you may bee constrayned to kisse the cold waves wherein your counterfeit i s so l i v e l y portrayed". A Hundreth Sundrie  Flowres (University of Missouri Studies, 1942) p. 54. .V: 2Rosalynde (London, 1902). 147 D u r r e l l has made some comments on the r e l a t i o n of the Elizabethan a r t i s t to the hero of h i s creation, a r e l a t i o n which turns out to be another mirror of the s e l f . His example i s Hamlet, 1 which evidently follows i t s own advice i n holding a mirror up to nature. D u r r e l l sees the play as "a perfect picture of the inner struggle, done i n terms of the outer one. .. a marvellous p i c t u r e of psychic and s o c i a l d isorganisation i n an i n d i v i d u a l " , This disorganization of microcosm and macrocosm i s also Sidney's subject; h i s conclusion i s not t r a g i c because i t i s the correct happy ending f o r a romantic comedy, but the conclusion which l o g i c a l l y a r i s e s from h i s picture of human nature i s a c y n i c a l one. D u r r e l l suggests that Harilet's problem i s the problem of modern England, e s p e c i a l l y as presented by Lawrence. Mistaken i d e a l  ism causes a r e c o i l from the r e a l . Since Marlowe, a r t i s t s have been t r y i n g to turn the wheel back to "the p r e - g l a c i a l age when dung was dung and angels were angels". (Cor, pp. 26 - 27) Arcadia and E l s i n o r e , as well as Alexandria, are maps of what the a r t i s t f i n d s i n the land scape of h i s mind. Otto Rank sees Hamlet as the type of the modern hero who i s not a hero i n the c l a s s i c a l sense, but a representation of the poet as a type, who has rejected the heroic r o l e and i s checked i n h i s w i l l e d action so that h i s words achieve nothing. Hamlet i s the "godfather of the thought-obstructed n e u r o t i c " . 2 Perhaps Prufrock i s Prince Hamlet, a f t e r a l l . D u r r e l l ' s a r t i s t s also are checked by an inner entanglement, but they break through, and turn art and a r t i s t outward. -'•Cecily Mackworth observes that " E l s i n o r e has a good deal i n common with Mr. D u r r e l l ' s Alexandria". World, p. 27. 2 A r t and A r t i s t , pp. 296, 333. 148 Elizabethan love does violence to the i d e n t i t i e s of the lo v e r s . Musidorus accused, "But 0 love,, i t i s thou that does i t ; thou changest name upon name; thou disguisest our bodies, and d i s f i g u r i s t our minds". (p. 91) The love r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a complex of paradoxes, as i t i s i n Alexandria, where the lover sees himself i n h i s loved one, but must also r e a l i s e that she sees h e r s e l f i n him. The r e s u l t must be both increased knowledge of oneself and increased turning outward, away from the s e l f . Sidney's d e s c r i p t i o n of the b l i s s of Argalus and Parthenia contains s u f f i c i e n t paradoxes f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n : a happy couple, he joying i n her, she joying i n h e r s e l f , but i n h e r s e l f , because she enjoyed him: both increased t h e i r r u l e s by giving to each other; each making one l i f e double, because they made a double l i f e onej where desire never wanted s a t i s f a c t i o n , nor s a t i s f a c t i o n ever bred s a t i e t y ; he r u l i n g , because she would obey, or rather because she would obey, he ther e i n r u l i n g . (p, 352) There i s danger i n the mirror of love, that the i d e n t i t y of r e f l e c t o r and r e f l e c t e d be excessive and become possession. Love has the power to "transform the very essence of the lover i n t o the thing loved, u n i t i n g , and, as i t were, incorporating i t with a secret and inward working". The danger i s that love of a woman may "womanize" a man. (p. 60) This i s i n fact what happens to Pyrocles, and the womanizatinn has to be overcome before he can f i n a l l y win the woman he loves. The conventions of Elizabethan and pre-Elizabethan romance have t h e i r place i n D u r r e l l ' s world. Nessim, f o r instance, i s ref e r r e d to as a knight, a "c h e v a l i e r sans peur", "Prince Nessim" (B, pp. 58 - 59; M, p. 194), but i n the 149 anti-romantic contexts of an indictment of the idea of love ("formed i n the fragmented psyche of European man ... a l i t e r a t u r e of a f f e c t a  tion". B, p. 56) or of Clea's cool common sense. Pombal considers "love" a "petrarchan obscenity" u n t i l he meets Fosca. The r e a l i t y forhim i s paradoxical and also Petrarchan - "Perhaps t h i s very f r e e  dom keeps me i n prison?" i s almost Wyatt's contrarious passion "that locks nor looseth, holdeth me i n p r i s o n " . 1 L i z a and Pursewarden have t h e i r incestuous forerunners i n Webster's Duchess and Ferdinand, Ford's Annabella and Giovanni, or even i n I s a b e l l a and Claudia or the twins V i o l a and Sebastian. In Arcadia, as i n Alexandria, there are at least f i v e sexes. P^rocJeS'i-Ze'lmaB.iei^ . a man disguised as a woman, i s loved by a man, the man's daughter and the man's wife. P h i l o c l e a asks him i f he has not "some t h i r d sex l e f t you, to transform yourself i n t o " , (p. 501) The disguise as a member of the opposite sex i s an ubiquitous device i n Elizabethan comedy, with V i o l a and P o r t i a as notable examples, and Logde's Rosalynde, l i k e Shakespeare's Rosalind, i s an "amorous g i r l e - boy". 2 The disguise i s somehow inward as well as outward, the anony mous sex of the Alexandrian domino, "transform'd i n shew, but more transform'd i n mind". (Arc, p. 58) Pyrocles and Musidorus must discard t h e i r disguises of both mind and body before they can act according to t h e i r own w i l l s , a rediscovery of themselves which i s to be effected through love. P h i l o c l e a explains: 1C, pp. 41 - 42. Thomas Wyatt, "Description of the Contrarious Passions," i n The Concise Treasury of Great Poems, ed. Louis Untermeyer (New York, 1953), p. 38. 2 p . 140. 150 'One God hath metamorphosed both, the one i n a shepherd, the other i n a woman; and we only can restore them to themselves, and themselves to the world that they may grace i t with the glory of t h e i r actions as they were wont to do*. (p. 444) D u r r e l l ' s Balthazar says that the Alexandrians pass around a poisoned loving-cup, (G, pp. 266 - 267) and i n Arcadia there i s a "cup of poison (which was deeply tasted of the whole company)" (p. 121) Sickness and mutilation provide metaphors f o r the Elizabethans as they do f o r D u r r e l l . D u r r e l l r e f e r s to the Elizabethans themselves as a disease and says "Nash's prose i s one long dysentery of d e l i g h t " , but he seems to f e e l t h i s i s a disease to be innoculated with, rather than against The Arcadians are frequently dismembered and dismembering, i n bi z a r r e ways. A painter who i s not even p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the b a t t l e loses both hands (p. 256), a t a i l o r loses h i s nose and then h i s head (p. 255), Parthenia i s d i s f i g u r e d by disease, but, unlike L e i l a , recovers her beauty, (pp. 25, 37) But here too the worst disease i s love. Condemned most savagely i n Shakespeare's Sonnet 129, i t fares l i t t l e better i n Sidney's hands. It i s the "price of mangled mind", a loathsome disease which i n f e c t s body and b r a i n . 2 Pyrocles claims that love "hath a sport sometimes to poison me with roses, sometimes to heal me with wormwood", (p. 230) It i s a disease which turns s u f f e r e r s i n t o hypochondriacs, intent on t h e i r own f e e l i n g s and unwilling to be healed. The depths to which Wyndham Lewis compares Nash's styfse with that of Joyce i n Finnegans Wake. (Time and Western Man, pp. 106, 107) 2Sonnet "Thou b l i n d man's mark", Renaissance Poetry, ed. Leonard Dean (New York, 1953), p. 51. 151 B a s i l i u s and Gynecia sink i n t h e i r pursuits of Zelmane-Pyrocles equal Balthazar's i n f a t u a t i o n and prove that, as Vladimir Nabokov reminds us, Dementia, as well as Death, i s even i n Arcady. 1 Lodge's Rosader com pl a i n s of "a r e s t l e s s sore, that hathno ease; a canker that s t i l l f r e t s ; a dream that taketh away a l l hope of sleep". Arcadia, l i k e Alexandria, i s e x p l i c i t l y spoken of as a map of the inner condition, the habitat of beauty, (p. 400) But i t i s the whole climate and geography of Arcadia as i t unfolds throughout the book which i s t r u l y the landscape of the mind. It i s the conventional Arcady of romance, with shepherds and shepherdesses galore, but with a p a r t i c u l a r charm and an i l l u s i o n of timelessness. The shepherd's boy pipes "as though he should never be o l d " , (p. 8) Darley i n h i s Greek Arcady hears a "shepherd's dry f l u t e among the rocks". (B, p. 16) It i s an i d y l l i c p astoral place of l i g h t and health. (Arc, pp. 42 - 43) But i t becomes the scene of p o l i t i c a l upheaval, t e r r i b l e passions and dark, unnatural deeds. In analogy, Pyrocles and Musiaiorus, and t h e i r P h i l o c l e a and Pamela are young, strong and virtuous, and t h e i r loves are good, healthy loves which are darkened by the passions and perver sions which seem to be set ablaze by t h i s very goodness. A map of t h e i r " l i t t l e world" shows i t troubled with "unhabitable climes of cold des p a i r s and hot rages", (p. 127) The I t a l y of Nash's Unfortunate T r a v e l l e r , with i t s secret v i o l  ence and f a t a l loves, might be l i k e Alexandria, a place of the unleashed subconscious. It too i s a place of e v i l and f a s c i n a t i o n i n t o which the ^Lpale F i r e , p. 237. Also "Even i n Arcady am I, says/Death i n the bombal s c r i p t u r e , (p. 124) 2Rosalynde. p. 94. 152 t r a v e l l e r dives and from which he emerges i n t o the l i g h t of a healthy love. The i n e v i t a b l e shipwreck brings Pyrocles and Musidorus to the shores of Arcadia, with new i d e n t i t i e s f o r a new land. Water i s a frequent symbol here, e s p e c i a l l y as Narcissus's mirror. P h i l o c l e a i s described as "environed with sweet r i v e r s of clear v i r t u e " , (p. 392) There i s something s t i l l and clear about her, gentle and patient and i r o n - w i l l e d as she r e s i s t s enemies and unwanted l o v e r s . D u r r e l l characterizes Clea as " s t i l l waters of pain", and gives her hal f of Ph i l o c l e a * s name. The two epigraphs could almost be interchanged and each would apply to both heroines. Despite t h e i r a d v e r s i t i e s , P h i l o  clea and Clea by t h e i r very presence i n t h e i r books, seem to guarantee the r e s t o r a t i o n of order and c l a r i t y . The landscape i s connected with memory; a place reminds men of an event, but i t also i s the present embodiment of what seemed to be past: "and here we f i n d that as our remembrance came everclothed unto using the form of t h i s place, so t h i s place gives new heat to the fever of our languishing remembrance", (p. 2) The remembrance of things past i s not an enjoyable experience f o r the Elizabethans. It i s an awareness of time, of "my dear times* waste", Shakespeare*s Sonnet 30 laments, and Sidney l a b e l s i t "over-busy remembrance, remembrance, r e s t l e s s remembrance", (p. 1) Time here, as i n Alexandria, i s c y c l i c time, m u t a b i l i t y , a personal problem. B a s i l i u s has to come to times with mutability; i t i s useless to plead: "Let not old age disgrace my high desire", (p. 124) D u r r e l l makes h i s Conon say of Arcadia: "'There i s no f e e l i n g of "therefore" i n i t . O r i g i n , reason, meaning i t has none i n the sense of recognizable past*". ("Conon the C r i t i c on the 153 Six Landscape Painters of Greece". P, p. 108) Sidney's Strephon says, "'But cause, e f f e c t , beginning, and the end/Are a l l i n me'", (p. 285) Time as progress of cause-to-effect, beginning-to-end, i s r e l a  t i v e and subjective. Both Sidney and D u r r e l l convey t h i s i n t h e i r system of d i f f e r e n t narrators t e l l i n g the same story and making i t therefore i n t o several d i f f e r e n t s t o r i e s . The divergence i n viewpoint can be i n t e r n a l , so Musidorus because of h i s s p l i t s e l f has to take two d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s as narrator. In one of these he can speak i n the f i r s t person and be the subject of narration; i n the other he must use the t h i r d person and be object. Something l i k e t h i s occurs i n Balthazar when Darley has to r e t e l l Balthazar's version of the story i n which he, Darley, i s an object of observation. D u r r e l l has not written an updated Arcadia, but neither i s the resemblance a s u p e r f i c i a l one. He d e l i b e r a t e l y "elizabethanizes", employing devices important to the :renaissance writers to deal with matters which troubled them and which trouble him: the problem of one's i d e n t i t y i n r e l a t i o n to others, the bisexual nature of the psyche, man's r e l a t i o n to time and place or space, the nature of art and a r t i s t . His enthusiasm f o r the Marlowe-to-Ford period i s evident i n h i s work, h i s l e t t e r s and h i s spoken comments. And Gerald D u r r e l l reports that the a r t i s t as a young man sang "Elizabethan love-songs i n a meek tenor v o i c e " . 1 My Family, pp. 83, 125. 154 B I B L I O G R A P H Y Apuleius, Lucius. The Golden Asse. trans. William Adlington. London: Abbey Li b r a r y , undated. Bellow, Saul. "The Writer as M o r a l i s t " , A t l a n t i c , CCXI, III (March 1963), 58 - 62. Bowra, C.M. The Creat ive Experiment, New York, 1948. B u l f i n c h , Thomas. The Age of Fable. London and Toronto, 1919. C a r r o l l , Lewis (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson). Through the Looking  Glass and What A l i c e Found There. Phila d e l p h i a , 1897. Cavafy, C.P. The Poems of C.P. Cavafy, trans, John Mavrogordato, London, 1951. Clements, Robert J . " L i f e was Like a Chessboard", review of Vladimir Nabokov, The Defense, Saturday Review, 26 September 1964, 45 - 46. (C o l l a r d , E.A.) " P o r t r a i t i n a Mirror", The Gazette, Montreal, 11 January 1964, p. 8. Dean, Leonard, ed. 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Mann, Thomas. The Magic Mountain (Per Zauberberg), trans. H.T. Lowe-Porter. New York, 1958. May, R o l l o , ed. Symbolism i n Re l i g i o n and L i t e r a t u r e . New York, 1961. M e l v i l l e , Hermann. P i e r r e , or the Ambiguities. London, 1923. M i l l e r , Henry. The Colossus of Maroussi. New York, 1958. . and Lawrence D u r r e l l . A Private Corcespondence, ed. George Wickes. New York, 1963. Moore, Harry T., ed. The World of Lawrence D u r r e l l . Carbondale, 111., 1962. Morgan, Charles. The Fountain. New York, 1933. P o r t r a i t i n a Mirr o r . London, 1929. . Reflections i n a Mirror: Second Ser i e s . London, 1954. Murray, G i l b e r t . Five Stages of Greek R e l i g i o n . Garden C i t y , N.Y. Doubleday Anchor paperback r e p r i n t (undated) of Third E d i t i o n (1951). Nabokov, Vladimir. Pale F i r e . New York, 1962. Nashe, Thomas. The Unfortunate T r a v e l l e r ; or, The L i f e of Jack  Wilton, ed. John Berryman, New York, 1960. 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