UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Comparative study of Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great according to Soviet and foreign literature:… Runge, Johann Hartwig Hermann 1965

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1965_A8 R8.pdf [ 4.66MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105467.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105467-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105467-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105467-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105467-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105467-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105467-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105467-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105467.ris

Full Text

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF  WAS THE TERRIBLE AND PETER THE GREAT  ACCORDING TO SOVIET AM) FOREIGN LITERATURE ( A s u r v e y o f l i t e r a r y and h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s ) by Johann E a r t w i g Runge BJL», The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h , C o l u m b i a , 1963. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In., the Department o f S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s . We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t , c o p y i n g or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission-a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study, I f u r t h e r agree that per Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada i i . A B S T R A C T I n t h i s c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s an a t t e m p t has been made to compare two R u s s i a n monarch© who b o t h l e f t a deep; i m p r e s -s i o n , on R u s s i a w i t h the help; o f f o r e i g n and S o v i e t l i t e r a t u r e . Because o f the f a c t t h a t the s t r i c t l y l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l was v e r y l i m i t e d , , I had to t u r n t o h i s t o r i c a l books o f v a r i o u s p e r i o d s and o f d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . These, however, have p r o v e d v a l u a b l e i n e x p o s i n g me to q u i t e c o n t r a s t i n g p o i n t s o f view.. B o t h men l e n d t h e m s e l v e s e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l , t o com-p a r i s o n , because many o f t h e i r d o i n g s a r e a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l i n purpose and v a r y o n l y i n the methods o f e x e c u t i o n * S o v i e t h i s t o r i o g r a p h y has c a p i t a l i z e d on t h i s f a c t and has u s e d l i -t e r a t u r e as a means o f showing I v a n the T e r r i b l e as a p r e c u r -s o r o f P e t e r the G r e a t . A t the same time S o v i e t l i t e r a t u r e i s making an e f f o r t t o emulate him f o r the a d u l a t i o n o f the S o v i e t c i t i z e n r y . S o v i e t l i t e r a t u r e t o day recognizees him as the g r e a t c e n t r a l ! z e r o f R u s s i a and the l i q u i d a t o r o f the o b s t r u c t i n g a r i s t o c r a c y . T h i s comparison s t r e s s e s the a c t i o n s and f e e l i n g s o f Ivan: the T e r r i b l e and P e t e r the Great; i n s i m i l a r c i r c u m -stances, and s i t u a t i o n s . . The system o f t r e a t i n g the two t s a r s : i n a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s has been f o l l o w e d r i g h t t h r o u g h t h i s t h e s i s : i n . w h i c h I examine them i n r e t r o s p e c t , i . e . f r o m a d i s t a n c e U-00 and 250 y e a r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . D e s p i t e my e f f o r t s iii to v i s u a l i z e the t s a r s c l e a r l y , t o compare, and to e v a l u a t e them and t h e i r a c t i o n s " s i n e i r a e t s t u d i o " , I may have f a l -l e n s h o r t o f the d e s i r e d s t a n d a r d , f o r i t i s q u i t e d i f f i c u l t t o d e a l w i t h s u b j e c t s as c o n t r o v e r s i a l as I v a n the T e r r i b l e and P e t e r t h e G r e a t i n a t r u l y o b j e c t i v e manner. IV. C O / J E P S A E O C T p a H . HBaH Ppo3HHi'i H IleTp BeJiHKHfi B coBeTCKofi J iHTepaType 1 HOBoe ^jyBCTBO Han;H0HajrH3Ma . . . . „ . . . . . . 2 BeJIHKC-pyCCH B CpaBHeHHH C ^pyrHMH HalJHOHaJIBHOCTHMH 3 o(5a n;apii KaK codnpaTeJ iH p y c c K o M 3eMJiH 1+ cpaBHeHne iiapeK KaK nojncoBo,zmeB ...... r 5 c p a B H e m i e u a p e i i KaK npeo(5pa30BaTeJieJi 7 ceHaT H $HCKaJEH y I leTpa , . . . . 9 BoeHHHe pe$opMH . ......... 11 s:ecTOKOCT£ otfonx napeft . 12 OTHomeHHe K HHOcTpaBmaM 15 oTHoineHHe K seHinHHaM 17 CXOACTBO iiapefi B JCHMHOK SCH3HH 19 4eHTeJIBH0CTB 21 ^yBCTBO BeJtHKo^ynH5i 22 HapysHocTB 23 CMepTB GHHOBeH » M21+ OTHOieHHe K SHBOTHHM 25 noJioxeHHe IJepKBH 26 HaCMeiDJEHBOCTB KaA IlepKBBK) . . = 27 ^yBCTBO pe^IHriIO3E0CTH 28 MyBCTBO CKpOMHOCTH 30 odcbflBjreHHe BOIEH B p a r a M 31 OTHoneHne K IIoJtBnie 33 pycci-ciie H nojraKH 34 v . C'TpaH. o6o&aHHe itapeif no,2uaHHHMH 37 CXO^CTBO B nOJIHTHKe 38 nojroaceHHe KpecTBSH H acemmiH 39 BOCCTaHHH KpeCTLflH oc5pa30BaHHe. EteaHa r p o 3 H o r o kh o6pa30BaHHe B POCCHH npH O6OHX n.ap5ix U5 KopadJieycTpoftcTBO U-6 odpa30BaHHe IleTpa BeJiHKoro - I4.7 HBaH Tp03HHa KaK AHIOOMaT h9 IleTp BeaHKHfi KaK ^HiiJioMaT 51 EtBaH rpo3HHg H KypdcKHg 55 <5XH30CT£ naps K Hapo^y 58 o<53op HBaHa r p o 3 H o r o 60 oc)3op IleTpa BeJiHKoro 62 IleTp BeJrHKHM B coBeTcicoK JiHTepaType 65 o BeJiHHHH IleTpa BeJiHKoro 66 HOBHe XE<UH 67 HOBHe JIKUH y HBaHa r p o 3 H o r o 67 HOBHe XSORSS. y IleTpa BeJiHKoro 69 oneHKa HapeJi B MHpoB03peHHH Hapo^a vs. CBeTa '70 vi. A. C K N O W . L E D G E M E W T S I am I n d e b t e d t o many members o f the Department o f S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o Mr. V a l e r i a n Revutsky,. who f o r many years^ has t r i e d t o t e a c h me the i n t r i c a c i e s o f the R u s s i a n l a n -guage t h r o u g h h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e . . I owe thanks t o many unnamed R u s s i a n s and S l a v s whom I have known i n Canada and Europe.. T h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y and e f f o r t s on. my b e h a l f i n s p i r e d me to w r i t e t h i s t h e s i s i n R u s s i a n . - 1 - . B STOH patfoTe H xony onncaTB xapaKTepn ^Byx Bax-HHX pyccKHX reaped, KOTopue c^HTaKTctf B coBpeMeHHOfi pyccKoS JiETepaType o^eHB BHAaxmmmca, HBaHa rpo3Horo H IleTpa Be-EHico-ro. HHTepecyeTca STHMH Ahyusi uapnMH He TOJEBKO coBeTCKas jiHTe-paTypa, HO H 3ana^ Han. IIpHHHHa 3Toro HHTepeca Ha 3ana.se H B COBeTCKOM COK3e - pa3JIHHHH. B COK3e COBeTCKHX COHHaJXHCTH^ieC-KHX PecnytfjiHK 06a reaps e w r a r o T C H KaK co<5npaTe.2H pyccKoii 3eM-JLIS> KaK BeJiHKHe npeodpa30BaTeJiH BoeHHHX pe$opM is. BHyrpeHHHX y^pex^eHHg. B OTOM OHH ^eKcTBy»T KaK yKa3aTeJiH ^ oporn Ha BO-eHHyw cnoco6HocTB pyccKoro Hapo^a H Ha Heodxo/tHMocTB npeo6pa-30BaHHM. B 3ana^HHX cTpaHax HCTOPHKH ^yMaioT, HTO ocodeHHO no-jiHTHKa 3THX ^Byx uapefi TSK CHJEBHO noBJiHHBEiHX Ha cy^ Bdy pyc-CKoro ro c y ^ a p c T B a , ^aeT BOSMOKHOCTB yra ^ a T B .ncraTHKy coBpe-MeHHHX COBeTCKHX B JiacTHTe JieK. IleTp BejrHKHS, B Ka^ecTBe Haps-peMecJieEHHKa, (OH He CT IMMCH 6paTBCH 3a ^epHyio padoTy), yace ^ ojrroe BpeMH Haxo^H-TCH B dJiarocKJiOHHOM pacnoJioxeHHH peBoJTKHHOHHHX BJiacTiiTe^ e K . 3TO coBepineHHo IIOHHTHO TSK KaK IleTp B odmeM npeACTaBJteHHH pe3-KO OTJiH^aeTca OT Apyrux pyccKHX napeft. y HBana rpo3Horo &eJio coBceM .spyroe. O H TOJIBKO noc-Jie BTOpOK MHpOBOK BOKHH CTaJI CHHTaTBCH B COBeTCKOM COK)3e Ta-KHM BBUammHMCH, O *ieM CBH^eTeJTBCTByiOT HeCKOJIBKO KHHT H (|)HJIB-MOB. I T O KacaeTCH IleTpa Be-raKoro, TO 3ana^HHe H coBeTCKHe, co-BpeMeHHHe aBTopn is HCTOPHKH coraaniaMTca B onncaHHH ero xapaK-Tepa H no^BHroB. ^TO KacaeTCH HBaHa rpo3Horo MHOTO npoTHBope-^Hj} cyniecTByeT jtes^y 3anaAHHMH H coBeTCKHMH aBTopaMH is HCTO-pHKaMHI npHHHHH KOTOpHX fl 6y^y OdrbHCHHTB HHXe. - 2 -B 1918-OM r o Ay <5ojiBineBHKH paccTpeJ i iU iH napcKyio ceMBKi B E K a T e p H H O y p r e . OHa npe^cTaBJiHJca <3ypxya3HHM nopaAOK uapcieoft POCCHH B nocjre^HHe TpncTa JieT. OTCGF nopa^oK Ha;no 6H-JIO yHHHTOSHTB H 3T0 noCfly&HJIO npHMHHOM yt inMcTBa n a p c K o M CeMBH. B 3TO BpeMH COBepmeHHO HeB03M03£HO OHJIO o6"BHCHHTB HerpaMOTHHM pyccKHM MaccaM, HTO O^HH napn O H M HJIOXHMH, a ^ p y r n e (SHJIH AO6PHMH. I lycTB Bee o c T a H y T C H njioxHMH B co3HaHHH n p o c r o r o n a -po#a, TaK KaK onacHO B peBOJiioHHOHHOH napTHH pa3Hor.iacHe 06 HC-TOpH^eCKHX JIH^HOCTHX. IIpHAeTCH 3 ^ e C £ COOdfllHTB , *JTO HCKJHO^eHHe 6HJIO c^eJtaHO I leTpy Be-zruKOMy. SHJI OH n p o c r o , B KHue r o ^ H nrpaJi c ^epeBeHCKHMH napHHMH, XO^HJI B cTapoii o^ewej pa6oTaJi KaK 6aTpaK H seHHJLCH Ha jraTnnicKOH KpenocTHoM edryataHKe. P y c c K H i i H KpecTBHKHH ^Ba^HaTHX TO^OB MorjiH ^yMaTB, *JTO ecJiH Bee Hapu 6u JITS. 6H KaK OH, Tor^a peBO.znoH.HH He n o H a A o d m i a c B OH. B KaKOM STO Teneps no.aoaceHHH? IIpHHHHa B TOMATO pea6HJiHTHpoBaH HBaH r p o 3 H H H . yKa3HBaeT JIH STO Ha p e a d H J i H T a -HHBJ. vs. 4 p y r n x napeM B oy^yioineM HJIH OH c^HTaeTca npe^inecTBeHHH-KOM I leTpa Be - iHKoro , KOTOPHH coBepnraji T e sa^a^H, KOTopne 3a,sy-MaJi HBaH rpo3HHM? S a K T , HTO HBaH rpo3HHM TenepB Ha xopomeM c^eTy, HecKOJiBKO pa3JiHMHHX npHHHH. Bo - rxepBHX, B T o p a n o T e ^ e c T -BeHHas BofiHa c 19i4.1-oro ro^a no 1 9 U 5 - H M VOA OHJia npoTHB HeM-n e B . HBaH r p o 3 H H f i , BeJiHKHa r o c y^apB BJia^HMHpa C o J i o B B e B a , Boe-BaJi c 1558 - o r o r o ^ a AO 1 5 8 2 - o r o roA& npoTHB .SHBOHCKHX HeMueB. 3^ecB MO&HO HaSTH xopomyio napaJiJieJiB, KOTopan yKa3HBaeT Ha $ a K T , HTO HeMen, S B - i a e T c a Be^HHM B p a r o M p y c c K o r o H a p o A a . Bo --BTopnx 3TO ^yBCTBo Han.HOHa.iH3Ma. B peBOJiioHHOHHHe ro^H MODKHO 6HJIO CKa3aTB, HTO CoBeTCKHf i C0&3 Ha^HHaeTca c 1 9 1 7 - o r o ro^a H B e e , MTO 6UJLO AO T o r o BpeMeHH, TpedOBaJ iocB yHH3HTB. I locae B T O -- 3 -poS MnpoBoM BOMHH, Kor^a MHXSHOHH coBeTCKoM MOJio^eacH XOAXT B YHHBepCHTeTH H MHTa»T BeJIHKHX pyccKHx nncaTeJieK H HCTO-PHKOB, HeB03Mos;Ho 6HJIO coBceM HrHopHpoBaTB pyccKoe 60JLhMOe npomroe. Cero^HH MOJio^oe noKOJreHHe He HHT e p e c y e T c a p a c n p a -MH OTH.OB, COBepnHBHIHX peBOJIIOItHK), TIL HX HeHaBHCTBM npoTHB n;a-peM H 6ypacyeB. EMy MOJKHO noica3aTL B JIHMHOCTII HBaHa Tpo3Horo xopomnii npHMep py c c i c o r o naTpnoTa, KOTopHft <5opoJica 3a npH3Ha-HHe pyccKoro rocy^apcTBa B odmecTBe eBponeftcKHX ^epacaB. H HecMOTpa Ha TO,MTO HBaHy Tpo3HOMy 3To He y ^ a J r o c s , e r o 6o p £ 6 a yKa3aJia nyTB IleTpy BeJcuKOMy. 06 STOM ynoMHHaeTca B coBeTCKoK jiHTepaType: " BOT noneMy OH (IleTp) TSK BocxumaJics i HBaHOM rp03HHM". HJIH " IleTp HCXO^HJI H3 BOHHCKOTO OnHTa Hapo^a H ocodeHHO rteHHJi paTHoe HC -p KycTBo HBaHa rpo3Horo". CaMHK BJrHHTeJiBHHJi BOK^B CoBeTCKoro Coio.3a ,CTaJtHH B 2+0-BHe r o ^ H cKasaJr, HTO caime tfoJEBnnae acepTBH BO BTopoM OTe-^ecTBeHHoS BoKHe npoTHB cJantucTOB Tepne-M BeJTHKopoccH, H MTO OHH KBJI5IJIKCB cep^HeBKHOit coBeTCKoro rocy^apcTBa. ^TO6H noA-HepKHyTB TaKyio mnoTe3y OMeHB BHTO^HO BHCTaBHTB TaKyio JTH^-HOCTB KaiC HBaH rp03HHg, KOTOpHM KapCTBOBaJI HCKJIIO'qHTe.IBHO Ha^ BeJIHKOpOCCaMH H TOJIBKO-'qTO nO^HHeHHHMH TaTapaMH. HHTepeCHO 3aMeTHTB, HTO Bee 3TH npHBOKCKHe TaTapcKne mieMeHa BpeMH OT BpeMeHH BOfflJIH B COCTaB BeJIHKOrO KHHXeCTBa H CTaHOBHMCB BeJIH-KopyccaMH. B BoMHax HBaHa Tpo3Horo OeJiopyccn H yKpaHHKH He y^acTBOBaJiH. TOJIBKO ^acTB yKpaHHn.eB BoeBaJia Ha cTopoHe IleTpa BeJiHKoro. Ha 3Toro cse^yeT, MTO BeaHKopoccH SBJEHIOTCH caMHMH ynOpHHMH 3amHTHHKaMH pyCCKOM 3eMJIH. Ho OHH He TOJtBKO yMeJIH - k -3amHinaTi> pyecKyio seMJUo, OHH yMeJtH H Hana^aTB K o r^a STO K a 3 a -Jioch HM HyacHHM. B TOM xe n p o n e c c e HBaH rpo3HHH H I leTp Be.iH-KHfi 06a 6HJIH "co6HpaTeJi5iMH p y c e K o f l 3eMJ iH n . HBaH oBJiaAeJi Ka-3aHBio B 1 5 5 2 H AcTpaxaHBio B 1 5 5 6 r o^ax. TeppHTopnaJ iBHoe npocTpaHCTBO 6100 rpoMa^ H o e , H 6UJIO sHa^HTe-SBHo B TOM cMHCJie, MTO B o c T o r a o r o npoTHBHHKa d c i B m e He cymecTBOBa-ao. KpoMe TOTO, HeCKOJIBKHMH OTBaXHHMH BOHHaMH y^aJIOCB nOKOpHTB CH6HpB HBaHa r p o 3 H o r o . IleTp BCOIKHH 3axBaTHJi IIpHdaJiTHKy, K a c n n K c K o e n o d e p e & B e , DaKHyw C H d n p B , ^lyKOTKy H KypHJtBCKHe o c T p o B a A A X Poc-CHH. 06a H a p £ nodeAHJiH TOTO HenpHOTe-iH, KOTOPHK npennTCTBOBaJ i pa3BHTHW POCCHH. 3TO OHJIH TaTapH B KOHne 1 6 - o r o BeKa H HIBeAH B Ha^aJie 1 8 - o r o BeKa. KpoMe BHeniHHX npoTHBHHKOB o<3a n a p s B o e B a x H npoTHB BHyTpeHHero B p a r a , HMeHHo npoTHB rocnoACTBy ion iero npH^BopHoro K J i a e c a . 9TO 6HJCH d o s p e , KOTopne He xoTeJtn noBUHOBaTtcH MOJIO-4HM n.apjiM H KOTopne no npn^HHe c B o e r o c o c T a B a B c e r ^ a npoTHBO-pe^HjiH BceM npeo6pa30BaHHHM O6OHX napeJ i . TyT c o B e T C K a a j iHTe -paTypa xo^teT ycTaHOBHTB CXOACTBO Meac^y CBoeil BJiacTBio H STHMH H3BecTHHMH capHMH, TaK KaK c o B e T C K a H BJiacTB Toace B Te^eHHH MHornx JieT 6opoJ iacB npoTHB npHBHJierHpoBaHHHX c a o e B , noMemHKOB CiopoKpaTOB, KyjiaKOB H T.4.. Bo BHemHefi noJiHTHKe HBaH rpo3HHH H I leTp BeJiHKHM npecJie^oBaJiH T e xe caMne neJiH KaK C o B e T C K H t C0103. H 3 B e c T k o e "OKHO Ha 3ana4"> KOTopoe npopyOHJi I leTp , OHJIO Me^ToK HBaHa P p o 3 H o r o , H cHOBa coBepmeHO npn coBeTCKOf i BJtacTH c npHodpeTeHHeM OaJiTHftcKHx c T p a H B 191+O-OM r o ^ y . - 5 -I fapcTBOBaHHe STHX A^yx napeM 6UJLO 6ecnpepHBHOH <5opB6oH s a ocyme.cTBJieHHe 3THX ueJieR. KpoMe Ka3aHCKoro H A c T p a x a H C K o r o noxo^OB HBaH rpo3HHii BoeBaJi 2k r o A a 3a noKope-HHe JTHBOHHH. § a K T , w o OH B KOHiie KOHIIOB Ha 3ana^e HHKaKoro TeppHTaJ iBHoro yBeJiHHeHHH CTpaHH He AC-6'VIJICS. He HMeeT 34ecB HHKaKoro OHaneHHH. Cnocod ^e f tcTBHH, c KSKHM I leTp HanpnraJ i Bee CHJTH C T p a H H , o^eHB noxosc Ha c n o c o b AeHCTBHi i HBaHa Tpo3Ho-r o . HecKOJiBKo jieT OH BoeBaJi 3a ocBodos^eHHe yKpaHHCKHX seMeJiB OT T y p K O B » H 21 TOA 3a npnodpeTeHHH npndaJ iTHHCKoro Kpafl'. B O6OHX cJiy^ a n x rpoMa^Hoe HanpKJKeHHe CHJT 6HJTO HanpaBJieHo K O ^ -EOH Hejru. B odo i i x BotHax OHH BoeBam 6e3 COK3HHKOB. A ecftH H 6UJLVL COBD3HHKH, KaK HanpHMep BO BpeMH CeBepHoSt BOHHH y I leTpa B e a H K o r o , TO OHH OKa3HBa.SHC£ OoJiBiiieK nacTBio 6ecnojie3HHMH. COBeTCKaH BJiaCTB rop^HTCK BOeHHHMH ^OCTHSeHHHMH STHX Asyx napen H nosTOMy c o B e T C K a n JiHTepaTypa o6#3aHa x B a - . JIHTB HX KaK BoeHHHX repoeB. *ITO KacaeTcs I leTpa B e a H K o r o , TO H ^py3BK H Bparn corJiacHH o BoeHHHX H noJEHTH^tecKHX Ka^ecTBax e r o JTH^HOCTH. IleTp 6HJL JTHMHO oTBeTCTBeHHHM 3a -pzA no6eA p y c -CKHX BOKCK. OH pyKOBO^HJi B3iiTHeM ^opnaTa H HapBH B I7OI4.-0M r o -Ay. OH caM KOMaH^OBaJt p y c c K H M H , KOTopue noOe^HXH i B e i o B no A JlecHOH H OHJT rJEaBHOKaMaH^yiomHM TLOA IIoJtTaBOH. ITpn ocaac^eHHH Bntfopra H B3OTneM e r o IleTp pyKOBo^HJi JJIOTOM. Ero caMaH y ^ a ^ -Han M o p c K a a noOe^a Omra no^ TaHy^oM, r ^ e nBe^cKHH $JIOT 6UJI nodeiKAeH,, ^TO KacaeTca H B a H a , TO oTKjroHeHHH OT arpa^HUHOHHOw KapTHHH HapH 5IBJIHK)TCH rpOMa^HHMH. T y T HHTepeCHO yBH^eTB O6OHX HapeH 5 TaK KaK OHH o d p n c o B a H H B 3ana4HOH H COBCTCKOM JiHTepaTy-p a x . 3aMeTHM HeKOTopyio nepeMeHy B H3o6paaceHHH x a p a K T e p a HBaHa r p 0 3 H O r p , KOTOpyK) 3aMeTHT TOJIBKO ^HTaTeJTB 3Hai0mHH HHOCTpaHHyjO - 6 -coBpeMeHHyio jiHTepaTypy. B COBeTCKOM JiHTepaType HBaH rpo3HHM AexaeTcz MyTB-^yTB BoeHHHM repoeM, KOTOPHH <3e3 onaceHHa 3a CBOIO acH3H£ c T a p a e T c s c n a c a T B CBOHX no,zuaHHHx: " CaM Toace noiie3 Ha KpHmy ,npHKa3a.s , HTO6M euy no^aBajiH BO^y. CTpeJEBim ncsHHMaJiH-6aja.hTo 3a 6aAh'eH. HapB BHXBaTaBaJi HX H, npH<3JizzaflC& K paCKpHTHM BaCHJIHeM rps3HHM. g MeGTaM Ha Kpnme, o.dJiHBa.1 HX BOAOH". OnHCHBaa rcapfl, KOTOPHH cdpocHJi c c e d a KacpTaH vs. p y -daxy, nncaTeJiB 3aMe*iaeT H "Mory^tyio BOJiocaTyro rpy^B napa, e r o „ k mnpoKHe njie^H H MycKyjiHCTHe pyKH . TaK AeficTByeT H BKTJISIAIST repoM. B ^pyroM caytiae Haps HBaH caM roBopHT o CBOHX ^yBCTBax Ha nojie dHTBH: " Ha dpaHHOM noJie x HH^ero He doiocBlHapo^ TaM! OroHB! IIoTexa! B KeJiBe noMHnuiHeniB H xpadpocTBio AHmnniB ,s:eJie30M npaB^y ^ o d n -BaemB.. . B KasaHCKOM noxo^e odpeJi H BOHHCKOe MyseCTBO H n03HaJE TBepAOCTB 5 Me^a .. ,l\ O^HH COBeTCKHH nHCaTeJIB TOJKe XBaJIHT BOeHHHe K a -^ e c T B a HBaHa Tpo3Horo. "CBOH Ta-aaHTH noJiKOBo^Ha OH npoHBH.1 c H no A Ka3aHBK is no A IIOJIOHKOM". Ho KaK CMOTPHT coBpeMeHHas 3arpaHuqHaH JiHTepaTypa Ha BoeHHHe Ka^ecTBa HBaHa rpo3Horo, ocodeHHO UOA Ka3aHBM H noA no.aon.KOM. "Kor^a aiTypMOBaJiH Ka3aHB, HBaH cn^eJi MOJIHCB B 7 cBoeM maTpe". - 7 -XOTH HBaH rpo3HHM He 6UJI BoeHHHM r e p o e M , OH 6UJL npeo6pa30BaTeJieM B BOeHHOM H aAMHHHCTpaTHBHOM OTHOieHHHX. IIo a^MHHHCTpaTHBEOMy oTHOiiieHHK) caMaa BaacHas pecpopMa HBaHa Tpo3-Horo HBJiHJiacB onpnqHHa. OHa cocTOflJia B TOM, qTo 3HaqHTe.ifiHaH qacTB TeppHTopHH r o c y ^ a p c T B a OHJta B s s T a B Henocpe^cTBeHHoe BJia^eHHe caMoro naps. Bee seyixw B onpnqHHe npHHaAJre&aBniHe 60-a p a M , 6HJIH KOHtpHCKOBaHH, pa3^eJieHH Ha MeHBMHe yqacTKH H p o 3 -A8.EU onpn^HHEaM. Eo#pe, y KOTOPHX 6uJia OTHHTSI 3eujiii o<|)HHHa.i£-HO no.2yqa.2iH B03MemeHHe B Apyrnx MecTax, HO tpaKTHqecKH OTO He HcnoJiHHJiocB, TaK KaK noJiyqaeMHe HMH B o6MeH 3eMJiH ^ a ^ e K O He <5HJ£H paBHoneHHHMH. y naps 6uJia o^Ha neJiB: o 6 t e A H H H T £ B CBOHX pyKax caMHe Ba&HHe 3eMJiH cTpaHH H B oco(5eHEocTH Te, KOTopne oxpaHHJiH ^oporH AJL& cHa&seHHs BOHCK Haxo^HBiiiHXCH B JIHBOHHH. .SpyraH neJtB n a p s 6HJia: co3^aTB Ka^pH MeJtKHx seMJieBJca^eaBneB, nOJIHOCTBK) OT Hero 3aBHCHIHHX H B TO Se CaMOe BpeMH OCJla6HTB SKOHOMHqecKym H noJiHTHqecKyio CHJiy dosp. 0'd.S3aHHOCT£ onpnqHH-KOB dHJia 3aiHHin;aTB napcKyio BJiacTB H ^eKCTBOBaTB oco6ofi ncztHnneM. ,5pyrHM npeo6pa30BaHHeM napn HBaHa IV HBJIHJIOCB $opMH-poBaHHe "H36paHHoi/i pa^H" B HaqaJie n^TH^ecaTHX TOAOB. OHa c o -cTOHJia 6oJiBineH qacTBio H3 ^Byx BpeneHinHKOB, CnjtBBecTpa M AA&-uieBa, apxnenHCKona MaKapHS H HeKOTopnx BJiHATeJtBHHX doiip. OHH noiTH npaBHJTH cTpaHofi AO TOTO BpeMeHH, noKa HBaH BacnjiBeBHq O<5BHHHJI HX B TOM, qTo OHH He AaBaJiH eMy BO3MOSCHOCTH r o c y ^ a p -cTBOBaTB caMOMy. H36paHHaa pa^a B CBOKJ oqepe ^ B ycTaHOBH^ a "Cy^ec5HHK", KOTOPHH ocBo6oKAaj[ MeJiKHx seujieAeJimeB H HX K p e c -TBHH OT HaMecTHHqecKoro cy^ta. "CyAe6HHK" T a K s e no^roTOBHJi petpopMy cMeHH " K o p i o e -HHH" B cieACTBMH q e r o AOXO^H cTa.ra nocTynaTB Henocpe^cTBeHHO B napcKyio Ka3Hy. 3TO cnocodcTBOBaJio TOMy, qTodH napcKan BJiacTL yBe.iHqH.iacB. B BOeHHOM OTHOmeHHH HeCKOJIBKO MeponpHaTHH 6UJIO BBe^eHO yjrytiineHEH BotCKa. B 1550-OM voAy OHJIO npncTy-ruieHo K opraHK3amiH pyryjtiipHHx IIOJIKOB B o o p y x e H i m x orHecT-peJiBHHM opymeM. Bo - n e p B H X , STO 6HJIO TOJIBKO HCCKOJIBKO THCS^ Me-ZtOBeK, HO 3T0 HHCJIO BCKOpe yBeJIHHHJIOCB. B0-BT0pHX,H3 XOJIO-noB, KOTOPHX ABopni ie npHBo^HM c codoM 0<5pa30BaJiHCB p e r y j i n p -HHe noJtKH no A KOMaHAOBaHHeM ABOPHH, Ha3HaMeHHHX n a p e M . B-- T p e T B H x oqeHB cHJiBHa <3HJia apTH-zczcepHH, KOTopaa ocofieHHO BHH-BHJiacB y&e BO BPSMH Ka3aHCKoro noxo^a. CnocotfHOCTB p y c c K o H apTHJTJiepHH npOHBHJtaCB BO BpeMH JlHBOHCKOH BOHHH, KOT^a HeJIHH PHA HeMeHKHX TOpO^OB H 3aMKOB CMHTaBniHXCH HenpHCTy nHHMH OHJIH B35ITH pyCCKHMH BOtCKaME. IJapB T03Ce n03a6"OTHJICfl O CHa6seHHH BOHCK CHapji^aMH, KOTopne Ha^o dsuro npHB03HTB H3-no^ MOCKBH Ha nojie 6oa. RJIX oca^H K p e n o c T e n TIOA pyKOBOACTBOM HHseHepoB pyccKHe BOftcKa ycTpoHJiH no^BHSHHe fJara c KOTOPHX cTpe-MJiH n o -JteBHMH Opy^HSMH. IIpeo6pa30BaHHH I leTpa BeJ iHKoro HOCHJIH TOT ace x a p a K -T e p KaK y HBaHa r p o 3 H o r o , a HMeHHo: BO BHyTpeHHHx ^ e J i a x , B BoeHHOM AeJie H AJLX ycHJieHHH rocy^apcTBa. I leTp co3^aJi Moryme-c T B e H H o e , ABopnHCKoe r o c y ^ a p c T B O . U"TO6H AocTnr-HyTB sToro eMy HyxHO 6HJIO c^eJiaTB ABOPHH npHro^HHMH AJLH T e x u,eJie&, KOTopne cTaBHJi n e p e A CO6OH I leTp . TaK KaK MHorne H3 HHX 6HJIH cTapHMH 3HaKOMHMH co BpeMeHH BoeHHHX noTex B c.IIpeo6paseHCKOM, TO OHH c^HTaJiH r o c y ^ a p e B y cxyx6y CBOH noqeTHHM npaBOM, KaK npaBOM npaBHTB CTpaHOii H pyKOBO^HTB BOHCKaMH. I leTp TaKXe 3aCTaBHJ ABOpHH C 10HHX JieT y^HTBCH "rpaMOTe, H.H$HpH H r e o M e T p H H " . - 9 -nOTOM ABe TpeTH ABOpHHCKOH CeMBH JOB Ha ciiyxoy B apMHB H $JIOT H TOJIBKO OAHa T p e T B ocTaBaJ iaeB B rpaxAaHCKHX y q p e & A e H H a x . yKa3aMH, 60JIBIEHHCTBO KOTOpHX 6UJS1A BBe^SHH HOCJle IIoJiTaBCKOH C5HTBH, <5HJI ycTaHOBjreH nopnAOK, no KOTopoMy " p o ^ o -BHTOCTB" He npHHHMaJiacB BO BHHMaHHe npH Ha3HaqeHHH o$HH.epcKHx H qHHOBHHMeCKHX tJHHOB. 3AeCB MOXHO ynOMHHyTB O "Ta<5eJlHX o p a H -r a x " pa3,5eJiHEmHX Bee AOXKHOCTH B apMHH Ha qeTHpHa^naTB p a H r o B , KOTopHe cooTBeTCTBOBaJIH c qHHaMH a rpa&AaHCKHX yqpes^eHHHX. IleTp ynpocTHJ i rocno^c-^TByiomHK K a a c c , pa3^eJEaHHHfi Ha OKOJIBHH-q n x , 6onp, ABOPHH TO. re,A. n coe^HHHJi HX n o ^ Ha3BaHHeii ABOPHH-C T B a . y K a 3 0 M B 171U-OM r o^y IleTp yHHHToacHJi pas^Hqae Me&Ay BOT-MHHaMH H nOMeCTBflMH H yCTaHOBHJt yKa3 0(5 e^HHOHaCJieAHH. Ha^o ynoMHHyTB eme 06 O^HOM yqpe&AeHHH B 6y^;yiomeM oqeHB BaKHHM AJSX p y c c i c o r o rocy^apcTBa. Kor^a I leTp oTnpaBHJtCH B npyTCKHM n o x o ^ B 1711-OM ro,ziy, OH ocTaBHJi BMecTo cecjH KOMHC-CHK) B COCTaBe ^eCHTH qeJIOBeK, KOTOpyiO Ha3Ba.I IIpaBHTeJIBCTByiomHM CeHaTOM. OH AOJixen 6UJL Be^aTB $ H H a H c a M , T o p r o B J i e M , 3a6oTHTBCH 06 yBeJiHMeHHH AOXO^OB 10 p a 3 p a 6 o T K O t HOBHX 3aKOHOB. B p e 3 y j r B T a -Te co3AaHHH C e H a T a B 1718-OM r o^y <5MH yHH^ToxeHH IIpHKa3H vs. KaHneJEnpHH H BMecTo HHX yqpex^eHH ^ B e H a ^ n a T B K O M e r H K . Ho TaK KaK CeHaT AOX&QH. 6UJI ocymecTBJiHTB BepxoBHHfi Ha^3op Ha,5 ^eflTeJCB^ HOCTBK) KOJiJierHH, TO IleTp Bnocjre^cTBHH BHopaJC npe3H^eHT0B KOJT-jrerHH H3 c o c T a B a C e H a T a KpoMe Tponx. BasHeHMaa 3 a ^ a q a C e H a T a cocTOHJta B BHcneM p a c n o p a x e -HHH 10 HaA3ope 3a BceM ynpaBJieHneM HMnepHH. B BcnoMoraTeJIBHOM OTHOHeHHH CTOHJta 6X.10XH.ilS. KaHneJIHpHH= O H^HM H3 nepBHX aKTOB 3 T o r o y q p e s^eHHJi 6HJI BHdop oc3ep-$HCKaJia, KOTOPHM Aox&eu 6UJS TafiHO Ha^3HpaTB 3a ^eHCTBHHMH npaBHTeJtBCTseHHHX JIHH, 3a cdopoM - 10 -Ka3eHHHX Aeser H 3a npaBHJiBHHM ynoTpe6.aeHHeM HX. 06ep-$HCKa^ npHBJieKaJi odBHHHeMoro K oTBeTcTBeHHOCTH nepeA CeHaTOM H TBM e r o O6BHHSJI. ^ o K a 3 a B CBoe odBHHeHHe o 6 e p-$HCKaJi nojrB30BaJtca nojioBHHOH n i T p a $ a , B3HMaeMoro c HapynHTeJta rocy^apCTBeHHHX H H T e p e c o B . B c a y n a e J io&Horo ^OHOca cpHCKaJIH He no^BepraJ iHCB HaKa3aHHw . BHJIO Taicace 3anpemeHo no ^ o 3 p e B a T B , O6BHHHTB H ^OHO-CHTB Ha HHX. $HCKaJtH 6UJIK BeQAe. BHJIH ropo^oBHe (JncKaJtH, npo-BHHHHaJI-(|)HCKaJIH , ^yXOBHHe H n p O ^ H e . HX 6e30TBeTCTBeHHOCTB B e -Jia. K npoH3BOJiy H 3JtoynoTpe6jieHHHM, KOTopne cTa-HH odHapy&HBa-TI.CS. 06ep - ^ H C K a J i HecTepoB, He ma^HBiiiHH ^aace CBOHX npsMHX H a -^aJIBHHKOB CeHaTOpOB, AOB&JL CBOHMH OdBHHeHHflMH AO BHCeJIHHH C H -dnpcKoro r y d e p H a T o p a KHH3# T a r a p H H a . ^lepes HecKOJiBKO . leT o6ep--$HCKaJt HecTepoB 6HJI yj iH^eH BO B3flTKax H KOj recoBaH. .UpeBHepyccKoe cy^onpoH3B04CTBo ^onycicaJio ^OHOC AJIH B03dyx4eHHi i c y ^ e 6 H o r o ^ e J i a , HO T e n e p B OH cTaJi rocy^ a p c T B e H H H M y^pex^eHHeM c HedoJiBiUHM PHCKOM AXX ^oHOCHHKa. ^OXKHOCTB qjHCKa-Jia H noompeHHe K ^ o H o c a n npHBe.10 o6mecTBO K HpaBCTBeHHOMy yna-Axy. KpoMe y^pesc^eHHH <$HCKaJioB I leTp BBeJi npHHy^HTeJtBHyw cJiyscdy AXR ABopflH B TaKOM pa3Mepe, B KaKOM B MOCKOBCKOK Pycn eme HHKor^ a He BH^eJiH. yica3 171i+-oro r o ^ a ycTaHOBHjr , HTO OTHHHC noMecTBe MoaceT nepe^ a B a T B c j i no Hacae ^ c T B y .IHIHB o^HOMy CHHy B ceMBe. 9TOT yica3 HMeJi T p n nejrn. Bo-nepBHX, npe^oTBpaTHTB pa3-ApofiJteHHe ABOpHHCKHX 3eMeJIB, ^TOdH 3HaTHLie pO^H He 06HAHeJIH. BO-BTOPHX, npe^oTBpaTHTB na^eHHe n j raTes :ecnoco6HocTH K p e c T B S H -c T B a , KOTopoe no/ iBepraJ iocB dojiBHioMy yr-HeTeHHio npn MeHBinnx HMe-HHHX. B - T p e T B H X , 3 8 C T a B H T £ BTOpHX H TpeTBHX CHHOBeH .ABOpSH SaHHTBCH HpOMHUIJieHHOCTBIOjT TOprOBJteHj y^eHHeM HJIH HCKaTB e j t y s -- 11 -IleTp caM npoH3Bo^HJi OCMOTP H pa3^eJieHHe ^BopaH, yica3HBaH Kaac^oMy cBoe M e c T o . B 1704-OM ro^ty OH o c M O T p e a OKOJIO m e c T H -COT HeAOpOCJieS CaMHX 3HaTHHX p o ^ o B . Pa3yMeeTCK, HTO MHorne ^Bopf lHe He xoTejrn y^HTBCH H TOTOBHTBCH Ha cJiyatdy. Ho yKJiOHHBiiHeca OT Hee, TSK H a 3 H B a -eMne " H e T H H K H " , 6HJIH acecTOKo npecJie^oBaHH. yica3 OT HHBapa 1722 -oro r o ^ a yTBepx^aJi, ^TO "HOT^HKH" Haxo^HTca BHe 3aKOHa. KaacaoMy, KTO yicaaceT Ha cKpHBaiomerocH "neTHHica", 6yA*> STO ^;a-ace e r o KpenocTHOH, Cujia odemeHa no JioBHHa e r o HMymecTBa. 3TO OHJIO ^ p y r o e noompeHHe K AOHocaM. XOTH B ^ e c T B H T e j i B H O c T H , B e -POKTHO , pe^KO c j ry^aJtocB, MTOOH KpenocTHOH* 3a y^a^HHH AOHOC n c a y^aJi no JiOBHHy ^ B o p H H C K o r o HMymecTBa. y^peaweHne n o ^ T B e p -ac^aeTCH B coBeTCKOfi JiHTepaType cJiOBaMH no^BHMero E B a p j i a K o r o , wo"KHA3B PoMo^aHOBCKHft 3a AOHOC o^HOMy TpHCTa pyd.aeB AaJI AB manicy KyHBio ... 3a AOHOC ^ITO KacaeTCH BoeHHHX pe$opM, TO c j i e ^ y e T TOJTBKO c i c a -3 3 T B , HTO I leTp nocTOHHHO 3a6oTHJicfl o BoeHHHX npeo0pa3OBaHH-a x . OHH COCTOHJIH B y c T p o f i c T B e B o e H H o - M o p c K o r o $JioTa TaKoro pa3Mepa H CHJIH, MTO Aaace He donjon y r p o 3 H aHrJiHHCKoro $JioTa B BaJtTHticKOM Mope H B ^ocTaBJieHHH T a K o t do-iBinoH cyxonyTHOi! apMHH, KOTopoi i P o c c H a H H K o r ^ a eme He BJia^ejra. P y c c K a a apMHs npn I leTpe d m i a n o c a e noJiTaBcicoK <5HTBH OAHOM H3 caMHx HaHJiy^nHX B MHpe. " BBe^eHHeM " d a r H H e T a " I leTp , He y B e J i H -•^HBail qHCJreHHOCTH neXOTH, 3Ha*IHTeJIBHO noBHCHJi ee d o e c n o c o d H O C T B H c,a.ej[aJi ' pyccKyio n e x o T y jry^meH doeBoff CHJIOH B Q E B p o n e " . - 12 -Boofime c HMeHeM IleTpa cBa3aH0 co3AaHHe peryjinpHoM pyccKoft apMHH, ocHOBaHHOH Ha HanaJrax peKpyTCKoM HOBHHHOCTH. K 1725-OMy r o ^ y , B POCCHH 6UJIO CTO _a.Ba_a.naTB mecTB KaBaJtJiepHH-CKHX H nexoTHHX noJiKOB, KpoMe HeperyJinpHOH KOHHHHH Ka3aKOB H KaJIMHKOB. PyCCKHH $JEOT npH HapCTBOBaHHH IleTpa HaC^HTHBaJt c o -poK BoceMB dojiBinHX JiHHeHHHX napycHHX KopaCaen H ceMBCOT BO-ceMBAecflT ceMB ra.aep c ^Ba^naTBio BoceMBio Tnca^aMH MaTpocoB. IlocJie TOTO, KaK a roBopH.a o npeoopa30BaHHax IleTpa, a xony B nepByro onepe^B .aaTB xapaKTepHCTHKy O6OHX napea H HeMHOrO OCTaHOBHTBCH Ha TOM, MeM OHH OTJIH^aJIHCB O^HH OT ^py-r o r o . XapaKTepHHe ^epTH O6OHX napeft o^eHB HHTepecHH, noTOMy *ITO 06a napa CHJIH ^eficTBHTeJIBHO opnrHHaJiBHHMH $HrypaMH.Cnep-Ba a xo^y O&'BHCHHTB K a i e c T B a , Ocaee BH^aioiHHeca B HX OTHoie-HHH K ^pyrnM J H c u a M . B HX qncae, no-MoeMy, nepBoe Me CTO saHH-MaeT acecTOKOcTB, TaKaa ^y^oBHUHaa B MOCKOBCKOH Pycn. B coBe-TCKOH JiHTepaType Majio roBopaT o xecTOKOcTH HBaHa Tpo3Horo. ToBopaT TOJIBKO, «tTo Bee Ooape 3aMeiaaHHHe B 3aroBope npoTHB Hero (BO rJiaBe KOToporo cToaJt H.n.^eJia^HH) 6HJIH Ka3HeHH. MH -TponoJiHTa ^HJinnna, KOTOPHH xoTeJt 3acTynHTBca 3a 6oap, 3a,ay-MHJiH B MOHacTHpe. B Ha^ajre 15'69-oro r o ^ a no npHKa3aHH& HBaHa KH33B B^a^HMHp OapnnKHM npHHa.a a^. ^TO K a c a e T c a &o HOBropca-CKoro noxo^a B 1570-OM ro,ay> TO coBeTCKaa JiHTepaTypa nnmeT OTKpOBeHHO, *ITO'. " B Te^eHHH necTH He.ae.aB npo^ojisaJiacB xecTo^aHnaa p a c n p a B a Ha,a HOBoropo.an.aMH: THcana JHo^eH CHJIH no^BeprHyTH nHTKaM H 10 yTonJieHH B BoxxoBe". - I3j -A 3arpaHHqHa.s JnrrepaTypa nnmeT cjre^yioinee o 3&ecTo-KOCTH HBaHa r p o 3 H o r o . OH coCJCTBeHHopyqHo ydHJi c T a p o r o d o n p K -Ha B npHcyrcTBHH A p y r n x n o c a e TOTO KaK niyTJIHBO nojiosHJt K o p o -Hy Ha roJroBy do j ipHHa. OH To&e JEHHHO pa3pe3aJt ropao ^HTHTH npHHeceHHoro K HeMy onpHqHHKaMH. 4"TO npoHcxo^HJio B H o B r o p o^e x o p o n o onncaHo B HeKOTopnx HCTopH^ecKHX KHHrax . Ho acecTOKOcTB HBaHa T p o 3 H o r o 6uJia TaKas c a T a H H ^ e c K a a H cpaBHHTB ee c r p y d o n xecTOKOCTBio I leTpa Tpy^HO. HBaH 3acTaBH.zt c B o e r o A p y r a H o n p a q -HHKa © e ^ o p a BacMaHOBa y6HTB c o d c T B e H H o r o OTija nepej; T e n KaK OH caM 6HJI K a 3 H e H . HBaH npHKa3aJi My^HTB B^oBy CBoero Bpei/reH-mHKa B n c K O B a T o r o , a noTOM H3HacHJroBaJi e e . Hoc-ie 3Toro OH Max. 11 npHKa3 "yTOnHTB BOCeMB^eCHT BAOB Ka3eHHHX OnpHHHHKOB". IlepeH^eM T e n e p s OT HBaHa r p o 3 H o r o K I leTpy BeJiHKOMy. Ha nepBHt B3rJfHA e r o xecTOEocTB K a s e T c a TaKofi xe. B c T p e J i e n -KOM noJiKOBHHKe IlHKJiepe I leTp BH^eJi codece^HHKa HBaHa MHJiocJiaB-cKoro. C o B e T C K a a J iHTepaTypa onncHBaeT Ka3HB IjHKJrepa TaK: " Tpod HBaHa. MnxaHJioBHqa MnJioczraBCKoro 6UJL BiipHT H npHBeseH B npeodpaseHCKoe. HaA 3THM r p o d o M 6HJia coBepuieHa Ka3HB, H KpOBB Ka3HeHHHX 3arOBOpiHHKOB JtHJTaCB 12 Ha Tpyn MHJiocj iaBCKoro . . . " KaK Boo6me H3BecTHO n o c i e CTpe.ieii.Koro 6yHTa 1698 r O ^ a CeMBCOT ^eBHHOCTO AeBflTB CTpe.Z£BUOB 6UJLO Ka3HeHO B Moc-KBe. C o B e T C K a n JtHTepaTypa c o o d i n a e T , HTO "I leTp OXOTHO npHHH-13 MaJi ynacTHe B po3HCKe, nHTKax H Ka3HHx". OHa ynpeKaeT e r o B d e c q y B C T B e H H o c T H noTOMy HTO OH nocae cMepTH CBoero e^HH-c T B e H H o r o CHHa Ha cjre^yiomHM ace ^eHB npa3^HOBaa ro^oBiUHHy IIoJtTaBCKOH n o d e ^ H . O^HaKO acecTOKOCTB I leTpa BHHBHJtacs TOJCBKO - 124. -HecKOJiBKO p a 3 , KaK nocjie dyHTa cTpe . a m o B . B odmeM IleTp cTa— paJiCH He CJHTB dcztee secTOKHM, neu ero 3ana,2iHHe coBpeMeHHHKH. HaodopoT, IleTp ooHKHOBeHHO HHTaJiCH npnnHTCTBOBaTB HeHyscHOMy KpoBonpojiHTHKi, KaK HanpHMep npn B3HTHH HapBH, Kor^a OH caM J6VLJI p y c c K o r o co -zwaTa, KOTopnfi He nepecTaBaJi p e 3 a T £ HaceJteHHe. OTHOCHTeJIBHO SCeCTOKOCTH IleTpa, CymeCTByiOT 3HaqHTeJIB-HHe npoTHBopenHH xaxe B 3arpaHHqHOH JiHTepaType. ^Ba nHcaTe.iH H3 04HOH 3anaAH0M cTpaHH, o^Horo H Toro xe BpeMeHH, CMOTPHT Ha TO ace caMoe codHTHe coBepneHHO p a 3 H 0 . Rexo H^eT o Ka3HH MapHH TaMH^TOH, npH^BopHoii js.auu EKaTepHHH. IIo CTecpaHy TpaxaM, aHrJiHHCKOMy nHcaTe.aio 2 0-oro BeKa, MapHH TaMHJETOH 6zui.a JEEDCOBHH-HeM napn B 1 7 18-OM ro^y. IlocJie Toro, KaK IleTp ocTaBHjr e e , y Hee 6KJI .npyroH JHO6OBHHK. K o r ^ a .yl Hee PO^HJCCH pedeHOK, OHa y 6 H a a ero. B cJeBpaJte 1 7 1 9 - o r o r o ^ a OHa dHjra apecTOBaHa 3a y6HH— CTBO pedeHKa AOHOCOM ee npeacHero JnodoBHHKa OpaoBa. IlHcaTeJiB coodmaeT, HTO IleTp npncyTCTBOBaJi npn ntiTKe STOH ^eByniKH H MO-aceT-dHTB Aaxe cau yqacTBOBa.1 B He&: " E r O nJtOTOHAHHH B3TJIHA HaXOAHJT y^OBOJIB-cTBHe B ee MyqHTe JIBHOM odaHHHH. OH HacJiaacAaJiCH eip q e p e 3 nocpe^cTBo HHTKH I,114-H CMepTH . . . IlHcaTeJiB ^aJiBiae npo^oxKaeT, ^TO IleTp npncyTCTBOBaJr npn ica3HH. n o c a e y^apa naJiaqa TonopoM "IleTp B3HJI OTpydJieHHyio 1 5 rojroBy H cMOTpa Ha Jivmo, non.eJioBa.fl: ee B rydH". - 15 -JIpyroM aMepHKaHCKHii nncaTeJEB HaH Tpeft, coodmaeT o TOM ace c o -CHTHH, saMe^as TOJTBKO, HTO "IleTp npncyTCTBOBaJr npn ee Ka3HH 16 3TOT H HTO OH no^,2iepsHBaJi• ee HecTH HaKa3aHHe xpadpo". ace nncaTeJiB paccKa3HBeT nenaJiBHoe codHTHe B CBH3H C He3aKOHO-poacaeHHHMH ^eTBMH. OdHHan ydHBaTB HesaKOHHopoac^eHHHX AeveVi 6UJL pacnpocTpaHeH. IleTp CMOTpea Ha STO KaK Ha o c K o p d a e H H e npo-THB 33K0H0B Bora H Hapo^a H od-BSBHJi, MTO K a s ^ H i ! BHHOBHHH d y -AeT Oecnoma^Ho Ka3HeH. ^iTodn yjiyqniHTB noJioaceHHe He3aKOHopoac-AeHHHX AeTeft IleTp npHKa3aJi, B 1715-OM r o^y, ^TO6H BO Bcex ro-po^ax POCCHH 6HJIH OTKPHTH Aoua B KOTOPHX ontiTHBie aceHiUHHH 3ado-THJIHCB 6H O HHX. THnH^Ho AJEH IleTpa, HTO OH cpa3y H3^aBaJi npn-Ka3 o KaKoii-HHdy^B pe$opMe, ecjEH nojraraJi, ^TO CTOHJIO 6HJIO y a y ^ -IHHTB TO HJIH HHoe noJioaceHHe. IlepBBiH nncaTeJiB coodmaeT codHTHe B CBH3H C pa3BpaTH0CTBH) Hapfl. IIO eTO MHeHHK nHTKa H Ka3HB Ma-pHH TaMHJiTOH H ydHECTBO AjreKcea - BHpaaceHHe acecTOKOcTH IleTpa. MHe He xoTe-aocB OH TaK .aoJiro 3a,a.epacHBaTBCH Ha TeMe o acecTOKOcTH, HO TaK KaK 3ana^HaH n.HBH.a:H3an.H£ Bcer^a oHJBHHaeT POCCHM B Hen, TO H xony noKa3aTB, HTO ecTB dojiBmaa pa3HHna uexAy acecTOKocTBio HBaHa T p o 3 H o r o H IleTpa BeaHKoro. y nepBoro dHJia MaHHa noHTH ncnxonaTa, BH^HBmero Bcer^a H Be3^e H3MeHy H yHHacaa Bee ^ eaoBe^ecKHe ^OCTOHHCTBS OH ydHBaa caMHX cnocodHHx Jinn B CBoeM rocy^apcTBe. IleTp OAHH pa3 secTOKO yHHMToacHJt yna-CTByiomHX B BOCCTaHHH CTpeJIBHOB H TaKHM Odpa30M ^eMCTBOBaJI TaK KaK ^eMcTBOBajiH ^pyrne Kopcra. IlocJie Bonpoca o acecTOKOcTH Hac HHTepecyeT oTHOnieHHe napea K HHOCTpaHnaM. ECIBIHHHCTBO HHOcTpaHneB Haxo^ffniHxca B Be-JCHKOM MOCKOBCKOM KHnacecTBe H B napcKoM POCCHH nponcxo^HJiH H3 ceBepHHX H ceBepo-3anaAHHX eBponeHCKHX cTpaH. HBaH H IleTp npn-BeJTH - 16 -aHrJEHM&H, niBe^oB, roJutaH^neB H HeMneB. 06a napa 3 H a a H , o ToproBo-npoMHUUieHHOM n p e B o c x o A C T B e BTHX HaHHOHaJEBHOCTeft H MTO POCCHH ^oJDEHa y ^ H T B c a GTHM HaBHKaM y HHX. HBaH B TOM cMHCJie HaMaa noJtHTHKy, KOTopyio I leTp coBepmeHCTBOBaJi B noxHOM cMHCJce CJIOBa. XOTH HBaH npHHHMaJI CHOIlieHHil C TaKHMH JIK^BMH KaK ^ e H -c e a o p , fflaHTTe H ^ t p y r n e , IleTp nyBCTBOBaJi ce6n AOMa B HeMen. -KOH CJtoCOAe. HBaH HHKaK He AyMaJC O TOM, HTO HHOCTpaHH.H Moran 6HTB coBeTHHKaMH. OH npe^noqHTaJC p y c c i c n x , C H J i B B e c T p a , A ^ a n e B a , B a c M a H O B a , B n c K O B a T o r o , a H H o r ^ a npHHHMaJt coBeTHHKOM ^eaoBeKa T a T a p c K o r o n p o H c x o x j e H H H , KaK roxyHOBa. O^HaKo, c o B e T C K a a x a -TepaTypa cTapaeTcs noKa3aTB HBaHa rpo3Horo B STOM oTHomeHHH 6oJiee noxoacHM Ha I leTpa B e x H K o r o H coo6ni.aeT o HeM: " H naps KaK 6yATO nyBCTBOBaJt ce6fl CBO-do^Hee Hae^HHe c EHocTpaHnaMH, Heacexn B npHCyTCTBHH COHMa Ha^yTHX, /qonopHHx 60 H p " . 1 7 *ITO HH03eMitH HHoria 6HXH B no^eTe y HBaHa MH 3HaeM H3 npHMepa T e H p n x a MTaAeH. .ZJaxe y HBaHa Tpo3Horo Mya:e3eMn.H padoTaiouHe AJIX napn 6HXH HarpasczeHH .neHBraMH H noMecTBHMH. 3TOT $aKT BH^eH H3 . cnexyronieH BHJIHCKH: " Ilapw HyacHH JTM^H d H B a x a e , p a c T o p o n H H e , 3HaroniHe xopomo 3aMopcKHe MacTepcTBa , a pa^H s T o r o napB n o K p o B H T e x b C T B y e T ny-ace3eMHaM H pa3penaeT HM TaKoe, MTO He 18 •A03BOJCHeT CBOHM nOAAaHHHM". - 17 -I leTp JW6KJI H H o c T p a H n e B , H IlaTpHK Top^ o E H $paHD; JTeCpOpT dHJtH e r o CaMHMH BepHHMH Apy3£HMH. IleTp HeEHJI HEOCTpaE-rteB-peMecJieHHHKOB KaK EpaH^T, 3oMMep H THMMepMas, HO OH HHKOT-Aa He n p e H e o p e r a J i pyCCKHMH MacTtpaMH. OE noEHMajr r ^ e JieacHT CH-Jia HHocTpaHneB H r ^ e ae&HT cn j ia pyccKHX. BpeMH OT BpeMeHH OH Bee MeHBine onHpa-acH Ha HHocTpasneB. B CeHaTe TOJIBKO aHrJDiqaHHH Bpwc pyKOBOAHJi Bepr-H M a H y ^ a K T y p - K O J u r e r n e K . BepEHMH noMoiUHHKaMH IleTpa CTaJiH JOo^H H3 B c e x caoeB Hapo^ a . CaMHe BHCinne o$HH,epH IleTpa, Bopnc TOJIHEHH , . IfoJiropyKHH, TOJIOBHH, E e p e M e T s e B H B y T y -JCHE npOHCXO^HJIH H3 CTapHX 6ospCKHX (paMHJCHH. H3 ABOpflHCKHX $ a -MHJIHH cJiyacHJiH I leTpy rparpH I leTp TOJICTOH H A n p a K C H H . Cpe^H CTy-AeETOB He3HaTHpro npoHCXoa^eHHH 6UJIIS. AJ ieKcaH^p MesniHKOB, n p e -3H^eET BoeHHoK KOJiJierHH, noco j i H KaHHJiep IleTp HlatpnpoB H reHe-paJt-npoKypop flrysHHCKHH. C o B e T C K a a JiHTepaTypa B odmeM npH3HaeT BJIHHHHe 1'IHOCTpaEEeB B neTpOBCKOH POGCHH. OEa TOJIBKO 3aMe^aeT, HTO I leTp " n p H B e 3 Ea Pycs MEOTO " 3 a M o p c K H x " <5e3^eJi0K H BBeJi 1.9 MHOTO HeEyKHOH HEOSeMUHHH"• ^ K o r ^ a MH CMOTPHM na xapaKTepBH^aiomnxcH jno4eH,Tor^a HHTepeCHO 3aMeTHTB BJIHflHHe CKeHlHHH Ha HX M3HB. 4"TO MOXEO CKa-3aTB 06 HBaHe B OTOM oTHomeEHH? COBSTCKHM nncaTe-ziB B a x p y E H E OTMeTHJi cymecTBOBaEHe nepBOfi xeHH HBaHa O^HHM npe^jroseHHeM: " He H3MeHHJi nojioaceEHe H opaK n a p s c AoqepBio oKOJiBEHqBero PoMaHa B p s e B H -20 qa 3axapBHHa A H a c T a c n e M B cpeBpaJie l547r./' BoJiBiue o Heft B TOH EHiire HH^ero Ee CIHIUHM. faKTiiqecKH HBas npoBeJi TpHHa^naTB c^acTJiHBHx jreT co cBoef i A E a c T a c n e H . H A p y -roH coBeTCKHH nncaTeJiB oqeHB MEOTO paccKa3HBaeT KaK 06a OEH MOJIHJIHCB, HrpaJEH C CHHOBBHMH H O^eHB ApyXHO OTHOCHJIHCB ^ p y r - 18 -K ^ p y r y . O H oTMeTHJr K&K HBaH sadoTH j rca o c y n p y r e , K o r ^ a r o p e -Jia M o c K B a . Ho e c T B H A p y r n e cBe^eHHii o H e n , roBopHUHe o e r o r a p e i i e c nfecTH^ecaTBio ^eBynncaMH. B nocJie^HeM He 6HJLO 6H HH-qero o c o d e H H o r o ecjna STO He npHHHHHJio MyneHHft AeBymKaM H xeHinHHaM o ^eM coBpeMeHHan J iHTepaTypa c o o d m a e T : " DjapB HBaH 3aCTaBJIH.a dOJTDHHB-, 3HaTHHX H nOHTeHHHX 3aMyaCHHX SeHIUHH , SgH H odpyqeHHHX ^eByineK no3opHO noKa3HBaTB H OTKPHTO BHCTaBJIHTB CBOK) HaroTy, dec-CTH^HO HaApyrHBaJ iCH , ocKopdJ ina H n y d -2 1 JIH^HO yHHxaa HX KaK jaoAeH". j l p y r o f i coBpeMeHHHH aMepHKaHCKHK nwcaTeJiB paccKa3HBaeT COOHTHH r ^ e onpHHHHKH HBaHa cxBaTHXH HecKoJIBKO xeHiiiHH. " IIo ^aHHOMy 3HaKy HM OHJIO cKa3aHO cna-CaTB CBOJO 2CH3HB, B TO BpeMH KaK OnpHH-HHKH CTpeJCKH OdpailiaJIHCB C HHMH KaK C 2 2 tieJIOBe^eCKHMH MHBieHJlMH" . KaaceTCH , ^TO TOJEBKO BO BpeMa c B o e r o dpaKa c A H a c T a -CHeit HBaH oTHocHJica HopMaJIBHO K semitHHaM H noczte ee cMepTK HHKaKoro cnacTBH do-iBine He MOT HBHTH. ^TO K a c a e T C H I l e T p a , TO OH OHJC c o B c e M ApyrHM q e a o B e -KOM B STOM oTHOineHHH. O H Maao HHTepecoBaJicii xeHEtHHaMH. E r o MHCXH OHJtH 3aHHTH KopadaeCTpoeHHeM, BoeHHHMH noTexaMH, n o x o ^ a -MH npoTHB T y p o K . AHTJIHHCKHH nncaTeJ iB Tpefi ^ e a a e T xopomee yT-2 3 " Bepac^eHHe: " IIo H a T y p e OH (IleTp) npH3HaBaa e^HHoaceHCTBO". - 1 9 -3TO no-MoeMy oqeHB ZIOAXOAVLT KO BCSM cBoMcTBaM H npnBHHKaM e r o SH3HH. BoeHHHH Boac^B H a p o ^ a , KOTOPHH npoBeJi doJiBnyio q a c T B CBoen M 3 H H Ha BofiHe He MOT H He xoTeJ i npHBecrn c codof i rapeM, ecJiH OH He xoTejr pa3pyniHTB AHCHHnJiHHH CBOHX BOHCK. I leTp B c e r -Aa c T a p a J i c a OHTB npHMepoM AJLX CBOHX no^HHHeHHHx. 0 q e T H p e x aceHntHHax B e r o XH3HH ME MHOTO 3HaeM, e r o MaTB, e r o c e c T p a Ha-TaJ iBH, AHHa MOHC H E K a T e p H H a . C AHHOH IleTp CJHJI cBH3aH HO^TH ^ e c H T B jreT. C B H3B c H e i , BepoHTHo, He TaK cjryqaHHo c o B n a ^ a e T c HHOcTpaHHHM BJEHHHHeM HeMenKOH CJEO6O^H, noTOMy HTO I leTp n o -3HaKOMHJiCH c HeK Ha (5aJiy ycTpoeHHHM e r o CBMHM <5JIH3KHM ^ p y r o M § p a H H e M JlecpopTOM. Toace THnn-qHO AXZ I l e T p a , ^TO OH He caM Hapy-aiHJt CBH3B c AHHOM MOHC, a HTO OHa BJIK36HjracB B n p y c c K o r o noc j ra . I leTp B Haqa.ae ceBepHof i BOHHH BCTpeTHJt EKaTepHHy B JIHBOHHH. B TO ace BpeMH OHa 6uJia onodoBHHiieH MeHinHKOBa. ECJIH MH noBepHM AJieKceio ToJ icTOMy, T o r ^ a MetnnHKOB HapcqHO HOKpoBHTeJiBCTBOBaJr 3TOH C B£3H, TaK KaK OH, BepoHTHO, qyBCTBOBaJi r p y c T B I leTpa noc-Jie paccTaBaHHH c AHHOH. EKaTepHHa OHJia 6Aarou AJLZ I l e T p a , TaK KaK OHa HHor ^ a conpoBoac^BJia e r o B n o x o ^ a x H <5HJia B COCTOHHHH CMHPHTB e r o rneB. S a i c T , qTo IleTp aceHHjrcn Ha aceHniHHe T a K o r o HH3Koro npoHcxoac^eHHH yTBepac^aeT q e c T H O c T B I l e T p a , KOTopni i CMO--Tpea Ha AOCTOHHCTBO q e J i o B e K a , a He Ha e r o npoHCxoac/i;eHHe. ECJIH MH nOCMOTpHM Ha JTH^HyK) SH3HB 3THX H3BeCTHHX H a p e f i , T o r ^ a MH HaiJUeM MHOTO BHeinHHx H BHyTpeHHHX CXOACTB. OcTaHOBHMca cHa^a-aa Ha HapyacHHx. 06a uapn PO^HJIHCB OT BTOPHX sceH CBOHX OTHOB. OTen; HBaHa yMep K o r ^ a HBaHy rpo3HoMy 6M O TpH r o ^ a . OTen I l e T p a , AJteKcen MnxaitJioBHH, yMep icor^a MOJEOAO-My I leTpy O M O 3/J r o 4 a . XOTH MaTB I leTpa yMep.aa K o r ^ a OH yace 6HJI H a p e M , OH Bce-TaKH <5oiurcH 3aroBopa co CTOPOHH CogbBH H cTpe-SBiioB. - 20 -MaTB IleTpa ^ a c T o d o a x a c B 3a SH3HB c B o e r o CHHa K o r ^ a HM cysc-AeHO 6HXO SHTB B c.Ilpeo dpaseHCKO M. ^TO K a c a e T c a HBaHa r p o 3 H o r o OH C BOCBMH JieT o c T a J t -CH CHpOTOH PI KaaceTCH, *ITO C TOTO BpeMeHH ^o C B o e r o BeH^aHHS Ha H a p c T B O , B 15U7-OM r o ^ y , TaK MHOTO x y ^ o r o BH^ea OT pyK 60Hp, HTO BCK) XH3HB ^OJEKeH 6hlJl HeHaBH^eTB HX. BHe COMHeHHH, o d c T O H T e a B C T B a B KpeMJie c iy&HJiH pemaioiUHM $aKTopoM AJI% e r o AaJiz-HennieH 2CH3HH. B T e KHBie r o ^ H K o r ^ a I leTp 3aHHMaac5i noTexaMH c. ApyrHMH KHomaMH, HBaH c dpaTOM BpneM cvi&eji B K p e M x e , q y B C T B o -BaBniHH Bee odH^H doap H , B e p o n T H o , noMtnnxHJi o TOM, KaK OH Mor dn Ka3HHTB HX Kor.aa OH d y ^ e T B3pocaHM.. OH B c e r ^ a d o a a c H 3a CBOK XCH3HB. HHKaKHx ,a.py3eH y H e r o He dHjro. A e c s n H d n a n 4 p y -3BH, TO OH T o x e no^o3peBaJ i HX H e T a p a . i c H y d H T B . BepHHX A p y 3 e n roBopHBUHX eMy npaB,a.y, OH T e p n e a He ^oJ i roe BpeMs . HosTOMy CHJiBBecTp H A ^ a m e B , BncKOBaTHH H BacMaHOB nona-an B o n a x y . JIHH-Hyio M 3 H B HBaH npoBeJi B MHoroHHcaeHHHX noKOHX KpeMxa B TO B p e -MH K o r ^ a I leTp nyTemecTBOBaJi no POCCHH H y^acTBOBaJi B n o x o ^ a x . CpaBHHTeJIBHO c dypHofi AeHTeaBHOcTBio I leTpa HBaH T p o 3 -HHH He HMea no^odHHX CBOHCTB. OH c K o p e e KaaceTca BOJtHOBaaca He HMefl B03M03CHOCTH ^eJlaTB TO, *ITO OH XOTeJ dH. Oil OdBHHHJI CBOHX BHcnnx coBeTHHKOB, CHJ iBBecTpa H A ^ a m e B a B TOM, qTO OHH He ^ a B a -jm eMy n a p c T B O B a T B . H H n e r o He yjiyMHHJIOCB OTTOTO, HTO OH HX y c -TpaHHJt. XOTH OH caM . : rocy^apcTBOBaJi, OH HHKOMy He ^OBepHJi . 3TOT (paKT npennTCTBOBaJi e r o ^eHTeJiBHOcTH H He MOT BHymaTB B3a-c HMHOrO ^OBepHH e r o nOXKOBOXnaMU H nO,a.MHHeHHHMH. IIOSTOMy OHH d o -HJIHCB e r o H npe^no^HTaJ iH yderaTB Ha JiHTOBCKyjo TeppHTopnio . HBan TpaTHJI BCfO CBOK) SHeprHIO Ha BHJlaBJEHBaHHe CBOHX MHHMHX npOTHBHH-K O B - d o n p , 3aBJreKaJi HX B MocKBy H y d H B a a HX pa3HHMH c n o c o d a M H . - 21 -IleTp HeHaBH^eJ MocKBy. IlapB IleTp xoTear padoTaTB, y^HTBCH, CTPOHTB. 9TO yace 6UJIO HCHO c K)HHX aeT Kor^a OH npoBO-AMJi CBoe BpeMH c BoeHHHMH noTexaMH. OH xopomo yneJi B TO BpeMH coBMemaTB yqenne c padoToM. Ha BopoHeaccKHX Begrpax OH caM c yTpa AO Benepa padoTaJi TonopoM. PadoTaJi Ha Kopad-ztecTpoeHHH, ynacB y eBponefiCKHX MacTepoB H AaBax npHMep CBOHM pyccKHM Kpe-CTBHHaM KOTOPHX 3acTaB JUHJIH padoTaTB Ha BeoJpHX. TaKoro naps eme" He <3HJIO H nocae ero CMepTH, BeponTHO He (5y^eT, TaKoro naps KO-TopHli dn "'Be^ HO ToponacB" cnenHJi c OAHOTO Konna cTpaHH K Apy-roMy H padoTaJi. IleTpy Hyacen 6HJI <pH3HqecKHH TpyA H ABHaceHHe, KaK eMy HyacHa dHJia nHma H B03Ayx. OH TOP^HJICH TeM tpaKTOM, HTO y Hero Ha pyKax 6HJIH MOSOJIH. ToBopsT, MTO IleTp 3HaJi qeTHpHaA-iiaTB peMeceJi, HJIH Aase dojiBnte. Eny npHBH^HO C3HJIO AepacaTB B py-Kax Tonop, nnjry H AOJLOTO. Ha OoioHeitKHx 3aB0^ax KpecTBHHe TaK ero noMHHT: "BOT napB - TaK napBl JfapoM xJieda He eat, nyme 6a-TpaKa padoTaJi". CoBeTCKHft nncaTe.zrB K.TpeHeB AaeT IleTpy CKa3aTB 25 cJieAyroniHe cJtoBa: "MHe HeKor^a iiapcTBOBaTB, - y^HTBca HaAo". CKOPOCTB c KOTOPOH IleTp ^elcTBOBaJi BO BpeMH BOHHH yTBepac^eHa 3aMeqeHHHM cpaKTOM: 8-oro aBrycra 1700' -oro r o ^ a IleTp noJiynHa, HaKOHeii, OT yKpaHHiieBa coodmeHHe o 3aKJUo.qeHHH MHpa c TyprcHefi Ha TpH^naTB jieT. Ha ^pyroK .zceHB 9-oro aBrycTa 1700-oro r o ^ a pyc-CKoe BOMCKO cpa3y ABHHyjiocB K HapBe. ItoAodHoe codHTHe cJiyqHJiocB no3a:e. 6-oro MapTa 1711-oro roAa IleTp o$HiiHaJiBHO aceHHJtCK Ha EKaTepHHe. B TOT a:e caimS. Aenh OH yexajr B apMHK. IleTp TaK dne-Tpo ^eKcTBOBaJE H padoTaJi, noTOMy ^TO OH 3HaJt, ^TO de3 ero npn-cyTCTBHji Bee 6'yayT npeHedperaTB pa6oTofii. XOTS IleTp MHOTO nyTe-mecTBOBaJt, OH He TpaTHJi BpeMeHH B Aopore. ECTB ^aHHHe, HTO OH HanncaJi OKOJIO cTa nnceM no inyT-Hi H3 BapmaBBi AO CT. IleTepdypra. - 22 -ECJIH MH 6>y^eM HCKSTB MyBCTBO BeJiHKO^yinHa y HBaHa r p o 3 H o r o , TO Haina padoTa <3y^eT HanpacHa. HaM H3BecTeH c a y m a n , K o r ^ a n a p s HBaH Harpa^HJi doapHHa T p a x a H e T a K o r ^ a OH coodmnji eMy o poac^eHHH CHHa. " P a x y n c B HBaH CHHJI naasTo H o T ^ a a e r o H CBoero KOHH T p a x a H e T y " . ^ OH nomaAHJi ocTaBinnxcH B JKHBHX HOB-r o p o^neB. Ho STO i e n c T B H e MOXHO npHHHTB CKopee KaK HacMeniKy uaA JHOJBMH, a He KaK BeaHKOAymHe. OH npe.aocTaBJr.HJi MHOTO cpe^cTB Ann. y c T p o S c T B a nepKBefi, a c ApyroJ i CTOPOHH OH rpadHJi Ka3HeHHHX HM doap. BMecTe c ycep^weM B padoTe HanaeM y I leTpa Be^HKO^y-nrne H npjiMOTy. ECTB MHOTO npHMepoB , HO .aocTaTo^Ho npHBecTH TOJIB-KO HecKoaBKO. Kor,a.a IflepeMeTBeB B KypjCHH^HH DKaJEOBaJtCH I leTpy od yMeHBineHHH e r o KOMaH^H B BoftcKe, I leTp y^HTHBan e r o npexHHe 3a-CJiyrn, OTMeHHJi CBOH codcTBeHHHfi npHKa3 o peopraHH3anHH BOgcKa B KypjiHHAHH. ^pyrofii: cayman OTHOCHTCH K nodeac^eHHHM, nocj ie IIOJI-TaBCKOfi OHTBH, fflBe^aM. OH 0Ka3aJt HBe^aM, H ocodeHHO reHepaJty PeHHEtHJiBAy> s e e nonecTH, XBaJiHJt 3a xpadpocTB H no^apHJi CBOKJ nrnary . IIocJEe A c T p a x a H C K o r o B o c c T a H H a IleTp npHKa3aJi noma.zi.HTB y^acTByiomnx'. B dyHTe Ka3aKOB. ^eTBepTHii npHMep noKa3HBaioinHH Be-JiHKO^ynHe I leTpa K a c a e T c a OAHOTO BepHoro noMouiHHKa HoaHHa I l a -TKy j iH . IleTp HanpacHo nncaJi BceM KOPOJIHM E B p o n H , HTodH OHH x o ^ a -TaHCTBOBaJiH 3a IlaTKyjiH H c n o c o d c T B O B a x H e r o ocBodos^eHHJo .HHor -As. ma^HTB Koro-HHdy^B 3aBHCHJio H OT I l eTpa . HanpHMep cayman c BoMHapoBCKHM. Kor,aa T a M d y p r c K H H CeHaT BH^aJi e r o eMy , T o r ^ a I leTp He Ka3HHJi e r o , a cocjiajc noacH3HeHHo B C H d n p B . • . - 23 -ECJIH Bepi'iTB coBeTCKOH JiHTepaType, TO no HapyscHocTH I leTp noxo^HJi Ha n a p n H B a H a : " I leTp 6UJI HO^TH TpexapntHHHoro pocTa, H B TOJine caMHe BHCOKHC JTKUH O K a -27 3HBaJiHCB eMy no n j i e q o " . ' 4"T0 I leTp nopasaJI CBOHM B H G O K H M pOCTOM, H3BeCTHO H3 Bcex- AaHHHX o ero noceineHHH eBponeMcKHX CTOJIHII. Cea ^ a c MH TO-xe CIHUIHM 06 HBaHe rpo3HOM, ^TO OH "OHJI e^Ba He Ha neJiyio r o -jroBy BHne Bcex oKpyxaBnrnx e r o JHOAen, - njte^H BHCOKne H mnpo -28 Kan r p y^B, pyicn H H o r n rpoMa^HHe, - HacTOHniHM Be-MKaH1'. MHe KaaceTCH, HTO sxech c^ejiana naTuxKa, ^ T o o n MHTaTeJIH BHAejra B H§M B T o p o r o I leTpa BeJ iHKoro . 3TO BH.ZL.HO HS A p y r o r o MecTa: " IIOA 3B0H COdopHHX KO.IOKO.ZtOB Ha 6eJI0M agjpaMaKe BHexaJi H3 KpeMJtH BHCOKHH, 29 6paBHK napB HBaH BacHJEBeBHq" . J ' HaMeKH Ha CXOACTBO HBaHa Tpo3Horo c ITeTpoM Be-ztHKHM MOXHO HanTH E B 3arpaHHHH0fi J tHTepaType. TaM roBopOT, qTo Ile'Tp BeJiHKHH CJieAOBaJr noJtHTHKe H MeTo^aM HBaHa Tpo3Horo, Ha^HHan c s e c T O K O c T H H KOHqaji "oTKpHTHeM OKHa Ha 3anaA". B A p y r o M MecTe r o B o p a T " o y^HTiSJie, KOTOPHM HBaH 6UJI AJIK I l eT -p a . I leTpa T a r a e O6BHHHIOT KaK cTpaniHoro ydnitny. KoHe^HO I leTp c ieAOBaJ i noJiHTHKe H B a H a , TaK KaK OHa dMa JxyqmeH RJLSI p y c -C K o r o Hapo^a H r o c y ^ a p c T B a . XOTH e r o H^en OHJEH n o x o M M H Ha H B a H a , HO HX BLinooiHeHHe (3HJTO ^ p y r n M , noTOMy HTO OH 6UJL c o B c e M A p y r H M qejroBeKOM, HecMOTpa Ha TO, ^TO HecKO-ziBKO BHem-HHX $aKTOB noKa3HBaioT Ha doJiBinoe CXOACTBO Meac^y napHMH. - 2k -TaK, HanpHMep, 06a OHH 6HJIH npHMHHofi cMepTH CBOHX CHHOBeH. O^HaKo o6cToaTeJiBCTBa 6HJIH pasJCHHHHe. y HBaHa Tpo3-Horo H3-3a ero HeBecTKH npoH3onuia ccopa c CHHOM, KOTOPHH 3am.Hin.aJi ee. OTen. B THeBe y^apna e r o nocoxoM no BHCKy TaK CHJEBHO, HTO nsTB ^Hefi no3,aHee OH CKOHHaacH OT yAapa.'fTo Ka-caeTCH napeBHHa, AJieKcen IleTpoBHHa, TO OH nocTeneHno caeJiaJi-CH IieHTpOM npOTHBOnOCTaBJteHHH npOTHB neTpOBCKHX HOBHeCTB. TaK KaK OH He nuex xapaKTepHHX CBOHCTB cBoero 3HaMeHHToro OTHa j He AO BO JIB HHe 3 JieMeHTH rocy^apcTBa noJiB30BajrHCB HM,JJIH pa3pyneHHa neTpoBCKHX pe$opM. K o r ^ a OH yOescaJi B ABCTPHIO H B HTaJiHio OH 6HJI nonMaH o<J)Hn.epaMH IleTpa H B03BpameH B POCCHKJ. IleTp Hamei npH3HaKH 3aroBopa npoTHB ce6a H nepejiaji u a p e B H -^a, KaK rocy^apcTBeHHoro npecTynHHKa, cy^y. BepxoBHHH cy,n COCTCHIEHH H3 127~MH BHCIHX CaHOBHHKOB npHrOBOpHJI eTO K CMep-TH. 06a cayman 6HJIH ne^iaJiBHHMH. Henpe^ynpesieHHHH HHTaTeJtB, BepoaTHO, 6oJiBine coMyBCTByeT HaQny Tpo3HOMy, KOTOPHH HCKpe-HHO rpycTHJi o CHHe OT jr«)6HMoy xeHH AHacTacHH, qeM IleTpy. IleTp 0Ka3aJICH HeCTHHM B TOM OTHOIlieHHH, HTO OH He noKa3aJi Tpa-ypa, KOToporo OH He ^ yBCTBOBa JI. 06 STOM $aKTe Toxe coo6inaeT coBeTCKaa JiHTepaTypa: " 26 HKHH 1718 r o ^ a , B cnpoM, Mpa^HOM Ka3eMaTei ymeJt B He6HTHe ero e p H -CTBeHHHH CHH, a Ha CJteXyMHIHH 4eHB IleTp myMHO npa3ji.H0BaJi roiioBiiiHHy 30 IIOJITaBCKOH "BHKTOpHH". " - 25 -naoxHe oTHonieHHH Mexcay I leTpoM H CHHOM 6H^H pe3y.a£TaTOM pacTopxeHHH I leTpoM ero dpaKa c EBAOKHei l . DjapeBH^: ocTaBuiHgcH Ha noneneHHH CBOHX T§TOK BHpoc de3 MaTepHHCKOfi JOodBH. A KOT-A& I leTp c T a a HM H H T e p e c o B a T B C H , 6UJIO CJIHBIKOM n o 3 4 H o . I l a p e B H ^ : dosJicH oTHa H He BHCKa3HBa.a HHKaKoK SHeprHH B padoTe. HHTepecHo Toace, n o - M o e M y , oTHoneHHe napef i K XHBOT-HHM. Bo.aee c T a p a n H coBeTCKaa -aHTepaTypn coodnaroT HSM H e c -KOJTBKO cay ^ a e B . TaK Kxo^eBCKHH paccKa3HBaeT, HTO canaawH HBaH n p H K a 3 a a pa3pe3aTB Ha KyCKH cJiOHa, KOTOPHH He xoTe-a CKJIO-HHTBCH n e p e 4 HUM. H 3 B e c T e H TaKxe c a y n a f t , KaK MOXOAOH i iapB 3 a -daBJiHJicfl d p o c a s codaK H KomeK c daatHH. O^HaKo coBeTCKaa JCH-T e p a T y p a BHCTaBJEaeT HBaHa KaK aiodHTeJia J tonaAen: 11 A yTpoM OH ( n a p s HBaH) nomea Ha KOHiommo H caM, codcTBeHHopy^Ho, noKopMHJi H HanoHJi CBoero cTapo-ro KOHH, Ha KOTOpOM coBepniH.a Ka-3aHCKHH noxca".^ 1 HXH: " ^lacTo, paccepAHBEtHCB Ha donp H CJiyacHJiHX jno^eH, HBaH yxo^HJt B KOHKfflHK H TaM npOBO^HJT iiexae ^ a -CH, OCMaTpHBafl CBOHX KOHefi, 32 .amdyscB KpacaBHaMH-cKaKyHaMH". 0 I leTpe c o B e T C K a a XHTepaTypa Toace coodmaeT cayMaii o JHO dBH K SCHBOTHHM. MHe KaaceTcs, *JTO T a K o e ^yBCTBO do-asme noxo^HT Ha I l e T p a . IIpoTHBonocTaHOBJieHHH H HHr,ae He Hame-a.IleTp npneyTCTBOBaJi npn onnTe, KOTopni i \aoKTop A p e c K H H npoH3BOAHJt HaA aacTOHKofi, nonecTHB e e no,a. cTeKXHHHHH KcanaK B03^yniHoro H a c o c a . Kor^a I leTp yBH^eoi 3aTpeneTaBmyio JtHmeHHyio B03,ayxa nTHMKy OH OCTaHOBHJI AOKTOpa CJIOBaMH: "IIOJIHO, He OTHHMafi M 3 H B - 26 -go y TBapn de3BpeAHoM, OHa He pa3dOHHHK". POCCHH He eAHHCTBeHHaH cTpaHa B KOTOpOM HHTepecH rocyAapcTBeHHofi BJiacTH coBnaAaJiH c HHTepecaMH rrepKBH. B Hcna-HHH, AHrjiHH H HlBen.HH HaCiJiioAaeTCH TO ace caMoe. HBaH H IleTp xo-ponro HOHHMaJIH coAeficTBHe STHX AByx ajteMeHTOB H enie 6ojihwe ycHJtHBaJiH ero noAHHHeHHeM iiepKBH XIOA BJracTB rocy^apcTBa.Ilpn ijapcTBOBaHHH HBaHa BaccnaHHH KaK HecTHacaTeJiH npoTHBonocTaBJIH-JIH HOCH$JiHHaM KaK cTjiacaTeJie&. HBaH noAAepacHBaJt HOCH^JTHH, TaK KaK Ooape, 3ap£CB Ha nepKOBHiie 3eM.iH noAAepxcHBaJiH BaccnaHneB. B Tosce caMoe BpeMH OH JTHBIHJI nepEOBB MHTPOHOJIHTOB H HryMeHOB. HBaH npHKa3aoc y6HTB enncKona TepMana H MHTponoJiHTa ^HJinnna. CoBeTCKaa JiHTepaTypa oTMeqaeT yHH^ToaceHHe irepKOBHHx npHBHJUie-THM C nexhio y^epxaTB KpecTBHH Ha ABOPHHCKHX 3eMjrax H AO6aBJtH-eT, HTO 3To 6HJI nepBHH mar K nojraoMy 3aKpenomeHHio KpecTBHE. Ilpn rocy^apcTBe IleTpa cTapoBepn Bee enie' npoTHBono-CTaBJlHJIHCB npaBOCJlaBHHM, KOTOptie npHHSJIH HHKOHCKHe HOBnrecTBa. IleTp noAAepacHBaJt nocieAHHx, HO Bce-TaKK BBOAHJI Ba&HBie iiepKOB-HHe peipopMH B HavaJie 1700-oro ro.21a.H3 KneBa IleTp AocTajr He-CKOJIBKO 06pa30BaHHHX IiepKOBHHX CaHOBHHKOB C nOMOIIIBK) KOTOpHX OH O^HCTHJI nepKOBB OT HpaBCTBeHHoro ynaAKa. TenepB doraTHe MO-HacTHpn AOXSCHH OHJIH OT^aTB JiHiEHHe AOXOAH rocy^apcTBy. O H yMeHBniHJi qncJio MOHaxoB B MOHacTBipnx H TOJIBKO MOHaxaM, a He MHpsHaM no3BOJieHO 6HJIO ocTaBaTBCH B HHX. BeaHKopyccKoe Ayxo-BeHCTBO OHJEO HeAOBOJiBHo STHMH pe$opMaMH. Ho nocie CMepTH MHTpO — noJE-HTa A^pnaHa, OHO 6UJIO JtHineHO AyxoBHoM rjiaBH. Bjiaro^apH ne-TpoBCKHM pe$opMaM noBeAeHHe MOHaxoB H yBasceHHe K npaBocziaBHOK HepKBH yjiyniUHJiocB - 27 -ToBOpH O HepKBH HeJTB3JI BBHiyCTHTB HaCMenUTHBOCTB napeM KaA Hen. IIo npHKa3aHHio IleTpa d'HJi co3AaH "BceinyTeHffiHH H BcenBHHeninHH codop" , Ha^ KOTOPHM napcTBOBaJi ero cTapnfi y^HTeJEB HHKHTa 30TOB. He XBaTeT BpeMeHH rOBOpHTB 06 3T0M noApo6HO nosTOMy MOXHO CKa3aTB TOJIBKO, HTO H3AeBancB HaA HepKOBBK) IleTp BHpaSCaJI CBOB HeTepnHMOCTB K eg K0HCepBaTH3My H HecnocodHocTH. Bo "BceiuyTeMneM H BcenBHHeHitteM codope" MOSCHO OT-MenaTB He TOJIBKO ero oTHomeHHe K nepKBH, HO TaKace H cKa3aTB 0 BpeM5inpoBo»cAeHHH IleTpa BeJiHKoro OKpyaceHHH. CTOHT ASLTI> OAHH npHMep AeTaJtBHO onncaHHHX pa3BJie-qeHHK MOJioAoro naps: " PacTHHyBinHCB no Bcefi yjinne, Me^JieHHO exaJTH TeJiern Ha CBHHBHX - no niecTH KTyK; odMa3aHHHX ,serTeM,odBaJieHHHX nepBHMH; HH3eHBKHe OAHOKOJIKH Ha K03Jtax, - Ha codaKax. B caHax, TeJie-rax, TejreacKax CH^eJiH JUOAH B JIHKOBHX mjisnax, B mydax H3-Mo^aJiBHHX Kyjien,B coJiOMeHHHX canorax:, B MHDIHHHX pyKaBH-iiax. Ha HHHX dmiH KacpTaHH H3 necTptix JIOCKyTOB, C KOmaHBHMH XBOCTaMH H JianaMH". He TOJIBKO B MocKBe H HeMeirKOH cJiodoAe IleTp oTJinqaJiCH rpydocTBio CBOHX myTOK, HO OH T o x e B ToJUiaHAHH He 3adHBaJi o HHX: " KorAa EBHUI CHHJI npocTHHio c pa3HHToro AJiz aHaTOMHH Apyroro Tpyna, - n.apB 3aMeTHJi oTBpameHHe Ha jranax CBOHX pyc-CKHX CnyTHHKOB,THeBHO 3aKpHqaB Ha HHX, npHKa3aJi HM 3ydaMH dpaTB H pa3pHBaTB MyCKyJiH Tpyna . . . " . ^ - 28: -HBaH Tosce jno6vui BeceJIHTBCH C apy3BHMH, BHHHTB H CO-BepmaTB pa3HHe o p r H H B a.epeBeHCKHX K a d a K a x . B STOM OH o n a npea.-mecTBeHHHKOM napa IleTpa. OH CO CBOHMH OKpy&eHHHMH H3a .eBaacH HaA BHCIHHMH ^ HHOBHHKaMH H CMeZJLCSl USA TeMH, KOTopne AepscaancB C XOCTOHHCTBOM. XOTH HCTOpHKH HHoraa O(5paBiaK)TCH K HBaHy c nposBHDieM H a p B - M O H a x , TO TOJIBKO B Ha^aae e r o ;KH3HH 6HJH BH^HH npH3HaKH T a K o r o CBOHCTBa• C KHHX aeT OH 3aHHMaacn TeoaorH^ecKHMH Bonpo-c a M H , AorMaTH^ecKHMH npodjreMaMH KaToaH3Ma H CPB30M iiepKBeii. H"3yHaa HCTOPHK eMy oneHB noHpaBHJiHCB BH3aHTHficKHe n a p n H HX BHcoKoe nooroaceHHe B TOM ;se n a p c T B e . OH i i y M a i o TOM, KaK MOX-HO 6iiao 6H noBHCHTB noaoaceHne BeJiHKoro KHsaecTBa. 9TH pa3MHin-aeHHH HaBeaH Ha Hero nneaHHfl HryMeHa Hocnqba B o a o K o a a M c i c o r o , KOTOpHH AOJI03SMJI, OTO HHKTO He MOJKeT npOTHBOCTOHTB BeJtHKOMy KHH3K). KpoMe TOTO KAes. caM03BaHHa HpaBHJiac& niecTHaa.iiaTHaeTHe-My BDHone. HBaH Bocnoa£30BaacH HMH H BeH^aaca Ha iiapcTBo Kora.a eMy HcnojtHHJtocB TOJIBKO ceMHaai iaTB aeT. E e c n o m a a H o c T B HaTypn c T a a a BH^Ha eine AO e r o BeH^aHHH Ha H a p c T B o , Kora . a HBaH npHKa3aa Ka3HHTB KHK3K Kyp6cKoro H CBoero npesHero a .pyra BopomioBa. HecMOTpa Ha "BcemyTeninHH H BcenBHHeSniHH c o f i o p " IleTp 6UJI npeAaHHHM CTOPOHHHKOM npaBocaaBHoft iiepKBH. OH He aio6Ha npeyBeaHneHHOH iiepeMOHHH, HO OH He npeHe6peraa cayacOoii, K KOTO-po l i OH npHBHK c K)HHX aeT. OH nyBCTBOBaa npncyTCTBHe Bora Haa. HHM H HHKoraa He 3a6nBaa fiaaroaapHTB e r o n o c a e no6eaH. OH He Oiia HadoscHHM, HO HHKora.a He <5na H x a H x o l . OH MHOTO 3Haa o apy-r n x peanrnflx H He c T e c H a a c a XCZCHTB B apyrne n e p K B H . " B Bnpsae OH n p H c y T C T B O B a a Ha OorocayaceHHH B PHMCKOH KaToaHMecKOH •qacoB-„ 36 He". - 29' -37 IIo coBeTCKOM JiHTepaType IleTp "BPHA JIH 6UJI ocodeHHO Hadoacen". ' OHa Aaasine yTBepacztaeT, *JTO B ero JIIO6BH K nepKOBHOMy neHHio MoacHO BH^eTB cBoitCTBeHHoe IleTpy cTpeMJieHHe K MacTepcTBy BO BceM, B qacTHocTH, B neHHH. MHe KaaceTCH, *rro STO od^HCHe-HHe CJIHIUKOM npocTo . B CBH3H C oTHomeHHeM iiapefi K nepicBH npn-AeTCH saMeTHTB > qTo 3HaqHTeJiBHoe qncJio noAAaHHX c^HTaJio odonx napeft aHTHxpncTaMH. npocToii Hapo,s> KSK H BHCOKocToaimie JIKUH, BHASJIH B HHX rocyAapeM, KOTopne OTKJCOHHJIHCB OT cTapnx npHHH-STHX TpaAHHHH. COBeTCKaH JIHTepaTypa , BepOHTHO, BHAHT B STHX OdCTOHTeJIBCTBaX npH^HHy HenpepHBHOM aHTH-peJIHrH03HOH nOJIHTH-KH B CoBeTCKOM Coio3e. He JiHniHHM 6y^eT OTMCTHTB, HTO cMepTB AHacTacHH no-racHJia B HBaHe Tpo3HOM TO rJiydoKoe HpaBCTBeHHoe qyBCTBO,KO-Topoe OHa cyMeJia npody^HTB B HSM K Hefi. 0 cMepTH Apy3elt OH HHKOTAa He nJiaEaJi. HaodopoT,oH HX HJEH noJiHTHHecKH yHHHToxaJt, KaK CHJiBBecTpa, HJIH npHKa3HBaJi ydHBaTB HX KaK EacMaHOBa,BHC-KOBaToro H MHTponoJEHTa* cJHJiHnna. 4"TO KacaeTCH Toro, HTO y IleTpa BeJiHKoro dHJin Apy-rne qyBCTBa K qeJioBeKy MH BHAHM H3 HecKO JIBKHX npHMepoB:Kor-38 Aa yMep BopoHeaccKHM MHTpono JIHT MHTpodbaH IleTp "ropaqo nJiaKaJr" MH Toxe 3HaeM, MTO OH 6UJI 6e3yTeniHHM nocJie cnepTH SpaHHa Jte-$opTa. y3HaB o CMepTH KapJia X I I OH cKa3aJi CTOHBHHM OKOJEO Hero JIKUHM, roJiocoM HOJIHHM cJie3:"Ax, Kapjr,MOH dpaT! KaK MHG 39 sea JIB Teds!". y CBOHCTBOM, KOTOPHM He odJia.zr.aJi HBaH rpo3HHH - dHJia CKpOMHOCTB. C HHHX JleT OH pa3MHHIJ[HJI O B03MOaCHOCTH BO3BHMeHHH BejiHKOKHflacecKoro AocTOHHCTBa. Kor^a eMy HCHOJIHHJIOCB ceMHaAnaTB - 30 -aeT, OH caM noBHcna c e d s BeH^aHHeM Ha i i a p c T B o . Ecan HBaH n o -Kasaa CKPOMHOCTB, KaK B c a y n a e oTpe^eHHa OT npecToaa, B 15SU r o a y , TO 3Ta d n a a ToaBKO noaHTHtjecKafl Hrpa c Heasio noay^HTB OT Hapoaa c o r a a c n e Ha co3aaHHe onpn^HHii. ^ITO H noaTBepanaocB no3aHee. TaKyio se CKPOMHOCTB OH eme pa3 npoHBHa B 1.575-OM r o -ay, Koraa OH c a e a a a "BeaHKHM Knxsein. B e e n PycH" KpemeHoro " i i a -p n " CHMeoHa BeKdyaaTOBH^ ia , a caM c T a a 3 B a T £ c e d a "KH5i3eM MOC-KOBCKHM". HapcKHJi T H T y a KaK 6H Hcqe3 c o B c e M H onpn^HHa C T a a a "asopoM". I locae a s y x aeT HBaH C B e p r n y a c n p e c T o a a C'HMeoHa. Ha 9To MOSHO B03pa3HTB, w o IleTp BeaHKHH c a e a a a TO xe caMae , K o r -aa OH Ha3Ha*iaa *eaopa BpBeBHna PoMoaaHOBCKoro "KH£3eM-KecapeM". Ho y I leTpa npn^HHa d n a a T a K a n , <ITO OH aencTBHTeaBHO n e p e a a a cBOHKy npaBHTeaBCTBo Ha BpeMa'CBoero OTcyTCTBHH. EMy diiao HH-TepecHee y^HTBCH 3arpaHHiieH ieM pyKOBoaHTB cTpaHOH. Ilapio H B a -Hy HH^iero doaBmero He xoTeaocB, KaK ToaBKO rtapcTBOBaTB oaHOMy H nooTOMy cHMyanHHH oTpe^eHHH OT npecToaa HBaneTCH doaBniOH JlOXhlO. IleTp x o p o n o 3Haa CBOHCTBO CKPOMHOCTH. I locae OHTBH n o a JlecHOH, cooduian BceM o n o d e a e , IleTp HH caoBa He CKa3aa o e r o p o a n B TOH c x B a T K e . I locae HnniTaTCKoro MHpa ceHaT H CH-Hoa n o a H e c a n I leTpy THTya zMnepaTopa, HaHMeHOBaHHe BeaHKoro H OTHa OTe^ecTBa. I leTpy caMOMy HHKoraa He npnxoaHaa B roaoBy MHcaB, MTO c npHHHTHeM HMnepaTopcKoro TKTyaa OH an-qHo noBHcna cedK B r a a 3 a x Hapoaa. I l eTp odHKHOBeHHo yHHcsaa ce6H.0H dpaa Ha c e d n caMHe He3HavHTea&HHe p o a n is HHKoraa He rHymaacn ^epHoft-. padoTOH.B TOH apMHH,KOTopyio OH co3aaa,IIeTp 3acTaBHa c e d a cayXHTB c caMoro HH3KOTO p a H r a dapadaHinHKa ao ^HHa aaMHpaaa B npoaoa-seHHH npndaH3HTeaBH0 TpnanaTH aeT. Pa3HHn.y B xapaKTepe iiapeM MOSHO Toace 3aMeTHTB B o<3,BHBJieHHH BOHHH npoTHB JIHBOHHH. Y HBaHa rpo3Horo OHJI noA-HOT Bonpoc o TaK Ha3HBaeM0H AaHH. Corjiacno npeABapHTe JiBHOMy AoroBopy, 3aKJiMMeHHOMy B MocKBe H B ±55k~ou roAy yTBepacAeH-HOMy, .zTjepnTCKaH odJiacTB o6fl3HBaJiac£ njiaTHTB ^aHB MOCKOBCKOMy rocyAapio. H TaK KaK JIHBOHHH He nJtaTHJiH AaHH, HBaH Tpo3HHH HaqaJi BoSHy. 4"TO KacaeTcn o6pa3a ASHCTBHH HBaHa rpo3Horo,To coBeTCKan H 3arpaHHqHan JiHTepaTypH coBepmeHHO corJiacHH. OA-HaKO B o6cyxA©HHH ero nocTynKa MHeHHH pa3^eJIHIOTCH. B coBeT-CKOM JiHTepaType ynoMHHyT ^oroBop 1508-oro r o ^ a uex,Ay JIHBO-HHeft H MOCKBOH. IIO AOTOBOpy JIHBOHUaM HaAO 6HJI0 nJTaTHTB AaHB. " HO HeMlIH He BHCKa3HBaJCH SeJtaHHH HJiaTHTB AOJirn. HanpoTHB, OHH B c e r ^ a H Be3^e cTapaJiHCt npHqHHHTB MocKBe Bpej;".^ 0 B 3arpaHHqHOH JiHTepaType npHHHHa OTOH BOHHH c^HTaeTcn HeyBa-KHTeJIBHOH: " IIpeAJIOr , KOTOpHH B KOHHe KOHH.OB 6HJI BHHCKaH H3 nponuioro 6HJI XIOAXOAZMKU AJiH KOMHqecKOH onepH".^'"*' IleTp BeJIHKHH He JHO<5HJI npHTBopsTBCH. 9-oro aBrycTa IleTp ofi-bHBHJi BofiHy fllBeHHH 3a BpeA npHqeHeHHHH pyccKOMy napcTBy H ocoCeHHo eMy JIHHHO BO BpeMa ero nocemeHHH Pnrn. B TO BpeMH KaK HBaH neJiHMH MecHHaMH BeJi neperoBopn c JiHBOHiiaMH, IleTp B OAHH AeHB pa3penaJi JIHHHM ASHCTBHH. - 32 -HecMOTpa Ha HepentHTeJiBHocTB HBaHa rpo3Horo BO B p e -MA: odMBJieHHH BOHHH JiHBOHHaM,coBeTCKas JIHTepaTypa Bce-TaKH C T a p a e T c a BHCTaBHTB HBaHa rpo3Horo B BVLAQ " I leTpa B e J i H K o r o " . 9TO ocotfeHHO 3aMeTHo, K o r A a pe^B HA&T o BHemHen H BHyTpeHHet noJiHTHice i iapa H B a H a . B :!?BeJiHKOM r o c y A a p e " BJiaAHMHp CoJioBBeB A a e T cKa3aTB cBoeMy repoK): " BOT TaK H a 3a TpHAHaTB jreT H3 Ma-EHX HapCTB B HenpHMeTHHX KHH2EeCTB .Hep&aBy pyccKyio. B 0 3 A B H r ! . . . 2x2 Ee Me^OM H XHTpOCTBK yMHOSCHJI ..." OAHaico B TOH xe n s e c e HBaH npH3HaeT nopaxeHHe pyccKHX BOHCK B JlHBOHHH CJEOBaMH: " OT Mopa AO n o p n npHAeTCH HaM, 60Hpe» OTCTynHTBCH ... A TaM OIISTB Ha^HeM . . . u g E'e3 Mopn HaM He OHTB!" . Bo BpeMH MHpHoro A o r o B o p a c B'aTopneM HBaH roBopHT o 3HaqeHHH CBoero nopaxeHHn: " 3KHH KJiaAJ OH IIcKOBa He HCKaJi , a MH HCKaJIH Mopn, K o r A a BoilHy c HHM 3aqaJiH". IIpeacAe qeM HBaH HaxoAHJicH Ha BOHHe c IfoJiBHeH e r o BOHCKa nepeaiJiH qepe3 noJiBCKy» TeppHTopnio B 1557-OM r o A y B BOHHe npoTHB T a T a p . B odpameHHH K IIoJiBne HBaH npeBocxoAHJi HAen I leTpa B e J i H K o r o : - 3 3 -" HBaH IV sex o^HOBpeMeHHo n e p e r o B o p n C XHTOBCKHMH nOCXaMH O CBOeM H36paHHI'I Ha noaBCKHit n p e c T o a H C repMaHCKHM HM-n e p a T o p o M o pa3.4e.ae Penn n o c n o a K T H O H , c TeM HTOOH K HMnepHH o T O M a noactata H I IpyccHH, a K MocKBe JI'HTBa H JIHBOHHH". V B ydejxaeHHHX, OTO Bee TO, HTO OHH npeanpHHHMaioT, npaBHJiBHO, HBaH rpo3HHM H IleTp B'eJtHKHH o^HHaKOBH. HBaH o c a -&vs.JL P e s e x B H x p y r a e anBOHCKne r o p o a a , H Bce-Tara roBopna " c B o e B3HJiii MH, a He Hyxoe noxHTHxa". IIO^O6HO OTOMy p y c c K H e pacnpocTpaHHJiH B iBei^HH MaHHtpecT I leTpa " 0 BHHOBHHi-cax BOHHH" B KOTOPOM n a p s 3aHBJraJi o MHpHiix HaMepeHHHX POCCHH. 8TO OHXO QAeJi&Eo HecMOTpn Ha TO , *ITO PO«?G-HS. c o e a H H H a a c B c JlaHHeii H CaKCOHHeH-IIOaBIIieH ^TOOH YHH^TOSEHTB BoeHHoe npeBocxoacTBo HlBe-HHH. *ITO K a c a e T C H noJTHTHKH K IIoaBiiie, TO IleTp BexuKHH 06-XO^HJIGH c Beta KaK c 3aBoeBaHHOii cTpaHOH. IIOCTOHHHO HOBHe a p -MHH HacTynaan B 3Ty cTpaHy. To cBHpencTBOBaJt P e H H e , TO l e p e -MeTeB HXH MeHIUHKOB B POJIH AHKTaTOpOB HeC^aCTHOg CTpaHH. noJtB-l a c T p a a a a a OoaBHieii ^acTBK H3-3a 3sa.2HCT.SHBOCTH CBoero K o p o x a . IIo3TOMy efi npniaxocB 3anaaTHT£ 3a STO BO BpeMH C e B e p H o t BOHHH. yrHeTeHHe npaBocxaBHHx co CTOPOHH noxaKOB no3BOXHJio I leTpy BMe-nHBaTBCfl BO BHyTpeHHHe a e x a nox&mH. P y c c K H e a e H B r n a e H C T B O B a -x a Ha MHOPHX nox&CKHX MarHaTOB. KpoMe T o r o , Ha p e f i x c T a r e B rpQ.Zt.HO SHTeJTH SaJIOBaJtHCB Ha HaCHXHfl npH^HHHeMHe pyCCKHMH BOit-CKaMH. B HBHe 1705-oro r o a a I leTp 6UJI c pyccKofi apMHeii OKO-JLO Ho.xoiiKa H noceTHX TaM c HeKOTopHMH conpoBOxaawinHMH yHHaTc-KHH MOHaCTHpB. YHHaTCKHe C B £ I H e H H H K H B e x n Ce6H O'^ teHB BH3HBaiOIHe no OTHonieHHK) K HeMy. - 3k -" T y T IleTp BHineJI H3 c e d a H npHKa3aJi CBoen CBHTe apecTOBaTB caanteHHHKOB. OHH OKa3a-JIH conpoTHBJieHHe H p y c c K H e BHxsaTHH m n a r n y6HJIH HeTBepnx I13 H H X " . ^ EtecMOTpa Ha TO , HTO IleTp CTapaJtca . n p n o d p e c T H EIOJIB-my icaic coK>3HHn,y, OH xopoino 3HaJi HOJIHKOB H KaK p y c c K H f i He JIIO-dHJt HX.STOMy MOCKHO aaTB d t i lCHeHHe. IIpHHHHa B TOM, HTO nOJMKOB H p y c c K H X B OCHOBHOM MaJio HTO od'&e.aHHHJio. X O T H o d a Hapoaa Hapoaa cjiaBHHCKoro njieMeHH, HX peJtHrH0.3Hoe H icyjiBTypHoe pa3-BHTne aeJ iaeT me^Aj HHMH pa3JiHqHe. KaacAHM Hapoa ocysaaJi x a p a K -TepHHe CBOHCTBa a p y r o r o . P y c c K H e c^HTaJtH ropaocTB nojiHKOB H HX; JIB:6OBB K <paJiBiiiHBO>H naiiiiEocTH npH3HaKOM BeTpeHHOcTH. C AW roM CTopoHH noJISKH npHHHMaJCH r p y d E H TOE MocKBH^eii 3HaKOM y n -pHMCTBa, He JIOBKOCTH H He AO CTaTICa 3HaHHS B 2KH3HH. IIOJEHKH HHKor-a a He OTHOCHJIHCB CnOKOHHO K TOMy, qTO KaCaJIOCB HaHHOHaJCBHHX AeJi. " PaHBine -qeM y a p y r n x HapoaoB MOXHO dHJto BH^eTB C KaKHM BOCTOprOM OHH BHTeCH£JIH H3HK coceaen H BBO^HJIH CBOH codcTBeHHtie o.d3S'HaaH,To^KH 3peHHs, CBOIO. oaescay H n a e n t. k7 BMecTO r o c n o a c T B y K i n H TaM". ' MeHee rnd'KHe pyccKHe dosJiHCB aToro C B o l f c T B a H GHH-TaJIH, WO OHH aOJISCHH 3aiIIHIHaTB CBOH HpaBH H H^eH O MOpaJIH. IIpHBa3aHHOCTB K TpaaniiHaM n p a a e a o B He OTHOCHTCH K ypoBHK, D;HBHJiH3aiiHH. 9TO - ^ a c T B ^ te j ioBe^ecKoro x a p a K T e p a , He e r o pa3yMa. OCHOBHOH aHTaroHH3M mexAy pyccicHMH H no JtHKaMH JieacaJi B H a T y p e pyccKHX H noj iHKOB, a He B MeJIKHX pa3JiHqHHX Mesay n p a -BocjiaBHHMH H KaTOJiHKaMH. IIosTOMy Hac He yaHBHT K o r a a IleTp B "Ha a n d e " r o B o p H T : - 35" -" B noJiBine. nocaAHJtH CTaHHCj iaBa l e n i H H C K o r o , -H lib JIB ni a npoTHB H a c " . ^ yjse B cepe^HHe 1.6-oro BeKa B aBTopHTeTHBix no JIHTH— qecKHX Kpyrax 3ana,a.H0H E B p o n n cymecTBOBajro aHTH-pyccKoe Ha-C T p o e H H e . 3an.aJi.HaH E B p o n a xoTeJia TOJIBKO TaKHX OTHoraeHHH c POCCHefi, KOTOpBie npHHOCHJIH 6H eJt OKOHOMH^eCKHe BHrOAH.OXOT-HO nOCTaBJIHJIH pyCCKHM H3AeJIHH npOMHEIJieHHOCTH, mep-r'CTflHHe MaTepHaJiH H s:eJie3HKe TOBapti. 3anaji npoiiaBaJi POCCHH npei iMeTH poGKonn, J i o p o m e BHHa, npHHOCTH, c a x a p . Bee npo.zi.aB a JIOCB no CHJIBHO noBHneHHHM neHaM, noTOMy HTO 3arpaHHqHHe Kynn.H cpopMH-poBaJiH KapTeJiH He JiaBaBHrae MOCKBHHaM cBe.zieHHM o COCTOHHHH pHHKa. 3anaiiHHe KynitH noKynaJiH npeHMymecTBeHHO npo.5yKi1.HH npn-POAH ( M e x a , Koacy, KOHonjno, JISH, xoJiocTHHy, pn6y, U'6A, HKpy) KOTopHe CKynaJiH A'em'eBo H npoJiaBaJiH B E B p o n e c dacHocJioBHOH' B H r o A o i i . Kynn.ii OOEPIHO noJiyqaJiH OT 100 AO 150 nponeHTOB npn-6HJIH. MexAy MOCKBOH H EBponoM cymecTBOBaJia TaKan ToproBJin, KOTopan B BB03e H B BHB03e diiJia HeBnroiiHa AJist pyccKiix. BHJIO B HHTepecax 3ana i iHoeBponeHHeB, nczuepxHBaTB ToproByio 3aBHCHMOcTB MOCKOBHH K KOTOpOH OHH HpHBeJIH i:ee. T o p r O B H e BHrOJIH B 3T0M OTHOieHHH nojryqaJiH 6oJiBineM qacTBio HeaaiH, HOJIHKH, JiHBOHnn. IIo3iiHee nBe-AH H aHrjiHqaHe. MOKHO CKa3aTB n p n M o , HTO nooTOMy nojiHTHKa 3 a n a A H o e B p o n e M c K o r o ToproBoro KanHTaJia cocTOHJia B TOM, qToon n p e n a T C T B O B a T B MOCKOBHH B KaaczioM n p o r p e c c e TexHHKH He TOJIBKO B npeiieJiax npoiiyKnHH, HO TaKxe B BOGHHOM jiejie. - 36 -I IpeaycMOTpHTeJiBHocTB noaHTHKH n a p s HBaHa 3aicjao^a-XaCB B TOM, MTO OH CTapaJICH npOTHBOaeiiCTBOBaTB CTpeMJieHHK) 3anaaHoeBponeacK:HX KyniioB noaaepsHBaTB ToproByio 3S.BHCHMOCTB MOCKOBCKOTO rocyaapcTBa. O H x o T e a KaK MOSCHO CKopefi CHa6i[HT£ apMHK coBpeMeHHHMH 3ana^HHMH opyaHKMH. EMy HyjKHH 6HJIH aeHB-TH.H OH n o a a r a a pa3pynHTB MOHonoJiBHoe noaoxeHHe . HHOcTpaHHeB 3aBoeBaHHeM •yacTH npHdaxrHHCKoro nodepexcBH. TaKHM odpa30M BHroaH HHOCTpaHHOH TOprOBXH TeKJIH 6u B pyccKyM Ka3Hy.qTodH BHIIOXHHTB 3Ty noaHTHKy HBaHy n p H i o o c B P H I T O X H T I He3aBHCH-MOCTB H o B r o p o a a . HoMHHaaBHO He3aBHCHM0CTB HoBropo .ua 6nxa yHH-HTocssHa BO BpeMs napcTBOBaHHH e r o a e a y n K H , HBaHa I I I B e x a K o r o . H o B o r o p o a c K H e KyniiH B ToproBJte c MOCKOBCKHMH npHMeHHJiH TaKofi xe MeToa HaacHBaTeJiBCTBa KOTOPHH npHMeHiurca K HHM " r a H s o f i " BO BpeMH ToproBHx caeaoK. OHH npenHTCTBOBaxH KasaoMy Heno-cpeacTBeHHOMy cHomeHHio nraH3H,!' c napcKHM rocyaapcTBOM,HTO6~H noJiyyHTB KaK MOSCHO dc is i i ie npad'HJiH. IIosTOMy (feaKTH^ecKoe yHH-w o&eHHe H o s r o p o a a KaK KOHKypeHTa MOCKBH HBJIHJIOCB BaJSHHM A G -JIOU AJISI HBaHa Tpo3Horo. K o r a a npe.acTaBH.acH HOBOA K BHCTynJte-HHK) npOTHB HOBrOpO^a OH aefiCTBOBaJI MaHepOfi CBOMCTBeHHOfi' TO JIB — KO eMy- o,2HOMy. CoBeTCKan aHTepaTypa 3aMeTHT, <rro MOCKOBCKHS Top-roBJifl c TpyaoM 3aBoeBaaa npH3HaHHe Ha pHHKe, XOTSC MOCKOBCKHM rocTKM noKpoBHTeJtBCTBOBaJE caM napt. T p y a H o OHJCO MOGKBe dopoTB-CH C HOBrOpoaOM H IICKOBHM. Etttg MOCKBBI Ha CBeTe He OHJIO, a H o B r o p o a H TICKOB d'HJiH H3BecTHH CBOHMH TOBapaMH no Been E'Bpo-ne. 3TH 3aMe^aHHa He HCK.aio.HaioT BOSMOJKHOCTH, HTO napB HBaH yHHHTOXHJI HOBrOPOa He TOIBKO, HTOd'H yCTpaHHTB nOJIHTHHeCKOrO npoTHBHHKa, HO TaK&e, w o d H P H W O X H T B ToproBoro conepHHKa. - 37 -Bo BHyTpeHHefi noxKTHKe TaKas CHCTeMa diiaa BBeaeHa KOTopaa Haxaraxa Bejia^agiee aaBJieHHe Ha cpeacTBa HaceareHHH* CHCTeMa KOTopan pyKOBo.2Hxac£ npi-nmnnoM: "Bee axs BOHHH".Kpo-Me Toro noJtHiiaH, cosaaHHan. B BHze onpn^HHH., dnxa CHX&HeK caMofi apMHH H nczRHHHxacB TOJIBKO eMy. TaKHM o<5pa30M naps HBaH nocTaBHJt caMoxepscaBHe B TaKyio no3HHHio B KOTOPOH OHO 6'HJIO noHTH HenodeaHMo. noJtHHelicKaH cayacda nppi IleTpe BeJtHKOM HcnoJtHsxacB IIpeo6pa3ceHCKHM no.iKOM nocae noxHoro pacnymeHHH cTpe.aBH.oB. IIo IIpeodpaxeHCKOMy npHKa3y, c 1702-oro r o a a OAHHM H3 ero OT^e-JIOB d'HJta Tan'HaH noJIHHHH BeaaBinaH aeaaMH KacaioiiiHxcsi r o c y a a p -CTBeHHHx npecTynaeHHtt. • OTHomeHHe noiuaHHHX K H'BaHy Tpo3HOMy OTJIHHHO ona-caHH. caoBaMH ero noMomHHKa, BacHJtHH rp#3Horo: " CJTOBO TBoe iiapcKoe AJLSL Hac TO -&e HTO CJEOBO 6os:Be, MHJEOCTHBHH daTKinKa! tyro npHKasemB, TO H aaexaeM. HH oTiia, HE MaTepn He rioataxHM, KOXH K TO My Hysc^a HBHTCH . . . " . ^ CorxacHo COBCTCKOH XHTepaType oTHonieHHe noaaaHHHx K IleTpy OHJIO noxosce Ha oTHonenne noaaaHHHX K HBaHy. H3 pa3-roBopa Mesay MeHsniHKOBHM H IIocneaoBHM B nBece "Ha &w6'e" MOX-HO BHBecTH saKXtO'qeHHe, HTO TOJIBKO Te MO r a n O'JiyacHTB B nepBo-KXaccHHX noxKax, KOTopne TOTOBH <5'HXH npezaTB oTHa H MaT.s: " B Koro xonB - nyniy nyxra 50 A XOEB - B. OTHa". - 38 -BHemHSfl H BHyTpeHHHH noJiHTHKa IleTpa BeJiHKoro B o;6'nieM MaJio oTJinqaeTcs OT no JIHTKKH HBaHa rpo3Horo.B STOM OT-HoneHHH coBeTCKan H 3arpaHHqHaa JIHTepaTypH corjiacHH. ECJIH H ecTB pa3HHHa, TO OHa JIB JiHeTcn He B HAeltHOM KOHiienHHH, a B ee HcnoJiHeHHH co OT BeTCTByionieM xapaKTepe rtapefi. C Konna B T O -poy MHPOBOH BOHHH 3Ta pa3HHHa B coBeTCKOft JiHTepaType y M e H B -meHa, a B 3arpaHHqHofi - yBeJiH^HHa• Bo BHeinHen nojiHTHice IleTp BeJinKHi! BoeBaJi 3a JTHBOHHK. OH Ha^aJi BoftHy B y6exAejimi HeoOxoiiHMOcTE CB#3H C 3ana,zioM H B y6esiieHHH rpoMaitHOH' GHJIH pyccKoro HapoJia. B BHAy sToro OAHH coBeTCKHK nncaTeJiB iiaeT c i ca3aTB MOJio^oMy I l eTpy : 11 CaMHfi. MoryraM B CBeTe HapoA, caMaa: 6oraTan H oomnpHaii y Hero 3eMJifl, a OH, (SoraTHpB, CKJioHaeTCH no Heft, KaK H a r o f , K qeMy pyKH HPHJEOSCHTE., He 3HaeT. A H ero naps ... nyio KaK 51 CHJia ero (5;e3MepHasi B MeHH BJtHBaeTca"• Bo BHyTpeHHefi noJiHTHKe IleTp Tpe6oBaJi OT CBOHX U O A -AaHHHX TaKHX padoT, KOTopHe OHH He c^HTaJiH BO3MOSCHHMH. Bee 6HJIO ciieJiaHo, *ITO6'H BHHrpaTB BofiHy. CorjiacHo coBeTCKoK JiH-TepaType JieaTeJiBHocTB IleTpa BeJia c OJIHOH. CTOPOHH: K B03BHie-HHK) ABopHHCTBa. H pa3BHTHK. KynenecTBa, a c Apyroa CTOpOHH OHa BeJia K eme doJiBmeMy yrHeTeHHio Hapoiia. OCHOBHOH npoH3BOiicTBa ocTaBaJica noAHeso JIBHHH TpyA KpecTBHHHHa Ha MaJieHBKOM yqacTKe 3eMJIH. IIoJiojKeHHe KpecTBHH npn HBaHe rpo3HOM 6HJIO TH-seJioe. TaK KaK rocy^apcTBO nocTOHHHo BoeBaJio npoTHB CBOHX Miiornx Bpa-roB - KaK TaTap, TypoK, nojiHKOB, HeMneB H loeAOB - eiiy Bcerjia HyatHH <5HJEH ^eHBrn. H TaK KaK ToproBJiH H. npoMHimieHHoCTB no^TH - 3 9 -He cymecTBOBaJLH B cpaBHeHHH c 3anaAHoH H cpeiiHeM EBponoa,To Bee 6peMa HaJioroB naAaJto Ha KpecTBHH. B nepBHe roAH napcTBO-BaHHs HBaHa ABHKH naps ycTaHOBHJiH BHeoTy AOXOAOB OTHOCHIIIHXCSI K nameHOH QeuxvL. Ho TaK KaK cdopniHicn qacTo dpaJin AJIK ced'H, KpeeTBHHe saJiOBaJiHCB o TOTOCTH HaJioroB. BOHCB HaKa3aHHH H CMeTpHHX Ka3HeH OHH noKHAaJiH CBOH ABopH H yderaJin B Jseca. HHorAa rxeJiue AepeBHH dHJiH nycTH. IIo3se, KorAa codcTBeiiHoe ynpaBJieHHe AepeBeHB 6HJEO BBeAeHO ycTaHOBJieHHeM Mnpa, MHp njta-THJE Ka3He de3 noMoniH cdopniHKOB. H Bce —TaKH STO i-ie MOTJIO ocTa-HOBHTB dercTBO KpecTBHH Ha BOCTOK H na ioro-BQCTOK, riie njio-AopoAHan 3eMJifl H oTcyTCTBHe dapmHHBi Ka3aJIHCB devjiouy KpecTB-HH HHy yjiyqmeHHeM ero cyABdH. Map cTapaJrca AepacaTB Bcex MyjK-qHH B iiepeBHe, TaK KaK HaJiorii MHp a He yMeHBiia-iHCB, SCJIH qacTB KpeeTE-HH yxo^HJia B dercTBo. IIpOCTOH HepHrHCTpHpOBaHHHM KpeCTBflHHH HMeJT B03MOS:-HOCTB OCTaB JE5ITB CBOe MeCTO padoTH, HMeHPie noMeniHKa HJTH ABOp perncTpHpoBaHHoro KpecTBHHHHa, TOJIBKO 3a oAHy HeAeJtio AO H noczte AHH CB.reoprHH. EMy dHJio 3anpemeHo yxoAHTB B Apyroe MecTo B Apyroe BpeMH.MHorHe H3 STHX KpecTBHH He MorJiH noJiB-30BaTBCH 3THM npaBOM - MeHHTB MeCTO padoTH, noTOMy HTO y HHX 6HJIH doJiBinne AOXTH, KOTopne OHH He MorJiH ynJtaTHTB donpi-my. TocyAapcTBO He npHnsTGTBOBaJio 3TOMy, noTOMy HTO TaKoe noJiose-HHe AaBaoio eMy BO3MO?SHOCTB HaxoAHTB noAAaHHHX AJIH peKpyTCKoro Hadopa. HecMOTpa Ha Bee yAa^H BO BHenraeM noJiHTHKe BO BpeMH HapcTBOBaHHH IleTpa BeJiHKoro noaoaceHHe KpecTBHH H pado^HX dn-JIO THxeJioe. KpecTBHHCTBo H3HeMoraJio noA dpeMeHeM HadopoB K noBHHHOcTeli. HapcKHe cpHCKaJiH B3HMaJiH c daHB, c norpedoB, c - ho -nHBa, c d p a r n H C rpodoB H3 a y d o B o r o a e p e B a . IIOHTH B JBa pa-3a 6UJI noBHieH Haaor Ha COJIB, HTO nocTaBHJto n o a yrpo3y p t i d o -JIOBHHH npoMHcea. Pa6o^He c TpyaoM BJiaraxH cyuiecTBOBaHHe. Tpy.2H.iHCB no HeTHpHa.nn.aTB, necTHaanaTB ^acoB B JCHB. TaK KaK MantHH He cyn iecTBOBaj ro , TO JDCUH B pyaHHKax padoTaJiH BpyHHyro, HHoraa no n o a c B B o a e . CTponTHBBie HaKa3HBaJIHCB daToraMH H KaH.aa.aaMH. TncH^aMH OHH yMHpa-an OT npHHyaHTeJtBHHX padoT II 3apa3HHX d o -Jie3Hea. H3 HHCTHHKTa caMooxpaHeHHH "'LepHHH JIK>A" cnacaaca d ' e r -CTBOM B aaaeKHe npocTpaHCTBa Taftrn, C'HdnpH H roacHHe cTenn.STOT (£)aKT BHpasceH Toace B coBeTCKOft XHTepaType AJ ieKceeM TOJIGTHM B n B e c e "Ha .ande" r a e HysHK AHTOH r o B o p H T : "noxoBHHa a e p e B H H B 52 derax". no-aoaceHHe KpecTBHH npHHyacaeHHNX K KopadaecTpoeHHio. TOT ace caMHH nncaTexB onncHBaeT TaK: " 3HMa Btinaxa cTyaeHHan. B c e r o HexBaTaao. JfoitH rndan COTHSMH. Bo CHe He yBHaaTB TaKoM HeBOXH, deacaBHHX - JIOBHJTH } K O B S M B aceJieso. BBKSCHH BeTep pacKa^HBaa Ha BHceJiHnax Mep3JiHe Tpynn. OTHanHHHe JKO-AVi n o x K H r a a n J ieca K p y r o M BopoHeaca. My-SHKH, Haymne c odo3aMH, pe3aXH ccaaaT-it 5 3 —KOHBOHpOB . HHOcTpaHHH B POCCHH BHCKa3HBas-.cB o HeM Bceraa od'pa-EtaJIH BHHMaHHe Ha TO OdCTOHTeXBCTBO, OTO He TOJCBKO KHH3BH H donpe r p y d o OTHOCHXHCB co CBOHMH x o a o n a M H , HO HTO TaKace K p e c T B -HHCTBO dHJio o^eHB r p y d o Meacay c o d o n . OcodeHHO Tnacexa dmia acH3H& aceHiiiHHH. C o B e T C K a n x&rrepaTypa corxaniaeTcji c STHM: " 1H3HB pyccKoft aceHniHHH B T e p e M a x noaodHa XH3HH SCHBOTHHX".54 - i l l -EGJIH H yjryqmHJtocB no-ioaceHHe aceHUHH cpejiH ABOPHHCKOH cpe,ztH,To OHO ocTaJiocB 663 H3MeHeHHH B cpejte npocToro Hapoita. TopoiiCKOH acHTeJiB, f e^BKa 3anH, od'paiiraeTcH K a:eHe c TaKHMH cjroBaMHi: " BaHB. 3aTonH, H Tede npHKa'3HBaio, 55 KpHBaa codaKa". . TH&e'Jroe nojtoaceHHe KpecTBHH, BBeJteHHe HOBHX noBHHHOcTei^ H yBejinqeHHe HaacHMa co CTOPOHH noMeniHKOB, a Taicace THxecTB JtJtHTe JIBHOH BOHHH BH3BaJio Ha Bre, ocodeHHO B AcTpaxaHH H Ha JIOHy HeJtoBOJTBCTBO.Hapo.zta, KOTOPHH BoccTaJi npoTHB BJEacTH neT-poBCKoro r o c y a a p c T B a . JleTOM 17'0'5-oro ro.zta B BSHOH H BOCTO^HOM HaCTH POCCHH BCnHXHyJtO OitHO H3 KpynHeHHHX HapOitHHX BOCCTaHHK, npoitojisaBneecH OKOJTO BOCBMH MecnHeB. H.eHTpoM STOTO BoccTaHHH OnJia AcTpaxaHB. .HpyraH npn^HHa AcTpaxaHcicoro BoccTaHHH dnjra acecTo-KOCTB BOeBOJtH T. PaceBCKOrO , KOTOpHE B03JT03KHJT Ha COJTJtaT H CTpe-JTBHOB HOByB nOBHHHOCTB - CHadacaTB JtpOBaMH Ce JIHTpeHHHe 3aBOJtH. OcodeHHyB BpaacztedHOCTB BH3tiBaJTH HHocTpaHHe o$HH.epH, BHCOKO-MepHO oTHOCHBmHecH K pyccKHM jTBitHM. CnrHaJTOM K BoccTaHHB no-cJtyacHJiH itBe neTpoBCKHe pe<popMH., 3anpemeHHe pyccKoro njraTBH H HonieHHe dopoit. HOMBB. 30-oro HBJTH 1705-oro roita dnjro ydHTO OKOJTO TpgXCOT weJIOBeK Ha^aJIBHHX JHO.fl.eH H HH03eMII.eB. EyHTOBIKH-KH nppiBeJiH cKpHBaBineroCH B KypnTHHKe BoeBOity PaceBCKoro H 3a-KOJIOJEH ero KonBHMH. HHTepecHo 3aMeTHTB, VLTO HOBoe ynpaBJieHHe BoccTaBfflHX oTMeHHJto yKa3 o:d odH3aTejrBHOM HOHteHHH HeMeitKoro njraTBH H "dpaitodpHTHH". HencHocTB iieJteH H HeitocTaTOK qeTKoa H HCHOH nporpaMMH noBCTaHiteB yKa3HBaeT na TO , HTO dyHT He d'HJT noJtroTOBJieH H opraHH30BaH. BoccTaHHe pacnpocTpaHH-aocB - 1+2 - / BBepx no Bojrre AO HapHH.HHa. Ho GToro Ba&Horo nyHKTa dyHTOBiHH-KH He MorjiH B3HTB. Me&Ay TeM npaBHTeJCBCTBO donnieecH pacnpo-CTpaHeHHjj BoccTaHHH Ha Aon, KyAa nocTOHHHO ABHraJiCH IIOTOK derjrnx KpecTBHH, nocJiaJio apMHio no.A. KOMaHAOBaHneM IflepeMeTB-eBa B AcTpaxaHB. B MapTe I . 7 0 6-oro roAa AcTpaxaHB 6'uJia B3HTa nTypMOM. IIo coBeTCKHM AaHHHM pacnpaBa d'HJia acecTOKan: " lec.TB Handojiee BHAHHX opraHH3aTopoB Boc-cTaHHH dHJtn KOJtecoBaHH, 7 3 - e M yqacTHHKaM BoccTaHHH 6'HJIH OTceneHH :TOAOBH. 2 1 2 qejio-BeK O'HJEH noBenaHH no AoporaM BOKpyr Moc-KBH, 1+5 qejroBeK, B TOM qnczte S'KOB HOCOB, yMepJiH OT nnTOK". Bane A 3a AcTpaxaHCKHM BOccTaHueM BcnHXHyJio BoccTaHHe na Rony cpe^H Ka3aqecTBa H der-JtHX KpecTBHH. OHO oxBaTHJio He TOABKO IIpHAOHBe, HO H HaCTB YKpaHHH H IIOBOXKBH. OpH^HHOH K BOCCTa-HHK) HBJIHJIOCB HacTaHBaHHe napH Ha TOM, HTOOBI der-ine KpeCTBH-He B0 3BpaTHJtHCB Ha npeacHHe MecTa acHTeABCTBa. RJLK po3HCKa d'erjinx Ha Ron OHJI oTnpaBJreH B. B. iloAro-pyKHfit. Pa3yMeeTCH, ^TO TSKOK KapaTeABHHH noxoA 6UJI conpoBO-acAeH secTOKocTHMH. IIpoTHB KapaTeJIBHHX oTpHAOB RoJtropyKOBa OTnpaBHJiCH aTaMaH H3 TpexH3,dHHCKoro ropoAKa K. A . EyJiaBHH B OT -pnAe KOToporo HaxoAHAocs MHOTO npnniAHX JWAeft deacaBinnx OT po-3HCKa. OAHHM H3 rJiaBHHX noMontHHKOB ByjiaBHHa 6UJL Ka3aK HBaH JCocKyT, ynoMHHyTHfi B "Ha AH.de" AAeKcen TOACTOTO, Kor^a OH npH Ka3He c'TpeJiBiiOB B MocKBe roBopHT: " MH. AOHHH, BCTaHeM Bcefi peKOH,dyAeM ropoAa dpaTB, AO MOCKBH AOHAS'M . . . Bcex donp, HaqaJiBHHX JHOAen - pydHTB, B BOAy caacaTB ...JIHXO ... H.apcTBOM' HM 5 7 He BJiaAeTB ... HaM BAaASTB iiapcTBOM". - 1+3 -Ilocae B3HTHH ^iepKaccKa Ha^ajracB acecTOKaa pacnpaBa c MHTesKHHKaMH. "IIo npHKa3y B.^oaropyKOBa, aBecTH dyxaBHHiieB d'HJEH K a 3 H e H H " . BoccTaBEHe Bee eme BoeBaxH npoTHB rocyaapcT-BeHHHX CHX H dHJIH pa36'HTH B OTiteXBHHX CpaxeHHHX. IlOCJle B3H-THH EcayaoBa daxo Ka3HeHo no o^HOMy -qeaoBeKy c Kaxaoro aeca-Tica H Ha nxoTax c BHceannaMH nymeHH BHH3 no ^OHy dbxee A^yx-COT noBemeHHHX. O^HOBpeiieHHO c BoccTaHHeM Ha JoHy B 1708-OM roay nponcxo.ztH.xo B03MynieHHe dantKHpoB. ArHTaiiHfl pacnpocTpaHnxacB OT ceBepHHX KocoropoB K a B K a 3 a AO OKpecTHOcTefi Ka3aHH. Rvmxo~ MaTHqecKHM IleTp BeJTHKHM cyuex BOcnoJi£30BaTBCH MecTHHM conep-HH^eCTBOM H eMy yaaJIOCB BHCTaBHTB dy^AHSCKHX KaXMHKOB npoTHB MaroMeTaHCKHX dainKHpoB. RJLX noaaBJieHHa dantKHpoB Ka JIMKHKHH BaacTHTeaB AioEa dHJt no.ztKyn.HeH no^apKaMH, KOTOPHH nocaaa 20--THTHCHHHyK). apMHK) npOTHB dafflKHpOB. B 3TO BpeMH dyXaBHHniL ocasaaaH CapaTOB. IIpoxoaH MHMO CapaTOBa, apMHH BHe3anHO Hana-Jta Ha noBCTaHneB H 3acTaBHXa HX. oTCTynnTB. OdpaTHM BHHMaHHe Ha TO, wo BoccTaHHH npoH3onuiH B Tex nacTHX POCCHH, KOTopne coBceM HeaaBHo BOEEJIH B cocTaB HM-nepHH rae nponeHTHan AOJIZ. BexHKopyccoB dnxa MeHBme AOXIS apy-rnx HapoaoB. KaK B EamKHpHH, TaK H B npnaoHBe IleTpy yaaxocB HacH-JiHeM ycMHpHTB KpecTBSHCTBO, HecMOTpH Ha TO, w o KapJiXII c Bec-HH 1708-oro roaa HaxoaHacH Ha pyccKoft 3eMJte. 3aMeTHM eme, w o y IleTpa dnxa doJCBnan noTpedHocTB.iB aeHBrax A&B. apMHH H (paoTa H Ha ycTpoitcTBo IleTepdypra nosTOMy IlgTp aaBHJI Ha KpeCTBHH CHJIBHee, MeM HBaH Tp03HHfi. XOTH BOCcTaHHe dnxo nox.aBxeHo HexoBoxBCTBo oeTaxocB CHXBHHe EtaHKH pa3()OMHHKOB , XOponO OpraHH30BaHHHX H CHaOXeHH-HX p a 3 r y x H B a x n no cTpaHe, H a n a a a x n Ha r o p o x a , o p a x n Ka3eHHne xeHBrn, y6HBaJtH x B o p a H H ^HHOBHHKOB • IleTp n o c x a x oTpnim K BepXOBBHM ,Z[OHa XXH nOHMKH H B03BpalIieHHH 6 e r X H X . TH.CH^aMH OHH (5'HOH cxBaneHH H y r H a H H Ha ceBep, r x e padoTaxn npn nocTpoHKe CaHKT - I l e T e p d y p r a . Byxyqn HHTexxHreHTHHM H OXHHOKHM ^exoBeKOM MOXOXOH HapB HBaH MHoro MHTax H ayMax. Bee, w o x e x a x o c B B E B p o n e HH-T e p e c o B a x o e r o . BpeMa npocB5EneHHji i i apcTBOBaxo TaM H MOXHO XO-r a a a T B C H , w o OH ^ y B C T B O B a x KaK OXHH H3 BexHKHX yMOB M - o r o CToaeTHH. O H 6HX H e x o B o x e H rocnoacTBy iomeH o6cTaHOB2COH B IJap-c T B e . O H x o T e x noBHCHTB CBOIO XH^HOCTB H c x e x a T B r o c y x a p c T B o BHpaaceHHeM cBoeft HaTypn. MoxnaXHBHH 3axy MHHBHJJ K>H0ina, B e p o w H O , Mewax c T a T B repoeM H nocxe K a 3 a H C K o r o noxoaa o^eHB 6XH3KO n o -xomex K 3TOH H e x H . y^HTejieM 3 T o r o M e w a T e x n e x e x a x e n MHTpono-XHT MaKapHf i , KOTOpHH y^HX e r o HepKOBHHM H HCTOpHtJeCKHM XeTO-pHCHM. K H e B p - n e n e p c K o r o x a f i p c K o r o MOHacTBipH. HanncaHHHe B H a ^ a x e Jie 12 - o r o BeKa OHH HHTepecoBaxn Moxoxoro HBaHa Taipace KaK H 6 H -XHHH. C T a B B3pOCXHM qeXOBeKOM HBaH CX . e X a X C £ H3BeCTHHM opaTo-poM H BepowHO TaKsce CTax 6 H H y^eHHM H.nncaTexeM, e c x n OH npeacTaBHJracB TaKaa BOSMOKHOCTB. O H xaacaajr KyxBTypn H xyxoBHoK ZH3HH. 3TH CTpeMXeHHH BHpaxaXHCB B TOM, W O HBaH XHKTOBaX nn-CBMa, n n e a x xenentH, Bex noxeMHKy npoTHB n p o T e c T a H T O B H noxHKOB KaK H npoTHB KaToXHKOB H dacypMaHOB. O H n r p a x p o x B HHHH.HaTopa B KHHrone^aTaHHH H H H T e p e c o B a x c a ne^aTHHM CTaHKOM n o c T a B x e H -HHM SO e r o npHKa3aHHK> H OdMeHHBaXCH MHeHHHMH C y^eHHMH MOHaxa-MH 0 6 H3xaTexBCTBe p y c c K H X n e p e B o x o B H3H^ecKHX nHcaTexea. Ho Hapox. B036yacxeHHHH a r H T a T o p a M H yHHWo&HX ne^iaTHHe c T a H K H . TaKHM -14 .5 -o:c3pasoM iiojryqHJicoB, H T O nponacTB uexAy HHTeJiJiHreHTHHM iiapeM HapoiiHHM cyeBepneM yBeJiH^HJiacB enie OojiBine. RJISI 0<5pa30BaHHjr CBoero HapoAa HBaH HHqero He cii.eJia.21 H He Mor CAeJiaTB, noTOMy qTo O H dbJiBnyio qacTB cf ioeg XH3HH OHJE O J I H H O K H M H He H M e J i c o -OTBeTCTByKIUHX nOMOHIHHKOB B TaiCOM rpOMaAHOM MeponpHHTHH. HacneT HapoAHoro oopa30BaHHH B O BpeM£ HBaHa TposHO-ro ecTB 3aMeqaHHe coBeTCKoro nncaTeJifl P.Bnnnepa, H T O : " T O J I B K O BticoKOo6pa30BaHHaH r p y n n a cyAeK MOrJia pyKOBOACTBOBaTBCH TaKHM cdopHHKOM 3aK0H0B KaK "KHH3CCKHH" CyiietfHHK li+97 ro-58 AS. H "riapcKHH" CyitedKHK 1550 r . n J B 3anaAH0M JiHTepaTjrpe, oAHaKO, P O C C H H BpeMeH HBana rpo3Horo HBJIHeTCH HeKyJIBTypHOH, Heo6pa30BaHHOH, BapBapCKOH CTpaHOt. BHHa, qTo P O C C H H He JiocTHrJia Toro SKOHOMH^ecKoro H KyjiBTypHO-r o pa3BHTHH, 0 K O T O P O M Me^TaJi HBaH rpo3HHfi, oT^acTH naiiaeT Ha J I H B O H C K H X HeMiieB H raHseaTCKHe r o p o^a. O H H He nponycTHJCH T a H -Ca IjTHTTe CO CTa JIBailHaTBK) TpeMH JEOKTOpaMH, MaCTepaMH HayKH H peMecJieHHHKaMH Bcex B H J I O B noexaTB B P O C C H I O , X O T S Kapji c o r J i a -C H J I C H Ha S T O . OKOJTO CTa nnTHAecjiTH JieT cnycTH IleTp H a n a J t n p e o -OpasoBaHHe P O C C H H TeM, ^ T O O H n p H B e 3 c C O 6 O H B P O C C H M THcnqy cnennaJ IHCTOB. Korjia fflJiHTTe nonpodoBaJi B O BTopoM pa3 BecTH n e -peroBopn c P o c c n e H H repMaHHefi HacqeT HepKOBHOil C B H 3 H , BMema-jracB JIoJiBma. MHeHHe I IOJIBIIIH H J I H B O H C K H X HeMiieB C X O A H J I O C B B T O M , H T O oyiieT Jiyqme, ecJin pyccKHe ocTaHyTcn B oTcTaJiocTH H He C A e -jtaKTCji HeJiBHoM qacT&io EBponn. 9 TO cjiyqHJiocB ente 110 3aBoeBaHHH Ka3aHH. C M O T P H Ha nponuroe B03HHKaeT Bonpoc - B03Mo;sHa JIH OHJIO H3(5ea:aTB X H B O H C K O M B O H H H , ecJin fflJiHTTe yjtaJiocB AOcTHrHyTB Moc-K B H c e ro HaeMHHMH JHOJIBMH? e O H oTBeTHJi Ha S T O T Bonpoc B OTpH-H.aTeJIBHOM CMHCJie. - kS -P O C C H H cTpeMHxacB X O C T H H B Mopn. A C H O , H T O B T O BpeMH C H X B -HHe rocyaapcTBa, KaK ffiBeUHH H IIoxBina He nosBOJtHJiH O H aony-meHHH P O C C H H AO Mopa 6ez dopBon. B S T O M cMHcae npHdaxTHH-CKHe CTpaHH HCHO BHXeXH OnaCTHOCTB BHCHEiyiO Haa H H M H H aeH-CTBOBaJiH c o r x a c H o c S T H M . H S caMOOxpaHeHHs He 6UJI aonynieH AO MOCKBH H IflXHTTe. OTMeTHB cTpeMJteHHe P O C C H H xocTHrHyTB M O P H , M O S H O BKpaTHe ynoMHHyTB o KopadxeycTpoHCTBe, KOTopoe cnrpaJto Bax-Hyio poxB B npocBemeHHH Hapoaa. KopadxeycTponcTBo 6HJEO O X H H M H3 rJtaBHHX MHcxefi I leTpa BeJiHKo—ro. 3TO aoBexo B KOHH.e K O H -I IOB K npHodpeTeHHK) MomHoro $JioTa, K O T O P H H A&JI pyccKOMy Hapoxy BO3MO;EHOCTB odmaTscs c coceaHHMH cTpaHaira. CoBeTCKan JiHTepa-Typa Toxe nciBsyeTCH S T H M (paKTOM, wodn noaTBepaHTB C B O H B3rxs,a Ha T O , HTO HBaH rpo3HHH B 9TOM OTHonieHHH noxoac Ha I leT-p a . IIo coBeTCKofi JiHTepaType HBaH rpo3HHH C BocxnmeHHeM T O B O -pHT iiapHiie: " 3aKaa;y H TaKHe xe Kopadxa B A H T J E H H . . . HeT. ByaeM aexaTB y Hac C B O H . . . Ha CTyaeHOM Mope, y nepKBH C B H T O T O A p -59 xaHrexa". H3 cKa3aHHHx coBeTCKoil XHTepaTypoH C X O B : " JlaBHO J IH HapBa cTaxa pyccKOH raBaHBio, a HapB yace B3ayMaJi cTaTB n o J IHHM xo3s-60 HHOM Ha BaXTHHCKOM Mope". BH4.H0, KaK ona C M O T P H T Ha aeflTeJ IBHOCTB napa HBaHa H KaKHe Haaeac-AU O H B03xaraJi Ha Kacnnf icKoe Mope. - hi -XOTX ngTp BeJiHKHH He O H A cTpacTHHM no^HTaTeAeM KHHr, B CMHCJie qeaoBeKa M H O T O qHTaioiiiHx H X , O H Bce-TaKH CAeAaA A - I H npocBemeHHH p y c c K o r o H a p o A a (5'oJtBnte, qeM KaKOH-AHdo Apyroii n a p s AO H e r o H nocAe Hero. I leTp B C K C B O K X H S H B c o d n p a A KHHrn H e r o c o 6 c T B e H H a H dndJiHOTeKa C A e A a A a c B O C H O B O H dnd'AHOTeKH p y c c K o M AKaAeMHH H a y K . KorAa dn O H He 6UJL 3arpaHHnen, O H O X O T H O noKy-naA K H H T H no M H O T H M n p e A M e T a M , H O doABne B c e r o no H C T O P H H , M e — AHHHHe, ecTecTBeHHHM HayKaM H peAnrnn H ocodeHHO. no BoeHHOMy H no MopcKOMy AeAy. I leTp BeAHKHft AyMaA, ^ T O e r o pe$opMH o c T a -HyTCH nocTOHHHHMH T O A B K O T o r A a , K o r A a eMy y A a c T C H n e p e A a T B C B O H MHCAH H HHTepeCH CAeAy&HieMy nOKOAeHHK). foBOpHT, HTO BO BpeMH 17 -OrO CTOAeTHH 37U KHHTH 6HAH OTne^aTaHH, H3 KOTOpHX TOABKO AeBHTHaAAaTB 6 H A O CBeTCKHx. B TeqeHHH A B a A n a T H ceMH AeT n o c A e B03BpameHHH I leTpa H3 E B p o n n pyccKHe THnorpacjHH oTne^aTaJiH He MeHee ceMH CTa KHHr, H3 K O T O P H X O K O A O T p e x c o T K H H T ( 3HAH no cBeTCKHM BonpocaM. TaK KaK odHKHOBeHHO B O BpeMH napcTBOBaHHH I leTpa Be-A H K o r o Bee A e A a A o c B no e r o npHKa3aHHio , T O H M O H A O AaHo p a c -npnaceHHe o nncaHHH KHHr o p y c c K o n H eBponefiCKOK HCTopnflx.Kpo-Me Toro, neAHH paA nepeBOA^HKOB 6UJL 3aBHT nepeBOAOM T e x K H H T Ha eBponefiCKHe H 3 H K H , KOTopne Ka3aJiHCB napio Hy& H H M H AXZ o d p a 3 0 -BaHHH e r o H a p o A a . KaK B c e r A a I leTp caM 3aHHMaACH AeTaASMH H 6 'HA: cTporHM K P H T H K O M C B O H X n e p e B O A ^ H K O B , K O T O P H M npHKa3HBaA n e p e -BOAHTB OdlieAOCTynHHM pa3r0B0pHHM H3HKOM, a He BHCOKHM CAaBHH-CKHM KHH2KHHM CAOrOM. Bee 3TO noAOMAo Ha^aAo pyccKOMy o6pa30BaHHK> npHMe-qaTeABHoe TeM <|)aKTOM, ^ T O pyccKoro A H T e p a T y p H o r o H3HKa enie He cymecTBOBaAO. B doABHtHHCTBe nosBHBniHxcji nepeBOAax CJHAO cTpaHHoe 48 -nepeMemHBaHHe pyccKHx, n . epKOBHo-cJ iaBHHCKHX H qyacnx C J I O B . TaKH o6pa30M Jie.HTeJiBHocTB I l e T p a c n o c o d c T B O B a J i a co3AaHHM pyc-C K O T O A H T e p a T y p H o r o H3HKa, KpoMe Toro I leTp co3iiaJt HOByio a 3 -oyicy cocTOimyio H3 c J i a B H H C K H X , rpenecKHX H J i a T H H C K H X 6 y K B . 3 T a a3(5yKa npeACTaBJiHJia 3aMe-qaTeJiBHoe ynponieHne CTapocJiaBHHCKOH a3(3yKH npnqeM (popMy H O B O T O ynpomeHHoro iiipHdbTa npniiyMaJi caM IleTp. O H TaKse BBeJi apadc i eoe qncJieHHe, H T O O H 3aMeHHTB r p o -MO3AKHe cJiaBHHCKHe. I l e T p o B C K a j i a3c5yKa ynoTpedJ iHJ i acB B P O C C H H AO 1918-oro r o i i a , K o r , a a HecicojiBKO A H I H H H X 6yKB OHJ IH y n p a 3 A H e H H . 4TO<5H p a c n p o c T p a H H T B 3HaHHe H o 6 p a 3 0 B a H H e B P O C C H H B 1705-OM r o i i y <5'HJia o c H O B a H a r-HMHa3HH n c T o p a rjnoica, rise yqHJiHr reorpatpHH, n o J i H T H K e , J iaTHHCKOMy, rpenecKOMy, i t / p eBHeeBponeH-CKOMy , <ppaHny3CK0My H HeMemcoMy H3EKaM, B S T O M y^HJinnie H a x o A H -jtHCB AeTH i t B o p s H HapaBHe c AeTBMH c o A i i a T H n o c a A C K H X . IlocJieii-HHe nojiyqaJiH O T rocyjiapcTBa cscaJioBaHHe, pa3Mep KOToporo 3 a B H c e J i O T ycnexa B yqeHHH. IleTp c T a p a J i c n B B e c T H HapoiiHoe ooyqeHHe H O T K P H J I B npoBHHHHaJiBHHX r o p c z t a x "iiH<|)epHHe " r&e y^HJEH nHCBMy, apn$MeTHKe H reorpaqbHH. C o B e T c i c a H JiHTepaTypa KpHTHKyeT odcTaHOBKy, B KOTopofi yqHJiHCB y q e H H K H 3aMeqan, ^ T O i iHCHHnJiHHa 6HJia a c e c T O K a a : " Raxe B ABOpHHCKOfi MOpCKOH aKaASMHH B KaacAOM K J i a c c e B O B p e M s 3aHHTHM C T O H J I H oTCTaBHHe c o J u a T H c xJTHCTaMH B pyKax, r o T O B H e B jno6oe MrHOBeHHe "HaBecTH ,, 61 n o p a i i O K " . HecMOTpa H a T o , q T O poitHTeJiH H e X O T B M nocnjiaTB C B O H X AeTeM B 3TH B IKOJIH coBeTCKan JiHTepaTypa nnmeT o cTapaHHHX IleTpa B ofiJiacTH npocBemeHHH,qTo " E IKO JiBHoe o<5pa30BaHHe B P O C C H H n p H -„ 6 2 B H J I O C B H p a c n p o c T p a H H J i o c B " . - 49 -CpaBHHBaH TaKHX 5TDKHX XHHHOCTeH KaK HBaH Tp03HHM H IleTp Be JEHKHH HpHXOXHTCH CMOTpeTB H Ha H X XHnXOMaTHHeCKHe K a -necTBa. IJapB HBaH B 6OXBHIOM pa3Mepe odxaxax H M H , W O M H M O -xeM BHaeTB H3 paxa npHMepoB onncaHHHX HHace. Korxa Moxoxpfi TpHHax,n.aTHxeTHHfi naps BeJien C B O H M xoBe — peHHHM cxBaTHTB AHxpea lyMcKoro H dpoC H T B ero ncapHe, Torxa O H H3yMHTeJCBHO coxpannx xxaxnoKpoBHe H XHnxoMaTH^ecKyro XOBKOCTB. Ero oaHHonecTBo B K H H X roxax Hayraxo ero cKpHBaTB C B O H ^yBCT — Ba. 8TOT nocTynoK HBaHa r p o 3 H o r o npoH3Bex Bne^aTxeHHe cBepK-HyBnteH M O X H H H Mexxy HcnyraHHHMH dojipaMH H ydex.nx H X , w o M O X O -aoii napB T O H H O 3Hax, w o O H xoTex. BMenaTeJi&cTBO pyccicnx B Ka-3aHCKHe xexa Toxe yKa3HBaeT Ha HCKycHyio xnnxoMaTHHecKyio X O B -K O C T B . B npHroTOBJteHHflx K 3aBoeBaHHH Ka3aHH HaH Bex ced n X M X O -MaTOM. OH ydnx K P H M C K O T O K H S 3 H KoinaKa, ydexaBinero H3 Ka3aHH B MocKBy wo:dn cnacTH CBOW X H 3 E B . KpoMe T O T O O H TpedoBax nepexa-M H M O X O X O H K H H T H H H CyyHdeKH c C H H O M yTeMHiueM H B03BpameHH£ CBoefi noxHTH^ecKOH MapHOHeTKH ffinr Axes. B G T O M eMy HyscHa duxa noMoniB nepKBH H HBaH cyMex noxy^HTB ee. TpeTBHM npHMepoM xHnxoMaTH^ecKoro HCKyccTBa HBaHa HBxaeTCH ero noBHxeHHe B Boxorxe nocxe noacapa M O C K B H B 1571-OM roxy. Korxa TaTapcKoe nocoxBCTBO BepxoM noxcbexaxo K HeMy H X O -Texo 3acTaBHTB ero noxqHHHTBCK KptiMCKOMy xaHy, T o r x a HBaH He pacTepaxcH. GoxpaHHH X O C T O H H C T B O O H oTnycTHX TaTap X O M O H . I T O -cxax CBoe nocoxBCTBO K xaHy H npexxocrax ycTynKy AcTpaxaHH. HBaH BHHrpax BpeMH. B cxex.yioin.eM roxy eMy yxaxocs 0Tpa3HT£ HacTynxeHHe TaTap. -50 -IIoe3aKa HBaHa B AJteKcaHxpoBCKoe B aeKadpe 1 5 6 3 - o r o roxa co Bceif C B o e f i ceMBeft dmro c a M H M KpynHHM noxKTH^ecKHM H X H H X O M a T H H e C K H M HlaTOM, X O T H 3 T O K a C a e T C H e i ' O nOXHHHeHHHX. KaaaxocB, KaK dy X T O 6H HBaH o c T a B H j r C B O H Hapoa H oTpeKca O T npecToxa. Hapoa no^yBCTBOBa-a cedn 6pomeHHHM H decnoMOmHHM. BOHpe COHJTHCB 3a CBOiO 3KH3HB. KynHH 3-aKpHJIH Mara3HHH doacs r H e — Ba •yepHH. HanncaB XBa nncBMa, B O A H O M O C ' B H H H H xyxoBeHCTBO, B a p y r o M ycnoKaHBan K y n e q e c T B O H Hapoa, naps HBaH cyMex X O C T H -r n y T B c B o e n mean. IlpeACTaBHTeJIH Bcex 3BaHHii n o n p o c H x a ero r o -cyaapcTBOBaTB H O H o c T a x c f l B O BXacTH no H X MoxeHHKi npn ycxo-B H H , H T O O H H He dyxyT eny MeinaTB: " onaxa C B O H KXacTH, a H H H X Ka3HHTH, H M B O T H HX H CTaTKH (HMyiLteCTBO ) HMaTH j a y^HHHTH eMy Ha C B O S M r o c y -aapcTBe cede onpHHHHHy: XBop eMy cede H Ha Bees C B O H odnxoa y ^ H H H T H ocodSoH". 6 3 Ho H H o r x a ero MaHHH BeJCH^IHH H BcnHiitKH rHeBa MeinaxH e M y xencTBOBaTB a n n J i o M a T H H e c K H . IIpHBOiiHTCH TaKoK cayman, Korj;-Aa HBaH xoTe-a C T a T B KopoxeM ncaBUH. O H He Mor caep&aTB neHa-B H C T B n o j i B C K H X npHBHJternpoBaHHHX MarHaTOB npoTHB C B o e r o c a M o -a e p a c a B H i i . H H K T O He M O T 6H H a 3 B a T B HBaHa Tpo3Horo annxoMaTOM KOrita O H K a 3 H H J t C B O H X CaMHX J ty^BIHX B O e B O X . O X H H H3 H H X d'HJI B O -eBoaog Ka3aHCKoro noxoAa, KHS3eM AJteKcaHxpoM rapdaTOBHM-fllyMc-K H M , KOToporo HBaH ydHX B (peBpaxe 1 5 6 5 - o r o roaa. /[pyroH 6UJL nodeaHTexeM TaTapcKoro noxoaa B 1 5 7 2 - O M roay> Mnxanx BopoTHH-C K H J i , K O T O p H H 6UJL C O H e H 5KHBHM B 1 5 7 7 ~ O M T02i;y. - 5 1 . -IleTp B e JTHKH-H He T O J I B K O 6KJL npeodpa30BaTe.ieM, peMec-x e H H H K O M , B o e H H H M B o a c x e M , H O H J T O B K H M .ann j r o M a T O M . B o B H e m H e i } nOXHTHKe OH C K O p O B H y ^ H X C H T a K T H K e eBponefiCKHX XHnJIOMaTOB. KpoMe T O T O aHnxoMaTH^ecKHMH cpexcTBaMH IleTpa <3HXH ero BoScKa H pyccKHe x e H B r H . B 1 . 6 ' 9 7 - O M r o a y O H n o M o r caKCOHCKOMy K i o p t p H p -CTpy ©paxpHxy ABrycTy xocTHrHyTB THTyxa noJiBCKoro KopoJtH no-xoaBHHyB pyccKHe BOHCKa K noxBCKOia rpaHHiie. ^eTHpe roaa cnyc-T H IleTp corjracHJiCH 3anjcaTHTB noxBCKOMy K o p o x i o 20,000 pydxeM, H T O 6 H noxKynHTB noaBCKHx ceHaTopoB. B l~[0~]-ou TO ay noxBCKoe nocoJEBcTB 1 © npnexaxo B SoxKBy, wod 'H y x y ^ n i H T B o T H o m e H H H c na-peM. Ilocjre a x H T e X B H H X neperoBopoB c nocaoM yicpaHHHeBHM y a a -JE0CB pOXKyHHTB HOJIBCKHX MarHaTOB 20,000-MH pydJlHMH. Bo BpeMfl IIpyTCEoro noxoaa r x a B H a a p y c c K a n apMHH, B KoropoH H a x o a n x a c B H EKaTepHHa, dtixa cnaceHa IleTpoM ero npeaxo»:eHHeM 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 pyd-jreM B noaapoK RZX BH3Hpa H npHdJCH3HTeJTBHO TaKHX se cyMM AJIS. e r o o$HHepoB. IliapHcp 3&Kjm^.ux x o r o B o p c T y p K a M H . O K O J I O 3 5 - T H THCK^t p y c c K H X MorxK o T C T y n H T B no depery ^HecTpa Ha ceBep. X O T H : A30B d H S noTepHH H iiapB d H X 6dH,3aH yHHOTOXHTB TaraHpor H apyrne KpenocTH H a l o r e , aoroBop 6'UJJ. annjioMaTHtiecKOfi nod'eaon IleTpa. O ' iUHaKO, He Bcerxa no - M T H K a npeajroseHHs o T K y n a dnxa T a K o K y c n e m H O H . B 1 7 0 7 - O M r o x y IleTp npeaaorax (ppaHny3CKOMy KopoJCK) . pyccKHe B o S c E a n p o T H B BexHKoro coH3a, ecra O H deaeT no-cpeaHHMecTBOBaTB Meacay PoccneK H IIlBenHeH. 3a r o a nepea S T H M IleTp od'emaJt roxaaH,zi;n.aM 30,000 caMHX xyniiiHx C B O H X B O M C K AJIZ dopBd'H npoTHB SpaHHHH B cxy^ae, ecan HlBenHH 3aKXio^HT M H P Ha ero ycxoBHsx. Ho roxJiaHanH H e oTBeTHXH H a G T O npeaxocseHHe. - 52 -IleTp, noBHAHMOMy, xopomo snaJi nojiHTHKy H JtanjioMa-THqecicyio nrpy eBponeMCKHX JiepscaB. IIosTOMy O H Asa pa3a c pac-K O M aTaKOBaJE mBeACKHe depera OKOJEO CTOKroJiBMa Ha BHiiy y aH-r-AHMCKoro $JioTa. IleTp noHHMaa, HTO A H P A H H BoioeT T O J I B K O Torita, KorAa MeinaKT ee ToproBJie. B'JiaroJiapH T O My, M T O O H npoMJi Eec-KOJIBKO MeCjmeB B AHrJIHH H 03HaK0MHJECH C HX OdHHaHMH, OH d'HJt npaB. E C J I H IleTp OKasaJicn .ztHnjioMaTOM Ha napcKOM npecTOJie, T O T O J I B K O dJiaroAapa CBoeK qpe3MepHoli JHodo3HaTeJEBHOcTH KO BceMy HHOcTpaHHOMy. B BHHe VOAU O H HyBCTBOBaJt cedn KaK itoMa a HeMeii-K O H cJiodoiie, r,ae O H 3HaKOMHJicH co BceMH npeACTaBHTeJisMH e B p o -neficKHX cTpan. 0 T O M , H T O IleTp xopono 3HaJi Bee cjiadne H C H J I B -Hne C T O P O H H Bcex HamioHaJiBHocTeH EBponBi , B oTije J I B H O C T H HOA-TBep^ H T BBinHCKa H3 "CdopHHKa opHrHHaJiBHHX aiieKAOTOB IleTpa Be-JiHKoro" cocTaBJieHHoro c ycTHHX HCTO^HI'IKOB T - O M U ITSJ IHHHM,qjie-H O M HMnepaTopcKOH AKaiieMHH HayK B IleTepdypre: " cSpaHHyay, roBopHT O H , M O S H O xopomo 3anJtaTHTB: O H He K O I I H T jiener, a T p a -T H T Bee, qTo 3apadoTaeT. IIpHdJiH3HTeJiB-H O T O ace caMoe c HeMn.e-M: O H JUo.dHT xo-pomo SCHTB H eABa J IH qTo-HHdyiiB cdepe-r a e T . AHr JiHMaHHH TpedyeT HeMHoro do JIB -me: O H K H B C T B CBoe y^OBOJiBCTBHe A&xe ecJin eMy npHxoiiHTcs npHderaTB K noMo-mn cBero KpeiiHTa. 4"TO KacaeTcs r o j i -JlaHilHa, O H BpHA JIH eCTB AOCTaTOHHO , ^ TO-dn yTaJiHTB roJioA H KpoMe S K O H O M H H H H O qgM ApyroM He AyMaeT; nosTOMy MeHBinaji cyMMa AeHer dyiieT JIJIH Hero AocTaToqHa. H T a s a a s e HedojiBmaa cyMMa JieHer Y A O -BJieTBopnT HTaJiBjiHiia, KOTopBiM no HaType TaK depexjiHB, ^ T O Bceriia odJiaAaeT doJiB-mHMH ASHBraMH, O H A&xe He JieJiaeT H3 - 5 3 -o.Toro ceKpeTa, a OTKpoBeHHO npH3Ha-eTCH, qTo O H pa6oTaeT 3arpaHHH.eM TOJIBKO HMeS B BHiiy CKOnHTB AOCTa-T O ^ H O AeHer, HTOO 'H B 6yAylomein, Jier-KO X H T B BlerO paK) , B AOpOrOH MTaJIHH, rite MaJto Aesev". ^ CoBeTCKan AHTepaTypa noiiqepKHBaeT , H T O "AHnjioMaTHH IleTpa c o -qeTajia iiaJiBHOBHiiHy» pacneTJiHBOcTB c B H C O K O H qecTHoeTBio". ^ IleTp AeyxaJi Aannoe H M CJ IOBO H OHJI HeH3MeHHo BepeH coio3HHKaM, X O T H nocJieAHHe H3MeHHJiH eny. TaK $pH.apHX ABrycT, noJiscKHM K O -poAB, M H O T O pa3 odMaHHBaJi ero, H O IleTp B c e r i i a cTapaJica BBipy— ^ H T B ero H3 3aTpyiiHHTeaBHoro noJio&eHHH. IIoJiyHaJiocB, OTO H H O -CTpaHHH 3HaJiH, ^ T O Ha C J I O B O pyccicoro AHnjiOMaTa M O X H O nojio-SCHTBCH H ocodeHHo Ha C I O B O p y c c K o r o HapH. TaK .KaK Moms pyccKO-ro rocyAapcTBa npn IleTpe yBeJiHvHBaJiacB H3 r o i i a B TOA> T O M H O -rue cTpaHH cTapaJincB ycTaHOBHTB ApysecKHe OTHOieHM c PoccneH. B C H BHeiHsa noJiHTHKa P O C C H H dmia cocpeAOToqeHa B KojucerHH H H O cTpaHHHX AeJi t AeHTe J I B H O C T B KOTopoM npoTeKaJia no A na6JLK>Ae-HHeM caMoro IleTpa H npn ero yqacTHH. He TOJIBKO B O BHyTpeHHeg, H O H B O BHeiUHefi no JIHTHKe IleTp npoHBJiHJi C B O H ^HnJioMaTHHeCKHe KanecTBa. BercTBo IleTpa H ero C T O P O H H H K O B B TpoHH.KO-CeprHeBCKyK> JTaBpy 5iBJi5ieTCH xopomHM inaxMaTHHM X O A O M . 9 T H M O H cnac CBOIO X H 3 H B O T nocTHraTeJiBCTB C O $ H H H OAHOBpeMeHHO o6paniaHC£ K noMoiKH MHTponoJiHTa aneJiJiHpo-B a x K peJiHrH03H0My qyBCTBy npocToro HapoAa. BercTBo IleTpa 3 TpoHHKO-CeprHeBCKyio laBpy M O X H O cpaBHHTB c noe3ii.KOH HBaHa rpo3Horo B AJieKcaHApoBCKoe. AJieKceS T O J I C T O M T O T O xe MHeHHH Korita O H C K a 3 a J i : - 54 -, r IleTp H e TOponHJECH B MOCKBy. H3 AaBpH c B O H C K & M H BHineJt noxoAOM B AjceKcaHitpoB-CKyio CJIO6OAY, rjie eme C T O H A P I rHHJrne cpydH cTpainHoro .ztBopua HBaHa ^leTBepTo-r o " . 6 6 HecMOTpa H a T O , qro IleTp OHJI oqeHB M O J I O A H M O H npeicpacHO 3HaJi KaK odpamaTBCH c npaBociaBHOH nepKOBBio H C MHTponoJtHTOM. Ilpe-AaBan CMepTHOt Ka3HH epeTHica KyJEBMaHa A A H T O T O , q r o d H AO6'HTB i t e H B r n , B ra3TOBope c MHTpono J EHTOM IleTp roBo.pHT: " Ro EyjEBMaHa HaM Aejia HeT, oTAaw ero Tede roJEOBOH. A TenepB B O T H T O , d o -ape, - HyscHo MHe BoceMB THCflH pyd-JEeB Ha BoeHHtie A& Ha KopadeJiBHHe HaAOdHOCTH ...", 6^ Apysda MOJEOJEOTO IleTpa c ero BepHHM .ztpyroM JTe$opTOM, npHHecjia e M y doJEBniyio noJiB3y. JTecpopT ynnji ero iiHnjEOMaTHH no eBponeflcKOH cncTeMe. IleTp aieitoBaJi coBeTy JlecJopTa, KOTopnii roBopHJi eMy: " X O A H cTeneHHo, IleTp, roBopn K P O T K O , TJLS.A13. T H X O , cxyxdon C T O H , noicyiia H O M TepnnT, - B c e M dyAemB jnodesen. B O T , cKasyT, K a i c o r o r o c n o i i H H a HaM dor nocsaJi, npH TaKOM-To nepeiiox-H e M . . . A K P H M H T H .zrepeTca nycKais Bopnc T O J E H E H H " . 6 ® KaKHM xopomHM yqeHHKOM Jle(|)opTa czieJiaJicji IleTp MO a: H O cyAHTB H3 cjreAyiomero npHMepa. TOOEBKO 3a qeTHpe Mecana AO Ha-q a J i a CeBepHoM B O H H H IleTp roBopHJi AMa-iHH KHnnepKpoH, i i o q e p H niBeiECKoro nocaa, B O B p e M s cnycKa Ha BOiiy BoeHHoro Kopad JEH B BopoHesce: - 55 -" TaK H HanniuH oTn .y : UVLKOVAB. He corJtaniycB Ha^aTB HecnpaBeaxHByK) BOHHy, He pa3opBy B e ^ n o r o M H p a c KapoaycoM. A dyae KopoxB no J I BCKHK H 3aBJiaaeJi: dn PHroii,- He aocTa-^ H e T C H eMy ceft ropoa, BBipBy H3 Jean ... B ceu KJEHHycB doroM " HeJiB3s roBopHTB o xapaKTepe HBaHa Tpo3Hor ne 3aTpo-HyB ero oTHomeHHH c AHxpeeM MnxalixoBH^eM KypdcKHM. Hx oTHoiae-H H H K a K dy^TO OJTHHeTBOpHIOT OTHOHieHHH HapH K KHH3BHM. KypdCKHfi dyxy^H KOMaHayKniHM B ropoae BpBeBe ydesax 6OHCB o n a m HBaHa Tpo3Horo. C B O H M dercTBOM, B 156L -OM roay> O H HaxeeJiCK H3de-xaTh rHeBa naps 3a.ero nopaxeHne npoTHB apMHH XHTOBHeB B ^eTH-pe pa3a MeHBHien H X . KypdcKHH BnocJtexcTBHH aa.exa.scH BoeBoaoM nox&CKoro Kopoxa. BceM H3BecTHan n e p e n n c K a uexAy H H M H HBanoM Tpo3HHM npHHaijJreacHT K caMHM aocroBepHHM HCTOHEHKaM paHHefi pyc-CKOit XHTepaTypH• 3aecB Hac KypdcKHH HHTepecyeT T O J I B K O KaK npe-xcTaBHTeJiB KHH3eH B npoTKBonoJIOJKEOCTB iiap». M H H e 3HaeM XOTeJt X H ydHTB napB KypdcKoro. OxHaKO, M H sEaeM, w o - noaae ero H3-M e H H HBaH Tpo3HHM B •-KOHHe 1564-oro r o x a , H a HecKOJiBKO MecHHeB yexa-a B A.aeKcaHxpoBCKoe. M O S H O a o r a a a T B C H , HTO H3M eHa Kypd-CKoro, x o d H M o r o BoeBOXH HBaHa, nopa3HXa napn H nocjie Hee O H OKOHMaTeJiBHo noTepax CBoe aoBepne K M O C K O B C K O H apncToicpaTHH. B S T O M cMHCJte H3MeHa KypdcKoro dnxa O X H O H H3 npn^HH co3/iaHHH O n p H ^ H H H . PaccMaTpHBan H X nepenncKy M H MosceM odcy^ H T B Bonpoc K T O H3 S T H X XByx CJ IOJKHHX XH'yHocTefi HBxaeTcs nodeiiHTexeM. B03B-MeM cnepBa Kypdcicoro., O H 6OHJTCH 3a C B O M S H 3 H B H C B O H M dercTBOM cHanaxa odpeic Ha cMepTB JnodHMyio aceny H CHHa, KOTopne, no O X H O -My HCTOHHHKy, "rHdxa B c c H J i K e " , a no xpyroMy "dnxH yHHWOxenH - 5 6 - , B MocKBe k-oro GpeBpajra 1 5 6 5 - o r o r o A a 1 1 . ^ 0 I IO T O M , dJiaropoiiHHM KypdcKHH nocJiaJi c I I H C B M O M CBoero BepHoro cjiyry, BacBKy IIIH-6aHOBa, K HBaHy Tpo3HOMy H S T H M K HeMpiHyeMOK CMepTH. 3aTeM, O H noABepraJi onacHocTH Bcex Tex doap, KOTopne 6BIJIH xopomo 3Ha-K O M H c H E M . K H H 3 B H , KOTopHe AO dercTBa Kypdci-coro He dHJIH TpoHy— .TH HBanoM Tpo3HHM, TenepB nonaAH B HeMHJioCTB H 6 H J I H .Ka3HeEH. TaK KaK HsaH rpo3HHH He H3MeHHJi poAHHe ero odpa3 A S H C T B H H B nepenncpce C T S H O B H T C H dojiee BnroiiHHM. OH cTapaeTcn noKa3aTB KypdcKOMy, qTo caMOiiepsaBHe ocHOBaHO no BOJie doxBewj Be - I H K H M KHH3BHMH BJtailHMHpOM H BJtailHMHpOM MOHOMaXOM. OH Cnpa-mHBaeT He C T H A H O JEH KypdcKOMy nepe/i ero cxyroli, BacBKOii »HIH-daHOBHM, KOTopna meJi Ha BepHyio cMepTB paAH CBoero rocyiiapH H K H H 3 H , T.e. czteJiaJi T O , ^ T O O H , KypdcKHS, He c^HTaeT C B O H M JEOJE-roM. Haps odBHHaeT ero B T O M , w o " OH, KHH3B, CaM 3a HOBHHBI, HO TOJIBKO He AXX HH3KOTO , MepHOTO JnOila , a JE.JIH KHH3e.fi. H O H 3a A.pysdy c 3anaiioM, He T O J I B K O , qTodH OHa dHJia Ha noJiB3y K H H 3 B H M xe, a He napio". 3ii.ecB coBeTCKan JiHTepaTypa B H J I H T B HBaHe Tpo3HOM noKpoBHTeJiH npocToro Hapoiia. 3 T H M Ka^ecTBOM KypdcKHM He MoseT noxBacTOBaTBCH BBHiiy ero odxozciieHHH c HlHdaHOBHM.Ho coBeTCKOil . JiHTepaType KypdcKHE odBHHseT HBaHa B T O M s e caMOM n o c T y n K e . HMeHHo, "qTo O H " TBOpHT HOBHX CBOHX, SeJiaH OilHH » 72 BeceJiHTBCH na 3eMJie - 5 7 -Kaxhme naps od-BHCHHeT, qro O H MocseT KapaTB C B O H X nazuaHHHx K a K eMy HpaBHTca. O H He x o n e T 6'HTB T O X B K O n a p e M H noxyqaTB n o q e c T H . O H He x o q e T o d x a a a T B M e i i s n i e i t B x a c T B K , ^eM pa6. O H x o n e T coBepmeHCTBOBaTB c a M o x e p& a B H e . RJLSL O T O H ueXH O H M H O -T H M x e p T B O B a x a o c T H r a H T O T O , K neMy O H cTpeMHjecs . H3MeHa KypdcKoro od'Haacnxa paHH noxyqeHHHe HBaHOM rp03HHM B XHH ero XeTCTBa. B Te^eHHH BCeH SCH3HH OH He 3 a 6 H B a J t O6"HXH d o s p H B pa3HHX cxy t iaax Haxarax C B O H r H e B Ha KHH3eii H dOHp, KOTOpiie dilXK BHHOBHHKaMH e r o HeC^aCTHOH K3H0CTH. C O B e T -CKan J tHTepaTypa ynoMHHaeT 0 ropBKOM nyBCTBe HBaHa K o r a a O H T O X B K O noxy^HJ i H 3 B e c T H e 0 T O M , H T O KypdcicHM ocTaBHJr e r o : 11 H cHOBa noacTynHJEH K ropxy c x e 3 H , H CHOBa cTaxo xyi irao, T p y a H o XHHiaTB. K p y s K a x o x o x -H o r o nHBa He n o M o r x a . HHKaK He 3arxyiiiHTB M H C X H 06 oCnaax. CHOBa acaXB caMoro c e d n , K a K n o c x e a H e M y HHineMy, deaHHKy , n o x y ^ a i o -meiviy co B c e x c T o p o n noaHoiueHHe, K a K O A H H O -K O M y, decnoMomHOMy H 3 r H a H H H K y , H e HMeioiiieMy HH nppIEDTOB , HH i[py3eH". KOH$XHKT K y p 6 C K O r O C HBaHOM Tp03HHM - 0.2HH H 3 MHOTO-^HCJieHHHX 3 H H 3 0 X O B pyCCICOH HCTOpHH, TXe C a M a H XHdepaXbHaH H o o p a 3 0 B a H H a n ^ a c T B H a c e a e H H H n e p e x o x K T Ha 3 a n a a , noTOMy M T O p y c c K o e caMoaepacaBHe He a a B a J i o H M C B O C O X H O K H T B . noose ycTpaHeHHH Cnx&BecTpa H AaaineBa TaKHe p a c n p n npHHHMaXH Bee d o x e e H doxee oTBpaTHTex&HHe (popMH. Haao o d B H — HHTB KHH3eH H BOeBOX 3 a HapO^HO npOHrpaHHHe dHTBH. KHH3BH aeKcTBOBaJ iH H3 n y B C T B a caMooxpaHeHHH. tyyBCTBa KOTopoe H H K T O He MosceT OTpnuaTB. 3TO qyBCTBO donp BHpasceHO COBeTCKOM JtHTepa-T y p o K cxeayioiiiHMH e a o B a M H : - 58 -" B C H K noHHMaeT, qeM Kpenqe dyjieT HapeBa AepsaBa, T e M xyAv.ee HaM donpaM ... J I H B O H H H KOJXH cTaHeT ero B O T H H H O H , yMHosi'iT ero npeHMymecTBo ... BeAHKaa paiiocTB - H a i e rope". ^lacTB K H H s e f i H donp B HaqaJie necTHAecHTHX roAOBjoT-BepHyjEacB O T HBaHa Tpo3Horo H doJiBine He noiuepxHBaJia ero B J E H B O H C K O H noAHTHKe. Be3 coMHeHHH, Ayx HeAOBOABCTBa, cTpaxa H OTHaHHHH KHH3efi BJEHHA Ha MOpaJEB pyCCKHX BOHCK KOTOpBie nosTOMy noTepneAH HecKOJiBKO nopaxeHHfi B J I H B O H H H . 9 T 0 M y HBaH TposHHK npoTHBonocTaBHA CBOK) BJtacTB caMOitepsaBHa H npHHHJi enie do-ztee secTOKHe MepH. CoBeTCKan JiHTepaTypa noATBepsiiaeT A S H C T B H H HBana Tpo3Horo e Jiod'aBJteHHeM, ^ T O T o x e : " 9pHK (mBeiiCKHH KopoJis) rydHT C B O H X BeJiBMox de3 TOJtKy. SL nepednpaio JIIO-AHmeK M O H X no AeJiau. CJieAOBaJio 6u H eme Koe-Koro ydpaTB, H O H T e p n e -7 5 JTHB . . . ". CoBeTCKan JiHTepaTypa cTapaeTCH noA^epKHyTB rnnoTesy, K a K dy^TO cymecTBOBaJia TecHan C B H 3 B uexAy napeM H npocTHM H a -poAOM. KaK npocTOH HapoA O T H O C H T C H K CBoeMy napio H K a K O H Ha-c T p o e H npoTHB donp BHpaaceHo nyiUKapeM AH^peeM: " Haps O A H H , a donp C O T H K ... Haps KOAH n p o r H e B a e T C H , - Tede O A H H OTBeT, a KOAH C O T H H donp n p o H i i e -T C H naJiKoM no TBoeit cnnHe, Toriia 76 y?K Jiyqne napB, HesceJiH CTan donp!". BAH30CTB H dpaTCTBo rtapn c npocTHM HapoAOM noiiTBep-sciiaeTCH eme Jt/pyroii HHTaTOK odtHCHHKineH BHCOKOMepne H Ha^MeH-H O C T B donp H KHH3en: -59 -" 4"TO MoxeT CAexaTh HBaH BacHJ iBeBHq CO C B O H M H MysCHKaMH?". 77 HO KaK 3T0 6'UJIO B AeHCTBHTeJTBHOCTH? B e 3 COMHeHHH, HBaH Tp03HHH HCnOJIB30BaA q g p S H H JBOA KaK c p e A C T B o opyAHH n p o -THB apncTOKpaTHqecKHX cJioeB. 06tiKHOBeHHo O H He n p e i i n o q H T a J r H X BEtcniHM C J I O H M pyccKoro HapoAa. IlocJie nepBoro nosapa B Moc-KBe OH BeJieJL CXBaTHTB H Ka3HHTB 3aqHHIlIHKOB C M y T H . OnpH^HHa 3BepcTBOBaJta He T O J C B K O npoTB donp, H O Taicxe npoTHB deAHHX K p e c T B H H . B H o B r o p o A e donpe H peMeczieHHHKH 6HJIH yTonj ieHH B p . B o J i x B e . BBH^y HaJiH^HH TaKHX $aKTOB 6 J IH30CTB n a p n K Hapoiiy JtOXKHa OCTaBaTBCH BHMHCJIOM. ByAyHH MOJioiEHM napeM HBaH Tpo3HHH c noMoniBio C B O H X coBeTHHKOB TaJiaHTJIHBO npaBHJi Ha dJiaro cTpaHH. Ho O H He c x o -ilHJICH B3T JtHAaMH CO CBOHMH COBeTHHKaMH, KOTOpHe He nOiUepKH-BaJiH e r o B daJTTHHCKOH noJiHTHKe• Ilpn noj(03pHTeJtBHOM H doJie3-HeHH0-B0 3 6ya:iieHH0M qyBCTBe BJiacTH O H B o c n p H H H M a J i j r o d p H j i , npHMOH coBeT KaK nocTnraTeJiBCTBO Ha ero BepxoBHLie n p a B a , a HecorJiacHe co C B O H M H noraHaMH - 3HaK0M KpaMOJiH, 3aroBopa H H3MeHH. nocjie y i i a J i e H H H O T c e d n Aodpnx coBeTHOHKOB, O H peinHJt, M T O O H He MoaceT n p a B H T B rocyiiapcTBOM, KaK n p a B H J i H ero oTen H JieiiyiiiKa. IlycTOTy B n p a B H T e J i B C T B e O H 3aMeHHjr oacecToqeHHOff BpascAOH K JiHitaM d o n p c K o r o p o A a H decne;iBHOH pe3HeS. KpoMe Toro, O H BHec o n p H H H H O H B P O C C H B cTpai t tHy io deity, onycToircHB H e x a e odJEacTH c B o e i i CTpaHH. CHHoydHftcTBOM noitroTOBHJi CMyTHoe BpeMH K O T O P H M BocnoAB30BaJTHCB BHentHHe BparH P O C C H H , B T O BpeMH IllBeiiHH: H nojrBma. TaKHM o d p a 3 0 M noJioacHTeABHoe 3HaqeHHe HBaHa Tpo3Horo He TaK BeanKO, K a K MOSCHO 6MAO ero npeitcTaBHTB, - 6 0 -HecMOTpa Ha T O , OTO O H npHcoexHHHJi K P O C C H H Ka3aHB H A c T p a -XaHL. CoaeTCKHe H C T O P H K H nocTeneHHo odpamaJiH o c o d o e B H H -MaHHe Ha nporpeccHBHyio HaTypy HBaHa T p o 3 H o r o , TaK K a K HapB 3aniHinaJ[ pyccKHe HannoHaJiBHHe HHTepecH npoTHB BHenHHx BparoB. O H H yTBepxxaioT, w o HecMOTps Ha B C K K p y T o C T B n p e o d p a 3 0 B a H H H , coBepmeHHHX HBaHOM Tpo3HHM, HecMOTpn Ha Bee Ka3HH H onaxH,Ha KOToptie He CKynnjiCH S T O T n a p s , O H pac^HCTHJi n y T B K peqbopMaM IleTpa BeJiHKoro H K co3itaHHK) a 6 c o J U 0 T H^ecKoro rocyxapcTBa.Be3 coMHeHHH B nocxeaHeM O H H npaBH, H O O H H TaKace yTBepacnaioT, w o e r o x e s T e J I B H O C T B npo6yaHxa 6BI pyccKoe HannoHaJiBHoe nyBCTBO, KOTopoe no c JiyacH JIO 6H cnaceHHeM Z J I H pyccKoro rocyaapcTBa B CMyTHoe BpeMH. 3 T a M H C J I B H P K O BHpasena B a x p y H H H H M : " Pe3y.iBTaTH rocyaapcTBeHHoro cTopoHTexBCTBa npoBexeHHoro HBaHOM Tpo3HHM, c K a 3 a x H C B JTHIUB Mepe3 TpH^HaTB jreT, n o c j i e e r o cMepTH, Korxa OKpennee, cnanHHoe B O X H O Morynee neJioe PyccKoe rocyaapcTBo He T O J I B K O C y c -neXOM O T p a 3 H J I O HH03eMHyH HHTepBeHH.HK), H O H ~7fs nouiJio C H C T P O no nyTH xeJiBHeHiiiero p a 3 B H T H H . C'paBHHBafl IleTpa C HBaHOM Pp03HHM BHJIHO , WO O H 6HJI apyrHM HeaoBeKOM. O H npocTO xeJiaJr T O , w o eMy HpaBHJiocB H T O , w o noaxo^HJio K MOMeHTy. O H He 3aTpy.zi.HHJt c e d n npeaBopHTeJiBHH-M H coo<5paa:eHHflMH H J IH 3 a p a H e e BHpadoTaHHHMH nJiaHaMH. Bee, w o O H aeJtaJt O H c^HTaJi C B O H M TeKyinHM, o^epexHHM aeJtOM, a He pe_^ tpopMon. 3a6oTHCB o TeKyinHx xeJiax, O H B e e H3MeHHJt BOKpyr ced'n. I IoaroTOBKa K BOHHe H nocJieayioniaH BOHHa dJtaronpnnHT-cTBOBaJiH odcTaHOBKe K pe(popMaM. IlocJie noCe^H no it A 3 0 B H M B I696-OM voAy I leTp MOT o6painaTBCH K donpaM 3a dojiee KpyniiHMH - 61 -p a c x o a a M H AJIX a p M H H H $J toTa, TaK KaK O H nodeami 3aKJCHTHX B p a -T O B r o c y a a p c T B a T y p o K H TaTap. I IpoaoJisHTeaBHOcTB C e B e p n o H C T p a H H d J t a r o n p H n w c T B O B a J i a pe$opMaM. y r p o 3 H H a a B J i e H H e BHeniHero Bpara XaJiH IleTpy B O3M O J K H O C T B odpaniaTBCH K HannoHaJiBHOMy qyBCTBy H a -p o x a H TpedoBaTB O T Hero J I H H H H X scepTB.wo ente aeJ iCTBOBaxo B noJiB3y IleTpa S T O T O o d c T o w e J i B C T B O , w o ntBeaH T O J I B K O noJiTopa r o a a Haxo^ HJiHCB H a pyccKoK 3eMJie H T O T O J I B K O H a norpaHH^HoK n o -Jioce pyccKoro rocyxapcTBa. IlocJie IIoJETaBH H I IpyTCKoro n o x o a a P y c c K a a n o d e a a dHJia odecneneHa H p y c c K H e BoftCKa xef icTBOBaJiH B IIoMepaHHH H roJtniTeHHe H B §HHJ IHHJ I .HH KaK sKcneaHHHOHHHH K o p n y c . Ha S T O T n e p n o a BpeMeHH xo 3aKJHo^eHH5i HHnrraitcKoro MHpa na.zL.aeT d o J i B B i H H C T B o npoBeaeHHHx neTpoBCKHX npeod'pa30BaHHH. C n e p B a IleTp npoBeJt. p e t p o p M y no rojuraHxcKOMy c n o c o d y , a noTOM no ntBeacKOMy. B ToJUtaHaHH O H neHHJi ^HCTOTy yjinn, Tpy-iipjnodHe scHTeJieS , doraTCTBo CTpaHH H rocnoacTBy iomHH T S M rpaac-aaHCKHH nopnaoK. B UlBenHH eny HpaBHJiHCB rocyaapcTBeHHHe y ^ p e -xxeHHa, BiBeacKaH apMHH' H gjJtoT. IIosTOMy O H erne BO B p e M H CeBep-H O H B O H H H nocJiaJi T y a a noBepeHHoro BHBeaaTB B e e , w o dHJio B O3-M O S H O . I leTp Toace 3aMeHHJi MocKBy B H P O C I H H M H3 doJioTa I l e T e p d y p -r o M . CypoBHMH y K a 3 a M H 3 a c T a B J i j i J i .ztBopnH H KynnoB CTpOHTB B H e M xoMa co r J tacHo npHKa3aHHM p a 3 M e p a M . RJIB. S T O H p a d o T H H3HyTpn P O C C H H dnJin npHrHaHH T H G H H H p a d o T H H K O B , KOTopne padoTaJ in B yacacHHX ycjroBHHX. " Ta^KH eme He dHJtn H3BecTHH B P O C C H H H de^HHe p a d o ^ n e npHHyacaeHH d'HJtH T a c K a T B 3eMJiK) B nojiax C B O H X Ka<pTaHOB HJ IH B xaJiKHX MeniKax cxeJiaHHHX H3 T p a n o K 1 ' . 7 ^ - 62 -PecpopMa KaK ona npoBOAHAacs IleTpoM dHAa ero A H ^ H E I M AeAOM. BHenHHe onacHOCTH rocyAapcTBa onepesaAH ecTecTBeHHHH POCT HapOAa OCTaHOBHBnerOCH B CBOeM pa3BHTHH. B T O BpeMH oco-c5eEHo 3anaAHoeBponeHCKHe CTpaHH HIAH BnepeA CJOABIHHMH laraMH H nepeA PoccHeK C T O H A H ABe B O 3 M O S H O C T H , H A H ocTaBaTBCH Ha ypoB-He KHTafiCKoro HapoAa HJTH pa3BHBaTBCH c eBponeiicKHMH cTpaHaMH. KaK coBeTcican AHTepaTypa qyBCTBOBaAa OTHOCHTeABHoro pyccKOfi OT CTa AO CTH XOpOIHO CKa3aH0 ABOpHHHHOM JIonyxHHHM B "Ha AH.c-e" AAeKcen ToACToro: " C H A H AOMa Aa C M O T P H 3a X O S H H C T B O M , „ 80 - B O T B C H HayKa". H A H KAB.qapeM AcpaHaeBeBHM T O S se uhecu: "'JleAH nHAH, eAH nnocTo - Aa S H A H tr 81. j i e T no cTy". IleTp nocTaBHA cede 3aAa*ieK oTMeHHTB S T O odniee paB-HOAymHe OTHOCHnieecH K O 6 A a r y rocyAapcTBa. Ha CBOK> AenTeJtBHocTB O H cMOTpeA, KaK Ha cAysoy rocyAapcTBy, oTeqecTBy. CaMHe Btipa— seHHH "rocyAapcTBeHHHK HHTepec", "Aoopo odniee", "noAB3a Bce-HapoAHan" eABa A H He BnepBBie H B A H K T C H B pyccKOM 3aK0H0AaTeAB-cTBe npn IleTpe. OTKyAa B3HA IleTp B e A H K H H S T H HAen? HAen rocy-Aapa KaK nepBoro cAyrn cBoeia CTpaHH Tose O H A O H O B O C T B K A X S 3anaAHOH EBponn. IlepBHM KopoAeM npHHHBiiiHM 3Ty HAeio B 3ana^Hog EBpone OH A n p y C C K H K K O P O A B ©PHAPHX BHABreABM. HHTepecHO 3aMe-T H T B , *ZTO B CBH3H C 3THM O H eABa He nOSepTBOBaA CBOHM CHHOM KOTopHli dexa-zi He BHAepsaB cTporocTH csoero oTHa. - 63 -IleTpy noHaao6naac£ 3ana,aHaH EBpona RXZ Mo,a.epHH3a-miH P O C C H H . O H BHxeJt B Hen BceraaiaHHit odpa3en R&S. cBoen P O A H H H . IleTpa ^acTo H3odpaa:aaH cjieiraM 6e33aBeTHHM 3anaitHHKOM, K O T O P H H jm6viJL B e e 3anaaHoe He noTOMy, w o O H O 6 'HJIO xyqme pyccKoro, a noTOMy, w o O H O dnao qyxoe pyccKOMy. Ha M O K BQTXXA S T O T y n -peK HecnpaBeAXHB. IleTpy npHEixa Hxea C03aaTB BeJtHKoe H O C O J E B C T -B O c HeJIBM- npHHWB H3 3anaxHOH EBponn TexHHKy KopadJieycTpoH-cTBa H O 6 I K H X TexHH^ecKHX 3HaHHH. O H He nHTax K Hen o a e n o r o H X H cxadoro npncTpacTHH". HanpoTHB, O H O T H O C H X C H K Hen c TpesBHM HeaoBepneM. O H qyBCTBOBaJi, w o P O C C H K Bcer^a BCTpeTW B EBpone c npeHedpexeHHeM H HeaodposcexaTeJiBcTBOM. E r o npocTOTa H nexo-Be^HOCTB H e r o JiH^Haa xecTOKOCTB yKa3HBaioT Ha T O , W O O H H O Ryme ocTaBaxcH pyccKHM. MHe He KaaceTcn C M O H H M yTBepacaaTB,wo O H CBoeE X H H H O C T B K) c T a p a x c H coe^HHiiTB 3anait.Ho-eBponeficKHe Tex-HH^eCKHe 3HaHHH H OdHIHe HpaBH C BOCTOtJHO-eBpOneHCKHM qeJIOBe-qecKHM qyBCTBOM. 3 T O noHWHo, w o 3To He B c e r a a o6XO,2MOCB de3 KpoBonpoxHTHH. E r o doxBmaa 3aozcyra B T O M , W O O H a a e x a a P O C C H K J eBponeH3HpoBaHHo .H B TaKOM pa3Mepe, B E S K O M S T O O HJ IO B O 3M O K H H M npn odcTOHTexBCTBax T O T O BpeMeHH. HexocTaTOK neTpoBCKHX pe-(pOpM BaCHXHH KJHOHeBCKHH OHHCHBaeT T3 .K : " Ho ocK3aTexBHHe npH3HaKH 3Toro odoranieHHH odHapyscHXHCB He B noR'beue o6mero ypoBHH HapoxHoro 6xarococToaHHH, a B BeaoMOCTHX Ka3eHHoro RoxoRa. BoKHa co C B O H M H noaiex-C T B H H M H nepexBaTHBaxa Bee H3XHIHKH Hapoa-Horo 3apa<3oTKa. HapoaHo-xo3HHCTBeHHaH p e $ o p M a npeBpaTHxacB B HHHaHCOByicr H ycnex, era XOCTHrHyTHfi, dHJI C 0 6 C T B e H H O (pHHaHCOBHH, a He HapOXHO-X03HfiCTBeHHHH". 6k -B coBpeMeHHOH 3anaAHOH J iHTepaType IleTp Be A H K H H HBAneTCH O A H H M H3 caMHx H P K H X H BHAaioiiiEXCH r o c y A a p e E CBoero BpeMeHH. X O T H e r o nacTo cpaBHHBawT c HBaHOM Tpo3HHM, H O IleTp BeAHKHft BepHA B HpOCBeiHeHHHH A6CnOTH3M. HAeio caMOAepxaBHH H B3aHMooTHomeHHH MesAy r o c y A a p e M H noAAaHHHM O H noB3aHMCTBO-BaA y IllBeHHH, a He B3HJI OT MOCKOBCKOH TpaAEIIHE. CaMHH THTyA "HMnepaTopa" H O C H A pa3AHMHHe 3HaqeHHH H acconnaHHH, qeM TH-TyA "napa". B npoTHBonoAOSHOCTB HBaHy rpo3HOMy, IleTp BeAH-K H H oqeHB yBasaA 3aKOHH H cqHTaAca nepBBiM CAyrofi r o c y A a p c T B a . X O T H O H <5HA doABineft qacTBK 3aHHT BoeHHHMH ASAaME, IleTp npeo-6pa30BaA neHTpaABHoe H MecTHoe ynpaBAeHne B P O C C H H H TaKie aAMEHHCTpaHHio nepKBH H (|)HHaHC0B. KpoMe Toro O H coBepnEA Baxc-Htie nepeMeHH B PyccKOM odmecTBe, B S K O H O M H H H KyABType. ByAy^H . BHCOKEM H OyAy^H KpenKHM, IleTp KpyTHME MepaMH TOAKHyA MOCKOBEK) Ha HOBHH nyTB K pa3BHTHI0. MHOTHM COBpeMeH-HHKaM O H Ka3aJtC5i H A H cBepxMeJcoBeKOM, HJ IH repoeM, HJEH aHTE-X P E C T O M . T O A B K O A E H H O C T B napn HanpaBHAa P O C C H M BnepeA: K BOE-He, K pe^opMaM, K HanpnaceHHio B c e x C B O H X C H A H K noAHOfi npeAaH-HOCTH CTpaHe. IIpOTHB erO AHHHOCTH BOCCTa Aa nOKOpHOCTB CTpe AB — noB, 6 a n K H p o B , acTpaxaHneB H C T O P O H H E K O B EyAaBHHa, B T O BpeMH, KaK A p y r n e MHoroqncAeHHHe CTapoBepH, a TaKsce H npaBocAaBHHe desaAH K OKpaHHaM H B Aeca. H O C H J I E C B cJiyxE, H T O npeo6pa30Ba-TeAB He <5HA C H H O M napn AAeKcen, a EHocTpaHen, K O T O P H H 3aMeHEjr C O 6O H HacTOHUiero napn B O BpeMH e r o noe3AKE B 3anaAHyio EBpony. Bparn IleTpa yTBepacAaAH, HTO O H odMaHniHK, caM03BaHen E aHTH-xpHCT. IleTp caM noAAepxHBaA MHeHHH cyeBepHHX MyacHKOB. IIpocTOH HapoA BHAeA IleTpa KaK roAAaHACKoro iiKHnepa c TonopoM B pyKe H Kypniiero TpycjKy. MHorne H A C H H AyxoBeHCTBa noAB30BaAHCB - 6 5 -3 T H M $aKTOM X X H Toro,iTo<5H noxopBaTB K HeMy xoBepne Hapoxa. HecMOTpa Ha MHoroMHCxeHHBix BparoB, I l e T p y y x a x o c B B B e c T H B P O C -C H H HOBmecTBa, qacTo npn noMomn KHyTa H AU6U. 3anaxHH*iecTBO ysce Ha^axocB nepex, I leTpoM, H O O H ABJI euy T a K o i i C H X B H H H T O X -q-OK, KOTopHfi HyBCTBOBaacH enie AOJivoe BpeMH nocxe ero CMepTH. CoBpeMeHHaa coBeTCKan XHTepaTypa 3aMe^aeT, wo pe-3yxBTaT0M ero aeaTe J I B H O C T H HBHxacB co3xaHHe cnxBHeHiitefi B E B -pone pyccKoa peryxapHoft apMHH H cnxBHoro $xoTa. Co BpeMeHH I leTpa B e x H K o r o O ( 5 O E T H P O C C H K B eBponeHCKOfi noxHTHKe 6 H X O H e -B03MOXHO. taTepaTypa noa^epKHBaeT, wo neTpoBCKHe petpopMH C03XaXH adCOXK)TH3M B ^HHOBHH^BeH , 6lopOKpaTH^eCKOH HMnepHH. 3 T O T adcoxioTH3M HHoraa c^HTaxca npocBemeHHHM. I leTp 3aJioiHJi OCHOBH npOMHHJieHHOCTH H yBeXH^IHX BHyTpeHHKHO H BHeHIHIOK) TOpTOB-JIIO. B HapcTBOBaHHe IleTpa npocBHineHHe, o6pa30BaHHe H KyxBTypa 6 H X H ycneiuHO pa3BHTH. CoBeTCKHH nncaTexB MaBpoaHH yTBep&xaeT, H T O p y c c K H e npH HeTpe: " o B X a x e x n coBpeMeHHOii H M HayKoM H Tex-HHKOH H B O MHOrOM HpeBOCXOXHXH C B O H M 3HaHHHMH H O I I H T O M cnen.HaXHCTOB 3anax-HoeBponencKHX cTpaH • KaK 3anaxHaa TaK H coBeTCKaa XHTepaTypa corxainaio-HanpHxeiiHH T O H B T O M , w o ycnex IleTpa 6 H X xocTHrHyT n o c p e x c T B O M Y i c e x C H X pyccKoro Hapoxa. B e e BHroxn npHHaxxexaxn r o c n o x c T B y»niHM COCXOBHHM, KOTOpHX I leTp 3aCTaBXHX S H T B Ha HHOCTpaHHHfi MaHep. C o B e T C K a n XHTepaTypa, KpoMe T O T O , nox^epKHBaeT M H C X B W O : " B ninpoKO p a c n a x H y T o e IleTpoM " O K H O B E B p o n y " naxHyx He T O X B K O BeTep eBponeficKoro npocBe-nieHHfl, HO H TxeTBopHHH cMpax "HyxedecHH.".^ - 66 -C o B e T C K y » M T e p a r y p y coKpymaeT cpaKT, q r o I l e T p , d y -Ay^H pyccKHM naTpnoTOM y C H A H A rHeT, naAaBEiHii Ha nAe^H T p y A H -Hteroca n a p o A a , H O A o d a B A n e T , q r o H H H M nyTeM O H He civtor 6'N pa3peinHTB 3aAaqH npeoAOAeHHH oTCTaAocTK P O C C H H . Pe3KMHpyH Bee BHinecKasaHHoe M H HailAeM B I leTpe BeJ iH -K O M HeAOBeica, KOTopnM sepTBOBaA c o d o i i paAH d A a r a r o c y A a p c T B a . B C H ero AenTeJiBHocTB yKa3HBaeT Ha T O . 4"HTan o I leTpe KaxeTcn, ^ T O O H He npHKAaAHBaA ocodeHHHX ycHJ inn c A y s a r o c y A a p c T B y . K a K <5H n r p a n O H ocymecTBJiHJC nepeBopoT P O C C H H H npHBeA ee O T OTCTa-A o r o H a p c T B a K c a M o t MOIIIHOH HMnepHH B E B p o n e . Mrpan B BoeHHHe n o T e x H , H r p a n Ha Bepcpax, Ha ntyMHHx M a c K a p a A a x , Ha accaMdJienx ' y C B o e r o A p y r a J Ie$opTa IleTp KaK dyATO inyTH A B H r a A c n BnepeA H CBOHM rpOMaAHHM pa3MaXOM BeJt 3a COdOH ABOpHHCTBO H 3acTaBAHA HapoA cJieAOBaTB 3a c o d o f i . BeAHKoe nocoABcTBO 6HAO A A H Hero rpoMaAHHM codHTHeM. TO J I B K O O A H H pyccKHf!, B C A H K H H K H H 3 B , AO T o r o BpeMeHH noceTHJi 3anaAHyio E B p o n y , 700 JieT T O My Ha3aA H T O A B K O A J IH T o r o , qTodn BecTH AHnAOMaTHHecKHe neperoBopn c repMaHCKHM HMnepaTopoM.TOABKO dyAy^H 6 o r a T H p e M (pH3HqecKH H AyXOBHO , qeAOBeKOM CHABHOK BOAH, I leTp MOT COBMemaTB H3yqeHHe HHOCTpaHHHX H3HK0B , HayK H HCKyCCTB C AeHTeABHOCTBK) H a p H , noAKOBOAna H B T O s e caMoe BpeMH cMor npeodpa3HT£ OTCTaAyio POCCHK B HOByK CTpaHy. ECAH KTO -HHdyAB COMHeBaeT CH B TOM, KaK Be J IHK 3TOT MOHapx nycTB BcnoMHHT eme H o e r o nocAeAHeM r e p o n q e c K O M n o A B H r e , K o r A a 6O A B H O H nnTHAecHTHAeTHHS n a p B , e m e He H3AeqeHHHM OT H3HypHTeABHOH 6 0 A e 3 H H dpOCHACH B HOHdpe 172k - o r o r o A a B O BpeMH 6ypn B Mope H c n a c O K O A O ABaAnaTH C O A -AaT K O T O P H M rpo3HAa HeH3desHan cMepTB K o r A a H X AOAKa ceAa Ha MeAB. Ilpn cnaceHHH S T H X TOHyBniHX C O A A B T IleTp n p o c T y A H A c n K OKOH^aTeABHO n o A o p B a A CBOe 3AopoBBe. - 67 -E C T B enie OAHa TeMa He 3aTpoHyTan HaMH - S T O HOBHe jrioAH. 0 6 a napn no.iB30Ba.3HCB H M H , KaK opyirneM A S H C T B H H npo-THB c T a p n x C A o e B . I|apn T p e d o B a - i H O T H O B H X JiioAeii npeiiaHHOCTH H c i y x d n . KHH3BH H d o n p e HeHaBHiieAH H O B H X JHOAeH noTOMy H T O nocJteiiHHe H a q a M 3aMeniaTB H X Ha napcKOM A B o p e . HoBHe JUOAH " T H C H M H H K H " , HcnpaBHo cxyxvum iiapio H r o p A H A H C B ycepitHeM,MO-JJOJIHM y A a A B C T B O M , oTManHHOio cne-iocTBio H paTHOH Jiep30CTBio.no M o c K B e X O A H A H cayxH, KaK 6yATo HBaH B a c H J i B e B H H xoTeA H36paTB c e d e AO necTH T H C H H T B K H X MOJioiinoB. Bonpe He cnoKoMHo C M O T -pe.iH Ha d J i a r o c K J i o H H O C T B napn K S T H M H O B H M JHOJIHM . no H X MHe-HHK) HapB He MOr nOJIOXHTBCH Ha nOJIK H3 HH3K0p0 A H H X H BOBCe de3poiiHHX n o c a i t C K H X H y e 3 A H H X M O A O A H X A B O P H H . O H MOT x y q n i e nOJIOSHTBCJI Ha dOflpCKHX H KHH2CCKHX AeTePi, TaK KaK y HHX dHJIH T B e p A H e yCTaBH AOMOBHTOCTH H nOH5JTHe O qeCTH. K "THCH^HHEaM" npHHaiiJcesaJiH BacHAHH rpH3H0U> §e ,aop H A J i e K c e H BacMaHOBH ,B'o-pHC TOiiyHOB , KH5I3BH 4"epKaCCKHe MHXaHX H MaCTKJK TeMpiOKOBHHH - dpaTBH napnnHHH, H ApyrHe, B H O B B npHdJiHseHHHe iiapeM JHOAH . B npOTHBOnOJEOSHOCTB 3THM HOBHieCTBaM CTOHAH nOSHJEHe BeABMOXH. nocTynKH napn cTaHOBHJiHCB 3araAoqHHMH H cTpaniHHMH, KpyTo HitymHMH Hanepepe3 cTapHM npHBH-qKaM: " BMecT'o ywTa TepeMOB - cMOTpoBHe njioiiiaiiH, noTeniHHe cTpeABdHina, noJin cpaseHHii ... O T i i o x H y T B 6ul A TyT coBceM HHa^e: XH3HB Bee c y e T A H B e e H cyeTJiHBee cTaHOBHTca ... --. X o p o n H M n p H M e p o M H3 qHcaa H O B H X A d i i e H HBaHa rp'o3Horo siBJisieTca. B o p n c T o i i y H O B : " H pOAOM He 3HaTeH j H COBCeM 36JIeHHH BHona, AaBHO JIH P H H A K dHJi, - a HHHe B rioMecTHOHfi npHKa3 napeM nocaxeH - 68 -xexa BepmHTB BaxcHHe. H,apB He 6 O H T C H o c MOXOXHX, He 0<5X0XHT HOBHX JKOiteH". j^ByXH^HOCTB T04yH0Ba BOCCTaHaBXHBaXH 6'OHp HpOTPIB Hero. Bonpe e r o npe3Hpaxn 3a TaTapcKoe npoHcxoscxeHHe, X O T S B O BpeMeHa iBaHa rpo3Horo c o r x a c n o KxBneBCKOMy O K O X O c e i -HaanaTH nponeHTOB HacexeHHH 6 H X H TaTapcKoro nponcxoacxeHHH. KpoMe T o r o , O H H n p e H e o p e r a x n He3HaTHHM poxoM roxysoBa. O T -HomeHHe Hapoxa K H O B H M X IOXHM noica3aHH B pa3roBope KpecTBHHHHa c MaxioTOK CKypaTOBBiM, rxe T O T x a x y e T C H na n x o x o e noBexeHHe (3oHpHHa: " J IM T , T O T donpHH, X B T . K O X H 6 H X (5H TaKofi, Kaic T B I, xexo 6u cicopee I J I O . . . 0-7 B O H M C H M H e r o . . . B O H M C H ! " . . . B S T O M c x y q a e H He Mory He yica3aTB Ha X H ^ H O C T B Ma-X K T H C K y p a T O B a H Ha T O , K S E coBeTCKas H 3arpaHH*iHan XHTepaTypa onncHBaioT e r o . B nepBoti CKa3ano, w o O H xopomnM X O 3 H H H , C M O -TpHT 3a CBeM, xiodHT CBOK) ceMBK, aceny IIpacKOBBio A$aHacBeBHy H X O H B Mapnio H M O X H T C H <5ory. O H npexaH napio H cTaBHT e r o BLime B c e x scHBymnx xioxeli. KaK 3a6oTXHBHH oTen. O H n o y ^ a e T C B O H X O ^ B TaKHMH CXOBaMH: " H T H , X O H B , 6 X B X H peBHOCTB K pyKOxe-XHB H BeSHCTBy, He 6yXB EeMOHHOBj xeHHBOH xeBKoM. Be.3xexBHHKH - <3ecy 88 Ha p a x o c T B . . . Bee xyxoe - O T 6e3xexBHu. B 3arpaHH^HOH X H T e p a T y p y MaxBTa CKypaTOB cqHTaeTcs caMHM 3BepcKHM naxa^OM HBaHa T p o 3 H o r o . B I 5 6 9 - 0 M roxy O H sa-xyniHX MHTponoxHTa <3>HXHnna. B 1 5 7 0 - O M roxy _ 6 9 -" C K y p a T O B , qToc3H noKa3aTL CBOIO n p e A a H -H O C T B napio cie3 c K O H H H 0Tpe3aA y x o B U C K O B a T o r o K o r A a O H yMEpaA".^ KaKHM HyscHHM B p e M e H n i H K O M dHA CKypaTOB B rjta3ax HBaHa T p o 3 H o r o MOSCHO B E A S T S H3 rHeBa n a p n , K o r A a O H noJiyivui H3BecTHe o e r o CMepTH O K O A O IlanAe: " O H c A e A a A doABmyio Kyqy H3 CBH3aHHHX njreHHHX ntBeiioB E HeMiieB, odAoscHA H X CBH3KaMH XBOpOCTa H CCKer 2CHBHME B .1 9 0 nopHBe CBoero rHeBa". IIpH IleTpe B e A H K O M nepBoe MecTo E3 H O B H X ABAei i 3aHH-MaeT AJ ieKcaHAp JUaHEAOBHq MeHniHKOB. O H B H A a B a A c a cBoen A e n T e A B -H O C T B K ) , A O B K O C T B K , yMOM H KpoMe T O T O noHHMaHHeM I leTpa B e J i H K o r o . K TOMy ace O H <5HJI oqeHB xpadpHM coxziaTOM, KOTopng B O M H O T H X fiHTBax yqacTBOBaJr a pemaio.iii.HX MOMeHTax. O H dHA dAHacafiniHM no-M O B I H E K O M E BepHeitniHM A p y r o M n a p s . K a p B e p a , KOTopyio O H A o c T n r c npoiiaBiia dAEHOB AO npe3HAeHTa BoeHHoM K O J U i e r E E , r y d e p H a T o p a E KHH35I BH3HBa Aa 3aBHCTB MHOTHX d o s p . KpOMe A p y r E X HOBHX AK5-AeK, KaK IIIaipHpoB, ilryacHHCKHH, y icpaHHueB 6HAH T H C H H H o$Hn.epoB H qHHOBHHKOB, KOTOpHe 6HAE npeAaHH I leTpy . HeHaBHCTB npoTHB H O -BHX AKJAeK He d H A a TaKOE ace KaK npoTHB H O B H X A B A C M npn HBaHe rpo3HOM, TaK KaK I leTp BHdHpaJi E X pa3yMHee. Ho o r p a A E T B ^ E H O B -HHHecTBo O T BHMoraTeABCTBa H npoH3BOAa H O B H X AKAeM IleTp He Mor. O H He pa3 y^HA CBoero ABdEMna MeHHHKOBa CBoeS 3HaMeHHToit AydHHKOH. K o r A a IleTp pdHapyacEA, q r o MeHniHKOB nocTaBHA AepKiry nonoAaM c d'y Mar O H AJIZ co A A B T C K H X KatpTaHOB O H : " cxBaTEA e r o 3a r p y A B , 3a KpyaceBHy io p y d a x y , AOTamnA A O c T e H H H , K o r A a - 70 -A x e K c a H x p Jt'aHHJroBH^  pasHHyB P O T , y n e p c H , H a n a x 6HTB ero co C T O P O H H Ha cTopoHy, - y T O T O r o x o B a T O X B -K O 6oxTaxac£. C r o p n q a cxBaTHX TpocTB, CTOHBUCyiO y KaMHHa, H Ty TpOCTB, H3X0-Max 06 A x e K c a m K y " . 9 1 HecMOTpa Ha T O , w o MHorne H3 H H X 6'paxH B3HTKH,HTO <5HXO odnqaeM B P O C C H H , I leTp HHKorxa He H a n a x a x Ha C B O H X co-TpyXHHKOB, KaK 3TO CXy^aXOCB npH HBaHe Tp03H0M. I IocxexHHH c n e p B a y C H B a x 6o5ip c noMoiiiBB onpH^HHKOB, a noToM O H P H M H H K O B c noMomBio doap. 0T3HB o S :H3HH O6OHX n a p e n M H naftxeM y XByx CaMHX 3HaMeHHTHX pyccKHX noaTOB, y JlepMOHTOBa H I lynKHHa. I lepBHE x a x H P K H H o 6 p a 3 HBaHa Tpo3Horo B " I lecHe npo n a p a HBaHa B a c n x B e -Bvma, Moxoxoro onpH^HHKa H yxaxoro Kyniia KaxantHHKOBa", a BTopoM ynoMaHyx I leTpa B e x H K o r o B "MexHOM BcaxHHKe". HecMOTpn Ha H a p c K n e pacnpaBH H scecTOKOCTB IIpocTOH Hapox xiodnx H s a n a Tpo3Horo. 3THM O H o^eHB noxos: Ha coBpeMeHHHx caMoxepacaBiieB , T H T x e p a H CTaXHHa. K sTOMy MHeHHB npHcoexHHneTCH H coBeTCKaa XHTepaTypa, 3aMeHaBHtaH, w o " nopaxoK B cTpaHe xepscaxcn H pa3y-MOM H JJCeCTOKOCTBK) HBaHa IV B HBaHe Tpo3HOM o c y m e c T B X H x a c B Ta " r p 0 3 a " KOTOpOH XBOpHHCTBO XBOpflH-C T B O TpeOoBaxo O T HapCKOt BXaCTH 1'.^ 2 HecMOTpn Ha Bee CBoe 3HaHeHHe, B "MexHOM BcaxHHKe" IleTp BeXHKHH He Mor 3acxyacHTB XK>6OBB Hapoxa. TeM He MeHee, pyccKHii Hapox nopaaceH Bexn^neM S T O T O n a p s , K O T O P H H npeBpaTHX oTCTaxyio cTpaHy B MomHyB HMnepnio. YxHBXHeT H a c , w o ero x e n -TexBHocTB He ocTaBHxa B Hapoxe cooTBeTCTByiomero O T K X H K B KaK - 71 -c o B e T C K a a X H T e p a T y p a npaBHXBHo c o o d m a e T : " H TeM He MeHee B HapoxHOM T B o p ^ e -c T B e o I leTpe n e T To i l O T X H ^ H T O X B -H 0 H q e p T H , KOTOpOH OTMe^eHH n e c H H 9 3 O rp03HOM". Ha B C H E o e x e x o M O X H O cMOTpeTB c XByx C T O P O H . I leTp xa-B H X Ha KpecTBHHCTBo HTO(5H odecne^HTB rocyxapcTBeHHyro He3aBHCH-M O C T B P O C C H H , W O C J H y c T p o H T B apMHK, $ X O T H ocHOBaTB I l e T e p d y p r . HBaH IV MeHBiue xaBHX H a Hapox, M a x o C T P O H X H B KOHHe e r o acH3-H H p y c c K o e n a p c T B o e x s a He p a c n a x o c B . KpoMe T O T O , B T O B p e M H Korxa I leTp ocHOBax I l e T e p d y p r , A 3 0 B , T a r a H p o r HBaH yHHWoscnx H o B r o p o x H e r o BoeHHan noxHTHKa npHBexa K n o x a p y H yHHWoace-HHK) MOCKBH B 1571-OM TOXy. n o c x e odcyscxeHHji H cpaBHeHHa o d o n x napeM MOS:HO , n o -- M o e M y , nocTaBHTB Bonpoc, K K S K H M 3aKXMMeHHSM H HaxesExaM Haxo npHHTH X X H C o B e T C K o r o Coio3a B e r o CyxyionieM. HanpacHO MH. Haxe-eMCH Ha MHTKyiO X H H H O C T B . K T O 6H TaM He HapcTBOBax Ha pyCCKOM Z X H COBeTCKOM npecToxe O H dyxeT C H X B H H M , TBepXHM, X H T P H M H HHorxa •yexoBe^HHM. ^eM OoxBine O H dyxeT noxoxHTB Ha I l e T p a , T e M xyqme dyxeT x x a p y c c K o r o Hapoxa H eBponeiicKHX HapoxoB. H e x B 3 a paccMaTpHBaTB X H ^ H O C T B odonx Hapei i T O X B K O B O BpeMH H X napcTBOBaHHH. BaacHO Toace , no-MoeMy, KaK O H H xen'CTBy-KJT Ha dyxyramee, w o nxoxoTBopHoro x a x n O H H nocxexyiomeMy noKO-x e H H i o . E C X H M H B03BMeM 75 xeT n o c x e c n e p T H HBaHa rpo3Horo , M H BHXHM TOXBKO 3aCTOH BO BCeX CTOpOHaX OdmeCTBeHHOii J ICH3HH. BHXOX K BaxTHHCKOMy Mopio. , K O T O P H H yace n p H H a x x e x a x K P O C C H H - H B a H -ropox, Su H K o n o p B e dnxn noTepaHH niBexaM. A e c x n c x e x a T B o d -3op Toro ace caMoro n p o M e a c y T K a • BpeMeHH n o c x e CMepTH I leTpa Bexn-- 72 -Koro, M H 3acBHxeTea£CTByeM Taicoe pa3BHTHe pyccicoft HanHOHaaB-HOH XHSHH BO BCeX OTHOineHHHX , WO 18-Oe CTOJteTHe AO HaCTOiT-nero BpeMeHH ocTaeTCH caMHM cxaBHHM B pyccKOK H C T O P H H . - 73 -R E F E R E N C E S 1 V. Ma v r o d i n , E e t r P e r v y i , I z d a t e l s t v o Z.K.Molodaja g v a r d i j a, L eningrad,1948,p.148. 2 Ibid.,p . 3 5 8 3 V . K o s t y l o v , I v a n Grozny,voennoe I z d a t e l ' s . t v o v o o r u z h e n -nykh a i l S o j u s a SSR, Moskva, 1948, v o l . 1 , p.47. 4 I b i d . , p.472. 5 S.V. B a d h r u s h i n , I v a n G r o z n i , Gosudarstvennoe I z d a -t e l ' s t v o p o l i t i c h e s k o i l i t e r a t u r y , Moskva, 1945, p.226. 6 I b i d , p.89. 7 J u l e s K o s l o v , I v a n the G r e a t , H i l l and Wang, New Y o r k , 1961, p.58. 8 A l e k s e i T o l s t o i , Na dybe, Gosudarstvennoe I z d a t e l ' s t v o k h u d o z h e s t v e n n o i l i t e r a t u r y , 1949, p.613. 9 M a v r o d i n , P e t r P e r v y i , p.158. 1© B a k h r u s h i n , I v a n G r o z n y i , p.68. 11 K o s l o v , I v a n the G r e a t , p.191. 12 M a v r o d i n , E e t r P e r v y i , p.128. 13 I b i d . , p.398. 14 Stephen Graham, P e t e r the G r e a t , E r n e s t Benn L t d . , 15 I b i d . , p.318. 16 " Jan. G r e y , P e t e r the G r e a t , J.B. L i p p i n c o u r t Company, P h i l a d e l p h i a and New Y o r k , I960, p.487. 17 Kos.tylov, I v a n G r o z n y i , v o l . 2 , p .2o6 . 18 I b i d . , p.154. 19 M a v r o d i n , P e t r P e r v y i , p.400. 20 B a k h r u s h i n , I v a n G r o z n y i , p.17. - 74 -21 Hans von E c k a r d t , I v a n the T e r r i b l e , A l f r e d A. Knopf, New Y o r k , 1949, p.288. 22 K o s l o v , I v a n the G r e a t , p.125. 23 Grgy, P e t e r the G r e a t , p.199. 24 ' M a v r o d i n , P e t r P e r v y i , p.392. 25 K. Tr e n e v , J u n o s t l - P e t r a , S o v e t s k i i P i s a t e l ' , Moskva, 1946, p. 36T1I 26 K o s l o v , I v a n the G r e a t , p.68. 27 M a v r o d i n , P e t r P e r v y i , p.390. 28 B a k h r u s h i n , I v a n G r o z n y i , p.100. 29 K o s t y l e v , I v a n G r o z n y i , v o l . 1 , p .136 . 30 M a v r o d i n , P e t r P e r v y i , p.398. 31 K o s t y l e v , I v a n G r o z n y i , p.182. 32 I b i d . , p.183. 33 M a v r o d i n , P e t r P e r v y i , p.398. 34 A l e k s e i T o l s t o i , P e t r P e r v y i , Gosudarstvennoe I z d a t e l ' s t v o k h u d o z h e s t v e n o i l i t e r a t u r y , Moskva, 1947, p.223. 35 I b i d . , p.315. 36 G r e y , P e t e r the G r e a t , p.191. 37 M a v r o d i n , P e t r P e r v y i , p.38. 39 G.A. von Halem, Leben P e t e r s des G r i s s e n , M uenster and L e i p z i g , 1803, v o l . 2 , p.283. ' 38 G r e y , P e t r the Great', p. 191. 40 K o s t y l e v , I v a n G r o z n y i , v o l . 1 , p.117. 41 K o s l o v , I v a n the G r e a t , p.85. 42 V l a d i m i r S o l o v ' e v , V e l i k i i Gosudar', Gosudarstvennoe I z d a t e l ' s t v o " I z h u s s t v o " , MoskvaT I960, p.97. 43 I b a d . , p.91. 44 _ | | | d . , p.93. - 75 -1+5 B a k h r u s h i n , I v a n G r o z n y i , p.8l< 1+6 G r e y , P e t e r the G r e a t , p. "#' . 1+7 E c k a r d t , I v a n the T e r r i b l e , p.357. 1+8 T o l s t o i , Na dybe, p.6o2. 1+9 K o s t y l e v , I v a n Groz' n y i , v o l . 1 , p.67. 50 T o l s t o i , Na dybe, p.587. 51 Trenev, J u n o s t * P e t r a , p.366. 52 T o l s t o i , Na dybe, p.596. 53 T o l s t o i , P e t r P e r v y i , p.281+. 54 I v i d . , p.194. 55 I b i d . , p.34. 56 Iz:dat:el , :stvo A k a d e m i i Nauk SSSP., O c h e r k i i s t o r i i SSSR, R o s s i j a v p e r v o * c h e t v e r t i X V I I I v . , Moskva, 1954, p.252. 57 T o l s t o i , Na. dybe, p.583-58 R . J u . V i p p e r , I v a n G r o z n i , I z d a . t e l t s t v o l i t e r a t u r y na i n o s t r a n -nykh j a z y k a c h , Moskva;, 1947, p.34 59 K o s t y l e v , I v a n G r o z n y i , v o l . 2 , p.209. 60 I b i d . , p.144. 61 M a v r o d i n , P e t r P e r v y i , p.358. 62 I b i d . , p.354. 63 V . K l j u c h e v s k i i , vremja, Ivana. Gro 7,nogo, i.z. " l e k t s l i po r u s s k o i i s t o r i i " S.P.Platono.va, Senatska3a t i p o g r a f i j a , s . - P e t e r b u r g , 1909. p.163. 64 S t a e h l i n , O r i g i n a l A n e c d o t e d o f P e t e r the G r e a t , J . S e w e l l , No 32 G o r n h i l l ; and W.Creech, a t E d i n b u r g h , London, 1788, p.82. 65 M a r d o v i n , P e t r P e r v i y i , p.377. 66 T o l s t o i , P e t r P e r v y i , p.187. 67 I d i d . , p. 202. 68 I b i d . , p. 165. 69 I b i d . , P. 498. 70 Stephen Graham, I v a n the T e r r i b l e , E r n e s t : Benn Ltd.London,L 9 3 2 , p # l 8 l - 7 6 -7 1 K o s t y l e v , I v a n G r o g n y i , v o l . 2 , p . 2 6 6 . 7 2 D i d . , p . 2 5 6 . 7 3 I b i d . , p . 2 5 6 . 7k K o s t y l e v , I v a n G r o z n y i , p . 205. 7 5 K o s t y l e v , I v a n G r o z n y i , v o l . 2 , p . 2 0 7 . 7 6 I M d . , p . 6 8 < 7 7 I b i d . , p . 1 3 1 . 7 8 B a k h r u s h i n , I v a n G r o z n y i , p . 9 0 . 7 f B a k h r u s h i n , I v a n G r o z n y i , p . 9 0 . 7 9 C o n s t a n t i n de G r u n v a l d , " p e t e r the G r e a t " , H o r i z o n , V o l . 2 , nmber 1 (S" eptember 1 9 5 9 ) , P . 7 9 . 80 T o l s t o i , Na dybe, p . 6 1 3 . 81 I b i d . , p . 6 1 3 . 82 V . K l i u c h e v s k i i , Kurs. r u s s k o i i s t o r i i , T o v a r i s h c h e s t v o t i p p g r a f i i A.I.Mamontova, Moskva, 1 9 1 0 , v o l . k . p . 2 8 k . 8 3 M a v r o d i n . P e t r P e r v y i , p.k28. 8k I b i d . , p . U 2 9 . 8 5 K o s t y l e v , I v a n G r o z n y i , v o l . 2 . P . 1 6 6 . 8 6 I b i d . , p . 1 2 k 87 C6id. t p. 21k. 8 8 I b i d . , p. 1 7 0 . 89 K o s l o v , I v a n the G r e a t , p . 1 9 0 . 9 0 Graham, I v a n the T e r r i b l e , p.2k7. 9 1 T o l s t o i , P e t r P e r v y i , p . 5 3 6 . 9 2 M a v r o d i n , P e t r P e r v y i , p.k26. 9 3 M a v r o d i n , P e t r P e r v y i , p . k 2 6 . - 7 7 -B I B L I O G R A P H Y And r e e v , A . I . , P e t r V e l i k i i , I z d a t e l ' s t v o A k a d e m i i Nauk S o j u z a SSR, M o s k v a s L e n i n g r a d , 1 9 4 7 . B a k e r , George, The Deadly P a r a l l e l , Random House, New Y o r k , 1 9 5 0 . B a k h r u s h i n , S.V., I v a n G r o z n i , G o s u d a r s t v e n n o e I z d a t e l 1 s t v o p o l i t i c h e s k o i l i t e r a t u r y , Moskva, 1945. B l a c k , C y r i l E., R e w r i t i n g R u s s i a n H i s t o r y , Random House, New Y o r k , 1 9 5 6 . B r u e c k n e r , D r . A l e x a n d e r , P e t e r der G r o s s e , H i s t o r i s c h e r V e r l a g B a u m g a e r t e l , B e r l i n 1888. B u l g a k o v , M i k h a i l , I v a n V a s i l * e v i c h , T o v a r i s c h e s t v o Zarubechnykh P i s a t e l e i , Muenchen, 1 9 6 4 . E c k a r d t , Hans von, I v a n the T e r r i b l e , A l f r e d A.Knopf, New Y o r k , 1 9 4 9 . G i t e r m a n n , V a l e n t i n , G e s c h i c h t e R u s s l a n d a , E u r o p a e i s c h e V e r l a g s a n s t a l t G.m.h.H., Hamburg, 1 9 4 9 . Graham, Stephen, P e t e r the G r e a t , E r n e s t Benn L t d . , London, 1950. Graham, Stephen, P e t e r the G r e a t , E r n e s t Benn L t d . , London 1 9 5 0 . Graham, Stephen, I v a n the T e r r i b l e , E r n e s t Fenn L t d . , London 1 9 3 2 . Grey, J a n , P e t e r the G r e a t , J . B . L i p p i n c o u r t Company, P h i l a d e l p h i a - and New Y o r , , I960. G r u n v a l d , C o n s t a n t i n d e t n " P e t e r the G r e a t " . H o r i z o n , v o l . 2 London, 1 9 5 6 . G r u n v a l d , C o n s t a n t i n de, " P e t e r the G r e a t " , H o r i z o n , v o l . 2 , numfer 1 (September 1 9 5 9 0 . Q Halem, .A., von, Leben P e t e r s des G r o s s e n , N u e n s t e r and L e i p z i g I 8 0 3 . - 78 -K l j u c h e v s k i i , V., K u r s r u s s k o i i s t o r i i , T o v a r i s h c h e s t v o t i p o g r a f i i A.I.Mamontova, Moskva, 1910. K o s l o v , J u l e s , I v a n the G r e a t , M i l l and Wang, New Y o r k , 1961. K o s t y l e v , V., I v a n G r o z n y i , Voennoe fczdatel'stvo M i n i s t e r s t v o vooruzhenykh s i l S o j u z a SSR, Moskva,1948. M a v r o d i n , V., P e t r V e l i k i i , I z d a t e l ' s t v o Z.K.Molodaja G-vardija., L e n i n g r a d , 2i948 Matheson, R u f u s W.Jr., The P o s i t i v e Hero i n R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e . C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1958. R i a s o n o v s k y , N i c h o l a s V., A H i s t o r y o f E u s s i a , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19~63« S o l o v ' e v , V l a d i m i r , V e l i k i i Gosudar* Gosudarstvennoe I z d a t e l ' s t v o " I s k u s s t v o " , Moskva, I960. S t a e h l i n , O r i g i n a l A n e c d o t e s o f P e t e r the G r e a t , J . S e w e l l , No 3 2 C o r n h i l l ; W.Creech, a t E d i n b u r g h , London 1788. T o l s t o i , A l e k s e i , Na dybe, Gosudarstvennoe I z d a t e l ' s t v o k h u d o z h e s t v e n n o i l i t e r a t u r y , Moskva, 1949. T o l s t o i , A l e k s e i y P e t r P e r v y i , Gosudarstv&nnoe I z d a t e l ' s t v o k h u d o z h e s t v e n n o i l i t e r a t u r y , Moskva, 1947. Trenev,K., J u n o s t ' P e t r a , S o v e t s k i i P i s a t e l ' , Moskva, 19J+6V" V i p p e r , R.Ju., I v a n G r o z n y i , P o r e i g h Languages P u b l i s h i n g House, Mosfeow, 1947. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105467/manifest

Comment

Related Items