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An examination of sheep breeding production and marketing problems in British Columbia Derrinberg, Robert Caines 1939

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D 3 'ttf "AN EXAMINATION OE SHEEP BREEDING PRODUCTION • AND MARKET ING PROBLEMS IN BRITISH C OLUMBIA. by Robe r t Ga ines D e r r i n b e r g A T h e s i s s ubm i t t e d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the r equ i r emen t s f o r the Degree of MASTER OE SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the Depar tment o f ANIMAL HUSBANDRY THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1939 i . . Table of Contents - j Page INTRODUCTION «...«••«.«••••»»••••»••.«»••.«.»•.»« I HISTORICAL REVIEW . . . . . . . • 1 CANADA AS A SHEEP PRODUCER 5 F i g . 1 - World D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sheep, 1931 ... 5a F i g . 2 - Sheep P o p u l a t i o n of Canada by Census Y63.rs » X87X-*X93X •••••••••• 7 Q F i g . 3 - Number of Sheep Per Hundred Humans ZLH GEL net do, •«»«»©o»o»»»»** V ID F i g * 4 - Comparative Numbers of Sheep Per Hundred of Human Population i n Canada by Provinces .......<>......• 7c F i g . 5 - Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sheep by ]?-C* O V JL H O 6 S £ X§ <3 X «*o»o«*»0e«««0a»oo« 7 (1 THE NUMBER OF SHEEP IN BRITISH COLUMBIA . i t 8 F i g . 6 - Comparative Sheep and Human P o p u l a -t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia 8a F i g . 7 - I n d i c e s f o r Sheep P o p u l a t i o n s i n Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1Q 28 -»X9 3 7 6 O * « ft o o m 9 O • • O • • © © 9 & BRITISH COLUMBIA'S IMPORTS OF SHEEP AND MUTTON 10 F i g . 8 - Value of Home P r o d u c t i o n of Sheep i n B r i t i s h Columbia .....c....c......» 10a F i g . 9 - Estimated Consumption of Beef, Pox>k and Mutton i n Canada, 1919-1937 17a Fig.10 - Consumption of Lamb and Mutton i n Pounds per C a p i t a f o r Various Countries, MARKETING OF BRITISH COLUMBIA LAMBS . . , . 18 Fig.11 - Seasonal Marketing of Lambs Off Ranches, I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h 0 o XVLIUI) is. «•<>•••• • o • e ' * • e • *•••••««•• X 8s. Fig«12 - Comparative Weights o f Lambs as Mar-k e t e d Off Ranches for Three Western P r o v i n c e s for Three-Year Average 1929—1931 • • • « . « o * . » • » • • • » • « . 1 8 b i i Page LAMB FEEDING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA .............. 21 RANGE SHEEP PRODUCTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA .... 24 Map of Summer Ranges i n Kamloops Forest D i s t r i c t , 1939 26a TYPES AND BREEDS OF RANGE SHEEP IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 27 PURE-BRED SHEEP IN BRITISH COLUMBIA ..........e 30 F i g * 15 - Pure-Bred Sheep i n Canada, 1907-1938 4 . • 4 »4 * 4 . 4 4 * • . » • • . V . i . 4 . . * 30a F i g . 14 - Pure-Bred Sheep i n B r i t i s h Columbia 30b DEVELOPMENT OF NEW AND MORE SUITABLE BREED OF SHEEP , . , 31 SUMMARY 36 CONCLUSIONS *..». 59 LIST OF REFERENCES 42 ACKNOWLEDGMENT , 4 . - * . . i > . . . . . . - - - i - - ' A/L I INTRODUCTION For some years i t has been f e l t by those concerned with the industry that there was a r e a l need for a study of the breeding, production and marketing problems of the sheep farmers of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia* The lack of authoritative data has been the c h i e f factor i n delaying the s tudy u n t i l the present time„ Information f o r the compilation of t h i s thesis has not been readily available. There would seem to be a dearth of recent accurate material, either i n written or s t a t i s t i c a l form, r e l a t i v e to the problems of the p r o v i n c i a l sheep men, I t has been necessary to interview not only a number of Pro-v i n c i a l and Federal Government o f f i c i a l s , but also farmer and rancher producers in various parts of the area studied. What i s presented in the following pages i s based on some years of p r a c t i c a l experience i n sheep farming and an analysis resulting from some months of special investigation,, The sect i o n dealing with the h i s t o r i c a l background of the industry i s based upon information obtained from the l i b r a r y of the Provincial Archives. The data used i n the s t a t i s t i c a l section are the most recent available. The con-clusions reached represent the opinions of the writer f o l l o w -ing c o n s u l t a t i o n with many operators whose views could be considered those of men of experience® HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The"sheep r a i s i n g i n d u s t r y : o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia da t e s back over a p e r i o d of one hundred o r more y e a r s , t h e f i r s t a u t h e n t i c r e c o r d s b e i n g found among the r e p o r t s o f t he agen ts i n charge- of t r a d i n g - p o s t s ope r a t ed i n the t e r r i t o r y by the Hudson ' s Bay Company wh i c h a t the t ime c o n t r o l l e d t he whole o f the P a c i f i c No r t h -Wes t . There were sheep a t F o r t M s q u a l l y , the p r e s e n t s i t e o f the C i t y of Tacoma as e a r l y , as 1840 . On May 24 t h o f t h a t y e a r John McLaugh l i n* C h i e f F a c t o r o f t he Company a t F o r t Vancouver wro te L i e u t . K i t t s o n who was i n charge of F o r t M s -q u a l l y t h a t he was s end i ng m a t e r i a l t o make a " s m a l l house t o be p l a c e d on the whee ls wh i c h I s en t you l a s t s p r i n g . I t i s to be i n the sheep pens and moved f r om p l a c e t o p l a c e as r e -q u i r e d . " ( l ) The sheep a t F o r t M s q u a l l y were ob t a i n ed f r om C a l i f o r n i a and were o f Me r i n o b l o o d a l t h o u g h t h e r e were e v i d e n t l y s m a l l numbers o f o t h e r b reeds of sheep t o be f ound around the F o r t . The l a t t e r were impo r t ed f r om Eng l and i n t he s h i p s o f the Hudson ' s Bay Company wh i ch j ou rneyed each y e a r t o the N o r t h -West w i t h s u p p l i e s f r o m : G r e a t . B r i t a i n . I t i s n a t u r a l t h a t t he se sheep shou l d be o f the B r i t i s h mutton breeds and by 1854 t he r e were s e v e r a l ; mut ton b reeds r e " p r e s en t ed i n the Company's f l o c k s . L e i c e s t e r * Sou th Down and Chev i o t a r e ment ioned i n t he Company's co r r e spondence . These a re the t h r e e o l d e s t " improved" b reeds o f G rea t B r i t a i n and 2 . i t i s of i n t e r e s t t o no te t h e i r p resence i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia a t such, an e a r l y t i m e . Wh i l e L e i c e s t e r s , Sou th Downs and C h e v i o t s were "not oyer abundant " ( l ) i n 1854, the r eques t o f Kenne th McKenz i e , Agent of t he Puget Sound C o . on Vancouve r I s l a n d , f o r rams o f these b reeds was not c o n s i d e r e d un r ea sonab l e i n t h a t y e a r . The f l o c k s a t F o r t H i s q u a l l y d i d w e l l and by 1854 the re -were some f o u r hundred t o be d i s po s ed of i n Oregon, where "Ewes of Me r i no s t o c k s o l d f o r seven t o e i g h t d o l l a r s and South Downs n i n e t o t e n d o l l a r s each ( l ) . Some o f these were t r a d e d f o r oxen and c a t t l e w h i c h were l e s s p l e n t i f u l a round Puget Sound t h a n were sheep . Oxen s o l d f o r two hundred d o l -l a r s p e r y o l k and cows seven ty t o one hundred d o l l a r s e a c h . The f i r s t Hudson ' s Bay Company f a r m on Vancouve r I s l a n d was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1845. I n t h a t y e a r t he s h i p "Cadboro" was employed t o t a ke c a t t l e and sheep t o E o r t V i c t o r i a - -" a thousand of f i n e s t woo l ••••ewes', t h e i r r a m s and two hundred we the r s - - " . These were of M e r i n o - b l o o d . I t i s more than l i k e l y t h a t P o r t l a n g l e y , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1872 had sheep, a t t a c h e d t o i t bu t t he o l d j o u r n a l s . and l e t t e r s ; of Hudson ' s Bay Company o f f i c i a l s do no t men t i on them. The h i s t o r y of sheep p r o d u c t i o n i n the i n t e r i o r p a r t of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia da t e s f r om the d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d i n the Ca r i boo and- o t h e r p a r t s of the i n t e r i o r of the P r o v i n c e . Go ld was f i r s t d i s c o v e r e d a l o ng the E r a s e r R i v e r and o t h e r s t reams and i n about 1858 these d i s c o v e r i e s a t t r a c t e d some 3 . twenty thousand g o l d s eeke r s f rom E n g l a n d , A u s t r a l i a , C a l i f -o r n i a and o t h e r p a r t s . A t t h i s t ime V i c t o r i a was on l y a t r a d i n g p o s t , hut a l o n g w i t h o t h e r c e n t r e s grew r a p i d l y t o accommodate the g row ing p o p u l a t i o n i n t e r e s t e d i n the m i n e r a l , deve lopment . I t was not u n t i l 1886 t h a t t he Canad ian P a c i -f i c Ra i lway was comp l e t ed , l i n k i n g t he P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia w i t h the o t h e r P r o v i n c e s o f Canada. P r i o r t o t h i s date t h e f ood supp l y needed f o r m i n i n g deve lopment and l a t e r f o r r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n had t o be b rough t i n a t a c o n s i d e r -a b l e c o s t and i n c o n v e n i e n c e . I t was d u r i n g t he p e r i o d f r om 1870 t o 1886 t h a t sheep were i n t r o d u c e d f o r t h e purpose of supp lement i ng the d i m i n i s h i n g supp l y of w i l d meat . Sheep r a i s i n g was o f impor tance i n t he Ca r i b oo and N i c o l a D i s t r i c t s i n the s i x t i e s and s e v e n t i e s of l a s t c e n t u r y . La rge bands of as many as t e n thousand were ranged i n t hese D i s t r i c t s by e xpe r i en ced shepherds f r om A u s t r a l i a and C a l i f o r n i a . A s ta tement f rom Kami oops i n 1862 shows t h a t t h e r e were t h i r t e e n hundred and s i x t y sheep w i n t e r i n g i n t he ne ighbo rhoods of Eea L a ke , the Thompson and Bonapar te R i v e r s t o be marke ted d u r i n g 1863. A t the same t ime t h r ee hundred sheep were r e p o r t e d i n the Rock C reek D i s t r i c t ( 2 ) . The o f f i c i a l census f o r B r i t i s h Co lumb ia A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1881 shows a t o t a l sheep p o p u l a t i o n of 27 ,788 head . Th i s i n c r e a s e d t o 49 ,163 h e a d b y the t ime the 1891 census was t a k e n . No f i g u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e i n t e r c e n s a l y e a r s , bu t a p p a r e n t l y around 1886 t he r e was a much l a r g e r number than i s i n d i c a t e d by the 1891 c en su s . E a r l y r e s i d e n t s of the I n t e r i o r who were t h e r e a t the t ime the r a i l w a y was comp le ted s t a t e t h a t I t s c o m p l e t i o n a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d t h e sheep b u s i -ness i n two ways? f i r s t by the i m p o r t a t i o n of meat p r odu c t s made p o s s i b l e t h rough s h i p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s ; and second , by the c l o s e r s e t t l e m e n t wh i c h a lmos t immed i a t e l y f o l l o w e d the com™ p l e t i o n of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n sy s tem. The number o f sheep c o n t i n u e d t o d e c l i n e u n t i l t he t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . The 1901 census r e co rded the l owe s t sheep p o p u l a t i o n s i n the P r o v i n c e s i n c e the e a r l y ' 8 0 ' s and subsequent census r e p o r t s have shown a c o n t i n u i n g marked i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l num-b e r s . CANADA AS A SHEEP PRODUCER Canada ' s sheep p r o d u c t i o n of today i s domes t i c i n nature> t h e r e not" b e i n g s u f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i o n t o supp l y the home de -mand. The sheep i n d u s t r y i s the on l y phase o f a n ima l p r oduc -t i o n i n wh i ch t h i s i s t r u e . A l l o t h e r b ranches o f t h e l i v e -s t o c k i n d u s t r y produce s u f f i c i e n t of t h e i r p r o d u c t s t o supp l y home r equ i r emen t s and as w e l l have a s u r p l u s f o r expo r t* I n 1931 Canada o c cup i ed t w e n t y - e i g h t h p l a c e among the c o u n t r i e s of t he w o r l d i n sheep p o p u l a t i o n s The w o r l d t o t a l i n t h a t y e a r was e s t i m a t e d to be 632 ,186 ,000 head . Of t h i s number Canada had on l y 3 ,628 ,340 o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y p o i n t f i v e p e r c en t of the w o r l d t o t a l . ( F i g u r e 1.) The sheep p o p u l a t i o n of Canada o f today i s p r a c t i c a l l y the same as i t was i n 1871 a l t h o u g h i t has v a r i e d con s i de r ab l y as i s shown by F i g u r e 2« From 1871 u n t i l 1911 t h e r e was a s teady d e c l i n e i n numbers bu t sin,ee 1911 t he number o f sheep i n Canada has r i s e n u n t i l i n 1931 t h e r e were more sheep i n Canada than eve r b e f o r e . A l t h o u g h the number of sheep i s a pp r o x ima t e l y the same now as i t was s i x t y , y e a r s ago the number pe r hundred of human p o p u l a t i o n has s t e a d i l y d e c l i n e d s i n c e t h a t t i m e . In 1871 t h e r e were e i g h t y - s i x sheep pe r hundred humans« Th i s number has dec reased u n t i l i n 1931 t h e r e were o n l y t h i r t y - f i v e sheep per hundred humans. T h i s marked l o w e r i n g o f t he p r o p o r t i o n i s w e l l i n d i c a t e d by F i g u r e 3 . On the b a s i s of t he number of sheep pe r one hundred humans A l b e r t a i s f i r s t w i t h one hundred and n i n e sheep and B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i s l a s t w i t h bu t 5a. gure 1. Wor l d D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sheep 1931 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Y e a r Book of A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s . T o t a l Sheep P o p u l a t i o n 632 ,186 ,000 twenty -one sheep pe r one hundred of human p o p u l a t i o n s * The number i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i s v e r y much be low the average of t h i r t y - f i v e head pe r hundred humans i n Canada as a who l e . ( F i gu r e 4 . ) A t the p r e s en t t ime O n t a r i o has the l a r g e s t number o f any o f the P r o v i n c e s . He r• sheep make up t w e n t y - e i g h t p o i n t seven pe r c en t of Canada ' s t o t a l . A l b e r t a i s second w i t h twenty -one p o i n t n i n e p e r c en t and B r i t i s h Co lumb ia r anks s i x t h w i t h 144 ,901 head or f o u r p e r c en t o f Canada ' s t o t a l . ( F i g u r e 5.) TABLE 1. Compara t i ve P o p u l a t i o n s as shown by Canada Census - 1 8 7 1 - 1 9 3 1 Canada Yea r Book . ... Human i Sheep Yea r Canada B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i Canada B r i t i s h Co lumb ia 1871 3 ,689 ,257 36,247 3 ,155 ,509 1881 4 ,324 ,810 49,459 3 ,048 ,678 27,788 1891 4 ,833 ,239 98 ,173 2 ,563 ,781 49 ,163 1901 5 ,371 ,315 178,657 2 ,510 ,239 33,350 1911 7 ,206 ,643 392,480 2 ,174 ,300 39,272 1921 8 ,787 ,949 524,582 3 ,203 ,966 62,600 1931 10 ,376 ,768 694,263 3 ,627,116 144 ,901 TABLE 2. Compara t i ve Numbers o f Sheep t o Human P o p u l a t i o n s i n Canada by P r o v i n c e s 1931 Census - Canada Yea r Book . P r o v i n c e Number of Sheep Pe r cen t Df Sheep Human Popu-l a t i o n Sheep pej 100 ofPo p u l a t i o n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d 75,752 2.10 88 ,038 86 Nova S c o t i a 195,220 5 9 4IL 512,846 38 New B runsw i c k 143,180 3.97 408,219 35 Quebec 731,805 20 .28 2 ,874 ,255 25 O n t a r i o 1 ,035 ,153 28,69 3 ,431 ,683 30 Man i t o ba 213,936 5.93 700,139 %t Saskatchewan - 279,076 921,785 30 A l b e r t a 789,298 21.87 731,605 109 B r i t i s h Co lumb ia 144 ,901 4 .02 694,263 21 Yukon 19 4 ,230 Nor thwes t T e r r i t o r i e s 9 ,723 T o t a l 3 ,608 ,340 100 .0 10,376., 786 • 35 : • - • 7a F i g u r e 2 . Sheep P o p u l a t i o n i n Canada by Census Yea r s 1871 - 1931 ( M i l l i o n s ) itft. • itn IMI itti " Mi .».isi 7b. F i g u r e 5. Number of Sheep Per 100 Humans i n Canada. f o r — — —r. — — : r— — ; j— — j- : ; n — tin i ssi /Sfi f ft ./»*» iisi F i g u r e 4 . Compara t i ve Numbers of Sheep pe r 100 of Human P o p u l a t i o n i n Canada by ' P r o v i n c e s . 1931 Canada Census Canada. -p.EI. NS. NG. <?ue. Ont. S«sJc-- - .-fitt*:-. F i g u r e 5. Pe r cen t age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f "Sheep by P r o v i n c e s - 1931 - Canada Census . 8 . THE NUMBER OF SHEEP IN BRITISH COLUMBIA A l though, sheep have been r a i s e d i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia s i n c e 1840 no a c c u r a t e s t a t i s t i c s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i r numbers a re a v a i l a b l e f o r the y e a r s p r e c ed i n g 1881 . The f i r s t census o f Canada, t aken i n 18.71 g i v e s the p o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a but t he .number o f sheep i n t he P r o v i n c e i s no t r e c o r d e d u n t i l the census of 18.81-. • S i n ce 1871 b o t h the human, and the sheep p o p u l a t i o n s o f . t h i s P r o v i n c e have i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y as shown by F i g u r e 6 . I n t h i s p e r i o d the human p o p u l a t i o n has i n c r e a s e d f r om 36,247 t o 694 , 263 . However t he sheep p o p u l a t i o n has on l y i n c r e a s e d f r om 27,788 t o 1 44 , 901 . Consequen t l y t he number o f sheep pe r one hundred humans has shown a marked d e c r e a s e . Compared t o the whole of Canada B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s sheep i n d u s t r y has made r a p i d s t r i d e s i n t he l a s t decade . I f we c o n s i d e r the p e r i o d 1921 t o 1925 as a b a s i s f o r our c a l c u l a t i o n and a s s i g n t he average f o r t h i s p e r i o d an i n d e x of 100 , the sheep i n d u s t r y o f Canada s i n c e 1928 has an i n d e x of on l y s l i g h t l y ove r 100 . However on t he same b a s i s the i n d e x f o r B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i s i n excess of 300 a t t he p r e s e n t t i m e . A l though , i t f e l l t o a low o f 268 .5 i n 1931 i t had r i s e n t o 339 i n 1931 . T h i s compar i son i s shown i n F i g u r e 7. The v a l u e of B r i t i s h Co l umb i a ' s home p r o d u c t i o n of mut-t o n has v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n the l a s t t w e n t y - s i x y e a r s . I n 1912 the v a l u e was p l a c e d a t $ 84 , 752 . 00 . T h i s i n c r e a s e d u n t i l a maximum va l u e o f $1 , 561 ,584 .00 was reached i n 1927. S i n c e 9 . t h i s t ime the v a l u e f e l l t o a low of $373 ,729 .00 i n 1933 hut s i n c e t h a t t ime i t has r i s e n u n t i l i n 1937 i t was v a l u e d a t $573 , 000 . 00 . (.Figure 8 . ) TABIE 3, INDEX. Numbers of Sheep i n , F a rms i n Canada and B r i t i s h Co lumb ia 1928^1937 . Domin ion Bu reau o f S t a t i s t i c s , A g r i c u l t u r a l Branch. The i n d e x f i g u r e 100 r e p r e s e n t s t he average sheep p o p u l a t i o n on fa rms f o r t h e p e r i o d 1921-1925. Yea r Canada 1 B r i t i s h Co l umb i a . 1928 112 .9 33>3 • X 1929 120 . 1 378.5 1930 122 .1 366.0 1931 119 .2 268 .5 1932 , 1 2 0 . 4 281 . 3 1933 111.9* 275 .2 1934 113 .0 320.6 1935 112 ,.3 324.8 1936 109 .9 329.5 1937 113.9 339 .3 9a* F i g u r e 7, I n d i c e s f o r Sheep P o p u l a t i o n s i n Canada and B r i t i s h Co lumb ia 1928 — 1937 Index f i g u r e f o r 1921 - 1925 = 100 Canada - - - -B r i t i s h Co lumb ia — /oo i ,—r IQZS I1W I1SO 113): / J S Z " 5 3 list I9SS- tlH 10. TABLE 4 V a l u e s f o r Home P r o d u c t i o n of Sheep i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia - B . C. A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s . Yea r Va l ue $ Yea r Va l ue $ Yea r Va lue $ 1912 84 ,752 1921 432,239 1930 804,537 1913 505,872 1922 422 ,832 1931 507,157 1914 225,279 X 9 S 3 533,360 1932 379,750 1915 350,000 1924 606,661 1933 373,729 1916 437,500 1925 778,087 1934 432,750 1917 438,580 1926 1 ,234,236 1935 510 ,414 1918 679,365 1927 1 ,561,384 1936 524,805 1919 719,760 1928 845,917 1937 573,000 1920 502,203 1929 1 ,109,868 BRITISH COLUMBIA'S IMPORTS Off SHEEP AMD MUTTON • The impo r t s of sheep and mut ton i n t o B r i t i s h Co lumb ia f r om o t he r Canad ian and f o r e i g n p o i n t s a re g i v e n i n Tab l e s 5. and 6 . I t w i l l be seen t h a t l a r g e numbers of sheep and l a r g e amounts of mut ton a re impo r t ed eaoh y e a r , w i t h the v a l u e o f sheep f a r i n exces s o f the v a l u e of t h e mu t t on . P r e v i o u s t o 1928 c o n s i d e r a b l e numbers of sheep and l a r g e amounts of mut ton were impo r t ed f r om p o i n t s o u t s i d e o f Canada, c h i e f l y f r om A u s t r a l i a and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . S i n c e t h a t t ime, however, by f a r t he g r e a t e s t amount has come f r om Canada.{Tables 5. and 6 . ) and the P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a has s u p p l i e d the b u l k of these i m p o r t s . The pe r c a p i t a consumpt ion of meat i n Canada i s r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e . F o r an e i g h t e e n y e a r p e r i o d p r i o r t o 1923 the average was "on© hundred and t h i r t y - s e v e n pounds p e r c a p i t a . T h i s a ve -rage i n c l u d e d b e e f , v e a l , p o r k , mut ton and lamb» but not p o u l -t r y . Compared w i t h the consumpt ion i n Great B r i t a i n , the U n i t e d S t a t e s and F rance t h i s i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount. During the same p e r i o d the consumpt ion i n G rea t B r i t a i n was one hun -d r ed and t w e n t y - f i v e pounds , i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s one hundred and f i f t y pounds and i n F r ance s e v e n t y - n i n e p o u n d s . ( 3 . ) As t h i s p e r i o d i n c l u d e s t he war p e r i o d , 1914 - 1918 these f i g u r e s w i l l show l e s s than the no rma l amounts, as meats were s ca r ce d u r i n g that , p e r i o d s The average consumpt ion o f meat i n Canada f o r the p e r i o d 1919 t o 1937 was one hundred and f o r t y pounds . T h i s t o t a l was made up l a r g e l y of bee f and po r k . Dur ing t h i s p e r i o d Canadians consumed an ave rage of s i x t y - t h r e e pounds o f bee f and v e a l . s even t y -one pounds of pork and s i x pounds o f lamb and mutton pe r y e a r . F i g u r e 9 . i n d i c a t e s t h a t t he consumpt ion of bee f and po rk v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y f r om y e a r to y e a r bu t t h a t t h e consumpt ion of lamb and mu t t on , a l t h o u g h s m a l l , was q u i t e c o n s t a n t . A l t h ough Canada r anks h i g h as a meat consumer she has a low pe r c a p i t a consumpt ion of mutton and l amb. The Canad ian 1 2 . consumer c o n s i d e r s lamb and mutton more o r l e s s as a d e l i c a c y and uses them as a change of d i e t f r om the h e a v i e r mea t s , bee f and pork. ( 4 . ) Consequen t l y Canada has a sma l l , - though r e l a t i -v e l y c o n s t a n t , consumpt ion of lamb and mut ton w h i l e t he c o n -sumpt ion, o f bee f and veal , i s a f f e c t e d by economic c o n d i t i o n s . - Compared w i t h o t he r c o u n t r i e s o f t h e w o r l d Canada has a l ow rank as a consumer of mut ton and lamb. The consumpt ion of lamb and mutton f o r 1935 i s shown i n F i g u r e 10 . New Zea -l a n d l e a d s a l l n a t i o n s w i t h an ave rage consumpt ion of one hundred and t e n pounds . Next i n o r d e r comes A u s t r a l i a w i t h s e v e n t y - s e v e n pounds , f o l l o w e d by t he U n i t e d K ingdom and t h e A r g e n t i n e w i t h an average of t h i r t y - o n e and twe l v e pounds r e s p e c t i v e l y . Canada i s nex t i n consumpt ion w i t h , an ave rage of s i x p o i n t f o u r pounds, on l y a f r a c t i o n of a pound ove r t h a t of the U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h an average o f s i x pounds and F r ance w i t h an ave rage o f f i v e pounds pe r c a p i t a . From a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t hese f i g u r e s i t w i l l be seen t h a t the l a r -g e s t consumers a re a l s o t he l a r g e s t p r oduce r s o f lamb and mu t t on . No s t a t i s t i c s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o i n d i c a t e t he consumpt ion . o f mut ton and lamb i n Canada by P r o v i n c e s bu t t h e above i n d i -c a t e s the s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia v e r y w e l l . . T h i s P r o -v i n c e i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to have a h i g h e r p e r c a p i t a consumpt ion t h an any o t h e r p a r t o f Canada. ( 5 ) . A l t h o u g h the consumpt ion of lamb and mut ton i s q u i t e s t a b l e f r om y e a r t o y e a r t he demand v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y d u r i n g the y e a r . The demand i s l o w e s t i n t he l a t e s p r i n g when lambs •13. a re s c a r c e and p r i c e s c on sequen t l y h i g h . W i t h i n c r e a s e d sup-p l i e s the p r i c e s a re l owe r and the demand i n c r e a s e s accord ing ly ( 6 ) . The p r e s e n t day demand i s f o r r e t a i l c u t s t h a t a re no t too heavy and w h i c h have s u f f i c i e n t f a t c o v e r i n g t o r e t a i n t h e i r n a t u r a l j u i c e s , g i v e added t ende rnes s and f l a v o u r w i t h no excess f a t t o make them w a s t e f u l when cooked . The ea r ea s s t h a t meets t h i s demand i s one we i gh i ng t h i r t y - f i v e t o f o r t y -f i v e pounds and i s p roduced "by a lamb weighing s e v e n t y - f i v e to n i n e t y pounds l i v e w e i g h t . ( 7 ) . Such lambs a re p roduced i n p a r t on t he ranges of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia where t hey a r e g r a s s f a t t e n e d t o t he r e q u i r e d we i gh t and marke ted d i r e c t l y f r om the r ange s , and t he b a l a n ce are impo r t ed f r om the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s . The P r a i r i e l ambs , due to the s h o r t e r range p e r i o d , must be e i t h e r y a r d f i n i s h e d b e -f o r e sh ipment t o t he c o a s t o r be- p l a c e d i n t he f e e d l o t s upon a r r i v a l f o r a p e r i o d v a r y i n g f r om s i x t y t o one hundred and twenty days* There has been a tendency to reduce A l b e r t a lamb impo r t s by the purchase o f f i v e and s i x y e a r o l d b reed i r g ewes, wh i ch may be bought a t much l owe r p r i c e s t han lamb as these aged ewes a re no t r e t a i n e d w i t h s a f e t y under P r a i r i e c o n d i t i o n s but w i l l c on t i n ue t o be p r o f i t a b l e on B r i t i s h Co lumb ia range p a s t u r e s , f o r i n many c a s e s , as much as two , t h r e e and some-t imes f o u r y e a r s . These o l d ewes a re a l so b rough t t o the coa s t f o r b r e e d i n g pu r po s e s . The u s u a l p r a c t i c e i s t o c r o s s 14 , them w i t h mu t ton - t ype rams t o produce marke t l ambs . The ewes may be r e t a i n e d f o r more than one y e a r or t hey may be marke ted as mutton a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t c r op o f lambs have been weaned. A common p r a c t i c e d u r i n g y e a r s when lamb p r i c e s were h i g h was t o s h i p i n t hese aged ewes f r om t h e P r a i r i e s r a t h e r t han t o r e t a i n l o c a l ewe lambs f o r the b r e e d i n g f l o c k . The c l o s e p r o x i -m i t y to the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a marke t s made t h i s p r a c t i c e p o s s i b l e because o f t h e h i g h e r r e l a t i v e v a l u e of lambs as com-pared w i t h aged p r a i r i e ewes. Th i s a l s o overcame the need o f w a i t i n g f o r a. y e a r b e f o r e the ewe lambs c o u l d be added to the b r e e d i n g f l o c k . Ranchers have had v a r i e d e x pe r i e n c e s w i t h s h i p p i n g i n aged ewes f r om the P r a i r i e s , some c l a i m i n g t h a t i t t a k e s a t l e a s t 1 a y e a r f o r them to become a c c l i m a t i z e d w h i l e o t h e r s have had e x c e l l e n t lamb c rops t he f i r s t y e a r . These sh ipments f o r , the most p a r t have formed t h e b a s i s of many B r i t i s h Co lumb ia range f l o c k s . ! • ' • • 15 . TABES 5. BRITISH COLUMBIA IMPORTS OJ1 SHEEP AND MUTTON EROM OTHER THAN CANADIAN PROVINCES 1912-1937 1 Sheep Mu t ton Yea r Number Va l ue & Q.uant i ty L b s . Va l ue |» 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1.920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 74,360 69,459 56,373 24 ,455 25,598 6 ,075 70 1,658 991 11 ,601 8 ,153 5; 347 61 2,794 2,201 1,852 2 ,053 53 296 11 12 1 -6 1 1 250,890 253,480 310,874 97,105 109,801 38,658 525 13,944 8 ,401 57,692 48 ,140 32,657 338 17 , 931 14,387 12,958 15,876 389 1,919 205 207 75 125 20 50 4 ,854 ,869 4 , 844 , 881 3 ,698 ,782 2 ,770 ,221 1 ,927,324 1 ,839,045 5 ,092 ,905 3 ,735 ,733 4 ,503 ,127 3 ,350 ,354 1 ,706,637 1 ,341,725 ••1,209*413. 1 ,246,969 952,908 1 ,260 ,574 1 ,655,047 1 ,247,224 736,048 467,257 220,420 63,660 23 ,882 5,493 1,000 959 447 ,569 497,576 378,002 323,955 310,307 348,786 787,688 645,080 694,223 548,632 292,770 237,656 209,215 5 $ 75 5 197 ,011 200,386 248,640 186,692 79,285 40 ,672 19 ,373 3,109 1,554 297 212 345 • (1) A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s R epo r t , Dep t . o f A g r i c u l t u r e , P r o y i n c e of B r i t i s h Co l umb i a . 16 *. - TABLE 6 . . BRITISH COLUMBIA'S IMPORTS OF SHEEP AND MUTTON FROM CANADIAN PROVINCES 1912 - 1937 ( l ) Sheep Mut ton Year q u a n t i t y V a l u e $ Q u a n t i t y l b s . Va l ue i 1912 154,250 | 617,000 1913 105,500 j 692,000 - • 1914 17 ,311 1 108,208 1 ,970,041 303,949 1915 31,333 217,498 1 ,221 ,425 176,290 1916 13,254 122,886 338,335 65 ,051 1917 26,269 289,397 583,966 134,786 1918 7,276 252,354 159,423 35,988 1919 11,710 193,215 110,359 27,572 1920 18,277 204,059 223,180 46,958 1921 24,265 240,673 294,504 46,626 1922 50,556 416 ,093 146,435 - 22 r 044, , 1923 57,986 558,211 211,366 28 ,273 1924 o 5 p5 32 580,796 72,095 16,888 1925 46,126 503,836 55,840 -12,446 1926 42,855 481,129 417,826 95,368 1927 55,250 619,352 218,367 48,470 1928 54 ,133 636,062 252,738 55 ,981 1929 53,580 623,717 250,504 53,228 1930 63,286 559,618 635,592 106,608 1931 72,853 492,047 844,837 111,356 1932 63 ,489 319,796 929,574 96,010 1933 66 ,909 312,124: :: -. 654,799 67,559 1934 87,778 482,362 608,367 57,431 1935 85 ,815 473,058 783,130 1,116,990 79,444 1936 71,679 471,384 132,848 1937 72,964 510,892 911,352 123 ,355 ( l ) A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s Repor t P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Co l umb ia , Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . 17 . TABLE 7. ESTIMATED.CONSUMPTION OE MEATS IN CANADA PER CAPITA,1919-1937. Yea r Bee f and V e a l Po rk Mut ton and Lamb T o t a l 1919 58.38 58.18 10 .35 1 127 .11 1920 67 .18 65 .11 11,10 143.34 1 1921 71.00 74.57 11.36 156 .92 1922 72 .71 73 .83 9.75 156.29 1923 70,06 80 .95 8.59 • • 160.72 1924 70.02 87 .71 8 .43 166.16 1925 7 4 , 9 1 . 78.06 8«23 161.20 1926 70.10 75 .23 5.99 X 51 © 32 .X92> 68.76 . 8 1 . 4 3 ' ; 6 .11 156 ,30 1928 67 .33 82 .48 6 ,48 156.27 1929 69.09 81 . 52 7 .20 157 .81 1930 67.57 74 .92 7 . 11 149 .62 1931 57.94 83 .49 7 .03 148 .46 1932 56 . 02 85 .61 • • • 6 .32 148.60 1933 55.50 75 .02 6 .14 136•66 1934 67 .87 66 .12 6.26 140 .25 1935 66 .18 62 .01 ' 6 .36 134 .55 1936 60 .48 67 .98 5.86 134 .32 1937 58.89 62 .35 6.16 127.40 (Domin ion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s - A g r i c u l t u r a l B r a n c h . 1 7 a . 17b. F i g . 1 0 Consumpt ion of Lamb and Mut ton i n Pounds per C a p i t a / b s f o r V a r i o u s C o u n t r i e s - 1935. • „ 0 I i : — — — 1 1 ~~ 1 /oc\-9oY-3 o l -7 » L 50 U ,#t>Vr. 3oU AO \-N e w ZetUa-niJ AO^TY&M a On<t&{ wijdUurt Arqcrtfi"e Canada. prance. 18 . MARKETING Off BRITISH COLUMBIA LAMBS B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s range lambs a re marke ted between June 15 t h and December 1 5 t h w i t h t he peak coming about September 1 5 t h ( 8 ) . Dur ing t h i s p e r i o d a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f the range lambs a re s o l d , the r ema in i ng twenty p e r c en t b e i n g r e t a i n e d e i t h e r as r ep l acements f o r the b r e e d i n g f l o c k s o r to be f i n i s h e d and marke ted l a t e r as f a t l ambs . F i g u r e 1 1 . shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t ime of m a r k e t i n g o f these l ambs . •Sheep p roduce r s on the ranges a re f o r t u n a t e i n t h e i r p r o -d u c t i o n i n h a v i n g l u x u r i a n t mounta in pa s tu r age f o r t h e i r sheep. T h i s enab l e s them to grow lambs f a s t e r and f i n i s h them to a d e s i r a b l e we i gh t on the h i g h e r sheep ranges b e f o r e t h e r e a r e P r a i r i e lambs on the ma r ke t . F i g u r e 1 2 . shows the compa ra t i v e average we i g h t s o f lambs marke ted by B r i t i s h Co l umb i a , A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan i n 1930 , The average i s f o r twenty ranches i n B r i t i s h Co l umb ia , s i x t y -two ranches i n A l b e r t a and e i g h t e en ranches i n Saska tchewan. F o r the y e a r ment i oned the B r i t i s h Co lumb ia lambs a v e r a -ged e i g h t y - o n e p o i n t f o u r pounds, the A l b e r t a lambs s i x t y - f o u r p o i n t n i n e pounds and the Saskatchewan lambs s i x t y - t h r e e p o i n t f o u r pounds. From a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of these we i gh t s i t w i l l be seen t h a t B r i t i s h Co lumb ia lambs were of. s u f f i c i e n t w e i g h t t o be s l a u g h t -e r ed w i t h o u t f u r t h e r f i n i s h i n g w h i l e the average p r a i r i e lamb r e q u i r e d f u r t h e r f e e d i n g b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the r e q u i r e d w e i g h t . In f o rme r y e a r s c o n s i d e r a b l e lamb f e e d i n g was done i n and 18a . F i g . . 1 1 . S ea sona l m a r k e t i n g of lambs o f f r an che s , I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia 3 y e a r average 1929 - 1931 . ( f rom P u b l i c a t i o n 551 . Domin ion of Canada, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . ) 1 8 b , F i g u r e 12 , Comparat i ve we i gh t s o f lambs as marke ted o f f Ranches f o r the t h r ee Wes te rn P r o v i n c e s based upon a t h r e e y e a r average 1929-1931* Domin ion Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Pub .551 , / i o S>0 I iO j — Ho — 6jf.(fli>& ZL9 e around Vancouver by the p a c k i n g companies t o supp l y lamb f o r t h e i r t r ade f r om December t o June (7..) an o f f - p e r i o d f o r range lamb, when p r a c t i c a l l y no lamb or mut ton was b e i n g marke ted o t h e r w i s e . D u r i n g r e cen t y e a r s a g row ing i n d u s t r y i s a t t emp t -i n g t o supp l y t h i s market w i t h what i s commonly termed domes-t i c -and ho t -house l amb. A l t h o u g h the q u a r t e r p a r t of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia lamb and mut ton i s p roduced on the ranges of t he Sou the rn I n t e r i o r , the s m a l l e r f l o c k s of the f a r m i n g d i s t r i c t s p roduce a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount. These f l o c k s a re u s u a l l y composed o f f r om twen t y -f i v e to one hundred ewes, but may be l a r g e r . They c h i e f l y c o n s i s t o f the mut ton b reeds and a re p r i m a r i l y f o r the p r oduc -t i o n of l ambs . The sma l l n e s s of the f l o c k s makes i t p o s s i b l e to g i v e t he ewes more i n d i v i d u a l ca re and c on sequen t l y they a r e b r ed to lamb e a r l y e n a b l i n g t he p r oduce r t o market t he lambs when p r i c e s a re h i g h e r wh i c h i s p r e v i o u s t o range lambs b e i n g p l a c e d on the ma rke t . Thi3 i s the common p r a c t i c e f o l l o w e d by f a r -mers i n the l owe r E r a s e r V a l l e y and on Vaneouver I s l a n d , who produce f o r the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a ma r k e t s . Much the same p r a c t i c e i s f o l l o w e d i n t he Co lumb ia V a l l e y and each y e a r s e v e r a l c a r s o f lambs a re sh i pped t o t he Vancouver ma rke t . Ano the r phase of lamb p r o d u c t i o n wh i c h may become q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y deve loped i s the p r o d u c t i o n of e x c e p t i o n a l l y e a r l y m i l k - f a t t e n e d lambs f o r the e a r l y t r a d e , commonly c a l l e d "hot -house " l ambs . Th i s t ype of p r o d u c t i o n r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l equipment and a 20. s p e c i a l b reed of sheep . The equipment i s n e ce s s a r y because the lambs are born d u r i n g c o l d weather and they must be k ep t warm o r they w i l l no t t h r i v e . I t cons i s t s m a i n l y o f s u i t a b l e b u i l d i n g s and p r o t e c t e d y a r d s . The b reed of sheep u s u a l l y employed f o r t h i s type o f p r o d u c t i o n i s t he Do r s e t Ho r n . They a re used because they may be b red t o lamb a t a lmos t any t ime of t he y e a r w h i l e most o t h e r b reeds w i l l b r eed on l y a t such a t ime t h a t the lambs a re bo rn i n t he s p r i n g . Hot -house lamb p r o d u c t i o n has no t g e n e r a l l y met w i t h f a v o u r among the s m a l l e r p r oduce r s who u s u a l l y l a c k s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l t o e n t e r t h i s s p e c i a l i z e d b u s i n e s s . However i t i s a g row ing i n d u s t r y and some lambs a re b e i n g r a i s e d f o r market by t h i s ce t h o d . E x p e r i m e n t a l work i n ho t - house lamb p r o d u c t i o n has been c a r r i e d on a t the A g a s s iz E x p e r i m e n t a l Earra. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e showing the E a s t e r Lamb P r o d u c t i o n a t A g a s s i z f r om 1918 t o 1924 i n d i c a t e s what r e t u r n s a r e t o be expec t ed bu t does n o t show what the lambs r e a l l y c o s t t o p r oduce . TABLE 8 . EASTER LAMB PRODUCTION - AGASSIZ EXPERIMENTAL EARM 1918 - 1924. Y e a r Number o f lambs s o l d T o t a l we i gh t ':• Average we i gh t P r i c e pe r pound Average value pe r lamb 1918 8 440 lb. 55.0 l b | 0 . 2 0 $ 11 .00 1919 - • 6 • 317 » 53 .0 " 15 .90 192O 10 440 " 44 .0 " 40 17.60 19a! .30- 1 ,470 " 49.0: 30 14.70 , 1922. 35 2,380 " 68 .0 " -•' 17 11.56 1923 22 1,245 " 56.6 " 17 9 .62 1924 40 2,670 67 .0 " 17 .67 11.80 21. D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s of expe r imen t s a t A g a s s i z s i n c e 1924 a re no t a v a i l a b l e but f r om 1930 to 1935 lambs s o l d f r om $7.15 to $10.40 each.,' with, a l i m i t e d demand. Repo r t s f r om the s t a t i o n show t h a t w i t h a good shepherd i n cha rge , a f l o c k o f Do r s e t ewes s hou l d r a i s e over one hundred and f i f t y p e r c en t of t h e i r l ambs . LAMB FEEDING IS BRITISH COLUMBIA • The f e e d i n g of sheep and lambs f o r ma rke t , i n and around Vancouver has been c a r r i e d on i n the pa s t by p a c k i n g houses and f a rme r s • The f o rmer o b t a i n ed t h e i r f e e d e r lambs f r om the P r a i r i e s and f e d them i n t h e i r own f e e d l o t s . The f a r m e r s , on the o t he r hand , on l y engaged i n f e e d i n g o p e r a t i o n s when market c o n d i t i o n s seemed t o be f a v o u r a b l e . T h e i r u s u a l p rocedure b e i n g t o pu rchase e a r l y i n the f a l l s m a l l l o t s of t hese ewes and l ambs , u s u a l l y a m ixed bunch bo t h i n age and s ex . These were p a s t u r e d on the a f t e r m a t h of s t u b b l e and of hay f i e l d s u n t i l t hey had c l e aned up a l l of the l a t e g r ow th . Those t h a t were s u f f i c i e n t l y f a t a t t h i s t ime were bu t che r ed and the r e -ma inder f i n i s h e d on g r a i n ando the r home-grown f e e d s . The usua l source of such f e e d e r an ima l s was the San Juan I s l a n d s i n Wash-i n g t o n and the G u l f I s l a n d s o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a . S p e c i a l i z e d lamb f e e d i n g i s a t the p r e s en t t ime of s l i g h t impor tance i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia f o r a number of r e a s o n s . The c l i m a t e a t the coa s t i s too wet f o r the most s u c c e s s f u l f e e d -i n g . The sheep and lambs f r om the h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s of the P r a i r i e s and the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia a r e s u b j e c t t o much f o o t and l u ng t r o u b l e when b rough t t o the humid coa s t 22 . c l i m a t e wh i ch o f f e r s i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r f o o t - r o t and pulmon-a ry i n f e c t i o n . Ano the r i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r i s t h a t s c r e e n i n g s and o the r b y - p r o du c t s o f the expo r t g r a i n t r ade cannot be s h i p -ped out of Vancouver excep t under s p e c i a l government r e g u l a -t i o n s because of the g r e a t danger f rom weed i n f e s t a t i o n of the l a n d . Added t o t h e s e , o t h e r f a c t o r s r e f e r r e d t o i n the f o l -l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n t end t o make lamb f e e d i n g i n the Lower E r a -s e r V a l l e y u n p r o f i t a b l e under p r e s en t c o n d i t i o n s . Most of B r i t i s h Co l umb ia ! s l ambs , as a l r e a d y s t a t e d , have s u f f i c i e n t g r a s s - f i n i s h t o be marke ted d i r e c t l y o f f the summer r ange s . The f o l l o w i n g example may be t a ken as i l l u s -t r a t i n g t h i s f a c t . Out of t h i r t y - e i g h t hundred lambs produced by one o u t f i t i n 1938 on l y two hundred were no t f i t t o be mar-k e t e d i n Oc tobe r , ( 9 ) , T h i s i s a v e r y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of u n -f i n i s h e d lambs and i s t y p i c a l of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia p r o d u c t i o n . The u s u a l p rocedure of ma r k e t i n g such lambs i s t o f e e d them d u r i n g the w i n t e r on a l f a l f a hay , then f i n i s h them f o r the s p r i n g marke t on the e a r l y f l u s h o f g r a s s . As t h i s s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f u n f i n i s h e d lambs i s t y p i c a l of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia range p r o d u c t i o n f e e d e r lambs must be b rough t i n f r om some o t h e r p l a c e , u s u a l l y A l b e r t a . ( 1 0 . ) The type of f e e de r - l amb d e s i r e d i s one we i gh i ng about s i x t y pounds showing mutton c on f o rma t i o n and a t i g h t - w o o l e d f l e e c e . S m a l l e r lambs do not g e n e r a l l y do as w e l l i n the f e e d -l o t and the l o o s e -woo l e d lambs a re n o t as t h r i f t y as the h e a -v i e r t i g h t - w o o l e d ones ( 7 ) . Lambs u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s i x t y t o one hundred and twenty days 23 . on f e e d t o r e a ch the r e q u i r e d f i n i s h i n Vancouve r . T h i s i s t h i r t y to f o r t y days l o n g e r than i s needed i n A l b e r t a , and i s due t o a s e t ba ck caused by the s h i p p i n g f r om A l b e r t a t o Van -couve r and t o the c oa s t c l i m a t e . I t has been f ound t h a t i t t a k e s t w e n t y - f i v e t o t h i r t y days f e e d i n g t o ge t the A l b e r t a lambs back t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l p r a i r i e w e i g h t . The f o l l o w i n g i s the e xpe r i e n c e o f a Vancouver f e e d e r ( 7 ) : "When f e e d i n g lambs i n Vancouver one has t o take i n t o c ons ide ra -t i o n the h i g h f r e i g h t r a t e on g r a i n as compared w i t h the p r i c e of f e e d i n A l b e r t a * In o rde r t o have a p r o f i t a b l e o p e r a t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n an advance of two cen t s pe r pound ove r the o r i g i n a l b u y i n g p r i c e ( p l u s f r e i g h t ) and o f cou r se the i n c r e a s e . i n w e i g h t . "The f o l l o w i n g a re the f i g u r e s on a bunch of lambs put on f e e d i n one l o t i n November 1935. "These lambs went on f e e d on November 2 1 s t . There were one thousand e i g h t hundred and e i g h t y - f i v e lambs i n the l o t and they w e i g h e d 1 3 8 , 8 6 0 pounds when pu t on f e e d . There were s i x d e a t h s . We k i l l e d e i g h t e e n hundred and s e v e n t y - n i n e lambs we i gh i n g 179 ,205 pounds when k i l l e d . "The f e ed t h a t t hese lambs consumed c o n s i s t e d of 200,935 pounds of. hay , 2 ,471 x 100 pound sacks o f s c r e e n i n g s , 1,034 sacks wheat and i t t ook two men twen t y - t h r e e p o i n t n i n e t e e n hours per week to l o o k a f t e r them. A l f a l f a c o s t $16.50 pe r t o n , s c r e e n i n g s i l l 6 . 0 0 and wheat $20 . 00 . "These lambs c o s t the company, d e l i v e r e d t o the p l a n t $7.54 per one hundred pounds when f i n i s h e d and they d r e s s ed a t f o r t y - s i x p o i n t t h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c en t , as compared w i t h lambs sh i pped f r om A l b e r t a about the same t ime wh i ch c o s t $7 .15 per 24 . one hundred pounds i n Ca l ga r y and y i e l d e d f o r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t . The r e f o r e our own f e e d e r lambs y i e l d e d two p o i n t t h i r t y - f i v e pe r c en t b e t t e r t han the f a t A l b e r t a lambs d u r i n g t he same p e r i o d . " As B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i s dependent on A l b e r t a bo t h f o r he r f e e d e r lambs and f o r t h e i r f e ed i t wou ldnot appear p r o f i t a b l e t o f e e d such lambs i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia un l e s s i t i s done f o r a s p e c i a l market and by s p e c i a l i z e d f e e d i n g y a r d compan ies . RANGE SHEEP PRODUCTION IN.BRITISH COLUMBIA Sheep have been ranged i n the Sou the rn I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i n s m a l l bands' s i n c e the days of e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t bu t i t was no t u n t i l between 1920 and 1925 t h a t any l a r g e o u t f i t s were i n o p e r a t i o n . Heron B r o s , o f Cheery C reek , Kamloops , came f r om Yak ima i n 1925 w i t h about t h r ee thousand ewes. Hay-ward s e t t l e d a t P a v i l i o n two y e a r s l a t e r w i t h t w e n t y - f i v e hundred ewes and i s now o p e r a t i n g l a r g e bands a t Kamloops and A s h c r o f t . T h r e l k e l d B r o s , o f Savona, Sena t o r B o s t o c k o f Monte C reek , M . G . W i l l i a m s of W i n f i e l d , Cameron o f Ke lown and W i l l i s and Su the r l and - of Kereraeos were o t he r s who f i g u r e d i n t he de -ve lopment o f the range sheep b u s i n e s s f r om 1925 t o 1930 ( 1 0 . ) . The range sheep p o p u l a t i o n of the P r o v i n c e i s e s t ima t ed a t n i n e t y thousand head and o f t h e se a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o r t y t h o u -sand are i n the Kamloops , N i c o l a and Ca r i b oo D i s t r i c t s wh i c h compr i se the commerc i a l range a reas of t he i n t e r i o r ( 1 1 . ) , The sheep rang ing a r e a o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia has a much m i l d e r c l i m a t e t han t h a t of A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan as w e l l as d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The Sou the rn I n t e r i o r •25. of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i s a mounta inous r e g i o n i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h many v a l l e y s c o n t a i n i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e bench and bo t tom l a n d . T h i s mounta inous c h a r a c t e r of the c oun t r y causes the c l i m a t e t o v a r y t o some e x t en t w i t h the d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s bu t f o r t h e most p a r t the summers a re no t undu l y warm and the w i n t e r temp-e r a t u r e se ldom f a l l s much be low z e r o . The range c oun t r y has a l ow r a i n f a l l , r e c e i v i n g on the average on l y e i g h t t o twe l v e i n c h e s . The s n o w f a l l v a r i e s f r om t h i r t e e n p o i n t thr ee i n c he s i n t he Ke lowna D i s t r i c t t o t h i r t y - s e v e n p o i n t t h r ee i n c h e s i n the Mau re t t e Lake D i s t r i c t . Because of the d r yne s s o f the c l i -mate i r r i g a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o p roduce w i n t e r f e e d . The sheep a r e ranged on the s l o p e s and bo t tom l a n d s dur ing, the f a l l and s p r i n g and when p o s s i b l e t h r oughou t t h e w i n t e r . Nea r the end o f June they a re t r a i l e d t o h i g h a l t i t u d e s , f rom s i x t o e i g h t thousand f e e t wh i c h i s above the t imbe r l i n e on many moun t a i n s . They a re b rought down a f t e r t h e f i 1 s t f a l l f r o s t s wh i ch u s u a l l y o c cu r nea r t he end o f Sep t anbe r . The mounta in t o p s are open and s p a r s e l y wooded ani when no t o v e r -g r a z ed a re cove red w i t h a qu i c k growing v e g e t a t i o n t h a t i s s o f t and s u c c u l e n t upon which the sheep do w e l l . A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f t h i s l i g h t s u b - a l p i n e sheep range i s ' C rown l a n d s and the g r a z i n g i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the F o r e s t B r an ch of the P r o v i n c i a l Department o f L and s . The accompany ing map has t he g e n e r a l g r a z i n g a r e a o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia o u t l i n e d on i t as w e l l as the summer ranges o f the Kami oops F o r e s t D i s -t r i c t marked on i t . I n t h i s D i s t r i c t t h e r e were app r o x ima t e l y 35,540 ewes under p e rm i t i n 1938 ( 1 2 . ) . There a r e on l y t h r e e 26. b rands i n the Ne l s on F o r e s t D i s t r i c t number ing f o u r t e e n hundred and f i f t y i n a l l ( 1 3 . ) . The s o f t s u c c u l e n t f o r a ge of t h i s P r o v i n c e g i v e s the B r i -t i s h Co lumb ia sheep p r oduce r s a d i s t i n c t advantage ove r sheep-men i n A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan* They a re a b l e to le ep t h e i r ewes l o n g e r thus r e d u c i n g rep lacement c o s t s . The p l e n t i f u l supp l y of summer r ange , shade and wate r makes i t p o s s i b l e t o s e l l h e a v i e r lambs d i r e c t l y o f f the ranges and to r e c e i v e a f a t lamb p r i c e f o r thems Added t o t h i s t h e y a r e a b l e t o show a h i g h e r pe r cen t age of lamb c r op because they a r e a b l e to r a i s e more t w i n l ambs . However t he r e a re some f e a t u r e s wh i c h a r e a drawback t o B r i t i s h Co l umb i a . More l a b o u r i s r e q u i r e d ! bo t tom l a n d t o grow w i n t e r f e e d has a h i g h c o m p e t i t i v e v a l u e and i r r i g a t i o n has added c o n s i d e r a b l y t o the c o s t of hay and g r a i n . On the average, more hand f e e d i n g i s needed and more c a p i t a l i s r e q u i -r ed t o ope ra te i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia t h an on the P r a i r i e s ( 8 . ) . One s e r i o u s l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i s the l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t s u i t a b l e f a l l and e a r l y s p r i ng r a n g e . T h i s hasp: evented many s m a l l o p e r a t o r s f r om expand ing to a u n i t l a r g e enough t o be hand l ed most e c o n o m i c a l l y as the number o f sheep k ep t u s u a l l y c o r r e s -ponds t o t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f w i n t e r f e e d and e a r l y s p r i n g range ( 1 2 . ) . IHDEX TO SHEEP RANGES IN KAMLOOPS FOREST DISTRICT, * 1939. C o u r t e s y of W. C• Pendray, Grazing A s s i s t a n t , F o r e s t Branch, Kamloops, B« C• (1) French Bar, Red, Mt., Beaver Mt., Quartz Mt. and Para-dise Yalley„ (2) Wild Horse Mt. (3) 9-Mile Ridge (4) C r i s s Creek (5) Jaiai6son Creek (6) Foghorn Mt. (7) Queest Mt. (8) G r i z z l y Mt. (9) Crowfoot Mt. 10) Adams Plateau 11) Mt. Todd or Baldy 12) Cairn Mt. 15) Murray Mt. 14) Muir Watson - Quenville allotment 15) M l c h e l l Allotment 16) N i c o l a Lake Stock Farm allotment 17) Hazlehurst allotment 18) Stoyoma Range 19 ) Dr . - G i l i i s allotment 20) Lodestone Mt. 21) Granite Mt. 22) S k a i s t & K e t t l e Mt. 23) Pasayten Mt. 24) Cathedral Mt. 25) Juniper Mt. 26) Similkameen 27) Graham & W i l l i s allotment 28) Apex Mt. 29) B r e n t Mt. SO) Mission Mt, 31) South Park Mt. 32) North Park Mt. 33) Hunter Range 34) East Hunter Range 35) G r i f f i n Mt. 36) Anderson allotment L A N D RECORDING D I S T R I C T S 137° 1 3 6 1 3 5 ^ 1 3 4 ° 1 3 3 ° 1 3 2 ° 131° 1 3 0 ° 1 2 9 ° 1 2 8 ° 1 2 7 ° 1 2 6 ° 1 2 5 ° 1 2 4 ° 1 2 3 ° 1 2 2 ° 121° 1 2 Q ° 1 1 9 1 1 8 117 1 1 6 ° 1 1 5 1 1 4 1 1 3 1 1 2 111° H O INDEX or DEPARTMENTAL REFERENCE M A P S 133 13? 131 130 W 118 W lib g E_J3 i ; i ".9 1 1 8 117 1 1 6 115 — — \ D e p a r t m e n t a l R e f e r e n c e M a p s s h o w > S u r v e y e d L a n d s C r o w n G r a n t e d L a n d s A p p l i c a t i o n s t o P u r c h a s e L a n d s A p p l i c a t i o n s t o L e a s e L a n d s T i m b e r L i c e n c e s T i m b e r S a l e s H a n d - l o g g e r L i c e n c e s F o r e s h o r e L e a s e s C o a l L i c e n c e s L a n d s r e s u m e d u n d e r "So ld iers ' H o m e s t e a d A c t " P l a c e r M i n i n g L e a s e s Compiled from olf available data and constantly being amended, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. D e p a r t m e n t a l R e f e r e n c e M a p s are designated by n u m b e r . "B lue ' ' o r«Oza l id*pr in ts c a n be obta ined for SI. per c o p y . List suppl ied upon app l i cat ion . O r d e r s , o r i n q u i r i e s , s h o u l d s t a t e m a p n u m b e r , a n d be a d d r e s s e d t o : -S u r v e y o r - G e n e r a l L a n d s D e p a r t m e n t |3bA\ V i c t o r i a , B . C . Alberni Atlin Cranbrook Fernie. Fort Fraser Golden Kamloops Kaslo Lillooet Nanaimo Nelson 1 9 3 7 LEGEND a n d R e c o r d i n g D i s t r i c t B o u n d a r i e s mmmmm M i n i n g R e c o r d e r s ' O f f i c e s .and C o m m i s s i o n e r s ' ' O f f i c e s O S u b L 3 5 1 3 4 1 3 3 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 3 O 129°Longitudel28° West 1 2 7 ° from 1 2 6 ° G r e e w i c h l 2 5 1 2 4 1 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 0 1 1 9 118 117 1 1 6 115 M A P No. 1 C X d s , B . C . 27. TYPES AND BREEDS OF BANGS SHEEP  BRITISH COLUMBIA I n most of the c o u n t r i e s of the wo r l d where sheep are ranged i n bands the Me r i no b l o od has been u t i l i z e d as the foun-d a t i o n s t o c k . The Me r i no i s p r obab l y the o l d e s t race o f dom-e s t i c a t e d sheep h a v i n g been r a i s e d i n Spa i n f o r hundreds o f y e a r s . They a r e v e r y v a l u a b l e because they shear a heavy f l e e c e of f i n e w o o l , a re good mothers and e x c e l l e n t g r a z i e r s and r u s t l e r s . They a r e f a i r l y r e s i s t a n t t o p a r a s i t i c i n f e s -t a t i o n and possess the g r e g a r i o u s i n s t i n c t wh i ch makes them i n d l s p e n s i b l e f o r range sheep husband ry . I n the range sheep s e c t i o n s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada the te rm " f i n e woo led" has come t o B E an on l y one breed? the R a m b o u i l l e t . Th i s b reed was deve loped f r om Spanish. Merinos a t R a m b o u i l l e t , E r a n c e . Here some a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o c a r -cass deve lopment bu t a heavy f l e e c e of f i n e woo l was the main p roduc t sough t . The b r eed was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Germany and w h i l e r e t a i n i n g the name " R a m b o u i l l e t " underwent marked chan-ges i n t y p e . The Germans b r ed f o r i n c r e a s e d s i z e , s u p e r i o r c a r c a s s deve lopment and a l o n g e r s t a p l e w i t h l e s s extreme f i n e n e s s of f i b e r . German R a m b o u i l l e t s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s and e x h i b i t e d a t the Ch icago W o r l d 1 s E a i r i n 1893 and were so w e l l r e c e i v e d f o l l o w i n g t h i s e x h i b i t i o n t h a t the German f l o c k s were drawn upon e x t e n s i v e l y f o r the f o u n d a t i o n s of the b r eed i n Ame r i c a . As the Canad ian range f l o c k s we re o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h rough purchase f r om the U n i t e d S t a t e s f l o c k owners they are 28 . c h i e f l y o f R a m b o u i l l e t f o u n d a t i o n . Many a t t empts have been made s i n c e t o e vo l v e a type of range sheep s u p e r i o r to the R a m b o u i l l e t . However they have ma i n t a i n ed t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y because of t h e i r g r e g a r i o u s i n s t i n c t , h a r d i n e s s and s u p e r i o r woo l p r o d u c t i o n combined w i t h f a i r mutton f o rm . There i s a g r e a t e r i n f u s i o n of mut ton b l o o d i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia range bands than i n those o f A l b e r t a and Saska tchewan. In t h i s P r o -v i n c e more emphasis has been p l a c e d on e a r l y lamb p r o d u c t i o n and f o r t h i s r ea son rams o f t he mutton b reeds have been used e x t e n s i v e l y . The f a v o u r e d rams f o r c r o s s - b r e e d i n g a r e Hamp-s h i r e s and S u f f o l k s as they s i r e lambs t h a t grow r a p i d l y and f u r n i s h d e s i r a b l e c a r c a s s e s . The p r a c t i c e o f the p roduce r s b e i n g t o r e p l a c e t h e i r ewes f r om p r a i r i e f l o c k s w i t h the i n -t e n t i o n of m a r k e t i n g t he e n t i r e lamb c rop t h r ough t r a de chan-n e l s f o r meat p r o d u c t i o n . However such i s no t a lways the case and c o n s i d e r a b l e r e -t e n t i o n i n the b r e e d i n g f l o c k s , of c r o s s - b r e d ewe lambs occu r s f r om y e a r to y e a r . S i n c e not on l y S u f f o l k and Hampshire bu t a l s o L i n c o l n , Romney Ma r sh , Chev i o t and Ox fo rd rams a r e u sed t o some e x t e n t f o r c r o s s b r e e d i n g the b r e e d i n g f l o c k s a l l show t h e i r v a r i o u s c r o s s e s i n r a t h e r i n d i s c r i m i n a t e m i x i n g . In t h i s P r o v i n c e , our more f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t e and s u p e r i o r pa s t u r age p e rm i t s o f t he p r a c t i c e whareaa i n the p r a i r i e p r o -v i n c e s c o n d i t i o n s a re more d i r e c t l y a n t a g o n i s t i c t o i t , deman-d i n g the ma i n t a i n en ce of b r e e d i n g f l o c k s c a r r y i n g a h i g h p e r -centage of f i n e - w o o l e d b r e e d i n g . T ab l e 9. shows the b r e e d i n g of rams used on one hundred 29 . sheep ranches i n Wes te rn Canada f o r a t h ree y e a r ave rage , 1929-1931 . T h i s Tab l e shows the g r e a t e r c r o s s - b r e e d i n g p r a c t i c e d i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia as compared t o the P r a i r i e s where the m a j o r i t y of the rams used were of s t r a i g h t R ambou i l l e t b r e e d i n g . TABLE 9 . ' B reeds o f Rams Used , 1G0 Sheep Ranches, Western Canada, Three Yea r . A ve r age - 1929 - 1931 . Domin ion Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , P u b l i c a t i o n 551 . B r eed B r i t i s h Co lumb ia A l b e r t a Saskatchewan Number Pe r c en t Number P e r c en t Number Pe r cen t R a m b o u i l l e t 97 25 .5 • 1,819 78 .3 '281 70.0 Hampshire 62 16 .5 180 7.7 48 . 12 .1 S u f f o l k 80 21 ,1 165 7 .1 9 1 © 2 Chev i o t 51 13 .4 20 0.9 28 7.0 Othe r B reeds __9_Q_ 139 6,0 32 8 . 1 T o t a l 380 100.0 2,323 100.0 398 100.0 50. PURE-BRED SHEEP IE BRITISH COLUMBIA A l t h o u g h hy f a r the g r e a t e s t par t o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a ' s t o t a l sheep p o p u l a t i o n i s found i n the D i s t r i c t wh i ch has Kam-l o o p s as a c e n t r e , the pu r e - b r ed f l o c k s a re f ound a lmost en -t i r e l y i n the Lower E r a s e r y a l l e y and on Vancouver I s l a n d . ( 1 5 ) However, t h e r e a re a few pu r e - b r ed f l o c k s i n the I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Co l umb i a . P u r e - b r e d sheep have been r a i s e d i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia f o r over f o r t y y e a r s (14) but i t was no t u n t i l 1914 t h a t they were t o be found i n any a p p r e c i a b l e numbers. That y e a r t h e r e were one hundred and twe l v e r e g i s t r a t i o n s and t w e n t y - f o u r t r a n s f e r s . In 1938 t he r e were e l e v e n hundred and f o u r t e e n r e g i s t r a t i o n s and t h r ee hundred and n i n e t y - s i x t r a n s f e r s , a v e r y g r e a t i n -c r ea se • ( 1 5 . ) ' A t the p r e s en t t ime B r i t i s h Co lumbia i s f o u r t h i n Canada as a b r e e d e r of p u r e - b r ed sheep. O n t a r i o i s f i r s t , A l b e r t a i s second and Quebec t h i r d . Many b reeds o f sheep a re found among the pu r e - b r ed f l o c k s of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia bu t Sou th Downs, S h r o p s h i r e s , Hampsh i res , S u f f o l k s , Do r s e t Ho rn , Chev i o t and Rambou i l e t t e s compr i se the m a j o r i t y o f them. The main demand f o r pu r e - b r ed s comes not f r om the B r i t i s h Co lumb ia sheep men, bu t f r om those o f C a l i f o r n i a and Oregon where the demand f o r mut ton type rams i s p a r t i c u l a r l y heavy w i t h a P r e f e r en c e b e i n g shown f o r those of the S u f f o l k and South Down b r e e d s , ( 1 6 . ) 30a. F i g u r e 13 . P u r e - B r ed Sheep i n Canada, 1907 - 1938 Canad ian N a t i o n a l L i v e s t o c k Reco rd s . 30b. F i g u r e 14 . Pu r e -B r ed Sheep i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia Canad ian N a t i o n a l L i v e s t o c k Reco rds . 31 . DEVELOPMENT 01? NEW AMD MORE SUITABLE BREEDS OE SHEEP B r i t i s h Co lumb ia has not as y e t made any a t tempt to de -v e l o p a t ype of sheep s u i t a b l e t o h e r c ond i t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n and demand. However t h i s has been done i n o t h e r p a r t s of the wo r l d such as New Zea l and and the U n i t e d S t a t e s where new b reeds s u i t a b l e t y pe s have been e vo l v ed t o meet e x i s t i n g con -d i t i o n s . New Zea land p r e s e n t s the most s t r i k i n g example o f t h i s i n h a v i n g deve loped the C o r r i e d a l e B reed t o meet h e r own c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s and a t the same t ime p roduce the t ype o f lamb c a r -c a s s demanded by the e xpo r t t r a d e f o r t he B r i t i s h marke t . The f i r s t sheep t o be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o New Zea l and were M e r i n o s . These were s a t i s f a c t o r y as l o n g as woo l was t he main p roduc t t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n sheep p r o d u c t i o n . W i t h the deve lopment o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s t he lamb and mutton e xpo r t t r ade be -came of i n c r e a s i n g impo r tance and Me r i no ewes were c r o s s e d w i t h l ong -woo l ed rams t o produce lamb wh i c h wou ld y i e l d supe r -i o r c a r c a s s e s . L i n c o l n , Roraney-Marsh and L e i c e s t e r rams were used and t h e i r progeny p roved so s u i t a b l e f o r the t r ade t h a t a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t was made t o deve l op f r om t h e c r o s s - b r e d p r o -geny a new b reed wh i c h f i n a l l y r e s u l t e d i n a f i x e d type now known as the C o r r i e d a l e . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s s i m i l a r a t tempts have been made t o deve l op b reeds p o s s e s s i n g a more d e s i r a b l e mut ton c on f o rma t i on than do the range bands wh i c h a re p r edom ina t e l y of Me r i no or R a m b o u i l l e t o r i g i n . Much the same method has been f o l l o w e d as the one wh i c h p roved so s u c c e s s f u l i n New Z e a l a n d . In a l l cases 32. the fema le a n c e s t r y has been the Me r i no or R a m b o u i l l e t . These ewes ha re been c r o s s ed w i t h v a r i o u s l ong -woo l ed rams such as the L i n c o l n , Romney Marsh and Go t swo l d . T h e i r progeny have been i n b r e d and s e l e c t e d to produce new b reeds such as the Co lumb ia , the Panama and the Rome lda l e . These b r e ed s , s h ea r i n g a . f l e e c e of f i n e q u a l i t y , produce lambs of e x c e l l e n t mut ton type and pos se s s the g r e g a r i o u s i n s t i n c t so n e ce s s a r y f o r range sheep. A l t h o u g h these new b reeds have not d i s p l a c e d the Mer -i n o they do f i l l q u i t e an impo r t an t p l a c e i n Amer i can sheep p r o d u c t i o n . I n Canada the range prob lem has no t been e n t i r e l y n e g l e c -t e d | A l t h o u g h no a c t u a l b r e e d i n g work has been done i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia much v a l u a b l e work has been done a t b r e e d i n g s t a t i o n s i n A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan t o deve l op a type o f sheep be s t s u i t e d t o Canad ian range c o n d i t i o n s . Any improved r e s u l t s o f these b r eed t ypes deve l oped by these S t a t i o n s w i l l undoub ted l y a i d B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i n her p r o du c t i o n . I n the Canad ian programme the Domin ion Government i s c a r -r y i n g out b r e e d i n g p r o j e c t s on two E x p e r i m e n t a l Farms and i s c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan on anoth.er.CL7) The p r o j ec t a t t he U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan c o n s i s t s o f t he c r o s s i n g of Rye l and and R a m b o u i l l e t s w i t h apparen t good r e s u l t s a l t h o u g h no d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s have been a r r i v e d The work a t the Domin ion Range E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n a t Manybe r r i e s A l b e r t a (18) i s the n a t u r a l development of work done by M r . R . C .Ha r v e y i n the v i c i n i t y of L e t h b r i d g e i n the I -1 9 2 0 ' s . M r .Ha rvey impo r ted Romney-Marsh rams and c r o s s ed them w i t h pu r e - b r ed R a m b o u i l l e t ewes. From t h i s c r o s s he a t t empted t o deve l op a type o f sheep thought t o be more de -s i r a b l e f o r range p r o d u c t i o n t han the R a m b o u i l l e t . The c r o s s - b r e d s combined r u s t l i n g a b i l i t y , h e r d i n g i n -s t i n c t and the h a r d i n e s s of the Rambou i l l e t w i t h superior mut-t on c o n f o r m a t i o n . The f l e e c e a l s o proved s a t i s f a c t o r y . I t was dense , compact , of good s t a p l e l e n g t h g r a d i n g h a l f - b l o o d o r f i n e r and y i e l d i n g a h e a v i e r c l i p t han e i t h e r o f t h e p a r -ent b r e e d s . C o n s i d e r i n g the l i m i t e d number o f the c r o s s - b r e d s t h a t were a v a i l a b l e f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n they were f a v o u r a b l y r e -c e i v e d by the sheep men and i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t Mr .Ha r -vey was f o r c e d t o d i s c o n t i n u e h i s b r e e d i n g o p e r a t i o n s and the i d e n t i t y as a b r eed type became l o s t , s e v e r a l bands on the p r a i r i e s and i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia s t i l l show the e f f e c t s of the b l o o d i n f u s i o n of the Harvey c r o s s - b r e d s t r a i n . As a, r e s u l t o f the succes s o f the o r i g i n a l c r o s s and a t the r eque s t of range sheepmen the Domin ion E x p e r i m e n t a l Farms B r an ch began a s i m i l a r b r e e d i n g programme a t M a n y b e r r i e s , A l t a . i n 1935 . A t t h a t t ime Romney-Marsh rams were impo r t ed f r om Oregon and c r o s s e d w i t h s e l e c t e d Rambou i l l e t ewes" f rom sou t h -e r n A l b e r t a range bands . A t t he p r e s en t t ime about f i v e hundred f i r s t c r o s s ewes of b r e e d i n g age have been produced t o g e t h e r w i t h a number of rams. The p o l i c y t o be f o l l o w e d i s one of i n b r e e d i n g and a l -though c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i s e v i d e n t i n t he c r o s s - b r e d s i t i s p l anned t o e l i m i n a t e i t by r i g i d c u l l i n g . The m a j o r i t y 34. o f the c r o s s - b r e d s show good mut ton con f o rma t i on and produce a heavy f l e e c e t h a t g rades h a l f - b l o o d and wh i ch on p r e l i m i n a r y market r e p o r t i s shown t o be a woo l f o r wh i c h t h e r e i s a demand. The b r e e d i n g programme a t the Domin ion E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a -t i o n , L e t / i b r i d g e , A l b e r t a , was begun i n 1919 when some C o r r i e -d a l e s were i n t r o d u c e d f o r c r o s s i n g pu rpose s . C o r r i e d a l e s were chosen because of t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y i n New Zea l and and as i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o impor t a s u f f i c i e n t number of ewes f o r e xpe r imen -t a l pu rposes t hey were b r ed a t L e t h b r i d g e . A d u p l i c a t i o n o f t he o r i g i n a l c r o s s made i n New Zea l and , L i n c o l n males on Rambou i l l e t f e m a l e s , was made and the fema le progeny s e l e c t e d and mated to impo r t ed G o r r i e d a l e rams. T h i s p o l i c y has been m a i n t a i n e d ove r a p e r i o d of y e a r s and the ewes have been g raded up t o the ap-p r ox ima t e s t a nda r d o f the New Zea land C o r r i e d a l e s . In 1928 and 1931 G o r r i e d a l e ewes and rams were impo r t ed and a f l o c k of pu r e -b red New Zea l and C o r r i e d a l e s has been e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e L e t h -b r i d g e S t a t i o n . The g r a d i n g up programme was changed t o one of i n b r e e d i n g i n 1934 when i t was f o und t h a t the Canad ian t ype of C o r r i e d a l e s were d e v e l o p i n g a c o a r s e r woo l t han was d e s i r e d . No f i n a l r e -s u l t s a re a v a i l a b l e a t the p r e s en t t ime on the Canad ian type bu t s e v e r a l g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made. They po s se s s a more d e s i r a b l e c on f o rma t i o n than the Rambou i l l e t and compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h the New Zea l and type i n the p roduc t i on of market lambs under P r a i r i e c o n d i t i o n s . A l t h o u g h the Canad ian G o r r i e d a l e p roduces a lamb t h a t i s l i g h t e r i n we i gh t t h an the Rambou i l l e t t h i s i s t o t h e i r advan-3 5 . t age as the consumer ' s demand i s f o r a f i n i s h e d lamb we i gh i ng no t ove r n i n e t y or n i n e t y - f i v e pounds as a maximum. As was no t ed above an i nb r eed i ng programme was s t a r t e d i n 1934 t o f i x the woo l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t he d e s i r e d g r ade s , namely h a l f b l o o d o r 5 8 ' s t o 6 0 ' s c oun t . In 1935 one e i g h t e en p o i n t e i g h t p e r c en t of the f l e e c e s graded 5 0 ' s or b e t t e r , whereas i n 1937 n i n e t y - o n e p o i n t seven pe r c en t of the f l e e c e s graded 5 8 ' s , 6 0 ' s or 6 2 ' s . T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e woo l q u a l i t y has reached the. d e s i r e d p o i n t and t h a t i t may be ma in -t a i n e d by p r ope r b r e e d i n g . The passage of t ime t o g e t h e r w i t h c a r e f u l b r e e d i n g and s e l e c t i o n w i l l a i d m a t e r i a l l y i n f i x i n g the improved c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n the s t r a i n and deve lop i t i n t o a r e c o g n i z e d b r e e d . 36 . SUMMARY A b r i e f o u t l i n e h i s t o r y of t he early development o f the sheep i n d u s t r y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d a r ea s i s p r e s e n t e d . The s t a t i s t i c s o f p a s t and p re sen t p r o v i n c i a l lamb and mutton produc t i o n a re g i v en i n t a b l e fo rm, and the r e -s u l t s o f a n a l y s e s p re sen ted i n the form o f g raphs , c h a r t s and comment» The p r e sen t market r equ i r emen t s f o r bo th lamb and mutton a re r ev i ewed and an a t t empt has been made to sugges t how the sheep p roducer o f the P r o v i n c e can bes t meet them. Wool production has been c on s i d e r e d on l y i n s o f a r as wool i s a s p e c i f i c p rob lem i n the ma r ke t i n g o f lamb and mu t t on . The production o f pu re -b red sheep i s c on s i d e r ed i n i t s r e -l a t i o n s h i p to the major lamb p r o d u e t i o n phases o f the i n d u s t r y . Sheep a re known to have been produced i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia s i n c e 1839• 3ach decade of the pas t one hundred yea r s has shown p rog r e s s i n p r o v i n c i a l sheep produc t i o n . B r i t i s h Co lumb ia has the g r e a t e s t per c a p i t a consumpt ion of the meat o f the sheep o f any o f the Canad ian provinces. 3 7 e 8. B r i t i s h ' C o l u m b i a has .fewer sheep per hundred of human population than any other province of Canada, 9• The ranges of the Southern I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia account f o r approx imate ly t w o - t h i r d s of the sheep p r o -d u c t i o n of the Province « 10. The lambs produced i n the rang© area are marketed d i r -e c t l y o f f the summer grass as f a t lambs. 11. Close to 100 per cent, of the f a t lambs from the ranges of the I n t e r i o r are marketed between the dates June 15 and December 15. 18« Forty per cent, (approximately) of the p r o v i n c i a l r e -quirements of lamb and mutton are met by producers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 1 3 . The remaining s i x t y per cent. (approximately) of r e -quirements are met by the surplus from the Province of A l b e r t a under present systems of production and marketing. 14. The demand i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s for a market lamb of seventy-five to ninety pounds l i v e weight. 15. Such lambs are advantageously produced both on the farms i n the lower coastal areas and on the sub-alpine summer ranges of the I n t e r i o r • 3 8 16• As .a r e s u l t of the above-no ted c o n d i t i o n s , the r e q u i r e -ments of the lamb-feeding l o t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia must be met by purchases from producers o u t s i d e o f the P r o v i n c e* 39 . CONCLUSIONS 1« There i s a need in B r i t i s h Columbia for the develop-ment and inauguration of some means to unify the sheep breeding program i n order that a more uniform lamb carcass o f desired weight and f i n i s h may be produced in a l l areas. 2 , There i s abundant s u b - a l p i n e range i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia to produce one hundred par c e n t , o f provincial needs o f lamb and mu t t on , 3 , The l i m i t i n g factor i n the expans i on o f the sheep I n -dus t r y i n p r o v i n e i a l r a n c h i n g a r ea s i s the p r e s en t amount o f a c c e s s i b l e S p r i n g and Win te r range• 4 , The c r o s s - b r e e d i n g o f sheep as practised i n areas o f range production i s j u s t i f ied<, In the p r e s en t s t a t e o f knowledge i t i s the be s t means o f mee t i ng market r equ i r emen t s i n terms o f lamb• 5» There i s a h i g he r pe rcen tage o f the b l o od o f mutton b reeds i n the range bands o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia than i n the range groups o f the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s c P r e s en t ma r k e t i n g and p r o d u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n s j u s t i f y t h i s more e x t e n s i v e use o f the m i dd l e woo l t y p e . 4 0 . Late and c a r r i ed-over lambs from the range areas are a fa c t o r on the B r i t i s h Columbia markets i n l a t e Spring and e a r l y Summer. While they f i l l a gap i n market r e -quirements, they tend to compete for market preference with early-produced domestic lamb produc ed i n the lower c o a s t a l areas, S p e c i a l lamb feeding i s a minor industry i n the Prov-ince,, Almost a l l of the commercial lamb feeding i s done to-day by the lar g e r meat packing companies, mainly to assure them of a steady supply. This phase of sheep production i s not nearly so extensive as i t once was i n t h i s area. The demand for hot-house lambs i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s very l i m i t e d . There i s a l i m i t e d demand fo r a few of high q u a l i t y , but t h i s phase of production i s l i k e l y to remain one of minor importance„ While B r i t i s h Columbia compares favorably with other provinces i n consumption of the meat of the sheep, s t i l l mutton and lamb consumption represents only one pound i n twenty. Of t h i s one pound, nine point s i x ounces are produced outside of our p r o v i n c i a l boundaries„ This has a m a t e r i a l e f f e c t on l o c a l campaigns designed to en-courage the consumption of lamb• 4 1 * 1 0, The advent of the r a i l r o a d made more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e other sources of meat supply, and sheep production ceased to be as l u c r a t i v e as i n the e a r l i e r days. The expan-sion o f the industry i n range t e r r i t o r i e s i n the In-t e r i o r during the past decade would i n d i c a t e that some measure of p r o f i t a b l e operation i s possible to-day 0 The farmer-producer of the c o a s t a l area i s l o a t h to discon-tinue and c o n t i n u a l l y seeks s p e c i a l markets and s p e c i a l phases of produc t i o n to make sheep produc t i o n p r o f i t a b l e , u s u a l l y as a supporting enterprise to a main farming p r o j e c t . The future should see expansion i n both of the major phases o f sheep produc t i o n i n t h i s Province• There un-doubtedly w i l l be developed an organized program of breeding and produc t i o n . There i s every assurance that there w i l l be evolved s p e c i a l types of sheep suited to producing lamb that w i l l f i n d favor i n our i n c r e a s i n g l y f a s t i d i o u s markets. There w i l l a l s o very l i k e l y come a marketing plan so that lamb w i l l flow to market i n an order l y sequence from area to area by general understand-ing i f not by organized agreement under enabling l e g i s -l a t i o n . 42 . LIST..OF REFERENCES (1) MacLaugh l i n , J ohn . C h i e f F a c t o r , Hudson 's Bay Co , L e t t e r s i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . (2) Cox, W. C-. Kamloops J o u r n a l . Nov. 30, 1862. (3) C lemen, R. A» Amer i can L i v e s t o c k and Meat I n d u s t r y . 1923 0 (4) The I n d u s t r i a l and Development C o u n c i l o f Canad ian Meat Packe r s - A L e t t e r on Canad ian L i v e s t o c k P r o d u c t s . A p r i l , 1937. (5) L ew i s , I , B. S w i f t Canad ian Co . L t d . L e t t e r , F e b e 11 , 1939 . (6) l a r o a e , G . A . Burns & C o . L t d , L e t t e r , F eb . 15, 1939. (7) Wh i t e , F r a n k . P a c i f i c Meat Co . L t d . L e t t e r , Feb» 11 , 1939* (8) K i n d t , L . E . An Economic A n a l y s i s o f the Sheep Ranch -i ng I n d u s t r y i n Western Canada. Dom, Dep t . o f A g r i c . F a rme r ' s B u i , No . 25 . 1936 . (9) Graham, J . S i L e t t e r , F eb . 13, 1939* {10} C h a l l e n g e r , G. A g r i e . Agen t , B ,C , E l e c t r i c R l y , Co . L t d . , L e t t e r , F eb . 2, 1939• (11) S u t h e r l a n d , D. D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , Kamloops, B .C . L e t t e r , J a n . 16, 1939• (12) D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r , Kamloops, B .C . L e t t e r , Feb• 14, 1939. (13) D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r , N e l s o n , B .C . L e t t e r , F eb . 2 2 , 1939 . (14) Canad ian N a t i o n a l Reco rd f o r Sheep, Y o i , 26 . 1937. (15) Gamble, E .A . L e t t e r , F eb . 17, 1939 . (16) Canad ian N a t i o n a l L i v e S tock Records R e p o r t s . 1907-1938. (17) Vaughn, H. W. Breeds o f L i v e s t o c k i n A m e r i c a . 1937• 43 Ewan, A. H. Professor of Animal Husbandry, U n i v e r s i t y * , Saskatchewan. L e t t e r , March 8, 1939* Eaomussen, K» Family Herald and Weekly S t a r . March 2, 1938. Horlacher, L. J . Sheep Production. 1927. Coffey, W. C. Productive Sheep Husbandry. 1929 . H u l t z , F. S. and H i l l , J . A. Range Sheep and Wool i n the Seventeen Western States® 1931 . C r a i g , J . A, Sheep Farming i n North America. 1914. Report of the Commissioners, Dom. Dept. of Agrie« The Sheep Industry i n Canada, Great B r i t a i n and United States. Nov. 1, 1911 . Dom. Dept« of A g r i c . Pub» 561 . Sheep Husbandry i n Canada. 1937• B.C. Dept. of A g r i c • B u i . No. 99. Care and Management of Sheep i n B r i t i s h Columbia under Farm and Range Conditions. 1931 . 4 4 . Vancouver, 5. 0 <,, A p r i l 24, 1939. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The general d i r e c t i o n and help given i n the preparation of t h i s work by Professor H. M. King, Dr. S . N. Wood and Mr. H. L. Steves of the Department of Animal Husbandry i n The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. My sinc e r e s t thanks for m a t e r i a l supplied and sugges-tions made are also tendered to D r . Kay Lamb, P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n and A r c h i v i s t , V i c t o r i a ; Mr. W i l f r e d Pendray and other o f f i c i a l s of the P r o v i n c i a l Forestry Branch; Dr. W. R. Gunn and o t h e r o f f i c i a l s of the P r o v i n c i a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ; Mr* T. G. Stewart and other o f f i c i a l s of the Federal Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ; the o f f i c e r s of the l o c a l meat packing plants and many farmer and rancher producers throughout the P r o v i n c e ® R, G, DERRINBERG 

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