UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The development of the curriculum in the elementary schools of British Columbia prior to 1936 Green, George Henry Ebenezer 1938

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T H E D E V E L O P M E N T 0 F T H E C U R R I C U L U M I N T H E E L E M E N T A R Y S C H O O L S O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P R I O R T 0 1 9 3 6 by George Henry Ebenezer Green A Thesis submitted f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLOMBIA April; 1938. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. THE CURRICULUM IN THE SCHOOLS PRIOR TO 1872 7 1. The Schools of the Crown Colony of Vancouver Island, 1849-1866 7 2. The Schools of the Mainland of British Columbia as a Separate Crown Colony of British Columbia, 1858-1866 13 3. The Schools of the United Colony of British Columbia, 1866-1871 14 III. THE CURRICULUM IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1872-1936 17 1. The Period of Authorized Text-Books' but no Prescribed Course of Study, 1872-1885 17 2. A Prescribed Course of Study, 1885-1936 (a) 1885-92, in Annual Reports 27 (b) 1893-1918, in Manuals of School Law 30 (c) 1919-1936, in Separate Booklets 36 IV. THE DETAILED DEVEIOEMENT OF THE CURRIOTIUM BY SUBJECTS, 1872-1936..... 49 1. Language and Composition 50 2. Grammar 60 3. Spelling and Dictation 64 4. Writing 69 5. Reading and Literature 73 6. Arithmetic ' 80 7. Geography 90 8. History 98 9. Nature 105 10. Hygiene 110 11. Physical Training 116 12. Music... 118 13. Drawing and Manual Arts 122 14. Manual Training ' 127 15. Domestic Science.... 131 i i Page V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 136 1. Summary of Curriculum Trends i n the Past 136 (a) A Detailed Course for Each Grade 136 (b) Grouping of Subjects 136 (c) Improved Text-Books.... 137 (d) The "Entrance" Examination and a "Factual" Curriculum 137 (e) Emphasis on the Child rather than the Subject 138 (f) The Aesthetic and Emotional Aspects of the Curriculum 139 (g) The Importance of Health Education 139 (h) Manual Arts and Home Economics 140 2. The Advent of the Junior High School 141 (a) Advantages of the 6-3-3 Organization.... 141 (b) The Influences of the Junior High School on the Curriculum of the Elementary Schools 141 3. The New Programme of Studies, 1936 143 (a) The Conservatism of the Old Curriculum.. 143 (b) A New Philosophy of Education 144 (c) United States Influences on the New Curriculum 145 (d) Some Advantages of the New Curriculum... 146 4. Some General Conclusions 147 (a) Possible Future Trends in the Development of the Curriculum 147 (b) Necessary Changes in Teacher-Training Institutions 148 (c) Some Further Studies that are needed.... 149 (1) Study Groups 149 (2) Experimentation 150 (3) The Need for Applying Present knowledge 150 TABLE I: Number of Pupils i n B r i t i s h Columbia Studying Various Subjects i n the year 1861 10 TABLE II: Number of pupils in the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia Studying Various Subjects during the years 1872-1885 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY 152 i i i \ APPENDICES APPENDIX Page I. Course of Study Prescribed for Graded and Common Schools for the Year 1900..... 155 II. Course of Study Prescribed for Graded and Common Schools for the Year 1911...... 159 III. Public School Manual Training Course for the Year 1912 172 IV. Public School Manual Training Course for the Year 1919 174 V. Public School Domestic Science Course for the Year 1912 177 VI. Public School Domestic Science Course for the Year 1919. 179 VII. Nature Study and Primary Geography for the Public Schools of Brit i s h Columbia....... 183 VIII. Public School Music Course for the Year 1919 189 IX. Public School Drawing and Manual Arts Course for the Year 1924-25 194 i v CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Foreword.— The curriculum of the elementary schools of British Columbia has undergone considerable development since the f i r s t elementary school was established in the Province in the middle of the nineteenth century. Any adequate evaluation of present trends in the curriculum requires a comprehension of the origin and development of these trends. Only thus i s one able to distinguish between -progress and mere change or even retrogres-sion, and thereby i s i n a position to contribute to further pro-gress.^" No systematic study has yet been made of the development of the elementary school curriculum, but two investigations of an educational nature deserve mention. The British Columbia School Survey of 1925 contained several suggestions for the .improvement 2 of the curriculum; and Dr. MacLaurin's work on The History of Education in British Columbia contained a chapter on curriculum 3 development. Pacing a complex and continually changing ci v i l i z a t i o n , W. A. Saucier, Introduction to Modern Views of Education., p. 3. Boston, Ginn and Co., 1957^ J . H. Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey of the School  System of British Columbia. Victoria. Provincial Department of Education, 1925. D. L. MaeLaurin, The History of Education i n the Crown  Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia and in the  Province of British Columbia. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1957. f i t i s no,t s u r p r i s i n g that many changes have been made i n our curr icu lum. R i g i d i t y and un i formity ar9 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an educat ional system designed f o r a s t a t i c not a dynamic s o c i a l order .^ A cons iderat ion of the content i n the fo l lowing pages should show to what extent our elementary curr icu lum has kept pace with c i v i l i z a t i o n . Purpose . - - One of the most important advantages of a knowledge of any subject i s i t s value as a .guide f o r the f u t u r e . I t i s hoped that a study of the var ious c u r r i c u l a that have been used from time to time i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l prove of help i n framing c u r r i c u l a i n the years to come. At var ious times during the past dras&c changes have been made. A cons iderat ion of the changes made i n these c u r r i c u l a might w e l l save us from e x p e r i -menting with courses that have a lready been found by experience to be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . The m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e i s so scattered and so sparse, e s p e c i a l l y f o r the e a r l y years , that the c o l l e c t i n g of a l l poss ib le m a t e r i a l on the subject i n t o one volume i s perhap a worthy p iece of work. Were i t not f o r p ieces of research such as t h i s , much m a t e r i a l would never be unearthed and would sooner or l a t e r be l o s t . Scope of the S t u d y . - - In t h i s t h e s i s an endeavour has been made to t race the development of the curr icu lum of the --•Saucier, Op. c i t . 5 p . 5 i . ' .5 • elementary schools of British Columbia. With the exception of a few private schools mentioned in connection with the early history of Vancouver Island, the curriculum of only the government-supported and government-controlled schools w i l l be considered. It w i l l be recalled that from 1649 to 1866 what is now Vancouver Island was-then called the Crown Colony of Vancouver Island, and that from 1858 to 1866 what i s now known as the mainland of British Columbia was called the Crown Colony of British Columbia. In 1866 the two colonies were united under one name, the Grown Colony of Br i t i s h Columbia. In 1871 this colony en-tered the Dominion of Canada and became known by i t s present . t i t l e , The Province of British Columbia. With the above in mind i t w i l l be seen why the early part of this history has been treated under separate headings. While i t i s true that the curricula of the mainland and the Island were somewhat similar, i t w i l l be noted that there were several schools on the Island before anpr ray were ope^ on the mainland. The subject of method i s so inextricably interwoven with that of curriculum that at times references to method w i l l be made. An earnest attempt, however, has been made to consider method only in so far as i t helps to explain or throw light on the subject of curriculum development. Sources of Information and Methods of Investigation.— The information for this investigation has been gleaned almost wholly from primaiy sources. Practically the only secondary materials used were the dissertation of Dr. MacLaurin^and the Report of Dr. Weir and Dr. Putman. The various types of primary sources revealed by investigation might be classified as follows: (1) letters and journals of early settlers which are on f i l e i n the Archives of British Columbia; (2) early text-books, quite a number of which he&re been collected by the writer and donated to the Provincial Library; (3) Annual School Reports, 1871 to the present; (4) Manuals of School Law, issued by the Department of Education i n irregular intervals during the years 1893-1916,, (5) publications issued by the Department of Education since 1916,3 One cannot help but notice the scarcity of material dealing with the early period and express regret that more care was not exercised in preserving documents which would have shed light on our early educational institutions. Prior to 1885, when no prescribed course of study existed, and teachers taught what was contained in the prescribed text-books, the best possible source of information on the curriculum taught would naturally be the text-books that were used. Here, again, the research worker is thwarted in his endeavour, as very few of the early text-books XD. L. MacLaurin, The History of Education in the Crown Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, and in the  Province of British Columbia. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1937. % . H. Putman and G-. M. Weir, Survey of the School  System of British Columbia. Victoria, Provincial Department of Education, 1925. ^ o r a complete l i s t , see the bibliography. have been preserved. The annual reports proved a f r u i t f u l source of infor-mation. The earlier numbers contained among other material a l i s t of text-books authorized for use in the public schools, and the annual reports of the superintendent of education which included detailed remarks on a l l the individual schools in the Province. In the issues from 1885 to 1893, and i n 1911, they contained i n addition the prescribed courses of study. The reports for later years include the annual statements of the school inspectors, reports of boards of school trustees, school principals, and directors of special subjects. The Manuals of School Law were useful i n that they contained the courses of study and l i s t s of authorized text-books during the period 1893-1916. After 1916 the courses of study were outlined in such detail that they were issued by the Department of Education i n separate booklets called by various t i t l e s . In addition to a study of the existing educational documents, letters, and reports that are on f i l e in the Provincial Library, some information was obtained by interviewing persons who have been or who s t i l l are prominent i n educational work. But the memories of men livi n g to-day do not go back to the early days of our history and hence the interview method was helpful only for the later period. 6 .* Organization of the Report.— An outline of the devel-opment of the curriculum in the elementary schools of British Columbia prior to 1872 i s presented in chapter I I . Chapter III traces in a chronological manner the important changes in the curriculum during the period 1872-1936. Chapter IV also deals with the period 1872-1936, but in this chapter the changes are outlined in a topical manner, subject by subject. Chapter V presents a summary of the main trends i n the past development of the curriculum; the influence of the junior high school on the elementary school curriculum; a brief account of the changed philosophy of education which influenced the new programme of studies in 1936; and some general conclusions relating to the possible trends which might be expected in the future development of the curriculum. CHAPTER II SCHOOLS PRIOR TO 1872 The Schools i n the Grown Colony of Vancouver Island, 1849-1866 Following the organization of Vancouver Island as a crown colony i n 1849, an effort was made by the Hudson Bay Company to provide educational f a c i l i t i e s for the children of i t s employees and of other settlers. The f i r s t school was held i n the mess room of the Fort, with the Rev. Robert J. Staines, a graduate of Trinity College, Cambridge, as teacher. This school, however, soon proved inadequate. It i s interesting to note what Governor James Douglas said i n 1851 regarding education i n a letter to Archibald Barclay, then secretary of the Hudson Bay Company. I w i l l also take the liberty of calling the at-tention of the Governor and committee to the subject of education by recommending the establishment of one or two elementary schools i n the Colony to give a proper moral and religious training to the children of settlers who are at present growing up i n ignorance and the utter neglect of a l l their duties to God and to Society . . . . In regard to the character of the Teachers, I would venture to recommend a middle-aged married, couple for each school, of s t r i c t l y religious principles, capable of giving a good sound English education and nothing more, these schools being intended for the children of the labouring and poorer classes; and the children of promi-sing talents, or whom their parents wish to educate further, may pursue their studies and acquire other branches of knowledge at the Company's school conducted by the Rev'd. Mr. Staines.i „ betters of S i r Jas. Douglas to Archibaia Barclay. Governor of. Hudson B»y n^rm^y. 16th May, 1850 to 6th Nov., 1853— Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. . Letter dated Victoria, 8th Oct., 1851. • 7 8 "As a result of the.recommendations made by Governor "Douglas, we find the f i r s t colonial common school being opened in Victoria u i 1852, one in Nanaimo in 1853 and a third at Maple Point, near Victoria, in 1854.1 The only information available regarding the curriculum followed in these schools i s from the Fi r s t Report on Colonial Schools .addressed to the Governor and the Legislative Council in November,. 1856, by the successor to Rev. H . J . Staines, Rev. E. Cridge, who had been appointed to enquire and report upon the state of the public schools. The report shows the subjects being taught in the, school at Victoria to be reading, writing, arithmetic, history, a l i t t l e geography and grammar, and scripture. Concerning the subject of scripture Rev. Cridge stated, W I did not find that • o the children had made the same improvement as in some others". The subjects taught in the Maple Point School are shown to be'the same, with the addition that one boy had begun, the elements of euclid and algebra. , Apparently, i t was possible to obtain instruction in subjects other than those mentioned above. A notice dated 15th December, 1857, sent to Victoria, Vancouver's Island, by Richard Colledge, secretary,, by his Excellency's command, stated that: D. L. MacLaurin, The History of Education in the Crown  Colonies 6f Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia and in the  Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Ph.D. dissertation, University of ¥ashington,; 1937, page 20. 2 .Edward Cridge, Original Manuscripts Report; folder 395; Letter l a ; Archives of Br i t i s h Columbia. 9 nay scholars attending the D i s t r i c t Schools s h a l l pay : iat the following rates for t u i t i o n , v i z : Five s h i l l i n g s per quarter or Twenty s h i l l i n g s per annum for the following i n s t r u c t i o n , namely, Reading, .English Grammar, Writing, Geography, Arithmetic and I n d u s t r i a l Training. When a higher series of:education, i s given; such as L a t i n or other Languages, and the higher "branches of Arithmetic and.Mathematics,, they s h a l l pay an increased rate of school fees, to he arranged "between the Governor for the .time being and the School Master., In 1860 Rev. Gridge made hi s second report on the Colonial Schools, which,he addressed to the Colonial Secretary. • In i t he stated t h a t - e f f i c i e n t Instruction was being given i n a l l the . elementary; branches at the school i n V i c t o r i a . One class which he had examined had a good knowledge of euclid and algebra. He also stated that considerable attention"was being paid to the 2 moral and religious, culture of the children. In. h i s t h i r d report i n 1861 he commented on the very s a t i s f a c t o r y progress .manifested i n some of the advanced subjects, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n book-keeping. That few were studying advanced subjects i s shown by the following table. ^  , Ori g i n a l Notice i n Archives, of B r i t i s h Columbia. %ldward Gridge, Acting. SupH.:of Education. Letter #15, Archives.. — — -—' 5 I b i d , Letter #24. 10 Table I Number of Pupils in Bri t i s h Columbia Studying Various  Subjects in the Year 1861 Reading Writing Arith. Grammar Geog. . History Geom-etry \ta"t'iife • 'Book-keep-ing Draw ing - Scrip-ture Victoria .:'. 15:". ' • '4...-'. '38 Craigtlowe r; v. .10.,, s.:;.:10.\:,:': • . •' 1 ;'. . • about 20 Nanaimo 9 ... •:,'3;.r: about 30 TOTAL :- '49' 28 2 :. 1 " 4 20 88 Further information on the curriculum of the early schools i s obtained from the correspondence of the Board of Education, dated July 20, 1865. On that date 3174 school books were ordered through the firm, of Hibben and Carswell of Victoria. This i s the earliest reference to the text-books that were used i n the early years in the schools of Vancouver Island. The following books were included on the l i s t : Sargent's Primer, second, third, fourth, f i f t h , sixth book of lessons. Lawrie's f i r s t , second, third, and fourth readers. Introduction to the Art of Reading* Spelling Book superceded "by Sullivan, Sullivan's English Grammar for Children. Sullivan's Introduction to Geography generalized. 11 Pillan's Physical Geography. * \ Cornwall's Geography (without the maps). Hodgin's.Geography & History of B r i t i s h America (Toronto). . Fi r s t Arithmetic. Ross* Mental Arithmetic. Thomson's Arithmetic andAlgebra. Bookkeeper (national). Elements of Geometry. Pott's Euclid. Mensuration. Ince's Outline of English History. Hillak's Manualof_Vocal;Music.V Tablet Lessons (Arithmetic, Spelling, Reading, and Gopylihes). . Darnell's Copybook, Nos. 1, 2 and 3. Maps and ter r e s t i a l globes. These books were sent to the various schools by the superintendent of education, who instructed the teachers to s e l l them to the pupils at prices set by the Board of Education. Along with a supply of books sent by the superintendent on August 3rd, 1865, the following prices were set: Sargent's. Primer 250 Second Reader 500 Third Reader 750 Small Slates 12^0 Large Slates 250 Copy Books 12-20 Mitchell's Primary Geography 750: Davie's Primaiy Arithmetic 37-20 Goldsmith's England #1.50 Provision was made for pupils to be given books free i f satisfactory proof was given, of their i n a b i l i t y to pay. The teacher then notified the superintendent of the matte©. In the year 1865 a definite piece of educational B oard of Education: Correspondence, Original Manuscript, June 6th, 1865 to Sept. 6th, 1867; Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia; l e t t e r #L0. 1 2 legislation was passed by the Vancouver Island Legislature. The following excerpts from the Common School Act give some informa-tion regarding the curriculum i n that an appointed Board of Education was empowered to prescribe a programme of Education and ' to select text-books for such courses as i t might authorize: Section I. I t shall be lawful for the Governor from Time to Time to appoint not less than Nine Persons, who shall constitute.ageneral Board of Education, three of whom shall form a Quorum. Section IV. It shall be lawful for the Governor to appoint a Superintendent of Education for the said Colony, . . . . . . .who shall ex o f f i c i o be Secretary of the said Board and record the Proceedings thereof. Section VI. : I t shall'be lawful for the Said Boardfrom Time to Time with the approval of the Governor . . » . ... . . to prescribe such Course of Education and Discipline, and to select and Prescribe for Use i n each District School such Books as they may think best, and to authorize the Purchase and Distribution thereof. Section XIII. A l l Schools established under the Provisions of this Act shall be conducted s t r i c t l y upon Non-Sectarian principles. Books inculcating the highest morality shall be selected for the use of such Schools, and a l l books of a Religious Character, teaching Denominational Dogmas shall be s t r i c t l y excluded therefrom. Section XIV. It shall be lawful for the Clergy of every Denomination at stated Intervals to be fixed by the General Board of Education to v i s i t such Schools and impart i n a separate Room Religious Instruction to the children of their respective Persuasions. ^ Vancouver Island Laws: 1863 to 1865, Archives of B. C. 15 I t i s interesting to note that although the Board had the authority to prescribe the course, i t did not actually do so, f o r elementary schools u n t i l 1885. The Schools of the Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia as a  Separate Grown Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1866 - At the time of the union of Vancouver Island with the mainland Colony on August 6th, 1866, the mainland had absolutely no form of educational l e g i s l a t i o n and hence no superintendent of education. A school had been established at New ffestminster i n A p r i l , 1863; another at Sapperton sometime p r i o r to November 3rd, 1864; one at Douglas i n February, 1865,. and one at Yale by February, 1866. 1 But the only information about the work done i n these schools was gleaned from the reports of the 'Managing School Committee" of the New Westminster School to Governor Douglas. This committee's f i r s t report stated that the subjects taught were reading, wr i t i n g , arithmetic, geography, English grammar, and English hi s t o r y , and that the texts used were: Town's Series Readers, National Board Arithmetic, Sangster's Elementary Arithmetic, Murray's,English Grammar, Pennock's History: o f England.* Goldsmith's History of England, . Cornell's Elementary and Intermediate Geography. : "4). L. MacLaurin, The History of Education i n the Crown  Colonies of Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the  Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, page "55. D. F e r r i s , et a l : Original Manuscripts; folder 556, l e t t e r # 1 3 ; Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. 14 -The report f o r "'the quarter ' ending September 30th, 1866,.'shows' the same subje c t s , w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f sewing, being taught i n the G i r l s ' School at, Kew Westminster, 1. This committee drew up a set of school r e g u l a t i o n s 5 one clause of which contained an i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t of infor m a t i o n on the c u r r i c u l u m , ' ,• The school to be open to a l l ; who comply w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n s and to be conducted oh s t r i c t l y non-s e c t a r i a n p r i n c i p l e s . The B i b l e w i l l be used as. a text-book f o r communicating a knowledge of S c r i p t u r e , H i s t o r y and Biography, but the-parents or Guardian of any s c h o l a r . o b j e c t i n g t o S c r i p t u r e reading i t w i l l not be enforced. The Schools i n the United Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1866-1871 -F r e d e r i c k Seymour who became Governor of the combined . colony i n 1866, d i d not agree w i t h the educational system on Vancouver i s l a n d as governed, by i t s Free School A c t of 1865, H i s personal views, p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c e d by the poor economic and f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of the province, were made c l e a r i n h i s message to the Board of Education at V i c t o r i a , i n which he s t a t e s : a l l the s t a t e can do i s to enable the c h i l d r e n . t o overcome the almost mechanical d i f f i c u l t i e s which seem to bar t h e i r passage, over the threshold of knowledge, and having e f f e c t e d t h i s to leave to p a r e n t a l a f f e c t i o n and knowledge of i n d i v i d u a l character the choice of the arms w i t h which the c h i l d s h a l l , at a f u t u r e . p e r i o d , f i g h t , the b a t t l e of l i f e . I t i s v a i n "Op. c i t , , F e r r i s , L e t t e r #11. 'Op. c i t . , MacLaurin, p. 90. 15 for the State to attempt to drive on i n an even line the idle and the industrious—the "boy of the ready aptitudes and him whose brain becomes pained and confused i n en-deavouring to master the simplest problem. ^-In a further message to the Board of Education, dated April 19th, 1867, he states: I cannot agree that we can now establish any gen-eral system of education throughout this Colony. Nor are we called upon to do so. I f we assist the parents i n teaching their children to.read, write, and go through the simpler forms of arithmetic, that i s a l l that we can do at present. Under a governor with ideas as outlined above i t i s l i t t l e wonder that education was almost at a standstill and that the curriculum did not become enriched. As might be ex-pected, the free schools on the Island became practically non-existent—six of the eleven schools closing their doors through lack of funds. However, by 1869, the year the capital was moved from New Westminster back to Victoria, conditions had begun to improve. In that year the Common School Ordinance was passed which put education throughout the whole Colony on a more sub-stantial basis, but there was s t i l l much room for improvement. The report of the Inspector General of Schools for the year 1870 submitted to Governor Musgrave, shows f a i r l y satisfac-tory conditions. I have endeavoured to secure the use of a uniform series of Text-books—the admirable ones authorized by the Education Department i n Toronto are very generally adopted. -'•Journals of the Legislative Council of B r i t i sh Columbia. 1867, page 29. ' ~ ' ~ 2 O r i g i n a l Report i n Archives of . B r i t i s h ColumMa. 16 The report shows that the pupils i n general were f a i r l y well grounded i n reading, writing, and arithmetic, but that very l i t t l e else was being taught except for a course i n algebra at the Cedar H i l l School, and a class i n sewing during the winter months at Yale. In 1872., i t became evident that nothing short of an absolutely free school system would meet requirements of the colony. Whereupon the Legislative Assembly of Br i t i s h Columbia, now a province i n the Dominion of Canada, passed the f i r s t Public School Act, the keynote of which was to give every child i n the province such knowledge as would f i t him to become a useful and intelligent citizen i n later years. . CHAPTER III THE OTRRIGULDM IN THE ELEIMENTARY SCHOOLS IN; THE FR0VTNCE OP BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1872-1936 The Period of Authorized Text-books but No Prescribed  Course of Study, 1872-1885 It has been pointed out i n the previous chapter that The Common School Act of 1865 made i t lawful for an appointed Board of Education . . . . . to prescribe a Course of Education and Discipline and to select and Prescribe for Use i n each District School such books as they may think best, and to authorize the Purchase and Distribution thereof.^ It has also been pointed out that the said Boacrd took advantage only of the part of the act dealing with the selecting and prescribing of text-books. Commencing i n 1872 and continuing for a period of thirteen years, the text-books were prescribed i n a more definite manner. The selecting of the prescribed texts continued to be the duty of the Board of Education, and i t was l e f t to the superintendent to see that no school used any but the authorized books. Prom an Act respecting Public Schools, assented to on April 11th, 1872, the following i s quoted: Common School Act 1865, Vancouver Island Laws: 1863 to 1865, Archives of B. C. 18 Section 7, sub-section (4) It shall be the duty of the Board of Education . • • . . to select, adopt, and prescribe a uniform series of text books to be used i n the Public Schools of the Province, and to authorize the purchase and distribution thereof, by the Superintendent, among the different Public Schools, i n such numbers and quantities as they may think f i t . Section 8, sub-section (4) It shall be the duty of the Superintendent . . . . to prevent the use of unauthorized, and to recommend the use of authorized, books in each school. Section 30. Duties of Trustees. to see that no unauthorized books are used i n the school, and that the pupils are duly supplied with a uniform series of authorized text-books, . . . . to prepare and transmit annually . . . . a report to the Superintendent of Education, . . . . and shall specify therein . . . . ithe branches of education taught i n the schools . . . . the text books used. Section 34. Duties of Teacher. . . . . . to teach diligently and faithfully a l l the branches required to be taught i n the school according to the ter^s of his engagement with the Trustees and according to the rules and regulations adopted by the Board of Education. The l i s t of text-books adopted by the Board, June 4th, 2 1872, was as follows: Canadian F i r s t Reader, Part I, . Canadian F i r s t Reader, Part II, Canadian Second Reader, Canadian Third Reader, Canadian Fourth Reader, Canadian FifthrEeader. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education Annual Report 1872, Appendix A, pp. 12 and 13. 2 I b i d t p. 31. 19 Canadian Advanced Reader, * j Lennie's Grammar, Easy Lessons i n Geography (Hodgson), Modem Geography and Atlas (Camphell), Elementary 2£rithmetic (Smith & McMurchy) , Advanced Arithmetic (Smith & McMurchy), Outlines of General History (Collier), B r i t i s h Empire (Collier), A l g e b r a , — P a r t I (Colenso), A l g e b r a , — P a r t II (Colenso), Euclid, -- Book I (Young). . Euclid, — Book II. (Young), Book-keeping (Johnson), Canadian Spelling Book. . I n 1874 Algebra, Part II (Colenso), -was taken off the l i s t . Fulton and Eastman's Book-keeping replaced Book-keeping (Johnson), and B r i t i s h History (Collier), was added.1 In 1878 The World (J. B. Calkin) replaced Easy Lessons i n Geography 2 (Hodgson). In 1881 Swinton's New Language Lessons replaced 3 Lennie's Grammar. In 1882 J . B. Calkins School Geography of the World replaced Campbell's Modern Geography and Atlas, and Mental Arithmetic by J. A. McLellan was added to the l i s t of authorized text-books.^" In 1884 a drastic change was made i n the l i s t of authorized text-books. The report of the superintendent Sf Education for that year states: The Canadian series of Readers and Speller, being, considered unsuitable i n every way for the requirements of the schools, has been discarded. •t ^British Columbia Department of Eduoation Annual Report 1874, p. 70. 2 I b i d , 1877-78, p. 236. °Ibid, 1880-81, p. 306. 4 J b i d , 1881-82, p. 213. 20 and Gage's series has been authorized i n i t s stead. . . . The exchange has met with the hearfer approval of teachers, trustees and parents. Among the many ad-Vantages gained by the introduction of the new series the following features are noticeable:- the excellency of the typographical execution; the judicious selection and gradation of the elementary combinations; the association of the written word-sign with the pic-t o r i a l ; the copious notes and exercises accompanying each lesson; the careful gradation of the matter from lesson to lesson and from book to book; the direct elocutionary assistance and general educational effect; the number of practical and moral lessons given with a view to influence the pupil's every-day l i f e ; the selections which they contain bearing upon the history and geography of our own country; the excellent mechanical execution, without increase i n price over the old series.^-Besides the change i n the Readers and Speller, so many other changes were made that the complete l i s t of the authorized text-books i s quoted: Gage's Fir s t Reader, Part I, Gage's First Reader, Patt II, Gage's Second Reader, Gage's Third Reader, • Gage's Fourth Reader, Gage's F i f t h Reader, Gage's Sixth Reader9 Gage's Practical Speller, Payson, Dunton & Scribner's Copy-Books, Gage's Copy-Books, - ; Gopyrbooks without headlines, Elementary Arithmetic (Kirkland & Scott), Advanced Arithmetic (Smith & McMurchy), Mental Arithmetic ( j . A. McLellan), The World (J. B. Calkins), School Geography and Atlas, , : , Swinton's New Language Lessons (Campbell), Lennie's Grammar, English Grammar—By Dr. Ifra. Smith and T. D. Hall, M.A., (London), Br i t i s h History (Collier), •'•British Columbia Department of Education Annual 1883-84, pp.. 156 and 157. ~ • 81 •.  B r i t i s h Empire ( C o l l i e r ) , ' Out l ines of General H i s t o r y ( C o l l i e r ) , Book-keeping (Fu l ton & Eastman), Book-keeping (Beatty & C l a i r e ) . With the establishment o f the f i r s t h igh school i n the Province at V i c t o r i a i n 1876, there became necessary a standard f o r admission. The f i r s t examinations q u a l i f y i n g for entrance t o h i g h school was h e l d i n January, 1877. Whi le the content o f these examinations does not show what was being taught year by year , i t does suggest to some extent the standard of e f f i c i e n c y that was expected as a r e s u l t o f the elementary school i n s t r u c t i o n . A copy o f the f i r s t h igh school q u a l i f y i n g examinations i s quoted: High School Entrance Examination^ January, 1877 No. 1—Ar i thmet ic . Time, 1 hour. 1. Def ine Ar i thmet ic and N o t a t i o n . 2. What are the answers to quest ions i n each ,of the f i r s t four^s' i^Ie rules^ o'alied? v 3. Express i n Roman characters 1,999. 4 . WMte the t a b l e o f Cubic Measure. 5. From the l e a s t common m u l t i p l e o f 15, 25, and 40, subtract the greatest common d i v i s o r o r measure o f same numbers. 6. How many yards o f carpet, 1^ - yards wide, would be requ i red to cover a f l o o r 50 f e e t l ong , and 30 f e e t wide? 7. F ind (by c a n c e l l a t i o n ) the va lue o f 28 Mo. 2—English Grammar. Time, 1 hour. What i s English Grammar? (a) Who i s the author of your text book on this subject? Name the inflected parts of speech. (a) State the properties or inflections o f the gerb. (b) Underline those i t possesses i n common with the noun? Name the five Moods. , (a) Underline those used i n asking questions, (b) Give the signs of the Tenses of the Indicative. Analyze and parse one or more of the following lines: namely— "Peace and joy are virtue's crown." ''Every heart knows i t s own sorrows,," ^'Gratitude i s a delightful emotion.11 No. 3—Geography. Time, 1 hour. Define anisthmus, peninsula, delta, s t r a i t , estuary, and sound. What rivers drain the Northern slopes of each of the Continents, and into what do they empty? Name the Provinces of the Dominion; also the capital of each, and how situated. Give a l i s t of the Eastern and Middle States of the American Union with their capitals. Define the chief imaginary lines on a ter-re s t i a l globe. What are the producing causes of Day and Night, and the Seasons? S3 No. 4--Spelling. Time hour. Corredt mistakes i n spelling, punctuate, and re-write the following: The wide-spredding moore on which the gloome and the shaddows of night are fast settlleing doun i s wonderously produced and verry nearly indeed have we seen a landskip possising more fassinnations or so admirably calkilated to arest the proggress of the v i s s i t t e r and to chalange his admireation.1 •. • • In the Annual Report of 1878-9 there appears an outline of study on which a pupil was to be examined for admission to the high school. As i t i s the f i r s t suggestion of a detailed cur-riculum, i t i s quoted: Subjects of Examination for i: Admission to the High School 1. Spelling and Punctuation.—To be able to spell and punctuate correctly any passage i n the Fourth Reader or Spelling Book. 2. Writing.-—To write neatly and legibly. 3. Arithmetic.—To be able to ans\ver questions i n num-eration, notation, the four simple and compound rules, reduction, vulgar and decimal fractions, proportion, simple interest and percentage, and i n mental arithmetic. 4. Grammar.—To know the principal grammatical forms and definitions; to be able to analyze and parse simple sentences, and to be able to write a short narrative, description, or familiar letter i n proper form. 5. Geography.—To have a good Imowledge of the earth's •Annual Report 1876-7, p. 58. • ' • ' • •24 p lanetary r e l a t i o n s , o f the general p r i n c i p l e s o f p h y s i c a l geograpj^r, and o f the out l ines of the maps o f Europe, A s i a , A f r i c a , America, Oceanica, and of the B r i t i s h Empire, and more p a r t i c u l a r l y o f that o f the Ibminion o f Canada. 6. H is tory . '—To know the d i f f e r e n t per iods and the out l ines o f E n g l i s h H i s t o r y , as csontainl ed i n Col l ier 's H i s t o r y o f the B r i t i s h Empire (Jun ior C lass B o o k ) . 1 In 1884 the o u t l i n e of study f o r admission to the h i g h • t w o school was enlarged s l i g h t l y . Ar i thmet ic was d i v i d e d i n t o A p a r t s , mental a r i thmet ic being made a separate subject o f examination. Reading and. composit ion were added as two hew subjects f o r ex-amination. A p u p i l was expected "to be able to read c o r r e c t l y and i n t e l l i g e n t l y any passage i n the Fourth Reader and "to be able to w r i t e a l e t t e r c o r r e c t l y as to form and punctuat ion, and to w r i t e a b r i e f composit ion en any simple subject . The y e a r f o l l o w i n g t h i s f i r s t High School Entrance Examination, the superintendent o f education inc luded i n h i s report the f o l l o w i n g paragraph bear ing , upon the r e a u l t s o f the examination. Teachers i n the o l d - e s t a b l i s h e d schools must now be remised that failux-e i n the f u t u r e to pass p u p i l s i n t h i s competetive examination w i l l be a t -t r i b u t e d , w i t h but few exceptions, to i n e f f i c i e n c y i n impart ing i n s t r u c t i o n , o r want o f a t t e n t i o n to school dut ies and indust ry i n the performance o f them.3 x Annual Report, 1878-79, p. 215. 2 I b i d , 1883-84, p. 210. 5 I b i d , 1876-7, p . 9 . 25 It i s perhaps logical to assume that with the above ideas i n the minds of the educational o f f i c i a l s , someof the pupils would be crammed with the content of the four subjects to be examined, and the result would be a very limited curriculum. It i s evident from a study of the numbers of pupils being instructed i n the various subject, given i n the Annual Reports, that comparatively few pupils were being taught such subjects as natural philosophy, animal and begetable physiology, or drawing. However, i t i s somewhat surprising and gratifying to find from these reports that so many children i n those early years were being instructed In more than the three'r 8s as the following table w i l l show: 26 44 ra •ri -P t SI CO rH O o r? (I) -S rH CD .3 03 Pi H 44 •P. m •p o '-3 42 CQ H BJ'S CD 44 hoT a ri IO CO 3 IH 1 CN! CN CO rH <+H1 O! P: 42 jca d ri 4 3 1884 CO 0 ) ^ . N t O C N I O ^ i n r l C D N l S H N I s r o C O i n ^ C O O t o H i n c o i s r s o c o i n r i ^ c o ^ - r i t s i n c o i n i o o i i n - d i O t s CO CM 00 CD CN CM B l O I S 1 N O N I O rH CM r l T H r l • . M N 'rl ' 1883 ( O r l C O M D N ( O O 0 ^ ^ M CO r i H N O) CO CO N tN ffl N O ) CO <D W [ S C O O W tO I S 'Ji O "S^  CO tN CO •sji tO i l l C O m i n ^ H ' ^ C M ' 3 ' C s C M O CD <* tN CM in CM r l r l rH CM r l r l co % 00 r l o n o ^ M m o m f f l n i o H i o w r i N N i n r o c s o CM O i t o o c ^ c o c o i n a s t o c o t o ^ c x i H ^ i o co CN CM to C N i n c x > ^ r H C Q C X I ^ H t N - H OJ CO tO CO r l . - N r l r l 1881 O N O tO IO O i n m t O N l O r l C D O i l S N O N r l O to H O V i n C ^ ^ C O i n C O r l t O C M i n t O O J tO tQ tS t s 03 «rfi tN CO "vH r-i CM CM tN r l N CD M IO r l : C M - H - H CM r l r l o 00 00 r l O H CO CM ^" CO Q I O IN CO CO tO O I O tO tN CO O m O i CN H I O O tN ^ ^ CO to to 03 H ^ t> 00 CO tN CM CO I O tO H -H CN] CO r l CO r l r l to CM r l r l CM r l o> tN CO r l CM r l O CO C O t O M T J IS (O O N C» CO O CO t S S O CM to to o> I O o> ^ r l Cft O CM I O CM H to O ^ tO Oi ' t s CO tO CM tN O CM CO r l tN rH CO CM r l r l r l r l r l r l 1878 CM O) CD tN © m tN O CM t s CN CO H m in IS O CO t o o c M c o c o o c o i n o m t N ^ o o t N c o CM t s t s H m m-^ I to to co o CM t s CM H t s H H OS O to r l r l r l r l r l 1877 H O N O C i CS Oi t s o to o to CO to CO CJ> rH CO tN in CO in O CO ^ CO O tO to O tO O H CM H t s to t s r l CO tO tO CM CM CO O I O r l H CO H COCO CM r l r l r l 1876 to co in O> to m co co CM OO m m CD ^ to •«* H i J f r l H O IS CO I O OS H CD 0 3 IS CO T}I OS O CM tO tO tO CM CM tO CO CN tO CD rH to CN r l r l " m CN 00 r l O O C M r s O ^ i n C s O t O t S t O C O C O C T S C D I S O CO t s t s O) CCICO IS N CO O 0> tO ffi N ^ Ul (O r l tO in tO CM CM CM H OS CD CO tO t s rH r l tS r l ts CO r l tO ts CO r l CM t s 00 ; r l CS OS tO Gi H rH Ol r l tO IO CO CO CM tO CO OS OS CO CO CM CO CO O CM CM r l H tO H CM rH IS CN CO CM CM CM CM H OS1 lO i n CM » I O .rHv OS 00 CM to CM ^ m m co co CM O O r s CM r-i G ts co tS CM CO CD CM CO CM tN CO -4' CM tO CM tO © O CM <tf tN CM CM rH rH rH tS W ^ r l ^ H CO "si1 l O H C O t O C M t S C S ^ ' ^ C O ^ ' C D O J r l n i ' COtS Oi t s t s W CM O O to ^ H r l IO CJ O CM H rH r-i r l CM CM o r l (30 a a rl O P V H CD -P P 4 CO 1 O -I 3 I bO-P M CQ 3 O CQ O Pi Pi O H O I) Cb e S4 pq ^ 27 • ' " \- -A Prescribed Course of Study, 1885 v . to 1956. 1885-1892, Courses printed in Annual Reports.— The f i r s t prescribed course of study for graded and common schools, printed in the Annual School Report for 1884-85, marks a definite for-ward step in our educational system. Judged by i t s brevity and lack of detail i t does not stand out as an imposing document, but when one considers i t as the forerunner of our present voluminous course of study for Grades One to Eight i t takes on a certain significance. Quoted i n f u l l , i t i s as follows: Reading, Writing, Spelling, Dictation, Mental Arithmetic, Written Arithmetic, Geography, English Grammar, English History, Composition, and Letter Writing. The following subjects may be taught: Book-keeping, Anatomy, Physiology and Hygiene, Drawing, Mensuration, Algebra, and Eu c l i d . 1 Por the next eight years the course of study continued to be printed in the Annual School Reports. In 1887, anatomy, physiology, and hygiene were made compulsory subjects and were added to the l i s t of subjects of examination for admission to a high school. Pupils were expected wto have a general know-ledge of the subject." 2 The subject matter of the course was to be that contained i n "Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene" by ^Annual Report, 1884-85, p. XXXV. 2Ibid, 1886-87, p. LI. 28 Edward Playter; "Manual of Hygiene" by the Provincial Board of Health (Ontario); and "First Book on;Anatomy, Physiology, & Hygiene" by Calvin Cutter. The same year the subject of history was divided into two parts, B r i t i s h and Canadian^: both parts being made subjects of examination for admission to a high school. 1 The text-book prescribed was "Public School History of England and Canada" by G. Mercer Adam and W. J. Robertson. The next year, 1888, the topic of temperance was added to the course as an optional subject, with "Public School Temperance" by Dr. B. W. Richardson as the authorized text. In 1890 a more detailed course of study appeared. It included some suggestions as to which year certain subjects should be taught, and a few suggestions as to the best methods for ob-taining the df-sired results. Accuracy and speed were stressed i n the subject of arithmetic. The use of practical examples i n the teaching of arithmetic was strongly advocated. The need for thorough knowledge of the terms used i n geography was mentioned. Under the heading of English.grammar i t was stated that " a good knowledge of the parts of speech and their inflections, together with the rules of syntax, i s of primary importance".3 The teaching of the analysis of simple, complex, and compoiand sentences was included. In the subject of composition, the bringing out of originality was stressed as of the most permanent value. Instruction 1 Annual Report, 1886-87, p. LI. 2 I b i d , 1887-88, p. 236. 5Ibid , pp. 123-134. 29 i n the art of le t t e r writing included the proper method of open-ing, closing, folding, and addressing a letter, as well as a good knowledge of the forms used i n general correspondence. Under the heading of hygiene, i t was stated that "the branch subject of temperance, with reference to the e v i l effects of stimulants and narcotics on the system, should not be overlooked". 1 Included as optional subjects were book-keeping, drawing, mensuration, 2 algebra, geometry, and temperance. It was stated that the course of study was considered sufficiently comprehensive to enable the pupils to obtain "a good ordinary English Education, which i s the chief aim of our school system." The only change i n text-books authorized i n 189G was the addition of Hamblin Smith's "Arithmetic"; the "Canadian Series of Drawing Books", and "Pathfinder Physiology" (No. 1, "°hilds' Health Primer", and No. 2, "Physiology for Young People"). In 1891 the Council of Public Instruction added music, needlework, and calisthenics to the course of study as optional subjects. Prof. Meiklejohn's "Short Grammar" and Calvin Cutter's "Second Book on Anatomy, Physiology, & Hygiene", were added to the l i s t of authorized text-books. The same year, i n order to secure greater uniformity i n the management of graded schools, the Council of Public Instruction prescribed regulations whereby i t became the dmty ^Annual Report, 1887-88,pp. I23-»124-. 2Ibid, 1889-90, p. LXVT. 30 of the principal of a school to prepare a limit table for each division of his school, a copy of which had to be forwarded to the Education Department for approval. To make sure that these limits were being covered satisfactorily, the principals were instructed to set sem-annual examinations for each division i n their school, and to forward copies of the examinations and the 1 marks made by each pupil to the Education Department. • • The prescribed course of study i n the Manuals of School Law, 1893-1918.-— For the next twenty-five years the course of study was printed i n the Manuals of School Law, and ceased to appear i n the Annual School Reports, with the exception of the one year, 1911, when for some unaccountable reason i t again was printed i n the Annual Report. The Manuals were not issued every year but only from time to time when an important change was to be made i n the School Act, the school regulations, the prescribed course of study, or i n the prescribed text-books. Minor changes made between issues were noted i n the Annual Reports. The f i r s t Manual appeared i n 1893 and included a course of study identical with that quoted above for 1890, except' that i t included a few changes, already noted above, that had been made during the intervening years. A change to vertical writing was made optional i n 1894 2 following the lead of many ci t i e s of Great Britain and Canada. Annual Report, 1890-91, p. 192. 2 I b i d , 1893-94, p. 306. 31 Three^ additional text-books were authorized i n 1895: Bannister's Text-Book on Music; "British Columbia Series of Vertical Writing Books", and Todhunfler's "Euclid for Schools and Colleges."1 The next year the subject of agriculture was added to the Course of Study for graded and common schools. It was prescribed that instruction must be given i n agriculture at f least twice a week to a l l pupils i n the Fourth and Fi;th Readers, and that after May, 1897, i t would become a subject of examina-tion for entrance to a high school. Before that date, however, a change was made whereby agruculture became an optional subject 3 instead of compulsory. A change was made i n 1896 regarding the subject of temperance. By a regulation issued that year by the Council of Public Instruction: The Board of Trustees of any School Dis t r i c t may require that Temperance, as a separate subject from Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene, be taught i n their school, provided the authorized text book i s used. 4 , In 1897 a new Manual of School Law was issued embody-ing the several changes outlined above. Book-keeping, i n which subject pupils were supposed "to have a knowledge of commercial forms and correspondence, and the keeping of accounts" was made Annual Report, 1894-95, p. 347;, 2Ibid, 1895-96, p. 291. ' • 5 I b i d , 1896-97, p. 299. 4 I b i d , 1895-96, p. 291". 32 a subject of examination for admission to a high school. A few changes were made regarding authorized text-books: Gage's "First Reader" and Clement's "The History of the Dominion of Canada" were added, while Smith and Hall's "English Grammar", Playter's "Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene", Houghton's "Physical Culture", Fulton and Eastman's "Book-keeping", and Smith's "Freehand Drawing" were deleted. The course of study which appeared i n the next issue of the Manual of School Law In 1900 was arranged on a grade basis, the Junior Grade including the F i r s t and Second Primers and the Fir s t Reader classes, the Intermediate Grade including the Second and Third Reader classes, and the Senior Grade i n -cluding the two remaining classes, making a seven-year course i n the elementary school for the average pupil. Considerably more detail was included i n this course of study especially i n the subject of arithmetic for the Junior and Intermediate Grades and i n the subject of nature lessons for the Junior Grades. Under the heading of nature lessons, the course was sub-divided into topics on geometric form, primary colours, plants, animals, and the earth. The complete course for the three grades i s quoted i n the Appendices. The next year, 1901, another Manual was issued giving a few changes i n each grade. In the Junior Grade, phonic d r i l l and recitation ware added under the heading of reading, and the Appendix I, pp„ 155-158. 33 drawing book, No. 1, the only book pr e s c r i b e d f o r t h i s , grade, was t o be used by F i r s t Reader p u p i l s only. In the Intermediate Grade, r e c i t a t i o n and phonic d r i l l were added to the reading course; composition was omitted from the language course;- and the a r i t h m e t i c course was changed to include fundamental r u l e s , denominate numbers, simple f r a c t i o n s w i t h decimals and percen-tage, and n o t a t i o n and numeration. A teachers' guide to the matter and'method i n a r i t h m e t i c was that o u t l i n e d i n McLennan and Ames' "Mental Arithmetic'*. I n the Senior Grade, Gage's "Copy-Books^, nos. 7 and 8, were added; the language course was to be the subject-matter contained i n pages 1-130 i n Sykes' "Elementary Composition w; A l g e b r a was t o be o r a l only; the course i n Nature was.made more e x p l i c i t , as f o l l o w s % .. " (a) P h y s i o l o g y , as i n "Pathfinder No. 2". (b) I n s t r u c t i o n to be given on the 1 s u b j e c t -matter covered by the t o p i c a l o u t l i n e of p. v i of B r i t t a i n ' s "Nature Lessons", o m i t t i n g s e c t i o n s E, E, G, and H. 1 The f o l l o w i n g text-books were added to the authorized l i s t : B l a i r ' s "Canadian Drawing S e r i e s " ; Goggin's "Elementary Grammar" i n place o f '^Prescribed E n g l i s h Grammar"; a new e d i t i o n of readers known as the 20th Century E d i t i o n . No f u r t h e r changes were made u n t i l 1906, when a new Manual was is s u e d . The c h i e f change was the adding of another Vianual of. School Law, 1901, p. 70. -34 ' group of p u p i l s to the Junior Grade, n e c e s s i t a t i n g the Second Reader, Book IV W r i t i n g , and Book I I Drawing be ing prescr ibed f o r the Jun ior Grade instead of the Intermediate* The Junior Grade a r i thmet i c course was correspondingly enlarged* The ch ie f changes in the Intermediate Grade were a new test-book f o r the language course—Gage's " F i r s t Steps i n E n g l i s h " , and a more d e t a i l e d course in geography. The only important change i n the Senior Grade in 1906 was the d e l e t i o n of a lgebra from the course of study. ' , The next Manual was issued i n 1910. The only change worthy of note was i n the subject of a r i t h m e t i c , where a new text-book, M i l n e ' s "Ar i thmet ic" , was p r e s c r i b e d . Quite out of the ordinary procedure, the next r e v i s i o n of the course of study was publ ished i n the Annual Reports of 1911, pages A60 to A67. The courses i n language and ar i thmet ic were out l ined i n considerable d e t a i l f o r a l l the grades* The course i n geography f o r the Junior and Intermediate Grades was given i n greater d e t a i l , the p u p i l s i n the Intermediate Grade being assigned the study o f the whole ear th , l e a v i n g nothing but a review i n t h i s subject f o r the Senior Grade p u p i l s . The course i n h i s t o r y f o r the Intermediate Grade was presented i n minute d e t a i l . I t was to be e n t i r e l y o r a l and was c h i e f l y b i o g r a p h i c a l . So d r a s t i c was t h i s r e v i s i o n that i t i s quoted i n f u l l i n the Appendix . 1 Appendix I I , pp. 159-171. 35 The next year an "important r e v i s i o n was made i n the subject of drawing and manual work, and published in' the Manual 1 of School Law f o r 1912. The f o l l o w i n g paragraph appeared i n t h i s Manual, shotting t h a t p h y s i c a l education, which f o r many " years had been an o p t i o n a l subject, was now made compulsory; The Education Department has accepted the co n d i t i o n s ' o f the Strathcona Trust f o r the en-couragement of p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g and m i l i t a r y d r i l l i n the P u b l i c Schools. Under the terms of t h i s agreement, r e g u l a r and systematic i n s t r u c t i o n i n p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g according t o the s y l l a b u s l a i d down i n the p r e s c r i b e d text-book (Syllabus of P h y s i c a l E x e r c i s e s , f o r Schools, published by the Executive C o u n c i l , Strathcona Trust) i s compulsory.^ r The 1913 Manual of School Law p r e s c r i b e d that muscular movement w r i t i n g was t o be used throughout a l l the grades, and s p e c i f i e d the passages of l i t e r a t u r e t h a t were to be memorized ;by the Senior Grade p u p i l s . Otherwise i t was the same as the 1912 Manual. A new Manual was issued i n 1914 and again i n 1916, , but w i t h ho change shown i n the course of study. As the 1916 Manual was the l a s t to contain a copy of the course of study, we now commence the next s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter, which deals w i t h the p e r i o d when the course of study was p r i n t e d i n separate b o o k l e t s . ,. . . I n f r a , p. 123.= % a n u a l of School Law, 1912, p. 80. 36 The prescribed course of study i n separate booklets, 1919-1956.•— The separate booklets i n which the elementary courses of study appeared were issued under ..slightly varying t i t l e s . The f i r s t , issued i n 1919, was called "Courses of Study for the Public, High and Normal Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia". The second and third, issued i n 1921 and 1923 went by the t i t l e of "Courses of Study for the Public, High, Technical and Normal Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia". Prom then on liintil 1936, they were issued practically every year, and were called "Programme of Studies for the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia". The 1919 revision, continuing the organization that had been adopted i n 19G0, was divided into Junior, Intermediate, and Senior Grades, taking seven years for an average pupil to complete the elementary school course. The chief changes i n the compul-sory subjects of the 1919 revision were i n the Senior Grade courses. The arithmetic course was slightly curtailed; the geography course was given i n more detail.—instead of merely naniing the text-book, i t was stated that a general knowledge of the geography of the continents and oceans would be required, also that the geography of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada must be given particular attention. In the subject of history, the same course was prescribed, but with a note that the High School Entrance Examination i n history would be confined to the Tudor, Stuart, and Hanoverian periods i n English history, and to the period of B r i t i s h rule i n Canadian history. A drastic change was made in the subject of nature study. Instead of prescribing Brittain's 37 "Elementary Agriculture and Nature Study" as the text-hook, the Department of Education issued a forty-eight page booklet en-t i t l e d "Nature Study and Primary Geography", i n which the course was outlined i n great detail for a l l grades i n nature study and 1 for the Junior Grade i n geography. The courses i n manual training and domestic science were both changed i n 1919, the former from i t s 1916 revision and the latter from i t s 1912 revision. A detailed course i n needlework outlined for Grades One to Eight appeared i n this year, as did also a "nature study course i n foods for rural schools where the cooking of hot lunches i s undertaken". Perhaps the greatest advance made i n 1919 was i n the subject of music, where a detailed course appeared for the f i r s t time. Hitherto i t had merely been mentioned as a permissive regulation that music might be taught; but now a comprehensive course was outlined for each year i n the elementary school. 4 . The 1921 course of study prescribed a new series of writing compendiums throughout the grades. Although the mus-cular-movement system of writing had been adopted i n 1913, i t was not u n t i l 1921 that books specially prepared for that type of writing were prescribed. Compendiums numbers one, two, and three of the McLean Method of Muscular Movement Writing were Appendix , pp. 183-188. 2 Ibid, pp. 174-176. 3 ifria* PP« 179-182;. ^Tbid, pp. 189-193. ' 58' ': ' ' to be used i n the Jun ior Grade; number f o u r i n the Intermediate Grade, and the Senior Manual i n the Senior Grade. A new s e r i e s of text-books i n the subject o f a r i thmet ic was a l s o prescr ibed i n the 1921 r e v i s i o n . Smith and Roberts ' ' "Ar i thmet ic" , Books I and I I , replaced M i l n e ' s "Ar i thmet ic" , which had been the prescr ibed t e x t s s ince 1910. The a c t u a l course as a whole was not much changed, but some adjustments were made from grade to grade, e . g . the study of decimals was t r a n s f e r r e d from the Intermediate Grade to the Senior Grade. Three other changes i n t ex ts were author ized—the "Pub l i c School S p e l l e r " , Western Canada S e r i e s , rep laced the "Universa l S p e l l e r " ; Alexander and Mowat's "Elementary Composition" replaced Sykes' book of the same name in the Intermediate and Senior Grades; and the "Sy l labus of P h y s i c a l T ra in ing f o r Schools, 1919", replaced the 1909 e d i t i o n of the same name. , A decided change In the organ izat ion of the course of study was made i n 1925. Starting in that year and continuing to the present, 1958, the course was set forth in Grades One to E i g h t , each grade containing the work to be covered i n one year . It w i l l be seen that one year was thereby added to the elementary school course . It was stated, however, that i t was expected that quite a number of pupils would continue to cover the course i n s i x or seven years , thereby making necessary the promotion o f a child from grade to grade at times other than at the end o f a school year. The allotment of readers to the various grades 39 was changed. By replacing Gage's system of readers with the Canadian Readers, i t became possible for Grade One to use the Primer and F i r s t Reader; fflrade Two, the Second Reader; Grade Three, Third Reader; Grade Pour, Fourth Reader; Grade Five, F i f t h Reader, Part I; Grade Six, F i f t h Reader, Part II. Grades Seven and Eight had no reader but selected prose and poetical l i t e r a r y works somewhat the same as before. The work to be covered i n drawing, language, arithmetic, and music was practic-ally the same as before, but was divided among eight years i n -stead of seven. The subject-matter i n nature study followed f a i r l y closely that prescribed i n the 1919 Departmental Booklet, "Nature Study and Primary Geography". Besides being arranged on the new grade basis, i t was sub-divided into topics to be covered i n autumn, winter, and spring, and again subdivided into sections dealing with animal l i f e , plant l i f e , gardening and elementary agriculTtrure, and elementary science, the latter i n Grades Six, Seven, and Eight only. •••The work to be studied i n geography was the same as before i n the f i r s t three grades. In Grade Four a decided change was made from regional geography to the subject of how other people live. study of topics such as an Eskimo home, a Japanese home, a desert home, and. equa-to r i a l home, and a Dutch home paved the way for a general study of the earth as a whole, including a simple study of heat belts and the relative positions of the continents and oceans. Grade Five commenced regional geography, studying North America, Br i t i s h Columbia, and South America. Grade Six continued with a 40 study of Africa, Australia, Europe, and Asia. North America and South America were studied again i n Grade Seven along with considerable physical,geography. She Grade Eight course con-sisted of a comprehensive study of a l l the continents. History on the new grade basis was commenced i n Grade Five, with a study of the topics l i s t e d for the f i r s t year of the Intermediate Grade i n the 1921 course. Grade Six studied the topics l i s t e d for the second year of the Intermediate Grade. Grades Seven and Eight courses i n history remained practically the same as before. The 1924-25 Programme of Studies was the f i r s t booklet devoted entirely to the elementary curriculum. ''Whereas the elementary course i n the 1925 course of study occupied but twenty pages, i t now f i l l e d the whole of a ninety-two page booklet. The extra space, however, dealt chiefly with suggestions to teachers as to method of presentation, and a fa i r l y extensive bibliography of supplementary readers and teachers' reference books was given. Many suggestions were made on standardized tests available i n the various subjects. Under the heading of language, the subject of silent reading was mentioned for the f i r s t time. In the language sec-tion of Grade Three the following appeared: "Prom this grade on an ever increasing portion of the time devoted to reading must be given to silent reading."! The Grade Pour course i n arithmetic was extended to include factors, multiples, cancellation, and common or vulgar •( -Programme of Studies, 1924-25, p. 24. 41 fractions. To Grade Five was added a study of Canadian money, avoirdupois, linear, surface, cubic, capacity, and time meas-ures. The Grade Six arithmetic course was slightly curtailed, the study of Bri t i s h money and angular measure being l e f t to Grade Eight. The Grade Seven course was made a l i t t l e easier by the deletion of topics on sharing and partnerships, averages, ratio and proportion, and taxation. The Grade Eight course remained practically the same as before but with the above men-tioned addition. Some change i n grade placement occurred i n the sub-ject of geography. Thestudy of South America was deleted from the Grade Five course and some physical geography put i n its place. The study of Africa, Asia, and Australia, was deleted from Grade Six, and South America along with some extra physical geography was added. 3?he Grade Seven course was changed to include a study of Asia, Africa, Australasia, a review of B r i t i s h Columbia, and some physical geography. The course i n Grade Eight was changed to place emphasis on a study of the B r i t i s h Empire during which the several continents were reviewed. Cornish's "Canadian School Geography and Atlas" replaced the "Dominion School Geography". The above changes i n geography necessitated a cor-responding change i n the history course for purposes of cor-relation. Grade Five pupils were to be given talks on the early history of British Columbia, and about fifteen biographical studies of discoverers and explorers of America. Grade Six 42 pupils were to make a study of organization for churches, schools, water supply, and for general municipal government. The Grade Seven course consisted of English history for the period 1066-1603; the French period i n Canada; and under the heading of citizenship, a study of organization for provincial purposes. In Grade Eight the course was arranged under four headings: (a) the Br i t i s h period i n Canada, 1763 to the present; (b) the history of B r i t i s h Columbia; (c) the Stuart and Hanoverian periods, 1603 to the present; and (d) citizenship—organization for federal purposes. In the subject of drawing, Blair's'Canadian Drawing Series" was replaced by a handbook to be used by the teacher, "Teachers' Manual i n Drawing and Design". The new course i s •i outlined i n the following chapter. A course i n music appreciation was prescribed for Grade Eight pupils. It was to be taught from an historical standpoint, and included a study of the English Madrigalists of the 16th century and also of Purcell, Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Mendelsohnn, Chopin, and Grieg. Under the heading of form, a study was to be made of binary and ternary forms, history and growth of carols; and folk music. Only one important change was made i n the 1925-26 Programme of Studies. In place of the subject of hygiene, a new subject called health education was substituted. The course 1 Infra, p. 124. 45 1 f o r each, grade from One to E i g h t was p r e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l . Minor changes i n the form of new text-books were made i n s p e l l i n g , where ^ S p e l l i n g f o r the Grades" replaced the " P u b l i c School S p e l l e r " , and i n music, where books one to f i v e of the "New Canadian Music Course" by Coney and Wickett were p r e s c r i b e d as text-books f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s use i n Grades Three to E i g h t . The tea c h i n g of the bass c l e f to the o l d e r boys was de l e t e d from the music course. The only changes made i n the next i s s u e of the Programme of S t u d i e s , 1926-27, were i n the subjects of manual a r t s and l i t e r a t u r e . The former s u b j e c t , which had, up t o t h i s time, been l i m i t e d to Grades One and Two, was now extended to take i n Grades Three and Pour a l s o . A s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n was made i n the l i t e r a t u r e course o i Grades Seven and E i g h t , whereby Grade Seven had no options and a change i n options was made f o r Grade E i g h t . The most d r a s t i c change i n the 1928-29 Programme of.. Studies i s found i n the subjects of geography and domestic science. I n Grade F i v e the geography course was based f o r the f i r s t time on what might be c a l l e d the problem method. No d e f i n i t e change was made i n the subject-matter, but i t was hoped that the same f a c t content would be b e t t e r a s s i m i l a t e d by studying a given r e g i o n w i t h one o r more u n d e r l y i n g problems i n 1 . ^P-rog#amffle ofrStudies, 1925-26. 2 I n f r a , p p . 125-126. 4 4 mind throughout. The problem method of approach was used i n Grade Six i n the study of North America, and i n Grade Seven for the whole course. No definite course was prescribed i n physical geography, i t being expected that i t would be taught incidentally with the general geography of the various countries. The name of the domestic science course was changed to that of home economics because i t was thought a better name for designating the social science of housekeeping and home-making. It included the study of food, clothing,, and shelter from the standpoint of health, economics, and art, and a study of the relation of each member of the family to each other and to the community at large. The subject-matter of the course was. definitely changed, and i t was presented i n a series of units of work, to most of which apecified times were allotted. It was the f i r s t subject to be so arranged, but soon others were to be presented on a similar basis. With the number of accidents rapidly increasing.:; .year by year, i t was thought advisable to prescribe a topic for study that would teach children to be more careful. Accordingly, the topic of accident prevention was added to the health education course i n a l l grades. Other important additions to this course were: games to go along with physical exercises i n a l l grades; f i r s t aid and the excretion of bodily poisons i n Grade Six; cleanliness as health routine, exercise, posture and correction of defects, and mental hygiene i n Grade Seven; and in Grade Eight a study of alcohol and tobacco, a review of the physiology 45 of digestion, circulation, respiration, and exceetion, and a study of the all-important health rules having direct bearing upon the various parts of the body. A text-book was authorized for Grades Seven and Eight pupils—"Physiology and Hygiene" by 'Ritchie and Caldwell; The course i n "Nature Study i n Poods" for rural schools where the cooking of hot lunches was undertaken, was dropped from the curriculum. The course i n "Needlework" for Grades Three to Eight was also deleted. The 1930 Programme of Studies specified changes i n the subjects of arithmetic and history. The "New Canadian Arithmetics, Primary Book, Part I" by Sheffield and Brown was prescribed for Grade Three, as a pupil's text-book. The actual subject-matter was not much changed, except that Roman Notation was deleted. The syllabus l i s t s the arithmetic vocabulary that a child should have on completion of the Grade Three course. The Grade Pour course was increased by the addition of "area and surface" which, prior th this time, had been i n the Grade Five ':COurse*-,v.ihe text-book for this Grade was to remain the same u n t i l September, 1931, at which time Sheffield and Brown's "New Canadian Arithmetics, Primary Book, Part II" was to replace Smith and Robert's "Ar i thmet ic , Book I". Sheffield and Brown's "New Canadian Arithmetics, Intermediate Book, Part I" Y/as pres-cribed for use for Grade Five i n 1930, and Part II of the same book was to be used i n Grade Six starting September, 1931. To the Grade Five course now was added the study of cubic and solid 46 measure and decimals which had previously been i n the Grade Six limit. The Grade Six.course was increased by the addition of percentage and simple applications of i t which previously had been taught in Grade Seven. It was also specified that by "way of preparation for the Junior High School mathematics work of Grade Seven, the pupils of Grade Six should be familiar with •1 certain specified geometric forms and terms. The prescribed text for Grades Seven and Eight was changed to Thorndike's "Junior High School Mathematics", Book I for Grade Seven and Book II for Grade Eight. The chief additions i n Grade Seven were the geometry of form, size, and position, and simple gener-alized arithmetic. The Grade Eight course consisted of a study of the arithmetic of private business, public business, the home, science and industry, and f i r s t steps i n algebra. It w i l l be seen from the above that the general trend i n the 1930 revision was to place arithmetic topics lower down i n the grades and add; extra work at the top. It i s interesting to note the gradual introduction of algebra into the elementary t e e n course again, after having^deleted since 1906. In history, the Grade Five course remained the same except that ten biographies instead of fifteen were set as a minimum. An extra topic, "Social Development", was added i n Grade Six, by which i t was expected to develpp a knowledge of the way i n which people of early and medieval England lived, 'Infra, p. 88. 47 worked, and struggled slowly towards social equality. A new text-book, "A New History of Great Britain and Canada", by Wallace, i n which the subject-matter was arranged topically, was prescribed for Grades Seven.and Eight. The topics to be "covered i n Grade Seven were: (a) the story of the B r i t i s h Nation, (b) the growth of Canada and the B r i t i s h Empire, (c) the growth and development of the Canadian Nation—really a re-view of the Grade Seven work, (d) the history of Bri t i s h Columbia, and (e) citizenship—a study of organization for federal purposes. The next and last revision to be considered i n this chapter was i n the year 1933. In the Programme of Studies for that year, an advance was made i n the form of a child's text-book i n language study—the "Dominion Language Series", Book I for Grades Three and Four, Book II for Grades Five and Six, and. Book III for Grades Seven and Eight. Lang's "British Columbia Public School Grammar" was replaced by MacLaurin and Campbell's "Elementary English Grammar". While both the above new texts proved an advance i n general arrangement over the ones they re-placed, the subject-matter i n them differed very l i t t l e . A few options were added to the Grade Seven literature course. The only other change worthy of note i n the 1933 re-vision was i n the subject of writing or penmanship. It w i l l be recalled that the McLean Method of Writing had introduced com-pendiums i n place of the old copy-books. Now there was to be a return, i n idea at least, to the copy-book system. The new books were called the McLean Practice Compendiums, and were to be used i n Grades One to Five. The style of Y/riting to be taught remained the same but the desired results were to be achieved i n a slightly different way. Prom what has been stated i t w i l l be seen that the general trend i n the development of the curriculum prior to 1936 has been towards a more detailed course i n a l l subjects. But while there has been a gradual enrichment of the curriculum by the addition of new topics, very l i t t l e of the old has been deleted to make way for the new. In spite of the fact that • an extra year *as added to the elementary school course i n 1923, many teachers claimed that the curriculum was s t i l l overcrowded and that the whole curriculum should be thoroughly revised and placed on a s c i e n t i f i c basis. Such a revision was made i n 1936. CHAPTER TV : THE DETAILED DEVELOPMENT OF THE CflJRRICXJHB/1 BX SUBJECTS, 1872-1936 In chapters. II and III the development of the curricu-lum i n the elementary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia was considered from a chronological standpoint. In this chapter the curriculum w i l l be considered from a topical basis, for the period 1872 to 1936. The various subjects w i l l be dealt with under the following headings: 1. Language and Composition. 2. Grammar. 3. Spelling and Dictation. 4. Writing. 5. Reading and Literature. 6. Arithmetic. 7. Geography. 8. History. 9. Nature Study. 10. H ygiene. 11. Physical Training. 12. Music. 13. Drawing and Manual Artso 14. Manual Training. 15. Domestic Science. 50 Language and Composition The a b i l i t y to record what he has learned for the use and "benefit of future- generations i s perhaps the one thing more than any other that separates the c i v i l i z e d man from the un-c i v i l i z e d . The power of expression by means of the spoken and written word i s perhaps the most generally used of man's accom-plishments. This being so, i t i s l i t t l e wonder that language and composition find a prominent place i n any school curriculum. Although i n the early years of our curriculum the subject was not found under the name of language and composition, neverthe-less the idea of teaching children the a b i l i t y to transmit their thoughts to others and to receive thoughts from others formed the core of the instruction. The earliest reference to the name language as a study i n the elementary schools of Br i t i s h Columbia was i n the Annual School Report of 1881, where a text-book—Swinton * s "New Language Lessons"—was authorized to replace Lennie's "Grammar". Prior to this. the language lessons were based on the subject-matter found i n the readers and on the grammar text. That the subject of composition was studied under the name of grammar i s shown by the Annual School Report, 1878-79, i n which i t was prescribed under the heading "Subjects of Examination for Admission to the H igh School". Grammar,-. . . . . and to be able to write a short narrative, description, or familiar l e t t e r 51 i n proper form. 1 The study of punctuation, now recognized as a branch of language study, was i n t h a t year included i n the subject of s p e l l i n g and punctuation. Composition was f i r s t l i s t e d as a separate subject i n 1881, when i t was shown i n the Annual Report that 1121 p u p i l s had s t u d i e d that subject f o r the year. I n 1884, composition was p r e s c r i b e d as a subject of examination f o r admission to the high school, p u p i l s being expected "to be able t o w r i t e a l e t t e r c o r r e c t l y as to form and punctuation, and t o . w r i t e a b r i e f composition on any simple ? subject**.. . . No reference t o the subject of language and composition other than "Composition and L e t t e r W r i t i n g " was made i n the f i r s t p r e s c r i b e d course of study i n 1885. A l i t t l e d e t a i l , was added i n the course of study f o r 1889-90—which s t a t e d that " I n s t r u c t i o n > should be given as t o the proper method of opening, c l o s i n g , f o l d i n g , and addressing a l e t t e r . A good knowledge of the forms used,in general correspondence should be given* 7. I n 1900, the course of study i n c l u d e d the study of language as a separate course. The p r e s c r i b e d course was as f o l l o w s : J u n i o r Grade: Phonic d r i l l f o r c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g and p r o n u n c i a t i o n . T r a n s c r i p t i o n and d i c t a t i o n . 1 Annual Report, 1878-79, p. 215. 2 I b i d , 1885-84, p.. 210. 5 I b i d , 1890-91, p. LXX. 52 Simple oral and written descriptions and narratives. Capitals and punctuation marks. Intermediate Grade: Compositions, pronunciation, meaning and spelling of ordinary words of reading lessons. Instruction to be based on Hutton and Leigh's Fi r s t Steps i n Composition. Oral and. written repro- : duction of substance of geography, history, and nature lessons. Senior Grade: Pronunciation, spelling and mean-ing of ordinary words of text-books including mark-ing of accents and vowel sounds. Composition as i n Sykes' Elementary Composition. Grammar as i n pres-cribed text-book. The 1901 Manual omitted.composition from the language course i n the Intermediate Grade, and limited the work i n Sykes' "Elementary Composition" to pages•1-130 i n the Senior Grade. In 1906 a nevT text-book was introduced for the language course i n the Intermediate Grade—Gage's "First Steps i n English". In 1911 considerably more detail was included i n the language course, especially i n the Junior Grade. A few suggestions as to method and a l i s t of topics suitable for oral and written reproduction were added. The course remained the same for the next twelve years, u n t i l 1923, at which time i t was organized on an eight-grade basis. Grade One pupils were taught to form sentences involving words found i n their reading lessons. Frequent d r i l l s i n enunci-ation , articulation, inflection, and emphasis were recommended. Conversations on topics of interest, and oral reproduction of "Manual of School Law. 1900, p. 54. 'Appendix, pp» 159-162* 53 storieswere suggested as a foundation for future written language exercises. The work for Grade Two consisted of a con-tinuation of the Grade One course, with the addition of the abbreviations and contractions found i n the reader, and trans-cription and dictation exercises. The Grade Three course included simple exercises i n word building, the significance of simple prefixes and suffixes, and the common use of capitals and punctuation marks* The-Grade Pour course included the division of words into syllables and the marking of the accents. In Grade Five the pupils were taught the division of a composi-tion into paragraphs. Special attention was given to word formation. The pupils of this grade were to use the text-book, "Elementary Composition", by Alexander and Mowat, and were to cover the work outlines i n Part I of the text. The course for... Grade Six included the division of a sentence into subject and 1 predicate, the parts of speech, number, gender, and case forms. The Grade Seven course included direct and indirect narration, letter writing, business forms, unity i n composition, and rules 2 for punctuation. Grade Eight course included a study of social correspondence, paragraph structure, paragraphing, planning a 3 composition, and business letters. In the 1924 revision the subjects of oral and silent reading, literature, grammar, composition, and spelling were XW. J« Alexander and A. Mowat, Elementary Composition!  with Grammar, p. I l l , Toronto, Gage and Company, Ltd., 1922. 2Ibid, p. III-IV. 3Ibid, P. IT. included under the main heading of language. The course was out-lined i n greater detail than before. Suggested topics for con-versational lessons for Grade One were given. During the f i r s t term pupils were expected to memorize one poem i n addition to nursery rhymes i n the reader; to learn the name of the school, city, and days of the week; and to be given practice i n com-pleting answers to questions. The oral work of the second term included the recitation of two poems; the reproduction of two or three paragraphs i n a simple story; and the description of a two • common object i n A o r three sentences. The written work consisted of writing words, phrases, and short sentences to accompany illustrations of the language or reading lessons. The Grade Two course differed from that of Grade One i n degree rather than i n kind. The oral work included: (a) conversational lessons on such interesting topics as a birthday party, going to town, principal buildings i n the neighbourhood, how we travel, preparation for winter, etc; (b) reproduction and dramatization of stories; (c) memorization of short poems; (d) relating an interesting experience i n three or four sentences. The written work included: (a) capitals—names of persons; places; days of the week; months; the pronoun'I".; (b) punctuation—ra period at the close of a statement and after an abbreviation; question^tnairk; (c) abbreviations—simple ones that occur i n the reader; (d) three.or four easy sentences upon some topic of interest; (e) special words to be used i n sen-tences. 55 The objectives i n the Grade Three language course were: (1) To have children share their experiences through oral expression i n a free and ready manner. (2) To eliminate wrong forms of speech actually used by the children and to habituate correct forms and the use of the usual courtesies of speech. (5) To develop i n children the power to write correctly four or five short sentences on a given topic and the a b i l i t y to c r i t i c i z e their own work. (4) To develop ear-training so that there shall be a sensitiveness to correctness of speech; (5) And, generally, to aid the children through conversation and literature i n acquiring a reading and speaking vocabulary sufficient for their needs. The greater portion of the time was s t i l l devoted to oral work. One new topic was added to' this grade, "original story-telling to keep the imagination of childhood continuously active". Otherwise the work consisted i n an extension of the various topics of Grades One and Two, of which the following i s a synopsis (1) Pronunciation and enunciation. (2) Compositions of not more than four or five sen-tences on well-known topics. ( 3 ) Capitalization; beginning of a sentence or line of poetry; class teacher; principal. (4) Punctuation: child's name and address; apostrophe to indicate possession. -Programme of Studies, 1924-25, p. 23. 56 (5) Abbreviations: Mr., Mrs., St., days of-week, months of year, pupil's i n i t i a l s , B. C . , f t . , yd., qt., pt. (6) Grammatical forms: Correction of: "My book i s tore"; "It was me"; "that there"; "them books"; etc. (7) Letter writing. In Grade Four the chief aim was the fomation of habits of correct speech and the correct use of the mechanics of writ-ten composition. The objectives for Grade Four were, i n the main, the same as those for Grade Three. The course was a con-tinuation and extension of the -work of the previous grade, and might be summarized as follows: '(l) Oral composition. ( 2 ) Written compositions:- More time to be spent than before. From simple paragraph to longer paragraph with greater variety i n sentences. (3) Letter-writing—friendly and social letters. (4) Capitalization—review work of previous grades, geographical names, holidays, t i t l e s of relationship, various parts of a letter, observation and discussion of simple direct quotations i n print. (5) Punctuation—review work of previous grades, ex-clamation, hyphen, comma i n series. (6) Abbreviations and contractions—Review work of previous grades. Teach: U. S. A., A. M., P. M., Dr., Esq.., and such contractions as isn't, don't, etc. 57 (?) Grammatical form'—common verb forms as be, do, come, saw, etc.; personal pronouns; such words as good (well), very (awful), etc. (8) Homonyms—simple ones only. The socialized recitation of work prescribed i n his-tory, geography, nature study, and literature was suggested as the most effective means of developing the power of oral expres-sion i n Grade Five. Discussions on current shhool events and short informal debates were also specified, i n addition to the oral topics suggested in.Grade Pour. Under the heading of T^itteh;'.cbmp6sItion i t 'w&s.stated that original compositions formed the supreme test of the powert-of expression, so the writing stories of real or'imaginary happenings and simple explanations and descriptions was prescribed. The subject of letter-writing was extended to include informal invitations and simple business letters. The text-book authorized for composition i n this grade was Alexander and Mowat's "Elementary Composition, Part I". The..work i n English for Grade Six was to be largely an extension and a development of the Grade Five work. The end to be attained i n this grade i n the development of oral expres-sion was the training of every pupil to speak for a few minutes i n an interesting and logical way, using good enunciation and clean-cut sentences, devoid of the common errors of speech; to read silently once, and then reproduce a short, simple story; to associate with a l l oral expression habits of good position and delivery; and: i n written expression, to work for ease and 58 fluency i n simple English; to establish a clear notion of a sentence; and to train pupils to write briefly i n an interest-ing and logical way, using clean-cut sentences, un-marred by mis-spelled words and by common grammatical errors; and to es-tablish i n the mind of the pupils the paragraph sense. Alexander and Mowat's "Elementary Composition, Part II," chapters I to IV inclusive, contained the prescribed work. The chief aims i n the Grade Seven language course were: a definite subject and aim; interest on the part of the speaker or writer; originality; the forming of clear mental images; accurate thinking; clear, direct expression; orderly arrange-ment of thoughts; the elimination of incomplete sentences; the "and" habit, and the "comma" fault; the enrichment of the child's speaking and reading vocabularies; the a b i l i t y to give i n -creased attention to the sequence of sentences within a short paragraph; the development of the habit of using the correct forms of personal and simple business letters, and accuracy i n the mechanics of composition i n general, including a l l the ordinary uses of capital letters, and of punctuation. The subject-matter to achieve tha above aims was to be found i n Alexander and Mowat's "Elementary Composition, Part II", chapter V, to Part III, chapter III, inclusive, .with appendix A. In Grade Eight the aims of Grade Seven were to apply with some additions. Business letters were to include letters of inquiry, letters answering enquiries, and applications for positions. A growing power should be developed to f i t the ssntence 59 to the thought by teaching i n a simple and practical way the differences between simple, compound, and complex sentences; their respective values i n expressing thought; the correct uses of the various clausal connectives; and the necessity of subordinating the minor thought i n a sentence. The same "text book was to be used i n Grade Eight, Part III, chapters Iv to IX, inclusive, with appendices B and G. The 1924-25 course outlined above remained the same u n t i l 1933. In that year a text-book was prescribed for the children's used i n the subject of language: the "Dominion Language Series". Children i n Grades Three and Pour were to use Book I, Grades Five and Six, Book II, and GradesnSeven and Eight Book III. This was a decided advance i n that i t provided many excellent examples for the child's study and could be used as a reference book when required. The subject-matter was brought more up to date, the examples and exercises were more varied, and a general enrichment of the course was provided. . Summary.— There has been a gradual evolution from the formal teaching of impractical isolated lessons, such as the spelling of uncommon words, the rules and definitions of gram-mar, the memorization of models i n composition, to an integrated study of a l l these subjects i n their practical relationships to the social needs of the pupil. 60 Grammar The authorized text-book for the study of grammar i n 1872 was Lennie's "Grammar". This was replaced i n 1881 by Swinton's "New Language Lessons". In 1884 Lennie's book was put back on the l i s t as an alternative to Swinton's or to a new text, "English Grammar" by Dr. Win. Smith and T, D. Hall. Some idea of the content of the grammar course can be gathered from the f i r s t high school entrance examination of 1877, which shows that pupils were,expected to know such topics as inflections, moods, tenses, analysis, and parsing. In 1879 i t was, stated i n the Annual Report that pupils were expected "to know the principal grammatical forms and definitions; to be able to analyze and parse simple sentences". Grammar was l i s t e d as a compulsory subject i n the first-prescribed course of study i3sued i n 1885. The "Course of Study for Common Schools", 1889-90, stated under the heading of grammar: Every pupil i n the Third Reader should commence this branch, although oral instruction of an elem-entary character may be given to advantage at an earlier period. A good knowledge of the parts of speech and their inflections, together with the rules of syntax, i s of primary importance . . . . . . The teaching of analysis should proceed slowly and carefully—the simple sentence being thoroughly un-derstood before the complex or the compound sentence Is attempted. Parsing should be regarded by the teacher as a test of thorough knowledge of the 1Armual Report, 1878-79, p. 215. 61 1 accidence and rules of grammar. In 1891 Meiklejohn's "Short Grammar" was authorized, and two years later the same writer's "New Grammar" was added to the l i s t . "English Grammar" by Smith and Hall was dropped from the l i s t i n 1897. Under the new three-grade organization, introduced i n 1900, the subject of grammar appeared i n the Senior Grade course under the heading of language, and the only suggestion given as 2 to i t s content was "as i n prescribed text-book". This text-book, "Prescribed English Grammar", was replaced the next year by Goggin's '"Elementary Grammar", which i n turn was replaced by Lang's "Public School^Grammar" i n 1913. In 1923 under the eight-grade organization, Grade Seven classes were assigned the f i r s t nine chapters i n Lang's book, which included the parts of speech, agreement i n number and case, verb forms, punctuation and capitals, the sentence as a whole, and complex and compound sentences. The Grade Eight course consisted of the remaining five chapters i n the text, which involved a study of substantives, qualifying words, the verb, the connecting words, and a review of punctuation. It was stated that no formal parsing or analysis of greatly involved sentences was to be undertaken i n either Grade Seven or Grade 1Annual Report, 1889-90, p. LXVI -Manual of School Law, 1900, p. 55. 5S. E. Lang, M.A., Bri t i s h Columbia Public School Grammar. Toronto, Copp, Clark Co., Ltd.,. 1913. 68 E i g h t . 1 The course was o u t l i n e d more f u l l y i n the 1924-25 Programme of S t u d i e s . The o u t l i n e was given c h i e f l y as an a i d to teachers to h e l p them present the work l o g i c a l l y , hut I t a l s o gave an i d e a of what was expected of the c h i l d i n t h i s s u b j e c t , and hence i s of use to us i n c o n s i d e r i n g the development of the curriculum. The work o u t l i n e d f o r Grades Seven and E i g h t was as A. Study of Simple Sentence. 1. D e f i n i t i o n . 2. Kinds: a s s e r t i v e , i n t e r r o g a t i v e , i m p e r a t i v e , exclamatory. 3. D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s : s u b j e c t , p r e d i -c a t e , completion of p r e d i c a t e (object o r complement). 4. The phrase; a d j e c t i v e and adverb. B. The P a r t s of Speech. 1. Noun. 2. Pronoun. Uses. 3. Verb. Use: predicate; of the sen-tence. "Doing", "having", and "being" verbs. _ „ . •• f o l l o w s : Grade V I I 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. P r e p o s i t i o n . Conjunction. I n t e r j e c t i o n . A d j e c t i v e . Uses. Adverb. C. Teaoh Correct Use o f : -1. The P r e p o s i t i o n . 2. Conjunction. 3. The possessive forms. w i t h compound nouns. (2) w i t h p l u r a l proper noun. (3) w i t h compound subject o r object. (4) w i t h double possessive. bourses of;Study. 1923, pp. 18 and. 19. 6 3 4. The articles: a, an, the. 5. The adverb. 6. Adjectives and adverbs should be placed as near as possible to the word which they modify. 7. The pronoun®-. "I" and "we" always stand last i n a series.of nouns and pronouns. Grade VIII A. Review and Extension of Compound and Complex Sentences. 1. Kinds of sentence (according to form): simple, compound, complex. 2. The clause. Kinds: a") Principal; b) Subordinate. 3. Clausal analysis. 4. Detailed analysis. B. Parts of Speech:- Classification and Inflection. 1. Noun. Proper, common. 2. Pronoun. Personal, compound personal; demonstrative, interrogative, conjunctive, indefinite. . 3. Verb--Transitive, intransitive, agree-ment, tense, voice, mood, principal parts, participles, gerunds, inf i n i t i v e s , auxiliaries. 4. Adjective—qualitative, quantitative, demonstrative$ comparison of adjectives. 5. Adverbs—Use, formation, comparison of. 6. Preposition. 7. Conjunction: co-ordinative, subor-dinative, correct use of. The above outline of work continued to be the pres-cribed course u n t i l 1933 when the study of the complex and com-pound sentences along with simple clausal and detailed analysis was included i n the Grade Seven course. In the same year the text-book was changed from Lang's "Public School Grammar" to Proga-mme of Studies, 1924-25, pp. 62, 70, 71. 64 MacLaurin and Campbell's "Elementary E n g l i s h Grammar". The sequence of work i n the new t e x t was much b e t t e r arranged, the examples more e x p l i c i t , and the exercises b e t t e r graded. Summary.— There has been a gradual change from the study of formal grammar c o n s i s t i n g of the memorization of a s e r i e s o f r u l e s and d e f i n i t i o n s to a more p r a c t i c a l type of grammar which emphasized the v a l u e of grammar i n the everyday o r a l and w r i t t e n work of the c h i l d . S p e l l i n g and D i c t a t i o n The text-book p r e s c r i b e d f o r the subject of s p e l l i n g i n 1872 was very d i f f e r e n t from that used today. The "Canadian S p e l l i n g Book", companion to the "Canadian S e r i e s of Readers", p r e s c r i b e d i n 1872, was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e p a r t s as f o l l o w s : Part F i r s t - The P r i n c i p l e s o f Orthography, Orthoepy, and E l o c u t i o n . i P a r t Second - S p e l l i n g and Pro n u n c i a t i o n . P a r t T h i r d - V e r b a l D i s t i n c t i o n s . P a r t Fourth - Etymology, or the d e r i v a t i o n of words. P a r t F i f t h - .Foreign Words, Phrases, and Quotations. A b b r e v i a t i o n s . 1 Under each of the above main headings were numerous sub-headings. The type of examination a l s o was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n the Canadian S e r i e s of School Books, Spelling Book. Table of Contents, p. V. Toronto, Canada Publishing Co., 1872. 65 early days, as a glance at the' f i r s t High School Entrance Examination of January, 1877 w i l l show* That type of examina-t i o n where the pupil had to correct errors i n a passage was con-tinued for several years. The f i r s t suggestion as. to what was expected of elem-entary school pupils was given in. the Annual Report of 1878-79.2 Pupils entering high school were expected n t o be able to s p e l l and punctuate any passage i n the Fourth Reader or Spelling Book*'. This necessitated the learning of many more words than would commonly be used by the p u p i l , . In 1884 Gage's " P r a c t i c a l S p e l l e r w replaced the ^Canadian Spelling: Book" mentioned above." This book continued to be used f o r more than twenty years., • •, Both s p e l l i n g and dictation were prescribed as compul-sory subjects i n the f i r s t course of study issued i n 1885.° Ac-cording to the course of study i n the Annual Report for 1889-90, the text-book was to be used by a l l pupils i n the Third, Fourth, and F i f t h Readers. Dictation was to commence with the a b i l i t y of the c h i l d to write legibly, and was continued throughout the whole elementary school. No mention was made of spelling or dictation as a sep-arate sub ject , In the Course of study printed i n the Manual of 1 Supra, p. 25. aAnnual Report, 1878-79, p. 215. 3 " ' • ' ' I b i d , 1884-85, .'p. XXX7. 66 School Law, but reference was made to word b u i l d i n g , meaning and s p e l l i n g of words, and d i c t a t i o n exerc i ses , under the heading of language. "The Un iversa l S p e l l i n g Book" replaced Gage's " P r a c t i c a l S p e l l e r " i n 1910. The 1911 course of study stated that Part I o f the new text was to be studied i n the Intermediate Grade and Par ts I to VII i n c l u s i v e , i n the Senior Grade. The subject-matter contained i n the var ious Par ts was as f o l l o w s : P a r t I - Words i n Common Use, w i t h D i c t a t i o n E x e r c i s e s . Par t I I - Rules f o r S p e l l i n g . Part I I I -'Words i n which S i m i l a r Sounds are Spe l led i n a D i f f e r e n t Way. Pafct T V - W o r d s Commonly M i s s p e l l e d . Part V - Words Used i n Commerce. Part VT - Geographical Words, • Part VII - Words of S i m i l a r S o u n d . 1 A new text-book was added i n 1919, when the "Pub l i c School S p e l l e r " (Western Canada Ser ies) was author ized . In 1921 i t s use was made compulsory. The Intermediate Grade was assigned pages 51 to 112, i n c l u s i v e , the Senior Grade, pages 113 to 168, i n c l u s i v e . ; Two years l a t e r , when the elementary schools were organized on an eight-grade b a s i s , i t became necessary t o make a iThe U n i v e r s a l S p e l l i n g Book. Table o f Contents, p . V I I i Toronto, Educat ional Book Co . , L t d , , 1909, 67 new assignment from the text. Grade Three was assigned the study of words on pages 1-26, the text to be used only by the teacher; Grade Tour was assigned pages 27-54, inclusive; Grade Five, pages 55-82; Grade Six, pages 83-112; Grade Seven, pages 113-140; and Grade Eight, pages 141-168. In Grades Pour to Eight the pupils were to have a copy of the text-book. During the Survey of the School System in 1924-25, i t was found that in the subject of spelling, the pupils of British Columbia compared very favourably with the pupils of the United States on the standardized tests that were given. 1 Although a high standard had been attained, the Survey observed certain de-fects in the teaching of the subject. These defects chiefly concerned method, but i t was the opinion of the Survey that the authorized speller proved a stumbling block to both teachers and pupils. 2 ^Accordingly, a new speller was authorized in 1925, "Spelling for the Grades", which was given as a free text-book by the Department of Education. This book, planned on a more scientific basis, included the 4000 most commonlyused words, carefully graded to the attainment of the pupil. It was divided into eight sections, these corresponding with the grades of the H. Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey of the School System of British Columbia, p.487. Victoria, Provincial Department of Education, 1925. 2Ibid, p. 140. 68 schools.. It was expected that the 4000 words would be mastered by every child by the time ha had passed through the eight grades. So anxious was the Department of Education to impress upon the pupils and teachers alike the necessity for a hundred per cent, accuracy that i t was stated in the Programme of Studies: The examination for promotion to grade IX w i l l be based oh the l i s t s for a l l grades. Words that appear In dictation on the examination paper but which are not In"the spelling l i s t s w i l l not be considered as a part of the test in spelling.^ The above quotation, however, did not appear i n the Programme of Studies after 1927, although the same course i n spelling contin-ued. The new text included suggestions for the teacher as to the best method of teaching the subject. Prior to this time, most spelling lessons had been spelling tests. Now i t was suggested that because some words caused more d i f f i c u l t y than others, a pre-test be made to ascertain the number of pupils having d i f f i -culty in the spelling of each word. More teaching time was to be devoted to words causing diffuculty to many than to few. Summary.— The content of the spelling course has been changed from severalAwords based on the oral, written, and reading vocabulary of educated adults to a minimal word-list of about 4000 words based on the writing vocabulary of the average child. A change has been made daring the last few years wherby the em-phasis was placed on the teaching of spelling rather than on the Programme of Studies, 1925-26, p. 78. 69 testing. Spelling was now to be taught for i t s functional value rather than as a means of mental discipline. Writing Under the l i s t of "Subjects of Examination for Admission to the High School" i t was stated that pupils were expected "to write neatly and legibly". This was the f i r s t reference to the standard of writing demanded from pupils of the elementary schools. Not u n t i l the year 1884 was any system of writing pres-cribed or any copy-book or writing manual suggested. In 1884 three books on writing appeared on the prescribed l i s t of texts, namely, Payson, Dunton, and Scribner's copy-books; Gage's sopy-books; and copy-books without headlines. These remained the prescribed text-books u n t i l 1894, when a change to vertical writing was made optional. That writing up to this time had not been entirely satisfactory i s shown by the following report of the superintendent of education: It i s ©specially desirable that more attention be given i n our schools to the" subject of writing. This practical study should receive most careful attention. 'From reports of"the Inspectors as well as from personal observation, greater care on the part of the teachers in dealing with this subject i s very desirable. The vertical system of hand-writing has of late years been adopted in many citi e s of Great Britain and Canada, with most favorable results. The principal claims advanced for upright writing are i t s l e g i b i l i t y , 70 ease of acquirement, and that i t i s more in accord with hygienic laws than other systems. Authority to use the vertical system of writing has been granted, but i t i s "earnestly enjoined that each teacher make himself familiar with the system before attempting to give instruction therein. 1 In accordance with the above permissive change from the slanting system of writing to the vertical, the British Columbia series of vertical writing books was authorised. The vertical system, however, apparently was not found to be an improvement, as no further reference was made regarding i t s prescription, and Gage's copy-books continued to be the prescribed texts un t i l 1912. . In that year a^change was made for the Junior Grade pupils. The New Method writing-pad number 1 was prescribed for First Primer classes; New Method writing-pad number 2 andNew Method writing-book number 1, for Second Primer classes and New Method writing-book number 2, for Fi r s t Reader classes. From the Second Reader classes up, Gage's copy-books remained as before. • Prior th 1912, the finger-movement method of writing had been taught with some attempt at free arm movement in the lower grades. The next year i t was prescribed that muscular-movement exercises were to be given throughout a l l the grades. The New Method writing-books, numbers 3 and 4, were prescribed for Second Reader classes; writing-books numbers 5, 6, 7, and 8 "Annual Repgrt, 1893-94, p. 306. 71 of the*same s e r i e s f o r the Intermediate Grade c l a s s e s ; and Gage's copy-books remained the authorized books f o r the Senior Grade classes» This muscular-movement system of w r i t i n g has p e r s i s t e d to the present time, though there have been changes i n the t e x t -books. The above-mentioned books continued to be used u n t i l 1921j,when they were replaced by the,McLean Method w r i t i n g com-pendiums. These compendiums were a decided change from the o l d copy-books'in which one l i n e , of w r i t i n g ' a t the top of a page had to. be w r i t t e n perhaps h a l f a dozen times by the p u p i l , each l i n e supposedly b e t t e r than the previous one. The compendiums merely acted as a guide to the p u p i l , a l l the w r i t t e n work of t h e p u p i l being done i n an exercise book. Compendiums numbers o n e t w o , and three were t o be used by p u p i l s i n the J u n i o r Grade, number fou r i n the Intermediate Grade, and the Senior Manual i n the Senior Grade, I n 1923, when the course of. study was based, on a system of ei g h t grades, Grades One, Two, and Three were t o use compendiums numbers one, two, and three; Grades Four and F i v e ; compendium number f o u r ; and Grades S i x , Seven, and E i g h t , the Senidr Manual. Compendium number: one contained both manuscript and c u r s i v e forms of w r i t i n g . I t was thought advisable to teach the p r i n t e d form of the l e t t e r s t o a s s i s t i n reading the p r i n t e d form i n the readers., The l e n g t h of time devoted,to; manuscript w r i t i n g v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n d i f f e r e n t schools, some' teachers con-t i n u i n g 'It'•• f o r the,;whole of the f i r s t term, while others ignored 72 i t a l together . The 1933 Programme of Studies suggested that manuscript f o r f u n c t i o n a l w r i t i n g might be continued to the end of Grade One. The Survey of the School System, made i n 1925, reported that•the penmanship was good, but was taught by methods which might be g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d and improved. 1 I t a lso stated that "an examination of the compendiums and manuals accompanying the McLean Method of Muscular Movement i s based p a r t l y on the doctr ine of formal d i s c i p l i n e " . 2 In t h i s regard i t was c r i t i c i z e d by the Survey. The t e s t s administered i n connection with the Survey showed that the standard of w r i t i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia was i n some grades two years i n advance of the United States norms. Th is f a c t led the Survey to report that too much time was being devoted to the subject . Another change i n 1933 was the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the p r a c t i c e comiendiums f o r Grades One to F i v e . Th is was i n some respects a re turn to the o ld copy-book idea of teaching w r i t i n g , i n which.the p u p i l does p r a c t i c e w r i t i n g under a l i n e of copy, and necess i tated a new prescr ibed p r a c t i c e compendium each year . The work and text p resc r ibed f o r Grades S ix to E ight remained the same as be fore . Summary.— The trend i n the subject of w r i t i n g has been X J . H . Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey of the School System of B r i t i s h Columbia, pp. 141-145. V i c t o r i a , P r o v i n c i a l Department of Educat ion, 1925. 2 I b i d , p. 142. 3 I b i d , p. 496. 73 from a s t i f f finger movement type of writing "by v/hich the mus-cles quickly became tired toward a free, easy, rhythmic, writing movement which permits a large amount of writing to be done with greater speed and without t i r i n g . The McLean system at present in use, while open to some ctiticism on the grounds of formal discipline, i s a distinct improvement over the system which i t supplanted. Reading and Literature Reading and literature are grouped under one heading because they are so closely linked together in the teaching of both subjects. Before one can read a selection intelligently, a knowledge of the literature of the passage i s essential. Thought comprehension i s basis to thought expression. The subject of reading, the f i r s t of the three r's, has been taught in the schools of British Columbia since the earliest schools were f i r s t opened. In 1872 the Canadian series of Readers, seven in number, was prescribed as the authorzed text. Although no mention was made of literature, i t was taken for granted that the finer passages of prose and poetry contained in the readers would be studied for their l i t e r a r y value. The Canadian series was replaced by Gage's series of Readers In 1884. The reasons for the change were quite numerous and apparently sound.x iSupra, pp. 19-20. • 74 , In the same year reading was added to the l i s t of sub-jects in which an examination must be passed by pupils before they were permitted to attend a high school. A pupil was expec-ted "to be able to read correctly and intelligently any passage in the Fourth Reader". The course of study for 1889-90 included a l i t t l e more detail under the heading of reading: ' Reading—From Primer to F i f t h Reader, inclusive. Special'attention should be given to correct pronun-ciation, distinct articulation, and proper expression. Declamation of selections from prose and poetry committed to memory tends to awaken a taste -for good language, as well as aids'in the development of a natural and easy delivery.i In 1900, when the course of study was organized on a Junior, Intermediate, and Senior Grade basis, the F i r s t and Second Primers and F i r s t Reader were prescribed for the Junior Grade (the f i r s t three years of the elementary school); the Second and Third Readers were to be used i n the Intermediate Grade (the fourth and f i f t h years of the school); the Fourth Reader, Longfellow*s "Evangeline", and Lamb's "Tales from Shakespeare" were to be studied by the Senior Grade (pupils in the sixth and seventh years of the elementary school)• A new series of readers called the "New Canadian Readers", was author-ized in the same year. The following year, 1901, the Twentieth Century Edition 1 Annual Report, 1889-90, pp. 23-24. 75 of the same series of Readers was prescribed. Phonic d r i l l and recitation were added to the Junior and Intermediate Grade reading course. The 1906 course of study prescribed the Second Reader to be used in the Junior Grade, leaving the Third Reader to be used for both years of the Intermediate Grade reading course. In 1911 i t was prescribed that phonic d r i l l , which up to this time had been tautht in both Junior and Intermediate Grades, was to be taught only to the end of the Second leader classes, now in the Junior Grade. The same year, the Senior Grade course, now called reading and literature, was changed to include besided the Fourth Reader, Scott's "Lady of the Lake". In 1913 the passages to be memorized from the "Lady of the Lake" were listed in the course of study. In 1919, the courses of reading and literature were prescribed under two separate headings.in the Senior Grade. The course i n literature included Scott's "Lady of the Lake" and the following selections from the Fourth Readers Resessional;The"Sermon on the Mo^nt; The Battle of Marston Moor; The Battle of Naseby; Burial of Sir John Moore; Heroes of the Long Sault; Jacques Cartier; The Vision of MiTze;.Sir Galahad; A Dirge; Westminster Abbey; In Westminster Abbey; Lead, Kindly Light; The Duty of Canadians;' The' Patriotic Dead; The House Fly; To A Water-fowl; The Daffodils; The Laiy of Shalott; The Panthers; Pontiac; Lobo, The Wolf; The Burial of Moses; The Chambered Nautilus; The Red River Voyageur; Boadicea; The Cloud; Hamlet's Soliloquy; Portia•s Appeal to Shylock; Twenty-third Psalm; Labour; In Memoriam. xCourses of Study for the Public, High, and Normal  Schools of British Columbia, 1919, p. 7, 76 When the grading of the elementary school c lasses was changed i n 1923 from Jun ior , Intermediate, and Senior Grades to Grades One to E i g h t , i n c l u s i v e , a change was a lso made i n the readers used i n the schools . Grade One was to use "The Canadian Readers, Book I " (a Primer and F i r s t Reader); Grade Two, Book I I of the same name; Grade Three, Book I I I ; Brade Four, Book 17; Grade F i v e , Book V, Part I ; and Grade S i x , Book V, Part I I . Ho readers were prescr ibed f o r Grades Seven and E i g h t . The two subjects of reading and l i t e r a t u r e were again out l ined under the one heading, the courses being as fo l lows:" : Grade'' 711 (a) A Christmas Carol (Dickens) and King of the Golden R i v e r (Ruskin) . (b) Golden Steps . (c) Se lec t ions from the Can adian Poetry Book.-Grade T i l l Poetry—One of the f o l l o w i n g : (a) Narrat ive and L y r i c Poems, Th i rd S e r i e s , B r i t i s h Columbia E d i t i o n and The Canadian Poetry Book, omitt ing the s e l e c t i o n s prescr ibed f o r Grade 711. (b) S c o t t ' s Lay of the Last M t a s t r e l — Alexander. .(c) The Lady of the Lake--Stevenson. P r o s i — A t l eas t two of the f o l l o w i n g : (a.) Se lec t ions from I r v i n g and Hawthorne j B r i t i s h Columbia E d i t i o n — S t e v e n s o n . (b) S c o t t ' s Ivanhoe, abridged and'edi ted with Introduct ion , notes, g lossary , e t c . Fanny Johnson. • 77 . • •>, (c) Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare, with notes— Flather. (d) Treasure Island—R. L. Stevenson. (e) Sharp Eyes and Winter Neighbours, from the text entitled "Sharp Eyes and Other Essays"--Burroughs. The next year "Selections from the Makers of Canada" was added to the Grade Seven course. To the Grade Eight course were added, "Selections from the Canadian Poets" (Hardy) to the l i s t of poetry choices, and "Waverley" (Scott) to the l i s t of prose choices. Silent reading appeared for the f i r s t time i n the 1924-85 Programme of Studies. It was to be taught in a l l grades, but in Grades Three to Eight an ever-increasing portion of time devoted to reading was to be given to silent reading. Special exercises were to be given with an endeavour to increase the rate and comprehension. From time to time standardized tests were to be given as a check on the progress made both i n rate and comprehension. The Survey of the School System in 1925 found that many of the teachers were ignorant as to the psychology of reading, and hence were unable to teach the subject at a l l s c i e n t i f i c a l l y . 2 In connection with the teaching of reading the xCourses of Study for the Elementary, High, Technical, and Normal Schools of B. 0., 1983, pp. 16-18. 2 J . H. Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey of the School System pf British Columbia, pp. 145-148. Victoria, Provincial Department of Education, 1985. 7 8 Survey made the fo l lowing statement: Sure ly an improvement i n the teaching of s i l e n t reading i s long overdue. The mechanics of reading should be mastered at l e a s t by the b time the p u p i l s pass out of grade four ; Before grade eight i s reached the p u p i l s should have a f a i r l y e f f e c t i v e mastery of s i l e n t reading.^ The Survey a l so found that many teachers were confusing the subjects of l i t e r a t u r e and reading with word anatomy. The p r a c t i c e of having p u p i l s miss the whole sentiment and content of l i t e r a t u r e by spending t h e i r time look ing up the meanings of rare and obselete words was s t rongly deprecated. Reading i n the middle grades was found to be very mechanical l a r g e l y be-cause of i n s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t i n g reading m a t e r i a l . The f i n d i n g s of the Survey had the e f f e c t of gradua l ly developing A the teachers a reading consciousness which r e s u l t e d i n greater a t t e n t i o n being paid to the teaching of the subject . Very l i t t l e change, however, was made i n the reading m a t e r i a l u n t i l 1936. Another change was made i n the Grades Seven and E ight l i t e r a t u r e course i n the 1926-27 Programme of S tud ies . The r e -v i sed course f o r Grade Seven read: (a) Canadian "Prose and P o e t r y — A . M. Stephen. (Only s e l e c t i o n s recommended f o r Grade VII p u p i l s are to be s t u d i e d . ) (b) E i t h e r Golden Steps o r Se lect ions from •^J. E; Putman and'G. M. Weir, Survey of the School System  of B r i t i s h Columbia, p . 146. V i c t o r i a , P r o v i n c i a l Department o f Educat ion, 1925; the Nature Poets, Stevenson. (c) A Christmas C a r o l j Dickens, and K i n g . of the Golden R i v e r , Ruskin. ' (d) E i t h e r .Familiar F i e l d s , P e t e r McArthur or S e l e c t i o n s from the Makers of Canada, • ' 'Saul. -Memorization: Teachers are expected t o assign f o r memorization the more b e a u t i f u l passages of the s e l e c t i o n s of poetry p r e s c r i b e d f o r t h i s grade. 1 The book e n t i t l e d , "Canadian Prose and Poetry "--A.M. Stephen, was .to; be studied i n Grade Eight i n a d d i t i o n to the work p r e v i o u s l y p r e s c r i b e d ^ ; ' . •.. ,' . .-The f o l l o w i n g year, i n p l a c e of1 Stephen's,"Canadian; Prose and Poetry",- ^ o i e e . o f Canada, Canadian Prose and Poetry", was p r e s c r i b e d f o r Grades .Seyen^and Eight'. , " S e l e c t i o n s from the Makers : of Canada* vwas d e l e t e d from the Grade Seven c h o i c e s . S c o t t ' s "Lay of the. L a s t M i n s t r e l ' " , , Lamb's "Tales from Shakespeare", and; S c o t t ' s ^ I f a v e r l e y w , : were deleted from the Grade Eight choices. The amount of work to be covered remained the same, but the choice was l i m i t e d . T h i s course remained un-changed u n t i l , 1 9 3 6 . . ..Sumnary.-^here has; been a gradual trend toward a , b e t t e r . s e l e c t i o n of reading material:based on what appealed t o the c h i l d r a t h e r than what a d u l t s thought best f o r the ,child :. I n -creased emphasis has been placed on s i l e n t reading, s i n c e 1920. •Programme.;, of -Studies; f or : the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1926-27 , p. 69. 80 Greater importance has in later years been placed on the compre-hension and appreciation of what was read than on the attainment of mere faultless oral reading. Arithmetic Prior to the year 1877, when the f i r s t High School Entrance examination appeared, the only clue as to what was being taught in the subject of arithmetic i s to be found in the authorized text-books. In 1872, Smith and McMurohy's "Elementary Arithmetic" and "Advanced Arithmetic", Colenso•s "Algebra", Parts I and II, and Young's "Euclid", Books I and II were authorized. The f i r s t Entrance examination throws a l i t t l e more light on what was,expected at the completion of the elementary course.- It suggests a knowledge of the four simple rules applied to whole numbers and common fractions; Roman numer-als; and some easy denominate numbers. * The Annual Report of 1878-79, under the heading "Subjects of Examination for Admission to the High School", stated the requirements in arithmetic "to be able to answer questions in numeration, notation, the four simple and com-, pound rules, reduction, vulgar and decimal fractions, pro-portion, simple interest and percentage, and in mental arith-metic"„ -Supra, p. 21. Annual Report, 1878-79, p. 215. 81 "Mental Arithmetic" by J. A. McLellan was authorized in 1882, and "Elementary Arithmetic" by Kirkland and Scott re-placed Smith and McMurchy's book of the same name in 1884. Hamblin Smith's "Arithmetic" (Kirkland and Scott) was added in 1890. •"• ' • ' • • • ' ' ' ' ' • Not u n t i l 1900, when the elementary schools were or-ganized into Junior, Intermediate, and Senior Grades, was there any suggestion of a prescribed course for the different years in school. In that year the limits of work were prescribed as follows: Junior Grade Addition'table and multiplication table to 10 times 10, with application in operations involving numbers not greater than 100. Canadian money and familiar measures, e.g. pint, quart, gal., inch, foot, yard. Intermediate Grade Fundamental rules as applied to simple whole numbers not exceeding five places. Principles of the Decimal Notation with extension to Decimal Fractions of three places. Common fractions, denominators not exceeding 12. Common Tables of Weights and Measures with application in Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. Senior Grade Arithmetic - as in Kirkland and Scott's Elementary Arithmetic. Algebra - The four fun-damental rules. (Pupils not be required to have text-books. )••-•Manual of School Law, 1900; pp. 53-55. 82 ' . In. the Manual o f School Law issued the next year , 1901, the Intermediate Grade course was extended to inc lude fundamental r u l e s , denominate numbers, simple f r a c t i o n s with decimals and percentage, notat ion ; and numeration. I t was a l so stated that a lgebra i n the Senior Grade was to be o r a l on ly . The subject of a lgebra was dropped from the elementary school course e n t i r e l y i n the year 1906. The text-book was changed in. 1910 to M i l n e ' s "Progressive Ar i thmet i cs" , Books, I , I I , and III, the Junior Grade covering the work i n Book I , Part I ; the Intermediate Grade, Book I , Par t s I I and I I I , and Book XI, Part I ; the Senior Grade, Book II, Part I I , and Book III, except pages 116-134, 268-297, and 319-330, As the d e t a i l s of the. course i n ar i thmet ic f o r the Junior and Intermediate Grades appeared i n the 1911 course of study, which i s quoted i n the appendix , 1 only the d e t a i l f o r the Senior Grade w i l l be g iven here: Decimal f r a c t i o n s — t o more than three p laces ; denominate numbers—reduction and four simple r u l e s ; measures and equiva lents—weight , (ewoirdupois and t r o y ) , volume and capac i ty (use equ iva lents) , temperature, lumber, p l a s t e r i n g , p a i n t i n g , k a l s o m i n i n g , r o o f i n g , paper ing ,carpet ing; percentage—commercial d iscount , p r o f i t and l o s s , commission, I n t e r e s t ; promissory notes; banking; r a t i o ; and p r o p o r t i o n . A few minor t o p i c s and d i f f i c u l t problems were omitted Appendix, pp. 159-171. 83 from the above Senior Grade course of 1911 when a revision was made in 1919. The courses for the Junior and Intermediate a. Grades remined the same. In 1921 a change was made in text-books? Smith and Roberts' "British Columbia Public School Arithmetic" Books I and II replaced Milne's "Progressive Arithmetics" which had been in use since 1910. The course «s revised was as follows: Junior Grade First Year Study of the numbers 1-9, inclusive; developing rela-tion between object and symbol; oral counting to 100; placing a number of objects (not to exceed 36) into groups of 2's, 3's, 4's, etc., and counting by 2's to 20; combinations of numbers to 9 (this included the teaching not only of addition, but also the application of the other three simple rules to these num-bers). Second Year Reading and writing numbers to 100; combinations and extensions to 100; study of the ten-unit; counting by fives and tens; multiplication tables to the end of table of 5. Third Year Daily d r i l l in combinations and extensions; multi-plication tables. 8 4 Intermediate Grade F i r s t Year Smith and Roberts , Book I , pp. 124-195. The four simple r u l e s appl ied to whole numbers, denominate numbers, and common f r a c t i o n s . Work i n prime f a c t o r s , common f a c t o r s , h ighest common f a c t o r s , and least common m u l t i p l e s to be confined to small numbers. Second Year Smith and Roberts, Book I , pp. 196 to end of book. Th is inc luded numbers and a p p l i c a t i o n s ; b i l l s , accounts and r e c e i p t s ; aggregates and averages. Senior Grade f i r s t Year, Smith and Roberts , Book I I , to end of p. 118, omitt ing pages 99 to 108, i n c l u s i v e . Second Year .., Smith and Roberts, Book I I , p. 120 t o end of book, (omitt ing pages 160-168, i n c l u s i v e ; from beginning of sect ion on " Q u a d r i l a t e r a l s " , p. 180 to end of page 207, except problems r e l a t i n g to rectang les , c i r c l e s , rectangular s o l i d s , and c y l i n -ders ; from beginning of sect ion on "Measures of Surface" , page 211, to end of page 2 1 8 J . 1 Owing to a change i n the school organizat ion to an e i g h t -grade b a s i s i n 1923, i t was necessary to make new l i m i t s of work. ^•Courses of Study f o r the Elementary and High Schools , 1921, 85 The course in arithmetic remained the same for the elementary school as a whole, the new grade allotments being as follows: Grade 1 Study of the one-unit. Grade 2 Fi r s t Term—Reading and writing numbers to 100; combinations to 20; study of the ten-unit; counting by 5*s and 10's. Second Term-—Combinations and extensions to 100; multiplication tables to end of table of 5. Work, within number limit of 100, given in text to end of page 90. Grade 3 Complete tables to end of table of 12. Work in text to page 123. Grade 4 Work in text to end of page 163. (For teacher's use only, in graded school.) Grade 5 Text to end of page 205. Smith and Roberts, Book I, complete. Grade 6 Smith and Roberts, Book I, complete. Grade 7 Smith and Robe&ts, Book II, to end of page ' 136. -Grade 8 Book II, p. 120 to end of book (omitting . pp. 16 to 168, inclusive; pp. 180 to 207 except problems relating to rectangles, circles, rectangular solids, and cylin-' ders; pp. 211 to 218.)1 The next revision i n 1924-25 extended the Grade Four course to include the work up to page 183 in Smith and Roberts 1923. Courses of Study for the Elementary and High Schools, 86 instead of.to page 163. This meant the addition of factors, multiples, cancellation, and common or vulgar fractions to the work of the fourth year. To the Grade Five course was added topics on Canadian money, avoirdupois, linear, surface," cubic, measure of capacity and measure 4>f time. The Grade Six course remained the same with the exception that topics of B r i t i s h money and circular and angular measure were omitted. The Grade Seven course omitted the topics on sharing and partnership, averages, ratio and proportion, and taxation. The Grade Eight course remained the same, except for the addition of the topics deleted from the Grade Seven course. • The Survey of the School System in 1925 found that the standards i n arithmetic were higher in a l l grades than in the United States." The Survey, however, claimed that too much time was being devoted to the subject. It was stated that: The course of study in arithmetic for British Columbia, while modern in certain aspects, i s s t i l l too strongly tainted with formal disciplinary values, o » . . much of the content might well be l e f t out as obselete and unrelated to the real • needs and practical activities of l i f e . 2 The Survey recommended that more attention should be given to simple oral problems involving rapid calculations. Diagnostic and standardized tests were also recommended as a help i n over-coming the problem of which topics needed special attention, "'"J. H. Putman and G. Mi Weir, Survey of the School System  of Br i t i s h Columbia, p. 498. Victoria, Provincial Department of Education, 1925. : 2 I b i d , p. 138. 87 and how,much time to s|end on fundamentals. As a result of the Survey a. change was made in the text-books in 1930. The "New Canadian Arithmetics, Primary Book, Part I," by Sheffield and Brown, was prescribed as a pupil's text in Grade Three. The only change i n subject content was the deletion of Roman notation from the course. The arithmetic vocabulary of Grade Three pupils was listed as followst add, addition, sum, plus, column, subtract, subtraction, less, minus, remainder, product, multiplier, divide, divide by, division, divisor, dividend, quotient."*" Grade Four classes were to continue with the same text for another year, at which time i t was to be replaced by the Primary Book, Part II, of Sheffield and Brown's "New Canadian Arithmetic". The topic on Roman notation to MM, being deleted from. Grade Three, was now to be taught in Grade Four. To this Grade also was added the topic of area and surface, which u n t i l now had been taught in Grade Five. The Grade Five classes were to have the Intermediate Book,- Part I, of the new series by Sheffield and Brown. To the Grade Five limit was added: square measure, cubic measure, dry measure, measures of temperature, cubic or solid measure, and decimals—meaning of, reading and writing of, the application of the four simple rules, changing of decimals to common fractions and vice versa. 'Programme of Studies, 1930, p. 35. 88 • * ; As i n Grade l o u r , the Grade S i x c lasses were to continue with Smith and Roberts as a text u n t i l September, 1931, when a change was to be made to the Intermediate Book, Part I I , of the new s e r i e s . The Grade S ix l i m i t of work was increased t o inc lude percentage, three steps: (1) how to f i n d a per cent, of a number; (2) how to f i n d what per cent , one number i s of another number; (3) how to f i n d a number when a per cent , of i t i s g iven; and the simpler a p p l i c a t i o n s of percentage: d iscount , p r o f i t and l o s s , simple i n t e r e s t ( for annual per iods o n l y ) , commission. The 1930 r e v i s i o n a lso s t a t e d : By way of preparat ion f o r the Junior High School Mathematics work of grade V I I , the p u p i l s of grade VI should be f a m i l i a r with the fo l lowing: terms: rectang le , square, s t ra ight l i n e k p a r a l l e l l i n e s , angle , r ight angle, perpendicular , t r i a n g l e , base, apex or vertex, a l t i t u d e or height (as. . appl ied to t r i a n g l e s and r e c t a n g l e s ) , c i r c l e , • centre , circumference, rad ius , r a d i i , diameter, s e m i - c i r c l e . The p u p i l should be able to i d e n t i f y or i l l u s t r a t e , but not to fiefine these terms.^ Thorndike 's "Junior High School Mathematics, Book I " , was the new prescr ibed text f o r Grade Seven pup i l s . . The new work added to t h i s grade inc luded: the geometry of form, s i z e , and p o s i t i o n ; frequent use of compasses, p r o t r a c t o r , set-squares, measurements of l i n e s and angles; simple, equations, simple r a t i o s , and simple formulas, and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n p r a c t i c a l problems» •Programme of Studies , 1930, p. 35. 89 Grade Eight pupils were to use "Junior High School Mathematics, Book II", by Thorndike. To the previous course for this grade was added: The arithmetic of private business, involving the earning, spending, and saving of money, the bank account, keeping account of borrowed money, the investment of money in stocks and business shares, the dividing of profits, investments in real estate notes, bonds, and mortgages. The arithmetic of public business—the muni-cipality as a business firm; civic income and expen-ditures, civic borrowings; the nation's business, national debts; budgets; the interpretation and making of diagrams and graphs relating to public business. The arithmetic of the home—family budgets, cost of food and clothing, etc. The arithmetic of science and industry—squares, cubes, circles, cylinders, wheels, wells, pipes, tanks, etc.; the use of formulas and equations; circular measure; longitude and time; the metric system of weights and measures. "First steps i n algebra—equations, l i t e r a l numbers; positive and negative numbers; simple com-putations and equations involving the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of positive and negative numbers; expressing a problem as an equation.! It w i l l be seen from the above that the tendency in the 1930 revision was to place some topics lower< in the grades and to add-several extra topics In the upper grades. The introduction of generalized arithmetic into Grades Seven and Eight i s noted with interest, i t being remembered that algebra •Programme of Studies, 1930, p. 94. 90 was oh the course un t i l 1906, at which time i t was deleted.. No further changes were made in the arithmetic course u n t i l 1936 when drastic changes were made in practically a l l subjects. Summary.— The subject of arithmetic has tended to be-come less theoretical and abstract and more practical and con-crete. The teaching of i t has bedome less formal and more practical; less a matter of teaching by rules and more a matter of the development of the powers of reasoning; less a matter of teaching long involved written problems with the emphasis placed • • e on the statments, and more a matter of teaching simple oral problems related to the real needs and practical activities of l i f e Geography The f i r s t examination in geography for admission to a high school suggests that factual rather than a rational geog-raphy was being taught. The outline of what a pupil was ex-pected to know in geography before being admitted to a high school in 1879 seems rather comprehensive, v i z . — To have a general knowledge of the earth's planetary relations, of the general principles of physical geography, and of the outlines of the maps of Europe, Asia, Africa, America, Oceania, and of the British Empire, and more particularly that of the Dominion of Canada.2 Supra, p. 22.. 2Annual Report, 1878-79, p. 215. '91 The Annual Report of 1889-90 s t r e s s e d the value of map drawing and s t a t e d that a thorough knowledge of the terms used and explanations given i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter of text-hook was e s s e n t i a l . , I n 1900 the geography course f o r the J u n i o r Grade was placed under the. main heading of nature l e s s o n s . Under the general t o p i c of "The E a r t h " , the p u p i l s were supposed t o l e a r n about i t s shape and motion,, l a n d and, water surfaces, temperate and c o l d regions and the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r peoples as t o f e a t u r e s , c o l o u r , and mode of l i f e ; p o i n t s of the compass; heat, •cold, sair,-'vapour, clouds, r a i n , h a i l , and.ice; : to l e a r n to draw' aa o u t l i n e map of t h e i r s c h o o l : d i s t r i c t , and v i c i n i t y , the p r i n c i p a l p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t .to be located, and the d i r e c t i o n s from the school noted. The. Intermediate Grade continued t o have o r a l lessons. i n geography, d e a l i n g w i t h an elementary study of the people, commerce and forms of government of.,the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the • B r i t i s h Empire and p a r t i c u l a r l y of Canada, The subject-matter t o be. covered was contained i n the f i r s t , f i f t y - t h r e e pages o f - a t e x t -book s p e c i a l l y w r i t t e n f o r Canadian schools c a l l e d "New Canadian Geography,,with B. C, Supplement'*, The only reference t o the Senior Grade course was,. "As i n ;. NewV.Canadian Geography", from which I t i s gathered that the book was to be completed. U n t i l 1911 the geography course remained as i t w a s ; 92 prescribed i n 1900. In 1911 the section under the heading of nature lessons remained but an additional section by the name of geography was included for Junior Grade pupils.^ The 1911 course for Intermediate Grade classes was planned in much greater detail. The regions assigned for study were North America, British Columbia, South America, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, or i n other words the whole earth. The pupils were supposed to have a clear idea of the position and general build of each continent; to know some-thing about the great plains and l i f e on these plains, and to be able to locate the great commercial centres of the world. 2 There was l i t t l e l e f t to outline for the Senior Grade, and as a result the course of study just states, "as i n pres-. cribed text; also Lawson and Young's History and Geography of British Columbia". Apparently the work was a review of what had been taught or "skimmed over" i n the Intermediate Grade. Practically the only change In the Senior Grade geogra-phy course in the 1919 course of study was a verification of the above. It stated "a general knowledge of the geography of the continents and oceans; the geography of British Columbia, Canada, North America, South America, Asia, Africa, Europe, and Australia" was expected. The same year the text was changed to the "Dominion School Geography, B. C. Edition". Appendix, p.161. 2Ibid, pp. 163-165. 93 The work in geography for Junior Grade pupils was d i -vided into yearly limits in the 1919 revision. It was not, however, included in the regular course of study, but was placed in a 48-page booklet entitled "Nature Study and Primary Geography". The pupils of the f i r s t year studied (a) directions; (b) time; (c) weather and seasonal changes; (d) a small stream or brook. The second year's work consisted of (a) distance and direction continued; (b) weather and related phenomena; (c) earth ma-terials—stones, gravel, sand, clay, etc.; (d) land and water forms—'rapid, f a l l , lake, etc.; (e) observational study of local industries and commercial a c t i v i t i e s . The third year's work included (a) local geography—continued and associated with local history; (b) the earth as a whole—shape, size, general surface features and diurnal movement; (e) weather phenomena— previous work continued and extended; (d) commercial and indus-t r i a l activities—methods of transportation and communication, postal service, telegraph, and wireless transmission of mes-sages. The Intermediate Grade course remained the same as be-fore.' The 1923 revision was organized on an eight-grade basis. The geography course for the f i r s t three grades remained the same. The Grade Four course, however, was decidedly changed, from regional to human geography based on how other people l i v e . ^Appendix, pp. 183-188. 94 The topics prescribed for study were: (a) How other people l i v e : -1. The Eskimo home. 2. A Japanese home. 3. A Desert home (the Arabs). 4. An Equatorial home. 5. The Dutch home. (b) The Earth as a whole including a simple study of heat belts—Position of equator, latitude, longitude, the tropics, the Arctic and Antarctic, the relative positions of the continents and oceans. (c) How people are clothed:- wool, cotton, linen, s i l k , leather, rubber. (d) How people are fed:- bread, rice,, sugar, tea and coffed.l Grade Five was outlined in the same way as the Intermediate Grade had been previously, but was limited to a study of North America, Bt i t i s h Columbia, and South America. Grade Six was as-signed the remaining continents not studied in Grade Eive, v i z . — Africa, Australia, Europe, and Asia. Grade Seven was assigned certain features of physical geography contained i n the f i r s t fcrty-five pages of the "Dominion School Geography", and a review of North America and South America. The work of Grade Eight was a complete review of the work of the previous grades. The 1924 revision made further changes in the geography limits. The study of South America was deleted from Grade Five and i n i t s place was prescribed the following detailed physical Coursesof Study, 1923, p. 10. 95 geographys 1. The atmosphere—I.e. evaporation and con-densat ion, winds, c louds, e f f e c t s of mountains i n forming c louds; the s tory of a r i v e r reviewed; sea-ooast, e f f e c t s of waves, high and low water; i s l a n d s and bays. 2. A s e r i e s of observations through the year of p o s i t i o n of sun at noon, showing so f a r as "local condit ions are concerned the nature of the seasons. 3. Globe study leading to the shape of the ear th , r o t a t i o n , g iv ing day and n ight , h e a t - b e l t s , l a t i t u d e .1 Forxegiona l geography Grade F i v e was assigned North America, Canada i n genera l , and B r i t i s h Columbia i n d e t a i l . Grade S i s was to study the f o l l o w i n g : South Amer ica; Canada In d e t a i l ; Europe; review ofNorth America; and p h y s i c a l geography, i n -c luding a study of the s impler p r i n c i p l e s of cl imate f o r the wor ld . The Grade Seven course inc luded, under the heading of p h y s i c a l geography, a review of r o t a t i o n ; r e v o l u t i o n ; l a t i t u d e ; longi tude; seasons and t h e i r cause; the r e g i o n a l geography comprising A s i a , .Afr ica , A u s t r a l a s i a ; and a review of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Grade E ight course consisted o f : a review of motions of the ear th ; running water; the work of i c e ; and f o r r e g i o n a l study, the B r i t i s h Empire, inc lud ing a rev iew of the severa l cont inents . The text-book was changed i n 1924, Corn ish 's "School Geography" and " A t l a s " rep lac ing the "Dominion School Geography". * It was found by the Survey of 1925 that condiderable work that was being taught in the subject of geography was of a formal, deadening, factual nature; that there was an atmosphere of abstraction and unreality about the subject; and that, gen-erally speaking, there was not enough correlation between geography and history. The Survey recommended that more use be made of the socialized recitation and that an effort be made to get away from the "note-giving" and "text-book memorizing" type of teaching. 1 The 1928-29 revision produced a change in the Grade Four course, including: (a) How other people l i v e : -1. A desert home—the Arabs. Life in the Euphrates Valley—The Nile Valley—Hot, dry lands. 2. An equatorial Home—Life in the Congo— hot, wet lands. 3. A Swiss Home—Life in the Alps. Compare with l i f e i n the Cariboo or Kootenay of B. C. 4. A Dutch Home—life on a lowland plain. 5. Lapland—Compare and contrast with • Eskimo l i f e . 6. A Japanese Home. (b) The World as a Whole—including a simple study of heat-belts and the relative position of the continents and oceans.^ J. H. Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey of the School System of British Columbia, pp. 148-150. Victoria, Provincial Department of Education, 1925. Programme of Studies, 1928-29, p. 47. 97 * \ In Grade F ive the subject-matter remained more or l e s s the same but i t was organized on a problem b a s i s . The problems given were merely suggestions, i t being understood that a teacher might cover the same f i e l d of study by means o f other problems. The Grade S ix course remained the same, but the suggestions as to su i tab le problems were g iven only f o r North America, as fo l lows: What i s Europe's Main Gateway i n t o Canada? (a) What f i r s t led.Europeans to our shores? What n a t u r a l b a r r i e r s to trade has the S t . Lawrence as a route in to the heart of Canada? How have these been overcome? Where d id the f i r s t Europeans make settlements? What was the S t . * Lawrence V a l l e y l i k e i n those days (1660-1700)? (b) The lands of the S t . Lawrence comprise a mixed fo res t r e g i o n . What use has been made of these fo res ts? (1) Lumbering. (2) F u r n i t u r e ; implements; musica l instruments; wagons; automobiles; boats and canoes; matches. (3) Pulp and paper. Since t h i s reg ion has no c o a l , what e f f o r t s have been made to overcome t h i s handicap? (4) A g r i c u l t u r e — E x p o r t of cheese, con-densed mi lk , bacon, and maple sugar. . F r u i t d i s t r i c t , N iagara . (5) Min ing—Asbestos , n i c k e l , g o l d , s i l v e r . 1 The content of the course f o r Grade Seven remained as before but was planned on a problem b a s i s . The Grade E ight course was designed to have p u p i l s leave the elementary school wi th a c lear and d e f i n i t e knowledge o f : ^Programme of Studies , 1928-29, pp. 71-72. 98 '•(a.) The home province. (b) The Dominion of Canada. (c) The Empire. (d) A general knowle&ge of the chief pro-ductive regions of the world.1 No mention was made of physical geography, i t being expected that the physical features would be taught incidentally along with the various problems studied. Summary.— The general trend in the subject of geog-raphy has been away from the memorization of a great many isolated and unimportant facts of a physical and p o l i t i c a l nature. More emphasis has in later years been placed on the social and economic aspects of geography. The drawing of maps of the continents from memory has been eliminated from the course. History Prior to 1877 the subject of history included only English history, in which pupils were expects "to know the different periods and the outlines as contained in Collier's "History of the British Empire". Two other books, "Outlines of General History" and "British History", both by j o l l i e r , were authorized in 1873 and 1874 respectively, but the examination for entrance to high school was limited to English history. The f i r s t prescribed course of study issued in 1885 included the study Programme of Studies, 1928-29, p. 94. ^Annual Report, 1878-79, p. 215. 99 of English history as a compulsory subject. In 1887 the course was divided into two parts, British and Canadian, and a new text-book was authorized, "Public School Hostory of England and Canada", by G. Mercer Adam and W. J. Robertson. Both parts of the course were made sparate sub-jects of examination for admission to a high school. A new text was added to the l i s t i n 1897, "The History of the Dominion of Canada", by Clements, but was replaced three years later by Robertson's "Public School History of England and Canada, with B. C. Supplement". The course of study which ap-peared in the Manual of School Law in 1900 assigned to the Intermediate Grade oral biographical study of Canadian and British topics. The Senior Grade course was not outlined, merely the text being mentioned. Eor the next few years the course remained the same, but new texts were authorized from, time to time. In 1906, "History and Geography of British Columbia"" by Lawson and Young, was added to the l i s t . In 1910, Lawson1s "History of Canada" and Symes and Wrong's "English History" were authorized. In 1911 the history course was outlined i n considerable detail for the Intermediate Grade, the course consisting of twenty topics grouped under the main heading of Canada, eight topics dealing with British Columbia's history, and ten topics dealing with the British Empire's development in Africa, Asia, 100 and Australia. 1 The course for the Senior Grade remained the same as before. "Finger-Posts to British History" was specially recommended for use in the Senior Grade as a supplementary text in British History. The following year, the Intermediate Grade course was made longer by the addition of the following topics in European history: 1. A v i s i t to the Early Britons. 2. The Coming of the Romans. 3. A V i s i t to Roman Britain. 4. The Coming of 'the English, 5. A V i s i t to an English Village. 6. The Introduction of Christianity. 7. The Vikings. 8. Alfred the Great. 9. A V i s i t to Normandy. 10. The Norman Conquest. 11. A V i s i t to a Norman Castle. 12. A Tournament. 13. Richard of the Lion Heart. 2 . The same year s 1912, Lawson's "History of Canada" was replaced by Gammell1s book of the same t i t l e , which continued to be authorized for the next eighteen years, un t i l 1930. Symes and Wrong's book continued to be used for British history, but in 1919 the limits were somewhat curtailed for the examination for admission to a high school. Then i t was stated that "The High School Entrance Examination in this subjects w i l l be confined to the Tudor, Stuart, and Hanoverian Periods. 0 -^Appendix, pp. 165-168. Manual of School Law, 1912, p. 68. 5Courses of Study, 1923, p. 8. 101 ! The organization of the schools on an eight-grade basis in 1923 necessitated a change in the allotment of work. To Grade Five were given the topics referring to North America and British Columbia listed above for the Intermediate Grade. Grade Six was to cover the remainder of the previous Intermediate Grade course. Grade Seven was allotted the period of English history from 55 B. C. to 1485 A. D., the subject-matter of which was contained in the f i r s t JPive chapters of "History of England for Public Schools" (Western Canada Series); also, the French period in Canadian history, contained in the f i r s t twelve chap-ters of Gammell's "History of Canada". The Grade Eight course consisted of the remaining chapters of the text, "History of England for Public Schools" covering the period 1485-1920; and the British period in Canadian history, contained i n chapters XIII to XXXI in Gammell's text. A change in the allotment of topics in geography in 1924 made i t necessary to change the history assignments. Grade Five was to be given talks on: (a) early history of British Columbia; e.g. Indian l i f e ; adventures of early explorers; fur trade; Cariboo T r a i l ; missionaries and missions; early pioneers; surveying and building the C. P. R.; stories of the beginnings of such centres as Victoria, Vancouver, New Westminster, Kamloops, etc.; (b) discoverers and explorers of America—(1) a general description of Europe in the 15th century, showing the social. 102 p o l i t i c a l , and economic condition of the times; (2) Marco Polo (and the trade with the East—the Turkish Invasion—breaking of the trade route—and a desire for a new route); (3) Bartholomew 'Diaz; (4) a biographical study of at least fifteen of a given l i s t of topics. The Grade Six course was changed to include the following: 1. Early Britain P e r i o d -Stories selected from the legends of King Arthur and his Knights may be used to illustrate the l i f e and conditions i n Britain at this time. Stories of Boadicea, King Alfred, The Vikings, St. Augustine, An English Tillage i n the Eighth Century. 2. Saxon-Norman Period— "Robin Hood" or stories from "Ivanhoe" may be used to illustrate this period. Studies of I r i a l by Ordeal, Feudal System, Curfew, An English Village in the Twelfth Century. 3. The Age of Chivalry— The Crusades, Illustrated by stories from Scott's "The Talisman". The "Children's Crusade", Knighthood, A Tournament, Richard the Lion-Hearted. 4. Later Medieval Period— Stories of Robert Bruce,.William Wallace, Joan of Arc, the Black Prince.1 Grade Seven classes were to study the period in Br i t i s h history from 1066-1603, and the French period i n Canada, 1492-1763. The Grade Eight course included a study of (a) the British period i n Canada(1763-1924); (b) history of British Columbia; (c) Stuart and Hanoverian periods, 1603 to 1924. •Programme of Studies, 1924-25, p. 58. 103 . , The new subject of c i t i z e n s h i p was added to the h i s t o r y course t h i s year f o r the upper three grades. Grade S i x was to make a study of organizat ion f o r churches, schools , water supply ( i n i r r i g a t i o n d i s t r i c t s ) and f o r general munic ipa l governments ( in m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ) ; Grade Seven, a study of o r g a n i -z a t i o n f o r p r o v i n c i a l purposes; Grade E i g h t , a study of o rgan i -z a t i o n f o r f e d e r a l purposes. A text-book, "Studies i n C i t i z e n s h i p , B. C. E d i t i o n " , by McCaig, was author ized f o r use i n t h i s subject by Grade E ight p u p i l s i n 1926. The teaching of h i s t o r y , Canadian h i s t o r y i n p a r t i c u l a r , was c r i t i c i z e d r a t h e r severe ly by the Survey i n 1925, i n which i t was stated that "the teaching of Canadian H is tory i n the a s s i s t e d 1 schools leaves much to be d e s i r e d " . As i n the subject of geog-raphy, the Survey found an atmosphere of a b s t r a c t i o n and u n r e a l i t y i n the teaching of h i s t o r y and emphasized very s t rongly the necess i ty of teaching h i s t o r y as a l i v i n g r e a l i t y . More s o c i a l -i z e d r e c i t a t i o n lessons , more pro jec ts and dramatizat ion methods, and increased l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s were advocated as remedies f o r t h i s f a i l i n g . In 1930 the Grade F ive course was s l i g h t l y c u r t a i l e d , the minimum number of b iographies being reduced from f i f t e e n to t e n . An extra t o p i c was added to the Grade S ix course, v i z . S o c i a l Development, by which i t was expected to develop a knowledge X J . H. Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey of the School  System of B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 149. V i c t o r i a , P r o v i n c i a l Department of Educat ion, 1925. 104 of the -way in which the people of early and medieval England lived, worked, and struggled slowly towards social equality. The manner of dress, food, games, industrial operations, and means of transportation were to be considered and discussed.' A new text-book was prescribed in 1930 for pupils of Grades Seven and Eight, "A New History of Great Britain and Canada" by Wallace. It was organized on a topical basis, the topics being allotted as follows: Grade 711 The Story of the British Nation. (a) The British Nation in the making, 55 B. C. to 1066 A. D. (b) Feudal England 1066-1485. (c) England and the Tudors 1485-1605, (d) The Stuart Kings and the Great Rebellion, 1603-1660. (e) The Restoration and the Revolution 1660-1714. (f) England under the Hanoverians 1714-1837. (g) The Victorian Era 1837-1901. (h) Britain i n the twentieth century. Part II. The Growth of the British Empire. (a) The voyages of discovery. (b) The English Colonies i n North America. . (c) The English in India* (d) The duel with: France. (e) The loss of the American Colonies. (f) The Br i t i s h under the Southern Cross. (g) The British In the Dark Continent. (h) The British Empire of to-day. Grade T i l l Part III. The Story of English P o l i t i c a l Development. (a) The origin of the English parliament. (b) Parliament and the King. (c) The reform of parliament. (d) The growth of cabinet government. Part 17. Language and Literature. 105 , (a) The story of the English language. (b) The story of English literature.1 The topical arrangement of this new text helped somewhat in the breaking away from the practice of d r i l l i n g a mass of chrono-logical fact as had been done in previous years. Summary.— In the subject of history there has been a change from a chronological development to a topical development. In place of a course consisting of memorized facts about dates, •treaties, and dynasties, we now have a series of topics which appeal to the child's instinctive curiosity i n adventure and romance. The new course tends to develop his power of observa-tion and expression. The subject of citizenship has changed from a memorization of formal rules of constitutional government to a definite training in citizenship. Nature Study Nature study was not mentioned in the courses of study u n t i l 1900. Before that time what was later to be called nature study was t&ught under various other names. In the Annual Report of 1872-73 i t was shown that eleven pupils were being taught 2 natural philosophy. The next year twenty were shown as study-ing animal and vegetable physiology. Forty-seven pupils were ,.1W. S. Wallace, A New History-of Great Britain and  Canada, table of contents. Toronto, Macmillan, 1929. 2 Supra, p. 26. -106 li s t e d as studying 'botany for the year•1882-83 only. Hone of the above named courses appeared oh the l i s t of subjects authorized to be taught, either compulsory:or optional, in the f i r s t course of study of 1885;. In the year 1895, the subject of agriculture was added to the course of study for graded and common schools. Instruction was to be given in.the subject at least twice a week to a l l pupil's in the Fourth and F i f t h Readers. Ih fact, i t "was stated that after May, 1897, i t would become a subject of exami-nation for entrance to high school."'' Before that date, however, a change wasmade whereby agriculture became an optional subject instead.of compulsory.2 The course of: study outlined in the Manual of School Law for 1900' included a.'•definite limit of work to be covered in the subject of nature lessons In the Junior, Intermediate and Senior 3 Grades, It w i l l be noted that some instruction, later classed as geography, came under, the heading of nature lessons in the Junior Grade, .Brittairi's• "Nature Studies".was prescribed as a text for the teacher's use in the Intermediate Grade, and for the pupils' use in the Senior Grade. Physiology,-Hew Pathfinder,•.>Np..,':'-.2ni, was^also''prescribed for use in the Senior Grade,> The following year, 1901,• the Senior Grade course i n nature was made more explicit;••. " •  ; ~ 1 • . . ' • " ''"' '-:' " ;• - : : : '• • • : Annual Report, 1895-96, p.:291. : 2Ibid, 1896-97, p. 299. Appendix, pp. 155-158. 107 • (a) Physiology, as in Pathfinder, No, 2, (b) Instruction to be given on the sub-ject-matter covered by.the topical outline of p. TI of Brittda's "Nature Lessons", omitting sections E, E, G, and H.1 In 1911 the test-book was changed to Brittain* s "Elementary Agriculture and Nature Study". The Intermediate Grade pupils were to study pages 1-114 as well as the section on weather observations on pages 186, 187. The Senior Grade course was an extension of the work of the Intermediate Grade, and included the subject-matter in pages 1-184 (omitting chapters XIX, XX, XXI, and XXVIII, in the f i r s t year's work, and chapter X and pages 161, 168, and 163 of chapter XI i n the second year's work). The table of contents in this text book shows the follow-ing topics: Intermediate Grade Autumn Lessons I. Germination and Early Growth of Plants. II. The Organs of Vegetation. III. Organs of Vegetation (continued). IV. The Organs of Reproduction in flowering Plants. V. Organs of Reproduction (continued). VI. Insects and Their Relation to Plant Li f e . VII. Other Seasonal Changes in Autumn. VIII. How Trees and Shrubs Prepare for Winter and Spring, IX. Some Ideas About Matter. 'Manual of School Law, 1901. Appendix, pv. 159.-. 108 X. Something About Work and Energy. Winter Lessons XI. Contents of the Potato Tuber. XII. The Contents of a Carrot. XIII. What We Can Find in a Grain of Wheat. XT7. The Composition of Cellulose, Wood, Starch, and Sugar-—Chemical' Union. XV. What Becomes of Wood When It Burns. XVI. What Carbonic Acid Gas i s Composed o f — Oxidation. XVII. The Composition of the Air„ XVIII. The Composition of Water. XTX. Amonia Gas and i t s Composition. XX. What the Gluten of Wheat i s composed of. XXI. Vegetable Oils and Acids and a Salt. XXII. Trees in Winter. Spring Lessons XXIII. The Return of the Birds. XXIV. The Seed and the L i t t l e Plant Within It. XXV. The Seasonal Changes of Spring— Spring Calendar* XXVI, The School Garden. XXVII. The Making and Transference of Starch in Plants. XXVIII. The Breathing of Plants. XXIX. The Transpiration of Water by Plants. End of Intermediate Grade Limit. Autumn Lessons I. The Cellular Structure of Plants. •II. The Course of the Sap in Plants. III. Ferns and Other Green Flowerless Plants. IV. Mushrooms. V. Moulds. . VI. Yeasts. •VII. Bacteria and Their Ways. Winter Lessons VTII. The Domestic Animals of the Home and 1 Farm'. IX. The Composition and Care of Milk. 109 X. Lesson on Limestone. XI. The Solid Constituents of the S o i l . XII. Air and Water In the S o i l . Spring Lessons XIII. The propagation of Plants from Buds. H Y . Improvement of Cultivated Plants. XT. A Lesson on Tillage. XVT. Rotation of Crops. XVII. Home and School Grounds. The Physics of Some Common Tools. Fruit Raising in British Columbia. Irrigation. 1 Brittain's test-book was replaced i n 1919 by a 48-page booklet, "Nature Study and Primary Geography", issued by the Department of Education. In this booklet the course was outlined in detail for a l l grades i n the subject of nature and for the Junior Grade in geography.J In 1923 when the elementary school was organized on an eight-grade basis, the course in nature outlined above remained the same in subject-matter, but different i n grade placement. Besides being arranged on the new grade basis, i t was also sub-divided into topics to be covered in the various seasons of the year—autumn, winter, and spring; and again sub-divided into sections dealing with animal l i f e , plant l i f e , gardening and elementary agriculture, and elementary science, the latter in Grades Six, Seven, and Eight only. •^ -J. Brittain, Elementary Agriculture and Nature Study, pp. yi-YII. Toronto, Educational Book Co., 1909. 2Appendis, pp. 183-188 110 The Survey of 1925 found l i t t l e fault with the content of the course, in nature study, but criticized the methods used by many teachers in teaching the subject. "Nature Study as we saw i t in the average British Columbia school i s the inevitable re-sult of the 'formal discipline' theory of education". 1 The Survey suggested that an improvement could be brought about only by improvement of the nature and method of the work in natural science in the normal schools. A continuous effort has been made by the department of education during the past few years to have the course i n nature study presented in a more practical manner. Summary.— During the past few years the course has been made more practical. The course as planned in recent years has proved a great advance over that of the early period. Its specific objects were outlined; methods of securing interest were suggested; and the correlative attitudes and ideals that should be developed were explained. Hygiene The earliest mention made of hygiene as a subject on the British Columbia curriculum was in the year 1885, when the f i r s t course of study was prescribed for the graded and common schools of British Columbia. Hygiene was then listed under X J . H. Putman and G-.M. Weir, Survey of the School  System of British Columbia, p. 160. Victoria, Provincial Department of Education, 1925. I l l "the following subjects may be taught". Two years later i t was made a compulsory course and was added to the l i s t of subjects of examination for admission to a high school. A l l one can gather as to the requirements i n the subject was that pupils were expected "to have a general knowledge of the subject"j^and that three text-books were authorized, namely, "Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene" by Edward Playter; "Manual of Hygiene" by the Provincial Board of Health (Ontario); and "Eirst Book on Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene" by Calvin Cutter. The subject of temperance, which later became a topic under the heading of hygiene, was f i r s t introduced as a sep-arate optional subject i n the year 1888. A book entitles "Public School Temperance" by Dr. B. W. Richardson was authorized as the text to be used. In the course of study for 1889-90 i t was stated that in the study of anatomy, physiology, and hygiene, "oral primary instruction in these a l l i e d subjects may be given to the whole school, but pupils in the Fourth and Eif t h Readers should be required to use the text-book.'"5 It was thought that through the teaching of these subjects the jreacher would be afforded an opportunity for imparting practical instruction on many points of v i t a l consequence to the pupil. It also stated that "in giving Annual Report, 1886-87, p. LI. 2Ibid, 1889-90, p. 123-124. us. instruction in hygiene, the branch subject of temperance, with reference to the e v i l effects of stimulants and narcotics on the human system, should not be overlooked". 1 This branch of the temperance course was thereby made compulsory. Two new texts were added i n 1890: "Pathfinder Physiology" (No. 1, Child's Health Primer), and (No. 2, Physiology for Young People). Another text, Calvin Cutter's "Second Book on Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene" was added in 1891. In 1896 a further change was made regarding the subject of temperance. The Council of Public Instruction that year issued a regulation to the effect that: The Board of Trustees of any School District may require that Temperance as a separate subject from Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene, be taught in their school, provided the authorized text-book be used.^ In other words the Council of Public Instruction ,-was not willing to shoulder the responsibility of making i t a compulsory subject throughout the Province, but permitted any individual School Board to do so for i t s own d i s t r i c t . The course of study prescribed in 1900 omitted the sub-ject of hygiene altogether, but the next year i t appears again in the Senior Grade as a sub-heading under the subject of nature. In 1910 the text-book was changed to "The Essentials of Health". ^Annual Report, 1889r90, p. 123-124. £Tbid, 1895-96, p. 291. 1 1 3 The topics to he considered included: cells; foods; nitrogenous foods; non-nitrogenous foods; alcoholic drinks; digestion; digestion in the stomach and the intestine; the blood; circula-tion; respiration; ventilation; bones; exercises; skin; bathing—clothing; hygiene of the nervous system; cigarette smoking; some essentials of health; emergencies; the emergency nurse; contagious diseases; tuberculosis.^" In the 1919 revision, the subjeet of hygiene continued to be classed as sub-heading of nature study. The text-book was changed to "How to be Healthy" by Halpenny and Ireland. This book had larger print, better illustrations for the child mind, and the table of contents was more appealing to children, intro-ducing such topics as sunlight, fresh air, the home, and summer 9 holidays."' In 1983, under the new eight-grade organization, Grade Seven classes were allotted the topics: good water; clean milk; bad milk; dust; sweeping and dusting; microbes, in action and in disease; the blood in health and in disease; i n -fectious diseases; tuberculosis; disinfection; home-nursing; skin; the nails; care of the mouth; the eyes; ears, nose, and throat; emergencies.^ The Grade Eight course consisted of a "^ C. H. Stowell, The Essentials of Health, pp. V-YI. Toronto, Educational Book Co., Ltd., 1909. 2 J . Halpenny and L. B. Ireland, How to be Healthy, pp. IX and X. Toronto, Educational Book Co., Ltd., 1909, 3Tbid. 114 review- of work previously taught. The 1924-25 Programme of Studies made a definite assignment of work in hygiene to be covered in Grade Six. It included the following topics: sunlight; fresh a i r ; ventilation; sleep; respiration; physical d r i l l ; mental hygiene; clothing; the home; the country school-house; summer holidays; foods; selecting and preparing food; the care of food in the home; alcohol; tobacco. The Grades Seven and Eight courses remained the same as b e f o r e . It was recommended b y the Survey in 1925 that systematic instruction in temperance be given to a l l classes from Grades Five to Eight s inclusive. 1 The Survey also recommended a change be made in the text-book. These recommendations resulted in a revision of the course in 1925, and a change in the text-book in 1929, The name of the course was changed in 1925 to health education. In 1925 a definite course was outlined for each grade. 2 The topics listed for study in Grade One were: nutrition; cleanliness; clothing; rest and sleep; fresh a i r and ventila-tion; and habits of regularity. The topics for Grade Two were the same as in Grade One with the addition of contagious-disease -'•J. E. Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey of the School  System of British Columbia, p, 51. Yictoria, Provincial Department of Education, 1925. ^r^gramme -Gf--Studies, 1925-26. 115 control. The Grade Three course was an extension of the work of Grade Two. The Grade Four course was the same as that of Grade Three with an extra topic, special senses-—ears, nose, and throat. The topics assigned to Grade Five were: nutrition; ' posture; rest and recreation; fresh a i r ; circulation; elimina-tion; special senses; and disease control. Grade Six classes were assigned: the framework of the body; the muscular system; the nervous system; respiration; the blood and i t s uses; and the selection of proper food. The Grade Seven classes were assigned: nutrition; the digestive system; , the nervous system; control of infectious diseases; health departments; f i r s t aid; and suggestions; The Grade Eight course consisted of topics on: nutrition; prevention and control of disease; protection of l i f e from accident; recreation; municipal sanitation; and hygiene and sanitation in rural communities. In 1929 the following topics were deleted from the course: contagious disease control (from Grade Four); elimination and special senses (from Grade Five); nervous system (from Grade Six); nervous system and suggestions (from Grade Seven). The same year the following topics were added to the course: accident-prevention (to a l l grades); play activities (to Grade One); excretions of bodily poisons (to Grade Six); cleanliness as health routine, exercise, posture, and corrections of defects, and mental hygiene (to Grade Seven); nervous system, alcohol and tobacco, and a review of the physiology of digestion, 116 circulation, respiration, and excretion (to Grade Eight). The subject - H a t t e r for the revised course was to be found i n a new text-book, "Physiology and Hygiene" by Ritchie and Caldwell, which was prescribed as a pupil's text i n Grades Seven and Eight. Summary.— The course i n hygiene has changed from an optional course under the name of anatomy, physiology, and hygiene to a compulsory course called health education. An effort has been made i n the past few years to make the course of more practical value by developing in the child good health habits. Physical Training Prior to 1891 the subject of physical training was not authorized as a subject to be taught in the elementary schools., although i n the l i s t of books for use in the public schools ap-peared one on "Physical Culture" by E. G. Houghton as early as 1887. That some pupils were receiving instruction in physical training i s evident from Inspector Wilson's report to the Superintendent of Education i n 1890, in which he states: It i s to be regretted that' there i s not more attention given to physical education. In a few schools physical exereises are indeed conducted, but I am not prepared to say that there i s in every case much physical training. The beneficial effects of physical training, i n more erect forms, better positions, and in more graceful movements, would in time be apparent. The 117 stooping shoulders and narrow chests would give place to a more comely bearing, and to a greater enjoyment of l i f e and i t s duties. Reports like the above led to the introduction of calisthenics as an optional subject on the curriculum.. The test-book by Houghton was deleted in 1897 and no other was added.' The subject remained optional until u n t i l 1912 when physical training and military d r i l l were made compulsory by the following regulations: The Education Department has accepted the con-ditions of the Strathcona Trust for the encouragement of physical training and military d r i l l In the Public Schools. Un<3er the terms of the agreement, regular and systematic intruction i n physical training, ac-cording to the syllabus la i d down in the prescribed text-book (Syllabus of Physical Exercises for Schools, published by the Executive Council, Strathcona Trust), i s compulsory.2 The text-book was based, broadly, on the Swedish system of education exercises, which had been widely adopted on the Continent as well as in the British Navy and Army. In con-tained a series of tables of exercises for children of various ages, and supplementary exercises in skipping, dancing, and games. It continued to be the prescribed text-book un t i l 1926, with new editions being issued in 1919 and again in 1933. The 1919 edition followed generally the arrangement of the 1909 edition, though some important changes were made. The more important of these changes were the lessening of the formal nature of the lessons, and the effort made to render them enjoyable and recreative* •'-Annual Report, 1889-90, p. 133. ^Manual of School Law, 1912. p. 80. 118 The 1933 edition also proved an advance on i t s predecessors. More scope was given for the ini t i a t i v e of the individual teacher. Emphasis was l a i d upon the importance of good posture both i n rest and in action, and on the cultivation of ag i l i t y and sup-pleness through folk dancing and games, and the elimination of stiffness and rigidy from formal gymnasitics. The above changes were in line with the recommendations made by the Survey in 1925. The Survey advocated less formal gymnasium exercies, and more free p3?y and games that would rea-l i z e the end in view, and at the same time give the child genuine pleasure.1. Summary.— There has been a change from a course con-sisting of only the formal, routine physical exercises, to one in which the informal, pleasurable activities play an important part. More emphasis h a s in the past few years been placed upon good posture. Prior to the year 1919 the subject of music has been taught i n a great many elementary schools of British Columbia. It was not a compulsory subject, nor were there any suggestions made by the Department of Education regarding the course that X J . H. Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey of the School System: o f British Columbia, p. 153. Victoria, Provincial D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1925. 119 should, be followed. That i t has been taught at least since 1872 was shown by the early annual reports. 1 The year 1919 marks a great advance in the study of music, as in that year a compre-hensive course in the subject appeared for the f i r s t time, the work for each of the seven years being outlined i n d e t a i l . 2 The course of study for 1921 added a section of work at the begin-ning of the course, and also an extra topic, rhythmic work, to the course for First and Second Reader classes. The 1923 course of study, arranged on an eight-grade basis, necessitated some adjustment in grade placement. Grade One was to cover the work previously assigned to the Receiving Class and Beginner's Reader; Grade Two, the course previously assigned to the First Reader; Grade Three, that of the Second Reader; Grade Four, the Third Reader; Grade Five, the Fourth Reader. The -Grade Seven course included: voice-culture, solo singing, unison and two-part songs. The .Grade Eight course was a continuation of the Grade Seven course and a study of the bass clef by the boys. The.Programme of Studies, 1924-25,- gave a l i s t of songs suggested for each term for the f i r s t three grades. Rhythmic work was extended to Grade Sis, the work being outlined as follows: Grade IV Esercises should be given that w i l l prepare pupils for definite work in music appreciation in Grade VIII. iSupra, p. 26:. 2Appendix, pp. 189-193. 120 Grade Y Use the minuet, gavotte, and skipping steps to introduce the works of Bach, Handel, and Schumann, Grade "71 A beautiful melody or theme taken from the classics to he sung, stepped, or dramatized. Two-part exercises to be stepped. 1 The study of the bass clef by boys was to be commenced in Grade Seven instead of Grade Eight. The Grade Eight course was increased to include the study of music appreciation. This was to be taught from a historical standpoint i n the development of music— the English Madrigalists of the 16th century; Purcell; Bach; Handel; Haydn; Mozart; Beethoven; Schubert; Schumann; Mendelsohnn; Chopin; Grieg. Under the heading of music form, a study was to be made of: binary and ternary forms; history and growth of carols; and folk music. There was no prescribed book for the child's use i n music u n t i l 1925, in which year the Department of Education adopted the "New Canadian Music Course", Books I to V, by Coney and Wickett. In the same year the study of the bass clef by boys was deleted from the course, and a study of the works of Elgar and MacDowell was added to the music appreciation course for Grade Eight. The Survey of 1925 stated that the course in music was over-eliborate, and that there was a lack of systematic instruction •Programme of Studies, 1924-25,f»p. 37, 49, 60. 121 i n vocal music in cities and d i s t r i c t municipalities. The Survey strongly advocated that music should have a prominent place on the curriculum, and even went so far as to suggest that where instruction in music was not given in the school, credit should be given for private instruction. 1 No change was made, however, unt i l 1956 at which time music, along with.all other subjects, underwent drastic revision. 0 During the past few years, the annual musical festivals held in the larger centres have contributed in no small, way to the improvement of the standard of vocal music in the schools. The increasing use of the radio for music appreciation lessons has also tended to enrich the course, especially in schools where no music specialist was employed. Summary.--- The subject of music has not received as much attention as other subjects on the curriculum for the f o l -lowing reasons: (1) i t was not a compulsory subject; (2) no course in music was outlined un t i l 1919; (3) l i t t l e expert instruction has been given to the subject in the normal schools; (4) few inspectors havehad sufficient musical a b i l i t y to inspect the schools in the subject. Since 1919 an effort has been made in many schools to make music something more than mere formal note learning, and to develop the pupils' a b i l i t y to u t i l i z e music to satisfy their emotional nature. •^ -J. H. Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey of the School  System of British Columbia, pp. 94 and 157. Victoria, Provincial Department of Education, 1925, 122 * ', Drawing and Manual Arts Drawing was taught in the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia as early as 1873.1 In the superintendent's report of 1875 a special plea was made for more teachers to make themselves pro-ficient in the teaching of drawing. It was pointed out that the subject of drawing was of distinct value to a c h i l d . 2 It was lis t e d as an optional subject i n the f i r s t course of study i n 1885 with "Freehand Drawing" by Walter Smith as the authorized text-book. In 1890 the following remarks on the subject of drawing were made by the inspector of schools; The Public Schools are advancing, though somewhat slowly, in the teaching of Form Study and Drawing. . . . . • the number of schools in which the subject i s taught i s annually i n -creasing. The Limit Tables of-the Graded Schools of Victoria and New Westminster require in-struction in this branch to be given to the pupils of each division. The Course of Study of the Vancouver Schools introduces Form Study into the lower divisions only. In the same year the "Canadian Series of Drawing Books" was adopted for use by the pupils. Drawing was made a compulsory subject in the elem-entary schools i n 1900. The Junior Grade was allotted the work outlined in Prang's "Elementary Manual for Teachers", the child-ren using the prescribed drawing series, nos. 0 and 1. The ASupra, p. 26. 2Annual Report. 1874-75, p. 15. 3 I b i d , 1889-90, p. 133. 123 Intermediate Grade pupils were to use books 2 and 3 , and the Senior Grade pupils, books 4 and 5 . These books were replaced by Blair's "Canadian Drawing Series" the following year. Colour work, including crayon work followed by brush drawing, was added to the Junior and Intermediate Grade classes in 1911. The nest year an important revision was made. The subject of manual arts was introduced into the curriculum under the heading of drawing and manual work. Paper folding and cut-ting were to be taught to the Receiving Class and First and Second Primers. The purpose of the course was that the pupils might acquire dexterity and s k i l l of hand by constructing and making objects; and a knowledge of the forms—triangle, square, oblong, etc. By introducing exercises in mat-weaving, p l a s t i -cine modelling, raffia-work, and colour-work, i t was hoped that habits of aecurac y, neatness, order, a love of industry, habits of patience, perseverance, and self-reliance, would result. When the Junior Grade course in drawing was completed, the pupils were expected to be able to measure from half an inch upwards, and should have acquired the following drawing vocabulary: vertical, horizontal, angle, triangle, square, rectangle, or oblong, circle, semi-circle, quadrant, oval, cube, sphere, cone, pyramid, and perimeter. Before entering the Senior Grade i t was expected that pupils would be able to measure inches, halves, quarters, eighths, 124 centimetres, and millimetres. They were also expected to be able to use set squares, draw parallel lines, set out measure-ments exactly, and draw cylindrical objects. In addition to the vocabulary listed under the Junior Grade requirements they were supposed to have mastered such words as : parallel lines, acute angles, obtuse angle, right angle, altitude, parallelogram, t r i -angular prism, square prism, cylinder, diagonal, diameter, base, number of degrees in a circle, circumference, arc, radius, and r a d i i . The making of the above mentioned-solids formed the manual work in the Intermediate Grade. The work in the Senior Grade consisted of: the drawing of cubical and cylindrical objects; the construction of geometrical figures; the drawing of plans and elevations, and simple, ac-curate drawing to scale; the mastery of the Roman capitals and lower-case letters; and the colouring of designs based on flowers, insects, and birds. In the 1924-25 Programme of Studies, which was organ-ized on the eight-grade plan, drawing in Grades One and Two became a sub-section under manual arts. The course for these f i r s t two years followed f a i r l y closely the work coutlined above for the Junior Grade, with the addition of topics on stick-laying and freehand paper-cutting. The work in drawing was based on a new text-book, "Teachers' Manual in Drawing and Design. 2 JManual of School Law, 1912, pp. 59-60, 63-65, 69-71. 2Appendix, pp. 194-198. 125 Grades Two to Eight, inclusive, were assigned work in object drawing, design, and colour. A section on lettering was added for Grades Three to Eight, Inclusive. The chief recommendation made by the Survey i n 1925 in the subject of drawing and manual arts was that constructive handwork should be assigned for a l l children in the elementary school. 1 The Survey stressed the creative side of the work in t art, and stated "we can produce things distinctly Canadian . . . . only when we shall develop a distinctively Canadian a r t . " 2 As a result of the recommendations of the Survey, more emphasis was placed on individual effort in poster work and design. Also, the course i n manual arts was extended to include Grades Three and Four, leaving only Grades Five and Six without manual arts or manual training. The course for Grades Three and Four was outlined as follows: Grade III Cardboard Construction--i (l) Square tray; box with l i d ; t r i -angular tray; money-box; waste-paper basket. (2) Toys suggested by pupil; e.g. boats, motor-cars, wheelbarrows, trains, carts, trucks, wagons, etc. (5) Doll's house and furniture. (4) Models of houses, churches, public buildings, with which the children are familiar. J. H. Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey of the School System of British Columbia, p. 153. Victoria, Provincial Department of Education, 1925. 2Ibid, p. 93. 126 (5) Historical scenes; e.g. early set-tlement days, Indian camp-life, etc. (6) A sand-table project for such, sub-ject as "an Indian boy before the white man came", for which card-board and plastic models should be .used. Plastic Models— These should be correlated with Nature and Geography lessons.and should include various fruits, vegetables, leaves, etc.; boats, lighthouses, etc. Grade TV Cardboard Construction— (1) Lamp-shade; hexagonal tray; candle-stick; pencil-box; blotter-holder or book cover, (2) As for Grade I I I , but more d i f f i c u l t models should be attempted and more exact work expected. Plastic Modelling— This should be correlated with the Nature, Geography, and History lessons. Free-cut t i n g -Booklets with free-cutting and pictures illustrative of some of the f o l -lowing lessons: l i f e in the cold lands; l i f e in the hot lands; l i f e l i f e In the temperate grass lands; l i f e In the temperate forests. 1 The only further change prior to 1936 was in 1930 when object drawing was deleted from Grades One, TITO, and Three, and a new text, "Teachers* Manual of Drawing" by Weston, was pres-cribed. The new text was very similar i n content and arrangement ^Programme of Studies, 1926-27, pp. 30, 38, 127 to the one i t supplanted. Summary.— The subject of drawing has developed from a r i g i d course i n mechanical and model drawing to a more elastic course in which the main objective has been the development of the a b i l i t y of self-expression in line and colour. The subject of manual arts was f i r s t introduced into Grades One and Two in 1912, and was extended to include Grades Three and Four i n 1926. There has been a general tendency during the past few years to integrate manual arts with other subjects, particularly health education, history and geography, in the form of projects. Manual Training The subject called manual training was f i r s t intro-duced into the Province of British Columbia in 1900, as a result of an offer made by Sir. Wm. Macdonald to the cities of Victoria and Vancouver. Except for providing the rooms in which to carry on this branch of study, neither the Education Department nor the c i t i e s were asked to bear any of the expense for the f i r s t three years. This was borne entirely by Sir.Via. Macdonald, who wished to Illustrate the usefulness of some form of handwork being taken as part of a child's school l i f e . After the f i r s t three years Sir. Wm. Macdonald agreed to donate the equipment already Installed in the various manual training centres, pro-viding the school trustees of Victoria and Vancouver would agree 128 to the carrying on of the work for one year at their expense This was done, and so successful was the work that schools in other parts of the Province soon asked for assistance for establishing such centres. In 1908, so important had this branch of the curriculum become that a director of manual training was appointed by the Department of Education. In his f i r s t report, Mr. Dunneli, the director, showed that there were ten manual training instructors employed in the Province. His report of 1909 stated, "There are now about 2000 boys receiving weekly instruction in this branch of study'.2 By 1912 there were 32 centres in operation. Such was the advance of this optional subject that the Department of Education saw f i t to issue in the 1912 Manual of School Law the f i r s t suggested course in manual training. 3 It was arranged as a three year course, each year's work being divided into three main headings, viz.—drawing, woodwork, and theory. In 1915 the work of organizing and supervising manual training was enlarged to include higher technical work, Mr. John Kyle, A..R.C.A., being appointed as director of a l l techni-cal branches. The course in woodwork was revised in 1916 and placed on a "model" basis as follows: 1st model to introduce planing, squaring, tenon-saw, striking-knife. ^-Annual Report, 1907-08, p. B32. 2Ibid, 1908-09, p. A28. 3Appendix, pp. 172-173. 1£9 . 2nd model to introduce horizontal chisel-ling, gauging. 3rd model to introduce vertical chiselling. 4th model to introduce boring, bow-sawing . 5th model to introduce sand-papering, end-grain f i l i n g , calipers. 6th model to introduce notching. 7th model to introduce chamfering, 8th model to introduce modelling with the knife. 9th model to introduce end-grain boring. 10th model to introduce half-lap joint, 11th model to introduce nailing, shooting-board, 12th model to introduce housing-joint spokeshave. 13th model to introduce modelling with spokeshave, scraper. 14th model to introduce end-grain chamfering. . • . . 15th model to introduce inlaying. 16th model to introduce glued joint, end-grain planing. 17th model to introduce mortise and tenon joint. 18th model—A model supplied by each boy based on any of the preceding exercises. 19th model to introduce parallel gouging. 20th model to introduce rebating. 21st model to introduce tonguing and grooving. 22nd model to introduce modelling and , gouging. 23rd model to introduce stopped housing. 24th model to introduce stopped chamfering. 25th model to introduce router-plane and keying. 26th model to introduce easy dovetailing. 27th model to introduce stopped rebating. 28th model to introduce dovetailing (more d i f f i c u l t ) . 29th model—A model supplied by each boy based 130 > on any of the preceding exercises. 1 In 1919 the course was again revised under a "group scheme of work", whereby the above twenty-nine models were ar-ranged into five main groups of similar types of work. Alter-native models were permitted, providing they embodied the re-quired exercises. The course in drawing was extended to include the making of complete working drawings from dimensioned sketches, drawings from models, and ruled and freehand sketching. The director of technical training, in his report of 1927, explained that although a course in manual training had been definitely authorized, considerable latitude was given to the instructors in drawing up courses suitable to their special conditions. A l l courses, however, had to be submitted to the Department of Education for their sanction and had to be built up from an understanding of educational principles. w Prior to 1936 manual training had been an optional subject, to be introduced or deleted from the curriculum at the whim of the Boards of School Trustees. The Survey had recommended in 1925 that manual training for boys be compulsory for Grades Eive to Eight i n . a l l elementary schools of six or more rooms.4 Vianual of School Law, 1916, p. 64. 2Appendix, pp. 174-176. ^Annual Report, 1926-27, p. M55. -4 j . H. Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey of the School System of Br i t i s h Columbia, p. 172. Victoria, Provincial Department of Education, 1925. 131 ' This recommendation led to the passing of the following amend-ment to the "Public Schools Act" in 1936: In Grades T i l and T i l l in city school dis-t r i c t s of the f i r s t and second class and i n any other school d i s t r i c t where the Council of Public Instruction so directs, the Board of School Trustees in conformity with the regulations governing equipment and courses of study, shall establish in the schools under i t s jurisdiction courses in practical arts, including manual training and home economies.1 So, after thirty years of t r i a l , the subject achieved the same status as academic subjects on the curriculum, and no longer did the retention of i t depend upon the attitude of an isolated community. Summary.— Instruction in manual training was begun in 1900. The f i r s t suggested course in the subject was issued by the Department of Education in 1912. Since that time only two revisions have been made, but instructors have been allowed a certain amount of freedom in making the course conform to the needs of the community, the equipment available, and to the a b i l i t y of the individual students. It became a compulsory subject in cities of the f i r s t and second class in 1936. Domestic Science The f i r s t class in domestic science i n British Columbia was opened in Victoria in the year 1903.2 Vancouver started a xAnnual Report, 1935-36, p. H80. 2 I b i d , 1902-03, p. C55. 132 class in 1905 and in three years had four domestic science centres."'" A syllabus of work to be covered in the subject f i r s t appeared in 1912, based on a three-year course. The f i r s t year's work included: ten lessons of one and a half hours' duration on home management; five lessons of the same length on home nur-sing; and twenty lessons of two-hours' duration on laundry work. The second and third years' work each consisted of thirty-five lessons of two and a half hours' duration on the theory and practice of cooking. By the year 1915 there were 39 domestic science centres i n the Province, giving instruction to 5967 elementary school g i r l s . 2 In 1919 the course was revised to include instruction in needlework, home management, and practical and theoretical cook-ery i n each of the three year's work. In addition, the topic of personal hygiene was studied In the f i r s t year, and laundry work i n the second and third years. For the guidance of teachers in schools where needlework was the only branch of domestic science taught, a suggested six-year course was issued commencing with the F i r s t Reader classes and continuing to the Senior Fourth classes. During the f i r s t three years the various kinds of stitehes were taught. The latter three years' work included: exercises involving the various stitehes; patching, darning; ^Annual Report, 1904-05, p. A57. 2Ibid, 1913-14, p. A88. 133 knitting; draughting, free cutting, and making of under-garments."'" To accommodate classes in rural schools where the cooking of hot lunches was undertaken, the Department of Education. i n 1919 drew up a suggested "Nature Study Course i n Foods" which continued to be included in the courses of study for elementary schools u n t i l 1928. The course was quite an elaborate one and was set forth i n considerable detail. It included the study of: beverages; f r u i t s ; cereals; fuel foods; muscle and bone building foods; tissue builders; mineral foods; flour; sugar; cheese; eggs; vegetables; meat; f i s h ; raising agents; p table-setting; and menus. The number of domestic science centres in the Province having increased i n 1927 to 57 centres with 9298 elementary school pupils, the Department of Education appointed a Director of Home Economics, whose duty i t was to organize and supervise a l l domestic science work in the Province. Owing to the lack of uniformity i n the work offered i n the various centres throughout the Province, the newly appointed director, Miss Jessie McLenaghen, soon after her appointment, called together a committee of the leading domestic science teachers to redraft the course of study. ^-Courses of Study, 1919, p. 13. 2Ibid, pp. 53-56. BAnnuaI Report, 1926-27, p. M63. 134 It was decided to change the name from domestic science to home economics, i t being thought that the latter name better suggested the social science of housekeeping and home-making. The new course provided for a broader programme than merely cooking and.sewing. It was organized on a unitary-basis. The Grade Six course included units on: health; preparatory subject-matter; suggested problems; and further sug-gestions. The Grade Seven course included units on: health; breakfast; luncheons, afternoon teas, and suppers; personal accounts; home management; and kimono draft. The Grade Eight course included units on: food preservation; health; luncheons and suppers; dinners; home management; and clothing selection and construction. Each unit was sub-divided into many sub-headings and i n some cases the length of time to be devoted to a particular topic was stated."*" The above course remained unchanged u n t i l 1936. In 1925 the Survey had recommended that the subject of home economics be made compulsory for g i r l s in Grades Five to Eight in a l l elementary schools of six or more rooms. In 1936 the "Public Schools Act" was amended making i t a compulsory sub-ject in Grades Seven and Eight in city school di s t r i c t s of the f i r s t and second class and in any other school d i s t r i c t where the 2 Council of Public Instruction might direct. •programme of Studies, 1928-29, pp. 114-124. 2Annual Report, 1935-36, p. H80. 1 3 5 , , Summary.— The f i r s t nlass i n domestic science was begun in 1903. The f i r s t course in the subject was outlined by the Department of Education in 1912. It was revised i n 1919 and again in 1928 at which time the name was changed to home economics. As a result of these revisions the course has been made of so much more practical and cultural value, and so many new centres have been opened, that i t was made a compulsory subject in 1936 i n city school dis t r i c t s of the f i r s t and second class. CHAPTER V SUMMffiY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary of Curriculum Treads i n the Past A d e t a i l e d course f o r each g r a d e . — P r i o r to 1900 the course i n most subjects consisted of a s p e c i f i e d text-book, the subject-matter of which was to be covered by the end of the elementary school p e r i o d . T h i s was changed i n 1900, when the elementary school was d i v i d e d i n t o three grades, J u n i o r , I n t e r -mediate, and S e n i o r , The courses were then o u t l i n e d f o r each of the three grades. I n 1923 a f u r t h e r change was made. The elementary school p e r i o d was d i v i d e d i n t o eight grades, each grade representing one year. The course f o r each grade was given i n considerable d e t a i l , the amount of d e t a i l being increased from time t o time. Grouping of sub j ect s.—There has been a general tendency, p a r t i c u l a r l y since 1900, to group two or more subjects of a s i m i l a r nature under one h e a d i n g T h e subjects of language, composition, grammar, s p e l l i n g and d i c t a t i o n , r e ading, and l i t e r a t u r e , each of which had at some time been l i s t e d as a separate subject on the curriculum, now a l l appear under.the one main heading of language. S i m i l a r l y , the subjects of botany, elementary agriculture,, animal and vegetable physiology, and elementary Manual of School Law, 1900, pp. 53-55. 2 Courses of Study f o r the Elementary, High, T e c h n i c a l , and Normal Schools of B. C , 1923, pp.. 5-20. 137 science are now a l l taught under the capt ion of nature study. Anatomy, physiology, hygiene, and p h y s i c a l education and organized games are now a l l inc luded i n the subject of hea l th educat ion. Along with t h i s grouping of subjects there has been developed a greater c o r r e l a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l the subjects of the curr icu lum. Improved t e x t - b o o k s . — F r o m time to time the text-books prescr ibed by the Department of Education have been changed,, The fo l lowing reasons have been advanced: (1) b e t t e r organizat ion of the subject-matter, as i n the subject of grammer; (2) t o p i c a l treatment of the subject-matter instead of chrono log ica l , as i n h i s t o r y ; (3) more up-to-date m a t e r i a l , as i n geography; (4) se lect ions more su i tab le fo r ch i ld ren of a c e r t a i n age, as i n reading; (5) b e t t e r choice of examples and e x e r c i s e s , as i n a r i t h m e t i c . As a general ru le text-books have been improved upon as a r e s u l t of these changes. The entrance examination and a " f a c t u a l " c u r r i c u l u m . — P r i o r to 1922 a l l p u p i l s wishing to attend a high school were compelled to pass an entrance examination. Th is o f t e n l ed e i t h e r to the d i c t a t i n g o f a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f notes to be copied and learned by the p u p i l s , or tothe memorizing of f a c t s c u l l e d from the t e x t 0 The curr iculum that was taught under such con-d i t i o n s might w e l l be c a l l e d a " f a c t u a l " curr iculum, one with l i t t l e of permanent va lue that the p u p i l s could carry w i t h them through l i f e . 1S8 In 1922 i t became p o s s i b l e f o r a c e r t a i n percentage of the p u p i l s to proceed to h igh school upon the recommendation o f . 1 the p r i n c i p a l s . T h i s had a decided e f f e c t f o r good on the methods adopted i n teach ing . Much of the time that had p r e v i o u s l y been spent i n wr i t ing and memorizing notes could now be used i n planning and making p r o j e c t s , and i n preparing and reading repor ts by the s o c i a l i z e d r e c i t a t i o n method. The curr icu lum now meant something more than f a c t s . But whi le t h i s proved to be a forward s t r i d e , there s t i l l remained a great amount of f a c t u a l data that could w e l l have been d e l e t e d . Emphasis on the c h i l d rather than the s u b j e c t . — During the past twenty years much has been w r i t t e n regarding where the emphasis should be p laced i n teach ing . While i t has been genera l ly accepted that the emphasis should be placed on the c h i l d rather than the subject , c e r t a i n features o f our curr iculum have m i l i t a t e d against such a course being fo l lowed. One such feature has been an over-crowded curr i cu lum. Whereas extra t o p i c s have been added from time to time to var ious subjects on the curr iculum, very seldom has a s i m i l a r amount of work been de le ted . T h i s has l e d over a per iod of years to a very much over-crowded cond i t ion i n c e r t a i n subjects . Some attempt has been made to l essen the amount of work i n c e r t a i n subjects . E s p e c i a l l y i s t h i s true i n the case of s p e l l i n g , which has been l i m i t e d to the 4000 most commonly used words. •Annual Report , 1921-22, pp. 0115-0121. 139 The a e s t h e t i c and emotional aspects o f the c u r r i c u l u m . — In the ear ly years of education i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and f o r many years afterwards, l i t t l e thought was given to the aes thet i c or emotional aspects o f the curr icu lum. Gradual ly subjects other than " t o o l " subjects were given cons iderat ion . The word " l i t e r a t u r e " appeared on the curr iculum f o r the f i r s t time i n 1911, the f i r s t course i n music was issued i n 1919, and while some drawing was done as ear ly as 1873, very l i t t l e of the a r t i s t i c type was done u n t i l a f t e r 1900. As time went on, the l i t e r a t u r e course became much broader, several l i t e r a r y works be ing prescr ibed i n Grades Seven and E i g h t in place o f a reader; an apprec ia t ion course in music was prescr ibed f o r Grade E ight i n 2 1924; and an exce l lent course i n a r t was out l ined i n the same year . The importance of hea l th educat ion .— The subject of hea l th education has continued to grow i n importance s ince the year 1885, when i t was f i r s t l i s t e d as an opt iona l subject . By 1925 a very d e t a i l e d course had been prescr ibed f o r each o f the 3 eight grades. The f u t i l i t y of developing a sound mind i n an unsound body has been more and more recognized as the years have gone by. In l a t e years more freedom, more v a r i e t y , more rhythm, and more spontaneity and pleasure have taken the p lace of the e a r l i e r s t i f f n e s s , r i g i d i t y and boredom. An e f f o r t has been made x S u p r a , p. 26. Supra, p. 120. 3 Programme of Studies f o r the Elementary Schools o f B. 0 . , 1925-26. 140 i n the past few years to develop i n the c h i l d a wholesome des i re f o r good h e a l t h ; to e s t a b l i s h a inaximum of p h y s i c a l and mental hea l th which w i l l enable the c h i l d to contr ibute most to home, schoo l , and community l i f e ; and to develop a s o c i a l conscience which w i l l st imulate i n t e r e s t and i n t e l l i g e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h e a l t h a c t i v i t i e s . Manual a r t s and home economics.— The value of t r a i n i n g through the subjects of manual a r t s and,home economics has been gradual ly, recognized s ince 1900. In that year the f i r s t manual treeing c l a s s was s t a r t e d . Three years l a t e r a c lass i n domestic science was formed. In 1911 manual a r t s i n the form of paper f o l d i n g , p l a s t i c e n e , model l ing and such l i k e a c t i v i t i e s were introduced f o r a l l Grade One and Grade Two c l a s s e s . As a r e s u l t a recommendation made i n the " S u r v e y of the School System" i n 1925 s the subject o f manual a r t s was extended to inc lude Grades Three and Four, l e a v i n g only the Grade F i v e and Grade S i x c lasses s t i l l without any prescr ibed course i n manual a r t s . Manual t r a i n i n g and home economic centres continued to increase i n number, and i n 1936 both these subjects were made compulsory f o r Grade Seven and E i g h t c lasses i n school d i s t r i c t s of the f i r s t and second c l a s s . J . H. Putnam and G. M. Weir, Survey o f the School System of B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 229. V i c t o r i a , P r o v i n c i a l Depart-ment o f Educat ion, 1925. 141 -The Ad-rent of the Junior High School Advantages of the 6-5-5 organization.— Arising out of -the findings of the Putnam-Weir "Survey of the School System" of B r i t i s h Columbia was the establishment of the f i r s t junior high school in the province in 1927. Throughout the Survey many references were made to the benefits that would result from the 6-3-5 organization. The aims of the junior high school were stated in the "Programme of Studies for the Junior High Schools" of 1927, and need not be quoted here. It is necessary to say, however, that the four great ideas set forth as distinctive i n the new junior high school organization were guidance, exploration, adaptation to individual differences, and integration of subject-matter. These ideas were a l l linked up i n some way with the curriculum. There was a tendency to reduce the number of subjects by taking account of larger and more inclusive areas of thought. The socialized method of presentation became of great importance in practically a l l the subjects of the curriculum. The influences of the junior high school on the curriculum of the elementary schools.— As we are interested in the elementary school curriculum, the junior high school organization w i l l be considered only i n so far as i t has affected the elementary school curriculum. Progressive elementary school principals in various parts of the province have introduced some of the features of the junior high school programme into their schools. Some of these features have proved to be an advantage, while others have not. 142 -The s o c i a l i z e d procedure i n teaching var ious subjects o f the curr iculum has been adopted with good r e s u l t s i n many schools throughout the prov ince , and i s gain ing increased favour as time goes on . The school l i b r a r y , a v i t a l part of the jun io r h igh school o rgan izat ion , has been estab l i shed i n many elementary schools , not merely f o r p leasurable reading but a l so for use by the p u p i l s i n obta in ing m a t e r i a l f o r s o c i a l i z e d - l e s s o n r e p o r t s . The number and s i z e of l i b r a r i e s i n the elementary schools are r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g . The e f f o r t s i n the jun ior high school to adapt the courses to the i n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t i e s o f the pup i l s has had a b e n e f i c i a l e f fec t on the elementary schools by causing the emphasis to be placed on the c h i l d r e n rather than on the s u b j e c t -matter . The t r a i n i n g of p u p i l s f o r leadersh ip through student c o u n c i l s , a n exce l lent feature of the jun ior h igh school , has been copied by many elementary school teachers . Hobby c lubs , an impor-tant e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y i n the jun io r h igh school , have a l so been organized i n many elementary schools with outstanding success. Some attempts have been made to introduce exploratory courses i n the elementary schools . In the c i t y o f V i c t o r i a , the study o f French was of fered i n Grade Seven and the study of L a t i n i n Grade E i g h t . At f i r s t i t was intended that these courses were to b e . o p t i o n a l . Soon the problem arose as to what was to be done w i t h the p u p i l s not e l e c t i n g to take them. The number of p u p i l s i n Grades Seven and E ight i n the V i c t o r i a 143 .elementary schools was too small to warrant extra teachers being provided f o r those p u p i l s not wishing t o study a f o r e i g n l a n -guage. Hence, i n the end, the courses became v i r t u a l l y compulsory. The in t roduct ion of these courses in to the elementary school curr iculum, while advantageous f o r those who intended to continue the study i n the h i g h school , proved to be p r a c t i c a l l y a waste of t ime f o r those not in terested i n the study o f fo re ign languages. The in f luences of the jun ior h igh school on the elementary school have been dec idedly advantageous. The one case re fe r red to i n the above paragraph, where they have not been of value on ly goes to prove that a l l the b e n e f i c i a l features of the jun ior h igh school cannot be atta ined under the 8-4 o rgan izat ion . I t should be s ta ted , however, that whi le i t has been found poss ib le to introduce many features o f the jun ior h igh school in to the elementary school , the same features can be gained with s t i l l greater success under the 6 - 3 - 3 o r g a n i z a t i o n . The Hew Programme of S tud ies , 1936 The conservatism of the o l d c u r r i c u l u m . — Based on the f a l l a c y of teaching subjects rather than c h i l d r e n , the curr icu lum p r i o r to 1 9 3 6 gradual ly expanded without any r a d i c a l change. According to D r . Sandi ford t h i s conservatism was based on a d e f i n i t e phi losophy of education^ which h e l d , ( 1 ) that the educat ional expert could se lect from the great educat ional accumulations of mankind those things which were most va luable and which therefore should be known by everybody; (2) that t h i s 144 knowledge could be embodied i n a s e r i e s of text-books; (3) that teacher's could be t ra ined to teach t h i s knowledge from the prescr ibed text-book; (4) that inspectors could be appointed to see that t h i s body of knowledge was proper ly taught; (5) that examinations could be devised which would t e s t whether or not a p u p i l had mastered t h i s body o f knowledge. X One outstanding feature o f a curr icu lum based on the above phi losophy i s that i t has r e s u l t e d i n thoroughness, a feature f o r which our schools have long been noted. But thoroughness i n not the only good feature of an educational system. Progress depends on change. I t i s p o s s i b l e that we have been too r i g i d i n our conservatism. We must s t r i v e to r e t a i n the best of the o ld but be every ready to add the best of the new. i t new phi losophy o f e d u c a t i o n . — Fol lowing the example o f other Canadian prov inces , the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Educat ion issued a completely rev i sed curr iculum f o r the elementary schools i n the year 1936. The new r e v i s i o n was based on a new conception o f educat ion. Under the heading "Aims and Phi losophy of Educat ion" i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the new r e v i s i o n , i t was stated that the people of a democratic s t a t e must s t r i v e to do more than ensure the safety , s t a b i l i t y , and perpetu i ty of t h e i r c u l t u r e . They must teach t h e i r c i t i z e n s "to make new adjustments T>eter Sandi ford , "Curriculum Rev is ion i n Canada". The Schoo l . Elementary e d i t i o n (February, 1938), pp. 473-474. 145 - i n an evolv ing and progress ive s o c i a l order , so that s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y may be uni ted w i t h s o c i a l p r o g r e s s " . 1 The development of character and c i t i z e n s h i p i s stated as the main object ive of educat ion. I t i s the funct ion of the school , through c a r e f u l l y se-l e c t e d experiences, to s t imulate , modify, and d i r e c t the growth of each p u p i l p h y s i c a l l y , mental ly , mora l ly , and s o c i a l l y , so that the cont inua l enrichment of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e and an improved soc ie ty may r e s u l t . Learning should eventuate in des i rab le outcomes such as knowledge, h a b i t s , s k i l l s , i n t e r e s t s and apprec ia t ions , a t t i t u d e s , and i d e a l s . The p u p i l s must be provided with a s t imulat ing environment in which t h e i r n a t u r a l tendencies w i l l be d i rec ted into use fu l a b i l i t i e s and des i rab le a t t i t u d e s . Thus the new curr iculum does not hold with the formal d i s c i p l i n a r y theory o f education nor with t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f that education i s the a c q u i s i t i o n of use fu l knowledge. Knowledge i s , beyond quest ion, important, but i t should not be the only outcome of the educative process . Un i ted States in f luences on the new curriculum.---The new r e v i s i o n r e f l e c t s to a considerable degree the in f luence of American educators. I t i s planned on the 6 - 3 - 3 o rgan izat ion , which, D r . Sandi ford s t a t e s , "Whatever i t s name, i s u l t i m a t e l y ig der ived from American p r a c t i c e , not B r i t i s h " . Emphasis i s ^Programme of Stud ies f o r the Elementary Schools of  B. 0., 1956, p . 8. %eter Sand i ford , "Curriculum R e v i s i o n i n Canada**. The S c h o o l , Elementary e d i t i o n (February, 1938), p.475. 146 placed throughout on activity programmes which are derived chiefly from the "Progressive" element i n American education. More importance i s attached to art work, music, manual or practical arts, health, physical education, and mental hygiene. Much of what were formerly extra-curricular activities are now made an integral part of the school programme. Practically the whole programme i s based on the "unit" system of presentation, a system strongly advocated by Dr. H. C. Morrison, professor of education in the University of Chicago. 1 Morrison's system of testing, assimilation tests, mastery tests, and classification tests, are also strongly advocated in the new revision. A few type units and tests are included, but teachers are expected to make additional ones for themselves. Thus recognition i s given to the fact that the teacher, not the programme of studies, i s the keystone of the educational arch. This greater scope for the teachers' i n i t i a t i v e augurs well for an improved education. Some advantages of the new curriculum.— Considerable space i n the new curriculum is devoted to the subject of libraries, The importance of the school library i s stressed. In fact, so necessary i s the school library that i t would be impossible to teach the new course at a l l adequately without i t . This o f f i c i a l recognition that everything necessary for intellectual development i s not contained i n the prescribed school text-book i s a hopeful sign. XHenry C. Morrison, The Practice of Teaching in the  Secondary School, pp. 23-27. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1934. 147 The new curriculum represents the very best efforts of o f f i c i a l s of the education department, educational special-i s t s , and teachers actually engaged in teaching. It has been compiled with a f u l l knowledge of the latest developments in educational theory and practice. It has broken with the time-worn formalism and traditional acquisition of knowledge. It has given more scope to the teachers' iniative. It i s s t i l l in the process of evolution. It now remains for i t to be given a f a i r t r i a l by a l l concerned, a persistent effort on the part of the teachers to grasp the spirit of the new course, and a patient attitude on the part of the parents while the teachers and pupils grasp this new s p i r i t . Some General Conclusions Possible future trends i n the curriculum.— If one were , to forecast the future development of the curriculum from a knowledge of i t s past growth, which has been "one of accretion '. • .1 rather than of intussusception", one would most li k e l y assume that the underlying principles of the present curriculum, would remain the same for a great many years to come. However, i n view of recent developments, to make such an assumption i s not justifiable. Heretofore, teachers have had l i t t l e or no say in the formation of the curriculum, whereas recently they have "S?eter Sandiford, "Curriculum Revision in Canada". The School, Elementary edition (February, 1938,.), p. 475. 148 •been given considerable responsibility in i t s formation. . This fact,' along with a gradually increasing keenness on the part of the teachers i n the development of a professional consciousness, augurs well for a continued interest in curriculum construction. Already, i n various teachers' organizations study groups have been formed for the purpose of considering curriculum problems and of making recommendations to the educational authorities. It might be thought that a danger of progressing too rapidly exists, with the "Progressive" group in the united States as an example. Such is possible, but, in view of our ingrained belief i n the thoroughness of the "tool" subjects, not very probable. This ingrained belief in thoroughness w i l l , let us hope, save us from too wide a break from what has long been ad-mired in our educational system. By a l l means, let us progress by adding to our curriculum the best features of those of other countries; but let us not, in our ardent desire for the development of individual personalities, lose the thoroughness in essentials for which our pupils have been held for many years i n such high regard. Necessary changes in the teacher-training i n s t i t u t i o n s . — It i s generally accepted that the teacher i s more important than the curriculum. With poor teachers the best programme of studies in the world would prove a failure. It must be remembered that practically a l l our teachers were taught in the normal schools to teach the old curriculum under the old philosophy of education. -149 These teachers are finding i t very d i f f i c u l t , in some cases almost impossible, to adapt themselves to the methods demanded by the new curriculum. Therefore students attending the teacher-training institutions since the inception of the new course must be taught in a.different manner from that of their predecessors. The teacher-training institutions should be equipped to give prospective teachers a broader, richer, and better-planned foundation of general education than has been given in the past; to offer special instruction to students showing an aptitude for such subjects as music and art; to give "adequate preparation for leadership in the extra-cur-ricular l i f e of the public schools". 1 Some IPurther Studies That, Are Needed (1) Study groups.— In the foreword to the new revision of 1936, the following paragraph appears: Criticism of this Programme of Studies not merely i s invited; i t Is urgently solicited. Is any course, too heavy? How could i t be lightened? How could i t be improved in the sequence of topics or in grade placement? What non-functional matter could be elim-inated? What should be added?2 The above paragraph contains several suggestions for further study. It was pointed out i n the previous section that already study groups are working along just such lines as are advocated "V. G. Black, The Development and Present Status of Teacher  Education in Western Canada, with Special Reference to the Curriculum. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Chicago Libraries, 1936, p. 319. Programme of Studies for Elementary Schools of B. 0., 1936, p 150 'in the above quotations Such study groups must continue and must increase in number, not only in the cities where organi-zation i s comparatively easy but also in the rural municipali-ties and d i s t r i c t s . For, while i t i s true that considerable latitude i s allowed by the new revision, i t i s also true that i n a general way the same curriculum applies over the whole of the province, and that therefore the teachers i n rural municipalities and dis t r i c t s should be prepared to make recommendations for i t s improvement. (2) Experimentation.—At the time the new revision was being formulated, " i t was expected that there would f i r s t be 1 a try-out of the course in a few selected schools". Although this "try-out" stage did not materialize, i t would seem that experimental class groups might be used with success in the future. At the time of writing the Department of Education i s experimenting with a series of radio broadcasts i n the subjects of music appreciation, social studies, and general science. Further experiments in ascertaining the value of visual and aural aids i n teaching might well be carried on. In this scientific age, with such a body of experimental literature available, there i s a great need for less haphazard t r i a l and error and for more deliberate controlled experimentation, (5) The need for applying present knowledge.—From what ^Programme of studies for the Elementary Schools of B. 0., 1936, p. 6. 151 has been stated i n the preceding chapters, i t i s apparent that those responsible for the elementary school curriculum i n British Columbia have not always applied a l l the scientific knowledge which i s available about curriculum construction. from what has been presented in this chapter, i t i s evident that an endeavour was made in 1936 to form a curriculum based on modern s c i e n t i f i c principles. In order that further progress might be made i t w i l l be necessary for the Department of Education to provide adequate courses in our teacher-training Institutions; to encourage teachers in service to grasp the underlying principles of the new curriculum by providing suitable summer school courses; to be consistent in i t s efforts by setting examinations that are in accord with the spirit of the new curriculum; and to keep an ever watchful eye on the future development of the curriculum. 152 BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources Original Manuscripts in the Archives of British Columbia Board of Education. Correspondence, June 6th, 1865 to Sept. 6th, 1867. Cridge, Edward. Folder No. 395; Letters Nos. 1 a, 15, 24. Ferris, W. D., et a l . Folder No. 556; Letters Nos. XX ^  *^*^ |* Douglas, S i r James. Letters to Archibald Barclay, Governor of Hudson Bay Company; 16th May, 1850 to 6th Nov., 1853. Colledge, Richard. Notice to Victoria, Vancouver8 s  Island; 15th Dec., 1857. Victoria District School Board. Minutes, 1869-87. Inspector-General of Schools. Report to Governor  Musgrave for the Year 1870. Journals and Acts: The Common School Act, 1865. Vancouver Island Laws, 1863-1865 (Archives of British Columbia). Journals of the Legislative Council of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1867. Publications of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education: Annual Report,,1871-72 to 1935-36, inclusive. Manual of School Law, 1893, 1897, 1900, 1901, 1906, 1910, 1912, 1913, -1914, 1916. , (1906, 1913, Office of the Superintendent of Education; a l l others in Provincial Library, Victoria, B. C.j 153 Courses of Study for the Public, High, and Normal Schools, 1919. (Provincial Library). Courses of Study for the Public. High, Technical, and  Normal Schools, 1921. (Provincial Library). Courses of Study for the Elementary, High, Technical, and Normal Schools, 1923, (Provincial Normal School, Victoria,,B. C.) Programme of Studies for the Elementary Schools, 1924-25, 1925-26, 1926-27, 1928-29, 1930, 1932, 1933. Programme of Studies for the Junior High Schools, 1927, 1932, 1936. (Provincial Normal School, Victoria). Programme of Studies for the Elementary Schools, Grades I to VI; Bulletins I, II, III, 1936. Putman, J. H. and Weir, G-. M. Survey of the School System  of British Columbia. Victoria, 1925. Secondary Sources Alexander, W. J. and Mowat, A. Elementary Composition with Grammar. Toronto, Gage and Co., Ltd., 1922. Black, W. G. The Development and Present Status of Teacher-Training in Western Canada, with Special Reference to the Curriculum. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Chicago Libraries, 1936. Brittain, J . Elementary Agriculture and Nature Study. Toronto, Educational Book Co., 1909. Canadian Series of School Books. Spelling Book. Toronto, Canada Publishing Co., Ltd., 1B7M* Halpenny, J . and Ireland, L. B. How to be Healthy. Toronto, Educational Book Co.,Ltd., 1909. Lang, S. E. British Columbia Public School Grammar. Toronto, Copp, Clark Co., Ltd., 1913. 154 _MacLaurin, D. L. The History of Education in the Grown Colonies of Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the Province of British Columbia. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1937. Morrison, Henry C. The Practice of Teaching in the Secondary School. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1934. Putman, J. H. and Weir, G. M. Survey of the School System  of British Columbia. Victoria, Provincial Depart-ment of Education, 1925. Sandiford, Peter. "Curriculum Revision i n Canada". The School. Elementary Edition, (February, 1938). Saucier, W. A. Introduction to Modem Views of Education. Boston, Ginn and Co., 1937. Stowell, C. H. The Essentials of Health. Toronto, Educational Book Co., Ltd., 1909. The Universal Spelling Book. Toronto, Educational Book , Co., Ltd., 1909. Wallace, W. S. A Mew History of Great Britain and Canada. Toronto, Macrnillan, 1929. APPENDICES APPENDIX I - COUESE OP STUDY PRESCRIBED FOR GRADED AND COMMON SCHOOLS FOR THE TEAR 1900 (Contained i n the Manual of School Law) Junior Grade 1. Reading:- F i r s t and Second Primers and F i r s t Reader. Sup-plementary Reading. 2. Writing:- Books I and II. Transcription of prose, poetry and arithmetic work. 3. Drawing:- As indicated i n Pring's Elementary Manual for Teachers. Prescribed Drawing Series Nos. 0 and 1. 4. Language:- Phonic d r i l l fox- correct spelling and pronunci-ation. Transcription and dictation. Simple oral and written descriptions and narratives. Capitals and punctu-ation marks. 5. Arithmetic:- Addition Table and Multiplication Table to 10 times 10, with application i n operations involving numbers not greater than 100. Canadian money and familiar measures, e.g. pint, quart, gallon; inch, foot, yacd. 6. Nature Lessons:-(a) Form:- Cube, sphere, cylinder and cone; square, t r i -angle and ci r c l e ; horizontal, vertical and oblique lines; right, acute and obtuse angles. Illustrate by models and familiar objects, natural and manu-factured. (b) Primary Colours:- Illustrate from charts, flowers, f r u i t , insects, etc. (c) Plants:- The root, stem, flowers and f r u i t ; uses of familiar.plants for food, clothing, medicine and building material. (d) Animals:- The mouse, cat, dog, horse, cow, sheep and pig; resemblances and differences i n structure and mode of l i f e . 156 (e) The Earth:™ Its shape and motion, land and water sur-face, illustrated "by globe and map of hemispheres, temperate and cold regions and differences i n their peoples as to features, colour and mode of l i f e . Points of compass. Heat, cold, air, vapour, clouds, rain, snow, h a i l , and ice. Outline map of school d i s t r i c t and vicinity, principal points of interest to be lo-cated and directions from school noted. Intermediate Grade 1. Reading:- Second and Third Readers. Supplementary Reading. 2. Writing:- Books 3, 4, 5 and 6. Transcription and selections from the pupils' arithmetic and.language work. 5. Drawing:- Prescribed Drawing Series, Books 2 and 3. 4. Language:- Composition, pronunciation, meaning and spelling of ordinary words of reading lessons. Instruction to be based on Hutton and Leigh's First Steps.in Composition. Oral and written reproduction of substance of geography, history, and nature lessons. 5. Arithmetic:- Fundamental rules as applied to simple whole numbers not exceeding five places. Principles of the Decimal Notation with extension to Decimal Fractions of three places. Common fractions, denominators not exceeding 12. Common Tables of Weights and Measures with applications i n Addition, .Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. Men-t a l Arithmetic. 6. Geography ( O r a l ) T o p i c s from the f i r s t 53 pages of the New Canadian Geography; elementary study of the people, commerce and forms of Government of the various parts of the British Empire and particularly of Canada. Map Drawing. 7. History:- (Oral and chiefly biographical) Canadian and . Bri t i s h topics. Selections from Dickens' Child's History of England (for use of teacher only). 8. Nature Lessons:- Brittain's Nature Studies, Part II, Chap. II, sections A and B (for use of teacher only). 157 Senior Grade 1. Reading and Literature:- Fourth Reader. Longfellow's evangeline and Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare. 2. Writing and Book-keeping:- Business and Social Forms, Nos. 9 and 10, of Gage's Copy Books. 3. Drawing:- Prescribed Drawing Series, Books 4 and 5. 4. Language:- Pronunciation, spelling and meaning of ordinary words of text-books including marking of accents and vowel sounds. Composition as i n Sykes' Elementary Composition. Grammar as i n prescribed text-book. 5. Arithmetic:- As i n Kirkland and Scott's Elementary Arithmetic. 6. Algebra:- Ihe four fundamental rules. (Pupils not to be required to have text-books). 7. Geography:- As i n New Canadian Geography. 8. History:- English and Canadian as i n Robertson's Public School History with B. C. Supplement. 9. Nature Lessons:- Brittain's Nature Lessons and Pathfinder No. 2. In addition to the above subjects the following may be taught:- Agriculture, Geometry, Temperance, Music, Needlework, and Calisthenics. LIST OF AUTHORIZED TEXT-BOOKS FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN THE TEAR 1900 Readers, &c:-New Canadian Readers published by W. J. Gage & Co., Toronto, and comprising the following: Fir s t Primer, Second Primer, Fi r s t Reader, Second Reader, Third Reader, Fourth Reader, F i f t h Reader (in preparation), 158 Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare (Pitt Press Series, paper edition)• Longfellow's Evangeline. Gage's Practical Speller. Writing:-Gage's Series of Copy Books. Grammar and Composition: Prescribed English Grammar. Sykes' Elementary English Composition (The Copp, Clark Co.). Button & Leigh's F i r s t Steps i n Composition (The Copp, Clark Co.). History and Geography:-Robertson's Public School History of England and Canada, with B. G. Supplement (The Copp, Clark Co.). Student's History Note Book (The Copp, Clark Co.). New Canadian Geography, with B. C. Supplement (Gage and Co.). Gage's Map Geography, B. C. Edition. Gage's New Book-keeping Course. Arithmetic and Book-keeping:-, Cuthbert's Arithmetic Exercise Book, Nos. 1-6 (The Copp, Clark Co.). L i t t l e People's Seat Work (The Copp, Clark Go.). : Kirkland & Scott's Elementary Arithmetic (Gage & Co.). McLellan and Ames' Mental Arithmetic (The.Copp, Clark Co.). Business and Social Forms, being Nos.,9 and 10 of Gage's . Vertical Copy Books. Nature Studies:-Physiology, New Pathfinder, No. 2 (Gage & Co.). James' Agriculture (Morang & Co.).,, Brittain's Nature Lessons ( j . and A. McMillan, St. John). Drawing: -A new series of Drawing Books i s now i n course of prepara-tion. 159. APPENDIX II - COURSE OP STUDY PRESCRIBED FOR GRADED AND COMMON SCHOOLS FOR THE YEAR 1911. (Contained i n the Annual SohooT Report) Junior Grade 1. Reading!- Beginners Reader, Gage's Phonic Primer, Fi r s t Reader and Second Reader, Recitation and Supplementary reading from aughorized texts. Phonic d r i l l to he con-tinued to the end of the Second Reader. 2. Writing:- Glasses i n the F i r s t and Second Primers and i n the Fi r s t Reader should be taught the correct form of written letters from examples placed on the blackboard. There should also be graded written exercises. Second Reader,classes should use the prescribed Copy-books Nos. 3 and 4. 3. Drawing:- As indicated i n Prang's Elementary Manual for Teachers. Prescribed Drawing Series (second edition), Books I and II. (For F i r s t and Second Reader pupils only). Colour, work, including .crayon work followed by brush draw-' • ing. • 4. Language Lessons:- In connection with the reading of the . Junior Grade i t i s . suggested that the pupils form oral sentences containing the new words used i n the reading lessons; that there be frequent d r i l l s i n enunciation, articulation, inflection, and emphasis; that oral and written spelling be begun i n the Fi r s t Primer classes; that the teachers hold with their.classes frequent con-versations growing out of observation of pictures, plants, animals, etc.; that there should be frequent oral re-production of stories read or related by the teacher; mem-orization of selected passages; the correction of pre-vailing errors of speech at the time they are made, with d r i l l for the formation of habits of correct expression; that the names of the days of the week and of the seasons of the year be taught as well as the abbreviations and contractions found i n the readers and to mark the accent; that pupils i n the Second Reader be required to give simple written reproductions consisting of one paragraph only; that there be simple exercises i n word-building; that the significance of simple prefixes and suffixes be taught as well as the common use of capitals and punctuation marks; and that there be frequent transcription and 160 dictation exercises. 5. Arithmetic:- Milne's Arithmetic Book I, to end of page 156 (for use of teachers only). The following grading of the work for the Junior Grade Course i s suggested: Firs t Primer. (The one-unit.) (l) Study of the numbers 1 to 9 inclusive; teaching the number, names, oral and written, and the figures, with a clear knowledge of their significance; combinations of these 9 numbers (this includes the teaching not only of addition, but also the application of the other three sim-ple rules to these numbers); oral counting to 99. Second Primer. (The ten-unit.) (1) Study of the ten-unit, i t s meaning and notation, and of the ten series, 10, 20, 50, etc. to 90. (2) Reading and writing numbers to 90.' (3) . Combinations of the numbers 1 to 20. Fi r s t Reader. Milne, Book I, to end of page 54 (For use of teacher only). (1) Extensions of the combinations: (a) Combinations of the tens, Milne, Book I, page 14, sec. 9. (b) Such extensions as those found i n Milne, Book I, page 12,'Part I. (2) Multiplication tables to end of table of fives, with easy oral exercises implying mmltiplication and division; but no formal multiplication or division to be required. (3) Addition and subtraction within the number limit. (4) Easy fractions and familiar measures as i n the sec-tion of the text-book assigned. Second Reader. The hundred-unit and thousand-unit. Milne, Book I, to end of page 156. (1) Reading and writing numbers to 10,000. (2) Review of combinations and extensions, with appli-cations to the hundred-unit and thousand-unit, (3) Multiplication tables. 161 (4) Addition and subtraction within number limit. (5) Multiplication and division by one figure. (6) Easy fractions and familiar measures as i n text-book. Nature Lessons:-(a) Form—Cube, sphere, cylinder, and cone; square, triangle, and c i r c l e ; horizontal, vertical, and oblique lines; right, acute and obtuse angles. Illustrate by models and familiar objects, natural and manufactured. (b) Primary Colours—Illustrate from charts, flowers, f r u i t , insects, etc. . (c) Plants—The root, stem, flowers, and fru i t ; uses of familiar plants for food, clothing, medicine, and building material. (d) Animals—The mouse, cat, dog, horse, cow, sheep, and pig; resemblances and differences i n structure and mode of l i f e . (e) The Earth—Its shape and motion, land and water sur-face, il l u s t r a t e d by globe and map of hemispheres; tem-perate and cold regions and differences i n their peoples as to features, colour, and mode of l i f e . Points of compass. Heat, cold, air, vapour, clouds, rain, snow, h a i l , and ice. Outline map of school dis t r i c t and vic-i n i t y , principal points of interest to be located and directions from school noted. Geography:--A. Home Geography-Lessons on the dis t r i c t surrounding the school. Ob-servation by pupils under the direction and encouragement of the teacher. The aim i s not so much to impart i n -formation as to cultivate clear and discriminating powers of observation. "Our Home and Its Surroundings" (Morang) may be used by the teacher as a.guide. (Note: Omit chapter on Government.) The lessons should be conversational. Stories and pictures should be largely employed. Outline plans or maps of (a) the school-room, (b) school-house and grounds, (c) d i s t r i c t surrounding the school. Points of the compass,to be marked on these and relative distance and proportion to be observed. 162 B. The Earth as a Whole— Form of the earth. General idea of i t s size. Daily and annual motions—-simple connection of time with these. (The cause of night and day; the year taught as the time taken by the earth to complete i t s revolution around the sun. Classification of the months according to the seasons, but no attempt made to teach cause of the seasons or of the varying length of night and day.) Note: It i s expected that before entering the Inter-mediate Grade the pupil, from his observation of his home di s t r i c t , the pictures and the sandboard used i n the lessons at school, w i l l be familiar with the common geographical terms, such as: Continent, ocean, mountain, valley, river,- tributary, plain, cape, peninsula, island, etc. Intermediate Grade 1. Reading:-Third Reader. Recitation and Supplementary Reading. 2. 'Writings-described Copy-book Series Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8. Free-arm movement exercises to be begun In this grade. 3. Drawing:-Prescribed Drawing Series (second edition), Book III; Colour work. . 4. Language Lessons:-Language Lessons based on the reading lessons. ' Spelling, meaning, and pronunciation of words, with special attention to word formation. The division of a composition into paragraphs to be studied from suitable models i n the Reader and applied to pupils' composition, both oral and written. Special at-tention to oral reproductions i n paragraphs. (These should precede any written composition.) Oral and written reproductions of substance of reading, geography, history, and nature lessons. 163 Gage's Fir s t Step i n English; Lessons 1 to 60, ' omitting Lesson 56. A l l grammatical definitions and rules to he omitted and emphasis to be l a i d on the use of language forms i n sentences rather than on the teaching of formal grammar. Universal Spelling Book, Part I. , 5. Arithmetic:-Milne, Book I, from page 157 to end of book, and Book II to end of page 145. (Omit pages 121 to 126, except the rectangle.) The following grading of the work for a two years' course i s suggested: Fi r s t Year—Milne, Book I, page 157 to end of book. Second Year—Milne, Book II, to end of page 145, (omitting pages 121 to 126 except the rectangle.) • Requirements at the end of the Intermediate Grade— Accurate and intelligent understanding of the system of notation i n integers, decimals, and common fraction. Accuracy and reasonable rapidity i n operations i n addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division as applied to integers, decimals, and "common fractions. Accurate and ready knowledge of such basic number facts as prescribed text. A b i l i t y to work mental arithmetic questions with rapidiiy and precision. 6. Geography:-1. Further study of the earth as a whole—the position of the Equator, latitude, longitude, the Tropics, the Arctic and Antarctic circles, the relative position of the continents and oceans, reviewed. 2. North America—Suggested method. (a) Po s i t i o n — (i) On the globe. ( i i ) In relation to other continents and to the oceans. (b) Size. (Comparatively.) 164 (c) Shape. (Tr iang iGar) . Make some study o f c o a s t - l i n e , teaching some of the more im-portant coast features . (d) B u i l d — ( i ) Teach important highlands: . (1.) Primary highlands. (2 .) Secondary highlands. ( i i ) Tegoh the Great C e n t r a l P l a i n : ( l . ) The bas in o f the Mackenzie. (2.) The b a s i n o f the Nelson. (3.) The b a s i n o f the M i s s i s s i p p i . ( i i i ) Teach Bas in o f the S t . Lawrence. ( iv ) Teach A t l a n t i c S lope. (v) Teach P a c i f i c S lope. (e) A se r ies of o r a l lessons taking the pup i l s i n imagination through the d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s of the cont inent . In these they see the people at: work, l e a r n somthing o f the c l imate and products o f the d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s , and l e a r n the names and l o c a t i o n o f the great commercial centres . No attempt w i l l be made to teach much concerning the causes a f f e c t i n g c l imate , but from observat ion they w i l l l e a r n (a) that nearness to a l a r g e body o f water a f f e c t s c l imate , (fe) that nearness to the Equator ( l a t i t u d e ) a f f e c t s c l imate , (c) that height o f l and above s e a - l e v e l a f f e c t s c l imate . They w i l l l e a r n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c products o f the d i f -ferent d i s t r i c t s — w h e a t on the Canadian p r a i r i e s j corn and cotton on the M i s s i s s i p p i va l ley ; lumber and f r u i t on the P a c i f i c Slppe, w i t h t r o p i c a l f r u i t s f a r t h e r south. I n connection w i t h these products a commercial centre w i l l be taught. They w i l l thus l e a r n the l o c a t i o n o f such c i t i e s as V i c t o r i a , Vancouver, Edmonton, Regina, Winnipeg, Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal , Quebec, H a l i f a x , N O T York, St . Lou is , New Or leans, and San Franc isco . ( 165 (f) The p o l i t i c a l divisions—Canada, United States, Mexico, and Central America. 5. British Columbia—A careful study of the position of the Province i n the Dominion of Canada—its s i z e — b u i l d (drainage)—a general idea of i t s climate, and some of the industries, the chief c i t i e s , and some of the more important transportation routes. The drawing of the map from memory. 4. South America. 5. Africa. 6. Europe. 7. Asia. 8. Australia. Note: In teaching these continents, follow the above order and the plan suggested for North America, omitting the p o l i t i c a l divisions. In each case the study w i l l be comparative. Much less time w i l l be spent on these than on North America. The pupils should, however, before leaving the Intermediate Grade, have a clear idea of the position and general build of each continent. They sould know something of the great plains, and l i f e on,these plains, and be able to locate the great commercial centres of the world. 9. History-™ The objects of the teaching of History i n the Intermediate Grade are: To create an interest i n the subject; to cultivate a taste for reading i t and, incident-a l l y , to make the pupil acquainted with many of the facts of History *hat w i l l be of value i n his work in the Senior Grade. The biographies and topics suggested aite taken mainly from the early history of Canada. "Canada's past i s more dramatic than any romance ever penned," and the story of the work of the men and women and of the heroic incidents of this past, supply us with oui- most valuable material for this grade. The work w i l l be entirely oral. 'Ails method of treatment i s suggested. • 166 1. The story told by the teacher. 2. Questioning by the teacher leading the pupil to organize and group the facts into paragraphs. S. Oral reproduction. Topics suggested: Canada. 1. Indian Tribes. (Giving a picture of l i f e i n North America before the coming of the white man. )•....' 2. Columbus. (Not to be taken before the pupil has sufficient knowledge of the relative position of the continents to enable him to understand something of the desire of the people of Western Europe to find a shorter path to Eastern Asia.) 3. John and Sebastion Cabot. 4. Cortes and Montezuma. (Not a complete account of the conquest of Mexico, but two or three stories to give a picture of the c i v i l i z a t i o n of the Aztecs and of the Spanish gold-seekers.) 5. Oartier, 6. Drake. 7. Champion. 8. Hudson. 9. Capt. John Smith. 10. Pilgrim Fathers. n* William Penn. Jesuit Missions. 13. Dulac des Ormeaux. 14. Kadisson. 15. Marquette. 167 16. La Salle. 17. Madeleine Vercheres. 18. Verendrye. 19. Wolfe. 20. Lord Selkirk. B r i t i s h Columbia. 1. Capt. Cook. 2. Capt. Meares. 3. Nootka Affair. 4. Capt. Vancouver. 5. S i r Alexander Mackenzie. 6. Simon Prazer. 7. David Thompson. 8. The Gold Rush The B r i t i s h Empire. In Africa. 1. Mungo Park. 2. The Dutch Settlements. 3. Livingstone. 4. Stanley. 5. Cecil Rhodes. 6. Lord Roberts. In Asia, ffi. Clive. 2. Hastings. 168; In Australia. 1. Capt. Cook. 2. Explorations i n Australia. (Sturt and Eyre. One or two lessons only.) Note: No attempt w i l l be made to deal exhaustively with the biographies and topics suggested. They must be presented i n such a way as to arouse the interest of the children. In the Intermediate Grade at least, History that i s not interesting,is not History at a l l . In dealing with the various biographies, the aim w i l l be, not so much to teach the facts connected with the man$s l i f e but to present a vivid picture of the times i n which he lived and thus cultivate the imagination of the child.. As indicated i n the course i n English, the oral History supplies much of the material for composition, both oral and written. The ab i l i t y of the child to re- ...... produce must be considered i n presenting the lesson. The class just entering the Intermediate Grade i s learning,to t e l l or write stories of greater length than one paragraph, while the class completing the work of this grade has acquired considerable s k i l l i n handling composition of several paragraphs. Obviously, this w i l l influence the teacher, not only i u selecting the material, but i n the method of presentation. Throughout, wherever possible, the History and Geography of this Grade must be correlated. Thus, while studying the. basin of the Mackenzie Fiver i n Geography, the lesson i n History w i l l be on Si r Alexander Mackenzie, and while studying the basin of the Columbia River the History lesson w i l l deal with David Thompson. Although no formal text-book i s prescribed for this grade, yet the use of a carefully selected supplementary Historical Reader, such as the 'Highroads of History*} may be used with advantage after an. interest has. been aroused by the oral lessons. The following books w i l l supply the teacher with much of the material. "Gateways of History". (Edward Arnold, London.) "Highroads of. History", (Nelson & Sons, London.) "Canada: The Empire of the North". (Laut, Ginn & Co.) "Cortes and Montezuma". (Pratt Educational Book Co.) 169 8. Nature Lessons:-Brittain's Elementary Agriculture and Nature Study, pages 1-114, as well as the four paragraphs on weather observations found on pages 186, 187, at least two half-hour lessons a week. Teafahers should keep notes of these oral lessons, with the dates on which they were given. Note: The purpose of these oral lessons w i l l not be accomplished.unless they lead the children to first-hand knowledge of Nature:; the topics selected must be observed by the pupils themselves. The lessons must be i n t e l l i -gently and s ystematically planned, and the method followed must be that of discovery through'Observation. In the Intermediate Grade the teacher i s provided with a text-book, and the portion of this to be studied has been carefully selected. In this grade instruction i s entirely oral, and the teacher must arrange an order of work according to seasons—it i s not required that the book be taken chapter by chapter i n due order. This training w i l l furnish a foundation for the Nature Lessons of the Senior Grade. Senior Grade 1. Reading and Literatures-Fourth Reader. Scott * s 'Lady of the Lake." (The paper i n English Literature w i l l test the pupil's knowledge, not only of Scott's poem, but also of the prose and poetical selections in. the Fourth Reader.) 2. Writing:-Prescribed Copy-book Series, Nos. 8 and 9. Free-arm movement exercises to be continued, the aim being to give freedom of execution. Legibility and precision required i n a l l manuscript work. Note: In judging the subject of writing, instead of awarding marks on the writing of one paper only, this value w i l l be divided by giving 50 per cent, to the writing as shown on the Dictation paper, and 50 per cent, to the writing and general neatness of execution of the other written papers. 5. Drawing:-170 Prescribed Drawing Series (second edition), Books IV and IV-A. 4. Language Lessons:-Pronunciation, spelling, and meaning of ordinary words of text-books, including marking of accents and vowel sounds. , Composition as i n Sykes' Elementary Composition, pages 1-130 (omitting the memorisation exercises; loose, periodic, and compromise sentences; balanced sentence, explicit reference, parallel construction, transition, proportion, rhythm, climax, and sentence stress.) Grammar as i n prescribed text-book. Oral and written reproductions of substance of reading, literature, geography, history, and nature lessons. Universal Spelling Book, Parts I to VII, inclusive. 5. Arithmetic J - '• ' . . Mine, Book II, page 146 to end of book, and Book III with the following omissions: Pages 116-134; page 160, section 273, to end of page 174; pages 231-234, 238-241, 268-296, 302-307, 308-312; page 314, section 564 to section 573, page 316; pages 319-330. Rapidity and accuracy i n Mental Arithmetic work. 6. Geography :-As i n prescribed text; - also Lawson and Young's History and Geography of British Columbia. (W. J. Gage & Co.) 7. History:-History of England as i n the text-book. (Symes & Wrong.) History of Canada. (Lawson.) History of B r i t i s h Columbia. (Lawson & Young.) Pinger-Posts to British History (Thomas Nelson & Sons) w i l l be found an excellent supplementary text-book i n British history. Its use i s specially recommended. •173L Note: Care must be taken at the beginning of the work i n the Senior Grade to teach the pupil how to handle a book. Up to this time his history has been entirely oral. He must now be taught the art of studying the facts for himself from a text-book. Nature Lessons:-(a) Nature S t u E h r—The work of the Intermediate Grade extended. Brittain's Elementary Agriculture and Nature Study, pages 1-184 (omitting Chapters XIX, XX, XXI, and XXVIII, i n the f i r s t year's work, and Chapter X and pages 161, .162, and 163 of Chapter XI i n the second, year's work). . (b) The Essentials of Health (omitting Chapters VIII, XIII,.XV, XVI, XX, XXI, XXII, XXIV, XXV, XXVI, and XXVII). 1 7 a APPENDIX 111 - PUBLIC SCHOOL MANUAL TRAINING COURSE FOR THE YEAR 1912 (Contained i n the Manual of School Law) F i r s t I e a r 1. Drawing. Easy plans and e l e v a t i o n s ; use and meaning of the same. Easy sc a l e s and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . L e t t e r i n g . . E n g l i s h of M e t r i c measurement to he used. 2. Woodwork, Tools: S a ws—Sip, cross-cut, tenon, bow. P l a n e s — J a c k , smooth. Bench-hook, brace and b i t , c a l i p e r s . C h i s e l s , 1 i n . , i n . , f i l e and glass paper. Marking-gauge, r u l e r , scraper, sloyd k n i f e . S t r i k i n g - k n i f e , try-square, w i n d i n g - l a t h . Sharpening of 1-inch c h i s e l . No j o i n t s i n t h i s year's work. 3. Theory. Recognition of s i x common tr e e s by t h e i r l e a v e s , flowers and f r u i t s . R e c o g n i t i o n of common woods by t h e i r markings, weight, sme l l , e t c . M a t e r i a l s used i n the co n s t r u c t i o n of the t o o l s . Second Year 1. Drawing. • . Se c t i o n drawing and more d i f f i c u l t scale drawing. Simple lessons i n design as applied to co n s t r u c t i o n of models. E n g l i s h measurements. 2. Woodwork. Tools: P l a n e s — B l o c k and j o i n t e r . Gauges—Gutting and mortise. Bradawl, clamps, glue, gouges, hammer. 153 M a l l e t , n a i l s p i n c e r s , s e t -bevel, screws. : Snooting-board, spoke-shave. E x e r c i s e s (to be included i n models): J o i n t s - - H a l f - l a p , housing, glued j o i n t , mortise, and tenon. End-grain p l a n i n g . G r i n d i n g and sharpening of 1-inch c h i s e l and p l a n e - i r o n . 5. Theory. Re c o g n i t i o n of s i x a d d i t i o n a l common t r e e s by t h e i r l e a v e s , - f l o w e r s , and f r u i t s . Growth of timber. Seasoning and marketing of timber. Products from t r e e s . Enemies of t r e e s . T h i r d Year 1. Drawing. C o l o u r i n g of drawings. Isometric p r o j e c t i o n s . Lessons i n design as a p p l i e d to c o n s t r u c t i o n of models. E n g l i s h and M e t r i c measurements.. £. Woodwork. Tools; P l a n e s — R e b a t e , r o u t e r , and other s p e c i a l planes or t o o l s . Plane-gauge. G r i n d i n g and-sharpening-of gouges, etc. ; f i l i n g of saws. E x e r c i s e s : D o v e t a i l i n g , d o w e l l i n g , r e b a t i n g , e t c . , and the a p p l i c a t i o n of j o i n t s i n t h e i r proper places i n models. 3. Theory. R e v i s i o n of f i r s t and second year's work. About t h i r t y models should form a three years' course of work 174 APPENDIX IT - PUBLIC SCHOOL MANUAL TRAINING COURSE FOR THE YEAR 1919 (Contained i n the Courses of Study f o r Elementary and High Schools) Drawing. Plans and e l e v a t i o n s ; section-drawings; s c a l e drawings; isometric-drawing; copying of drawings; producing complete working drawings from dimensioned sketches; making drawings from models. Measuring blank drawings when the s c a l e i s given. .'• Ruled and freehand sketching. Supplying a d d i t i o n a l views. L e t t e r i n g . Graded thus: (1) Lower-case l e t t e r s i n s c r i p t , s l a n t i n g ; (2) c a p i t a l s , s l a n t i n g ; (3) v e r t i c a l l e t t e r i n g . Lessons i n design, proceeding In easy stages, as applied to the o u t l i n e and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f models. The designing of complete models should r a r e l y be attempted before the end:of the Fourth Group. "Woodwork., (1) The ex e r c i s e s or t o o l operations i n each group s h a l l be covered by the models'in that group and a l l the t o o l s I n d i c a t e d s h a l l be used. . (2) The operations should be c a r e f u l l y graded and the progression should be very easy, e s p e c i a l l y i n Groups 1, 2, and 3. - \ -(3) I n designing the models, p r o v i s i o n should be made f o r ample r e p e t i t i o n , " t h e aim being to repeat each new exercise i n the two f o l l o w i n g models at l e a s t . < (4) Easy progressive steps 1 must a l s o be observed In the Drawing l e s s o n s , and the models should be designed w i t h that aim a l s o i n view. . (5) The f i r s t group may be preceded by a simple p r e l i m i n a r y •course, such as strip-work, where i n the opinion of the teacher such i s necessary. (6) During the course, lessons should be given on g r i n d i n g and sharpening c h i s e l s , plane irons., and saws. 175 Group Scheme of Work Group 1, Models 1 to 6. ' Rule; Measuring. -K n i f e ; Marking out, chamfering. Try Square; Squaring and t e s t i n g . Saws: Hand-saws f o r c u t t i n g out .stock; tenon f o r f i n e sawing (squaring). P l a n e ( j a c k ) : Medium pl a n i n g surface 2 t o f inches; narrow p l a n i n g , surface •§ i n c h down; shooting ends. Gauge (marking): Marking width and t h i c k n e s s . C h i s e l : V e r t i c a l c h i s e l l i n g ; h o r i z o n t a l c h i s e l l i n g . P i l e : P i l i n g curved o u t l i n e (end). Brad-awl: Boring Holes. Brace and b i t s : B o ring holes; b i t s not to include those mentioned i n Group 3. Glass-paper. . - • K a i l s : N a i l i n g and s e t t i n g (simple). Group 2, Models 7 to 12. (Simple t o o l o p e r a t i o n ) . K n i f e : Long cut , cross cut, concave and convex cut. Saws: Bow-saws (Curves). Plane ( j a c k ) : Broad, p l a n i n g 2. to 4 inches; p l a n i n g c y l i n d e r . Smoothing-plahe. C h i s e l : Cross p a r i n g (notching). Gouge ( i n s i d e ) : S c r i b i n g ( v e r t i c a l ) . F i l e ; With g r a i n , shaped o u t l i n e , p r o f i l e . Spoke-shave: P r o f i l e . Glue: G l u i n g , not n e c e s s a r i l y a j o i n t . J o i n t s : H a l f - l a p ; open housing. Group 3, Models 13 to 18. Planes: Wider p l a n i n g , 4 inches and upwards; end p l a n i n g ; oblique p l a n i n g ; chamfering. Gouge ( o u t s i d e ) : H o r i z o n t a l (open ends). Spoke-shave: M o d e l l i n g . Brace and b i t s : Countersink: expansion; F o r s t n e r . K n i f e : M o d e l l i n g . Screws: F i x i n g w i t h screws. Other operations: Trenching. Group 4, Models 19 to 25. Gauge (mortise); ' I n j o i n t . Gouge: Mo d e l l i n g (scooping). Other operations: Glued and rubbed j o i n t ; mortise and tenon j o i n t ; stopped housing j o i n t . 19G Group HoSelS P£ to .30, Csugs {m&^iBg)* Easy d w e t a i l i f t s ? miteolsg?; rafcisefcisgj keyicgj irair© advanced tsorfciss sad t e am construct long a l ready Bfij»iiOMHl« object o f ©Bsowaglag ohnin^rMm*, Eeeoga l t lm of, cession t ress by t h e i r l o a v e s 0 flower-a and BccDsnit io i i o r ecrsreon isoo&s by their- jcsrijingG, weight$ . , . €t&* -£E#Btfc of t3?eeD» BaceosiBg and R&rkatlag o f t inker» Prft&tets o f treesg' daesles of fe&w*. iSoflerlGl uoofl i n the GOZJ {struct ion o f too l s* P r a c t i s e * { 1 J Beys cfestiM s»rcftf*&e t b w e l w © with ©prose or o v e r a l l s ' and ohould be «eosrkgcai i n %ax& fcsMta o f wor laa^hip* (2) The v/orkiag drawings f&ould be kept by <sach. p u p i l Is a foM©s?' . i m t i l t to throe years* oowsfc i© earsfl^teSe {3} ESietake efcaeto should to o o r e f a l l y f%XlQ& i n end kept t m t i l ©Mwiaf? HisJj. School* Duo Agassi uhould B© p a i d t o (4} Kcdftlo and dresslnge should have a i a a x i » s o f 10 rsorko fg). f m t & m TUmT^tioA ~ms?k c&mM,. a lso be gives esiS psasfea a«ard<*J. " |6| Both the ItogUeh cad the MfMa?ia ayfttssa o f ©eaa i f i sg a » to "fe® wte&s , • (?) Tho boy fai-y be a l lowed t o cuteiit en a l t e r n a t i v e rao&ol,* provided i t eafcodiee tho requi red eserolsoc* 17,7' APPENDIX Y - PUBLIC SCHOOL DOMESTIC SCIENCE COURSE For The Year 1912 (Contained i n the Manual of School Law) FIRST' YEAR Home Management (ten lessons o f 1-| hours' duration) — The choice, c l e a n i n g , and care of: A coal-range; s i l v e r , s t e e l knives; wooden u t e n s i l s ; t i n and enamel ware; brushes; s i n k s ; f u r n i t u r e ; painted and varnished woodwork; sweeping and d u s t i n g . Bo Home Nursing (Five Lessons of lg- hours' duration) — Theory--1. P e r s o n a l hygiene as a preventive of sickness. 2. The s i c k person's room,, l o c a t i o n , v e n t i l a t i o n , f u r n i s h i n g . 3. The treatment of common ailments; 4. Emergencies and what t o do. 5. A b r i e f study of a r t e r i a l , venous, and c a p i l l a r y b leeding, w i t h bandaging. P r a c t i c a l Work— 1. The care and cleaning of t e e t h and n a i l s 2. Bed-making and changing sheets w i t h p a t i e n t i n bed. 3. Fomentations; p o u l t i c e s ; a p p l i c a t i o n s of dry heat. 4. The removal of f o r e i g n bodies from eye, nose, ear, and t h r o a t ; f a i n t i n g , s u f f o c a t i o n ; sunstroke. 5. Simple bandaging; r o l l e r and t r i a n g u l a r bandaging. C. Laundry Work lTwenty Lessons of two hours' d u r a t i o n ) — Theory—Laundry equipment, cost and management. The study of t e x t i l e f i b r e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r source and s t r u c t u r e , and the e f f e c t s of laundry apparatus and m a t e r i a l s o on such. The composition, source, and pr o p e r t i e s of water, soap, soap powders, soda, borax, starch and laundry b l u e . 178 P r a c t i c a l Work—The removal of s t a i n s and the d i s i n -f e c t i o n o f c l o t h e s . The laundering of white and c o l -oured wools, cottons, l i n e n s , s i l k s , and l a c e . The cleaning of k i d gloves and shoes. . The management of a small f a m i l y wash. : Soap-making from k i t c h e n grease. Simple methods of softening water. SECOND YEAR J u n i o r Cookery ( T h i r t y - f i v e Lessons of 2js hours' duration) T h e o r y — K i t c h e n equipment—choice, cost, arrangement, and care. A study of combustion, c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n , and c l e a n i n g of a c o a l , gas, or e l e c t r i c range. Methods of cooking, and underlying p r i n c i p l e s w i t h i l l u s t r a t i v e d i s h e s . The food p r i n c i p l e s : t h e i r value i n the d i e t ; t h e i r uses to the body; the r e l a t i v e amount o f each i n v a r i o u s foods; the e f f e c t s on them of moist and dry heat. D i f f e r e n t foods i n combination. Balanced d i e t s . P r a c t i c a l Work—Beverages; f r u i t s ; c e r e a l s ; vegetables; starches; f a t s ; sugars; m i l k ; cheese; eggs. D i f f e r e n t methods of rendering food l i g h t : B a t t e r s ; doughs; bread; meats; soups;, f i s h ; p a s t r y ; i n v a l i d dishes. The preparation of a c h i l d ' s lunch-box. Table s e t t i n g and s e r v i c e ; The,serving of a simple meal. THIRD YEAR Senior Cookery ( T h i r t y - f i v e , L e s s o n s of 2is hours' each)--T h e o r y — R e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the J u n i o r Course, w i t h the a d d i t i o n - o f the theory bearing on new work, and an" elementary study of d i g e s t i o n . P r a c t i c a l Work—Further work covering course o u t l i n e d i n J u n i o r Cookery, w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f : Canning; p r e s e r v i n g ; j e l l i e s ; p i c k l e s ; salads; p o u l t r y ; g e l a t i n e dishes; frozen desserts. 179. APPENDIX YI - PUBLIC SCHOOL DOMESTIC SCIENCE COURSE FOR THE YEAR 1919 (Contained i n the Courses of Study f o r the Elementary and High Schools) FIRST YEAR Needlework; I f previous sewing lessons have not been taken, see Needlework course. I f the p u p i l s have been t a k i n g needlework i n the previous grades as suggested i n the Needlework Course, see that the cap, apron, sleeves, towel, and pot-holder are completed, then f o l l o w on w i t h : — Household S e w i n g — P i l l o w - s l i p s , towels, e t c . Making and repairing k i t c h e n l i n e n . Hemstitching, button-holes, patching, darning, k n i t t i n g . Free c u t t i n g con-tinue d from previous grades. Preparatory Lessons i n Home Management and Personal Hygiene: Washing.dishes.and saucepans. Care of white wood. Care and c l e a n i n g of metals i n d a i l y use. Care, cleaning and d i s i n f e c t i n g o f s i n k . Waste and i t s r e -moval. Construction, management, and cleaning, of k i t c h e n range, w i t h simple study of combustion and use of wood and coal r e s p e c t i v e l y . Sweeping and c l e a n i n g . Laying the t a b l e . P e r s o n a l c l e a n l i n e s s , care of t e e t h , n a i l s , h a i r . P r a c t i c a l Cookery: D e f i n i t i o n , t a b l e s , and r u l e s o f cookery to be taught by simple lessons selected from the f o l l o w i n g methods; b o i l i n g , steaming, baking, r o a s t i n g , shallow f r y i n g , sauteing, stewing, e t c . T h e o r e t i c a l Cookery: As " p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n i s the only mordant which w i l l set t h i n g s i n the memory," p r i n c i p l e s should be taught i n conjunction w i t h the p r a c t i c e of cookery. Reasons f o r cooking-food; e f f e c t of applying heat to food. Food p r i n c i p l e s ; use of food to the body. F u e l foods and t i s s u e - b u i l d i n g foods. Carbohydrates, -p r o t e i n s , f a t s , mineral matter. 180 Reviews to take the forms of simple meals; f o r example, breakfasts f o r a t r a y . Develop quick, f r e e , independent a c t i o n i n a l l lessons. Cooking must be a c t i v e work, g i v i n g the c h i l d an a b i l i t y to do, Ex-p l a n a t i o n s should a r t i c u l a t e the lessons as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e to those done i n other departments of the school. A l l w r i t t e n lessons should be short, c a r e f u l l y executed, and mistakes corrected by the teacher. SECOND TEAR Needlework: Draughting: i . e,, f r e e c u t t i n g and making under-garments; R e p a i r i n g , patching, darning f l a n n e l s , p r i n t s , and coloured goods, k n i t t i n g , • House Management: Household brooms and b r u s h e s — c h o i c e , c o s t , and care. Cleaning p a i n t e d , varnished, and p o l i s h e d wood. Vari o u s cleansing agents—use, economy, c o s t . V e n t i l a t i o n — value of f r e s h a i r , chimneys, doors, windows. Choice, cost, and care of l i n o l e u m and o i l c l o t h . Water—source of supply, p i p e s , c i s t e r n s , storage, e t c . Drainage—where pipes go, simple t e s t s f o r f a u l t y d r a i n s . Table s e t t i n g and s e r v i c e . P r a c t i c a l Cookery: R e c a p i t u l a t i o n . o f the methods taught during the f i r s t year, w i t h a d d i t i o n s . B o i l i n g , steaming,' simmer-i n g , r o a s t i n g , baking, b r o i l i n g , stewing, sauteing, deep and shallow f r y i n g , b r a i s i n g , p o t - r b a s t i n g . . Re-_.views to take the form of simple meals. T h e o r e t i c a l Cookery: More theory- than i n the f i r s t year. Foods and t h e i r use to the body. The p e r f e c t food. P r o t e i n s , carbohydrates, f a t s , mineral matter. Importance of mixed d i e t s , w e l l balanced and v a r i e d . Need f o r forethought i n planning meals. Planning, purchasing, cooking, and serving a luncheon f o r a f a m i l y of f o u r . Economy of the l a r d e r . Care of the meat-safe, c o s t , f i x t u r e , inexpensive s u b s t i t u t e s . laundry-Work: Arrangement of household washing—washing, b o i l i n g , and p l a i n i r o n i n g of household l i n e n s and underwear. Removal of s t a i n s and bleaching. Consideration of water, soap, soap powders,, soda, borax, s t a r c h , and laundry blue. THIRD TEAR Needlework: Draughting: i . e., f r e e c u t t i n g and making under-garments, or preparing High School o u t f i t . R e p a i r i n g t a b l e l i n e n , mending and darning of outer garments, gloves, e t c . House Management: P r a c t i c a l r e v i s i o n of two former years. P r a c t i c a l Cookery: R e c a p i t u l a t i o n of methods taught i n the second year, w i t h the a d d i t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g : P r e s e r v a t i o n of food.. Reasons, D i f f e r e n t methods. D r i e d foods and t h e i r value. P i c k l i n g , canning, preserving. Salads w i t h simple dressing. F r u i t salads. Marmalade. P o u l t r y — c h o i c e , t r u s s i n g , cooking. Beef cuts. Bread-making. Table s e r v i c e and t a b l e s e t t i n g . Reviews to take the form of meals; f o r example, dinners. T h e o r e t i c a l Cookery: Emphasis to be placed on food values and the n e c e s s i t y f o r a well-balanced and v a r i e d d i e t . D i -g e s t i o n — i t s meaning, foods easy and d i f f i c u l t to d i g e s t . D i g e s t i o n i n the mouth, hard and soft foods, c o n d i t i o n of t e e t h . D i g e s t i o n from the Alimentary canal to i n t e s t i n e s . S u i t a b l e food f o r c h i l d from b i r t h to d e n t i t i o n . Good and bad types of feeding-b o t t l e s . Cleansing of b o t t l e . S t e r i l i z i n g and , p a s t e u r i z i n g m i l k , whey. The c h i l d under two years. Vegetarian d i e t , advantages and disadvantages. 182 laundry-I" ork: Washing and f i n i s h i n g f l a n n e l s , coloured garments wool, cotton, l i n e n , muslin, s i l k , and l a c e . The management of a. small f a m i l y wash. Soap-making from k i t c h e n grease, soaps, a c i d s , a l k a l i e s . Simple method of softe n i n g water. Making and use of s t a r c h . 185 APPENDIX'VII — NATURE STUDY & PRIMARY GEOGRAPHY FOR THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OP BRITISH COLUMBIA (Synopsis of subject-matter contained i n Booklet issued by Dept. of Education, 1919) JUNIOR GRADE. . EIRST YEAR 1. Animal L i f e : (a) P e t s such as dog, c a t , r a b b i t , s q u i r r e l , canary, p i g e o n — o b s e r v a t i o n a l l e s s o n s . (b) Domestic a n i m a l s — h o r s e , cow, sheep, p i g , hen, duck, goose. (c) W i l d b i r d s — r o b i n , sparrow, b l a c k b i r d , crow, woodpecker, meadow-lark. (d) I n s e c t s — b u t t e r f l y , moth, b e e t l e , dragon-fly. 3, P l a n t L i f e : (a) Pood supply of animals and people found i n the d i s t r i c t — v e g e t a b l e s , f r u i t s , g r a i n , nuts. (b) Wild F l o w e r s — t r i l l i u m , s p r i n g beauty, dog's t o o t h v i o l e t , dandelion, goldenrod, b u t t e r -cup (or s u b s t i t u t e s ) . (c) Garden flowers and gardening—dwarf, nastur-tium, pansy, t u l i p , sunflower, sweet pea, and c l i m i i n g nasturtium (or s u b s t i t u t e s ) . (d) Trees, leaves, and bugs—maple, horse-chestnut, pine, w i l l o w , apple, cherry (or s u b s t i t u t e s ) . 3. Geography: (a) D i r e c t i o n , • • ( b ) Time. (c) Weather and Seasonal'Changes. (d) Study of small stream or brook. •184 SECOND YEAR Animal L i f e : (a) Domestic animals and pets continued. More d e t a i l than f i r s t year as to food, t e e t h , feet and limbs, covering, c l e a n l i n e s s . (b) W i l d a n i m a l s — d e e r , bear, fox, chipmunk. (c) B i r d s — b l u e b i r d , humming-bird, wren, townee, g u l l , k i n g f i s h e r . (d) I n s e c t s — e x t e n s i o n of f i r s t year. P l a n t - L i f e : (a) Pood-plants continued from f i r s t y e a r -potato, corn, bean, pumpkin, peach or plum and strawberry. (b) Wild F l o w e r s — a s t e r , yarrow, ox-eye d a i s y , columbine, marsh-marigold, anemone (or s u b s t i t u t e s ) . (c) G a r d e n i n g — P l a n t i n g of such f l o w e r i n g bulbs as hya c i n t h or n a r c i s s u s i n autumn. I n s p r i n g , school-garden—vegetables and flowers. (&) Trees and S h r u b s — a l d e r , dogwood, Douglas f i r , vine-maple or mountain maple (or s u b s t i t u t e s ) . Geography: . (a) Distance and D i r e c t i o n continued. (b) Weather and r e l a t e d phenomena—weather c h a r t s , dew, m i s t , f o g , cloud, r a i n , h a i l , snow, f r o s t , i c e , f r e e z i n g , m e l t i n g , b o i l i n g , steam, a i r - c u r r e n t s , wind. (c) E a r t h M a t e r i a l s — s t o n e s , g r a v e l , sand, c l a y , e t c , (d) Land and water f o r m s — A s s o c i a t e with study of . a b r o o k — r a p i d , f a l l , l a k e , 'channel, bay, i s l a n d ; i f near c o a s t — c a p e , isthmus, s t r a i t , harbour, p e n i n s u l a , head, b l u f f . (e) Observational study of l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s and commercial a c t i v i t i e s . THIRD YEAR Animal L i f e : (a) Wild animals continued—deer and i t s enemies, such,as—wolf and coyote; such f u r - b e a r i n g animals as beaver, mink and racoon. '••' (bj F i s h . (c) Frogs and T o a d s — l i f e h i s t o r y . (&) B i r d s — b i r d s of previous years' study; b i r d m i g r a t i o n ; food h a b i t s of such winter b i r d s as snowflake, chicadee, junco, s t a r l i n g , grosbeak, (e) I n s e c t s — a n y and honey-bee. Observational study of moths, b u t t e r f l i e s , and b e etles continued. •185 2. - P l a n t L i f e : (a) Food p l a n t s — g r a i n s such as wheat, oats, .„ b a r l e y , rye and buckwheat. (b) Wild flowers and weeds—clover, willow-herb, t h i s t l e , burdock, l u p i n e and milkweed. (c) Gardening—nature and o r i g i n of s o i l . (d) Trees and Shrubs—balsam, f i r , hemlock, b i r c h , hazel and hawthorrte (or s u b s t i t u t e s ) . 3. Geography: (a) L o c a l (ieography—continued and associated w i t h l o c a l h i s t o r y . (b) The earth as a whole—shape, s i z e , general surface f e a t u r e s , and d i u r n a l movement. Imaginary t r i p s . (c) Heather phenomena—previous work continued and extended. (d) Commercial and I n d u s t r i a l A c t i v i t i e s . .Methods of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication, p o s t a l s e r v i c e , t e l e g r a p h , telephone, and w i r e l e s s transmission of messages. INTERMEDIATE GRADE FIRST YEAR 1. Animal L i f e : (a) ?»rild Animals—cougar, wolverine, l y n x , and w i l d - c a t ; s e a l , walrus, and s e a - l i o n . (b) B i r d s — o w l s , hawks, eagles; woodpeckers, ja y s , and magpies. (c) Insects—Grasshopper, c r i c k e t , bugs, f l i e s , b e e t l e s , wasps. 2. P l a n t L i f e : (a) W i l d f l o w e r s — w i l d sunflower, twin flower, v i o l e t , f a l s e Solomon's s e a l , and w i l d bleeding heart (or s u b s t i t u t e s ) ; character of d i s t r i c t and s o i l , b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of stem, leaves and flowers; p a r t s of flower ( c a l y x , c o r o l l a , stamens, p i s t i l s ; methods of seeding; annual, b i e n n i a l , or p e r e n n i a l ; i t s value. (b) Weeds—shepherd's purse, w i l d mustard, lamb's -quarters, pigweed, and narrow-leaved p l a n t a i n . (c) Trees and Sh r u b s — c y p r e s s ("cedar"), l a r c h ("tamarack") spi r a e a , and red-flowering currant, spruce, oak, poplar, arbutus. • ' . . 186 Gardening and Elementary A g r i c u l t u r e : S p e c i a l study of pumpkin or squash, corn, bean, sweet-pea, as annuals; beet, parsn i p , cabbage and hollyhock as b i e n n i a l s ; and a l f a l f a , d a h l i a , and couch-grass as pe r e n n i a l s . SECOND YEAR Animal L i f e : (a) W i l d a n i m a l s — o t t e r , muskrat, skunk, and mart snake, l i z a r d , and earth-worm. (b) B i r d s — s p a r r o w s , swallows, and f l y - c a t c h e r s ; d i v e r s ( l o o n ) ; swimmers (ducks); s c r a t c h i n g - b i r d s (grouse, q u a i l , pheasant); p o u l t r y . (c) I n s e c t s — c a b b a g e - b u t t e r f l y , cabbage-aphis, t e n t - c a t e r p i l l a r ( c a l l webworm i n the I n t e r i o r ) , honey-bee; l i f e - h i s t o r i e s , f eeding-habits, and metamorphoses continued; how to c o l l e c t and preserve specimens. P l a n t L i f e : (a) W i l d f l o w e r s — y e l l o w arum ("skunk cabbage"), w a t e r - l i l y , c a t - t a i l , arrow-head, w a t e r - m i l f o i l , water-parsnip ("poison-hemlock"), or other common marsh p l a n t s . ,.'„: . • / (b) Weeds—chicory, c u r l e d dock, f a l l dandelion, s h e e p - s o r r e l l , and w i l d c a r r o t . (c) Trees and s h r u b s — C o t t o n w o o d , mountain-ash, June-berry, yew, red cedar,, and common j u n i p e r . Review of species studied previous year. Gardening and Elementary A g r i c u l t u r e : (a) S o i l S t u d i e s — • . ' . (1) Examine s o i l s at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s and t e s t f o r humus.' (S) Test the f e r t i l i t y of s o i l . . • (3) Study the a c t i o n of water on each k i n d of s o i l . (4) Show r a t e of c a p i l l a r i t y r i s e i n sand, , c l a y , humus and garden loam, (5) Test water-holding and,water-retaining power of coarse sand, f i n e sand,,clay humus and' garden loam. (6) Test value of an earth mulch i n pre- • venting escape of moisture. (7) Show need'of' drainage. (8) Test s o i l f o r a c i d . (9) Test temperature of wet and dry s o i l three or four inches below surface. (b) School & Home-Gardening P r o j e c t s — 187' 4. Experimental Work r e l a t i n g t o Natura l Phenomena. (1) Three d i f f e r e n t forms of m a t t e r — s o l i d s , l i q u i d s , and gases—and the ch ief c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each. (2) Show that matter can be changed from one state t o another by changing the temperature. (3) Show increase i n volume of s o l i d s due to heat. (4) Show expansion i n l i q u i d s . (5) Show expansion i n gases. (6) E x p l a i n the thermometer as an a p p l i c a t i o n of law of expansion due to heat» (7) The p h y s i c a l p roper t ies of a i r . (8) Take up a p p l i c a t i o n of a i r -p ressure such as (a) The barometer (make a mercur ia l barometer); (b) the common l i f t -pump. SENIOR GRADE. FIRST YEAR 1. Animal L i f e : (a) Wild animals—bat , f ield-mouse, weasel, , gopher, badger, porcupine; invertebrate a n i m a l s -s n a i l , s lug , clam, crab. (b) Animals of the farm—The h o r s e — h i s t o r y , types and breeds, feeding and care o f . (c) Birds—waders (heron or b i t t e r n ) , shore-birds (snipe or sandpiper) , goat-suckers (night-hawk and humming-bird/, pigeon, and k i n g f i s h e r . (d) Insects—cutworms, cabbage-root maggots, wireworms, s p i t t l e - h u g , house- f ly , b o t - f l y , w a r b l e - f l y , syrphus f l y , and woolly aph is . 2. P l a n t - L i f e : (a) Wild p lants—such w i l d v ines as c lemat is , honeysuckle, vetch , w i l d stawberry, V i r g i n i a • Creeper, and hearberry (or o t h e r s ) . (b) Weeds—Canada t h i s t l e , Russian t h i s t l e , annual and perennia l sow-th i s t le , chickweed, and "bindweeds"—wild buckwheat and wi ld morning-glory. (c) Trees and Shrubs—wild f r u i t s and nut- t rees (native or int roduced) . Tree p lant ing and propagation. Review evergreens native to B r i t i s h Columbia. 3. Gardening and Elementary A g r i c u l t u r e : School and home-garden pro jects continued. The f r u i t s — p e a r , peach, plum, a p r i c o t , and cherry; budding, g r a f t i n g , and pruning of t r e e - f r u i t s . Apple grading and packing* Habits of growth of such cerea ls as wheat, bar ley , rye , and oats; root -c rops—beets , car rots , mangels, and t u r n i p s . 188 4, Elementary P h y s i c s : Sources of h e a t — c o n d u c t i o n , convection, r a d i a t i o n , w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n . Water-physical p r o p e r t i e s , sources, i m p u r i t i e s and methods of p u r i f i c a t i o n , solvents and s o l u t i o n s , SECOND YEAR.-1. ' Animal L i f e * (a) Wild a n i m a l s — t h o s e n a t i v e to B r i t i s h Columbia— moose, e l k , wapite, caribou, deer, w i l d sheep, and w i l d goat. Some common, food and game f i s h e s found i n coast and i n l a n d waters of B. C. (b) Earm a n i m a l s — c a t t l e , : sheep, and hogs, (c) B i r d s i n r e l a t i o n to a g r i c u l t u r e — C o n t i n u e the ^ i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and study of l o c a l b i r d s , g i v i n g most a t t e n t i o n to the l a r g e s t and most important o r d e r — t h e perching b i r d s . (d) Insects—-The study of common i n s e c t pests continued, w i t h s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to feeding-habits, l i f e - h i s t o r i e s , and metamorphoses; p a r a s i t i c i n s e c t s — as Ichneumon f l i e s and Tachina f l i e s ; predaceous b e e t l e s — t i g e r - b e e t l e s and l a d y b i r d - b e e t l e s ; i n s e c t s i n j u r i o u s t o f o r e s t s — b a r k - b e e t l e s and wood-borers; scale i n s e c t s ; g a l l - i n s e c t s ; water-insects; the mosquito and i t s c o n t r o l . 2 . P l a n t L i f e : (a) Wild p l a n t s — f l o w e r l e s s p l a n t s — ' f e r n s , : h o r s e t a i l , k e l p , mushrooms, moulds, and yeast. (b) Weeds—Quack or couch grass, s q u i r r e l - t a i l g rass, w i l d oat, w i l d l e t t u c e , sheep-sorrel, and dodder. . (c) Trees and Shrubs—-Review of deciduous t r e e s . n a t i v e to B.C. Trees and shrubs s u i t a b l e f o r ornamental p l a n t i n g i n school and home grounds; elementary f o r e s t r y — t h e conservation and pro-t e c t i o n of our f o r e s t s . ; 3. Gardening and Elementary A g r i c u l t u r e : Experimental work i n school or home p l o t s continued. Seed germination, with, experiments i n , the growth and work of p l a n t s ; c r o p - r o t a t i o n , cover-crops, legumes and common f o l d e r g r a i s * Bush and can f r u i t s . Review of best v a r i e t i e s of vegetables and flowers f o r use i n home-garden, 4. Elementary physics and chemistry: . A i r — i t s chemical composition, oxygen, carbon-dioxide , f u e l s and combustion, carbon,limestone, common cons t i t u e n t s of foods and f e r t i l i z e r s . M i l k and i t s p r o p e r t i e s . "189 APPENDIX ¥111 - PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC COURSE FOR THE. YEAR 1919 (Contained i n the Courses of Study f o r Elementary and High Schools) Beginner's Reader l i To i m i t a t e the teacher's p a t t e r n i n s o l - f a i n g simple phrases of three or four tones to l a h ( i n d i v i d u a l work). 2. To s i n g the Doh Chord by leaps and the other notes o f t h e s c a l e i n step-wise succession by hand-signs. 3 . Song-sentences, i n c l u d i n g a l l notes of sc a l e ( i n d i v i d u a l work). 4. Songs w i t h and without a c t i o n . 5. Rhythmic games. Phonic Primer 1. . V o i c e - t r a i n i n g . (a) Simple breathing e x e r c i s e s . (b) Simple v o i c e e x e r c i s e s . E x e r c i s e s t o be sung s o f t l y , w i t h pure tone, c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to vowel-sounds and p i t c h . E x e r c i s e s to be taken i n l o o , moo, noo. 2. Tune. (a) To s o l - f a from the teacher's p o i n t i n g on the Modulator and from hand-signs the tones of the Doh Chord i n any order, and the other tones of the major d i a t o n i c scale i n step-wise succession. (b) To s i n g simple exercises i n the S t a f f N o t a t i o n . 3. Time. (a) To know the values of the whole-note, h a l f - n o t e , and quarter-note. To monotone exercises t o time-names and s y l l a b l e "doh". . • . (b) Time ear t e s t s . 4. Time and Tune. To s i n g short "study" songs to s y l l a b l e s , l a h and words. 190 E a r - t r a i n i n g . (a) To recognize the notes of the Don- Chord. (b) To i m i t a t e the teacher's p a t t e r n i n s o l - f a i n g simple phrases of three or four tones ( i n d i v i d u a l work). Song-singing. Songs may be patterned from Modulator o c c a s i o n a l l y . Rhythm-writ i n g . Rhythmic Games and Dances. -F i r s t Reader V o i c e - t r a i n i n g . (a) Simple breathing e x e r c i s e s . (b) Simple voice e x e r c i s e s . A t t e n t i o n given to s o f t , sweet tone, vowel-sounds, and p i t c h ( i n d i v i d u a l work). Tune. (a) To sing to the s y l l a b l e n l a h v > from the Modulator e x e r c i s e s c o n t a i n i n g the tones of the Don Chord i n any order, and,the other tones of the d i a t o n i c major sc a l e i n step-wise succession. (b) To s o l - f a from the Modulator exercises containing the Doh and Soh Chords i n any order, and f a n and l a h i n step-wise succession. (c) To s o l - f a from the S t a f f Modulator exercises i n various keys. Time. (a) To s i n g t o time-names and to doh, exercises containing the whole-note, h a l f - n o t e , quarter, eighth, and r e s t s , (b) Time ear t e s t s . Time and Tune. To sing t o s y l l a b l e s and to l a h , short "study" songs. E a r - t r a i n i n g . (a) To t e l l the name of any tone of the major scale sung to l a h , the tones of the Doh Chord being f i r s t sol-faed by the teacher or by the c l a s s , (b) To im i t a t e and sin g from d i c t a t i o n as i n F i r s t and Second Primers. i s i Theory, To answer any question on the n o t a t i o n and mental e f f e c t s of tones taught. Songs. To s i n g to words i n correct tune and time, w i t h good expression, songs i n unison. Second Reader V o i c e - t r a i n i n g . -(a) Simple breathing e x e r c i s e s . (b) Simple v o i c e e x e r c i s e s . These exercises should be p r a c t i s e d d a i l y i n accordance with the p r i n c i p l e s described i n F i r s t Reader. Tune.-(a) To s o l - f a from the Modulator, and s i n g to , > l a h M e x e r c i s e s c o n t a i n i n g any ordinary i n t e r v a l s of the d i a t o n i c major s c a l e . •, (b) To l e a r n " f e " and " t a " . (c) S t a f f Modulator d r i l l i n a l l keys. Time, (a) To s i n g to time-names and t o doh, time exercises containing the whole-note, h a l f - n o t e , quarter, eighth, and dotted quarter w i t h e i g h t h . (b) To have p r a c t i c e i n p u t t i n g i n the bar l i n e s of simple unbarred e x e r c i s e s , and i n naming the time of passages sung to swinging. (c) Time ear. t e s t s . Time and Tune. , To sing t o s y l l a b l e s and to l a h , short "study"" songs. E a r - t r a i n i n g , (a) To t e l l the name of any-tone of the major scale and to w r i t e i t on the blackboard, • -(b) To i m i t a t e and sing from d i c t a t i o n phrases of three or four notes. Theory. To answer questions on the n o t a t i o n . Songs. To s i n g i n c o r r e c t time and tune, and w i t h good tone and expression, songs i n unison. 192 T h i r d Header Voice-training« (a) Breathing E x e r c i s e s , (b) Voice E x e r c i s e s . These exercises should be taken d a i l y . The "head V o i c e " must be encouraged; the "forced chest v o i c e " must not be allowed. Simple exercises on the good si n g i n g vowels should be taken i n d i v i d u a l l y . Tune. (a) Sharp Modulator p r a c t i c e i n a l l keys from the S t a f f Modulator, us i n g s y l l a b l e s . a n d l a h . (b) To s o l - f a from the Modulator, exercises containing minor mode phrases i n t r o d u c i n g 1 se 1; me ba se l a h , > Time, To sing t o time-names and to doh, exercises containing the whole-note, h a l f - n o t e , quarter, eighth, s i x t e e n t h , dotted quarter w i t h the eighth, and dotted eighth w i t h the s i x t e e n t h . Time and Tune. Short "study" songs sung to s y l l a b l e s , l a h , and words. E a r - t r a i n i n g . To w r i t e or t e l l ear t e s t s containing three or four tones, .including easy l e a p s , on the tones of the Tonic Chord. Theory. Formation of s c a l e , key, and time signatures. Songs. Unison songs to be committed to memory. Two-part exercises introduced. Major and Minor Chords. (s d r s Major (m 1 t m' (d f s d' Minor m 1 t a f s 1 r m Fourth Reader V o i c e - t r a i n i n g , (a) Breathing E x e r c i s e s (b) E x e r c i s e s on the si n g i n g vowels. S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to the s i n g i n g of vowels and consonants 193 2, '.-Tune. " s Sharp p r a c t i c e on t h e S t a f f M o d u l a t o r d a i l y t o " l a b " i n a l l keys» Time, A r e v i e w o f t h e work t a k e n i n t h e l o w e r g r a d e s . Time and Tune, ' S h o r t " s t u d y " songs f o r s i g h t - r e a d i n g . E a r - t r a i n i n g . P h r a s e s p l a y e d o r sung by t e a c h e r t o be w r i t t e n i n m a n u s c r i p t books,. ' 6 , Theory* W r i t t e n answers t o q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o n o t a t i o n , key and t i m e s i g n a t u r e s . 7» Songs. U n i s o n and t w o - p a r t songs. A t h r e e - p a r t song might o c c a s i o n a l l y be t a k e n . 8, O r i g i n a l M e l o d i e s . ' ' E n t r a n c e G l a s s V o i c e - c u l t u r e . C o n t i n u e d p r a c t i c e on t h e s i n g i n g v o w e l s . Songs. S o l o - s i n g i n g t o be encouraged. S t u d y . B a s s C l e f t o be i n t r o d u c e d t o boys (sung an o c t a v e h i g h e r t h a n w r i t t e n ) . T e x t - b o o k , New E d u c a t i o n a l M u s i c C o u r s e , F i r s t Reader and Second R e a d e r , C a n a d i a n E d i t i o n ( G i n n & C o . ) . 3 » 5 * 194 .APPENDIX IX - PUBLIC SCHOOL DRAWING- AND MANUAL ARTS COURSE EOR THE YEAR 1924-25 (Contained i n the Programme of Studies f o r the Elementary Schools) Grade 1. S t i c k - l a y i n g . ' O u t l i n i n g simple s t r a i g h t - l i n e d f a m i l i a r objects, f i g u r e s and l e t t e r s , geometric and r e g u l a r forms, i l l u s t r a t i o n s of rhyme or s t o r y . P a p e r - f o l d i n g . While'engaged i n t h i s occupation the p u p i l s should gain a knowledge of the.forms, t r i a n g l e , square, o b l i n g , and should l e a r n to know r i g h t s i d e , l e f t s i d e , f r o n t , back, edge, corner, angle, and such terms as t u r n , f o l d , e t c . P l a s t i c i n e M o d e l l i n g . 1. Simple forms: ~ -: • (a) Round, such as b a l l , orange, e t c . v (b) Oval, such as egg, lemon, c a r r o t , etc.. (c) B o i l e d forms, such as worm, l o g , snake, 'etc. '(d) Hollow shapes, such as nest, cup, vase, e t c . 2. Various forms: C o r r e l a t i n g nature le s s o n s , such as snowdrop, crocus, pussy-w i l l o w , f r o g , f i s h , e t c . . 3. B a s - r e l i e f on s t i f f cardboard or on the ordinary modelling board, such objects as i l l u s t r a t i o n s of rhymes and s t o r i e s . Ereehand C u t t i n g . (a) Simple forms such as c i r c l e , o v a l , e t c . (b) Symmetrical o b j e c t s which can be cut w i t h the paper f o l d e d , such.as f a n , k i t e , m i l k - b o t t l e , ' e t c . (c) I l l u s t r a t e songs, reading l e s s o n s , and s t o r i e s . Drawing. Drawings may be i n s o f t p e n c i l , p a s t e l , crayon, or water-color, from o b j e c t s , from memory, or from imagination. Grade 11. S t i c k - l a y i n g , (a) Geometric and r e g u l a r forms to be worked i n t o border designs. 195 (b) I l l u s t r a t i o n s of rhyme and s t o r y . P l a s t i c i n e . (a) Various forms'c o r r e l a t i n g nature study. ( h ) I l l u s t r a t i o n s of rhyme and s t o r y i n b a s - r e l i e f . P a p e r - c u t t i n g . (a) Symmetrical forms w i t h paper f o l d e d . (b) I l l u s t r a t i o n s of song, reading l e s s o n , and s t o r y . Object Drawing. Drawing of simple rectangular f l a t forms i n p e n c i l , o u t l i n e , or o u t l i n e p l u s f l a t wash. Objects to be simple i n shape and pro-p o r t i o n . Method of drawing the v e r t i c a l , h o r i z o n t a l , and oblique l i n e to be taught i n conjunction with object drawing. Nature Drawing. I n p e n c i l , crayon, or colour, e t c . , from flowers or leaves. Design. Borders and simple geometric areas, such as squares, r e c -t a n g l e s , to be coloured i n monochrome and complementary harmonies. R u l e r to be used i n design work when necessary and correct measure-ment obtained. . . Grade 1 1 1 . Object Drawing, P l a t forms of v a r y i n g shapes i n upright and oblique p o s i t i o n s ; i n o u t l i n e and o u t l i n e plus f l a t wash. Method of drawing oblique l i n e s and a r t - c u r v e s . Nature Drawing. • „ Simple le a v e s , f l o w e r s , f r u i t s . Design. Borders, squares, t r i a n g l e s , rectangles subdivided w i t h s t r a i g h t l i n e s and a r c s . Designs to be coloured i n monochrome, complementary colours, or harmony of two secondary colours. L e t t e r i n g , • , • Roman alphabet i n skeleton c a p i t a l l e t t e r s . L e t t e r i n g a p p l i e d to simple verse, card, or poster. Grade IV. Object Drawing. P l a t forms and simple bisymmetrical objects i n o u t l i n e and f l a t wash. 196: Nature Drawing. Simple leaves, f l o w e r s , f r u i t , and vegetables. Design, Simple geometric areas subdivided and decorated with, are and simple freehand curves. Curves may be suggestive of simple l e a f forms. Colour i n monochrome and complementary harmonies w i t h the a d d i t i o n of black and white. L e t t e r i n g . Roman alphabet i n skeleton c a p i t a l l e t t e r s . A t t e n t i o n to spacing of words and l i n e s . L e t t e r i n g of verse, i n s c r i p t i o n s , prose, etc. Grade 7. Object Drawing, C y l i n d r i c a l forms of common objects i n v e r t i c a l and oblique p o s i t i o n s , f i n i s h e d i n o u t l i n e or f l a t tones. Nature Drawing. Leaves, f l o w e r s , twigs, i n o u t l i n e and o u t l i n e p l u s colour. Design, • " Borders and panels decorated w i t h simple m o t i f s based upon nature forms. Colour. As noted i n previous grades, w i t h b e t t e r technique. L e t t e r i n g . Review of Roman c a p i t a l l e t t e r s . I n t r o d u c t i o n of small Roman l e t t e r s (skeleton form). L e t t e r i n g of verse, prose, etc.., using c a p i t a l s . a n d small l e t t e r s i n conjunction. Grade 71. Object Drawing. C y l i n d r i c a l forms of common objects i n v e r t i c a l , oblique, and h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n s . Drawings to be f i n i s h e d i n l i g h t and shade. Nature Drawing. Leaves, f l o w e r s , twigs, i n o u t l i n e , i n colour, and i n l i g h t and shade. Design. Observation of nature forms i l l u s t r a t i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of 197 r e p e t i t i o n , c o n t r a s t , and v a r i e t y . A p p l i c a t i o n of these p r i n c i p l e s t o the planning of o r i g i n a l m o t i f s f o r the decoration of borders and panels. .Simple conventional renderings of leaves and flowers f o r borders and panel decoration. Colour. Any colour e s e r c i s e s given i n previous grades, w i t h the a d d i t i o n of greyed colours and simple analogous harmonies. L e t t e r i n g . ' Roman l e t t e r s - - s k e l e t o n form, c a p i t a l and small l e t t e r s . L e t t e r i n g of school announcements, advertisements, e t c . Grade 711. Object Drawing. C y l i n d r i c a l and rectangular forms of common objects, s i n g l y and i n groups, F i n i s h i n l i g h t and shade. Nature Drawing, Leaves, spray of leaves, flowers, twigs, f r u i t s , i n p e n c i l and colour. Design. Planning of decorative m o t i f s as i n Group V I , but of more advanced nature. Decoration of bands and panels w i t h the above m o t i f s , a l s o w i t h conventional nature forms. Study of a few simple examples of h i s t o r i c ornament. Colour. Use of a l l previous colour schemes, w i t h b e t t e r f e e l i n g f o r colour and technique. L e t t e r i n g . "' ' C a p i t a l and small skeleton Roman l e t t e r s . L e t t e r i n g of verse, prose, and advertisements, i n p e n c i l and pen over p e n c i l . Grade V l l l . Object Drawing. Type forms and common objects based on these type forms, s i n g l y and i n groups. F i n i s h i n l e a d - p e n c i l o u t l i n e and i n l i g h t and shade. Nature Drawing. Spray of leaves, f l o w e r s , f r u i t , vegetables, i n l i g h t and shade or colour. 19© Design. As i n Grade ¥ 1 1 . This grade should show a b e t t e r f e e l i n g fo good l i n e and spacing„. Colour schemes w i l l be r e p e t i t i o n of o l d work, but should show more refinement of tone and colour L e t t e r i n g , L e t t e r i n g of verse, prose, school announcements, e t c . , i n p e n c i l and pen. Decoration of i n i t i a l l e t t e r s , [' ; 

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