UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Role of Egerton Ryerson in the development of public library service in Ontario Stubbs, Gordon Thomas 1965

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1965_A8 S78.pdf [ 9.46MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105448.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105448-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105448-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105448-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105448-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105448-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105448-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105448-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105448.ris

Full Text

THE ROLE OF EGERTON RYERSON IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC LIBRARY SERVICE I N ONTARIO by GORDON THOMAS STUBBS Mus.B. (Manchester, 1939), B.L.S. (U.B.C., 1964)  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of Education  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  1965  In the  presenting  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  British  for reference  mission for extensive p u r p o s e s may  be  of  and  written  Department  of  the  this thesis  Head o f my  permission*  cl*-*—G-^v-^d Columbia,  fulfilment  University  of  of •  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  I further  agree for  that  or  c o p y i n g or  shall  per-  scholarly  Department  that  for f i n a n c i a l gain  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8 , Canada Date  study,  the  Library  I t i s understood  this thesis  w i t h o u t my  by  degree at  the  c o p y i n g of  granted  representatives.  cation  advanced  Columbia, I agree that  available  his  this thesis i n partial  not  be  by publi-  allowed  ABSTRACT GF THESIS  Egerton Ryerson i s remembered today mainly as an educational reformer and r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r .  H i s work i n  connection w i t h the p u b l i c l i b r a r y movement i n Ontario has received l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n .  Yet Ryerson himself attached  great importance t o the p r o v i s i o n of f r e e l i b r a r i e s f o r the general p u b l i c , as an extension and completion of the school system.  H i s object was t o ensure t h a t a l l c i t i z e n s ,  both young and o l d , would be able t o enjoy the f r u i t s of education. A study of the l i b r a r y system introduced by Ryerson i s needed t o shed l i g h t on a neglected aspect of h i s career. At the same time, i t f i l l s a gap by f u r n i s h i n g a connected account of p u b l i c l i b r a r y h i s t o r y i n Ontario from 1844 t o 1876. For source m a t e r i a l , the c h i e f documentary items are found i n various works e d i t e d by J.G. Hodgins.  Ryerson's  own Annual Reports provide an abundance of valuable i n f o r mation.  A search of newspapers and p e r i o d i c a l s of the  period has revealed some p e r t i n e n t a r t i c l e s , which have been p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n gauging the r e a c t i o n i n Ryerson's contemporaries t o h i s l i b r a r y scheme. The scheme was f i r s t formulated by Ryerson i n h i s  iii  1846 Report, two years after he became Superintendent Education f o r Upper Canada. approval i n 1&50.  of  It was given government  School trustees and municipal councils  were authorized to start l i b r a r i e s i n t h e i r communities, and money could be raised f o r the purpose by an assessment on property.  Many of the l i b r a r i e s were placed i n school  buildings, though they were intended to be used by the adult population of the surrounding d i s t r i c t as well as by the students.  Local i n i t i a t i v e was emphasized.  Once  a l i b r a r y became established, a government grant was  avail-  able f o r the purchase of books, on a matching basis with funds raised l o c a l l y .  A l l the books had to be selected  from a l i s t of authorized publications compiled and annotated by Ryerson, known as the General Catalogue.  They  were supplied at cost price from a central Depository i n Toronto.  Most of them came from B r i t i s h and American  publishing firms. For about twenty years, the l i b r a r i e s grew and flourished.  In I85O free public l i b r a r y service was  known i n Upper Canada.  un-  By 1870 there were over a thousand  l i b r a r i e s c i r c u l a t i n g a quarter of a m i l l i o n volumes.  The  success of the scheme was partly due to the energetic backing Ryerson gave i t .  After h i s retirement i n 1#76,  l i b r a r i e s declined r a p i d l y .  Government support was  the with-  drawn, and given instead to the l i b r a r i e s of the Mechanics' Institutes.  Of a l l Ryerson's enterprises, t h i s was one of  iv  the few that did not survive.  I t s collapse was due partly  to d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the material available i n the General Catalogue, and partly to public apathy.  There was  also strong opposition from Canadian publishers, who r e sented the Department of Education buying books i n bulk from foreign sources. Even though the l i b r a r i e s disappeared, e f f o r t s had not been wasted.  Ryerson's  During h i s l i f e t i m e , the  project f i l l e d an important need, and much praise was accorded to i t at a l l l e v e l s of society.  I t was the f i r s t  r e a l attempt i n Canada to extend free l i b r a r y service to the whole population.  Though changed i n d i r e c t i o n during  the f i n a l quarter of the nineteenth century, the movement started by Ryerson continued to advance at a steady pace through the work of the Mechanics'  Institutes.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I wish to thank the s t a f f of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library f o r t h e i r valuable help and advice.  While much of the research was being conducted,  pneumatic d r i l l s were carving holes i n the stacks, as part of a renovation programme to provide improved l i brary f a c i l i t i e s .  In these circumstances, with books  and p e r i o d i c a l s scattered i n unaccustomed places, the s t a f f deserve a special word of praise f o r t h e i r u n f a i l ing  a b i l i t y to f i n d the materials I requested.  was  cheerfully given during a trying time.  Service  To the f a c u l t y of the School of Librarianship, who provided assistance i n a v a r i e t y of ways, I am also very much indebted. Acknowledgments are due to the L i b r a r i e s of the University of Washington, the University of Pennsylvania, and Queen's University f o r supplying materials on i n t e r l i b r a r y loan.  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  v  LIST OF TABLES  ix  LIST OF FIGURES  x  CHAPTER I.  INTRODUCTION  1  Scope and purpose; sources; plan. II.  BACKGROUND: THE SITUATION AT THE BEGINNING OF RYERSON*S ADMINISTRATION  11  S o c i a l conditions i n Upper Canada; subscript i o n l i b r a r i e s ; Ryerson appointed Superintendent of Education, 1844; b i s plans f o r reform; h i s q u a l i t i e s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . III.  FIRST STEPS: THE LEGISLATION OF 1850  . . . .  17  Ryerson's I846 Report; recommendations f o r establishing public l i b r a r i e s i n school d i s t r i c t s ; e f f o r t s to secure l e g i s l a t i o n ; the 1S50 Act and i t s provisions. IV.  IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 1850 ACT  26  The Depository; Ryerson negotiates with publ i s h e r s ; compilation of the General Catalogue of Books; the l i b r a r y scheme i s launched; rules and regulations. V.  EARLY SUCCESSES  42  Ryerson's methods of promotion; some s t a t i s t i c s on book sales; Lord E l g i n praises the public libraries. VI.  INFLUENCES FROM THE UNITED STATES Work of Horace Mann and Henry Barnard; Ryerson' s debt to Mann; school d i s t r i c t l i b r a r i e s  43  vii  CHAPTER  PAGE i n New York State; ideas borrowed by Ryerson from New York and other states.  VII.  54  PROBLEMS, OBSTACLES, CONTROVERSIES Ryerson clashes with the booksellers; disputes over use of Clergy Reserve funds; c r i t i c i s m of the General Catalogue.  VIII.  EVENTS TO 18?0: PROGRESS AND EXPANSION  . . .  65  Methods of combatting apathy: County School Conventions, the Journal of Education; Ryerson s views on the importance of continuing education through reading; growth and expansion of l i b r a r i e s ; favourable comment from l o c a l superintendents. T  IX.  THE LIBRARIES LOSE GROUND AND FAIL TO SURVIVE: END OF THE DEPOSITORY  72  1  Flagging i n t e r e s t ; discouraging reports from some areas; retirement of Ryerson, I876; the l i b r a r y scheme rapidly declines; the Depository ceases to function, l S S l ; value of a c t i v i t i e s of Depository. X.  PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN ONTARIO AFTER RYERSON  .  .  79  .  82  .  87  Demise of Ryerson's scheme; r i s e of l i b r a r i e s i n Mechanics' Institutes; Free L i b r a r i e s Act, 18&2, and i t s provisions. XI.  ASSESSMENT OF RYERSON'S LIBRARY SCHEME  .  .  Why did the l i b r a r i e s not survive? d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with s e l e c t i o n i n General Catalogue, desire f o r free choice of books, lack of supervision; positive achievements. XII.  PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN SCHOOLS: A FINAL NOTE  .  Arguments f o r and against public l i b r a r i e s i n schools; trends since Ryerson; the s i t u a t i o n today. BIBLIOGRAPHY  91  viii  APPENDIX A.  PAGE  "A General Catalogue of Books i n Every Department of Literature f o r Public Schools i n Upper Canada"—Part  B.  II  97  General Regulations f o r the Establishment and Management of Public School L i b r a r i e s i n Upper Canada  C.  Reminiscences  143 of Ryerson s T  Libraries  147  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.  PAGE Number and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Public Library and Prize Books sent out from the Educat i o n a l Depository of the Ontario Education Department, 16*53-1874  II.  Library S t a t i s t i c s f o r the Years 1847, 1S60, 1&70 and 1875, Ontario Education Department  III.  46  . 47  Operations of the Ontario P r o v i n c i a l Depository, 1S53-1S81  78  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.  PAGE Copy of a Poster sent to the Schools to Announce the Library Project  39  2.  Book Plate used before 186?  40  3.  Book Plate used after 1867  41  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION A. Scope and Purpose Today, the public l i b r a r y has a recognized i n the c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e of Canada.  place A  hundred years ago, l i b r a r y service had been established i n some of the more populated areas, but i n r e l a t i o n to modern standards the service was severely l i m i t e d . The fact that i t d i d exist at a l l was due, i n large measure, to Egerton Ryerson.  Through h i s influence the public  l i b r a r y movement was beginning to grow i n Upper Canada during the l£60 s, and, once started, was destined to f  gather strength and spread gradually to other parts of the Dominion a f t e r  Confederation.  This study w i l l describe i n some d e t a i l Ryerson's plan f o r the development of public l i b r a r y service i n Upper Canada, and how the plan was put into e f f e c t . I t w i l l cover the years lo%4 to 18?6, when Ryerson was Superintendent of Public Instruction f o r Upper Canada. Of Ryerson himself, much has been written. recognized  as a key figure i n Canadian education.  He i s His  l i f e and work have been the subject of numerous books and articles.  While ample coverage has been given to the  2  reforms i n s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r which Ryerson r e s p o n s i b l e , comparatively the p a r t he played  little  has  was  been w r i t t e n about  i n promoting l i b r a r i e s .  I t i s often  s t a t e d t h a t Ryerson regarded the p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c library  s e r v i c e as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of h i s  programme; yet only scanty  accounts can be found of the  work he accomplished i n t h i s  sphere.  What are the reasons f o r the n e g l e c t of R y e r s o n s a c t i v i t i e s ? T  t o the  In the f i r s t  of t h i s  place,  aspect  contributions  study o f Ryerson have been w r i t t e n , i n the main, by  specialists j3n  centred and  educational  i n the f i e l d of education,  whose i n t e r e s t i s  the changes he e f f e c t e d i n s c h o o l  curriculum.  administration  I t might have been expected t h a t the  job  l e f t undone by e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s would be t a c k l e d l i b r a r y researchers. little  The  h i s t o r i c a l research  fact  i s , however, t h a t  of any  taken by Canadian l i b r a r i a n s .  by  very  k i n d has y e t been under-  Up t o the p r e s e n t ,  there i s  no work t r a c i n g the growth of the l i b r a r y movement e i t h e r in  Canada as a whole, or i n the p r o v i n c e  R y e r s o n s l i b r a r y system i s one f  ments i n a t e r r i t o r y t h a t has  of  Ontario.  of many unregarded monu-  i n general  not a t t r a c t e d  explorers. To rescue i t from o b s c u r i t y w i l l be v a l u a b l e number of ways. simply  t o provide  Perhaps the most d i r e c t  present  advantage w i l l  a connected account of l i b r a r y  ment i n the p r o v i n c e  of O n t a r i o  from 1&44  in a  t o 1&76.  be  developAt  the m a t e r i a l d e a l i n g w i t h the p e r i o d e x i s t s only  3  i n scattered and fragmentary form.  By gathering  together  into a continuous narrative the work of Ryerson i n t h i s f i e l d , a l l important aspects of the public l i b r a r y movement w i l l be dealt with, since Ryerson exercised a dominating influence and was  the only leader of note.  Attention w i l l also be focused on a question which was  being discussed i n Ryerson's day, and i s s t i l l by no  means s e t t l e d : the question of control over public  li-  braries and whether i t should be exercised through the school system. with education  Ryerson's public l i b r a r i e s were integrated and i n many cases placed within the  schools  so that t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s could be shared by the whole community, including the students and teachers of the school. The wisdom of such a practice has always been a matter of debate.  Shortly a f t e r Ryerson's death, the public  l i b r a r i e s were taken out of the schools and since then they have generally l e d t h e i r own  independent existence.  From time to time, there has been a renewal of interest i n the f e a s i b i l i t y of combining school and public l i b r a r y services.  It w i l l be rewarding to look at present-day  opinions on t h i s issue and r e l a t e them to Ryerson's experiences with school d i s t r i c t  libraries.  As f a r as Ryerson himself i s concerned, the study w i l l be useful i n laying stress on a part of h i s work that has generally been l i t t l e noticed. add a new  It w i l l , i n e f f e c t ,  dimension to h i s career and accomplishments.  4  B. Sources 1  2  Three biographies of Ryerson, by Burwash, Putman, 3  and Sissons,  provide the basic material for an under-  standing of the outward circumstances of his l i f e , the nature of his ambitions and achievements, and the place he occupied in his generation.  There i s also an autobio-  graphical work, The Story of my Life,^" and a festschrift entitled The Ryerson Memorial Volume,^ both edited by J.G. Hodgins.  The Story of my Life i s a posthumous publi-  cation based on manuscript material left by Ryerson, but to a large extent actually written by Hodgins.  Gf the  biographies, the work by Sissons i s the most up-to-date and comprehensive.  Putman dwells mainly on Ryerson's  efforts to fashion a balanced system of education in Upper Canada.  Nathanael Burwash, writing in 1903, nearer to  Ryerson's own time, has done him a service by directing attention to the human side of his character, and has given us a clear insight into his highly individual personality. "^Nathanael Burwash, Egerton Ryerson, Toronto, Morang, 1903. 2 John H. Putman, Egerton Ryerson and Education in Upper Canada, Toronto, Briggs, 1912. 3 C.B. Sissons, Egerton Ryerson: his Life and Letters, Toronto, Clarke, Irwin, 1947. ^A. Egerton Ryerson, The Story of my Life, ed. by J.G. Hodgins, Toronto, W. Briggs, 1883. 5  'John George Hodgins, Ryerson Memorial Volume, Toronto, Warwick & Sons, 16*89.  5  For s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e t o p i c o f t h i s a wide v a r i e t y o f sources were c o n s u l t e d . were u s e f u l i n c i d e n t a l l y .  study,  Two d i s s e r t a t i o n s  One by J.W. Emery^ g i v e s some  i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e - l i g h t s on t h e r e a d i n g h a b i t s o f Canadian students i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and examines t h e educat i o n a l b e n e f i t s t h a t can be t r a c e d t o R y e r s o n s T  reforms.  7 Another,  by S y l v i a C a r l t o n , ' c o n t a i n s a s e c t i o n on t h e  l i b r a r y system o r g a n i z e d by Ryerson. account  While Miss C a r l t o n ' s  p r e s e n t s t h e f a c t s c l e a r l y and w i t h good documen-  t a t i o n , h e r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e success o f t h e system i s open t o q u e s t i o n .  She tends t o g i v e i t o v e r - l a v i s h p r a i s e ,  and f a i l s t o c o n s i d e r adequately i t s shortcomings. In many p u b l i c a t i o n s connected w i t h Egerton  Ryerson,  the hand o f John George Hodgins w i l l be e v i d e n t , as author, e d i t o r , o r compiler. Ryerson,  Hodgins was a devoted f r i e n d o f  and f o r many y e a r s served under him as Deputy  Superintendent  i n t h e E d u c a t i o n Department o f O n t a r i o .  To  Hodgins we owe a number o f i n d i s p e n s a b l e volumes c o n t a i n i n g a wealth o f documentary m a t e r i a l which he s o r t e d , c o d i f i e d ^John W. Emery, The L i b r a r y , t h e School and t h e C h i l d , Toronto, Macmillan, 1917". (A Doctor's D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1917) 7 S y l v i a C a r l t o n , "Egerton Ryerson and E d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o , 1844-1877," Unpublished Doctor's D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1950.  &  e.g. O n t a r i o , Department o f E d u c a t i o n , Documentary H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n Upper Canada from 1791 t o 1 8 7 ^ ed. by J.G. Hodgins, Toronto, Warwick and R u t t e r , 1894, 28 v o l s .  6  and arranged  f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n the years f o l l o w i n g  Ryerson's death.  Some o f t h e m a t e r i a l i s concerned with  l e g i s l a t i o n i n the e a r l i e r part of the nineteenth  century,  but a g r e a t d e a l o f i t i s r e l a t e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t o t h e work o f Ryerson. Without Hodgins t h e t a s k o f a r e s e a r c h e r i n t o any aspect o f R y e r s o n s l i f e would be much more f  difficult.  H i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r h i s s u p e r i o r made him anxious t o p r e serve seemingly t r i v i a l as w e l l as v a l u a b l e documents, and to  add i n copious f o o t n o t e s many engaging and r e v e a l i n g  details.  Acknowledging our debt t o Hodgins, we must never-  t h e l e s s be prepared t o make allowances t h a t l e d him t o embark on h i s l a b o u r s .  f o r t h e hero-worship Though t h e r e i s no  evidence t h a t h i s q u o t a t i o n s from o f f i c i a l l e t t e r s and p u b l i c r e p o r t s a r e anything but a c c u r a t e , t h e comments t h a t he sometimes i n t e r p o l a t e s , and t h e u b i q u i t o u s  footnotes  almost i n v a r i a b l y p l a c e Ryerson and h i s e n t e r p r i s e s i n a  9 favourable l i g h t .  Hodgins was not an unbiased  To supplement t h e primary  witness.  m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d by  Hodgins, i t i s necessary t o go d i r e c t l y t o t h e J o u r n a l s and S e s s i o n a l Papers o f t h e O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, to  newspaper r e p o r t s of debates and speeches i n t h e l e g i s -  l a t u r e , and t o a r t i c l e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l and l i t e r a r y j o u r nals of the period.  Ryerson's own Annual Reports on t h e  ^In a review, W. Pakenham comments: "Hodgins' work . . . was t h e l o v i n g i n d u s t r y o f a f r i e n d and co-worker r a t h e r than t h e balance and detachment o f a h i s t o r i a n . " (Review o f H i s t o r i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s R e l a t i n g t o Canada, Toronto, W. B r i g g s , 1897-1919, V o l . 8, p. 216) ~ ~ ~  7  a f f a i r s of h i s department c o n t r i b u t e much i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t cannot be found elsewhere.  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of the  s t a t i s t i c a l summaries and t a b l e s s u p p l i e d at the end each r e p o r t .  of  In a d d i t i o n , Ryerson wrote e x t e n s i v e l y of  the p r o j e c t s he wished t o promote and the causes f o r which he stood, i n a r t i c l e s and l e t t e r s t o newspapers and magaz i n e s , and  i n monographs p u b l i s h e d e i t h e r by the  Council  of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n o r , where the m a t e r i a l was o f f i c i a l n a t u r e , at h i s own The  not of an  expense.  sources mentioned so f a r have been mostly  o r i e n t e d t o Ryerson and the e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y o f the Government of O n t a r i o .  From the p o i n t of view of the p u b l i c  r a r y movement and i t s o r i g i n s , Canadian m a t e r i a l s are but a few  libsparse;  p e r t i n e n t r e f e r e n c e s have been found i n the pages  of the L i b r a r y J o u r n a l ; and the standard works on  library  history"*"^ p u b l i s h e d i n B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s  yield  s e v e r a l items of i n t e r e s t on events i n O n t a r i o i n the e a r l y days, seen a g a i n s t the broader background of developments elsewhere. F i n a l l y , i n order t o present a balanced Ryerson*s work, i t i s necessary  p i c t u r e of  t o read the o p i n i o n s of h i s  contemporaries, and f i n d out what k i n d of impact the r a r i e s made on the communities served by them. counts s u r v i v e , most of them w r i t t e n by  lib-  Many ac-  school-masters,  ^e.g. Thomas Greenwood, P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s ; a H i s t o r y of the Movement and a Manual f o r the O r g a n i z a t i o n and Management of Rate-supported L i b r a r i e s , London, C a s s e l l ,  a  s c h o o l board  o f f i c i a l s , l o c a l superintendents  and r e l i g i o u s  l e a d e r s , expressing views t h a t r u n a l l t h e way from warm a p p r o v a l t o o u t r i g h t condemnation.  A p e r u s a l o f Matthews',  11 b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l work Canadian D i a r i e s and Autobiographies r e v e a l s some h e l p f u l r e f e r e n c e s , but i t a l s o l e a d s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t comparatively  l i t t l e mention was made o f  r e a d i n g and l i b r a r i e s by people  outside educational  circles.  T h i s may not n e c e s s a r i l y be an index of p u b l i c r e a c t i o n , however.  The w r i t e r s o f d i a r i e s and memoirs i n p i o n e e r i n g  days tend t o g i v e prominence t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n "taming t h e w i l d e r n e s s " r a t h e r than t o a f f a i r s o f t h e mind. There i s ample evidence  from other sources t h a t t h e p u b l i c  l i b r a r y was a f o r c e t o be reckoned with i n s o c i e t y , even i f the f a c i l i t i e s i t p r o v i d e d were imperfect and l a c k i n g i n glamour. C.  Plan  The m a t e r i a l w i l l be presented l o g i c a l arrangement.  l a r g e l y i n a chrono-  F i r s t , some s a l i e n t events p r i o r t o  lo%4 i n t h e l i b r a r y h i s t o r y o f Upper Canada w i l l be r e called.  Then we s h a l l t u r n t o Ryerson.  of h i s superintendency,  At t h e beginning  Ryerson made a c a r e f u l survey o f  the e d u c a t i o n a l scene i n Upper Canada, found  i t f a r from  s a t i s f a c t o r y and began t o devise immediate measures f o r correcting the s i t u a t i o n .  One o f h i s remedies was a  ^ • * " W . Matthews, Canadian D i a r i e s and A u t o b i o g r a p h i e s , B e r k e l e y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1956.  9  programme to promote reading by young and o l d . We  shall  examine h i s views on the importance of books, and outline the p r a c t i c a l steps he took to bring reading material to the public.  His recommendations  to the Legislature were  embodied i n certain clauses of the Education Act of 16*50, which set the public l i b r a r y scheme i n motion.  The pro-  visions of t h i s Act w i l l be discussed, and the methods by which i t was applied and  implemented.  After summing up the successes of the f i r s t ten years we s h a l l look at p a r a l l e l developments i n the United States.  Ryerson t r a v e l l e d widely i n the Eastern States,  meeting government o f f i c i a l s , attending conventions, and gathering ideas that might a s s i s t him i n h i s e f f o r t s to bring enlightenment to the people of Upper Canada.  An  assessment w i l l be made of the extent to which Ryerson benefited from the experience of American educational leaders. Continuing from the year 1&54, the progress of the l i b r a r y system w i l l be reviewed, and some space devoted to the problems and obstacles that arose, and the consequent f r u s t r a t i o n s which Ryerson suffered. of unfavourable comment.  We s h a l l c i t e  examples  Having heard from Ryerson's  c r i t i c s , we s h a l l hear from some of those who were w i l l i n g to give him praise and  encouragement.  Then the events of the l a s t few years during which Ryerson held o f f i c e w i l l be reported.  In order to give  10  perspective to Ryerson's work, i t w i l l be necessary t o glance at the d i r e c t i o n followed by the public l i b r a r y movement a f t e r 1&76.  When we have seen what happened i n  the l a s t quarter of the nineteenth century we s h a l l be i n a better position to judge the quality of Ryerson's achievement.  How appropriate were h i s methods?  i n s t i t u t i o n s he created of any l a s t i n g value*?  Were the  What im-  petus d i d he a c t u a l l y give to the public l i b r a r y movement? A consideration of these questions w i l l form the conclusion to our study.  CHAPTER I I BACKGROUND: THE SITUATION AT  THE  BEGINNING OF RYERSON'S ADMINISTRATION The f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century was a period of p o l i t i c a l unrest i n Upper Canada.  I t was also a period  that saw the steady growth of population through successive waves of immigration.  The bulk of the population were able  to make a l i v i n g , but i n order to do so they had to spend long hours i n hard physical labour, often r i s i n g early and working l a t e . primitive.  S o c i a l conditions were generally rough and  Comforts and refinements were rare.  Under these circumstances, the average c i t i z e n had l i t t l e opportunity to read, even i f he were fortunate enough to have acquired the art at school.  Only i n a few  of the larger centres had attempts been made to set up public l i b r a r i e s .  The f i r s t of these was founded i n 16*00  at Niagara, by a group of forty-one "proprietors'* who agreed to contribute four d o l l a r s a year to take care of running expenses and the purchases of books.  For a while  the l i b r a r y flourished and the number of subscribers i n creased substantially.  The book c o l l e c t i o n included numer-  ous works on agriculture, history, t r a v e l and r e l i g i o n , and some items of f i c t i o n .  At the time of the American occupa-  t i o n i n 1813, the l i b r a r y suffered a severe setback when  12  part of i t s stock was destroyed by f i r e .  I t never did  f u l l y recover from the l o s s , being f i n a l l y disbanded i n 1320.  12  Similar c i r c u l a t i n g l i b r a r i e s were established l a t e r at York and Kingston and enjoyed a moderate degree of success.  In addition to the usual borrowing p r i v i l e g e s f o r  members, the Kingston l i b r a r y offered a novel  supplementary  service by making available to the general public "useful t r a c t s " which could be bought "either f o r clean rags or cash." -* 1  The intention behind these early c i r c u l a t i n g l i b r a r i e s was a worthy one.  Books were to be "made accessible to a l l  classes of the community on the most reasonable  terms."^  To a l i m i t e d extent they f u l f i l l e d t h i s aim; but the annual fee, though not large, had the effect of maintaining a somewhat exclusive membership.  There were not many patrons  outside the business and professional communities.  The  vast majority of towns and v i l l a g e s , i n any case, had no l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s whatever.  A person with the l e i s u r e  and the desire to read would have to r e l y upon h i s home 12  Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 1, p. 167. The information reported here by Hodgins was derived from a paper read at the Canadian I n s t i t u t e by Miss Garnochan of Niagara i n January, 18*94. 13 Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 1, p. 84. "^Loc. c i t .  13  resources.  The Bible and a few treasured c l a s s i c s would  constitute h i s " l i b r a r y " and f o r variety he would arrange exchanges with h i s neighbours. When Ryerson became Superintendent of Education f o r Upper Canada i n October, 1344,^ he was f u l l y aware of the magnitude of the task he was undertaking.  As a c i r c u i t -  r i d i n g Methodist Minister i n the 1320's he had become well acquainted with conditions both i n populated areas and i n the backwoods.  He had seen and deplored the lack of  l i b r a r i e s , and the meagre i n s t r u c t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n the schools.  Public concern over the s i t u a t i o n had prompted  the government to appoint a four-man commission i n 1339 to enquire into the subject of education i n Upper Canada and make recommendations.  Among other things, the commis-  sion advocated setting up fee-paying schools i n every township, a quarter of the money raised to be allocated f o r the i  ft  purchase of books and equipment. The recommendations of the commission were put into force, with b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s .  But i t was not enough.  What was needed was a vigorous and imaginative programme of reform.  Ryerson applied himself i n 1344 to the prepara-  t i o n of such a programme.  In the next chapter we  shall  His t i t l e was actually Assistant Superintendent of Education, the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary being the nominal head of the Department. Two years l a t e r , Ryerson s duties were redefined and the word "Assistant" was dropped. T  ^ O n t a r i o , Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 23, p. 304.  14  analyse the section of Ryerson*s master plan that related to public l i b r a r i e s . It w i l l be useful at t h i s point to take a b r i e f look at Ryerson's background i n order to understand the motives that l a y behind h i s crusade f o r better education. On h i s appointment to the Superintendency, some c r i t i c s were ready to draw attention to h i s own lack of schooling.  The Globe  protested loudly at the elevation to t h i s o f f i c e of a man "of such slender attainments i n a few common branches of English education, and t o t a l l y ignorant of mathematics and 17 classics."  The charge i s not e n t i r e l y just, since  Ryerson had worked d i l i g e n t l y at the study of L a t i n and Greek when he was attending the Gore D i s t r i c t Grammar School i n Hamilton.  I t i s true, nevertheless, that h i s formal  schooling was intermittent and f a r from thorough. attended University.  He never  His degree was an honorary D.D. con-  ferred on him by the Wesleyan University of Middletown, Connecticut, and awarded f o r outstanding service i n the cause of Methodism rather than f o r distinguished scholarship.  1 8  What, then, were h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r assuming charge of the Department  of Education i n Upper Canada? In  the f i r s t place, though not himself a b r i l l i a n t student, he 1 7  A r t i c l e i n Globe, May 23, 1344, signed "Junius."  13 The biographical information i n t h i s and subsequent paragraphs i s drawn l a r g e l y from Burwash, op. c i t . and Putman, op. c i t .  15  set a h i g h v a l u e on academic p r o f i c i e n c y , and had a pass i o n a t e c o n v i c t i o n of the need f o r e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s for a l l .  Because of h i s home circumstances,  e d u c a t i o n was  the product  o f h i s own  much o f h i s  r e a d i n g , and he  be-  l i e v e d t h a t the b e n e f i t s of r e a d i n g should be extended t o a l l corners of the p r o v i n c e .  H i s aim was  not o n l y t o r e -  o r g a n i z e the e d u c a t i o n a l system, but a l s o t o r a i s e the i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l throughout the whole country so t h a t everyone c o u l d f u l f i l the o b l i g a t i o n s o f  self-government  19  with wisdom and p a t r i o t i s m .  7  Ryerson's e a r l y c a r e e r as a champion of Methodism had g i v e n him wide experience trator.  He had  adminis-  served as m i n i s t e r i n a number of l a r g e  From 1329  parishes.  as an o r g a n i z e r and  he was  e d i t o r o f the C h r i s t i a n Guar-  d i a n and head of the p u b l i s h i n g house t h a t i n l a t e r  years  20 became known as Ryerson P r e s s .  On b e h a l f of the  church  he v i s i t e d England twice t o n e g o t i a t e d e l i c a t e matters of p o l i c y and t o conduct f u n d - r a i s i n g campaigns. t e r was  When a char-  granted t o V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e i n Cobourg, he  appointed  its first  was  principal.  In a l l these v a r i e d d u t i e s , Ryerson showed h i m s e l f t o be a man  o f strong purpose.  From e a r l y youth he  p l a y e d q u a l i t i e s of courage, f i r m n e s s , r e s o l u t e n e s s  disand  t e n a c i t y . H i s work f o r the Church, g i v i n g him r a p i d "^Burwash, op. c i t . , p. 1&5. 20  In 1920. See L o m e P i e r c e , "The Ryerson P r e s s , " Canadian L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n , 9:135-137» March  1953.  16  advancement, quickened h i s native talents and gave him a sense of mission.  At the same time, i t brought him into  contact with many d i f f e r e n t types of people i n a l l ranks and stations, whose opinions he learned to treat with respect even when they d i f f e r e d sharply from h i s own. Though not i n t o l e r a n t , there were times however when h i s mind seemed to move i n rather a narrow groove.  In middle  l i f e , he grew l e s s r i g i d than he had been i n h i s youth, but unlike some other Canadian leaders, he never developed a talent f o r the art of compromise. As he l e f t behind h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n the Church and entered the employment of the government i n 1&%4, he took with him above a l l else a continuing sense of mission, of being a chosen instrument f o r the performance of a v i t a l task.  This thought remained with him, and often served  to renew h i s confidence during the v i c i s s i t u d e s of the next thirty-one years.  CHAPTER  III  FIRST STEPS: THE LEGISLATION OF  16*50  A month, a f t e r taking over the Superintendency, Ryerson set out on a tour of the United States and Europe. He wished to study at f i r s t hand the educational i n s t i t u tions of a number of European countries before formulating a new plan f o r Upper Canada.  In h i s busy schedule he  found time to v i s i t some of the famous l i b r a r i e s of Europe, and he mentions i n h i s journal with keen admiration the Royal Library at Rotterdam and the University Library i n  21  T * Leyden.  On h i s return i n December 1645,  Ryerson compiled a  report f o r the government, summing up h i s findings and r e op commendations.  The Report,  which was published i n  1646,  covered a wide range of material and has come to be r e garded as Ryerson's most important statement of policy. "The story of Ryerson's administration i s the story of h i s e f f o r t to make e f f e c t i v e the views expressed i n the report of  I846."  23  21  A. Egerton Ryerson, "The Story of my L i f e " . . . ed. by J.G. Hodgins, Toronto,.W. Briggs, 1883, p. 354. 22 Ontario, Department of Education, Report on a System of Public Elementary Instruction f o r Upper Canada; by the Rev. Egerton Ryerson, Montreal, L o v e l l and Gibson, 1646. 23 Adam Shortt, Canada and i t s Provinces, Toronto, Glasgow, Brook, vol.18, p.  1913-1917,  304. ~~  18  With many of the innovations Ryerson proposed we are not concerned.  One section of the Report, however,  deals with the need f o r l i b r a r i e s , and since i t presents with such vigour and c l a r i t y the ideas Ryerson had i n mind, a portion of i t deserves to be quoted: To d e t a i l the i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s which tend to accomp l i s h the objects of public i n s t r u c t i o n i n connection with measures expressly required by law, would be foreign to the objects I have i n view and would exceed my prescribed l i m i t s . There i s , however, one more of so general and v i t a l l y important a character, that I cannot omit mentioning i t . I mean the establishment of C i r c u l a t i n g L i b r a r i e s i n the various D i s t r i c t s , and so f a r as possible i n the School Sections. To the a t t a i n ment of t h i s object, l o c a l and voluntary co-operation i s indispensable. The government may perhaps contribute; i t may a s s i s t by suggesting regulations, and recommending l i s t s of books from which suitable selections can be made; but the rest remains f o r i n d i v i d u a l and l o c a l e f f o r t to accomplish. And the advantages of the School can be but very p a r t i a l l y enjoyed, unless they are continued and extended by means of books. As the School i s the pupil's f i r s t teacher, so books are h i s second; i n the former he acquires the elements of knowledge, i n the l a t t e r he acquires knowledge i t s e l f ; i n the former he converses with the Schoolmaster—in the l a t t e r he holds intercourse with the greatest and wisest men of a l l ages, and countries and professions, on a l l subjects, and i n every variety of s t y l e . The School creates the taste and the want, which books alone can s a t i s f y . In conversing with the wise, the learned and the good, the mind cannot be unhappy, nor w i l l i t become v i t i a t e d ; i t s views w i l l be expanded; i t s standards of manners and men and things w i l l be elevated; i t s feelings w i l l be refined; i t s exertions w i l l be prompted; i t s p r a c t i c a l knowledge w i l l be matured, and i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l wealth and power w i l l be i n d e f i n i t e l y multiplied. But i n any community, few persons can be expected to possess the means necessary to procure anything l i k e a general assortment of books; i n a new and r u r a l community, perhaps none. One l i b r a r y f o r such a community i s the best subs t i t u t e . Each one thus acquires the f r u i t s of the united contributions of a l l ; and the teacher and the poor man with h i s family participate i n the common advantage.24 Ontario, Department of Education, Report on a System of Public Elementary Instruction, pp. 188-189.  19  This passage contains a number of s i g n i f i c a n t points: l o c a l e f f o r t should be the f i r s t essential; government grants would probably follow; the government would p a r t i c i pate also by framing rules and preparing a l i s t of recommended books.  We s h a l l see how a l l of these ideas were  developed l a t e r and incorporated i n l e g i s l a t i o n . An Education Act was passed late i n I846, giving p r a c t i c a l form to some parts of Ryerson s Report, but no T  mention was made of c i r c u l a t i n g l i b r a r i e s .  In a l e t t e r to  Charles Fletcher of Gait, dated March 11, 1847, Ryerson speaks of h i s l i b r a r y proposals, and regrets that "no fund has yet been set apart and no l e g i s l a t i v e grant has yet been 25  made f o r that object."  While he was waiting f o r govern-  ment action, Ryerson wrote to the l o c a l superintendents adv i s i n g them that i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r i c t s were to be encouraged to go ahead with t h e i r own plans f o r l o c a l l i b r a r i e s , improvising arrangements and r a i s i n g funds by any means at t h e i r disposal.  That there was some response to t h i s appeal  i s evident from a r t i c l e s and l e t t e r s appearing i n the Journ a l of Education f o r Upper Canada, founded by Ryerson i n I848.  One of the l e t t e r s , from R. B e l l of the United Coun-  t i e s of Lanark and Renfrew, stated that books were being bought there with the money from Tavern Licences, and suggested that the practice should be extended to the whole country by p r o v i n c i a l law.  "The sale of spirituous liquors  i s productive of much e v i l to the community, then why  not  25  ^Original d r a f t , Department of Education Papers, Ontario Archives, c i t e d by Carlton, op. c i t . , p. 228.  20  allow the tax on the t r a f f i c to be applied to so good a purpose as purchasing books?  I t would, to some extent,  counteract the e v i l . " It was a plausible suggestion, which has found acceptance today with certain p r o v i n c i a l s p i r i t i f not i n substance. thought of the idea.  governments—in  We do not know what Ryerson  But we have evidence that he was  exerting strong pressure on the government between 1646 and 1350 to provide a grant f o r l i b r a r i e s .  He began com-  p i l i n g s t a t i s t i c s i n 1347 so that when making representations t o the government he would have actual figures t o support h i s arguments.  Local o f f i c i a l s were sent blank  forms on which they were required to supply information regarding t h e i r books, equipment, and other m a t t e r s .  27  The f i r s t s t a t i s t i c a l table i s found i n the Superintends*  dent's Report f o r 1847, and includes the following data: No. of Libraries  No. of Volumes  Common School L i b r a r i e s  32  2729  Sunday School L i b r a r i e s  33  3 915  Public L i b r a r i e s  20  3960  Journal of Education f o r Upper Canada, 3:3l, June 1350. 27 Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 7, p. 170. I b i d . , p. 171. 2 g  21  A word of explanation i s required here f o r the terms used.  A "Common School Library" i n Ryerson s terminology T  was a free public l i b r a r y operated by a board of school trustees, housed i n a school building and available f o r use either by students and teachers or by the inhabitants of the d i s t r i c t .  A "Public Library" was found i n some other  building than a school.  I t was operated and financed by  the council of a municipality, or occasionally by a group of interested c i t i z e n s who charged a small fee f o r membership.  "Sunday School L i b r a r i e s " need no elaboration and  are outside the scope of t h i s study. In the Report of 16*47, Ryerson expresses s a t i s f a c t i o n with the r e s u l t s of the new Education Act passed i n the previous year, and compares the system of h i s own province favourably with that of the State of New York. However, he finds the l i b r a r y figures disquieting.  Here  i s no cause f o r pride, he a f f i r m s — t h i s i s the one area i n which the American state i s pursuing a more generous and progressive p o l i c y . In New York, the Legislature appropriates a large sum f o r l i b r a r i e s while not a farthing has yet been appropriated by our l e g i s l a t u r e f o r the same object i n Upper Canada. I hope, before the beginning of another year, we s h a l l have reason to congratulate our country i n t h i s respect also, i n comparison with that of our American neighbours.29 Ryerson was over-optimistic.  No action was taken i n  I848, then i n the following year a new government was formed  29Loc. c i t .  22  which was a c t i v e l y h o s t i l e to Ryerson.  Without consulting  him, the Hon. Malcolm Cameron drafted a School B i l l of a reactionary nature and introduced i t into the House where i t was rushed through.  At t h i s rebuff, Ryerson was furious,  and threatened to resign.  Such was h i s power, and so i r -  replaceable had he become, that the Attorney-General, Robert Baldwin, immediately urged the Governor^General to suspend the new act and i n v i t e Ryerson to prepare another 30 one.  The r e s u l t was that Ryerson emerged from the i n c i -  dent with h i s p o s i t i o n strengthened, and an opportunity was created f o r him to press h i s demands f o r a more vigorous programme of reform. In a preliminary draft of "Measures f o r the Improvement of the Upper Canada School System," written i n July 1849, Ryerson advocated a public l i b r a r y f o r each Township with branches i n the School Sections.  He maintained that  i f "a suitable selection of entertaining and i n s t r u c t i v e books" were a v a i l a b l e , "a vast and salutary influence would 31 be exerted upon the entire population." ^ -  Ryerson communi-  cated these opinions to Robert Baldwin i n a l e t t e r dated 32 August 16, 1849,  and requested Baldwin to ascertain how  much support h i s colleagues i n the Cabinet would give to °Ryerson, of my i Lni fcorrespondence e , " p. 370. such a scheme. He "The also Story mentioned with 3  -^Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 8, p. 221. •^ Cited by Sissons, op. c i t . , p. 182. 2  23 Baldwin that during v i s i t s to the United States he had discussed l i b r a r y matters with school o f f i c i a l s i n New York and Philadelphia, and had been i n touch with several publishing firms, including Harpers.  The o f f i c i a l s and  agents he met had given him much h e l p f u l advice and encouragement. At the same time as h i s negotiations with the government were going on, Ryerson was using the pages of the Journal of Education to spread f a r and wide through the province the doctrines i n which he believed.  A r t i c l e s and  e d i t o r i a l s appeared drawing attention to the i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l benefits of reading good books.  A prominent  place was given to news items on the progress of the Ewart B i l l i n the B r i t i s h House of Commons, which sought to 33 establish public l i b r a r i e s supported by rates. The f i n a l version of Ryerson s submission to the T  government was completed late i n 1849,  and most of h i s  recommendations were incorporated i n the School B i l l that was passed a few months l a t e r .  The Act of 1#50 marked a  milestone i n the h i s t o r y of Upper Canada.  I t effected many  s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the operation of the schools, and put into the hands of the central authority a much greater measure of i n i t i a t i v e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Among the new duties assigned to the Chief Super-^See Journal of Education, 2:150, October 1849. Subsequent issues reported the passage of the b i l l and explained i t s provisions.  24  intendent was the following: . . . to apportion whatever sum, or sums, of money s h a l l be provided by the Legislature f o r the establishment and support of School L i b r a r i e s : provided always, that no a i d s h a l l be given towards the establishment or support of any School Library unl e s s an equal amount be contributed from l o c a l sources f o r the same object.34 Another paragraph  i n the Act (Section XXI)  ized the expenditure on l i b r a r i e s of £3000  author-  out of the  Legislature School Grant, and stated that t h i s amount could be increased at the d i s c r e t i o n of the Legislature. The Act also re-constituted the Board of Education, giving i t a new t i t l e , "Council of Public Instruction," and requiring i t s members to a s s i s t the Chief Superintendent i n connection with Normal Schools, text-books, l i b r a r i e s and other matters. Besides i t s v i t a l importance f o r the schools of Upper Canada, the 1850 Act was i n a r e a l sense the f i r s t l i b r a r y law of the province.  The use of the term "School  L i b r a r i e s " i n the Act i s misleading, since i t i s evident from l a t e r developments that they were to be intended f o r the use of the general population. i n 1#54,  the Governor-General,  In a report published  Lord E l g i n , commented on  t h i s point and explained that the epithet "school" was used because the management of most of the l i b r a r i e s  was  -^Section XXXV of School Act of I S 5 0 , reproduced by Hodgins i n Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 9 , p. 46.  25  entrusted to school a u t h o r i t i e s .  Ryerson foresaw the  p o s s i b i l i t y of confusion between public l i b r a r i e s i n schools and those located elsewhere and when i t was necessary to make t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n he referred respectively to "Common School L i b r a r i e s " and "Public L i b r a r i e s , " following the d e f i n i t i o n s given e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter. Before describing the methods used to give effect to the l i b r a r y provisions of the I85O Act, mention should be made of a matter which caused Ryerson some anxiety. Though a government grant was to be provided on a matching basis with l o c a l funds, only a l i m i t e d degree of l o c a l taxation was permitted.  In an e d i t o r i a l a r t i c l e i n the  Journal of Education, Ryerson c r i t i c i z e d the omission of certain tax clauses that had appeared i n h i s o r i g i n a l pro's £  posals to the government.  He continued to agitate f o r  them to be re-instated, and three years l a t e r h i s opinion prevailed. 35  Ontario, Department of Education, Special Report on the Separate School Provisions of the School Law of Upper Canada, and the Measures which have been Adopted to Supply the School Sections and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s with School Text-books, Apparatus and L i b r a r i e s ; by the Chief Superintendent of Education, Toronto, J . L o v e l l , I858, p. 3$. Journal of Education, 3:11, January 1#50.  CHAPTER IV IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 1850 ACT As soon as the I85O school l e g i s l a t i o n received royal assent, Ryerson met with the Council of Public Instruction to decide on appropriate steps f o r implementing the Act. One of t h e i r f i r s t decisions was to establish a central depot where school materials could be accumulated and stored, then sold at cost price to the schools. Known as the Depository, i t was allocated space i n a sect i o n of the Education O f f i c e at Toronto.  Besides l i b r a r y  books and text books, the Depository was intended to house equipment such as maps, globes, charts and blackboards. Very l i t t l e educational material was produced i n Upper Canada at t h i s time, therefore the Council was obliged to consider the question of importing some of i t from abroad.  Ryerson had already made useful contacts with  representatives of the publishing trade i n various countries.  He expressed willingness to patronize any firm that  could supply the right kind of l i t e r a t u r e at a reasonable price.  Canadian agencies of the book-trade would not be  ignored, but because of the large orders involved i t would be necessary to use B r i t i s h and American sources f o r much of the material.  27  With regard to the American publishers, Ryerson's interest was tempered with caution.  While the opportun-  i t i e s f o r doing business seemed good, there was the r i s k of bringing i n l i t e r a t u r e that might be p o l i t i c a l l y objectionable or morally debased.  Ryerson had delivered stern  attacks on more than one occasion against "the f r i g h t f u l ness of the press of our enterprising neighbours i n producing corrupting works of f i c t i o n designated  'Yellow  37 Coloured L i t e r a t u r e .  , M  It would be important to screen  the American publications with great care before placing d e f i n i t e orders.  Early i n September, 16*50, Ryerson ad-  dressed a c i r c u l a r to selected publishers i n the United States, requesting them to submit f o r approval samples of t h e i r wares.  Since he planned to s a i l f o r England l a t e r  i n the month, he entrusted to Hodgins, now  Deputy Super-  intendent, the task of examining and cheeking the books 38* that came i n . Leave of absence having been granted by the Governor-General, Ryerson set o f f f o r England.  The business  negotiations he conducted there during the next three months were highly successful.  He discovered that the  Privy Council Committee on Education had an arrangement 37 with certain large publishing houses i n London and Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 3, p. 100. •^Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 9, p. 192. This reference also provides the information i n the following paragraph.  23  Edinburgh f o r discount  at the rate of forty-three per cent  to be granted on bulk purchases.  The publishers were not  prepared at f i r s t to extend the same advantageous terms to the Government of Upper Canada.  Pressure being applied,  however, at Ryerson's i n s t i g a t i o n , by the Colonial Secretary, E a r l Gray, the publishers dropped t h e i r objections, agreed to the high discount  rate, and made every e f f o r t to  provide s a t i s f a c t o r y service. On h i s return to Toronto, Ryerson began work on a Catalogue of approved publications, from which l o c a l groups desiring l i b r a r i e s would select the books they wanted. In the preparation  of the f i r s t edition of the Catalogue,  Hodgins gave some assistance, but Ryerson himself was mainly responsible  f o r the choice of t i t l e s and the writing  of a descriptive annotation f o r each book, "requiring considerable thought, judgement and l a b o u r .  tt>7  At the outset,  i t i s u n l i k e l y that he r e a l i z e d the scope and complexity of the task, which, he reported l a t e r , "occupied most of my time out of o f f i c e hours f o r nearly two years. To establish a clear policy on s e l e c t i o n , four d i r e c t i v e s were issued i n 1850 by the Council of Public Instruction a f t e r consultation with Ryerson. (1)  These were:  No consideration would be given to works of a l i c e n t i o u s , vicious or immoral tendency, or h o s t i l e to the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n . 39 'Ontario,  Department of Education, Special Report,  p. 34. ^ L e t t e r to the Hon. J.C. Morrison, July 11, 1356, c i t e d by Sissons, op. c i t . , p. 376.  29  (2)  No controversial works on theology or on denominational disputation would be admitted.  (3)  On h i s t o r i c a l subjects, an e f f o r t should be made to include works presenting a variety of d i f f e r ent viewpoints.  (4)  For the r e s t , the books selected should cover as wide a range as possible of a l l the major departments of human knowledge.41 Following these p r i n c i p l e s to the best of h i s a b i l -  ity,  Ryerson f i n a l l y completed the compilation of the  Catalogue early i n 1853, and i t was published as a special feature i n the Journal of Education. works were recommended i n t h i s l i s t .  About two thousand Supplements of ad-  d i t i o n a l t i t l e s appeared regularly i n the Journal of Educat i o n up t i l l 1857, when i t was decided to cumulate a l l the t i t l e s , now grown to nearly three thousand, i n a single book.  Copies were then distributed to the l o c a l super-  intendents . The Catalogue was one of the e a r l i e s t examples of an "authorized l i s t . "  It comprised three sections: f i r s t ,  books of general reading, c l a s s i f i e d according to subject; second, reference works; and t h i r d , a commentary on the l i b r a r y system and a complete schedule of rules and regula-  p. 39.  ^ O n t a r i o , Department of Education, Special Report, JO  Journal of Education, v o l . 6, January, February, March, A p r i l , 1853. ^ O n t a r i o , Department of Education, A General Catalogue of Books i n Every Department of Literature f o r Public School L i b r a r i e s i n Upper Canada, Toronto, Lovell and Gibson, 1857- Part I I of the General Catalogue w i l l be found reproduced i n Appendix A.  30  tions.  In the l i g h t of present-day tastes i n reading, i t  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the type of book that q u a l i f i e d f o r inclusion.  A wide range of subject matter was presented.  Many of the t i t l e s are s t i l l remembered today, and some s t i l l enjoy popularity.  These i s a noticeable bias t o -  wards works of depth and s o l i d i t y , and a preponderance of material concerned with d i f f e r e n t aspects of C h r i s t i a n virtue.  The f i r s t subject, "History," begins with Josephus  and includes Henry L i d d e l l ' s School History of Rome and Macaulay's History of England.  Very few of the t i t l e s  l i s t e d under "Voyages and Travels" are known today, but two that stand out are Kinglake's Expedition to Japan.  Eothen and Perry's  Among the "Biographies" are Johnson's  Lives, of the Poets, Boswell's Johnson and the Memoirs of Benvenuto C e l l i n i . Under " L i t e r a t u r e " we f i n d translations of Homer, Plato and A r i s t o t l e , several editions of Shakespeare, and a representative s e l e c t i o n of the great c l a s s i c a l writers. Among nineteenth  century authors, Washington Irving occupies  a prominent place with an entry f o r the complete e d i t i o n of his works i n fourteen volumes.  In addition to the acknow-  ledged giants of l i t e r a t u r e are some minor writers who at that time were enjoying a period of popularity.  There are  also r e l i g i o u s t r e a t i s e s such as the following: Noah and His Times; embracing the consideration of various enquiries r e l a t i v e to the antediluvian and e a r l i e r post-diluvian periods; by the Rev. J . Munson Olmstead.  31  In "The Teachers' Library" are books on Philosophy and Method, and useful reference works such as the Chauncey Goodrich edition of Webster's English Dictionary, and the f i r s t edition of Roget's Thesaurus. On s c i e n t i f i c subjects there are manuals on chemistry and physics, and on astronomy and geology.  Many of these  works were new publications presenting the l a t e s t advances in various f i e l d s of knowledge.  Then i n addition to the  t h e o r e t i c a l works on science and natural history, numerous "How-to-do-it" books are featured, on such topics as gardening, fruit-growing, beekeeping, and rearing livestock. Of the three thousand t i t l e s i n the 1#57 edition of the Catalogue, about a t h i r d are found under the heading "Practical L i f e . "  They are story books by popular writers  of the period, including Maria Edgeworth, Hannah More, Mrs. Trimmer and Mrs. Sherwood.  From t h e i r t i t l e s , the s t o r i e s  were evidently designed to i l l u s t r a t e some C h r i s t i a n precept or to impart some useful information. Typical examples are Kindness to Animals, The Good Neighbours, Stories on the Lord's Prayer, L i t t l e Children's Duties, Letters to Young Men, and Noble Deeds of Wonter*. No section of the Catalogue was devoted to " F i c t i o n " i n the modern sense of the term, though some of the mater i a l i n " P r a c t i c a l L i f e " could be c l a s s i f i e d as f i c t i o n . The novels of Dickens are found i n " L i t e r a t u r e , " along with Uncle Tom's Cabin and Pilgrim's Progress.  A few f i c -  t i o n a l works are l i s t e d under "Miscellaneous," and Robinson  32  Crusoe turns up i n "voyages and Travels." In a l a t e r chapter we s h a l l r e f e r to the Catalogue again.  It w i l l s u f f i c e at the moment to say that i n  spite of occasional vagaries and inconsistencies, the Catalogue was a remarkable achievement.  It f i t t e d the purpose  f o r which i t was intended—to serve as an index to reading material on a wide range of t o p i c s , from the simplest to the most sophisticated, f o r the benefit of people with diverse backgrounds, tastes and i n t e r e s t s . While the Catalogue was s t i l l incomplete, i t was not possible to put into f u l l operation the provisions of the 1850 Act.  Ryerson s Annual Report f o r 1852 stated that new T  l i b r a r y regulations were being worked out.  It also re-  vealed that despite the delay i n issuing regulations, r e turns from various school d i s t r i c t s were showing a steady increase i n the number of l i b r a r y books i n the p r o v i n c e . ^ F i n a l l y , i n 1353, the Catalogue was ready, and  was  given formal approval by the Council of Public Instruction. Ryerson's plans could now go ahead.  In the spring of 1353,  he c a l l e d a series of t h i r t y educational conventions,  em-  bracing forty-two counties, to consider, along with other matters of t o p i c a l concern, the p r a c t i c a l d e t a i l s of organizing public l i b r a r i e s .  Local groups had an oppor-  tunity of questioning Ryerson on h i s scheme.  Expressions  ^ O n t a r i o , Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 10, p. 290.  33  of interest and approval came from many quarters—from c o u n c i l l o r s , clergy, magistrates, l o c a l and t r u s t e e s . ^  superintendents  To give the f u l l e s t support to h i s cause,  he conducted a vigorous campaign, i n meeting after meeting, for the establishment of l i b r a r i e s . After the conventions, Ryerson composed a c i r c u l a r for d i s t r i b u t i o n to the municipalities of Upper Canada, presenting a comprehensive survey of the plans he had prepared. ^  He began by stating that l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e was  the f i r s t e s s e n t i a l .  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and school boards  were authorized by law "to do whatever they may judge expedient" f o r setting up a l i b r a r y i n the community.  They  were to f i n d suitable premises, and raise funds f o r the purchase of books.  Gn application to the Chief Superin-  tendent, books would be supplied from the Depository at cost price, and to the money raised by l o c a l exertion, the government would add a bounty of seventy-five per cent. The s e l e c t i o n of t i t l e s could be done by an i n d i v i d u a l or group from the community, or i f they wished t o leave t h i s matter to the Chief Superintendent, he was prepared to make up a c o l l e c t i o n of assorted items with the funds that were available.  In either case, the choice must be made from  t i t l e s i n the General Catalogue.  Ryerson pointed out that  the l i b r a r i e s were securing very generous terras f o r the AS  Ontario, Department of Education, Special Report, p. 3 7 . The c i r c u l a r i s found i n Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 1 1 , pp. 2 9 - 3 4 .  34  purchases made, and at the same time were assured of r e ceiving nothing but good, wholesome l i t e r a t u r e .  He warned  the public against patronizing i t i n e r a n t vendors, whose books were of poor quality, and whose business methods were often completely unscrupulous. With each consignment of books sent out from the Superintendent's o f f i c e a supply of paper would be included f o r covering the books, and a s u f f i c i e n t number of printed labels to be inserted on the inside covers.  Also enclosed  were a copy of the Regulations, and the most recent issue of the Journal of Education.  The government was  s i b l e f o r the expense of packing and cartage.  respon-  The l o c a l  authority was required to make arrangements f o r the books to be covered and marked with an accession number, and f o r the labels or book-plates to be pasted i n .  A librarian  must be appointed to be i n charge of c i r c u l a t i o n and to keep records.  The supervision of the l i b r a r y was the r e -  s p o n s i b i l i t y of the county inspector. Both he and the trustees were to furnish an annual report. Great e l a s t i c i t y existed i n regard to where a l i b r a r y might be organized.  School trustees of c i t i e s ,  towns, v i l l a g e s or r u r a l sections were empowered to s t a r t one and provide accommodation f o r i t i n school premises. Councils of townships or counties could also make t h e i r own arrangements f o r general lending l i b r a r i e s .  I f large  enough, a township or county l i b r a r y might set up t r a v e l l i n g sections which would c i r c u l a t e among the schools, or  35  provide service f o r the public i n outlying areas. For r a i s i n g funds, many d i f f e r e n t methods were employed.  Reference has been made to the purchase of books  i n Lanark and Renfrew with the proceeds from l i q u o r licences.  Other d i s t r i c t s followed t h e i r example.  l o c a l o f f i c i a l s came forward with donations.  Some  The Mayor of  London was reported by the Journal of Education to have given £10.  Municipal councils were permitted by the  School Act of 1^50 to levy taxes, at t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n , f o r the support of lending l i b r a r i e s .  The same Act did not  extend comparable power to School Boards, but the s i t u a t i o n was remedied by a section of the Supplementary School Act of 1853, which invested School Boards with the authority to raise money f o r l i b r a r i e s "by a general rate upon property, or otherwise."  Taxation f o r t h i s purpose was op-  t i o n a l , and there i s no evidence to suggest that Municipali t i e s and Boards made widespread use of t h e i r taxation clauses. Reviewing the main points i n the c i r c u l a r , i t w i l l be seen that Ryerson i s following closely the programme he outlined i n h i s 1346 Report: where there i s l o c a l exertion, government help w i l l be forthcoming; there must be proper i n  See Carlton, op. c i t . , p. 231. 16  "Extracts from the Law authorising the E s t a b l i s h ment and Management of Public School L i b r a r i e s i n Upper Canada," a memorandum prepared by Ryerson i n January 1355, reprinted i n Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 12, p. 94.  36  supervision, based on rules l a i d down by the Chief Superintendent,  and t h i s w i l l only be achieved by active co-  operation between central and l o c a l administrative units; the choice of books must be r e s t r i c t e d to the t i t l e s authorized by the Council of Public Instruction. Before going on to discuss the manner i n which the public responded to Ryerson s scheme, i t w i l l be useful !  to take a look at the General Regulations  7  which con-  t r o l l e d the operation of the Public School L i b r a r i e s . The Regulations merit inspection f o r several reasons.  They are  a testimonial, f o r one thing, to Ryerson s concern f o r T  meticulous d e t a i l .  Taken i n sequence, they give us a com-  plete picture of the progress of a book between i t s a r r i v a l from the Depository and i t s delivery into the hands of a borrower.  They also enable us to make revealing comparisons  between the practices of the present day and those of a century ago.  Because of t h e i r unusual i n t e r e s t , the entire  schedule of Regulations i s reproduced i n Appendix B. One can r e a d i l y understand why Ryerson went to such lengths to specify exactly how a l i b r a r y should be run, and to i n s i s t that h i s directions should be followed throughout, the whole province.  The l o c a l groups who participated i n  the scheme were i n most eases ignorant  of l i b r a r y procedures.  They could hardly be r e l i e d upon, without f u l l and e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s , to operate i n a business-like fashion. Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 11, pp. 25-28. y  Govern-  37  ment money was involved, too, therefore Ryerson could not afford to r i s k the: misuse or loss of books through i n e f f i c i e n t management. The L i b r a r i a n was enjoined to record the t i t l e s of his c o l l e c t i o n i n an accession book and to number each book according to the order of i t s accession. be loaned only to residents of the d i s t r i c t .  Books could Not more than  one book could be borrowed at a time, and i f the c o l l e c t i o n was small, only one would be allowed f o r each family. There was no age l i m i t f o r borrowers.  The period of loan  was one week f o r each hundred pages i n the book, the supposition being that the average person would manage to read a hundred pages a week.  Renewal was permitted.  a penny a day was to be paid on overdues.  A f i n e of  For damage sus-  tained by a book, the scale of charges was stated with a l most painful precision.  Each spot of grease would be as-  sessed three-pence half-penny.  Each cut or tear would cost  the borrower six-pence. The o r i g i n a l version of the Regulations, adopted by the Council of Public Instruction on August 2, 1853, r e mained substantially i n force f o r the next twenty-two years.  I t had been Ryerson's intention to revise the rules  from time to time, as experience and the circumstances might suggest.  No major changes were ever made, however.  interpreted the 1350 Law f u l l y and c l e a r l y .  They  Subsequent  l e g i s l a t i o n , though important, did not fundamentally a l t e r  the structure of the l i b r a r y system.  The Regulations  continued to serve as an e f f e c t i v e vade-mecum f o r l i b r a r i a n s and other l o c a l o f f i c i a l s whose enthusiasm was not always matched by knowledge or experience.  39  •gjfl 1111 VV  ;• r • y yy.yyy; -I DEPARTMENTAL M • • ;••; V  V .1  ^EDUCATIONAL  *4J  M o l i c o t to M u n i c i p a l a a d S c h o o l C o r p o r a t i o n * In U p p « r On n ad a.  P U B L I C  S C H O O L  L I B R A R I E S .  ' T h e C h i e f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n . w i l l , app o r t i o n one hundred per cent, u p o n a l l s u m s w h i c h s h a l l he raised f r o m l o c a l s o u r c e s by M u n i c i p a l Councils a n d School Corporations, a n d transmitted to h i m for the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o r i n c r e a s e o f P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s i n U p p e r C a n a d a , u n d e r the r e g u l a t i o n s  Srovidcd ollars.  according fu law. Remittances must not be in less b u m s limn f i v e Catalogues and Forms furnished upon A p p l i c a t i o n ; but a suitable •clcction can always be matlo by llie Department, when so desired. *  P R I Z E S  I N  T H E  P U B L I C  S C H O O L S .  T h e C h i e f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t w i l l g r a n t one hundred per cent, u p o n a l l s u m s not less t h a n five d o l l a r s , t r a n s m i t t e d to h i m by the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s o r B o a r d s o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , for the p u r c h a s e o f H o o k s o r R e w a r d C a r d s for d i s t r i b u t i o n as P r i z e s i n G r a m m a r and Common Schools. Forms and Catalogues furnished upon application; but a suitable selection can always be made by the Department, when so desired. S C H O O L  M A P S  A N D  A P P A R A T U S .  T h e C h i e f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t w i l l a d d uno hundred per cent, to a n y s u m o r s u m s not less than live d o l l a r s , t r a n s m i t t e d to (he D e p a r t m e n t f r o m G r a m mar and Common Schools; and forward Maps, Apparatus, C h a r t s , a n d D i a g r a m s to the v a l u e o f the  omount thus augim-nird. upon receiving a list of lite articles rrmiiml. and Catalogues will he I'urwurded . upon application; but a seleclion of articles lo be sent can olways he diade by the Department, when so desired.  F i g u r e 1.  Copy o f a P o s t e r sent t o t h e Schools t o Announce t h e L i b r a r y P r o j e c t  (From a Reproduction i n O n t a r i o , Department of E d u c a t i o n , General Catalogue, p. 251.)  (  • Jib. 10. Form of the Label authorized by the General fleoulations, $"o. IV. !  of  E  STABLISHED  [\t  a n d c o n d u c t e d a c c o r d i n g to the REGULATIONS  adopted b y tho Council of P u b l i c Enitruttion Cor D p p t r Cinotit,  d a t e d this 2nd of A u g u s t , 1853, u n d e r tlio a u t h o r i t y o f tbo U p p e r C a n a d a S c h o o l A c t of 1SS0, sections 35, (10th clause',) 38, (4th clause,) a n d 41. N O T E . — T h i s Book above.  shall always be k n o w n b y t h e n u m b e r e n t e r e d  I f it bo lost, its natoo a n d n u m b e r m u s t still r e m a i n o n t b o  Catalogue karoo work,  and  i t s place  XA toon  b o supplied, w i t h  as possible*.  another copy  (Sco L i b r a r y  of tbo  Regulations, N o .  n.) •„*  JKnery Work mutt  teeekt. after pages, under that time.  Figure 2.  bl returned  to ths Library  within  it thall have been taken out, as it contains a forfeiture (See Regulation  cf one penny for  each day** detention  X , Mh and 1 0 M  as many  h u n d r e d * of beyond  divisions.)  Book Plate used before 1867  (From a Reproduction i n Ontario, Department of Education, General Catalogue, p.. 252.)  41  <5  i ! ^OCtlc %  ON' P  N  T  THE " E  <s\^  p , , S T . S B L l S M E D and conducted 'accord' Vi ingt<> theKBCVLATIOXSmlnjit«d by the. j'" 15bura 1 ion Stparbr-tut for Ontario, under !•'• the authority of t]ic School Aeis'>f-Ontario.. ;! X o T K - T h i s Book shall always bo known by the m i inber entered above. I f it be lost its name and number must still remain <n the C a U l o g i i o , and its place be supplied with another copy o f the same work, ns soon as possible. [Sec Library Regula'tions, X o . vi.] ' \* Kt^nj t  i: . j; j|. ' ii. ii. j' ;  mi'etlc r<?tu)*li,'(l lit the Library mlhh),' \\:  as hinin/ ic.'r/.-v a fter it rhal! hitv--. hrc tuken out as l i ^ ' l j rftiitaia* hmulo'ils tif payr*, uniltr rt fiirfcitiirc'ti/tie'i l ! ' C i l t K f'.-r c:i':h day's th-ttntioHtvitmidthai lime. (Sec A''V/'i/VoV.;;.v .V , S / / i and iOtlt tiii:Uioun). - ji.  F i g u r e 3.  Book P l a t e u s e d a f t e r 1867  (From a R e p r o d u c t i o n i n Emery, The L i b r a r y , .the S c h o o l a n d t h e C h i l d , p . 1247)  CHAPTER V EARLY SUCCESSES The response to Ryerson's e f f o r t was most encouraging.  This can be partly attributed to the novelty of  the scheme, and to i t s timeliness: books were a scarce commodity i n Upper Canada, eagerly desired by those  who  could read, but not r e a d i l y available f o r the majority of  people. The i n i t i a l successes scored by the l i b r a r y system  were also due to Ryerson's s k i l f u l and energetic methods of promotion.  He used every propaganda device known at  the t i m e — a r t i c l e s i n newspapers and p e r i o d i c a l s , speeches i n the major centres, meetings with municipal o f f i c i a l s , and a constant stream of c i r c u l a r s to l o c a l representatives. The Journal of Education was regarded by Ryerson as one of the most powerful instruments at h i s disposal.  The a r t i c l e s  i t contained were made up of a judicious blend of informat i o n and i n s p i r a t i o n .  Columns frequently appeared outlining  plans f o r the e f f e c t i v e functioning of a l i b r a r y , with sketches of a r c h i t e c t u r a l designs, and hints on l i g h t i n g and seating, the placement of shelves, and the size and arrangement of reading rooms.  In addition to p r a c t i c a l ad-  v i c e , an emotional appeal was provided by contributors such as T.O.  Davis, i n v i t i n g h i s readers to  43  look at that wall of motley c a l f s k i n , open those s l i p s of inked rags—who would fancy them as valuable as the rows of stamped cloth i n a warehouse? Yet Aladdin's lamp was a c h i l d ' s Kaleidoscope i n comparison.50 The government was impressed by Ryerson's shrewd t a c t i c s and by the favourable response they evoked.  In  1354 a government order increased the grant f o r l i b r a r y materials from seventy-five per cent to one hundred per cent.  To assure the l i b r a r i e s of adequate funds, an  annual sum of £3500 was provided i n a section of the Grammar and Common School Improvement Act, passed by the Legislature i n 1855-^  1  Ryerson was obliged to augment h i s o f f i c e s t a f f i n order to deal with the demand f o r books.  In h i s Annual  Report f o r the year 1$54, he quoted many messages of congratulation from d i s t r i c t superintendents, and went on to assert that the l i b r a r y system ''constitutes a new  epoch i n 52  the i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l history of Upper Canada."' Between the publication of l i b r a r y regulations i n August 18^53 and the end of 1&54,  no fewer than 81,965 volumes had  been sent out from the Depository.  L i b r a r i e s had been  established i n a l l but three of the forty-two counties of ^T.O. Davies, " L i b r a r i e s , " Journal of Education, 1: 135, May 1348. 51  ' Ontario, Department of Education, General Catalogue, Part I I I (Law and Regulations), p. 232. ^ O n t a r i o , Department of Education, Report of the Chief Superintendent of Education . . • f o r the Year 185354, Toronto, 1854, P« 133. The s t a t i s t i c s and c i t a t i o n s that follow are from the same report.  44  Upper Canada, i n c l u d i n g some remote s p o t s i n t h e n o r t h e r n townships  b o r d e r i n g t h e Ottawa R i v e r .  While these  results  were a l l most g r a t i f y i n g , Ryerson c h i d e d some o f t h e c i t i e s , n o t a b l y T o r o n t o , Ottawa and London, f o r n o t t a k i n g advantage o f l e g i s l a t i v e g r a n t s .  I f t h e y were t o do s o , he  c l a i m e d , t h e y might g a i n some r e l i e f from t h e i r problems w i t h young d e l i n q u e n t s , by p r o v i d i n g wholesome l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h e " i d l e , l i s t l e s s , mischievous  boys."  P r a i s e f o r Ryerson's e n t e r p r i s e came f r o m many quarters.  The C h i e f J u s t i c e o f Upper Canada, S i r John  B e v e r l e y Robinson,  d e c l a r e d a t an address b e f o r e t h e  Canadian I n s t i t u t e on January 3, 1855: There i s good ground f o r e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t , w i t h t h e advantage o f P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s , s e l e c t e d as t h e y a r e w i t h c a r e and judgement, a s p i r i t o f e n q u i r y w i l l be f o s t e r e d , and an a m b i t i o n e x c i t e d t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n s c i e n t i f i c pursuits.53 Even more f l a t t e r i n g were t h e remarks o f L o r d E l g i n , t h e Governor G e n e r a l .  His report t o the Secretary of State  f o r C o l o n i e s , w r i t t e n i n 1354, devoted much space t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e way i n w h i c h l i b r a r y s e r v i c e had been o r g a n i z e d and promoted.  Summing up t h e e d u c a t i o n a l advances  i n Upper Canada d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1347 t o 1353, he s a i d : I n t h e former o f t h e s e y e a r s t h e Normal S c h o o l , which may be c o n s i d e r e d t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e system, was i n s t i t u t e d , and a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e l a t t e r t h e f i r s t volume i s s u e d f r o m t h e e d u c a t i o n department t o t h e p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s which a r e i t s crown and c o m p l e t i o n . ^ O n t a r i o , Department o f E d u c a t i o n , Documentary H i s t o r y , v o l . 12, p. 20. ^ O n t a r i o , Department o f E d u c a t i o n , S p e c i a l R e p o r t , p. 33.  45  Lord E l g i n used the same metaphor again i n the replyto an Address presented by the Municipal Council of the Town of London, when he stated: "Township and County L i b r a r i e s are becoming the Crown and Glory of the I n s t i t u t i o n s of the 55 Province."  These words were treasured by Ryerson and he  quoted them on numerous occasions to confound h i s c r i t i c s or to rouse a greater measure of public support. From 1853 to 1357 the l i b r a r i e s continued to f l o u r i s h , and f u l l y j u s t i f i e d the t r i b u t e s paid by Lord E l g i n .  A  glance at Table I w i l l confirm the fact that during those f i v e years the Depository was experiencing a healthy demand f o r books. thousand.  The average sales per year were about thirty-two After 1357 sales declined and l e v e l l e d o f f , partly  because l i b r a r i e s had acquired t h e i r basic c o l l e c t i o n s and were only needing replacements  or new publications.  There  were other reasons, too, which w i l l be discussed l a t e r .  The  general picture, however, i n the early years was one of spectacular growth. 136CK  A comparison of s t a t i s t i c s f o r 1347  and  i l l u s t r a t e s the strength of the l i b r a r y movement at  t h i s time:  1347 No. of No. of L i b r a r i e s Volumes  Common School L i b r a r i e s  32  2729  Public L i b r a r i e s  20  52  Totals:  1360 No. of No. of L i b r a r i e s Volumes 411  136,653  3960  347  157,305  6639  753  344,463  Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 11, p. 173. 56  Taken from Table I I .  TABLE I Number and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f P u b l i c L i b r a r y and P r i z e Books sent out from t h e E d u c a t i o n a l Depository o f the Ontario Education Department, 1 6 5 3 - 1 6 7 4  o  o s  5  co —  C-l  - >•» • S O U OJZ CO w  -a e  0  a >> .  o  c = b £ =-a  JO  o  M  2  CM  1853 1854 1855 1S56 1857 1858 1859 1S60 1861 1862 1863 1864 . 1865 1866 1867 1803 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 Totals..  21,922 66,711 28,659 13,669 29,834 7,587 9,308 9,072 6,458 5,599 6,274 3.361 3,882 6,856 ' 5,426 6,573 6.42S 5,024 4,825 6,015 5,367 7,167 266,046  c  a  S o  «  a  o c  2,931  C  be o  te  6,455 5,048  a.  = s  a >>£ J3  940 234 636 4,780 1,808 200 660 77 195 1,729 276 65 432 130 526 100 223 64 211 75 282 67 134 28 131 26 282 55 189 15 195 42 36 . 138 166 36 115 35 188 57 164 59 73 100  132 629 207 55 134 27 87 61 36 45 26 7 3 26 7 26 18 14 18 18 23 9  2,328 13,722  1,608  Volumes sent to the Mechanics' Institutes and Sunday Schools.'  a  25 |6 192 807 321 3,235 76 1,452 31 418 67 1,257 186 2 300 18 339 17 172 2 165 24 202 6 87 110 19 291 118 132 162 19 159 149 132 178 130  >> o 2,694 1,141 5,7f*4 4,350 3,361 2,926 1,523 1,019 2,391 2,253 713 843 1,169 714 852 797 601 760 412 661 547 652 321 290 328 534 652 776 524 595 554 979 ' 499 1,172 367 527 366 581 540 850' 420 734 . 639 777  « 2,917 6,393 3,081 1,844 3,516 744 1,127 1,115 880 830 864 451 553 784 650 736 882 610 524 560 409 705  o a  G2  .  CO  •a  21 u  E-  -P £ a °o rr\ — ^  5,178 19.307 6,049 3,832 9,219 2,245 2,401 2,520 1,826 1,706 2,286 1,198 1,225 2,200 1,971 2,211 1,237 1,542 1,591 1,671 1,727 2,271  150 491 374 297 306 171 550  795 10.181 25,237 23,931 30,181 75,413  2,399  208 578 432 258 244 84 172 142 117 112 112 57 58 148 66 52 60 52 37 323 357 471  2,557 8,045 12,089 20,194 26,931 29,760 32,890 33,381 44,601 58,871 64,103 54,715 54,657 60,055 GO, 420 63,721 71,557 '67,498  21,922 60,711 28,659 13,660 32,390 15,632 21,39 29,266 33,419 35,359 39,164 36,742 48,483 65,727 69,529 61,288 . 01.0S5 65,679 65,245 69,736 76,924 74,655  4,134  766,645  1,032,691  ...  Grand Total Library and Prize Books despatched up to 31st December, 1874.  Source:  O O  3  £ co  CD  S5  4,158 1,602 287 906 526 10,633 5,532 1,030 2,172 1,351 5,475 2,053 318 558 663 652 2,498 118 39 287 5,295 1,763 321 632 817 503 1,567 -S6 152 98 551 1,670 136 209 192 475 1,561 144 223 200 302 1,273 59 101 72 244 927 45 99 43 304 707 42 97 80 140 552 11 47 ' 38 168 611 20 62 53 217 1,144 56 125 81 125 1,003 20 78 65 214 1,106 39 86 51 268 1,143 51 96 91 865 . 162 28 68 64 152 830 12 46 41 235 866 49 90 64 176 771 32 78 74 175 1,004 27 133 97 45,66-1 16,013  2s  O n t a r i o , Department of Education, Documentary H i s t o r y , v o l . 26, p. 168.  H  >  O o *1  w a  ci  n >•  H O  M W SS  o >  >  >  20,362 $1,053,053  00  TABLE I I LIBRARY STATISTICS FOR THE YEARS  16*47, 1660, 1670  AND  1675  ONTARIO, EDUCATION DEPARTMENT  Common School L i b r a r i e s  Sunday School Libraries  Public Libraries  Totals  Year No. of Libraries  No. of Volumes  No. of Libraries  No. of Volumes  No. of Libraries  No. of Volumes  No. of Libraries  No. of Volumes  1647  32  2,729  33  3,915  20  3,960  65  10,604  1660  411  166,656  1756  276,646  347  157,605  2,514  623,111  1670  1146  239,062  2433  345,655  369  174,441  3,966  759,356  1675  1390  273,790  2557  362,302  164  133,962  4,111  790,074  Source:  Annual Reports of the Chief Superintendent of Education.  CHAPTER  VI  INFLUENCES FROM THE UNITED STATES Whatever other merits Ryerson may have possessed, he i s not remembered as a man of outstanding o r i g i n a l i t y . He himself f r e e l y acknowledged that h i s g i f t s were p r a c t i c a l rather than creative.  "He boasted that h i s education-  a l system was e c l e c t i c , with i t s law from Massachusetts, i t s finance from New York, i t s teacher-training from Germany, i t s text-books from Ireland, and i t s museum and 57 depository from England.""  We might add that as f a r as  l i b r a r y service was concerned, the pattern he followed was the one that had been adopted i n the New England States. L i b r a r i e s had existed i n many of the larger c i t i e s of the United States since the early years of the eighteenth century.  The f i r s t , and most famous, was  Benjamin  Franklin's "Library Company" of Philadelphia, founded i n 1731.  Like the l i b r a r y at Niagara, the American  institu-  tions were financed by membership dues, and therefore had a limited clientele.  They were not open to the general  public. rry  .  .  .  .  Shortt, Canada and i t s Provinces, v o l . 16, p. 317. The ideas contained i n Ryerson's 1846 Report were sometimes c r i t i s e d f o r t h e i r lack of o r i g i n a l i t y . The Report was referred to by the Globe as "a wretched document, made up of the opinions of other people, stitched together by a few sentences." (Globe, January 6, 1647)  In the nineteenth century, the f i r s t s t i r r i n g s began to be f e l t of a movement t o place educational opport u n i t i e s within the reach of a l l .  The most prominent  figures i n building the new system that was to o f f e r schooling  as a r i g h t rather than a p r i v i l e g e , were Horace Mann  and Henry Barnard.  Both men considered the subscription  l i b r a r y t o be a r e l i c  of a bygone age. To extend the bene-  f i t s of reading to a l l people, they advocated public l i braries i n the school d i s t r i c t s . Ryerson was well acquainted with the work of Mann and Barnard.  He read t h e i r reports, and t r a v e l l e d exten-  s i v e l y i n the United States to observe at f i r s t hand the educational reforms that were being introduced there. His study of the writings of Horace Mann, i n p a r t i c u l a r , l e f t a deep and l a s t i n g impression, and there i s no doubt that Ryerson's views on the beneficent effect of reading were based, or at any rate confirmed and reinforced by the theories of Mann.  One of h i s favourite quotations, often  placed at the head of memoranda and reports, with due acknowledgement to Mann, was: Had I the power, I would scatter l i b r a r i e s over the whole land as the sower sows h i s seeds. The purpose of l i b r a r i e s , Mann believed, should be to disseminate knowledge, because knowledge confers authority. Knowledge the world over has been possessed by the few and ignorance has been the l o t of the many . .  50  . . Just so f a r and so fast as education i s extended, true democracy i s ascendant.5# Reading the r i g h t books, according to Mann, would help to redeem wayward human nature. books?  Those that imparted  What were the right  information and conveyed good  59 moral lessons. ' Such a philosophy i s found quite c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n the choice of material f o r the General Catalogue of Books authorized f o r use i n the l i b r a r i e s of Upper Canada. A heavy stress was placed by Ryerson on works that were serious and i n s t r u c t i v e ; and f o r over ten years the various editions of the Catalogue deliberately excluded the category of " F i c t i o n , " though as we have seen i n Chapter 3, a few examples of t h i s branch of l i t e r a t u r e found t h e i r way i n by being c l a s s i f i e d under a d i f f e r e n t name.  Suggestions  were received from time to time at the Superintendent's Office that some works of an entertaining and popular nature should be featured.  In December 1867, following a  A quotation from Mann's Common School Journal, c i t e d by George A. Hubbell, Horace Mann, Educator, Patriot and Reformer, Philadelphia, W.F. F e l l , 1910, p. 90. ^ H u b b e l l , (ibid, p. 122), describes an interesting encounter between Mann and Richard Henry Dana. The l a t t e r had been asked by Mann i f he would consider rewriting Two Years Before the Mast, adding s t a t i s t i c a l information and f a c t s as t o the countries v i s i t e d , t h e i r resources, products, and the habits of the people. Dana's own comments were: "I suggested . . . that to make i t s t a t i s t i c a l and didactic would destroy i t s character. . . . I said i t had l i f e , and that the course he proposed would stop the c i r c u l a t i o n of the blood. . . . But he had only one idea i n h i s head, and that was the idea of a school-master gone crazy, that direct i n s t r u c t i o n i n matters of fact was the only worthy object of a l l books."  51  recommendation from the D i s t r i c t Superintendents of Simcoe and Durham to reduce the number of u p l i f t i n g t a l e s by minor writers, and include more books by leading n o v e l i s t s , Hodgins approached Ryerson with the proposal that a F i c t i o n L i s t should be introduced i n the next supplement to the Catalogue.  The authors mentioned by Hodgins as worthy of  consideration were Scott, Dickons, Thackeray, Judge H a l i burton, Trollope, Lytton, Charlotte Yonge and John Gait. Ryerson had misgivings, but under pressure he consented to the  change.  The Council of Public Instruction also gave  their approval.^ Not only on questions of what to read, and why, but on matters of p r a c t i c a l organization, Ryerson showed a close a f f i n i t y to Horace Mann.  Both Ryerson and Mann pub-  l i s h e d educational journals, held conventions and public meetings f o r expounding t h e i r programmes of reform, and devoted much care to the c o l l e c t i o n of s t a t i s t i c s . Though Mann was a pioneer f o r school d i s t r i c t l i b r a r i e s , h i s own state of Massachusetts was not the f i r s t to acquire them.  New York l e d the way i n 1835 with a law  enabling school d i s t r i c t s to raise by tax twenty d o l l a r s i n the  f i r s t year and ten d o l l a r s i n any subsequent year, f o r  the  purpose of financing l o c a l l i b r a r i e s .  the  developments i n the State of New York with keen i n t e r e s t ,  Ryerson watched  ^ O n t a r i o , Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 20, p. 93. Table I shows that i n 1868, the f i r s t year that the Depository dealt i n works of f i c t i o n , one hundred and f i f t y copies were sold.  52  ready to learn from t h e i r experience, and, i f possible, to improve upon t h e i r methods. The systems adopted i n New York and i n Upper Canada bore a close resemblance  i n certain respects. They had a  common aim i n the establishment of c i r c u l a t i n g l i b r a r i e s f o r the use of a l l c i t i z e n s .  In Upper Canada, as i n New  York, l o c a l support was a sine qua non, yet i n neither case was there any compulsion on l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . Ryerson found f a u l t with some features of the York l i b r a r i e s .  New  For example, purchases could be made with-  out r e s t r i c t i o n from l o c a l agents, who,  according to Ryerson,  charged unreasonably high prices and unloaded on the l i braries "an immense amount of trash. " ^  In Upper Canada the  choice of books was l i m i t e d and controlled, and prices were kept to a minimum.  Government grants were available i n New  York from let3#, to match funds raised l o c a l l y , but the government money set aside f o r t h i s purpose could be directed into other channels i f the Department of Education found i t expedient to do so.  An e f f e c t i v e safeguard existed i n Upper  Canada to ensure that the government appropriation should be spent exclusively on l i b r a r i e s . 6l  Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 10, p. 30. A l i s t of recommended books, known as the "State Regent's L i s t " was circulated among l o c a l authorities i n New York State, and i n fact i t was t h i s p u b l i cation that prompted Ryerson to compile the General Catalogue. He went a stage further, however, i n not merely recommending, but requiring that a l l selections should be made from the t i t l e s i n the Catalogue i n order to q u a l i f y f o r a government grant.  53 While New York favoured a minimum of supervision and dictation, some states went to the opposite extreme. The Indiana School Law of 1852, for example, provided for libraries in selected townships which would each receive identical collections of books, bought in bulk from a large distributor in the East.  The standard set comprised three  hundred and twenty-one volumes.  To augment the collection  extra copies would be supplied, but no variation was 62  per-  mitted from the approved t i t l e s . By i860 the majority of the states were operating school d i s t r i c t libraries, differing widely in form as to organization, administration and financing.  Against this  background of activity in the United States, the methods employed by Ryerson, to a large extent derivative, were nevertheless aptly chosen, with an understanding of the particular needs of Upper Canada at that time.  Borrowed  ideas were not drawn upon piecemeal, but fused into a consistent whole; and the ruling principle, applied also through the entire system of education, was "the development of individual self-reliance and local exertion, under the superintendence of a central authority." 62 Ontario, Department of Education, Special Report, p. 40. ^In Michigan, books were purchased with the revenue from penal fines. See Oliver Garceau, The Public Library in the P o l i t i c a l Process, New York, Columbia University Press, 1949, p. 25. p. 39.  ^Ontario, Department of Education, Special Report,  CHAPTER VII PROBLEMS, OBSTACLES, CONTROVERSIES During h i s tenure of o f f i c e , Ryerson received many bouquets.  But there were brickbats, too.  As a wielder  of power, i t would have been surprising i f he had not aroused antagonism among certain groups i n the province. C r i t i c i s m of h i s l i b r a r y scheme came from d i f f e r e n t quarters.  Some of i t was intended to be h e l p f u l and construc-  t i v e , some was calculated to i n f l i c t i n j u r y on h i s reputation.  Of a l l the groups that clashed with Ryerson, the  strongest, most persistent, and most acrimonious was the publishing trade of Upper Canada. From the s t a r t , Ryerson entertained a low opinion of Canadian publishers and e s p e c i a l l y of t h e i r l o c a l agents. It was he who f i r s t went to the attack, i n one of the earl i e s t issues of the Journal of Education; Booksellers, e s p e c i a l l y i n small towns, exercise no small influence i n the choice of books—yet they are generally u n f i t to do so. They are l i k e agents f o r the sale of patent medicines—knowing the prices but not the ingredients, nor the comparative worth of t h e i r goods, yet puffing them f o r the commission sake.65 The whole machinery that was set up to supply books to the public l i b r a r i e s was designed to by-pass the book6  ^ J o u r n a l of Education, 1:137, May I84S.  55  s e l l e r s , i n whom Ryerson had no confidence.  The General  Catalogue deprived the booksellers of any opportunity to give advice as to the selection of materials.  The Deposi-  tory, buying heavily from publishing businesses i n Great B r i t a i n and the United States, prevented the Canadian trade from reaping the f i n a n c i a l rewards to which i t f e l t i t was e n t i t l e d . For over twenty years the Canadian publishers fought a running battle with Ryerson.  In I858, they petitioned  the government f o r the a b o l i t i o n of the Depository.  Ryerson  pointed out that the Depository bought from Canadian firms when they could supply the books that were wanted, but that much of the material required f o r the Depository was only obtainable from abroad.  He also quoted figures to demon-  strate that the publishing business, f a r from suffering from r e s t r i c t i v e government p o l i c y , was growing and t h r i v i n g . The government supported Ryerson and turned down the petition.  B i t t e r attacks followed, the Globe and the  Canadian Monthly w i l l i n g l y providing space f o r a r t i c l e s endorsing the publishers' point of view.  The following i s a  t y p i c a l passage from one of these a r t i c l e s : Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History. v o l . 13, p. 295. A memorandum from Ryerson's o f f i c e states that the value of books imported into Upper Canada i n creased from i n I85O to in The proportion of the l a t t e r figure spent by the Department of Education only amounted to two per cent, the rest representing the value of books that would be sold through regular r e t a i l channels.  £35,425  £106,998  I856.  56  In regard to the abuse and i n j u s t i c e of the Government Book-shop, and the f o l l i e s and expense of i t s management, c r i t i c i s m and invective have, h i t h e r t o , been l e v e l l e d at them i n vain. For around t h i s monopoly, so v i c i o u s i n p r i n c i p l e and so indefensible i n pract i c e , i t s conductors seem always to be able to throw the gloss of p l a u s i b i l i t y and the f i c t i o n of the public good. Hence, i t s management has, f o r many years, become responsible to no one, i t s rules and regulations have been freed from a l l higher interference, and i t s accounts and balance sheets held sacred from the v u l g a r i t y of an audit. . . . I t s repression and a b o l i t i o n have been loudly c a l l e d f o r ; and as, unquestionably, not a s o l i d argument can be advanced f o r the continuance of the Government Book Depository, except the personal benefit of those d i r e c t l y interested i n i t s maintenance, i t i s with no surprise we learn that there i s every p r o b a b i l i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n soon being swept away, and i t s p e r i p a t e t i c functions, at l a s t , brought to a close.67 The points raised here were by no means f r i v o l o u s ones.  In the l860's, the Depository was  attracting c r i t i -  cism not only i n the popular press, but also i n the Legislature.  The main objections to i t could be summarized as  follows: (a)  an agency of the government held an almost complete monopoly over the supply of a l l l i b r a r y books, as well as text books, maps and other school materials;  (b)  as a r e s u l t the Canadian booksellers were being deprived of t h e i r legitimate share of orders f o r the schools and l i b r a r i e s ; and  (c)  there was a danger of f i n a n c i a l loss to the province through bureaucratic methods or through peculation. In reply, Ryerson claimed that the Depository  performing a service that was  was  beyond the capacity of private  From the A p r i l 1866 issue of Canadian Monthly, quoted by Ryerson i n h i s Defence against the Attacks of the Hon. George Brown, Toronto, Copp Clark, 1872, p. 86.  57  enterprise.  He gave instances ef l i b r a r y systems i n the  United States that were i n e f f e c t i v e because they r e l i e d for t h e i r materials upon booksellers, whose stocks were l i m i t e d and often of i n d i f f e r e n t quality.  To prove that  the Depository was being managed i n a business-like fashion, Ryerson referred h i s c r i t i c s to reports of the Committee of the House of Assembly and f i n a n c i a l statements  of the Pro-  v i n c i a l Treasurer, giving positive evidence of careful  ,.  accounting.  68  Though he was reluctant to make concessions, Ryerson  69 was nevertheless obliged to modify some of h i s p o l i c i e s . From about 1855, more and more of the text-book orders were handled through private companies.  The Depository became  more s e l e c t i v e , also, i n the type of customer i t would accept.  Requests from abroad  (they came from as f a r away as  Japan), though f l a t t e r i n g , were p o l i t e l y turned down.  Even  within the province, books would only be supplied to public bodies.  Many worthy organizations that were not under pub-  l i c auspices, such as the Sons of Temperance, were asked to buy elsewhere, f o r fear of aggravating the charges of i n t e r f e r i n g with private trade. Ryerson answered h i s c r i t i c s at some length i n the work just c i t e d , Defence against the Attacks of the Hon. George Brown. He also defended h i s position i n numerous a r t i c l e s i n the Journal of Education and other p e r i o d i c a l s .  69  The information i n t h i s paragraph and the next i s derived from the Annual Reports of the Chief Superintendent,  58  The booksellers presented a second formal p e t i t i o n to the government i n I87O, r e i t e r a t i n g t h e i r arguments against the continued existence of the Depository, whose a c t i v i t i e s they maintained, were "a v i o l a t i o n of the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of p o l i t i c a l economy and of the s o c i a l compact."  There was no- immediate r e s u l t , but the book-  s e l l e r s won a p a r t i a l v i c t o r y four years l a t e r when the law was changed to grant the hundred per cent bounty f o r books purchased either from the Depository or from an 70 agent.  independent  A l l t i t l e s s t i l l had to be approved by the Depart-  ment of Education.  Trustees dealing with an agent were r e -  quired to obtain a voucher showing the t i t l e , e d i t i o n , publ i s h e r and price of each book.  The voucher was then sent  to the Department and h a l f the cost was  refunded.  To Ryerson, the Canadian publishing business was a thorn i n the f l e s h throughout h i s career as Superintendent. He aroused angry opposition among other groups, too, i n connection with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of money derived from the sale of Clergy Reserve Land.  Over a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s was  available from t h i s fund i n 1854, and municipalities could spend t h e i r share of the proceeds on any object to which they had authority to apply other funds.  In c i r c u l a r s to  the municipal councils, Ryerson exhorted them to use the money f o r school purposes and the purchase of books f o r 70 One of the provisions of the Consolidated School Act of 1874. After the Act came into force, the booksellers claimed that Ryerson made the procedure f o r c o l l e c t i n g the government grant unnecessarily complicated i n order to thwart t h e i r trade.  59  libraries.  He repeatedly pointed out the advantage of  devoting the funds t o projects where the hundred per cent government grant would apply, thereby doubling the amount. Many municipalities followed Ryerson's advice. Complaints were sometimes heard, however, that other causes more urgent than l i b r a r i e s were needing f i n a n c i a l assistance. This attitude i s found c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y expressed i n the swelling phrases of the Rev. J.M. Bruyere: Let these resources with which a kind Providence has blessed us be spent i n improving our C i t i e s , Towns and V i l l a g e s , i n draining and macadamizing our streets, digging sewers, where wanted, i n founding i n s t i t u t i o n s of general beneficence such as common baths f o r the use of poor people, i n erecting shelt e r s f o r the aged, the infirm, the widow, the orphan and the immigrant. . . . When sickness and pestilence breaks out i n your midst, w i l l you be able to r e l i e v e suffering humanity by scattering around you books of "useful and entertaining reading" such as Dr. Ryerson suggests t o purchase with the money placed under your control? Are the fathers of our towns and c i t i e s t o waste and squander away public money intended f o r gene r a l purposes, because the dictator of the schools bids them to do so?71 Amid the emotional overtones, one can discern here a f a m i l i a r theme—the argument that physical needs must be s a t i s f i e d f i r s t , then i n t e l l e c t u a l needs can be taken care of i n due course.  Ryerson's contention was that Upper  Canada was ready to leave behind the "bush" mentality that Rev. J.M. Bruyere, Controversy between Dr. Ryerson and Rev. J.M. Bruyere on the Appropriation of the Clergy Reserves Funds; Free Schools vs. State Schools; Public L i b r a r i e s and Common Schools Attacked and Defended, Toronto, Leader and Patriot Steam Press, 1857, PP. 21-22. This work contains a series of l e t t e r s submitted t o The Leader by Ryerson and Bruyere over a period of four months. I t was edited by Bruyere and published at h i s own expense.  60  had s u f f i c e d i n early pioneering days.  In f a c t , the prov-  ince could not afford now to neglect the development of i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l resources, which i n the future "would t e l l powerfully upon the advancement of the country i n 72 knowledge, wealth and happiness." In the expenditure of Clergy Reserve funds, Ryerson*s voice generally prevailed.  Much of the money was applied  to school and l i b r a r y purposes.  The a v a i l a b i l i t y of these  funds partly accounts f o r the heavy demand f o r materials from the Depository, already noted, between i t s foundation and 1857. Attacks on the l i b r a r y system frequently revolved around the question of t i t l e s t o be selected, and the regul a t i o n that only books appearing i n the General Catalogue could be acquired.  In compiling the Catalogue, Ryerson  foresaw the p o s s i b i l i t y of rousing antagonism i n certain r e l i g i o u s groups, especially the Roman Catholics, and f o r that reason he was careful to exclude publications that gave strongly d o c t r i n a l viewpoints i n any r e l i g i o u s persuasion.  To the best of h i s a b i l i t y , he " t r i e d to pursue 73  a generous course towards the Roman Catholics."  He i n -  v i t e d some members of the clergy, including Bishop Charbonnel, to recommend t i t l e s on h i s t o r i c a l subjects, 72 Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 14, p. 73. 73 Bruyere, Controversy, p. 27.  61  and in  i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e i r suggestions  i n the Catalogue.  Yet  s p i t e of these p r e c a u t i o n s , the Catalogue r e c e i v e d a  hostile reception i n Catholic c i r c l e s .  One  of Bruyere's  74 l e t t e r s t o The to  Leader  a s s a i l e d i t f o r g i v i n g prominence  "the most r a b i d a n t i - C h r i s t i a n w r i t e r s , such as  i n f i d e l Hume and the s c e p t i c a l Gibbon." such books was  The  of  In another l e t t e r ,  he s t a t e d t h a t " l a t e l y i n s e v e r a l l o c a l i t i e s , a spirit  reading  " c a l c u l a t e d t o c o r r u p t the budding mind of  youth w i t h the venom of i n f i d e l i t y . "  in  the  Protestants,  of c o n c i l i a t i o n towards C a t h o l i c s , t h e i r  fel-  low C h r i s t i a n s , have a l r e a d y s o l d out t h e i r P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s , judging w i s e l y t h a t these Ryersonian  contrivan-  c i e s do not meet the present wants and t a s t e of our  com-  75 munity."'^ few  I f t h i s d i d a c t u a l l y happen, i t was  isolated instances.  only i n a  Yet t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t the  Catalogue caused some i r r i t a t i o n and  embarrassment, i n an  area where Ryerson had taken p a r t i c u l a r care t o a v o i d g i v i n g o f f e n c e t o anyone. Besides the complaints  a r i s i n g from r e l i g i o u s i s -  sues, t h e r e were o b j e c t i o n s t o the p r i n c i p l e of the l i b r a r i e s t o choose t h e i r books from a list.  The  l i s t was  admittedly  standardized  an e x t e n s i v e one,  h a n d f u l of t i t l e s as i n the s t a t e of Indiana; was  compelling  not f r e e , and on no account would any  but  not a mere choice  books be s u p p l i e d  t h a t were not i n the Catalogue. This regulation ^ D a t e d December 9, 1#56. 7S Bruyere, Controversy, p. 75.  was  s t r i c t l y enforced. at  On one o c c a s i o n the Board of T r u s t e e s  P e r t h ordered some n o v e l s by a popular w r i t e r c a l l e d  Lever, only t o be informed by Ryerson t h a t the C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d not s a n c t i o n the spending  of pub-  l i c money on s t o r i e s t h a t g l o r i f i e d the adventures  of  " r o l l i c k i n g , drunken heroes."  The T r u s t e e s  maintained  t h a t the books they had requested c o u l d have no e f f e c t , and t h e i r cause was columns of the  taken up i n the  harmful  editorial  Globe:  The complaining p a r t i e s have dared t o q u e s t i o n the p r o p r i e t y of t h a t index l i b r o r u m prohibitum which t h i s Canadian Pope has i n s t i t u t e d . The a b s u r d i t y of t h i s l i t e r a r y d i c t a t o r s h i p i s too g r o s s t o escape r i d i c u l e , and the sooner i t i s done away w i t h the b e t t e r . 76 The same s u b j e c t was  d i s c u s s e d i n the columns of  Canadian Monthly: By some [the a u t h o r i z e d books] are seen as a b l e s s e d r e s e r v o i r f o r the i r r i g a t i o n of the P r o v i n c e with a wholesome, u s e f u l , e n t e r t a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e ; by others the q u e s t i o n i s asked whether t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s , i n c l u d i n g farmers, mechanics, business and p r o f e s s i o n a l men, are t o have t h e i r c h o i c e of l i t e r a t u r e l i m i t e d or suggested by a few i n d i v i d u a l s , who c e r t a i n l y are i n no a p p r e c i a b l e r e s p e c t w i s e r or b e t t e r than themselves.77 Despite p u b l i c p r e s s u r e , Ryerson i n s i s t e d on r e t a i n ing  the Catalogue as the one i n v i o l a b l e a u t h o r i t y f o r book  T h i s q u o t a t i o n , and an account o f the whole i n c i dent, i s found i n Ryerson, Defence a g a i n s t the A t t a c k s of the Hon. George Brown, pp. 89-90. 77 'James P o r t e r , "The P u b l i c Schools of O n t a r i o , " Canadian Monthly, 1:483-496, June 1872.  63  selection. dom  He believed that placing a l i m i t a t i o n on f r e e -  of choice was necessary i n order to guard against ad-  mitting into the l i b r a r i e s books "of a v i c i o u s or immoral tendency."  This was the p r i n c i p a l reason he gave.  quite evident that Ryerson had l i t t l e  confidence  It i s  (perhaps  with j u s t i f i c a t i o n ) i n the a b i l i t y of l o c a l trustees to make a wise s e l e c t i o n of material f o r t h e i r l i b r a r i e s . His o f f i c i a l utterances on the subject are phrased d i p l o matically:  the purpose of the Catalogue was not to impose  dictatorship, but to provide guidance where i t was needed. New  t i t l e s were added p e r i o d i c a l l y to enlarge the scope of  the Catalogue and give greater f l e x i b i l i t y .  A revised  edition published i n I860 contained four thousand e n t r i e s , 73  double the number of the o r i g i n a l l i s t . of c r i t i c i s m  Yet the chorus  continued.  On c e r t a i n issues, then, the public l i b r a r y system became a gathering-point f o r disagreement and dispute. Ryerson found himself frequently involved i n minor s k i r mishes and occasionally i n serious engagements.  The most  b i t t e r attacks on h i s administration came from the editor and s t a f f of the Globe, who were always ready to castigate his  p o l i c i e s with regard to both schools and 73  libraries:  The 1360 edition was prepared by Hodgins. On Ryerson's recommendation that he should receive a s p e c i a l grant f o r h i s labour, Hodgins was awarded the sum of £13.15s. (Proceedings of Select Committee, House of Assembly, March 1360; Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 15, p. 241.)  64  From a l l the leading journals . . . of the Province [Ryerson wrote] the Globe i s distinguished as the . . . common sewer through which are poured upon the Education Department and i t s Head a l l the accumulat i o n of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and animosity of every d i s appointed man under the operations of the school system from Sarnia to the Ottawa and from Lake Erie to the Georgian Bay. 79 It i s to h i s credit that he had the force of character to f i g h t back vigorously on issues which he considered v i t a l to h i s educational programme.  Undeterred by strong  and often abusive c r i t i c i s m , he remained convinced that a provincial  l i b r a r y system was essential,  and that h i s  method of organizing i t was b a s i c a l l y the correct one. It would give a f a l s e impression to overstress the weight of adverse opinion; but the obstacles Ryerson encountered cannot be overlooked. After a very propitious s t a r t , the l i b r a r i e s provided him with many unexpected problems.  We s h a l l now trace the development of the  l i b r a r y movement i n the l a t t e r part of Ryerson s SuperT  intendency, and discover by what means, and with what success, he handled these problems. "Ryerson, Defence against the Attacks of the Hon. George Brown, p. 9.  CHAPTER VIII EVENTS TO 1670: PROGRESS AND EXPANSION The money r e a l i z e d by the sale of Clergy Reserve Land gave a strong impetus to the public l i b r a r y movement. When these funds began to dwindle, around  I856, there  was  a tendency f o r interest to l a g , and l i b r a r i e s to be neglected.  Perhaps the greatest continuing problem that con-  fronted Ryerson a f t e r  I656, c e r t a i n l y  matching the intrigues  of booksellers and r e l i g i o u s groups, was public apathy. The novelty of the scheme had worn o f f .  To keep i t going, ener-  getic and imaginative measures were needed. The instrument of propaganda that Ryerson found most e f f e c t i v e f o r t h i s purpose was the organization of County School Conventions.  I t was the 1653 Convention that en-  abled Ryerson to spread news of the i n i t i a l l i b r a r y l e g i s lation.  Further Conventions were held i n 1660 and 1666.  In both of these Ryerson played a leading r o l e , v i s i t i n g many r u r a l areas as well as the major centres, and speaking u n t i r i n g l y and persuasively on the educational needs of the province.  During the 1666 Conventions, he addressed  no fewer than f o r t y meetings i n the course of a seven-week tour. There i s no doubt that the Conventions helped to  66  put new  l i f e into d i s t r i c t s that would otherwise have been  victims of i n e r t i a . maintained  In between the Conventions,  Ryerson  contact with l o c a l centres by means of o f f i c i a l  c i r c u l a r s , a r t i c l e s i n the Journal of Education, and occasional excursions into s p e c i f i c areas that required encouragement or advice.  The arguments Ryerson advanced i n  favour of public l i b r a r i e s , both i n speech and i n w r i t i n g , were based on the b e l i e f he shared with Horace Mann, that reading was the key to a f u l l e r and better l i f e .  It w i l l  be useful at t h i s point to look a l i t t l e more closely i n to the claims that were made by Ryerson and many of h i s contemporaries  f o r the practice of reading.  F i r s t , there was the educational aspect, stated c l e a r l y by Ryerson i n his 1846 Report, and elaborated i n the Report of  1853:  Through the medium of books, the sons and daughters of our land may contemplate the l i v e s of the good, the wise and the great of both sexes and of a l l ages, survey the h i s t o r i e s of a l l nations, trace the r i s e and progress of a l l sciences and useful a r t s , converse with the sages and bards of ancient Greece and Rome, as well as with the philosophers, poets, scholars, discoverers, inventors, a r t i s t s , t r a v e l l e r s and benefactors of mankind of a l l times and countries.  g 0  The "sons and daughters" to whom he r e f e r s are those who  have completed t h e i r school careers and w i l l  to learn through reading.  continue  Since Ryerson's time, the same  theme has been echoed again and again i n a r t i c l e s , speeches and o f f i c i a l documents.  It i s found expressed i n a recent  ctO  Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 11, pp. 93-94*  67  report on education i n Ontario: Once formal education has ended and the personal contribution of the teacher has ceased, books remain the most s i g n i f i c a n t of a l l educational media.®1 More debatable, yet a persistent feature of certain segments of nineteenth century thinking, was the b e l i e f i n the value of a book as a source of moral benefit as well as i n t e l l e c t u a l gain.  We have here a carry-over from the 82  eighteenth-century  doctrine of the p e r f e c t i b i l i t y of  Reading good l i t e r a t u r e was  man.  one of the methods by which  mankind could raise h i s s p i r i t u a l l e v e l and a t t a i n greater happiness.  Not only would the virtuous be made better,  but evil-doers would be redeemed.  L i b r a r i e s were placed  i n the prisons of Upper Ganada, so that by reading, "a new  bias might be given to the f e e l i n g s and t a s t e s " of  prisoners, and "a purer and nobler ambition" might inspire those who  had embarked on a career of crime.  Through the  influence of public l i b r a r i e s , fewer men would f i n d themselves i n trouble.  "As you educate the people, you 83  t i o n a t e l y diminish crime."  propor-  p  I f good books contributed to the well-being of society,8l then bad books had the opposite e f f e c t : Ontario, Royal Commission on Education, Report, Toronto, Baptist Johnson, 1950, Section 92. 82 Oliver Garceau, The Public Library i n the P o l i t i c a l Process, New York, Columbia University Press, 1949, p. 23. 83 O.S. Fowler, "Public L i b r a r i e s , " Journal of Education, 3:147, October 185©.  68  The reading of disreputable books affords . . . a species of unusual g r a t i f i c a t i o n . The taste thus v i t i a t e d grows by what i t feeds upon; and the descent, i t i s well known, i s easy from f a m i l i a r i t y with the over-wrought pictures of imaginary crime to the actual perpetration of i t . 8 4 An important duty of those i n positions of authority i n education, therefore, was  to keep a watchful eye on what  was read by both children and grown-ups.  At several meet-  ings of the i860 County Conventions, Ryerson repeated t h i s quaint l i t t l e story to i l l u s t r a t e the point: In one of our towns, a Boys Association was formed at School, for the purpose of bad books, to the amount of about $100; when discovered, i t was broken up, the books burnt, and a good l i b r a r y substituted.85 T  For the pursuit of knowledge and f o r s p i r i t u a l enrichment , the communities of Upper Canada were urged to c u l t i v a t e the habit of reading.  A t h i r d reason, less  phasized, tout acknowledged to carry some weight, was element of recreation and relaxation.  em-  the  During the long  winter evenings, a book would while away the hours pleasantly f o r many people whose days were spent i n hard physical t o i l . The effectiveness of Ryerson's campaigning  was  proved by the remarkable growth i n the number of l i b r a r i e s between i860 and 1870.  Combining the figures f o r l i b r a r i e s  Extract from a C i r c u l a r Notice sent to School Trustees i n 1863; Ontario, department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 18, p. 193.  85 ^Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 16, p. 84.  69  organized by school d i s t r i c t s and by municipalities, the number more than doubled i n those ten years, r i s i n g from 756 to 1535.  While sales from the Depository declined  after the peak years of 1853 to 1857, the demand f o r books was s u f f i c i e n t l y steady to bring the t o t a l number of v o l umes i n the l i b r a r i e s from 344,463 i n I860 to 413,503 i n 1870.  In h i s Reports to the government, Ryerson expressed  s a t i s f a c t i o n with the evidence of continued interest i n l i b r a r y development.  It was a source of pride that by  1370 the combined resources of Public and Sunday School L i b r a r i e s provided nearly one volume f o r every two ants of the p r o v i n c e . ^ 1670,  inhabit-  In twenty years, from I65O to  the number of volumes had increased ten-fold. There are no important  changes to note i n the l e g i s -  l a t i o n affecting l i b r a r i e s during t h i s period.  The system  set up i n the early 1850 s proved capable of handling the f  greatly-expanded the province. map  network of l i b r a r i e s stretching across  In h i s Report of 1666,  Ryerson featured a  of Upper Canada, with red dots to show where l i b r a r i e s  were located. ation.  The map  indicated a generally healthy s i t u -  He commented on the existence of gaps i n certain  areas, but added that i t would be a mistake to "force the pace."  New developments should come from "the spontaneous See Table I I .  was 1,620,651.  The population of Ontario i n 1871  70 37 expression of the f e l t wants of the people." The Rules and Regulations prepared by Ryerson i n 1353, were reprinted year a f t e r year with no s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s , and they remained i n force u n t i l h i s retirement.  I f he had been less preoccupied with other mat-  t e r s some changes might have been made.  Writing to the  government i n 1363 with a proposal that he should be permitted to r e t i r e i n favour of a Minister of Education, he offered to continue working i n a voluntary capacity on various projects he wished to carry out, including a r e 33 vised schedule of l i b r a r y regulations.  The government  persuaded him to remain i n o f f i c e , however, and nothing more was heard of the projects he mentioned.  The weight  of o f f i c i a l duties allowed time only f o r the most pressing matters. Public approval of the l i b r a r y system was demonstrated i n the highly s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a t i s t i c a l returns. It can also be gauged i n some of the comments made by d i s t r i c t superintendents i n t h e i r Annual Reports to the Educat i o n Department.  As one might expect, the comments varied  greatly i n tone.  Some were enthusiastic, some registered  mild approbation, some were openly c r i t i c a l .  It i s d i f f i -  cult to make an assessment of the actual degree of support 37 Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 20, p. 140. Ryerson describes the map f u l l y i n h i s Report and r e f e r s to i t as a "supplement," but i t i s omitted from the Documentary History. ^ I b i d . , v o l . 21,  pp. 139-140.  71  they denoted.  The general tenor was commendatory, and i n  Ryerson's view they were an adequate endorsement of h i s scheme.  The following are a few c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  statements  from areas that had had some success with t h e i r l i b r a r i e s : L i b r a r i e s i n the townships under my supervision are not very numerous, but where they are found i n sections they produce the same effects as i n f a m i l i e s . That i s , they create a s p i r i t of enquiry, a t h i r s t a f t e r knowledge, and give a death blow to a l l low, grovelling and outwardly vicious habits.°9 As to the influence of l i b r a r i e s , I am f u l l y s a t i s f i e d a great deal of benefit i s derived from them.90 We have one School Section l i b r a r y open to the public, the books are i n good condition, the regulations are s t r i c t l y carried out . . . readers are increasing. Books are well read and disseminated and have exercised a very favourable influence. The books are generally covered, numbered, well caredf o r , and better s t i l l i n many instances, constantly read. Report from E l g i n , c i t e d i n the Chief Superintendent's Report f o r 1858. 90 This and the next three examples are taken from Ontario, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, Sessional Papers, Toronto, 1870-71. The Reports were f o r the year 1869, and came respectively from Simcoe (p. 76), Essex (p. 1 0 5 ) , Haldimand (p. 85) and Norfolk (p. 90).  CHAPTER IX THE LIBRARIES LOSE GROUND, AND FAIL TO SURVIVE: END OF THE DEPOSITORY Right to the end of h i s career, Ryerson continued to express confidence i n the v i a b i l i t y of h i s public l i b r a r y system.  He appeared not to notice the unmistakable  signs that from about I87O i t was beginning t o lose momentum.  There were setbacks, such as the concessions he un-  w i l l i n g l y made to the booksellers i n 1874. came i n from d i s t r i c t superintendents.  Mixed reports  Yet at no point  did Ryerson confess t o any doubt that the structure he had planned and set up would not form a permanent part of the educational system. Though he remained optimistic i n h i s pronouncements, he spoke of the l i b r a r i e s less frequently, and when he did r e f e r to them i n a r t i c l e s and memoranda, h i s remarks tended to be r e p e t i t i v e .  After h i s v i s i t to Europe i n 1866-67, 91  the ensuing report  on measures recommended f o r the new  province of Ontario contained proposals f o r free and compulsory education, and f o r improved teacher t r a i n i n g , but there was no mention of l i b r a r y service.  Perhaps we have  i n t h i s negative evidence a hint that Ryerson was losing 91 Ontario, Department of Education, A Special Report on the Systems and State of Popular Education . I . by the Rev. Dr. Ryerson . . . Toronto, Leader Steam Press, 1#6£.  73  interest or entertaining some misgivings, even though he does not seem to have acknowledged the existence of anysuch thoughts.  It may have been partly a matter of  diminishing energy. departmental  Approaching the age of seventy, with  duties pressing heavily upon him, he was no  longer able to conduct vigorous campaigns to muster public support.  The l i b r a r i e s had responded well to the aggres-  sive methods employed by Ryerson f o r nearly twenty years, but without strong backing they soon began to f a l t e r . The l a s t chapter concluded with some instances of favourable impressions reported on the l i b r a r y i n certain areas. periences.  situations  Other d i s t r i c t s had less rewarding ex-  The l o c a l superintendent  at Perth, f o r example,  stated with candour that there were "only a few l i b r a r i e s , and while some people a v a i l themselves of the advantages, the masses do not appreciate the opportunity nor c u l t i v a t e the taste f o r reading, hence t h e i r influence i s scarcely perceptible."  In the D i s t r i c t of Bruce, the l i b r a r i e s were  "not well kept up," and " i n some cases nearly out of existence."  From Middlesex: came the comment: "Very l i t t l e  influence i s exerted by the l i b r a r i e s and I never met a  92 community less i n c l i n e d to read." the County of Lambton reported:  The Superintendent of  In regard to l i b r a r i e s , the returns are very defective. The chief reason appears to be that the books are o l d and are l i t t l e read; and the trustees think i t hardly worth while making any return i n regard to them. The primary object of establishing l i b r a r i e s was, no doubt,  92 Ontario, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, Sessional Papers, 1870-71, p. 96.  74  that i t might lead the youth attending the schools to form habits of reading, which they would carry with them a f t e r leaving the Common School. In t h i s , the l i b r a r i e s have been almost a failure.93 After 1870 more and more similar complaints were coming i n from superintendents i n areas that had at one time shown a sincere interest i n acquiring and c i r c u l a t i n g books.  Such phrases as " l i t t l e used" or "very neglected"  or "most discouraging" kept recurring when the subject of l i b r a r i e s was being discussed.  A mood of disillusionment  began to replace the bright promises of the f i f t i e s sixties. Ryerson r e t i r e d i n  I876.  and  The Education Department,  over which he had presided f o r over t h i r t y years, became a branch of the Executive Government, with Adam Crooks as Minister of Education.  I t was f e l t that r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  of such weight and importance could no longer be kept out of the arena of party p o l i t i c s .  In general, these  adminis-  t r a t i v e changes did not affect the major educational r e forms with which the name of Ryerson i s linked.  The school  system he had b u i l t up had a firm foundation, and i t s basic p r i n c i p l e s were not challenged.  In f a c t , among the items  which Ryerson regarded as essential features of h i s l e g i s l a t i v e programme, the public l i b r a r y scheme was  one of the 94  few casualties.  Declining already before h i s retirement, ^  93  1869,  ^ O n t a r i o , L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, Sessional Papers, p. 38. 94  There was actually a s l i g h t gain i n the t o t a l number of l i b r a r i e s between and from to n the 389same fbut e l l i from to period 164. the number of municipal l i b r a r i e s  I87O  1875,  1535 1554,  75  the f i n a l demise of the l i b r a r i e s was hastened by the f a c t that no one i n authority sympathized with them or exercised much f a i t h i n t h e i r usefulness.  After I676, they  continued  to receive over f i v e thousand d o l l a r s a year, but i t seems to have been taken f o r granted that the project was  a fail-  ure and that the l i b r a r i e s should be allowed to die as quickly as possible. The Depository was  shared the fate of the l i b r a r i e s . It  an i n s t i t u t i o n i n which Ryerson took p a r t i c u l a r pride,  and i t undoubtedly played a v i t a l r o l e i n equipping schools and l i b r a r i e s .  However, the Depository was  a means to an  end—a quick source of supply, performing a function f o r which commercial firms i n the mid-nineteenth century were probably not equipped.  In I676, the government could see  no reason f o r holding back any longer the private i n t e r e s t s that were eager to capture the trade once monopolized by the Depository.  Agitation i n the press f o r i t s a b o l i t i o n  became increasingly i n s i s t e n t . The following i s part of a feature e d i t o r i a l that appeared i n the Globe, entitled'The P r o v i n c i a l Book Store'!: We should hope that the days of the P r o v i n c i a l Store i n the Normal School Buildings are numbered. There i s absolutely so l i t t l e that can be said i n defence of that concern, viewed either educationally or economically, that we cannot imagine the Government consenting to i t s continuance or the Minister of Education acquiescing i n the idea that i n addition to h i s other duties he must turn bookseller and look a f t e r a l l the petty d e t a i l s of a huckster's s t a l l . The P r o v i n c i a l Store has been doing the work of an ordinary bookshop and a hardware store and i t has been doing that work i n a highly unsatisfactory manner.95 95  G l o b e , December 16,  1675.  76  The business of the Depository s t e a d i l y  dwindled,  and i n 1880 the government grant f o r books and  apparatus  was reduced from one hundred to t h i r t y - t h r e e and a t h i r d per cent.  F i n a l l y , on July 1, 1881, the P r o v i n c i a l Educa-  t i o n a l Depository came to an end.  A l l i t s stock, amount-  ing to about twenty-seven thousand d o l l a r s worth of goods, was d i s t r i b u t e d free to various organizations. Among the b e n e f i c i a r i e s were teachers' associations, prisons, asylums, the Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College, and Toronto 96 University. In spite of a l l that could be said against the Depository, i t became apparent a f t e r the emotional atmosphere had cleared that a great deal had been accomplished. The summary of i t s transactions, found i n Table I I I , shows a record of very s o l i d achievement i n twenty-eight years of operation from 1853 to 1881.  "Ryerson projected t h i s  plan of supply on a purely commercial basis, and so arranged and successfully carried out h i s scheme that while there was d i s t r i b u t e d nearly a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ' worth of school materi a l and books up to the time when the Depository was closed, i t did not cost the country anything f o r the expenses of 97 i t s management, as i t more than paid i t s way." About 96 John ¥. Emery, The Library, the School and the C h i l d , Toronto, Macmillan, 1917, p. 131. 97 'John George Hodgins, Ryerson Memorial Volume, Toronto, Warwick and Sons, 1889, p. 92. 7  sixteen hundred l i b r a r i e s were supplied with more than three hundred thousand volumes, apart from the m i l l i o n volumes sold to schools as prizes.  Besides paying i t s  way, the Depository had indeed j u s t i f i e d i t s existence.  78  TABLE I I I OPERATIONS OF THE ONTARIO PROVINCIAL DEPOSITORY,  1853-1881  Number of Volumes sent out from the Depository:  307,743  1.  To the School L i b r a r i e s  2.  To Mechanics Institutes and Sunday Schools  3.  To Schools as Prize Books  .  .  35,402 1,068,995  Total, 1853-1661  1,407,140  Value of School L i b r a r i e s supplied by the  $163,790  Department Of t h i s sum there was remitted to the Department Added from the Library Grants .  .  .  $93,273 90,517  Net P r o f i t s made by the Depository  Source: Ontario, Department of Education, Documentary History, v o l . 10, p. 201.  $163,790 $ 71,054  CHAPTER X PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN ONTARIO AFTER RYERSON Writing i n 1917, J.W. Emery stated: Few people i n Ontario today know anything about [Ryerson's] l i b r a r i e s or the three hundred thousand books sent out t o them from the People's Depository. Over t h i r t y i n q u i r i e s made from inspectors and teachers who were i n active service during the s i x t i e s and e a r l i e r e l i c i t e d only a small amount of i n formation. The r e p l i e s a l l confirm the suspicion that the books f e l l into disuse and gradually became scattered and lost.98 I f t h i s enterprise of Ryerson's proved abortive, how was i t possible f o r the public l i b r a r y movement to continue i t s advance and make s i g n i f i c a n t progress before the end of the nineteenth century?  The answer l i e s i n the fact that  while the school d i s t r i c t l i b r a r i e s were losing ground, those of the Mechanics' Institutes were growing and f l o u r i s h ing.  The Mechanics' Institutes had been receiving f i n a n c i a l  assistance f o r t h e i r l i b r a r i e s since 1851, when an act was passed providing government grants of two hundred d o l l a r s a year f o r selected i n s t i t u t i o n s .  The Minister of Agriculture  was responsible f o r d i s t r i b u t i n g the funds. the Institutes purchased  In some cases,  books from the Depository though  they were not e n t i t l e d to the hundred per cent subsidy.  By  Emery, op. c i t . , p. 134. A selection of the r e p l i e s received by Mr. Emery w i l l be found i n Appendix C. y  the time of Ryerson s retirement, many of the Institutes T  possessed l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s of a thousand books or more from which the public could borrow, on payment of a membership fee that was usually a d o l l a r a year. further step needed was  The only  l e g i s l a t i o n to make i t possible  f o r money to be raised by taxation so that the fee could be abolished.  An Act "to Authorize the Formation of Free  L i b r a r i e s " was passed i n 1682.  Under i t s terms, a tax of  one h a l f per cent on annual assessments could be l e v i e d by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r the purpose of providing free l i b r a r y service and to administer the service at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , a new  agency was  created within the Department of  Education, known as the Public Library Branch.  The  cities  of Toronto, Hamilton and London were the f i r s t to take advantage of the l e g i s l a t i o n .  Once the trend was  started by  these three c i t i e s , other areas soon followed t h e i r example, so that by the end of the nineteenth century, there were about a hundred free l i b r a r i e s , large and small, scattered 99 across Ontario.  The great majority of them had been f o r -  merly attached to Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e s .  Special provision  was made i n the law to f a c i l i t a t e the conversion of Mechani c s ' I n s t i t u t e L i b r a r i e s into public bodies.  In a few i n -  stances, l i b r a r i e s were established where none existed be99 James Bain, "Canadian L i b r a r i e s , " Canadian Magazine of P o l i t i c s , Science, Art and L i t e r a t u r e. 16:28-32. November 1900. According to Bain, Toronto had the largest c o l l e c t i o n with 110,000 volumes i n 1900. Over the whole province, the average size was about 2,000 volumes.  81  fore, or grew out of small private c o l l e c t i o n s .  There i s  no evidence of any of the l i b r a r i e s under Ryerson's j u r i s d i c t i o n maintaining t h e i r independent existence and becoming transformed into units of the new system created by the Act of 1882. A good many of them were probably d i s banded, as Emery suggests, with l i t t l e ceremony and not much thought f o r the use that might be made of the books. Some of t h e i r materials, however, were undoubtedly absorbed into the l i b r a r i e s of the Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e s , so uniting the two streams which, i n spite of t h e i r d i f ferent characters, were both leading i n the same d i r e c t i o n towards e f f e c t i v e l i b r a r y service f o r the people of Canada.  CHAPTER XI ASSESSMENT OF RYERSON'S LIBRARY SCHEME I f Ryerson's l i b r a r i e s are represented as a stream, i t was  indeed reduced to a mere t r i c k l e before i t s con-  fluence with the strong current of the l i b r a r i e s organized by the Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e s .  The scheme put forward with  so much idealism i n Ryerson's master plan f o r education i n Upper Canada, a f t e r a period of useful a c t i v i t y and considerable success, found i t s e l f abandoned when i t s author retired.  Can we l a b e l the scheme a f a i l u r e since i t f a i l e d  to survive?  What exactly had been  accomplished?  These questions w i l l be best approached by considering f i r s t the reasons why  i t foundered.  Many ideas have  been suggested to account f o r the decline of the l i b r a r i e s , some recurring i n d i f f e r e n t sources, and some presenting quite contradictory views.  Emery, f o r example, stated that  the books "were too advanced f o r the readers, ""''^while Hallam, writing i n 1882, maintained they were "too elemen101 tary."  This i s not very h e l p f u l , but at least i t does  point to an area where there appears to have been a general lack of s a t i s f a c t i o n :  the choice of books f o r the c o l l e c -  "^^Emery, op. c i t .  t  p. 134-  "^"Kjohn Hallam, Notes by the Way Toronto, Globe, 1882, p. 28.  on Free Libraries. ~ •  83  tions. i n 1882,  In a paper read before the Royal Society  of Canada  Alpheus Todd singled out the matter of book  s e l e c t i o n as a major weakness i n the school d i s t r i c t 102 libraries. had  He referred to the Free L i b r a r i e s Act which  just become law,  paid t r i b u t e to Ryerson f o r h i s en-  ergy and foresight, and outlined the plans made by Ryerson t h i r t y years e a r l i e r f o r giving each community a c o l l e c t i o n of books to s u i t i t s i n d i v i d u a l needs. t h i s objective had not been r e a l i z e d .  Todd claimed that The c o l l e c t i o n s sent  out, he said, were too stereotyped, not enough provision being made f o r s a t i s f y i n g l o c a l tastes and specialized interests. It seems quite clear that the regulation l i m i t i n g books purchased to t i t l e s l i s t e d i n the General Catalogue did impose a damaging r e s t r i c t i o n on the d i s t r i c t  libraries.  It prevented one e v i l — t h e c i r c u l a t i o n of immoral books, and created another—an i n f l e x i b l e , p a t e r n a l i s t i c control that eventually  had a s t i f l i n g e f f e c t .  What the editor of  the Globe c a l l e d the index librorum prohibitum imposed a type of censorship, and no sanctimonious exposes of the depraved tastes and sharp practices of the private books e l l e r s could hide the fact that s e l e c t i o n was not free. An incident involving the Board of Trustees at Perth has 102 Alpheus Todd, "On the Establishment of Free Publ i c L i b r a r i e s i n Canada," Royal Society of Canada. Proceedings and Transactions, Series 1, v o l . I, section 2:14, 1882. The paper was delivered on May 25, 1862.  84  been c i t e d .  The resentment of the trustees at t h e i r wishes  being overridden provides a t y p i c a l reaction of l o c a l leaders to the experience of being t o l d by a higher authority what i s good f o r them. A strong case can be made f o r the appropriateness of Ryerson s d i c t a t o r i a l methods i n the reorganization of f  an antiquated school system.  Without .. h i s dynamic leader-  ship, the process of reform would almost c e r t a i n l y have been delayed.  There were occasions, however, when h i s  highly personal approach to problems became an impediment. The General Catalogue was perhaps a useful instrument at the outset of the l i b r a r y scheme, a necessary a i d when reading was not a widely-practised a r t ; but as the l i b r a r i e s grew there was less j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r retaining i t , even though i t s scope was  enlarged.  Through i t s agency, Ryerson  i n effect set himself up as an o f f i c i a l censor of the l i t erature that people should be allowed to read i n public libraries.  However many t i t l e s i t contained, the  Catalogue  acted as a screen, only admitting the "good books" sanctioned by the Chief Superintendent, and keeping out equally "good books" that did not appear i n i t s pages.  Furthermore,  not everyone was prepared to accept Ryerson's b e l i e f that books can be neatly segregated into "good" and "bad." t e l l i g e n t c r i t i c i s m demands a l e s s black-and-white  In-  approach  to the subject. Besides the need f o r more freedom of choice i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s , the l i b r a r i e s faced other d i f f i c u l t i e s .  65  Librarians were often not interested i n t h e i r duties, and paid l i t t l e heed to the Rules and Regulations. a lack of proper supervision.  There was  Money was scarce after the  f i r s t few years when Clergy Reserve funds were available, so many of the l i b r a r i e s were not kept fresh with regular supplies of new books. These were some of the reasons why Ryerson's scheme was unable to survive.  The success i t did enjoy f o r about  two decades was due i n large measure to Ryerson's personal influence i n s o l i c i t i n g support from the public, and arranging government grants to match l o c a l contributions.  It  has been suggested by Alpheus Todd that although Ryerson always stressed the importance of l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e , he was i n fact i n c l i n e d to force h i s wishes on the public.  The  103 l i b r a r y scheme, i n Todd's opinion, was premature.  The  result was a hot-house growth not r e a l l y rooted i n the spontaneous e f f o r t of the community, lacking i n stamina, and therefore doomed to a short l i f e . There may be an element of truth i n Todd's t h e s i s . Perhaps Upper Canada was not ready f o r a public l i b r a r y system i n I65O.  Ryerson recognized that he was often con-  fronted with a s o l i d wall of indifference, but to him t h i s meant a challenge and an opportunity, not an insurmountable obstacle.  We may f i n d f a u l t with Ryerson's methods; we  may  question h i s sense of judgement; but i t i s d i f f i c u l t not to 1 0 3  Loc.cit.  86  admire h i s crusading s p i r i t i n resolving that, however d i f f i c u l t , the campaign against ignorance should embrace the older generation as well as the children i n school. His e f f o r t s were not wasted.  Admittedly, they only  went a short way towards achieving his objective, which was to create a more enlightened public, better able to exercise t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as c i t i z e n s i n a democratic society.  But i t was a s t a r t .  was launched.  The public l i b r a r y movement  Later pioneers i n the l i b r a r y f i e l d , work-  ing through the Mechanics' Institutes i n Ontario, looked to Ryerson, "the enlightened and far-seeing Superintendent of Education," as the father of t h e i r movement. "^^H.H. Langton, "Canada and Public L i b r a r i e s , " Library Journal, 28:Conf. No. 45, 1903.  CHAPTER XII PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN SCHOOLS: A FINAL NOTE Should a public l i b r a r y be located i n the public school? School administrators, school and public l i b r a r i a n s , and laymen have asked, and w i l l continue to ask, t h i s question. So begins the Preface to a recent monograph of the 105  American Library Association.  No attempt can be made  here t o pursue the question i n any depth, but i t i s i n structive to note that the pros and cons are s t i l l being debated.  Since the lSSO's there has been a steady trend  i n the United States towards taking public l i b r a r i e s away from direct control by school trustees, and out of school buildings.  Combined school and public l i b r a r i e s are gen-  e r a l l y not i n favour today, though they exist here and there.  A few areas i n the United States i n which school  and public l i b r a r i e s have been quite separate are experimenting now with various schemes f o r closer l i a i s o n , which may include the sharing of premises.  The ALA Survey on  The School-housed Public Library, quoted above, states that the main advantages reported from shared premises are the  chance to coordinate a l l community educational program-  ^Ruth M. White, The School-housed Public L i b r a r y — a Survey, Chicago, American Library Association, 1963.  88  mes involving books, and to operate more economically through eliminating the duplication of buildings and services. Disadvantages are not f a r to seek.  "Although both  public l i b r a r i e s and schools are educational i n s t i t u t i o n s with s i m i l a r aims, the approach, s p e c i f i c purposes, and methods of operation are d i f f e r e n t . "^"^ A public l i b r a r y provides f o r a l l ages, whereas a school l i b r a r y caters to the needs of a p a r t i c u l a r group of students.  Problems  arise from adult patrons coming i n at inconvenient times, from l i b r a r i a n s f e e l i n g a d i v i s i o n of l o y a l t y between student and public demands, and from many other causes. In Canada, the school-housed public l i b r a r y a l l but disappeared with the eclipse of Ryerson's l i b r a r y system. From time to time, the issue i s brought up and discussed, and recommendations are sometimes found i n o f f i c i a l  reports.  For example, a clause of the Cameron Report on education i n Alberta proposes "that the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of making the school l i b r a r y accessible and of service to the general com107  munity be explored."  ' S i m i l a r l y , the Chant Report on edu-  cation i n B r i t i s h Columbia contains a suggestion that "more integration of Public Library f a c i l i t i e s with School Library  106 , . , T  Ibid., p. 1. 107  Alberta, Royal Commission on Education, Report 1959, Edmonton, Queen's Printer, 1959, A r t i c l e 238.  89  f a c i l i t i e s be considered." No action has been taken so f a r i n either province, and Canadian l i b r a r i a n s are usually somewhat s c e p t i c a l of such arrangements.  The strongest grounds f o r j o i n t  l i b r a r i e s are economic ones.  When money i s scarce, i t  might be preferable to give public l i b r a r y service i n a school rather than none at a l l .  The gains and losses would  have to be weighed—but i n t h i s country the consensus of opinion comes down emphatically i n favour of separate facilities. Ryerson's l i b r a r i e s were not a l l school-housed, but the majority of them were.  They were conceived as an ex-  tension of the school system, therefore i t was  entirely  consistent to place them i n schools, and the interests of economy were served at the same time.  The arrangement  must have resulted i n inconveniences s i m i l a r to those experienced with j o i n t premises.  Yet contemporary accounts  seldom mention complaints a r i s i n g from t h i s cause. i t was f e l t to be a matter of small importance  Perhaps  compared  with the multitude of problems and f r u s t r a t i o n s that must have existed i n many schools at that time.  C r i t i c s of  Ryerson have stated on occasion that the money poured into the school d i s t r i c t l i b r a r i e s would have been better devoted to the Mechanics' Institutes to enable them to b u i l d up t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s .  In most cases, however, t h i s  was  10$ Report  B r i t i s h Columbia, Royal Commission on Education, . . . V i c t o r i a , Queen's Printer, p.  I960,  I960,  107.  90 "wisdom a f t e r the event."  Between I65O and 1870 the  ob-  jections raised against Ryerson s scheme were mainly the f  ones described i n Chapter 10, and did not usually include any disapproval of the p r i n c i p l e of public l i b r a r y service sponsored by the schools. nership.  It seemed to be a l o g i c a l part-  I f the l i b r a r i e s had kept going, there would  probably have been some a g i t a t i o n f o r the partnership to be dissolved i n the l a t t e r part of the nineteenth  century.  However, t h i s did not prove to be necessary, since they attained a more independent status by means of a period of co-operation with the Mechanics plan was  abandoned.  independent status.  1  I n s t i t u t e s , a f t e r Ryerson*s  They are l i k e l y now to r e t a i n t h e i r In recent years, public l i b r a r i a n s and  school a u t h o r i t i e s have found i t to t h e i r mutual advantage to work c l o s e l y together.  There i s no sign i n Canada, how-  ever, of any desire on t h e i r part to combine t h e i r functions as f u l l y as they did under the regime of Egerton Ryerson.  BIBLIOGRAPHY A. DOCUMENTARY SOURCES Hodgins, John George. H i s t o r i c a l and Other Papers and Documents I l l u s t r a t i v e of the Educational System of Ontario, 1792-1872. Toronto, L.K. Cameron, 1911, 5 vols. Ontario. Department of Education. Annual Report of the Chief Superintendent of Schools"! Toronto, 1845-76. Ontario. Department of Education. Documentary History of Education i n Upper Canada from 1791 t o 1876; ed. by J.G. Hodgins. Toronto, Warwick and Rutter, 1894. 28 vols. Ontario. L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. Journals. 1880. Ontario. L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. 1867/68-1880/81.  Toronto, 1867-  Sessional Papers.  Toronto,  B. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS Alberta. Royal Commission on Education. Edmonton, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959.  Report . . . 1959•  B r i t i s h Columbia. Royal Commission on Education. Report . . . I960. V i c t o r i a , Queen's Printer, I960. Massachusetts. Board of Education. Seventh Annual Report of the Board of Education together with the Seventh Annual Report of the Secretary of the Board. Boston, Dutton and Wentworth, 1&44. Ontario. Department of Education. A General Catalogue of Books i n Every Department of Literature f o r Public School L i b r a r i e s i n Upper Canada. Toronto, L o v e l l & Gibson, 1857. Ontario. Department of Education. Report on a System of Public Elementary Instruction f o r Upper Canada; by the Rev. Egerton Ryerson. Montreal, L o v e l l and Gibson, 1846.  92  Ontario. Department of Education. Special Report on the Separate School Provisions of the School Law of Upper Canada, and the Measures which have been Adopted t o Supply the School Sections and Municip a l i t i e s with School Text Books, Apparatus and L i b r a r i e s ; by the Chief Superintendent of Education Toronto, J . L o v e l l , 1#58. Ontario. Department of Education. A Special Report on the Systems and State of Popular Education on the Continent of Europe, i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s , and the United States of America . . . by the Rev. Dr. Ryerson . . . Toronto, Leader Steam Press, 1863. Ontario. L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. Index t o the Debates and Speeches i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the Province of Ontario . . . 1867-1887 . . . extracted from the Globe," "Leader" and "Mail* Newspapers. Toronto, Warwick, 1887. tf  Ontario. Royal Commission on Education. Baptist Johnson, 1950.  1  Report.  Toronto,  C. BOOKS, PERIODICALS AND NEWSPAPERS 1.  Contemporary (written during Ryerson's  lifetime)  Bruyere, J.M. Controversy between Dr. Ryerson and Rev. J.M. Bruyere on the Appropriation of the Clergy Reserves Funds; Free Schools vs. State Schools; Public L i b r a r i e s and Common Schools Attacked and Defended. Toronto, Leader and Patriot Steam Press,  TWT.—  Fraser, James. Report . . . on the Common School System of the United States and of the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada^ London, Eyre and Spottiswoode, Globe, January I846 - December 1376. Hallam, John. Notes by the Way on Free L i b r a r i e s and Books; with a Plea f o r the Establishment of Rate-supported L i b r a r i e s i n the Province of Ontario. Toronto, Globe, 1882. Journal of Education f o r Upper Canada, 1343-1377. Moody, Susanna. Roughing i t i n the Bush. Toronto, McClelland, 1925 [ f i r s t pub. 1852]  Toronto.  93  Porter, James. "The Public Schools of Ontario." Canadian Monthly, 1:483-496, June 1872 . Ryerson, A. Egerton. My Dearest Sophie; Letters from Egerton Ryerson to h i s Daughter.. Ed. by C.B. Sissons. Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1955. Rev. Dr. Ryerson's Defence against the Attacks of the Hon. George Brown. Toronto, Copp Clark,  T87T.  . "The Story of my L i f e " . . . ed. by J.G. Hodgins. Toronto, W. Briggs, 1883. Todd, Alpheus. "On the Establishment of Free Public L i b r a r i e s i n Canada." Royal Society of Canada, Proceedings and Transactions, series 1, v o l . 1, section 2:13-lb, 1882. 2. Later Works Bain, James. "Canadian L i b r a r i e s . " Canadian Magazine of P o l i t i c s , Science, Art and Literature, 16:28-32, November, 1900. •  . "Library Movement i n Ontario." nal, 26:269-270, May 1901.  Library Jour-  . "Public L i b r a r i e s i n Canada." Proceedings of the Canadian I n s t i t u t e , 1:95-100, 1897-1904. . "Public L i b r a r i e s i n the Dominion of Canada." l i b r a r y Journal, 12:217-20, 1887. B r i t i s h Association f o r the Advancement of Science. Handbook of Canada. University of Toronto Press, 1924. Buck, C.S. "Library Service i n Goderich 100 Years Ago." Ontario Library Review, 35:260, November 1951. Burpee, Lawrence J. "Canadian L i b r a r i e s of Long Public L i b r a r i e s , 13:255-256, July 1908.  Ago."  Burwash, Nathanael. Egerton Ryerson. Toronto, Morang, 1903 (The Makers of Canada, v o l . 13) Carlton, Sylvia. "Egerton Ryerson and Education i n Ontario, 1844-1877." Unpublished Doctor's Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1950.  94  Coleman, Herbert T.J. Public Education i n Upper Canada. New York, Teachers College, 1907. Desrochers, F e l i x . "Retracing the Origin of our Canadian L i b r a r i e s . " Ontario Library Review, 21:113-115, August 1937. Emery, John W. The Library, the School and the Child. Toronto, MacMillan, 1917. Fletcher, William I. Public L i b r a r i e s i n America. Boston, Roberts Bros., 1894. (Columbia Knowledge Series, No. II) Garceau, Oliver. The Public Library i n the P o l i t i c a l Process. New York, Columbia University Press, Green, Gavin Hamilton. The Old Log School. Goderich, Signal-star Press, 1939.  1949. Ont.,  Greenwood, Thomas. Public L i b r a r i e s ; a History of the Movement and a Manual f o r the Organization and Management of Rate-supported L i b r a r i e s . 4th ed. London, C a s s e l l , 1894. Hardy, Edwin A. "Half Century of Retrospect and Prospect." Ontario Library Review, 11:41-46, November 1926. . The Public Library; i t s Place i n our System^ Toronto, W. Briggs, 1912. Hodgins, John George. Ryerson Memorial Volume. Warwick & Sons, 1889.  Educational Toronto,  Hubbell, George A. Horace Mann, Educator, Patriot and Reformer. Philadelphia, W.F. F e l l , 1910. Langton, H.H. "Canada and Public L i b r a r i e s . " Journal, 28: Conf. No. 43-6, 1903.  Library  Matthews, W. Canadian Diaries and Autobiographies. Berkeley, University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1956. Pierce, Lome. "The Ryerson Press." Canadian Library Association B u l l e t i n , 9:135-137, March 1953. Putman, John H. Egerton Ryerson and Education i n Upper Canada. Toronto, Briggs, 1912. Ross, George W. The School System of Ontario. New York, Appleton, 1896. (International Education Series)  95 Shortt, Adam. Brook,  Canada and i t s Provinces. Vol. 18.  1913-1917.  Toronto, Glasgow,  Sissons, C.B. Egerton Ryerson; h i s L i f e and Letters. Toronto, Clarke, Irwin, 1947. 2 vols. Walker, F.A. Catholic Education and P o l i t i c s i n Upper Canada. Toronto, Dent, 1955Wallace, William Stewart. Report on a P r o v i n c i a l Library Service i n Ontario, [n.p.] 1957. White, Ruth M. The School-housed Public Library--a Survey. Chicago, American Library Association, 1963. (The Public Library Reporter, No. 11) D. ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLES Dunlap, L e s l i e W. " L i b r a r i e s . " 1959, v o l . 12, p. 347.  C o l l i e r ' s Encyclopedia,  Morton, Elizabeth H. " L i b r a r i e s . " 1960, v o l . 6, pp. 133, 136. Sissons, C.B. "Egerton Ryerson." I960, v o l . 9, pp. 120-121.  Encyclopedia Canadiana, Encyclopedia Canadiana,  Tigert, John J . "Horace Mann." Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1959, v o l . 14, pp. 814-815.  APPENDICES  APPENDIX A  A  G E N E R A L C A T A L O G U E OF BOOKS I N E V E R Y D E P A R T M E N T OF LITERATURE FOR P U B L I C SCHOOLS IN UPPER CANADA—PART I I PART BOOKS OF (Not  REFERENCE—HISTORY. designed  for  I. P A L E S T I N E  .  II.  general  reading.)  A N D T H E JEWS.  192. Eohn's Josephus [2S4]—(2 v. 193.  194.  Svo. Eng. Edi.)  [1]—(2 v. Svo.  Lippincott's Josephus  Blaekie's Josephus [119]—(4 v. Svo. Eng. Edi.) William's Jerusalem  197.  198.  199.  200. 201.  GENERAL  With  Prico J5.  [12S] —(Svo. Eng. Edi.)  torical and descriptive memoir of Jerusalem. Map. By the Rev. GEORGE WILLIAMS, B.D. Ordnance Map, 5'-.  II.  196.  A m . Edi.)  Tho learned and authentic Jewish historian and celebrated warrior; containing twenty hooks of the Jewish antiquities, seven hooks of the Jewish war, and the lifo of Josephus, written by himself; translated from tho original Creek, according to Havcrcamp's accurate edition ; together with Explanatory Notes and Observations. Embellished with engravings. By WILLIAJI 'WIIISTON', A.M. In two vols. Sheep, pp. i.t, 532 + 000 = USD. Igc. Price $1.S5. maps and illustrations. In four volumes, pp. 1802, bs.  195.  The  Works of Flavins Josephus, the learned and authentic Jewish historian. Translated by WILLIAM WIIISTOS, A.M. With maps, and fifty-two beautiful pictorial illustrations. In two volumes, pp. GD3, GGl = l35t. hgb. Priced.  His-  (To accompany tho Ordnance Survey Cloth, pp. 161. j-uip. Price, with an  HISTORY.  A n c i e n t History .[3] — (Svo.  II. Tr. Soc.) Containing  tho History of the Egyptians Assyrians, Chaldeans, Modes, Lydians, Persians, Macedonians, the Selcucidrc in Syria, the Busthiaus. and Carthaginians. From IlOLLIX and other authentic sources, both ancient and modern. With six maps. One vol. Cloth, pp. 523. Double columns. Price J1.S0.  Kitto's Scripture Lands [129] — (12mo.  Eng. Edi.)  Described in a series of historical, geographical, and topographical sketches; and illustrated by engravings, and a complete Biblical Atlas of twenty-four coloured mans; with a general index of reference- By J o n x KITTO, D.l),, P.S.A. Cloth, pp. 276, maps 24, index 90=300. hrjb. Price $1.50.  Blaclue's Rollin [281] —(3 v.  It. Svo.  Eng.)  The  Ancient History of the Egyptians, Carthaginians, Assyrians, Babj'loninns, Mcdcs and Persians, Grecians, and ^Macedonians, their arts and sciences. By M. BOLLIX. With geographical, topographical, historical, and critical notes, and a life of the author. By JAMES BELL. Illustrated with numerous engravings and etchings on steel, including a complete set of maps. In throe volumes. Cloth, pp. 4G,C2l,"i0,S;U,S0,-i,Co'2 = 2177. bs. Price ?7--5.  Tegg's Rollin's [2] — (G v.  Svo. Eng. Edi.)  Ancient  History of tho Egyptians, Carthaginians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Mcdcs and Persians, Grecians and Macedonians. By M. Itoi.i.iy. Translated from the French. Revised, corrected, and illustrated witli maps. In six volumes. Cloth, pp. 2031. ivtc. Price f-i.GO.  Harper's P o l l i n [2]—(2 v. Svo. A m . Edi.)  Including a  History of the Arts and Sciences of the Ancients. By CHAT.LES ROLLIX. Illustrated •with marts and plans. With a life of the author. By J.v:,ii:3 BELL. In two volumes. Sheep. Double columns, pp. xlvii, oS-l + xii, £01 = 1343. lib. Price $2.20.  Niebuhr's A n c i e n t  History [263]—(3 v. Svo. Am.  Edi.) Lectures on Ancient History, from the earliest times to the taking of Alexandria by Oetavianus; comprising the history of the Asiatic nations, tho Egyptians, Greeks, Macedonians, and Cai-thairiuiaus. By B. G. NiEBUin;. Translated from the Cerman of Dr. Ma;cu3 Niebuhr. 'By Dr. L>:OXIIAKT) SCUMITZ, F.K.S.E. AVith additions and corrections from his own manuscript notes. In three volumes. Cloth, pp.421,3S3, CC1)=14'G. lb. Price $3.00.  98  202. M u l l e r ' s H i s t o r y o f t h e W o r l d  [6]—(-1 v. 12mo.  Am. Edi.) From the cr.rlii.-st period to the year of our Lord 1753 ; with particular reference to the affairs of Eurone and her Colonies. Translated from the German of Karon Jou.v Vox MULLKR. Revised, corrected, anrl illustrated by n no. tice of tin; life and writings of the author. Hy ALEXANDER II- EVERETT. In four volumes. Cloth, pp. vii.372-t-3SH-3Su + -107—1530. lib. 1'i-iee 52.-10.  203. F a r r ' s - A n c i e n t H i s t o r y [113]—(4 vi 12mo. Am. Edi.)  Containing the History of the Egyptians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Medcs, Lydians, Carthau'inians, Persians, Macedonians, the Seleucidre in Syria, and Parlhians." From ROI.LIX, and other authentic sourees, ho'.h ancient and modern. ISy EDWARD FAKK. In four volumes. Cloth,pp. 310, 333, 320, 302 = 133;. rel. Price 51.00.  204. T a y l o r ' s  Ancient  and Modem  H i s t o r y — ( 2 v.  Svo. Am. Edi.) Price for the twj volumes 52.20, as follows:  (1.) Taylor's Manual of Ancient History [4]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  Containing the political history, geographical position, and social state- of the principal nations of antiquity, carefully revised from.the ancient writers. By W. C. TAYLOR, LL.D. Revised by C S. IIKSRY, D.D. Cloth, pp. xii, 323, (Questions) 33 = 370. clac. Price 51.  (2.) Taylor's Manual of Modern Ilistory [-11]—(Svo. A m . Edi.)  Containing the rise and progress of the principal European nations, their political history, and the changes intheir social condition; with a history of the colonies founded by Europeans. By \V. C. TAYLOR, LL.D. Revised, with a chapter on tho United States. By C. S. HUSKY, D.D. Cloth, pp. iii, 47-1, 51 = 331. clac. Price 51.20.  205. T y t l e r ' s - U n i v e r s a l H i s t o r y [5]—(G v. IGino. Eng.  Edi.) From the creation of the world to the beginning of the eighteenth century. By the late Right Hon. AT.KXAXDER ERASER TYTLER, Lord YV'oodhousclee. In six volumes. Cloth, pp. 200»'3, wtc. Price 51.  206. Hid. [5]—By the late Right Hon. ALEXANDER ERASER  TYTLER and Rev. ETIWAED JJAKES, D.D. Edited by an American. Six volumes in three. ICmo, half sheep, pp. 10S-1. hb. Price 52.20.  207. D e w ' s A n c i e n t a n d M o d e r n H i s t o r y [170]—(Svo.  Am. Edi.) A digest of the laws, customs, manners, and institutions of the ancient and' modern nations. I3y THOMAS DEW. Cloth, pp. 002. clac. Price 51-30.  III.  H I S T O R Y  OF  G R E E C E .  208. T h i r l w a l l ' s G r e e c e [14,3] —(8  v. ISmo. Eng.  Edi.)  With vignette and title3. From Lirdner's Cabinet Cuclopadia. Iu eight volumes. Cloth, 1c. Price 55 CO.  209. G r o t e ' s , H i s t o r y o f G r e e c e  By GEORGE GROXE, Esq. In twelvo volumes. ho. Price 57-20.  [17]—(12 v. A m . Ecli.)  Each volume averaging -130 pa"es °  210. T h i r l w a l l ' s G r e e c e [142]—(2 v. Am. Edi.) A History of Greece. By the Right Rev. Bishop TJHRLWALI,, D.D. In two volumes. pp. 502,535 = 1127. Double columns, lib. price 52.-10.  211. H e e r e n ' s  Greece  [137] — (Svo. Eng. Edi.)  Sheep '  Ancient  Greece. From the German of ARNOLD H. L . HEEREX. By GEORGE B . i x c R o r T . Also three Historical Treatises by the same author. Cloth, pp. 518, h'jb. Price 53.  212. E o e e k h s ' A t h e n s [138]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.)  The r'ubiic  Economy of Athens ; to winch is added, a Dissertation on the Silver Mines of Laurion." By AUGUSTUS BOECKIT, Professor in the University of Berlin. Translated, with notes, by Sir GEORGE COEXEWALL LEWIS, A.M. Cloth, pp. G3S, jwp. Price 53.S0.  213. B e c k e r ' s W o r k s — ( 2 v. Svo. Eng. Edi.) volumes 5-1.10, as follows :  Trice for the'two  (1.) Becker's Gallus [155]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.)  Or, Boman  Scenes of tho times of Augustus: with notes and exercises illustrative-of the "Man. nets and Customs of the Romans. With two coloured sheets. By Professor \V \ BECKER. Translated by the Rev. FREDERICK SIETCAII-X, 3I.A. Cloth, pp. 035 jiVV Price 52.10.  , * (2.) Becker's Charicles [13D]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) Or, the pri.  vate life of the Ancient Greeks. By Professor W. A. BECKER. Translated bv tho Rev. F. UEICALVE, JI.A. Cloth, pp. 512, jwp. Price $2.  IV. H I S T O R Y  OP ROMS.  215. ' E o h n ' s Gibbon's Decline and F a l l [23]—((i v. i2mo.  E u x . Kill.) H i s t o r y of the LVellno a m i F u l l er the R o m a n E m p i r e . B v E m v u - n GIDEON, E s q . 'With various Notes, i n c l u d i n g those of Guizot, Wenok, X i c b u l i r Ilugo, a n d A e a n d e r . E d i t e d , w i t h f u r t h e r illustrations, from the most recent sources' by a u E n g l i s h C h u r c h m a n . I n six volumes. C l o t h , pp. average 550=-^3300, hgb. P r i c e 5-1-50.  215J. Jhi'l. [23]—(Gv. 12mo..'Am. Edi.) With Notes by the Rev. It. It. MILMAX. W i t h Maps.  215J. Ibid.—(In G v. 12mo.) 52 50.  I n six volumes.  C l o t h , pp. 3S10,p8c. P r i c o 52.  Sheep, pp. die same, psc. Price  216. Niebvihr's L e c t u r e s on Rome [22]—(3 v. Svo. Eng. Edi.) L e c t u r e s o n the H i s t o r y o f R o m e from t h e earliest times to the fall o f t h o W e s t e r n E m p i r e . B y I!. G. XIEBI'IIK. E d i t e d b y LY. LEONARD S c i r . u i T z , F.K.S.E. W i t h every a d d i t i o n derivable from Dr. ISTER'S G e r m a n E d i . I n threo volumes. C l o t h , pp. 1309. P r i c e  53.00.  216}-. N i e b u h r ' s R o m a n H i s t o r y [26-1]—(3 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.) Lectures on P.omau H i s t o r y . D e l i v e r e d at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B o n n . B y B.GIS'iEnuiiR. T r a n s l a t e d by HAVII.LAND LE JI. CHEP.VELL, M.A.. a n d P h . D. I n threo volumes. W i t h three steel plates. C l o t h , pp. 531, -103, -1S0=1-100, hgb- P r i c e 52.20.  217. A r n o l d ' s R o m a n Histories—(3 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.) W r i t t e n for the E n g l i s h " E n c y c l o p e d i a Metropolitanfe." $5.SO, as follows :  P r i c e for the three volumes  (1.) Roman Republic—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) History of the Roman  Republic. B y tho Rev. THOMAS ARNOLD, D.D., S i r THOMAS IS'.'TAI.FOUED, D.C.L., the Rev. Professor JEREMIE, a n d others. 530, rgc. P r i c e 51.50.  W i t h n u m e r o u s illustrations.  (2.) .Roman Empire—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) ,  Cloth, pp.  History of the Roman  E m p i r e , from the A g o o f J u l i u s Cmsar t o that of V i t e l l i u s , b y the'Rev.Dr. ARNOLD o f R u g b y , &c. W i t h n u m e r o u s illustrations. C i o t h , pp. 051, rgc. P/ice 52.  (3.) Roman Decline—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) History of the Decline  a n d P a l l o f the R o m a n Power, from the A g e o f Vespasian to the F a l l of Rome. B y D r . ARNOLD, Professor JEKEMIE, B i s h o p RUSSELL, AC. W i t h n u m e r o u s illustrations. Cloth, pp. , rgc. P r i c e 52. i  218. Arnold's Rome [2-!]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) .History of Rome to tlie D e a t h of H a n n i b a l . E v THOMAS ARNOLD, D.D. n a l indices, rfoc. P r i c e  52.25.  C l o t h , pp. xvi. 070.  219. Ferguson's R o m a n R e p u b l i c [152]—(Svo.  W i t h margi-  Am. Edi.)  T h e h i s t o r y o f the progress a n d t e r m i n a t i o n of the R o m a n R e p u b l i c . " B y ADAM FEEGUSSOX, L L . D . Cloth, unabridged: PP- -103, double columns, rcb. P r i c e  51.20..  220. Ramsay's R o m a n A n t i q u i t i e s [154]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) A M a n u a l of R.nuan A n t i q u i t i e s , c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e " Encyclopaedia M e t r o p o l i t a n a . " B y WILLIAM RAMSAY, M.A. W i t h maps, n u m e r o u s cugravingd, a n d a copious index. C l o t h , pp. 4S5, rgc. P r i c e •  5I.S5.  221. E l l i o t t ' s L i b e r t y [202]—(4 v. 12mo. Am. Edi.) The His-'^ tory of L i b e r t y . P a r t i . — T h e A n c i e n t Romansfour volumes. Cloth, pp- 1G32, Ibc. P r i c e 5-1-  P a r t 2.—Tho E a r l y C h r i s t i a n s . I n  V. M E D I E V A L H I S T O R Y , &c. 222. G u i z o t ' s C i v i l i z a t i o n [ 4 6 ] — ( 4 v. 12mo. Am. E d i . ) General History of Civilization in Europe, from tho Fall of the Roman Empire, to the French Revolution. Ry M. GUIZOT. With occasional notes. By C. S. HENRY, D.D. In fodr volumes. Cloth, pp. 151,5, clac. Price 52.S0. 223. D e J o i n v i l l e ' s C r u s a d e s — ( 1 2 m o . E n g . E d i . ) Chronicles of the Crusades, being contemporary narratives of the Crusade of Richard Ceeur de Lion. Ry RICHARD OF DEVISES and GEOFFREY DE VINSAUF. And of the Crusade of St. Louis. By Lord JOHN DE JOINVILLE. With illustrative notes and an index and-frontispi ,cc. Cloth, pp. v+502=507, hgb. Price $1.05.  100  224. M a l l e t ' s N o r t h e r n A n t i q u i t i e s [235]--(12mo.Eng. Edi.)  Or an historical account of the manners, customs, religion ami laws, maritime cipcclitions anil discoveries, lat.iruavc ami literature of the Ancient Scandinavians (Danes, Swedes, Norwegians ana livl.tmlui'*.) Willi (nc|.i,.utal nutlet's r,\spec!lug our Satou nncestors. Translated from the Kronen of M. Mallet. By Bishop I'I:KCY Revised and enlarged, with a translation of the Prose Edda from the original old Norse teit; and notes'critical and explanatory, By I. A. Kr.ACKwKi.i., Esq. To which is added nn abstract of the Eyrbyggja Saga. By Sir WALTER SCOTT, Bait. Cloth, yii.KS.hgb. Price SI. :  225. B r a n d ' s B r i t i s h A n t i q u i t i e s [175]--(3 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.) Observations on the popular antiquities of Great Britain; chiefly illustrating tho origin of our vulvar and provincial customs, ceremonies, and superstitions. By JoitX BRAND, M.A. Arranged, revised, and greatly enlarged. By Sir HKXEY ELLIS, K . H . , F.R.S., &B. A new edition, with further additions. In three volumes. Cloth, pp. 639, 522, 409=1500, hgb. Price S3.  226. T h i e r r y ' s H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s [203]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) The  Historical Essays, published under the title of "Dix Ans D'Etudcs Historiques," and narratives of the Merovingian era; or scenes of the sixth century. With an autobiographical preface. By M . AUOCBTIN THIERRY. Cloth, pp. 204, double columns, hcb. Price 51.20.  221. T h i e r r y ' s N o r m a n C o n q u e s t — ( 2 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.) History of the Conquest of Em--land bv the Normans ; its causes and ils consequences, in England, Scotland, Ireland, and ou the Continent. By AUGUSTIN THIERRY, Member of the Institute. Translated from the Paris edition. By WILLIAM HAZLITT, E s q . In two volumos. pp. 470, db rye. Prico J2.  VI.  MODERN  HISTORY.  •228. S c h l e g e l ' s H i s t o r y (2 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.) Price for the two volumes *1,-10, as follows :  • -  (1.) Schlegel's Philosophy of'History [159]—In a course of Lectures, delivered at Vienna. By FREDERICK VOX SCJTLKGEL. Translated from tho German, witli a memoir and portrait of the adthor. By JAMES BURTON* ROBERTSON, Esq. Cloth, pp. xii. iW.hgb. Price 70 cts.  (2.) Schlegel's JModern History [1C0]—A course of Lectures on  Modern History ; to which are. added Historical Essays on the beginning of our history, and on Civsar and Alexander. By FREDERICK VOX SCIILEGKL. Translated by LINDSAY PUKCEI.L and R. I i . WIIIXELOCJ-, Esqs. Cloth, pp. 423, hgb. Price 70 cts.  '229. M i l l e r ' s P h i l o s o p h y o f H i s t o r y [158] (4 v. 12mo. Eng.  Edi.) History philosophically illustrated, from the Fall of the' Roman Empire to tho French Revolution. By the Rev. GEORGE MILLER, I).P., M.R.I.A. In four volumes. Cloth, with portrait of tliu author, pp. 1S72. hgb. Price $2-50.  230. S m y t h ' s M o d e r n H i s t o r y [42] (2 v. Eng. Edi.) Lectures  on Modern Histoiy from the irruptions of tho Northern Nations to the close of tho American Revolution. By W. SMYTH, Lb.D. Two volumes. 12mo. pp. 502+532 = 1034, hgb. Price $1.40.  230-}.  Ibid.—(Svo.  Am.~Edi.)  Modern History. The same work.  With a Preface. List of hooks ou American History. By JARLD SIMUKS, LL.D. Two volumes in one. pp. 73S, s.c.h. Price 40 cts.  231. A r n o l d ' s M o d e r n H i s t o r y 143]—(12mo. Am. Edi.) Intro-  ductory Lectures on Modern History.—Delivered in Lent term M D C C C X L H , with the inaugural lecture., delivered in December, M D C C C X U . By THOMAS AI:XOM>,I>.I>. Edited, with a Preface and Notes. Uy. HENRY RJ;I;I>, M.A. Cloth, pp. 423, dac. Price £1.  232. R u s s e l l ' s M o d e r n E u r o p e [45]—(4 v. Svo. Eng. Edi.)  Hie History of Modern Europe, with a continuation to the Treaty of Paris in 1S50. By WILLIAM JONES and GEORGE TOWNSEXD. Cloth, pp. VJ\\,grc. Price SO.  233. A l i s o n ' s E u r o p e [44]—(G v. A m . Edi.)  From the com-  mencement of the French Revolution in 17S0. to the accession of Louis Napoleon iu 1852. Six volumes, Svo, sheep, pp. 3332, hb. Price S7.20.  VII. B R I T I S H HISTORIES. 234- Mahon's England [.>2]—(2 v. 8vo. Am. Edi.) History of r  England from tho Peace of Utrecht, to the l'c.icc of Pario. By J.OfU jr,wn5.--f. Edited by llHxnv RliKU. In two volumes. Cloth, pp. 1109, (Inc. Prlco 53-20.  235. Mackintosh, Wallace, and Bell's England [172]—(10  v. 10mo. Eng. Edi.) The History of England. By Sir JAMES JICINTOSH. With a continuation from A.T). 1572. IS.v W. WALLACE, Esq.. and ROBERT BELL, Esq. Erom Lardncr's " Cabinet Cyclopaedia." In ten volumes. Cloth, Ic. 1'riec 57.  236. Aikman's Scotland [187]—(G v. Svo. Eng. Edi.)  From  the earliest period to the present time. With niucty illustrations, landscapes, portrait and historical. In six,volumes, bs. Price 512.  237. Robertson's Works [38-40]—(3 v. Svo. Am. Edi.) Price for the three volumes 53X0, as follows:  • (1.) Robertson's Scotland and India [39-40]—(8vo. Am. Edi.)  History of Scotland during tho rciens of Queen Jlary and of King James the Sixth, till his accession to the crown of England. With a review of the Scottish History previous to that period, with an appendix containing original letters. And an Historical Disquisition concerning the knowledge winch the ancients had of India, and tho progress of trado witli that country, prior to the discovery of tho passage to it by the Capo of Good Hope. With an appendix containing observations on the Civil Policy— the laws of Judicial Proceedings—the Arts—the Sciences, and religious institutions of • the Indians. Ry WILLIAM ROBERTSON, D.D. Tho two in one volume. Sheep, p p . -\ 4G0+UG=G0G, lib. Price 51.20.  (2.) Robertson's Charles V. [38]—(8vo. Am. Edi.) History of tho Reign of the Emperor Charles the Eifth: with a view of tho progress of Society in Europe from the subversion of the Roman Empire, to the beginning of the Sixteenth Ontury. By WILLIAM RODERTSON, D.D. Sheep, pp. CM, lib. Price 51.20.  (3.) Robertson's America [37]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) History of the Discovery and Settlement of America. By WILLIAM ROBERTSON, D.D. With an account of his life and writings. Sheep, pp. xxxii. 570=002, lib. Price 51.20.  238. Robertson's A m e r i c a and Charles V.—(5 v. Xtn. K. Soc.) Price for the five volumes 52.05, as follows ;  (1-2.) Robertson's America [37]—(2 v. lGmo. Xtn. K. Society.) History of America. By WILLIAM RORERTSON, D-D. In two volumes. Cloth, p p . 1120. Price 51.60.  (3 to 5.) Robertson's Charles V. [3S]—(3 v. lGmo. Xtn. K. Soc.)  History of tho Reign of the Emperor Charles the Piflh, with a view of the progress of .Society in Europe from the subversion of the Roman Empire to the beginning of the sixteenth century. By WILLIAM ROBERTSON, D.D. In three volumes, Cloth, p p . 130S. Price 51.10.  239. Napier's Peninsular W a r [181]—(1 v. imperial Svo. Am. Edi.) History of the War in the Peninsula, and in the south of France, from the year 1807 to tho year 1811. By Colonel W. F. P. NAPIER, C.U. In one volume. Cloth, p p . 192, double columns,,/*'?*. PriCc 52.  • VIII. F R E N C H A N D S P A N I S H HISTORIES. 240. Thiers' Revolution, Consulate and E m p i r e [293]—(2 v. Svo. Eng. Edi.) History of the French Revolution of 17S9, and of the Consulato and Empire of Napoleon I. By ADOI.PH THIERS. Translated from the French. In two volumes. Cloth, pp. 072, 057, 314—1013, doublo columns, hgb. Price $1.50.  s  241. Thiers' Revolution, Consulate and E m p i r e [G2-G3]—  (4 v. Svo. Am. Edi.) History of the French Revolution, and of the Consulate and Empire of France under Napoleon. By JI. A. THIERS, late Prime minister of France. Translated with Notes and Illustrations from the most authentic sources. By FREDERICK SIIOIIEKI, D. FORBES CAMPBELL, and H . W. HERBERT ; with notes and additions. Cloth, pp. 3000, ilac. Price 51.50.  242. Stephen's France [204]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) Lectures ontho History of France, delivered at the University of Cambridge. By Sir JAMES STEPHENS, K . C . B , LL.D. Cloth, pp. 710, lib. Price 51.40.  243. Carlyle's F r e n c h Revolution o f 1789 [210]—(2 T.  12mo. Am. Edi.) Tho French Revolution of 17S9,-a history. By THOMAS CARLYLE: Cloth, pp. 470+417=917, fii. Price S1.G0.  244. Smyth's Lectures on the History of the French R c v o l u t i o n - ( 2 v. E n g E d i . )  pp.  550,  5uG=1110,  hrjb.  P r i c e 51.40.  245. Michelet's French Revolution of 1/789—(12mo. Eng. Mi.) B.L.  A n H i r t o r l r n l V i e w o f t l i o F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n Of ITS'.'. T w o vols, i n one. C l o t h , p p . 000, hgb. P r i c e S3 c t s .  Translated  by. C . C o C K S .  245. Xamartine's Girondists [207]—(3 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.) A H i s t o r y o f the Girondists; or, personal memoirs o f t h o patriots o f ' t h o French. R e v o l u t i o n , from u n p u b l i s h e d sources. "With portraits, o n steel, o f Robespierre, M a d a m e R o l a n d a n d C h a r l o t t e C o r d a y . I5y A i . n i o x s K D E L A M A R T I N E . Translated b y H . J . R Y D E . ' W i t h a biographical sketch of t h o author. C l o t h , pp. 520+020+555 = 1 5 0 5 , hgb. P r i c e S2.10.  245}. Ibid. [20S]—(3 v. 12mo. Am. Edi.) vols.  C l o t h , p p . 405+. .34 + 5 1 G = 1 5 7 5 , r  hb.  Trice  The same work in three  51-75.  246. Lamartine's Restoration [211]—(4 v. 12mo. Am. Edi.) The History of the Restoration ofMonarchy i n France. C l o t h , p p . 530 + 490 + 554 + 5 2 4 = 2 1 0 7 , hgb. P r i c e S 2 .  B y A i r u o s s E D E LAMARTINE.  247. Conde's History of the Arabs in Spain—(3 v. 12mo. E n g . E d i . ) H i s t o r y of t h o D o m i n i o n o f the A r a b s i n Spain. Translated from t h o S p a n i s h o f D r . J . A . CONDI: b y M r s . J O N A T H A N FOSTER. C l o t h , p p . x i i + 5 I 0 = 5 2 2 , / > ^ 4 . P r i c e $2.10. IX. G E R M A N H I S T O R Y .  248. Dunham's Germanic Empire [228]—(3 v. lGmo. Eng. '  Edi.) T h o History' of the G e r m a n i c E m p i r e , c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e Cabinet Cyclopredia. By S.A. D c s i t m , Cloth, P r i c e $2.10.  h\,X>.  le.  249. Coxe's Austria [233]—(4 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.)  A History  of t h e H o u s e o f A u s t r i a , from t h e foundation o f t h e m o n a r c h y , b y R o d o l p h of H a p s b u r g t o t h o d e a t h o f L e o p o l d t h e S e c o n d ; 121S t o 1702. B y t h e R e v . W I L L I A M COXE, Archdeacon, F.R.S. T o w h i c h is added G e n e s i s ; or, details o f t h e late A u s t r i a n R e v o l u t i o n . B y a n oiliccr o f State. Translated from t h e G e r m a n , a n d contained i n tho fourth volume. W i t h portraits o f Maximilian,. Rodolph of Hapsbunr, M a r i o Therese, a n d t h e present E m p e r o r of A u s t r i a , F r a n c i s J o s e p h . C l o t h , p p . 52S+522+ 602 + 127 + 4 0 S = 2 2 3 7 , hgb. P r i c e S2.S0.  250. Motley's Dutch Republic—(3 v. Svo. Am. Edi.) The Rise o f the D u t c h Republic—a, history. B yJOHN x i i + 5 S 0 + i v + 5 S 2 + i v + G G 4 = l S l G , hb. P r i c e S4.80.  SOTHROP M O T L E Y .  Cloth,pp.  251. Davies' History of Holland and the Dutch Nation  (3 v . 8vo- E n g . E d i . ) F r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y t o t h e e n d o f t h o ' eighteenth ; including an account of the municipal institutions, commercial pursuits, a n d social habits o f the people ; the R i s e a n d Progress o f tho P r o t e s t a n t R e f o r m a t i o n i n H o l l a n d ; t h e Intestine Dissentions, foreign W a r s , & C . Chiefly compiled b y permission o f t h e D u t c h Government, from original documents a n d stato papers. B y C . M . DAVIES. C l o t h , p p . x v i + G 2 1 + x i v + 7 4 4 + x v i + 7 " 2 = 2 1 1 3 , (gio.) rgc. P r i c e S3.  X. A M E R I C A N  HISTORY.  252. Bancroft's [77]—(G v. Svo. Am. Edi.) History of the C o l o n i z a t i o n o f t h e "United States, from t h e earliest discovery o f t h e A m e r i c a n C o n t i n e n t to the peace o f A i x l a C h a p c l I c , l S 4 S . B y GEORGE BANCROFT. C l o t h , p p . over a g e 500, Ibc. P r i c e SO.  253. Hildreth's [76]—(6 v. 8vo. Am. Edi.)  History of the  U n i t e d States o f America, from the discovery of the Continent Sixteenth Congress. B y RICHARD HILDRETII. Sheep, p p . . lb.  XI. M I S C E L L A N E O U S  to the end o f the P r i c o J10.SO.  HISTORY.  254. Martin's China [23G]—(2 v. 8vo. Eng. Edi.)  Political,  commercial and social: in an official report lo Her Majesty's Government. By It. M O M G O M H R T JIARTIX, Esq. With six maps. Cloth, pp. 432 + 002, appendix 1S-*9J2, jm. wtc* Trice S«.  155. Tschudi's Peruvian Antiquities—(12mo. Am. Edi.)  By M A R I A N O E D W A R D E i v E R o . a n d J O H N J A M E S V O N T S C H U D I . 1 ) . Vii. Translated into English from the original Spanish, by F R A N C I S L. H A W K S , DA).. LL.D. Cloth, p p . x v i i + 3 0 G = 3 2 3 , asbc. Price CO cts.  156. Putnam's World's Progress [1081—(12mo. Am. Etli.)  A Dictionary of Dates; or. Handbook of Chronology and History. With tabular views of general history and a historical chart. Edited by G E O R G E V. P U I N A A I . Cloth, p p . 0 9 2 , addenda 4 ° = 7 4 0 , gpp. Price - 5 1 . 6 0 .  BOOKS O F R E F E R E N C E — V O Y A G E S & T R A V E L S .  XIX  T H EEAST.  -  113. Early Travels in Palestine [73]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.)  Comprising the narratives of Arculf, VV'illibalu, Bernard, Scr.wnlf, Sigurd, Benjamin of Tudcla, Sir .Tohn Mauudevillo, De La Rrocguire, and Maundreth. Edited with notes by TiroitAS W R I G H T , Esq... M.A.. P.3.A., &c. Cloth, pp.xxxi + .-jl7-=51S, hgb. Price  51.  .114. Lynch's Jordan and Dead Sea [CO]—CSvo. Am. Edi.) Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition thereto. By W . P. L T N C H , U , S . N . , Commander of the expedition. With maps and numerous illustrations. Cloth, p p . 509, hi. Pric9 52.25.  . 115. Spencer's Travels, Eoly Land [7G]—(12mo. Am. Edi.) Tho East j Sketches of Travels in Egvpt and the Holy Land. By tho Itcv. T . A . S P E N C E R , JI. A. pp. 503. as.be. Price 51.15.  116. Layard's Nineveh.—(2 v. 8vo. Am. Edi.) two volumes 55, as follows:  Price for the  (1.) Laynrd's Nineveh and its Remains [90-1]—"With an account of a visit to the Clialdaean Christians of Kurdistan, and the Yezidis, or dovil worship-  crs ; and an inquiry into the manner and arts of the ancient Assyrians. Ey ?Two Esq., F. It. S. With maps and numerous photographic engravings. volumes in one, without abridgement. Cloth, pp. 707, aac. Price 53.20. AUSTEN  [ENRY LAYARD,  (2.) Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon [90-2[—  With travels in Armenia, Kurdistan and the Desert; being the result of a second expedition undertaken for tho Trustees of the British Museum. By A U S T E N H E N R T LAY\W'I>, Esq. M.F. With maps and numerous plans and illustrations ; one of which represents the north eastern facade and grand entrance of Sennacherib's Palaco. Cloth, pp. 709, hb. Price 51.S0,  117. Lepsius' Egypt, &e.[S.>]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) r  Letters from  Egypt, Ethiopia, and tho Peninsula of Sinai. By Dr. R I C H A R D L E P S I U S . With extracts from his chronology of the Egyptians, with reference to the exodus of the Israelites. Reviser! by the author. Translated by L E O N O R A and TORANN'A B. H O M E R . With tinted frontispiece, maps and engravings. Cloth, pp, 57S, hgb. Prico 5 1 . .  118. Wright's Marco Polo—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) Thc'Travcls of MRrco Polo, the Venetian. The translation of Marsden revised, with a selection of his notes. Edited by T H O M A S W R I O H T , Esq., M.A., F.S.A., &C. Cloth, p p . xxviii+50C== 6 3 * . hob. Price 51.  119. Thomson's Himalaya, &c.—(8vo. Eng. Edi,) "Western  Himalaya and Thibet. A narrative of a journey through the mountains of Northern India, during tho years IE 17-3. By T H O M A S T H O M S O N , M.D.,F.L..'5., Assistant Surgeon Bengal Army. Cloth,.pp. xii + 501 = 512, rc. Price 53.3 j .  120. Ellis' Polynesian Researches [16*2]—(4 v. lGmo. Eng. Edi.) During a residence of nearly eight years in the Society and Sandwich Islands. By W I L L I A M E L L I S . Enlarged and improved. With maps and steel engravings. Cloth, pp. xvi + 414 + vii+43S + viii+.l07 + viii + 49fi=1703, hgb. Price 5 3 .  121. Davis' China [lG7]--(12mo. Eng. Edi.) During an Inland Journey of five months between Pekin, Nankin, and Canton: with notices and observations, relative to the war. With a new map of China. By J O H N " F R A N C I S D A V I S , Esq., F . R . S . Two vols, in one. Cloth, p p . 3 2 2 , Prico'5 eta.  hgb.  122. Perry's China Seas and Japan—(Svo. Am. Erli.) Narra-  tive of tlio Kxpcdition of an American Squad roti to the China Seas.mil Japan, performed in the years 1852, IS.M and 1854, uiuier the command of M. C. Terry, United States .Navy. By order of tho Government of the United Slates. Compiled from the original notes mid* journals of Commodore l'rrry and his officers at his request, and under his supervision. By PJIANCIS L . l l . u i ' M , 1>.1>., L L . l ) . With numerous illustrations.. Cloth, pp. vii + 0ii=G31, dac. Price SI.  123. Darwin's Naturalist's Voyage—(1'Jlmo. Eng. Edi.) Journal of researches into the natural history and (ecology of the countries visited during the voynce of H . M . S. Beagle round the world, under the command of Capt. Fitzroy, It. N . By CHARLES Biinvi>-, M.A., F.R.S, Cloth, pp. viii+5ia,im. l'rico $1.05.  123}. Ibid [7]—(2 v. ISmo. Am. Edi.) The same work.  Cloth,  pp. 351+324 = 675, hb. Price 75 cts.  II.  AMERICAN,  124. Stephen's Yucatan and Central America [103]—(4 v. Svo.  Am. Bdi.)  Prico for the four volumes SS, as follows :  (1-2.) Tueatan: Incidents of Travel iu Yucatan.  L . S T E r n E . v s . Illustrated by one hundred and twenty engravings. . C l o t h , pp. 459 + 478=037, Price SI-  B y JOHN  In two volumes.  (3-4.) Central America, &c. : Incidents of Travel iu Central  America, Chiapas and Yucatan. By Joiry L. S T E F U E y s , Esq. Illustrated by nuoio* rou3 engravings. In two volumes. Cloth, pp. 424 + 474=308, hb. Price S4.  125. Squier's Nicaragua—(2 v. 8vo.  Am. Edi.) Nicaragua ;  its people, scenery, monuments, and the proposed intcroccanic canal. "With numerous original maps and illustrations. By E . G. SIJUIEK, lato Charge d'Ad'aircs of the United States to tho Republics of Central America. Cloth, pp. xxii+424+iv+452=902, dac. Price S4. ,  126. Bartlett's Mexico, &c.,—(2 v. 8vo. Eng. Edi.) Personal  Narrativo of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Souora and Chihuahua, connectedwith the United States and Mexican Boundary Commission, during the years '50, '61, '52 and '53. Cloth, pp. xxii + 50(i + xvii+024=12li0. pre. Price SG.10.  ' '  127. Ewbank's Life in Brazil—(Svo. Am. Edi.) . Life in  Brazil; Or, a Journal of a visit to the Laud of the Cocoa'and the Palm ; with an appendix containing illustrations of Ancient South American Arts in recently discovered implements, aud products of domestic industry, and works in stone, pottery, gold, silver, bronze, etc. By THOMAS EWUAXK ; witli over ono hundred illustrations. Cloth, pp. 400. hb. Price Sl.GO..  128. Ross' Humboldt's Travels [101]—(3 v. 12mo. Eng. '  E d i ) Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of America, during tho years 1709,1S0K .Ky ALEXANDER VOX HUMIIOI/DT. and ANNI: !HOUKLAND. Written in French by ALKXANPKK VOX JI U.MUOLDT. Translated aud edited by Thoinusina Ross. Cloth, pp. 22, 515, 521, G, 412—lOOti. hgb. Price  129. Montgomery's Colonies [4ft]—(4to.  E n g . Edi.) The British North American Colonies,—Their Xlistory, Extent, Condition and Resources, with introductory sections on the Colonization of Ancient and Modern Nations, and the extent of Population, Class!Heat-ion, Administration and importance of the Jlritish Colonies and Maritime possessions. In six hooks :—I. Eastern and Western Canada- II. rNova Scotia and Cape Jh'cton. III. New Erunswick. IV. Prince Edward Island. V. Newfoundland nnd Labrador. VI. Hudson's Hay Territory. Compiled from the fullest and most authentic documents; illustrated with engravings of Queen Elizabeth, Sir "Walter Kalehrh, Lord Uneon, Queen Anne, Prince Itiipert, the Earl of Chatham, and Sir Praneis .Drake; also maps of Merer.tor's "World, liritish America ; •with appropriate vignettes. J|y R I C H A K P M O N T G O M E R Y M A K T I N , Esq. 2 volumes; pp. 300, double columns. Price ?:J.  130. Lake Superior [41]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) Or Dc Tracy,—  Its Physical Character, Vegetation and Animals compared \vi th those of other and .% . similar regions. Uy Lor/is AGASSI?:. "With a narrative of the tour. Ity J . E L L I O T T C A U O T ; and contributions by other scientific gentlemen. Elegantly illustrated. Cloth, pp. 42S+17 = 1I5. Plates mid illustrations, gl. P r i c e d  131. Lyell's Travels [115]—(3v. 12mo. Am. Edi.) the tlircc v o l u m e s  .  Price for  as follows :  (1.) Lyell's Travels 1811-2 [1]—(12mo. Am. Edi.) Travels in  19U-2,  N o r t h America, In tho yearn w i t h geological observations on tint U n i t e d States, C a n a d a a n d N o v a Scotia. B y C H A I U . E S L Y E L L , E s q . F.R.S. W i t h o u t tho large plates, 2 vols, i n one. C l o t h , pp. 7, 197, 251= IV). jm. l'rico SO cts.  (2-3.) Lyell's Travels 1845-G [2-3]—(2v. 12mo. Am. Edi.) A  Second V i s i t to tho U n i t e d States of N o r t h A m e r i c a . B y S i r C H A R L E S L Y E L L , F.R.S. C l o t h , pp. 273, 312 = 3S3. hi. P r i c e 51.20.  132. Drake's Indians of North. America—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  B i o g r a p h y a n d H i s t o r y of the I n d i a n s of N o r t h A m e r i c a , f r o m its first discovery. B y S A M U E L G. D R A K E . C l o t h , pp. 720. bbmc. P r i c e 51.20.  133. Schoolcraft's Ozark Mountains [120]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) Scenes a n d A d v e n t u r e s i n S c i m - A l p i u c Region, of t h e O z a r k M o u n t a i n s o f M i s s o u r i a n d Arkansas, w h i c h were first traversed b y D c S o t o i n 1011. B y H E N R Y R O W S S C H O O L C R A F T , w i t h illustrations o n copper. C l o t h , pp. 250. Inc. P r i c o 51.20.  134. Shea's Mississippi Valley [39]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) Discovcry a n d Exploration of tho Mississippi Valley; with the original narratives of M a r q u c U c , A l l o n e y , M c m b r e \ H e n n e p i n , a n d A n a - s t a s o D o u a y . B y J o n x GILMAET SIIFA.; w i t h a f a c s i m i l e o f t h e n e w l y - d i s c o v e r e d a u t o g r a p h m a p o f t h e M i s s i s s i p p i , o r C o n c e p t i o n R i v e r , d r a w n b y F a t h e r MAIIQIFETTE, a t t h e t i u i o o f h i s v o y a g e i n 1G74. F r o m t h e original preserved at S t . M a r y ' s College, M o n t r e a l . C l o t h , p p . 208. j r . P r i c e S1.G0.  135. Notes on North America |>12]—(2v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.) A g r i c u l t u r a l , E c o n o m i c a l a n d S o c i a l ; w i t h a. m a p a n d o t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n s . B y J i i i E S F . W . JOHNSTON, M . A . . F . K . S . C l o t h , p p . 4 1 5 + 5 1 2 = 9 2 7 . wrs. P r i c e ?3-80.  .136. Coggeshairs Eighty Voyages [9G]—(2v. 8vo. Am. Edi.) V o y a g e s t o v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e W o r l d , m a d e b e t w e e n t h o y e a r s 1799 a n d 1 3 4 1 . B y GEOUOE CO GOES HALL, s e l e c t e d f r o m h i s . M a n u s c r i p t J o u r n a l o f E i g h t y V o y a g e s j w i t n , n u m e r o u s l i t h o g r a p h i c platp,s. C l o t h , p p . 235, 35S=:51S. dac P r i c e § 1 . 8 0 .  137. Silliman's Europe [135]—(2v. 12mo. Am. Edi.) A V i s i t t o E u r o p e i n 1851. B y Professor B . S I L L I M A S : w i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n s . 418, 403=880. ggp. tc. ashc. P r i c e 52.  C l o t h , pp.  BOOKS O F R E F E R E N C E — B I O G R A P H Y . I. ANCIENT. 182. L a n g h o r n s ' P l u t a r c h [1/1]—(2v. P l u t a r c h s L i v e s o f t h o Ancients. Prico 5 2 .  182i--  B y tho L A N G H O R N S .  8vo. Eng. Edi.) C l o t h , pp. 1133.  hgb.  Ibid. In one vol. [1]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.) Cloth, pp. 772.  vote.  P r i c o 51.25.  ;  —,  183. M e r r i c k ' s M o h a m m e d [18]—(8vo.  Am. Edi.)' "The  L i f e a n d R e l i g i o n of M o h a m m e d , as c o n t a i n e d i n t h e S h c e a t h T r a d i t i o n s o f t h e H y a t u l - K u l o o b . T r a n s l a t e d f r o m t h e P e r s i a n . E y t h e Rev. J A M E S L . H E E R I C K . pp. 4S3. p j e . P r i c o 51.40.  II. BRITISH. 184. F u l l e r ' s W o r t h i e s o f E n g l a n d — ( 3 v. 8vo. Eng. Edi.) •  .  A h i s t o r y of the W o r t h i e s of E n g l a n d . B y THOMAS FULLER, D.D., c o n t a i n i n g b r i e f notices of t h e most celebrated "Worthies of E n g l a n d wiio have flourished sinco tho t i m e o f F u l l e r ; w i t h explanatory notes a n d copious indexes. B y P. ACSTLN N t r r T A L L , LL.D. C l o t h , pp. u i + 1 8 0 + i x + 5 S l + i i i + 590 = 1305. vote. P r i c o $2.85.  185. C a m p b e l l ' s C h a n c e l l o r s [48]—(7 v.'  8vo. Am. Edi.)  T h e L i v e s of tho L o r d C h a n c e l l o r s a n d K e e p e r s of tho G r e a t Seal of E n g l a n d , f r o m the earliest times t i l l t h e rciirn of K i n g George IV. B y J o n x LORD CAMPBELL, A.1I., Ac. C l o t h , pp.495+490+4o0+53S+613 + 535 + 570 = 3G00. bU P r i c e $9.50.  106  186. C a m p b e l l ' s C h i e f J u s t i c e s [in]—(2 v. Svo. A m . E d i . ) The Lives of tho Chief Ju.-ticcs of lindane!, from tho Norman Conquest till the death of Lord Mansfield. By J O H N L O K D C A M I - H E L L , L L . I ) . , A C . Cloth, pp. 4 0 3 + 4 1 2 = 0 0 3 . bl. Price f2.75. 187. B o s w e l l ' s J o h n s o n [203]—(2 v. Svo. Am. Edi.) The . Life of Samuel Johnson, L I , D., including a journey of a tour to the Hebrides. By J A M E S B O S W E L L . Enq,; with numerous additions and notes; by J O H N * A V I L S O X C R O K E K , LL.D. Sheep, pp. xii + 5G3 + 50G=1142. hb. Price $2.40. 188. F o r s t e r ' s S t a t e s m e n o f t h e C o m m o n w e a l t h [-13]— (Svo. Am. Bdi.) The Statesmen of the Commonwealth of Bnglaud ; with a trcatiso on the popular progress in English History. By J O H N F O R S T E R . of the Inner Temple. Edited by J . 0 . C I I O U L E S . Sheep, pp. iIiii + (H:l=GS5. hb. Price SI.20. 189. C h a m b e r ' s S c o t t i s h B i o g r a p h y [ 2 2 / [ — ( 4 v. 8vo. E n g . Edi.) A Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen. By U O I I F . R T C H A M B E R S . Embellished witli seventy-two authentic portraits on steel. Cloth, pp. vi+558+G00+ 5 3 3 + 5 3 1 = 2 3 0 3 . 6.?. Price StO.  III. MISCELLANEOUS. 190. P i l k i n g t o n ' s P a i n t e r s — ( S v o . Eng. Edi.) A General , " Dictionary of Painters; containing memoirs of the lives of the most Eminent Processors of the Art of Paint iusr, from its revival by Ciniabue, in the year 1250, to the present time. By M A T I I E W P I L K I N G T O . N , A . M . \Vith an introduction historical and critical. By A L L A N C U N N I N G H A M . Corrected and revised by B . A. D A V K J T F O R T , Esq.; with portrait of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Cloth, pp. 623. double columns, iclc. Price S2.10. 191- V a s a r i ' s P a i n t e r s [ 2 2 2 ] — 5 v. 12mo.' E n g . E d i . ) Lives of the most Eminent Painters. Sculptors, and Architects: translated from the Italian of Gcorgio Vasari. "With notes and illustrations, chiefly selected from various commentators. By Mrs. J O N A T H A N F O J I S T K R . Cloth, pp. average 525=2GS7.--'fttfi. Prico S3.50. 192- M e m o i r s o f P e r t h e s — ( 2 v. 8vo. E n g . E d i . ) Memoirs of Frederick Perthes, or Literary, Reliuious and Political Life in Germany, from 17S9 to 1843. From the German of Frederick Theodore Perthes. Cloth, pp. xii+41S + viii+ > 491=039. . ic. jcg. Price S3.G0. 193- G o r t o n ' s B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y [22G]—(4 v. • 8vo. Eng. Edi.) A General Biographical Dictionary. By J O H N G O R T O N . T O which is added a supplementary volume completing the work to the present time. Cloth, pp. about 3000. Ibc. hgb. Price J8.50. 194. A p p l e t o n ' s C y c l o p c e d i a o f B i o g r a p h y — ( R o y a l . Svo. Am. Edi.) A Cyclopaedia of Biography, embracing ascries of original memoirs of the most distinguished persons of ail times. Edited by F R A N C I S L . H A W K S , D.L).; with numerous illustrations. Cloth, pp. COCO. dac. Price S3.G0. 195. B l a k e ' s E i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y [ 2 2 5 ] — ( E o y a l Svo. Am, Edi.) A General Biographical Dictionary, comprising a summary account of tho most distinguished persons of all ages, nations and professions, including more than ono thousand articles of American Biography. By the Ucv. J . L . 31 L A K E , D.D. B C vised. Sheep, double columns, pp. 1,000, hbmc. Prico $3.50.  f  196. R i c h ' s C y c l o p a e d i a o f E i o g r a p h y — ( 1 2 m o . E n g . Edi.) Cyclopaedia of Biography, embracing a series of original memoirs of tlio most distinguished persons of all times. Edited by E L I I I U l l i c n . Willi numerous illustrations. Cloth, pp. 807, rgc. Prico S2.40. .197. G o d w i n ' s U n i v e r s a l B i o g r a p h y [232]—(12mo. A m . ' Edi.) A Handbook of Universal Biography. By F R A N K G O D W I N . Cloth, double columns, pp. vi+82l=827, asbc. Price Sl.GO. 198. S p a r k s ' A m e r i c a n B i o g r a p h y [ M S ] — ( 2 5 v. 12mo. Am. Edi.) Tho Library of American Biography,—First Series. Conducted by . T A R E D S P A R K S , LL.D. Containing the lives of Stark, llrown, Montgomery, Allen, "Wilson, • Smith, Arnold, 'Wayne, Vane. Elliot, Finkney, Ellery. Mather, Phips, Putnam, Davidson, Rittenhousc, Edwards, Brainerd, Steuben. Cabot. Eaton, Fulton, 'Wancii, HudBon and Marquette. Iu ten volumes. With portraits nnd autographs. Cloth, hb. Price 16.  / \  199. S e c o n d S e r i e s [140]—Containing the lives of Cavalier do  In Salic, Henry, Otis, Oglethorpe, Sullivan, Leislor, Bacon, Mason, "Williams, Pwight Pulaski, Romford. Pike, Gorton, Stiles, Pitch, Hutchiuson. Rihault, Kale, Palfrey, Lcc, Reed, Calvert, Ward, Posey, Gr*cu, Decatur, Fro.blc, Penn. Boone, Lincoln, Ledyard. Davie and Kirkland. With portrait*, Ac. Cloth, pp. about 10,000, tbc. Prico for tho 23 volumes £15.  200. •Sparks' V/ashington [282]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) The Lifo of Gconro Washington. By JAIU:I>  SPARKS.  Cloth, D p .  19 +  502 = 581, Ibo. Prico  81.20.  BOOKS O F R E F E R E N C E — L I T E R A T U R E .  I. E N C Y C L O P A E D I A S .  143. National Cyclopaedia [340-1]—(12 v. 8vo. Eng. Edi.) The National Cyclopaedia- of Useful Knowledge. By C H A R L E S K X I C T H T . Pounded on the " Penny Cyclopaedia." Cloth, 12,-203 columns or 6,101 pages, gcx. Price §!).5G.  144. Popular Encyclopaedia [27]—(14 v. Eoyal 8vo. Eng. Edi.) Tho Popular Encyclopaedia; or. Conversations Lexicon: being a general Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, Biography, History, Ethics and Political Economy; with dissertations on tho progress of science, literature and the tine arts. By  TnoMAs T H O M S O N , M.D., Sir D A N I B L IC. 5ANDPonD,Knt., and A L L A N C U N N I N G H A M ,  Esq. Illustrated by many hundred plates and diagrams, pp. average 420=0,880,bs. Price ?32.  145. Encyclopaedia Americana [28] — (14 v. Eoyal 8vo. Am.  Edi.) The Encyclopaedia Americana; a popular Dictionary of tho Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biography, including a copious collection of original articles in American Biography; on the basis of the seventh edition of the German Conversations Lc.ricnn. Edited by P K A N C I S Pn:uER, assisted by E . W I G O L E S Yfoimi. Sheep, pp. aboutfiooeach vol. Double column, &/. Price $10.  146. Imperial Dictionary [25]—(2 v. Eoyal Svo. Eng. Edi.) The Imperial Dictionary,—English Technological and Scientific; adapted to tho present state of literature, science and art; on the basis of Webster's English Dictionary; with the addition of many thousand words and phrases, from tho other standard .. dictionaries and cyclopedias, and from numerous other sources, comprising all words purely English, and the principal and most generally used technical and scientific terms, together with their etymologies and their pronunciation, according to the best authorities. Edited by J O H N O G I L V I K , L L . D . Illustrated by about two thousand engravings on wood, pp. liii, 1,032+1,271 =2,323. Triple columns, bs. Prico $20.00.  147. Brande's Dictionary [29]—(Eoyal Svo. Am. Edi.) A  Dictionary of Science, Literature and Art. comprising the history, description and scientific principles of every branch of human knowledge; with the derivation and definition of all the terms in general use. Edited by W. S. B R A N D S , F.R.S., assisted by J O S K P I E C . V U V I N , E>*q. The various departments*!)}' eminent literary and scientific gentlemen. Illustrated by numerous engravings on wood. Sheep, pp. 1352. Doublo column?, hh. Price £D.20.  v  148. Arvines Literary Anecdotes [349]—(Eoyal Svo- Am.  Edi.) The Cyclopedia of Anecdotes of Literature und the Pine Arts; containing a copious and choice selection of anccdoi.es of tho various forms of literature, of the arts, of architecture, engravings, music, poetry, painting and sculpture, and of the most_celebrated literary characters and artists of different countries and ages, &c. By K A Z L I T T AIIVINK, A . M . With numerous illustrations. Cloth, doublo columns, pp. 24 + 01)3=752, gl. Price 52.30.  . 149. Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge [345]—Eoyal 8vo. Am. Edi.) Or dictionary of the bible, theology, religious biography, all religions, . ecclesiastical history and missions ; containing definitions of all religious terms;, au impartial account of the principal Christian denominations that have existed in tho world I'rotn the birth of Christ to tho present day; to which is added a Missionary Gazetteer, containing descriptions of the various' missionary stations throughout tho globe ; by Rev. R. B. E D W A R D S . Edited by the Rev. J . N E W T O N B R O W N . Illustrated by numerous wood-cuts, maps and engravings ou copper and steel. Marbled sheep, ' double columns, pp. 1275, tge. Prico £340. . /  150. Kitto's Biblical Cyclopaedia [3-1G]—(Svo..  Am. Edi.) V  T h e popular c y c l o p e d i a o f hihlical literature, rondcnscd""from the larger work. B y the K c v . J o n s KIITO, D . D . , F . S . A . Assisted b y the K e v . JAMES TAYLOR, D . l > . I l l u s t r a t e d b y n u m e r o u s e n g r a v i n g s . S h e e p , d o u b l e c o l u m n s , p p . Soo, gl. P r i c e S2-C0.  151. Arvine's Religious Anecdotes [351]— (12mo. Eng. • Edi.) Cyclopu'dia o f moral a n d religious anecdotes, &c. Same w o r k as t h e preceding. E d i t e d b y t h o R e v . J O H N FLESFIEK. C l o t h , d o u b l e c o l u m n s , pp..t+SU.'l=Sii7,i>oc,ir<c. P r i c e $1.00.  152. T h e P e r c y Anecdotes [352]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) -  Revised.  T o w h i c h is added a valuable c o l l e c t i o n o f A m e r i c a n anecdotes. O r i g i n a l a n d select. Illustrated w i t h fourteen h u e portraits. T w o volumes i n one. Sheep, double columns, pp. 2i0 + -100=tH0, hb. P r i c e .Si.20.  153. Eadie's Biblical C y c l o p e d i a [34S]—(8vo.  Eng. Edi.)  O r dictionary of eastern antiquities, geography, natural history, sacred annals e n d biography, theology and biblical literature, illustrative o f the O l d a n d N e w Testaments. E d i t e d b y J O H N E.VDIE, D . D . , L L . D . W i t h maps a n dpictorial illustrations d r a w n from t h o most authentic sources. C l o t h , t r i p l e c o l u m n s , p p . 5SS, rgc. P r i c o $1.50.  154. Blake's Encyclopaedia [3-17]—(Royal Svo.  Am. Edi.)  T h e family e n c y c l o p e d i a of useful knowledge a n d general l i l c r a t u r o . C o n t a i n i n g a b o u t four t h o u s a n d a r t i c l e s u p o n s c i e n t i f i c a n d p o p u l a r subjects, designed for i n s t r u c tion a n damusement. B y J O H N LANOIS .BLAKE, D . l ) . I m p r o v e d . C l o t h , doublo c o l u m n s , p p . 900, hcb. P r i c e $2.00.  155. Maunder's L i t e r a r y and Scientific T r e a s u r y [35-1] — ( l C m o . E n g E d i . ) A n e n c y c l o p e d i a o f t h e belles lettres, literature, seicuco a n d a r t , & c . , w i t h f r o n t i s p i e c e . C l o t h , p p . S i t , d o u b l e c o l u m n s , le. P r i c e $2.20.  156. Chambers' Information [2]—(2 v. Royal Svo Eng. Edi.) C o n t a i n i n g papers o n m a n y b r a n c h e s o f h u m a n k n o w l e d g e for t h e people. E d i t e d b y . W I L L I A M a n d R O I I E R T Cif.AMUERS; i u t w o v o l u m e s . W i t h numerous i l l u s t r a t i o n s . . C l o t h , d o u b l o c o l u m n s , p p . 8 G 7 + S 0 3 = 1 6 1 5 , wrch. P r i c e $3.00.  156-J-.  Ibid— (2 v. Am. Edi.)  Sheep, pp. 80S-r-S0S = lGlG,  Igc.  P r i c e $3.00.  151- Chambers' Cyclopaedia of E n g l i s h Literature [30],•  —(2v. r o y a l Svo. K n g . E d i ) — C y c l o p a e d i a o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . A h i s t o r y . C r i t i c a l a n d B i o g r a p h i c a l , o f B r i t i s h authors, from t h e earliest to the present times, lllustra• t e d w i t h p o r t r a i t s , & c . E d i t e d b y R O B E R T CHAMIIEUS. C l o t h , p p . x v i , 6 7 3 + x v i , 717 = 1421. D o u b l e c o l u m n s , wrch. P r i c o $3,25.  ,-'157i. Ibid. (2 v. Am. Edi.)—pp. xvi, G72+xvi, 717=1421. Price, c l o t h $3.25, s h e e p $3.00.  II. PROSE AND POETRY. 158. M i l l s ' L i t e r a t u r e of Great Britain [170J—(2 v. Svo, A m . Edi.) The Literature a n dtho Literary M e n of Great Britain a n dIreland. A B R A H A M M I L L S , A . M . C l o t h , p p . 570, 5 S 3 = 1 1 7 4 , hb. P r i c o $2.75.  B y  159. Rov/ton's Female Poets [217]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) The F e m a l e Poets of G r e a t B r i t a i n , chronologically arranged : w i t h copious selections a n d critical remarks. B y F R E D E R I C K UOWTOX. W i t h a d d i t i o n s b y a n A m e r i c a n E d i t o r , a n d elegantly engraved illustrations, b ycelebrated artists. C l o t h , p p . 5 3 3 , hcb. I ' r i c e  52.  160. Campbell's British Poets [21G]—(Royal Svo, Am. Edi.) S p e c i m e n s o f t h e B r i t i s h P o e t s ; w i t h b i o g r a p h i c a l a n d c r i t i c a l n o t i c e s , a n d a n essay on E n g l i s h poetry. B y THOMAS CAMPBELL, E s q . Revised, w i t h steel portraits, illust r a t i o n s , a n d a d d i t i o n a l n o t e s . C l o t h , d o u b l o c o l u m n s , p p . 32, 7 1 0 — 7 S 1 . P r i c e $ 2 . 7 5 .  161. Pledge's Prose W r i t e r s of Germany [51]—(Royal Svo. Am.  E d i . ) W i t h P o r t r a i t s a n d B i o g r a p h i c a l sketches. 007. Doublo Columns, P r i c e $2.00.  B y FREDERIC l i . HEDGE.  cafe. 162. Knight's Pictorial Shakespeare [215]—(S v. roynl Svo. pp.  EnfC. E d i . ) — T h e C o m e d i e s , H i s t o r i e s , T r a g e d i e s , a n d P o e m s , o f W i l l i a m S h a k e s p e a r e , . w i t h a b i o g r a p h y a n d s t u d i e s of his w o r k s . B y C H A M E S K K I G H T . Pictorial and National E d i t i o n . C l o t h , pp. 4075, gcx. Price $10.  163. Gilfillan's British Poets [221]—(Indefinite vols. Svo.  '  Scotrli. Am. F.di. dac.)—(1-2) Milton (2 v.)—The complete Poetical Works of Joirx M I L T O X . With life, critical dissertation, and explanatory notes. Also:—(3-1) Cow>cr(2v.) (5) Thompson (1 v.) (0) Herbert (I v.) (7) Shakespeare and Surrey (1 v.) 8) Goldsmith, Collins, and J . Warton (1 v.) (0) Johnson, l'unwll, Gray, and Smollett ! 1 v.) (10) H . K . White and Graliamo (1 v.) (11-12) Dryden (2 v.) (i;s) Churchill (lv.) (11) Bcattie, Blair, and Falconer (I v.) (15) Young (1 v.) (10-17) Butler (2 v.) (IS) Shcnstonc (I v.) (19-20) W. L . Bowles (2 v.) Average pp. 350, dac. Prico 75 cts. per volume.  164. Routledge's British Poets (Indefinite vols. 16mo. Eng.  Edi.)—fcrtitcd by the Rev. R. A. W I L L M O T T . Illustrated by Corbould, Beckct,Foster, Gilbert, Frankland, and Harvey. Cloth, each volume averaging 500 pages. Prico per vol.SI, as follows: • (1) Spenser's Faerie Queene. (10) Herbert, with Life and numerous Notes. (2) Chaucer's Canterbury Talcs. (11) Gray, Parncll, Collins, Green, and (3) Kirko White, by S O U T I I E Y . Warton. (•1) Southey's Joan of Arc, and Minor (12) Cowper. Poems. (13) Akcnsidc and Dyer. (5) Dryden's Poetical Works. (14) Burns' Poetical Works. (0) Popo's Poetical Works, edited by (15) Fairfax's Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered CAREY. (16) Percy's Reliqucs of Ancient Poetry. (7) Milton's Poetical Works. (17) Scott's Poetical Works, containing (8) Thomson, Bcattie, and West. the Lord of tho Isles, Bridal of Trier(9) Goldsmith, Johnson, Shcnstonc, and main, &c. Smollett. -  165 Bell's English Poets—(Indefinite vols. 16mo.) Tho annotated edition of tho English Poets. By R O B E R T BEJ.L. Cloth, pp. 65 cts. per volume, as follows; Butler Early Ballads I vol. Dryden Greene and Marlowe 1 " Cow per Shakespeare 1 " Thomson_...„ Ben Jonson 1 " Chaucer 8 "  ,jwp. Price 3 vol. 3 " 3  ,2  "  "  166. Aldine British Poets [222]—(Indefinite vols. 16mo. Am.  Edi.)—The British poets, from Sponsor to Moore. Chiefly printed from the celebrated Aldine Edition. Portraits and lives of the authors, and notes, historical and critical, by the Rev. J o n s M I T F O E D aud others, comprising tho following, now in courso of publication: Milton 3 vols. Akcnsido 1 vol. Parncll 1 " Bcattie 1 " Pope S " Burns.....' 3 " Prior 2 " Butler ; 2 *' Shakespeare 1 " Churchill 3 " Surrey and Wyatt 2 " Collins 1 " Swift 3 " Cowper 3 '* Thomson 2 " Dryden 5 " Falconer 1 " White, H . K 1 " Goldsmith . Y'oung 0 " Gray.. Cloth, average pp. 230, Vic. Price pcrvolumo CO cts. \  167 Scott's Prose Works (3 v. 8vo. Eng. Edi.)—The Pros.©'. \  Works of Sir W A L T E R SCOTT, Baronet. Comprising.—(1) Biographies of Swift, Dryden, Essays, Criticisms, &c. (2) Life of Napoleon Bonaparte. (3) Tales of a Grandfather. History of Scotland. Cloth, pp. , acb. Prico S4.50.  1671- Ibid. (5 v. Svo. Am. Edi.)—pmm. Price 84. 168. Scott's Poems [224]—(G v. 12mo. Am. Edi.)—The poeti-  cal works of Sir W A L T E R SCOTT, Bart, With the author's latest corrections, and all his introductions and notes. Complete in six volumes. With steel illustrations. Cloth, pp. 412, 359,371, 393, 300, 333=5312, csfc. Price 53.50.  169- Coleridge's Works [191]—(7 v. 12mo. Am. Edi.)—The  complete works of S A M U E L T A Y L O R C O L E I U I I O E ; with an introductory essay upon his philosophical and theological opinions. Edited by Professor S L E D D . In tcven volumes. Vol. I. Aids to reflection ; Statesman's manual. Vol. II. The friend; miscellaneous. III. Biographia literaria. IV. Shakespeare and other dramatists. V. Literary remains. V I . Table talk. V I I . Poct'cal aud dramatio works. Cloth, pp. 434, 651,751,433,623. 528, 702= 1127, lib. Prico S5.C0.  110  170. D e Quincey's Writings (13 v. lCmo. Am. Edi.)—as  follows :—(1-2) Memorials and oilier papers. (3-1) Historical and Critical Essays. (5-6) Literary reminiscences, from tlie autohi' .Taphy of an English opium cater. (7-8) Narrative and Misccllancmis papers. (0-1'.) Theological Essays and other papers. (II) Life and Manners-, from the autobiography of an English opium cater. (12) Letters to a young man and other papers. (13) Miscellaneous Essays. Cloth, average pp. 300=1000, vidtc. I'rice $7.75.  HI. PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS.  Fft  171. Bacon's Essays. N o v u m Orgamim, & c [179]—(2 v. 12ino. Eng. Edi.) Price for tho two volumes Si.70, as follows:  (1.) The Moral aud Historical Works of Lord Bacon, including  <  his essays, apophthegms, wisdom of the ancients, new Atlantis, and life of Henry tho . Seventh. With an introductory dissertation, and notes, critical, explanatory and historical. By J O S E P H D E V E Y , M.A., with a portrait of Lord Bacon. Cloth, pp. 40+501 = 5-11, h g b . Price 70 cts.  (2.) The Physical and Metaphysical "Works of Lord Bacon, including his dignity and advancement of learninc, in nine books; and his Novum  Organum, or precepts for the interpretation of Nature.  Cloth, pp. 507, h g b .  Trice SI.  By J O S E P H D E V E Y , M.A.  172. Bacon's Complete Works [G]—(3 v. Svo. Am. Edi.)  Tho works of Francis Bacon, Lord Chancellor of England; with a life of the author. By B A S I L M O S T A O U E , Esq.. pp. 455+589 + 5S 1=1023, double columns, pmm. Price ?5.75.  rr  173. Milton's Prose Works [181]—(5 v. 12mo.  Eng. Edi.)  Tho proso works of Jony M I L T O N , in five volumes, aud an index to the five volumes. Cloth, average pp. 000=2701, h g b . Price $3.50.  174. Locke's Works (2 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.) The philosophical works of John Locko; with a preliminary essay and notes, by J. A. ST. J O H N . pp. 611 + 527 = 1008, hgb. Prico §1.40.  Cloth,  175. Johnson's Complete Works [3]—(2 v. Svo. Am. Edi.) The works of Samuel Johnson, LL.D., with a portrait, and an essay on his lifo and genius. Uy A R T H U R M U R P H Y , Esq. Sheep, pp. 670+600=1209, doublo columns, hb. Price $2.60. -  176. T h e W o r k s of Henry Hallam [5]—(4 v. Svo. Am. Edi.)  ff  Including: (I) Introduction to the Literature of Europo in the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuri..'S. (2) View of the state of Europe during the middle ages. (3) The Constitutional History of England from the accession of Henry V I I to tho death of George II. Sheep, pp. 4l0 + 402+5G3+737=21S3, double columns, h b . Price SO. .  177. Dryden's Complete W o r k s [GO]—(2 v. Svo. Am. Edi.) The works of John Dryden, in verse and prose, with a portrait and life. By the Bcv. J O H N M I T F O E D . Illustrated. Sheep, pp. 40S+45C = S01, double columns, h b . Prico S2.40.  178. Cousin's M o d e r n Philosophy [141]—(2 v. Am. Edi.) Course of the history of modern philosophy. Bv M. V I C T O R C O U S I N . O. W. W I G H T . Cloth, pp. 452+4S9=S91, dac. Price $2.70.  Translated by  179. Morell's M o d e r n Philosophy [3G3]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  An historical and critical view of the speculative philosophy of Europe in the nine• tcenth century. By J . D. M O E E L L , A.M. Complete iu one volume. Cloth, pp. 752, rcb. Price $2.40.  180. Hamilton's Philosophy [364]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) Philosophy of Sir William Hamilton, Bart., Professor of Logic and Metaphysics iu Edinburgh University. Arranged and edited by O. W. W I G H T . For the use of schools and colleges. Cloth, pp. 530, dac. Price $1.23.  181. Mackintosh's E t h i c a l Philosophy [3G5]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) Dissertation on the progress of ethical philosophy, chiefly during tho seven, tcenth and eighteenth centuries. By the Right Hon. Sir J A M E S M A C K I N T O S H , LL.D., • F.R.S. With a preface, by the Rev. W I L L I A M W J I E W E L L , M.A. Cloth, pp. 209, lb. Price 05 cts.  182. Reid's A c t i v e Powers [13S]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.)  Essays  on the active powers of ihc Human Mind ; an inquiry into the human mind on tho principles of common srr.se>, and an essay on quantity. By THOMAS lti:m, D.D. And a Memoir of the Authov. by l>ur;.\ ;.n STEWAUT ; with notes, sectional heads, and a tynoptirnt tahlo Of content's, by tho i!ev. G. N . WlilGUT, M.A. Cloth, I>p. COO, wtc. l'rico ?2.10.  183. Stewart's Philosophy of the H u m a n M i n d [139]—  (Svo. Eng. Edi.) Elements of the philosophy of the human mind. By D U O A L D STEWART, F.lt.S. With references, scctiounl heads, synoptical tablo of contents, 4o. By tho Rev. G. N . W R I G H T , JI.A. Cloth, wtc. Prico 51.25.  183£. Ibid.— (12mo. Am. Edi.)  Cloth-, >;c.  Price SI.  184. Stewart's A c t i v e and M o r a l Pov/ers [140]—(12mo.  Am. Edi.) The Philosophy of tho Active and Moral Powers of Man. By D U G A L D STEWART, F.R.S. Revised, with omissions and additions, by JAME3 WALKER, D-D. Cloth, pp. •ii$,jb,psc. Price SI.  185. Reid's Intellectual Powers [137]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.) Essays on tho Intellectual Powers of Man. To which is added an analysis of Aristotle s lo^ic. By THOMAS ItEin, D.D. With notes, questions for examination, and a synoptical tablo of contents. By tho Rov. G. N . WRIGHT, M.A. Cloth, pp. COO, rgo. Prico 5 1 .  186. Way land's Intellectual Philosophy — (12mo.  Am.  Edi.) The Elements of Intellectual Philosophy. By FRANCIS W A Y L A X D . Cloth, pp. iW.psc. Prico SI.  1861. Ibid — (12mo. Am. Edi.) psc: pp. 50S. Price § I. 187. Smith's M o r a l Sentiments—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) The  theory of Moral Sentiments ; to which is added, a dissertation on tho origin of languages. By ADAM SMITH, LL.D., F.lt.S. Cloth, pp. xlU+53S=G07. hgb. Price 75 cts.  188. JoufFroy's E t h i c s — ( 2 v. 12mo. Am. Edi.) Introduction  to Ethics, including a critical survey of moral systems, translated from the French of Jouffroy. By W I L L I A S I II. C H A I N I N G . Cloth, pp. xxii- 321+353=701. jmc. Prico ?U0. r  189. Mill's L o g i c [402]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  A System of Logic' '  ratiocinativc and inductive; being a couuected view of tho principles of evidence, and  •  tho methods of scientific investigation. By JOIIX STUART M I L L . Cloth, pp. 600, hb.  Prico §1.20.  ,  IV. POLITICAL ECONOMY AND JURISPRUDENCE. .190. Lieber's C i v i l L i b e r t y [302]—(2 v. Am. Edi.) On Civil Liberty aiid Sclf-Govcrument. Ey FRAXCIS LIEBER, L L . D . Cloth, pp. xvii+355-k 371=713. Igc. Prico $1.05.  191. Lieber's Political E t h i c s [127]—(2 v. 8vo. Am. Edi.) Manual of Political Ethics, designed chiefly for the uso of Colleges and Students at Law. P a r t i , and II. By F R A X C E S L I E E E R . Sheep, 423 + 603=1030. Ibc. Prico S3.75.  192- Say's Political E c o n o m y [131]—(8vo/ Am. Edi.) Political Economy. By J . B . SAT. In ono volume. Sheep, Igc. Price SL  193. Bonn's Political Cyclopaadia [320[—(4 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.) Standard library cyclop.'odia of political, constitutional, statistical and forensic knowledge. Forming a work of universal reference on subjects of civil administration, political economy, fmancc.commcrce.lawsandsocialrelations. Cloth, double columns, pp. 23+45G+i25+4Cl=lS50,/i<7O. Price S2.S0.  194. Tomlin's L a w  Dictionary [322]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.)  A Popular Law Dictionary, familiarly explaining tho terms and nature of tho English Law. Sheep, pp. 600, hgb. Prico $1.30.  112  195. Longman's C a b i n e t L a w y e r [321]—fl2mo. Eng. Edi.)  A popular digest of tho laws of England, civil and criminal; with a dictionary of law . terms, maxims, statutes, and judicial antiquities; post ollice regulations, sud prison, discipline, etc. etc. "With supplements. Cloth, pp. 29, 750=785, le. Prico ?2.40.  .-, .196. Goodrich's British Eloquence [20]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  l} " .'}_ '""***.  Select British Eloquence,—Embracing the best speeches entire of tho most eminent orators of Great Britain, for the last two centuries; with sketches of their lives, au rstiniate of their genius, and notes critical and explanatory. Uy CHAUNCF.Y A . G O O D R I C H , D . 1). pp. 947. Double columns, with marginal indices! hb. Price S2.75.  -  197. Junius b y Woodfall [31G]—(2 v. 12mo..Eng. Edi.)—Iii-  eluding letters by the same writer under other signatures; to which arc added his confidential corrcspoudeneo with Mr. Wilkes, and his privato lcttors to Mr. H . SWoodfall. Enlarged, with new evidence as to tho authorship, and an analysis bv tho late Sir H A R R I S NICOLAS, G - C . M . G - By J O H N W A D E . In turn volumes. With fac-similes of tho hand writing of J U N I U S . Cloth, pp. 10, -ISO, 00, 45S=10DS, ligb. Price SI. 40.  198. Canning's Speeches [317] — (Svo. Am. Edi.)—Select  speeches of the Bight Honorable G E O R G E C A U S I N G ; with a preliminary biocrapbical sketch, and an appendix of extracts from his writings and speeches. Edited by R O B E R T WALan. Sheep, pp. 37. 083=020, ccjb. FriccS1.03.  199. Philips, Curran and Grattan [21] —(8vo. Am. Edi.)—  . The speeches of tho celebrated Irish Orators, Philips, Curran and Grattan. To which is added the powerful appeal of Robert Einmett at the close of his trial for high treason. Selected by a member of tho Bar. Cloth, pp. 370, ccjb. Price SI. 05-  .r 200. Chatham, Burke and Erskine [22]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)—  Aj |H". .,  Celebrated speeches of Chatham, Burke, aud Erskine. To which is added the argumcnt of Mackintosh in tho caso of Peltier. Selected by a member of the PhiladelphiaBar. Cloth, pp. 510, ccjb. Price SI.05.  201.. Peel's Speeches [IS] — (4 v. Svo. Eng. Edi.) — The speeches of the late Rirrht Honorable Sir R O B E R T P E E L , Bart. Delivered in the House of Commons. "With a general explanatory index, and a brief chronological summary of the various subjects ou which the speeches were delivered. In "four volumes. Cloth, pp. 3110. Price S3.90.  .202. Wendell's Elackstone [121]—(1 v. Svo. Am. Edi.)— i  Commentaries on the laws of England. In four books; with an analysis of the work. By Sir W I L L I A M B L A C K S T O N E . With notes by J O H N L . W E N D E L L , lato State Heporter of New York. Sheep, pp. xlvii+400, xvii+654, xvi4-451, xlix, xxii+442, lxx= 2167, hb. Price S5.00.  '  203-  Vattel's Lav/ of Nations [290]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)— The  v,  Law of Nations; or, principles of tho law of nature, applied to tho conduct and affairs • of Nations and Sovereigns. Prom J , C H I T T Y ' S edition, with notes aud references. By E . D . I N G R A H A M , Esq. Law sheep, pp. 050, tjwj. Prico S3.50.  • 204. Wheaton's L a w of Nations [123]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)— History of tho Law of nations in Europe and America, from the earliest times to the , treaty of Washington in 1S12. By H E N R Y W H E A T O N , L L . D . Sheep, pp. xiv-!-707= 811,flic. Price S4S0.  205.  Wheaton's International Lav/ [291]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  Elements of International Law. By H E N R Y rected. Law sheep, pp. C05, ft. Prico S3.00.  WHEATON, L L . D .  206. Domat's C i v i l L a w [292]-/(2 v. Svo.  Revised and cor-  Am. Edi.)  The  Civil Law in its Natural Order. By J E A N D O M A T . Translated from the Trench bv W I L L I A M STRAHAN", L L . D . Edited by L U T H E R S. C U S H I X G . Iu two volumes. VolI containing the Treatise of Laws, Preliminary Book, and Part I of engagements. Vol. II containing Part II of successions. Law sheep, pp. ll=D53=S7S2 = i70:J, Ibc. Prico SO.  207. Story's Conflict  o f Lav/s [293]—(8vo. Am. Edi.]  Commentaries on the Conflict of Laws, Foreign and Domestic, in regard to contracts, rights and remedies, and especially in regard to marriages, divorces, wills, successions, and judgments; By J O 3 E P H S T O R Y , LL.D. Revised, corrected aud greatly enlarged. l a w sheep, pp. 33+1072=1110, ibc. Prico S5220.  0  \ J<? \  208. Broom's Legal M a x i m s [29-1]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  A  Selection of Legal Maxims, classified and illustrated by 11. B R O O M . Esq. From the English edition, enlarged and improved. Law sheep, pp. COO, tjicj. Price $3.5i).  209. Smith's Mercantile L a w [295]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) A  Compendium of Mercantile Law. By the late J O H N W I L L I A M S M I T H . Greatly cnlarked, and revised throughout. By J A M E S P. U O L C O M B E and W I L L I A M 1". GIIOLS os Law sheep^ pp- 755, dac. Price S3.G0.  210. W o o l r y c h on Waters and W a t e r Courses [299]—  (Svo. Am. Edi.) Including the law relating to rights in tho sea and rights concern• ing rivers, canals, dock companies, fisheries, mills, water-courses, A c With a nc^o •ii- ' concerning the rights of the Crown to the land between high and low water mark. .B y H u j i r i i R E Y W . W O O L K Y C H . From the English edition, in one vol, law sheep, pp, — tiwj. Price S2.C0.  V. DIPLOMACY, &c\ 211. T r i a l b y Jury, Common L a w [298]—(3 v. Am. and ,'  Eng. Edi.) Prico for the three volumes f2.90, as follows:  (1.) Spooner's Trial by Jury—(8vo. Am. Edi.) tho Trial by Jury. By  L Y S A N D K R Sro'ONER.  An Essay ou  Cloth, pp. lii.jpjc. Price 51.20,  (2.) "Walker's Common Law—(Svo. Am. Edi.) of Common Law.  By  JAMES  M.  WALKER.  The Theory  Law sheep, pp. 0+130=130, Ibc. Prico SI.  '(3.) Law of Nations and Diplomacy—(12ino.  Eng. Edi.)  Principles of the Laws of Nations, with practical notes aud supplementary essays ou the law of Blockado and on contraband or war. By A R C H E R P O L S O N . Esq., to winchis added Diplomacy. By tho Rev. T H O M A S H A B T W E L L M O O R E , B.D.. contributed to tho " Encyclopaedia Jletropolitaua." Cloth, pp. 120, rgc. Prico 70 cts.  VI. AMERICAN LITERATURE. 212. Duyekinck's Cyclopaedia o f A m e r i c a n L i t e r a t u r e .' -..  —'(2 v. Royal Svo. Am. Edi.) Cyclopaedia of American Literature; embracing personal and critical notices of authors, and selections from their writina-s, from the earliest period to the present day, with portraits, autographs, and other illustrations. By E V E R T A. D u - v c K i x c i t and G E O R G E L . D U Y C K I N C K . Cloth, pp. xv+67C, xii+7Sl =1431, cs. Price ?5.C0. \ -  -213. Griswold's Poets of A m e r i c a [11.5]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) . Tho Poets and Poetry of America; to the middle of tho nineteenth century. By R U F U S W I L M O T G U I S W O L D . Illustrated with portraits. Cloth, pp. 530, double columns, pium. Prico 62.30.  214. Griswold's Female Poets [246]—(Royal Svo. Am. Edi.) The Female Poets of America. By Rni'us Prico S1.93. .-  Cloth, pp. 400,  W I L M O T GRISWOLD.  hcb.  215. Griswold's Prose Writers of A m e r i c a [114]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) Tho Prose Writers of America; with a survey of tho intellectual history, condition and prospects of the country. By RUFL'S WII.^IOT G R I S W O L D . Illustrated with portraits. Cloth, pp. 552, double columns, pmm. prico S2.30.  216. McWprther's Yahveh—(lCmo. Am. Edi.) Yahvch Christ: tho memorial  n a m e . By A L E X . M C W O R T P E E . W i t h nn Kcv.K.W.TAYLOR,D.D. C l o t h , p p . 17?,gl. Price50cts.  introductory 1  l c t t o r by  tlio  VII.  AMERICAN  J U R I S P R U D E N C E , &c.  217. De Toequsville's Democracy [325]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  The Republic of the United States of America, and its political institutions, reviewed and examined. Jjy A L E X I S D E Toc<;CEViJ.r,E.  Translated by H U S K Y KKKVJS, i'sip  V i t h an original preface and notes, by J o i i x C. SI'EXCER. Two volumes in one. ' With portrait of Washington. Cloth, pp. :>0 +471 + 101=895, asbc. Price S1.75.  218. Curtis' Constitution — ( 2 v. Svo., Am. Edi.) History '  of-tho Origin, Formation and Adoption of tho Constitution of the United States; with notices of its principal fraiuors. By G E O R G E T I C K X O R CURTIS. Cloth, pp. xxxvi+51S, lib. Price S1.C0.  219. Story's Commentaries [12o]—(2 v. 8vo. Am. Edi!) ' Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States: with a preliminary of the Constitutional History of tho Colonics and States before the adoption of the Constitution. In three books. By JOSEPH STOKV, 1,I,,1)., late Justice of the Supremo Court of tho United States. In two volumes, pp. 731 + G32=13GG, Ibc. Prico S5.-J0.  2191 mi. Sheep. Ibc. Price <§rG. 220. Bouvier's Institutes [323]—(4 v. Svo. Am. Edi.)  In-  stitutcs of American law. By J o n s B O U V I E U . In five books: book I, of persons. II. of thincs. I l l , of injuries aud wrongs. IV, remedies. Y . of equity. In four volumes. Law sheep, pp. 2700. repc. Price $12.  221. N e w Y o r k C i v i l and Criminal Justice [232]—(8 v. Am. Kdi.) The New York Civil and Criminal Justice.' A complete treatise on tho civil, criminal .ind special powers and duties of Justices of tlic I'eacc in lho Stato of New York. "With numerous forms. Cloth, pp. xviu + fl07=92j. mom. Price $-1.  222. Burleigh's Legislative Guide [33I]—(12mo. Am. Edi.)  Containing all tho Rules lor conducting business in Congress; Jefferson's Manual; and the Citizen's Manual, including a concise system of rules of order founded on . Congressional proceedings. With copious notes aud marginal references, explaining the rules and tho authority therefor, designed to economise time and secure uniformity in the proceedings of all deliberative assemblies, and also to'meet the wants of every rivatccitiy.cn who desires to understand the right way to transact public business. ;y J O S E P H B A K T L E T T B U R L E I G H , L L . D . Revised. Law sheep, pp* 288+30+32= • 350- Igc. Price 83 cts. . ,.  S  '223. Smith's" Elements, of the L a w s [330J—(12mo. Am.  Hdi.) Or outlines of the system of civil and criminal Laws, and in force in the several States in tho Union. Designed for general use, and to enable any one to acquire a competent knowledge of his legal rights and privileges, in all the most important political and business relations of the citizens of the country. With the principles on whicli-thcy aro founded, aud tho means of asserting aud maintaining them in civil and criminal cases. By -THOMAS L . SMITH. Law sheep, pp. 33i. Igc. Price SO cts.  VIII. C L A S S I C A L  LITERATURE.  .224 to 239. Bonn's Classical Series—(Tost 8vo., or 12mo.) "'  In seventy or eighty volumes. A scries of Literal Translations of the Greek and Latin Classics. V i t h Notes, Portraits, and Indices, kc.  Herodotus [2(J5l—By the Rev. II. GARY, M.A. Price %\. • Thucydides [2G;1]—(2 v.] By the Rev. H. DALE. Price.#1.40. Plato [2GG]—By the Rev. II. CARY and others. Complete in six volumes. Priced).  Livy's Home [2G7]—(5 v.)  By Dr. JOHN SPILLAN and others.  Price  - •  Sophocles [2G8]—The Oxford Translation. Revised. Price 4? 1. iEschylns [2GS]—(2 v.) By an Oxonian. Appendix to ditto. Price for tho two $1.40.  .  •  Aristotle's Rhetoric and Poetic [2GS]—With questions, &c, Price 81.  '  ,  " ' '• Euripides [269]—In two volumes. Price %2.  •Virgil [2G9]—By DAVIDSON. Ilorncc [270]—By SMART.  Revised. Revised.  Odes nnd Epodes. I'rice for the two, SI.40.  Price 70 cts. Ditto; by SEWELL :  Aristotlu's'Rtlnea [270]—By Prof. BUOWNE. Price «Srl. Cicero's Offices [270]—On the basis of Cockman. Price 70 cts. Caesar [2/1]—Complete, with copious index. Price sjfl. Iliad [271]—By HOMER. Price #1. Odyssey [271]—By HOMER. Price 4?1. Ovid [272]—In three volumes. Price ^3. Lucretius [273]—By the Rev. J . W. WATSON. Price £'1. Orations of Cicero [2/3]-(4v.) By C D . YONGE. Price £}<l. Pindar [274]—By DAWSON II. TURNER. Price £"l. Plautus [274]—The Comedies of Plautus. By II. T. RILEY, B-A. Complete in two volumes. Price S3.  Juvenal, &c. [275]—Persius, Sulpicia, and Lucilius. Rev. L. EVANS, M.A.,  Ac.  By the  Price SI.  Greek Anthology [275]—Chiefly by G.BURGES, M.A. Price % \ . Demosthenes [275]^—By C. RANN KENNEDY. In three volumes. Prico $2.70.  Sallust [27C]—By the Rev. J. S. WATSON, M.A. Price <£'l. Lucan's Fharsalia [27C]—By II. T. RILEY, B.A. Price &l. Theocritis Bion, Moschus, and Tyrtseua [27C]—By the Rev. J . B A N K S , M.A. Price 51. . ' Academics of Cicero [277]—De Finihus, andTusculum questions. By C. D. Y O N G E , B.A. Trice $1.  Aristotle's Politics and Economics [277]—Translated by E . WALPOKD, M.A. Price SI. Diogenes Lnertius [277]—By C. D. YONGE, B.A. Price % \ . Terence and Phccdvus [2/S]—By II. T. RILEY. Price =§1.50. . i-Aristotle's Organon [278]—By the Rev. O. F. OWEN, M.A. In  it  two.volumcs. Price $1.40.  Aristophanes' Comedies [279]—By W . J. Hickie. two volumes. Price $2.  Complete in  Cicero on the Nature of the Gods [280]—Translated by C. D. Y O N G E , B.A. Prico 81.  Apulcius, the Golden Ass, &c. [280]—Price ^1. Justin, Cornelius Nepos, &c. [280]—By the Rev. J . S. WATSON, M.A. Prico $1.  'The Works of Tacitus [281]—In two volumes. Price %2. Analysis of Thucydides [281]—Price ^'1. Analysis of Herodotus [282]—By WHEELER. Price % \ . Notes to Herodotus [282] —By DAWSON W. TURNER. Price S"V.\ Athciiccus. [283]—By C. D. YONGE, B.A. In three volumes.' Price S3.  Catullus, Tibullus, & C . Price % \ . Propcrtius, Pebronius, &c. By R. B. SHERIDAN and II. i l AX TIED- Price $1.  •Geography of Strabo.  By W. FALCONER, M.A., and H . C.  H A M I L T O N . In thrco volumes.. Price $3.  Xcnophon's Anabasis, &c. By F. F. AINSWOUTH. Price •.Xenophon's Cyropajdia, &c. By the Rev. J. S. WATSON and the Rev. II. D A L E . Price SI.  .Pliny's Natural. History. RILET,  By J . BOSTOCK, M . D., and H . T.  B.A. In sU volumes. Prico $0.  .Svfctonius, Lives of the Ctesars, &c. By T. FORESTER, Esq. Irico ?i. * . . . .  Cicero on Oratory and Orators. By the Rev. J. S. WATSON. P r i c e SI.  Greek Romances of Ileliodoriis, &c. Price (JT'l. Quintilian's Institutes of Oratory. By the Rev. J. S. "WATSON. ' I n two volumes.  P r i c e £2.  Hesiod, Cnllimachus and Thcognis. By the Rev, J. BANKS, M.A. Price SI.  Dictionary of Latin Quotations. By II. T. RILEY, B.A. Price s§fl. Xenophon's Minor "Works. By the Rev. J. S. "WATSON, M.A., M.R.S.L.  Price Sl-  Aristotlc's Metaphysics. By the Rev. JOHN II. M'MAHON, P r i c e SI.  M.A.  240. Bohn's Ecclesiastical Library—Post, 8vo, or 12mo.) Indefinite  vols.  (Socrates' Ecclesiastical Eiistory, in continuation of Euscbius, pp.  hgb.  P r i c e SI •  Thcodcrel and Evagrius, from A. D. 332 to A. D. 427, and from A. D. 431 t o 544.  W i t h index,  Philo Judceus—(4 v.)  pp.  hgb.  Price SI.  By C. D. YONGE. "With index, pp.  P r i c e for t h o four v o l u m e s S4.  Sozomen and Philostorgius. hgb.  By E. "WALFORD, M. A.  pp.  P r i c o SI.  241. Mill's Poets and the Poetry of the Ancient Greeks  —<Royal 8vo. A m . E d i . ) T h e poets a u d the poetry of tho A n c i e n t G r e e k s ; w i t h a n historical introduction, and a oricf view of G r e c i a n philosophers, orators, and hist o r i a n s . B y A B R A H A M MILLS, A.M. C l o t h , p p . 4S5, psc. P r i c e $1.75.  242. Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography —(Svo. A m . E n g . E d i . ) D i c t i o n a r y of G r e e k a n d R o m a n Geography. Illustrated. E d i t e d b y WILLIAM SMITH, L L . D . C l o t h , p p . x i = 1 1 0 S , win, Ibc. P r i c o 57.  243- Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography  f3]—<3 v . 8 v o . A m . E n g . E d i . ) Dictionary of G r e e k a n d R o m a n liiography a u d M y t h o l o g y . Illustrated w i t h numerous engravings on wood. E d i t e d b y "N I L L I A M . SMITH. L L . D . I n t h r e e v o l u m e s , half-calf, p p . 1093+1210 + 1400=3718, d o u b l o c o l u m n s , wm, Ibc. P r i c e $10. , <  . 244: Smith's Classical Dictionary [238]—(Svo. Am. EdiJA N e w Classical Dictionary of Greek and R o m a n Biography, Mythology, and Geo graphy, partly based upon tho Dictionary of Greek aud R o m a n B i o g r a p h y and Mythology. K y W I L L I A M S.UITU, L L . D . R e v i s e d w i t h n u m e r o u s c o r r e c t i o n s a u d a u d i t i o n s , b y C H A R L E S AXTUO.V, L L . D . S h e e p , p p . x v + 1 0 S 9 = 1 0 3 4 , hb. P r i c e $2.  (  245. Smith's Smaller Dictionaries [2S9]—(2 v. 12mo. Eng.  Edi.) S m a l l e r Classical D i c t i o n a r i e s of B i o g r a p h y , M y t h o l o g y , Geography, Greek and Roman Antiquities. A b r i d g e d from tho larger dictionaries. l i y WILLIAM SMITH, L L . D . Illustrated with 400 superior engravings. I n two volumes. Cloth, p p . 401, 437 = 9 0 1 ; / » i . I f m. P r i c o $3.20.  246. Browne's Greek and Roman Literature [354]—(2 v. 8vo. A m . E d i . ) A . H i s t o r y o f G r e c i a n C l a s s i c a l L i t e r a t u r e , a n d a H i s t o r y o f R o m a n Classical Literature. B y R . W . BROWSE, M . A . I n t w o volumes. C l o t h , p p . 530, 520 = 1 0 5 0 , / * . P r i c o $2.20.  247. Eschenberg's Classical Literature [257]—(2 v. 8vo.  A m . Edi.) A M a n u a l of Classical Literature. F r o m t h e G e r m a n o f 1. I . ESCHEX-' B E R G , P r o f e s s o r i n the C a r o l i u u m at J l r u n s w i c k . A V i t h a d d i t i o n s , e m b r a c i n g t r e a t i s e s o n the following subjects: I. Classical Geography a n d T o p o g r a p h y . I I . Classical Chronology. III. Greek and R o m a n Mythology. I V . Greek Antiquities. V.Roman Antiquities. V I . Archeology of Greek Literature. V I I . Archeology of R o m a n Literature. V I I I . Archeology of A r t . I X . History of Greek Literature. X . History of R o m a n Literature. Also, w i t h t h i r t y - t w o s u p p l e m e n t a l plates (beautifully engraved o n steel) i n a separate v o l u m e . B y i \ . \ V . FiSKE. S h e e p a u d h a l f - b o u n d , p p . 2 8 , GOO, 7 , 3 2 = 7 5 7 , ccjb. P r i c e $3.  _~ • .  248. Fiske's Classical Antiquities [25S]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  1  Classical A n t i q u i t i e s , — b e i n g p a r t of the " M a n u a l of Classical L i t e r a t u r e . " F'roui t h o G e r m a n of 1.1. ESCHENBERG. W i t h a d d i t i o n s e m b r a c i n g treatises o n the follow-' i n g subjects. I. C l a s s i c a l G e o g r a p h v a n d T o p o g r a p h y . II. Classical Chronology. I I L G r e e k a n d R o m a n MvtholOL-y. I V . G r e e k A n t i q u i t i e s . V. R o m a n A n t i q u i t i e s . B y N . V . I ' I S K E , w i t h t h i r t y - s i x p l a t e s . U a l f - b o u u d , p p . 331, ecjb. P r i c o $1.20.  249. Potter and Eoyd's Antiquities [259]—(lGmo. Eng. Edi.) Tho antiquities of Greece. By Archbishop J O H N POTTKR, D.D. With notes aud indices, by JAMES BOYD, LL.D. To which is added a. history of Greek literature by Sir D A N I E L K. .SAJTDFC/UD, D.C.L. Illustrated py maps and upwards of ono hundred aud tlfty engravings ou steel and wood. Cloth; pp, SIS, rpc. Prico 00 cts.  250.  Rich's Companion to L a t i n D i c t i o n a r y  [2SG]jr-  Eng. Edi.) The illustrated companion to the Latin Dictionary and G ^ c k il2mo. .exicon,—forming a glossary of all the words representing visible objects connected with tho Arts, Manufactures and every-day life of the Greeks and Romans, with reof nearly two thousand objects from the antique. T-y A x u i o s i Srcscntations UNB., B.A. Cloth, double columns, pp.11,713=701, le, (lie.) Price $3.70.  RICH.  251. Greek Literature [81—(12mo. Eng. Edi.)—The History '  '  of Greek Literature. By Sir T. N\ T A L F O P B , D.C.L., C. J. B L O O M F I E L D , D.D., It. WIIITCOUBE, JI A., E. PococKE, Esq., J. B O T T L E Y , and IT. TnoiirsON, M-A. Revised: and enlarged. (Part 9, Hbtory: Encyclopedia Metropolitana.) Cloth, pp. 300, rgc. • Price $1.30.  252. Roman Literature, & c , b y Thompson, Arnold,  [230]— (l'Jmo, Eng. Edi.)—History of Roman Literature,—with an introductory dis'scrtation on the sources and formation of the Latin Languages. Contributed,to tho " Encyclopaedia Metropolitana." By tho Rev. H E N R Y TiioMP-soy, M.A., the Rev.  J.MASON W E A L E , M.A.. tho Rev. JonN H E N E Y N E W M A N , B.D., the late Rxv. EDWARD S M E D L E Y , M.A., tho late Rev. T H O M A S ARNOTT, D.D., and the Rev. J. B. OTT-  L E Y , JI.A. Edited by tho Rev. H E X B Y THOMPSON, II^A.Cloth, pp- 76, 462=337, rgc. Price $2.23.  Eeviscd and enlarged-  253. Greek and Roman Philosophy and Science [255]—  (12mo. Eng. Edi.)—History of, contributed to the " Encyclopaxlia Metropolitana." By Bishop C H A R L E S J A M E S B L O O M F I E L D , D.D., W I L L I A M L O W N D E S , Esq.. M.A., tho  Rev. J. W. B L A K E S L E Y , M.A., A N D R E W F I N D L A T E R , Esq., M.A.. the Rev. J o n x H E N E Y NEWMAN, B.D., tho Rev. J A M E S A D M I R A U X J E R A M I E , D.D., tlw Rev. WILL I A M WnEWELL. D.D., F.R.S, P E T E R B A K L O W , Esq., F.R.S., and tho lato F R A N C I S  QniNN, M.A.  With side indices. Cloth, pp. 3GS, rgc. Price $1.25.  254. Ramsay's Roman Antiquities [His. 154]—(12mo. Eng.  Edi.)-^A Manual of Roman Antiquities. By W I L L I A M RAMSAY, M.A. With nuin-,. erous illustrations. Cloth, pp. x + lS5=<195, rgc. Price $1.93. ''  255. L i d d e l l and Scott's Greek E n g l i s h L e x i c o n (Royal  8vo. Am. Edi.) A Greek English Lexicon, based on tho German work of FRANCIS PASSOW.  By H E N R Y G E O R G E L I D D E L L , M.A., and R O B E R T SCOTT, M.A.  With cor-  rections and additions, aud tlie insertion in Alphabetical order of the proper names occurring in the principal Greek authors. By H E N R Y D E I S L E E , M.A. Sheep, pp. xxix+1705=1731. Price $-1.  256. Donnegan's Greek L e x i c o n [284]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.) Tho words alphabetically arranged, distinguishing such aa are poetical, of dialectic variety, peculiar to certain writers, and classes of writers, with examples, literally translated, selected from tho classical authors. Cloth, pp. 1753, triplo columns, hgb. Prico S3 25, sheep S3.75.  257. Andrews' L a t i n English L e x i c o n (Royal Svo. Am.  Edi.)—A copious and critical Latin English Lexicon, founded on the larger Latin German Lexicon of Dr. W I L L I A M F R E C N D . With additions and corrections from the Lexicons of GESNER, EACCIOLATO, S C H E L L E B , G E O B G E S , &c« By E. L. ANDREWS, L L . D . Sheep, pp. xxv+lC«=lC3S, hb. Prico $4.  258. Anthon's English L a t i n L e x i c o n [285]—(Svo.)—A copious and critical English-Latin Lexicon, founded on the German-Latin Dictionary of Dr. CITABLES E R N E S T G E O R G E S .  By tho Rev. J O S E P H E S M O N D R I D D E L , M.A.,  and the Rev. T H O M A S K E R C U E V E R A R N O L D , M.A.,—carefully revised, and containing a copious dictionary of proper names from tho best sources. By C H A E X E S A K T U O N , L L . D . Sheep, pp. 10, 71-1 = 751, hi. PriceS2.C0.  259. Leverett's L a t i n L e x i c o n [1] — (Svo. Am. Edi.)—A  .  ,. New and copious Lexicon of tho Latin Language,—compiled chiefly from tho Magnum ; Totius Latinitatis Lexicon of Facoiolata- and Forcellini, and tlie Gorman works of Schellcr und Luencman. Edited by P. P. L E V E R E T T . A new edition, embracing the . classical distinctions of words, and tho Etymological index of FREUND'S Lexicon, pp. 102-1. Triple columns. Also,—An English-Latin Lexicon,—Prepared to accompany . Leverett's Latin-English Lexicon. Total pp. in. both, parts, 1312,bound tose.tb.eriu . sheep, aci. Price 5-t-iQ.  260. Webster's Dictionary [23]—(Crown, 4to. Am. Edi.)— An American Dictionary of the EnjrlL-ih Language,—containing; the whole vocabulary of the first edition in t\Vo volumes quarto,—the entire corrections and improvements of tho second edition in two volumes, royal octavo, to which is prefixed an introductory dissertation on thdorlfflu, hintory, und connection of this lunftu.igc* of Wentofrt Asia and Europe,—with an explanation of the principles on which lanjcuasres aro formrd. By > ' O M I W B E S T E R , L L . D . Revised and enlarged- Jiy C I C A C N C E T AGOODRICH. With pronouncing vocabularies of Scripture, classical and Kcosraphical names, and a memoir of Dr. W E B S T E R - Sheep, pp. 1 1 3 2 . Triplo columns, gem. Price $5.  261. Smith's Walker's Dictionary [359]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.)  A. critical Pronouncing Dictionary ami Expositor of the English Language with Key, to which are prefixed principles of English pronunciation, tho whole interspersed with observations, etymological, critical and grammatical. By Jonx W A L K E R ; with a supplement, consisting of upwards of five thousand new words, and scientific terms recently incorporated with the lauguage. By E D W A R D S x m i . cloth, pp. 84,452, CO =802, tres. Price 90 cts.  262. Spiers and Surenne's French and English. Pro-  " :• ' ..'  nouncing Dictionary (Boyal 8vo. Am. Edi.) Spiers and Surenne's Ercuch and English Pronouncing Dictionary. Newly composed from the French Dictionaries of tho French Academy, Laveaux, Boiste, Bescherclle, Landais, &c.; and from the English Dictionaries of Johnson, Webster, Worcester, Richardson, &c, containing a great number of words not found in other Dictionaries. With a completo vocabulary • of the names of places and persons, mythological and classical, ancient and modern. By A. SPIERS, pp. xxii+ 651=073, dac. Prico in half-Morocco $3.15, sheep $2.75. -  263. Adler's German Dictionary—(Royal 8vo. Am. Edi.) A dictionary of the German and English Languages, indicating the accentuation of every German word, containing several hundred German synonyms. Together with a classification and alphabetical list of the irregular verbs, and a dictionary of German •abbreviations. Compiled from the works of Hibbcrt. Fligel, Gyicb, Heyse, and others. In two parts. (1) German and English. (2) English and German. By G- J. ABLER, A, M. Half-Russia, dac. pp. 522. Price $4.50.  BOOKS OF R E F E R E N C E — Z O O L O G Y . I . ANIMAL KINGDOM.  55. Dallas' Animal Kingdom—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) A natural history o f the A n i m a l K i n g d o m ; being a systematic a n d popular description of the . h a b i t s , s t r u c t u r e a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a n i m a l s , f r o m t h e lowest to tho h i g h e s t f o r m s . A r r a n g e d according to their organization. B y \ V . S. D A L L A S , F . L . S . C l o t h , p p . 813, wsoc. P r i c e $1.85. .  .56. The Inanimate Creation— (12mo. Eng. Edi.)  Natural  H i s t o r y of tho inanimate c r e a t i o n ; being a guide to the scenery'of the heavens, the p h e n o m e n a o f t h e a t m o s p h e r e , the s t r u c t u r e a n d geological features o f the e a r t h a n d its botanical productions. BY D . T . A X S T E D , M . A , , H r / G l l BRIEETF, E s q . , E D W A H D SMITH, M . B . , J o n x SCOFFERX, M . B , a n d G . J . LOWE, Esq.. C l o t h , p p . x v i + 4 0 3 - H l 9 , P r i c e $1.85.  wsoc.  • 57. Episodes of Insect Life [28]—(3 v. 12mo. Am. Edi.) First scries. Insects of S p r i n g . S e c o n d scries, Insects of S u m m e r . T h i r d scries, Insects of Autumn. B y A C H E T A DO.MESTICA, M - E . S . C l o t h , p p . x v i + 320 + x v i + 3 2 G + v + 4 3 2 = 1123, j * r . P r i c e , p l a i n S3. C o l o u r e d $10.  j58. Cuvier's Animal Kingdom [93]—(1 v. Imp. 8\o. Eng.  '  '  Edi.) A r r a n g e d after its organization, f o r m i n g a n a t u r a l h i s t o r y of animals a n d an i n t r o d u c t i o n to c o m p a r a t i v e a n a t o m y . B y the late B a r o n G E O H O E C U V I E K , C o u n c i l l o r of France, a n d M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n . T r a n s l a t e d a n d a d a p t e d to the p r e s e n t s t a t e o f s c i e n c e . M a m m a l i a , b i r d s a n d r e p t i l e s . B y E D W A R D B L T T I I . T h e fishes a n d radiata. B y ROBERT MCDIE. T h e molluscus animals. B y G E O R G E JOIIXSTOX, M . D . T h o a r t i c u l a t e d a n i m a l s . B y J . 0 . WESTWOOD, F - L . S . W i t h a d d i t i o n s oy V . B . C A R P E X T E K , M . D . I l l u s t r a t e d b y 300 e n g r a v i n g s o n w o o d a n d 3 4 e n g r a v i n g s rfip. stscj. pp. 7 2 5 , P r i c e , p l a i n S 3 . C o l o u r e d £6.7i>-  Cloth,  wsoc.  59. Owen's British Fossils—(Svo. Eng. Edi.) A History of  British fossils, mammals and birds. By R I C H A R D OWES, F. R. S. Illustrated by 237 wood-cuts. Cloth, pp. xlvi + 5G0=5S6,./'cc. Fricc SG.75.  60. Johnson's Conchology [83]—(8vo. Eng. Edi.)  Introduc-  tion to Conchology; or, elements of a natural history of molluscus animals. B y G E O R G E JOHNSTON, M.I)., L L J ) . With one hundred and two illustrations. Cloth, pp. 614,iuu. Price S3.25.  61. Furton's British Shells—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) A manual  of tho land and fresh water shells of the British Islands. With figures of each of the kinds. By W I L L I A M F U S I O N , M . D. With plates. Cloth, pp. x+324 =334,fc. Prico S3.40.  62. Leach's Mollusca of Great Britain— (12mo. Eng. Edi.)  A synopsis of the mollnsca of Great Britain, arranged according to their natural affinities  and anatomical structure. By W I L L I A M E L F O R D L E A C H , JI. D. Cloth, pp. xvi+376,  jvo.  Prico S3.  63. Latham's Varieties of Man— (Svo. Eng. Edi-) The natural history of the varieties of man.  pp. xxviii + 574,ii;D. Price S3.25.  By ROIIEHI GORDON L A T H A M , M . D.  cloth,  64. Latham's Man and his Migration—(16mo. Eng. Edi.) Man and his migration. By E. G. L A T H A M , M. D. Cloth, pp. vi+250 = 256, im>. Prico S1.10.  65. Latham's Ethnology of Europe—(I6mo.  Eng. Edi.)  The ethnology of Europe. By it. G. LATHAM, M. D. Cloth, pp. Tiii+256 =2G4, jtw. Price SI .10.  66. Latham's Ethnology of the British Colonies—(16mo.  Eng. Edi.) Tho ethnology of the British Colonics and dependencies. By B* G. L A T H A M , M . D. Cloth, pp. vi+2C4=270,;'ra. Price 75 cts.  67. Pickering's  Races of Man [60]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.)  The races of man and their geographical distribution. By C H A R L E S P I C K E R I S O , M.I). To which is prefixed an analytical synoposis of tho natural history of man. By J o n x C H A R L E S HALL, M. D. With maps aud numerous engravings ou steel. Coloured, cloth, pp. 415, hgb. Prico SI -50-  68. Swainson's Natural History—(9 v. 16mo. Eng. Edi.) Contributed to the Cabinet Cyclopedia. By W I L L I AM SWALSSOX. 400=3000, le Prico for the nine vols. SO JO.  Cloth, average pp.  69. Pictorial Museum [12]—(2 v. Eng. Edi.) The Pictorial  Museum of Animated Nature Containing 3900 engravings of the principal mammalia, birds, reptiles, fishes, mollusca aud insects. Cloth, pp. 400 +432—S32, gcx. Prico S5.50.  70. Maunder's Treasury of Natural History [99]—  (42mo. Eng. Edi.) Maunder's treasury of natural history; or, a popular dictionary of animated nature, in which the zoological characteristics that distinguish tho different classes, genera, and species are combined witli a variety of interesting infonuatiou illustrative of the habits, instincts and general economy of tho animal kingdom. With 900 accurate engravings on wood. pp. 812, le. Price S2.20.  71. Ruschenberger's Natural History Am. Edi.)  By W. S. W'.RUSCIIEXEERGER, M.D.  [4]—(2 v- 12mo.•-•  From the text of Professors M I L N E ,  EDWARDS and A R C H I L L E , Comte of Paris, Cloth, pp.  , Igc.  Price S2.C0-  72. Ruschenberger's Lexicon [90]—(12mo. Am. Edi.) A  Lexicon of terms used in natural history, prepared for schools, colleges and families. Boards, pp. 161, Igc. Price 30 cts.  73. Goldsmith's Animated Nature [61]—(2 v. royal Svo.  Eng. Edi.) A history of the earth and animated nature. By O L I V E R G O L D S M I T H - With numerous notes from tho works of Cuvicr, Wilson, L . Buonaparte, Campier, Vaillant, Lamarc, Lesson, Laccpede, Audubon, &c., as well as from tho works of tho moro distinguished British naturalists. Revised, with coloured plates, containing nearly 2400 illustrative figures, of which about 200 aro coloured, pp. , bs. Prico SS-.  74. Smith's Human Species—(12mo. Am. Edi.) The natural  history of the human species, its typical forms, primeval distribution,filiationsand migrations. Illustrated by numerous engravings- By Lieut- Col- CHAS- l i A i U L T C X S M I T H . Cloth, pp. 1+4,24=434, gl- Prico SI.  75. Gould's Naturalist's Library [7] — (Svo. Am. Edi.)  The naturalist's library contains scientific and popular descriptions of man, quadmcds, fishes, By A. A. COULD,  reptiles ami insects, compiled from various works. Sf, A. birds, Cloth, pp. SSO.jwc. l'rico ii.iO.  76. Siebold's Anatomy—Invertebrata [101]—(Svo. Am.. Edi.) Comparative anatomy—invertebrata. By C. Tu. V. S i K i i O L u a n d I L S T A X X I U S . Translated from the German, and edited, with notes and additions, recording tho recent progress of tho science. By W A L D O I. B U B X E T T , JI. 1). Vol. (1) Invertebrata. Cloth, pp. 470, gl, Prico $2.23.  77. Kirby on Animals—(Svo.  Am. Edi.)  On the power,  wisdom and goodness of God, as manifested in the creation of animals, and in their history, habits and instincts. By the Rev. W I L L I A M K i B B Y , M . A. Cloth, pp. b u i i + • ' 820 = 592, lb. Price §1.10.  BOOKS OF R E F E R E N C E — P H Y S I O L O G Y . 32. Carpenter's Physiology—8vo. Am. Edi.) Principles of  comparative physiology. By WILLIAM B. C A R T E X T E B , 31. D. With 309 wood engravings. Cloth, pp. xxxii + 752=7St, lb- Price $3,80.  . 33. Draper's Human Physiology—(8vo. Am. Edi.) Human physiology, statical and dynamical; or, the conditions aud eourso of the life of man. By Jonx W I L L I A M DRAPER, JI. D. Illustrated with nearly 300 wood engravings. Cloth, pp. i v i + G19=6G5, hb. Price $3.20.  34. Lavater's  Physiognomy [48] — (12mo. Eng. Edi.^  Essays on physiognomy, designed to promote the knowledge and the love of mankind. Written by J o u x C A S P E R L A V A T E H , and translated by THOMAS HOLCKOFT. TO which are added.ono hundred physiological rules, a posthumous work by Mr. LAV A T E B , and memoirs of tho lifo of the author. With upwards of 400 profiles and other engravings. Cloth, pp. 123 + 507 = 033, wtc- Prico $2.25.  34£. Ibid'.—With seven illustrative plates. Cloth, pp. 336, wtc. Price 50 cts.  35. Redfield's Physiognomy [50]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) Com-  parative physiognomy ; or, resemblances between men and animals. By JAS. W. R E D F I E L D , M. D. Illustrated with 330 engravings. Cloth, pp. 334, jsi: Price SI.C0.  36. Bartlett's Treatment of Fevers — (Svo. Am. Edi.)  The history, diagnosis aud treatment of the fevers of tho United States. By ELISIIA B A K T L E T T , JI. D. Cloth, pp. 295, lb. Price 52.20.  37. Condie on the Diseases of Children—(Svo. Am. Edi.) A practical treatise on the diseases of children. By D. FBAXCIS COXDIE, M . D. Cloth, pp. 732, lb. Price $2.35.  38. Roth's Chronic Diseases [22]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.) The  prevention and cure of many chronic diseases by movements. With numerous illustrations. By JI. Roth, JI. D. Cloth, pp. xv+302 = 317, jc. wdtc. gs. Price 52.40.  39. Cooper's Surgical Dictionary  [39]—(8vo. Am. Edi.)  ,40. Hooper's Medical Dictionary  [40]—(8vo. Am. Edi.)  A dictionary of practical surgery, comprehending all. tho most interesting improvements, from tho earliest times down to the present period ; an account of the instruments and remedies employed in surgery ; the etymology and signification of tho principal terms, and numerous references to ancient and modern works, forming a catalogueof surgical literature, arranged according to subjects. BySAMUELCoorElt, senior surgeon to the University College Hospital. Revised and enlarged by DAVJD . M . R E E S E , A. JI. Cloth, pp. 480 + 500, appendix 170=1103, double columns, hb. Prico J2.40.  . Lexicon Jlcdicutn ; or medical dictionary, containing an explanation of the terms in anatomy, botany, chemistry, materia nlediea, midwifery, mineralogy, pharmacy, physiology, practice of physic, surgery, and the various branches of natural philosophy, connected with medicine, selected, arranged, aud compiled from the best authors. By ROBERT HOOPER, JI. D. With additions from American authors on botany, chemistry, materia tnedica, mineralogy, ice. By S. A. KEBDV.M. D. TWO vols, la ono. • Bbccp, pp. 47il+4U=SS0, double columns, A 6. PricoS2.  41. Andrew's Domestic Surgery [1]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.) A  cyclopedia of domestic mcdicir.c and surgery, bcinff an alphabetical account of tho various diseases incident to tho human frame. With directions for their treatment, and for tho more simple operations of surgery. Also, for administering the various substances used in medicine, for tho regulation of diet and reghncu. By THOMAS ANDREWS, M . D. Illustrated with numerous engravings. Also, with many plates of various poisonous plants, beautifully colored after nature. Cloth, pp. CM, doublo columns, bs. Prico {3-70.  42. Thomson's Domestic Medicine [42]—(Svo. Eng. and  Am. Edi.) A Dictionary of Domestic Medicine and Household Surgery- By S P E S C E R TIIOMSON, M.D,  M.D.  Revised, with additions and illustrations, by H E N R Y II. S M I T H .  Cloth, pp. 532, gs. Igc- Prico of cither edition  43. Bowman's Medical Chemistry Edi.) A Practical Handbook. Price 05 cts.  $1.40.  [44]—(I2mo. Am.  By J o n s E . BOWMAN, M.D.  Cloth, pp. 2SS, lb.  44. Griffith's Medical Botany [43]—(8vo. Am. Edi.) Me-  dical Botany ; or descriptions of the more important plants used in medicine, wilh their history, properties and modes of administration. By R- E G L E S E I E L D G R I F F I T H , M.D, With upwards of three hundred illustrations and a copious index. Cloth, pp. 704, lb. Price $2.25.  45. Peirce's Examinations of Drugs, &c. [45]—(12mo.  Am. Edi.) Examinations of drugs, medicines, chemicals, &c., as to their purity and adulterations. By C. H . P S I E C E , M-D. Cloth, pp. xii+204=276, ;6. Price $1.  BOOKS OP R E F E R E N C E — B O T A N Y 26. Congdon's  Class Boole of Botany—(8vo. Am. Edi.)  Analytical Class Book of Botany, designed for Academics and private students. In . two parts. Part t, Elements of Vegetable Structure and Physiology. By FRANCIS H . G R E E N . Part II, Systematic Botany, illustrated by a compendious flora of tho Northern States. By J O S E P H W. COIODON. Cloth, pp- vi+223 = 234, dac Prico Si.20,  27. Beck's Botany [33]— (12mo. Am. Edi.) Botany of the  • United States, north of Virginia (including Canada), comprising descriptions of tho flowering and fcrnliko plants hitherto found iu those States, arranced according to tho natural svstcm, with a synopsis of the genera, according to the Linncean system, a sketch of the rudiments of botany, and a glossarv of terms. By L E W I S C. BECK, M.D. Cloth, pp. 480, hb. Price 51. Price in sheep $1.20.  28. Gray's Text Book [5]—(12mo. Am.. Edi.)  Botanical  Text Book—an introduction to Scientific Botany, both Structural'and Systematic, With 1200 illustrations on wood, By A S A G R A Y , M.D. Cloth, pp. 520, gpp. Prico $1.20.  29. Gray's Northern Botany [32]—(12mo. Am, Edi.) A  Manual of Botany of the Northern States ; from New England to Wisconsin and ' south to Ohio, (Canada) and Pennsylvauia inclusive. Tho mosses aud liverworts. E y WM. S; SULLIVANT, arranged according to tho natural system. With an introduc• tion, containing a reduction of the gencras to tho Linuxan artificial classes and orders',-. outlines of tho elements of botany, a glossary, &c. By A S A G R A Y , M.D. Cloth, pp. lxxin 7107=?81,imc. Price Sl.GO. u  30. Lincoln's Botany—(12mo. Am. Edi.) Familiar Lectures  on Botany, explaining the structure, classification and uses of plants, illustrated upon natural methods- With a Gora for practical Botanists, for tne uso of tho Colleges, schools and private students. By Mrs. A L M I R D H . LINCOLN. Illustrated with many - engravings. Cloth, pp. 203, masb. Price 51.15.  31. Phelp's Botany—.(18mo. Am. Edi.) Botany for begin-  ners ; an introduction to Mrs- Lincoln's Lectures on Botany for tho use of common schools, and tho younger pupils of other schools and academies. By Mrs. PHELPS, Cloth, pp. 210, masb. Price 35 cts.  32. Francis' English Flora [34]—(16mo. Eng. Edi.) Tho  little English flora; or a botanical and popular account of all our commonfieldflowers, . With numerous woodcuts and fourteen engravings ou steel of every species. By Q, . W,FBASCJ8,F.L.S. Cloth, pp, 213, rgc. FricuSl.55..  33. Smith and Schoedler's Botany—(2 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.)  J  Price for tlio two volumes 75 cts., as follows:  (1.) Smith's Botany. Structural and Systcmntic Botany ; being  an arrangement of plants, forming a basis for the study of liotanv, cither on tho Linmean or natural systems. "With numerous microscopical and other illustrations. ,  By E D W A R D S M I T H , M.D. Cloth, pp. 203, xcsoc.  Price -15 cts.  (2.) Schoedler's Elements of Botany [29-14]—Translated from  the Gorman. By H E N E Y M E D L O C K , F.C.S. Illustrated by numerous engravings on  wood. Cloth, pp. 90, rgc.  Price 30 cts.  34. Moore's British Ferns—(18mo. Eng. Edi.) The Hand-  book of British Ferns; comprising scientific and popular descriptions ; with engravings of all the indigenous species and varieties, with instructions for their cultivation.  By T H O M A S M O O B E , F.L.S.  Cloth, pp. 232, gs.  Price SI.  35. Lindley's Vegetable Kingdom [30]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.) The Vegetable Kingdom ; or the structure, classification and rise of plants, illustrated upon the natural system. By Jonx L I X D L E Y , Ph.D., F.It.S. With upwards of firo hundred illustrations; also with corrections aud additional genera. Cloth, pp. 90S, be, dac. Prico $3.25.  86. Lindley's Botany—(2 v. 8vo. Eng. Edi.) An introduction to Botany.- By Jonx L I N D L E T , Ph.D., F.R.S. With six copper-plates and numerous wood engravings. Cloth, pp. x+ 400 + 420 = 812, le. Prico S5.40.  37. Carpenter's Vegetable Physiology [2]—(8vo. Eng. Edi.) Vegetable Physioloey and Systematic Botany. By Cloth, pp. 607, hgb. Prico SI.  WM.  B.  CAEI-EXTEE,  M.D.  38. Balfour's Botany [18]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) A Manual of  Botany; being an introduction to tho structure, physiology, and classification of plants; contributing to tho "Encyclopedia Metropolitana," By Joux I I U T T O X B A L F O T / B , M.D. Illustrated by numerous woodcuts. Cloth, pp. 012, rgc. Price $2.03.  89. Rhind's Vegetable Kingdom [31]—(Royal. 8vo. Eng. Edi.) A history of the Vegetable Kingdom; embracing the physioloey, classification, and culture of plants, with their various uses to man and the lower animals; and their application in the arts, manufactures, and domestic economy. ' By WM. ITNIXD, M.D. illustrated by several hundred woodcuts, and twelve plates of beautiful steel engravings. Cloth, pp. 711, bs. Price S4.  Brown's Trees of America —(8vo. Am. Edi.) The  trees of America : native and foreign, pictorially and botanically delineated, and scientifically and popularly de-cribed: being considered principally with reference to their geography and history, soil and situation, propagation and culture, accidents and diseases, properties and uses, economy in tho arts, introduction into commerce, aud their application in useful and ornamental plantations. By D. J . BEOWN. Cloth, pp. 620, hb. Prico $3.00.  41. Hooker's British Flora—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) The British  Flora, comprising the phrcnogamus or flowering plants, and the ferns. By Sir WM.  JACKSON  H O O K E E and G E O E G E A. W A L K E D A E X O I T .  Prico $3.15.  j  Cloth, pp. xli+CCl=G15, le.  42. Jussieu's Elements of Botany—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) The elements of botany. By M. Apr.TEN DE' JUSSIED. Translated by WILSON, F. L. S. Cloth, pp.xv+750=705,y'iD. Prico $205.  JAMES  H.  43. Henslow's Botany—(lGmo. Eng. Edi.) The principles of descriptive aud physiological botany. By tbo Rev. J. S. IIEXSLOW, M. A. Cloth, pp. viii+322=330, Ic. Prico 75 cts.  44. Gray's Plants of the United States—(2 v. 8vo. Am.  Edi.) The genera of the plants of the United States. Illustrated by ISOfiguresand analyses from nature. By ISAAC S P B A O U E . Su|>erintcndcd, with descriptions, 4c., by ASA GBAY. Cloth, pp. 230+229=459, gpp. Price $9.00.  45. Torrey and Gray's Flora of North America—(2 v. \ t . r\  8vo. Am. Edi.) A flora of Xo^tli America, containing abridged descriptions of all tho known indigenous aud naturalized plants arowinirXortli of Mexico. Arranged accord.  lug to the natural system. By J O H N TOBBEY, M. I>., and A3A GRAY, M. 1).  . average pp. 700, gpp.  Price  ,  Clotll,  BOOKS OP R E F E R E N C E — P H Y S I C A L SCIENCE.  X. GEOGRAPHY.  39. Milner's Gallery of Nature [58]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) A  gallery of nature, being a pictorial apd descriptive tqur through creation, illustrativo of the wonders of Astronomy, Physical Geography and Gcologv. With 16 engravings on steel, and many hundred vignettes and diagrams. By the Rev. T. M L L N E B , A . II. Cloth, pp. 803, wsoc. Price S4.  40. Parker's Manual of Geographical Science [5G]—  (8vo. Eng. Edi.) A manual of ideographical science: (1) Mathematical Geography. By the Rev. M . O ' B R I E N , M . A . , F. R. S. (2) Phvsical Geography. By D. J . A N S T E D , II. A . , F. R. S. (3) Chartography. By J . It. JACKSON, F. R. S. (4) Theory of description and Geographical Terminology. By tho Rev. C. G. N I C H O L A Y , F. R. G. S. Edited with numerous illustrations, by the Rev. C. G. N I C O L A Y , R. F. G. S. In one vol. Cloth, pp. xvi+443 =4Gl,j'iop. Price 31.50 cts. Atlas to accompany the above. (See Atlas, No. . Price for tho two $2.50.  ,  U. ASTRONOMY.  41. Herschel's Outlines of Astronomy [2]—(8vo. Am. Am. Edi.) Outlines of Astronomy. By Sir J O H N F. plates and wood cuts. Cloth, pp. 020, 61. Price $1.50.  W .  HERSCHEL,  42. Herschel's Astronomy—(8vo. Eng. Edi.) Astronomy. By Sir  JOHN  F. W .  HEESCILEL.  Bart. With  Outlines of  Cloth, pp. xvi-!-GGl==G77, le.  Prico $385.  43. Lardner's Hand-Book of Astronomy—(2 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.) Hand-book of astronomy. By D I O X Y S I U S L A E D X E R , 1). C . L . With 37 plates and upwards of 200 illustrations on wood. Cloth, pp. 872, tvjm. Price $2.10.  4 4 . Muller's Physics and Meteorology [55]—(8vo. Am.  Edi.) Principles of physics and meteorology. By J . M U L L E R . Revised and illustrated with 538 engravings on wood, and two colored plates. Cloth, pp. G35, lb. Prico $2.75.  . 45. Smyth's Celestial Cycle [54]—(2 v. 8vo. Eng." Edi.) A • cycle of celestial objects, for the use of naval, • military and private astronomers. Observed, deduced and discovered. By Captain W I L L I A M H E N R Y S M I T H , R.N.K.S.F. D. C . L . In two volumes, with illustrations. (1) Prolegomena. (2) Tho Bedford Catalogue. Cloth, pp. viii+516+xx+5G0=1104, jtup. Price SO. \  46. Coffin's Eclipses—(8vo. Am. Edi.) Solar and lunar eclipses familiarly illustrated and explained. With tho method of calculating them according to the theory of astronomy.as taught in New England colleges. By J A M E S H . C O F F I N , A. M . Cloth, pp. 83, cbc. Prico $1.10.  47. Astronomical Figures [74]—(Imp. 4to. Xtn. K. Soc.)  A series of twelve beautiful coloured lithographic plates of Astronomical figures. Cloth. Prico $1.50. i  48. Reynold's Astronomical Diagrams [73]—(Demy 4to.  Portfolio. Eng. Edi.) A scries of twelve diagrams (many of them transparencies) . . executed on quarto drawing boards, full coloured, with descriptions, as follows:—(1) The Solar System. (2) Tho Seasons. (3) Eclipses and Tides. (1) View of the Moon. . • " (5) The Phases of tho .Moon. (C) The Earth and its Atmosphere. (7) Tho Sun aud Solar Phenomena. (3) Tho Earth's Annual Revolution, and its Diurnal Rotation. (9) Transparent Chart of tho Heavens. (10) Comparative Magnitudes of the Planets. (11) Comets aud Aerolites. (12) Diagram of Meteorology. Cloth, jr. Price $2.40.  XTX PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 49. Reynold's Physical Geography [G9]—(Dnrty -Ho. Port-  Em?. Edi.) A series of twelve diagram* executed on quarto drawinc hoards, fidl coloured, with descriptions, a s follows:—(t) Geographical Diagram, moveable, (2) Map of tlie World. (.1) Mountains and Volcanoes, (t) Hirers and Lakes. (",) Vt aterfalls. (tf) Wind aud Rain Mali. (7) Tidal Chart of the World, and Botanical Map. (S) Distribution o f Animals, Birds, and Reptiles over the Globe. (0) Distribution o f t h e Human Race. (10) Varieties of .Mankind. (11) Physical Mapof tho British Isles. (12) The principal Buildings i n t h e World; their heights a u d s t y l e s of Architecture. jr. Price $2.10. folio,  50. Reynold's Nature in all Climates [G3]—(Demy 4to.  Portlolio, Eng. Edi.) View of Nature in all climates, from tho Equator to the Arctio Circle; illustrating the Astronomical and Physical Phenomena of the different regions, a n d the distribution of Organic life in an HORIZONTAL direction. The Diagram exhibits t h e cause of the diversity of Climate, the Sun's Declination for every day in tho y e a r , t h e Tempcraturo and Length of day in all latitudes, & c - On a sheet six feet in length, f u l l coloured, with Triangle, Analcmma, and Explanatory Notes. Mounted o n canvass, a n d folded i n a portfolio. Cloth, j r . Price S1.65.  51. Reynold's Nature in. ascending Regions [64]—(Dc-  " m y , 4to. Portfolio, Eng. Edi.) View of Naturo in Ascending Regions; presenting a comparative view o f tho chief Mountains of the Globe, and tho distribution of Organio life i n a V E R T I C A L direction; showing the varieties of Climate and Vegetation, from the s e a level t o the mountain summits, i n tho torrid, temperate, and frigid zones. The principal Plateaus, Mountain Passes, Towns, aud other objects remarkable for their elevation abovo the ocean, are also shown. On a sheet three feet iu height, full coloured, with Explanatory Notes. Mounted o n canvass, a n d folded i n a portfolio. Clotb.j'r. Price S1.65.  52. Johnston's Classical Atlas [61]—(Demy 4to. Eng. Edi.)  A School Atlas of Classical Geography; comprising i n twenty plates, maps and places ll*. of a l l tho important countries and localities referred to by classical authors, constnicted f r o m tho best material, and embodying the results of the most recent investigations, accompanied by a complete index of places, with tho proper quantities marked. Beautifully printed in colours. By ALEXANDER KEITH JOHNSTON, F.R.S.E. Cloth, wbs. Prico S2-50, a n d . w i t h Pillans' Classical Geography, & c . , (No. 33) S3 JO. (  63. Johnston's General Atlas [71]—(Imp. 8vo. Eng. Edi.)  J  •  A School Atlas of general aud descriptive Geography, exhibiting the actual and comparativc extent of all the countries in the world, with their present political divisions, founded on t h e most recent discoveries and rectifications, specially constructed with a view t o the purposes of sound instruction, and on a uniform scries of scales by which tho relative size of countries car. at once bo perceived. By ALEXANDER KEITH* JOHNSTON, F. R. S. E. Engraved in tho highest style, a n d coloured. Iu twenty.two -maps. Cloth, tcakj. wbs. Price §2.50.  54. Johnston's Physical Atlas [70]—(Imp^Svo. Eng. Edi.) A School Atlas of Physical Geography, illusti-atiug, in a scries of original designs, tho • . ^^Elementary facts of Geology,. Hydrology, Meteorology, and Natural History. In this W ^ ' w o r k the subject is treated in a more simple and elementary manner than in the prc1 \ v i o u s works of t'hc author. By means of a new process; theso works combine tho accuracy and neatness of the highest style of engraving, with a mechanical application of c o l o u r s , o f which the effect is to secure clearness, correctness, and elegance. By A . K E I T H J O H N S T O N , i'.R.S.E. Eighteen plates. Cloth, wakj, wbs. Price S2.50-  65. Johnston's Physical Atlas [6.5]—(Demy 4to. Eng. Edi.) The Physical Atlas of Natural Phenomena, reduced from the edition in imperial folio. By ALEXANDER KEITH J o n N S T O N , F.R.G.S. This edition contains twenty-llvo maps, including a Palrcontological Map of t h e British Islands, engraved in tho highest stylo of a r t , by Mcsssrs. W. & A . K . JOHNSTON, and carefully coloured under their own superintendence; with 112 pages of descriptive letter-press and a very copious index. List of Plates:—Geology, 6: Hydrography, 7 i Meteorology, 9. p p . 122, a n d t w e n t y f o u r p l a t e s , wbs. Price S10.50.  56. Milner & Petermann's Descriptive  Atlas  [66]—  (Demy, 4to. Eng. Edi.) A Descriptive Atlas of Astronomy, and Physical and Political Geography. Comprised i n seventy-four maps, exhibiting a comprehensive system of Astronomy, illustrated with seven maps and hemispheres, a n d of Physical and Political Geography, with a complete Atlas of tho Glo.bc, carefully constructed, with ucscript i v o letter-press. By tho Rev. T. M I L N E R , M . A., F . R.G.S. Illustrated by several ' hundred vignettes. Tho maps of Physical a n d Political Gcoeraphy constructed and carefully revised a n d corrected, A V G U S T U S F E T E R H A N N , F.R.G.S. Cloth, p p . 171, index 65 =229, wsoc, Prico S0.75,  by  57. Milner & Petermann's Physical Atlas '[07]—(Demy, .'  4to. Eng. Edi.) The Atlas of Physical Geography, consistine of sixteen maps, illustrative of the Geology, Hydrography. Meteorology, Zoology, Botany, and Ethnography of the Globe. Constructed by A U G U S T U S P K T E R M A N N , F.R.G.S. Tho letter-press, descriptive of the Physical Phenomena of tho Globe, by tho Rev. T. Itn.scit, M.A., F.R.G.S. Illustrated by upwards of one hundred aud thirty vignettes, sections, aud views. Cloth, pp. 134, Price S3.  Ksoc.  58. Blackie's Imperial  Gazeteer [76]—(Royal 8vo. Eng.-  Edi.) The Imperial Gazeteer; a general Dictionary of Geography, physical, political, statistical, and descriptive. Compiled from the latest and best authorities. Edited by W. G. I4I.ACK.IE, Ph. D. "With seven hundred illustrations, views, costumes, maps, plans, i c . In two volumes. Cloth, pp. 130S + 12S3 + 01=2G57, tcbs. Price $10.75.  59. Lippincott's Pronouncing Gazeteer—(8vo. Am. Edi.)  A complete pronouncing Gazeteer, or Geographical Dictionary of tho World, containing a notice of 100,000 places, with the most recent and authentic information respecting tho countries, islands, rivers, mountains, cities, towns, &c, in every portion of the Globe; including the latest and most reliable statistics of population, commerce, etc. Also a complete Etymological Vocabulary of geographical names. Edited by J. T H O M A S and T. B A L D W I N . Sheep, pp. 21S2, double columns, Igc. Prico $5.50.  60. Baldwin's Pronouncing Gazeteer [31]—(12mo. Am. , Edi.) Containing Topographical, Statistical, and other information of all the more important places in the known world, from the most recent and authentic sources. By T H O M A S B A L D W I N . TO which is added an appendix, containing more than ten thousand names, chiefly of tho small towns aud villages. "With supplement, giving tho pronunciation of nearly two thousand names. Half-sheep, pp. 0-13 + 55 = 703, Igc. Prico 90 cts.  61. Johnston's General Gazeteer—(8vo. Eng. Edi.) Dic-  tionary of Geography, descriptive, physical, statistical, aud historical, forming a complete general gazeteer of tho world. By A L I \ X . K E I T H J O H N S T O N . Cloth, pp. 1433, le. Prico $8.  62. Putnam's Universal Geography [57] — (12mo. Am. Edi.) Hand-book of Universal Geography ; being a Gazeteer of the World, based ou tho Census of tho United States, England, and Franco, for 1851. Edited by T. C A R E T C A X L I C O T , A. II. (Putuam's Homo Cyclopedia.) Cloth, pp. 850, gpp to asbc. Price $1.00.  63. Milner's Universal Geography [49]—(12mo. R. T.  Soc.) An Universal Geography, in four parts—Historical, Mathematical, Physical, and Political. By the'Iter. THOMAS MILNEE, M.A., F.R.G.S. Illustrated by ten coloured maps, with diagrams aud sections. Cloth, pp. xxiv+527=551. Price $1.  64. Putz' Geography and History [60]—(3 v. 12mo. Am. - Edi.) Prico for tho threo volumes $2.0S, as follows:  ' '•'  Hand-book of Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern Geography and  History. By W I L L I A M P U T Z . • -Translated from the German by tho Rev. R. B . P A U L , I I A , and edited by tho lato Rev. T H O M A S K. A R N O L D , M.A. Cloth, pp. 390 + 211+330 • =913, dac. Prico $2.50. .  \  BOOKS 01? R E F E R E N C E — G E O L O G Y . \ 12. Reynold's Geological Diagrams [36]—(4to. Eng. Edi.)  A scries of twelve Diagrams, executed on quarto drawing-boards full coloured, with description A5 follows :—(1) Popular Geology. (2) The Antediluvian World. (3) Geological Map of the World. (4) Geological Map of England. (5) Geological Map of Scotland. (0) Geological Map of Ireland. (7) Geological eminences of the British • Islands. (3) Natural Phcrtomcna. (9) Volcanoes antlEarthquakes. (10,11,12) Section of tho Earth's Crust, on a large bold scale, showing correctly and clearly tho arrangement of tho strata, with the cliflcrent igneous, trappean, and volcanic rocks and metallic veins, as they occur in nature- Six feet long by ono foot broad. In a portfolio. Cloth.ir. Prico $2.40.  13. Reynold's Earth's Crust [34]—(4to. Eng. Edi.) Sec-  tion of tho Earth's Crust, on a largo scale, showing clearly tho arrangement of the strata, and the relations of the various rocks to each other; also tho deposits of coal and other minerals, the position of gold, silver and other metallic veins, and illustrations of tho principal Geological Phenomena, with explanatory notes, on a sheet six feet in lcngtli, full coloured with explanatory notes. By J O H N M O R K I B , F.G.S. In a portfolio. Cloth, gr. Prico $1.  14. Lyell's Principles of Geology [1]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  Principles of Geology ; or the modern changes or the earth and its inhabitants, con. sidcrcu as illustrative of Geology. By Sir C H A R I . E S L Y E L L , .M.A. Illustrated with maps, plates and woodcuts. Cloth, pp. i i i + S5l=>81G, dac. Price 52.05.  15. Lyell's Elementary Geology [1-2]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  A Manual of Elementary Geology i or the ancient changes of the earth and its inhaWtahts, as illustrated by geological monuments. With 700 woodcuts. By Sir C H A R L E S I / T E L L , Knt., A.M. Cloth, pp. 017, dac. Price $1.55.  16. De L a Beehe's Geological Observer [5]—(Svo. Am.  Edi.) Tho Geological Observer. By Sir H E N R Y T. D E L A B E C H E , Knt. C.B. Cloth, pp. C93, bl. Price S3.G0.  17. Chambers' Sea Margins [30]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.) Ancient  Sea Margins, as memorials of changes in the relative level of Sea and Land. By R O B E R T CitASir.ERS, Esq., F.R.S.C. With a map and numerous illustrations. Cloth, pp. 337, wrch. Prico 52.05. ,  18. Marcou's Geological Map [31]—(2 y. Svo. Am. Edi.)  A Geological Map of the United States, and the British Provinces of North America. With an explanatory text, Geological sections, and'eight lithographic plates of tho fossils which characterise the formations. By J U L E S MARCOU. One vol. containing the geological map mounted on canvass, colored and folded, the other the te?.t. Cloth, pp, 02, ffl. Prico for the two volumes 53.  19. Hitchcock's Geology of the Globe [18]—(Svo. Am.  Edi.) Outline of the Geology of the Globe, and of the United States in particular. With two full coloured Geographical Maps, and sketches of characteristic American Fossils. By E D W I N Hiicncocic, D.D., LL.D. Cloth, pp. 130, psc. Prico SI.  20. Miscellaneous [40]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) Price for the • four volumes 52.10, as follows:  (1.) Tennant's Mineralogy, &c.—Mineralogy and Crystallography, •  being a classification of crystals according to their form/and an arrangement of miucrals after their chemical composition. By Professor T E N N A N T , F^G.S., and Rev. W A L T E R M I T C H E L L , M.A. Cloth, pp. iv+205=2G9, wsoc. Prico 05 cts.  (2.) Ansted's Geological Science—Geological Science, including . the practice of Geology and the elements of Physical Geography. With a copious glossorial index. By Professor D . J . A N S T E D , Cloth, pp.x+302=312, wsoc. Fricc75ct3.  (3.) Bakewell's Geology—Geology for schools and students ; or former worlds, their structure, condition and inhabitants. By F. C. W i t h copious illustrations. Cloth, pp, viii + 130, wsoc. Price 40 cts.  B A K E W E L L .  (4.) Schoedlcr's Mineralogy and Geology [27-3]—Elements of  Mineralogy and Geology. By F K I E D E R I C H S C H O E D L E R , LL.D. Edited from tho German, by H E N R Y M E D L O C K , F.C.S. Illustrated by numerous engravings on wood. Cloth, pp. vi+100 = 100, rgc. Price 50 cts.  21. Loomis' Geology [12]—(12mo. Am. Edi.) The Elements of Geology. By J V S T I N R. gl. Price 60 cts.  LOOJIIS.  With numerous illustrations. Cloth, pp. 193.  22. Tennant's British Fossils [33]—(lGmo.' Xtn. K. Soc.)  A Stratigraphical List of British Fossils ; arranged under tho principal divisions of the British strata with a few clemcntarv remarks on their character and localities. By J A M E S T E X N A N T , F.R.S. Cloth, pp. xvi+123=14S. Prico 55 cts.  23. Weale's Series—(2 v. 16mo. Am. Edi.) Price for the two volumes SO cts., as follows:  (1.) Portlock's Geology [27-1]—A Rudimentary Treatise on Geology; for theuso of beginners. By Lieut.Cpl.Por.TLOCK, R.E., G.G.S. With numerous illustrations. Cloth, pp. vi+19G=202,yio. (No. 3 Weale's Series.) PriccSScts.  (2.) Varley's Mineralogy [27-2]—Rudimentary Treatise on Mineralogy, for tho use of beginners. By D. V A R L E Y . Parts I. and II. together, complete. With numerous illustrations. Cloth, pp. 101+0=170. (Nos. 4 and 5 AVcalc's Series.) Price 45 cts. 24. Phillips' Geology—(2 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.) A Treatise on Geology. By J O H N 122, tc. i'rice SM0.  PHILLIPS.  With illustrations. Cloth, pp. x+313+vii+3G2=  25. Page's Geology—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) Advanced Text Book; or Geology descriptive a n d industrial. 300, t e a s . P r i c e 40 c t s .  26. Page's Rudiments of Geology.  B y DAVID PAGE.  B y DAVID PAGE, F . G . S .  Cloth, p p . vi+300 =  [2]—(lGmo. Eng. Edi.) Rudiments p p . 223, t c r c A .  P r i c e 53 c t s ,  27. Page's Elements—(12mo. Am. Edi.) Elements of Geology. B y DAVID P A G E .  E d i t e d b y D . M.REESE, M . D .  p p . 332, asbc.  P r i c o GO c t s .  .28. Chamber's Treasury of Knowledge—fl2mo.  Am.  Edi.) Treasury o f Knowledge. I n threo parts. I . Elementary Lessons on C o m m o n Things. I I . Practical Lessons on C o m m o n Objects. I I I . I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Sciences. B y WILLIAM a n d ROBERT CHAMBERS. E d i t e d b y D - M . R E E S E , M . D . C l o t h , p p . 15G, asbc. P r i c e GO c t s .  29. Lyell's Geology—(12mo. Am. Edi.) Elements of Geology. B y CHARLES L Y E L L , F - l t - S .  C l o t h , p p . 316, hz.  P r i c e 00 c t s .  30. Gray and Adam's Geology [14)—(12mo. Am. Edi.) E l e m e n t s o f G e o l o g y . B y ALONZO GRAY, A . M . , a n d C . B . ADAMS, A . M . W i t h o u s i l l u s t r a t i o n s . S h e e p , p p . x v + 3 5 4 = 3 C ' J , hb. P r i c o GO c t s .  numer-  31. Dana's Mineralogy [28]—(Royal. 8vo. Am. Edi.) A system o fMineralogy, comprising t h o most recent discoveries: i n c l n d i n g f u l l descript i o n s o f species a n d t h e i r localities, c h e m i c a l analogies a n d f o r m u l a : ; tallies for t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f m i n e r a l s , a n d a treatise, o n m a t h a m a t i c a l c r y s t a l l o g r a p h y a n d t h o d r a w i n g o f figures o f crystals. Illustrated b y numerous woodcuts aud from copper plates. B y JAMES D . DANA, M . D . R e w r i t t e n , r e a r r a n g e d a u d e n l a r g e d . Cloth, p p . 7 1 1 , 1 7 p p . P r i c e S3.G0.  32. Trimmer'3 Geology and Mineralogy [29]—(8vo. Eng. Edi.) P r a c t i c a l G e o l o g y a n d M i n e r a l o g y ; w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s for the q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l o g i e s o f m i n e r a l s . B y J o s n U A TRIMMER, F . G . S . W i t h n u m e r o u s i l l u s t r a t i o n s . C l o t h , p p . x i v l + 5 1 0 = 5 4 5 , jwp. P r i c e 52.10.  33. Phillips' Mineralogy—(8vo. Eng. Edi.) An Elementary I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M i n e r a l o g y . B y t h o l a t o WILLIAM PHILLIPS. W i t h e x t e n s i v e a l t e r a t i o n s , b y I t . J . BROOKE, F . R . S . , a n d W . I I . MILLER, M . A . , F . R . S . C l o t h , p p . v i i + 7 0 0 = 7 0 7 , tc. P r i c o S 3 . 8 5 .  34. Nicol's Mineralogy—(12mo."Eng. M i n e r a l o g y ; or, tho n a t u r a l history o f t h e m i n e r a l yjt-S-E. C l o t h , p p . xxiv +570=000, a c i . P r i c e 51.05.  Edi.)  kiugdom.  Manual of B y JAMES N I C O L ,  BOOKS OP R E F E R E N C E — C H E M I S T R Y . 13. Kane's Chemistry [1]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) . Elements of Chemistry, i n c l u d i n g the most recent discoveries a n dapplications o f t h e Science t o M c d i c i n o a n d P h a r m a c y a n d t o t h e A r t s . B y S i r ROBERT KANE, K t . , 3 I . D . Illustrated. W i t h a d d i t i o n s a n d c o r r e c t i o n s b y J o n i f W . DEAPEE, M . D . C l o t h , p p . 7 0 1 , A d . P r i c e $1.20.  14. Youmans' Class Book [8]—(12mo. Am. Edi.)  A Class  B o o k of Chemistry, i n w h i c h t h e Principles o f t h e Science arc familiarly explained a n d a p p l i e d t o t h o Arts, A g r i c u l t u r e , P h y s i o l o g y , D i e t e t i c s , V e n t i l a t i o n , a n d t h e m o s t important Phenomena o f Nature. W i t h E n g r a v i n g s . D e s i g n e d for p o p u l a r r e a d i n g . A c a d e m i c s a u d S c h o o l s . B y EDWABD L . YOUMAXS. C l o t h , p p . 344, dac. P r i c o GO c t s .  15. Parkes' Chemistry [24]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) An Elementary Treatise on Chemistry, u p o n t h o basis o f t h o C h e m i c a l C a t e c h i s m : w i t h N o t e s a n d Experiments. B y SAMUEL PARKES, F . L - S . R e v i s e d a n d c o m p l e t e d to the present S t a t o of C h e m i c a l S c i e n c e , a n d a c c o m p a n i e d b y a n i m p r o v e d G l o s s a r y a n d I n d e x . C l o t h , p p . 4 1 1 , hgb. P r i c o 70 c t s .  16. Fownes' Chemistry for Students [17]—(12mo. Am.Edi.) "  •  Elementary Chemistry, Theoretical a n d Practical. B y GEORGE FOWNBS, F . R . S . E d i t e d w i t h a d d i t i o n s , b y ROBERT ERIDOE3, M . D . W i t h m e r o u s i l l u s t r a t i o n s on C l o t b , p p . 655, lb. Prico  wood.  51.10,  . 17. Bowman's Practical Chemistry [IS]—(l2mo. Am. Edi.) A n i n t r o d u r l i o n t o Practical Chemistry, including analysis. C l o t h , p p . 303, lb. P r i c e 90 c t s .  U y JOHN E . BOWMAN.  18. Gregory's Chemistry— (iGmo. Eng. Edi.) Elementary Treatiso o u Chemistry. 93 c t s .  B y WILLIAM GREGORY, M . D ,  C l o t h , p p . 3-13, acb.  Prico  19. Will's Qualitative Analysis [33]—(12mo. Am. Edi.) Out-  lines o f t h o course o f qualitative analysis followed i n t h o Giessen laboratory. B v HENRY W I L L , P h . D . W i t h a p r e f a c e b y BAKON LIEBIO. C l o t h , p p . 1 2 , 1 3 0 = 1 5 1 , jme. P r i c o 51.20. -  20. Noad's Chemical Manipxilation [323—(Svo. Eng. Edi.)  A n d Analysis, Qualitative a n d Quantitative. W i t h a n introduction explanatory of t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f c h e m i c a l n o m e n c l a t u r e ; t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d use o f f o r m u la; ; t h edoctrine o f equivalent propositions, a u d o n the preparation a n d management o f g a s e s . B y HEXRY M . N'OAD, P h . D . C o n s i d e r a b l y e n l a r g e d . C l o t h , p p . G4, 3 0 7 = 431, rb. hgb. P r i c o 90 c t s .  21. Giessen's Outlines of Analysis—(Svo. Eng. Edi.)  Out-  lines o f t h e course o f qualitative analysis followed i u the Giessen Laboratory. B y H E S R Y W I L L , w i t h a p r e f a c e b y BARON LIEDIO. C l o t h , p p . x i + 1 0 3 = 1 1 4 , ttem. P r i c e $1.25.  22. Rose's Chemical Tables [29]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  Tabul-e  A t o m i c w . - T h e c h e m i c a l t a b l e s f o r t h o c a l c u l a t i o n o f q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s e s o f H . ROSE. R e c a l c u l a t e d for t h e more recent d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f atomic weights, a n d w i t h other a l t e r a t i o n s a n d a d d i t i o n s . B y WILLIAM B . DEXTER. C l o t h , p p . CO, f o e . P r i c o GO c t s .  23. Solly's Syllabus of Chemistry [36]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  Syllabus o f a complcto course o f lectures o n chemistry, i n c l u d i n g i t s application t o . t h e arts, agriculture, a n d m i n i n g . P r e p a r e d for t h o uso o f t h e gentlemen cadets a t ' tho Honorable E a s t I n d i a Company's M i l i t a r y Seminary, Addiscombe. B y Professor E . SOLLY. ' R e v i s e d , w i t h a d d i t i o n s . C l o t h , p p . 108, hcb. P r i c o 51.  24. Gregory's Inorganic Chemistry—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) A  hand-book o f inorganic chemistry; being a new and greatly enlarged edition o f t h e " O u t l i n e s o f I n o r g a n i c C h c m i s t r v . " F o r t h o u s e o f s t u d e n t s . B y WILLIAM GREGORY, M . D . C l o t h , p p . v i i i + 291 = 209, twin. P r i c e 51.20.  25; Gregory's Organic Chemistry—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) A hand-book o forganic chemistry, fort h e use of students. M J ) . C l o t h , p p . x x v i i . + 5 3 2 = 559, twin. P r i c e 52.05.  B y WILLIAM GREGORY  '  26. Parnell's Chemical Analysis—(Svo. Eng Edi.) Elements o f chemical analysis. 534, twin. P r i c o §1.05.  B y EDWARD ANDREW PARNELL. C l o t h , p p . x i v + 5 2 0 =  -27. Graham's Chemistry—(Svo. Am. Edi.) Elements of  . C h e m i s t r y , P a r t I . B y THOMAS GHAIUM, F . R . S . W i t h n u m e r o u s i l l u s t r a t i o n s . E d i t e d w i t h n o t e s , b y ROBERT BRIDGES, M . D . C i o t h , p p . 430, lb. P r i c e . $1.10.  28. Thomson's Cyclopaedia [26^-]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.)  Cyclo-  paidia o f C h e m i s t r y , w i t h i t s applications t o mineralogy, physiology, a n d the arts. \ \ i t h n u m e r o u s i l l u s t r a t i o u s . B y ROBERT DUNDAS THOMSON, M . D . C l o t h u p . 510 rgc. P r i c e 52.40.  29. Morfit's Applied Chemistry—(Svo. Am. Edi.) Chemistry .  a p p l i e d t o t h e m a n u f a c t u r e of S o a p a n d C a n d l e s ; a t h o r o u g h e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s a u d p r a c t i c e o f t h o trade, i n a l l t h e i r minuti.-e, based u p o n t h o m o s t recent d i s c o v e r i e s i n s c i e n c e , a n d i m p r o v e m e n t s i n a r t . B y C A ^ M L L MORI-IT. I l l u s t r a t e d w i t h o n o h u n d r e d a u d s e v e n t y e n g r a v i n g s o n w o o d . C l o t h , p p . 541, ah. P r i c e 54.  30. Brando's Chemistry—(2 v. Svo. Eng. Edi.)  A manual of .  C h e m i s t r y . B y WILLIAM THOMAS BRANDE, F . R . S . , L . & £ . C o n t a i n i n g , P a r t I . T h e powers o r matter, a n d t h e non-metallic elements. P a r t I I . Chemistry o f t h e metals. P a r t I I I . Organic chemistry. A p p e n d i x , Index. Cloth, pp. U-r20G4=2073. jwp. P r i c e 59.  31. Brande's Organic Chemistry—(lCmo. Eng. Edi.) The -  subject m a t t e r o f a course o f ten lectures on some o f t h e arts connected w i t h organic ' c h e m i s t r y d e l i v e r e d before t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t i o n i n the s p r i n g o f 1852. B y WILLIAM THOMAS BRANDE. A r r a n g e d f r o m t h e l e c t u r e n o W s b y 3. S C O K E K S , M . B . C l o t h , p p . x v i 3 8 1 = 3 9 7 , f c . P r i c e 51.70. T  0  32. Faraday's L e c t u r e s — (16mo. Eng. Edi.) The snbjec'J  matter of a course of six lectures on the non-metallic elements. Ey Professor' FARAPAY. Delivered before the members of the Royal Institution in the spring auc? summer of 1852, arranged from the lecturer's notes. By J. Sttm'EBN, 31. B. Cloth/ pp. viii+ 203 = 301, le. Price 51.25.  33. L i e b i g and Kopp's Chemistry—(4 v. 8vo. Eng. Edi.)  Annual Report of tho progress of Chemistry and the allied Sciences, Physics, 3Iiner* alogy, and Geology,including tho applications of Chemistry to Pharmacy, Medicine,  Agriculture, tho Arts and 3Ianufacturcs. By JUSTUS LIEBIO, 31. D., and H.KOPP.  Cloth, pp. iiv+51C,xvm+584,-ux+62G,xvi+622,=2415, item. Price $10.50.  BOOKS O F R E F E R E N C E — A G R I C U L T U R E . . 44* Morton's Cyclopaedia of Agriculture [99]—(2 v. Svo.  Eng. Edi.) Practical and Scientific; in which tho theory, the art, and tho bnsines^'of farming aro thoroughly and practically treated, by upwards offiftyof the most eminent, practical, and scientific men of tno day. Edited by JOHN C. 3IORTON. With eighty-two illustrative plates engraved on steel, besides numerous wood-cuts. Qloth/ double columDS.pp. xliv+1022+iv + 1172=2252, 65. Price 514.80.  4 5 , Stephens and Norton's Farmer's Guide [102]—(2 v.  8vo. Am. Edi.)' The Parmer's Guide to Scientific and Practical Agriculture. Detailing tho labors of tho farmer, in all their variety, and adapting them to the seasons of tho . year as they successively occur. Being the "Book of the Farm," entirely written and roviscd. . By HE.VP.X~ STEPHENS, F.R.S.K., assisted by J o n N P. NOETON, 31. A. Wifh numerous steel plates and other illustrations. Cloth, double columns, pp. 15,674, 40, 12,804 =1545' I sc. Price 5-1.80.  46* Colman's Agriculture [97]—(2 v. Svo. Eng. Edi.) Euro-  pean Agriculture aud Rural Economy, from personal observation in England, Ireland, bcotland, France, Belgium, Holland, and other European countries. By HEXEY COLMAN. With numerous plates aud engravings. Cloth, pp, 492+503=1000, wtc. Price 52-10.  47i- Webster's Domestic E c o n o m y [41]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  Comprising subjects connected with the interests of every individual: such as tho construction of domestic edifices, furniture, carriages, and instruments of domestic use. Also animal and vegetable substances used as food, and the method of preserving and preparing them by cooking; receipts, Ac; materials employed in dress and tho toilet; business of the laundry; preservation of health, domestic medicines, &c. &c. By T. WEBSTER and 3Iits. PAEKES. Edited by D. 31. REESE, A.3I..3I.D. Illustrated  with nearly 1000 engravings. , Sheep, pp. 1238, Ad. Price 52.40.  4 3 . Emerson's Johnson's Encyclopaedia [103]—(Svo. Am.  Edi.) The Farmer's and Planter's Encyclopedia of rural affairs; embracing all tho most recent discoveries in agriculturo and chemistry. Adapted to tho comprehension of unscientific readers. Illustrated by numerous engraved plates of animals, implements, and all tho subjects interesting to tho agriculturist. By CCTIIDEET W, JOHNSON, Esq., F. R- S. Adapted to the United States and Canada, by GOVEEXECB^ Lectures on Agricultural Chemistry and Geology. By J A M E S F. W. M.A. Cloth, pp. xx+1118=1133, wis. Prico 5-1.50.  JOHNSTON,  50'J! Thaer's Agriculture—(Svo. Am. Edi.) The principle! of Practical Agriculture. By ALBERT D. TnAiE. Translated by WILLIAM SHAW and CUTHBBRT D. JOHNSON, F. R. S. With an Essay on Jlanurcs, by J. B. DU.MAS; an  Essay on the nutrition of Plants, by DUMAS; and an Essay on tho action of Salt upon Vceotation, by M. BECQUEBEL and J. B. LAWIS. Cloth, pp. 551+40=591,'c-m3. Prico Jl.GOi 5K. Ritchie's F a r m Engineer [68]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.) A treatise on barn machinery; particularly on tho application of steam and other motive powers to tho thrashing machine. Embracing an account of tho methods practised in ancient and modern times for thrashing and winnowing grain ; with descriptions of the different steam engines now used and projected for agricultural purposes; and the extended application of steam as a motivo power at farms. By ROBERT RITCHIE, C. E . Illustrated by twenty-threo folding plates and numerous engravings. Cloth, pp. 272,6*. Price 52.40.-  52. Gardner's Farmer's Dictionary [10]—(12-mo. Am. Edi.) A Vocabulary of'lie Technical Terras recently introduced into Agriculture and Horti- culture from various sciences, and also a compendium of practical farming from the most eminent authors. Edited, with illustrations. By D. P. GARDNER, M.D. Cloth, pp.870,hb. Price81.20.  53. Johnson's Dictionary of Gardening [107]—(12mo. Am. Edi.) A dictionary of modern gardening. By GEORGE WILLIAM JOHNSON, Esq, With one hundred and eighty wood cuts. Edited, with numerous additions. B y DAVID LANDRETH. Cloth, pp. 033, lb. Price 00 cts.  -54. Rham's Dictionary  [101fj—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) Tho  dictionary of tho farm. By the late Rev. "t\. L. RNAM. Revised and re-edited, with explanatory matter. By WILLIAM and H u o n RAYNHIED. With illustrations. Cloth, pp. 493, doublo columns, grc. Price 93 cts.  55. Plant's Gardeners' Dictionary [10G]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) The new Gardeners' Dictionary of flowers, fruits, vegetables, trees, and shrubs : their cultivation mado plain anil easy to the amateur, and affording correct and scientific information to the practical man. By R. W. PLANT, pp. gs. Price 75 cts.  56, The Agriculturist's Calculator [109]—(lGmo. Eng. Edi.) A series of tables for the use of all engaged in agriculturo or tho management of landed property. Cloth, pp. 572, bs. Prico $1.S0* . *  BOOKS OF R E F E R E N C E — N A T ' L . PHILOSOPHY. 61. Schoedler and Medlock's Natural Sciences—(12mo.  Eng. hdi.) An Introductory Manual of tho Natural Sciences; comprising Mineralocy, Geology, Botany, Physiology, and Zoology. By FREIDIUCH ScnoEDLER and HENRY SIEDLOCK. Illustrated by uumerous engravings. Cloth, pp. 314, rgc. Price SI.  62. Schoedler and Medlock's Physical Sciences—(12rr.o.  Eng. Edi.) An Introductory Manual of the Physical Sciences; comprising Physics, Astronomy and Chemistry. By FEEIDRICH SCIIOEDLE-U and ILENEY MEDLOCK. Illustrated by numerous engravings. Cloth, pp. 302, rgc. Prico Si.  .( t  . .63. Lardner's Natural Philosophy — (4 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.) Handbook of Natural Philosophy. (1) Mechanics. With three hundred and fifty-seven illustrations. (2) Hvdrostatics,Pneumatics and Heat. With two hundred and ninety-two illustrations. (3) Electricity, Magnetism and Acoustics. AVith threo hundred and ninety-five illustrations. (4) Optics. With two hundred and ninety illustrations. Cloth, pp. xvi + 403, xv + 403, xix+426, xvi+432=1725, win. Prico 54.50.  64. Lardner's Natural Philosophy [28]—(3 v. Am. Edi.)  . '•  Handbooks of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy. By DIONYSIUS LAHDNEK, D.C.L. First Course: Mechanics, Hydrostatics, Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Sound, Optics. Second Course: Heat. Magnetism, Common Electricity, Voltaic Electricity. Third Course: Meteorology and Astronomy. Illustrated by several lithographic plates, a telescopic chart, on steel, of tho south-eastern quadrant of the moon's disc, and by upwards of eight hundred engravings ou wood. In three volumes. Sheep, pp. 649 +451 + 76S=lS03, lb. Price 53.80.  65. Powell's Natural Philosophy — (12mo. Eng. Edi.)  History of Natural Philosophy, from the earliest period to the present time. By BADEN POWELL, M.A. Cloth, pp. xvi+391=407, le. Price to cts.  66. Brewster's Optics [37]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) A Treatise \\  on Optics, By Sir DAVID BREWSTER, LL.D., F.R.S. Cloth, pp. xii+520 = 532, le. Prico 70 cts.  67. Potter's Optics—(2 v. Svo. Eng. Edi.) An Elemcntary  Trcatise on Optics. Part I. Containing all the requisite pfopositions carried to first approximations; with the construction of optical instruments. For the use of Junior " university Students. Part II. Containing the higher propositions, with their applica' tions to tho more perfect forms of instruments. By RICHARD POTTER, A.M. Cloth, pp. viii+163, xi+193=335, wm. Price $4.75.  68. Potter's Mechanics—(Svo.  Eng. Edi.) An Elementary  Treatise on Mechanics. For tho uso of Junior "University Student?, POTTEE, A.M. Cloth, pp. viii+iC2=170, wm. Prico $1.60,  By RICHARD  69. Herschel's  Natural Philosophy  [9]—(12mo. Eng.  Edi.) A Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural rhilosophy. By W. H E R S C U E L , Esq., A . M . Cloth, pp. 372, lc. Prico 70 cts.  JOHN  F»  70. Moseley's Moohanics ri4]-(12mo. Eng. Edi.) Illustrations of Mechanics. By the Rev. Iv. Price Sl-80.  MOSELEY, A . M .  Cloth, pp. 3S+-i3G=472,  lc.  71. Miscellaneous—(4 v. ISmo. Am. Edi.) Price for the four volumes f2.23, as follows:  (1.) Herschel's Natural Philosophy [9]—(12mo.  Am. Edi.)  A Preliminary Discourse ou the Study of Natural philosophy. By Jontf F. W. H E E 8CHEL, Esq., A . M . Cloth, pp. 279, lib. Prico 50 cts.  (2.) Moseley's Mechanics [14]—(ISmo. Am. Edi.) Illustrations of Mechanics. Illustrated. By the Rev. H . M O B E L E T , E . B M W I C K , LI/.D. Cloth, pp. 332, A 6 . Price 3 S cts.  A.M.  Revised by  JAMES  (3.) Renwick's Mechanics [12]—(18mo. Am. Edi.) Applications of the Science of Mechanics to Practical Purposes. Illustrated. By K E S W I C K , LL.D. Cloth, pp. 327, hb. Price 75 cts.  JAMES  (4.) Eenwick's Natural Philosophy [15]—(18mo. Am. Edi.)  Familiar Illustrations of Natural Philosophy, selected principally from Daniel' Chemical Philosophy. By J A M E S E E X W I C K , L L . D . Cloth, pp. 379, lib. Price 60 cts. 8  72. Brewster's Letters of Euler [18]—(2 v. 18mo. Am.  Edi.)* Letters of Euler; on different subjects of natural philosophy. Addressed to a German Princess. With notes, and a life of Eulor, by D A V I D B R E W S T E R , L L - D . , containing a glossary of scientific terms. With additional notes by J O H N G E I S C O M , LLJ). Cloth, pp. 336+«G=S22, hb. Prico 75 cts.  .73. The Coin Collector's Manual [131]—(2 v. 12mo. Eng.  Edi.) Or guido to the numismatic student in tho formation of a cabinet of coins ; comprising an historical aud critical account of the origin and progress of coinage, from the earliest period to the fall of the Itoman Empire; with some account of tho coinages or Modern Europe, more especially of Great Britain. By II. N O E L H U M PHREYS. With above one hundred and fifty illustrations ou wood and steel. la two volumes. Cloth, pp. 21+352 + 37-1=750, hgb. Price S2.  .74. Bowring's Decimal System—(12mo: Eng. Edi.) The  Decimal System in Numbers, Coins and Accounts: especially with reference to the decimalization of tho currency and accountancy of the United Kingdom. By Sir LL.D. Illustrated with one hundred and twenty engravings of coins, ancient and modern. Cloth, pp, 215, nc. Prico 00 cts.  JOHN BOWKINO,  75. Taylor's Decimal System — (IGmo. Eng. Edi.) The  decimal system, as applied to the coinage, and weights and measures of Great Britain. By H E N R Y T A Y L O R . Cloth, pp. 76 gs. Prico 35 cts.  76. Weale's Series, No. 1—(5 v. IGmo. Eng. Edi.) Price for thofivovolumes $1.25.  (1.) Woolhouse's "VVeights and Measures of all Nations, etc., and an analysis of the Christian, Hebrew and Mohammedan Calendars. By W. S. B, W ' O O L U O U S E , F. P". A . S. Cloth, pp. 183, jw. Price 35 cts.  (2.) Tomlinson's rudimentary Mechanics [51-6]—Being a concise exposition of the general principles of mechanical science, and their applications. By With illustrations. Cloth, pp. viir+172=lS0,jti;. Price23cts.  C H A R L E S TOMLINSON.  . • (3.) Tomlinson's Natural Philosophy [4G-2]—Introduction to the study of natural philosophy, for the use of young beginners. By C I I A R L E S T O M L I N S O N . With numerous illustrations. Cloth, pp. vi+162 + 163,jw. Prico 23 cts.  (4.) Tomlinson's Pneumatics [4G-3]—For the use of beginners. By 23  CHARLES TOMLINSOS.  cts.  With numerous illustrations. Cloth, pp.  13S,>«J.  Prico  (5.) Baker's Statics and Dynamics—The principles and practice of  statics and dynamics, embracing a clear development of hydrostatics, hydrodynamics aud pneumatics. With central forces and super-elevation of exterior rail. For tho *isc of schools aud privato students. By J. B A K E E , C. E . pp. liS.iw. Prico 23 cts.  Til. Weale's, No. 2—(3 v. lGmo. Eng. Edi.) Price for the eight volumes $2X0, as follows;  .  (1.) Law's Logarithms [46-11]—(16mo. Eng. Edi.) A rudimentary treatise on losnrfthiiu mid mathematical tables. ""By i t o i ' V LAW, C. E. A double part. Cloth, pp. 1 ( 1 5 , P r i c e l j c t s .  (2-3.) Heather's Descriptive Geometry [4G-8-9]—C2 v. lGmo.  and demy 4to. Eng. Edi.) An elementary treatise on descriptive geometry. With a theory of shadows and of perspective. Extracted from tho French of G. Moh'GE. 'To which is added a description of the principles and practice of isomctrical projection. The wholo being intended as an introduction to the application of descriptive geometry to various branches of the arts. By J . F. HEATHER, 31. A. Cloth, pp. iv-t-137 = 1 11, jta. Tho fourteen illustrative engravings in an atlas with paper cover. Price -15 cts.  '  (4.) Heather's Instruments [46-10]—(16mo. Eng. Edi.) Rudi-  • • • mentary treatise on tha use of mathematical instruments. ' F. HEATHER, 31. A. Cloth, pp. , ju>. Prico 23 cts.  With illustrations. By J .  {5.) Baker's Engineering and Surveying [48-4]—(16mo. Eng.  Edi.) A rudimentary trcatiso on land and engineering surveying. With all tho modern improvements. Arranged for the use of schools and private students, also for practical land surveyors and engineers. Two parts in one. With engraved field book .and illustrations. By T. BAKER, C. E . Cloth, pp. viii + 218=22G,yw. Prico45cts.  (6.) Law's Civil Engineering [48-1]—(16mo. Eng. Edi.) The  .-  rudiments of civil engineering, for the use of beginners. By HENRY LAW, C E . Two parts or volumes, in ono. Cloth, pp. viii4-101+viii+151 = 2u9, ju;. Price 43 cts.  (7-8.) Bumell's Civil Engineering [48-2-3]—(2 v. lGmo. Eng. Edi.) Tho rudiments of Civil Engineering. By HENRY LAW C.E., and the rudiments of Hydraulic Engineering, by G. It. KURNELL, C. E . Vol.111. Parts I.aud II, With numerous illustrations. Cloth, pp. iv + 120+v+lS4=323,yw. Price GO cts.  T78. Forrest's Military Engineering—(8vo. Eng. Edi.) Hand 1  '  Book of "Military Engineering and of the Impleme.its of War; designed with a view to illustrate, to non-professional readers, the various necessary technical expressions found in all historical or popular descriptions of modern warfare. By It. FORREST. Witli numerous illustrations. Cloth, pp. 23 and 20 plates, clays. Price $1.20.  79. Williams' Practical Geodesy [69]—(8vo. Eng. Edi.) Comprising chain surveying, and the use of surveying instruments, levelling, and tracing of contours. Together with trigonometrical, colonial mining, and maritimo surveying. Adapted to the use of surveyors and of students in civil and military engineering. By J. KUTLER WILLIAMS, 0. E , F. E. S., i c . With new chapters on railway, parish, and cstato surveying, With a coloured chart of conventional signs to bo used in drawing plans. Cloth, pp. xx+330=350,ji«p. Price $2.70.  •80. Neville's Hydraulic Formulas [78]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.) Hydraulic tables, coefficients, and Formuhc for finding tlie discharge of water from orifices, notches, weirs, pipes, and rivers. By JOHN NEVILLE, C. E.. 31. It. J.A. Cloth, pp. 224, juj. Prico $1.05.  81..Schoedler's Book of Nature [23]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) The book of nature; au elementary introduction to tho sciences of physics, astronomy, chemistry, mineralogy, geology, botany, zoology and physiology, }Jy >'KEii>i:icir ScrroEMLER, Ph. D. With a glossary and other additions and improvements, translated rrom tho German by. HEXRY MEDLOCK, V. C. S. Illustrated by six hundred and seventy-nine engravings on wood. Cloth, pp. 57S, rgc. Price £2.  . 8 2 Schoedler's Book of Nature [23]—12mo. Am. Edi.)  . ,  The book of nature : an elementary introduction to the sciences of physics, astronomy, chemistry, mineralogy, geology, "botany, zoology, and physiology. By FRIEDRICIC SCHOEDLER, Ph. D. With a ^lossarv and other additions and improvements, translated from the German by HENRY JIEDLOCK, F.C.S. Illustrated by six hundred and seventy-nine engravings on wood. Cloth, pp. 691, lb. Price $1.40.  •-83. McGauley's Natural Philosophy [1]—(8vo. Eng. Edi.)  Lectures on natural philosophy, delivered in the National Normal School, Dublin. By tho Rev. J. WILLIAM 3ICGAUI,EY, Professor. In two parts, illustrated. P a r t i . "Natural Philosophy. Part II. Chemistry. Cloth, pp. 6S0, gs. Prico $2.  . 8 4 . Bird's Natural  Philosophy [4] —(12mo. Am. Edi.)  Elements of natural philosophy, being an experimental introduction to the study of the physical sciences. Illustrated. Bj- G O L D I X O B I R D , A. 3L, 31. D. Cloth, -102, ii Prico 90 eta.  pp.  85. Draper's Natural Philosophy [2]—(12mo. Am. Edi.)  A text book on natural philosophy, containing the most recent discoveries and facts compiled from tho best authorities. Illustrated. By J O H N W I L L I A M D R A P E R . MJ>. Sheep, pp. 3S1.A6. I'rice 00 cts.  86. Olmstead's Natural Philosophy [29] —(12mo. Am.  Edi.) A compendium of naturat philosophy. Adapted to tho use of the general reader, and of schools and academies. Revised and enlarged, embracing the latest discoveries in the science. To which is now added a supplement, containing instructions to young experimenters. With a copious list of experiments. By B E N S O N ; ' O L M S T E D , LLJD. Cloth, pp. -130, rbc. Price 75 cts.  87. Parker's Philosophy [8]—(12mo. Am. Edi.) A school  compmdium of natural and experimental philosophy, embracing the elementary prin* ciplcs of the science. With a description of the Steam and Locomotive Engines. Illustrated. By R I C H A R D G R E E N P A R K E R , A.M. Cloth, pp 405, asbc. Price SO cts.  88. Sprague's Natural Philosophy — (12mo, Am. Edi.) Tho elements of Natural Philosophy; copiously illustrated by familiar experiments, and containing descriptions of instruments with directions for using, designed for tho use of schools and academies. By A. W. S P R A G U E , A.M. With two hundred and eighty engravings. Cloth, pp. 363, psc. Prico 51.  89. Coues' Natural Philosophy [17] — (12mo. Am. Edi.)  Outlines of a System of Mechanical Philosophy—being a research into tho laws of Force. By S A M U E L E L L I O T T C O U E S . Cloth, pp. 330, lie. Price SO cts.  90. Tate's Mechanics and Natural Philosophy [35]—(2 V. 12mo. and Svo. Eng. Edi.) (I) Exercises on Mechanics aud Natural Philosophy; or. au easy introduction to engineering. Containing various applications of tho principlc of work; the theory of tho steam-engine, with simple machines; theorems and problems on accumulated work, &c. Cloth, pp. lo.'i, lc (pc.) (->> The Principles of Mechanical Philosophy applied to Industrial Mechanics. Forming a Sequel to tho Author's " Exercises and Natural Philosophy." By TnoMAS T A T E , F.R.A.S. With about two hundred wood engravings. Cloth, pp. lc. Price for the two volumes 52-S0.  91. Willis' Mechanism — (Svo. Eng. Edi.) Principles of Mechanism; designed for the use of students in the "Universities, and for engineering students generally.. By R O B E R T W I L L I S , 3IJU Cloth, pp. XXX+410 = 476,JI(;JJ. Prico S3.25.  92. Boucharlat's Mechanics—(Svo. Am. Edi.) An Ele-  mentary Treatise on Mechanics. Translated from the French of M. B O C C H A R L A T , with additions aud emendations designed to adapt it to the use of tho United States '• Military Academy. By E D W A R D H. C O U R T E N A Y . Cloth, pp. 432,7.6. Prico S1.S0.  93. Arnott's Physics [31]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)  Elements of  Physics; or,natural philosophy, general and medical, written for universal use m plain or non-technical language, and containing new disquisitions and practical -suggestions. Comprised in five parts. (1]I Somatotosy and Dynamics. (2) Mechanics. (3) Pneumatics, Hydraulics and Acoustics. (4) Heat and Light. (5) Animal and Medical Physics. Complete iu one volume. By N E I L A R N O T T , M.D. Revised and corrected, with additions, by I S A A C H A Y S , MJ>. Sheep, pp. 430, lb. Price 51.90.  94. Eoye's Pneumatics—(Svo. Am. Edi.) A Treatise OTL Pncumatics; being the physics of gases, including vapors, &c. Illustrated by numerous' fine wood engravings. By M A R T I N ' H. B O Y E , M.D. Cloth, pp. 110, ecib. Price .  95. Allen's Mechanics of Nature [51]—(Svo.  Am. Edi.)  Philosophy of the Mechanics of Nature and tho source and modes of action of natural motive power. Ev T . A L L E N . Illustrated with numerous wood cuts. Cloth, pp. 10 + 797=313, dac. i'rice 52.S0.  96. Powell's Undulating Theory [53]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.) A General aud Elementary View of the Undulatory Theory, as applied to tho dispersion of light, aud some other subjects; including tho substance of several papers printed iu the Philosophical Transactions, and other journals. By the Rev. B A D E N P O W E L L , M.A., F.R.S. With a colored chart of prismatio spectra, for various media. Boards, pp. 50+132=18S, iwp. Price 51.90.  8 7 . Comte's Philosophy of Mathematics [49] —(Svo.  Am. Edi.) Tho Philosophy of Mathematics. Translated from tho " Cours do Philo. aophic Positive," of A U G U S T E C O M T E . By W. M . G I L L E S F I E . In two hooks; Aualy. sis aud Geometry. Cloth, pp. 260, hb. Price 51.  S8, Davies' Logic of Mathematics [-IS]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) • The Logic and Utility of Mathematics: with the best methods of instruction explained and illustrated. Hy'CiiAULES D A V I E S , LL.D. With side indexes. Cloth, pp. S75, asbc. Price PO cts.  89. Gregory's Practical Mathematics [50] —(Svo. A m . Edi.) Mathematics for Practical Men : being a commou-placo book of principles, theorems, rules aud tables iu various departments of pure aud mixed mathematics, with their applications, especially to the pursuits of surveyors, architects, mechanics and civil engineers. With numerous engravings. By O L M I T I I U S G R E G O R Y , L L J ) . , F.RA.S. Corrected and improved. Cloth, pp. 12+427 =439, hcb. Price $1.20.  100. Hutton's Mathematics—[50*]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.) A  Course of Mathematics; composed for the uso of tho Royal Military Academy. By C t f A K i . E s HDTTON', LL.D., F.R.S. Carefully corrected, entirely remodelled, and adapted to the course of instruction now pursued in tho Royal Military Academy. By W I L L I A M R U T H E R F O R D , P.R.A.S. Cloth, pp. 0+895=901, wtc. Price 52.30.  101. Reynold's Natural Philosophy [55] — (Demy 4to.  portfolio; with Text. Eng. Edi.) A Scries.of Twelve Diagrams of Natural Philosophy together with an {I) Introduction to Natural Philosophy. (2) A popular account of tho properties of Bodies. (3) Mechanical Powers. (4) Motion and Machinery. (5) •The Science of Hydrostatics. (0) Hydraulics. (7) Pneumatics. (8) Acoustics. (9) Optics. (10) Electricity. (11) Magnetism. (12) Chemistry. Tho "Introduction!" being a companion to Reynold's Series of Popular Diagrams of Natural Philosophy, comprising two hundred aud fifty illustrations. Iu a portfolio, cloth and paper, pp. Prico J2.40.  &i,jr.  BOOKS OF R E F E R E N C E — A R T S A N D MANUFACTURES. (This it properly a continuation from No. 41, on page 147.)  I. T H E  ARTS.  102. Ure's Dictionary [2]—A Dictionary of Arts, Manufac-  , tures and Mines: containing a clear exposition of their principles and practice. By A N D R E W U R E , M.D. Illustrated by nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood. And to which is appended a Supplement of recent improvements to the present time. With two hundredengraviugs. Cloth, pp. 1310 + [Supplomcnt]301—1044, dac. Price84.  103. Antisell's Useful Arts [121]—(12mo. Am. Edi.) A  Handbook of the Useful Arts; including agriculture, architecture, domestic economy, engineering, machinery, manufactures, mining, photogenic and telegraphic a r t b e i n g an expositiou of the principles and practice, and acompendof European and American inventions. By T. ANTISELL, iu.D. With numerous engravings. Cloth, double columns, pp. 2TGSS^G00. gpp. asbc. "Prico 51.00.  104. Kipley and Taylor's Literature and the Fine Arts  [122]—(l2mo. Am. Edi.) Hand Book of Literature and the Fine Arts: comprising complete and accurate definitions of all terms employed in bellcs-Iottres, philosophy, theology, law-, mythology, painting, music, sculpture, architect ure, and all kindred arts. Compiled and arranged by GEORGE IUVLEV and BAYARD TAYLOR. Willi numerous engravings. Cloth, double columns, gpp to asbc. Prico $1.60.  105. Crabbe's General Knowledge [12G]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) A Dictionary of General Knowledge; comprising an explanation of words and things connected with literature, art anil science. With a glossary of abbreviations and foreign idioms, &c., &c. By GEORGE CRABDE, A.M. Corrected, enlarged, aud brought down to tho present timc,)jy HENRY DAVIS, M.A. Illustratedwtih numerous engravings. Cloth, double columns, pp. 5-iS, -wtc. Price $1.75.  106. Weale's Dictionary [4]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) Eudimen-  tary Dictionary of Terms used in civil and naval architecture, building and construction, early and ecclesiastical art, civil and mechanical engineering, fine art, mining, surveying, ..Vc To which is added explanatory observations on numerous questions connected with practical art and science. Hy Jonx WEALE. Cloth, double columns, pp.5W,j«7. Price $1.10.  J07. Francis* Arts, Sciences and Manufactures ("123]—  . (8vo. Eng. Edi.) A Dictionary of the Arts, Science* and Manufactures. Illustrated with eleven hundred engravings. JJy G. FnAOfCja, t\$.S. Clolhj double co.luru.us, pp.  .' s/.rpc* Price .$2.  108. Buchanan's Technological Dictionary—(ISmo. Eng. Edi.) A T c c h n o l o g i e a l ' D i c t i o u a r y : explaining tho terms of the arts, sciences, l i t e r a t u r e , p r o f e s s i o n s a n d t r a d e s . E y \ V . M . B U C H A N A N . C l o t h , p p . 750, wlc. P r i c e .$1.40-  109. Lanzi's History o f Painting [-13]—(3 v. 12mo. Edi.) a r t s to LUIZI Titian  Eng.  T h e H K t o r y of I'ulutlnz h i I t a l j , from the period of the r e v i v a l of tho lino the end o f tho eighteenth c e n t u r y : translated from tho Italian of the A b a t o LANZI. B y T H O M A S ROSCOE. I n three volumes. W i t h Portraits of K a l l a c l l c , a u d C o r r c g g i o . C l o t h , p p . 8 + 5 U 4 - 5 3 S 4 - G - t - 4 9 3 = 15S9. hgb. P r i c e S21.0.  110. Reynolds' Works [-15]—(2 v. 12mo. Eng. Edi.)  The  L i t e r a r y W o r k s o f S i r J o s h u a Reynolds,' F i r s t President o f the R o y a l A c a d e m y . Tow h i c h is p r e f i x e d a m e m o i r o f the a u t h o r ; w i t h r e m a r k s o u h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , illustrative of his principles and practice. B y H E N R Y W I L L I A M BEECIIER. In two v o l u m e s , w i t h a p o r t r a i t o f S i r J o s h u a R e y n o l d s . C l o t h , p p . S + 4 6 3 4 - 4 9 5 = 900, hgb. P r i c o $1.40.  111. Lectures o n Painting [44]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) By theRoyal Academicians, B A R R Y , O P I E and F u s i L I Edited, w i t h an Introduction and notes, critical a n d illustrative, by R A L P H N . W O B X U M , w i t h a portrait of F u s i l i . C l o t h , p p . i v 4 - S G 7 = 571, hgb. P r i c e $1.  112. Butler's Imitative Art [40]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) Principles of I m i t a t i v e A r t ; from L e c t u r e s delivered before tho O x f o r d A r t Society. i n g L e n t T e r m , 1S32. By G E O R G E B U T L E R , M . A . C l o t h , p p . x v i + 2 3 1 = 2 4 7 , P r i c e $1.25.  Durgwp.  113. Wornum's Epoch of Painting— (ISmo. Eng. Edi.; The E p o c h s o f P a i n t i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d ; or sketch of tho history of p a i n t i n g , ancient and m o d e r n , s h o w i n g its g r a d u a l a n d various developments, from the earliest ages to t h o present time. By R A L P X . W O R N C M . C l o t h , p p , 509, gcx. P r i c e SO c t s . ;  114. Moore's Colour applied t o Decoration—(lGmo. Eng. Edi.)  By  G . B.  MOORE.  C l o t h , p p . 74, wm.  P r i c e 53 c t s .  115. Sculpture, &C. [2G]—(12mo. Am. Edi.) Sculpture and theP l a s t i c A r t . I t s rise a n d progress f r o m tho earliest aires to the p r e s e n t t i m e , etc. By t h e a u t h o r o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e A r t o f P a i n t i n g . C l o t h , p p . 333, j p j e . P r i c e 73 c t s .  116. Painting [24]—(12mo. Am. Edi.)  Painting, its Rise and  P r o g r e s s , f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t a g e s t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . W i t h s k e t c h e s o f t h e L i v e s and". W o r k s o f m a n y o f t h e e m i n e n t A r t i s t s o f A n c i e n t a n d M o d e r n t i m e s , a n d a b r i e f no— tico o f tho p r i n c i p a l p u b l i c galleries of A r t i n E u r o p e . C o m p i l e d from tho best authorities. C l o t h , p p . 423, j p j e . P r i c e 80 c t s .  EC. MANUFACTURES. 117. Reynolds' A r t S j Sciences and Mamifactures—(Demy 4to. P o r t f o l i o . E n g . E d i . ) A series o f twelvo D i a g r a m s e x e c u t e d o n q u a r t o d r a w i n g - b o a r d s , f u l l - c o l o r e d , w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n as f o l l o w s :—(1) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e A n i n i a L Kingdom. (2) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h o M i n e r a l K i n g d o m . (3) T h e M e t a l s . (4) . M a n u f a c t u r e o f G l a s s . (.>)• D i a g r a m o f T e m p e r a t u r e . (»») P o p u l a r B o t a n y . (7) M a n u f a c t u r e of C o t t o n . (S) T h o B a r o m e t e r . (9) N a t u r a l O r d e r o f p l a n t s . (10) M a n u f a c t u r e o f Cast Iron. ( I I ) S p e c i f i c G r a v i t i e s . (12) M a n u f a c t u r e o r C o a l - g a s , j r . P r i c e $1.50. \  118. Appleton's Dictionary [1]—(2 v. Royal. Svo. Am. Edi.}. Dictionary of M a c h i n e s , Mechanics, Engine-work a n d E n g i n e e r i n g ; designed for P r a c t i c a l W o r k i n g M e n , a n d those i n t e n d e d for t h e E n g i n e e r i n g P r o f e s s i o n . I n two- volumes. I l l u s t r a t e d w i t h f o u r t h o u s a n d e n g r a v i n g s o n w o o d . H a l f c a l f , p p . 9G0+960 = 1920, (lac. P r i c o $10.  119. Williams' Model Drawing and Perspective [98]— (Svo. E n g . E d i . ) A M a n u a l f o r T e a c h i n g M o d e l D r a w i n g f r o m S o l i d F o r m s , t h o m o dels founded on those of M . D u p u i s ; combined w i t h a popular view of Perspective, a n d a d a p t e d to the e l e m e n t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n o f classes i n schools a n d p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . By B U T L E R W I L L I A M S , C . E . , F - G . S . V n d e r t h o s a n c t i o n o f t h e C o m m i t t e e o f C o u n c i l , on Education. W i t h fourteen beautiful plates engraved on t h i c k paper, a n d u u i n o rous woodcuts. C l u t h , p p . xv-f-257=.272, j i e j j . ^ c . Price$2.70.  120. Weisbaoh's Mechanics and Engineering [67]—(2 v. 8vo. A m . E d i . ) - P r i n c i p l e s o f t h e M e c h a n i c s o f M a c h i n e r y a n d E n g i n e e r i n g . B y J U L I U S W E I S D A C H . E d i t e d by W A L T E R R . J O H N S O N , A . M . C . & M . E . I n two v o l s . I l l u s t r a t e d w i t h o n o t h o u s a n d e n g r a v i n g s o n . w o o d . C l o t h , pp. 4J6+3G$=*$54, ( 6 . P r i c e S4.70.  121. Tate on Materials [70]—(Svo. Eng. Edi.) Containing various original and useful "Formula*, specially applied to Tubular Bridges, "Wrought Iron and Cast Iron JSeaius, i e . By T U O A I A S T A T E , F.lt.A.S. Cloth, pp. Su, lc. Prico fl.23.  122. Byrne's Model Calculator [7fi]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) The  Practical Model Calculator, for the Engineer, Mechanic, Machinist. Manufacturer of Engine-work, Naval Architect, Miner and Millwright. By O L I V E R . B Y R N E , C E . • Cloth, pp. 5<Jl,/ic6. Price $2.S0.  123. Nystrom's Screw Propeller [G4]—(Svo. Am. Edi.)—A  Treatise on Screw Propellers and their Steam Engines. "With practical rules and examples how to calculate and construct the same for any description of vessels, accompanied with a Treatise on Bodies in motion in Plnid, exemplified for propellers and vessels, also a full description of a calculating Machine. By J . " V Y . N T S T R O I L . "With thirty-two plates and wood cuts. Cloth, pp. 232, hcb. Price ?2.S0.  124. Bourne's Steam Engine [54]—(4to. Eng. Edi.) A Trea-  tise on the Steam Engiuo in its application to mines, mills, stenm navigation, and railways, by tho Artizaii Club- Edited by J o n x B O U R N E , C E . Illustrated by thirtythree plates, ami threo hundred and forty-nino engravings on wood. Cloth, pp. 233, (Am. dac. Ibc.) lc. Price SO. v  125. Reynold's Steam Engine [56]—(4to, portfolio. Eng. Edi.) 'Historical and Descriptive account of the Steam Engine—designed to convey a popular idea of its principle and mode of action. A companion to Kcynolds' Large Diagrams of the Condensing aud Locomotive Engines, 8vo. paper, pp. 8. With Reynolds* Diagrams of the Condensing and Locomotive Steam Engines, mounted on canvas and coloured. Eucloscd in a portfolio. Cloth, jr. Price for the two vols. $2,10  126. Ferguson's Steam Engine [58]—(8vo. Eng. Edi.) The  Steam Engine, with numerous illustrations. Contributed to the " Encyclopedia Hotropolitaua," By " W I L L I A M F E R G U S O N , A . M , F . C S . Cloth, pp. rgc. Prico  127- Overman's Manufacture of Iron [107]—(8ro. Am.  Edi.) Tho manufacture of iron iu all its various branches, including a description of ' wood-cut tin--, coal digging, and the burning of charcoal and coke, the digcing and roasting of iron ore; the building aud management of b!ast furnaces, working by charcoal, coke, or anthracite ; also a description of forge hammers, rolling mills, blast machines, hot blast, &c. To which is added an essay on the manufacture of stccL F R E D E R I C K O V E R M A N , M.E. With one hundred and fifty wood engravings. Cloth, pp. 402, hcb. Price  128. Byrne's Metal Worker's Assistant [10S]—(Svo. Am.  Edi.) The practical metal worker's assistant, containing the arts of working all metals and alloys, forging of iron aud steel hardening and tempering, melting and mixing, casting aud founding. With tho application of the art of Electro-Mctallnrgy, to manufacturing process. With numerous engravings on wood. By O L I V E R B Y R N E , C. & M . E . Cloth, pp. 577, hcb. Prico S'i-20.  129. Overman's Metallurgy [102]—(Svo.  Am. Edi.) A  Treatise on Metallurgy; comprising Mining and General and Particular Metallurgical Operations, with a d C f t C r i p t i o n o f charcoal, coke and a n t h r a c i t e f u r n a c e s , b l a . > t machines hot blast, forge h a m m e r s , rolling mills, i e . By P B E H E E I C K O V E R M A N , C E . With three hundred and seventy-seven wood- engravings. Cloth, pp. 720, due. Price 5-1.50.  130. Phillip's Metallurgy [103]  (12mo. Eng. Edi.)  A  Manual of Metallurgy, or practical treatise on the Chemistry of the Metals, contributed to tho '-Encyclopedia Metropolitana." Bv J O H N A R T I I C R P H I L L I P S . Illustrated by numerous engravings. Cloth, pp. u+C05 = C25, rgc. Price 52.50.  131. X-Tapier's Electro-Metallurgy [105]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.)  A Manual of Elcctro-Metallurgy.including the application of the art to manufacturing processes. By J A J C E S ? « A P I E R , F.C.S. Revised and enlarged. Illustrated by eugravInss. Cloth, pp. 350, rgc. Price $1.  132. Hunt's Photography [US]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) A Manual ,  of Photography.  By U O J I E R T H U N T . Enlarged and illustrated by numerous engravings. Ciotb, pp. 321, rgc. Prico $1.15.  133. Miscellaneous—(2 v. 12nio. Eng. Edi.) Price for the two volumes 80 cts., as follows:  (1.) Sparling's Photographic Art.—Theory and Practice of the  - Photographic Art; including its Chemistry and Optics, with minute instructions in the practical manipulation of tho various processes, drawn from the author's daily practice. By W. S I M E U X O . Cloth, pp. 212, wsoc. Prico -15 cts.  ; (2.) Gore's Electro-Deposition.—Theory and Fractice of electro-  deposition, including every known modo of depositing metals, prcparinz metals for Immersion, taking moulds, and rendering them conducting. By GEORGE GORE. Cloth, pp. viii + 10l = 112, xcsoc. Price 35 cts.  134. R e i d ' s W a t c h a n d C l o c k M a k i n g [106]—(Royal Sv-o. Eng. Edi.)  Trcatiso on clock and watch making, theoretical and prac'tical. By REID. With twenty folding illustrative plates engraved on steel, and a tablo of prime numbers up to 10,000. Cloth, pp. i v i i i + -lGG=-lS4, 4«. Price5l-20.  TUO.UAS  135. W e a l e ' s S e r i e s , N o . 1.—(5 v. 16mo. Eng. Edi.) Prico for the five volumes 51-90, as follows:  -  v  (1.) Dcnnison's Clock and Watch Making—[51-12] A Rudi-  Jicntary treatise on clock ami watch making > with a chapter on church clocks, and an account of tho proceedings respecting the great "Westminster clock. "With numerous drawings ana iilustraiious. By E D M U X D B E C K E T T D E N M S O N , M. D-, Two parts in one. Cloth, pp. x-f'279—2S9.;'ic Price 45 cts.  " •• {2.) Tomlinson's Door Locks—[51-3] Rudimentary Treatise • on the construction of Lo^ks. Edited by C H A R L E S illustrations. Cloth, pp. vi +172=178. Price 35 cts.  '•(3-) Baker's Mechanism—[51-7]  TOMLIXSON-  With numerous  Elements of Mechanism:  elucidating the scientific principles of the practical construction of machines. For the use of schools aud students in mechanical engineering. With numerous specimens of modern machines, remarkable for their utility and' ingenuity. By T. B A K E R , C E . Illustrated by two hundred and forty-three engravings. Cloth, pp. XI+225=215, j w . Prico 45 cts.  (4.) G-lynu's Cranes and Machinery — [5L-8]  Rudimentary  treatise on the construction of Cranes and Machinery for raising heavy bodies, for tho ; erection of buildings, and for hoisting goods. By J O S E P H G L Y N N ; p.R.S. With '' numerous plates and. wood cuts. Cloth, pp. viii + H2=r20,7to. Price 2-3 cts. ;  (5.) Glynn's Power of "Water—[46-4]  Rudimentary Treatiso  on the power of Water, as applied to drivo flour mills, and to give motion to turbines . and other hydrostatic engines. By J O S E P H G L Y N N , F.E.S. With illustrations, and an appendix on centrifugal and rotary pumps. Cloth, pp. iii+U3=lC0,iu7. Price 45 cts.  136. W e a l e ' s S e r i e s , N o . 2.—(7 v. IGino. Eng. Edi,) Prico for the seven volumes 53.-10, as follows:  (1.) Lardner's Steam Engine—[4G-5] A Rudimentary Treatiso  • on the Steam Engine; for the use of beginners, By D. trations. Cloth, pp. iv-i-132=13G,jiy. Price 23 cts.  (2.) Stepheuson's  LAKDXER,  Railway Details — [46-3]  Sketches of Railway details. By R. -31. SlEPitExsos-, Esq., C E . Cloth, pp. ,jio. Prico 23 cts.  Introductory  With illustrations.  -•,'•(3.) tjewell's Steam and Locomotion — [5G-1] '  LL.D. With illus-  Elementary  treatise on steam and locomotion; based on the principle of connecting science with 'practice in a popular form. With illustrations. By Joxix S E W E L L . L . E . T W O parta" •• mone. Cloth, pp. xi + 3l2="2'l.jw. Price-15cts.  (4.) Atlas of Plates [2]'—(folio.)  Illustrative of the preceding  volume, and as a drawing book of locomotive engines, jw. Price 51-00.  (5.) Armstrong's Steam Boilers — [46-4]  A Rudimentary  treatise on steam boilers; their construction and practical management. By R O B E R T A R M S T R O N G . With illustrations. Cloth, pn- iv+i33=U2, jw. Price 23 cts.  (0.) Murray's Marine Engine—[4G-G] Rudimentary Treatiso  on Marine Engines, and steam vessels; together with practical remarks on the screw and propelling power, as used in the Royal and Merchant JS'avy. By R O B E R T M U R R A Y , C. E . Two parts in one. With illustrations. Cloth, pp. xvii+ 237 = 251, jui. Prico  45 cts.  '  (7.) Dempsey's Tubular and other Bridges—[51-4]  Rudi-'  mentary Trcatiso—tubular and other iron girder bridges, particularly describing tho Britannia and Conway Tubular Bridges; with a sketch of iron bridges, and illustrations of tho applications of malleable iron to tho art of bridge building. With wood engravings. By G. D R Y S D A L E D E M I - S K Y , C. E . Cloth, pp. viii+132 = 110, jw. Prico 23 cts.  137. W e a l e ' s S e r i e s , N o . 3.—(2 T. lGmo. Eng. Edi.) Prico for the two volumes 90 cts., as follows:  (1.) Prideaus's Pui-1 and Furnaces—[51-1]  On economy of  fuel, particularly with reference to revcrbcratory furnaces for tho manufacture of ' . Iron, and to steam boilers. By T . SYHES PEJDEAUX, Esq. Cloth, pp. xvi+12$-=HJ, jw. Prico ii cts.  (2.) Jlnglies' Gas "Works—[5.1-2] A treatise on Gas-works  ami the practice of manufacturing and distributing coal-gas; with sonic account^of the most improved methods of distilling coal in iron, brick and clay retorts, and of tho various modes adapted for purifying coal-gas. Including also a chapter on the hydrocarbon or water-gas.and on tho rating of gas-works in parochial assessments. )ly S. ' Hcoirrs. Wltli illustrations. Threo parts in one. Clolh, pp. xxiv-f30S=39S, jw. Price "0 cts.  , 138. Weale's Series, No. 4.—(7 v. IGmo. Eng. Edi.) Prico for the seven volumes 52.S3, as follows :'  v  (1.) Bland's Ships and Boats.—Experiments on the form of  ships and boats. With numerous illustrations of models. By V BLAND, pp. 71, jw. Price 23 cts.  (2-3.) Peake's Ship-Building—[47-1-2]  Rudiments of naval  architecture; or an exposition of the elementary principles of the science and tho ractical application to naval construction; compiled for the use of beginners. By AMESPEAKE. Three parts in two volumes. With illustrations. Cloth, pp. vi, 132+ xii, 173=323,;'w. Price 70 cts.  S  (4.) Jeans' Navigation and Nautical Astronomy--[47-5] Tho  ractical part; containing rules for finding the latitude and longitude, and the varia?ion of the compass. With numerous examples. By H. W. JEANS, P. R. A. S, Double volume. Cloth, pp. vii + 270=2S0,.7fc. Price Ifi cts.  (5.) Kipping's Masting and Rigging—[47-3] Rudimentary ••- '  treatise on masting, mast-making, and rigging of ships. Also, tables of spars, rigging, blocks, chain, wire and hem'p ropes,fcc.fcc.relative to cvevy class of vessels. Together with an appendix of dimensions of masts and yards of the Royal Navy of Great Britain and Ireland. By ROBERT KIITING, R. A. Illustrated witii numerous wood cuts. Cloth, pp. xii + 119 = 101,j'ic. Price 35 cts.  (6.) Greenwood's Navigation—[47-4] The Sailor's Sea-Book.  Rudimentary treatise* on navigation. Iu two parts: (1) How to keep the log and workitoff. (2) Onfinningtho latitude and longitude. By JAMES GREENWOOD,-Esq., • • B.A- To which arc added directions for great circle sailing; au essay on the law of storms and variable winds; and explanation of terms used in ship-building. With several engravings and coloured illustrations of tho Hags of maritime nations. Two parts in one. Cloth, pp. viii + lGG=17-l,./'-tc. Price 43 cts.  "(7.) Stevenson's Lighthouses—[47-6] A Rudimentary Treatise  on the history, construction, and illumination of Light-Houses. By ALLAN STEVENSON, LL-.B., F.R.S.E. With fourteen illustrative engravings, and one hundred and four wood cuts. Three parts in ono. Cloth, pp. viii+130+vi+20i=31S, jw. Prico • " • JO cts.  139. Weale's Miscellaneous, No. 5.—(4 v. 16mo. Eng. Edi.)  •-  Price for the four volumes SI.15, as follows:  (1.) Law on Roads—[51-5] Rudiments of the art of construct-  ing and repairing common roads. By HENRY LAW, C. E. To which is prefixed a general survey of tho principal metropolitan roads. By S. HUGHES, C-E. With illustrations. Cloth, pp. Vidjw. Prico 23 cts.  (2.) Field's Painter's Art—[51-0] Rudiments of the painter's  art; or a grammar of colouring, applicable operative painting, decorative architecture, and the arts. With coloured illustrations and practical instructions concerning tlio modes and materials of painting, ic. By GEORGE FIELD. Two parts in one. Cloth, pp. viii+170=178, jiu. Price 45 cts.  (3.) Fromberg's Painting on Glass—[51-10] An essay on the  art of painting on glass. From tho German of EMMANUEL OTTO FKOMRERG. Cloth,  pp-100, jw. Price 2'i cts.  _ •,  (4.) .Gessert's Glass Staining—[Rudimentary treatise on the art  of painting ou glass, or glass staining ; comprising directions for preparing tho pigments andfluxes,for laying them upon tho glass, and for firing or burning in tho colours. From the German of Dr. 51. A. GESSEHT. To which is added an appendix on the art of enamelling, &c. Cloth, pp. 92,j'w. Prico 23 cts.  140. Weale's Series No. 6—(10 v. IGmo. Eng. Edi.)  Price for  the ton volumes 52.75, as follows :  (1.) Burgoyne's Blasting and Quarrying [50-1]—Rudimentary  treatise on the blasting and quarrying of stone for building and other purposes. By Lieut. Gen. Sir JOHN BURGOYXE, Iv. C. B., &c. With numerous wood engravings. Together with other useful additions relating to the samo objects. Cloth, pp. vii+100 = 113, jw. Price Slots.  (2.) Burnett's Limes, Cements, Src. [50-2]—Rudimentary treatise GEO. R. RuitNELL, C. E. ClQth, pp.  • on limes, cements, mortars, plastering, Ac By viii+121=132,>w. Price 23 els.  (3.) Dobsou's Bricks and Tilc3 [50-3]—A rudimentary treatise  on tho manufacture of bricks and tiles : containing an outline of the principles of brick-makiuz, and detailed accounts of tho various processes employed in the making of bricks aud tiles in ditl'ercnt parts of England. Two parts in one Illustrated with, cighty-threo engravinga on wood. Glnth.jip. X l i * Hti + lv + l0ilsa.'lS,,/ii'. iVluo .15 ebb  (4-5.) Dobsou's Masonry and Stone Cutting [50-4-5]—A rudi-  mentary treatist ou masonry and stone cutting; in which the principles of masonic projectionand their application to the construction of curved wing walls, domes, oblique bridges, aud Roman and Gothic vaulting are concisely explained. By EDWARD DOUSON. With forty.uino engravings on wood, and fifty-ono illustrations drawn on stone. Cloth, pp. xiii + ll8 = 131. Pricc-l.lcts.  (6.) Dobson's Foundations [50-C]—A rudimentary treatise on  "foundations aud concrete works; containing a synopsis of the principal cases of foundation works, with the usual modes of treatment and practical remarks on footings, timbor-planking, sand, concrete, and beton pilc-drivimr, caissons and cofferdams. With an account of the new mole executed in beton at the harbor of Algiers. Illustrated t y wood cuts. By EUWARD Donso.v, C. E . Cloth, pp. V + 130 = 133,/KI. Prico 23 cts.  (7.) Dobsou's Art of Building [50-7]—Kudiments of the art of  building: In five sections, viz.: I. General Principles of construction. II. Materials used in building. III. Strength of Materials. IV. Uso of Materials. V. Working drawings, specifications aud estimates. Illustrated with ono hundred and eleven woodcuts. By EDWARD Donsox. Cloth, pp. xvi + 174 = l0n,ii». Price 23 cts.  vr  (8.) Tomlinson's Warming and Ventilation [50-Sj—A rudimentary treatise on warming and ventilation ; being a concise exposition of tho general principles of the art of warming and ventilating domestic aud public buildirigs, mines, light-houses, ships, Jtc. By CUAJtLES ToitLIKSOJf. With numerous illustrations. Cloth, pp. 200, jw. Prico 45 cts.  iiA.0.) Dempaey's Drainage and Sewerage [50-9]—A rudimentary f * treatise on tho drainage of towns and buildings; suggestive of sanitary regulations that would conduce to the health of an increasing population. Bv G . DRTSDAXB DEMF-SEY.C- E . With numerous illustrations. Cloth, pp. no, jw. Price 23 cts.  (10.) Allen's Cottage Building—Budimentary treatise on cottage building: or, hints for improving the dwellings of the laboring classes. E y C . B R U C E A L L E N , Architect. With an appendix containing .designs, also for a higher, class. Cloth, pp. 122. Prico 23 cts.  1 4 1 - Weale's Series, No. 7—(4 v. lGmo. Eng. Edi.) Price for 51.50, as follows: (1.) Pync's Perspective [49-4]—A rudimentary and practical  tho four volumes  treatise on perspective for beginners ; simplified for the use of juvenile students and amateurs in Architecture, Painting, Ac., also adapted for schools and private instructions. Revised and enlarged. By G E O - P Y X E , Artist. Eiglity-six illustrations on copper and wood. Two parts in one. Cloth, pp. v + lG5 = 170. Price-t5 cts.  (2.) Garbett's Design in Architecture [49-3]—Budimentary  treatise ou the principles of design in architecture as deducible from nature and exemplified in the works of tho Greek and Gothic Architects. By EDWARD LACY GARUKTT, Architect. With sixty-six illustrations. Parts I and II in one volume. Cloth, pp. viii+2il 1 = 272, jw. Price 45 cts.  (3.) Leed's Architecture [49-1]—Rudimentary architecture for  the use of beginners and students. The orders, and their ./Esthetic principles. ByW. II. L E E D S , Esq. With illustrations and considerable additions. Cloth, pp- viii-V 130=117, jw. Prico 25 cts. V  (4.) Bury's Architecture [49-2]—Rudimentary architecture for  the use of beginners The history and description of tho styles of architecture of various countries, from tlie earliest to the present period. Witli illustrative engravings. . By T. TALBOT BURY, Architect. Cloth, pp. viii + 191 = 100, jw. Prico35cts. " l 1  1 4 2 . Didron'sChristian Iconography [SG]—(12mo.Eng.Edi.) \  Or, the history of Christian decorative art in thouiiddle ages. By JI. LIDROK. \ Translated from the French by E . J. MILLIXOTON. Comprising the history of tho '. representation of the nimbus, the aureole, the glory and the trinity. With uumerous illustrations. Cloth, pp. 593, hgb. Price 51.  1 4 3 . Miscellaneous—(2 v.) Price for the two volumes $1.05, as follows:  •'•'*: (1.) Gould's Church Music in America—(12mo. Am. Edi.)  History of church music in America; treating of its peculiarities at different periods; its leirititimatc use and its abuse. With criticisms, cursory remarks and notices relating to composers, teachers, schools, choirs, societies, conventions, books,.&c. By KATIIJLSLEL D . G O U L D . Cloth, pp. 51G, gl. Price CO eta.  (2.) Spencer's Treatise of Music [51-13]—(IGmo. Eng. Edi.)  A rudimentary ami 11racticaltrcati.se on music. • By C H A R L E S C H I L D S I ' E S C E K . TWO .  volumes in one. With numerous musical illustrations. Cloth, pp. viii-f l'-3-t-17G» 3U7,yt0. I'rice 15 cts.  144. Miscellaneous—(4 v. iCmo. Am. Edi.)  Price for the four  volumes S2.75, as follows:  (1.) Overman's Manufacture of Steel [11S-2]—Containing the  "- practice and principles of working and making steel. A hand-book for blacksmiths, and workers in steel and iron, waggon-makers, dicsinkers, cutlers and manufacturers of tiles and hardware, of steel aud iron, and for men of science and art. By FREDERICK* OVERMAN. Cloth, pp. 2-20, mb. Price 55 cts.  (2.) Larkin's Brass Founder's Guide [118-3]—The practical  brass and iron founder's guide: a concise treatise on the art of brass founding moulding, &c. "With numerous practical rules, tables, aud receipts for gold, silver, tin, and copper founding; plumbers, bronze, aud bell founders, jewellers, &c. .Ice. B y JAMES LARKIN. Clotli, pp. 20t,pmi/>. Prico 75 cts. .  (3.) Overman's Moulder's and Founder's Guide [11S-4]—A  treatise on moulding and founding in green sand, dry sand, loam aud cement; tho moulding of maehino frames, mill-gear, hollow-ware, ornaments, trinkets, bells, and statues, description of mould for iron, bronze, brass, and other metals, plaster of Paris, sulphur, wax, aud other articles commonly used in casting, the construction of melting furnaces, the melting and founding of metals, tho composition of alloys, bronze, varnishes and colours for castings, also, tables on the strength and other qualities of cast metals. By FREDERICK OVERMAN. With forty-two wood engravings. Cloth, pp. 252, mb. Price 70 cts.  (4.) Cotton Spinner and Carder [118-5]—The American cotton spinner and manager and carder's complete guide. Cloth, pp.  2Z2,psc.  Price 75 cts-  145. Miscellaneous—(3 v. IGmo. Eng. Edi.) Price for the three volumes S2. as follows:  (1.) Templeton's Steam Engine [119-2]—The practical esami-  nator on steam nnd the steam engine. With instructive reference relative thereto, -..arranged for tho use of engineers, students and others. By WILLIAM. TEMPLETON, Engineer. Cloth, pp. 1-13, hcb. Price 00 cts.  (2.) Colburn'sLocomotive Engine [119-1]—Including a descrip-  /  "tlon of its structure, rules for estimating its capabilities, and practical observations on its construction and management. By ZEEAHCOLDURN, "W ith illustrations. Cloth, pp. 1S7, hcb. Prlcu 00 cts.  (3.) Kentish on Box of Instruments [119-3]—-A treatise on a box of instruments and tho slide-rule. For the use of gangers, engineers, seamen and students. By THOMAS KENTISH, With a plate aud numerous figures. Cloth, pp. 228, hcb. Prico 80 cts.  146. Miscellaneous—(3 v. IGmo. Am. Edi.) Price for the three volumes 62, as follows;  • (1.) Smcaton's Builder's Companion [119-5]—The builder's  companion: containing the elements of building, surveying, aud architecture. With practical rules and instructions connected with'tho subject. By A. C. SMEATON, C E , Ac. With illustrative figures. Cloth, pp. 273, hcb. Price SO cts.  (2.) Painter, Gilder, and Varnishei's Companion [119-8]—•  Containing rules and regulations in everything relating to the arts of painting, gilding, varnishing and glass-staining: numerous useful and valuable receipts : tots for tho detection of adulterations in oils, colours. &c, and a statement or the diseases and^accidents to which painters, gilders and varnishers arc peculiarly liable: with tho "simplest and best methods of prevention and remedy. Witu illustrations. Cloth, pp. ISO, hcb. Price GO cts.  (3.) Arrowsmith's Paper Hanger's Companion [119-9]—A  treatise on paper-hanging ; in which the practical operations ot the trade are systematically laid down; with copious directions preparatory to papering; preventions against the effect of damp on walls; tho various cements aud pastes adapted to the several purposes of tho trade i observations on tho panelling and ornamenting of rooms, &c. By JAMES ARROWSMITH. Cloth, pp. 103, hcb. Price GO cts.  147. Miscellaneous (3 v. IGmo. Am. Edi.)—Price for the thrco volumes $2, as follows :  (1.) Hughes' American Miller [119-4]—Tho American Miller and "Millwright's Assistant. By WILLIAM CARTER il VOHES. With numerous illustrations.' Cloth, pp. 223, hcb. Prico 80 cts.  (2.) The Turner's Companion [110-7]—Containing instructions  in concentric, elliptic, and eccentric lurnh-gi ami various plates of chucks, tools, and instruments I and directions for using the eccentric cutter, drill, vertical cutter, aud circular rest. With patterns aud instructions for working thoih. llluntrnluu by four** .tetm foli.tinjf platco miaraved m KIIHII. Cloth, pp. 133, hcb. Prico CO cts.  (3.) Stokes' Cabinet Makers' Companion [119-G]—The Cabi-  net and Upholsterer's Companion i comprising the rudiments and principles of cabinet making and upholstery! with familiar instructions, illustrated by examples, for attaining a proficiency in the Art of Drawing, as applicable to Cabinet Work : tho processes of veneering, inlaying, and buhlworkl the art of dyeing and staining wood, ivory, bono, tortoise shell, Ac. Directions for lacquering, japanning, and varnishing, to make French polish t to prepare the best glues, cements, and compositions 1 and a number of receipts, particularly useful to workmen generally. With explanatory aud illustrative engravings. By J . STOKES. Cloth, pp. 137, hcb. Price CO cts.  148. Miscellaneous (3 v. lGmo. Am. Edi.)—Price for the three volumes .51.80, as follows:  (1.) Dyer and Colour-Maker's Companion [119-10]—Contain-  ing upwards of two hundred receipts for making colours on the most improved principles, for all tho various styles and fabrics now in existence t together with tho scouring process, and plain directions for preparing, washing off and finishing tho goods. Cloth, pp. 101, hcb. Price 60 cts.  (2.) "Walker's Electrotype Manipulation [119-11]—Being the  theory and plain instructions in tho art of working tin metals, by precipitating them, from their solution, through tho agency of galvanic or voltaic electricity t also, in tho arts of electro-plating, electro-gilding, aud electro-ctchim* t with an account of the mode of depositing metallic oxides, and of the several applications of electrotype in the arts. By CUASLES V. WiiKEJt. Illustrated by wood-cuts. Cloth, pp. 76, hcb. • Price CO cts.  (3.) Mortimer's Pyrotechnist's Companion [119-12]—Or, a  familiar system of recreative ;firc-works. With a section on tho importance and usn of rockets. B y G. W. MORTIMER. With engravings. Cloth, pp. ICS, hcb. Prico cts.  €0  149. Overman's Mechanics [79]—(12mo. Am. Edi.) Me;  chanics for tho Millwright, Machinist, Engineer, Civil Engineer, Architect and Student, containing a clear elementary exposition of the principles and practice of building machines. By FREDERICK OVERMAN. Illustrated by ono hundred and fifty-four fino wood engravings by WILLIAM G i n o y . Cloth, pp. 420, Igc. Price 90 cts,  150. Evans' Millwright's Guide [77]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) .The Young Millwright and Miller's Guidei illustrated by twenty-eight descriptive plates, by OitVEii KVA>"S. With additions and corrections by THOMAS P . JONES. With a description of an improved merchant Ilcur-mill, with twenty-eight plates and engravings. By O. &. O. liVANS, ttnginecrs. Sheep, pp. 400, lb. Price $1.S0.  151. Kelk's Mechanics' Text Book [S0l—(12mo. Am. Edi.)  The Mechanics' Text Book and Engineer's Practical Guide i containing a conciso treatise on the nature and application of mechanical forces, action of gravity; tho elements of machinery, rules and tables for calculating the working effects of machinery ; of the strength, resistance and pressure of materials; with tables of the weight and cohesive strength of iron and other metals. Compiled and arranged by THOMAS KELK. TO which is added, Valuable Hints to tho Young Mechanic on tho choice of a Profession; misdirection of industry; intellectual cultivation, and the studies and morals of the mechanic, Sc., <£c Uy Jon x FROST, LL.D- Cloth, pp- 403, psc Price 80 cts."  152. Knapen's Mechanics' Assistant [81]—(12mo. Am.Edi.) Tho Mechanics' Assistant: a thorough practical treatise on Mensuration and tho Sliding Rulo: teaching tho manner of drawing all regular superficies, and the most conciso methods of finding the areas of all regular superficies, and tho contents of all regular solids, both by numbers and by the sliding rule. The strength of materials— Treating also upon tho Laws of Motion,—Tho Descent of Falling Bodies—Tho Mechanical Powers—Tho Elasticity aud iorco of Steam—Specific Gravities—Levelling—The Pendulum, &c-, adapted for the use of carpenters, shipwrights, wheelwrights, sawyers, gangers, lumbermen, students and artisans generally. B y J - D. K i f APEN, A . M . Cloth, pp. 273, dac. Prico 75 cts.  153. Napier's Manual of Dyeing [116]—(12mo. Eng. Edi.) A manual of the art of dyeing. By JAMES XAPIEE, F.C.S. Illustrated by engravings. With glossary and index. Cloth, pp. 10+405—121, rye. Price 51.50. 154. Napier's Dyeing B.eoeipts (12mo.Eng.Edi.)—A Manual o f Dyctns Receipts for general uso. By JAMES NAPIER, F-C-S, With numerous examples of dyed cloth aud silk. Cloth, pp. 77, rgc. Price 516i.  142  155. Napier's Chemistry of Dyeing [117]—(12mo. Am. Ed!.) Chemistry applied to dyeim.-- By J A M E S X A F I F . U . I ' . E . S . Illustrated by engravings.' "With glossary and index. Cloth, pp. I2'J, hcb. Price 51.20.  ' -—  156. Smith's Dyer's Instructor [115]—(12mo. Am. Edi.)—  Comprising practical instructions in the art of dyeing silk, cottiwi, wool, and worsted, and woollen floods, as single and tws-colorcd damasks, moreen*, camMs, last inr^s, shot cobourgs, silk striped Orleans, plain Orleans from white and coloured warps, merinos, woollens, yarns, Ac. Containing nearly eiirht hundred receipts. To which is added a treatiso on the art of padding: and the printing of silk warp?, skeins, aud handkerchiefs, and tho various mordants and colors for the different styles of such work. iiy DAVID SMITH, pp. 333, hcb,  I'rice ?1.20.  157. Murphy's Art O f Weaving [111]—(Svo. Am. Edi.>—A  Treatise ou the art of weaving. Illustrated by nearly two hundred and sixty figures, with warp, waft, and yarn tables, for tho uso of manufacturers. By JOHN MuiiPnr* Cloth, pp. 513, bs. Price $ 3 . 2 0 .  '158. Scott's Cotton Spinner [112]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) Tho  practical cotton spihner, and manufacturer; tho manager's, overlooker's, and mechanic's companion. A comprehensive system of calculations of mill gearing and machinery, from the primary moving power, through the different processes of card* ing, drawing, slubbing, roving, spinning.and weaving, with the recent improvements in machinery. To which aro added compendious tables of yarns and reeds for silk, linen, worsted and wool. By K. S C O T T . Corrected and enlarged, with plates of American machines. By O L I V X B B V R N B , C. 4 M . E . Cloth, pp. 577, hcb. Prico 52^0.  159. Dyeing and Calico Printing—(Svo. Am. Edi.) A Prac-  tical Treatise on Dyeing and Calico Printing; including the latest improvements and inventions. "With an appendix. By an experienced dycr.assisted by several scientific gentlemen. With engravings On steel aud wood- Cloth, pp. xxi + 701=725, hb. Prico 52,80.  160. Silk, Cotton, Linen, & c • ,  •  • / i '  [5]—(Svo. Am. Edi.) The  History of Silk, Cotton, Linen, Wool, and other fibrous substances; including observations on spinning, dyeing and weaving. Also, an account of the pastoral life of tho ancients, their social state and attainments in tho domestic arts. With appendices on P L I N Y ' S Natural History; on the origin and manufacture of linen and cotton paper; on felting, netting, etc., deduced from copious and authentic sources. Illustrated by steel engravings. .Cloth, pp. xxiii + lG-l = 'iS7, hb. Price 52.10.  161. Morfit's Soap and Candles .(Svo. Am- Edi.)—Chemistry applied to the Manufacture of Soap and Candles. By C A M P B E L L JSIonpiT. Illustrated with one hundred and seventy engravings on wood. Cloth, pp. 511, ah, Price 5-t.  162. Kenten's Soaps—(12mo. Am. Edi.)  The art of manufac-  turing soaps, including the most recent discoveries: embracing the.bcst methods for making all kinds of hard, soft, and toilet soaps: also olive oil soap, and others necessary in the fabrication of cloths. With receipts for making transparent aud camphino oil candles. By P H I L I P K E N T E N . Cloth, pp. 210, linb. Prico SO cts.  163. Morfit's Perfumery—(12mo. Am. Edi.)  Perfumery: its  manufacture and use. With instructions in every branch of the art, and recipes for all tho fashionable preparations. Illustrated by numerous wood cuts. With additions and improvements. By C A M P B E L L M O L F I I . Cloth, pp. 370, hcb, Prico $1.20.  Source: O n t a r i o , Department o f E d u c a t i o n , A G e n e r a l Catalogue o f Books i n Every Department o f L i t e r a t u r e f o r P u b l i c S c h o o l s i n Upper Canada, T o r o n t o , L o v e l l and Gibson, 1857, pp. 186-231.  APPENDIX  B  GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC SCHOOL LIBRARIES IN UPPER CANADA (EKCLOSUKE) : G B X E B A t B»otnu*HHMi **ft SBE Esa'ADtisuiiiiM* OK PUBLIC Softool LisaAR•  IES IN U p r E R CANADA., '  j  Adopted by the Council of Public Instruction on the Fccand of August The Council of Public Instruction for Upper Canada, as authorized by the Thirty-eighth Section of the School Act of 1850, makes tho following Regulations for the Establishment and Management of Public School L i b r a r i e s , — .v  ' ". '•  1. There may bo School Section Libraries, or Township Libraries, as each Township I Municipality shall prefer. In the cas'o of the establishment of a Township Library, the Town- ". ' j ship Council may R- ctiim within its tho Library to be the Library to be  cither cause the Bonks to bo deposited in ono place, or recognise each School jurisdiction as a Branch of the Township Library Corporation, and cause divided into parts, or sections, and allow each of these parts, or sections, of circulated in succession in each School Section. '  If. Each Township Library shall be under the management of the Township Corporation; and each Branch, or School Section, Library shall bo under the management of the .SchoolSection Corporation. The Township Council shall appoint, or remove, the Librarian for thoTownship, and each Trustee Corporation shall appoint, or remove, tho Librarian for the School Section, us already provided by the Seventh clause of theTwelth Section of the School A c t o f 1850. - '.' v  III. Each Township Council and each School Section Corporation receiving Library Books, musr, provide a proper Case for these Books, with a lock and key ; and must cause the Case and Books to bo kept in some safe place and rcpaircl when injured ; and must also provide Buffi. cient wtnpping-paprr to cover tho Books, aud writing paper to enab'o the Librarian to keep Minutes of tlie delivery and return of Books, and write tho needful Notes, or Letters. The Members of the Township and School Section Corporations aro responsible for the security and presentation of tho Books in their charge. " I V . When any Books arc taken in charge by the Librarian, he is to make out a full and complete Catalogue of them ; and at tho foot of each Catalogue, ths Librarian is to sign a Receipt to the following effect:— ' " I , A . B . , do hereby acknowledge that the Books specified in the proceeding Catalogue have been delivered to me by the Municipal Council of the Township of .or. (asthecase may be,) by the Trustee of School Section Number in the Township of , to be carefully kept, by me as their Librarian, for the uso of the inhabitants within their jurisdiction, according to tho Regulations prescribed by authority of the Statute, for tho management of .Public School Libraries, to be accounted for I13' me, according to the said Regulations, to said Council, (or Trustee*, a? the case may bo,) and to bo delivered to my Successor in office, Dated at  ,183..  ' • ' . * •  Such Catalogue, with tho Librarian's Receipt, having been examined by such Council, o r Trustees, or some person, or persons, appointed by them, and found to be correct, shall be de-. liverod to such Trustees, or Council, and shall be kept among their official papers.  5 The principles upon Vhicli tlie P.ook foi- these Public School Libraries were selected are fully explained on paste COS ot the Tenth Volume 0! this Documentary History. In addition, Doctor Hycrsnn stated that, in establishing these Libraries, bis object was.: ' 1 . The prevention of the expenditure ot any part ot the Library Fund in the purchase and circulation ot Books, hav" Ing a tendency to.subvert public morals, or vitiate public taste. _ • . 2. The protection ot the local parties acrainft imposition by interested Peek Vendors In regard to both the price and character of Books introduced into their Libraries. 3. The placing ot the remotest Municipalities upon an equal fouling with those adjoining the Metropolis, in regard to the terms and facilities ofproeuriiig- Books. 4 Hie selection, procuring and rendering oqnallv acceptable to all School Municipalities of the U n d » .large variety of attractive and instructive reading Books, and that upon the most economical and advantageous terras. Sec the remarks in a Note of President Eliot ot Harvard University on " Tons ot ephemeral reading matter " »Uleh is generally circulated, and "which is neither good in form or substauce." Page i!Dl of the Tenth i olume ia the Documta- _ tary History.  j ;  ; I ! ;  144  DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TUB TOWNSHIP, OR SCHOOL SECTION, LIBRARIAN-. V. Tho Libr.vi.an is accountable to the Trustees, or Council, appointing him. for tho cost of every Book that is missing, or for tliu whole scries of which it formed a part. The Librarian nlso accountable in like manner, for any injury which a Book may appear to. have sustained by being soiled, defaced, torn, orotlieiwise injured ; andean be relieved from such accountability only by the Trustees, or Council, on its being satisfactorily shown to them, that 60rae resident within their jurisdiction is chargeable for tho cost of tho Book so missin", or for tho amount of injury so done to any work.,'. VI. The Librarian must see that in each Book belonging to tho Library, tho number of tho Book and the name of (ho Library to which io belongs shall be written, either on a printed label pasted insido of the cover of.the Book, or on the lirst blank leaf of i t ; and ho is, on no account, to deliver out any Book which is not thus numbered and identified. H e is also to causo all Books to be covered with strong wrapping paper, on tho back of which is to bo writton tho title of tho Book, and tho number in largo .figures. . .As new Books nrn added, thfl numbers aro to bo continued, and they tiro in no case to bo altered ; so that, if the Book be lost its number and Title must still be continued on tho Catalogue, with a note that it is missing. VII. The Librarian must keep a blank Book, which may consist of a few sheets of •writting-paper stitched together, — ruled across the width of tho puper, so ns to leave five columns of tho proper size, for the following entries,—to bo written lengthwise of tho paper ; In tho fir-t column, tho title and number of tho Book ; in the.second column, tho naino and residence of the person to whom delivered ; in the third column, the dato of delivery ; in the fourth column the date of ils return ; in tho fifth column, remarks respecting tho condition of the Book, as good, injured, torn or defaced, etc., in tho following form,— Title and Number of tho Book.  ,  To whom delivered  When delivered  When  returned  Condition of • the Book  - -I'viiii.Tr——'"-"-^  • Ss it will be impossible for tho Librarian to keep any trar.c of tho Books without such. Minntcf his own interest., as well as his duty to the public, should induce him to bo exact in nakin" his entries at the time any Book is delivered ; and when returned, to be equally c'xict in noticing its condition, and making tho proper minute in regard to it. .  VIII. The Librarian is to act at all times, and in all thingi, according to tho ordors of tho Corporation appointing him ; and whenever he is removed, <jr superceded, ho is to deliver, to his Successor, or to tho order of his Trustees, or Council, all Books, Catalogues and papers appertaining, or relating, to the Library ; and if. they are found to be satisfactory, his Trustee, !,r J, unci), or Successor in office, shall give him a Bcceip.t, to that effect. But, if any of the Hooks shall havrt been lost, or in anywiso injured, the Librarian shall account and pay for such l'-ss, or injury, unless released from the obligation to do so by his Trustees, or Council. I X . ; Tho Trustees and Council arc to attend faithfully to tho interests of their Library ; they arc, at all times, when they think proper, and as often as possible, to examine the Books carefully, and compare tho Books with tho Catalogue, and note such a » a r o missing, or injured-; aud to'seo that all foifciturcs are promptly collectc-j, and that injuries done to Book? are promptly repaired, and that the Library is properly managed and taken care of. X.  Tho following aro tho Regulations for the c3re and use of the Books in the Library  .  l . ' T h e Librarian has charge of the Books, and is responsible for their preservation and delivery lo his Successor, or to tho order of his Trustees, or Council, appointing him. '' -v A copy of the Catalogue of the Books is to be made out and kept by the Librarian, and open to (he inspection of all persons entitled to get books from the Library, at, all seasonable times, or at such times as may be determined by the Trustees, or Council. 3. Books are to be delivered only to residents of a School Section'in which a Library, Or Branch Librarv, is established ; or to the residents of a Township, where Branch School Section Libraries do not exist. 4. Not more than one Book can bo delivered to a person at a time ; and any one having a. Book, out of the Library must return it before ho can receive another. ' 5. No person, upon whom a forfeiture has been adjudged under these Regulations, Can receive & ' Book while such forfeiture remains unpaid. G. Each individual residing in a School Section, of sufficient age to read tho Books bolongin? to the Library, shall bo entitled to nil thebenefits and privileges confcrrcdbvthe.se Regulations rotative to Tubbc School Libraries ; but no person,- under age, can bo permitted to take a Bool?'out of tho Librarv, unless ho resides-with some inhabitant who is responsible for him ; nor can ho recejvtjn Book, if notice has been given by his parent, or guardian, or person with whom he reside*. Mint he will not be responsible for Books delivered to such minor. But any minor can draw a Book from tho library, on depositing the cost of such Book with tho Librarian. „ -  145  7. When there is .1 sufficient number of Volumes in a Library to accomodate all the residents of the (school Section who wish to borrow, the Librarian may permit each Member of a Family to tal 0 Books as often as desired, so long as the Regulations aro punctually and fnilv observed. But where there arc not Bonks enough to supply all the borrowers, the Librarian must "accomodate as many possible, by furnishing each family in proportion to (lie number of its readers, or borrowers, or by delivering not. more than ono Book at a time for each Family. 8. Kvery Book must be returned lo the Library within as many weeks after it shall have been taken out. as it contains hundreds of pages,—allowing one week for the reading of 0 hundred page*; but the same person may again take the same Book, if application has not been made for it, while it was so out of the Library, by any person entitled, who lias not previously borrowed tbo «arno Basis, — in whloh case, AMBII Applicant (mall have the preference In tho use of It. And where- t.hero have' been several such applicants, the preference shall be according to priority in tho time of tbeir appli(Cations, to bo determined by tlie Librarian. 9. If a Book bo not returned at the proper time, the Librarian is to report tho fact to the Trustees, and bo must exhibit to them every Book which has been returned, injured by soiling, defacing, tearing, or in any other way, before such Book shall be again loaned out, together with the name of the person iu whose possession it was when so injured. . . . 1 -10. For each day's detention of a Book beyond the time.allowed by- theso-regulations, the forfeiture of one penny shall bo incurred by the borrower, and shall be payable- forthwith to the' Librarian. "'  ' 11. For the destruction, or loss, of a Book a forfeiture shall be incurred by the borrower equal to the cost of the Book, or of the set, if the Book be one of a scries. . And, on the payment of such forfeiture, the party paying it'shall be entitled to the residue of the series. ' 12. For nnv injury which n Bonk may sustain by a borrower, and before its return, a forfeiture shall be incurred by such borrower, of not less than Three pcnco-half-pcnny for every spot ot grease, or dirt, upon the cover, or upon any leaf of the volume ; for writing in, or defacing, any Book, or .or cutting, or tearing, the cover, or the binding, or any leaf, not less than Six pence, or more than the cost of tho Book.  13. If a leaf be torn out, or so defaced, or mutilated, that it cannot be read, or if anything be written in the volume, or any other injury done to it, which renders it unfit for general circulation, the Trustees shall consider it a destruction of the Book, and the forfeiture shall be incurred accord, ingly, as above provided, in case of the loss of a Book. 14. When a Book shall have been detained seven days heyond tin time allowed by these ReguJU. tionn, the Libraria'i) shall give notice to the borrower, to return the same within threo days. If not rciuni'-.d within that time, the Book may be considered as lost, and tho forfeiture imposed in such case as incurred accordingly. 15. When, in the opinion of the Librarian, any forfeiture has been incurred by any person under, those Regulations, he shall refuse to deliver any Book to the party liablo to suchfineuntil the Tni5' tecs shall have .decided upon such liability. - \-v 10. It is the special duty of the Librarian to givo notice to the borrower of a "Book that shall be returned injured, to show cause why he should not pay the forfeiture incurred. Such notice may be given to the agent, or child, or sent to bis house, of the borrower who returns the Book; and it should alv.uvs, if possible, bo given at tho time the Book is returned. ' 17. The Librarian is to inform the Trustees of every such notice git-en by him, and they sha^ assemble at-the time and place appointed by him,.or by any notice given by them, or any One of them, and shall hear the case. They arc to keep a Book of Mir.utes, in which every forfoitu.ro which, in their judgment, has b e e incurred, shall be entered and s'.gned by them, or tho major part of them, or by their Secretary on their order, and these Minutes^ or a duly certified COpy of theiit, shall be conclusive evidence of each of the facts recorded in tlicin. IS. It 6hall be the duty of the Trustees to prosecute prorjptly.for the collection of the forfeitures adjudged by them, and all forfeitures shall be applied to in defraying the expenses and increasing tho Books of the Library. , ~ \ ?• X I . The foregoing Regulations apply to Branch School Section Libraries, as well as to School Section Libraries ; alsO'to Township Councils, the samo as to Trustees of School Sections, and to Township Libraries, and to the residfiiits in a Township, in which there are no School. Section Libraries, the same as to tho residents of a. School Sections ; likewise to the Librarian of a Township, the same as to a Librarian of a School Section. - ' X I I . When a Township Councillor, or School Trustee, shall bo notified as having incurred a forfeiture for detafning, injuring or destroying a Book borrowed from the Library, he shall not act as a jutlgo in'his own case, but such caso shall bo decided upon by the other M c j » b e r s , or tv majority of them, o£ tho Township Council, or School Corporation authorized to ace i n the matter. In all cases tho acts of a majority of the Corporation are to bo considered as the acts of the Corporation; . .  XITT. In order to prevent tho. introduction of' improper Books into the Libraries, it is requiied that no Book shall be admitted into any Public School Library, established under these Regulations which is not' included in tho Catalogue of Public School Library Books, prepared t>y tho Education Department, according to law. XIV. Tho Council, or Truatcos, have authority, if lUcy shall think proper, (according to tho c u i i i n i o n practice of Circulating Libraries), lo require tho borrower to drposit with tho . Librarian a F i n n equal to tho cost of tho Book taken by him, as a security for its safe return, and tho payment of any injury which may be done to it. X V . Those Regulations shall apply to Cities, Towns, and Incorporated Villages, tho same as to School Sections. By tho Fourth clause of tho Twenty fourth Section of the School Act of 1850, the Board of Public School Trustees in each City!, Town, or Incorporated Village, has tho same authority to establish and maintain " a School Library, or School Libraries," as tho Trustees of a School Section have by tho Seventeenth clauso of the Twelfth Section of the same Act, to establish and maintain a School Library. X V I . The foregoing Regulations, being made under- the express authority and require, ment of the Thirty-eighth Section of the School Act of 1850. are binding upon all parties concerned in tho establishment, support, management, and privileges of Public School Libraries ; and all parties act with a full knowledge of those Regulations. X.VJI, The Local SuperirHpndcuts of Schools filionld inspaefc and onquiro into the state , and operations of tho Libraries, or Branch Libraries, within their respective jinisdiction\ av <1 pivo tho results of their observations and inquiries in their Annual Reports ; and eafh Town-, ship and School Section must report annually, at tho time of making the annua' Sch'o il Report^ on tho condition of their Libraries, with the number of Volumes in each, and the success and influence of tho system. XVIII. These Regulations will be subject.to reconsideration and revision from time to time, as oxpbrienco and the circustances of the Country may suggest. .. .., ; T O R O K I O , August 2nd, 1 8 5 3 . 'EGERTOF RTERSOKV-^-,  Source: O n t a r i o , Department of E d u c a t i o n , Documentary H i s t o r y , v o l . 1 1 , pp. 25-28.  .APPENDIX C REMINISCENCES OF RYERSON S LIBRARIES 1  (the r e s u l t of enquiries made by J.W. Emery i n 1917) Dr. James L. Hughes, formerly Chief Inspector of schools, Toronto, writes: "I remember very well the township c i r c u l a t i n g school l i b r a r i e s founded by Dr. Ryerson. A strong box was provided f o r each school section i n the township. Each school had to exchange boxes at stated periods. I often drove with my father when he went to exchange one box f o r another. When I became inspector of schools i n Toronto i n 1873, I found a heap of books i n each school not used at a l l . I had them sorted into usef u l and useless. The useless were sent to the second hand store, the useful were divided among the schools of the c i t y , the p r i n c i p a l s i n turn choosing a book t i l l a l l were divided. They were made the basis of l i b r a r i e s to which we added annually." Dr. Strang of Goderich, whose experience goes back over f i f t y years, states that one of the old l i b r a r i e s s t i l l exists i n the Central School of that town and several others i n the r u r a l schools of Huron county. "The books as a rule were a l l serious, and as the modern demand f o r story books spread the scholars voted them dry and neglected them." Dr. William Scott, p r i n c i p a l of the Toronto Normal School, states "In the f i r s t school i n which I taught i n 1862, there was a l i t t l e l i b r a r y procured with funds obtained from the sale of Clergy Reserves. It was set up i n a cupboard and consisted of about 300 volumes. These were of a s o l i d kind, there were very few story books amongst them. I learned a good deal of History from t h i s l i b r a r y . It was also used extensively by the young men of the neighbourhood, not by the pupils. It was too d i f f i c u l t f o r the pupils, but the young men who took a genuine interest i n improving t h e i r minds read continually from books i n that library." Mr. John Dearness of the London Normal School remarks: "The school l i b r a r i e s that I remember as a youth were kept at the secretary's home i n a trunk. When I became inspector i n 1874, I found here and there remnants of similar l i b r a r i e s occasionally, but they had p r a c t i c a l l y  148  ceased to exist as means of c i r c u l a t i n g books i n the section." Dr. D.J. Goggin, formerly text-book editor of the Department of Education, Toronto, writes: "I had knowledge of two of these l i b r a r i e s . The f i r s t was i n a l i t t l e log school i n the township of Cartwright, Durham County. The books had been purchased out of the Clergy Reserve Fund a l l o t t e d to the school section. The subject matter was f a r beyond public school pupils, but the l i b r a r y was of much service to the older men and women, and I s t i l l r e c a l l with pleasure what an amount of helpf u l reading I did there. When I went to Port Hope i n 1873, I found a small c o l l e c t i o n of books i n the Central School. These had been purchased from the Depository. There were books dealing with the History of Education, School Management, Philosophy, and Ethics. I r e c a l l Lewes' History of Philosophy, and books i n geography, h i s t o r y , and natural science."  Source: John W. Emery, The Library, the Child and the School, pp. 134-136.  s  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105448/manifest

Comment

Related Items