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A systematic review of research related to methods of adult education Stinson, Winona Elizabeth 1967

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A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OP RESEARCH RELATED TO METHODS OP ADULT EDUCATION by WINONA ELIZABETH STINSON B.Sc. The University of Manitoba, 1959 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFHiVENT OP THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Faculty of EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1967 In p re sent ing t h i s t he s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion f o r ex ten s i ve copying of t h i s t he s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives. . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n pe rmi s s i on . Department of ^LJCSOL^.1*^/7 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 Canada Date ^fl*/ ^ fat? ABSTRACT OP THESIS The purpose of this review i s to organize the findings of studies on adult education methods according to the Vemer conceptual scheme, defining adult education processes according to their inherent characteristics, and to extend or cl a r i f y any parts of that scheme. The material reviewed, mainly empirical research conducted with adult subjects, i s used to describe the method, the effects of the learning and the characteristics of the participants. The learning goals are classified as information giving, s k i l l developing and knowledge supplying. As the majority of methods had been studied for their uses, l i t t l e research was available on their iiiaxirnum learning potential. Prom the description of the methods the key element emerged as the amount of overt participation b u i l t into the method, ranging from lowest i n methods whose goal i s to impart information to greatest i n those where learning i s conducted on-the-job. The participant studies revealed that the structure of some methods must be modified for more efficient learning. The research showed that the learning goal became more concrete as the amount of overt participation Increases. Therefore a two-dimensional classification scheme has been developed with the amount of overt participation occupying one dimension and the degree of abstraction of the learning goal the other. Areas requiring further research have been indicated. TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE .1. PURPOSE OF THE THESIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1 Purpose of the Study . . . . . . . . . 1 Importance of the Study . . . 2 Review of the Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Plan of the Study 10 I I . THEORETICAL BASIS FOR THE REVIEW 12 I I I . REVIEW OF METHODS 17 Apprenticeship c, 17 Assembly 18 Findings 19 Effects of the Learning 19 Adoptions 19 Participants 20 Attendance 20 Summary and Conclusions 20 Class 21 Introduction and Description . . . 21 Research Designs. 24 Findings on the Class i n the Liberal Arts 27 Effects of the learning . 27 Participant Evaluations . 27 Attitude Change . . . . . . 27 V CHAPTER PAGE I I I . (continued) Behavioural Change 28 Participants . . . . . . . . 29 Age 29 Sex 30 Marital Status . . . . . . 30 Education . 30 Occupation 31 Social Participation and Ccrarainity Involvement . . . . 31 Length of Residence 31 Attitudes Upon Entering the Program 31 Findings on the Class i n Parent Education 32 Effects of the Learning 32 Findings on the Class i n University Extension 33 Effects of the Earning 33 Participants 36 Findings on the Residential Class 37 Effects of the Earning . 37 Summary and Conclusions 39 Correspondence Study . . . . . . . . . . ^1 Introduction and Description . 4 l Research Designs . . . . . . . . . . 43 Findings 46 v i CHAPTER PAGE III. (continued) Effects of the Learning 46 Participants . . . . . . 49 Summary and Conclusions 51 Directed Individual Study 51 Introduction and Description 51 Research Designs of Cl i n i c Interviews 55 Findings on Clinic Interviews 56 Effects of the Learning 56 Research Designs of Individual Conferences 57 Findings on Individual Conferences 58 Effects of the learning 58 Research Designs cn Individual Contact 60 Findings on Individual Contact 62 Effects of the Learning 62 Participants 67 Age 67 Education 68 Socio-Teconornic Status 69 Individual Contact with Agency Representative . . . . . . 71 Summary and Conclusions 72 Discussion Group . . . . . . . . 73 Introduction and Description .73 v i i CHAPTER PAGE I I I . (continued) Research Designs 75 Findings on the Discussion Group i n Liberal Arts . . . . 82 Effects of the Learning 82 Participant Evaluations . 82 . Acquisition of Knowledge . . . . . . . . 85 Changes i n Attitudes, Values and Ideologies 86 Changing i n Reading Habits . 87 Aesthetic S k i l l s 88 C r i t i c a l Thinking S k i l l s . . . . . 88 Friendship Formation 89 Community Involvement 89 Participants 90 Age . . . 90 Sex 91 Marital Status . , , . . 91 Education 91 Occupation , . 92 Social Participation . . . . . . . . . 92 Length of Residence . 93 Previous Experience i n Adult Education Activities . . . 93 Attitudes and Values of Participants . . . . . . . . . 93 Dropouts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 v l l l CHAPTER PAGE I I I . (continued) Findings on the Discussion Group i n Parent Education . . 98 Effects of the Learning 98 Attitude Change . . . . . . 99 Conceptual Change 100 Findings on the Discussion Group i n Health Education . . 101 Effects of the /Learning 105 Adoption 105 Participants 107 Age 107 Education 107 Audio-Visual Aids 107 Acquaintanceship with Cancer Recoveries 107 Experience with Breast Examinations 108 Didsussion Afterwards 108 Previous Knowledge of Self-Examination 108 Leadership Position 108 Summary and Conclusions . 109 Internship 112 Laboratory . 113 Introduction and Description . . . . . 113 Research Designs . . . . . . 115 Findings . 117 -i x CHAPTER PAGE III. (continued) Effects of the Learning . . . . . . . . . . 118 Stability of Employment 119 Attitudes 119 Modification of Significant Attitudes 119 Changes i n Interpersonal Relationships . . . . . . . 120 Summary and Conclusions 120 Workshop 121 Introduction and Description 121 Research Designs . . . . . 124 Findings 130 Effects of the learning 130 Attitude, Conceptual and Resultant Behavioural Change 130 Adoption 136 Acquisition of S k i l l s 139 Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 IV. CLASSIFICATION SCHEME , 143 V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 155 Effects of the Learning 155 S k i l l Development . . . . . 156 Application of Knowledge 157 Structure of the Method 158 Participants 160 X CHAPTER PAGE V. (ccntinued) Classification Scheme l 6 l BIBLIOGRAPHY. 163 APPENDIX 169 LIST OP FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Attitude Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 2. Behavioural Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 3. Amount of Overt Participation and Degree of Abstractness of Learning Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 ACKNOWIEDGEMEOTS I wish to thank Dr. Coolie Verner, not only for his help and guidance i n dealing with the successive drafts of this thesis, but also for stimulating my interest i n Mult Education. My thanks are extended as well to my father, Lloyd Stinson, for his support-and encouragement. I am grateful to Mrs. Delza Longman for assistance i n matters of style and to Mrs. Kay Pawlowski for the many hours of work done i n typing the manuscript. Winona Elizabeth Stinson CHAPTER I PURPOSE OF THE THESIS I . INTRODUCTION The development and expansion of a body of knowledge depends on the systematic accumulation of information that i s woven together i n t o a l o g i c a l structure. Adult education i s a rapidly expanding d i s c i p l i n e that lacks an integrated structure through which diverse research findings can be woven together with a common t h e o r e t i c a l thread. This s i t u a t i o n i s not unique as i t has been shared by a l l d i s c i p l i n e s i n t h e i r formative stages i n that diverse empirical investigations have always preceeded the establishment of the t h e o r e t i c a l propositions which ultimately provide the structure by which such d i v e r s i t y i s ordered. In adult education there i s an extensive body of empirical research r e l a t i n g t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l processes which has not here-to-fore been integrated and analyzed because of the absence of the pre-requisite t h e o r e t i c a l basis f o r such. I I . PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to review and organize the research which has been done on the methods of adult education using the theore-t i c a l structure proposed by Verner (62) as the basis f o r the analysis. I I I . IMPORTANCE OP THE STUDY 2 Periodic reviews of research are indispensable tools contri-buting to the advancement of knowledge i n a discipline because they provide an inventory of what has been accomplished and thereby identify areas i n which further research i s needed. Such reviews, however, are virtually useless without a theoretical structure to establish some kind of systematic basis for the analysis of achievement and need. In adult education this theoretical structure has been wanting here-to-fore so that previous reviews of research have been unable to do l i t t l e more than itemize research accomplished i n the instructional area of adult education. The presentation by Verner (62) of a theoretical structure for the analysis of the instructional processes i n adult education provides the missing framework for the review of research literature. The present study attempts a review of research related to one aspect of that theoretical structure which i s defined as the method of adult education. Previous reviews by Stott (60) and McCowan (48) have handled the question on techniques and devices within the Verner theory. Together, these three reviews provide a bench-mark for research i n the realm of instructional processes that permits a systematic review of achievement and an identification of areas i n which further research i s needed. IV. PEVTEW OF THE LITERATURE 3 As noted above, previous reviews of research r e l a t i n g to i n s -t r u c t i o n a l processes i n adult education have been inventories o f miscellaneous research studies rather than systematic analyses of a s p e c i f i c body of knowledge due t o the lack of any t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c -ture t o provide a basi s f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of research data. While such previous reviews provide u s e f u l source m a t e r i a l they do not and cannot function as p e r i o d i c statements of systematic progress i n the development of knowledge about the i n s t r u c t i o n a l processes of adult education. Dickens and Heffeman ( 2 0 ) i n 1 9 4 9 reviewed research l i t e r a t u r e produced between 1 9 2 4 and 1 9 4 6 . They included forty-three studies c o n s i s t i n g of twenty from psychology and twenty-three from speech. A large p o r t i o n of the review was devoted t o a c r i t i q u e of experimental procedures. They noted that the psychology experiments test e d discus-s i o n under laboratory conditions, and were concerned about how these r e s u l t s could be applied i n a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s . They were p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l of the lack of s c i e n t i f i c controls under which the speech experiments were conducted. Keltner's ( 3 7 ) review, 1 9 4 9 , summarized forty-one studies i n psychology, speech, adult education and c h i l d education done during the period 1 9 4 0 t o 1 9 4 8 . Although the author d i d not sp e c i f y which studies used adults and which non-adults, the bibliography i n d i c a t e d that many o f the studies were conducted with non-adult subjects. The 4 material was compiled under sections entitled group process, discussion i n the classroom and the problem of leadership. Most of the empirical studies were concerned with the effects of group discussion techniques on various aspects of learning. Sheats and McLaughlin (57), i n 1950, reviewed sixty-nine studies which covered the period 1944 to 1949. They were gathered from the disciplines of adult education, child education, agricultural extension and social psychology; the majority used adult subjects; some of the studies were empirical and some non-empirical. Various processes were examined under a classification scheme consisting of three categories, inter-personal ccranunication methods, small group communication methods and large group communication methods. Under inter-personal communi-cation methods they dealt with correspondence study, the t u t o r i a l , farm and home v i s i t s (directed individual study) and the techniques of role playing and psycho-drama. In small group ccmrnunication methods much of the material was non-empirical; a l l of the empirical material examined pertained to group discussion techniques such as a study of leadership roles and the effects of certain group climates on the group process. Under large group communication methods Sheats and McLaughlin dealt with the conference, the workshop and the institute. Most of this material was non-empirical and dealt with the technique of Philips (66) role playing and socio-drama. The classification scheme used was similar to that used i n agricultural extension which i s based on the amount of communication possible among participants i n the learning 5 situation, e.g. i n individual contact and group contact methods. This classification scheme included methods and techniques. The summary of twenty-four studies by Essert, Lourenco-FiIho and Cass (22), of 1953> was based on studies done during the years 1937 to 1952, with adult subjects, i n the disciplines of adult education and rural sociology. A l l of the material was non-empirical. Mention was made of the technique of teaching reading to adults within the class method. They also discussed research pertaining to audio-visual devices which i s not within the scope of this thesis. In 1956 Crile (17) compiled a sunraary of forty-three studies on meetings held i n agricultural and home economics extension work i n the United States. No critique of the studies was given, but the author did indicate when adult subjects were used. A l l of the research examined was empirical. Findings on attendance at meetings, their effectiveness i n producing adoption, and the comparative effectiveness of meetings versus other agricultural methods were presented. Crile's review contained abstracts of the studies. In 1959 Vemer (61) examined forty-eight studies and articles which dealt with adult subjects during the period 1953 to 1958 i n the disciplines of adult education, rural sociology and social psychology. He discussed meetings, exhibits and bulletins. The findings were organized under sections entitled evaluative studies and factors influencing method. He indicated that many of the studies based their findings cn experience rather than on s c i e n t i f i c study. He 6 presented research evidence which measured the learning effectiveness of these processes. This review reported the theoretical and non-theoretical work done i n remedial reading with adults which was con-cerned with the effects of teaching reading to adults i n a workshop. Under "evaluative studies" Verner (6l) presented the results of experiments which tested the learning effectiveness of method i n the adoption of practices and the effectiveness of one method as compared with another. In this section he reported on correspondence study, the class, agricultural group contact and individual contact methods. The last section of the review dealt with "factors influencing methods" i n which he discussed correspondence study, agricultural and individual group methods and how the effectiveness of these methods was influenced by such factors as age, education, and the work and study habits of the participants. . Brunner (11), i n his 1959 review, devoted two chapters to a survey of adult education methods and techniques. Seventeen studies and research reviews were examined by Brunner, covering the late 19^0's and the 1950's. He dealt mainly with meetings under such headings as effect of the meetings, early extension studies and role playing, i n the disciplines of adult education, rural sociology and social psychology. He summarized the results of meetings on the adoption of practices. In Chapter X on "The Use of Discussion", Brunner (11) discussed eighteen studies which had been done prior to 1958. One section was devoted to a review of the studies which compared the effectiveness of 7 the class and the discussion group i n producing certain measurable learning such as attitude and opinion changes. The t i t l e of this section "lecture vs. discussion" might well have been "class vs. discus-sion" because the studies involved method as well as technique. Not a l l of the studies i n this section were performed with adult subjects although the author did indicate whether or not adults were used. The last section of Chapter X presented results on the technique of group dis-cussion with particular reference to discussion leadership. Commenting on the quality of experimental procedures used i n the studies Brunner said: In terms of the t o t a l research on the subject, a great majority of the studies have been i n colleges and universities and have used college students, a "captive group", for subjects. The studies by psychologists have been c r i t i c i z e d i n terms of the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the situations and their neglect of the social pressures involved i n discussion. Those by others are said to be weak i n design and not rigorous i n procedure. As with the studies by psychologists over 90 per cent of the subjects were high school or college students. There i s no guarantee that the findings, often contradictory, would be valid for non-student groups i n non-student situations. (11:P.170). In a I960 review Dietrick (21) included 185 studies on "lecture" and "discussion" covering the period 1920 to 1959, i n the disciplines of adult education, social psychology, sociology, canmunications, rural sociology and speech. Although he called his review "A Comparative Study of Lecture and Discussion Methods" Dietrick did not make any distinction between the class method and the lecture technique, nor between the method of the discussion group and the technique of group discussion although he attempted to define the terms lecture and discussion and to organize the 8 review on the basis of these definitions. His review did contain infor-mation pertinent to both the class and the discussion group. Dietrick's (21) findings were organized according to the learning acquired. The findings on the effects of the learning were discussed under acquisition of information, the retention of information and a t t i -tude change. He attempted to classify these processes by the kind of learning goal, and he indicated there v/as a great need for a conceptual framework to be developed so that meaningful research could be done. Lacking thi s , research on adult education has been characterized by a lack of precision and a proper theoretical basis. Much of Dietrick's (21) review was devoted to a critique of research procedures; he questioned the use of non-random samples and criterion measures, the absence of control groups and the lack of control over the teacher and student factors. He also questioned the validity of experiments done with college students and their applicability to true adult education situations. In this connection he said: 'Wot only has research been done i n a college situation, but the youthfulness and general grade-orientation of the majority of samples make i t d i f f i c u l t to apply the findings that are available to the adult education situa-tion." ( 2 1 : P . l l l ) . In a chapter on methods and techniques used i n the educational programs of the armed forces of the United States, Goulette ( 2 8 ) , i n 1 9 6 l , examined twenty-two studies carried out i n the period from 19^7 to i 9 6 0 . Methods examined were the class and correspondence study. He 9 used the Verner scheme to differentiate between method and technique. Most of the studies dealt with the effectiveness of certain techniques used within the class method and the teacher-student interview (directed individual study). The findings on the problem of retention i n corres-pondence programs were related to the method of correspondence study. The nine reviews considered here were published between the years 19^9 and 196l and covered studies i n various disciplines; child education, psychology, adult education, speech, corrmunications, social psychology, sociology, agricultural and home economics extension, and rural sociology. Both adults and non-adults were used as subjects although i n the main the studies were concerned with adults. Both empirical and non-empirical material was used. In the earlier years, prior to 1959, there was l i t t l e attempt made to distinguish between method and technique. Three of the reviews, Dickens and Heffeman (20), Keltner (37) a and Essert, Lourenco-Pilho and Cass (22),.were concerned with techniques; two, Crile (17) and Verner (6l) dealt with methods; four, Sheats and McLaughlin (57), Brunner (11), Dietrick (21) and Goulette (28) considered both method and technique, but only Brunner and Goulette made any attempt to distinguish between them. Dietrick (21) as well as Sheats and McLaughlin (57) classified their research into categories; Dietrick on the kind of learning goal achieved and Sheats and McLaughlin on the amount of canmunication allowed for i n the method. 10 Almost a l l of the reviewers commented on the lack of precision with which the studies were conducted. Brunner (11) was particularly c r i t i c a l of the experimental procedures used. Dietrick (21) noted that not only was the research poorly conducted but i t was without any theore-t i c a l framework. He stressed the need for defining processes and for a theory of method so that a l l existing and future research could f i t into an integrated body of knowledge which would benefit the practice of adult education. It i s now obvious there i s need for a review of research struc-tured under a precise theory of method which attempts to define and analyze research on methods i n terms of their inherent characteristics. V. PLAN OP THE STUDY The theory of method proposed by Verner (62) provides the basic structure which i s used i n this review. This theory w i l l be explained at the outset and the research studies reviewed w i l l be selected on the basis of that theoretical structure. Only studies of an empirical nature, based on observation and experiment, using adult subjects w i l l be con-sidered i n this review because the primary aim i s to provide the discip-line of adult education with information about' adult education methods which w i l l help i n the practice of adult education. The review and analysis of the research studies i s complicated by the absence of any agreement and use of terms precisely. As noted later, Verner's theory establishes a precise terrrdnology which must be applied to each study to determine i f i t i s to be included i n t h i s review on method. This involves an analysis of each study and an interpretation and tr a n s l a t i o n of i t s terminology i n t o that employed by Verner. Consequently, seme research purporting to be concerned with the method of adult education i s actually t r e a t i n g techniques or devices and i s excluded from t h i s review. After the research studies have been summarized, the findings w i l l be applied to an analysis of the Vemer theory i n order to examine i t i n l i g h t of the extant research. CHAPTER II THEORETICAL BASIS FOR THE REVIEW As In many academic disciplines, adult education began as an area of practice rather than as a subject of study. Consequently, when research was undertaken i t sought to solve immediately pressing practical problems. In time, a substantial body of research literature was accumu-lated i n which each separate study stood i n isolation because there was no basic theoretical structure to which they could be related. This tended to retard the development of any systematic body of knowledge about instruction and the instructional process i n adult education. Eventually, f i r s t i n 1959 and again i n 1962, Verner (62) published a conceptual scheme which established a theoretical structure that per-mitted the systematic analysis and integration of previous research looking to the establishment of a systematic body of knowledge about instructional process i n adult education. In his Introduction to the 1962 publication, Glenn S. Jensen noted: "... this publication, has done much to eliminate the confusion which may exist and to establish some precise terminology for identifying methods and techniques." (P.vi). Brunner (11) noted that "It may be said that concern over precise definition of the two terms, methods and techniques, i s evidence of the growing maturity of a discipline." (Footnote P.142) In his statement of the theory of method, Verner defines adult education and then identifies the consituant elements i n the processes 13 of adult education which had previously been confused. In defining adult education Verner notes: Adult education i s the action of an external educational agent i n purposefully ordering behaviour into planned systematic experiences that can result i n learning for those for whom such activity i s sup-plemental to their primary role i n society, and which involves some continuity i n an exchange relationship between the agent and the learner so that the educational process i s under constant super-vision and direction. (62:p.2-3). This definition describes adult education as a two-step process. The f i r s t step involves the action of the institutional agent i n esta-blishing a relationship with an unidentified public; this i s contained i n that part of the definition which states: "... adult education i s the action of an external institutional agent i n purposefully ordering be-haviour into planned systematic experiences ...". The second stage i n the process involves the action of the instructional agent which i s identified i n that part of the definition which states: "... and which involves some continuity i n an exchange relationship between the agent and the learner so that the educational process i s under constant super-vision and direction." This i s a distinction of great importance i n arriving at an understanding of the role of both the institutional and the instructional agent. Thus the functions of method and technique are separated i n the educational process. Further cl a r i f i c a t i o n i s achieved by concise definitions of method and technique i n the following terms: 14 Method, then, may be defined as the relationship established by the institution with a potential body of participants for the purpose of systematically diffusing knowledge among a prescribed but not necessarily f u l l y identified public. Technique, on the other hand, may be defined as the relationship established by the institutional agent (adult educator) to f a c i l i t a t e learning among a particular and precisely defined body of p a r t i c i -pants i n a specific situation. (62:p.9). The institution may use apprenticeship, the assembly, the class, correspondence study, directed individual study, the discussion group, internship, the laboratory and the workshop as methods depending upon the potential pattern of organization appropriate to the participants, the learning objective, and the resources of the institution. The techniques which an agent may decide to use w i l l depend ex-clusively on the nature of the learning task, whether abstract or concrete, and the degree of overt involvement allowed the participants i n the learning situation. The lecture and the speech are primarily informa-tional techniques, requiring l i t t l e overt participation; assimilative techniques such as group discussion and role playing require more overt participation. The objective of both method and technique i s to promote learning. The method establishes the environment for learning In which certain goals may be attained by certain kinds of people, whereas techniques f a c i l i t a t e the learning of specific tasks by a precisely defined group of persons. The technique operates within the context of the method, as the lecture within the class or group discussion within the discussion group. The general learning goal w i l l i n part determine what technique 15 i s required. The i n s t i t u t i o n chooses the method p r i n c i p a l l y on the basis of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a p o t e n t i a l group of learners, whereas the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent chooses a technique on the basis of the nature of the learning task. Of course the kind of method selected may l i m i t the choice of technique as i s the case i n correspondence study. On the other hand, apprenticeship f o r example o f f e r s a wider choice i n the s e l e c t i o n of technique since the general learning goal here i s the development of a vocat i o n a l s k i l l which involves learning a s e r i e s o f s k i l l s . The student must f i r s t receive information, see i t demonstrated, p r a c t i s e i t and then t r y t o apply the s k i l l acquired i n r e a l i t y . For a l l these tasks the i n s t r u c t o r w i l l use a v a r i e t y of techniques, one f o r imparting i n f o r -mation, one f o r demonstration and another f o r p r a c t i c e u n t i l the appren-t i c e acquires the s k i l l . In a method such as apprenticeship an agent may use a v a r i e t y of techniques f o r whatever purpose the task r e q u i r e s . Each method dealt with i n Chapter I I I w i l l be reviewed according to the same format based on Verner's (62) d e f i n i t i o n of method. From the d e f i n i t i o n of method i t i s apparent that information must be sought on the general lea r n i n g goals, on the amount of overt involvement allowed f o r i n the structure of the method and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the popu-l a t i o n . For these reasons each method i s reviewed according t o a pattern which includes the d e s c r i p t i o n of the method, the research designs and findings of the studies, i n c l u d i n g both the e f f e c t s of the learning and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l to know what 16 the structure of the method is, what the method accomplishes and who the participants are. CHAPTER I I I REVIEW OP METHODS I . APPRENTICESHIP Apprenticeship i s one of the methods used i n v o c a t i o n a l educa-t i o n which i s concerned with t r a i n i n g prople f o r a future work r o l e i n so c i e t y . Verner has defined apprenticeship as a method i n which a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s established i n which the learner acquires know-ledge and s k i l l s through d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g under immediate personal supervision i n a s i t u a t i o n that approximates the conditions under which the knowledge w i l l be used. ( 6 2:p . l 4 ) P r i o r t o the twentieth century apprenticeship was i d e n t i f i e d with pre-adults, and i n the main s t i l l i s . In that e a r l i e r period i t was the only method of vocational education; apprenticeship was s t r i c t l y non-i n s t i t u t i o n a l , apprentices were taught i n a commercial establishment and the t r a i n i n g they received was on the job. The trend now according t o Prosser and Quigley (50) i s f o r t e c h n i c a l education t o be combined with apprenticeship t r a i n i n g . The learner receives h i s t h e o r e t i c a l t r a i n i n g i n a t e c h n i c a l school and h i s p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g on the job, the l a t t e r c o n s t i t u t i n g h i s apprenticeship. There i s no research a v a i l a b l e on apprenticeship, however t h i s may change because of the emphasis being placed on apprenticeship i n voc a t i o n a l education and upgrading programs. I t i s obvious that apprenticeship i s a method i n which very p r a c t i c a l techniques are used i n the area of applied learning. 18 I I ASSEMBLY The term meeting has such broad meaning and varying connotations that another word i s needed to designate a gathering together of people for learning purposes. A meeting brings to mind a p o l i t i c a l gathering or a business meeting of a club or corporation. The word assembly may be better i n the context of methods of learning, although assembly too has other meanings such as the legislative assembly. Verner defines assembly as: a specifically structured situation for learning involving, generally, a f a i r l y large number of people for a single independent or series of independent or sequentially ordered events i n which there i s limited participation and the major control of the learning situation i s held by the agent. (62:p.l6) The assembly then i s a process which i s characterized by shortness of time, by large attendance, and by limited participation by those assembled. I t i s a very important method and i s used widely i n extension work and i n community development, but i t has been studied only i n agri-cultural extension. I t i s used for the purpose of disseminating infor-mation about new agricultural practices, the usual pattern being to hold extension meetings with lectures followed by demonstration or audio visual aids. A l l of the research on the meeting i n agricultural extension has been summarized i n the Crile (17) and Wilson and Gallup (66) reviews. Some material on "meetings" also i s discussed i n the section on Directed Individual Study i n this thesis. There w i l l be no description here of the research designs as many of these are dealt with i n Directed Individual 19 Study and In the Crile review. Findings Effects of the Learning Adoptions. Wilson and Gallup (66) found that the t o t a l number of practices adopted as a result of extension teaching was more closely associated with certain methods than others. Method demonstra-tion meetings with a co-efficient of .605 + .095 affected more adoptions than general meetings which had a correlation of .368 + .130. Of adop-tions 32.8 per cent were credited to group contact methods ( a l l forms of meetings) which was higher than the percentage of adoptions credited to individual contact methods, mass media methods and indirect influence (friends and neighbors). The assembly was used more often i n heme economics extension than i n agricultural extension and as a result was responsible for a greater percentage of adoptions. When an index of effectiveness was calculated, group contact methods had a higher index of effectiveness i n home economics extension than i n agricultural extension. In the section on Directed Individual Study i t i s reported (p. ) that Beal and Rogers (6.) found group contact methods (assembly) and individual contact methods (directed individual study) were most effec-tive at the awareness and information stages of the adoption process. 20 P a r t i c i p a n t s Attendance. C r i l e (17) found that those p a r t i c i p a n t s who attended a l l kinds of meetings tended t o l i s t e n t o the college r a d i o s t a t i o n , had more education, had a l a r g e r farm operation and d i d not l i v e as f a r frcm the meeting place as the p a r t i c i p a n t s who d i d not attend as many meetings. Wilson and Gallup (66) found that those p a r t i c i p a n t s who had a high socio-economic status tended to use the a g r i c u l t u r a l agent at meetings and on an i n d i v i d u a l basis more than those p a r t i c i p a n t s who d i d not have as high a socio-economic status. Summary and Conclusions The assembly has been studied extensively i n a g r i c u l t u r a l exten-sion but not i n other f i e l d s . In a g r i c u l t u r a l extension the assembly i s usually held once with the a g r i c u l t u r a l agent using l e c t u r e s , audio-v i s u a l aids and demonstrations t o disseminate information about new a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . As a group contact method the assembly was found to be most e f f e c t i v e i n the e a r l y stages of the adoption process. Generally the a g r i c u l t u r a l assembly seems to be more e f f e c t i v e i n pro-ducing adoptions than i n d i v i d u a l contact. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the higher socio-economic bracket seem t o be the greatest users of the assembly. More work needs t o be done on the assembly, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n community development, i n order t o discover i t s f u l l l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l . 21 I I I . CLASS Intreduction and Description The class i s the major method used i n education i n North American culture. I t i s traditionally associated with the school room, university lectures, short courses, and i n fact, any kind of organized formal education. I t i s also a major method i n adult education. The class i s a method i n which one technique, the lecture, dominates. Thus, the terms "class" and "lecture" have been used synony-mously i n the literature. Frequently the word "course" i s used, p a r t i -cularly i n university education, as a synonym for class and i t i s common for a student to say he i s taking courses i n a subject meaning that he i s enrolled i n classes i n that particular subject. The terms "course" and "lecture" are used interchangeably i n the research. Very few studies have attempted to describe the class, because the term i s so familiar to the reader that the investigators f e l t a description was unnecessary. However, the research done outside of the university i n other areas of education has provided some information on what techniques were used and how much interaction took place between teacher and learners and among learners. Verner defines the class as: A sequence of learning experiences arranged i n a systematic order of predetermined duration generally structured around a limited seg-ment of knowledge In which the agent i s charged specifically with the general direction, organization, and control of the learning experience. This method i s used primarily as a means of achieving 22 individual learning where i t i s possible and thus more economical to collect individuals into a group. I t may or may not move beyond this collection of individuals and become a unit i n which the social processes of the group become a major influence on learning. (62:p.l5) There are several factors i n this definition which act as guide-lines for an examination of the research for a description of the method. These are: that the knowledge to be learned i s usually offered i n packages of a definite length, as i n studying educational psychology 100 for two semesters; that a specialist i n the subject area i s responsible for a l l information giving; that because of the limited interaction among students i n this method the direction of interaction i s from instructor to students so that the social processes w i l l exert very l i t t l e influence on learning. In essence, the class i s a collection of i n d i v i -duals and not a group i n the social sense. In their experiments, Anikeeff (4), Costin and Johnson (16) and Famum (2M) referred.to the class as "courses". They were a l l interested i n testing the amount of information acquired from university evening courses. Hedrick (32) described the class i n her study as a learning experience constructed to change attitudes. Hedrick's study was not concerned with credit courses but with imparting information about child care to mothers. She mentioned that lectures, audio-visual aids and reading material were used to impart the subject material. Although they referred to the class as a course Costin and Johnson (16) reported that the instructor used both the lecture and group •23 discussion i n the course. LaCognata (40) i n comparing the campus extension class to the r e s i d e n t i a l class explained that the ins t r u c t o r i n the campus s i t u a t i o n had very l i t t l e contact with the students during class thus implying that a l l i n t e r a c t i o n was from i n s t r u c t o r t o cl a s s , while i n the r e s i d e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n the ins t r u c t o r met the.students informally outside of class hours. H i l l (33) described the "lecture" as a time honored authority-centered method i n which information i s imparted by a subject matter s p e c i a l i s t . The class allows f o r l i t t l e learner p a r t i c i p a t i o n and allows for l i m i t e d s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among members because the i n t e r a c t i o n within t h i s method focusses on the inst r u c t o r . The studies seem t o indicate that the class i s indeed an authority-centered method i n which the agent directs the learning, when the studies are examined we w i l l be able to f i n d out just what kinds of learning are possible within t h i s method and make some generalizations about the general learning goals peculiar to t h i s method. The class has been studied within the l i b e r a l arts s e t t i n g and i n the evening extension university s e t t i n g . The concern of the evening school adult educators has been to determine the quality of the learning acquired i n evening classes versus that acquired i n day classes by under-graduates. According to H i l l (33) there i s concern among educators about which teaching methods are most ef f e c t i v e i n achieving the goals of l i b e r a l arts education. Not much research i s available upon which to base an administrative decision so that such decisions have depended upon one's philosophical orientation. Two schools of thought prevail: the traditional authority-centered school which tends to regard the class as the only method and the group participation school of thought which thinks of discussion as the most appropriate instructional process to use i n a l i b e r a l arts program. According to H i l l (33) the objectives of l i b e r a l arts f a l l into three parts: the development, of mental a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s ; changes i n values, interests and attitudes, and increase i n knowledge. One of the chief concerns of l i b e r a l arts educators has been to find out whether these objectives can be f u l f i l l e d more effectively within the class or within the discussion group methods. Another area of concern has been to determine what kind of participants are attracted to each of these methods. Research Designs The Anikeeff (4) sample was composed of thirty-nine male evening class students and thirty-nine male campus students. The students were matched according to their i n i t i a l performance on tests which were given before and after the course. The data from these tests compared the before and after performances of day and extension students In every possible combination. Six comparisons of the data were made for each of the two tests. These results were correlated for s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant differences at the .05 level of confidence. 25 In the Costin and Johnson (16) study the population was comprised of three campus and three extension classes. The f i n a l sample consisted of 104 campus and 115 extension students who completed an introductory course i n Psychology. The students were matched according to t h e i r performance on the College Verbal A b i l i t y Test, and were subsequently placed i n low and high a b i l i t y groups. A l l classes were taught by the same ins t r u c t o r . Achievement tests were given at the end of each of the fi v e parts of the course. To determine a b i l i t y , Part I of the College Verbal A b i l i t y Test was administered during the portion of the course concerned with i n t e l l i g e n c e . The data were analyzed f o r s t a t i s t i c a l differences by the " t " t est and the Pearson Product Moment correlation using the .05 and .01 levels of confidence. The population of the Farnum (24) study was comprised of s i x t y -eight extension and 120 campus students a l l of whom were working toward a university degree. To determine academic aptitude, the students were given the American College Entrance Psychological test and the Cooperative Reading Comprehension Score which tests vocabulary speed and l e v e l of comprehension. The results were analyzed by the " t " test using both the .05 and .01 levels of confidence. In the La Cognata (40) study, data f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l group were obtained from an eight-day course i n insurance fundamentals i n which s i x t y persons were enrolled. A non-residential group of seventy-four persons was also involved i n the same course. Instructors, course objectives, class material, and class time were the same f o r both the • 2 6 residential and the non-residential groups. Data were secured from thirty-one respondents selected at random of whom fifteen were residen-t i a l and sixteen, non-residential. Five tests were given both before and after the course as follows: 1) an essay-type quiz designed to determine the acquisition of knowledge; 2) a multiple choice test for deterrrrining the a b i l i t y of the participants to apply their knowledge of insurance fundamentals; 3) a state insurance examination which was required of a l l prospective insurance.agents; 4) a "residency" instrument which contained items on student-instructor contact, informal discussion and other forms of behaviour; 5) an attitude scale. The results were subjected to the chi square test. The sample of the second La Cognata (41) study ccmprised 2,100 campus and extension students. The extension students represented 12 per cent of those i n extension credit courses. A t o t a l of thirty-two matched courses were i n the sample. The campus and extension students were matched on the following: 1) same term periods, f a l l of 1961, winter, 1962; 2) same credit course; 3) same instructors. The data consisted of the grades which were achieved from university examinations and were analyzed by the chi square test at the .05, .01 and .001 levels of confidence. In the McCormick (47) study the sample of thirty-one students was selected from a population of ninety-four extension students. They were selected on the basis of 1) those who had done extension work before going on campus; and 2) those who had been on campus before taking extension courses. Academic records from the years I960 - 1963 were 27 compared and grades, were analyzed by percentages. Findings on the Class In the Liberal Arts Effects of the learning Participant Evaluations. In the H i l l (33) study, the participants were queried about their general satisfaction with the program, their plans to take additional adult education courses, their preference for the class or discussion group, their evaluation of the reading materials and records and their evaluation of discussion group leaders and lecturers. Of particular importance to this thesis was the preference for class or discussion group as methods. The majority of those who had preferred the class to the discus-sion group at the time of enrolling s t i l l preferred the class, and vice versa, those who had preferred the discussion group as opposed to the class remained of the same opinion. However, a significant proportion of class participants, at the .05 level of confidence, preferred a combination of lecture and group discussion techniques within the class as they found there was not enough time allotted for discussion. This, would seem to suggest that i n a program of this sort not a l l participants are satisfied with the limited interaction often characteristic of the class method. Attitude Change. There were tests for differences i n ethnocentrism, tolerance of ambiguity, democracy and attitude towards 28 adult education. Members of both the class and the discussion group who remained i n the program became less ethnocentric, more tolerant of ambiguity and more convinced that democratic procedures were efficacious, however, these changes were not significant. These results, which apply only to those who completed the pre and post questionnaires, indicate that attitude change may occur i n the lecture class. Two hypotheses related to the effects of social pressures on group retention were tested: f i r s t , there would be a greater likelihood that i f an individual's attitude differed from the group norm he would leave a group because of social pressure, and second, these effects would be more pronounced In discussion groups than i n classes. Participants whose original scores on the attitude tests were 1.5 standard deviations above or below the mean of the group were classed as attitudinal deviants. The hypothesis that these persons would drop out at a significantly greater rate from discussion groups than from the class was upheld. Social pressures generated within the discussion situation tended to discourage the more authoritarian, less democratic, less tolerant of ambiguity, and more ethnocentric members. Since there were no comparable results for the class participants i t would appear that the less enlightened or more enlightened members survived within the framework of the class better than i n the discussion group. Behavioural Change. Changes i n reading and viewing habits, friendship patterns, community involvement, and i n organizational member-29 ship were measured. No major differences were apparent between the reading habits of the class and discussion group members. Significant differences at the .05 level of confidence.were observed between the class and discussion group members i n the formation of new friendships. The class members did not develop as many new friends from among their groups as did discussion group participants. Discussion group members became more involved i n community activities than did class participants at the end of the program. H i l l (33) qualified these results by stating that changes i n community involvement and friendship formation may or may not be attributable to the methods because the class met at the university and the discussion groups i n communities. One of the i n i t i a l goals of discussion group members was to make friends, which was not mentioned by class participants. Participants. Buttedahl (12) and H i l l (33) identified and com-pared class and discussion group participants on the basis of certain characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, education and occupation. Age. In the H i l l (33) sample, 40.6 per cent were i n the thirty to thirty-nine year age group. At the .05 level of confidence the class had significantly more members over forty than did the discussion group sample. Buttedahl's (12) findings did not parallel those of the H i l l study as he found that his lecture participants were significantly younger than were the discussion group participants at the .01 level of confidence; however, most of the participants were within the thirty to 30 thirty-nine year age group which does paralle l H i l l ' s sample. Sex. Both Buttedahl (12) and H i l l (33) had more women than men i n their t o t a l samples. H i l l found no significant differences (.05) to exist between the numbers of women versus men i n his class and discussion group participants. Buttedahl did find significantly (.01) more women i n his discussion group sample than i n the class sample. Marital Status. There were differences on marital status. Buttedahl (12) found significantly more single persons i n his class sample at the .01 level of confidence, while H i l l .(33) found s i g n i f i -cantly more divorced or, widowed i n his discussion group sample. More of Buttedahl's class sample were unmarried and more of his discussion group sample were married than H i l l reported. Education. In the H i l l (33) study 84.3 per cent had attended college. Buttedahl (12) also had high percentages of college attendance although the percentage was lower than H i l l reported. No significant differences at the .05 level of confidence were found between the class and discussion group participants i n the H i l l study with res-pect to years of college, however, Buttedahl reported that participants i n the classes had significantly more years of college at the .01 level of confidence than the discussion group participants. Sixty per cent of the class participants studied by Buttedahl had attended college whereas sixty-three per cent of the discussion group participants had high school or less. 31 Occupation. Both H i l l (33) and Buttedahl (12) found fewer discussion group members i n the professional and managerial categories and t h i s was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 and .01 levels of confidence respec-t i v e l y . H i l l had more men i n sales and more women i n c l e r i c a l positions i n the discussion group sample while both studies had more participants from the professions i n the class samples. So c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Ccnimunity Involvement. Buttedahl (12) calculated an index of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by measuring the number of organizations belonged to and found that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l between class and discussion group members. H i l l (33) measured involvement i n conmunity a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as the number of organizational memberships s and i n a l l seven indications of involvement the class participants demonstrated a higher degree of involvement upon entering the program. Length of Residence. Buttedahl (12) calculated length of residence i n the community i n order to determine the degree of e s t a b l i s h -ment i n the ccranunity and found that no s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l of confidence existed between the class and discussion group participants. Attitudes Upon Entering the Program. P r i o r attitudes were measured by H i l l (33) i n order to determine differences between class and discussion group learners i n tolerance to ambiguity 3 ethnocentrism, adult 32 education, democratic group practices and t h e i r attitudes towards previous discussion group experience. Discussion group participants were found to be more tolerant of ambiguity and more ccrnmitted to democratic group pro-cedures than class participants. No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found to exist between the two methods at the .05 l e v e l of confidence i n terms of ethnocentrism and i n t h e i r attitudes towards adult education. One s i g n i f i c a n t difference was i n the attitude towards previous discussion group experience. The class participants did not f i n d t h e i r previous experience with discussion to be as valuable as did discussion group participants. These results were s i g n i f i c a n t at .001 l e v e l of confidence. The reason f o r era'olling also reveals an orientation toward edu-cational experiences as the class participants were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more interested i n the subject matter than were discussion group participants at the .05 l e v e l of confidence, i n f a c t , 51.6 per cent of the class members gave t h i s as t h e i r only reason. The discussion group p a r t i c i -pants were more i n c l i n e d to j o i n f o r s o c i a l reasons and to make friends from among t h e i r fellows than were class participants. Findings on the Class i n Parent Education Effects of the learning. The Hedrick (32) study, i n the f i e l d of parent education, used the class method f o r the purpose of bringing about attitude change, conceptual change and an increment of knowledge of c h i l d behaviour and development. The participants were tested f o r attitude 33 change toward self-reliance i n children and on what information they had acquired about the motor, emotional and social development of children. Changes i n parental concepts of behavioural patterns geared to the deve-lopment of self-reliance i n children also were tested. The results revealed that significant changes i n c r i t i c a l ratios near the level of absolute certainty had occurred i n a l l areas of learning; the mothers had changed their attitudes toward the self-reliance of children, they had acquired knowledge about children, and they had adopted new concepts of behaviour patterns which promoted self-reliance i n their children. The tests of behavioural change were determined by a test of concepts. I t would have been interesting i f the behavioural change had been tested i n reality as i t was i n the workshop study done by Fleishman et a l (26), or perhaps i n a role-playing situation as tested by Maier (45) after a workshop i n human relations. From the Hedrick (32) study there i s no information on whether the behaviours learned i n theory can be transferred to the real situation, nor any idea of how long these new behavioural concepts would last. Findings on the Class i n University Extension Effects of the Learning. As mentioned previously, the research on the class i n evening extension programs i s related to carparing the amounts of information acquired i n the extension class and that acquired i n a day class by undergraduates. Adult educators seem to feel a need to prove that the education received i n extension classes i s just as worthwhile as that acquired through the regular channels at university. In some cases the amount of information acquired i s determined by an achievement score. Anikeeff (4) compared the achievement scores of adults i n extension classes with campus classes consisting of under-graduates. On both the pre and post test scores the day students achieved higher marks than did the extension students. The coefficients of correlation for day and extension students were: pre-test exam one (.91), pre-test two ( . 98 ) , post-test one (.32) and post test two ( - . 2 4 ) . In general, the coefficients of correlation differed significantly at the .05 level of confidence from 0. On the basis of these results, the author maintained that the experiment raised questions about the advis-a b i l i t y of granting college credit for work performed i n evening off-campus extension courses. Costin and Johnson (16) compared the achievement on examinations of two groups of extension and day students who were enrolled i n an introductory psychology course. They found that the campus students obtained significantly higher scores on three of the five parts of the test than did the extension students at the .05 and .01 levels of con-fidence. The differences between the two groups on the other two parts of the test were not significantly different. When Costin and Johnson (16) compared the achievement of low a b i l i t y extension students with the achievement of low a b i l i t y campus 35 students the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the two groups; however, when they compared the achievement scores of high extension students versus high campus students i t was found that the campus scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher at the .05 and .01 l e v e l s of confidence. LaCognata (40) compared the achievement on examinations of campus versus extension students i n the following subject areas: education, the s o c i a l sciences, the applied sciences, the p h y s i c a l sciences and a r t s , and the humanities. In the s o c i a l and applied sciences, the extension students achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores than the campus students at the .01 l e v e l of confidence, and In the p h y s i c a l sciences and i n the humanities and arts t h e i r performances were equal. Only i n education were the campus students s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior (.01), and these students were graduates. Por undergraduates i n education, there were no s i g n i f i -cant differences between the extension and campus students. LaCognata concluded that extension students proved themselves t o be equal, and i n some cases superior, to campus students. McCormick (47) compared the extension and campus grades of a group o f engineering students who had taken both campus and extension courses. In both cases, t h e i r extension marks were higher than t h e i r campus marks. The group which had taken extension classes i n i t i a l l y had a campus average of 81.5 per cent and an extension average of 87.3 per cent. The group which took campus classes f i r s t had an extension average of 82.9 per cent and a campus average of 78.4 per cent. The author cautioned against generalizing from this study because of the small number of subjects (thirty-one) and because of the smaller course load (two versus five or six for campus work) i n extension work per semester. Both Anikeeff (4) and Costin and Johnson (16) found campus students the better achievers, although indicating that the differences between the two were too slight to say that one was superior to the other. Cn the other hand, LaCognata (40) and McCormick (47) found exten-sion students to be higher achievers than campus students. Thus, the learning acquired within the extension class seems to be equal to that which i s acquired i n the campus class. Participants. Farnum (24) compared the academic aptitude of extension with campus students using a test for verbal a b i l i t y . Cn the level of comprehension and vocabulary, the aptitudes of extension students were significantly higher at the .05 and .01 levels respectively, but on -the speed test the performance of the two groups v/as equal. One may conclude then that i n this experiment the extension students were equal to or better than the campus students. As to whether extension students work up to their mental a b i l i t y as well as campus students, Costin and Johnson (16) found that on a l l five sections of their psychology examination, the correlations between the mental a b i l i t y and achievement indicated that campus students did significantly better at the .01 level and that the mental a b i l i t y -37 achievement correlations of the extension students were significant at the .01 level on only two parts of the test. In other words, the exten-sion students were not working as closely to their a b i l i t i e s as were the campus students. Costin and Johnson found that the low a b i l i t y campus and extension students had equivalent scores i n achievement but high extension did not do as well as high campus achievers; therefore, i t would appear that It i s not the low extension achievers but the high extension achievers who are not working up to their capacity. Findings on the Residential Class Effects of the Learning. I t i s a matter of concern to educators whether a method i s more satisfactory when i t i s used i n a residential situation or when conducted i n the usual fashion for day or night students. LaCognata (40) developed the hypothesis that the residential learning situation was superior to non-residential learning because of the following variables: (1) the isolation of the educational experience - one can get away from other problems and concentrate on learning; (2) the continuity of the learning experience - the program schedule can carry on i n an uninterrupted session and therefore afford greater depth i n learning; (3) group support - inter-personal relationships which develop because of the opportunities for greater interaction f a c i l i t a t e the learning process and there i s more opportunity for the student to meet the instructor outside of the class. Two groups of prospective insurance men were compared by LaCognata 38 (40). One group was enrolled i n an eight-day extension course and the other group participated i n a class i n a residential situation where the group lived together during the eight-day period of the course. The learning accomplished was determined by attitude change, the acquisition of knowledge, the application of knowledge, achievement on a state insurance examination, and behavioural change which was measured by a special "residency" instrument. On both the knowledge tests (application and acquisition), the residential students achieved significantly higher results at the .001, .05 and .02 levels of confidence. The performance of the two groups was almost equivalent on the state insurance examination. The attitude test which measured "degree of professionalization" indicated that the residential group became more professional i n their attitudes than the non-residential students with the difference significant at the .01 level of confidence. The residency instrument determined that the residential group spent more time studying outside class than did the non-residential group and this was significant at the .10 and .05 levels of confidence. That the r e s i -dential group members usually studied with others was significant at the .001 level of confidence. The groups were also asked about the time they spent studying outside class, and this was the only item where the differences between residential and non-residential groups were not significant. LaCognata (40) found that i n almost every instance the performance of the residential students was superior to that of the non-residential 39 students. The class conducted In a residential setting seemed to result i n more learning for the participant than did the class conducted i n the non-residential setting. It would seem that the added dimension of residence l i v i n g allows the student greater contact with the instructor and with.other students thus reinforcing the learning acquired i n the class. Perhaps residence l i v i n g produces greater motivation through the sense of camaraderie which i s developed among class members. Summary and Conclusions As the class i s a method i n which the principal objective i s the dissemination of a specific body of knowledge by an expert to a group of learners almost a l l inter-action i s from instructor to student and very l i t t l e opportunity exists for inter-student communication. There are indications from the l i b e r a l arts research that the traditional format of the class i s not satisfactory for a significant proportion of p a r t i c i -pants who would have preferred a combination of lecture and group discus-sion techniques within the class to the lecture by i t s e l f . In almost every area of learning i t was found that the class was as effective as the discussion group. In attitude and conceptual learning no perceptible differences between the class and the discussion group were evident. In terms of certain behavioural changes, such as reading habits, community involvement and organizational membership no differences were discovered between the class and discussion group participants. It was found, however, that discussion group participants made more friends 40 frcm t h e i r groups than d i d cl a s s members. Studies i n the l i b e r a l a r t s found that the class tended t o have more members i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l and managerial categories than discus-s i o n groups whereas discussion groups had more members i n the sales and c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s . No conclusive r e s u l t s were obtained about the differences between the class and the discussion group i n the areas o f age, sex, m a r i t a l status and education. The r e s u l t s of studies using American populations d i f f e r e d from those using Canadian. The Canadian study found more women than men, fewer married, and fewer younger people i n the c l a s s , whereas the American r e s u l t s were opposite. In the l i b e r a l arts classes there were s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer drop-outs because of s o c i a l pressures than i n dis c u s s i o n groups. Those persons whose attitudes were outside the norms of t h e i r groups l e f t the d i s c u s -s i o n groups i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater numbers than d i d those i n cla s s e s . I t would seem that the " a t t i t u d i n a l deviant" can keep h i s opinions to himself i n the class whereas i t i s not so easy i n discussion groups. Perhaps the class o f f e r s a p r o t e c t i v e environment i n which a t t i t u d e change may occur unobtrusively. In one study on parent education, i t was found that c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e and conceptual changes d i d occur, some of a s i g n i f i c a n t nature. This study d i d not t e s t a c t u a l behavioural change nor the long term e f f e c t s of such change, but i t might be asked whether the class would be as e f f e c t i v e i n producing l a s t i n g behaviour changes as would the workshop, f o r instance, where p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r greater learner p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 41 The residential class was found to be superior to the non-resi-dential class i n tests for attitude change, acquisition of knowledge and behavioural change. The hypothesis that the residential setting gives the student greater opportunity for interaction with the instructor and with other students was supported. Residency seems to have added another dimension to the class which increases opportunity for learning. The research on evening classes did not discover any evidence to conclude that evening classes are inferior to day classes i n achievement, nor was there any conclusive proof that evening class students were less capable intellectually than day students. It would seem that the strength of the class l i e s i n the area of conceptual learning. I t i s doubtful whether the class i s as effective i n applied learning as methods which provide greater opportunities for student participation. 1 IV. CORRESPONDENCE ,STUDY Introduction and Description According to the research examined, Bradt (10), Fairing and Hughes ( 2 3 ) , Hughes (3k), Larson (42), Montross (49), Sorenson (58) and Stein (59), correspondence study i s a method i n which a l l ccmmunication between the learner and the agent i s by the written word. A certain number of study assignments comprise the "course." The ways i n v/hich this written communication was handled by the agent determined the techniques used to 42 f a c i l i t a t e the learning, however, no description was given i n the studies of the various techniques used. Research about correspondence study does not indicate the general learning goal of the method, however, we can surmise that the goal i s cognitive learning rather than affective or manipulative learning. The information to be learned i s necessarily unrelated to social behaviour because the learning i s completely removed from social contact. The contact between agent and learner i s not personal, and, therefore, the student must relate only to the intellectual content of the material being learned. This requires that the student be highly motivated and emotionally detached. In other words, only a certain kind of student and certain kinds of learning goals are attainable within the limitations of this method. Adult educators have been concerned with the high numbers of dropouts which seem to occur i n correspondence study so several studies have attempted to isolate the factors responsible for these dropouts. Bradt ( 1 0 ) found that students enrolled for: general interest - 37 per cent; gaining a diploma - 32 per cent, and furthering their careers - 23 per cent. Hughes' ( 3 4 ) categories were similar, however he narrowed the f i e l d to the following: interest i n teacher certification; gaining college credit; professional-vocational improve-ment, and gaining insurance credentials. In view of the high dropout rates some of the needs expressed by the participants might have been met better by learning through another method. •43 Research Designs The population of the Bradt (10). study consisted of one thousand students who would resemble as closely as possible that group to which a follow-up program would be addressed. Included were a l l correspondence students who had been inactive from three to s i x months and a l l s e l f -teaching students who had not applied f o r t h e i r end-of-course test f i v e to twelve months af t e r enrolment. They were divided i n t o f i v e groups as follows: 1) no lessons, 2) one lesson, 3) two or three lessons, 4) four or more lessons, 5) a self-teaching group. A twenty-item questionnaire of the free and check response type was sent to a ten per cent sample of the population. Some of the items were concerned with reasons f o r e n r o l l i n g i n the course, interest i n obtaining c r e d i t , plans f o r comple-t i n g the course and assessment of learning achieved. There was a 58 per cent response to the questionnaire. The data collected were not subjected to any tests f o r s i g n i f i c a n t differences but were l i s t e d instead i n percentages under categories. Ninety-one per cent of the responses f e l l i n t o the three categories of general i n t e r e s t , school-related and career-related. The median age of the sample was twenty-two years and from one-t h i r d to one-quarter of them had some college education. More than two-thirds of the sample indicated that they d i d not intend to make a career out of the service. Three-quarters of them had not previously enrolled i n USAFI courses. The population of the P a i r i n g and Hughes (23) study consisted of ,44 380 former r e g i s t r a n t s In u n i v e r s i t y correspondence courses who had f a i l e d to complete t h e i r work during the past two years. The c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n s t i p u l a t e d that no student who had e n r o l l e d p r i o r t o January 1, 1945, would be e l i g i b l e , that only armed forces students would be used, and that only those who had submitted one or more assign-ments would be used. A sample of f i f t y was s e lected at random from the population f o r t r i a l purposes, the object of which was t o discover whether a free choice or forced choice response questionnaire would be best. On the basis of the t r i a l run, the remaining 330 i n the popula-t i o n received a free response questionnaire. The data which were c o l l e c t e d from t h i s questionnaire were not subjected t o any t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e and the data were analyzed by percentages. The population i n the Hughes (34) study consisted of 5 8 l persons who had e n r o l l e d f o r college work during the months o f February, March, A p r i l and August of 1953. The c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i o n s t i p u l a t e d that the students must have submitted at l e a s t one assignment and the question-n a i r e was sent t o 441 r e g i s t r a n t s of whom sixty-three per cent returned the form. The c h i square t e s t was used to determine s i g n i f i c a n c e . The sample i n the Larson (42) study consisted o f f i f t y - s i x students who earned an average number of twenty-six residence and ten correspondence c r e d i t s at the U n i v e r s i t y of Arizona. The grades earned i n residence were assigned by u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s whereas those earned i n correspondence study were given by "readers", perhaps graduate students. The grades were analyzed s t a t i s t i c a l l y by the Pearson Product Moment 45. Correlation t e s t . The Montross (49) study selected a sample at random from the university extension division's registrations between June 1, 1953 and February 4, 1954. Two groups of forty-four students each were selected. One group received regular correspondence study i n s t r u c t i o n , while the other group received correspondence study i n s t r u c t i o n plus f i e l d a s s i s -tance which consisted of two v i s i t s to the students' homes by a university representative during which students were given some assistance i n loca-t i n g l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , i n straightening out course credits and i n plarining future correspondence study. No coaching was given by the f i e l d representatives during these sessions. The correspondence and f i e l d assistance groups were given a three-part attitude test a f t e r t h e i r courses which consisted of a test "m" which was concerned with the correspondence method, a test "c" which included questions about the courses taken and a test "a" which included questions about f i e l d assistance. The data were analyzed by the " t " test f o r significance and differences at the .04, .05 and .10 levels of confidence. In the Sorenson (58) study the IQ and achievement correlations of twenty evening class students were compared with t h i r t y - f i v e correspon-dence students a l l of whom were taking a course i n Educational Psychology during the same period of time. The two groups were given the.Otis S e l f -adMnistering test to determine aptitude (IQ). A regular university examination was used to measure achievement i n educational psychology. The findings were analyzed by the Pearson-Product Moment Correlation t e s t . 46 In the Stein (59) study, the population consisted of one hundred wcmen employees of a telephone company who had s l i g h t union experience and a median service as stewards i n the union o f one and one-half years. They had a median education of eleven years and they were a l l from working class f a m i l i e s . The course was eight.lessons i n length, and after the l a s t lesson the students were sent an evaluation form which queried them about t h e i r reasons f o r e n r o l l i n g i n the course and how they f e l t about i t . Findings Effects of the Learning. There are very few studies available which test the learning accomplished within the correspondence method using adults as subjects. Larson (42) conducted a study which measured and compared the achievement scores of correspondence students on univer-s i t y examinations versus t h e i r grades previously gained i n residence classes. The findings revealed that 72 per cent of the students received higher grades i n t h e i r correspondence work. The c o e f f i c i e n t of co r r e l a -t i o n was .576- .06. The author maintained that these results needed to be q u a l i f i e d f o r four reasons: 1. Ten versus twenty-six credits i s too unequal a comparison i n order to judge the effectiveness of one method over another. 2. The correspondence students may have picked t h e i r best subjects. 3. There may have been grading differences between the residence and correspondence courses. 47 4. The correspondence study f a i l u r e s were not recorded. The second study, performed by Sorenson (58) compared the a p t i -tude and achievement co r r e l a t i o n s of a group of evening cl a s s students with a group of correspondence students. The author found that the achievement aptitude c o r r e l a t i o n of .73, which the evening cl a s s received, was higher than the same c o r r e l a t i o n of the correspondence group which was . 6 1 . The author concluded that the evening class students worked c l o s e r t o t h e i r a b i l i t y than d i d the correspondence students. He main-tain e d that these r e s u l t s needed t o be q u a l i f i e d because the correspon-dence students were not able t o take t h e i r aptitude and achievement t e s t s under the same favorable conditions as the evening class students and, i n view of t h i s , the di f f e r e n c e between the c o r r e l a t i o n s seemed s l i g h t . In both these studies, the students were probably working towards u n i v e r s i t y degrees and highly motivated t o do w e l l ; therefore, the favo r -able r e s u l t s on t h e i r correspondence courses. The courses taken were highly informative and, as such, were s u i t e d t o the method. Although the S t e i n (59) experiment was an exploratory one which d i d not t e s t l e a r n i n g , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g because i t attempts t o e x p e r i -ment with correspondence as a method i n which information could be given t o learning i n the hope that t h i s m a t e r i a l could then be applied t o a r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n . The object of t h i s study was t o t e s t correspondence study as a f e a s i b l e method of education i n a program of i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r union o f f i c e r s . The course was designed t o inform p a r t i c i -pants of the p r i n c i p l e s of democratic leadership, the operation of labor unions and the problems of their own organization. Instead of objec-tively testing the knowledge gained and applied to r e a l - l i f e situations, Stein collected testimonial evidence from participants by means of a questionnaire. They were asked why they enrolled i n the course and how they f e l t about i t . Replies to the f i r s t question were: to learn more -fourteen responses; to be a better steward - six; to improve my local -six; to be able to handle different problems - three. These responses indicate that the participants were primarily interested i n problem solving and i n improving their a b i l i t i e s as union officers. Replies to the second question indicated that of the large numbers who finished the course, eleven out of twenty-two gave negative responses: waste of time - one; interesting but did not learn much -three; learned but not interesting - three; learned but w i l l not help job - four. Replies from the remaining eleven were: interesting and informative - nine; learned much and w i l l help job - eleven. Combining the unfavorable responses with the large numbers of dropouts (approximately 75 per cent), one wonders how successful this kind of environment was i n helping union officers to apply this theor-e t i c a l knowledge about their unions to r e a l - l i f e union responsibilities. However, Stein thought that correspondence study would be a successful means of providing in-service training to union personnel i f : motivation was stimulated; the writing exercises were improved; materials were adapted and modified so that they could be more useful. This study certainly indicated that i t would be helpful i f this 49 kind of learning (to apply knowledge) were teste d against pure informa-t i o n learning i n future experiments to assess which i s best accomplished by correspondence study. P a r t i c i p a n t s . Bradt (10) questioned a group of selected USAPI students about why they dropped out of courses before completion. The reasons given were: lack of time - 4 l per cent; changed intentions - 23 per cent; problems with the mechanics of studying and i n completing lessons - 19 per cent; and problems with the course i t s e l f (too hard or too easy) - 17 per cent. P a i r i n g and Hughes (23) a l s o examined the problem of dropouts with a group of former u n i v e r s i t y students who had taken correspondence courses. They c i t e d as reasons f o r f a i l i n g t o complete t h e i r courses: time l i m i t a -t i o n s - 4 8 per cent; change o f plans and course unsatisfactory - 2 4 per cent; and unable to f i n i s h because of i l l n e s s - 16 per cent. Both Bradt (10) and P a i r i n g and Hughes (23) found s i m i l a r reasons f o r the dropout problem; they discovered lack of time and changed i n t e n -t i o n s c i t e d most frequently as reasons f o r dropping out. They a l s o d i s -covered that another important reason given f o r dropping out was that the course was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . They both concluded that counselling might be a necessary part of the program i f student dropout was to be reduced. While the above studies used the free-response questionnaire technique i n the c o l l e c t i o n of t h e i r data, the Pairing-Hughes (23)study also c i r c u l a t e d an informational forced-choice type of inventory which 50 gave some knowledge of previous college experience, previous experience with the correspondence method and length of time which the students gave themselves to meet a deadline. Correlations were calculated between these three factors and course completions. I t was found that a l l three were significantly related to course completion at the .01 level of confidence. The more college work taken, the greater the experience with the correspondence method and the shorter the deadline period, the greater the number of course completions. One means of alleviating the problem of dropouts may be the use of f i e l d assistance which i s the counselling help given to students In their own v i c i n i t y , perhaps i n their own homes, by university personnel. The object of f i e l d assistance i s not to counsel students about their acade-mic work ( i . e . , to provide tutoring), but to help the student sort out courses and credit, locate library f a c i l i t i e s , and similar problems. Montross (49) investigated the effect of adding f i e l d assistance to the regular correspondence format with two groups of students selected at random. The results indicated that the f i e l d assistance group showed significantly different attitudes towards the correspondence method than did the control group at the .05 level of confidence. In general, the f i e l d assistance group accepted correspondence study to a greater extent and handed i n significantly more assignments than did the control group. The addition of f i e l d assistance to regular correspondence study program helped to reduce the number of dropouts and create i n students a more positive attitude towards the method of correspondence study i t s e l f . 51 Summary and Conclusions More work needs to be done on correspondence study i n order to i d e n t i f y the kinds of learning best suited to such i s o l a t e d study. Also, more research s i m i l a r to that i n the Montross (48) study should be done on the effects of modifying the method. To learn under correspondence study participants must be highly motivated. Such participant motivation can be stimulated and sustained by the addition of f i e l d assistance. Those who have had previous correspondence study or college experience do best. V. DIRECTED INDIVIDUAL STUDY Introduction and Description Verner has defined Directed Individual Study as a relationship which i s "established with the learner that involves some dir e c t personal contact between the learner and the agent so that personal supervision of the learning process i s assured". (62:p.l4). Research on methods confor-ming to t h i s d e f i n i t i o n was found i n the f i e l d s of health education, childhood education and a g r i c u l t u r a l extension. Although these methods are s i m i l a r i n form they have been i d e n t i f i e d under different names including the c l i n i c interview (health education), the i n d i v i d u a l confer-ence (childhood education) and personal contact methods ( a g r i c u l t u r a l extension). Because each of these has been studied i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s 52 they w i l l be discussed separately, and the method w i l l be described by analysis from the studies. The most detailed studies r e l a t i n g t o Directed Individual Study are those from agriculture. There are two studies i n which the techniques employed within the c l i n i c interview have been used as a standard i n which to test the eff e c -tiveness of the decision technique i n discussion groups i n the adoption of new practices. Neither Radke and K l i s u r i c h (51) nor Bowser et a l (9) defined the interview, however, information v;as extracted from the studies about the process. In both experiments the aim of the c l i n i c interview was to give " i n s t r u c t i o n " to the learner by the expert - the n u t r i t i o n i s t - so that the emphasis would be on providing information to change certain behaviour. The Radke and K l i s u r i c h study indicated that the interview v/as from f i f t e e n t o twenty minutes i n duration and that the women were given a printed schedule to read before the interview took place. In childhood education t h i s method has been c a l l e d a conference and used as a means of communication between parents and teachers and between teachers and t h e i r supervisors as studied and described by Kitchens (38) and Kniseley (39) respectively. In the parent-teacher conference the process was not defined by Kitchens, however, frcm h i s report some d e t a i l s have been gathered which permit a description of i t . A structured parent-teacher conference was compared to an unstruc-tured one i n the Kitchens (38) study. He stated that although the object of these conferences was to gain more understanding of school and c h i l d 53 for both parents and teachers Information imparted to parents i n the structured conference was pre-planned; the teacher had definite infor-mation he or she wanted to give to the parents. The unstructured con-ference was client-centered; whatever information was shared between parents and teachers was spontaneous, and no pre-planning or structuring of the information was done by the teacher before the conference. Obviously the approach used i n these two types of conferences differed, but the aims of both were to obtain knowledge about people so that attitudes would change. The conference tested i n the Kniseley (39) experiment was called an individual teacher-supervisory conference. The author stated that i t was client-centered; the teacher brought up problems regarding child and school but not according to any preconceived plan. The only session structured by the supervisor was the f i r s t , where the aims and objectives of such conferences were explained to the teacher, after which the conference consisted of free flowing discussions between teacher and supervisor. A l l of these conferences may be labelled as counselling situations but i t would seem from these two studies that the "conference" as they describe i t i s a two-person confrontation, with one person acting as agent and the other as learner, with the object being attitude change for the learner. It i s impossible to give a more complete description of the conference because of the lack of research on i t . 54 A large number of.studies have been made on the effectiveness of the individual contact method versus other methods such as group contact and mass media methods as defined i n the Agricultural Extension Service. Wilson and Gallup (66) stated that i t was the responsibility of the agricultural agent when using individual contact methods, such as farm and home v i s i t s and telephone c a l l s , to make contact with those who do not participate i n extension a c t i v i t i e s , to introduce changes i n practices which are complex and to increase the confidence of the participants. Directed Individual Study, as used i n the fields of health edu-cation, agricultural extension, and in-service teacher training i s generally employed i n an effort to bring about attitude and/or behavioural change and the adoption of new practices. The studies on the c l i n i c interview, the parent-teacher and the teacher-supervisor conferences a l l evaluate the effects of the overall learriing acquired during the experimental period. The agricultural extension studies evaluated the learning acquired i n individual contact versus mass media methods, however, according to Verner's ( 6 2 ;p. 10) conceptual scheme, mass media are not really methods for adult education. The research, designs w i l l be discussed at the beginning of the reports on the c l i n i c interview, the conference and the individual contact methods. The findings of these studies then are divided into (1) Effects of the Learning and (2) Participants. 5 5 Research Designs of C l i n i c Interviews The d i e t e t i c interview sample In the Bowser et a l ( 9 ) study-consisted of seventy-eight patients who were selected at random from the I n - C l i n i c of Peter Brent Brigham Hospital i n Boston. The group-therapy patients consisted of eighty-seven women and eight men who had participated i n the Boston P i l o t Survey Project; the authors d i d not indicate how t h i s sample was selected. The control sample consisting of th i r t y - e i g h t women' and four men who were i n the one year follow-up group and forty-four women and four men who were i n the two year follcw-up group, was selected at random from the population of obese persons who had attended one of the health protection c l i n i c s i n the Boston area. I t would appear that the f i r s t t est groups were involved i n treatment f o r two years, although the length of time was not c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d . Heighth and weight data were collected from a l l three groups at the end of one year and again at the end of two years. These data were analyzed f o r c r i t i c a l r a t i o s with the l e v e l of confidence used t o determine significance unspecified. In the Radke and K l i s u r i c h (51) experiment the whole population (no number given) of mothers i n a maternity ward were tested. They were divided i n t o a d i e t e t i c interview sample and a discussion sample, on the basis of the number of children, kind of infant with feeding prescribed by doctor and whether they were from farms or small towns i n Iowa. 56 The data for the dietetic interview and the discussion groups were collected by personal interview at intervals of two and four weeks after treatment. The resulting data about the infants' feeding schedule were subjected to the chi square test at the .10, .05, .02 and .01 levels of confidence. Findings on Clinic Interviews Effects of the Learning. Both Radke and Klisurich (51) and Bowser et a l ( 9 ) tested the learning which took place within the c l i n i c interview versus that resulting from discussion groups. The techniques within the c l i n i c interview were used as a standard with which to test the decision technique i n discussion groups i n the adoption of new prac-tices . No description was given of techniques used i n the interview so we can only surmise that the emphasis was on instruction. The new practice desired i n the Bowser et a l ( 9 ) study was the adoption of new dietary habits for obese patients. The new dietary practices were to result i n loss of weight for the patients. Bowser et a l ( 9 ) found that there were no significant differences between the two test groups using interview and group therapy, and the control group. The c r i t i c a l ratio of greater than or equal to 2.0 was significant. 57 1 Year 2 Years Individual instruction -6.13 -1.58 Group therapy -5.27 -3.95 Control -4.57 -2.92 No measurable differences were found to exist between the two methods. Radke and Klisurich (51) tested a group of new mothers, half of whom were enrolled i n a discussion group while the other half participated i n the c l i n i c interview. The main object of the interview was to test the effectiveness of the learning accomplished within the discussion groups versus that which occurred within the c l i n i c interview. They found that the data collected two weeks after the experiment favored the discussion group at the .02 level and after four weeks the discussion group was significantly better than the interview group at the .01 level. place within the setting of a c l i n i c interview u n t i l more research i s done on the type of learning goal best achieved through the interview. Perhaps there are tasks for which the interview i s eminently suited, but at the present moment a l l that can be said i s that the interview was not as effective as the discussion group i n decision making i n this situation. Research Designs of Individual Conferences I t i s impossible to generalize about the learning which can take Kitchen's (38) sample (no number given) was selected at random from a population (no figures given) of parents from two schools that were similar with respect to socio-economic status. The sample was 58 divided at random into a test group and a control group with representa-tion from each school. The test group participated i n the experimental individual conference experience which was highly directed, and the control group participated i n individual conferences on a very casual basis prior to the experiment. The two groups participated i n one conference only and were given a questionnaire which was designed to test their attitudes toward the teachers and the school. The data were subjected to the chi square test but no level of confidence was indicated. Two groups (one experimental and one control) composed of twenty-five teachers each were tested i n the Kniseley (39) study. These two groups were chosen at random from the faculty rosters of eight secondary schools i n Amarillo, Texas. The individual conferences lasted one hour. The teacher's attitudes were tested before and after the experiment by the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory. This instrument was intended to give an indication of the type of pupil-teacher relationships which the teacher considered desirable and which he sought to maintain and i t ranked teachers i n terms of social maturity. The data were subjected to the n t " test and evaluated at the .10, .05, and .01 levels of confidence. Findings on Individual Conferences Effects of the Learning. In both Kitchens (38) and Kniseley (39) the individual conference was used so that the learner was counselled by either direct or indirect means to induce changes i n attitude. Kitchens tested two groups of parents before and after participating i n a struc-59 tured (test group) and an unstructured (control group) parent-teacher conference. The parents who had participated i n the structured i n d i v i -dual conferences exhibited a more favorable change i n attitudes than did the unstructured group, however, the attitude change was not significant i n both cases, although i n the case of six of the attitudes towards teachers which were measured a significant difference was found. The object of the Khiseley (39) study was to test whether the individual conference brought about attitude changes so that the teacher would become more effective i n the classroom. The discussions between teachers and supervisor focussed on the following subject areas: problem of building relationships, examination of attitudes, teacher experimen-tation, and problem solving. The criterion of effectiveness by which the teacher conference was measured was the attitude change which occurred after a series of eight individual conferences. Khiseley found that there were no significant differences between the groups at any level of confidence. He did find that ten of the members of the experimental group had increments i n score as compared to five of the control group. He also found that the mean scores of the control group tended toward the negative (differed significantly from 0) i n the levels of s i g n i f i -cance of .10, .05 and .01, whereas the experimental group did not d i f f e r significantly from 0. The change which occurred i n the experimental group however, was not large enough to be considered significant. No conclusive evidence i s available on the individual conference method through which attitudes can be changed significantly. More 60 research i s needed with respect to the length of time required, the number of individual conferences used and i n identifying the differences i n group counselling sessions versus individual conferences i n effecting attitude. Research Designs of Individual Contact The Abe11 and Larson (I) sample consisted of 1,439 hcmemakers i n four rural areas i n New York State of whom 596 were chosen as a control group, and another group of 186 were matched with them. The rest of the sample, two groups of 485 and 172, were chosen at random. The f i r s t groups were interviewed during 1947 and the other i n 1948. The data were not subjected to any tests for significance, but were analyzed i n percentages. In the Abell, Larson and Dickerson (2) study the sample consisted of ,278 male farm operators who had commercial farming as a main or secondary occupation. They were questioned about their preference for media from which they received agricultural information. The data were not subjected to any tests for significance but tabulated using percen-tages. The sample i n the Aurbach and Kaufman (5) study consisted of 139 farmers i n Alcom County, Mississippi, and were selected i n terms of the following c r i t e r i a : (1) made their own decisions regarding the farm organization, (2) owned their own work power, (3) lived on their present farm during the previous crop year, (4) had five acres or more 61 of crop land and (5) had worked on the farm at least one-third of the time i n the previous year. The Beal and Rogers' (6) sample consisted of 148 farm operators i n Central Iowa. The area from which they were chosen was prosperous and highly commercial. The data for the study were collected by personal interview and analyzed for s t a t i s t i c a l differences by the chi square test. In the Johnson and Wilkening (35) study 636 farm operators were chosen by the use of the following c r i t e r i a : (1) married and l i v i n g with his wife, (2) under forty-five years of age, (3) started farming within ten years prior to the survey and (4) at least one-half of his income i n the preceding year was from farming. In addition, two control groups consisting of 200 families were selected with the f i r s t group chosen from s i x counties within the project and the second chosen from counties outside the project. In the Licnberger (44) study the sample consisted of 279 farm operators from a north-eastern Missouri farming community. They were divided into three groups: (1) those who obtained farm information from county agents during the year preceding the interview irrespective of other sources; (2) those who used seme institutionalized sources of information other than a county agent during that period; and (3) those who used no institutionalized sources of farm information. Marsh and Coleman's (46) sample consisted of 393 farmers i n Washington County, Kentucky. 62 Using a l i s t of rice growers i n the parish as a base, Robert (54) drew the names of seven farmers who were asked to set up neighbourhood meetings to discuss the hazard of a particular rice disease. These farmers were asked to check their fields for evidence of the disease. Next, Robert drew a sample of farmers to whom he made personal v i s i t s , and f i n a l l y he sent circulars to a third sample to whom the same problem was outlined. Each farmer i n the study received a copy of a leaflet which outlined the disease. The samples were interviewed personally several weeks later. The analysis was based on replies from twenty-three who received the le t t e r , forty who were visited at their farms and thirty-four who attended neighbourhood meetings. Findings were given descriptively and i n percentages. The sample i n the Wilkening (65) study consisted of 171 farm operators who were selected at random from the North Carolina Counties of Harnett, Nash and Wayne. A 10 per cent sample was taken i n Harnett and a 5 per cent sample i n Nash and Wayne. The data were collected by individual interview. Findings on Individual Contact Effects of the Learning. In a l l of these studies, the adoption of a new practice was the learning objective. In some studies, adoption was considered to be a single act but i n others i t was considered to be a process consisting of several stages. Beal and Rogers (6) maintain that an individual must pass through 63 five stages before a practice i s adopted. These five stages are: 1. Awareness - at this stage the individual i s i n i t i a l l y exposed to the idea. 2. Information - after the person has been exposed to the idea, he attempts to obtain information about i t . 3. Application - the individual makes the decision to try or not to try the practice. 4. T r i a l - after the decision to try out the idea has been made the individual experiments with the techniques of accc^lishing the practice. 5. Adoption - when the t r i a l has been made and the individual i s satisfied with the new practice he decides to continue using i t . The results of certain studies can be better understood with these stages i n mind. These studies have contrasted the effectiveness of three agricultural methods; individual contact, group contact and mass media as sources of information about new practices. In other words, through which method did the farmer or homemaker f i r s t obtain information about certain new practices? Johnson and Wilkening (35) found, after interviewing early and late participators i n a program of farm and home development, that the two participating groups had higher adoption rates than did the two control groups during the period of five years that the program was i n existence. The greatest changes occurred i n the practice of keeping farm record books and i n the use of milk production records. In these 64 two practices, adoptions of the participating groups were significantly greater (levels not given) than those of the control group. In addition to the adoption of new practices, changes of an economic nature could be attributed to the program, however, these changes were not significant. Robert (54) reported after interviewing the farmers that a l l three methods being tested (group meeting, farm v i s i t , circular letter) appeared to influence the rice growers, however, the visits and the meetings seemed to result in more action than did the circular letter. The meeting seemed to motivate more action than did the v i s i t . These results were not tested for significance however, and the author simply stated that one method produced better results than another. while the Johnson and Wilkening (35) and Robert (54) studies tested after adoption had taken place, certain others have studied the effects of various methods on learning while the process of adoption was on-going. The hcmemakers in the Abell and Larson (I) study listed as helpful sources of information: (1) magazines, radio, neighbors, farm papers; (2) meetings; (3) teachers; (4) talks with home demonstration agents; (5) home visits; (6) office visits. The homemakers then listed as most helpful sources: Magazines - 38 per cent Neighbors - 19 per cent and Radio - 15 per cent. Abell, Larson and Dickers on (2) found that their sample of farm 65 operators mentioned that farm papers (82 per cent), printed extension (8? per cent), radio (69 per cent), neighbors, friends and r e l a t i v e s (64 per cent), t a l k s with the extension agent (46 per cent), meetings and demonstrations (49 per cent), and o r a l extension (64 per cent) were h e l p f u l . The sample l i s t e d farm papers (28 per cent), printed extension (37 per cent), o r a l extension (33 per cent), meetings and demonstrations (21 per cent) and t a l k s with the agent (17 per cent) were most h e l p f u l . In both categories of "he l p f u l " and "most h e l p f u l " the mass media are mentioned most frequently with group contact next and i n d i v i d u a l contacts such as agent t a l k s and o r a l extension l a s t . The Aurbach and Kaufman (5) study was concerned with the extent of farmer's knowledge of a g r i c u l t u r a l practices and t h e i r major sources of information. They found that the farmers i d e n t i f i e d the most h e l p f u l sources as: County agent (42 per cent), the county co-operative (31 per cent), and neighbors (29 per cen$. The county agent was the most help-f u l source of information i n t h i s study, whereas i n the A b e l l and Larson (•1) and the A b e l l , Larson and Dickers on (2) studies contacts with the county agent came l a s t among the most h e l p f u l sources of information. The studies c i t e d above have been concerned with the e f f e c t i v e -ness of the a g r i c u l t u r a l methods as information sources about new practices. The Beal and Rogers (6) study has related the effectiveness of a g r i c u l t u r a l methods to a l l stages i n the adoption process; awareness, information, a p p l i c a t i o n , t r i a l and adoption. They found that at the 66 awareness stage that mass media were most important. Individual and group extension methods were also effective at this stage. At the infor-mation stage a l l sources were equal i n importance, i.e., mass media; agency sources; informal sources and commercial; at the application stage, informal and commercial sources were most important and at the t r i a l stage, commercial sources were most important. The criterion of success at the adoption stage i n the process was the farmer's sense of satisfaction. General trends i n the data indicated that agency sources decreased i n importance as disseminators of information and informal and commercial sources increased from awareness to adoption. In the i n i t i a l stages of the adoption, the adult education methods were at the height of their effectiveness, however, because Beal and Rogers classified individual and group contact methods together i t i s d i f f i c u l t to say which of the two was the most effective, although there i s some evidence from the Abell and Larson (I) and Abell, Larson and Dickers on (2) studies that group contact methods are more effective than individual contact methods i n influencing the adoption of practices. The Wilson and Gallup (66) review corroborates t h i s , for they reported that i n every eighty-one of one hundred adoptions, 24.8 per cent were credited to individual contact methods with 32.8 per cent to group contact methods and 23.3 per cent to mass media and 19 per cent to indirect influences. Wilson and Gallup also found that the accumulated influence of several methods was usually necessary to accomplish a desired change i n practice. Correlation studies showed that the to t a l number of practices adopted as a result of •67 extension teaching was more closely associated with certain methods than others. The coefficient of correlation of the individual contact methods, i.e. office c a l l s , was .656 + .075 and the group contact methods, demon-stration meetings and general meetings were .605 + .095 and .368 + .130 respectively. Indirect influences at .814 + .044 and news stories with a correlation coefficient of .738 + .060 were the highest. I t would seem from these correlation studies that the kind of meeting determines how much adoption takes place. Certainly i f one i s to generalize i t would seem that individual contact methods and group contact methods are close together i n the contest for number of adoptions. Participants.' Several studies were concerned with the factors which identify the characteristics of the participants using individual contact methods. The factors studied were: age, education, socio-economic status and the amount or quality of the contact which the participants had with the method. Age. Lionberger (44) compared users of county agents (users of individual contact methods) with the users of other institutionalized sources of information (vocational, agricultural, etc.), and with the non-users of any institutionalized sources of information. He found that the users of county agents were younger and that the non-users were the oldest i n the sample. He also found that the users of county agents were the highest adopters of practices, with the users of other sources next, 68 and the non-users last. Beal and Rogers (6) correlated age with adoption rate. They found that the innovators were significantly older than all other adopters at the .05 level of confidence. Wilkening (65) also found that the age of the farm operator was associated with the adoption rate. One study said that the users of individual contact methods were younger and higher adopters than the users of other media. Another said that the users of extension agencies, including individual contact methods, were older and higher adopters than the non-users of other media. Another study said that age was not a factor in extension teaching and in the adoption of practices. Obviously, there is no clear cut agree-ment about the effect of age cn the use of individual contact methods. Education. In every case the authors agreed that educa-tion was a significant factor in the success of al l extension methods. Abell and Larson (1) and Abell, Larson and Dickerson (2) discovered that high users of information (Individual contact methods along with other sources) were more highly educated than the low users of information. High users of information listed as their most helpful source of infor-mation the mass media and the extension methods. Lionberger's (44) users of county agents had eleven years of edu-cation compared to nine years for the users of other institutional sources and the non-users of any source. Marsh and Coleman (46) found that the better educated the farmer the more likely he was to adopt and 69 to use a l l channels of information. The less educated he was the more likely he was to consider the informal sources of information such as friends and neighbors as the most helpful. They also mention that the higher the education of the farmers the greater their use of agency representatives. Only Lionberger (44) specifically examined the effect of educa-tion on the users of individual contact methods versus the users of other media. He found that the users of individual contact methods had more education than non-users. The consensus of opinion seems to be that education and the use of personal contact methods and extension sources in general had a definite bearing on the adoption rate. Socio-economic Status. The authors a l l agreed that socio-economic status was related to a high usage of individual contact methods and to the high use of other media and to the rate of adoption of practices. Abell and Larson (I) and Abell, Larson and Dickers on (2) found that the high users of media had a higher socio-economic status than the low users of media. Lionberger (44), in comparing the users of county agents with users of other institutional sources of information and the non-users of any informational source discovered that the Sewe11 socio-economic score of the users of county agents did not differ sufficiently to say that one group was superior to the other. The majority of the studies agreed that a high use of extension; • 70 media i n general was related to a high socioeconomic status. The one study which was concerned with the users of individual contact methods alone did not arrive at any definite conclusions regarding the difference i n socio-economic status of the users of individual contact methods versus other users. Marsh and Coleman (46) related the size of farm operation with the use of channels of information, and they found that the larger the opera-tion the more channels of information were used, and the greater the use of individual contact methods and of meetings and bulletins. Lionberger (44) found that both the users of county agents and the users of other institutional sources of information had larger acreage than the non-users of any institutional source of information. Regarding tenure, Lionberger found that the users of county agents had been farming eighteen years, the users of other institutional sources had farmed for twenty-two years, and the non-users of any source had farmed for thirty-two years. Beal and Rogers (6) correlated size of the farm with adopter categories and found that there were no significant differences between the innovator to laggard types at the .01 and .05 levels of confidence. Size of farm was found to be related to a greater usage of individual contact methods by three authors; however, one study found that the innovators who were also the greatest users of agency sources did not have larger farms than other adopters. Abell and Larson (1) and Abell, Larson and Dickers on (2) invest!-71 gated tenure and found that high users of media spent a longer time on the farm than d i d low users. The two studies in v e s t i g a t i n g tenure arrived at c o n f l i c t i n g conclusions. One discovered that users of county agents had been farming a shorter time than other users and non-users, and the other study found that the high users of media had spent a longer time farming than low users of media. Individual Contact with the Agency Representative. Johnson arid Wilkening (35) measured the nature of the contact which the extension s t a f f had with the parti c i p a t o r s and non-participators i n the farm and home development program i n Wisconsin. The contact with extension s t a f f was measured by one or more telephone conversations; one or more farm v i s i t s by an agent; attendance at one or more extension sponsored meetings, and by attendance at one or more extension sponsored demon-str a t i o n s . The f i r s t two types are i n d i v i d u a l contacts whereas both the t h i r d and fourth are examples of group methods. Johnson and Wilkening found that both the early and l a t e p a r t i c i p a t o r s had more contact with extension agents than d i d the control groups. They also found that the wives of the early and l a t e participators had more contact with home demonstration agents than d i d the wives i n the control groups. Beal and Rogers (6) calculated the extension i n d i v i d u a l contact score f o r a l l t h e i r adopters, and found that there were s i g n i f i c a n t differences between them at the .01 l e v e l of confidence. The innovators had the most contact with extension agents and laggards the l e a s t . There • 72 was a significant relationship demonstrated i n this study between the amount of individual contact and the adoption rates of the sample. Marsh and Coleman (46) discovered that farmers who talked most frequently to agency representatives adopted recommended farm practices at a higher rate than those farmers who did not talk as frequently to agency repre-sentatives. Lionberger (44) said that the users of county agents were greater adopters than users of other institutional sources of information and non-users of any informational source. Beal and Rogers (6) found that fastest adopters had most contact with extension agents and the slowest the least. The above studies a l l agreed that the amount of contact which the farmer or homemaker had with the agency or the individual representative affected the speed of adoption or the use of media i n general. Summary and Conclusions Directed individual study, whether used i n health education, teacher in-service-training or i n agricultural extension, seems to be a process i n which the agent and the learner i n face to face contact are interested i n solving some problem or i n finding information which may help to modify that person's behaviour or attitudes. In health education, the c l i n i c interview was found to be inferior to discussion groups i n bringing about the adoption of new dietary practices. 73 In teacher In-service-training, the attitude changes effected by the conference were not striking. The techniques used within the struc-tured conference versus the unstructured one seem to have brought about greater change, but the change was not significant. Again i t would be helpful i f the individual conference was compared to a group.counselling method. The actual efficacy i n learning and the unique aspects of the conference are yet to be discovered. The agricultural studies have more information on the effective-ness of individual contact methods. These methods certainly effect adoption but i n the adoption process, individual contact methods along with group contact methods were found to be most effective at the early stages i n the adoption process. Of course, individual and group contact methods s t i l l are secondary to the mass media and informal sources at a l l stages i n the adoption process. The user of individual contact methods tends to be of higher socio-economic status, have more education, use a l l media more and to be the fastest person to adopt practices. VT. DISCUSSION GROUP Introduction and Description Just as the class i s associated with traditional learning, the discussion group now i s associated with the newer trends i n education and as such constitutes one of the main methods used i n non-credit adult 74 education. In this era, particularly since the Second World War, adults have been demanding a greater role i n the learning process as they no longer want just to be taught but want to be involved i n learning. The democratic atmosphere created by discussion i s admirably suited to t h i s . A l l of the studies reviewed including those by Bond (8), Buttedahl (12), Carroll (13), Davis (18), Hadlock (29), H i l l .(33), Kaplan (36), and Shapiro (56) show that discussion groups have certain characteristics i n common including such factors as group interaction, leadership, and the role of authority. In discussing the role of leadership Shapiro noted that i t should be non-directive. The leader's job i s to f a c i l i t a t e and establish a comfortable climate for discussion rather than to dcminate i t . Kaplan as well as Davis and H i l l noted that discussion leaders are not information specialists but lay leaders with the a b i l i t y to relate to people. Carroll and the Fund for Adult Education authors, Davis, H i l l and Kaplan, stated that the participants received their information from books and records or tape recordings rather than from information specialists. The group i s not dominated by a subject matter authority but i s i t s e l f responsible for i t s own learning. Verner's definition seems to contain these elements for he says that discussion groups provide: a learning situation which conforms to the characteristics of the societal processes of a group so that learning i s achieved i n the group as a unit as well as by individual members. The responsibility for learning i s shared by the group members and the agent. The duration of the activity w i l l vary with the purpose of the group. (62: p.15) The characteristics of the social environment mentioned i n this 75 definition i s one of the main topics covered i n the research. A discus-sion group, by i t s very nature, provides an environment which i s suited to the accomplishment of certain learning tasks and involves the entire membership of the group i n interaction. Some c r i t i c s have suggested that this results i n a "pooling of ignorance"; discussion adherents are particularly anxious to disprove this contention. This kind of criticism has resulted i n studies comparing discussion groups and the class i n the areas of information, attitude and s k i l l learning. A great deal of the work which has been done on discussion i s not usable here because i t has examined group discussion techniques and not the methods. The studies which pertain to method come largely from the l i b e r a l arts, health education and parent education while those relating to group discussion have been conducted i n the setting of the class. The findings of the studies from each particular f i e l d are treated separately. Research Designs The Bond (8) sample consisted of forty-two discussion-decision groups and thirty-three lecture groups which were selected from matched middle class coiriunities. The groups were small pre-existing women's groups which were not organized around any health subject. The study sample of ,871 women was roughly comparable i n age, formal schooling and occupational status to the female population of Duluth, Minnesota. One meeting was held by the investigator i n each study group. Two follow-ups were made, one six months later and the f i n a l one thirteen months later. The data were collected by the following instruments: (1) a 76 questionnaire for officers of groups; (2) a pre-meeting questionnaire which covered (a) a general description and (b) information on how recently they had had a breast examination; (3) a post-meeting sheet which was used only by the discussion group; (-4) a cohesiveness and responsiveness sheet; (5) a follow-up interview which contained infor-mation about the practice of self-examination. The data collected were analyzed by the chi square test at the .01 and .05 levels of confidence. The population of the Buttedahl (12) study consisted of 272 adults i n seven classes, and 173 adults i n thirteen discussion groups. They were selected from the 1961 f a l l program of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia extension department on the basis of similarities i n subject matter, fee structure, starting time, duration of program and geographical accessibility. The seven lecture classes and thirteen discussion groups were divided into three parts for study, as follows: (1) six test classes, (2) ten test discussion groups, (3) two control groups (one class and three discussion groups). The control groups differed from the test groups i n subject matter only; the test groups studied identical subject matter. A l l data were collected by a questionnaire which was developed by the author. The questionnaire was distributed and collected i n one evening during the fourth and f i f t h weeks of the course. The data analysis occurred i n two stages: (1) the socioeconomic scores and social participation scores were calculated by use of the McGuire-white Index scale and the Lionberger and Coughenour schemes respectively, and (2) the hypotheses were tested for significance by the chi square test at the .01 ,77 level of confidence. The subjects in the Carroll (13) study were parents with a child in the three to five year age range who voluntarily attended a parent education group program at their children's pre-schools. Thirty-four of the parents had children attending the Florida State Child Development School during 1954-55. Twenty-four of the parents had children attending the Independent Presbyterian Kindergarten. School during 1955-56. Fifty-three subjects were parents of children who attended the Independent Presbyterian Kindergarten School during 1956-57. The groups a l l met b i -monthly for one and one-quarter hours each time. To determine attitudes the long form of the Wiley Child Survey was aoMnistered to the 1954-55 group and the short form was given to the 1956-57 group. The data were analyzed for significance. (Test not indicated, nor level of confidence.) The sample in the Davis (18) study was a probability one which was stratified by the year of reading by Great Books discussion groups which met in November and December, 1957» in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. One hundred and seventy-two groups, averaging eleven in size, were in the sample, selected at random. The number of Jews, Democrats and unmarried persons were over represented in the sample due to the fact that participants in Great Books program were disproportionately urban. The data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The effects of the program or the change which occurred due to the Great Books program was difficult to ascertain because control groups could not be formed. To overcome this the statistical scores of the beginning and ; 78 advanced members were divided into three groups: (1) those who had completed less than one year, (2) those who had completed one or two years, and (3) those who had completed three or more years. If the pro-gram did have effects then the advanced participants should show different statistical scores than the beginners. Tests for statistical significance including the chi square were used to analyze the data. A "cluster analysis" statistical test, a method of correlating a l l possible pairs of items, was used to analyze the part of the questionnaire con-cerned with motivations for participating in the program at the .05 level of confidence. The data for the Davis (19) study were collected from the partici-pants who had previously been studied by Davis (18). The information on the status of persons in the sample for this study was obtained from questionnaires to leaders and from informal questions to caimunity co-ordinators. The whole question of group retention and the factors responsible for i t were examined in this study. It described the salient characteristics of the participants, attempted to analyze the roles they played within the small discussion groups. The remainder of the study devoted it s e l f to a detailed analysis of the factor related to dropout. What kind of person survives and what kind of person drops out? What group factors and what individual factors affect retention? To analyze the relationships of individual and group characteristics to retention statistical analysis called ccmplicaticnal effects was developed. (19:p.24) • 79 A t o t a l of fifty-four voluntary participants from six different study discussion groups on World Pol i t i c s were tested by Hadlock (29). The educational background of the experimental group ranged from high school to doctorates. The control subjects consisted of faculty members and some faculty wives. A l l of the control members had a baccalaureate and none was currently participating i n an educational activity. The data were collected before the second class session and then after the last session. The instruments used were: (1) tests of c r i t i c a l thinking, developed by the cooperative study of evolution i n general education, (2) the cooperative English test reading (level of comprehension and vocabulary), (3) Sanford and Alder*s short authoritarian scale which was derived from the Berkeley P (ascesin) scale. The results were analyzed for s t a t i s t i c a l differences by the " t " and the " f " variance tests. In the H i l l (33) study the population consisted of 576 participants who were enrolled i n the UCLA extension study discussion program.. The experimental design called for ten division groups of twenty members each, two small lecture groups each with twenty-five members and of one Large lecture class with one hundred members. Por interviewing purposes six members were selected at random from each discussion group; two of these were assigned to the beginning interview, two for the end interview and two for both beginning and end interviews. Sixty-three participants were selected at random for interviews from the large class and these were distributed at random among the three interviewing patterns. Twenty-80 five participants were selected at randan from the small classes and they were a l l interviewed at the beginning and the end of the program. The experimental design required that (1) the subject matter be the same for both discussion groups and lecture classes; (2) the subject matter be treated i n eleven two-hour sessions; (3) each meeting be incorporated i n a half hour dramatic recording; (4) the same reading material be used by a l l participants. The data were collected by questionnaires, interviews and direct observation. The pre-question-naire contained information about the expectations of the participants, their previous experience i n adult education, their attitudes, their knowledge of anthropological concepts, and the socioeconomic characteris-t i c s of the participants. The post-questionnaire measured attitudes, judged program effects, evaluated various aspects of the program and ascertained knowledge of anthropological concepts. The interviews were semi-structured and they obtained information on motivation for p a r t i c i -pation, organizational a f f i l i a t i o n s , reading habits and evaluation of their roles i n informal group situations. The data were analyzed for significant differences by rank order correlations and the chi square test at the .05 level of confidence. The Kaplan (36) sample consisting of participants and leaders were selected at random from four study discussion programs: World Affairs Are Your Affairs, An Introduction to Humanities, Ways of Mankind, and World P o l i t i c s . In a l l , 150 participants and f i f t y leaders were picked. One hundred of the participants were from Los Angeles groups, twenty-81 five from Pasadena and twenty-five from Whit tier. The fi f t y leaders were chosen from the above three areas. One hundred of the participants had been in groups prior to the spring of 1956 and were interviewed once. The remaining fif t y participants were new and were interviewed before the group started, in the middle of the series and after the last meeting. The groups met for a total of ten weeks. Half of the leaders were in the program previously and they were interviewed once; the new leaders were interviewed both before and after the completion of the program. The interviews were done by five investigators including two political scientists, two psychologists and the author. The data were analyzed by percentages. Both the experimental and control groups i n the Shapiro (56) study of twenty-five members each were selected at random from fifty-three families who participated in the Family Health Maintenance Demonstration. These two groups were similar in occupation, education, religion, age and sex. On a group basis they were matched according to the number of children per family, age distribution of the children, annual income and nativity (foreign born or not). A questionnaire was mailed before any announcements were made of the discussion group, and following the twelve meetings i t was mailed again. The questionnaire was adapted from Harris, Cough and Martin which in turn was based on Shoben's parental attitude questionnaire. For this experiment the questionnaire consisted of three parts: (1) attitudes toward children; (2) child handling practices; and (3) a situational test with five or six courses of action. A total of 82 115 items were included in the questionnaire. The responses were classi-fied into attitudes of authoritarianism, parent-child integration, rigidity, fussiness and good judgement. The answers were tested for significance by the "t" test at the .01 and .05 levels of confidence. Findings on the Discussion Group in Liberal Arts Study discussion programs as part of university extension offerings are comparatively recent, and i t has been the concern of educators to find out the effects of such programs on the participant, and what kind of participants are attracted to such programs. The Fund for Adult Education sponsored three studies to investigate these factors which were carefully designed to measure the effects of "liberalization" which is the overall objective of study discussion. To determine the effects of liberalization is difficult because of the diverse and sometimes vague interpretations given to this term, but these studies attempt to measure liberalization. H i l l (33) has combined a l l of arts education into the following general learning areas for which the discussion was particularly suited: the development of mental abilities and skills, changes in values, interests of attitudes, and increased knowledge. Effects of the Learning Participant Evaluations. In a l l of the three study-discus-sion experiments, the participants were asked to evaluate the program in a general way. In the Davis (18) study the participants were asked for 83 their impressions of the program, and their responses were categorized according to the degree of impact which the program had on them. Forty-two per cent of the participants reported that i t was a marvelous program and that i t had a genuine impact on them; 55 per cent said that the program was fine but didn't change them much; 0 per cent reported that they did not get anything out of the program. H i l l (33) asked p a r t i c i -pants whether they were satisfied with the program, and 90.1 per cent reported that they were satisfied. Of this number, 18.4 per cent were completely satisfied; 51.6 per cent were satisfied to a considerable extent; 20.1 per cent were more satisfied than dissatisfied; 4.2 per cent were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, and 5.7 per cent were satisfied to some degree. Kaplan (36) reported that 80 per cent of the participants said that the program had met their expectations. In a l l cases most of the participants were either satisfied or impressed with their discussion program. Kaplan (36) found that more men than women were satisfied to an unqualified degree. The differences between the answers of men and women were significant at the .05 level of confidence i n the "yes" and "partially" satisfied categories. Furthermore there were no significant differences at the .05 level of confidence between the college graduates and the non-college people. H i l l (33) reported that only religious preference and occupation were significantly correlated (.05) with satisfaction; i .e., Protestants and professionals were more satisfied than Jews and non-professionals. 84 In the Davis (18) study, the younger and the higher status people were less l i k e l y to report that the program had a high impact. Persons with no college or part college reported that the program had a higher impact than did college graduates and post graduates. There were conflicting results about the role of educational level reported i n the studies. Kaplan (36) found that there were no differences between the groups, and Davis found that the less educated were more impressed. In addition to queries about general satisfaction and the impact of the program, the participants were asked to comment on materials and leadership and about taking new courses. Twenty per cent of the p a r t i c i -pants i n the Kaplan study were c r i t i c a l of the materials used and of the leadership; however, 59 per cent thought that they were good or excellent and 30 per cent were c r i t i c a l of other participants. These criticisms were levelled at specific points rather than at the general picture. College graduates seemed to be more satisfied with the leadership than non-graduates, but they were more c r i t i c a l of other participants. In the H i l l (33) study 54.4 per cent of the participants recom-mended that changes be made i n the reading materials but they said that they were satisfied with the general format of the program. In the lecture class, 20 per cent of the participants f e l t that the instructors were inadequate and the same proportion of discussion participants were dissatisfied with the leadership, as too directive or too laissez-faire. These specific points of course concern the style of the leadership which i s related to the technique. 85 We can say that although a sizeable minority were critical of materials, leadership and other participants, they were "normal" c r i t i -cisms to be expected and not basic criticisms of the method. The experience in a discussion group was so successful that i t encouraged participants to participate in other study discussion programs. In the H i l l (33) study 38.5 per cent of both the lecture class and the discussion group participants intended to take another course and 55.5 per cent reported that they probably were interested in taking more courses. The majority of the class and discussion group participants in the H i l l (33) study preferred their own method, but a significant (.05) proportion of both lecture class and discussion participants would have preferred a combination of lecture and discussion techniques within their own method, class or discussion groups. Acquisition of Knowledge. Kaplan (36) found that 63 per cent of the participants in the discussion programs reported that they had gained some knowledge of the concepts of the subject matter they studied. The difference in knowledge gained as measured on an objective test given to those having completed one and two years and those having completed no years was found by Davis (18) to be significant at the .01 level of confidence. The difference between those who had been in the program three or more years and one and two years was significant at the .001 level of confidence. The Davis study also discovered a substantial 86 increase i n knowledge i n those who had participated i n the Great Books program. This increase was particularily marked for the participants who had most exposure to the program. In comparing knowledge gained i n lecture class versus discussion participants H i l l (33) found that both groups gained equal amounts of knowledge. We can conclude then that participation i n discussion groups brings about gains i n the amount of information acquired. Changes i n Attitudes, Values and Ideologies. When asked whether they had changed their attitudes or values during the course of their discussion programs, the Kaplan (36) participants said that they had changed their attitudes and ideas i n such areas as conceptions of authority, family relationships and modem art. Kaplan concluded that some of the answers were general and indicated that growth had occurred i n objectivity. In testing for changes i n values Davis (18) used the Morriss scale of such large scale abstractions as groupyness, a c t i v i t y , hedonism and contemplation and found that there were no significant differences between those who had spent no years i n the program and those who had spent one or two and three or more years i n the discussion groups. In testing for specific ideological changes i n religion and pol i t i c s Davis (18) found that the participants were more w i l l i n g to accept l i b e r a l , rational and skeptical approaches to religion. The groups having the.longest exposure to the subject of eighteenth century p o l i t i c a l thought i n the Great Books program developed significantly ;87 greater l i b e r a l tendencies at the .05 level of confidence. Previously i t was reported that H i l l (33) found that discussion groups members showed greater attitude change than did lecture class participants i n accepting democratic procedures and were less ethnocen-t r i c ; however, these differences were not significant as well as i n the other three attitudes measured. H i l l concluded that the hypothesis stating that discussion group members w i l l evidence greater attitudinal change than lecture class members cannot be clearly rejected. For the majority of the participants registered i n study discus-sion programs there seems to be some indication that changes i n attitude did take place; however, no radical changes occurred and no real differen-ces existed for the majority of participants between class and discussion methods. Some liberalization such as the broadening of attitudes seemed to occur over the period of the programs. The Davis (18) study provides some evidence that attitudinal and ideological change i s a long-term process. Changes i n Reading Habits • More than 40 per cent of the Kaplan (36) participants, when questioned, answered that they read more "intellectual" material because of their discussion experience. In a more quantitative analysis of the reading habits of the Great Books participants, Davis (18) found that there was a significant increase i n the serious materials read for the members who had been with the program three or more years compared with those who had been with the program one 88 and two years. He also mentions that this i s only a quantitative and not a qualitative analysis of reading i n that he could not determine what benefit they had derived from their reading. H i l l (33) found that his discussion participants had also increased their reading, however, he found no significant differences at the .05 level of confidence between the discussion group and lecture class participants. There seems to be general agreement i n the studies that participating i n study discussion programs was found to increase serious reading among those involved. Aesthetic S k i l l s . One of the goals of the Great Books program was that of the development of aesthetic appreciation. Davis (18) investigated this by developing tests for musical appreciation and poetic sensitivity. There was no evidence to support claims that musical sophistication and the a b i l i t y to judge poetry increased with the number of years of association with Great Books programs and i t was concluded that this kind of learning was acquired outside the setting of Great Books discussion. C r i t i c a l Thinking S k i l l s . The measure of c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s was mentioned by Kaplan (36) and was examined extensively by Hadlock (29) who defined c r i t i c a l thinking as a process of examining and analyzing information or facts and then assimilating them into one's own mental structure. Kaplan commented that three of the eight groups under observation had made some progress i n their a b i l i t y to analyze problems and to think c r i t i c a l l y . Hadlock investigated changes i n c r i t i c a l thinking 89 occurring i n a group which had participated i n a discussion program sponsored by the American Foundation of P o l i t i c a l Education. The experi-mental and test groups were given tests for c r i t i c a l thinking before and after their discussion experiences. He found that c r i t i c a l thinking scores of the test group did improve significantly at the .05. level of confidence and the factors of age, authoritarianism and education did not affect changes i n c r i t i c a l thinking. Friendship Formation. One important consequence of the discussion experience i s the expectation that friendships w i l l be formed within the group. This should reflect whether the atmosphere provided by discussion groups i s conducive to friendly social interaction. One-third of the Kaplan (36) participants indicated that they had formed new friendships which had continued beyond the period of the discussion program. H i l l (33) reported that discussion group members had formed such friendships but that lecture class participants had formed significantly fewer friendships, however, the formation of friendships was not an expectation of the class participants. Community Involvement. One of the goals of l i b e r a l arts i s an increased sense of community awareness and responsibility. P a r t i c i -pants i n the Davis (18) study became significantly more aware of community problems and developed more understanding of them. This increase i n understanding did not lead to a change i n actual involvement. On the other hand, H i l l (33) found that discussion group members became si g n i -90 ficantly more involved in community affairs than did class participants, however, he qualified this by stating that the class participants had been more highly Involved in carariunity affairs to begin with than discus-sion group members. This increased involvement of discussion members might be attributable to the fact that the groups met in the ccmnunity whereas the classes met at the universities. Apparently, discussion group participation results in greater intellectual awareness of commu-nity responsibility but there is l i t t l e evidence to indicate that this awareness leads to action. Participants Age. Participants in the Davis (18) study were in the twenty-five to forty-one year age group while those reported by Kaplan (36) had an average age of thirty-eight and one-half years. Studies comparing lecture class and discussion group participants found that they were in approximately the same age groups as the discussion group par-ticipants. H i l l (33) reported that 40.6 per cent were in the thirty to thirty-nine age group, however, Buttedahl (12) found that a median age of thirty-five in the class population which was significantly younger than the media of forty-cne among discussion group participants at the .01 level of confidence. On the other hand, the lecture class participants studied by H i l l were significantly older than his discussion participants at the .05 level of confidence. 91 Sex. Kaplan (36) and Davis (18) both found women in the majority, with 63 per cent women and 37 per cent men reported in both studies. H i l l (33) reported no significant differences at the .05 level of confidence between lecture class and discussion groups in the ratio of male to female participants. Buttedahl (12) found 79 per cent women in the lecture class and 68 per cent in the discussion group. In a l l cases women predominated in both classes and discussion groups. Marital Status. In the Davis (18) study 74 per cent of the women and 82 per cent of the men were married and of these, 54 per cent of the married men attended with their wives and 36 per cent of the women with their husbands. Kaplan (36) found that 79 per cent of his discussion participants were married and that 50 per cent of them enrolled without their spouse. H i l l (33) noted that 71.4 per cent of his sample were married and that a higher percentage of the discussion group participants were divorced or separated than was found among the lecture class parti-cipants. Buttedahl (12) reported that 49 per cent of the class partici-pants were married compared with 75 per cent of the discussion group participants; this difference was significant at the .01 level of .confidence. Education. Eighty-four per cent of the participants studied by Davis (18) had some college with 91 per cent of these male and 79 per cent female. The same status is evident in Kaplan (36) who found that 88 per cent of the sample had attended beyond high school 92 and of these, 59 per cent had college degrees of whom 82.2 per cent were male and 45.7 per cent female. A lower proportion of people i n the Buttedahl (12) study had university training, lecture class participants reported that 60 per cent had university whereas 63 per cent of the discussion participants had high school or less. These differences were significant.at the .01 level of confidence. A higher proportion of the participants studied by H i l l .(33) had attended college with 84.3 per cent reporting some college. H i l l found that there was no significant d i f f e -rence at the .05 level of confidence between lecture class participants and discussion group members. Occupation. The majority of the participants i n the Kaplan (36) study were i n the professions and i n higher business or supervisory positions. Davis (18) found that 60 per cent of the discussion group members were i n the professional category. H i l l (33) found that there were significantly more men i n sales and more women i n c l e r i c a l positions i n the discussion groups than i n the lecture classes. Buttedahl (12) found that discussion group and lecture class participants differed significantly at the .01 level of confidence i n terms of occupational distribution. He reported that 35 per cent of the lecture class p a r t i -cipants were i n the professional categories as opposed to 20 per cent of the discussion group participants. Social Participation. Davis (18) found that 43 per cent of his discussion group participants belonged to two or more organizations. 93 Buttedahl (12) calculated a social participation score and found that lecture class and discussion group participants did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i -cantly at the .01 level of confidence i n terms of social participation. Length of Residence. The length of residence i n the ccranunity i s a measure of the s t a b i l i t y of the population. Buttedahl i (12) found that there were no significant differences between lecture class and discussion group participants at the .01 level of confidence with respect to length of residence. Previous Experience i n Adult Education Activities. Accor-ding to Kaplan (36), 58 per cent of the participants he studied had participated i n adult education prior to their involvement i n the study discussion program and 36 per cent of these had been members of discus-sion groups previously. Buttedahl (12) compared lecture class with discussion group participants and found that discussion group members had had significantly more experience with their own method than had lecture class members. This difference was significant at the .01 level of confidence. Attitudes and Values of the Participants. As noted earlier i n discussing the class method, H i l l (33) found discussion participants more tolerant of ambiguity and more committed to democratic group pro-cedures than lecture class participants. Discussion group members thought that their previous experience with discussion groups was more 9k valuable than did lecture class members. This difference was significant at the .001 level of confidence. The p o l i t i c a l and ideological position of participants was deter-mined by both Kaplan (36) and Davis (18). Kaplan found that more than half considered themselves to be " l i b e r a l " and only 15 per cent "conservative" i n p o l i t i c s . The participants i n the Davis study identi-fied themselves as members of the Democratic party i n 48 per cent of the class and Republican i n 41 per cent. These percentages were much closer to being equally balanced than was found i n the United States population as a whole where 51 per cent registered as Democratic and 29 per cent Republican. Because his sample was drawn from the high economic groups, Davis contended that this accounted for the nearly equal numbers of Democrats and Republicans, but this isn't entirely satisfactory as both parties have their l i b e r a l wings so that figures of this kind do not give us a true indication of p o l i t i c a l l i b e r a l i t y . Dropouts. Davis (19) has exhaustively examined the problem of drop-outs i n his study of participants i n Great Books discussion groups. He sought to determine whether retention was related to the individual or the group or a combination of these factors. In the Davis sample, about one-third of the groups lost more than 50 per cent of their members; another third lost between 30 per cent and 50 per cent and the last third less than 30 per cent. The factors influencing retention isolated by Davis (19) are summarized as follows: 1. The age and size of the groups had no effect cn the dropout rate except that first year participants were more likely to drop out. 2. The kind of role (joker, harmonizer, task) played in the group had no effect on dropout, however, the number of different roles taken by members did have a bearing on the dropout rate and retention was better in those groups where the level of activity was high. 3. Retention was not affected by member contacts outside of group meetings unless this kind of contact resulted in higher levels of participation within the group. 4. Leader training and the acceptance or rejection of group discus-sion techniques recommended by the Great Books Foundation had no relationship to the dropout rate. 5. There was some evidence to indicate that the dropout rate was higher in those cases where group members wanted the group leaders to use a special technique and they did not do so. 6. Sex differences and marital status were related to the dropout rate only when large numbers of women in a group lower the activity level and when the number of married persons in the group tend to raise the activity level. 7. A higher proportion of high status persons tended to lower the dropout rate. 8. High incidences of interaction in the community were favorable to retention, but there were indications that this interaction must be intellectual rather than purely social i n which case the drop-out rate was raised. 9 . Members who were better prepared were less apt to drop out than members who were not. 10. Group members with scare s k i l l such as poetic sensitivity, l i b e r a l arts knowledge or a college education were less l i k e l y to dropout than i f they had no intellectual s k i l l s . Davis pointed out, however, that the dropout rate might increase i f a member was too well prepared or possessed too many intellectual s k i l l s for his group. The possession of a college degree alone did not ensure retention. 11. In high activity groups, p o l i t i c a l composition had no influence on retention, but i n low activity groups p o l i t i c a l diversity lowered the dropout rate. 12. The dropout rate was higher among people who adhered to a religious position with some degree of commitment. In groups with a high number of protest ants, the dropout rate was higher than for groups with fewer protestants. The author suggested that openness to religious ideas probably improved retention and that there was a slight case for diversity of religious representation i n a group. The dropout as described by Davis (19) i s frequently a f i r s t year participant, inactive, disapproves of leadership, of.low.status p a r t i -cularly i n a low activity group, has not done his homework, has no . 97 particular s k i l l s or formal academic training and tends to have fixed religious views. On the other hand, the person who remains i n the group i s usually active, satisfied with the leadership, of high status, par-ticipates i n outside a c t i v i t i e s , does his homework, has some intellectual s k i l l s or academic training and i s open to religious ideas. The group factors conducive to retention are: not a predominant or a l l Protestant group; high levels of activity within the group; many members active i n ecmnunity affairs; a high proportion of males or married couples; large numbers of high status members. Davis (19) concluded with four generalizations regarding retention: 1. Groups are important because the discussion group provides an atmosphere i n which social relationships can develop and grow. The atmosphere of the discussion group seems to make intellectual endeavors more stimulating than they would be i f pursued outside of a discussion group. The intellectual content of study discus-sion plus group discussion combines to create the v i t a l i t y of Great Books Programs. 2. Preparation i s important because i t helps to stimulate the discus-sion and raises the activity level of the group. The active groups are the most viable ones. 3. Discussion activity i s the key to retention. Persons who are active i n the discussions are the best candidates for retention. Activity, Davis concluded, could be listening or talking, whatever role seemed to satisfy the participant. 98 4. Groups are affected by social structure; the patterns of social interaction acquired outside of the program play a part i n whether the participant i s active or not. In other words, the factors which constitute activity are conditioned i n the outside social milieu and cannot be created i n the discussion atmosphere. H i l l (33) found that discussion group dropouts held attitudes on authoritarianism, democratic group procedures, ethnocentrism, and tolerance to ambiguity, which were 1.5 above or below the standard deviation mean of the group. H i l l ' s hypothesis that these people would leave the discussion group due to social pressures was upheld. There i s a certain degree of similarity i n these results with those of the Davis (19) study on the p o l i t i c a l and religious l i b e r a l i t y of dropouts. In both cases i t was the deviant who dropped out, either the overly enlightened or the very unenlightened. Findings on the Discussion Group i n Parent Education Effects of the Learning. Three studies have been made i n the f i e l d of parent education where the concern was not intellectual liberalization but the develop-ment of understanding i n the parent of the relationship of the child to the parent; the child to the school and of the parent to the school. These studies were concerned largely with attitudinal change and with conceptual change. 99 Attitude Change. Both Shapiro (56) and Carroll (13) expressed the need for evaluative research into the effects of discussion groups i n bringing about improved parental attitudes, particularly child-rearing attitudes. In addition to measuring.attitude change, both studies evaluated the effects of frequency of attendance. Shapiro (56) tested the groups for differences i n authoritarianism, possessiveness, fussiness, integration, permissiveness and good judgment. No significant differences existed between test and control groups i n fussiness, integration and permissiveness, but the test groups became significantly less authoritarian (.01), less possessive (.05) and they developed significantly better judgment (.01) than the control groups. In attitudes where the differences were not significant, positive a t t i -tudinal changes had occurred with the test groups. Regarding attendance, i t was found that the higher attenders achieved significant changes i n authoritarianism (.01), i n integration (.05) and i n good judgment (.01) whereas the low attenders achieved significant changes only i n their attitudes towards permissiveness (.01). Shapiro concluded that the child-rearing habits of the experimental group changed i n the predicted direction. The high attenders achieved greater attitude change than those who were low attenders. Other conclusions indicated that those whose i n i t i a l scores were more favorable improved significantly more than those whose scores were i n i t i a l l y "less desirable". Those who attended three or less meetings were mainly i n the less desirable category. 100 The effects of the factors of sex, social class and the number of children on attitude change were tested by Carroll (13) and the Wiley Child Guidance short form was used to survey child-rearing attitudes. At the .05 level of confidence no significant changes were noted for two out of three of the study groups on the Wiley test. Although one of the groups showed evidence of change, this was not strong enough to satisfy the tests for significance. No more significant changes occurred for parents attending four or more sessions than for those attending three or less although there were changes i n a positive direction for the high attenders. A significant relationship was found between social class and the t o t a l scale and between social class and t o i l e t training habits which was one of the factors i n the scale. Size of family was found to be related to the factor of boy and g i r l differences. Sex was not found to be related to any part of the Wiley test. Carroll (13) explained that lack of significant gains was probably due to the shortness of the test period which was indicated by the attendance results and that changes did occur for those who attended most frequently, to lack of a sensitive measuring instrument and to the quality of leadership. Shapiro (56) seems to have discovered more differences attributable to the method than did Carroll, but Carroll indicated that there were several factors i n the conduct of his experi-ment which may have been responsible for t h i s . Conceptual Change. Chandler (IM) examined changes which 101 occurred i n professed parent role concepts and standards of child behaviour i n a study discussion course for mothers held over a period of eight weeks. She also examined the correlation between mother and child responses but found no significance i n the result and concluded that the mothers had acquired more developmental concepts of their parental roles and had also, but to a lesser extent, acquired more developmental concepts of child behaviour. The five things tested by Duvall were used to assess the "good mother" and "good child" responses of the mothers before and after their discussion experiences. The " t " scores indicated that significant differences at the .01 level of confidence occurred between the pre and post "good mother" responses. The differences between the pre and post "good child" responses were significant at the .05 level of confidence. These parent education studies of the effects of discussion groups on both the attitudes and concepts of child behaviour and parental roles show that certain attitudinal changes can occur and that i t i s possible for conceptual changes to occur providing attendance i s good and the t o t a l time allotted for the course i s long enough for the learning task involved. Findings on the Discussion Group i n Health Education In study discussion where no one i s proseiytyzing for change, education i s enjoyed for i t s own sake and i s sought voluntarily by the participants. In health education, the educator i s "injecting" new 102 ideas into the community which are v i t a l l y important to the health of the public. The main differences between l i b e r a l and health education i s that i n the former the participant seeks out learning whereas i n the latter the participant i s sought out because of the importance attached to public health improvements. Health educators realize that you can-not force new practices on the public, that practices w i l l not be changed unless the public i s convinced of their v a l i d i t y . Bond (8) states that the aim of a l l health programs i s to motivate people to do things for themselves. In this sense, the method chosen by health educators must allow for as much democratic participation as do the methods used i n l i b e r a l arts programs. In the past, health agencies have tended to use informational "methods" such as the lecture to disseminate information about new health practices; but, as Bond comments, these methods have not necessarily ensured action. Lewin's (43) by now famous studies dene at the university of Iowa during the second world war on food practices have shed a great deal of light on methodological effectiveness i n bringing about attitudinal and behavioural changes. On the basis of these studies, Lewin developed theories about the processes of decisionmaking i n small groups. Other authors i n health education have used Lewin's theories i n their research. The Lewinian theories niaintain that i t i s easier for a person to change cultural habits i n a group than i n isolation. In any decision-making there i s resistance to new ideas. This resistance may be due to fear of accepting an idea which deviates from the social norm. Group 103 decision lessens resistance to change because of the high degree of participation allowed i n group decision. The learner i s able to find out how others i n the group stand cn an issue. Once the group has aired the issue and the individual i s certain that others are receptive to the idea then the time has come for decision making. The group has, i n effect, set a standard for i t s e l f where the decision i s no longer simply an individual one; i t i s one which the group i t s e l f has made. In this atmosphere of acceptance the individual i s freer to make a decision. In Lewinian terminology, decision-making i s f a c i l i t a t e d by the removal of counterforces to the new idea. Many others have followed Lewin's example and have examined the differences between the lecture and decision techniques. Because many of these studies were of a pi l o t nature and because not much indication i s given i n them of the method used, only the Bond (8) study w i l l be mentioned here. The method i s of course not named i n this study, but i t i s clear from the description of the sample that Bond set up discussion groups using already existent groups. This i s a unique procedure and there i s only this one study to demonstrate the use of on-going groups within any method. This way of setting up a discussion group was no doubt based cn the theory that socially based decisions are best made i n viable social units. A mature group w i l l develop certain qualities (such as cohesiveness and responsiveness) which a newly formed group would not possess. An established group would be able to discuss matters much more comfortably and without inhibitions than could a group of strangers. Bond i n her adoption study, has measured group maturity, the quality of eohesiveness and responsiveness. These measures were taken i n both the lecture and the discussion groups prior to the meeting, just as the participants were assembling. Table 15: Bondf8:p.5Q) Comparison of Discussion-decision and Lecture Groups as to Certain  Characteristics of Group Process Discussion % Lecture % 1. Group process prior to meeting divided into pairs, clusters 11*9 12.1 communication includes most of group 88.1 87.8 2. Type of conversation i n early part of meeting personal or general but involving entire group - 77.2 75.8 "social" conversation 22.8 24.2 3. Attitudes of warmth shown slight 11.9 9.1 moderate ' 57.1 57.6 marked 31.0 33-3 4. Attitude toward f i l l i n g out forms definitely. cooperative 81.0 66.6 polite acceptance of task 9.5 21.2 some definite resistance 9.5 12.1 5 Attitude toward designating leaders ready decisions made without comments - 75.2 81.8 confusion or resistance to making choice 23.8 18.2 105 These measures show that the groups are mature; the members have certainly formed friendships, leaders and patterns of feeling toward one another. Perhaps another index of overall maturity, although purely a quantitative one, i s the length of membership; Bond found that 57 per cent of the discussion groups and 66.5 per cent of the lecture groups had been with the study group longer than three years. I f both the discussion groups and the lecture groups are equi-valent i n their group characteristics then one would expect cultural learning to be greater i n the discussion group, i f one i s to use the Lewin theories of decision making as a basis for the experiment. Effects of the Learning Adoption. In the Bond (8) study, the purpose was to com-pare the effectiveness of a mass informational "method", the class lec-ture and of the discussion group decision "method" i n bringing about the adoption of new health practices. The objectives of the experiment were translated into three n u l l hypotheses which stated i n effect: 1. That there i s no significant difference between the women i n the control and those i n the experimental group who received a breast examination from their doctor and a demonstration on proper s e l f -examination techniques at any time during the test period. 2. That there i s no significant difference between the women i n the control and experimental groups who conducted their own breast s e l f -106 examinations during the test period. 3. That there i s no significant difference between the women i n the control and experimental groups who have demonstrated their breast self examination technique to a qualified person by the thirteenth month following the cancer education meeting. A l l three subhypotheses were rejected at the .001 level of s i g -nificance. There was a significant difference discovered i n the f i r s t practice. After a six month period, 34 per cent of the discussion group members had received an examination from their doctor and 21 per cent of class participants had, after thirteen months; 59 per cent of discussion group participants had received an examination versus 39 per cent of the class participants. In the second practice of establishing monthly self-examination the results were as follows: discussion group, 51 per cent; class 30 per cent; after thirteen months, discussion group 58 per cent; class 27 per cent. In the third practice of demonstrating a self examination tech-nique to a qualified person, discussion group participants again were more successful than class participants. The results were: 7 months 13 months discussion 16% 36% class 8% 18% There i s conclusive evidence that the discussion group environment was more effective for decision making, but Bend (8) says that more work 107 needs to be done on the decision technique. I t should be used within the class method to see i f i t could be as effective as when used i n discus-sion groups. Participants In addition to the three main hypotheses the relationship of other factors such as age and education were calculated. Age. I t was found that age was related to only one practice. Women under forty were more l i k e l y to demonstrate the technique of breast examination to a physician than older women. Those f i f t y to fifty-nine were more l i k e l y to practise self-examination than women forty to forty-nine (who are the most vulnerable category for breast cancer). Education. The amount of formal schooling was not related to performance i n any of the three practices. Audio-Visual Aids. In both the discussion group and the class those members who had read the pamphlet describing the s e l f -examination technique were higher adopters. In the practice of s e l f -examination, only i n the class group was there a relationship between those who saw the f i l m and those who did not. Women i n the class who saw the f i l m were more l i k e l y to practise self-examination. Acquaintanceship with Cancer Recoveries. This factor was only significant for women i n the class who ranked higher i n s e l f -108 examination than those who had not known anyone who had recovered from cancer. Experience with Breast Examinations. Women i n both groups who had consulted a physician for an examination four months prior to the test period were significantly more l i k e l y to consult their physician for an examination after the meeting. In the class, women with prior exper-ience fared better i n the other two practices as well. Discussion Afterwards. Women i n the class who discussed cancer control with someone after the meeting were significantly greater self-examiners than those who had not discussed cancer control with any-one. These relationships did not show up i n the discussion group. Previous Knowledge of Self-Examination. Women i n the class who had read an article on the technique of self-examination reported that they were influenced by i t , and they were greater adopters of the technique than those who had not read such an ar t i c l e . Leadership Position. In a l l three practices leadership positions were not related to performance, although this was not as significant for discussion group members as i t was for class participants. Bond (8) concluded from these results that certain differences i n the performance of the class participants indicated that those who were more successful than the others had had previous knowledge or experience with cancer or with persons who had had cancer which enabled them to 109 perform at a higher level than those class participants who had no previous experience with any aspect of the disease. She maintained that the reasons these effects were not related to the performance of discus-sion group members was that the discussion group meetings served to broaden the experience and the r e a l i t i e s of cancer for those participa-ting. Through participation i n the groups many more women were able to overcome the emotionality of discussing cancer and were thus able to adopt the practices more readily than were most of the class participants. Therefore the Lewin (43) theory that conflicts are lessened i n discussion groups, by the airing of a problem and through the setting of group standards which enable the person to feel that he i s not alone i n adopting a new practice, seems to be valid. Summary and Conclusions In the foregoing review of the studies on the discussion group i t i s evident that this method of adult education has certain advantages for mature people who desire to be involved i n the learning process. In the democratic atmosphere created by discussion responsibility i s shared and learning i s achieved as a group. Something has been learned as well about the participants and some of the effects the experience had on them. The discussion group has been proven an efficient learning environ-ment i n which information may be acquired and changes i n reading habits affected comparable with results achieved i n the class. There were some doubts, however, about discussion stimulating participants to become more 110 involved in.outside activities than the class did. In s k i l l learning, discussion was found to be particularly ideal for developing c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s , but the discussion group did not prove to be an effective environment for the development of certain aesthetic s k i l l s such as music appreciation and poetic sensitivity. There was no conclusive evidence from the research that the discussion group was superior to the class i n effecting attitude changes. I t would seem from the studies on parent education that changing deeply rooted attitudes i s a long term process. Small changes may occur over the period of the experiment, particularly for those who attend regularly, but these changes were not great. In a l l of the studies i t was found that the experimental period was too short to effect significant changes. The adoption research based on the Lewin (MS) theories indicated that socially based decisions are made best i n a discussion group environ-ment particularly when the decision technique i s used. The active social patterns developed i n mature groups make i t easier to deal with d i f f i -cult or "touchy" subjects, and social changes can be effected more readily. These results indicate that i t i s advantageous for educators to use mature groups where the social interaction patterns are securely esta-blished when dealing i n matters involving social change. When the atmos-phere i s predominantly information-giving i t would seem that social change w i l l not occur even though mature groups are used. In such a setting i t i s almost impossible for questions to be discussed and examined to the satisfaction of the participants. Only i n the atmosphere of d i s -I l l cussion can satisfactory results be obtained. One really gets down to understanding the discussion group method when the participants are identified. There are more women than men participating i n study discussion programs; a majority of members are married; they are highly educated, with the men being better educated than the women; most are i n professional or managerial categories which are higher status occupations, although when discussion group members were compared with lecture class participants i t was found that the discussion group tended to attract more c l e r i c a l and sales personnel. The figures i n a Canadian study found more of the lower status i n dis -cussion groups than i n lecture classes. I t was found that discussion group members are more active i n the community and less transient than most. One study found discussion group members to be less inclined to social climbing than the general population of the United States. Discussion group members are more l i k e l y to have had discussion experience than class members. There are some real differences between discussion group members and lecture class participants; the former are less authoritarian, more tolerant of ambiguity and more w i l l i n g to accept democratic procedures. I t would appear that discussion group members are less r i g i d i n their p o l i t i c a l views and definitely more open to new religious ideas. The dropout from discussion group programs i s often the most highly informed, or at the opposite extreme, the most poorly informed. In terms of attitudes and values he i s outside the normal spectrum, 112 either very l i b e r a l or extremely intolerant. Discussion groups, unlike lecture classes, do not retain persons whose attitudes are outside the norm of the group. Social pressures are a definite force i n discussion groups. Perhaps i n the class such persons are not required to identify their attitudinal and value positions; i n the discussion group i t i s almost impossible for the participant to keep his views to himself. What i s particularly evident i s that the dropout i s an inactive participant perhaps because of poor preparation for group discussion, lack of educa-tion and s k i l l s or because of holding fixed opinions. The successful participant i s one who has been conditioned by his environment to possess the s k i l l s necessary for active participation i n a group. The Verner definition can now be extended to include information on the kinds of learning which can be achieved best i n the discussion group. These are c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s and s k i l l s required i n social communication; also certain cultural practices may be adopted or modified i n the social environment provided by the discussion group. Vn. 1OTERNSHIP As defined by Verner internship i s a method i n which: a relationship i s established so that an individual can have an opportunity, under supervision, to integrate knowledge and s k i l l s already acquired through direct participation i n a situation similar to that i n which such integrated behaviour ultimately w i l l apply. (62:p.l4) Inherent i n the Verner definition are the learning goals of intern-ship. One.learns i n reality to apply and to define knowledge and s k i l l s 113 which have already been learned i n a simulated work environment. According to the Report of the Commission on Graduate Medical Education (53), internship began i n the f i e l d of medical education about 150 years ago. The reason for i t s inception was that lectures and demonstrations were f e l t to be an inadequate preparation for medical practice, and internship was the remedy which supplied the necessary practical training i n the hospital environment. Internship did not become a widely used method u n t i l the 1900's. Today, internship i s used i n professions such as library science, social work and adult education for the purpose of training professionals under actual f i e l d conditions; also, i n new fields such as ccnraunity development there are orientation periods for new staff which are identical to internship although the period of orientation i s shorter. No research i s available on internship but with the increased emphasis on i t i n the newer aforementioned professions i t should be forthccming. Because of the use of Internships i n on-the-job training i t i s hoped that these important applications of this method w i l l be investigated. VIII. LABORATORY Introduction and Description Because of tradition one tends to associate the laboratory with hydrogen sulphide, formaldehyde and acid-stained lab coats, but we have 114 to get beyond such images i n considering the broad uses of the labora-tory i n adult education. Verner's definition of the laboratory i n terms of process rids the term of any traditional connotations. According to him the laboratory i s : a learning situation i n which knowledge may be acquired or applied by a number of individuals simultaneously i n a learning activity that i s an a r t i f i c i a l construct of re a l i t y . (62:p.l5) Three basic elements i n this definition identify the learning goal and the relation of the learning environment to r e a l i t y . The phrase "knowledge may be acquired or applied" indicates that the laboratory i s a method i n which abstractions may be made concrete. The phrase "in a learning activity that i s an a r t i f i c i a l construct of re a l i t y " indicates that the material i s learned i n a situation which simulates r e a l i t y , not on-the-job. "By a number of individuals simultaneously" conveys the impression that the information gained i s meaningful to the individual alone. A number of individuals are together perhaps because i t i s econo-mic to teach i n this manner, but the learning does not require social interaction. The Verner definition of laboratory i s broad enough to include many processes which have not been considered laboratories before, for example, shop sessions and home economics practice sessions used i n vocational training. Very l i t t l e research i s available from which to describe the unique effectiveness of the laboratory i n adult education. Two studies, Feintuch (25) and Reiser (52), have been done i n the f i e l d of social case 115 work. In this setting the laboratory i s called the "sheltered workshop". As explained by Feintuch (25) the sheltered workshop i s a simu-lated factory situation where the clients learn simple industrial tasks under the supervision of caseworkers. Reiser (52) describes the shel-tered workshop as a situation i n which the client works i n an atmosphere that i n time becomes more lik e the factory environment into which the worker w i l l eventually go. I t i s a gradual process leading from sheltered conditions into the atmosphere of regular working conditions. The sheltered workshop i s not a form of apprenticeship because the participants are learning i n a simulated environment not i n a real one. They learn how to cope with tasks which later w i l l be carried out i n the real world. Although the s k i l l s being learned are important only to the individual concerned and are not social s k i l l s , the group atmosphere i s necessary because the individual when placed i n a factory w i l l be required to work alongside others, perhaps on an assembly l i n e , so that the assembly line must be part of the learning environment to simulate r e a l i t y . Research Designs The Feintuch (25) sample consisted of fifty-two white Jewish adults who had been unable to find or to keep work i n industry over a period of six months because of advanced age, physical or emotional dis-a b i l i t i e s . They comprised almost the entire caseload of the Baron de Hirsch Institute and the Vocational Counselling Services. 116 The sample was selected with the following c r i t e r i a i n mind: 1. Clients must be able to find and to keep employment i n regular industry because of physical or emotional reasons and must be receiving financial aid. 2. They must be able to go to work and return home by themselves. 3. They must be able to work a f u l l week, from thirty to t h i r t y -five hours. - 4. They must have the f u l l use of their fingers and be able to do sedentary work of a very light and simple nature. The data were obtained from records of employment and from attitude rating scales. The attitude scale used was the Wilcoxin's Matched Pairs Ranks Test. The Pearson Product Moment Test, the chi square test and " t " test were used to determine significant differences at the .01 level of confidence. The population of the Reiser (52) study included clients with behavioural and functional problems, orthopedic, visual or organic a i l -ments and mental retardation. There were two groups of sixteen persons each. One group received group counselling i n addition to the sheltered workshop experience; the other had only the sheltered workshop experience. The thirty-two clients, who were a l l Jewish and male, were placed at random i n the two groups. For purposes of counselling the test group was divided into small groups ranging from six to eight persons. The sheltered workshop program consisted of two weeks of diagnostic evaluation, two weeks of productive evaluation, and eight weeks of work 117 adjustment training during which time the men worked six hours a day, five days a week. The counselling group met for one hour a day, three times a week, at the end of the work day. IXrring the f i r s t two weeks of the workshop the supervisor-psychologist gradually became more struc-turing and limiting i n his behaviour. Itodng the last few weeks the atmosphere conformed to the actual work situation. Before the twelve-week program.started the client was required to answer questionnaires and tests which took two hours each day on two consecutive days. A post-program of tests was administered immediately after the twelve-week program. The instruments used were the Wecksler M u l t Intelligence Scale which measured changes i n intellectual func-tioning, the Thematic Apperception Test which measured changes i n inter-personal relationships and the sixteen personality factor questionnaire which measured changes i n manifest anxiety level as well as changes i n certain personality characteristics. The two groups were equivalent i n age and education but not i n socio-economic status, and i n view of this the data were examined by the use of non-parametric distribution free s t a t i s t i c s . The Mann-Whitney U test treated the test-retest data; i t required only ordinal scaling, and i t has a power efficiency of 95.5 per cent of the."t" test. Significant differences were calculated with U to see how the groups differed. 118 Findings Effects of the Learning In both the Feintuch (25) and Reiser (52) studies the sheltered workshop was investigated for i t s effectiveness i n modifying attitudes towards employability. In both experiments the population consisted of previously unemployable persons. The object of the Feintuch (25) study was to investigate the effectiveness of an integrated program of vocational counselling and placement casework with a sheltered workshop In favorably modifying attitudes associated with the employability of difficult-tc-place persons who previously had received the same services without the use of a \ sheltered workshop. Four hypotheses were formed to test effectiveness: 1. An integrated program of this kind (described above) could increase significantly the employability of difficult-to-place persons. 2. These clients possessed attitudes towards work and towards s e l f which correlated significantly with their employability. 3. This sheltered workshop program could modify significantly these attitudes i n a positive direction. 4. Characteristics and attitudes could be found which differentiated significantly between those who developed a relatively high degree of employability and those who did not. The Reiser (52) study attempted to determine the.comparative effectiveness of a sheltered workshop program and a sheltered workshop 119 p l u s c o u n s e l l i n g g r o u p t h e r a p y on i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n x i e t y l e v e l s , i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d . c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S t a b i l i t y o f Emp loyment . F e i n t u c h (25) f o u n d t h a t t h e mean number o f day s emp l o yed p e r y e a r i n c r e a s e d a n d t h i s was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . The a v e r a g e number o f d a y s o f employment p e r j o b i n c r e a s e d f r o m 17.2 d a y s , p r i o r t o t h e w o r k s h o p , t o 69.5 d a y s a f t e r t h e w o r k s h o p . T h i s , t o o , was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . A t t i t u d e s . I n s e v e n o u t o f f o u r t e e n o f t h e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s e m p l o y a b i l i t y F e i n t u c h (25) f o u n d t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . T h r e e o f t h e s e a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s a b o u t good w o r k h a b i t s , f e e l i n g s about g i v i n g a n e m p l o y e r a f u l l d a y ' s w o r k , u s e o f d i s a b i l i t y as a b a r r i e r a g a i n s t f i n d i n g w o r k , w e r e s i g n i f i -c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . M o d i f i c a t i o n o f S i g n i f i c a n t A t t i t u d e s . B y u s e o f W i l c o x i n ' s M a t c h e d P a i r s T e s t F e i n t u c h (25) f o u n d t h e mean i n c r e a s e i n r a t i n g f o r e a c h o f t h e s e v e n a t t i t u d e s was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l o f c o n f i -d e n c e . S e ven c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s we re f o u n d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n t h e s u b j e c t who h a d h i g h e m p l o y a b i l i t y and t h o s e w i t h l o w e m p l o y a b i l i t y a f t e r t h e w o r k s h o p . Those who d e m o n s t r a t e d h i g h e m p l o y a b i l i t y we re u n d e r f i f t y - f i v e , r e s i d e n t i n Canada l e s s t h a n t e n y e a r s , h a d one o r more d e p e n d e n t s , we re h a n d i c a p p e d o n l y m o d e r a t e l y , h a d b e e n emp loyed f o r 120 twenty days or more during'the one year prior to the workshop, were able to get along with others, and had received financial assistance- less than one year. Feintuch (25) generalized that difflcult-to-place persons demon-strated a significant increase i n employability and i n s t a b i l i t y as a result of the integrated program of vocational counselling, casework and sheltered workshop, but a substantial minority showed l i t t l e benefit. Changes i n Interpersonal-relationships Reiser (52) found that a planned vocational experience w i l l not affect significantly inter-personal relationships, anxiety levels and intellectual functioning at the .01 and .05 levels of confidence. I t was found also that the addition of group counselling did not result i n greater functioning i n these three factors. There were trends i n the data which indicated that positive changes did occur. Reiser stated that the short time of the experiment and the relative s t a b i l i t y of the variables did not allow the improvements to reach significant levels. Sunmary and Conclusions The research available on the uses of the laboratory i n adult education i s sparse. Obviously i t i s a method which i s not used as much i n adult education as i t i s i n pre-university and university education. However, two.studies on the sheltered workshop, a form of the laboratory, to train the emotionally, physically and culturally handicapped to acquire 121 . vocational s k i l l s i n a protected environment were located. I t was found that the sheltered workshop resulted i n attitude change towards employment and some minor changes i n inter-personal relationships, i n anxiety levels and i n intellectual functicning. I t was found that changes i n attitudes towards employment also stimulated behavioural change. Those persons exhibiting attitude change also developed more stable work patterns as they worked significantly more days per job than they had before participating i n the sheltered work-shop. Participants who became better employment risks were less handi-capped physically, had better work records and received less financial assistance than those persons who were found to be poor employment risks. In other words, this study found that a hard core of difficult-to-place persons did not respond to the program. Further research on sheltered workshops i s needed to determine what length of time and how much intensive counselling i n addition to the sheltered workshop w i l l help these difficult-to-place persons. Rehabili-tative vocational training i s a v i t a l part of community development efforts with the culturally handicapped, and this again i s an area that i s untouched by research. IX. WORKSHOP Introduction and Description The workshop and the c l i n i c are terms which may be used inter-122 changeably for what is evidently the same process. Perhaps more emphasis is given in the clinic to providing information with less opportunity for practice; however, on the whole the workshop and the clinic are very similar in format as we shall see from the description of the processes in the research. Andrew (3) did not define the workshop as such, but i t is possible to describe the process from the techniques employed. The entire popu-lation participated in the information sessions after which they were divided into eight small groups of ten persons each for purposes of discussion. The informational topic used in the panel discussion was "How to Live with Children"; the lecture covered "Psycho-sexual Develop-ment"; the subject dealt with in the film was "Face of Youth"; the records covered the topics "Dealing with Destructiveness" and "Moral Training of Children". The format of the Cooley (15) clinic is typical of what many other extensionists, including Wilson and Gallup (66) refer to as method demonstration meetings. This process is not exactly like the other work-shops under discussion because the audience was not divided for discussion but i t was sufficiently like the others to be included here rather than elsewhere. The human relations training workshop studied by Fleishman, Harris and Burtt (26) offered courses at the school in labor relations, planning and organizing, logical thinking, economics, public speaking, human behaviour, and building a.team. 123 Techniques used included lectures, group discussion, role playing, visual aids and text books. The pattern here was for information on human relations principles to be given f i r s t and then efforts made to have the men learn how to apply these and to integrate this knowledge into their own thinking through role-playing situations and group dis -cussion. The Hariton (30) study did not give much detail on the process, • but i t did indicate that the information sessions were, given by the psychologist and the line o f f i c i a l s were responsible for leading discus-sions. Maier (45) stated that the experimental groups were given eight hours of presentation and practice on the nature of group decision techniques, four hours of which was lecture and four, group discussion. There were three consecutive discussion periods of two and a half hours duration. In the Welch and Verner (63) study, demonstrations, lectures and work group techniques were used within the c l i n i c setting. Information about restaurant management practices was given i n the lecture, and then this was illust r a t e d i n the demonstrations. Opportunities for practice were given i n the work groups. The practice sessions were used to make the information concrete. During the Wheeler and Anderson (64) workshop the participants were given exercise sheets to read, after which they were given a timed test. Discussions were carried on by the instructor with individuals 124 about their problems. The students were encouraged to practise and to apply what they had learned to their own particular reading habits. Evaluation techniques (time tests) provided much of the feedback for the participants. The format of workshops, clinics and human relations training courses seems f a i r l y clear; information-giving sessions, usually the lecture, are combined with devices and work groups. The purpose of the work groups i s to make the information concrete so that the learning can be applied i n real l i f e . Sometimes the information sessions are held for a l l of the participants, and then, for practice or work groups, the members are divided into small groups i f the t o t a l workshop population i s large enough to warrant such a division. The research on workshops concerns i t s e l f with the kind of learning and i n some cases with factors affecting the learning. Attitude, concep-tual and resultant behavioural change, the adoption of practices and the acquisition of s k i l l s w i l l be discussed i n the findings. But before dealing with the findings the research designs of the studies must be considered. Research Designs The population for the Andrew (3) experiment was made up of approximately eighty persons which included parents, teachers and public health nurses. The whole population participated i n the Information sessions after which they were divided into eight small groups. These 125 small groups were tested f o r the following leadership procedures: group oriented approach, the authority approach, question and answer approach and the leaderless approach. An information test consisting of t h i r t y items was given f i r s t t o a control group (no number given) of college students, who were not acquainted with the p r i n c i p l e s of mental health. The experimental groups were given the t e s t at the time of .their a r r i v a l and then at the end. This test was designed to discover the amount of information acquired from each of the information sessions, e.g., lecture, panel. An additional set of questions i n t h i s test was prepared t o f i n d out whether or not the workshop participants were able t o generalize information acquired. These generalized questions consisted of hypothetical s i t u a -t i o n s . An effectiveness index was calculated f o r the pre and post t e s t of the experimental and control groups. The effectiveness index indicated the percentage of change that occurred as a function of the t o t a l possible change. The women who attended the Cooley (15) c l i n i c were f i r s t given information about the new home furnishing practices. An attempt was made by the in s t r u c t o r t o make the information concrete by the use of demonstrations, charts and materials, and folders t o take home. The audience was encouraged t o ask questions at the end of the lecture and demonstrations. At no time were the women divided i n t o small groups; a l l of the techniques were used with the entire group. 126 The population attending the nine, one-day c l i n i c s consisted of 225 4H Club members, one hundred college students, and twelve extension s t a f f members. The names of the adults were l i s t e d alphabetically, and random numbers were used to select the subjects who were to be i n t e r -viewed. Ten per cent were drawn from the three parishes which comprised the population. In a l l s i x t y people were interviewed. Of these s i x t y , 80 per cent owned homes, 39 per cent were on farms, and 43 per cent had been t o college. The population of the Fleishman, Harris and Burtt (26) experiment consisted of three hundred supervisors i n a plant of f i v e thousand employees. The plant was situated i n a midwestern c i t y of eighty thousand i n the United States. Fran t h i s population 122 foremen were selected at random who had attended the two week central school t r a i n i n g . They were divided i n t o three groups according to the time (two t o ten months, eleven to nineteen months, twenty to t h i r t y - n i n e months) which had elapsed since attending the school. A fourth group of thirty-two foremen, who had received no central school t r a i n i n g , was used as a control. The instruments were developed during the f i r s t phase of the experiment. A series of pre-test questionnaires were administered to a sample of supervisors representing the company's plants at the central school. Their responses were u t i l i z e d t o develop the questionnaires which were used i n the l a t t e r phases of the experiment. The questionnaires used i n the f i r s t phase were versions of those devised by the Personnel 127 Research Board of Ohio State University. The questionnaires used i n the collection of the f i n a l data included a supervisory behaviour description questionnaire, designed to evaluate behavioural change i n the foremen, to be f i l l e d out by the workers, and a leadership opinion questionnaire to be f i l l e d out by the foremen the day they entered the school and the day they finished two weeks later. This questionnaire evaluated inmediate effects of training. The leadership opinion questionnaire was also f i l l e d out by the foreman's supervisors i n order to evaluate the concepts of leadership held by the supervisor under which the foreman was supposed to operate. Some of the foremen had taken a refresher course of one week. Two groups, an experimental and a control, were chosen from this population. These groups were^ matched i n age, education, years as foremen, number of men supervised and months since attending the.school. These two groups were evaluated by the leadership opinion and the supervisory behaviour questionnaires three months after the refresher course. The data collected by the above questionnaires was subjected to the test for c r i t i c a l ratios for significance at the .01 level of confidence. In the Hariton (30) study the sample consisted of f i f t y f i r s t - l i n e foremen and four hundred non-supervisory employees. The sample was divided into two experimental groups and two. controls. They were matched i n size, type of work and In level of morale. The two groups were given attitude tests before and three months after the completion of the course. 128 Changes i n the employees' perceptions of their foremen were used as the basis for measuring change i n the foremen's attitudes and behaviour towards employees. The ;176 supervisors i n the Maier (45) study were divided into forty-four groups of four and thirty-six groups of four. The forty-four groups were given training i n the group discussion-decision technique whereas the thirty-six control groups were given a half hour lecture which covered the subject "the resistance to change" just prior to the test. In order to test the a b i l i t y to use discussion-decision technique, a role-playing situation was set up. Both the control and test groups were presented with the same industrial problem, the object of which was to arrive at some solution satisfactory to the group. In each group, one person was chosen at random to act as foreman and the three others were to act as employees reporting to the foreman. Neither the test nor control groups were aware that the role playing was a test. The situation confronting each group was one i n which the foreman obtained facts which suggested a more efficient method of doing assembly work. The role playing was observed by trained observers who recorded the decision-making according to the number of successes, compromises, and failures to agree. Success was defined as the agreement of employees to change their present method of work. Failure was a refusal of the group to change their present method of work; i t was also measured by no decision i n the allotted time and by an imposition of a decision on the 129 group by the foremen which resulted in rebellion by the group. A compromise was defined simply as a majority decision by the group to change to new work methods. The samples in the Welch and Verner (63) study were drawn at random from a universe which included any member of the food service industry in four Missouri cities. The samples were drawn in proportion to the number of food service establishments reported in the 1958 census of retail trades; 4.12 per cent of the universe was represented in the sample. The four samples were divided into: 1. Sample A which consisted of thirty-four participants who volun-tarily attended the clinic. Sample A was divided into Al, those without bulletin and A2, those with bulletin. 2. Samples B and C, of thirty-three participants each who were drawn at random from a l i s t of a l l the food service establishments after the clinic participants had been deleted. Sample B repre-sented the bulletin group and C the control which was not exposed to any information directly. Any information which the members in Sample C obtained would be from indirect sources. The participants in Sample A were voluntary, and therefore they were not representative of the industry. The Clinic.attenders were better educated, from higher status restaurants, had higher socio-economic status than the subjects in Samples B and C. The educational scores between the clinic, bulletin and.control were significantly different at the .05 level of confidence when analyzed by the single 130 factor analysis of variance. A scale was devised to measure adoption on seven behavioural practices. Measurement took place two months after the clin i c s and the distribution of the bulletin. The data were collected by personal inter-view. A l l groups were equated on the basis of adoptions which took place due to prior influences. The adoption scores were determined by a scale which assigned a value of .2 to each of the five steps i n the Beal, Rogers and Bohlen (7) adoption process: awareness, interest, application, t r i a l and adoption. Complete adoption would warrant a score of 1.0. I f a l l seven practices were adopted a score of 7.0 would be achieved. The sample i n the wheeler and Anderson (64) study consisted of three groups of twenty each. The ages ranged from nineteen to seventy years. Their occupations were i n the semi-skilled and professional categories. The f i n a l number of subjects for s t a t i s t i c a l analysis was thirty-nine. Tests were given for vocabulary speed and comprehension at weekly intervals. The specific tests used were the cooperative reading test CI, form Q lower level which gave scores for vocabulary, speed of comprehen-sion, level of comprehension and a composite t o t a l reading score. The " t " test was used to determine.statistical differences. Findings Effects of the Learning Attitude, Conceptual and Resultant Behavioural Change. These 131 studies were a l l concerned with human relations. Information about the principles of some aspect of human behaviour or human relations was presented i n the hope that this knowledge would become part of the learner's behavioural patterns. In some cases only conceptual change was tested, and i n others actual behavioural changes were measured after the experiment and over a period of time to determine how lasting the attitudinal and behavioural changes were. The Andrew (3) study tested conceptual change and knowledge acquired. The object was to inform parents, teachers and public health nurses about the psycho-sexual development of children and specifically to develop an understanding of the meaning and use of the concept of permissiveness and of the need to channel aggressive behaviour into constructive behaviour. The i n i t i a l mean effectiveness index of the experimental group was discovered to be 18.5 and that of the control group 20.6. No significant differences at the .1 level of confidence were found to exist between the experimental and control group on the pre-test. The experimental group f i n a l mean effectiveness index was 22.6 and that of the control 13.0, and these differences were found to be significant at the .1 level of confi-dence. It was found that the participants were confused about the,, concept of permissiveness, but there was an improvement of knowledge on a l l other items particularly regarding channelling aggression into construc-tive behaviour. The results indicated that the lecture-type presentations 132 produced greater gains i n knowledge than the panel, record and film. The leaderless group gained most on the results. Andrew (3) concluded that no generalizations could be made from this experiment u n t i l the results are tested again. whereas Andrew (3) examined conceptual and information changes after a workshop experience, Maier (45) took the process one step further to test actual behavioural changes. The object of the Maier (45) study was to examine the effects of training leaders (company foremen) i n group decision techniques and to discover what changes i n leadership behaviour occurred after such training. The results showed that of the decisions made by the trained group 4.5 per cent were failures; 36.4 per cent were compromises and 59.1 per cent were successes. The control or untrained group achieved the following results: 50 per cent failures, 0 per cent. compromises and 50 per cent successes. The trained group had few failures and many compromises where-as the control had no compromises and many failures. The differences i n the failure, compromise and success distributions of the experimental and control groups were significant at the .001 level of confidence. Maier (45) concluded that a group's resistance to change can be sharply reduced by training the leader i n group decision procedures. In the Fleishman, Harris and Burtt (26) study attitude and be-havioural change immediately before and after a training course and after a one-week refresher course i n human relations was tested. Not only was attitude and behavioural change tested but. so were long-rterm changes up to 133 t M r t y - n i n e months a f t e r the cou r se . The ob jec t o f the s tudy was t o examine the e f f e c t s o f a sys t ema t i c t r a i n i n g program i n human r e l a t i o n s on the s u p e r v i s o r y behaviour o f f ron t l i n e foremen o r s u p e r v i s o r s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s ( a u t h o r i t a r i a n , l a i s s e z f a i r e and democra t ic ) on the e f f i c i e n c y and morale o f workers was a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the foreman .to h i s s u p e r v i s o r was a l s o examined f o r e f f e c t s on the behav iour o f the foreman a f t e r the t r a i n i n g . R e s u l t s o f the two week course i n d i c a t e d ( l e a d e r s h i p o p i n i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) t h a t on the average the re was an i n c r e a s e i n a t t i t u d e s o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n and a decrease i n those o f i n i t i a t i n g s t r u c t u r e ( a u t h o r i -t a r i a n i s m ) d u r i n g the cou r se . The f o l l o w i n g graphs show the t rends i n these a t t i t u d e s : C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Employees Scores I n i t i a t i n g S t r u c t u r e Scores 58 \ 58 54 54 ^ ^ ^ ^ 50 50 0 2-10 11-19 20-39 Time 0 2-10 11-19 20-39 a f t e r course These graphs show t h a t t he re was a s teady decrease i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n from immedia te ly a f t e r t he course t o the second month a f t e r and from then on no changes o c c u r r e d . I n i n i t i a t i n g s t r u c t u r e , the a t t i t u d e s decreased u n t i l the second month and then i n c r e a s e d s h a r p l y e l even t o n i n e t e e n 134 months after the course was taken. In both cases, favorable attitude changes which occurred immediately after the course did not persist; rather the foremen regressed i n consideration and increased i n their tendencies to i n i t i a t e structure. The graphs for behavioural change show that the behaviour of the most recently trained foremen, two to ten months, was significantly at .01 level lower i n consideration than the untrained foremen. There was almost no change between the untrained foremen and the trained i n i n i t i a -ting structure. ; Consideration of Employees Scores  :80 72 64 Ini t i a t i n g Structure Scores 48 40 0 2-10 11-19 20-39 Time 0 after course 2-10 11-19 20-39 In a l l cases i n both attitude change and i n behavioural change, the trained foremen did not improve their attitudes or behaviour towards consideration, and their attitudes toward i n i t i a t i n g structure increased and their behaviour did not change. According to the authors the two-week course seemed to have detrimental effects. The results of the one-week refresher course were almost parallel to those of the regular two^eek course. The experimental group had the 135 same .consideration score as the control and had a higher i n i t i a t i n g structure score than the control. In behaviour, the experimental group exhibited less .consideration and ini t i a t e d more structure than did the control group. The results of the questionnaire given the superiors of the foremen indicated that a superior who was considerate and who did not tend to i n i t i a t e structure would have foremen who also possessed these qualities. These results lend support to the hypothesis that the climate i n which human relations principles are to be applied must give support to changes; i f not, the effects of training may be n u l l i f i e d or retarded. One phy-s i c a l factor found to effect foremen's performance was time. Time pres-sures were found to be not conducive to good foremanship. Structuring and lack of consideration were most evident i n situations where time pressures were operative. The authors concluded that training i n human relations which occurs i n isolation from the practical situation w i l l f a l l short of i t s objectives. Hariton's (30) study of the conditions influencing the implemen-tation of human relations principles corroborates i n part the findings of the Fleishman, Harris and Burtt .(26) study on climate. The objectives of the Hariton (30) study were to evaluate the overall effects of training foremen i n new human relations principles and to investigate the condi-tions influencing the effects of the training. Experimental group one showed an increase i n satisfaction with their foremen, whereas employee experimental group two showed a s i g n i f i -.136 cant decrease (no level of confidence given) in satisfaction with their foremen. Control group number one showed a slight gain in satisfaction and control group two a slight decrease in satisfaction, but these changes were not significant. The foremen in group one (experimental) differed from those in group two in the following ways: 1. They were more receptive to the principles which were stressed in the courses. 2. They perceived greater opportunities to try out their new ideas on-the-job. 3. They were more satisfied with their superiors, and they received more encouragement. 4. They indicated greater satisfaction with their jobs and with their chances for promotion. 5. They expected greater personal benefits i f the principles presented in the course were used. 6. They were more adaptable. Hariton (30) concluded that training foremen in new human relations principles w i l l be effective in bringing about improvements in employee attitudes towards supervision when the situation within which the foremen operate is conducive to change. Adoption. Another area of learning for which the effectiveness of the workshop has been tested is the adoption of practices. The adoption 137 of practices usually requires a change i n specific behaviours. The two studies being considered here tested the effectiveness of the work-shop i n bringing about changes i n home management and i n restaurant management. The Cooley (15) study measured the effects of the home furnishing cli n i c s i n assisting homemakers to adopt the following improvements i n hone furnishing: 1. The arrangement of furniture for convenience as well as for appearance. 2. The use of color i n the home. 3. The use of books, potted plants and other accessories i n making the home attractive. 4. The purchase of furniture, bedding and mattresses. These practices were taught by a specialist who used demonstration and lectures to disseminate the information. The results were as follows: 1. Home furnishing practices Percent Adoption Re-arrangement of furniture 70 Used different colors 58 Changed lights 45 Used accessories 63 .2. Buying information Percent Adoption Mattresses 12 Pillows 13 Sheets 28 138 Buying Information -.Contd. Percent Adoption Pillow cases 17 Blankets 8 Cooley (15) f e l t that the c l i n i c was a success because of the high percentages who adopted home furnishing practices. She stated that the buying percentages were lower because of the costs involved. Certain factors affecting adoption were also ascertained. The ages of the children certainly affected adoption; 60 per cent of the adopters had children over ten years. Cooley (15) remarked that mothers with younger children would hesitate to buy new furniture. The age of the women was another factor; women thirty-four or younger made greater use of color and rearrangement of furniture whereas women thirty-five and over changed lights and bought more pillows. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to generalize from this rather specific information. One could surmise that the younger were more w i l l i n g to experiment and the older more able to spend money, or the older women may have wanted a more flattering and comfortable environment. The objective of the Welch and verner (63) study was to find out i f a mass communication device which contains pure information with no allowance for feedback and which has bu i l t into i t allowances for learner practice was as effective as the c l i n i c or as effective as the c l i n i c with the bulletin added. The f i n a l adoption scores gave the results for the groups as follows: 139 Group Al - Clinic only - 113 per cent Group A2 - Clinic and bulletin - 115 per cent Group B - Bulletin only - 42 per cent Group C - Neither - 0 per cent. The differences in adoption scores between groups Al and A2 were not statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence. The differences between the clinic A and the bulletin B group were signifi-cant at the .05 level of confidence. The differences between the bulletin and control groups were significant at the .05 level of confidence. Welch and Verner (63) concluded that the clinic method was signifi-cantly more effective than the mass communications device and that both of them were significantly better than indirect means of disseminating information. Supplementing the clinic with the bulletin did not increase adoption rates significantly. The Welch and Verner study demonstrated that the clinic with its opportunities for practice and learner partici-pation is more effective for learning as measured by the adoption of practices than is an informational device alone which does not involve an instructional situation. Acquisition of Skills. The study by Wheeler and Anderson (64) has determined the effectiveness of the workshop in increasing the reading skills of participants. The."t" score for the entire experiment was 3.65 at 30 degrees of freedom which was significant at the .1 level of confi-dence . •140 The "t" scores were: Vocabulary .5.38 Speed 10.17 Comprehension .4.75. The authors concluded that the participants had improved their reading skills significantly. The atmosphere of the workshop where one receives information and then is able to practise on the basis of infor-mation gained seems ideally suited to this area of learning. Summary and Conclusions It is the goal of workshops to enable participants to acquire, integrate, and apply a body of information in an environment which replicates that in which.it may eventually be applied. Most workshops are structured so that information is presented in as concrete a manner as possible and practice sessions permit the concepts introduced to be applied successfully under supervision. Prom this i t is evident that learning is accomplished in two.stages: fi r s t the concepts are learned, integrated and secondly, they are then applied to appropriate l i f e situations. One area in which workshops have been.studied is in industry to train foremen to use human relations principles so that foreman-workman relations wi l l improve and hence working conditions and productivity. The studies done here f i t into the two stages of integration and application. Several studies tested the ability of foremen to apply the prin-ciples of human relations. Seme tested the ability to apply these 141 principles immediately after a workshop experience and others after the men had been i n the f i e l d for some period of time. Foremen did learn to apply their learning when tested immediately, but two studies found that as soon as the foremen returned to.the working environment the principles were not applied. In one study, particular attitudes of consideration towards employees and of democratic behaviour were not carried out, i n fact the foremen became less considerate towards workmen and more authori-tarian. Another study found that i t was the working conditions and the attitude of the foremen's superiors which accounted for their i n a b i l i t y to apply the new principles of human relations. I f the superior was democratic and considerate towards his foremen then they i n turn would be more inclined to behave i n these ways towards their workmen. This research seems to indicate that unless the atmosphere of the workshop replicates that i n which the newly acquired behaviour i s to be applied then the effects of the workshop w i l l be affected and perhaps n u l l i f i e d . Workshops, as used i n agricultural extension or i n other fields such as health education where the adoption of new technological practices are the object of the learrring, are referred to as c l i n i c s ; however, the process i s really the same with information sessions and practice groups. Even i f practice groups are not used as i n the agricultural extension type of one-day c l i n i c an attempt i s made by the educator to make the learning as.concrete as possible through the use of demonstrations. When the c l i n i c was compared to the bulletin and the c l i n i c plus bulletin i t was found that the c l i n i c alone was much more effective than 1 4 2 the bulletin which was a mass ccranunications device i n bringing about adoptions. The opportunities for learner participation and for feedback i n the learning process of the c l i n i c proved to be important for learning. The mass.ccramunications device with no opportunities for learner p a r t i c i -pation or for feedback proved to be an inferior means of accomplishing learning. The c l i n i c plus bulletin was no more effective than the c l i n i c alone. The agricultural extension type of one-day c l i n i c has not been compared to the longer c l i n i c with i t s practice groups; this could be a subject for further research. Clinics have been used widely i n physical education and recreation for teaching athletic and coaching s k i l l s , although no research i s a v a i l -able i n this area. The workshop has been tested for teaching speed reading, and i t was found that participants did improve their reading speed. No matter i n what f i e l d workshops or cl i n i c s are used, the goals are behavioural changes which a l l seem to be i n the area of s k i l l deve-lopment, intel l e c t u a l , physical and manual. The behaviours i n question are specific enough to be acquirable i n a relatively short period of time. CHAPTER IV ObASSIFICATION SCHEME In Chapter I I the functions of method and technique were defined; now the classification scheme devised by verner (62) must.be examined with particular reference to methods. He has outlined c r i t e r i a for what appears to be a satisfactory scheme for techniques, the logic of which should also apply to a sound scheme for methods. Regarding techniques Verner has stated: A satisfactory system of classification should conform to the following c r i t e r i a : (1) I t must be applicable to a l l techniques; (2) I t must classify techniques according to real differences i n the techniques themselves; (3) I t must be free of value judgments, stated or implied; (4) The system must have practical applicability to the selection of techniques for use with particular groups, for specific purposes and under given conditions. (62:p.20) The key to a satisfactory scheme for methods l i e s i n the second point of the c r i t e r i a l i s t e d above which emphasizes the importance of classification "according to real differences". Most classification schemes for adult education processes, which include both methods and techniques, have not been based on their inherent characteristics; for example, methods have been classified according to the aims of the institution using the method or, i n the case of techniques, ".. under the particular methods i n which they are used most frequently." (62:p.l9) Verner has constructed a scheme which i s based on the definition of method. In stating his rationale for this scheme, he said: The basis for classification i s inherent i n the definition of method i n the same way that the definition provides for the indenti-144 fication of those items that are to be c l a s s i f i e d . Since method, by definition, describes a continuing relationship for systematic learning that i s established by the institution with those i n the public whom i t seeks to educate, a functional classification system can be developed i n terms of the forms which that relation-ship assumes by virtue of the nature of the patterns of s t r a t i f i -cation i n which those i n the public are found to exist. This s t r a t i f i c a t i o n tends to assume three primary forms i n the society: individuals i n isolation; individuals collected into social grouping or sub-systems within the society including those which are a r t i -f i c i a l l y constructed by the institution or adult educator for the specific purpose of systematic learning as well as those natural groups which may be existent; and, f i n a l l y , the community or the social system i t s e l f . These basic forms, then, provide the major classes for the classification of methods of adult education. (62:p . l3 ) This scheme i s comprised of individual, small group, large group and ccranunity methods. Individual methods ".. are those i n which the relationship esta-blished by the institution with the potential learner i s on a one-to-one basis. The focus of these methods i s on the isolated individual where i t i s not possible or, perhaps, desirable for him to becane a member of a learning group. The selection of individual methods by an institution may be made i n terms of institutional resources, because the objectives of the institution can be achieved more ef f i c i e n t l y and effectively on an individual basis, or because the nature of the knowledge to be diffused necessitates individual instruction." (62:p . l4) . Correspondence study, directed individual study, apprenticeship and internship belong here. Small groups methods are those: ... which function i n a situation permitting face-to-face commu-nication and exchange among the members. The exact nurrfoer of members i s less important than the a b i l i t y of the methods to accommodate such direct communication. Obviously however, there i s an optimum size 145 In which effective social interaction can occur; however, this has not as yet been determined adequately. (62: p.15) The class, the discussion group and the laboratory are small group methods. Large group methods: ... are those which involve an assemblage of individuals too large to permit effective face-to-face communication (or, i n which a smaller number of individuals cannot effectively use or does not need such face-to-face ccmmunication.) Membership i n such an assemblage exercises only an indirect influence on individual members so that learning i s essentially an individual achievement. The assembly and convention belong i n this class. Community methods: ... are those i n which the primary orientation i s toward the introduction of change and the alteration of behaviour patterns within the social system as a unit with changes i n individuals and sub-systems presumed to result from changes i n the system of which they are a part. The learning situation i s constructed within the context of the social system so that learning occurs i n a setting of r e a l i t y . The motivation for learning derives- from the setting, and the learning tasks are directly related to problems that exist within the setting. (62:p.16) Community development i s the only method that exists i n this category at present. The classes i n the Verner scheme are differentiated by the size of the group. Is size of group a function of the learning goal? Implied i n the definition of method i s the principle that the nature of the relation-ship established for learning (method) w i l l depend on the nature of the learning goals of the potential participants. In other words, the r e l a -tionship for learning w i l l be constructed so that the learning goals may be most effectively realized. One would expect people to learn as •146 individuals and i n groups because the learning goals for which they are striving cannot be attained as effectively i n any other form of organi-zation. In individual methods, learning Is pertinent only to the i n d i -vidual, and, i n small groups, group processes are required for the actualization of the learning goal. The discussion group provides for social interaction so that the learner may attain certain specific goals. Por example, the Bond (8) study found that certain socially based habits could be acquired more effectively i n the discussion group than i n the class, because i n the discussion group questions could be discussed and examined to the satis-faction of the participants and a certain social climate was developed conducive to the adoption of these new behaviours. The H i l l (33) study found that social processes are i n operation i n the discussion group but not to the same extent i n the class. Discus-sion group members tended to form more friendships within the group than did class members. H i l l also found that social pressures may operate i n different ways i n the two situations. "The data suggest that 'attitudinal deviants' are more l i k e l y to withdraw from a discussion group than are those who occupy positions at or near the norm for their group. This tendency was not observed for the lecture situation." (33:pp.81-82) Both the Bond (8) and the H i l l (33) studies seem to indicate that certain goals may be acquired within the discussion group but not within the class. The Bend.study i n particular indicated that social group processes are necessary for the adoption of new socially based behaviours. 147 None of the studies found any evidence which would indicate that social group processes were necessary to the accomplishment of learning i n the class; the individual could possibly acquire as much learning i n the tu t o r i a l . This evidence would indicate that the discussion group and the class do not logically belong i n the same category because group processes are necessary to the learning i n one but not of much s i g n i f i -cance i n the other. verner stated that a better scheme for a l l purposes for techniques, ".. would be one based on the efficiency of the technique i n effecting learning and behavioural changes." (62:p.21). The learning goal i s the prime reason for use of a particular method, and therefore, the aim of a classification scheme should be to classify methods by the inherent characteristics which can be demonstrated by research to achieve certain learning goals. The key element i n the environment provided by methods i s overt participation. Some methods, such as the discussion group and the work-shop, provide for a large measure of overt participation, whereas others such as the class and the assembly allow for much less overt participation. The high participation methods, the discussion group, the workshop, directed individual study, the laboratory, apprenticeship and internship, encourage the student to involve himself overtly i n the proceedings through social interaction or practice; the.low participation methods, correspondence study, the class and the assembly, can offer the.learner limited opportunities for social interaction or for practising a s k i l l . : m Limited opportunities for overt participation affect the efficiency of the learning and restrict the kind of learning which may be acquired. There are studies on the class, the residential class and corres-pondence study, methods which allow for limited overt participation, that indicate.that either the structure of the method is unsuited to the attain-ment of the goal or that some adaptation of the method is necessary to the attainment of the goals. The Montross (49) study on correspondence dropouts found that, once the method was modified to include field assistance from the institution, the students receiving this handed in significantly more assignments and had more positive attitudes towards correspondence study than those who did not. Apparently, the direct contact with the institution definitely resulted in a lower dropout rate. LaCognata (40) found that the addition of residency to the class resulted in more effective learning in attitude change, behavioural change and in the acquisition of information. The students enrolled in day classes did not perform as well as the residential.students. Bond (8) found that the class was not as suited to the adoption of new socially based habits as the discussion group with its opportunities for social interaction. By adding residency to the class and field assistance to corres-pondence study, more opportunities were given the student for overt participation in the learrung process. Because of these opportunities, the task was made more real to the student and not as much removed from their l i f e experience. However, in all.these low participation methods the degree of overt participation is not enough to allow the student to 149 learn anything but tasks which are abstracted from reality (purely intellectual). The application of information or the adoption of prac-tices cannot be effectively acquired i n these environments. In the methods where the learning goals are identified as physical or mental s k i l l development, such as apprenticeship, the discussion group, the laboratory and the workshop, opportunities for overt participation are bu i l t into the method. The discussion studies, Bond (8) and H i l l (33), which compare the effectiveness of the discussion group with the class have already been cited. The learning of conmunicative s k i l l s and the adoption of socially based habits would seem to be the domain of the discussion group. In directed individual study, internship and the workshop the emphasis i s on applied learning. The learner acquires learning i n a real l i f e environment or i n a simulated one and then i s expected to be able to apply this learning to a real situation. I f a l l the elements are not present i n the learning environment created by the method then the learning task i s more abstracted from reality than i s desirable for effective learning. The Fleishman et a l (26) study illus t r a t e s t h i s . A group of foremen was tested for a b i l i t y to apply human relations principles after participating i n a residential workshop. They learned to apply the.learning immediately after the work-shop, but when they returned to the job they were not able to apply these principles. Apparently, the course administrators did not.consider the working climate to which the men were returning and which i n most cases 150 was not conducive to the application of human relations principles (hostile supervisors and time limitations). The foremen knew the prin-ciples of human relations i n the abstract, but when faced with a situa-tion not encountered i n the course they were unable to apply this know-ledge. For this learning to be effective the men should have had the opportunity to apply these principles i n a situation which replicated actual working conditions. From a l l these.studies i t i s apparent that there i s a direct relationship between the degree of overt participation for which the method allows and the attainment of the learning goal. For the learning of s k i l l s , the learner must be very much involved, and involvement i s encouraged through providing many opportunities for overt participation. Such i s the case for applied learning. The student must be given the opportunity to learn i n a situation which simulates reality as closely as possible. In s k i l l s and applied learning, the task must be made as concrete as possible i f learning i s to occur. The methods which do not provide for much overt participation must gear themselves to the provision of information and not expect much application of knowledge to occur. The only factor which the method can control i s overt participation. The amount of overt participation w i l l certainly enable the participant to relate material being learned.to his thought processes. Overt p a r t i c i -pation then seems to have a direct bearing and influence on how concrete the learning task may be made to the participant. As the amount of overt participation increases so can the degree of learner involvement and hence 151 the learning task can become more real to the learner. Conversely, as the task becomes more complex, learner involvement must be encouraged by building into the method opportunities for an appropriate, amount of overt participation so that the learner may achieve the goal. Based on this outline, a two dimensional scheme for methods can be constructed with the amount of overt participation occupying one dimension and the resultant abstractness of the task occupying the.other; the rationale for this i s that as the amount of overt learner participa-tion increases the degree of abstractness of the learning task lessens. These two characteristics form the basis of the Newberry (Vemer 62:p.22) scheme for techniques which was refined by Stott (60). I t i s logical that a scheme for methods should be a more general form than the one developed for techniques since the lat t e r are i n effect sub-divisions of methods. Methods provide the environment i n which general learning goals may be acquired by potential participants while techniques f a c i l i t a t e the learning of specific parts of the general goal by p a r t i -cular participants. DEGREE OF ABSTRACTNESS OF LEARNING TASK Abstract Semi-Abstract Simulated Experience Actual Experience Discussion Group Directed Individual Study Workshop Laboratory Apprenticeship Internship SEMI-EXTENSIVE Assembly (Agricultural I Class NIL Correspondence Study 153 On the overt participation axis there are gradations from n i l through limited and semi-extensive to extensive. On the abstraction scale there are degrees of abstractness ranging from abstract through semi-abstract and simulated experience to actual experience. Correspondence study, allowing no direct contact between instructor and student, i s placed at the bottom of the overt participation scale; as the material to be learned usually i s of an abstract nature i t i s also placed at the bottom of the abstract scale. Although the class provides l i t t l e opportunity for overt student participation i t i s not as restricted as i n correspondence study there-fore the class i s placed slightly higher on the scale. The agricultural assembly with the devices and techniques used allows for more student participation and the tasks to be learned are more concrete to the learner; therefore the assembly i s higher on the scale than the class. While the subject matter i n a discussion group may be similar to that dealt with i n a class i t becomes more concrete to the learner i n a discussion group because of almost unlimited opportunities for overt participation; therefore the discussion group i s placed at the top of the scale. Directed individual study i s i n a similar position because of direct contact between instructor and learner. Although the material dealt with i n these methods may be related to the world of ideas rather than to s k i l l s or applied learning opportunities are made for as much overt participation as possible. The workshop and the laboratory are methods where the learning 154 process i s conducted under conditions which simulate r e a l i t y ; because overt participation i s extensive and the material learned i s directly applicable to r e a l i t y , they are placed at the top of the overt p a r t i c i -pation scale and under simulated experience i n the degree of abstractness. Apprenticeship and internship are methods i n which learning i s done i n actual working situations and the tasks to be learned are concrete; they are placed at the top of both scales. Any method may be placed at a different point i n the scale when modifications are made i n the structure, e.g. Montross (49). Any posi-tioning at this time i s tentative at best because of the lack of research into the amount of participation necessary i n making a task more real to the participant. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND PECCMVENDATIONS As indicated i n the introduction the purpose of this thesis was to review the research done on methods of adult education according to the Verner (62) conceptual scheme and to cl a r i f y and extend that scheme i f necessary. Before examining research on the methods a survey was made of previous reviews covering the period 1949 to 196l which was followed by a statement of the theoretical basis for this review. I t was found that reviews done prior to Verner*s classification system of 1962 were not much more than collections of research studies lacking a basic theo-r e t i c a l structure. Using exact terminology with respect to the methods and techniques of adult education Verner i n 1962 prepared the way for systematic analysis i n this f i e l d of learning; thus i t became evident that a review using his scheme as a basis would be of value. This theory maintains that the institutional agent must consider which methods w i l l provide the environment most suitable for the attainment of general learning goals by a potential body of learners whereas the instructional agent must choose a suitable technique within the method for f a c i l i t a t i n g the learning of specific tasks by a precisely defined population. For the purpose of reviewing each method information was gathered on the effects of the learning, structure of the method and the charac-t e r i s t i c s of successful and unsuccessful participants. Effects of the Learning The goal here i s to provide information so that participants may 156 understand i t intellectually. Because of the limited amount of feedback i n correspondence study i t has been tested only for information learning because of the large percentage of dropouts. More work needs to be done on the kinds of learning acquirable i n this method. The learning poten-t i a l of the class has not been f u l l y realized because i t has been so dominated by the lecture which i s an information giving technique. Other techniques which would increase participation and enhance the learning process i n the class have not been u t i l i z e d . A greater number of tech-niques, such as demonstrations, have been used i n the agricultural assembly, but not many participation techniques have been used. Beal and Rogers (6) found the assembly to be most effective at the awareness and information stages of the adoption process. S k i l l Development The objective here i s the development of physical, intellectual and social s k i l l s . Some of them are learned i n r e a l i t y , others i n a situation which approximates re a l i t y . Although apprenticeship i s a well-known method the knowledge we have of i t comes only from experience; there i s scope here for further research. The laboratory likewise has been virtual l y ignored although the sheltered workshop, a form of labora-tory, has had some study. The laboratory i s a widely used method both i n vocational and non-vocational education and as such should be given further study. The c l i n i c type of workshop has been studied only i n 157 connection with remedial reading, and although.it i s used extensively i n physical education no research i s available. On the other hand concrete evidence was obtained of the efficacy of the discussion group method i n developing c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s . Application of Knowledge The goal here i s the application of knowledge to real l i f e or to some construct of re a l i t y . Most of the research has been done cn directed individual study, the discussion group and the workshop but with nothing available on internship which has been such a useful method i n medical education. Internship i s now being extended to other professions for training new staff members, for example the training of f i e l d workers i n ccaimunity development. Despite the expanding use of this method no research i s available an i t . Directed individual study i s a method with much potential, but the research on the counselling uses of the method are of l i t t l e help to the practitioner. The c l i n i c interview of directed individual study has been used for information giving i n the hope that adoptions would occur, but i t was not as successful as group counselling. This method i s used i n social work for counselling individuals with social problems, but no research i s available on i t . In agricultural extension, directed individual study has been found to be most effective at the awareness and information stages of the adoption process. More work should be done on the uses of directed individual study i n the area of individual counselling; 158 also.it would be useful to have comparisons made between individual and group counselling. There must be instances where knowledge i s pertinent to the individual but not to the group. Because of the opportunities for social interaction provided by the discussion group this method was found to be effective i n adopting certain socially based behaviours. There were indications that the workshop can be an effective method of training persons i n human relations principles, provided that the learning i s made concrete enough for the participants to apply those principles i n re a l i t y . In a l l areas of learning - information, s k i l l , application - the research provides l i t t l e evidence on the maximum and minimum learning effectiveness of the methods. What i s available i s fragmentary and uncoordinated. Structure of the Method In Chapter I I I each method was described from the.studies and categorized according to the amount of overt participation allowed. I t was found that the assembly, the class and.correspondence.study did not provide for much overt participation. The learner i s "lectured" and information giving i s the primary instructional objective. A limited number of techniques can be used with these methods, particularly i n the class and i n . correspondence study. The assembly i n agricultural extension was shown to have employed a greater variety of techniques, but the bulk 159 of the . learning was fac i l i t a t e d by informational techniques. Many more . participation techniques could be used i n these methods to make the learning more concrete to the learner. When this i s done the f u l l learning potential of these methods w i l l be discovered. When the learning goal of the method i s s k i l l development or applied learning the amount of overt participation increases significantly; the student has greater opportunity for social interaction, for practising a s k i l l or for problem solving. The environment for learning must contain a l l the necessary components to enable participants to apply the learning. For instance, i n the Fleishman et a l (26) study the learning environment did not take into consideration the conditions i n which human relations principles were to be applied, and, therefore, the men were unable to apply them when they returned to work. In the Bond (8) study, the groups were existent and the patterns of social interaction were already deve-loped. The participants i n these groups were able to ccranunicate freely with one another and to discuss the ramifications of adopting the new practices. The group lent support to the adoption of the practice. In the information group, the participants were unable to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of adoption; accordingly the percentage of adoptions i n that group was significantly lower than that of the discus-sion group. The latter contained a l l the elements necessary to appli-cation of the new idea. The necessary ingredient i n the Bond study for successful adoption was the participation allowed for i n the discussion environment. In a new discussion group i n which social interaction has 160 not been f u l l y developed the adoption rates most l i k e l y would be lower; this has not been investigated. Information on the methods designed.to develop physical s k i l l s i s scarce; i t could be surmised that on-the-job learning i s the most e f f i -cient type of method, but this cannot be based on sc i e n t i f i c evidence. Participants Much of the research done on directed individual study, correspon-dence study, the discussion group and the class reveals how a method could be re-structured for the learning goals of certain participants to be implemented to greater advantage. The dropout studies i n correspon-dence study indicated that only the most highly motivated and academi-cally prepared were successful. The Montross (49) study demonstrated that i f the students were interviewed occasionally the dropout rate declined. The method was modified to incorporate some face to face contact between institution and student. The l i b e r a l arts research found that discussion group dropouts exhibited attitudes and intellectual qualities which were outside the norm of the group. Social pressures forced seme participants to drop out; perhaps these students would be able to accomplish their learning goals better i n the class or i n a discussion group where the members had similar.attitudes to their own. In agricultural research (directed individual study) i t was found that slow adopters did not use this method nor the assembly to gain knowledge of new practices; they obtained their information from informal sources 161 such as friends and neighbors. This i s also true i n comrnunity develop-ment; the agent must use others to reach persons who are afraid or suspicious of the specialist or take more time to develop rapport. Participant research enables the institution to examine the effec-tiveness of existent methods and the techniques used within them and to consider modifying methods or of using others more appropriate to their clientele. There i s very l i t t l e research of this kind available to the adult educator. Classification Scheme The main characteristic by which a l l methods are differentiated seems to be the amount of overt participation the method allows. Prom the examination of the studies i t would appear that the more a learner i s able to participate overtly the more concrete the learning task becomes. A two dimensional classification scheme was developed, based on the relationship between the degree of overt participation allowed for i n the method and the degree of abstractness of the learning goal. I t was found that methods l i k e correspondence study and the class were low on the scale of overt participation whereas the discussion group and directed individual study were high on this axis. More research i s necessary to develop this scheme further. At present the maximum learning efficiency of the methods i s open to specu-lation a s i t i s impossible to place any given method accurately on such a scale. The degree of overt participation that i s desirable i s unknown. 162 Prior to the classification scheme devised by Verner (62) studies on adult education processes were done i n isolation from one another. His scheme helped eliminate the confusion that had prevailed and esta-blished a precise terminology for the discipline. Within this framework, Stott (60) studied techniques and McGown (48) devices, and this thesis has dealt with methods, using Verner*s conceptual scheme as a basis. Much research needs to be done, as has been indicated, or previous studies re-assessed and presented i n an integrated way to make a substan-t i a l body of knowledge about adult education more readily accessible to those engaged i n this work. I t i s hoped that, as a result of this survey of methods, adult educators w i l l be enabled to select the appropriate method for a potential group of learners and base the selection more precisely on the inherent characteristics of the method concerned. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Abell, Helen and Olaf Larson. "Homemaking Practices, and the Communication of Homemaking Information: Pour Rural New York Areas." Ithaca: Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Mimeograph Bulletin No. 56, August, i960. 2. Abell, Helen C, Olaf Larson and Elizabeth Dickerson. "Canmunication of Agricultural information i n a South-Central New York County." Ithaca: Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Mimeograph Bulletin No.: 49, January, 1957. 3. Andrew, Gwen. "A Study of the Effectiveness of a Workshop Method for Mental Health Education." Mental Hygiene, 38:267-78, 1954. 4. Anikeeff, Alexi M. "Scholastic Achievement of Extension and Regular College Students," Journal of Applied Psychology, 38:171-73, No. 3,. 1954. 5. Aurbach, Herbert A., and Harold F. Kaufman. "Knowledge and Use of Recommended Farm Practices." State College, Miss: Mississippi State College Agricultural Experiment Station Information sheet 540, June, 1956. (Mimeographed.) 6. Beal, George, and Everett M. Rogers. The Adoption of Two Farm Practices i n A Central Iowa Community. Ames: Iowa State University of Science and Technology Special Report No. 26, June, I960. 7. Beal, George M., Everett M. Rogers and Joe M. Bohlen. "Validity of the Concept of Stages i n the Adoption Process," Rural  Sociology, 22:June, 1957. 8. Bond, Betty Wells. Group Discussion-Decision. Minneapolis: Minnesota Department of Health, 1956. 9. Bowser, L.J., M. F. Trulson, R. C. Bowling and F. S. Stare. "Methods of Reducing Group Therapy Vs. Individual Cl i n i c Interview," American Dietetic Association Journal, 29:1193-96, 1953. 10. Bradt, Kenneth. "Servicemen Who Take Correspondence Courses: A Research Report of Their Problems," Journal of Educational  Research, 113-19, October, 1956. 11. Brunner, Edmund de S., et a l . Ah Overview of Adult Education Research. Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U. S. A., 1959. 164 12. Buttedahl, Knute B. "A Comparative Study of Participants i n Lecture Classes and Participants i n Study-Discussion Groups." Unpublished Master's thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1962. 13. Carroll, William Thomas. "The Use of Group Counselling i n the Modification of Parental Attitudes Concerning the Guidance of Children." Unpublished Doctoral thesis, Florida State University, Tallahasee, May, I960. 14. Chandler, Barbara A. "An Exploratory Study of the Professed Parent-Role Concepts and Standards of Child Behaviour of Mothers of a Parent Education Project." Unpublished Doctoral thesis, New York University, New York, 1953. 15. Cooley, Esther. "The Effectiveness of Home Furrdshing Clinics." Division of Agricultural Extension Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, February, 1950. (Mimeographed.) 16. Costin, Frank and Robert L. Johnson. "A Study of Achievement i n an Introductory Psychology Course," Adult Education, 120-26, Winter, 1962. 17. C r i l e , Lucinda, Findings From Research Meetings. Washington: United States Department of Agriculture, Extension Circular No. 507, A p r i l , 1956. 18. Davis, James A. A Study of Participants i n the Great Books Program, Chicago: National Opinion Research Centre, The Fund for Adult Education, 1957. 19. Davis, James A. Great Books.and Small Groups. Glencoe, I l l i n o i s : The Free Press, 1961. 20. Dickens, Milton and Marguerite Heffeman. "Experimental Research i n Group Discussion," Quarterly Journal of Speech.. 35:23-29, February, 1949. 21. Dietrick, David 0. "Review of Research," Appendix A i n Richard J . H i l l . A;Comparative Study of Lecture and Discussion Methods. Chicago: National Opinion Research Centre, The Fund for Adult Education, i960. * 22. Essert, Paul, M.B. Lourenco-Filho, and Angelica Cass. "Developments i n Fundamental Education for Adults," Review of Educational  Research, 23:218-32, June, 1953 165 23. Pairing, Robert T. and Charles R. Hughes. "An Analysis of Students' Reasons Por Failing to Complete Correspondence Study: A Preliminary Report." Coinsville: Correspondence Study Department, General Extension Division, University of Florida, January, 1948. 24. Farnum, Hollis B. "A Comparison of the Academic Aptitude of University Extension Degree Students and Campus Students," Journal of Applied  Psychology, 41:63-65, No. 1, 1957. 25. Feintuch,- Alfred. "A Study of the Effectiveness of an Integrated Program of Vocational Counselling, Casework and a Sheltered Workshop i n Increasing Employability i n Modifying Attitudes Correlating to the Employability of 'Difficult-to-Place' Persons." Unpublished Doctoral thesis, New York University, New York, 1954. 26. Fleishman, E.A., E.F. Harris and Harold C. Burtt. "Leadership and Supervision i n Industry: An Evaluation of a Supervisory Training Program." Monograph No. 33, Columbus: Bureau of Educational Research, Ohio State University, 1955. 27. Good, Carter V. and Douglas E. Scates. Methods of Research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1954. 28. Goulette, George G. "Technical Contribution of the Armed Services to The Development of Knowledge about Educating Adults." Unpublished Master's thesis, Florida.State University, Tallahasee, 1961. 29. Hadlock, Alton Parker. "A Study of the Development of C r i t i c a l Thinking Through Adult Discussion Groups.""- Unpublished Doctoral . thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 1958. 30. Hariton, Theodore. "Conditions Influencing the Effects of Training Foremen i n New Human Relations Principles." Doctoral Thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1951. 31. Heame, C. "Factors Which Affect the Influence of Meetings as a Means of Extension Teaching." Unpublished Master's thesis, The Univer-sity of Wisconsin, Madison, 1932. 32. Hedrick, Blanche E. "The Effectiveness of a Program of Learning Designed to Change Parental Attitudes Toward Self-Reliance." State University of Iowa Studies i n Child Welfare, 10:249-268, Iowa City, I93IJ-33. H i l l , Richard J. A Comparative Study of Lecture and Discussion Methods. Chicago: National Opinipn Research Centre, The Fund for Adult Education, i960. 166 34. Hughes, Charles R. "The Influence of Some Selected Factors upon the Completion of Correspondence Study Courses." Unpublished Doctoral thesis, University of Florida, Coinsville, 1955. . 35. Johnson, Donald and E. A. Wilkening. Five Years of Farm and Home  Development i n Wisconsin. Research Bulletin 22B, Washington: Agricultural Experiment Station and Co-operative Extension Service, June, 1961. 36. Kaplan, Abbott. Study-Discussion i n the Liberal Arts. Chicago: National Opinion Research Centre, The Fund for Adult Education, i 9 6 0 . 37. Keltner, J . W. "Trends i n Discussion Research: A Bibliographical Note," Adult Education Bulletin, 13:91-95, February, 1949. 38. Kitchens, Claude Estes, J r . "The Parent-Teacher Conference as an Instrument for Changing Parent Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward Schools and Teachers." unpublished Doctoral Thesis, The University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C, 1 9 6 l . 39. Kniseley, Vernal Vester. "A Study of the Individual-Teacher Conference as a Supervisory Technique." unpublished Doctoral thesis, Ohio State university, Columbus, Ohio, 1956. - 40. LaCognata, A. A. "A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Adult Residential and Non-Residential Learning Situations." Chicago: The Centre for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1 9 6 l . (Mimeographed.) 41. LaCognata, A. A. "A Memo to Academic Politicians." Michigan State university, 1962. (Mimeographed.) 42. Larson, E. L. "The Comparative Quality of Work Done by Students i n Residence and i n Correspondence Study," Journal of Educational  Research, 25:105-109, February, 1932. • 43. Lewin, Kurt. "Group Decision and Social Change," i n Newcomb, Theodore M., Eugene L. Hartley et a l (eds.) feadings i n Social  Psychology. New York: Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, Henry Holt, 1947. 44. Lionberger, Herbert F. Information Seeking Habits and Characteristics  of Farm Operators, Research Bulletin 581, Columbia, Missouri: university of Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station, A p r i l , 1955. 45. Maier, Norman R. F. "An Experimental Test of the Effect of Training on Discussion Leadership," Human Relations, 6 : l 6 l - 7 3 , 1953. 167 46. Marsh, C. Paul and A. Lee Coleman. Ccniriunication and the Adoption of Recommended Farm P r a c t i c e s . Progress Report 22, Lexington: U n i v e r s i t y o f Kentucky A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n , November, 1954. 47. McCormick, Fred C. "A Comparative Study of Engineering Extension and Resident Programs," Adult Education, 105-09, Autumn, i960. 48. McGown, William F e l l . " I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices i n Adult Education." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1966. 49. Montross, Harold W. "Experimental Study of the Effectiveness of F i e l d Assistance on the Attitudes and Course Achievements of Correspondence Students," Journal of Educational Research, 161-73, November, 1956. 50. Prosser, Charles A. and Thomas Quigley. Vocational Education i n a Democracy. (Revised E d i t i o n ) , Toronto: General Publishing Company, 1949. 51. Radke, M. and D. K l i s u r i c h . "Experiments i n Changing Food Habits," American D i e t e t i c Association Journal, 23:403-09, 1947. 52. Reiser, Martin. "The E f f e c t s of Group Counselling on Interpersonal Relationship, Anxiety L e v e l , I n t e l l e c t u r a l Functioning and Certain Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a Planned Workshop Experience." Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Temple U n i v e r s i t y , P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1961. 53. Graduate Medical Education. Report of the Commission on Graduate Medical Education. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1940. 54. Robert, J . J . "An Evaluation of Selected Teaching Methods i n Getting a New Farm P r a c t i c e Adopted i n St. Landry P a r i s h , i960." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , Louisiana State U n i v e r s i t y , Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 196l. 55. Sadler, M. E. (ed.) Continuation Schools i n England and Elsewhere. Manchester: Manchester Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1907. 56. Sheats, Paul H. and L. K. McLaughlin. "Methods i n Adult Education," Review of Educational Research, 20:. 207-15, June, i960.. 57. Shapiro, I r v i n g S. "Changing Cliild-Rearing Attitudes Through Group Discussion." unpublished Doctoral t h e s i s , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York, 1954. 168 58. Sorenson, Herbert. "A Comparison of a Correspondence Group with an Evening Class," W. S. Bittner and H. F. Mallory, university  Teaching by Mall. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1933. Pp. 135-387 59. Stein, Leonard. "An Experiment i n the Correspondence Training of Trade Union Leaders," Adult Education, 1-2:176-83, 1950. 60. Stott, Margaret Muir. "A Review of Selected Research Related to the Use of Techniques i n Adult Education." Unpublished Master's . thesis, university of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1966. 61. Verner, Coolie. "Instructional Methods i n Adult Education," Review of Educational Research, 29:262-68, June, 1959. 62. Verner, Coolie. Adult Education Theory and Method: A Conceptual Scheme for the Identification and Classification of Processes. Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U. S. A., 1962. 63. Welch, J. M. and Coolie Vemer. "A Study of Two Methods for the Diffusion of Knowledge," Adult Education, Summer, 1962. 64. Wheeler, D. K. and Archibald W. Anderson. "Increasing Adult Reading Speed," Adult Education, 9:25-30, Autumn, 1958. 65. Wilkening, Eugene A. Acceptance of Farm Practices i n Three Coastal Plain Counties. Bulletin No.~9B, Raleigh: North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, North Carolina State College, May, 1952. 66. Wilson, M. C. and G. Gallup. Extension Teaching Methods. Washington: • united States Department of Agriculture Extension Service Circular 495, August, 1955. APPENDIX APPENDIX Criteria Used to Report Research Studies 1. Purpose of the study. What specifically i s the author trying.to do i n making the study? Quote relevant material that states the problem. 2. Concepts. What i s the relationship between the study being reviewed and the conceptual framework of research i n the area? How does the author define the concept, and how does he relate his study to the theoretical concept? Quote from the study. 3. Review of the literature. Is the study related to any previous study or studies? Does the author indicate a relationship with previous research? 4. A P r i o r i Hypothesis. What hypothesis, i f any, i s he proposing to test? Quote specifically. 5. Sample. What population i s studied? To what universe can the findings be generalized? Were these groups natural or a r t i f i c i a l ? 6. Specific Methods Tested. What specific adult education method or methods are being tested? 7. Nature of the Test. How was the test organized and conducted? 8. Data Collection. What was the nature and form of the data and how was i t collected? 9. Data Analysis. How were the data handled? What kind of tests were used? Findings. Findings should be summarized. Conclusions. What conclusions did the author arrive.at, and how did he relate the findings of the.study to the literature? 

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