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The junior high school movement in Canada MacKenzie, Donald Barclay 1937

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"by D C I T A L D 3ARCLAY YJ£JZ2TZI3 t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of FASTER OF ARTS i n the department of EDUCATION THE UTUVERSITY OF BRITISH COLliFIRIA October, 1937. THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL MOVE^ -ENT IN CANADA TABLE OF COITOfTS LIST OF T^BLlllS ' S @ 4 » « e e » O 4 » 4 > « « » 9 * « c 0 « « # f i « « a 9 4 4 « ^ « . « e e c i i e LIST OP CHARTS LIST OF APPEOTICES tut BIBLIOGRAPHY. APPENDIC170 11 i l CHAPTER 1 FACTORS LEADING TO THE ORGANISATION OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN UNITED STATES...,. 1 11 THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL NOVEL^ ENT IN VAJTLTQBA, 21 111 THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL NGVE],ffENT IN ONTARIO 50 IV THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL N0VE?5CNT IN BRITISH COLUI*BIA. ....... 77 V THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL NO^ /EN^ ENT IN OTHER PROVINCES, 110 VI JTJNIOR HIGH SCHOOL POSSIBILITIES IN RURAL AREAS......... 122 V l l SUM5VARY OF DEVELOPMENTS AND STATELTENT OF LAJOR PROBLEMS. ......... 140 154 It i LIST OF TABLES Page 1 ENROLMENT OF PUPILS (GRADES 7-9)NINNIPEG SCHOOLS...... 26 11 SALARY SCHEDULE - WINNIPEG SCHOOLS,.................. 30 111 GRADE SEVEN COURSES IN WINNIPEG JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS*, 38 IV GRADE NINE COURSES IN WINNIPEG JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS... 39 V ENROLMENT IN WINNIPEG JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS(1935)...... 40 VI PENTICTON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ENROLTENT . . , 81 V I I PUPIL ENROLMENT - TEMPLETON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL....... 88 VIII PROGRAMME OF STUDIES FOR B.C. JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.... 89 IX PUPIL ENROLMENT - KITSILANO JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL....... 96 X PUPIL ENROLMENT - POINT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL. . 97 XI PUPIL ENROLMENT-- NEW WESTMINSTER JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS (1928-29), 98 X l l PUPIL ENROLMENT - NEW WESTMINSTER JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS (1932-33). 99 XL11 PUPIL ENROLMENT - NELSON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL. 101 XIV PUPIL ENROLMENT - NANAIMO JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL... 104 XV PUPIL ENROLMENT - KELOWNA JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL.. ... 105 XVI GROWTH IN PUPIL ENROLMENT IN B.C. JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 106 XVL1 SUBJECTS OFFERED IN NOVA SCOTIA JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.. 113 i i L I S T OF CHARTS Pae;e 1 C L A S S I F I C A T I O N O F P U P I L S ITT T RI!'RTIPEO P U B L I C SCHOOLS,,, 3 7 A P P E N D I C E S Appejidix A, S A L A R Y S C H E D U L E O F T H E W I N N I P E G SCHOOLS.,,..,«.„,,. 1 5 8 B. S U B J E C T S O F F E R E D I N T H E U I N N I P E G SCHOOLS, 1 5 9 Co S E C T I O N OF T H E REPORT O F S U P E R I N T E N D E N T DUNCAN TO T H E U I N N I P E G SCHOOL BOARD,.............. 1 6 0 D, I N F O R M A T I O N I N REGARD TO A R G Y L E SCHOOL, I S S U E D B Y T H E • P R O T E S T A N T BOARD OF SCHOOL COMTPLSSIONERSJ UESTMOUNT, QUEBEC, 1 6 1 THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL MOVEMENT IN CANADA 1 CHAPTER 1 FACTORS LEADING TO THE ORGANIZATION OF JUNIOR. HIGH SCHOOLS IN UNITED STATES The j u n i o r high school movement has not been an i s o l a t e d phenomenon i n educational h i s t o r y . I t i s a phase of a much l a r g e r movement'- a movement towards developing the school systems of cou n t r i e s , both European and American, ever and ever towards t h e i r true f u n c t i o n of a s s i s t i n g each new generation to l i v e as complete a l i f e as p o s s i b l e . I n order to meet the requirements of changing s o c i a l and economic s i t u a t i o n s , educators must be c o n t i n u a l l y on the a l e r t f o r necessary-basic reconstructions of the school systems. The j u n i o r high schools on t h i s continent form p a r t of such a rec o n s t r u c t i o n * A. CRITICISM OF THE OLD EIGHT-FOUR SYSTEM During the nineteenth century educators i n the United States were beginning to f i n d f a u l t w i t h the almost u n i v e r s a l system throughout t h e i r country of an elementary course of ei g h t years and a secondary course of four years. They argued t h a t a change was necessary, becauset (a) S t a t i s t i c a l studies showed a high rate of p u p i l 2 m o r t a l i t y beginning at about the s i x t h grade and continuing unabated through the e a r l i e r years of the four-year high school. (b) a more e f f e c t i v e programme was needed f o r p u p i l guidance) as the work of d i s t r i b u t i n g young people to occupational l i f e and to opp o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g was not being e f f i c i e n t l y managed* (c) 'educators were beginning to appreciate the f a c t t h a t , during the l a t e r years of the common or elementary school, most c h i l d r e n are undergoing changes i n the nature of a r a p i d approach to adulthood, changes which make unsuited f o r them many of the features of t h i s school. (d) the change from Grade Eight to Gra.de Nine was too abrupt. From a s i t u a t i o n of b l i n d f o l d e d obedience to a pre s c r i b e d course of study, the p u p i l was suddenly unbandaged i n the b r i g h t l i g h t of a wide range of choice i n courses and subjects, (e) there was l i t t l e or no adaptation of the work to the needs of i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s . ( f ) the o l d Idea of elementary education f o r the masses and secondary and higher education f o r the classes s t i l l p e r s i s t e d and was harmful to the advancement of democracy, (g) as compared w i t h c e r t a i n European school systems, the entrance of American p u p i l s upon a pe r i o d of secondary education was too long delayed. • B. .EUROPEAN" SECONDARY EDUCATION (a) American•educators examined the European school systems for po s s i b l e s o l u t i 6 n s . - When so much c r i t i c i s m was advanced against the American eight-four p l a n , the educational leaders turned towards Europe i n an attempt to o b t a i n constructive ideas f o r the improvement of t h e i r system. During the l a t e years of the nineteenth and the e a r l y years of the twentieth centuries they c l o s e l y examined the schools of England, -Germany, France, Scotland, Norway, and Denmark to discover, i f p o s s i b l e , what features of the European educational systems could be used to change and improve the e x i s t i n g American p l a n . •(b) R e l a t i v e l y long p e r i o d of time a l l o t t e d to. secondary education i n European Countries.- The European systems stood i n marked contrast to the American p l a n i n regard to the amount of time a l l o t t e d to elementary education. The democratic American ladder system faced the . task of p r o v i d i n g through one system a s u i t a b l e education f o r a l l c l a s s e s . I t had to be at once a f i n i s h i n g school f o r those who would drop out at -the end of the compulsory school p e r i o d and a preparatory school f o r those who would-enter h i g h school. , I t could not, according to the p o i n t of view prevalent at t h a t time, provide f o r e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and r e t a i n at the same time i t s i n t r i n s i c a l l y democratic character. I t was e s s e n t i a l t h a t the door of the American high school should . • remain open to every c h i l d as long as p o s s i b l e . The i n e v i t a b l e consequences was a long elementary and a short secondary school p e r i o d . The e s s e n t i a l l y undemocratic dual European school systems faced.no such problems. I t was the s p e c i f i c purpose of the lower branches" of these systems to f u r n i s h a f i n i s h i n g education to the c h i l d r e n of the masses. The upper branches were, therefore, the d i v i d i n g l i n e between the elementary and the •secondary courses.^ 1, Smith, W.A., The J u n i o r High School, Few York, 1 9 2 6 , 5 4 . On.the whole, the le a d i n g European school plans regarded the age of -twelve as the approximate d i v i d i n g l i n e between elementary and secondary education. I n the case of the ""lower branches' 1, elementary education u s u a l l y terminated at twelve and provided t h e r e a f t e r , up to the age of eighteen, a s u i t a b l e type of secondary education c h i e f l y c i v i c and v o c a t i o n a l i n -character. Even i n those European countries e v o l v i n g ladder school systems the tendency was to provide a common elementary education up to the age of twelve end, t h e r e a f t e r , a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d secondary education f o r the s i x years. Compared to the American eight-four plan of or g a n i z a t i o n , the European systems were devoting a r e l a t i v e l y long period to secondary education. C. MIDDLE SCHOOLS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES In a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , however, t h i s r a t h e r long p e r i o d f o r secondary education i n European schools does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply a continuous and u n i t a r y educational programme,. On -the contrary," the work of the pe r i o d i s more fr e q u e n t l y organized I n the form of two u n i t s or schools - the one extending over the f i r s t three or four years and the other over the l a s t two or three. The former are u s u a l l y designated as middle schools. I n those school systems which are organized on the dual plan, these middle schools represent an upward extension of the elementary schools f o r the masses, In those systems which are arranged on the modified dual plan. - systems i n which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d secondary education f o l l o w s a common elementary t r a i n i n g - the middle schools are e s s e n t i a l l y t r a n s i t i o n schools. They receive p u p i l s from the elementary schools and? upon the completion of courses e i t h e r general or more or l e s s s p e c i a l , they pass them on to the upper secondary schools or to continuation schools where the courses are more h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d . (a) System i n use i n England,- In England the middle schools represent an upward extension and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the elementary s e c t i o n of t h e i r educational system. The r e g u l a r secondary schools, mainly academic i n character, represent a continuous programme, extending from the age of twelve to about eighteen. The higher elementary schools receive p u p i l s from the f i f t h grade on the basis of s p e c i a l examinations, u s u a l l y ' a t about age twelve, and keep them f o r three or four' years. The c e n t r a l schools represent a more recent departure,, They, l i k e w i s e , receive t h e i r p u p i l s at about age twelve on the basis of examinations and keep them u n t i l f i f t e e n or s i x t e e n years of age. The aim of these schools i s general and p r e - v o c a t i o n a l . Where more then one curriculum Is o f f e r e d , there i s u s u a l l y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n before the l a s t two years. Upon completion of the work In t h i s middle school, the boy-may enter upon commercial or i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s , or he may continue h i s t r a i n i n g In higher commercial or t e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t i o n s . 6 (b) System i n use i n France.- Upon investigation, the American leaders i n educational thought found that the French used the middle school system to some extent i n connection with both the lower and the upper branches of th e i r organization. The "ecole primaire superieure" represents an upward extension and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the elementary school. I t receives pupils at the age of about twelve, after they have received the " c e r t i f i e a t d'etudes primaires elementaires", and keeps them for about three years. Upon graduation from t h i s pre-vocational school, a few, who pursued the general course, are given permission to enter the science-modern-language d i v i s i o n of the second cycle of the "lycee" or "college"5 the others, who pursued the p r a c t i c a l courses, may enter upon t h e i r respective careers or they may continue t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n higher vocational or technical i n s t i t u t i o n s . The regular French secondary course of the "lycee", which extends over a period from about age eleven to age eighteen, i s divided into two cycles. The f i r s t of these covers four years and the second, three years. Each cycle i s a d i s t i n c t unit i n i t s e l f . The f i r s t cycle, which receives the boy at eleven years and keeps him u n t i l he i s f i f t e e n , has the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of becoming a true middle school. Upon the completion of the work of t h i s cycle, the boy may receive a c e r t i f i c a t e of secondary studies. He has completed a d e f i n i t e and well-rounded unit of work. I f he wishes to continue h i s training, he has before him another d e f i n i t e 7 u n i t ,of work w i t h more pronounced d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . (c) System i n use i n Scotland.- Scotland also had worked out a system of middle schools. The S c o t t i s h boy, more or l e s s i r r e s p e c t i v e of h i s s o c i a l standing, enters the primary school a t the age of f i v e and remains u n t i l twelve. The next step i s the Intermediate school p e r i o d , which extends from twelve to f i f t e e n years of- age. I f lie expects to leave school at the age of f i f t e e n , he w i l l pursue, In t h i s intermediate school, a course e s p e c i a l l y adapted to the needs of such p u p i l s ; i f he expects to enter c o n t i n u a t i o n classes at the close of the p e r i o d , he w i l l be given a course ad.apted f o r t h a t purpose; and I f he expects, to enter a r e g u l a r secondary coursb at the conclusion of h i s intermediate t r a i n i n g , h i s studies w i l l be arranged w i t h that end In view, (d) System i n Use i n Norway.- The American I n v e s t i g a t o r s found that middle schools were also In use i n Norway, The Norwegian boy may leave the primary school at the completion of the f i f t h grade, at about age twelve, and enter upon a four-year course i n the "middelskole,,» I f he leaves the primary school two years l a t e r , at the end of Grade Seven, he may s t i l l enter the "mlddelskole" and complete the course In three, years. Upon the completion of t h i s middle school work, he may enter the gymnasium f o r a more or l e s s s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g of three yea.rs i n duration or he may enter one of the higher t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . ^ . ,w^m J-U use m Denmark..- The Americans found that the Danish boy might likewise leave the primary school at about eleven years of age and enter a middle school or "mellemskole". After spending three years i n t h i s , he i s pr i v i l e g e d to enter one of the lower vocational schools. On the other hand, after completing a four-year course i n the "mellemskole" and a one-year course known as the "realelasse", he may, upon passing the "realexamen", enter one of the higher vocational schools. I f the Danish boy prefers to choose one of the higher technical or professional c a l l i n g s , he w i l l leave the elementary school at eleven years of age and take a middle school course u n t i l f i f t e e n . He w i l l next, enter the gymnasium f o r a three-year course, c l a s s i c a l , modern, or s c i e n t i f i c i n nature. Thus i n Denmark as i n England, Prance, Scotland, and Sweden, the American educationalists found that a system of middle schools was being e f f i c i e n t l y used for pupils from eleven or twelve years of age up to f i f t e e n or sixteen years of age. D. THE MOVEMENT FOR THE REORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED STATES' PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM (a) Early attempts.- In 1821 an English C l a s s i c a l School was established at Boston. The pr i n c i p l e s followed by t h i s school are very similar to some that underlie the modern junior high school. 9 : This Boston school provided a three-year course designed f o r boys who had completed a f i v e - , six-, or seven-year elementary course and were desirous of f i t t i n g themselves, not to enter college, but to take t h e i r places i n the business world at fabout the age of f i f t e e n or sixteen years. The age of admission to the school was fixed at twelve. Thus the Boston school rested, as does the Junior High School, upon an elementary course of less than eight years, and offered a three-year course covering the period from twelve to f i f t e e n years of age. Like the Junior High School, i t was complete i n i t s e l f and found i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n the needs of the l o c a l community.2 Although some attempts did come e a r l i e r , yet the r e a l movement for the reorganization of the American public school system d i d not come u n t i l the l a t t e r part of the nineteenth century. Once the battle for public control and support had been won and the system of elementary, • secondary, and higher t r a i n i n g was complete i n form, educational leaders turned t h e i r attention to a c r i t i c a l examination of the new i n s t i t u t i o n . They c a r e f u l l y scrutinized the functions of elementary, secondary, and higher sections. As time went on and the defects of the system became increasingly obvious, they offered, after c a r e f u l investigations, plans f o r reorganization. The r e a l work of t h i s reorganization did not proceed f a r , however, u n t i l about 1910, although numerous experiments were conducted before t h i s time. (b) President E l i o t and the Harvard movement.- President E l i o t 2. Davis, CO., Junior High School Education. Few York, of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y was one of the f i r s t to i n f l u e n c e changes i n the American system. He r e a l i z e d that the average age of eighteen f o r admission to the u n i v e r s i t y was.too.high. He saw t h a t p a r t of the trouble l a y i n the waste of time i n the elementary and secondary programmes. I n 1888 and again i n 1892 he d e l i v e r e d before the Department of Superintendence notable addresses on the a d v i s a b i l i t y of shortening and e n r i c h i n g school programmes. He urged the n e c e s s i t y of purging the elementary programme of a l l i r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s and e n r i c h i n g i t w i t h v i t a l content. He compared the American system to the European systems and recommended, for-American schools the e a r l i e r i n t r o d u c t i o n of n a t u r a l science, mathematics, and f o r e i g n languages. (c) Recommendations of the Committee of Ten.- In 1892 the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l appointed a committee of ten on secondary school s t u d i e s , w i t h President E l i o t as chairman. While the committee had hot been d e t a i l e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to consider r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the school system, yet, when the f i n a l r e port was submitted i n 1893, i t contained the f o l l o w i n g recommendations; In preparing these programmes, the committee were p e r f e c t l y aware th a t i t i s impossible to make a s a t i s f a c t o r y secondary-school programme l i m i t e d to a p e r i o d of f o u r years and founded on the present elementary school subjects and methods. In the opinion of the committee, s e v e r a l subjects now reserved f o r high schools - such as algebra, geometry, n a t u r a l science,: and f o r e i g n languages - should be begun e a r l i e r than now, and therefore w i t h i n the schools c l a s s i f i e d as elementary; or as an a l t e r n a t i v e , the secondary-school p e r i o d should be made to begin two years E a r l i e r than at present, l e a v i n g s i x years, instead of e i g h t f o r the elementary-school period.3 (d) Recommendations of the Committee on College Entrance Requirements.- In 1795''the Department, of Secondary Education appointed a committee on c o l l e g e entrance requirements. I n i t s r e p o r t , submitted i n 1899, the committee took a very f i r m stand In favor of a. six-year secondary school, t h i s to begin w i t h Grade Seven. According to the r e p o r t the most necessary and most f a r - r e a c h i n g reforms i n secondary education must begin i n the Seventh end Eighth Grades of the schools. In our opinion these problems can be solved most q u i c k l y by making the'seventh and eighth, grades p a r t of the high' school under the immediate d i r e c t i o n of the high-school p r i n c i p a l . The seventh grade, r a t h e r than the n i n t h , i s the n a t u r a l turning, p o i n t - i n the p u p i l ' s l i f e , as the age of adolescence demands new methods and wiser d i r e c t i o n . S i x elementary grades and s i x high ^ school or secondary grades form symmetrical-units. (e) Superintendent Greenwood of Kansas C i t y . - Most leaders i n the elementary school work be l i e v e d that a standard . elementary course could not be completed I n l e s s than eight years, and t h a t any shortening o f the course would r e s u l t i n an e a r l i e r e l i m i n a t i o n of many p u p i l s who were hot l o o k i n g beyond an elementary education. I n order to get d e f i n i t e 3. N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , Report of the Committee  of Ten on Secondary School Studies, 11, 1892/93(pt.3.)45. 4. N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , Addresses and  Proceedings, 1899, 659-660. information upon t h i s angle of the question, the Department of Superintendence In 1903 I n v i t e d Superintendent Greenwood of Kansas C i t y schools to d e l i v e r an address on t h i s problem. Kansas C i t y schools had used, since 1867, a seven-four bas i s f o r t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . In h i s address Greenwood showed that the seven years was s u f f i c i e n t to allow the p u p i l of average a b i l i t y to complete the course - as heavy a course as was being o f f e r e d i n eight-year programmes - s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . He also showed th a t Kansas C i t y had a greater percentage of p u p i l s i n i t s high schools than had any c i t y i n the United States of the same or l a r g e r s i z e . ( f ) President Harper and the Chicago Movement.- At the si x t e e n t h annual conference (1902) of the schools a f f i l i a t e d and cooperating w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, President Harper made the f o l l o w i n g recommendations: 1. That the work of the eighth gra.de of the elementary school be connected more c l o s e l y w i t h that of the secondary school, i i . That the f i r s t two years of college work be included i n the work of the secondary schoolo i i i o That the work of the seven years, thus grouped together, be reduced to s i x years. Iv. That i t be made p o s s i b l e f o r the best cla s s of students to do t h i s work I n f i v e years. Committees were appointed from the elementary and secondary schools and from the u n i v e r s i t y to discuss these proposals. In 1903 each of these committees reported In favor of President Harper's plan. 5. Dewey, .John. "Shortening the Years of Elementary Schooling." School Heview, XI; 1, 13 (g) Recommendations of the Committee on Six-Year Courses.-In 1905 the Department ..of. Secondary Education of the National Education Association voted to appoint a standing committee on six-year courses. The committee, under the chairmanship of G.B. Morrison, issued reports i n 1907-1908, and 1909, favoring the s i x - s i x plan. There i s a general impression revealed by correspondence that the whole course of instruction, both elementary and secondary, should be simplified; that the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of pupils' work should begin at the end of the sixth grade; that time i s wasted on non-essentials and impractical topics; that there should be greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n the promotion of pupils; that the whole system should be reorganized." (h) President Suzzallo's Recommendations.- In 1911, at the suggestion of President Suzzallo, a committee was appointed by the Department of Superintendence to investigate the waste of time i n the elementary schools. Of special significance was Suzzallo's recommendations to t h i s committee that the six-year secondary school ought to be subdivided into two administrative units - a junior and a senior high school. He said: A six-year unit i n the elementary schools i s not objectionable. The extreme immaturity of the pupils requires a long period f o r substantial achievement. The amount of basic knowledge and power to be acquired by them forbids selection of pupils and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s at any time within the f i r s t s i x years. But these arguments do not hold i n the case of the high school. The students are more mature; they are free from the r e s t r i c t i o n s of compulsory educationj they are already discovering the personal interests and limitations which point 6. N.S.A., Addresses and Proceedings, 1909, 502. 14 toward s p e c i f i c types of training and l i f e work. They f e e l the pressure that comes from the f i n a n c i a l l imitations of t h e i r families. No matter how varied the offering of studies i s , or how adjustable the privileges of election, .the six-year course i s not an attractive or p r a c t i c a l scheme for a l l those who might be able to pursue th e i r general course beyond the primary school. I t ought to be sub-divided into two administrative units: (1) a junior high school of three years, extending from the twelfth to the f i f t e e n t h year; and (2) a senior high school, also of three years, covering a period from the f i f t e e n t h to the eighteenth year,' E. EARLY DEPARTURES IN PRACTICE TOWARDS JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ORGANIZATION Although the f i r s t two decades of the movement for the reorganization of the public school system were given over l a r g e l y to discussion and investigation, departures from established practices were by no means uncommon. For the most part, however, these departures did not involve reorganization on the s i x - s i x or six-three-three basis u n t i l 1910 or l a t e r . The early departures i n practice were s i g n i f i c a n t , however, because they prepared the way for more comprehensive changes and they often represented the d i r e c t i o n i n which the reorganization would move. The more fundamental of these early departures may be summarized as follows: (a) Elimination of extremes i n length of courses.- As some 7. U.S. Bureau of Education, Report of the Committee of the  National Council of Education on Economy of Time i n  Education. B u l l e t i n No.38j26-27,1913. 15 elementary schools i n the United States s t i l l had a nine-year course and some secondary schools s t i l l had a three-year high school course, the f i r s t step towards the movement f o r longer secondary t r a i n i n g was i n dea l i n g w i t h these cases. A movement to lengthen the three-year high school courses to f o u r years was i n s t i t u t e d . By 1911 t h i s had been done in, a l l but seven of the s i x hundred s i x t y - n i n e schools i n question. The e l i m i n a t i o n of the nine-year elementary .schools came more slowly, e i g h t y - s i x out of s i x hundred s i x t y - n i n e s t i l l e x i s t i n g i n 1911. (b) P r o v i s i o n f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . - The next step towards r e o r g a n i z a t i o n f i r s t came i n the c i t i e s of Baltimore, I n d i a n a p o l i s , L i n c o l n , Rochester, and Worcester. These c i t i e s made s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r the progress of e x c e p t i o n a l l y b r i g h t p u p i l s a f t e r they had completed the s i x t h grade. They were brought together i n s p e c i a l rooms and were allowed to pursue c u r r i c u l a made up of elementary and high school subjects. In t h i s way i t was found that the seventh, eighth, and n i n t h grades could be covered i n two yea.rs. (c) P r o v i s i o n f o r f l e x i b l e promotion.- In order to e f f e c t economy of time, some c i t i e s adopted a system of f l e x i b l e promotions, thus enabling p u p i l s of varying a b i l i t i e s to progress more or l e s s at t h e i r own r a t e . This proved a boon to the, very slow p u p i l s as w e l l as to the very b r i g h t p u p i l s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r o v i d i n g f o r t h i s grading of p u p i l s according to a b i l i t y , d i f f e r e d widely i n the various schools, "but a l l systems had the same underlying p r i n c i p l e - that of economy of time. (d) .Departmentalization i n the Seventh and Eighth Grades.-President E l i o t had strongly recommended departmental teaching i n the upper grades of the elementary schools, but i t was not u n t i l 1900 that t h i s suggestion received serious attention. New York was the f i r s t c i t y to t r y i t out. Although the idea was slow i n spreading at f i r s t , yet, by 1913 four hundred sixty-one c i t i e s had departmentalized Grades Seven and Eight. This departure did much to prepare the public mind for the junior high school, involving as i t did the segregation of the early adolescent, instruction under specialized teachers, and, i n some cases at least, the Introduction of one or two high-school subjects. (e) Six-six and six-two-four plans.- School authorities i n a number of c i t i e s early endeavoured to effect economy of time by adopting the s i x - s i x plan (six years of elementary education and six years of secondary education) or the six-two-four plan ( s i x years of elementary, two years of intermediate, and four years of secondary education). The adoption of either of these plans meant the acceptance of the pr i n c i p l e that only hal f the period from six to eighteen should be devoted to elementary education. Chicago i n 1894, Providence and Saginaw i n 1898, and Ithaca i n 1900-1910, a l l t r i e d the s i x - s i x plan. Richmond, i n 1896, developed the six-two-four plan, and other c i t i e s followed s u i t . As yet, no move was made towards a separate intermediate or junior high school, -;,: , F, ESTABLISHMENT OF JUNIOR HIGH •SCHOOLS ' » ' . . . . . (a) Influence of G. Stanley H a l l , - The great advance made at about' the beginning of the twentieth century i n the study of the phenomena of adolescence aided g r e a t l y i n b r i n g i n g about the o r g a n i z a t i o n of j u n i o r - h i g h schools as separate u n i t s i n themselves. Most of the c r e d i t f o r the increase i n i n t e r e s t i n t h i s phase of l i f e must go to G. Stanley H a l l , To meet the,needs of adolescents r a d i c a l changes i n education were 'imperative. The great need I s f o r a f r e e play of I n t e r e s t s , developed from w i t h i n . A l l d r i l l must be subordinated. Appeal must be made to enthusiasm, i n s p i r a t i o n ^ and a p p r e c i a t i o n . Examinations should 'have l i t t l e place i n the planning. The purpose of education at t h i s age i s to b r i n g out and f o s t e r the c h i l d ' s own interests;. I n order to c a r r y out such a program s p e c i a l schools f o r segregating the p u p i l s of adolescent age were necessary. Thus, a great impetus was given to the j u n i o r high school movement by p o p u l a r i z i n g the knowledge of adolescent l i f e and by r e v o l u t i o n i z i n g the a t t i t u d e of parents and teachers i n regard to the treatment of youth'* (b) E a r l y pioneer schools i n the movement.- The a c t u a l establishment of j u n i o r high schools, as p a r t of the movement f o r r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of secondary education, d i d not begin u n t i l the close of the f i r s t decade of the'twentieth century... Berkley and Columbus were the f i r s t to use t h i s 18 six-three-three-system, establishing their i n s t i t u t i o n s i n 1909-1910. Los Angeles, another of the pioneers i n the .-movement, established her f i r s t junior high school i n 1911. (c) Rapid growth of the movement.- Following the example set by Berkeley, Columbus, and Los Angeles, other c i t i e s soon followed the innovation. Once started, t h i s change i n organization was r a p i d l y accepted. By 1914 sixty-seven c i t i e s (each with a population of over two thousand) had joined the movement. By 1922 t h i s t o t a l had r i s e n to four hundred f i f t y - s i x c i t i e s . In 1930 there were one thousand, three hundred sixty-three junior high schools i n the United States i n c i t i e s of populations of ten thousand or more. Numerous in s t i t u t i o n s of t h i s type could also be found i n c i t i e s of smaller size. SUMMARY (a) The Junior High School plan not contrary to the  p r i n c i p l e s of the s i x - s i x plan.- This adoption of the six-three-three plan, i t should be borne i n mind, implied no repudiation of the basic princ i p l e underlying the s i x - s i x plan. On the contrary, those who advocated the six-three-three plan were, for the most part, staunch supporters of the claim that there should be an approximately equal d i v i s i o n of time between elementary and secondary education. In contrast with other advocates of the s i x - s i x plan they claimed, however, that the aims of the secondary period could . 19 be realized, more e f f e c t i v e l y i f i t were divided into two divi s i o n s of about the same length. (b) Other suggested plans.- The superiority of the six-in three-three plan over the s i x - s i x plan, wnen tne pupil enrolment i s s u f f i c i e n t l y large, nas been agreed to by the most noted educationalists of the twentieth century. Such men as Davis, Bennett, I n g l i s , Judd, Briggs, Eoos, Van Denburg, Bonser, and Snedden have c a r e f u l l y examined and studied the new system and have written i n favor of i t . . While agreeing upon the merits of the .junior high school, manv educators possess some doubts as to whether the six-three- three system i s here to stay or whether a further advance i n the form of a six-four-two plan, a six-three-three-two plan (the "two" representing the junior college), or a six-four-four plan w i l l be the next step forward i n organization. The problem of educationalists of to-day i s to decide which system i s the most meritorious - which system w i l l best a s s i s t the true purpose of education i n any par t i c u l a r d i s t r i c t , after taking' into f u l l consideration a l l the l o c a l factors which may influence the type of school needed. Certainly, the junior high school movement on thi s continent has not been a new departure i n educational practice. The movement has derived i t s i n s p i r a t i o n and v i t a l i t y from the middle schools of Europe. Yet, the American i n s t i t u t i o n i s not a pale r e p l i c a of any one of the European intermediate schools. After years of experimentation the junior high school has become pe c u l i a r l y adapted to the s o c i a l conditions, attitudes, and ideals on t h i s continent. THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL MOVEMENT IN CANADA CHAPTER 11 THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL MOVEMENT IN MANITOBA The junior high school movement was late i n spreading across the international boundary into Canada, This i s p a r t i a l l y due to the fac t that up to the twentieth century a l l provinces looked to Ontario for educational leadership, Egerton Ryerson had stated that the Ontario system was "the best i n the world". This had been i n s t i l l e d into the minds of i t s c i t i z e n s and the r e s u l t was that they could see no advantage i n even considering a change. School boards became ess e n t i a l l y conservative i n the i r views and th i s attitude towards newer ideas i n education was very contagious. Other provinces seemed to adopt the slogan, "What i s good enough for Ontario i s good enough for us." Thus i t was not u n t i l 1918, nine years after the establishment of the f i r s t junior high school i n the United States, that Canada began i t s f i r s t experimenting with the new system. The f i r s t school to adopt some of the junior high school ideas was established at Stonewall Collegiate i n . 1918. Inspector S.E. Lang, i n his report on secondary schools to the Minister of Education, explains the situation: A notable step forward was taken i n the l a s t -named centre (Stonewall) i n the proposal to form a Junior High School. I t i s intended that two grades, 22 seven and eight,, of the elementary school s h a l l be incorporated w i t h the high school-.. Under the new " arrangement the school w i l l comprise f i v e grades. The programme i s to include manual t r a i n i n g f o r the boys, :domestic science f o r the g i r l s , and p r a c t i c a l a g r i c u l t u r e f o r both. Algebra and French w i l l be given to beginners i n the seventh grade, and the second language w i l l be taken up i n grade eight. The course of study to be followed i s to be as p r a c t i c a l and concrete as p o s s i b l e and the experiment w i l l no doubt be watched w i t h great i n t e r e s t . 1 Winnipeg followed s u i t one year l a t e r w i t h a system b e t t e r designed to c a r r y out the true aims and o b j e c t i v e s of the j u n i o r h i g h school. Inspector D. Mclntyre, i n h i s r e p o r t to the M i n i s t e r of Education, shows c l e a r l y that Winnipeg had accepted the, philosophy underlying the. development of the j u n i o r high school i n the United States of America and t h a t the school board was about to reorganize the Winnipeg Schools upon those accepted p r i n c i p l e s which had/proved s u c c e s s f u l i n other lands. A somewhat important departure has been decided upon by the Board i n an e f f o r t to make the educational opportunity o f f e r e d by the school f i t the changing requirements of new conditions and i d e a l s and the v a r y i n g aptitudes of students, and a J u n i o r High School i s to be organized i n the southern p a r t of the c i t y when the schools reopen i n September. B r i e f l y , t h i s p l a n groups together the two senior grades of the elementary and the lowest grade of the high school, organizing the ; • • i n s t r u c t i o n i n departments and modifying the course of studies so as to allow f o r some measure of choice by the student according to h i s i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t i e s and h i s outlook f o r the f u t u r e . The main changes i n the content of the course of study w i l l be p r o v i s i o n f o r the study of f o r e i g n -languages two years e a r l i e r than at present, opportunity f o r an i n t r o d u c t i o n to elementary science, and l i b e r a l T jrovis ion f o r t r a i n i n g 1. Manitoba Department of Education, Annual Report, 1918, 116. I n ' d i r e c t i o n s t h a t prepare f o r occupations of the home, of commerce,- and of i n d u s t r y . The d i s t i n c t i v e aim of the school w i l l be to organize the i n t e r e s t s of the p u p i l s and develop the power of i n i t i a t i v e and the ha b i t s of independent work. The e t h i c a l phrpose of education w i l l be emphasized and the educational opportunity of the playground w i l l be rec o g n i z e d . 2 A. EARLY HISTORY OF THE MOVEMENT' I F WINNIPEG (a) The f i r s t steps.- The f i r s t step i n organizing j u n i o r h i g h schools I n Winnipeg was taken i n 1919. The school board spent considerable time i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h i s type of work as I t was being c a r r i e d out i n Minneapolis, Chicago, D e t r o i t , Rochester, and other c i t i e s i n the United States of America. The f i r s t a c t u a l experimenting In Winnipeg was entrusted to P r i n c i p a l J.S. L i t t l e . He began h i s work a t the E a r l Grey School i n September, 1919» Although this'new i n s t i t u t i o n s t a r t e d w i t h only eleven c l a s s e s , the i n t e r e s t displayed by both students and teachers was most marked* Thus i t was w i t h growing confidence t h a t the board extended the system i n September, 1920 to the Lord Roberts and Lord S e l k i r k Schools. The former was placed I n charge of P r i n c i p a l S.E. Campbell and the l a t t e r I n charge o f P r i n c i p a l T.E. Argue. I n both cases the. same s t i m u l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t was evident* Under the d i r e c t i o n o f these capable leaders the new type of or g a n i z a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d the In t r o d u c t i o n of a f l e x i b l e curriculum t h a t made p o s s i b l e adjustments to s u i t the var y i n g needs of p u p i l s of the most diverse a b i l i t i e s and outlooks. Moreover, I t gave ample opportunity f o r the 2. i d . , 1919, 109. 24 teachers, chosen because of their interest and qua l i f i c a t i o n s i n single or related subjects, to so present t h e i r subjects as to arouse the interest and test the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the students. The E a r l Grey School was chosen f o r the experiment with J.S. L i t t l e , M.A., B.Sc, i n charge. The curriculum of the grades was enlarged to include elementary science for which suitable laboratory f a c i l i t i e s were provided; typewriting and stenography for those aiming at preparation for c l e r i c a l and commercial occupations; and French and Algebra'for those looking forward to the University. The playground a c t i v i t i e s were organized as an int e g r a l part of the school work with d e f i n i t e educational purpose. A system of well-planned auditorium exercises was i n s t i t u t e d through which large groups of students were reached by means of lectures, lantern s l i d e s , moving pictures and dramatic representation, i n an e f f o r t to give information and at the same time stimulate interest and lead to appreciation of the f i n e things i n l i t e r a t u r e , art, music and history. This feature of the school impresses me as of great value i n the opportunity i t affords f o r stimulating interest, creating ideals and inculcating the pr i n c i p l e s of r i g h t l i v i n g . ^ (b) Later progress.- By 1921 the Winnipeg School Board was s u f f i c i e n t l y sure that worth-while results were being obtained i n these new centres to vote the necessary authority to proceed with t h i s junior high school work i n f i v e more schools. These were the Machray, the Greenway, the Isaac Newton, the Isaac Brock, and the Maple Leaf schools. In 1923 the Aberdeen School was added to t h i s l i s t and i n 1927 the Greenway Junior High School Department was enlarged and transferred to the General Wolfe School. The p o l i c y of the board, ever since the success of th i s 3. i d . , 1920, 106. 25 type of school was demonstrated, has been to advocate the new plan of org a n i z a t i o n i n a l l d i s t r i c t s where the b u i l d i n g accommodation permitted. In neighbourhoods where the ' St accommodation and population d i d not warrant a change, the new '.junior high school course was Introduced i n t o Grades Seven and E i g h t of the elementary school, w i t h an -organization as s i m i l a r as p o s s i b l e to that of a f u l l y organized j u n i o r high school i n s t i t u t i o n . By 1929 there were 7450 p u p i l s i n regular-j u n i o r high schools and only 2916 p u p i l s taking Grades Seven and-Eight work i n elementary schools, B. PUPIL ENROLMENT IF WINNIPEG JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS (a) Growth i n enrolment.- Prom a meagre beginning of 486 p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n one school i n 1919, the j u n i o r high school system of the c i t y of Winnipeg has developed w i t h amazing rapidity,, By 1922 the c i t y had f i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h i s type w i t h a t o t a l enrolment of 3209, I n 1924 there were nine •schools, e n r o l l i n g 4337 students. By 1933 t h i s enrolment had grown to 9751 p u p i l s , housed i n f i f t e e n schools. This steady increase continued u n t i l 10,113 were i n attendance at these j u n i o r high schools In 1935. The f o l l o w i n g table i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n that i t shows not only the Increase i n the number of j u n i o r high school p u p i l s but also the decrease I n the number oPf Grade Nine p u p i l s attending senior high school and i n the number of Grade Seven and Eight p u p i l s attending elementary school. 26 TABLE 1 ENROLMENT OP PUPILS (GRADES 7-9) WINNIPEG SCHOOLS No. of No. of grade nine grade 7&8 No. of Year p u p i l s I n p u p i l s i n - j u n i o r high h i g h school. elementary . school. school p u p i l s . • • • e 1231 3233 486 1920.v. © C O © 1213 3554 513 1821©©• • 0 0 0 1403 3406 1097 1922 © (J e • • • e 915 2515 3209 19 23 ©«« e • 0 » 879 2600 3869 19 24 * * a « « • © 707 2263 ' ' 4337 1925 ©•« » • © « 739 2484 4565 1926« © e • « • © 747 • 2861 4859 1927$©« • •#•>. 787 2280 6243 1928©©* 0 4 0 © 668. 2950 6474 1929••« • • « 0 2916 . 7450 1933 e • • • e • « 9751 1934®«« • c * e 10094 1935 © •» • 0 0 © ,10113 (b) Estimated enrolment,,- An estimate of the ulti m a t e j u n i o r h i g h school enrolment made i n 1921 gave the f o l l o w i n g figures? Elmwood D i s t r i c t 630 F o r t Rouge D i s t r i c t . . . . . . . . 2590 Assini b o i n e R i v e r to the' C.P.R. Tracks... 3960 North of the C.P.R. and east of the Winnipeg Railway.... 2454 0?O*t>cll# © » 0 © 0 « 0 0 0 0 « » 0 0 0 0 0 0 e o © 9634 5." The accuracy of t h i s estimate i s s u r p r i s i n g when one r e a l i z e s t h a t , fourteen years a f t e r the estimate was made, the a c t u a l p u p i l enrolment I n j u n i o r high school only exceeded the 4. Winnipeg School Board, Annual Report, 1928, 9; 1929, 13; 1933, 8; 1935, 13. 5© icl© j 19215 52© i • . . f 2 7 estimate by 4 7 9 p u p i l s , C 8 THE TEACHING STAFFS IN WINNIPEG JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS (a) Numbers..- C l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h the growth i n p u p i l enrolment i s the n a t u r a l r e s u l t of t h i s , namely, the growth i n the number of j u n i o r high school teachers employed. In 1919 6 s u f f i c i e n t teachers were needed f o r eleven cla.sses only. By 1924 the board had In i t s employ 124 j u n i o r high school 7 8 teachers. The steady growth continued. In 1926 there were 154 9 employed and i n 1928, 171. This t o t a l jumped to 267 i n 1929, 10 when a number of new schools were opened. A f u r t h e r increase 11 was shown the next year, b r i n g i n g the t o t a l up to 273 f o r 1930. Five years l a t e r records show th a t 293 teachers were being employed to carry on the work i n the f i f t e e n j u n i o r high 12 schools being operated at that time. (b) Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . - A c l o s e r examination of the Winnipeg j u n i o r high school s t a f f s reveals that In 1921 there were employed; 28 ... Teachers q u a l i f i e d to teach academic subjects. 10 .,, " " " " mechanical and no household a r t s . 38 T o t a l ^ I n 1930 the 273 teachers employed were q u a l i f i e d as f o l l o w s : 6. i d . , 1919, 8. 7. i d . , 1924, 10. 8 0 i d . , 1926, 14, 9, i d . , 1928, 12. 10, i d . , 1929, 15. 11. I d . , 1930, 6. 12. i d . , 1935, 13. 13. Manitoba Department of Education, Annual Report. 1921, 100. 28 239 .. Teachers q u a l i f i e d to teach academic subjects,, 15 ... " " " " home economics. 2 .,.. " " " " manual t r a i n i n g . ^ . and mechanical a r t s . 256 ... T o t a l 1 4 (Note... The. d i f f e r e n c e between 256 and 273 i s made up of p r i n c i p a l s of the j u n i o r high schools. The number of home economic and mechanical a r t s teachers i s misleading. Many j u n i o r high, schools sent p u p i l s to elementary and high schools f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n these subjects. The elementary and high school teachers are not included i n the above list®) Fi v e years l a t e r the s i t u a t i o n was very s i m i l a r . The 1935 teaching personnel of the j u n i o r high schools was composed O f 5 15 .... Supervising p r i n c i p a l s , 2 ... Teaching p r i n c i p a l s * 243 ... Teachers q u a l i f i e d to teach academic subjects, 16 ... " " " " i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . 17 ..„ " " " " household a r t s _ and household science. 293 ... T o t a l 1 * 3 (c) Cost of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . - Because of the r a p i d increase i n the number of teachers employed, the costs of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s were bound to r i s e a t a s i m i l a r pace. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the school board's expenditures f o r s a l a r i e s : 1919 • S 10,212.50 1920 $ 44,638.70 1921 $ 108,963.40 1923 9 ........... . 214,839.53 1924 $ 240,450.10 1926 & 283,397.00 1 6 1930 .. .. $ 528,564.48 14,. Winnipeg School Board, Annual Report, 1930, 6. 15* i d . , . 1935, 13. 16. i d . , 1919, 18; 1920, 18; 1921, 21; 1923, 26; 1924, 30: 1926, 28; 1930, 47. (Note..: Since 1930 the school hoard's reports have given the combined cost of i n s t r u c t i o n a l services i n elementary and junior high schools and thus figures for separate junior high school costs are not available.) St -(d) Salary schedules.- Before drawing any conclusions i n regard to the above expenditures, one should r e a l i z e that on the whole i t was agreed that the salaries of junior high school teachers and principals were to be lower than those of high school teachers and principals but higher than those of elementary; school employees. The schedule i n Table 11 w i l l show how this was worked out i n 1919. One year after the above came into force a new scale of sala r i e s was introduced. The minima and maxima of the salaries were raised but special low rates were to be i n effect f o r newly employed teachers during their probationary period of two years. A copy of t h i s 1920 schedule i s to be found i n Appendix A. (e) Methods of teacher preparation.- The modification of the curriculum to make i t conform to the varying requirements of the pupils resulted i n the introduction of many new subjects. Naturally many of the elementary teachers of grades seven and eight were incapable of teaching these subjects i n junior high school. On the whole their experience had been limited to the conventional subjects of the elementary school course. The adequate s t a f f i n g of the new intermediate schools, therefore, constituted a serious problem. The teachers, however, responded nobly to the need f o r more qu a l i f i e d instructors. Through private t u i t i o n , evening classes, vacation schools, and the university they prepared themselves i n those subjects i n which they were interested and to which they might be assigned. ...It i s impossible to speak too highly, of the s p i r i t arid conduct of our teachers i n th i s connection. Their diligence and the natural increase i n the number of teachers with University t r a i n i n g passing through Normal School of recent years havg done much to solve the problem of adequate s t a f f i n g . TABLE 11 SALARY SCHEDULE - -WINNIPEG SCHOOLS Type of school. P o s i t i o n . Minimum. Yearly increase. Maximum. High : School. Principals Men assistants Women assistants Manual t r a i n i n g -instructors Domestic science instructors Junior High School, ..,$3400 ...$2200 ...$1500 ,.* $1900 ...$1400 ...$3300 >..$1300 Principals Women assistants Manual tr a i n i n g instructors ,..$1650 Home economics instructors ...$1200 ...$100 ...$100 ...$100 e e .$100 ...$100 ...$100 $ e 9 e i p f O ...$2200 $1000 Elementary School, Principals Assistants (Teachers of higher than teachers of Manual tr a i n i n g ...$1500 instructors Hpme economic instructors ...$1100 ...$100 a e « £p 75 ...$100 ... $ 50 grades paid more lower grades.) ...$100 a «.,o„,ffi 50 .. .$4000 *..$3000 ...$2200 -...$2600 ...$2000 ...$3600 ...$1900 ... $23t>0 „..$1800 „..$3000 ..,$1700 ...$2200 ...$1600 17 17 9 icl • 1910 j 41& 18, i d . , 1929, 14. D. BUILDLNUS AMD EQUIPMENT USED BY WINNIPEG JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS (a) The b u i l d i n g programme,- As e a r l y as 1920 the school management committee of the Winnipeg School Board advised a thorough study of the j u n i o r high school idea and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to the Winnipeg s i t u a t i o n i n regard to the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g programme. Such a study would include an i n q u i r y i n t o the a d v i s a b i l i t y of r e l i e v i n g the pressure of both the elementary and secondary schools by the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the J u n i o r High or Intermediate School,It seems beyond doubt that t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n promotes greater adaption of the work of the school to the varying c a p a c i t i e s and aptitudes of the p u p i l and Immensely, increases t h e i r i n t e r e s t while lending i t s e l f to the p l a c i n g of teacher-S i n departments f o r which they have s p e c i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , . . . I f g e n e r a l l y adopted as at present seems to be probable i t would introduce new f a c t o r s i n t o the b u i l d i n g problem. By 1921 the b u i l d i n g committee of the school board had come to the conclusion that i t was best to provide f o r Increases i n both elementary and high school enrolment- by e r e c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s at points s u i t a b l e f o r intermediate school c e n t r e s . In a d d i t i o n , the Committee recommended t h a t s u i t a b l y s i t u a t e d elementary schools be converted f o r .  . intermediate school purposes and replaced by a newer and l e s s expensive type of b u i l d i n g , which had been found w e l l s u i t e d to elementary school needs* Although i t was f o r educational r a t h e r than f o r economic reasons t h a t the movement towards the grouping of p u p i l s i n t o elementary, intermediate, and high school c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was advocated i n Winnipeg, yet the adoption o f t h i s p l a n 19, i d . , 1920, 34, 32 m a t e r i a l l y lessened the pressure on the high school b u i l d i n g needs. Because the intermediate work was c a r r i e d on i n b u i l d i n g s of l e s s expensive c o n s t r u c t i o n and equipment, an important saving i n b u i l d i n g costs was ef f e c t e d * I t i s s a t i s f a c t o r y to note that? although by t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n these a d d i t i o n a l advantages (educational) have been secured to the c h i l d r e n of Winnipeg, the cost of the o l d and new types of o r g a n i z a t i o n are approximately the same, f o r while the cost of i n s t r u c t i o n i n Grades 7 and 8 of the Intermediate Schools i s greater than i t was In the Elementary School of the o l d e r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h i s a d d i t i o n a l •cost i s o f f s e t by the saving e f f e c t e d by accommodating Grade 9 p u p i l s i n Intermediate Sehools rather than i n High Schools, At the present time (1923) there are 1084 Grade 9 p u p i l s i n the Intermediate Schools, an enrolment which under the o l d form of o r g a n i z a t i o n would by t h i s time, have made necessary the b u i l d i n g and s t a f f i n g of an a d d i t i o n a l High School w i t h accommodation at l e a s t as large"as any one of the three now i n use, The f a c t t h a t the Intermediate School accommodation has In the main been provided by adaption of the large Elementary School b u i l d i n g s and t h a t the a d d i t i o n a l accommodation necessary has been provided by b u i l d i n g Elementary Schools of the comparatively inexpensive type r e f e r r e d to e a r l i e r In t h i s r e p o r t , has been ho s m a l l . f a c t o r i n economy of c a p i t a l expenditures.20 D e f i n i t e record of the d e t a i l s of the b u i l d i n g programme f o r the year 1921 i s Contained i n the r e p o r t of D. Melntyre, Superintendent of Winnipeg Schools, to the Manitoba M i n i s t e r of Education: ---a 6-room a d d i t i o n to Lord S e l k i r k School, a two : s t o r y b u i l d i n g c ontaining 12 rooms to provide J u n i o r High School accommodation f o r the Machray.School, and a 20-room two s t o r y b u i l d i n g to be used as a J u n i o r High School f o r the d i s t r i c t served by the Strathcona and King Edward Schools,21 20© 1(3.«* 5 1023 5 13© 21. Manitoba Department of Education., Annual Report, 1921, 120. 33 According to expert advice, t h i s p o l i c y i n regard to the school b u i l d i n g needs i n the c i t y of Winnipeg r e s u l t e d i n a considerable saving to the tax-payer. Dr. B r i t t a i n . who conducted f o r the school board a survey of r e l a t i v e costs, estimated t h a t the annual saving per p u p i l amounted to from ten to f i f t e e n d o l l a r s . -(b) Equipment cost s . - The y e a r l y expenditures by the board i n regard to equipment and supplies i n the j u n i o r high schools i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t the f i g u r e s r e f l e c t the r a p i d development of these schools. I n 1919 the expenditure f o r f u r n i t u r e and 22 other equipment i n intermediate schools was $11,344.77. I n ••• 23 1920 expenditures i n t h i s regard had increased to $26,415.68, 24 whil e i n 1923 the sum of $37,017.12 was spent. A s i m i l a r p i c t u r e i s obtained i f one examines the f i g u r e s r epresenting the y e a r l y expenditures on i n s t r u c t i o n a l 25 s u p p l i e s . I n 1920 $3,157.96 was expended, while one year l a t e r t h i s cost had been n e a r l y t r e b l e d by increased enrolment i n these schools and by the opening of new j u n i o r high schools, • . 26 In 1921, $9,037.60 was spent f o r these supplies. (c) Present, equipment.- The Winnipeg School Board i s not completely s a t i s f i e d w i t h the equipment now i n use, In 1935 the members took t h i s matter under consideration and some a c t i o n to improve the standard and overcome d e f i c i e n c i e s can 22* Winnipeg School Board, Annual Report, 1919, 14 0 23* i d . , 1920, 14. 24, i d . , 1923, 18. 25. i d . 5 1920, 18. 26. i d . , 1921, 21. 34 be expected soon. In t h e i r equipment these sehools meet reasonable teaching requirements except i n the matter of l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . In t h i s they are on the whole imderequipped both i n a v a i l a b l e room and i n books. Some of the Intermediate Schools have, l a r g e l y through the e f f o r t s of t h e i r s t a f f s and p u p i l s , assembled quite c r e d i t a b l e c o l l e c t i o n s of books.. This can be done only I n c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t s and cannot be depended upon f o r adequate supplies of s u i t a b l e reading material*, 27 E. CLASSIFICATION OF PUPILS (a) Method of. c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . - In Winnipeg, as i n c i t i e s of the United States where the j u n i o r h i g h school i d e a had been put i n t o e f f e c t , i t was found that the o r g a n i z a t i o n l e n t i t s e l f admirably to a more i n t e l l i g e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p u p i l s * By assembling a l a r g e number of pupils, of the same grade a t a s i n g l e centre more exactness In grouping of p u p i l s according to attainments and a b i l i t i e s was obtained* Thus, i n s t r u c t i o n was adjusted to the v a r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s of the s e v e r a l c l a s s e s . The b r i g h t e r students, working together, were not hampered by the slower members of the grade i n the speed and-breadth of the work to be covered. On the other hand the backward p u p i l s were also i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n . I n a c l a s s w i t h boys and g i r l s of t h e i r own mental c a l i b r e they: were not overlooked as formerly by the teacher who was t r y i n g to meet some of the demands of keener students. Under the system of departmentalization i n use i n these j u n i o r high schools one subject or a group of r e l a t e d subjects i s assigned to ea.ch teacher who deals w i t h t h i s 27. i d . , 1935, 13« 35 subject or subjects i n several classes, adjusting his or her methods according to the a b i l i t y of the pupils i n each class. Under th i s system the teacher has a better opportunity for f u l l e r preparation of the work i n subject matter and i n method. Results are v i s i b l e i n the keener interest taken i n the courses by both teachers and pupils. (b) Selection of courses.- During the three years the pup i l spends i n the junior high school, he gradually works his way into the type of course that best f i t s his a b i l i t i e s and ambition. He has i n Grade Seven an opportunity of beginning the study of one foreign language, French, In the next year he may begin the study of Latin. Both languages, or one, may be carried through the senior high school by those students who desire to obtain university matriculation c e r t i f i c a t e s . High school leaving courses are given i n which no foreign language i s required i n the junior high or senior high schools. Special classes i n i n d u s t r i a l arts are also given i n junior high school f o r those pupils who desire to specialize i n shop work. Special commercial courses are offered for those who f i n d , after taking try-out courses, that their interests and a b i l i t i e s l i e i n a business career. In general those aiming at University Matriculation carry either one or two languages, those who wish to take"High School Leaving at the end of grade eleven are free to choose courses with no foreign language. I n d u s t r i a l Arts classes make further provision for d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of courses. These are courses without foreign languages and with about twice as much shop work as other courses have. In English, Arithmetic, History, and Geography the courses offered i n I n d u s t r i a l Arts classes p a r a l l e l the work of other classes i n the same school with such modifications 36 and-changes as each cla s s r e q u i r e s . 2 8 Cc) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n chart.- An i n t e r e s t i n g chart,, showing.-the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p u p i l s i n the Winnipeg P u b l i c Schools, was - * prepared In 1933. I t shows the various courses p u p i l s may take a f t e r completing t h e i r common elementary school -curriculum. This (Chart 1) also shows what happens to sub-normals, who.are not capable of doing even elementary School work. The arrows Indicate the courses a p u p i l may f o l l o w a f t e r completion of any year i n h i s school career. F. TYPICAL TIME - TABLES (Compiled f o r 1927, e i g h t years a f t e r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the f i r s t j u n i o r high school i n Winnipeg.) The f o l l o w i n g time-tables show the courses o f f e r e d i n ;Winnipeg j u n i o r high sehools w i t h the number of periods idevoted to each subject i n each course. The reader w i l l note t h a t Grade Seven p u p i l s must decide between one o f two courses, a. course containing a f o r e i g n language (French) and a course without a f o r e i g n language. In the l a t t e r course the ,extra f o u r periods a v a i l a b l e are used f o r e x t r a E n g l i s h and mathematics. By the time they reach Grade Nine they have had a s u f f i c i e n t number of t r y - o u t courses to be allowed to choose from the eight courses, o f f e r e d i n that year. Table 111 gives the- p e r i o d allotments f o r the subjects i n the two Grade Seven "courses and Table IV the allotments f o r the various subjects In the Grade Nine courses. 28, i d . , 1935, 13. 37 i . . CHART 1 CLASSIFICATION OF PUPILS IN WINNIPEG. PUBLIC SCHOOLS i © jL-L, I? Elementary Intermediate High Schools* Schools, •Schools*' Gr. 10 to, 11. • Gr. 1 to 6. Gr s 7,8,9. 1 Course i n c l u d i n g study or f o r e i g n language leading to M a t r i c u l a t i o n , and Normal School Entrance. ~~ Small' amount of Technical and P r a c t i c a l A r t s , 7,061 p u p i l s . A , common course f o r a l l pupils„ E s s e n t i a l s of Primary Education. [22,3p2/ (pupils,. / M a t r i c i i l a t i o n and Normal/ Entrance School course.. Largely Academic. Some/optional s t u d i e s . Technical and/ P r a c t i c a l A r t s very-l i m i t e d . 2,780 p u p i l s . : To Normal. School and U n i v e r s i t y . A/general course continuing .essentials of ' /Elementary School' Education w i t h ' a d d i t i o n a l _s_tndj^«[Qomkr'Qi&l l e a d i n g towards "the High School ' > Leaving course. Moderate amount of p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g 2,32p p u p i l s . B . |High School ' Leaving Course. Optional subjects increased. Compulsory studies l i m i t e d . Technical and 'P r a c t i c a l A r t s (included i n o p t i o n a l courses. 1,635 p u p l i s , Leaving C e r t i f i c a t e . p e d a l IC1 asses fori {mentally sub-normal 37 p u p i l s . I n d u s t r i a l Classes Academic work ; limited,, to e s s e n t i a l s , Large |Academic work continued at amount of p r a c t i c a a l P r a c t i c a l work work. 365 p u p i l s . ^ I n t e r m e d i a t e ISchool l e v e l . Leaving C e r t i f i c a t e . g r e a t l y Increased. [Occupational centres f o r extreme cases of sub-normalJ 37; p u p i l s . 29 29. i d . , 1933, 8, 38 TABLE 111 GRADE SEVEN COURSES IN WINNIPEG. JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS Course 1. Course 11. Grade Seven.. 1 foreign language. No foreign ; j _ (French) language. Na of pupils taking course' 3?786 146 Subject Periods per v/eek Periods per week 3Lf&"tTism3.t ic s ••••••••«••••••• 6 7 Arithmetic Algebra English. •. 11 14 Literature Composition Spelling Writing English Grammar Geography • 3 3 History.««..•»..«•*•.«.«•«. 3 3 Science. 3 3 French 4 Manual Training-or Sewing.. 4 4 Physical Training.......... 2 2 Music 2 2 Drawing. 2 .2 Total no. of periods per week..*. 40 40 — — : : ~~ 30~" 30. i d . , 1927, 17 TABLE IV GRADE NINE COURSES IN WINNIPEG JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 39 COURSES Grade Nine 1 11 ,1V V VI V l l No. of p u p i l s t a k i n g 45 311 96 592 156 559 437 15X1^ 1^3. S -tX e « • » • • 6 e « e s « * « B s « 11 10 10 9 9 9 9 L i t e r a t u r e Composition S p e l l i n g Grammar History®•»...•••••.»,... 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Mathematics, 8 7 7 7 7 • 7 7 A r i t h m e t i c Algebra General Science. 6 6 6 5 3 3 3 Manual Arts ( f o r boys) Household A r t s . 4 . 4 4 4 10 4 ( f o r g i r l s ) -DX*3-W1T1^ e « • • • • • » • • • « « , « » « # 3 «« - 5 4 4 ' 4 _ . 5 4 _ Commercial; Shorthand Typing Bookkeeping........... - _ _ _. _ 10 10 P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g . . . . . . . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 T o t a l Periods(per"week) 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 (Further Information i n regard to courses o f f e r e d i n the Winnipeg j u n i o r high schools i s given In the 1930 Report of the Winnipeg School Board, a s e c t i o n of which i s to be found i n Appendix B.) 40 G. PROMOTION OF PUPILS IN THE WINNIPEG JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. Promotions of pupils from one grade to another i n the Winnipeg junior high schools are made within each school by .the s t a f f . The p r i n c i p a l and teachers take into account the year's work of each p u p i l . Periodic examinations are held. In addition, i n the middle of the school year, uniform tests are sent out from the superintendent's o f f i c e and the r e s u l t for each p u p i l kept on record i n the o f f i c e . These uniform examinations are not intended to r e s t r i c t the freedom of the schools i n adapting courses to particular classes. They are meant to be di r e c t i v e ; they help to give the schools some common standard against which they may measure the progress of t h e i r pupils. The accompanying table of promotions shows the percentage of promotions f o r the year 1935s TABLE V No. enrolled Grade. i n June/35. No. promoted to next grade. Percentage promoted Seven...... 3470 Eight 2965 Nine 2803 3255 2856 2651 93.9 96.3 911 (In addition 35 pupils were promoted from Grade 7 e a r l i e r i n the school year.) to Grade 8 32 H. COMPARISON OF THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL OF WINNIPEG WITH THE "MODERN" OR "CENTRAL" SCHOOLS OF LONDON, During the spring term of 1928 the Winnipeg School Board released Mr. D.M. Duncan from his duties i n the Department of 32. i d . , 1935, 13 Superintendence i n order to allow him the opportunity of v i s i t i n g some of the larger educational centres of Jiaigland. and Scotland. Upon his return he presented a written report ^ upon hi s findings.. Of special interest was his comparison of the Winnipeg junior high senools with the senior and central modern schools of London. The section of his report dealing with t h i s w i l l be found i n Appendix C. Mr. Duncan explained that the underlying p r i n c i p l e s which were responsible for the establishment of both the London central schools and the Winnipeg junior high schools were ess e n t i a l l y the same. The r e a l i z a t i o n of the physiological need f o r a break at eleven plus, the desire to enrich and v i t a l i z e . t h e subjects offered, the aim to cater to the varying aptitudes and interests of the pupils underlay the organizations i n each country. However, one very s t r i k i n g difference was noted. The junior high schools were r e a l intermediate schools i n that they were intermediate between elementary and high schools. They granted no leaving c e r t i f i c a t e s as did central schools, which were more prevocational i n character. I, REPORT OF THE MANITOBA EDUCATIONAL COMMISSION IN / REGARD TO JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL WORK IN WINNIPEG. In 1923 the Department of Education i n Manitoba appointed a commission to consider the needs of the various d i s t r i c t s i n the province i n regard to educational f a c i l i t i e s . The report of t h i s commission was submitted i n 1924. I t deals i n part with the necessary r e v i s i o n of the curriculum, the t r a i n i n g and tenure of teachers, the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of schools and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n the schools* In regard to the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g the report states that: Manual t r a i n i n g and the Household Arts and Sciences i n the Secondary Schools and J u n i o r High Schools have been given a great deal of prominence i n the C i t y of Winnipeg f o r many years. Indeed so thoroughly has the work commended i t s e l f to the ratepayers of the C i t y that three well-equipped t e c h n i c a l schools are maintained i n a d d i t i o n to departments i n the Elementary and J u n i o r High Schools so th a t p u p i l s who pass through and beyond the J u n i o r High School grades are o f f e r e d an educational t r a i n i n g of a character which compares favorably w i t h s i m i l a r work elsewhere. Even though i n the l a s t , few years considerable economies have been e f f e c t e d i n the educational system i n the C i t y , there has been no curtailment but r a t h e r an expansion i n t h i s branch of the work,33 . According to t h i s survey the E a r l Grey, Lord S e l k i r k and Aberdeen j u n i o r high schools c a r r y on t h e i r household a r t s and science work i n t h e i r own schools,, while the other j u n i o r high schools send t h e i r p u p i l s to high.school or elementary school centres. The commission stated that much of t h i s educational handwork being taught i n the Winnipeg j u n i o r high schools, while not s t r i c t l y v o c a t i o n a l i n purpose, was developing ,.„habits and aptitudes that have important v o c a t i o n a l value. I t also makes a very Important c o n t r i b u t i o n to the a l l round development while h e l p i n g to maintain the i n t e r e s t s of large numbers . of students at.a p e r i o d when, without t h i s form of a c t i v i t y , school work would become irksome. For these reasons i t i s much appreciated by the parents of the children.who enjoy i t s advantages,^ 4 33, Manitoba Department of Education, Beport of the  Educational Commission, 1924, 113, 34, i b i d . , 114« J . ..JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL WORK IN OTHER PARTS OF -MANITOBA (a) Stonewall,- Outside of the c i t y of Winnipeg there have been s e v e r a l experiments w i t h j u n i o r high school work c a r r i e d on i n other c i t i e s of the province of Manitoba. Mention has . already been made of the Stonewall High School Board, which i n 1918 l i n k e d up the work of Grades Seven and Eight w i t h the three years of high school In an attempt to give secondary school subjects, such as languages and algebra, to the students a t an e a r l i e r age and to provide manual t r a i n i n g , domestic science, and a g r i c u l t u r e f o r a l l p u p i l s of the l a r g e r enrolment i n order to make the course more I n t e r e s t i n g and p r a c t i c a l . Secondary School Inspector S.E. Lang reported i n .1921 the following.: I t I s altogether l i k e l y t hat t h i s p l a n of org a n i z a t i o n (Winnipeg's system of .Junior High Schools) w i l l In fut u r e be adopted to a considerable extent wherever convenient. I n the town of Stonewall, f o r example, c e r t a i n features were embodied i n the - • • Co l l e g i a t e I n s t i t u t e of that place.35 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the above-mentioned - 36'' -c o l l e g i a t e had an enrolment of 54 i n 1918. Experiments with j u n i o r high school v/ork i n small schools of t h i s type n a t u r a l l y gave to e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s I n small d i s t r i c t s valuable data i n regard to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of f u r t h e r development of t h i s work i n the smaller secondary schools of the province. 35. Manitoba Department of Education, Annual Report, 1921, 12. 36. i d . , 1918, 163. 44 Cb) Portage l a P r a i r i e , - I n 1921 the Portage l a P r a i r i e School Board made p r o v i s i o n f o r the l i n k i n g up of Grades Seven and E i g h t with the c o l l e g i a t e i n t h a t c i t y . Pour rooms were added to the c o l l e g i a t e b u i l d i n g and the p u p i l s of Grades Seven and E i g h t from the C e n t r a l and V i c t o r i a Schools were assembled"With the c o l l e g i a t e p u p i l s under one roof and one 37 management, -P r i n c i p a l Hamilton of the c o l l e g i a t e was given the task'of s u p e r v i s i o n of the new branch c a l l e d the j u n i o r c o l l e g i a t e or 38 the j u n i o r high school. This new system d i d not meet with u n i v e r s a l favor at f i r s t . Inspector F.M. Maquire reported: In the C i t y ; o f Portage l a P r a i r i e there are, as l a s t year four schools c o n t a i n i n g i n a l l 25 rooms, a l l f i l l e d and doing work up to Grade S i x , There i s also the . C o l l e g i a t e where work up to Grade Twelve i s carried, on. As I s t a t e d l a s t year*, Grade Seven and Eight were taken out of the P u b l i c Schools and a J u n i o r C o l l e g i a t e formed. A f t e r a year of observation I am of the opinion that thi s , change.has not been i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the P u b l i c S c h o o l s . 3 9 However, Inspector E. Knapp d i d see b i g p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the new j u n i o r high school movement: While the Intermediate or J u n i o r High School i s l a r g e l y i n use i n the C i t y of Winnipeg, i t has so. f a r found l i t t l e favour elsewhere. This school i n a modified form was i n operation at Portage l a P r a i r i e and Souris, In both places the course i s a combination of the J u n i o r High School with the Senior High School. The course seems to have been chosen with a view to accommodate the p u p i l s of Grades Seven and Eight i n the same b u i l d i n g with the higher grades, r a t h e r than on i t s own m e r i t s . However, now t h a t there i s a d e f i n i t e curriculum f o r t h i s c l a s s of school i t i s p o s s i b l e 37. i d . , 1921, 45. 38. i d . , 1922, 47, 39. i d . , 1923, 45. 45 t h a t . l t w i l l receive more a t t e n t i o n and f i n d more favor i n the smaller centres. In my opinion much of the work now s t a r t e d In Grade Fine could to advantage be s t a r t e d In Grades Seven and E i g h t , This applies to mathematics but more p a r t i c u l a r l y to the languages, Care has been taken i n arranging t h i s course so that a student on the completion of the work of Grade Fine w i l l s u f f e r no handicap i f he wishes to proceed w i t h the work of the higher grades, On the other hand, i f the student wishes to leave school at the completion of the work i n the intermediate school, he w i l l have a course more.rounded and complete than he o r d i n a r i l y would have had a t the completion of Grade F i n e , 4 0 By 1930, however, c r i t i c i s m of the Portage l a P r a i r i e experiment seems to have died out and Secondary School Inspector Knapp was able to report; Portage l a P r a i r i e has had t h i s p l a n In operation f o r a. number of years and i t has been a decided success. The p l a n i s commendable and I look f o r i t s more general adoption i n the near future.41 (c) Brandon.- The i s s u i n g by the Department of Education of a new programme of studies f o r Grades Seven, E i g h t , and Fine i n 1928-29 considerably increased the i n t e r e s t displayed by schools boards i n the six-three-three or s i x - s i x systems. Brandon made preparation f o r the r e o r g a n i z i n g of i t s schools and Superintendent F e e l i n of Brandon reported to Hon, P.. A. Hoey, M i n i s t e r of Education, that: An important p a r t of the o r g a n i z a t i o n work during the year was i n preparation f o r the complete adoption of the s i x - t h r e e - t h r e e system of schools. Two new J u n i o r High Schools w i l l be opened next term w i t h a d d i t i o n a l departments i n two Elementary Schools.' The next year Superintendent F e e l i n was able to report t h a t : 40. i d . , 1923, 10. 41. i d . , 1930, 91. 42. i d . , 1928, 94. 46 The School Board's B u i l d i n g programme, adopted four years a g o ' W h e n a debenture by-law f o r $250,000 was approved by the ratepayers, was completed w i t h the b u i l d i n g of the J u n i o r High Schools, the E a r l Halg and E a r l Oxford, during the past year. The former was opened i n November and the: l a t t e r i n March. 3 The two j u n i o r high schools had i n 1929 an average 44 monthly enrolment of 802.0 p u p i l s and a s t a f f of 21 teachers. Ln 1930 Superintendent H e e l i n reported that the j u n i o r high school enrolment had increased by 12% while the enrolment i n Grades ten to twelve had remained about the same. This f a c t o r , according to him, "showed c o n c l u s i v e l y f o r t h i s year at l e a s t t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the j u n i o r high schools i s an ' 45 • important f a c t o r In keeping p u p i l s longer i n school." He also reported the Introduction of -a correspondence t e c h n i c a l option i n the j u n i o r high school course w i t h g r a t i f y i n g r e s u l t s . B e t t e r work i n a l l subjects was being obtained because o f the enthusiasm developed i n connection w i t h p r a c t i c a l subjects In .which the p u p i l i s keenly i n t e r e s t e d , (d) Other . c i t i e s and towns.- I n 1923 Secondary School Inspector Knapp reported t h a t a modified form o f , j u n i o r high 46 school o r g a n i z a t i o n was i n operation .at Souris. However, few small centres ventured to adopt the new system u n t i l a f t e r the i s s u i n g of the new programme of studies f o r Grades Seven, 43. id.., 1929, 85. 44. i b i d . , 84. 45. i d . , 1930, 101. 46. l d . : , 1923, 10. 47 Eight,..-and F i n e . Then, in. 1929, the response to. the new. -curriculum was very g r a t i f y i n g . Deputy M i n i s t e r F l e t c h e r reported to the M i n i s t e r of Education, Hon. R. Hoey, that: The new curriculum continues to have far-reaching ; r e s u l t s . Two J u n i o r High Schools have, been organized -one i n Neepawa, where the two grades, seven and eight, are s t i l l i n a b u i l d i n g separate from the higher grades -and i n Minnedosa where the J u n i o r High i s i n one b u i l d i n g and gives the opportunity of u t i l i z i n g to the f u l l e s t extent the se r v i c e s of experts i n almost every subject. I n both the i n c l u s i o n - o f some primary language work i n the e a r l i e r grades overcomes the d i f f i c u l t y found i n language study i n the past. I t i s working wonders and has improved the standard of a l l these grades and increased the i n t e r e s t and joy of the students. The s i x - s i x system found favour i n some centres as shown by the repo r t of Secondary School Inspector Knapp: An, aspect of school work which i s f i n d i n g favour throughout the Province i s the e s t a b l i s h i n g of a u n i t which combines the. J u n i o r and Senior High. Schools grades. The work from Grade Seven up i s under one s e c t i o n of the s t a f f . Each teacher takes h i s own subjects throughout-the various grades.-In t h i s way such subjects,, as science and mathematics can be taught b e t t e r and language work can be s t a r t e d e a r l i e r than i s usual. . Such departments have operated s u c c e s s f u l l y at Hamiota and The Pas during the past year, and the Brickburn School ( G i l b e r t P l a i n s ) i s making p r o v i s i o n to have s i m i l a r arrangements f o r the coming year.. 4^ Superintendent T. Clarke, r e p o r t i n g f o r the M i n i o t a School Board, s t a t e d t h a t i n 1929 the s i x - s i x system was introduced i n the schools a t Buelah and I s a b e l l a where, two f i r s t - c l a s s teachers were assigned to each of the u n i t s which included the Grades Seven to Eleven. The work, proved s u c c e s s f u l and the Department of Education Issued permission 47. i d . , 1930, 16. 48. i b i d . , 91. 4 8 f o r the ,continuance of t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , 4 9 K. SUMMARY AND APPRAISAL St On the whole, Canada's f i r s t experiment w i t h j u n i o r high schools, as developed i n the province of Manitoba, has proved very valuable. Educators i n t h i s province have had the courage to lead the way. They have shown that the underlying p r i n c i p l e s of 'the j u n i o r high school can be c a r r i e d out not only In b i g schools, as demonstrated i n the Winnipeg and Brandon six-three-three systems, but i n smaller school systems, as In Stonewall, S o u r i s , e t c , many of the valuable features, such as an e a r l i e r s t a r t on secondary school subjects, more p r a c t i c a l subjects, and a wider choice of subjects, can be incorporated w i t h b e n e f i t to the p u p i l s of these smaller schools, e s p e c i a l l y under the s i x - s i x system most g e n e r a l l y used. Undoubtedly, f o r many years the C i t y of Winnipeg has l e d the way i n the development of intermediate school work both i n Manitoba and i n the other provinces of Canada,, Taking many of the best features from the c e n t r a l schools of London and from the j u n i o r high schools of the United States, the Winnipeg intermediate schools have gr a d u a l l y widened t h e i r c u r r i o u l a r o f f e r i n g s i n order to b e t t e r cater to the v a r i e d aptitudes and i n t e r e s t s of the adolescent p u p i l s attending these i n s t i t u t i o n s . The proximity of Chicago, an educational leader i n j u n i o r high school work among c i t i e s of the United 49© xcL© 5 1920 5 103® 49 States, has served as an effective stimulus upon the educational policy of the Ci t y of Winnipeg. After c a r e f u l l y watching the successful development of intermediate schools i n Winnipeg, other c i t i e s and d i s t r i c t s i n the province have adopted the six-three-three or the s i x - s i x system of organization and many of the features of true junior high schools. Some of these c i t i e s and d i s t r i c t s are: Brandon, Portage l a P r a i r i e , Stonewall, Souris, Neepawa, Minnedosa, Hamiota, The Pas, and Gilbert Plains. At f i r s t many of the secondary school inspectors were skeptical of advantages to be obtained by intermediate school organization. Several openly opposed any change i n Manitoba's t r a d i t i o n a l eight-four system. However, the experiments with middle schools i n thi s province have proved so successful that this opposition has been removed and the inspectors are now p r a c t i c a l l y unanimously supporting the junior high school movement i n Manitoba, 50 CHAPTER 111. } THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL MOVEMENT IN ONTARIO In the past Ontario has developed her educational organization mainly upon s t r i c t l y academic l i n e s . Egerton Ryerson, the founder of the province's t r a d i t i o n a l "ladder" system, advocated the complete unbroken chain of studies from the kindergarten to the university. In t h i s scheme the boy or g i r l goes through the "Public School" of eight grades and passes at the age of about fourteen into high school, a school which was or g i n a l l y designed f o r those who wished to prepare themselves for university or for business positions which demanded the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of a matriculation c e r t i f i c a t e . I f Egerton Ryerson were aliv e today he probably would be aghast to f i n d that h i s system was s t i l l being applied under modern conditions. However, such i s the situation general throughout Ontario today. In comparatively few centres have educators and administrators dared to • c r i t i c i z e Ontario's t r a d i t i o n a l organization. Nevertheless i n the past few years some such c r i t i c i s m has appeared and seems to be slowly gaining i n o f f i c i a l and public support. A. INTERMEDIATE SCHOOLS OF OTTAWA (a) Establishment and control.- The Cit y of Ottawa was one of the f i r s t centres to experiment with intermediate schools i n 51 Ontario. In 1911 the P u b l i c School Board of t h i s . c i t y e s t a b l i s h e d a School f o r Higher E n g l i s h and Applied A r t s . I t was designed to give a general and commercial course of three years' d u r a t i o n f o r s p e c i a l adolescent p u p i l s who d i d not want to attend the c o l l e g i a t e i n s t i t u t e . T h r e e - f i f t h s of these p u p i l s , however, had -passed t h e i r examinations f o r entrance i n t o a secondary school. The other t w o - f i f t h s were of Grade V l l , standard. By 1923 the school was organized on a platoon b a s i s . The school was discontinued i n 1927 because i t was d u p l i c a t i n g some of the work i n the c o l l e g i a t e i n s t i t u t e and because fees f o r secondary school work had been, discontinued. When t h i s Schooi f o r Higher E n g l i s h and Applied A r t s was disbanded, i t was replaced by an intermediate school f o r Grade V l l p u p i l s and backward p u p i l s . The purpose was twofold. The p u b l i c school board desired to r e l i e v e the congestion i n , .ce r t a i n school d i s t r i c t s , and they also "desired to experiment wi t h t h i s type of intermediate school. In two years the experiment had proved so s u c c e s s f u l that the board decided to extend the system. I n 1929 a l l p u p i l s of the Regular Grades VI and V l l ( F o r m IV) and a l l p u p i l s of S p e c i a l Grades VI and Vll(backward e a r l y adolescents) were brought together i n f i v e centres f o r intermediate school work. During the f i r s t - t w o years of operation the elementary school p u p i l s i n the V i c i n i t y of an intermediate school attended t h i s school but of course d i d not form part of the intermediate school o r g a n i z a t i o n . They had t h e i r own teachers who worked under the t r a d i t i o n a l elementary school system. I n 1930 the p u b l i c 52 school inspectors.. recommended the continuation of t h i s .intermediate school work hut suggested the replacement of two of the e x i s t i n g ' s c h o o l s by new ones which would house. • » intermediate school p u p i l s only. Grade IX pupils ;were not included i n these intermediate • schools because of the d i f f i c u l t y of securing s a t i s f a c t o r y j o i n t a c t i o n by the p u b l i c school board, which c o n t r o l l e d -elementary education, - and the c o l l e g i a t e i n s t i t u t e board, which c o n t r o l l e d secondary education. The p u b l i c school board, which i n i t i a t e d the intermediate schools, had the l e g a l r i g h t to give i n s t r u c t i o n s i n Form V c l a s s e s , but b e l i e v e d that by doing so. unnecessary d u p l i c a t i o n might r e s u l t . Thus a two year intermediate school course, which would r e s u l t i n a 6-2-4 o r g a n i z a t i o n i n place of the more d e s i r a b l e 6-3-3 system g e n e r a l l y used i n j u n i o r high schools, was adopted by t h i s Ottawa P u b l i c School Board. .'('£>)• S i z e . - The number of classes i n each of the f i v e intermediate schools v a r i e d from ten to eighteen and the number of p u p i l s per c l a s s from t h i r t y to f o r t y - f i v e . I t was found that the large school of about eighteen c l a s s e s , i n a b u i l d i n g used s o l e l y f o r intermediate school p u p i l s , was most s u i t a b l e i n c a r r y i n g out the aims of t h i s intermediate school work, ( c j Costs.- When considered from every p o i n t of view, the i n i t i a l and current expenses connected w i t h the intermediate schools of Ottawa have been very moderate, : For e f f e c t i n g the necessary a l t e r a t i o n s i n 1929-31 the Cost was approximately $5 / 0 0 0 * 6 0 ,.consisting c h i e f l y of the cost of,minor equipment. The cost of .. • making the necessary s t r u c t u r a l changes f o r the improved system i n 1931 was approximately $200,000.00 the same as the estimated cost to make the necessary changes to. accommodate a l l p u p i l s under the previous o r g a n i z a t i o n , 1 Although i n s t r u c t i o n a l costs amounted to s l i g h t l y more under the new system yet t h i s was more than made up by the economy i n equipment and the more e f f i c i e n t use of teacher a b i l i t i e s under the c e n t r a l i z e d and departmentalized intermediate school organization® (d) General o r g a n i z a t i o n . - The Intermediate schools of Ottawa base t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n upon the p r i n c i p l e s of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of p u p i l s and departmentalization of teaching. The.platoon system i s used. Boys and g i r l s are u s u a l l y kept i n d i f f e r e n t classes i n order to f a c i l i t a t e arrangement f o r sewing, cooking, woodwork, metalwork, and p h y s i c a l education. H a l f of the time the p u p i l spends i n h i s own home room and h a l f of the time he r o t a t e s w i t h ' h i s c l a s s to other rooms f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n s p e c i a l subjects. Each school day i s d i v i d e d i n t o eight periods of f o r t y minutes each. I n the morning session the p u p i l s spend two of the f o u r periods i n the home room and two i n s p e c i a l roomsi S i m i l a r procedure i s followed i n the afternoon, (e) C u r r i c u l a . - The home room teacher u s u a l l y teaches a r i t h m e t i c , grammar, E n g l i s h composition, hygiene, penmanship, E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , / o r a l ; reading,: and s p e l l i n g . Sefej-eets 1, Easson, It., The Intermediate Schools Of Ottawa, Toronto, 1933, 107. 54 Subjects taught i n s p e c i a l rooms are h i s t o r y , a r t , geography, nature study, oral'--French, p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g , sewing, cooking, woodwork, metalwork, l i b r a r y work, and auditorium(music and o r a l expression). Of the twenty periods per week which are devoted to s p e c i a l room work, the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y as f o l l o w s : metalwork 2, woodwork 2, sewing 2, cooking 2, p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g . 2 , nature study 2,, auditorium 2, a r t 2, l i b r a r y 2, geography 3, h i s t o r y 3, Except i n the case of backward p u p i l s and c l a s s e s , no p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s u b j e c t s . No p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r the teaching of a f o r e i g n language other than o r a l French. ( f ) E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . - Aside from the regular curricula,,, pupils have oppo r t u n i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n such . e x t r a s c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s as c h o i r s , annual concerts, extra l i b r a r y periods,,and competitive sports. Choirs are organized f o r both boys and g i r l s . The annual concerts provide an opportunity to make use of dramatic a b i l i t y t r a i n e d i n auditorium periods. The l i b r a r i e s are open a f t e r four o'clock f o r pleasure reading, etc. A c t i v i t i e s i n sports take the form of f o o t b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , hockey, skating, s o f t b a l l . and track, (g) Teachers,- Great care was taken i n s e l e c t i n g the teachers of the Ottawa Intermediate Schools, Teaching experience, ambition, scholarship, knowledge of the pyschology of adolescence, s u i t a b i l i t y of p e r s o n a l i t i e s to deal with e a r l y adolescents were a l l taken i n t o account when applicants were being considered. Preference was given to young, open-minded teachers. I t was deemed e s p e c i a l l y advisable to a l l o t the 55 home rooms to teachers who would exert a strong personal i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r p u p i l s . A s p e c i a l room teacher had to have the above q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and also outstanding t a l e n t and i n t e r e s t i n the s p e c i a l subject he or she desired to teach. Above a l l , the a u t h o r i t i e s and teachers i n these schools aimed at the p r o v i s i o n of appropriate a c t i v i t i e s and experiences r a t h e r than at the imparting of unrelated knowledge, (h) S p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r the backward p u p i l . - I n the s e l e c t i o n of teachers f o r the backward classes care was taken to obtain s u i t a b l e d i s p o s i t i o n s f o r t h i s type of work. These teachers, i t was b e l i e v e d , should be r e s o u r c e f u l , c h e e r f u l , able to smile, play, and work with t h e i r p u p i l s , and thus able t o win t h e i r cooperation. They should be able to f o r g e t formal examinations: and standards and able to adjust the. work to the c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the p u p i l s . A p u p i l was placed i n one of these classes i f h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient was below nin e t y and i f the h i s t o r y of h i s work-was such t h a t the teachers b e l i e v e d that t h i s s p e c i a l type of work would be more s u i t e d to h i s i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t i e s . The parents' consent was always obtained f i r s t - . In s i z e these c l a s s e s v a r i e d from f i f t e e n to t h i r t y - f i v e but i t -•was the aim of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to keep the r e g i s t r a t i o n of each c l a s s below t h i r t y . Each successive year the curriculum f o r these c l a s s e s has become more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , l e s s formal, and more p r a c t i c a l . The h i s t o r y taught i s / mainly 'biography^ ;ancl c i v i c s , ^he aim i s to give r e a l i t y and meaning to good c i t i z e n s h i p . The teaching of grammar i s very l i m i t e d . Only those features which are necessary to simple o r a l and w r i t t e n expression ere taught. The arithmetic course has been s i m p l i f i e d f o r these backward p u p i l s . Long mechanical-work and involved problems have been omitted. The subject i s made as r e a l and p r a c t i c a l to the p u p i l ' s present and probable l a t e r l i f e as p o s s i b l e , ( i ) R e s u lts.- The. intermediate schools of Ottawa are not true j u n i o r high schools because: 1. They d e a l w i t h Grade V l l and V l l l p u p i l s only, i i . They make no p r o v i s i o n f o r tryiout or exploratory courses. i l l . They make no p r o v i s i o n f o r o p t i o n a l courses to s u i t the aptitudes of the p u p i l s . However, these schools are moving i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n and are p r o v i d i n g a more e f f e c t i v e education f o r Form IV p u p i l s than was given under the t r a d i t i o n a l system. Furthermore, some of the very important aims of the j u n i o r high school are being c a r r i e d out. These are: i . E a r l y f o r e i g n language t r a i n i n g , i i . More handwork a c t i v i t y , i i i . More knowledge and a p p r e c i a t i o n of the f i n e a r t s , i y . More appropriate courses i n p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g and nature study, v. More d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of curriculum f o r backward p u p i l s . 'r; V ^ B* : :Al]XILTARY, GLASSES Another move towards educational reform i n Ontario can be seen an t h e _ a u x i l i a r y classes which have been established, since 1914 i n many .centres in.the province. Although handled i n connection with, t h e i r Grade Eight elementary schools, these a u x i l i a r y c l a s s e s do much of t h e i r work wi t h p u p i l s of j u n i o r high school age. and provide an Important phase of j u n i o r high school o p p o r t u n i t i e s . (a) Purpose of the c l a s s e s . - The Ontario a u x i l i a r y classes were e s t a b l i s h e d to give a more democratic basis to education i n t h i s province. I t was at l a s t r e a l i z e d that the r i g i d l y academic type of education, i n h e r i t e d from a previous age, must be modified i f a l l p u p i l s were to be provided w i t h equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s to b e n e f i t from attendance. In secondary education t h i s problem was p a r t i a l l y solved by the establishment of various types of high schools such as t e c h n i c a l , commercial, e t c . In elementary school the problem i s i n the process of being worked out. by means of a u x i l i a r y c l a s s e s . These classes can be d i v i d e d i n t o two kinds: (1) classes f o r p h y s i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n . Such classes are.sometimes known as sightsaving, deaf, open a i r , etc. c l a s s e s . (2) classes f o r " d i r e c t " l e a r n e r s . These l a t t e r Glasses are composed of p u p i l s who have a low i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g and who thus cannot i n d i r e c t l y , through the study of symbols and the apprehension of theory, l e a r n to c o n t r o l behaviour. Since conduct w i t h these p u p i l s i s l a r g e l y a matter of d i r e c t r a t h e r than considered, response, the development of moral, s o c i a l and v o c a t i o n a l habits:and" a t t i t u d e s c o n s t i t u t e s an important part of t h e i r education. Since v e r b a l methods of 58 i n s t r u c t i o n and negative forms of t r a i n i n g are as l i t t l e l i k e l y t o be productive of r e s u l t s i n s o c i a l as i n academic or v o c a t i o n a l education, i t would seem e s s e n t i a l that both teacher and p u p i l conceive s o c i a l behaviour as a progressive s e r i e s of Accomplishments which may be mastered by means of i n s t r u c t i o n s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and p r a c t i c e i n much the same fashion as arithmetic or woodworking. To t h i s end a p o s i t i v e and e x p l i c i t , r a t h e r than a , negative and i n c i d e n t a l , programme of t r a i n i n g has been provided, embracing a system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and promotions i n various phases of s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y s i m i l a r to ordinary c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and promotions i n , academic and craft-work s u b j e c t s , 2 Senior p u p i l s are given c a r e f u l v o c a t i o n a l guidance t r a i n i n g and a sincere, e f f o r t i s made to place these p u p i l s i n s u i t a b l e positions,-(b) Organization and growth.- The A u x i l i a r y Classes Act was f i r s t passed by the Ontario government i n 1914. Since then the growth of these classes has been r a p i d , as shown by the f o l l o w i n g c h art: 1920 - 26 classes • 1925 - 145 c l a s s e s 3 1930 - 283 classes (c) T r a i n i n g of.teachers.- A l l teachers of a u x i l i a r y classes r e c e i v e s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n summer courses. Teachers entering t h i s work must have the f o l l o w i n g minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : (1) Normal School graduation. (2) three years' teaching experience. (3) a c e r t i f i c a t e from t h e i r Inspector of s p e c i a l , aptitude f o r the work. Short courses are now being given i n the Normal Schools to a l l 2, Ontario Department- of Education, Annual Report of the  M i n i s t e r of Education, 1934, 34. 3. i d . , 1930, X I . 59 t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g i n order that those•teachers who go to r u r a l schools may have the l a t e s t methods of d e a l i n g With a u x i l i a r y type pupils«, & >• (d) C o n t r o l of a u x i l i a r y c l a s s e s , - The establishment and c o n t r o l of these a u x i l i a r y c l a s s es i s a matter which comes under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of l o c a l school boards. I t i s believed that the system.of securing the voluntary co-operation and good w i l l of a d i s t r i c t w i l l r e s u l t i n more b e n e f i c i a l and permanent r e s u l t s than a p o l i c y of compulsion. The Ontario Department of Education provides s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g f o r teachers, i n s p e c t o r a l s e r v i c e , f r e e surveys, and special"grants to cover one-half of the excess cost of t h i s type of education. (e) Conduct of c l a s s e s . - In the a u x i l i a r y classes composed of p h y s i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n the ordinary p u b l i c school courses are followed, because many of these p u p i l s may l a t e r • pursue a c o l l e g i a t e or u n i v e r s i t y education. S p e c i a l equipment, or g a n i z a t i o n , and methods of i n s t r u c t i o n are provided to meet the s p e c i a l needs of the p u p i l . Great care i s taken i n regard to the conservation of h i s h e a l t h . I n various types of a u x i l i a r y classes f o r the " d i r e c t " l e a r n i n g p u p i l , such as the t r a i n i n g , promotion, p a r t i a l and-- -s p e c i a l i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s e s , modifications of the usual school-room procedure and course of stiidy are necessary. The h o r i z o n t a l system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and promotion by grades has been superseded by a v e r t i c a l system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and promotion by subject i s used. The p u p i l ' s progress i s thus kept at a maximum. His weaknesses are given s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n and h i s aptitudes developed. A considerable p o r t i o n of the 60 school, day i s devoted to c r a f t work whereby 'the p u p i l acquires manual s k i l l , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and c o n t r o l of behaviour through d i r e c t response to ac t u a l s i t u a t i o n s . The course i s & •5" made as r e a l i s t i c and p r a c t i c a l as p o s s i b l e . 'Thus s i m p l i f i e d processes of estimating i n t e r e s t , trade discount, taxes, etc., have been brought down from the Arithmetic of Grade eight and s u b s t i t u t e d . f o r common measure, m u l t i p l e s , c a n c e l l a t i o n i n the Ari t h m e t i c of Grade s i x . L i t e r a r y composition has been l a r g e l y superseded by such o r a l and w r i t t e n exercises as w i l l equip the p u p i l w i t h " a b i l i t y to apply f o r a p o s i t i o n , conduct a business conversation by telephone, etc. An i n t e n s i v e study of home I n d u s t r i a l and s o c i a l geography has taken the place of an extensive course i n world geography. I n the four secondary schools e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h i s type of p u p i l under the Advisory V o c a t i o n a l Committee of the Toronto and Hamilton Boards of Education, courses i n d r a f t i n g , experimental p h y s i c a l science, food chemistry, home economics, et c . , are being s u c c e s s f u l l y taught by d i r e c t l e a r n i n g methods. I n the formation of these c u r r i c u l a mental integration., s o c i a l i z a t i o n and the a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n knowledge have been deemed of greater Import than, the a c q u i s i t i o n of academic i n f o r m a t i o n . 4 ( f ) Results.™ The f a c t t h a t only one a u x i l i a r y c l a s s has ever been discontinued and the f a c t that the number of such classes are i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y are proofs of t h e i r success. Since t h e i r establishment i n Toronto, the number of j u v e n i l e court Commitments has decreased and recdrds show that hundreds of s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g and s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g c i t i z e n s have received t h e i r e a r l y t r a i n i n g I n these centres. The a u x i l i a r y classes are doing much to solve the problems of the s o c i a l l y malagusted c h i l d and at the same time are l a y i n g the foundation f o r the orga n i z a t i o n of j u n i o r high schools i n the Province of Ontario, 4, i d . , 1930, 33, C. THE FOREST HILL VILLAGE COIMMITY SCHOOL 61 £n 1927 the Board of School Trustees of the V i l l a g e of . Forest H i l l decided that the time had come to s t r i v e f o r educational progress. They approached the Ontario Department o f Education w i t h the suggestion t h a t they he allowed to carry out an experiment i n t h e i r school along l i n e s which they b e l i e v e d would b e t t e r q u a l i f y t h e i r p u p i l s to cope with the r a p i d l y changing conditions i n the world of to-day. The Department gave t h e i r proposal c a r e f u l consideration and f i n a l l y not only approved i t but assured the trustees of the assistance of the Department's experts, (a) Problems to be solved by the Trustees.- The o f f i c i a l s anction of the Department of Education spurred the trustees on towards s o l u t i o n of t h e i r problems. The f i r s t problem to be solved was the s e t t i n g up of a general educational p o l i c y which would not only be educa tionally but also f i n a n c i a l l y sound and, at the same time, capable of adoption by other Ontario communities. A survey was made of a l l p o s s i b l e educational needs, both present and f u t u r e . C a r e f u l estimates of the r a t e of growth of the m u n i c i p a l i t y were charted and estimated i n the annual educational budget. So accurately was t h i s survey c a r r i e d out that the tax r a t e f o r educational purposes has never v a r i e d more than one and one-half m i l l s since the f i r s t r a t e was struck. The second problem faced by the trustees was that of a s u i t a b l e b u i l d i n g programme. A broad educational programme 62 • demanded adequate and s u i t a b l e accommodation. A generous s i t e was f i n a l l y chosen and the design approved. I t was to contain an auditorium, gymnasium, playrooms, household science department, l i b r a r y , kindergarten, etc. The trustees had • d e l i b e r a t e l y set out to "achieve a school b u i l d i n g constructed and equipped to give f u l l scope to the new idea i n education t h a t the development of the i n d i v i d u a l , not the group, was the 5 t r u e object of education." The t h i r d problem to be solved was the d e f i n i n g of the educational aims of the new school. I n t h i s matter the experts of the Department of Education and of the Ontario College of Education rendered valuable assistance. The f i r s t p r i n c i p l e decided upon was that a l l p u p i l s should receive an education t h a t would develop and balance t h e i r n a t u r a l t a l e n t s to the f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e extent. This d e f i n i t e l y meant that the t r a d i t i o n a l "ladder" system had to be greatly.•changed. The Board of Forest H i l l Trustees decided that t h e i r school should replace t h i s o l d system i n one school through the a p p l i c a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s ? 1. That the main object of education i s to awaken the reasoning powers and to teach c h i l d r e n how to think. 2. To embrace the three laws l a i d down by Parliament, (a) t h a t c h i l d r e n must remain i n school u n t i l they are sixteen years of age, (b) t h a t education i s compulsory, and (c) that education i s f r e e . The process of education was d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s i 1. T r a i n i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n of the f a c t s of knowledge. 2. Adapting what i s learned i n t r a i n i n g to the p a r t i c u l a r powers of reasoning, i n o^her words, to t h i n k through t h e i r own problems. 5. G a l b r a i t h , J.S., "Forest H i l l V i l l a g e Community School." School Progress. Vol,3.-No.3., 8, October, 1934. 6. i b i d , 8. 63 A system of education which would develop the i n d i v i d u a l character of every c n i l d was de s i r e d . Teachers would he expected to teach the c h i l d r ather than the subject. Some 'pupils would n a t u r a l l y Toe found capable o f pursuing academic st u d i e s , while others b e t t e r f i t t e d by nature to t r a i n f o r i n d u s t r i a l and business "occupations. From t h i s community school these l a t t e r p u p i l s could continue t h i s type of t r a i n i n g i n t e c h n i c a l or commercial schools. Those heading f o r the p r o f e s s i o n s , upon completion 6'f t h e i r upper preparatory courses i n t h i s school, would ..enter the u n i v e r s i t y . (b) Leaders i n t h i s experiment.- In order to s u c c e s s f u l l y - c a r r y out t h e i r plans i t was very e s s e n t i a l that the school board employ a p r i n c i p a l who was not only competent but also i n . , complete accord w i t h the aims of the experiment. They f i n a l l y decided upon W.J. Tamblyn, M.A,, B.Paed., who had had experience both as "an educator and a business executive. Since h i s appointment Mr. Tamblyn has shown ample a b i l i t y f o r the type of leadership and a b i l i t y needed. E s p e c i a l mention should also.be made o f Dr. Peter Sandiford of the Ontario College of Education. Under h i s leadership the experts of the Department of Education rendered valuable assistance both i n planning and guiding the experiment. (c) Rotary o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the Forest H i l l V i l l a g e •Community School.- To provide f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s had to be provided that would not be l i m i t e d by the four, w a l l s of a s i n g l e classroom nor by the standard system of promotions. A f l e x i b l e system - 6 4 which.-would make f u l l use of the l i b r a r y , auditorium, etc., was adopted. By means of a modified r o t a r y system over 1000 p u p i l s were accommodated i n the school which had only seventeen standard classrooms. The system began w i t h Grade One, where p u p i l s l e f t t h e i r home f o r short j u n i o r manual t r a i n i n g , l i b r a r y , auditorium and gymnasium periods.. As the p u p i l s ' ages increased and as they were a c c l i m a t i z e d to the system, the r o t a t i o n became more pronounced. C a r e f u l p u p i l adjustment to new teachers was made by means of pre-grade classes. Post-grade c l a s s e s , home-room teachers and group counsellors were used to remedy any i l l e f f e c t s which might a r i s e because of departmentalization. Each cla s s up to Grade Four spends h a l f Of i t s time w i t h i t s home teacher. At the beginning of the formative adolescent p e r i o d the p u p i l s pass i n t o the senior u n i t of the school. Here each student meets h i s group counsellor f o u r times each day. These counsellors are not only s p e c i a l i s t s i n some subject but also students of psychology* They are responsible f o r the s o c i a l and character-b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f each member of t h e i r group throughout the e n t i r e duration of the p u p i l ' s l i f e i n the senior s e c t i o n . •(d) D i v e r s i f i e d curriculum.- Although the examinations of the Department of Education are used i n the school, they serve merely as a guide to enable the teachers to maintain that Standard which w i l l permit students to t r a n s f e r to other Ontario schools without handicap or l o s s of time. However, i n a d d i t i o n to the reg u l a r p r e s c r i b e d work many opportunities 7„ Tamblyn, W.J. "Forest H i l l V i l l a g e Community School." School Progress, V o l . 3 - Ho., 5, 8, December, 1934. 65 are present f o r both c l a s s and i n d i v i d u a l enrichment i n such .subjects as t y p e w r i t i n g , music, f o r e i g n languages, manual t r a i n i n g , household science, dramatic a r t , l i b r a r y work, St ••• — .agriculture:, p u b l i c speaking, short sto r y w r i t i n g , .stage c r a f t , etc. The p u p i l ' s v o c a t i o n a l a p t i t u t e s are studied by means of try - o u t courses which are taken before h i s f i n a l educational path i s selected. Extra C u r r i c u l a r Work. In a d d i t i o n to the prescribed subjects ( i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e and nature study) the entrance c l a s s takes periods as f o l l o w s : Half hour periods per week. French 1 X j l t ) X * © « _ * t f © o * © * * * e e © © © « « © 0 © o © * « e © o © « © © © © © © © « 2 Manual T r a i n i n g and Mechanical Drawing(Boys). 3 Household Science and Sewing ( G i r l s ) 3 C x* ©lo.'t'Gcl. Kis"t>ox> r^© • © • • © • • • • • • a © # © • • • • • • © o © © © •AxiG. I ~fc> OI* I \un © • • © • © © © © © • • © • © • • • © • © © © • • • • © © e © © © © © 2 Pub l i c Speaking and Debating.................. 1 V i s u a l Education and Pub l i c Addresses 2 Guidance with Group Counsellor 4 Choice of Senior Opportunity, A.M.; and Senior Opportunity, 3:30 to 4:15 P.M. At some time of the year they w i l l be introduced to L a t i n , Algebra, and Geometry. 8 (e) Class grading.- Classes i n each grade are rated as A,B, or C. A l l classes take the same standard work but the amount of i n d i v i d u a l enrichment depends upon the a b i l i t y of the p u p i l to do the work assigned to h i s c l a s s . The grade chairman i n s t r u c t s the weakest of the cl a s s e s , which i s always kept small i n numbers to allow more i n d i v i d u a l coaching. Promotions are g e n e r a l l y made twice a year but may be more frequent when the need a r i s e s . Adjustments w i t h i n the grade are made at any 8. i b i d , 10. 66 time, * . A minimum of r e t a r d a t i o n and a maximum of a c c e l e r a t i o n has been obtained. In 1935 l e s s than 2% of the p u p i l s had to repeat t h e i r year, while 18.5% received a s i x months' acceleration..Age-grade s t a t i s t i c s show that the standing of the whole school has been advanced on an average of s i x 9 months during the past three years, teat i s most g r a t i f y i n g to those concerned i s the f a c t that t h i s has been done without the t r a d i t i o n a l "cramming f o r examinations". .(f) I n d i v i d u a l enrichments.- When an i n d i v i d u a l student has advanced beyond h i s f e l l o w classmates i n c e r t a i n subjects, he may r e c e i v e s p e c i a l o pportunities f o r enriched work i n one of the s p e c i a l rooms of the school or i n the t u t o r i a l room. When a whole c l a s s has completed' a u n i t of the standard subjects ahead of schedule, i t may e i t h e r r o t a t e through the school f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n or may receive such extra work which the home teacher may be q u a l i f i e d to o f f e r . The t u t o r i a l department has as i t s f u n c t i o n the g i v i n g of s p e c i a l assistance to those who have become retarded because of sickness or some other reason. The s t a f f i s very c a r e f u l t h a t no stigma i s attached to t h i s department. B r i l l i a n t students are admitted i f desirous of : a c c e l e r a t i o n . The e f f i c i e n c y of the school depends g r e a t l y upon the -system of grading of p u p i l s * However, some classes are ungraded, l l e r e , seniors and j u n i o r s get the opportunity of working 9.-id, "Adapting the School to Meet I n d i v i d u a l Requirements." • School:Progress,, Vol.VI. - No.X., 12, May, .1936. together and of helping and l e a r n i n g from one another. The opportunity and "pick-up" classes are organized i n such a manner. Points i n the scheme i n a d d i t i o n to the Standard Grade Classes: 1. A P s y c h o l o g i c a l Study.. .(.a) Group studies of every c h i l d . - ' (b) I n d i v i d u a l studies of s p e c i a l eases. 2. A B i o l o g i c a l Grouping...(a) A Maximum of time with teacher'for J u n i o r . Classes. 3* A Modified Rotary System.; 4. Grade Organization......(a) Grade Chairman- . Supervision. (b) Students graded on a basis of - " a b i l i t y to do the work of the class'.'"' (c) Promotions semi-annually. (d) Adjustments d a i l y , 5. Types of Classes.,.. (a.) Grade Classes, (b) Pre-grade Classes.' (c) . Post-grade Classes. (d) Co-operation Classes. (e) Enrichment Classes,' ( f ) Opportunity C l a s s e s , * (g) Supervised Study Classes, (h) Honor Study Classes. ( i ) Pick-up Classes. („j) T u t o r i a l and I n d i v i d u a l " i • Enrichment Classes. 6. V i s u a l Educational Programme. 7. " H i s t o r y of Work" room aiming to v i t a l i z e and co-ordinate studies more; f u l l y . There are two types of opportunity c l a s s e s . One i s held f o r about one-half hour during the morning session. I t i s to give o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r enrichment to those p u p i l s whose standards are high i n t h e i r r egular classroom work. S l i g h t l y retarded p u p i l s may also obtain t h i s enrichment, but only upon s p e c i a l request by t h e i r parents, who must agree to the 10, i d . "Forest H i l l V i l l a g e Community School." School  Progress, Vol.111.-. No.5.,' December, 1934,9-. p u p i l s t a k i n g a l e s s advanced c l a s s i n t h e i r regular work i n order to have time f o r the broadening subjects. The second type of opportunity c l a s s i s held from 3s30 to 4 s l 5 P.M. P u p i l s are admitted only upon request from the parents. The d e c i s i o n as to whether the student s h a l l take only the standard subjects or s h a l l e n r i c h t h e i r course i s thus l e f t e n t i r e l y to the parents. The s o - c a l l e d " f r i l l s " are not forced upon the p u p i l s . At the present time we have classes which are spending as high as 42% of t h e i r time on the subject of t h e i r choice, while i n d i v i d u a l students are spending as high as 50 or 52% on enrichment subjects. These students are almost without exception heading the l i s t i n t h e i r academic subjects. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that one c l a s s which took 40% enrichment l a s t year i s talcing, two grades i n one t h i s year with comparative ease.H-Occasionally "co-ordination c l a s s e s " are organized to b r i n g c l o s e r u n i t y to the work and to enable the p u p i l to see the various subjects from other angles. The " h i s t o r y of work" room i s an example of t h i s type of co-ordination c l a s s , (g) Costs.- During the three years that the above-described system has been i n fo r c e at the Forest H i l l V i l l a g e Community School the per c a p i t a costs have gradually been reduced, despite the f a c t that teachers have been given y e a r l y increases i n s a l a r y and t h a t a d d i t i o n a l senior grades i n high school work have been added each year. At present m a t r i c u l a t i o n , commercial, and i n d u s t r i a l high school courses are being o f f e r e d . This gradual reduction of costs, despite 11. i d . "Adapting the School to Meet I n d i v i d u a l Requirements." School Progress, Vol.VI.- Wo. X., 11, May, 1936, 69 i n d i v i d u a l enrichment and opportunity, has done much to awaken the eyes of the s k e p t i c a l . -(h) Summary.- Taking as i t does p u p i l s at the Grade One stage and'guiding them through to U n i v e r s i t y , business p o s i t i o n s , etc. , the Forest H i l l V i l l a g e Community School i s by no means a j u n i o r high s c h o o l . Yet t h i s school does appreciate and carry, out most of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying Intermediate school work. The f a c t t h a t s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n and guidance i s given to the c h i l d during the adolescent period, the g i v i n g of t r y -out courses, the wider s e l e c t i o n of enrichment courses, the apprec i a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c es, etc., a l l show ttiat t h i s school i s l e a d i n g the way towards educational reform along j u n i o r high school l i n e s i n Ontario. I n f a c t , from the Forest H i l l System other provinces can l e a r n much that w i l l improve t h e i r own j u n i o r high schools. D. OTHER EXPERIMENTS IN INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL WORK (a) The U n i v e r s i t y School Experiment.- I n 1924 the U n i v e r s i t y School, which i s a boys' school operated i n connection with the Teachers College of the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, embarked upon a departure along j u n i o r high school l i n e s . Grade Five was discontinued, l e a v i n g the school with Grades S i x to Twelve, These remaining grades were d i v i d e d i n t o two sections, a j u n i o r "school and a senior school. The org a n i z a t i o n and underlying p r i n c i p l e s behind these schools were i n close harmony wi t h those of the C e n t r a l Schools of England. Mr, F.W. Marchand was the p r i n c i p a l of the U n i v e r s i t y School at the ;., 70 time of I t s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . His experiment proved a great success, : with the r e s u l t that the plan has been continued up to the present time. Of the 500 p u p i l s e n r o l l e d , 125 were i n the. j u n i o r school or j u n i o r high, school, s e c t i o n . Although the hoys attending the U n i v e r s i t y School are on the whole a superior academic group, selected from the homes of w e a l t h i e r c i t i z e n s , , yet marked success has repaid the e f f o r t s of the teachers i n t h e i r attempt.to provide a wider, choice of course, more p h y s i c a l education, more r e c o g n i t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the adolescent, ages, and more f a c i l i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l r a t e s of progress.; . In a personal ihterviev^ with Dean Althouse of the Teachers College the f o l l o w i n g f a c t s were given to the w r i t e r ( J u l y , 1936): (1) 28% of the students i n the U n i v e r s i t y School became retarded.during the adolescent period.. (2) 20% of these resumed, normal progress a f t e r the completion ; of t h e i r intermediate school v/ork. (3) 15% of the-; students of the school '•showed a surge of a c c e l e r a t i o n during t h e i r adolescent period but t h i s - a c c e l e r a t i o n l a s t e d f o r eighteen months only. Undoubtedly the U n i v e r s i t y School i s recognizing, and c a r r y i n g out many of the aims of the j u n i o r high school. I t s .influence and success should go f a r towards widening the i n t e r e s t and experimentation of Ontario c i t i e s i n the movement f o r intermediate schools. (by The Tamworth, System of Consolidation.- An i n t e r e s t i n g experiment, .which should prove of great i n t e r e s t to those -concerned with the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n regard to the r u r a l school phase of the j u n i o r high school movement, i s being conducted at Tamworth by the county a u t h o r i t i e s under the guidance of Inspector McEwen. A system of- c o n s o l i d a t i o n or co-operative r u r a l schools has been arranged r o r t h e i r elementary and conti n u a t i o n school work. Four schools p a r t i c i p a t e i n the scheme. Under the present o r g a n i z a t i o n three of the four schools send t h e i r Fourth and F i f t h Form(continuation)pupils to the f o u r t h school i n the plan. The F i r s t , Second and Third Form p u p i l s of t h i s f o u r t h school are d i s t r i b u t e d among the other three schools. A l l p u p i l s are provided w i t h the necessary t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . By t h i s arrangement senior p u p i l s i n the elementary schools and F i f t h Form are brought together i n one-centre i n order to economically provide these p u p i l s with some of the advantages of a j u n i o r high school. More p r a c t i c a l work i n the form of a g r i c u l t u r e , home economics, manual training, and shop work i s at present provided. Although there are at -present no opportunities f o r t r y - o u t courses and i n s u f f i c i e n t ' p r o v i s i o n f o r a wide choice of course, yet the segregation of the e a r l y adolescents i s an important step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n and under the d i r e c t i o n of Inspector McEwen, who-is . i n sympathy w i t h the aims of tru e intermediate schools, the--, experiment w i l l undoubtedly develop. According to Mr. McEwen, Chief Inspector Greer and the Department of Education are watching t h i s experiment with keen i n t e r e s t and upon the success of Tamworth's- system of c o n s o l i d a t i o n depends g r e a t l y the- - -fu t u r e of the j u n i o r high school movement i n the r u r a l schools . 12 of Ontario. 12. Inspector McEwen granted the w r i t e r a personal interview , Toronto, J u l y , 1936. E. 'INTERMEDIATE SCHOOLS BILL By 1936 the Department of Education of the P r o v i n c i a l -Government of Ontario r e a l i z e d that d e f i n i t e a c t i o n should be taken to f a c i l i t a t e and encourage the establishment of Intermediate Schools throughout the province. As we have seen, some schools were already c a r r y i n g out the j u n i o r high school p r i n c i p l e s i n p a r t under s p e c i a l permission from the Department. Now a l l school boards were to be given, by means of permissive l e g i s l a t i o n , the opportunity to e s t a b l i s h intermediate or j u n i o r high schools f o r p u p i l s of Grades Seven, E i g h t , Nine, and Ten. (a) Important p r o v i s i o n s i n the B i l l . - I n the B i l l , which was presented to parliament f o r i t s F i r s t Reading on March 30, 1936, the term "Intermediate School" was defined as f o l l o w s : "Intermediate School" s h a l l mean a department of a p u b l i c or a separate school which i s established and maintained by a p u b l i c school board or a separate school board, or by a committee appointed by two or more p u b l i c school boards or two or more separate school boards, or by one or more p u b l i c school boards and one or more separate school boards, and which o f f e r s i n a separate organization, but not n e c e s s a r i l y i n a separate b u i l d i n g , courses of study i n subjects now included i n the curriculum f o r Grades seven, eight, nine and ten(Forms four and f i v e ) of the p u b l i c and separate schools, i n the lower school of.the high school and i n the f i r s t two years of the v o c a t i o n a l school.^- 3 That t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was to be permissive and not compulsory showed that the Department of Education r e a l i z e d • t h a t i t must not s t i r up opposition from those sections of the 13. Government of Ontario Document. " B i l l No. 119, An Act r e s p e c t i n g Intermediate Schools." 1936, 1. 73 province where Ontario's t r a d i t i o n a l conservatism s t i l l l i n g e r e d . The B i l l catered merely to the d e s i r e s of progressive school hoards. " Subject to the r e g u l a t i o n s and to the approval; of the-M i n i s t e r being f i r s t obtained, a p u b l i c school board of any m u n i c i p a l i t y or school s e c t i o n , or a separate school board, may e s t a b l i s h and maintain one or more intermediate s c h o o l s . 1 4 . P r o v i s i o n in,the B i l l was made f o r the establishment of these Intermediate Schools by means of agreements between school boards•in regard to c o n s o l i d a t i o n . Subject to the r e g u l a t i o n s and to the approval of the M i n i s t e r being f i r s t obtained, agreements may be entered i n t o by two or more p u b l i c school boards, two or more. separate school boards, or by one or more pub l i c school boards and one or more separate school boards, f o r the establishment and maintenance of one or more * intermediate schools to be conducted i n a place agreed upon by the boards, f o r the b e n e f i t of the p u p i l s of such schools, and every such agreement s h a l l s p e c i f y the proportion of the cost of the establishment and maintenance of the intermediate schools t o be paid by each of such boards, and s h a l l provide f o r the manner i n which such proportion s h a l l be determined.I 6 "(b) Unfortunate f a t e of the B i l l . - -When introduc i n g t h i s Intermediate Schools B i l l i n t o the l e g i s l a t u r e the government had very unwisely coupled i t w i t h a b i l l granting separate. : schools a l a r g e r share of corporation taxes, This l a t t e r b i l l aroused the o l d r e l i g i o u s feud, which had waged f o r so many • years i n Ontario end Quebec. P u b l i c i n d i g n a t i o n meetings were held, p e t i t i o n s and threats were signed, and scathing attacks upon the government were made by newspapers and countless - -i n d i v i d u a l s . This opposition to the b i l l granting more money to..the separate schools aroused the suspicions of c e r t a i n 14. i b i d , 1 15. i b i d , 2 government opponents i n regard.-to the Intermediate Schools B i l l . They pointed out the danger of allowing separate school a u t h o r i t i e s to e s t a b l i s h intermediate schools. They claimed t h a t t h i s was probably the f i r s t step towards allowing the C a t h o l i c s to c o n t r o l the education of Grade Nine and Ten pupils,and even high school p u p i l s at a l a t e r date. The L i b e r a l Government under Premier Hepburn was perplexed but bel i e v e d that i t was doing what was r i g h t and was therefore determined to pass at l e a s t one of the b i l l s . ; Unfortunately f o r the growth of the j u n i o r high school movement in.Ontario, Premier Hepburn and h i s advisers unwisely decided to drop the t r u l y harmless Intermediate Schools Mil-.and" to. proceed .with the Second Reading of the other one, which f i n a l l y d i d become an act. In defence of h i s p o s i t i o n regarding h i s b i l l g r a n t i n g separate schools a l a r g e r share of corporation taxes, Premier Hepburn t o l d the Ontario L e g i s l a t u r e e a r l y to-day h i s l i f e had been threatened " i n no uncertain way" i n the .last, few days. Without a s c r i b i n g the threats to h i s stand on the tax question the Premier declared:'I am not l a c k i n g i n courage, I know I am doing the r i g h t t h i n g . ' The b i l l which received second reading"(4:00 A.M. to-day ) by a vote of 65 - 20, w i l l be advanced through f i n a l stages t h i s afternoon a f t e r which Lieutenant Governor Herbert A. Bruce w i l l prorogue the L e g i s l a t u r e . ^ Although Ontario e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s who are desirous of obt a i n i n g Intermediate School l e g i s l a t i o n are n a t u r a l l y very disappointed at the outcome of the Intermediate Schools B i l l they are s t i l l very hopeful t h a t the government w i l l again sponsor t h e . b i l l at another session. 16. Vancouver D a i l y Province, A p r i l 9, 1936, 2 75 ' ' F. SUMMARY AMD APPRAISAL One cannot poi n t to any true j u n i o r high schools i n •.Ontario. I t i s p o s s i b l e , . however, to mention many schools i n which many of the aims and p r i n c i p l e s of t h i s j u n i o r high school movement are being c a r r i e d out. The most outstanding work In t h i s regard i s being done at the Forest H i l l V i l l a g e 'Community School. I n the w r i t e r ' s estimation t h i s school i s one of the most progressive i n Canada. This school o f f e r s the p u p i l s exceedingly f i n e o pportunities to enrich t h e i r regular courses by means of o p t i o n a l t r y - o u t c l a s s e s , t u t o r i a l c l a s s e s , pre-grade c l a s s e s , post-grade c l a s s e s , and club a c t i v i t i e s i n the form of opportunity c l a s s e s . However, i t cannot be c a l l e d a true j u n i o r high school because I t caters also to p u p i l s of the elementary school grades. The intermediate schools of Ottawa e n r o l l only p u p i l s of Grades Seven and Sight. In connection with the planning of the curriculum In these schools there' i s i n s u f f i c i e n t p r o v i s i o n made f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of courses according to the i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s of the p u p i l s . A s p e c i a l .type °? course i s offered, f o r backward p u p i l s but a l l b r i g h t p u p i l s must take the same course " i r r e s p e c t i v e of i n t e r e s t s . The a u x i l i a r y c l a s s e s i n Ontario are doing very f i n e work i n connection with d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of courses f o r p u p i l s ' n o t s u i t e d to the t r a d i t i o n a l type of academic education. But t h i s work i s being done i n the regular elementary schools. No-.attempt i s made to segregate the young adolescent p u p i l s . The U n i v e r s i t y School i s c a r r y i n g out many 76 of the aims o f the j u n i o r high school by making p r o v i s i o n f o r v a r y i n g r a t e s of p u p i l progress, by r e c o g n i t i o n of the problems of adolescence and by p e r m i t t i n g some choice of course. However t h i s school caters also to senior high school p u p i l s and, as has already been pointed out, i t s p u p i l s are on the whole superior p u p i l s from w e a l t h i e r homes. •Nevertheless, the l e a d i n g educators i n Ontario do appreciate the advantages to be gained by the adoption of some form of j u n i o r high schools. The Department of Education favors the necessary r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The Intermediate School B i l l - though unsuccessful i n passing the L e g i s l a t u r e - shows the a c t i v e i n t e r e s t taken i n the matter. Undoubtedly Ontario i s w e l l on i t s way towards general acceptance of the j u n i o r high school movement. CHAPTER IV 77 THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL MOVEMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA a. The impetus and i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the organization of j u n i o r h i g h schools i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia began w i t h the recommendations In the report Issued by Dr. J.H. Putman, Senior Inspector of Ottawa Schools, and Dr. G.M. Weir, Professor of Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. a f t e r they had completed t h e i r survey of the B.C. school system. Their r e p o r t , which was issued i n 1925, not only recommended the i n t r o d u c t i o n of j u n i o r high schools i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia but also devoted a large s e c t i o n to an explanation and defense of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying intermediate school work 6 The f e a s i b i l i t y of introducing j u n i o r high school organization i n t o the province was c a r e f u l l y considered and d e f i n i t e suggestions made i n , regard to c e r t a i n sections of the province. A. THE PUTMAN-WEIR SURVEY OF THE B.C. SYSTEM (a) Recommendations of the Putman-Weir Report In regard to Intermediate schools.- When the report of the Putman-Weir Survey was issued, i t was found t h a t one of the main t o p i c s d e a l t w i t h was the lack of intermediate or j u n i o r high schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia.. F i v e d e f i n i t e recommendations were made In regard to t h i s question. They were; i . That one or more "opportunity" classes be organized i n every large elementary school f o r the purpose 78 of a c c e l e r a t i n g retarded p u p i l s who are approaching the period of e a r l y adolescence.. i i . That the p u b l i c school system of B r i t i s h Columbia provide elementary schools f o r c h i l d r e n from s i x to twelve years of age, middle schools f o r p u p i l s from 'twelve to f i f t e e n years of age, and high schools f o r p u p i l s who remain at school a f t e r reaching f i f t e e n v years. i i i . That the middle schools be organized where possible ... d i s t i n c t from e i t h e r elementary or high schools, but combined With one or the other of these where the number of p u p i l s makes such an organization necessary. i v . That ?/herever the number of teachers employed i n a middle school makes i t p o s s i b l e , o p t i o n a l courses be provided f o r p u p i l s . v. That graduation diplomas be given to a l l p u p i l s who complete a three-year middle school course.! (b) The Putman-Weir explanation of the intermediate school system.- In defense of the recommendations- i n regard to intermediate schools, the report devoted considerable space to an explanation of the underlying p r i n c i p l e s , the probable costs, and the p o s s i b l e problems of organization and management. The question of the adolescent stage i n the c h i l d ' s development was emphasized. Now w i t h the coming of adolescence he i s ready and . e a g e r f o r new experiences, f o r strenuous e f f o r t i n v o l v i n g l o g i c a l thought, f o r a deeper i n s i g h t i n t o and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n group undertakings, f o r a study of s o c i a l l i f e and h i s t o r y , f o r language study,'and f o r t r y i n g out some v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . In short, '.''''•.'the.-school that would f u l l y meet the needs of our adolescent and a l l h i s fellows"should have a programme of gtudies almost as broad and v a r i e d as the needs of human l i f e i t s e l f . 2 The 6-3-3 system was s t r o n g l y recommended because i t a s s i s t e d v o c a t i o n a l adjustments by means o f try-out courses and by means of adaptation of m a t e r i a l to s u i t i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s I.. Putman, J-.H-. and Weir, G.M., Survey of the School System of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , 1925, 110. 2. i b i d . , 79. 79 and aptitudes. This three-year period should have revealed to the boy and to h i s parents and teachers whether or not he has a type of mind that w i l l p r o f i t most during the next three years from an academic and l i t e r a r y course of study, a s c i e n t i f i c course, or a purely t e c h n i c a l course. We are therefore j u s t i f i e d i n saying that the adolescent,or middle, school ought to enable h a l f i t s graduates to f i n d themselves, v o c a t i o n a l l y , w i t h i n a short time a f t e r l e a v i n g school^ and w i l l show the other h a l f three or four large finger-posts which, while hot p o i n t i n g toward s p e c i f i c vocations, do d e f i n i t e l y p o i n t out broad highways that have d i f f e r e n t . v o c a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 3 . Although the report pointed out that a saving In the costs of .various items could be made i f the p u p i l s of a l l Grades V l l , V l l l , a n d I X i n the schools of a c i t y were brought together, yet i t also took p a r t i c u l a r care to warn the reader that t h i s saving ?;ould probably be o f f s e t by increased expenditure, i n other ways-.--The rep o r t c l e a r l y emphasized the point that j u n i o r high.or middle schools were being recommended because • of the increased opportunities they offered, the p u p i l s and not because of any p o s s i b l e f i n a n c i a l saving.. I n connection with'the recommended intermediate schools a decided change i n regard to promotion-1 of p u p i l s was advised. The r e p o r t pointed out that a p u p i l should be promoted to an intermediate school as soon as he had reached h i s adolescent stage, I r r e s p e c t i v e of the f a c t that he may not have passed examinations i n elementary school .work. Promotion from the intermediate schools to the secondary schools would be similarly administered,. . . . i t means that when a p u p i l has reached i n m a t u r i t y and need the secondary period, he i s to be advanced 3 i b i d . , 79-80,. t o . . i n s t r u c t i o n appropriate to that period, whether he has completed the normal work of the intermediate period or not. I f such p u p i l s are incapable of taking up work u s u a l l y given i n the intermediate or i n the secondary periods, then work adapted to their-needs mjast be provided."* <• Other items i n regard to the organization and management of j u n i o r high schools explained and defended i n the report were as f o l l o w s : i . The j u n i o r high schools should be departmentalized, i i . Rotary o r g a n i z a t i o n or p a r t i a l r o t a r y organization ':'" should be used, i i i . The middle school programme must s u i t the varying ' needs o f the p u p i l s . The. curriculum must be broad and e l a s t i c . i v . There should be c e r t a i n basic subjects f o r a l l . v. There should be.handwork a c t i v i t i e s , based upon l i f e problems, f o r every p u p i l , v i . A s p e c i a l diploma should be granted f o r handwork a c t i v i t i e s . v i i . A good l i b r a r y should; be provided, . v i i i . V o c a t i o n a l guidance should be a part of the programme, ' i x * T r a i n i n g i n good c i t i z e n s h i p should be given. x. Classes should be given i n eooking, sewing, woodwork, , metalwork, a r t , p h y s i c a l exercise, l i b r a r y , science, .stenography and .-typewriting, French, Latin,'•German",, auditorium Work, and algebra, as w e l l as Classes i n the t r a d i t i o n a l subjects such as'geography, h i s t o r y , E n g l i s h , etc. x i . The length of the school day should be f i v e and one------t h i r d hours. v x i i . The j u n i o r high schools preferably, but not necessarily, should: be under separate management from e i t h e r high, school or elementary school* B. THE PENTICTON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL The d i s t i n c t i o n of being the f i r s t d i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia to attempt to c a r r y out the recommendations of the 4. i b i d . , 389. 5. i b i d , , 86-110 survey i n regard to intermediate schools goes to the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Penti c t o n . A j u n i o r high school, organized under the d i r e c t i o n of P r i n c i p a l A . S . Matheson, was opened i n September, 1926. ( a) Enrolment.- During the f i r s t year t h i s j u n i o r high school e n r o l l e d 193 p u p i l s , who were d i v i d e d Into f i v e classes. This included two Grade V l l c l a s s e s , two Grade V l l l c l a s s e s , and 6 one Grade IX c l a s s . Since 1926 the enrolment has gradually Increased as shown by the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : TABLE VI PENTICTON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ENROLMENT YEAR NUMBER OF PUPILS NUMBER OF CLASSES 1927™ 28$ i e ( 9 t e e * < « « 208 6 1^29™ 30 @ e « « » o s « 9 * « e 229 6 1931"* 32 © •«•«•«•••*«/ 267 6 1933"~ 34© • • • • • e « « « » e 266 > 7 1935™* 36 © e « « e « a e « a e & 319 9 (b) S t a f f . - The o r i g i n a l s t a f f of the Penticton Junior High School, which d i d such f i n e pioneer work upon intermediate school c u r r i c u l a s u i t a b l e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia schools of comparatively small s i z e , included P r i n c i p a l A.S.. Matheson, D.P. O'Connell, G.Jones, and Misses E.C. Scott, E.A. Thomas, 8 C. P i t b l a d o , M. Macpherson, A. Page, and M. Uentzel. In 1928 Mr. L.B. Boggs succeeded Mr. Matheson i n the p r i n c i p a l s h i p . 6. B.C. Department of Education, Annual Report, 1926-27, M 12. 7. i d . , 1927-28, V 12; 1929-30, Q 13; 1931-32,'L 14; 1933-34, N 16; 1935-36, H 16.-8. i d . , 1926-27, M 12. 82 (c) C u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s . - I n 1926-27 the Penticton Junior High School offered the f o l l o w i n g subjects: reading, w r i t i n g end s p e l l i n g , composition, l i t e r a t u r e , h i s t o r y , geography, algebra, general science, a g r i c u l t u r e , L a t i n , French,, drawing, bookkeeping, t y p i n g , shorthand, c i t i z e n s h i p , woodwork, e l e c t r i c i t y , d r a f t i n g , metalwork, hygiene, p h y s i c a l education, 9 cooking, dressmaking, and music. I n 1928-29 ar i t h m e t i c , • " ' 10 -geometry, and commercial law were added to the programme. Of -the 266 p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n 1933-34, 108 were t a k i n g the < commercial course, 33 the t e c h n i c a l course, 31.the home economics course, and the balance e i t h e r the s t r a i g h t academic course or the high school graduation course. C.POINT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (a) H i s t o r y . - Although: P e n t i c t o n gets the c r e d i t f o r being the f i r s t d i s t r i c t to e s t a b l i s h a j u n i o r high school i n B.C., some j u n i o r high school experimenting was being done the same year (1926-27) i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of P o i n t Grey, A Grade Seven : c l a s s of t h i r t y - f i v e p u p i l s was attached to Magee High School f o r the purpose of t e s t i n g out various proposed p r a c t i c e s i n teaching and the s u i t a b i l i t y of suggested courses and subj ect matter f o r p u p i l s of intermediate school age. P r i n c i p a l A l l a n Bowles was i n charge and.'Miss G.C, Reisberry was the c l a s s teacher. This experimenting proved so s a t i s f a c t o r y that the 9. I b i d . , M 106-7. 10. i d . , 1928-29, K 112. 83 p u p i l s i n t h i s Grade Seven clas s were given experimental work i n Grade Eight- the next year and a picked class of t h i r t y -eight more Grade Seven p u p i l s were formed i n t o a second j u n i o r high s c h o o l c l a s s attached to t h i s high school. The clas s 11 teachers were- R.E. Curnmings and Miss G.G. Jack. In P o i n t Grey, Mr. A l l a n Bowles, p r i n c i p a l of the Magee High School, has one clas s of 35 Grade V l l p u p i l s who form an experimental group upon whom i s being tested a d i f f e r e n t type of curriculum from t h a t of the usual' Grade V l l course. This class has a s p e c i a l l y selected home-room teacher, who teaches E n g l i s h , most of the. ari t h m e t i c and also nature study and a r t . Teachers of the Mag-ee High School teach the s o c i a l studies (geography, h i s t o r y and occupations) t e c h n i c a l work, andFrench. The P o i n t Grey School Board followed the work of these classes very c l o s e l y and i n 1928 decided to r e l i e v e congestion i n the elementary schools by pr o v i d i n g a j u n i o r high school. . T h e J u n i o r High School question had been widely discussed, and the 1928 Board decided to Inauguerate t h i s department. In May, a By-law f o r $480,000.00 covering : purchase: of a 9.52 acre s i t e at corner of 37th Avenue and East Boulevard, and the ere c t i o n and equipping of a modern r e i n f o r c e d b u i l d i n g containing 42 rooms, received the l a r g e s t By-law majority given i n the h i s t o r y of the M u n i c i p a l i t y , . 1 3 Construction o f - t h i s new intermediate school began i n September, 1928, and was ready f o r occupancy by September, 1929. During t h i s i n t e r v a l a l l Grade V l l p u p i l s and one Grade V l l l c l a s s were organized f o r j u n i o r high school,work by the.newly-appointed p r i n c i p a l , Mr. H.N. McCorkindale. Eight elementary school centres, were used as temporary quarters. The p r i n c i p a l 11. Point Grey Board of School Trustees, Annual Report, 1928, 203. ~ ~ 12. King, H.B. "The Present Condition of the J u n i o r High School i n B r i t i s h Columbia". B.C. Teacher, V o l . VI, No. 7, March, -j Q 1927 5 33*-35 • A ' Point Grey Board of School Trustees, Annual Report) 1928,2L>4, ' • ' • ' • « 84 was a s s i s t e d by a s t a f f of 25, which included a l l the elementary school v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s . On January 1 s t . , 1929, the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Poi n t Grey was amalgamated w i t h the c i t y of Vancouver. Development of j u n i o r high school work i n the Poin t Grey d i s t r i c t a f t e r that date w i l l be d e a l t w i t h under the heading o f J u n i o r High Schools i n Vancouver, (b) Costs.- As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the by-law f o r the e r e c t i o n of the P o i n t Grey J u n i o r High School was f o r $480,000 .00, Of t h i s sum, $283,490.00 was p a i d to the general co n t r a c t o r s , $52,338.00 f o r heating and v e n t i l a t i n g , equipment, and I n s t a l l a t i o n , and $17,000.00 f o r e l e c t r i c a l work. The 14 Department of Education granted $35,000.00 towards the cost. The 1928 per c a p i t a cost f o r j u n i o r high school p u p i l s i n Point Grey was $98.14,. During the same year the high school 15 per c a p i t a cost was $124,39 and the elementary was $63.36, By 16 1931 t h i s j u n i o r high school cost had been reduced to $87.93. (c) Enrolment and d i s t r i b u t i o n . - In 1926-27 Point Grey had e n r o l l e d i n j u n i o r high school work 20 boys and 15 g i r l s , 17 ta k i n g Grade V l l work. In 1927-28 the enrolment was 75, 18 composed of 37 Grade V l l p u p i l s and 38 Grade V l l l p u p i l s . The next year, when Grade V l l p u p i l s from a l l elementary schools 14. i b i d . , 206. 1 5 * i b i d . , 225. 16, Vancouver School Board. Annual Report, 1931, 52. 17. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Annual Report, 1926-27, M 12. 18. i d . , 1927-28, M 12, 85 were taken i n t o the j u n i o r high school organization, the enrolment increased, to 797, which included only one Grade V l l l c l a s s of 47 p u p i l s . The other 750 p u p i l s were ta k i n g Grade V l l 19 work," (d) Subject o f f e r i n g s . - In 1926-27 the f o l l o w i n g subjects were o f f e r e d to j u n i o r high school p u p i l s In P o i n t Grey: reading, writing., s p e l l i n g , E n g l i s h composition, E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , Canadian c i v i c s , ^ h i s t o r y , geography, a r i t h m e t i c , French, drawing, woodwork, d r a f t i n g , metalwork, hygiene, cooking, dressmaking, music, and p h y s i c a l education. In 1927-28 algebra, geometry, general science, typing and e l e c t r i c i t y . 2 0 were added to t h i s l i s t of subject o f f e r i n g s . I t must be remembered t h a t at t h i s time the modern j u n i o r high school b u i l d i n g had not been completed, . D. VANCOUVER JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS The C i t y of Vancouver has developed f u r t h e r i n the f i e l d of j u n i o r high school work than any other c i t y i n Canada. This development dates back to 1925, the year of the Putman-Weir Report of t h e i r survey of the province. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n pointed out that Vancouver's e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , c a l l e d a j u n i o r high school, was not a true intermediate school but that i t was " r e a l l y a s p e c i a l school f o r retarded c h i l d r e n , and c a l l i n g i t a j u n i o r high school 19. i d . , 1928-29, M 14. 20. i d . , 1926-27,M 109; 1927-28, V 11; 1928-29, R 115. 86 has tended i n the C i t y of Vancouver to attach a wrong meaning 21 to t h i s term." This same report d e a l t c a r e f u l l y w i t h t h i s c i t y ' s educational problems and needs and st r o n g l y urged the establishment of true intermediate schools i n the c i t y . D e f i n i t e suggestions as to how these schools"might be e s t a b l i s h e d a t a minimum expense were submitted i n the recommendations. (a) Templeton J u n i o r High School.- In 1926, the year f o l l o w i n g the Putman-Weir Report, the Vancouver School Hoard took d e f i n i t e steps to put i n t o e f f e c t the recommendations regarding j u n i o r high schools i n Vancouver. A vigorous b u i l d i n g programme was embarked upon. The necessary money was voted by the ratepayers to b u i l d an intermediate school i n the East End of the c i t y . This Templeton J u n i o r High School o r g i n a l l y was to c o n s i s t of eighteen standard classrooms, one home economics room, science laboratory, l i b r a r y , woodworking shop, metal shop, d r a f t i n g room, gymnasium, auditorium, and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e s . P r i n c i p a l H.B. F i t c h , who had made a c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of j u n i o r high school b u i l d i n g s and procedure i n many of the c i t i e s i n United States, was placed i n charge. The f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s j u n i o r high school was completed e a r l y i n 1927, but i t was not opened u n t i l September of that year. The f i r s t u n i t of the Templeton J u n i o r High School, containing nine modern class-rooms, was not completed 21. Putman, J.H. and Weir, G.M.. Survey of the School System of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia,. V i c t o r i a , 1925, 387. 87 t i l l the beginning of the second term of the school-year. As t h i s was not a s u i t a b l e time to begin j u n i o r high school work, and as the rooms were not ur g e n t l y needed f o r other purposes, i t was decided not to begin work i n i t t i l l September, 1927.^ St In the meantime the Board of School Trustees decided to widen t h e i r plans f o r development of intermediate schools i n Vancouver. E a r l y i n the school-year (1927) the Board decided to take, immediate steps to begin j u n i o r high school work i n the south-west p o r t i o n of the c i t y as w e l l as i n the north-east at the beginning of the next school-year. They also decided to secure, i f p o s s i b l e , a s u f f i c i e n t sum of money to purchase s u i t a b l e school-s i t e s w h i l e such could be secured where needed and at reasonable p r i c e s . They accordingly appealed to the ratepayers i n December f o r the sums required. These were the f o l l o w i n g : -(1) New J u n i o r High School, Twelfth Avenue and T r a f a l g a r S t r e e t . . . ....$215,000 A d d i t i o n to Templeton j u n i o r High School, Templeton Drive and Georgia Street • 125,000 Excavations f o r both schools, 10,000 Fur n i t u r e and equipment of both schools... 50,000 "$400,000 C 2 ) Sclioo 1™ si't/SS •••»«••••••••• jLjt. *•»•«•©••«•«•« 50 j 000 Both these by-laws were endorsed. J The j u d i c i o u s s e l e c t i o n of teachers f o r the new j u n i o r high schools presented many d i f f i c u l t i e s . P roperly q u a l i f i e d s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t o r s were hard to obtain. Mr. J.S. Gordon, Superintendent of Vancouver Schools, reported to the M i n i s t e r of Education: -The School Board has already experienced much d i f f i c u l t y i n s e l e c t i n g the teaching force we deem indispensable to the highest success i n the new type of school. Indeed, we have found i t almost impossible 22. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Annual Report, 1926-27, M 44. 23. i b i d . , M 44. • 88 to, secure the l i m i t e d number of s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t o r s i n a r t , music, h e a l t h education, and household a r t s t h a t we require f o r two schools w i t h a combined enrolment of l e s s than 2,000, I t must also be apparent that t h e , s t a f f i n g of these two schools i n 1927. w i l l make i t more d i f f i c u l t to s t a f f equally w e l l other schools l a t e r , unless something i s done i n the meantime to t r a i n the teachers required, but not now a v a i l a b l e , f o r c e r t a i n work*,24 Templeton J u n i o r High School opened on September 6, 1927, w i t h an enrolment of 931 Grade V l l and Grade V l l l p u p i l s , d i v i d e d i n t o 24 cl a s s e s . The s t a f f included P r i n c i p a l H.B, P i t c h and 28 c a r e f u l l y chosen teachers. Since 1927 the school has had a very r a p i d growth, as i l l u s t r a t e d by Table V l l , TABLE V l l PUPIL ENROLMENT TEMPLETON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL Year- Div. <~>t*, Teachers P u p i l s m Gr. V l l P u p i l s m Gr. V l l l P u p i l s • m Gr. IX To t a l 1927-28 24 29 513 418 — - 931 1928-29 35 44 593 454 314 1361 1929-30 35 44 464 547 332 1343 1930-31 35 44 554 443 347 1374 1931-32 35 44 577 469 351 1397 1932-33 37 46 558 536 368 1462 1933-34 38 48 582 489 430 1501 1934-35 39 50 668 513 367 1548 1935-36 41 51 691 561 385 1637 ,_ In order to accommodate the in c r e a s i n g number of p u p i l s i t was found necessary i n 1928-29 to erect a t h i r d u n i t to t h i s j u n i o r high school. The equivalent of twenty-three more classrooms, a c a f e t e r i a , and l a b o r a t o r i e s were added to the 24. i b i d . , M 45. 25. i d . , 1927-28, V 13: 1928-29, R 15$ 1929-30, Q 15; 1930-31, L 16; 1931-32, L 17; 1932-33, M 18; 1933-34, N 29; 1934-35, S 30; 1935-36, H 153. 8 9 e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e . 2 ^ From the beginning Templeton .Junior High School offered to the e n r o l l e d p u p i l s the subjects l a i d down by the Programme of Studies f o r J u n i o r High Schools,a s y l l a b u s which was issued by the Department of Education i n 1927. Table V l l l gives a complete l i s t of the constants and v a r i a b l e s f o r each o f the grades. The Grade Nine subjects were not of f e r e d u n t i l September, 1928, when the f i r s t Grade Fine classes were e n r o l l e d . TABLE V l l l PROGRAMME'OF- STUDIES FOR B.C. JUNIOR HIGH.SCHOOLS Grade Subjects Periods per week Grade V l l 5 (constants) So 0 X 9.1' S CHQ-X6S » * • » • • • • • • • • * • • 5 Health and P h y s i c a l Education 3 Mathematics.«».•.•.»•..••.... 5 P r a c t i c a l Arts..»»«.•«•»•««•. 4 General Science 2 I\/Tll SI C • • « i 9 » • « • • a » 2 Ai*"t> • ••••*•*•••••••*•••••••••• 2 .5 T o t a l 33 Grade V l l Fit* GTTCll • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • e « * • • • 3-5 ( e l e c t i v e s ) or S p e c i a l E n g l i s h ( a d d i t i o n a l ) . 3-5 or General Language............. 5 P r a c t i c a l A r t s ( a d d i t i o n a l ) . . 2-6 Health and P h y s i c a l Education ( a d d i t i o n a l ) . . 1-2 Study ( a d d i t i o n a l ) 2 S p e c i a l Try-out Courses i n any authorized subject running from one-quarter to 3-5 26. i d . , 1928-29, R 38. 90 TABLE V l l l ( c o n t i n u e d ) PROGRAMME OF STUDIES FOR B.C. JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS Grade Grade V l l l (constants) Grade V l l l ( e l e c t i v e s ) Grade IX (constants) Grade IX ( e l e c t i v e s ) Subjects sEnglish. S o c i a l Studies Health and P h y s i c a l Education Mathematics...... P r a c t i c a l Arts General Science.. Music,.... . Educa e • • » e e e e * * e « a • * « B « « « » e « * © a # • « » • « « e « © « e • e s> French... or S p e c i a l E n g l i s h , , or General LanguageP r a c t i c a l A r t s . . . Health and P h y s i c a l Education A g r i c u l t u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A r t . Typewriting.................. J u n i o r Business. Study ( a d d i t i o n a l ) S p e c i a l Try-out Courses...... « 9 • O • • • • E n g l i s h . . . . . . Health and P h y s i c a l Education O "til • e * « « * * « * * « * * * * « * « * e * « « o Ancient H i s t o r y . S p e c i a l E n g l i s h . General Science. •. A g r i c u l t u r e General Mathematics. Business Arithmetic Shop A r i t h m e t i c . Periods per week . 5 5 3 5 4 2 2 - 4" 30 •5' 5 3-5 5 2-6 1- 2 3 2- 5 2-5 2- 5 1-3 3- 5 5 5 3 7 20 5 5 5(-|- year) 3(1 year) 3-5 3-5 5 5 2-5 2-5 91 TABLE V l l l ( c o n t i n u e d ) PROGRAMME OF STUDIES FOR B.C. JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS Grade Periods Subjects p er week Grade IX ( e l e c t i v e s ) A r t ••» . • • • • 2—5 Music 2-5 Pl*clC"fcl C ell PLX* L/S » ••«••••••••••« 10 Typewriting 2-5 Bookkeeping. 2-5 Sho rthand.................... 2— 5 J u n i o r Business.,... 2-5 Health and P h y s i c a l Education ... 1-2, " 2 T Note: T o t a l number of periods per week f o r each p u p i l ' s course,, .40. ' ' . . : In 1932 a new Programme of Studies f o r J u n i o r High Schools was issued by the Department of Education. The l i s t of constant subjects was not changed, but the time allotment f o r Grade IX E n g l i s h was changed from f i v e to s i x periods per week and one p e r i o d was deducted from study i n order to allow f o r t h i s change. General language f o r Grades V l l and V l l l was dropped from the l i s t of v a r i a b l e s . The option of extra h e a l t h and physical"education was no longer o f f e r e d to any grade. Ancient: h i s t o r y was deleted from the Grade IX l i s t o f o p t i o n a l - 28 subjects. . Following a province-wide r e v i s i o n of the elementary, j u n i o r . h i g h school, and high school c u r r i c u l a , a Programme of Studies f o r J u n i o r High Schools was i s s u e d i n 1936.: The two 27:. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Programme of  Studies f o r J u n i o r High Schools, 1927, 7. 28. i d . , 1932, 7. 92 main changes i n regard to constants were that one period was to be devoted to l i b r a r y i n each, of the three grades and that h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l education were to be treated as two subjects i n Grades V l l and V l l l - h e a l t h to recieve one period and p h y s i c a l education, three* The most outstanding changes i n regard to e l e c t i v e s were; i . t h a t remedial E n g l i s h was to be of f e r e d i n a l l grades, as w e l l as e x t r a E n g l i s h f o r g i f t e d p u p i l s , • i i v t h a t the time allotment f o r L a t i n and French i n Grades V l l and V l l l was reduced from 5 to 3-4 periods per week. i i i , t h at music was deleted from the Grade IX l i s t , i v . t h a t the time allotment f o r Grade IX general science was". increased from 3 to 5 periods; f o r Grade IX shorthand, from 2-5 to 5; and f o r Grade IX a r t , from 3 to 2-10. v. t h a t the time allotment was reduced f o r Grade IX general mathematics from 6 to 5 periods; f o r Grade IX j u n i o r business, from 2-5 to 2; and f o r Grade IX shop ar i t h m e t i c from 2-5 to, 3, • Considerable freedom was given to the p r i n c i p a l s i n regard to apportioning of ex t r a time f o r such purposes as guidance. The allotment of periods as given above does not r e s t r i c t the r i g h t of a p r i n c i p a l to make use of unassigned time f o r auditorium periods, a c t i v i t y periods, d i s p l a y s and school c e l e b r a t i o n s , and f o r guidance per i o d s , and, from time to time, to modify the regular programme f o r these purposes. 0 At present Templeton J u n i o r High School a l l o t s one period per week i n a l l gra.des f o r guidance. S p e c i a l counsellors f o r the g i r l s and f o r the boys are used f o r t h i s purpose. One peri o d of the time allotment f o r E n g l i s h i n Grades V l l l and IX and f o r s o c i a l studies i n Grade V l l l i s assigned as an auditorium period. ' 7 • 29. i d , , 1926, 21. 30, i b i d . , 21, tZ\to 93 In order to cater to the wide range of p u p i l s ' i n t e r e s t s and aptitudes the Vancouver j u n i o r high schools o f f e r each year an i n c r e a s i n g range of course combinations. Grade S i x if p u p i l s , upon entering the j u n i o r high school, must decide between two general courses - one w i t h a f o r e i g n language (French) and the other without. Grade Eight p u p i l s are given a wider choice i n regard to t h e i r courses i n order to allow them an opportunity to explore the three main types of courses - academic, commercial, and t e c h n i c a l . Ten d i s t i n c t course combinations are, o f f e r e d i n Grade E i g h t at Templeton Junior High School, Three Grade Eight combinations lead to e i t h e r academic or t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n Grade Nine. Three l e a d to academic or commercial or t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , two to commercial or t e c h n i c a l , and two, lead only to a s p e c i a l i z e d Grade Nine t e c h n i c a l course. When the p u p i l s have completed t h e i r Grade Eight try-out courses, they are then i n a p o s i t i o n to make a wise s e l e c t i o n from the fourteen Grade Nine courses of f e r e d . The f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l , issued i n pamphlet form for, the parents' information, c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of courses offered at Templeton-Junior High School f o r the year 1937-38, The courses are s i m i l a r to those o f f e r e d by a l l of Vancouver's j u n i o r high schools, i>. ACADEMIC COURSES % (Grade Nine) These l e a d to Grades Ten, Eleven and Twelve at an academic senior high school, such as Britannia,'A High School Graduation C e r t i f i c a t e , w i l l be presented when such courses are completed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The U n i v e r s i t y or Normal School may then be entered i f the M a t r i c u l a t i o n examinations m prescr i b e d subjects are passed. Compulsory Subjects: 94 E n g l i s h 6; Mathematics 7; Studies 4> Science 4; P h y s i c a l Education 3; Guidance 1. Optipnal Sub.j ects; (One of the f o l l o w i n g groups must be chosen:) periods; L a t i n 3; A r t 2; Study 2. Course A B C D E French 4 French 4 French 4 French 4 L a t i n 3 periods; ti L a t i n Shops Study A r t 3; Music 2; Study 2. or Home Economics 4; 3. F French 4 2; Music 2; Study 3. Shops or Home Economics 4; Stuay 4. Shops or Home Economics 4; Study 3, (Course F may also be used to enter Grade Ten i n a Commercial High School Graduation Course.) COMMERCIAL COURSES: (Grade Nine) (a) Diploma Courses: P u p i l s Intending to s p e c i a l i z e i n commercial work and having a b i l i t y to complete the commercial high school course q u a l i f y i n g them f o r a Commercial Diploma are l i m i t e d to the f o l l o w i n g courses: Compulsory Sub j e c t s : E n g l i s h 7; S o c i a l Studies 5; Typing 4; Bus. A r i t h . 4; Bookeeping 5; Guidance 1; P h y s i c a l Education 3. Optional Sub.j ects: (One of the f o l l o w i n g groups must be chosen:) Shops or Home Economics 4; Study 3. A r t 2; Music 2; Study 3. Course tt G H I J Science 4; Study 3, A r t 4; Study 3. . (b) High School Graduation Courses: P u p i l s i n t e r e s t e d i n commercial subjects but not wishing to" s p e c i a l i z e e n t i r e l y i n t h a t l i n e may choose from the f o l l o w i n g courses leading to Grade Ten commercial high school. Compulsory Sub.j ects: E n g l i s h 7; S o c i a l Studies 5; "Typing 4; Bus. A r i t h . 4; Guidance 1; P h y s i c a l Ed. 3. Optional Subjects: (One of the f o l l o w i n g groups must be chosen.) Course K Shops or Home Economics 4; Science 4; Ar t 2; Study 2. " L Shops or Home Economics 4; Science 4; Music 2; Study 2. " M Shops or Home Economics 4; A r t 4; Study 4. 95 3.TECHNICAL COURSE; (Grade Nine) (For boys intending to q u a l i f y f o r Grade Ten at , the Technical High School.) Course N E n g l i s h 6; S o c i a l Studies 4; Mathematics 7; Science 4; Shops 85 Guidance 1; P h y s i c a l Education 3;'-Study-"3. (b) K i t s i l a n o J u n i o r High School.- As already has been mentioned, the rate-payers of Vancouver e a r l y i n 1927 approved of a money by-law f o r $215,000 to b u i l d a j u n i o r high school a t the "'corner of Twelfth Avenue and T r a f a l g a r Street. This; K i t s i l a n o J u n i o r High School, opened on September 6th., 1927, was administered i n conjunction w i t h the high school of the same name by P r i n c i p a l H.B., King* The f i r s t u n i t of the new b u i l d i n g consisted of twenty-one standard classrooms, a l i b r a r y , an auditorium, a double gymnasium,, a c a f t e r i a , 'three science l a b o r a t o r i e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e s , medical room, 31 and teachers' rooms. During the school year 1928-29 a second u n i t was added, i n c l u d i n g the equivalent of twenty-seven more 32 classrooms and an extension of the c a f t e r i a acommodations. . The K i t s i l a n o J u n i o r High School has had a growth that even exceeded t h a t of the Templeton Ju n i o r High School. Table IX c l e a r l y shows t h i s increase i n p u p i l enrolment and i n the number of teachers employed. Some a u t h o r i t i e s have recommended that when the secondary school enrolment of a d i s t r i c t has reached a t o t a l of f i v e hundred t h a t the j u n i o r high school and senior high school p u p i l s should be segregated i n separate i n s t i t u t i o n s . The 31. King, H.B., op. c i t . , 33-35. 32. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Annual Report, 1928-29, R 38. 96 K i t s i l a n o J u nior-Senior High School has shown that i t i s quite f e a s i b l e to operate a j u n i o r - s e n i o r organization with a very l a r g e enrolment e For ps y c h o l o g i c a l reasons care i s taken to have separate assemblies and separate student governments, etc. f o r the j u n i o r students. I t i s claimed that under the j u n i o r - s e n i o r form of organization more economic use can be made of teachers' s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s . A f i n a n c i a l saving i n regard to the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f i s also an important item i n favour of t h i s type of school. TABLE IX PUPIL ENROLMENT - KITSILANO JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL P u p i l s P u p i l s P u p i l s T o t a l Year Div. Teachers i n i n i n P u p i l s Gr. V l l Gr. V l l l Gr. IX 1927-28 20 21 356 461 817 1928-29 35 43 545 371 428 1344 1929-30 43 57 553 665 372 1590 1930-31 43 57 554 635 434 1623 1931-32 39 55 502 534 527 1563 1932-33 37 53 480 529 484 1493 1933-34 41 55 629 512 465 1606 1934-35 45 60 663 650 447 1760 1935-36 43 60 663 599 389 1651 "33" (c) P o i n t Grey J u n i o r High School.- When the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Poi n t Grey u n i t e d w i t h the C i t y of Vancouver i n 1929, the Poi n t Grey J u n i o r High School came under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Vancouver School Board. I n September of t h i s year the new j u n i o r high school b u i l d i n g , the money f o r which had been appropriated by the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Po i n t Grey, was occupied f o r the f i r s t time. 33. i d . , 1927-28, V 12; 1928-29, R 14; 1929-30, Q 13; 1930-31, L 15; 1931-32, L 16; 1932-33, M 17; 1933-34, N 28; 1934-35, S 28; 1935-36, H 152. 97 The P o i n t Grey J u n i o r High School was completed about the middle of the year and has been occupied during the l a s t term. I t i s , perhaps, the most elaborate b u i l d i n g i n the whole of the greater c i t y of Vancouver, and the Trustees, A r c h i t e c t s and Secretary of the former P o i n t Grey School Board, Mr. George M. M i l l a r , deserve great c r e d i t f o r the thoroughness and completeness of which t h i s b u i l d i n g i s an example,, 3 4 Since coming under the c o n t r o l of the Vancouver School Board, the P o i n t Grey J u n i o r High School has continued i t s growth as i l l u s t r a t e d by Table X. TABLE X PUPIL .ENROLMENT - POINT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL Year Div. Teachers P u p i l s i n Gr. V l l P u p i l s i n Gr. V l l l P u p i l s i n ' Gr. IX Tota l P u p i l s 1929-30 35 44 564 667 52 1283 1930-31 34 J 44 467 569 189 1225 1931-32 34 44 477 491 318 1286 1932-33 35 45 • 451 546 341 1338 1933-34 36 46 565 495. 335 1395 1934-35 36 46 540 541 314 1395 1935-36 36 46 530 537 309 1376 35 In 1933 Mr. P.N. Whitley, the v i c e - p r i n c i p a l of the school since i t s i n c e p t i o n , was appointed as p r i n c i p a l . Mr. H.N. McCorkindale, Superintendent of Vancouver Schools and former p r i n c i p a l o f the Po i n t Grey J u n i o r High School,had resigned i n that year to assume h i s new duties. 34. Vancouver Board of School Trustees, Annual Report. 1929, 18> 35. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Annual Report, 1929-30,' Q 14; 1930-31, L 15; 1931-32, L 16; 1932-33, M 18; 1933-34, N 28; 1934-35, S 30; 1935-36, H 152. 98 E. NEW WESTMINSTER.JUNIOR HIGH SGHOOLS Hew Westminster's gradual approach to j u n i o r high school ' work began when Grades VI to V l l l i n the elementary schools were departmentalized. This move met w i t h u n i v e r s a l favour and i n 1928-29 the programme of work f o r j u n i o r high schools was undertaken i n Grade V l l and V l l l , M u nicipal Inspector R.S. Shields reported; The J u n i o r High School Programme was introduced i n September i n fo u r centres(Grades V l l and V l l l o n l y ) . We f e e l t h a t a s p l e n d i d beginning has been made and w i t h a few minor b u i l d i n g changes and s t a f f rearrangements t h i s branch of the school system w i l l be at f u l l strength; l a t e r we hope to include Grade IX, which,, at the present i s being taught i n the high schools, (a) P u p i l Enrolment f o r 1 9 2 8 - 2 9 T h e f o l l o w i n g table gives the p u p i l enrolment by grades i n each of the four centres, TABLE'.XL PUPIL ENROLMENT - NEW WESTMINSTER JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS (1928-29) School No. of Div, Grade V l l Grade V l l l T o t a l 6 119 112 231 L i s t e r - K e l v i n , . . . . 4 74 76 150 Richard McBride,.* 4 65 73 138 Herbert Spencer,.. 3 75 _ 36 i i i 17 333 . 297 630 2 2 _ (b) Curriculum o f f e r e d i n 1928-29.- Upon examination of the 36, i d . , 1928-29, R 36. 37. i b i d . , R 13. 99 c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s f o r 1928-29 we f i n d that the same course was given to a l l p u p i l s . Algebra, geometry and general science were the only subjects which had not been offered to Grade V l l and V l l l p u p i l s i n the former elementary schools,, Wo f o r e i g n 38 language, commercial work, or shopwork was attempted. (c) L a t e r developments.- In 1929-30 the p u p i l enrolment i n the Few Westminster J u n i o r High School centres decreased to 640 and dropped s t i l l f u r t h e r to 518 i n 1930-31. In 1931-32 the enrolment was 565. Up to t h i s time Grades V l l and V l l l only 39 were included i n the j u n i o r high school organization. The centres were run i n connection w i t h elementary schools under the elementary school p r i n c i p a l s . I n 1932-33 Grade Nine work was taught i n these schools f o r the f i r s t time. The enrolment f o r t h i s year i s l i s t e d below. TABLE X l l PUPIL ENROLMENT - NEW WESTMINSTER JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS (1932-33) No. School of Grade Grade Gr. T o t a l Div. V l l V l l l IX 10 117 145 97 359 L i s t e r - K e I v i n 7 110 73 51 234 Richard MeBride........ 5 76 38 64 178 Herbert Spencer....... 2 68 68 .24 .. 371 256 212 . 839 40 In 1933-34 j u n i o r high school work i n New Westminster was discontinued and the o l d 8-4 system was re-introduced. This 38. i d . , 1928-29, R 112. 39. i d . , 1929-30, Q 13; 1930-31, L 14; 1931-32, L 14. 40. i d . , 1932-33, M 16. 100 move was taken as an economy measure. However, by 1935 there was a d i s t i n c t movement towards the r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g of the 6-3-3 o r g a n i z a t i o n . On A p r i l 11th of that year there appeared the f o l l o w i n g item i n the Vancouver D a i l y Province. NEW WESTMINSTER'} A p r i l 11.- Restoration of the j u n i o r h i g h school system i s under consideration by the school t r u s t e e s , who have asked, f o r a report on the matter by Roy S. S h i e l d s , school inspector. I t i s stated that accommodation, equipment and teachers are a v a i l a b l e and t h a t i t would not be necessary to construct new b u i l d i n g s . 1 Inspector Shields reported i n favour of the re-establishment of j u n i o r h i g h school. The School Board agreed and i n 1936 he was able to r e p o r t to the M i n i s t e r of Education that: In June the Board of School Trustees reintroduced the j u n i o r high school. Three centres were chosen -Richard MeBride i n the north-eastern s e c t i o n of the c i t y , John Robson i n the centre, and L i s t e r K e l v i n i n the western s e c t i o n . Each school i s f u l l y equipped f o r science, a r t , music, and i n d u s t r i a l a r t s and has a l i b r a r y and gymnasium and a capable s t a f f . We are looking forward w i t h confidence to the success f o l l o w i n g the Board's a c t i o n . F. NELSON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (a) Establishment.- A j u n i o r high school was established at 43 Nelson i n 1928-29. I t e n r o l l e d 263 p u p i l s i n seven d i v i s i o n s . The p u p i l s were drawn from the C e n t r a l Elementary School, which was reduced i n s i z e from nineteen d i v i s i o n s to fourteen 41. Vancouver D a i l y Province, A p r i l 11, 1935, 2. 42. B.C. department of Education, Annual Report, 1935-36, H 93. 43. i d . , 1928-29, R 15. 101 d i v i s i o n s , and from the Hume Elementary School which was reduced i n s i z e from seven to f i v e d i v i s i o n s . , The T r a f a l g a r School at Nelson, formerly projected and p a r t i a l l y b u i l t as an elementary school, was converted i n t o a very s a t i s f a c t o r y J u n i o r High School b u i l d i n g , the t o t a l cost amounting to $131,000. Seven d i v i s i o n s were accommodated i n i t i n November, but the formal opening d i d not take place u n t i l February 14th. The c i t i z e n s of Nelson are j u s t l y proud of t h i s very e x c e l l e n t structure.44: The p r i n c l p a l s h l p of t h i s Nelson J u n i o r High School was entrusted by the Board of School Trustees to H. McArthur, who has continued to hold t h i s p o s i t i o n up to the present time. On h i s f i r s t s t a f f he had the f o l l o w i n g teachers: Misses E. E t t e r , M. Delaney, M. MacDonald, M.E. Mackenzie, M.C. Mar t i n , F. 45 Robertson, and Messrs, W. Cameron and A. Cornish, (b) Growth i n enrolment.- From the seven d i v i s i o n s e n r o l l e d i n 1928-29 the school has gra d u a l l y grown u n t i l to-day i t e n r o l l s 330 p u p i l s i n nine d i v i s i o n s . Below i s tabled a complete p i c t u r e of t h i s development. TABLE XL11 PUPIL ENROLMENT - NELSON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL TJo7~ Year . of Grade Grade Grade Tota l Div. V l l V l l l IX 1928-29 7 145 118 ,263 1929-30 - 9 128 129 71 328 1930-31 10 117 130 107 354 1931-32 9 120 111 109 340 1932-33 9 100 106 122 328 1933-34 9 108 98 107 313 1934-35 9 124 107 95 326 1935-36 9 110 120 100 330 44. i b i d . , 31, 45, i b i d . , 13. 46 46, i d . , 1928-29, R 13: 1929-30, Q 13; 1930-31, L 14; 1931-32, L 15; 1932-33, M 16; 1933-34, N 26; 1934-35, S 28; 1935-36, H 150, 102 (c) Subject o f f e r i n g s . - In 1928-29 the p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n the Nelson J u n i o r High School were i n Grades Seven and Eight only. The subject o f f e r i n g s to these pupils- included reading, w r i t i n g , s p e l l i n g , composition, E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , Canadian c i v i c s , h i s t o r y , geography, a r i t h m e t i c , algebra, geometry, general science, L a t i n , French, drawing, typewriting, commercial law, woodwork, d r a f t i n g , metalwork, hygiene, cooking* 47 dressmaking, p h y s i c a l education, and music. The next year, When Grade Nine students were included i n the enrolment, the •following,subjects were also offered; bookkeeping and accounting, shorthand, commercial business correspondence and 48 f i l i n g , and machine shopwork. G. OTHER JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA (a) West Vancouver.- A j u n i o r high school was organized i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of West Vancouver during the year 1933-34. The enrolment, which was 265 at the time of organization, increased to 302 i n 1934-35 and dropped s l i g h t l y to 295 i n 49 1935-36. At present the p u p i l enrolment i s divided into three Grade V l l c l a s s e s , three Grade V l l l c l a s s e s , and two Grade IX cla s s e s . The school operates on a s i x - p e r i o d day, each pe r i o d being approximately 55 minutes i n length. No p r o v i s i o n i s 47. i d . , 1928-29, R 115. 48. i d . , 1929-30, Q 114. 49. i d . , 1933-34, N 16; 1934-35, S 18; 1935-36, H 16. 103 made f o r separate study periods, the l a s t f i f t e e n minutes of each subject p e r i o d being used f o r that purpose,, Grade V l l p u p i l s are d i v i d e d i n t o two groups, those t a k i n g French and those who take no f o r e i g n language. The non-French group takes a d d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h instead of t h i s f o r e i g n language. Grade V l l l p u p i l s are allowed only three periods of o p t i o n a l work. Grade IX p u p i l s , who intend to take the m a t r i c u l a t i o n course, are permitted f o u r periods of options. Non-matriculation students may e l e c t to drop French and take three extra periods of options. The l a s t p e r i o d of each Wednesday i s devoted to clubs. The l i s t of clubs f u n c t i o n i n g during the year 1936-37 includes: dramatics, tumbling, science, r e f e r e e s , Red Gross, nursing, woodwork, cooking, orchestra, band, hobbies, and k n i t t i n g clubs. In the West Vancouver J u n i o r High School the subject o f f e r i n g s and time allotments during the year 1936-37 as f o l l o w s : Grade Seven compulsory sub.j ects-E n g l i s h , 4 French or remedial E n g l i s h , 3 s o c i a l s t u d i e s , 4 p h y s i c a l education and h e a l t h , 4 mathematics,4 p r a c t i c a l a r t s , 2 science, 2 music, 2 l i b r a r y , 1 a r t , 2 guidance, 1 clubs, 1 Grade Seven options-none,other than the d e c i s i o n i n regard to French or remedial E n g l i s h . Grade E i g h t compulsory sub.j ects-E n g l i s h , 4 P h y s i c a l education and h e a l t h , 3 s o c i a l s t u d i e s , 4 p r a c t i c a l a r t s , 3 mathematics, 3 music, 2 science, 2 a r t , 2 French , 3 clubs, 1 104 Grade E i g h t options-L a t i n , 3 ty p i n g , 3 remedial E n g l i s h , 3 Grade Nine compulsory sub riects-E n g l i s h , 4 French, 3 s o c i a l s t u d i e s , 4 p h y s i c a l education and health, 3 mathematics, 4 p r a c t i c a l a r t s , 3 science,4 clubs, 1 Grade Nine options-L a t i n , 3 shorthand, 3 music, 2 a r t , 2 ty p i n g , 2-3 mechanical drawing, 3 (b) ganaimo.- A j u n i o r high school was f i r s t introduced into the C i t y of Nanaimo i n the year 1930-31. The enrolment f o r the f i r s t year was 266 Grade Seven and Eight p u p i l s .divided i n t o e i g h t c l a s s e s . Eleven teachers were employed and worked under the guidance of A.S. Towell, supervising p r i n c i p a l f o r the Nanaimo C i t y Schools. Since 1930-31 t h i s John Shaw Jun i o r High School has had a s l i g h t decrease i n attendance. A complete record of enrolment and d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l be found i n Table XIV. TABLE XIV PUPIL ENROLMENT - NANAIMO JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL No. No. P u p i l s P u p i l s P u p i l s Year of of i n i n i n T o t a l Div. Teachers Gr. V l l Gr. V l l l Gr..IX 1930- 31 8 11 T A T 1931- 32 7 11 i i i 125 266 1932- 33 7 I I i^ — 244 1933- 34 7 11 1PP — 234 1934- 35 7 11 il§ ]H — 233 1935- 36 6 11 J 2 1 jj|§ " I | g 50. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Annual Report, •1930-31, L 14$ 1931-32, L 15; 1932-33, M 16; 1933-34, N 26; 1934-35, S 27; 1935-36, H 150. 105 (c) Kelojraa.- Kelowna j o i n e d the j u n i o r high school movement i n 1930-31, when s i x d i v i s i o n s were organized under P r i n c i p a l C.J. Frederickson. D i f f e r i n g from the movement i n Nanaimo, the "V •& . - ' -Kelowna J u n i o r High School e n r o l l e d a l l the Grade Nine p u p i l s i n the c i t y as w e l l as those of Grades Seven and Eight. The enrolment and d i s t r i b u t i o n of p u p i l s from 1930 to 1936 i s recorded i n Table XV* TABLE XV PUPIL ENROLMENT - KELOWNA JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL NO. No. P u p i l s P u p i l s P u p i l s Year of of In i n i n T o t a l Div. Teachers Gr. V l l Gr. V l l l Gr. IX 1930-31 6 .9 82 , 88 64 234 1931-32 6 9 74 91 85 250 1932-33 6 : 9 91 79 72 242 1933-34 7 10 109 89 68 266 1934-35 8 11 122 93 90 305 1935-36 . -..9. 12 107 101 103 311 (d) Kamloops.- J u n i o r high school work i n Kamloops began i n 1929-30, when P r i n c i p a l J.F.K. E n g l i s h , of the Kamloops High School, organized p u p i l s of Grades Seven and Eight i n t o s i x , classes f o r intermediate school purposes. General science, French, and L a t i n as w e l l , as elementary: school subjects were • ' ' ' , 52 taught to the 215 e n r o l l e d p u p i l s during t h i s f i r s t year. During 1930-31 the enrolment increased to 230 p u p i l s , but since then i t g r a d u a l l y decreased u n t i l i n 1935-36 only 176 '53 ... p u p i l s attended the s i x classes. Inspector A.F. Matthews has 51. i d . , 1930-31, L 14; 1931-32, L 15; 1932-33, M 16; 1933-34, N 26; 1934-35, S 27; 1935-36, H 150. 52. i d . , 1929-30, Q 114. 53. i d . , 1935-36, H 10. 106 reported very favourably i n regard to the work c a r r i e d on i n t h i s school: A j u n i o r high school i s i n operation i n the Kamloops C i t y D i s t r i c t * The programme of school a c t i v i t i e s i s capably organized and the i n s t r u c t i o n i s c a r r i e d on i n accordance w i t h modern teaching ideas. This school i s under the supervision of the p r i n c i p a l of the senior high school. There should be, I b e l i e v e , greater co-operation between t h i s school and the elementary schools i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . At l e a s t the i n s t r u c t i o n i n manual and p r a c t i c a l a r t s as i t i s now given i n the j u n i o r high school should be extended to the upper grades of the elementary s c h o o l s . ^ H. SUMMARY AND APPRAISAL (a) Past growth of the j u n i o r high school movement i n B.C.-Throughout B r i t i s h Columbia during the past ten years the growth of j u n i o r high schools has been gradual and sure. Table XVI summarizes t h i s development. TABLE XVI GROWTH IN PUPIL:ENROLMENT IN B.C. JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS Year C i t i e s Rural M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Rural D i s t r i c t s T o t a l 1926-27 .213 228 — 441 1927-28 1972 283 — 2255 1928-29 4592 205 4797 1929-30 4957 229 5186 1930-31 5515 234 61 5810 1931-32 5490 267 59 - 5816 1932-33 6348 257 66 6671 1933-34 5665 531 69 6265 1934-35- 5755 644 63 6462 1935-36 5711 614 . 6 2 6387 54. i b i d . , H 51, ' .55 55. i d . 5 1926-27, M 9; 1927-28, V 7; 1928-29, R 7; 1929-30, Q7; 1930-31, L 9; 1931-32, L 9; 1932-33, M 9; 1933-34, N9; 1934-35, S9; 1935-36, H 7. 107 Two, f a c t o r s have tended to hinder a more complete adoption of intermediate schools. The heavy expenses e n t a i l e d by economic conditions during the "depression years" since 1929 have r e s t r a i n e d the p r o v i n c i a l and municipal governments from purchasing the school equipment needed f o r a j u n i o r high school programme. Although Vancouver has three large schools of t h i s type, a large proportion of the p u p i l s of adolescent age are s t i l l attending elementary and high schools under the o l d 8-4 p l a n . The t r u s t e e s , while very much pleased w i t h the work of the e x i s t i n g j u n i o r high schools, have co-operated w i t h the c i t y c o u n c i l i n an attempt to keep the school costs a t a minimum u n t i l the economic conditions improve. The other f a c t o r c u r t a i l i n g j u n i o r high school development w i t h i n the province has been the doubts i n the minds of r u r a l school a u t h o r i t i e s as to the f e a s i b i l i t y of an intermediate school programme i n centres where the p u p i l enrolment i s small. The p r o v i n c i a l inspectors have done good work i n showing these a u t h o r i t i e s various ways by which at l e a s t some of the features of j u n i o r high schools can be adopted even i n the smallest of centres. A s p e c i a l chapter i s being devoted to p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n t h i s regard. As a r e s u l t of the influence of the inspectors and the department of education, the present outlook f o r f u r t h e r j u n i o r high school development i s very favourable. v (b) Present development.- Undoubtedly the j u n i o r high school movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s g a i n i n g i n p o p u l a r i t y each year. In many d i s t r i c t s intermediate schools are being organized at the present time. In other centres f i n a n c i a l problems alone are i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the immediate establishment • 108 of t h i s type of school f o r the e a r l y adolescents. Reports of p r o v i n c i a l inspectors show the widespread i n t e r e s t being created throughout the province, as the f o l l o w i n g excerpts w i l l i n d i c a t e : This type of school i s being considered at Ross land," P r i n c e t o n , and Grand Forks, and.I f e e l that progress i n . t h i s d i r e c t i o n has been made at each of these centres.56 The i d e a was endorsed i n Blakeburn, Keremeos, and loc o . In these places Grades V l l and V l l l have been grouped w i t h the -high-school grades and the work of the s i x grades i s being d i v i d e d between two teachers. ; Fernie i s s t a r t i n g a j u n i o r high school and has es t a b l i s h e d courses i n manual t r a i n i n g , home economics, and commercial Work. Music and p h y s i c a l education are to receive much more emphasis than i n the past. Port Moody has es t a b l i s h e d a j u n i o r high school w i t h the commercial option. Princeton i s introdu c i n g j u n i o r high-school ideas w i t h generous options t h i s year. Vernon's by-law f o r a combined j u n i o r and senior high school was turned down by the vot e r s , but the Board i s going ahead w i t h the establishment of a j u n i o r high school. L a s t term Kimberley decided to begin j u n i o r high school work t h i s year and I b e l i e v e t h i s work i s now under way.57 At Duncan and Fo r t h Saanich, j u n i o r high schools w i l l be opened during the coming year. Ladysmith i s also contemplating the e s t a b l i s h i n g of such a school.5° During the recent summer vacation Powell River and the adjacent d i s t r i c t s of Wildwood, Cranberry Lake, and Westview made the change from an 8-4 to a 6-3-3 o r g a n i z a t i o n . ^ I b e l i e v e t h a t the "seed" has been sown, a l s o , f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the j u n i o r high school i n T r a i l . . . Plans were made f o r J u n i o r High School work at Kalso. The p r i n c i p a l , Mr. Gibson, i s very a c t i v e i n widening the courses i n both the high and elementary schools. I expect to see that 6-3-3 organization i n operation here before another year opens, b U 56, i d . , 1935-36, H 38. 57, i b i d . , H 33. 58, i b i d , , H 36. 59, i b i d . , H 48. 6 0 . i b i d . , H 46, ,109: : Regarding the establishment of j u n i o r high schools, I had,.as you are aware, planned to make a s t a r t on t h i s work at the "beginning of the 1937 f a l l term, as pur high-school accommodation c a l l e d f o r r e l i e f by that time. I had been working and planning w i t h the idea that the course could be centred at three points -E'dmonds St r e e t , Gilmore Avenue, and Kingsway West. The boundaries of s e v e r a l school areas would be changed to u t i l i z e the spare rooms i n other schools and leave these three centres i n a p o s i t i o n to s t a r t j u n i o r high work.vl , Grades V l l , , V l l l , and IX of North Saanich, w i l l be combined to form a j u n i o r high school.©2 B r i t i s h Columbia at present leads the Canadian provinces, not only i n the number of j u n i o r high schools already e s t a b l i s h e d , but also i n the extent to which the great p r i n c i p l e s underlying the j u n i o r high school movement are being r e a l i z e d i n the e x i s t i n g schools. The j u n i o r high schools of Vancouver are modern i n both equipment and.procedures. The educational administrators have watched c l o s e l y intermediate school development i n the United States and In England and are w i l l i n g at any time to permit reasonable experimentation w i t h i n the schools. Each summer a large number of teachers and administrators from Vancouver and other p a r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia have attended u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the U.S.A. i n order to keep pace w i t h the l a t e s t educational developments. Other educators have v i s i t e d and examined the E n g l i s h middle schools. J u n i o r high schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia, .therefore, have had the guidance and c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of men and women who are f u l l y conversant w i t h world-wide development of intermediate school p r a c t i c e s . 61. i b i d . , H 39. 62. I b i d . , H 40. 110 CHAPTER V THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL MOVEMENT * IN OTHER PROVINCE'S Since 1930 se v e r a l of the other Canadian provinces have shown an i n t e r e s t i n intermediate school experimentation,, In-1933 the Province of Nova S c o t i a , f o l l o w i n g the recommendations of a Committee on Studies, adopted new c u r r i c u l a which ne c e s s i t a t e d sweeping changes i n the educational system. The j u n i o r high school on the 6-3-3 ba s i s was strongly advocated by the Department of Education. W i t h i n the l a s t two years the Province of A l b e r t a has r e v i s e d i t s curriculum and has made a change i n the organization, of grades. P r o v i s i o n has been made f o r intermediate school work i n Grades V l l , V l l l , and IX. Each of the provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick has one j u n i o r high school operating at present, l o c a t e d at Westmount and St. John r e s p e c t i v e l y . In Prince Edward I s l a n d there are no true j u n i o r high schools at present, but the programme of studies has been arranged on the 6-3-3 b a s i s . A. 'JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN NOVA SCOTIA (a) Report of the Committee on Studies.- P r i o r to the adoption of j u n i o r high schools In Nova S c o t i a i n 1933, the Department of Education appointed a committee to i n v e s t i g a t e the e x i s t i n g educational system and to b r i n g i n recommendations i n regard, to any de s i r a b l e changes. The report of the committee, I l l submitted to the M i n i s t e r of Education, was decidedly i n favour of a change to the 6-3-3 system. The present school organization comprises eight years <3f s t r i c t l y elementary education followed by an abrupt t r a n s i t i o n to four years of academic high school studies® The members of the committee were unanimous i n the opinion that t h i s organization i s inadequate to give the prospective c i t i z e n the -broad t r a i n i n g he should have before l e a v i n g school. They have recommended that s t r i c t l y elementary education should end w i t h the s i x t h grade; a d i v i s i o n which corresponds to the p e r i o d a t which c h i l d r e n are emerging from childhood i n t o adolescence and are beginning to develop strong i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s . In recommending that the d i v i s i o n should come at the end of Grade VI the Committee i s i n accord w i t h the p r a c t i c e i n England and Europe, and w i t h the more recent developments i n the United States. The programme of studies f o r Grades V l l , V l l l and IX i s designed to continue the common subjects necessary f o r i n t e l l i g e n t c i t i z e n s h i p , to broaden the f i e l d of studies by i n t r o d u c i n g subjects o r d i n a r i l y reserved f o r the high school, and g r a d u a l l y to allow the p u p i l s to pursue e l e c t i v e courses based on t h e i r developing i n t e r e s t s -and a b i l i t i e s . (b) Programme of s t u d i e s . - When the Department of Education issued the programme of studies f o r j u n i o r high schools i n 1933, the f o l l o w i n g changes i n the curriculum f o r Grades V l l , V l l l , and IX were outstanding: I . P r o v i s i o n was made f o r required and e l e c t i v e subjects i n each grade, i i . French and L a t i n were introduced i n Grades V l l and V l l l , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i i i . General mathematics was introduced i n Grade V l l l , to r e p l a c e the t r a d i t i o n a l a r i t h m e t i c of that grade, i v . General science was introduced i n Grade V l l . v. I n d u s t r i a l a r t s , as an e l e c t i v e , was provided f o r i n Grades V l l to IX. v i . P r o v i s i o n was made f o r he a l t h i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l three grades. v i i . Music was to become an e l e c t i v e i n Grades V l l l and IX. v i i i . A r t was l i s t e d as an e l e c t i v e i n a l l three grades. 1. l o v a S c o t i a Department of Education, "Report of the  Committee on Studies," Journal of Education, Series 4, V o l . 4, March 1933, 40. ~" ~ ~ 112 The time allotments f o r the various subjects, both r e q u i r e d and o p t i o n a l , i n each of the grades w i l l be found In Table XVII. (c) S p e c i a l grant f o r j u n i o r high schools,- Section 64(9) of the Education Act of the Province of Nova S c o t i a o u t l i n e s i n d e t a i l the conditions upon which the Department Of Education w i l l a s s i s t the f i n a n c i n g of j u n i o r high schools by means of a s p e c i a l grant. The conditions are as f o l l o w s : • i . The b u i l d i n g (or b u i l d i n g s ) i n which the p u p i l s of Grades V l l , V l l l and IX are housed s h a l l have at l e a s t f i v e class-rooms (departments)--exclusive of the classrooms i n which Mechanical Science ( I n d u s t r i a l Arts) and Domestic Science(HousehoId Arts) are taught, i i . The t o t a l enrolment i n Grades V l l , V l l l and IX s h a l l not be l e s s than 175, i i i . Departmentalized i n s t r u c t i o n s h a l l be given so that not more than 45 p u p i l s s h a l l be taught at any time i n any one classroom; and so that a Grade V l l p u p i l s h a l l be taught by at l e a s t two teachers, a Grade V I I I p u p i l by ay l e a s t two teachers, and a Grade IX p u p i l by at l e a s t three teachers,, i v . At l e a s t two of the teachers s h a l l be u n i v e r s i t y graduates holding e i t h e r Superior F i r s t Class License or Academic License; provided always that any teacher h o l d i n g Academic License may be engaged by the school board without prejudice to the grant, v. The f u l l J u n i o r High School programme of studies, as o u t l i n e d from time to time i n the Journal of Education, s h a l l be o f f e r e d . Including a l l subjects classes as e l e c t i v e subjects. Provided that i n s t r u c t i o n i n Mechanic Science ( I n d u s t r i a l Arts) and Domestic Science (Household Arts) may be given i n b u i l d i n g s other than the J u n i o r High School b u i l d i n g (or b u i l d i n g s ) • ' ' . • v i . Ample playground space s h a l l be provided, i f p o s s i b l e enclosed apart from other playground spaces, v i i . W i t h i n three years from-time of r e c e i p t of f i r s t annual grant under Section 64(9) of the Education Act, the School Board s h a l l provide a reference l i b r a r y of at l e a s t 500 volumes f o r the sole use of the p u p i l s i n the J u n i o r High School b u i l d i n g (or b u i l d i n g s ) , and adequate equipment f o r teaching a l l subjects of the J u n i o r High School programme of s t u d i e s . v i i i . The minimum s a l a r y of teachers employed i n the J u n i o r High School system s h a l l be $600 per year exclusive 113 of p r o v i n c i a l a i d ; but the average s a l a r y of a l l such teachers employed i n the se c t i o n s h a l l not be l e s s than $700 per y e a r * 2 TABLE XVII * SUBJECTS OFFERED IF FOVA SCOTIA JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS Subjects 'Humber of 45 minute periods per week Grade V l l Grade V l l l Grade IX Required Subjects E n g l i s h Reading and L i t e r a t u r e . . . . 3 3 3 Language. 4§ 4g- 4-g-S o c i a l Studies GrG o^x^cipliy«©»•••••••••••••» 2 2 X H i s "t/Oi^y © 2 2 2 C C S • » « « « « e s « » « « o « « « « e « « 1 1 2 General Science...... 3 3 3 IT© cil"fc»lx© •••••»••••••••**••••• 2 2 2 A.x* i " t l imG "t/i c«*•••••••••••••••© 5 ot General Mathematics.. l\,^EixsiCe««««« • • • » • • • • • • » « B « @ E l e c t i v e Subjects & $@»6ett« « « c e « d e e * « « « e e « £ 2 2 2 Ij9*"fc'Hl © • • o o * » » « « * « « * e « » * « « * e e 2 3 I n d u s t r i a l Arts#............ 2__ 3-6 3-6 # Inclu d i n g Home Economics f o r g i r l s . The number of periods to be given t h i s subject i n Grades V l l l and IX w i l l depend on the emphasis the l o c a l communities wish to give I t , and on the m a t e r i a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r teaching the subject.3 (d) Results.- From the beginning the Fova S c o t i a Department of Education has given complete support to the movement f o r intermediate schools i n the province g I t has been u n t i r i n g In i t s e f f o r t s to enlarge the t e r r i t o r y served by properly e s t a b l i s h e d j u n i o r high schools. As a r e s u l t of t h i s I n t e r e s t 2, i d . , A p r i l - May, 1936, 512. 3. Fova S c o t i a Department of Education, "Junior High School Programme of Study." J o u r n a l of Education, Series 4, March, 1933, 41. 114 and support - not only on the p a r t of the Department of Education but also oh the p a r t of teachers and school boards -j u n i o r high school development i n Nova S c o t i a has made s a t i s f a c t o r y progress} both i n the growth i n enrolment and i n the widening of c u r r i o u l a r o f f e r i n g s . L. I t i s s a t i s f a c t o r y to note t h a t the enrolment f o r Grade V l l increased by 679 i n d i c a t i n g that the abrupt break formerly shown i n t h i s stage i s gradually c l o s i n g upJ E q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i s the f a c t that 1108 more p u p i l s were e n r o l l e d l a s t year i n the j u n i o r high school grades ( V l l to I X ) , thus i n c r e a s i n g the very m a t e r i a l f o r which the new course of study i s i n p a r t intendeds That large number that o r d i n a r i l y used to drop out of school i n Grade VI or V l l are more and more remaining to Continue on to Grade I X } seeking i n an enriched curriculum those i n t e r e s t s which they f a i l e d to f i n d i n the more formal studies of a generation ago B. JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN ALBERTA (a) Present o r g a n i z a t i o n of grades.- During the past three years the schools of A l b e r t a have been undergoing r e o r g a n i z a t i o n along the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : i«. adoption of large a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas, i i . r e v i s i o n of the curriculum and the o l d system of grades. i i i . i n t r o d u c t i o n of a type of a c t i v i t y or enterprise programme throughout the schools® The Department of Education plans to have Grades 1 to VI only i n the elementary schools and Grades V l l , V l l l , IX i n intermediate or j u n i o r high schools 0 This change has not yet been completed throughout the whole of the province but 4. Nova Scotia. Department of Education, Journal of Education, Series 4, V o l . 5, A p r i l , 1934, 309. 115 c e r t a i n c i t i e s , such as Calgary, are p a r t i a l l y operating under the new p l a n . Rural elementary schools are s t i l l 5 o f f e r i n g the work of Grades 1 to V l l l . St (b) j u n i o r high school curriculum,- In May, 1937, the A l b e r t a Department of Education issued an i n t e r i m announcement i n regard to the new programme of studies f o r the intermediate schools. According to t h i s announcement the' j u n i o r high school day i s to be d i v i d e d i n t o eight periods. One of these periods must be used as a study period* Compulsory and o p t i o n a l subjects are l i s t e d f o r each grade. Compulsory subjects and p e r i o d allotments f o r Grades V l l and V l l l are; .English, 5; l i b r a r y or remedial E n g l i s h , 3; mathematics, 5; general science, 3; h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l education, 3 or 4 ; music, 2; s o c i a l s t u d i e s , 5; a r t (Grade V l l or Grade V l l l ) , 2; supervised study, 5. This brings the t o t a l of compulsory periods f o r these grades up to 33 out of the 4 0 periods i n the week. Optional subjects f o r these grades include: farm and home accounting, 2 or 3; dramatics, 2 to 4; general shop, 2 to 4; household economics, 2 to 4;. t y p e w r i t i n g , 2 to 3. For Grade IX 28 periods are o b l i g a t o r y . These are d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : E n g l i s h , 5; general science, 5; h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l education, 3; s o c i a l s t u d i e s , 5; supervised study, 5; mathematics, 5, Optional subjects f o r t h i s grade are; a r t , 2 to 4 ; music, 2 to 4 ; general shops, 2 to 4; household economics, 2 to 4 - , elementary bookkeeping, 2 to 4 ; dramatics, 5. Saskatchewan Teachers' Federation. "Alberta Moving Forward'.' B u l l e t i n , V o l . I l l , No. 6, June, 1936, 18. 1 1 6 2 to 4; o r a l French, 2 to 4.© (c) Prospects.- Alberta's system of intermediate schools has not yet been i n e f f e c t s u f f i c i e n t l y long to enable one to pass judgment upon i t s success. Undoubtedly the educational a u t h o r i t i e s appreciate the value and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of j u n i o r high school work. I f l o c a l school boards cooperate by employing p r o p e r l y q u a l i f i e d and sympathetic administrators and teachers and by p r o v i d i n g adequate equipment to carry out the courses advised by the new curriculum, the j u n i o r high school movement i n A l b e r t a .should meet w i t h d e f i n i t e success as i t has i n Manitoba and B r i t i s h Columbia. C. JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.IN QUEBEC (a) The Westmount J u n i o r High School.-The province of Quebec at present has only one true intermediate school, the Argyle J u n i o r High School, which i s located a t Westmount. The educational a u t h o r i t i e s of t h i s c i t y r e a l i z e d that the 8-4 system of o r g a n i z a t i o n of grades d i d not s u i t a b l y care f o r the "non-academic" p u p i l s and b e l i e v e d that p u p i l s should be segregated during the d i f f i c u l t adolescent period. Accordingly, the school commissioner and superintendent decided to e s t a b l i s h a j u n i o r high school i n an attempt to solve these problems. 6 . A l b e r t a Department of Education. "Interim Announcement R e l a t i n g to the New Programme of Studies f o r the Intermediate School." A l b e r t a Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n Magazine, V o l . XVII., No. 9, May, . 1 9 3 7 , . . ' 2 0 . 117 Before establishment of t h i s school a c a r e f u l study was made of various types of intermediate schools. The j u n i o r high schools of Mew York were v i s i t e d and t h e i r b u i l d i n g s , curricula*. and o r g a n i z a t i o n examined. When the type of organization and curriculum f o r the Westmount J u n i o r High School had been f i n a l l y decided upon, care was taken to educate the parents and taxpayers i n regard to the aims and objec t i v e s of t h i s new departure. P u b l i c meetings were h e l d and 'circulars were prepared and d i s t r i b u t e d . The a u t h o r i t i e s t r i e d to show th a t the new school aimed at: i . p r o v i d i n g s u i t a b l e courses f o r those p u p i l s who d i d not wish to proceed to the u n i v e r s i t y , i i . studying and guiding the a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s of the p u p i l s . i i i . making the school a place where p u p i l s would l e a r n to l i v e together. (b) Curriculum of the Westmount J u n i o r High School.- The Westmount J u n i o r High School e n r o l l s a l l Grade Seven p u p i l s i n the c i t y but because of la c k of accommodation only the non-academic p u p i l s of Grades Eight and Fine are permitted to attend. P u p i l s who intend to proceed to the u n i v e r s i t y are t r a n s f e r r e d to the senior high school at the end of Grade Seven. Ho options are given i n Grade Seven but p u p i l s are of f e r e d short t r y - o u t courses - of about three weeks duration -i n order to t e s t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s . In Grades Eight and Nine two types of courses are arranged, "general" and "business". The "general" course, when followed by a course of two years at the Westmount Senior High School, q u a l i f i e s the students f o r the High School Leaving C e r t i f i c a t e . In the j u n i o r h i g h school s e c t i o n of t h i s course options are given i n a r t , music, geography, woodwork, metalwork, household 118 science, e x t r a E n g l i s h , and extra mathematics* At.the end of Grade Nine, hoys who have taken t h i s course may enter the Montreal Technical Schools G i r l s may q u a l i f y to t r a i n as nurses "by t a k i n g t h i s "general" course. The "business" courses o f f e r e d a t the Westmount J u n i o r High School are of two types. One leads to a two-year business course at the senior high school, at the completion of which the student receives a High School Leaving C e r t i f i c a t e and i s q u a l i f i e d f o r a business career. The other "business" course i s more elementary and does not lead to the senior high school. Optional subjects i n both courses include many subjects of the "general" course, such as woodwork, metalwork, and household science. Constant subjects include shorthand, bookkeeping, t y p i n g , and other commercial subjects. In both courses there are constants; E n g l i s h , French, H i s t o r y , A r i t h m e t i c , General Science, Gymnasium, Household Science, and Manual T r a i n i n g , (the l a s t i n the seventh and eighth years o n l y ) , In the general course options are given i n Music, Geography, E x t r a E n g l i s h , E x t r a Mathematics, A r t and Metal Work, These courses have been planned w i t h these .ends i n view; 'Business' f o r those .who w i l l probably leave at the end of the n i n t h year; p u p i l s can go on a f t e r two years of the general course to a two year programme i n the general or i n the business course of the senior high school, both courses q u a l i f y i n g the student to take the High School Leaving Examination; o t h e r s , i t i s expected w i l l leave at the end of the n i n t h years to attend a t e c h n i c a l school,,' The school i s very proud of i t s " f i n d i n g " courses. P u p i l s are given the opportunity to have experiences i n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s , such as weaving, typing, metalwork, e t c , before 7. Brunt, J.W. " B u i l d i n g a J u n i o r High School," School  Progress, V o l , V, No, 9., A p r i l , 1937, 13, 119 embarking on the regu l a r courses i n these subjects. No attempt i s made to t r e a t the Westmount J u n i o r High School as a business or t e c h n i c a l school. I t s work i s exploratory and i t i s expected that the p u p i l s w i l l o b t a i n the opportunity f o r more advanced work i n the various subjects by l a t e r attending a senior high, t e c h n i c a l , or business school. Further information i n regard to courses and pe r i o d allotments w i l l be found i n Appendix D. In order to take i n t o consideration i n d i v i d u a l differences t h i s intermediate school employs a counsellor who, i n conjunction w i t h a guidance committee, int e r v i e w s , diagnoses, and guides the p u p i l s i n t o s u i t a b l e courses depending upon t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t i e s . P u p i l s are encouraged to take p a r t i n at l e a s t one of the many clubs operating i n the school. Some of these are: the current events club, the photography club, the stamp club, the dramatic c l u b , and the school choral club. An e f f i c i e n t school c o u n c i l f u n c t i o n s i n the school and cooperates w i t h the teaching s t a f f i n the matter of d i s c i p l i n e i n the h a l l s , the holding of assemblies, m o n i t o r i a l duties w i t h i n the classrooms, and the a s s i s t i n g of needy p u p i l s . (c) Results.- The school a u t h o r i t i e s i n Westmount have found th a t t h e i r new j u n i o r high school experiment has proved a decided success. The boy, who formerly compensated f o r h i s "dullness" by being troublesome, can now f i n d a s a t i s f a c t i o n i n metalwork or i n some other manual work. 8. i b i d . , 14. 120 Gradually the district has become aware of the vast possibilities of courses other than those leading to the university. The reverence for matriculation diplomas is gradually disappearing. Parents and administrators; alike, are enthusiastic in their support of Westmount's f i r s t experiment in junior high school work. SUMMARY The provinces of Nova Scotia, Alberta, and Quebec have made a definite start towards adoption of junior high schools within their respective provinces. In each case care has been taken to study the types of intermediate schools operating elsewhere with a view to adopting the best procedures to meet the needs of the local conditions within the province. Alberta and Nova. Scotia Departments of Education are making a determined drive to have the 6 - 3 - 3 system adopted throughout the whole of the province. The Quebec experiment has been confined as yet to one locality, Westmount. Its undoubted success should encourage other centres In Quebec to establish similar schools in the near future. In Quebec the religious question need not prove an obstacle to the growth of intermediate schools, as the Protestant and Catholic schools -both elementary and high school - are under separate denominational authorities. Whether one school board decides upon the 8-4 or 6 - 3 - 3 type of organization should not and does not in any way interfere with the other denominational groups. 121 Although the j u n i o r high sehools i n the provinces of Nova S c o t i a , A l b e r t a , and Quebec are not o f f e r i n g the wide v a r i e t y of courses that are o f f e r e d i n the large j u n i o r high schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia, much has been done to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the c u r r i c u l a according to the i n t e r e s t s and aptitudes of the p u p i l s attending. A r a p i d development i n intermediate school work can be expected i n these provinces i n the near f u t u r e . CHAPTER V i 122 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL POSSIBILITIES IN RURAL AREAS The f u t u r e development of the j u n i o r high school movement i n Canada depends g r e a t l y upon the p o s s i b i l i t y of adapting the underlying p r i n c i p l e s of the movement to meet the f a c i l i t i e s of the small secondary school and i n int r o d u c i n g i n t o the small school new procedures which w i l l permit the c a r r y i n g out of these p r i n c i p l e s despite a meagre enrolment. I n l a t e years many surveys have been made i n the United States of the i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s of small secondary schools and some valuable s o l u t i o n s have been o f f e r e d , A, DEFICIENCIES IN RURAL SECONDARY EDUCATION (a) A "Vest Pocket" e d i t i o n of a b i g secondary school  g e n e r a l l y aimed at,- Too frequently small r u r a l schools attempt to i m i t a t e the organization and i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures and to adhere to the c u r r i e u l a r requirements of the lar g e urban centres. As a r e s u l t the periods must be b r i e f , the subjects o f f e r e d l i m i t e d to the college preparatory course, and the lessons-narrow-and stereotyped, (b) I n s u f f i c i e n t choice of courses,- Surveys have shown that ninety-one per cent of r u r a l secondary school p u p i l s pursue an academic curriculum, as compared wi t h f i f t y - s i x per cent 123 of urban p u p i l s . 1 A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s i n Canada. The time-tables of most r u r a l secondary schools show time allotments f o r academic subjects only, p a r t i a l l y because the teacfier i s u n q u a l i f i e d i n the s p e c i a l subjects of the 'vocations and f i n e a r t s . (c) Teachers attempting to teach too many subjects.- !7ith few teachers and many subjects the n a t u r a l r e s u l t i n the past has been heavy teaching loads i n these r u r a l schools. Heavy burdens of t h i s type r e s u l t i n poorly prepared lessons and serious damage to the teachers' health. (d) Teachers attempting to teach subjects f o r which they have  had no s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g . - Few, indeed, of the r u r a l school teachers have had s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g i n a l l of the subjects they are c a l l e d upon to teach. Mediocre teaching and i n f e r i o r r e s u l t s are found frequently. P u p i l f a i l u r e s and r e t a r d a t i o n are a l l too common. Both teachers and p u p i l s become discouraged. (e) Transient teachers.- Rural schools, because of t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to pay high s a l a r i e s , are handicapped g r e a t l y by the f a c t t h a t they cannot hold t h e i r teachers f o r any length of time. Inexperienced teachers are w i l l i n g to hold these poorly pa i d r u r a l p o s i t i o n s but as soon as they have gained some experience they move to c i t y or town p o s i t i o n s where s a l a r i e s and conditions are b e t t e r . The lack of c o n t i n u i t y i n the In Edmonson, J.B., Roemer, J . , Bacon, F.L., Secondary School  Admi n i s t r a t i o n , Few York, The Macmillan Company, 1932, 391. 125 teaching s t a f f and p o l i c y and the f a c t that t r a n s i e n t teachers do not get to know the communities have a detrimental influence upon the community. ( f ) IJack of proper equipment.- Undoubtedly, rux-al secondary 'schools are handicapped through lack of proper equipment. Generally, shops, gymnasiums, etc. are needed. L i b r a r i e s are extremely l i m i t e d and f a c i l i t i e s f o r home economics and commercial courses are unprovided i n most centres, (g) Complex duties of r u r a l school p r i n c i p a l s . - The p r i n c i p a l of a r u r a l secondary school must not only teach but must also assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r administrative d u t i e s 0 He must manage e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r arrangements and take a leading part i n community a c t i v i t i e s . He has very l i t t l e time to advance himself p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and has l i t t l e opportunity to confer w i t h or be guided by educational leaders. (h) D i f f i c u l t y i n constructing . s a t i s f a c t o r y time-tables.-Because of sm a l l enrolment, few teachers, and many grades, the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s a t i s f a c t o r y time-table f o r a r u r a l secondary school i s an exceedingly d i f f i c u l t task. Heavy teaching loads and i n s u f f i c i e n t subject o f f e r i n g s generally r e s u l t . ( i ) R e s t r i c t e d student a c t i v i t i e s . - Because of the heavy teaching loads and the immense amount of preparation of lessons and marking of assignments necessary? p r o v i s i o n f o r e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i s seldom made In r u r a l secondary schools. Thus, the students are denied the broadening influences of clubs, sports, etc. 126 .Cj.) L i t t l e time f o r enriching subjects to develop appreciative  i n t e r e s t . - Again, because of the many grades and "required" s u b j e c t s , the few teachers a v a i l a b l e must n e c e s s a r i l y devote .the l i t t l e a v a i l a b l e teaching time to the e s s e n t i a l s , the f a c t s necessary f o r examination purposes. Teaching f o r a p p r e c i a t i o n i s neglected e n t i r e l y i n many schools. • . B. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR SOME OF THE PROBLEMS OF RURAL SECONDARY EDUCATION (a) A new philosophy of secondary education needed.- The major trends i n r u r a l education as brought out by the Na t i o n a l Survey of Secondary Education i n the United States showed t h a t there was an i n c r e a s i n g movement towards a . . 2 widening of the o f f e r i n g s i n the programme of studies. S i m i l a r trends are v i s i b l e i n Canada. Yet the f a c t s t i l l remains t h a t the c e n t r a l core.of a l l programmes i n v e s t i g a t e d was composed mainly of the t r a d i t i o n a l subjects, and that i n schools of seventy-five p u p i l s or l e s s t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l core made up p r a c t i c a l l y the whole programme. An explanation' can be found i n the underlying philosophy,- which i s s t i l l very potent i n determining the o f f e r i n g s and common requirements demanded f o r graduation. According to t h i s philosophy a l l p u p i l s , since i t i s not known what they w i l l u l t i m a t e l y do, 2. Gaumnitz, W.H. - "Small High Schools i n the Nat i o n a l Survey of Secondary Education". C l e a r i n g House, V o l . V l l l , No. 8, A p r i l 1934 , 464. 127 '.should'be r e q u i r e d to study those subjects demanded f o r .college entrance. U s u a l l y these demands are supported by the-higher i n s t i t u t i o n s , which have a powerful influence upon the 'A-departments of education". F o r t u n a t e l y a newer philosophy of Secondary education has appeared. I t s influence i s p a r t i a l l y revealed i n the character of the new subjects being introduced during recent years i n t o the c u r r i c u l a of many r u r a l secondary schools. This philosophy emphasizes the importance of a programme r e l a t e d to our present-day l i f e problems and caters to the more immediate i n t e r e s t s and needs of r u r a l youth i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r environment. There are three main tenets i n t h i s new philosophy. These ares (a) That the curriculum should be composed of m a t e r i a l s which w i l l represent a l l the various types of l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n order to provide f o r c a r e f u l grounding, normal growth, and adequate e x p l o r a t i o n . (b) That the u n i t s of subject matter, demanded of a l l p u p i l s , be reduced to that minimum which w i l l prove valuable to a l l normal persons i n developing d e s i r a b l e personal and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t r a i t s , and adjustments. The s p e c i a l needs of any s e l e c t group must not i n f l u e n c e the course of studies demanded of a l l . (c) That there must be opportunities ( i n the upper years of the secondary schools) to f o l l o w not one core curriculum but one or more cores or sequences, according to h i s i n t e r e s t s , needs, and a b i l i t i e s . Such a philosophy i s needed by those concerned w i t h drawing up the programme f o r r u r a l schools i n Canada, i f the small 7 3. F e r r i s s , E.N. "Curriculum Trends and Problems i n the Rural High School." C l e a r i n g House, V o l . V l l l , No. 8, A p r i l , 1934, 461. 128 secondary school i s to have the opportunity of carrying out the true-aims of j u n i o r high school•work. (b) Using the.6-6 system i n preference to the 6-3-3 system i n d i s t r i c t s where the secondary school enrolment i s small,-From the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view the complete segregation of the e a r l y adolescent under the 6-3-3 system i s superior to the 6-6 system, where p u p i l s of j u n i o r and senior high school age are i n one school. Yet, from the p r a c t i c a l viewpoint, the advantages of the 6-6 system, where the secondary school enrolment i s s m a l l , appear to outweigh the disadvantages. Under the 6-6 p l a n the e a r l y adolescent p u p i l i s segregated from the younger p u p i l s and, because of the l a r g e r enrolment due to the combination of j u n i o r and senior high schools, such advantages as the f o l l o w i n g , ensues i e P o s s i b i l i t i e s of p r o v i d i n g a wider curriculum. i i 8 More e f f e c t i v e departmentalization p o s s i b l e , i i i . More opportunity f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n on the p a r t of the teacher. i v . More e f f e c t i v e v e r t i c a l coordination p o s s i b l e , v. Saves d u p l i c a t i o n of equipment, v i . More opportunity f o r e f f e c t i v e guidance. The teachers w i l l know the p u p i l s over a longer p e r i o d . v i i . Opportunities f o r t r y - o u t courses under the same teachers who take the s p e c i a l i z e d work i n the s e n i o r grades, v i i i . A saving on s a l a r i e s i s p o s s i b l e . Only one p r i n c i p a l i s needed. As the number of teachers i n small high schools increases, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a greater v a r i e t y i n the program of studies increases and the p o s s i b i l i t y of reducing the number of d i f f e r e n t major f i e l d s i n which each teacher i s required to teach i s more r e a d i l y achieved.... The a d d i t i o n a l teachers make p o s s i b l e a f a r more e f f e c t i v e assignment of work w i t h i n the f i e l d s of the teachers' s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s and a considerably increased opportunity f o r adding subjects to the program 129 of s t u d i e s . 4 (c) A l t e r n a t i o n of subjects.- Even when the 6-6 system i s used, most r u r a l secondary schools are l i m i t e d i n the number of p u p i l s attending and i n the number of teachers a v a i l a b l e . Thus, the problem of p r o v i d i n g the necessary range and v a r i e t y of programme becomes a serious one. In schools of approximately seventy-five p u p i l s or l e s s i t i s nearly impossible to widen the c u r r i c u l a i f the o l d p r a c t i c e s i n regard to organization f o r d a i l y schedules and teaching assignments are retained. Reasonable economy w i l l not permit of the employment of more teachers to decrease the pupil-teacher r a t i o . The present teachers' loads cannot f a i r l y be increased, as they are g e n e r a l l y f a r too heavy now. Some s o l u t i o n other than that of merely adding new subjects to the programme must be found i n order to provide adequately f o r the widening of curriculum o p p o r t u n i t i e s . One p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n of considerable promise, recommended by some a u t h o r i t i e s , i s the procedure of alternating subjects. K.O. Broady, Professor of School Administration, U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska, states that: E f f i c i e n c y i n schedule b u i l d i n g i s achieved i n the main through subject a l t e r n a t i o n by years, by semesters, and by days of the week. A l t e r n a t i o n makes p o s s i b l e the a d d i t i o n of subjects without increasing the number of teachers employed, f o r the simple reason t h a t two "subjects may be o f f e r e d on alternate years, semesters, or days w i t h the same teacher time t h a t ^ i s r e q u ired to o f f e r one subject without a l t e r n a t i o n . 5 4. Buck, J.L.B. "Enlarging the Program i n Small High Schools." C l e a r i n g House, V o l . V l l l , No. 8, A p r i l , 1934, 504. 5. Broady, K.O. "Curriculum f o r the Three-Teacher, Six-year High School." C l e a r i n g House, V o l . V l l l , No. 8, A p r i l , 1934, 486. 130 The system of a l t e r n a t i o n has i t s greatest p o s s i b i l i t i e s when the department of education, responsible f o r planning the course of study, makes an e f f o r t to so arrange the courses w i t h i n a subject t h a t they are d e f i n i t e , c l e a r - c u t , and can be taken i n any order by the student i n h i s secondary school career. For example, i n a r t some of the courses o f f e r e d might be: A r t l e Design. A r t 11© Posters and commercial a r t . A r t 1 1 1 . - S t i l l l i f e . A r t IV. Perspective. I n shopwork such courses as the f o l l o w i n g could be offered: Shops 1. D r a f t i n g . Shops 11. Woodwork. Shops 111, Lathe-work. Shops IV. Metal work© In a s i m i l a r manner E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , s o c i a l s t udies, homemaking, music, h e a l t h , etc, can be d i v i d e d up i n t o Independent courses to allow f o r a l t e r n a t i o n s i n the programmes of small secondary schools. (d) Combination of classes f o r c e r t a i n subjects.- Frequently i n r u r a l schools classes are so small that two or more must be combined under one teacher. Combination has a wide f i e l d of usefulness as a p l a n by which a few p u p i l s , perhaps only one, who should' e n r o l l f o r a subject not included i n the r e g u l a r schedule, may take that subject under a teacher at a p e r i o d when he i s scheduled f o r another somewhat r e l a t e d course. I t must be borne i n mind, though, t h a t f i r s t - r a t e i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e to s u c c e s s f u l operation of the p l a n . b -There are three methods recommended f o r teaching combined 6, i b i d . , 489 s 131 c l a s s e s . The f i r s t method r e l i e s on i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n e n t i r e l y . There would be no o r a l c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n . The second method i s the p l a n by which one s e c t i o n of the c l a s s i s doing i n d i v i d u a l i z e d seatwork while the other s e c t i o n i s being i n s t r u c t e d by the teacher. The t h i r d method i s sometimes used when the two sections of the c l a s s are t a k i n g r e l a t e d courses. P a r t of the p e r i o d i s devoted to general discussions of b e n e f i t to both sections of the c l a s s . For the r e s t of the p e r i o d the students work w i t h s p e c i a l . i n d i v i d u a l i z e d m a t e r i a l . (e) I n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n . - The system of i n d i v i d u a l assignments and supervised study has been discussed by e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s f o r the past twenty years. Some of the advantages obtained under t h i s arrangement are: i . More e l e c t i v e s p o s s i b l e i n the school schedule, i i . . The system helps to " t r a i n the p u p i l to reach h i s l e v e l of s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . " ' i i i . The p u p i l i s able to progress at h i s own r a t e . On the other hand, some, e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s c r i t i c i z e the system because: i . There are too many assignments f o r the teacher to p l a n . i i . There are too many assignments f o r the teacher to mark. i i i . Small classes are necessary f o r i n d i v i d u a l assistance. As a p r a c t i c a l procedure f o r e n r i c h i n g the programmes of s m a ll schools, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of l o c a l l y administered i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n has met w i t h considerable favour. ...a technique of i n s t r u c t i o n , the contract plan, or a r e l a t e d p l a n , has become the means of i n t r o d u c i n g extensive f l e x i b i l i t y i n t o the two-teacher schedule and even greater f l e x i b i l i t y into the three-, fou r - , or 7. K i l z e r , L.R..,Supervised Study, P r o f e s s i o n a l and Technical Press, Few York, 1931, 1. 1 3 2 f i v e - t e a c h e r schedule while at the same time preserving d e s i r a b l e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . 8 There are a number of very important items that should be kept* In mind by the teacher who. attempts to use the , i n d i v i d u a l i z e d method of i n s t r u c t i o n : i . The r i g h t tone must be maintained i n the room, i i . The environment provided must be favourable f o r study. i i i e The teacher must work w i t h the p u p i l and not f o r him. i v . The teacher must a s s i s t the p u p i l to form e f f e c t i v e study h a b i t s . v. The teacher must be a master of laws of l e a r n i n g and-must appreciate the problems of adolescence, v i . P u p i l s should be observed while they are working and. should be a s s i s t e d at the p o i n t of wrong departure. v i i . P u p i l s should not be permitted to become l o s t or discouraged. ( f ) Supervised correspondence courses.- Although l o c a l l y administered i n d i v i d u a l i z e d m a t e r i a l i s a valuable s o l u t i o n to some of the problems of r u r a l secondary schools, yet there i s a d e f i n i t e l i m i t to- the number of subjects that an i n s t r u c t o r may teach* Thus, supervised correspondence study i s being developed as a supplementary enriching technique which w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e f o r a r u r a l j u n i o r high or j u n i o r -s enior high school to o f f e r a p r a c t i c a l l y u n l i m i t e d l i s t of courses despite a small teaching s t a f f . Under the system of supervised correspondence one teacher may supervise f o r t y students t a k i n g a dozen d i f f e r e n t subjects. Two of the c r i t i c i s m s l e v e l l e d against i n d i v i d u a l i z e d work - that the 8, Broady, K.O., P i a t t , E.T,, B e l l , M.D., P r a c t i c a l Procedures  f o r E n r i c h i n g the Curriculums of Small Schools, L i n c o l n , Nebraska, U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska P l u b l i c a t i o n , 1931, 37. 133 teacher has too many assignments to p l a n and too many assignments:to mark - should be e n t i r e l y removed';::if the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d work i s p a r t of a pla n of supervised correspondence work. This correspondence study d i f f e r s from l o c a l l y administered i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n that: i . The course i s planned and the assignments fu r n i s h e d by a c e n t r a l i z e d bureau under a branch of the Department of Education, i i . The m a t e r i a l s f u r n i s h e d make the course more s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r i n g , i i i . The p u p i l s ' assignments are checked and mastery i s t e s t e d by the c e n t r a l bureau, thus r e l i e v i n g the teacher of a very heavy load. Iv. S uccessful s u p e r v i s i o n on the p a r t of the teacher does not depend upon s p e e i a l t r a i n i n g i n the subject matter of the courses under h i s .supervision. However, success i s g r e a t l y enhanced by a sincere understanding and appreciation of the objectives of the courses. I f correspondence-study courses can be s u c c e s s f u l l y carried.on i n the home without the f a c i l i t i e s of a l i b r a r y , l a b o r a t o r y , and teacher guidance, i s i t not reasonable to; suppose that s i m i l a r eourses can be made much more e f f e c t i v e and .that more labo r a t o r y courses can be added when planned f o r use In high schools where these f a c i l i t i e s are available?® . In the smaller j u n i o r and senior high schools throughout Canada the f i e l d of v o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n has been only s l i g h t l y developed. The f i e l d of a p p r e c i a t i o n a l subjects has been almost t o t a l l y neglected. This sta t e of a f f a i r s g e n e r a l l y e x i s t s because of the teachers' i n a b i l i t y to f i n d s u f f i c i e n t time, l a c k of proper equipment, and the f a c t that teachers In these smaller schools are not s p e c i a l i s t s i n a l l the necessary f i e l d s . : . 9. Buck, J.L.B., l o c . c i t . , 505. 134 I t i s to supervised correspondence t h a t we turn f o r i the wide array of e l e c t i v e s which should be chosen by the high-school p u p i l s under guidance i n order t h a t t h e i r great d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s and o f p o s s i b l e l i n e s of v o c a t i o n a l preparation may be taken i n t o account.-1-0 Several of the Canadian provinces have already done much i n the d i r e c t i o n of education by correspondence. B r i t i s h Columbia,: f o r instance, o f f e r s not only a l l subjects up to and i n c l u d i n g those of j u n i o r and senior m a t r i c u l a t i o n but also o f f e r s a wide array of v o c a t i o n a l subjects such as Automotive Engineering L a n d 11, Commercial A r t 1, Fo r e s t r y 1, P r i n c i p l e s of Radio, Aviation.!, and 11, P r a c t i c a l E l e c t r i c i t y , B u i l d i n g Construction 1, etc. The courses are administered from V i c t o r i a by the Department of Education. Undoubtedly the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y has r e a l i z e d the need f o r a wide range of correspondence courses. I f advantage i s taken of t h i s c o o p e r a t i o n o n the p a r t of the Department of Education, the small r u r a l secondary sehools of B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l be able to increase t h e i r c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s to a very l a r g e degree. (g) Supervised correspondence courses combined w i t h radio l e c t u r e s . - One of the strongest c r i t i c i s m s against correspondence courses i s t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y , enthusiasm, and i n t e r e s t of the teacher i s missing. Dr. E.F. F e r r i s s , P r o f e s s o r of Rural Education at C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , s t a t e s : Granting that, r u r a l c h i l d r e n could and would s u c c e s s f u l l y master the subject matter i n a s u f f i c i e n t number of correspondence courses to receive the required number of c r e d i t s e n t i t l i n g 10. Broady, K.O., op. ci t . , 4 8 9 . 135 them to a high school diploma, the chances are, ten to one, t h a t they would not he educated i n the modern sense of the term.H In order to overcome t h i s c r i t i c i s m , many experts on extension work are now st r o n g l y recommending supervised correspondence courses combined w i t h radio l e c t u r e s . The "personal" contact, which i s l a c k i n g i n ordinary correspondence work, can be supplied i n p a r t by the motivation of the radio speaker. I n connection w i t h these radio l e c t u r e s , the services of s p e c i a l i s t s can be obtained, large classes can be handled economically, and a system of follow-up or check sheets e a s i l y introduced.. The American School of the A i r i s an example of a radio supplement to d a i l y class-room work. This broadcast i s on the a i r every afternoon from 2:15 to 2:45 P.M. The curriculum, designed a f t e r seven years of experimentation, includes history, music, l i t e r a t u r e , : geography, elementary science, current events, and v o c a t i o n a l guidance. The subject matter i s dramatized as much as p o s s i b l e i n order to remove the severe q u a l i t y of the t e x t book from ra d i o i n s t r u c t i o n and to give the lessons the "personal" touch 8 The Department of Superintendence of the N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n i s s t r o n g l y supporting i n s t r u c t i o n by radio and has compiled a very u s e f u l radio calendar of programmes th a t could be used 12 i n conjunction w i t h the reg u l a r school work. 11, F e r r i s s , E.N., op. c i t . , 462. 12. S e i g l , N. "What Radio I s Doing For Education". School  Progress, VoI.V, No. VI, January, 1937, 23-25." 136 The Nova Scotia' Department of Education has experimented w i t h i t s own radio programmes f o r the past few years and i s now broadcasting each F r i d a y afternoon over Radio S t a t i o n C,H*.N.S. Included i n the programmes are such items as music ap p r e c i a t i o n , current events, dramatic presentations, Nova 13 S c o t i a h i s t o r y , geography, and French lessons, (h) Consolidation,- Many a u t h o r i t i e s contend that the surest and most e f f e c t i v e way to secure b e t t e r i n s t r u c t i o n and broader c u r r i c u l a r advantages f o r r u r a l d i s t r i c t s i s to a b o l i s h small schools and to e s t a b l i s h l a r g e r u n i t s by means of c o n s o l i d a t i o n , wherever geographic conditions make such a pl a n f e a s i b l e . Undoubtedly, many advantages accrue from a c a r e f u l l y planned consolidated school. Some of these are: i , A considerable economy i n equipment, i i . Wider c u r r i c u l a p o s s i b l e , i i i . More appropriate grouping of p u p i l s p o s s i b l e , i v . More opportunity;for.departmentalization and teacher s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , " v. More p r o b a b i l i t y of r e t a i n i n g teachers over a longer period. C o n s o l i d a t i o n , though very d e s i r a b l e i n many d i s t r i c t s , should not be undertaken i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . A c a r e f u l study-of a l l f a c t o r s concerned must be made p r i o r to ca r r y i n g out the merging, of a number of smaller schools. Such problems as the f o l l o w i n g must be solved before c o n s o l i d a t i o n can be w i s e l y put i n t o e f f e c t : i . The wisest and most s a t i s f a c t o r y l o c a t i o n , considering d i s t r i b u t i o n of school population, roads, etc. 13. Department of Education of the Province of Nova S c o t i a , J o u r n a l of Education. October, 1935, 799. 137 i i . The b u i l d i n g best s u i t e d to carry out the educational o b j e c t i v e s i n the community.( type, s i z e , and equipment.) i i i . The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem. ( roads, type of v e h i c l e s , Insurance, etc.) i y . A s a t i s f a c t o r y d i s t r i b u t i o n of costs, v. The curriculum. (The programme o f f e r e d must be made so a t t r a c t i v e that distance w i l l not prove a deterrant to attendance.) Howard A. Dawson, D i r e c t o r of Rural Service of the H a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , s t a l e s t For the most p a r t , the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of schools has been based on a b l i n d f a i t h i n the e f f i c a c y of l a r g e r schools without any attempt to foresee what s i z e of 14 school would best:serve accepted educational o b j e c t i v e s . In regard to the most e f f i c i e n t s i z e f o r consolidated schools, Dawson claims t h a t the demands of modern c u r r i c u l a f o r teacher s p e c i a l i z a t i o n p o i n t to a desirable minimum of ten teachers and 300 p u p i l s , or an absolute minimum of seven teachers and approximately 210 p u p i l s , Concerning the s i z e of a secondary school and. per p u p i l costs, he points out that: . . . p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the studies of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s i z e of the high school and per p u p i l cost Indicate that there i s a very r a p i d decrease In cost u n t i l a school has 200 p u p i l s and that there i s a narked decrease i n per p u p i l cost and an increa.se i n c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s u n t i l the school reaches at l e a s t 500 p u p i l s . Therefore, i n " terms of f i n a n c i a l economy alone, there i s good reason f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g high schools of the minimum s i z e i n d i c a t e d . ( i ) I t i n e r a n t teachers.- Besides the s o l u t i o n s already suggested f o r s o l v i n g some of the problems of small j u n i o r or j u n i o r - s e n i o r high schools, there i s s t i l l another 14. Dawson, H.A. "Better I n s t r u c t i o n Through the Reorganization of School U n i t s , " School Progress, V o l . V, Ho. 11, September, 1936, 9. 15. i b i d . , 17. 138 opportunity to make r u r a l education more e f f i c i e n t . The employment of i t i n e r a n t teachers, who give a p o r t i o n of each day or week to each of two or more neighbouring r u r a l secondary scho'ols, i s being experimented w i t h i n many d i s t r i c t s . Adherents of the p l a n claim that the system has the f o l l o w i n g advantages; i . I t i s l e s s c o s t l y to transport the teachers than to transport the p u p i l s , i i . I t keeps secondary education i n more communities than under a system of c o n s o l i d a t i o n , i i i . I t makes p o s s i b l e the use of s p e c i a l i s t s i n school d i s t r i c t s where the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of schools i s not f e a s i b l e , . i v . I t proves a p r a c t i c a l means of enriching the curriculum o f f e r i n g s i n smaller schools,. e s p e c i a l l y i n the s p e c i a l subjects,, H i g h l y e f f e c t i v e work i s being c a r r i e d on i n a g r i c u l t u r e f home economics, and music through the use of teachers who carry on work i n several schools.in a county,: The teaching of a g r i c u l t u r e and home economics, aided by Federal funds, perhaps i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s k i n d of i t i n e r a n t teaching at i t s best. I t i s undoubtedly one of the most e f f e c t i v e methods now i n use f o r enlarging-,the r e s t r i c t e d o f f e r i n g s of small high schools and i t i s to be hoped that the p r a c t i c e can be extended f u r t h e r i n such f i e l d s as music, p h y s i c a l and h e a l t h education, the f i n e a r t s and I n d u s t r i a l a r t s . An example of the use of I t i n e r a n t teachers i n small Canadian secondary schools i s to be found In Manitoba, where t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n i s o f f e r e d by means of t r a v e l l i n g i n s t r u c t o r s , who take t h e i r equipment w i t h them i n s p e c i a l l y equipped t r u c k s . C. .SUMMARY Canadian secondary schools are predominantly r u r a l , and the 16, Buck, J.L.B., l o c . c i t , , 504, 139 progress of the movement towards e f f i c i e n t l y f u n c t i o n i n g junior and junior-sen!or high schools i n Canada depends upon the extent to which these secondary schools make use of the p r a c t i c a l procedures which have proved successful i n enriching the programmes of small schools. I f these Canadian Intermediate schools make use of the 6-6 system, a l t e r n a t i o n and combination of subjects, supervised correspondence study, r a d i o programmes, and i t i n e r a n t I n s t r u c t o r s , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n c r e a s i n g the c u r r i o u l a r o f f e r i n g s w i l l be g r e a t l y Increased. D e f i n i t e l y , many of the features of the j u n i o r high school can be adapted, without s u b s t a n t i a l l o s s , to the meagre f a c i l i t i e s of the small secondary school. CHAPTER V l l 140 SUMMARY OF DEVELOPMENTS AND STATEMENT OF MAJOR. PROBLEMS -'• (a) Manitoba.- 1 I t i s g e n e r a l l y recognized -that the j u n i o r high school movement i n Canada s t a r t e d i n 1918 i n the province of Manitoba, when the Stonewall school a u t h o r i t i e s combined Grades Seven and Eight of the elementary school with the c o l l e g i a t e grades and introduced s e v e r a l j u n i o r high school features i n t o t h i s new j u n i o r - s e n i o r high school form of org a n i z a t i o n . Since 1918, however, the only outstanding development i n intermediate school work i n Manitoba has been i n t h e . c i t y of Winnipeg. Beginning w i t h one j u n i o r high school of 486 p u p i l s , the c i t y developed i t s middle schools u n t i l i n 1935 i t had an enrolment of 10,113 p u p i l s i n f i f t e e n schools. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of c u r r i c u l a to meet the varying needs, i n t e r e s t s , and aptitudes of the p u p i l s has been developed over a p e r i o d of years, u n t i l at the present time Grade Nine.pupils, a f t e r t a k i n g t r y - o u t courses i n Grades Seven and Ei g h t , may choose from seven d i s t i n c t course combinations. Development of j u n i o r high schools i n other p a r t s of Manitoba and e s p e c i a l l y i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s has been -ex c e p t i o n a l l y slow, p a r t i a l l y due to the lack of support on the p a r t of the p r o v i n c i a l inspectors. By 1929, however, government reports showed that t h i s a t t i t u d e was changing and that hew j u n i o r and j u n i o r - s e n i o r high schools were being 1„ Chapter 11, 141 e s t a b l i s h e d i n many centres, w i t h g r a t i f y i n g r e s u l t s both to the Education Department and to the d i s t r i c t s concerned, (b) Ontario.- P r i o r to Manitoba's innovation of j u n i o r high school p r a c t i c e s at Stonewall the province of Ontario had experimented w i t h c e r t a i n features of intermediate school work. The School f o r Higher E n g l i s h and Applied A r t s , established at Ottawa i n 1911, was one example of such experimentation. L a t e r , the Ottawa intermediate schools f o r young adolescents replaced the above I n s t i t u t i o n . Up to the present time these middle . schools i n Ottawa ha.ve d e a l t w i t h the work of the two senior years of the elementary school only. The d i f f i c u l t y of obt a i n i n g cooperation between the elementary school board and the high school board has been the c h i e f reason why the f i r s t grade of the high school has not been a l l o t t e d to the Ottawa intermediate schools. I f the f i r s t year of the high school -course were a l l o t t e d to the intermediate schools, the problem of what to do w i t h p u p i l s from separate schools would a r i s e . The government would have to allow the separate schools to carr y t h e i r p u p i l s on into. Grade Nine work or the Education Department would have to provide s p e c i a l Grade Nine i n s t r u c t i o n f o r separate school p u p i l s when they were promoted to high school. Because of the wide v a r i a t i o n i n the courses of study, promotion from Grade Eight of the separate schools to Grade Nine of the Intermediate schools would not be advisable.This problem Involved much po s s i b l e controversy, i n v o l v i n g the whole separate school question^and'thus the 2. Chapter 111. 142 easiest way out - that of limiting the intermediate schools to two grades - was adopted. The work of these Ottawa intermediate schools has not developed very far along junior high school lines, Limited subject offerings, insufficient choice of course, absence of a guidance programme, and limited club activities are their outstanding weaknesses. In 1914 Ontario introduced Into many of Its elementary schools an Important feature of junior high school work, namely, a differentiation of course for the backward pupils, the "direct learner" type of pupils as they are known in Ontario. This feature of educational reform, provided for by means of auxiliary classes, was later introduced into the secondary schools as well, ' In 1924 the University School, operated by the authorities of the University of Toronto in conjunction with their teachers' college,successfully experimented with a junior-senior form of secondary school for selected boys. Definite provision was made for try-out and optional courses and for the encouragement of more school activities, in an attempt to cope with the varied interests and needs of the young adolescents attending the school. A careful study was made of problems peculiar to youths of this age and very satisfactory, results were shown, Ontario's outstanding educational achievement - In fact one of the most outstanding achievements In Canada - has taken place at the Forest H i l l Village Community School 143 In. the suburban Toronto district,. This school broke entirely from the usual procedure in Ontario schools and definitely planned to provide pupils with an education more complete and more closely adapted to the needs and Interests of modern - community l i f e , than the traditional form of Ontario elementary and secondary education. In organization i t i s a combined elementary and junior--senior high school,, Its outstanding features are the wide range of optional subjects and courses - many of these of an exploratory nature,- the provision for differentiation of abilities, the great variety of extra-curricular' activities, the close articulation of the various grades, and above a l l the system of opportunity classes, While the Forest H i l l Village Community.School Is not a true junior high school in organization, nevertheless i t carries out to an exceptional degree most of the principles underlying junior high school work, Ontario's experiment at Tamworth of the consolidation of the senior grades of four rural elementary schools has shown one way of Introducing junior high school work Into rural communities. At the same time this method of consolidation overcomes the local criticism that, in consolidation certain districts lose their schools. Under this system of consolidation three districts out of every.group of four would have elementary schools equipped to carry on the work of Forms One to Three Inclusive, The fourth district in each case would have a senior consolidated or junior high school for Forms Four and Five (continuation pupils). The only young elementary pupils who would have to be transported to other 144 districts would be those from the fourth districts. The consolidating of senior classes for the purpose of obtaining more and better equipment, wider subject offerings, better if grading, better segration of the adolescents, more opportunity for student activities, etc., is undoubtedly a problem to which educationalists must devote thought and experimentation i f the deficiencies in Canadian rural education are to be removed or lessened. The various possible schemes of consolidation should be given a f a i r t r i a l under capable organizers and instructors and the results closely compared. The future of intermediate school work in Canada's- rural, village, and small town centres depends greatly upon the thoroughness of such experimentation. The defeat of the Intermediate Schools B i l l and the controversy over the separate schools question have definitely prevented provincial acceptance of a system of junior high schools for Ontario. However, principles underlying the establishment of true intermediate schools have been accepted in many districts and temporary provisions have been made to carry out some of these principles under the old form of organization. In the words of Chief Director of Education G.F. Rogers, the junior -high school movement should receive the support of a l l Ontario teachers and administrators, i f i t is to "provide adequately in separate organizations for the education of the pre-adolescents, the adolescents, and the young adults, respectively." 3. Rogers, G.F. "Intermediate Schools." Ontario Secondary  School Teachers Bulletin,Vol.14,Ho.3, June, 1934, 207. 145 (c) British Columbia.-4 Up to the present (1937) more junior high schools have been established in British Columbia than in any other province. Starting with an experiment in one room of the Magee High School in the municipality of Point Grey and with another experiment in the small city of Penticton, the movement has spread until a l l the important 5 cities with the exception of Victoria and Hew Westminster have now one or more junior or junior-senior high schools. The organization and curricular offerings of the big junior high' schools of Vancouver apparently compare very favourably with those of any city on this continent. More optional subjects and a wider choice of course are offered than in other Canadian ci t i e s . Principals and administrators keep In close touch with intermediate school developments in Europe and the United States. Student government and extra-curricular activities function well under the guidance of carefully chosen teachers. Instructors employed in these schools must have qualifications equivalent to. those of instructors employed in the high schools of the province. Other provinces would do well to follow this example and thus remove the criticism sometimes made that secondary school subjects should not be started In the intermediate schools because of the lack of properly qualified teachers. Contrasting with the Argyle Junior.High School of Westmount, 4 6 Chapter IV. 5. Page 100 0 146 Quebec, the Vancouver junior high schools care for a l l adolescent pupils of Grades V l l to IX, Irrespective of their ultimate academic, commercial or technical ambitions and * 6 destinations. The careful system of try-out courses and the employment of skilled counsellors for both the boys and the gi r l s ensure careful guidance into courses suited to the needs-. desires, and capabilities of the pupils. One period per week in each student's programme Is allotted for guidance purposes. The problem of pupil guidance is one very much to the fore in junior high school adrninistration throughout Canada today. Authorities in a l l of the provinces where intermediate schools are to be found are becoming more and more concerned with the possibilities of avoiding educational waste, of preventing social "misfits" , of providing" counsellors who w i l l study the pupil, assemble information about him, and discuss his'choice of course w i t h him in the light of what is known about him.. Trained counsellors are employed for this purpose in such intermediate school centres as Vancouver and" Westmount, The Forest K i l l Village Community School utilizes the specially chosen home-room teachers for this purpose. Several v i t a l problems in regard to guidance programmes are prominent today, . These are: (1) Should the guidance be planned in regular periods In charge of specialists, as in Vancouver, or should It be incidental and within the duties of the regular teachers? (2) How can adequate information in regard to the trades and professions be obtained? Here is an opportunity for the 6, Chapters IV and V, 147 Department of Labour and the Department of Education to co-operate i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c e n t r a l bureau to obtain and d i s t r i b u t e t h i s Information, (3) What s p e c i a l materials are necessary f o r a w e l l organized guidance programme? What t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s , personnel records, and l i b r a r y books are advisable? (4) What can be done to e s t a b l i s h properly f u n c t i o n i n g apprenticeship c o u n c i l s , which w i l l have the co-operation of both the schools and the employers? Canada can 7 l e a r n much from London In t h i s matter. So f a r l i t t l e e f f o r t has been made to solve these problems. There seems to be a l a c k of d e f i n i t e information and a l a c k of uni f o r m i t y i n regard to methods and materials used i n the guidance programmes. The whole f i e l d i s one i n which much research and study i s p o s s i b l e and advisable, i f s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s are to be obtained. The 6-6 system of orga n i z a t i o n has been s u c c e s s f u l l y used i n B r i t i s h Columbia both w i t h schools of small enrolment such as Ocean F a l l s and Kamloops and w i t h schools, of large enrolment such as the K i t s i l a n o Junior-Senior High School of Vancouver. I t has been found that a wider choice of course can be o f f e r e d to the students, b e t t e r use can be made of the s p e c i a l i s t s employed, and a more economic use made of equipment than under the 6-3-3 system. For psychological, reasons care i s g e n e r a l l y taken to keep separated the j u n i o r and senior sections of these j u n i o r - s e n i o r high schools. Separate assemblies and separate student governments are 7. Year Book of Education, 1937. London, Evans Bros. L t d . , 19. 148 g e n e r a l l y found. The problem of the r e l a t i v e merits of the various groupings of the grades to obtain the best r e s u l t s from St adolescent p u p i l s i s very prominent today. B r i t i s h Columbia's j u n i o r and j u n i o r - s e n i o r high schools should lend themselves admirably to a c a r e f u l survey of the advantages and disadvantages of each system. Some a u t h o r i t i e s i n the United States recommend f o r la r g e centres the 6-4-4 system, which includes two years of j u n i o r college work. Many leaders i n educational administration are now proposing the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p u b l i c school system i n the l a r g e r communities on what i s termed . the "6-4-4" p l a n , which c a l l s f o r a six-year elementary school, a four-year intermediate school, and a four-year c o l l e g e . This development i s s t i l l purely i n the experimental stage.^ As yet no d i s t r i c t i n Canada has attempted such a grouping". However such a grouping i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e i n the l a r g e r c i t i e s . Many of the senior high schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia have already included i n t h e i r programme the work of senior . m a t r i c u l a t i o n or the f i r s t year of university,, Such centres as V i c t o r i a , which has a. j u n i o r c o l l e g e , could very e a s i l y adopt the 6-4-4 plan as an educational experiment, the progress of which would undoubtedly be c l o s e l y watched by many administrators i n other Canadian c i t i e s , 9 (d) A l b e r t a . - Other Canadian provinces which have become i n t e r e s t e d i n intermediate school work during the past few years are A l b e r t a and Quebec. In A l b e r t a the whole educational 8, Eby, F, and Arrowood, C.F., The Development of Modern  Education, Hew York, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1934, 892. 9. Chapter V. system has been undergoing a reorganization during Premier Aberhart's regime. The 6-3-3 system has been decided upon for the larger centres and the courses of study have been revised in order to f i t in with the new grouping of grades. As yet the reorganization has not been completed on the province-wide scale originally intended. The f i r s t curricular regulations for intermediate schools were issued in 1937 and should form a. very useful basis for experimentation and later improvement. In a l l fairness to Alberta criticism of i t s intermediate or junior high school efforts should be withheld until the province has had time to test and perhaps alter the original plans. (e) Quebec.- Westmount Junior High School stands out alone among Canadian Intermediate schools because, although the school Is for Grades V l l , V l l l , and IX, yet after the completion of Grade V l l a l l pupils desiring academic courses are transferred to high schools The Westmount Junior High School pupils of Grades V l l l and IX do commercial or technical work. This organization brings up a problem in the minds of educationalists interested in middle schools. Should these middle schools or junior high schools become vocational or semi-vocational schools similar to those commercial, technical, and academic high schools found throughout Canada? Should the pupils be forced Into making such an important choice in . regard to their future education and career at such an early age? Have they sufficient knowledge and experience at this 10, Chapter V. 150 age? An argument against such a plan i s that j u n i o r high school p u p i l s should not be rushed i n t o making a f i n a l v o c a t i o n a l 11 choice. According to such a u t h o r i t i e s as Koos, they should have1 the f u l l three years of the intermediate school period f o r exploratory work i n order to t e s t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and c a p a b i l i t i e s , to see what other p u p i l s are doing, and to give the school educational and v o c a t i o n a l counsellors more opportunity to guide them i n t o the most s u i t a b l e course. In a l l provinces of Canada where intermediate schools are l o c a t e d , the r e g u l a t i o n s i n regard to the c u r r i c u l a are issued by the p r o v i n c i a l departments of education..In every province c e r t a i n required subjects must be taught to a l l normal p u p i l s i n a l l schools. The required or constant subjects are very s i m i l a r i n a l l provinces, and include E n g l i s h , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , general science, health and p h y s i c a l education, and mathematics. Nova S c o t i a also includes music as a compulsory subject i n Grade Seven. Quebec(Westmount) has French as a required subject i n a l l grades and household science and manual t r a i n i n g compulsory f o r Grades Seven and E i g h t . A l b e r t a r e q u i r e s a r t f o r Grade Seven or Eight p u p i l s and l i b r a r y or remedial E n g l i s h f o r a l l p u p i l s of Grades Seven and E i g h t . In a d d i t i o n to the constant subjects l i s t e d above f o r a l l provinces, B r i t i s h Columbia requires p r a c t i c a l a r t s , a r t , and music i n Grade Seven and p r a c t i c a l a r t s and music i n Grade Eight. B r i t i s h Columbia d i f f e r s from the other 11. Koos, L.V., The J u n i o r High School, New York, 1927, 51 f f . 151 provinces in regard to Grade Fine constants0 In this province English, social studies, and health and physical education are the only subjects that a l l pupils are required to- take. Manitoba requires a l l pupils to take art in Grade Seven and music in a l l grades,, Practical arts is required of a l l pupils of a l l grades with the exception of those pupils taking one of the Grade Nine commercial courses. Throughout Canadian intermediate schools the offering of optional subjects differs widely - sometimes even within an individual province such as British Columbia. The Grade Nine pupils of west Vancouver are permitted seven optional periods per week while Vancouver pupils in the sane grade are permitted twenty-two. Nova Scotia Grade Nine pupils have eighteen elective periods, and Alberta twelve. Throughout Canada the tendency seems to be to increase the number of •.•.„:-. elective offerings - i f the districts can afford the necessary qualified specialists - and to reduce to a minimum the required subjects. Just what this minimum should include Is a debatable point and probably w i l l continue to be so. A l l provinces seem to agree' upon the inclusion of English, social studies, mathematics, and health and physical education as compulsory subjects for a l l intermediate school grades. Much support can be found for t;he inclusion of general science in this l i s t but the support is not universal,. The inclusion of art, music, and practical arts for a l l grades is even more controversial. (f) The future.- On the whole, Canada's junior high school movement has not been rapid. However, this movement towards. 152 the establishment of intermediate schools throughout the c i t i e s and r u r a l areas has been steady and sure. The years of economic depression since 1930 have dissuaded many d i s t r i c t s from t a k i n g on a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l burdens, even though the educational leaders and the electorate were i n favor of j u n i o r high school organization. In the past years the movement has quickened and w i t h the re t u r n of p r o s p e r i t y intermediate schools should become u n i v e r s a l throughout the various provinces. The discovery of many remedies f o r the i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s of small secondary schools should prove very h e l p f u l to those administrators and teachers who desire to give some of the advantages of j u n i o r high schools to the p u p i l s of r u r a l secondary schools. By such devices as the 6-6 system of or g a n i z a t i o n , a l t e r n a t i o n of subjects, combination of classes, supervised correspondence study, radio educational programmes co-ordinated w i t h the regular classroom work, i t i n e r a n t i n s t r u c t o r s f o r s p e c i a l subjects, and co n s o l i d a t i o n where geographic conditions permit, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of increasing the c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s i n r u r a l centres would be decidedly increased. One must not overlook the f e a s i b i l i t y of in t r o d u c i n g some of the j u n i o r high, school features i n t o the small superior schools, which enrol p u p i l s from Grade One to Grade Nine or higher..In the d i s t r i c t s where these schools e x i s t there are no senior high schools and thus the 6-6 system i s out of the question. However, i f a superior school employs two teachers or more, a c e r t a i n segregation of senior pupils(Grade Seven and higher) can be made w i t h i n the school. 153 Alternation of subjects, supervised correspondence courses, etc. then can be used to increase the educational opportunities and to provide partially for the differentiation of interests and*abilities of the senior pupils. As Canada, is predominantly ' rural this problem of improving the educational offerings of small secondary schools is v i t a l to the educational growth of the country as a whole. Another rural problem is that of • securing adequate provincial and federal financial assistance for rural districts In order to raise standards and equalize the educational opportunities. Intermediate school work has proved successful in most European countries and in the United States of America, From the signs visible today Canada's junior high school movement - adapted to meet local conditions such as a predominance of rural centres - should have similar widespread adoption and success. 154 Books Broady, K.O,, Piatt, E.T. , Bell, IT.D. Practical Procedures for E n r i c h i n g the Chirriculums __o_f_ Small Schop Is, "Tlnco In, Nebraska, University "of Nebraska'"publication, 1931, Davis, CO. Junior High School_ Educatipn. New York,world Book Co.. , 1926, Eby, F., Arrowood, C.F. TheJ3eyelqomenJ,.jD^ Education. New York, Prentice Hall, Inc.", 1934, Edmonson;, J.B, , Roemer, J. , Bacon, F. Secondaiy School Administration, New York, The Macmillan Co., 1932, Kilzer, L.R. Supervised Study. New York, Professional and ' Technical Press, 1931. Koos, I,.V. The Junior High School. Boston, Ginn and Co., 1927. Smith, U.A. The Junior High School, New York, The Macmillan Co., 1926. Articles Broady, K.O. "Curriculum for the Three-Teacher, Six-Year High School'.' Clearing House, Vol, V l l l , No.8, 486-489, April, Brunt, J.W. "Building a Junior High School," School Progress, Vol.V, No.9, 13-14, April, 1937, Buck, J.L.B. "Enlarging the Program in Small High Schools." Clearing House, Vol. V l l l , No.8, 504, April, 1934. Dawson, H.A. "Better Instruction Through the Reorganization of School Units," School Progress, Vol. V, No.11,9, September, 1936. Dewey, John. "Shortening the Years of Elementary Schooling." School Review, Vol. XI, 1. Ferris, E.N." "Curriculum Trends and Problems in the Rural High School." Clearing House, Vol. V l l l , No.8, 461-462. April, 1934. BIBLIOGRAPHY/continued) 155 G a l b r a i t h , J.S. "Forest H i l l V i l l a g e Community School." School Progress,. V o l . I l l , No.3,8, October, 1934. Gaumnitz, W.H. "Small High Schools i n the N a t i o n a l Survey of Education." C l e a r i n g House, V o l . V l l l , No.8, 464, A p r i l , 1934. ' King, H.B. "The Present Condition of the J u n i o r High School i n B r i t i s h Columbia." B.C. Teacher, V o l . VI, No.7, 33-35, March, 1927. Rogers, G.F. "Intermediate Schools." Ontario Secondary School  Teachers' B u l l e t i n , V o l . 14, No.3, 207, June, 1934. S e i g l , N. "What Radio I s Doing For Education." School  Progress, V o l . V, No.VI, 23-25, January, 1937. Tamblyn, W.J. "Adapting the School to Meet I n d i v i d u a l Requirements," School Progress, V o l . V, No.X, 12, May,1936. Tamblyn, W.J. "Forest H i l l V i l l a g e Community School." School Progress, V o l . 3, No.5,8, December, 1934. " Newspapers Vancouver D a i l y Province, Vancouver, B.C. A p r i l 11, 1935, Vancouver D a i l y Province, Vancouver, B.C. A p r i l 9, 1936, Government Documents A l b e r t a Department of Education. "Interim Announcement R e l a t i n g to the New Programme of Studies f o r the Intermediate School." A l b e r t a Teachers'' A s s o c i a t i o n  Magazine, V o l . X V l l , No.9, 20, May, 1937, B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of Education. Annual Reports, 1925-1936. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. Programme of Studies f o r J u n i o r High Schools, 1926, 1927, 1932, 1936, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. "Survey of the School System of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia." Report by  Putman, J.H. and Weir, G.-M., 1925. 156 BIBLIOGRAPHYC continued) Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Annual. Survey of Education i n Canada. 1918-1936. Government of Ontario Document. B i l l HO. 119, An Act "Respecting intermediate Schools, 1936. Manitoba Department of Education, Annual Reports, 1918-1935. Manitoba Department of Education. Report of Educational  Commission, 1924. Nova S c o t i a Department of Education, "Junior High School Programme of Study'.' Journal of Education, Series 4, V o l . 4, 41, March, 1933. Nova S c o t i a Department of Education. "Report of the Committee on Studies," J o u r n a l of Education, Series 4, Vol.4, 40, 1933 & Ontario Department of Education. Annual Reports.) 1930-35, P o i n t Grey Board of School Trustees. Annual Report, 1928, Province of Nova S c o t i a . Education Act, Section 64(9). U.S. Bureau of Education. Report of the Committee of the N a t i o n a l Council of Education on Economy of Time i n Education. B u l l e t i n No, 38? 26-27, 1913, Vancouver School Board, Annual Reports, 1925-36, Winnipeg School Board. Annual Reports, 1918-1936. Year Book of Education, 1937. London, Evans Bros. L t d , , 1937, Reports N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n . Addresses and Proceedings, 659-660,1899. N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n . Report of the Committee on Secondary School Studies, 11, 1892/93 (pt. 3) 45", Saskatchewan Teachers' Federation. "Alberta Moving Forward," B u l l e t i n , V o l . I l l , No.6, 18, June, 1936. BIBLIQGRAPT-TY ( continued) 157 Monographs Easson, M. The •Intermed^te_Schgols of Ottawa. A doctor's thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1933. Pamphlets Argyle J u n i o r High School, Westmount, Quebec. Courses Offered, 1936. " Templeton J u n i o r High School, Vancouver, B.C. Courses Offered, 158 APPENDIX A SALARY SCHEDULE OF THE WINNIPEG' SCHOOLS Type of Yearly school, P o s i t i o n . Minimum. increase, Maximum. i Men P r i n c i p a l s .,.$2400 ..,$100 ...$3400 $3500 $100 $3800(over) Elementary 16 School*, rooms) Women ,..$2000 ...$100 ...$2800 Schedule ...$1200 ...$50 ' ...$2000 J u n i o r P r i n c i p a l s ...$3600 .,.$100 ,,.$4000 High School Schedule ,,,$1500 ...$50 ...$2200 P r i n c i p a l s ...$4000 ...$200 : ,..$5000 Men High A s s i s t a n t s ...$2400 ..,$100 ..,$3400 School Women As s i s t a n t s .,.$1800 ,.,$100 . ...$2800 ( S p e c i a l probationary schedule f o r 1st two years i n a l l above.) Manitoba Department of Education. Annual Report. 1920, 114. 158 APPENDIX B SUBJECTS OFFERED IN WINNIPEG JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS In the J u n i o r High Schools, i n c l u d i n g Grades Seven, Sig h t and Nine, i n s t r u c t i o n i n the fundamental branches i s continued w i t h d a i l y d r i l l and p r a c t i c e s u i t e d to the greater maturity of p u p i l s at t h i s stage. Geography and H i s t o r y Courses are g r e a t l y enriched i n content, and E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , through the study of the s p e c i a l t e x t s p r e s c r i b e d from year to year by the Department of Education as w e l l as by means of a generous p r o v i s i o n of supplementary reading, provides f o r the student a new appreciation of the prose and poetry which i s to be found i n such r i c h store i n the great E n g l i s h language. Mathematics at t h i s stage makes a p p l i c a t i o n to the ordinary problems, of business and community l i f e , of s k i l l s acquired i n the e a r l i e r grades and f u r t h e r developed w i t h continued p r a c t i c e at t h i s stage; beginning courses i n Geometry and Algebra introduce the student to new methods of Mathematical t h i n k i n g , forming an e x c e l l e n t t r a i n i n g f o r those who w i l l continue i n f u r t h e r study at the Senior High School as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a course of general value to those who leave school . to enter the various trades or engage i n commercial l i f e . A course i n General Elementary Science extending over the three grades i s Included i n the programme of studies f o r t h i s department. Through c o l l e c t i o n and examination of a c t u a l specimens p u p i l s are made f a m i l i a r w i t h the l i f e of p l a n t s , animals, b i r d s and i n s e c t s at t h e i r various stages of development and by laboratory experiments are l e d to iua understanding of the general p r i n c i p l e s of Physicaland:. Chemistry. Foreign, language, am. e l e c t i v e study begun i n these grades, provides an, elementary knowledge of French and L a t i n , which serves as a foundation f o r the l a t e r study of these languages i n the Senior High School. Music and A r t continue • 'to form an Important p a r t of the school programme, p u p i l s being c o n t i n u a l l y given the opportunity of expressing themselves through these media, and of developing appreciation and a t t i t u d e s which are considerable i n t h e i r influence on the character at t h i s formative stage. Systematic p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g and h e a l t h i n s t r u c t i o n are emphasized, the s p e c i a l p l a n of o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Junior High School lending i t s e l f admirably to the s u c c e s s f u l carrying on of t h i s p a r t of the programme. Manual T r a i n i n g f o r boys and Sewing f o r g i r l s i s continued i n Grade Seven, while i n Grade Eight g i r l s attend one of Domestic Science centres f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n cooking one-half day of each week, the boys at the same time taking advanced woodwork, or making a beginning at work i n Metal and Mechanical Drawing In High School, Technical Shops, or i n s p e c i a l l y equipped centres of the J u n i o r High Schools. Winnipeg School Board, Annual Report.1930, 9, 1 6 0 APPENDIX C SECTION OF THE REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT - DUNCAN TO THE WINNIPEG SCHOOL BOARD(1928) A comparison of the modern school and the junior high school reveals points of resemblance and of difference. Both organizations find their justifIcation in the fact that in the system which they supplant, pupils were observed to be marking time In their studies, and in the recognition of the need for a definite change of curriculum at the age of eleven. Hence the introduction at this stage of new studies, elementary science and a foreign language, a widening of the range of mathematical studies, an enriching of courses in English and History, and a greater emphasis upon music, art and practical work. In both organizations, too, the same change'in teaching appears, a change from a system of instruction under which one teacher Instructs In a l l subjects to one in which pupils are brought under the guidance of several teachers each of whom is a specialist in one subject or in a few related subjects. The resemblance goes farther, to include the opportunity afforded by both organizations of making divisions which admit of the recognition of the varying abi l i t i e s and Interests of students. There is, however, one marked difference between the modern school and the junior high school. The former has i t s own terminus In a leaving examination which is or w i l l be widely divergent from-that of the secondary school, a fact which tends to accentuate the variation of i t s courses from those of the older school. The junior high school, on the other hand, has no terminus, but is merely an Intermediate part of the line which runs through It from the elementary school to the high school and leads to the terminus of the latter. The plan of the junior high school affords variety through a system of options•that of the modern school foreshadows a distinct variation in content and treatment of a l l or most of the subjects of the course, The outcome of the experiment recommended by the Haddow Commission w i l l be followed with interest by a l l who have to do with the problem of the education of the adolescent. Winnipeg School Board, Annu.al_Renpjrti_ 1928, 20. 161 NDIX D IT-TF0RJ''[ATIOF IN REGARD TO ARGYLE SCHOOL. ISSUED BY THE PROTESTANT BOARD OF SCHOOL COMMISSIONERS, WESTMXWT, OTTEBEC. In the event of an Intermediate School "being established in the New Argyle building next September, the following • courses are being considered: (1) A General Course for Eighth and Ninth Years (1st and- 2nd Year High), (2) A Commercial or Business Course for Eighth and Ninth Years (1st and 2nd Year High), Both these courses are prepared with the id.ea of continuing the same type of work in the Westmount High School in the Tenth and Eleventh Years (3rd and 4th Year High), and obtaining the High School Graduation, or School Leaving Diploma-, The General Course is for those pupils who do not intend attending the University, and through a choice of options is either Cultural or- Practical, i t s fundamental principle being to prepare the pupils for l i f e . It Is a very attractive Course and is being chosen more and more in many provinces by pupils who do not desire to enter the professions* The Business Course may be taken for two years only, or may be continued in High School In the Tenth and Eleventh Years, and the student, i f successful, may matriculate into Commerce at McGill, Suggested Courses _ e V 1 1 1 (Cultural General ( or (Technical According ) to choice ) of options) •Mathematics Literature & Composition Spelling• Language French History & Geography Physical Education '& Health Sup ervi s e 6 Study General Science Periods per Week 5 6 1 2 5 3 2 2 9. Business Periods per Week Business Mathematics 5™ ~ Literature & Composition6 Spelling Language French History & Health.& Physical Education Supervised General Science Geography 1 2 5 3 2 2 Q 162 Suggested Courses - Grade V l l l Cultural According ) General ( or to choice S Business (Technical of options) Periods ner week Art, or Extra Mathematics or Extra English 2 Music 2 Household Science - ) (Cooking,. Sewing &c.) ) "or ) 3 Manual T r a i n i n g ) Stenography) Tyo ewriting) Boo kke ep ing) Business French Perxoo.s ner week 35 O K • J U Obtained from JV7. Brunt, Principal of Argyle Junior High School, 

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