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A survey of Richmond municipality relative to the establishment of a junior high school Macdougall, John Innes 1937

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A SURVEY OP RICHMOND MUNICIPALITY RELATIVE* TO THE EST ABLISHMBNT OF A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL "by John limes Maodougall A Thesis Submitted f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1937 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction A. Defi n i t i o n of the scope of the problem. B. Outline of the methods employed i n obtaining data. 0. Acknowledgements. Chapter I The Theory of the Junior High School . < A. B r i e f h i s t o r i c a l summary. B. Ohjeotives of the junior high sohool. I B r i e f summary of the "peculiar functions". II The peculiar functions" and Richmond Junior High School. Chapter II Separate Junior High Schools and Combined Schools . . . . , A. The combined junior high-elementary school. B. The separate junior high school. C. The combined junior-senior high school. D. The combined junior-senior high school vs. the separate school. Chapter III .The Present Education System i n Richmond . . . . . . . . . . A. Questionnaire on the present situation. •B* Replies. 1 1 I Location of Schools. II Age and condition of "buildings. I l l Number, type, etc. of rooms. .IV Grades enrolled. V Adequacy of f a c i l i t i e s . VI Nationalities of pupils. VII Adequacy of the equipment f o r the new curriculum. 0. Summary. Chapter IV Analysis of Population Distribution « . . . 29 A. D i f f i c u l t i e s encountered. B. Means employed. 1. Preliminary survey. 2. Preparation of forms. 3 . Methods of treating data. C. Summary and conclusions. Chapter V Recommendations Regarding the Best Type of School for Richmond . 4^ A. Location. B* A plan for a wider reorganization. C. Recommendations. Chapter VI Suitable Curricula for Richmond Junior High Sohool 51 A. Subjects. I Constants. II Variables. B* Organization. I Individual timetables II Straight class grouping III Modified olas.s grouping. i i i 1. I*Q, grouping. 2. Achievement l e v e l grouping. 3 . -Random grouping. G. Typical programmes. I Grade VII II Grade VIII III Grade IX Chapter VII Building Requirements 69 A. Pupil population. I Past. II Present. III Probable future. B. Currioular and other faotors. I Separate School* 1. Ordinary classrooms. 2. Special rooms. II Combined junior-senior high school.. Chapter VIII Organization 84 A. Currioular organization. I Weakness of departmentalization. II Plans suggested to overcome these weaknesses. 1. Generalized courses. 2. The Cooperative Group Plan. I l l A plan for Richmond Junior High School IV A comparison of the proposed plan with the: 1. Platoon plan. 2. Core"Curriculum plan. B. Administrative o f f i c e r s . i v I Separate junior high school. II Combined junior-senior high school. G. Extra-Currioular Organization. I Separate junior high sohool. II Combined junior-senior high sohool. Chapter IX Cost 101 A. Building cost. B. Annual per capita costs. I. Per capita costs i n the United States. I I . Per capita costs i n Richmond elementary and high schools. I I I . Estimates from a comparison of these. 0 . Factors entering into the cost. Chapter X L i k e l y Effects of the Proposed Reorganization on the Existing Educational F a c i l i t i e s . 107 A. General eff e c t s . B. Probable effects on the elementary schools. I. Opinions of p r i n c i p a l s . I I . Conclusions. C. Probable effects on the senior high school. I. Of a separate school. I i . Of a combined junior-senior high school. Chapter XI Summary . 116 ILLUSTRATIOSS A O TABLES Plate I III IT V .71 VII VIII IX X XI XII Graph: Average Enrolment i n Grades I to XII Map: D i s t r i c t s f o r Population Analysis . Master Sheet f o r Population Analysis . . . . . Map: Map: Map: Map: Graph: Graph: Table: Table: Di s t r i b u t i o n of Population . Distribution of Population by Schools « . . . Distribution of Secondary School Population . . . • « • * a e • Transportation F a c i l i t i e s Population of Grades VII VIII and.IX, 1927-37 . Total Enrolment, 1927-37 Grades I - XII Grades I - VI Grades VII - IX Grades X - XII Special Rooms Required . Typical Day's Schedule . • « . « Page • 5 . 32 38 40 41 42 44 71 Administrative organization . « 9 « • * e 72-3 76 92 93 v i INTRODUCTION 6 INTRODUCTION A. D e f i n i t i o n of the Scope of the Investigation. The problem approached i n t h i s study i s the very p r a c t i c a l one of analyzing the needs of a t y p i c a l B r i t i s h Columbia municipality with reference to the establishment of a junior high school. Since no reputable educationist now opposes the principle of a middle school, and since the B r i t i s h Columbi Department of Education has d e f i n i t e l y accepted the junior high school as the most desirable form of organization for Grades VII - IX, no attempt i s made to j u s t i f y the new type of i n s t i t u t i o n . Throughout the thesis, the assumption i s made that i t s adoption i n Richmond w i l l be a forward step i n education. While the analysis i s applied to a single concrete case, i t has general a p p l i c a b i l i t y . The junior high school movement i s gaining impetus i n the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . Many boards of trustees are laying plans for reorganization. As yet, unfortunately, though much able work has been done, there seems l i t t l e available material to guide them i n a s c i e n t i f i c approach to the task« This thesis attempts to make some contribution i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . To t h i s end no f i n e r region for the investigation could have been chosen. Richmond presents one of the most v l i i t y p i c a l crosa sections of r u r a l and suburban l i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Farming, f i s h i n g , canning, aviation, peat-cutting - and boat building are only a few of the tasks engaged i n by the people. Pupils come from fine homes and from fishermen's and squatter's shacks. Extensive grain acreage and tiny truck farms l i e side by side. Since i t i s i n such a d i s t r i c t that he has conducted his study, the writer hopes that some of the methods he has employed may be adapted to the solution of the same problem i n other d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and else-where i n Canada. B. Methods employed i n obtaining the data. Most of the s t a t i s t i c a l material required for t h i s project was obtained from the Public Schools Reports of the Department of Education. Since, however, at the time, information f o r 1935~7 w a s no"fc available from t h i s source, the data for these years were obtained d i r e c t l y from Mr. B.D. Boden, Secretary of the Board of Sohool Trustees and from the teachers of the Municipality. The forms employed for t h i s purpose are dealt with i n Chapter IV. To secure opinions from competent authorities the interview-questionnaire was employed. In each case, p r i o r to the interview, a sheet of typewritten questions was prepared. These questions were framed so as to obtain information on those aspects of the major problem upon which i t was believed i x the persona concerned were "best qualified to express t h e i r views. Details of these interviews appear i n Chapters I - III. In connection with t h i s portion of the study, and indeed throughout his investigation, the writer has "been given generous assistance "by a l l those approached. He would l i k e to express his thanks to Dr. H.B. King, Technical Adviser to the Department of Education, Inspectors A. Sullivan and V.Z'. Manning of the Department of Education and Mr H.I. MacCorkindale, Superintendent of Schools of Vancouver for the i r kindness i n granting interviews. To the Richmond Board of School Trustees, the principals and staffs of a l l i t s schools without whose wholehearted cooperation this project could not have been carried out, to those i n charge of transportation for assistance i n that aspect of the analysis, and to a l l those others* pupils and friends who have aided his work i n so many ways, he desires to pay tribute . F i n a l l y , he would acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr C.B. Wood and other members of the Department of Education of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r constant guidance during this investigation. I t i s a matter of considerable pleasure to the writer that a junior high school w i l l shortly be established i n Richmond. What began as a theoretical study has thus become a matter of v i t a l p r a c t i c a l i t y . It has pleased him too, to be able to supply some items of information to those concerned x with the planning of the new i n s t i t u t i o n , and he takes the l i b e r t y of hoping that some of his suggestions may he implemented when i t i s opened. s i Chapter- 1 THE THEORY 01 THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 2 Chapter 1 THE THEORY OF THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL A* History. Towards the end of the nineteenth century i t "became evident to leading educators i n various parts of the world that the t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of the school into elementary and secondary units f a i l e d to give adequate consideration to the changes taking place i n the c h i l d during the early years of adolescence. This conviction of the need for a new middle school grew constantly stronger, u n t i l now every c i v i l i z e d country of the world has adopted some such organization. Canada lags considerably "behind the United States, most European countries and even Japan i n modifying the t r a d i t i o n a l system. Much of value may he learned from a comparative study of the middle schools of various lands. Such a study appears i n a master's thesis submitted by Mr. J.F.E. E n g l i s h 1 i n 1933• In view of the excellence of his summary and of the need f o r l i m i t i n g the f i e l d of the present investigation, this aspect i s not dealt with here. l-J.F.K. English, The Combined Junior Senior School  and Its. General Adaptability to the Small Center's.' of 'British .'ddl'umb'i^  Chapters II and III,' Ap'ri'i 1933• a more detailed treatment see: I.L. Kandel, Comparative. Education, Cambridge, Mass.: Soughton-Mifflin •Co-; p* 349-519-3 I t i s important, however, that i n dismissing thus b r i e f l y the h i s t o r i o a l "background of the junior high school, , we do not f a i l to see the i n s t i t u t i o n i n i t s proper perspective. I t i s well to remember that the idea of such a sohool, having been propounded by Dr. E l i o t of Harvard i n 1893"!; i s scarcely to be considered new. Further, since the records of junior high schools i n actual operation extend back to 1910; ample proof has been given of the success of the new i n s t i t u t i o n i n achieving many of the results f o r which i t was designed. B. Objectives of the Junior High School. I t w i l l be well to examine some of the claims made for the junior high sohool i n order to determine what i t can be expected to accomplish i n Richmond. The summary which follows i s taken c h i e f l y from Koos, with certain additions from Briggs,^ and from the aims set out by the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. The Junior High School w i l l assist i n ; 1. Realizing a democratic school system through (a) Retention of pupils. (b) Economy of time. l-L.Y* Koos. The Junior High Sohool. 1927, Ginn & Go. Chap. 1 . 2 Ibid. Chap. 1. 3Briggs, T.H., The Junior High School, 1930, Houghton M i f f l i n , p. 6 5 . 4 (c) Recognition of individual differences. (d) Exploration and guidance. (e) Beginnings of vocational education. I I . Recognizing the nature of the c h i l d at adolescence. I I I . Providing the conditions f o r better teaching by means of: (a) Better q u a l i f i e d teachers. (b) Better equipment. IV. Securing "better scholarship. V. Improving the d i s c i p l i n a r y situation and opportunities for s o c i a l i z a t i o n . VI. Effecting f i n a n c i a l economies. VII. Relieving the "building s i t u a t i o n . Numerous other "peculiar functions" are claimed f o r the Junior High School, hut the above are most frequently mentioned. I f i t aohieves these purposes i n the c i t i e s , we cannot but agree with Ferris-*- that " i t should have even more to offer the children of rural and v i l l a g e communities than i t does to the children of urban centres." Through which of these functions can i t c h i e f l y serve Richmond? Plate 1. i l l u s t r a t e s the need for improvement i n retention. lE.N. F e r r i s , Secondary Education i n Country and V i l l a g e , New York: Appleton & Co. , 1 9 2 7 , p. 15a; ' 5 Plate I Average Enrolment i n Grades I to 211, 1931-7 -3:00-1$; ±5: TC 3S_ J2L :3L |£ £ . S f t_*.* S\ tuaitt-e Fit o\m PR e >j 1 o v s 1 ad e !tJ> s i- n i n n ; - . &7?4 D E Nvnaet Pi/ P 1 L OF-AZ£ k,c e nt t ' 6-RA P'( P.KEv 1 o vs.. iHftPE C N K a L M gig T eMr a r". n s » T IB -- T3-. - -Vf J D L 111-} if I- S~ 97i~ TZ-t X'fL •rs.'i? 11 -1-» ..-4.. */•» -3£li_ -U7-M _ - 2 • * - / S - . 3 5 - ?-7A-6 The six year average 1 shows that a comparatively low mortality from grades I to VII increases to a s t a r t l i n g drop . i n enrolment f o r each grade from VIII to XII. I t i s a disquieting discovery that f o r every 200 pupils who enter grade I, only 20 reach matriculation. There i s food for thought, also, i n the fact that less than 100 reach even grade IX, and that 90 of the remaining hundred have dropped out i n the junior high school grades. This mortality concerns the junior high sohool i n two ways. F i r s t , i t must endeavour to retain a larger number of the pupils; second, recognizing that some w i l l inevitably drop out,it must provide these l a t t e r children with the best possible education both from the point of view of immediate interests and from that of l i f e needs. Conclusive evidence of the success of existing junior high schools i n carrying out these tasks i s , unfortunately, l a c k i n g . 2 Some have accomplished much i n the way of improved retention; most, by t h e i r very nature, are better f i t t e d than the t r a d i t i o n a l schools to care for the immediate and future needs of the younger adolescents. In the past some attempts have been made to deal with individual differences and to guide youthful a c t i v i t i e s to desirable ends, but no sohool system organized along t r a d i t i o n a l academic li n e s can provide the necessary courses Richmond did not adopt the 4-year high sohool u n t i l 2L.V. Zoos, op. o i t . pp. 113-125 7 for exploration or pre-vocational t r a i n i n g . Every year, pupils leave Richmond schools to attend technical or business schools i n Vancouver* Others drop out "because of the narrowness of a curriculum designed to prepare the 4 or 5 out of the 200 who eventually enter the university. Of the remaining claims perhaps the most v i t a l i s that the middle school permits recognition of, and adaptation of the educational environment to.the nature of younger adolescents. The t r a d i t i o n a l break at the end of Grade VIII has long been realized to be undesirable. Most pupils i n Grades VII and VIII have reached a point i n t h e i r physiological and psychological development which renders the continuation of elementary methods and s p i r i t unsuitable. Those i n Grade IX have been introduced to a new environment i n which they are regarded c h i e f l y as possible, or impossible, matriculation material. I t i s the privilege of the junior high school to provide children of t h i s age with an education based not so much on what they were or what they may become as on what they are and need now. Claim III i s axiomatic. Better teaching may reasonably be expected to follow'better q u a l i f i c a t i o n of teachers and the provision of better teaching materials. Both of these are required by regulations of the Department of Education. Claims i n regard to improvements i n scholarship, 8 d i s c i p l i n e and so c i a l i z a t i o n are open to debate. Scholarship i n the narrow sense i s not the fundamental objective of the modern school. Discipline and so c i a l i z a t i o n depend not so much on the plan of organization as on the way i t i s administered. Without doubt, however> the new organization has greater p o s s i b i l i t i e s along a l l these l i n e s . Whatever be the ideas of the educationists concerned, i t i s undoubtedly true that a l l of the foregoing claims rank second, i n the minds of many administrative authorities and tax papers, to arguments concerning the most economical means of r e l i e v i n g overcrowding and of giving a satisfactory education. These f i n a l two "functions" of the school have thus become, i n many d i s t r i c t s , the chief reasons for establishing a junior high school. The policy of the B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of Education of providing larger grants for buildings for schools of the new type i s significant evidence of the importance of these l a s t two arguments to the general public. Sometimes, perhaps, they are given too great an emphasis. Certainly there are opportunities for quite wholesome economies i n the junior high school. The danger, however, i s not that too much w i l l be spent, but that an overstress w i l l be placed on economy to the detriment of the other '^peculiar functions". 9 A f i n a l word of caution must "be said i n regard to the possible gains. Hot a l l middle schools accomplish a l l of them. The appellation "Junior High School" has no talismanic power to reform. A new organization merely provides a new opportunity. Improvements can come only as the result of carefully planned endeavour. Chapter II SEPARATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND COMBINED SCHOOLS 150 Chapter II 'SEPARATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND COMBINED SCHOOLS The achievement of the aims of the junior high sohool must, to a large extent, depend on the type of organization employed for the purpose. I t i s essential, therefore, that attention he given early to a decision as to the external arrangements which w i l l contribute most to the ends i n view. The unanimity of prominent educationists i n t h e i r favourable attitude towards the junior high school i s i n s t a r t l i n g contrast to the di v e r s i t y of opinion among them as to the most desirable scheme of p r a c t i c a l application. Some favour a Junior unit completely free from either Elementary or Senior groups, some a combination of the two higher divisions, and some a combination of the two lower divisions of the school. I t w i l l be necessary to analyse the claims advanced and to determine which arrangement w i l l best suit the needs of Richmond Municipality. In dealing with this aspect of the general problem, reference must again be made to Mr. English's a n a l y s i s 1 of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the combined school i n the small centres of B r i t i s h Columbia. Basing his opinion on his own questionnaires * the' recent United States Survey of Secondary Education, and views of certain educational authorities, t h i s writer expresses himself as wholeheartedly i n favour of the 1J.I',K. English, op.cit. Chap. IV, p. 45 . 11 combined junior - senior high sohool and as convinced that the separate junior high sohool has nothing to recommend i t for the smaller communities of t h i s province. While i t i s not his wish to discr e d i t i n any way the work done by Mr. English, the writer feels that, having come to a somewhat different conclusion, he should give grounds for his disagreement. F i r s t , i t might be well to examine the foundations upon which Mr English's conclusions are b u i l t . In his questionnaires there seems to be an unfortunate, though presumably, unconscious, bias towards the combined school. For example the question, "Have you noticed that practices, habits, etc., characteristic of junior high school pupils generally, are being copied by the senior high school pupils who are housed i n the same building with them?", was unl i k e l y to get a condemnatory response, whereas i t s converse, which was not asked though i t certainly should have been,might have brought forth a variety of ori t i c i s m s . There seems to be, moreover, a certain lack of impartiality evidenced by the fact that the persons to whom the chief questionnaire was sent were, without exception, principals of combined schools. Surely i t i s not to be wondered at that they saw f i t to support the type of organization i n which they were personally interested. Since even these, however, expressed d i s s a t i s -faction with some features of the combination, disagreement 12 with Mr. English's claim that, "none of the disadvantages were serious and could i n a l l cases he overcome"^ may he j u s t i f i a b l e . With Mr. English's deductions from the United States Survey, and statements by educational authorities, the writer finds himself s l i g h t l y more i n accord, as w i l l appear i n the summaries of claims and counter-claims which follow. A. The Junior High - Elementary Combination. Eowhere i n the l i t e r a t u r e on the subject i s there any substantial support for the Junior - Elementary combination. Most writers agree that i t i s characterized by a l l of the disadvantages and none of the advantages of the six year secondary school. Most serious of a l l , i t fosters i n the middle school a continuation of " l ' e s p r i t primaire" which d e f i n i t e l y handicaps the junior high section of the school i n carrying out i t s "peculiar functions". Save where i t i s the only alternative to the t r a d i t i o n a l plan of organization, t h i s combination has l i t t l e to recommend i t . Ji. The Separate Junior High Sohool. While the arguments i n favour of the Separate Junior High School are usually brought forward as c r i t i c i s m of the combined schools, some few may be stated p o s i t i v e l y . Eoos' 2 observations, i n t h i s connection cannot be improved upon. k b i d , p. 52 L.Y. Koos, op. c i t . p. 468-9* 1 5 "Experience", he aays, "seems to recommend that, wherever possible, the junior high school be housed i n buildings of i t s own and not oo-ooeupant with a senior high school or an elementary school . Separation assists i n freeing the new i n s t i t u t i o n from the r e s t r i c t i n g traditions of these other schools and thus gives latitude for a better recognition of the child's nature during the years of early adolescence. I t permits a s h i f t to a d i s c i p l i n a r y regime more suitable for children of these years and, through the greater approaoh to homogeneity of the group included, better opportunity for other efforts at s o c i a l i z a t i o n . " Even though i t i s evident that such claims as these do not lend themselves to objective demonstration, they cannot be e a s i l y set aside. In making them Eoos i s stating the opinions of many authorities. Perhaps the most definite evidence of agreement with his statements i s to be found i n the fact that i n C a l i f o r n i a , the leading state i n these matters, the large majority of junior high schools are separate three-year i n s t i t u t i o n s . 1 (Che present tendency i n C a l i f o r n i a seems to be towards a four-year junior high school, ending with Grade X, followed by a four-year senior high school including what are •^Proctor and Ricoiardi report 94 of a t o t a l of 152 i n 1930 were three-year schools. W.M. Proctor and E* Rio c i a r d i , 'She Junior High Sohool Its Organization and Administration, Stanford University Press, 193O. p. 1. 14 now considered the Junior College years. This 6 . - 4 - 4 movement seems l i k e l y to resiilt i n a greater preponderance of separate Junior i n s t i t u t i o n s . C. The Combined Junior-Senior High School. The basic arguments i n favour of the six year secondary school are on the f i n a n c i a l and administrative sides. They are: 1. I t reduces cost through: (a) Elimination of duplication of special equipment * (b) F u l l e r use of existing equipment. (c) Coordination of administration. 2. I t f a c i l i t a t e s v e r t i c a l coordination through: (a) Promotion by subject. (b) A r t i c u l a t i o n of courses offered. In addition, the following more purely educational values are urged i n i t s favour.: 3 . serves to stimulate reorganization of both unit 4 . I t f a c i l i t a t e s greater d i v e r s i t y of offering through combination of s t a f f s . 5« provides greater extra-curricular p o s s i b i l i t i e s 6, I t gives greater opportunity f o r systematic guidance of pupils through continuous oversight during the six-year period. Such are the chief c l e a r l y substantiated arguments advanced by the proponents of each type of school. I t remains for us to examine, f i r s t , those claims which are equally v a l i d 15 f o r "both types, and second, the criticisms of each type which have been advanced by those who favour the other. D. The Combined Junior-Senior High School vs. The Separate Junior High School. Professor Spaulding, as a result of his study of a group of small junior high schools i n Massachusetts has 1 discerned certain oommon qu a l i t i e s i n the two types. We s h a l l accept h i s assurance that there i s nothing to choose between them with respect to the carrying out of suoh procedures as: 1. Reorganization of subject matter. 2. Introduction of general courses. 3. Supervision of study. 4 . Provision for systematic guidanoe. 5. The conduct of extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s . Those who favour the six-year school f i n d the separate junior high school wanting i n the following respects: 1. I t increases a r t i c u l a t i o n problems. 2. A small school cannot provide adequate departmentalization. 2 3» Except i n very large schoolsj the expense i s out of proportion to any slight gain which may obtain. 4 . There i s no tangible evidence of i t s superiority i n any respect. lp.T. Spaulding, The Small Junior High School pp. 173-5, 177^-8, 182-3. -•^Professor Spaulding fs findings indicate the desira-b i l i t y of combination where there are l e s s than 5° pupils per grade. 16 With the l a s t of these claims there can he l i t t l e argument. Perhaps, however, i t i s time that educationists advanced beyond the na'ive conception that everything of value can be supported by s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s . In considering the t h i r d argument, we must be aware that the thought behind i t i s that there i s duplication of equipment i n the separate school. To a certain extent t h i s i s true. The f u l l e r employment of a l l f a c i l i t i e s must, as i n the Platoon system, lead to definite economies. Possibly though, we are not j u s t i f i e d i n assuming that the equipment used f o r the senior pupils i s invariably, or even usually, suitable for junior pupils. To make such an assumption i s to some extent to deny the unique nature of the new u n i t . One example may s u f f i c e . The high school experimental laboratories i n science subjects are of l i t t l e value to the junior classes where most of the in s t r u c t i o n i s done by the lecture-demonstration method. Similarly much of the junior high school equipment i s useless i n the senior high school. The eoonomy argument i s not as strong as i t appears. A similar weakness may be shown i n the second claim, regarding inadequate departmentalization. Let us assume a d i s t r i c t i such as Bichmond, i n which a satisfactory eight-room senior high school i s i n operation. Such a school w i l l f i n d l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n departmentalization. Is i t reasonable, then, to assume that a junior high school, i n the 17 same d i s t r i c t , whose enrolment w i l l he at least f i f t y per cent greater, w i l l have such d i f f i c u l t y ? Furthermore, are not leading educationists swinging more and more to the view that " I f you wish to teaoh subjects, you w i l l departmentalize; i f you wish to teaoh children you w i l l not."? Perhaps then, even i f true, this argument has lo s t much of i t s force since, as i s shown i n Chapter ¥111, departmentalization i s being called into question. There i s , however, one viewpoint from which t h i s argument has some force. I t may be that the small senior high school, deoreased by one-third of i t s former enrolment may be unable to carry on as e f f i c i e n t l y i n this respect, as before. This matter i s dealt with i n Chapter 2. The f i r s t argument, r e l a t i v e to d i f f i c u l t y of a r t i c u l a t i o n i s not so much one against the separate junior high sohool as against laok of cooperation between the different levels of the school system. As shown i n Chapter IX, v e r t i c a l coordination requires only a l i t t l e cooperative planned endeavour. Since the supporters of the separate school have been forced to the defensive by weighty evidence i n favour of combination i t i s natural that they have concentrated on discovering flaws i n the six-year school. Some "dangers" which they point out are: 1. One unit may dominate the other. (a) Grades VII and VIII may be "tacked on" to the 18 high school without modification of c u r r i c u l a or methods. (b). The smaller senior unit may he unduly . subordinated to the larger junior u n i t . 2. I n s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n may he made i n the social and other a c t i v i t i e s of the two schools. 3» Undesirable mental and emotional results may follow the throwing together of older and younger pupils. 4« teachers may be unable to adapt themselves to the wide range of ages. With the exception of the t h i r d , these are not th e o r e t i c a l but rather very p r a c t i c a l administrative problems. As such i t i s conceivable that, under the guidanoe of a p r i n c i p a l and staff of great breadth of v i s i o n , they might be overcome. Concerning the t h i r d , authorities d i f f e r . Dr. K i n g 1 considers i t a case of pure " r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n " . Others deem i t a very v i t a l c r i t i c i s m . An impartial summing up of both sides of the argument would seem to indicate that from most points of view, the separate junior high school may be considered as the i d e a l . 5!he attempt to accomplish the i d e a l i n smaller communities, however, seems to present grave d i f f i c u l t i e s , and to introduce certain less i d e a l features. To overcome these, combination i s resorted to and i t , i n turn, presents certain d e f i n i t e advantages and certain possible dangers. The solution of the problem, then, would seem to be: D r * H * B ' K i n g , Technical Adviser to The Department of Education of B.O. 19 1. Where feasible establish a separate junior high school. 2. Elsewhere, establish a combined junior-senior high sohool with definite safeguards against the suggested dangers. There remains to be discussed the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of these two as f a r as Richmond Municipality i s concerned. However, as conclusions i n t h i s matter depend to a considerable extent on the analysis of population d i s t r i b u t i o n and suitable locations, as recorded i n Chapter IV, i t i s necessary to leave the treatment of the l o c a l situation u n t i l Chapter V. Chapter III THE PRESENT EDUCATIONAL SITUATION IN RICHMOND 21 Chapter III THE PRESENT EDUCATIONAL SITUATION IN RICHMOND The obvious f i r s t step i n the planning of any educational i n s t i t u t i o n i s to conduct a comprehensive survey -of the system of which i t i s to form a part. No new unit, no matter how radi c a l are the changes which i t i s to introduce, should be conceived with the idea that the existing f a c i l i t i e s w i l l automatically conform to i t . True, i t may demand and achieve certain modifications, but i t i s essential that i t be planned f o r assimilation into an integrated educational system. The i n i t i a l task of the present investigation, therefore, was that of c o l l e c t i n g and summarizing pertinent data on Riohmond Schools. In i t , the writer's general knowledge of the situation was supplemented by s p e c i f i c information obtained from the educational authorities of the Municipality. This l a t t e r material was secured c h i e f l y by means of "the f i r s t part of a questionnaire used i n formal interviews with the principals of the larger schools.1 In a l l cases the following questions were asked: 1. When was the main building b u i l t ? Other buildings? 2. How many classrooms does the school contain? 3 . What special rooms does the school contain? 4 . How many classrooms are outside the main building? The second part of t h i s questionnaire i s dealt with i n Chapter XX.; 22 5» How many rooms are i n use at present? 6. What rooms are i n use which are not e n t i r e l y suitable? Why are they not? 7. Can you give an estimate of the number of additional rooms you w i l l require to house grades I to VIII during the next five years? How many w i l l you need to house grades I to VI only? 8. In general terms what additional equipment w i l l you require to carry out the new grade VII and VIII curricula? A school by school summary of the answers to these questions, and other pertinent data, might f a i l to give a clear picture of the whole educational system. I t would tend to emphasize too much the individual i n s t i t u t i o n . The following arrangement of the material has been chosen as one more l i k e l y to present a composite view. I. Locations of Schools. (See Plate II) (1) Bridgeport: - In a f a i r l y well populated, small . . farming and i n d u s t r i a l area. (2) Lord Byng: - In one of the municipality's most populous d i s t r i o t s . Residents engage c h i e f l y i n farming and f i s h i n g . (3) Mitchell:. ~ Similar to Bridgeport with some larger farms. (4) Sea Island: - Located on wharf property of the Vancouver and Acme Canneries. Buildings are supplied and maintained by them for children of employees. (5) Richmond Bast: - In a sparsely populated farming . - and f i s h i n g region. 23 (6) English? - In an area of large farms. (7) Hamilton: - .Similar to Richmond East. (8) General Gurrie: - In a well populated region near the Municipal.Centre at Brighouse. (9) High School: - The same as Bridgeport. I I . Age and Condition of Buildings. (1) Bridgeport:- Main building erected about 1910. Flooring r e l a i d t h i s year. Other buildings are of more recent construction. The basement rooms are not suitable for regular classes. (2) Lord Byng:- Main building constructed i n 19J0, smaller building about 1925* A l l i n good condition. (3) M i t c h e l l : - Original building not now used. One room of present structure b u i l t about 1917s another i n 1922, the f i n a l two about 1928. Quite satisfactory. (4) Sea Island:- Date of construction not available. Since the building was not o r i g i n a l l y designed for sohool purposes the rooms are not e n t i r e l y suitable. (5) , (6) , (7) , ( 8 ) . English, Hamilton, Richmond East and General Gurrie, one-room schools, which vary i n age but are a l l i n reasonably good condition. (9) The High School:- Erected i n I927 i s i n quite satisfactory condition. I I I . number, Type, etc., of Rooms. ( l ) Bridgeport:- Main building contains 11 regular classrooms and 1 manual arts room, the l a t t e r and one classroom are i n the basement and are, therefore not e n t i r e l y suitable. The 3 out-buildings .contain 2 classrooms and a manual training room. Cambie Gymnasium (on High Sohool grounds) i s used for physical education. (2) Lord Byng:- Main building contains 12 regular classrooms, an auditorium (convertible into 2 classrooms), and a small l i b r a r y room. The 24 older building contains 4 classrooms. The use of Camble Gymnasium has been found impracticable. (3) M i t c h e l l : - Building contains 4 classrooms and a basement room used for science and manual a r t s . (4) Sea Island:- One building has 1 classroom, the other, 1 classroom and a small room employed for manual a r t s . (5) » ( 6 ) , ( 7 ) , ( 8 ) . The rest are one-room schools. (9) High School:- Contains 8 classrooms, 1 home economics laboratory (equipped for 24 p u p i l s ) , and 1 general science.laboratory. The l a t t e r two are i n the basement. Cambie Gymnasium i s used for physical education, assemblies, etc. IV. Grades Enrolled. (1), ( 2 ) , ( 3 ) , ( 4 ) . Bridgeport, Lord Byng, Mitchell and Sea Island schools give instruction i n Grades I to VIII. (5) English enrolls only grades I - IV. (6) , ( 7 ) . Hamilton and Richmond East give instruction . i n such of the grades I - VIII as are required. (8) General Currie has the receiving class only. . This school i s considered as a d i v i s i o n of Bridgeport school• V. Adequacy of F a c i l i t i e s . (1) Bridgeport:- A l l rooms i n use. Two classes consist of more than 50 pupils, seven of more than 40 each. No apparent expansion i n recent years. Grades VII - VIII occupy 5 rooms. (2) Lord Byng:- One room not i n use at present. No . l i k e l i h o o d of space shortage within the next f i v e years. Few classes over 4° pupils. Grades VII - VIII occupy 3 rooms. (3) M i t c h e l l ; - A l l rooms i n use. Increase i n school population of 40fo i n l a s t two years. Immediate addition of one room necessary. I f i n f l u x continues 3 siore classrooms w i l l be required i n next 5 years. Only one class has over 40 pupils. Grades VII - VIII occupy one room. 25 (4) Both rooms i n use. (Formerly 3 rooms, hut remodelled.) Slight decrease i n enrolment i n recent years and no increase expected. There are 15 pupils i n Grades ¥11 and ¥ 1 1 1 . (5) , ( 6 ) , ( 7 ) , ( 8 ) . A l l one-room schools, having total.populations of less than 30 pupils each. Hamilton has 2 pupils i n ¥11 and ¥ 1 1 1 , East Eichmond 1. (9) High School:- A l l rooms are i n use. Likehood of need fo r an additional classroom i n the coming year as i n each of the past two years. ¥ 1 . N a t i o n a l i t i e s of Pupils. (1) Bridgeport:- Most of the pupils are of European extraction hut many other r a c i a l groups are represented. (2) Lord Byng:- Most (over 70$ of the present enrolment) are of-Oriental parentage. (3) M i t c h e l l : - Similar to Bridgeport. (4) Sea Island;- A l l pupils are of Japanese extraction. (5) English:- Similar to Bridgeport. (6) Hamilton:- Most pupils are of Japanese parentage. (7) East Eichmond:- Most pupils are of mid-European parentage. Some other n a t i o n a l i t i e s , including Eskimo, are represented. (8) General Gurrie:- A l l pupils are of European extraction. (9) High School:- Most of the pupils are from families of European extraction, hut the number of oriental pupils seems to be increasing. ¥ 1 1 . Adequacy of Equipment fo r New Curriculum. Each of the principals consulted expressed the opinion that the new grade ¥11 - ¥111 c u r r i c u l a would c a l l f o r considerable expenditure for l i b r a r y books and supplies, and for equipment and materials f o r manual arts and general science. Some intimated that they have delayed ordering much that was necessary u n t i l the junior high school 26 question was settled. A few generalizations might he made from the facts given above. F i r s t , Richmond Schools have been distributed at the c a l l of necessity. Therefore, as more c l e a r l y shown i n Chapter IV, t h e i r locations leave much to be desired. Second, some of the buildings have seen many years of service and must i n the near future be replaced or brought up to date. Third, a considerable variety obtains i n the size and grade offering of the schools. There i s an evident need for consideration of consolidating and zoning p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Fourth, at least three schools show need for increased accommodation. Bridgeport* with i t s capacity population and oversize classes, M i t c h e l l , with i t s rapidly increasing enrolment, and the High School, a l l must receive additions under the present arrangements. F i f t h , the large number of Japanese pupils presents a very definite r a c i a l problem. Training of these pupils i n self-expression i n English, at present a gradual process throughout the eight grades, as at Lord Byng, w i l l have to be accomplished c h i e f l y i n Grades I to VT should a junior high school be established. I t w i l l be exceedingly d i f f i c u l t to divide classes on a r a c i a l basis i n Grades VII and VIII. 27 Care w i l l have to he taken, therefore, to prevent the new ins t i t u t i o n ' s being characterized by a high mortality of Orientals. Sixth, whether i t be for a junior high school or for the present elementary schools, Richmond i s faced with the necessity of purchasing much new equipment. I t need hardly be pointed out that i t would be much more economical to provide one set of the best quality of equipment than seven mediocre sets. Such matters as these demand consideration i n the planning of the new i n s t i t u t i o n . They w i l l be factors i n i t s success or f a i l u r e . For the f i r s t time i n i t s history, perhaps* the municipality has the opportunity of eliminating many of i t s educational deficiencies by one carefully planned step. I t i s to be hoped that the chance w i l l not be neglected* Chapter IT ANALYSIS Of POPULATION DISTRIBUTION 29 Chapter IV ANALYSIS OP POPULATION DISTRIBUTION A. D i f f i c u l t i e s Encountered. An analysis of the school population of an urban area i s a comparatively simple matter. S t a t i s t i c i a n s have devised ways and means of reducing such a task to a definite series of procedures.^ To a rur a l area few of these methods are applicable. The following analysis of the scattering of school population of Richmond was possible only through the overcoming of numerous obstacles by somewhat or i g i n a l modes of approach. F i r s t , i t was impossible to secure from sohool records any useful information as to the location of pupils' homes. The majority of residences are l i s t e d simply as on one of the two r u r a l mail routes. Numbers are, for the most part, non-< existent. Second, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of population i s very f a r from uniform, varying, as we sha l l see, from almost urban i n Steveston to almost negligible settlement at the eastern end of Lulu Island. Third, many homes are not situated on any of the main roads, but on side tracks not shown on even the latest maps. Fourth, proximity to transportation f a c i l i t i e s i s a more v i t a l consideration than mere geographical position. Isee CO. Crawford, The Technique of Research i n Education, Los Angeles: University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a Priess, 1928, Chapters VX, XIV. 30 F i n a l l y , no zoning scheme has ever been put into effect i n the Islands. One school i n particular draws pupils from end to end of the Municipality. 1 I t was therefore, out of the question to estimate d i s t r i b u t i o n from any consideration of the population of individual schools. B« Means Employed. For the foregoing reasons i t seemed necessary to c a l l upon each teacher of the various schools to furnish definite information as to the location of the home of each p u p i l . The only possible method of securing such data seemed to be the d i s t r i b u t i o n of maps so that actual locations might be determined. To have each home indicated by a mark on such a map would have been a hopelessly involved task and one l i k e l y to bring forth a great deal of erroneous information. I t was decided, therefore, to divide the Municipality into d i s t r i c t s which could be used to give s u f f i c i e n t l y significant d e t a i l s . A preliminary survey of the whole region by auto-mobile furnished much useful material for t h i s purpose. On the f i f t y mile t r i p , which covered p r a c t i c a l l y every road on the Islands, careful notes were made on such matters as, (l ) Relative density of settlement?; (2) Location of schools; and (3) Locations of churches, stores, and other important buildings. This, and other knowledge of l o c a l factors, was l-See Plate Y. 31 then employed i n dividing a large map of the Municipality into twenty-three d i s t r i c t s , lettered from A to W as shown i n Plate I I . I t would he d i f f i c u l t , and of l i t t l e value, to give a detailed account of the reasons behind the choice of individual boundaries. The following general c r i t e r i a governed the selection i n most cases: 1. The boundaries should be well known thoroughfares running through sparsely settled areas. 2. They should not subdivide any natural unit of population. 3« Ihey should regulate the size of the d i s t r i c t s inversely to the density of population. 4 . They should mark o f f areas naturally contiguous to any school building. * 5. Ehey should be placed so as to divide the Municipality as simply as possible. This preliminary work having been completed, the map was reduced to•such a size as would make maximum use of the mimeograph s t e n c i l (a reotangle 14 inches by 8.5 inches) to which i t was to be transferred. In addition to the map three other stencils were prepared and copies of the four sheets of material were stapled to form a booklet and distributed to a l l the teaohers of the Municipality. 32 Q '01 sal 33 Page 1 bore the following explanatory l e t t e r : 4735 Osier St. Vancouver, B.O. Nov. 30, 1936 Dear Fellow Teacher: May I request your assistance i n securing several items of information regarding each of your pupils? I f u l l y r e alise the amount of work I am asking you to do, and regret that I am unable to obtain the neoessary facts elsewhere. I am.sure, however, that I can count on your cooperation when I point out that the.data I am compiling i s l i k e l y to prove of definite value to a l l of us who have any part i n education i n Richmond Municipality. The study which I am conducting, with the kind permission and.assistance of the Richmond Board of School Trustees, concerns i t s e l f with questions relative to a hypothetical Junior High School i n this municipality. The deta i l s called for on the accompanying sheets w i l l be used i n a r r i v i n g at certain conclusions as to l i k e l y pupil population, suitable locations, and similar matters. I have no doubt that these facts when gathered together^ w i l l have a considerable value from many other points of view./ I w i l l , of course, make them available to anyone who wishes to employ them for any legitimate educational purpose. W i l l you please adhere closely to the directions given on the attached sheets, i n order that no errors i n interpretation may r e s u l t . I f , as i s quite possible, I have f a i l e d to make the i n s t r u c t i o n s . s u f f i c i e n t l y clear, I w i l l appreciate any comments or suggestions. Trusting that the value of the results w i l l prove a s u f f i c i e n t expuse for the inconvenience I am causing you, I remain, Yours t r u l y (Signed) J. Innes Macdougall 34 Page 2 gave the following: A. B r i e f Instructions. The accompanying map of the municipality has heen divided up into a number of small d i s t r i c t s , designated by le t t e r s running from A to W. W i l l you please record under the heading " D i s t r i c t " , on the provided form, the location of each pupil's home.. Please note car e f u l l y the following: 1. I f a boundary l i n e l i e s along a road which runs north and south, please l i s t a l l pupils l i v i n g on either side of that road as resident i n the d i s t r i c t on i t s western side. 2. I f a boundary l i n e l i e s along a road which runs east and west, please l i s t a l l pupils l i v i n g on either side of that road as resident i n the d i s t r i c t on i t s northern side. 3» I f the home of any pu p i l does not d e f i n i t e l y l i e within one of the indicated areas, or i f for any-other reason, you have any comment to make, please do so i n the "Remarks" column. Rule 3 i s s e l f explanatory. Rules 1 and 2 were fixed upon a r b i t r a r i l y i n order that no d i s t i n c t i o n would be made between pupils l i v i n g across the street from one another even though that street happened to be a boundary. B* Detailed description of d i s t r i c t s : The following are the d i s t r i c t s and th e i r boundaries. The l a t t e r are given i n clockwise order, beginning from the north west comer i n each case. . . D i s t r i c t A. East along the ri v e r to 12, south on 12 to 13, west on 13 to the dyke, and north along the dyke to the north channel. District• B. East and south along the dyke to 13, west on 13 t o 1 2 , north on 12 to the dyke. D i s t r i c t 0 . East on 13 to Ross, south on Ross to the dyke and east and north along the dyke to 13• ..District' D. East on 13 to the dyke, south and west along the dyke' to Ross and north on Ross to 13 • D i s t r i c t E. Along the r i v e r east to 4* south on 4 to Gauden, west on Gauden to Railway Ave., south on Railway Ave. to Landsdowne Park Rd. west on Landsdowne Park Road to 3» north on 3 to 20, west on 20 to river* north along r i v e r . •District ff. East along the river to a point due north of the C.H* l i n e , south on G*E* l i n e to 20, west on 20 to 4 and north on 4 to the r i v e r . 35 Diatriot,G-« East along the r i v e r to 5 , south on 5 to 20, west on 20 to 0.1* tracks, and due north to the r i v e r . D i s t r i c t R. East along the ri v e r to 7, south oh 7 to 20, west on 20 to 5 a n < 3- north on 5 to the r i v e r . D i s t r i c t I.. West along the ri v e r to the R.R. bridge, west and south along the tracks to 19* west on 19 to 7, and north on 7 to the r i v e r . D i s t r i c t J . East along the r i v e r to Lynas Lane, south on Lynas Lane to Railway Ave., west and south along Railway Ave. to 18, west on 18 to the r i v e r and north on the ri v e r to Terra Nova. D i s t r i c t K. East and north along the r i v e r to 20, east on 20 to 3» south on 3 to 18, west on 18 to Railway Ave*, north and east on Railway Ave. to Lynas Lane and north on Lynas Lane to the River. D i s t r i c t L* East on Landsdowne Park Rd. to Railway Ave., south on Railway Ave. to Ferndale, east on Ferndale to 4» south on 4 to 18, west on 18 to 3 north on 3 to Landsdowne Park Road. D i s t r i c t M. East on 20 to 5» south on 5 to 18, west on 18 to 4» north on 4 to Ferndale, west on Ferndale to Railway Ave., north on Railway Ave. to Gauden, east on Gauden to 4 and north on 4 to 20. D i s t r i c t N. East on 20 to 17, south on 17 to 19, west on 19 to 5 and north on 5 to 20. D i s t r i c t 0 . East along the r i v e r to the boundary l i n e , south on boundary l i n e to the r i v e r , along the ri v e r to Nelson, north on Nelson to 19, east on 19 to O.N. tracks and north and east along tracks to the r i v e r . D i s t r i o t P. East on 18 to 2, south on 2 to Francis, east on Francis to proposed Gilbert Rd,, south on Gilbert to Williams, west on Williams to the dyke and north on the dyke to 18. D i s t r i o t Q. East on 18 to 4 , south on 4 to 9» west on 9 to 2, north on 2 to Williams, east on Williams to Gilbert, north on Gilbert to Francis to 2 and north on 2 to 18. D i s t r i o t R. East on 18 to 5» south on 5 to 9 . west on 9 to 4 , north on 4 to 1 8 . D i s t r i o t S. East on 19 to 6, south on 6 to 9» west on 9 to 5 and north on 5 to 19 . D i s t r i o t T. East on 19 to Nelson, south on Nelson to the r i v e r , west along the ri v e r to 6 and north on 6 to 19. Distriot.U» East on Williams to 2, south on 2 to the r i v e r , west and north along the r i v e r to Williams. D i s t r i o t IT. East on 9 to 4» south on 4 to the r i v e r , west along r i v e r to 2, north on 2 to 9• D i s t r i c t W. East on 9 to 6 , south on 6 to the r i v e r , south west along the r i v e r to 4 and north on 4 to 9» As w i l l be.observed, the foregoing deta i l s were made as b r i e f as was consistent with the necessary c l a r i t y . 36 of expression. Numbers r e f e r t of course, to the main roads which mark off the sections. Numbers 1, to 8 run north and south; numbers 9 to 20 run east and west. Page 3 was the aforementioned map. Page 4* the record sheet, was i n the following form; Please insert the desired information i n the following table. The use of columns IV and VI i s explained on page 2. In column V please state the way i n whioh the pupil usually comes to school by one word such as "bus" "bicycle", "walking", "automobile", or "tram"» . . . . . . „ . • « . . . Diy •.•' r . ' Name II Age III Grade IV , D i s t r i c t V ' Gomes by Remarks As soon as the sheets were prepared they were t r i e d out i n the high sohool to determine i f any changes should be made. In most cases the pupils themselves were able to f i l l i n the necessary deta i l s without any assistance. I t was f e l t , therefore, that the information from the elementary schools, since i t would be furnished by the teachers, would be even more trustworthy. 37 To insure a clear understanding of what was desired permission was obtained to give a verbal explanation at a meeting of the Richmond association of The B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation. As a tribute to t h i s group and to u n a f f i l i a t e d teachers of the Municipality, i t should be stated that a one hundred per cent response was given.. C. Results and Conclusions. Some of the items of information obtained have been referred to previously. 1 Others w i l l be dealt with l a t e r . 2 For the present, attention w i l l be given c h i e f l y to a state-ment of the methods of treatment of data and the conclusions arrived at regarding the scattering of population. Plate III shows the master sheet which was prepared i n order that the data from the individual sheets might be brought into a single comprehensive record. The pin method was selected as a simple but accurate way of handling the material. A copy of the d i s t r i c t map was mounted on heavy cardboard. As each record sheet was obtained, the location of each individual home was indicated by the insertion of a pin i n the proper area. Reoheoking and recounting guaranteed trustworthy results. Totals were inserted i n the appropriate columns on i s ee Chapter II.* . 2see Chapters?, ¥111. 38 S B 1 * ISL.^ QC L „V S3 J-r o r •M-$1 V£ J J <t \-\2 m A 1 i i i 1 1 i • . . . . . . . . . . , r A — 3 16-/ l ' I i i i k 1 i I i i i ' 0 7 / * 3 . / • c 1 I i 1 I 1 1 i | I Sol /6 J IS c At \3L\3. i i 1 i I •! 1 • | 1 0 /* % i £ 1 1 , . 1 i. ' i • I- I 67 XO F i%\ 31 AT j i. ' i i • 1 5,6" y I S3 Cr 4 , I' 7 /' '/ i i i 1 r 1 1 1 f a ,n /? t H i i IH,U ' i f | 1 i i i H /7 7 U 3 0 r l\3 . '" h J I 1 1 I /A 7 1 «J / 1 lb i | ft 3. IS 1 1 1 1 i I- I k A K .7 i i 1 1 .1 ]- 1 1 7 K S~U & t. 10 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .1 L- kc V> 3 S ' t 1 ' l ' 1 1 1 1 H] kk 3 N ? i I 1 1 -> 1 1 1 N k X S i . I -1 ,1 i i \ 1 1 , i I 1 3 P /*•' fi.147 1 \ 1 ' 1 1 1 p 13 tor fc'b'tt. y 1 U\ h 1 1 1 , i 1 1 1- 1 f 3 <^ 31 n L R a M L\I6 .1 \ 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 il R IS' % % / i .. 1 / 3 I3- 1 t i 1 1 ! i y X /? r s 1 4 , 1 i 1 1 1 ' r 6" ^ iy u wr I a> 1 |S 1 i 1 1 •i 1 1 1 i 1 % V k i n 1 iff l l 1 3 |//* 1 1 1 i k 4 / w 31 A- 7 . a ' a M - '1 1 1 , i 1 1 -.1 \ 1 / £ J \ f • 1 .1. i ' 1 1 i 1 1 : , i .1 1 1 J ' :' /I. 1 I i 1: | i f 1 I •I i M.I. I 1 i 1 1 I 1 i ' 1 1 1 i i 1 1 1 i f 1 i i : % ' I i i I; i i 1 I i. 1 DUCK 1 ! ) 1 / i i 1 i 1 1 ! ' 1 1 , 1 i i i ~ i i I i 1 1 1 1 1 r I '. i i ! I i 1 ' i •'.„•. 1 1 1 l i i i i 1 t ; , l i ' i-i - i 1 1 i , 1 1 — 4 — i - 1 , 'I • I :l 1 1 { » I \ ! ! ' ) ; 1 1 l ~ ! 1 1 .-' 39 on the master sheet. F i n a l l y a series of maps was prepared giving a graphic picture of the present situation. Plate IV gives a clear view of the scattering of to t a l sohool population. The greatest density i s evidently i n the Steveston (U), Bridgeport (E) and Brighouse (L) d i s t r i c t s . The ratio of densities of these areas i s as 106: 45 2 33• Another interesting comparison i s obtained by grouping naturally contiguous areas with these J- D i s t r i o t s ( J+P*.U+V) : (A+B+C+D+E+F+G) > (M+M*Q) :: 147:83:74. The t o t a l of the remaining eight d i s t r i c t s i s less than half of the smallest of these three groups and i s so scattered over a large area of eastern Lulu Island as to have l i t t l e material effect on our conclusions, Plate V adds very l i t t l e to the facts demonstrated i n the dot map but provides some details which the other does not, and to some extent explains the grouping of areas i n the previous paragraph. For example d i s t r i c t s J-P-V are grouped with Steveston because pupils from them go chi e f l y to Lord Byng School. Plate VI was prepared on the assumption that the present year was a reasonably t y p i c a l one as regards the dis t r i b u t i o n of homes of pupils of the two secondary school age groups. Using the same groupings of d i s t r i c t s as before lKnowledge of l o c a l factors, such as that the majority of the population of d i s t r i c t J i s concentrated at Terra Nova cannery, would be necessary to an understanding of these groupings. 40 41 43 we find, that for grades 711 - IX -(JVP+u+v) : (A+B>0'*.])+E*-B*& ), : ( K*L*M<-Q ) :: 27:21:211 and for grades X - XII -(j +P +U^V) : (A+B+C+D+E^ F+G) : (M*.M*Q) :: 12:6:8.1 She l a t t e r r a t i o , with i t s 2:1 dominance of the Steveston group over the Bridgeport group indicates d e f i n i t e l y that the present senior high school i s not i n the most desirable situation. Even the 27:21 junior high school figure causes doubt as to the a d v i s a b i l i t y of locating the junior unit at the present senior s i t e . Plate VII deals with the f i n a l factor i n the population analysis, transportation. I t w i l l be noticed that a l l routes converge on the Bridgeport area. In the case of 2 the buses th i s convergence i s explained to some extent by the wide scattering of the population of Bridgeport elementary school and by the fact of e a r l i e r settlement of thi s region and closer connection with the mainland. The present chapter has provided the factual material necessary to a f i n a l decision on the combined vs. separate sohool question which was discussed from a theoretical stand-point i n Chapter I I . The Chapter which follows renders such a decision. ^Reduced to 1/5 of t o t a l to correspond to dot map. 2The writer i s indebted to the bus drivers for information regarding their routes and p a r t i c u l a r l y to Mr. Dick who brought the facts together• Chapter 1 RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING THE BEST TYPE OF SCHOOL FOE RICHMOND , 46 Chapter V RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING THE BEST TYPE OF SCHOOL FOR RICHMOND At the conclusion of Chapter I I , i t was observed that the i d e a l type of junior high school i s the separate i n s t i t u t i o n , but that where i t i s not feasible, a combined sohool may, i f wisely conducted, function very s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . At the outset, i t should be stated that the majority of the authorities whose opinions were sought believed the second of the two alternatives to be the better for Richmond. The writer f e e l s , however, that the l o c a l factors brought out i n Chapter IV, of which of course these gentlemen were ignorant, bring the claims f o r the separate school to a p a r i t y with those for the combined school. In the following discussion he endeavours to show his reasons for t h i s view. One of the strongest arguments for a separate sohool i n Richmond i s the poor location of the present senior high school. As has been shown, a much more suitable location from the point of view of population d i s t r i b u t i o n would be somewhere i n the Brighouse area. . I t has,been claimed i n the past that the easy access by .tram to the present site i s a compensating feature. Even th i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n , however, i s doubtful, as the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway has indicated that, as i t i s carrying the present students at a loss, i t must seek an upward revision of rates i f more pupils 47 are t r a v e l l i n g . The choice of a site i n the centre of the municipality would simplify t h i s problem. F i r s t , a larger number of pupils would be able to tr a v e l on foot or by bi c y c l e . Second, the bus l i n e s could easily be redirected. Third, f o r those pupils who s t i l l must travel by tram the distances would be shorter, and the cars would be used i n both directions rather than one only. Consequently, a lower rate might be expected of the Company. A more advantageously located separate school may be j u s t i f i e d from s t i l l another aspect. I t might be considered as the f i r s t step towards the reorganization of a section of the educational f a c i l i t i e s of the Municipality. The following plan might be gradually worked out over a period of years: 1. Construction of a separate junior high school at Brighouse as the f i r s t wing of a future combined secondary school. 2. Construction of the senior wing and removal of senior pupils to the new secondary school. 3* Removal of elementary pupils from Bridgeport School to the present High School building and abandonment of Bridgeport building. Lest the suggestion of future combination of the two secondary units be deemed inconsistent with the writer's previously expressed views, i t should be pointed out that 48 many of the objections to combination are overcome i f the junior school i s given a chance to establish i t s e l f p r i o r to i t s union with the senior school. Regarding the f i n a l proposal of removal of Bridgeport Elementary School, certain explanations should be made. As shown i n Chapter X, only eight of the present thirteen rooms of t h i s school w i l l be required after the junior high school i s established, The high school building with eight rooms and two laboratories would therefore provide ample accommodation. I f an unforseen increase i n population should occur a number of pupils who l i v e i n the Mitchell area and attend Bridgeport School 1 could be transferred to the former school, f i n a l l y , the buildings at Bridgeport are old and must within a few years be abandoned or renovated. Two other reasons may be advanoed f o r building a more advantageously located secondary school: 1. Regardless of location the new junior high school w i l l have to be p r a c t i c a l l y a separate building as the present senior high school i s so constructed that i t cannot readily be added t o . 2. The present grounds are very inadequate for a combined school. A much larger tract elsewhere •'•See Plate V. 2»«TO carry out the program of the junior high school, no site of. less than 10-12 acres w i l l s u f f i c e . " JS.L. Engelhardt Standards f o r Junior High School Buildings, lew York: Bureau 'of Publications' Teachers' 'C'&lle'geV p« 21. ' 49 could probably be secured more reasonably than an acre or two adjacent to the present s i t e . I t would appearj therefore, that the needs of Richmond would be more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y met by a separate junior high school located somewhere near the Municipal Centre. Since, however, immediate costs weigh heavily i n the minds of the tax-payers the combined school i s probably the most practicable. Without doubt i t would be a d i s t i n c t improvement over the t r a d i t i o n a l system. Indeed, with the provision of adequate grounds, and with such administrative safeguards as those suggested i n the plan of organization outlined i n Chapter T i l l , there i s no reason to anticipate undue l i m i t a t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the junior high school as a result of close association with the senior high school* In the remaining chapters of this thesis, therefore, each of the two p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i l l be given f u l l consideration. Chapter 71 SUITABLE CURRICULA FOR RICHMOND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 51 Chapter VI SUITABLE CURRICULA FOR RICHMOND- JUNIOR HIC-H SCHOOL A. Subjects. The key to the desirable educational offering f o r any school i s to be found i n the philosophic basis of the school system of which i t i s to form a part. Fortunately, B r i t i s h Columbia has now a cl e a r l y formulated set of objectives to guide those who plan school c u r r i c u l a . "It i s the function of the school, through carefully selected experiences, to stimulate, modify, and direct the growth of each pupil physically, mentallyj morally, and so c i a l l y , so that the continual enrichment of the individual's l i f e and an improved society may result"."'* The purpose of the junior high school i n our system i s , obviously, to carry out such of these functions as pertain p a r t i c u l a r l y to younger adolescents. These have been dealt with i n some d e t a i l i n Chapter I I . B r i e f l y , the school has two chief tasks. I t i s essential that i t sh a l l provide a background of common knowledge and habits necessary f o r socialized l i v i n g ; i t i s equally essential that i t shall provide exploratory courses to determine individual aptitudes. The Junior High Sohool ^Programme of Studies for the- Junior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, 193&» p. 15» Course of Studies has constants for the f i r s t of these needs and variables f o r the second, Four subjects only are compulsory throughout Grades VII - IX. These are: - Physical Education and Health, English, Social Stxidies, and Library. Four others are required of a l l pupils i n Grades VII and VIII, namely: -General Science, General Mathematics, P r a c t i c a l Arts, and Music. One subject, Art, may be omitted i n Grade VIII by only such pupils as the p r i n c i p a l considers " w i l l not p r o f i t by the study of i t " . These nine subjects w i l l , then, of necessity, be offered i n Richmond Junior High School. In the variables, however, there i s considerable opportunity for attention to l o c a l and individual needs. Without doubt many pupils, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of superior academic a b i l i t y , should be given try-out courses i n languages. I t seems desirable, therefore, that French should be offered i n Grade VII and French and Latin i n Grades VIII and IX* The tendency of pupils to leave Richmond schools i n order to attend technical and business schools i n Vancouver i s ample proof of the necessity of offering as many courses i n p r a c t i c a l arts and commercial subjects as i s possible. 53 The considerable percentage of foreign pupils i n the municipality w i l l be a serious problem but also a very great Opportunity. P a r t i c u l a r l y w i l l t h i s be so i n the f i e l d of written and oral English. No d i s t r i c t could gain more from a well conducted course i n Remedial English. The fact that the courses under this heading do not carry any oredit should be of negligible weight against the great need which would be f i l l e d * I t would seem reasonable to assume that i n a r u r a l community there w i l l be a considerable, demand for courses i n agriculture. Such, indeed, has proved to be the case i n the present high school. There can be no doubt, therefore, of the a d v i s a b i l i t y of including Agriculture l a and l b i n the l i s t of Grade VIII and IX variables. F i n a l l y , the inauguration of a worthwhile guidance programme i s essential. Just how i t should be organized i s a problem. .The prevailing practice of having one or two guidance o f f i c e r s conduct one period per week with each class i s open to c r i t i c i s m from a number of points of view? In the f i r s t place, i t i s a physical impossibility for the counsellor to obtain an intimate knowledge of the individual pupil from such b r i e f and infrequent contacts. In the second place, the i s o l a t i o n of those aspects of human behaviour usually classed under the heading of "Guidance" i s not enti r e l y wholesome • Training a pupil to l i v e as a member of 54 society cannot be separated from the effective teaching of so c i a l studies. Discovering his p o t e n t i a l i t i e s i s the task of.every teacher who oomes i n contact with him. On the other hand, t h i s important function of the junior high sohool w i l l soon he neglected i f l e f t to haphazard incidental treatment. Then too, not a l l who are capable teachers are capable counsellors, and few who have the a b i l i t y have any specialized t r a i n i n g . There must, therefore, be a measure of spe c i a l i z a t i o n . The solution would seem to l i e i n developing i n each teacher an appreciation of his r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a guidance o f f i c i a l and i n supplementing his i n c i d e n t a l work by a regularly organized course under the Boys' and G i r l s ' counsellors. One f i n a l improvement might be suggested i n t h i s subject. The value of Guidance as a curricular offering might be increased by a change of name. Some such designation 1 as "Social L i v i n g " might remove from i t the suggestion of moralizing and direc t i n g which are somewhat d i s t a s t e f u l to •adolescent pupils. Making these very necessary functions seem but the l o g i c a l concomitants of the study of group and and individual problems would undoubtedly increase t h e i r effectiveness. l-This i s the name applied to a somewhat more comprehensive course at various schools i n Ca l i f o r n i a . See State of C a l i f o r n i a , Department of Education B u l l e t i n No 6, 1936. Recent Developments i n Secondary Education i n Cali f o r n i a , p. 17-39 • 55 These weaknesses i n the Guidance programme do not condemn i t . They are hut the flaws whioh w i l l inevitably be found i n the developing stages of anything of rea l value. With a l l the imperfections i n the various guidance schemes, the mere recognition of the need for t h i s type of direction and the attempt to f i l l that need i s one of the greatest contributions of the pioneers of the junior high school movement• I t would appear, therefore, that there i s no subject proposed i n the provincial programme of studies which i s not v i t a l to the effective application of our educational philosophy to Richmond Junior High School. B. Organization* Several methods might be employed for the organization of the school with regard to th i s proposed c u r r i e u l u i E u I Individual time-tables f o r a l l pupils. II Straight class-group c u r r i c u l a . III. Glass grouping with minor variations. I Individual Time-tables. Three arguments may be advanced against t h i s plan; X* In grade ¥11,' and to a considerable extent i n grades ¥111 and IX, groups of pupils w i l l automatically take similar courses. 2. S t r i c t i ndividualization breaks down the group s p i r i t and severely handicaps the guidance 56 programme Toy eliminating the p o s s i b i l i t y of an effective home room organization. 3. ^ n e administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s involved far outweigh any possible gain. II Straight Glass Grouping. This, the other extreme, i s also open to c r i t i c i s m from several points of view; 1. I t operates against a basic principle of the junior high sohool, a s u f f i c i e n t attention to individual differences. 2. I t makes transfer from one group to another exceedingly d i f f i c u l t , thereby hampering the redirection of misplaced pupils. 3* prohibits promotion by subject. The objections to the f i r s t two p o s s i b i l i t i e s are, therefore^ due chiefly to t h e i r being the extremes. The t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y , that of several p a r a l l e l courses with possible minor variations i n each, seems to partake of most of the advantages and few of the disadvantages of each of the others. III Modified Glass Grouping., The acceptance of such a plan of organization leads naturally to the question of the bases for arranging individuals i n groups. Three schemes are employed: 57 1. Grouping according to Intelligence Quotient. 2. Grouping according to general l e v e l of achievement• 3« Grouping by random selection. In his interviews with prominent educationists of the province, the writer found a wide divergence of opinion on the relat i v e d e s i r a b i l i t y of these different schemes. Dr. H.B. King d e f i n i t e l y favours I.Q* grouping on a thoroughgoing basis as i t i s carried out at Kitsilano High School. Mr. H.H. MacGorkindale favours the I*Q. method "as far as homogeneous groups can be achieved". Inspector A. Sullivan also believes i t to be desirable. Inspector V.Z. Manning doubts the wisdom of s t r i c t homogeneous grouping. He f e e l s , however, that i n a large school there might be some advantage i n separating the very bright pupils from the rest. Mr. P. Whitley of Point Grey Junior High School divides his Grade YII classes on the basis of general achievement- from a consideration of the three factors of I.Q., l e t t e r grade standing, and age. In the upper grades he employs no fixed system but finds that the choice of variables produces much the same results* I'he same disagreement i s to be found i n educational 58 l i t e r a t u r e . I t would seem worthwhile, therefore, to attempt to summarize the arguments for and against eaoh of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n order to suggest a desirable plan for Richmond. 1, I.Q. Grouping. Following the phenomenal discovery that school progress was to a considerable extent governed by innate a b i l i t y and that a wide range of such a b i l i t i e s existed, there came a vogue, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the newly organized middle schools, f o r segregating according to scores on intelligence tests. In many i n s t i t u t i o n s only high, medium and low groups were arranged; i n others, p a r t i c u l a r l y where there was a large enrolment, classes were carefully graded from very bright through a l l the intervening shades to very d u l l . From the point of view of e f f i c i e n t administration, even t h i s l a t t e r policy can be readily j u s t i f i e d . I t s proponents claim that: (a) I t f a c i l i t a t e s adapting methods and materials to the different levels of i n t e l l i g e n c e . (b) I t permits selection of courses to suit the nature of the pupils. (c) I t renders possible the acceleration of bright pupils (more l a t e l y , "enriching" for bright pupils) and d r i l l i n g on core subjects with d u l l p u p i l s . 59 During the l a s t few years, howeverj considerable c r i t i c i s m has been leveled at t h i s scheme, p a r t i c u l a r l y by the psychologists. Among the reasons for t h e i r opposition appear the following: (a) She intelligence test, especially when applied as a group examination i s very far from i n f a l l i b l e • (b) Other personality factors may be equally important. (c) Undesirable effeots may be produced i n both d u l l and bright pupils i f teachers are not s u f f i c i e n t l y discreet to treat the class status as confidential. The most recent discussion of this objection i s by Bringle, who points out that, as far as he i s aware, '"There have been few, i f any, extensive studies based on the psychological effects of homogeneous grouping on the pupils." Such studies, he f e e l s , might bring l i g h t upon such questions as "What does homogeneous grouping do i n the realm of the emotions to the more s o c i a l l y conscious adolescents? Does separation from long-time friends and relegation to "dumb-bell" classes make for wholesome personality integration?" 1 (d) Homogeneous grouping i s an unnatural arrangement, I f , ? l i f e situations" are demanded such a purely -•-Ralph W. Pringle, The Junior High School, lew York: McGraw-Hill, p. 353-4. 60 a r t i f i c i a l d i v i s i o n must be abandoned. Some educational writers are so convinced that •homogeneous grouping according to intelligence i s undesirable that they predict i t s abandonment i n the very near future. 2. Achievement Level Grouping. .'.Che use of some composite scheme of organization taking i n various factors seems to partake of a l l of the advantages and avoid most of the p i t f a l l s of the I,Q. system. Such a plan, i f carefully applied, w i l l undoubtedly give a more v a l i d rating than the single c r i t e r i o n . I t can, however, be c r i t i c i s e d on the same psychological grounds as far as the d e s i r a b i l i t y of homogeneous grouping i s concerned. 3. Random Grouping. Grouping according to alphabetical order of names, or some similar c r i t e r i o n , cannot be supported by many s c i e n t i f i c arguments. A few years ago i t was considered unprogressive. low i t seems to be again receiving consideration as a means of escape from the dangers of homogeneous grouping. At best, however, the adoption of th i s principle i s merely a begging of the question; an acceptance of the idea that since we do not know what i s best to do i t i s best to do nothings The question of grouping, therefore, being one upon which no f i n a l decision can be made at present, c a l l s f o r the pursuing of a middle course u n t i l more definite information 61 i s available. I t would seem desirable i n Grades VII and VIII to divide the pupils into three broad olassifioations of bright, average, and d u l l i n order to simplify teaching and administration. I t i s essential, however, that the basis of d i v i s i o n be not divulged to the pupils or to any one who might adopt an attitude i n any way detrimental to any of the groups. In Grade IZ a much more f l e x i b l e organization w i l l be required. Indeed, there should be ample opportunity i n a l l grades for any p u p i l who shows par t i c u l a r aptitude for any subject to have i t included i n his course. For example, while the study of Latin and Frenoh i s generally deemed unprofitable for duller pupils, i t sometimes happens that some backward pupil shows a surprising special a b i l i t y i n the languages. Similarly, many bright students are s k i l l e d i n technical work. xo.regiment these students into channels determined solely on their general intelligence would be to rob the junior high school of i t s "peculiar function" of catering to the s p e c i f i c needs of the i n d i v i d u a l . I f any pupils show maladjustment either from the point of view of studies or behaviour they can best be dealt with i n d i v i d u a l l y . Should a number of such problem cases develop, those of a similar type might be grouped i n remedial classes. C. Typical Programmes I t may be of value to outline suitable programmes for each of the groups suggested i n the previous section for 62 Grades VII and VIII and for the major options i n Grade IX. Grade VII. Thirty-five out of for t y periods are allocated to constants i n th i s grade. The remaining fiv e might he distributed as follows: Group A,(brighter p u p i l s ) . French English (for gifted students) or Try-out course i n any author-ized subject. Group B.(average p u p i l s ) . French Additional P r a c t i c a l Arts or Try-out course i n any author-ized subject. Group G. (duller p u p i l s ) . French Additional p r a c t i c a l Arts. The inclusion of French as a subject for a l l classes i s with a view to determining language a b i l i t y . In the case of pupils showing definite backwardness th i s could be considered as a try-out course and, therefore, dropped at the end of the f i r s t quarter i n favour of some other subject. 1Where the variables chosen t o t a l more than fiv e periods, one or more of the study periods counted i n the 35 periods of constants must be dropped. 3 periods 2 periods 3 periods 3 periods 2 periods 3 periods 3 periods 2 periods 63 This w i l l correct the apparent deficiency i n exploration i n the course for group &• . In addition to the above, provision should be made for classes i n remedial English. Since foreign pupils are l i k e l y to be found i n every l e v e l of a b i l i t y , these classes should be held at such times that they w i l l be available to a l l groups. Grade .VIII. The choice of five periods of work from the l i s t of variables for th i s grade presents some d i f f i c u l t y and w i l l necessitate considerable variation within the groups. Grade VII work w i l l , of course, guide i n the selection from the following: Group A. French or 3 periods P r a c t i c a l Arts (additional) or l a t i n or Typewriting 2-5 periods or Junior Business or English ( f o r gif t e d pupils) or Other try-out courses 64 Group E. As group A. but omitting the special course i n English. Group G, French or 3 periods P r a c t i c a l Arts (additional) Agriculture l a or 3 periods Special try-out courses As i n Grade ¥11 ample provision should be made for remedial English. In th i s f i e l d as much individualization of instruction as possible should be attempted. Grade IX* Adequate provision for individual differences i n th i s grade p r a c t i c a l l y demands individual time-tables. It should be possible, however, to arrange oertain broad groupings relative to ultimate objectives. Four l i k e l y interest sections are: (a) High School Graduation (b) Normal and University Entrance. (c) Technical and Home Economics. (d) Commercial. Since, as i s shown i n Chapter ¥11, there are l i k e l y to be but three classes i n Grade IX, the constants w i l l be taught i n three sections. 6 5 Suitable courses for these objectives, i n addition to the constants, would be: Group la) High School Graduation. P r a c t i c a l l y any selection of twenty-one credits provided these include such prerequisites as are necessary to enable the student to proceed to the necessary one hundred and twelve credits i n the senior years. Group (b) University or Normal Entrance. French I and/or 5~10 credits L a t i n I General Science 5 periods General Mathematics 5 periods English (for gifted pupils) and/or P r a c t i c a l Arts 2-10 periods and/or Art Group (o) P r a c t i c a l Arts. General Science 5 periods General Mathematics 5 periods P r a c t i c a l Arts : up to 10 periods Shop Arithmetic 3 periods or Art 2-10 periods 66 Art or Agriculture lb or a language might he substituted for General Mathematics. Group (d) Commercial Business Arithmetic 3 periods Junior Business 2 periods Book-keeping 2-5 periods Typewriting 2-5 periods Shorthand 5 periods I'rench I or La t i n I o r General Science 5 periods or Art o r General Mathematics I'he degree of freedom of selection, the diversity of offering and the numbers of groups w i l l , of course, be governed by such factors as available equipment, qua l i f -ications and numbers of staff members, and space and time l i m i t a t i o n s . Some of these are discussed i n succeeding chapters; others obviously, could be dealt with only i n the p r a c t i c a l situation. On the whole, however, i t would seem that the school w i l l be of s u f f i c i e n t size to offer a l l of the proposed options, p a r t i c u l a r l y since other smaller schools 6 7 are already doing so* 1 Iwest ¥ancouyer Junior Senior High Sohool offers a l l the subjects referred to except.Agriculture * Chapter ¥11 BUILDING ESQUISIMENTS 69 Chapter ¥11 BUILDING- EEQTJXBEffilNTS The major question of the necessary size and nature of the junior high school building may be analyzed into the following sub-questions.; 1. ' Eow many pupils must i t accommodate under present conditions? 2. What fluctuation of population i s to be expected? Sow many regular classrooms must be provided for the estimated enrolment? 4« What special rooms must be provided? 5« Which.of these special rooms may be employed also as regular classrooms? 6. In the case of a combined school, what accommodation w i l l be available f o r junior classes i n the present high school building? .., These questions may be most easily dealt with i n two groups, those relative ,to pupil population and those rela t i v e to c u r r i c u l a r and other factors. A. Pupil Population The number of pupils i n Grades.¥11, ¥111, and IX during the. current year was readily obtained from Plate III i n Chapter I¥. That for the l a s t nine years was obtained from the annual reports of the Department of Education. . 7 5 •• Plate T i l l - Population of Grades T i l . T i l l and IS 1927-37 L (1.! „, j 1 I -i i • 1. • r • { . • f •"' • 11 1 1 1 -Will r 1 t 1 r : i i . I . !i ~ r 1 i t 1 1 !. - p . j 1 L i i ' l ! ! i 1 ! ! ! i i 1 i M • i ! • i ! • -i i [ ! ! j-J i i i •j" 1 j 1 1. i J k I . i'; I i \ ! I -"1 ! Mi-l l ! ' i • i M L i -i 1 I--: i ; M i.> i i ! t f 1 j • ! 1-1 \ • f i -|-1 \ \ \ I ! i i j -1 , i • ' 1 i i P ! i -1 1 ! 1 i ...1.. * I M ! M ' I ' 1 • i 1 ' '. ''I 1 ! -1 1 1 ! - J j -- i . 1 '\ -j" t ' j , !•: i , - j ; 1 i - - -••1. _ j 1 I • I -i 1. ! ' i "1 -• i i 1 ! I -! 1 i 1 i t "i ! i " ! " i | , i 1 i 1 | i -- 1 i -1 1 • i i • i, . j 1. 1 "j i 1 : : i 1 1 . i : i . i 1 ; | , • -t ,.-i i . 1 1 ' i 1 ! 1 1 S'" : 1 '• 1 1 1 1 ! 1 ! ! •• I r • • ; 11 j 1 i i -1 i r. r * - i !- . j 1 \ . \ ' -r • A in -r K «• *• I i I -1 --1 -.1 .1 j - i ! 1 'I 1 1 I i 1 ! | i i I 1 1 4 1 | J --\ •V-\ ; , • S - \ • i I I - --• -j i i 1 - i !•• 1 --i 1 1 1 ! | - -/; / ; " 1 • \ i \l. M* • -i ! i i j i L 1 ! 1 1 -1-i ; V 1 ] i , ! ' ! 1 j | ; j 1 1 1 ! 1 i 1 1 1 • i ! 1 1 -I V I • ;\ \ * ! |: -1 j i A 1 \ 1 * -j-!-1 ' ! 1 ... 1 j i ! i J i r | ! ! -! i 11 1' "| 1 ? L T 1 I 1 1 ! J . •-j ' ! ' 1 i : : . M M i M !• i ' 1" i . ] • • c. \ i • -i i 1 l i ' -\1 i ; i r • 1 j . 1 •i -• J V i \ ! \ i 1 j t ' i . \ i i 1 i •r i T ll i I jj ' • = i M : -: : • ' -I I : . 1 ! .1 f \. 1 !•. ! t Li i i ! 1 ; R , 1 1 ; 1 1 1 J ; J j j 1 1 ! • i ! i ! ! ; 1 ; 1 fti i 1 I.M '• i 1 ' 1 : • :s : I j - i * -• 1 1 1 1 1 i •j.. |C i . i *s 1' " a , ! . : ! 1 " • !« 1 w 1 • "0 ! j 5 , "> | ^ M SM •O 1 V. 1 i 3 1 • . 1 . 1 , 71 Plate ¥111 summarizes th i s data. Prom the 1927-8 figure of approximately 260 the number of pupils i n these .grades rose to almost 450 f o r 1933*"4- ancL 1934-5. 'but has again declined to about 380 i n 1936-7. These figures are somewhat misleading unless studied i n connection with those for the whole school population. Plate IX shows four graphs, t o t a l enrolment, enrolment i n Grades I - ¥1* enrolment i n Grades VII - IX, and enrolment i n Grades X - XII. A very serious drop in. the elementary school figure for 1933-4 i s reflected i n the t o t a l enrolment for the same year and, i t would seem, i n the present Grade VII - IX enrolment. Substantiation of this l a t t e r conjecture may be found i n the graphs of the three levels several years before. A sligh t drop i n the elementary enrolment i n 1928-9 followed by a significant r i s e i n 1929-30, i s apparently connected with the 1931-2 slump and 1932-3 rise i n the junior, and the 1933*5 slump and the 1935-7 rise i n the senior high school grades. As would be expected, the fluctuations are less sharp at the higher l e v e l s . I t would seem, therefore, that the junior high sohool lags some four years, and the senior high some six years behind the elementary school i n the matter of population change. I f t h i s l i n e of reasoning i s sound, and the writer feels that i t i s , a considerable increase must be expected 7 3 Plate IZ Total Enrolment, 1927-37 74 i n the junior high population i n the coming years. Certainly the present figure of 380 junior and 130 senior high pupils -must he considered as a minimum l i k e l y enrolment even under the present scheme of organization. What effect w i l l reorganization have upon these figures? As has heen noted i n Chapter II the claim of better retention i n the junior high school i s not d e f i n i t e l y substantiated. A decreased mortality has resulted, however, i n some systems after i t s introduction. Certainly, the junior high school i n Richmond w i l l have an exceptional opportunity i n view of the present annual loss of pupils. In any case, accommodation must be provided i n anticipation of a possible improvement i n retention. In view of the foregoing conclusions and of the present enrolment of nearly 4-00 pupils i n Grades VII - IX, i t would seem the part of wisdom to build for a population of about 5GO. It would be wise, also, to design a building to which additions could readily be made. The standard maximum number of teachers set by Section 142 of the Public Schools Act for this number of pupils i s sixteen. Since, however, few school boards employ su f f i c i e n t teachers for an average of t h i r t y pupils per class, a tentative figure for the necessary number of classrooms might better be set at fourteen. Certain factors dealt with i n the next section w i l l modify th i s conclusion. 75 B« Curricular and Other Factors. The number and nature of special rooms i n the new " i n s t i t u t i o n depends, obviously, on the questions of curricula 1 discussed i n Chapter VI. In Plate 2 an attempt i s made to estimate what rooms w i l l be required to carry out those parts of the curriculum which require more than the regular class-room accommodation and equipment. A number of the conclusions arrived at must rest on somewhat arbitrary assumptions. It was necessary to augment the estimates of t o t a l population by estimates for each grade i n order that the number of sections i n various subjects might be determined. ; This was done by using the six year average of the enrolment i n each grade as a basis. For Grade VII, the figure i s 1?3.8; f o r Grade VIII, 133.3; for Grade IS, 93. Assuming t h i r t y - s i x pupils per section and adding one extra section i n each of the two lower grades to take care of future increases, the building should have accommodation for six sections i n Grade VII, fiv e sections i n Grade VIII, and three sections i n Grade IX. Sinoe 14 X 36 = 5^4. these assumptions are consistent with the previously estimated t o t a l school population. Estimates of the necessary number of sections .' i n the core subjects are derived from these assumptions i n l-See pp. 51-55. u & © to o H « •H O <D ft ra O P4 e H o o .3 o to o e 01 o © •H © •P O <D ro <u ft o ra o •H -9 0) ft H : cd • p o I H &4 O • O «S to o +3 J4 © O ft to M © U © <o g ft (0 ft to <d H O © «ri ft W © to ft <d 0 H •H 03 U -P © O ft-P 1 1 H iv-s, 77 accordance with the requirements of the new course of studies The estimates for accommodation f o r sections i n the eleotives were based on the opinions of authorities and on l o c a l -indications such as the choice of eleotives i n the present high school. An examination of the table w i l l show that only very broad deductions have been made. Ho very fine decisions were necessary. 3?or example, the accommodation would be equally necessary for a for t y or a t h i r t y - f i v e period week. One room i s suggested where t h i r t y or less periods per week are required, but i n no case are two rooms recommended where i t does not seem l i k e l y that at least f i f t y periods per week are to be expected. Thus, though from somewhat arbitrary bases, the conclusions are reasonably trustworthy. The following special rooms, then, would, seem necessary: 2 science demonstration rooms. 2 i n d u s t r i a l arts laboratories. 2 home economics laboratories. 1 music room. 1 art room. 1 typing room. 1 l i b r a r y room-. 78 Englehardt's standards for school l i b r a r i e s c a l l f o r : 1. For 5QO-7OO pupils, 1 work room; 1 conference room; 1 reading room. 2. For 3OO-5OO pupils, 1 combined work and conference room; 1 reading room. The School Library Yearbook 2 advises provision of a reading room large enough to accommodate 10 - 2F$ of the t o t a l school population. In the case of a separate junior school t h i s would mean between 50 and 150 pupils-. A l l these rooms need not, of course, be provided i n addition to the fourteen regular classrooms. She science, music, art, and typing rooms could be used for other purposes. This would leave a t o t a l of nine ordinary classrooms required. In addition to these the school should contain: A study h a l l . Based on the departmental requirement of about one study period i n every seven, this room should accommodate one seventh of the school population or about seventy pupils. A cafeteria. The provision of hot lunches i s an even more v i t a l need i n a country community, where pupils have long distances to travel, than i t i s i n the c i t i e s . Englehardt, op. c i t . p 21, 2American Library Association, School l i b r a r y Yearbook Ho I I . Chicago: p. 54* 79 An auditorium. This should he at least s u f f i c i e n t l y large to seat the whole school. I t should he provided with a stage suitable f o r dramatic and musical presentations. A gymnasium. Preferably, this room should be provided with s l i d i n g doors which w i l l divide i t into two so that boys and g i r l s classes may be taken at the same time. On a basis of three periods per section i t w i l l have to accommodate forty-two sections per week. Administrative Offices. 1. A general o f f i c e . 2. The principal's o f f i c e . J . .Vice-principal and boys' counsellor's o f f i c e . 4» G i r l s ' counsellor's o f f i c e . The l a t t e r two are essential to effective attention to individual guidance. Health room. This should be provided with an outer waiting room. Staff, rooms. Adequate provision should be made not only for lunch rooms but for suitable rooms for marking, preparation and study. The foregoing statement has assumed a separate junior u n i t . I t must be modified i n some respects i f the new building i s to be b u i l t adjacent to the present senior school. 80 Ho reduction could "be made i n the number of rooms for science, music, art, typing, l i b r a r y and i n d u s t r i a l arts as the high school has barely enough provision for the f i r s t and no provision for the others. The free periods i n these l a t t e r rooms might well be used by the senior pupils. For example, on a 4-0 period week the music room would be available about 14 periods, the art room the same, the typing room 31, the l i b r a r y 26 and the i n d u s t r i a l arts laboratory 24. In some ways economies could be effected. At present the home economics laboratory for the elementary schools i s located at the high school. The provision of one additional home economics room i n the new building would, therefore, be s u f f i c i e n t . A further saving could be made through the use of two or three of the high school rooms which formerly housed Grade IX elasses and which w i l l then be unoccupied. I t should be possible, too, under a combined administration to reduce the required offices by one or two. However, as the high school has only one administrative o f f i c e , at least two, one for each of the counsellors, would be required. On the other hand, i t i s doubtful i f the present Gambie Gymnasium w i l l provide s u f f i c i e n t accommodation for both schools. This d i f f i c u l t y might be overcome by making arrangements for combining classes. Similarly, some provision would have to be made for a larger study h a l l and auditorium to accommodate the twenty-five per cent greater enrolment. 81 I t would "be well, of oour.se, to provide for one more complete class or a t o t a l enrolment of 105 pupils. Apart from these differences the previous outline would apply equally well to the comhined school. Reference has already been made to the necessary size of school grounds. 1 Size, however, i s not the only consider-ation. A school might have the requisite ten to twelve acres and yet lack suitable surroundings. "She ideals of every person are influenced by trees, lawns, and beautiful buildings. She school i s the people's investment. I t should, therefore, be made an example for home improvement. It can be so developed that i t w i l l aid i n the development of the a r t i s t i c and the aesthetic." 2 Many other d e t a i l s of accommodation could be mentioned. No reference has been made to sanitary f a c i l i t i e s , provision f o r indoor recreation i n inclement weather, ample corridor space, lockers, bicycle racks, garages, etc. A l l these things are assumed i n the planning of a modern school. She p r a c t i c a l situation w i l l , doubtless, bring to l i g h t other omissions i n this analysis. I t i s to be hoped that, when Richmond builds i t junior high school, no slightest d e t a i l w i l l be considered unimportant i f i t contributes to the general aim that, "the building i n i t s •^Chapter V, p. 48, footnote 2. department of Public Instruction, Lansing, Ml oh. School Buildings. Equipment and Grounds, B u l l e t i n No 52, 1922. 82 environment, should represent a healthful, normal place for human beings to l i v e , mature and work."1 Engelhardt, Standards^for Junior High S c h o o l  Buildings, Hew York: Bureau^f" 'Pu'b'l'ications, U'eaejae^s College, Columbia University, 1932, p. 17. Chapter ¥111-0RGMIZA1IO1 • 84 , Chapter VIII OSMIZASIOH' While the deta i l s of such an organization as i s required i n the effective carrying on of a j u n i o r high school can he worked out only i n the p r a c t i c a l situation, certain generalizations w i l l he attempted i n this chapter. The following general aspects are dealt with: A. Organization relative to the curriculum. 13, Organization for administration. C. Organization for extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s . A. Currioular Organization. One of the signs that the science of education i s s t i l l i n a healthy state of youth i s the regularity with which procedures are questioned even after they have hecome generally accepted. One of the most recent to come under c r i t i c i s m , as far as the junior high school i s concerned, i s the practice of thoroughgoing departmentalization. Having found disagreement on the value of this procedure 1 the writer sought the opinions of a number of B r i t i s h Columbia educationists concerning i t . Typical of the replies he received were those of the two provincial inspectors of his d i s t r i c t . Mr Sullivan stated, "In so f a r as possible, I would have the teacher give instruction i n a l l "HT.B. Feather stone, "lew Schools for a lew Day", A Challenge to Secondary Education, New York: Appleton-Century •Gp'-.i 1935, pp. 48-75- ! 8 5 grades i n the subject or subjects which he teaches." Mr. Manning, on the other hand, favoured the allocation to each home room teacher of a core curriculum. It seems necessary, therefore, that an analysis be made of the values and dangers of specialization i n teaching. It i s a truism that the narrower a teacher's f i e l d , the more opportunity he has to become proficient i n i t . Thus, since i t s inception, the new middle school has tended to favour highly specialized teachers each devoting a l l his time to one subject. Country children who received a l l their education from one teacher, and., r u r a l teachers who were required to teach a l l the subjects of the curriculum, have been p i t i e d by the efficiency experts. Thoughtful c r i t i c s , however, have come to suspect that certain values exist i n the undepartmentalized schools which do not appear i n examination results. Similarly they have descried some serious dangers i n over-specialization. B r i e f l y , departmentalization has been challenged on the following grounds: 1. I t prevents the teacher's getting an intimate knowledge of many of his pupils. 2. I t interferes with the correlation of subjects. 3. It tends to make the teacher's work a series of deadening repetitions. 86 In a day when Guidance has become recognized as one of the chief functions of the junior high school, the cogency of the f i r s t argument must be apparent. I f no one knows the individual p u p i l , who i s to guide him? The many schemes that have been suggested to overcome the tendency of departmentalization to result i n fragmentation of the curriculum, indicate the seriousness of the second c r i t i c i s m . In the elementary schools attempts have been made to organize a l l subjects into unifying "projects". In the high schools there has been the emergence of Social Studies, General Language, General Mathematics and General Science. Neither these, nor other approaches which have been t r i e d , have proved en t i r e l y satisfactory. Regarding the undesirable effects on the teacher of ins t r u c t i n g a large number of i d e n t i c a l sections, i t may be pointed out that i t i s impossible for the teacher to transform himself into an automaton which w i l l grind out the same lesson over and over again. E f f i c i e n c y w i l l be impaired by monotony. The writer r e c a l l s a period of substituting during which he was required to repeat a d r i l l lesson i n arithmetic seven times a day. Here, obviously, i s the "reduc.tio ad absurdum" of departmentalization. From the point of view of both pupil and teacher, therefore, i t would seem that departmentalization i s not without i t s f a u l t s . I t would be f o o l i s h , however, to throw" 8 7 i t aside because of i t s weaknesses when i t has shown considerable advantages i n other respects. We must seek some effective compromise. "The Cooperative Group Plan" suggested by J.F. Hosier-appears to have considerable merit. This scheme provides for organization of the pupils into a number of small groups of classes i n the care of a corresponding number of teachers. Thus six teachers might divide among them the curricula of th e i r six classes. Each teacher would be p a r t i c u l a r l y responsible for the welfare of his home room group, but a l l would meet together frequently under one "master - teacher" to discuss common problems and plan the work of the section. Hosic considers the d i v i s i o n of the curriculum into more than six parts undesirable. He recommends five divisions with the following five types of properly equipped rooms: 1* Play and Recreation; 2. Library; 3* Museum; 4« Laboratory; 5. Arts and Crafts. Like a l l other such plans this one would have to be considerably modified before i t could be applied to such an i n s t i t u t i o n as Richmond Junior High School. The scheme which i s outlined below i s derived from several which attempt si m i l a r l y to escape the dangers i n having teachers who are either "general practitioners" or too narrow " s p e c i a l i s t s " . 2 •'-A b r i e f outline of this plan i s to be found i n -W.H. Burton, Introduction to Education, Hew York: D. Appleton-Century Co. pp 275-b• 2 T h e plan followed at Eagle Rock High School, Los Angeles, should be mentioned i n par t i c u l a r . See W.B. Featherstone, op. c i t . p. 70--73• 88 In Richmond, as i n other d i s t r i c t s i n which reorganization i s to take place, a considerable number of elementary teachers must be absorbed into the junior high "sohool. Few of these w i l l have any specialized training beyond that required for the F i r s t Glass C e r t i f i c a t e . On the other hand, most, or a l l , w i l l have considerable experience i n working with pupils of the junior high school age. I t i s desirable that t h e i r deficiencies be guarded against and t h e i r special a b i l i t i e s put to good use. In other words, they must be regarded as spe c i a l i s t s i n dealing with children rather than as s p e c i a l i s t s i n dealing with subjects. With t h i s as a point of departure, we may develop a plan based on class rather than subject divisions. To do t h i s , i t w i l l be necessary to allocate to each teacher, i n addition to his preferred subjects, certain secondary ones so that he may be i n charge of his own class a considerable portion of the day. Such a plan has the additional advantage of enabling him, i n l i n e with modern pedagogical theory, to correlate the subject matter of several different f i e l d s . The organization of subject committees w i l l aid the non-specialists i n planning and preparation. A l l teaohers covering similar work w i l l be members of such a committee. The chairmen w i l l be s p e c i a l i s t s i n the f i e l d s . In the case of a combined school v e r t i c a l coordination w i l l be secured by including the head of the high school department concerned as 89 an advisory member of the committee. In accord with Hosic's plan, the student body w i l l be 'divided into groups of six classes. Each such d i v i s i o n w i l l have a committee consisting of a "master teacher" and the fi v e other home room teachers, This group w i l l meet to deal with matters relative to the welfare of the pupils of the section. I f not the whole group of teachers, the master teacher, at least, should remain with the section through as many years as i t remains p r a c t i c a l l y i n t a c t . A further major committee, headed by the p r i n c i p a l and consisting of a l l s t a f f members,'would secure horizontal coordination by directing the work of the school as a whole. The proposal w i l l be made more clear by the following example. Let us assume for the sake of simplicity a school i n which there are three classes of boys and three classes of g i r l s i n Grade ¥11. Let us further assume the following allocation of subjects to the home room teachers: Teacher Primary Specialiti.e s ,Secondary...Specialities A Health and Physical Education, English Social Studies B Social Studies, English Music 0 Health and P.E., Mathematics Science D P r a c t i c a l Arts, Art Science E Mathematics, P r a c t i c a l Arts Music, Library English 90 Let us make a f i n a l assumption that only the constants, including super-vised study, are to he handled by these teaehers, and the variables by s t a f f members outside t h i s p a r t i c u l a r section. For a school run on a forty period week, the following time allotments might be made; Teacher Subject Class Periods per week A. English 1 , 3 10 Social Studies 1, 4 10 Health and P.E. 1, 2, 4 12 Study 1, 5 Periods outside section .. 3,- , 40 B. English, .2,* 4 10 Social Studies 2, % 5 , 6 20 Music , 1 , 2 4 Study 2 5 Periods outside section ,. 1 .. 40 G. General Science 2, 3 4 Health and P.E* 3 , 5 , 6 12 Gen, Mathematics 3» ° 1 0 Study 3 5 Periods outside section 9,, 40 D, Art 1, Z+ 3 , 4 8 P r a o t i c a l Arts 1 , 2, 4 12 General Science 1» 4» 5» 6 8 Study 4 5 Periods outside section • • . 7 . 40 E. Gen. Mathematics 1, 2, 4 , 5 20 P r a c t i c a l Arts 3 , 5 , 6 • " 12 Study .5 5 Periods outside section . 3, 40 F. Music 3 , 4 . 5 * 6 8 Library 1, 2, 3 , 4. 5 . 6 6 Art 5 , b 4 English 5 , 6 10 Study 6 5 Periods outside section 7 4° 91 I t w i l l be observed that provision i s made for a l l teachers of the section to give some instruction to classes •outside of i t . This enables spe c i a l i s t s from other sections to take classes i n subjects for which no member of this group i s q u a l i f i e d . Altogether, teachers of the section under discussion are free, as far as i t i s concerned, for thirty-periods per week. This figure corresponds to the five periods per class per week a l l o t t e d to variables by the Course of Studies. A t y p i c a l day Ts time-table appears i n Plate 21. In each case the subjects taught by the home room teacher are shown i n black, those taught by other teachers of the section i n red, and those taught by specialists from outside the section, i n green. In most cases the ratio would be constant for each class at 4 : 3 T h a t i s , the class would be with i t s home room teacher one half of the school day, with other teachers of the section three-eighths of the day, and with other s p e c i a l i s t s , one eighth. Plate XLI demonstrates the administrative organization required. The members of Sections II and III would be connected with the various subject committees i n the same way as the members of Section I with whom we have been dealing, Certain aspects of t h i s scheme suggest others which are i n use at present. There i s a resemblance, f i r s t of a l l 92 0 H s <D A o CO ra * | cd cd o Q h V2 O Q a Ul y Q ^2-K 04 iL 5- ; Q si t -X (8 Ul 2 ar 4 o fs_ Ui o K 02. VI <y J ^ or * « £ : , j L L of J .f. c -£ us H EH or t- <y cr 2£ J 2 C * - 0 J : - 1 Ui <1> cd P i ft 4 <t „ *5 4 o L cr 7 Oi F N V-o Ul h> « Ul 4 m Iy o Hi 02 4 -Ul 1 X •J 2 Ui £5 W2. 93 94 to Platooning and other forms of departmentalization i n the elementary schools« There i s , however, one important point of difference. Here, no teacher i s solely a spe c i a l i s t or a non-specialist. Each has his r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as the guide of a definite group with the members of which he has an excellent opportunity to become acquainted. There i s a resemblance, too, to a prevalent vogue i n the schools of the United States wherein a certain core-curriculum i s developed as a common cultural background for the pupils. Those who favour t h i s l a t t e r plan are usually much exercised over the choice of subjects for this core. In the opinion of the writer, the basic subjects need not be the same for any two classes. Why cannot the Mathematics and Science teacher do as much character education as the English and Social Studies teacher? The general response w i l l be that his materials are less suitable. What a gross misconception that is!. -The wonders revealed by science can be made as soul-stirring, as a selection of epic poetry. The mathematical interpretation of the order and unity of the universe i s as profound philosophy as any oration by the heroes of history. Provided the right teacher i s at work, any subject or group of subjects may be used as an effective t o o l i n the development of the whole personality of the individual pupils. Those who disagree with this statement w i l l find l i t t l e support save i n some offshoot of the exploded doctrine of formal d i s c i p l i n e . 95 The plan makes possible a further objective attempted i n several others, that of combining subjects into broad courses. 1 I t i s , however, more f l e x i b l e i n that such combination can be effected whenever the teacher desires, and abandoned when the t r a d i t i o n a l divisions seem preferable. For example, teacher A. may decide to develop, during one part of the term, a comprehensive unit dealing with both the history and l i t e r a t u r e of Canada, and at another part of the term to direct his pupils i n widely divergent channels i n Social Studies and English. Extreme departmentalization would make the former impossible. ..The more recent plan of subject cqmbination would make the l a t t e r d i f f i c u l t . The scheme proposed avoids the r i g i d i t y of the others. While the plan has been outlined for a very simple case there i s nothing to prevent i t s adaptation to the average school situation. .In Richmond, the sections would have to include more than one grade, separate sex groups would probably be undesirable, and the subject combinations would probably have to be modified. These changes, however, would not interfere with the basic ideas outlined above. In the case of a combined school, i t would probably be unnecessary to carry the general scheme beyond Grade IX. The accumulated pupil - teacher contacts of the three previous ^-Sidney B. H a l l and Fred M. Alexander, "The Core- Curriculum for, a. State Program1. A Challenge to -Secondary  Education. Hew York: Appleton-Century Co., 1935. PP* 13™47» 96 years would probably "be an adequate basis for guidance* Then top, the greater maturity of the Grade X - XII pupils would render them more adaptable to complete departmentalization. B. Administrative Organization. There seems l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n outlining the administrative organization for a separate junior high school. The following o f f i c e r s are generally foundj 1. P r i n c i p a l 2. Vice-Principal 3• Boys' Counsellor 4 * G i r l s ' Counsellor I f the vi c e - p r i n c i p a l i s a man he usually acts also as boys' counsellor. In addition to these some schools have a v i s i t i n g teacher and other minor o f f i c i a l s . In view of the prevalent f e e l i n g that the adminis-t r a t i o n of combined schools may not always be so readily arranged, the writer asked the following question of a l l the authorities who granted him interviews. "In a combined school of about 500 pupils what would be a desirable set-up for administration? t ? A l l the gentlemen questioned were of the opinion that a unified administration was to be preferred. Several, however, f e l t with Dr. H.B. Xing that a l l the o f f i c i a l s must 97 be ""junior high sohool minded". These l a t t e r educationists f e l t that, i f this condition could not be met, a possible alternative would be the appointment of one vice-principal over each unit, or of a single vice-principal over the junior d i v i s i o n . I t would seem that the matter depends on the "quality 1 of educational leadership of the d i s t r i c t " . I t can hardly, therefore, be treated conclusively from a theoretical stand-point but must be l e f t to solution i n the p r a c t i c a l situation. C. Extra-Curricular Organization. In view of the very fine summary of the three common plans for student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n school government, which i s contained i n the new Programme of Studies for Junior High Schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s unnecessary to devote much attention here to the types of organization which might be employed. Indeed, as f a r as a separate school i s concerned, the question of student government has been amply dealt with i n educational l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s necessary, however, to discuss certain aspects of student organization i n a combined junior-senior high school. The whole question of separate vs. combined junior high schools rises again with, reference to separate vs. combined student organizations within the combined school. Dangers of undesirable influences of older pupils on younger 98 ones, or vice-versa, of lack of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s and of domination of younger pupils by older ones, argue against a combined organization. In the minds of most educators, however, the need fo r u n i f i c a t i o n with the school seems to dwarf a l l these arguments for a dual scheme of student organization. The i d e a l towards which most combined schools strive i s a single comprehensive organization i n which the younger members are gradually trained up to take their places i n positions of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The effect of t h i s on both •older and younger pupils i s salutory. The younger are trained to respect capable leadership and, therefore, i n t h e i r turn to become good leaders; the older pupils are impressed with an added sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as guides of their juniors. Within the single student association certain d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s both inevitable and desirable. The age range of the secondary school i s too great to be characterized by e n t i r e l y common interests among a l l pupils. Thus, few of the junior pupils w i l l be interested i n the types of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s favoured by Grade XEI. Similarly, many school clubs w i l l have no appeal to the older pupils but w i l l attract large numbers of younger ones. From the point of view of reduction of the number of behaviour problems t h i s i s very fortunate. To a certain extent, also, large olubs might be divided into junior and senior sections so that the younger S3 pupils might have more p o s s i b i l i t i e s for application of their energies. In any such d i v i s i o n , however, care must he taken that no stigma i s attached to the younger group. In t h i s f i e l d , to a greater extent than i n any other, success or f a i l u r e w i l l depend on the work of the teaohers concerned. Each sponsor has i t i n his hands to make or mar that portion of the association with which he i s entrusted. Espe c i a l l y i s this so i n the oase of the Counsellors or such others as are concerned i n advising the executive o f f i c e r s elected by the student body. The wisest p o l i c y i n inaugurating student government i s to make haste slowly. I t i s very easy to grant authority, but very hard to take i t away. For the f i r s t year, i t seems wise to employ a provisional plan giving the students only a measure of freedom. During this period, a considerable portion of the Guidance programme should be devoted to a thor* ough study by the pupils of various types of organization. Then, towards the end of the year, when a l l have had,an ample opportunity to understand the implications of each possible scheme, one should be adopted on ballot of the student body. Even then, however, i t s introduction should be gradual, more and more authority being given as the pupils show the a b i l i t y to make proper use of i t . Under no circumstances should pupil government be permitted to interfere with the authority of p r i n c i p a l and teachers. i Chapter IX COST 101 Chapter.IX COST The question of the cost of such a junior high school as has been described i n the previous chapers i s one of those minor matters which frequently obscure major issues. Expense should not be reckoned on an absolute basis but rather rela t i v e to the value obtained. As Briggs points out - "It can e a s i l y be shown that i f no increased educational opportunities are offered and i f the salaries of teachers are not increased, the cost per pupil w i l l be reduced rather than increased." I f , however, increased educational opportunities are given (which involves, of course, salary changes), higher costs must be expected, for, "there i s seldom i n education or elsewhere a p o s s i b i l i t y of getting something for nothing."1 Richmond's Junior High School.will cost, within very broad l i m i t s , just exactly the amount that the Board of School Trustees or the ratepayers are w i l l i n g to pay. The major i n i t i a l expense, the new plant, may be a makeshift or a model. I t may be poorly or excellently equipped. I t may have adequate or Inadequate grounds» It may have a l l or none of those features so essential, not to the name, but to the s p i r i t of a junior high school. Obviously, no estimate of i t s cost could be more than an unsubstantiated guess. G r i g g s , op. c i t . p. 84. 102 In a general way, however, i t may he possible to draw certain conclusions as to the l i k e l y per pupil cost of the new sohool. Two types of information may be employed for this purpose. 1. Per pupil costs i n d i s t r i c t s where junior high schools are i n operation, and 2. Per pupil cost of Richmond Elementary and Senior High Schools. A survey of twenty-two American c i t i e s made i n 1P/20 by Briggs shows: Average per capita costs i n elementary -grades - $31.38 Average per capita costs i n j r . high schools - 50.OA Average per capita costs i n sr. high schools - 63.48 The 1928 Biennial Survey by the United States Bureau of Education gives the following figures for a l l c i t i e s of over 10,000 population: Average per capita cost i n elementary grades - $67.66 Average per capita cost i n j r high schools - 89*58 Average per capita cost i n sr. high schools - 2I.29I The ratio i n thi s case i s 7*9*12 I f the towns selected by Briggs may be considered representative, and they were apparently a random selection, these two tables demonstrate two facts. 1. That educational costs i n general have increased. 2. That costs i n the elementary schools and senior high schools have increased more rapidly than those for junior high schools. "^United States Bureau of Education Biennial Survey 1926-8, p. 498. .These averages are based on average attendance. 103 The explanation of this l a t t e r phenomenon i s not hard to f i n d . In i t s early days the junior high sohool was the focus of attention and therefore of expenditure, low, application of the science of education to the other two levels of the school has caused a s h i f t of emphasis, and consequently of expenditure, to them. Probably, therefore, the l a t t e r ratio i s more significant than the former. The actual per capita costs, however, have probably declined during the depression years. The following table shows per capita costs i n Eichmond schools for the last five years.1 Year SIementary. Sohopi 0ost High Sohool Cost Ratio 1931- 2 154.97 199'20 5.5:10 1932- 3 51*58 88.88 5:9 1933- 4 49.54 67.38 5:7 1934- 5 45*3.9 73.71 4*5:7 1935- 6 45.27 71.17 4-5:7: Assuming that Richmond expenditure for junior high school education w i l l be proportionate to that at other le v e l s , we may derive an approximate figure for per capita oosts i n the new i n s t i t u t i o n . In view of the steady decrease i t w i l l be wiser to take the ra t i o f or 1934-5 and 35-6 rather than an average of the five years. Reduced to a common denominator, Richmond's elementary schools' per capita cost i s 54/84 °^ n e r high ^These are based on t o t a l enrolment. 104 school's per capita cost, whereas the United States' average shows a ratio of 49/84« M a may he partly due to the inclusion of Grades ¥11 - ¥111 i n the former figure and not i n the l a t t e r . I t w i l l he necessary, however, to assume a l i k e l y error of 5/84 of 5 . 8 ^ i n using this United States junior high school figure as a basis of calculation. The average United States junior high school has a per capita cost 9/7 as great as i t s elementary schools. On this reckoning Richmond may anticipate a junior high school figure of 9/7 x $45, or $64. Since i t i s impossible to say whether the new school w i l l follow the trend of the elementary i n being 5,8jo above the United States r a t i o , or of the senior high school i n being 5»Qfo below i t , this figure must be quoted as #64 - l3»90. Richmond may, therefore, anticipate a per capita cost for the junior high school l y i n g somewhere between $60»10 and $67.90, or roughly between $60 and $68. It should be remembered that the increase i n cost i n Grades ¥11 and ¥111 i s l i k e l y to be to some extent compensated for by a decrease i n cost i n Grade IX which i s included i n the junior high school estimate. The foregoing analysis has referred only to annual expenses. I n i t i a l costs are another matter. Two important factors enter here; one, the need for immediate provision of additional accommodation i n the Richmond system, and the other, the Department of Education's avowed policy of giving 105 very much larger grants f o r buildings designed to house junior high schools. When these factors are considered i t may be found that the s l i g h t l y increased annual cost i s more than balanced by the decreased i n i t i a l outlay for construction. In any case, i f the junior high school i s j u s t i f i a b l e on educational grounds, i t cannot reasonably be dismissed merely because of a s l i g h t l y increased cost* Education i s too v i t a l a part of national and community l i f e and receives r e l a t i v e l y too i n s i g n i f i c a n t a part of national and community expenditure to permit of any j u s t i f i c a t i o n for refusing to devote to i t the slight additional sums necessary for improvements of the sort* Chapter X TEE LIKELY EFFECTS OF TEE PROPOSED REORGANIZATION 01 TEE EXISTING- EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES 107 Chapter X THE LIKELY EFFECTS OF THE PROPOSED REORGANIZATION OH THE EXISTING EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES Any concentration of attention on one phase of any educational system brings with i t the danger of neglect of others. That which i s new may gain at the expense of that which i s older. On the other hand, one improvement may bring others with i t . I t i s the purpose of the present chapter to endeavour to evaluate the proposed reorganization i n terms of i t s l i k e l y effects on the present schools of Richmond. The following improvements seem probable: 1. Improved elementary education through the greater homogeneity of the elementary school population. 2. In s t i t u t i o n of a zoning system for the elementary schools. (A time of general reorganization i s a suitable one for the accomplishment of thi s long overdue reform). 3. Retention of pupils i n the Richmond system through the provision of more di v e r s i f i e d opportunities. 4. An increased educational consciousness i n the community. 5. A gradual modification of the philosophy, curricula and organization of the senior high school. 108 In addition to these somewhat general developments certain definite p r a c t i c a l changes may he foreseen. Hone are better qu a l i f i e d to speak on t h i s point than the pr i n c i p a l s of the elementary schools, For t h i s reason, the writer asked these authorities the following questions: le What w i l l be the necessary decrease i n your s t a f f i f Grades VII and VIII are removed? ••2> How many rooms w i l l be l e f t vacant under the present enrolment? 3» What readjustments would be necessary as regards the P r a c t i c a l Arts courses? 4* For how many periods would the Cambie Gymnasium be required after the reorganization? 5 . How would a junior high school operating on a basis of accepting p r a c t i c a l l y a l l pupils from Grade VI affect your promotions? 6. * Have you any general comments to make as regards the probable effects of the establishment of a junior high school? She information obtained may be best summarized by considering together the answers of each of the four pri n c i p a l s to each question. 109 1. What w i l l he the necessary decrease i n your s t a f f i f Grades 711 and VIII are removed? Bridgeport 4 teachers Lord Byng 3 , possibly 4 teachers M i t c h e l l possibly 1 teacher Sea Island Ho decrease Apparently,, then, a t o t a l elementary s t a f f decrease of eight teachers i s to be anticipated. This, however, does not represent a serious problem as i n the normal course of events one or two teachers w i l l resign and the remainder w i l l l i k e l y be absorbed into the s t a f f of the new school. 2. How many rooms w i l l be l e f t vacant under the present enrolment? Bridgeport 5' rooms Lord Byng 3 rooms Mit c h e l l . 1 room Sea Island none The answers to these questions reveal the extent to which the junior high sohool w i l l relieve congestion i n the elementary schools. In no other way could nine class rooms at such distances apart be made available without the construction of a number of additions. 3 . ViThat readjustments would be necessary as regards the P r a c t i c a l Arts? 110 The responses of the principals of Bridgeport, Lord Byng and Mi t c h e l l schools revealed the fact that at present , not only the pupils i n Grades ¥11 and ¥111 hut also those i n Grade ¥1 were receiving instruction i n home economics and manual tr a i n i n g . I t was anticipated that the provision of thi s work i n Grade IX w i l l prevent i t s continuance with the Grade ¥1 classes. I t should be noted, however, that the provision of P r a c t i c a l Arts for a l l elementary grades, as required by the new curriculum, w i l l necessitate the establishment of centres for this work i n each school. The Grade ¥1 pupils w i l l , thus, be provided for i n work more d e f i n i t e l y designed for t h e i r age l e v e l . 4« ko'W many periods would the Cambie Gymnasium, be required after the reorganization? This question was found to concern only Bridgeport school. This school would s t i l l require at least one af t e r -noon per week at present a l l o t t e d to i t unless some other provision were made. There i s a strong p o s s i b i l i t y , however, that a very serviceable gymnasium w i l l be made available through the conversion of two classrooms i n one of the out-buildings into one large h a l l after the classes are removed to the junior high school. I l l 5. Would a junior high sohool, operating on a basis of accepting p r a c t i c a l l y a l l pupils from Grade VI, materially affect your promotions? Miss Mcleely, Bridgeport Very l i t t l e . Mr. Thomas, Lord Byng Probably increase them s l i g h t l y , almost unnoticeable. Mr. Aberdeen, Mitohell Possibly a slight increase i n view of the d i f f i c u l t t r ansition from Grade VI to Gd. VII . Mr,. F i t c h e t t , Sea Island Hot much Supplementing these answers, the writer obtained from several principals a l i s t of pupils who had dropped out of school during the year. The fact that a considerable percentage of the mortality i n Grades VII - IX was among repeaters seems to indicate that a considerable improvement i s to be expected when a new, more interesting, and better adapted environment i s provided and a more l i b e r a l policy of promotion i s made possible. There w i l l remain, of course, the danger of retardation p r i o r to the sixth grade. Indeed, p a r t i c u l a r l y among the foreign children who, lack f a c i l i t y i n English, some may be necessary. Gradually, however, the junior high school should be able to show i t s a b i l i t y to care for the needs of even t h i s group and thereby remove the cause of a l l retardation. 112 6. Have you any general comments to make as regards the probable effects of the establishment of a junior high school? Mr. Thomas - The junior high school would l i k e l y tend to quicken interest* I t would be a progressive step which would possibly result i n better control, procedure and dis c i p l i n e i n a l l three schools, elementary, junior high and senior high. Mr. Aberdeen While i t i s hard to make a definite statement on a l l possible effects i t i s evident that the building of a new junior high school i s the only alternative to adding to Mitchell School. Mr.Fitch.ett Since the highest mortality i s at Grade VII, the junior high school might improve retention. From the answers to t h i s and the previous questions, i t would seem that certain improvements and no i l l - e f f e c t s are anticipated by the principals of the elementary schools. There i s evident, too, a w i l l i n g desire to assist i n any step whioh.is l i k e l y to improve the system as a whole. Such a cooperative attitude w i l l be of immeasurable value i n the d i f f i c u l t stages of the establishment of the junior high school. The present senior high school would not be subject to very serious change i n the event of the establishment of a separate junior school. Some modifications, however, would have to be anticipated. In order that v e r t i c a l coordination might render valuable the exploratory courses of the junior 113 high school, i t would he wise to broaden the Grade X - XII curricula, This would involve the provision of Commercial and P r a c t i c a l Arts courses. Unfortunately, the reduction i n staff necessitated hy the reduction i n pupil population might make such expansion somewhat d i f f i c u l t . In the ease of a combined junior-senior high school the need f o r extensive change would be to some extent balanced by the more f l e x i b l e s t a f f organization and more varied accommodation of a larger school. Certain sehior s p e c i a l i s t s might reasonably he expected to teach a few periods i n the junior unit without change of status. Similarly, a compensating amount of instruction i n the senior high school might he expected of junior high school teachers. Should any considerable degree of interchange be attempted, i t would seem only f a i r to provide salary adjustments for the junior teachers concerned. The writer has been unable to discover any B r i t i s h Columbia sohool system i n which t h i s i s done. The general attitude of the principals he has questioned on t h i s point seems to be that their only consideration i s the employment of a l l members of their staffs to maximum advantage. The fe e l i n g of higher administrative o f f i c i a l s seems to be that as such overlapping' provides the f i r s t step between the junior and senior levels for their teachers, the l a t t e r should consider such work as a p r i v i l e g e . I t i s to be hoped that the situation w i l l soon be remedied by 114 the elimination of the anomalous #100 difference between the minimum salaries of the two schools«, Other problems l i k e l y to arise i n a combined school are discussed elsewhere i n this thesis. On the whole, i t may be safely prophesied that for every loss suffered by the senior school there would be a compensating gain. There seems, then, l i t t l e danger of serious disadvantage to any of the existing schools i n the proposed reorganization. Indeed, those who are most l i k e l y to be affected anticipate a considerable improvement throughout the system as a direct or indirect result of the establishment of a junior high school. Chapter 21 SUMMARY 116 Chapter 21 sumaRT Since i t has been impossible to present the; record of this investigation i n a perfectly l o g i c a l order due to the necessity for explanatory digressions, i t seems desirable to give a b r i e f ohapter-by-chapter summary supplemented by a few general recommendations not included elsewhere. I. This chapter discusses the history of the junior high school movement with especial reference to claims made for the new i n s t i t u t i o n . I t concludes that reorganization w i l l provide an opportunity for significant reform i n Richmond's educational system. II The separate vs. combined school question i s discussed here from the theoretical standpoint. The conclusions reached are, that while the separate junior high school i s the id e a l , a combined jxmior-senior high school may be the more practicable provided i t i s wisely conducted. I l l The present educational situation i n Richmond i s dealt with i n some d e t a i l . Data and opinions furnished by the elementary school principals are made the basis of the following six generalizations: 1. Richmond schools are not, on the whole, advantageously located. 2. Replacement or repair of a number of buildings i s required. 117 3» Size and grade variations of schools indicate the need for zoning. 4 . Bridgeport, M i t c h e l l , and the High School need immediate additions. 5* The Japanese w i l l present a r a c i a l problem i n the junior high school. 6. The new curriculum i s demanding new equipment. IT. This ohapter outlines the study made of population d i s t r i b u t i o n and contains a number of maps i l l u s t r a t i v e of matters relative to desirable locations f o r the proposed sohool. V. The theoretical discussion of Ohapter II and the analysis of population dist r i b u t i o n of Chapter IT are brought together to show: •1* A scheme for the establishment of a separate junior high school i n the Brighouse area as the f i r s t wing of a future combined school. 2. The alternative p o s s i b i l i t y , a less far-sighted plan, the establishment of a combined school at the present high sohool s i t e . VI. This chapter consists of three parts which discuss problems of curricula and means of arranging f o r groups for different subject combinations. I t recommends that: 1. A l l subjects of the junior high school courses be offered. 2. (a) A plan of modified class groups be adopted. (b) These groups be arranged on a broad basis of bright, average and d u l l u n t i l research has removed the existing disagreement on homogeneous grouping. 118 3 .(a) Broad courses with minor variations as authorized i n d e t a i l he adopted for each of the general levels of a b i l i t y i n grades VII and VIII. (b) Four general channels be recognized from Grade IX up, determined by the pupil's post-graduate aims. VII. Figures f o r pupil population for the l a s t s i x years are analyzed graphically to provide estimates for the necessary accommodation i n the new school, Shese conclusions are supplemented by a discussion of questions relative to curricula so that the requirements i n special rooms may be indicated. She necessary modifications i n case of a combined sohool are pointed out. VIII* She conclusion that overdepartmentalization i s undesirable i s used as the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of a plan for curricular organization of the school i n groups of six olasses and teachers i n l i n e with certain progressive tendencies. She curriculum i s divided into specialized and non-specialized subjects. A plan i s outlined for the inauguration and development of student participation i n school government. IX. Proceeding from the statement that cost i s a r e l a t i v e l y less important factor but one which must be considered, this ohapter attempts to estimate per pupil cost relative to the past costs i n the elementary and high schools 119 of Richmond. Notice i s taken of the larger building grants provided by the Provincial Department of Education for junior high schools, X. Shis chapter records the answers of the principals of Richmond's elementary schools to questions concerning the l i k e l y effect of reorganization on their schools. Certain generalizations are made. The effect on the present high school of the addition of a junior unit i s discussed i n d e t a i l . BIBLIOGRAPHY 121 BIBLIOGRAPHY American Library Association, School Library Yearbook Mo I I . Chicago: 1935. Mre You Planning a Hew School Building?" School Progress Vol. V Ho 7. (February, 1937). p..7^8 ' '" '' .' < '• ' Briggs, T,H. The Junior High School. Cambridge Mass: Houghton M i f f l i n - Co. 192O. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. Programme of Studies  for the Junior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : i^ing's 'Printer,' 1936. " ' '••' •• B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. Programme of Studies  for the Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : iEing'.s-^Printer, 1955*T ' Burton, W. H. Introduction to Eduoation. Hew York: D. Appleton-Century Co *, 1935 • C a l i f o r n i a , State of, Department of Education B u l l e t i n Ho 6. Recent .Developments i n .Secondary Education i n  Ca l i f o r n i a . 1956. Crawford, C.C. The Technique of Research i n Education.-Los Angeles: University of Southern Ca l i f o r n i a Press, 1928. Davis, CO. Junior High School. Education, Yonkers-on-Hudson: World Book Co. 1§W. "~~ ~" Douglas, H.B. Organization and Administration of Secondary Schools'. Boston: Ginn and Go. 1932• Engelhardt, H.L. Standards for Junior High School Buildings Hew York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers' College, Columbia. 1932. English, J.F.K. The Combined Junior-Senior High School and Its General Adaptability 'to the Small centres of B r i t i s h Columbia, Master's Thesis, U.B.O., 1935. Everett, T. et a l . A Challenge, to Secondary Education Hew York: D. Appleton-Century Co. 1935* F e r r i s , E.H. Secondary Education i n Country and Vil l a g e . Hew York: D. Appleton-Century Co. 1927. 122 Johnston, C.H.; Newlon, J.H.; P i o k e l l , F.G. Junior-Senior  High- Sohool Administration. Hew York; Charles Scrihner 1s Sons. 1922 Kandel, I.L. Comparativje Eduoat ion. Boston: Houghton-M i f f l i n Co. 1933 " Koos, L.V. She- Junior High Sohool. Boston: Ginn and Co. 1927~ Mueller, A.D. Progressive Trends i n Rural Education. Hew York: The Century Co* i<pFI Pringle, Ralph W * The Junior High Sohool A Psychological Approach. Hew York: McGraw-Hill Co., 1937-Proctor, W.M. and R i c c i a r d i , H. The Junior.High Sohool Its Organization and Administration. - Los Angeles: Stanford-University Press. 1930. Smith, • W.A. The Junior High School. Hew York: The Macmillan Co, 1927. Spaulding, F.T. The Small Junior High Sohool. Camhridge: Harvard University Presa, 1927. United States Bureau of Education, Biennial Survey Washington: 1926-8 

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