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The phonology of Tausug : a descriptive analysis Tan, Evangeline K. Nov 2, 1967

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THE PHONOLOGY OF TAUSUG: A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS by EVANGELINE K. TAN E.T.C., Zamboanga Normal C o l l e g e , 1959 B.S.E.Ed., N a t i o n a l Teachers' C o l l e g e , 1964- A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS' FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of C l a s s i c s D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 196? I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t -the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a in s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of ^ a s ^ j j j s . i ^ Q i ^ ^ ^ T h e " U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 3 Canada Date August,* 1967 ABSTRACT In the l a s t few years there has been a s t e a d i l y growing i n t e r e s t i n l i n g u i s t i c s c i e n c e . As a r e s u l t , more and more of the languages of the world are coming w i t h i n the range of l i n g u i s t i c s c r u t i n y . This i n t e r e s t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y manifested i n P h i l i p p i n e l i n g u i s t i c s as evidenced by the number of languages and d i a l e c t s of the country that have alr e a d y been and are being explored. Some P h i l i p p i n e languages have been e x t e n s i v e l y investigated,' while others have been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y explored. L i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Tausug (which i s the n a t i v e language of the i n v e s t i g a t o r ) i s u r g e n t l y needed. Except f o r the work e n t i t l e d "The Phonemes of Tausug" by Seymour and L o i s Ashley of the Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s ( S I L ) , no other l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s of the language have been done. In view of the inadequacy," t h i s present work on a synchronic d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of Tausug phonology i s here made a v a i l a b l e . The purpose of t h i s study i s to g i v e a s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n of the phonological phenomena of Tausug, ; w i t h the end i n view of pr o v i d i n g b a s i c explanations concerning the phonological system of the language which should be u s e f u l to those i n t e r e s t e d i n Tausug l i n g u i s t i c s . I t i s a l s o hoped that the a n a l y s i s w i l l be of some pedagogical s i g n i f i  cance - i n teaching a second language to n a t i v e speakers of Tausug and i n p r o v i d i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l foundation f o r f u t u r e i i i m o d i f i c a t i o n s and innovations i n the Tausug o r t h o g r a p h i c a l system. I n the main, the phono l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of Tausug centers on the d i a l e c t of S i a s i town proper (STP), of which the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s a n a t i v e speaker. Whenever p o s s i b l e , however,' d i s c u s s i o n s of the d i a l e c t a l v a r i e t i e s are i n c l u d e d . An attempt i s a l s o made t o provide f o r general categories v a l i d f o r a l l d i a l e c t s . ' As suggested i n the t i t l e } ' T h e Phonology of Tausug: A D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s * , the method of approach to the study of the sounds of the language i s d e s c r i p t i v e . This i s made p o s s i b l e by means of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l approach, and p r i m a r i l y the a r t i c u l a t o r y technique. Using the speech organs as a f a m i l i a r frame of reference,' the phonetic raw m a t e r i a l of the language i s analyzed and described f i r s t . P h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , however,; goes beyond the phonetic l e v e l . The u l t i m a t e aim i s to e s t a b l i s h the phonemic system of the language, hence,' the need f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the phonetic raw m a t e r i a l i n t o f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s , i . e . , the phonemes. C e r t a i n fundamental c r i t e r i a such as phonetic s i m i l a r i t y , 1 complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n , p a t t e r n c o n g r u i t y , and i d e n t i t y of f u n c t i o n are observed in the phonemic c l a s  s i f i c a t i o n . With the use of the c o n t r a s t i n g p a i r s (minimal pairs,' which d i f f e r only i n one featu r e or phoneme), the establishment of the i d e n t i t y of each of the phonemes of i v Tausug i s f u r t h e r strengthened. To complete the a n a l y s i s of Tausug phonology, b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n s of the supraseg mental features and the morphophonemics of the language are i n c l u d e d . Although thoroughness and accuracy has been aimed a t , the a n a l y s i s i s f a r from being exhaustive or complete. Completeness i n any l i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s u n a t t a i n  able as long as language keeps on changing and knowledge of l i n g u i s t i c science keeps on advancing. And w i t h the dearth to date of l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s of the Tausug lan g  uage, t h i s present a n a l y s i s of the phonological s t r u c t u r e of the language permits no more than t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s . TABLE OP CONTENTS Page L i s t of Figures and I l l u s t r a t i o n s v i Acknowledgements v i i 1. INTRODUCTION............. 1 1.1 Background of the Present Study 1 1.2 Purpose of the A n a l y s i s 3 1.3 Scope and D e l i m i t a t i o n . . . . . . . 6 1.4 Method of Approach.. 8 1.5 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms....... 12 2. ' BASIC CONSIDERATIONS TO SPEECH ANALYSIS... 14 2.1 The Use of the IPA. 14 2.2 The Organs of Speech. 21 2.3 C r i t e r i a Used i n Phonemic A n a l y s i s 25 3. THE SOUNDS OF TAUSUG.... 30 3.1 Vocoids........ 1...... 30 3.2 Contoids 46 4. THE SYLLABLE .. 55 5 . THE SEGMENTAL PHONEMES .: 66 5.1 The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Semivowels ori'Seml- consonants.........•• 69 5.2 Vowels •. .75 5.2.1 D e s c r i p t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . . . 77 5.2.2 Phonemic Contrast 79 5.2.3 A l l o p h o n i c V a r i a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 5.2.4 D i s t r i b u t i o n .... 90 5.2.5 Diphthongs......... 91 5.2.6 Triphthongs...... 95 5> 3;Consonants 96 5.3.1 D e s c r i p t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . 99 5.3.2 Phonemic C o n t r a s t s . . . . . . . 106 5.3.3 A l l o p h o n i c V a r i a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 5.3.4 D i s t r i b u t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 5.3.5 Consonant C l u s t e r s 150 6. THE SUPRASEGMENTAL FEATURES...... 158 6.1 S t r e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 6.2 P i t c h . . . . . . . . . . . . v . . . . . 161 6.3 Length......................... . . . . . ........... 167 6.4 J u n c t u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . v 1..... 170 7. MORPHOPHONEMICS . 172 8. SUMMARY, AND .CONCLUSION.... • 177 BIBLIOGRAPHY............................. 183 L i s t of Figures and I l l u s t r a t i o n s F i g u r e 1: Map of the P h i l i p p i n e s , showing the Tausug- speaking province F i g u r e 2: The C a r d i n a l Vowel Chart Fig u r e 3'* A c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the head showing the organs of speech Fi g u r e 4-: A modified C a r d i n a l Vowel Chart showing the approximate l o c a t i o n of the Tausug Vocoids F i g u r e 5: A Chart of Tausug Vocoids Fig u r e 6: A Chart of Tausug Contoids F i g u r e 7> The Vowel T r i a n g l e f o r Tausug F i g u r e 8: The Consonant Diagram f o r Tausug AKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my g r a t i t u d e to s e v e r a l people without whose help t h i s t h e s i s would not have been p o s s i b l e ; to Dr. Robert Gregg, my f a c u l t y adviser*' whon. saw through the work from the f o r m u l a t i o n of the problem to the f i n a l accomplishment of the p r o j e c t ; to Miss Ruth McConnell i n whose c l a s s the w r i t e r gained encouragement and I n t e r e s t i n making t h i s study i n modern l i n g u i s t i c s ; to Dr. Fred Bowers who c a r e f u l l y went over the f i n a l d r a f t of t h i s t h e s i s ; and to my f r i e n d s , Misses Rosario Maminta and Georgina R i v e r a , who w i l l i n g l y helped proof read the manuscript. The w r i t e r was i n i t i a t e d i n t o the f i e l d of linguist.!, t i c s and second language teaching when she worked i n the Elementary Education D i v i s i o n , Bureau of P u b l i c Schools, Republic of the P h i l i p p i n e s . ' She was gi v e n a l l the neces sary support and t r a i n i n g by Miss Fe Manza, c h i e f , E n g l i s h S e c t i o n and Mrs. C a t a l i n a Velasquea-Ty, c h i e f , Upper Primary S e c t i o n s To them, I a l s o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n . This study was made p o s s i b l e through a s c h o l a r s h i p grant from the E x t e r n a l A i d O f f i c e r Gvernment of Canada. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l House provided a home away from home f o r the w r i t e r . To thfese two i n s t i t u t i o n s , I wish to express my s i n c e r e thanks and a p p r e c i a t i o n . MAP OF THE PHILIPPINES SHOWING THE TAU SUG - SPEAKING PROVINCE ( S H A D E D ) 1 . INTRODUCTION Of the two languages spoken i n the S u l u A r c h i p e l a g o , a province a t the southern t i p of the P h i l i p p i n e I s l a n d s , Tausug i s considered the p r e s t i g e language of the area.^ I t i s spoken as a n a t i v e language by approximately 30^,812 people l i v i n g throughout the s c a t t e r e d i s l a n d s of the province and as a second language by many immigrants from various parts of the country.^ Most of the speakers of Tausug occupy the i s l a n d s of J o l o , S i a s i , Pandaml, Lugus, Tapul, Pata, e t c . A considerable number are s c a t t e r e d i n some areas of Zamboanga, B a s i l a n , Davao, Lanao, Bukidnon, Cotabato, and Palawan (see map). 1.1 Background of the Present Study Present-day Tausug represents not only a cumulative n a t i v e development but a l s o an a s s i m i l a t i o n of words from various languages, notably S a n s k r i t , Malayan, Indonesian, Chinese, A r a b i c , Spanish, Japanese,and more r e c e n t l y E n g l i s h . ._ Seymour and L o i s . A s h l e y , "The Phonemes of Tausug", Papers on P h i l i p p i n e Languages, (Manila: The U n i v e r s i t y of the P h i l i p p i n e s (UP; and the Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s (SIL) P u b l i c a t i o n , 1 9 6 3 , p.7. In t h i s paper the authors s t a t e that there are three languages spoken i n Sulu-Tausug, Samal, and Yakan. However, to the knowledge of the i n v e s t i g a t o r , Yakan i s not spoken anywhere i n S u l u . I t i s the language of the neighbor i n g c i t y of B a s i l a n . And s i n c e g e o g r a p h i c a l l y as w e l l as p o l i  t i c a l l y B a s i l a n i s not a part of S u l u , i t i s l o g i c a l that Yakan should not be considered as one of the languages of the province. 2 The number of Tausug speakersiis based upon the Census of i 9 6 0 . 2 Words l i k e pans i t ' r i c e noodle', madjpng'mah jong', and j^kUm:,-. 'wooden shoes' are of Chinese o r i g i n . G i t a r a ' g u i t a r ' i s Spanish, w h i l e apa ' t h i n wafer' i s Japanese. A great number of Moslem names are A r a b i c , a s i d e from l e x i c a l items such as makru •taboo', Ramadan (month of f a s t i n g ) , dakdak 'to wash', Jabur 'book of Moses', e t c . Tausug words l i k e lupa ' l i k e n e s s ' , walna ' c o l o r ' , mulka ' c u r s e 1 , and surga !heaven' seem to be of S a n s k r i t o r i g i n and correspond r e s p e c t i v e l y to S a n s k r i t words rupa ' l i k e n e s s ' , varna • c o l o r 1 or ' c a s t e 1 , mureha 'to i n c i t e wrath', and svarga 'abode of l i g h t 1 ? Loan words from E n g l i s h are p u l i s 'police',- i s k u l 'school', tarak 'truck', b a l i b u l ' v o l l e y b a l l ' , m i t i n g 'meeting' or 1c o n f e r e n c e ' , e t c . Except i n c a r e f u l educated speech, more o f t e n than:.not, as evidenced by the examples given above, words adopted i n t o the language l o s e t h e i r f o r e i g n i s m . They u s u a l l y a s s i m i l a t e to the form of n a t i v e words, the f o r e i g n sounds being replaced by appro ximate n a t i v e e q u i v a l e n t s . 3'The source of i n f o r m a t i o n on S a n s k r i t loans i s the doc t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n of Juan F r a n c i s c o , "Indian Influences i n the P h i l i p p i n e s , " S o c i a l Sciences and Humanities Review (Quezon C i t y : The U n i v e r s i t y of the P h i l i p p i n e s A r t and Sciences P u b l i c a t i o n , January-Sept ember, 1963) V.-28, Nos. 1-3. Due to u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of reference m a t e r i a l s , the i n v e s t i  gator i s not i n a p o s i t i o n to g i v e s u f f i c i e n t examples of l e x i c a l items borrowed from other languages. Influences of such languages are evident not only i n the language but a l s o i n the c u l t u r e of Tausug. 3 As one of the estimated eighty-seven languages of the P h i l i p p i n e s , Tausug f a l l s under the general c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Malayo-Polynesian f a m i l y . I t appears to have c l o s e phono l o g i c a l as w e l l as s y n t a c t i c a l resemblances w i t h many P h i l i p p i n e languages l i k e , f o r i n s t a n c e , Tagalog and Cebuano. U n l i k e Tagalog, Cebuano, and other P h i l i p p i n e languages, not very many l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s have yet been made of the Tausug language. I f there has been any l i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t a l l , i t i s almost i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The i n v e s t i g a t o r i s aware of only one l i n g u i s t i c study of the language and that i s the work done by Seymour and L o i s Ashley c i t e d i n footnote N o . l . This pioneer ing i n v e s t i g a t i o n provides a summary d e s c r i p t i o n of the phonemes of Tausug, but i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive to g i v e a l l the d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the phono l o g i c a l system of the language. I n view of the inadequacy of l i n g u i s t i c m a t e r i a l s on the Tausug language, and w i t h today's seemingly growing i n t e  r e s t i n P h i l i p p i n e l i n g u i s t i c s , i t i s imperative that a more com prehensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the language be made a v a i l a b l e . 1.2 Purpose of the A n a l y s i s - Whether any given a n a l y s i s i s d e s i r a b l e or s u c c e s s f u l depends p r i m a r i l y on the purpose f o r which i t i s intended. I n t h i s study, attempt i s made to provide basic i n f o r m a t i o n on the phonological system of Tausug, modest though i t may be, as 4 reference m a t e r i a l f o r students of l i n g u i s t i c s who may be i n  t e r e s t e d i n the Tausug language. Moreover, the a n a l y s i s may be of use f o r pedagogical purposes. This includes a p p l i e d l i n g u i s  t i c s and orthography. This study o f f e r s n e i t h e r a mass of d e t a i l e d data nor any s t a r t l i n g new theory but i s an attempt to provide b a s i c explana t i o n s concerning the p h o n o l o g i c a l phenomena of Tausug. With the dearth of l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n on the language, the data included i n t h i s study should prove u s e f u l f o r those who have an i n c l i n a  t i o n towards making f u r t h e r l i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Tausug language. B a s i c knowledge of the phonological s t r u c t u r e of Tausug i s important i n the teaching of a f o r e i g n language to n a t i v e speakers of the language. Extensive experience has shown that b e t t e r i n  s i g h t s i n t o the l e a r n i n g of a new language are gained by having an accurate knowledge of the n a t i v e tongue. B e t t e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and methods of teaching a f o r e i g n language are drawn from a systematic comparison of the l e a r n e r ' s n a t i v e tongue and the t a r g e t language to be learned. The s t a r t i n g p o i n t , t h e r e f o r e , f o r an e f f i c i e n t program of second-language teaching f o r Tausug 4 speakers i s a s c i e n t i f i c study of t h e i r n a t i v e tongue. 4 - -•• Harold B. A l l e n , Teaching E n g l i s h as a Second Language, .(New York:McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965).  Nelson Brooks, Language and Language Learning (New Yorki 1 Harcourt, Brace and World; 1 Inc...*,". .1964). Mary P i n o c c h i a r o , Teaching E n g l i s h as a Second Language (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1958). P.Gurrey, Teaching E n g l i s h as a Second Language (London: Longmans, Green and Co. L t d . , 19597."" 5 This study a l s o intends to c o n t r i b u t e something towards r e d e f i n i n g the orthography of Tausug. In the past, Tausug has no e s t a b l i s h e d w r i t i n g system of i t s own. Native speakers have used e i t h e r the Arabic alphabet ( i n the case of those who are graduates of the Arabic s c h o o l ) , or the Roman alphabet ( i n the case of those who are educated i n the modern sc h o o l ) . Of the two, the Roman alphabet has been the more wi d e l y used. There have, however, been no f i x e d r u l e s on the proper use of the Roman alphabet i n r e l a t i o n to the language^ so that d i v e r s e ways of rep r e s e n t i n g phonemes that have no corresponding l e t t e r s i n the Roman alphabet have r e s u l t e d . In re p r e s e n t i n g the g l o t t a l stop ( g l o t t a l catch) / ? / , f o r i n s t a n c e , some have used the accent mark /'/• Others have used the l e t t e r h when the g l o t t a l stop i s word f i n a l . S t i l l others have l e f t i t un marked. A word l i k e kaha [*k»aha? ] * f r y i n g pan* has been ortho- g r a p h i c a l l y represented as kaha. kahah. or kaha. Not one of the three r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of / ? / , however, shows any r e l a t i o n s h i p or connection w i t h the sound i n quest i o n . Unless expressed o r a l l y or w r i t t e n i n context, the form kaha, or kahah, i s l i a b l e to be mistaken f o r kaha [ *k ahah 3'safe* ( f o r keeping v a l u a b l e s ) ? -'It was only very r e c e n t l y , w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of the vernacular as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the cur r i c u l u m of Grades I and I I , that some t e n t a t i v e r u l e s have been l a i d down on the use of the Roman alphabet i n w r i t i n g textbooks i n Tausug, ^In the f i r s t pre-primer of the Tausug s e r i e s , the g l o t t a l stop i s l e f t unmarked. For consistency the same o r t h o g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l be used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . 6 In t h i s study, the u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e i s to e s t a b l i s h the phonemic system of the Tausug language, a n a l y z i n g the vowel and consonant phonemes. To set up an o r t h o g r a p h i c a l system which I s more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the phonemes of the language, the a n a l y s i s undertaken here may prove u s e f u l and appropriate as a t h e o r e t i c a l foundation. 1.3 Scope and D e l i m i t a t i o n On account of t h e i r number and the great d i s t a n c e s between the i s l a n d s of Sulu, marked d i a l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n s are i n e v i t a b l e . I d e n t i f i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n speech are n o t i c e a b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , between the d i a l e c t s of J o l o and S i a s i . By general observation, Tausug speakers of J o l o tend to speak w i t h r e l a t i v e l y f a s t e r tempo compared to the r e l a t i v e l y slow and somewhat dragging pace c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the d i a l e c t of S i a s i . F urther d i s t i n c t i o n i s made a l s o between the d i a l e c t spoken i n S i a s i Town proper (STP) and the d i a l e c t spoken i n the r u r a l areas, o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as Gimbahanun 'people from the farm*. The STP i s spoken w i t h l e s s muscular tension than the Gimbahanun. In t h i s t h e s i s , p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s given to the d i a l e c t of STP which i s the d i a l e c t spoken by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . For con venience, the a n a l y s i s of the sounds of Tausug w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d to the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of words found i n the a c t i v e vocabulary of the i n v e s t i g a t o r . Another person's speech would be l i k e l y to y i e l d an almost i d e n t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n although some of the examples might vary s l i g h t l y . 7 Although most of the di s c u s s i o n s that w i l l soon f o l l o w apply to the d i a l e c t of STP and the i d i o l e c t of the i n v e s t i g a  t o r i n p a r t i c u l a r , attempts w i l l be made to provide f o r general categories which are v a l i d f o r a l l d i a l e c t s of the language. Whenever p o s s i b l e , i n c l u s i o n of other d i a l e c t a l v a r i e t i e s of the language w i l l be made i n the course of the d i s c u s s i o n s . F o l l o w i n g each Tausug example i n the t e x t i s a gl o s s (• ') which gives an approximate meaning of the Tausug item i n E n g l i s h . To g i v e the exact meaning of the examples i n En g l i s h ^ i s , 1 however,' o f t e n d i f f i c u l t . Sometimes only rough t r a n s l a t i o n a l equivalents are suggested. I n working w i t h a language that i s as remote from the E n g l i s h c u l t u r e as Tausug, the inadequacy of t r a n s l a t i o n a l equivalents alone i s obvious. The metaphors,' a s s o c i a t i o n s and l i n g u i s t i c extentions are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n both languages. As suggested i n the t i t l e , the scope of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be l i m i t e d to the phono l o g i c a l aspect of Tausug. The u l t i m a t e p u r s u i t of t h i s p honological a n a l y s i s i s the i d e n t i t y of the f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s of the sounds of Tausug; i n other words; the establishment of i t s phonemic system. However, c e r t a i n matters which are b a s i c to an understanding of the s t r u c t u r e of speech sounds and the processes of a r t i c u l a t i o n need to be considered f i r s t . For t h i s reason, t h i s t h e s i s w i l l i n c l u d e some b a s i c con s i d e r a t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g speech a n a l y s i s (the organs of speech, the use of the IPA, and the c r i t e r i a used i n phonemic a n a l y s i s ) , the 8 sounds of Tausug (l.e», the phonetic raw material), the syllable structure, the segmental phonemes, the suprasegmental features, and the morphophonemics of the language. An exhaustive analysis of the suprasegmental features however, cannot possibly be achieved here. Unlike the segmentals, the suprasegmentals are not easy to analyze. Even the supra- segmental features of the English language which have been subject to linguistic investigation for many years cannot be said to have been f u l l y established; 1 Por suprasegmentals are, in short, much more elusive than the segmentals. Neither i s there an attempt in this thesis to provide a complete description of the entire phonological system of the language.1 Completeness i s impossible and can never be attained as long as li n g u i s t i c investigations are going on." And since Tausug has been inadequately explored, this modest attempt at the analysis of the phonological structure of the language per mits no more than a tentative formulation^ 1.4 Method of Approach Present-day linguistics offers several approaches to the phonological study of any given language.' In point of time, a particular language may be studied from a diachronlc or synchronic 7 point of view. In terms of technique of analysis, i t may either Prom a dlachronic point of view, the study of the sounds of a language i s made over a period of timev It i s , in other words, historical.' On the other hand, synchronic study of the language i s done at a certainpoint of time.1 This thesis deals with the present status of the Tausug language. 9 be descriptive or comparative.- As the t i t l e suggests, and with a language l i k e Tausug which has no orthography of i t s own, and therefore no written accounts of the past language, this f i r s t attempt at a comprehensive study of the sound system of the language i s purely a synchronic descriptive analysis. To arrive at a description and analysis of the speech sounds of Tausug, two linguistic approaches are made available; The approach may be made from the physiological point of view of the articulatory organs and processes involved (Articulatory phonetics) and the study of the sound waves as perceived by the hearer 1 s ears (auditor.v phon e 11o s). The other approach, which i s so recent that i t s " f u l l impact on linguistics has not yet 8 been f e l t " , i s primarily concerned with the physical characteris t i c s of sounds as revealed by machines such as the sound specto- graph?' It i s known as acoustic phonetics.' Neither of the two approaches to the study of the speech sounds producible by the human voice can be categorically desig nated as the only approach to the exclusion of the o t h e r E v e n linguists and phoneticians are not yet agreed on any one single framework to use in a l l l i n g u i s t i c investigations or descriptions. To a large extent, the merits of any one approach are determined by the study i t s e l f , especially the purposes for which i t i s intended.' In view of this, the physiological or articulatory H.A, Gleason, Jr., An Introductory to Descriptive  Linguistics (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1961), p.20. ^Robert A.1 Hall, Jr., Introductory Llngulsties (New York: Chilton Books, 1964), p.96«; 10 approach in particular, i s believed to be the more suitable for the purposes set forth in the f i r s t part of this chapter.' There are good practical reasons for the arbitrary l i m i  tation to the use of the articulatory type df study which l i n  guists have been using. 0 It i s the oldest and the best esta blished means of describing a language with a f u l l terminology based on familiar and observable physiological phenomena. For beginners in linguistics and for non-specialists, most of the terms are not d i f f i c u l t to comprehend. Even without the use of elaborate equipment, the inves tigation can be carried on through the physiological approach^ The organs of speech responsible for production and differentia tion of speech sounds can be readily and profitably studied? They are f a i r l y accessible to visual observation either directly or through the use of simple devices l i k e a mirror or flashlight. Besides, many people, especially language teachers, are already acquainted with the vocal apparatus and i t s behavior, on which the descriptions of sounds are based. Although, in the main, description and classification of speech sounds of Tausug are based on articulation, auditory con sideration cannot be totally ignored. The presence or absence of x uSee WV Nelson Francis, The Structure of American English (New York: The Ronald Press Co., 1958), pp.' 57-58. R. H. Robins, General Linguistics: An Introductory Survey (London: Longmans, 1965), pp.1 84-85. Gleason, op.' c i t . , p.' 20.' 11 audible f r i c t i o n , for instance, i s an auditory criterion basic in consonant-vowel distinction? It supplements in a valuable way articulatory differentiations. In the analysis of the suprasegmental features, the c r i t e r i a used are fundamentally based on auditory judgment. Preliminary to the classification of the speech sounds of Tausug into functional or relevant units, that i s , phonemes, an analysis of the phonetic raw materials i s undertaken. The phonemes of the language are established on the basis of certain fundamental c r i t e r i a such as the distributional relationship existing between sounds, phonetic similarity, identity of function, pattern congruity (neatness of pattern), and economy of analysis."*" For convenience of analysis of the phonological structure of Tausug, the investigator believes that the most logical order i s to discuss f i r s t the preliminary considerations to speech ana l y s i s before the discussion of the sounds of the language follows. Next, to establish the syllable patterns of the language, which i s thought to be useful as the basis, for a better description and classification of the segmental phonemes of the language which fallows immediately. Discussions of the segmental phonemes include the interpretation of the semivowels, description and classification of vowels, consonants, diphthongs, triphthongs, "^Refer to section 2.3 for discussion of c r i t e r i a used in phonemic analysis. Also see Hall, pp. c i t ? , p. 26; Charles F. Hockett, A Course in Modern Linguistics (New York: The MacMilian Co., 1958) pp. 110-111; W. Haas "Relevance i n Phonetic Analysis", Word XV (1959)'. PP. 1-18. 12 and consonant c l u s t e r s . To complete the phon o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of the language, the suprasegmental f e a t u r e s and the morphophonemics of the language are i n c l u d e d . The f i n a l chapter contains a "brief summary and some concluding statements on the a n a l y s i s . 1 . 5 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Some terms "which are considered b a s i c to a b e t t e r under standing of the a n a l y s i s of the phonological s t r u c t u r e ought to be d e f i n e d h e r e ! 2 The TAUSUG LANGUAGE r e f e r s to the means of communication used by a group of people (the Tausug) i n the province of Su l u ; Tausug i s considered a language i n i t s own r i g h t , not a d i a l e c t of any other P h i l i p p i n e language, since i t I s not mutually i n  t e l l i g i b l e w i t h any of the other language groups of the country. By DIALECT i s meant "the v a r i e t y of language spoken by the members of a s i n g l e homogeneous speech community.'"^ According to Hockett, a d i a l e c t i s a c o l l e c t i o n of more or l e s s s i m i l a r i d i o l e c t s . IDIOLECT r e f e r s to the t o t a l i t y of the speech h a b i t s of a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l a t a given p o i n t of time!'^ •^Whenever necessary, i n the t e x t , some other terms which need c l a r i f i c a t i o n are explained i n the footnotes*? • 1 - 3 p r a n c i s , op. c i t . , p;' 43 „N Hockett, op. c i t . , p.' 3 2 1 . 13 Communication within a language group i s carried on by- means of utterances. An UTTERANCE i s defined in this thesis as any stretch of speech produced by a person before and after which there i s sil e n c e d It may be a one-syllable word or a long, complicated sentence? Utterances are made up of sequences of speech sounds the study of which i s known li n g u i s t i c a l l y as PHONOLOGY. This i n  cludes both phonetic and phonemic, segmental and suprasegmental considerations and the corresponding categories involved.1 By PHONETIC i s meant a general description of events of speech structures.' These include a l l features of sounds whether rele vant or non-relevant, distinctive or non-distinctive. PHONEMIC, on the other hand i s restricted as a term to refer to those speech sounds that are relevant and distinctive and that serve to bring out contrasts between word forms. Such speech sounds have differentiating features or characteristics which are called DISTINCTIVE FEATURES. In the text, distinctive feature does not always mean a choice between two polar qualities as described by Jakobson, Fant, and Halle in their Preliminaries 16 to Speech Analysis. 1 In the sense used here, any feature of speech which characterizes or distinguishes a phoneme from other phonemes i s a distinctive feature of that phoneme.'1 ^ Z e l l i g s. Harris, Structural Linguistics (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1963), p.1 14. See also Mario Pel, Glossary of Linguistics Terminology (New York: Doubleday and Company, 1966), p. 128. X D F o r discussion of the binary analysis of the distinctive features of phonemes, refer to Jakobson, Fant, and Halle, Prelimi  naries to Speech Analysis (Massachussetts: MIT Press, 1965)? 2. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS TO SPEECH ANALYSIS Before attempting a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of the phonology of Tausug, c e r t a i n matters which are considered important to b e t t e r understanding of the s t r u c t u r e of speech and the proceso- ses of speaking have to be discussed here. These includes (1) the use of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic Alphabet ( I P A ) 1 ^ , (2) the organs of speech, and (3) the c r i t e r i a used i n phonemic a n a l y s i s . 2.1 The Use of the IPA In d i s c u s s i n g the p h o n o l o g i c a l phenomena of any given language, i t i s necessary as w e l l as convenient, to have c o n s i s  tent symbols of n o t a t i o n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the sounds to be observed and c l a s s i f i e d , a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n that gives a one-to-one c o r r e s - 18 pondence w i t h the sounds to be represented. The IPA has been devised to meet such a need. Although i t cannot be claimed as •the 1 only p o s s i b l e and p e r m i s s i b l e means of r e c o r d i n g speech sounds, the IPA i s the best e s t a b l i s h e d and most widely used, hence i t s p r e f e r e n t i a l use i n t h i s t h e s i s . "To use d i f f e r e n t symbols f o r each new language", to quote Swadesh, would make 19 l i n g u i s t i c science extremely d i f f i c u l t . ' 17 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic A s s o c i a t i o n , The P r i n c i p l e s of  the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic A s s o c i a t i o n (London: Department of Phonetics, U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , 1965), P.10» x o A set of graphic symbols g i v i n g a c o n s i s t e n t represen t a t i o n of speech i s known as phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n . For the purpose of accuracy i n r e c o r d i n g phonological phenomena, p e n o  l o g i s t s have developed what i s c a l l e d narrow t r a n s c r i p t i o n which i n d i c a t e p r e c i s e l y every phonetic d e t a i l s , and broad t r a n s c r i p  t i o n which i n d i c a t e only the r e l e v a n t or f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s of sound. 1 9 M o r r i s Swadesh "The Phonemic P r i n c i p l e " , Language X (1934), p. 26. 15 Only the p o r t i o n of the IPA which i s p e r t i n e n t to the phonol o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of Tausug w i l l be used i n t h i s t e x t , along w i t h some of the modifying symbols which may be u s e f u l f o r showing s e v e r a l kinds of d i f f e r e n c e s i n a r t i c u l a t i o n of sounds as i n some of the d i a l e c t s of the language. Other s p e c i a l symbols and sounds not found i n the IPA manual, but which are c u r r e n t l y used and are considered u s e f u l i n repr e s e n t i n g some speech phenomena of Tausug are in c l u d e d . A few more symbols, whenever necessary, are explained as they are used i n the t e x t . Table of Symbols and Signs Vocoids and Contoids Symbol Tausug Example Approximate Equipment i n E n g l i s h [ i ] p i l a C'p* i l a h ] 'how much1 [ I ] k a l i s [ ' k ' a l l s ] ' k r i s ' [ 1 ] p i s u [ «p*isU?] 'spra i n ' [ a ] taas ['t'a?as] 'height 1 Ca] kaun C 'k»a?Un] ' w i l l get' M baha ['bBhs?] 'maybe' M pula D'P'Ulah] 'red' Cu] bud [bu:d] 'mountain' ' Cu] subul ['sugUl] 'young man' or'bacheloor' bukun [ 'bwkw.?] 'not' or'no' (negations)' C A ] bukug C'bUkAg] * bone' 16 Symbol Tausug Example Approximate Equipment i n E n g l i s h M manghud ['nnsnhYdl 'younger brother' or ' s i s t e r ' CP] pasu C'p'asUh] 'flower pot' CD] basu C'basUh] 'dr i n k i n g g l a s s ' [p] abaga C?a'3ay ah] 'shoulder' [ t ] tau C »t»a?Uh] •people' Cd] daan C 'da?on] 'ol d ' (of things) M kaan C'k'a?an] 'get from' or 'get f o r ' Cs] gaan C fga?cai] 'weight' agarun [ ? a I y a r l b l ' w i l l f o l l o w ' C?] a b a l C'?agal] 'current' Ch] habal C'hapal] 'news' Cn] ahad C !?ahad] 'Sunday' Cs] saba l C'sagal] ' s t o i c ' Cm] maug [»ma?Ug] •possessive' Cn] nanug Cna'na?Ug] 'went down' c>>] . ngan C*}a:n] •name' C i ] l a d j u C 'ladjUh] 'farness' Cr] rad j u C'radjUh] 'radio karna C'k»aana?] 'that i s why* Cd] Jaga C 1Jayah] 'guard' Cy] y a r i C'yarlh] 'here' or ' i t i s here' Cw] walu C'walUh] 'eight' 17 Symbol ['] [ ' ] E 1 ] [ 2 ] Supras egmental;:, and Some Modifying D e s c r i p t i o n S u p e r i o r v e r t i c a l t i c k used to symbolize prominence on f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e on the phonetic l e v e l Acute accent used to i n d i c a t e primary s t r e s s on the pho nemic l e v e l Low p i t c h l e v e l Normal p i t c h l e v e l High p i t c h l e v e l E x t r a high p i t c h l e v e l F a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n R i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n Sustained i n t o n a t i o n S y mbols 2 0 Tausug Example anarun [?a'na:rUn] • w i l l l e a r n 1 anarun /?anarun/ 2 3 1 Malingkat i n bad .lu •The dress i s p r e t t y . 1 Ig Kawl 'Get out!' 2 3 1 Y a r i h i Inda 1 'Inda i s here.' Y a r i h i I n 3a t 'Inda i s here?' 2- 3 _v Y a r i h i Inda 'Inda i s here,' (but ) 20 James C a r r e l l and W i l l i a m _ T i f f a n y P h o n e t i c s ; Theory  and A p p l i c a t i o n to Speech Improvement (London: "McGraw H i l l Company,- Inc., I9S0), p.! X I I . 18 Symbol [ I ] [||] CO CO C O C w] co c ] / / D e s c r i p t i o n S i n g l e bar juncture f o r short pauses w i t h i n an utterance Double bar juncture f o r longer f pauses at the end of an utterance S l i g h t l y c^as-pirated a r t i c u l a t i o n F u l l l e n g t h H a l f l e n g t h C e n t r a l i z a t i o n L a b i a l i z a t i o n N a s a l i z a t i o n Brackets used to enclose phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n Slashes used to enclose phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n Tausug Example Nami aku istajbugas 1 iban s a y u l || 'I bought f i s h , r i c e , and vegetable. 1  tabu [ 't'aeU?] 'market' ud [?u:d] 'worn' subul [su.gUl] 'young man' or 'bachelor' p i s u [ ' p l s U ? l ' s p r a i n ' kugan [»kwuyan] ' w i l l be happy' mampallam [mam'pallam] 'mango1  t a i k u d C't'aykUd] •back' t a i k u d / ' t a i k u d / 'back' To f a c i l i t a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of the vocoids of Tausug, i t i s necessary to have a frame of reference such as the c a r d i n a l 21 vowel chart to be used as a k i n d of standard measure. 21 IPA, o p . c i t . y pp. 4—9. 19 F i g u r e 2: The C a r d i n a l V o w e l C h a r t F r o n t C e n t r a l Back 20 The v o w e l s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e a b o v e c h a r t do n o t b e l o n g t o any one l a n g u a g e , b u t h a v e b e e n c h o s e n by D a n i e l J o n e s t o r e p r e s e n t c e r t a i n w e l l - d e f i n e d t o n g u e p o s i t i o n s . The c a r d i n a l [ i ] i s t h e c l o s e s t p o s s i b l e f r o n t v o w e l r e p r e s e n t e d r o u g h l y i n E n g l i s h " '.. b y t h e v o w e l i n t h e w o r d s e e [ s i : ] . The c a r d i n a l [ a ] i s t h e m o s t o p e n o f t h e b a c k v o w e l s f o u n d i n S o u t h e r n E n g l i s h p r o n u n  c i a t i o n o f f a r [ f a r : ] . The [ e ] , [ f i ] , a n d [ a ] a s shown i n t h e a b o v e c h a r t b e l o n g t o t h e f r o n t s e r i e s , s p a c e d o u t e q u a l l y , a n d i n t e r m e d i a t e b e t w e e n [ i ] a n d [ a ] , w h i l e [ a ] , [ o ] a n d [ u ] a r e v o w e l s o f t h e b a c k s e r i e s c o n t i n u i n g t h e same s c a l e o f e q u a l a c o u s t i c s e p a r a t i o n . A n e u t r a l v o w e l c a l l e d s c h w a , [ s ] , i s i n t e r m e d i a t e b e t w e e n t h e r e g i o n s o f c a r d i n a l [ e - c ] a n d [ o - o ] 97 ( S e e F i g u r e 2 ) . A r t i c u l a t i o n o f e a c h o f t h e c a r d i n a l v o w e l s i s a c c o m p a  n i e d b y e i t h e r a ' s p r e a d ' , ' n e u t r a l ' , o r ' r o u n d e d ' l i p p o s i t i o n . C a r d i n a l s [ i , e, e , a , a ] h a v e ' s p r e a d ' o r ' n e u t r a l ' l i p p o s i t i o n s , w h i l e [ a , o,u] a r e a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s o f l i p r o u n d i n g . The [ a ] h a s n o r m a l l y a n e u t r a l l i p p o s i t i o n . The s o u n d w h i c h i s p r o d u c e d w i t h t h e m o u t h l e s s o p e n a n d t h e t o n g u e r a i s e d t o w a r d t h e p a l a t e i s r e f e r r e d t o a s a :Qlose o r h i g h v o w e l . Thus [ i ] a n d [ u ] a r e c l o s e v o w e l s . T h e y a r e t h e c l o s e s t v o w e l s t h a t c a n be produced...on-,the h i g h e r l e v e l , s o t h a t t h e y a r e s a i d t o h a v e r e a c h e d t h e v o w e l l i m i t . O p p o s i t e t o t h e c l o s e v o w e l s a r e t h e s o - c a l l e d o p e n o r l o w w h i c h a r e made w i t h t h e m o u t h w i d e l y o p e n a n d t h e t o n g u e l y i n g l o w i n t h e m outh. The [ a ] a n d t h e [ a ] v o w e l s f a l l u n d e r t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I n t e r m e d i a t e , . b e t w e e n a c l o s e a n d a n o p e n v o w e l a r e v o w e l s w h i c h a r e c a l l e d h a l f - c l o s e , i n t h e c a s e o f t h o s e n e a r e s t t o t h e c l o s e v o w e l s ( i . e . , [ e J a n d - [°]) a n d - h a l f - o p e n , i n t h e c a s e o f t h o s e midway b e t w e e n h a l f - c l o s e a n d o p e n v o w e l s ( i . e . , [ s ] a n d [ a ] j . 21 2.2 The Organs of Speech The speech mechanisms which are u n i v e r s a l to a l l human 23 beings play a very important r o l e i n the process of speaking. ^ In studying the speech sounds of any givenllanguage from the a r t i c u l a t o r y p o i n t of view, a d e t a i l e d enumeration and c l a s s i  f i c a t i o n of the organs of speech and the way they are used w i l l prove u s e f u l as a frame of reference. I n g e n e r a l , f o r most languages l i k e Tausug, f o r i n s t a n c e , speech sounds are u s u a l l y made w i t h outgoing breath from the lungs which i s modified i n one way or another by the organs of speech that i t passes through. Discussions of the speech mecha nisms w i l l be made i n the order i n which the breath-stream passes them a f t e r having been released from the lungs through the b r o n c h i a l tubes and the trachea. The f i r s t resonance chamber that the breath-stream goes through i s a b o x - l i k e s t r u c t u r e of c a r t i l a g e at the upper end of the trachea c a l l e d the l a r y n x , or more commonly, the ''Adam's? apple 1. I t contains two membranes known as the v o c a l bands which can be re l a x e d and kept a p a r t , l e a v i n g a narrow passage so that the a i r passing through produces a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n l i k e the [ h ] a t the beginning of E n g l i s h hand and the Tausug [ 'ha(3Ul] •blanket'. The v o c a l bands can a l s o be drawn t i g h t l y together or only p a r t i a l l y opened. When completely c l o s e d , so that a i r i s JIt should be made c l e a r that the organs of speech r e f e r r e d to are only f u n c t i o n i n g s e c o n d a r i l y as such. The p r i mary f u n c t i o n s of these organs are eat i n g and breat h i n g . Figure 3: A cross section of the head showing the organs of speech Oral cavity palate (turn Hd6e) Teeih tips Vocal bands Larynx Nasal cav/ty "Fondue 2. Blade J. Franf y.BScfc Root Ve/um(Sofi pa la Uvu la Pharynx EpigloHf's Esophagus Trachea 23 not allowed to pass and then opened suddenly, the r e s u l t a n t sound i s a g l o t t a l stop [ ? ] which occurs as the i n i t i a l and f i n a l sounds of Tausug word a s i b i [ ? a ' s i p l ? ] ' s m a l l 1 and a l s o i n the E n g l i s h emphatic exclamation ouchl [?aUt£]. When the vo c a l bands are p a r t i a l l y opened, the current of a i r fo r c e s i t s e l f through, causing them to v i b r a t e . The sound waves caused by the v i b r a t i o n of the v o c a l bands i s known as v o i c e , and sounds formed w i t h the accompaniment of the l a r y n g e a l v i b r a t i o n are r e f e r r e d to as voiced sounds. Those sounds made Oh, without accompaniment of vo i c e are c a l l e d v o i c e l e s s sounds. ^ According to H a l l and Hockett, the v o c a l bonds de t e r  mine the p i t c h , and the f o r c e w i t h which the current of a i r i s exp e l l e d from the lungs determines the volume of sound. J From the l a r y n g e a l resonance chamber, the current of a i r goes through the pharynx where i t may be modified by means of c o n s t r i c t i o n made by the back of the tongue brought c l o s e or i n contact w i t h the back w a l l of the t h r o a t , r e s u l t i n g i n what i s c a l l e d the pharyngeal or pharyngealized sound. This type of sound, however, does not occur i n Tausug. Just above the pharynx i s the velum from which hangs the f l e s h y t i p c a l l e d the uvula.' The back most part of the 26 velum i s known as the v e l i c , which determines whether a sound i s pronounced w i t h n a s a l resonance or not. When the v e l i c i s opened, the breath-stream i s allowed to escape through the nose, ph. A l l vowels and c e r t a i n consonants are always v o i c e d . C e r t a i n consonants are always v o i c e l e s s . 2 5 H a l l / op. c i t . , p.' 42. Hockett, op. c i t . , p. 66. 2 6 H a l l l o c . c i t . , p. 42. 24 resulting in a nasal articulation. When i t i s closed, the current of a i r i s channeled through the oral cavity exclusively. Most of the points at which the breath-stream can be modified are found in the mouth or oral cavity; The tongue, an extremely flexible and movable organ, plays the major role. As illustrated by the diagram of the organs of speech on page 22, the tongue has five parts to i t , which phoneticians distinguish as important i n speech production. Any of these parts can be raised or lowered, fronted or retracted.' Any articulation in which the tongue i s raised toward the roof of the mouth i s called close or high and one i n which the tongue i s lowered i s called open or low. In like manner, the terms front and back correspond respectively to the forward and backward movements of the tongue. When the surface of the tongue i s suppressed so that a trough i s formed through which the a i r passes, creating a hissing noise, the resultant sounds are known as sibilants. On the other hand, where the tongue surface i s pressed against the roof of the mouth and ai r i s allowed to pass on one or both sides of the tongue, the articulation made i s called a l a t e r a l . There are other areas of articulation i n the oral cavity such as the series of regions in the roof of the mouth. Prom back to front are the velum or soft palate, the hard palate, the gum-ridge or alveolum, and the back surface of the upper front teeth. Customarily, sounds made in each of these regions 25 are described as v e l a r , p a l a t a l , a l v e o l a r , and d e n t a l . On occasion, a sound may i n v o l v e more than one re g i o n , so that a combination of a d j e c t i v e s i s used to de s c r i b e such a r t i c u  l a t i o n s . A sound, f o r instance, 1 made intermediate between the alveolum and the hard p a l a t e i s r e f e r r e d to as an a l v e o - p a l a t a l sound. A sound which i s made w i t h the t i p of the tongue pushed out i n between the upper and lower t e e t h i s formed as an i n t e r d e n t a l sound. The a r t i c u l a t i o n of a sound may i n v o l v e the use of the l i p s , ' so that a sound produced w i t h both l i p s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i s c a l l e d a b i l a b i a l . A n e u t r a l or a spread l i p p o s i t i o n , or a p r o j e c t i o n and rounding of the l i p s may accompany the a r t i c u l a  t i o n of a sound. I t should be mentioned, however, that except f o r the v o c a l bands,' i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make ' sha r p l y d e f i n e d l i m i t s f o r a l l the regions of the organs of speech j u s t discussed. T h e i r areas i n the anatomical t r a c t are only approximately i d e n t i f i e d . I n such a case, " i t i s not", says H a l l , " p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y the place of a r t i c u l a t i o n of any given sound w i t h mathematical p r e c i s i o n " . 2 . 3 C r i t e r i a Used i n Phonemic A n a l y s i s I n a n a l y z i n g the phono l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of a given language, the f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s to describe the phonetic raw m a t e r i a l as produced by the speech organs, the sounds which 26 make t h e a c t u a l e v e n t s o f s p e e c h . The u l t i m a t e a i m o f a p h o n o  l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , however," i s t o go b e y o n d t h e l e v e l o f t h e r a w m a t e r i a l s , t o f i n d a d e q u a t e a n d c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c a t e g o r i e s i n t o w h i c h t h e p h y s i c a l e v e n t s o r phones ( s p e e c h s o u n d s ) c a n be c l a s s i f i e d ? I n o t h e r w o r d s , t o i d e n t i f y t h e f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s o f s o u n d s w h i c h a r e c a l l e d phonemes. I n s o d o i n g , c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e n o r m a l l y o b s e r v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I . 1 C r i t e r i o n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n . D i s t r i b u t i o n a p p l i e s t o t h e sum o f c o n t e x t s u n d e r w h i c h s p e e c h s o u n d s o c c u r , i . e . , t h e p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e s p e e c h e l e m e n t s a r e f o u n d w i t h r e s p e c t t o e a c h o t h e r a n d t o o t h e r p h o n e s . I f two e l e m e n t s o f s p e e c h s t a n d s i n t h e same p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o e a c h o t h e r b u t f u n c t i o n  d i f f e r e n t l y , t h e y a r e s a i d t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h e a c h o t h e r . T h u s , i n T a u s u g , [p*'] a n d [ £ ] i n p a s u ['p»asUh] ' f l o w e r : ; p o t • a n d b a s u [ ' b a s U h ] ' d r i n k i n g g l a s s ' h a v e t h e same p h o n e t i c e n v i r o n  ment i n t h a t b o t h o c c u r w o r d i n i t i a l . H o w e v e r , t h e y c a n n o t be c l a s s i f i e d t o t h e same phoneme s i n c e t h e y c o n t r a s t w i t h e a c h o t h e r p h o n e t i c a l l y a s w e l l a s s e m a n t i c a l l y . I n s u c h a c a s e , [ p ' ] a n d [ b ] a r e s a i d t o be i n c o n t r a s t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n . B u t when two o r more p h o n e s o c c u r i n t h e same p h o n e t i c e n v i r o n m e n t ( a s i n t h e c a s e o f [ i ] a n d [ i ] i n p i d p i d [ ' p ' i d p l d ] ' t r e m b l i n g ' ) , a n d do n o t c o n t r a s t w i t h e a c h o t h e r , t h e y a r e s a i d t o b e i n n o n - c o n t r a s t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n . I n c a s e s w h e r e one 2?- p h one o c c u r s a n d t h e o t h e r d o e s n o t , a n d v i c e v e r s a , s o t h a t t h e y c o m p l e m e n t e a c h o t h e r , t h e p h o n e s a r e s a i d t o be i n com p l e m e n t a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e n o r m a l phenomenon i n T a u s u g i s f o r t h e [ i ] phone t o o c c u r i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s a n d t h e [ i ] v o c o i d t o a p p e a r i n u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e a s i n t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e , p i d p i d £ 1 p ' i d p l d ] . H o w e v e r , i n some T a u s u g s p e e c h , t h e s e two p h o n e s a l t e r n a t e f r e e l y i n b o t h s t r e s s e d a n d u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e . I n s u c h a c a s e , [ i ] a n d [ i ] a r e s a i d t o be i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n o r f r e e a l t e r n a t i o n . 2. C r i t e r i o n o f P h o n e t i c S i m i l a r i t y . To be c o n s i d e r e d a s s i m i l a r e n o u g h f o r p u r p o s e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s members o f t h e same phoneme, a g r o u p o f p h o n e s must s h a r e t h e same p h o n e t i c feature o r f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e n o t s h a r e d b y o t h e r p h o n e - t y p e s i n t h e l a n g u a g e . The T a u s u g [ i ] a n d [ i ] s h a r e t h e same h i g h - f r o n t t o n g u e p o s i t i o n a n d t h e r e l a t i v e l y m o d e r a t e l i p s p r e a d i n g . B o t h a r e v o i c e d s o u n d s . S i m i l a r l y , [ t * ] a n d [ t ] i n t a h u d [ • t ' a h U d ] ' s p u r o n r o o s t e r s ' l e g s ' a n d d u h a t [ ' d u h a t ] 'a k i n d o f f f r u i t ' , ' a l t h o u g h d i s t r i b u t i o n a l l y t h e y b e l o n g t o d i f f e r e n t e n v i  r o n m e n t s , a r e g r o u p e d u n d e r t h e same phoneme b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i n t r i n s i c s i m i l a r i t y i n p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n a s w e l l a s v o i c e l e s s - n e s s . ' 3. C r i t e r i o n o f I d e n t i t y o f F u n c t i o n . ' A s a c o r a l l a r y t o t h e c r i t e r i a o f d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d p h o n e t i c s i m i l a r i t y , a g r o u p o f ph o n e s may be c l a s s i f i e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r i d e n t i t y o f f u n c t i o n . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s , ; r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r e c e d i n g e x a m p l e s . The [ t * ] 28 a n d [ t ] s o u n d s i n ['t'cchUd] a n d [ ' d u h a t ] a l t h o u g h f u n c t i o n i n g i n two d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y b e l o n g t o d i f f e r e n t phonemes s i n c e t h e u s e o f one f o r t h e o t h e r d o e s n o t c h a n g e t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d s , a l t h o u g h t h e phenomenon may n o t be common i n t h e l a n g u a g e . B u t when a n o t h e r d e n t a l s o u n d l i k e [ l ] i s u s e d i n p l a c e o f t h e [ t ] i n [ * d u h a t ] , t h e r e s u l t a n t w o r d i s d u h a l [ ' d u h a l ] ' t o h a n d o v e r ' ( s o m e t h i n g ) . ' T h i s c r i t e r i o n o f i d e n t i t y o f f u n c t i o n s e r v e s t o p r e v e n t g r o u p  i n g o f d i s p a r a t e s p e e c h s o u n d s o n t h e b a s i s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d p h o n e t i c s i m i l a r i t y . T h u s , T a u s u g [m, p, b ] i n mugmug ['mugmUg] • t o g u r g l e ' pugpug ['p'ugpUg] ' s o f t e n e d by p r e s s u r e ' , a n d bugbug ['bugbUg] ' p o r r i d g e ' a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e p h o n e t i c a l l y s i m i l a r a s b i l a b i a l s a n d h a v e i d e n t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , c a n n o t , h o w e v e r , be g r o u p e d i n t o one phoneme s i n c e t h e y d i f f e r i n f u n c t i o n a n d c o n  t r a s t w i t h one a n o t h e r a s m a n i f e s t e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean i n g . 4. C r i t e r i o n o f P a t t e r n C o n g r u i t y . 1 A l t h o u g h a c c o r d i n g t o S a p i r t h e r e i s no l a n g u a g e t h a t f o r m s a w a t e r - t i g h t s y s t e m , a n d t h a t we s h o u l d be s u s p i c i o u s i f t o o p r e t t y a p i c t u r e r e s u l t s 25 f r o m t h e p h o n e m i c a n a l y s i s o f p h o n e t i c a l l y a s y m e t r i c a l s i t u a t i o n s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n e v e r y p h o n e m i c s y s t e m ' s k e w n e s s ' i s o f t e n a v o i d e d a n d t h e t e n d e n c y t o w a r d 'symmetry' i s sought.' I n T a u s u g , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e i s t h e p r o b l e m o f w h e t h e r t o i n t e r p r e t t h e i n i t i a l s o u n d s o f j u w a l a n ' f r i e d b a n a n a ' a s a s i n g l e phoneme, / j / , o r a 2 ^ H a l l , o p . c i t . , p. 9?. 29 c l u s t e r o f two c o n s o n a n t s , / d j / . U s i n g , h o w e v e r , t h e c r i t e r i o n o f n e a t n e s s o f p a t t e r n , t h e s o u n d i s i n t e r p r e t e d a s a s i n g l e phoneme, s i n c e i n t e r p r e t i n g i t o t h e r w i s e w o u l d r e n d e r t h e phoneme d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r c o n s o n a n t s i n t h e l a n g u a g e w h i c h a p p e a r o n l y s i n g l y i n w o r d i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n , n e v e r i n c l u s t e r s . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e w o r k i n g o f t h i s c r i t e r i o n o f p a t t e r n c o n g r u i t y i s t h e g r o u p i n g t o g e t h e r o f [ p ' ] a n d [ p ] i n p u k u l [ ' p ' u k U l ] ' a r m l e s s ' o r ' f i n g e r l e s s * a n d l u k u p £'lukUp] ' t o scr u j > t h e mossy s u b s t a n c e f r o m ,' . . 1 a n d [ k ' ] a n d [ k ] i n k i t a b [ ' k ' l t a b ] ' b i b l e 1 a n d b a t t i k [ ' b a t t l k ] " I n d o n e s i a n f a b r i c ' i n t o phonemes / p / a n d / k / r e s p e c t i v e l y i n c o n g r u i t y w i t h t h e [ t ' ] a n d [ t ] i n t a h u d a n d d u h a t w h i c h a r e g r o u p e d i n t o t h e phoneme / t / . 30 3 . THE SPEECH SOUNDS OF TAUSUG The w h o l e r a n g e o f T a u s u g p h o n e t i c r a w m a t e r i a l made by t h e o r g a n s o f s p e e c h may be c o n v e n i e n t l y d i v i d e d i n t o two m a i n t y p e s : t h o s e i n w h i c h t h e o r g a n s o f s p e e c h a r e u s e d t o f o r m r e s o n a n c e chamber t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e b r e a t h - s t r e a m p a s s e s w i t h o u t a n y a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n , a n d t h o s e i n w h i c h t h e c u r r e n t o f a i r i s o b s t r u c t e d i n one way o r a n o t h e r r e s u l t i n g i n a c o m p l e t e b l o c k o r a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n . T h e s e two c l a s s e s o f s p e e c h s o u n d s a r e r e f e r r e d t o as v o c o i d s a n d c o n t o i d s r e s p e c t i v e l y . 3 . 1 V o c o i d A v o c o i d i s a t y p e o f s o u n d w h i c h i n v o l v e s p r i m a r i l y r e s o n a n c e . The most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e v o c o i d s i s t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e t o n g u e i n t h e o r a l c a v i t y . N o r m a l l y , v o c o i d s a r e d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d  i n g t o t h r e e f a c t o r s : t h e t o n g u e h e i g h t ( h i g h o r l o w ) , t h e t o n g u e a d v a n c e m e n t ( f r o n t t o b a c k ) , a n d t h e l i p p o s i t i o n ( s p r e a d , n e u t r a l , o r r o u n d e d ) . W i t h t h e u s e o f t h e s c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e o r g a n s o f s p e e c h on;page 22 a n d t h e c a r d i n a l v o w e l c h a r t o n page 1 9 , a n d w i t h t h e u s e o f some E n g l i s h k e y w o r d s t h a t r o u g h l y r e p r e s e n t some o f t h e c a r d i n a l s o u n d s ( I P A m a n u a l , p . 9 ) , t h e v o c o i d s o f T a u s u g may be c o n v e n i e n t l y d i s c u s s e d . S t a r t i n g w i t h t h e h i g h f r o n t v o c o i d , t h e most commonly h e a r d v a r i e t y i s t h e m e d i a l s o u n d o f T a u s u g w o r d b i d [ b i : d ] ' h i l l ' w h i c h c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e s t h e t o n g u e p o s i t i o n 31 o f t h e c a r d i n a l [ i ] i n E n g l i s h keyword bead [ b i r d ] • Compared t o E n g l i s h , however, t h e f r o n t o f t h e tongue s u r f a c e i s n o t r a i s e d so h i g h i n t h e mouth. The tongue i s r e l a t i v e l y l e s s t e n s e f o r Tausug and t h e l i p s a r e n o t so spre a d as they a r e i n E n g l i s h . I n terms o f q u a l i t y of sound, Tausug [ i ~] i n t h e example c i t e d above I s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t e r i n d u r a t i o n t h a n t h a t o f E n g l i s h . However, l e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e v o c o i d i n Tausug does n o t have any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e word, so t h a t [ b i : d ] o r I b i d ] a r e e q u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . Vowel l e n g t h , i n o t h e r words, i s non-phonemic i n t h e l a n g u a g e . N o r m a l l y , t h e v o c o i d [ i ] o c c u r s i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s , w h i c h i s u s u a l l y t h e ' p e n u l t i m a t e * ( o r second t o t h e l a s t ) s y l l a b l e i n a word. As i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e examples f o l l o w i n g , [ i ] p a t t e r n s f r e e l y w i t h a l m o s t a l l c o n t o i d s o f Tausug, except t h a t i t does n o t o c c u r a f t e r [ y ] • P l l a [ »p»ilah] 'how much' t i n g a [ * f i n a h ] ' e x t r a appendage' k i l a £ ' k ' i l a h ] ' t o r e c o g n i z e ' b l l a s [ »bilas ] 's o r e eyes' d i l a [ ' d i l a ? ] 'tongue * g i l a [ ' g l l a h ] ' c a r e l e s s * 11a [ ' ? i l a h ] ' b i r t h mark', h i l l a [> «hilla? ] 'to p u l l ' m i s k i n [ ' m i s k i n ] 'poor' 32 n i y a t [ ' n i y a t ] • d e s i r e ' o r ' a m b i t i o n ' , e t c . n g i l u [«nilU£] 'gum' ( i n t h e mouth) s i l a [ ' s i l a h ] ' t h e y ' ( s u b j e c t i v e c a s e ) j i l u n [ ' j i l U n ] ' t o p u t i n j a i l ' l i l l a [ ' l i l l a ? ] ' t o g i v e u p ' o r ' t o s u r r e n d e r r i h a [«rihah] ' t o p u t i t h e r e ' b a w i - a [ b a ' w i - ? a h ] ' r e t r i e v e i t ' T h e d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t y o f t h e [ i ] s o u n d , w h e t h e r t h e d u r a t i o n i s l o n g o r - s h o r t , i s r e t a i n e d i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . H o w e v e r , i n c a s e s w h e r e t h e s t r e s s s h i f t s t o a n o t h e r s y l l a b l e a s a r e s u l t o f s u f f i x a t i o n , l i k e k i l a [ ' k ' i l a h ] ' t o r e c o g n i z e ' b e c o m i n g k i l a h u n [ k ' I ' l a h U n ] ' w i l l r e c o g n i z e ' the w e a k e r s t r e s s l e a d s t o a p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t a b l e n o r m a l s u b s t i t u t i o n , t h e [ i ] v o c o i d . T h i s v a r i e t y i s much l o w e r a n d somewhat more c e n t e r e d t h a n [ i ] . T he t o n g u e i s more l a x a n d t h e l i p s a r e l e s s s p r e a d . T h e [ i ] s o u n d i s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t e r i n d u r a t i o n t h a n [ i ] . P o s i t i o n - w i s e , [ i ] i s i n t e r m e d i a t e b e t w e e n c a r d i n a l s [ i ] a n d [ e ] . A s a m p l e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h [ l ] o c c u r s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c o n t o i d s o f T a u s u g i s l i s t e d b e l o w : t a p i l [ ' t ' a p l l ] ' t o p u t s i d e b y s i d e ' b a t i [«batl?] 'awake' p i k i l [ ' p ' i k l l ] • t o t h i n k ' s a b i t [ ' s a p l t ] ' t o h o o k ' ( s o m e t h i n g o n . l a n d i [ ' l a n d i ? ] ' c o q u f t t t e ' t a g i ['t«aylh] ' f o n d n e s s f o r . . . . ' 33 b a - i d [ ' b a ? I d ] ' t o a s k p e r m i s s i o n ' t a h i [ • t ' a h l ? ] ' t o s e w 1 k a m i [ ' k ' a m l h ] 'we' ( p r o n o u n ) p a n i t [ ' p a n i t ] ' t u n a f i s h ' m a n g i [ ' m a n l ? ] 'bad' k u s i l [ ' k ' u s l l ] • t o u g h n e s s 1 o r ' h a r d n e s s ( o f f o o d ) . i a n g i [«janjl?] ' p r o m i s e 1 k a l i s [ • k ' a l l s ] ' k r i s ' m a n j a r i [ m a n 1 j a r l h ] • c a n b e ' o r ' w i l l d o ' b a w i s [ ' b a w l s ] 'a s p e c i e s o f f i s h ' A s o b v i o u s l y m a n i f e s t e d by t h e a b o v e s a m p l i n g s , [ i ] p a t t e r n s w i t h a l l c o n t o i d s o f t h e l a n g u a g e e x c e p t t h a t i t n e v e r f o l l o w s [ y ] . A t h i r d v a r i e t y o f t h e h i g h - f r o n t v o c o i d i s h e a r d i n w o r d s l i k e l i a g [ l y a g ] 'was b e i n g l o o k e d u p ' , k a i t [ k ' a y t ] ' s a f e t y ' p i n ' , 1 k i a i t [k»yayt] 'was p i n n e d ' , e t c . , w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d by [ y ] . I t h a s a t o n g u e p o s i t i o n h i g h e r t h a n [ i ] , a n d much c l o s e r t o t h a t o f t h e c a r d i n a l [ i ] . The m u s c l e s o f t h e t o n g u e f o r [ y ] a r e more t e n s e a n d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e l i p s i s u s u a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d b y i t s p h o n e t i c e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e s o u n d p r e c e d i n g o r f o l l o w i n g i t . T h u s , i n l i a g , t h e l i p s a r e l o o s e l y s p r e a d , w h i l e i n k i a i t , b o t h [ y ] a r e more d r a w n t o t h e s i d e s o f t h e mouth t h a n t h e [ y ] i n [ l y a g ] . I n a w o r d l i k e b i u s a n [ ' b y u s a n ] , t h e l i p p o s i t i o n f o r [ y ] a n t i c i  p a t e s t h a t o f t h e v o c o i d [ u ] w h i c h i s r o u n d e d . 3k I n t h e h i g h "back range,' t h e r e a r e a s many v o c o i d s a s t h e r e a r e i n t h e h i g h f r o n t s e r i e s . S t a r t i n g f r o m t h e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e v a r i e t y , t h e r e i s t h e [ w ] v o c o i d w h i c h p a r a l l e l s t h e h i g h f r o n t v o c o i d [ y ] i n t o n g u e h e i g h t . T h i s s o u n d i s h e a r d i n w o r d s l i k e b u a d [ b w a d ] ' t o d r y ' l a u m [ l a w m ] ' i n s i d e ' , b u a u n [bwawn] ' t o r o c k a b a b y t o sleep, e t c . , I t a p p r o x i m a t e s v e r y c l o s e l y t h e t o n g u e p o s i t i o n o f c a r d i n a l [ u ] i n E n g l i s h t o o [ t u : ] , a l t h o u g h f o r [ w ] t h e l i p s a r e more p u s h e d f o r w a r d a n d t h e m u s c l e s o f t h e t o n g u e a r e r e l a t i v e l y more t e n s e . A n o t h e r v o c o i d o f t h e h i g h - b a c k s e r i e s i s h e a r d i n w o r d s l i k e b ud [ b u : d ] ' m o u n t a i n ' , k u t a [ ' k i u t a ? ] * f o r t ' , u b a n [ ' ? i l g a n ] • w h i t e h a i r ' , s u b u l [ »suj3Ul] 'young man' o r ' b a c h e l o r ' , e t c . , w h i c h h a s a t o n g u e p o s i t i o n j u s t a l i t t l e l o w e r a n d moved" more t o w a r d t h e c e n t e r t h a n t h a t o f c a r d i n a l [ u ] i n E n g l i s h t o o [ t u : ] . F o r T a u s u g , t h i s v o c o i d ( w h i c h i s s y m b o l i z e d a s [ u ] ) h a s a more r e l a x e d t o n g u e p o s i t i o n , l o o s e l y s p r e a d l i p s , a n d t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s o u n d i s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t e r t h a n t h a t o f E n g l i s h . L i k e [ i ] , i t s h i g h - f r o n t c o u n t e r - p a r t , [ u ] may be l e n g t h e n e d o r s h o r t e n e d w i t h  o u t l o s i n g i t s d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t y , n e i t h e r t h e l o n g n o r t h e s h o r t q u a l i t y a f f e c t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e w o r d s w h e r e i t o c c u r s . S u c h a v o c o i d i s commonly f o u n d i n a s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e a n d i s o b s e r v e d t o o c c u r w i t h atoost a l l t h e c o n t o i d s o f t h e l a n g u a g e , e x c e p t [ w ] . 35 T h u s : p u l a k [ ' p»ulak] ' a b o r t i o n ' t u l a k [ ' t ' u l a k ] ' t o p u s h ' k u l a n g [ ' k ' u l a n ] ' l a c k i n g ' b u r a k [ ' b u r a k ] 'powder' d u s a [ * d u s a h ] ' s i n ' o r f a u l t ' g u l a [«gula?] ' m o l a s s e s ' o r ' n e c t a r ' u l a n [ ' ? u l a n ] ' r a i n ' h u l a [ ' h u l a ? ] ' p l a c e ' m u l a [ ' m u l a h ] • w i l l become r e d ' mm.uk [«nunUk] ' b a l e t e t r e e ' n g u y a [ ' n u y a ? ] ' t o chew' s u b u l [ ' s u p U l ] •young man' o r ' b a c h e l o r ' j u b a [ ' j u p a ? ] ' r o b e ' l u r a [ ' l u r a ? ] •sputum' o r ' t o s p i t ' h a r u h u l [ h a ' r u h U l ] • a t t h e e n d ' y u b u s [ ' y u p U s ] 'was f i n i s h e d ' A l o w e r v a r i e t y o f [ u ] i s o b s e r v a b l e i n some o f t h e e x a m p l e s l i s t e d a b o v e l i k e , f o r i n s t a n c e , n u nuk [ ' n u n U k ] , s u b u l [ ' s u p U l ] , h a r u h u l [ h a ' r u h U l ] , ' a n d yu b u s [ ' y u p U s ] . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e v o c o i d [ u ] o c c u r s i n u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . To i l l u s t r a t e f u r t h e r i t s o c c u r r e n c e i n s u c h p h o n e t i c c o n t e x t , a l i s t o f words a r e p r o v i d e d b e l o w . S a v e f o r [ w ] , t h e [ u ] v a r i a n t i s shown t o p a t t e r n w i t h a l m o s t a l l c o n t o i d s o f t h e l a n g u a g e . 36 ' t i g h t ' ' s t o n e ' • t o s t r a n g l e ' ' b a t ' ' t h u n d e r ' 'new' ' i n a h u r r y ' ' t o b a r k ' ' o u r s ' ' a baca f i b e r ' • d u l l ' ' v e r y f o n d o f . . .' ' s t o r m ' ' p r o p h e t i c ' 'a t y p e o f b l a d e d weapon' ' u n b r e l l a ' P o s i t i o n w i s e , - t h e [_UJ v o c o i d s t a n d s i n t e r m e d i a t e b e t w e e n c a r d i n a l [ u ] a n d [o],' t h a t i s j u s t a l i t t l e l o w e r a n d more c e n t r a l t h a n t h e v o c o i d [ u ] . I t r e s e m b l e s v e r y c l o s e l y t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e v o c o i d i n E n g l i s h p u t [ p U t ] , e x c e p t t h a t f o r T a u s u g [u],' t h e m u s c l e s o f t h e t o n g u e a r e more l a x a n d t h e l i p s a r e l e s s r o u n d e d . A l l t h e v o c o i d s j u s t d i s c u s s e d a r e made w i t h t h e t o n g u e r a i s e d h i g h i n t h e m o u t h , b u t w i t h t h e t o n g u e l a i d l o w i n t h e o r a l c a v i t y , i n c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n , a n d w i t h t h e l i p s u n r o u n d e d a n d k i p u t c ' k ' i p U t ] b a t u c • b a t i t h ] p i k u l c • p ' i k U l ] k a b u g c 'k'abUg] d a u g d u g c 'dawgdUg] b a g u [ •ba^Uh] maus [ 'ma?Us] t a n g h u l c ' t ' a n h U l ] kamu [ 'k'omU?] l a n u t c • l a n U t ] b ungug c 'bunUg] masub [ •masUb] b a d j u [ • b a d j U h ] t a l u s c ' t a l U s ] b a r u n g c ' b a r U n ] p a y u n g c «p»ayun] 37 r e l a x e d , a v o c o i d t r a n s c r i b e d a s [ a ] i s p r o d u c e d . T h i s s o u n d i s ' f o u n d i n w o r d s s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g : p a i s [«p'a?Is] ' s k i n 1 t a a s [ « t ' a ? a s ] ' h e i g h t ' b a l u [ ' b a l U h ] 'widow' o r ' w i d o w e r ' d a h u n ['dahUn] • l e a f l ' m a n i s [ ; m a n l s ] 'charm' n a n a u g [ n a ' n a ? U g ] 'went down' s a b u n [ ' s a b U n ] ' s o a p ' [ ' j a y a h ] • g u a r d ' l a r a [ 1 l a r a h ] ' p e p p e r ' r a d j u [ ' r a d j U h ] ' r a d i o ' y a r i [ ' y a r l h ] • h e r e ' I n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e c a r d i n a l [ a ] i n t h e N o r t h e r n E n g l i s h p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f p a n [ p a n ] , ' t h e T a u s u g v o c o i d i n ['p»a?ls], i s n o t s o l o w i n t h e m o u t h . A p p r o x i m a t e l y , i t s l o c a t i o n i n t h e c a r  d i n a l v o w e l c h a r t i s i n t e r m e d i a t e b e t w e e n c a r d i n a l s [ a ] a n d [ a ] , b u t a l i t t l e r a i s e d ( s e e F i g u r e 4 ) . I t h a s b e e n i n t e r e s t i n g l y o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e [ a ] v o c o i d o c c u r s f o l l o w i n g e i t h e r a b i l a b i a l , ' d e n t a l o r a l v e o p a l a t a l c o n - 25 t o i d s . I n c a s e s w h e r e t h e p r e c e d i n g s o u n d i s a v e l a r o r a " g l o t t a l c o n t o i d , a n o t h e r v a r i e t y w h i c h i s more b a c k a n d somewhat l o w e r t h a n [ a ] h a s b e e n n o t e d t o o c c u r . The v o c o i d i n q u e s t i o n r e s e m b l e s v e r y c l o s e l y t h e c a r d i n a l [ a ] i n S o u t h e r n E n g l i s h p r o n u n - 'See s e c t i o n 3.2 f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o n t o i d s o f T a u s u g . 38 e l a t i o n o f f a r [ f a r ] , a n d i s , t h e r e f o r e , r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e same s y m b o l , [ a ] . A s a m p l i n g o f w o r d s w h e r e t h i s s o u n d o c c u r s a r e p r o v i d e d b e l o w : k a u n [«k»a?Un] / w i l l g e t ' a n a r u n [ ' ? a ' n a r U n ] ' w i l l l e a r n ' g a d j a [ 'gad j a h ] ' e l e p h a n t n g a n [ 'nasn] 'name' h a b u l [ » h a p u i ] • b l a n k e t ' p a k a i n [ p a k a ? I n ] 'where' ( I n t e r r o g a t i v e p r o n o u n ) maandum [ma'?andUm] ' c l o u d y ' a g a r u n [ ? c f v a r U n ] ' w i l l f o l l o w ' m a n g a d j i [ m a ' n a d j l ? ] ' w i l l r e a d t h e K o r a n ' mahaba [ m a ' h a g a ? ] ' l o n g ' j a w a b u n [ j a ' w o p U n ] ' w i l l b a r g a i n ' o r ' t o a n s w e r b a c k k a k a s [ ' k ' a k a s ] ' r i n g w o r n ' p a a [ ' p ' a ? a h ] • t h i g h ' a b a g a [ ? a * p a y a h ] ' s h o u l d e r ' p a h a [ ' p ' a h a h ] •band f o r t h e n a v e l ' l a w a [ ' l a w a ? ] * ' s p i d e r 1 I n some t y p e s o f i n f o r m a l s p e e c h , a more c e n t e r e d a n d r a i s e d sounde'than [ a ] , w h i c h i s j u s t d i r e c t l y b e l o w t h e c a r d i n a l [ a ] f l u c t u a t e s f r e e l y w i t h e i t h e r one o f t h e two v a r i e t i e s o f t h e l o w c e n t r a l v o w e l a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d ( [ a ] a n d [ a ] ) . T h i s v o c o i d i s s y m b o l i z e d a s [e] a n d may be h e a r d i n w o r d s s u c h a s b a h a [ 'b-ehe?] 39 'maybe', b a k a [ 'belre?] ' t a r t a r ' , s a b a l [ f s * e 0 S l ] ' s t o i c 1 , mas t a l [ ' n u e s t e l ] ' t e a c h e r ' , ayaw [ ' T ^ y e w ] 'does n o t l i k e ' , e t c . The p r e c i s e p o s i t i o n f o r t h e ["8] s o u n d may v a r y amoung T a u s u g s p e a k e r s , w i t h t h e t o n g u e b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r t h a n To v i s u a l i z e b e t t e r t h e a p p r o x i m a t e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e v o c o i d s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , t h e c a r d i n a l v o w e l c h a r t i s d r a w n b e l o w w i t h t h e v o c o i d s o f T a u s u g r o u g h l y i n d i c a t e d o n i t . The s m a l l e r d o t s (.) r e p r e s e n t t h e v o c o i d s o f t h e l a n g u a g e , w h i l e t h e b i g g e r (©) a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e c a r d i n a l s o u n d s ( F i g u r e 4 ) . F i g u r e 4: A m o d i f i e d C a r d i n a l V o w e l C h a r t s h o w i n g t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l o c a t i o n o f t h e T a u s u g v o c o i d s . ko A s c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e a b o v e d i a g r a m , t h e r e a r e a t o t a l o f n i n e v o c o i d s t h a t a r e commonly h e a r d i n t h e T a u s u g o f STP, e q u a l l y a p p o r t i o n e d i n t o t h e h i g h - f r o n t , h i g h - b a c k , a n d l o w - c e n t e r e d r a n g e s . On o c c a s i o n , a n y o f t h e v o c o i d s o f T a u s u g may be m o d i f i e d i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e a d j a c e n t s o u n d s . The m o s t f r e q u e n t m o d i f i c a  t i o n i s n a s a l i z a t i o n . I n w o r d s l i k e , m ampallam 'mango', f o r e x a m p l e , t h e v o c o i d i n t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e i s p r o n o u n c e d w i t h s l i g h t d e g r e e o f n a s a l i z a t i o n a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e two n a s a l s o u n d s p r e c e d i n g a n d f o l l o w i n g t h e v o c o i d . Thus mampallam may be t r a n s c r i b e d a s [ m a m ' p a l l a m ] w i t h t h e ^ s y m b o l ; " [ ~ ' ] ^ u s e d t o r e p r e s e n t n a s a l i z a t i o n . A n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n o f v a r i a t i o n i n v o c o i d i s l e n g t h . A l t h o u g h i t h a s b e e n p o i n t e d o u t i n p r e c e e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t s h o r t e n i n g a n d l e n g t h e n i n g o f v o c o i d s i s n o n - p h o n e m i c i n T a u s u g , p h o n e t i c a l l y , t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a v o c o i d i n a s t r e s s e d a n d u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . I n t h e T a u s u g w o r d a h a d 'Sunday', f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e [ a ] i n t h e f i r s t s t r e s s e d s y l l a  b l e i s r e l a t i v e l y l o n g e r t h a n t h e v o c o i d i n t h e s e c o n d u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e . Compared t o a d ' f e n c e ' , h o w e v e r , t h e f i r s t [ a ] i n a h a d i s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t e r . T h u s , a h a d i s t r a n s c r i b e d a s [ / a . h a d ] a n d a d [ ? a : d ] . V o c o i d s u s u a l l y f o r m t h e s y l l a b i c c e n t e r s , b e i n g t h e most s o n o r o u s s o u n d s , n o r m a l l y v o i c e d a n d p r o d u c e d w i t h o u t i m p e d i m e n t 41 i n t h e o r a l c a v i t y . I n c a s e s w here two v o c o i d s o c c u r i n t h e same s y l l a b l e , s o t h a t one i s more s o n a r o u s t h a n t h e o t h e r , t h e l e s s s o n o r o u s i s c l a s s i f i e d a s s e m i v o c o l d a n d f o r m s what i s known a s a p h o n e t i c d i p h t h o n g w i t h t h e f u l l v o c o i d . The s e m i - v o c o i d s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e h i g h - f r o n t v o c o i d [ y ] a n d t h e h i g h - b a c k v o c o i d [ w ] . T h e s e two s o u n d s f u n c t i o n o n l y a s s u c h a n d " n e v e r a s f u l l v o c o i d s . S o m e t i m e s t h e s e m i v o c o i d s a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s g l i d e s due t o t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c movements w h i c h a r e made by r i s i n g o r f a l l i n g f r o m one p o i n t t o a n o t h e r w i t h s w i f t t r a n s i t i o n . T h e more commonly h e a r d p h o n e t i c d i p h t h o n g s o f T a u s u g w h i c h o c c u r i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g o r p r e c e e d i n g c o n t o i d s a r e l i s t e d b e l o w w i t h e x a m p l e s : p i a r a [ ' p ' y a r a h ] 1was s e n t • b i a [ b y a ? ] •as i f giaWiSr [«gya?Us] ' c o u l d a f f o r d t o . . .' h i a t u d [ " h y a t U d ] ' e s c o r t e d ' o r ' r e t u r n e d ' n i a t C ' n y a t ] ' d e s i r e ' o r ' a s p i r a t i o n ' e t c . p & i g u [ ' p a y g U ? ] • t o t a k e a b a t h ' t a i k u d [ ' t ' a y k U d ] ' b a c k ' o r ' b e h i n d ' d a i n [ d a y n ] * f r o m ' s a i n g [ s a y n ] 'banana• l a i n [ l a y n ] ' t o t r a n s f e r 1 42 [ a y ] k a i t [ k ' a y t ] ' s a f e t y p i n ' g a i d [ s a y d ] 'as a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e ' q i l [ ? a y l ] 'moslem way o f c l e a n s i n g b e f o r e p r a y e r t i m e • h a i n [ h a y n ] ' t o p u t s o m e t h i n g on ...' [ w a ] p u a s a ['p»wasah] ' f a s t i n g ' l u a n [ l w o n ] ' c a r g o ' t u a n g u n [ 't'wccnUn] ' w i l l p o u r ' s u a t [ s w a t ] ' t o d r y ' [ a w ] p a u s [ p ' a w s ] ' t o chew s u g a r c a n e ' taumpa ['t'awmpa?] ' s h o e s ' baus [ b a w s ] ' t o b a r g a i n ' d a u g d u g ['dawgdUg] ' t h u n d e r ' jawm [ jawm] • n e e d l e • [ y u ] p i u n u g ['p'yunUn] • f a i n t e d ' k i u g a n [ ' k ' u y a n ] 'was h a p p y 1 b i u l a [ ' b y u l a h ] ' v i o l i n ' n i u g [ n y u g ] ' c o c o n u t p a l m t r e e ' j i u k [ j y u k ] ' a n s w e r e d b a c k w i t h s a r c a s m ' [ w i ] a n t u i l a s [ ? a n ' t w i l a s ] ' s e q u i n s ' h u i s [ h w i s ] ' j u d g e • mui [ m w i ? ] ' t o go home' s u i h a n [ ' s w i h a n ] ' w i l l r e l a t e s o m e t h i n g ' ( g o s s i p s , news, e t c . ) 43- A p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n o f [ y u ] i s [ y U ] w h i c h m i g h t be h e a r d s o m e t i m e s i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s l i k e i n t h e a b o v e g i v e n e x a m p l e s . T h e [yU.] d i p h t h o n g i s , h o w e v e r , o f t e n h e a r d i n u n  s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : p i u l a k a n t l t i u k i u l a n g a n [ p ' y U 1 l a k a n ] [ ' t ' i t y U ? ] [ k ' y U ' l a n a n ] • d e l i b e r a t e a b o r t i o n ' ' v e r y l i t t l e ' 'was d e c r e a s e d ' o r ' r e d u c e d ' 'was a n g r y ' 'was f r i e d ' ( o f b a n a n a ) ' t r i e d ' 'was w a s h e d ' ' s p a t on . . . ' d i u g a l a n [ d y U 1 g c c l a n ] j i u w a l a n [ j y U ' w a l a n ] s i u l a y a n [ s y U 1 l a y a n ] h i u g a s a n [ h y U ' y a s a n ] l i u r a ? a n [ l y U 1 r a ? a n ] A s c l e a r l y shown i n t h e f o r e g o i n g e x a m p l e s , t h e s y l l a b i c e l e m e n t i n a d i p h t h o n g i s a l w a y s l o w e r t h a n t h e g l i d e . The d i p h t h o n g a l movement f o r [ y a ] , f o r e x a m p l e , s t a r t s f r o m t h e p o s i  t i o n o f [ y ] w h i c h i s a l i t t l e a b o v e t h e v o c o i d [ i ] , t h e n moves i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e l o w c e n t r a l v o c o i d [ a ] . S o m e t i m e s i n i n f o r  m a l s p e e c h , t h e [«] v o c o i d may be h e a r d i n s t e a d o f [ a ] . The g r a  d u a l o p e n i n g o f t h e jaw i s o b v i t l m s a s a r t i c u l a t i o n s h i f t s f r o m one s o u n d t o t h e n e x t , s o i s "the c h a n g e i n l i p p o s i t i o n f r o m s p r e a d t o n e u t r a l . The d i p h t h o n g a l movement o f [ a y ] i s j u s t t h e o p p o s i t e o f [ y a ] . A r t i c u l a t i o n p r o c e e d s f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n o f v o c o i d [ a ] , t h e n 4-if moves r a p i d l y b u t s m o o t h l y i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e h i g h f r o n t s e m i v o c o i d [ y ] . The same d i r e c t i o n a l r . m o v e m e n t i s a l s o o b s e r v a  b l e w i t h t h e [ a y ] d i p h t h o n g e x c e p t t h a t i n t h e l a t t e r , t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t i s t h e v o c o i d [ a ] i n s t e a d o f [ a ] . The c l o s i n g movement o f t h e jaw a n d t h e ch a n g e f r o m n e u t r a l t o s p r e a d l i p p o s i t i o n a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e d i p h t h o n g s . The [ a y ] d i p h t h o n g i s o b s e r v e d t o o c c u r o n l y when f o l l o w i n g b i l a b i a l , d e n t a l , o r a l v e o p a l a t a l c o n t o i d s . I n t h e c a s e o f [ a y ] , i t i s f o u n d t o - o c c u r f o l l o w i n g v e l a r o r g l o t t a l c o n t o i d s . S y m m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d t o [ y a ] i s t h e d i p h t h o n g [ w a ] . The a r t i c u l a t o r y movement b e g i n s f r o m t h e h i g h b a c k s e m i v o c o i d [ w ] , t h e n moves t o t h e p o s i t i o n f o r t h a t o f [ a ] . I n g l i d i n g downward, t h e o p e n i n g movement o f t h e jaw i s a g a i n n o t i c e a b l e . The c h a n g e f r o m r o u n d e d t o n e u t r a l l i p p o s i t i o n c a n a l s o be o b s e r v e d . L i k e t h e [ a y ] d i p h t h o n g , t h e [ a w ] c o u n t e r p a r t s t a r t s a r t i  c u l a t o r y movement w i t h t h e l o w c e n t r a l v o c o i d [ a ] , b u t g l i d e s up i n t o t h e h i g h - b a c k s e m i v o w e l [ w ] I n s t e a d o f t h e h i g h - f r o n t [ y ] . The l i p s c h a n g e f r o m a n e u t r a l l y o p e n e d t o a r o u n d e d p o s i t i o n . I n t h e c a s e o f [ a w ] , d i p h t h o n g a l movement i s r e l a t e d t o [ a ] i n t h e same way [ a y ] i s r e l a t e d t o [ a y ] . The [ y u ] d i p h t h o n g h a s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h a t i s p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same a s t h e [ y a ] d i p h t h o n g . H o w e v e r , w i t h [ y u ] , movement i s made i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e h i g h b a c k v o c o i d [ u ] . Change i n l i p p o s i t i o n f r o m s p r e a d t o r o u n d e d i s o b s e r v a b l e . 4 5 A p a r a l l e l a r t i c u l a t i o n i s v a l i d f o r t h e [w3.jp d i p h t h o n g i n w o r d s l i k e m ui £mwi?|] ' t o go home 1, b u t movement s t a r t s w i t h t h e h i g h - f r o n t s e m i v o c o i d h e a d i n g t o w a r d t h e v o c o i d q u a l i t y f o r [ i ] , a l t h o u g h p e r h a p s s o m e t i m e s a l i t t l e l o w e r , n e a r e r t o [ I ] . The l i p s c h a n g e f r o m r o u n d e d t o l o o s e l y s p r e a d p o s i t i o n . A p h o n e t i c d i p h t h o n g h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d a s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f one s e m i v o c o i d a n d a f u l l v o c o i d . I n c a s e s w here two s e m i - v o c o i d s a n d a f u l l v o c o i d a r e i n v o l v e d w i t h i n t h e same s y l l a b l e , t h e r e s u l t a n t c o m b i n a t i o n i s c a l l e d a p h o n e t i c t r i p h t h o n g . The commonly d i s t i n g u i s h e d p h o n e t i c t r i p t h o n g s o f T a u s u g a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : [ y a30 k i a i t [ k y a y t ] ' s a f e t y p i n * l i a i n [ l y a y n " ] 'was t r a n s f e r r e d ' ( r e f e r s t o t h i n g s ) [ w o i w ] duawn [ dwtmwn ] ' t o d o u b l e ' ( s o m e t h i n g ) b u a u n [ bwawn] ' t o r o c k a ba b y t o s l e e p ' [ y a w ] j g i a u d [ s y a w d ] 'was r e c e i v e d ( w i t h r e c e p t a c l e ) b i a u s j~ byaws ] 'was b a r g a i n e d ' [ w a y ] b u a i h [ b i % y h ~] ' t o p l a c e r a t t a n o n s o m e t h i n g ' k u a i h [ k w a y h ] ' t o w i n d * The [ y a y ] t r i p h t h o n g i s a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h movement s t a r t  i n g f r o m t h e [ y] p o s i t i o n , t h e n m o v i n g t o w a r d s t h e s y l l a b i c v o c o i d [ a] a n d b a c k t o wh e r e a r t i c u l a t i o n s t a r t e d . Movement f r o m one s o u n d t o t h e o t h e r s o u n d i s s o f a s t t h a t t h e t r a n s i  t i o n b e t w e e n e a c h s o u n d i s h a r d l y n o t i c e a b l e . S t a r t i n g w i t h t h e h i g h - b a c k s e m i v o c o i d , t h e same a r t i c u l a t o r y movement f o r [ waw ~] i s made. k'6 S y m m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d t o e a c h o t h e r i n a r t i c u l a t o r y move ments a r e t h e t r i p h t h o n g s [ y a w ] a n d [ w a y ] . F o r [ y a w ] , a r t i c u l a  t i o n p r o c e e d s f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n f o r [ y ] , t h e n moves q u i c k l y t o  w a r d s t h e p o s i t i o n f o r t h e l o w c e n t r a l v o c o i d [ a ] , t h e n g l i d e s up a g a i n i n t o t h e d i r e c t i o n f o r [ w ] . The o p p o s i t e a r t i c u l a t o r y move ment i s v a l i d f o r [ w a y ] . ' 3.2 C o n t o i d s A s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n e x p r e s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h e c h a p t e r , a c o n t o i d i s a s o u n d i n v o l v i n g a u d i b l e t u r b u l e n c e o f t h e c u r r e n t o f a i r a t one p o i n t o r a n o t h e r i n t h e v o c a l t r a c t , o r e l s e a c o m p l e t e i n t e r r u p t i o n o f t h e a i r - s t r e a m i n t h e r e s o n a n c e c h a m b e r s . B a s i c a l l y c o n t o i d s a r e d e s c r i b e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h r e e m a j o r c r i t e r i a ' s t h e p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , t h e manner o f a r t i c u  l a t i o n , a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence o f v o i c e . B y p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n i s meant t h e p l a c e i n t h e r e s o  n a n c e chamber w h e r e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a c o n t o i d t a k e s p l a c e . U s u a l l y a p a i r o f a r t i c u l a t o r s s e r v e t o d e f i n e t h e b a s i c p o i n t s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n . C o n t o i d s made w i t h t h e u p p e r a n d t h e l o w e r l i p s b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r , l i k e t h e T a u s u g [p,b,p,m] i n p i l a [ ' p i l a h ] 'how m u c h 1 , b a s u [ b a s U h ] ' d r i n k i n g g l a s s ' , a b a g a [ ? a ' 0 a y a h ] ' s h o u l d e r ' a n d maas [ ' m a ? a s ] v o l d ' ( r e f e r s t o p e r s o n ) r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s b i l a b j a l s . ' W h i l e [p,b,m] a r e a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h t h e l i p s com p l e t e l y c l o s e d , [ p ] i s made w i t h a s m a l l a p e r t u r e w h i c h p e r m i t s t h e a i r - s t r e a m t o p a s s t h r o u g h c a u s i n g a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n . T h i s s o u n d i s o b s e r v e d t o o c c u r o n l y i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n a s i n t h e e x a m p l e a b a g a C ? a , p a y a ' 1 ] * A l a r g e number o f T a u s u g c o n t o i d s s u c h a s [ t ] i n t a u [ ' t a ? U h ] ' p e o p l e ' [ d ] i n d a a n [ ' d a ? o n ] ' o l d * ( r e f e r r i n g t o t h i n g s ) , [ s ] i n s a b a l [ ' s a p a l ] 1 s t o i c ' , [ n ] i n n a n a u g [ n a ' n a ? U g ] , •went d o w n 1 , [ l ] i n l a d j u [ ' l a d j U h ] ' f a r n e s s ' , a n d [ r ] i n r a d j u C ' r a d j U h ] ' r a d i o ' c a n be c l a s s i f i e d i n d e n t a l s s i n c e t h e a r t i c u l a - tor'y o r g a n s " i h v o l v e d L a r e L u s u a l l y t h e t i p o f t h e t o n g u e a n d t h e b a c k o f t h e u p p e r t e e t h c o m i n g i n c o n t a c t w i t h e a c h o t h e r . How e v e r , t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e e x a c t p o i n t o f a r t i  c u l a t i o n . I n t h e c a s e o f [ t ] f o r i n s t a n c e , 1 a r t i c u l a t i o n i s u s u a l  l y i n t e r d e n t a l a s i n t a u [ ' t ' a ? U h ] ' p e o p l e ' , t u b u [ ' t ' u p U h ] ' s u g a r  c a n e ' a n d t i m u l ['t»imUl] ' n o r t h ' . ' The f i r s t [ t ] o f t a s t a s ['t»astas] i s a l s o i n t e r d e n t a l , - b u t t h e s e c o n d o n e , due t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p r e c e d i n g [ s ] s o u n d , i s a r t i c u l a t e d a t t h e b a c k s u r f a c e o f t h e t e e t h . 1 W i t h [ d ] a n d [ n ] i n d a a n [ ' d a ? a n ] a n d n a n a u g [ n a ' n a ? U g ] r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e t o n g u e t i p i s a t t h e b a s e o f t h e t e e t h , s o m e t i m e s c l o s e r t o t h e a l v e o l a r a r e a . T h e [ s ] i n s a b u l C ' s a p u i ] , [ l ] i n l a d . j u [ ' l a d j U h ] , [ r ] i n r a d j u [ ' r a d j U h ] a r e a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h t h e t i p o f t h e t o n g u e o n t h e a l v e o l a r r i d g e j u s t b e h i n d t h e b a s e o f t h e t e e t h . I n s o m e w j r d s o f S a n s k r i t o r i g i n , a v a r i e t y o f [ r ] made w i t h t i p o f t h e t o n g u e c u r l e d t o w a r d , b u t n o t t o u c h i n g , t h e a l v e o p a l a t a l r e g i o n i s h e a r d . T h i s i s t r a n s c r i b e d a s a s i n t h e w o r d s k a r n a [ ' k ' a a n a ? ] ' t h a t i s why', w a r n a [ w a ^ n a ? ] ' c o l o r ' , a n d parman ['p'aaman] 'word ( o f G o d ) , o r 'message'. 1+9 When the f r o n t of the tongue i s pushed against the extreme f r o n t of the palate but c l o s e to the a l v e o l i , an a l v e o p a l a t a l sound i s made, which i s symbolized as [ j ] as i n the i n i t i a l sound of jaga [ ' jayah] 'guard' juba C'juga?] 'robe', jambangan [ jam'banan] ' plant',' e t c . . Some contoids are made f u r t h e r back i n the mouth w i t h the back surface of the tongue moved toward the velum or s o f t p a l a t e . Such contoids are known as v e l a r s and to t h i s c l a s s i  f i c a t i o n belongs the contoids [k.g.y.n] i n words l i k e k a l i s [ ' k ' a l l s ] ' k r i s ' , gandum ['gqndUm] 'earn', agad ['?qyqd] 'to f o l l o w ' , and ngan [na:n] 'name'. U n l i k e [k.g.n], 1 the contoid i s l i m i t e d i n d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t occurs only i n i n t e r v o c a l i c environment, never elsewhere. Another p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n i s found i n the l a r y n g e a l area where the c l o s i n g , then exploding of the v o c a l bands r e s u l t s i n a g l o t t a l catch [ ? ] . This i s the sound heard at the beginning and the end of the word a s i b i [?q'si | 3 l ? ] ' s m a l l 1 . A l e s s promi nent (or even p o t e n t i a l ) g l o t t a l stop i s heard i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n , i . e . , hambuuk [ham'bu?Uk] 'one'. When the v o c a l bands are widely opened so that the a i r - stream passes out w i t h some f r i c t i o n through i t without obstruc t i o n , the [ h ] contoid which i s the i n i t i a l sound i n habul ['hqBUl] i s produced. A p a r t i a l l y voiced v a r i e t y of [ h ] , t r a n s c r i b e d as Cn] ,' has been observed to occur between vocoids as i n the examples 4 9 a h a d [ ' ? a h a d ] ' S u n d a y 1 , l h a t u d [ ? I ' h c t t U d ] ' w i l l he r e t u r n e d ' , uhaw ['?uhaw] t h i r s t , mahaba [ m a ' h a 0 a ? ] ' l o n g * , e t c . . The s e c o n d c r i t e r i o n u s e d i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g a s w e l l a s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c o n t o i d s i s t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y a r e p r o  d u c e d . G e n e r a l l y , - o n t h e b a s i s o f s u c h c r i t e r i o n , ' c o n t o i d s a r e c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s t o p s a n d c o n t i n u a n t s . S t o p s r e f e r t o c o n t o i d s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by momentary c l o s u r e o f t h e p a s s a g e o f a i r . F o l  l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f T a u s u g c o n t o i d s c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r s t o p s o u n d s . E x a m p l e s s h o w i n g t h e i r o c c t i r r e n c e s i n v a r i o u s p h o n e t i c e n v i r o n  ments a r e a l s o p r o v i d e d : S y l l a b l e i n i t i a l : p i s u [«p'isU?] ' s p r a i n ' t i l u [ ' t ' i l U ? ] ' t o t h r o w ' k i l u [ ' k ' i l U h ] • k i l o 1 b i l u [ ' b i l U h ] • b l u e ' d u g u [ ' d u y U ? ] ' b l o o d ' gandum [gondUm] ' c o r n ' andum ['?ondUm] ' c l o u d ' jaum [ jawm] ' n e e d l e ' S y l l a b l e f i n a l p r e c e d i n g a n o t h e r s t o p  t a p t a p [ ' t ' a p t a p ] ' a l w a y s ' p a t t a [ ' p ' a t t a ? ] ' p i c t u r e ' p u k p u k ['p'ukpUk] ' t o p o u n d ' o r ' t o hammer' s a b t u [ ' s a b t U ? ] ' S a t u r d a y ' 50 b a d j u [ ' b a d j U h ] ' s t o r m ' magtuy'. ['magtUy] ' i m m e d i a t e l y ' k a kaw ['ka? kaw] 'you g e t ' Word f i n a l a t u p [ • ? a t U p ] ' n i p a p a l m s h i n g l e ' l a n g i t [»lanlt] ' s k y ' o r ' h e a v e n ' p i k p i k [ ' p ' i k p l k ] ' w i n g 1 k l t a b [ ' k ' i t a b ] • b i b l e ' l u p a d [ • l u p a d ] • t o f l y ' t u b i d C ' t u g l g ] ' w a t e r ' s a p a [ ' s a p a ? ] • l a k e ' N o r m a l l y , t h e r e a r e t h r e e p h a s e s t o a s t o p : t h e c a t c h o r i m p l o s i o n ; t h e h o l d o r o c c l u s i o n , a n d t h e r e l e a s e o r e x p l o  s i o n s I n s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l , a l l s t o p c o n t o i d s a r e r e l e a s e d . Some l i k e [ p , t , k ] a r e s l i g h t l y a s p i r a t e d . T h u s , t h e s y m b o l ['] i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g e a c h o f them i n s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l i s u s e d t o i n d i c a t e s t o p s w i t h r e l e a s e d a n d s l i g h t l y a s p i r a t e d a r t i c u l a  t i o n . When o c c u r i n g i n s y l l a b l e f i n a l p r e c e d i n g a n o t h e r s t o p ( s e e s e c o n d s e t o f e x a m p l e s ) , 1 o r when o c c u r r i n g i n w o r d f i n a l p o s i t i o n ( o f l a s t s e t o f e x a m p l e s ) , t h e s t o p c o n t o i d s a r e u n - r e l e a s e d . C o n t r a r y t o t h e s t o p s , t h e c o n t i n u a n t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d n o t o n l y b y c o n s t r i c t i o n b u t a l s o w i t h some d e g r e e o f a p e r t u r e a t one p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n . T h e y a r e p r o d u c e d b y r e s t r i c t i n g 5a b u t n o t c o m p l e t e l y o b s t r u c t i n g t h e f l o w o f a i r f r o m t h e l u n g s . Among t h e c o n t o i d s o f Tausug," d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c o n t i n u a n t s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v a r i o u s ways i n w h i c h t h e b r e a t h - s t r e a m may be c h a n n e l e d , t o p r o d u c e a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n . The s o - c a l l e d f r i c a t i v e c o n t o i d s a r e p r o d u c e d w i t h t h e o r g a n s o f s p e e c h i n v o l v e d b r o u g h t n e a r l y t o g e t h e r a n d t h e b r e a t h f o r c e d o u t e q u a l l y o v e r t h e e n t i r e r e g i o n o f n e a r c o n t a c t , t h u s , c a u s i n g a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n . To t h i s c a t e g o r y , t h e T a u s u g [p»s»Y>h»h»D a r e c l a s s i f i e d . C o n t o i d s £s] a n d [ h ] o c c u r i n u n  l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n - s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l a s w e l l a s s y l l a b l e f i n a l . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , [ p , y , h ] , a s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n p o i n t e d o u t , a r e l i m i t e d i n t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e y o c c u r o n l y i n i n t e r  v o c a l i c e n v i r o n m e n t s . N a s a l i s a n o t h e r t y p e o f c o n t i n u a n t w h i c h i s p r o d u c e d when t h e a i r i s i m p e d e d a t some p o i n t i n t h e o r a l c a v i t y a n d c h a n n e l e d t h r o u g h t h e n o s e , t h u s p r o d u c i n g a n a s a l r e s o n a n c e . T h e c o n t o i d s [m,n,n] f a l l u n d e r t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d t h e y a r e o b s e r v e d t o o c c u r i n u n l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n . A n o t h e r t y p e o f c o n t i n u a n t i s made w i t h t h e a i r p a s s i n g o u t a t one o r b o t h s i d e s o f t h e t o n g u e . T h e t e r m l a t e r a l i s u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e s u c h t y p e o f sound. ; I n T a u s u g , o n l y t h e [ l ] c o n t o i d f a l l s u n d e r t h i s c a t e g o r y a s i n t h e w o r d s l a p a l £'lapal] 'words', o r 'message', p a l p a l [ 'p»'alpal] ' d e a f ' , s a b a l £'sagal] ' s t o i c ' , e t c . 52 The l a s t t y p e o f c o n t i n u a n t i s known a s f l a p . I t i s a r t i c u l a t e d b y r a p i d movement o f t h e t o n g u e t i p a g a i n s t t h e a l v e o l a r r e g i o n . The d e n t a l - a l v e o l a r f l a p [ r ] i s commonly h e a r d i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n i n n a t i v e w o r d s s u c h a s h a r a n [ h a ' r a n ] 'on t h e r o a d ' , p a r a n g [ ' p ' a r a n j ' g r a s s 1 , b a r a n [ ' b a r a n ] 'body', i r u [ ' ? i r U ? ] 'dog', p u r u l [ ' p ' u r U l ] ' p u r e ' , e t c . The [ r ] o c c u r s i n i t i a l l y a n d f i n a l l y i n w o r d s o f f o r e i g n o r i g i n l i k e r a d j u [ ' r a d j U h ] ' r a d i o ' , r u h u l k u d u s [ r u h U l 'k'udUs] ' h o l y s p i r i t ' , k a p i r [ ' k ' o c p l r ] ' h e a t h e n ' , J a b u r [ • j a p U r ] i w r i t i n g s o f M o s e s ' , e t c . The a l v e o p a l a t a l [a] o c c u r s a l s o i n l o a n w o r d s , i n s y l l a b l e f i n a l p o s i t i o n , p r e c e d i n g c o n t o i d s l i k e [m] a n d [ n ] i n s u c h w o r d s a s p a rman ['p'aaman] 'word o f God' a n d w a r n a [ w o c i n a ? ] ' c o l o r ' , r e s p e c t i v e l y . F i n a l l y , t h e c o n t o i d s o f T a u s u g a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d , d i f  f e r e n t i a t e d a n d c l a s s i f i e d on t h e b a s i s o f v o i c i n g . C o n t o i d s made w i t h t h e a c c o m p a n i m e n t o f v i b r a t i o n o f t h e v o c a l b a n d s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s v o i c e d . To t h i s g r o u p a l a r g e s e r i e s o f t h e c o n  t o i d s o f t h e l a n g u a g e a r e c a t e g o r i z e d : [ b , j 3 , d , g , y , m , n , n , l , r , u , n ] . The v o i c e l e s s c o n t o i d s a r e [ p , t ,k, ? ,s , h ] . ' A s a g e n e r a l summary o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e s p e e c h s o u n d s o f T a u s u g , t h e c h a r t s b e l o w w h i c h show t h e e n t i r e r a n g e o f T a u s u g v o c o i d s , 1 p h o n e t i c d i p h t h o n g s a n d t r i p h t h o n g s , a s w e l l a s c o n t o i d s h a v e b e e n d r a w n up: 53 F i g u r e S' A C h a r t o f T a u s u g V o c o i d s F r o n t C e n t r a l B a c k H i g h [ y ] [ w ] ' [ i ] Cu]' [ I ] Cu]" C«] Low Ca] [a] P h o n e t i c D i p h t h o n g s [ y u ] [ w i ] [ y a ] [ wa ] [ ay ] [ aw ] [ a y ] [ aw ] P h o n e t i c T r i p h t h o n g s [ y a y ] [ yaw ] [ waw ] [ way ] 54 F i g u r e 6: A C h a r t o f T a u s u g C o n t o i d s B i l a b i a l D e n t a l - A l v e o l a r A l v e o - p a l a t a l V e l a r G l o t t a l S t o p P b t d j k g ? F r i c a t i v e s I fi h N a s a l m n 1 L a t e r a l 1 F l a p r ; JL 55 4. THE S Y L L A B L E L a n g u a g e s o u n d s o c c u r i n p a t t e r n e d s e q u e n c e s ; t h e y a r e n e v e r i n i s o l a t i o n . T h e most i m p o r t a n t a n d p r o b a b l y t h e s m a l l e s t s e q u e n c e o f s o u n d s w h i c h b e a r s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f T a u s u g i s t h e s y l l a b l e . Many f a c t s on t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t s o f t h e l a n g u a g e a r e l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s y l l a b l e a n d i t s 2.ft r -i 27 m a t r i x . The i n i t i a l s o u n d i n p i s u £p'i-sU?J ' s p r a i n ' a n d p i a r a [ 'p'ya-rah]," f o r i n s t a n c e , i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e f i n a l s o u n d o f t h e w o r d a t u p ['?a-tUp] 'palm l e a f r o o f i n g ' . I n t h e f i r s t two e x a m p l e s , [p»] i s r e l e a s e d a n d s l i g h t l y a s p i r a t e d , w h i l e i n t h e l a t t e r , [ p ] i s u n r e l e a s e d a n d u n a s p i r a t e d . S u c h d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n [p*'] a n d [ p ] e v i d e n t l y shows a s i m p l e f u n c  t i o n o f p o s i t i o n o r d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e s y l l a b l e . A l t h o u g h T a u s u g s t r e s s i s n o n - p h o n e m i c , t h a t i s , i t b e a r s no s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h r e g a r d t o m e a n i n g , t h e r e a r e s u b t l e d i f  f e r e n c e s i n f o r c e a n d l e n g t h b e t w e e n v o w e l s i n s t r e s s e d a n d u n  s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . A l l T a u s u g v o w e l s h a v e f o r m s v a r y i n g i n r e l a t i v e l o u d n e s s a n d l e n g t h d e p e n d i n g o n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n a g i v e n s y l l a b l e . G e n e r a l l y , v o w e l s i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y l o u d e r a n d l o n g e r t h a n t h o s e i n u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . 26 C.F. V o e g e l i n , "Shawnee Phonemes", L a n g u a g e , X ( D e c e m b e r / 193*0 t p.'24. 2 ^ A h y p e n i s u s e d h e r e t o mark s y l l a b l e d i v i s i o n w i t h i n a w o r d . 56 The f i r s t [ a] i n l a r a b-a.-rah ] ' p e p p e r 1 , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s c o n  s i d e r a b l y l o u d e r a n d l o n g e r t h a n t h e [ a ] i n t h e s e c o n d . I n l a r a h a n [ l a - r a . - h a n ] ' t o p u t p e p p e r 1 , h o w e v e r , w h e r e t h e r e i s a s h i f t i n s t r e s s a s a r e s u l t o f s u f f i x a t i o n , t h e s e c o n d [ a ] 28 i s r e l a t i v e l y l o n g e r t h a n t h e f i r s t a n d a l s o t h a n t h e t h i r d . O t h e r s i m i l a r e x a m p l e s a r e b a t a [ ' ba.-ta?] ' c h i l d ' , l a p a l [ l a . - p a l ] 'message', a n d _ p a s a l Q p a . - s a l ] ' m a r k e t * . The s y l l a b l e i s a l s o a u s e f u l c r i t e r i o n i n t h e c l a s s i f i  c a t i o n o f s o u n d s whose s t a t u s c a n n o t be e a s i l y d e f i n e d , as t o w h e t h e r t h e y f a l l u n d e r t h e v o w e l c a t e g o r y o r t h e c o n s o n a n t 29 c a t e g o r y . R e f e r e n c e i s made h e r e t o t h e n o n s y l l a b i c v o w e l  l i k e s o u n d s [ y ] a n d [ w ] i n T a u s u g . I t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l w h e t h e r [ y ] a n d [ w ] a r e t o be c l a s s i f i e d a s v o w e l o r c o n  s o n a n t s u n t i l we h a v e t h e m i n d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d i n c o n t r a s t i n a s y l l a b l e a n d s e e how t h e y p a t t e r n w i t h o t h e r v o w e l s a n d c o n s o  n a n t s i n t h e l a n g u a g e . T h e i r s t a t u s i s e s t a b l i s h e d o n l y a c c o r d - 30 i n g t o t h e i r c o n t e x t u a l f u n c t i o n , i . e . , what t h e y do w i t h i n a s y l l a b l e . I n o r d e r t h e r e f o r e t o e s t a b l i s h a s a t i s f a c t o r y b a s i s f o r d e s c r i p t i o n as w e l l a s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b o t h t h e s e g m e n t a l a n d t h e s u p r a s e g m e n t a l phonemes o f T a u s u g , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e a t t h i s p o i n t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s y l l a b l e a s i t o c c u r s i n t h e l a n g u a g e . 28" R e f e r t o s e c t i o n 6 .3 f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s on l e n g t h e n i n g o f v o w e l s . ^ K e n n e t h P i k e , P h o n e t i c s , ( A n n A r b o r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1964) pp. 73, 75-76. 30 I b i d , , p. 73. D a n i e l J o n e s a l s o u s e d ' c o n t e x t u a l f u n c t i o n * a s c r i t e r i a i n v o w e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b u t i n more v a r i e d ways t h a n P i k e . 57 L i n g u i s t s a r e n o t a l w a y s i n a g r e e m e n t as t o t h e i r d e f i  n i t i o n a n d / o r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s y l l a b l e due t o t h e i r d i f f e r e n  c e s i n p o i n t o f v i e w s . 3 1 P i e r r e F o u c h e a n d M a u r i c e Grammont, f o r i n s t a n c e , d e f i n e t h e s y l l a b l e i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l t e r m s , c h a r a c t e r  i z i n g i t i n t e r m s o f t h e g r o w i n g a n d d e c r e a s i n g o f t e n s i o n o f t h e m u s c l e s o f t h e v o i c e - p r o d u c i n g m e c h a n i s m . S t e t s o n , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , d e s c r i b e s t h e s y l l a b l e i n t e r m s o f ' c h e s t p u l s e s ^ 2 w h e r e - a s F e r d i n a n d de S a u s s u r e b a s e s h i s d i s c u s s i o n on t h e d e g r e e o f o p e n i n g o f s o u n d s ? 3 o t h e r c r i t e r i a a d v a n c e d f o r d e f i n i n g t h e 34 s y l l a b l e a r e t h o s e o f ' r e l a t i v e l o u d n e s s o f phoneme' ( B l o o m f i e l d ) , ' p r o m i n e n c e ' - made up o f i n h e r e n t s o n o r i t y , l e n g t h , s t r e s s , i n t o n a t i o n , a n d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e ( J o n e s , P i k e ^ a n d ' s o n o r i t y ' ( K e n y o n , H a l l , J e s p e r s e n ) . J F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f T a u s u g , i t p r o v e s c o n v e n i e n t t o a n a l y z e t h e s y l l a b l e i n t e r m s o f a s i n g l e u n i t o f p r o m i n e n c e ( p e a k o f s o n o r i t y ) , s u c h t h a t t h e most 31 B e r t i l Mamberg, P h o n e t i c s , (New Y o r k : D o v e r P u b l i c a  t i o n s 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 6 4 - 6 5 . 3 2 I b i d . , pp. 6 8 - 6 9 . ^ F e r d i n a n d de S a u s s u r e , C o u r s e i n G e n e r a l L i n g u i s t i c s , ( L o n d o n : M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k Company, 1 9 6 6 ), pp. 5 7-60. - ^ L e o n a r d B l o o m f i e l d , L a n g u a g e , ( T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , a n d W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 1 2 5 . 35 ^ D a n i e l J o n e s , A n O u t l i n e o f E n g l i s h P h o n e t i c s , ( C a m b r i d g e : W. H e f f e r a n d Sons L t d . , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 5 4 . K e n n e t h P i k e , P h o n e m i c s ( A n n A r b o r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 9 0 - 9 1 , 148. P i k e makes a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n p h o n e t i c a n d p h o n e m i c s y l l a b l e s . The a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l a t t e r . 3 6 j.s. K e n y o n , A m e r i c a n P r o n u n c i a t i o n , A T e s t b o o k o f P h o n e t i c s f o r S t u d e n t s o f E n g l i s h , ( A n n A r b e r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1 9 3 5 ) , PP. 6 8 - 6 9 . H a l l , op. c i t . , pp. 6 1 - 6 3 . 58 o u t s t a n d i n g ( s o n o r o u s ) s o u n d c o n s t i t u t e t h e n u c l e u s o r c e n t e r o f a s y l l a b l e . T h i s n u c l e u s a l w a y s c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e v o w e l s ( o n v o c o i d s on t h e p h o n e t i c l e v e l ) , b e c a u s e v o w e l s a r e u s u a l l y more s o n o r o u s t h a n c o n s o n a n t s ( c o n t o i d s ) . T h e y a r e n o r m a l l y v o i c e d a n d a r e p r o d u c e d w i t h o u t i m p e d i m e n t i n t h e o r a l c a v i t y . T h e r e a r e as many s y l l a b l e s as t h e r e a r e v o w e l s i n a T a u s u g u t t e r a n c e . A n a t i v e s p e a k e r o f t h e l a n g u a g e r e c o g n i z e s i n s t i n c t i v e l y t h e number o f s y l l a b l e s i n a g i v e n u t t e r a n c e by t h e number o f v o c o i d s p r e s e n t . I n a w o r d l i k e m a l i n g k a t " b e a u t i f u l " f o r i n s t a n c e , a l l n a t i v e s p e a k e r s w i l l r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e s y l l a b l e s : £ma-'liij-kat] . I t h a s b e e n a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t i n p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s ( o n p h o n e t i c l e v e l ) t h a t i n c a s e s w h e r e two v o w e l s o c c u r i n t h e same s y l l a b l e - a s e m i v o w e l w i t h a f u l l v o w e l - a d i p h t h o n g i s f o r m e d . S u c h a c o m b i n a t i o n makes a s i n g l e s y l l a b i c c e n t e r . T h u s , t h e w o r d mjLaJbtu ['myat-tuhj 'went,. ; t h e r e 1 h a s o n l y two s y l l a b l e s , w i t h a d i p h t h o n g i n t h e f i r s t . A c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n i n p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h , [»p'i-sU?] , [«p'ya-rah] , [*?a-tUp] , [«ba-ta?], £ ma- ' l i n - k a t ] , a n d ['myat-tUh] shows t h a t some s y l l a b l e s e n d i n a v o c o i d , w h i l e o t h e r s end i n c o n t o i d s . S y l l a b l e s e n d i n g i n v o c o i d - : a r e t e r m e d f r e e o r o p e n s y l l a b l e s . T h o s e t h a t h a v e c o n t o i d . : m a r g i n s a t t h e end a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s c h e c k e d o r c l o s e d s y l l a b l e s . T h u s , i n [ ' p ' i - s U ? ] t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e i s ' f r e e * w h e r e a s t h e s e c o n d one i s , c h e c k e d ' . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e d a t a w i l l r e v e a l t h a t a f r e e s y l l a b l e a l w a y s o c c u r s i n w o r d i n i t i a l o r w o r d f i n a l p o s i t i o n . A c h e c k e d s y l l a b l e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , shows u n l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t c a n o c c u r i n i t i a l l y , m e d i a l l y , a n d f i n a l l y . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n c a n be f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d b y l o o k i n g a t iS;ome-:.: e x a m p l e s s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g : t a a s [ « f a - ? o s ] ' h e i g h t ' a n a r u n [ ? a - ' n a r U n ] ' w i l l l e a r n 1 u b u [ *?u-[3Uh] ' c o u g h ' m a b i s k a y [ m a - ' p i s - k a y ] ' f a s t ' k a u n [ «k»-?Un] ' w i l l g e t ' l a r u t a n [ l a - > r u - t a n ] ' w i l l p u l l ' s u a t u n [ ' s w a - t U n ] ' w i l l d i g ' h a t u r a n [ h a - ' t u - r a n ] ' w i l l r e t u r n ' p a a g a r u n [p»a-? a-'-ja-rUn] • w i l l t a k e a l o n g w i t h i n g a t u n [ ? i - n a - t U n ] 'ought t o know' manghud [Jman-hUd] ' y o u n g e r b r o t h e r ' o r ' s i s t e r ' s a m b i [•sam-bl?] ' t o c h a n g e ' l a w a ['la-wah] • l e f t ' ( h a n d c o r n e r , • t a h i [ • t a r t h l ? ] ' t o sew' A l t h o u g h I n t h e w r i t t e n f o r m i t seems t h a t some T a u s u g s y l l a b l e s b e g i n w i t h v o w e l s l i k e t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e o f a n a r u n [?a Jna?-:rUn] ' w i l l l e a r n 1 , i n g a t u n [ ? I - , n a - t U n ] 'ought t o l e a r n 1 , 60 a n d t h e s e c o n d s y l l a b l e i n t a a s f ft*a?as1 ' h e i g h t * , a n d t h a t • some s y l l a b l e s a p p e a r t o e n d i n v o w e l s t o o ( s e e u b u [ »?u£Uh] ' c o u g h * , s a m b i [ ' s a m - b l ? ] ' t o c h a n g e ' , e t c . ) , i n a c t u a l s p e e c h , t h i s i s n o t s o . S y l l a b l e s a r e a l w a y s i n i t i a t e d b y c o n s o n a n t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e g l o t t a l s t o p w h i c h i s a s s u m e d t o be p r e s e n t e v e n when no c o n s o n a n t i s i n d i c a t e d on t h e o r t h o g r a p h y . I n w o r d f i n a l , s y l l a b l e s a l w a y s r e q u i r e f i n a l c o n s o n a n t s , i n c l u d i n g [ ? ] a n d [ h ] w h i c h a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d i n w r i t i n g . a n d e i t h e r £ ? ] a n d [ h ] a f t e r v o w e l s a t t h e e n d o f s y l l a b l e s i n w o r d f i n a l p o s i t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e pho n e m i c s t a t u s o f b o t h s o u n d s i n T a u s u g . S u b s t i t u t i n g one s o u n d f o r t h e o t h e r , o r a n y c o n s o n a n t f o r t h a t m a t t e r , r e s u l t s i n a n o t h e r n a t i v e w o r d o r a n o n - e x i s t i n g o n e. T h u s , t h e f o l l o w  i n g w o r d s a r e l i s t e d t o show t h e p h o n e m i c c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n [ ? ] a n d £ h ] i n a l l p o s s i b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n s : The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f [ ? ] b e f o r e v o w e l s Word i n i t i a l h i l u i l u [ ' ? i - l U h ] [«hi-lUh] ' o r p h a n ' ' d i z z y * o r ' d r u n k ' ug. hug C ? u g ] [ h u g ] ' h o l d s o m e t h i n g d e a r ' • c h a n g e ' (money) h a b a l a b a l [ * ? a - p a l ] [ ' h a - p a l ] 'news * ' w h i r l p o o l ' 61 Word m e d i a l n a i l u n a h i l u p a h a [ n a - * ? i - l U h ] [ n a - ' h i - i U h ] [«p«a-?dh] [»p»a-hcthT ] d a y a h a n [ d a - ' y a - h a n ] d a y a a n [ d a - * y a - ? a n ] Word f i n a l d i bad.ju a u g u [ d i : ? ] [ d l i : h ] [«badjU?] [ * b a d j U h ] [*duyU? ] 'became o r p h a n ' •became d r u n k * ' t h i g h ' 'band f o r t h e n a v e l ' • r i c h * ' s u r f a c e u p ' 'no* ( d o e s n o t l i k e ) ' h e r e * ' d r e s s ' ( g e n e r a l f o r m ) *storm» o r ' t y p h o o n * ' b l o o d * * c o r n e r * [ «duyUh ] U n l i k e £ ? ] , t h e [h*] c o n t o i d a t t h e e n d o f wo r d s l i k e , b a d j u £'badjUh] * s t o r m * a n d du g u [ «duyUh] * c o r n e r * seems t o be r e a l i z a b l e a s z e r o , o r a t l e a s t i t i s o f t e n n o t a u d i b l e e nough t o be n o t i c e d . H o w e v e r , i f a s u f f i x l i k e a n ' t o c a u s e t o ' , ' t o p u t . . .*, e t c . i s a d d e d t o e a c h o f t h e w o r d s a b o v e , t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f f_ h) becomes p e r f e c t l y c l e a r . T h u s : b a d j u + a i l 'becomes' ( > ) b a d j u h a n [ b a d - ' j u h x n 3 • t o c a u s e t o s t o r m ' d u g u + a n >-duguhan [ dU-'yu-l^cm ~] ' t o p u t c o r n e r ( s ) on s o m e t h i n g * The a b o v e w o r d c o n t r a s t p h o n e m i c a l l y w i t h b a d j u + a n > b a d j u a n f b a d - ' j u ? q n * t o p u t a d r e s s 1 o n ..' dugu 4fr a n > d u g u a n f du ' y u-?qn"| ' t o p u t b l o o d on . . » 6*, The u s e o f a n i n s t e a d o f h a n i n t h e f i r s t s e t o f e x a m p l e s r e s t S L ; on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t [ h ] , l i k e [ ? ] , i s a l r e a d y f o u n d a t t h e end o f e a c h w o r d , b a d j u a n d d u g u , a l t h o u g h o r t h o g r a p h i c a l l y [ h ] i s n o t r e p r e s e n t e d . The phenomenon o f [ h ] b e c o m i n g a p a r t o f t h e a d d e d s y l l a b l e i s n o r m a l i n T a u s u g . A n y f i n a l c o n s o n a n t , f o r t h a t m a t t e r , i n w o r d f i n a l p o s i t i o n , u n l e s s t h e s u f f i x b e g i n s w i t h a c o n s o n a n t , f o r m s t h e i n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t o f t h e new s y l l a b l e . To j u s t i f y t h i s c l a i m more e x a m p l e s a r e l i s t e d h e r e : s u l a t + a n y s u l a t a n b u r a k 4 a n ha b u l -f a n b u r a k a n "y h a b u l a n sumbung 4- un. y sumbungun j u w a l a n + u n y j u w a l a n u n s a l a m + u n >^ s a l a m u n [ s U - " l a - t a n ] ' w r i t e ' > ' w i l l w r i t e ' [ b U - 'ra-kotn] 'powder' > ' w i l l p o w d e r ' [ h a - ' B u - l a n ] ' b l a n k e t > ' t o p u t a b l a n k e t ' [sUm»bu-nUn] • r e p o r t ' > ' w i l l make a r e p o r t ' [ j u - w a - ' l a - n U n ] ' f r i e d b a n a n a ' > ' t o f r y b a n a n a ' [ s a - *la-mUn] 'hand s h a k e ' > ' t o s h a k e h a n d s 63 l u k u p + 1 > l u k u M £ *k»a-li-?Ih] • t o d i g 1 > 'you d i g ' ClU'kuPIh] • c o v e r ' > 'you c o v e r * & t u p + i , •> a t u p i [ ? a - ' t u - p l h ] n i p a s h i n g l e * > * y o u p u t n i p a r o o f i n g ' I n t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e s i t i s c l e a r l y shown w i t h c o m p l e t e c o n s i s t e n c y t h a t f i n a l c o n s o n a n t s become i n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t s o f new a d d e d s y l l a b l e s . T h e s e r e g u l a r o c c u r r e n c e s c o n f i r m t h e r e  f o r e , t h e a s s u m p t i o n p o s t u l a t e d a b o v e . °n t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s , t h e s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n s o f T a u s u g a r e s t a t e d h e r e i n t e r m s o f p e r m i s s i b l e com b i n a t i o n s o f c o n s o n a n t s (C) a n d v o w e l s ( V ) , I t h a s b e e n n o t e d t h a t o n l y two b a s i c p a t t e r n s e x i s t i n t h e l a n g u a g e . The f i r s t i s a s e q u e n c e o f c o n s o n a n t - v o w e l (CV) f o u n d i n t h e f r o n t s y l l a  b l e s o f a n a r u n [?a-'na-rUn]3. T h i s s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e • f r e e * s y l l a b l e d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s p a r a g r a p h . The s e c o n d s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n c o n s i s t s o f c o n s o n a n t - v o w e l - c o n s o n a n t (CVC) c o m b i n a t i o n , i . e . , t h e f i r s t , t h e s e c o n d , a n d t h e t h i r d s y l l a b l e s o f magsumpingfmag:-'sum-pia] ' t o b e a r f l o w e r s ' . The (CVC) s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e ' c h e c k e d s y l l a b l e a n d i s t h e o n l y s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n t h a t c a n s t a n d a l o n e a s a n u t t e r a n c e . H e n c e , t h e w o r d s u [ ? u : h ] ' h e a d 1 , s a [ s a : ? ] ' f a u l t ' , d i [ d l : h ] ' h e r e ' , s i n [ s i : n ] 'money*, e t c . . S e q u e n c e s o f two o r more v o c o i d s , a s i n t h e c a s e o f d i p h t h o n g s a n d t r i p h t h o n g s , a r e t r e a t e d a s c o m b i n a t i o n o f a f u l l v o w e l a n d s e m i v o w e l ( S ) . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e p e r m i t t e d v o w e l - s e m i v o w e l c o m b i n a t i o n s i n t h e l a n g u a g e , t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e l i s t e d a s s e c o n d a r y s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n s o f T a u s u g : CSV - s i u k a t [ ' s y u - k a t ] 'was b e i n g demanded' t i a u n [*t»ya-?Un] 'was m a r r i e d ' a n t u i l a s [ ? a n - ' t w i - l a s ] ' s e q u i n s ' p w asa ['p'wa-sah] ' f a s t i n g ' [ ' k * a y - t a n ] ' t o p u t a p i n on . . .' l a i n a n [ ' l a y - n a n ] 'you t r a n s f e r i t . . . ' k a u n a [*k»awnah] 'put i t ' ( t h e r e , b a c k , e t c . ) [ - s a w r a h ] ' c a t c h i t w i t h . . . • o r ' r e c e i v e i t w i t h . . . ' [ s y o m ] ' n i n e ' t i a d t a d [ ' t ' y a d t a d ] ' s p l i t b a m b o o s 1 f o r w a l l i n g ' b u a d [ b w a d ] ' t o d r y ' [ m w i ? ] ' t o go home' [ ' k ' a y t ] ' s a f e t y p i n ' [ l a y n ] ' t o t r a n s f e r ' b a u s [ b a w s ] ' t o b a r g a i n ' taumpa ['t»awmpa?] ' s h o e s ' CVS - k a i t a n s a u r a CSVC - s i a m mui CVSC - k a i t l a i n 65 CSVS - k i a i t a n [ ' k ' y a y - t a n ] 'was p i n n e d 1 s i a u r a n [ ' s y a w - r a n ] ' c a t c h s o m e t h i n g w i t h r e c e p t a c l e ' t i a i k u r a n £ 't'yay-kuran] ' t u r n e d one.'.'s b a c k f r o m . . . • CSVSC - b i a u s [ b y a w s ] 'was b a r g a i n e d ' d u a u n [dwctwn] 1 b y t w o s ' b u a i h [ b w a y h ] ' t o p u t r a t t a n o n . . . ' W i t h t h e s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n o f T a u s u g a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d , two i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s r e l a t i v e t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r s w i l l h a v e t o be o b s e r v e d . ' F i r s t , s i n c e c o n s o n a n t s o c c u r o n l y s i n g l y i n a s y l l a b l e , no c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r s t h e r e f o r e e x i s t i n t h e l a n g u a g e e x c e p t - . a c r o s s s y l l a b l e b o u n d a r i e s . A c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r w h i c h o c c u r s .-• a c r o s s a s y l l a b l e b o u n d a r y i s a l w a y s t o be i n t e r p r e t e d a s s e q u e n c e s o f two c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h d i v i d e d i n t o t h e s u c c e s s i v e s y l l a b l e s a s i n taumpa ['t'awm-pa?] ' s h o e s ' . To c l a s s i f y [mp] i n t h e a b o v e c i t e d e x a m p l e a s b e l o n g i n g t o e i t h e r o f t h e two s y l l a b l e s w o u l d r e n d e r i t f o r e i g n t o t h e l a n g u a g e ' s s y l l a b l e - s t r u c t u r e . S e c o n d , c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r s c a n o c c u r o n l y i n w o r d m e d i a l p o s i t i o n , n o t a n y w h e r e e l s e . 5. THE SEGMENTAL PHONEMES What c o n s t i t u t e s a s y l l a b l e a r e s e q u e n c e s o f d i s c r e t e f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s o f s p e e c h s o u n d s known a s s e g m e n t a l o r l i n e a r phonemes. A c c o r d i n g t o l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y , t h e number o f s e g m e n t a l phonemes i n a g i v e n l a n g u a g e i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e t o t a l number o f p o s s i b l e s o u n d s u t t e r e d b y a s p e a k e r . O n l y s o u n d s w h i c h g i v e m e a n i n g f u l c o n t r a s t s i n a p a r t i c u l a r l a n g u a g e a r e r e g a r d e d as phonemes o f t h a t l a n g u a g e . E v e n i f t h e same phonemes, o r t h e same g r o u p o f phonemes, a r e f o u n d i n a n y t w o g i v e n l a n g u a g e s , t h e s e phonemes w i l l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e t h e same f u n c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , b o t h T a u s u g a n d E n g l i s h h a v e t h e s o u n d s [ d] a n d [ r ] w h i c h a r e q u i t e s i m i  l a r f r o m t h e p h o n e t i c s t a n d - p o i n t . H o w e v e r , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e two s o u n d s t o e a c h o t h e r i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n t h e pho n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m o f T a u s u g a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h a t o f E n g l i s h , / d / a n d / r / i n E n g l i s h a r e c l e a r l y i n c o n t r a s t w i t h e a c h o t h e r , i n t h a t t h e y s e r v e t o d i s t i n g u i s h m e a n i n g s b e t w e e n w o r d s l i k e 37 d u s t [ dAst 3 a n d r u s t [ rAst).. I n T a u s u g , h o w e v e r , t h e s i t u a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t . [ d ] , a n d [ r ] a r e i n c o m p l e m e n t a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n [ d ] b e i n g r e p l a c e d b y [ r ] when p r e c e d e d a n d f o l l o w e d by v o w e l s . The c o n t r a s t i s shown i n t h e e x a m p l e s : i n d a n [ ? i n ' d a n ] ' t h e r o a d ' , a n d h a r a n [ h a »ra:nf] 'on t h e r o a d * . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e two s o u n d s i n T a u s u g does -"A. S. H o r n b y , e t . a l . , The A d v a n c e d L e a r n e r ' s  D i c t i o n a r y o f C u r r e n t E n g l i s h . S e c o n d E d i t i o n ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), pp. 312, 871, 67 n o t p a r a l l e l t h a t o f E n g l i s h . M o r e o v e r , s o u n d s w h i c h a r e v a r i a n t s o f one phoneme i n one l a n g u a g e may he two o r more d i s t i n c t phonemes i n a n o t h e r . The v o c o i d s [ i ] a n d [l"] a r e v a r i a n t s o f t h e phoneme /!/ i n T a u s u g . I n E n g l i s h , h o w e v e r , t h e s e two s o u n d s a r e d i s t i n c t phonemes a s i n t h e m i n i m a l p a i r b e a t / b i t / a n d b i t / b i t / . I n g e n e r a l , phonemes a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d a n d c h a r a c t e  r i z e d b y t h e i r d e f i n i n g a t t r i b u t e s o r s o - c a l l e d ' b u n d l e s o f f e a t u r e s ' w h i c h l i n g u i s t s t e r m ' p h o n o l o g i c a l c o m p o n e n t s ' o r ' d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s ' . J a k o b s o n , F a n t , a n d H a l l e s a y t h a t "any one l a n g u a g e c o d e h a s a f i n i t e s e t o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s a n d a s e t o f r u l e s f o r g r o u p i n g t h e m i n t o phonemes a n d a l s o f o r g r o u p i n g t h e l a t e r i n t o s e q u e n c e s . . . . The d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s a r e t h e u l t i m a t e d i s t i n c t i v e e n t i t i e s o f a l a n g u a g e s i n c e no one o f them c a n be b r o k e n down i n t o 38 s m a l l e r l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s . " The p h o n e m i c s y s t e m o f T a u s u g i s e s t a b l i s h e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s i n c o n s o n a n c e w i t h t h e c r i t e r i a o f p h o n e m i c a n a l y s i s s e t f o r t h i n s e c t i o n 2.4. So f a r , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r h a s a n a l y z e d o n l y t w e n t y s e g m e n t a l phonemes o f T a u s u g . S u c h a n a l y s i s d i s c o u n t s t h e c l a i m o f L o i s a n d Seymour A s h l e y t o t w e n t y - o n e phonemes e x i s t i n g i n t h e l a n g u a g e . The / n / w h i c h t h e A s h l e y s ' c l a i m t o be a s e p a r a t e phoneme c a n n o t be e s t a b l i s h e d a s s u c h s i n c e s e q u e n c e s - ' J a k o b s o n , F a n t , a n d H a l l e , op. c i t . , pp. 3-^. 68 o f a c o n s o n a n t a n d a s e m i v o w e l a r e p e r m i s s i b l e i n t h e l a n g u a g e . By a n a l o g y , t h e i n i t i a l s o u n d s o f f i u l i *a s i n g i n g b i r d * a n d nawa * l i f e * p a t t e r n w i t h t h e i n i t i a l s o u n d s o f w o r d s l i k e p i u n u n g ['p'ytmtFi}} ' f a i n t e d * , t i u r a n [ ' t ' y u r a n ^ j ' p u s h e d * , b i u s a n [ ' b y u s a n ] *borrowed», d i u g a l a n f d y U g a l a n l *was a n g r y * , m i u l a ['myuliah] , e t c . . N u l l a n d nawa may, t h e r e f o r e , be i n t e r p r e t e d a s [*nyullh3 a n d ['nyawah] , r e s p e c t i v e l y . On t h e p h o n e t i c l e v e l , t h e s p e e c h s o u n d s o f T a u s u g a r e c l a s s i f i e d i n t o v o c o i d s a n d c o n t o i d s . On t h e p h o n e m i c l e v e l , t h e t w e n t y s e g m e n t a l phonemes a r e c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o v o w e l s a n d c o n s o n a n t s d e p e n d i n g o n t h e i r p h o n e t i c c h a r a c t e  r i s t i c s a n d t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e some pho nemes l i k e / y / a n d /w/ whose s t a t u s i s i n t e r m e d i a t e b e t w e e n v o w e l s a n d c o n s o n a n t s , s o t h a t t h e y a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s e i t h e r s e m i v o w e l s o r s e m i c o n s o n a n t s . I t i s t h e i r p a r t a k i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f o r t h e i r s h a r i n g w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r a l h a b i t s o f v o w e l s a n d c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h c l a s s i f i e s t h e m i n s u c h a n a m b i v a l e n t c a t e g o r y . B e f o r e s t a r t i n g t o d i s c u s s e a c h o f t h e t w e n t y s e g m e n t a l phonemes a n d t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g b u n d l e s o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s , t h e i r v a r i a n t s , d i s t r i b u t i o n a l a s w e l l as o p p o s i t i o  n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e a c h o t h e r , i t i s • c o n v e n i e n t t o e s t a b l i s h f i r s t t h e s t a t u s o f t h e s e m i v o w e l s o r s e m i c o n s o n a n t s a s t h e y s t a n d i n t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m o f t h e l a n g u a g e . 69 5.1 The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e S e m i v o w e l s o r S emi c o n s o n a n t s I t h a s b e e n m e n t i o n e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s y l l a b l e t h a t t h e s t a t u s o f t h e v o w e l - l i k e [ y ] a n d [w] a s c o n s o n a n t s o r v o w e l s i s d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r c o n  t e x t u a l f u n c t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n a g i v e n s y l l a b l e o r u t t e r a n c e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e d e t e r m i n i n g c r i  t e r i o n i s p a t t e r n c o n g r u i t y ( c f . s e c t i o n 2.3). B e c a u s e o f t h e f a c t t h a t i n T a u s u g ( s e e s e c t i o n 4) c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r s do n o t o c c u r i n s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l o r s y l l a  b l e f i n a l p o s i t i o n s , t h e s u s p e c t s o u n d s [ y j a n d [w] when i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g a n i n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t o r i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g a f i n a l c o n s o n a n t i s t o be i n t e r p r e t e d a s v o c a l i c . T h u s , t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s o f a l l p o s s i b l e s e q u e n c e s o f two v o c o i d s show i n s t a n c e s o f [ y ] a n d [w] f u n c t i o n i n g v o c a l i c a l l y : l i a g [ l y a g ] 'was l o o k i n g f o r ' k a i t [ k ' a y t ] ' s a f e t y p i n ' s i u [ s y u h ] 'who* ( i n t e r r o g a t i v e p r o n o u n ) s u a t [ s w a t ] ' t o c u l t i v a t e ' ( s o i l ) l a u m f l a w m ] ' i n s i d e * m u i [mwi? ] ' t o go home* P h o n e t i c a l l y , t h e r e a r e s e q u e n c e s b f two d i f f e r e n t v o c o i d s i n e a c h o f t h e w o r d s ( l i s t e d a b o v e . A l t h o u g h f r o m a l i s t e n e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e s e s e q u e n c e s o f two v o c o i d s g i v e a ' m o n o l i t h i c i m p r e s s i o n ' ( d u e t o t h e r a p i d movement o r g l i d e made f r o m one 70 s o u n d t o a n o t h e r ) , t h e y a r e , h o w e v e r , i n t e r p r e t e d a s a c o m b i  n a t i o n o f a p u r e v o w e l a n d a s e m i v o w e l , w i t h t h e s e m i v o w e l f u n c t i o n i n g a s a s e c o n d a r y o r s u b o r d i n a t e member t o t h e f u l l v o w e l . S u c h s e q u e n c e s o f two v o c o i d s c a n n o t o t h e r w i s e be c o n  s i d e r e d a s two i n d e p e n d e n t p u r e v o w e l s s i n c e , n o r m a l l y , no two s u c h v o w e l s c a n o c c u r i n s e q u e n c e i n t h e l a n g u a g e w i t h o u t a n i n t e r v o c a l i c c o n s o n a n t c o m i n g b e t w e e n them. The e x a m p l e s g i v e n a b o v e c a n n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d a s h a v i n g a n i n t e r v o c a l i c [ h j o r [ ? ] b e c a u s e t h e y w o u l d c o n t r a s t w i t h w o r d s s u c h a s : l i a n £ * l i ? < 5 i n ~] • s e n i l e * k a h i g [ »k'«hlg] s i u b s u a n k a u n M u i n ' s c r a t c h * ( t h e g r o u n d w i t h t h e f e e t ) ' b l a n k e t ' ' t o l i g h t s o m e t h i n g * ' w i l l g e t * tfa name o f a p e r s o n ) [ »si?ub ] [ »su?an "J [ »ka?Un ] [ »mu?In ] A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e s w h i c h show s e q u e n c e s o f two d i f f e r e n t v o c o i d s i s t h a t y o r w may be u s e d t o s e p a r a t e t h e v o w e l c l u s t e r s , t h u s g i v i n g r i s e t o t w o - s y l l a b l e w o r d s i n s t e a d o f o n e - s y l l a b l e w o r d s : [ l y a g ] > [ ' l i y a g ] [ s y u h ] > [ ' s i y U h ] [ s w a t ] > [ * s u w a t J [ m w i ? ] > ['rnuwl? J 71 T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s , h o w e v e r , l i m i t e d t o w o r d s w h e r e t h e h i g h v o c o i d s Qi] a n d [ u ] a r e f i r s t i n t h e v o w e l c l u s t e r s , b u t n o t when t h e y come a f t e r a n o t h e r v o w e l a s i n k a i t a n d saum. I t i s n o t n o r m a l i n t h e l a n g u a g e , e v e n i n a r t i f i c i a l s l o w s p e e c h t o s a y *['k'eDyIt] f o r [ k ' a y t ] a n d * ['sawUmJ f o r [sawm] , B e s i d e s , ' n a t i v e r e a c t i o n s t r o n g l y r e s i s t s s u c h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' . F o r c o n s i s t e n c y i n a n a l y s i s a n d i n c o n g r u i t y w i t h k a i t a n d saum, t h e f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f l i a g , s i u , s u a t , a n d mui w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e m o n o s y l l a b i c a n d d i s s y l l a b i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e e x a m p l e s i n q u e s t i o n i s o n l y a m a t t e r o f t i m i n g , i . e . , t h e s p e e d i n w h i c h t h e w o r d s a r e p r o n o u n c e d . I n n o r m a l r a p i d s p e e c h , t h e most commonly h e a r d a r e t h e m o n o s y l l a b i c f o r m s [ l y a g j , [ s y u h ] , ["swot] , a n d [mwi?]. The l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e s o f [ y ] a n d [w] i n r e l a t i o n t o k a i t a n d sawm g i v e n a b o v e b r i n g s i n t o f o c u s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t p o i n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e m i v o w e l s . Where [ y j i s p r e s e n t i n a g i v e n s y l l a b l e , t h e v o c o i d [ i ] i s a b s e n t , [ y ] '. a n d [w] a r e n e v e r i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n w i t h Qi] a n d [u] r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e r e i s no i n s t a n c e ; where [ y j a n d [ i ] o r [w] a n d [ u ] shows, c o n t r a s t i n t h e l a n g u a g e . H e n c e , i t i s j u s t i f i a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t [ y ] a n d [ i ] a r e n o t two s e p a r a t e phonemes b u t p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t s , s i n c e t h e y a r e n o n - c o n t r a s t i v e , 72 p h o n e t i c a l l y s i m i l a r , and complementarily d i s t r i b u t e d , each wi t h i t s own p a t t e r n i n the language, but f u l f i l l i n g the same f u n c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , [w] and [u] are to be c l a s s e d t o g e t h e r as be l o n g i n g t o the same phoneme. Assuming t h a t the sequences of vocoids i n l i a g , s i u , suat, and mui were t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as t w o - s y l l a b l e words (which i s p o s s i b l e ) , [ y ] and [ w ] which separate the sequences of vocoids no lon g e r f u n c t i o n as vowels. D i s t r i b u t i o n a l l y , they are i n the p o s i t i o n of consonants. In [ * l i - y a g j and f'si-yUhJ , f o r i n s t a n c e , [ y j becomes the i n i t i a l consonants of the second s y l l a b l e s . A s i m i l a r phone- menon i s t r u e w i t h £w] wit h regards t o ['su-wat] and jjmu-wl?] . Both, [ y ] and [_w] thus s t r u c t u r e w i t h the vowels and a l s o enter i n t o the same f u n c t i o n as other consonants i n such s e r i e s as l i t a g j j l i t a g j ' b i r d ' s t r a p ' , k a b i t ['k'apit] 'to a t t a c h ' , s i k u Q'sikUhJ 'elbow', sukat f'sukcxt] 'to demand', kaun ['ka?Unj 'to get*, and muti [»mutl?3 'to become white,' e t c . F u r t h e r examples show [ y ] and [yjj f u n c t i o n i n g as consonants. On the b a s i s of the s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n s of Tausug e s t a b l i s h e d i n s e c t i o n 4, £y] and [w] when o c c u r r i n g word i n i t i a l and word f i n a l are t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as consonants. Hence the f o l l o w i n g sample l i s t i n g : Word i n i t i a l [y"J yaun £'ya?Un "j 'that one' y a r i [ * y a r l h ] 'here* 73 L w l w a l u ['walUh] ' e i g h t * w a k t u ['waktUh] ' t i m e ' Word f i n a l [ v ] "bay - { b a y ] ' h o u s e ' inag-abay [mag'?apay} ' w i l l go t o g e t h e r * [ w ] sabaw £*3a£aw1 *soup* manaw [*nianaw] ' t o t a k e a w a l k * S i n c e c l u s t e r s o f more t h a n t w o c o n s o n a n t s do n o t o c c u r i n t h e l a n g u a g e , i n m e d i a l s y l l a b l e p o s i t i o n , [ y ] i n w o r d s l i k e Maimbung [*maymbUn] ( a name o f a p l a c e i n J o l o , S u l u ) a n d k a i m a n [*k'ay?man] ' f i f t y ' , a n d [w] i n baumbang [*bawmbang]) ' c h e c k e r e d ' a n d t a u m p a ['t'awmpa?J a r e t o be i n t e r p r e t e d a s v o w e l s i n s t e a d o f c o n s o n a n t s . By a n a l o g y w i t h t h e s e q u e n c e s o f v o c o i d s i n k a i t [ k a y t ] a n d l a u m lawm , [ y ] a n d [ w ] a r e t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as v o w e l s i n words s u c h as s a i t a n [ ' s a y - t a n J ' w i l l removefwateer f r o m b o a t ' , l a i n a n [ ' l a y - n a n ] ' w i l l t r a n s f e r s o m e t h i n g f r o m ' , s a u k u n [*saw-kun] ' w i l l f e t c h w a t e r ' , s a u r u n [*saw-rUn] ' w i l l r e c e i v e s o m e t h i n g w i t h r e c e p t a c l e ' *\rhich a r e d e r i v e d f r o m b a s e w o r d s s a i t [ s a y t j ' t o remove w a t e r f r o m b o a t ' , l a i n [ l a y n ] ' t o t r a n s f e r * , s a u k [ s a w k ] ' t o f e t c h w a t e r ' , a n d s a u d [ s a w d ] ' t o c a t c h o r r e c e i v e s o m e t h i n g w i t h r e c e p t a c l e ' . |n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e r e f o r e , [ y ] a n d [ w ] as v a r i a n t s o f t h e phonemes / i / a n d / u / a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e V o w e l 7k Tra&ngle found on page 7.7 . Words l i k e l i a g [ l y a g ] . k a i t [k'ayt] , suat [swat] , mul [mwi?] , s a i t an [1* s a y t a n j , l a i n a n f'laynan] , saukun Q'sawkUn] , saurun [sawrUnJ , etc . are t o be i n t e r p r e t e d phonemically as / l i a g / , / k a i t / , / s u a t / , mui?/, / ' s a i t a n / , / ' l a i n a n / , /'saukun/, and /'saurun/ r e s p e c t i v e l y . As consonants, however, /y/, and /w/ are in c l u d e d i n the schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of consonants on page I'O^  . The f a c t that they both show con t r a s t s w i t h other consonants i n the ph o n o l o g i c a l system of the language and because of the pressure of s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n discussed i n the preceding chapter, means that /y/ and /w/ are given f u l l phonemic s t a t u s . 75 5.2 THE VOWELS E a r l i e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n , i t h a s b e e n m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e T a u s u g p h o n e m i c s y s t e m h a s shown i t t o h a v e t w e n t y s e g m e n t a l phonemes. Of t h e s e , t h r e e a r e c a t e g o r i z e d as v o w e l s a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g s e v e n t e e n a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s c o n s o n a n t s . The v o w e l phonemes a r e : / i / a s i n b i d / b i d / *hill» / a / a s i n bat, / b a t i / ' s e a cucumber* / u / a s i n b u d / b u d / ' m o u n t a i n * T h o s e c a t e g o r i z e d a s c o n s o n a n t s are':' A / as in pula /pulah/ *red* A / as in tuba /tuba?/ *a kind of drink made from palm* A / as in kula /kula?/ *pleats * /?/ as in ulan /?ulan/ •rain' A / as in bula Aula?/ •bamboo split* /d/ as in dulan /dulan/ *to grant' (something) /g/ as in gula /gula?/ •nectar* A / as in juba /juba?/ 'robe * A / as in mula /mulah/ *wil l become red* A / as in nunuk /nunuk/ •balete tree* A / as in ngan ./nan/ *name' A / as in xsulab /sulab/ •blade' A / as in hula /hula?/ •place• / ! / as in lura /lura?/ •sputum' / r / a s i n r a d j u / r & d j U h / ' r a d i o * /w/ a s i n w a l u /w£luh/ ' e i g h t ' / y / a s i n y a r i / y & r i h / ' h e r e ' The d i s t i n c t i o n "between v o w e l s a n d c o n s o n a n t s c a n n o t be made t o r e s t p u r e l y o n what g o e s on i n t h e o r a l c a v i t y . D i f f e r e n c e s a r e a c o u s t i c o r i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c r a t h e r t h a n s t r i c t l y a r t i c u l a t o r y . D e s c r i p t i o n a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b o t h v o w e l s a n d c o n s o n a n t s a r e made on a u d i t o r y j u d g m e n t i n a d d i t i o n t o a r t i c u l a  t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n . F r o m t h e a u d i t o r y p o i n t o f v i e w c o n s o n a n t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y p l o s i o n o r a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n . F r om t h e a r t i c u l a - t o r y p o i n t o f v i e w , v o w e l s a r e p r o d u c e d by a f r e e p a s s a g e o f a i r t h r o u g h t h e o r a l c a v i t y . I n t h e c a s e o f some c o n s o n a n t s , t h e r e i s c o n s t r i c t i o n o r c o m p l e t e o b s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b r e a t h s t r e a m o r c u r r e n t o f a i r a t one o r more p o i n t s o n t h e way o u t f r o m t h e l u n g s , o r i n t h e c a s e o f a g r o u p o f c o n s o n a n t s c a l l e d s o m a n t s ( l , r , y , w ) , t h e b r e a t h - s t r e a m i s c o n s t r i c t e d i n s u c h a way t h a t i t f a i l s t o p r o d u c e f r i c t i o n . I n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e s e g m e n t a l phonemes o f T a u s u g , o u r f i r s t c o n c e r n i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e r e p e r t o r y o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s w h i c h s e r v e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e one phoneme f r o m a n o t h e r , b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n t h e phonemes, a s w e l l a s t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n a l r e l a t i o n  s h i p . 77 5. 1.1 D e s c r i p t i o n a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L i k e t h e v o c o i d s , o n t h e p h o n e t i c l e v e l , ' t h e v o w e l phonemes a r e d e s c r i b e d a n d c l a s s i f i e d o n t h e b a s i s o f two f u n c  t i o n a l f a c t o r s : t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e t o n g u e a n d t h e s h a p e o f t h e l i p s . T he p o s i t i o n o f t h e t o n g u e w h i c h i s t h e more i m p o r  t a n t f a c t o r v a r i e s i n two d i m e n s i o n s ; t h e t o n g u e h e i g h t a n d t h e t o n g u e a d v a n c e m e n t . When c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e v o w e l s o f T a u s u g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t e i g h t o f t h e t o n g u e , two c l a s s e s o f v o w e l s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e h i g h v o w e l s a n d t h e l o w v o w e l s . B u t u s i n g a s c r i t e r i o n t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f t h e t o n g u e , t h r e e c l a s s e s o f v o w e l s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d : f r o n t , c e n t r a l , a n d b a c k w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d r e s p e c t i v e l y t o / i / , / a / , a n d /VL/. I f t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e t h r e e v o w e l s a n d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e a c h o t h e r i s shown by means o f a s c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e r e s u l t a n t d i a g r a m i s a t r i a n g l e ( S e e f i g u r e 7 b e l o w ) w h i c h i s knoxm t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s t h e 'Vowel T r i a n g l e ' . ' F i g u r e 7: The V o w e l T r i a n g l e o f T a u s u g F r o n t C e n t r a l B a c k H i g h / i / M Low / a / 78; W i t h t h e a b o v e d i a g r a m m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l c o n t r a s t s i n t e r m s o f t o n g u e h e i g h t a n d t o n g u e a d v a n c e m e n t a r e b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e d b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e v o w e l s . ' / i / i s shown a b o v e a s a h i g h - f r o n t v o w e l w h i c h c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e l o w c e n t r a l / a / a n d t h e h i g h - b a c k v o w e l / u / . A l t h o u g h v o w e l q u a l i t y i s c h i e f l y d e p e n d e n t Gn t h e p o s i  t i o n o f t h e t o n g u e , i t i s a f f e c t e d t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t b y t h e s p r e a d i n g o r r o u n d i n g o f t h e l i p s , : The h i g h - f r o n t v o w e l / i / i s a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h t h e l i p s m o d e r a t e l y s p r e a d a n d u n r o u n d e d . The p a r a l l e l v o w e l i n t h e h i g h - b a c k r a n g e , / u / , h a s a m o d e r a t e l y r o u n d i n g o f t h e l i p s , w h i c h a r e p u r s e d a n d p u s h e d a l i t t l e f o r  w a r d . The c e n t r a l l o w v o w e l / a / h a s a n unrounded,' n e u t r a l l i p p o s i t i o n . 1 The s t a t e o f t h e t o n g u e a s r e g a r d s m u s c u l a r t e n s i o n i s a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n d i f f e r e n t i a  t i n g a s w e l l a s d e t e r m i n i n g v o w e l q u a l i t y . V o w e l s a r e e i t h e r l a x o r t e n s e . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e h i g h v o w e l s / i / a n d / u / , a r t i c u l a  t i o n i s made w i t h r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g m u s c l e t e n s i o n , ' s o t h a t t h e y a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s t e n s e v o w e l s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e v o w e l o f t h e l o w c e n t r a l a r e a , / a / . , i s a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h t h e m u s c l e o f t h e t o n g u e h e l d l o o s e l y a n d r e l a x e d , s o t h a t i t i s c o n s i d e r e d a s a l a x v o w e l . T h e g e n e r a l i z e d summary d e s c r i p t i o n a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e v o w e l phonemes a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t i e s a r e 7,9:. l i s t e d b e l o w : / i / - h i g h - f r o n t , t e n s e , u n r o u n d e d / a / - l o w - c e n t r a l , 1 l a x , u n r o u n d e d / u / - h i g h - b a c k , t e n s e , r o u n d e d 5.'1.2 P h o n e m i c C o n t r a s t Phonemes a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m one a n o t h e r n o t o n l y i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o r f e a t u r e s b u t a l s o a s e l e m e n t s w h i c h s t a n d i n c o n t r a s t w i t h e a c h o t h e r i n t h e p h o n o l o  g i c a l s y s t e m o f t h e l a n g u a g e . ' H o c k e t t i n h i s b o o k , A C o u r s e i n 39 M o d e r n L i n g u i s t i c s , e m p h a s i z e s t h i s when he s a y s t h a t t h e " s o u n d s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n them h a v e one a n d o n l y one f u n c t i o n i n t h e l a n g u a g e : t o k e e p u t t e r a n c e s a p a r t " . The e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y o f c o n t r a s t o r d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s , t h e r e f o r e , g i v e s e a c h o f t h e v o w e l phonemes o f T a u s u g i t s p h o n e m i c i d e n  t i t y . ' I n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e p h o n e m i c s t a t u s o f t h e v o w e l s o f Tausug,' m i n i m a l p a i r s o r p a i r s o f w o r d s ^ e a c h h a v i n g a d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g a n d d i f f e r i n g b y o n l y one phoneme o r i n o n l y one f e a t u r e a r e c o n c l u s i v e a n d c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e i n s h o w i n g t h a t two s o u n d s do n o t b e l o n g t o t h e same phoneme. T h u s , t h e f o l l o w i n g p a i r s o f w o r d s w h i c h show p h o n e m i c o p p o s i t i o n s o f f r o n t - v e r s u s - b a c k a n d h i g h v e r s u s - l o w v o w e l s a r e h e r e b y l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y . The e x a m p l e s a r e a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o the:. • occurrences o f t h e v o w e l phonemes i n u t t e r a n c e s : — H o c k e t t , o p . c i t , ' 1 p. 15.' 80 A / - A / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n i b a n  u b a n i g u g i n u m  unum i p a t  u p a t I s a us a /?iban/ /?uban/ A i g / Aug/ / ? i n u m / /?unum/ / ? i p a t / / ? u p a t / / ? i s a h / / ? u s a h / Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n b i d A i d / b u d h i l u g  h u l u g k i t a  k u t a p i l a k  p u l a k / b u d / / h i l u g / / h u l u g / / k i t a ? / / k u t a ? / / p i l a k / / p u l a k / ' c o m p a n i o n * ' w h i t e h a i r ' ' t o g e t o u t ' o r ' t o remove* * p o s s e s s i v e n e s s * * t o d r i n k * * s i x * * t o t a k e c a r e * ' f o u r * * J e s u s C h r i s t ' * d e e r ' * h i l l * ' m o u n t a i n * * t o s c r u b t h e b o d y ' ' t o f a l l ' o r ' t o d r o p ' • t o s e e * • f o r t ' ' p e s o * ( P h i l i p p i n e c u r r e n c y ) o r ' s i l v e r * * a b o r t i o n * 81 s i b u / s i b u ? / ' e q u a l * s u b u /su'bu?/ ' t o f e e d ' ( a p e r s o n ) k a p i l / k a p i l / ' h e a t h e n * ( t h o s e o u t s i d e t h e M o s l e m f a i t h ) k a p u l / k a p u l / ' t o embalm' l a h i / l a h i ? / 'a v a r i e t y o f bamboo' l a h u / l a h u ? / ' e c l i p s e ' l a n i t / l a n i t / ' t o remove by f o r c e s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a s b e e n f a s t e n e d ' l a n u t / l a n u t / ' a b a c a * s a b i l / s a b i l / * t o r u n amuk* s a b u l / s a b u l / * d i r t y * o r * s l o v e n ' Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n k a m i / k a m i h / 'we* kamu /kamuh/ ' y o u ' ( 2 n d p e r s o n p l u r a l number) l a h i / l a h i ? / »a v a r i e t y o f bamboo' l a h u / l a h u ? / ' e c l i p s e ' l a n d i / l a n d i ? / ' f l i r t ' l a n d u / l a n d u ? / ' v e r y much* t a p i / t a p i ? / * t o d r y d o c k ' t a p u / t a p u ? / ' t o a l i g h t d n ' 82 t l b l t i b u / t i . b i ? / / t i b u ? / * c h i p * * t o b o x someone on t h e c h e s t o r b a c k * / i / - / a / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n i b u t / ? i b u t / a b u t is ag i n g a t  a n g a t i p u a p u i l u a l u / ? a b u t / / ? i g / / ? a g / / ? i n a t / / ? a n a t / / ? i p u ? / / ? a p u ? / / ? i l u ? / / ? a l u ? / Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n b i l u / b i l u h / b a l u / b a l u h / l i b u t  l a b u t p i l a p a l a / l i b u t / / l a b u t / / p i l a h / / p a l a h / • v e r b i m p l y i n g ' p l e a s e n e v e r f o r g e t 1 ' t o c a t c h up,' o r ' t o r e a c h ' ' t o g e t o u t ' o r ' t o r e m o v e ' ' c o n s i d e r a t e n e s s ' ' i n t e l l i g e n c e * «to l i f t ' • t o p i c k ' ( f l o w e r , f r u i t , e t c . ) a t e r m f o r ' g r a n d p a r e n t s * o r • g r a n d c h i l d r e n * ' o r p h a n * *dew* o r ' d r o u g h ' • b l u e ' •widow' o r w i d o w e r 1 • t o go a r o u n d ' ' t o s e r v e * •how much* ' s h o v e l * 83 s i l a t / s i l a t / 'Moslem s e l f - d e f e n c e d a n c e s i m i t o ' j u d o ' s a l a t / s a l a t / ' b a r e l y e n o u g h ' t i l a m / t i l a m / ' m a t t r e s s ' t a l a m / t a l a m / ' t r a y * Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n b a s i / b a s i ? / ' s t e e l ' b a s a / b a s a ? / 'wet* b a t i / b a t i ? / 'awake' b a t a / b a t a ? / ' c h i l d * o r 'young' k a m i / k a m i h / *we' kama /kamah/ ' m a t t r e s s ' o r 'bed* l u p i / l u p i ? / i t o f o l d * l u p a / l u p a ? / ' s o i l ' mami /mami?/ ' w i l l s e l e c t * mama /mama?/ «betei< n u t w i t h o t h e r m i x t u r e ' m a s i / m a s i h / ' s t i l l ' masa /masah/ ' t i m e ' o r ' e r a ' s a o i / s a p i ? / 'cow* s a p a / s a p a ? / ' l a k e ' t a g j / t a g i h / ' f o n d n e s s ' t a g a / . t a g a h / »you c a l l ' 84 /u/ - / a / Word i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e u b a t / ? u b a t / a b a t ubu a b u us a g u n u d  a n u d u t a s a t a s / ? a b a t / / ? u b u h / / ? a b u h / / ? u g / / ? a g / / ? u n u d / / ? a n u d / / ? u t a s / / ? a t a s / Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n k u l a n g / k u l a n / k a l a n g / k a l a r j / l u b u / l u b u h / l a b u / l a b u h / p u s a  p a s u / p u s a ? / / p a s u ? / ' m e d i c i n e ' ' b e d e v i l l e d ' ' c o u g h ' ' a s h e s ' ' p o s s e s s i v e n e s s * • c o n s i d e r a t e n e s s * ' f l e s h ' ' t o d r i f t ' ' a t t h e p o i n t o f e x h a u s t i o n ' ' r e s p o n s i b l e f o r * o r ' s t a n d f o r * 'not s u f f i c i e n t * ' t o s i n g ' *an e d i b l e p a r t o f t h e i n t e s t i n e o f a s e a c u c u m b e r * • g o u r d ' 'banana b l o s s o m * ' h e a t ' s u l a t / s u l a t / * l e t t e r * o r ' t o w r i t e ' s a l a t / s a l a t / t a b u t u b u / t a b u ? / / t u b u ? / • b a r e l y e n o u g h ' ' m a r k e t ' • t o g r o w * 85 dahun /dahun/ 'leaf* - d a h a B /dahan/ t w l n D r i n g f o r , gapus /gapus/ 'embrace' gapas /gapas/ 'gauze' kapul /kapul/ «to embalm' iEapal Aapal/ 'thickness' lubug /lubug/ 'disturbed water' (not clear) lubag /lubag/ 'grime* sabul /sabul/ 'dirty* or 'sloven* sabal /sabal/ »stoic» Word f inal p o s i t i o n b *s" /bisuh/ «deaf» b l s a /bisah/ 'pain' ^aku /kaku?/ t m l n e i kaka /kaka?/ 'appellation given to older sister or brother* k j-ltt A i l u h / «kilo» kalu /kaluh/ 'quarrel' lasu /lasuh/ 'ribbon' las a /lasah/ 'love' layu Aayu?/ 'farness' lay^ /laya?/ t f i a t surface' 86 11 sa 11 su / l i s u ? / / l f s a ? / *egg of l i c e * h a z i n e s s * pasu pasa •flower p o t 1 'to s i g n divorce* p l s u p i s a / p i s u ? / /p£sa?/ * spr a i n * »smashed* pusu pusa 'banana blossoms* *to smash* or *to hatch* Some l i n g u i s t s r e f e r t o the s e r i e s of op p o s i t i o n s which are based on the same fe a t u r e s ( l i k e the examples l i s t e d above) as a s e r i e s of c o r r e l a t i o n * Hence, the vowels of Tausug are i l l u s t r a t e d to show c o r r e l a t i o n s i n tongue p o s i t i o n (front/back and high/low) a n d l i p shape (spread/ unrounded, as w e l l as l a x / t e n s e ) , 5.2.3 A l l o p h o n i c v a r i a t i o n A c l o s e examination of the vowels of Tausug as sounds r a t h e r than as u n i t s ( i n the l i s t of minimal p a i r s above) r e v e a l s , microscopic though they may be, th a t there are q u i t e a number of v a r i a n t s i n t h e i r p r o n u n c i a t i o n . Even when repeated by the same person, no two r e a l i z a t i o n s of a given phoneme, according to l i n g u i s t s a n d p h o n e t i c i a n s , a r e i n e v e r y r e s p e c t i d e n t i c a l , A phoneme i s , t h e r e f o r e , v i e w e d a s a d i s t i n c t i v e u n i t made up o f s e v e r a l members ( p h o n e s ) w h i c h a r e t e c h n i c a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s ' a l l o p h o n e s * , a t e r m c o i n e d f r o m t h e G r e e k a l i o - ( ' o t h e r ' ) p l u s - phone ('sound') w h i c h means s o u n d s w h i c h f u n c t i o n a s 41 members o f a phoneme". W i t h a t h r e e - p o i n t v o w e l s y s t e m l i k e T a u s u g , i t c a n be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e v o w e l s o f t h e l a n g u a g e h a v e w i d e r a n g e s o f v a r i a t i o n w h i c h make them a l l o p h o n i c a l l y c o m p l e x . I t i s , how e v e r , o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e e n t i r e r a n g e o f v a r i a n t s t h a t o c c u r s i n t h e l a n g u a g e , a l t h o u g h i t s h o u l d t h e o r e t i c a l l y • be p o s s i b l e . A n a t i v e s p e a k e r o f t h e l a n g u a g e u s u a l l y r e s t r i c t s h i s a c t u a l u s a g e w i t h i n a c e r t a i n r a n g e . D i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e p h o n e t i c v a r i a n t s o f T a u s u g w i l l , t h e n , be l i m i t e d o n l y t o e x i s t  i n g a l l o p h o n e s o b s e r v a b l e among n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f t h e l a n g u a g e . Some o f t h e a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e v o w e l phonemes s i m p l y r e f l e c t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among s p e a k e r s , o f t e n o f a d i a l e c t a l n a t u r e . P r i m a r i l y , h o w e v e r , t h e y a r e t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p h o n e t i c c o n t e x t , t h a t i s , ' t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s o u n d i n q u e s t i o n i s a f f e c t e d b y i t s e n v i r o n m e n t o r , more p r e c i s e l y , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o u n d w h i c h p r e c e d e s o r f o l l o w s i t . I n o t h e r words, 1 t h e p h o n e t i c r e a l i z a t i o n s o f e a c h o f t h e v o w e l phonemes o f T a u s u g r e s u l t s f r o m d i f f e r i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n g i v e n u t t e r a n c e s . ^ A . C . G i m s o n , A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f  E n g l i s h ( L o n d o n : A r n o l d L t d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p.To". ^ H a l l , o p. c i t . , p . 2 6 . 88 > The [ i ] a l l o p h o n e o f t h e h i g h - f r o n t v o w e l n o r m a l l y o c c u r s i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s a s i n t h e e x a m p l e s b i d [ b i : d ] ' h i l l ' , ' p i l a [ ' p ' i l a h ] fhow much',' i b a n [ ' ? i g a n ] ' c o m p a n i o n ' , a n d l i n d u n g [ ' l i n d U r j ] ' s h a d e ' . I n a n u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , a more l a x a n d l o w e r e d v a r i e t y , [ i ] , i s o f t e n h e a r d s u c h a s t h e v o w e l i n t h e s e c o n d s y l l a b l e o f s a k i t [ ' s a k i t ] ' s i c k n e s s ' , t a g i [ ' t ' a y l h ] ' f o n d o f , k u b i n g [ ' k ' u p l r p ' b e e t l e ' , a n d p i k p i k [ ' p ' i k p l k ] ' w i n g ' . P o r some T a u s u g s p e a k e r s , t h e c o m p l i m e n t a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e [ i ] a n d [ i ] a l l o p h o n e s i n s t r e s s e d a n d u n  s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i s c o n s i s t e n t . Among o t h e r s p e a k e r s , h o w e v e r , t h e two a l l o p h o n e s may be u s e d i n t e r  c h a n g e a b l y o r i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n s i n c e t h e u s e o f e i t h e r one f o r t h e o t h e r d o e s n o t r e n d e r a p e r s o n ' s s p e e c h u n a c c e p t a b l e , n e i t h e r d o e s i t a f f e c t t h e m e a n i n g - o f a g i v e n w o r d . A w o r d l i k e i n u m ' t o d r i n k ' may/ t h e n , be h e a r d p r o n o u n c e d a s [ ' ? i n U m ] o r C?InUm] w i t h e q u a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y . P r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e u s e o f e i t h e r one o f t h e a l l o p h o n e s d e p e n d s o n t h e h a b i t u a l p r o n u n  c i a t i o n o f t h e s p e a k e r s . A t t i m e s i t may be d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r a c e r t a i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n b e l o n g s t o t h e [ i ] o r [ i ] a l l o  p h o n e . The s e m i v o w e l [ y ] , w h i c h h a s b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d a s one o f t h e v a r i a n t s o f t h e v o w e l / i / , may o c c u r i n e i t h e r a s t r e s s e d o r u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e f o l l o x ^ i n g o r p r e c e d i n g a f u l l v o c o i d a s i n k a i t [ k ' a y t ] ' s a f e t y p i n ' a n d b i a [ b y a ? ] 'as i f , : B e c a u s e o f i t s n a t u r e a s a g l i d e , i t f u n c t i o n s o n l y a s a s e c o n d a r y member t o a 8 9 -.'•6 f u l l v o w e l a n d n e v e r a s a s y l l a b i c c e n t e r . P a r a l l e l t o t h e a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t s o f t h e h i g h - f r o n t v o w e l a r e t h e a l l o p h o n e s o f t h e h i g h - b a c k v o w e l , / u / . L i k e [ i ] a n d [ i ] , t h e [ u ] a n d [ u ] v a r i a n t s o f t h e / u / o c c u r r e s p e c t i v e  l y i n s t r e s s e d a n d u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . T y p i c a l e x a m p l e s a r e w o r d s s u c h a s b u k u g ['bukUg] 'bone', s u b u l [ f s u ( 3 U l ] 'young man' o r ' b a c h e l o r ' , - p u k p u k ['p'ukpUk] ' t o hammer 1, a n d t u b u [ ' t ' u g U ? ] ' t o g r o w ' . The a l l o p h o n e [ u ] may be r e p l a c e d o c c a s i o n a l l y by t h e v a r i a n t [ u ] , 1 o r v i c e v e r s a , i n c e r t a i n i d i o l e c t s a n d d i a l e c t s . E x c e p t f o r t h e c o n s i d e r a b l y more l i p - r o u n d i n g f o r [ u ] t h a n [ u ] , d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two v a r i a n t s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y g r e a t , s o t h a t one may be u s e d f r e e l y i n p l a c e o f t h e o t h e r i n a c t u a l u s a g e . T h u s , manghud ' y o u n g e r b r o t h e r o r s i s t e r ' may be h e a r d a s ['maijhud] o r 'manhUd], S o m e t i m e s a s o u n d c l o s e t o [v ] a s i n t h e u n r o u n d e d p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e v o w e l i n b o ok [ b v k ] a s o c c a s i o  n a l l y h e a r d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h , o r [ A ] i n t h e E n g l i s h w o r d cu p [ k A p ] , - o r [©] a s i n t h e many u n s t r e s s e d v o w e l s o f E n g l i s h may be h e a r d i n some t y p e s o f i n f o r m a l r a p i d p r o n u n c i a t i o n . The e x a m p l e manghud may, t h e n , be h e a r d a s [ m a n h i r d ] , manhAd], o r [ m a n h s d ] . The [ w ] v a r i a n t o f / u / b e h a v e s i n l i k e manner t o t h e [ y ] a l l o p h o n e o f / i / . I t f u n c t i o n s o n l y a s a s e c o n d a r y member t o a f u l l v o c o i d a s i n t h e w o r d s b a u s [ b a w s ] ' t o b a r g a i n ' , m u i [ m w i ? ] ' t o go home', b u a d [ b w a d ] ' t o d r y ' , " e t c . Among some T a u s u g s p e a k e r s o f STP o f G i m b a h a n u n o r i g i n o r i n f l u e n c e , ' a c e n t e r e d [ i ] a n d a n u n r o u n d e d [ u ] a r e h e a r d a s a r e a l i z a t i o n o f / i / a n d /u/ r e s p e c t i v e l y . ; T h e s e s o u n d s a r e s y m b o l i z e d a s Qi] a n d [ u i ] r e s p e c t i v e l y . The [*i] i s made w i t h a l e s s s p r e a d l i p p o s i t i o n t h a n [ i ] , w h i l e [ w ] h a s a n u n r o u n d e d 1 l i p p o s i t i o n a s c o m p a r e d w i t h [ u ] . T h e s e v o w e l s o c c u r i n w o r d s l i k e p i s u [ ' p ' l s w ? ] ' s p r a i n ' , b i h u n ['b'ihwnQ ' w i l l b u y 1 , i g u n ['?'ivwn] ' w i l l r e m o v e ' , b u k u n ['bmkmn] ' n o t ' o r 'no' ( n e g a t i o n ) V b u k u g ['brakrag] 'bone',' a n d m a i s u g [ma'?'iswg] 'brave'.' I n t h e c a s e o f t h e l o w c e n t r a l v o w e l , a more f r o n t v a r i e t y ; " [ a ] , h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d t o o c c u r f o l l o w i n g a b i l a b i a l o r d e n t a l c o n s o n a n t a n d a more b a c k a n d l o w e r v a r i a n t [ a ] i s f o u n d t o o c c u r f o l l o w i n g e i t h e r a v e l a r o r a g l o t t a l s o u n d . A r a i s e d c e n t r a l a l l o p h o n e , w h i c h p a t t e r n s w i t h a n y c o n s o n a n t s may be h e a r d i n some t y p e s o f i n f o r m a l s p e e c h , s o t h a t w o r d s l i k e b a s u [ ' b a s U h l ' d r i n k i n g g l a s s ' , d a g a n [ ' d a y a n ] ' t o r u n ' k a l a n g [ ' k ' a l a n ] ' t o s i n g ' o r ' g r a v e l ' , a n d a b u [ ' ? a p U h ] ' a s h e s ' may be h e a r d a s ['b&sUh], : [''d*?ye.n]['JfeLSn], 1 a n d ['?SgUh] r e s p e c t i v e l y . ' I n t h i s r e s p e c t ; 1 t h e v a r i a n t s [ a ] a n d [ a ] a r e s a i d t o be i n c o m p l e m e n t a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n , ' w h i l e [&~| i s i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h e i t h e r o f t h e two a l l o p h o n e s , [ a ] a n d [ a ] . 3 . ' 2 . 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n I n a g i v e n l a n g u a g e , some phonemes a r e o f f r e q u e n t 91 o c c u r r e n c e , some a r e n o t . Some o c c u r i n a l l p o s i t i o n s , w h i l e o t h e r s a r e r e s t r i c t e d . S o m e t i m e s d i s p a r i t y i n r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y i s g r e a t . S o m e t i m e s a phoneme o c c u r s i n o n l y a f e w i s o l a t e d w o r d s . W i t h v o w e l s , hoxvever, t h e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e i s u s u a l l y g r e a t e r t h a n w i t h c e r t a i n c o n s o n a n t s , a s v o w e l s a r e t h e s o u n d s d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d i n f o r m i n g s y l l a b i c c e n t e r s . The v o w e l s o f T a u s u g h a v e u n r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e y o c c u r b o t h i n o p e n s y l l a b l e , CV, ( a s i n p i l a /p£-lah/ 'how much', p a l a / p a - l a h / ' s h o v e l 1 , a n d p u l a / p u - l a h / ' r e d ' ) a n d i n c l o s e d s y l l a b l e , CVC, ( i . e . , t i n d a / t i n - d a n / ' s t o r e ' , t a n - d a / t a n d a ? / ' p r o o f , a n d p u n d a / p u n d a h / ' p i l l o w c a s e * ) . E x c e p t f o r / y / , t h e h i g h - f r o n t v o w e l / i / f o l l o w s a l l c o n s o n a n t s o f t h e l a n g u a g e . I n t h e same way, t h e h i g h - b a c k v o w e l / u / o c c u r s f o l l o w i n g a l l o t h e r c o n s o n a n t s , e x c e p t /w/. The l o w c e n t r a l v o w e l / a / h a s u n r e s t r i c t e d o c c u r r e n c e . I t s t r u c t u r e s w i t h a l l c o n s o n a n t s o f t h e l a n g u a g e ( c f . s e c t i o n 3 . 1 ) . 5.2.5 The D i p h t h o n g s I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s e m i v o w e l s , a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n h a s b e e n g i v e n o f t h e d i p h t h o n g s o f T a u s u g . I t h a s b e e n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t when t h e s e m i v o w e l [ y ] o r [ w ] s t r u c t u r e s w i t h a f u l l v o w e l , w i t h i n t h e same s y l l a b l e f o r m i n g a c o m p l e x n u c l e u s , t h e r e s u l t a n t c o m b i n a t i o n o f two s o u n d s i s i n t e r p r e t e d a s a d i p h  t h o n g . On t h i s p r e m i s e , t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e c l a s s i f i e d as d i p h t h o n g s o f T a u s u g : / i a / b i a k / b i a k / 'was m e t 1 s i a m / s i a m / ' n i n e ' / a i / l a i n / l a i n / ' t o t r a n s f e r ' k a i t / k a i t / ' s a f e t y p i n ' / u a / b u a d / b u a d / • t o d r y ' l u a n / l u a n / ' c a r g o ' / a u / b a u s / b a u s / ' t o b a r g a i n ' maun /maun/ • t o go t h e r e ' / i u / s l u d / s i u d / ' e n t e r e d ' t l u d / t i u d / 'was p u s h e d ' / u i / h u i s / h u i s / ' j u d g e ' mui / m u i / 'go home' P h o n e m i c a l l y , a l l t h e d i p h t h o n g s o f T a u s u g a r e t o be i n t e r p r e t e d a s c o n s i s t i n g o f two s e p a r a t e s i n g l e v o w e l phonemes, a p u r e v o w e l (V) a n d a g l i d e phoneme o r s e m i v o w e l ( S ) , t h u s r e s u l t i n g i n c o m p l e x n u c l e i : S + V a n d V + S. T h e s e c l u s t e r s o f v o w e l c o u l d h a v e b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d a s s i n g l e p h o n e m i c u n i t s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r c l o s e - k n i t n u c l e i w h i c h make d i s t i n c t i o n b e t  ween t h e s e q u e n c e s o f s o u n d s h a r d l y n o t i c e a b l e . I n a d d i t i o n , f r o m t h e l i s t e n e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , s u c h c l o s e - k n i t n u c l e i g i v e a m o n o l i t h i c e f f e c t . H o w e v e r , w i t h s i m p l i c i t y a s t h e w o r k i n g p r i n c i p l e i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , s u c h a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s n o t a d v i s a b l e . A m o n o p h o n e m a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d i p h t h o n g s o f T a u s u g w o u l d mean a d d i n g s i x a d d i t i o n a l phonemes t o t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l i n v e n t o r y o f t h e l a n g u a g e . M o r e o v e r , a new s e t o f s y m b o l s to r e p r e s e n t t h e s i x phonemes w o u l d a l s o be n e e d e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h them f r o m t h e s i m p l e v o w e l s . " I t c a n n o t be s a i d " , h o w e v e r ( t o u s e Swadesh'swords)" t h a t t h e u n i t t r e a t m e n t i s b a s i c a l l y w r o n g o r i n a d e q u a t e , ' y e t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s one o f s i m p l i c i t y . " A n a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e q u e n c e s o f two s o u n d s ( d i s c u s s e d a b o v e a s a d i p h t h o n g ) w o u l d be t o t r e a t them a s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a c o n s o n a n t a n d a v o w e l ( i . e . , C ,+; V o r V + C ) , s o t h a t t h e c o n s o n a n t e l e m e n t f o r m s a c l u s t e r , i n s t e a d , w i t h t h e m a r g i n a l c o n s o n a n t t h a t p r e c e d e s o r f o l l o w s i t . : S u c h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , ' h o w e v e r , i s n o t p o s s i b l e , s i n c e t h e s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e l a n g u a g e ( c f . s e c t i o n 4) do n o t p e r m i t c l u s t e r s o f c o n s o n a n t s i n s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l o r s y l l a b l e f i n a l p o s i t i o n s . I t s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e b i p h o n e m a - t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d i p h t h o n g s d o e s n o t mean t h a t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f v o c a l i c s o u n d s a r e made up o f p u r e v o w e l phonemes. S u c h c o m b i n a t i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e i n t h e l a n g u a g e w i t h o u t a n i n t e r  v o c a l i c c o n s o n a n t r e s u l t i n g ( c f . p. 8 5 ) . S i n c e i n T a u s u g a s y l l a b l e c a r r i e s o n l y one s t r e s s , t h e s y l l a b i c c e n t e r i n a d i p h t h o n g i s t h e p u r e v o w e l w h i l e t h e g l i d e w h i c h f u n c t i o n s o n l y a s a s e c o n d a r y e l e m e n t i s n o n - s y l l a b i c . W i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e s y l l a b i c a n d n o n - s y l l a b i c p a r t s o f a d i p h t h o n g , ' a d i s t i n c t i o n i s made b e t w e e n s o - c a l l e d ' r i s i n g ' a n d ' f a l l i n g ' d i p h t h o n g s . A c c o r d i n g t o F r a n c i s , " t h e t e r m s r e f e r t o l9k t h e p o s i t i o n i n t i m e o f t h e s t r e s s e d , s y l l a b i c p a r t . ' o f t h e d i p h t h o n g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h a t o f t h e g l i d e . " Thus i n T a u s u g , d i p h t h o n g s w h i c h c o n s i s t o f p r e l i m i n a r y ' o n - g l i d e s ' a r e c a l l e d • ' r i s i n g d i p h t h o n g s 1 . T h e y a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s s u c h , due t o t h e r e l a t i v e i n c r e a s e i n i n t e n s i t y o f s t r e s s a s t h e s y l l a b l e p r o g r e s s  e s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , d i p h t h o n g s w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f s y l l a b i c v o w e l s p l u s o f f - g l i d e s a r e c a l l e d f a l l i n g d i p h t h o n g , b e c a u s e o f 42 t h e d e c r e a s e i n i n t e n s i t y o f s y l l a b l e s t r e s s . On t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e s e d i s t i n c t i o n s , T a u s u g d i p h t h o n g s a r e g r o u p e d a s f o l l o w s w i t h t h e s t r e s s mark s h o w i n g t h e s y l l a b i c c e n t e r : R i s i n g d i p h t h o n g s 1& itf. uS- u i F a l l i n g d i p h t h o n g s &1 a u A s shown i n t h e a b o v e l i s t i n g o f d i p h t h o n g s , s t r e s s i s p r e d i c t a b l e . I t f a l l s o n t h e more o p e n v o w e l , / a / , i n t h e c a s e o f /!&/, Al&/, / 3 d . / , a n d / d u / . B u t w here t h e r e a r e two h i g h v o w e l s a s i n / u i / a n d / i n / , t h e s t r e s s f a l l s on t h e s e c o n d com p o n e n t o f t h e d i p h t h o n g s . To some e x t e n t , a l l v o w e l s o f .Tausug may be d i p h t h o n g i z e d , a l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t i s a somewhat a f f e c t e d s t y l e o f s p e e c h . U n l i k e t h e t r u e d i p h t h o n g s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , a d i p t h o n g i z e d v o w e l F r a n c i s , o p . c i t . , p. 1 0 6 . i s n o n - d i s t i n c t i v e o r n o n - p h o n e m i c , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t when i t r e p l a c e s a p u r e v o w e l o f t h e same c a t e g o r y a s f o r i n s t a n c e , / u / b e c o m i n g [ u l j ] o r [ U A ] i n bud [ b u d ] [ b u U d ] o r [ b U A d ] ' m o u n t a i n ' , t h e r e i s no c h a n g e i n m e a n i n g i n v o l v e d . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e h i g h - f r o n t v o w e l , d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n s o m e t i m e s r e s u l t s i n /if b e c o m i n g [ i l ] o r [ i s ] a s i n s i n [ s i n ] [ s i l n ] o r [ s i s n ] ' m o n e y ' , W i t h t h e l o w c e n t r a l v o w e l , / a / , p o s s i b l e d i p h t h o n g i z e d f o r m s a r e [ a a ] o r [aA] i n l a i c [ l a k ] [ l a s k ] o r [ l a A k ] ' m u s c l e s '. I t h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e v a r i o u s d i p h t h o n g i z e d f o r m s o f t h e v o w e l phonemes r e s u l t f r o m l e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e v o w e l s o u n d s . The t r a n s i t i o n f r o m one phoneme t o t h e n e x t u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n a c e n t r a l o r c e n t r a l i z e d g l i d e s o u n d . 5 , 3 . The T r i p h t h o n g s A t r i p h t h o n g i n T a u s u g c o n s i s t s c 0f a p u r e v o w e l a n d two s e m i v o w e l s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n one s i n g l e s y l l a b l e . T h u s , t h e f o l  l o w i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s o f v o w e l phonemes a r e l i s t e d a s t r i p h t h o n g s o f t h e l a n g u a g e : / i a i / k i a i t s i a i t / u a u / d u a u n / u a i b u a u n b u a i h k u a i h / i a u / b i a u s s i a u d / k i a i t / 'was p i n n e d ' / s i a i t / ' w a t e r was r e m o v e d f r o m t h e b o a t ' / d u a u n / •by t w o ' s ' / b u a u n / ' w i l l r o c k t o s l e e p ' / b u a i h / ' p l a c e r a t t a n ' ( o n s o m e t h i n g - r e q u e s t o r command) / k u a i h / 'wind i t ' ( r e q u e s t o r command) / b i a u s / ' b a r g a i n e d ' / s i a u d / ' t o r e c e i v e s o m e t h i n g w i t h r e c e p t a b l e ' 96 A l t h o u g h , f r o m a l i s t e n e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e r e seems t o be a n i n d i v i s i b l e movement f r o m one v o w e l t o t h e o t h e r i n a t r i p h t h o n g , s o t h a t i t i s s o m e t i m e s d i f f i c u l t t o a n a l y z e t h e com p l i c a t e d n u c l e u s a s made up o f i n d e p e n d e n t v o w e l s , h o w e v e r , b a s i c a l l y t h i s s e q u e n c e o f s o u n d s c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s e p a r a t e v o w e l phonemes. F o r i n s t a n c e , / i a u / i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e v o w e l s / i + a + u / , a l t h o u g h i t s h o u l d be made c l e a r h e r e t h a t t h e p e r i p h e r a l v o w e l s / i / a n d / u / f u n c t i o n as s e m i v o w e l s b u t n o t as a p u r e v o w e l . As o b v i o u s l y shown i n t h e a b o v e l i s t , t h e c e n t r a l e l e m e n t i n a l l t h e t r i p h t h o n g s o f T a u s u g i s t h e l o w c e n t r a l v o w e l / a / . S i n c e t h e l o w c e n t r a l o r 'open' v o w e l i s more s o n o r o u s t h a n t h e h i g h o r c l o s e v o w e l s , a n d s i n c e a s y l l a b l e i n T a u s u g c a r r i e s o n l y a s i n g l e p e a k o f p r o m i n e n c e , i t i s p r e d i c t a b l e t h a t t h e v o w e l phoneme, /a./t f o r m s t h e s y l l a b i c c e n t e r o f a t r i p h t h o n g a l n u c l e u s , w h i l e t h e m a r g i n a l v o w e l s / u / a n d /!/ i n / u a u / , / i a u / , a n d / u a i / f u n c t i o n a s s e c o n d a r y members. T h u s , t h e w o r d s k a i t . d u a u a n , s i a u d , a n d b u a i h a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y t r a n s c r i b e d a s / k i a i t / , / d u a u n / , / s i a u d / , a n d / b u a i h / w i t h t h e a c c e n t mark s h o w i n g t h e p r o m i n e n t s o u n d , 5.3 The C o n s o n a n t s The p r o c e s s o f f i n d i n g o u t a n d f o r m u l a t i n g t h e p h o n e m i c s y s t e m o f T a u s u g c o n s i s t s i n a p p l y i n g t h e c r i t e r i a o f d i s t r i b u  t i o n , p h o n e t i c s i m i l a r i t y , i d e n t i t y o f f u n c t i o n , a n d p a t t e r n c o n - g r u i t y t o a l l t h e p h o n e - t y p e s o f t h e l a n g u a g e , t h u s c o m b i n i n g t h e m l a t t e r w h e n e v e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s a l l o w i n t o f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t o r y p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s s u b s u m i n g c e r t a i n p h o n e s u n d e r t h e c a t e g o r y o f one phoneme a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , [p^ ] i n  p a i s ['p»a?Is] ' s k i n ' a n d [ p ] i n a t u p [<£?atup] 'palm l e a f r o o f i n g ' . B o t h s o u n d s a r e g r o u p e d u n d e r t h e c o n s o n a n t phoneme, /v/t i n v i e w o f t h e i r b e i n g p h o n e t i c a l l y s i m i l a r , ' c o m p l e m e n t a r i l y d i s t r i b u t e d , a n d h a v i n g a n i d e n t i c a l f u n c t i o n . On t h e same o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o  c e d u r e , c o n t o i d s [V..] - [ t ] , ' [ k ' G - [ k ] , [ b ] - [g], [ g i ] - [y], a n d [ r ] - [ i i ] a r e c l a s s i f i e d i n t o c o n s o n a n t phonemes / t / , / k / , / b / , / d / , / g / , a n d / r / r e s p e c t i v e l y . A s a w h o l e , t h e c o n t o i d s o n page 5^ a r e c o n v e n i e n t l y g r o u p e d i n t o s e v e n t e e n c o n s o n a n t phonemes ,('cf.' s e c t i o n 5 . 2 ) , ; 5.3*1 D e s c r i p t i o n a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n W h i l e t h e v o w e l phonemes o f T a u s u g a r e d e s c r i b e d , c l a s s i  f i e d , a n d c o n t r a s t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e t o n g u e a n d t h e s h a p e o f t h e l i p s , d e s c r i p t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a n d d i f f e r e n  t i a t i o n o f t h e c o n s o n a n t s ( l i k e t h e c o n t o i d s o f t h e l a n g u a g e ) a r e made m a i n l y o n two d i m e n s i o n a l c r i t e r i a : p o i n t a n d manner o f a r t i c u l a t i o n . I n t h e c a s e o f s t o p c o n s o n a n t s , t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r c o n t r a s t made i n t h e a b s e n c e o r p r e s e n c e o f v o i c i n g . N o r m a l l y , t h e c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e a s w e l l a s d i f f e r e n t i a t e one c o n s o n a n t f r o m a n o t h e r a r e g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r i n ' b u n d l e s ' o f s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s a t a t i m e s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g : / p / - v o i c e l e s s b i l a b i a l s t o p / t / - v o i c e l e s s d e n t a l s t o p A / - v o i c e l e s s v e l a r s t o p /?/ - v o i c e l e s s g l o t t a l s t o p A / - v o i c e d b i l a b i a l s t o p A / - v o i c e d d e n t a l s t o p / g / - v o i c e d v e l a r s t o p / j / - voiced d e n t a l a f f r i c a t e d s t o p A / - v o i c e l e s s d e n t a l . . f r i c a t i v e / h / - v o i c e l e s s g l o t t a l f r i c a t i v e /m/ - v o i c e d b i l a b i a l n a s a l / n / - v o i c e d d e n t a l n a s a l /»/ - v o i c e d v e l a r n a s a l / l / - v o i c e d d e n t a l l a t e r a l / r / - v o i c e d d e n t a l f l a p A / - v o i c e d l a b i o - v e l a r s e m i c o n s o n a n t / y / - v o i c e d p a l a t a l s e m i c o n s o n a n t I n s u r v e y i n g t h e l i s t o f T a u s u g c o n s o n a n t s a b o v e , a t w o - way d i s t i n c t i o n i n v o i c i n g i s o b s e r v a b l e among t h e s t o p s . ' V o i c e l e s s s t o p c o n s o n a n t s / p , t , k/ show c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e i r v o i c e d c o u n t e r p a r t s / b , d , g / i n p a i r s s u c h a s : p i l u / p i l u h / ' t i g h t l y r o l l e d ' b i l u / b i l u h / ' b l u e ' 99 t a g U H /ta'gun/ ' w i l l c a l l ' d a g u n / d a g u n / ' w i l l c l i m b ' - . . . . . . . , ^ k i l a / k ' i l a h / ' t o r e c o g n i z e ' 'r ^ g i l a / g i ' l a h / ' c a r e l e s s ' I n e a c h case,' t h e v o i c e d - v o i c e l e s s d i s t i n c t i o n a p p e a r s a s one w h i c h s e t s up T a u s u g s t o p s i n o p p o s e d p a i r s , one member o f e a c h p a i r d i f f e r i n g f r o m t h e o t h e r o n l y i n t h e a b s e n c e o r p r e s e n c e o f v o i c e . ' w i t h t h e o t h e r c o n s o n a n t s - t h e a f f r i c a t e d s t o p / j / , t h e n a s a l s /m, n y n /?. i thet l a t e r a l : / l / , t h e f l a p / r / , a n d t h e s e m i v o w e l s /y,w/ w h i c h a r e n o r m a l l y v o i c e d , t h e v o i c e f e a t u r e c e a s e s t o be d i s t i n c t i v e i n o t h e r w o r d s . The l a t t e r g r o u p do n o t h a v e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o i c e l e s s c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h w o u l d a l l o w us t o s e t them up i n c o n t r a s t i v e p a i r s . T he same i s t r u e w i t h t h e v o i c e l e s s c o n s o n a n t s /w/ a n d / h / w h i c h h a v e no c o n t r a s t i v e v o i c e d c o u n t e r p a r t s . ' I n r e g a r d t o manner o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , t h e r e i s a s e v e n - d i m e n s i o n a l c o n t r a s t among T a u s u g c o n s o n a n t s : 1. ' S t o p s : / p , t , k , ? / /b.d.'g/ A s t o p i s a c o n s o n a n t p r o d u c e d w i t h t h e a i r - s t r e a m c o m p l e t e l y b l o c k e d a t some p o i n t i n t h e s p e e c h t r a c t b y c l o s u r e o f t h e p a s s a g e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e a i r f l o w s . 2. A f f r i c a t e d S t o p : / j / T h i s i s a c o n s o n a n t a r t i c u l a t e d l i k e t h e s t o p / d / a b o v e b u t i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d b y a r e l a t i v e l y s l o w 100 r e l e a s e w h i c h a l l o w s t h e a i r t o e s c a p e s l o w l y p r o d u c i n g a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n . 3. F r i c a t i v e s : / s , h / When a c o n s o n a n t i s made by c o n s t r i c t i n g t h e p a s s a g e s o t h a t t h e c u r r e n t o f a i r e s c a p e s w i t h a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n , t h e r e s u l t a n t s o u n d i s c a l l e d a f r i c a t i v e . 4. N a s a l s : /m,n,n/ A n a s a l c o n s o n a n t i s made w i t h t h e o r a l c a v i t y c o m p l e t e l y c l o s e d , a n d t h e v e l u m l o w e r e d t o a l l o w t h e a i r - s t r e a m t o e s c a p e t h r o u g h t h e n a s a l p a s s a g e , t h u s p r o d u c i n g n a s a l r e s o n a n c e . 5. L a t e r a l : /!/ T h i s i s a c o n s o n a n t made w i t h c o m p l e t e c l o s u r e a t t h e f r o n t a n d i n t h e m i d d l e l i n e o f t h e o r a l c a v i t y , i . e . b y t h e c o n t a c t o f t h e t o n g u e t i p a g a i n s t t h e m i d d l e p a r t o f t h e a l v e o l a r r i d g e , b u t l e a v i n g a n o p e n i n g a t one o r b o t h s i d e s o f t h e t o n g u e t o a l l o w t h e e s c a p e o f t h e a i r . 6. F l a p : / r / A f l a p i s a c o n s o n a n t a r t i c u l a t e d b y t h e v e r y r a p i d c o n t a c t o f t h e t o n g u e t i p a g a i n s t t h e a l v e o l a r r i d g e , o f t e n r e p e a t e d t o p r o d u c e a t r i l l , s o m e t i m e s r e s t r i c t e d t o a v e r y s h o r t f l a p - l i k e s t o p . i o l 7. S e m i c o n s o n a n t s : /y,w/ The s e m i c o n s o n a n t s a r e i n t e r m v i & i i a t e b e t w e e n a c o n s o n a n t a n d a v o w e l p a r t a k i n g i n t h e n a t u r e o f b o t h . T h e y a r e v o i c e d s o u n d s g e n e r a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h o u t f r i c t i o n a n d made r a p i d l y - n e v e r s u s t a i n e d . T h e i r a r t i c u l a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h a t o f t h e h i g h v o w e l s , / i / a n d / u / r e s p e c t i v e l y , b u t t h e y h a v e s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n a n d a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y c o n s t a n t movement o r t r a n s i t i o n ^ r i s i n g o r f a l l i n g f r o m one p o i n t t o a n o t h e r with s w i f t f r e q u e n c y change.' A s i x - w a y d i s t i n c t i o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n a n e c o n o m i c a l a n a l y s i s , h a v i n g /i/ g r o u p e d a l o n g w i t h t h e o t h e r s t o p s o u n d s . S u c h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , i s n o t p o s s i b l e s i n c e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n / j / a n d t h e d e n t a l s t o p / d / e x i s t s i n w o r d s l i k e J a / j a h / ( a n a t i v e c a k e made f r o m r i c e f l o u r ) v s . d a / d a h / ' t o c a r r y ' o r ' t o b r i n g * , ' j a g a / j a g a h / ' g u a r d ' v s . d a g a / d ^ g a h / • f e m a l e ' , j a b u l / j 3 b u l / ' t o do m i s c h i e f v s . d a b u l / d S i b u l / 'moro d a n c e p e r f o r m e d b y s t a m p i n g t h e f e e t ' . ' B o t h / j / a n d / d / s h a r e r e l a t i v e l y t h e same; p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n a s w e l l a s t h e v o i c e d f e a t u r e . 1 The o n l y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e manner i n w h i c h e a c h i s p r o d u c e d , i . e . / j / i s made w i t h s l i g h t a f f r i c a t i o n , w h i l e / d / i s a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h o u t i t . ; I n a d d i t i o n , l i k e a l l o t h e r c o n s o n a n t s o f t h e l a n g u a g e , / j / c l u s t e r s w i t h t h e s e m i v o w e l v a r i a n t o f / i / i n w o r d s l i k e j i u w a l a n / j i u w a ' a a n / 'was f r i e d ' ( o f b a n a n a ) w h i c h i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e w o r d .juwalan 102 / j u w a l a n / ' f r i e d b a n a n a * ( n o u n ) . The / j / s o u n d c a n n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d a s a / d / p l u s t h e s e m i v o w e l v a r i a n t o f / i / s i n c e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n / d + i / + V a n d / j + i / + V a r e f o u n d i n s u c h w o r d s a s d i a n d i / d i a h d i h / ' c o t t o n f a b r i c ' a n d j i a n j i / j i a n j i ? / *was p r o m i s e d t o 1 , d i a h a n / d i a h a n / ' b r o u g h t s o m e t h i n g f o r ' a n d j i a h a n / j i a h a n / 'made ' j a ' f o r * ( f o r ' j a ' s e e l a s t p a r a g r a p h o f p r e c e d i n g ! - p a g e ) . When d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c o n s o n a n t s a c c o r d i n g t o a r t i c u l a  t o r y p o s i t i o n s , a f o u r - w a y d i s t i n c t i o n i s o b s e r v a b l e among t h e v o i c e l e s s s t o p s / p , t , k , ? / . F r o m f r o n t t o b a c k , d i s t i n c t i o n i s made b e t w e e n b i l a b i a l , d e n t a l ( i n c l u d i n g a l v e o l a r ) , v e l a r , a n d g l o t t a l p o s i t i o n s . S u c h c o n t r a s t s a r e f o u n d i n s e r i e s o f words l i k e p i l u / p i l u h / ' t i g h t l y r o l l e d ' , t i l u / t i l u ? / ' t o t h r o w ' , k i l u / k i l u h / ' k i l o ' , a n d i l u / ? { l u h / 'orphan,-*. W i t h t h e v o i c e d s t o p s / b , d , g / , t h e r e i s a t h r e e - x m y c o n t r a s t i n v o l v i n g b i l a b i a l , d e n t a l , a n d v e l a r a r t i c u l a t i o n o b s e r v a b l e i n w o r d s l i k e b u l a / b u l a ? / 'bamboo s p l i t ' , d u l a n g / d u l a n / 'a t r a y o f f o o d ' , a n d g u l a / g u l a ? / ' m o l a s s e s * . The / j / c o n s o n a n t i s p h o n e t i c a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d a s a n a l v e o p a l a t a l s o u n d , b u t s i m p l i c i t y i s one o f t h e w o r k i n g p r i n c i p l e s i n p h o n e m i c a n a l y s i s a n d t o a v o i d s k e w n e s s i n p a t t e r n i n g , t h e p r o  b l e m h a s b e e n s o l v e d b y c l a s s i f y i n g / j / a s a phoneme among t h e d e n t a l s t o p s . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t s u c h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d o e s n o t i n a n y way ( t o p a r a p h r a s e H a l l ) do v i o l e n c e t o t h e p h o n e t i c f a c t s o f t h e l a n g u a g e ; n e i t h e r d o e s i t f o r c e c o m p l e t e l y d i s p a r a t e 43 e l e m e n t s i n t o a r t i f i c i a l p a r a l l e l i s m . 43 H a l l , op. c i t . , p, 97. 1 0 3 l i k e t h e v o i c e d s t o p s , t h e n a s a l c o n s o n a n t s /m,n,n/ h a v e t h e t h r e e - w a y d i s t i n c t i o n i n p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , /m/ b e i n g a b i l a b i a l , / n / , a d e n t a l , a n d / n / , a v e l a r i n examples l i k e mabi / m a b i h / »can b u y 1 , n a b i / n a b i h / 'prophet*, a n d n g a n i / q a n i h / • g i v e a name*. W i t h f r i c a t i v e c o n s o n a n t s / s / a n d / h / a n d t h e s e m i - c o n s o n a n t s / y / a n d /w/, t h e r e i s a two-way c o n t r a s t i n a r t i c u - l a t o r y p o s i t i o n . The f r i c a t i v e s / s / a n d / h / a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y d e n t a l a n d g l o t t a l , w h i l e / y / i s g e n e r a l l y d e s c r i b e d a s f r o n t o r more p r e c i s e l y a s o u n d s t a r t i n g f r o m t h e f r o n t p o s i t i o n o n o r n e a r t h e v o w e l l i m i t , a n d t h e /w/ i n l i k e manner c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s s t a r t i n g f r o m t h e b a c k p o s i t i o n l i k e w i s e on o r n e a r t h e v o w e l l i m i t . T h e r e a r e no f i x e d p o s i t i o n s f o r / y / a n d /w/, a l t h o u g h s o m e t i m e s t h e y a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s a l v e o p a l a t a l a n d l a b i o v e l a r r e s p e c t i v e l y . W i t h s i m p l i c i t y a g a i n a s t h e w o r k  i n g p r i n c i p l e , / y / i s c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r d e n t a l s , w h i l e /w/ i s c a t e g o r i z e d w i t h b i l a b i a l s . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e a f f r i c a t e d s t o p / j / , l a t e r a l / l / , a n d f l a p / r / , p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n d o e s n o t f u n c t i o n a s a c o n t r a s t  i n g f e a t u r e s i n c e t h e y do n o t h a v e c o n t r a s t i n g c o u n t e r p a r t s . I n t h e a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n s o f T a u s u g c o n s o n a n t s ^ i t has b e e n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e y a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m one a n o t h e r by a r e l a t i v e l y f e w a r t i c u l a t o r y d i f f e r e n c e s o r c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e s . T h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e a r r a n g e d i n s u c h a way t h a t e a c h c o n s o n a n t phoneme s h a r e s some c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e w i t h o t h e r c o n s o n a n t s r104 a l t h o u g h e a c h o f them i s s e t o f f f r o m e v e r y o t h e r c o n s o n a n t b y a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t l e a s t one d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t y . C o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e c o n s o n a n t phonemes a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e s g i v e s a d i a g r a m m a t i c a r r a n g e m e n t a s shown i n F i g u r e 7 ( s e e n e x t p a g e ) . A l t h o u g h i t i s n o t o f t h e e s s e n c e o f p h o n e m i c a n a l y s i s , t h e s c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s u s e f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e t t e r t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e c o n s o n a n t phonemes i n t e r m s 44 o f t h e i r r e l e v a n t f e a t u r e s . F i g u r e 7 c o n v e n i e n t l y i l l u s t r a t e s a s e r i e s o f i n t e r s e c t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a b s e n c e a n d p r e s e n c e o f v o i c e , p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , a n d manner o f a r t i  c u l a t i o n . A s shown i n t h e d i a g r a m , T a u s u g c o n s o n a n t s d i f f e r b y one o r more o f t h e s e c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e s . To make s u c h d i f f e r e n  c e s e v i d e n t , l i n e s a r e d r a w n a l o n g e a c h d i m e n s i o n s o f p h o n e m i c c o n t r a s t s , p o i n t i n g o u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b y means o f d i a g o n a l l i n e s ( s l a n t i n g l i n e s ) i n t h e c a s e o f v o i c e d - v o i c e l e s s d i s t i n c t i o n ( i . e . , t h e v o i c e l e s s s t o p / p , t , k / a s r e s p e c t i v e l y o p p o s e d t o t h e i r v o i c e d c o u n t e r p a r t s / b , d , g / ) , v e r t i c a l l i n e s f o r c o n t r a s t i n manner o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ( i . e . , f r o m s t o p , a f f r i c a t e d s t o p , f r i c a t i v e , ' n a s a l , l a t e r a l , f l a p , t o s e m i c o n s o n a n t ) , a n d h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s t o show d i f f e r e n c e s i n a r t i c u l a t o r y p o s i t i o n s , ( i . e . , f r o m b i l a b i a l t o C e n t a l , v e l a r , a n d o n t o g l o t t a l ) . U n l i k e t h e v o w e l s y s t e m , i t i s r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t a n d r a r e t o find..._t.he e n t i r e c o n s o n a n t s y s t e m t o be p e r f e c t l y s y m m e t r i -105 F i g u r e : 8 i The C o n s o n a n t D i a g r a m f o r T a u s u g 106 c a l t h r o u g h o u t . Some ga p s - o r ' h o l e s ' a s l i n g u i s t s t e r m them - e x i s t i n t h e s y s t e m . T h e s t o p c o n s o n a n t s , f o r i n s t a n c e , 1 h a v e a p e r f e c t "balance "between t h e v o i c e l e s s a n d v o i c e d s t o p s f r o m b i l a b i a l t o d e n t a l , a n d t o v e l a r . H o w e v e r , s i n c e a c o r r e s  p o n d i n g v o i c e d g l o t t a l s t o p i s a n a r t i c u l a t o r y i m p o s s i b i l i t y , t h e v o i c e l e s s g l o t t a l c o n s o n a n t i s u n m a t c h e d , t h u s , ' a h o l e i s s a i d t o e x i s t i n t h e s y s t e m . 1 W i t h t h e v o i c e l e s s / h / c o n s o n a n t , h o w e v e r , i n t h e same a r t i c u l a t o r y p o s i t i o n a s / ? / , t h e p r o b l e m o f s y m m e t r y i n p a t t e r n i n g i s s o l v e d . 5 . 3 . 2 P h o n e m i c C o n t r a s t I t h a s b e e n a l l u d e d t o i n p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t a phoneme a s a l i n g u i s t i c phonemenon d e r i v e s i t s f u n c t i o n f r o m b e i n g i n q p p p o s i t i o n w i t h o t h e r c o m p a r a b l e phenomena i n t h e s o u n d s y s t e m o f t h e l a n g u a g e . Thus, 1 / p / , f o r i n s t a n c e , o b t a i n s i t s s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e m a t t e r o f v o i c i n g , i t c o n t r a s t wifch / b / i n w o r d s l i k e p a i s / p a ? i s / ' s k i n ' v e r s u s b a i s / b 3 ? i s / ' f l i r t i n e s s ' . ' I n manner o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , / p / i s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o /m/ i n a p a i r l i k e p a s a / p & s a h / ' s w e a r ' a n d masa /m£sah/ ' p e r i o d o f t i m e ' o r ' e r a ' , ' w h i l e i n p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a  t i o n , i t i s o p p o s e d t o / t / , / k / , / a n d / ? / , i . e . , p i l u / p f J L u h / ' r o l l e d t i g h t l y ' , t i l u / t i l u ? / ' t h r e w ' , k i l u / k i l u h / ' k i l o ' , a n d i l u / ? i l U h / ' o r p h a n ' . I n s h o r t , c o n t r a s t i s . t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c r i t e r i o n i n g i v i n g a c o n s o n a n t phoneme i t s f u n c t i o n a l o r p h o n e m i c s t a t u s . ' De S a u s s u r e went e v e n a s f a r a s t o s a y t h a t what r e a l l y 107 m a t t e r s i n a l a n g u a g e a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n one l a n g u a g e e n t i t y a n d a n o t h e r . To d i f f e r d i s t i n c t i v e l y , two c o n s o n a n t phonemes must be a b l e t o o c c u r i n t h e same p o s i t i o n a n d e n v i r o n m e n t . A g a i n , t h i s i s w h e r e t h e d i s c o v e r y o f m i n i m a l p a i r s , w h i c h d i f f e r i n o n l y one phoneme o r f e a t u r e , i s a c o n v i n c i n g p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e . The m i n i m a l p a i r s a r e l i s t e d a n d a r r a n g e d b e l o w i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n a n u t t e r a n c e a n d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h r e e f u n d a m e n t a l c r i t e r i a u s e d i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g them. V o i c e l e s s V s . V o i c e d / p / - / b / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n p a y / p a y / ' u n h u s k e d r i c e ' b a y / b a y / ' h o u s e 1 p a i s / p a ? i s / ' s k i n ' b a i s / b a ? i s / * f l i r t h i e s s 1 p i l u / p i l u h / * t i g h t l y r o l l e d ' b i l u /biluh/«blue« puad  b u a d  Word m e d i a l a p a s a b a s / p u a d / «to c u t down' ( a t r e e , p o s t , e t c . ) / b u a d / ' t o d r y * / ? a p a s / ' t o r u n a f t e r ' / ? a b a s / 'a k i n d o f i r r i t a t i o n o f t h e s k i n ' 108 s a p a l  s a b a l s a p u t  s a b u t t a p i l t a b i l / s a p a l / / s a b a l / / s a p u t / / s a b u t / / t a p i l / / t a b i l / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n k u t u p / k u t u p / k u t u b / k u t u b / l u k u p / l u k u p / l u k u b / l u k u b / s i l a p / s i l a p / s i l a b / s i l a b / •by p r o d u c t o f a g r a t e d c o c o n u t * • s t o i c * ' l i n e n u s e d f o r w r a p p i n g t h e d e a d * ' t o c o m p r e h e n d ' • s i d e b y s i d e * • i g u a n a * • t o b i t e * ( o n e * s l i p o r t o n g u e ) * b e a t i n g * ( o f t h e h e a r t ) ' t o s c r a p t h e mossy s u b s t a n c e o n t h e s i d e s o f a b o a t ' ' c o v e r * ( o f a t h i n g ) ' c r a z y * ' s u d d e n f l a m e * A / - /d/ Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n t a b u l / t a b u l / d a b u l / d a b u l / t a g a / t a g a h / d a g a / d a g a h / *germ o f a c o c o n u t f r u i t * *moro d a n c e * ( s t a m p i n g o f t h e f e e t ) 'you c a l l * ( h i m o r h e r ) •has r e a c h e d age o f p u b e r t y 1 t a h u n / t a h u n / »> d a h u n / d a h u n / h e a r ' ' l e a f 109 t i d i / t i h / / d i n / t i l a m / t i l a m / d i l a m / d i l a m / t u n g dung / t u n / / d u n / t u n g u g / t u n u g / d ungug / d i i n u g / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n l a b u t / l a b u t / l a b u d / l a b u d / l a h u t / l a h u t / l a h u d / l a h u d / s a b u t s a b u d / s a b u t / / s a b u d / ' t e a ' • h e r e ' ' m a t t r e s s * ' p r e c i o u s s t o n e s ' (a t e r m u s e d i n g a m b l i n g s e t a s i d e a s r e n t f o r c a r d , m a h j o n g , e t c . ) ' t h e f r o n t p a r t o f a s h i p ' ' t a n b a r k ' ' t o l i s t e n ' ' t o s e r v e * • m i l l i p e d e ' •a k i n d o f k n i f e ' 'mark l e f t a f t e r one h a s b e e n w h i p p e d ' • u n d e r s t a n d ' ' t o t h r o w s o m e t h i n g i n s p r a y * A / - / g / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n k a b a n / k a b a n / g a b a n / g a b a n / k a t a s / k a t a s / g a t a s / g a t a s / • c o f f i n * ' t o come u p 1 ' p a p e r ' • m i l k ' 110 k i l a /kilah/ g l la /gilah/ k u l a Aula?/ g u l a / g u l a ? / k u l u n g / k u l u n / g u l u n g / g u l u n / Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n i k u t / ? i k u t / . \ igut A igut/ s u k a l / s u k a l / s u g a l / s u g a l / t u k a s / t i l k a s / t u g a s / t u g a s / t u k u n / t u k u n / t u g u n / t u g u n / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n p u l a k / b u l a k / b u l a g / b u l a g / s u l a k / s u l a k / s u l a g / s u l a g / • t o r e c o g n i z e ' ' c a r e l e s s 1 ' p l e a t s ' ( o n a c u r t a i n , d r e s s , e t c . ) ' m o l a s s e s ' . . ' c u r l ' o r ' c u r l y ' ' w h e e l ' • s e l f i s h n e s s * • o i l g l a n d o f a c h i c k e n ' ' s u g a r * ' p l a y i n g c a r d ' ' t o f i n d o u t * • h a r d n e s s ' ' t o p r e s s down' ( s o m e t h i n g ) • o r d e r * ' u n r i p e ' •a d i s e a s e o f t h e e y e s ' ( a w h i t e s p o t ) ' t o r e f u s e ' ' p i e c e * I l l M a nner o f A r t i c u l a t i o n V o i c e l e s s s t o p v s . V o i c e f r i c a t i v e A / - / s / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n t a l a m / t a l a m / ' t r a y f o r s e r v i n g 1 s a l am / s a l a m / 'hand s h a k e 1 t a p a l / t a p a l / • p r o t e c t i o n * , * s h i e l d * s a p a l / s a p a l / ' b y - p r o d u c t f r o m g r a t e d c o c o n u t * t i b i / t i b i ? / • c h i p ' s i b i / s i b i ? / ' s m a l l n e s s ' t u d / t u d / ' t o p u s h ' s u d / s u d / 'a s p e c i a l k i n d o f comb u s e d f o r r e m o v i n g l i c e ' t u n g / t u n / ( g a m b l i n g t e r m f o r money s e t a s i d e as r e n t f o r c a r d s , m a h j o n g , e t c . ) s u n g / s u n / * t o move f o r w a r d * Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n b a t u / b a t u h / • s t o n e ' b a s u / b a s u h / ' d r i n k i n g g l a s s ' p a t u / p a t u ? / ' g o o s e ' p a s u / p a s u ? / ' h e a t 112 p a t u n g / p a t u n / p a s u n g / p a s u n / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n k a p u t / k a p u t / k a p u s / k a p u s / l a n u t  l a n u s l a p u t  l a p u s p a n i t  p a n i s / l a n u t / / l a n u s / / l a p u t / / l a p u s / / p a n i t / / p a n i s / 'bamboo' 'a k i n d o f n a t i v e c a k e wrapped i n b a n a n a l e a f • t o h o l d ' 'not e n o u g h ' , ' l a c k i n g ' ' a b a c a ' ' w i t h e r e d ' ' t h i n ' ( s a u c e , s t a r c h , e t c . ) • a l l a r o u n d 1 ( f i l l e d w i t h s o m e t h i n g ) ' t u n a f i s h ' 'has become a c i d i c ' o r ' s p o i l e d 1 ( f o o d ) /?/ - A / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n a b a l / ? a b a l / h a b a l / h a b a l / a t u d i l u h i - l u u g hug / ? a t u d / h a t u d / h a t u d / / ? i l u h / / h i l u h / / ? u g / / h u g / • w h i r l p o o l ' •news• • t o l o o k a t * ' t o e s c o r t * o r ' t o r e t u r n * * o r p h a n * ' d i z z y * ' p o s s e s s i v e n e s s ' * c h a n g e ' (money) 113 Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n d a y a a n / d a y a ? a n / 'put s u r f a c e up* d a y a h a n / d a y a h a n / ' r i c h ' n a i l u / n a ? i l u h / 'become o r p h a n * n a h i l u / n a h i l u h / ' g o t d r u n k * o r 'become d i z z y * p a a / p a ? a h / p a h a / p a h a h / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n b a d j u / b a d j u ? / b a d j u / b a d j u h / • t h i g h * 'band* ( f o r n a v e l ) dugu  dugu / d u g u ? / / d u g u h / • d r e s s * • s t o r m * ' b l o o d ' ' c o r n e r * V o i c e d s t o p v s . V o i c e d a f f r i c a t e d s t o p / d / - / j / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n  d a / d a h / j a / j a h / d a b u l / d a b u l / j a b u l / j a b u l / a a g a  j a g a j a h a n d a h a n /dag a h / / j a g a h / / j a h a n / / d a h a n / * t o c a r r y ' •a n a t i v e c a k e made f r o m r i c e f l o u r * 'a moro d a n c e made by s t a m p i n g o f t h e f e e t ' • t o make m i s c h i e f * 'has r e a c h e d age o f p u b e r t y ' ' g u a r d ' ' w i l l make ' j a * ( a n a t i v e c a k e ) ' w i l l b r i n g f o r ' 114 V o i c e d a f f r i c a t e d s t o p v s . V o i c e d n a s a l / j / - / n / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n j a / j a h / 'a n a t i v e c a k e made f r o m r i c e f l o u r * n a / n a h / ( a n e x p r e s s i o n i m p l y i n g t h a t y o u h a v e done s o m e t h i n g wrong) j a g a / j a g a h / 1 g u a r d 1 n a g a / n a g a h / • d r a g o n 1 j a n a p / j a n a p / •a k i n d o f b o l o ' n a n a p / n a n a p / ' c r a w l 1 V o i c e d n a s a l v s . V o i c e d l a t e r a l / n / - / I / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n n a g a / n a g a h / • d r a g o n ' l a g a A a g a h / ' f l a m e 1 n a r a / n a r a h / • n a r r a ' ( t r e e } • , l a r a / l a r a h / • p e p e r ' n u nuk /nunuk/ • b a l e t e t r e e 1 l u n u k / l u n u k / • s o f t n e s s ' Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n manas /manas/ • b e r i b e r i ' o r ' s w e l l i n ; m a l a s / m a l a s / 'out o f l u c k ' sanam /sanam/ ' a n t ' s a l a m / s a l a m / ' h a n d s h a k e ' 115 Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n l p u n i p u l / ? i p u n / / ? i p u l / f t e e c h • l e p e r * s a b u n / s a b u n / ' s o a p ' s a b u l / s a b u l / ' d i r t y ' V o i c e d l a t e r a l v s . V o i c e d f l a p A / - A / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n l a d j u / l a i i j i U . ^ ' / ' f a r n e s s 1 r a d j u / r a ' d j u h / ' r a d i o ' l a t a g / l a t a g / R a t a g / r a t a g / Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n b a l a n / b a l a n / b a r a n / b a r a n / p a l a  p a r a / p a l a h / / p a r a h / p a l a n g / p a l a q / p a r a n g / p a r a n / ' s e a r c h a r o u n d ' 'a name o f a p l a c e i n S i a s i , S u l u ' • s t e e l ' •body* ' s h o v e l ' • s t o p ' ' m u l t i c o l o r e d mat* • g r a s s ' p a l i / p a l i ? / p a r i / p a r i ? / P o i n t o f A r t i c u l a t i o n *wound' ' p r i e s t * 116 /p/ Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n p a l a n g / p a l a n / t a l a n g / t a l a n / p a s a  t a s a p i n d a t i n d a / p a s a h / A a ' s a h / / p i n d a h / / t i n d a h / p u k u l / p u k u l / t u k u l / t u k u l / p u l a k / p u l a k / t u l a k / t u l a k / Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n - A / ' m u l t i c o l o r e d mat' 'a k i n d o f game done by t o s s i n g 2 c o i n s * ' s w e a r ' ' d r i n k i n g c u p ' ' c h a n g e ' ( o f p l a c e o r a p p e a r a n c e ) ' s t o r e ' ' f i n g e r l e s s ' , ' a r m l e s s ' 'hammer' ' a b o r t i o n ' ' t o p u s h * a p a s / ? a p a s / • t o r u n a f t e r * a t a s / ? a t a s / ' t o g u a r a n t e e f o r ' g a p a s / g a p a s / ' g u a z e ' g a t a s / g a t a s / ' m i l k ' s a p a l / s a p a l / ' b y - p r o d u c t f r o m g r a t e d s a t a l / s a t a l / ' t o sew a m a t t r e s s ' Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n s i l a p / s i l a p / s i l a t / s i l a t / • c r a z y •a moro d a n c e s i m i l a r t o j u d o * 117 l u k u p / l u k u p / *moss on t h e s i d e o f a b o a t * l u k u t / l u k u t / 'an e d i b l e s e a p r o d u c t ' V o i c e l e s s B i l a b i a l v s . V o i c e V e l a r / P / - A / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n p a l a n g / p a l a n / ' m u l t i c o l o r e d mat' k a l a n g / k a l a n / • t o s i n g ' p a n i t / p a n i t / • t u n a f i s h ' k a n i t / k a n i t / ' t o u n f a s t e n s o m e t h i n g f a s t e n e d o r p a s t e d ' p a t u / p a t u ? / • g o o s e ' k a t u / k a t u ? / • o u r s ' p i l u / p i l u h / • r o l l e d t i g h t l y ' k i l u / k i l u h / • k i l o ' p u l a / p u l a h / • r e d ' k u l a / k u l a h / ' t o b l e a c h ' k u t u / k u t u h / • l i c e ' p u t u / p u t u h / 'a k i n d o f n a t i v e f o o d ' Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n b a p a b a k a / b a p a ? / / b a k a ? / s a p a t / s a p a t / s a k a t / s a k a t / 'a t e r m u s e d t o c a l l a n u n c l e , a s a s i g n o f r e s p e c t * ' t a r t a r * • s o m e t h i n g n o t t h r o w n i n t h e r i g h t p l a c e • t o go up* 118 s u k a s u p a / s u k a ? / / s u p a ? / • v e n i g a r ' • t o chew' t a p u / t a p u ? / ' t o a l i g h t ' t a k u / t a k u ? / ' c h i n ' t u p a s / t u p a s / ' c a k e o r c o o k i e s t h a t g o e s w i t h c o f f e e o r t e a ' • t o r e v e a l ' V o i c e l e s s B i l a b i a l v s . V o i c e l e s s G l o t t a l / p / - / ? / t u k a s / t u k a s / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n p a s u / p a s u h / a s u p a t a  a t a i l a p i l u i l u / ? a s u h / / p a t a h / / ? a t a h / / p i l a h / / ? i l a h / / p i l u h / / ? i l u h / p unung / p u n u n / u n u n g / ? u n u n / p u t a n g / p u t a n / u t a n g / ? u t a n / ' f l o w e r p o t ' »smoke' 'one b u n d l e ' ( o f f i r e w o o d ) • s l a v e * •how much' • b i r t h mark* ' r o l l e d t i g h t l y ' ' o r p h a n ' ' f a i n t * ' w i l l f o l l o w w h e r e v e r one g o e s ' (come what may) ' d r i e d c o c o n u t * ' c r e d i t * 119 Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n k a a / k a ? a h / 'ge t i t ' k a p a / k a p a h / 1 a x e ' l a p u s / l a p u s / ' a l l a r o u n d f i l l e d w i t h g o l d t e e t h ' l a u s / l a ? u s / ' c o n t i n u e ' o r ' e x t e n d ' s a p a t / s a p a t / • s o m e t h i n g t h r o w n n o t i n p r o p e r p l a c e • s a a t / s a ? a t / • p r o p e r t i m i n g ' Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n a l u p / ? a l u p / •harm made o n t h e s k i n due t o t h e w i n d a n d t h e s u n ' . a l u / ? a l u ? / •dew* k u l a p / k u l a p / •a k i n d o f s k i n d i s e a s ' k u l a Aula?/ ' p l e a t s ' o r ' s h e a r i n g o n a d r e s s o r c u r t a i n ' V o i c e l e s s d e n t a l v s . V o i c e l e s s v e l a r A / - A / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n t a b a n g / t a b a n / ' h e l p ' kabang / k a b a n / ' s p o t t e d ' t a l a n g / t a l a n / 'a k i n d o f game t o s s i n g c o i n * k a l a n g / k a l a n / • t o s i n g ' t a p a / t a p a h / ' t o r o a s t ' k a p a / k a p a h / 'axe * 120 t a p a l  k a p a l t u l a k u l a / t a p a l / / k a p a l / / t u l a ? / / k u l a ? / l a p u t / l a p u t / l a p u k / l a p u k / s i l a t / s i l a t / s i l a k / s i l a k / ' p r o t e c t i o n ' o r ' s h i e l d ' • t h i c k n e s s ' 'a n a t i v e r e c i p e ' ' p l e a t s ' o r ' s h e a r s ' ( o n d r e s s o r c u r t a i n ) b a t i / b a t i ? / 'awake' b a k i / b a k i ? / •a k i n d o f k a t a s / k a t a s / • p a p e r ' k a k a s / k a k a s / • r i n g w o r m * k a t u / k a t u ? / • o u r s ' k a k u / k a k u ? / •mine * Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n k a p u t / k a p u t / ' t o h o l d * k a p u k / k a p u k / 'kapok' ' t h i n ' ( o f s a u c e , s t a r c h , e t c . ) • c r i s p i n e s s ' 'a moro s e l f - d e f e n c e d a n c e s i m i l a r t o ' j u d o ' • r a d i a n c e • V o i c e l e s s V e l a r v s . V o i c e l e s s g l o t t a l A / - /?/ 121 Word i n i t i a l ^ p o s i t i o n k a p a / k a p a h / a p a / ? a p a h / k a t a s / k a t a s / a t a s / ? a t a s / k i l a / k i l a h / i l a / ? i l a h / k i l u / k i l u h / i l u / ? i ' l u h / k u g / k u g / m / ? u g / k u l u n g / k i i l u n / u l u n s : / ? u l u n / Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n makug /makug/ maug /ma?ug/ n a k i l u / n a k i l u h / n a i l u / n a ? i l u h / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n b u l a k / b u l a k / b u l a / b u l a ? / s a p a k / s a p a k / s a p a / s a p a ? / ' a x e 1 ' t h i n w a f e r ' • p a p e r ' ' w i l l g u a r a n t e e ' • t o r e c o g n i z e ' • b i r t h mark' ' k i l o ' ' o r p h a n • • j o y ' o r ' h a p p i n e s s ' • p o s s e s s i v e n e s s ' ' c u r l ' o r ' c u r l y ' ' p i t y ' 'happy' ' s e l f i s h ' 'was w e i g h e d ' •became o r p h a n ' ' u n r i p e ' 'bamboo s p l i t ' 'an e x p r e s s i o n i m p l y i n g " I t i s j u s t f i t t i n g a n d p r o p e r " . ' ' l a k e • 122 sipak /sipak/ 'to split (something) to pieces' sipa /slpa?/ 'kick* Voiced bilabial stop vs. Voiced labio-velar semiconsonant / b / - /w/ balu /baluh/ 'widow* walu /waluh/ 'eight* bay /bay/ •house1 way_ /way/ 'none' Word medial position laba /la'bah/ •salable• lawa /lawah/ •left* (hind, side, etc.) labay /labay/ 'to pass by' laway /laway/ •saliva 1 sabay /sabay/ •to go together* saway /saway/ 'to give cr i t ica l comment' suba /suba?/ •inlet* suwa /suwa?/ * oranges * Word final position lanab /lanab/ •delicious*, 'palatable' lanaw /lanaw/ 'lake• or 'canal * sabab /sabab/ 'cause' or 'because' sabaw /s i^baw/ 'soup* V o i c e d b i l a b i a l n a s a l v s . M/ Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n may. /may/ way. /way/ Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n kamas /kamas/ kawas / k a w a s / l a m a y / l a m a y / l a w a y / l a w a y / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n sanam /sanam/ sanaw / s a n a w / s u l a m / s u l a m / s u l a w / s u l a w / V o i c e d d e n t a l s t o p "\ / d / - Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n d a g a / d a g a h / nag a / n a g a h / daug /da'?ug/ naug / n a ? u g / d a t u / d a t u ? / n a t u / n a t u ? / V o i c e d l a b i o - v e l a r s e m i c o n s o n a n t /w/ •why' ' n o n e 1 ' t o s c r a t c h * • s u d d e n a n d s t r o n g r a i n * • v i a n d ' • s a l i v a ' *ant« ' t o g r o p e ' • s l i v e r ' *a b r a c e l e t made f r o m a s e a s h e l l ' V o i c e d d e n t a l n a s a l •has r e a c h e d age o f p u b e r t y ' ' d r a g o n ' ' t o w i n ' ' t o go down' • d a t y * o r a ' c h i e f t a i n * • o u r s ' 124 d i y a t / d i y a t / n i y a t /niyat/ dunuk / d u n u k / nunuk / n u n u k / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n l a g u d / l a g u d / l a g u n / l a g u n / s a b u d / s a b u d / s a b u n / s a b u n / t a g a d / t a g a d / t a g a n / t a g a n / t a h u d t a h u n t i k u d t i k u n ;uud "cuun / t a h u d / / t a h u n / / t i k u d / / t i k u n / t u k u d / t u k u d / t u k u n / t u k u n / / t u ? u d / / t u ? u n / ' t o p ay f o r a damage done t o a p e r s o n ' ' d e s i r e ' o r ' a m b i t i o n ' • s t r o n g f l o w o f w a t e r f r o m t h e m o u n t a i n a f t e r r a i n i n g ' ' b a l e t e t r e e 1 • s l i m e • • w i l l l o o k f o r ' • t o t h r o w s o m e t h i n g i n s p r a y * ' s o a p ' • t o w a i t ' • w i l l c a l l ' ' s p i n e s on t h e r o o s t e r ' s l e g s * , ' y e a r * *heel» * g i z z a r d * • t o g u e s s * ' t o p r e s s down' • t o do s o m e t h i n g d e l i b e r a t e l y ' 'a w a g e r ' o r ' b e t * V o i c e d d e n t a l s t o p v s . V o i c e d d e n t a l l a t e r a l / d / - /!/ 125 Word I n i t i a l p o s i t i o n d a g a / d a g a h / l a g a / l a g a n / d a g u n l a g u n d a s u  l a s u d a y a  l a y a d u p a / d a g u n / / l a g u n / / d a s u h / / l a ' s u h / / d a y a ? / / l a y a ? / d u h u l / d u h u l / l u h u l / l u h u l / / d u p a h / l u p a / l u p a h / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n a l u d a l u l / ? a l u d / / ? a l u l / l u h u d / l u h u d / l u h u l / l u h u l / •has r e a c h e d age o f p u b e r t y ' ' f l a m e ' ' w i l l c l i m b ' ' w i l l l o o k f o r . . . » 'an e x p e n s i v e k i n d o f f a b r i c ' ' r i b b o n ' ' s u r f a c e u p ' • f l a t s u r f a c e ' 'end' o r 'edge' •a w i d e p i e c e o f c l o t h h a n d a b o v e a b e d t o k e e p d i r t f r o m f a l l i n g ' ' t h e l e n g t h f r o m f i n g e r t i p t o f i n g e r t i p when h a n d s a r e s t r e t c h e d . ' ' a p p e a r a n c e ' • c r y b a b y ' o r ' i r r i t a b l e * ' r a f t ' ' t o k n e e l ' 'wide p i e c e o f c l o t h h a n g a b o v e a b e d t o k e e p d i r t f r o m f a l l i n g . ' 126 s a b u d / s a b u d / ' t o t h r o w s o m e t h i n g i n s p r a y * s a b u l / s a b u l / ' d i r t y * o r * s l o v e n * t u k u d / t u k u d / t u k u l / t u k u l / * t o g u e s s * *hammer' V o i c e d d e n t a l s t o p v s . V o i c e d h i g h - f r o n t s e m i c o n s o n a n t / d / - / y / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n a n a d / ? a n a d / * t o l e a r n * / ? a n a y / ' t e r m i t e s ' a n a y b u a d  b u a y l a b a d l a b a y / b u a d / / b u a y / / l a b a d / / l a b a y / s u b a d / s u b a d / ' t o d r y ' ' r a t t a n ' ,7 ' t o wave s o m e t h i n g r a p i d l y ' • t o p a s s b y ' ' m a c k e r e l • ' i t s h o u l d b e ' s u b a y . / s u b a y / V o i c e d d e n t a l a f f r i c a t e d s t o p v s . V o i c e d d e n t a l l a t e r a l / j / - /!/ Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n .jaga / j a g a h / ' g u a r d * l a g a / l a g a h / ' f l a m e ' .jakat / j a k a t / 'money p r t h i n g s g i v e n a s t i t h e * l a k a t / l a k a t / 'mess* ( o f w a t e r , s t i c k y s u b s t a n c e , 127 j u b a l u b a / j u b a ? / / l u b a ? / • d i v i n e c u r s e 1 •much more* j u k u p / j u k u p / • c o m p l e t e * l u k u p / l u k u p / * t o s c r u b mossy s u b s t a n c e o n t h e s i d e s o f b o a t s . ' V o i c e d d e n t a l a f f r i c a t e d s t o p v s . V o i c e d h i g h - f r o n t s e m i c o n s o n a n t / j / - / y / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n j a r i / j a ' r i h / * t h e n . . . * y a r i / y a r i h / * h e r e * j a b u t a n / j a b u t a n / ' f i l b r o u s j ' ( o f s e e d a f t e r p u l p h a s b e e n removed) y a b u t a n / y a b u t a n / 'was r e a c h e d ' V o i c e d d e n t a l n a s a l v s . V o i c e d h i g h - f r o n t s e m i c o n s o n a n t / n / - / y / n a r i / n a ' r i h / •has b e e n p l a c e d h e r e 1 y a r i / y a r i h / ' h e r e ' n a t u d / n a t u d / •has b e e n p u s h e d * y a t u d / y a t u d / •was b e i n g s t a r e d a t * Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n a n a d / ? a n a d / * t o l e a r n * a y a d / ? a y a d / ' t o be c a r e f u l * o r t o l a n a / l a n a h / • o i l * l a y a / l a y a h / ' f i s h i n g n e t * 128 l a n u l a y u / l a n u ? / / l a y u ? / l u u n a / l u ? u n a / l u u y a / l u ? u y a / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n i n d a n / ? i n d a n / i n d a y / ? i n d a y / k a t a n  k a t a y l u u n  l u u y / k a t a n / / k a t a y / / l u ? u n / / l u ? u y / p a n t a n / p a n t a n / p a n t a y / p a n t a y / ' f i n e n e s s ' o r ' c l e a n l i n e s s ' ' f a r n e s s ' ' t o p u t i n . . . * ' g i n g e r ' • m a r k e r * o r ' r e m i n d e r ' ( a n e x p r e s s i o n o f n e g a t i o n i m p l y i n g - * I do n o t know') ' a l l * 'one who g o e s f r o m one h o u s e t a n o t h e r - no f i x e d p l a c e t o s ' c o n t e n t ' ' p i t y ' o r 'sweet* ( o f s o n g ) • w h a r f * ' p l a i n ' p a n u n  pa n u y / p a n u n / / p a n u y / • f r i e n d ' • w i l l r e l a t e ' o r ' w i l l g o s s i p * V o i c e d d e n t a l l a t e r a l v s . V o i c e d h i g h - f r o n t s e m i c o n s o n a n t /!/ - /y/ Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n l a b u t / l a b u t / y a b u t / y a b u t / ' t o s e r v e ' ' t o r e a c h f o r ' 129 l u b u / l u b u h / yubu /yubuh/ Word medial p o s i t i o n k a l u g  s l l a talum  tayum / k a l u g / /kayug/ / s i l a h / / s i y a h / /talum/ /tayum/ Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n a t a l  a tay / ? a t a l / / ? a t a y / k a p a l / k a p a l / kapay /kapay/ • e d i b l e p a r t i n s i d e a seacucumber* * i s having a cough 1 * a s c a r i s * • t hinness* or *slimness* »they» •he* or •she* * eggplant * *a v a r i e t y of sea u r c h i n with l o n g spines* • l i p s t i c k * *heart* * t h i c k n e s s * * rudder * sampal /sampal/ 'measles* sampay /sampay/ *to han£» (of c l o t h e s e s p e c i a l l y ) V o i c e d b i l a b i a l v s . V o i c e d d e n t a l stop /b/ - / d / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n baus /baus/ 'to b a r g a i n ' daus /daus/ ' c l o s e to* (some f a c i l i t i e s ) basu /basuh/ ' d r i n k i n g g l a s s ' dasu /dasuh/ *a k i n d of c l o t h * 130 b i d i / b i h / ' t o buy* / d i h / ' h e r e ' b i h u n / b i h u n / d i h u n / d i h u n / b u l a n g / b u l a n / d u l a n g / d u l a n / bung / b u n / dung / d u n / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n l u b / l u b / l u d / l u d / /" 3iiasub /masub/ masud /masud/ ' w i l l b u y 1 • w i l l p u t i t h e r e ' ' c o c k f i g h t * 'a t r a y o f f o o d * *a k i n d o f f i s h 1 ' f r o n t p a r t o f a b o a t * 'unredeemed' ' t o come downtown f r o m t h e r u r a l a r e a ' ' f o n d o f ( a k i n d o f f o o d ) ' c a n be e n t e r e d ' t a u b / t a ? u b / ' h i g h t i d e * t a u d / t a ? u d / ' q u a n t i t y ' V o i c e d b i l a b i a l v s . V o i c e d v e l a r / b / - / g / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n b a r a n / b a r a n / 'body' g a r a n / g a r a n / 'a k i n d o f g u n ' b a t a / b a t a ? / ' c h i l d ' g a t a / g a t a ? / ' c o c o n u t m i l d ' 131 b a u s g a u s / b a ? u s / / g a ? u s / b u l a / b u l a ? / g u l a / g u l a ? / b u t a s / b u t a s / g u t a s / g u t a s / Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n b a b a / b a b a ? / b a g a i b a n i g a n i b u t i g u t l a b a  l a g a l a b u t  l a g u t s a b u  s a g u s a b u l  s a g u l / b a g a ? / / ? i b a n / / ? i g a n / / ? i b u t / / ? i g u t / / l a b a h / / l a ' g a h / / l a b u t / / l a g u t / / s a b u n / / s a g u h / / s a b u l / / s a g u l / t o b a r g a i n * c a n a f f o r d t o * bamboo * m o l a s s e s * t o make a h o l e * s t a r v i n g * t h e l o w e r p a r t * ( o f s o m e t h i n g ) l u n g ' c o m p a n i o n * t o r e m o v e ' o r ' t o t r a n s f e r * n e v e r f o r g e t t o * b a c k p a r t o f t h e c h i c k e n where t h e o i l i s s t o r e d . * s a l a b l e ' f l a m e ' t o s e r v e ' t o s t a b * w h i l e * s a p ' d i r t y * o r ' u n t i d y * t o m i x t h i n g s t o g e t h e r * ( a k i n d o f n a t i v e r e c i p e ) 132 Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n l a b / l a b / l a g s u b s u g / l a g / / s u b / / s u g / •a d i s e a s e w h e r e i n t h e s k i n becomes r e d i s h * ' t o l o o k f o r ' ' f o n d n e s s f o r ' ( s o m e t h i n g t o e a t ) ' c u r r e n t ' s u l a b / s u l a b / ' b l a d e * s u l a g / s u l a g / ' p i e c e * V o i c e d d e n t a l v s . V o i c e d v e l a r s t o p / d / - / g / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n d a b u l / d a b u l / g a b u l / g a b u l / d a a n g a a n / d a ? a n / / g a ? a n / d a r a n / d a r a n / g a r a n / g a r a n / d a u s / d a ? u s / g a u s / g a ? u s / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n a d / ? a d / a g / ? a g / p a d a d / p a d / / ? a d / moro d a n c e * ( s t a m p i n g t h e f e e t ) h a z i n e s s * o l d ' ( o f t h i n g s ) w e i g h t * o f t e n * o r * f r e q u e n t * a k i n d o f f u n * c l o s e t o ' ( f a c i l i t i e s ) c a n a f f o r t t o do s o m e t h i n g ' f e n c e ' c o n s i d e r a t e n e s s * i n s t e a d ' f e n c e ' 133 s u a / s u a / ' t o e n t e r ' o r 'a s p e c i a l k i n d o f comb f o r r e m o v i n g l i c e ' sug_ / s u g / ' c u r r e n t ' t u h u d / t u h u d / •knee * t u h u g / t u h u g / • t o s t r i n g ' u d / ? u d / 'worm* m A u g / ' p o s s e s s i v e n e s s ' V o i c e l e s s d e n t a l v s . V o i c e l e s s g l o t t a l / s / - A / Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n s a b a l / s a b a l / ' s t o i c ' h a b a l / h a b a l / * news * s a b u l / s a b u l / • d i r t y * o r * u n t i d y * h a b u l /habul/ • b l a n k e t * s u b u / s u b u ? / • t o f e e d ' (someone) h u b u / h u b u ? / ' n a k e d * s u g / s u g / • c u r r e n t • h u g / h u g / ' c h a n g e ' (money) s u l a A u l a ? / ' d i v i n e p u n i s h m e n t ' h u l a / h u l a ? / ' p l a c e ' o r ' c o u n t r y * s u l a t / s u l a t / ' l e t t e r * h u l a t / h u l a t / • p l u g * Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n b a s a / b a s a ? / *wet' b a h a /bafta?/ *maybe' 134 k a s i g k a h i g l u s a l u h a pas a p a h a p i s a k p i h a k / f c a s i g / / k a h i g / / l u s a ? / / l u h a ? / / p a s a h / / p a h a h / / p i s a k / / p i h a k / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n a p a s / ? a p a s / a p a a t as  a t a p a u s  pa u k a k a s k a k a / ? a p a h / / ? a t a s / / ? a t a h / / p a ? u s / / p a ? u h / / k a k a s / / k a k a h / •a s p e c i e s o f f i s h * • t o remove s o m e t h i n g f r o m ' ' t o s u b s i d e ' ( o f d i s e a s l i k e c h i c k e n p o x) ' t e a r s ' ( o f e y e s ) ' t o s i g n ' ( o f d i v o r c e ) •band* ( f o r t h e n a v e l ) •mud' • a n c e s t r y ' o r ' r a c e ' ' t o r u n a f t e r ' ' i c e c r e a m c o n e ' o r 'a k i n d o f c o o k i e s ' ' t o g u a r a n t e e f o r * ' s l a v e ' ' t o chew s u g a r c a n e * ' t h e h e a d p a r t o f s o m e t h i n g ' ' r i n g w o r m ' ' t o make r h y m i c a l s o u n d on t h e s i d e o f a b o a t w i t h a wand* V o i c e d b i l a b i a l v s . V o i c e d d e n t a l r M a s a l /m/ - / n / 135 Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n m a b i / m a b i h / n a b i / n a b i h / mag a /nag a h / n a g a / n a g a h / makawa /makawa?/ nakawa / n a k a w a ? / m a s a k i t / m a s a k i t / n a s a k i t / n a s a k i t / maug /ma?ug/ n a u g / n a ? u g / Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n guma  g u n a mamis m a n i s /gumah/ / g u n a h / /mamis/ / m a n i s / sumud /sumud/ s u n u d / s u n u d / uma u n a /?umah/ / ? u n a h / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n a l u m / ? a l u m / a l u n / ? a l u n / 1 c a n be b o u g h t 1 ft ' p r o p h e t ' * d a w n 1 ' d r a g o n ' ' c a n be t a k e n ' 'was t a k e n * ' p a i n f u l * 'was s i c k ' ' s e l f i s h ' ' t o go down' ' r u b b e r ' 'has u s e f o r ' 'a v a r i e t y o f c o c o n u t * •charm' (when s m i l i n g , t a l k i n g e t c . ) ' w i l l e n t e r * * t o f o l l o w * * f a r m * • f i r s t * ' b r u i s e ' 'wave' ( o f t h e s e a ) 136 V o i c e d b i l a b i a l v s . V o i c e d v e l a r n a s a l M - /*)/ man /man/ ( a p a r t i c l e u s e d t o mark a n a d j e c t i v e ) n g a n / n a n / 1name» manga /marjah/ ( a p a r t i c l e m a r k i n g a p l u r a l n g a n g a /natrjah/ ' t o o p e n w i d e t h e mouth' Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n mama /mama?/ ' b e e t l e n u t * manga /mana?/ ' w i l l g e t ' ( s o m e t h i n g ) mami /mami?/ ' w i l l s e l e c t * m a n gi / m a g i ? / •bad* tuma / t u m a h / t u n g a / t u r j a h / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n i t u m / ? i t u m / i t u n g / ? i t u r j i / p a l a m  p a l a n g t a l am t a l a n g / p a l a m / / p a l a n / / t a l a m / / t a l a n / *a s p e c i e o f l i c e t h a t a r e u s u a l l y f o u n d i n c l o t h e s * ' t o s t i c k o n e ' s Those o u t o f t h e w a t e r ' ' b l a c k ' • t o c o u n t ' 'a k i n d o f n a t i v e r e c i p e ' ' m u l t i c o l o r e d mat' ' t r a y ' 'a game p l a y e d b y t o s s i n g up 2 c o i n s ' 137 tikam /tikam/ 'a s m a l l c a r d with C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r * t i k a n g / t i k a n / •stop* V o i c e d b i l a b i a l vs. V o i c e d v e l a r n a s a l /n/ - A , / Word medial p o s i t i o n mana /manah/ •to i n h e r i t 1 manga /marjah/ (a p a r t i c l e marking p l u r a l noun) nana /nana?/ •pus 1 nang a / nana?/ •got' (something) lanaw /lanaw/ •stagnant water' 1 ang aw . i /larjaw/ • h o u s e f l y ' manug /manug/ ' w i l l s l e e p i n someone's house' mangug /manug/ •to admire' or 'to c o u r t ' suna /sunah/ 'to i n q u i r e immediately' sung a /surjah/ ' t o blow one's nose* Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n agum /?agun/ • t o f e e l l i k e ' ( d o i n g something) agung /?agun/ •going' kaban /kaban/ ' c o f f i n ' kabang /kaban/ 'spotted' sampan /sampan/ 'Chinese j u n k * sampang /sampan/ 'to meet' 138 t a b a n / t a b a n / t a b a n g / t a b a n / b a g u n / b a g u n / b a g u n g / b a g u n / l a w a n / l a w a n / • t o r o b someone's p r o p e r t y ' • h e l p ' • v i n e ' 'a k i n d o f v e g e t a b l e * ' t o p l a y w i t h a b a b y * * d o o r * l a w a n g / l a w a n / V o i c e d h i g h - b a c k v s . V o i c e d h i g h - f r o n t s e m i c o n s o n a n t M - / y / Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n l a w a / l a w a ? / l a y a / l a y a ? / 7 pawas / p a w a s / p a y a s / p a y a s / sawa >aya / s a w a h / / s a y a h / Word f i n a l p o s i t i o n l a n a w / l a n a w / l a n a y / l a n a y / sabaw / s abaw/ s a b a y / s a b a y / sangbaw / s a n b a w / s a n g b a y / s a r j b a y / * s p i d e r * * f l a t * ( o f p l a t e ) 'one who a l w a y s l o s e s o m e t h i n g * o r ' c a r e l e s s ' »a s h e l l o f a c l a m ' • p p y t h o n ' ' s k i r t ' ' s t a g n a n t w a t e r ' ' s a t i n c l o t h ' 'soup* ' t o go t o g e t h e r * 'a s p e c i e o f c r a b ' ' t o g i v e c o m p l i m e n t ' I t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n s e e n i n t h e a b o v e l i s t o f m i n i m a l p a i r s t h a t t h e e s s e n c e o f a phoneme i s c o n t r a s t o r d i s t i n c t i v e * n e s s . The c o n s o n a n t s y s t e m o f T a u s u g h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d b y r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f m a x i m a l c o n t r a s t . H o w e v e r , n o t a l l o p p o s i t i o n s b e t w e e n one c o n s o n a n t a n d a n o t h e r o p e r a t e i n a l l p h o n o l o g i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n / d / w i t h e i t h e r /b/,< / g / , / n / , o r / 1 / o c c u r o n l y i n w o r d i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l p o s i t i o n s b u t n o t i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n . I n t h e c a s e o f / d / v s . / y / , o p p o s i t i o n seems t o be f o u n d o n l y i n w o r d f i n a l p o s i t i o n , w h i l e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n / j / v s . / I / o r / y / i s o b s e r v e d t o o c c u r i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n . The c o n s o n a n t / n / c o n  t r a s t s w i t h /n/ i n w o r d m e d i a l a s w e l l a s f i n a l p o s i t i o n s b u t n o t i n i t i a l l y . ' E x c e p t f o r t h e p a i r p a k i d / p S k i d / ' t o t h e s i d e * v s . p a k i r / p 5 k i r / t ' m o s l e m r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r 1 , c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n / d / a n d / r / d o e s n o t seem t o o c c u r i n p u r e T a u s u g w o r d s . B e t w e e n v o w e l s o r s e m i v o w e l s , t h e / r / c o n s o n a n t phoneme o c c u r s , b u t n e v e r / d / , s o t h a t t h e two s o u n d s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be i n t e r p r e t e d a s v a r i a n t s o f t h e same phoneme, / d / . H o w e v e r , s i n c e " t h e b o r r o w i n g s f r o m A r a b i c i n t o T a u s u g " t o q u o t e t h e A s h l e y s ' , " a r e numerous e n o u g h a n d s o g e n e r a l l y u s e d by a l l T a u s u g s p e a k e r s a s t o w a r r a n t t h e i r a c c e p  t a n c e a s a new T a u s u g p a t t e r n " ,< t h e two s o u n d s a r e r e g a r d e d a s i n d e p e n d e n t phonemes. The i m p o r t a n c e of t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s seem 1 4 0 i n the a t t i t u d e of Tausug speakers to the i n c o r r e c t use of e i t h e r sound f o r the other i n c e r t a i n words. Using /d/ i n s t e a d of / r / i n words l i k e ruku /rukuh/ ' p o s i t i o n f o r pray i n g 1 , makru /makruh/ 1 taboo 1, Jabur /jaWr/ 'book of Moses', e t c , would be f e l t to be unusual. So i s the use of / r / f o r /d/ i n words such as pahid /pahid/ 'to wipe', l u b l d / l u b i d / 'rope', luhud /luhud/ 'to k n e e l ' , bud /bud/ 'mountain*, e t c . Subminimal p a i r s occur l i k e Jabur / j a b u r / 'book of Moses' vs. sabud /sabud/ 'to throw something i n spray*, ruku /rukuh/ ' p o s i t i o n f o r praying* vs. dugu /duguh/ *corner*, murka /murka?/ *curse* vs. sud kaw /sud kaw/ 'come i n * , e t c . 5.3.3 A l l o p h o n i c V a r i a t i o n A phoneme as shown i n previous d i s c u s s i o n s i s a group of one or more phone-types that are p h o n e t i c a l l y s i m i l a r , are i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n , and perform an i d e n t i c a l f u n c t i o n . These phone-types, or allophones by which term they are b e t t e r known, are a c t u a l i z e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways according to t h e i r v a r y i n g phonetic environments, so t h a t they are r e f e r r e d t o sometimes as p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t s . In s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l , the v o i c e l e s s /p/ has a s l i g h t l y a s p i r a t e d r e l e a s e d allophone fP*] found i n words l i k e padpad [»p»adp»adS] * in s t e a d * or *a k i n d of medicinal p l a n t * , pasu  ([*p»asUh] *flower pot*, kapal [*k»ap»alj ' t h i c k n e s s * , etc.v ( I t should be mentioned here, however, that i n word medial, a l f t i ; . . s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l C p ' ] i s l e s s a s p i r a t e d than one i n word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n ) . An u n r e l e a s e d v a r i e t y i s found i n word f i n a l p o s i t i o n as i n l a t a p [ ' l a t ' a p ] ' f l o o d ' and when f o l l o w e d by another stop consonant as i n dapdap ['dapdap] ' f i r e t r e e ' . The v o i c e l e s s d e n t a l stop / t / has allophones [t»,t] i n much the same d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n as the s i m i l a r a l l o p h o n e s of /p/ i n words such as ta d t a d ['t'adt'ad] 'badly m u t i l a t e d ' , tahun ['t»ahUn] 'year', suntuk ['sunt'Uk] 'box', k i l a t [ ' k ' i l a t ] ' l i g h t n i n g ' , and k a t k a t ['k'atk'at] '^saw' (c a r p e n t e r ' s t o o l ) . The v o i c e l e s s v e l a r s t o p /k/ has a s e t of allophones p a r a l l e l t o /p/ and /t/i [ k ' , k] i n s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n , i . e . , k i t a [ ' k ' i t ' a ? ] 'saw' ( v e r b ) , kagkag ['k'agk»qg] 'thinness', a l a k ['?alak] 'wine', and p i k p i k ['p'ikp'Ik] 'wing'. In the company of the f r o n t vowel, i t has been observed t h a t the allopho n e [k»] i s c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o n t e d , and wit h the back vowel, i t i s r e t r a c t e d . U n l i k e the other three v o i c e l e s s stops [ p , t , k ] , the v o i c e l e s s g l o t t a l stop, / ? / , has three p r i n c i p a l a l l o p h o n e s : r e l e a s e d , which i s found i n p r e v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n l i k e atup [«?atUp] 'palm l e a f r o o f i n g ' , i l u [ ' ? i l U h ] 'orphan', ud [?u:d] 'worm'; un r e l e a s e d [ ? ] found i n words l i k e bata ['bata?] ' c h i l d ' , 142 k i t a [ ' k ' i t a ? 1 'saw' ( v e r b ) , t u k a [ 't»uka? ] ' b i l l * ( o f b i r d ) 45 a n d a w e a k l y b u t c o m p l e t e l y a r t i c u l a t e d g l o t t a l s t o p w h i c h o c c u r s o n l y i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n a s i n l i a n [ * l i . ? a n ] • s e n i l e * , maas [»ma?as ] * o l d ' , o i u n [ ' p ' i ? U n ] ' w i l l s e l e c t ' . The v o i c e d b i l a b i a l s t o p / b / h a s two p r i n c i p a l a l l o p h o n e s , [ b ] w h i c h o c c u r s i n p r e v o c a l i c a n d p o s t - v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n , i . e . , b a t a [ ' b a t a ? ] ' c h i l d ' a n d s a b a b [ ' s a b a b ] ' b e c a u s e * o r ' c a u s e ' , a n d [ p ] Ttfhich o c c u r s o n l y i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n l i k e i n t h e e x a m p l e s u b a t [ '?uB a t 1 ' m e d i c i n e ' , s i b u [ * s i p U ? , ] ' e q u a l ' a n d t u b u [ ' t u f j U h ] ' t u b e ' o r ' s u g a r c a n e ' L i k e t h e v o i c e d b i l a b i a l s t o p , t h e v o i c e d d e n t a l s t o p h a s two p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t s w i t h s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n . P r e  c e d i n g a n d f o l l o w i n g a v o w e l s o u n d t h e [ d ] v a r i a n t i s h e a r d a s i n d a h u n ['dahUn] ' w i l l c a r r y * o r ' l e a f * a n d lubid[»lupid] ' r o p e ' . When o c c u r i n g b e t w e e n v o w e l s , t h e [ r ] v a r i a n t i s o b s e r  v a b l e . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s made e v i d e n t when a n a f f i x i s a d d e d t o t h e r o o t w o r d s b e g i n n i n g o r e n d i n g i n / d / , i . e . , p a d a h u n p a r a h u n [ p ' a ' r a h U n ] ' w i l l s e n d ' o r ' w i l l h a v e i t c a r r i e d ' , l u b i d . a n l u b i r a n [ l u ' g i r a n ] ' w i l l p u t a r o p e o n * . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e v o i c e d v e l a r s t o p / g / , t h e r e a r e two m a i n a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t s , [ g ] w h i c h o c c u r i n p r e v o c a l i c a n d p o s t v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n s l i k e gad.ia [ ' g a d j a h ] ' e l e p h a n t * a n d t u b i g ['t'upigD ' w a t e r ' , a n d [y] , a v a r i a n t f o u n d o n l y i n i n t e r v o c a l i c e n v i r o n m e n t a s i n a g a r u n [ja'yarUh] ' w i l l f o l l o w ' , b u g a ['buya?] ' f e a r * , i g a n [ * ? i y a n ~ | ' w i l l r e m o v e ' , e t c . ^ The i n t e r v o c a l i c ? i s s a i d t o be c o m p l e t e l y a r t i  c u l a t e d i n t h a t i t i n c l u d e s b o t h t h e ' c a t c h ' ( o n s e t ) a s w e l l a s t h e \143 A number o f t h e c o n s o n a n t phonemes l i k e t h e v c o i c e d a f f r i c a t e d s t o p / j / , t h e v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e / s / , t h e v o i c e d n a s a l s /mSh.n/, a n d t h e v o i c e d l a t e r a l / l / h a v e e a c h o n l y one a l l o p h o n e . ' The v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e g l o t t a l / h / has t h e v o i c e l e s s v a r i a n t [ h ] when p r e c e d i n g o r f o l l o w i n g a v o w e l a s i n h a b u l [ ' h a p U l ] ' b l a n k e t * , ! l u p a [ ' l u p a h ] 'appearance',- a n d a v o i c e d v a r i e t y [ h ] when f o u n d i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n a s i n t h e w o r d s a h a d [ *?ah<xd] 'Sunday'," b i h u n [»bihUn] ' w i l l b u y ' , d u h a l [ [ ' d u n a l ] ' t o h a n d o v e r 1 a n d u h a n [ '?uhccn] ' t o p u t a h e a d o n ' . I t h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e d e n t a l - a l v e o l a r f l a p / r / h a s t h r e e a l l o p h o n e s . ' G e n e r a l l y t h e [ r ] v a r i a n t may a p p e a r a s i n r u k u [ * r u k * u h ] ' p o s i t i o n f o r p r a y i n g ' m a k r u ['mak»ruh] • t a b o o ' / p a r a n g [ ' p a r a n ] ' g r a s s ' , ' a n d J a b u r ['japUr] 'book o f M o s e s ' . The s e c o n d a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t o f / r / , i . e . , [ u ] h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d t o o c c u r w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g n a s a l c o n s o n a n t s , £m.n],' t h e v o i c e d a n d v o i c e l e s s v e l a r s t o p s / g / a n d / k / a s i n k a r n a £ 'k^'ocma?] ' t h a t i s why',' w a r n a [ •wa.ma?] ' c o l o r 1 , parman ['p'auman] 'message*, 1 s u r g a Q'suaga?] ' h e a v e n ' a n d m u r k a ['mu-xka?] ' c u r s e * . A t h i r d v a r i a n t o f / r / i s /!/ w h i c h f r e e l y a l t e r n a t e s w i t h a l l o p h o n e s [ r ] i n w o r d f i n a l p o s i t i o n , i . e . , ^ p a k i r [ * p ' a k i r ] ^ [ ' p a k l l ] a n d [ u ] i n w o r d s l i k e w a r n a ['wcuna?] ^ ['walna?!,- s u r g a [ * s u ^ g a ? ] [ * s u l g a ? ] , : e t c . . • r e l e a s e ' ( c o d e ) a r t i c u l a t i o n , w h i l e t h e a l l o p h o n e i n w o r d i n i t i a l h a s o n l y t h e • r e l e a s e ' . The a l l o p h o n e i n w o r d f i n a l h a s o n l y t h e ' c a t c h ' . 144 The l a b i o v e l a r s e m i c o n s o n a n t /w/ h a s a l l o p h o n e s w h i c h may he d e s c r i b e d a s h a v i n g more l i p r o u n d i n g i n t h e c a s e where t h e r e i s a p r e c e d i n g o r f o l l o w i n g h i g h - f r o n t . v o w e l / l / a n d l e s s l i p r o u n d i n g f o l l o w i n g a l o w c e n t r a l v o w e l / a / . A p a r a l l e l c a s e i s o b s e r v a b l e w i t h t h e f r o n t s e m i c o n s o n a n t / y / . T h e r e i s more l i p s p r e a d i n g when p r e c e d i n g a n d f o l l o w i n g a f r o n t v o w e l a n d r e l a t i v e l y l e s s when p r e c e d i n g a n d f o l l o w i n g a l o w c e n t r a l v o w e l . 5 . 3 . 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n . I t i s c l e a r l y shown i n t h e l i s t o f m i n i m a l p a i r s i n s e c t i o n 5 . 3 . 2 t h a t some c o n s o n a n t s o f T a u s u g a r e u n l i m i t e d i n t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n , i . e . , t h e y o c c u r i n i t i a l l y , m e d i a l l y , a n d f i n a l l y , w h i l e o t h e r s a r e r e s t r i c t e d o n l y t o c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s o r e n v i r o n m e n t s . I n w o r d i n i t i a l a n d m e d i a l p o s i t i o n , a l l c o n s o n a n t s a r e w i t h o u t l i m i t a t i o n o f o c c u r r e n c e . E x c e p t f o r / j / , a l l c o n s o n a n t s a p p e a r i n w o r d final p o s i t i o n . E v e r y one o f t h e m e x c e p t w i t h /w/ a n d / y / s t r u c t u r e s w i t h any o f t h e t h r e e v o w e l phonemes o f t h e l a n g u a g e . The s e m i c o n s o n a n t /w/ s t r u c t u r e s o n l y w i t h / i / a n d / a / , n e v e r w i t h / u / . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , / y / s t r u c t u r e s w i t h /VL/ a n d / a / , n e v e r w i t h / i / . A s a m p l e l i s t i n g o f w o r d s s h o w i n g t h e p o s s i b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f e a c h o f t h e c o n s o n a n t phonemes i s p r o v i d e d b e l o w : Word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n p i l a / p i l a h / »how much* t i n d a / t i h d a / ' s t o r e ' k a l u / k S l u h / ' t r o u b l e ' o r ' q u a r r e l ' u g a b / ? u g a b / ' c o c o n u t s h e l l ' « b i s u / b i s u h / ' d e a f d a g a t / d a g a t / ' s e a g a b u n /ga"bun/ ' c l o u d s ' J u b a / j f t b a ? / ' r o b e ' s u l a t / s f t l a t / ' l e t t e r ' h a b a l / h 3 b a l / 'news' m a n i s /ma"nis/ 'charm' n i y u g / n i y u g / ' c o c o n u t p a l m ' n g u y a / n u y a ? / ' t o chew' l u p a / l u p a h / ' a p p e a r a n c e ' r a d .ju / r S d j u h / ' r a d i o ' y u b u s / y u b u s / 'was consumed' Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n k a p u l / k a p u l / ' t o embalm' b a t a / b & t a ? / ' c h i l d ' l a k i t / l f i k i t / ' r o c k ' t a a s / t a 7 a s / ' h e i g h t ' t a b u / t d b u ? / ' m a r k e t ' l i n d u n g / l i n d u n / ' s h a d e ' b a g a / b a g a h / 'ember' p a n j i / p a n j i h / ' f l a g ' pans til /pansul/ 'faucet' mahaba /mahaba/ •long' kama /kamah/ 'mattress' lanut /lanut/ 'abaca' mangi MS.nl? / 'bad' kalas /k£las/ 'pink' laring /l&rin/ 'knife' layu /lfiyu?/ ' fames s' pawas /p5was/ 'one who always loses things' final position la tap /lfltap/ 'flood' kilat A f l a t / 'lightning' balik ASlik/ •return1 layu /layu?/ ' fames s ' lei tab /k£tab/ •bible' luhud /Iflhud/ •to kneel' kabig /ka*big/ 'crooked' gatas /gStas/ »milk« kula /ktflah/ 'to bleach' sanam /sanam/ •ant' • • baran /baran/ 'body' parang /pa"ran/ 'gross' kappal /kappal/ 'boat' gabur / j^tbur/ 'book of Moses• sabaw /sa'baw/ •soup' bay_ /bay/ •house 1 R e d u p l i c a t e d w o r d s s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t e " b e t t e r t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f some c o n s o n a n t s i n w o r d i n i t i a l a n d m e d i a l p o s i t i o n s : / p S d p a d / p a d p a d t a s t a s  k a b k a b  l i d - l i d  bug bug  dugdug g i s g i s  j a g j a g  s a d s a d  hud hud  mugmug  n a k n a k  n g a n g a l u b l u b / t a s t a s / /k£bkab/ / ? U d ? u d / / b f i g b u g / / d a g d u g / / g i f s g i s / / j a g j a g / / s a M s a d / / h f l d h u d / /mugmug/ /naknak/ /n&nah/ ' i n s t e a d 1 o r *a k i n d o f m e d i c i n a l p l a n t ' ' t o u n t a n g l e ' ' f a r ' 'worm' ( d i m i n u t i v e ) ' p o r r i d g e ' • t o b o x someone on t h e c h e s t o r b a c k ' ' t o o t h b r u s h ' ' t o d i s a r r a n g e ' o r t o ' s c a t t e r * ' t o f e e l ' o r ' t o g r o p e ' ' t o p o u r s o m e t h i n g o u t on* ' t o g a r g l e ' ' r u n n i n g c a r ' ' t o o p e n w i d e t h e mouth* • t o w a l l o w i n t h e mud' _ _ _ _ _ / l f l b l u b / T he f o l l o w i n g r e v e r s a l s a l s o show i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f some c o n s o n a n t s l i k e : p a d p a d / p 5 d p a d / ' i n s t e a d ' o r ' a k i n d o f m e d i c i n a l p l a n t . d a p d a p /d&pdap/ ' f i r e t r e e ' 149 t u d t u d / t u d t u d / d u t d u t / d u t d u t / k a d k a d / k a d k a d / d a k d a k / d a k d a k / a d - a d  d a d a b u k b u k  k u b k u b dubdub  b u d b u d g a s g a s  s a g s a g s a p s a p  p a s p a s mugmug  gumgum / ? a d ; ? a d / / d a ? d a ? / / b u k b u k / / k u b k u b / / d u b d u b / / b u d b u d / / g a s g a s / / s a g s a g / / s a p s a p / / p a s p a s / /mugmug/ /gumgum/ n i s n i s / n i s n i s / s i n - s i n / s i n s i n / n g i t - n g i t / g i t - r j i t / t i n g t i n g / t i n t i n / l u b l u b / l u b l u b / b u l b u l / b u l b u l / ' t o p u s h ' ' t o s u c k 1 • t o u n e a r t h ' • t o w a s h ' ( c l o t h e s ) ' s u l k i n g ' ' f e n c e ' ( d i m i n u t i v e ) • t e r m i t e ' ' t o b i t e s o m e t h i n g ' ( f r u i t ) ' g r u m b l i n g ' • m i n i a t u r e m o u n t a i n * • f a d e d * * w i l l be t o r n a p a r t ' * t o t r i m r o u g h e d g e s ' ' t o s h a k e o f f d i r t f r o m ' ' t o g u r g l e ' ' t o g u r g l e ' ' b e c o m i n g t h i n * 'money' ( d i m u n i t i v e ) ' a l w a y s s m i l i n g ' ' r i n g i n g o f t h e b e l l ' • t o w a l l o w i n t h e mud' ' h a i r o f t h e b o d y ' 5.3.5 C o n s o n a n t C l u s t e r s A c l u s t e r a s d e f i n e d b y A r c h i b a l d H i l l i s a s e q u e n c e o f two o r more phonemes o f t h e same c l a s s w i t h o u t t h e i n t e r  v e n t i o n o f a phoneme o f a n o t h e r c l a s s . A c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r i s , t h e r e f o r e , ' a s e q u e n c e o f two o r more c o n s o n a n t s w i t h o u t a v o w e l o r j u n c t u r e phoneme i n t e r v e n i n g . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p e r m i t t e d s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n s o f T a u s u g d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 4, t h e l a n g u a g e h a s no c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r s s i n c e c o n s o n a n t phonemes o c c u r o n l y s i n g l y i n i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l s y l l a b l e p o s i t i o n s . G r o u p i n g s o f c o n s o n a n t s may be s a i d t o o c c u r o n l y a a c r o s s s y l l a b l e b o u n d a r i e s o r morpheme b o u n d a r i e s , b u t t h e y a r e t o be i n t e r p r e t e d a s s e q u e n c e s o f two c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h d i v i d e i n t o t h e p r e c e d i n g a n d f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e s , a l t h o u g h i n some c a s e s t h e r e seem t o be a l o s s o f s y l l a b l e d i v i s i o n s b e t w e e n c o n s o n a n t s , t h u s m a k i n g them seem i n g l y a p p e a r l i k e r e a l c l u s t e r s a s i n t h e w o r d i k l u g / ? > f k l u g / 'egg 1,' i s k u l /?'f'Skul/ ' s c h o o l ' m a k r u / m a ' k r u h / ' t a b o o 1 , e t c . Among t h e p o s s i b l e g r o u p i n g s o f c o n s o n a n t s a c r o s s s y l l a b l e b o u n d a r i e s , - t h e f o l l o w i n g h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d i n T a u s u g : /-•ptr-/ t a p t a p / t d p t a p / ' a l w a y s ' / - p k r - / k u p k u p / k f t p k u p / ' t o h o l d t i g h t ' / - p ? - / a p - a p /?5p?ap/ 'a s k i n d i s e a s s c i e n t i f i c a l l y known a s r ' i n e a f l a v a ' 151 /-Pd-/ sapda /sapdahV 'to curse* /-pg-/ /pugpug/ 'soften by too much pressure' /-ps-/ supsup /supsup/ 'to suck' /-tp-/ ;c: ..putput /putput/ • the sound of a machine' (of boat) / - t t - / patta / pattaf/ ' picture' /-tk-/ katkat /katkat/ •saw* / - t w bitbit /bi'tbit/ 'to carry with the hand* /-td-/ dutdut /dutdut/ 'to suck* /-ts-; sutsut /sutsut/ ' a way of calling somebody? attention* /-tn-/ ngitngit /nftnit/ 'always smiling' / - t l - / sutla /sutlah' / 'silk' /-kp-/ pikpik /pikpik/ 'wing' /-kt-/ tiktik /tiktik/ 'to strike something with...* /-kk-/ maakkal /matJ&kal/ 'wise * /-kb-/ bukbuk /bukbuk/ 'termite' /-kd-/ dakdak /dakdak/ 'to wash1 /-kg-/ /hsgfei-k/ 1 todf t i f f ' /-ks-/ saksl /saksi?'/ 'witness» /-kh-/ hikhik /h£khik/ •small pieces of cloth left after cutting a dcess' /-km-/ takmayun' /takmayun/'help a person by holding him on the elbow,arms,etc. /-kn-/ sukna /sukna?/ 'curse' / - k l - / lukluk /lukluk/ nagtata /nagta?ta?/ / - ? w magkaka /magka?ka?/ /-?d-/ dada /datdar/ /-?s-/ gaga /§a?ga?/ /-?s-/ nagsasa /nagsa?sa?/ /-?n-/ kanu /ka'?nuh/ /-bt-/ sabtu /sabtu?/ /-bk-/ kabkab /kabkab/ /-bb-/ abbuhan //abbuhan/ /-bj-/ abjan //abjan/ /-bs-/ magslbsib /magsibsib/ /bh-/ hJibhub /hubhub / / - b l - / lublub /lublub/ /-dp-/ padpad /padpad/ /dt-/ tadtad /tadtad/ / - d W kadkad /kadkad/ /-d?-/ ad-ad //ad?ad/ /-db-/ badbad /badbad/ /-dd-/ addun //addun/ /-dg-/ / gi'dgid/ / - d j - / /gadjah/ /-ds-/ sadsad /sadsad/ ' o w l * • w a l k i n g o n s o m e t h i n g w i t h b a r e f e e t ' • t o g e t some t h i n g s h a b i t u a l l y ' ' t o s u l k ' • t o t a l k i n anger» • c o m m i t t i n g m i s t a k e d : I i b j j r v : " e d e l i b e r a t e l y * 'when' ' S a t u r d a y * ' f a n * ' p r o u d * ' t o m i n d ' ' p e e p i n g ' ' i n f l u e n z a ' ' t o w a l l o w ' ' i n s t e a d ' o r ' a k i n d o f m e d i c i n a l p l a n t ' •badly, m u t i l a t e d - - - - 1 ' t o u n e a r t h ' • f e n c e ' ( d i m i n u t i v e ) • r a v e l e d 1 • t h e m i x i n g o f i n g r e d i e n t s ' ' t o r u b 1 • e l e p h a n t ' ' t o g r o p e f o r s o m e t h i n g 1 153 / - d h - / h u d h u d / h u d h u d / / - d l - / a d l a w / ? a d l a w / / - S P - / t u g p a / t u g p a ? / / - g t - / m agtu / m a g t u ? / / - g k - / n a g k u g k u g / n a g k u g k u g / mag-ad /mag?ad/ / - g j - / n a g .1an.il / n a g j a n j l ? / / - g s - / n a g s i h i l / n a g s i h i l / / - g h - / t a g h u y / t a g h u y / /-gm-/ mugmug /mugmug/ / - g n - / t a g n a / t a g n a ? / / - g n - / p a g n g a n a n /f»af n a n a n / / - g b - / t i g b a s / t i g b a s / / - g d - / s a g d a / s a g d a h / /-ss-/ s a g g a / s a g g a ? / /-si-/ s i g l a / s i g l a ? / /-gw-/ sagwa /sagwaJ?/ / - s p - / n a s p a s a n / p y a s p a s a n / / - s t - / y a s t u l a n / y a s t u l a n / / - s k - / i s k u t a n / ? i s k u t a n / t o p o u r s o m e t h i n g o u t o n ' d a y ' t o jump• i s l e a k i n g ' was a d m i r i n g a t * w i l l p u t a f e n c e ' p r o m i s e d ' announcement o f a man's i n t e n t i o n t o m a r r y a g i r l ' w h i s t l e ' t o g u r g l e ' t o s t a r t ' 'named ' 'to s t a b w i t h a b l a d e d weapon* 'to comment o n . . .' ' q u a r r e l * o r ' m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g ' ' f a s t n e s s ' ' b u t ' ' h u r r i e d i t u p ' 'was a n g r y * ' s e l f i s h ' 154 ; / / - s b - / t a s b i / t a s b i h / •beads u s e d when p r a y i n g ' ( m o s l e m r o s a r y ) / - s g - / g i s g i s / g f s g i s / • t o o t h b r u s h ' / - s s . / b a s s a / b j f s s a h / • t o r e a d ' / - s h - / h a s h a s /ha"shas/ ' s n a k e * ( d i m i n u t i v e ) / - s n - / n i s n l s / n f s n i s / ' b e coming t h i n ' / - s i - / m a a s l a g / m a ? 5 s l a g / • l a r g e ' /-mp-»/. ampun /?5mpun/ * f o r g i v e n e s s ' / - a i t - / tumtum /tumtum/ ' t o remember' / - k n - / s u k n a / s u k n a ? / * c u r s e * / - k l - / l u k l u k / l f i k l u k / ' o w l * / - ? t - / n a g t a t a /nagta">?ta?/ •was t a m p e r i n g s o m e t h i n g w i t h o ne's f e e t ' / - ? k - / magkaka / m a g k 5 ? k a t / • t o g e t s o m e t h i n g h a b i t u a l l y ' /-?*W d a d a / d S t f d a ? / • s u l k i n g • / - ? g - / g a g a /gaV?ga?/ ' t o s p e a k t o someone s a r c a s t i c a l l y i n a n g e r ' / - ? s - / n a g s a s a / n a g s 5 ? s a ? / •has p e r m i t t e d m i s t a k e ' / - ? n - / k a n u /kaV?nuh' / 'when 1 / - b t - / s a b t u / s a t o t u ? / ' S a t u r d a y * / - b k - / k a b k a b / k a b k a b / ' f a n ' / - b b - / a b b u h a n / ? a b b l 5 h a n / ' p r o u d * / - b j - / a b j a n / ? 3 b j a n / • t o m i n d ' / - b s - / m a g s l b s i b / m a g s - f b s i b / ' p e e p i n g ' / - b h - / hubhub / h f l b h u b / 1 i n f l u e n z a • 155 / - b l - / l u b l u b / l u b l u b / • t o w a l l o w * / - d p - / p a d p a d / p S d p a d / ' i n s t e a d ' o r ' a k i n d o f m e d i c i n a l p l a n t 1 / - d t - / t a d t a d / t a * d t a d / • b a d l y m u t i l a t e d ' / - d k - / k a d k a d / k S d k a d / ' t o u n e a r t h ' / - a ? - / a d - a d / ? a a ? a d / ' f e n c e ( d i m i n u t i v e ) / - a b - / b a d b a d / b d d b a d / • r a v e l e d * / - d d - / a d d u n / ? 3 d d u n / • t h e m i x i n g o f a c a k e * / - d g - / g i d g i d / g f d g i d / • t o r u b 1 / - d j - / g a d j a / g 5 d j a h / • e l e p h a n t ' / - d s - / s a d s a d / s a c L s a d / • t o f e e l s o m e t h i n g o r ' t o g r o p e f o r 1 /-mk-/ kumkum /kdmkum/ • t o h o l d s o m e t h i n g t h i g h t l y i n s i d e t h e f i s t 1 /-mb-/ la m b u n g / l a m b u n / 'shadow 1 / - m a - / dumdum /dumdum/ ' e v e r y n i g h t ' /-mg-/ gumgum /gumgum/ • t o g u r g l e * /-ms-/ sumsuman /sumsuman/ •meat 1 o r 'any f o o d t h a t g o e s w i t h w i n e ' /-mm-/ malamma /mal5mma/ •weak' / - m l - / l u m l u m u n / l u m l u m u n / ' t o s w a l l o w ' /-mr-/ s a m r a / s a m r a h / 'a n a t i v e b l o u s e w o r n o r d i n a r i l y by moslem women / - n p - / punpun / p u n p u n / ' s e a worm u s e a s b a i t ' / - n t - / s u n t u k / s u n t u k / ' t o b o x ' '156 / - n k - / k i n k i n / f c f n k i n / /-rib-/ b i a n b a n / b i a n b a n / / - n d - / m a s a n d a l / m a s a n d a l / / - n j - / j a m j i / j a n j i ? / / - n s - / l a n s a n g / l a n s a r j ; . ; / /-rm-/ b u n n a l / b t i n n a l / / - n y - / s i n y a l / s l n y a l / /-np-/ h a n g p u /hatjpu?/ / - n t - / m a l a n g t u / m a l ^ i j t u h / / - n k - / t a n g k a y / tS-nkay/ / - n b - / s a n g b a y / s ^ n b a y / / - n j - / p ang j u r i / p a n j u r i h / / - n s - / a n g s a / ? a n s a ? / / - n h - / manghud /manhud/ / - n n / - b a n g n g a s / b a n n a s / / - n l - / s i a n g l a g / s y a n l a g / / - l p - / p a l p a l /palpal/ / - I t - / s u l t a n / s a l t a n / / - l k - m u l k a . m f l l k a ? / • t o r a i s e s k i r t u p when w a d i n g i n t h e s e a 1 'a n a t i v e f o o d made f r o m ©assava' • e n d u r i n g ' • p r o m i s e ' •nail» • I t i s t r u e 1 ' s i g n a l • • t e n ' • t h e t a s t e o f c a s s a v a when i t h a s b e e n d r i e d o f i t s j u i c e • h a n d l e ' ' t o g i v e a d m i r i n g comments' • s o m e t h i n g u s e t o t e a s i n g a p e r s o n 1 • swan• • y o u n g e r b r o t h e r o r s i s t e r 1 'a k i n d o f c r a b u s e d a s m e d i c i n e f o r a s t h m a ' ' t a p i o c a ' ' d e a f ' s u l t a n ' o r ' k i n g * 'curse» 157 / - l ? / u l - u l / ? u - l ? u l / • t h e p a i n f e l t f r o m wound* / - l b - / s a l b a n / s 5 1 b a n / ' t h r e a d 1 / - I d - / d i u l d u l a n / d y u l d u l a n / 'has b e e n pampered'by a l l o w i n g h e r t o do what s h e l i k e s ' / - l g - / s u l g a / s f l l g a ? / ' heaven * / - I s - / p a l s u / p a U s u h / ' f a k e ' /-Un-/ k u l m a / k u l m a ? / 'a k i n d . o f n a t i v e r e c i p e * / - I n - / w a l h a / w 3 l n a ? / ' c o l o r ' / - l l - / g a l l a n g / g S l l a n / ' b r a c e l e t • / - r k - / m u r k a / m l l r k a ? / ' c u r s e 1 /-rs-/ s u r g a / s d r g a ? / • h e a v e n 1 /-rm-/ pafman / pa^rman/ •message* o r 'word o f G o d ' /-m-/ k a r n a / k a r n a ? / • t h a t i s why' / - y t - / m a y t a / m d y t a ? / 'why' / - h k - / t a y k u d / t a y k u d / 'back« / - y b - / b a y b a y /baybaty/ ' m i n i a t u r e h o u s e o r ' t o y h o u s e 1 /-is-/ p a j i g u / p d y g u ? / ' t o t a k e a b a t h ' / - y s - / mays a / m a y s a h / ' b l a c k p e p e r ' / - y h - / b a u h u / b d y h u ? / • f a c e ' /-ym-/ it'ayma / t a y m a ? / ' t o a c c e p t • . / - y n - / t u y n a / t d y n a ? / • i m m e d i a t e l y ' 158. o / - p d - / s a p d a / s a p d a h / ' c u r s e ' / - p g - / pugpug / p u g p u g / ' s o f t e n by t o o much p r e s s u r e * /-ps-/ s u p s u p / s l i p s u p / ' t o s u c k ' / - t p - / p u t p u t / p f t t p u t / • t h e s o u n d o f a m a c h i n e ( o f b o a t ) / - t t - / p a t t a /patta?/ • p i c t u r e ' / - t k - / k a t k a t /katkat/ 'waw' ( c a r p e n t e r ' s t o o l ) / - t b - / b i t b i t / b f i t b i t / • t o c a r r y ' ( w i t h t h e hand) / - t d - / d u t d u t / d f l t d u t / ' t o s u c k * / - t s - / s u t s u t / s t l t S U t / •a way o f c a l l i n g somebody's a t t e n t i o n ' / - t n - / n g i t n g i t /n£tnit/ • a l w a y s s m i l i n g ' / - t l - / s u t l a / s f l t l a ? / ' s i l k ' '-kp-/ p i k p i k / p f k p i k / • w i n g ' / - k t - / ' t i k t i k / t i k t i k / ' t o s t r i k e s o m e t h i n g w i t h ' / - k k - / m a a k k a l /ma?akkal/ ' w i s e • / - k b - / b u k b u k / b u k b u k / ' t e r m i t e ' / - k d - / d a k d a k /dakdak/ 'to w a s h ' ( c l o t h e s ) / - k g - / h a g i k g i k / h a g f k g i k / ' d a n d r u f f / - k s - / s a k s i / s 5 k s i ? / • w i t n e s s ' / - k h - / h i k h i k / h f k h i k / ' s m a l l p i e c e s o f c l o t h e s l e f t a f t e r c u t t i n g a d r e s s ' /-km-/ t a k m a y u n / t a k m a y u n / ' h e l p someone b y a l l o w i n g h e r t o h o l d o n t o one's arms ' / - y l - / n a g p a y l u / n a g p a y l u h / • d e n i e d 1 / - y r - / w a y r u u n / w a y r f t T u n / ' T h e r e i s n o n e 1 . /-wp-/ sawpama /sawp5maK/ • t o s u p p o s e ' /-wk-/ s a w k a t / s a w k a t / ' j u s t b e c a u s e ' /-wb-/ t a w b a t / t a V b a t / • r e p e n t a n c e ' /-VTS-/ k a w s u n / k a w s u n / •brown' / - S h - / kawhaan /kawhaV?an/ ' t w e n t y ' /-wa-/ sawnu / s S w n u ? / ' i m m e d i a t e l y a t t e n d e d t o ' /-va-/ b a w l u / b a w l u h / 'a n a t i v e c a k e ' / - W W - / s a w w a l /sa*wwal/ \ t r o u s e r s ' 6. SUPRASEGMENTAL FEATURES Up t o t h i s p o i n t d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e s o u n d s y s t e m o f T a u s u g h a s b e e n made on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e s t r e a m o f s p e e c h i s d i v i d e d i n t o s e g m e n t s , e a c h o f w h i c h c a n be a s  s i g n e d t o a g i v e n phoneme. I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t h e t e r m ' s e g m e n t a l phoneme' h a s b e e n u s e d when r e f e r r i n g t o t h e r e l e v a n t u n i t s o f s p e e c h w h i c h seem t o f o l l o w e a c h o t h e r i n l i n e a r s e q u e n c e . S p e e c h , o n t h e w h o l e , i s , h o w e v e r , a c o n t i n u u m , n o t a s e r i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s o u n d s p l a c e d a l o n g s i d e e a c h o t h e r l i k e t h e l e t t e r s i n a p r i n t e d s e n t e n c e s u c h as t h o s e f o u n d i n t h i s p a g e . The f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e o f t h e phonemes o f a l a n g u a g e i s r e a l i z e d o n l y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o t h e r a n d b e c a u s e o f c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s o f s p e e c h w h i c h do n o t emerge u n t i l a p u r p o s e f u l c o n t r a s t i s made b e t w e e n m e a n i n g f u l u t t e r a n c e s . R e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e v a r i a b l e s o f s p e e c h w h i c h e x t e n d c l e a r l y o v e r a s e r i e s o f s e v e r a l s e g m e n t a l g r o u p i n g s w h i c h a r e known l i n g u i s t i c a l l y a s s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s . T h e y a r e c a l l e d b y t h i s name b e c a u s e t h e y seem t o be l i k e a n e x t r a l a y e r o f s t r u c t u r e s u p e r i m p o s e d o n t h e s e g m e n t a l phonemes. A synonymous t e r m w h i c h some l i n  g u i s t s u s e when r e f e r r i n g t o s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s i s LLC. p r o s o d i c f e a t u r e s . -* LLC -'The u s e o f ' s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s ' feather t h a n ' p r o  s o d i c f e a t u r e s ' i n t h i s a n a l y s i s i s j u s t a m a t t e r o f c h o i c e . F o r p u r p o s e o f p a r a l l e l i s m w i t h t h e t e r m ' s e g m e n t a l ' phonemes, t h e u s e o f s u p r a s e g m e n t a l ' i s p r e f e r r e d h e r e . 161 T he s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e v a r i a b l e s o f s t r e s s , p i t c h , l e n g t h , a n d j u n c t u r e . A n y c o m p l e t e u t t e r a n c e , m o n o s y l  l a b i c o r p o l y s y l l a b i c , h a s t h e s e f e a t u r e s o f s p e e c h . I t s h o u l d be made c l e a r h e r e , however, 1 t h a t t h e a b s o l u t e m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e l e s s u s e f u l t h a n a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e r e l a  t i v e f u n c t i o n o f e a c h o f them. F o r i n s t a n c e , i t i s i r r e l e v a n t t o a t t e m p t t o m e a s u r e t h e p r e c i s e a b s o l u t e p i t c h s i n c e l i n g u i s  t i c a l l y i t i s l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e p i t c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s o f t h e s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s o f T a u s u g , t h e r e f o r e , t h e n o t a t i o n w i l l p r e s e n t o n l y f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s a b s t r a c t e d f r o m c o n c r e t e e x p r e s s i o n s . 6.1 S t r e s s I n t h i s a n a l y s i s , s t r e s s ( w h i c h i s b e t t e r known t o many a s a c c e n t ) r e f e r s t o t h e i n t e n s i t y o r s i g n i f i c a n t f o r c e o r l o u d  n e s s w i t h w h i c h a s y l l a b l e i s a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h i n a n u t t e r a n c e . A s t r e s s e d s o u n d o r s y l l a b l e i s s a i d t o i n v o l v e r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e f f o r t a n d m u s c u l a r e n e r g y , r e s u l t i n g i n g r e a t i n t e n s i t y a n d i s t h u s p e r c e i v e d by t h e l i s t e n e r a s g r e a t e r l o u d n e s s . T h e r e a r e two d i s t i n c t i v e d e g r e e s o f s t r e s s r e c o g n i z a b l e i n T a u s u g : t h e p r i m a r y s t r e s s w h i c h i s t h e s t r o n g e r i s m a r k e d by a s u p e r i o r v e r t i c a l t i c k , ['] , o n t h e p h o n e t i c l e v e l a n d by a n a c u t e a c c e n t , /'/» o n t h e p h o n e m i c l e v e l , a n d t h e s e c o n d a r y o r weak s t r e s s w h i c h i s l e f t u n m a r k e d . P h o n e t i c a l l y , t h e p r i m a r y s t r e s s i s m a r k e d i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e a s 162 a s i n s a b a l * s a ( 3 a l ' s t o i c 1 ; p h o n e m i c a l l y , h o w e v e r , t h e s t r e s s mark i s p l a c e d j u s t a b o v e t h e v o w e l phoneme o f t h e s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e . ' T h u s , t h e w o r d s a b a l i s p h o n e m i c a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d a s / s a b a l / . T h e two d e g r e e s o f s t r e s s j u s t m e n t i o n e d a r e n o n - c o n t r a s - t i v e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y do n o t c o n t r a s t w i t h e a c h o t h e r . I f o o n l y one o f them o c c u r s ( a s i n a l l m o n o s y l l a b i c w o r d s ) , i t i s a l w a y s t h e p r i m a r y s t r e s s . When b o t h , h o w e v e r , o c c u r s i n w o r d s o f more t h a n one s y l l a b l e , t h e s t r o n g e r s t r e s s i s a l w a y s o b s e r v e d t o f a l l o n t h e p e n u l t i m a t e ( s e c o n d t o t h e l a s t ) s y l l a b l e . ' ' I t i s p r e d i c t a b l e t h a t t h e s y l l a b l e w h i c h f o l l o w s a n d t h o s e w h i c h may p r e c e d e t h e s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e h a v e t h e weak s t r e s s . The v e r y f a c t o f t h e a u t o m a t i c o c c u r r e n c e o f s t r e s s a c c o u n t s f o r i t s n o n - p h o n e m i c s t a t u s i n t h e l a n g u a g e . A n d f o r s t r e s s t o be p h o n e m i c , a c c o r d i n g t o H a l l , t h e r e s h o u l d b e " c o n t r a s t s b a s e d o n 48 t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e i n t e n s i t y " . T h i s i s n o t s o i n T a u s u g . A t ' t i m e s some i n d i v i d u a l w o r d s may s e e m t o h a v e t h e p r i m a r y s t r e s s o n t h e p e n u l t a n d s o m e t i m e s o n t h e u l t i m a . T h i s d o e s n o t , h o w e v e r , c h a n g e t h e m e a n i n g o f w o r d s . The p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f s t r e s s i n t h e d i a l e c t o f STP s e r v e s r a t h e r a s a m a r k e r t o i n d i c a t e w o r d b o u n d a r y . E a c h t i m e a h e a v y s t r e s s i s h e a r d one c a n a n t i c i p a t e t h a t t h e w o r d i s ' " g o i n g t o end i n t h e n e x t s y l l a b l e . — 4 7 T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s t r u e o f t h e d i a l e c t o f t h e i n v e s t i g a  t o r . O t h e r d i a l e c t s may h a v e d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s p a t t e r n l i k e t h e d i a l e c t o f P a r a n g w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o t h e A s h l e y ' s h a s t h e s t r e s s p r e d i c t a b l y f a l l i n g o n t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e o f a w o r d . ( o p . c i t . ,.p . l4) ^ 8 H a l l , o p. c i t . p. 1 0 9 . 163 I n t h e n o r m a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f p o l y s y l l a b i c T a u s u g w o r d s , t h e r e f o r e , i t c a n be s a i d t h a t t h e r e i s a n i n h e r e n t s t r e s s p a t t e r n i n t h a t one a n d t h e same s y l l a b l e , i . e . , t h e p e n u l t , a l w a y s h a s t h e s t r o n g e r s t r e s s t h a n t h e o t h e r o r o t h e r s . A r o u g h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s s t r e s s p a t t e r n may be / x / i n w h i c h / i ty r e p r e s e n t s t h e s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e a n d / x / t h e u n s t r e s s e d o n e . T h i s b a s i c s t r e s s p a t t e r n c a n be b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e d a n d c o n s i s t e n t l y o b s e r v e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s w h i c h a r e d e r i v e d f o r m s o f a s i n g l e b a s e morpheme. B a s e w o r d : d a g a n /da"gan/ ' t o r u n 1 n a g d a g a n / n a g d ^ g a n / ' r a n 1 n a g d a r a g a n / n a g d a r a g a n / 'was r u n n i n g 1 n a g d a g a n a n / n a g d a g a n a n / ' r a n away' n a g d a g a n d a g a n a n / n a g d a g a n d a g & n a n / 'has b e e n r u n n i n g & r u n n i n g ' (more o f a game) I n s p i t e o f a f f i x a t i o n , i t i s o b v i o u s i n t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n a b o v e t h a t t h e b a s i c p a t t e r n /*' x / r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t , a l t h o u g h a c h a n g e o f s y l l a b l e w h e r e t h e p r i m a r y s t r e s s £alls a n d a n a d d i t i o n o f u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s p r e c e d i n g t h e s t r e s s e d one a r e e v i d e n t . 6.2 P i t c h a n d I n t o n a t i o n C l o s e l y a l l i e d t o s t r e s s i s one o f t h e o t h e r i m p o r t a n t s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s o f a n u t t e r a n c e , p i t c h . N o r m a l l y , i n T a u s u g , t h e h i g h e s t p i t c h f a l l s on t h e s y l l a b l e w i t h p r i m a r y s t r e s s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a l t h o u g h t h i s k i n d o f c o r r e l a t i o n 164 beti\reen p i t c h a n d s t r e s s i s common, i t i s n o t - a c c o r d i n g t o H i l l - a b s o l u t e , s o t h a t i t r e m a i n s n e c e s s a r y t o t r e a t e a c h o f them i n d e p e n d e n t l y . ^ P i t c h i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f h i g h o r l o w t o n e s w h i c h a r e p r o d u c e d by v a r y i n g t h e r a p i d i t y o f t h e v i b r a t i o n o f t h e v o c a l b a n d s . I t i s - a c c o r d i n g . t o M a r i o P e i - " t h e f r e q u e n c y o f M ' b r a t i o n i n t h e n m s i c a l s o u n d o f t h e v o i c e " ? ? 0 P i t c h h a s t o be t h o u g h t o f a s r e l a t i v e . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n h a s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p i t c h r a n g e f o r h i s v o i c e . H o w e v e r , t h e r e l a t i v e l e v e l s o f p i t c h a r e f o u n d t o be more o r l e s s p a r a l l e l f o r a l l s p e a k e r s . A s t h e r e a r e v a r i e t i e s i n t h e r a n g e o f p i t c h , t h e r e a r e a l s o v a r i e t i e s w i t h i n c e r t a i n p i t c h r a n g e s . H o w e v e r , o n l y r e l a t i v e p i t c h a n d c h a n g e s i n p i t c h t h a t i n f l u e n c e m e a n i n g a r e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t h e r e . F o u r s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s o f p i t c h a r e r e c o g n i z a b l e i n T a u s u g . T h e y c a n be m o s t s i m p l y r e p r e s e n t e d i f one i m a g i n e s a f o u r - l i n e s t a f f whose l i n e s a r e numbered one t o f o u r (1-4) f r o m t h e b o t t o m u p , i . e . , number 1 r e p r e s e n t s t h e l o w e s t p i t c h l e v e l , ' 2 - n o r m a l , 3 - h i g h , a n d 4 - e x t r a h i g h . T h e s e numbers p l a c e d a b o v e t h e s e g m e n t a l phonemes a r e u s e d i n p h o n e m i c t r a n s  c r i p t i o n t o i n d i c a t e a s s i m p l y a n d unambiguously a s p o s s i b l e t h e s p a n c o v e r e d by e a c h p i t c h l e v e l . H e n c e , t h e e x a m p l e s : ^ H l l l , 1 op. c i t . , p. 2?. 5°Pei,' op. c i t . , p . 208. 165 mallngkat /malinfeat/ 'beautiful* Mallngkat in badju /malinkat i n BacLju?/ (beautiful the dress) 'The dress i s beautiful'. In normal speech such as the above examples, one seldom says an utterance without any change in pitch. The shift in pitch i s principally among the f i r s t three levels. 1 The extra high pitch, level 4, Is usually reserved for emphatic and emo tional speech, so that the above examples when expressed em phatically w i l l have the /24l/ pitch pattern Instead of /231/v Pitch i s phonemic in Tausug. Although i t does not change the inherent or referential meaning of a word, l t gives added meaning usually identified with attitude and emotion;* The example mallngkat 'beautiful' which normally has the /231/ pitch pattern when expressed with the /121/ pattern, that i s , /malinia^/ would mean 'beautiful and there i s no doubt about i t * . This may be an answer to a person questioning or arguing about the beauty of some persons or things. The contrastive significance of the relative pitch levels of Tausug are best analyzed as belonging to a larger meaningful ling u i s t i c unit, rather than just to a single word. It i s , therefore, assumed here that the pitch levels are arranged in contours which are combined with the terminal junctures (which w i l l be discussed in section 6.4) to form what may be called intonation patterns. 166. I n t o n a t i o n a s d e f i n e d by P i k e , * c o n s t i t u t e s t h e a b s t r a c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e n t e n c e m e l o d i e s w h i c h e v e r y s e n t e n c e , e v e r y w o r d , a n d e v e r y s y l l a b l e i s g i v e n when i t i s s p o k e n ' . ' I t i s t h e r i s e a n d f a l l i n p i t c h o f t h e s p e a k  i n g v o i c e , t h e m o d u l a t i o n o f v o i c e , t h e t o n e q u a l i t y a n d m e l o d y o f s p e e c h p a r t i c u l a r l y Mhen u s e d t o make s y n t a c t i c a l a n d e m o t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n ' a c c o r d i n g t o B l o c h a n d T r a g e r ^ No a t t e m p t i s made h e r e t o p r o v i d e a f u l l a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t o n a t i o n c o n t o u r s o f T a u s u g , b u t i t i s f e l t d e s i r a b l e t o g i v e enough i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f i n t o n a t i o n a n d t h e r a n g e o f t h e c o n t o u r t y p e s i n t h e l a n g u a g e . The s i m p l e s t way t o do t h i s i s t o d i s c u s s t h e i n t o n a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a fexf o r d i n a r y s e n t e n c e s s u c h a s : 1. Y a r i h i I n d a . / y a r i h i ? i n d a ? / ( h e r e ( a r t i c l e ) I n d a ) " I n d a i s h e r e ' 2. P a k a i n kaw? / p a k a ? i n kaw/ ( w h e r e g o i n g y o u ) ' W h e r e a r e y o u g o i n g ? ' I n n o r m a l T a u s u g s p e e c h , a m a t 1 f c e r - o f - f a c t s t a t e m e n t l i k e , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e 2 3 1 / y a r i h i ? m d a ? I / ' I n d a i s h e r e ' h a s a /2 3 1 I / i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n . T h e v o i c e s t a r t s f r o m t h e a v e r a g e n o r m a l p i t c h (2), g o e s up t o t h e h i g h p i t c h l e v e l (3) on t h e s e c o n d t o t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e , a n d f i n a l l y d r o p s o f f t o t h e ' P e l , o p . c i t . p . 131. 167 l o w p i t c h ( 1 ) on t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e . T h i s t y p e o f i n t o n a t i o n c o n t o u r s i g n i f i e s f i n a l i t y o f t h o u g h t a n d i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e m o s t commonly h e a r d i n o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n . I t i s r e f e r r e d t o a s f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n a n d h a s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a l l o f t h e v o i c e a t t h e v e r y e nd o f t h e p a t t e r n , g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d a b o v e a s /!/. When t h e v o i c e i s s u s t a i n e d on p i t c h l e v e l t h r e e i n t h e a b o v e g i v e n s e n t e n c e , a n o n - f i n a l i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n r e s u l t s , i . e . , / 2 3~*/: / y a r i h i ? i n d a ? / ' I n d a i s h e r e ' , ( a n d s o . . .) ( b u t . . ., e t c . ) T h i s i s known a s ' s u s t a i n e d i n t o n a t i o n , /*"*/, w h i c h i s n o r m a l a t t h e end o f a n m e d i a l b r e a t h g r o u p , b u t n o t i n u t t e r a n c e - f i n a l p o s i t i o n . T h i s t y p e o f i n t o n a t i o n g i v e s t h e l i s t e n e r a f e e l i n g o f i n c o m p l e t e n e s s , s u s p e n s e , - a n d s o m e t i m e s h e s i t a t i o n . T he same s e n t e n c e w i t h o u t c h a n g i n g a n y w o r d may be c o n v e r t e d i n t o a q u e s t i o n b y m a k i n g a m a r k e d r i s e i n p i t c h a t t h e end o f t h e f i n a l s y l l a b l e , t h u s : / y a r i h i inc?a?/f / ' I s I n d a h e r e ? ' T h i s i s r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n , / t / , a n d i s commonly h e a r d w i t h q u e s t i o n s a n s w e r a b l e b y 'yes o r 'no*, a g e n i u n e q u e s t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r n e e d i n g a n a n s w e r . I f t h e s p e a k e r n e e d s o n l y c o n f i r m a t i o n frmm t h e l i s t e n e r , t h e / - 2 3 2 f / i n t o n a t i o n c o n t o u r i s l i k e l y t o be h e a r d , i . e . : 1.68 2 3 1 / y a r i h i I n d a ? t / • I s I n d a h e r e ? * ( I j u s t w a n t t o make s u r e ) The s p e a k e r p r o b a b l y h a s a l r e a d y a n o t i o n t h a t I n d a i s a r o u n d , b u t h e j j u s t wants t o make s u r e o r j u s t w a n t s a s s u r a n c e . When t h e s p e a k e r a s k s t h e a b o v e q u e s t i o n w i t h s u r p r i s e o r f e a r , t h e /2 4 t / o r t h e /Z k Z f/ p a t t e r n i s h e a r d i n p l a c e o f /2 3 t / o r / 2 3 2 t / . The s e c o n d s e n t e n c e w h i c h i s a q u e s t i o n i n i t i a t e d by a n i n t e r r o g a t i v e w o r d h a s n o r m a l l y t h e /2 3 1 \ / i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n : •2 31 ,52 / p a k a ? i n kaw I / 'Where a r e y o u g o i n g ? * l i k e a n y o r d i n a r y m a t t e r - o f - f a c t s e n t e n c e . A s p e a k e r , ' h o w e v e r , who seems t o be c u r i o u s o r i n t e r e s t e d a s t o w h e r e a p e r s o n i s r e a l l y b o u n d f o r .because he i s p r o b a b l y i n t e r e s t e d t o j o i n h i m o r s e n d s o m e t h i n g t h r o u g h h i m , o r f o r a n y o t h e r s i m i l a r r e a s o n , w o u l d l i k e l y u s e d a /3 1 21/ i n t o n a t i o n c o n t o u r : / i a k a ? i n k a w t y Where a r e y o u g o i n g ? ' B u t when a s p e a k e r w o u l d l i k e t o r e i t e r a t e t h e q u e s t i o n b e c a u s e t h e a n s w e r was n o t c l e a r t o h i m , he w i l l u s e a / l 3 t / i n t o n a  t i o n p a t t e r n " 1 3 . / P a k a ? i n kaw T/ "Where d i d y o u s a y y o u a r e g o i n g 1 A n y o f t h e i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e may h a v e ' p i t c h - d i s p l a c e m e n t d e p e n d i n g on w h a t w o r d t h e s p e a k e r w o u l d l i k e . 5 2 j n c a s u a i g r e e t i n g , among a c q u a i n t a n c e s , t h e a b o v e s e n t e n c e w i t h t h e f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n /Z 3 I V i s o f t e n h e a r d . I t i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e E n g l i s h ' H i ' o r 'How a r e y o u ? ' . A T a u s u g s p e a k e r when a s k i n g t h e q u e s t i o n d o e s n o t mean t o be n o s y a b o u t o t h e r p e o p l e ' s b u s i n e s s . 169 t o c a l l the a t t e n t i o n of h i s l i s t e n e r t o . By pitch-displacement i s meant the transference of the highest p i t c h of a sentence to some s y l l a b l e other than the one on which i t i s most customary f o r the p i t c h to be h i g h e s t . This means tha t the p i t c h promi nence i n a given sentence i s always on the s y l l a b l e on which there i s a p o t e n t i a l change of p i t c h . From the preceding d i s c u s s i o n s i t i s c l e a r t h a t sentences i t j Tausug may be spoken w i t h s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t contours, each of which has an i d e n t i f i a b l e range of semantic valu e s . In some cases the contours and t h e i r meanings d i f f e r s t r i k i n g l y so t h a t they can be conveniently arranged i n p a i r s . As such, i n t o n a t i o n i s s a i d to have c o n t r a s t i v e s i g n i g i c a n c e i n Tausug. 6•3 Length Another f a c t o r of speech, c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t r e s s and p i t c h ( i n that they a l l c o n t r i b u t e to make a sound or s y l l a b l e prominent) i s l e n g t h , which i s sometimes r e f e r r e d to or equated w i t h • d u r a t i o n 1 or •quantity 1'. I t i s d e f i n e d as the r e l a t i v e amount of time during which the v o c a l organs stay i n the p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r a r t i c u l a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n . In Tausug, r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n vowel l e n g t h are observable i n s t r e s s e d and unstressed s y l l a b l e s . Normally, vowels i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s are r e l a t i v e l y l o n g e r than those i n unstressed s y l l a b l e s . - This i s c l e a r l y shown i n r e d u p l i c a t e d forms l i s t e d below where the r e l a t i v e l y long vowel i s symbolized by /./. •170. b a n g b a n g [-ba.nban,] ' c o o k i e s * k a t k a t [ ' k ' a . t k a t ] 'saw' ( c a r p e n t e r * s t o o l ) p i s p i s [ ' p ' i . s p l s ] ' s m a l l p i e c e s o f c l o t h l e f t a f t e r c u t t i n g a d r e s s * s i n s i n £*si.nsin] ' t o y money' budb u d ['bu.dbUd] ' t o p o u r o n ' k u p k u p ['k»u.'pkUp] ' t o embrace t i g h t l y ' C o m p a r a t i v e l y l o n g e r v o w e l s t h a n t h o s e g i v e n a b o v e a r e f o u n d i n m o n o s y l l a b i c w o r d s w h i c h w i l l be p h o n e t i c a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h t h e f u l l l e n g t h s i g n [ s ] , T h u s , bang [ba : r j ] ' e a r r i n g s ' k a t [ k a : t ] «a s p e c i e s o f f i s h * p i s [ p i : s ] 'a p i e c e o f c l o t h u s e d b y moslem men a s h e a d p i e c e ' s i n [ s i i f n ] 'money' bud [ b u i ' d ] ' m o u n t a i n ' k u p [ k u : p ] ' e a r l y ' The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t»7- a n d /:/ a r e b e t t e r o b s e r v e d i f t h e two s e t s o f e x a m p l e s a b o v e a r e s a i d i n p a i r s s u c h a s : [ b a : n ] - [ b a . n b a n ] [ k a s t ] - [ k a . ' t k a t ] [ p i : s ] i - [ p i . s p l s ] [ s i : n ] - [ s i . n s l n ] [ b u : d ] - [ b u . d b U d ] [ k u : p ] - [ k u . p k U p ] 171; V o w e l l e n g t h i s n o n - p h o n e m i c i n T a u s u g . C o n t r a s t d o e s n o t e x i s t b e t w e e n , f o r i n s t a n c e , [ b a : n ] w i t h [ b a . n ] o r [ b a n ] . A v o w e l may be l e n g t h e n e d o r s h o r t e n e d i n a n u t t e r a n c e w i t h o u t s e m a n t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e , a l t h o u g h i f s o a l t e r e d , ' i n some c a s e s , t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n may be f e l t t o be u n n a t u r a l . I n t h e c a s e o f c o n s o n a n t s , l e n g t h e n i h g - ; o c c u r s i n w o r d - m e d i a l p o s i t i o n a s i n t h e w o r d s a k k a l [»?akkal] •wisdom' a s s a n g [ • ? * s s a n ] ' d o v e ' , k a p p a l [ ' k ' a p p a l ] ' b o a t ' a n d p a t t a [*p»atta?] • p i c t u r e ' a n d i s p r o d u c e d b y p r o l o n g i n g o f t h e ' h o l d ' ( t e n u e ) o r c o m p l e t e c l o s u r e p r e c e d i n g t h e r e l e a s e o f e a c h c o n s o n a n t . T h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s phenomenon, h o w e v e r , i n v o l v e s t h e t h e o r y o f g e m i n a t e c o n s o n a n t s , i . e . , s e q u e n c e s o f two i d e n t i c a l c o n s o n a n t phonemes w h i c h d i v i d e i n t o t h e p r e c e d i n g a n d t h e f o l  l o w i n g s y l l a b l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e a b o v e c o n s o n a n t s c u u l d be c o n c e i v a b l y i n t e r p r e t e d a s l e n g t h e n e d r a t h e r t h a n g e m i n a t e d , w h i c h w o u l d e s t a b l i s h /:/ a s a p h o n e m i c f e a t u r e s i n c e c o n t r a s t b e t  ween w o r d s l i k e a k k a l [ ' ? a k k a l ] a n d a k a l [ * ? a k a l ] ' b y - p r o d u c t f r o m c o c o n u t - o i l m a k i n g 1 , a s s a n g [ f ? a s s a i ! j ] a n d a s a n g [ ' ? a s a i j ] ' g i l l s ' i k a p p a l [ ' k * a p p a l ] a n d k a p a l [ ' k ' a p a l ] • t h i c k n e s s ' , a n d p a t t a [ ' p ' a t t a ? ] a n d p a t a [ ' p ' a t a ? ] ' s e r v e s h i m r i g h t * e x i s t . B u t f o r p u r p o s e s o f s i m p l i c i t y a n d economy o f a n a l y s i s , a n d b e c a u s e s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n s do rot a l l o w t h e l e n g t h e n e d c o n s o n a n t s t o b e l o n g t o j u s t one o f t h e s y l l a b l e s - t h e y must b e l o n g t o b o t h - t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o n s o n a n t a s g e m i n a t e s i s m a i n t a i n e d . 6.4 J u n c t u r e A l t h o u g h s p e e c h i s o b s e r v e d t o be c o n t i n u o u s f l o x i a n d n o t a s e r i e s o f d i s t i n c t s o u n d s g r o u p e d i n t o c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e morphemes o r morpheme s e q u e n c e s , some s l i g h t p a u s e s o r r e t a r d a t i o n s odfritempo a r e n o t i c e a b l e . T h e s e p a u s e s o r t r a n s i t i o n s b e t w e e n morphemes a r e what a r e t e r m e d h e r e j u n c t u r e s . T h e y c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f u t t e r a n c e s . E v e n when a l l t h e phonemes ( v o w e l s a n d c o n s o n a n t s ) a n d t h e s t r e s s a n d p i t c h p a t t e r n s o f a g i v e n u t t e r a n c e h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d , i t i s s t i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y , n e c e s s a r y , f o r . i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y , 1 t o r e c o g n i z e t h e b o u n d a r i e s b e t w e e n w o r d s , p h r a s e s j ^ a n d s e n t e n c e s . • Two s i g n i f i c a n t j u n c t u r e s , w h i c h a r e o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o a s t e r m i n a l j u n c t u r e s ,< a r e r e c o g n i z e d i n T a u s u g : a s h o r t p a u s e w h i c h i s m a r k e d b y a s i n g l e b a r , / }/, a n d a l o n g e r p a u s e r e p r e s e n t e d b y a d o u b l e b a r , /(I / . The s i n g l e - b a r j u n c t u r e u s u a l l y o c c u r s w i t h i n u t t e r a n c e s a n d i s u s e d i n i n t r o d u c i n g a n i d e a o r i n e m p h a s i z i n g a n i d e a t h a t f o l l o w s a s i n t h e e x a m p l e s b e l o w : 1. K i t a a i n dung s i n k a p p a l , n a g h i h i b a l . / k i t a ? a h i n d u n s i n k a p p a l I n a g h i h i b a l / 'See t h e f r o n t p a r t of t h e b o a t , i t i s moving.'. 2 » Way k a s u s a h a n , h a s u r g a /Way k a s u s a h a n ! h a h s u r g a ? / •There i s no s o r r o w , i n h e a v e n ' 173 This juncture i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n Tausug si n c e a d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning would r e s u l t i f the / \ / were omitted i n the above examples. Thus: 1 . ' / k l t a ? a h i n dun s i n kappal | n a g h i h i b a l / •See the f r o n t of the boat, i t i s moving*/ vs. / k i t a ? a h i n dun s i n kappal n a g h i h i b a l / *See the f r o n t of the boat moving*. 2. /way kasusahan \ hah surga?/ *There i s no sorrow, i n heaven.* vs. /way kasusahan hah surga?/ »There i s no sorrow i n heaven*. At the end of sentences i n which the speaker lapses i n t o s i l e n c e , the double bar juncttfre, /|| /, i s found. I t i s used to s i g n a l the end of an utterance as i n : 1 / / k i t a ? a h i n dun s i n kappal | naghihibal/)!/ or / k i t a ? a h i n dun s i n kappal naghlhibal/ll / 2. /way kasusahan \ hah surga ? l l / or /way kasusahan hah surga Although the suprasegmental f e a t u r e s do not change the l e x i c a l meaning of ah u t t e r a n c e , they do add concomitant i n f o r  mation through t h e i r conventional acceptance by Tausug speaking people - i n f o r m a t i o n provided by t h e i r emotive, a t t i t u d i n a l , and d i r e c t i v e uses. 7, M o r p h o p h o n e m i c s Thepphonemes o f a l a n g u a g e a s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n s t a t e d a r e more t h a n s i m p l y i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s t o be i n d i v i d u a l l y i d e n  t i f i e d and. d e s c r i b e d ; i t i s r a t h e r a n e l e m e n t i n t h e s y s t e m o f a l a n g u a g e ( l i k e T a u s u g , f o r i n s t a n c e ) h a v i n g a c h a r a c t e r i s  t i c s e t o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h e a c h o f t h e o t h e r e l e m e n t s i n t h e system.' T h e s e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e o f v a r i o u s k i n d s ? one o f w h i c h may be r e f l e c t e d i n m o r p h o p h o n e m i c c h a n g e s . The t e r m ' m o r p h o p h o n e m i c s 1 i s d e f i n e d by some l i n g u i s t s a s t h e f i e l d o f l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s w h i c h b r i d g e s t h e g a p b e t  ween t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l a n d t h e p h o n e m i c l e v e l s . I t i s e s s e n  t i a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p h o n e m i c c h a n g e s o r phoneme a l t e r n a t i o n s w i t h i n morphemes. I n i t s b r o a d e s t s e n s e , i t i n c l u d e s a l l a l t e r  n a t i o n s o f phonemes, w h e t h e r t h e y a r e p r e d i c t a b l e o r n o t , o r w h e t h e r t h e y a r e m e a n i n g f u l o r n o t . By t h e p r e d i c t a b l e a l t e r n a t i o n s o f a phoneme i s meant a n a u t o m a t i c o r f o r m a l a l t e r n a t i o n w h i c h i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e phonemes sff t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g f o r m , w h i c h c a n be d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f p h o n e t i c m o d i f i c a t i o n , a n d w h i c h a p p l i e s t o a l l morphemes i n g e n e r a l when t h e y o c c u r i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n e d e j a v i - 5 3 r o i a m e n t . F o r a s a m p l e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s i d e a , r e f e r e n c e i s made t o a n e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n ( c f . s e c t i o n 5 * 3 ) o f a c h a n g e i n 'Pel,- op. c i t . , pp. 2 5-26. 175 s p e e c h s o u n d b r o u g h t a b o u t b y e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . The c o n s o n a n t / d / , f o r i n s t a n c e , when o c c u r r i n g i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n , w h e t h e r w i t h i n w o r d s o r a c r o s s morphome b o u n d a r i e s , a u t o m a t i c a l l y becomes / r / . T h u s : ma 4 d a g a n m a r a g a n / m a r a g a n / • f a s t r u n n e r * p a + jdahun p a r a h u n /para*hun/ ' w i l l s e n d ' t a g a d * a n t a g a r a n / t a g a r a n / ' w i l l w a i t f o r ' h a + d d i u h u l h a r u h u l / h a r i f t h u l / ' a t t h e end* h a * d a g a t • h a r a g a t / h a r a g a t / * i n t h e s e a ' pa + d u g u p a r u g u / p a r u g u h / ' t o t h e c o r n e r ' F r o m t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e s , / d / a n d / r / a r e s a i d t o b e ' i n a l t e r n a t i o n ' w i t h e a c h o t h e r s i . e . , / d / ~ - > / r / . T h e / ~ / s y m b o l i s u s e d h e r e t o mean ' i n a l t e r n a t i o n w i t h ' o r ' a l t e r n a t e s w i t h ' . I n c o n t i n u o u s r a p i d s p e e c h t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n c o m b i n a t i o n s o f s o u n d s w h i c h a r e q u i t e d i f f i c u l t t o p r o n o u n c e i n s e q u e n c e b e c a u s e o f t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y a d j u s t m e n t s i n v o l v e d . T h e g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y i s t h e r e f o r e t o a v o i d s u c h d i f f i c u l t i e s by a l t e r i n g o r m o d i f y i n g one o r more o f t h e s o u n d s s o t h a t t h e s p e a k e r c a n move f r o m one s o u n d t o a n o t h e r more q u i c k l y a n d w i t h a minimum o f e f f o r t . T h i s phenomenon i s o b s e r v e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , w i t h / n / m o v i n g t o / k / a s i n d a i n k a n i l a ' f r o m %em*. The t o n g u e c o u l d n o t move r a p i d l y f r o m t h e / n / t o t h e / k / b e c a u s e t h e f o r m e r i s made w i t h t h e t i p o f t h e t o n g u e a g a i n s t t h e t e e t h w h i l e t h e l a t t e r i s p r o d u c e d w i t h t h e b a c k p a r t a g a i n s t t h e v e l u m . I t i s much e a s i e r t o go f r o m / n / t o / k / s i n c e b o t h s o u n d s a r e v e l a r s , s o t h a t t h e n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y o f a T a u s u g s p e a k e r i s t o s a y 17'6 / d a i n k a n i l a h / i n s t e a d o f / d a i n k a n i l a h / . A s i m i l a r c o n d i  t i o n e d a l t e r n a t i o n i s o b s e r v e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g phonemes: /n/~/m/ b e f o r e b i l a b i a l s /p,b,m/V i n p u l a / i n p u l a / > / i m p u l a / ' t h e r e d ' s i n p i l a k / s i n p i l a k / > / s i m p i l a k / ' i t was money* i n b a d j u / i n b a ' d j u ? / > / i r a b a d j u ? / * t h e d r e s s * t a g u n b a t a / t a g u n b a t a / > / t a g u m b a t a ? / 'young' i n manghud / i n manhud/>/im manhud/ ' t h e y o u n g e r ' b r o t h e r o r s i s t e r * s i n m a l a g u / s i n m a l a g g u ? / > / s i m roalaggu?/ ' I t s ' s b i g * / n / ^ / n / when f o l l o x ^ i n g v e l a r /k,g,h,w/: i n k u s u g / i n ku*sug/>A*} k u s u g / ' t h e s t r e n g t h * l a i n kamu / d a i n kamu?/> / d a i n kamu?/ ' f r o m u s * i n g a b u n / i n g a b u n / > / i n g a b u n / ' t h e c l o u d ' l a i n g u l a / l a i n g u l a ? / > / l a i n g u l a ? / ' d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f m o l a s s e s ' d a i n h a b u d / d a i n h a b u d / > / d a i n h a b u d / * f r o m t h e m o u n t a i n ' s i n h a b a / s i n h a b a ? / >>&in h a b a ? / * t h e l e n g t h * i n w a k t u / i n w a k t u h / > A n w a k t u h / ' t h e t i m e * s i n w a l u / s i n w a l u h / >/3in w a l u h / ' i t i s e i g h t * The phenomenon o f a s o u n d ( o r s o u n d s ) a c q u i r i n g a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n common w i t h t h e neighboring^ s o u n d ( o r s o u n d s ) i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o a s a s s i m i l a t i o n . I n t h e p r e c e d i n g e x a m p l e s , a s s i m i l a t i o n i s s a i d t o be r e g r e s s i v e s i n c e t h e s o u n d w h i c h i s b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d f o l l o w s t h a t w h i c h c a u s e s t h e i n f l u e n d e . 17 7 The reverse i s true with progressive assimilation, i . e . , the sound which i s being influenced follows that which causes the influence as i n the d i a l e c t a l pronunciation of / b i k i n / for / b i k i n / 'a variety of clams*. The /n/ pronunciation r e s u l t s A as an influence of the preceding velar consonant, /k/. T h i s l a t t e r a l t e r n a t i o n of phonemes i s , however, not predictable (non-automatic), neither i s i t d i s t i n c t i v e i n T a u s u g . I t i s lim i t e d only to a few words. T h e r e are other non-automatic morphophonemic a l t e r  nations which are of more functional significance such as those which are manifested as features of derivation and i n f l e c t i o n . V e r b s derived from nouns, fo r instance, show such types of alternation, /p/ *~Vm/ /pulah/ 'red* ~Vmulah/ ' w i l l become red' /pu t i ? / 'white *<~/muti?/ ' w i l l become white' /b/ ^ /m/ /bahu?/ 'bad odor' ^  /mahu?/ ' w i l l smell bad* /buga?/ 'fear' ^ /miiga?/ ' w i l l be af r a i d * O t h e r functional non-automatic alternation are observa ble among some verbs such as the alternation between the i n i t i a l consonant of t h e i n f i n i t i v e form a n d the future tense: /p/~/m/ /panaw/ *to x<ralk* ^ /manaw/ ' w i l l take a walk' /patay/ 'to k i l l ' ^/matay/ ' w i l l d i e * /pusa/ 'to hatch'^/musa?/ ' w i l l hatch' 178 Some m o r p h o p h o n e m i c a l t e r n a t i o n w h i c h o c c u r w i t h o u t a c c o m p a n y i n g c h a n g e s i n m e a n i n g a r e n o t e d i n t h e e x a m p l e s b e l o w : / C i y / ~ / C y / /miyuga?/ /myuga?/ /siyam/ /syam/ / t i y a n / / tyan/ /Cuw/ /Cw/ /huwis/ /hwis/ /muwi?/ /mwi?/ Vsuwat/ /swat/ 'was a f r a i d * ' n i n e * ' s t o m a c h * * j u d g e * ' t o go home* • t o d i g ' ( t h e s o i l ) The l o s s o f a v o w e l phoneme a s i n t h e e x a m p l e s e n u m e r a t e d i s t e r m e d s y n c o p e . The i n s e r t i o n o f a v o w e l o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t o b r e a k up t r o u b l e s o m e c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r i s known a s a n a p t y x i s a n d t h e v o w e l i n s e r t e d i s c a l l e d a n a n a p t y c t i c v o w e l . T h i s i " ——~~"~~———— i phonemenon o f a n a p t y x i s i s commonly o b s e r v e d w i t h f o r e i g n w o r d s a d o p t e d i n t o t h e l a n g u a g e s u c h a s t r u c k , c r o s s , s c h o o l , e t c . , w h i c h a r e p r o n o u n c e d r e s p e c t i v e l y a s / t a r a k / , / k u r u s / a n d / t i s k u l / b y many T a u s u g s p e a k e r s , t h e u n e d u c a t e d ones i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h e r e a r e some a l t e r n a t i o n s o f phonemes w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d s t y l i s t i c , i n t h a t t h e y a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f c e r t a i n d i a l e c t s . T h e y a r e h o w e v e r , n o n - l i n g u i s t i c , n o n - d i s t i n c t i v e , as w e l l a s n o n - f u n c t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s i n s p e e c h . E x a m p l e s o f t h i s k i n d o f a l t e r n a t i o n a r e / n / ^ / ? / a s i n / b u k u n / < ^ / b u k u ? / 'no' ( n e g a t i o n ) a n d / 1 / ^ / h / , i . e . / b a k u l / ~ / b a k u # / , ' b a s k e t * . T h i s a l t e r n a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e Gimbahanun d i a l e c t . 8. SUMMARY and CONCLUSION A synchronic analysis of the phonological system of Tausug has been the main concern of this thesis. An attempt has been made to provide a sufficiently detailed description of the phonetic raw material of the language, to identify and classify i t according to relevant functional linguistic units. 1 As a necessary complementary addition to the phonolo gical analysis, discussions of the suprasegmental features and the morphophonemics of the language have been Included. The phonemes of Tausug have been established on the basis of the c r i t e r i a of phonetic similarity, complementary distribution, pattern congruity, and identity of function which are applied to a l l phone-types of the language. As a result, an inventory of twenty segmental phonemes has been drawn up: three vowels, /i,a,u/, and seventeen consonants, /p,t,k,?, t>,d,g, j,s,h,m,n,n,l,r,w,y/;' The classification of /w,y/ as consonant phonemes depends on their contextual function with reference to their position within the syllable. Whenever their distribution i s the same as that of the other consonants of the language, they are treated as such; otherwise, in other positions, they are interpreted as semivowels.1 Tausug has two basic syllable patterns: CV and CVC. With permitted combinations of pure vowels and semivowels, how ever, such as the diphthongs / i a , a i , ua, au, iu, u i / and the triphthongs / i a i , uau, iau, uai/, other secondary syllable patterns are added: CSV, CVS, CSVC, CVSC, CSVS. and CSVSC. 1 8 0 The m o s t p r o m i n e n t s o u n d , w h i c h n o r m a l l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o a p u r e v o w e l , c o n s t i t u t e s t h e s y l l a b i c n u c l e u s . T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n f a c t o r s , b e s i d e s t h e i n h e r e n t s o n o r i t y , w h i c h c o n t r i  b u t e s t o t h e p r o m i n e n c e o f a s o u n d . S u c h f a c t o r s i n v o l v e t h e c o r r e l a t e d s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s o f s t r e s s , p i t c h , a n d l e n g t h . S u p r a s e g m e n t a l l y , T a u s u g h a s two d i s t i n c t , b u t n o n - p h o n e m i c l e v e l s o f s t r e s s : p r i m a r y /*/ a n d weak (unmarked) , f o u r c o n t r a s t i v e l e v e l s o f p i t c h , / l 2 3 4 / , i . e . , l o w , n o r m a l , h i g h j a n d e x t r a h i g h a n d n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l e n g t h e n i n g o f v o w e l s a n d c o n s o n a n t s ( t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t r e a t e d a s g e m i n a t i o n ) . I n a d d i t i o n , two i m p o r t a n t t e r m i n a l j u n c t u r e s a r e r e c o g n i z a b l e : t h e s i n g l e b a r j u n c t u r e . /!/, w h i c h i s f o u n d a t t h e end o f a b r e a t h g r o u p w i t h i n a n u t t e r a n c e , a n d t h e d o u b l e b a r / |j /, w h i c h i s u s u a l l y f o u n d i n u t t e r a n c e f i n a l p o s i t i o n . A l t h o u g h a - l l i i o f t h e t w e n t y s e g m e n t a l phonemes o f T a u s u g h a v e t h e i r p h o n e m i c i d e n t i t y , t h e r e a r e i n s t a n c e s , how e v e r , w h e r e some s o u n d c h a n g e s o r phoneme a l t e r n a t i o n s a r e o b s e r v a b l e w i t h i n morphemes o r a c r o s s morpheme b o u n d a r i e s . S u c h c h a n g e s o r a l t e r n a t i o n o f s o u n d s h a v e b e e n r e f e r r e d t o u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g o f m o r p h o p h o n e m i c s . T h e y a r e t h e r e s u l t s o f phenomena s u c h a s a s s i m i l a t i o n , s y n c o p e , a n a p t y x i s , e t c . Among t h e m o r p h o p h o n e m i c c h a n g e s o r a l t e r n a t i o n s o b s e r v e d i n t h e l a n g u a g e a r e : / d / ^ / r / , /n/^/m./, /n/<~/n/, /p/Vm/ , / b / ~ / m / , /ciyAyCy/ , a n d /Giw/^/Cw/. : The f a c t t h a t some phonemes u n d e r g o m o d i f i c a t i o n s d o e s n o t d i m i n i s h , . 181 or alter their functional values as individual phonemes once their phonemic status has been established. It has already been pointed out i n previous discussions that speech Is a continuum. Therefore, the best way to observe the linguistic elements that make up the phonological system of Tausug is to have them in normal operation i n a running text like the Tausug version of the lin g u i s t i c a l l y popular tale of the *The Northwind and the Sun' provided below in both phonetic and phonemic transcriptions. The transcribed text also serves as a general summary of Tausug phonology. Phonetic transcription ?In honln 't'imUl ?ipan 'suyoh5^ The wind north and sun 2 3 2___> .2 3 2 hctmbu?Uk *?adlaw I hlnapUh nagsaggatf?In hanln 't'imUl One day . while disputing the wind north 3 2___> 2 ?i£an 'suyah | hambu?Uk t*a?Uh llmagay ?ipan k'ctmmUt and sun one man passed by and overcoat 55 The Tausug version of the above text is based on the IPA manual, page 21. "The northwind and the sun were arguing one day about which of them was stronger, when a traveller came along wrapped up i n his overcoat. They agreed that the one who could make the traveller take his coat off would be considered stronger than the other one. Then the northwind blew as hard as he could, but the harder he blew, the tighter the traveller wrapped his coat around him, and at last the northwind gave up trying. Then the sun began to shine hot, and right away the traveller took his coat off, and so the northwind had to admit that the sun was stronger than he was." 182. 3 1 ...2 •niyah+ll k'yapagmawpakkatan nilah nah hlsiyUh ?Im his i t was agreed upon them that whoever the 3, 2-> makapa?Ig sin k'ctmmUt sin »t'a?Uh one who can the overcoat the man take off ?amllh nah ?Im that (ligature) the 3 1 2 makusUg hah k'ccnilah 111 t'ImiyUp nah ?In honln t'imUl strong of them blow then the wind north 3 2_» 2 hah k'akUsuyan 'niyah I sagawa? gam k'Usuyan niyah ?in in strength his but the more wi l l stronger he the 3 2 2 •t*iyU$ j gam ?lsab k'Upkupan sin t*a?Uh blowing the more also hold tightly the man ?in k'ammUt the overcoat 3 1 . „ 2 3 2__> i 3 1 , II niyah i l l hah hU1 lihan I hlmundUq ?In honln 't'imUl 'ill " stopped the wind north his at end 2 3, 1 , „ 2 3 2_> t'yagna?an sin suyah ?Im *p asU? \ \\ bukUn 'mawyay the sun the heat not long time ?Iniyon nah sin t*a?Uh ?In k'ammUt remove then the man the overcoat 3 1 •niyah his I 1  ?inlh this ?In t'anda? k'usUg sin the proof strength the 3 1 I suyah | sun nagsabunnal nah ?In believe already the hanln t'imUl nah ?In suyah t'akdll makusUg dayn wind north that the sun really strong than . 3 1 k a'niyah I him 183 P h o n e m i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n 2 3 2 3 1 ? i n h a n i n t i m u l i b a n s u g a h 2 3 2 , 2 hambu?uk ? a d l a w I h i n a b u h n a g s a g g a ? ? i n h a n i n 3 2 3 2 2 t i m u l i b a n s u g a n j hambu?uk t a ? u h l i m a b a y 3/1 i l l 2 i b a n kammut n i y a h l\\ k y a p a g m a w p a k k a t a n n i l a h n a h i s i y u h ? i m m a k a p a ? i g s i n kammut s i n ?'2_> i 2 D 3,1 ii t a ? u h 1 amuhh n a h ? i m makusug h a h k a n i l a h | | | 2 t i m i y u p n a h ? i n h a n i n t i m u l h a h k a k u s u g a n 3'2_* I 2 3/2 . n i y a h 1 sagwa? gam k u s u g a n n i y a h i n t i y u p | 2 gam ? i s a b k u p k u p a n s i n t a ? U h ? i n kammut m 3/1 , 1 1 2 3'2_* , 2 n i y a h \ \\ hah h u l i h a n I h i m u n d u n ? i n nana 3'1 » l | 2 3/1 i t i m u l | ll t y a g n a ? a n s i n s u g a h ? i m p a s u * 2 3/ 2^ 2 b u k u n maugay I ? i n i g a n n a h s i n t a ? u h ? i n 3/ 1 , II 2 kammut n i y a h 4-11 ? i n i h ? i n t a n d a h k u s u g 3 '1 i l l 2 s i n s u g a h + 11 n a g s a b u n n a l n a h ? i n h a n i n ) t i m u l n a h ? i n s u g a h t a k d i l makusug d a y n 3/1 k a n i y a h i l l 184, The s y s t e m o f t h r e e v o w e l s a n d s e v e n t e e n c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s i s s h a r e d v i r t u a l l y b y a l l d i a l e c t s o f T a u s u g . I f t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e d i a l e c t s , t h e y a r e p r i n c i p a l l y v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e n a t u r e a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e a l l o p h o n e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t phonemes t h o u g h t h e r e i s some v a r i a t i o n i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e phonemes t h e m s e l v e s . The i n t e r v e n t i o n o f f o r e i g n s o u n d s i n t o some d i a l e c t s l i k e t h o s e o f t h e e d u c a t e d s p e a k e r s may a l s o a c c o u n t f o r d i a  l e c t a l d i f f e r e n c e s . O t h e r w i s e , v i r t u a l l y a l l d i a l e c t s o f T a u s u g seem t o u s e t h e same s e t o f t w e n t y s e g m e n t a l phonemes. T h i s s t u d y o f T a u s u g p h o n o l o g y d o es n o t presume t o be e x h a u s t i v e , o r c o m p l e t e , a l t h o u g h t h o r o u g h n e s s a n d a c c u r a c y h a s b e e n a i m e d a t i n - t h e a n a l y s i s . W i t h l a n g u a g e c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g  i n g , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t a n y d e f i n i t i v e w o r k c a n be a t t a i n e d . F u r t h e r , w i t h t h e i n f l u x o f new k n o w l e d g e a n d d i s c o v e r i e s i n l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y , b e t t e r a n d i m p r o v e d t e c h n i q u e s o f l i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n as w e l l a s r e f i n e m e n t s i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d a t a c a n be e x p e c t e d . The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o p r o v i d e a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f T a u s u g p h o n o l o g y . I f t h i s i n t e n t i o n h a s b e e n a t t a i n e d h e r e , t h e a t t e m p t h a s n o t b e e n i n v a i n . W i t h t h e d e a r t h o f l i n g u i s t i c m a t e r i a l s on t h e l a n g u a g e , t h i s a n a l y s i s , a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t a c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n , h e l p s t o c o p e w i t h a n u r g e n t p r e s e n t n e e d . The p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a a s w e l l a s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r o t h e r s t o c o n d u c t . 165. f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o n t h e l a n g u a g e a n d c h e c k on t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e a n a l y s i s . C o n c o m i t a n t w i t h t h e p e d a g o g i c a l h e l p w h i c h i s t o be d e r i v e d f r o m t h i s s t u d y i s i t s s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n t h e • p r e f a c e * o f t h e P a p e r s on P h i l i p p i n e L a n g u a g e s , No. 1, A l f r e d o T. M o r a l e s , a P h i l i p p i n e e d u c a t o r , h a s t h i s t o s a y : " . . . T h e y [ t h e l i n g u i s t i c p a p e r s ] a r e new d a t a a b o u t P h i l i p p i n e c u l t u r e . W i t h more d a t a o f t h i s k i n d , we f o s t e r n o t o n l y i m p r o v e d l i n g u i s t i c s c i e n c e b u t a l s o a d e e p e r F i l i p i n o c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i n t e r m s o f more m a s t e r y o v e r o u r own P h i l i p p i n e m a t e r i a l f o r s c h o l a r l y s t u d y , a n d b e t t e r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a g e n i u n e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a l l t h e p e o p l e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e n e g l e c t e d c o m m u n i t i e s , t h a t makes up t h e F i l i p i n o n a t i o n . W i t h t h e p r e s e n t l i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , i t i s h o p e d t h a t i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t , n o t o n l y i n T a u s u g , b u t i n P h i l i p p i n e l i n  g u i s t i c s , i n g e n e r a l , w i l l c o n t i n u e . - ^ H o c k e t t , o p . c i t . , p. I l l , 56 S I L , o p. c i t . p. I V . 1863 BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS A l l e n , H a r o l d B. T e a c h i n g E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e . New YorJt : M c G r a w - H i l l B ook Company, 1965 B l o o m f i e l d , L e o n a r d . L a n g u a g e . New Y o r k : H e n r y H o l t a n d Company, 1933* B r o o k s , N e l s o n ; ' L a n g u a g e a n d L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d W o r l d , I n c . , 1964. C a r r e l l , James a n d W i l l i a m R. T i f f a n y . . P h o n e t i c s : T h e o r y a n d  A p p l i c a t i o n t o S p e e c h I m p r o v e m e n t . L o n d o n : McGraw- H i l l B o o k Company, I n c . , i960. C o h e n , A. The Phonemes o f E n g l i s h . The Hague: M a r t i n u s h i j h o f f , 1952. F i n o c c h i a r o , M a r y . T e a c h i n g E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e . New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1958. F r a n c i s , N e l s o n w . 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