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The phonology of Tausug : a descriptive analysis Tan, Evangeline K. 1967

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THE PHONOLOGY OF TAUSUG: A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS  by  EVANGELINE K. TAN E.T.C., Zamboanga Normal C o l l e g e ,  1959  B.S.E.Ed., N a t i o n a l T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e ,  1964-  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS' FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of C l a s s i c s D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August,  196?  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t -the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood that  or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department o f ^ a s ^ j j j s . i ^ Q i ^ ^ ^ T h e " U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 Canada 3  Date  August,*  1967  copying  g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d  ABSTRACT  In t h e l a s t few y e a r s t h e r e has been a s t e a d i l y growing i n t e r e s t i n l i n g u i s t i c s c i e n c e .  As a r e s u l t , more  and more of t h e languages o f t h e w o r l d a r e coming w i t h i n t h e range o f l i n g u i s t i c s c r u t i n y .  This interest i s increasingly  m a n i f e s t e d i n P h i l i p p i n e l i n g u i s t i c s as e v i d e n c e d by t h e number o f languages and d i a l e c t s o f t h e c o u n t r y t h a t have a l r e a d y been and a r e b e i n g e x p l o r e d . Some P h i l i p p i n e languages have been e x t e n s i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d , ' w h i l e o t h e r s have been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y L i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Tausug  (which i s t h e n a t i v e  language o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ) i s u r g e n t l y needed. for  explored.  Except  t h e work e n t i t l e d "The Phonemes o f Tausug" by Seymour  and L o i s A s h l e y o f t h e Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s  (SIL),  no o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s o f t h e language have been done. I n v i e w o f t h e inadequacy," t h i s p r e s e n t work on a s y n c h r o n i c d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f Tausug phonology i s here made a v a i l a b l e . The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o g i v e a s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l phenomena o f Tausug, w i t h t h e end i n v i e w o f p r o v i d i n g b a s i c e x p l a n a t i o n s ;  c o n c e r n i n g t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l system o f t h e language w h i c h s h o u l d be u s e f u l t o t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n Tausug l i n g u i s t i c s . I t i s a l s o hoped t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s w i l l be o f some p e d a g o g i c a l s i g n i f i cance - i n t e a c h i n g a second language t o n a t i v e speakers o f Tausug and i n p r o v i d i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r f u t u r e  iii modifications  and i n n o v a t i o n s  i n t h e Tausug  orthographical  system. I n t h e main, t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l centers  a n a l y s i s o f Tausug  on t h e d i a l e c t o f S i a s i town p r o p e r (STP), o f w h i c h  the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s a n a t i v e s p e a k e r . however,' d i s c u s s i o n s  Whenever p o s s i b l e ,  of the d i a l e c t a l v a r i e t i e s are included.  An attempt i s a l s o made t o p r o v i d e  f o r general  categories  v a l i d for a l l dialects.' As s u g g e s t e d i n t h e t i t l e ' T h e Phonology o f Tausug: }  A D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s * , t h e method o f approach t o t h e s t u d y of t h e sounds o f t h e language i s d e s c r i p t i v e .  T h i s i s made  p o s s i b l e by means o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h , and p r i m a r i l y the a r t i c u l a t o r y t e c h n i q u e .  U s i n g t h e speech organs as a  f a m i l i a r frame o f reference,' t h e p h o n e t i c raw m a t e r i a l o f t h e language i s a n a l y z e d and d e s c r i b e d  first.  Phonological  a n a l y s i s , however, goes beyond t h e p h o n e t i c l e v e l . ;  The  u l t i m a t e a i m i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e phonemic system of t h e language, hence,' t h e need f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p h o n e t i c raw m a t e r i a l i n t o f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s , i . e . , t h e phonemes. similarity, and  C e r t a i n fundamental c r i t e r i a such as p h o n e t i c 1  complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n , p a t t e r n  congruity,  i d e n t i t y o f f u n c t i o n a r e observed in t h e phonemic c l a s -  sification.  With the use of the c o n t r a s t i n g p a i r s  (minimal  p a i r s , ' w h i c h d i f f e r o n l y i n one f e a t u r e o r phoneme), t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e i d e n t i t y o f each o f t h e phonemes o f  iv Tausug i s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d .  To complete the a n a l y s i s  of Tausug phonology, b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n s of the s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s and are  the morphophonemics of the language  included. A l t h o u g h thoroughness and a c c u r a c y has been aimed  a t , the a n a l y s i s i s f a r from b e i n g e x h a u s t i v e Completeness i n any  or complete.  l i n g u i s t i c investigation i s unattain-  a b l e as l o n g as language keeps on changing and of l i n g u i s t i c s c i e n c e keeps on a d v a n c i n g .  knowledge  And w i t h  the  d e a r t h t o d a t e of l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s of the Tausug l a n g uage, t h i s p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s of the p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the language p e r m i t s no more t h a n t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s .  TABLE OP CONTENTS Page L i s t o f F i g u r e s and I l l u s t r a t i o n s  vi  Acknowledgements 1.  v i i  INTRODUCTION.............  1  1.1  Background o f t h e P r e s e n t S t u d y  1  1.2  Purpose o f t h e A n a l y s i s  3  1.3  Scope and D e l i m i t a t i o n . . . . . . .  6  1.4  Method o f A p p r o a c h . .  8  1.5  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms.......  12  2. ' BASIC CONSIDERATIONS TO SPEECH ANALYSIS...  14  2.1 The Use o f t h e I P A .  14  2.2  The Organs o f Speech.  21  2.3  C r i t e r i a Used i n Phonemic A n a l y s i s  25  3. THE SOUNDS OF TAUSUG....  30  3.1  Vocoids........ ......  3.2  Contoids  30  1  4. THE SYLLABLE  46  5 . THE SEGMENTAL PHONEMES 5.1  55  .. .  :  The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e Semivowels ori'Semlconsonants.........••  5.2  66  Vowels  •.  5.2.1  D e s c r i p t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . . .  5.2.2  Phonemic C o n t r a s t  69 .75 77 79  5.2.3  Allophonic Variation....................  5.2.4  Distribution  5.2.5  Diphthongs.........  91  5.2.6  Triphthongs......  95  .... 90  5> 3;Consonants  96  5.3.1  D e s c r i p t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . .  99  5.3.2  Phonemic C o n t r a s t s . . . . . . .  106  5.3.3  A l l o p h o n i c V a r i a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140  5.3.4  Distribution....................  144  5.3.5  Consonant C l u s t e r s  150  6. THE SUPRASEGMENTAL FEATURES......  158  6.1  Stress.........................................  159  6.2  Pitch............v.....  161  6.3  Length.........................................  167  6.4 J u n c t u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . v ..... 1  7.  86  MORPHOPHONEMICS .  8. SUMMARY, AND .CONCLUSION.... • BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................  170 172 177 183  L i s t o f F i g u r e s and  F i g u r e 1:  Illustrations  Map o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , showing t h e Tausugspeaking province  F i g u r e 2:  The C a r d i n a l Vowel C h a r t  F i g u r e 3'*  A c r o s s - s e c t i o n of t h e head showing t h e organs of speech  F i g u r e 4-:  A m o d i f i e d C a r d i n a l Vowel C h a r t showing t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l o c a t i o n o f t h e Tausug V o c o i d s  F i g u r e 5:  A C h a r t o f Tausug V o c o i d s  F i g u r e 6:  A C h a r t o f Tausug C o n t o i d s  F i g u r e 7>  The Vowel T r i a n g l e f o r Tausug  F i g u r e 8:  The Consonant Diagram f o r Tausug  AKNOWLEDGEMENT  I w i s h t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o s e v e r a l p e o p l e w i t h o u t whose h e l p t h i s t h e s i s would n o t have been p o s s i b l e ; t o D r . R o b e r t Gregg, my f a c u l t y a d v i s e r * ' whon. saw t h r o u g h t h e work from t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e problem t o t h e f i n a l accomplishment  o f t h e p r o j e c t ; t o M i s s Ruth  M c C o n n e l l i n whose c l a s s t h e w r i t e r g a i n e d encouragement and I n t e r e s t i n making t h i s s t u d y i n modern l i n g u i s t i c s ; t o D r . F r e d Bowers who c a r e f u l l y went over t h e f i n a l d r a f t o f t h i s t h e s i s ; and t o my f r i e n d s , M i s s e s R o s a r i o Maminta and G e o r g i n a R i v e r a , who w i l l i n g l y h e l p e d p r o o f read the manuscript. The w r i t e r was i n i t i a t e d i n t o t h e f i e l d o f linguist.!, t i c s and second language t e a c h i n g when she worked i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n D i v i s i o n , Bureau o f P u b l i c S c h o o l s , R e p u b l i c o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s . ' She was g i v e n a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y s u p p o r t and t r a i n i n g by M i s s F e Manza, c h i e f , E n g l i s h S e c t i o n and Mrs. C a t a l i n a Velasquea-Ty, c h i e f , Upper P r i m a r y S e c t i o n s To them, I a l s o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y was made p o s s i b l e through a s c h o l a r s h i p g r a n t from t h e E x t e r n a l A i d O f f i c e r Gvernment o f Canada. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l House p r o v i d e d a home away from home f o r t h e w r i t e r . To thfese two i n s t i t u t i o n s , I w i s h t o express my s i n c e r e thanks and a p p r e c i a t i o n .  MAP OF THE PHILIPPINES SHOWING THE TAU SUG - SPEAKING PROVINCE (SHADED)  1.  INTRODUCTION  Of the two languages spoken i n t h e S u l u A r c h i p e l a g o , p r o v i n c e a t the s o u t h e r n  a  t i p of t h e P h i l i p p i n e I s l a n d s , Tausug  i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r e s t i g e language of the a r e a . ^ I t i s spoken as a n a t i v e language by a p p r o x i m a t e l y  30^,812 p e o p l e l i v i n g  throughout t h e s c a t t e r e d i s l a n d s of the p r o v i n c e and as a second language by many immigrants from v a r i o u s p a r t s of  the  c o u n t r y . ^ Most of t h e speakers of Tausug occupy t h e i s l a n d s of J o l o , S i a s i , Pandaml, Lugus, T a p u l , P a t a , e t c . A  considerable  number a r e s c a t t e r e d i n some a r e a s of Zamboanga, B a s i l a n , Davao, Lanao, B u k i d n o n , C o t a b a t o , and Palawan (see 1.1  Background of the P r e s e n t  map).  Study  P r e s e n t - d a y Tausug r e p r e s e n t s n o t o n l y a  cumulative  n a t i v e development but a l s o an a s s i m i l a t i o n of words from v a r i o u s l a n g u a g e s , n o t a b l y S a n s k r i t , Malayan, Chinese, A r a b i c , Spanish,  Indonesian,  Japanese,and more r e c e n t l y E n g l i s h .  ._ Seymour and L o i s . A s h l e y , "The Phonemes of Tausug", Papers on P h i l i p p i n e Languages, ( M a n i l a : The U n i v e r s i t y of the P h i l i p p i n e s (UP; and t h e Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s (SIL) P u b l i c a t i o n , 1 9 6 3 , p.7. I n t h i s paper the a u t h o r s s t a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e languages spoken i n Sulu-Tausug, Samal, and Yakan. However, t o t h e knowledge of the i n v e s t i g a t o r , Yakan i s not spoken anywhere i n S u l u . I t i s the language of the n e i g h b o r i n g c i t y of B a s i l a n . And s i n c e g e o g r a p h i c a l l y as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l l y B a s i l a n i s not a p a r t of S u l u , i t i s l o g i c a l t h a t Yakan s h o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d as one of the languages of the p r o v i n c e . 2 of  i960.  The  number of Tausug speakersiis based upon the Census  2  Words l i k e pans i t  ' r i c e n o o d l e ' , madjpng'mah j o n g ' , and  'wooden shoes' a r e of C h i n e s e o r i g i n .  j^kUm:,-.  Gitara 'guitar' i s  S p a n i s h , w h i l e apa ' t h i n w a f e r ' i s Japanese.  A g r e a t number of  Moslem names a r e A r a b i c , a s i d e from l e x i c a l items such as makru •taboo', Ramadan (month of f a s t i n g ) , dakdak 'to wash', J a b u r 'book of Moses', e t c . Tausug words l i k e l u p a ' l i k e n e s s ' , walna ' c o l o r ' , mulka ' c u r s e , and s u r g a heaven' seem t o be of S a n s k r i t o r i g i n and 1  !  c o r r e s p o n d r e s p e c t i v e l y t o S a n s k r i t words rupa ' l i k e n e s s ' , v a r n a •color  1  o r ' c a s t e , mureha 'to i n c i t e w r a t h ' , and s v a r g a 'abode 1  of l i g h t ? 1  Loan words from E n g l i s h a r e p u l i s  'police',- i s k u l  'school', tarak 'truck', b a l i b u l ' v o l l e y b a l l ' , miting  'meeting'  or conference', etc. 1  E x c e p t i n c a r e f u l educated speech, more o f t e n than:.not, as e v i d e n c e d by t h e examples g i v e n above, words adopted i n t o t h e language l o s e t h e i r f o r e i g n i s m .  They u s u a l l y a s s i m i l a t e t o the  form o f n a t i v e words, t h e f o r e i g n sounds b e i n g r e p l a c e d by approximate n a t i v e e q u i v a l e n t s .  3'The s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n on S a n s k r i t l o a n s i s t h e doct o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n of Juan F r a n c i s c o , " I n d i a n I n f l u e n c e s i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , " S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and Humanities Review (Quezon C i t y : The U n i v e r s i t y of t h e P h i l i p p i n e s A r t and S c i e n c e s P u b l i c a t i o n , January-Sept ember, 1963) V.-28, Nos. 1-3. Due t o u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s not i n a p o s i t i o n t o g i v e s u f f i c i e n t examples of l e x i c a l items borrowed from o t h e r languages. I n f l u e n c e s of such languages a r e e v i d e n t not o n l y i n the language but a l s o i n t h e c u l t u r e of Tausug.  3  As one o f t h e e s t i m a t e d e i g h t y - s e v e n languages o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , Tausug f a l l s under t h e g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the  Malayo-Polynesian family.  I t appears t o have c l o s e phono-  l o g i c a l as w e l l as s y n t a c t i c a l resemblances w i t h many P h i l i p p i n e languages l i k e , f o r i n s t a n c e , T a g a l o g and Cebuano. U n l i k e T a g a l o g , Cebuano, and o t h e r P h i l i p p i n e l a n g u a g e s , n o t v e r y many l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s have y e t been made o f t h e Tausug language.  I f t h e r e has been any l i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t a l l ,  i t i s almost i n s i g n i f i c a n t .  The i n v e s t i g a t o r i s aware o f o n l y  one l i n g u i s t i c s t u d y of t h e language and t h a t i s t h e work done by Seymour and L o i s A s h l e y c i t e d i n f o o t n o t e N o . l . ing  This pioneer-  i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o v i d e s a summary d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e phonemes  of Tausug, but i t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive t o g i v e a l l the  d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l system o f  the  language.  I n view o f t h e inadequacy o f l i n g u i s t i c m a t e r i a l s  on t h e Tausug language, and w i t h today's s e e m i n g l y growing i n t e r e s t i n P h i l i p p i n e l i n g u i s t i c s , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t a more comp r e h e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e language be made a v a i l a b l e . 1.2  Purpose o f t h e A n a l y s i s  - Whether any g i v e n a n a l y s i s i s d e s i r a b l e o r s u c c e s s f u l depends p r i m a r i l y on t h e purpose f o r w h i c h i t i s i n t e n d e d . I n t h i s s t u d y , attempt i s made t o p r o v i d e b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l system o f Tausug, modest though i t may be, as  4  r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l f o r s t u d e n t s of l i n g u i s t i c s who  may  be i n -  t e r e s t e d i n the Tausug l a n g u a g e .  Moreover, the a n a l y s i s may  of use f o r p e d a g o g i c a l p u r p o s e s .  This includes applied  t i c s and  be  linguis-  orthography. T h i s s t u d y o f f e r s n e i t h e r a mass of d e t a i l e d d a t a n o r  s t a r t l i n g new  any  t h e o r y but i s an attempt t o p r o v i d e b a s i c e x p l a n a -  t i o n s concerning the p h o n o l o g i c a l  phenomena of Tausug.  W i t h the  d e a r t h of l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n on the language, the d a t a i n t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d prove u s e f u l f o r t h o s e who  have an  included  inclina-  t i o n towards making f u r t h e r l i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e Tausug language. B a s i c knowledge of the p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of Tausug i s i m p o r t a n t i n the t e a c h i n g of t h e language.  of a f o r e i g n language t o n a t i v e speakers  Extensive  e x p e r i e n c e has  s i g h t s i n t o t h e l e a r n i n g of a new  shown t h a t b e t t e r i n -  language a r e g a i n e d by h a v i n g  an a c c u r a t e knowledge of t h e n a t i v e tongue.  Better  instructional  m a t e r i a l s and methods of t e a c h i n g a f o r e i g n language a r e drawn from a s y s t e m a t i c  comparison of the l e a r n e r ' s n a t i v e tongue and  t h e t a r g e t language t o be l e a r n e d .  The  starting point, therefore,  f o r an e f f i c i e n t program of second-language t e a c h i n g f o r Tausug 4 speakers i s a s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y of t h e i r n a t i v e tongue. 4  - -•• H a r o l d B. A l l e n , T e a c h i n g E n g l i s h as a Second Language, .(New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, 1965).. N e l s o n B r o o k s , Language and Language L e a r n i n g (New Y o r k i H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and World; Inc...*,". .1964). Mary P i n o c c h i a r o , T e a c h i n g E n g l i s h as a Second Language (New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1958). P.Gurrey, T e a c h i n g E n g l i s h as a Second Language (London: Longmans, Green 1  1  and Co. L t d . , 19597.""  5  T h i s study a l s o i n t e n d s t o c o n t r i b u t e something towards r e d e f i n i n g t h e o r t h o g r a p h y o f Tausug.  I n t h e p a s t , Tausug has  no e s t a b l i s h e d w r i t i n g system o f i t s own. used e i t h e r t h e A r a b i c a l p h a b e t  N a t i v e s p e a k e r s have  ( i n t h e case o f those who a r e  g r a d u a t e s o f t h e A r a b i c s c h o o l ) , o r t h e Roman a l p h a b e t  ( i n the  case o f those who a r e educated i n t h e modern s c h o o l ) .  Of t h e  two,  t h e Roman a l p h a b e t h a s been t h e more w i d e l y u s e d . There have, however, been no f i x e d r u l e s on t h e proper  use o f t h e Roman a l p h a b e t  i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e l a n g u a g e ^ so t h a t  d i v e r s e ways o f r e p r e s e n t i n g phonemes t h a t have no l e t t e r s i n t h e Roman a l p h a b e t have r e s u l t e d .  corresponding  In representing  the g l o t t a l s t o p ( g l o t t a l c a t c h ) / ? / , f o r i n s t a n c e , some have u s e d t h e a c c e n t mark /'/•  Others have used t h e l e t t e r h when  the g l o t t a l s t o p i s word f i n a l . marked.  S t i l l o t h e r s have l e f t i t u n -  A word l i k e kaha [*k»aha? ] * f r y i n g pan* has been o r t h o -  g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d a s kaha. kahah. o r k a h a .  Not one o f  t h e t h r e e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f / ? / , however, shows any r e l a t i o n s h i p o r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e sound i n q u e s t i o n .  Unless expressed  orally  o r w r i t t e n i n c o n t e x t , t h e form k a h a , o r kahah, i s l i a b l e t o be m i s t a k e n f o r kaha [ *k ahah 3 ' s a f e *  ( f o r keeping  valuables)?  -'It was o n l y v e r y r e c e n t l y , w i t h t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e v e r n a c u l a r a s t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f Grades I and I I , t h a t some t e n t a t i v e r u l e s have been l a i d down on t h e use o f t h e Roman a l p h a b e t i n w r i t i n g t e x t b o o k s i n Tausug, ^ I n t h e f i r s t p r e - p r i m e r o f t h e Tausug s e r i e s , t h e g l o t t a l s t o p i s l e f t unmarked. F o r c o n s i s t e n c y t h e same o r t h o g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l be used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s .  6  In t h i s s t u d y , t h e u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e  i s to establish  the phonemic system of t h e Tausug language, a n a l y z i n g the vowel and consonant phonemes.  To s e t up an o r t h o g r a p h i c a l system  w h i c h I s more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e phonemes of the language, the a n a l y s i s  u n d e r t a k e n h e r e may p r o v e u s e f u l and a p p r o p r i a t e  as a t h e o r e t i c a l 1.3  foundation.  Scope and  Delimitation  On a c c o u n t o f t h e i r number and t h e g r e a t d i s t a n c e s between the i s l a n d s o f S u l u , marked d i a l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n s inevitable.  Identifiable differences  i n speech a r e  f o r i n s t a n c e , between t h e d i a l e c t s of J o l o and S i a s i .  are  noticeable, By  g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n , Tausug s p e a k e r s of J o l o t e n d t o speak w i t h r e l a t i v e l y f a s t e r tempo compared t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y slow and somewhat d r a g g i n g pace c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the d i a l e c t o f S i a s i . F u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n i s made a l s o between the d i a l e c t spoken i n S i a s i Town p r o p e r (STP) and the d i a l e c t spoken i n t h e r u r a l areas, often referred  t o as Gimbahanun 'people from t h e farm*.  The STP i s spoken w i t h l e s s m u s c u l a r t e n s i o n than t h e Gimbahanun. In t h i s t h e s i s , p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n  i s g i v e n t o t h e d i a l e c t of  STP w h i c h i s t h e d i a l e c t spoken by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . venience, the a n a l y s i s  of the sounds of Tausug w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d  t o t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f words f o u n d i n t h e a c t i v e of t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r .  vocabulary  Another p e r s o n ' s speech would be l i k e l y  t o y i e l d an a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n examples might v a r y  F o r con-  slightly.  a l t h o u g h some o f t h e  7  A l t h o u g h most o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t w i l l soon f o l l o w a p p l y t o t h e d i a l e c t o f STP and t h e i d i o l e c t o f t h e i n v e s t i g a tor  i n p a r t i c u l a r , a t t e m p t s w i l l be made t o p r o v i d e f o r g e n e r a l  c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h a r e v a l i d f o r a l l d i a l e c t s o f t h e language. Whenever p o s s i b l e , i n c l u s i o n o f o t h e r d i a l e c t a l v a r i e t i e s o f the language w i l l be made i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n s . Following (•  each Tausug example i n t h e t e x t i s a g l o s s  ') which g i v e s an approximate meaning o f t h e Tausug  item i n E n g l i s h .  To g i v e t h e e x a c t meaning o f t h e examples i n  E n g l i s h ^ i s , however,' o f t e n d i f f i c u l t . 1  Sometimes o n l y  t r a n s l a t i o n a l equivalents a r e suggested.  rough  I n working w i t h a  language t h a t i s as remote from t h e E n g l i s h c u l t u r e as Tausug, t h e inadequacy of t r a n s l a t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t s a l o n e i s o b v i o u s . The metaphors,' a s s o c i a t i o n s and l i n g u i s t i c e x t e n t i o n s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n both languages. As suggested i n t h e t i t l e , t h e scope o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be l i m i t e d t o t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l a s p e c t o f Tausug.  The u l t i m a t e  p u r s u i t o f t h i s p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s i s t h e i d e n t i t y of t h e f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s o f t h e sounds o f Tausug; i n o t h e r words; t h e establishment  o f i t s phonemic system.  However, c e r t a i n m a t t e r s  w h i c h a r e b a s i c t o a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f speech sounds and t h e p r o c e s s e s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n need t o be first.  considered  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l i n c l u d e some b a s i c con-  s i d e r a t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g speech a n a l y s i s ( t h e organs o f speech, t h e use o f t h e IPA, and t h e c r i t e r i a used i n phonemic a n a l y s i s ) , t h e  8 sounds of Tausug (l.e», the phonetic raw material), the s y l l a b l e structure, the segmental phonemes, the suprasegmental features, and the morphophonemics of the language. An exhaustive analysis of the suprasegmental features however, cannot possibly be achieved here.  Unlike the segmentals,  the suprasegmentals are not easy to analyze.  Even the supra-  segmental features of the English language which have been subject to l i n g u i s t i c investigation f o r many years cannot be said to have been f u l l y established;  1  Por suprasegmentals are,  i n short, much more elusive than the segmentals. Neither i s there an attempt i n t h i s thesis to provide a complete description of the entire phonological system of the language.  1  Completeness i s impossible and can never be attained  as long as l i n g u i s t i c investigations are going on." And since Tausug has been inadequately explored, t h i s modest attempt at the a n a l y s i s of the phonological structure of the language permits no more than a tentative formulation^ 1.4  Method of Approach  Present-day l i n g u i s t i c s offers several approaches to the phonological study of any given language.'  In point of time, a  p a r t i c u l a r language may be studied from a diachronlc or synchronic 7  point of view.  In terms of technique of analysis, i t may  either  Prom a dlachronic point of view, the study of the sounds of a language i s made over a period of timev I t i s , i n other words, h i s t o r i c a l . ' On the other hand, synchronic study of the language i s done at a certainpoint of time. This thesis deals with the present status of the Tausug language. 1  9  be descriptive or comparative.- As the t i t l e suggests, and with a language l i k e Tausug which has no orthography of i t s own, and therefore no written accounts of the past language, t h i s f i r s t attempt a t a comprehensive study of the sound system of the language i s purely a synchronic descriptive a n a l y s i s . To a r r i v e a t a description and analysis of the speech sounds of Tausug, two l i n g u i s t i c approaches are made a v a i l a b l e ; The approach may be made from the physiological point of view of  the a r t i c u l a t o r y organs and processes involved  (Articulatory  phonetics) and the study of the sound waves as perceived by the hearer s ears (auditor.v phon e 11o s). 1  The other approach, which  i s so recent that i t s " f u l l impact on l i n g u i s t i c s has not yet 8 been f e l t " ,  i s primarily concerned with the physical characteris-  t i c s of sounds as revealed by machines such as the sound spectograph?'  I t i s known as acoustic phonetics.' Neither of the two approaches to the study of the speech  sounds producible by the human voice can be c a t e g o r i c a l l y designated as the only approach to the exclusion of the o t h e r E v e n l i n g u i s t s and phoneticians are not yet agreed on any one single framework to use i n a l l l i n g u i s t i c investigations or descriptions. To a large extent, the merits of any one approach are determined by the study i t s e l f , intended.'  especially the purposes f o r which i t i s  In view of t h i s , the physiological or a r t i c u l a t o r y  H.A, Gleason, J r . , An Introductory to Descriptive L i n g u i s t i c s (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1961), p.20. ^Robert A. H a l l , J r . , Introductory L l n g u l s t i e s (New York: Chilton Books, 1964), p.96« 1  ;  10  approach i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s believed to be the more suitable f o r the  purposes set f o r t h i n the f i r s t part of t h i s chapter.' There are good p r a c t i c a l reasons f o r the a r b i t r a r y l i m i -  tation to the use of the a r t i c u l a t o r y type df study which l i n guists have been u s i n g .  0  I t i s the oldest and the best esta-  blished means of describing a language with a f u l l terminology based on f a m i l i a r and observable physiological phenomena.  For  beginners i n l i n g u i s t i c s and f o r non-specialists, most of the terms are not d i f f i c u l t to comprehend. Even without the use of elaborate equipment, the invest i g a t i o n can be c a r r i e d on through the physiological approach^ The organs of speech responsible f o r production and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of speech sounds can be r e a d i l y and p r o f i t a b l y studied? They are f a i r l y accessible to visual observation either d i r e c t l y or through the use of simple devices l i k e a mirror or f l a s h l i g h t . Besides, many people, especially language teachers, are already acquainted with the vocal apparatus and i t s behavior, on which the  descriptions of sounds are based. Although, i n the main, description and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  speech sounds of Tausug are based on a r t i c u l a t i o n , auditory consideration cannot be t o t a l l y ignored.  The presence or absence of  S e e WV Nelson Francis, The Structure of American English (New York: The Ronald Press Co., 1958), pp.' 57-58. R. H. Robins, General L i n g u i s t i c s : An Introductory Survey (London: Longmans, x u  1965), pp.  1  84-85.  Gleason, op.' c i t . ,  p.' 20.'  11  audible f r i c t i o n , f o r instance, i s an auditory c r i t e r i o n basic i n consonant-vowel d i s t i n c t i o n ? I t supplements i n a valuable way articulatory differentiations. In the analysis of the suprasegmental features, the c r i t e r i a used are fundamentally based on auditory judgment. Preliminary to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the speech sounds of Tausug into functional or relevant u n i t s , that i s , phonemes, an analysis of the phonetic raw materials i s undertaken.  The  phonemes of the language are established on the basis of c e r t a i n fundamental c r i t e r i a such as the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l relationship e x i s t i n g between sounds, phonetic pattern congruity  s i m i l a r i t y , i d e n t i t y of function,  (neatness of pattern), and economy of analysis."*"  For convenience of analysis of the phonological  structure  of Tausug, the investigator believes that the most l o g i c a l  order  i s to discuss f i r s t the preliminary considerations to speech anal y s i s before the discussion of the sounds of the language follows. Next, to establish the s y l l a b l e patterns of the language, which i s thought to be useful as the basis, f o r a better description and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the segmental phonemes of the language which fallows immediately.  Discussions of the segmental phonemes  include the interpretation of the semivowels, description and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of vowels, consonants, diphthongs, triphthongs,  "^Refer to section 2.3 f o r discussion of c r i t e r i a used i n phonemic a n a l y s i s . Also see H a l l , pp. c i t ? , p. 26; Charles F. Hockett, A Course i n Modern L i n g u i s t i c s (New York: The MacMilian Co., 1958) pp. 110-111; W. Haas "Relevance i n Phonetic Analysis",  Word  XV (1959)'. PP. 1-18.  12  and consonant c l u s t e r s .  To complete t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f  t h e l a n g u a g e , t h e suprasegmental f e a t u r e s and t h e morphophonemics of t h e language a r e i n c l u d e d .  The f i n a l c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a "brief  summary and some c o n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t s on t h e a n a l y s i s . 1.5  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  Some terms "which a r e c o n s i d e r e d b a s i c t o a b e t t e r unders t a n d i n g o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e ought t o be d e f i n e d h e r e !  2  The TAUSUG LANGUAGE r e f e r s t o t h e means o f communication u s e d by a group o f p e o p l e ( t h e Tausug) i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f S u l u ; Tausug i s c o n s i d e r e d a language i n i t s own r i g h t , n o t a d i a l e c t of any o t h e r P h i l i p p i n e l a n g u a g e , s i n c e i t I s n o t m u t u a l l y i n t e l l i g i b l e w i t h any o f t h e o t h e r language groups o f t h e c o u n t r y . By DIALECT i s meant " t h e v a r i e t y o f language spoken by t h e members of a s i n g l e homogeneous speech community.'"^ A c c o r d i n g t o H o c k e t t , a d i a l e c t i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f more or l e s s s i m i l a r i d i o l e c t s .  IDIOLECT r e f e r s t o t h e t o t a l i t y o f  the speech h a b i t s o f a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l a t a g i v e n p o i n t o f time!'^  •^Whenever n e c e s s a r y , i n t h e t e x t , some o t h e r terms which need c l a r i f i c a t i o n a r e e x p l a i n e d i n t h e footnotes*? • -3prancis, 1  op. c i t . , p;' 43 „  N  H o c k e t t , op. c i t . , p.' 3 2 1 .  13 Communication within a language group i s c a r r i e d on bymeans of utterances.  An UTTERANCE i s defined i n t h i s thesis as  any stretch of speech produced by a person before and a f t e r which there i s s i l e n c e d complicated  I t may be a one-syllable word or a long,  sentence?  Utterances are made up of sequences of speech sounds the study of which i s known l i n g u i s t i c a l l y as PHONOLOGY.  This i n -  cludes both phonetic and phonemic, segmental and suprasegmental considerations and the corresponding categories involved.  1  By  PHONETIC i s meant a general description of events of speech structures.'  These include a l l features of sounds whether r e l e -  vant or non-relevant, d i s t i n c t i v e or n o n - d i s t i n c t i v e . PHONEMIC, on the other hand i s r e s t r i c t e d as a term to r e f e r to those speech sounds that are relevant and d i s t i n c t i v e and that serve to bring out contrasts between word forms.  Such  speech sounds have d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g features or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are c a l l e d DISTINCTIVE FEATURES. In the text, d i s t i n c t i v e feature does not always mean a choice between two polar q u a l i t i e s as described by Jakobson, Fant, and Halle i n t h e i r Preliminaries  16 to Speech Analysis.  1  In the sense used here, any feature of speech  which characterizes or distinguishes a phoneme from other phonemes i s a d i s t i n c t i v e feature of that phoneme.'  1  ^ Z e l l i g s. Harris, Structural L i n g u i s t i c s (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1963), p. 14. See also Mario Pel, Glossary of L i n g u i s t i c s Terminology (New York: Doubleday and Company, 1966), p. 128. 1  F o r discussion of the binary analysis of the d i s t i n c t i v e features of phonemes, r e f e r to Jakobson, Fant, and Halle, P r e l i m i naries to Speech Analysis (Massachussetts: MIT Press, 1965)? X D  2.  BASIC CONSIDERATIONS TO SPEECH ANALYSIS  Before attempting  a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of the phonology  of Tausug, c e r t a i n m a t t e r s w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d  important to  b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e s t r u c t u r e of speech and ses of s p e a k i n g have t o be d i s c u s s e d h e r e .  the proceso-  These i n c l u d e s  (1)  t h e use of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h o n e t i c A l p h a b e t ( I P A ) ^ , (2) 1  organs of speech, and 2.1  The Use  the  (3) the c r i t e r i a used i n phonemic a n a l y s i s .  of the  IPA  I n d i s c u s s i n g the p h o n o l o g i c a l phenomena of any  given  language, i t i s n e c e s s a r y as w e l l as c o n v e n i e n t , t o have c o n s i s t e n t symbols of n o t a t i o n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the sounds t o be and  observed  c l a s s i f i e d , a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t g i v e s a one-to-one c o r r e s 18  pondence w i t h the sounds t o be r e p r e s e n t e d . devised •the  1  t o meet s u c h a need.  The  IPA has  been  A l t h o u g h i t cannot be c l a i m e d  o n l y p o s s i b l e and p e r m i s s i b l e means of r e c o r d i n g  sounds, t h e IPA i s t h e b e s t e s t a b l i s h e d and most w i d e l y hence i t s p r e f e r e n t i a l use i n t h i s t h e s i s .  "To  as  speech used,  use d i f f e r e n t  symbols f o r each new  language", t o quote Swadesh, would make 19 l i n g u i s t i c science extremely d i f f i c u l t . '  17  . I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h o n e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , The P r i n c i p l e s of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h o n e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n (London: Department of P h o n e t i c s , U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , 1965), P.10» A s e t of g r a p h i c symbols g i v i n g a c o n s i s t e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of speech i s known as p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n . F o r t h e purpose of a c c u r a c y i n r e c o r d i n g p h o n o l o g i c a l phenomena, p e n o l o g i s t s have d e v e l o p e d what i s c a l l e d narrow t r a n s c r i p t i o n which i n d i c a t e p r e c i s e l y every p h o n e t i c d e t a i l s , and broad t r a n s c r i p t i o n w h i c h i n d i c a t e o n l y the r e l e v a n t o r f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s of sound. x o  M o r r i s Swadesh "The X (1934), p. 26. 1 9  Phonemic P r i n c i p l e " , Language  15  Only t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e IPA which i s p e r t i n e n t t o t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f Tausug w i l l be used i n t h i s  text,  a l o n g w i t h some o f t h e m o d i f y i n g symbols w h i c h may be u s e f u l f o r showing s e v e r a l k i n d s o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n a r t i c u l a t i o n o f sounds as i n some o f t h e d i a l e c t s o f t h e language.  Other s p e c i a l  symbols and sounds n o t found i n t h e IPA manual, but w h i c h a r e c u r r e n t l y used and a r e c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l i n r e p r e s e n t i n g some speech phenomena o f Tausug a r e i n c l u d e d .  A few more symbols,  whenever n e c e s s a r y , a r e e x p l a i n e d as t h e y a r e used i n t h e t e x t . T a b l e o f Symbols and S i g n s V o c o i d s and C o n t o i d s Symbol  Tausug Example  Approximate  Equipment  in English [i]  pila  C'p* i l a h ]  'how much  [I]  kalis  ['k'alls]  'kris'  [1]  pisu  [ «p*isU?]  'sprain'  [a]  taas  ['t'a?as]  'height  Ca]  kaun  C 'k»a?Un]  'will get'  M  baha  ['bBhs?]  'maybe'  M  pula  D'P'Ulah]  'red'  Cu]  bud  [bu:d]  'mountain' '  Cu]  subul  ['sugUl]  'young man' o r ' b a c h e l o o r '  bukun  [ 'bwkw.?]  'not'  bukug  C'bUkAg]  * bone'  CA]  1  1  or'no' (negations)'  16  Symbol  Tausug Example  A p p r o x i m a t e Equipment in English  M  manghud ['nnsnhYdl  'younger b r o t h e r ' o r 'sister'  CP]  pasu  C'p'asUh]  'flower p o t '  CD]  basu  C'basUh]  'drinking glass'  [p]  abaga  C?a'3ay h]  'shoulder'  [t]  tau  C »t»a?Uh]  •people'  Cd]  daan  C 'da?on]  'old'  M  kaan  C'k'a?an]  'get  Cs]  gaan  C ga?cai]  'weight'  a  f  (of things) f r o m ' o r 'get f o r '  agarun [ ? a y a r l b l  'will  C?]  abal  C'?agal]  'current'  Ch]  habal  C'hapal]  'news'  Cn]  ahad  C ?ahad]  'Sunday'  Cs]  sabal  C'sagal]  'stoic'  Cm]  maug  [»ma?Ug]  •possessive'  Cn]  nanug  Cna'na?Ug]  'went down'  c>>]  . ngan  C*}a:n]  •name'  I  !  follow'  Ci]  lad ju  C 'ladjUh]  'farness'  Cr]  rad j u  C'radjUh]  'radio  karna  C'k»aana?]  'that i s why*  Cd]  Jaga  C Jayah]  'guard'  Cy]  yari  C'yarlh]  'here' o r ' i t i s h e r e '  Cw]  walu  C'walUh]  'eight'  1  17  Supras egmental;:, and Some M o d i f y i n g S y m b o l s Description  Symbol [']  Tausug Example  S u p e r i o r v e r t i c a l t i c k used t o s y m b o l i z e prominence  2 0  on  anarun [ ? a ' n a : r U n ] •will  learn  1  f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e on t h e phonetic l e v e l  [']  A c u t e a c c e n t used t o i n d i c a t e  anarun / ? a n a r u n /  p r i m a r y s t r e s s on t h e phonemic l e v e l 1  Low p i t c h l e v e l  2 3 1 M a l i n g k a t i n bad .lu  2  Normal p i t c h l e v e l  •The d r e s s i s p r e t t y .  E] [ ]  High p i t c h l e v e l Extra high p i t c h l e v e l Falling  intonation  I g Kawl 'Get o u t ! ' 2 31 Y a r i h i Inda 1 'Inda i s h e r e . '  Rising  intonation  Sustained  intonation  Y a r i h i I n3a t 'Inda i s h e r e ? ' 23 _v Y a r i h i Inda 'Inda i s here,' (but  20  )  James C a r r e l l and W i l l i a m _ T i f f a n y P h o n e t i c s ; Theory and A p p l i c a t i o n t o Speech Improvement (London: "McGraw H i l l Company,- I n c . , I9S0), p. X I I . !  1  18  Symbol [I]  Description S i n g l e bar juncture f o r short pauses w i t h i n an u t t e r a n c e  [||]  Tausug Example  Double b a r j u n c t u r e f o r l o n g e r f pauses a t t h e end o f an utterance  Nami a k u i s t a j b u g a s 1 i b a n s a y u l || 'I bought f i s h , and v e g e t a b l e .  S l i g h t l y c^as-pirated a r t i c u l a t i o n  rice, 1  t a b u [ 't'aeU?] 'market'  CO  Full  length  CO  Half length  ud [ ? u : d ] 'worn' subul  [su.gUl]  'young man' o r 'bachelor' C O  Centralization  pisu ['plsU?l 'sprain'  C]  Labialization  kugan [»k uyan]  w  w  ' w i l l be happy'  co  c]  Nasalization  'mango B r a c k e t s used t o e n c l o s e phonetic  / /  mampallam [mam'pallam]  transcription  S l a s h e s used t o e n c l o s e phonemic  transcription  taikud  1  C't'aykUd]  •back' taikud /'taikud/ 'back'  To f a c i l i t a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e v o c o i d s o f Tausug, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have a frame o f r e f e r e n c e s u c h as t h e c a r d i n a l 21 vowel c h a r t t o be used as a k i n d o f s t a n d a r d measure. 21 IPA,  o p . c i t . y pp. 4—9.  19  Figure  Front  2:  The  C a r d i n a l Vowel  Chart  Central  Back  20  The  v o w e l s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e a b o v e c h a r t do  one  l a n g u a g e , b u t h a v e b e e n c h o s e n by D a n i e l  certain well-defined closest by  possible  the vowel  most  tongue  front  ciation  above c h a r t  of the back  acoustic  The  [ i ] and  series  separation.  intermediate  between  to represent  cardinal [ i ] i s the  The  cardinal  [ a ] i s the  found i n Southern E n g l i s h [ e ] , [fi],  belong to the front  i n t e r m e d i a t e between vowels  see [ s i : ] .  vowels  of f a r [ f a r : ] .  The  Jones  v o w e l r e p r e s e n t e d r o u g h l y i n E n g l i s h " '..  i n t h e word  open of t h e back  positions.  n o t b e l o n g t o any-  and  series,  [ a ] as  spaced  [ a ] , while [a],  continuing  A neutral the regions  shown i n t h e  out  equally,  [ o ] and  t h e same s c a l e  vowel  called  of c a r d i n a l  pronun-  schwa,  and  [u] are of  equal  [s],  [ e - c ] and  is  [o-o]  97 (See F i g u r e  2).  Articulation nied  by  either  Cardinals  [ i ,  while [a,  o,u]  rounding.  The  a  of each of the c a r d i n a l  'spread','neutral',  e, e , a ,  a] have  are articulated [ a ] has  or  vowels  'rounded'  l i p position.  'spread' o r ' n e u t r a l ' with  different  normally a neutral  i s accompa-  l i p positions,  degrees  of l i p  l i p position.  The sound w h i c h i s p r o d u c e d w i t h t h e mouth l e s s open and t h e tongue r a i s e d toward t h e p a l a t e i s r e f e r r e d t o as a :Qlose o r h i g h v o w e l . Thus [ i ] and [ u ] a r e c l o s e v o w e l s . They a r e t h e c l o s e s t v o w e l s t h a t c a n b e produced...on-,the h i g h e r l e v e l , so t h a t t h e y a r e s a i d t o have reached t h e vowel l i m i t . Opposite t o t h e c l o s e v o w e l s a r e t h e s o - c a l l e d o p e n o r l o w w h i c h a r e made w i t h t h e mouth w i d e l y open and t h e tongue l y i n g low i n t h e mouth. The [ a ] a n d t h e [ a ] v o w e l s f a l l u n d e r t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Intermediate,.between a c l o s e and an open vowel a r e vowels w h i c h are c a l l e d h a l f - c l o s e , i n the case of those nearest to the close vowels ( i . e . , [ J - [°]) - half-open, i n the case of those midway between h a l f - c l o s e and open v o w e l s ( i . e . , [ s ] and [a]j. e  a n d  a n d  21  2.2 The  The Organs o f Speech speech mechanisms which a r e u n i v e r s a l t o a l l human 23  beings p l a y a very important  r o l e i n t h e process of speaking.  I n s t u d y i n g t h e speech sounds o f any g i v e n l l a n g u a g e  ^  from t h e  a r t i c u l a t o r y p o i n t o f v i e w , a d e t a i l e d enumeration and c l a s s i fication  o f t h e organs o f speech and t h e way t h e y a r e used  will  prove u s e f u l as a frame o f r e f e r e n c e . I n g e n e r a l , f o r most languages l i k e Tausug, f o r i n s t a n c e , speech sounds a r e u s u a l l y made w i t h o u t g o i n g  b r e a t h from t h e  lungs w h i c h i s m o d i f i e d i n one way o r a n o t h e r by t h e organs o f speech t h a t i t passes t h r o u g h .  Discussions  o f t h e speech mecha-  nisms w i l l be made i n t h e o r d e r i n which t h e b r e a t h - s t r e a m passes them a f t e r h a v i n g been r e l e a s e d from t h e lungs  through  t h e b r o n c h i a l tubes and t h e t r a c h e a . The through  f i r s t resonance chamber t h a t t h e b r e a t h - s t r e a m goes  i s a b o x - l i k e s t r u c t u r e o f c a r t i l a g e a t t h e upper end  of t h e t r a c h e a c a l l e d t h e l a r y n x , o r more commonly, t h e ''Adam's  ?  apple . 1  I t c o n t a i n s two membranes known as t h e v o c a l bands  w h i c h c a n be r e l a x e d and k e p t a p a r t , l e a v i n g a narrow passage so t h a t t h e a i r p a s s i n g t h r o u g h produces a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n the [ h ] a t the beginning •blanket'.  o f E n g l i s h hand and t h e Tausug [ 'ha(3Ul]  The v o c a l bands c a n a l s o be drawn t i g h t l y  or o n l y p a r t i a l l y  like  opened. When c o m p l e t e l y  together  c l o s e d , so t h a t a i r i s  It s h o u l d be made c l e a r t h a t t h e organs o f speech r e f e r r e d t o a r e o n l y f u n c t i o n i n g s e c o n d a r i l y as s u c h . The p r i mary f u n c t i o n s o f t h e s e organs a r e e a t i n g and b r e a t h i n g . J  Figure  Oral cavity palate  (turn Hd6e) Teeih  tips  3: A cross  section of  the head showing the organs of speech  Nasal cav/ty "Fondue 2. Blade J. Franf y.BScfc Root  Ve/um(Sofi pa la U v u la  Pharynx EpigloHf's  Vocal bands  Esophagus  Larynx  Trachea  23 n o t a l l o w e d t o pass and t h e n opened s u d d e n l y , t h e r e s u l t a n t sound i s a g l o t t a l s t o p [ ? ] w h i c h o c c u r s as t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l sounds o f Tausug word a s i b i [ ? a ' s i p l ? ] ' s m a l l i n t h e E n g l i s h emphatic e x c l a m a t i o n ouchl [?aUt£].  1  and a l s o When t h e  v o c a l bands a r e p a r t i a l l y opened, t h e c u r r e n t o f a i r f o r c e s i t s e l f t h r o u g h , c a u s i n g them t o v i b r a t e .  The sound waves  caused by t h e v i b r a t i o n o f t h e v o c a l bands i s known as v o i c e , and sounds formed w i t h t h e accompaniment  of the laryngeal  v i b r a t i o n a r e r e f e r r e d t o as v o i c e d sounds.  Those sounds made Oh,  w i t h o u t accompaniment  o f v o i c e a r e c a l l e d v o i c e l e s s sounds. ^  A c c o r d i n g t o H a l l and H o c k e t t , t h e v o c a l bonds d e t e r mine t h e p i t c h , and t h e f o r c e w i t h w h i c h t h e c u r r e n t o f a i r i s e x p e l l e d from t h e l u n g s d e t e r m i n e s t h e volume o f sound.  J  From t h e l a r y n g e a l resonance chamber, t h e c u r r e n t o f a i r goes t h r o u g h t h e pharynx where i t may be m o d i f i e d by means of c o n s t r i c t i o n made by t h e back o f t h e tongue brought c l o s e o r i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e back w a l l o f t h e t h r o a t , r e s u l t i n g i n what i s c a l l e d t h e p h a r y n g e a l o r p h a r y n g e a l i z e d sound.  This  t y p e o f sound, however, does n o t o c c u r i n Tausug. J u s t above t h e pharynx i s t h e velum from w h i c h hangs t h e f l e s h y t i p c a l l e d t h e uvula.'  The back most p a r t o f t h e  26  velum i s known as t h e v e l i c ,  w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s whether a sound  i s pronounced w i t h n a s a l resonance o r n o t .  When t h e v e l i c i s  opened, t h e b r e a t h - s t r e a m i s a l l o w e d t o escape t h r o u g h t h e nose, ph. A l l vowels and c e r t a i n consonants a r e always v o i c e d . C e r t a i n consonants a r e always v o i c e l e s s . 2  5 H a l l / op. c i t . , p.' 42. H o c k e t t , op. c i t . , p. 66.  2 6  H a l l l o c . c i t . , p. 42.  24  r e s u l t i n g i n a nasal a r t i c u l a t i o n .  When i t i s closed, the  current of a i r i s channeled through the oral cavity exclusively. Most of the points a t which the breath-stream can be modified are found i n the mouth or oral cavity;  The tongue,  an extremely f l e x i b l e and movable organ, plays the major r o l e . As i l l u s t r a t e d by the diagram of the organs of speech on page 22, the tongue has f i v e parts to i t , which phoneticians distinguish as important i n speech production. Any of these parts can be r a i s e d or lowered, fronted or retracted.' Any a r t i c u l a t i o n i n which the tongue i s raised toward the roof of the mouth i s c a l l e d close or high and one i n which the tongue i s lowered i s c a l l e d open or low.  In l i k e manner, the terms front and back correspond  respectively to the forward and backward movements of the tongue. When the surface of the tongue i s suppressed so that a trough i s formed through which the a i r passes, creating a hissing noise, the resultant sounds are known as s i b i l a n t s .  On the other hand, where  the tongue surface i s pressed against the roof of the mouth and a i r i s allowed to pass on one or both sides of the tongue, the a r t i c u l a t i o n made i s c a l l e d a l a t e r a l . There are other areas of a r t i c u l a t i o n i n the oral cavity such as the series of regions i n the roof of the mouth.  Prom  back to front are the velum or soft palate, the hard palate, the gum-ridge or alveolum, and the back surface of the upper front teeth.  Customarily, sounds made i n each of these regions  25  a r e d e s c r i b e d as v e l a r , p a l a t a l , a l v e o l a r , and d e n t a l .  On  o c c a s i o n , a sound may i n v o l v e more t h a n one r e g i o n , so t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a d j e c t i v e s i s used t o d e s c r i b e s u c h a r t i c u lations.  A sound, f o r i n s t a n c e , made i n t e r m e d i a t e 1  between  t h e a l v e o l u m and t h e hard p a l a t e i s r e f e r r e d t o as an a l v e o p a l a t a l sound.  A sound w h i c h i s made w i t h t h e t i p o f t h e  tongue pushed out i n between t h e upper and l o w e r t e e t h i s formed as a n i n t e r d e n t a l sound. The  a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a sound may i n v o l v e t h e use o f t h e  l i p s , ' so t h a t a sound produced w i t h b o t h l i p s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i s called a bilabial.  A n e u t r a l o r a spread l i p p o s i t i o n , o r a  p r o j e c t i o n and r o u n d i n g o f t h e l i p s may accompany t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a sound. I t s h o u l d be mentioned, however, t h a t except f o r t h e v o c a l bands,' i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make ' s h a r p l y d e f i n e d f o r a l l the regions  limits  o f t h e organs o f speech j u s t d i s c u s s e d .  T h e i r areas i n the anatomical t r a c t a r e only approximately identified.  I n s u c h a c a s e , " i t i s n o t " , says H a l l ,  "possible  t o i d e n t i f y t h e p l a c e of a r t i c u l a t i o n o f any g i v e n sound w i t h mathematical p r e c i s i o n " . 2.3  C r i t e r i a Used i n Phonemic A n a l y s i s  I n a n a l y z i n g the phonological s t r u c t u r e of a given language, t h e f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e p h o n e t i c raw m a t e r i a l as produced by t h e speech o r g a n s , t h e sounds which  26  make t h e a c t u a l e v e n t s logical  analysis,  materials,  of speech.  however," i s t o go b e y o n d t h e l e v e l  to find  adequate and c l e a r l y  which t h e p h y s i c a l events classified? of  o r phones  as the f o l l o w i n g  (speech  o f t h e raw  the functional  observed  into  sounds) c a n be  phonemes. I n s o d o i n g ,  are normally  phono-  defined categories  I n other words, t o i d e n t i f y  sounds which a r e c a l l e d  such  The u l t i m a t e a i m o f a  units  certain  criteria  i n t h e process  of  classification. I. the  Criterion  1  sum o f c o n t e x t s  position  of distribution.  under w h i c h speech sounds  i n which t h e speech  t h e same p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t  differently, Thus, and  they  are said  occur,  elements a r e found  each other and t o other phones. in  Distribution applies to  with respect to  I f two elements  of speech  stands  t o each other but f u n c t i o n  t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h  each  other.  i n T a u s u g , [p*'] a n d [ £ ] i n p a s u ['p»asUh] ' f l o w e r : ; p o t •  basu ['basUh]  ment i n t h a t b o t h classified  ' d r i n k i n g g l a s s ' h a v e t h e same p h o n e t i c occur  word  initial.  However, they  t o t h e same phoneme s i n c e t h e y as w e l l as s e m a n t i c a l l y .  [b] are said  t o be i n c o n t r a s t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n .  But environment  I n such  when two o r more phones o c c u r (as i n t h e case  'trembling'),  a case,  i n t h e same  of [ i ] and [ i ] i n p i d p i d  a n d do n o t c o n t r a s t w i t h  each o t h e r ,  t o be i n n o n - c o n t r a s t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n .  environ-  cannot  contrast with  phonetically  said  i . e . , the  each  be other  [ p ' ] and  phonetic ['p'idpld]  they a r e  I n cases  where one  2?-  phone o c c u r s they  and t h e o t h e r does n o t , and v i c e  complement each o t h e r ,  plementary d i s t r i b u t i o n . for  t o appear  pidpid  £ p'idpld].  freely  syllable  and t h e [ i ]  as i n t h e above  i n both stressed  such a case, [ i ] and [ i ] a r e said  free  speech,  example,  these  and unstressed  two syllable.  t o be i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n  or  alternation. 2.  similar  Criterion  of Phonetic S i m i l a r i t y .  enough f o r purposes  To be c o n s i d e r e d  o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s members  same phoneme, a g r o u p o f p h o n e s m u s t s h a r e t h e same  feature in  that  t o b e i n com-  syllables  H o w e v e r , i n some T a u s u g  1  so  The n o r m a l phenomenon i n Tausug i s  i n unstressed  phones a l t e r n a t e In  t h e phones a r e s a i d  t h e [ i ] phone t o o c c u r i n s t r e s s e d  vocoid  versa,  o r features which a r e not shared  the language.  front  [•t'ahUd]  phone-types  and t h e r e l a t i v e l y moderate l i p  sounds.  Similarly,  'spur on r o o s t e r s '  legs'  fruit',' although d i s t r i b u t i o n a l l y  [ t * ] and [ t ]  spreading.  'a k i n d  to different  r o n m e n t s , a r e g r o u p e d u n d e r t h e same phoneme b e c a u s e o f intrinsic  similarity i n point  of articulation  high-  i n tahud  and duhat['duhat] they belong  of the  phonetic  T h e T a u s u g [ i ] a n d [ i ] s h a r e t h e same  tongue p o s i t i o n  Both a r e voiced  by other  as  as well  as  of f  envi-  their voiceless-  ness.' 3. the  criteria  p h o n e s may To  Criterion  of Identity  of distribution  o f Function.' As a c o r a l l a r y  and phonetic  be c l a s s i f i e d on t h e b a s i s  illustrate  this,  ;  reference  to  s i m i l a r i t y , a group of  of their  t o the preceding  identity examples.  of function. The  [t*]  28  and in  [ t ] sounds  i n ['t'cchUd] a n d [ ' d u h a t ] a l t h o u g h  functioning  two d i f f e r e n t environments do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y suggest  they  belong  other  t o d i f f e r e n t phonemes s i n c e  t h e u s e o f one f o r t h e  does n o t change t h e meaning o f t h e words, a l t h o u g h t h e  p h e n o m e n o n m a y n o t b e common i n t h e l a n g u a g e . dental the  ing  sound l i k e  [ l ] i sused  r e s u l t a n t word  This  criterion  phonetic  pugpug ['p'ugpUg]  bilabials  and have i d e n t i c a l  'softened  although  i n t o o n e phoneme  another  (something).'  t o prevent  group-  of d i s t r i b u t i o n and  T h u s , T a u s u g [ m , p , b ] i n mugmug  'porridge'  with  ' t ohand over'  of f u n c t i o n serves  ['bugbUg]  grouped  B u t when  of the [ t ] i n [*duhat],  speech sounds on t h e b a s i s  similarity.  •to g u r g l e '  i nplace  i s duhal ['duhal]  of identity  of disparate  trast  that  by p r e s s u r e ' ,  ['mugmUg] a n d bugbug  they a r e p h o n e t i c a l l y s i m i l a r as distribution,  since  c a n n o t , however, be  they d i f f e r  one a n o t h e r as manifested  i n f u n c t i o n and con-  by t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  i n mean-  ing. 4. to Sapir and  Criterion  there  o f P a t t e r n Congruity.  i s no language t h a t  t h a t we s h o u l d  be s u s p i c i o u s  1  Although  forms a w a t e r - t i g h t  according system,  i ftoopretty a picture results  25 from t h e phonemic a n a l y s i s o f p h o n e t i c a l l y a s y m e t r i c a l s i t u a t i o n s , nevertheless, and  i n every phonemic system  t h e tendency  instance,  there  toward  ^Hall,  'symmetry' i s sought.'  avoided  I n Tausug, f o r  i s t h e problem of whether t o i n t e r p r e t t h e i n i t i a l  sounds o f juwalan 2  'skewness' i s o f t e n  'fried  b a n a n a ' a s a s i n g l e phoneme, / j / ,  o p . c i t . , p . 9?.  or a  29  cluster of  o f two  neatness  consonants, / d j / . U s i n g , however, the  of p a t t e r n ,  phoneme, s i n c e  interpreting  phoneme d i f f e r e n t appear  only  pattern  from  singly  Another of  t h e sound  i t otherwise would  other consonants  i n word  initial  'bible  and  battik  ,' . .  1  ['battlk]  phonemes / p / and  /k/ r e s p e c t i v e l y  [t]  duhat  i n tahud and  never  the working  'armless' o r ' f i n g e r l e s s *  1  render  single the  i n  which  clusters.  of t h i s  i s t h e g r o u p i n g t o g e t h e r of [ p ' ] and  scruj> t h e mossy s u b s t a n c e f r o m ['k'ltab]  as a  i n the language  position,  example t o i l l u s t r a t e  congruity  pukul ['p'ukUl]  i s interpreted  criterion  and  and  [ k ' ] and  i n congruity with into  [p] i n  l u k u p £'lukUp] ' t o [k] i n  "Indonesian f a b r i c '  which are grouped  criterion  kitab into  the [ t ' ] and  t h e phoneme / t / .  30  by  the  3.  THE  The  whole range of Tausug phonetic  organs  main types: to  S P E E C H SOUNDS OF  of  s p e e c h may  those  form resonance  passes without current  of  be  TAUSUG  conveniently  i n which the  organs  chamber t h r o u g h  any  audible  in  a  complete block  of  speech sounds are  i n one  or audible  of  and way  speech are  two  used  breath-stream  those  i n which  or another  friction.  r e f e r r e d t o as  m a t e r i a l made  divided into  which the  friction,  a i r i s obstructed  raw  resulting  T h e s e two  vocoids  and  the  classes  contoids  respectively. 3.1 A  Vocoid vocoid  resonance. the in  The  production the  ing  oral  i s a type  of  the  organs  of  p a g e 19, roughly p.9),  represent vocoids  Starting heard 'hill'  use  with  variety which  i s the  of the  use  some o f  closely  and  schematic and  of  the  described  (high or the  tongue accord-  low),  the  l i p position  the  the  high  medial  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  c a r d i n a l sounds be  (IPA  conveniently  front vocoid,  the  the  tongue  on  that manual,  discussed. most  sound of Tausug word b i d  approximates  the  c a r d i n a l vowel chart  some E n g l i s h k e y w o r d s  o f T a u s u g may  i s the  are  of  for  rounded).  the  with  position  vocoids  to back),  primarily  factor responsible  tongue height  s p e e c h o n ; p a g e 22 and  the  the  (front  n e u t r a l , or  With the  vocoids  single  Normally,  factors:  tongue advancement (spread,  sound which i n v o l v e s  most i m p o r t a n t  cavity.  to three  of  position  commonly [bi:d]  31  of t h e c a r d i n a l [ i ] i n E n g l i s h keyword bead [ b i r d ] • to  Compared  E n g l i s h , however, t h e f r o n t o f t h e tongue s u r f a c e i s n o t  r a i s e d so h i g h i n t h e mouth.  The t o n g u e i s r e l a t i v e l y l e s s  t e n s e f o r Tausug a n d t h e l i p s a r e n o t so s p r e a d English.  I n terms o f q u a l i t y o f sound, Tausug  as they a r e i n [ i ~]  i n the  example c i t e d above I s r e l a t i v e l y  s h o r t e r i n d u r a t i o n than  of E n g l i s h .  o f t h e v o c o i d i n Tausug does  However, l e n g t h e n i n g  that  n o t h a v e a n y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e w o r d , s o t h a t [ b i : d ] o r Ibid]  are equally acceptable.  i s non-phonemic  Vowel l e n g t h , i n o t h e r w o r d s ,  i n the language.  Normally,  the vocoid [ i ] occurs  which i s u s u a l l y the 'penultimate* ble  i n a word.  i n stressed  syllables,  ( o r second t o t h e l a s t )  As i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e examples f o l l o w i n g , [ i ]  p a t t e r n s f r e e l y w i t h almost a l l c o n t o i d s o f Tausug, except it  sylla  that  does n o t o c c u r a f t e r [ y ] • Plla  [ »p»ilah]  'how much'  tinga  [  'extra  kila  £ 'k'ilah ]  'to  bllas  [ »bilas  ]  'sore  dila  [ 'dila?  ]  'tongue *  gila  [ 'gllah  ]  'careless*  11a  [ '?ilah  ]  ' b i r t h mark',  hilla  [> «hilla? ]  'to  miskin  [ 'miskin ]  'poor'  *finah]  appendage'  recognize' eyes'  pull'  32  niyat  ['niyat]  •desire'  ngilu  [«nilU£]  'gum'  sila  ['silah]  'they'  jilun  ['jilUn]  'to p u t i n j a i l '  l i l l a  ['lilla?]  'to g i v e  riha  [«rihah]  'to p u t i t here'  bawi-a  [ba'wi-?ah]  'retrieve i t '  The  distinctive  ( i n t h e mouth) ( s u b j e c t i v e case)  i s long  However,  i n cases where t h e s t r e s s s h i f t s  a  of suffixation,  or-short,  i s retained i n stressed  like  becoming k i l a h u n [ k ' I ' l a h U n ] leads  This  than [ i ] . The  wise,  ['k'ilah]  'will  recognize'  i s relatively  the w e a k e r  to the contoids  stress  normal s u b s t i t u t i o n , the [ i ]  shorter  i n duration  centered  are less than  spread.  [i].Position-  between c a r d i n a l s [ i ] and [ e ] .  sample o f t h e environmental  as  recognize'  v a r i e t y i s much l o w e r a n d somewhat more  [ i ] i s intermediate  relation  ' to  The tongue i s more l a x and t h e l i p s  [ i ] sound  syllables.  t o another s y l l a b l e  kila  to a perfectly acceptable  vocoid.  up' o r 'to surrender  q u a l i t y o f t h e [ i ] sound, whether t h e  duration  result  or 'ambition', e t c .  conditions  i n which [ l ] occurs  o f Tausug i s l i s t e d  below:  tapil  ['t'apll]  'to put s i d e by s i d e '  bati  [«batl?]  'awake'  pikil  ['p'ikll]  •to  sabit  ['saplt]  'to hook'  landi  ['landi?]  'coqufttte'  tagi  ['t«aylh]  'fondness  think' (something  on .  for . . . . '  A i n  33  ba-id  ['ba?Id]  'to  ask permission'  tahi  [•t'ahl?]  'to  sew  kami  ['k'amlh]  'we'  panit  ['panit]  'tuna  mangi  ['manl?]  'bad'  kusil  ['k'usll]  •toughness  (pronoun) fish'  (of  As  kalis  [•k'alls]  'kris'  manjari  [man jarlh]  •can be' o r ' w i l l  bawis  ['bawls]  'a s p e c i e s  words l i k e  [y].  third liag  kiait  variety  [lyag]  [k»yayt]  Thus,  except  'was b e i n g  the lips  do'  fish' [ i ] patterns  with  that i tnever follows [ y ] .  looked  'was p i n n e d ' ,  environment,  i n liag,  of  of the high-front vocoid up', k a i t  higher  [k'ayt]  'safety' by  t h a n [ i ] , a n d much c l o s e r t o  of the lips  o f t h e tongue f o r[ y ]a r e i s u s u a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d by  t h e sound preceding  are loosely  i s heard i n  etc., which i s represented  The m u s c l e s  and t h e p o s i t i o n  phonetic  1  by t h e above s a m p l i n g s ,  of the cardinal [ i ] .  more t e n s e its  1  I t has a tongue p o s i t i o n  that  food)  'promise  A  1  'hardness  [«janjl?]  contoidsof t h e language  pin',  or  1  .iangi  obviously manifested  all  1  spread,  or following i t .  while  i n kiait,  both  [ y ] a r e more drawn t o t h e s i d e s o f t h e mouth t h a n  the [ y ] i n [lyag].  In  f o r[ y ] a n t i c i -  a word l i k e  pates  biusan ['byusan],  the l i p position  that of the vocoid [ u ] which  i s rounded.  3k  In  the high  "back r a n g e , ' t h e r e a r e a s m a n y v o c o i d s  there are i n the high possible high  variety,  front vocoid  words l i k e  front series.  there  i s the [w] vocoid  [ y ] i n tongue h e i g h t .  buad [bwad]  'to rock  closely  t h e tongue p o s i t i o n  of  f o r [w] the l i p s  Another vocoid bud [ b u : d ]  •white  hair',  a tongue p o s i t i o n  the  center  this  vocoid  (which  counter-part,  out  i t s distinctive  a to  vocoid occur  and t h e muscles  s e r i e s i s heard  [ 'kiuta?] *fort',  lower  affecting  i s symbolized  shorter than  high-front  quality  very  tense.  a little  l o o s e l y spread  i s relatively  losing  more  of the high-back  just  [ u ] may  uban  i n words ['?ilgan]  or'bachelor',etc., a n d moved" m o r e  as [u])has  which  toward For  a more  relaxed  l i p s , and t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e that of English. be l e n g t h e n e d  quality,  significantly  i s commonly f o u n d  i n  buaun  that of c a r d i n a l [ u ] i n English too [ t u : ] .  tongue p o s i t i o n , sound  i s heard  'inside',  a r e more pushed f o r w a r d  s u b u l [ »suj3Ul] ' y o u n g m a n '  than  sound  the  of cardinal [u] i n English too [tu:],  'mountain', k u t a  has  Tausug,  This  a baby t o sleep, e t c . , I t a p p r o x i m a t e s  t h e tongue a r e r e l a t i v e l y  like  from the highest  which p a r a l l e l s  'to d r y ' laum [lawm]  [bwawn]  although  Starting  as  Like [ i ] ,  or shortened  with-  neither the long nor the short  t h e words where i t o c c u r s .  i n a stressed syllable  w i t h atoost a l l t h e c o n t o i d s  i t s  and i s  of the language,  Such observed  except [ w ] .  35  Thus: pulak  [ ' p»ulak]  'abortion'  tulak  ['t'ulak]  'to  kulang  ['k'ulan]  'lacking'  burak  [ 'burak]  'powder'  dusa  [ *dusah]  'sin'  gula  [«gula?]  'molasses'  ulan  ['?ulan]  'rain'  hula  ['hula?]  'place'  mula  ['mulah]  •will  mm.uk  [«nunUk]  'balete  nguya  ['nuya?]  'to chew'  subul  ['supUl]  •young man' o r  juba  ['jupa?]  'robe'  lura  ['lura?]  •sputum' o r ' t o s p i t '  ha  [ha'ruhUl]  •at t h e end'  ['yupUs]  'was  ruhul  yubus A lower examples l i s t e d ['supUl], that  provided  or fault' or'nectar'  become r e d ' tree'  finished'  of [ u ] i s observable  above l i k e ,  'bachelor'  i n some o f t h e  f o r i n s t a n c e , nunuk ['nunUk],  ha r u h u l [ h a ' r u h U l ] , ' and yubus ['yupUs].  the vocoid  further  variety  push'  [ u ] occurs  i t s occurrence below.  i n unstressed  i n such phonetic  Save f o r[w],  with almost a l l contoids  syllables.  context,  subul  I t i s apparent To  a list  illustrate o f words a r e  t h e [ u ] v a r i a n t i s shown t o p a t t e r n  of the language.  36  daugdug  c 'k'ipUt] c •batith] c •p'ikUl] c 'k'abUg] c 'dawgdUg]  bagu  [  •ba^Uh]  'new'  maus  [  'ma?Us]  'in a  kiput batu pikul kabug  'tight' 'stone' •to  strangle'  'bat' 'thunder'  hurry'  tanghul  c 't'anhUl]  'to  kamu  [  'ours'  'k'omU?]  bark'  bungug  c •lanUt] c 'bunUg]  •dull'  masub  [  •masUb]  'very  bad j u  [  •badjUh]  'storm'  lanut  'abaca  c 'talUs] c 'barUn] c «p»ayun]  talus barung payung  P o s i t i o n w i s e , - t h e [_UJ v o c o i d [ u ] a n d [o],'  that  i s just  fond  'a t y p e  stands  a little  I t resembles very  intermediate lower  [u].  the  vocoid  i n E n g l i s h put [ p U t ] , except  high  the vocoids  just  closely  discussed  i n t h e mouth, b u t w i t h  i n central  position,  weapon'  between c a r d i n a l  a n d more c e n t r a l  t h a t f o r T a u s u g [u],' are less  a r e made w i t h  t h e tongue l a i d  and w i t h  than  the articulation of  o f t h e tongue a r e more l a x and t h e l i p s All  cavity,  of bladed  'unbrella'  vocoid  raised  o f . . .'  'prophetic'  the  muscles  fiber'  the lips  the  rounded.  the tongue  low i n the oral  unrounded and  37  relaxed,  a  vocoid  transcribed  ' found i n words such  so  taas  [«t'a? s]  'height'  balu  ['balUh]  'widow' o r  dahun  ['dahUn]  •leafl'  manis  [;manls]  'charm'  nanaug  [na'na?Ug]  'went d o w n '  sabun  ['sabUn]  'soap'  ['jayah]  •guard'  lara  [ larah]  'pepper'  radju  ['radjUh]  'radio'  yari  ['yarlh]  •here'  In  comparison to  a  1  of  pan  i n the  vowel chart  but  little  has  following  [pan],'  mouth.  the  (see  Tausug vocoid  Northern  English  i n ['p»a?ls], i s  l o c a t i o n i n the  between c a r d i n a l s  [a]  car-  and  [a],  4).  been i n t e r e s t i n g l y observed either a  is  'widower'  Approximately,its  Figure  sound  1  c a r d i n a l [ a ] i n the  i s intermediate  raised  It  the  This  following:  'skin  low  occurs  as the  i s produced.  [«p'a?Is]  dinal a  [a]  pais  pronunciation not  as  bilabial,' dental  that  or  the  [a]  vocoid  alveopalatal  con-  25 toids. "glottal  In  cases where the  contoid,  sound  is a  velar  or  a n o t h e r v a r i e t y w h i c h i s more back and  lower than [a]  has  resembles very  c l o s e l y the  'See  preceding  been noted  section  3.2  to  occur.  The  vocoid  in  somewhat question  cardinal[a] i n Southern English for discussion  of  the  contoids  a  pronunof  Tausug.  38  elation  of f a r[ f a r ] ,  and i s ,  same s y m b o l , [ a ] . A s a m p l i n g are  provided  where t h i s  sound  occurs  below: [«k»a?Un]  /will get'  anarun  ['?a'narUn]  'will  gad ja  [ 'gad  'elephant  ngan  [ 'nasn]  'name'  habul  [»h pui]  •blanket'  pakain  [paka?In]  'where'  maandum  [ma'?andUm]  'cloudy'  agarun  [?cfvarUn]  'will  mangadji  [ma'nadjl?]  'will  mahaba  [ma'haga?]  'long'  jawabun  [ja'wopUn]  'will  kakas  ['k'akas]  'ringworn'  paa  ['p'a? h]  •thigh'  abaga  [?a*payah]  'shoulder'  paha  ['p'ahah]  •band f o r t h e n a v e l '  lawa  ['lawa?]  *'spider  jah]  a  a  some t y p e s  sounde'than [ a ] ,  [a]  fluctuates  low  central  is  o f words  represented with the  kaun  In raised  therefore,  freely  of informal  either  a n d may  pronoun)  follow' read  the Koran'  bargain'  o r ' t o answer  back  1  directly  below the c a r d i n a l  one o f t h e two v a r i e t i e s  vowel already discussed  s y m b o l i z e d a s [e]  (Interrogative  s p e e c h , a more c e n t e r e d and  which i s just with  learn'  ( [ a ] and [ a ] ) .  be h e a r d  i n words  This  of the  vocoid  s u c h a s b a h a [ 'b-ehe?]  39  ' m a y b e ' , b a k a [ 'belre?]  Tausug  precise position  speakers,  the vocoids  dots  (.)  f o r t h e ["8]  roughly  the vocoids  s o u n d may  relatively  4:  showing  mas t a l  vary  amoung  higher  than  sounds  of the  i s drawn  on i t .  The  of the language, while  A modified  of  vowel chart  indicated  (©) a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e c a r d i n a l Figure  1  'does n o t l i k e ' , e t c .  the cardinal  of Tausug  represent  'stoic ,  better the approximate positions  d i s c u s s e d above,  with  f  w i t h t h e tongue being  To v i s u a l i z e vocoids  s a b a l [ s*e0Sl]  ayaw [ ' T ^ y e w ]  [ 'nuestel] ' t e a c h e r ' , The  'tartar',  Chart  the approximate location  t h e Tausug  vocoids.  smaller  the bigger  (Figure 4).  C a r d i n a l Vowel  below  ko  As  clearly i l l u s t r a t e d  of nine  vocoids  equally  apportioned  centered  ranges. On  in  contact  tion  i n the  that are  with  the  slight  the  vocoid  the  any  of  the  sounds.  first  degree of n a s a l i z a t i o n as  sounds p r e c e d i n g  and  be  t r a n s c r i b e d as  to  represent  The  mampallam  the  i t has  shortening  and  phonetically, in  a  ahad ble  been p o i n t e d lengthening  there  s t r e s s e d and  out  is relatively  relatively  ad  [?a:d].  unstressed  longer  shorter.  Vocoids sonorous  modifica-  'mango', f o r  the  with  two  ^symbol;  "[~'] ^  i n vocoid  nasal may  used  i s length.  discussions  i s non-phonemic  syllables.  than  [a]  the  vocoid  'fence',  Thus, ahad  u s u a l l y form the  sounds, normally  In the Tausug  i n the  first  i n the  however,  the  v o i c e d and  vocoid  word  stressed  second first  i s t r a n s c r i b e d as  syllabic  that  i n Tausug,  i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between a  Compared t o ad  is  modified  Thus mampallam  i n preceeding  of vocoids  'Sunday', f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e  syllable.  be  nasalization.  Another dimension of v a r i a t i o n Although  low-  i s pronounced  vocoid.  [mam'pallam] w i t h  STP,  and  most f r e q u e n t  consequence of  f o l l o w i n g the  total  of  o f T a u s u g may  syllable a  a  i n the Tausug  vocoids  I n words l i k e ,  i n the  there are  h i g h - f r o n t , high-back,  adjacent  i s nasalization.  example,  commonly h e a r d  into  occasion,  above diagram,  unstressed [a]  i n ahad  [/a.had]  centers, being  produced without  sylla-  the  and  most  impediment  41  in  the  oral  cavity.  same s y l l a b l e , s o less  sonorous  known as vocoids  a  that  correspond  as  full  to  glides  as  rising  vocoids occur  T h e s e two  than  s e m i v o c o l d and w i t h the f u l l  to the high-front  vocoids. due  w h e r e two  i s more sonarous  phonetic diphthong  never  made b y  one  i s classified  back v o c o i d [ w ] .  as  I n cases  Sometimes the  forms  vocoid.  The the  o n l y as  semivocoids  from  one  the  what i s semihigh-  s u c h and  are  "  referred  t o t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c movements w h i c h  or f a l l i n g  the  the other,  v o c o i d [ y ] and  sounds f u n c t i o n  in  point to another with  are swift  transition. The which listed  occur  more commonly h e a r d immediately  below w i t h  phonetic diphthongs  following  of  Tausug  or preceeding contoids  are  examples:  piara  [ ' p'yarah]  1  bia  [bya?]  •as i  giaWiSr  [«gya?Us]  'could a f f o r d  to  hiatud  ["hyatUd]  'escorted'  'returned'  niat  C'nyat]  'desire'  was  s ent• f  or  or  . .  'aspiration'  etc. p&igu  ['paygU?]  •to  taikud  ['t'aykUd]  'back'  da i n  [dayn]  * from'  saing  [sayn]  'banana•  lain  [layn]  'to  take a or  .'  bath' 'behind'  transfer  1  42  [ay]  kait  [k'ayt]  'safety p i n '  gaid  [sayd]  'as a m a t t e r  qil  [?ayl]  'moslem way o f  of course' cleansing  before prayer time•  [wa]  [aw]  [yu]  hain  [hayn]  'to  puasa  ['p»wasah]  'fasting'  luan  [lwon]  'cargo'  tuangun  [ 't'wccnUn]  'will  suat  [swat]  'to d r y '  paus  [p'aws]  'to  taumpa  ['t'awmpa?]  'shoes'  baus  [baws]  'to  daugdug  ['dawgdUg]  ' thunder'  jawm  [ jawm]  •needle•  piunug  ['p'yunUn]  •fainted'  kiugan  ['k'uyan]  'was  biula  ['byulah]  'violin'  niug  [nyug]  'coconut  jiuk  [jyuk]  'answered  put something  on  ...'  pour'  chew  sugarcane'  bargain'  happy  1  palm  tree'  back  with  sarcasm' [wi]  antuilas  [?an'twilas]  'sequins'  huis  [hwis]  'judge•  mui  [mwi?]  'to  suihan  ['swihan]  'will  go home' relate  (gossips,  something' news, e t c . )  43-  A possible heard  sometimes  examples. stressed  variation  i n stressed  of [ y u ] i s [yU] which syllables  T h e [yU.] d i p h t h o n g syllables  like  might  i n t h e above  given  i s , however, o f t e n heard  i n the following  be  i n un-  words:  piulakan  [p'yU lakan]  •deliberate  tltiu  ['t'ityU?]  'very  kiulangan  [k'yU'lanan]  'was d e c r e a s e d '  1  abortion'  little' or  'reduced' diugalan  [ d y U g cclan]  jiuwalan  [jyU'walan]  'was f r i e d '  siulayan  [syU layan]  'tried'  hiugasan  [hyU'yasan]  liura?an  [lyU ra?an]  As element  1  1  1  clearly  'was  angry'  'was  washed'  'spat  on . . .  shown i n t h e f o r e g o i n g examples,  i n a diphthong  i s always  lower than  of [ y ] which  the d i r e c t i o n mal  speech,  dual one to  opening sound  above t h e v o c o i d [ i ] ,  of the low central  vocoid [ a ] .  t h e [ « ] v o c o i d may b e h e a r d  the syllabic The  from  the posi-  t h e n moves i n  Sometimes  instead  i n infor-  of [ a ] .  o f t h e jaw i s obvitlms a s a r t i c u l a t i o n  shifts  t o t h e n e x t , s o i s "the c h a n g e i n l i p p o s i t i o n  The g r a from  from  spread  neutral. The  [ya].  i s a little  '  the glide.  d i p h t h o n g a l movement f o r [ y a ] , f o r e x a m p l e , s t a r t s tion  ( o f banana)  d i p h t h o n g a l movement o f [ a y ] i s j u s t  Articulation  proceeds  from  the position  the opposite of  of vocoid [ a ] , then  4-if  moves r a p i d l y semi v o c o i d  but smoothly  [y].  i n the direction  of the high  T h e same d i r e c t i o n a l r . m o v e m e n t i s a l s o  ble with the [ a y ] diphthong  except  that  point i s the vocoid [ a ] instead  movement  o f t h e jaw and t h e change from n e u t r a l  position are characteristics diphthong dental, found  i s observed  t o -occur f o l l o w i n g Symmetrically  articulatory  velar  opposed  movement b e g i n s  from  I n t h e case  or glottal  to neutral  Like  The  from  In  f o r that  l i p position  semivowel  from  spread  The  of [ a ] .  In gliding  can also  be  downward,  The  change  observed. arti-  vocoid [ a ] , but glides  up  opened  t o a rounded  position. to [ a ] i nthe  to [ay].  [ y u ] diphthong  made i n t h e d i r e c t i o n  [wa].  [w] Instead of the high-front [ y ] .  has a s t a r t i n g  t h e same a s t h e [ y a ] d i p h t h o n g .  position  contoids.  o f [ a w ] , d i p h t h o n g a l movement i s r e l a t e d  same way [ a y ] i s r e l a t e d The  of [ay], i t i s  the [aw] counterpart s t a r t s  change from a n e u t r a l l y  t h e case  bilabial,  t h e h i g h back s e m i v o c o i d [ w ] ,  the [ a y ]diphthong,  the high-back lips  The [ a y ]  to [ y a ] i s the diphthong  c u l a t o r y movement w i t h t h e l o w c e n t r a l into  closing  t o spread l i p  movement o f t h e jaw i s a g a i n n o t i c e a b l e .  rounded  the  The  of these diphthongs.  contoids.  t h e n moves t o t h e p o s i t i o n the opening  of [ a ] .  t o o c c u r o n l y when f o l l o w i n g  or alveopalatal  observa-  i n the latter,  starting  front  point that  However, w i t h [ y u ] , movement i s  o f t h e h i g h back v o c o i d [ u ] . t o rounded  i s practically  i s observable.  Change  i n l i p  4  A parallel in  words  like  articulation  m u i £mwi?|]  , although  The  lips  perhaps  change from  heading  one s e m i v o c o i d  vocoids the  and a f u l l  resultant  f o r t h e [w3.jp d i p h t h o n g b u t movement s t a r t s  1  toward  rounded t o l o o s e l y  and a f u l l  lower,  spread  has been observed vocoid.  commonly d i s t i n g u i s h e d  i s called  nearer  to [ I ] .  position. as a  I n cases  vocoid areinvolved within  combination  with  the vocoid quality f o r  sometimes a l i t t l e  A phonetic diphthong of  i s valid  ' t o go home ,  the h i g h - f r o n t semivocoid [i]  5  combination  where two semit h e same  syllable,  a phonetic triphthong.  The  phonetic t r i p t h o n g s o f Tausug a r e t h e  following: [ y 30 a  kiait liain  [ kyayt ] [ lyayn"]  'safety  'was t r a n s f e r r e d ' (refers  [woiw]  [ dwtmwn ]  'to double'  buaun  [ bwawn]  ' t o r o c k a baby t o s l e e p '  jgiaud  [ syawd ]  'was r e c e i v e d ( w i t h r e c e p t a c l e )  biaus  j~ b y a w s ]  'was b a r g a i n e d '  ] buaih  [ b i % y h ~]  'to place rattan  kuaih  [kwayh ]  ' t o wind*  The [ y a y ] ing  from  t o things)  duawn  [yaw]  [way  pin*  t h e [ y]  t r i p h t h o n g i sa r t i c u l a t e d position,  one sound t o t h e o t h e r sound i s s o f a s t  tion  between each  the high-back  [ waw ~] i s m a d e .  start-  Movement  that the transi-  i s hardly noticeable.  semivocoid,  something'  the syllabic  started.  from  on  w i t h movement  then moving towards  v o c o i d [ a] a n d b a c k t o w h e r e a r t i c u l a t i o n  sound  (something)  t h e same a r t i c u l a t o r y  Starting  with  movement f o r  k'6  Symmetrically ments a r e tion  the  triphthongs  proceeds  wards the again  into  from the  the  air  at  already  sound  point of  nance  a  The  [yaw],  articulatory  the  air-stream  contoids the  point  presence  point  i n the  are  earlier  i n the  turbulence  vocal  i n the  tract,  the  or  else a  resonance  described  basis  of a r t i c u l a t i o n ,  the  manner of  p a i r of a r t i c u l a t o r s  i n the  of a  contoid  takes  place.  to define  the  Tausug [p,b,p,m] i n p i l a  u p p e r and  the  reso-  points  lower  lips  ['pilah]  'how  ' d r i n k i n g g l a s s ' , abaga [?a'0ayah]  'shoulder'  maas [ ' m a ? a s ] o l d ' ( r e f e r s t o p e r s o n ) r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e  referred  v  bilabjals.'  pletely the  the  basic  like  1  articu-  place  brought  much , basu [basUh]  three  voice.  made w i t h  the  of  i s meant the  serve  closed, [p]  air-stream  sound  W h i l e [p,b,m] a r e i s made w i t h a  to pass  i s observed  to  through  occur  only  of  complete  the  of a r t i c u l a t i o n  together,  current  on  o r absence o f  a  chambers.  Contoids  t o as  up  move-  chapter,  of  of a r t i c u l a t i o n .  and  articula-  [ a ] , then g l i d e s  opposite  been expressed  chamber where a r t i c u l a t i o n  Usually  For  central vocoid  involving audible  the  criteria's  By  low  f o r [w].  or another  Basically  l a t i o n , and  [way].  move-  p o s i t i o n f o r [ y ] , t h e n moves q u i c k l y t o -  direction  has  interruption  major  and  in articulatory  Contoids  is a one  each other  f o r [way].'  3.2  contoid  to  [yaw]  p o s i t i o n f o r the  ment i s v a l i d  As  opposed  articulated  with  small aperture  causing  audible  in intervocalic  the  which  friction.  lips  com-  permits This  p o s i t i o n as  in  the  example abaga  C?a pay ' ]* ,  a  1  A l a r g e number o f Tausug  contoids  such as [ t ] i n t a u  ['ta?Uh]  'people' [ d ] i n daan ['da?on]  'old*  things),  [ s ]i n sabal ['sapal] s t o i c ' ,  [ n ] i n nanaug  1  (referring to [na'na?Ug],  •went d o w n , [ l ] i n l a d j u [ ' l a d j U h ] ' f a r n e s s ' , a n d [ r ] i n r a d j u 1  C'radjUh]  ' r a d i o ' c a n be c l a s s i f i e d  i ndentals  since  the articula-  tor'y o r g a n s " i h v o l v e d L a r e L u s u a l l y t h e t i p o f t h e t o n g u e a n d t h e back o f t h e upper t e e t h coming ever,  there  culation. ly  i s considerable  i n contact  variation  with  i n the exact  I n the case o f [ t ] f o r instance,  i n t e r d e n t a l as i n t a u['t'a?Uh]  c a n e ' a n d t i m u l ['t»imUl]  'north'.'  each other. point  articulation  1  How-  of a r t i i s usual-  'people', tubu ['t'upUh]'sugarThe f i r s t  [ t ] of tastas  ['t»astas] i s a l s o i n t e r d e n t a l , - b u t t h e s e c o n d o n e , d u e t o t h e influence surface  of the preceding  of the teeth.  1  [ s ] sound, i s a r t i c u l a t e d  a t t h e back  W i t h [ d ] a n d [ n ] i n daan [ 'da?an] a n d nanaug  [na'na?Ug] r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e tongue t i p i s a t t h e base o f t h e t e e t h , sometimes  closer t o the alveolar area.  The [ s ] i n s a b u l  [l]  i n lad.ju [ ' l a d j U h ] ,  the  t i p o f t h e tongue on t h e a l v e o l a r r i d g e  of  the teeth.  C'sapui],  [ r ] i n radju ['radjUh] a r e a r t i c u l a t e d  I n somewjrds  with  just behind t h e base  of Sanskrit origin,  a variety of [ r ]  made w i t h t i p o f t h e t o n g u e c u r l e d t o w a r d , b u t n o t t o u c h i n g , t h e alveopalatal the words  region i s heard.  k a r n a ['k'aana?]  a n d p a r m a n ['p'aaman] 'word  This  i s t r a n s c r i b e d as  ' t h a t i s why', w a r n a [ w a ^ n a ? ] ( o f God), o r  'message'.  as i n 'color',  1+9  When t h e f r o n t o f t h e tongue i s pushed a g a i n s t t h e extreme f r o n t o f t h e p a l a t e b u t c l o s e t o t h e a l v e o l i , an a l v e o p a l a t a l sound i s made, w h i c h i s s y m b o l i z e d as [ j ] a s i n t h e i n i t i a l sound o f jaga [ ' j a y a h ]  'guard' juba C'juga?]  'robe',  jambangan [ jam'banan] ' p l a n t ' , ' e t c . . Some c o n t o i d s a r e made f u r t h e r back i n t h e mouth w i t h t h e back s u r f a c e o f t h e tongue moved toward t h e velum o r s o f t palate.  Such c o n t o i d s a r e known as v e l a r s and t o t h i s  f i c a t i o n b e l o n g s t h e c o n t o i d s [k.g.y.n] i n words l i k e  classikalis  [ ' k ' a l l s ] ' k r i s ' , gandum ['gqndUm] 'earn', agad ['?qyqd] 'to f o l l o w ' , and ngan [ n a : n ] 'name'. is limited i n distribution. environment, n e v e r  U n l i k e [k.g.n],  1  the contoid  I t occurs o n l y i n i n t e r v o c a l i c  elsewhere.  A n o t h e r p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n i s found i n t h e l a r y n g e a l a r e a where t h e c l o s i n g , then e x p l o d i n g o f t h e v o c a l bands r e s u l t s i n a g l o t t a l catch [ ? ] .  T h i s i s t h e sound heard a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  and t h e end o f t h e word a s i b i [ ? q ' s i | 3 l ? ]  'small . 1  A l e s s promi-  nent ( o r even p o t e n t i a l ) g l o t t a l s t o p i s heard i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n , i . e . , hambuuk [ham'bu?Uk] 'one'. When t h e v o c a l bands a r e w i d e l y opened so t h a t t h e a i r s t r e a m passes out w i t h some f r i c t i o n t h r o u g h  i t without  obstruc-  t i o n , t h e [ h ] c o n t o i d which i s t h e i n i t i a l sound i n h a b u l ['hqBUl] i s produced.  A p a r t i a l l y v o i c e d v a r i e t y o f [ h ] , t r a n s c r i b e d as  Cn] ,' has been observed t o o c c u r between v o c o i d s as i n t h e examples  4 9  ahad ['?ahad]  'Sunday , l h a t u d [?I'hcttUd]  uhaw [ ' ? u h a w ] t h i r s t , The  second  differentiating duced.  lowing  contoids  into  characterized is a  Examples  stops  by  list  also  used  'long*,  returned',  etc..  i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g as  the  basis of  and  continuants.  contoids  well  are  Stops the  refer  to  occtirrences i n various  under stop phonetic  are  contoids  passage of a i r .  classified  as  pro-  such c r i t e r i o n , ' contoids  momentary c l o s u r e of  their  he  i s the manner i n w h i c h t h e y  of Tausug  showing  ments a r e  mahaba [ m a ' h a 0 a ? ]  criterion  G e n e r a l l y , - on  classified  'will  1  Folsounds.  environ-  provided:  Syllable  initial:  pisu  [«p'isU?]  'sprain'  tilu  ['t'ilU?]  'to  kilu  ['k'ilUh]  •kilo  bilu  ['bilUh]  •blue'  dugu  ['duyU?]  'blood'  gandum  [gondUm]  'corn'  andum  ['?ondUm]  ' cloud'  jaum  [ jawm]  'needle'  Syllable  final  preceding  another  throw' 1  stop  taptap  ['t'aptap]  'always'  patta  ['p'atta?]  'picture'  pukpuk  ['p'ukpUk]  'to pound' or  sabtu  ['sabtU?]  'Saturday'  'to  hammer'  50  bad j u  ['badjUh]  'storm'  magtuy'.  ['magtUy]  'immediately'  ka  ['ka?  'you g e t '  Word  or  atup  [•?atUp]  'nipa palm s h i n g l e '  langit  [»lanlt]  'sky'  pikpik  ['p'ikplk]  'wing  kltab  ['k'itab]  •bible'  lupad  [•lupad]  •to f l y '  tubid  C'tuglg]  'water'  sapa  ['sapa?]  •lake'  Normally,  there a r e t h r e e phases  In syllable  Some l i k e  initial,  with  When o c c u r i n g second  position  a l l stop  to a stop:  the catch  contoids  are released.  Thus,  the symbol  initial  i n syllable 1  final  preceding  articula-  another  o r when o c c u r r i n g i n w o r d  s e t of examples),  the stop  contoids  [']  i s used  released and s l i g h t l y a s p i r a t e d  s e t o f examples),  (of last  'heaven'  1  f o l l o w i n g each o f them i n s y l l a b l e  i n d i c a t e stops  (see  or  o r o c c l u s i o n , and the r e l e a s e o r explo-  [p,t,k] are slightly aspirated.  immediately  tion.  kaw]  final  implosion; the hold  sions  to  kaw  stop final  a r e un-  released. Contrary not at  only  to the stops,  by c o n s t r i c t i o n  one p o i n t  the continuants  but also with  of articulation.  are characterized  some d e g r e e  They a r e produced by  of  aperture  restricting  5a  but  not completely  Among t h e c o n t o i d s are  obstructing the flow  of a i r from the lungs.  o f Tausug," d i f f e r e n t  types  distinguished according  breath-stream The  t o produce audible  f r i c a t i v e contoids  of speech involved brought n e a r l y together  forced  out e q u a l l y over audible  [p» »Y>h»h»D s  friction.  To t h i s  are classified.  category,  Contoids  £s] and [ h ] occur  - syllable  final.  On t h e o t h e r  hand, [p,y,h], as has a l r e a d y  vocalic  i n their  initial  distribution.  i s another  type  channeled  through  contoids  to  t o occur  designate  type  under t h i s  sides  been only  pointed i n inter-  category  a nasal  i s produced c a v i t y and resonance.  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and they a r e  distribution. i s made w i t h  of t h e tongue.  o f sound.  which  i n the oral  producing  of continuant  such type  under t h i s  thus  i nunlimited  a t one o r b o t h  falls or  the nose,  [m,n,n] f a l l  Another out  syllable  They occur  of continuant  when t h e a i r i s i m p e d e d a t some p o i n t  observed  as w e l l as  i nun-  environments. Nasal  The  thus,  t h e Tausug  distribution  are limited  and the breath  the entire region of near contact,  limited  out,  friction.  a r e produced w i t h t h e  organs  causing  continuants  t o t h e v a r i o u s ways i n w h i c h t h e  may b e c h a n n e l e d , so-called  of  ;  the a i r  The term l a t e r a l i s used  I n Tausug, only  as i n t h e words l a p a l  ' m e s s a g e ' , p a l p a l [ 'p»'alpal] ' d e a f ' ,  passing  the [ l ] contoid  £'lapal]  s a b a l £'sagal]  'words', 'stoic',etc.  52  The  last  articulated alveolar heard  by  type  of  continuant  r a p i d movement o f  region.  The  i n intervocalic  the  position i n native  [r] is  words s u c h as  ['baran]  'body', i r u [ ' ? i r U ? ] 'dog', p u r u l [ ' p ' u r U l ]  origin 'holy  i  [ r ] occurs  like  initially  radju ['radjUh]  spirit',  writings  parang ['p'aranj  of  k a p i r ['k'ocplr]  Moses', e t c .  [m]  i n such words as  warna [wocina?]  made w i t h classified toids The  of  and  the as  the  the  classified  'pure', of  foreign  occurs  p o s i t i o n , preceding  'k'udUs]  also  contoids  in like  p a r m a n ['p'aaman] 'word o f God'  of Tausug are  on  the  basis  of  v i b r a t i o n of  voiced.  group a  To  language are  a general  of Tausug vocoids, contoids  i n words  a l v e o p a l a t a l [a]  accompaniment of  sounds of Tausug,  as  final  contoids  voiceless contoids As  baran  and  'color', respectively.  Finally, ferentiated  finally  ran  'heathen', Jabur [ • japUr]  The  in syllable  [n]  1  ha  ' r a d i o ' , r u h u l kudus [ r u h U l  loan words, and  and  'grass ,  the  commonly  'on  The  It is  tongue t i p a g a i n s t  dental-alveolar flap  road',  flap.  [ha'ran]  etc.  the  i s known as  the 1  this  categorized  are  charts  have been drawn  voicing. the  large  dif-  Contoids  vocal  bands  s e r i e s of  the  are con-  : [b,j3,d,g,y,m,n,n,l,r,u,n].  [ p , t , k , ? ,s , h ] . '  summary o f  phonetic  characterized,  the  discussions  of  b e l o w w h i c h show t h e d i p h t h o n g s and up:  the  speech  entire  triphthongs,  range as  well  53  Figure  Front High  S'  A  Chart  of Tausug  Vocoids  Central  Back  [y] '  [w]  Cu]'  [ i ]  Cu]"  [I]  C«] Ca]  Low  Phonetic  [a] Diphthongs  [ y u ]  [wi ]  [ya ]  [ wa  ]  [ yay ]  [ waw  ]  [ yaw  [ way  ]  [ ay ]  [ aw  ]  [ ay ]  [ aw  ]  Phonetic  ]  Triphthongs  54  Figure  Stop  A  Chart  Bilabial  DentalAlveolar  P  t  b  Fricative  Nasal  6:  d  of Tausug  Alveopalatal  j  s m  Contoids  Velar  k  Glottal  I n  Lateral  1  Flap  r  1  ;  JL  ?  g  fi  h  55  4.  THE  SYLLABLE  Language never  sounds occur  i n isolation.  smallest  a n a l y s i s of Tausug  on t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l on t h e i r  piara  most i m p o r t a n t  sequence of sounds w h i c h bears  phonological  matrix.  The  i n patterned  The  initial  [ 'p'ya-rah],"  and probably  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the  i s the s y l l a b l e .  reference  -i 27  r  i s different  s o u n d o f t h e w o r d a t u p ['?a-tUp] ' p a l m l e a f first  two  while  i n the l a t t e r ,  e x a m p l e s , [p»]  differences tion  and i t s  ' s p r a i n ' and  from the  final  roofing'. In the  i s r e l e a s e d and s l i g h t l y  [p] i s unreleased  dependent  aspirated,  and u n a s p i r a t e d .  Such  b e t w e e n [p*'] a n d [ p ] e v i d e n t l y shows a s i m p l e  of p o s i t i o n or d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n the Although  no  Many f a c t s  to the s y l l a b l e  s o u n d i n p i s u £p'i-sU?J  f o r instance,  regard  func-  syllable.  Tausug s t r e s s i s non-phonemic,  significance with  are  the  u n i t s of the language are l a r g e l y  distribution with  2.ft  sequences; they  t o meaning, there  that  i s , i t bears  are subtle  dif-  ferences  i n f o r c e and l e n g t h between vowels i n s t r e s s e d and  stressed  syllables.  relative  l o u d n e s s and l e n g t h d e p e n d i n g on t h e i r  given  syllable.  relatively  louder  un-  A l l Tausug vowels have forms v a r y i n g i n  Generally, and l o n g e r  positions i n a  vowels i n stressed s y l l a b l e s than those  i n unstressed  are  syllables.  26 C.F.  Voegelin, ( D e c e m b e r / 193*0 t p.'24. 2  a  word.  ^A  "Shawnee Phonemes", L a n g u a g e ,  hypen i s u s e d h e r e t o mark s y l l a b l e  X  division  within  56  The  f i r s t [ a]  siderably  b-a.-rah ] ' p e p p e r , f o r i n s t a n c e ,  i n lara  louder  1  and longer  than t h e[ a ]  larahan  [la-ra.-han]  a  i n s t r e s s as a r e s u l t  shift  i s con-  i n t h e second.  In  ' t o put p e p p e r , however, where t h e r e i s 1  of suffixation,  t h e second [ a ] 28  is  relatively  Other s i m i l a r  longer  than the f i r s t  examples  are bata  'message', a n d _pasal Q p a . - s a l ] The cation  syllable  i s also  o f sounds whose s t a t u s  whether they  fall  and a l s o  than the t h i r d .  ['ba.-ta?] ' c h i l d ' ,  lapal  [la.-pal]  'market*.  a useful criterion i n the c a n n o t be e a s i l y  under t h e vowel category  classifi-  defined,  as t o  o r t h e consonant  29 category.  Reference  i s made h e r e  to the nonsyllabic  vowel-  like  sounds [ y]  and [w]  i n Tausug.  tell  w h e t h e r [ y]  and[w]  a r e t o be c l a s s i f i e d as v o w e l o r c o n -  sonants u n t i l syllable nants ing  we h a v e t h e m i n d i s t r i b u t i o n  a n d s e e how t h e y  i n t h e language.  to their  I t i s often d i f f i c u l t to  contextual  pattern with  Their  status 30  function,  and i n contrast  other  i n a  vowels and conso-  i s established only  i . e . , what t h e y  accord-  do w i t h i n  a  syllable. In description the at  order  therefore  to establish a satisfactory  as w e l l as c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f both t h e segmental and  s u p r a s e g m e n t a l phonemes o f T a u s u g , i t i s n e c e s s a r y this  basis f o r  point  the structure of the syllable  t o define  as i toccurs  i n the  language . 28" R e f e r t o s e c t i o n 6.3 f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s o n lengthening of vowels. ^ K e n n e t h P i k e , P h o n e t i c s , (Ann Arbor: The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1964) p p . 7 3 , 7 5 - 7 6 . 30 I b i d , , p . 73. Daniel Jones a l s o used 'contextual f u n c t i o n * a s c r i t e r i a i n v o w e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b u t i n more v a r i e d ways t h a n P i k e .  57  Linguists nition ces  and/or  i npoint  instance, izing  description of views.  3 1  Pierre  of sounds?  syllable  bases  intonation, (Kenyon,  For proves  of 'chest  advanced  and a combination of these  purposes  on t h e degree o f  f o rdefining the  length,  34 (Bloomfield), stress, 'sonority'  J  of this  (peak  2  (Jones, P i k e ^ a n d  phonological analysis  convenient t o analyze t h e s y l l a b l e  o f prominence  character-  pulses^ where-  l o u d n e s s o f phoneme'  - made u p o f i n h e r e n t s o n o r i t y ,  Hall, Jespersen).  terms,  S t e t s o n , on t h e o t h e r  h i s discussion  other criteria  3  differen-  and decreasing o f tension o f t h e  i n terms  a r e those of 'relative  'prominence'  unit  i nphysiological  o f t h e v o i c e - p r o d u c i n g mechanism.  as F e r d i n a n d de S a u s s u r e  it  due t o t h e i r  defi-  F o u c h e a n d M a u r i c e Grammont, f o r  o f t h e growing  hand, d e s c r i b e s t h e s y l l a b l e  opening  i n agreement as t o t h e i r  of the syllable  define the syllable  i t i n terms  muscles  a r e n o t always  of sonority),  o f Tausug,  i nterms  such that  of a  single  t h e most  31 tions  B e r t i l Mamberg, P h o n e t i c s , (New Y o r k : 1963), pp. 64-65. I b i d . , pp. 68-69.  Dover  Publica-  3 2  (London:  ^ F e r d i n a n d de S a u s s u r e , Course i n G e n e r a l L i n g u i s t i c s , M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k Company, 1966), p p . 57-60.  -^Leonard B l o o m f i e l d , Language, (Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , W i n s t o n , 1964), p. 125. 35 ^ D a n i e l Jones, An Outline o f E n g l i s h P h o n e t i c s , ( C a m b r i d g e : W. H e f f e r a n d S o n s L t d . , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 5 4 . Kenneth P i k e , Phonemics (Ann Arbor: The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 9 0 - 9 1 , 148. P i k e m a k e s a d i s t i n c t i o n between p h o n e t i c and phonemic s y l l a b l e s . The above d i s c u s s i o n i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l a t t e r . 36j.s. K e n y o n , A m e r i c a n P r o n u n c i a t i o n , A T e s t b o o k o f P h o n e t i c s f o r Students o f E n g l i s h , (Ann Arber: The U n i v e r s i t y of M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1935), PP. 68-69. H a l l , op. c i t . , pp. 61-63.  and  58  outstanding  (sonorous)  of a s y l l a b l e . (on vocoids  This  on  the  and  are  as  there  already that  are  i n cases  A n a t i v e speaker  of  the  syllables  combination  full  vowels  i n the  £ maa  of  ' l i n - k a t ] , and ['myat-tUh]  termed  margins  vowels  in  occur  a  recognizes  i n the  malingkat will  recognize  I t has  been  two  level)  same s y l l a b l e  i s formed.  center.  by  -  Such  Thus, the  word  syllables,  with  has  only  the  examples g i v e n  a a  a  in  preceding  [»p'i-sU?] , [«p'ya-rah] , [*?a-tUp] , [«ba-ta?],  vocoid, while are  cavity.  first.  close examination  paragraph,  1  oral  d i s c u s s i o n s (on p h o n e t i c  syllabic  mjLaJbtu [ ' m y a t - t u h j 'went,. ; t h e r e  normally  i n a given utterance  vowel - a diphthong  makes a s i n g l e  are u s u a l l y  language  s y l l a b l e s : £ma-'liij-kat] .  w h e r e two  vowels  are  I n a word l i k e  i n previous  to the  i n the  there  three  semivowel with a  A  impediment  present.  center  They are  f o r i n s t a n c e , a l l n a t i v e speakers  p o i n t e d out  diphthong  (contoids).  as  number o f  or  because vowels  many s y l l a b l e s  number o f v o c o i d s  "beautiful" that  the  nucleus  corresponds  level),  consonants  Tausug u t t e r a n c e .  the  always  produced without  There are  instinctively  c o n s t i t u t e the  nucleus  phonetic  more s o n o r o u s t h a n voiced  sound  others  free or  at the  end  end  shows t h a t  referred  Thus, i n [ 'p'i-sU? ] t h e  whereas the  second  is checked'. ,  in  i n vocoid-:  Those t h a t have contoid.:  t o as  syllables.  one  end  i n c o n t o i d s . S y l l a b l e s ending  open s y l l a b l e s . are  some s y l l a b l e s  checked or  first  closed  syllable  is  'free*  Further that  investigation  a free syllable  final  position.  A  always  checked  unlimited  distribution.  finally.  This  ing  o f t h e above data w i l l  occurs  i n word  syllable,  initial  reveal  o r word  on t h e o t h e r hand  I t can occur  , shows  i n i t i a l l y , m e d i a l l y , and  o b s e r v a t i o n c a n be f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d  a t iS;ome-:.: e x a m p l e s s u c h  by  look  as t h e f o l l o w i n g :  taas  [ «f a-?os]  'height'  anarun  [?a-'narUn]  'will  ubu  [ *?u-[3Uh]  'cough'  mabiskay  [ma-'pis-kay]  'fast'  kaun  [ «k»-?Un]  'will get'  larutan  [la->ru-tan]  'will  pull'  suatun  ['swa-tUn]  'will  dig'  haturan  [ha-'tu-ran]  'will  return'  paagarun  [p»a-? -'-ja-rUn]  •will  take along  ingatun  [?i-na-tUn]  'ought t o know'  manghud  [Jman-hUd]  'younger b r o t h e r ' o r  a  learn  1  with  'sister' sambi  [•sam-bl?]  'to  lawa  ['la-wah]  •left'  tahi  [•tarthl?]  'to  Although syllables  begin  [?a na?-:rUn] J  I n the w r i t t e n form w i t h vowels  'will  learn , 1  like  change' (hand c o r n e r , •  sew'  i t s e e m s t h a t some  the f i r s t  syllable  ingatun [?I- na-tUn] ,  Tausug  of anarun  'ought t o l e a r n , 1  60 and  i n t a a s f t*a?as1 f  the second s y l l a b l e  • some s y l l a b l e s 'cough*,  appear  sambi  speech, t h i s consonants,  t o end i n vowels  [ 'sam-bl?]  i s not so.  even when no c o n s o n a n t  I n word  final, syllables  The and in  justification  e i t h e r £?] word  nemic for  and [ h ]  and [ h ]  etc.),  S y l l a b l e s are always  present  stop which  i n actual  initiated  i s assumed t o be  require  final  consonants,  are not represented i n w r i t i n g .  f o rthe existence a f t e r vowels  of [ ? ] before  a t t h e end o f  f i n a l p o s i t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e b a s i s  status  o f b o t h sounds  the other,  another native ing  words a r e l i s t e d  and  £h]  vowels  syllables  o f t h e pho-  S u b s t i t u t i n g one  f o rthat  or a non-existing  sound  matter, results i n  one.  t o show t h e phonemic  i n a l l possible  Word  i n Tausug.  o r any consonant word  by  i s i n d i c a t e d on t h e orthography.  always which  and that  t o o ( s e e u b u [ »?u£Uh]  ' t o change',  including the glottal  including [ ? ]  'height*,  Thus,  contrast  the followbetween  distributions:  initial ilu  ['?i-lUh]  ' orphan'  hilu  [«hi-lUh]  'dizzy*  ug.  C?ug]  'hold  hug  [hug]  •change'  abal  [*?a-pal]  'whirlpool'  habal  ['ha-pal]  'news *  or  'drunk'  something (money)  dear'  [?]  61 Word  medial nailu  [na-*?i-lUh]  'became  orphan'  nahilu  [na-'hi-iUh  •became  drunk*  ]  'thigh'  [«p«a-?dh]  Word  paha  [»p»a-hcthT  dayahan  [da-'ya-han]  dayaan  [da-* ya-?an]  'surface up'  di  [di:?  ]  'no*  [dli:h  ]  'here*  augu  U n l i k e £ ?] b a d j u £'badjUh] realizable  the  •rich*  (does n o t l i k e )  [«badjU?]  'dress'  [*badjUh]  *storm» o r ' t y p h o o n *  [*duyU? ]  'blood*  [ «duyUh ]  *corner *  , t h e [h*]  *storm* as zero,  enough t o be n o t i c e d . to',  'band f o r t h e n a v e l '  final  bad.ju  be  ]  a t t h e end o f words  a n d d u g u [ «duyUh] or at least  *corner*  form)  like,  seems t o  i t i soften not audible  However, i f a s u f f i x l i k e  ' t o p u t . . .*, e t c . r e a l i z a t i o n o f f_ h)  contoid  (general  an 'to  i s added t o each o f t h ewords  becomes p e r f e c t l y  clear.  b a d j u + a i l 'becomes' ( > ) b a d j u h a n  cause above,  Thus: [ bad-'juhxn 3  •to cause t o storm' d u g u + a n >-duguhan [ dU-'yu-l^cm ~] ' t o p u t c o r n e r ( s ) on The  above word c o n t r a s t  phonemically  something* with  b a d j u + an > b a d j u a n f b a d - ' j u ? q n d u g u 4fr a n > d u g u a n f d u ' y u - ? q n " |  *to p u t a d r e s s o n  'to p u t blood  1  on . . »  ..'  6*,  The u s e o f a n i n s t e a d restSL;  on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t  the  end o f each word,  [h]  i s not represented.  of  t h e added  for  that  with To  this  forms  final  i n Tausug.  +  an  the i n i t i a l  y  Any f i n a l  p o s i t i o n , unless  c l a i m more examples  sulat  [ ? ] , i s already  consonant  [sU-  4  an  burakan  -f  an  "y  habulan  begins  syllable.  here:  "la-tan] >  'will  write'  'will  powder'  [ b U - 'ra-kotn] 'powder'  ha b u l  part  consonant,  o f t h e new  are listed  sulatan  a  the suffix  'write' burak  found a t  The phenomenon o f [ h ] becoming  i s normal  m a t t e r , i n word  justify  [h], like  examples  b a d j u and dugu, a l t h o u g h o r t h o g r a p h i c a l l y  syllable  a consonant,  of han i n t h e f i r s t s e t o f  >  [ha-'Bu-lan] 'blanket  >  'to put a blanket'  4-  sumbung  un. y  sumbungun  [sUm»bu-nUn] •report'  >  ' w i l l make a report'  juwalan  +  un  y  juwalanun  [ ju-wa- 'la-nUn] 'fried  banana'  >  'to f r y banana'  salam  +  un  ^>  salamun  [sa'hand  *la-mUn] shake'  > 'to shake hands  63  £ *k»a-li-?Ih] •to d i g  lukup  +  1 > lukuM  >  1  'you d i g '  ClU'kuPIh] • c o v e r ' > 'you  &tup  +  i , •> a t u p i  cover*  [?a-'tu-plh] nipa  shingle*>*you put  nipa  roofing' In  t h e above examples  consistency new  added  fore,  that  final  syllables.  patterns  the basis of Tausug  These r e g u l a r  that  two  a sequence  bles to  second  •free*  patterns  syllable pattern  discussed  i n terms  vowels  exist  of consonant-vowel  syllable  there-  (V),  of permissible  com-  been  noted  i n the language.  The  first  found i n the front  syllable  pattern  i n previous  consists of  syllable  I t has  (CV)  combination, i . e . ,the f i r s t ,  syllables (CVC)  (C) and  o f a n a r u n [?a-'na-rUn]3. T h i s  the  (CVC)  basic  occurrences confirm  sylla-  corresponds  paragraph.  The  consonant-vowel-consonant t h e second, and  the  third  o f magsumpingfmag:-'sum-pia] ' t o b e a r f l o w e r s ' .  syllable  pattern  of  above.  are s t a t e d here  of consonants  complete  consonants  of the preceding discussions, the  binations only  shown w i t h  c o n s o n a n t s become i n i t i a l  the assumption postulated °n  is  i t i s clearly  corresponds to the  'checked s y l l a b l e  The and  is  the only  utterance. 'fault',  syllable  Sequences  full  'here',  listed CSV  -  -  syllable  siukat  ['syu-kat]  tiaun  [*t»ya-?Un]  patterns  'was b e i n g 'was  the following  o f Tausug:  demanded'  married'  'sequins'  pwasa  ['p'wa-sah]  'fasting'  kaitan  ['k*ay-tan]  ' t o p u t a p i n o n . . .'  lainan  ['lay-nan]  kauna  [*k»awnah] ' p u t i t ' ( t h e r e , b a c k , e t c . )  saura  [-sawrah]  - siam  CVSC -  of a  of the permitted  i n t h e language,  'you t r a n s f e r i t . . .  'catch or  CSVC  as i n t h e case of  ( S ) . On t h e b a s i s  ant u i l a s [?an-'twi-las]  CVS  'money*, e t c . .  a r e treated as combination  combinations  as secondary  as an  1  o f two o r more v o c o i d s ,  vowel and semivowel  alone  'head , s a [sa:?]  s i n[si:n]  and triphthongs,  vowel-semivowel are  can stand  Hence, t h e words u [ ? u : h ]  d i [dl:h]  diphthongs  pattern that  [syom]  i twith  '  . . . •  'receive i twith  . . . '  'nine'  tiadtad  ['t'yadtad]  'split  bamboos for w a l l i n g '  buad  [bwad]  'to d r y '  mui  [mwi?]  ' t o g o home'  kait  ['k'ayt]  'safety p i n '  lain  [layn]  'tot r a n s f e r '  baus  [baws]  'to bargain'  taumpa  ['t»awmpa?]  'shoes'  1  65  CSVS - k i a i t a n siauran  ['k'yay-tan] ['syaw-ran]  'was p i n n e d  'catch something with  t i a i k u r a n £ 't'yay-kuran] CSVSC  - biaus  [byaws]  duaun  [dwctwn]  buaih  [bwayh]  With two  important points  clusters  will  only singly in  the syllable  c l u s t e r which interpreted  the successive classify of  'to put rattan  already  First,  no consonant  since  established, of  consonant  consonants  clusters  therefore  boundaries. boundary  A  exist  i s always  as belonging t o  render i tforeign  Second,  consonant  n o t anywhere  To  either  t o the language's  clusters else.  t o be  into  a s i n taumpa ['t'awm-pa?] 'shoes'. example  occur  consonant  o f two c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h d i v i d e d  would  word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n ,  '  to the interpretation  [mp] i n t h e above c i t e d  t h e two s y l l a b l e s  on . . .  o f Tausug  o c c u r s .-• a c r o s s a s y l l a b l e  syllables  . . . •  twos'  e x c e p t -.across s y l l a b l e  syllable-structure. in  by  1  relative  as sequences  from  'was b a r g a i n e d '  have t o be observed.'  t h e language  receptacle'  ' t u r n e d one.'.'s b a c k  pattern  i n a syllable,  1  can occur  only  5.  T H E S E G M E N T A L PHONEMES  What functional linear  constitutes units  a syllable  o f s p e e c h sounds known as s e g m e n t a l o r  phonemes.  According  to linguistic  of  s e g m e n t a l phonemes i n a g i v e n  in  comparison with  by a s p e a k e r . a particular Even  a r e sequences of d i s c r e t e  the total  theory,  language i s r e l a t i v e l y  number o f p o s s i b l e  Only sounds which g i v e language are regarded  meaningful  uttered  contrasts i n  as phonemes o f t h a t l a n g u a g e .  i n any two g i v e n  languages,  t h e s e phonemes w i l l  necessarily  have  t h e same  and E n g l i s h  have  t h e s o u n d s [ d] a n d [ r ] w h i c h  from the phonetic  function.  stand-point.  of t h e two sounds t o each o t h e r nological  system o f Tausug  / d / and / r / i n E n g l i s h in  sounds  small  i f t h e same p h o n e m e s , o r t h e same g r o u p o f p h o n e m e s , a r e  found  lar  t h e number  that  they  serve  For instance,  both  are quite  Tausug simi-  However, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  i s very  different  as compared w i t h t h a t  are clearly  to distinguish  not  i n contrast meanings  i n t h e phoof English,  with  each  between words  other, like  37 dust  [ dAst 3  situation  and rust  [ rAst)..  i s d i f f e r e n t . [ d],and  d i s t r i b u t i o n [ d ] being followed in  by v o w e l s .  [ r ]  replaced  The c o n t r a s t  dan[ ? i n ' d a n ] 'the road',  road*.  I n Tausug, however, t h e  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  by  a r e i n complementary  [ r ] when p r e c e d e d and  i s shown i n t h e examples:  a n d h a r a n [ h a »ra:nf] ' o n t h e  between t h e two sounds  i n Tausug  -"A. S. H o r n b y , e t . a l . , T h e A d v a n c e d L e a r n e r ' s D i c t i o n a r y o f Current E n g l i s h . Second E d i t i o n (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p p . 312, 871,  does  67  not  parallel  that  Moreover, one  language  of English. sounds  may  which  are variants  he two o r more d i s t i n c t  T h e v o c o i d s [ i ] a n d [l"]  are variants  Tausug.  In English,  phonemes  as i n t h e m i n i m a l p a i r beat  In rized  general,  by t h e i r  features'  'distinctive "any  phonemes  features'.  'phonological  Jakobson,  features  and a s e t o f r u l e s  and  f o r grouping the later  also  distinctive of  features  a language  since  are distinct  and  characte-  'bundles  set of  say  that  distinctive  f o r g r o u p i n g them i n t o i n t o sequences  are the ultimate  of  components' o r  F a n t , and H a l l e  code has a f i n i t e  /!/ i n  / b i t / and b i t / b i t / .  are distinguished  term  i n another.  o f t h e phoneme  attributes or so-called  linguists  one l a n g u a g e  phonemes  however, t h e s e two sounds  defining  which  o f one phoneme i n  phonemes  . . . .  distinctive  The  entities  no one o f t h e m c a n be b r o k e n down  into  38 smaller  linguistic  units."  The phonemic s y s t e m basis  of these d i s t i n c t i v e  criteria  o f Tausug features  o f phonemic a n a l y s i s  i s established i n consonance  set forth  i n section  So f a r , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r h a s a n a l y z e d o n l y phonemes Lois the  o f Tausug.  Such  analysis  discounts  and Seymour A s h l e y t o twenty-one language.  separate  The / n / w h i c h  phoneme  cannot  -'Jakobson,  be e s t a b l i s h e d  with  the  2.4. segmental  the claim  phonemes  the Ashleys'  Fant, and H a l l e ,  twenty  on t h e  claim  of  existing t o be  as such s i n c e  op. c i t . , pp.  i n a  sequences  3-^.  68  of  a consonant  language. singing  and a semivowel a r e permissible  By a n a l o g y , t h e i n i t i a l  bird*  a n d nawa  sounds o f words l i k e tiuran  [  *life*  piunung  sounds o f f i u l i  pattern with ['p'ytmtFi}}  and  a n d n a w a may, t h e r e f o r e ,  initial  'fainted*,  ['myuliah]  be i n t e r p r e t e d  , etc..  a s [*nyullh3  ['nyawah] , r e s p e c t i v e l y . On t h e p h o n e t i c l e v e l ,  are  the  *a  ' t ' y u r a n ^ j ' p u s h e d * , b i u s a n [ ' b y u s a n ] *borrowed»,  d i u g a l a n f d y U g a l a n l *was a n g r y * , m i u l a Null  i nthe  classified  into  t h e speech  v o c o i d s and c o n t o i d s .  level,  the twenty  vowels  and consonants depending  ristics  vowels  on t h e i r  distributions.  / y / a n d /w/  or semiconsonants.  nature  of or their  sharing with  vowels  and consonants which  a r e some  i s intermediate  they are referred I t i s their  pho-  between  t o as  partaking  the structural  classifies  into  phonetic characte-  However, t h e r e  whose s t a t u s  and consonants, so that  semivowels  On t h e p h o n e m i c  s e g m e n t a l phonemes a r e c a t e g o r i z e d  and t h e i r  nemes l i k e  sounds o f Tausug  either  of the  habits  of  them i n such an  ambivalent category. Before  starting  phonemes a n d t h e i r features, nal  their  relationship  to discuss  each  of the twenty  corresponding bundles of  variants, t o each  first  the status  stand  i n the phonological  distributional other,  segmental  distinctive  as w e l l  as  oppositio-  i t i s • convenient t o establish  o f the semivowels  o r semiconsonants  system of the language.  as they  69  5.1  The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Semivowels o r S emi cons o n a n t s  It that or  has been mentioned  the status  vowels  textual  terion  of the vowel-like  i s determined  function with  syllable  i s pattern  [y]  reference  to their  I n other  congruity  cri-  2.3). (see section  c l u s t e r s do n o t o c c u r  i n syllable  ble  positions,the  sounds  immediately preceding  f o l l o w i n g an i n i t i a l  a final  consonant  show i n s t a n c e s  functioning  'safety  siu  [syuh  ]  'who*  suat  [swat  ]  'to cultivate'  laum  flawm  ]  'inside*  mui  [mwi?  ]  ' t o g o home*  these  ]  a n d [w]  [k'ayt]  of view,  when  sequences  kait  (  sylla-  or immediately  of a l l possible  of [y]  'was l o o k i n g  a r e sequences  each o f t h e w o r d s l i s t e d  impression'  consonant  [lyag  there  or  [ y j a n d [w]  liag  Phonetically,  point  initial  4)  i s t o be i n t e r p r e t e d a s v o c a l i c .  Thus, t h e f o l l o w i n g examples vocoids  con-  words, t h e determining  i n Tausug  suspect  of their  given  consonant final  as consonants  position i n a  (cf. section  of the fact that  of the syllable  a n d [w]  p r i m a r i l y on t h e basis  or utterance.  Because  i n the discussion  above.  sequences  o f two  vocalically:  for'  pin'  ( i n t e r r o g a t i v e pronoun) (soil)  b f two d i f f e r e n t vocoids Although  i n  from a l i s t e n e r ' s  o f two vocoids  give  a  'monolithic  ( d u e t o t h e r a p i d m o v e m e n t o r g l i d e made f r o m o n e  70  sound  t o another),  nation  t h e y a r e , however,  interpreted  o f a pure vowel and a semivowel, w i t h  functioning  as a  combi-  the semivowel  a s a s e c o n d a r y o r s u b o r d i n a t e member t o t h e f u l l  vowel. Such sidered two an  sequences  o f two v o c o i d s  as two independent pure vowels  such vowels intervocalic  c a n o c c u r i n sequence consonant  coming  o r [ ? ] because  they would  since,  normally,  them.  The  as h a v i n g an  contrast  £ * l i ? < 5 i n ~]  •senile*  kahig  [ »k'«hlg]  'scratch*  intervocalic  ( t h eground the  siub  [  »si?ub  suan  [  »su?an "J  'to  kaun  [  »ka?Un  ]  'will  Muin  [ »mu?In  ]  tfa name o f a  Another possible which w rise  show s e q u e n c e s may b e u s e d  interpretation  feet)  light  something*  get* person)  o f t h e above vocoids  instead  [ lyag]  >  [ 'liyag  ]  [syuh]  >  [ 'siyUh  ]  [ s w a t ] >  [*suwat  J  [mwi?]  ['rnuwl?  J  >  examples  i s that  t o separate the vowel c l u s t e r s , words  with  'blanket'  o f two d i f f e r e n t  to two-syllable  examples  w i t h words such a s :  lian  ]  no  i n t h e language without  between  g i v e n above cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d [hj  cannot o t h e r w i s e be c o n -  thus  of one-syllable  y  or  giving  words:  71  This  interpretation  high  vocoids  but  slow for  ,  Besides,  kait  another  clusters,  vowel as i n k a i t  and  even i n a r t i f i c i a l  f o r[k'ayt]  and  *  'native reaction strongly  consistency  ['sawUmJ resists  i n a n a l y s i s and i n c o n g r u i t y  a n d saum, t h e f i r s t mui w i l l  monosyllabic question  which  here.  and d i s s y l l a b i c i s only  a matter  , ["swot] The  relation another  vocoid  [ i ]  forms  [lyagj  ,  Where  [yj  i s absent,  where  [ y ] '. a n d a n d [u]  [yj  and [ i ]  conclude  that [y]  and [ i]  into  focus  the interpretation of  i s present  Qi]  i n the language.  o f [ y ] a n d [w] i n  above b r i n g s  concerning  contrast  positional  I n normal r a p i d speech, the  of the occurrences  point  opposition with  no i n s t a n c e ;  o f t h e examples  o f t i m i n g , i . e . , t h e speed i n  a n d sawm g i v e n  important  the  s i u , suat,  , a n d [mwi?].  to kait  semivowels.  with  D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  are the monosyllabic  limitation  the  of l i a g ,  interpretation  t h e words a r e pronounced.  [syuh]  direct  interpretation  be c o n s i d e r e d  most commonly h e a r d  but  i n the vowel  interpretation'. For  is  t o words where t h e  i n the language,  s p e e c h t o s a y *['k'eDyIt] [sawm]  limited  are f i r s t  come a f t e r  I t i s not normal  such  in  and [ u ]  n o t when t h e y  saum.  and  Qi]  is,however,  i n a given [w]  syllable,  are never i n  respectively. o r [w]  and [ u ]  Hence, i t i s j u s t i f i a b l e a r e n o t two s e p a r a t e  v a r i a n t s , since they  There shows, to  phonemes  are non-contrastive,  72  phonetically  s i m i l a r , and c o m p l e m e n t a r i l y d i s t r i b u t e d , each  w i t h i t s own p a t t e r n same f u n c t i o n .  i n the language, but f u l f i l l i n g  S i m i l a r l y , [w]  and  [u]  a r e t o be  the classed  t o g e t h e r as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e same phoneme. Assuming t h a t suat,  t h e sequences o f v o c o i d s  a n d mui were t o be i n t e r p r e t e d  (which i s p o s s i b l e ) , [ y ] o f v o c o i d s no l o n g e r  function  Distributionally, In  [*li-yagj  initial  and  also  Both, [ y ]  enter  as v o w e l s .  , f o r instance,  'to a t t a c h ' , s i k u ['ka?Unj  with regards t o  and  [_w]  [yj  jjlitagj  Q'sikUhJ  'bird's  ['su-wat]  trap',  and  w i t h the vowels  as o t h e r  'elbow', s u k a t  'to g e t * , and muti  becomes t h e  A s i m i l a r phone-  thus s t r u c t u r e  i n t o t h e same f u n c t i o n  s u c h s e r i e s as l i t a g  words  which s e p a r a t e t h e sequences  consonants o f the second s y l l a b l e s .  jjmu-wl?] .  kaun  as t w o - s y l l a b l e  they are i n the p o s i t i o n of consonants.  f'si-yUhJ  menon i s t r u e w i t h £ w ]  and  and [ w ]  in liag, s i u ,  consonants i n kabit  ['k'apit]  f'sukcxt]  [»mutl?3  ' t o demand',  ' t o become w h i t e , '  etc. Further consonants. established initial  examples show [ y ]  On t h e b a s i s  of the s y l l a b l e  functioning patterns  Hence t h e f o l l o w i n g  a r e t o be i n t e r p r e t e d  sample  word  as c o n s o n a n t s .  listing:  initial [y"J  as  o f Tausug  i n s e c t i o n 4, £ y ] a n d [w] when o c c u r r i n g  a n d word f i n a l  Word  a n d [yjj  yaun  £ ' y a ? U n "j  'that one'  yari  [*yarlh]  'here*  73  L l w  Word  walu  ['walUh]  waktu  ['waktUh]  "bay  -{bay]  v  [w]  Since  and  Maimbung kaiman  'house'  inag-abay  [mag'?apay}  'will  sabaw  £*3a£aw1  *soup*  manaw  [*nianaw]  i nmedial syllable  [*maymbUn]  [*k'ay?man] ' f i f t y ' ,  instead By  and  laum  vowels  receive  i n words  i nJolo,  a n d [w] i n baumbang  Sulu) [*bawmbang])  a r e t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as  t h e sequences  lawm  and [w]  , [ y]  ['lay-nan]  [*saw-kun] something  'will with  [saytj  'to  t r a n s f e r * , sauk  'to  catch  of vocoids i n kait  ['say-tanJ 'will  receptacle'  'will  transfer  fetch water',  [sawk ]  saurun  removefwateer  something  from',  [*saw-rUn]  'will  *\rhich a r e d e r i v e d  from  from boat', l a i n  with  base  [layn]  ' t o f e t c h water', and saud  something  [kayt]  a r e t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as  ' t o remove w a t e r  or receive  |n t h e f i n a l of  position, [y ]  analogy with  i n words such as s a i t a n  words s a i t  do n o t o c c u r  of consonants.  from boat', l a i n a n saukun  together*  ' t otake a walk*  ( a name o f a p l a c e  ' c h e c k e r e d ' a n d t a u m p a ['t'awmpa?J vowels  go  c l u s t e r s o f more t h a n t w o c o n s o n a n t s  t h e language,  like  'time'  final [ ]  in  'eight*  [sawd]  receptacle'.  analysis, therefore,  [ y ] and [ w ] as  t h e phonemes / i / a n d / u / a r e n o t i n c l u d e d  variants  i n t h e Vowel  7k  Tra&ngle found on page 7.7 . [ k ' a y t ] , suat lainan etc.  [swat] , mul  f'laynan]  , saukun  Words l i k e l i a g  [lyag] . kait  [mwi?] , s a i t an [1* s a y t a n j , Q'sawkUn] ,  saurun  [sawrUnJ  a r e t o be i n t e r p r e t e d p h o n e m i c a l l y as / l i a g / ,  ,  /kait/,  / s u a t / , mui?/, / ' s a i t a n / , / ' l a i n a n / , /'saukun/, and / ' s a u r u n / respectively.  As consonants, however, / y / , and /w/ a r e  i n c l u d e d i n t h e s c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f consonants on page I'O^ .  The f a c t t h a t t h e y b o t h show c o n t r a s t s w i t h  o t h e r consonants i n t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l system o f t h e language and because o f t h e p r e s s u r e o f s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n d i s c u s s e d i n the  p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , means t h a t / y / and /w/ a r e g i v e n f u l l  phonemic s t a t u s .  75 5.2  THE  Earlier analysis  VOWELS i n this  s e c t i o n , i t has been mentioned  o f t h e T a u s u g phonemic s y s t e m h a s shown i t t o have  t w e n t y s e g m e n t a l phonemes. vowels  that the  and t h e r e m a i n i n g  Of t h e s e ,  three  are categorized  seventeen are c l a s s i f i e d  as  as  consonants.  The v o w e l phonemes a r e :  Those  / i /  as i n b i d / b i d /  *hill»  /a/  a s i n bat, / b a t i /  'sea cucumber*  /u/  as i n bud /bud/  'mountain*  categorized  as consonants  are':'  A/  as in pula /pulah/  *red*  A/  as in tuba /tuba?/  *a kind of drink made from palm*  A/  as in kula /kula?/  *pleats *  /?/  as in ulan /?ulan/  •rain'  A/  as in bula Aula?/  •bamboo split*  /d/  as in dulan /dulan/  *to grant' (something)  /g/  as in gula /gula?/  •nectar*  A/  as in juba /juba?/  'robe *  A/  as in mula /mulah/  *will become red*  A/  as in nunuk /nunuk/  •balete tree*  A/  as in ngan ./nan/  *name'  A/  as in sulab /sulab/  •blade'  A/  as in hula /hula?/  •place•  /!/  as in lura /lura?/  •sputum'  x  /r/  as  i n radju  /w/  as  i n walu  /w£luh/  'eight'  /y/  as  i n yari  /y&rih/  'here'  The  distinction  be made t o r e s t p u r e l y Differences  consonants tory  point  by  is  lungs,  o f a i r a t one  it  fails  first  articula-  by a  From t h e  are  articula-  f r e e passage  of a i r there  obstruction of the breath stream on  t h e way  of consonants  out from called  or  the  somants that  friction.  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the segmental  which  and  of view consonants  phonemes o f T a u s u g ,  the repertory  serve to differentiate  one  of  between t h e phonemes, as w e l l a s  their  our  distinctive  phoneme f r o m  b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i pof these  ship.  strictly  of both vowels  friction.  o r more p o i n t s  concern i s to describe  features  than  t h e b r e a t h - s t r e a m i s c o n s t r i c t e d i n s u c h a way  t o produce In  cavity.  I n t h e c a s e o f some c o n s o n a n t s ,  or i n the case of a group  (l,r,y,w),  point  are produced  c o n s t r i c t i o n or complete  current  i n the o r a l  cannot  judgment i n a d d i t i o n t o  p l o s i o n or audible  cavity.  on  consonants  classification  From the a u d i t o r y  of view, vowels  through the o r a l  and  or i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c rather  a r e made on a u d i t o r y  characterized tory  on what goes  D e s c r i p t i o n and  information.  'radio*  "between v o w e l s  are acoustic  articulatory.  /r&djUh/  another,  contrasts  distributional  relation-  77  5.  1.1  Like  Description  the vocoids,  phonemes a r e d e s c r i b e d tional the  lips.  tant the  factors:  which  to theteight  i s t h e more  t h e tongue  vowels  height  vowels  i s shown b y means  resultant  diagram  Figure  and t h e i r  7:  The Vowel Front  High  Low  three  /  i  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each  7 below)  Triangle Central  of  Tausug Back  M  /a/  the  which i s  Triangle'.'  /  back  I f the  of a schematic representation,  a s t h e 'Vowel  of  f r o n t , c e n t r a l , and  i s a t r i a n g l e (See f i g u r e  knoxm t r a d i t i o n a l l y  of  and the low vowels.  c o r r e s p o n d r e s p e c t i v e l y t o / i / , / a / , a n d /VL/. of the three  of  and  two c l a s s e s  t h e advancement o f t h e tongue,  of vowels a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d :  func-  impor-  the vowels  of the tongue,  the high  o f two  and t h e shape  When c h a r a c t e r i z i n g  as c r i t e r i o n  position other  on t h e b a s i s  i n two d i m e n s i o n s ;  advancement.  according  classes  level,' the vowel  The p o s i t i o n o f t h e tongue w h i c h  tongue  using  on t h e p h o n e t i c  and c l a s s i f i e d  vowels a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d But  Classification  t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e tongue  factor varies  Tausug  and  7  With dimensional  8;  t h e above diagrammatic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , contrasts  i n terms  advancement a r e b e t t e r  of tongue  illustrated  / i / i s shown above as a h i g h - f r o n t the low c e n t r a l  between  and  the three  tongue vowels.'  vowel which contrasts  with  / a / and the high-back vowel /u/.  Although vowel q u a l i t y tion  height  t h e two-  of the tongue,  i s chiefly  i ti s affected  Gn t h e p o s i -  to a considerable  the spreading or rounding of the lips,  e x t e n t by  The h i g h - f r o n t  :  with  The p a r a l l e l  i n t h e high-back range, / u / , has a moderately  rounding ward.  of the l i p s ,  The c e n t r a l  position.  ting  are  as w e l l  of t h e tongue  for-  which  as regards muscular tension i s  i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d  as determining vowel q u a l i t y .  I n t h e case of the h i g h vowels  i s made w i t h classified  the low c e n t r a l tongue  a little  l o w v o w e l / a / has a n unrounded,' n e u t r a l l i p  characteristic  or tense. tion  which a r e pursed and pushed  unrounded.  1  The s t a t e another  moderately spread and  vowel  /i/ i s articulated vowel  the lips  dependent  held  relatively  loosely  Vowels  are either l a x  / i / and / u / , a r t i c u l a -  s t r o n g muscle tension,' so t h a t  as tense vowels. area,  i n differentia-  On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  /a/.,i s a r t i c u l a t e d  and r e l a x e d ,  so that  with  they  the vowel of  the muscle  i t i s considered  of the as a l a x  vowel. The g e n e r a l i z e d the vowel  summary d e s c r i p t i o n a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  phonemes a c c o r d i n g  to their  distinctive  qualities are  of  7,9:.  listed  below: / i / - high-front, tense, /a/  - low-central,  /u/  - high-back,  5.'1.2 P h o n e m i c  1  lax,  tense,  unrounded unrounded rounded  Contrast  Phonemes a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m one a n o t h e r n o t o n l y i n the  light  of their  physical properties or features  elements which stand gical  i n contrast with  system o f t h e language.'  Hockett  each other  but a l s o as  i n the phonolo-  i n h i s book, A Course i n  39 Modern L i n g u i s t i c s ,  emphasizes  this  when he s a y s t h a t t h e  "sounds a n d d i f f e r e n c e s between them have one a n d o n l y  one  function  The  i n t h e language:  essential gives  quality  t o keep utterances  of contrast  apart".  or distinctiveness,  e a c h o f t h e v o w e l phonemes o f T a u s u g  therefore,  i t s phonemic  iden-  tity.' In  e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e phonemic s t a t u s  of the vowels of  Tausug,' m i n i m a l p a i r s o r p a i r s o f w o r d s ^ e a c h h a v i n g meaning and d i f f e r i n g are  c o n c l u s i v e and convincing  sounds do n o t b e l o n g pairs  one phoneme evidence  versus-low  examples a r e arranged  Hockett,  Thus,  oppositions  different one  that  feature  two  the following  of front-versus-  vowels a r e hereby l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y . according  v o w e l phonemes i n u t t e r a n c e s : —  or i n only  i n showing  t o t h e same phoneme.  o f words w h i c h show phonemic  back and h i g h The  by o n l y  a  op. cit,'  1  p.  15.'  t o the:. • o c c u r r e n c e s o f t h e  80  A/ Word i n i t i a l  -  A/  position  iban  /?iban/  ' companion*  uban  /?uban/  'white  ig  Aig/  'to  ug  Aug/  *possessiveness *  inum  /?inum/  *to  unum  /?unum/  *six*  ipat  /?ipat/  *to  upat  /?upat/  'four*  Isa  /?isah/  *Jesus  us a  /?usah/  *deer'  Word m e d i a l  hair'  g e t o u t ' o r ' t o remove*  drink*  take  care*  Christ'  position  bid  Aid/  bud  /bud/  hi lug  /hilug/  *to  scrub  t h e body'  hulug  /hulug/  'to  fall'  o r 'to drop'  kita  /kita?/  •to  see*  kuta  /kuta?/  •fort'  pilak  /pilak/  *hill* 'mountain*  'peso* or  pulak  /pulak/  (Philippine  'silver*  *abortion*  currency)  81  sibu  /sibu?/  'equal*  subu  /su'bu?/  'to feed'  ( a person)  kapil  /kapil/  'heathen*  (those  Moslem  faith)  kapul  /kapul/  ' t o embalm'  lahi  /lahi?/  'a v a r i e t y  lahu  /lahu?/  'eclipse'  lanit  /lanit/  of  bamboo'  ' t o remove by f o r c e that  has been  lanut  /lanut/  'abaca*  sabil  /sabil/  * t o r u n amuk*  sabul  /sabul/  *dirty* or  Word f i n a l  outside the  something  fastened'  *sloven'  position  kami  /kamih/  'we*  kamu  /kamuh/  'you' (2nd person p l u r a l  lahi  /lahi?/  »a v a r i e t y  lahu  /lahu?/  'eclipse'  landi  /landi?/  'flirt'  landu  /landu?/  'very  tapi  /tapi?/  *to d r y dock'  tapu  /tapu?/  'to alight  of  much*  dn'  bamboo'  number)  82  tlbl  /ti.bi?/  *chip*  tibu  /tibu?/  *to or  / i / Word i n i t i a l ibut  -  b o x someone on t h e  chest  back*  /a/  position /?ibut/  •verb  implying  forget  'please  never  1  abut  /?abut/  'to  c a t c h up,' o r ' t o r e a c h '  is  /?ig/  'to  g e t o u t ' o r ' t o remove'  ag  /?ag/  'considerateness'  ingat  /?inat/  'intelligence *  ang at  /?anat/  «to  l i f t '  ipu  /?ipu?/  •to  pick'  apu  /?apu?/  a  (flower, fruit, etc.)  term f o r 'grandparents* •grandchildren*  ilu alu Word m e d i a l  /?ilu?/  'orphan *  /?alu?/ position  bilu  /biluh/  balu  /baluh/  *dew*  or'drough'  •blue' •widow' o r w i d o w e r  libut  /libut/  •to  labut  /labut/  'to  pi l a  /pilah/  •how m u c h *  pala  /palah/  'shovel*  go  around'  serve*  1  or  83  silat  /silat/  'Moslem s e l f - d e f e n c e dance to  'judo'  salat  /salat/  ' b a r e l y enough'  tilam  /tilam/  'mattress'  talam  /talam/  'tray*  Word f i n a l  simi  position  basi  /basi?/  'steel'  basa  /basa?/  'wet*  bati  /bati?/  'awake'  bata  /bata?/  'child*  kami  /kamih/  *we'  kama  /kamah/  'mattress'  lupi  /lupi?/  ito  lupa  /lupa?/  'soil'  mami  /mami?/  'will  mama  /mama?/  «betei<  masi  /masih/  'still'  masa  /masah/  'time'  saoi  /sapi?/  'cow*  sapa  /sapa?/  'lake'  tagj  /tagih/  'fondness'  taga  /.tagah/  »you  or  'young'  or  'bed*  fold*  select* nut with other  or 'era'  call'  mixture'  84 /u/ - /a/ Word i n i t i a l ubat  syllable /?ubat/  'medicine'  abat  /?abat/  'bedevilled'  ubu  /?ubuh/  'cough'  abu  /?abuh/  'ashes'  us  /?ug/  'possessiveness *  ag  /?ag/  •considerateness *  unud  /?unud/  'flesh'  anud  /?anud/  'to  utas  /?utas/  'at t h e p o i n t o f  a t as  /?atas/  'responsible  Word m e d i a l  drift'  for*  exhaustion' o r 'stand  for*  position  kulang  /kulan/  'not  kalang  /kalarj/  'to  lubu  /lubuh/  *an of  sufficient* sing'  edible part a  of the intestine  seacucumber*  labu  /labuh/  pus a  /pusa?/  'banana  pasu  /pasu?/  'heat'  sulat  /sulat/  *letter*  salat  /salat/  •barely  •gourd'  tabu  /tabu?/  'market'  tubu  /tubu?/  •to  blossom*  or 'to write' enough'  grow*  85  Word  dahun  /dahun/  'leaf*  -  B  /dahan/  t  gapus  /gapus/  'embrace'  gapas  /gapas/  'gauze'  kapul  /kapul/  «to embalm'  iEapal  Aapal/  'thickness'  lubug  /lubug/  'disturbed water' (not clear)  lubag  /lubag/  'grime*  sabul  /sabul/  'dirty* or 'sloven*  sabal  /sabal/  »stoic»  d a h a  final  n  D r i n g  f o r  ,  position  /bisuh/  «deaf»  b l s a  /bisah/  'pain'  ^aku  /kaku?/  t  kaka  /kaka?/  'appellation given to older sister  b  *s"  w l  m l n e  i  or brother* -ltt  Ailuh/  «kilo»  kalu  /kaluh/  'quarrel'  lasu  /lasuh/  'ribbon'  las a  /lasah/  'love'  layu  Aayu?/  'farness'  lay^  /laya?/  kj  tfi  a t  surface'  86  11 su  /lisu?/  haziness*  11 sa  /lfsa?/  *egg o f l i c e *  pasu  •flower p o t  pasa  'to s i g n  plsu  /pisu?/  * sprain*  pisa  /p£sa?/  »smashed*  1  divorce*  pusu  'banana blossoms*  pusa  *to smash* o r * t o h a t c h *  Some l i n g u i s t s r e f e r t o t h e s e r i e s o f o p p o s i t i o n s a r e based on t h e same f e a t u r e s  ( l i k e t h e examples l i s t e d  above) a s a s e r i e s o f c o r r e l a t i o n * Tausug a r e i l l u s t r a t e d p o s i t i o n (front/back  which  Hence, t h e vowels o f  t o show c o r r e l a t i o n s i n tongue  a n d h i g h / l o w ) n d l i p shape ( s p r e a d / a  unrounded, a s w e l l a s l a x / t e n s e ) , 5.2.3  Allophonic  variation  A c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e vowels o f Tausug a s sounds r a t h e r  than a s u n i t s  ( i n the l i s t o f minimal  p a i r s above) r e v e a l s , m i c r o s c o p i c though t h e y may be, t h a t t h e r e a r e q u i t e a number o f v a r i a n t s i n t h e i r pronunciation.  Even when r e p e a t e d by t h e same p e r s o n ,  no two r e a l i z a t i o n s o f a g i v e n phoneme, a c c o r d i n g t o  linguists  and p h o n e t i c i a n s ,  A phoneme i s , t h e r e f o r e ,  a r e i n every respect  viewed as a d i s t i n c t i v e  of  s e v e r a l members  as  'allophones*, a term coined  plus  - phone  identical,  (phones)  unit  which are technically from  t h e Greek  ('sound') w h i c h means s o u n d s  alio  made  up  referred  to  -  ('other')  which f u n c t i o n as  41 members o f a phoneme". With a three-point expected  that  variation ever, that be his  t h e vowels  system l i k e  often d i f f i c u l t  Tausug,  of t h e language have wide  w h i c h make them a l l o p h o n i c a l l y t o demonstrate  complex.  the entire  i t c a n be  ranges of I t i s , how-  range  of variants  occurs i n the language, although i tshould t h e o r e t i c a l l y •  possible. actual  A native  usage  speaker of the language u s u a l l y  within a certain  phonetic variants ing  vowel  o f Tausug  will,  range.  t h e n , be l i m i t e d  a l l o p h o n e s o b s e r v a b l e among n a t i v e Some o f t h e a l l o p h o n i c  simply  reflect  dialectal  individual  nature.  the  influence  the  sound  i n question  precisely,  i s affected  t h e n a t u r e o f t h e sound  I n o t h e r words,  1  results  to  exist-  o f t h e v o w e l phonemes  that  they are the r e s u l t  of a of  is,' the production of  by i t s environment which precedes  the phonetic realizations  phonemes o f T a u s u g  only  among s p e a k e r s , o f t e n  however,  of phonetic context,  of the  speakers of the language.  variations  differences  Primarily,  Discussions  restricts  from d i f f e r i n g  o r , more  or follows  o f each o f t h e vowel distributions  i n given  utterances. English  ^A.C.Gimson, An Introduction t o the Pronunciation of ( London: A r n o l d L t d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p.To". ^ H a l l ,  op. c i t . ,  p. 26.  it.  88 >  The occurs  [ i ] allophone  i n stressed  lindung  f  h o w much',' i b a n  [ 'lindUrj] 'shade'.  more l a x a n d l o w e r e d  'fond  ['p'ikplk]  distribution stressed speakers,  like  does  inum  may/ t h e n ,  of the speakers.  Among  speech  whether a c e r t a i n pronunciation  other  inter-  unacceptable,  word.  word  f o r the use  on t h e h a b i t u a l  i t may  belongs  A  pronounced as ['?inUm]  Preference  depends  A t times  and un-  t h e use o f e i t h e r one  be heard  equal a c c e p t a b i l i t y .  e i t h e r one o f t h e a l l o p h o n e s  ciation  the complimentary  i n stressed  i t a f f e c t t h e meaning-of a given  'to drink'  tagi  and p i k p i k  respectively, i s consistent.  does n o t r e n d e r a person's  o r C?InUm] w i t h of  P o r some T a u s u g s p e a k e r s ,  or i n free v a r i a t i o n since  the other  neither  'sickness',  'beetle',  a  such as the  h o w e v e r , t h e t w o a l l o p h o n e s may b e u s e d  changeably for  syllable,  heard  of sakit ['sakit]  of t h e [ i ] and [ i ] allophones  syllable,  normally  'companion',  I n an unstressed  o f , kubing [ 'k'uplrp  'wing'.  [ '?igan]  variety, [ i ] , i s often  vowel i n the second s y l l a b l e ['t'aylh]  vowel  s y l l a b l e s as i n t h e examples b i d [ b i : d ]  'hill',' pil a ['p'ilah] and  of the high-front  be d i f f i c u l t  pronunto decide  to the [ i ] or [ i ] a l l o -  phone. The the  variants  unstressed kait  s e m i v o w e l [ y ] , w h i c h has b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d a s one o f o f t h e v o w e l / i / , may  syllable  [k'ayt]  'safety  follox^ing  occur  or preceding  p i n ' and b i a [bya?]  nature as a g l i d e , i t functions  only  i n either a stressed a full 'as i f ,  vocoid :  or  as i n  Because of i t s  a s a s e c o n d a r y member t o a  89  -.'•6  full  v o w e l and  n e v e r as  Parallel vowel are [i] ly  and  the  [ i ] , the  i n stressed  the  syllabic  of  and  the  [ u ] variants  unstressed  f o r the  or  between the  two  so  may  freely  usage.  one  be  used  T h u s , manghud  ['maijhud] o r  nally cup be  heard  heard  variants  as  i n the  i n some t y p e s  e x a m p l e m a n g h u d may,  of  then,  of or  tubu  vowel  informal  for [u]  ['t'ugU?]  and  other  s i s t e r ' may close  [A]  than [ u ] ,  vowels  great,  in  actual  be  t o [v]  as  as  i n the  heard in  as  the  occasioEnglish  word  of E n g l i s h  rapid pronunciation.  h e a r d as  by  dialects.  necessarily  i n book [ b v k ] or  man'  occasionally  the  sound  are  'young  f  many u n s t r e s s e d  be  examples  [ su(3Ul]  i s not  i n place  the  respective-  Typical  replaced  i n North American English, o r [©]  [ k A p ] , -  of  occur  in certain idiolects  Sometimes a  unrounded p r o n u n c i a t i o n  Like  1  be  high-front  /u/.  'to hammer , and  'younger b r o t h e r  'manhUd],  the  /u/  more l i p - r o u n d i n g  distinction that  of  the  'bone', s u b u l  vice versa,  considerably  of  syllables.  a l l o p h o n e [ u ] may 1  variants  high-back vowel,  pukpuk ['p'ukpUk]  The  center.  allophonic  bukug ['bukUg]  variant [u],  Except  [u]  and  'bachelor',-  'to grow'.  the  allophones  words s u c h as or  to  a  [ m a n h i r d ] , manhAd],  may  The or  [manhsd]. The allophone full  of  vocoid  [w]  variant  /i/. as  of  /u/  I t functions  i n the  behaves only  as  words baus [baws]  in like a  manner t o  the  s e c o n d a r y member t o  'to b a r g a i n ' ,  mui  [y] a  [mwi?]  'to  go  home', b u a d [ b w a d ]  'to dry'," e t c .  Among some T a u s u g s p e a k e r s or a  influence,' a realization  c e n t e r e d [ i ] and  of / i / and [ui]  s y m b o l i z e d as  Qi]  a  l i pposition  less  lip  spread  position  like  pisu  ['?'ivwn]  as  and  /u/  b u k u g ['brakrag] In  the  case  and  heard  central  i n some t y p e s 'drinking  which of  'will  or'gravel',  heard as  ['b&sUh], [''d*?ye.n]['JfeLSn], a n d :  respect;  1  abu 1  the variants  [ a ] and  o f t h e two 3.'2.4  In  (negation)V  front  a  bilabial  lower variant or a g l o t t a l  so  [a] i s sound.  that  words  be  respectively.'  [a] are said  t o be  in  variation  a l l o p h o n e s , [ a ] and [ a ] .  Distribution  a g i v e n language,  like  kalang  [ ' ? a p U h ] ' a s h e s ' may ['?SgUh]  A  consonants  'to r u n '  c o m p l e m e n t a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n , ' w h i l e [&~| i s i n f r e e either  igun  1  a more  dagan ['dayan] and  i n words  buy ,  'no'  1  'brave'.'  speech,  'to s i n g '  are  unrounded  p a t t e r n s w i t h any  informal  glass',  an  occur  to occur following  a velar  as  i s made w i t h  has  vowel,  ['k'alan]  this  [*i]  m a i s u g [ma'?'iswg]  either  may  In  The  These vowels  a more b a c k and  central allophone,  ['basUhl  These sounds  b i h u n ['b'ihwnQ  been observed  raised  basu  ;  than [ i ] , while [w]  of the low  to occur following  be  respectively.  'sprain',  origin  unrounded [ u ] are heard  respectively.  'bone',' a n d  d e n t a l consonant  found  of Gimbahanun  r e m o v e ' , b u k u n ['bmkmn] ' n o t ' o r  v a r i e t y ; " [ a ] , has or  an  compared w i t h [ u ] .  ['p'lsw?] 'will  o f STP  some p h o n e m e s a r e o f  frequent  with  91  occurrence, others is  some a r e n o t .  are restricted.  great.  Sometimes d i s p a r i t y  With  v o w e l s , hoxvever,  usually  greater than with  sounds d i r e c t l y The  They  vowels  occur both  the frequency of occurrence i s  certain  concerned  consonants,  as vowels a r e  i n forming s y l l a b i c  o f Tausug have u n r e s t r i c t e d  i n open s y l l a b l e ,  centers.  distribution.  CV, ( a s i n p i l a  /p£-lah/  and p u l a / p u - l a h /  and  tinda /tin-dan/  1  syllable,  tan-da /tanda?/ Except consonants vowel The  CVC,  f o r/y/, the high-front  /u/ occurs following  low central  structures 5.2.5 In  (i.e.,  ' p r o o f , and punda / p u n d a h / ' p i l l o w  o f the language.  with  vowel  vowel  o f t h e language  the semivowels,  /w/. I t  (cf. section  a brief  o f Tausug.  out  that  o r [w]  when t h e s e m i v o w e l [ y ]  v o w e l , w i t h i n t h e same s y l l a b l e  diphthongs  except  3.1).  Diphthongs  been g i v e n o f t h e diphthongs  I t has been p o i n t e d  structures  i s interpreted  premise, the following  o f Tausug:  description  with  a  full  forming a complex n u c l e u s , t h e  c o m b i n a t i o n o f two sounds  On t h i s  case*).  occurrence.  has  thong.  'store',  / i / follows a l l  a l lother consonants,  / a / has u n r e s t r i c t e d  connection with  resultant  'red')  I n t h e same w a y , t h e h i g h - b a c k  a l l consonants  The  frequency  isolated  'how m u c h ' , p a l a / p a - l a h / ' s h o v e l , i n closed  while  i n relative  S o m e t i m e s a phoneme o c c u r s i n o n l y a f e w  words.  the  Some o c c u r i n a l l p o s i t i o n s ,  as a  are classified  as  diph-  /ia/  /ai/  /ua/  /au/  /iu/  /ui/  biak  /biak/  'was  siam  /siam/  'nine'  lain  /lain/  'to  kait  /kait/  'safety  buad  /buad/  •to d r y '  luan  /luan/  'cargo'  baus  /baus/  'to  bargain'  maun  /maun/  •to  go  slud  /siud/  'entered'  tlud  /tiud/  'was  huis  /huis/  'judge'  mui  /mui/  'go  Phonemically, a l lthe diphthongs interpreted a  pure  vowel  resulting of  vowel  because  as consisting  i n complex n u c l e i :  from  of their close-knit  a monolithic principle advisable. of  effect.  nuclei  of view,  However, w i t h  i n this analysis, A monophonematic  Tausug would  pin'  there'  pushed'  home'  o f Tausug a r e t o be  S + V a n d V + S.  o f sounds h a r d l y  the l i s t e n e r ' s point  transfer'  vowel  phoneme o r s e m i v o w e l  have been i n t e r p r e t e d  ween t h e sequences  1  o f two s e p a r a t e s i n g l e  (V) a n d a g l i d e  could  met  as s i n g l e which  ( S ) , thus  These  clusters  phonemic  units  make d i s t i n c t i o n b e t -  noticeable. such  phonemes,  In addition,  close-knit  nuclei  give  s i m p l i c i t y as the working  such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n interpretation  mean a d d i n g s i x a d d i t i o n a l  i s not  of the diphthongs phonemes t o t h e  phonological  inventory  s y m b o l s to r e p r e s e n t distinguish however  them f r o m t h e s i m p l e  wrong  also  the unit  interpretation  o f t h e sequences  t h e consonant element  t h e m a r g i n a l consonant  structures  It  of the language  should  interpretation  that  syllabic  sounds  i n Tausug  center  which functions  or syllable  at this  instead,  it.  final that  positions.  t h e biphonema-  n o t mean t h a t t h e phonemes. inter-  ( c f . p. 8 5 ) . carries  only  one s t r e s s , t h e  i n a diphthong i s t h e pure vowel while only as a secondary element  diphthongs.  clusters  i n t h e language without an  a syllable  diphthong,' a d i s t i n c t i o n  Such  :  the syllable  a r e made u p o f p u r e v o w e l  With regards t o the s y l l a b i c  'falling'  point  o f t h e d i p h t h o n g s does  consonant r e s u l t i n g Since  since  them  C ,+; V o r  precedes o r follows  initial  combination i s impossible  vocalic  (i.e.,  ( c f . s e c t i o n 4) d o n o t p e r m i t  be m e n t i o n e d  combination of vocalic Such  o f two  forms a c l u s t e r ,  i snot possible,  consonants i n s y l l a b l e  tic  which  ( d i s c u s s e d above a s a d i p h t h o n g ) would be t o t r e a t  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , ' however,  of  treatment i s  a s one o f s i m p l i c i t y . "  alternative  V + C ) , so that  to  said",  i s a difference  as a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a consonant and a vowel  with  be needed  v o w e l s . " I t cannot be  o r inadequate,' y e t there  can be d e s c r i b e d An  M o r e o v e r , a new s e t o f  t h e s i x phonemes w o u l d  ( t ou s e Swadesh'swords)" t h a t  basically  sounds  of the language.  According  i s non-syllabic.  and n o n - s y l l a b i c  i s made b e t w e e n  so-called  to Francis,  the glide  parts  of a  ' r i s i n g ' and  " t h e terms  refer to  9k  l  the  position  diphthong  i n time  of the stressed,  in relation  diphthongs  which  to that  consist  •'rising d i p h t h o n g s .  es.  On  vowels  increase  of preliminary  i n intensity  the contrary, plus  the g l i d e . "  off-glides  are  which  called  Thus  t o as  of stress  diphthongs  part.'of i n  'on-glides'  They are r e f e r r e d  1  relative  of  syllabic  as  Tausug,  are  called  s u c h , due  to  the s y l l a b l e  consists  falling  the  of  the  progress-  syllabic  diphthong, because  of  42 the of  decrease  i n intensity  these d i s t i n c t i o n s ,  with  the stress  of s y l l a b l e  stress.  Tausug diphthongs  mark  showing Rising  On  the  are grouped  the s y l l a b i c  as  strength follows  center:  diphthongs  1&  itf.  uS-  ui  Falling  diphthongs &1  au As  shown i n t h e above  predictable. of  /!&/,  I t falls  Al&/,  /3d./,  vowels  as  i n /ui/  ponent  of  the  To although Unlike  and  and  of diphthongs, stress  t h e more open v o w e l , /du/.  /in/,  But  where  the stress  /a/, i n the  there are  falls  on  two  is case  high  the second  com-  diphthongs.  some e x t e n t ,  the r e s u l t  the  on  listing  true  i s a  a l lvowels  somewhat a f f e c t e d  diphthongs  Francis,  o f . T a u s u g may  op.cit.,  d i s c u s s e d above, p.  106.  style  be d i p h t h o n g i z e d , of  speech.  a d i p t h o n g i z e d vowel  is  non-distinctive  o r non-phonemic,  replaces  a pure vowel  becoming  [ulj]  i n t h e sense  o r [ U A ] i n bud [ b u d ]  [buUd] o r  i s no change  i n meaning  involved.  front  vowel, diphthongization  sometimes  the  or [is]  as i n s i n [ s i n ]  low central o r [aA]  i n laic [ l a k ]  been  observed that  phonemes r e s u l t transition central  lowing of  [bUAd]'mountain',  I n the case results  i n /if  diphthongized  forms  becoming With  forms a r e  o r [ l a A k ] ' m u s c l e s '.  I t has  of the vowel  of the vowel sounds.  f r o m one phoneme t o t h e n e x t u s u a l l y glide  of the high-  or [sisn]'money',  diphthongized  from lengthening  results  The i n a  sound.  The T r i p h t h o n g s  A triphthong semivowels  [lask]  the various  or centralized 5,3.  [siln]  vowel, / a / , possible  [aa]  when i t  o f t h e same c a t e g o r y a s f o r i n s t a n c e , / u /  there  [ i l ]  that  i n Tausug  occurring w i t h i n  c o n s i s t s c f a p u r e v o w e l a n d two 0  one s i n g l e  combinations of vowel  syllable.  phonemes a r e l i s t e d  Thus, as  the f o l -  triphthongs  the language: / i a i /  /uau/  /uai  kiait  /kiait/  'was p i n n e d '  siait  /siait/  ' w a t e r was r e m o v e d  duaun  /duaun/  •by t w o ' s '  buaun  /buaun/  'will rock to sleep'  buaih  /buaih/  'place  rattan'  request  /iau/  or  kuaih  /kuaih/  'wind  biaus  /biaus/  'bargained'  siaud  /siaud/  'to receive  (on something-  command)  i t ' (request  receptable'  from the boat'  or  something  command)  with  96  Although,  from a l i s t e n e r ' s  t o be a n i n d i v i s i b l e triphthong, plicated  this  peripheral  not  as a pure As all  Since high a  For instance,  difficult  consists  t o a n a l y z e t h e comhowever,  of three  separate  / i a u / i s a combination of the  vowels / i / and / u / f u n c t i o n  obviously  single  o f Tausug o r 'open'  vowels, and since  peak o f prominence,  p h o n e m e , /a./ f o r m s t  siaud,  i s the low central vowel  center  Thus,  than the  carries  only  the vowel  of a triphthongal nucleus,  / u / a n d /!/ i n /uau/,  a s s e c o n d a r y members.  and/buaih/ with  i n Tausug that  element  vowel / a / .  i s more s o n o r o u s  a syllable  and buaih a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y  /siaud/,  the central  i ti s predictable  the syllabic  t h e marginal vowels  function  that  as semivowels b u t  shown i n t h e above l i s t ,  the triphthongs  or close  here  vowel.  the low central  while  o f sounds  seems  t o the other i n a  / i + a + u / , a l t h o u g h i t s h o u l d b e made c l e a r  the  in  f r o m one v o w e l  i t i s sometimes  sequence  phonemes.  vowels  of view, there  n u c l e u s a s made u p o f i n d e p e n d e n t v o w e l s ,  basically vowel  so that  movement  point  /iau/,  t h e words k a i t .  transcribed  and/ u a i / duauan,  as / k i a i t / ,  t h e a c c e n t mark showing  /duaun/,  t h e prominent  sound, 5.3 The  The  process of finding  system o f Tausug tion, gruity  Consonants  consists  phonetic similarity,  out and formulating  i n applying identity  t o a l lt h e phone-types  t h e phonemic  the criteria  of function,  of distribu-  and p a t t e r n con-  of the language, thus combining the  m  latter  whenever circumstances  other words,  allow  the classificatory  phones under t h e c a t e g o r y  into functional units.  process  involves  o f one phoneme a s , f o r i n s t a n c e ,  pais  [ ' p » a ? I s ] ' s k i n ' a n d [ p ] i n a t u p [<£?atup]  Both  sounds a r e grouped under t h e consonant  of  t h e i r being  and  cedure, and  phonetically  having an i d e n t i c a l contoids  5.2),  5.3*1  fied,  contrast  and  according  As a whole,  pro-  [y],  the contoids  on  phonemes  the contoids criteria:  I n the case of stop  the contrastive  i n 'bundles'  classi-  t o the p o s i t i o n of the tongue and  of several  and d i f f e r e n -  of the language) a r e  point  consonants,  made i n t h e a b s e n c e o r p r e s e n c e  following:  i n view  Classification  and manner o f there  i s a  further  of voicing.  features  a s d i f f e r e n t i a t e one c o n s o n a n t  together  [gi] -  i n t o seventeen consonant  (like  on two d i m e n s i o n a l  Normally,  n  phonemes / t / , / k / ,  description, classification,  of the consonants  articulation.  i  roofing'.  organizational  t h e v o w e l phonemes o f T a u s u g a r e d e s c r i b e d ,  shape o f t h e l i p s ,  made m a i n l y  t  [p^]  ;  and contrasted  tiation  well  On t h e s a m e  i n t o consonant  grouped  Description  While  p h o n e m e , /v/  - [ t ] , ' [ k ' G - [ k ] , [ b ] - [g],  [V..]  p a g e 5^ a r e c o n v e n i e n t l y  the  function.  / d / , / g / , and / r / r e s p e c t i v e l y .  ,('cf.' s e c t i o n  'palm l e a f  certain  similar,' complementarily d i s t r i b u t e d ,  [ r ] - [ii] are c l a s s i f i e d  /b/,  subsuming  In  that  characterize  as  from another a r e grouped  features  a t a time  such as the  -  voiceless  bilabial  voiceless  dental  A/ -  voiceless  velar  /?/  -  voiceless  glottal  A/  -  voiced  bilabial  A/ -  voiced  dental  /g/  -  voiced  velar  / j /  -  voiced d e n t a l a f f r i c a t e d  /p/ /t/  stop  stop stop stop  /h/  -  voiceless  glottal  /m/  -  voiced  bilabial  voiced  dental  voiced  velar  voiced  dental  lateral  voiced  dental  flap  A/ -  voiced  labio-velar  /y/  voiced  palatal  -  / l /  -  /r/  -  distinction  -  the l i s t  i n voicing  consonants  counterparts  stop  dental . .fricative  In surveying  stop  stop  voiceless  /»/  less  stop  A/ -  /n/  way  stop  /b,d,g/  /p,  fricative  nasal  nasal nasal  semiconsonant  semiconsonant  of Tausug  i s observable  t , k/  i n pairs  consonants above, among t h e s t o p s . '  show c o n t r a s t w i t h such  as:  pilu  /piluh/  'tightly  bilu  /biluh/  'blue'  rolled'  their  a  twoVoice  voiced  99  tagUH  /ta'gun/  'will  call'  dagun  /dagun/  'will  climb'  - . . . . . . . ,  ^  kila  /k'ilah/  '  r  gila In  pair  the  /gi'lah/  up Tausug s t o p s  differing  voice.' nasals  semivowels ceases  w  i t h /m,  from  only  a p p e a r s a s one  one member  consonants  /y,w/ w h i c h a r e n o r m a l l y i n other  o f each  i n the absence o r presence - the affricated  n y n/?.i t h e t l a t e r a l : / l / , t h e f l a p  t o be d i s t i n c t i v e  voiced,  words.  stop  consonants  /w/  / j / ,  / r / , and the  the voice  feature  The l a t t e r g r o u p do n o t  v o i c e l e s s consonants which would a l l o w  them up i n c o n t r a s t i v e p a i r s .  voiceless  distinction  i n opposed p a i r s ,  the other  the other  have corresponding set  'careless'  e a c h case,' t h e v o i c e d - v o i c e l e s s  which sets  of  'to recognize'  ^  us t o  T h e same i s t r u e w i t h t h e  a n d / h / w h i c h have no c o n t r a s t i v e  voiced  counterparts.' In regard dimensional  t o manner o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ,  contrast  1. ' S t o p s :  among T a u s u g  there  i s a  seven-  consonants:  /p,t,k,?/ /b.d.'g/  A stop completely closure 2.  i s a consonant blocked  produced with  a t some p o i n t  i n the speech  of t h e passage through which  Affricated This  the air-stream  the a i r  tract  by  flows.  Stop:/ j /  i s a consonant a r t i c u l a t e d  above b u t immediately  followed  like  the stop /d/  by a r e l a t i v e l y  slow  100  release  which allows  producing 3.  audible  Fricatives:  t h e a i r t o escape  slowly  friction.  /s,h/  When a c o n s o n a n t passage  so that  audible  friction,  i s made b y c o n s t r i c t i n g t h e  the current  of a i r escapes  t h e r e s u l t a n t sound  with  i s called  a  fricative. 4.  Nasals:  /m,n,n/  A nasal  consonant  completely the  5.  Lateral:  nasal  the oral  through the nasal  resonance.  i s a consonant  made w i t h  i . e . by t h e contact  complete  escape  6.  Flap: / r / A flap  rapid ridge,  t i p against  of t h e a l v e o l a r r i d g e , but l e a v i n g an o f t h e tongue  t o allow  of the a i r .  i s a consonant  contact  articulated  o f t h e tongue  often repeated  restricted  closure  of the oral  o f t h e tongue  a t one o r b o t h s i d e s  the  passage,  /!/  middle part  opening  cavity  lowered t o allow  t h e f r o n t and i n t h e middle l i n e  cavity, the  t o escape  producing  This at  c l o s e d , and t h e velum  air-stream  thus  i s made w i t h  t o a very  t i p against  t o produce short  by t h e very the alveolar  a t r i l l ,  flap-like  stop.  sometimes  iol 7.  Semiconsonants: The  /y,w/  semi cons onants  consonant and a vowel both.  a r e intermvi&iiate between a partaking  They a r e v o i c e d  without Their  friction  sounds g e n e r a l l y  articulation  corresponds  to that  shorter  d u r a t i o n and a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  analysis,  having  /i/  between / j /  and the dental  (a native  jabul /j3bul/  'moro d a n c e p e r f o r m e d relatively  voiced  feature.  manner  i n which  affrication, like  1  stop  /jagah/  by stamping  like Ja  f l o u r ) v s . da /dah/ 'guard' v s . daga v s . dabul  the feet'.'  i.e. / j /  /d/ i sarticulated  ( o f banana) w h i c h  sounds.  contrast  Both  /dSibul/ / j /  o f t h e language, like  i sdifferent  / j /  and / d /  as w e l l as the  i s made w i t h  without  'to  /d^gah/  distinguishing characteristic  semivowel v a r i a n t o f / i / i n words fried'  stop  i n words  of articulation  each i s produced,  consonants  economical  the other  /d/ exists  ' t o do m i s c h i e f  The o n l y  change.'  i s not possible since  t h e same; p o i n t  while  a l l other  with  c a k e made f r o m r i c e  o r 'to bring*,' jaga  •female',  share  however,  constant f r o m one  would have been a n  grouped along  have  or falling  t o a n o t h e r with s w i f t f r e q u e n c y  classification,  carry'  of the high  / i / and / u / r e s p e c t i v e l y , but they  A six-way d i s t i n c t i o n  /jah/  sustained.  vowels,  point  of  articulated  a n d made r a p i d l y - n e v e r  movement o r t r a n s i t i o n ^ r i s i n g  Such  i n the nature  it.  ;  i s the slight  In addition,  clusters with the  j i u w a l a n /jiuwa'aan/ from  t h e word  .juwalan  'was  102  /juwalan/  'fried  interpreted contrast  banana*  (noun).  as a / d / plus  between /d + i  sound  cannot  be  the semivowel v a r i a n t  of / i /  since  / + V and / j + i/+ V are found i n  such words as d i a n d i / d i a h d i h / /jianji?/ for'  The / j /  *was p r o m i s e d  to ,  fabric'  diahan /diahan/  1  and j i a h a n / j i a h a n /  'cotton  'made  'ja' for*  and  jianji  'brought  something  ( f o r ' j a ' see l a s t  paragraph o f preceding!-page). When d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g tory  p o s i t i o n s , a four-way  voiceless made  stops  /p,t,k,?/.  between b i l a b i a l ,  glottal  positions.  like  pilu  kilu  /kiluh/  stops  /piluh/  consonants distinction  /b,d,g/, there  i s a three-xmy  /bula?/  'bamboo s p l i t ' ,  The  in  consonant  'orphan,-*. contrast  dulang /dulan/  'to throw', With the voiced  involving  bilabial,  i n words l i k e  bula  'a t r a y o f f o o d ' ,  i s phonetically categorized  sound, but s i m p l i c i t y  blem has been solved stops.  and  I t i s believed  a n y way  of  the language; neither  that  ( t o paraphrase Hall) does  skewness / j / such  43 into artificial parallelism.  Hall,  op. c i t . , p,  97.  i n patterning, the pro-  a s a phoneme among t h e classification  do v i o l e n c e  i tforce  43  as an  i s one o f t h e w o r k i n g p r i n c i p l e s  by c l a s s i f y i n g  in  elements  i n s e r i e s o f words  /tilu?/  observable  phonemic a n a l y s i s and t o a v o i d  dental  among t h e  'molasses*.  / j /  alveopalatal  tilu  and i l u / ? { l u h /  and v e l a r a r t i c u l a t i o n  /gula?/  a r e found  rolled',  dental,  gula  i s observable  ( i n c l u d i n g a l v e o l a r ) , v e l a r , and  Such c o n t r a s t s  'kilo',  to articula-  From f r o n t t o back, d i s t i n c t i o n i s  dental  'tightly  according  does not  t o the phonetic  completely  disparate  facts  103  like the  the voiced  stops,  three-way d i s t i n c t i o n  bilabial, /mabih/ •give  /n/, a dental,  »can b u y , n a b i  the nasal  i n point  of articulation,  fricative  'prophet*, a n d n g a n i  latory  position.  dental  and g l o t t a l ,  there  mabi  /qanih/  while  starting  o r near the vowel l i m i t ,  be  described  or  near the vowel l i m i t .  as s t a r t i n g  although  labiovelar respectively.  ing  principle,  sometimes they  With  /y/ i s classified  simplicity  of articulation they  again  under dentals,  as t h e work-  while  been p o i n t e d  out that  they  a  few a r t i c u l a t o r y are arranged  stop  / j / ,  lateral  does n o t f u n c t i o n as a  do n o t have  I n t h e above d i s c u s s i o n s  phoneme s h a r e s  as a l v e o p a l a t a l  /w/ i s  bilabials.  since  features  manner c a n  positions f o r /y/  are classified  I n t h e case o f t h e a f f r i c a t e d  relatively  i n like  T h e r e a r e no f i x e d  and  feature  as f r o n t  from t h e back p o s i t i o n l i k e w i s e on  /w/,  / r / , point  described  from the front p o s i t i o n  a n d t h e /w/  and  with  i n articu-  / s / and / h / a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y  /y/ i s generally  on  categorized  i s a two-way c o n t r a s t  The f r i c a t i v e s  o r more p r e c i s e l y a s o u n d  These  a  consonants / s / and / h / and t h e semi-  c o n s o n a n t s / y / a n d /w/,  ing  being  a name*. With  flap  /m/  a n d / n / , a v e l a r i n examples l i k e /nabih/  1  c o n s o n a n t s /m,n,n/ h a v e  contrasting  o f Tausug  / l / , and contrast-  counterparts.  consonants^ i t has  a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m one a n o t h e r by differences  or contrastive  i n s u c h a way t h a t  some c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e  with  each  other  features.  consonant consonants  r  although a  each  difference  o f them i s s e t o f f f r o m  (see  gives  next  phonemes a c c o r d i n g  a diagrammatic  consonant  by  quality.  Contrast  to their  contrastive  arrangement  7  as shown i n F i g u r e  page).  Although the  every other  i n a t l e a s t one d i s t i n c t i v e  between t h e consonant features  104  i t i s not of the essence  schematic representation  functional  i s useful  o f phonemic  analysis,  i n understanding better the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the consonant  phonemes  i n terms  44 of a  their relevant series  and  features.  Figure  of i n t e r s e c t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  presence  culation.  of voice,  point  As shown i n t h e d i a g r a m , Tausug  o r more o f t h e s e c o n t r a s t i v e  ces  evident,  contrasts, (slanting  pointing  stop /p,t,k/  articulation  (i.e.,  flap,  Cental,  stop,  differ  by  o f phonemic  b y means o f d i a g o n a l  a f f r i c a t e d stop,  lines  distinction  lines f o r contrast  to their  (i.e., voiced  i n manner o f  fricative,'  nasal,  t o s e m i c o n s o n a n t ) , a n d h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s t o show  i n articulatory positions,  (i.e.,  from b i l a b i a l  to  v e l a r , and on t o g l o t t a l ) . Unlike  rare  from  arti-  To make s u c h d i f f e r e n -  as r e s p e c t i v e l y opposed  /b,d,g/), v e r t i c a l  t o the absence  consonants  of voiced-voiceless  counterparts  illustrates  and manner o f  each dimensions  out the differences  l i n e s ) i n t h e case  differences  features.  l i n e s a r e drawn a l o n g  voiceless  lateral,  according  of articulation,  one  the  7 conveniently  the vowel  system,  t o find..._t.he e n t i r e c o n s o n a n t  i ti s relatively system  difficult  t o be p e r f e c t l y  and  symmetri-  105  F i g u r e : 8 i The  Consonant Diagram f o r Tausug  106  cal  throughout.  them - e x i s t  Some g a p s  - or  i n the system.  'holes'  The  stop  as  linguists  consonants, f o r instance,  h a v e a p e r f e c t " b a l a n c e "between t h e v o i c e l e s s a n d from b i l a b i a l ponding the  t o d e n t a l , and  voiced  glottal  voiceless glottal  said  to exist  stop  to v e l a r .  i n t h e system.  h o w e v e r , i n t h e same a r t i c u l a t o r y of  symmetry i n p a t t e r n i n g 5.3.2  Phonemic  It  been a l l u d e d  has  phoneme a s a being  c o n t r a s t wifch / b / /b3?is/  /m£sah/  'period  criterion status.'  /p/,  like  pais  tilu  consonant,  /?/, the  problem  discussions  or  'orphan'.  consonant  S a u s s u r e went  /pa?is/  obtains i t s  'skin' versus  /?/,i.e.,  contrast  /p/  'swear'  i n point  'threw', k i l u  pilu  of  f a r as  bais  is i n and  masa  articula-  /pfJLuh/  /kiluh/ is.the  'kilo', fundamental  phoneme i t s f u n c t i o n a l o r  even as  sound  i n the matter of v o i c i n g , i t  pasa /p&sah/  In short,  a  from  phenomena i n t h e  for instance,  'era',' w h i l e  /tilu?/  that  i t s function  I n manner o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ,  t o / t / , /k/,/and  i n giving a De  1  the fact that  of time'  tightly',  i l u/?ilUh/  Thus,  comparable  i n a pair like  i t i s opposed  'rolled and  t o /m/  to i n previous  other  i n words  'f l i r t i n e s s ' . '  opposition  tion,  with  f u n c t i o n from  is  solved.  phonemenon d e r i v e s  of the language.  special  corres-  Contrast  linguistic  i n qppposition  system  is  a  impossibility,  the v o i c e l e s s /h/ p o s i t i o n as  1  stops  i s unmatched, thus,' a h o l e  With  1  voiced  However, s i n c e  i s an a r t i c u l a t o r y  consonant  term  t o say t h a t what  phonemic really  107  matters entity  i n a l a n g u a g e a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n one and To  able is one  differ  distinctively,  two consonant  i n t h e same p o s i t i o n  where t h e d i s c o v e r y  of minimal  pairs are listed  according  the three  pairs,  and arranged  piece  The  below i na l p h a b e t i c a l  i n an utterance  fundamental  criteria  used  Vs.  and  according  i n differentiating  them.  Voiced  -  /b/  Word i n i t i a l  position  pay  /pay/  'unhusked  bay  /bay/  'house  pais  this  i n only  of evidence.  position  /p/  Again,  which d i f f e r  to their  Voiceless  Word  phonemes must be  and environment.  phoneme o r f e a t u r e , i s a c o n v i n c i n g  order to  another.  t o occur  minimal  language  rice'  1  /pa?is/'skin'  bais  /ba?is/*f lirthiess  pilu  /piluh/*tightly  bilu  /biluh/«blue«  puad  /puad/  «to c u t d o w n ' ( a t r e e , p o s t , e t c . )  buad  /buad/  'to dry*  1  rolled'  medial apas  /?apas/  'to run after'  abas  /?abas/  'a k i n d o f i r r i t a t i o n skin'  of the  108  sapal  /sapal/  •by  sabal  /sabal/  •stoic*  saput  /saput/  ' l i n e n used f o r wrapping  sabut  /sabut/  'to  tapil  /tapil/  •side  tabil  /tabil/  •iguana*  Word f i n a l  product  of a grated  coconut*  the  dead*  comprehend'  by  side*  position  kutup  /kutup/  •to b i t e *  (one*s  kutub  /kutub/  *beating*  (of the  lukup  /lukup/  'to s c r a p t h e mossy on  of a  (of a  thing)  'cover*  silap  /silap/  'crazy*  silab  /silab/  'sudden  Word i n i t i a l  substance  sides  /lukub/  tongue)  heart)  the  lukub  A/  l i p or  boat'  flame*  - /d/  position  tabul  /tabul/  *germ o f a  dabul  /dabul/  *moro d a n c e *  taga  /tagah/  'you  daga  /dagah/  •has r e a c h e d  tahun  /tahun/  »>h e a r '  dahun  /dahun/  'leaf  call*  coconut  fruit*  (stamping  (him or age  of  of the  her) puberty  1  feet)  109  ti  /tih/  'tea'  di  /din/  •here'  tilam  /tilam/  'mattress *  dilam  /dilam/  'precious  tung  /tun/  (a  term  as dung  /dun/  'the  tungug  /tunug/  dungug  /diinug/  Word f i n a l  rent  stones'  used  set aside  f o r c a r d , mahjong, e t c . )  front  'tan  i n gambling  part  of a ship'  bark'  'to  listen'  serve*  position  labut  /labut/  'to  labud  /labud/  •millipede'  lahut  /lahut/  •a k i n d o f  lahud  /lahud/  s abut  /sabut/  sabud  /sabud/  A/ Word i n i t i a l  'mark l e f t  knife' after  one h a s b e e n  •understand' 'to  -  throw something  /g/  position  kaban  /kaban/  •coffin*  gaban  /gaban/  'to  katas  /katas/  'paper'  gatas  /gatas/  •milk'  come u p  1  i n spray*  whipped'  110  kila  /kilah/  •to  glla  /gilah/  'careless  1  kula  Aula?/  'pleats'  (on a curtain,  gula  /gula?/  'molasses'  kulung  /kulun/  ..'curl' o r  gulung  /gulun/  'wheel'  Word m e d i a l ikut  recognize'  'curly'  position /?ikut/ .  •selfishness *  \  igut  Aigut/  •oil  sukal  /sukal/  'sugar*  sugal  /sugal/  'playing  card'  tukas  /tilkas/  'to  out*  tugas  /tugas/  •hardness'  tukun  /tukun/  'to  tugun  /tugun/  •order*  Word f i n a l  dress, etc.)  gland of a chicken'  find  press  down'  (something)  position  pulak  /bulak/  'unripe'  bulag  /bulag/  •a d i s e a s e o f t h e e y e s '  sulak  /sulak/  'to  sulag  /sulag/  'piece*  refuse'  (a white  spot)  I l l  Manner of Voiceless  s t o p vs.  A/ Word  Articulation Voice  -  fricative  / s /  initial position talam  /talam/  'tray  s a l am  /salam/  'hand  tapal  /tapal/  •protection*,  sapal  /sapal/  'by-product  tibi  /tibi?/  sibi  /sibi?/  'smallness'  tud  /tud/  'to  sud  /sud/  'a s p e c i a l  kind  removing  lice'  tung  /tun/  Word m e d i a l  /sun/  shake  (gambling  *shield*  from  grated  coconut*  *to  term  o f comb u s e d f o r  f o r money s e t a s i d e  r e n t f o r c a r d s , mahjong, move  forward*  position /batuh/  •stone'  basu  /basuh/  'drinking  /patu?/  'goose'  /pasu?/  'heat  pasu  1  push'  batu  patu  1  •chip'  as sung  f o r serving  glass'  etc.)  112  patung  /patun/  'bamboo'  pasung  /pasun/  'a k i n d  Word f i n a l  of native  in  banana  hold'  wrapped  l e a f  position  kaput  /kaput/  •to  kapus  /kapus/  'not  lanut  /lanut/  'abaca'  lanus  /lanus/  'withered'  laput  /laput/  'thin'  lapus  /lapus/  •all  panit  /panit/  'tuna  panis  /panis/  'has  /?/ Word i n i t i a l  -  enough',  'lacking'  (sauce,  around  1  starch, etc.)  (filled  with  become  acidic'  or'spoiled  A/  position /?abal/  •whirlpool'  habal  /habal/  •news•  atud  /?atud/  •to  look a t *  hatud  /hatud/  'to  escort*  ilu  /?iluh/  *orphan *  /hiluh/  something)  fish'  abal  hi-lu  cake  or 'to return*  'dizzy *  ug  /?ug/  'possessiveness'  hug  /hug/  *change'  (money)  1  (food)  113 Word m e d i a l  position  dayaan  /daya?an/  'put s u r f a c e up*  dayahan  /dayahan/  ' r i ch'  nailu  /na?iluh/  'become  nahilu  /nahiluh/  'got drunk*  paa  /pa?ah/  •thigh*  paha  /pahah/  'band*  Word f i n a l  orphan* o r 'become  dizzy*  ( f o r navel)  position  badju  /badju?/  •dress *  badju  /badjuh/  •storm*  dugu  /dugu?/  'blood'  dugu  /duguh/  'corner*  Voiced  Word i n i t i a l  stop  vs.  /d/  - /  j  /dah/  ja  / j a h /  /  /dabul/  *to  carry'  •a n a t i v e c a k e  aaga  /jabul/ /dag a h /  made f r o m  rice  flour*  ' a m o r o d a n c e made b y s t a m p i n g the  jabul  stop  position  da  dabul  Voiced affricated  •to  feet' make m i s c h i e f *  'has  reached  age o f p u b e r t y '  jaga  /jagah/  'guard'  jahan  /jahan/  'will  make  dahan  /dahan/  'will  bring f o r '  'ja* (a native  cake)  of  114  Voiced  a f f r i c a t e d stop / j /  Word i n i t i a l  -  vs.  Voiced  /n/  position  ja  /jah/  'a n a t i v e  na  /nah/  (an  c a k e made f r o m r i c e  expression  implying  done something jaga  /jagah/  1  nag a  /nagah/  •dragon  janap  /janap/  •a k i n d  nanap  /nanap/  'crawl  Voiced  nasal /n/  Word  nasal  guard  vs. -  that  wrong)  1  1  of  bolo'  1  Voiced  lateral  / I /  initial position nag a laga  /nagah/ Aagah/  •dragon' 'flame  1  nara  /narah/  •narra'  lara  /larah/  •peper'  nunuk lunuk Word m e d i a l  /nunuk/ /lunuk/  •balete  (tree}  tree  •  ,  1  •softness'  position  manas  /manas/  •beriberi'  malas  /malas/  'out  sanam  /sanam/  'ant'  salam  /salam/  'handshake'  of  or  luck'  'swellin;  flour* you  have  115  Word f i n a l  position  lpun  /?ipun/  f  ipul  /?ipul/  •leper*  sabun  /sabun/  'soap'  sabul  /sabul/  'dirty'  Voiced  lateral  A/ Word i n i t i a l  teech  vs. Voiced  -  flap  A/  position  ladju  /laiijiU.^'/  'farness  radju  /ra'djuh/  'radio'  latag  /latag/  'search  Ratag  /ratag/  'a name o f a p l a c e  Word m e d i a l  1  around'  position  balan  /balan/  •steel'  baran  /baran/  •body*  pala  /palah/  'shovel'  para  /parah/  •stop'  palang  /palaq/  'multicolored  parang  /paran/  •grass'  pali  /pali?/  *wound'  pari  /pari?/  'priest *  Point  of A r t i c u l a t i o n  mat*  i n Siasi,Sulu'  116  /p/ Word i n i t i a l  -  A/  position  palang  /palan/  'multicolored  talang  /talan/  'a k i n d  mat'  o f game d o n e b y  tossing  2 coins* pas a  /pasah/ Aa'sah/  tasa  'swear' 'drinking  cup'  pinda  /pindah/  'change'  tinda  /tindah/  'store'  pukul  /pukul/  'fingerless',  tukul  /tukul/  'hammer'  pulak  /pulak/  'abortion'  tulak  /tulak/  'to  push*  run after*  Word m e d i a l  (of place  'armless'  position  apas  /?apas/  •to  a t as  /?atas/  'to guarantee f o r '  gapas  /gapas/  'guaze'  gatas  /gatas/  'milk'  sapal  /sapal/  'by-product  satal  /satal/  'to  Word f i n a l  o r appearance)  sew a  from  grated  mattress'  position  silap  /silap/  • crazy  silat  /silat/  •a moro d a n c e s i m i l a r t o  judo*  117 lukup  /lukup/  *moss o n t h e s i d e o f a  lukut  /lukut/  'an  Voiceless  Bilabial  edible sea vs. Voice  -  /P/ Word  boat*  product' Velar  A/  initial position palang  /palan/  'multicolored  kalang  /kalan/  •to  panit  /panit/  •tuna  kanit  /kanit/  'to unfasten or  mat'  sing'  fish' something  pasted'  patu  /patu?/  •goose'  katu  /katu?/  • ours'  pilu  /piluh/  •rolled  kilu  /kiluh/  •kilo'  pula  /pulah/  •red'  kula  /kulah/  'to  kutu  /kutuh/  •lice'  putu  /putuh/  'a k i n d o f n a t i v e  Word m e d i a l bapa  tightly'  bleach'  food'  position /bapa?/  'a t e r m a  baka  /baka?/  sapat  /sapat/  used  /sakat/  to call  an uncle,  as  sign of respect*  'tartar*  •something not thrown i n t h e r i g h t place  sakat  fastened  •to go up*  118  suka  /suka?/  •venigar'  supa  /supa?/  •to  tapu  /tapu?/  'to  taku  /taku?/  'chin'  tupas  /tupas/  'cake  chew' alight'  or c o o k i e s t h a t goes  coffee tukas  /tukas/ Voiceless  •to  Bilabial /p/  Word i n i t i a l  with  or t e a '  reveal' vs. Voiceless -  Glottal  /?/  position  pasu  /pasuh/  'flower  asu  /?asuh/  »smoke'  pat a  /patah/  'one  at a  /?atah/  •slave*  /pilah/  •how m u c h '  i l a  /?ilah/  •birth  pilu  /piluh/  'rolled  ilu  /?iluh/  'orphan'  punung  /punun/  'faint*  unung  /?unun/  'will  pot'  bundle'  (of  firewood)  mark* tightly'  f o l l o w w h e r e v e r one  (come what putang  /put an/  'dried  utang  /?utan/  'credit*  may)  coconut*  goes'  119  Word m e d i a l  position  kaa  /ka?ah/  'get i t '  kapa  /kapah/  1  lapus  /lapus/  'all  laus  /la?us/  'continue'  sapat  /sapat/  •something thrown not i n proper  axe' around f i l l e d or  with  gold  teeth'  'extend'  place• saat Word f i n a l  /sa?at/  •proper  timing'  position  alup  /?alup/  • h a r m made o n t h e s k i n d u e t o t h e wind and t h e sun'.  alu  /?alu?/  •dew*  kulap  /kulap/  •a k i n d  kula  Aula?/  'pleats' or  Voiceless  dental  Word i n i t i a l  diseas'  o r 'shearing  on a  dress  curtain'  vs.  A/  of skin  -  Voiceless  velar  A/  position  tabang  /taban/  'help'  kabang  /kaban/  'spotted'  talang  /talan/  'a k i n d  kalang  /kalan/  •to  sing'  tapa  /tapah/  'to  roast'  kapa  /kapah/  'axe *  o f game t o s s i n g  coin*  120  tapal  /tapal/  'protection'  kapal  /kapal/  •thickness'  tula  /tula?/  'a n a t i v e  kula  /kula?/  'pleats' or  recipe' o r 'shears'  (on dress  curtain)  bati  /bati?/  'awake'  baki  /baki?/  •a k i n d  katas  /katas/  •paper'  kakas  /kakas/  •ringworm*  katu  /katu?/  • ours'  kaku  /kaku?/  •mine *  Word f i n a l  or 'shield'  of  position  kaput  /kaput/  'to  kapuk  /kapuk/  'kapok'  laput  /laput/  'thin'  lapuk  /lapuk/  •crispiness'  silat  /silat/  'a moro s e l f - d e f e n c e to  silak  /silak/ Voiceless  hold*  ( o f sauce,  starch, etc.)  dance s i m i l a r  'judo'  •radiance•  Velar  A/  vs. Voiceless  -  /?/  glottal  121  Word i n i t i a l  ^position  kapa  /kapah/  'axe  apa  /?apah/  'thin  k a t as  /katas/  •paper'  a t as  /?atas/  'will  kila  /kilah/  •to  ila  /?ilah/  •birth  kilu  /kiluh/  'kilo'  ilu  /?i'luh/  'orphan•  kug  /kug/  •joy'  m  /?ug/  •possessiveness'  kulung  /kiilun/  'curl'  uluns:  /?ulun/  'pity'  Word m e d i a l  1  wafer'  guarantee'  recognize' mark'  or  'happiness'  or  position  makug  /makug/  'happy'  maug  /ma?ug/  'selfish'  nakilu  /nakiluh/  'was  nai l u  /na?iluh/  •became  Word f i n a l  weighed' orphan'  position  bulak  /bulak/  'unripe'  bula  /bula?/  'bamboo  sapak  /sapak/  'an "It  sapa  'curly'  /sapa?/  split'  expression i s just  'lake•  implying  fitting  and  proper".'  122 sipak  /sipak/  'to split (something) to pieces'  sipa  /slpa?/  'kick*  Voiced bilabial stop vs. Voiced labio-velar semiconsonant /b/  -  /w/  balu  /baluh/  'widow*  walu  /waluh/  'eight*  bay  /bay/  •house  way_  /way/  'none'  1  Word medial position laba  /la'bah/  •salable•  lawa  /lawah/  •left* (hind, side,  labay  /labay/  'to pass by'  laway  /laway/  •saliva  sabay  /sabay/  •to go together*  saway  /saway/  'to give c r i t i c a l comment'  suba  /suba?/  •inlet*  suwa  /suwa?/  * oranges *  etc.)  1  Word final position lanab  /lanab/  •delicious*, 'palatable'  lanaw  /lanaw/  'lake• or 'canal *  sabab  /sabab/  'cause' or 'because'  sabaw  /s^ibaw/  'soup*  nasal vs. Voiced  Voiced b i l a b i a l  M/ Word  /w/  may.  /may/  •why'  way.  /way/  'none  1  position  kamas  /kamas/  'to  kawas  /kawas/  •sudden  lamay  /lamay/  •viand'  laway  /laway/  •saliva'  final  scratch* and s t r o n g  /sanam/  sanaw  /sanaw/  sulam  /sulam/  sulaw  /sulaw/  *ant« 'to  grope'  •sliver' *a b r a c e l e t  dental  /d/ initial  made f r o m a s e a  s t o p "\ Voiced  Word  rain*  position  sanam  Voiced  semiconsonant  position  initial  Word m e d i a l  Word  labio-velar  dental  nasal  -  position  daga  /dagah/  •has r e a c h e d age o f p u b e r t y '  nag a  /nagah/  'dragon'  daug  /da'?ug/  'to w i n '  naug  /na?ug/  'to  datu  /datu?/  •daty*  natu  /natu?/  •ours'  go  down'  or a  'chieftain*  shell'  124  diyat  /diyat/  'to  p a y f o r a damage done t o a  person' niyat  /niyat/  dunuk  /dunuk/  'desire'  or'ambition'  •strong  flow of water  mountain a f t e r nunuk Word  final  /nunuk/  'balete  tree  raining'  1  position  lagud  /lagud/  •slime•  lagun  /lagun/  •will  sabud  /sabud/  •to  sabun  /sabun/  'soap'  tagad  /tagad/  •to  tagan  /tagan/  •will  look f o r '  throw  something  call'  /tahud/  'spines  tahun  /tahun/  'year*  tikud  /tikud/  *heel»  tikun  /tikun/  *gizzard*  on t h e r o o s t e r ' s  tukud  /tukud/  •to  tukun  /tukun/  'to  press  ;uud  /tu?ud/  •to  do s o m e t h i n g  "cuun  /tu?un/  'a w a g e r ' o r  -  /!/  legs*,  guess*  dental stop vs. Voiced dental /d/  i n spray*  wait'  tahud  Voiced  from the  down'  deliberately'  'bet*  lateral  125  Word I n i t i a l p o s i t i o n daga  /dagah/  •has r e a c h e d age o f  laga  /lagan/  'flame'  dagun  /dagun/  'will  lagun  /lagun/  'will  dasu  /dasuh/  'an e x p e n s i v e  lasu  /la'suh/  'ribbon'  daya  /daya?/  'surface  laya  /laya?/  •flat  duhul  /duhul/  'end'  luhul  /luhul/  •a w i d e p i e c e  climb' look  for  ...»  kind  /dupah/  'the  Word f i n a l  /lupah/  fabric'  surface'  or  'edge'  length  finger lupa  of  up'  of c l o t h hand  a bed t o keep d i r t dupa  puberty'  from  above  falling'  from f i n g e r t i p t o  t i p when hands  are stretched.'  'appearance'  position  alud  /?alud/  •cry baby' o r  alul  /?alul/  'raft'  luhud  /luhud/  'to  luhul  /luhul/  'wide p i e c e  'irritable*  kneel' o f c l o t h hang  bed t o keep d i r t  from  above  falling.'  a  126  sabud  /sabud/  'to throw something i n spray*  sabul  /sabul/  'dirty*  tukud  /tukud/  *to guess *  tukul  /tukul/  *hammer'  Voiced  dental  stop  vs. Voiced /d/  Word f i n a l  -  or *sloven*  high-front  semiconsonant  /y/  position  anad  /?anad/  *to learn*  anay  /?anay/  'termites'  buad  /buad/  'to d r y '  buay  /buay/  'rattan'  labad  /labad/  labay  /labay/  ,7  ' t o wave s o m e t h i n g  subad subay Voiced  .  •to pass by'  /subad/  'mackerel•  /subay/  'it  dental affricated / j /  Word i n i t i a l  rapidly'  -  stop  should be' vs. Voiced  dental  lateral  /!/  position  .jaga  /jagah/  'guard*  laga  /lagah/  'flame'  .jakat  /jakat/  'money p r t h i n g s g i v e n  lakat  /lakat/  'mess*  as  ( o f water, sticky  tithe* substance,  127  juba  /juba?/  •divine  luba  /luba?/  •much m o r e *  jukup  /jukup/  •complete*  lukup  /lukup/  dental affricated  -  of boats.'  /y/  position  jari  /ja'rih/  *then  yari  /yarih/  *here*  jabutan  /jabutan/  'filbrousj' been  yabutan Voiced  /yabutan/  'was  dental nasal vs. Voiced /n/  -  . . . *  ( o f seed  after  pulp has  removed) reached'  h i g h - f r o n t semiconsonant  /y/  nari  /na'rih/  •has b e e n p l a c e d  yari  /yarih/  'here'  natud  /natud/  •has b e e n  yatud  /yatud/  •was b e i n g  Word m e d i a l  on t h e  stop v s . Voiced h i g h - f r o n t semiconsonant / j /  Word i n i t i a l  1  * t o s c r u b mossy s u b s t a n c e sides  Voiced  curse  here  pushed* stared at*  position  anad  /?anad/  *to  ayad  /?ayad/  'to be c a r e f u l *  lana  /lanah/  •oil*  laya  /layah/  'fishing  learn*  net*  or to  1  128  lanu  /lanu?/  'fineness'  layu  /layu?/  'farness'  luuna  /lu?una/  'to  luuya  /lu?uya/  'ginger'  Word f i n a l  or  put i n . . . *  position  indan  /?indan/  •marker*  inday  /?inday/  (an e x p r e s s i o n of  or  implying-*I katan  /katan/  'all*  katay  /katay/  'one  who  another  Voiced  'cleanliness'  luun  /lu?un/  'content'  luuy  /lu?uy/  'pity'  pantan  /pant an/  •wharf*  pantay  /pant ay/  'plain'  panun  /panun/  •friend'  panuy  /panuy/  •will  dental lateral  vs. Voiced  /!/ Word i n i t i a l  -  'reminder' negation  do n o t know')  goes f r o m one h o u s e - no f i x e d  o r 'sweet*  relate'  position  labut  /labut/  'to  serve'  yabut  /yabut/  'to  reach f o r '  to s  ( o f song)  or 'will  high-front  /y/  place  t  gossip*  semiconsonant  129  lubu  /lubuh/  •edible part inside a  yubu  /yubuh/  *is  Word m e d i a l  having  a  cough  seacucumber*  1  position  kalug  /kalug/  *ascaris*  /kayug/  slla  •thinness*  /silah/  or  *slimness*  »they»  /siyah/  •he*  talum  /talum/  * eggplant *  tayum  /tayum/  *a v a r i e t y  o r •she*  of sea u r c h i n with  long  spines* Word f i n a l  position  a tal  /?atal/  •lipstick*  a tay  /?atay/  *heart*  kapal  /kapal/  * thickness*  kapay  /kapay/  *rudder *  sampal  /sampal/  'measles*  sampay  /sampay/  * t o han£»  Voiced  bilabial  vs. Voiced  /b/ Word i n i t i a l  -  (of clothes e s p e c i a l l y )  dental  stop  /d/  position  baus  /baus/  'to bargain'  daus  /daus/  ' c l o s e t o * (some f a c i l i t i e s )  basu  /basuh/  'drinking glass'  dasu  /dasuh/  *a k i n d o f c l o t h *  130  bi  /bih/  di  /dih/  bihun  /bihun/  'will  buy  dihun  /dihun/  •will  put i t here'  bulang  /bulan/  'cockfight *  dulang  /dulan/  'a t r a y  of food*  bung  /bun/  *a k i n d  of  dung  /dun/  'front  Word f i n a l  ' t o buy* 'here'  1  fish  1  part of a  boat*  position  lub  /lub/  'unredeemed'  lud  / l u d /  'to  come d o w n t o w n f r o m t h e  area' /"  'fond  o f  (a kind  3iiasub  /masub/  masud  /masud/  taub  /ta?ub/  'high  taud  /ta?ud/  'quantity'  Voiced  bilabial /b/  Word i n i t i a l  'can  -  be  entered'  tide*  vs. Voiced  velar  /g/  position  baran  /baran/  'body'  garan  /garan/  'a k i n d  bata  /bata?/  'child'  gata  /gata?/  'coconut  of gun'  mild'  of food)  rural  131  baus  /ba?us/  to  bargain*  gaus  /ga?us/  can  bula  /bula?/  afford to*  bamboo *  gula  /gula?/  molasses *  butas  /butas/  to  gutas  /gutas/  starving*  Word m e d i a l  make a  hole*  position  baba  /baba?/  the  lower part*  baga  /baga?/  lung'  iban  /?iban/  companion*  igan  /?igan/  to  ibut  /?ibut/  never  igut  /?igut/  back part  remove' o r ' t o t r a n s f e r *  the  forget t o * of the chicken  o i l i s stored.*  laba  /labah/  salable'  laga  /la'gah/  flame'  labut  /labut/  to  serve'  lagut  /lagut/  to  stab*  sabu  /sabun/  while *  sagu  /saguh/  sap'  sabul  /sabul/  dirty*  sagul  /sagul/  to (a  ( o f something)  or  'untidy*  mix things  together*  kind of native  recipe)  where  132  Word f i n a l  position  lab  •a d i s e a s e w h e r e i n  / l a b /  becomes  the skin  redish*  lag  /lag/  'to  sub  /sub/  'fondness f o r ' (something  sug  /sug/  'current'  sulab  /sulab/  'blade*  sulag  /sulag/  'piece*  Voiced  dental vs. Voiced /d/  Word i n i t i a l  look f o r '  -  velar  stop  /g/  position  dabul  /dabul/  moro d a n c e *  gabul  /gabul/  haziness *  daan  /da?an/  old'  gaan  /ga?an/  weight *  (stamping  the feet)  (of things)  daran  /daran/  often*  garan  /garan/  a kind of fun*  daus  /da?us/  close  gaus  /ga?us/  can  Word f i n a l  t o eat)  or * frequent*  to' (facilities)  affort  t o do  position  ad  /?ad/  fence'  ag  /?ag/  considerateness *  pad  /pad/  instead'  ad  /?ad/  fence'  something'  133  sua  /sua/  'to enter' of  comb f o r r e m o v i n g  sug_  /sug/  'current'  tuhud  /tuhud/  •knee *  tuhug  /tuhug/  •to  ud  /?ud/  'worm*  m  Aug/  'possessiveness'  Voiceless  dental vs. /s/  Word  o r 'a s p e c i a l  -  string'  Voiceless  glottal  A/  i n i t i a l position sabal  /sabal/  'stoic'  habal  /habal/  * news *  sabul  /sabul/  •dirty*  habul  /habul/  •blanket *  subu  /subu?/  •to  hubu  /hubu?/  'naked*  sug  /sug/  •current•  hug  /hug/  'change'  sula  Aula?/  'divine  punishment'  hula  /hula?/  'place'  or  sulat  /sulat/  'letter*  hulat  /hulat/  •plug*  or  feed'  Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n basa  /basa?/  *wet'  baha  /bafta?/  *maybe'  *untidy*  (someone)  (money)  'country*  kind  lice'  134 kasig  /fcasig/  •a s p e c i e s  of fish*  kahig  /kahig/  •to  remove something  lusa  /lusa?/  'to  subside'  from'  (of diseas  like  c h i c k e n pox)  Word  luha  /luha?/  'tears'  pas a  /pasah/  'to  paha  /pahah/  •band*  pisak  /pisak/  •mud'  pihak  /pihak/  final  ( o f eyes)  sign'  ( f o r the navel)  •ancestry'  position  apas  /?apas/  apa  /?apah/  'to  (of divorce)  or  'race'  run after'  'ice  cream cone'  o r 'a k i n d o f  cookies' a t as  /?atas/  at a  /?atah/  paus  /pa?us/  'to  pau  /pa?uh/  'the  kakas  /kakas/  'ringworm'  kaka  /kakah/  'to  'to  guarantee  'slave' chew s u g a r head  bilabial /m/  vs. Voiced -  /n/  part  cane* of something'  make r h y m i c a l  side Voiced  for*  sound  o f a boat w i t h dentalrMasal  on t h e  a wand*  135  Word i n i t i a l  position  mabi  /mabih/  nabi  /nabih/  mag a  /nag a h /  1  c a n be b o u g h t  ft  'prophet'  * dawn  1  naga  /nagah/  'dragon'  makawa  /makawa?/  'can  be  nakawa  /nakawa?/  'was  taken*  masakit  /masakit/  'painful*  nasakit  /nasakit/  'was  taken'  sick'  maug  /ma?ug/  'selfish'  naug  /na?ug/  'to  Word m e d i a l  1  go down'  position  guma  /gumah/  'rubber'  guna  /gunah/  'has u s e f o r '  mamis  /mamis/  'a v a r i e t y  manis  /manis/  •charm'  of  coconut*  (when s m i l i n g ,  etc.) sumud  /sumud/  'will  sunud  /sunud/  *to  uma  /?umah/  *farm*  una  /?unah/  •first*  Word f i n a l  enter*  follow*  position  alum  /?alum/  'bruise'  alun  /?alun/  'wave' ( o f t h e s e a )  talking  136  Voiced  bilabial  v s . Voiced  /man/  nasal  - /*)/  M man  velar  (a p a r t i c l e  u s e d t o mark  an  adjective) ngan  /nan/  1  manga  /marjah/  (a p a r t i c l e  nganga  /natrjah/  'to  Word m e d i a l  name»  marking  a  plural  open wide t h e mouth'  position  mama  /mama?/  'beetle  manga  /mana?/  'will  g e t ' (something)  mami  /mami?/  'will  select*  mangi  /magi?/  •bad*  tuma  /tumah/  *a  specie  found tunga  /turjah/  nut*  of lice  that  are usually  i n clothes *  'to s t i c k  one's  Those o u t o f t h e  water' Word f i n a l  position  itum  /?itum/  'black'  itung  /?iturji/  •to  count'  palam  /palam/  'a k i n d  palang  /palan/  ' m u l t i c o l o r e d mat'  t a l am  /talam/  'tray'  talang  /talan/  'a game p l a y e d  of native  recipe'  by t o s s i n g  up 2  coins'  137 tikam  /tikam/  'a s m a l l  card with  Chinese  character* tikang  /tikan/  Voiced  •stop*  b i l a b i a l vs. /n/  -  Voiced velar  nasal  A,/  Word medial p o s i t i o n mana  /manah/  •to  manga  /marjah/  (a  nana  /nana?/  inherit particle  •pus  / nana?/  •got'  lanaw  /lanaw/  •stagnant  i  marking p l u r a l  (something)  water'  1 ang aw  /larjaw/  •housefly'  manug  /manug/  'will  mangug  /manug/  •to admire' o r 'to c o u r t '  suna  /sunah/  'to i n q u i r e i m m e d i a t e l y '  sung a  /surjah/  'to  blow o n e ' s n o s e *  feel  Word f i n a l  noun)  1  nang a  .  1  sleep  i n someone's  house'  position  agum  /?agun/  •to  agung  /?agun/  •going'  kaban  /kaban/  'coffin'  kabang  /kaban/  'spotted'  sampan  /sampan/  'Chinese  sampang  /sampan/  ' t o meet'  l i k e ' ( d o i n g something)  junk*  138  taban  /taban/  •to  tabang  /taban/  •help'  bagun  /bagun/  •vine'  bagung  /bagun/  'a k i n d  lawan  /lawan/  'to  lawang  /lawan/  *door*  Voiced  r o b someone's  -  vegetable*  play with  high-back vs. Voiced  M  of  property'  a  high-front  baby*  semiconsonant  /y/  Word m e d i a l p o s i t i o n  7  lawa  /lawa?/  *spider*  laya  /laya?/  *flat*  pawas  /pawas/  'one  (of plate)  who  always  lose something*  'careless' payas  /payas/  sawa  /sawah/  •ppython'  >aya  /sayah/  'skirt'  Word f i n a l  »a s h e l l  of a  clam'  position  lanaw  /lanaw/  'stagnant  lanay  /lanay/  'satin  sabaw  /s abaw/  'soup*  sabay  /sabay/  'to  sangbaw  /sanbaw/  'a s p e c i e  of  sangbay  /sarjbay/  'to  compliment'  go  give  water'  cloth'  together*  crab'  or  It  has  already  been seen  pairs  that  the  essence  of a  ness.  The  reference  consonant to the  all  oppositions  all  phonological  /d/  with  and  final  case  trasts not  /n/  or  For  /g/, /n/,  distinctive*  been e s t a b l i s h e d  and  another  instance,  or /1/occur  contrast  seems t o be  by  However,  not  operate i n  contrasts  only  i n intervocalic  opposition  minimal  between  i n word  initial  position.  In  found  i n word  only  the  between / j / v s . / I / o r /y/ i s position.  The  consonant  /n/  positions  con-  i n word m e d i a l as  w e l l as  final  but  f o r the p a i r pakid  /pSkid/  'to the s i d e * v s .  initially.'  /p5kir/t'moslem does not  religious  t h e two  i n t o Tausug"  t a n c e as  1  the / r / consonant sounds  could  same phoneme, / d / .  generally  leader ,  seem t o o c c u r i n p u r e  semivowels,  the  environments.  to occur i n i n i t i a l  with  of  of maximal c o n t r a s t . consonant  p o s i t i o n s but not  Except  that  b e t w e e n one  p o s i t i o n , while  observed  of Tausug has  environment  of / d / v s . /y/,  final  phoneme i s c o n t r a s t  system  e i t h e r /b/,<  i n the above l i s t  to quote  used a new  independent  contrast  phoneme o c c u r s ,  the Ashleys',  phonemes.  or  but never  so  /d/,  variants  "the borrowings  from  as  to warrant  their  consideration  so  accep-  sounds a r e regarded  i m p o r t a n c e of t h i s  of  Arabic  " a r e numerous enough and  p a t t e r n " ,< t h e t w o The  Between vowels  i n t e r p r e t e d as  However, s i n c e  by a l l T a u s u g s p e a k e r s Tausug  between /d/ and / r /  Tausug words.  p o s s i b l y be  pakir  as i s seem  140  i n t h e a t t i t u d e o f Tausug speakers t o t h e i n c o r r e c t use of e i t h e r sound f o r the o t h e r i n c e r t a i n words.  Using /d/  i n s t e a d of / r / i n words l i k e r u k u / r u k u h / ' p o s i t i o n f o r p r a y ing ,  makru /makruh/ t a b o o , J a b u r / j a W r / 'book of Moses',  etc,  would be f e l t t o be u n u s u a l .  1  1  1  So i s t h e use of / r / f o r / d /  i n words such as p a h i d / p a h i d / ' t o wipe', l u b l d / l u b i d / l u h u d / l u h u d / ' t o k n e e l ' , bud /bud/  'rope',  'mountain*, e t c .  Subminimal p a i r s occur l i k e Jabur / j a b u r / 'book of Moses' vs.  sabud / s a b u d / ' t o throw something  i n spray*, ruku  /rukuh/  ' p o s i t i o n f o r p r a y i n g * v s . dugu /duguh/ * c o r n e r * , murka /murka?/ * c u r s e * v s . sud kaw /sud kaw/ 5.3.3  'come i n * , e t c .  Allophonic Variation  A phoneme as shown i n p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s i s a group of one o r more phone-types t h a t a r e p h o n e t i c a l l y s i m i l a r , a r e i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n , and perform an i d e n t i c a l  function.  These phone-types, o r a l l o p h o n e s by which term they a r e b e t t e r known, a r e a c t u a l i z e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r v a r y i n g p h o n e t i c environments,  so t h a t they a r e r e f e r r e d t o  sometimes as p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t s . I n s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l , the v o i c e l e s s /p/ has a a s p i r a t e d r e l e a s e d allophone fP*]  slightly  found i n words l i k e padpad  [»p»adp»adS] * i n s t e a d * o r *a k i n d o f m e d i c i n a l p l a n t * , p a s u (  [*p»asUh] * f l o w e r p o t * , k a p a l [*k»ap»alj ' t h i c k n e s s * , e t c . v ( I t s h o u l d be mentioned h e r e , however, t h a t i n word m e d i a l , a  lfti;..  syllable initial final  position).  An u n r e l e a s e d v a r i e t y  by a n o t h e r  i s found  i n word  ' f l o o d ' a n d when  s t o p c o n s o n a n t a s i n dapdap [ ' d a p d a p ]  voiceless  d e n t a l s t o p / t / has a l l o p h o n e s  much t h e same d i s t r i b u t i o n a l  allophones  p a t t e r n as t h e s i m i l a r  t a h u n ['t»ahUn] 'year', suntuk ['sunt'Uk]  ['k'ilat]  (carpenter's The parallel  [t»,t]  o f / p / i n words s u c h a s t a d t a d [ ' t ' a d t ' a d ]  mutilated', kilat  one i n word  tree'. The  in  i s l e s s a s p i r a t e d than  p o s i t i o n as i n l a t a p [ ' l a t ' a p ]  followed 'fire  Cp']  initial  'lightning',  and k a t k a t [ ' k ' a t k ' a t ]  'badly 'box',  '^saw'  tool). voiceless  velar  t o / p / a n d /t/i  s t o p / k / has a s e t o f a l l o p h o n e s  [k', k] i n similar distribution, i . e . ,  k i t a [ ' k ' i t ' a ? ] 'saw' ( v e r b ) , k a g k a g [ ' k ' a g k » q g ] ' t h i n n e s s ' , alak ['?alak]  'wine', a n d p i k p i k [ ' p ' i k p ' I k ]  company o f t h e f r o n t allophone [k»] it  i  s  'wing'.  v o w e l , i t has b e e n o b s e r v e d  In the  that the  c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o n t e d , a n d w i t h t h e back v o w e l ,  i s retracted. Unlike  voiceless  the other three v o i c e l e s s  glottal  s t o p , / ? / , has t h r e e p r i n c i p a l  r e l e a s e d , which i s found [«?atUp]  stops [ p , t , k ] , the  'palm l e a f  i n prevocalic  roofing',  'worm'; u n r e l e a s e d [ ? ] f o u n d  allophones:  position like  i l u ['?ilUh] i n words l i k e  atup  'orphan', ud [ ? u : d ] bata ['bata?]  'child',  142 kita[  'k'ita? 1  'saw' ( v e r b ) , t u k a [  't»uka? ] ' b i l l *  (of bird)  45 and  a weakly but completely  occurs  only  •senile*,  i n intervocalic  maas  The  articulated  allophones,[ b ]  which  occurs  i . e . , bata  'because*  o r 'cause', a n d [ p ]  [  like  *sipU?,]  has  ceding as  'child'  only  ['tufjUh]  variants with  i n dahun  vable.  or  sibu  'sugarcane'  the voiced  similar  ['dahUn]  When o c c u r i n g This  'will  dental  distribution.  carry* or 'leaf*  stop Pre-  dahun  observation  carried',  parahun lubid.  an  i s made  evident  when a n a f f i x i s  o r ending  [p'a'rahUn] ' w i l l  lubiran [lu'giran] ' w i l l  two  main a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t s , [ g ]  and  postvocalic positions like  intervocalic  environment  /g/, there are  gad.ia [ ' g a d j a h ]  ' w a t e r ' , a n d [y]  have i t  put a rope on*.  which occur  i n prevocalic 'elephant*  and  , a v a r i a n t found only i n  a s i n a g a r u n [ja'yarUh]  b u g a ['buya?] ' f e a r * , i g a n [ * ? i y n ~ | ' w i l l a  culated  i n /d/,i.e.,  send' o r ' w i l l  In t h e case o f t h e v o i c e d v e l a r stop  ['t'upigD  a n d lubid[»lupid]  between vowels, t h e [ r ] v a r i a n t i s obser-  added t o t h e root words b e g i n n i n g  tubig  i n intervocalic  'medicine',  'tube'  stop,  ['sabab]  and f o l l o w i n g a vowel sound t h e [ d ] v a r i a n t i s heard  'rope'.  pa  and sabab  Ttfhich o c c u r s  the voiced b i l a b i a l  two p o s i t i o n a l  select'.  i n p r e v o c a l i c and p o s t - v o c a l i c  ['bata?]  and tubu  n  principal  i n t h e e x a m p l e s u b a t [ '?uB a t 1  'equal'  Like  / b / has two  which  *li.?a ]  oiun[ 'p'i?Un] 'will  stop  position,  position  stop  p o s i t i o n as i n l i a n [  [»ma?as ] * o l d ' ,  voiced bilabial  glottal  'will  follow',  remove', e t c .  ^ The i n t e r v o c a l i c ? i s s a i d t o be c o m p l e t e l y artii n t h a t i t i n c l u d e s both t h e 'catch' (onset) as w e l l as t h e  \143  A number of affricated nasals one  stop  the  / j / ,  /mSh.n/, a n d  c o n s o n a n t phonemes l i k e  the the  voiceless fricative voiced  lateral  the  vcoiced  / s / , the  / l / have each  voiced only  allophone.' The  variant  [ h ] when p r e c e d i n g  ['hapUl] variety  voiceless fricative  'blanket*,  or  glottal  [ h ] when f o u n d  [['dunal]  in intervocalic  'to hand o v e r  the  'appearance',- and  w o r d s a h a d [ *?ah<xd] 'Sunday'," b i h u n duhal  has  f o l l o w i n g a v o w e l as  lupa ['lupah]  !  /h/  and  1  p o s i t i o n as  voiceless in  habul  a  voiced  in  [»bihUn] ' w i l l  the  buy',  u h a n [ '?uhccn] ' t o p u t  a  head  on'. It  has  been observed  has  three  allophones.'  as  i n ruku  [*ruk*uh]  Generally  The  been observed £m.n],' t h e karna  [ r ] v a r i a n t may  appear  'grass',' and  Jabur  ['japUr]  'book  second a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t of / r / , i . e . , [ u ] to occur  v o i c e d and  with  the  following nasal  v o i c e l e s s v e l a r stops  of has  consonants,  / g / and  /k/  as  in  £ 'k^'ocma?] ' t h a t i s why',' w a r n a [ •wa.ma?] ' c o l o r , p a r m a n 1  ['p'auman] 'message*, ['mu-xka?] ' c u r s e * . alternates  1  surga  A third  with allophones  pakir [*p'akir] ^ [ ' p a k l l ] ^  the  dental-alveolar flap / r /  ' p o s i t i o n f o r p r a y i n g ' m a k r u ['mak»ruh]  •taboo'/ parang ['paran] Moses'.  that the  ['walna?!,- s u r g a  Q'suaga?] 'heaven' and v a r i a n t o f / r / i s /!/ [ r ] i n word and  [ *su^ga?]  [u]  final  • r e l e a s e ' (code) a r t i c u l a t i o n , word i n i t i a l has o n l y t h e • r e l e a s e ' . f i n a l has o n l y t h e ' c a t c h ' .  which  position,  i n words l i k e [ *sulga?],  murka  :  etc.  warna  freely i.e.,^ ['wcuna?]  .  while the allophone i n The a l l o p h o n e i n w o r d  144  The w h i c h may  labiovelar he d e s c r i b e d  case where t h e r e  vowel / a / .  l i prounding following  /y/.  There  in  their  and  i s clearly  a front  that  some  while  a l lconsonants  for/ j / ,  of minimal pairs i n  o f Tausug  others are restricted  position,  of  are unlimited  I n word  only  initial  are without limitation  a l lconsonants  appear  o n e o f t h e m e x c e p t w i t h /w/  structures  o t h e r hand, A sample each  to  medially, certain  and m e d i a l  i n word  of occurrence. final  position.  and / y / s t r u c t u r e s w i t h  t h e t h r e e v o w e l phonemes o f t h e l a n g u a g e .  /w/  less  vowel.  i . e . ,they occur i n i t i a l l y ,  or environments.  Every  a low central  consonants  positions  Except  vowel and r e l a t i v e l y  shown i n t h e l i s t  distribution,  finally,  a low central  Distribution.  5.3.2  section  .  i s more l i p s p r e a d i n g when  when p r e c e d i n g a n d f o l l o w i n g  It  high-front  case i s observable w i t h the f r o n t  and f o l l o w i n g  5.3.4  has a l l o p h o n e s  a s h a v i n g more l i p r o u n d i n g i n t h e  A parallel  semiconsonant  /w/  i s a preceding or following  vowel / l / and l e s s  preceding  semiconsonant  The  semiconsonant  only w i t h / i / and / a / , never w i t h /u/.  /y/ structures  listing  w i t h /VL/ a n d / a / , n e v e r w i t h  o f words showing  of the consonant Word i n i t i a l pila  the possible  phonemes i s p r o v i d e d  /pilah/  »how  much*  On t h e /i/.  distributions  below:  position  any  of  tinda  /tihda/  'store'  kalu  /kSluh/  'trouble' or  ugab  /?ugab/ «  'coconut  bisu  /bisuh/  'deaf  dagat  /dagat/  'sea  gabun  /ga"bun/  'clouds'  Juba  /jftba?/  'robe'  sulat  /sftlat/  'letter'  habal  /h3bal/  'news'  manis  /ma"nis/  'charm'  niyug  /niyug/  'coconut  nguya  /nuya?/  ' t o chew'  lupa  /lupah/  'appearance'  r a d .ju  /rSdjuh/  'radio'  yubus  /yubus/  'was  Word m e d i a l  shell'  palm'  consumed'  position  kapul  /kapul/  bata  /b&ta?/  'child'  lakit  /lfikit/  'rock'  taas  /ta7as/  'height'  tabu  /tdbu?/  'market'  lindung  /lindun/  'shade'  baga  /bagah/  'ember'  panji  /panjih/  'flag'  'quarrel'  ' t o embalm'  pans til  /pansul/  'faucet'  mahaba  /mahaba/  •long'  kama  /kamah/  'mattress'  lanut  /lanut/  'abaca'  mangi  MS.nl? /  'bad'  kalas  /k£las/  'pink'  laring  /l&rin/  'knife'  layu  /lfiyu?/  ' fames s'  pawas  /p5was/  'one who always loses things'  final position la tap  /lfltap/  'flood'  kilat  Aflat/  'lightning'  balik  ASlik/  •return  layu  /layu?/  ' fames s '  lei tab  /k£tab/  •bible'  luhud  /Iflhud/  •to kneel'  kabig  /ka*big/  'crooked'  gatas  /gStas/  »milk«  kula  /ktflah/  'to bleach'  sanam  /sanam/  •ant'  baran  /baran/  'body'  parang  /pa"ran/  'gross'  kappal  /kappal/  'boat'  gabur  / j^tbur/  'book of Moses•  sabaw  /sa'baw/  •soup'  bay_  /bay/  •house  1  • •  1  Reduplicated "better  the occurrence  medial  positions: padpad  words  such as the following  o f some c o n s o n a n t s i n w o r d  /pSdpad/  'instead  1  /tastas/  'to  kabkab  /k£bkab/  'far'  lid-lid  /?Ud?ud/  'worm'  bug bug  /bfigbug/  'porridge'  dugdug  /dagdug/  •to or  The distribution  i n i t i a l and  o r *a k i n d o f  medicinal tastas  illustrate  plant'  untangle'  (diminutive)  b o x someone o n t h e c h e s t back'  gisgis  /gifsgis/  'toothbrush'  jag jag  /jagjag/  'to d i s a r r a n g e '  or to 'scatter*  sadsad  /saMsad/  'to  feel'  grope'  hud hud  /hfldhud/  'to  pour something out on*  mugmug  /mugmug/  'to  naknak  /naknak/  'running c a r '  nganga  /n&nah/  'to  _l _u b_ l_ u_b  /lflblub/  • t o w a l l o w i n t h e mud'  following  reversals  also  or'to  gargle'  open w i d e t h e mouth*  show i n i t i a l  and f i n a l  o f some c o n s o n a n t s l i k e : padpad  /p5dpad/  'instead'  or'a kind  plant. dapdap  /d&pdap/  'fire  tree'  of  medicinal  149  tudtud  /tudtud/  'to  push'  dutdut  /dutdut/  'to  suck  kadkad  /kadkad/  1  •to u n e a r t h '  dakdak  /dakdak/  •to wash'  ad-ad  /?ad ?ad/  'sulking'  dada  /da?da?/  bukbuk  /bukbuk/  kubkub  /kubkub/  'to b i t e  dubdub  /dubdub/  'grumbling'  budbud  /budbud/  •miniature  gasgas  /gasgas/  •faded*  sagsag  /sagsag/  *will  sapsap  /sapsap/  *to t r i m  paspas  /paspas/  'to  shake  mugmug  /mugmug/  'to  gurgle'  gumgum  /gumgum/  'to  gurgle'  nisnis  /nisnis/  'becoming  sin-sin  /sinsin/  'money'  ngit-ngit  /git-rjit/  tingting  /tintin/  'ringing  lublub  /lublub/  •to wallow  bulbul  /bulbul/  'hair  ;  'fence'  (clothes)  (diminutive)  •termite' something'  mountain*  be t o r n  'always  (fruit)  apart'  rough  edges'  off dirt  from'  thin* (dimunitive)  smiling' of the bell'  i n t h e mud'  o f t h e body'  5.3.5 A of  Consonant C l u s t e r s  c l u s t e r as d e f i n e d by A r c h i b a l d H i l l  two o r m o r e phonemes o f t h e same  v e n t i o n o f a phoneme is,  t h e r e f o r e , ' a sequence o f two o r more c o n s o n a n t s  without  With  intervening.  reference to the permitted syllable  T a u s u g d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 4, clusters and  the intercluster  o r j u n c t u r e phoneme  s i n c e consonant  final  said  syllable  t o occur  boundaries,  only aacross  syllables,  although  divide  divisions  appear l i k e  'egg ,' i s k u l 1  into  i n some  real  -  has no  clusters  i n initial be  o r morpheme  a s s e q u e n c e s o f two  the preceding and cases  consonant  o f c o n s o n a n t s may  boundaries  following  t h e r e seem t o be a l o s s  between consonants,  t h u s m a k i n g them  as i n t h e word  iklug  of  seem-  /?>fklug/  /?'f'Skul/ ' s c h o o l ' m a k r u / m a ' k r u h / ' t a b o o , e t c . 1  Among t h e p o s s i b l e g r o u p i n g s boundaries,  Groupings  syllable  patterns of  only singly  b u t t h e y a r e t o be i n t e r p r e t e d which  ingly  t h e language  phonemes o c c u r  positions.  consonants  syllable  class.  without  sequence  A consonant  a vowel  of another  class  i s a  the following  o f consonants  has been observed  across  syllable  i n Tausug:  /-•ptr-/  taptap  /tdptap/  'always'  /-pkr-/  kupkup  /kftpkup/  'to hold  /-p?-/  ap-ap  /?5p?ap/  'a s k i n  tight' diseas  scientifically known as r'inea flava'  151  /-Pd-/  sapda  /-pg-/ /-ps-/  supsup /-tp-/ ;c: ..putput  /-td-/  patta katkat bitbit dutdut  /-ts-;  sutsut  /-tt-/ /-tk-/ /-tw  /sapdahV 'to curse* /pugpug/ 'soften by too much pressure' 'to suck' /putput/ • the sound of a machine' (of boat)  /supsup/  / pattaf/ ' picture' /katkat/ •saw* /bi'tbit/ 'to carry with the hand* /dutdut/ 'to suck* /sutsut/ ' a way of calling somebody? attention* 'always smiling'  ngitngit  /nftnit/  /-tl-/  sutla  /sutlah' / 'silk'  /-kp-/  pikpik  /pikpik/  /-kt-/  tiktik  /tiktik/  /-kk-/  maakkal  /matJ&kal/ 'wise *  /-kb-/  bukbuk  /-kd-/  dakdak  /bukbuk/ 'termite' /dakdak/ 'to wash  /-tn-/  /-kg-/ /-ks-/ /-kh-/ /-km-/  'wing' 'to strike something with...*  1  /hsgfei-k/  1  saksl  /saksi?'/  'witness»  hikhik  /h£khik/ •small pieces of cloth left after cutting a dcess'  takmayun'  /takmayun/'help a person by holding  todf  tiff'  him on the elbow,arms,etc. /-kn-/  sukna  /sukna?/  'curse'  /-kl-/  lukluk  /lukluk/  'owl*  nagtata  /nagta?ta?/  •walking on with  bare  /-?w  magkaka  /magka?ka?/  /-?d-/  dada gaga  /datdar/  'to  /§a?ga?/  •to t a l k  nagsasa  /nagsa?sa?/  •committing  /-?s-/  /-?s-/  something feet'  • t o g e t some t h i n g s  habitually'  sulk' i n anger» d: I i b j j r v " e  mistake  :  deliberately*  /-?n-/  kanu  /ka'?nuh/  'when'  /-bt-/  sabtu  /sabtu?/  'Saturday*  /-bk-/  kabkab  /kabkab/  '  abbuhan  //abbuhan/  'proud*  /-bj-/  abjan  //abjan/  'to  /-bs-/  magslbsib  /magsibsib/  'peeping'  /bh-/  hJibhub  /hubhub /  'influenza'  /-bl-/  lublub  /lublub/  'to  /-dp-/  padpad  /padpad/  'instead'or'a  /-bb-/  fan*  mind'  wallow'  medicinal  /dt-/ /-dW  kind  of  plant'  tadtad  /tadtad/  •badly, mutilated----  kadkad  /kadkad/  'to  1  unearth'  /-d?-/  ad-ad  //ad?ad/  •fence'(diminutive)  /-db-/  badbad  /badbad/  •raveled  /-dd-/  addun  1  //addun/  •the m i x i n g  /-dg-/  / gi'dgid/  'to r u b  /-dj-/  /gadjah/  • elephant'  /sadsad/  'to grope f o r something  /-ds-/  sadsad  of  ingredients'  1  1  153  /-dh-/  hudhud  /hudhud/  to  pour  something  /-dl-/  adlaw  /?adlaw/  day'  /-SP-/  tug pa  /tugpa?/  to  jump•  /-gt-/  magtu  /magtu?/  is  leaking'  /-gk-/  nagkugkug  /nagkugkug/  was  mag-ad  /mag?ad/  will  /-gj-/  n a g .1an.il  /nagjanjl?/  promised'  /-gs-/  nagsihil  /nagsihil/  announcement  out on'  admiring at* put a fence'  intention  o f a man's  t o marry  a  /-gh-/  taghuy  /taghuy/  whistle'  /-gm-/  mugmug  /mugmug/  to  gurgle'  /-gn-/  tagna  /tagna?/  to  start'  /-gn-/  pagnganan  /f»af n a n a n /  'named  /-gb-/  tigbas  /tigbas/  'to s t a b w i t h  /-gd-/  sagda  /sagdah/  ' t o c o m m e n t o n . . .'  /-ss-/  sagga  /sagga?/  'quarrel*  /-si-/  sigla  /sigla?/  'fastness'  /-gw-/  sagwa  /sagwaJ?/  'but'  /-sp-/  naspasan  /pyaspasan/  'hurried  /-st-/  yastulan  /yastulan/  'was  /-sk-/  iskutan  /?iskutan/  'selfish'  girl'  ' a b l a d e d weapon*  o r 'misunderstanding'  i t up'  angry*  /  154  /-sb-/  tasbi  ;  /tasbih/  •beads u s e d  when  praying'(moslem /-sg-/  gisgis  /gfsgis/  •toothbrush'  /-ss./  bassa  /bjfssah/  •to  /-sh-/  hashas  /ha"shas/  'snake*  /-sn-/  nisnls  /nfsnis/  'becoming  / - s i - /  maaslag  /ma?5slag/  •large'  /-mp-»/.  ampun  /?5mpun/  *forgiveness'  /-ait-/  tumtum  /tumtum/  'to  /-kn-/  sukna  /sukna?/  *curse *  /-kl-/  lukluk  /lfikluk/  'owl*  /-?t-/  nagtata  /nagta">?ta?/  •was t a m p e r i n g  read'  magkaka  /magk5?kat/  •to  (diminutive) thin'  remember'  with /-?k-/  rosary)  one's  get  something  feet'  something  habitually'  /-?*W  dada  /dStfda?/  •sulking•  /-?g-/  gaga  /gaV?ga?/  'to  speak  t o someone  sarcastically  i n anger'  /-?s-/  nagsasa  /nags5?sa?/  •has p e r m i t t e d m i s t a k e '  /-?n-/  kanu  /kaV?nuh' /  'when  /-bt-/  sabtu  /satotu?/  'Saturday*  /-bk-/  kabkab  /kabkab/  'fan'  /-bb-/  abbuhan  /?abbl5han/  'proud *  /-bj-/  ab j a n  /?3bjan/  •to  /-bs-/  m a g s l b s i b /mags-fbsib/  'peeping'  /-bh-/  hubhub  1  /hflbhub/  1  mind'  influenza•  155  /-bl-/  lublub  /lublub/  •to w a l l o w *  /-dp-/  padpad  /pSdpad/  'instead'  or'a kind of  medicinal  plant  /-dt-/  tadtad  /ta*dtad/  •badly  /-dk-/  kadkad  /kSdkad/  'to  /-a?-/  ad-ad  /?aa?ad/  'fence  /-ab-/  badbad  /bddbad/  •raveled *  /-dd-/  addun  /?3ddun/  •the m i x i n g  /-dg-/  gidgid  /gfdgid/  •to r u b  /-dj-/  gad j a  /g5d j a h /  •elephant'  /-ds-/  sadsad  /sacLsad/  •to  mutilated'  unearth' (diminutive)  o f a cake*  1  feel  something o r  'to grope f o r /-mk-/  kumkum  /kdmkum/  1  •to h o l d inside  /-mb-/  lambung  /lambun/  'shadow  /-ma-/  dumdum  /dumdum/  'every  /-mg-/  gumgum  /gumgum/  •to  /-ms-/  sumsuman  /sumsuman/  •meat  1  something the f i s t  thightly  1  1  night'  gurgle* 1  o r 'any f o o d  goes w i t h /-mm-/  malamma  /mal5mma/  •weak'  /-ml-/  lumlumun  /lumlumun/  'to  /-mr-/  samra  /samrah/  'a n a t i v e  that  wine'  swallow' blouse  ordinarily /-np-/  punpun  /punpun/  'sea  /-nt-/  suntuk  /suntuk/  'to box'  worn  b y m o s l e m women  worm u s e a s  bait'  '156  /-nk-/  kinkin  /fcfnkin/  •to  raise  wading /-rib-/  bianban  /bianban/  s k i r t u p when  i n the s e a  'a n a t i v e  f o o d made  1  from  ©assava' /-nd-/  masandal  /masandal/  • enduring'  /-nj-/  jamji  /janji?/  •promise'  /-ns-/  lansang  /lansarj;.;/  •nail»  /-rm-/  bunnal  /btinnal/  •It  /-ny-/  s inyal  /slnyal/  'signal•  /-np-/  hangpu  /hatjpu?/  •ten'  /-nt-/  malangtu  /mal^ijtuh/  •the t a s t e it  i s true  1  o f cassava  has been d r i e d  when  of i t s  juice /-nk-/  tangkay  / tS-nkay/  •handle'  /-nb-/  sangbay  /s^nbay/  'to g i v e a d m i r i n g  /-nj-/  pang j u r i  /panjurih/  •something a person  comments'  uset o teasing  1  /-ns-/  angsa  /?ansa?/  • swan•  /-nh-/  manghud  /manhud/  •younger b r o t h e r o r s i s t e r  /-nn/-  bangngas  /bannas/  'a k i n d  of crab  medicine /-nl-/  sianglag  /syanlag/  'tapioca'  /-lp-/  palpal  /palpal/  'deaf  /-It-/  sultan  /saltan/  'sultan'  /-lk-  mulka  .mfllka?/  'curse»  usedas  f o r asthma'  o r 'king*  1  157  /-l?/  ul-ul  /?u-l?ul/  •the p a i n f e l t  /-lb-/  salban  /s51ban/  'thread  /-Id-/  diuldulan  /dyuldulan/  'has b e e n  1  allowing she  f r o m wound*  pampered'by h e r t o do  likes'  /-lg-/  sulga  /sfllga?/  'heaven *  /-Is-/  palsu  /paUsuh/  'fake'  /-Un-/  kulma  /kulma?/  'a k i n d . o f n a t i v e  /-In-/  walha  /w3lna?/  'color'  / - l l - /  gallang  /gSllan/  'bracelet•  /-rk-/  murka  /mllrka?/  'curs e  /-rs-/  surga  /sdrga?/  •heaven  /-rm-/  pafman  / pa^rman/  •message*  /-m-/  karna  /karna?/  •that  /-yt-/  mayta  /mdyta?/  'why'  /-hk-/  taykud  /taykud/  'back«  /-yb-/  baybay  /baybaty/  pajigu  recipe*  1  1  i s  or  'word  of  God'  why'  'miniature house house  1  /pdygu?/  'to  / - y s - / mays a  /maysah/  'black  /-yh-/  bauhu  /bdyhu?/  •face'  /-ym-/  it'ayma  /tayma?/  'to  /-yn-/  tuyna  /tdyna?/  •immediately'  /-is-/  what  take a  bath'  peper'  accept• .  or 'toy  158. o  /-pd-/  sapda  /sapdah/  'curse'  /-pg-/  pugpug  /pugpug/  'soften  by t o o much  pressure* /-ps-/  supsup  /slips up/  'to  /-tp-/  putput  /pfttput/  •the sound o f a  suck'  (of  machine  boat)  /-tt-/  patta  /patta?/  •picture'  /-tk-/  katkat  /katkat/  'waw'  /-tb-/  bitbit  /bfitbit/  •to c a r r y '  /-td-/  dutdut  /dfltdut/  'to  /-ts-/  sutsut  /stltSUt/  •a w a y  (carpenter's  tool)  (with the  hand)  suck* of c a l l i n g  somebody's  attention' /-tn-/  ngitngit  /n£tnit/  •always  /-tl-/  sut l a  /sfltla?/  'silk'  '-kp-/  pikpik  /pfkpik/  •wing'  'tiktik  /tiktik/  'to s t r i k e  /-kt-/  smiling'  /-kk-/  maakkal  /ma?akkal/  'wise•  /-kb-/  bukbuk  /bukbuk/  'termite'  /-kd-/  dakdak  /dakdak/  'to w a s h '  /-kg-/  hagikgik  /hagfkgik/  'dandruff  /-ks-/  saksi  /s5ksi?/  •witness'  /-kh-/  hikhik  /hfkhik/  'small left  /-km-/  takmayun /takmayun/  of  clothes  after cutting a someone by to hold  arms '  with'  (clothes)  pieces  'help her  something  dress'  allowing  on t o one's  /-yl-/  nagpaylu  /nagpayluh/  •denied  1  /-yr-/  wayruun  /wayrftTun/  'There  i s none .  /-wp-/  sawpama  /sawp5maK/  •to  /-wk-/  sawkat  /sawkat/  'just  /-wb-/  tawbat  /taVbat/  •repentance'  /-VTS-/  kawsun  /kawsun/  •brown'  / - S h - /  kawhaan  /kawhaV?an/  'twenty'  /-wa-/ s a w n u  /sSwnu?/  'immediately attended t o '  /-va-/  bawlu  /bawluh/  'a n a t i v e  / - W W - /  sawwal  /sa*wwal/  \trousers'  1  suppose' because'  cake'  6.  SUPRASEGMENTAL  Up t o t h i s  point  FEATURES  discussions  o f t h e sound  T a u s u g h a s b e e n made o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t speech  i s divided  signed  t o a g i v e n phoneme.  the to  term  'segmental  the relevant  other  series  like in  language to  on t h e whole, sounds  The f u n c t i o n a l only  one a n o t h e r and b e c a u s e  several  of speech  which  each  on t h e s e g m e n t a l  as a r e s u l t of c e r t a i n  u s e when r e f e r r i n g  of their  other found  relationship  important features  a purposeful  of  contrast i s  R e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e  extend c l e a r l y  over a series  of  a r e known l i n g u i s t i c a l l y  They a r e c a l l e d  an extra  phonemes.  s u c h as t h o s e  not  v a l u e o f t h e phonemes o f a  segmental groupings which  seem t o be l i k e  guists  referring  seem t o f o l l o w  sentence  do n o t emerge u n t i l  suprasegmental features. they  connection, therefore,  p l a c e d a l o n g s i d e each  made b e t w e e n m e a n i n g f u l u t t e r a n c e s . variables  c a n be a s -  i s , however, a continuum,  i n a printed  i s realized  speech which  In this  of which  of speech which  of individual  page.  each  sequence.  the letters  this  segments,  the stream of  phoneme' h a s b e e n u s e d when  units  i n linear Speech,  a  into  system of  layer  by t h i s  of structure  name  because  superimposed  A synonymous t e r m w h i c h t o suprasegmental  as  some  lin-  features i s  LLC.  prosodic  f e a t u r e s . -*  LLC  -'The u s e o f ' s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s ' feather t h a n ' p r o sodic features' i n t h i s analysis i s just a matter of choice. For p u r p o s e o f p a r a l l e l i s m w i t h t h e t e r m ' s e g m e n t a l ' phonemes, t h e use o f suprasegmental' i s p r e f e r r e d here.  161  The s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s pitch, labic be  length,  and juncture.  these features  tically the  i t i s less  important  abstracted  from concrete  In  effort  For instance,  a  sound  i ti s irrelevant  pitch since  only  functional  (which  i s better  superior  linguisIn  of Tausug, categories  or syllable  vertical  i s said to involve  as greater  /'/»  weak s t r e s s w h i c h i s marked  degrees  stress which  tick,  relatively  or loud-  [']  of stress  recognizable i s marked by  level  and by a n  and t h e secondary o r  Phonetically,the  immediately preceding  great  loudness.  , on t h e phonetic  unmarked.  A  i n t e n s i t y and i s  i s the stronger  on t h e phonemic l e v e l , i s left  force  i s a r t i c u l a t e d within an utterance.  by t h e l i s t e n e r  the primary  acute accent,  k n o w n t o many  to the intensity or significant  and muscular energy, r e s u l t i n g i n great  Tausug:  of the rela-  expressions.  which a s y l l a b l e  perceived  stress  absolute  present  T h e r e a r e two d i s t i n c t i v e in  measurements o f  than the p i t c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  analysis, stress  accent) refers  stressed  the absolute  Stress this  ness with  will  monosylI t should  of the suprasegmental features  the notation  6.1  of stress,  of speech.  than an assessment  t o measure t h e p r e c i s e  following analysis  thus  that  are less useful  therefore,  as  1  f u n c t i o n o f each o f them.  to attempt  variables  Any complete u t t e r a n c e ,  o r p o l y s y l l a b i c , has these f e a t u r e s  made c l e a r h e r e , h o w e v e r ,  tive  include  the stressed  primary  syllable  as  162  as  i n sabal  *sa(3al  mark i s p l a c e d syllable.' as  the stress  phoneme o f t h e s t r e s s e d  t h e word s a b a l i s phonemically  two degrees  i n t h e sense  Ifoonly  transcribed  the primary  to fall  i s predictable precede  very  fact  just mentioned  are non-contras-  t h a t t h e y do n o t c o n t r a s t w i t h each  o f more t h a n  observed  may  of stress  one o f them o c c u r s  always  words  its  p h o n e m i c a l l y , however,  /sabal/.  tive  It  1  j u s t above t h e vowel  Thus,  The  is  'stoic ;  (as i n a l lmonosyllabic words), i t  stress.  When b o t h ,  one s y l l a b l e ,  that the syllable  the stressed syllable  (second which  i s always  to the last)  follows  of stress  non-phonemic s t a t u s i n t h e language.  syllable.''  and those  h a v e t h e weak s t r e s s .  occurrence  phonemic, a c c o r d i n g t o H a l l ,  however, occurs i n  the stronger stress  on t h e penultimate  of the automatic  other.  which  The  accounts f o r  And f o r s t r e s s  t o be  t h e r e should b e " c o n t r a s t s based  on  48 the p o s i t i o n times on  of the intensity".  some i n d i v i d u a l  w o r d s may  This  i s not so i n Tausug.  seem t o have t h e primary  t h e p e n u l t and sometimes on t h e u l t i m a .  At'  stress  T h i s does n o t , however,  change t h e meaning o f words. The dialect  predictability  o f STP s e r v e s  going  of stress  i n the  r a t h e r as a marker t o i n d i c a t e word  Each time a heavy s t r e s s is'"  of the occurrence  i s heard  t o end i n t h e n e x t  one c a n a n t i c i p a t e  boundary.  t h a t t h e word  syllable.  — 4 7  This observation i s true of the dialect of the investigator. O t h e r d i a l e c t s may h a v e d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s p a t t e r n l i k e t h e d i a l e c t o f Parang which a c c o r d i n g t o t h e A s h l e y ' s has t h e s t r e s s p r e d i c t a b l y f a l l i n g o n t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e o f a w o r d . ( o p . c i t . ,.p.l4) ^ H a l l , op. c i t . p. 109. 8  163  In  the normal pronunciation  of polysyllabic  words,  t h e r e f o r e , i t c a n be s a i d t h a t  stress  pattern i n that  penult, others.  there  i s an  inherent  one a n d t h e same s y l l a b l e ,  always has t h e stronger  Tausug  i.e., the  stress than the other  A rough representation of this  s t r e s s p a t t e r n may  /  x / i n w h i c h /ity r e p r e s e n t s  the stressed syllable  the  unstressed  stress pattern  illustrated  one.  This  basic  and c o n s i s t e n t l y observed  which are derived  or be  and / x /  c a n be b e t t e r  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g words  f o r m s o f a s i n g l e b a s e morpheme.  Base word:  d a g a n /da"gan/ ' t o r u n  1  nagdagan /nagd^gan/ ' r a n  1  n a g d a r a g a n / n a g d a r a g a n / 'was nagdaganan  / nagdaganan/  nagdagandaganan  running  ' r a n away'  /nagdagandag&nan/  running  1  & running'  'has b e e n  (more o f a  game) In given  above t h a t  although and  s p i t e of a f f i x a t i o n , the basic  a change  i t i s obvious  i n t h e examples  p a t t e r n /*' x / r e m a i n s  of syllable  an a d d i t i o n of unstressed  where t h e primary syllables  constant, stress  preceding  £alls  the stressed  one a r e e v i d e n t . 6.2  Pitch  Closely  and I n t o n a t i o n  allied  suprasegmental features Tausug, t h e highest stress.  t o s t r e s s i s one o f t h e o t h e r of an utterance,  pitch  Nevertheless,  falls  although  pitch.  on t h e s y l l a b l e this  kind  of  important  Normally, with  i n  primary  correlation  164  beti\reen p i t c h Hill of  and  stress  - a b s o l u t e , so  them  which are  p r o d u c e d by  of M ' b r a t i o n  has  a  has  t o be  thought  characteristic of p i t c h  are As  to  each  considered  They can  four-line  and  be  placed above the to  span covered  by  ^Hlll,  1  as  4  s i m p l y and  each p i t c h  op.  5°Pei,' o p .  level.  c i t . , p. c i t . , p.  2?. 208.  more o r  individual However,  less  i n the pitch  in pitch  are  represented  range ranges.  that influence  recognizable i f one  n u m b e r e d one  the  used  Hence, the  (1-4)  lowest These  pitch  numbers  i n phonemic  unambiguously as  in  imagines  to four  - extra high.  s e g m e n t a l phonemes a r e  indicate  Each  varieties  i . e . , number 1 r e p r e s e n t s  - normal,3 - h i g h , and  frequency  0  within certain  of p i t c h  s t a f f whose l i n e s a r e  level,' 2  of  here.  most s i m p l y  b o t t o m up,  Pei-"the  voice"??  t o be  changes  important  from the  cription  found  tones  the v i b r a t i o n  relative.  there are  Four significant levels Tausug.  of  or low  range f o r h i s v o i c e .  there are also varieties  meaning are  the  of as  pitch  f o r a l l speakers.  pitch,  rapidity  sound of  However, o n l y r e l a t i v e p i t c h  a  to treat  of high  I t i s - according.to Mario  relative levels  parallel  v a r y i n g the  i n the nmsical  Pitch  of  that i t remains necessary  i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d i n terms  the v o c a l bands.  the  - according  independently.^ Pitch  person  i s common, i t i s n o t  trans-  possible  examples:  the  165 mallngkat  /malinfeat/  Mallngkat i n badju  'beautiful*  /malinkat i n BacLju?/  (beautiful the dress)  'The dress i s b e a u t i f u l ' .  In normal speech such as the above examples, one seldom says an utterance without any change i n p i t c h .  The s h i f t i n  pitch i s p r i n c i p a l l y among the f i r s t three levels.  1  The extra  high p i t c h , l e v e l 4, Is usually reserved f o r emphatic and emot i o n a l speech, so that the above examples when expressed emp h a t i c a l l y w i l l have the / 2 4 l / pitch pattern Instead of /231/v Pitch i s phonemic i n Tausug.  Although i t does not  change the inherent or r e f e r e n t i a l meaning of a word, l t gives added meaning usually i d e n t i f i e d with attitude and emotion;* The example mallngkat 'beautiful' which normally has the /231/ pitch pattern when expressed with the /121/ pattern, that i s , /malinia^/ would mean 'beautiful and there i s no doubt about it*.  This may be an answer to a person questioning or arguing  about the beauty of some persons or things. The contrastive significance of the r e l a t i v e p i t c h l e v e l s of Tausug are best analyzed as belonging to a larger meaningful l i n g u i s t i c unit, rather than just to a single word. It i s , therefore, assumed here that the pitch l e v e l s are arranged i n contours which are combined with the terminal junctures (which w i l l be discussed i n section 6.4) to form what may be c a l l e d intonation patterns.  166.  I n t o n a t i o n as defined abstracted sentence,  characteristic  spoken'.  ing  voice,  and  ' I ti s the r i s e  of speech  intonation  give  and f a l l  the modulation of voice, particularly  No a t t e m p t  of  sentence melodies which  emotional d i s t i n c t i o n '  the  the tone q u a l i t y t o make  Trager^  contours of Tausug, but i t i s f e l t  i s to discuss  the intonational  and  syntactical  to provide a f u l l  analysis  of  desirable to  of i n t o n a t i o n and the range  the contour types i n the language.  ordinary  of the speak-  according t o Blochand  of the role  every  i s g i v e n when i t  i n pitch  Mhen u s e d  i s made h e r e  enough i n f o r m a t i o n  this  *constitutes the  every word, and every s y l l a b l e  is  melody  by P i k e ,  T h e s i m p l e s t way t o do  possibilities  of a  fexf  sentences such as: 1.  Yari (here  2.  h i Inda.  /yari  (article)  Inda)  P a k a i n kaw?  h i ?inda?/ "Inda  i s here'  / p a k a ? i n kaw/  (where g o i n g you)'Where a r e you g o i n g ? ' In like,  normal Tausug speech, a mat1fcer-of-fact  f o r instance,  2  /yari has  normal  the second  'Pel,  sentence  3 1  h i?mda? I /  a /2 3 1 I / i n t o n a t i o n  average on  the f i r s t  pitch  statement  'Inda  pattern.  i s here'  The v o i c e  starts  (2), g o e s u p t o t h e h i g h p i t c h  to the last  op. c i t .  p.  syllable,  131.  and f i n a l l y  from the  level  drops  (3)  o f f to the  167  low  pitch  contour  (1) on t h e l a s t  signifies  finality  most commonly h e a r d to  as f a l l i n g  type  of intonation  of thought and i s , t h e r e f o r e , the  i n ordinary conversation.  I t i s referred  / 2  i s sustained  on p i t c h  level  h i?inda?/  i s known a s  'Inda  i s here',  (and so  position.  This  type  T h e same s e n t e n c e  the  /yari This  of intonation gives  without  syllable,  h i inc?a?/f /  'Is Inda  with questions  geniune question speaker  needs  intonation  changing  only  contour  i n pitch at  i n t o n a t i o n , / t / , and i s  needing  'yes o r 'no*, a  an answer.  c o n f i r m a t i o n frmm t h e l i s t e n e r , i s likely  be  here?'  answerable by  i n particular  hesitation.  a n y w o r d may rise  a  thus:  i s r e f e r r e d t o as the r i s i n g  commonly h e a r d  i s normal  the l i s t e n e r  suspense,- and sometimes  i n t o a q u e s t i o n by making a marked  end o f t h e f i n a l  . . .)  breath group, but not i n utterance-  of incompleteness,  converted  results,  . . ., e t c . )  ' s u s t a i n e d i n t o n a t i o n , /*"*/, w h i c h  t h e end o f a n m e d i a l  feeling  three i n  a non-final intonation pattern  (but  final  represented  3~*/: /yari  at  of the  /!/.  the above g i v e n sentence,  This  fall  end o f t h e p a t t e r n , g r a p h i c a l l y  When t h e v o i c e  i.e.,  This  i n t o n a t i o n and has a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  voice at the very above as  syllable.  t o be h e a r d , i . e . :  I f the the/-232f/  1.68  2  /yari •Is  3  1  Inda?t/  hi  Inda here?*  p r o b a b l y has  ( I j u s t w a n t t o make  The  speaker  already a notion  but  h e j j u s t wants t o make s u r e o r When t h e s p e a k e r a s k s t h e /2  4 t /  or  fear,  of  /2 3 t / o r / 2 3 2 t / . The  second  interrogative  who  any  really or  would  .because  something  likely  a /3  used  1  when a s p e a k e r w o u l d  t h e a n s w e r was tion  he  not  clear  21/  like  'Where a r e y o u sentence. as  intonation  A  will  an  pattern:  going? *  t o where a  person i s to  join  other similar  him  reason,  contour:  to reiterate he  by  speaker,' however,  Where a r e you  t o him,  i n place  3 1 \ / intonation  or f o r any  kawty  surprise  i s heard  i s probably interested  through him,  /iaka?in But  ,52  I /  around,  i s a question initiated  curious or interested  bound f o r  send  31  kaw  ordinary matter-of-fact  seems t o be  is  assurance.  pattern  n o r m a l l y t h e /2  /paka?in  like  k Z f/  sentence which  •2  just wants  Inda  the above q u e s t i o n w i t h  o r t h e /Z  word has  that  sure)  going?'  the question  use  a / l 3 t/  because intona-  pattern"  1  /Paka?in  3  kaw  .  T/  "Where d i d y o u going  Any  of the i n t o n a t i o n  'pitch-displacement  depending  say you  1  p a t t e r n s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e may on what word  are  have  the speaker would  . 52j i g r e e t i n g , among a c q u a i n t a n c e s , t h e a b o v e s e n t e n c e w i t h t h e f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n /Z 3 I V i s o f t e n h e a r d . I t i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e E n g l i s h ' H i ' o r 'How a r e y o u ? ' . A T a u s u g s p e a k e r when a s k i n g t h e q u e s t i o n d o e s n o t mean t o be nosy about other people's b u s i n e s s . n  c a s u a  like  169 t o c a l l t h e a t t e n t i o n of h i s l i s t e n e r t o .  By  pitch-displacement  i s meant t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e of the h i g h e s t p i t c h of a sentence t o some s y l l a b l e o t h e r t h a n the one f o r the p i t c h t o be h i g h e s t .  on which i t i s most customary  T h i s means t h a t the p i t c h p r o m i -  nence i n a g i v e n sentence i s a l w a y s on t h e s y l l a b l e on which t h e r e i s a p o t e n t i a l change of p i t c h . From the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s i t i s c l e a r t h a t sentences i t j Tausug may  be spoken w i t h s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o n t o u r s , each of  w h i c h has an i d e n t i f i a b l e range o f semantic v a l u e s .  I n some  c a s e s the c o n t o u r s and t h e i r meanings d i f f e r s t r i k i n g l y so t h a t they can be c o n v e n i e n t l y a r r a n g e d  in pairs.  As such, i n t o n a t i o n  i s s a i d t o have c o n t r a s t i v e s i g n i g i c a n c e i n Tausug. 6•3  Length  A n o t h e r f a c t o r of speech, c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t r e s s and p i t c h ( i n t h a t t h e y a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o make a sound or s y l l a b l e p r o m i n e n t ) i s l e n g t h , w h i c h i s sometimes r e f e r r e d t o o r equated w i t h • d u r a t i o n  1  or •quantity '. 1  I t i s d e f i n e d as  the  r e l a t i v e amount of t i m e d u r i n g w h i c h the v o c a l organs s t a y i n the p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r a r t i c u l a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n . I n Tausug, r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n vowel l e n g t h a r e observable  i n s t r e s s e d and u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s .  Normally,  vowels i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y l o n g e r than i n unstressed syllables.-  T h i s i s c l e a r l y shown i n r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms l i s t e d below where the r e l a t i v e l y l o n g vowel i s by  /./.  those  symbolized  •170.  bang bang  [-ba.nban,]  'cookies*  katkat  ['k'a.tkat]  'saw' ( c a r p e n t e r * s  pispis  ['p'i.spls]  'small left  pieces  tool)  of cloth  after cutting a  dress* sinsin  £*si.nsin]  ' t o y money'  budbud  ['bu.dbUd]  'to pour on'  kupkup  ['k»u.'pkUp]  ' t o embrace  Comparatively found  i nmonosyllabic  here with  the f u l l  longer  vowels than those given  length  sign [  s  ] ,  bang  [ba:rj]  'earrings'  kat  [ka:t]  «a s p e c i e s  pis  [pi:s]  'a p i e c e  of fish*  o f c l o t h used by men a s h e a d  sin  [siifn]  'money'  bud  [bui'd]  'mountain'  kup  [ku:p]  'early' observed  o f examples above a r e s a i d i n p a i r s such a s : [ba:n]  - [ba.nban]  [kast]  - [ka.'tkat]  [pi:s]  i  - [pi.spls]  [si:n]  - [si.nsln]  [bu:d]  -  [ku:p]  -[ku.pkUp]  [bu.dbUd]  transcribed  Thus,  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t»7- a n d / : / a r e b e t t e r  two s e t s  above a r e  words w h i c h w i l l be p h o n e t i c a l l y  moslem  The  tightly'  piece'  i f the  171;  Vowel not A  exist  between,  v o w e l may  semantic  length  be  i s non-phonemic i n Tausug.  for instance,  t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n may  medial  p o s i t i o n as 'dove',  •picture'  and  The  complete  lowing  of t h i s  as  'gills'ikappal  syllable  The  one  consonant.  o f two  above consonants  akal  since  kapal ['k'apal]  cuuld  folbe  bet-  'by-product ['?asaij]  right*  economy o f a n a l y s i s ,  of the s y l l a b l e s  the  •thickness',  'serves him  d o rot a l l o w  of the consonant  identical  contrast  [*?akal]  the  geminated,which  f  and  (tenue)  involves  than  assang  [*p»atta?]  the p r e c e d i n g and  feature  pata ['p'ata?]  patterns  interpretation  of each  as sang [ ?assai!j] and as ang  of s i m p l i c i t y  just  of the'hold'  lengthened rather  [ ' k * a p p a l ] and  p a t t a [ ' p ' a t t a ? ] and  to belong to  into  a k k a l [ ' ? a k k a l ] and  f o r purposes  patta  phenomenon, however,  as a phonemic  1  the  prolonging  respectively.  /:/  like  'boat' and  consonants, i . e . , sequences  interpreted  establish  because  unnatural.  preceding the release  from c o c o n u t - o i l making ,  But  t o be  phonemes w h i c h d i v i d e  syllables  ween words  felt  i s produced by  closure  conceivably would  be  kappal ['k'appal]  of geminate  consonant  a l t h o u g h i f s o a l t e r e d , ' i n some c a s e s ,  i n t h e words a k k a l [»?akkal] •wisdom'  interpretation  theory  [ban].  t h e case of consonants, lengthenihg-;occurs i n word-  [•?*ssan]  or  [ba:n] with [ba.n] or  does  lengthened or shortened i n an utterance without  significance,  In  Contrast  the lengthened  and  exist. and  consonants  - t h e y must b e l o n g t o b o t h -  as geminates  i s maintained.  6.4  Juncture  Although speech i s observed and  not a series  distinguishable  of distinct  t o be c o n t i n u o u s  sounds grouped  morphemes o r morpheme  into  sequences,  p a u s e s o r r e t a r d a t i o n s odfritempo a r e n o t i c e a b l e . or  clearly some  utterances. and  They c o n t r i b u t e  greatly to better  been i d e n t i f i e d ,  i ti s s t i l l  intelligibility,  to recognize  phrasesj^and • Two terminal  which  The  that  i s used follows 1.  significant  the boundaries  junctures,  utterance  between  which are often  j u n c t u r e s ,< a r e r e c o g n i z e d  b y a d o u b l e b a r , /(I single-bar  juncture  i n introducing  have for. words,  Kitaa  pause  pause  /. usually occurs w i t h i n  utterances  or i n emphasizing an  idea  below:  i n dung s i n k a p p a l ,  naghihibal.  i n dun s i n k a p p a l I n a g h i h i b a l /  the front part  Way k a s u s a h a n , h a /Way  referred to  i n Tausug: a short  / }/, a n d a l o n g e r  an idea  as i n t h e examples  'See  »  consonants)  sentences.  /kita?ah  2  here  occasionally, necessary,  i s marked by a s i n g l e b a r ,  represented  and  1  of a given  pauses  understanding of  E v e n when a l l t h e phonemes ( v o w e l s a n d  t h e s t r e s s and p i t c h patterns  slight  These  t r a n s i t i o n s b e t w e e n morphemes a r e what a r e t e r m e d  junctures.  as  floxi  kasusahan!hah  of t h e b o a t ,  surga surga?/  •There i s no s o r r o w , i n h e a v e n '  i t i s moving.'.  173  T h i s j u n c t u r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n Tausug s i n c e a d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning would r e s u l t i f t h e / \ / were o m i t t e d i n the above examples.  Thus:  1 . ' / k l t a ? a h i n dun s i n k a p p a l | n a g h i h i b a l / •See t h e f r o n t o f t h e b o a t , i t i s moving*/ vs. / k i t a ? a h i n dun s i n k a p p a l n a g h i h i b a l / *See the f r o n t of t h e boat moving*. 2.  /way  kasusahan \ hah s u r g a ? /  *There i s no sorrow, i n heaven.* vs. /way  kasusahan hah s u r g a ? /  »There i s no sorrow i n heaven*. A t t h e end o f sentences i n which t h e speaker l a p s e s i n t o s i l e n c e , t h e d o u b l e b a r j u n c t t f r e , /|| /, i s f o u n d .  It is  used t o s i g n a l the end o f an u t t e r a n c e as i n : 1/  / k i t a ? a h i n dun s i n k a p p a l | n a g h i h i b a l / ) ! / or / k i t a ? a h i n dun s i n k a p p a l n a g h l h i b a l / l l /  2.  /way  kasusahan \ hah  surga ? l l /  or /way  kasusahan hah surga  A l t h o u g h t h e suprasegmental f e a t u r e s do n o t change t h e l e x i c a l meaning of ah u t t e r a n c e , they do add c o n c o m i t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e i r c o n v e n t i o n a l a c c e p t a n c e by Tausug s p e a k i n g p e o p l e - i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e i r emotive, a t t i t u d i n a l , and d i r e c t i v e u s e s .  7,  Morphophonemics  Thepphonemes of are  more t h a n s i m p l y  tified of a tic in one  as  set the  of  (like  term  field  of  ween t h e tially  be  The  morphological  whether  they are By  an  the  in  the  changes or  i t s broadest  meaningful  or  formal  when t h e y  occur  elements kinds  ?  changes.  by  some  linguists  the  gap  It is  bet-  essen-  phoneme a l t e r n a t i o n s  sense,  i t includes  predictable  or  a l l alternot,  or  not.  a l t e r n a t i o n which  accompanying  system  of v a r i o u s  i s defined  iden-  characteris-  other  phonemic l e v e l s .  form, which  p h o n e t i c m o d i f i c a t i o n , and  general  having a  p r e d i c t a b l e a l t e r n a t i o n s of  or  p h o n e m e s sff t h e of  the  stated  i n the  analysis which bridges  phonemic  In  1  been  individually  element  each of  phonemes, w h e t h e r t h e y a r e  automatic  terms  and  concerned with  of  an  be  r e f l e c t e d i n morphophonemic  linguistic  nations  to  already  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s are  'morphophonemics  w i t h i n morphemes.  has  Tausug, f o r instance)  These  w h i c h may  the  i t i s rather  interrelationships with  system.'  of  l a n g u a g e as  individual units  and. d e s c r i b e d ;  language  a  i n that  a  phoneme i s meant  i s determined can  be  by  described  which applies  the in  t o a l l morphemes  particular conditioned  ejavi-  53 roiament.  For  a  sample i l l u s t r a t i o n  made t o a n  earlier  'Pel,- o p .  discussion  c i t . , pp.  of  this  (cf. section  25-26.  idea, reference  5*3)  of  a  change  is in  175 speech sound  brought about  by e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s .  consonant  / d / , f o r i n s t a n c e , when o c c u r r i n g  position,  whether  automatically  w i t h i n words  becomes / r / .  maragan  p a + jdahun  parahun  tagad* an ha+  ddiuhul •  pa + dugu From t h e above alternation' here  t o mean  In of  sounds  because  with  effort.  not  /tagaran/  'will wait f o r '  haruhul  /harifthul/  'at t h e end*  haragat  /haragat/  *in  the sea'  parugu  /paruguh/  'to  the  / d / and / r / a r e s a i d t o  i . e . , /d/~->/r/.  This  there  The / ~ /  t o pronounce  symbol i s  i n sequence  such d i f f i c u l t i e s so that  The  general  by a l t e r i n g  or  the speaker can  t o a n o t h e r more q u i c k l y a n d w i t h a  minimum  phenomenon i s o b s e r v e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , w i t h / n / The tongue  the / n / t o t h e /k/ because  t h e t i po f t h e tongue  i s produced with  t h e back  against  the n a t u r a l tendency  the teeth while the  part against  o f a Tausug  could  the former i s  the velum.  e a s i e r t o go f r o m / n / t o / k / s i n c e b o t h sounds  so t h a t  be'in  are c e r t a i n combinations  adjustments involved.  to avoid  corner'  or 'alternates with'.  t o / k / a s i n d a i n k a n i l a ' f r o m %em*.  made w i t h  much  tagaran  one o r more o f t h e sounds  move r a p i d l y f r o m  latter  send'  continuous r a p i d speech  move f r o m one s o u n d  moving  'will  which a r e quite d i f f i c u l t  modifying  of  /para*hun/  others  /maragan/  'in alternation with'  i s therefore  boundaries,  runner*  of the a r t i c u l a t o r y  tendency  morphome  •fast  examples,  each  i n intervocalic  Thus:  ma 4 d a g a n  h a * dagat  used  or across  The  I ti s  are velars,  speaker i s to say  17'6  /dain tioned  kanilah/ instead of /dain  kanilah/.  a l t e r n a t i o n i s observed with /n/~/m/ in  before  bilabials  pula / i n pula/  sin in  pilak badju  A similar  t h e f o l l o w i n g phonemes:  /p,b,m/V  > /im pula/  'the r e d '  / s i npilak/ >/simpilak/  ' i t was  / i n ba'dju?/>/ira b a d j u ? /  *the  tagun bata  / t a g u n bata/>/tagum  in  / i n manhud/>/im manhud/  manghud  bata?/  malagu  / s i n malaggu?/ >/sim  money*  dress* 'young'  'the younger'  brother sin  condi-  or  sister*  roalaggu?/  'Its's  big* /n/^/n/ in  when f o l l o x ^ i n g  kusug  lain in  kamu  gabun  lain  gula  v e l a r /k,g,h,w/:  / i n ku*sug/>A*} k u s u g / /dain  kamu?/> / d a i n  'the strength* kamu?/  / i n gabun/>/in gabun/ /lain  gula?/>/lain  'from us*  'the cloud'  gula?/  'different  type  of molasses' d a i n habud  /dain  ha bud/ >/dain ha bud/  *from t h e  mountain' sin  haba  / s i n h a b a ? / >>&in h a b a ? /  *the  waktu  / i n waktuh/>An waktuh/  'the time*  s i n walu  / s i n w a l u h / >/3in w a l u h /  ' i t i s eight*  in  The  phenomenon o f a sound  characteristic is  i n common w i t h  ( o r sounds)  being  acquiring  t h e neighboring^ s o u n d  o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as a s s i m i l a t i o n .  assimilation  length*  i s s a i d t o be r e g r e s s i v e  a  ( o r sounds)  I n the preceding  examples,  s i n c e t h e sound which i s  i n f l u e n c e d f o l l o w s that which causes t h e i n f l u e n d e .  17 7 The  r e v e r s e i s t r u e with p r o g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n , i . e . , the  sound which i s being i n f l u e n c e d f o l l o w s t h a t which causes the i n f l u e n c e as i n the d i a l e c t a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / b i k i n / f o r /bikin/  'a v a r i e t y o f clams*.  The /n/ pronunciation r e s u l t s A  as an i n f l u e n c e o f the preceding  v e l a r consonant, /k/.  This  l a t t e r a l t e r n a t i o n of phonemes i s , however, not p r e d i c t a b l e (non-automatic),  neither i s i t distinctive i n T a u s u g .  I t is  l i m i t e d only t o a few words. T h e r e a r e other non-automatic morphophonemic a l t e r n a t i o n s which are o f more f u n c t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e such as those which are manifested  as f e a t u r e s of d e r i v a t i o n and i n f l e c t i o n .  V e r b s d e r i v e d from nouns, f o r i n s t a n c e , show such types o f alternation, /p/ *~Vm/ /pulah/  'red* ~Vmulah/  /puti?/  'white *<~/muti?/  ' w i l l become r e d ' ' w i l l become white'  /b/ ^ /m/ /bahu?/  'bad odor' ^ /mahu?/  /buga?/  'fear' ^  /miiga?/  ' w i l l s m e l l bad*  ' w i l l be a f r a i d *  O t h e r f u n c t i o n a l non-automatic a l t e r n a t i o n are ble  among some verbs  observa-  such as t h e a l t e r n a t i o n between the  consonant o f t h e i n f i n i t i v e form a n d the f u t u r e  tense:  /p/~/m/ /panaw/  *to x<ralk* ^/manaw/  'will  take a walk'  /patay/  'to k i l l ' ^ / m a t a y /  'will  die*  /pusa/  'to hatch'^/musa?/  'will  hatch'  initial  178  Some m o r p h o p h o n e m i c a l t e r n a t i o n accompanying  changes  /Ciy/  ~  loss  termed to  a r en o t e d i nthe examples  /miyuga?/  /myuga?/  'was  /siyam/  /syam/  'nine*  /tiyan/  /tyan/  'stomach*  /huwis/  /hwis/  *judge *  /muwi?/  /mwi?/  'to  g o home*  Vsuwat/  /swat/  •to  d i g ' (the  o f a v o w e l phoneme a s i n t h e e x a m p l e s  syncope.  t h evowel  The i n s e r t i o n  inserted  i s called  cluster  words adopted i n t o  and  enumerated i s  an anaptyctic  vowel.  t h e language such as truck,  / t i s k u l / b y many T a u s u g  respectively  This  —~~"~~————  —  i s commonly o b s e r v e d w i t h  which a r epronounced  hand,  i s known a s a n a p t y x i s  "  phonemenon o f a n a p t y x i s  soil)  o f a vowel on the other  i i  etc.,  afraid*  /Cw/  break up troublesome consonant  and  below:  /Cy/  /Cuw/  The  i nmeaning  which occur without  foreign  cross,  as /tarak/,  speakers, t h euneducated  school,  /kurus/ ones i n  particular. There  a r e some a l t e r n a t i o n s  considered  stylistic,  dialects.  They a r ehowever,  well  as non-functional  kind  of alternation  (negation) alternation  i nthat  they a r erepresentative non-linguistic,  variations  are / n / ^ / ? /  and / 1 / ^ / h / ,  o f phonemes w h i c h a r e  i nspeech.  non-distinctive, Examples  as  of this  a s i n /bukun/<^/buku?/ 'no'  i . e . /bakul/~/baku#/,  i s characteristic  of certain  o f t h eGimbahanun  'basket*. dialect.  This  8.  SUMMARY and CONCLUSION  A synchronic analysis of the phonological system of Tausug has been the main concern of t h i s thesis.  An attempt  has been made to provide a s u f f i c i e n t l y detailed description of the phonetic raw material of the language, to i d e n t i f y and c l a s s i f y i t according to relevant functional l i n g u i s t i c units.  1  As a necessary complementary  addition to the phonolo-  g i c a l analysis, discussions of the suprasegmental features and the morphophonemics of the language have been Included. The phonemes of Tausug have been established on the basis of the c r i t e r i a of phonetic s i m i l a r i t y ,  complementary  d i s t r i b u t i o n , pattern congruity, and i d e n t i t y of function which are applied to a l l phone-types of the language.  As a r e s u l t ,  an inventory of twenty segmental phonemes has been drawn up: three vowels, / i , a , u / , and seventeen consonants, /p,t,k,?, t>,d,g, j,s,h,m,n,n,l,r,w,y/;'  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of /w,y/  as  consonant phonemes depends on their contextual function with reference to t h e i r position within the s y l l a b l e .  Whenever  their d i s t r i b u t i o n i s the same as that of the other consonants of the language, they are treated as such; otherwise, i n other positions, they are interpreted as semivowels.  1  Tausug has two basic s y l l a b l e patterns:  CV and CVC.  With permitted combinations of pure vowels and semivowels, however, such as the diphthongs / i a , a i , ua, au, i u , u i / and the triphthongs / i a i , uau, i a u , u a i / , other secondary s y l l a b l e patterns are added:  CSV, CVS, CSVC, CVSC, CSVS. and CSVSC.  180  The  most prominent sound, w h i c h n o r m a l l y  to a pure vowel, certain butes  constitutes  factors, besides  t o t h e prominence  correlated  the syllabic  the inherent  suprasegmental features  nucleus.  sonority,  of a sound.  corresponds There a r e  which  Such factors  contri-  involve  the  of s t r e s s , p i t c h , and  length. S u p r a s e g m e n t a l l y , Tausug has two d i s t i n c t , phonemic four  levels of stress:  contrastive  highjand and  extra  consonants  addition, single  levels  found  /*/ a n d weak l 2 3 4/,  high and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t (thelatter  bar juncture.  usually  of pitch, /  two i m p o r t a n t  group w i t h i n  primary  terminal  /!/, w h i c h  an utterance,  i . e . , low, normal,  lengthening  treated  e v e r , w h e r e some s o u n d  as gemination).  junctures  i s found a t t h e end o f a  final  in  breath  i d e n t i t y , there are instances,  changes  how-  o r phoneme a l t e r n a t i o n s a r e boundaries.  o f morphophonemics.  to  They a r e t h e r e s u l t s  phenomena s u c h a s a s s i m i l a t i o n , s y n c o p e , a n a p t y x i s , e t c .  Among  t h e morphophonemic  t h e language are:  changes  / d / ^ / r / ,  /p/Vm/ , / b / ~ / m / , / c i y A y C y / that  the  position.  o r a l t e r n a t i o n o f sounds have been r e f e r r e d  under the heading  In  are recognizable:  o b s e r v a b l e w i t h i n morphemes o r a c r o s s morpheme  of  of vowels  a-llii o f t h e t w e n t y s e g m e n t a l phonemes o f  Tausug have t h e i r phonemic  Such changes  (unmarked) ,  a n d t h e d o u b l e b a r / |j / , w h i c h i s  i n utterance  Although  being  but non-  or alternations  observed  /n/^/m./, / n / < ~ / n / ,  , a n d /Giw/^/Cw/. T h e f a c t  some phonemes u n d e r g o m o d i f i c a t i o n s  :  does n o t  diminish,.  181 or a l t e r t h e i r functional values as i n d i v i d u a l phonemes once t h e i r phonemic status has been established. I t has already been pointed out i n previous discussions that speech Is a continuum.  Therefore, the best way to observe  the l i n g u i s t i c elements that make up the phonological system of Tausug i s to have them i n normal operation i n a running text l i k e the Tausug version of the l i n g u i s t i c a l l y popular t a l e of the *The Northwind and the Sun' provided below i n both phonetic and phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n s .  The transcribed text  also serves as a general summary of Tausug phonology. Phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n  ?In The  3 2___ .2  2  't'imUl north  ?ipan and  'suyoh ^ sun 5  >  hctmbu?Uk One  *?adlaw I hlnapUh day . while  3 2___  >  ?i£an and  honln wind  2  'suyah | hambu?Uk sun one  nagsaggatf?In hanln disputing the wind  t*a?Uh man  llmagay ?ipan passed by and  3 2  't'imUl north  k'ctmmUt overcoat  55  The Tausug version of the above text i s based on the IPA manual, page 21. "The northwind and the sun were arguing one day about which of them was stronger, when a t r a v e l l e r came along wrapped up i n his overcoat. They agreed that the one who could make the t r a v e l l e r take his coat off would be considered stronger than the other one. Then the northwind blew as hard as he could, but the harder he blew, the t i g h t e r the t r a v e l l e r wrapped his coat around him, and at l a s t the northwind gave up t r y i n g . Then the sun began to shine hot, and right away the t r a v e l l e r took his coat o f f , and so the northwind had to admit that the sun was stronger than he was."  182.  3 1  ...2  •niyah+ll k'yapagmawpakkatan his i t was agreed upon  nilah them  3, 2-> »t'a?Uh man  makapa?Ig sin k'ctmmUt sin one who can the overcoat the take off makusUg strong  hah in  hah of  3 1 2 k'ccnilah 111 t'ImiyUp them blow  k'akUsuyan strength  3 2  nah hlsiyUh ?Im that whoever the  nah ?In then the  2  2 t'yagna?an  ?Iniyon remove  ?In the  .  suyah sun  nah sin then the  t'imUl north  3 1  k a'niyah I him  3  >  1  sin the  t'imUl north  ?in k'ammUt the overcoat  t*a?Uh man  3 2__ i hU lihan I hlmundUq ?In honln stopped the wind end"  t*a?Uh man  nah ?In that the  3, 1 , „ 2 *p asU? \ \\ bukUn heat not  ?Im the  t'anda? k'usUg sin proof strength the  hanln wind  honln wind  3 2_» 2 'niyah I sagawa? gam k'Usuyan niyah ?in his but the more w i l l stronger he the  •t*iyU$ j gam ?lsab k'Upkupan sin blowing the more also hold tightly the  3 1 . „ 2 niyah i l l hah his at  ?amllh nah ?Im that (ligature) the  1  , II  't'imUl'ill north  3 2_ 'mawyay long time >  3 1  ?In k'ammUt •niyah I 11 ?inlh the overcoat his this suyah I | sun 3  1  suyah sun  nagsabunnal nah ?In believe already the  t'akdll really  makusUg strong  dayn than  183  Phonemic  transcription  2  3 2  ?in  hanin  2  3 2  hambu?uk  ?adlaw  3 2 iban  I hinabuh j  sugan  ?im  ?'2_> i  ? i n  hanin  hambu?uk  ta?uh  limabay  2  makapa?ig  s i n  nilah  kammut  na  s i n  2  1  ta?uh  nagsagga?  ill n i y a h l\\ k y a p a g m a w p a k k a t a n  kammut  hisiyuh  sugah  2  3/1 iban  iban  ,2  3 2  timul  3 1  timul  D 3,1  amuhh  nah  ?im  makusug  hah  ii  kanilah|||  2 timiyup  nah  ? i n  3'2_*  I  2  niyah  1  sagwa?  hanin  timul  gam  hah  kusugan  kakusugan  niyah  i n  3/2  .  tiyup  |  2 gam  ?isab  3/1  ,11  2  niyah  \ \\  hah  3'1  »l|  3'2_* ,  3/  3/ kammut  1  I  , II  3 '1 n a h i l ? li n 2  s u g a h + 11  ill  s i n  ?inigan  n i y a h 4-11  3/1  ta?Uh  ? i n  kammut  2 himundun  ? i n  sugah  ?im  n a n am  3/1  i  pasu  *  2  2^  maugay  kaniyah  I  hulihan  tyagna?an  2  timul sin  s i n  2  t i m u l | ll  bukun  kupkupan  nah  s i n  ta?uh  ? i n  2  ?inih  sugah nagsabunnal  ? i n  tandah  takdil nah  kusug  makusug dayn ? i n hanin)  184,  The which by  has  system  been presented  a l ldialects  the  dialects,  distribution there  they  lectal Tausug  The  seem t o use  exhaustive,  study or  been aimed at  linguistic  in-the analysis.  data  can  be  The basic  influx  as w e l l  primary  linguistic  dearth of  i t i s not  present the  refinements  and  diaof  phonemes. be  accuracy  has  c o n s t a n t l y changbe  attained.  discoveries  techniques  i n the  dialects  presume t o  work can  knowledge and  improved  for  a l ldialects  language  though  some  account  does not  and  phonemes  segmental  of t h i s  study  of  in  linguistic  interpretation  i s to provide  of Tausug phonology.  the  as  and  purpose  here,  well  o f new  as  been a t t a i n e d  urgent  of the  also  definitive  phonemes  sounds i n t o  virtually  With  nature  of  expected.  understanding  although  i n the  although thoroughness  theory, better  investigation  may  of Tausug phonology  complete,  with the  between  same s e t o f t w e n t y  i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t any  Further,  differences  different  of f o r e i g n  Otherwise,  the  virtually  distribution  speakers  consonants  i s shared  variations  of the  i n the  educated  seventeen  analysis  principally  intervention  of the  and  I f there are  allophones  differences.  This  ing,  are  i s some v a r i a t i o n  those  i n this  of Tausug.  of the  themselves. like  of three vowels  the  a  need.  attempt  not  description,  public  intention  been i n v a i n .  m a t e r i a l s on t h e  complete The  has  I f this  language, helps to  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  c o n c l u s i o n s makes i t p o s s i b l e  a has  With  this  analysis,  cope w i t h data  f o r others to  an  as  conduct.  165.  further  investigations  accuracy  on t h e language and check  on t h e  of the analysis. Concomitant w i t h the pedagogical help which  derived  from  •preface*  study  i s i t s social  significance.  of t h e Papers  on P h i l i p p i n e  L a n g u a g e s , No. 1, A l f r e d o  T. M o r a l e s ,  this  i s t o be  a Philippine  " . . .  Philippine  kind,  we  culture.  foster not only  scholarly  geniune  over  to say:  papers]  With  a r e new  more d a t a  improved  a l s o a deeper F i l i p i n o  of more m a s t e r y for  has t h i s  They [ t h e l i n g u i s t i c  about  but  educator,  In the  of  linguistic  consciousness,  data this science  i n terms  o u r own P h i l i p p i n e m a t e r i a l  study, and b e t t e r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a  understanding  of a l l the peoples,  the neglected communities,  especially  t h a t makes up t h e F i l i p i n o  nation. With  the present  linguistic  increased  interest,  guistics,  i n general, w i l l  -^Hockett,  56 S I L ,  investigations,  i t i s hoped  i n Tausug,but  i n Philippine  not only  continue.  op. c i t . ,  p.  op. c i t . p. I V .  Ill,  that lin-  1863  BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Allen,  Harold  B.  YorJt: Bloomfield,  T e a c h i n g E n g l i s h as  Leonard.  Language.  Harcourt,  Brace  James and  Finocchiaro,  York:  York:  w  .  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