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Space for outdoor recreation : planning aspects for a national policy Spankie, Caroline Margaret Dacre 1967

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SPACE FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION: PLANNING: ASPECTS FOR A NATIONAL POLICY by CAROLINE MARGARET. DACRE SPANKIE B. A . , . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 A-THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT' OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF-" ARTS i n the D i v i s i o n of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standards THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1967. In p re sent ing t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that tha L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion f o r ex ten s i ve copying of t h i s t he s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives. . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t he s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n pe rmi s s i on , Community and Regional Planning Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date M a y ' 1 9 6 7 ABSTRACT Maintenance of p u b l i c welfare i s the f u n c t i o n of the p u b l i c s e c t o r . I t i s the duty of a government to do whatever Is conducive to the welfare of the governed. I t i s the assumption of t h i s study that as r e c r e a t i o n i s con-ducive to human w e l l - b e i n g , l t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of gov-ernment to provide each c i t i z e n with the opportunity of a d i v e r s i t y and v a r i e t y of r e c r e a t i v e p u r s u i t s . The s u b s t i t u t i o n of automation and advanced t e c h -nology f o r human powers and the subsequent gains i n prod-u c t i v i t y have created an a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y . Never before has man had greater prospects f o r a higher income, increased l o n g e v i t y , greater m o b i l i t y and sh o r t e r working hours. By means of the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of work, man's r o l e i n s o c i e t y w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y be sustained through r e c r e a t i v e p u r s u i t s . Because of man's increased a b i l i t y and need to p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e c r e a t i o n , i t has been estimated t h a t the demand f o r r e c -r e a t i o n , and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i l l increase s u b s t a n t i a l l y . As a r e s u l t of r i s i n g competition amongst a l l land uses and concurrent w i t h an increase i n demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n there i s a decreasing supply of r e c r e a t i o n resources. The u n d e r l y i n g purpose of t h i s study was t o a s c e r t a i n what p r o v i s i o n s s o c i e t y can make i n order to ensure that outdoor r e c r e a t i o n amenities w i l l be a v a i l a b l e to a l l . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s study sought to define the inadequacy of i l l present p o l i c y i n l i g h t of an i n c r e a s i n g demand, and "by means of a case study, to determine whether i n t e g r a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n i n t o the environment could represent an aspect of a new p o l i c y . The study r e s u l t s c l e a r l y uphold the f o l l o w i n g hypothesis: That the p o l i c y concerning the p r o v i s i o n of opportunity f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has f a i l e d to recognize the dynam-i c s of the supply and demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n ; new p o l i c y i s i n d i c a t e d , one aspect of which, would "be the I n t e g r a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n i n t o the environment. The case study was focused upon the needs of the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver and a t r a i l system was conceived as being an instrument of a new p o l i c y . I t was found that out-door r e c r e a t i o n could be compatible w i t h other l a n d uses. Land i n the form o f u t i l i t y rights-of-way represents a r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l that could be used not only f o r the development of a t r a i l system but a l s o as a system s e r v i n g to connect the major parks. A study of the f u n c t i o n of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n revealed that r e c r e a t i o n i s a continuous a c t i v i t y and therefore i t i s not l o g i c a l to conceive of i t as o c c u r r i n g only In a d e s i g -nated s i t e . Recreation must be a feature of the environment e s p e c i a l l y as a v a i l a b l e l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n w i t h i n the urban area i s l i m i t e d and thus a comprehensive approach towards I t s p r o v i s i o n i s r e q u i r e d . This approach would n e c e s s i t a t e the co-operation of a l l l e v e l s of government and the development of the r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l i n a l l l a n d uses. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES V LIST OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i Chapter . I INTRODUCTI ON 1 I I THE FUNCTION OF OUTDOOR RECREATION 5 I I I OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND AND SUPPLY 16 IV SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF OUTDOOR RECREATION PLANNING 51 V INTEGRATION OF OUTDOOR RECREATION WITH OTHER LAND USES 64 VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . 90 APPENDIX 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY 106 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 N a t i o n a l Time Budget and Time D i v i s i o n of L e i s u r e , 1900, 1950 and 2000 24 2 Judgement P r o j e c t i o n s of U. S. Pop u l a t i o n , 1976 and 2000 31 3 General C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Outdoor Recreation Uses and Resources 3 9 4 Estimated Changes i n Population Income, Leisure and T r a v e l • ( f o r the years 1976 and 2000 compared to I960) 49 5 P h y s i c a l C o m p a t i b i l i t y of Various Major Land Uses, i n M u l t i p l e Use Land Management Programs 9 3 LIST OF FIGURES" Figure Page 1 N a t i o n a l Time Budget and Time D i v i s i o n of L e i s u r e , 1900, 1950 and 2000 28 2 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Age and P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A c t i v i t i e s . . . . 32 3 Key Elements i n Outdoor Recreation Demand 43 4 Number of Occasions of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Outdoor Summer Recre a t i o n : I960 compared wit h 1976 and 2000 (by m i l l i o n s ) 46 5 Recreation and Parks Study 53 6 Park and Recreation Information System ( P a r i s ) 54 7 Park and Recreation Information System ( P a r i s ) : Supply Subsystem 57 8 Park and Recreation Information System ( P a r i s ) : Supply Subsystem 59 9 An Example of Geographic Content 60 10 Landscape Expression 61 11 Park and Recreation Information System ( P a r i s ) : E v a l u a t i o n Subsystem 63 12 A C i t i z e n Comments 70 13 B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y : E l e c t r i c and Gas Transmission Line Rights-of-way 73 14 Proposed T r a i l : C i t y of Vancouver 75 15 Photographs of the Route Along the Proposed T r a i l 76 A C KN OWEEDGEMENTS ~ In submitting t h i s t h e s i s , , I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to Mrs. H. Peter Oberlander who was a source of advice and guidance throughout the course of my research., I would a l s o l i k e to acknowledge the a s s i s t a n c e given to me by Dr. Robert ¥. . C o l l i e r of the D i v i s i o n of Community and Regional Planning, Dr., Richard L. Ramsey of the Department of Recreation and by Mr. Robert H. Ahrens Chief of Planning, Parks Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Recreation and Conservation. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Study Objectives Never before has man had the prospect of so much leisure time, nor has he had greater prospects for longevity, mobility and income. Because of these changing patterns of liv i n g , the role of recreation in the l i f e of the individ-ual has become significant. The demand for outdoor rec-reation is a result of the combination of a l l these factors and, because this demand is interacting with an increasingly limited supply, there arises a c r i t i c a l need for a rational approach - an approach cognizant of the function of outdoor recreation, the variations of the pattern of demand and aware of the conditions of supply. Rising competition for nat-ural resources w i l l force careful evaluation of the policies of allocation. It is the intention of this thesis to examine the policy of land use allocation as i t pertains to the prov-ision of opportunity for outdoor recreation. It Is the con-tention of this thesis that the agencies of supply,, as ref-lected by their proclaimed policies are, and w i l l be, unable to accommodate the demand for outdoor recreation. The hypothesis posed i s : THAT THE POLICY CONCERNING- THE PROVISION OF-OPPORTUNITY FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION HAS FAILED TO RECOGNIZE THE DYNAMICS OF THE SUPPLY AND DEMAND FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION. NEW POLICY IS INDICATED, ONE ASPECT OF WHICH, WOULD BE THE INTEGRATION OF RECREATION INTO THE ENVIRONMENT. 2 An adequate p o l i c y would r e f l e c t the goals of the i n s t i t u t i o n charged with the supply of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n amenities to ensure that the i n d i v i d u a l both now, and i n the f u t u r e , has the o p p o r t u n i t y a c c o r d i n g to h i s m o t i v a t i o n s to indulge i n a v a r i e t y of r e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . Hence the o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s to i n v e s t i g a t e outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y i n order to determine i t s adequacy and to e s t a b l i s h whether or not o p p o r t u n i t y f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n can be s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the environment. Scope of T h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n User behaviour, needs, h a b i t s and d e s i r e s w i l l form the major terms of r e f e r e n c e of t h i s study. The measure of adequacy employed w i l l be u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n as i t Is r e f l e c t e d by the c a p a c i t y of an area to support a r e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y . P o l i c y i s i n t e r p r e t e d as the sum t o t a l of a l l the i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . In order t h a t the v a l i d i t y of the h y p o t h e s i s may have as u n i v e r s a l an a p p l i c a t i o n as i s f e a s i b l e the prime focus of t h i s study w i l l be broad. Where i t becomes n e c e s s s r y to narrow the f o c u s , the p o l i c i e s p r e v a i l i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the Vancouver area, w i l l be examined. T h i s p r o v i n c e has been r e p o r t e d to be the most p r o g r e s s i v e i n terms of p r o v i s i o n f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and w i l l thus 1 provide a c o n c l u s i v e t e s t f o r the h y p o t h e s i s . L l o y d Brooks, "Canada's S h o r e l i n e , " Address to the Vancouver Board of Trade, C i v i e A f f a i r s Committee, November 10, 1966. 3 Although there Is a large body of literature con-cerning outdoor recreation, the number of empirical studies of the f i e l d are relatively limited. The limitation of this study is the lack of Canadian research so the reports of the American Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission have been ut i l i z e d to provide the major source of data. Such action i s defensible for as Lloyd Brooks remarked: M...there is an amazing similarity between countries In their outdoor 2 recreation habits and environmental preferences." Because of the time lag, American data is pertinent to Canada because experience has shown that conditions in the United States w i l l be reflected in Canada in the future and, as this study is concerned with the general trends, rather than specific details, l t is f e l t that the use of American statistics Is Justified. The American study has also been recognized as a source of data for many countries which lack their own. Such use has assisted this study for i t establishes a point of comparison for a l l the resulting policies. Organization In this introductory section the study objectives have been defined and in Chapter II the function of outdoor recreation w i l l be described. Chapter III w i l l qualify and quantify the dynamics of supply and demand so as to establish Lloyd Brooks, "The Impact of Recreation on Forest Lands," A general paper, Sixth World Forestry Congress, Madrid, June, 1966, (Canada: Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, Natural and Historic Resources Branch) 9 4 a set of c r i t e r i a f o r the purposes of t e s t i n g the hypothesis. Chapter IV w i l l i d e n t i f y the c o n s t i t u e n t elements of a conceptual outdoor r e c r e a t i o n planning system. Chapter V w i l l c o n s i s t of a case study of a conceptual t r a i l system and Chapter VI w i l l provide a co n c l u s i o n and summary f o r the t h e s i s as a whole. CHAPTER HI THE FUNCTION OF OUTDOOR RECREATION E f f e c t i v e planning f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s premised upon an understanding of the f u n c t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n i n society.. The planner must be aware of the r o l e of r e c r e a t i o n i n the l i f e of the I n d i v i d u a l and of the d i f f e r e n t forms that r e c -r e a t i o n may take. There must be comprehension of the cons-cious and unconscious d r i v e s that motivate the i n d i v i d u a l to seek p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Planning f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s the p r o v i s i o n of opportunity f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f o r ; a l l , hence, the planner must be able to i n t e r p r e t the r e c r e a t i o n exper-ience i n r e l a t i o n to land use planning, resource a l l o c a t i o n and environmental experience. Therefore, the f o l l o w i n g a n a l -y s i s of r e c r e a t i o n w i l l be couched i n terms of the s i g n i f -icance and relevance of aspects of r e c r e a t i o n to the p l a n -n i n g process. Recreation As a Human Need There i s a common misconception that the terms l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n aire synonymous. Such i s not the case but, r a t h e r , r e c r e a t i o n i s an a c t i v i t y conducted duri n g l e i s u r e time. Rec-r e a t i o n i s a c u l t u r a l u n i v e r s a l to be found among a l l peoples. Recreation serves to promote human w e l l - b e i n g by f u n c t i o n i n g to meet fundamental needs and s a t i s f y i n g b a s i c i n t e r e s t s and 6 3 human demands.. Recreation serves to promote the p h y s i c a l and mental r e - c r e a t i o n of the I n d i v i d u a l . A simple d e f i n -i t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n would be: a c t i v i t y v o l u n t a r i l y under-taken d u r i n g l e i s u r e and p r i m a r i l y motivated by the s a t i s -f a c t i o n d e r i v e d from i t . I n a c t i v i t y , i f f r e e l y chosen, may be considered as r e c r e a t i o n . Outdoor recreation,, f o r the purposes of t h i s paper, i s r e c r e a t i o n conducted out of doors 4 away from the home. The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of r e c r e a t i o n i s not the a c t i v i t y i t s e l f but the a t t i t u d e w i t h which i t i s undertaken. Recreation i m p l i e s the absence of o b l i g a t i o n . I t i s the m o t i v a t i o n f a c t o r that makes a given a c t i v i t y r e c -r e a t i o n f o r one person and work f o r another. I f he i s mot-i v a t e d by the d e s i r e to enjoy and/or the r e a l i z a t i o n that the r e s u l t of such a c t i v i t y w i l l be s a t i s f y i n g , that a c t i o n i s l i k e l y to be r e c r e a t i o n . Mental He a l t h . R e c r e a t i o n can be considered to have two aspects i n r e l a t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l experience. One i s that r e c r e a t i o n has a b a l a n c i n g f u n c t i o n o p e r a t i n g to Ralph L i n t o n , (ed.), The Science of Man i n the  C r i s i s . (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1945), P. 126. 4 This d e f i n i t i o n was chosen because l t i s the def-i n i t i o n that has been used by a l l the major studi e s on out-door r e c r e a t i o n the f i n d i n g s of which have been used i n sue ceeding Chapters. 7 counteract the tensions and s t r a i n s of l i v i n g . The second aspect i s that r e c r e a t i o n i s a means f o r personal f u l f i l l m e n t , 5 s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , and c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n . As work ceases to he an o u t l e t f o r c r e a t i v i t y and the c e n t r a l l i f e i n t e r e s t , the challenge l i e s irr the p r o v i s i o n of opportunity f o r s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t through r e c r e a t i o n a l pur-s u i t s . A l l the powers and c a p a b i l i t i e s of an i n d i v i d u a l seek 6 expression, f o r man needs to f u n c t i o n as a whole person. Recent f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e that s i x to e i g h t per cent of Americans are mentally i l l . Recreation cannot solve a l l mental 7 h e a l t h a f f l i c a t i o n s but i t can a l l e v i a t e a great many. Freud found that when emotions cannot be expressed and r e l -ieved through normal a c t i v i t y , they become the source of chronic mental and p h y s i c a l d i s o r d e r s . A l a t e r p r a c t i t i o n e r i n t h i s f i e l d , Hans Selye, i n d i c a t e d that prolonged s t r e s s ean shor-es ten the l i f e span. People of the " A s p i r i n Age" must seek r e l i e f from s t r e s s and t e n s i o n from r e c r e a t i o n r a t h e r than from the b o t t l e of p i l l s . P r i m i t i v e man had no need f o r drugs, he escaped h i s tensions p h y s i c a l l y by f i g h t i n g or f l e e i n g : Norman P. M i l l e r and Duane M. Robinson, The L e i s u r e Age, (Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g , 1963), PP. 3-19. 6 I b i d . 7 K a r l Menninger, "Human Needs i n Urban S o c i e t y , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record. ( J u l y , 1959), PP. 197-200. 8 Hans Selye, The Stress of L i f e . (New York: McGraw-H i l l , 1965). 8 P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , r e c r e a t i o n i s one of the best o u t l e t s f o r pent-up emotions, p a r t i c u l a r l y h o s t i l e f e e l i n g s . This i s most obvious in- competitive games i n which i t i s running, h i t t i n g , throwing,...As p s y c h i a t r i s t s we h e a r t i l y endorse and s t r o n g l y suggest that every i n d i v -i d u a l develop a hobby or an organized program of a c t i v i t y f o r h i m s e l f . Hobbies and I n t e r e s t s do not n e c e s s a r i l y prevent a mental i l l n e s s , but t h e i r c u l t i v a t i o n seems to tend to the development of a more s t a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y by p r o v i d i n g even a momentary d i v e r s i o n from s t r e s s . 9 Health and F i t n e s s . An important aspect of r e c r e a t i o n i s i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . Advances i n tech-nology, higher standards of l i v i n g and more e f f i c i e n t systems of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n have deprived man of a basic need: p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . A l e i s u r e s o c i e t y must now o b t a i n needed p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e through r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . Man was not designed to l i v e a sedentary l i f e ; f o r him, p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e Is a p h y s i o l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y . When man was i n a quadrupedal stage,, blood reached a l l parts of h i s body quite r e a d i l y . However, when he became a biped, blood had to defy the f o r c e of g r a v i t y to reach the two most important organs, the heart and the b r a i n . Exerelse a s s i s t s the c i r c u l a t i o n of the blood because the l e g muscles are so r e l a t e d to the l e g veins that when they contract they f o r c e the blood upward. I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d that p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y prevents c a r d i o v a s c u l a r d i s o r d e r s ; a c t i v e people have a much, lower incidence of such a f f l i c a t i o n s : W i l l i a m C. Menninger, P s y c h i a t r y i n a Troubled World. (New York: MacMilian, 1940), p. 359. 9 Why is the health of the nation as a whole declining? ThecbJief answer is lack of leg exercise - we don't get sufficient blood to the heart and brain without leg exercise. 10 Fred V. Hein and Allan J. Ryan speaking on behalf of the American Medical Association summarized some of the findings of a recent investigation into the role of physical exercise in the maintenance of health: The following conclusions appear to be Justification as a result of this analysis and assessment of c l i n i c a l observations and research studies: 1. Regular exercise can play a significant role in prevention of obesity and thereby directly influence the greater incidence of degenerative disease and shortened l i f e span associated with this condition, 2. A high level of physical activity throughout the l i f e appears to be one of the factors that act to inhibit the vascular degeneration characteristic of coronary heart disease,, the most common cause of death among cardiovascular disorders,, 3. Regular exercise assists in preserving the physical characteristics of youth and delaying the onset of the stigma of ageing and probably exerts a favorable Influence upon longevity, 4. Conditioning of the body through regular exercise enables the Individual to meet emergencies more eff-ectively and so serves, in turn, to preserve health and to avoid disability and perhaps even death. Each of these benefits Is valuable in i t s e l f ; together they amount to a significant contribution to physical health. What has always been suspected is beginning to be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y demonstrated. Exercise may be con-sidered 'good medicine,' 11 E. Murray Blair, M.D. "Adult Physical Fitness," Journal of the Canadian Association for Health. Physical  Education and Recreation, vol. 33;. No, 2, December-January, 1967, P. 22. Fred V, Hein and Allan J, Ryan, "The Contributions of Physical Activity to Mental Health," Research Quarterly  of the American Association for Health. Physical Education  and Recreation, vol. 51. No. 2. Part II. (Mayr I960). P. 279. 10 The Outdoor Recreation Experience The I m p l i c a t i o n that can be drawn from the for e g o i n g a n a l y s i s of r e c r e a t i o n i s that r e c r e a t i o n must be a part of the l i v i n g process. Just as r e c r e a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s to the t o t a l being, so i t must be a part of t o t a l experience which i s the synthesis of a l l human I n t e r a c t i o n and encounter. The important element that has been neglected i n the p l a n -n i n g f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s that an outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y c o n s i s t s of f i v e d i s t i n c t phases, of which.,the s i t e experience i s but one. The f i v e phases of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n are: the ant-i c i p a t i o n and planning of the a c t i v i t y ; t r a v e l t o the r e c -r e a t i o n s i t e ; the o n - s i t e experience; the t r a v e l back home 12 and the r e c o l l e c t i o n of the t o t a l experience. The r e c o l l -e c t i o n of one experience i s often the s t a r t i n g point f o r the a n t i c i p a t i o n of another and, i n t h i s way, r e c o l l e c t i o n of many experiences provides a b a s i s of choice amongst d i f f e r e n t areas and d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . Therein l i e s the f a i l u r e of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n planning as the succeeding Chapters w i l l i n d i c a t e . I t has been the misconception of those who provide f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n that r e c r e a t i o n can, and w i l l , only take place on a s i t e s p e c i f i c a l l y designated f o r such a c t -i v i t y . Wo one phase of the r e c r e a t i o n experience can be con-si d e r e d independently f o r a negative r e a c t i o n to one phase Marion Clawson provides an a n a l y s i s of t h i s concept: Marion Clawson, Land and Water f o r Recreation, (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963), PP. 40-44. 11 can have the effect of negating the whole experience in terms of the recreation i t affords to the individual. For example, the stress and tension involved in travelling to a site may render the entire experience more deleterious than beneficial. Furthermore, although the five phases form a unit, different phases w i l l respond to different causal factors. For example, the two travel phases w i l l provide an opportunity to substit-ute money for time. Just as a l l phases of the total exper-ience vary, so do the means of carrying them out. Recreation in a Metropolitan Environment Urbanism has often tended to produce a disturbing environment. The pace of urban l i f e , the stress and tension that i t generates, the lack of opportunity for necessary physical exercise a l l contribute to the need for outdoor recreation to ensure that man's l i f e is balanced. The con-centration of the population can cause "pathological togeth-13 erness.." It appears that man may have a saturation level 14 for interaction with other people. Under crowded conditions a l l the elements that combine to form the physical environ-ment may place the Individual under prolonged stress that 15 results in a sensory overload. John Seeley in an article, Edwards Deevey, "The Hare and the Harpusex: A Cautionary Tale," Yale Review. 1959. 14 Richard Meier, "Measuring Social and Cultural Change in Urban Regions," Journal of the American Institute of Planners, vol. XXV, No. 4, (November, 1959), PP. 180-190. 15 Hans Selye, The Stress of Life. (New York: McGraw-H i l l , 1965). 12 "Planning Sanity" stated: "The community is not the place where one lives; i t is another name for the inescapably shared 16 l i f e one is l i v i n g . " Recently Charles Abrams has developed the concept of the need for "escape hatches." Writing about the need for escape hatches Abrams said: ...America's bored are growing faster than Its pop*-ulation. 17 The physical environment of some communities deprives the individual of the physical activity needed for his physiological well-being. Automated working conditions and efficient transportation systems mean that man does not receive the physical exercise needed to maintain both phys-i c a l and mental health. The city must recognize that opp-ortunities for recreation do exist and the city as a whole must maintain a recreative atmosphere to provide "escape hatches." One of the means of recreation is a change of environment and new experience. People want and need variety and diversity: Indeed, the higher organisms actively avoid a completely monotonous environment. A rat in a maze w i l l use d i f f -erent routes to food, i f they are available, rather than the same one a l l the time. It w i l l tend to avoid areas John Seeley, "Planning Sanity," Planning 1964. Selected papers from the ASPO Planning Conference, Boston, Mass., April 5-9, 1964, (American Society of Planning Off i c i a l s , 1964), p. 164. 17 Charles Abrams, The City is the Frontier. (New York: Harper and Row, 1965), p. 205.. 13 in which i t has spent considerable time and to explore the less familiar areas.. 18 Chermayeff and Alexander concluded that the equilibrium provided in nature for l i v i n g organisms appears to be a 19 compound of contrasts in a dynamic relationship. Society must be aware that: If man is restricted to one extreme...it is conceivable that the human organism might atrophy....Monotony of any kind - dull or tense - is debilitating....Our faculties function best and are best maintained at peak sharpness when effort is required of them. 20 A varied and stimulating environment is therefore very much a recreation resource. Recreation by change of environment is a require-ment that must be satisfied on a daily basis, not Just during the annual vacation or on the weekend. Recreation occurs in the city, the region and the country. If one area is not conducive to recreation the other w i l l suffer from over-use. It is thus essential that the urban area function to provide for dally recreation needs. SUMMARY Lawrence Frank, a practitioner in the f i e l d of human development and mental health, conceives of the value of out-18 Woodburn Heron, "Pathology of Boredom," Scientific  American, vol. 196, No. 1, (January, 1957), P. 53. 19 Serge Chermayeff and Christopher Alexander, Comm-unity and Privacy. (New York: Doubleday, 1963), P. 84. 2 0 m a . 14 door recreation as follows: ...viewing urban l i v i n g and indoor working with a l l the varied advantages provided by c i t i e s but also rec-ognizing the many frustrations and deprivations, we can say that ci t y l i v i n g and indoor working require compensation for the burdens of city l i v i n g . People can probably develop 'what i t takes' for city l i v i n g and indoor working, but the Insistent question arises whether this is compatible with health and well-being and the maintenance of healthy personalities. 21 Commenting upon present trends, Frank says: Already we see evidence of a growing dissatisfaction with our contemporary l i v i n g patterns and a quest for new designs for l i v i n g that w i l l provide more satis-faction and fulfillment of our organic needs. Likewise we may discern an aspiration toward a more balanced way of l i v i n g in which recreation,, especially outdoor recreation, w i l l occupy more of our time and energy.... The various forms of participation provide a refreshing interlude in an often uneventful l i f e . Man, we should re c a l l , gets bored and often resentful when persistently frustrated and deprived, limited to the monotonous repetition of daily work, while l i v i n g in a bare, drab and often impoverished existence elsewhere. 22 Recreation is an indispensible factor in the main-tenance of a healthy existence and participation in some form of recreation is essential for every individual, young and old alike. Recreation activity provides the means for mens  sana in corpore sano. It is not a remedy for a l l that a i l s man but i t can make a valid contribution to his well-being. Lawrence K. Frank, "Outdoor Recreation in Relation to Physical and Mental Health," Trends in American Living. Report to the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission Study Report No. 22, (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office,. 1962), p. 220 22 Ibid., Frank continues with a discussion of the significance of participation in various forms of outdoor recreation activity. 15 I t i s not Important what form a recreative a c t i v i t y may take, what i s Important i s that the a c t i v i t y brings about re-creation. Outdoor recreation as d i s t i n c t from indoor recreation has a special purpose: ...everyone save f o r a few, who seem e s p e c i a l l y favored by the gods, goes through l i f e , h i d i n g his consternation as best he may, that l i f e a f t e r a l l , contains no wonder-f u l surprises. Because the outdoors i s strange and unfam-i l i a r we continue to hope and to expect that our ventures into the outdoors may reveal some wonderful surprise i n some fortuitous meeting with others or some dramatic or e x c i t i n g event. 23 In consideration therefore, of the value of an outdoor recreation experience to the i n d i v i d u a l , attention must be paid to the provision of opportunity of this experience to a l l members of society. Frank, Ibid . , p. 222. CHAPTER I I I OUTDOOR RECREATION: DEMAND AND SUPPLY A la r g e body of informati o n about outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has been developed but there has been i n s u f f i c i e n t a n a l y s i s of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n terms r e l a t e d to planning. L i t t l e has been done to e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a w i t h which to make planning d e c i s i o n s on how t o use scarce resources t o ob t a i n optimum r e a l i z a t i o n of goals and o b j e c t i v e s of the r e c r e a t i o n p u b l i c . The i n i t i a l need i s f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n such a manner tha t I t could be u s e f u l to the planner. This Chapter w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e the changing c o n d i t i o n s of demand and supply i n order to e s t a b l i s h a set of c r i t e r i a w i t h which to t e s t the hypothesis i n Chapter V.; The f i r s t s e c t i o n discusses the demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n terms of the f o u r causal f a c t o r s ; l e i s u r e , population c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , income and m o b i l i t y . The second s e c t i o n w i l l a n a l -yse the c o n d i t i o n s of supply and a t h i r d s e c t i o n w i l l synth-e s i z e the f i n d i n g s of the Chapter as a whole. THE DEMAND FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION The demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n i n the economic sense Is c l e a r l y demonstrable. Marion Clawson and Jack Knetsch of Resources f o r the Future have been doing work i n t h i s f i e l d 17 f o r a number of years. Knetsch w r i t e s : When people are f r e e to choose how they w i l l spend t h e i r time and money,, many w i l l choose outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . . By t h e i r a c t i o n s , they make i t c l e a r that they value r e c r e a t i o n h i g h l y - more h i g h l y than other a c t i v i t i e s which would have used the same time and money. Demand and need are not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c o n f l i c t ; i f there e x i s t s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l need not measurable i n conventional economic terms, then there a l s o e x i s t s some form of value i n a d d i t i o n to any d i r e c t monetary value that may be estimated. 1 Clawson warns that l t must be recognized that d i s -cussion of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n demand u t i l i z e s the term, "demand," im a p a r t i c u l a r way. Commonly, demand f o r goods and s e r v i c e s r e f e r s to the q u a n t i t y of number of u n i t s of the goods or s e r v i c e s demanded at s p e c i f i c l e v e l s of p r i c e s . S u b s t a n t i a l changes im p r i c e can r e s u l t In a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n demand. Although the r e c r e a t i o n experience does involve costs which i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , , f a c i l i t i e s 2 themselves are customarily a v a i l a b l e at nominal p r i c e s . The demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e f e r s to the demand at such p r i c e s . I f the p r i c e of the r e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y were r a i s e d , such as i n the case of the i m p o s i t i o n of entrance f e e s , a marked d i f f e r e n c e would probably occur i n the demand. Another d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v i n g the use of the word "demand" as commonly a p p l i e d to outdoor r e c r e a t i o n stems from i t s i n c o r r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n as a d e s c r i p t i o n of use or consump-Jack L. Knetsoh, "Outdoor Recreation Demands and B e n e f i t s , " Land Economics, v o l . XXIX, No. 4, (November, 1963), PP. 387-396.. 2 Marion Clawson and Jack Knetsch, The Economics of  Outdoor Recreation. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1966), P. 115. 18 t i o n . In most cases what Is termed "demand" i s hut the gross attendance f i g u r e s f o r e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The common f a u l t of such statements i s th a t they f a i l to separate supply and 3 demand conceptu a l l y or s t a t i s t i c a l l y . Raw attendance f i g -ures to some extent do show demand but a l s o they r e f l e c t the a v a i l a b i l i t y of supply and op p o r t u n i t y . For pl a n n i n g purposes i t i s therefore c r i t i c a l t o recognize the d i s t i n c t i o n between demand and consumption and the f a c t that attendance f i g u r e s are but the net e f f e c t of e x i s t i n g supply and e x i s t i n g demand. Recently, highway planning methods have been employed i n determination of patterns of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n demand. These survey methods i d e n t i f y that p o r t i o n of the pop u l a t i o n 4 which w i l l v i s i t a system of s i t u a t e d parks. Conceiving of the demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n terms of market c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , though u s e f u l f o r some purposes, has d e f i n i t e l i m l t -5 a t i o n s . Many planners f e e l very s t r o n g l y that economic a n a l -y s i s i s of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e and that i t i s s o c i a l needs and 3 S. V. Cirialy-Wanthrup, "Conceptual Problems i n Pro-j e c t i n g the Demand f o r Land and Water," Modern Land P o l i c y . Papers at the Land Economics I n s t i t u t e , (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, I960). 4 Alan M. Voorhees and A s s o c i a t e s , Inc., "A Model Frame-work f o r Rec r e a t i o n Planning i n Connecticut," Prepared f o r the Connecticut I n t e r - R e g i o n a l Planning Program, June, 1966. For f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n of t h i s p o i n t , c o n s u l t : David W. Seckler, "On the Uses and Abuses of Economic Science i n E v a l u a t i o n of P u b l i c Outdoor Recreation " Land Economics, v o l . X L I I , No. 4, (November, 1966), pp. 485-494. 19 6 b e n e f i t s which must be the object of primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s the product of the i n t e r -a c t i o n of the f o u r f a c t o r s : disposable time, population c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , socio-economic l e v e l and m o b i l i t y . Of the fo u r , the amount of disposable time exerts the greatest i n f l u e n c e uppn the a c t i v i t y undertaken. LEISURE: THE PRODUCT OP AN ABUNDANT ECONOMY Since r e c r e a t i o n i s a l e i s u r e - t i m e p u r s u i t , an under-standing of the f u n c t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n i s premised upon an awareness of the context of l e i s u r e and of the challenge l e i s u r e has created f o r s o c i e t y t o adapt to i t . Work w i l l no long e r be the major i n s t i t u t i o n of s o c i e t y because increased p r o d u c t i v i t y , the "abundant economy" where more i s produced by fewer i n d i v i d u a l s , denies not only the r i g h t to meaningful 7 work but the r i g h t to work. The present s t r u c t u r e of the socio-economic system i s unprepared to accommodate the demands placed upon i t by a rap-i d l y advancing technology. We have now reached a per i o d i n human e v o l u t i o n where sheer existence i s no longer the prim-ary p u r s u i t of man. Automatlorn has had the e f f e c t of r e l e a -s i n g man from the n e c e s s i t y of work. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of income i n the fu t u r e w i l l no longer be t i e d to work: R. J . Ahrgns, Chief of Plan n i n g , Parks Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Recreation and Conservation, Interview with the W r i t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C., February 9, 1967. 7 Robert Theobald, Free Men and Free Markets. (New York: Holt R i n e h a r t , 1963), PP. 103-115. 20 I t i s now being taken f o r granted that the government Intends to introduce a program f o r a guarranteed annual minimum Income f o r a l l Canadians. 8 Because the s o c i a l system i s unprepared f o r i t , the evolutiom of a mass l e i s u r e c l a s s w i l l cause a major s o c i a l upheaval. T r a d i t i o n demands that being unproductive i s being i d l e and therefore to be scorned; f r e e time must be j u s t i f i e d . The B i b l e admonished i t s readers: "In the sweat of thy 9 face s h a l t thou eat bread." K a r l Marx proclaimed that work 10 c o n s t i t u t e d the f i r s t r e q u i s i t e of s o c i e t y . Marx's i d e a l was the Productive Man; work was v i r t u o u s and noble. One was bound to c o n t r i b u t e p r o d u c t i v e l y to s o c i e t y . In the North American f r o n t i e r s o c i e t y the C a l v i n i s t i c a t t i t u d e towards work pre-v a i l e d . Each member of the community had to p u l l h i s weight. Even the Sabbath was not a r e s p i t e from work but was t o prepare one f o r the work of the week ahead. To the average worker, l e i s u r e represented the epitome of the good l i f e ; spare time was something to be earned by means of g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i v i t y . A l i f e not wholly consumed by work was the prerogative of the r i c h , seldom experienced by o t h e r s . I t must be remembered that when people had l e s s l e i s u r e , they had d i f f e r e n t jobs that gave them a d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e "Annual Income f o r A l l ? The Province. (March 30, 1967), P. 5. 9 Genesis, 3:19. T. B. Bottomore, (ed.), K a r l Marx: E a r l y W r i t i n g s . (London: C. A. Watts, 1963). 21 11 toward what l e i s u r e they d i d have. The Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission found t h a t many people are now unable to cope w i t h the amount of l e i s u r e that they have. The m a j o r i t y of the people p o l l e d s t a t e d t h a t they d i d not f e e l the: need f o r more l e i s u r e and were unable t o suggest a con-12 s t r u c t i v e use of more l e i s u r e time. ^ D e f i n i t i o n of L e i s u r e Leisure i s a block of unoccupied time. I t i s time beyond :that which i s r e q u i r e d f o r e x i s t e n c e ; the things man must do, b i o l o g i c a l l y , to stay a l i v e , and f o r s u b s i s t e n c e ; those a c t i v i t i e s which are r e q u i r e d i n order to gain a l i v e l i h o o d . L eisure i s therefore d i s c r e t i o n a r y time to be used as one chooses. Man's a c t i v i t y , however, i s not always so r e a d i l y d e f i n e d , f o r depending upon one's point of view, the d e f i n i t i o n of l e i s u r e may v a r y . In an economic sense, l e i s u r e i s that time d u r i n g which a man ceases to c o n t r i b u t e t o c o l l e c t i v e 13 production by means of h i s work. Yet the i n d i v i d u a l may seek maximum Income at the cost of l e i s u r e , or v i c e v e r s a . For the s o c i o l o g i s t , work would include a c t i v i t i e s which "Toward the T h i r d M i l l e n i u m , " Progressive A r c h i t e c t u r e , v o l . 12, (December, 1966), p. 125. 12 Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, Study Report No. 21. p. 30. 13 Harold L. Wilensky, "Uneven D i s t r i b u t i o n of L e i s u r e : The Impact of Economic Growth on 'Free Time'.", S o c i a l Prob- lems, v o l . 9, No. 1, (Summer, 1961), pp. 32-55. 22 14 cannot be c l a s s e d as l e i s u r e . The i n d i v i d u a l i s not com-p l e t e l y f r e e because many p u r s u i t s are d i c t a t e d by s o c i a l pressure. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Group of the S o c i a l Sciences i n Leisure evolved the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n of l e i s u r e : L e i s u r e c o n s i s t s of a number of occupations In which the i n d i v i d u a l may indulge of h i s own f r e e w i l l - e i t h e r to r e s t , t o amuse h i m s e l f , to addd to h i s knowledge,, or improve h i s s k i l l s d i s i n t e r e s t e d l y or to increase h i s v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l i f e of the comm-u n i t y a f t e r d i s c h a r g i n g h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l , f a m i l y and s o c i a l d u t i e s . 15 How he w i l l use h i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y time i s a d e c i s i o n t h a t has to be made by the i n d i v i d u a l . . L e i s u r e time may be p a r t i a l l y or completely f i l l e d , , or l i k e d i s c r e t i o n a r y income, i t may be over-committed. The d i s t i n c t i o n between l e i s u r e and i d l e n e s s depends upon the general economic s i t u a t i o n i n the s o c i e t y and use made of l e i s u r e by the i n d i v i d u a l . Idleness has a negative connotation, and Implies a non-constructive use of l e i s u r e . Clawson has noted th a t i n many low-income s o c i e t i e s , the bulk of the population has i d l e time which could be turned i n t o l e i s u r e , given modest 16 o u t l a y s f o r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g t r a i n i n g . 14 J o f f r e Dumazedier, "Current Problems of the Sociology of L e i s u r e , " UNESCO I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l Science J o u r n a l , v o l . X I I , No. 4, (I960), p. 527. 1 5 I b i d . x ^ Marion Clawson, "How Much L e i s u r e , Now and i n the Future," James C. Charlesworth, (ed,), L e i s u r e i n America: Blessinp; or Curse? Monograph 4 i n a s e r i e s sponsored by the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Science, ( P h i l -a d e l p h i a : 1964), passim. 23 Increase In L e i s u r e For the past 100 years the average work week has d e c l i n e d . I n 1850 the average work week was 70 hours; about 72 hours f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and about 65 f o r a l l n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l employment. By 1900, the average was down to 60 hours, and by 1920 to 50 hours, and today to about 40 hours. Part of the d e c l i n i n g trend was due to the r i s e of n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l employment, which t y p i c a l l y has s h o r t e r working hours, but a g r i c u l t u r e also, shows a d e c l i n i n g t r e n d . The average has d e c l i n e d because t y p i c a l hours per day have shortened from 10 or 12 to 8 or l e s s ; because t y p i c a l days per week have d e c l i n e d from 6 or 7 t o 5 or l e s s ; and because of the r i s e of the paid time o f f . Declines i n the average work week have v a r i e d from 18 i n d u s t r y to i n d u s t r y and from occupation to occupation. A s p e c i a l s i t u a t i o n i s the worker who has two, or even t h r e e , Jobs. In 1963, 3.9 m i l l i o n persons out of the t o t a l l a b o u r 19 for c e of 75 m i l l i o n had two or more jobs. A major change i n the .pattern of work has been the increase i n the paid v a c a t i o n , or more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n paid time o f f the job. The t o t a l number of weeks of paid vaca-t i o n i n the United States rose from 17.5 m i l l i o n i n 1929 to 78 m i l l i o n weeks i n 1959; o r , based upon a l l members of the 1 7 See Table 1. 18 Joseph Z e i s a l , "The Work Week i n American I n d u s t r y , " Mass L e i s u r e . E r i c Larrabee and R o l f Meyersohn, ed., (New York: Twentieth Century Fund), 1961. i n U. S. Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s , M u l t i p l e Jobholders  i n May. 1963. by R. A. Bogan, 1964. TABLE 1 HATIONAL TIME BUDGET AND TIME DIVISION OF LEISURE, 1900, 1950, AND 2000 1900 1950 2000 Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Billion of total of leisure Billion of total of leisure Billion of total of leisure Use of time hours time time hours time time hours time time 1. Total time for entire population 667 100 .1,329 100 2,907 100 2. Sleep 265 40 514 39 1,131 39 3. Work 86 13 132 10 206 7 4. School 11 2 32 . 2 90 3 5. Housekeeping 61 9 68 • 5 93 3 6. Preschool population, nonsleeping hours 30 4 56 4 110 4 7. Personal care 37 6 74 6 164 6 8. Total (items 2-7) 490 73 876 66 1,794 . 62 9. Remaining hours, largely leisure 177 27 100 453 34 100 1,113 38 100 10. Daily leisure hours 72 41 . 189 42 375 34 11. Weekend leisure hours 50 28 179 39 ' 483 . 44 12. Vacation 17 10 35 8 182 16 13. Retired 6 3 24 5 56 5 14. Other, including unaccounted . 32 18 26 6 16 1 Source: Marion Clawson and Jack Knetsch, Economics of Outdoor Recreation, P. 37. 25 labour f o r c e , from 0.37 weeks i n 1929 to s l i g h t l y more than one week i n 1959 per member of the l a b o u r force and has con-20 tlnued to r i s e i n recent years. As a s u b s t a n t i a l number of self-employed, casual or other workers have no paid vaca-t i o n s , t h i s means that those w i t h a paid v a c a t i o n a c t u a l l y have f a r more time than these f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e . The p a i d v a c a t i o n has l o n g been the p r i v i l e g e of the managerial c l a s s but now the r e g u l a r employee enjoys the same b e n e f i t s . In absolute terms, f o r the t o t a l p opulation, the amount of l e i s u r e time increased three times i n the period from 1900 to 1950. Assuming that the present trend continues, i t i s expected that l e i s u r e 21 w i l l have increased 2.5 times from 1950 to 2000. Mass L e i s u r e . There has been a discrepancy i n the post war years i n the amounts of added l e i s u r e time according to occupational l e v e l . Formerly i t was the managerial and p r o f -e s s i o n a l c l a s ses who worked sho r t e r hours than the t y p i c a l f a c t o r y or farm worker. The o v e r a l l r e d u c t i o n i n the work week however, has r e s u l t e d i n a gain to the average worker but not to the executive c l a s s . Indeed, f o r the e x e c u t i v e , the trend has been i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n . Donald Michael Marlon Clawson, "How Much L e i s u r e , Now and i n the Future?" i n J . C. Charlesworth, ed,, op. c l t . . p. 13. 21 Mary A. Holman, "A N a t i o n a l Time Budget For the Year 2000," Sociology and S o c i a l Research, v o l . 46, No. 1, (October, 1961), p. 20. 26 suggests that the p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i l l have no more l e i s u r e than now: "...the e l i t e of s o c i e t y w i l l have t o forego i t s l e i s u r e , s a c r i f i c i n g f o r i t the t i t l e of ' s o c i a l servant* 22 and f o r the other r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s of that c l a s s . " One study has shown that 20 per cent of the p r o f e s s i o n a l and managerial workers surveyed would u t i l i z e an e x t r a two hours, 23 i f they had i t , f o r work. Robert Theobald foresees a fut u r e i n which two per cent of the po p u l a t i o n , at the upper a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and executive l e v e l s , could produce a l l the goods and s e r v i c e s 24 needed to feed, c l o t h e and maintain s o c i e t y . In 1899, when T h o r s t e i n Veblen wrote about the " l e i s u r e c l a s s " h i s scorn was d i r e c t e d to the l e i s u r e d few who had no 25 d i r e c t part In production. Today the decreasing hours of work f o r the average employee, the lowering of the r e t i r e -ment age and the increase i n l o n g e v i t y , a l l tend to i n d i c a t e that we are e n t e r i n g an age of mass l e i s u r e . L e i s u r e once the prerogative of the few, i s coming to be part of the way of l i f e of the masses. 22 Progressive A r c h i t e c t u r e , l o c . c l t . 2 3 A l f r e d C. C l a r k , "Leisure and Occupational P r e s t i g e , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, v o l . 21, No. 31, (June, 1956). 24 Robert Theobald, op. c l t . O K T h o r s t e i n Veblen, The Theory of the L e i s u r e C l a s s : an Economic Study of I n s t i t u t i o n s . (New York: American L i b r a r y of World L i t e r a t u r e , 1953). 27 N a t i o n a l Time Budget. A comprehensive a n a l y s i s of fu t u r e economic growth i n the United States concludes that the t o t a l economy w i l l move forward, that employment w i l l k eep pace wi t h economic growth and that n a t u r a l resource s c a r c i t i e s 26 w i l l not, i n general, i n h i b i t such growth. At l e a s t up to the year 2000, occupational s t r u c t u r e i s l i k e l y to change under t e c h n o l o g i c a l impact and educ a t i o n a l standards are expected to r i s e . From these general assumptions, p r e d i c t i o n s have been made as to the d i v i s i o n of time i n the f u t u r e . A n a t i o n a l time budget has been estimated f o r 1900, 1950 and 2000 based on numbers of people i n each age and occupation 27 group and upon t y p i c a l patterns of d a i l y a c t i v i t y . LEISURE ACTIVITY For the purposes of t h i s paper, the most s i g n i f i c a n t l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s are those that are conducted out of doors, away from home. The amount of time spent on outdoor r e c -r e a t i o n i s roughly about 3.5 per cent of the n a t i o n a l l e i s u r e 28 time. Estimates i n d i c a t e that between 1900 and 1950 the amount of time devoted to outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has increased about 70 times. Automobile t r a v e l f o r pleasure which now Hans A. Landsberg, Leonard L. Flschman and Joseph L. F i s h e r , Resources In America's Future. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1964). 27 See Figure 1. 28 Marion Clawson, "How Much Leisure Now and i n the Future?" i n J . C. Charlesworth, ed., op. o l t . . p. 14. 28 FIGURE 1 NATIONAL TIME BUDGET AND TIME DIVISIONS OF LEISURE 1900, 1950, and 2000 ' Leisure A l l other Sleep Otlicr Retired Vacation Weekend Daily 1900 1950 2000 Source; Marion Clawson and Jack Knetsch, Economics of Outdoor Rec r e a t i o n . P. 21. 29 accounts f o r a quarter of the t o t a l automobile t r a v e l , was Inconsequential, as l a t e as 1920; fewer publicly-owned out-door r e c r e a t i o n areas e x i s t e d and many a c t i v i t i e s , such as water s k i i n g , that are popular today, were l a r g e l y unknown. By 2000, Clawson p r e d i c t s , outdoor r e c r e a t i o n w i l l account f o r e i g h t to ten per cent of the t o t a l l e i s u r e time and t h i s prop-o r t i o n of time would be 40 to 50 times the t o t a l time spent 29 t h i s way In I960. The population p a t t e r n i n terms of numbers, r a t e s of growth, composition and d i s t r i b u t i o n i s the fundamental f a c t o r i n the generation of demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n . I t i s estimated that the world's population w i l l double to seven b i l l i o n by 2000 A.D. Population p r o j e c t i o n s f o r the United States estimate that the t o t a l population i n 1980 w i l l be 240 m i l l i o n and by 30 2000 i t w i l l be about 350 m i l l i o n people. Two d i s t i n c t changes are expected i n the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of the pop u l a t i o n . There are expected to be a westward s h i f t and a r u r a l to urban movement. I t i s expected that 82 to 85 per cent of the population In 2000 w i l l be u r b a n i t e s . There i s a l s o expected to be a change i n the age d i s -t r i b u t i o n . The d e c l i n i n g death r a t e has r e s u l t e d i n the Clawson, I b i d . 30 An extensive study on the demand f o r outdoor r e c -r e a t i o n was undertaken by Eva M u e l l e r and Gerald Gurin, P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Outdoor Recreation; Factors A f f e c t i n g  Demand Among American A d u l t s . Report to the Outdoor Rec-r e a t i o n Resources Review Commission, Study Report 20, (Wash-ington: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962). 30 emergence of a greater number of older people i n the p o p u l a t i o n . Eva M u e l l e r i n her study of the i n f l u e n c e of demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s upon outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y found that the present widespread experience w i t h outdoor r e c r e a t i o n w i l l mean that i n the f u t u r e , o l d e r people w i l l have h i g h e r p a r t l c -31 i p a t i o n r a t e s than they do today. However, i t has been 32 demonstrated that p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e c l i n e s w i t h age. Muelle r ' s survey shows that the amounts and kinds of r e c r e a t i o n demanded are a f f e c t e d by the age of the i n d i v i d u a l as i n t e r e s t and p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y a l t e r w i t h advancing age. S i m i l a r f i g u r e s f o r Canada i n d i c a t e that whereas the United States w i l l have a c o n t i n u i n g growth rate of 1.53 per cent to the year 2000, Canada w i l l have a h i g h e r rate of growth - 2.7 per cent per year, with an estimate of 25 m i l l i o n f o r 1975, r e p r e s e n t i n g an increase of 55 per cent i n 20 33 years. By 2000, Canada's population i s expected to be 34 40 m i l l i o n . The patte r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Canadian population i s not expected to vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Age l e v e l s 31 Eva M u e l l e r and Gerald Gurin, op. c i t . , pp. 10-28, See a l s o Table 2. 32 See Figure 2. •z-z Canada, Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Pros-pects, P r e l i m i n a r y Report. (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1956), P. 8. ^ Stanley J . R a n d a l l , "Housing: New A t t i t u d e s , " Ontario  Housing. No. 4, F a l l 1966, p. 6. 3I r TABLE 2 JUDGMENT PROJECTIONS OF U.S., POPULATION,. 1976 AND.2000 ( i n c l u d e s A l a s k a , Hawaii, and Armed Forces overseas) ( i n thousands) Age Actual Projected I960 19.76 2000 179,323 230,729 351, 070 20,321 24, 777 39,048 5-9 18,692 22,312 36,792 16.774 20,730 34, 449 13,219 20, 664 32,671 10,801 19, 728 28,218 79,807 108,211 171, 178 10,869 17,979 25,301 30-34 11, 949 14, 620 22,076 12,481 12, 156 20,852 11, 600 11,267- 20,817 45-49 10,879 11, 643 19,297 57,778 67,665 108,343 9, 606 11, 869 16,973 55-59 8, 430 10.830 12,854 60-64 7, 142 9, 703 10, 245 65-69 . . . 6, 258 7, 976 8, 933 4, 739 6, 027 8,.322 36, 175 46,405 57,327 5, 563 8, 448 14,222 Source:'..Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, P r o j e c t i o n s to the Years 1976 and 2000. 32 FIGURE 2 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND PARTICIPATION IN ACTIVITIES Source::Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Recreation. Study Report 20, P.. 1 7 . 33 i n Canada, are expected to decrease. The median age, 30 years 35 i n i960, i s expected to be 27 years by the mid 1970fs. Today 74 per cent of Canadians are urban d w e l l e r s . By the end of the century the urban areas of Canada w i l l have doubled and 36 w i l l c o n t a i n 90 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n . Income For a century, i n North America, the r i s e i n r e a l income per c a p i t a has p a r a l l e l e d the Increase i n per manhour product-i v i t y . In terms of i960 p r i c e s , the average American employee i n 1965 turned out §4.18 worth o f goods: i n 2000, he w i l l 37 produce $10.50 worth of goods. Also of importance i s the post war trend e s t a b l i s h e d by the middle and upper c l a s s toward outdoor r e c r e a t i o n as a new l i f e s t y l e . M u e l l e r p r e d i c t s : In the next few years, as lower income people become i n c r e a s i n g l y a f f l u e n t , as the l e v e l of education r i s e s , and more people are engaged i n s k i l l e d occupations, l t i s l i k e l y that there w i l l be more widespread p a r t -i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s new way of l i v i n g . 38 In the same v e i n , i n terms of Engel's Law, f u t u r e expenditure patterns r e s u l t i n g from an increased Income w i l l have an e f f e c t upon r e c r e a t i o n : 35 Lloyd Brooks, "The Forces Shaping Demand f o r Rec-r e a t i o n Space i n Canada," ( v o l . I I of Resources f o r Tomor-row Conference Background Papers. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1961), p. 958. -i£ Stanley J . R a n d a l l , op. c i t . . p. 4. "37 J l "Shape of the Future," Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l . (Dec-ember 6, 1966), p. 17. ^ Eva M u e l l e r and Gerald Gurin, op. o l t . . p. 69. 34 The l e s s the revenues, the greater i s the p r o p o r t i o n devoted to expenditures f o r p h y s i c a l and m a t e r i a l needs, and the l e s s the remainder f o r expenditures f o r r e l i g i o n , f o r moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l needs, and i n general, f o r luxury....The s m a l l e r the sum e s s e n t i a l f o r the s a t i s -f a c t i o n of p h y s i c a l and m a t e r i a l needs, the greater the p r o p o r t i o n which must be used f o r food alone. 39 In Canada, the longer term growth of p r o d u c t i v i t y per person amounts to about three per cent a year f o r each man-hour worked, the compounding of which, by the year 2000, w i l l Increase the s i z e of the output per person by about two and 40 t w o - t h i r d s . Sharp considers that some of the increased p r o d u c t i v i t y w i l l be used t o provide greater l e i s u r e time: Over a longer period of time, on average, our work week has been reduced by about e i g h t - t e n t h s of one per cent annually l e a v i n g about 2.2 per cent annually i n the form of greater output of goods and s e r v i c e s . I f we compound these two...the work week at the end of the century would be reduced by some 40 per cent and the average r e a l Income w i l l be roughly double what i t i s today. 41 The income of the average f a m i l y In 1966 In Canada was |7,800 a year. In comparison, i n 2000, i n terms of 1966 p r i c e s , i t w i l l be $15,000 a year. Sharp p r e d i c t s that the average work week w i l l be 28 hours. Canadians w i l l thus have more time and a greater income w i t h which to pursue l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y . A trend towards increased c r e d i t w i l l have the e f f e c t of extending the buying power of the p o p u l a t i o n . E l i z a b e t h E. Hoyt, Margaret G-. Re i d et a l . , American  Income and I t s Useg., (New York: Harper and Row, 1954). 40 M i t c h e l l Sharp, "The Economy i n the Year 2000," Department of Finance News Release. (Ottawa: March, 1967). P. 2. 41 I b i d . , p. 3. 35 M o b i l i t y Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n by I t s very nature i n v o l v e s t r a v e l . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n three ways. F i r s t , the mode of t r a v e l w i l l d e t e r -mine the t r a v e l time and, second, the cost of t r a v e l w i l l a f f e c t the type of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y chosen. A h i g h per-centage of f a m i l i e s own automobiles and once the costs of automobile ownership have been i n c u r r e d , the marginal costs of t r a v e l f o r r e c r e a t i o n are r e l a t i v e l y low. This f a c t o r has been of considerable i n f l u e n c e i n the use of d i s t a n t r e c -r e a t i o n areas; indeed. 90 per cent or more of a l l v i s i t o r s to 42 r u r a l parks a r r i v e by c a r . T h i r d , the enjoyment of the r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y w i l l be coloured by the character of the t r a v e l experience. Since 1900 there has been anupward trend i n the amount of t r a v e l per person by a l l modes. Before the F i r s t World War, annual t r a v e l per person averaged about 800 miles per year whereas today i t stands at about 5,000 m i l e s . I t has been estimated that the average t r a v e l per person may w e l l Increase to 9.000 miles i n 2000 and that an increase-43 i n g l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t h i s t r a v e l w i l l be f o r r e c r e a t i o n . L l o y d Brooks, op. c i t . 4 "5 Marlon Clawson, Economics of Outdoor Recreation. P. 100. 36 New and improved methods of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i l l a l s o have considerable impact upon r e c r e a t i o n and use of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n making t r a v e l time s h o r t e r , more comfortable and more pleasant. H i s t o r i c a l l y , an improvement i n t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n has l e d to an increase i n r e c r e a t i o n use, while an increase i n demand has s t r a i n e d the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. The problem of r e c r e a t i o n peak t r a v e l i s l i k e l y to become worse, and the r e c r e a t i o n t r a v e l l e r , as opposed to the commercial 44 t r a v e l l e r ^ demands more and s p e c i a l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s . People w i l l be p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n c l i n e d towards more t r a v e l . Improvements i n e l e c t r o n i c technology have t r a n s -formed the world i n t o a " g l o b a l v i l l a g e " and w i t h increased f i n a n c i a l means, lower f a r e s , and more e f f i c i e n t and com-f o r t a b l e modes of t r a v e l , people w i l l t r a v e l f a r t h e r more 45 o f t e n . For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n t r a v e l see: Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, P r o j e c t i o n s  to the Years 1976 and 2000: Economic Growth. Labor Force  and L e i s u r e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . (Washington: U.. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962). 45 Marshal McLuhan, Understanding Media. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964). RECREATION RESOURCES 37 A n a t u r a l resource f o r r e c r e a t i o n may be found on land or water. What determines the p o t e n t i a l of a n a t u r a l feature f o r r e c r e a t i v e use are man's a t t i t u d e s and p r e f -erences. His d e s i r e to use an area f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n w i l l be Influenced by h i s personal preferences such as those f o r a c e r t a i n type of scenery or topography. There are many complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between the area, the user and the use. The a t t i t u d e s of the user, g e n e r a l l y a r i s i n g out of h i s past r e c r e a t i o n experience s t r o n g l y c o n d i t i o n what he looks f o r i n an outdoor r e c r e a t i o n area. He i s l i k e l y to p r e f e r what he knows best and what he has enjoyed i n the past. Present use of one area may r e f l e c t the absence or l a c k of b e t t e r areas as much as l t does the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a p a r t i c u l a r area. Thus use as a f a c t o r of the inventory of r e c r e a t i o n resources has serious l i m i t s . I t i s hard to i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas because i t i s not the observable n a t u r a l features that make an area s u i t a b l e f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n but human a t t -itude and preference. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Recreation Areas Recreation areas can be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the amounts of l e i s u r e time and t h e i r usual time p a t t e r n i n g ; d a i l y , 38 46 weekend and v a c a t i o n . D a i l y r e c r e a t i o n , through exigencies of time, i s n e c e s s a r i l y confined to w i t h i n a short t r a v e l time range. Recreation f a c i l i t i e s t hat would f u n c t i o n to serve the d a i l y need have been termed "use r - o r i e n t e d . " Those areas that serve the va c a t i o n need, at l e a s t two days, and whose dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e i r outstanding p h y s i c a l r e s -ource, are termed "resource-based areas." Between these extremes, both geographical and i n terms of use, are the "intermediate areas." I t i s important to note that there i s a continuum of use from the "user-oriented area" r i g h t through to the "resource-oriented area." Capacity L e v e l . An area i n terms of q u a l i t y of r e c -r e a t i o n experience has a d e f i n i t e c a p a c i t y l e v e l . In p h y s i c a l terms, that capacity l e v e l i s reached when the numbers of people are so great that they have a harmful e f f e c t upon the e c o l o g i c a l environment and i n terms of the I n d i v i d u a l , when the I n t e n s i t y of r e c r e a t i o n use r i s e s above the optimum s a t i s f a c t i o n per user. What t h i s l e v e l may be v a r i e s with the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s p a r t i c u l a r s p a t i a l demands as des-47 c r i b e d by Edward H a l l . Quantity and Q u a l i t y of Supply. The qu a n t i t y of land a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n i s constant. The more extensive 46 Clawson develops t h i s concept i n : Marion:Clawson, Land and Water f o r Recreation. (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963), See a l s o Table 3. ^ Edward T. H a l l , The Hidden Dimension. (New York: M c G r a w ^ f l l l , 1966). TABLE J &ENERAK.. CLASSIFICATION OF OUTDOOR RECREATIONAL. USES' AND RESOURCES: Item Type of recreation area User oriented Resource based Intermediate 1. General location Close to users; on Where outstanding Must not be too re-whatever resources resources can be mote from users; on arc available found; may be dis- best resources avail-tant from most able within distance users limitation 2. Major types of Gaines, such as golf Major sightseeing; Camping, picnicking. activity and tennis; swim- scientific and histori- hiking, swimming, ming; picknicking; cal interest; hiking hunting, fishing walks and horse and mountain climb-riding; zoos, etc.; ing; camping, fishing playing by children and hunting 3. When major use After hours (school Vacations Day outings and occurs or work) weekends 4. Typical sizes of One to a hundred, Usually some thou- A hundred to several areas or at most to a few sands of acres, per- thousand acres hundred acres haps many thousands 5. Common types City, county, or National parks and Federal reservoirs; of agency respon- other local govern- national forests pri- state parks; private sibility ment; private marily; state parks in some cases; pri-vate, especially for seashore and major lakes Source: Marion Clawson and Jack Knetsch, Economics of Outdoor Recreation,, P. 22. 40 the s p a t i a l requirements of a r e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y , the more l i m i t e d i s a supply i n proximity to population onetres. Rec-r e a t i o n , moreover, i s only one of a number of competing lahduuses. Population i n c r e a s e , commercial development and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , now o c c u r r i n g on a u n i v e r s a l b a s i s , are a l l contenders i n the race f o r open space, Richard Meier, a resource planner, foresees a s i t u a t i o n i n 2010 where the world's 35 b i l l i o n people w i l l be confronted with not Just a s c a r c i t y of open space but a c r i t i c a l shortage of l i v i n g 48 space, Adequate p r o v i s i o n and maintenance of outdoor r e c -r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s because of increased demand i s a problem which W i l l i a m Hart discovered to be of u n i v e r s a l occurrence. Hart found that u r b a n i z a t i o n and development are c o n t r i b u t i n g to a s i t u a t i o n which i s d e p r e c i a t i n g the q u a l i t y and f u n c t i o n of the present park developments: Population growth i s the l a r g e s t s i n g l e element behind the r a p i d d e p l e t i o n of the r e c r e a t i o n resource base i n a l l c o u n t r i e s v i s i t e d . The rat e of d e p l e t i o n has been m u l t i p l i e d by many of the a t t r i b u t e s of technology such as power equipment. 49 Hart quotes the example of N a i r o b i N a t i o n a l Park where changes i n the use of land adjacent t o the park have made the park u n s u i t a b l e as an animal refuge. Other park "Cars, F u r n i t u r e Must Go to Make Way f o r Future," The Province. February 15, 1966, p. 10, 49 W i l l i a m Hart, A Systems Approach to Park Planning. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union f o r the Conservation of Nature and N a t i o n a l Resources, (Morges, S w i t z e r l a n d : 1966), p, 61, 41 areas are s u f f e r i n g from too much use and t h e i r n a t u r a l q u a l i t y has diminished as, f o r instance, l e Foret Fontainbleu i n P a r i s . A C i v i c Trust Survey i n Great B r i t a i n cautioned: I f everyone i n England and Wales went to the seaside at the same time, each would get a s t r i p of coast three-and-a-half Inches across. Inland a l s o , the pressure of l e i s u r e i s b u i l d i n g up throughout the year. The population of B r i t a i n i s expected to grow from 52 m i l l i o n now t o 70 m i l l i o n i n the year 2000. Can we make space f o r our l e i s u r e without r u i n i n g these i s l a n d ? 50 Concerning the s i t u a t i o n i n the United S t a t e s , Marion Clawson w r i t e s : I f you are one of the growing m a j o r i t y of Americans who go outdoors f o r recreation...chances are that your patience has been t r i e d by a l l those other people who l i k e the same things as you do, ...and by some of an a l l -too f a m i l i a r set of f r u s t r a t i o n s . To me the evidence suggests that we are approaching a grade A c r i s i s i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . 51 Even i n Canada, w i t h I t s vast endowment of l a n d , the shortage of r e c r e a t i o n space i n p r o x i m i t y to areas of pop-u l a t i o n c oncentration i s apparent. L l o y d Brooks, Chief of Planning f o r the N a t i o n a l Parks Branch s t a t e d : In f a c t i t i s already evident that e x i s t i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n lands f a l l f a r short of current needs, espec-i a l l y i n those areas Immediately adjacent to our l a r g e urban areas....We simply have not set aside enough l a n d f o r park purposes....Few park systems today are not abused i n some manner by i n a p p r o p r i a t e development or sheer overuse. 52 Michael Dower, Fourth Wave: The Challenge of L e i s u r e . A C i v i c Trust Survey, (London: C i v i c T r u s t , January, 1965). 51 Marion Clawson, "The C r i s i s i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n , " Resources f o r the Future. R e p r i n t No. 13, I960, p. 2. L l o y d Brooks, Planning Conservation w i t h Recreation. Paper presented at the 21st Annual Conference of the Parks and Recreation A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, V i c t o r i a , B. C., Aug-ust 28-31, 1966, p. 7. (Mimeographed). 4 2 P r o j e c t i o n of Use For outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , as f o r any other s e r v i c e or commodity, supply i n any meaningful sense must be r e l a t e d 5 3 to demand. The past upsurges In outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v -i t i e s have been p o s s i b l e only because there were areas and f a c i l i t i e s t o s a t i s f y that demand. Any p r o j e c t e d f u t u r e increases i n r e c r e a t i o n use w i l l be r e a l i z e d , at l e a s t i n p a r t , i f the supply of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s expands to accommodate them. Area i s not the only problem, there are many other aspects of supply such as the appeal and q u a l i t y that require c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to p r o j e c t f u t u r e needs and i t i s expected that the i n t e n s i t y of r e c r e a t i o n use per u n i t of area w i l l almost s u r e l y be higher i n the f u t u r e although the degree of change cannot be p r e c i s e l y q u a n t i f i e d . However, some form of p r o j e c t i o n must be made and many methods have 54 been e s t a b l i s h e d . Greater m o b i l i t y , p o p u l a t i o n , l e i s u r e time and f i n a n c i a l means o c c u r r i n g on a u n i v e r s a l b a s i s can be expected to put pressure on a l l r e c r e a t i o n resources: In t h e i r search f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s , urban dwe l l e r s now t r a v e l across s t a t e s with the same ease wi t h which they once crossed c o u n t i e s . Geography i s no b a r r i e r , and the demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n spreads out across the n a t i o n a l landscape from a l l of the urban r e g i o n s . 5 5 See Figure 3. 5 4 Marion Clawson and Jack Knetsch, " A l t e r n a t i v e Methods of E s t i m a t i n g Future Use," op. c l t . . Chapter V I I , pp. 113-142. 5 5 Outdoor Recreation f o r America, op. c l t . , p. 22. FIGURE"' 3 43 THE KEY ELEMENTS I N OUTDOOR RECREATION Source:: R. I . Wolfe, "Perspective on Outdoor Geographical Review, v o l . LIV, No. 2, Recreat A p r i l , 1 9 6 4 on, 44: Of a s i m i l a r nature i s a B r i t i s h commentary: Tourism r e q u i r e s N a t i o n a l , I n t e r n a t i o n a l as w e l l , a s Regional s t r a t e g y . By the end of the Century the t o u r i s t world w i l l have begun to change fundamentally. Today the sun i s the greatest magnet...by the end of the Century c o u n t r i e s which enjoy long periods of sun,, w i l l become economically prosperous and begin themselves to export t o u r i s t s who are not n e c e s s a r i l y l o o k i n g f o r the sun. 56 The propensity towards more t r a v e l i s already being r e f l e c t e d by the 15 per cent annual increase i n spending by 57 t o u r i s t s t r a v e l l i n g outside t h e i r own c o u n t r i e s . SUMMARY Proj e c t e d Demand . . . i t i s c l e a r that Americans are seeking the outdoors as never before....Not only w i l l there be many more people, they w i l l want to do more, and they w i l l have more money and time to do i t w i t h . By 2000 the pop-u l a t i o n should double; the demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n should t r i p l e . 58 The Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission found that 90 per cent of the American population over twelve years had engaged i n some outdoor a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the course of a year. In t o t a l , they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an a c t i v i t y on 4.4 b i l l i o n separate occasions. 56 T. Dan Smith, "Comprehensive Planning f o r L e i s u r e -The Role of the Regions," Paper given at the Colloquium on Planning f o r L e i s u r e , I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l Research, (London! June 3, 1966)., ^ Bank of Montreal, Business Review. (March 31, 1967). Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, Outdoor Recreation f o r America: Report t o the P r e s i d e n t . (Washington: U. S, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962), p. 3. 45 The Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission concluded that i t i s the simple a c t i v i t i e s that people pur-sue the most. Four of the most popular, r e p r e s e n t i n g s i x t y a c t i v i t y days a year per person, d r i v i n g and walking for. pleasure, s i g h t s e e i n g and b i c y c l i n g , were p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 59 by two-thirds of the American p o p u l a t i o n . These a c t i v i t i e s may therefore be i n t e r p r e t e d as an attempt to escape one's environment i n search of experience elsewhere. The con-c l u s i o n may be drawn that people i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n out-door r e c r e a t i o n are p r i m a r i l y searching f o r a change of environment combined with freedom of movement and minimal, of i n the case of walking and c y c l i n g , moderate, p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that d r i v i n g f o r pleasure i s the most popular a c t i v i t y . The p r o c l i v i t y to d r i v i n g f o r pleasure may be a measure of the l a c k of other r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to the user. Water i s considered to be the prime f o c a l point f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . The demand f o r water-based r e c r e a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g i n g e n e r a l . Swimming i s expected to be the most popular a c t i v i t y by 2000. This i n d i c a t e s the p o p u l a r i t y of water areas and a l s o an i n c l i n a t i o n towards more a c t i v e p u r s u i t s . Prospective increases i n l e i s u r e per c a p i t a are at See Figure 4 46 FIGURE .4 NUMBER OF OCCASIONS OF PARTICIPATION IN OUTDOOR SUMMER RECREATION I960 Compared With 1976 and 2000 (by M i l l i o n s ) 2000 Driv ing For Pleosure Swimming Wa lk ing For Pleosure Playing Outdoor Games j O r Sports Sightseeing P icnick ing Fishing B icyc l ing Attending Outdoor Sports Events Boating Nature Walks Hunting Camping Horseback Riding Water Skiing Hiking Attending Outdoor Drama, Conce i t s , E tc . 3825 3 7 0 0 E»228 . mm&smi 297 1521 3 452 3416 •ssssssss 285 E398 3 263 rera 95 VSJ 123 3 6 0 113 E955„„ iS3 82 174 235 143 3 3 9 223 84 3189 ^ 6 3 m 125 3 27 3 46 zm 92 1557 (I960 £S*S 1976 2000 Source: Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, Outdoor Recreation f o r America, p. 46. 47 variance w i t h past and estimated increases i n r e a l income per c a p i t a . For the 1900-1950 p e r i o d , l e i s u r e per c a p i t a rose about 27 per cent, while r e a l income per c a p i t a i n e r e -sed about 150 per cent. For the 1950-2000 period an increase 60 i n i n d i v i d u a l l e i s u r e of 12 per cent per c a p i t a . The t o t a l supply of time per person Is a b s o l u t e l y f i x e d while l e i s u r e has increased, and i s expected to Increase f u r t h e r , there are d e f i n i t e l i m i t s to the increase per person. Real income, on the other hand can r i s e more or l e s s i n d e f i n i t e l y . Thus, the l e i s u r e income balance on a per c a p i t a basis s h i f t e d much more towards Increased income and only s l i g h t l y towards increased l e i s u r e . People t h e r e f o r e w i l l be more i n c l i n e d , and w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y have the means, to spend part of t h e i r l a r g e r income on making the most of t h e i r l i m i t e d l e i s u r e . For example, the v a c a t i o n i s t w i l l f l y to h i s d e s t i n a t i o n and rent a car r a t h e r than spend time d r i v i n g t h ere. I t i s these reasons that have l e d Clawson to s t a t e : "the d i v e r -gence i n prospective trends of per c a p i t a l e i s u r e and per c a p i t a r e a l income th a t w i l l r e s u l t i n a s i t u a t i o n wherein the competition f o r time w i l l be more severe than the com-61 p e t i t i o n f o r l e i s u r e . " George F i s k , Leisure Spending Behavior, ( P h i l a d e l -p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Press, 1963). ^ 1 T. J . Davey, "Pr e c i s of the Conference," i n J . C. Charlesworth, op. c i t . . p. 75. 48 Urban Recreation With greater u r b a n i z a t i o n , the changing patterns of l e i s u r e mean that the more h i g h l y urbanized areas w i l l show the highest p r o p o r t i o n of outdoor a c t i v i t i e s u s u a l l y con-ducted i n or near the environment. The great bulk of the demand must be s a t i s f i e d i n the afterwork and weekend hours, when despite means f o r greater m o b i l i t y , people d e s i r e to engage i n a minimum of t r a v e l . Therefore: ...the greatest need i s f o r the expansion of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the urban environment i t s e l f and adjacent to i t . 62 Conolus ion Lack of time i s now the major b a r r i e r to greater 63 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . Thus, an Increase i n l e i s u r e time i n combination w i t h greater m o b i l i t y and f i n a n c i a l means and population i n c r e a s e s , w i l l r e s u l t i n a 64 greater pressure of use on a l l f a c i l i t i e s . Therefore,, p r i o r i t y must be given to the a c q u i s i t i o n of s h o r e l i n e s and water-oriented areas and to the p r o v i s i o n of opportunity f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n w i t h i n the metropolitan area. The Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission 62 P h i l i p M. Hauser, "Demographic and E c o l o g i c a l Changes: Factors i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n , " Trends In American  L i v i n g and Outdoor Recreation. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission Study Report, No. 22, (Washington: 1962), P. 45. 63 Outdoor Recreation f o r America, op. b i t . , p. 31. 64 See Table 4. TABLES; ESTIMATED CHANGES IN POPULATION, INCOME, LEISURE, AND TRAVEL. (For the years 1976 and 2 000, compared to i 9 6 0 ) I960 Figures Populot ion (Mil l ions) G . N . P . (Billions) Per Capi ta Disposable Income Work Week (Hours) Paid Vocat ion (Weeks) Per Capi ta M i le s O f Intercity Travel 180 S503 $1970 39 2.0 4170 1960=100% 400 52,007 300 200 100 32 36 Population Gross Na t i ona l Per Cap i l a Work Week Paid Vacat ion Per Capi ta (Mi l l ions) Product Disposable (Hours) (Weeks) M i les of (Billions) Income Infercity Trovel 11976 12000 Source: Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, Outdoor Recreation f o r America, p. 4 5 . 50 pointed out that to ensure c o n t i n u i t y of supply, and thus b e t t e r to serve the p u b l i c needs, a l l outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c -65 l l l t i e s must be considered to be part of a system. W i l l i a m Hart and the C a l i f o r n i a Comprehensive Statewide Outdoor Rec-r e a t l o n Plan both exemplify t h i s new approach. Hart notes that park Issues e x i s t as parts of l a r g e r problems bearing upon the r e l a t i o n s h i p of man to h i s environment: An evident c o n c l u s i o n . . . i s that park systems planning i s not p r a c t i c e d (sic.) i n any country... .Prime r e l i a n c e i s s t i l l i n the o l d , u n i t a r y park u n i t even though every socio-economic fo r c e c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s the need f o r i n t e r r e l a t e d f l e x i b l e approaches to environmental d e v e l -opment and c o n t r o l . . . . P a r k systems planning i s a m u l t i -stage o p e r a t i o n . . . . I t i s a process to f a c i l i t a t e m u l t i -d i s c i p l i n e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of resources a l l o c a t i o n problems under a v a r i e t y of changing s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . 67 Outdoor Recreation f o r America, op. c i t . . pp. 95-117. See Appendix A and Appendix B. W i l l i a m Hart, op. c l t . . pp. 106-107. CHAPTER IV SYSTEMS ANALYSTS OF OUTDOOR RECREATION PLANNING In t r o d u c t i o n The complexities of planning f o r l e i s u r e time use and r e c r e a t i o n have "been recognized, as i n d i c a t e d i n the previous Chapters. However, methodology f o r the purposes of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n planning, because of inadequate research, has lagged f a r behind current needs. The c o l -l e c t i o n , t a b u l a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of f a c t s r e l a t e d t o r e c -r e a t i o n a l needs of the people and to the e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l resources are e s s e n t i a l to the development of adequate a c t i o n programmes. These data must be arranged In a u s e f u l f a s h i o n , i n t e r p r e t e d and made a v a i l a b l e to the planners and then kept c u r r e n t . The development of a r e c r e a t i o n area does not stand by i t s e l f , i t provides needed open spaces, i t a f f e c t s the land use around i t , i t r e q u i r e s p u b l i c funds t o operate and i t takes away part of the l o c a l tax base, I t r e q u i r e s highway access and i t i s a p a r t i c u l a r management of a resource which must be co-ordinated w i t h other resource management w i t h i n the same r e g i o n . Time has passed when i t can be assumed that r e c r e a t i o n proposals can stand on t h e i r own i n t r i n s i c m e r i t s . Such programmes must compete f o r funds wi t h other s i m i l a r p u b l i c agencies such as mental 52 h e a l t h , education, water development, and highways. Pro-grammes which seem to stand the best chance of s e c u r i n g p u b l i c support are those which are i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to e x i s t i n g and fut u r e l e v e l s of demand. No meaningful r e c -r e a t i o n plan can be developed or j u s t i f i e d without t h i s necessary i n f o r m a t i o n . A framework must be evolved so as to f a c i l i t a t e inter-governmental co-operation to ensure adequate p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i v e opportunity and to a l l o w f o r co-ordinated programmes of development. Park systems planning should d e a l competantly w i t h the e n t i r e park and r e c r e a t i o n components of the r e g i o n a l resource base. The C a l i f o r n i a Department of Parks and Recreation has developed an approach f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l planning which w i l l provide the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and p l a n -ners, with information o p p o r t u n i t i e s and, as i n d i c a t e d i n Figure 4, a framework f o r planning. A Systems^Approach f o r Outdoor Recreation Planning The l o g i c a l development of the process enumerated i n Figure 5 has been the e v o l u t i o n of a conceptual systems framework as shown i n Figure 6. This w i l l provide a means f o r the formula.tion of c o n t i n u i n g a c t i o n programmes t h a t w i l l assure the a v a i l a b i l i t y of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s as n e c e s s i t a t e d by changing demand. A systems approach to outdoor r e c r e a t i o n planning FIGURE 5 53 Source: C a l i f o r n i a Department of Parks and R e c r e a t i o n . Park and Recreation Information System, p. 3. FIGURE 6 54 > 1.11 F O R E C A S T S OF NUMBERS OF P E O P L E B * COUNTY AMD S.M.S.A. STATE OF CALIFORNIA THE RESOURCES AGENCY D E P A R T M E N T O F P A R K S A N O R E C R E A T I O N / 1.12 J 1.31 SOCIOECONOMIC C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF P O P U L A T I O N BY COUNTY AND S.M.S.A. / 1.21 T O T A L DEMAND F O I R E C R E A T I O N ACTIVITY 8T COUNTY AMD S.M.S.A. I 1.41 P E R C A P I T A DEMAND FOR R E C R E A T I O N ACTIVITY BY COUNTT AMD S.M.S.A, DEMAND F O I R E C R E A T I O N ACTIVITY BY T R A V E L A 1-51 P E R C A P I T A DEMAND FOR R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T Y BY SOCIOECONOMIC C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S INSTANTANEOUS DEMAND FOR R E C R E A T I O N ACTIVITIES 6Y T R A V E L TIME ZONE A 1-14 DISTRIBUTION OF D E M A N D FOR R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T Y BY T R A V E L TIME Z O N E A 1.15 R E C R E A T I O N P A R T I C I P A T I O N BY ACTIVITT / 1.18 DISTRIBUTION OF INSTANTANEOUS DEMAND F O I R E C R E A T I O N P A R T I C I P A T I O N BY A C T I V I T T / 1.17 SIZE OF C R O U P USING F A C I L I T Y F O I A C T I V I T Y ( 1.61 FACILITIES REQUIRED FOR R E C R E A T I O N ' ACTIVITY BY T R A V E L TIME ZONE 3.11 COMPARISON OF S U P P L Y AND REQUIREMENTS 6Y T R A V E L TIME ZONE 2.41 E F F E C T I V E S U P P L Y OF F A C I L I T I E S F O R R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T Y BY T R A V E L TIME Z O N E 3.12 DEFICIENCIES OF FACILITIES B Y T R A V E L TIME Z O N E S 2.31 A B S O L U T E S U P P L Y OF FACILITIES FOB O E C P E A T I O N ACTIVITY BY L 2.21 T O T A L P U B L I C S U P P L Y OF F A C I L I T I E S FOR R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T Y 2.11 INVENTORY OF E I 1 S T M C P U B L I C HE C R E A T I O N A R E A S A N D FACILITIES 2.12 INVENTORY OF P R O P O S E D P U B L I C R E C R E A T I O N A R E A S A N D F A C I L I T I E S 2.22 T O T A L P R I V A T E S U P P L Y OP F A C I L I T I E S FOR R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T Y 2.13 I N V E N T O R Y OF EXISTING P R I V A T E R E C R E A T I O N A R E A S A N D F A C I L I T I E S 2.14 INVENTORY OF PROPOSED P R I V A T E R E C R E A T I O N A R E A S AND FACILITIES 2.15 T R A V E L TINE ZONES D E F I N E D BY COORDINATES 2.1E T O T A L D E H A N O FOR R E C R E A T I O N ACTIVITY PARK AND RECREATION INFORMATION SYSTEM (PARIS) SUPPLY - DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION FACILITIES ; SCHEMATIC D A T A PROCESSING F L O * C H A R T SHOWING INPUT F I L E S A N D I N T E R M E D I A T E A N D T E R M I N A L O U T P U T Source: C a l i f o r n i a Department of Parka and Recre a t i o n . Park and Recreation Information System, p. x i i . 55 w i l l be composed of three subsystems: demand, supply and e v a l u a t i o n , a l l of which w i l l be q u a l i f i e d by geographic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . geographic Considerations.. In order to evaluate the adequacy of the supply of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , both the p o t e n t i a l demand f o r the various a c t i v i t i e s and the supply of present and expected r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s must be i d e n t i f i e d and compared w i t h i n common geographic areas. The distance people are w i l l i n g and able to t r a v e l to p a r t i c i p a t e i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i s a major f a c t o r i n p r o v i d i n g f o r the optimum d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e c -r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . A v a i l a b l e f r e e time i s a primary l i m -i t i n g f a c t o r i n a person's a b i l i t y to t r a v e l f o r r e c r e a t i o n purposes as demonstrated In Chapter I I I . I t i s t h e r e f o r e important to know how l o n g i t takes to t r a v e l from one's place of residence to the r e c r e a t i o n area. This i n f o r m a t i o n can be obtained through the use of t r a f f i c engineering techniques and can be u t i l i z e d to devise a framework of Zones of Need: Zero-to-one hour t r a v e l time zone: For close i n , f r a c -t i o n a l day-use s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g a maximum of two hours round t r i p . One-to-two hour t r a v e l zone: Gen e r a l l y f o r f u l l day use s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g a maximum of f o u r hours round t r i p . Two-to-four hour t r a v e l time zone: G e n e r a l l y f o r weekend or overnight s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g a maximum of e i g h t hours round t r i p . 56 Over four hours t r a v e l time zone: Generally f o r vac a t i o n s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g over eight hours round t r i p . This zone in c l u d e s both i n - s t a t e and out-of-s t a t e t r a v e l . Each zone i s determined from the c e n t r a l p o i n t of a pop-u l a t i o n concentration w i t h i n a metropolitan area. As met-r o p o l i t a n areas may have s e v e r a l population centres, there 1 may be s e v e r a l points of o r i g i n f o r a zone. Demand Subsystems. In order to formulate j u s t i f i a b l e programmes, r e c r e a t i o n s u p p l i e r s need p r o j e c t i o n s of the expected peak demand f o r the s e v e r a l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . Peak demand may be determined by the t o t a l annual p o t e n t i a l demand f o r these a c t i v i t i e s , the seasonal d i s t r i b u t i o n of demand, and the d a i l y d i s t r i b u t i o n of demand w i t h i n the season. The term p o t e n t i a l demand takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the d e s i r e and a b i l i t y , both p h y s i c a l and f i n a n c i a l , of people to p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y as w e l l as the existence of f a c i l i t i e s necessary f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The t o t a l annual p o t e n t i a l demand f o r each metro-p o l i t a n area appears to be dependent on the population s i z e and the r e c r e a t i o n a l h a b i t s of the socio-economic groups that comprise the po p u l a t i o n . As has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the previous Chapter, the type, i n t e n s i t y , l o c a t i o n , and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n are r e l a t e d to the C a l i f o r n i a Department of Parks and Recreation, Review of the C a l i f o r n i a Comprehensive Statewide Outdoor  Recreation PlanT (Sacramento: August, 1966), pp. 8-10. FIGURET7 57 P A R K A N D R E C R E A T I O N I N F O R M A T I O N S Y S T E M ( P A R I S ) D E M A N D S U B S Y S T E M 1.11 F O R E C A S T S O F N U M B E R S OF P E O P L E BY C O U N T Y A N D S.M.S.A. A 1.12 SOC IOECONOMIC C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F P O P U L A T I O N BY C O U N T Y A N 0 S.M.S.A. A 1.13 P E R C A P I T A D E M A N D FOR R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T Y BY SOC IOECONOMIC C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S 1.21 A 1.14 DISTR IBUT ION O F D E M A N D FOR R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T Y BY T R A V E L T IME Z O N E P E R C A P I T A D E M A N D F O R R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T Y BY C O U N T Y AND S.M.S.A. T O T A L D E M A N D F O R R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T Y BY C O U N T Y A N D S.M.S.A. 1.41 D E M A N D FOR R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T Y BY T R A V E L T IME Z O N E / 1.51 I N S T A N T A N E O U S D E M A N D FOR R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T I E S BY T R A V E L TIME Z O N E A 1.G1 F A C I L I T I E S R E Q U I R E D FOR R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T Y BY T R A V E L TIME Z O N E A 1.15 S E A S O N A L D ISTR IBUT ION OF R E C R E A T I O N P A R T I C I P A T I O N BY A C T I V I T Y A[ 1.15 DISTR IBUT ION O F I N S T A N T A N E O U S D E M A N D FOR R E C R E A T I O N P A R T I C I P A T I O N BY A C T I V I T Y f-1.17 SIZE O F C R O U P USING F A C I L I T Y FOR A C T I V I T Y Source: C a l i f o r n i a Department of Parks and Re c r e a t i o n . Park and Recreation Information System, p. 10. 58 socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The components of the Demand Subsystem, as a s c e r t a i n e d by the C a l i f o r n i a study, are l i s t e d i n Figure 7. Supply Subsystem. An accurate inventory of out-door r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s i s of importance to any r e c r e a t i o n programme. Such an Inventory would include up-to-date inform a t i o n on the e x i s t i n g and proposed f a c i l -i t i e s at both p u b l i c l y and p r i v a t e l y operated areas. Figure 8 i n d i c a t e s the s t r u c t u r e of a conceptual Supply Subsystem of r e c r e a t i o n resources. I m p l i c i t i n an inventory of the supply w i l l be an e v a l u a t i o n of each area i n terms of i t s r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n as to i t s a b i l i t y to support r e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y . The number, q u a l i t y and l o c a t i o n of s e v e r a l p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of a region are important pieces of knowledge f o r planning. Generally these comprise the f o l l o w i n g groups: land r e l i e f , , c l i m a t e , vegetative cover, surface water, w i l d l i f e , background and e x i s t i n g land uses. Figures 9 and 10 give an example of the type of a n a l y t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n compiled d u r i n g a study of geographic content and landscape expression of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. This type of i n f o r m a t i o n i n combination ~with geographic l o c a t i o n w i l l provide a 2 systematic b a s i s f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the supply. E v a l u a t i o n Subsystem. In order to develop new Clare A. Gunn, A Concept For the Design of a  Tourism-Recreation Region! (Michigan: B. J . Press, 1965). FIGURE 8 59 PARK AND RECREATION INFORMATION SYSTEM (PARIS) S U P P L Y S U B S Y S T E M 2.41 EFFECTIVE SUPPLY OF FACILITIES FOR RECREATION ACTIVITY BY TRAVEL TIME ZONE 2.31 ABSOLUTE SUPPLY OF FACILITIES FOR RECREATION ACTIVITY BY TRAVEL TIKE ZONE 2.21 TOTAL PUBLIC SUPPLY OF FACILITIES FOR RECREATION ACTIVITY 2.22 TOTAL PRIVATE SUPPLY OF FACILITIES FOR RECREATION ACTIVITY 2.11 INVENTORY OF EXISTING PUBLIC RECREATION AREAS AND FACILITIES 2.12 2.13 INVENTORY OF EXISTING PRIVATE RECREATION AREAS AND FACILITIES 2.14 2.15 TRAVEL TIME ZONES DEFINED BY COORDINATES 2.16 INVENTORY OF PROPOSED PUBLIC RECREATION AREAS AND FACILITIES INVENTORY OF PROPOSED PRIVATE RECREATION AREAS AND FACILITIES TOTAL DEMAND FOR RECREATION ACTIVITY BY S.M.S. A. Source: C a l i f o r n i a Department of Parks and Re c r e a t i o n . Park and Recreation Information System, p. 24. FIGURE 9 60 An example of geographic content. The distribution of eight characteristics of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. IIIII ^ ajxiKaurw. "mam 1/Aajo\ folk —-^^i covvuA JUMJ, STORY Source: Clare A Gunn. A Concept f o r the Design  of a Tourism Recreation Region, p. 10. FIGURE 10 61 Landscape expression. Three measures of landscape expres-sion of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, derived from analy-sis of geographic pqsition and content. A JLakd, iwirJi, /,UMIC/ UOMCLJ, iviliLtilo. aud UNIVERSALITY UkeA DIVISION Source: Clare A Gunn. A Concept f o r the Design  of a Tourism Recreation Region, p. 13. 62 r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c i e s and programmes, r e c r e a t i o n planners need to know where there are d e f i c i e n c i e s of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s now and where d e f i c i e n c i e s w i l l occur i n the f u t u r e . I t i s therefore necessary to make some k i n d of comparison of the supply and the demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . Figure I I shows the methodology of a conceptual E v a l u a t i o n Subsystem. In some cases a c t i v i t i e s and demands must be com-bined to determine f a c i l i t i e s requirements. In other cases, categories of f a c i l i t i e s supply must be combined to det e r -mine the supply of f a c i l i t i e s t hat i s comparable w i t h f a c i l i t i e s requirements. S:UMMARY The conceptual systems approach to r e c r e a t i o n plan-n i n g which has been described i n t h i s Chapter provides a methodological base f o r the planner. However, I t s e f f e c t -iveness w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be circumscribed by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of data: Clawson and Knetsch s t a t e that "No methodology can y i e l d wholly s a t i s f a c t o r y answers when the problem i s so 3 d i f f i c u l t and the data are so poor." D Marion Clawson and Jack Knetsch, Economics of Out  door Recreation. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1966), P.- 141. FIGURE 111 PARK AND RECREATION INFORMATION SYSTEM (PARIS) E V A L U A T I O N S U B S Y S T E M 1.6 F A C I L I T I E S R E Q U I R E D F O R R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T Y B Y T R A V E L T I M E Z O N E C O M P A R I S O N O F S U P P L Y A N D R E Q U I R E M E N T S B Y T R A V E L T I M E Z O N E 7\ E F F E C T I V E S U P P L Y O F F A C I L I T I E S F O R R E C R E A T I O N A C T I V I T Y B Y T R A V E L T I M E Z O N E V Source: C a l i f o r n i a Department of Parks and R e c r e a t i o n . Park and Re c r e a t i o n Information System, p. 33 CHAPTER V INTEGRATION OF OUTDOOR RECREATION WITH OTHER LAND USES As Chapter I I I i n d i c a t e d , the f i r s t task i s to prov-ide more outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the metropolitan area. This would seem to be a t a l l order, f o r I t i s i n these regions that land i s most expensive and the most d i f f i c u l t to a c q u i r e . The metropolitan outdoor r e c r e a t i o n demand, however, cannot be solved somewhere e l s e because the urgent need i s f o r opportunity w i t h i n a minimum distance from the home, e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h a t h a l f of the pop u l a t i o n which 1 does not, or i s unable, to d r i v e . This l a c k of m o b i l i t y makes i t e s s e n t i a l that the r e c r e a t i v e needs of these people be accommodated w i t h i n easy range. As the c i t y , by d e f i n i t i o n , already has the greatest i n t e n s i t y of land use, how w i l l f u t -ure s p a t i a l requirements be met? I f the t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l -o r i e n t e d park a l l o c a t i o n methods are used there appears to be 2 l i t t l e hope that r e c r e a t i o n demands can be accommodated. Closer examination of the urban area w i l l r e v e a l that much r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l has yet to be r e a l i z e d and that r e c r e a t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y have to be a competing Charles Abrams, op. c i t . . p. 333. p A park i s de f i n e d as: "a t r a c t of land kept i n n a t u r a l s t a t e f o r p u b l i c b e n e f i t , " Oxford D i c t i o n a r y . (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1951). land use, but r a t h e r , a complementary one. This Chapter w i l l examine the concept of a r e c r e a t i o n environment i n which outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has been i n t e g r a t e d w i t h other land uses. This study w i l l show how present p o l i c y , based on the t r a d i t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n of work and l e i s u r e , has been p r o d i g a l of the r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l w i t h i n other land uses. A new p o l i c y r e q u i r e s an awareness of the t o t a l system and c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the var i o u s component elements w i t h i n the system. THE STUDY This study w i l l focus upon the met r o p o l i t a n Van-couver r e g i o n . The major terms of reference w i l l be the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n demands of the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver w i t h i n the broad perspectives of the p r o j e c t i o n s as des-c r i b e d i n the previous Chapters. A t r a i l system w i l l be conceptualized as the i n s t r u -ment of i n t e g r a t i o n . I t was chosen as i t supports two a c t -i v i t i e s which, i n p a r t i c u l a r represent outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y : b i c y c l e r i d i n g and walking. The la n d uses th a t w i l l be considered are water c o n t r o l areas, marginal l a n d s , u t i l i t y rights-of-way and side roads. I t w i l l be demonstrated that the value of an area f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n Is doubly enhanced when i t i s so c o n s t i t u t e d as to form part of a continuum of use not now p o s s i b l e through present p o l i c y . The demand i s evident: a p o t e n t i a l supply i s a v a i l a b l e : yet by l a c k 66 l a c k of p o l i c y , the supply has remained i n o p e r a t i v e . Scope of the Study The need has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of a more comprehensive p o l i c y f o r the planning of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . An enlarged demand generated w i t h i n the urban areas f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has placed acute pressures on the current supply of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , and a changing p a t t e r n of demand i s r e q u i r i n g a d i f f e r e n t type of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y . . A l l the f a c t o r s which generate a demand f o r r e c -r e a t i o n a l s o serve to f r u s t r a t e t h a t demand as these f a c t o r s a l s o give r i s e to a demand f o r competing land uses. As the supply of resources f o r a l l uses i s l i m i t e d , there Is a need f o r a r a t i o n a l process of a l l o c a t i o n of resources; a process which w i l l conceive of r e c r e a t i o n as a system In the context of other systems. I t i s t o be s t r e s s e d that the t r a i l system w i l l be considered only as a concept w i t h general r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n . Walking and B i c y c l e R i d i n g Walking and b i c y c l e r i d i n g are two t r a i l - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s that combine moderate p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e w i t h an opportunity t o escape one's immediate environment and exper-ience d i v e r s i t y and v a r i e t y elsewhere. As outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s they re q u i r e a minimum of f a c i l i t i e s , but f o r f u l l enjoyment and s a t i s f a c t i o n , they should be separated from other c i r c u l a t o r y systems and d i s t u r b i n g i n f l u e n c e s . I t has been found that these two a c t i v i t i e s are compatible; separ-a t i o n would be In d i c a t e d when i n t e n s i t y of the use of the t r a i l 67 depreciates the value of the experience f o r e i t h e r a c t i v i t y . . Therefore as the demands of these a c t i v i t i e s are b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r , f o r the purpose of t h i s paper, they w i l l be consid-ered w i t h i n the same context. Walking. Walking f o r pleasure i s second only to d r i v -3 i n g f o r pleasure i n annual r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The American population engages i n 17.9 occasions a n n u a l l y . These occasions are d i s t r i b u t e d evenly throughout the year. In f a c t , the rate d u r i n g the winter i s s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r than other seasons, (4.88 f o r w i n t e r , 4.34 f o r summer). Walking f o r pleasure may be done without expense at any time, f o r l o n g or short periods, and i t i s an a c t i v i t y s u i t a b l e to 4 a l l ages, and income brac k e t s . Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of the demand f o r pedestrian f a c i l i t i e s eludes easy measurement. However, the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board has estimated that walking f o r pleasure accounts f o r s i x outings 5 per person per year i n the lower mainland area. I t was found that c o i n c i d e n t w i t h a greater degree of u r b a n i z a t i o n 6 the population p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s a c t i v i t y more f r e q u e n t l y . See Table 3. 4 Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, N a t i o n a l Recreation Survey. Study Report 19, (Washington: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962), pp. 4 6 - 5 0 . 5 Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, A Regional Parks Plan f o r the Lower Mainland. (New Westminster: 1966), __ z__ ^ Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, op. c i t . . p. 47. m Therefore, l t may be assumed that w i t h i n the C i t y of Vancouver t h i s f i g u r e of s i x outings a year may be h i g h e r . B i c y c l e R i d i n g . I t i s estimated that 55 m i l l i o n Americans r i d e b i c y c l e s . As i n d i c a t e d i n Figure 4, the American p u b l i c , over 12 years, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c y c l i n g at the rate of 5.15 occasions per person a n n u a l l y ; b i c y c l i n g being the e i g h t h most popular outdoor a c t i v i t y . I t i s to be noted that 82 per cent of those persons were below 17 7 years of age. The Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Comm-i s s i o n s t r e s s e d : The most basic t h i n g that can be done i s to encourage the simple pleasures of w a l k i n g and c y c l i n g . I t i s something of a t r i b u t e to Americans that they do so much c y c l i n g and w a l k i n g as they do, f o r very l i t t l e has been done to encourage these a c t i v i t i e s and a good b i t , i f i n a d v e r t e n t l y , to discourage them. 8 Recently, there has occurred a great r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t by a l l ages i n c y c l i n g . Indeed, i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the number of b i c y c l e users increases by 4 m i l l i o n 9 more people each year. B i c y c l i n g provides good h e a l t h and fun f o r the occas-i o n a l e x e r c i s e r or f o r the persevering a t h l e t e . Even as h e a l t h and f i t n e s s values accrue, the c o n t r i b u t i o n of c y c l i n g to e d u c a t i o n a l l y sound s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment i s unuestioned. 10 7 This age c e i l i n g can be expected to r i s e , Because of the reasons s t a t e d i n Chapter I I I , a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l not be l i m i t e d so much to the younger age groups. g Outdoor Recreation f o r America, op. c l t . . p. 82. 9 "Get a B i k e , " American F o r e s t s , v o l . I I , No. 8, (August, 1965), P. 26. 1 0 American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation, C y c l i n g i n the School F i t n e s s Program. (Washington: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1963), p. 7. / 69 As a r e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y , b i c y c l i n g i s one of the b e s t . Although b i c y c l i n g r e q u i r e s a minimum of p r e p a r a t i o n , s k i l l s and s p e c i a l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s , i t can provide an i n t e n -s i t y of personal involvement f o r a l l ages. A group a c t i v i t y , or a s o l i t a r y p u r s u i t , b i c y c l i n g can be enjoyed both In the town and i n the country. B i c y c l i n g , i s r e - c r e a t i v e both mentally and p h y s i c a l l y ; b i c y c l i n g provides e n v i r o n -mental experience and: From the standpoint of e x e r c i s e , bike r i d i n g has many advantages over most other r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s . The moderate e x e r c i s e Involved Is concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the l a r g e muscles of the body - l e g s , arms, abdomen, chest, shoulders, back and neck. Very few p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s meet t h i s standard. 11 Vancouver As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , f a c i l i t i e s f o r c y c l i n g and w a l k i n g i n Vancouver are f a r from adequate; there being only a few t r a i l s i n Stanley Park. C y c l i n g i s not allowed on any ofL-the c i t y parks nor i s i t permitted on the sidewalks, 12 thus l e a v i n g the s t r e e t as a very poor a l t e r n a t i v e . Des-p i t e a l a c k of opportunity, the manager of a b i c y c l e r e n t a l shop a n t i c i p a t e s that on a f i n e day he could have over a 13 thousand b i c y c l e r e n t a l s , with a y e a r l y volume of 40,000. 11 American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation, I b i d . , p. 9. 12 See Figure 12. 13 Maurice Tann, Manager, Stanley Park Rentals, Interview w i t h the W r i t e r , March 24, 1967. This f i g u r e might be com-pared to the f i g u r e of 1200 r e n t a l s a day by a s i m i l a r e s t -ablishment at C e n t r a l Park, i n New York C i t y ; a c i t y which has over 50 miles of b i c y c l e t r a i l s , New York Department of Parks, F a c i l i t i e s f o r New Yorkers. FIGURE . 5-A CITIZEN COMMENTS W a l k i n g f u t i l e The recommendation of Dr. Murray Blair of walking as good exercise seems rather futile as in the Greater Vancouver area there are few places apart from Stanley Park where walking is cither safe or satisfactory. Further there is little scope for cycling, traffic conditions being too hazardous. B.H.L. DANCE , Vancouver Source: "Voice of the People, The Province. A p r i l 10, 1967, P. 4 I t i s estimated t h a t there are w e l l over 100,000 b i c y c l e s i n the C i t y of Vancouver and yet there i s nowhere that they 14 can be s a f e l y and e f f e c t i v e l y used. Surely the c y c l i s t ought to have a b e t t e r choice than that of r i s k i n g h i s l i f e i n competition w i t h cars f o r the use of the road. That there i s a demand f o r f a c i l i t i e s f o r pedest-r i a n s and c y c l i s t s and t h a t t h i s demand w i l l increase sub-s t a n t i a l l y , there can be no doubt. The Vancouver Board of Parks and P u b l i c Recreation has as I t s o b j e c t i v e s , " s e r v i c e to the p u b l i c ; i t i s our f u n c t i o n to give the c i t i z e n the 15 very best i n r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . " Yet there are no plans f o r a t r a i l system of any type f o r the use of the 16 c i t i z e n s of Vancouver. A TRAIL SYSTEM B i c y c l e r i d i n g r e q u i r e s a l i n e a r t r a c t of l a n d , separated from the road, t h a t provides a d i v e r s e and v a r i e d environmental experience, w i t h am even surface and of s u f f i c -i e n t width f o r two c y c l i s t s to pass. Walking r e q u i r e s a 14 A f i g u r e deduced from the t o t a l number at the l a s t C i t y B i c y c l e R e g i s t r a t i o n i n 1963 i n combination w i t h annual b i c y c l e s a l e s . 15 Stuart S. Lefeaux, Superintendent, Vancouver Board of Parks and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n , L e t t e r to the W r i t e r , A p r i l 19, 1967. 1 6 I b i d . 72 s i m i l a r f a c i l i t y except t h a t because of the s h o r t e r range of the p e d e s t r i a n , the environmental experience i s required to be of a smaller s c a l e . An ample supply of such land i s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the C i t y of Vancouver and i t s environs t h a t could form part of a t r a i l system; u t i l i t y rights-of-way, c i t y boulevards, i n f r e q u e n t l y used side s t r e e t s and water c o n t r o l developments. As demonstrated i n Chapter I I I , any outdoor r e c -r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y should be part of a system. I n Vancouver, as i n many c i t i e s , no p r o v i s i o n i s made to connect the parks, with the e f f e c t that each park can only o f f e r a fragmented r e c r e a t i o n experience; f o r , as pointed out i n Chapter I I , the on-aite experience i s but o n e - f i f t h of the t o t a l experience. U t i l i t y rights-of-way have a r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l and could be a means of connecting r e c r e a t i o n areas. Figure 6 shows the B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro e l e c t r i c and gas tra n s m i s s i o n rights-of-way i n the Vanoouver area. Not a l l of them w i l l be s u i t a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n purposes but i t can be seen that these rights-of-way, through t h e i r i n t e r l i n k i n g p a t t e r n , spreading out from Vancouver to lower mainland areas, could o f f e r a l i n e a r system connection. A Vancouver T r a i l . One reason that the United Kingdom i s so appealing to the walker and c y c l i s t i s that 73 H 0 3 ho EM ft d P5 0 i P-t > co 3 O CP '"ay • a O I—1 '"ay <X) Pi ed " H . '"ay O £5. > CQ to 0) /////////// ///////''•** '/////// • / / / s / / / ////////// ////////// ///////// //////// / / / / / F/ / / ///////// '////////// //////// ' / / /////////////// / / / / / ///////// //////////// ////////////////. / / / //////// //////////////// '/////////////////// '/////////////////// '//////////////'/ /////////////////// " <'>'''<'' i y i V i i f i r i v ////s/s////// S / y //// s/s///////// s'/'/'///// * s s / ' / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / S / S S / / • / S / S j 74 17 i t o f f e r s a v a r i e t y and smallness of s c a l e . Such should be the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a t r a i l system. Most i m p o r t a n t l y , any route must be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to as many people as p o s s i b l e . With these co n s i d e r a t i o n s i n mind, a system i s proposed as i n d i c a t e d i n Figures 14 and 15. The proposed t r a i l would connect the major park areas i n Vancouver. I n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t water i s a major f o c a l point f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n as l t provides a v a r y i n g and c o n t r a s t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e . Therefore, the t r a i l would run west from Stanley Park along the Marine Foreshore Park, by-passing Shaughnessy G-olf Course, t o reach Musqueam Park, thence along the F r a s e r R i v e r to Angus D r i v e . At Angus Drive I t would run through a ravine up t o Riverview Park and f o l l o w the boulevard on the B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro right-of-way to the Burrard B r i d g e . Another s e c t i o n of the t r a i l would continue east from Stanley Park along vacant i n d u s t r i a l land on F a l s e Creek and f o l l o w the China Creek G u l l y to C l a r k Park where i t would continue on the abandoned r a i l w a y right-of-way t o C e n t r a l Park. From C e n t r a l Park i t would go along Boundary Road to Marine D r i v e . I t would continue west on the south boulevard of Marine Drive u n t i l Cambie Street where i t would t r a v e l n orth on the Cambie Street median to Langara and Queen E l i z a b e t h Parks. From Queen E l i z a b e t h Park the t r a i l would David Lowenthal and Hugh P r i c e , "The English'Land-• scape." Geographic Review, v o l . LIV, No. 3, ( J u l y 3, 1964), pp. 309-34"6. 75 H 'O a; H CQ o ? PH c.O O •rt u PH -r-l o u M CD > rt o o M 03 > 0 03 S-f CD <u i—i i—i CO S 76 FIGURE 15 PHOTOGRAPHS ALONG THE ROUTE OF THE PROPOSED TRAIL 77 A t r a i l has already been formed 78 f o l l o w the King Edward Avenue median to connect w i t h the t r a i l on East Boulevard. There are other t r a c t s of land which could serve as inputs t o t h i s system along i t s course by connecting other t r a i l s to i t on a c i t y , r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . The Vancouver 3ystem should be r e g i o n a l l y l i n k e d to Deer Lake i n Burnaby, Queen's Park i n New Westminster and w i t h the r e c r e a t i o n areas on the North Shore. Some s o r t of c r o s s i n g should be provided so that the wetlands of lona I s l a n d could be connected t o Vancouver's Marine Foreshore Park. On the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , the Vancouver system could connect w i t h the proposed Centennial T r a i l . The major p o r t i o n s of land used f o r the t r a i l are already c o n t r o l l e d by the Parks Board but, as demonstrated by the t r a i l system, these lands could be more e f f e c t i v e l y used than they are at present.. The other major p o r t i o n s of l a n d are the B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro Railway rights-of-way, C i t y boulevards and s t r e e t medians. Where l t i s impossible to continue the t r a i l , l i t t l e - u s e d side roads could be u t i l i z e d and, f a i l i n g t h a t , p r o v i s i o n made so tha t b i c y c l e s 18 could be walked w i t h s a f e t y f o r a short d i s t a n c e . This i s the concept of "Bikeways," United States Department of the I n t e r i o r , Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, T r a i l s f o r America, (Washington: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1966). 79 Regional T r a i l s This t r a i l must be connected to other t r a i l s on a regional basis. I t is suggested that the t r a i l could be continued to the south, along the dykes, and on the east, to connect with the proposed Centennial T r a i l , to the north, through the Capilano Canyon Park, to the watershed area which could be opened f o r recreation use. Dykes. In the lower mainland, dykes run along the f u l l course of the Fraser River and along the northern shores of Sea Island and Lulu Island where there i s much recreative p o t e n t i a l . Dykes are so constructed that they form a natural t r a i l system and o f f e r l i t t l e opportunity f o r other use. The nature of the r i v e r affords a scenic va r i e t y and a constantly changing f i e l d of v i s i o n . Some dykes are municipally owned and others p r i v a t e l y owned. However, i t i s f e l t that there should be no r e a l obstacle to the development of a t r a i l system as the municipality has the necessary power to implement such 19 development. Watershed Area. I t i s proposed that Stanley Park be linked with the Greater Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t watershed area by means of a t r a i l along the Capilano River up to Capilano Canyon Park. A t r a i l system could be constructed through the watershed area and the body of impounded water W. J . V. Kennedy, Assistant Director, Richmond Planning Department, Discussion with the Writer A p r i l 3, 1967. 6© used f o r water-oriented r e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y . In North America the most notable example of the use of impounded water f o r r e c r e a t i o n purposes i s that of the Tennessee V a l l e y . There had l o n g been o p p o s i t i o n t o the use of r e s e r v o i r s f o r r e c -r e a t i o n on the bas i s of the p o l l u t i o n of water. I t has been demonstrated, however, th a t such i s not the case and that with good management there i s no reason why the p u b l i c cannot be 2 0 allowed to use the watershed area f o r r e c r e a t i o n . The Out-door Recreation Resources Review Commission estimated that i n the United States the attendance f i g u r e s at r e s e r v o i r s excee-2 1 ded those of the n a t i o n a l parks and n a t i o n a l f o r e s t s combined. A p a r a d o x i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n view of these f a c t s i s t h a t of the Greater Vancouver Watershed, an area of 2 2 6 square m i l e s , w i t h i n h a l f an hour of the most densely populated area i n B r i t i s h Columbia", to which the p u b l i c are denied 2 2 access. The f a c t that the Greater Vancouver Water D i s -t r i c t has been granted a f o r e s t l i c e n s e t o l o g the watershed area on a sustained y i e l d b a s i s would not be a b a r r i e r to r e c r e a t i v e use of the area. Most f o r e s t lands i n B r i t i s h Roma McNlckle, (ed.), Water; Development. U t i l i z a t i o n . (Boulder, Colorado: U n i v e r s i t y of Colorado Press, 1964). 91 Outdoor Recreation f o r America, op. c i t . . p. 179. 2 2 "Changes i n Watershed Management," The Province. February 2 0 , 1967, P. 4. 8 1 23 Columbia have a r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e . However, through l a c k of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and f o r e s t r y have not been i n t e g r a t e d . In B r i t i s h Columbia where f i f t y cents of every d o l l a r comes from the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , i t would be d i f f i c u l t to suggest t h a t , because of an increased demand f o r outdoor r e c -r e a t i o n , f o r e s t r y be l i m i t e d only to those lands not of r e c -r e a t i o n v a l u e . A p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n would be to combine r e c r e a t i o n with f o r e s t r y and, as i n d i c a t e d , at the present time, the only obstacle i s one of p o l i c y . R ecreation can be i n t e g r a t e d with f o r e s t r y and i n the f u t u r e w i l l have to be. Recreation and f o r e s t r y can be compatible. A l l t h a t i s re q u i r e d i s a more Intensive management p o l i c y so as to 24 minimize the Impact of man upon the environment. L l o y d Brooks speaking at the S i x t h World Congress i n Madrid s t a t e d : The greatest impact of the r e c r e a t i n g p u b l i c w i l l be f e l t on those f o r e s t lands not s p e c i f i c a l l y set aside f o r park purposes. Here the f o r e s t manager must s i m u l -taneously accommodate growing p u b l i c v i s i t a t i o n and maintain f o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y w i t h minimum c o n f l i c t between uses. 25 J . Harry G. Smith, "An E v a l u a t i o n of Education Needs f o r Improved Management of Outdoor Recreation f o r Forest Wildlands i n B r i t i s h Columbia," U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , January 20, 1967, P. 1 . 24 Interview with P r o f e s s o r J . Harry G. Smith, F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, February 24, 1967. gc. L l o y d Brooks, "The Impact of Recreation on ForeBt Lands," A General Paper S i x t h World F o r e s t r y Congress, Madrid, June, 1966, Canada, Department of Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, N a t u r a l and H i s t o r i c Resources Branch, Ottawa: p. i i . 82 J u s t as parks should form a complete system, so Brooks Bays: ...we must not t h i n k Just of one type of r e c r e a t i o n land but r a t h e r a system of f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n l a n d s , ranging from the broad category where u t i l i z a t i o n and s i l v i c u l t u r a l methods are modified only s l i g h t l y or not at a l l , where the f o r e s t harvest must be modified g r e a t l y to ensure s u i t a b l e s i t e c o n d i t i o n s f o r mass r e c r e a t i o n a l use. 26 A c q u i s i t i o n - Development Development of a t r a i l system would be the responsib-i l i t y of the Vancouver Board of Parks and P u b l i c Recreation on the c i t y l e v e l and on a r e g i o n a l l e v e l , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Lower Mainland Regional Parks Board. As the greater p o r t i o n of l a n d i s C i t y property there would be no problem of a c q u i s i t i o n . The unused r a i l w a y right-of-way would be purchased by the C i t y and as i t has l i t t l e value f o r any other use, there should be no obstacles t o i t s purchase. On p o r t i o n s of those u t i l i t i e s rights-of-way t h a t are s t i l l i n use, an agreement could be reached w i t h the Hydro Company, 27 the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway and the C i t y of Vancouver. As a C i t y boulevard a d j o i n s p o r t i o n s of some of the r i g h t s -of-way, l t may only be necessary to screen the t r a c k s and use the C i t y property. Along other p o r t i o n s of the route i t may be necessary f o r the C i t y to exercise i t s powers of exprop-r i a t i o n . Experience has shown that property owners f i n d a _ Brooks, I b i d . . p. 5 . 27 A. J . Thompson, S o l i c i t o r , Land D i v i s i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , Interview w i t h the W r i t e r , A p r i l 20, 1967. 83 . t r a i l running along t h e i r property q u i t e acceptable f o r i t 28 enhances the property v a l u e . From the foregoing, i t may be concluded that the Van-couver Board of Parks and P u b l i c Recreation has not fun c t i o n e d In accordance w i t h i t s proclaimed goals, to provide "the best i n r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , " and a l s o that a t r a i l system could be s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d ln*o the C i t y f a b r i c and would a f f o r d much b e n e f i t and pleasure to the thousands f o r whom no p r o v i s i o n has been made. I t can be assumed that much r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l has yet to be developed and tha t opportunity f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n can be provided and supported by other land uses. B a r r i e r s to c o n t i n u i t y and obstacles to development w i l l a r i s e but they are minor i n terms of o v e r - a l l develop-ment and can be overcome w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n of imagination and i n g e n u i t y . AN ENVIRONMENT FOR RECREATION With the course of time, systems become outmoded and thereby d i s f u n c t i o n a l . New p o l i c i e s have to be evolved and systems updated. Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n as a system i s no exception. The previous Chapter has i n d i c a t e d how present p o l i c y , as shown by an examination of" that of the C i t y of Gaylord Nelson, "Appalachian T r a i l , " American F o r e s t s , v o l . 71, No. 12, (December, 1965), PP. 24-27. Vancouver, i s more attuned to the nineteenth r a t h e r than the twentieth century needs, to say nothing of the twenty-f i r s t century. P o l i c y I m p l i c a t i o n s Vancouver. The s i t u a t i o n i n Vancouver i s but a r e f l e c t i o n of a p r e v a i l i n g l a c k of understanding of the dynamic p a t t e r n of the demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and a general l a c k of planning methodology to cope wi t h i t . In Vancouver the f u n c t i o n of the agency re s p o n s i b l e f o r " p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n " has been impeded by a t o t a l l y unenlightened a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which merely provides r a t h e r than plans r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . The Vancouver Parks Board: ••.gives people what they want. We don't have people running around doing research. We know what they want. Many r e o r e a t i o n wants are obvious. We determine s p e c i f i c wants by observation and intuition..,.We consider the Park Board t o be aware of changes i n demand. 28 Vancouver has not developed a set of c r i t e r i a w i t h wich to plan f o r the r e c r e a t i o n requirements of the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver but i n s t e a d : We use i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y accepted standards f o r planning park areas throughout the c i t y . These standards have been accepted a f t e r many decades of consideration.'-as to the appropriateness of such standards. 29 The foregoing statement might be a p p l i c a b l e In p l a n -n i n g f o r the 100 year f l o o d but i s most c e r t a i n l y not a d e f e n s i b l e statement f o r a r e c r e a t i o n planner to make; a Stuart S. Lefeaux, Superintendent, Vancouver Board of Parks and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n , Interview w i t h the W r i t e r , A p r i l 3, 1967. 29 Idem. L e t t e r to the W r i t e r , A p r i l 20, 1967. 85 person who should be aware t h a t what was "acceptable f o r many decades" has been rendered obsolete by the changing 30 nature of the demand. Such a statement can only be taken as an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e g r e s s i v e p o l i c y of the Parks Board. Planners and s p e c i a l i s t s have f o r the pas* two decades r e l i e d p r i m a r i l y on standards which s t r e s s the r e l a t i o n -s h i p of the s i z e of area served with the number of persons r e s i d i n g t h e r e i n . This concept i s no longer f u n c t i o n a l ; increased m o b i l i t y , l e i s u r e , and the f a m i l y income are b r i n g i n g about r a p i d changes i n our r e c r e a t i o n p a t t e r n s . A study of the s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s which c o n d i t i o n r e c r e a t i o n p u r s u i t s i s b a s i c f o r the sound planning of r e c r e a t i o n areas. Co-operation between the planner and r e c r e a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t r a t h e r than standards f o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , must be sought and developed. 31 P r o v i s i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n i n Vancouver has been f u r t h e r impeded by the f a c t that the agency of supply i s an e l e c t e d Parks Board which f u n c t i o n s separately from the C i t y C o u n c i l , but i s f i n a n c i a l l y dependent upon the C i t y C o u n c i l . The reason f o r such a separation i s u s u a l l y given as the n e c e s s i t y to "keep the parks out of p o l i t i c s . " This a c t i o n , however, has the negative e f f e c t of d i s a s s o c i a t i n g p r o v i s i o n f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n from other c i t y f u n c t i o n s , both conceptually and f i s c a l l y . J The concept of r e c r e a t i o n standards i s examined by Gans who concludes that t h e i r use f o r r e c r e a t i o n planning denotes a negative approach. Herbert J . Gans, "Recreation Planning For Leisure Behavior: A Goal-oriented Approach," Unpublished Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania, Department of C i t y Planning, 1957. 31 H. Douglas -Sessoms, "New Bases For Recreation P l a n -n i n g , " Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, v o l . XXX, No. 1, (February, 1964), pp. 26-33. " A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH B6 The f u n c t i o n of Vancouver's Board of Parks and P u b l i c Recreation^has been handicapped by the f a c t that l t has t r a d -i t i o n a l l y conceived of i t s f u n c t i o n only as the supply and maintenance of parks. This f a i l i n g i s a l s o evident at the r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l where p r o v i s i o n f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i s the f u n c t i o n of a parks branch. Recreation has been conceptualized as an a c t i v i t y o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the confines of a p u b l i c park; and, as i s u s u a l l y the case, an over-crowded, under-developed park at that - a park whose f u n c t i o n and l o c a t i o n have not been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o any over-r i d i n g system so as to ensure the i n d i v i d u a l c o n t i n u i t y of opportunity, d i v e r s i t y and v a r i e t y of r e c r e a t i v e experience. I t i s to be st r e s s e d at t h i s p o i n t that t h i s i s not to deny the f u n c t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l parks system but to maintain i t s e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n as f u l f i l l i n g part of man's r e c r e a t i o n a l needs and to advocate that t h i s system be sup-lemented by the development of th e r areas p r o v i d i n g another l e v e l of s e r v i c e . An appropriate s i m i l e would be t o consider that man's housing requirements are being accommodated only by p u b l i c housing; such i s not the case, n e i t h e r i s I t wit h r e c r e a t i o n , A New P o l i c y The need i s f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n of a p o l i c y f o r the p r o v i s i o n of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n opportunity. I t i s re q u i r e d that t h i s be a comprehensive p o l i c y that r e f l e c t s the f a c t that 87 r e c r e a t i o n i s a t o t a l experience. As G l i k s o n urges, only complete environmental r e c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be adequate: ...we found man's needs to be r i s i n g at the same time that the r e c r e a t i o n landscape i s d e t e r i o r a t i n g ; only comprehensive r e g i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n can r e s t o r e the true sources of recreation....Our problem has become reversed, and i t i s no longer p o s s i b l e to separate ' r e c r e a t i o n by environment' from ' r e c r e a t i o n of environment.' 32 In outdoor r e c r e a t i o n the i n d i v i d u a l seeks a s a t i s f y i n g exper-ience that i s the r e s u l t of d i v e r s i t y , v a r i e t y , excitement and a change of environment. Often the mass rush from the c i t i e s every weekend i s not so much a measure of the a t t r a c t i o n of the o u t l y i n g r e c r e a t i o n resources as i t i s a measure of the f a i l u r e of the c i t y ' s a b i l i t y to meet basic human needs. As I n d i c a t e d i n the previous Chapter, the c i t y possesses a vast p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n resource. I t i s the nature of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n that an i n d i v i d u a l may partake In i t at any time, i n any surroundings; o c c a s i o n a l l y i n a park: Most d i s c u s s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n seems to assume i m p l i c i t l y t hat the whole r e c r e a t i o n experience takes place on the p h y s i c a l s i t e of the playground or park. This i s d e f i n i t e l y not t r u e . R e c r e a t i o n experience, l i k e any other human experience Is l a r g e l y a s u b j e c t i v e matter *? part i n the mind of the p a r t i c i p a n t , part conditioned by the events around them. 33 Development of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r urban r e c r e a t i o n must be premised upon a comprehensive environmental approach A r t u r G l i k s o n , "Recreational Land Use," Man's Role i n  Changing the Face of the E a r t h . W. L. Thomas (edTH (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1956), p. 906. 33 Marion Clawson, " I m p l i c a t i o n s of R e c r e a t i o n a l Needs f o r Highway Improvements," Highway Research Board. B u l l e t i n No. 311, (1962), p. 35. 88 which w i l l seek to make c i t y l i v i n g a r e - c r e a t i v e experience. The most obvious step i s to make more e f f e c t i v e use of present r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . Abrams has s t a t e d , "imagination i n r e c -34 r e a t i o n has never been an o f f i c i a l v i r t u e . " A "virtuous man," i n Abrams 1 terms, i s New York C i t y Parks Commissioner, Hoving, who found t h a t : - "Our parks have remained l i f e l e s s l y suspended 35 i n time l i k e the Pyramid of Cheops." Hoving proceeded to take r e v o l u t i o n a r y steps i n p r o v i d i n g "fun f a c i l i t i e s " i n the New York Parks. "With few exceptions, the American c i t y i s s t i l l a place to earn a l i v i n g but i s l o s i n g i t s a t t r a c t i o n s as a place i n 36 which to spend one's l e i s u r e . " A second approach would be to i i n t e g r a t e r e c r e a t i o n opportunity i n t o the p h y s i c a l environment as suggested by Charles Abrams. In cases of l a c k of s u i t a b l e space, p r o v i s i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n can be incorporated i n t o the design of a b u i l d i n g such as i n Le Corbusier's L'Unite d ' H a b i t a t i o n . Opportunity f o r r e c r e a t i o n can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the 37 p h y s i c a l environment as Abrams has demonstrated. Above a l l , as was shown by the Lea V a l l e y Park Study, much neglected land 38 has r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l . In the c i t y many p o t e n t i a l r e c -34 Charles Acfcrams, The C i t y I s the F r o n t i e r , (New York: Harper and Row, 1965).-35 "The C i t y : P e o p l i n g the Parks," Time. September 2, 1966, p. 46. 36 Charles Abrams, op. c i t . 3 7 I b l d . . pp. 287-353. •70 C i v i c T rust, A Lea V a l l e y Regional Park: An Essay  i n the Use of Neglected Land f o r Recreation and L e i s u r e . (London: J u l y , 1964). 89 r e a t i o n resources have gone unnoticed. With only a l i t t l e e f f o r t and a minor c a p i t a l o u t l a y and some imagination, they could provide much enjoyment. SUMMARY The foregoing study of the conceptual t r a i l system has shown that a p h y s i c a l element can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a con-ce p t u a l system and that a t r a i l system i s but part of a l a r g e r systems a n a l y s i s . In respect to the c o n d i t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I I , the t r a i l system may be deemed an adequate s o l u t i o n . I t provides a method of p r o v i d i n g metropolitan and water-oriented f a c i l i t i e s and i s a means of e x p l o i t i n g d i v e r s e environmental f e a t u r e s . I t may be concluded that a system of t r a i l s provides an e f f e c t i v e opportunity to s a t i s f y a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the r e c r e a t i o n demand and f o r the p u b l i c to come i n t o contact w i t h areas of s c e n i c , r e c r e a t i o n and n a t u r a l i n t e r e s t . Rather than r e s t r i c t i n g a l l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s to parks, more out-door r e c r e a t i o n resources can be e x p l o i t e d by t a k i n g advan-tage of the propensity f o r m o b i l i t y expressed by modern s o c i e t y . A t r a i l system can provide a network of multi-use c o r r i d o r s that w i l l accommodate more people, can be a c c e s s i b l e to more people, provide f o r more a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t e b e t t e r to the r e g i o n a l environment and be a means of a p p r e c i a t i n g e x i s t i n g parks by l i n k i n g them. CHAPTER VTI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS PLANNING FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION A total,., comprehensive approach to outdoor r e c r e a t i o n planning must recognize t h a t the problem of In c r e a s i n g demands,. i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g l y l i m i t e d supply, can only be res o l v e d by: 1. The c o - o r d i n a t i o n of p o l i c y by a l l l e v e l s of govern-ment. This would inc l u d e the i n t e g r a t i o n of endeavour by both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies; 2. b e t t e r management of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s to provide f o r e f f e c t i v e use by more people and yet p r e s e r v a t i o n of the n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s ; 3. c o n s i d e r a t i o n given to i n t e g r a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n w i t h other land uses; 4. r e a l i z a t i o n that r e c r e a t i o n can not be t r e a t e d as only a s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n but that p r o v i s i o n of opportunity f o r r e c r e a t i o n must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the whole of the fu n c t i o n s of l i f e . Chapter V demonstrated that parks must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a t o t a l system so that the i n d i v i d u a l i s ensured a va r -i e t y of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . There i s a need, i n face of l i m i t e d supply, f o r more imaginative p l a n -n i n g which w i l l be able to conceive of the r e c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l In a l l uses. Otherwise outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s may be-come non-existent or p r o g r e s s i v e l y l i m i t e d . I t i s most evident that p r o v i s i o n f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the form of parks, i n terms of fu t u r e needs, i s not adequate; furthermore, parks 91 provide only part of the answer: The most important r e c r e a t i o n of a l l i s the k i n d people f i n d i n everyday l i f e . Do c h i l d r e n have to be d r i v e n to school - or can they walk or c y c l e to i t s a f e l y over wooded paths? Are there streams f o r an afternoon's f i s h i n g - or have they a l l been b u r l e d i n concrete c u l v e r t s ? Are the stands of woods a l l gone - or are a few l e f t f o r a p i c n i c or a s t r o l l ? What t h i s means i n short i s r e c r e a t i v e environment. Thus our challenge; can we shape f u t u r e growth so that r e c r e a t i o n i s p a r t of i t ? 1 Planning i n v o l v e s : 1. an accurate f o r m u l a t i o n of our own d e s i r e s - the s p e c i f i c knowledge of what i t i s we want; and 2. an accurate r e v e l a t i o n of the l i m i t s , and the oppor-t u n i t i e s imposed and bequeathed to us by nature. 2 Hence planning of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s must encompass two f a c t o r s ; goal f o r m u l a t i o n that i s the r e s u l t of an understanding of the needs of the r e c r e a t i o n - s e e k i n g p u b l i e and an inventory and a p p r a i s a l of e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n resources. As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y t h i s has not been the case; p o l i c i e s have been ambiguous, c o n f l i c t i n g or even non - e x i s t e n t . Pressure of i n c r e a s i n g and changing demands f o r r e c r e a t i o n r e q u i r e that t h i s s i t u a t i o n be r e c t i f i e d immediately by p o s i t i v e a c t i o n . Such a c t i o n t o be at a l l e f f e c t i v e w i l l endeavour no longer to t r e a t r e c r e a t i o n as a part-time f u n c t i o n of man: This i m p l i e s that r e c r e a t i o n should be p a r t and p a r c e l of the f u n c t i o n of a l l land use and not only the d e s t i n y of s p e c i f i c chosen areas of l a n d . I t belongs to the A r t u r G l i k s o n , op. c l t . . p. 905, 2 Benton Mackaye, The New E x p l o r a t i o n : A Philosophy  of Regional Planning. (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1962), p. 147. 92 planning program to turn town and country as a whole i n t o a f u n c t i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c a l l y enjoyable envir o n -ment. 3 Recreation planning must be a combination of s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l planning. The needs of men must be i n t e r p r e t e d as s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; t h i s i s the p h y s i c a l planner's f u n c t i o n . The r e c r e a t i o n demands of the f u t u r e w i l l be of a d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r accommodation of t h i s demand w i l l have to be p r i m a r i l y a government f u n c t i o n although implementation may be through p r i v a t e or p u b l i c agen-c i e s . Clawson urges t h a t , w i t h i n c r e a s i n g demands, research must be undertaken i n the f i e l d of r e c r e a t i o n . He p o i n t s out that problems of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n w i l l be more complex In the future and that the current i n t u i t i v e approach i s g r o s s l y inad-equate: "The most Important immediate task of research i s dev-i s i n g more u s e f u l , more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and more imaginative models f o r a n a l y s i n g d i f f i c u l t problems." A l l o c a t i o n of N a t u r a l Resources f o r Future Recreation Heeds Because of the s c a r c i t y of adequate lands f o r out-door r e c r e a t i o n , both now and i n the f u t u r e , and i n view of the i n c r e a s i n g competition between land uses f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , steps must be taken to i n t e g r a t e r e c r e a t i o n w i t h 5 other compatible primary land uses. This i s the m u l t i p l e A r t u r G l i k s o n , op. c i t . . p. 905. Marion Clawson and Jack Knetsch, op. c i t . . p. 303. See Table 5. TABLE 5 Physical compatibility of various major land uses, in multiple use land management programs1 Physical compatibi l ity with secondary use for Primary land use Urban uses Recreation Agriculture Forestry G r a z i n g Transport Reservoirs and water management W i ld l i f e Minera l production 3 Urban complete 3 Recreation none ] Agriculture none J Foroilry none G raz i n g none Transport none Reservoirs none and water m a n a g e -ment Wi ld l i fe none Minera l none production high for city parks; ze ro for others complete very poor high high none directly; incidental on rights of w a y poor to h igh high poor complete very p o o r poor poor to moderate zero none complete usually very poor none very poor very poo r moderate fair moderate fa ir to moderate very poor, none except city streets very poor very poo r to none zero zero v a r i a b l e — zo ro none to fair ly high Complete z e r o none complete poor fo none moderate none fa i r poor very poo r zoro poor to fair ly high none complete poor poor very poor very poor fair ly high very poor poor to poor modera te high high poor to high complete poor to fa ir poor to modera te poor to high none very p o o r very poo r complete 1 These a r « uses on identical or common a reas ; tho problems of different uses on closely interrelated areas is cons idered later. The definitions of the various I uses are those emp loyed in earl ier chapters. ^ Source: Marion Clawson, B u r n e l l Held, Charles Stoddard, Land f o r the Future, p. 4 4 9 . 6 use concept. As shown i n Chapter T% f o r e s t s and water r e s e r v o i r s are examples of land uses which are compatible w i t h r e c r e a t i o n . Another land use which could support r e c -r e a t i o n i s the highway. At the present time and i n the near f u t u r e the automobile i s , and w i l l be, a component of the r e c -r e a t i o n experience. Pleasure d r i v i n g was the most popular out-7 door r e c r e a t i o n pastime of the American p u b l i c . This and the f a c t that the automobile i s the major means of t r a n s p o r t to and from a r e c r e a t i o n s i t e , s i g n i f i e s the n e c e s s i t y of c o n c e i v i n g of the highway system as an adjunct to the r e c r e a t i o n resource. I t has been estimated that almost 3 5 per cent of the t r a f f i c 8 i s r e c r e a t i o n - o r i e n t e d . Highway planning must then attempt to c o n t r i b u t e to the r e c r e a t i o n experience. Scenic highways 9 and parkways can provide a worth while experience i n themselves. A p o l i c y f o r resource a l l o c a t i o n i s needed to prevent misuse of resources. Such i s the case i n B r i t i s h Columbia where much controversy has been aroused by mining i n the prov-i n c i a l parks. Mining Is v i t a l t o the p r o v i n c i a l economy and accounts f o r twenty-five cents of every d o l l a r . I f park lands are used f o r mining purposes the operation must cause as l i t t l e 6 Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, Mul-t i p l e Use of Land and Water Areas. Study Report 17, (Wash-ington: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962). 7 See Figure 4. 8 See Appendix C. 9 C a l i f o r n i a , Highway T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Agency, Depart-ment of P u b l i c Works, Design Standards For Scenic Highways. (Sacramento: 1964). 95 d i s r u p t i o n to the environment as p o s s i b l e and the park must be augmented by the a c q u i s i t i o n of other areas. Harry V. Warren has pointed out that only .1 per cent of the province can be used f o r mining whereas two-thirds can be used f o r f o r e s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e . Warren t h e r e f o r e urges that the province should 10 not surrender any of these buried r i c h e s t o r e c r e a t i o n . I t i s evident that nothing short of a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y w i l l be able to operate e f f e c t i v e l y . In t h i s connection the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n of the French N a t i o n a l Commission f o r Integrated Development, which at an i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l l e v e l co-ordinates a l l environmental planning programmes, should be examined. Environment planning In t h i s context i s d e f i n e d as: The geographic expression of the country's economic and s o c i a l p o l i c y ; the v o l u n t a r y r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r y and s e r v i c e s f o r a b e t t e r use of the nation's space, people and resources. 11 SUMMARY V a l i d i t y of the Hypothesis At the beginning of t h i s paper a hypothesis was posed t h a t : The p o l i c y concerning the p r o v i s i o n of the opportunity f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has f a i l e d to recognize the dynamics of supply and demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . New p o l i c y i s i n d i c a t e d , one aspect of which would be the I n t e g r a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n i n t o the environment. 1 0 "Don't Surrender Riches to R e c r e a t i o n , " The Province. March 3, 1967, P. 36. 1 1 Ambassade de France, Service de Presse et d ' I n f o r -mation, France, Town and Country Environment Planning. (New York: 1965), P. 3. 96 The methodology used to t e s t t h i s hypothesis was to e s t a b l i s h two premises: t h a t present p o l i c y , i n l i g h t of Chapter IIU, i s not adequate; and that r e c r e a t i o n can be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h other land uses. These two premises were affirmed by means of a case study of the C i t y of Vancouver where a t r a i l system was conceived of as an e f f e c t i v e aspect of a new p o l i c y . In view of these f i n d i n g s , i t may thus be concluded that the v a l i d i t y of the proposed hypothesis has been e s t a b l i s h e d . L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The study was i n i t i a l l y l i m i t e d by the general l a c k of data. The dates of p u b l i c a t i o n of the greater m a j o r i t y of m a t e r i a l i n the Bi b l i o g r a p h y r e v e a l that only r e c e n t l y has planning f o r r e c r e a t i o n been a subject f o r e m p i r i c a l study. In s p e c i f i c terms, a v a i l a b l e data p e r t a i n i n g to outdoor r e c -r e a t i o n , i n the C i t y of Vancouver, i s v i r t u a l l y non-existent -the Vancouver Board of Parks and P u b l i c Recreation having undertaken no research whatsoever. I t was ther e f o r e necessary to use American data w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n , when i n d i c a t e d , by a v a i l a b l e comparable Canadian s t a t i s t i c s . L i k e w i s e , the examination of p o l i c y was circumscribed by the f a c t t h a t p o l i c y was fragmentary and i n most cases, n o n - e x i s t e n t . F u r t h e r Research This l i m i t e d study reveals the need f o r extensive research along s e v e r a l l i n e s : 1. More c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be given to the r o l e of r e c r e a t i o n i n the l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l , to the f u n c t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n as a f a c t o r of human w e l l -being and to the i n t e r a c t i o n of the f a c t o r s that c o n t r i b u t e to a r e c r e a t i v e experience. F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of t h i s subject should provide the planner w i t h more t o o l s w i t h which to operate. Equipped w i t h a b a s i s f o r understanding, he w i l l be able to a l l o c a t e r e c r e a t i o n land uses. 2. F u r t h e r study must be made of the i n t e r a c t i o n of man w i t h h i s environment. The behavioural sciences can play an important r o l e i n supplementing and d i r e c t i n g the r o l e of the p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r and can a i d IED the establishment of ground r u l e s f o r environmental planning. Studies such as those by p s y c h o l o g i s t s , Calhoun, Stea and Sommer and the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , Parr and H a l l , could be of much as s i s t a n c e to the planners but t h e i r r e s u l t s as 12 yet are not o p e r a t i v e . 3. As i n d i c a t e d by the case study, more e f f e c t i v e methods of land management must be devised i n order to ensure that r e c r e a t i o n areas are e f f e c t i v e l y used. 4. With the prospect of Increased competition amongst R. W. Kales and S. F. Wohwill, (ed.), op. c l t a l l land uses f o r a l i m i t e d supply, e s p e c i a l l y i n the urban area, the concept of r e c r e a t i o n as a non-competing use warrants i n v e s t i g a t i o n . More e f f e c t i v e methods f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n with com-p a t i b l e uses w i l l have to be devised. 5. There i s a c r i t i c a l need f o r a framework f o r the co - o r d i n a t i o n of the agencies of supply, both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , to ensure concerted a c t i o n and thus opportunity f o r each i n d i v i d u a l to have a v a r i e t y of r e c r e a t i v e experience. The p u b l i c s e c t o r must adopt a comprehensive planning p o l i c y so t h a t a l l agencies, p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , c o n t r i b u t e r a t h e r than d e t r a c t from the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e c r e a t i o n . 6. More s o p h i s t i c a t e d and searching techniques f o r the measurement of a l l the f a c t o r s of demand must be i n s t i t u t e d to ensure comprehensive and accurate p r o j e c t i o n s . 7. S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n must be focused on the p r o v i s i o n of amenities f o r r e c r e a t i o n w i t h i n the urban areas. All aspects of the c i t y must be surveyed to d e t e r -mine t h e i r r e c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l and measures must be taken t o make urban l i v i n g a r e c r e a t i v e experience i n i t s e l f , 8. Study must be made of the f u n c t i o n of the purveyors 99 of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n to determine how they could b e t t e r meet the needs of the p u b l i c on a c i t y , r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l b a s i s . RECOMMENDATIONS What has been made abundantly c l e a r by t h i s study i s t h a t the importance of r e c r e a t i o n and the n e c e s s i t y to plan f o r I t have been recognized n e i t h e r by the agencies of supply nor by the p u b l i c at l a r g e . Recreation, though t h i s study has e s t a b l i s h e d i t to be v i t a l to the w e l l - b e i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l , has not been perceived as such. The e i g h t y - n i n t h Congress of the United States i n d e c l a r i n g that medical care was a r i g h t and not a p r i v i l e g e of a l l c i t i z e n s undertook the maintenance of h e a l t h . L i k e w i s e , w i t h a changing way of l i f e i n which the w e l l - b e i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l depend more and more upon h i s r e c r e a t i o n , p r o v i s i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n must be e s t a b l i s h e d as an o b l i g a t i o n of the p u b l i c s e c t o r . Consequent on an increase i n the demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n are the s p a t i a l requirements of a r e c r e a t i v e a c t -i v i t y , and i n terms of a d i m i n i s h i n g supply of l a n d , I t i s evident t h a t ; one, more e f f e c t i v e use must be made of present f a c i l i t i e s ; two, that the r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l of a l l land uses must be implemented and; three, that improved land management p r a c t i c e s must be implemented and; f o u r , that n o t h i n g short of comprehensive multi-dimensional planning p r a c t i c e s w i l l 10© be effective.,. These aforementioned p o l i c i e s w i l l only be s u c c e s s f u l i f they are generated by an informed p u b l i c and t h i s i s where the crux of the matter r e s t s . The ed u c a t i o n a l system must undertake the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r human con s e r v a t i o n . The school i s the key i n s t i t u t i o n f o r r e - o r i e n t a t i o n of val u e . The adage t h a t , "the world w i l l d i e of boredom," has greater v a l i d i t y today than e v e r r b e f o r e . People w i l l have to be educated to ensure that they have the c a p a c i t y to cope wi t h increased l e i s u r e time; education f o r l i v i n g . Furthermore, the a t t i t u d e s that r e c r e a t i o n i s a f r i v o l o u s p u r s u i t and tha t r e c r e a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n only of an I d y l l i c landscape must be a l t e r e d . The tendancy to undervalue r e c r e a t i o n land must be e r a d i c a t e d i n favour of a p o l i c y t h a t a f f o r d s r e c r e a t i o n equal c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h other human f u n c t i o n s , a p o l i c y which f u n c t i o n s to serve, not the economy, but those who comprise i t . APPENDIX APPENDIX A 102 F i r s t , a reconnaisance of a nat ion to identify the h igh p r io r i t y regions and projects w i t h i n regions. Exper ience w i t h landscape capabi l i ty analysis has shown that h igh value recreation resources w i l l tend to be found grouped in l imi ted geographic regions. It is i n these regions that resource conflicts are l ike ly to be most extreme and systematic analysis most useful. A n example is the effort by the Pe ruv ian T o u r i s m A u t h o r i t y to ident i fy " tou r i sm regions". One such region combines the his tor ic values of Cuzco, the prehistoric marvel of M a c h u Pic.hu, splendid Andean scenery, and extensive lakes. W i t h i n such a region even the location of a road system for basic communications (see F i g u r e X I for com-par ison of road locations along a seacoast) w i l l have an enormous effect on the quali ty and use of the recreation resources. Thus , to optimize development investments i n such a region the nature .of the park resources must be known and buil t into the calculus. Second, develop knowledge and precise requirements of the ind iv idua l recreation resource sites and investigations, as t ime permits, into those regions w i t h lower occurrence rates of resource sites. The work may involve archeological excavation, architec-tura l analysis, taxonomic identification, biologic transects and so on. The work w i l l require, as a concomitant, an upga rd ing of the theoretic personnel available w i th in the country. T h i r d , work wi th regional p lann ing authorit ies to assess the relat ive values of different combinations of land use based on the physical imperat ives of the resource base and provide a flow of value analysis to the nat ional economic p lann ing authorit ies for comparisons of pr ior i t ies between regions and inser t ion of real is t ic costs and benefits for the projects to be undertaken i n the regions in the national plan. F o u r t h , w i t h i n the project al location of the economic plan, do specific work on dist inct phases of component parks to provide for research, management of resources and vis i tors , and interpre-tat ion. F i g u r e X I I is a development scheme for a major na tura l park us ing the concept of nodes and corr idors . It i l lustrates the k i n d of work to be done at this stage. It assumes the values of the park have been identified and compared w i t h other areas i n the country and found, on scientific grounds, qualified to be clas-sified as a natural park and that its development is par t of a region being comprehensively planned for tour ism. F i f t h , provide for the recruitment, t r a in ing and support of personnel required to obtain h igh professional standards, con-t i n u i t y of program and. maintenance of f a c -i l i t i e s and improvements when they are completed. Source: w. J . Hart, A Systems Approach to Park Planning, p. 107 APPENDIX B: 103 The process developed In the C a l i f o r n i a Study can be summarized by these steps: 1. C o r r e l a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n 23 types of r e c r e a t i o n , w i t h t h e i r seasonal and geo-graphic use, i s evaluated q u a n t i t a t i v e l y f o r seven socio-economic groups.. F a c t o r i a l v a r i a t i o n s f o r each metropolitan area of the State are determined; 2. P r o j e c t the s i z e of these socio-economic groups through the planning period by geographic areas, t a k i n g account of probable changes; 3. Convert these population p r o j e c t i o n s i n t o t o t a l p a r t -i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ; 4. Formulate standards f o r areas and f a c i l i t i e s r e l a t e d to r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ; 5. Further convert p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s i n t o r e q u i r e -ments f o r f a c i l i t i e s , areas and l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n s , such as t r a v e l time zones; 6. Inventory the e x i s t i n g supply and current proposals to determine t h e i r adequacy i n meeting these r e q u i r e -ments ; 7. Determine the present d e f i c i e n c i e s between the supply determined i n step 6, and the demand requirements estimated i n step 5, and e s t a b l i s h the schedule of fut u r e requirements to s a t i s f y the demand; 8. E s t a b l i s h p o l i c i e s on the l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n f e a s -i b l e t o achieve, and on the r o l e arid r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the s u p p l i e r s ; 9. Inventory the p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n resources to evaluate t h e i r r e l a t i v e q u a l i t y ; 10. Sel e c t the resources most adequate to meet the d e f i c -lences as modified by p o l i c i e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n step 8: 11. Prepare plans and schedule a c t i o n programs r e l a t e d to the r o l e s and c a p a b i l i t i e s of the v a r i o u s supp-l i e r s . 104 A l l the s u p p l i e r s of r e c r e a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e i n one way or another to each step of the process. Once a working r e l a t -i o n s h i p Is e s t a b l i s h e d among those s u p p l i e r s , and the method t e s t e d f o r i t s r e l i a b i l i t y and usefulness, t h i s process can be organized as an on-going multi-agency o p e r a t i o n . Plans f o r a State Park System, f o r r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n areas, and f o r development of f a c i l i t i e s on f e d e r a l lands can then be form-u l a t e d and r e v i s e d on the b a s i s of demonstrable f i n d i n g s of need. Source: Review of the C a l i f o r n i a Oomprehenslve Statewide Outdoor Recreat i o n P l a n . A P P E N D I X C: THE AUTOMOBILE AND RECREATION ber of occasions of participations i n outdoor summer recreation in the case of driving for pleasure would be expected to increase from 872,000,000 i n i960 to 1,34.1,000,000 i n 1976 and to 2,215,000,000 by the year 2000. Throughout the foreseeable future, "d r iv ing for pleasure" w i l l be the dominant outdoor recreation activity. This is particularly true when coupled with participation in. picnicking, which is closely associated with driving for pleasure as a recreation activity. In 1963, the Bureau of the Census conducted a census of trans portation 7 undertaken by interviews i n selected areas of the Un i t ed States. I n 1963, the Amer ican publ ic completed 257,000,000 trips, 84 percent of which were made by automobiles. Tr ips to visit friends and relatives and for other pleasure purposes accounted for 61 per-cent of the trips and 70 percent of the traveling. Business travel constituted another 21 percent of the trips and 14 percent of the traveling, wi th the balance of 18 percent being travel for personal and family affairs such as going to out-of-town schools, obtaining medical care, etc. Analyses of vacation travel (excluding short weekend trips) indicate that 4.3 percent of a l l Amer ican families go on one or more vacation trips each year and that 80 percent of these trips are undertaken in the family car. Vaca t ion trips averaging 600 miles round trip account for five percent of a l l automobile travel. Pleasure drives averaging 30 miles round trip account for another 1 f> percent. 7. U.S. Department of Commerce.. Bureau of the.Census, 1963 Census of Transportation "National Travel," U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D . C , November 1964, p . 1. S o u r c e : E l d r i g e L o v e l a c e , " T h e A u t o m o b i l e a n d R e c r e a t i o n T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 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