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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Integration of community development with community and regional planning Bofah, Robert Kwaku Buor 1963

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IN'TEGftATICN OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT WITH COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING by  ROBERT KWAKU BUOR BOFAH B.A., The University o f London, 1961  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the •%-^required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1963  In presenting the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  this thesis in partial  fulfilment  of  a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and mission for extensive p u r p o s e s may  be  c a t i o n of w i t h o u t my  L i b r a r y s h a l l , make i t f r e e l y  study.  I f u r t h e r agree that  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  g r a n t e d by  his representatives.  the  the Head o f my  t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain written  Department of  copying, or  s h a l l not  permission.  Community &  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada.  Regional  Columbia,.  scholarly  Department or  I t i s understood that  Planning.  per-  be  by publi-  allowed  ABSTRACT  Developing  countries  omic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  are  experiencing  a t some p e r i o d s  tory.  In  the  rural  formation  has  taken the  during  the  course  areas of d e v e l o p i n g form of  government m o b i l i z e s rural  communities  through i t s f i n a n c i a l Up  t o date,  the  'community  initiative  t o improve  and  their  over t h i r t y  countries As  conditions,  administrative  and,  main t y p e s : The  The  extent  development of r u r a l  lem  which t h i s  ministered, opment.  the  t h e y can  development.'  and  energy of  living  which  espec-  conditions,  to  suit  the  adaptive,  of d i f f e r e n t  diversity  organizations,  their  factors,  and  project  contribute  An  comcul-  their  economic the  particular  pro-  needs  of  three  types.  contributing  a r e a s c o n s t i t u t e s the  programmes a r e  of  classified into  paper seeks to examine.  that, provided  trans-  a method by  t o w h i c h the programmes a r e  the  is  the  programmes c a n be  integrative,  this  have f u l l - f l e d g e d  a m u l t i p l i c i t y of o t h e r  grammes have b e e n t a i l o r e d each country.  his-  and  a result  t u r a l p r a c t i c e s of these c o u n t r i e s , and  ex-  technical assistance.  m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t programmes.  political  of t h e i r  countries  Community d e v e l o p m e n t i s a p r o c e s s  ially  econ-  w h i c h many c o u n t r i e s have a l r e a d y  perienced  the  s o c i a l and  central  to  prob-  a s s u m p t i o n made  w e l l designed  substantially  and  to r u r a l  addevel-  iii Four Important  a r e a s ' - o f - a c t i v i t y o f community  develop-  ment programmes;*namely, a g r i c u l t u r e , l a n d r e f o r m , and  small-scale  ties,  i n d u s t r i e s , and  s u c h as r o a d s ,  clamation,  schools,  have c r i t i c a l l y  g r o u n d o f community and In examining ered the  on  f o l l o w i n g reasons: the  health  l a c k of  ineffective  'planning Since tribution  regional  grammes. be  to r u r a l play  Ghana as and  ministrative  the  re-  back-  been  discov-  the whole u n s a t i s f a c t o r y because (a) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and  other  not  of  difficulties  of a c t i v i t i e s  voluntary  the programmes a r e  integrated with  community  land  crea-  b e t w e e n com-  government  community d e v e l o p m e n t t e c h n i q u e s ,  agencies; such  c o n t r i b u t i o n of  as,  labour.  making s a t i s f a c t o r y con-  development i t i s suggested a dominant r o l e i n the  In essence,  Using  and  facili-  planning.  co-ordination  f r o m below'  ernment s h o u l d  centres,  been examined a g a i n s t  m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s and (b)  or p h y s i c a l  t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s , i t has  t h a t they are  t e d by  capital  cottage  that' the  planning  gov-  of  pro-  community d e v e l o p m e n t t e c h n i q u e s  community  and  a test-case,  regional planning difficulties  are  regional planning  should  techniques.  i t i s also considered c a n be  that  u s e f u l , provided  removed by  establishing  c e n t r a l a g e n c y f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t u n d e r the  adone  highest  administrator. In  conclusion,  i t i s determined  that  community  ment, t h r o u g h i t s m u l t i - p u r p o s e programmes, a t t e m p t s solve  socio-economic problems  of r u r a l  developto  communities, but i t s  iv techniques are i n e f f e c t i v e to solve these problems.  Hence  community development techniques must be integrated with the more effective techniques of community and regional planning .  \  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In w r i t i n g t h i s paper, I am h i g h l y g r a t e f u l t o Dr. K.J. C r o s s , Department o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C., who spent many hours  s u p e r v i s i n g my work.  to Mrs. R.E. MacDougall,  I am a l s o i n d e b t e d  who p a t i e n t l y typed the d r a f t copy  of the paper without any charge.  My thanks a l s o go t o Dr.  C..S. Belshaw, Department o f Anthropology,  U.B.C., who p l a c e d  at my d i s p o s a l h i s own work i n the f i e l d o f community development, as w e l l as a number o f U n i t e d Nations documents. L a s t l y , the United Nations O r g a n i z a t i o n deserves a word o f thanks f o r sponsoring my two-year s t u d i e s a t the University of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. LIST OP CHARTS  Page v i i viii  INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter I.  5  THE CONCEPT OP COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT R e l a t i o n s h i p between Community Development and Community and R e g i o n a l Planning  II.  COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN SELECTED. COUNTRIES .....  19  I n t e g r a t i v e Types o f Programme Adaptive Types o f Programme P r o j e c t Types o f Programme Summary III.  THE CONTRIBUTION OP COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES TO RURAL DEVELOPMENT...  ?5  Agriculture l a n d Reform Cottage and S m a l l - s c a l e I n d u s t r i e s C a p i t a l Formation Socio-cultural Contribution E v a l u a t i o n o f the C o n t r i b u t i o n s Summary IV.  ADMINISTRATION OP COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES..................................  105  Planning of Programmes Problems o f C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f Government Activities I n t e g r a t i o n I s the Answer Summary V.  A NEW APPROACH TO THE ADMINISTRATION OP COM* MUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN GHANA R e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l  119  vi Welfare and Community Development and Other M i n i s t r i e s Recommendations f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Changes i n Ghana's Community Development Programme Summary VI.  COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING CAN CONTRIBUTE TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Summary o f Previous Chapters The People Should Not Continue t o P l a y a Dominant Role i n D e s i g n i n g Programmes Community and R e g i o n a l Planning Can C o n t r i b u t e  viii  L I S T OP CHARTS  Chart  Page  1.  M i n i s t r y o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t and Coo p e r a t i o n , Government o f I n d i a D e p a r t ment o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t  2.  Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programme: Organization  State .  3.  O r g a n i z a t i o n of the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l Welf a r e and Community"Development, G o v e r n ment o f Ghana •  I4..  Present Organization of the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of Mexico  5>.  Present Administrative C i v i l Service  6.  Proposed A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C i v i l Service  Indian  S e t - u p o f t h e Ghana S e t - u p o f t h e Ghana  1  INTRODUCTION  Many n a t i o n s e c o n o m i c and course  throughout the world  social  transformation  of t h e i r h i s t o r y .  Great  have  experienced  a t some p e r i o d s  in  B r i t a i n experienced  such a  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n due  to the  I n d u s t r i a l Revolution which  ed  of the  eighteenth  towards the  end  many s o c i a l  reform Acts  second h a l f  of the n i n e t e e n t h  experienced  such a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  socio-economic  not  to the  ted States and  It  similar  be  1868.  i s now  the  the  two  the  t u r n of developing  economic  In  the also  preceding 1861,  Great.  If  The  Uni-  transformation. country, the  destiny.  1812  about  Japan a l s o  exper-  Tokugawa e r a w h i c h  countries  (see Appen-  L a t i n America to experience  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , has and  decades  foundation  a g r e a t e r momentum.  e a c h newly independent  social  century.  t r a c e d as f a r b a c k as  and  through  Russia* s remarkable  Wars o r t o P e t e r t h e  socio-economic  and  start-  western Europe  o f A m e r i c a had i t s i n d u s t r i a l  about  of c o l o n i a l own  Napoleonic  I) i n A s i a , A f r i c a ,  time,  century,  such a transformation during  started  dix  may  l a t e r i t gathered  ienced  i n the n i n e t e e n t h  development d u r i n g  t h e F i r s t W o r l d War  century,  the  a  Once i n i t s l i f e f r e e d from the  opportunity  bonds  t o shape i t s  2 The p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have r e a l i z e d t h a t the t o t a l economic, s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l development of t h e i r c o u n t r i e s must be i n a comprehensive manner.  and  carried  out  I n other words, both the urban  and the r u r a l areas must be developed achieve n a t i o n a l development g o a l s .  simultaneously  to  I n d u s t r i e s which are  b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n the urban c e n t r e s i n these c o u n t r i e s must depend to a great extent on the r u r a l areas f o r raw m a t e r i a l s and u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r .  Hence, i t i s mandatory t h a t  the r u r a l people be helped to improve t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , and  standard of l i v i n g  so that they can partake  skills,  i n the s o c i o -  economic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The  l e a d e r s have a l s o r e a l i z e d t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e forms  the base of t h e i r economy and t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e must be due  given  a t t e n t i o n t o p r o v i d e the necessary raw m a t e r i a l s f o r i n -  d u s t r i e s and to improve export  trade.  Furthermore, a t t h i s stage of development of these count r i e s , there i s heavy demand on l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l and labour resources. new  skilled  Most of these r e s o u r c e s are consumed by  i n d u s t r i e s , multi-purpose  r i v e r p r o j e c t s , harbour  facili-  t i e s , road and r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n , communications, and housi n g i n the urban c e n t r e s .  Consequently,  the r u r a l areas  do  not r e c e i v e p r o p o r t i o n a l share of these r e s o u r c e s f o r d e v e l opment. Hence, the importance of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the economy of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s r e l a t i v e to the r o l e which the  rural  3 people  are expected  t o p l a y In the economic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ,  combined w i t h the s c a r c i t y  of f i n a n c i a l and s k i l l e d  labour  r e s o u r c e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g the r u r a l areas, have compelled the l e a d e r s t o r e s o r t t o 'community development' programmes. The concept  o f community development i s d i s c u s s e d f u l l y  In Chapter  I, but simply s t a t e d , i t i s a process and method by which r u r a l communities seek t o improve t h e i r through  self-help  standards o f l i v i n g  p r o j e c t s , w i t h the f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l  a i d o f the government. The main purpose of t h i s  study i s t o v a l i d a t e the hypo-  t h e s i s t h a t community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g can make a contribution  t o community development programmes. I t i s the con-  t e n t i o n t h a t community development techniques o f a c h i e v i n g satisfactory  r u r a l development are not e f f i c i e n t and should  t h e r e f o r e be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g techniques.  I t i s f u r t h e r contended t h a t the methods or s y s -  tems o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g community development programmes are ineffective. In order t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g techniques  can be a p p l i e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  to community development programmes, the major c o n t r i b u t i o n s which these programmes have made t o r u r a l development are e v a l u a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s and techniques of community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . An attempt i s a l s o made t o show t h a t f o r community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t o make i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the community development programmes  and f o r the improvement of the programmes peruse i t Is expedient to re-organize the methods of administering these programmes.  CHAPTER I  THE  The word, ganized  into  'community'  a unit  some u n i f y i n g place  CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY  means "a body  of individuals or-  or manifesting usually with  trait;...the  people l i v i n g  o r r e g i o n and u s u a l l y  To t h i s word  DEVELOPMENT  has been  linked  appended  awareness  i n a particular  b y some common  t h e word  interest."  'development' which  means " g r a d u a l advance o r g r o w t h t h r o u g h p r o g r e s s i v e Thus, the term means  'community  to include  seen t h a t  because there  social,  community  changes.' economic  own e c o n o m i c  development  a r e many examples  o f p e o p l e banded  so o n , w i t h o u t  growth o r ad-  i s n o t a new phenomenon, of c i v i l i z a t i o n  activities  F o r example,  own w e l l s ,  for their i n Ghana,  schools,  vil-  foot-paths  any o u t s i d e h e l p o r a d v i c e , and t h e y were  t h e r e f o r e p e r f o r m i n g a c t s o f community However, t h e t e r m usage  i s ex-  by some common i n t e r e s t , i t  i n the h i s t o r y  and s o c i a l p r o g r e s s . their  I f the process  and p o l i t i c a l  together to i n i t i a t e  lages used t o construct and  sense,  'the p r o c e s s o f g r a d u a l g r o w t h o r advance o f a g r o u p o f  vance o f a g r o u p o f p e o p l e l i n k e d is  changes."  development', i n i t s l i t e r a l  people through progressive panded  1  'community  development.  d e v e l o p m e n t ' h a s come  into  s i n c e W o r l d War I I t o mean s o m e t h i n g more t h a n what h a s  been r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e .  Various d e f i n i t i o n s  of the concept of  6 community d e v e l o p m e n t process  o f change.  i n v o l v e s an o u t s i d e i n t e r v e n t i o n  Such p h r a s e s  as 'a minimum  'primarily  concerned  getherness  and i t s c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f - h e l p ' ,  a vision  enlightenment , 1  w i t h s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e community's t o -  o f a b e t t e r way o f l i f e ' ,  initiative  i n the  and 'the s t i m u l a t i o n o f t h e  o f t h e community', were u s e d  development l i t e r a t u r e  'designed t o b r i n g  i n the e a r l y  t o d e s c r i b e the concept  community  o f community  development. One o f t h e b e s t known d e f i n i t i o n s  o f community  ment was g i v e n a t t h e 19^8 Cambridge C o n f e r e n c e  develop-  which  stated:  I t i s a movement d e s i g n e d t o promote b e t t e r l i v i n g f o r the w h o l e community w i t h t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d , i f p o s s i b l e , on t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e community, b u t i f t h i s i n i t i a t i v e i s n o t f o r t h c o m i n g s p o n t a n e o u s l y , t h e n by t h e use o f t e c h n i q u e s f o r a r o u s i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g i t i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e t h e a c t i v e and e n t h u s i a s t i c r e s p o n s e t o t h e movement.3 The  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Cooperative A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the United  S t a t e s Government gave t h e f o l l o w i n g  definition  about  eight  years ago: Community D e v e l o p m e n t i s a p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l a c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e p e o p l e o f a community o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s f o r p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n , d e f i n e t h e i r common and i n d i v i d u a l needs and p r o b l e m s , make g r o u p and i n d i v i d u a l p l a n s t o meet t h e i r needs and s o l v e t h e i r p r o b l e m s , e x e c u t e t h e s e p l a n s w i t h a maximum r e l i a n c e upon community r e s o u r c e s ; and supplement t h e s e r e s o u r c e s when n e c e s s a r y w i t h s e r v i c e s and m a t e r i a l f r o m government and n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s o u t s i d e t h e community.kIn  1956,  the United Nations  i n i t i o n , which i s widely  O r g a n i z a t i o n i s s u e d a working  a c c e p t e d b y many n a t i o n s .  This  def-  7 -definition explains: 1.  2.  The term community development' has come i n t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l usage t o connote the processes by which the e f f o r t s of the people themselves are u n i t e d w i t h those of government a u t h o r i t i e s t o improve the economic, s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l conditons of communit i e s , t o u n i t e these communities Into the l i f e of the n a t i o n , and to enable them to contribute f u l l y to national progress, T h i s complex of processes i s then made up of two e s s e n t i a l elements: the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the people themselves i n e f f o r t s to improve t h e i r l e v e l of l i v i n g w i t h as much r e l i a n c e as p o s s i b l e on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e , and the p r o v i s i o n of t e c h n i c a l and other s e r v i c e s i n ways which encourage i n i t i a t i v e , s e l f - h e l p and mutual help and make these more e f f e c t i v e . 5 1  The above d e f i n i t i o n s do not r e v e a l the complex nature of  community development, n e i t h e r are i t s o b j e c t i v e s  stated.  clearly  Admittedly, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o impose upon community  development a d e f i n i t i o n which embraces b o t h o b j e c t i v e s and methodology, simply because i t operates under v a r y i n g p o l i t i cal,  economic, c u l t u r a l , and environmental c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s not y e t c e r t a i n what should be the r e a l o b j e c t -  i v e s and method of approach of community development, because there i s a c o n s t a n t s e a r c h f o r a 'modus o p e r a n d i ' .  Conse-  q u e n t l y , d i f f e r e n t views have been expressed by some s o c i a l  6 scientists  on i t s n a t u r e .  The s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s can be  grouped i n t o f o u r main schools of thought. The f i r s t  s c h o o l of s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s p o s t u l a t e s  that  community development can be regarded as a 'process' through which communities p r o g r e s s as they move from p r e - i n d u s t r i a l to i n d u s t r i a l economy and environment. The c r i t e r i o n as a  8 process  i s measured i n terms o f human r e l a t i o n s .  They c i t e ,  as an example, a change from a s i t u a t i o n where a s m a l l group of people w i t h i n o r o u t s i d e a l o c a l community can make a dec i s i o n f o r the r e s t of the people,  t o another s i t u a t i o n where  the people themselves make the d e c i s i o n The  e  second s c h o o l t h i n k s of community development as a  'method' or a way of working so t h a t some g o a l i s a t t a i n e d ; it  i s a method of m o b i l i z i n g the people's own i n i t i a t i v e and  labour f o r t h e i r own good.  T h i s s c h o o l , however, does n o t  l o s e s i g h t of the f a c t t h a t the method i n v o l v e s some  processes  of change, b u t i t p l a c e s emphasis on the achievement or the r e s u l t of the p r o c e s s e s . The  t h i r d s c h o o l of s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s regards  community  development as a 'movement' o r a crusade t o which people are committed.  There i s a c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the movement has emo1  t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , so t h a t e i t h e r one i s f o r i t or a g a i n s t it.  I t has as i t s u l t i m a t e aim progress  human v a l u e s and g o a l s .  with reference t o  I t tends then t o become I n s t i t u t i o n -  a l i z e d , w i t h i t s own o r g a n i z a t i o n , procedures and p r o f e s s i o n alism. The  f o u r t h s c h o o l conceives  of community development as  a 'programme' which i n v o l v e s a s e t of procedures and a l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s .  T h i s accounts f o r the reason why i n some  c o u n t r i e s N a t i o n a l Development Plans i n c o r p o r a t e community development a c t i v i t i e s , and these a r e e v a l u a t e d time whether they conform w i t h the P l a n s .  from time t o  9 Some economists a l s o have proposed t h a t community velopment should be regarded  de-  as a ' p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r economic  t a k e - o f f , because through i t r u r a l people are e n l i g h t e n e d i n r e g a r d t o good h e a l t h , good n u t r i t i o n , bet.ter environment-, r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , and mental e d u c a t i o n a developing  so on.  i s necessary  country's  They argue t h a t such a funda-  f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r of  economy to be  on a f i r m e r b a s i s ,  f o r the i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r to r e l y on u n s k i l l e d but man-power from the r u r a l a r e a s . that any  In view of t h i s ,  community development programme which  on a g r i c u l t u r e alone be designed  i s anti-developmental,  and  and  enlightened they warn  concentrates t h a t i t should  to take people from the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r to the  i n d u s t r i a l sector.  They e x p l a i n that community development  can b r i n g about b e t t e r h e a l t h , b e t t e r environment, good n u t r i t i o n , improved a g r i c u l t u r e , and i n r e d u c i n g death-rates  and  so on.  This i n turn r e s u l t s  increasing population.  If this  s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n were r e t a i n e d i n the r u r a l areas,  the  p l u s food a c c r u i n g from improved a g r i c u l t u r e would be i n f e e d i n g the s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n , without ard of l i v i n g of the people i n any way. i f p r o j e c t s were designed  r a i s i n g the  sur-  used stand-  On the other hand,  to remove the s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n to  the i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r of the economy, t h a t i s , l o c a l urban c e n t r e s , there would then be  surplus a g r i c u l t u r a l  f o r e i t h e r the l o c a l urban centre or export, case,  there would be  of economic growth.  products  and In e i t h e r  c a p i t a l f o r m a t i o n , which i s an Index  10 Gommunity development i s both e d u c a t i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l processes which r e s u l t i n s o c i a l and economic benefit.  As an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , i t i s capable of changing  people's a t t i t u d e and p r a c t i c e s which h i n d e r s o c i a l and economic p r o g r e s s .  Governmental and non-governmental agencies  c o n s t i t u t e the o u t s i d e f o r c e , d i r e c t i n g the process of change.  I n t h i s p r o c e s s , people are a s s i s t e d t o be r e c e p t i v e  to change, due to modern s c i e n c e and technology.;  v  I n many  p a r t s of I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , and Saudi A r a b i a , f o r example, farmers are now w i l l i n g to p l a n t new crops, and use f e r t i l i z e r s . Thus, some s p e c i a l i s t s i n community judge the success of community  development  development programmes by which  the p a t t e r n s of behaviour are changed by community programmes.  programming  Hence, the u l t i m a t e measure  development  of success i s n o t the  s t a t i s t i c s of m i l e s of road c o n s t r u c t e d , i r r i g a t i o n canals dug, o r acres of l a n d r e - c l a i m e d , but i t i s whether the people have gained g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e , whether they can s o l v e t h e i r own problems w i t h l i t t l e  o r no o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e , whether  they are prepared t o abandon c e r t a i n customs which r e t a r d economic development, and so on. Gommunity development i s a l s o an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , which i n v o l v e s how people are brought t o g e t h e r , how they are d e m o c r a t i c a l l y organized, how they a r r i v e at d e c i s i o n s and p r i o r i t i e s , how committees operate, and how they proceed t o get the h e l p they want from a h i g h e r l e v e l of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . C.C. T a y l o r has o u t l i n e d f o u r important steps I n t h i s  10 Community development i s b o t h an e d u c a t i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l process which r e s u l t s i n s o c i a l and economic b e n e f i t . As an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , i t i s capable o f changing  people's  a t t i t u d e and p r a c t i c e s which h i n d e r s o c i a l and economic p r o g r ess.  Governmental and non-governmental agencies  constitute  the o u t s i d e f o r c e d i r e c t i n g the process o f change. In t h i s process o f change, people are a s s i s t e d t o be r e c e p t i v e t o change, due t o modern s c i e n c e and technology. In many p a r t s of  I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , Ceylon, and Saudi A r a b i a , f o r example,  farmers are now w i l l i n g t o p l a n t new c r o p s , and use f e r t i l i z e r s . Thus, some s p e c i a l i s t s i n community development p r o g r a mming judge the success o f community.' 'development programmes by which the p a t t e r n s o f behaviour are changed by community development programmes. Hence, the u l t i m a t e measure o f success i s not the s t a t i s t i c s of m i l e s o f road c o n s t r u c t e d , the i r r i g a t i o n c a n a l s dug, o r acres o f l a n d r e c l a i m e d , but i t . i s whether the people have gained g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e , whether they can solve t h e i r own problems w i t h l i t t l e  or no o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e , whe-  t h e r they are prepared t o abandon c e r t a i n customs which r e t a r d economic development, and so on. Community development i s a l s o an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , which i n v o l v e s how people are brought t o g e t h e r , how they are d e m o c r a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d , how they a r r i v e at the d e c i s i o n s and p r i o r i t i e s , how committees operate, and how they proceed t o get  the h e l p they want from a h i g h e r l e v e l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  C.C, T a y l o r has o u t l i n e d f o u r important  steps i n t h i s  11 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l process of democratic 1  S y s t e m a t i c d i s c u s s i o n o f common f e l t n e e d s o f members o f t h e community. Systematic p l a n n i n g t o c a r r y out the f e l t n e e d s o f members o f t h e community, . . . . A l m o s t c o m p l e t e m o b i l i z a t i o n and h a r n e s s i n g o f t h e p h y s i c a l , e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f l o c a l community g r o u p s . . . . . C r e a t i o n o f a s p i r a t i o n and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o u n d e r t a k e a d d i t i o n a l community d e v e l o p m e n t projects.7  2 3.  The political The  action:  g o a l s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t may be summed up as m a t u r i t y , e c o n o m i c a d v a n c e , and s o c i a l  construction.  e d u c a t i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s c a n c r e a t e  self-  8 reliant  communities  g r a n t i n g the people el,  w i t h a sense  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  a measure o f autonomy a t t h e v i l l a g e  a chance i s o f f e r e d  learn i t s difficulties.  them t o p r a c t i c e  self-government  . When t h e p e o p l e  organize  i n t o development committees,  choose  their  t h e i r programmes a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r f e l t matically practising programme r e a c h e s of  running t h e i r  nical  By  self-government.  leaders,  a s s i s t a n c e from  and t o  themselves and p l a n  needs, they a r e auto-  A community development  i t s m a t u r i t y , when t h e p e o p l e become own a f f a i r s w i t h o u t  lev-  capable  any f i n a n c i a l a n d t e c h -  the g o v e r n m e n t .  Most community d e v e l o p m e n t programmes a r e g e a r e d t o raising  the standard of l i v i n g  the f u l f i l m e n t and  assisted  agriculture facilities  of the people  o f some e c o n o m i c g o a l s .  t o have d i r e c t  s o u r c e s o f income f r o m  and economic i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s and i r r i g a t i o n  implies  They a r e encouraged  and s m a l l - s c a l e i n d u s t r i e s .  h e a l t h centres, roads,  and t h i s  especially  Furthermore,  social  s u c h a s s c h o o l s , wells,  canals, constructed  12 t h r o u g h communal l a b o u r , a r e e s s e n t i a l The  indigenous s o c i a l  structure  ities  i n most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s has  their  contact with western  c a s h economy v i s - a - v i s and  and  tribal,  to bring  and  individualism.  t o g e t h e r communities  linguistic  and  racial  opment, l o o k e d a t i n t h i s way, The  concept  assumptions.  traditional  lar  reference to v i l l a g e  who  belong  i s assumed  that  communities,  and  u n d e r e m p l o y m e n t and growing are  areas  cocoa  season  that  people  systems.  their  and  farms  Thus,  'felt-  technical aid, needs. of  F o r example, i n t h e the whole y e a r ,  f o r only f i v e  cocoa-  farmers  o r s i x months o f  i s , f r o m S e p t e m b e r t o F e b r u a r y , when t h e  i s on.  occasional v i s i t s fore  unemployment.  i n Ghana, t h r o u g h o u t  that  mainly  caste or k i n s h i p  identify  main  particu-  c o m m u n i t i e s have a h i g h volume  k e p t b u s y on t h e i r  the y e a r ,  on two  have many t h i n g s i n common.  they can e a s i l y  rural  kinship,  with  comprise  c o n c e r t e d a c t i o n t o meet t h e s e  Secondly,  solidar-  1  T h u s , community d e v e l -  n e e d s ' and w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y f i n a n c i a l they can take  this  ' n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g process.'  communities,  same t r i b e s  T h e y know e a c h o t h e r and it  Thus, i t i s  o f community d e v e l o p m e n t r e s t s  First,  to the  is a  kinship  of d i f f e r e n t  origin.  of  urbanization,  t h e t a s k o f community d e v e l o p m e n t t o r e - c e m e n t ity  by  the i n t r o d u c t i o n  the o l d t r i b a l  i s b e i n g r e p l a c e d by  commun-  been undermined  civilization,  that  growth.  of t r a d i t i o n a l  s u b s i s t e n c e economy,  so'oon, w i t h t h e r e s u l t  solidarity  t o economic  F o r t h e r e m a i n i n g months, t h e y p a y  to their  food farms.  the p e o p l e w o u l d be  inclined  only  I t i s assumed t h e r e to undertake  self-help  13 prefects were  in their  spare  time,  provided. On  these  two  assumptions,  grammes have n o t b e e n l a u n c h e d urban centres of developing will and  i f the necessary i n c e n t i v e s  be  t o any  great extent  countries.  Hence, no  The  pro-  In  the  reference  made t o community d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s i n  towns i n t h i s  ciples  community d e v e l o p m e n t  cities  paper.  United Nations  O r g a n i z a t i o n has  outlined  the  prin-  o f community d e v e l o p m e n t as f o l l o w s : P r i n c i p l e 1: A c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t a k e n must c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e b a s i c n e e d s o f t h e community; t h e f i r s t p r o j e c t s s h o u l d be i n i t i a t e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e e x p r e s s e d needs of p e o p l e . P r i n c i p l e 2: L o c a l i m p r o v e m e n t s may be a c h i e v e d through u n r e l a t e d e f f o r t s i n each substantive f i e l d ; however, f u l l and b a l a n c e d community d e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e s c o n c e r t e d a c t i o n and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f m u l t i - p u r p o s e programmes. P r i n c i p l e 3: Changed a t t i t u d e s I n p e o p l e a r e as p o r t a n t as t h e m a t e r i a l a c h i e v e m e n t o f community j e c t s d u r i n g the i n i t i a l s t a g e s of development.  impro-  P r i n c i p l e i i : Community d e v e l o p m e n t a i m s a t i n c r e a s e d and b e t t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e i n community a f f a i r s , r e v i t a l i z a t i o n ' of e x i s t i n g forms of l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t , and t r a n s i t i o n t o w a r d s e f f e c t i v e l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n where i t i s n o t y e t f u n c t i o n i n g . P r i n c i p l e $: The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , e n c o u r a g e m e n t , and t r a i n i n g o f l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p s h o u l d be a b a s i c obj e c t i v e i n any programme. P r i n c i p l e 6: G r e a t e r r e l i a n c e on t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women and y o u t h i n community d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s I n v i g o r a t e s d e v e l o p m e n t programmes, e s t a b l i s h e s them on a w i d e b a s i s and s e c u r e s l o n g - r a n g e expansion. P r i n c i p l e 7: To be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s ' s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s r e q u i r e b o t h i n t e n s i v e and e x t e n s i v e a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e Government.  Ik P r i n c i p l e 8: I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a community d e v e l o p ment programme on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e r e q u i r e s : a d o p t i o n of c o n s i s t e n t p o l i c i e s , s p e c i f i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arr a n g e m e n t s , r e c r u i t m e n t and t r a i n i n g o f p e r s o n n e l , m o b i l i z a t i o n o f l o c a l and n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h , e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , and e v a l u a tion. P r i n c i p l e 9: The r e s o u r c e s o f v o l u n t a r y n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d be f u l l y u t i l i z e d i n comm u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t programmes a t t h e l o c a l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s . P r i n c i p l e 10: E c o n o m i c and s o c i a l p r o g r e s s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l n e c e s s i t a t e s p a r a l l e l d e v e l o p m e n t on a wider n a t i o n a l s c a l e . 9 R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n Gommunity D e v e l o p m e n t and Regional Planning. Community and vice  of  solving social,  munities United  regional planning  with  Nations  e c o n o m i c , and  r e s p e c t t o the use S e m i n a r on  ning, ' h e l d i n Puerto  Rico  and  i s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  de-  p h y s i c a l p r o b l e m s o f comdevelopment  ' T r a i n i n g f o r Town and i n M a r c h 195&,  o b s e r v a t i o n a b o u t p h y s i c a l and community  and  Community  of l a n d . Country  The Plan-  made t h e f o l l o w i n g  environmental  planning,  that i s ,  planning: I t i s t h e t a s k o f p h y s i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l planning t o d e f i n e t h e d i f f e r e n t components o f a s p e c i f i c dev e l o p m e n t programme b y a s s e s s i n g , w i t h i n a g i v e n r e g i o n , the l a n d a r e a s f o r d i f f e r e n t u s e s . I n so d o i n g , e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e c o n c i l e the d i v e r g e n t I n t e r e s t of m a t e r i a l r e s o u r ces i n i t s narrow sense w i t h the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f human welfare. The p u r p o s e o f s u c h p l a n n i n g i s t o e s t a b l i s h a w o r k a b l e b a l a n c e i n p h y s i c a l terms o f t h e u r b a n r u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of a d e v e l o p i n g a r e a or c o u n t r y .  About r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ,  this  i s what t h e  S e m i n a r had  to  say:  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g can p r o v i d e a s u i t a b l e framework w i t h i n w h i c h d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s o f n a t i o n a l as w e l l as l o c a l i m p o r t a n c e c a n f i n d t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e . E a c h community i s r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s as r e g a r d s e c o n omic, p h y s i c a l and s o . c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , and d e v e l o p ments i n one l o c a l i t y c a l l s f o r a c o o r d i n a t i o n o f  l o c a l p r o j e c t s w i t h r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l programmes. The d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a o r r e g i o n , , t h e r e f o r e , represe n t s a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e community and n a t i o n a l g o a l s with l o c a l action. Thus t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f human and p o p u l a r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e _ c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d . Thus, p l a n n i n g , attempts t o s a t i s f y use  at both regional  the b a s i c  n e e d s o f man w i t h r e s p e c t  and d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n d .  food and  and community l e v e l s ,  T h e s e n e e d s may be l i s t e d a s  ( a g r i c u l t u r e ) , s h e l t e r , work, r e c r e a t i o n , security.  Planning  therefore  v i r o n m e n t f o r man t o l i v e ,  transportation,  attempts t o create  ity  environment f o r people  to live,  d e v e l o p m e n t programmes i n c l u d e  projects  playing roads,  grounds, drainage and h o u s i n g .  decisions' of  such as s c h o o l s ,  sites  centres  of  irrigation  and s m a l l  to b u i l d a school  feeder  'planning  the s e l e c t i o n  and t h e l o c a t i o n o f p r o j e c t s industrial  estates,  a r e n o t made b y p l a n n e r s ,  designed  As a n i l l u s t r a t i o n ,  evidence  a v i l l a g e may  through s e l f - h e l p labour,  that  the people  Whether the s c h o o l  are doing  i s properly  but by the  about t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s  community d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r i s i n t e r e s t e d  selves.  centres,  canals,  t h e s e programmes,  t h e m s e l v e s , who know v e r y l i t t l e  their decision.  crete  health  a number o f v i l l a g e s .  Such d e c i s i o n s people  channels,  f o rself-help projects,  Commun-  i n d u s t r i e s , and s e l f -  have t o be made, f o r example, a b o u t  such as h e a l t h to serve  work, a n d p l a y .  markets, w e l l s ,  In designing  a better  a g r i c u l t u r a l improvement,  d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o t t a g e and s m a l l - s c a l e help  a good e n -  work, a n d p l a y .  Community d e v e l o p m e n t a l s o a t t e m p t s t o c r e a t e rural  t o the  decide  but a l l that the i n i s having  con-  s o m e t h i n g f o r themlocated  or noti s  16 another matter a l t o g e t h e r .  I f the advice of a p l a n n e r I s  sought, he may c o n s i d e r many s u i t a b l e s i t e s and choose the b e s t f o r them, or he may advise that the v i l l a g e might p r o f i t b e t t e r by b u i l d i n g a p u b l i c market i n s t e a d of a s c h o o l . As f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n , the people may decide to b u i l d a two-mile f e e d e r road t o j o i n a nearby highway, b u t they do not decide on how t o c o n t r o l r i b b o n development which i s l i k e l y to occur along the r o a d . Community development, and community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g have i d e n t i c a l g o a l s , s i n c e b o t h attempt t o c r e a t e a bett e r r u r a l environment f o r people t o l i v e , work, and p l a y , but each uses d i f f e r e n t techniques i n a c h i e v i n g these g o a l s .  Plan-  ning takes a comprehensive, c o - o r d i n a t i v e , and long-range app r o a c h to the s o l u t i o n of socio-economic problems of communities.  T h e i approach i s comprehensive because each community  i s r e l a t e d t o others as regards t h e i r economic, p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l requirements.  T h i s approach c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h  community development programmes designed f o r i n d i v i d u a l lages.  No attempt i s made to. r e l a t e the s e l f - h e l p  of one v i l l a g e t o another.  vil-  activities  I t i s t o be wondered whether any  study has been made on the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t o f the promotion of s e l f - h e l p a c t i v i t i e s i n one s e l e c t e d v i l l a g e on the growth and development of neighbouring v i l l a g e s . However, community development has the great advantage of i d e n t i f y i n g development programmes w i t h the people, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the f e l t - n e e d s of the people are d i r e c t l y satisfied.  On the other hand, p l a n n i n g has a b e t t e r approach  17 to r u r a l vey  and  development w i t h such t e c h n i q u e s the  analysis  t a t i o n o f any  as  the u s e  of survey m a t e r i a l s b e f o r e the  scheme.  s i m p l y b e c a u s e d e v e l o p m e n t programmes  e n t i r e l y by  t h e government a r e n o t  times  they tend  implemen-  However, i t o f t e n l a c k s t h e s u p p o r t  the p e o p l e ,  Furthermore,  sponsored  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the  t o work a t c r o s s - p u r p o s e s . be  carrying  out  soils  and  s t u d i e s i n an a r e a w h i c h a community d e v e l o p m e n t  has  a l r e a d y proposed up,  for a self-help  areas, but  over,  e a c h has  be  useful  to the  The  land  agency  community and  to the development  t h e y a p p e a r t o work a t c r o s s - p u r p o s e s .  i t s own  techniques  and  a  r e s e t t l e m e n t scheme. '  community d e v e l o p m e n t and  i o n a l p l a n n i n g are b o t h c o n t r i b u t i n g rural  people.  F o r example,  use  sum  of  a l t h o u g h t h e y have i d e n t i c a l g o a l s , some-  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c y may  To  of sur-  regof More-  advantages which could  other.  above d i s c u s s i o n . l e a d s t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s , w h i c h i s  investigated  i n this  study:  THAT GOMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES ATTEMPT TO BRING ABOUT RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND THAT RURAL DEVELOPMENT CAN THEREFORE BE IMPLEMENTED BETTER THROUGH THE INTEGRATION OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING TECHNIQUES. Footnotes: 1.  W e b s t e r ' s T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y , ( S p r i n & C. M e r r i a m Company, 1 9 6 1 ) , p.i^.61. 2. I b i d . . p.619. 3. Great B r i t a i n , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , S o c i a l Development i n the B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l T e r r i t o r i e s : R e p o r t o f t h e A s h r i d g e Conf e r e n c e on S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t . 3 r d t o 1 2 t h A u g u s t , 195V l G r e a t B r i t a i n , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Community D e v e l o p m e n t : a Handb o o k . (London: H.M.S.O., 1 9 5 8 ) , p72 field:  G.  n  18 i | . U.S., The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Co-operation A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , "The Community Development G u i d e l i n e s of the I.C.A.," Communi t y Development Review. No. 3 (December, 1 9 5 ° ) , p . 3 « 5. U n i t e d Nations, Dept. of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Community Development and R e l a t e d S e r v i c e s . ( O r i g i n a l l y as annex I I I of document E / 2 9 3 U (New York, I960), p . l . 6. I . T. Sanders, "Theories of Community Development," Community Development Review. No. 9 (June, 1 9 5 8 ) , p p . 3 0 - 3 3 . 7~T C.C. T a y l o r , "Community Development Programs and Methods," Community Development Review. No. 3 (December,1956), PP. 3 7 - 3 . 9 . 8. In t h i s paper the word 'community' denotes the i n h a b i t a n t s of a v i l l a g e . Elsewhere the e x p r e s s i o n 'the people' Is used i n s t e a d . 9. U n i t e d Nations, Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , Report on Concepts and P r i n c i p l e s of Community Development and Recommendations on F u r t h e r P r a c t i c a l Measures To Be Taken by I n t e r n a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n s . .(Document No. E/CN.5/328) (New York: 1 2 t h March, 1 9 5 7 ) , p.1310. U n i t e d Nations, Department of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Housing. B u i l d i n g , and P l a n n i n g B u l l e t i n No. 1 1 . " T r a i n i n g f o r Town and Country P l a n n i n g , " (Document No. ST/SER.C/11) (New York, 1 9 5 7 ) , p.Hj.. 11. Ibid, p.lhv  CHAPTER I I  COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN SELECTED COUNTRIES I t i a b e l i e v e d t h a t there are over t h i r t y c o u n t r i e s , p r e s e n t l y o p e r a t i n g , community development programmes. There are difference's i n approach and emphasis, because the programmes are t a i l o r e d t o s u i t not o n l y the c u l t u r a l practices  of the c o u n t r i e s concerned, but a l s o t h e i r po-  l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and experience.?, t h e i r economic c o n d i t i o n s , and a m u l t i p l i c i t y of other factors. As many c o u n t r i e s are engaged i n community  develop-  ment, the v a r i o u s programmes may be viewed o n l y through selection,  e i t h e r on a g e o g r a p h i c a l  b a s i s , that i s , se-  l e c t i n g a number of programmes from each c o n t i n e n t , or. on the b a s i s of types  of programmes.  The l a t t e r i s p r e -  f e r a b l e , because I t throws g r e a t e r l i g h t on the complex nature  of the programmes.  I f the former method i s  adopted, there i s the tendency t o d e s c r i b e i d e n t i c a l grammes i n one c o n t i n e n t . the present  F o r example, the former and  B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s In A f r i c a have almost i d e n t -  i c a l programmes; I t s u f f i c e s The  pro-  U n i t e d Nations  t o d e s c r i b e o n l y one of them.  Organization^ has d i v i d e d commu-  n i t y development programmes i n t o three main t y p e s *  20 • integrative,  adaptive,  and  graphical  coverage  ives,  organization to  the  o f the  p r o j e c t , based type  is  no  one  type  both i n content  and  o f programme t h e r e  gramme as  the  reviewed here,  most r e c e n t  described are  countries  constantly  by  no  1958  Some o f and  the  1959.  t h i s must be  cisms l e v e l l e d In t h i s are  described  • because on t h e and it  any  borne  in fact  chapter  types of  different  d a t e as that  pro-  f a r back  some o f  the  have b e e n r e v i s e d t o any  criti-  with  particular and  programmes  reference  committee  systems,  o f a programme i s d e p e n d e n t  framework w i t h i n w h i c h i t  f r o m a community and  can  pro-  reports.  community d e v e l o p m e n t  or f a i l u r e  i s only w i t h i n t h i s  been  s u c h programmes.  organizations  administrative  regional planning  a t t e m p t has  s y s t e m s , and  i n mind i n r e g a r d  evaluated  success  an or  committee  in this  chapter,  to administrative  are v a r i a t i o n s  experimenting with  reports  against  and  type  Thus, i t i s l i k e l y  programmes d e s c r i b e d and  process.  means u p - t o - d a t e , b e c a u s e many  methods o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , grammes.  there  another,  i n community d e v e l o p m e n t  These r e p o r t s are  that  organization.  In each country made t o p r e s e n t  geo-  i t s effects  t y p e and  community d e v e l o p m e n t i s a dynamic  Even w i t h i n  as  and  I t i s worth noting  c l e a r - c u t d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n one  because  the  o f programme, i t s o b j e c t -  c a r r y i t out,  on p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  on  regional planning  framework t h a t play  an  point  community  important  role.  operates, of and  view,  21 I n t e g r a t i v e T y p e s o f Programme Integrative are designed types.  about  e a r l y years  compared w i t h  of t h e i r  co-ordinate t h e i r  At  each  tier  agency i s e s t a b l i s h e d ment and cy t h a t  this  tends  i s suitable  and  i n the  d e v e l o p m e n t when g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s  munity development can  co-ordinate their  when t h e programme has  become an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f  government f u n c t i o n , g i v e s way  to the  Some o f t h e  and  has  "adaptive"  common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  tries  as  the  commun-  w i t h com-  activities.  of the  experiences  However,  national  integrative of such  Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Indonesia,  T h a i l a n d and M a l a y a a r e n o t e d (a)  that  type.  o f programme, drawn f r o m t h e  ippines,  agen-  gained popular acceptance, i t  types  India,  govern-  this  stages of  concerned  o f gov-  of  It i s believed  initial  bring  development  i t i s through  out.  de-  to  i n the f u n c t i o n i n g  t o c o - o r d i n a t e the a c t i v i t i e s  t h e programme i s c a r r i e d type  and  o f g o v e r n m e n t , a community  non-government a g e n c i e s ,  integrative  "project"  operation, technical  activities  changes i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  ernment.  ity  o f community d e v e l o p m e n t programme  t o be w i d e i n s c o p e ,  In the  partments  types  as  counPhil-  follows:  An a g e n c y a t t a c h e d t o a c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g o f f i c e or to the o f f i c e of the p r e s i d e n t o r t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r , w h i c h has O p e r a t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e programme; a n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l i n a f e d e r a l system, i s f o r a separate or n e u t r a l or n o n - t e c h n i c a l m i n i s t r y ^  22  (b)  (c)  (d)  (e)  (f)  t o have p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e programme. A c a b i n e t l e v e l committee, p r e s i d e d o v e r by t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r o r t h e p r e s i d e n t , and w i t h t h e head o f t h e community d e v e l o p m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n as s e c r e t a r y , w h i c h g i v e s p o l i c y g u i d ance, and l e a d e r s h i p t o t h e programme. An i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l committee a t t h e s t a t e o r p r o v i n c i a l government, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t , and l o c a l government l e v e l s , w i t h t h e c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e u n i t as c h a i r m a n and a community d e v e l o p m e n t o f f i c e r as s e c r e tary. Among t h e members o f t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t c o m m i t t e e s may f r e q u e n t l y be f o u n d n o t o n l y the s e n i o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the f u n c t i o n a l m i n i s t r i e s of the n a t i o n a l or ( i n a f e d e r a l system) s t a t e government, but a l s o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e s , and sometimes r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of p r i v a t e welfare bodies. Where a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s o r o t h e r a r rangements f o r f i e l d c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n a l m i n i s t r i e s do n o t e x i s t , c o v e r t o o l a r g e an a r e a , o r a r e deemed u n s u i t a b l e f o r o t h e r r e a s ons, t h e c r e a t i o n o f new t y p e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas f o r development purposes which are c a l l e d 'development b l o c k s ' i n I n d i a , ' d e v e l opment a r e a s ' i n P a k i s t a n , and ' a r e a s o f comb i n e d u n i t s ' i n the E g y p t i a n r e g i o n of the U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c . The employment o f v i l l a g e - l e v e l w o r k e r s by the community d e v e l o p m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n t o s e r v e n o t o n l y as c a t a l y s t o f s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t , b u t a l s o as a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e v i l l a g e r s and t h e government's t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s . The u s e o f g r a n t s - i n - a i d and o t h e r . i n d u c e m e n t s , not only to spur s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t s , but a l s o to channel such e f f o r t s towards c e n t r a l l y est a b l i s h e d development goals.3  Four countries,  India, Pakistan,  M a l a y a , have b e e n s e l e c t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e types of  the  Philippines  and  the " i n t e g r a t i v e "  programme.  India:India probably icated  form of  has  t h e most d e v e l o p e d  and  sophist-  community d e v e l o p m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  and  23 i't i s a c l a s s i c a l programme.  example  of the i n t e g r a t i v e  I t i s concerned  of  m a i n l y w i t h the r u r a l  sector  i n India's Pive-Year  Plans.  o f d e v e l o p m e n t , as e x p r e s s e d objective  type  The  basic  i s t o o b t a i n comprehensive,  social,  and  e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t ; hence programmes a r e  designed  to i n c l u d e development of a g r i c u l t u r e , irrigation, societies, s u c h as tion,  rural local  industries, democratic  the v i l l a g e  h e a l t h and  husbandry,  co-operative councils  and  self-governing institutions,  councils  (panchayats), road  sanitation,  home e c o n o m i c s , r u r a l  animal  social  a r t and  construc-  e d u c a t i o n , such  craft,  and  lastly  as  rural  housing. The about in  programme i s c o u n t r y - w i d e  290,000 v i l l a g e s  the c o u n t r y .  (a b l o c k b e i n g implementing  i n 1959,  In that year, the b a s i c  out  unit  250  country.  square  of p l a n n i n g  and  The  average  size  of  m i l e s , w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of  60,000 -  70,000 or approximately  w i t h 150  villages  100  villages,  compared  i n Pakistan.  community d e v e l o p m e n t movement i n I n d i a with p i l o t  projects  o f t h e movement w a r r a n t e d Ministry  850,000  of  community d e v e l o p m e n t programmes), as a g a i n s t  a b l o c k i s about  initialed  of a t o t a l  covering  t h e r e were 2 , 3 8 3 ' b l o c k s ' ,  geographic  5 , 0 0 0 needed f o r the whole  The  I n scope,  i n 1952.  The  importance  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of  o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t and  was  the  Co-operation,  w h i c h f u n c t i o n s as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o - o r d i n a t i v e body for  the  community d e v e l o p m e n t programme.  a g e n c y has b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d  f o r the a c t u a l  No  separate implementation  .  '2k  -of t h e programme, "but i t i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h  the  National  E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , which, i n i t s o p e r a t i o n a l sense, the  combination  concerned  with rural  Charts ministrative I n the 100  of a l l the  1 and  At The  the  lowest  staff  each f o r a g r i c u l t u r e ,  village  councils  gineering, en and  and  e d u c a t i o n and  children.  At  w o r k e r s , who  The  b l o c k development o f f i c e r  and  head  level,  team a r e  i s the  tive ministries.  controlled  The  officers,  rural  there  are  and  twelve  ministries.  c o - o r d i n a t i n g agent the  extension  guided  by  offic-  their- respec-  b l o c k development o f f i c e r  also as  M i n i s t r y o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t and  takes well  Co-oper-  ation. The  ''district'" i s the next  f o r p l a n n i n g and 'Collector' officer,  i s the  the d i s t r i c t cover  areas  level  above t h e  c o - o r d i n a t i o n of p r o j e c t s .  of the  district,  like  the b l o c k  c o - o r d i n a t i n g a g e n t and  team o f t e c h n i c a l  en-  the M i n i s t r y of  i n s t r u c t i o n from h i s s u p e r i o r extension o f f i c e r s as f r o m t h e  a  co-operation,  other technical  o f t h e b l o c k team, a l t h o u g h  e r s i n the  c o n s i s t s of  industries,  work f o r b o t h any  about  f o r t h e programme f o r wom-  the v i l l a g e  Community D e v e l o p m e n t and  i s the b l o c k o f  husbandry,  rural  ad-  programme  eight extension  animal  (panchayats),  social  multi-purpose  level  of the  at the b l o c k l e v e l  " b l o c k development o f f i c e r " one  ministries  pp.25-26) show c l e a r l y the  (See  organizational aspects  country.  villages.  of t e c h n i c a l  development.  2  and  efforts  is  the  block  The development c a p t a i n of  o f f i c e r s , whose d u t i e s  d e m a r c a t e d as b l o c k s  and  those  not  yet  C H A R T  I  M i n i s t r y of C o m m u n i t y Development and C o o p e r a t i o n , G o v e r n m e n t of India Department of Community Development Central Committee (with Prime Minister-as Chairman)  I Minister for Community Development and Cooperation  I  Deputy Minister for Community Development and Cooperation  I Parliamentary Secretary  I Secretary (Community Development)  T Training Division Joint Secretary (Training)  Commissioner for Training Assistant Commissioners (2) Technical Officer (Training) Administrative Officer Accounts Officer . i Commissioner for Panchayats Deputy Commissioner Panchayats - cum Director Youth Programme Under Secretary (Panchayats and Cooperatives) Deputy Secretary (Training) Under Secretary (Training)  Programme Division Joint Secretary (Programme)  Administrative. Intelligence Division Officer on Special Duty  Deputy Secretary (Programme) Under Secretary (Programme) Advisor (Agriculture) Deputy Advisor (Agriculture) Advisor (Irrigation) Advisor (Animal Husbandry) Deputy Director (Fisheries) Advisor (Health) Advisor (Education) Director (Industries) Deputy Director (Industries) Technical Officer Director (Women's Programmes) Director (Social Education) Art Consultant  Under Secretary (Budget) Director (Administrative Intelligence) Deputy Director (Administrative Intelligence) Research Officers (2)  vn.  Administration and Publicity Division  Deputy Secretary (Administration) Under Secretary (Administration) Under Secretary (Welfare) Deputy Director (Public Relations) Assistant Director (Public Relations) Assistant Director (Publicity) Assistant Financial Advisor  April  1959  CHART  : DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME State - Organization  2  Informal Consultative Committee (of State L e g i s l a t o r s and M, P's represented on Central Informal Consultative Committee)  State Development Committee (with Chief Minister as Chairman)  Development Commissioner^ST  D i s t r i c t Planning Committee or Z i l a Parishad  •  • •  C o l l e c t o r or D i v i s i o n a l O f f i c e r cr-  /  Blocki Development  Sub-Divisional O f f i c e r  Committee or Block Samiti  Block Development O f f i c e r  Extension O f f i c e r s f o r ( i ) A g r i c u l t u r e ( i i ) Animal Husbandry, ( i i i ) Co-operation, (iv) Rural Industries, (v) p.nnchavats? (vi) Overseer, ( v i i ) SEO 2/ (man), ( v i i i ) SEP, (voman); and a medical o f f i c e r . ;  Panchayat or Gaon Sabha  Gram Seyaks 3/ (10 f o r a Block)/Gram Sevikas I (2 f o r a Block) 1/ The Development Commissioners of Andhra P r a d e e h , Madras, Orissa, Mysore and Kerala are also Chief Secretaries of t h e i r respective states. 2/ S o c i a l Education Officer. 3/ M u l t i - p u r p o s e v i l l a g e l e v e l w o r k e r s . :  Gram,Sahayaks (People's  Associates)  27 c o v e r e d b y t h e programme. are n o t f i t t e d  i n t o Five-Year  The n e x t h i g h e r is  In the l a t t e r  level  t h e " d I v i s i o n ' , which J  The  "divisional  ing  officer.  not  been  projects  Plans. of planning  and c o - o r d i n a t i o n  c o n s i s t s o f a number o f d i s t r i c t s .  commissioner" p l a y s  I n some s t a t e s where  introduced,  areas,  the next  the r o l e of a the d i v i s i o n a l  higher  level  co-ordinats y s t e m has  i s the s t a t e  and t h e development  commissioner i s the c o - o r d i n a t i n g  whose team c o n s i s t s  of t h e heads  departments. mental  He a l s o a c t s  committee  of o f f i c i a l s  committee  of t h e c a b i n e t .  The are  community  atives.  influence  2).  different  trative tation  t o make  blocks  and C o - o p e r function i s  o f community o f other  development,  m i n i s t r i e s , and  them work i n harmony w i t h  aims a n d  d e v e l o p m e n t ; programmes  states, to regulate  allocations  by t h e C e n t r a l  M i n i s t r y ' s main  and p l a n s  o f t h e community  of development  training  "This  and o b j e c t i v e s  the p o l i c i e s  where n e c e s s a r y , objectives  and o f the d e v e l o p m e n t  d e v e l o p m e n t programmes o f a l l t h e s t a t e s  t o p r o p a g a t e t h e aims to  and n o n - o f f i c i a l s ,  M i n i s t r y o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t  (See chart  depart-  and he i s the s e c r e t a r y of' t h e  c o n t r o l l e d , d i r e c t e d and c o - o r d i n a t e d  Government's  officer,  functional  as t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e  of o f f i c e r s ,  committee  o f the v a r i o u s  level,  t h e programmes  I n the d i f f e r e n t  of the  f o r the s t a r t i n g  s t a t e s , t o make  budget  t o t h e s t a t e s , t o u n d e r t a k e some schemes f o r t h e  of extension  personnel, and t o promote  the adminis-  changes n e c e s s a r y f o r p u r p o s e s o f p r o p e r of t h e programmes.  implemen-  28 In a d d i t i o n to the above o f f i c i a l  organization,a  number of n o n - o f f i c i a l a d v i s o r y committees f o r p l a n n i n g and  c o - o r d i n a t i o n of p r o j e c t s have been e s t a b l i s h e d with  the view of i d e n t i f y i n g the people with and s o l i c i t i n g t h e i r f u l l e s t  support  At the block l e v e l , i s the Block  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Development  c o n s i s t i n g of members of Parliament l e g i s l a t u r e , representing  the programme  Committee,  and of the s t a t e  the c o n s t i t u e n c i e s covered by  the b l o c k team, nominated r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a t i v e s and s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  of co-oper-  The f u n c t i o n of the  committee i s t o examine development p l a n s , make r e commendations, and to review progress  from time to time.  The D i s t r i c t Development Committees f u n c t i o n at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l s . n o n - o f f i c i a l s , with  Members comprise o f f i c i a l s and the same r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  as the b l o c k development committee.  character  In some s t a t e s ,  two types of D i s t r i c t Development Committee  exist?  (a) a Departmental Committee of O f f i c e r s , p r e s i d e d  over  by the c o l l e c t o r and (b) a Committee of O f f i c i a l s and N o n - o f f i c i a l s also presided  over by the c o l l e c t o r .  Next, at the s t a t e l e v e l , some s t a t e s have two and  others have three types of committee^., namely a  Departmental Committee of O f f i c e r s , a Committee of O f f i c i a l s and N o n - o f f i c i a l s , and a Development 'Committee of the  Cabinet. Two types of committee operate at the n a t i o n a l  level.  F i r s t , there i s the C o n s u l t a t i v e (Committee of the P a r l i a ment, which advises  the M i n i s t r y of Community Development  29 and Co-operation.  Secondly,  there i s the C e n t r a l  Committee of which the chairman i s the Prime M i n i s t e r . Other members i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the P l a n n i n g Commission, and of the C a b i n e t . a t i n g and a policy-making of the  I t i s both a c o - o r d i n -  committee f o r the programmes  states. L a s t l y , the N a t i o n a l Development C o u n c i l , with  the Prime M i n i s t e r as the Chairman, and the C h i e f M i n i s t e r s of the States as members, i s the h i g h e s t p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y i n the country.  I t d e a l s with  questions of major p o l i c y , s i n c e the community development programme forms an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the F i v e - Y e a r Plana; One  c o n t r i b u t i o n which I n d i a has made to a search  f o r a proper method of implementing  community develop-  ment programmes i s i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i n g p r o jects.  The Programme E v a l u a t i n g O r g a n i z a t i o n , a t t a c h e d  to the P l a n n i n g Commission, though f u n c t i o n i n g as an independent  agency, has the f o l l o w i n g t a s k s *  (1) (2) (3) (I).)  t o keep a l l concerned a p p r i s e d c u r r e n t l y of the progress being made towards accomp l i s h i n g the programme o b j e c t i v e s j to p o i n t up those , e x t e n s i o n methods which were p r o v i n g e f f e c t i v e , and those which were n o t * to h e l p i n e x p l a i n i n g why some recommended p r a c t i c e s were adopted while others were r e j e c t e d by the v i l l a g e r s • to f u r n i s h the I n s i g h t i n t o the community development programme upon the economy and the c u l t u r e of I n d i a U  30 The  Programme E v a l u a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n ,  through i t s  numerous r e p o r t s , has been able t o i n f l u e n c e the p o l i c y , programme and methods of community development i n I n d i a . I t s major weakness i s t h a t the e v a l u a t i o n centres are not  s t a t i s t i c a l l y representative  community development.  of the t o t a l area under  Hence i t s f i n d i n g s cannot be  f r e e l y g e n e r a l i z e d f o r the whole country. l i t t l e work has been done i n r e g a r d of the techniques  to the e v a l u a t i o n  of t r a i n i n g personnel  i n d i r e c t l y concerned with  Furthermore,  d i r e c t l y or  community development.  Concerning the programme as a whole, there l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n between various agencies i n community development.  involved  Among these agencies are  the Ford Foundation, the T e c h n i c a l Co-operation of the u n i t e d S t a t e s  i sa  Mission  Government, the U. N . 0. and the  Government o f I n d i a i t s e l f .  The major cause f o r the  l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n i s due t o the f a c t t h a t , there i s no c e n t r a l i z e d f i n a n c i a l source through which p r o j e c t s are f i n a n c e d .  The f o r e i g n agencies o f f e r grants f o r  s p e c i f i c purposes, and send out t e c h n i c i a n s f o r such purposes, the r e s u l t i s that p r o j e c t s which are h e a v i l y f i n a n c e d and w e l l s u p e r v i s e d  are q u i c k l y implemented.  F o r e i g n agencies e s p e c i a l l y c o u l d c o - o r d i n a t e  their  f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l e f f o r t s and c o u l d achieve r e s u l t s i f t h e i r e f f o r t s c o u l d be p u l l e d together. could i n f a c t co-operate i n developing  better They  a common commun-  i t y development master p l a n f o r any s t a t e .  31 The  Community d e v e l o p m e n t  programme f o r a b l o c k i s d i v -  ided into  three phases:  velopment  s t a g e , and t h e p o s t - i n t e n s i v e  The p o s t - I n t e n s i v e activity, duced  i s usually  because f i n a n c i a l  o r may  block s  n o t be  community d e v e l o p m e n t initiative  stage,  a period  at a l l .  the i n t e n s i v e  development  de-  stage.  o f f r u s t r a t i o n and i n -  and t e c h n i c a l  available  programme i n t o  1  the i n i t i a l  resources are r e -  The  division  of a  three phases i s unnecessary, because i s a continuing process,  and e n t h u s i a s m a r e l i k e l y  and p e o p l e ' s  t o wane i f t h e p r o -  gramme i s p u n c t u a t e d by d e l i b e r a t e l y p l a n n e d b r e a k s . Another major tween t e c h n i c a l ficers  officers  i n the M i n i s t r y  ation.  The  expected ficer,  criticism  o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t  and  Go-oper-  o f a b l o c k , f o r example,  are  t o take i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m the b l o c k development  Co-operation}at  by  the M i n i s t r y  o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t  t h e same t i m e t h e y a r e g u i d e d and  respective  Ministries.  system does n o t f u n c t i o n w e l l ,  because  of the e x t e n s i o n o f f i c e r s  Ministries  i s so g r e a t  attach l i t t l e  that  the a l l e g i a n c e  to t h e i r  officer.  t h a t the b l o c k development to the d i s t r i c t  o f them o r none a t a l l .  this and  respective  received  Another confusing officer  d e p a r t m e n t a l heads.  s u c h a p o s i t i o n t h a t he may  and  t h e t e n d e n c y i s f o r them t o  importance to i n s t r u c t i o n s  b l o c k development  of-  controlled  In actual p r a c t i c e ,  attachment  few  be-  s e c o n d e d t o programmes and t h e o f -  extension o f f i c e r s  employed  by t h e i r  concerns the r e l a t i o n s h i p  situation i s  i n turn i s responsible He  i s placed i n  take i n s t r u c t i o n s These  from the  existing  from a  32 practices Indicate  that there i s an urgent need f o r the  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e should be  created  i n such a way  i b l e to the next h i g h e r  brought about i s d i s c u s s e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  How  A situation  that an o f f i c e r i s respons-  o f f i c e r who  With community development.  structure.  is directly  concerned  such a c o n d i t i o n could  i n Chapter IV.  The  be  loop-holes  s t r u c t u r e and poor methods of  fin-  ancing p r o j e c t s could be removed to y i e l d f r u i t f u l r e s u l t s . Pakistan;Pakistan's  community development a c t i v i t i e s are pro-  moted through the V i l l a g e A g r i c u l t u r a l and velopment Programme,  I n d u s t r i a l De-  (V-AID), under the S o c i a l Welfare  Community Development D i v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y of and  S o c i a l Welfare.  r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n was by  1959,  Pakistan  achieved  coverage w i l l be  i n the E a s t . . As  However  covered, w h i l s t  only J>Q% coverage i n t h a t y e a r . of the Second Pive-Year  r e a l i z e d i n West P a k i s t a n  and  Plan 80$  the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n shows, the  Programme i s patterned The  Health  of the 67 m i l l i o n  covered by the Programme.  I t i s hoped that by the end 100$  about 20$  \\S% of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n was  1961,  East  By  and  c l o s e l y a f t e r India's.  o p e r a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e of the V-Aid  i s to f o s t e r  e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r u r a l s e l f - h e l p proj e c t s In the f i e l d s of a g r i c u l t u r e , primary education, l i t e r a c y , h e a l t h and cottage  and  s a n i t a t i o n , co-operative  adult  societies,  s m a l l - s c a l e i n d u s t r i e s , i r r i g a t i o n , and  land  33 r e c l a m a t i o n , secondary road c o n s t r u c t i o n , youth and women's work and v i l l a g e s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l activities. The  "development area' , l i k e the 'block'  In I n d i a ,  1  i s the b a s i c u n i t f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the V-AID programme v  i n the country. villages  I t Is composed of approximately l £ 0  with a p o p u l a t i o n of r o u g h l y 1^0,000.  were I3I4. such areas  There  i n e x i s t e n c e by October 195>9.  West P a k i s t a n each development area has t h i r t y  In  village-  l e v e l workers, so that each worker i s i n charge of f i v e villages.  But i n E a s t P a k i s t a n twenty workers are p o s t e d  i n each area, with  the r e s u l t  that seven v i l l a g e s are  covered by one worker. A development o f f i c e r i s i n charge of the development area.  In West P a k i s t a n , three s u p e r v i s o r s work  under h i s guidance, w h i l s t i n East P a k i s t a n there are two.  The development o f f i c e r has d i r e c t  the s u p e r v i s o r s and the v i l l a g e - l e v e l According  c o n t a c t with  workers.  to the government's Plve-Year  Plan  (195U-19590* the v i l l a g e worker was t o be g i v e n  support  by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the t e c h n i c a l departments of the government s t a t i o n e d In the s m a l l e s t p o l i t i c a l u n i t of the development area.  O r i g i n a l l y ^ the development  officer  was e n t r u s t e d with the task of c o - o r d i n a t i n g the f i e l d activities  of a l l t e c h n i c a l workers i n h i s area, because  the Pive-Year to support  P l a n committed a l l the t e c h n i c a l departments  local village projects.  not work w e l l , because the d i s t r i c t  This system c o u l d officers  of t e c h n i c a l  departments s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r c o n t r o l over t h e i r f i e l d workers.  As n o t e d e a r l i e r i n I n d i a , e x t e n s i o n or  t e c h n i c a l f i e l d workers work under the b l o c k development o f f i c e r or the d i s t r i c t development  officer.  The p l a n n i n g and implementation of development p r o j e c t s are c a r r i e d out through a system of committees. At the lowest l e v e l i s the V i l l a g e C o u n c i l of E l d e r s , without l e g a l s t a t u s or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  The  Village  C o u n c i l s of E l d e r s w i t h i n each development area are f e d e r a t e d and are r e p r e s e n t e d on the Development Area A d v i s o r y 'Committee, which i n c l u d e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from each t e c h n i c a l department and V-AID.  A  district  m a g i s t r a t e or deputy commissioner who has powers over government operations i n the d i s t r i c t of the d i s t r i c t  i s the chairman  committee, w i t h the d i s t r i c t  o f f i c e r as the s e c r e t a r y .  development  The f u n c t i o n of t h i s  committee  i s to examine and approve p l a n s p r e s e n t e d by v i l l a g e c o u n c i l s and a l l o c a t e g r a n t s a c c o r d i n g l y .  At the m i n i s -  t e r i a l l e v e l , p o l i c i e s are framed. To give an I n s i g h t i n t o the achievement of the V-AID Programme during the 1951+-1959 development p l a n p e r i o d , the f o l l o w i n g completed p r o j e c t s may be n o t e d * C o u n c i l s of e l d e r s New schools Remodeled schools Dispensaries  12,0k0 879 706 21k  35 These achievements are by no means s p e c t a c u l a r , judging from the f a c t t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t of them were implemented during the l a s t s i x months o f the p l a n p e r i o d , and a l s o per c a p i t a c o n t r i b u t i o n of l a b o u r i n terms of wages was reckoned t o be o n l y 15^  in relation  to the t o t a l cost of the e n t i r e programme* The importance of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery through which community development p r o j e c t s are implemented cannot be  underestimated.  l e a s t up u n t i l 1959.  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e weakness of the  programme was development  In P a k i s t a n , at  the l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the  o f f i c e r s and the t e c h n i c a l o f f i c e r s ,  c o - o r d i n a t i o n was more or l e s s v o l u n t a r y and was a c h i e v e d through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s .  and best  Furthermore, t e c h -  n i c a l departments d i d not o f t e n l o c a t e t h e i r  field  workers i n the development areas where they were needed. By making d i s t r i c t m a g i s t r a t e s chairmen o f Develop' raent Area A d v i s o r y 'Committees, the f u n c t i o n a l importance of the d i s t r i c t development  o f f i c e r was reduced, f o r  the d i s t r i c t m a g i s t r a t e s had no f u n c t i o n a l  relationship  with the community development programme. P h i l i p p i n e s :The r u r a l problems of the P h i l i p p i n e s are not different  from other c o u n t r i e s i n south-east A s i a .  About t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the p o p u l a t i o n are r u r a l ,  nearly  h a l f of the a g r i c u l t u r a l Snd i s h e l d under tenancy, and 63$ of the peasants are tenants.  L a n d l o r d i s m , small and  36 fragmented h o l d i n g s , low p r o d u c t i v i t y , and s o a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n are p r e s s i n g problems.  About 12,000 out o f 1 9 , 0 0 0  b a r r i o s ( v i l l a g e s ) are not connected w i t h the o u t s i d e world by road or r a i l . In view o f a l l these problems, the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f community development programmes has been a b l e s s i n g t o the r u r a l communities.  In the post-war y e a r s , many agen-  c i e s have been concerned w i t h community development o f some s o r t , but two are o f o u t s t a n d i n g importance. The f i r s t o f these agencies i s P r e s i d e n t i a l tance for Community Development, P r e s i d e n t Magsaysay  Assis-  (PACD), e s t a b l i s h e d by  after h i s election victory i n 195L;  Between 1953 and 1 9 5 6 , e l e v e n r u r a l community c e n t r e s were opened, equipped w i t h r a d i o s , books and s p o r t s  equipment.  About 60% o f PACD budget comes from the U.S. Government. The PACD i s a government  agency, e n t r u s t e d w i t h  the duty o f c o - o r d i n a t i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g community development a c t i v i t i e s o f government a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n o f work.  departments t o  The D i r e c t o r o f the PACD  i s a s s i s t e d by the Inter-Departmental C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee,  comprising r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l  ments i n t e r e s t e d i n community development.  departAt the  p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l l e v e l s , programmes are admini s t e r e d by community development c o u n c i l s , p r e s i d e d over by the g o v e r n o r s ' and mayors' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g departmental r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s working In the f i e l d o f community development.  The c o u n c i l s , formulate  37 plans,  stimulate  local  i n t e r e s t and  co-ordinate  technical  services. At the v i l l a g e l e v e l , the PACD works through  the  B a r r i o or V i l l a g e (Councils, which are s t a t u t o r y bodies e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1955  by the Republic Act l k 0 8 ,  i n January I960 by the B a r r i o Charter, Councils  replaced  which g r a n t e d  autonomy to make f i n a n c i a l d e c i s i o n s .  V i l l a g e Council  the  The  of seven members i s e l e c t e d f o r two  years  by the V i l l a g e ( B a r r i o ) Assembly, which i n turn i s e l e c t e d by the v i l l a g e r s .  The  C h a r t e r has  given  the Assembly  broad powers to i n i t i a t e community development p r o j e c t s , t a x a t i o n and The  so: on;  P h i l i p p i n e s d i f f e r s from many c o u n t r i e s  in  g r a n t i n g l e g a l powers to v i l l a g e c o u n c i l s concerned with community development.  I t has  not  as yet been  proved whether community development programmes best  through s t a t u t o r y b o d i e s , and hence the  future  achievement of the P h i l i p p i n e s ' programme w i l l one  disprove  of the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of community development,  t h a t the people I n i t i a l l y should be g i v e n and  function  freedom t o p l a n t h e i r own  legal  every chance  p r o j e c t s , without  any  control. The  other Important agency concerned with community  development i s the P h i l i p p i n e Rural R e c o n s t r u c t i o n ment, founded by Dr. Yen backing of the Movement, New  i n 1952,  with the  Move-  financial  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Committee oh Mass E d u c a t i o n York.  The  approach of t h i s p r i v a t e Move-  38 mant i s t o before  s e l e c t an  moving Like  involved ment  for  J a m a i c a and  operating  that  t o one  exist.  M e x i c o , t o o many a g e n c i e s  i n such c o u n t r i e s  as  i t i s e a s i e r f o r the  the  organization tendency  different  ideas.  and  points  Ghana  t o be  introduced  p o s s i b l y through already  govern-  i s the  villagers  a t i m e , and has  India  two  are  organizations  there  confused with  v i l l a g e - l e v e l w o r k e r who ence o f  1959  Where more t h a n one  t o be  at  In  voluntary  in a single village,  project  It intensively,  area.  twenty-five  villagers  Experience out  develop  i n community d e v e l o p m e n t .  a g e n c i e s and  the  and  to another  were known t o is  area  gained  one  the  confid-  people.  M a l a y a :The  age  old conflict  M a l a y a s , w h i c h has ualism  and  a lack  given  between t h e  rise  programmes i n M a l a y a . s u c h programmes was on  the  Communist  Government h a d The  attempt  government  The  among t h e  first  terrorists  of  to  attempt as  a  individ-  at  introducing  counter-attack  demonstrate that  r e s u l t e d from a conference h e l d i n that  y e a r , and  established  has  development  a p o s i t i v e a n s w e r t o Communist  officials  and  peasantry,  in introducing  made i n 195k,  Community D e v e l o p m e n t was basis.  to a s p i r i t  of l e a d e r s h i p  been a major s t u m b l i n g b l o c k  (Chinese  by  the  propaganda. senior  a Department on  an  of  integrative  39 Another type:? o f community development was i n i t i a t e d w i t h the c r e a t i o n o f the F e d e r a l Land A u t h o r i t y i n 1 9 5 ° , which was a s s i g n e d the t a s k o f opening up a v i r g i n for cultivation.  jungle  The l a r g e s t o f i t s schemes, c o v e r i n g  2 7 , 0 0 0 acres, could r e s e t t l e 1 , 0 0 0 f a m i l i e s . o f Independence i n August 1 9 5 7 .  On the attainment  the community development movement was a b o l i s h e d , and i n i t s p l a c e a M i n i s t r y o f R u r a l Development, w i t h i t s own M i n i s t e r was i n s t i t u t e d .  A R u r a l Development Committee  was formed i n each d i s t r i c t , and was composed o f the District  O f f i c e r , t e c h n i c a l heads o f departments, the '•  l o c a l l e g i s l a t o r s , and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f Kampongs (villages).  Each committee i s a u t h o r i z e d t o prepare a D i s -  t r i c t R u r a l Development P l a n , c a l l e d the Red Book, which i s then forwarded t o the State Development Committee.  This  committee i n t u r n c o n s o l i d a t e s a l l the d i s t r i c t p l a n s i n t o a s t a t e p l a n , which i s submitted of R u r a l Development.  t o the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y  Three s t a t e s are r e p o r t e d t o have  r e f u s e d t o co-operate w h i l s t a l l the r e s t have compiled the M i n i s t r y ' s request  with  o f p r e p a r i n g the Red Books.  In a l l the p l a n s , emphasis i s p l a c e d on a g r i c u l t ure j w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o rubber  production.  Hence much a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n of l a n d so t h a t each peasant f a m i l y can o b t a i n about 10 acres f o r rubber p l a n t i n g .  Malaya thus d i f f e r s from most  c o u n t r i e s because the programme i s geared t o i n c r e a s i n g the p r o d u c t i o n o f the country*s main crop, rubber.  ko Such a s t e p i s e x p e d i e n t amental  e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h and  grammes. mainly  On  the  major purposes  village  self-help  fundpro-  o t h e r h a n d , i f t h e programme i s i n t e n d e d  t o s o l v e an  mental  i f i t i s a c c o m p a n i e d by  economic problem, t h e n  one  of  the  o f community d e v e l o p m e n t , t h a t i s  education  in a l l i t s ramifications,  funda-  i s being  de-  feated.  Adaptive  Types o f Programme  Like  "integrative"  types  of programme, ' ' a d a p t i v e "  types  are a l s o country-wide  or  change i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , b e c a u s e  no  t e c h n i c a l m i n i s t r y such and  social welfare  as  i n scope.  They c a u s e  agriculture,  can be w h o l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  solicit  when n e c e s s a r y .  I n most c a s e s , programmes  locally The  determined field  administrative basis the  of o t h e r  the  u n i t s where t h e y  are  opment areas'". services  are  forms-  exist  are  used  Secondly,  Officer  on an  field  1  as  find  the that  i t easier  Compared w i t h  and  first,  the r e s u l t  community d e v e l o p m e n t  largely  geared  two  t y p e s , some c o u n t r i e s sometimes f i n d  I n d i a has. c r e a t e d i t s 'blocks'  cation  ministries  take  programmes, w i t h  other departments.  create separate  pro-  goals.  community d e v e l o p m e n t p e r s o n n e l  grative to  the h e l p  o r g a n i z a t i o n may  of implementing  work w i t h  any  education, health,  grammes, and may  to  little  to  inte-  i t necessary  areas.  Thus,  i n P a k i s t a n , ''devel-  contacts with  informal basis.  i n Ghana, f o r example, can  technical  A Mass E d u call  upon  an  kl Agricultural a problem. the  Officer Adaptive  Caribbean  area.  a t any  convenient  time  types are predominant  to discuss in Africa  C e y l o n , Ghana, J a m a i c a ,  R i c o have b e e n s e l e c t e d  here  for a detailed  and  and  Puerto  discussion.  Ceylon:Community d e v e l o p m e n t i n C e y l o n has of the was  ' R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t Movement'.  i n a u g u r a t e d i n 19k8,  were c a r r y i n g Police  on  Before  v a r i o u s government  Societies,  ment o f Commerce and Centres.  the E d u c a t i o n  The  Industry established  overlapped  Anti-Crime  i n many i n s t a n c e s .  S o c i e t i e s were a l s o  ventures, marketing,  and  concerned  Move-  Depart-  the  Depart-  schemes was  scope  of  F o r example,  agricultural  R u r a l S c h o o l Scheme s p o n s o r e d tage  their  The  the R u r a l W e l -  major weakness of t h e s e  l a c k o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f work, and ties  t h e Movement  the C o - o p e r a t i v e  Better Living Societies,  title  departments  ment i n t r o d u c e d t h e R u r a l S c h o o l Scheme, and  fare  the  community d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s .  had A n t i - C r i m e  ment h a d  earned  a  activithe  with co-operative  improvement, and  h e a l t h programmes and  the  cot-  industries. The  R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t Movement was  the Department Home A f f a i r s , I t has  of R u r a l Development i n the M i n i s t r y to replace a l l these  three main  - 1.  To  ment S o c i e t i e s  established  departmental  under of  activities.  objectives:  organize r u r a l people through which t h e i r  into Rural self-help  Develop-  and  enthus-  k  iasm  can  be  2.  harnessed  f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t ;  To b r i n g a b o u t  Societies  and  the  2  c l o s e r contact  extension  officers  ments c o n c e r n e d w i t h  rural  Agriculture,  (Co-operationj  3.  To  lication setting  Health, avoid  up  The  o f f u n c t i o n s , dup-  waste  of p u b l i c f u n d s ,  Programme f u n c t i o n s t h r o u g h R u r a l formed by  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and  Government as scope  depart-  by  machinery f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n .  ment S o c i e t i e s , untary  their  these  b e t t e r m e n t , f o r example,  overlapping  of s e r v i c e s , and  of  between  village they  communities  as  vol-  are r e c o g n i z e d  by  the  functional bodies,  of a c t i v i t i e s .  The  Develop-  entrusted with  suggested  areas  of  a wide  activities  are 1. regard  The  to the  industries, and  economic  development  trade  and  The  sanitation,  health  of a g r i c u l t u r e ,  co-operation,  3.  aspects  maternity  schemes, p r e v e n t i o n The  of  cultural  educational  prevention  village  disputes.  i n 1961.  with  cottage  employment,  savings,  ownership.  s u c h as  environmental  child-care, milk-feeding  communicable  d i s e a s e s , and  aspects  regard  of c r i m e ,  T h e r e were 7,01k Societies  and  activities,  crafts,  ies  of communities  problems p e r t a i n i n g to l a n d 2.  and  aspects  with  fostering and  of  amicable  S o c i e t i e s and  Individual Rural  3,261  to  so  on.  religious  indigenous settlement  of,  Women's  Development S o c i e t -  have b e e n e n c o u r a g e d t o f o r m Group S o c i e t i e s ,  each  ij-3 group c o v e r i n g the  representatives  were 835  v i l l a g e s , and  comprising,  member v i l l a g e s o c i e t i e s . i n 1961.  In  represent  the  Divisional  Village  c o n d u c t s i t s own  Society  affairs.  to give grants  and  R u r a l Development  The  i t s own  role  of  make a v a i l a b l e  Officers  form  when  level the  the  of  District  the  the  the  Government  services  Ministries  working  Judiciary),  the  more t h a n two councils),  i n the  chairmen of  n o m i n a t e d by  Parliament  as  h o n o u r a r y members. for  and  reviewing progress The  The  Committee  for  T h i s Committee c o n s i s t s Officer atives  f o r that of  In the  and  made by  district  the  also  of  the  not  Members invited  responand  for  Ministries. a Divisional under  Divisional as  the  (local  are  proposals  of  the  and  i s also  a sub-district  sub-district  not  of  (excluding  Committee  government M i n i s t r i e s ,  committees,  the  Government a g e n t .  Government A g e n t has  ordinating  at  representatives  development  being  achieved  Chairman  Revenue O f f i c e r ,  the  of  is  v i l l a g e committees  Senators  formulating  i s the  district  Divisional  of  sible  Committee  Government A g e n t , who the  and  required.  Co-ordinating  Committee, c o m p r i s i n g  district.  officers  C o - o r d i n a t i o n of government a c t i v i t i e s through  Group  Unions  Revenue O f f i c e r ' s elects  There  some c a s e s ,  have i n t u r n b e e n e n c o u r a g e d t o  Each  is  of  Group S o c i e t i e s  Societies to  a number o f  chairman, chairmen  Co-  him.  Revenue representof  village  more t h a n f o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  of  kk the  local  R u r a l Development  a specified Committee except  period  of t i m e .  i s similar  that  ratification  Societies The  to that  by t h e D i s t r i c t  development.  has g i v e n  formal  i s that  Committee  a r e s u b j e c t to  Committee. Village  The m a i n  these S o c i e t i e s and v i l l a g e  i n many c o u n t r i e s  of the  of the D i s t r i c t  Ceylon i s experimenting with  between  serve f o r  function  i t s development p r o p o s a l s  as a g e n t s o f r u r a l  who  difference  committees  t h e Government  recognition  Societies  s o common  of Ceylon  t o the S o c i e t i e s  and h a s  d e f i n e d b r o a d l y f o r them t h e i r  scope o f  The r u r a l  of the Department  development  R u r a l Development  work t h r o u g h t h e e l e c t e d  of the S o c i e t i e s . with  that  officers  activities.  This  which e x i s t s  situation  contrasts  i n some c o u n t r i e s  J a m a i c a , and M a l a y a where v i l l a g e  officers sharply  s u c h as Ghana,  committees  a r e known  o n l y b y community  development  the v i l l a g e - l e v e l  w o r k e r s , w i t h whom t h e y h a v e  Whether  the " V i l l a g e  officers,  enterprising  spirit  especially  S o c i e t y approach" f o s t e r s  communal s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  of  creativeness  contacts. a  better  and  i s y e t t o be p r o v e d .  Ghana :Ghana's community I n 19^8, Between ject being  under the t i t l e 19^8  and 19^1  d e v e l o p m e n t programme of " s o c i a l  tried  development".  t h e programme was  t y p e " , because v a r i o u s out i n s e l e c t e d  began  of the  t e c h n i q u e s were  "pro-  constantly  areas i n Eweland,  Western  Province  and A s h a n t i .  country-wide People's as  195l  programme u n t i l  P a r t y came i n t o power.  that  full  when t h e C o n v e n t i o n The programme became known  on mass l i t e r a c y ,  character,  195l, because  Ministries.  i t has n o t b r o u g h t  another,  about  structure  The m a i n r e a s o n i s t h a t  Development Department i s o f t e n  ment was l a u n c h e d  in  19lj.8,  t h e n i t was l a t e r  Commissioners' strative  Offices.  of Housing,  People's  o f t h e Government  s h i f t e d from  one M i n i s t r y t o  o r g a n i z a t i o n which i s  When t h e s o c i a l  d e v e l o p m e n t move-  As i t d i d n o t f i t i n t o t h e a d m i n i Offices,  i t was p l a c e d u n d e r t h e  and S o c i a l W e l f a r e .  When t h e Conven-  P a r t y came i n t o power i n 1951,  velopment D i v i s i o n  of S o c i a l Welfare,  o f the Department  back t o t h e Department  o f Edu-  a t t a c h e d t o R e g i o n a l and D i s t r i c t  g e t h e r w i t h the Department  the term  'any d r a s t i c  i t was u n d e r t h e M i n i s t r y  framework o f t h e s e  Department  an a d a p t i v e  a l t h o u g h t h e Community  i t h a s i t s own w e l l - s t r u c t u r e d  n o t d i s t u r b e d by any s h i f t .  tion  now i t i s known  t h e programme h a s m a i n t a i n e d  changes i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  cation;  and up t i l l  much em-  name.  Since  once a g a i n , t o t h e S o c i a l De-  of Housing  of Education.  I n 1952,  was  brought  however,  "Community D e v e l o p m e n t " r e p l a c e d " S o c i a l  Development". and  as a  "mass e d u c a t i o n " among t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c b e c a u s e  p h a s i s was l a i d by  I t was n o t l a u n c h e d  I n 1957,  the Department  of S o c i a l  Welfare  Community D e v e l o p m e n t was a t t a c h e d t o t h e M i n i s t r y  of Labour  and C o - o p e r a t i v e s u n t i l  1959,  when t h e  k6 M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h took over. Ministry. of the  The  o b j e c t i v e s and  I t i s now  the nature of  activities  community development programme as d e f i n e d i n  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  c i r c u l a r issued i n  195^+»  i b l e from the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s of the 1.  2.  3.  If..  5. In and  a separate  203  are  discern-  circular:  The b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s Is to improve the g e n e r a l standard of l i v i n g of the people of the count r y by means t h a t are immediately p r a c t i c a b l e and w i t h emphasis on v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t . The t a s k of the Department i s to educate the people i n methods by which they themselves may e a s i l y improve t h e i r p o s i t i o n , even i f only t o a l i m i t e d extent, and t o provide some measure of t e c h n i c a l advice and a s s i s t a n c e both i n minor communal c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s and i n other items of the community development programme.... The f i e l d s i n which t h i s programme may be c a r r i e d out are many and d i v e r s e , but the f o l l o w i n g are the most important: (i) the e r a d i c a t i o n of I l l i t e r a c y ; ( I I ) the i n c r e a s e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l output by every p o s s i b l e means; (iii) the p r e v e n t i o n of unemployment i n the r u r a l areas and the checking of d r i f t t o towns; ( i v ) the improvement of v i l l a g e communications and amenities, i n c l u d i n g improved water s u p p l i e s ; (v) the f o s t e r i n g of p u b l i c h e a l t h , adult educ a t i o n , and u s e f u l r e c r e a t i o n i n the v i l l a g e s ; ( v i ) the promotion of indigenous h a n d i c r a f t s and s m a l l - s c a l e i n d u s t r i e s . Three types of work w i l l continue throughout the y e a r : ( i ) work among women; (ii) communal p r o j e c t work dedicated to the aims i n d i c a t e d above; (iii) l i t e r a c y t e a c h i n g and follow-up work. S p e c i a l campaigns f o r other agencies of Government....5  1959>  the Department had  1,021  salaried staff  d a i l y r a t e d employees i n a l l the e i g h t admin-  i s t r a t i v e Regions.  To achieve c o - o r d i n a t i o n of work  w i t h other M i n i s t r i e s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n of programme  and s t a f f  coincides with  administrative boundaries.  As C h a r t 3 shows, t h e P r i n c i p a l Officer  i s i n charge of a Region.  Mass E d u c a t i o n prising  Officers,  Council  Mass E d u c a t i o n  areas.  India  or P a k i s t a n  The  to v i l l a g e - l e v e l  (See C h a r t  the t o p , the D i r e c t o r  R e g i o n a l Development a major f u n c t i o n  to India.  o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e and  Community  on a number  and t h e S e c r e t a r y replaces  level,  of  the  f o r m e d i n 1959,  performs  funds t o p r o j e c t s  Committees.  Community D e v e l o p m e n t  of the R e g i o n a l Commissioner. the former D i s t r i c t  Villages  approved  I t comprises the  as t h e c h a i r m a n , D i s t r i c t  the P r i n c i p a l  ment Committees  sits  At the r e g i o n a l  Committee,  Development  Committee.  compared  of a l l o c a t i n g  R e g i o n a l Commissioner  Committee  complex,  system oper-  and s t a t u t o r y b o d i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h  community d e v e l o p m e n t .  missioners,  committee  or h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  committees  workers  3, P.'k8).  i n the c o u n t r y i s l e s s  by V i l l a g e  Local  and e a c h i s i n c h a r g e o f a number  community d e v e l o p m e n t  Development  are the  The Mass E d u c a t i o n A s s i s t a n t s , I b w e s t  in  of v i l l a g e s .  com-  O f f i c e r s , working i n the  the r a n k / a r e e q u i v a l e n t  a d hoc  him are the  i n charge of D i s t r i c t s  in  At  Under  Development  t h e R e g i o n , and u n d e r e t h e s e o f f i c e r s  Assistant  ating  Community  ComOfficer This  Development  are encouraged t o form Develop-  to decide  upon s e l f - h e l p  projects.  Village  p l a n s pass through the o f f i c e s  of the L o c a l  Council  and  before  the D i s t r i c t  Commissioner,  are submitted t o the Regional  Development  they  Committee.  CHART 3  ORGANIZATION OF THE MINISTRY OF SOCIAL WELFARE; & COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, GOVERNMENT OF GHANA President  Other^Minis•tries  and C a b i n e t  M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l Welfare and Community D e v e l o p m e n t  Standing Development Committee o f t h e Cabinet  Permanent S e c r e t a r y o f t h e M i n i s t r y and a s m a l l s t a f f Deputy D i r e c t o r  r  Assistant Director Welfare S o c i a l Wei-, fare Staff, mainly i n towns  A s s i s t a n t DIrec tor Technical Services  Departmental engineering, construction etc.  Assistant D i r e c t o r Mass  R e g i o n a l Comm. Dev. O f f i c e r s  lass Education  I  E x e c u t i v e Secret a r y Administrat i o n & Finance  P r i n i p a l Community Development O f f i c e r (Visual aids)  Accountants Clerical Staff  Visual aids S t a f f , e.g. a r t i s t s , cinema  Officers,Districts  | A s s t . Mass E d u c a t i o n  Officers  | Mass E d u c a t i o n A s s i s t a n t s  I  k  Members o f a V i l l a g e  Development  a t e d by the v i l l a g e r s the h e l p  Committee  to attend  Commissioner.  Occasionally,  the Committee's m e e t i n g .  t h e e n d o f 1959, t h e r e were 2 , 3 k l  At  Development  Committees  i n the country.  Committees  Associations  t o form D i s t r i c t  1.  and R e g i o n a l basis.  are confined  fields;  Adult  literacy.  b y Mass E d u c a t i o n teachers.  of V i l l a g e  on a v o l u n t a r y a n d n o n - s t a t u t o r y  Community d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s t o f o u r main  Village  An i n t e r e s t i n g  development has been t h e coming t o g e t h e r Development  a r e nomin-  t h e m s e l v e s , sometimes t h r o u g h  of the D i s t r i c t  he i s i n v i t e d  9  Night  O f f i c e r s with  classes are organized the h e l p ; o f  voluntary  129,000 c e r t i f i c a t e s were i s s u e d  between  1952 a n d 1959. 2.  Work among women, e s p e c i a l l y I n t h e f i e l d  of home economics*, c o o k i n g , popular  subjects  3. projects.  sewing and c h i l d - c a r e a r e ?  taught.  Assistance  to rural  self-help  construction  Up t o 1959, t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t  works  were c o m p l e t e d Type o f P r o j e c t Roads Communal B u i l d i n g s Site clearing f o r f o o t b a l l parks Latrines Water S u p p l i e s Other P r o j e c t s Total I n the Second Development P l a n  No.  6k 127 137  7 582  71  2i+l  1,222  fcG2,231,200  was  voted  50 as  grants-in-aid f o r s e l f help (k.)  ments,  Extension  work f o r o t h e r  i n c l u d i n g campaigns  Campaigns  projects. government  i n health  are undertaken only  depart-  and a g r i c u l t u r e .  at the request  of the  departments. Ghana h a s b e e n e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h committee levels.  systems e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e l o c a l Formerly  Committees  on w h i c h L o c a l  are not r e p r e s e n t e d .  I n o t h e r words,  channel  sentatives, viewing  are designed t o serve  of contacting  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Development and  Is l o o k e d  as a b e n e v o l e n t  officials,  As a r e s u l t delay  Committee  areas  the p e o p l e f o r  f o r a l l o c a t i n g grants  Committee  Is o f t e n a l o n g  Council  Regional  repre-  Development  interest.  by a  the a c t u a l government  become b u r e a u c r a t i c ,  o f government  District  proper  has i n f a c t  ment Committees  Council  have no  responsible  projects.  The  have b e e n r e p l a c e d  D e v e l o p m e n t Committee  whom p r o j e c t s  district  although i n d i v i d u a l  p e r se were n o t r e p r e s e n t e d .  Development  or  on t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s , L o c a l  areas had adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , villages  different  and r e -  o f t h e programme  so t h a t  the  Regional  upon b y V i l l a g e D e v e l o p and p a t e r n a l i s t i c  representing  o f the p r e s e n t on t h e p a r t i n granting  some p r o j e c t s a r e d i s c o n t i n u e d  the  Government's  system,  o f the  body  there  Regional  funds t o v i l l a g e s , for this particular  reason. A tradition a community  h a s become e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t  d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t , s u c h as r o a d  beforeconstrueti  51 and h e a l t h c e n t r e s ,  c a n be  a p p r o v a l o f t h e government Council concerned.  started,  department o r the  their  completion.  step c o n s t i t u t e s  need  a weakness,  because the  efforts  approach to r u r a l  o f H e a l t h , f o r example,  would  t o be b u i l t  within  solution  development.  community The  Ministry  i t s master p l a n .  centre A  inter-  go a l o n g way  t h e community d e v e l o p m e n t i s discussed  threatened  only allow a health  departmental c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i l l  subject  i n the  t o the problem of l a c k of a proper  vitalize  this  Department  c o u l d be  by a M i n i s t r y w h i c h d o e s n o t b e l i e v e  i f i t falls  maintenance  But on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t ' s  development  Local  It i s q u i t e r e a s o n a b l e t o t a k e  s u c h a s t e p , b e c a u s e many p r o j e c t s after  i t must meet t h e  programme.  to r e This  i n C h a p t e r V.  Jamaica:A number o f a g e n c i e s a r e engaged development  i n Jamaica.  Welfare  Commission  deserve  special  The in  19k9,  Of t h e s e t h e J a m a i c a  and C o - o r d i n a t e d E x t e n s i o n  Jamaica S o c i a l W e l f a r e Commission, grew o u t o f a p r i v a t e  port  fruit  companies  of bananas.  Commission  Social Services  mention.  a r e as  s e t up  w i t h funds c o l l e c t e d  The  aims  follows:  founded  o r g a n i z a t i o n known as  J a m a i c a W e l f a r e L i m i t e d w h i c h was two  i n community  and o b j e c t i v e s  i n 1937 from the of the  by ex-  52 Sponsoring r u r a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n through i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the B e t t e r V i l l a g e P l a n , w h i c h f e a t u r e s s u c h t h i n g s as g r o u p o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r o j e c t a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d i n g somet h i n g p r a c t i c a l on w h i c h v i l l a g e r s may work, etc. C r e a t i n g a sound, h e a l t h y p u b l i c o p i n i o n f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d to i n d i v i d u a l , group and community b e t t e r m e n t . E n c o u r a g i n g s e l f - h e l p and m u t u a l h e l p e f f o r t s i n matters c u l t u r a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , economic and c i v i c . P r o v i d i n g v i l l a g e c o h e s i o n and harmony through a d u l t education e f f o r t . S e c u r i n g c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the f i e l d . J o i n i n g w i t h f o u r departments of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e i n implementing farm Develop/ ment Scheme l a u n c h e d b y Government i n 1955*  2,  3.  1+. 5. 6.  With is  regard  to f i e l d  divided into four  divisional each w i t h are  officer. i t s own  altogether  "parish"  13  divisional 106  e a c h h e a d e d by  A  contains  "division"  parishes  Specialists  offices. village  a total The  where and village  an  i n the  3-k  assistant. country.  I n 1959,  "parishes", There  Each  when a r e q u e s t  of  has  Commission.  to  the  altogether 530  villages,  service is  been p r e s e n t e d  given by  Whenever p o s s i b l e ,  existing village a survey  In passing  a the  groups.  of a  economic, a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l , structure.  areas'  lj.00,000.  always begins w i t h  demographic  attached  t h e r e were  method o f work i s t h a t  to determine the  are  a  recreation,  i n s t r u c t o r s , covering  population  t o the  Field-work  in literacy,  co-operatives  i n s t r u c t o r s work t h r o u g h  and  Island  "divisions",  o f f i c e r and  home e c o n o m i c s , and  with  the  i n turn i s divided i n t o " i n s t r u c t i o n a l  or v i l l a g e s .  about  organization,  village social  i t should  be  1  53 pointed  out t h a t  to Jamaica.  this  the  therefore  use o f l o c a l  five  t h e needs  needs  of v i l l a g e r s .  agencies, are a l s o concerned with activities.  the Jamaica A g r i c u l t u r a l  Commission,  These  T h e y were e s t a b l i s h e d  Agricultural  youth  by a standing bers  top l e v e l  agencies. secretaries problems.  which  representatives  In addition,  Agricult-  o f a b o u t 20,000.  Services  are formulated  includesamong of the f i v e  I t s memmember  t h e managers a n d e x e c u t i v e  meet f r o m t i m e t o t i m e t o d i s c u s s Furthermore, a l l f i v e  i n g programme f o r f i e l d - w o r k e r s . these  The k~H  remain,.as a q u a s i - g o v e r n m e n t a l  of the f i v e  committee  level.  o f the Jamaica  o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h an enrolment The p o l i c i e s  of the  Board, the r e s t m a i n t a i n  s t a r t e d as y o u t h c l u b s S o c i e t y , and s t i l l  Societies  the exception  e d u c a t i o n programmes a t t h e v i l l a g e  ural  Loan  i n 1955, u n d e r t h e  With  Loan S o c i e t i e s  of A g r i -  Jamaica S o c i a l Welfare  k-H C l u b s , a n d A g r i c u l t u r a l  of A g r i c u l t u r e .  agencies are  Society, Ministry  culture Extension Services,  Clubs  The  resources of a l l kinds are well guided  community d e v e l o p m e n t  Ministry  of a v i l l a g e .  Co-ordinated Extension Services, comprising  independent  Board.  i s able  i s h i g h l y commendable, f o r a t l e a s t  t o meet t h e immediate The  seems t o be u n i q u e  Prom t h e s u r v e y , t h e C o m m i s s i o n  to determine o u t r i g h t approach  approach  attempts  at co-ordination,  h a v e a common In spite  common train-  of a l l  e a c h has r e t a i n e d  its  identity  ization  and autonomy.  into Divisions,  Areas resembles that as d e s c r i b e d  The s y s t e m o f f i e l d  Parishes,  and I n s t r u c t i o n a l  of the Social Welfare  have in  development  different  the f i e l d ,  i n Jamaica.  objectives, their b e c a u s e once  an a g e n c y , i t may expand Thus  i n a small  pedient  that  a central  Puerto  are i n v o l v e d i n  A l t h o u g h e a c h may activities  t o i n c l u d e new  co-ordinating the d i r e c t  agency  programmes o f  agencies.  are c a r r i e d  i n Puerto  o u t b y two s e p a r a t e D e p a r t m e n t s , e a c h  different  aims.  One o f t h e s e  i s the D i v i s i o n  Community E d u c a t i o n o f t h e Department  I t was e s t a b l i s h e d  i n 19^9 t o h e l p  c o v e r t h e power i n h e r e n t g e t h e r and d e v e l o p i n g The ular  s h o u l d be  Rico:-  pursuing of  activities.  Jamaica, i t i s q u i t e ex-  Community d e v e l o p m e n t programmes Rico  overlap  a programme i s i n i t i a t e d b y  country l i k e  established to control different  Commission  above.  L i k e M e x i c o , t o o many a g e n c i e s community  organ-  i n their  community  of Education.  communities families  dis-  coming t o -  cohesion.  fundamental purpose i s t o "provide'our  culture with the t o o l  t h i s w i l l mean g i v i n g Puerto Rican  community  of a basic  e n c y , and t h e way o f m a k i n g for the solution  education...',  t o t h e communities i n general  of their  pop-  and t o t h e  the wish, the tend-  use o f t h e i r  own  aptitudes,  own p r o b l e m s o f h e a l t h ,  55 education, action  of the The  munities, The  c o - o p e r a t i o n , and  programme i s c a r r i e d out and  each  are c a r e f u l l y  spiritual  stations,  s e l e c t e d and  they r e l a t e  communities have b u i l t latrines,  the  com-  organizer.  trained for  o n l y on  occupational  t h e i r p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s and  a t t i t u d e s as  o f t h e kOO  i n a b o u t kOO  They a r e chosen not  o f t h e i r a c a d e m i c and  a l s o on  through  i s s u p e r v i s e d by a g r o u p  a b o u t s i x months.  but  life,  itself."7  community  organizers  basis  social  the  qualifications,  their  social  and  t o t h i s work. roads,  wells,  s c h o o l s , l u n c h r o o m s , and  Many milk  community  centres. The  other  Administration  institution  i s the  Social  u n d e r the D e p a r t m e n t  Programme  of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d i n 19k9  t o a d m i n i s t e r what a r e known  as  of S q u a t t e r s " ,  "Title  Vl-Pamily It  V-Resettlement  S i z e F a r m s " , u n d e r the L a n d Law  carries  following  out a programme the p r i n c i p l e s  operative housing The  and  fundamental  create proper urban areas  are  about  farm aim  the  i n the  and  "Title  of  1951.  resettlement  o f community p l a n n i n g ,  co-  management. o f the programme i s t o conditions in rural  which would induce  elsewhere For  of r u r a l  environmental  l i v i n g where t h e y a r e going  and  so  o b v i a t e the  country  Implementation  the people  or  to  and  enjoy  d e s i r e of  abroad.  of the programme,  s i x o r g a n i z a t i o n s or d i v i s i o n s .  there  Among  these  56 are  (1)  t h e L e g a l , E n g i n e e r i n g , and  which handle  such  imply*; ( i i ) t h e which  technical  Division  i s concerned  with  Housing  aspects  of Small  as  their  developing  small  as p o t t e r y , s e w i n g , and  izes  communal w o r k i n g c e n t r e s * ( i l l ) t h e  located of  basic f a c i l i t i e s ; Activities  in addition  carries  the L a n d  the  care  f o r the  Puerto  t o be  Minimum  of slum  settlements, deficient  of C i v i c  o u t a programme  public  of  division  services; charged  implementation  Employcommun-  (v)  with  of T i t l e  R i c a n community d e v e l o p m e n t  h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d both  organization.  The  degree  the many-sided n a t u r e  there  the VI  of  c o u l d i n p a r t be i z a t i o n , which  of community  progress  e r r o r , which countries  attributed  touches  i s the  i n search  s h o u l d not  technical  a i d and  important  role.  be  the  t o the  a l l aspects  result  are worth  i n content  development. programme has  and  rt  financial  fact  of t r i a l  other  o f a modus o p e r a n d i " . of t h e  achieved  of community's  o f many y e a r s  that  to  The  sophisticated  e x p e r i e n c i n g by  lost  programme  of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n p o i n t s  tremendous amount of p r o g r e s s  sight  organ-  Law.  The  The  It  view of s t i m u l a t i n g s e l f -  Improving  a special  responsibility  appears  t o y - m a k i n g , and  ( i v ) the D i v i s i o n  o r g a n i z a t i o n with  h e l p p r o j e c t s and Is  industries  o u t s i d e l a r g e u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s , and  ment and ity  takes  titles  Community I n d u s t r i e s ,  such  Urbanization Division  Divisions,  organneeds. and  developing  However, foreign  r e s o u r c e s have p l a y e d  an  57 The separate for  programme  c a n f u r t h e r be i m p r o v e d i f one  agency o r department  a l l programmes  i s made r e s p o n s i b l e  i n community d e v e l o p m e n t , s o t h a t  a g r e a t e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n c o u l d be a c h i e v e d . sent  o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d b r i n g no c o n f l i c t  ments o f E d u c a t i o n areas, else, there  i s every  cross-purposes.  Project  Type3 o f Programme  and  types  tendency  o f programme  are also m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l .  ject  type  o f programme  a c o u n t r y may  i f the  Depart-  a n d A g r i c u l t u r e work i n d i f f e r e n t  work a t  Project  The p r e -  a r e not  country-wide,  An e x t e n s i o n  i n one a r e a  i n t e r f e r e with  f o r programmes t o  of a p r o -  t o other p a r t s of  the f u n c t i o n s of the  govern-  ment, s i m p l y b e c a u s e programmes a r e g e n e r a l l y g e a r e d solving  specific  socio-economic  problems.  They a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d u n d e r a v a r i e t y izational  forms.  of m i n i s t r i e s but  may  Coco p r o j e c t second  come t o g e t h e r t o work on a p r o j e c t ,  In Nicaragua,  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  f o r example, t h e R i o of E d u c a t i o n .  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form  agency, w i t h  i s concerned  i s an a u t o n o -  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from  and o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t a n d p r i v a t e  Institute  with p r o j e c t  grammes f o r I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s .  A  is illustrated  the N a t i o n a l I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e , which  tries  of organ-  forms i s where a number  i s under the M i n i s t r y  example  mous f e d e r a l  The  of t h e s e  one o f them i s e n t r u s t e d w i t h  responsibility.  by  One  to  minis-  institutions. types  Thirdly,  a  of p r o -  single  58 m i n i s t r y may  be  a u t h o r i z e d t o be  whole p r o j e c t . nish  The  Cultural  a good example.  the C a r i b b e a n selected  Trends  Of t h e 3 6  nine  rural  America  and  and S a u d i A r a b i a h a v e  and  (including  exclusively  t o one  Pour of these are c o n c e r n e d I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n , while the  youths,  and  so  The  rest  of the  a wide g e o g r a p h i c  other f i v e  a r e a , f o r example, the D i v i s i o n  a full  national  e i g h t e e n are p i l o t  coverage projects  the  programmes Jamaica  as y e t .  Indigenista  The  de E d u c a c i o  remaining  in Haiti.  Fundamental  Only  broad  i n Mexico,  and  the  seven  of  integrated  o f community d e v e l o p m e n t , s u c h Society,  areas,  Indians i n Nicaragua,  agencies conduct  S o c i a l Welfare  of  None o f them however  e l Rio Coco f o r the M i s k i t o  thirty-seven  cover  Centros  confined to limited  example, P r o y e c t o P i l o t o  and t h e P o t e C o l e P r o j e c t the  unions,  t o t a l number o f programmes  de B i e n e s t o r R u r a l i n M e x i c o .  en  of  the  deal  are concerned with  Community E d u c a t i o n i n P u e r t o R i c o and t h e  for  specific  s o l e l y with  o f t h e s u g a r w o r k e r , members on.  Mexico),  population i n general. One-half  has  been  the C a r i b b e a n * : -  the Caribbean  themselves  w i t h problems  rural  t y p e s o f programme! i n  community d e v e l o p m e n t programmes i n  America  address  group.  fur-  f o r review.  i n Central  Central  Missions i n Mexico  Project  area, Ecuador  responsible for a  as  the  Institute Nacional  the D i v i s i o n  of  Community  59 Education i n Puerto The its  dynamic n a t u r e  broad  istics  Rico.  objectives,  o f community d e v e l o p m e n t ,  and t h e i n t e r l a c i n g c h a r a c t e r -  o f t h e programmes w i t h  agencies  o f t h e governmei t  i n t h e r e g i o n make i t d i f f i c u l t  t h e programmes types.  those  into  integrative,  The f o l l o w i n g  to classify  adaptive or p r o j e c t  classifications  has t h e s e  limit-  ations. O n l y one o f t h i r t y - s i x , Indigenista ing  of Mexico,  the i n t e g r a t i v e  it  may  of the f a c t  coverage.  type.  approach-  Five  that  However, i t i s o t h e r programmes  be c a t e g o r i z e d as a d a p t i v e ; - one i n G u a t a m a l a , P u e r t o R i c o (The D i v i s i o n  and In  as a p r o j e c t  Nacional  be r e g a r d e d as  type, i n s p i t e  has n o t a country-wide  often cited  in  might  The I n s t i t u t e  the S o c i a l Jamaica  Programmes  o f Community E d u c a t i o n  Administration),  (The S o c i a l Welfare  Sugar Labour  Board).  two  a n d two  Commission and t h e  They a r e a d a p t i v e because  their  i n a u g u r a t i o n h a s c a u s e d no change i n t h e a d m i n i s trative  o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t s , b u t has  conformed national  with  them.  coverage  None o f them has a c h i e v e d a  y e t , though  they are f a i r l y  well  spread. T w e l v e o f t h e r e m a i n i n g programmes the p r o j e c t  type.  each  other.  into  They are m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l , but  work i n l i m i t e d g e o g r a p h i c from  fall  areas.  Indeed  One may be an e f f o r t  they  of a  differ  specialized  60 group, c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e f f o r t group ect,  such  as c h i l d r e n ,  a specific  This type dor,  The fied  a simple  task l i k e  Rica, H a i t i , remaining  p r o p e r l y and  a t t e n t i o n on  be  and  found  so  cite  find  an  itself  agronomists  the  p r o m o t i n g improved  or p o u l t r y r a i s i n g  cal  and  of the  new  activities.  h e a l t h programme  would  a g r i c u l t u r a l methods  mote h o m e c r a f t s  ties  classi-  dominant tendency i n the  i t necessary  outlet  on.  Salva-  with  t h a t agency f o r t h a t purpose; a  r a c y programme m i g h t f i n d  application  so  on.  example, a m o t h e r - c h i l d  by  proj-  scheme, and  e i g h t e e n programmes c a n n o t be  i t reflects  hired  specific  i n Hondura'g, E l  r e g i o n f o r a scheme t o expand t o e n v e l o p To  a  experiment or p i l o t  a resettlement  o f programme c a n  Costa  and  t o the  so  lite-  or advisable to as  to give a  newly d e v e l o p i n g  pro-  practiabili-  people.  Mexico:There  are  a number o f community d e v e l o p m e n t  grammes i n M e x i c o , b u t  they  are of the  most o u t s t a n d i n g  of these  tute,  Presidential  the  c r e a t e d by  Institute  n a t i o n a l way  implies tion  of l i f e .  the b r e a k i n g  of the  health;  million  and  decree  i n I9I1B. The indigenous  o f 30 m i l l i o n  out The  p r o j e c t type.  National Indian  i s t o i n c o r p o r a t e the  numbering about 10 the  i s the  process  in orienting  improvement to the  The  Instiaim  of  Indians,  Mexicans,  to  of I n c o r p o r a t i o n  down o f t h e p h y s i c a l and  I n d i a n , the  pro-  mental  isola-  o f h i s economy and  n a t i o n a l way  of l i f e ,  his care  >  61 is  taken not  t o l e t hira l o s e  community v a l u e s .  For  certain cultural  h i s .own  good, he  t o p a r t i c i p a t e v o l u n t a r i l y i n any  is  effort  and  expected  of  government  agencies. The  Institute is a federal  a director, council  and  staff,,  consists  The  council  autonomous b o d y w i t h  technical  and  of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  the  Ministries  of Education, Public  and  Livestock,  Hydraulic  Works, the Bank, t h e The  technical the  programme a r e  applied  anthropology, public  building construction Technical The  the  Treasury.  In  the  centres,  each  zone.  and  and  addition,  centre  number may  by  the  the  Ministries  loans  agencies  and  are  for specific  i n an  indigenous  since  1959,  so  have i n c r e a s e d .  Livestock,  obtained  located  i s to co-ordinate,  construction,  They form  operating  that  economic  C h a r t l4.,,p.62).  a y e a r have b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d , total  l i v e s t o c k , road  publications.  in  fields;  education,  I n s t i t u t e was  It is believed  Groups.  Director  following  Public  Government  Indian  Health, Agriculture  financial  I n 1959,  the  health,  Institute i s subsidized  from government  five  f r o m the  Commission, (See  of E d u c a t i o n , P u b l i c and  and  a s s i s t i n g the  running  development, a g r i c u l t u r e  Agriculture  Department, the  Polytechnic  personnel,  Health,  of  Works, C o m m u n i c a t i o n and  Interior, Agrarian National  administrative  that The  through  three by  population centres  now''their  function  i n each a r e a ,  purposes.  the  of  each  technical  PRESENT ORGANIZATION OF THE NATIONAL INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MEXICO  CHART L  PRESIDENT COUNCIL DIRECTOR OF INSTITUTE ADMINISTRATION  TECHNICAL COMMISSION  BOARD FOR FOLK ARTS  LEGAL DEPT. I  DIRECTION OF CENTRE  DIRECTION OF CENTRE  DIRECTION OF CENTRE  DIRECTION OF CENTRE  DIRECTION OF CENTRE  SUB-DIRECTION  1 MUSEUMS AND WORK SHOPS  X ADMINISTRATION  SHOPS  ROADS SECTION  T MEDICAL SECTION  EDUCATIONAL SECTION  HOSPITALS AND POSTS  SCHOOLS  ECONOMIC DEV. SECTION CO-OPERATIVES CREDITS  AGRICULTURAL SECTION EXPERIMENTAL FIELDS  LEGAL SECTION  VISUAL AIDS  o ro  63 resources  of f e d e r a l  the c e n t r e  is like  (See  k).  Chart  a s s i s t e d by  that  Each  of the  and  of s p e c i a l i s t s  nurses.  B e l o w them a r e t h e  like  village-level  purpose workers, but field  such The  to  so  on.  as m e d i c a l Next  such  doctors,  i n rank i s  as a g r o n o m i s t s  " p r o m o t o r e s " , who  on  a  and  function  They a r e n o t  each c o n c e n t r a t e s  multi-  specialized  agriculture.  of a c t i o n vary i n s i z e  15,000 s q u a r e k i l o m e t e r s .  The  number of  one  t o 100.  and  100 m u n i c i p i o s , e q u i v a l e n t t o a b o u t 20,000 t o  One  110,000 p e o p l e .  c e n t r e may  district)  ranges  h a v e u n d e r i t between  Thus b y 1959,  1,000  settlements  "munlcipio'  1  council  from about  per  of  (a local  itself,  an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ,  such  workers.  as h e a l t h and areas  s t r u c t u r e of  Institute  i s headed by  engineers  group  the  The  other s p e c i a l i s t s ,  agricultural another  agencies.  k00,000 p e o p l e ,  whom were I n d i a n s , were b e n e f i t i n g f r o m t h e  from three  70$ Institute's  programme. At and  the  community and  semi-voluntary  regional levels,  o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r community  ment have been f o r m e d . E x a m p l e s are  the  tribal  the b o a r d and  and  council,  for civic,  from the  they are mainly  the  moral,  the c o m m i t t e e f o r Apart  voluntary  of such  ejida and  develop-  organizations  organizations,  material  betterment,  education. Institute,  concerned  other agencies  with  exist,  s p e c i f i c projects'.  6k One  of these  Affairs", - 1. 2.  To  problems.  study  that  t o the  as  Indian  t o the  should  so t h a t t h e i r  3.  General  with  To p r o p o s e  agencies  well  Direction  c r e a t e d i n 1938  regulations  tribute  i s "The  Indian  be  Indian  following functions*  P r e s i d e n t measures taken  by  various  to  rely  it  was  on  government a g e n c i e s  s t a t e governments those  has  the good w i l l a lower  of Education  of other status.  took  departments,  i t s functions, title  of  the D i r e c t i o n  Education.  organize  improve  popular improve  for Literacy  economy l e v e l s ,  f a m i l y and  of and  civic  life and  Extra-  for initiative,  self-development,  and  so  Cultural  16  o f them were m o b i l e  in  a rural  a r e a f o r two  agricultural  and  health,  villages,  responsibility  on. Missions  or " m o t o r i z e d " . or  are  patriotic  the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of  T h e r e were 96  the  increase  domestic  a r t , strengthen  communities  and  o b j e c t i v e s of the M i s s i o n  Improve t h e g e n e r a l  feelings,  and  The  because  "Cultural  Ministry called  preserve  welfare.  19k7j the  forms a s e c t i o n o f a b r a n c h  production,  and  Indian  Mission'*, which  to  as  measures  Thus i n  over  been f u n c t i o n i n g under the  Mural  con-  1938 and 19l+5» t h e D i r e c t i o n o f t e n h a d  accorded  Ministry  government  welfare.  r e g u l a t i o n s which would c o n t r i b u t e to the Between  and  c o - o r d i n a t e d a c t i o n would  To p r o m o t e i n t h e i n the  the  of  three years  i n 1959, They and  and operate  then  move  65 to another their  one.  being  effort.  T h e i r main c o n t r i b u t i o n l i e s  "catalizers"  The  personnel  of  f o l l o w i n g : a head of the  and  organizers of  one  self-help  M i s s i o n comprises  Mission, a household  a midwife nurse,  a teacher f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  a music  a carpentry,/ t e a c h e r ,  teacher,  w o r k e r , m e c h a n i c s t e a c h e r and A n o t h e r agency i s the for  the  Rural S o c i a l  Coordinadora  Del  I t comprises  representatives Institute  by  o f many m i n i s t r i e s , Security.  m a t e r i a l and  established the  total  t r a i n persons other  The  as  decree.  the  and  Rural).  President,  the N a t i o n a l  programme  of  the  emphasis  is  on  It  has  c e n t r e s , c o v e r i n g a b o u t ko$  population.  in agriculture,  from these  state bodies  programmes,'for Material  as  federal  concerned  These c e n t r e s animal  of  also  husbandry,  agencies,  with  example, B o a r d s  Improvement, ( J u n t a s De  Civico Y Material). 1953  (Commission  and  specialties. Apart  also  Commission  c h i l d - c a r e programmes.  a b o u t kOO  country's  activities,  blacksmith  Presidential  Commission i s m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l , , but health,  worker,  Bienestar Social  M i n i s t e r of Health  of S o c i a l  the  a handicraft teacher.  Programme.  P r o g r a m a De  the  a  Co-ordinating  Welfare  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1955  I t was  in  The  s t a t u t o r y bodies  territories  to f o s t e r  there  community f o r Moral  are  development Civic,  Mejoramiento  and  Moral,  B o a r d s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n i n each  of the  states  community s e l f - h e l p  and  effort.  66 The  central co-ordinating office  Ministry  of Interior.  i s l o c a t e d i n the  S u b s i d i a r y b o a r d s have b e e n  s e t up a t s t a t e , r e g i o n a l and m u n i c i p a l federal  and s t a t e b o a r d s a s s i s t  orientation,  direction  levels.  the l o c a l  In 1 9 5 9 , 5 , 0 0 0  boards  and t e c h n i c a l h e l p ,  t h e m s e l v e s have no b u d g e t s and t e c h n i c a l  The with  but they  personnel.  s u c h b o a r d s were i n e x i s t e n c e  In c i t i e  towns and v i l l a g e s . The  State  community living  c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e Otomi Valley.  Government  Governor  administrator council  i t s own  Indians  o f the  The programme was s t a r t e d b y t h e In 1950, but l a t e r  Government t o o k o v e r . State  has organized  d e v e l o p m e n t programme f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e  Mezquital State  of Hidalgo  on, the F e d e r a l  I t has a c o u n c i l o f which the  i s the President, i s appointed  are representatives  and t h e e x e c u t i v e  by the P r e s i d e n t . from State  On t h e  and F e d e r a l  Ministries. It  a p p e a r s f r o m t h e above d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e  different  programmes t h a t t h e F e d e r a l  not  formulated  ity  d e v e l o p m e n t programmes, and o f t h e s e  Indian a  Institute  separate  blems.  co-ordinative policies  Government h a s  alone  f o r i t s commun-  c a n be j u s t i f i e d  programme d e a l i n g w i t h  the N a t i o n a l i n running  definite  Indian pro  The programmes o f t h e M i n i s t r i e s o f H e a l t h ,  Education,  and I n t e r i o r  are i d e n t i c a l ,  and h e n c e one  o f them o r a f e d e r a l autonomous body c o u l d be made  67 responsible ensure is  f o r a l l t h e s e programmes i n o r d e r t o  t h e i r proper  c o - o r d i n a t i o n and p l a n n i n g .  r e p o r t e d that since the States maintain  similar  t o t h e F e d e r a l ones c o n c e r n e d  with  development, t h e r e r e s u l t s  i n some c a s e s  and  of a g e n c i e s ,  in  sometimes t r i p l i c a t i o n similar  diversified  duplication a l l engaged'  background such  and fundamental e d u c a t i o n .  who c a n d e a l w i t h  as  husbandry, s a n i t a t i o n ,  are so complex that  suitable  problems.  are concerned,  workers  anthropology,  domestic Rural  i t i s only s p e c i a l i s t  these  technical personnel t h e most  community  R i c o , M e x i c o h a s many f i e l d  academic  agronomy, a n i m a l Industries  departments  activities.  L i k e Puerto of  It  problems  field  workers  Thus as f a r as Mexico has  taken  approach.  Ecuador!Community d e v e l o p m e n t i n E c u a d o r i s t h e r e s ponsibility  o f t h e Andean M i s s i o n , c r e a t e d i n J u n e *  195>1  by f i v e  U. H. a g e n c i e s ,  ments o f E c u a d o r , P e r u Mission illustrates of  of  and B o l i v i a .  most o f I t s t i m e ,  the n a t i v e Indians  i n t e r i o r highlands. p o v e r t y h a v e made  important  as a whole. just winning  o f the S i e r r a , Many y e a r s  the govern-  The work o f t h e  one o f the most  community d e v e l o p m e n t  spent  together with  aspects  The M i s s i o n h a s the confidence that  i s , the  o f s u p p r e s s i o n and  them i n d i f f e r e n t  t o any o u t s i d e h e l p .  68 The  traditional  and  value  system,  leadership, lack  differences in  of s o c i a l  cohesion,  unequal l a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n inhibiting any  progress.  change i n t h e i r After  an  Sometimes pattern  initial  period  d e m o n s t r a t i o n f r o m 1956 the  magnitude  o f the  especially  rest  country.  be  of t h e  described  attention living and  as  of the  i s focused  Negroes  the M i s s i o n The  extends  of s p e c i a l i s t s  which  a b l y from the acteristic the  t a c t with  the  villagers. and  s e r v i c e s and  industries,  and  area.  Indians  realized rural the  because  much  population  Where on  aptly  Mestizos  the  Sierra,  t o them as  well. a team  organizer,  educationist, a doctor differs  an and  remark-  worker approach,  char-  of c o u n t r i e s , f o r i n the  specialists The  and  with  approached through  team a p p r o a c h  of a m a j o r i t y  includes health social  The  or  Indians,  s e c t i o n o f the  the  village-level  technicians  Mission  includes a zonal  agronomist, a fundamental a s o c i a l worker.  the  its activities are  resist  programme however may  geographic  communities  factors  of e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  Sierra  one  intermix with  grossly  living.  " p r o j e c t type",  on  in a distinct  other  of i n t e g r a t i n g the  the The  and  they t r y to  t o 1958,  task  population,  of  are  status  have d i r e c t  programme o f t h e  former,  con-  Mission  s a n i t a t i o n , education, a g r i c u l t u r e , community o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h o u s e s and  small amenities.  99 An  attempt  i s a l s o b e i n g made a t i n t r o d u c i n g  govennraent,  which  i s lacking  i n these p a r t s  T h i s i s b e i n g done b y e n c o u r a g i n g to e l e c t  through  a village Ministry  d e m o c r a t i c means f i v e  c o u n c i l , which of S o c i a l  The  each  vehicle  coverage, v i l l a g e  colonization and  people  community to form the  i s hoping  programme a c h i e v e s  councils will  be  areas, supported  measures as a g r a r i a n r e f o r m s  of undeveloped  the  and  l a n d s i n t h e Amazon  basin  elsewhere. The  situation  situations  and B r a z i l .  the l e a d through development the r u r a l before these  i n Ecuador  has  countries  V e n e z u e l a has  i t s land reform acts. t o p l a y the i n i t i a l  countries  t o o , i t has  b r i d g e t h e w i d e gap  c a n be  reforms.  such  role  of  giving education,  undertaken.  between d i f f e r e n t must  be  as  Gommunity  become e v i d e n t t h a t  community development  agrarian  comparable  already taken  p o p u l a t i o n some b a s L c f u n d a m e n t a l  any p h y s i c a l p r o j e c t  living,  exemplifies  i n some L a t i n ; / A m e r i c a n  Peru, B o l i v i a  by  village  of Ecuador  of d e v e l o p i n g the r u r a l  by s u c h r i g o r o u s  Ecuador.  Welfare.  t h a t when t h e community d e v e l o p m e n t  sole  of  i s then r e g i s t e r e d with  N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board  a country-wide  local  standards  In to of  accompanied  70 Saudi  Arabia:At  the present  stage  o f t h e community d e v e l o p -  ment programme, i t h a s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e s o f t h e project  t y p e o f programme, a l t h o u g h  ure  i t may be r e - o r g a n i z e d  The  first  October  project  i n t o an i n t e g r a t i v e  was  started  futtype.  i n Diriyah i n  I960, by t h e M i n i s t r i e s o f E d u c a t i o n , A g r i -  culture, in  pilot  i n the near  and H e a l t h .  To d a t e ,  there  are f i v e  t h e c o u n t r y , and e a c h t e c h n i c a l m i n i s t r y  provides  i t s own  staff.  Each p r o j e c t  projects  concerned  covers  about  20,000 p e o p l e , l i v i n g i n a g r o u p o f v i l l a g e s c l o s e to  each other.  director,  A project  an a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r , and m e d i c a l  a literacy  specialist,  w o r k e r , and a n u r s e . as  trainees,  become  a s a n i t a r i a n , a female Projects  will  increase  and p l a n n i n g  social i n number  of p r o j e c t s are  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f community d e v e l o p m e n t  w h i c h have b e e n formed levels.  doctor,  available.  Policy-formulation the  i s s t a f f e d by a p r o j e c t  at the national  The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  aspect  and  committees district  o f t h e programme  r e s t s w i t h a Community D e v e l o p m e n t D i v i s i o n o f t h e Ministry the  o f L a b o u r and S o c i a l A f f a i r s .  programme  i s c a r r i e d out i n l i n e w i t h the de-  p a r t m e n t a l programme o f t h e m i n i s t r y any  rate,  ministries  Any p a r t o f  a combined programme i s drawn w i t h i n  Planning Board o f Saudi  concerned.  o f two o r more  At  technical  t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e Supreme  Arabia.  71 The has  N a t i o n a l Community Development  three w e l l defined goals 1.  vices  To e x t e n d  2.  t h e economic  i n villages  serAffairs,  through the  o f w o r k i n g methods a n d c o - o r d i n a t i o n ;  T o d e m o n s t r a t e methods o f A g r i c u l t u r e , u s e  of c o - o p e r a t i v e s , r o a d , other aspects 3. raw  i t strives*  of A g r i c u l t u r e , S o c i a l  Commerce and C o m m u n i c a t i o n improvement  towards w h i c h  and s t r e n g t h e n  of the M i n i s t r i e s  Committee  of r u r a l  and school economic  To p r o m o t e r u r a l  materials  They i n c l u d e road  on l o c a l  of market.  s o f a r a r e r e p o r t e d t o be and school  ment o f a g r i c u l t u r a l education,  development*  h a n d i c r a f t , based  and a v a i l a b i l i t y  Achievements  c o n s t r u c t i o n , and  promising.  c o n s t r u c t i o n , improve-  methods a n d p r a c t i c e s , l i t e r a c y  c r e a t i o n of multi-purpose  co-operative  s o c i e t i e s , arid: -so o n . A  characteristic  is  the e o n c e n t r a t i o n  in  s e l e c t e d geographic  this  approach, which  ''project t y p e "  The  differs  this  programme  The j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f f r o m many c o u n t r i e s  i s t h a t about  with  two-thirds  i s nomadic and semi-nomadic;  t o make them s e d e n t a r y ,  and developed  dry climatic  justifies  areas.  programmes  h e n c e i n an a t t e m p t  Arabian  o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and e f f o r t  of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n  selected  o f the Saudi  through the people's  c o n d i t i o n s i n the c o u n t r y ,  "selective  approach"*  a r e a s ;are own  effort.  further  Although the  72 five  projects  programme  to other  many o t h e r at  the  if  local  appear q u i t e h e a l t h y , parts  countries,  local  level  of the  the  interdepartmental  committees  of  the  c o u n t r y i s slow.  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  development  spread  are  Like  co-operation  could not  be  hampered,  strong.  Summary Prom the that  foregoing  community  development, programmes  country to another. its  mitment  i t s specific  Programmes r a n g e  to multi-purpose  programmes do n o t administration,  differ  and  differ  Each Country attempts  programme t o s u i t  conditions.  account, I t i s evident  there  are  needs a n d  local  remarkably.  Of  in role played In  the  have  by  contents  so much as  the  methods  the  three  h a v e no  s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the  village  councils  elsewhere  village  s t a t u t o r y powers, but  o f community d e v e l o p m e n t . as  voluntary  of of  bread  types  and  project  or  regional,  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  s t a t u t o r y powers t o f u n c t i o n whilst  com-  dissimilarities.  or  organizations.  as  differ  difference  committees.  P h i l i p p i n e s , f o r example, v i l l a g e  agencies,  local  The  levels  equal  develop  projects.  Committee s y s t e m s a t n a t i o n a l , s t a t e d i s t r i c t , and  one  from s i n g l e - p u r p o s e  even w i t h i n  still  from  to  of programme, n a m e l y i n t e g r a t i v e , a d a p t i v e types,  then  councils  local  governing  committees  or  councils  serve  as  agents  i n fact  be  regarded  they only  They could  73 In almost  a l l the  countries  s e l e c t e d f o r review,  of proper a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the  primarily  concerned with  community d e v e l o p m e n t on  and  government d e p a r t m e n t s and  other  other  lack  agency the  one  p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s on  hand, c o n s t i t u t e s a major problem.  reasons.  First,  different  a u t h o r i t i e s s u c h as g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s , w h i c h  tries  administrative  to protect  planners  do  not  agency s h o u l d  i t s own  d i r e c t i o n s are  powers, w i t h interest.  s p e c i f y the  operandi". the  are  s t a g e and But  countries  before  should  any  that  each  S e c o n d l y , programme  and  is still  are  method c a n  at i t s  i n search  o f a "modus  p r o v e t o be  workable,  community d e v e l o p m e n t programmes t o be  studied  capable of changing  preferences,  result  from  play.  c o n t r i b u t i o n of  development  issued  main  r o l e which each c o n t r i b u t i n g  I n d e e d , community d e v e l o p m e n t experimental  the  f o r two  is  to achieve,  administrative  field,  the  difficult  have e q u a l  e s p e c i a l l y i n the  Co-ordination  hand,  in detail,  i n s o f a r as  standards of l i v i n g ,  s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and  social  rural  programmes values,  environment.  Footnotes: 1. U n i t e d N a t i o n s , T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme, P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A s p e c t s o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes. (Document No. ST/TAO/M/lk.) (New Y o r k , 1959), p . 5. 2, The t e r m " f u n c t i o n a l M i n i s t r y " o r " t e c h n i c a l M i n i s t r y " r e f e r s t o a government m i n i s t r y o r d e p a r t m e n t w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r one o f t h e m a j o r t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s , s u c h a s , e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h , a g r i c u l t u r e , and s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . An employee o f a t e c h n i c a l m i n i s t r y who i s e n g a g e d i n a comm u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t programme i s c a l l e d an " e x t e n s i o n o f f i c e r " . The t e r m " n e u t r a l M i n i s t r y r e f e r s t o a m i n i s t r y w h i c h i s d e v o t e d t o s u c h m a t t e r s as f i n a n c e , l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t , i n f o r m a t i o n ^ and so on. w  7k 3. I b i d , pp. 5-6. Ij.. United Nations Economic Commission f o r A s i a and the f a r E a s t , Programme E v a l u a t i o n and-Research. (Document No. SOD.8) (Bangkok, 1961), p. 3. 5. Peter du Santoy, Community Development i n Ghana. (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 5 6 . 6. J.B. Hawley, "Programs of Community Development i n Jamaica", Community Development Review. IV, No. 2 (June 1 9 5 9 ) » H> 39-kO. 7. Puerto R i c o : Annual Report o f the Commissioner o f E d u c a t i o n . 19k8-19k9. (San Juan 19k9), p. 19 i n U.N., Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , Report on Concepts and P r i n c i p l e s of Community Development. (Document No. E/CN£/325) (New York 1 9 5 7 ) , pp..51-52.  CHAPTER I I I  THE  CONTRIBUTION OP COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES TO RURAL DEVELOPMENT The r o l e  which  play;  i n raising  areas  i n developing  community d e v e l o p m e n t  the general  standard  that of  community d e v e l o p m e n t  b r i n g i n g a b o u t economic  methods and t e c h n i q u e s examined.  the s u b j e c t of  i s n o t t h e most e f f i c i e n t development,  of r u r a l  s h o u l d be r e -  o f community  people,  for  communal  self-help  ment P l a n " , w i t h o u t development  these  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , development F o r example, clearly  has a l l o t t e d  s u c h as a d u l t  plans  a b o u t h 2.25  what  p r o j e c t s should assigned  aspects  cover. important  t o community d e v e l o p m e n t  the Second P i v e - Y e a r  spelled  out t h e r o l e  d e v e l o p m e n t programmes.  satisfied. million  p r o j e c t s i n i t s "Second D e v e l o p -  specifying  have  develop-  programmes, t h r o u g h  e d u c a t i o n , w e l l s , markets, and s c h o o l s , are Ghana, f o r example,  way  and t h e r e f o r e t h e  c u r r e n t l y employed  Some c o u n t r i e s c o n c e i v e  t h e b a s i c needs  i n rural  Some e c o n o m i s t s c o n t e n d  ment programmes as m e r e l y w e l f a r e which  of l i v i n g  c o u n t r i e s has b e e n  much d e b a t e i n r e c e n t y e a r s .  programmes  Plan  of  Other c o u n t r i e s , parts  says*  of  their  programmes.  o f I n d i a has  t o be p l a y e d b y  The P l a n  rural  community  ?6 The N a t i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e a n d Community P r o j e c t s p r o v i d e the s e t t i n g i n which the N a t i o n a l P l a n approaches t h e needs and a s p i r a t i o n o f t h e Country-side. D u r i n g the Second P l a n t h e y s h o u l d r e f l e c t i n c r e a s i n g l y t h e changes and e m p h a s i s , p r i o r i t i e s , and g e n e r a l o u t l o o k which g u i d e o v e r a l l planning. They s h o u l d p l a y a l a r g e r o l e i n promoting the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n through the o p e r a t i o n of l a n d r e f o r m s , s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , b u i l d i n g up l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p a n d growth o f c o - o p e r a t i v e movement. The programme s h o u l d become a p o s i t i v e f o r c e i n b r i n g i n g a b o u t b o t h an i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l s o c i e t y and an e x p a n d i n g r u r a l economy. The m a i n r e a s o n f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g community d e v e l o p ment programmes i n n a t i o n a l community development cess  that  i s believed  a n d method o f s o l v i n g  and even p o l i t i c a l  problems.  development,  and t e c h n i q u e s  tegrated with At t h i s  of achieving  the major ities,  social  which  i s made t o p o i n t o u t  a l l t h e known methods  proper s o c i a l  a n d economic  r e f e r e n c e t o community  development. i t may be w o r t h w h i l e t o i d e n t i f y  and economic problems o f r u r a l  community  development  signed t o help t o solve. "The p r o b l e m s  d e s i g n e d and  s h o u l d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y be I n -  community junture,  i n local  Chapter  i s "merely" c o n t r i b u t i n g t o  and t h e r e f o r e  planning,  pro-  economic,  I t i s assumed i n t h i s  they are well  development, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r and r e g i o n a l  t o be an e f f e c t i v e  However, an a t t e m p t  t h a t community d e v e l o p m e n t rural  i s that  programmes c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o  development, p r o v i d e d  administered.  plans  important s o c i a l ,  community d e v e l o p m e n t  rural  development  programmes a r e de-  As A. P e r p e t u a p o i n t s o u t ;  communities  of m u t u a l l y i n t e r l o c k i n g  commun-  a r e s e e n as s e r i e s  difficulties.  There a r e no  77 s i n g u l a r l y economic problems, n e i t h e r are there u n i q u e l y p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l problems. ramify into o t h e r s .  The " i n d i v i d u a l " problems  2  The C u l t i v a t o r uses the most p r i m i t i v e t o o l s and p r a c t i c e s . Why? One reason i s t h a t he o f t e n knows no b e t t e r - he does not have access t o s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n because not enough i s a v a i l a b l e , but even i f i t were, he couldn't read i t because he Is i l l i t e r a t e . Now i t becomes an e d u c a t i o n a l as w e l l as a g r i c u l t u r a l problem. Or, he cannot get a s t e e l plough or chemical f e r t i l i z e r s because he has no c a p i t a l , and money l e n d e r s charge more than 50 percent interest. So i t i s an economic as w e l l as an e d u c a t i o n a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l problem. Or, he doesn't use improved methods because he b e l i e v e s the o l d ways are the best...3 The major s o c i a l problem has been c r e a t e d by the impact of western r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n , p o l i t i c s and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n which has had a strong d i s i n t e g r a t i n g i n f l u e n c e on the shared v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s of p r e - e x i s t i n g r u r a l communities i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . In e f f e c t , the element of s o l i d a r i t y , which Is so unique i n these communities i s being undermined.  Education, f o r  example, has come t o be regarded as a p a t h t o i n d i v i d u a l material'advancement, and t o freedom from the bond's o f the  k i n s h i p system r a t h e r than as a means o f promoting  and s t r e n g t h e n i n g the w e l f a r e and s o c i a l values o f t r i b a l communities.  Thus, i t i s the t a s k of community d e v e l o p -  ment to p r e s e r v e and strengthen the element of s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y i n t r i b a l and r u r a l communities, and i f p o s s i b l e through common p r o j e c t s t o b r i n g together d i f f e r e n t communities,,  78 Furthermore, resulted  impact  in socio-cultural  proving harmful. exchange not  the  For  savings,  about  and  productive  commodities,  result  problem. One,  As  because  that  i t has  such  as,  out  and  that  1  a  i n rural  metropolitan raw  become a  are  already i n Chapter partici-  !  i n communal p r o j e c t s ,  means t h a t  apathy, l a c k  c a n be  Industries i n  dependent  the  to a great  available.  markets are n o t are  a l s o problems  Economic problems i n d e v e l o p i n g as  have  their  extent  upon  rural  o t h e r hand, a h e a l t h y a g r i c u l t u r e  if  industrialization  years  fast-growing  i n d u s t r i e s i n urban  export  of  removed.  must d e p e n d upon t h r i v i n g  up  crippling  m a t e r i a l s , manpower, and m a r k e t s o f t h e On  un-  alcoholism,  been a g r o w i n g a w a r e n e s s i n r e c e n t  centres  communities.  on  and  t o 'people's  self-reliance  communities.  has  large  economic problems i n d e v e l o p i n g ^ c o u n t r i e s  roots  an  investment,  Instead,  has  been p o i n t e d  i t i s through these  T h e r e has  economy  ceremonials  indebtedness  ' a t t i t u d e changing'  self-confidence  reportedly  i n income i s expended  much I m p o r t a n c e i s a t t a c h e d  p a t i o n ' ' and  the  of a s u b s i s t e n c e  increase  has  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  consumption of goods.  of t h e  the  changes which are  a substantial increase i n  proportion  with  "westernization"  example, t h e  economy i n p l a c e  brought  of  centres,  Hence p r o b l e m s of r u r a l  c o u n t r i e s may  of  development© be  summed  follows. First,  the  low  n a t i o n a l rate of savings  the m a j o r economic p r o b l e m s .  The  average p e r  i s one  of  c a p i t a gross  79 national  product from  savings  i n these  be  ing.  any  isr estimated  i n d u s t r i e s are  the  are  t o be  r e s u l t that  economy a r e  very  activity  few.  materials  are  a minimum. Thirdly,  is  such  the  restricted.  i n developing  vast  majority  necessities duction level  costs  countries,  life.  are  about  r e s u l t that  an  little  o r no  Industries  a t home.  foot-  development  initiative. c o n s t i t u t e the under a f r e e  support enterare  exploitation  minerals,  where  risks  c a p i t a income o f  able  to purchase this  are  goods.  New  only the  f o r e i g n manufacturers,  excise  about the  the  basic  high a  prolow  industries find i t  embargo i s o f t e n p l a c e d  g o o d s , and  20$,  foreign  o f n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n d u s t r i e s and  t o compete w i t h  should  i t i s self-evident that  Coupled with  of consumption of  difficult the  of  the  pro-  rate  for  of  f o r m a n u f a c t u r e d consumer goods  an a v e r a g e p e r  of p e o p l e  of  a firmer  v e n t u r e s and  t i m b e r and  market  With  #100  as  t o 6%  P o t e n t i a l entrepreneurs  m o s t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n commercial of raw  rate  to  industrial  government's  industrial  on  low,  The  the  unattractive  S e c o n d l y , e n t r e p r e n e u r s , who  at  i s very  proper i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n  considered  d e p e n d e n t upon t h e  of a c o u n t r y ' s  at k  increasing gradually  t  Moreover c o n d i t i o n s  prise  countries  economists estimate that  t o \5%  investment with is  For  start,  between 10  before  countries  income.  gramme t o  developing  %Z$ i n N e p a l t o $276 i n T u r k e y .  ranging  national  i n most  duties  are  on  with  foreign  l e v i e d on  new  60 A f o u r t h major problem employment. countries advanced rial  The  employers  countries,  are  mostly  and  and  a r e a s , because  sub-tropical  i s on.  visits  are p a i d  t h e i r farms  i s that  there are  the whole  f o r only f i v e  The  economic  t h e u n e m p l o y e d and  installations,  or s i x cocoa  signifithe  under-  income.  other problems p e r t a i n i n g  administration,  and  i n such f i x e d  capital  to  lack  govern-  inflationary of  a s s e t s as  gaps  large industrial  m u l t i - p u r p o s e dams, r o a d s , and r a i l w a y s .  Community d e v e l o p m e n t programmes c a n n o t answers t o a l l t h e s e economic problems, tribute  year,  goods w i t h o u t  c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t  investment  of  occasional  s k i l l s , f o r e i g n exchange, inadequate  ment o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d  evi-  F o r example, I n t h e  consumers o f s c a r c e i m p o r t e d  t o the n a t i o n a l  .Lastly,  scale  agriculture.  to f o o d s t u f f farms.  employed r e m a i n  technical  other  seasonal nature  F o r t h e r e m a i n i n g months, o n l y  of t h i s problem  which are  unskilled  i s , f r o m S e p t e m b e r t o F e b r u a r y when t h e  season  contributing  of the  a r e a s i n Ghana, t h r o u g h o u t  a r e k e p t b u s y on  months, t h a t  cance  the  Unemployment and underemployment a r e more  cocoa-growing farmers  are a v a i l a b l e mostly f o r  semi-skilled people, w h i l s t  i n the r u r a l  tropical  Jobs  indust-  s e l f - e m p l o y e d i n t r a d e , f a r m i n g , o r any  enterprise. dent  i n most  t h e employees are the p r i v a t e  and b u s i n e s s c o n c e r n s . skilled  under-  i n most d e v e l o p i n g  a r e the g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s , w h i l s t  the  of  largest  i s unemployment and  but  provide  they  i n f o u r m a i n ways, n a m e l y a g r i c u l t u r a l  can  con-  improvement,  81 land reform,  s m a l l - s c a l e and  capital facilities, structures roads.  The  contribute  such  cottage  including  as  industries,  s o c i a l and  economic  m a j o r p r o b l e m i s how i n these  evaluated  f o u r ways.  and  w e l l t h e programmes The  approach to r u r a l  can  f o u r major s o c i o -  a g a i n s t the background  regional planning  infra-  schools, health centres, wells  e c o n o m i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w , and are  and  then  o f a community  they and  development.  Agriculture Because a g r i c u l t u r e of  developing  i s the mainstay of  c o u n t r i e s , some e c o n o m i s t s c o n t e n d  community d e v e l o p m e n t programmes s h o u l d the  development  for  any  to  of a g r i c u l t u r e .  that  I t i s considered  agriculture  new  i n d u s t r i e s may  and  u n s k i l l e d but With the  velopment, the  be  that  s h o u l d be  raising  of  living  first,  so  that  develpped  supplied with  cheap raw  materials,  e n l i g h t e n e d man-power f r o m t h e  rural  i n c r e a s e I n income f r o m a g r i c u l t u r a l  rural  areas  can p r o v i d e  reliable  de-  markets f o r  industries. Prom t h e  available  ment programmes i n s o u t h  i n f o r m a t i o n on and  south-east  seems t o have made t h e most i m p o r t a n t development.  According  to the  community Asia,  c o n t r i b u t i o n to  Team f o r t h e  Study  National Extension  by  C o m m i s s i o n i n 19f?7, b e t w e e n  Indian Planning  develop-  agriculture  Community P r o j e c t s and the  on  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n programmes I n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ,  standards,  t h e new  economy  concentrate  c o n t r i b u t e t o e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and  areas.  the  Service,  rural  of appointed 19^2  82 and  1957,  age  i n those  were  b l o c k s where community d e v e l o p m e n t  i n operation.  proved  seeds,  1958  but  with  a rise  15%;  irrigation  and l a n d  t o im-  reclamation.  ( C h i n a ) , a comparison o f p e r hectare  those  i n 1953  f o r a l l other  gain registered  programmes  The i n c r e a s e was a t t r i b u t a b l e  fertilizers,  In Taiwan in  i n c r e a s e d by 1 0 . 8 $ on t h e a v e r -  food production  over  p e a n u t s , 27%;  yields  shows a 7% d e c l i n e i n m a i z e ,  crops.  In percentage  terms' t h e  t h i s p e r i o d were b a r l e y , 2%;  sweet p o t a t o e s ,  35%;  rice,  soya beans, k l % ;  wheat, 66$'; and c o t t o n , 9 2 % . A c o m p a r i s o n o f 1957/58 p e r h e c t a r e y i e l d s Kharian the  community d e v e l o p m e n t  areas  g e n e r a l West P a k i s t a n a v e r a g e s  areas  i n the  o f West P a k i s t a n  with  shows t h a t t h e K h a r i a n  l e a d b y $ % i n w h e a t , 37% i n b a j r a , k k % i n r i c e ,  65%  \ i n c o t t o n , 13% i n jowar and 38% i n m a i z e . In o t h e r  developing  c o u n t r i e s s u c h a s Ghana a n d  N i g e r i a , , an i n c r e a s e i n e x p o r t campaigns o r g a n i z e d  crops  u n d e r community d e v e l o p m e n t  I n c l u d e d under a g r i c u l t u r e projects of  as l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n  orchards,  Land  i s attributable to  are such  programmes.  capital  and i r r i g a t i o n ,  formation  l a y i n g out  and t r e e p l a n t i n g .  Reform T h e r e i s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n community  development together  and l a n d r e f o r m ,  as one programme,  i n v o l v e d , man  and t h e two a r e o f t e n j o i n e d  because the primary  and l a n d , a r e i n s e p a r a b l e .  elements  A community  r  d e v e l o p m e n t programme can absence  of  equitable run  are  be  affected adversely  distribution  tenants  and  of l a n d  labourers  are  and  the  responsible  practices into effect.  sometimes u n c o - o p e r a t i v e  with  b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t  more  income, f o r i n the  and  new  that  labourers  agriculture  have v e s t e d  long  for putting  It i s r e p o r t e d  some L a t i n A m e r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , t e n a n t s  officers,  by  l a n d r e f o r m , where i t i s n e e d e d t o p r o v i d e  agricultural in  83  extension  interest in  the  land. On  the  other  hand, l a n d r e f o r m  d e v e l o p m e n t programme may of l a n d and  house i s n o t  fail  without  because  p r a c t i c e and p r o d u c t i o n .  ment a s s i s t s  i n the  and  resettlement  ization  and  hungry peasants them f o r t h e  projects  Malaya.  one  of  the  landlordism  operation  Examples  a  piece  improved  Community  lands,  programmes It assists  develop-  f o r example,  i n Puerto  i n preparing  evils  of  the  day,  corruption  and  d e v e l o p m e n t programmes a r e  the  training develop-  eradicating  namely  absentee  tenancy.  o f g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h have e n a c t e d to f a c i l i t a t e  land-  Community  in  colon-  Rico,  in organizing  of c o - o p e r a t i v e s .  i t s attendant  form l e g i s l a t i o n s  Pakistan,  about  c o n t r i b u t i n g enormously In  major s o c i a l and  on new  i n t o g r o u p s and  ment i s t h e r e f o r e  to  community  s e l e c t i o n of f a m i l i e s f o r c o l o n i z a t i o n  resettlement  V e n e z u e l a , and  title  enough t o b r i n g  agricultural  any  operation  of  land  re-  community  V e n e z u e l a , S o u t h e r n Viet-N-am,  I n d i a , C e y l o n , P h i l i p p i n e s , T a i w a n and  t n S o u t h e r n Viet-Nam, tenant  f a r m e r s have a c q u i r e d  Ecuador. written  8k contract  rentals  main c r o p , land  and a c e i l i n g  ownership.  provisions denial  15  of only  t o 25$  of the value  o f 100 h e c t a r e s  h a s been p u t on  I n C e y l o n ' s Paddy L a n d A c t No. 1, 1958,  h a v e been made f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f l a n d  of land  ownership  to non-nationals,  holdings.  The A c t a l s o e n a b l e s  of f u n c t i o n s  in  from l a n d l o r d s  of land  credit,  o f uneconomic  t h e t r a n s f e r o f management  t o committees  composed o f t e n a n t s .  the P h i l i p p i n e s , land reform l e g i s l a t i o n  195k d e a l t w i t h  ition  rents,  the r e g u l a t i o n  o f a g r i c u l t u r a l wages, a n d t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n  In  of the  passed  s e c u r i t y o f tenure, compulsory  acquis-  f o r r e d i s t r i b u t i o n , the organization  and r e s e t t l e m e n t .  I n West P a k i s t a n ,  o f farm  6,000 l a n d -  owners who f o r m 0.1$ o f a l l l a n d - o w n e r s , c o n t r o l l e d as much as 15$ Since  of the t o t a l  l a n d under c u l t i v a t i o n  i n 1959.  t h e n , the s i t u a t i o n has changed r a d i c a l l y w i t h t h e  enactment  o f land reform acts  i n that  year.  In Taiwan,  70$ o f t e n a n t - o p e r a t e d l a n d h a s been t r a n s f e r r e d t o t e n a n t s , and  some t e n a n t  c u l t i v a t o r s h a v e been g i v e n  and  a reduction  i n rents  total  annual main crop  'Cottage a n d S m a l l - S e a l e  f r o m about  and r u r a l  scale  agement. and  Rural  small-scale  prises  t o 37*5$ o f t h e  Industries  industries.  of production,  aize  between urban  The d i f f e r e n c e l i e s and q u a l i t y o f p l a n t s ,  i n d u s t r i e s and they handicrafts,  include  such  (basket-weavingj  indust-  i n the a n d man-  i n d u s t r i e s a r e o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as  as v i l l a g e  tenure  yield.  T h e r e i s no c l e a r - c u t d i v i s i o n ries  50$  secure  cottage  entermat-making  85 and  so on),  tinsmithy things  a r t i s a n workshops, ( c a r p e n t r y ,  and so on), l i t t l e  blacksmithy,  f a c t o r i e s manufacturing such  as l e a t h e r goods, soap, p o t t e r y , b r i c k and t i l e ,  rope, and t e x t i l e s . The in  I n c l u s i o n of s m a l l - s c a l e  and cottage i n d u s t r i e s  community development programmes i s supported by the  f o l l o w i n g s o c i a l and economic reasons. 1.  The problem o f unemployment and underemployment  can be s o l v e d t o some e x t e n t . 2.  Rural  i n d u s t r i e s need l i t t l e  capital  investment.  C a p i t a l investment i n l a r g e i n d u s t r i e s i s uneconomic they are managed by q u a l i f i e d and p r o p e r l y  unless  organized  staff. 3.  L o c a l raw m a t e r i a l s  are a v a i l a b l e t o be used,  without i n c u r r i n g h i g h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n k.  costs.  The products o f small i n d u s t r i e s s u i t  small  l o c a l markets, and they do not n e c e s s a r i l y have t o r e l y on l a r g e markets elsewhere. 5.  Rural  i n d u s t r i e s can prepare r u r a l people f o r  f u t u r e l a r g e - s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l development through an entrepreneurial  a t t i t u d e , and the s k i l l which they a c -  quire. 6.  Rural  urbanization, the g e n e r a l urban  i n d u s t r i e s can slow down the r a t e o f  which at present i s not compatible w i t h  t r e n d o f economic development i n the few  centres.  86 In c o n t r a s t to a l l these have in  the great  India,•• 1$%  chargeable  disadvantage of the c o s t  There  o f hand-made c l o t h  industries  are organized  agencies,  enterprises.  and c o t t a g e  to  industries, measures In and  industries  amount  programmes  necessary  equal  textile  Plan", f o r  to cottage  and s m a l l -  t o t h e sum  allocated  To p r o t e c t  on t h e volume  Furthermore, d i s t i n c t  offices  must  of p r o d u c t i o n  made out o f home-spun t h r e a d .  spheres  assigned  F o r example,  be K h a d i ,  these  The  sector, differential  and s m a l l - s c a l e i n d u s t r i e s .  u s e d i n government  development.  a r e p a r t and p a r c e l o f  p r o d u c t i o n and c o n s u m p t i o n a r e sometimes cottage  their  i n India,  measures h a v e b e e n t a k e n .  the l a r g e - s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l subsidy.  by  the r o l e which s m a l l -  development p r o j e c t s .  include r e s t r i c t i o n s  direct  t o estimate  can p l a y i n r u r a l  Rs 2000 m i l l i o n  o t h e r community  and  where  or s u p e r v i s e d  The " S e c o n d F i v e - Y e a r  an  cottage  b e c a u s e t h e y i n v o l v e many one-man  industries  example, a l l o c a t e d industries,  lines  i t is difficult  India, rural  of  Moreover, except  Viet-N;am e x e m p l i f y  Development P l a n s .  scale  outputs.  Community development  and S o u t h e r n  In  i n the case  a r e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o f a m i l y income  on c o - o p e r a t i v e  production capacities,  scale  i s directly  cloth.  or t o n a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l  Ceylon  2%%  industries F o r example,  I s s c a r c e l y any i n f o r m a t i o n on how  small-scale  government  o f low e f f i c i e n c y .  t o l a b o u r , compared w i t h  cheaper factory-produced  they  advantages, small  taxation, of t o the the c l o t h  t h a t i s , handlooraed  E x c i s e d u t i e s are  87 also  levied  producers.  on  large mills  to b u i l d  As  a result  these measures, the  i n I n d i a f r o m 71+2  handloom c l o t h r o s e t o 1865  million  of  up  i n 1958-59.  yards  funds  for  output  Boards  such  as A l l - I n d i a n Handloom B o a r d , A l l - I n d i a n H a n d i c r a f t and  Central S i l k  B o a r d h a v e b e e n s e t up  of  yards, 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 ,  million  National  small  Board,  to promote  rural  industries. A second point of  industrial  of  emphasis has  co-operatives  model p r o d u c t i o n  centres,  t o manage s a l e s  although  undertakes  a similar activity  Industrial  estates  areas,  and  railway  to  as  by  Institutes.  a good s i t e ,  Rural  development  In set  courses.  can  electricity,  and itself  co-operatives.  share  such  water-supplies,  I960,  1,263  1958,  the  up  imports  Ministry responsible  marketing  benefit  craftsmen.  rural  for  conducted  of l o c a l  i n d u s t r i e s and  been rural  train-  assistance  by  handloom  d e p a r t m e n t s t o buy  L o a n s were a l s o g i v e n  main  f o r Cottage I n d u s t r i a l  p o w e r - l o o m u n i t s , and  f o r the  promote  I n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s had  r e q u i r i n g government  exhibitions.  S o c i e t i e s , the  activities,  buildings  p o s s i b l e from cottage  individual  units  Development  It also provided  w e a v e r s , by much as  constructing By  constructed.  regulating  Government  supplement the  of s m a l l - s c a l e  o r g a n f o r community development  ing  depots  sidings.  In C e y l o n , the  industries  the  organization  have a l s o been e s t a b l i s h e d i n s e l e c t e d  where a number  common f a c i l i t i e s  been the  by  as  holding  to co-operatives  and  •88 A  number o f s m a l l - s c a l e  been launched  i n d u s t r i a l programmes have  i n S o u t h e r n Viet-Nam as p a r t  community d e v e l o p m e n t programme. been adopted a national training  N e c e s s a r y measures  t o promote s m a l l - s c a l e  centre  centre  industries.  f o r handi-crafts,  products  have b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d .  halls. credit  Capital  i s facilitated  Low-interest facilities  loans  Co-operative Marketing  classified  are given  implies  t o a r t i s a n s , a n d bank  d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t  i n t o three  broad groups;  facilities,  s u c h as i r r i g a t i o n  o f improved  facilities,  and s c h o o l s ,  channels,  land  reclamation,  C o n t r i b u t i o n b y way o f p h y s i c a l  has g a i n e d f a v o u r items i n v o l v e d  i n almost  a l l programmes,  appeal d i r e c t l y  clinics,  (b) a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l  i m p l e m e n t s ; a n d (c) i n d u s t r i a l  capital and c o t facilibecause  t o the 'felt-needs' of  communities. Compilation  is  w h i c h may be  f o r example b u i l d i n g s f o r s m a l l - s c a l e  tage i n d u s t r i e s .  con-  (a) s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c  s u c h as r o a d s , w e l l s  m a r k e t s , p l a y g r o u n d s and l a t r i n e s ;  village  of indust-  a r e a r r a n g e d f o r them.  formation  infrastructures,  the  socie-  t h r o u g h permanent e x h i b i t i o n  t r i b u t i o n s by way o f p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s ,  ties  F o r example,  Formation Capital  supply  have  a n d a bamboo and r a t t a n  t i e s have b e e n f o r m e d i n many p l a c e s . rial  of the t o t a l  complicated  o f d a t a about these p h y s i c a l  by three  development r e p o r t s  main f a c t o r s .  do n o t g i v e  First,  enough d e t a i l  facilities  community t o make  89 precise roads  evaluation possible.  are l i s t e d ,  Secondly,  but  F o r example  not the type  reports often  financial  i n c o r p o r a t e those items  own  effort.  identify  those  Thirdly,  irrigation The  physical in  table  local  as  T h e y do  from the  not,  people's  are d i f f i c u l t  to  terms,  o f b u s h , and  which  shows t h e r a n g e  for  small-  such  of c a p i t a l  or  a r e r e p o r t e d t o have been c r e a t e d  items  The  table  as h o u s e s , and  out.  i s by no means commaternity centres,  drainage  canals, barrages  In Southern  m a t e r n i t y c e n t r e s , 279  Viet-Ka^m, f o r  markets,  1,788  s h o u l d be  emphazised  at t h i s p o i n t  are c r e a t e d at a l i t t l e  government, and i n f a c t communal p r o j e c t s  are  cost  this  that  t o the  houses  Agna de  Obispo,  the  a water-supply  village  and  these  central  i s the major  f a v o u r e d by  example i n V e n e z u e l a , i t I s r e p o r t e d t h a t  install own  as w e l l  the p o o r have a l s o been c o n s t r u c t e d .  r e a s o n why  of  90  s l u i c e s have been l e f t  facilities  For  on page  fish-ponds, i r r i g a t i o n  It  or  i n which  works.  since  example, 820 for  some p r o j e c t s  selected Asian countries.  dykes,  resulting  of l a n d , c l e a r i n g  facilities  prehensive,  and  items  o r measure i n monetary o r economic  example, d r a i n i n g scale  people,  c o n t r i b u t i o n by the government.  however, i n d i c a t e  and  of c o n s t r u c t i o n .  t h e g o v e r n m e n t p a r t i c i p a t e s w i t h the the  schools  economic  governments. i n the  Village  entire population co-operated t o system  which s e r v e s both  a n o t h e r n e i g h b o u r i n g one,  Las  their  Matas.  P h y s i c a l Assets Reported as Created In Community Development Areas i n S e l e c t e d Asian C o u n t r i e s ^  Item P o p u l a t i o n covered by the programme at the end of p e r i o d .  India-? P a k i s t a n : 1 9 5 2 - 6 0 1953-59  192  Agriculture Land Reclaimed ('000 h e c t a r e s ) Land I r r i g a t e d ( " " )....... Orchards l a i d out ,.( "000 h e c t a r e s ) . . . . 288 Land F o r e s t e d (-' t r e e s ) .... Improved implements s u p p l i e d (*000)... 1 , 5 9 5 Health and S a n i t a t i o n R u r a l L a t r i n e s Constructed ('000).... 60k Drains Constructed ('000 km.)......... 22 V i l l a g e lanes paved ('000 sq. m.) 11 D r i n k i n g w e l l s c o n s t r u c t e d ('000) ...*•< 18 k D r i n k i n g Wells r e p a i r e d ('000) . 27k Hand pumps i n s t a l l e d ('000)...... Education School b u i l d i n g s constructed " " remodelled... Reading and a d u l t l i t e r a c y classrooms c o n s t r u c t e d Community h a l l s e t c Communications Roads c o n s t r u c t e d ('000 km.) Roads r e p a i r e d or improved ('000 km.) Bridges and c u l v e r t s . , c o n s t r u c t e d ('000)  12,3kk  3,235  P h i l i p - ChinaNepal: p i n e s : Taiwan: 1 9 5 6 - 5 7 1956-59 1953-59 1958-59  63 19  71 388  38  61  1,125 1,182 6k3  198  5  219  8  86  9  k8k 29 68 219  0.2  16 0.2 7 10 0.9  8  l.k  17  U-,373  Southern Viet-Nam 1957-59  0.5  3 2 3  3 Ik  6,589, - '  5  0.5  5  3  1  2,13k 700  iU5  -  178  > 77  )  J 3,029 900 86k  6  0.6  6  0.06 1  202  -  1.7  32  11  —  0.5  0.6  11'  91 If paid  labour  w o u l d have c o s t  had been employed, the t r a n s p o r t t h e Government  w h o l e w o u l d have c o s t  $lk,000.  t h e Government  eompleted by the p e o p l e  i n only  of materials  The p r o j e c t as a  $186,000,  b u t i t was  f o u r months a t t h e c o s t o f  #87,000. up t o September 1 9 5 9 ,  In P a k i s t a n ,  the t o t a l  p e o p l e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new assets was  amounted  t o Rs 1 2 . 3  communal p r o j e c t s d i f f e r s  to a v i l l a g e  cost  from country  communal p r o j e c t u n t i l  it.is  s h a r e i s between k 5  o f a p r o j e c t , compared w i t h  i n Indonesia,  Viet-Nam, between Soclo-cultural  between 1 9 5 6 - 5 9 ,  $0%  agencies  t o country.  u s u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e s fe 200  I n d i a t h e Government's  It  million  i n c a s h and  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f government  Ghana,' t h e Government  60%  million  capital  i  The f i n a n c i a l  total  o f w h i c h Rs 7 . 7  i n f r e e labour; and Rs k . 5  given  material,  to  million  o f the  In  annually  completed.  In  and Sk-% °f i n Philippines,  and 55% i n S o u t h e r n  1957-59.  Contribution  i s believed that  community  development has  con-  t r i b u t e d much more t o w a r d c h a n g i n g p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s and b u i l d i n g up o f t h e i r gains.  confidence  F o r example, e x p e n d i t u r e  and i n i t i a t i v e  saving  material  on s o c i a - r e l i g i o u s c e r -  e m o n i e s h a v e b e e n r e d u c e d , and t h e r e private  than  are s l i g h t  Increases  and p r i v a t e b o r r o w i n g f o r p u r p o s e s o f  in  92 Investment.  As  further illustration,  ment i n s t i t u t i o n s into being,  as  and  co-operative  a result  many l o c a l  govern-  s o c i e t i e s h a v e come .  of community  development  pro-  grammes. Unfortunately, socio-cultural as  changes i n a t t i t u d e ,  and  c o n t r i b u t i o n s such  a b i l i t y to  organize  are  d i f f i c u l t t o measure.  However, c o n c r e t e  not  been p r o v i d e d  important  the;; f e e l i n g ( b ) Do of for  of b e l o n g i n g  common c o n c e r n , their  social the  to  behavior  (e)  To what e x t e n t  are  the  f o r the  Evaluation  does  be  t o new  questions  receptive  social i n are  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  appreciated f u l l y  enhancement o f f u t u r e  communal  still  to  community and  programmes.  of the C o n t r i b u t i o n s  Present indicate  of d e s i g n i n g  adaptive  social  d e v e l o p m e n t programmes c a n utilized  pro-  values  (d) To what e x t e n t  the v i l l a g e r s  answers t o t h e s e  before  together  as k i n s h i p s y s t e m s and l i n e a g e s  t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e and  determined  t o work  mo^es, c u s t o m s , and  c o n s t i t u t e the b a s i s  The  Is  villagers?  community d e v e l o p m e n t  development?  s t r u c t u r e such  stitutions? be  economic  village  projects?  the  a s : (a)  f o r m e r l y i n problems  greater readiness  s o l u t i o n ? ( c ) I s the  which h i n d e r  in  and  questions  than  action,  answers h a v e  t o g e t h e r g r o w i n g among  t h e y show g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t  gramme i m p r o v i n g  the  f o r such  for  trends  that v i l l a g e  economically,  as  In u r b a n i z a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g communities  i t was  the  case  are  no  longer  i n the p a s t .  countries  self-sufficient The  ''barter'  ^93 system  1,  has  g i v e n way  e x c h a n g e economy. has  Development  and  beginning  significance  to specialize  handi-crafts. i s no  Within  i s the  area  fact  five  another  c o n c e n t r a t i n g on p o t t e r y and  of  villages  itself. is and  upon one  What  this  social  sense,  dominant  In  direct  v e r y few  areas.  production.  inter-independence  unit,  both  Thus t h e  relationship  p r o j e c t s such  workers and  communities  some n e e d s s u c h markets are i n these  two  t o show  and  community  i n economic  tribal  links  development effect  on  are  of  neigh-  as  as l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n ,  or more v i l l a g e s  a j o i n t programme.  village-level  and  yam  and  villages.  undertake  village  of cassava,  f o r k i n s h i p , l i n e a g e and  I r r i g a t i o n works, have to  and  villages  i s already beginning  of a g e o g r a p h i c  in rural  v i l l a g e has  bouring  another  growing  and  villages,  r e a l l y means i s t h a t a v i l l a g e  p a r t and p a r c e l  still one  trend in specialization  are  of these  i n b a s k e t - w e a v i n g and  Thus, t h i s  products  of crops  fifty  specializing five  and  Of g r e a t e r  that they  o f about  l o n g e r r a r e t o come a c r o s s  farm  centres.  i n the p r o d u c t i o n  one  a monetary  t o market  m a n u f a c t u r e d goods i n u r b a n  interest  and  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s  made i t p o s s i b l e f o r v i l l a g e s  and buy  it  to s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  As  been  separate  entitles.  deal  facilities  r e q u i r e d by  communities.  On  with  and  every  i n s t a n c e s i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o draw  programmes f o r i n d i v i d u a l  both  Admittedly,  as l a t r i n e s , w e l l s , playgrounds,  essential  encouraged  a general rule,  extension o f f i c e r s  and  the  village,  separate  other  hand,  9k problems p e r t a i n i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r e , location roads and  land  reform,  of s m a l l - s c a l e i n d u s t r i e s , health  are not problems r e s t r i c t e d therefore they  c a n n o t be  ment programmes, w h i c h  s e r v i c e s and  to individual  villages  s o l v e d by community  deal with  villages  develop-  as d i s t i n c t  units  of  developments.  As t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n shows, what  is  needed  is  t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  i n a d d i t i o n t o community d e v e l o p m e n t  techniques,  techniques. In a g r i c u l t u r e ,  a t t e n t i o n i s so c o n c e n t r a t e d  g r o w i n g more f o o d and e x p o r t basic are to  agricultural  pected  Reference  r o l e which  credits  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l  o f t b e . i r own  approach t o a g r i c u l t u r a l A well-conceived  p l a y s a n d i s ex-  Indian "block", Information ulation  c h o i c e , tends  terms  unit,  t h e n w o u l d be a n a l y z e d i n relation  of a g r i c u l t u r e  accept  t o be a  and  negative  a g r i c u l t u r e programme w o u l d  types*- ( b ) t h e s t u d y  systems  to  development.  or the "development  distribution  Initiative  s e e d s and f e r t i l i z e r s ,  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a geographic  in  a l r e a d y b e e n made  agriculture  farmers'  and l o a n s , Improved  grow c r o p s  soil  has  productivity  t o p l a y i n t h e economy o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .  Reliance  to  f o r tomorrow t h a t t h e  problems which h i n d e r h i g h  often over-looked. the important  crops  on  f o r example,  take the  area" i n Pakistan. i n regard  t o ( a ) pop-  t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of t h e c l i m a t e ; ( c ) the  and t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y  o f t h e a r e a r e q u i r e d t o f e e d one man  of  present  expressed at the  95 present n u t r i t i o n a l l e v e l ; (e) estimates  (d) the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n t r e n d s ;  of p o t e n t i a l p r o d u c t i o n l e v e l s w i t h improved  methods of c u l t i v a t i o n , improved crops and l i v e s t o c k ;  (f)  the maximum p r o d u c t i o n b o t h p r e s e n t and p o t e n t i a l i f the d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s and  q u a l i t i e s of l a n d w i t h i n the geo-  g r a p h i c u n i t were put to t h e i r optimum use. be necessary  I t would a l s o  t o c o l l e c t and analyze data on such  important  s o c i a l f a c t o r s as the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the area, i f there i s any and  the system of l a n d  and  a n a l y s i s of data on a l l these  inheritance.  C o l l e c t i o n and  tenure  aspects t r u l y f a l l s w i t h i n the sphere of community and al  region-  planning. I t i s w i t h i n community development programmes t h a t  government agencies  can e x e r c i s e the g r e a t e s t c o n t r o l over  a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and p r o d u c t i o n . implements, f e r t i l i z e r s ,  Improved seeds,  and t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s are o f t e n  beyond the means of the m a j o r i t y of farmers, v i d i n g these, government agencies, can d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e farmers s u i t a b l e to the s o i l s and  farm  so t h a t i n pro-  i n c l u d i n g co-operatives,  i n growing s p e c i f i c  crops  c l i m a t e of any g i v e n a r e a .  Community development workers have become i n c r e a s i n g l y aware t h a t i t i s more f e a s i b l e to organize p r o d u c t i o n  and  marketing of crops on a c o - o p e r a t i v e b a s i s , and they have a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t c o - o p e r a t i v e s are more economic and m i n i s t r a t i v e l y easy to organize  ad-  on an a r e a l i n s t e a d of a v i l -  lage b a s i s , because there i s tremendous advantage gained by  a  96 group of v i l l a g e s i n marketing t h e i r crops j o i n t l y . i n many c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n southeast  Hence,  Asia, village  o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t i e s have been encouraged to amalgamate.  coSuch  a move i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t v i l l a g e communities must coe x i s t as an organic u n i t , and be mutually  interdependent,"  In p a s s i n g , s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which a t t e n d l a n d reform l e g i s l a t i o n s , tend to overshadow economic c o n s i d e r a tions.  Breaking up a l a r g e e s t a t e farm among tenants  and  l a b o u r e r s only ensures i t s e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n , and not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n e f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i o n .  may  Although  i n most cases measures are taken to d i v i d e c o n f i s c a t e d lands i n t o economic u n i t s , s t u d i e s have not been conducted t o determine whether maximum p r o d u c t i o n can be o b t a i n e d from these u n i t s , whether i t i s more economic to r e t a i n  confis-  cated lands to be farmed on a c o - o p e r a t i v e b a s i s , or whether they should be farmed by the government.  Attempts have  a l r e a d y been made i n some A s i a n c o u n t r i e s to c o n s o l i d a t e fragmented i n d i v i d u a l h o l d i n g s i n t o economic u n i t s . co-operative j o i n t use  system of farming has obvious  The  advantages of  of farm equipment, e f f i c i e n t t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s ,  and good management.  Moreover, i t i s easy to o b t a i n loans  from banks and c o - o p e r a t i v e  societies.  Programmes f o r cottage and  s m a l l - s c a l e I n d u s t r i e s are  at t h e i r i n f a n t stages of development, so t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to judge how  they f i t i n t o community development programmes.  Some achievements are r e p o r t e d i n some a c t i v i t i e s such as  97 w e a v i n g and many c a s e s  pottery industries they  i n Southern  are unpromising  in  19^7,  the  and  so  on.  concluded  that  "programmes,  concerning cottage industries  are n e i t h e r widespread  particularly  successful",  that  not  attended  industrial  and  i t i s reported that  their  for  e v a l u a t i o n and  ing  statement  tries:  on  "There  spot  "by  and  large  sucess  c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n the p r o j e c t even what l i t t l e  support"^  on  Public  Two  has  areas,  s u c c e s s t h e y have  seems t o be and  years l a t e r ,  Participation  U t t a r Pradesh  gramme f o r C o t t a g e blind  and  nor  i n most c a s e s v a n i s h when government f u n d s  withdrawn from  in  I n d i a n Programme E v a l u a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n  i t s Fourth E v a l u a t i o n Report,  attained w i l l  in  with regard to e f f i c i e n c y  p r o d u c t i o n , management, m a r k e t i n g , In  Viet-Nam, but  c o t t a g e and  the  Committee  i s s u e d the  follow-  small-scale indus-  an unanimous o p i n i o n t h a t  S m a l l - s c a l e I n d u s t r i e s has  i n t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t  are  the  pro-  been a  Programme*, and  has  7 all  a l o n g been a cause Report  scale  of f a i l u r e s  industries  grammes, n o r t h a t tain  types  tinsmithy,  of considerable  do  not  they  does n o t mean t h a t  are u n s u i t a b l e f o r r u r a l  capital  pottery,  basket-weaving  employs  o u t l a y . There  r o p e - m a k i n g and  areas.  smallproCer-  s u c h as c a r p e n t r y , b l a c k s m i t h y , suit  grammes. Most o f them a r e one- man little  c o t t a g e and  f i t i n t o community d e v e l o p m e n t  of i n d u s t r i e s and  concern."  community  development  enterprises,  a r e o t h e r s s u c h as  f u r n i t u r e - m a k i n g , each  a number o f p e o p l e ,  and  pro-  and r e q u i r e cloth-making, of which  requires substantial  capital  98 outlay. that  These c a n b e s t be  i s , villages with  developed  traditional  on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s ,  skill  with potential  entrepreneurs,  under-employed  l a b o u r , and  c e n t r e s c a n be  encouraged to s p e c i a l i z e  l a r g e source  suitably  As  I t i s the  case w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l  be  conducted  to collect  these  activities,  by  these  short  agencies,  their  l o c a t e d to serve i n these  and  as  l o c a t i o n needs comprehensive  must  factors. location  services,  sometimes b u i l d i n g s a r e co-operative  market  surveys  can g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e the  including  and  activities.  development,  since loans, technical  portation f a c i l i t i e s ,  activities,  of unemployed  i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l t h e s e  Government a g e n c i e s of  i n these  trans-  provided  societies.  In  regional planning  approach. With reference to c a p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s , issues,  namely t h e  plementing the  role  of c i t i z e n s '  participation  in  the  l o c a t i o n and  The  and  the  total  community d e v e l o p m e n t  s c h o o l s and On  clinics  so on.  ive  when l a b o u r i s m e a s u r e d i n a b s o l u t e and  V i e t - N a m has  the  o t h e r hand, t h e  wages.  I n s o u t h and  both  appears  sub-  of road b u i l t ,  constructed, acres  and  of  agencies.  c o n t r i b u t i o n of the people  s t a n t i a l when v i e w e d i n t e r m s o f m i l e s  per year,  im-  siting  p r o j e c t s have n o t b e e n g i v e n much a t t e n t i o n by  the people  of  main  projects, cost-benefit implications involved i n  s e l e c t i o n o f p r o j e c t s , and  these  three  of l a n d  number  reclaimed,  c o n t r i b u t i o n i s unimpressterms such  south-east  Asia,  as man-days Southern  the h i g h e s t v o l u n t a r y l a b o u r c o n t r i b u t i o n of  only  99 20-25 d a y s p e r a d u l t male p e r y e a r on t h e a v e r a g e .  During  the  contribution  initial  y e a r s o f I n d i a ' s programme, t h e a v e r a g e  of  work p e r a d u l t man  by  I960 i t bad d w i n d l e d t o o n l y one day.  Ghana w i t h person In  active  per  year r a r e l y  community  o v e r e i g h t e e n works  P a k i s t a n between 1951+  l a b o u r i n terms  development  1959,  o f wages i n r e l a t i o n  community d e v e l o p m e n t programmes was  It the  e n t i r e wish  project  adult  o n c e a week.  t o the t o t a l  cost  of  of  Implemented d u r i n g t h e  o f the p e o p l e  period  represented  However, w i t h  of  I n some c o u n t r i e s , t h i s  l o o p h o l e has  been  participation, increased  enthusiasm  incentives  it is likely  and  are not  Whether  i s y e t t o be sufficient  such  proved.  education of  t h e y can a c h i e v e b y g r e a t e r  contribution  of l a b o u r c a n  substantially.  ofprojects  are  second often  t h e i r human and  r e f u s e t o undertake  completing  that  committees.  or n o t  o f them, a n d what  (Concerning t h e  have both  t r e n d s show t h a t t h e p e o p l e  the r i g h t  what i s e x p e c t e d  should re-  contribution  on community d e v e l o p m e n t  a step k i l l s people's  programmes  i f their  d i s c o v e r e d , and p r e s e n t  people  In those p a r t s of  capita^ c o n t r i b u t i o n  i s debatable whether, v i l l a g e  l a b o u r i s so minute.  cations  and  15^.  only  flect  per  days,  programmes, an  on a communal  and  2-3  exceeded  their  first  question, cost-benefit overlooked.  economic any  These  aspects.  implications  Many a  self-help projects,  projects.  impli-  The m a i n r e a s o n  time, after  i s that  be  100 s o c i e t i e s , w h e t h e r p r i m i t i v e o r modern, t e n d categories  and  experience.  to  judge f u t u r e  prospects  I f a completed p r o j e c t  c o s t l y f o r the  the  basis  i s r e g a r d e d by  no  m a t t e r what i n c e n t i v e s a r e pumped i n t o p r o j e c t s , no  at  any  have not  as  first  encouraged to induce  This  be  yet  w o u l d be  requires  interests  been a b l e  It  and  In d e c i d i n g  foregone f o r undertaking  For  example, i n c h o o s i n g join  advantage  lost  marketing  their  I n .many c a s e s  other  Gommunity  what  a new  to foresee  one  project  to b u i l d  the  h i g h w a y , t h e y may  not  a l s o unable  labour,  t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s , and  cost  of  i s also lack  ment a g e n c i e s r e s p o n s i b l e  to  of t h e i r  own  labour  o f f o r e s i g h t on  the  conclusions  which  the  India reached concerning  which  another. of a  centre  in  to walk.  the  direct  instead so  of  on.  part  of  govern-  programmes  programmes.  United Nations Evaluation  the  Indian  two-  the  or  f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t  c o s t - b e n e f i t Implication:;of  tackled.  foresee  to estimate  hired  o f the  of  farm p r o d u c t s e a s i l y w i t h o u t h a v i n g  they are  the  be  instead  market  cost-  benefits  instead  a clinic  i n becoming a t h r i v i n g  should  use  analyzing  values,  l a c k o f economic  i n v o l v e d i n the  in  should undertaken.  social  costs  There  t o be  attempt  developers  projects  projects  what p r o j e c t s  for villagers  are  to  out  s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the  analysis  road  made.  repeating,  attitudes.  is difficult  mile  worth  a k n o w l e d g e o f a community's  Of e q u a l benefit  t o 'find  not  past  people  too  undertaking  still  in of  as  future  g a i n , but  on  to reason  programme was  One Mission  that  "the  •101 amount o f g r a n t s very high, able  and  for land  allotted  the  to v i l l a g e  industries often  money u s e d i n t h i s way  Improvement  i s no  or f o r i n d u s t r i a l  seems  longer  avail-  equipment,  although  ..8 these w i l l  be  more u s e f u l . "  Government such in  important  issues  recommending  industries a market  one  instead  instead  reason Is nebulous  agencies  that  as  o r two  and  entrepreneurs".  T h e s e two  the  the  ultimate  general  capital can  goal  standard  investment  p e o p l e who  do  not  plications then  should  of l i v i n g .  which are schools,  basic and  pay  main  goals  in  up  agricult-  with  I f f o r the  each  other  or to r a i s e  same or  lower  them h i g h e r  should  implications  a l l o w e d t o make s u c h be  s t u d i e d by  already  and  more  stable  for agriculture.  know t h e  about  the  these  not of  be  left  their  decisions, agencies  to  decisions. the  im-  concerned,  implications.  b e e n made t o p h y s i c a l  to a l l v i l l a g e s ,  m a r k e t s , and  The  vis-a-vis industries, agriculture  educate the p e o p l e  R e f e r e n c e has  and  or  "encourage p o t e n t i a l  i s t o remove unemployment  first  project,  feo"boost  conflict  certain decisions  I f however, t h e y are  and  aims may  in land  small-scale  objectives  desire  same time  c a s e w o u l d be  In e s s e n c e , the  the  employ more p e o p l e and  wages, t h e n the  their  on  involved  more p r i m a r y s c h o o l s .  Some a g e n c i e s may  ural production"  if  implications  land reclamation  often state  at  making d e c i s i o n s  o f programme, s u c h as  of e x t e n s i v e  they  avoid  cost-benefit  type  o f ene  terms.  often  facilities  f o r example, w e l l s ,  those which are  designed to  latrines, serve  an  102 a r e a o r a r e g i o n , f o r example h e a l t h c e n t r e s , r o a d s ,  and  i r r i g a t i o n works.  to a  group of v i l l a g e s their  The  problem  i s that  l o c a t i o n and  siting  with f a c i l i t i e s  often l i t t l e attention of the  T a k i n g Ghana as a c l a s s i c  idea i s perfectly  have t i g h t  example, i t has  are l o c a t e d there  become  to l o r r y parks,  the and  sound, because the l a n d u s e s i n v o l v e d  l i n k a g e of a c t i v i t i e s ,  b e t w e e n t r a n s p o r t and  i s paid to  facilities.  convention t o b u i l d markets v e r y c l o s e this  basic  trade.  But  that  i s , the  relationship  i t o f t e n happens t h a t  a d j a c e n t t o major roads, w i t h the r e s u l t  i s always a c o n f l i c t  b e t w e e n p e d e s t r i a n s and  they  that  vehicles.  A h a n d f u l o f v i l l a g e s , w i t h t h e a d v i c e o f community p l a n n e r s , have s e p a r a t e d t h e i r m a j o r r o a d s by g r e e n b e l t s . they minimize and  located  greenbelts perform  conflict  close  quiet  One  keep d u s t f r o m  referring  c h i l d r e n and  directed  types  settling  t o Ghana, v i l l a g e  to major roads  and  of the main reasons  environment  distant  functions:  b e t w e e n t h e two  of  parks  first, traffic  on a l l t y p e s  to study.  f r o m m a j o r r o a d s , and  o f t e n kept  given i s that  that v i l l a g e new  t h e s c h o o l s so t h a t  g e t h e r w i t h community  of  of  centres b u i l t  usually  villages.--  away f r o m children  On t h e g r o u n d s o f s a f e t y  n o i s e , i t i s obvious  around  schools are  at o u t s k i r t s  d e v e l o p m e n t s s u c h as h o u s e s a r e  schools.  two  lorry  open m a r k e t s .  Again,  be  the  secondly, they  f o o d i n the  New  The  f r o m m a r k e t s and  schools  through  need  of school should  developments should i n the  these  l o n g run they,  be to-  communal l a b o u r ,  103 can become the f o c i Facilities sometimes  of s o c i a l  designed  improperly  made to how  activities.  t o serve a group o f v i l l a g e s are  located.  Reference has a l r e a d y been  s m a l l - s c a l e and c o t t a g e i n d u s t r i e s can be so  located i n selected villages  that these v i l l a g e s can  develop  i n t o major market c e n t r e s to serve the areas i n which they are s i t u a t e d .  As another i l l u s t r a t i o n ,  three v i l l a g e s , A,  B, and C i n the same area, may each i n c l u d e a h e a l t h c e n t r e i n t h e i r community  development programmes, but the government  can s u b s i d i z e o n l y one h e a l t h centre t o serve three v i l l a g e s might e q u a l l y e x h i b i t the r i g h t wards community  the area.  The  attitude to-  development, but another V i l l a g e D, e q u i d i s t a n t  from A, B and C, and c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n r e l a t i o n to A, B, and C, i s dormant i n promoting s e l f - h e l p a c t i v i t i e s . the d i s t r i c t or r e g i o n a l community meets  development  When  committee  t o d i s c u s s v i l l a g e programmes, V i l l a g e D would n o t be  c o n s i d e r e d f o r the h e a l t h c e n t r e , i n s p i t e of i t s proper l o c a t i o n to serve the other three v i l l a g e s .  V i l l a g e D, i n  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e c o u l d be encouraged to b u i l d the h e a l t h c e n t r e by g r a n t i n g i t more money and equipment. Such c r u c i a l questions not be d e a l t with adequately of laymen and government anthropology, planning  of r e g i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e cani n d i s t r i c t committees  o f f i c i a l s t r a i n e d i n s o c i a l work,  medicine and so on.  questions.  composed  They are i n f a c t  major  10k Summary Community d e v e l o p m e n t , f u l f i l s d i f f e r e n t rural  development programmes.  ed as a w e l f a r e communities.  I n some c o u n t r i e s  programme, p r o v i d i n g  In other  purposes In  i n their  National  countries, i t i s equivalent  Social, in  developing  be s o l v e d  Development  clearly  to r u r a l  cultural  countries  a r e so i n t e r l o c k i n g ,  that they  areas should  Community d e v e l o p m e n t programmes  designed to help  to solve  these problems. contribut-  development I n f o u r m a j o r ways, namely,  industries,  In e v a l u a t i n g  and c r e a t i o n o f c a p i t a l  agri-  planning,  i t i s considered  satisfactory,  to  regional  t h a t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s are un-  owing t o t h e l a c k o f comprehensive approach t o  development.  M o r e o v e r , s u c h community  t e c h n i q u e s as v o l u n t a r y programming  and  and  facilities.  these four major c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n  o b j e c t i v e s and t e c h n i q u e s o f community  rural  spelled  improvement, l a n d r e f o r m , development of cottage  small-scale  the  rural  Plans.  Community d e v e l o p m e n t programmes h a v e b e e n ing  to a  e c o n o m i c , and p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s o f r u r a l  simultaneously.  are purposely  regard-  the b a s i c needs o f v i l l a g e  d e v e l o p m e n t programme, w i t h i t s a i m s and g o a l s out  i t Is  contribution of labour  development and t h e p e o p l e  t h e i r own p r o j e c t s a r e a l s o u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .  Footnotes: 1. B. M u k e r j i , Community D e v e l o p m e n t i n I n d i a , (Calcutta: O r i e n t Longmans, I 9 6 I ) , p. 1 9 . 2. A. P e r p e t u a , "Community D e v e l o p m e n t as a New I n s t i t u t i o n o f G o v e r n m e n t " , Community D e v e l o p m e n t R e v i e w . V I , No. 2 , ( J u n e , 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 1 9 .  io5 3. W i l l i a m J . Cousins, "Community Development: Some Notes on the Why and the How",-Community Development Review, No. 7 (December, 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 2k. k. United Nations O r g a n i s a t i o n , Community Development and Economic Development (Document No. E/CN* 11/51+0) (Bangkok, I960), p. k5. 5. This includes r e p a i r s . Ibid..p. k l . 6  •7.  iPid.  8.  5T"Mukerji, op_. c i t . p . 88.  P. 1+1. u  CHAPTER I V  ADMINISTRATION OP COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  Administration  o f community d e v e l o p m e n t programmes i s  as  important  in  implementing these  cess  as the r o l e which people programmes.  o f programmes i n s u c h  pines,  and P u e r t o  people's  PROGRAMMES  Rico  are expected  In fact,  much o f t h e s u c -  c o u n t r i e s as I n d i a , t h e P h i l i p -  c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d  participation  to play  n o t s o much t o  as t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e p r o -  grammes.  The manner i n w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s government d e -  partments  concerned  together  with  to co-ordinate  community d e v e l o p m e n t a r e b r o u g h t their policies,  work, t h e way i n w h i c h committee procedures  by w h i c h  p l a n s , and f i e l d -  systems a r e o r g a n i z e d , t h e  ' p l a n n i n g f r o m below' and ' p l a n n i n g  f r o m above' a r e i n t e g r a t e d ; and t h e way f i n a n c i a l are  administered, are  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y  most i m p o r t a n t these  the  a l l decisive administrative factors i n  o f these  are i n t e g r a t i o n  n i n g f r o m above,'  factors  Planning The  with  o f t h e programmes.  The  a r e d i s c u s s e d below, and  o f ' p l a n n i n g f r o m below' w i t h  'plan-  o r s i m p l y p l a n n i n g o f programmes, a n d  co-ordination of a c t i v i t i e s  concerned  resources  community  o f government  departments  development.  o f Programmes planning  o f community d e v e l o p m e n t  programmes  107 raises  t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e most  tween t h e p e o p l e  and t h e government  be a c c o m p l i s h e d .  Before  i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine tegrating  the case  Village it  this  i n d e c i d i n g what i s t o  q u e s t i o n c a n be answered, I t  cursorily  t h e common s y s t e m o f i n -  where p l a n n i n g f r o m b e l o w I s d o m i n a n t a s i t i s o f Ghana a n d t h e W e s t e r n R e g i o n o f N i g e r i a ,  plans a project  and d e c i d e s t h e t y p e  needs f r o m the government.  munity Development Agency  The V i l l a g e  or regional  ally  and t e c h n i c a l  at the l o -  The V i l l a g e  assistance  d e p e n d i n g o n what i t d e s e r v e s  second type  s u l t a t i o n between  economy.  t h e government  from t h e  on t h e m e r i t o f  Thus on t h e I v o r y  of coffee,  d e l i b e r a t i o n between represented  and l o c a l  con-  representatives the n a t i o n -  C o a s t i n West A f r i c a ,  local  d e v e l o p m e n t , s u c h a s im-  cocoa, a n d p a l m p r o d u c t i o n , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  result  from  o f t h e l o c a l people,  t h r o u g h t h e C e n t r e de C o - o r d i n a t i o n e t de Co-  operation Agricole ernment  villages.  i n s o f a r as they a f f e c t  plans dealing with a g r i c u l t u r a l provement  fin-  of p l a n n i n g i s a system of j o i n t  on m a j o r e c o n o m i c i s s u e s ,  and t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  of various  gov-  departments concerned.  The t h i r d ing  i n f o r m s t h e Com-  c a s e and on t h e c o m p e t i n g demands f r o m o t h e r The  al  of assistance  Committee  of administration.  obtains f i n a n c i a l  Government, the  level  a  these needs w h i c h a r e subsequently  d i s c u s s e d b y t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t cal  r e l a t i o n s h i p be-  ' p l a n n i n g f r o m b e l o w ' a n d ' p l a n n i n g f r o m above.'  First, in  suitable  of v i l l a g e  s y s t e m i s where a l o c a l representatives  committee  a n d government  consist-  agencies i s  108 t h e medium t h r o u g h lotted  grants-in-aid.  c o u n c i l prepares cils  which v i l l a g e  ory  i n a Development Area,  mittee  allocation  are  and  of funds.  The  local levels  projects  incorporated i s r e a l l y  that l i t t l e  lies  success  has  and  not  so  local  level  of  and  of  social  clear,  How  and The  by  village  main  tried  difficulty  satisfactory  o u t by  the  and  economic  effective  development.  presumptuous f o r t h r e e main r e a s -  people  First,  different  s y s t e m s have  s h o u l d be  there  i s the  removed f r o m  important  have i n i t i a t e d  government a g e n c i e s .  themselves, Secondly,  than under  the  psychologi-  argument t h a t i t i s f a r e a s i e r f o r a g r o u p t o  pared  cottage  i t i s report-  t o make community d e v e l o p m e n t an  t h a t the  planning picture.  a p r o j e c t they  plans  i n which  o b j e c t i v e s at  systems are b e i n g  However, i t w o u l d be to suggest  on.  been a c h i e v e d .  i t a p p e a r s t h a t no  y e t been d e v i s e d process  the  planning.  Thus, d i f f e r e n t countries,  Com-  planning.  adopted, v i l l a g e  i n i n t e r p r e t i n g n a t i o n a l g o a l s and  and  provides  established f o r agricultural production, output,  Advis-  Chairman of t h i s  of  s y s t e m w h i c h I n d i a has  small-scale industrial  plans are  coun-  together w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o F i v e - Y e a r Development P l a n s ,  targets are  cal  Chairmen of v i l l a g e  i s g e n e r a l l y t h e D e p u t y C o m m i s s i o n e r , who  In another  village  combine t o f o r m a D e v e l o p m e n t A r e a  l i n k b e t w e e n n a t i o n a l and  ons  the  Committee, w h i c h e v a l u a t e s p r o p o s e d v i l l a g e  recommends t h e  ed  a r e e x a m i n e d , and a l -  I n P a k i s t a n f o r example, t h e  a p l a n , and  Government a g e n c i e s  plans  accomplish  a plan certain  pre-  as  109  circumstances,  the people  know t h e i r needs, though they  not know the i m p l i c a t i o n s of meeting these needs. i f they f a i l  to co-operate  because they are not  i n d e s i g n i n g programmes, the whole concept  may  Thirdly,  contacted  of community  de-  velopment a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o l l a p s e s . Thus, the people have a s p e c i f i c p a r t to p l a y i n programme p l a n n i n g , but the q u e s t i o n i s what f u n c t i o n should they perform,  I t was  p o i n t e d out i n Chapter  r a r e l y r e a l i z e the socio-economic c i s i o n s , and i t was  I I I t h a t they  I m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r  de-  a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a -  t i o n i n communal p r o j e c t s , c a l c u l a t e d i n terms of l a b o u r , money and  other resources i s s m a l l .  i t i s j u s t i f i a b l e to suggest  F o r these two  t h a t there should be  reasons, limits  to which they can p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g of programmes. On the o t h e r hand, there i s a s t r o n g reason f o r a s s i g n ing  a dominant r o l e i n p l a n n i n g to government agencies,  who  have more knowledge of p r e s e n t and p r o s p e c t i v e n a t i o n a l r e sources of s k i l l , m a t e r i a l s , and f i n a n c e than do the  local  communities.  role  The  Government agencies  can p l a y a key  in deciding: What types of l o c a l p r o j e c t s , i f any, the government i s prepared to h e l p , e s t i m a t i n g what r e s o u r ces can be s u p p l i e d i n v a r i o u s time p e r i o d s to help l o c a l p r o j e c t s ; a r r a n g i n g f o r i n f o r m a t i o n guidance to keep l o c a l p l a n n e r s aware not only of the supply p o s i t i o n , but a l s o of the demand p o s i t i o n as regards a g r i c u l t u r a l and any other l o c a l p r o d u c t s ; a r r a n g i n g such t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l s u p e r v i s i o n as l o c a l p l a n n i n g may need i n order to have the p r o j e c t s meet minimum standards; f i n a l l y a key r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - a r r a n g i n g an e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n to cope w i t h the l o c a l demands f o r  110 g o v e r n m e n t h e l p t h a t t h e programme w i l l , i f s u c c e s s f u l , a r o u s e , so t h a t h o p e s ^ a n d p u r p o s e s may n o t be n e c e s s a r i l y f r u s t r a t e d . The community should  community  can g u i d e  tion and  the  of l o c a l  and  the  master plans,  regional plans plans.  Thus, these  collected  and  and  analysed  plans  s h o u l d be b a s e d survey  data,  F o r example, c o n c e r n i n g necessary  to c o l l e c t  the  s h o u l d be on  plans  prepara-  long-range  some s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  in relation  agriculture,  data  which  development  i n t u r n can guide  A l l these  for  g e n e r a l framework of  d e v e l o p m e n t programmes.  comprehensive,  survey  policies  to develop  the p r e p a r a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l community  and  goals.  implies that i t i s necessary  development agencies  l a y down t h e  national  plans,  above s t a t e m e n t  to n a t i o n a l  the. t y p e s  f o r l o c a l p l a n s was  of  cited  i n C h a p t e r I I I , p.9k» This does n o t ried  differ  out by  regional, in  this  suggested  local  respect  o f programmes  from master development p l a n n i n g  government p l a n n i n g  and  levels  can make one  munity  development. United  agencies  a t the  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  t h a t community  niques  The  a p p r o a c h t o the p l a n n i n g  and  often carnational,  In f a c t ,  regional planning  i t is  tech-  o f t h e i r g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o com-  Nations  O r g a n i z a t i o n i s a l r e a d y aware t h a t :  i n t e g r a l p l a n n i n g ( i . e . s o c i a l , economic, p h y s i c a l , e t c . ) a t n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s c o u l d , assumi n g i t does n o t p l a n away the e l e m e n t o f c h o i c e i n t h e v i l l a g e r s ' l i f e , p r o v i d e means o f b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r n a t i o n a l and community i n t e r e s t s i n g o v e r n ment programmes. However, where o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s u c h p l a n n i n g do n o t e x i s t , o t h e r I n f o r m a l means s h o u l d be u s e d t o assemble2and a c t upon t h e r e l e vant planning i n f o r m a t i o n .  Ill The  Organization  further recognizes  the  fact  that:  e a c h community i s r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s as r e g a r d s e c o n o m i c , p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , and d e v e l o p m e n t i n ,one l o c a l i t y c a l l s f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f l o c a l p r o j e c t s w i t h r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l p r o grammes. The d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a o r r e g i o n , t h e r e f o r e , r e p r e s e n t s a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e community and n a t i o n a l goals with l o c a l a c t i o n . Thus, the m o b i l i z a t i o n of human r e s o u r c e s and p o p u l a r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e community d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s c o u l d o f t e n be achieved.3 To cate al  the  a l l i n t e n t s and people regarding  development p l a n s ,  ernment a g e n c i e s a r e may  purposes, the  i t i s necessary to  nature  before  the  imposing  their will  Problems of C o - o r d i n a t i o n may  different  e n t i t i e s may  ing their  organizational  I t was  pointed  o f Government be  described  achieve  out  on  them.  to  the  nationgov-  Indeed, i t villa-  inhabitants.  Activities  as  concerted  "the  means whereby  a c t i o n without  los-  identity."^" i n Chapter I I t h a t i n a l l the  t y p e s o f programmes, namely i n t e g r a t i v e , a d a p t i v e , ject,  of  campaigns i n t h e  i d e a becomes a c c e p t a b l e  Co-ordination  importance  otherwise they might t h i n k t h a t the  r e q u i r e many months o f p e r s u a s i v e  ges,  and  edu-  government a g e n c i e s o r departments  munity development encounter d i f f i c u l t i e s  and  concerned w i t h in  three procom-  co-ordinating  t h e i r work a t a l m o s t a l l l e v e l s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y in due  the  field.  The  m a i n l y to the First,  problems which i n h i b i t following  co-ordination  are  reasons.  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  official  o f , f o r example,  the  112 Ministry  of A g r i c u l t u r e or Education,  v e l o p m e n t o f f i c e r do n o t make e a s y tive  officer  i s a victim  ing  of the  and  participation  subject  law;  to achieve  His aim  on p e o p l e ' s goals.  ject  The who  meet, t h e r e hence t h e y  administrathe  a u d i t s , and  back-  co-operation  m o r e o v e r he  must u s e  is  q u e s t i o n s by o f h i s work  his discretion,  participation  often overlooked  Thus w h e n e v e r t h e  is a conflict  de-  parland  community d e v e l o p m e n t o f f i c e r ,  are  questions.  An  acts with  h i s g o a l s , and  c o - o p e r a t i o n and  His f a i l u r e s  t o a few  he  i s to avoid c r i t i c i s m  perfection.  community  r e l y much on p e o p l e ' s  to achieve  o t h e r hand, i s onw  rely his  does n o t  the  bed-fellows.  of bureaucracy;  to i n s p e c t i o n , f i n a n c i a l  iamentarians.  the  he  and  of i n t e r e s t  and  to  and  two  and  on  must  achieve he  i s sub-  officials  p e r s o n a l i t y , and  show d i v e r g e n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s community  develop-  ments • Secondly, different ing,  as  different  v i e w s and  g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s may  objectives either  overlapping or  to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t programmes. i d e a s about the  They may  and  conflict-  roles  e v e n have  o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e programmes.  have  i n com-  different  E a c h may  clam-  o u r f o r power, r e c o g n i t i o n , and  c r e d i t , e s p e c i a l l y under  integrative  One  type  c l a i m that they  o f programme. alone  can p l a y the  m e n t i n g t h e programmes. years  ago  important  S u c h was  when a g r i c u l t u r a l than  other  p r o f e s s i o n a l group integrating  the  case  role  in  may imple-  i n I n d i a some  o f f i c e r s were b e l i e v e d t o b e  officers,  because the  the  few more  I n d i a n programme  H3 places  emphasis  on a g r i c u l t u r e .  This  s i t u a t i o n i s aggrava-  ted f u r t h e r i f these p r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e r s to  Their  still  loyalty i s justified  employees  The  third  He p l a y s  grammes.  problem p e r t a i n s  a critical  supply  new i d e a s ,  cy f e a r s  ideas that  contact  and h e l p i n g  d e p a r t m e n t s know l i t t l e be h a n d l e d  and t h a t  group dynamics, are  justified,  to introduce  t h e y know l i t t l e  I s compelled  d e p a r t m e n t s go t h e i r Fourthly,  mental  and t e a c h  i s that new  hand, t h e agen-  out by the t e c h n i c a l communities  should  of each  t h e community  p o s i t i o n because  t o compromise,  party  developof lack  or the techni-  own way.  the administrative  co-ordination  affairs.  a b o u t human r e l a t i o n s ,  and t h e r e s u l t i s t h a t  of t e c h n i c a l s t a f f ,  own  fin-  t o t h e community  However, t h e f e a r s  ment a g e n c y , i n a w e a k e r b a r g a i n i n g  cal  sent  a b o u t how v i l l a g e  and so o n .  of pro-  them t o s e e k  On t h e o t h e r  officers  work-  w i t h the  to d i r e c t t h e i r  and i n n o v a t i o n s .  the extension  between  the v i l l a g e - l e v e l worker  he i s g e n e r a l l y n o t competent technical  they  the v i l l a g e - l e v e l  The f e a r o f t e c h n i c a l d e p a r t m e n t s i n r e g a r d agency s u p p l y i n g  move-  departments.  r o l e i n the implementation  and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e  development  that  t o the controversy  He i s t h e one who i s i n d a i l y  people, introducing ancial  on t h e g r o u n d s  of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  a g e n c i e s o v e r w h i c h one s h o u l d er.  loyal  t h e i r d e p a r t m e n t s t h a n t o t h e community d e v e l o p m e n t  ment. are  are rather  machinery f o r i n t e r - d e p a r t -  o f community d e v e l o p m e n t  t o o much a t t e n t i o n t o c o m m i t t e e s  and v e r y  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e m e n t s .  programmes  little  pays  attention to  Committees  mostly  Ilk concern themselves w i t h p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , grammes, and  a l l o c a t i o n of g r a n t s .  ever, i s p a i d ready  to  completed,  such things the  implementing p l a n s , n e c e s s a r y i n the  as  the  evaluation  of p r o j e c t s a l -  the  impact  administrative  Implementation of  d e v e l o p m e n t programmes c a n n o t be of a c t i v i t i e s  as  education  type  of  fact  support  i s often  of  be  other  fostered.  and  The  the  administrative  suggested  i t i s the  that  as n e u t r a l as  the  sphere  co-  Because  of r u r a l  life,  case w i t h  such  adaptive  unfortunate position.  It  has  thing As  of the  an  the  thereby co-ordination  can  of S o c i a l Welfare  the  s u c h as  i t has  illustration,  weakened i t s  i f a  community within  t e c h n i c a l department, the  a l s o been suggested t h a t  ministrator,  and  adopted t h i s p r i n -  i s that  d e p a r t m e n t must f i r s t  placed  to avoid  M i n i s t r y happens t o f a l l  o f any  ment a g e n c y c o u l d be  development losing  Ghanaian M i n i s t r y  of a c t i v i t y  of t h i s  c a n use  community  through  community  possible  d e p a r t m e n t s , and  development p r o j e c t  proval  are  a t e c h n i c a l department  Community D e v e l o p m e n t , f o r example, has  the  that  administered  to  o r a g r i c u l t u r e , as  agency should  ciple,  changes w h i c h  o f government a g e n c i e s .  entrusted  of  programme.  It  be  o f methods  certain projects.  community d e v e l o p m e n t embraces a l l a s p e c t s programmes c a n n o t be  pro-  a t t e n t i o n , how-  These f o u r p r o b l e m s e s t a b l i s h t h e  ordination  of  Little  e f f i c a c y and and  planning  i n the  be  h i s power t o c o - o r d i n a t e  sought.  the  office  Prime M i n i s t e r  ap-  community of the  o r the  develop-  highest  President,  departmental p o l i c i e s .  adwho The  115 P h i l i p p i n e programme, f o r example, ciple  by  p l a c i n g the  operates  on t h i s  prin-  P r e s i d e n t i a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r Community  D e v e l o p m e n t , t h e m a i n a g e n c y f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t , i n the  office  of the  programme s t i l l  President.  faces  Thus, the  of t h i s  step,  activities  i n the  field.  Answer  solution  t o most p r o b l e m s p e r t a i n i n g t o  o r d i n a t i o n o f community d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s tion  of such a c t i v i t i e s .  l o o s e l y be  d e f i n e d as  ernment a g e n c i e s agency.' in  include  'the  Integration i n this f u s i n g together  or t e c h n i c a l  T h i s means t h a t t h e  t e c h n i c a l and  other  tionists,  medical  engineers,  economists,  professionals,  s h o u l d be  fessionals the  t o do  should  positions.  an a g e n c y t o be  that  i t s h o u l d be  istrator, w o u l d be  officers,  industrial  A l l the  powerful  and  p l a c e d i n the  employees  i t is  of the  a separate  For  suggested  highest  admin-  department,  tendency f o r i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l r i v a l r y  of  and  organization.  efficient,  office  these  semi-pro-  r e s p o n s i b l e t o the agency a l o n e ,  s i n c e i f i t were t o be the  therefore  Under  a l a r g e number o f  r e c e i v e t h e i r p r o m o t i o n w i t h i n the  such  should  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , educa-  the a c t u a l f i e l d w o r k .  a g e n c y s h o u l d be  independent  s o c i a l workers,  t o o c c u p y key  gov-  central  as a g r i c u l t u r a l  officers,  may  of d i f f e r e n t  Its staff  promoters, surveyors there  context  a g e n c y s h o u l d be  services.  co-  i s integra-  s e r v i c e s t o f o r m one  such p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel  physical planners,  the  the p r o b l e m of l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n  of i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l  I n t e g r a t i o n I s the  In spite  to  there persist.  11.6 The problem of where does community development programme b e g i n and end does not a r i s e , because agreement  can  e a s i l y be reached between the agency and t e c h n i c a l departments, simply because the agency's p o s i t i o n e n t i t l e s i t to i n f l u e n c e the p o l i c i e s and plans of those t e c h n i c a l departments which are l o c a t e d lower i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e archy.  Moreover, n a t i o n a l development plans would  hierspecify  what f u n c t i o n s the agency should perform. To ensure that the agency does not d u p l i c a t e the work of any t e c h n i c a l department, i t i s suggested that  co-ordina-  t i n g committees, c o n s i s t i n g of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the agency and t e c h n i c a l departments, should be e s t a b l i s h e d at a l l  lev-  e l s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t should be p o i n t e d out at t h i s juncture t h a t the agency should work i n c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h l o c a l counc i l s , where they e x i s t , because of the i n h e r e n t danger of d u p l i c a t i o n of work. district  I f p o s s i b l e ^ t h e agency's o f f i c e at the  or l o c a l l e v e l of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n should be i n the  o f f i c e of the l o c a l c o u n c i l or a l t e r n a t i v e l y i n the d i s t r i c t commissioner's o f f i c e , i n the case of, f o r example, Ghana, Uganda, P a k i s t a n and Tanganyika. There are a number of advantages t o be d e r i v e d from such an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e set-up.  First,  the d i v e r s i t y of back-  ground and t r a i n i n g of p e r s o n n e l f a c i l i t a t e s p l a n n i n g of programmes, t h e i r implementation, e v a l u a t i o n of p r o j e c t s , and research.  117 Secondly, i n fieldwork controversy  the s p i r i t  o f teamwork, w h i c h i s so n e c e s s a r y  c o u l d be e n g e n d e r e d and s u s t a i n e d . over which department  l e v e l worker would n o t Thirdly,  should  supply  Moreover, the  village-  arise.  i t o f t e n happens  that departments are  dist-  urbed  a b o u t t h e ways a n d means o f f i n a n c i n g p r o j e c t s ,  ially  t h o s e w h i c h a r e s p o n s o r e d by more t h a n one  Thus, by  creating  c o u l d a l s o be Lastly,  one  the  c e n t r a l agency,  financial  espec-  department. resources  centralised. common i n - s e r v i c e  ranged f o r a l l c l a s s e s  training  schemes c o u l d be a r -  of personnel of the  agency.  Summary D i f f e r e n t methods o f m e r g i n g ' p l a n n i n g f r o m above' one  are b e i n g  ' p l a n n i n g f r o m below'  tried  has n o t as y e t b e e n d e t e r m i n e d .  the a c t u a l r o l e planning  o u t , and a The  i s y e t t o be  The government  satisfactory  implication  which people are expected to p l a y  with  i s that  i n programme  defined. must p l a y a l e a d i n g r o l e  p l a n n i n g b e c a u s e i t a l o n e has  i n programme  s a t i s f a c t o r y knowledge  of the  c o u n t r y ' s m a t e r i a l and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s as w e l l as o f i t s human s k i l l s . tion  W i t h t h i s knowledge,  i t i s i n a better  t o d e v e l o p n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l p l a n s w h i c h c a n f o r m a  suitable  frame  of reference f o r l o c a l  and v i l l a g e  There are f o u r main problems a t t e n d i n g the tion  posi-  o f community d e v e l o p m e n t  artments.  Firstly,  activities  there i s a c o n f l i c t  plans. co-ordina-  o f government of i n t e r e s t  and  dep-  118 p e r s o n a l i t y between community  development o f f i c e r s on the  one hand, and o f f i c e r s of t e c h n i c a l departments on the other hand.  Secondly, agencies concerned w i t h community  de-  velopment o f t e n tend to have d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s , and t h e r e f o r e d i f f e r e n t approaches towards community  development.  T h i r d l y , c o n t r o v e r s y over which department should supply the v i l l a g e - l e v e l worker i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t  to e l i m i n a t e .  L a s t l y , much a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o committees at the expense of  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a s p e c t s , and p e r s o n n e l r e c r u i t m e n t and  training. To a v o i d these problems of c o - o r d i n a t i o n , i t i s suggested  that ' i n t e g r a t i o n  1  of government agencies to form one cen-  t r a l agency f o r community cal  development, independent i n t e c h n i -  and other s e r v i c e s , would be a good i d e a .  F o r such an  o r g a n i z a t i o n t o be e f f i c i e n t and powerful, i t i s f u r t h e r suggested that i t s h o u l d be p l a c e d i n the o f f i c e of the h i g h e s t administrator. In the  Chapter V, Ghana i s examined as a case-study of how  suggested a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework could be a p p l i e d t o a  specific  situation.  Footnotes: 1. U n i t e d Nations, Economic Commission f o r A s i a and the F a r E a s t , Community Development and Economic Development (Document No. E / C N . l l / 5 k O ) (Bangkok, I960), p.972. U n i t e d N a t i o n s , T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme, P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Aspects Community Development (Document No. ST/TAO/M/lij.) (New York, 1959), p.26. 3. U n i t e d Nations, (ST/TAO/EEBJ.C/N')-loc. c i t . p.Ik. k. B. M u k e r j i , Community Development i n I n d i a ( C a l c u t t a : O r i e n t Longmans, 1961), pp.121-122.  CHAPTER V  A NEW  APPROACH TO  THE  ADMINISTRATION OP  DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN  The  s t r a t i o n was  Chapter that  the  that  t o i t s o b j e c t i v e s , c o n t e n t , and  described the  i t y D e v e l o p m e n t has in  GHANA  community d e v e l o p m e n t programme i n Ghana, w i t h  p a r t i c u l a r reference  this  In  C h a p t e r 11.  I t was  i t c a n n o t u n d e r t a k e any  out  The  to other M i n i s t r i e s ,  activity  about c o - o r d i n a t i o n ,  selves  do  The  not  undertake  r e s u l t of t h i s  Ministry  approval, since  self-help  which f a l l s  i n fact,  within  device  the  initially  i n 195k  p. i ] . 6 ) T w o a s p e c t s  the  rural  the  promotion of  dustries, An  a r e a s and  the  attempt  ( i ) the  prevention  checking of d r i f t  no  i s that  the not  objectives which i t established  indigenous handicrafts  have r e c e i v e d  to  Community D e v e l o p m e n t has  to implement  p a r t i c u l a r , namely:  i s a device  activities.  been able  (See  that  t e c h n i c a l M i n i s t r i e s them-  administrative  o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e and  in  Commun-  s c o p e o f work o f a n o t h e r M i n i s t r y w i t h o u t r e c e i v i n g  bring  ent  admini-  pointed  M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e and  become s u b s e r v i e n t  Ministry's approval.  in  COMMUNITY  of the  objectives  o f unemployment t o towns; and  and  small-scale  in  (ii) in-  attention.  i s made b e l o w t o e s t a b l i s h c l e a r l y  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  Ministry  the  of S o c i a l Welfare  presand  120 Community D e v e l o p m e n t and  other M i n i s t r i e s  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a n g e s w h i c h w o u l d be fil  the  initial  o b j e c t i v e s as  make t h e M i n i s t r y  to  suggest  necessary  i n 195k,  outlined  a more p o w e r f u l  and  to  ful-  i n order  agency of r u r a l  to  develop-  ment. R e l a t i o n s h i p between the M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t and O t h e r M i n i s t r i e s . The  Ministry  ment works w i t h projects,  of S o c i a l Welfare  other M i n i s t r i e s  i n providing technical  communal p r o j e c t s ,  and  are  Ministries  c o n s u l t e d and  ample, clinics before  and  their  in processing  services i n connection  'processed'  concerned  before  with  a p p r o v a l must be  similar health structure, are  i s necessary  they  are  w i t h communal p r o j e c t s received.  and  constructed.  For  The  ex-  latrines,  i s consulted  first  approval of  the  s i n c e they m a i n t a i n the p r o j e c t s  completion.  Where L o c a l C o u n c i l s a r e  p o n s i b l e f o r the maintenance of c e r t a i n p r o j e c t s , also  Develop-  communal .  1  of H e a l t h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  the f a c i l i t i e s  Ministries after  their  the M i n i s t r y  Community  Com-  i n o r g a n i z i n g campaigns.  Communal p r o j e c t s a r e f i r s t implemented.  and  and  t o be they  resare  consulted. Since  the M i n i s t r y  v e l o p m e n t has  a few  other M i n i s t r i e s illustration, prepares  of S o c i a l Welfare  technical  officers,  f o r technical  the Department  plans f o r c i t i e s  and  advice  and  i t has  Community to r e l y  of a l l s o r t s .  o f Town and towns o n l y .  Country Thus,  As  Deon an  Planning the  121 Ministry in  has  assumed t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  preparing plans  that  these  istry  has  and  p l a n s may entered  In re-settlement  meet t h e  into  of helping schemes.  In  required standards,  an a g r e e m e n t w i t h  villages  the  Country  P l a n n i n g , whereby the Department  officers  of the M i n i s t r y i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of p l a n s When t h e p l a n s a r e  completed,  the Department f o r examination  and  cies  together  have b e e n w o r k i n g  closely  Min-  the D e p a r t m e n t  Town and  villages.  order  they  approval.  instructs f o r the  are  sent  The  two  on t h e  of  to agen-  resettlement  scheme i n t h e V o l t a R e g i o n . The  M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l W e l f a r e  ment o r g a n i z e s their tial new  The  role  of the M i n i s t r y i s c o n f i n e d t o  mass t e a c h i n g t o a r o u s e  interest  i d e a o r programme, b e f o r e takes  Community D e v e l o p -  e x t e n s i o n campaigns f o r o t h e r M i n i s t r i e s  request.  cerned  and  the  and  conviction i n a  t e c h n i c a l M i n i s t r y con-  195k and i960, s e v e n m a j o r campaigns were o r -  ganized.  The  on b e h a l f  of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , to e x p l a i n  p o p u l a r i z e new  m a j o r and  t h e most p o p u l a r  methods o f c o c o a  the  spread  on;  'Roof L o a n s ,  of cocoa 1  diseases.  farming The  other  one  in  Northern  f o r the  Ghana' and  organized  to  and prevent  s i x campaigns were  f o r the M i n i s t r y of Housing.  Premises i n Northern 'Health',  was  designed  Rates,' f o r t h e M i n i s t r y o f L o c a l Government;  cation;  ini-  over.  Between  School  at  'Pay*Your  ' B u i l d i n g of  Ghana' , f o r t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u -  M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h ;  'Rinder-pest  'Use  o f Manure  i n Ga-Adamgbe A r e a ' ,  for  122 the  M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e ; and ' r e s e t t l e m e n t  of the F r a f r a  P e o p l e i n t h e Damongo A r e a ' , w h i c h i n v o l v e d a number o f M i n i stries. Much o f t h e c o n f u s i o n  which e x i s t e d i n the e a r l y 1950's  between t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e  and Community D e v e l o p -  ment a n d t h e t e c h n i c a l M i n i s t r i e s c o n c e r n i n g  the functions of  the M i n i s t r y h a s now b e e n s e t t l e d b y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w h i c h have t e n d e d undertaking  t o weaken t h e i n i t i a t i v e  projects.  With the present  t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t r y ' s work w i t h it  i sdifficult  activity. the  t h e work o f o t h e r M i n i s t r i e s ,  f o r t h e M i n i s t r y t o expand i t s ' scope o f  Some d e g r e e o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n  o f t h e community d e v e l o p m e n t programme question  of the Ministry i n  system o f c o - o r d i n a -  has b e e n a c h i e v e d a t  expense o f t h e s a t i s f a c t o r y a t t a i n m e n t  The  devices  of the o b j e c t i v e s  as p r o p o s e d i n 195k.  then i s whether c o - o r d i n a t i o n  should  be m a i n -  t a i n e d f o r i t s own s a k e a n d f o r t h e sake o f t h e p r e s e n t tent  o f t h e programme,  strengthened t o play  o r w h e t h e r t h e M i n i s t r y s h o u l d be  a major r o l e i n r u r a l development.  Ministry's  administrative  by  raising  i t s status  be  brought  about i s d i s c u s s e d  p o s i t i o n should  above o t h e r  and  i s recommended  How t h i s  could  below.  Changes i n Ghana's Com-  that the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l Welfare  Community D e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d  the B u r e a u s o f t h e P r e s i d e n t . a number o f B u r e a u s ,  The  be s t r e n g t h e n e d  Ministries.  Recommendations f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i v e m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t Programme. It  con-  created  be r e o r g a n i z e d  The P r e s i d e n t by Parliament  a s one o f  has under him  t o perform c e r t a i n  123 functions. and ly  example,  African Affairs. to the  President  The As  For  the  p e r s o n n e l be  Service  thropologists  At  and  i n the  the  Ministries  Civil  T h e y w o u l d be national  and  report  into  t o work a t  the D e p a r t m e n t  could  be  s e t up  out  require of the  l e v e l s of  key  necessarily  be  local  drawn f r o m t h e  existing educational this at  class  the  that  Ministry  positions of  and  the  and  other be  i n number. at  the  the  Bureau.  would  country  can  I n s t i t u t e f o r Community of S c i e n c e  assistants;  S c h o o l a t Kwadaso c o u l d  officers;  changes  professionals  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Kwame Nkrumah U n i v e r s i t y  Training  pro-  not  technical M i n i s t r i e s , since  The  supply planning  outside.  personnel to small  Technical  and  the  the  supply Planning  Technology  at  Agricultural  supply a l l junior  Training  an-  not  the  drastic  administration  i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the  of p e r s o n n e l .  Kumasi c o u l d  al  level  o f Town  p r o b a b l y are  t e c h n i c a l M i n i s t r i e s w o u l d be the  that  Construc-  employed f r o m  professional  only  from  p e r s o n n e l s u c h as  i t i s worth pointing  administrative  the  personnel  M i n i s t r i e s of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  S e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l t o a s s i s t the and  services.  the B u r e a u , i t i s p r o p o s e d  Service,  n e e d e d t o man  direct-  12k-25).  pp.  to r e c r u i t p r o f e s s i o n a l  change w o u l d n o t  regional  Statistics  independent i n t e c h n i c a l  simply because the  drawn f r o m t h e  6,  Other p r o f e s s i o n a l  t h i s juncture,  present  Bureaus of  i n d u s t r i a l e c o n o m i s t s who  posed a d m i n i s t r a t i v e in  and  I n d u s t r y , E d u c a t i o n and  Country Planning.  available  the  i n d e p e n d e n t and  Charts £  drawn f r o m t h e  tion, Health, and  (See  difficult  Civil  are  They a r e  B u r e a u s h o u l d be  i t m i g h t be  outside  there  agricultur-  S c h o o l s i n many  parts  •  12k  PRESENT ADMINISTRATIVE SET-UP OP THE GHANA CIVIL SERVICE  Other Bureaus  The  ational Planning iJommission  President;  Cabinet  National Level of Administrat i o n (about 13 M i n i s t r i e s )  Regional Commission er  Regional L e v e l o f Adraini' s t r a t i o n (about 13 Ministries)  1  /  Local Level of Administration  125 CHART 6  , PROPOSED ADMINISTRATIVE SET-UP OP THE GHANA CIVIL SERVICE  Other Bureaus  The  N. P. C. & Bureau o f Comm. Dev.  President  Cabinet  N a t i o n a l L e v e l o f Administration (About 12 M i n i s t r i e s )  Regional Commission er  Regional L e v e l o f Admini-^? s t r a t i o n (about 12 Minis4 -u. tries) /  Local Level of Administration i  <  Regional Office of Bureau o f Comm. Dev.  L o c a l Bureau O f f i c e w i t h the L o c a l Couni> cil  of the country  pould  126 a l s o make a v a i l a b l e any number of sub-  p r o f e s s i o n a l engineers  t o perform minor e n g i n e e r i n g  works.  In c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s such as i n d u s t r i a l promotion, i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c o u l d be g i v e n t o n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l The  present  employees.  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of the C i v i l S e r v i -  ce seems t o be conducive t o the proposed change. A N a t i o n a l Planning President  Commission has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the o f f i c e o f the t o prepare development plans f o r a l l s e c t o r s of the  economy, and thus the B ureau c o u l d be attached  t o the Commi-  s s i o n t o g a i n advantage from the long-term and comprehensive approach t o p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic p l a n n i n g which the Commission has adopted. (See Charts  5  and 6, pp.  12k-25).  At the r e g i o n a l l e v e l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the Bureau's o f f i c e c o u l d be attached  t o the o f f i c e o f the Regional Co~  mmissioner, who occupies  a m i n i s t e r i a l p o s t . He i s a l s o the  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the P r e s i d e n t and the Cabinet  M i n i s t e r s at  the r e g i o n a l l e v e l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The Regional  Commiss-  i o n e r s should not be made heads o f the Bureau's r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s f o r the f o l l o w i n g f o u r main reasons: ( i ) they l a c k t r a i n i n g i n community development; ( i i ) they represent the lawwand order component o f the Government, and r u r a l  devel-  opment through s e l f - h e l p and c o e r c i v e powers o f Regional Commissioners are uneasy b e d - f e l l o w s ;  ( i l l ) s i n c e they are  supposed t o be the heads o f a l l M i n i s t r i e s at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , they always have d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n , and cannot f o r e give f u l l a t t e n t i o n t o community development and  there-  activities;  ( i v ) they are p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s subject t o t r a n s f e r and  127 removal. I t i s suggested t h e r e f o r e t h a t the r e g i o n a l  offices  of the Bureau;, should be d i v o r c e d from a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of R e g i o n a l Commissioners, and should r e p o r t  direct-  l y t o the head o f f i c e as i t i s the case now w i t h the r e g i o n al offices  of a l l M i n i s t r i e s ,  head o f f i c e s .  (See Chart 5)•  r e p o r t i n g d i r e c t l y t o the However, by a t t a c h i n g the  Bureau's r e g i o n a l o f f i c e t o the o f f i c e of the R e g i o n a l Comm i s s i o n e r , i t would be e a s i e r t o c o - o r d i n a t e the a c t i v i t i e s of the Bureau w i t h the M i n i s t r i e s ' . For  the same reasons g i v e n above, i t would be u n d e s i r -  able t o suggest that the D i s t r i c t Commissioners should head local offices. offices  Thus, i t I s proposed that the l o c a l Bureau  should be e s t a b l i s h e d i n L o c a l or D i s t r i c t  offices,  Councils'  simply because the Bureau should work c l o s e l y t o -  gether w i t h L o c a l and D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l s i n p l a n n i n g and implementing p l a n s . The proposed a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system would a f f e c t  the ex-  i s t i n g community development committee system, s i n c e i t i s now proposed t o g i v e people b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o express t h e i r needs adequately.  More v i l l a g e s  should be encouraged  to f o r m development committees, a n d L o c a l Development Comm i t t e e s which used t o e x i s t  i n the p a s t should be r e v i v e d ;  however, w i t h some changes i n t h e i r composition and function.  They should be comprised of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of V i l -  lage Development  Committees,  o f f i c i a l s of the Bureau and  L o c a l C o u n c i l s , and D i s t r i c t Commissioners, who would serve  128 as chairmen.  The  Committees should only be an a d v i s o r y body  to l o c a l Bureau o f f i c e s . The  R e g i o n a l Development Committees should be maintained,  but should not be assigned  the f u n c t i o n of d e c i d i n g upon  grants-in-aid for village projects. over t h i s f u n c t i o n .  The  The Bureau should  take  Regional Development Committees  c o u l d perform an important f u n c t i o n of c o - o r d i n a t i n g a l l developmental p r o j e c t s of the v a r i o u s M i n i s t r i e s w i t h i n the c a l Council areas.  They should be  composed of the  Commissioners as Chairmen, o f f i c i a l s nical  Lo-  Regional  of the Bureau, and  tech-  Ministries. A N a t i o n a l Community Development Committee should  be  formed at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , and should be comprised of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the N a t i o n a l Planning i n e t , the Bureau and  Commission, the Cab-  the t e c h n i c a l M i n i s t r i e s .  This Committee  would perform the major f u n c t i o n of s o l v i n g important on p o l i c i e s of the Bureau, which could c o n c e i v a b l y  issues  conflict  w i t h those of the t e c h n i c a l M i n i s t r i e s . The and  T e c h n i c a l F i e l d U n i t s , the T e c h n i c a l Advice-  the R u r a l T r a i n i n g Centres are at present  s e t s t o the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l Welfare and ment.  Centres,  important  as-  Community Develop-  I t i s probable t h a t they c o u l d be more u s e f u l under  the proposed system of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In 1957, Ghana. U n i t has  there were e i g h t T e c h n i c a l F i e l d U n i t s i n  However, the number may  have i n c r e a s e d by now.  Each  a Foreman i n charge, a C l e r k Storekeeper, an A s s i s -  tant Surveyor f o r road and v i l l a g e l a y o u t work,  carpenters,  129 masons, d r i v e r s , l a b o u r e r s ,  p e r f o r m two  as  staff.  The  plement  self-help projects i n villages;  strate  Units  as w e l l  to D i s t r i c t  works o r g a n i z a t i o n contract  basis.  Councils and  an  administrative  main f u n c t i o n s :  how  and  ( i ) they  ( i i ) t h e y demon-  t h e y m i g h t have t h e i r  undertake Local  Council  be  e s t a b l i s h e d under the  to perform s i m i l a r functions  as  enumerated  e a c h o f the give  there  C e n t r a l and  each of  present  were two  the  eight  Eastern  Regions.  following  on  a  Bureau  above.  Advice  Centres,  one  I t i s proposed  Regions a T e c h n i c a l  t h e y p e r f o r m the (a)  Technical  own  projects  They s h o u l d  I n 1959,  sup-  Advice  in  to  Centre.  At  functions:  To s u p p l y on r e q u e s t p l a n s and c o s t s f o r a w i d e range of p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . C o s t s w o u l d be adj u s t e d where v o l u n t a r y l a b o u r was l i k e l y t o be available. To a d v i s e L o c a l A u t h o r i t i e s on what i s r e q u i r e d by way o f m a i n t e n a n c e o f p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , roads, etc.; and t o s u p p l y e s t i m a t e s when r e q u i r e d . To s u g g e s t s u i t a b l e work f o r v o l u n t a r y labour and methods o f o r g a n i z i n g s u c h l a b o u r . To s c r u t i n i z e and a d v i s e on p l a n s s u b m i t t e d t o the Centre f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . To p r o v i d e , oh payment, p h o t o g r a p h s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s and a s p e c t s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n work, t o a s s i s t L o c a l A u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s of development p r o j e c t s . To d i r e c t r e s e a r c h o f M e c h a n i c a l F i e l d U n i t s i n the r e g i o n o f c h e a p e r b u i l d i n g methods, e s p e c i a l l y m a c h i n e and k i l n - m a d e r o o f i n g t i l e s and bricks. To o r g a n i z e l o c a l and c e n t r a l b u i l d i n g c o u r s e s , i n c l u d i n g b o t h t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , f o r L o c a l A u t h o r i t y , F o r e m e n o f Works, e t c .  (b)  (c) (d) (e)  (f)  (g)  2  The  Centres  al  and  local  in  s u c h a way  offices,  administrative technical  should  that  but  absorbed  t o be  i n t o the  their functions  they c o u l d  set-up.  services  be  f i t neatly  Bureau's  should  be  i n t o the  region-  defined  Bureau's  It i s within  the  framework  of  r e n d e r e d by  the  Centres that  sub-  130 professional personnel  such  agricultural  and j u n i o r  officers,  ter services to v i l l a g e s . plans  as p l a n n i n g a s s i s t a n t s , surveyors  could render  bet-  W h i l s t t h e y w o u l d be i m p l e m e n t i n g  r e c e i v e d from r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s  back necessary  junior  information collected  they  could also feed-  from surveys  and f i e l d -  work. The training but  Rural T r a i n i n g Centres not only to junior  could provide  in-service  community d e v e l o p m e n t  also to a l l classes of personnel  officers,  and v o l u n t a r y  village  leaders. The  need f o r such  a B u r e a u c a n n o t be  L i k e many o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g has  underestimated.  c o u n t r i e s , t h e Government o f Ghana  adopted t h e p l a n n i n g approach t o p h y s i c a l ,  onomic d e v e l o p m e n t .  unless  a distinct  and e c -  I f community d e v e l o p m e n t i s t o make any  contribution at a l l to this assigned  social  role.  i t has a p r o p e r  'planned  d e v e l o p m e n t ' , i t must be  I t c a n n o t however p l a y i t s r o l e  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery c r e a t e d f o r  it. Summary The  M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l Welfare  a n d Community D e v e l o p -  ment h a s become s u b s e r v i e n t t o o t h e r M i n i s t r i e s , the  t i e s b e t w e e n i t and o t h e r M i n i s t r i e s .  requires  Secondly,  One o f t h e s e  t h a t i t c a n n o t promote a n y s e l f - h e l p  technical Ministries i trelies  the M i n i s t r i e s  concerned  have p r o v i d e d  on them f o r t e c h n i c a l  because o f ties  projects u n t i l their  services.  approval. Thirdly,  depend on i t i n o r g a n i z i n g and c a r r y i n g o u t  131 campaigns. The not  be  content  o f the  community d e v e l o p m e n t programme  improved u n l e s s the M i n i s t r y i s r e o r g a n i z e d  Bureau o f the personnel  President.  c o u l d be  sional personnel tional  To  be  obtained  from the  r e g i o n a l and  Bureau c o u l d e s t a b l i s h  local  respectively.  The  committee  therefore  present be  levels  i t s offices  Council offices  existing  educa-  The  at the  Regional  C o m m i t t e e s , and The  the v i l l a g e s  proposed  s h o u l d be and  maintained  to  Bureau t o p e r f o r m  should  com-  Development Committee.  U n i t s , the T e c h n i c a l Advice  under the  Local  express  s y s t e m w o u l d be  a N a t i o n a l Community D e v e l o p m e n t  Technical Field  and  s y s t e m i s I n a d e q u a t e , and  r e - o r g a n i z e d to enable  needs a d e q u a t e l y .  o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the  posed o f L o c a l Development Committees, R e g i o n a l  ent  Sub-profes-  institutions. At the  their  a  well staffed, professional  drawn f r o m o t h e r M i n i s t r i e s .  c o u l d be  as  can-  their  Centres pres-  possibly additional functions.  Footnotes: 1. 2. (London:  See A p p e n d i x I I P e t e r du S a u t o y , Community D e v e l o p m e n t I n O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958) p. 132.  Ghana.  CHAPTER V I  COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING CAN CONTRIBUTE TO  Summary o f Previous  COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  Chapters  The f u t u r e s o c i a l and economic p r o g r e s s of developing c o u n t r i e s i s dependent upon the development o f the r u r a l to a l a r g e e x t e n t .  areas  These areas c o n t a i n about 70% of the t o t a l  p o p u l a t i o n o f the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , and t h u s , they are important  sources o f cheap man-power.  a g r i c u l t u r e i s the mainstay  Furthermore,  since  o f the eeonomy o f these c o u n t r i e s ,  the r u r a l areas are more important than the urban c e n t r e s as f a r as sources o f n a t i o n a l revenue are concerned.  The develop-  ment o f i n d u s t r i e s a l s o r e s t s on the improvement o f a g r i c u l t u r e to p r o v i d e the necessary raw m a t e r i a l s . Thus, i n view of the importance  o f r u r a l areas, the  governments o f the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s are compelled t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o these a r e a s .  However, the e x i s t i n g f i n a n c i a l and  t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s are s c a r c e , and moreover, they are b e i n g consumed by new i n d u s t r i e s , by multi-purpose r i v e r p r o j e c t s , road and r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n , and so on. Consequently, the r u r a l areas do not r e c e i v e p r o p o r t i o n a l share o f these r e sources f o r development, and hence the adoption o f community development programmes.  •Community development' i s a process  133 and a method b y w h i c h t h e government and e n e r g y o f e s p e c i a l l y living  conditions,  rural  mobilizes  communities  through i t s f i n a n c i a l  the  initiative  t o improve  their  and t e c h n i c a l  assist-  ance • In  full-fledged  i 9 6 0 more t h a n t h i r t y  s u c h programmes.  community d e v e l o p m e n t  Prom t h i s development  had a d o p t e d  the U n i t e d N a t i o n s had  e x p e r t , b u t by t h e end o f I 9 6 0 , ,  experts a s s i s t i n g  growing t r e n d ,  development  and  twenty-eight countries.  i t i s evident  i t s retention w i l l  of i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o r u r a l  that  community  t o the development  socio-  depend much on t h e development.  t o w h i c h community d e v e l o p m e n t programmes a r e  buting presently  with  national  i s n o t an e p h e m e r a l p r o c e s s and method o f  effectiveness extent  seven c o u n t r i e s  such countries  i n 1957,  Similarly,  t h e r e were t h i r t y - n i n e  economic  t h e r e were o n l y  community d e v e l o p m e n t programmes on a  s c a l e , b u t by  o n l y one  1950's  the e a r l y  of r u r a l  The  contri-  areas i s the  c a r d i n a l i s s u e w i t h w h i c h t h i s p a p e r has b e e n c o n c e r n e d . Pour important areas of a c t i v i t y ment programmes, n a m e l y ,  agriculture,  and s m a l l - s c a l e  industries,  roads, schools,  and  III. the  I t was whole  tory  of  capital facilities  s u c h as i n Chapter  d e t e r m i n e d i n b o t h C h a p t e r s I I I and IV t h a t  community d e v e l o p m e n t  has n o t b e e n m a k i n g  development,  (a) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  co-ordination  agencies  land reform, cottage  l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n were e v a l u a t e d  contribution to r u r a l  reasons:  and  o f community d e v e l o p -  difficulties  of a c t i v i t i e s  and o t h e r government  owing t o t h e  between agencies;  satisfacfollowing  c r e a t e d by the  community (b)  on  lack  development  ineffective  1314community d e v e l o p m e n t t e c h n i q u e s , b e l o w ' , and It  voluntary  the  avenue t o t h e  The  c o n t r i b u t i o n of  i s therefore  strengthen  of  the  contribute  of r u r a l  Continue to Play  i n planning  d i r e c t e d and  the  major  development.  In  s u b s t a n t i a l l y to r u r a l development.  and  that  the  f u n c t i o n w h i c h the  c e r n e d w i t h community d e v e l o p m e n t  should  planning  worthwhile  to r e - s t a t e very  Firstly, f i n a n c i a l and  o f programmes, and  the  on  implications  their felt-needs.  resources  the  c e n t r a l government.  assistance  perform  be  re-examined. agencies  an  this  p r e c i s e l y these  of  and  They a r e  juncture,  t h e y can  they  E v e n where p r o j e c t s  o f government o f f i c i a l s ,  are  i t  reasons.  often ignorant  the p r o j e c t s  con-  increasing  technical skills  amount o f h e l p  can  people  p e o p l e have i n a d e q u a t e knowledge o f  material  country to decide  at  they  direction  IV why play  develop-  The  i m p l e m e n t i n g programmes s h o u l d I I I and  i n the  community  administered,  R e a s o n s were a d v a n c e d i n C h a p t e r s  benefit  should  a Dominant Role  major assumption i s t h a t , p r o v i d e d  they need i m p l i e s  the  government  community d e v e l o p m e n t t o be  s a t i s f a c t o r y achievement  ment programmes a r e w e l l  is  from  Programmes  One  part  'planning  labour.  e s s e n t i a l that  concept  P e o p l e S h o u l d Not  Designing  such as,  the  In  the  receive of the  s e l e c t to  from cost-  satisfy  selected with  such i m p l i c a t i o n s  the  are  not  considered. Secondly, government  although the  financial  t o communal p r o j e c t s may  c o n t r i b u t i o n of  amount t o a b o u t %Q%  the of  135 the t o t a l c o s t of the p r o j e c t s , and t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s are a l s o made a v a i l a b l e t o the people, n e v e r t h e l e s s the government c u r r e n t l y f a c e s the problem of s c a r c i t y of f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s , so t h a t any such resources i s s u e d t o a s s i s t community development programmes must y i e l d the same b e n e f i t , j u s t as would be the case i f t h e y were d i v e r t e d i n t o  govern-  ment-sponsored programmes, although such programmes have the tendency t o p l a n away the i n t e r e s t o f the  people.  T h i r d l y , one v i l l a g e ' s community development programme i s u n r e l a t e d to the programmes o f neighbouring W i t h i n one geographic  villages.  r e g i o n , v i l l a g e s are economically r e -  l a t e d to each other i n terms of t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , h e a l t h needs, water supply f o r domestic purposes,  consumption and  and a host of o t h e r s e r v i c e s .  agricultural  The v i l l a g e s  may  a l s o be r e l a t e d on such s o c i a l grounds as t r i b a l l i n k s , k i n s h i p and l i n e a g e systems.  Hence, w i t h i n such a r e g i o n , any programme  designed t o b r i n g about development should be  comprehensive,  i n o t h e r words, the economic and s o c i a l l i n k s b i n d i n g v i l l a g e s must be taken Into account pared.  when t h e i r programmes are b e i n g p r e -  But n e i t h e r the V i l l a g e Development Committees not>  the Area or D i s t r i c t Development Committees can be t r u s t e d w i t h the d i f f i c u l t problem of p r e p a r i n g comprehensive p l a n s f o r scores of v i l l a g e s , s i n c e t h i s i s p u r e l y a governmental f u n c tion. For these three main reasons, community development  ag-  e n c i e s should p l a y a dominant r o l e i n d e s i g n i n g programmes. The people  should be concerned w i t h those aspects of programme  136 p l a n n i n g which are l e s s i n v o l v e d .  F o r example, when they have  expressed t h e i r f e l t - n e e d s , and the community  development agen-  cy has analysed these needs i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r  compatibility  w i t h n a t i o n a l development plans, ( i f there are any), f i n a n c i a l commitments,  and so on, then, the people  should be  informed  about which of t h e i r f e l t - n e e d s can r e c e i v e f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l support o f the government.  They would t h e r e f o r e be  i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to programme t h e i r own communal p r o j e c t s . Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Can C o n t r i b u t e The suggestion t h a t community  development agencies  should  p l a y a dominant r o l e i n p l a n n i n g programmes r e a l l y Implies t h a t community  and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g techniques c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o  community  development programmes.  "At the p r e s e n t time, much of the t h i n k i n g , both n a t i o n a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , i n community  development i s so d i f f u s e ,  w i t h so many new experiments and approaches being t r i e d , t h a t no one has s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s i f t e d the evidence t o formulate and then demonstrate through c o n t r o l l e d experimentation the fundamental h y p o t h e s i s i n v o l v e d i n planned  community  change".  1  Some a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and s o c i o l o g i s t s c l a i m t h a t f o r community  development programmes t o be e f f e c t i v e , i t i s nec-  e s s a r y t o study beforehand  the s o c i a l v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , p r e -  f e r e n c e s , k i n s h i p and l i n e a g e s t r u c t u r e and other s o c i a l  factors  which are i n v o l v e d i n s o c i o - c u l t u r a l change. In much the same way,  i t i s c o n s i d e r e d here t h a t i f com-  n u n i t y development i s t o c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o r u r a l  137 development, I t s programmes must i n c o r p o r a t e some community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s .  Since a search i s being  made f o r a 'modus o p e r a n d i ' , i t i s necessary t h a t any known approach to r u r a l development, such as community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , should be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h community development. Community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g techniques which can be a p p l i e d t o community development programmes i n c l u d e :  (a) s y s -  tematic surveys t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n upon which the  develop-  ment of r e g i o n a l and l o c a l p l a n s can be based; (b) d i v i s i o n of l a n d a c c o r d i n g t o i t s best uses, i n c l u d i n g the proper  location  of communal p r o j e c t s such as s c h o o l s , markets, and l o r r y parks;; (c) the corfiprehensive approach to the s o l u t i o n of s o c i a l  eco-  nomic, and p h y s i c a l problems of settlements w i t h i n a d e f i n a b l e a r e a , and by t h i s approach, the settlements can be as mutually  interdependent  of them c o u l d be  regarded  and must f u n c t i o n as a u n i t .  s e l e c t e d to r e c e i v e s m a l l - s c a l e and  Some  cottage  i n d u s t r i e s , depending on such f a c t o r s as the a v a i l a b i l i t y of t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l , raw m a t e r i a l s , and p o t e n t i a l  entrepreneurs,  as w e l l as e x i s t i n g unemployment and underemployment c o n d i t i o n s . Other settlements c o u l d be e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e s , and  s e l e c t e d to serve as market c e n t r e s ,  so on.  As I n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r ,  the  g r e a t e s t weakness of community development programmes from the community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p o i n t of view i s the manner i n which v i l l a g e s are t r e a t e d as separate s o c i a l and economic entities.  Thus, the comprehensive approach t o r u r a l  develop-  ment, which i s so much emphasized i n t h i s paper, can remove t h i s weakness.  138 I t i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d that community and r e g i o n a l p l a n ning techniques can be u s e f u l t o community development p r o v i d e d administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s of  due t o the l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n  e f f o r t s o f government agencies concerned w i t h community  development are removed.  To remove these d i f f i c u l t i e s  i t is  suggested t h a t there should be one c e n t r a l agency f o r community development and should be i n the o f f i c e o f the h i g h e s t administ r a t o r such as the Prime M i n i s t e r , or the P r e s i d e n t .  The  agen-  cy would be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to r e l a t e community development programmes t o n a t i o n a l development g o a l s . During the course of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t was covered t h a t so l i t t l e  dis-  i s known about the concept of community  development t h a t systematic s t u d i e s should be made t o a s c e r t a i n what methods of approach  are f e a s i b l e , and these i n c l u d e  the f o l l o w i n g : 1.  Types of survey necessary to serve dommunity develop-  ment purposes. 2.  S t u d i e s t o determine  the best method of r e c o n c i l i n g  plans prepared by v i l l a g e s w i t h those prepared by government community development a g e n c i e s , and the types of committee system which should be encouraged  t o enable the agencies t o  be s e n s i t i v e t o the needs of v i l l a g e s . 3. own  S t u d i e s t o determine  institutions,  how  best t o promote people's  such as l o c a l governments and c o - o p e r a t i v e  s o c i e t i e s , so t h a t as time goes on, the people can take over a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o r u r a l development.  139 k.  A system of e v a l u a t i n g completed  programmes w i t h  the o b j e c t o f doing r e s e a r c h t o improve subsequent In c o n c l u s i o n , i t has been determined  i n this  programmes. paper  t h a t community development, through i t s multi-purpose programmes, attempts  t o solve socio-economic  problems of r u r a l communities  i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , but i t s techniques are i n e f f e c t i v e to s o l v e these problems.  Hence, community development t e c h n i -  ques must be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the more e f f e c t i v e techniques of community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . Footnotes; 1. Irwin T, Sanders, The Community: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o a S o c i a l System. (New York: The Ronald Press Co., 1958), P.  k09.  IkO  APPENDIX I  Underdeveloped in  billion  A low p e r c a p i t a people  $100  a year  about  #850  l a r g e have t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s  ( a s compared t o i n Western  A low  3.  Low  k.  Poor  rate  and  $2,350  The  average  f o r the  L a t i n America  2  i s around  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and  Europe). o f s a v i n g s and  industrial  investments.  output:'in r e l a t i o n  roads, transport  and  o f power and l i g h t ; few  other social 5.  income.  i n Asia, Africa  2.  supplies  in  and  common: 1.  and  c o u n t r i e s by  to population.  communications;  inadequate  h o s p i t a l s , poor m e d i c a l  care  services.  A v e r y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f the l a b o u r f o r c e  a g r i c u l t u r e ; h e a v y p r e s s u r e o f p o p u l a t i o n on l a n d  engaged under  cultivation. 6.  Widespread  7.  High  8.  High b i r t h r a t e s .  developed thousand United  illiteracy,  countries,  10. maternal  low  16  and  educational l e v e l .  the b i r t h r a t e s range  a l l the f r o m k0  o f dependent  per  i n the  Europe.  children.  i n c i d e n c e o f d i s e a s e ; poor h e a l t h ,  child health;  undert o 50  as compared w i t h 25  i n some c o u n t r i e s o f  High percentages High  malnutrition.  In p r a c t i c a l l y  of population per year  S t a t e s , and 9.  h u n g e r and  inadequate medical  especially  services.^"  Footnote 1. Joseph Marion Jonesj Does O v e r p o p u l a t i o n Mean Poverty? The F a c t s about P o p u l a t i o n Growth and Economic Development^ (Washington: Center f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Economic Growth, 1962), p. 2£.  Ik2 APPENDIX I I  D.S.W. & G.D. C i r . No. P i l e No. A - 1 0 0 / 1 9 .  13159 Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e and Community D e v e l o p m e n t , Accra, l k t h May,  Processing  of Self-Help  I wish t o remind  Building  Projects  a l l Regions that  p r o j e c t must be u n d e r t a k e n u n t i l  1959.  no s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g  i t has been t h o r o u g h l y  pro-  cessed. Processing  will  include:-  ( i ) Ensuring  that  a l l other  Government ; D e p a r t m e n t s  who may be c o n c e r n e d h a v e b e e n c o n s u l t e d in  agreement, e.g. t h e R e g i o n a l  Ministry clinics istry is  of Health  these  of Education  ( i i ) Ensuring and  that  and M i n -  a complete l i s t  examples,  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e c u r r e n t use  and h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d  ( i i i ) Ensuring  that  Ensuring  future that  that  com-  for.  the Local Authority  when i t i s l i k e l y undertake  It  and  maintenance a f t e r the p r o j e c t has been  pleted  (iv)  structures  i n the case o f s c h o o l s .  to give  are merely  Organization,  i n the case o f l a t r i n e s ,  and s i m i l a r h e a l t h  not p o s s i b l e  and a r e  i s consulted  t h e y » m a y be a s k e d t o  maintenance,  there  ownership o f l a n d .  a r e no d i f f i c u l t i e s  over  343 (v) E n s u r i n g t h a t the people w i l l r e a l l y be  able  and w i l l i n g t o operate the b u i l d i n g p r o p e r l y when i t i s handed over, ( v i ) E n s u r i n g t h a t the p r o j e c t has been c o n s i d e r e d by a r e s p o n s i b l e s e n i o r t e c h n i c i a n (Foreman T e c h n i c a l F i e l d Unit and/or I.C.A. Engineer) for  feasibility,  ( v i i ) E n s u r i n g t h a t a proper p l a n and estimate of cost has been drawn up. ( v i i i ) E n s u r i n g t h a t a proper t h e o r e t i c a l p r i c e  has  been c a l c u l a t e d i n advance, ( i x ) E n s u r i n g t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o r d e r i n g and paying f o r m a t e r i a l s has been c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and a l l o c a t e d and t h a t the person  concerned  knows the q u a l i t y and p r i c e of the m a t e r i a l s (as shown i n the estimate) and from where they may  be o b t a i n e d ,  (x) E n s u r i n g t h a t communal labour w i l l be  forth-  coming. ( x i ) E n s u r i n g that a l l funds needed t o complete the p r o j e c t are a v a i l a b l e before i t b e g i n s . j e c t may  be b u i l t  A pro-  i n stages but each stage must  be complete and capable of use i n i t s e l f , ( x i i ) E n s u r i n g t h a t a p r o j e c t does not s t a r t  until  the T e c h n i c a l F i e l d U n i t s or other t e c h n i c i a n s are ready t o back i t up • •©•  fully.  lkk P. du S a u t o y D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l Welfare and Community D e v e l o p m e n t .  Footnote: 1. Ghana, A n n u a l R g p o r t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e and Community D e v e l o p m e n t f o r t h e Y e a r , 1959. ( A c c r a : Government P r i n t e r , I 9 6 0 ) , p . 35.  ilj.5 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books B a t t e n , "Thomas R. Communities and T h e i r Development* An I n t r o d u c t o r y SJtudy with S p e c i a l Reference t o the Tropics:. London* Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957. British  Colonial Office. Community Development* A Handbook. London?/ Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1958. (A handbook p r e p a r e d by a study conference on Community Development h e l d at H a r t w e l l House, A r l e s b u r y , Buckinghamshire, September, 1957)).  du S'asatoy, P e t e r . Community Development i n Ghana. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. H i g g i n s , Benjamin. Economic Development. Norton and Company, 1959.  New  London?  York*  M u k e r j i , Brahmadevi. Community Development i n I n d i a . cutta* Orient Longmans, 1961*  W/.W. Cal-  Huopp, P h i l l i p s ( e d . ) . Approach to Community Bevelopment. •She Hague* W/. Van Hoeve L t d . , 1953. Sanders, Irwin T. The Community* An I n t r o d u c t i o n to a S o c i a l System. New York* The Royal Press Company, 1958. P u b l i c Documents and Reports "Ghana.  Annual Report of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare and Community Development f o r the Year 1959. 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S e r i e s on Community Development. Document No. S T / S O A / S E R * 0/31, ST/TAG/ SER»D/31. New York, May, 1959. (Pour papers p r e pared by U.N. C o n s u l t a n t s ) . (Mimeo.)! U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Dept. of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s . Community Development and R e l a t e d S e r v i c e s . New York, I960. ( I t appeared o r i g i n a l l y as annex 111 of document E/2931). Mimeo.)) U n i t e d Nations. Community Development and Economic Development? ( P a r t 1; A Study of the C o n t r i b u t i o n of R u r a l Community Development Programmes to N a t i o n a l Economic Development In A s i a and the Par E a s t ) . Document No. E/CN» 11/51+0. Bangkok, I960. U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l . Report on Concepts and P r i n c i p l e s o f Community Development, and Recommendations on F u r t h e r P r a c t i c a l Measures t o be Taken by I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s . Document No. E/CN»5/325. New York, March, 1957. (Mimeo.) U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Economic Commission f o r A s i a and the P a r East. O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of N a t i o n a l Community Development Programmes. Document No. SCD/5. Bangkok, August, 1961. (A paper prepared by M.S. Pepera f o r A s i a n Seminar on P l a n n i n g and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of N a t i o n a l Community Development Programmes, from 22nd. August - 1 s t September). (Miraeo.) U n i t e d Nations, Economic Commission f o r A s i a and the Par E a s t . Programme E v a l u a t i o n and Research. Document No. S.CD/0. Bangkok, 1961. (A paper read by P r o f e s s o r D. Ghosh f o r A s i a n Seminar on P l a n n i n g and Adm i n i s t r a t i o n of Community Development Programmes, from 22nd. August - 1 s t . September). (Mimeo.) U n i t e d Nations, Economic Commission f o r A s i a and the P a r E a s t . F i n a n c i a l Aspects of Community Development Programmes. Document No. SCD/3. Bangkok, 1961. (A paper read by H.B. Minocher f o r A s i a n Seminar on P l a n n i n g and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of N a t i o n a l Community Development Programmes, from 22nd. August - 1 s t . September). (Mimeo.) U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Bureau of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , E c u a d o r t A Case Study of the R e l a t i o n s h i p between Community Development and A g r a r i a n Reform. Quito, July-August, I960. (Report prepared by P.S. T a y l o r ) . (Miraeo.)  Unu n i t e d N a t i o n s , A Case Study of the R e l a t i o n s h i p of the Community Development of the Andean M i s s i o n i n Ecuador to the N a t i o n a l Development Programmes' i n c l u d i n g Land Reform, New York, n.d. (Mimeo.) U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Dept. of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s . Housing, B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g B u l l e t i n , No. 11? T r a i n i n g f o r Town and Country P l a n n i n g . Document No. ST/SOA/SER*C/ll. New York, 1957. U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Dept. of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s . Housing, B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g B u l l e t i n . Nos. 12 & T J * Regional Planning. Document No. ST/SOA/SER* C/12&13. New York, 1959. U n i t e d Nations. A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s of Community Development as an Economic S o c i a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Process;, n.p. n.d. (A paper d e l i v e r e d by C.S. Belshaw at a meeting of An Ad. Hoc Group of E x p e r t s on Community Development, Reference Paper No. 1, 18th. Pebuary - 8th. March, 1962). ( D r a f t , mimeographed m a n u s c r i p t ) . U.N.E.S.C.O. Community Development Trends i n Mexico, C e n t r a l America, Panama and the Caribbean. Document No. UN/ UNESCO/SS/SRRL/C•2. Mexico C i t y , June, 1962. (Report by S. Juan Pasco® at a Seminar on S o c i a l Research and Problems of R u r a l L i f e i n C e n t r a l America, Mexico and the Caribbean Region). (Mimeo.) Periodicals Badeau, I.S. The Meaning of Community Development, Community Development Review, No. 2 (September, 1956)', Mi  1,1  1-7.  B r u i t on, A n i b a l . '"Latin America* Community Development i n Theory and P r a c t i c e , Community Development B u l l e t i n , X l l , No. 2 (September, 1959), ti3-ti£. 1 8  Cousins, W i l l i a m J . "'Community Development - Some Notes on the Why and the How,"' Community Development Review, No. 7 (December, 1957), 2k-30. Ehsminger, Douglas. ""Community Development and i t s Cont r i b u t i o n to N a t i o n a l Development, Community Development Review, V I , No. Z (June, 1961), 10-16. Wi  du Sautoy, P e t e r . "'Administration* The C o - o r d i n a t i o n of Community Development," Community Development B u l l e t i n , X, No. k (September, 1959), 83-85. !  . "Community Development i n Ghana," Community Development Review. IV, No. 2 (June, 1959), k7-56. r  lk8 P o s t e r , G.M. '"Social F a c t o r s * G u i d e l i n e s t o Community Development Programmes, Community Development Bul l e t i n , V l l l , No. 2 (March, 1957), 32-38. m  ."Community Development and the Image of the S t a t i c Economy," Community Development B u l l e t i n , X l l , No.k (September, 1961), 12b,-12b. Gales, Edwin A. " P o l i t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of Community Development Programs i n the Newly Developing Areas, " Community Development Review, V I , No. 3 (September, 1961),, k-13» 1  Green, James ,W7. "Community Development as Economic Development* The Role of Value O r i e n t a t i o n , " ' Community Development Review, V, No. 3 (September, I960), 8-32. Haar, H i g g i n s and Rodwin. "Economic and P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g * C o o r d i n a t i o n i n Developing Areas," J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , XXLV, No. 3 (1958), 167-72. Hawley, JohnB. "Programs of Community Development i n Jamaica," Community Development R view, IV, No. 2 (June, e  1959), 39-k6.  H e s k i n , Oscar E . "Community Development as an Element i n the I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s , " Community Development Review, No. 5 (June, 1957), 15-22'. Lochead, A.V.S. " P o l i c y and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n - A d m i n i s t r a t i v e • • C o - o r d i n a t i o n of Community Development Programmes," Community Development B u l l e t i n , V l l l , No. 1 (December, 1956), 9-13. Madawela, J.E.D. "'Rural Development i n Ceylon," Community Development B u l l e t i n , X l l , No. 3 (June, 1961), 94-97. Mann, W i l l i a m , J r . Ghana's T e c h n i c a l A d v i c e Centres f o r C o n s t r u c t i o n Work i n R u r a l Areas," Community Development Review. IV, No. k (December, 1959), 2^-28. n  1  Malenbaum, W i l f r e d . "The Economic I m p l i c a t i o n s of Community Development," Community Development Review. V, No. 4 (Decomber, I960), 1-10. M i n i c l i e r , L o u i s M. "Community Development D e f i n e d , " Community Development Review, No. 3 (Decomber, 1 9 5 6 7 7 ~ l - 3 . M u k h e r j i , B. "The New Role of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " ' Community Development Review, V, No. 1 (March, I960), Nath, V. "Area Development, " Community Development No. 8 (March, 1958), 58-61^ 1  Review.  114-9 Naylor, Harry L. "Community Development and T r a d i t i o n a l Beh a v i o r P a t t e r n s , " Community Development Review, V, No. k (December, i960), 51-66. Perpetua, A n t o n i o . "Community Development as a New I n s t i t u t i o n of Government," Community Development Review, VI, No. 2 (June, 1 9 6 1 ) , 1 7 - 3 3 . Pye,  L u c i a n W. "The S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f Gommunity Development," Community Development Review, V, No. k (December, i 9 6 0 ) , 1 1 - 2 1 .  Sanders, Irwin, T. "Theories of Community Development," Community Development Review. No. 9 (June, 1 9 5 8 ) , 2 7 - 3 9 . Sparkman, Honorable John J . "Economic, S o c i a l , and P o l i t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f Community Development," Community Development Review, VI, No. 2 (June, I96I), 1 - 9 . T a n g r i Cm P. " I n d i a ' s Community Development Programme," I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Review, I I I , No. 3 (October, 1961), 3 2 - 3 3 . T a y l o r , C a r l C. "Community Development Programs and Methods," Community Development Review, No. 3 (December, 1 9 5 6 ) , 3k-k2. T i n k e r , Hugh. "Community Development: A New P h i l o s o p h e r ' s Stone?" I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s . XXXVII, No. 3 ( J u l y , 1961), -309-322. Tumin, M e l v i n M. "Some S o c i a l Requirements f o r E f f e c t i v e Community Development,":. Community Development Review. No. 1 1 , (December, 1 9 5 8 ) , 1 - 3 9 . Ware, C a r o l i n e P. " S e l f - h e l p : The Road t o S o c i a l Development i n Puerto R i c o , " Community Development Review, VI, No. 3 (September, I96I), 61-69. Warren, Roland L. "Toward a Reformulation o f Community Theory," Community Development Review. No. 9 (June 1 9 5 8 ) , ii-O-it.8. Unpublished M a t e r i a l Belshaw, C.S. Some E s s e n t i a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r Community Development, n.p. May, 1962. ( D r a f t f o r b a s i c document f o r ad hoc group o f e x p e r t s on community development, 1 9 6 3 ) ( D r a f t , mimeographed m a n u s c r i p t ) . In a d d i t i o n I had the b e n e f i t o f u s i n g some unpublished and undated manuscripts b e l o n g i n g to the United N a t i o n a l Organization.  

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