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An investigation of the relationship between extra-curricular activities and scholastic standing Found, Richard Keith 1939

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN. E2TRA-CURRICULAR A C T I V I T I E S AND SCHOLASTIC STANDING  by R i c h a r d K e i t h Found  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE ^REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS I N THE DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY  TEE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  MARCH, 1939  •CONTENTS Chapter I  Page The H i s t o r y a n d O b j e c t i v e s  of Extra-  curricular Activities II  10  The E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s o f Templeton J u n i o r High School.  211  . . .  39  An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e Number o f A c t i v i t i e s and  IV  S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g , 1957-1938.  59  An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e Humbler o f A c t i v i t i e s and  V  S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g , 1938-1939.  The V a l u e s o f E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r v i t i e s as I n d i c a t e d naires.  VI  Acti-  In the Question-  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  General Conclusions.  2  89  . . . . . .  . . . .  105 143  LIST OF TABLES Title  Number Table I. Table I I . Table I I I . Table  IV.  Table  V.  Table VI.  Table V I I .  Table V I I I .  Table  IX.  Table  X.  Table  XI.  Table X I I .  Table X I I I .  Table  XIV.  Page  L e t t e r Grades, Numerical E q u i v a l e n t s and Percentages R e c e i v i n g Each. . . . Numerical Averages and E q u i v a l e n t L e t t e r Grades I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients w i t h t h e i r T h e o r e t i c a l l y Expected S c h o l a s t i c Standings, 1937-1938. . . . . . . . . Comparison of S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and of Students Talcing 5 or more A c i t i v i t i e s . Comparison of S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students of Superior A b i l i t y Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 6 or more A c t i v i t i e s Comparison of the S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students, w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients between 90-110, Taking 0-2 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . Comparison of S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students w i t h Matched I n t e l l i g e n c e Quot i e n t s , Ranging between 90 and 138, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s Comparison of S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students of Superior I n t e l l i g e n c e , w i t h Matched I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and 6 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . Comparison of S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students of Average A b i l i t y , w i t h Matched I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients, Taking 0-2 A c t i v i t i e s and 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . R e l a t i o n s h i p between the Number of Athletic Activities•and Scholastic Standing. • • • • . • • • • • • • « • R e l a t i o n s h i p between the number of the N o n - A t h l e t i c A c t i v i t i e s and S c h o l a s t i c S 1j 3.11(3. X  «  e  e  s  «  e  »  0  «  9  «  e  «  e  e  Comparison of the Number of A c t i v i t i e s and S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students Taking A t h l e t i c A c t i v i t i e s Only and of Students Taking N o n - A t h l e t i c A c t i v i t i e s Only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R e l a t i o n s h i p between the Number of A c t i v i t i e s (Both Types) and S c h o l a s t i c Standing. « . • • • • • • • • • • • • R e l a t i o n s h i p between Number of A c t i v i t i e s and S c h o l a s t i c Standing. 3  65 66 66 70 74  77  82  83  87  88  QX  93 96 97  Title  Number Table  XV.  Table  XVI.  Table XVII. Table XVIII. Table  XIX.  Table  XX.  Table  XXI.  Table  XXII.  Comparison of S c h o l a s t i c Standing of Students, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s , whose I.Q. 's have been Equated i n D i f f e r e n t G r o u,jp s • « « • « • • • • Comparison of S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students, i n D i f f e r e n t I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotient Groups, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . Points f o r D i f f e r e n t A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients w i t h t h e i r T h e o r e t i c a l l y Expected S c h o l a s t i c S"fcctncl in§s • « • • « • • « • • • « « Comparison of Number of A c t i v i t i e s i n which Students P a r t i c i p a t e d and the S c h o l a s t i c Standing They Received. . . . Comparison of I.Q,.'s and S c h o l a s t i c S "fcEind x n.|5  Table XXIII,  Table XXIV. Table XXV. Table XXVI. Table XXVII. Table  XXVIII,  Table XXIX.  •  Comparison of S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students i n D i f f e r e n t I n t e l l i g e n c e Groups, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . Comparison of E v a l u a t e d A c t i v i t i e s and S c h o l a s t i c Standing Comparison of the I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients and S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students Taking A c t i v i t i e s E v a l u a t e d a t 1-3, 4-8, and 9-32 . P u p i l s ' Questionnaires (351) Attendance of the Students of Two Classes from September to March Inclusive « P h y s i c a l and Environmental Cond i t i o n of 345 Grade Nine Students, 1938-1939 R e s u l t s of Parents' Questionnaires 100 case s . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of the Answers of 64 Parents and Their C h i l d r e n R e s u l t of Teachers' Questionnaires 44 Cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4  Page  99  104 110 111 113 1X5  118 121  124 134 139 145 152 158 163  LIST OP FIGURES F i g u r e I,  Figure I I .  Figure I I I .  F i g u r e IV.  F i g u r e V.  Figure VI.  Figure VII.  Figure VIII. F i g u r e IX.  F i g u r e X.  Figure XI,  Figure XII,  Comparison o f S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students, w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients averaging 109, who took 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and who took 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . Comparison o f S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students of Superior A b i l i t y Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 6 or more Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients between 90-110 who took 0-2 A c t i v i t i e s and who took b or more A c t i v i t i e s . , Comparison of S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students w i t h Matched I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients, Ranging between 90-138, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students of S u p e r i o r A b i l i t y , w i t h Matched I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 6 or more Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students of Average A b i l i t y , w i t h Matched I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients, Taking 0-2 A c t i v i t i e s and taking' 5 or more Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of the Number of A c t i v i t i e s and S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students Taking A t h l e t i c A c t i v i t i e s Only and of Students Taking N o n - A t h l e t i c A c t i v i t i e s O n l y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Number of A c t i v i t i e s and S c h o l a s t i c Standing . . . . . . . . . Comparison of the S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s , whose I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients have been Equated i n D i f f e r e n t Groups. . . . . « . . . . • • • . « . Comparison of S c h o l a s t i c Standings of Students, i n D i f f e r e n t I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotient Groups, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . Comparison of the Number of A c t i v i t i e s i n which Students P a r t i c i p a t e d and the S c h o l a s t i c Standings they Received, 1938-1939 • • • . • • • * . . • . • * Comparison o f S c h o l a s t i c Standings and I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients, 1938-1939. . . . . 5  PAGE  72  76  78  81  84  86  90 98  100  103  112 114  L I S T OF FIGURES  PAGE  F i g u r e X I I I . Comparison o f S c h o l a s t i c Standings o f Students, i n D i f f e r e n t I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t G r o u p s , T a k i n g 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and T a k i n g 5 o r more A c t i v i t i e s . » . 117 F i g u r e X I V . C o m p a r i s o n o f Number o f E v a l u a t e d A c t i v i t i e s i n which Students Part i c i p a t e d and S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g s They R e c e i v e d 120 F i g u r e XV. Comparison o f S c h o l a s t i c Standings o f Students, i n Different I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotient Groups, Taking A c t i v i t i e s E v a l u a t e d a t 1-3, 4-8, and 9-32 125  6  INTRODUCTION When t e a c h e r s m e e t , one o f t h e common s o u r c e s o f d i s agreement i s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r scholastic  standings o f students.  g e n e r a l l y , merely t i v e bases. them.  A s a r e s u l t , no d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s r e s u l t decided to attack o b j e c t i v e l y  of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  The  between e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  from  t h e problem  a c t i v i t i e s and  standing.  first  two c h a p t e r s o f t h i s t h e s i s p r e s e n t  ductory data which investigations In  These d i s c u s s i o n s a r e ,  e x p r e s s i o n s o f o p i n i o n a n d h a v e no o b j e c -  This writer  scholastic  a c t i v i t i e s on  are essential  f o r t h e comprehension o f t h e  c a r r i e d out by t h i s  Chapters  writer.  I I I and I V t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  data c o l l e c t e d from t h e f i l e s  intro-  b a s e d on t h e  o f Templeton J u n i o r High  School  d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l . y e a r s o f 1937-1938 a n d 1938-1939 a r e d e picted  i n t a b l e s and graphs-  s t u d e n t s who t a k e a n a c t i v e  The s c h o l a s t i c  standings of  share i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  acti-  v i t i e s a r e compared w i t h t h o s e o f s t u d e n t s who t o o k an i n s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme a n d t h e conclusions are validated  by c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n  b e t w e e n t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h pated and t h e s c h o l a s t i c  students  s t a n d i n g s t h a t they  partici-  earned.  Chapter V c o n t a i n s t h e answers g i v e n b y s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , a n d t e a c h e r s t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on t h e a d v a n t a g e s and  disadvantages  of extra-curricular 7  a c t i v i t i e s and t h e  c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h c o u l d be analysis  of  the  groups t a k i n g  physical  small,  extra-curricular The  final  b a s e d on  conditions  a v e r a g e , and  these answers a f t e r of the  students i n  l a r g e numbers o f  an the  evaluated  activities.  chapter l i s t s  justified  by  number o f  extra-curricular  the  t h i s study of the  c o n c l u s i o n s which appear  relationship  activities  8  and  between  scholastic  the standing.  CHAPTER I  THE HISTORY AND OBJECTIVES OF EXTRA-  CURRICULAR A C T I V I T I E S  9  T h e o r i e s o f e d u c a t i o n and p s y c h o l o g y children of different pass through  eras present b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s .  t h e s t a g e s o f i n f a n c y , c h i l d h o o d and  b e f o r e they reach m a t u r i t y . has  may c h a n g e , b u t They  adolescence  The a v e r a g e p r e - a d o l e s c e n t  always l i v e d a r e l a t i v e l y  carefree existence.  child  He i s de-  l i g h t e d t o p r e s e n t h i s - c h i l d i s h p e r p l e x i t i e s t o some u n d e r s t a n d i n g f r i e n d and t o a c c e p t ance.  t h a t f r i e n d ' s a d v i c e and g u i d -  B e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 12 a n d 16 t h e a w a k e n i n g o f h i s  own i n d i v i d u a l i t y  transforms the c h i l d .  P r o b l e m s become a  p e r s o n a l m a t t e r w h i c h must b e s o l v e d b y l o n g h o u r s o f a r d u o u s thought.  O f f e r s o f a s s i s t a n c e may be c o n s i d e r e d an a f f r o n t  to h i s newly d i s c o v e r e d a b i l i t i e s . self-Importance possesses  A f e e l i n g o f p o w e r and  the c h i l d . . A desire to order r e -  p l a c e s t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o obey.  Once t h e c h i l d d i s p l a y s  t h e s e a t t i t u d e s he h a s c r o s s e d t h e - t h r e s h o l d f r o m into adolescence. be  For the next  childhood  few y e a r s o f h i s l i f e he w i l l  i n f l u e n c e d by urges which a r e as i r r e s i s t i b l e t o t h e normal  c h i l d o f 1939 a s t h e y w e r e t o t h e c h i l d r e n o f p r e h i s t o r i c times.-  1  McKown- - l i s t s c u r i o s i t y , g r e g a r i o u s n e s s , m i g r a t i o n ,  l o y a l t y , love o f approbation, and  sex as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a d o l e s c e n t d e s i r e s .  have always p r e s e n t e d  school, f a i l  t h e home, t h e c h u r c h ,  I f the three and t h e  t o o f f e r adequate f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r  ment, t h e c h i l d i s l e f t ______  imitation,  These d e s i r e s  a c h a l l e n g e .to e d u c a t i o n .  main e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s ,  _  sympathy,' m a s t e r y ,  fulfil-  t o h i s own d e v i c e s w h i c h may l e a d  .  McKown, H a r r y C- E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s . M a c M i l l a n Go., 1 9 3 7 , 22Z ~ ; ~ :  10  New  York:  him  to the  pftimes detrimental not  until  influence  of  uncontrolled  activities.  Yet  r e c e n t t i m e s have the  accepted the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r o v i s i o n of  t u n i t i e s f o r . a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e s e u r g e s may  be  i n c u r r i c u l a and  the  schools oppor-  s t u d e n t s so  d i r e c t e d to d e s i r a b l e goals.  m e t h o d o l o g y and  the  increase  that  The  in  changes  extra-  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s have p r o v i d e d these e s s e n t i a l opportunities. Meaning of E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r The the  innovations  Activities  i n c u r r i c u l a and  scope of t h i s paper, w h i l e  v i t i e s are  i t s very essence.  activities? i s an  methodology are  the:'extra-curricular But  what a r e  " E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r , " l i k e many e d u c a t i o n a l  e l a s t i c t e r m w h i c h has  been s t r e t c h e d  to  educators u n t i l  most o f i t s s p e c i f I c . m e a n i n g .  The  In f a c t , I s r e a l l y c o n n o t a t i o n of  a misnomer.  of the  s u i t the i t has  addition  school.  that  is  Co-curricular,  the  lost  outside  extra-  of  these  seems t o h a v e d e t e r m i n e d  term " e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r . "  the  numerous o t h e r t e r m s  h a v e b e e n a d v o c a t e d as more a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s c o n t i n u a l use  pur-  term " e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r , "  c u r r i c u l a r s o c i a l i z i n g - i n t e g r a t i n g , and  a c t i v i t i e s , but  terms,  Extra-curricular carries  some n o n - e s s e n t i a l  real function  choice of  acti-  extra-curricular  p o s e s o f d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s and  the  beyond  A d e f i n i t i o n of  the extra-  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h w o u l d meet u n i v e r s a l  acceptance  i s a l m o s t an  activity  i n one  school  impossibility. i s an  An  extra-curricular  i n t e g r a l part 11  of the  curriculum  in  another.  5  2  -However, Cubberley- "; E r e t w e l l ; O v e r n ^ ;  Roemer,  A l l e n , and T a r n e l l ^ a g r e e on t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s . c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s are; n o t a new  development,  Extra-  but they  are_an o r d e r l y o r g a n i z a t i o n of those p r o j e c t s of adolescence ' w h i c h have always been connected, o f f i c i a l l y with the school. comings  They a r e t h e d i r e c t outcome o f t h e  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  short-  c u r r i c u l u m which afforded a l i m i t e d  o u t l e t f o r the adolescent yearnings.  The  extra-curricular  programme b r i d g e s t h e g a p s i n t h e a u t h o r i z e d the  or u n o f f i c i a l l y ,  curriculum  I n c l u s i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s Virhich a r e a d a p t e d t o t h e  by  satis-  f a c t i o n o f t h o s e n e e d s ,of t h e s t u d e n t s f o r w h i c h t h e r e g u l a r c o u r s e o f s t u d y h a d made no p r o v i s i o n .  The  scope o f t h e  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , t h e n , depends e n t i r e l y upon t h e s u f f i c i e n c y of the school's d a i l y  classroom studies.  thesis extra-curricular activities w i l l  In  this  r e f e r to a l l types of  teacher guided p a r t i c i p a t i o n which are not i n c l u d e d i n the regular  curriculum.  .1 E r e t w e l l , E l b e r t K. E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s i n The S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , C a m b r i d g e , M a s s : H o u g h t o n , M i f f l i n Co. , 1 9 3 1 . P r e f a c e by E. JP. G u b b e r l e y . 2 Ibid., 6 3" . '' "" ' O v e r n , A l f r e d V. The. T e a c h e r i n M o d e r n E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Co., 1935, 206. 4 Roemer, J . , A l l e n , C. E., Y a r n e l l , . D . A. B a s i c S t u d e n t Activities. New Y o r k : S i l v e r , B u r d e t t & Co., 1935, 12.  12  H i s t o r y of- t h e E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s It  i s o n l y b e c a u s e modern e d u c a t o r s  t a l i z e upon t h e s e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d new. have o n l y they  itself.  education  o f t h e home and recognized  was  the y e a r n i n g s  these urges,  the  i s as o l d child's  d e p e n d e n t on p a r t i c i p a t i o n I n t h e a f f a i r s  the t r i b e .  ceremonies i n t o  times  decades,  educating  situations  In p r e h i s t o r i c  are  activities  the ..principle o f  through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l i f e  as c i v i l i z a t i o n entire  Though e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  in antiquity:  capi-  a c t i v i t i e s t h a t they  emerged i n t o p r o m i n e n c e d u r i n g t h e l a s t two  originated  children  h a v e begun t o  Yet  even i n t h o s e  of adolescence.  days  leaders  Elaborate I n i t i a t i o n  certain tribes offered a direct outlet  w h i c h m i g h t n o t h a v e b e e n s a t i s f i e d by  ordinary routine of l i f e .  for  the  • v  I n G r e e c e , as I n o u r modern s c h o o l s , games and  sports  were p a r t of the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m .  Yet  s p o r t s had  o u t s i d e the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m a l s o .  The  O l y m p i c games,  t h o u g h open t o a l l , m i g h t be extra-curricular  as an a d d i t i o n  s c h o o l government.  If  on  Public  t o i t . Many modern  speaking,  The  occasion,  used at the present  regular schools  government w h i c h , i n r e a l i t y ,  commonly a c a r e f u l l y r e g u l a t e d s t u d e n t G r e e k s had  is  participation in  a r e a l student  chose t h e i r t e a c h e r s . day,  place  greatest  e m p h a s i s , both- as a p a r t o f t h e  boast o f t h e i r student  students,  of the  a c t i v i t i e s of a l l times.  too, received great c u r r i c u l u m and  t e r m e d one  a  This  government:. practice,  m i g h t e l i m i n a t e t h e boredom o f 13  l i s t e n i n g .to i l l - p r e p a r e d l e s s o n s .  I t s introduction to  s t u d e n t s o f the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l , however, c o u l d s c a r c e l y he recommended.  The  immaturity  of t h e i r  judgment  m i g h t r e s u l t i n t h e a b s o l u t e n e g l e c t o f some o f t h e  funda-  m e n t a l s u b j e c t s , w h e r e a s c o u r s e s w h i c h c o n t a i n e d t h e minimum of subject matter overcrowded.  and  t h e maximum o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t  Sparta, l i k e l y ,  might  be  o r i g i n a t e d t h e embryo w h i c h  l a t e r became t h e s e c r e t f r a t e r n i t y w i t h i t s c o n c o m i t a n t Thus, though Greece had  extra-curricular activities,  c o u l d n o t have been s u f f i c i e n t l y  evils.  they  comprehensive to s a t i s f y  the.  i n t e r e s t s of a l l the students, e s p e c i a l l y those o f Sparta. During mediaeval  times  e d u c a t i o n ebbed and E u r o p e s u f -  f e r e d from a s c a r c i t y of t e a c h e r s .  Under these  circumstances  s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e management o f t h e s c h o o l essential. monitors  who  E v e n t h e t e a c h i n g was  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f s p o r t s and  Renaissance  Italy  teacher  realized  games t o c i t i z e n s h i p , b u t  the  the  i n n o r t h e r n E u r o p e soon c o u n t e r a c t e d t h e i n f l u e n c e  of the Renaissance. the p e r i o d .  i n the hands o f  r e l a y e d the l e s s o n s from the over-worked  to h i s overcrowded c l a s s e s .  Reformation  largely  was  The  schools r e f l e c t e d the i n t o l e r a n c e of  They became more a c a d e m i c :  i n t e r e s t e d i n man's s o u l and  t h e I n s t r u c t o r was  d i d not r e c o g n i z e the s o c i a l  p h y s i c a l l i v e s of h i s students.  I n these  born  apart from the c u r r i c u l u m ,  if  that a l l student a c t i v i t i e s  times the Idea  and  t h e y w e r e t o l e r a t e d , w e r e t o be i g n o r e d .  and b o o k l e a r n i n g became synonymous. 14  The  was  Thus e d u c a t i o n  theory of  formal  d i s c i p l i n e and  the b e l i e f i n the t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g m i n i -  mised the importance of the the methods o f pedagogy.  content  The  of the  difficulty  subject matter  of subjects,  rather  than t h e i r i n t r i n s i c worth, determined t h e i r choice. Rousseau, P e s t a l o z z i , F r o e b e l ,  t h a t s c h o o l i n g was  not,  Though  and.many o t h e r s m a i n t a i n e d  t h e s e t h e o r i e s were wrong, t h a t s c h o o l end  and  should  resemble  that  life,  of necessity, disagreeable  and  i n t e r e s t i n g , t h e s e i d e a s made s l o w p r o g r e s s .  The  period  of  t o l e r a t i o n o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and  the p e r i o d  of  o p p o s i t i o n to these a c t i v i t i e s ran according  to the philosophy  majority of educators.  life  has  and  Eton's f i r s t  had  yet  r o y a l command, had  to evolve  w e r e t o be The in  the  a c c e p t e d by  the  a c t i v i t i e s were n e v e r prefects school  I n E l i z a b e t h a n England the headmaster of  pronunciation."  and  varying  Student" government, w i t h  h i s students  p l a y every C h r i s t m a s to encourage the gesture  side  been an.accepted f e a t u r e of E n g l i s h  for centuries.  W e s t m i n s t e r , by  of education  However, s t u d e n t  e n t i r e l y banned i n England. and m o n i t o r s ,  s i d e by  un-  Forensics  students  a Latin  i n "graceful  e a r l y gained  p u b l i c a t i o n i s d a t e d 1786. before  present  a  Drastic  foothold conditions  adequate e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s  included i n the  school  programme.  e a r l i e r A m e r i c a n e d u c a t i o n a l w r i t e r s were  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r aspect of school l i f e ,  but  uninterested Drewryl  r e p o r t s t h a t "random b i t s o f e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e some t e n d e n c y  1 D r e w r y , Raymond G. P u p i l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n High C o n t r o l . New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & Co., 19£8, 4. 15  School  toward  s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h i g h s c h o o l management b e f o r e  1865.  A t t h i s t i m e t h e h i g h s c h o o l f e l t no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  the s o c i a l l i f e  of the students.  The t e a c h e r s  5  policy  c l u b s a n d s o c i a l l i f e was one o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e . t h i s a t t i t u d e was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . s u p p l i e d t h e needed a c t i v i t i e s . complicated t h i s e a r l i e r rise of cities.  towards  In early  days  The home a n d t h e c h u r c h S c i e n c e and i n v e n t i o n , h o w e v e r ,  c i v i l i z a t i o n and l e d t o t h e r a p i d  T h e homes no l o n g e r o f f e r e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  adequate p a r t i c i p a t i o n n o r were t h e p a r e n t s t r a i n e d t o p r e s e n t the t y p e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n needed i n t h e r a p i d l y civilization.  The c h u r c h ,  evolving  t o o , l o s t much o f I t s e a r l i e r i n -  f l u e n c e , and c o u l d n o t f u l f i l  a l l I t s former  functions. Yet  the schools p e r s i s t e d i n l e a d i n g t h e simple l i f e w i t h t h e development o f t h e i n t e l l e c t cation.  seemingly  t h e w h o l e a i m o f edu-  I t ignored t h e f a c t t h a t i t had t o shoulder the  t r i p l e b u r d e n o f home, s c h o o l , a n d c h u r c h . T h i s i n e r t i a was r u d e l y d i s t u r b e d by s t u d e n t s , and  events.  The i n t e r e s t s a n d u r g e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s  n o t be b l o c k e d .  I f home, c h u r c h ,  could  and s c h o o l would n o t o f f e r  the a c t i v i t i e s t h e i r i n t e r e s t s d e s i r e d , s e c r e t and  writers,  fraternities  o t h e r u n c o n t r o l l e d a c t i v i t i e s would have t o serve as  substitutes.  Attempts t o suppress  college or high  school  f r a t e r n i t i e s f a i l e d a s t h e i r members w e r e o f f e r e d no natives.  alter-  Thus e d u c a t o r s were c o n v i n c e d o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s as t h e only e f f i c i e n t p r e v e n t a t i v e for  the d i s a s t r o u s aftermath which a l l too often followed 16  participation i n unregulated a c t i v i t i e s . soon f o l l o w e d a n o t h e r u n t i l  c h a n g e s and  r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m and t h e e x p a n s i o n activities  One  of the  convinced the educators  curricular activities.  request  additions i n the  s a t i s f i e d the students* needs.  these t r i a l s  pupil  extra-curricular 'The  success  of the worth  of  Thus t h e s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s  of extra-  helped  t o o v e r c o m e many o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s o f t h e p e r i o d . P o s s i b l y Dewey's t h e o r y t h a t s c h o o l s s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e o p e r a t i o n and  social  t h e w r i t i n g s o f any  co-  s e r v i c e gave a g r e a t e r impetus than d i d o t h e r man,  t o t h e movement f o r change I n  t h e c u r r i c u l a and m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e s c h o o l s and  f o r the  i n c l u s i o n of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n the school programme.  These causes  o f change, however, were overshadowed  by t h e m e t a m o r p h o s i s o f w o r l d a f f a i r s .  The  G r e a t War  I t s a f t e r m a t h emphasized t h e n e c e s s i t y of p r e p a r i n g to l i v e i n a r a p i d l y d l e d by  changing  d e f e c t s which  democratic  of e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l  r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l and  t o o f a r a p a r t , t h a t no  i n t h i s emergency.  ridThe  e r a , and  the  speeding-  changes enhanced t h e c r y f o r a  r a d i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the schools.  c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h was  civilization,  education, the Increase i n  l e i s u r e t i m e , t h e t e m p t a t i o n s o f t h e new  sophers  children  demanded i m m e d i a t e c o r r e c t i o n .  great p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f secondary  up  and  Educators  and  the s o c i a l o r d e r  philostood  school In i s o l a t i o n , presenting a  a c a d e m i c and u n s o c i a l i z e d ,  could  serve  However, t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m o f a  s c h o o l i s not adapted  t o r a p i d adjustment, 17  and w h o l e s a l e  ex-  perimentation might e a s i l y  cause u n t o l d c o n f u s i o n .  The e x t r a -  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , then, o f f e r e d the s u i t a b l e f i e l d f o r experimentation. activities  This experimentation  soon d e m o n s t r a t e d w h i c h  s h o u l d be an i n h e r e n t p a r t o f t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m  and w h i c h c o u l d b e more e f f i c i e n t l y h a n d l e d curricular  i n the extra-  programme.  The r i s e  of extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s  from  comparative  o b s c u r i t y t o t h e i r p r e s e n t p r o m i n e n c e was a s t o u n d i n g l y The f i r s t for  rapid.  c o u r s e on e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s was o f f e r e d  t e a c h e r s by F r e t w e l l i n 1 9 1 7 .  e s s e n t i a l part of teacher t r a i n i n g .  Now  such  McKown  c o u r s e s a r e an 1  p o i n t s out that  i n 1927 t h e r e w e r e l e s s t h a n h a l f a d o z e n b o o k s on e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on t h e m a r k e t w h i l e now t h e r e a r e a m a g a z i n e a n d more t h a n this field. to  stay.  50 b o o k s w h i c h p r e s e n t  the trends i n  E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s apparently are here  Many e d u c a t o r s  are convinced  t h a t t h e r e I s a s much  power f o r e d u c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r gramme o f a s c h o o l a s t h e r e i s i n t h e c u r r i c u l a r  pro-  programme.  The O b j e c t i v e s o f E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s All  activities  outside the regular curriculum are not  n e c e s s a r i l y genuine e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s must c o n f o r m t o c e r t a i n  standards.  must b e c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m . m a j o r i t y o f cases they  True e x t r a They  In the  s h o u l d grow o u t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d ,  1 McKown, o p . c i t . , 4. 18  i n time, r e t u r n to the  c u r r i c u l u m as one  of i t s b a s i c features..  They must s e r v e v a l u a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , o r t h e i r l u s i o n I n t h e s c h o o l programme i s u n w a r r a n t e d .  "The  inc-  entire  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme i s c u r r i c u l a i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t i s recognized  as a means o f a t t a i n i n g f u n d a m e n t a l  g o a l s r a t h e r t h a n s e r v i n g o n l y as a s o u r c e entertainment  educational  of r e c r e a t i o n 1  f o r the p u p i l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t . " - -  and  Enthusi-  a s t s have o c c a s i o n a l l y brought e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n t o d i s r e p u t e by t h e i r f a i l u r e t o p o n d e r c a r e f u l l y e d u c a t i o n a l m e r i t s o f an a c t i v i t y b e f o r e Some a c t i v i t i e s may  i t s introduction.  have been d e l e t e d from the r e g u l a r  r i c u l u m owing t o t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l u s e l e s s n e s s ; the  same r e a s o n ,  The  i n c l u s i o n of such a c t i v i t i e s  were n e v e r p l a c e d  In the  others,  sound e d u c a t i o n a l  Many e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r p r o j e c t s make v i t a l  to r e a l  education.  to decide  T h e i r v a l u e s may  the  o f f e r i n g s and  o f some o f  subjects  extra-curricularactivities. two  The  types  of  i t s s e l e c t i o n of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s  t h e outcome o f t h o u g h t f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  allotment  ridiculous  curricular  between these  de-  contributions  H o w e v e r , i t w o u l d be  s c h o o l must r e t a i n a w i s e b a l a n c e  m u s t be  excel those  f o r t h i s reason that a l l the  s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d by  for  s c h o o l programme.  vices.  school studies.  cur-  i n .the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r f i e l d  c a n n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y change them i n t o  the accepted  the  o f t i m e f o r c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s and  The  mere  the a p p e l l a t i o n  I New  C h a m b e r l a i n , L e o , M. The T e a c h e r and Y o r k , P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1936,  School 449.  Organization  " e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r " attached educational The  t o them i s i n s u f f i c i e n t ;  c r i t e r i a must b e met by t h e s e  certain  activities.  seven c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f secondary education s e t  s t a n d a r d s o f achievement f o r b o t h t h e c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r programmes. (l) to maintain  These widely-accepted  h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ,  objectives are: (II) to give  command o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s , ( I I I ) t o c r e a t e w o r t h y home membership,  (IV) to create  efficient  citizens,  p r o f i t a b l e employment o f l e i s u r e t i m e , vocations,  and ( V I I ) t o d e v e l o p h i g h  Though t h e r e g u l a r  subjects  (V) t o t e a c h  (VI) to prepare f o r  standards of e t h i c s . ^  of the curriculum  should  p u p i l t o a t t a i n these o b j e c t i v e s , i t i s extremely  help the difficult  t o p r o v e t h a t some o f them h a v e much i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s d i r e c tion.  S i e b o l d ^ ' r e a c h e d some i n t e r e s t i n g j u d g m e n t s o n t h i s  matter.  Assigning  that the subject  a p o s s i b l e 3 f o r each o b j e c t i v e , he d e c i d e d  " E n g l i s h " d e s e r v e d 17 o u t o f a p o s s i b l e 21  marks, whereas s c i e n c e , m a t h e m a t i c s and f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s had t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h  7, 6, a n d 5 p o i n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Surely,  t h e n , c r i t i c s w e r e j u s t i f i e d when t h e y c l a m o r e d f o r c h a n g e s i n and a d d i t i o n s t o t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m . c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s h a v i n g any g r e a t e r  But are the e x t r a -  success i n meeting  _ U. S. B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 3 5 , 1 9 1 8 . ' •2 Siebold, Richard. A New D e a l f o r t h e C u r r i c u l u m , , C l e a r i n g H o u s e , V o l . I X , No. 2: 6 8 - 7 1 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 4 . 20  these o b j e c t i v e s ?  Ringdahl  1  asked t h i s q u e s t i o n o f students  who h a d r e a c h e d t h e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l .  A b o u t 75 p e r c e n t o f  t h o s e who r e p l i e d w e r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s d i d more t h a n t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m t o f u l f i l these c a r d i n a l aims.  E v e n t h o u g h t h e s e s t u d e n t s may be c o r r e c t  i n t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s we s h o u l d n o t s l i p  into the simple  o f a s s i g n i n g t o o many v a l u e s t o t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s .  error  Chamberlain-  e n q u i r e s i f many o f t h e v a l u e s a s c r i b e d t o e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n by s c h o o l men who f o u n d i t h a r d t o r e s i s t t h e demands o f t h e p u p i l s and the p u b l i c . of t r u t h .  T h i s t i m e l y query  d o u b t l e s s c o n t a i n s an element  S c i e n t i f i c proof of the values of the curricular  s u b j e c t s and t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a r e l a c k i n g . Indeed  i f one w a n t e d t o g e t so t e c h n i c a l a s t o i n c l u d e i n t h e  s c h o o l programme o n l y t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s whose s p e c i f i c c a t i o n a l v a l u e had been c a r e f u l l y difficulty  determined,  edu-  one m i g h t h a v e  i n b u i l d i n g a s c h o o l programme u n d e r p r e s e n t  and e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s . . Y e t , a s a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e  social  writers  are convinced t h a t t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s have great p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e seven they are overwhelmingly earned  t h e i r present  r ~ "•' i  cardinal  agreed that these a c t i v i t i e s  aims,  have  position.  •  R i n g d a h l , N. R. E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s i n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s . S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , V o l . I X , No. I : 3-5, September,! 1 9 5 7 . 2 C h a m b e r l a i n , L e o M. T h e T e a c h e r a n d S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n . New Y o r k : P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1936, 444.  R a t h e r t h a n l i s t i n g t h e above m e n t i o n e d aims o f secondary education the students t h e i r own. they  as t h e c r i t e r i a f o r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , of this  s u b j e c t have enunciated  I n the evaluation of these  following objectives: important  McKown  1. c a p i t a l i z i n g ,  i n a d e m o c r a c y ; 3. m a k i n g s t u d e n t s  the i n t e r e s t o f students  students  profit  f o ractive  increasingly self-  co-operation;  5. i n c r e a s i n g  o f l a w and o r d e r ;  8.  school dis-  s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s and a b i l i t i e s .  With  s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e l a s t o b j e c t i v e t o guarantee the i n -  c l u s i o n o f t h e development o f h o b b i e s , and  recommends t h e  i n t h e s c h o o l ; 6. d e v e l o p i n g  m o r a l e ; 7. f o s t e r i n g s e n t i m e n t s c o v e r i n g and d e v e l o p i n g  1  f o reducational  f u n d a m e n t a l d r i v e s ; S. p r e p a r i n g  d i r e c t i v e ; 4. t e a c h i n g them s o c i a l  the  i t w i l l be seen t h a t  are connected e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y with the  o r i g i n a l seven c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s .  life  principles of  the choice o f vocations,  the recognition of individual differences, this l i s t  coincide with similar l i s t s this  will  s u g g e s t e d by o t h e r w r i t e r s i n  field. Aim  Capitalization,  I  for Educational P r o f i t ,  o f Important Fun-  damental Drives. McKown's f i r s t  o b j e c t i v e has already  received  some  a t t e n t i o n I n t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e cause f o r t h e i n c r e a s e d interest i n extra-curriculara c t i v i t i e s . bility  o f thwarting the adolescent  n e x t s t e p was t o u t i l i z e  them.  Once t h e i m p o s s i -  u r g e s was r e a l i z e d , t h e  The a s t u t e e d u c a t o r  t h a t t h e r e were c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t t h e a d o l e s c e n t anyway and t h a t any a t t e m p t t o c o e r c e  _____ McKown, o p . c i t . ,  12-16. 22  realized w o u l d do  him from these  normal  a c t i o n s might i m p e r i l h i s mental h e a l t h .  Therefore,  he  a s s i s t e d t h e p u p i l t o improve those d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n s the p u p i l f e l t  f o r c e d t o p e r f o r m a n d he c o u n t e r a c t e d  a b l e t e n d e n c i e s by h i g h e r the  child's ability.  reach,  which undesir-  t y p e s o f a c t i v i t y w h i c h were w i t h i n  Tftien c o n f r o n t e d  t h e c h i l d worked d i l i g e n t l y  by a g o a l h e w i s h e d t o  and h a p p i l y .  But too often  the r e g u l a r s c h o o l work d i d n o t o f f e r such a g o a l .  So, i n  many e a s e s , t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t e d t h e missing  s e c t i o n needed t o g i v e t h e s t u d e n t s a s a t i s f y i n g ,  well-rounded education  which would a s s i s t i n t h e f u l f i l m e n t  o f a l l seven c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s . ' Preparation The  A i m II.-. .  o f S t u d e n t s f o r A c t i v e L i f e i n a Democracy.  i n d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e e l e c t o r a t e i n o u r own  t o t h e p r i v i l e g e o f t h e f r a n c h i s e and t h e m e r c u r i a l  country rise of"  d i c t a t o r s h i p s i n Europe and I n t h e A m e r i c a s s t r e s s t h e v a l u e o f t h i s second o b j e c t i v e .  Nor should  i t be f o r g o t t e n  that  s u c h t r a i n i n g f o r c i t i z e n s h i p i n t h e f u t u r e may a l s o a f f e c t the So  d e v e l o p m e n t o f w o r t h y home m e m b e r s h i p a n d e t h i c a l i t i s incumbent on t h e s c h o o l s  training f o rl i f e is  obviously  presents  i n a democracy.  to provide  the best  t r a d i t i o n a l school  possible  The b e s t t y p e o f t r a i n i n g  actual citizenship i n a miniature  a s many g e n u i n e l i f e  concepts.  democracy w h i c h  s i t u a t i o n s as f e a s i b l e .  Yetthe  organization i s fundamentally a u t o c r a t i c i n  n a t u r e a n d no s o u n d m e t h o d f o r a v o i d i n g  a r e f l e c t i o n of that  autocracy  i n a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e c u r r i c u l a r work h a s y e t been  devised.  Though c i v i c s may b e a r e q u i r e d  subject,  its.in-  e l u s i o n i n . t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m does h o t f i l l is  t h e need.  "It'  n o t a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f o r m s o f government t h a t i s n e e d e d  i f o u r d e m o c r a c y i s t o endure.-  I t i s rather a habit  of  respect f o r the r i g h t s of other people,-an a t t i t u d e of r e s ponsibility to  t o w a r d s o b l i g a t i o n s one h a s assumed, a w i l l i n g n e s s  h e a r b o t h s i d e s i n a d i s p u t e and t o make a d e c i s i o n i n t h e 1  l i g h t o f t h e evidence."- -  Such t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e s the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h abounds i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r No p u p i l , no m a t t e r how  backward  active  activities.  i n h i s r e g u l a r s c h o o l work,  s h o u l d be c o m p l e t e l y d e p r i v e d o f a c h a n c e l a t e r y e a r s t h i s s o c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n may  to p a r t i c i p a t e .  e x e r t more c o n c r e t e  good t h a n a l l t h e r e q u i r e d c u r r i c u l a r s u b j e c t s .  The  student  s h o u l d be shown t h e e x c e l l e n t f e a t u r e s o f o u r s y s t e m government, b u t t h e I n a d e q u a c i e s o f r e a l government s h o u l d n o t be m i n i m i z e d .  -Though i t ,would be f o l l y  duce t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s i n t o  school l i f e  In  9  of procedure  to  intro-  y e t the students  s h o u l d be a w a r e o f them s i n c e o n l y an e n l i g h t e n e d e l e c t o r a t e of  the f u t u r e w i l l  e r a d i c a t e them.  The  o b j e c t i o n may  r a i s e d t h a t s u c h t r a i n i n g i n c i t i z e n s h i p may in  time:  s t u d e n t s may  w a r r a n t t h e t i m e and  be u n d u l y  flounder i n their i n i t i a l  s c h o o l l e g i s l a t i o n and t h e r e s u l t s may  be  attempts at  appear i n s u f f i c i e n t  energy which has been expended.  s p o n s o r , o v e r - a n x i o u s t o g u i d e , may d i c t a t o r and t h e a c t i v i t y may  costly  e a s i l y become a  Yet  to a  virtual  l o s e i t s prime purpose.  The  s c h o o l must s e r v e as a s o c i a l l a b o r a t o r y i n w h i c h t h e y o u t h  _. J o h n s t o n . E. G. I n t e r n e s i n C i t i z e n s h i p , S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , V o l . I t , No. 2: 6 1 _ 6 ^ , 75-76, O c t o b e r , 1937. ' 2 4 /  i s permitted,to l e a r n through  d o i n g and t h e r e b y  and wholesome c i v i c a t t i t u d e s and I d e a l s .  develop  Reavis  1  right  believes  t h a t i t w i l l b e a happy day f o r A m e r i c a when i t s p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s are handled student  as e f f i c i e n t l y  a c t i v i t i e s of the school.  and u n s e l f i s h l y  as t h e  I f t h i s can be s a i d o f  Canadian s c h o o l s , t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s warrant a l l the time devoted  t o them. Aim I I I  Development o f S e l f - d i r e c t i v e The  Students.  t h i r d o b j e c t i v e i s to teach c h i l d r e n  self-direction  so t h e y w i l l h a v e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , initiative,  and l e a d e r s h i p .  We o f t e n make u n f l a t t e r i n g  comparisons between t h e s t u d e n t s o f r u r a l in  city  schools.  R u r a l s t u d e n t s , upon t r a n s f e r r i n g t o u r b a n  c e n t r e s , f o r g e ahead r a p i d l y mates.  Yet city  and p e r s o n n e l . harassed  rural  circumstances, and  initiative.  a n d o f t e n e x c e l t h e i r new  schools have s u p e r i o r b u i l d i n g s , Logically  class-  equipment,  t h e r e v e r s e s h o u l d be t r u e .  The  t e a c h e r o f s e v e r a l g r a d e s m u s t , by f o r c e o f t h r o w h e r s t u d e n t s on t h e i r own T h o s e who l a c k t h e s e  responsibility  q u a l i t i e s are,  several years of discouraging f a i l u r e s , s c h o o l system.  s c h o o l s and t h o s e  after  e l i m i n a t e d from t h e  A l t o g e t h e r too frequently the c i t y  student  i s a b s o l u t e l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e t e a c h e r who p a i n s t a k i n g l y s o l v e s every p u p i l problem.  Students  l e a r n , n o t by p r e c e p t ,  b u t by d o i n g ; t h i s i s e x p e c i a l l y t r u e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f self-direction. ___  Progressively difficult  responsibilities  _  R e a v i s , Wm. C , P i e r c e , P a u l R . , . S t u l l k e n , E d w a r d H. The E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l - I t s O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1955, 199. 25  must be p r o v i d e d f o r t h e p u p i l s a s soon as t h e y  demonstrate  t h e a b i l i t y t o assume them.  classroom  Though t h e r e g u l a r  work p r e s e n t s m u l t i t u d i n o u s m i n o r o p e n i n g s f o r t h e  develop-  ment o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h r e s u l t i n s e l f - d i r e c t i o n , t h e w o r k i s c o m p u l s o r y and t r o l l e d by  the teacher.  t h e c l a s s i s d i r e c t e d and  On  t h e o t h e r h a n d c l u b s and  extra-curricular activities, be i n i t i a t e d and sponsor's  d o m i n a t e d by  guidance  may  other  though t e a c h e r - s p o n s o r e d , their  be v e r y o b v i o u s  to h i s proper p l a c e , the background.  should  s t u d e n t members. at f i r s t ,  but  t h e s t u d e n t members s h o u l d be a b l e t o r e l e g a t e t h e  comparative  con-  The soon .  sponsor  T h i s environment  of  f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e as t o t h e i r a c t i o n s s h o u l d i n -  c u l c a t e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h i n i t i a t i v e and Though t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has  of i n s t i l l i n g  responsibility.  c h i l d r e n w i t h a sense  l o n g been r e a l i z e d , l e a d e r s h i p has  b e e n c o n s i d e r e d an i n b o r n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e f o r t u n a t e few.  We  a l l know t h a t l e a d e r s h i p r e q u i r e s such  as a d a p t a b i l i t y ,  qualities  quick clear thinking, i n i t i a t i v e ,  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , broad  v i s i o n , t a c t , good j u d g m e n t ,  n e s s t o work, u n s e l f i s h n e s s , i m a g i n a t i o n , f a i t h , and  enthusiasm.  are o t h e r s , but  b l e s s e d with these  the vast m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n  enough o f t h e s e t r a i t s , leaders.  willing-  courage,  Some s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , as a r e s u l t o f home  c o n d i t i o n s , a r e more g e n e r o u s l y than  integrity,  possibly latent,  qualities have  t o make them p o t e n t i a l  T h u s t r a i n i n g f o r l e a d e r s h i p s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e same  g e n e r a l scheme as d o e s t r a i n i n g f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and tiative.  The  r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m may  p r o v i d e many  ini-  students  w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h i s t r a i n i n g , but activities  should  g i v e such o p p o r t u n i t i e s to a l l .  c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s have e r r o n e o u s l y l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t was  f i n d o u t h i s own  teacher's  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , thus  Such p r a c t i c e s are  task i s to help  I n t e r e s t s and  abilities,  a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h he  can  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o be  leader i n i t .  each s t u d e n t to discover  develop expertness,  and  o r g i r l may  i m p o r t a n c e , a l l m u s t be of l e a d e r s h i p .  Too  be  given  training  o f t e n the i l l o g i c a l ,  l e a d e r s and  be  shared.  i n the  the people.  We  t i m e s no  f i e l d s of knowledge.  The  a u d i e n c e s who  trend  to  real  emotionally  can  p e r s o n who  d i s c r i m i n a t e between the a c t u a l content  who  appraise,  o f many s o - c a l l e d  p e r s o n can be an  H o w e v e r any  of  o r even m e a n i n g l e s s ,  expert has  in a l l  received  t r a i n i n g I n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f l e a d e r s h i p s h o u l d be  o r a t o r i c a l technique  If  must d e v e l o p l e a d e r s  at I t s worth, the h y p n o t i z i n g v o l u b i l i t y In these  him  fundamentals  o f an u n t h i n k i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i r  r e a l i z e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and  leaders.  to give  a d i r e c t r e s u l t of a paucity of  t i n g e d a r g u m e n t s by  that  a p o t e n t i a l social leader  f l u e n c y o f a demagogue sways t h e p o p u l a c e . d i c t a t o r s h i p may  to  Democracy, w h e t h e r o f  s c h o o l o r community, i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i d e l y t h e a v e r a g e boy  times  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of leadership which  became t h e m o n o p o l y o f a s e l e c t few. The  At  intel-  from e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s  b e c a u s e t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g was d e p r i v i n g them o f any  Many edu-  assumed t h a t a h i g h  essential for leadership.  p u p i l s have been excluded  deplorable.  the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  able  o f a r e p o r t and  i n which i t i s cloaked.  H i s own  to  the ability  27  A  to  sway a n - u n t r a i n e d a u d i e n c e w a r n s h i m a g a i n s t t h e  of  beguilement  by some o t h e r s p e a k e r ' s f l u e n t t o n g u e  c h a r m i n g manner. of  possibility  knowledge has  H i s e x p e r i e n c e i n h i s own shown M m  special  that a l l statements  and .'sphere  require  c a r e f u l s t u d y and a n a l y s i s b e f o r e t h e y can be a c c e p t e d t r u t h s r a t h e r than branded  Insure,  as propaganda.  a true leader w i l l  verify  a u d i e n c e has had  futility  o f any  Therefore, at h i s  the e s s e n t i a l p o i n t s of  t h e s p e e c h t o w h i c h he h a s l i s t e n e d . his  Any  s p e a k e r , aware t h a t  t h i s type of t r a i n i n g , w i l l  attempt  as  r e a l i z e the.  t o c o v e r i n a c c u r a t e f a c t s o r an i n -  s u f f i c i e n c y o f d a t a by v o l u b i l i t y .  Extra-curricular  acti-  v i t i e s , more t h a n any o t h e r p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l programme, p r e s e n t s u c h t r a i n i n g . , and, training  f o r o u r own  f u t u r e w e l f a r e , such  s h o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d i n a . d e m o c r a t i c  fashion.  Aim IV \ Development o f S o c i a l C o - o p e r a t i o n . The  concept o f the s o c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n I s a  outcome o f t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d o b j e c t i v e s , and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a c t i v e l i f e  self-direction  i n a democracy.  a b l e t o e x p e c t t h e s c h o o l t o s e t up  logical  I t i s reason-  an e n v i r o n m e n t  i n which  a l l o f i t s members, t h r o u g h a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n and complete  c o n t r o l , may  move p r o g r e s s i v e l y t o a more  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c way  . d e m o c r a t i c way  of l i f e  The  e n t a i l s a r e s p e c t f o r the r i g h t  o t h e r s , an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r to  of l i f e .  c o n t r i b u t i o n s , and a  of desire  w o r k t o g e t h e r f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e g r e a t e s t number.  genuine  l e a d e r , i n a l l senses of the word, r e a l i z e s h i s 28  A own  shortcomings., I n c e r t a i n s p h e r e s a n d , r a t h e r t h a n forward,  s o l i c i t s the co-operation  in  spheres surpasses  these  o f l e a d e r s whose k n o w l e d g e  h i s own.  S e l f i s h n e s s r a v a g e s home,  s c h o o l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l i f e . the e r a o f co-operative  stumble b l i n d l y  The w o r l d  awaits  e f f o r t s to solve i t s problems.  i z a t i o n o f t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l work e m p h a s i z e s  Social-  co-operation  b u t , f r e q u e n t l y , t h i s i n f l u e n c e I s n u l l i f i e d by c o m p e t i t i v e examinations  and r e p o r t c a r d s .  In extra-curricular  activities  rivalry  e x i s t s , but i t s motive i s d i f f e r e n t .  rivalry  t o determine I n d i v i d u a l advancement, b u t r i v a l r y t o  d e t e r m i n e who c a n . b e s t  I t i s no l o n g e r  promote t h e a c t i v i t y ' s aims.  Co-  o p e r a t i o n i s e n f o r c e d , n o t b y t h e t e a c h e r s , b u t by a much more, p o t e n t  a g e n c y , t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e o t h e r members o f t h e  organization.  T r u l y t h e i n c e n t i v e t o i d e a l i s m s h o u l d be one  •of t h e m a i n o u t c o m e s o f t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l u m . Aim Increase  V  o f I n t e r e s t i n School  E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s must h e l p t o c r e a t e I n t e r e s t in  t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l w o r k , an i n t e r e s t w h i c h i s t o o o f t e n  non-existent.  We a r e b e g i n n i n g  s c h o o l h a s n e v e r been v e r y  to r e a l i z e that the formal  s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s aim because  p u p i l s e r e c t e d r a t h e r e f f e c t i v e defences against a school r e g i m e n t h a t d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e i r m a j o r n e e d s a n d , i n many cases,  quit school.  One remedy f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s t h e  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e p l a y element i n t o  school l i f e ,  but surely  s u c h a move n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s to motivate 29  t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l work  w h i c h , w i t h i t s e m p h a s i s on s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t h e of  skills,  clined.  d i s c o u r a g e s s t u d e n t s who  are not academically i n -  T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the t r a n s m i s s i o n of subject matter  and the l e a r n i n g o f s k i l l s a modern s c h o o l ' s a i m s .  a r e mere i n c i d e n t a l  The m a j o r  tude toward  school.  c o m p l e t e l y change a  child's.atti-  A l l c h i l d r e n , whether s u p e r i o r ,  average,  e f f o r t , and  citizenship.  The  greatest incentives  demand r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t t h e p u p i l s a r e c a p a b l e o f  assuming  a n d w h i c h g r a n t them c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s .  dren perform the m o n i t o r i a l  d u t i e s are not  Though  a l l t h e s t u d e n t s and  these  sealed to the v a r i o u s a b i l i t i e s of the  r e g u l a r s t u d i e s o f f e r even f e w e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f  nature.  The  function.  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s must f u l f i l  A l l the a c t i v i t i e s  the school:  chil-  duties of the classroom, there are  n e v e r enough o f t h e s e t o o c c u p y  in  S u c c e s s , even i n  a t t e m p t s t o s u c c e e d i n s t u d i e s and c i t i z e n s h i p a r e p o s i t i o n s  which  The  these  sub-standard, crave r e c o g n i t i o n f o r m e r i t o r i o u s service i n  achievement, to  in  Yet, i n practice,  mere i n c i d e n t a l s assume l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s . a t r i v i a l undertaking, w i l l  elements  o b j e c t i v e i s the develop-  ment o f w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  or  acquisition  children. this this  should arouse a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t  some w i l l m o t i v a t e t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m i n  o t h e r ways.  Regular lessons, f o l l o w i n g a set curriculum, deter  t e a c h e r s and  s t u d e n t s from e x c u r s i o n s i n t o by-paths  s u g g e s t e d by  these l e s s o n s :  courage  these deviations.  overcrowded  The  of enquiry  courses of study  dis-  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l u m , h o w e v e r , as  w e l l as b r o a d e n i n g t h e k n o w l e d g e o f s t u d e n t s i n s u b j e c t s a l r e a d y b e i n g s t u d i e d , may  v e n t u r e i n t o f i e l d s o f k n o w l e g e as 30  y e t u n t o u c h e d "by t h e p r e s e n t  c u r r i c u l u m , t h o u g h t h e y may he  included i n the curriculum of the future. curricular activities present  create interest  Thus t h e e x t r a -  i n t h e s c h o o l work a t  i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m and a l s o  assist  i n a t t a i n i n g the aim that s c h o o l i n g should not merely  satisfy  i m m e d i a t e w a n t s , h u t a l s o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f t h o s e  wants  which a n t i c i p a t e f u r t h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . Aim Development o f S c h o o l The list  VI  Morale.  development o f s c h o o l m o r a l e h o l d s next  place i n the  of objectives f o r extra-curricular activities.  School  m o r a l e o f t e n t e n d s t o become an a b s t r a c t i o n , a l o f t y b e a r s no d i r e c t  relationship  r e p e t i t i o n of precepts may  to the c h i l d .  The  aim which  assiduous  and m o t t o e s , promulgated b y t e a c h e r s ,  ensure a l i p s e r v i c e t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f school morale.  A g e n u i n e s c h o o l m o r a l e demands more t h a n t h i s .  Every  student  m u s t f e e l t h a t he i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n t o w h i c h h e h a s c o n t r i b u t e d and w i l l best  efforts.  continue to contribute h i s  The s c h o o l t r a d i t i o n r e p r e s e n t s t h e h e r i t a g e  l e f t by t h e f o r m e r s t u d e n t s .  I t s p e r f e c t i o n s demand o b e d i e n c e  i t s i m p e r f e c t i o n s c h a l l e n g e improvement. of s t u d e n t s must f a c e i t s t a s k . but  Each annual  T h i s t a s k may be 1  i t i s n o t beyond t h e scope o f t h e p u p i l s '  " Youth i s f u l l y directly aspect  capable  difficult,  abilities.  o f b e a r i n g t h e weight o f problems  concerned w i t h the moral,  of the school.  influx  c u l t u r a l , and i n t e l l e c t u a l  B o y s and g i r l s a r e a b l e t o b u i l d  i t i o n s which bind succeeding  generations 31  of students  trad-  to high  1  and n o b l e f o r m s o f conduct."- the  whole  School morale  should  s c h o o l , but i t s e s p e c i a l l o c a l e i s the  curricular activities.  Here s c h o o l s p i r i t  g e n e s i s and u p o n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s continuation.  permeate  extra-  likely  had i t s  depends i t s s u c c e s s f u l  Nor should the c u l m i n a t i o n of a c h i l d ' s  school  c a r e e r n e c e s s i t a t e h i s abandonment o f t h e f i n e p o i n t s o f h i s school morale.  T h i s morale, extended to p o l i t i c a l  c o u l d p u r g e i t o f many o f i t s d i s g u s t i n g Aim  little  features.  ¥11  D e v e l o p m e n t o f S e n t i m e n t s o f Law If  life,  and  Order.  s c h o o l m o r a l e i s k e p t on an a b s t r a c t p l a n e i t h a s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the students.  Similarly, respect for  l a w and o r d e r m u s t be v i t a l i z e d  before i t s real  is  l a w s , even when s u p p o r t e d by  grasped.  E x t e r n a l l y imposed  significance  h a r s h p u n i s h m e n t s , a r e o f t e n flouted*', many t i m e s i n a of  bravado.  of  c e r t a i n laws produce  citizen the  spirit  Campaigns t o c o n v i n c e t h e p e o p l e o f t h e m e r i t s satisfactory  results.  2  But  each  must a c q u i r e a s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  l a w s b e f o r e o b e d i e n c e t o t h e l a w s w i l l be a commonly  accepted procedure.  Admittedly the lawless constitute  a  d i f f i c u l t problem f o r s o c i e t y ; but the n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g , n o n - t h i n k i n g and n o n - v o t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s o f s o c i e t y an e v e n more s e r i o u s p r o b l e m .  constitute  There a r e grave dangers t o  I ~~ W i l l i a m s , N. "Democracy - K e y n o t e o f t h e D e t r o i t Conv e n t i o n , " quoted from Dr. G o s l i n g . C l e a r i n g House, V o l . X I , No. 1: 8-11, S e p t e m b e r , 1937. 2 The "100 D e a t h l e s s D a y s " c a m p a i g n i s an e x a m p l e o f t h i s . 32  s o c i e t y f r o m . t h o s e who s i t i d l y b y , l e t t i n g m a t t e r s t a k e own c o u r s e .  their  The c i t i z e n s must r e a l i z e t h a t t h e l a w s a r e t h e  d i r e c t outcome o f a j u d i c i o u s u s e o f t h e b a l l o t ; t h a t t h e l a w s :  a r e , i n d i r e c t l y , l a w s o f t h e i r own c h o i c e . law  i s a c t u a l l y the expression  of the w i l l  Commendable l a w s d e s e r v e r e s p e c t  Therefore, the of the majority.  and e n f o r c e m e n t , n o t o n l y  by o f f i c e r s o f t h e l a w , b u t b y t h e f o r c e o f p u b l i c  opinion:  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l a w s demand, n o t e v a s i o n , b u t p u r p o s e f u l planning by the c i t i z e n s which w i l l or r e p e a l o f such laws. into the children.  r e s u l t i n t h e amendment,  S c h o o l s must i n s t i l  this  philosophy  E v e n c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l age d i s p l a y an  u h s a t i s f a e t o r y adjustment t o t h e l a w . J u v e n i l e c o u r t s and reformatories many c h i l d r e n .  a r e evidenced, o f t h e a n t i - s o c i a l a t t i t u d e o f The s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s ,  extra-curricular field  have a n i m p o r t a n t  the regulations, of a school dent government and s h o u l d I n t h i s way t h e s t u d e n t making; t h e students not  should  body w i l l  will  of the m a j o r i t y .  r o l e here.  Most o f  be l e g i s l a t e d b y t h e s t u -  be e n f o r c e d b y s t u d e n t T o f f i c i a l s . gain the conception  of law-  observe the f o r m u l a t i o n of laws,  f o r purposes of tyranny,  will  e s p e c i a l l y those i n the  but t o express the c o l l e c t i v e  Each school c i t i z e n w i l l  realize  that  t h e l a w s a r e a h a d v a n t a g e t o t h e g r e a t e s t number a n d t h a t , i f he  i s i n the m i n o r i t y , t h e d e p r i v a t i o n of a f e w of h i s former  p r i v i l e g e s w i l l w o r k t o t h e b e n e f i t o f many o t h e r s . pupils w i l l  Thus t h e  l e a r n t h a t t r u e freedom c a n n o t p e r m i t an u n d i s -  c i p l i n e d y i e l d i n g t o e v e r y d e s i r e ; i n s t e a d i t demands a r i g i d a d h e r e n c e t o p r i n c i p l e s o f w h i c h t h e m a j o r i t y have a p p r o v e d . 35  I d e a l l y , to gain these impressions, t h e p r i v i l e g e o f l a w - m a k i n g and  every  student  lav/-enforcement.  s h o u l d have Ohvlously  t h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e i n a l a r g e s c h o o l , i f such o p p o r t u n i t i e s are t o emanate f r o m t h e s c h o o l g o v e r n m e n t and b o d y " o n l y . The  school law-enforcement  s c h o o l must e x p a n d i t s e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  v i t i e s to i n c l u d e all*.  Then t h e p o t e n t i a l  acti-  trouble-maker,  v e s t e d w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o e n f o r c e o r d e r , may  become-a w o r t h y  s c h o o l c i t i z e n who  infringement  w i l l not  c o u n t e n a n c e any  of  s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s and many o t h e r s , t h o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t i v e l y , may and  will  become c i t i z e n s who  will  respect t h e i r  t h i n g s i n which they  a s much o r more s e l f - c o n t r o l f r o m  Genuine d i s c i p l i n e  i m p o s e d from, w i t h o u t , b u t  s h o u l d be  The  cases,  doing  should not  s e c u r e d by  co-operation of p u p i l s i n worthy p u r p o s e f u l Disciplinary  Prob-  a r e i n t e r e s t e d as f r o m t h o s e w h i c h  d i s a g r e e a b l e and b o r i n g .  result  privileges  r e a l i z e t h e o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t accompany them.  ably p u p i l s develop  i n part at l e a s t ,  enlisting  are f r e q u e n t l y  adjusted, but  are be the  experiences.  o f t r y i n g to f o r c e p u p i l s i n t o a maladjusted  r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m can be  less  the curriculum.  can i t e v e r  replace  the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e i r innumerable opport u n i t i e s f o r purposeful experiences? delinquency  b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 14 and  Ringdahl 15  1  believes that  can be h a l v e d  by 2  t h e i n c l u s i o n o f more e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s .  _  j , —  Keliher  _  R i n g d a h l , N. R. Some I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s i n an E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l . S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , V o l . X, No. 1: 29, S e p t e m b e r , 1938. K e l i h e r , A l i c e V. P l a y ' s t h e T h i n g . V o l . X, No. 6: 330-333, F e b r u a r y , 1936. 34  C l e a r i n g House,  s u g g e s t s t h a t the i n c a r c e r a t i o n of upon o t h e r s o f how  a n t i - s o c i a l a c t s w h i c h have l e d t o juveniles i n reformatories  f o r amusement a r e t h e  to play.  She  and  the  the dependence  d i r e c t r e s u l t s o f an  b e l i e v e s t h a t the  ignorance  e n t i r e school.programme  must"be i n f u s e d w i t h t h e p l a y theme t o w h i c h the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r activities  e s p e c i a l l y l e n d t h e m s e l v e s so e a s i l y .  But  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e w o r d " p l a y " must n o t  be m i s c o n s t r u e d .  person's a t t i t u d e t o a c e r t a i n t a s k , not  the  whether t h i s duty should as we  know, has  larged  c l a s s e d as  a d i s t i n c t therapeutic  approaches p l a y , the pressures  be  greater  a b o u t him.  the  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme and  job i t s e l f , d e c i d e s  "work" o r " p l a y " . value.  a c h a n c e man  In,schools,  The  has  be  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f an  en-  the  transference  I f t h i s Utopia can  extra-curricular activities,  for  law  and  become an Aim  Discovery The vities and  and  D e v e l o p m e n t of  be  t h e p r o b l e m s of  u l t i m a t e l y v a n i s h and  o r d e r may  n e a r e r work  of  subjects  the  would  i n t e r m i x t u r e i n w h i c h p l a y and w o r k w o u l d  i n e x t r i c a b l y fused.  d e l i n q u e n c y may  Play,  to survive  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r s y s t e m to many o f t h e r e g u l a r e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o an  The  an  r e a c h e d , even i n discipline  a t t i t u d e of  and  respect  a c c e p t e d commonplace. VIII  S p e c i a l Q u a l i t i e s and  Abilities.  l a s t o b j e c t i v e towards which e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i should  strive  abilities.  i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of  T h i s problem of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i s  of the most d i f f i c u l t problems c o n f r o n t i n g w i d e s p r e a d use amelioration  special qualities  of t h e  i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient  o f t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e 35  educators. has  s t u d e n t s of  l e d to  one  The an  subnormal  and  superior a b i l i t i e s . tiated  F o r example,  c o u r s e s have b e e n  differen-  so t h a t , a l t h o u g h a l l a r e e x p e c t e d t o m a s t e r  certain  minimum e s s e n t i a l s , e n r i c h m e n t h a s b e e n a d d e d f o r t h o s e o f superior a b i l i t y .  Such a scheme, h o w e v e r , t e n d s t o  emphasize  q u a n t i t a t i v e rather than q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h are n o t dependent  on  Other  intelligence  present another angle of t h i s problem, the s o l u t i o n of which is  even more b a f f l i n g .  We  know t h a t a l l n o r m a l c h i l d r e n have  the. same f u n d a m e n t a l u r g e s , b u t we  also realize that  children  have dormant t a l e n t s w h i c h , t o o o f t e n , a r e n o t a r o u s e d the  child's school l i f e .  Yet these undeveloped  during  abilities  are  f r e q u e n t l y t h e v e r y ones w h i c h s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e t h e s t u d e n t s ' v o c a t i o n a l and a v o c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s . pursuits i s axiomatic. s i g n s of abatement, mounting.  The  importance of these  The unemployment p r o b l e m shows no  y e t t h e v a r i e t i e s ' o f employment a r e  S p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s the keynote of our  To p r o c u r e s a t i s f y i n g employment, t h e c h i l d and d e v e l o p h i s s p e c i a l t a l e n t s .  steadily  civilization.  should e a r l y  learn  The l e i s u r e t i m e a t t h e  dis-  p o s a l of the average a d u l t of today would astound the past generation.  Y e t t e c h n o l o g i c a l improvements  i n c r e a s e t h e amount o f l e i s u r e t i m e . squandered:  should further  L e i s u r e time i s o f t e n  an i n c r e a s e o f l e i s u r e t i m e , u n d e r p r e s e n t c o n -  d i t i o n s , might have a d e l e t e r i o u s i n f l u e n c e . of  The w o r t h y  use  l e i s u r e time n e c e s s i t a t e s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a l l to the  p l e a s u r e s and v a l u e s i n h e r e n t i n h o b b i e s .  The  s c h o o l must  l e a d i t s students t o the s e l e c t i o n of avocations which are s u i t e d t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s ; a v o c a t i o n s w h i c h 36  will  e n s u r e a w i s e use  depression, the  To  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n have  d e s i r e d , yet the  scathing a criticism.. the  i n times  a p o s s i b l e secondary source of revenue.  schools'  much t o be  o f t h i s l e i s u r e t i m e and,  schools  C e r t a i n l y the  do n o t  date,  left  deserve  school  of  too  should  encourage  development of independent i n t e r e s t s , i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  a e s t h e t i c , o r p r a c t i c a l , on t h e p a r t o f t h e  students.  But  t h i s i s h a r d l y a f e a s i b i l i t y i n the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l a r work. It- i s h u m a n l y i m p o s s i b l e by the  f o r the  classroom teacher,  average l a r g e c l a s s e s , to d i s c o v e r the  ments of each s t u d e n t ,  expected to counsel  task.  This valuable  i t must be  they give  prognostic  once a g a i n ,  them by  tests,  t h e numbers t h e y  make t h o r o u g h e f f i c i e n c y a superhuman  c u r r i c u l a r w o r k must be  retained,  s u p p l e m e n t e d by a c o m p r e h e n s i v e l i s t  curricular offerings.  endow-  Guidance t e a c h e r s ,  o f i n t e r v i e w s , c a s e s t u d i e s , and  achieve e x c e l l e n t r e s u l t s but, are  innate  o r , i f t h e y are l o c a t e d , t o give  ample o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . t h e use  faced  As  of  but  extra-  these o f f e r i n g s are u s u a l l y e l e c t i v e  e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n  c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  students.  and  In the  relative  freedom of these p r o j e c t s d i f f e r e n c e s of i n t e r e s t s , c a p a c i t i e s and  i d e a l s come t o t h e  f o r e and  Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s the fulfil  their last objective:  f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and  may  be  s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y nurtured.  extra-curricular activities the p u p i l w i l l  t h r o u g h t h e m he may  d e s i r e which w i l l , determine h i s l i f e 57  task.  find  may  opportunities  discover  a driving  I n this., c h a p t e r  the o b j e c t i v e s of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -  v i t i e s have b e e n d i s c u s s e d which these  the f i e l d o f these  vities. and  The e x t e n t t o  a c t i v i t i e s are achieving t h e i r goals i s s t i l l  a controversial question.  of cases,  a t some l e n g t h .  R e s e a r c h w o r k e r s have l a b o r e d i n  activities,  and, i n the v a s t m a j o r i t y  t h e i r r e s u l t s have b e e n f a v o u r a b l e  t o these  D e f i n i t e p r o o f s , however, a r e l a c k i n g :  standardized  t e s t s present  ments, not absolute p r o o f s . superior preparation f o r l i f e in this training  questionnaires  a p i c t u r e of c o l l e c t i v e  " I t r e q u i r e s time t o prove itself,  judgtheir  b u t t h o s e most i n t e r e s t e d  ( e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ) f e e l that the  junior high school of the land w i l l y e t undreamed o f u p o n t h e s t a n d a r d s , of i t s f u t u r e  acti-  e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e a s a c t i v i t i e s , and h a p p i n e s s  citizenry."^  1 P r o c t o r & R i c c i a r d i , op. c i t . ,  38  223.  CHAPTER I I  THE EXTRA-CURRICULAR A C T I V I T I E S OF TEMPLETON  JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL  39  Templeton was o f f i c i a l l y Fitch, of  J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , where t h i s s t u d y was made, opened i n 1 9 2 7 . P r i o r t o t h i s d a t e Mr. H. B.  i t sprincipal,  a n d M r . R o b e r t S t r a i g h t , now i n s p e c t o r  s c h o o l s i n "Vancouver, h a d v i s i t e d many j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s  in the United States.  Templeton  J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l was a n  e x p e r i m e n t , b u t t h i s e x p e r i m e n t was b a s e d on t h o u g h t f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and s t u d y .  The p r i n c i p a l a n d h i s s t a f f w e r e aware  t h a t t h e essence o f t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l a y , n o t i n t h e improved e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n t , but i n t h e enlargement o f opport u n i t i e s f o rstudent p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  The a p p r o a c h t o t h e  r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m was s t i m u l a t e d b y a w i s e c h o i c e o f t h e m u l t i f a r i o u s o l d a n d new methods w h i c h t h e f o u n d e r s h a d studied.  The e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , w h i c h h a d h e l d a  v e r y i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e v o i d e r type  schools, be-  came a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l programme.  The  of  complacency  b o t h t e a c h e r s and t h e p u b l i c t o an e d u c a t i o n a l system  which  accepted p a s s i v e support from the students received a severe shock.  Y e t t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t many o f t h e newer s u g g e s t i o n s  had .not p r o v e n t h e i r w o r t h t e m p e r e d too  many c h a n g e s .  the desire t o introduce  The e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme o f T e m p l e t o n  J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l was g r a d u a l l y e v o l v e d t o i t s p r e s e n t s t a t u s . Many i n n o v a t i o n s h a v e b e e n t r i e d .  Those t h a t p r o v e d  f a c t o r y were r e t a i n e d ; t h e o t h e r s were d i s c a r d e d .  satis-  The p r e s e n t  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme, t h o u g h one o f w h i c h b o t h s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s a r e p r o u d , c o n t a i n s i m p e r f e c t i o n s w h i c h t i m e a n d experience w i l l  eradicate. 40  L a s t y e a r , 1938, High  the School C o u n c i l of Templeton J u n i o r  S c h o o l p u b l i s h e d a "Handbook f o r S t u d e n t s . "  page g u i d e f o r t h e 600  o r 700  This  g r a d e s e v e n s t u d e n t s who  n u a l l y e n r o l l a t T e m p l e t o n p r e s e n t s a summary o f t h e t r a d i t i o n s , r e g u l a t i o n s and  activities.  example o f s t u d e n t a c t i v i t y .  I t i s an  The members o f t h e  C o u n c i l , w i t h s t a f f c o - o p e r a t i o n , c o l l e c t e d and t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h i s book.  The  e x p e n d i t u r e o f more t h a n 100  Mr. D.  school  School arranged  U n d a u n t e d by  o b s t a c l e t h e s t u d e n t s , b y a v a r i e t y o f means, r a i s e d n e c e s s a r y funds,,  an-  excellent  publication entailed  dollars.  100  the this the  The w r i t e r a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e k i n d n e s s  of  B. M a c K e n z i e , v i c e - p r i n c i p a l o f T e m p l e t o n J u n i o r  H i g h S c h o o l , and t h e S c h o o l C o u n c i l o f 1938 lege of u s i n g passages from the As  f o r the  "Handbook."  "the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i s r e a l l y a y o u n g d e m o c r a c y ,  a t t e m p t i n g t o p a t t e r n i n m i n i a t u r e a l l the l a t e r of l i f e ,  privi-  t h e r e s h o u l d be a l m o s t  f o r student p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  One  activities  innumerable o p p o r t u n i t i e s of t h e most p r o f i t a b l e  of  t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s s t u d e n t government and,  s i n c e the  s c h o o l ' s i n c e p t i o n , s t u d e n t s a t Templeton have  participated  i n s c h o o l government.  The  accompanying diagram w i l l  some c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t As t h e d i a g r a m  give system.  shows, a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e a s c h o o l c o u n c i l ,  t h r e e g r a d e c o u n c i l s , and  f o u r house c o u n c i l s , under the  s p o n s o r s h i p o f f a c u l t y members, s h a r e i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s c h o o l .  Each c l a s s , i n a r e g u l a r l y conducted 41  class-  STUDENT GX)VERMENT  SCHOOL OODMOU  (!1 members)  TEMPLETON JUMIOR HI(33,SCHOOL  Executive of 4-electedby whole school 2 members of Grade NiiB Council 2 • « « » Eigt. « 2 " Serai 2 Each Houe: Executive Tee Jay Representative'; Girls* Club Head >f Monitors :  R  I. Executive President Vice-President Secretary,Treasurer (Chosen by House I, Council) '  House II., Executive President Vice-President Secretary, Treasurer (Chosen by House II. Council)  H  Girls* Club  tc  R  Tee Jay  Monitors  :  House I. Council House I, Glass Representatives from Grades 7,8,9 (39 members)  House.II. Council House I L Glass Eepre sentati ve s from Grades 7,8,9 (39 members)  Executive ofI Grade Nine Ouncil  House I. Grade Nine Class Representatives  House I I , Grade Nine Class  Executive oft Grade Eight Ouncil  i  CI. 1-10  House  n  Representatives •'CI."  3 repre sentsive s from Each Grade Nine Class  3 representsives from Each Grade light Class  House I„. Grade Eight Class Hepresentative s CI. 11-24  House I I . Grade Eight Class Repre sentati ve s Gl.  Executive oft Grade Seven ouncil  House I. ••• Grade Seven Class ^preventatives. 01. 25-40  House I I . Grade Seven Class Repre sentatives  3 representsives from Each Grade Seva Class  01.  Staff Sponsors  III.. Ezecutive  House IV. Executive  President Vice-President Secretary, Treasurer (Chosen by House III. Council)  President Vice-President Secretary, Treasurer (Chosen by House TV. Council)  House III. Council House III. Class Representatives from Grades 7,8,9 (39 members)  House IV. Council House IV. Class Representatives from Grades 7,8,9 (59 members)  House III. Grade Nine Class Repre sentat i ve s  House IV. Grade Nine Class  CI. 1-10  Representatives. CI. 1-10  House III, Grade Eight Class Representatives CI. H-24  House TV. Grade Eight Class Representatives CI. 11-24  House III. Grade Seven Class Representatives 01. 25-40  House IT. Grade Seven Class Representatives 01. 25-40  1  room e l e c t i o n , p i c k s a p r e s i d e n t , secretary-treasurer. their respective u t i v e s of the  grade c o u n c i l s .  g r a d e , h o u s e , and  The  e l e c t i o n of the  school  June, the  i s a month o f b u s t l e . be  valid.  which includes  the  e l e c t i o n month of each y e a r ,  and  t h e nominee b e f o r e t h e  sponsor, checks the  necessitate  ship i s considered  the  d u t i e s of  l o s s of o c c a s i o n a l  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y may  school  lessons  or  and  citizen-  h a v e t h e i r names w i t h -  accepted candidates,  the sup-  t h e i r c a m p a i g n m a n a g e r s , expound t h e i r t h e o r i e s  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to assemblies of the the  these  a private consultation with  nominating committee. • Next the  the  demand c a p a b l e ,  P e r s o n s whose s c h o l a r s h i p  drawn a f t e r t h e y h a v e had  by  nomination  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of  t h e p o s i t i o n s w h i c h t h e y hope t o f i l l w i l l r e l i a b l e incumbents.  signed  A n o m i n a t i n g committee of each c o u n c i l ,  nominated students c a r e f u l l y because the students w i l l  exec-  councils i s a fac-  p r o c u r e d f r o m c o u n c i l members, must be  i s considered  a  F i r s t mimeographed n o m i n a t i o n p a p e r s ,  by a t l e a s t f i v e v o t e r s  ported  and  T h e s e c l a s s o f f i c e r s become members o f  s i m i l e of r e a l l i f e .  w h i c h may  a vice-president,  flaunt e l e c t i o n posters  ments of the  students'  Poster  and  e l e c t o r a t e , the w a l l s w h i c h h a v e met  U n i o n and,  as  the  of  require-  a r e s u l t , the  relative merits  o f d i f f e r e n t c a n d i d a t e s become a common theme  of d i s c u s s i o n .  I n the meantime a c h i e f e l e c t o r a l o f f i c e r ,  r e t u r n i n g o f f i c e r s , and and  planned the  auditorium  t h e i r a s s i s t a n t s have p r e p a r e d b a l l o t s  d e t a i l s of the  election.  Sometimes  the  becomes a s e r i e s o f p o l l i n g b o o t h s ; s o m e t i m e s  Social Studies  rooms s e r v e t h i s p u r p o s e ; b u t • 42  always the  the election  is  i n the c a p a b l e hands of s t u d e n t s .  As t h e e l e c t o r a l  Officer  and h i s s t a f f c o m p i l e t h e r e t u r n s , an e x c i t e d c r o w d a w a i t s the r e s u l t s i n the a u d i t o r i u m .  Templeton agrees w i t h W e l l i n g  1  t h a t , t h o u g h i t t a k e s t i m e , s c h o o l e l e c t i o n s must be a s c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o r e a l e l e c t i o n s t o t e a c h c i t i z e n s h i p and teract vice.  The  s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between v o t e -  c a t c h i n g s p e e c h e s and g e n u i n e p r i v i l e g e s and  coun-  promises,, t h e y r e a l i z e  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e f r a n c h i s e , and  they  see b e f o r e t h e i r e y e s t h e u n f o r t u n a t e outcome o f an u n w i s e choice of l e a d e r s . cannot  be  The  elected t i l l  grade seven e x e c u t i v e , of  course,  the beginning of the f a l l term,  but  t h e e l e c t i o n o f a l l t h e -other e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s i n t h e summer g i v e s t h e s c h o o l a n u c l e u s w h i c h executive d u t i e s from the f i r s t  c a n c a r r y on  day o f t h e f a l l  early  the  term.  q u e n t l y t h e c r i t i c i s m i s - m a d e t h a t b o t h t e a c h e r s and  Freadmini-  s t r a t o r s a r e much t o o a f r a i d o f t h e m i s t a k e s t h e s t u d e n t s make i f t h e y a r e g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t y t o e v o l v e s t a n d a r d s  may  of  b e h a v i o u r t h r o u g h an a c t i v e and t r u l y r e s p o n s i b l e s t u d e n t government: develop them. High  that, they m i s t r u s t the a b i l i t y of students t o  a responsible s p i r i t T h i s c r i t i c i s m may  School.  No  pretence  once r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s g i v e n  be l e v e l l e d a t T e m p l e t o n J u n i o r i s made o f g r a n t i n g t h e  more t h a n a s h a r e i n t h e management o f t h e s c h o o l . of  j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l age  Children  a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o o immature t o  t r o l c o m p l e t e l y t h e government, o f t h e , : s c h o o l . t r a i n t may  students  Though r e s -  be e x e r c i s e d b y t h e c o u n c i l s p o n s o r s , w i s e  1  direction  ' ~~ Welling, Richard. "New, S o c i a l H o r i z o n s S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , V o l . X, No. 1: 5-6, S e p t e m b e r , 1938. • 43  '  con-  frequently replaces i t .  • Each grade c o u n c i l d i s c u s s e s - m a t t e r s  a f f e c t i n g t h a t g r a d e and l e g i s l a t e s o n them.  Suggestions  a f f e c t i n g t h e w h o l e s t u d e n t "body r e s u l t i n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s which  are forwarded  to. t h e School C o u n c i l .  The g r a d e c o u n c i l s  assume t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f o r g a n i z i n g - a u d i t o r i u m , a s s e m b l i e s , o f c a r i n g f o r s c h o o l e q u i p m e n t s u c h a s maps a n d s t u d y b o o k s , a n d o f r a i s i n g money f o r a n y w o r t h y p u r p o s e . c o u n c i l r e c e i v e s i t s quota  hall Each  o f the school f e e s from the school  .council and, i f t h i s i s not budgetted w i s e l y , a d d i t i o n a l r e v e n u e must be p r o c u r e d t h r o u g h  the e f f o r t s of that c o u n c i l .  The  S c h o o l C o u n c i l , w i t h a membership o f twenty-one, c o n t r o l s  and  c o - o r d i n a t e s s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e conduct side the classrooms'are  of students  The out-  f o r m u l a t e d b y t h i s c o u n c i l and t h e i r  e n f o r c e m e n t i s d e l e g a t e d t o t h e seho'ol m o n i t o r s .  The members  of t h e d i f f e r e n t grade and house c o u n c i l s a r e urged t o r e p o r t the p r o j e c t s of t h e i r c o u n c i l s t o t h e c l a s s e s the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f a l l and t o s o l i c i t s t u d e n t body.  to-encourage  suggestions from the  O c c a s i o n a l l y a c l a s s f e e l s t h a t one o r more  of i t s o f f i c e r s are n o t f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r d u t i e s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s replaced by others.  t h e s e o f f i c e r s may be r e c a l l e d a n d  T h i s p o l i c y , though r a r e l y used,  serves  a s a n i n c e n t i v e t o commendable s e r v i c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e officers.  The o f f i c e r s ,  the r e s t o f t h e c l a s s .  o f c o u r s e , s h o u l d s e t an example t o I n f r a c t i o n s o f school r e g u l a t i o n s by  c l a s s o f f i c e r s w i t h i n o r without classrooms  a r e not countenanced.  O f f e n d i n g c o u n c i l members may be s u s p e n d e d o r e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e 44  c o u n c i l by  a d e c i s i o n of t h e i r own  colleagues.  Members, whose  scholastic  s t a n d i n g d r o p s b e l o w the p r o m o t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s  are a u t o m a t i c a l l y d i s b a r r e d from c o u n c i l p o s i t i o n s . action i s justifiable permits  on two  scores:  i n student  g o v e r n m e n t and,  the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i r a t e parents ricular  of c h i l d r e n who  studies.  g o v e r n m e n t , the of s t u d e n t  Though t h e  secondly,  i t  par-  safeguards  a g a i n s t condemnation by  have f a i l e d students  the  i n their regular  do n o t  c o n t r o l the  the s t u d e n t s  an  opportunity  t o become more  and  self-directive,  t o c r e a t e a more wholesome s c h o o l a t m o s p h e r e b e c a u s e  the l a r g e r s t u d e n t Last year  participation  i n school  a house s y s t e m was  t a s k s more c a p a b l y . served  The  two m a i n p u r p o s e s .  to r e l i e v e  to perform  i n a u g u r a t i o n of the house I n the f i r s t  of  affairs.  instituted  c o u n c i l s o f p a r t o f t h e i r f o r m e r t a s k s and  form  School  to develop i n i t i a t i v e  to l e a r n c o - o p e r a t i o n ,  cur-  student  s p o n s o r s and many o t h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t the  government used a t Templeton J u n i o r High  leadership, and  i n the f i r s t p l a c e i t  a l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e of the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n t o  ticipate  gives  This  the these  system  place f r i e n d l y  rivalry  s t i m u l a t e s i n t e r e s t i n s u c h s c h o o l e v e n t s as s p o r t s , p l a y c o n t e s t s , and  oratorical contests.  The  u n a b l e t o p r o d u c e as much r i v a l r y as  c o u n c i l system  was  the h o u s e s y s t e m :  com-  p e t i t i o n s between c o u n c i l s of d i f f e r e n t grades or between c l a s s e s , s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s o f c o u r s e s q u o t i e n t s , were o b v i o u s l y u n f a i r . division  The  and  intelligence  house s y s t e m by  of e a c h c l a s s i n t o f o u r h o u s e s , e f f e c t s a  distribution  of the s t u d e n t s  by  age  and b y  a  just  intelligence,  which dull  encourages f r i e n d l y c o m p e t i t i o n i n both b r i g h t classes.  A s t u d e n t r e m a i n s i n t h e same house  o u t h i s s c h o o l c a r e e r and which fare.  develops  through-  a l o y a l t y t o t h a t house  encourages a g r e a t e r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the school w e l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s c h o o l c o m p e t i t i o n s and  r e g u l a r i t y and p u n c t u a l i t y i n a t t e n d a n c e , and  and  high scholarship,  f i n e c i t i z e n s h i p on t h e p a r t o f a s t u d e n t  the s t a n d i n g of h i s house. a c o n t e s t can s t i l l  Thus a s t u d e n t who  a s s i s t h i s house.  assemblies,  The  count-toward never  house  wins  standings  are p r o m i n e n t l y d i s p l a y e d i n the main h a l l of the  school  so t h a t a r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f them i s i m m e d i a t e l y n o t i c e a b l e t o a l l the students. the h a b i t s which  Thus t h e house s y s t e m  p l a c e s a premium on  a l l p u p i l s should develop  and  stimulates par-  t i c i p a t i o n by a l l i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . second may  p l a c e the house system  share  a l s o i n c r e a s e s t h e number  and  i n the development of  and t h e o t h e r d e s i r a b l e t r a i t s .  initiative  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 p e r c e n t  t h e s t u d e n t s s e r v e on t h e g r a d e and  school councils.  At  10 p e r c e n t g u i d e t h e d e s t i n i e s o f t h e h o u s e s as  house h a s  who  i n s t u d e n t g o v e r n m e n t and t h u s r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g i n  parliamentary procedures  another  I n the  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n every c l a s s .  p r e s e n t a t i v e cannot  of  least each  As t h e h o u s e r e -  be a c o u n c i l member a l s o , e a c h c l a s s must  h a v e a minimum o f 7 o f f i c e r s .  If training for life  m o c r a c y demands a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e o f l i f e  46  de-  i n a democracy, the  combined c o u n c i l and h o u s e s y s t e m s c e r t a i n l y o f f e r training.  in a  such  The  d e v e l o p m e n t o f an a l l - r o u n d s t u d e n t  requires  d e v e l o p m e n t o f a sound m i n d i n a s o u n d b o d y . c a t i o n p e r i o d s , under s k i l l e d  The  contests may  outstanding  arouse school  U n d e r t h e T e m p l e t o n s y s t e m b o y s and j u n i o r , and  on t e a m s r e p r e s e n t i n g  Representative  Inter-house  be  midget.  s o f t b a l l , and  t h e House  and  y e a r i s S p o r t s Day.  The  sports ath-  i s an o p e n c h a m p i o n -  s h i p event i n each d i v i s i o n , those e n t e r i n g such a 47  girls  frequently  c u l m i n a t i o n of the  Although there  in  basketball,  A g a i n the c r i t e r i o n of a s u c c e s s f u l  l e t i c programme i s u p h e l d .  points  s o f t b a l l , the  Other a c t i v i t i e s are  i n t r o d u c e d when t i m e p e r m i t s .  Though t h e  s u i t a b l y clad to  f i e l d hockey, v o l l e y b a l l , d o d g e b a l l , speedball.  Sport  While the boys indulge  soccer, v o l l e y b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , yards, play soccer,  T h e n t h e members  b y w i n n i n g games, y e t  b y f i e l d i n g teams w h i c h a r e  b e n e f i t by a t h l e t i c c o m p e t i t i o n s .  play.  g i r l s are d i v i d e d i n t o  o f each house s e l e c t s t h e c a p t a i n s .  procured  games s t r e s s  q u a l i t y of the  t h e i r h o u s e s and  l a r g e r number o f p o i n t s i s g a i n e d may  develop-  a t h l e t e s t o t h e n e g l e c t o f t h e many  t h e number p a r t i c i p a t i n g r a t h e r t h a n t h e  s i g n up  Though  spirit, especially  i t tends t o the  s h a r e i n games v i c a r i o u s l y o n l y .  senior, intermediate,  the  i s p l a c e d where i t b e l o n g s .  t h e home t e a m i s t h e w i n n i n g one,  ment o f a few  In  physical  At Templeton J u n i o r High School  inter-school competition  who  t o b u i l d a sound  events f u r t h e r s the work of the  instructors.  emphasis i n a t h l e t i c  if  students  p l a n of awarding house p o i n t s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n  team games o r i n f i e l d education  P h y s i c a l edu-  g u i d a n c e i n a modern gymnasium  w i t h adequate equipment, a s s i s t the body.  the  competition  a r e .excluded f r o m o t h e r e v e n t s .  The h o u s e w i t h t h e most  e n t r i e s may d e f e a t a h o u s e which, w i n s a few'more v i c t o r i e s . As i n a l l o t h e r p h a s e s o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme, p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y t h e many r a t h e r t h a n e x c e l l e n t  performance  by t h e f e w i s t h e aim. Proper conduct  i n t h e h a l l s , a t t h e b i c y c l e sheds,' a n d  on t h e s c h o o l g r o u n d s h a s b e e n d e f i n e d b y t h e p r e s e n t a n d former  school councils.  Though t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e  s t u d e n t s a r e c o n v i n c e d o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e s e l a w s and make them a s e l f - i m p o s e d o b l i g a t i o n , a c e r t a i n number o f m a l a d justed students w i l l serve a d u a l purpose: r u l e s .by a l l ;  always  f l o u t t h e l a w . The m o n i t o r s  t h e y compel an a c c e p t a n c e  of these  a n d t h e y g u i d e b e g i n n e r s -and v i s i t o r s t o t h e i r  desired destinations.  The h e l p f u l r a t h e r t h a n t h e d i s c i p -  l i n a r y a s p e c t o f m o n i t o r i a l d u t y i s •'emphasized.  Though t h e  d e r o g a t o r y a p p e l l a t i o n ."cops" i s o c c a s i o n a l l y a p p l i e d to. t h e m o n i t o r s , p o s i t i o n s on t h e m o n i t o r students.  f o r c e a r e t h e g o a l o f many  The b u l k o f t h e s t u d e n t s r e a l i z e t h e v a l u e o f t h i s  f o r c e and c o n s i d e r membership i n i t an honour.  The m o n i t o r s ,  as c u s t o d i a n s o f t h e l a w , h a v e t h e r i g h t t o g i v e t i c k e t s t o any who d i s r e g a r d s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m s . The  recipients of t i c k e t s are obliged to attend a court  except f o r t h e omission o f lawyers, resembles law c o u r t .  which,  an a u t h e n t i c  The o f f e n d e r . p r e s e n t s h i s e v i d e n c e ,  occasionally  s u p p o r t e d b y Yidtnesses, w h i l e t h e m o n i t o r who w r o t e t h e t i c k e t describes h i s side of t h e case.  A f t e r t h e evidence has been  weighed and t h e v e r d i c t d e c i d e d , t h e s p o n s o r 48  of the monitors  gives the-sentence. phase o f r e a l i s t i c  Thus, t h r o u g h the m o n i t o r i a l system, everyday l i f e  is instilled  i n t o the  They r e a l i z e t h a t t h e l a w s a r e t h e outcome o f t h e  a  pupils.  deliber-  a t i o n s o f t h e c o u n c i l members whom t h e y h a v e e l e c t e d .  There-  f o r e t h e i r o n l y source of r e d r e s s from u n s a t i s f a c t o r y laws i s at the p o l l s .  Secondly they l e a r n t h a t the laws which  t h e a p p r o b a t i o n o f t h e many a r e s a c r o s a n c t : m i n o r i t y must a b i d e by s u c h l a w s .  the  True freedom  have  dissenting i s not  licence.  Though t h e d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y p e r m i t s i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m , freedom n e c e s s i t a t e s a conformation to c e r t a i n They o b s e r v e t h a t u n b r i d l e d f r e e d o m w o u l d anarchy.  this  regulations.  soon degenerate  into  T h i r d l y the i m p e r s o n a l i t y of the law i s r e g i s t e r e d  on t h e i r m i n d s .  Punishment i s meted o u t , n o t t h r o u g h  the  a n i m o s i t y of a m o n i t o r , but by the s t u d e n t ' s f a i l u r e t o comply w i t h some r e g u l a t i o n . ment i s d e v e l o p e d .  The  The  c o r r e c t a t t i t u d e toward law e n f o r c e -  monitors, l i k e the p o l i c e , are  fre-  q u e n t l y f o r e e d by a sense o f d u t y t o p e r f o r m d i s a g r e e a b l e t a s k s F r i e n d s h i p must be o v e r s h a d o w e d b y c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s . m o n i t o r s must t r e a t f r i e n d s and  The  s t r a n g e r s i n t h e same i m p a r t i a l  manner, o r s t u d e n t s , a n x i o u s t o g a i n t h e p r e s t i g e o f m o n i t o r ship, w i l l favoritism.  r e p l a c e t h o s e who  have b e e n g u i l t y o f l a x i t y  or  I t i s q u i t e understandable t h a t , under such  d i t i o n s , the s t u d e n t body as a whole a p p r e c i a t e s the  con-  functions  o f t h e m o n i t o r i a l s t a f f and o f f e r s c o - o p e r a t i o n t o t h e b e s t of i t s a b i l i t y .  The  t r a n s f e r e n c e of t h i s a t t i t u d e t o the  c i t y and a l l o t h e r p o l i c e f o r c e s w o u l d  49  j u s t i f y the Templeton  s y s t e m and- o f f s e t t h e v i e w , so o f t e n i m p l a n t e d minds, t h a t policemen  are unsympathetic,  who  rather than assistance.  deserve hindrance  student notes  adolescent  offieious  t h e f a i r n e s s Of t h e m o n i t o r  admiration f o r the  in  individuals  Fourthly e a c h  c o u r t and  j u s t i c e of c o u r t s i n general.  gains  In the  p l a c e s t u d e n t s d i s c o v e r t h a t i n f r i n g e m e n t s of the law cause s u f f e r i n g to the i n n o c e n t . c o n f u s i o n and  to prevent  R e c k l e s s m o t o r i s t s and  disobedience,  w i l l be n o t e d  often  whether  result i n injury to others.  other law evaders of the  a p p a r e n t l y never l e a r n t t h i s lesson.. devoted to a study  fifth  Laws w e r e made t o e l i m i n a t e  accidents:  t h o u g h t l e s s o r m a l i c i o u s , may  an  same i l k  In a l a t e r section,  of the c i t i z e n s h i p e v a l u a t i o n t h e o r y , i t  t h a t one  g u i l t y member may  s h i p o f an e n t i r e c l a s s .  The  a f f e c t the  citizen-  d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e s which  many g a i n b y s h a r i n g i n m o n i t o r i a l s e r v i c e n e e d n o t be ment i o n e d as a l l p o s i t i o n s of t r u s t develop rare cases,  of course,  similar traits.  e g o t i s t i c a l or ignorant monitors  t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s o r exceed t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . c e i v e summary t r e a t m e n t . through tors.  ignorance The  M o n i t o r s who  a r e r e - d i r e c t e d by  may  accrue  from i t i n l a t e r  A few y e a r s first  ago  the  p l a c e as t h e b e s t  "Tee  imprudently  the sponsor of the moni-  s y s t e m d o u b t l e s s has many f l a w s , i t o p e r a t e s v a l u e and  abuse  Such eases r e -  have a c t e d  o t h e r s are d i s m i s s e d o r suspended.  This proves i t s present  In  suggests  Though t h i s quite  efficiently.  the values which  years. Jay", the school magazine,  won  s c h o o l magazihe i n the p r o v i n c e .  e x c e l l e n c y of the f i n i s h e d product 50  i s not the prime aim  Yet of  this activity.  "Our m a g a z i n e r e p r e s e n t s a p r o j e c t i n w h i c h  t h e w h o l e s c h o o l has a p a r t .  The  "Tee  J a y " wants t o promote  s c h o o l s p i r i t and make e v e r y p e r s o n i n t h e s c h o o l f e e l he a p a r t i n the paper.  I t p r o v i d e s t r a i n i n g i n l e a d e r s h i p and  d e v e l o p s t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s who interest i n i t . "  1  h a v e an  active  T h i s a c t i v i t y o f f e r s a v a r i e t y of p o s i t i o n s  as e v e r y t h i n g e x c e p t t h e p r i n t i n g i s i n t h e hands Of t h e Jay" s t a f f . torial  The  has  "Tee  s t a f f i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups - the Edi^-  S t a f f , t h e B u s i n e s s S t a f f , and t h e "Tee  Jay" Cover Club.  Grade seven p u p i l s are u r g e d t o a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s  of valuable  e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h t h e y may  especially  if  gain i n this a c t i v i t y ,  they p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t during t h e i r e n t i r e three years at  junior high school. Music  and a r t r e c e i v e t h e a t t e n t i o n t h e y w a r r a n t  t h e c u r r i c u l a r and  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r "programme.  Choirs  i n both and  o r c h e s t r a s , w i t h some o f t h e i r p r a c t i c e s s c h e d u l e d d u r i n g r e g u l a r s c h o o l hours, a t t r a c t t h e i r quota of m u s i c a l l y i n c l i n e d pupils.  S e v e r a l a r t c l u b s s u p p l y t h e demands o f s t u d e n t s whose  s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s i n c l i n e them t o t h i s t y p e o f v o c a t i o n o r avocation.  Many p u p i l s , h o w e v e r , t h o u g h t h e y may  and t h e o t h e r f i n e a r t s , or a r t clubs.  1  enjoy music  do n o t w i s h t o j o i n c h o i r s , o r c h e s t r a s ,  Many o t h e r s have d e v e l o p e d no  discriminating  t a s t e i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f m u s i c , p a i n t i n g , and t h e o t h e r arts.  Though t h e y may  fine  h a v e a l a t e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r them,  I • Handbook f o r S t u d e n t s , T e m p l e t o n J u n i o r H i g h , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 1938, 57. 51  the regular, school periods i n these subjects are too few counteract the outside environment.  The  r a d i o and  to  the motion  p i c t u r e bear a heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to which they are slowly awakening.  Too f r e q u e n t l y t h e i r i n f l u e n c e has been negative  or even d e t r i m e n t a l .  They have f a i l e d  love f o r the f i n e a r t s .  to arouse the c h i l d r e n ' s  Miss M a r j o r i e Agnew, head of the  girl's  guidance department, a l e r t to the challenge inherent i n these circumstances,  organized  A r t s Club  i n Canada.  follows:  1.  school.  the f i r s t S i r E r n e s t MacMillan  "The  Fine  s p e c i f i c aims of t h i s club are as  To co-ordinate the work of the Fine A r t s i n the  This i s done by a system of a s s o c i a t e members i n  which any p u p i l may  take'part, thus coming i n c o n t a c t w i t h  s p e c i a l i s t s i n the Fine A r t s , l a t i o n s h i p between p u p i l s and  2.  To b r i n g about a c l o s e r e -  those working f o r the Fine A r t s  throughout the c i t y by making the v i s i t i n g a r t i s t s honorary members of the c l u b . the A c t i v e Members, one  There are three c l a s s e s of members. These are students who  These are students who f o u r consecutive  times.  Secondly,  have attended  or  Honorary Members. have helped  the A s s o c i a t e Members.  the club's programmes  The members are encouraged to c o l -  l e c t news c l i p p i n g s and make scrap books. These are men  or p a r t i c i p a t e d  r  Handbook, op, cit»., 54-55, •• 5 2  Thirdly,  the  and women outside of the i n any  This club meets once a week at noon.  I  on  have done s p e c i a l work f o r the c l u b , such as  making a Fine A r t s Scrap Book.  who  have performed  of the programmes, a c t i v e o f f i c e r s , c l a s s o f f i c e r s ,  students who  First,  Club  of the programmes," A good programme i s  1  always assured. the audience,  When t h e r e a r e no v i s i t i n g a r t i s t s t o  t a l e n t e d members o f t h e s c h o o l a r e g i v e n a c h a n c e  t o show t h e i r a b i l i t i e s .  The  high p o i n t i n t h i s c l u b ' s a c t i -  v i t i e s i s a Fine A r t s S e r i e s , presented year.  T h e s e programmes s p o n s o r  mental music, dancing,  about E a s t e r of each  s u c h a r t s a s v o c a l and  a r t , m o v i n g p i c t u r e s , and  instru-  literature.  Since the f o r m a t i o n of t h i s club o t h e r : s c h o o l s i n the have e v i n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f starting  similar  Arts Clubs.  "So  clubs.  V e r n o n and Nanaimo now  boast  i n the work of the F i n e A r t s  f a r b e y o n d i t s own  boundaries."  other c l u b , the Every G i r l ' s Club, deserves T h i s c l u b , w h i c h i n c l u d e s .every g i r l  encourages the c o - o p e r a t i o n of each g i r l .  t h i s club assists  special  i n the s c h o o l ,  school::activities  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s c h o o l .  c o n t r i b u t i o n s 'to t h e s c h o o l a r e e n c o u r a g e d b y t h e o f b a d g e s t o a c t i v e members. t h o s e whose Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s s e n t H o n o u r Members.  awarding  meet t h e s t a n d a r d s  s e t by  by  this club.  s i s t e r s " to the incoming  S e v e n G i r l s and Welcome t h e m a t a p a r t y .  c i t . , 56. 53  to pre-  of a l l  Three a c t i v i t i e s  g i v e some i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e s c o p e o f i t s a c t i v i t i e s .  Handbook, op.  the  Space d o e s n o t p e r m i t an a c c o u n t  E i g h t p a r t n e r s a c t as " b i g  Real  Honour badges are p r e s e n t e d  t h e numerous p r o j e c t s s p o n s o r e d  1  Through a system  of committees d e a l i n g w i t h each g i r l ' s d a i l y  I  Fine  Templeton i s honoured t o t h i n k t h a t I t s  Department i s having e f f e c t  mention.  city  i n the w o r t h o f t h i s p r o j e c t by  e f f o r t t o broaden the i n t e r e s t  One  delight  G-rade Grade  E v e r y Open Day  the  girl's  c l u b room i s t h e  show and  every f a l l  Hallowe'en The  scene of a t a s t e f u l l y a r r a n g e d  the g i r l s  e n t e r t a i n t h e i r mothers at  boys' counterpart  i s the Hi-Y Club.  Though i t s "Father  Son N i g h t , " w i t h i t s gymnasium d i s p l a y , s h o p s i n s p e c t i o n ,  a u d i t o r i u m programme, and  refreshments,  o p p o r t u n i t y t h e mothers have had Though a f e w hours,  gives the f a t h e r s the  at Hallowe'en.  o f t h e c l u b s meet o u t s i d e r e g u l a r s c h o o l  T u e s d a y i s t h e r e g u l a r c l u b day.  are shortened  and  The  afternoon  A l l the grade e i g h t  n i n e , s t u d e n t s a r e g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e l e c t t h e i r  first  The  m a j o r i t y are assigned  t e r m and  to t h e i r next  a c l u b member i s a n x i o u s remain i n the  to t h e i r f i r s t  favorite  c h o i c e f o r the second term.  t o do  s o , he  p a r t i c i p a t e i n b o t h a c a d e m i c and  If  i s frequently allowed  same c l u b t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e y e a r .  The  a t h l e t i c c l u b s so  a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o make c h o i c e s w h i c h w i l l hand book l i s t s  and  choice f o r the  b e l i e v e s , however, t h a t a g r e a t e r b e n e f i t i s d e r i v e d by  The  go  to' a t t e n d the, o c c a s i o n a l a s s e m b l y s p o n -  s o r e d by the grade seven c o u n c i l .  clubs..  periods  the grade seven p u p i l s are p e r m i t t e d t o  home u n l e s s t h e y w i s h  who  a  Tea.  membership i s l i m i t e d , i t s p r o j e c t s a r e immense. and  hobby  accomplish  to  staff students students  this  end.  thirty-four clubs f o r pupil selection.  These  a r e t h e c l u b s w h i c h have been t h e c h o i c e s o f f o r m e r p u p i l s . Clubs which r e c e i v e inadequate request a new  are d e l e t e d .  o f a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e number who  c l u b may 1  support  be  started.  Overn  :  O v e r n , op.  cit.,  216. 54  1  Upon t h e  have found a  sponsor  s t a t e s t h a t some s c h o o l s  f o l l o w t h e ' r e p r e h e n s i b l e p r a c t i c e of r e q u i r i n g each t o j o i n a c l u b o r t o be  student  s u b j e c t to the punishment of s t u d y i n g .  Y e t s t u d y s h o u l d be a p r i v i l e g e , n e v e r a p u n i s h m e n t .  He  be-  l i e v e s t h a t t h e n e e d s o f p u p i l s i n t h e s t u d y g r o u p have n o t b e e n d i s c o v e r e d and, be p u n i s h e d ,  a s a r e s u l t , i t i s t h e t e a c h e r who  not the p u p i l .  ..Templeton h a s  should  a study c l u b , but  whether Overn's s c a t h i n g c r i t i c i s m of i t i s j u s t i f i a b l e i s questionable.  Admittedly  some j o i n t h e s t u d y c l u b b e c a u s e  t h e i r i n t e r e s t has n o t b e e n a r o u s e d  by any  other clubs.  reasons, however, i n f l u e n c e the c h o i c e of the study  Other  club.  Many b o y s d e l i v e r n e w s p a p e r s o r h a v e o t h e r a f t e r - s c h o o l j o b s . Though t h e c l u b s s t a r t i n s c h o o l h o u r s , t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l day.  they extend  For t h i s reason  beyond  some b o y s and  girls  p r e f e r a c l u b w h i c h ends a t t h e u s u a l c l o s i n g t i m e o f s c h o o l . Some s t u d e n t s , b e c a u s e o f o u t s i d e engagements o r b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o work a s  r a p i d l y as o t h e r s , a r e d e l i g h t e d  at the o p p o r t u n i t y t o complete t h e i r assignments. such Nor  s t u d e n t s do n o t c o n s i d e r a s t u d y c l u b t o be  Surely a punishment.  does t h e w r i t e r o f t h i s c r i t i c i s m a p p r e c i a t e t h e  c a p s u n d e r w h i c h many s c h o o l s o p e r a t e .  The  must be l i m i t e d t o t h e number o f s p o n s o r s  handi-  number o f c l u b s  a s t a f f can  supply.  I d e a l l y the r a t i o of p u p i l s t o t e a c h e r s would not exceed t o one.  A c t u a l l y t h e average, c l a s s a p p r o x i m a t e s  forty  A f t e r the. d e l e t i o n of t h e grade seven s t u d e n t s f r o m the ment, t h e number o f s t u d e n t s p e r t e a c h e r w o u l d s t i l l b e t w e e n t w e n t y - f i v e and Cooking,  thirty.  thirty  pupils. enrol-  average  Some c l u b s , s u c h a s Camp  must h a v e a l i m i t e d m e m b e r s h i p o r t h e e f f i c i e n c y 55  of  the club w i l l d e t e r i o r a t e . f o r v e r y s m a l l g r o u p s who  The  a d v i s a b i l i t y of c r e a t i n g clubs  c a n n o t be  s a t i s f i e d by the  c h o i c e s , i s , t h e r e f o r e , of d o u b t f u l v a l u e .  To p r o v i d e  existing oppor-  t u n i t i e s f o r . t h e g r e a t e s t number b y a w i s e s e l e c t i o n o f a p p e a r s t o be t h e i n e v i t a b l e outcome.  The  clubs  values of the  clubs  bear a s t r i k i n g resemblance to the values of the other e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s though each c l u b emphasizes purposes which i t i s e s p e c i a l l y adapted to  certain  fulfil.  O c c a s i o n a l l y some p r o j e c t i s so immense t h a t i t r e q u i r e s the c o - o p e r a t i v e s t a f f and  e f f o r t o f e v e r y member o f t h e  of the student  a project.  body.  The  teaching  s c h o o l c a r n i v a l i s such  Though t h e s c h o o l b o a r d s u p p l i e s t h e minimum  e s s e n t i a l s of equipment, f r e q u e n t l y a s c h o o l needs a d d i t i o n a l equipment, such as  supplementary readers, a motion p i c t u r e  p r o j e c t o r , and m u s i c a l e q u i p m e n t , f o r w h i c h t h e s c h o o l b o a r d i s u n a b l e t o pay school arranges The  student  the f u l l  present  Under these  c o n d i t i o n s the  a c a r n i v a l o r some o t h e r m o n e y - r a i s i n g  government o r g a n i z a t i o n s s p o n s o r t h e s e  recommend them t o t h e heartedly.  amount.  The  device.  schemes  and  s t u d y body w h i c h s u p p o r t s i h e m w h o l e -  c o - o p e r a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , and  teachers,  and p a s t , h a v e made; t h e s e c a r n i v a l s r e m u n e r a t i v e l y  s u c c e s s f u l w h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s , by  their co-operation,  have  r e d u c e d t h e c o n f u s i o n o f p r e p a r a t i o n s t o an a b s o l u t e minimum. Though t h e s e p r o j e c t s a r e n o t p r i m a r i l y e d u c a t i v e , t h e y concrete w h o l e and  evidence  of the co-operation of the  o f t h e i n d u s t r y and  initiative  members. .56 . .  • ,  offer  s t u d e n t b o d y as  o f many o f i t s  a  All  the . . a c t i v i t i e s aim a t the development of good c i t i z e n -  ship so a c l e a r conception of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i s impossible without ship system.  Obedience to laws i s not the only c r i t e r i o n of  a good c i t i z e n . fare  some knowledge of Templeton's c i t i z e n -  The t r u l y good c i t i z e n c o n t r i b u t e s to the wel-  of the community and p a r t i c i p a t e s  p r o j e c t s to the b e s t of h i s a b i l i t i e s . develop  a c t i v e l y i n commendable The school hopes to  c i t i z e n s of t h i s l a t t e r category and Templeton has a  system of r e c o r d i n g c i t i z e n s h i p which, i t b e l i e v e s , achieves t h i s end.  " I t has been our aim i n c i t i z e n s h i p  allow every boy and g i r l positive  t r a i n i n g to  the opportunity of b u i l d i n g  up a  record of c i t i z e n s h i p that w i l l become of permanent  value to him i n l a t e r l i f e .  In many schools a p u r e l y negative  system of c i t i z e n s h i p r a t i n g e x i s t s . handed out to p u p i l s every time  Demerits are f r e e l y  they break one of the many  r u l e s , but no c r e d i t whatsoever i s given f o r those countless other times when these boys and g i r l s a c t i n such a way as to be a c r e d i t to themselves, The handbook l i s t s tained.  t h e i r parents, and t h e i r s c h o o l , "  1  twelve methods by which m e r i t s may be ob-  Both the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m and the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  a c t i v i t i e s provide numberless o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g a i n i n g m e r i t s . L i s t s of the methods by which merits may be earned misdeeds r e s u l t i n g i n demerits are posted s t r e s s however, i s l a i d The a c q u i s i t i o n  and of the  i n each room.  The  on m e r i t s r a t h e r than on demerits.  of many merits i s w i t h i n the reach of each  student, both by h i s i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s and by h i s co-operation  ~  1 Handbook, op. c i t . , 47. 57  w i t h the r e s t of h i s group.  A c l a s s , by o u t s t a n d i n g  con-  t r i b u t i o n s t o the s u c c e s s o f a day's l e s s o n s , by wholeh e a r t e d a s s i s t a n c e t o a s u b s t i t u t e , and b y o b e d i e n c e t o traffic  r e g u l a t i o n s , as evidenced  the monitor  c o u r t f o r one m o n t h , may  s t u d e n t r e a l i z e s t h a t m e r i t s and of h i s a c t i o n s : s t u d e n t may  earn  demerits  class merits.  The  d e l i g h t I f they succeed number o f m e r i t s and  t o t a l s are recorded  "At t h e end  i n building  demerits  de-  of the year  the  on t h e p e r m a n e n t r e c o r d c a r d s i n t h e  These c a r d s r e m a i n i n the s c h o o l p e r m a n e n t l y .  office.  Perhaps t h r e e  y e a r s a f t e r a p u p i l l e a v e s t h i s s c h o o l he d e c i d e s t o go  ability.  and  t h e c i t i z e n s h i p marlc p l a c e d on e a c h r e p o r t , b u t I t  a l s o s e r v e s , a much g r e a t e r end.  He  Each  have d a i l y r e c o u r s e t o h i s c i t i z e n s h i p r e c o r d  up'positive records.  work.  The  represent a record  t h e y a r e n o t r e w a r d s and p u n i s h m e n t s .  students d i s p l a y obvious  termines  b y an a b s e n c e o f summons t o  to  n e e d s a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n a s t o h i s . c h a r a c t e r and He  immediately  remembers t h e r e c o r d he h a s b u i l t  w h i l e at Templeton J u n i o r High  School.  for  E i t c h w i l l o b t a i n h i s permanent  a l e t t e r o f r e f e r e n c e , Mr. 1  record card from the  When'he comes t o  up  ask  file."  T e m p l e t o n J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l augments t h e r a t i n g s y s t e m by badge awards.  citizenship  L i k e the c i t i z e n s h i p  merits  t h e b a d g e s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y e a s y t o . e a r n so t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be a b l e t o d i s p l a y a t l e a s t one b a d g e s may  be  earned  d u r i n g t h e Grade Seven and  badge.  Grade E i g h t :  y e a r s , but they are not p r e s e n t e d u n t i l the p u p i l e n t e r s  ~  r~ Handbook, op.  cit.,  49. 58  The  the  n i n t h grade's.  I n t h i s way t h e y r e m a i n  an i n c e n t i v e t o c o -  o p e r a t i o n and i n d u s t r y f o r a much, l o n g e r p e r i o d . c r e d i t s t o warrant  t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a second  Sufficient badge a r e  r e c o g n i z e d by t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f b a r s on t h e o r i g i n a l b a d g e . Though t h e a t h l e t i c a n d s c h o l a r s h i p b a d g e s a r e b e y o n d t h e n a t u r a l a b i l i t i e s o f many c h i l d r e n , t h e c o m b i n a t i o n which  i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e number o f m e r i t s w h i c h  badge, a student  has  g a i n e d , i s w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f any c o - o p e r a t i v e s t u d e n t .  Any  s t u d e n t who r e c e i v e s two b a d g e s o f a d i f f e r e n t t y p e i s  f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y t h e g r a n t o f a monogram b a d g e . y e a r a few students w i n a l l t h e badges.  Every  These have been o u t -  s t a n d i n g members o f t h e s c h o o l a n d h a v e t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o become l e a d e r s i n t h e community.  These s t u d e n t s  c a l l y a t t a i n membership,in the S i l v e r T Glub, the club i n s i g n i a .  automati-  so named a f t e r  T h i s i s a permanent c l u b , t o w h i c h  members a r e a d d e d a n n u a l l y .  new  Tear a f t e r year the contact be-  t w e e n t h i s c l u b and t h e s c h o o l i s r e t a i n e d . Though no a t t e m p t  h a s b e e n made t o d e s c r i b e a l l t h e e x t r a -  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s of Templeton, i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s o u t l i n e h a s p i c t u r e d In. s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l t h e m a j o r  activities  on w h i c h t h e d a t a i n t h e s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s a r e b a s e d .  59  CHAPTER I I I  AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE  NUMBER OE A C T I V I T I E S AND  SCHOLASTIC  STANDING, 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 3 8 .  60  Previous  Studies  of the Influence  v i t i e s on S c h o l a s t i c  of Extra-Curricular A c t i -  Standing,.  In presenting t h e p i c t u r e of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n the previous  c h a p t e r s a n a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made t o e v a l u a t e  them i n c u l t u r a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e r m s .  The v a l u e s  h o w e v e r , do n o t r e c e i v e u n i v e r s a l a c c e p t a n c e . no the be all  general  a g r e e m e n t as t o t h e p l a c e  s c h o o l programme.  presented,  Indeed there i s  of these a c t i v i t i e s i n  Some e d u c a t o r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y  extended t o include t h e e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m  so t h a t  should  virtually  r e g u l a r c l a s s w o r k w o u l d be c o n d u c t e d i n t h e same m a n n e r  as c l u b s a r e now o p e r a t e d . O t h e r s a r e c e r t a i n t h a t t h e e x t r a curriculum  should  be c u r t a i l e d o r e v e n e l i m i n a t e d .  group m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e s o - c a l l e d v a l u e s  latter  a r e c h i m e r i c a l and  that the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s of the a c t i v i t i e s t h e i r advantages.  This  outweigh  The m o s t common c r i t i c i s m o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  activities  i s that they d e t r a c t from r e g u l a r school  Children's  m i n d s , i t i s h e l d , a r e so d i s t r a c t e d a n d t h e i r r e -  gular lessons standing  work.  so f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r r u p t e d t h a t t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c  suffers.  The d e t e r m i n a t i o n  of the effect of extra-  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s upon academic achievement, t h r o u g h t h e method o f l o c a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h a c h i l d engages a n d t h e s c h o l a s t i c t h a t he a t t a i n s , c o n s t i t u t e s t h e e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e  standing  of t h i s  study. While t h i s  study i s not the f i r s t  a t t e m p t made t o a t t a c k  t h i s p r o b l e m , i t a p p e a r s t o be l e s s i n c o n c l u s i v e t h a n a n y 61  previous i n v e s t i g a t i o n which the w r i t e r encountered. 2  3  Swanson , H i l l ,  Mueller  ,  4  and M e c h t l y - r e p o r t e d t h a t , i n t h e m a j o r i t y  o f c a s e s , an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y s t u d e n t s i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s exerted  no d i s c e r n i b l e i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e s e  scholastic attainments.  Prunty  5  students'  advanced t h e b e l i e f t h a t  pupils,  whose s h a r e i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s was c o n t r o l l e d , were s t i m u l a t e d ship records.  by these a c t i v i t i e s t o improve t h e i r Investigators  of the a t h l e t i c  scholar-  section of the  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s made more p o s i t i v e c l a i m s ,  as a  r e s u l t o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h e s , t h a n d i d t h e . w r i t e r s who h a d n o t confined  t h e m s e l v e s t o one d i v i s i o n o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i 6  vities.  Worcester  7 and K i n g '  s t a t e d t h a t t h e average academic  g r a d e s o f a t h l e t e s were h i g h e r by  the non-athletic  were made.  t h a n t h e average marks earned  s t u d e n t s i n t h e a r e a s where t h e i r i n q u i r i e s  Of c o u r s e t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d  b y W o r c e s t e r and  K i n g a r e no p r o o f t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t h l e t i c caused t h i s s u p e r i o r  average standing.  may h a v e b e e n p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e eminence o f t h e a t h l e t e s .  activities  Many o t h e r  factors  f o r t h e academic  pre-  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s e s t u d e n t s may  h a v e p l a y e d games b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e i n b e t t e r p h y s i c a l than t h e average student and, because o f t h e i r b e t t e r t h e y may h a v e e x c e l l e d t h e n o n - a t h l e t i c efforts. no  condition health,  students i n s c h o l a s t i c  I n h i s own i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r  substantiation f o rthe theory that a t h l e t i c  found  s t u d e n t s have  a tendency t o surpass the other students i n the p r e s c r i b e d 1,2,3,4,5,6,7  As r e p o r t e d 62  i n McKown, o p . c i t . , 600-613:.  school studies.  McKown, t h o u g h he d i s p l a y s a s t r o n g b i a s i n  f a v o u r o f t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , summarizes i n a f a i r manner t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e s he h a s m e n t i o n e d i n h i s book.  He m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h  they  p r e s e n t p r e v e n t s any t h o u g h t f u l person from making sweeping g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s concerning the i n f l u e n c e which  the extra-  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s have u p o n t h e s t u d e n t s ' s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e i n the c u r r i c u l a r subjects.  He a s s e r t s t h a t ,  these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d i s p r o v e t h e assumption  although  that, generally  speaking, these a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t unfavourably the p u p i l s ' a c a d e m i c e f f o r t s , t h e s e r e s e a r c h e s do n o t w a r r a n t c l u s i o n that,, i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , t h e s e  t h e con-  activities  a s s i s t t h e student i n h i s r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. The  f a c t t h a t such a pronounced advocate  of extra-curricular  a c t i v i t i e s a s McKown i n t i m a t e s t h a t t h i s p r o b l e m receive a f i n a l  s o l u t i o n suggests  t h a t another  has y e tt o  s t u d y on t h e  s u b j e c t may h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i l e t h e p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m may e v e n t u a l l y d e t e r m i n e the i n c l u s i o n o r r e j e c t i o n o f c l u b s i n t h e j u n i o r h i g h school programme o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  To t h e b e s t o f t h e w r i t e r ' s  k n o w l e d g e no i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s n a t u r e h a s b e e n made i n a n y j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i n Canada, though t h e problem  i s j u s t as  v i t a l here as i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Sources The  of Information f o r the Present  Study.  o f f i c e f i l e s o f Templeton J u n i o r High S c h o o l ,  which  were a v a i l a b l e t o t h e w r i t e r , c o n t a i n e d r e c o r d o f marks s h e e t s , permanent r e c o r d c a r d s , p r o g r e s s c a r d s , m e d i c a l c a r d s , 63  attendance  . r e c o r d s , aird ^ a c t i v i t y c a r d s .  The f i r s t  f i v e on t h i s  list  gave the. sex,. i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t , g r a d e s t a n d i n g , g e n e r a l h e a l t h , and r e g u l a r i t y o f attendance  o f each s t u d e n t .  The  a c t i v i t y c a r d s s u p p l i e d t h e n e e d e d d a t a on e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r activities.  T h e s e c a r d s were c o m p i l e d  by the p u p i l s themselves.  d u r i n g guidance  periods  To e n c o u r a g e a c c u r a c y and c o m p l e t e -  ness i n these r e c o r d s o f u s e f u l c i t i z e n s h i p t o t h e s c h o o l , each c a r d was made b y one s t u d e n t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r on whom he was r e p o r t i n g . the guidance  A f t e r t h e s e c a r d s had been checked by  t e a c h e r s , t h e y w e r e a t t a c h e d t o t h e permanent  record cards.  P u p i l s f o r whom no a c t i v i t y c a r d c o u l d be  l o c a t e d were o m i t t e d from t h e p r e s e n t  study.  I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g 329 g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s was c o l l e c t e d and t a b u l a t e d u n d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : number o f a t h l e t i c  activities,  sex,  g r a d e c o u n c i l member, m o n i t o r ,  M a c M i l l a n F i n e A r t s G l u b member-, member o f t h e "Tee J a y " s t a f f , Girls'  C l u b member, h o u s e c o u n c i l member, member o f some o t h e r  c l u b o r c l u b s , member o f a c o m m i t t e e i n t h e g r a d e o r h o u s e c o u n c i l s o r i n guidance  classes, electoral officer or assistant,  a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the school c a r n i v a l , total'number o f activities, quotient.  s c h o l a s t i c grade a t E a s t e r , and i n t e l l i g e n c e Many s t u d i e s h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t  quotients which  a r e b a s e d o n group t e s t s t e n d t o be i n a c c u r a t e .  In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  s t u d y , h o w e v e r , many s t u d e n t s h a d w r i t t e n 1  several i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s which  _  intelligence  served as checks  so t h a t , w i t h  __  The m a j o r i t y o f i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s were b a s e d on t h e N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t . 64  t h e r e s e r v a t i o n t h a t any  intelligence quotient represents a  r a n g e w i t h i n w h i c h a s t u d e n t may  be p l a c e d , t h e s e r a t i n g s  a p p e a r t o be a s a c c u r a t e a s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n w i t h group  tests. To e n s u r e a c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r , a b r i e f  of the next  main  summary o f t h e method  ' w h i c h l e t t e r g r a d e s f o r s u b j e c t s and assigned at Templeton J u n i o r High  by  f o r grade s t a n d i n g s  are  School i s e s s e n t i a l .  TABLE I LETTER GRADES, •NUMERICAL EQUIVALENTS AND  PERCENTAGES  RECEIVING EACH L e t t e r Grade  Percentage R e c e i v i n g t h i s Grade 6 24 13 14 13 24 6  A/:  Bl . c+ c cD E Table  Numerical Equivalent o f L e t t e r Grade 5' . 4• 3 1/3 3 ' , 2 2/3 2 1  - •} "  I shows t h a t t h e s u b j e c t m a r k s a r e a s s i g n e d i n  s u c h a manner t h a t t h e l e t t e r g r a d e s s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e n o r m a l curve of d i s t r i b u t i o n .  No  t e a c h e r , however, i s e x p e c t e d  f o l l o w t h i s system s l a v i s h l y .  Marks which,  i n the  opinion  o f t h e s u b j e c t t e a c h e r , do n o t p r e s e n t a f a i r e s t i m a t e t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w o r k may  be a l t e r e d .  to  of  In the computation  of  grade s t a n d i n g the n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s of t h e s u b j e c t marks w h i c h a c h i l d has  earned  are t o t a l l e d .  E n g l i s h and  math-  e m a t i c s , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r assumed p r o g n o s t i c v a l u e , e a c h c o u n t as two  s u b j e c t s and  t h e n u m e r i c a l g r a d e o f e a c h one 65  is  doubled.  In t e c h n i c a l c l a s s e s p r a c t i c a l a r t s , which are studied f o r d o u b l e t h e number o f p e r i o d s n o n - t e c h n i c a l s t u d e n t s d e v o t e t o them, a l s o c o u n t a s two s u b j e c t s .  The n u m e r i c a l t o t a l o f  m a r k s o b t a i n e d a s above i s t h e n d i v i d e d b y t h e t o t a l number o f s u b j e c t s , a d j u s t e d as i n d i c a t e d , to g i v e t h e s t u d e n t ' s n u m e r i c a l average, TABLE I I NUMERICAL AVERAGES AND EQUIVALENT LETTER GRADES Numerical  Average  Letter  4.1 - 5 3.9 - 4.0 3.7 - 3.8 3.5 - 3.6 3.3 - 3.4 3.0 - 3.2 2.7 ^ 2 , 9 2.5 - 2 , 6 2.3 --2.4 2.1^ - 2.2 0-2.0  Grade  A B+ B BC+ C CD4D DE  The s y s t e m shown i n T a b l e I I i s b a s e d o n a n o r m a l c u r v e of  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g e n e r a l r a n k s between  t h e l i m i t s o f 0 and  5 o r g r a d e s E a n d A. TABLE I I I ,INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS WITH THEIR THEORETICALLY EXPECTED SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS, 1957 - 1938 I.Q. G r o u p 127 - 141 122 - 126 119 - 1 2 1 116 - 118 111 106 103 -  115 110 105  100 97 91 72  102 99 96 90  -  Percentage 6 7.2) 7.5) 9.5) 10.8) 14.7) 12 )  24.2  37,5  10.4) - 6.6) 26.6 9.6) 5.7 T o t a.1 F r e q u e n c y  J  Frequency  Rank  20 24 25 51  A Bf B B-  56 49 40  C+ C c-  35 22 32 19 333  TJ+ D DE  Many f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n e scholastic  efforts.  a student's attainment  I n t e r e s t i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , home  c o n d i t i o n s , h e a l t h , employment "before o r a f t e r and  i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e a few of these f a c t o r s .  relationship  in his  between s c h o l a s t i c  school  hours,  Although the  s t a n d i n g s and i n t e l l i g e n c e  q u o t i e n t s a r e n o t e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h , the c o e f f i c i e n t of correlation being  .45 i .03 i n 1937-1938 and .44 I .028 i n  1938-1939 i n t h e c a s e s Templeton J u n i o r High  of the grade nine s t u d e n t s a t S c h o o l , the t e a c h e r s a t t h i s  school  p l a c e g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s on t h e f a c t o r o f i n t e l l i g e n c e on any o t h e r s i n g l e  factor.  The s t u d e n t s ' s u b j e c t and g r a d e  s t a n d i n g s a r e compared w i t h t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e Students  than  with high intelligence  quotients.  q u o t i e n t s and l o w g r a d e  s t a n d i n g s a r e c a r e f u l l y examined to d i s c o v e r , i f p o s s i b l e , the cause of the d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e and  t h e i r academic rank.  The i n t e l l i g e n c e  i n f l u e n c e s the p o s s i b i l i t y  of h i s promotion  rating  q u o t i e n t of a t o the next  student grade.  A student w i t h a low s c h o l a s t i c  s t a n d i n g and a l o w i n t e l l i g e n c e  q u o t i e n t has l i t t l e  of promotion,  factor,  possibility  such as age, e n t e r s the c a s e .  student would encounter  stic  h a n d , p r o b a b l y w i l l be p r o m o t e d .  remediable  t h a t such a  i n the work o f the  A student w i t h a low s c h o l a -  s t a n d i n g and a h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e  such a student's  It isfelt  extreme d i f f i c u l t y  h i g h e r g r a d e i f he w e r e p r o m o t e d .  u n l e s s some o t h e r  q u o t i e n t , on t h e o t h e r  The t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t  l o w s t a n d i n g may h a v e r e s u l t e d f r o m some  f a c t o r and t h a t t h e n e x t g r a d e ' s w o r k l i k e l y  67  will  be w i t h i n h i s c o m p r e h e n s i o n . may  Though t o o g r e a t an i m p o r t a n c e  seem t o be a t t a c h e d t o t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , t h e  reasons f o r t h i s a c t i o n are f a i r l y obvious. which might a f f e c t t h e students' s c h o l a s t i c  The o t h e r  factors  standings are not  a v a i l a b l e f o r e v e r y s t u d e n t n o r c a n t h e y be p r o c u r e d w i t h t h e same d e g r e e o f e a s e w i t h w h i c h t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s c a n be f o u n d .  S e c o n d l y the system o f c o m p i l i n g l e t t e r marks f o r  s u b j e c t and g r a d e s t a n d i n g s , a s shown i n T a b l e s I and I I , h a s i t s o r i g i n i n t h e n o r m a l c u r v e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n w h i c h has i t s b a s i s i n the theory that the i n t e l l i g e n c e  quotients  profoundly  a f f e c t a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m the t a s k s l a i d out i n the  school's  curriculum.  T a b l e I I I shows t h e r a n k s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s a t T e m p l e t o n J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l w o u l d have e x p e c t e d f r o m s t u d e n t s i n different factor,  intelligence  such as i l l  q u o t i e n t g r o u p s i f t h e y knew o f no  other  h e a l t h o r home c o n d i t i o n s , w h i c h m i g h t  a d v e r s e l y i n f l u e n c e s t u d e n t s ' academic  attainments.  I f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s among t h e grade nine s t u d e n t s a t Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l d u r i n g the y e a r 1957-1958 h a d f o l l o w e d t h e n o r m a l c u r v e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , the  intelligence  f a l l e n between  q u o t i e n t s o f t h e l a r g e s t group would  90 and 110 w h i l e t h e g r o u p b e l o w t h i s  have range  w o u l d have c o r r e s p o n d e d i n s i z e t o t h e g r o u p above t h i s r a n g e . T h a t i s , I t m i g h t be assumed t h a t , o t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g those w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e  equal,  q u o t i e n t s i n t h e r a n g e o f 90 and  110  s h o u l d h a v e e a r n e d an a v e r a g e o r 0 r a n k w h i l e t h o s e p u p i l s with intelligence  r a t i n g s above o r b e l o w t h i s r a n g e w o u l d 68  r e c e i v e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , B- and  b e t t e r or D4- and  However, o n l y 13 o f t h e g r a d e n i n e had  students during t h i s  i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s b e l o w 90 w h i l e 136  i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s above 110.  poorer. year  possessed  T h i s skewing of the  curve  o f i n t e l l i g e n c e made i t i m p r a c t i c a b l e t o a s s i g n  scholastic  r a n k on t h e b a s i s o f c o r r e s p o n d i n g  quotients.  The  data,  which the  shown I n T a b l e scholastic  l l g e n c e q u o t i e n t Was  I I I , i l l u s t r a t e s the system  standing corresponding determined.  I I I gives approximately shown i n T a b l e  the  I , w h i c h was  grade standings..  The  The  by  t o each I n t e l - .  second column of  Table  same p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n , used to determine subject  l a r g e frequencies at c e r t a i n  ligence quotients prevented frequeues?" o f 333  intelligence  the exact  and-  intel-  d i v i s i o n of the  total  i n t o the t h e o r e t i c a l l y p e r f e c t percentage  groups.  The  d a t a , w h i c h a r e shown i n c o l u m n s one  of Table  I I I , g i v e t h e grade s t a n d i n g s w h i c h s h o u l d have  been g a i n e d by  as  students  four  a t t e n d i n g Templeton J u n i o r High  S c h o o l d u r i n g 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 3 8 who r a n g i n g b e t w e e n 72 and  and  possessed  141.  69  Intelligence  quotients  -V  TABLE I V  COMPARISON' OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS TAKING A C T I V I T I E S AND  OF STUDENTS TAKING 5 OR MORE A C T I V I T I E S  C a s e s t a k i n g 0-3 Frequency  0-3  Activities  C a s e s t a k i n g 5 o r more activities  Scholastic Standing  11 3 7 15 8 30 20 7 3 2 4  Frequency  A B4B BCf C cD+ D DE  T o t a l Number o f C a s e s A v e r a g e I.Q. 109.28 M e d i a n I.Q. .10.8.00 M e d i a n Rank C  Scholastic Standing  25 4 . 6 14 16 28 6 7 1 1 2 110  A B4B BG| C CD4D DE  T o t a l Number o f Gases A v e r a g e I.Q. 108.87 M e d i a n I.Q. 109.00 M e d i a n Rank . 0 4  Table IV g i v e s the r e s u l t of the f i r s t  the  t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o g i v e v a l i d r e s u l t s . a v e r a g e and m e d i a n  i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients of the  groups a r e n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l , the median of  scholastic  t h e g r o u p w h i c h t o o k t h e more a c t i v i t i e s  higher.  1  Though two  standing  activities  r a n k o f C, t h e r a n k w h i c h i s g i v e n on T a b l e I I I  a s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l y e x p e c t e d one f o r an i n t e l l i g e n c e of  writer  i s definitely  Whereas t h e g r o u p t h a t t o o k t h e f e w e r  made a m e d i a n  110  survey of the  p r e s e n t s t u d y i n v o l v i n g 220 c a s e s , a number w h i c h t h i s felt  s  quotient  1 0 8 , t h e g r o u p t a k i n g t h e l a r g e r number o f a c t i v i t i e s  c e l l e d i t s expected median  The c r i t i c a l  rank by a p l u s .  r a t i o was  3.05. 70  ex-  An i n s p e c t i o n o f  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l e t t e r grades i s r a t h e r The  illuminating.  g r o u p t h a t t o o k f i v e o r more a c t i v i t i e s h a d more t h a n  t w i c e a s many A's  and h a l f a s many E's  took three or l e s s a c t i v i t i e s .  as the group  Table I V s  data, then, point  o u t t h a t t h e g r o u p w h i c h t o o k t h e l a r g e r number o f t e n d e d t o have a b e t t e r s c h o l a s t i c  that  record.  activities  However, t h e  figures  i n T a b l e I V a r e p a r t i a l l y d e p e n d e n t on a v e r a g e s w h i c h c a n swayed t o g i v e a w r o n g I m p r e s s i o n by t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t i o n a l l y h i g h or e x c e p t i o n a l l y low f i g u r e s . f i g u r e s o f t h i s one  excep-  T h e r e f o r e the  t a b l e c a n n o t be a c c e p t e d a s c o n c l u s i v e  p r o o f t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s who curricular activities in  participated freely i n extra-  s u r p a s s e d t h e o t h e r s , on t h e  average,  academic a t t a i n m e n t s . The  f i g u r e s i n T a b l e I V skew d e c i d e d l y f r o m a  distribution.  The  normal  number r e c e i v i n g A i s t h r e e t i m e s t h e  n o r m a l number w h i l e t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f D and E a r e l e s s h a l f the expectancy from a normal S e v e r a l f a c t o r s may who  Teachers  a f f e c t the  distri-  The w e i g h t i n g o f E n g l i s h , m a t h e m a t i c s ,  The  change t h e  o m i s s i o n o f s t u d e n t s who  a c t i v i t i e s and o f t h o s e who  took f o u r  tables.  71  would  These f a c t o r s s h o u l d s e r v e  e x p l a i n the unusual d i s t r i b u t i o n i l l u s t r a t e d  and i n some o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  and,  distri-  h a d no r e c o r d o f a c t i v i t i e s  a l t e r the curve of d i s t r i b u t i o n .  than  distribution.  e x p l a i n these discrepancies.  some c a s e s , p r a c t i c a l a r t s m a r k s w o u l d  bution markedly.  to  curve of  have a l t e r e d t h e l e t t e r grades would  bution slightly. in  be  i n Table  IV  PIG. I.  COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS, WITH INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS AVERAGING 109, WHO TOOK 0-3 ACTIVITIES AND WHO TOOK 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES.  72  The  first  a g r a p h had  attempt  t o show t h e d a t a g i v e n i n T a b l e  IV i n  d i v i s i o n s a l o n g the base l i n e f o r the cases  p l u s o r m i n u s i n t h e B, 0, and  D groups.  making  This division  into  11 g r o u p s gave an i r r e g u l a r g r a p h a s t h e n o r m a l c u r v e o f  dis-  t r i b u t i o n s o f r a n k i n g s i n c l u d e s o n l y 5 d i v i s i o n s , A, B, C, and E.  To  e v o l v e a g r a p h w h i c h w o u l d be c o m p a r a b l e t o  D,  the  normal curve of d i s t r i b u t i o n the cases which r e c e i v e d p l u s o r m i n u s i n a c e r t a i n l e t t e r g r o u p w e r e added t o t h a t group.  letter  T h i s method i s u s e d i n a l l t h e f o l l o w i n g l a d i e s w h i c h  deal w i t h a d i s t r i b u t i o n of l e t t e r  grades.  E i g u r e I i n d i c a t e s i n g r a p h i c form t h a t the group t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s had and E s c h o l a s t i c  a f e w l e s s c a s e s r e c e i v i n g B, C,  s t a n d i n g s t h a n d i d the group t a k i n g  D,  0-3  a c t i v i t i e s b u t t h a t i t had more t h a n t w i c e t h e number o f  cases  r e c e i v i n g an A s t a n d i n g .  larger  Therefore  the group t a k i n g the  number o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a p p e a r s t o e x c e l t h e o t h e r group i n s c h o l a s t i c The  standing.  r e s u l t s of t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y study suggested  f u r t h e r study of those quotients.  s t u d e n t s who  had  a  superior intelligence  T h e o r e t i c a l l y s u c h s t u d e n t s , b y means o f an  enriched  c u r r i c u l u m o r some o t h e r p l a n , s h o u l d be f o r c e d t o u t i l i z e a l l their abilities. e n t i r e l y achieved. may  be  fully,  I n p r a c t i c e , however, t h i s aim i s r a r e l y Though t h e c h i l d r e n o f s u p e r i o r m e n t a l i t y  g i v e n a few o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o employ t h e i r  intellects  g e n e r a l l y t h e y tend to cover o n l y t h a t work w h i c h i s  w i t h i n the understanding  of the median s t u d e n t .  t h e n , t h e s e b r i g h t e r s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be  Logically,  able to a f f o r d  the  t i m e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n many a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o u t d i s p l a y i n g  any  d e t r i m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e oii t h e i r r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. TABLE V COMPARISON' OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS OF A B I L I T Y TAKING 0 - 3 Cases Taking 0-3 Frequency  A C T I V I T I E S AND  TAKING 6 OR MORE A C T I V I T I E S C a s e s T a k i n g 6 o r more A c t i v  Activities  Scholastic Standing  •6 1 5 3 2 14 7 1 0 0 1  Frequency  Scholastic Standing  16 3 3 6 5 5 0 2 0 0 0  A Bf B BCf c cD-f D DE  T o t a l Number o f C a s e s 40 Average I.Q. 119.47 M e d i a n I.Q. 117.00 Median rank G , I t was  SUPERIOR  A B+ B BC4C cD+: D DE  T o t a l Number o f C a s e s 40 Average I.Q. 120.27 M e d i a n I.Q. 120.50 M e d i a n Rank B  found t h a t p u p i l s w i t h s u p e r i o r  intelligence  t e n d e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e more f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r v i t i e s than d i d the average p u p i l s . lists  t h e s t u d e n t s who  t h a n , as  As a r e s u l t , T a b l e  t o o k s i x o r more a c t i v i t i e s  i n T a b l e I V , t h o s e who  Though t h e w r i t e r a t t e m p t e d  acti-  t o o k f i v e o r more  V  rather activities.  t o keep c o n s t a n t t h e a v e r a g e  m e d i a n i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o f t h e two g r o u p s  i n Table  and V,  the v a r i a n c e between the median i n t e l l i g e n t q u o t i e n t s especi a l l y c o u l d n o t have been e l i m i n a t e d w i t h o u t a d e c i d e d c t i o n i n t h e number o f c a s e s  studied.  74  restri-  T h i s t a b l e p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g r a d e s . The  l a r g e s t number o f t h e g r o u p  t a k i n g 0-5 a c t i v i t i e s c e n t r e  a t 0 w h i l e t h e g r e a t e s t f r e q u e n c y i n t h e o t h e r group  i s a t A.  On t h e b a s i s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t , w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r h e a l t h , i n t e r e s t , o r a n y o t h e r f a c t o r s , a l l t h e s t u d e n t s shown on t h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f r a n k i n g C4- o r b e t t e r , according t o Table I I I .  1  Y e t , i n t h e group w h i c h t o o k few o r  no a c t i v i t i e s , n e a r l y 60 p e r c e n t r a n k e d C o r l o w e r w h i l e i n the second  group  l e s s t h a n 20 p e r c e n t r a n k e d C o r l o w e r .  the l a t t e r case an over-emphasis might  on e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  explain the unsatisfactory scholastic  e x p l a n a t i o n would  In  activities  standing, but t h i s  be o f s l i g h t i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e c a s e o f 60  p e r c e n t i n t h e group w h i c h t o o k f e w e r a c t i v i t i e s .  Apparently  an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s d i d n o t influence adversely the scholastic standings of the majority, b e c a u s e o v e r 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e g r o u p  which  t o o k s i x o r more a c t i v i t i e s made s a t i s f a c t o r y g r a d e s , a n d 40 p e r c e n t o f t h i s group  received the highest scholastic  grade.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , an a b s t i n e n c e o r n e a r a b s t i n e n c e f r o m a c t i v i t i e s appeared scholastic  these  t o h a v e h a d no b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s on  s t a n d i n g i n n e a r l y 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s .  Table  V, t h e n , l a y s s p e c i a l s t r e s s on t h e s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s o f t h e two g r o u p s  and l e n d s s t r o n g  support t o the c o n c l u s i o n , apparent a l s o i n Table IV, t h a t t h e g r o u p w h i c h t o o k more a c t i v i t i e s t e n d e d t o e x c e l t h e o t h e r _  . T h i s r e f e r s t o t h e r a n k e x p e c t e d f r o m p u p i l s w i t h I.Q. o f 111 75  ases 3 0[ 0-3  Ar>. f.i v i t.i  6 o r more  pr  Activities  25 i  \  \ N  /  \  5  \  \ \ \ \\  V 0  Scholastic F I G . 2.  Standing  COMPARISON OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS OF SUPERIOR A B I L I T Y TAKING 0-3 A C T I V I T I E S AND TAKING 6 OR MOKE A C T I V I T I E S .  76  group  i n regular curricular studies.  more p r o n o u n c e d  1  T h i s t e n d e n c y may he  i n Table V than i n Table IV, because t h e f i f t h  table i s r e s t r i c t e d to students of outstanding a b i l i t y .  Likely  t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l programme o f f e r s f e w p r o b l e m s w h i c h  neces-  s i t a t e the concentration of these students' a b i l i t i e s .  Under  s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s s t u d e n t s w i t h s u p e r i o r endowment may  adopt  a lackadaisical attitude.  However, a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  some a s p e c t o f t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s may demand t h e use o f t h e s u p e r i o r c h i l d r e n ' s e n t i r e m e n t a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . a r e s u l t , t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s may s t i r  such s t u d e n t s out o f t h e i r  l e t h a r g y and s t i m u l a t e them t o i m p r o v e  a l l t h e i r work.  F i g u r e 2, w h i c h i s b a s e d on t h e d a t a f r o m T a b l e V, t r a t e s the superior s c h o l a s t i c  As  illus-  s t a n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d e n t s who  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 6 o r more a c t i v i t i e s . ... TABLE V I \. f COMPARISON OF THE SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS WITH I N TELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS BETWEEN 9 0 - 1 1 0 , TAKING 0-2 A C T I V I T I E S AND TAKING 5 OR MORE A C T I V I T I E S C a s e s t a k i n g 0-2 Frequency  Activities  Scholastic  2  A  Standing  :  0 Bf 2 . B:8 B3 0+ 10 C 15 04 Df 1 D 2 D3 E T o t a l number o f c a s e s 50 A v e r a g e I.Q. 103.30 M e d i a n I.Q. 103.00 Median Rank C- t o C  The  critical  r a t i o was 4,71  :  C a s e s t a k i n g 5 o r more Activities S c h o l a s t i c Standing Frequency 8 A 1 Bf 2 B 5 B7 C4- . 15 • C 4 04 D+ 1 D 1 D2 E T o t a l number o f c a s e s 50 A v e r a g e I.Q. 102.95 M e d i a n I.Q. 103.00 M e d i a n Rank 0.  Cases  "  — 0-2 A c t i v l t i < !S 5 o r more / Activities /  ;  v\  \\  \\ \\ 1 \\ \\ 1 \\ 1 \\ 1 \\ 1 Ij \\ 1 \\ 1 1  1  15''  10! —  !r i  \\ \  \ \  A  "  B  C Scholastic  FIG.  3.  D  % \  E  Standing  COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS WITH INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS BETWEEN 90-110 WHO TOOK 0-2 A C T I V I T I E S AND WHO TOOK 5 OR MORE A C T I V I T I E S .  78  In  order to obtain a s u f f i c i e n t  t h e h i g h a c t i v i t y group i n c l u d e t h o s e who included i n this activities. of  i t was  necessary, i n Table V I , t o  had t a k e n f i v e group  number o f s t u d e n t s i n  a c t i v i t i e s though Table  o n l y t h o s e who  h a d t a k e n s i x o r more  On t h e o t h e r hand a s u f f i c i e n t l y  the low a c t i v i t y  V  g r o u p had t a k e n 0-2  l a r g e number  a c t i v i t i e s to give  the d a t a needed i n T a b l e V I , w h i l e t h e s t u d y of the  super-  i o r s t u d e n t s , i n T a b l e V, h a d f o r c e d t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h o s e t a k i n g t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s t o g i v e an a d e q u a t e  number f o r t h i s  group. Once again., i n T a b l e V I , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f t h e tive  r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n t h e number o f  and t h e s c h o l a s t i c  standing.  i n the upper  the o t h e r group III,  C-  activities  range of the C grade w h i l e the median of f e l l b e t w e e n C-  s h o u l d be t h e a v e r a g e  i n Table VI.  activities  Though t h e m e d i a n r a n k s w e r e  c l o s e , t h e m e d i a n o f t h e g r o u p w h i c h t o o k more was  posi-  and 0.  grade  According to Table  of the students l i s t e d  Of t h e g r o u p w h i c h d i s p l a y e d l e s s  interest  i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , 50 p e r c e n t s u r p a s s e d t h e r a n k o f C- and 20 p e r c e n t d i d n o t a t t a i n so h i g h a mark a s C-.  I n the o t h e r group  76 p e r c e n t e x c e l l e d t h e C- r a n k  16 p e r c e n t w e r e b e l o w t h i s  standing.  F i g u r e 3, w h i c h i s b a s e d p i c t u r e s the s l i g h t of  on t h e d a t a i n T a b l e V I ,  improvement i n the s c h o l a s t i c  standings  t h e s t u d e n t s t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s o v e r t h e  t a k i n g 0-2  activities.  show q u i t e so s t r i k i n g  and  students  Though T a b l e V I and F i g u r e '3 do a tendency, 79  '  not  as d i d T a b l e V and F i g u r e 2,  f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s who  t o o k an e n e r g e t i c p a r t i n t h e  extra-  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t o g e t h i g h e r s c h o l a s t i c marks t h a n the o t h e r s ,  1  n e v e r t h e l e s s i t d i s p l a y s t h e same g e n e r a l  t r e n d b e t w e e n t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s and a c a d e m i c s t a n d i n g t h a t was and  i n e v i d e n c e i n T a b l e s TV and V and F i g u r e s 2  3. T a b l e s V and V I h a v e p i c t u r e d t h e s c h o l a s t i c  m e n t s o f s u p e r i o r and a v e r a g e who  children, contrasting  had t a k e n f e w a c t i v i t i e s t o t h o s e who  activities.  To c o m p l e t e  1929,  had  t h i s s e r i e s of comparisons, children  a was  H o w e v e r , T e m p l e t o n J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , i n 1928so f e w c a s e s o f g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s whose  l i g e n c e was made o f t h i s  below average  t h a t no a d e q u a t e  intel-  s t u d y c o u l d be  group.  The w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e method o f c o m p a r i s o n the f i r s t  those  h a d t a k e n many  s t u d j r d e a l i n g w i t h b o r d e r l i n e and. s u b n o r m a l needed.  attain-  shown i n  t h r e e t a b l e s suggested the use of p a i r s  s t u d e n t s matched f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , thus dependence on a v e r a g e  of eliminating  and m e d i a n i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s  which, m i g h t be d r a s t i c a l l y c h a n g e d b y t h e i n c l u s i o n  or  r e j e c t i o n o f a few e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h o r l o w s t a n d i n g s i n one g r o u p  ___ The  or the other.  c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f 2.21  80  was  statistically  inconclusive.  0-7,  -  A r . t . i v i +.i p «  5 o r more.' . .. Activities.  /  / /  /  7  "  \\ \\ \\ \\  7  7  I//  \\ \\  /  \ \\ \  "X  I""-"  r  "  ' ti~"~ " n" Scholastic  4.  Standing  COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS WITH MATCHED INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS, RANGING BETWEEN 9 0 - 1 3 8 , TAKING 0-3 A C T I V I T I E S AND TAKING 5 OR MORE A C T I V I T I E S .  81  TABLE V I I COMPARISON OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS WITH MATCHED TNTELLIGENOE QUOTIENTS, RANGING BETWEEN 90 AND 1 3 8 , TAKING 0-3 A C T I V I T I E S AND TAKING '5' OR MORE Cases  t a k i n g 0-3  activities  ACTIVITIES.  C a s e s t a k i n g 5 o r more activities  Frequency  Scholastic Standing  Frequency  7 3 6 14 7 25 16 4 2 0 4  A Bf B BC4C CD+ D DE  18 4 5 12 10 22 5 7 .1 1 3  T o t a l number o f Median rank  :  c a s e s 88 G  T o t a l number o f Median rank  T a b l e V I I and F i g u r e $ 4 a p p e a r f i n d i n g s o f T a b l e I V and F i g u r e I . g r e a t e r number o f a c t i v i t i e s  Scholastic Standing A B+ - B BC CD4D D~ E c a s e s 88 C4-  to corroborate the The g r o u p w h i c h t o o k t h e  has a h i g h e r median  scholastic  r a n k , a much g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f h i g h g r a d e s , a n d a  slightly  s m a l l e r number o f l o w g r a d e s t h a n h a s t h e g r o u p w h i c h  took  fewer a c t i v i t i e s .  Yet the c r i t i c a l  r a t i o between t h e groups  i n T a b l e V I I was 1.54 so no s t a t i s t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e c a n be a t t a c h e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n median r a n k s .  82  TABLE V I I I .COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC. STANDINGS OP STUDENTS OP SUPERIOR INTELLIGENCE, WITH MATCHED INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS, TAKING 0-3 A C T I V I T I E S AND 6 OR MORE  ACTIVITIES.  C a s e s t a k i n g 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s Frequency  C a s e s t a k i n g 6 o r more activities  Scholastic Standing  Frequency  A Bf B BC* C CD.4D D- ; < E  3 0 5 4 1 17 5 0 0 0 2  :  T o t a l number o f c a s e s 37 Median rank C A v e r a g e I.Q. 119.5 The  Scholastic Standin  14 2 3 7 2 7 0 2' 0 0 0  A B4B BCf 0 cDf D ' ''7' DE  T o t a l number o f c a s e s 37 Median rank B  d a t a shown i n 'Table V I I I v e r i f y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e  investigations  shown i n T a b l e V .  1  A l l the students l i s t e d  i n T a b l e V I I I h a d s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e and t h e a v e r a g e l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t was 119.5 f o r e a c h g r o u p . to Table I I I , v i c i n i t y o f B.  intel-  Therefore, accordin  a l l t h e s e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d have r a n k e d i n t h e I n t h e g r o u p t a k i n g t h e l e s s e r number o f  a c t i v i t i e s 8 p e r c e n t r a n k e d b e t t e r t h a n B, 13 p e r c e n t r a n k e d B, a n d t h e r e s t , 79 p e r c e n t , w e r e b e l o w t h e e x p e c t e d r a n k . Of t h e s e , 5 p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d t h e l o w e s t r a n k i n g . lastic  s t a n d i n g s o f t h o s e who t o o k s i x o r more  w e r e much more s a t i s f a c t o r y .  The  critical  The s c h o -  activities  F o r t y - t h r e e per cent of these  r a t i o was 3.85, 83  Cases 30-,r* i  •3 A c t i v i t i e s '—— •  6 or more  Activities  25;  20!  I 15 ! ^ — 1 / \ /  10  /  \  \  \ \  \ \  •  5,  \\  0 A  'B . . "  C  Scholastic P I G . 5.  "  D Standing  •COMPARISON' OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS OF SUPERIOR ABILITY-, ' WITH MATCHED INTELLIGENCE. QUOTIENTS, TAKING 0-3 ACTIVITIES- AND TAKING 6 OR MORE A C T I V I T I E S .  34  l a t t e r s t u d e n t s r a n k e d B+ o r A, 8 p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d a B s t a n d i n g , and 49 p e r c e n t d i d n o t a t t a i n a B s t a n d i n g . F i g u r e 5 b e a r s a s t r i k i n g r e s e m b l a n c e t o F i g u r e 2. Once a g a i n t h e s t u d e n t s t a k i n g r e p r e s e n t e d by a l i n e which  the fewer a c t i v i t i e s are  approximates,  especially i n  t h e A, B, and C r a n k i n g s , a n o r m a l c u r v e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n . The l i n e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t a k i n g of a c t i v i t i e s ,  the l a r g e r  number  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s skewed d e c i d e d l y t o -  w a r d s t h e h i g h e r r a n k s and shows a g r a d u a l d i m i n u t i o n i n t h e number o f c a s e s r e c e i v i n g  each lower s c h o l a s t i c  standing.  F i g u r e 5 emphasizes the s u p e r i o r i t y of the s c h o l a s t i c gained by those  ranks  s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d more f r e e l y i n  extra-curricular  activities.  The r e s u l t s i n T a b l e  and F i g u r e 5 e m p h a s i z e t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d  VIII  i n the  e a r l i e r s t u d y , t h e r e s u l t s o f w h i c h w e r e shown i n T a b l e V and F i g u r e 2:  pupils  o f s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e who  ticipate freely i n extra-curricular  a c t i v i t i e s have, i n the  m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , a h i g h e r academic s t a n d i n g than whose p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r restricted or negligible.  those  a c t i v i t i e s i s very -  85  par-  5 o r more A c t i v i t i e s  /\ // \\ // \\ \\ //  // —;  J-  \\ \\ \\  7  -  V  \ \  Scholastic . 6.  N  Standing  COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS OF AVERAGE A B I L I T Y , WITH MATCHED INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS, TAKING 0-2 A C T I V I T I E S AND TAKING 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES.  86  • ;  TABLE XX  COMPARISON.OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS OF AVERAGE ABILITY,  WITH MATCHED INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS, TAKING 0-2  A C T I V I T I E S AND 5 OR MORE  ACTIVITIES.  G a s e s t a k i n g 0-2 a c t i v i t i e s Frequency  C a s e s t a k i n g 5 o r more activities  Scholastic Standing  2 0 2 7 3 7 9 3 1 2 1  A B| B BCf C c-  Scholastic  8 1 2 5 4 13 1 2 1 0 0  D4-  D DE  T o t a l number o f c a s e s 37 Median rank C The  Frequency  A B+ B B0+ C cD4-  D DE  T o t a l number o f c a s e s 37 Median rank C4-  r e s u l t s shown i n T a b l e I X a r e more c o n c l u s i v e  those given i n Table V I .  Standing  1  than  The m e d i a n s c h o l a s t i c r a n k s a r e  c l e a r l y defined i n Table IX.  The s c h o l a s t i c  standing of the  p u p i l s who t o o k f e w o r no a c t i v i t i e s a p p r o x i m a t e s a n o r m a l curve of d i s t r i b u t i o n f r e q u e n c y a t C-. toward t h e A end. the  w i t h t h e m e d i a n r a n k o f C and g r e a t e s t  The c u r v e o f t h e s e c o n d g r o u p i s skewed T h o u g h t h e m e d i a n o f t h i s group  i s C4-  g r e a t e s t f r e q u e n c y i s a t C. The  comparative standings of the students t a k i n g  0~2  a c t i v i t i e s and o f t h e s t u d e n t s t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s are  g i v e n i n F i g u r e 6.  The  critical  ratio  The d e c i d e d s k e w i n g t o w a r d t h e A  f o r t h e g r o u p s i n T a b l e I X was 3.00. 87  end b y t h o s e 'students  t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s i s i l l u s -  t r a t e d i n t h i s graph. is  The t r e n d i n T a b l e I X and F i g u r e  l e s s obvious than I n the case of students  with  6  superior  i n t e l l i g e n c e , b u t t h e s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a r e s l i g h t l y a h e a d o f 'the o t h e r s i n s c h o l a s t i c standing. TABLE X ;.. .,.'•; RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NUMBER OP ATHLETIC A C T I V I T I E S .AND SCHOLASTIC  STANDING.  I.Q,.'s n o t e q u a t e d 1  I.Q.'s e q u a t e d a t 103-104 .  2  [umber o f LCtlvities •1 . 2 3 ,•': •' "4 : • 5 ; 6 Totals  Frequency 7 3 3 I •': 5 V  2  4  5  Average I.Q.  Average Rank  Frequency  103.7 98.6 110.3 103106.2 111  -3.0 G  7 2 2 1 4 1  2,5 3.7 3.1 3.8 . 3.5  m  B C B B-  21  '' 6  7  A v e r a g e ;Average Rank I . Q. 103.7 103 .'. 101.5 103 103.2 104  3.0.C 2.8 C — 3.8 B 3.1 C 3.6 B3.1 C  17  T a b l e X shows t h a t o n l y 21 s t u d e n t s  concentrated  on t h e  a t h l e t i c phase of t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t o the e x c l u s i o n o f t h e n o n - a t h l e t i c o f f e r i n g s o f t h i s programme.  The  vast majority of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i vities,  a s w i l l be s e e n , i n . l a t e r t a b l e s , d e v o t e d t h e i r  to n o n - a t h l e t i c e n t e r p r i s e s or t o a mixture types,  a t h l e t i c and n o n - a t h l e t i c .  o f t h e two  efforts general  The t o t a l f r e q u e n c y o f 2 1 ,  ••shown" i n c o l u m n two o f T a b l e X, i s t o o s m a l l t o f o r m t h e b a s i s  88  of a d e c i s i v e conclusion.  The c a s e s w i t h u n e q u a t e d  intel-  l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , a s shown i n c o l u m n s 5 and 4 o f T a b l e X, d i d somewhat b e t t e r , o n t h e a v e r a g e , t h a n p r e d i c t e d b y a study of t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients.  The t o t a l  frequency  o f 1 7 , shown i n c o l u m n 5 o f T a b l e X, was o b t a i n e d b y t h e o m i s s i o n o f 4 c a s e s so t h a t t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s t a k i n g e a c h number o f a t h l e t i c be a v e r a g e d a t 105^104.  activities  might  Owing t o t h e s m a l l number o f c a s e s ,  t h e a v e r a g e f o r t h e g r o u p t a k i n g t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s h a d t o be left  a t 101.5.  I n e v e r y g r o u p , e x c e p t i n g t h e one w h i c h  two a c t i v i t i e s , t h e s t u d e n t s t a k i n g a t h l e t i c  activities  took only,  a s shown i n c o l u m n s 6 and 7 o f T a b l e X, s u r p a s s e d , t h e mark suggested by t h e i r average i n t e l l i g e n c e .  The a v e r a g e  rank  o f t h e e n t i r e g r o u p o f 21 was 3.17 o r C w h i l e t h e r a n k f o r t h e g r o u p w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s e q u a t e d a t 103-104 was 3.24, a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r a v e r a g e b u t one w h i c h was w i t h i n the l i m i t s of a C grade.  still  R e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e I I I shows  t h a t t h e group w h i c h t o o k a t h l e t i c  a c t i v i t i e s only surpassed  i t s t h e o r e t i c a l l y e x p e c t e d r a n k o f G-.  B e f o r e any con-  c l u s i o n s c o u l d be r e a c h e d , h o w e v e r , c o m p a r a b l e  investigations  o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s who t o o k n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s o n l y h a d t o be made.  89  Scholarship 5.0. 1  \  ••  "  1  Athletic Non-Athletic  3.6  / 3.2  < /  ^  \  \  \ / \ /' >/ \ - / \  / y  2.8;  2.4  0 0  "•  1  "2  3"  """4  Number o f A c t i v i t i e s PIG.  7.  COMPARISON OF THE NUMBER OF A C T I V I T I E S AND SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS TAKING ATHLETIC A C T I V I T I E S ONLY AND OF STUDENTS TAKING NON-ATHLETIC A C T I V I T I E S ONLY. 90  5"  6  *  TABLE X I  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN' THE NUMBER ' O i NON-ATHLETIC AND SCHOLASTIC  STANDING.  1 * Q,* *s n o t e q u a t e d  I.Q.'s e q u a t e d a t 109- •110  2  1  4  5  Number o f Activities  Frequency  Average I.Q,.  1 2 • 3 4 5 6  20 42 ; 19 24 27 9 6  105.2 102.3 111,1 105,5 113.5 112.1 116.2  3.0 3.0 3.3 2.7 3.4 3.3 3.7  .1 1 1  120 123 121  4.1 A 3.1 C 4.1 A  o 9 10 11 Totals  ACTIVITIES  Average Rank  •6  7  Frequency Average Average I.Q,. Rank .  C C C-f 0C+ Cf B  150  15 31 18 .. 17 21  109.6 3.1 C 109.4 . 3.1 C 109.8 .3.3 0 | 109.2 3eS C 109.8 3.3 C4109.7 3.3 C +  109  Of t h e 150 c a s e s shown i n c o l u i i i n s 2, 3, a n d 4 i n T a b l e X I , o n l y t h e s t u d e n t t a k i n g 10 a c t i v i t i e s made a l o w e r r a n k t h a n his i n t e l l i g e n c e warranted.  Of t h e r e s t , t h e c a s e s t a k i n g  1, 2, 7, 9, a n d 11 a c t i v i t i e s ,  or approximately one-half the  t o t a l f r e q u e n c y , made a h i g h e r a v e r a g e s t a n d i n g t h a n w o u l d be p r e d i c t e d f r o m t h e i r i n t e l l i g e h c e  quotients.  The f r e -  q u e n c i e s , shown i n c o l u m n 5, were t h e r e s u l t o f o m i t t i n g sufficient the  s t u d e n t s t a k i n g e a c h number o f a c t i v i t i e s t o e n a b l e  average I n t e l l i g e n c e  equated a t 109. inclusion  q u o t i e n t s f o r e a c h g r o u p t o be  The f i g u r e , 1 0 9 , was c h o s e n t o p e r m i t t h e  o f a s many c a s e s a s p o s s i b l e .  The a v e r a g e r a n k s ,  as shown i n c o l u m n 7, a r e a l l n o r m a l o r s u p e r i o r s t a n d i n g s  91  f o r s t u d e n t s whose i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s were 109 d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r 1937-1938,. s t u d e n t s who  With the e x c e p t i o n of the  t o o k 4 a c t i v i t i e s , t h e a v e r a g e r a n k s , as shown  i n c o l u m n 7, i m p r o v e  s l i g h t l y w i t h t h e number o f  activities  taken/ The  a v e r a g e r a n k o f t h e 109  q u o t i e n t s e q u a t e d a t 109-110 was  cases w i t h 3.2  intelligence  o r C, t h e r a n k w h i c h  t h e s e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d r e c e i v e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r y shown i n Table I I I .  A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s and o f t h o s e  taking only athletic athletic  a c t i v i t i e s appears t o prove t h a t the  s t u d e n t s e x c e l t h o s e p a r t i c i p a t i n g o n l y i n non-  athletic activities  i n scholastic  standing.  The  o f t h e 150  students"participating i n non-athletic  was  The  3.13.  average  took a t h l e t i c  the s c h o l a s t i c attainments of the students p r e f e r r i n g  t h e group  h i g h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , the next step i n the a comparison  of the s c h o l a s t i c  took a t h l e t i c  activities  a c t i v i t i e s o n l y and who  only.  92  athletic  average, inves-  standings of  groups of s t u d e n t s , w i t h s i m i l a r average i n t e l l i g e n c e who  between  However, as  t a k i n g n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s h a d , on t h e  t i g a t i o n was  the  activities  .38, a f i g u r e w h i c h shows no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e  and t h o s e p r e f e r r i n g n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s .  rank  activities  c r i t i c a l r a t i o b e t w e e n t h i s a v e r a g e and  a t t a i n e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s who  o n l y was  average  quotients,  took non-athletic  * y  TABLE X I I  COMPARISON OF THE NUMBER OF A C T I V I T I E S AND SCHOLASTIC  STANDINGS  OF STUDENTS TAKING ATHLETIC A C T I V I T I E S ONLY AND OF STUDENTS TAKING NON-ATHLETIC A C T I V I T I E S ONLY. Athletic 1  2  7 2 2 1 4 1  Totals  4  •3Average I.Q.  Number p f F r e q u e n c y Activities 1 2 : • 3 4 5 6  Non-- A t h l e t i c 5  7  Average Frequency Average Average Rank .' Rank I.Q. 3.0 C 18 103.5 3.0 C 3.8040 3.0 C 103.1 3.8 B 10 103.4 3.2 C 21 3.1 C 103.4 3.0 C 12 3.6 B103.2 3.3 0 + 3.1 C 5 103.6 3.3 C +  103.7 103 101.5 103 103.2 104  17  106  Columns 2, 3 and 4 o f T a b l e X I I d u p l i c a t e t h e l a s t t h r e e c o l u m n s o f T a b l e X.  The f r e q u e n c i e s shown i n c o l u m n 5 o f T a b l e  X I I were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e f r e q u e n c i e s g i v e n i n T a b l e X I t o o b t a i n an average the  s i x groups.  intelligence  q u o t i e n t o f 103-104 f o r e a c h o f  The 2 s t u d e n t s who  and t h e 4 who t o o k 5 a t h l e t i c  took 5 a t h l e t i c  activities  a c t i v i t i e s d i d much b e t t e r  s c h o l a s t i c w o r k , on t h e a v e r a g e , t h a n t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s , w h i l e the  2 c a s e s who t o o k 2 a t h l e t i c  a c t i v i t i e s b a r e l y reached the  s t a n d a r d o f academic a t t a i n m e n t s e t by t h e i r the  intelligence.  A l l  o t h e r s t u d e n t s shown i n T a b l e X I I made b e t t e r r a n k s t h a n  t h e i r mental t e s t s suggested.  The s t u d e n t s t a k i n g  athletic  a c t i v i t i e s o n l y h a d a n a v e r a g e r a n k o f 3.24 o r C w h i l e t h o s e t a k i n g n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s h a d a n a v e r a g e o f 3.07 o r a lower C grade.  These averages appeared t o s u p p o r t t h e con-  c l u s i o n , s u g g e s t e d b y W o r c e s t e r and K i n g , t h a t , a s a t h l e t i c activities  do n o t t e n d t o e n c r o a c h on r e g u l a r s c h o o l t i m e t o 93  the same e x t e n t as do t h e n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , who p a r t i c i p a t e i n a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s scholastic standings. these  two a v e r a g e s  o n l y have  However, the c r i t i c a l  pupils superior  r a t i o between  was 2.06 so t h a t no s t a t i s t i c a l  sig-  n i f i c a n c e c a n "be a t t a c h e d t o t h e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r a c a d e m i c s t a n d i n g of the s t u d e n t s t a k i n g a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s  only.  Though t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r c a n p r o d u c e no s t a t i s t i c a l f o r h i s t h e o r y , he b e l i e v e s on n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s  t h a t t h e p u p i l s who  concentrate  do j u s t as w e l l a s , i f n o t b e t t e r  t h a n , t h o s e who a p p l y t h e m s e l v e s A thorough  proof  to a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s  only.  s t u d y o f T a b l e s X - X I I shows t h e r e a s o n s f o r  this supposition.  I n the f i r s t p l a c e a l l the s t u d e n t s  took n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , the a c a d e m i c r a n k w h i c h  to  o r 11 p e r c e n t o f t h e n o n - a t h l e t i c  t o do s o .  scholastic attainments  as shown i n T a b l e X I I , e x c e l l e d  they were t h e o r e t i c a l l y e x p e c t e d  a t t a i n w h e r e a s two c a s e s students f a i l e d  who  The method o f c o m p a r i s o n  of the  o f t h e a t h l e t i c and n o n - a t h l e t i c  s t u d e n t s , as i t a p p e a r s i n T a b l e X I I , i s n o t q u i t e f a i r .  Nine  s t u d e n t s , as shown i n T a b l e X I , t o o k more t h a n 6 n o n - a t h l e t i c activities. part  A s a r e s u l t t h e s t u d e n t s who  took most a c t i v e  i n the n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s d i d n o t appear i n t h i s  comparison vities,,  s i n c e no s t u d e n t t o o k more t h a n 6 a t h l e t i c  Many s t u d e n t s o f s u p e r i o r  excluded from intelligence  the comparison quotients.  acti-  i n t e l l i g e n c e are also  due t o t h e method o f e q u a t i n g  Y e t s t u d e n t s of s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e  who p a r t i c i p a t e f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , shown i n T a b l e V I I I , a r e f r e q u e n t l y 94  as  t h e ones who r e c e i v e  high  scholastic ranks.  The i n c l u s i o n o f s u c h s t u d e n t s m i g h t have  a l t e r e d t h e outcome o f t h e c o m p a r i s o n the n o n - a t h l e t i c students.  o f t h e a t h l e t i c and  F o r example, 6 s t u d e n t s o f sup-  e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e took a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s only. i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s averaged B-.  Their  118 and t h e i r r a n k s 3.6 o r  A s T a b l e X I shows, 6 s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 7  n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s h a d an a v e r a g e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t o f 116.2 a n d a n a v e r a g e r a n k o f 3.7 o r B.  Therefore, the  few d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r i n d i c a t e no for athletic lastic  tendency  students t o surpass the n o n - a t h l e t i c i n scho-  standing.  Indeed  t h e s t u d e n t s who c h o s e n o n - a t h l e t i c  a c t i v i t i e s , a s shown I n T a b l e X I I , d i s p l a y a t e n d e n c y  to  e a r n somewhat h i g h e r s t a n d i n g s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e e x t e n t o f their participation.  T h i s r e g u l a r , though s l i g h t ,  improve-  ment i n a c h i e v e m e n t , a s shown i n F i g u r e 7 a n d T a b l e X I I , a p p e a r s t o be a more p r o m i s i n g omen o f t h e a d v a n t a g e o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e g u l a r s c h o o l work'and t h e e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s than are t h e i s o l a t e d cases of s u p e r i o r scholastic  standing i n the a t h l e t i c  95  group.  •  TABLE  XIII  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE 'NUMBER OP A C T I V I T I E S (BOTH TYPES) AND SCHOLASTIC STANDING. I.Q,,'s n o t e q u a t e d 1  2  3  umber o f F r e q u e n c y ctivities 2 3 4  10 11 12 13 14  9 16 12 30 17 9 4 14 1 ' 4 1 2 2  Totals  121  \  ."5  6 7 8 9  I.Q.'s e q u a t e d a t 109-110 4  Average ;l.Q. 169.3 111  106.4 108.1 112.2 104.8 108.5 112.5 109 109.2 124 120 116.5  Average Rank 2.7 C. 3.2 C 3.3 G+ 3.3 C f 3.3 043.1 C 3.4 C43.3 C+ 4.1 A." • 3.4 C f 4.1 A 3.7 B 3.8 B  5  6  7  Frequency Average Average Rank I.Q. 9 15  109.3 109.4 109.7 109.9 109.9 110.0 110.3 110 109 109.2  9  27 15 5 3 12 1 4  2.7 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.6 3.5 3.2 4.1 3.4  100  The s t u d e n t s who t o o k 2 o r 3 a c t i v i t i e s ,  CC C C+ C BBC A C+  3.2 C a s shown i n  c o l u m n s 3 a n d 4 o f T a b l e X I I I , d i d n o t do q u i t e s o w e l l i n t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c work as t h e y s h o u l d have done, b u t a l l t h e others achieved s a t i s f a c t o r y standings o r excelled w h i c h t h e y might have been e x p e c t e d t o a t t a i n .  thestandings  The s t u d e n t s  w i t h h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s have a tendency t o p a r t i c i p a t e freely i n extra-curricular  activities.  Once a g a i n a c e r t a i n  number o f c a s e s was s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e t o t a l f r e q u e n c y o f 1 2 1 i n o r d e r t o e q u a t e a t 109-110 t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o f the  g r o u p s w h i c h t o o k d i f f e r e n t numbers o f a c t i v i t i e s .  figures  depicting  t h e groups w i t h equated average  The  intelligence  q u o t i e n t s , a s shown i n c o l u m n s 6 a n d f, p r e s e n t a somewhat  i r r e g u l a r - r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s and scholastic the  standing.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , as i n p r e v i o u s t a b l e s ,  e x i s t e n c e o f a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e number  of  a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c  s t a n d i n g c a n n o t be i g n o r e d .  TABLE X I V RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER OF A C T I V I T I E S AND  SCHOLASTIC  STANDING. T  I.Q,. s n o t e q u a t e d 1  I.Q.'s e q u a t e d a t 109-110 4  5  imber o f F r e q u e n c y jtivities G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14  9 29 55 40 36 60 28 14 4 15 2 5 1 2 2  Totals  Average I.Q. 102.3 104.9 103.7 111.3 106 110.5 112.1 109.5 108,5 115 116 • 111.6 124 120 116.5  302  5  6  7  Average Frequency Average Average Rank Rank I.Q. 5.1 C 5.0 C 3.0 C 5.5 C43.0 C 3.4 Of 3.5 043.5 C45.4 C V 3.4 0+ 5.6 B5.5 B4.1 A 5.7 B 3.8 B  21 45 56 28 56 23 14 4 11 1  239  109.2 109.1 109.0 109.4 109.1 109.0 109.5 108.5 109.3 109  3.1 C 3.0 C 3.3 C + 3.0 C 3.4 C43.3 043.3 C45.4 043.5 C44.1 A  5.1 C  The t o t a l f r e q u e n c y , 5 0 2 , o f T a b l e X I V i n c l u d e s a l l t h e eases w h i c h were s t u d i e d .  The d a t a o n w h i c h T a b l e X I V i s b a s e d  i n d i c a t e d t h e tendency, apparent i n p r e v i o u s t a b l e s , f o r students of  s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e t o t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n e x t r a -  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , and f o r those s t u d e n t s t a k i n g a prominent share i n these a c t i v i t i e s the  others.  t o earn b e t t e r s c h o l a s t i c ranks than  The i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s w e r e e q u a t e d a s i n  cliolarship .5.0.,  KU-  0"  1  I  2  --4  :  1  :  6  '  0  '  "  10  Number o f A c t i v i t i e s  FIQ.  8.  RELATIONSHIP OF NUMBER OP A C T I V I T I E S AND SCHOLASTIC STANDING.  98  . . •_  12  -  - • ^  _  14  Tables X > - i X I I I .  Though a smooth c u r v e  able relationship  b e t w e e n t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o -  lastic  i s n o t found,  s t a n d i n g c a n s t i l l be d i s c e r n e d .  slight positive  relationship  i n which a student  favour-  The e x i s t e n c e o f a  b e t w e e n t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s  t a k e s p a r t a n d t h e a c a d e m i c r a n k t h a t he  e a r n s i s shown i n F i g u r e 8. The to the  d a t a shown i n T a b l e s  1 7 - X I V i n c l u s i v e have p o i n t e d  same g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n ; some d e g r e e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p  e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s a n d s c h o l a s t i c  standings.  When t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n was computed f o r t h e t o t a l number o f c a s e s found.  a small positive  Next t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e  correlation,  .27 - .036 was  q u o t i e n t s , w h i c h s h o u l d be a  f a i r l y r e l i a b l e index t o t h e students' s c h o l a s t i c were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e grade s t a n d i n g s .  attainments,  The c o e f f i c i e n t o f 4-  correlation  i n t h i s c a s e p r o v e d t o be .45 - .03.  r a t i o between the p r o b a b l e  e r r o r s o f these  The c r i t i c a l  c o e f f i c i e n t s was 3.76.  TABLE XV. COMPARISON 0E SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS, TAKING 0-3 f  A C T I V I T I E S AND TAKING 5 OR MORE A C T I V I T I E S , WHOSE I . Q . S HAVE BEEN EQUATED I N DIFFERENT GROUPS. 0-3 I.Q.  5 o r more A c t i v i t i e s  Activities Group  80-89 90-99 100-109 110-119 120-129 130-139 Totals  Frequency 3 14 .41 32 10 2 102  Average Average Rank I.Q. 2.7 C85 2.8 C-. . 95.4 3.1 C 104.5 3.B C 114.1 124.8 3.4 C43.6 B135 3.12 99  Average I.Q. 84.6 95.4 104.5 114.1 124.8 135.5  Average Rank 2.5 D42.7 C3.4 0 + 3.5 B3.8 B 3.8 B 3.36  Scholarship  j)-  ' •  •  j  •••  -1  - (5-3 A c t i v i t i e s ) o r more  Activities  -  • n - -" w i n " ' • i"i i i •' ''•''•'•i -  / / / /  r" i  3.2  -  i 2.8 f  2.41  .•..... /'-A  0! 80  90  100  110  Intelligence PIG.  9.  120  130  Quotients  COMPARISON OP THE SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS, TAKING 0-3 A C T I V I T I E S AND TAKING 5 OR MORE A C T I V I T I E S , WHOSE INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS HAVE BEEN EQUATED I N DIFFERENT GROUPS.  100  .  140  T a b l e XV  exhibits  t h e most e n l i g h t e n i n g f a c t s  given i n t h i s study concerning  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between t h e  number o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  activities  The  h i g h e s t i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s might  groups w i t h lowest  and  have b e e n o m i t t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e t h e g r o u p t a k i n g 0-3 activities.  The  activities  and  so f a r  scholastic  standing.  s m a l l number o f c a s e s f r o m and  t h e g r o u p t a k i n g 5 o r more  g r o u p w h i c h t o o k few o r no a c t i v i t i e s  shows,  an e v e n i m p r o v e m e n t i n m a r k s f o r e a c h i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l at each l e v e l ,  e x c e p t i n g where t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e was  .  but  below-  average o r low normal, the rank of t h i s group i s below the g r o u p w h i c h t o o k more a c t i v i t i e s . standings  of those  above 100  and who  t o o k 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s , q u o t i e n t l e v e l s who  a r e p l a i n l y shown i n F i g u r e  be  9.  The  and F i g u r e 9 seem t o j u s t i f y two  place pupils  superior  s t u d e n t s , whose i n t e l l i g e n c e  at s i m i l a r i n t e l l i g e n c e  XV  The  with intelligence  scholastic q u o t i e n t s were  over those took, 0 ^3  students  activities  :  data which appear i n Table conclusions.  In the  first  q u o t i e n t s o f l e s s t h a n 100  should  f o r b i d d e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n more t h a n a l i m i t e d number o f  extra-curricular  activities,  accept  positions  important  and  w h i c h may  from r e g u l a r subject p e r i o d s . or superior i n t e l l i g e n c e to participate  they  allowed  e n t a i l frequent  Students possessing  q u o t i e n t s , h o w e v e r , may  freely in extra-curricular  cases a h e l p f u l ,  high  be  average  encouraged  activities.  curriculum.  101  activities  and  to  absences  In  r a t h e r than a d e t r i m e n t a l , r e l a t i o n s h i p  to e x i s t between the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r regular  s h o u l d n o t be  the  these appears  . The c r i t i c a l taking  r a t i o between  t h e average r a n k o f t h e group  0-5 a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e g r o u p t a k i n g  5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s  was 6.64, a s t a t i s t i c a l p r o o f o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  t h e s e two g r o u p s .  students taking  f e w a c t i v i t i e s and t a k i n g  i d e n t i c a l f o r each i n t e l l i g e n c e » average i n t e l l i g e n c e  I n T a b l e XV t h e number o f many a c t i v i t i e s i s  q u o t i e n t group.  quotients f o r those taking  The s i x 0-3 a c t i v i t i e s  and f o r t h o s e t a k i n g , 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s a r e s i m i l a r . fore,  the difference  between  t h e a v e r a g e r a n k s , 3.12 a n d 3.56,  o f t h e s e g r o u p s c a n n o t be d e p e n d e n t ligence. factor.  The d i f f e r e n c e  oh d i f f e r e n c e s  in intel-  must be t h e r e s u l t o f some o t h e r  The f a c t o r w h i c h I s common t o b o t h g r o u p s i s p a r t i c i -  pation i n extra-curricular active  There-  activities.  So i t a p p e a r s t h a t an  p a r t i c i p a t i o n was' l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e h i g h e r  scholastic The  s t a n d i n g earned by t h i s  group.  c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n between  q u o t i e n t s and s c h o l a s t i c  intelligence/  s t a n d i n g s o f the, g r o u p w h i c h p a r -  t i c i p a t e d i n 0-3 a c t i v i t i e s was .36 £ .06 w h i l e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e g r o u p w h i c h t o o k f i v e o r more a c t i v i t i e s was .51 - .049. The  c r i t i c a l r a t i o between the p r o b a b l e e r r o r s  o f t h e s e two  c o e f f i c i e n t s was 2.00 so t h a t t h e c h a n c e s w e r e 91 o u t o f 100 that the difference  between  t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s was a r e a l one  s-e -tiha-t no s t a t i s t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e c a n be a t t a c h e d t o t h e difference  between  t h e s e two c o e f f i c i e n t s .  102  Scholarship  '••0-3 A c t i v i t i e s 5 o r more  Activities  Bf B  / B-  /  /  / C+l  /  /  /  /  ,  / C- :  D I  D-  £ Lfc 80-89  90-99  100-109 Intelligence  PIG-. 1 0 .  110-119  120-129  150-139  Q u o t i e n t Group  COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS IN DIFFERENT INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT GROUPS, TAKING 0-3 A C T I V I T I E S AND TAKING 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES. "  103  TABLE X V I COMPARISON OF  SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF -STUDENTS, I N DIFFERENT  INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT GROUPS., TAKING 0-3  A C T I V I T I E S AND  TAKING  5 OR MORE A C T I V I T I E S :" 0-3 I.Q.  Activities  5 o r more A c t i v i t i e s  Group:, F r e q u e n c y A v e r a g e  80-89 90-99 100-109 110-119 120-129 130-139  6 30 48 33 10 3  Frequency  Ccc 0 C4C'f  130  Totals  Rank  Average  3 14 42 41 35 3  3.09  D4CC+ 04B B  138  3.29  I n Table XVI the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s are not T h i s t a b l e i n c l u d e s a l l t h e s t u d e n t s who and 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s . groups  t o o k 0-3  equated.  activities  The numbers o f c a s e s o f t h e  a r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , 130  three or l e s s a c t i v i t i e s  Rank  and 138.  The  two  students t a k i n g  show a g r a d u a l i m p r o v e m e n t f r o m  the  l o w e s t I n t e l l i g e n c e g r o u p t o t h e h i g h e s t b u t do n o t r e a c h t h e h e i g h t o f s c h o l a r s h i p a t t a i n e d by a s i m i l a r g r o u p T a b l e XV.  The  s t u d e n t s who  shown i n  t o o k f i v e o r more a c t i v i t i e s  p l a y somewhat, h i g h e r r a n k s i n t h e u p p e r t h a n d i d t h o s e shown i n T a b l e XV.  intelligence  dis-  groups  F i g u r e . 10 i l l u s t r a t e s  the  data presented i n Table XVI. . The  c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e two g r o u p s  a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e t h a n t h e two equated  groups.  scholastic was  .32  The  c o r r e l a t i o n s b a s e d on t h e  c o e f f i c i e n t between i n t e l l i g e n c e  s t a n d i n g s o f a l l who  have  took three or l e s s  and  activities  - .05 w h i l e t h a t o f t h e g r o u p w h i c h t o o k f i v e o r more 104  a c t i v i t i e s was  .51 - .04, a d i f f e r e n c e o f .19.  r a t i o between the p r o b a b l e c o r r e l a t i o n was  2.97  The  critical  e r r o r s of these c o e f f i c i e n t s of  w h i c h meant t h a t t h e c h a n c e s o f t h e  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e i n g a r e a l one 97-98 o u t o f The  were  100.  average s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g of the group t a k i n g  a c t i v i t i e s was  3.09  0-3  and t h e a v e r a g e r a n k o f t h e g r o u p t a k i n g  5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s was t h e s e a v e r a g e r a n k s was  3.29. 6.41.  The  critical  ratio  T h i s demonstrates  between  the  statis-  t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e between the s c h o l a s t i c attainments of the The  groups.  s t u d i e s so f a r d e s c r i b e d seem t o j u s t i f y c e r t a i n  conclusions.  The  critical  r a t i o s of the p r o b a b l e  t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n showed t h a t no  e r r o r s of  statistical  r e l i a b i l i t y c o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n p a i r s of c o e f f i c i e n t s .  However, t h e c r i t i c a l  r a t i o s of the  average  r a n k s r e c e i v e d b y s t u d e n t s t a k i n g m i n o r p a r t s and t a k i n g m a j o r parts  i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s w e r e , i n many c a s e s ,  s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to prove  the s t a t i s t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y  of  the d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e average academic s t a n d i n g s . A s t u d y o f the. t a b l e s and  g r a p h s show t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s  who  p a r t i c i p a t e f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s tend to have h i g h e r a v e r a g e s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s t h a n dp t h o s e have v e r y l i t t l e  I n t e r e s t i n these a c t i v i t i e s .  This  who tendency  i s e s p e c i a l l y pronounced i n the cases of those students have h i g h average o r s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s .  105  who Therefore,  students o f \ h i g h average or s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e should encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r vities  b e c a u s e s t u d e n t s o f t h i s c a l i b r e who  heartedly into extra-curricular the others i n s c h o l a s t i c  activities  standing.  106  be  acti-  enter wholeappear t o e x c e l  CHAPTER I V  AN INVESTIGATION OP THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE  NUMBER OF EXTRA-CURRICULAR A C T I V I T I E S AND  SCHOLASTIC STANDING, 1938-1959.  107  The d a t a i n t h e p r e v i o u s chapter-.showed t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n 'between t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s i n which a student p a r t i c i p a t e d he r e c e i v e d .  Though i t seemed i m p r o b a b l e t h a t  mere c h a n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p , ignored.  and t h e s c h o l a s t i c  t h i s was a  However, i f t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  l i k e l i h o o d of c o i n c i d e n c e having a f f e c t e d  w o u l d be p r a c t i c a l l y  nullified.  scholastic  the r e s u l t s  Therefore the w r i t e r  of  acti-  s t a n d i n g , and i n t e l l i g e n c e o f e a c h g r a d e  n i n e s t u d e n t who a t t e n d e d T e m p l e t o n J u n i o r the  of  relationship,  c o l l e c t e d information concerning the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r vities,  that  s u c h a p o s s i b i l i t y c o u l d n o t be  c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s p o i n t e d t o t h e same p o s i t i v e the  rank  High School during  s c h o o l y e a r o f 1938-1939, i n o r d e r t o check t h e  findings  1937-1938. Two methods o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e c o l l e c t e d f a c t s w e r e  tried.  Though a l l t h e schemes w h i c h h a d f o r m e r l y  inconclusive  r e s u l t s were o m i t t e d , t a b l e s ,  correlations,  given  g r a p h s , and  s i m i l a r t o those w h i c h had p r e v i o u s l y  Shown  i n f o r m a t i v e r e s u l t s , w e r e p r e p a r e d f r o m t h e new d a t a . ?  method p e r m i t t e d a f a i r c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s two y e a r s so t h a t clusions  This  of the  t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e 1937-1938 c o n -  c o u l d be t e s t e d ,  thus v e r i f y i n g the existence of  a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s and scholastic  standing.  108  The s e c o n d method was a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t . C h a p t e r I I I and i n t h e f i r s t  In  p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r , where  the  f i r s t method i s u s e d , a l l t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s  the  same e v a l u a t i o n .  receive  Y e t one a c t i v i t y may e n t a i l f a r more  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d may demand much more t i m e t h a n a n o t h e r . O b v i o u s l y t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e S c h o o l C o u n c i l h a s a more o n e r o u s t a s k t h a n h a s a s t u d e n t who i s a member o f s e v e r a l minor committees.  B y t h e f i r s t method o f c o m p u t a t i o n ,  h o w e v e r , t h e p r e s i d e n t w o u l d a p p e a r t o be much l e s s in extra-curricular activities.  A true p i c t u r e of the  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e number o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r v i t i e s t a k e n and t h e s c h o l a s t i c  active  acti-  ranks gained by s t u d e n t s  necessitates a "weighting" or a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the values assigned to the d i f f e r e n t  activities.  P o s s i b l y t h e most a c c u r a t e system o f a w a r d i n g t h e number o f p o i n t s w h i c h e a c h a c t i v i t y d e s e r v e d w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e number o f p u p i l - h o u r s e a c h v i t y consumed. of  acti-  As i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a p r e v e n t e d t h e a d o p t i o n  t h i s p l a n , t h e w r i t e r drew up a t e n t a t i v e t a b l e o f t h e  number o f p o i n t s w h i c h , i n h i s o p i n i o n , s h o u l d be g i v e n f o r eaeh a c t i v i t y .  T h i s t a b l e was s u b m i t t e d , f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e  c r i t i c i s m , t o t h o s e members o f t h e T e m p l e t o n  Junior High  S c h o o l s t a f f who w e r e b e s t , q u a l i f i e d t o j u d g e t h e w o r t h o f each  activity.  109  TABLE X V T I POINTS FOR DIFFERENT A C T I V I T I E S Number o f P o i n t s 1  2  3  Type o f A c t i v i t y a)  membership i n a n y Wednesday C l u b , the e x c e p t i o n o f t h e Study Club  with  b)  a s s o c i a t e membership i n t h e G i r l s ' Club o r t h e M a c M i l l a n F i n e A r t s Club  c)  membership i n a g u i d a n c e c l a s s comm i t t e e o r a c o u n c i l committee  a)  a c t i v e membership i n t h e G i r l s ' or t h e Fine A r t s Club  b)  m e m b e r s h i p i n a n y o r g a n i z a t i o n v/hich meets o u t s i d e t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l hours  c)  c l a s s representative t o the Fine Club  a)  m e m b e r s h i p i n a g r a d e o r house c o u n c i l  Club  Arts  c l a s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o t h e "Tee J a y " , the s c h o o l magazine  4  7  10  c)  e x e c u t i v e member o f a n y m i n o r  club  a)  m e m b e r s h i p on e i t h e r t h e m o n i t o r o r t h e "Tee J a y " s t a f f  b)  h o n o u r membership i n t h e G i r l s '  c)  membership i n t h e R e f e r e e s ' c a p t a i n c y o f a team  a)  e x e c u t i v e member o f a n y o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e S c h o o l Council  b)  membership i n t h e S c h o o l C o u n c i l o r t h e Supreme House C o u n c i l  Club  Club o r  e x e c u t i v e member o f t h e S c h o o l o r t h e Supreme House C o u n c i l  Council  Table XVII i s a consensus o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , guidance teachers,  and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r s p o n s o r s a t T e m p l e t o n 110  Junior  High School*  The v a l u e s shown i n T a b l e X V I I f o r m t h e n u c l e u s  o f t h e s e c o n d method.  The t o t a l s o f t h e e v a l u a t e d  o f t h e g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s , w h i c h were d e t e r m i n e d  activities by t h e use  o f t h e above t a b l e , w e r e compared w i t h t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c to d i s c o v e r i f a p o s i t i v e  relationship  activities  s t a n d i n g s w o u l d be  and s c h o l a s t i c  ranks  between t h e weighted apparent.  Though t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t i s o n l y one o f t h e factors  t h a t determines  success  i n s c h o o l w o r k i t i s t h e one  most commonly u s e d f o r p r e d i c t i v e  purposes.  student's i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t suggests f i c u l t y t h a t he w i l l  encounter  A glance at a  the degree of d i f -  i n h i s prescribed  However, u n l e s s t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e  quotients follow  studies. a normal  c u r v e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e y l o s e much o f t h e i r p r o g n o s t i c v a l u e i n r e g a r d t o g r a d e s t a n d i n g s b a s e d on t h i s TABLE  curve.  XVIII  INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS WITH THEIR THEORETICALLY  EXPECTED  SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS, 1 9 5 8 - 1 9 5 9 . I.Q. Group 125-156 120-124 116-119 114-115 110-113 105-109 102-104 99-101 95-98 91-94 ., 83L90 Totals  Percentage  Frequency 21 32 25 28 52 65 41 30 19 28 21  6.0 - 8.8 6.9 7.7 14.3 17.9 11.3 8.2 5.2 7.7 6.0  Rank A B+ B BC4C CD4D DE  362  100  T a b l e X V I I I shows t h e s c h o l a s t i c  grades which Templeton  s t u d e n t s , whose i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s r a n g e d b e t w e e n 83 and 111  Scholarship  2.4  t. \ 6  9  1 o  Number o f A c t i v i t i e s FIG. 11,  COMPARISON OP THE NUMBER OP A C T I V I T I E S I N WHICH STUDENTS PARTICIPATED AND THE SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS THEY RECEIVEDj 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .  112  15  1 3 6 , . m i g h t h a v e r e c e i v e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r 1938-1939 i f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g r a d e s t a n d i n g s h a d conformed t o t h e d i s t r i bution of i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients. _  TABLE S I X  COMPARISON OF NUMBER OF A C T I V I T I E S I N WHICH STUDENTS P A R T I CIPATED AND THE SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS THEY RECEIVED, 1938-1939 No.  Activities  Frequency  A v e r a g e Rank  40 56 58 51 47 34 18 15 10 7 6 2 0 0 1  2.7 C2.9 C2.8 C3.0 C 3.1 C 5.3 C + 5.0 C 3.5 B5.5 C43.7 B 5.7 B 4.25A  106.7 107.4 105.2 105.8 105.0 112.5 108.7 115.5 115.5 108.8 117.8 120.5  3.9  121  1 2 3 4 5 o 7 8 9 • 10 11 12 13 14 15 Total  Average I  B+  345 The  data which  a p p e a r i n T a b l e X I X a n d F i g u r e 11 show  a g r a d u a l improvement o f s c h o l a s t i c  standing of students i n  r a t i o t o t h e numbers o f a c t i v i t i e s t h e y h a d t a k e n . who  shared  Students  i n 1, 2 a n d 5 a c t i v i t i e s d i d n o t e a r n so h i g h an  average rank as t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s p r e d i c t e d , w h i l e t h o s e who t o o k 8 a n d 12 a c t i v i t i e s grade suggested positive  by t h e i r intelligence  relationship  v i t i e s i n which  s u r p a s s e d t h e academic quotients.  A moderate  i s shown b e t w e e n t h e number o f a c t i -  students p a r t i c i p a t e d  and t h e s c h o l a s t i c  ranks they r e c e i v e d , the c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n  113  being  Scholarship 5.0JJ  o •;• 80-89  90-99  100-109  Intelligence PIG. 12.  110-119  120-129  Q u o t i e n t Group  COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS AND INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS, 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 .  114  130-139  .35 - .03. , The c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s d a t a , a s shown i n T a b l e X I I I , h a d r e s u l t e d .27 - .03.  i n the positive c o e f f i c i e n t ,  The d a t a shown i n c o l u m n 4 o f T a b l e X I X show a  s l i g h t tendency f o r the students of superior a b i l i t y to take more a c t i v i t i e s t h a n t h e m a j o r i t y ;  The c o e f f i c i e n t o f  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s and number o f a c t i v i t i e s was children  .218 - .034.  to participate  Though t h e t e n d e n c y f o r b r i g h t e r freely i n extra-curricular  activities  may be one r e a s o n f o r t h e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a r s h i p s t a n d i n g , a p p a r e n t l y t h i s tendency  i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y common t o be c o n s i d e r e d t h e o u t -  standing reason. TABLE 'COMPARISON OF I . Q . ' S AND I . Q. Group  80-89 90-99 100-109 110-119 120-129 130-139  No. o f C a s e s  20 68 116 105 45 8  XX SCHOLASTIC STANDING A v e r a g e Rank  A v e r a g e no:; c Activities Not W e i g h t e d  2.7 C2.7 C2.8 C3.2 C 3.6 B3.8 B  4.4 5.5 3.8 5.5 5.3 6.8  362  Total  The t o t a l f r e q u e n c y , 362, o f T a b l e XXT and F i g u r e 12 i s the l a r g e s t  f r e q u e n c y g i v e n i n any c o m p a r a t i v e t a b l e  chapter because a s c h o l a s t i c  I  i n this  s t a n d i n g and i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t  T a b l e X V I I I , o f c o u r s e , h a s t h e same f r e q u e n c y .  115  was  a v a i l a b l e f o r n e a r l y e v e r y s t u d e n t i n the grade  Column 4 o f T a b l e XX to p a r t i c i p a t e  IX  classes.  shows t h e t e n d e n c y f o r b r i g h t e r s t u d e n t s  i n more a c t i v i t i e s t h a n do t h e d u l l e r  ones.  T h e " g l a r i n g e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s t r e n d i s i n the cases of the students of b o r d e r - l i n e i n t e l l i g e n c e .  The  intelligence  q u o t i e n t s o f some o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s g i v e a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n of the s t u d e n t s ' mental a b i l i t i e s  b e c a u s e some o f t h e s t u d e n t s  were o f f o r e i g n b i r t h a n d , as a r e s u l t , s u f f e r e d f r o m guage d i f f i c u l t i e s .  C r o u p i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c a n n o t g i v e an  a c c u r a t e c o n c e p t i o n of the i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s of children.  Though t h e s c h o l a s t i c  and t h e h i g h e s t i n t e l l i g e n c e f r o m C- t o B, t h i s r a n g e  intelligence  such  grades between the l o w e s t  q u o t i e n t s groups  rise  i s l e s s t h a n m i g h t be  groups both earned b e t t e r  g r a d e s t h a n m i g h t be p r e d i c t e d f r o m t h e i r  gradually  expected.  R e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e X v T I I shows t h a t / t h e b o r d e r - l i n e low average  lan-  and average  intelligence  q u o t i e n t s , w h i l e a l l the groups w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o f 110 The  and h i g h e r s h o u l d have b e e n c a p a b l e o f b e t t e r w o r k .  c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n  q u o t i e n t s and  s c h o l a r s h i p was  between t h e .44 - .028.  intelligence This  coefficient  b o r e a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f .45 -  .03  c a l c u l a t e d on t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e y e a r 1937-1938.  115  Scholarship 5.0 fpr  0-3  Activities  5 o r more Activities  y ,  . ,.  / 3.2  /  / y  / /  / / X  / /  2.4  0 80-89  90-99  100-109  110-119  Intelligence  PIG.  13.  120-129  Q u o t i e n t Group  COMPARISON OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS, I N DIFFERENT INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT GROUPS, TAKING 0-3 A C T I V I T I E S AND TAKING 5 OR MORE A C T I V I T I E S . 117  130-1  *  J  TABLE X X I  COMPARISON OP  SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS, I N DIFFERENT  INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT GROUPS, TAKING 0-5 A C T I V I T I E S  AND  TAKING  5 OR MORE A C T I V I T I E S .  I.Q.  0-3 A c t i v i t i e s 1 2 Group F r e q u e n c y  80-89 90-99 100-109 110-119 120-129 130-139  7 38 50 43 15 o  Totals  153  3 Average I.Q.  4 Average Rank  .  86.4 95.5 103.9 113.5 123.7  5 o r more A c t i v i t i e s 5 6 7 Frequency Average Average Rank I.Q.  2.2 2.7 2.7 3.0 3,4  DCCC Cf  11 18 41 39 24 7  2.8  C-  140  86.3 94.7 105.1 113.9 IS 3 • 3 131.7  A l t h o u g h no a t t e m p t was made t o e q u a t e t h e a v e r a g e l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , shown i n columns are  sufficiently  3.2  C  intel-  3 and 6 of T a b l e X X I , t h e y  activities  and t h o s e t a k i n g 5 or.more a c t i -  T h i s c o m p a r i s o n i s shown i n F i g u r e 15.  t a k i n g 0-3  D4C0 BB B  s i m i l a r to permit a comparison of those  s t u d e n t s t a k i n g 0-3 vities.  2.5 2.7 3.0 3.5 3.7 3.8  activities  those c a s e s between the  In the  group  intelligence  q u o t i e n t s o f 80 and 99 d i d s l i g h t l y b e t t e r and t h o s e b e t w e e n 110 and 139  somewhat p o o r e r , on t h e a v e r a g e , t h a n w o u l d  expected by the r e s u l t s  of t h e i r mental t e s t s .  I n the  be group  t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s  those cases i n the  q u o t i e n t r a n g e o f 80 t o 119  surpassed the average rank suggested  by t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e  q u o t i e n t s , w h i l e the o t h e r s were a  b e l o w - t h e r a n k w h i c h t h e y m i g h t have a t t a i n e d . of  c o r r e l a t i o n betv/een t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e  lastic  intelligence  The  little  coefficients  q u o t i e n t s and  scho-  s t a n d i n g s p r o v e d t h a t t h e g r o u p w h i c h t o o k more a c t i -  118  v i t i . e s came c l o s e r t o a c h i e v i n g t h e g r a d e  s t a n d i n g of which  i t s members w e r e c a p a b l e -than d i d t h e g r o u p w h i c h t o o k activities.  The  v i t i e s was group was  c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e group  acti-  .36 - .05 w h i l e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e o t h e r / .47 - .04.  The  e r r o r s o f t h e s e two  critical  r a t i o between t h e p r o b a b l e  c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n was  1937-1938 t h e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e group was  t a k i n g 0-3  fewer  .33 - .05 and f o r t h e group  t a k i n g 0-3  t a k i n g 5 o r more  1.71.  In  activities activities  4.51 _ .04.  The  c r i t i c a l r a t i o i n t h i s y e a r was  2.97.  The  b o r d e r - l i n e and. s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e c a s e s , i n t h e  group  t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s ,  had  c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r average i n t h e group  as shown i n T a b l e X X I , s t a n d i n g s than had.these  t a k i n g fewer a c t i v i t i e s .  The  T a b l e X X I , show a t e n d e n c y f o r t h o s e who  cases  data, given i n  had t a k e n an  active  part i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s to excel the others i n scholastic  standing.  T h i s tendency I s e s p e c i a l l y .noticeable  i n t h e c a s e s o f t h o s e who telligence quotients. s t u d e n t s t a k i n g 0-3  had h i g h a v e r a g e  The  average  a c t i v i t i e s was  or superior i n -  academic rank of t h e 2.8 w h i l e t h e  r a n k o f t h o s e t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s was c r i t i c a l r a t i o between these average d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m was  r a n k s was  average  3.2. 8.28  statistically reliable.  The so  the  Thus  t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e two y e a r s , as shown i n T a b l e X X I and T a b l e XV, to  and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i g u r e s , 9 and 1 5 , l e d  t h e same c o n c l u s i o n s . 119  •  0  5  10  15  20  25  30  Number o f A c t i v i t i e s F I G . 14.  COMPARISON OF NUMBER OF EVALUATED A C T I V I T I E S I N WHICH STUDENTS PARTICIPATED AND SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS THEY RECEIVED. 120  TABLE X X I I COMPARISON OP EVALUATED A C T I V I T I E S AND SCHOLASTIC Evaluated  Activity  frequency  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 . 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32  7 41 46 33 33 33 23 21 23 15 11 16 6 2 5 7 4 1 0 .2. 3 3 2 1 4 2 2 1 0 0 0 1 .  The f i r s t  Tot?i l  A v e r a g e I.Q.  STANDING  A v e r a g e Rank  107.1 107.0 106.4 106.3 107.7 101.9 106.9 105.3 104.3 110.0 108.0 106.3 116.1 116.5 122.6 115.5 110.0 131.0  2.7 2.8 2.9" 2.9 2.9 2.7 5.3 5.1 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.1 5.2 3.7 3.3 3.2 4.3  C~ CccccC4c c+ c c c c c B C* c: A  118.5 101.0 110.6 124.0 114.0 120.0 114.0 •120.5 122.0  4.3 2.9 3.6 4.0 4.6 3.7 4.2 4.1 4.8  A cBB+ A' B A A A  119.0  3.7 B  348  c o l u m n o f T a b l e X X I I shows t h e p o i n t s ,  T a b l e 1, a s s i g n e d t o t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . i n d i c a t e s a tendency  following  The t h i r d  column  f o r students of superior m e n t a l i t y to  accept a v e r y r e s p o n s i b l e share i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i vities..  The f o u r t h c o l u m n , w h i c h p r e s e n t s t h e a v e r a g e  shows a t e n d e n c y  f o r t h e s t u d e n t s who h a d t a k e n a 121  ranks,  really  energetic p a r t i n the .'extra-curricular ' a c t i v i t i e s t o excel the o t h e r s i n academic s t a n d i n g .  A comparison  o f t h e r a n k accom-  p a n y i n g e a c h a v e r a g e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t and o f t h e r a n k w h i c h m i g h t he p r e d i c t e d f r o m t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , a s shown i n T a b l e X V I I I , p o i n t s o u t t h e t e n d e n c y f o r t h o s e  taking  more a c t i v i t i e s t o s u r p a s s t h e o t h e r s i n s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s . While-,' i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , s t u d e n t s t a k i n g  activities  e v a l u a t e d a t 1, 2,, 3, 4, 5, 1 0 , 1 3 , 1 4 , 1 5 , 17,-and 2 5 - p o i n t s -'received l o w e r s c h o l a s t i c r a n k s t h a n t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s s u g g e s t e d , s t u d e n t s t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s e v a l u a t e d a t 6, 7, 9, 1 2 , 20, 2 1 , 2 2 , 2 4 , 2 6 , 2 7 , and 28 p o i n t s d i d b e t t e r s c h o o l w o r k than a study of t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e T h i s i s p i c t u r e d i n F i g u r e 14.  q u o t i e n t s would  forecast.  The t o t a l f r e q u e n c y o f T a b l e  X X I I , 348 c a s e s , was b r o k e n i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s , a s n e a r l y e q u a l as t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n p e r m i t t e d , to''analyze t h e s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s o f t h o s e who w e r e s l i g f t t l y , m o d e r a t e l y , and extremely i n t e r e s t e d i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r The f o l l o w i n g d i v i s i o n s r e s u l t e d :  ;  slightly  activities. interested,:  1-3 a c t i v i t y p o i n t s , 94 e a s e s ; m o d e r a t e l y i n t e r e s t e d ,  4-8  a c t i v i t y p o i n t s , 145 c a s e s ; e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t e d , '9-32 a c t i v i t y p o i n t s , 111 cases.  The d a t a , when so d i v i d e d ,  showed t h a t t h o s e s t u d e n t s who w e r e s l i g h t l y t e n d e d t o do p o o r e r s c h o o l wcrrk t h a n t h e i r  interested  intelligence  q u o t i e n t s s u g g e s t e d , t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e who w e r e m o d e r a t e l y i n t e r e s t e d s h o u l d have done b e t t e r , and. t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e who were v e r y i n t e r e s t e d d i d b e t t e r  122  •than w o u l d ' b e e x p e c t e d  b y a p e r s o n who  intelligence quotients. XXII  The  had  examined t h e i r  investigations  on w h i c h  Table  i s b a s e d a g a i n showed t h e t e n d e n c y f o r s t u d e n t s  were v i t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d lead  i n extra-curricular  the o t h e r s i n s c h o l a s t i c  attainments.  who  activities The  material,  the v i t a l elements of which are g i v e n i n Table X X I I , to the w r i t e r  and  scholastic  received.  taken  The  and  the s c h o l a s t i c  ranks which  .38  the  The  it  t o any  little  between a c t i v i t i e s  appears probable  students  this  scholastic  e v a l u a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s , t h o u g h i t may  b e e n a f a i r e r m e t h o d , had relationship  students'  the c o e f f i c i e n t of .  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s and 1  they  £ .03 p r o v e d t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f  a s s u m p t i o n , b e i n g o n l y .03 h i g h e r t h a n  standing. -  which'  c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between the  p o i n t v a l u e s o f a c t i v i t i e s t a k e n b y s t u d e n t s and academic s t a n d i n g s ,  be  standing  b e e n d i s c o v e r e d b e t w e e n t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s  t h e s t u d e n t s had had  suggested  t h a t an a l m o s t I d e n t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p m i g h t  found between the e v a l u a t e d a c t i v i t i e s a s had  to  have  e f f e c t on t h e d e g r e e o f and  that weighting  academic rank.  Therefore  the a c t i v i t i e s taken  d u r i n g t h e y e a r 1937-1938 w o u l d n o t have  c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t , the f i n d i n g s  by  altered,  b a s e d on t h a t  year's  data.  .35  .38 i .03  1 .03 r e p r e s e n t s a s p r e a d b e t w e e n .50 and r e p r e s e n t s a s p r e a d b e t w e e n .47 and .23.  123  .26  while  TABLE COMPARISON  OF  THE  INTELLIGENCE  XXIII  QUOTIENTS AND  ACTIVITIES  SCHOLASTIC  E V A L U A T E D AT  1-3 I.Q. Group  1-3,  STANDINGS 4-a,  and  OF  STUDENTS  9-32.  4-8  Frequency Average Average Rank I . Q.  Frequency  9-32  Average I.Q.  TAKING  -  Average • Rank  Frequency  Average I.Q.  Average Rank  80-89  4  85.5  2.5 D4-  11  86.5  2.7  C-  4  85.5  2.9  C-  90-99  25  95.4  2.6 D f  26  95.0  2.8  0-  15  94.3  2.8  C-  100-109  31  104.4  2,7  C-  55  104.7  2.8  C-  26  104.9  3.0 C  110-119  23  113.1  3.0  C-  39  113.7  3.1 C  38  113.7  .3.5 B-  120-129  11  124.0  3.3 04-  11  123.9  3.4 04-  21  122.7  3.8 B  151  4.0 B4-  7  131.7  3.8 B  130-139 Totals  1 94  2.9  2.8  124  111  3.5  Scholarship I  :  -  1—3  Activities  ' 4-8  A c t i vI t i e s  9-32  .  i  -  1  /  A c t iv i t i e s  /  /  /  /'  3.6  /  /  /  /  / /  /  /  /  / /  I  9 •  r  //  ' \ -.  80-89  " 90-99""' 100=109  110-119  . Intelligence FIG.  15.  120-129"  130-139  Q u o t i e n t Group  COMPARISON OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS, I N DIFFERENT INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT GROUPS, TAKING A C T I V I T I E S EVALUATED AT 1-3, 4-8, AND 9-32.  125  The average  i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , shown i n columns  3, 6 and 9 of Table XXIII, are s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r to allow comparisons of the average 10,  of t h i s t a b l e .  the students who  ranks, given i n columns 4, 7,  and  Table XXIII and Figure 15 p o i n t out that  took a c t i v i t i e s worth 1-3 p o i n t s , showed a  gradual improvement i n s c h o l a s t i c h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e groups, the 120-129 i n t e l l i g e n c e below the expected  ranks from the low to the  However, the average q u o t i e n t group was  rank of B4  student i n  considerably  (See Table X V I I I ) .  The  coef-  f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients and scholastic  standings f o r those students t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s h  l i s t e d a t 1-3.points was  .31  scholastic  on the average, by those whose a c t i -  ranks earned,  - .06,  v i t i e s merited 4-8 p o i n t s s t a r t e d  Though the range of  s l i g h t l y higher and, because  of one case, ended higher than d i d the ranks of students interested  in extra-curricular  students who  activities,  d i s p l a y e d moderate enthusiasm  un-  the b u l k of the f o r these  v i t i e s had a very l i m i t e d range of s c h o l a s t i c  ranks.  actiThe  c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients •  and s c h o l a s t i c  •  standings was  . •  ,33  jj,  - .049,  With the exceptions  of those i n the 80-39 and 130-139 i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient groups, those who  took a l e a d i n g p a r t i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  showed a f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y range of s c h o l a s t i c  activities  ranks.  The  c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients i and s c h o l a s t i c  standings was  ,49  - .05,  However, the  critical  r a t i o s attached no s t a t i s t i c a l importance to the d i f f e r e n c e s 126 between the p a i r s of c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n . The c r i t i c a l  r a t i o between the c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n f o r those talcing a c t i v i t i e s evaluated a t 1,3 and f o r those taking a c t i v i t i e s evaluated a t 4.8 was .25.  The c r i t i c a l  r a t i o s between those  taking the l a r g e s t share i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and those taking a medium share was 2.31, while the c r i t i c a l  ratio  between t h i s group which evinced the g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t i n these a c t i v i t i e s and those who w e r e moderately i n t e r e s t e d in  them was  2.30.  A f u r t h e r study of the data, which are summarized i n Table XXIII, showed that the students most i n t e r e s t e d i n extra-curricular activities marks.  tended to r e c e i v e the highest  This was true of the average student i n the f o l l o w i n g  i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient groups: 120-129.  80-89, 100-109, 110-119, and  Though the i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient group, 90-99, of  those t a k i n g the most a c t i v e p a r t i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme was e q u a l l e d by the s i m i l a r group of 26 students t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s evaluated a t 4-8, the average quotient of the most i n t e r e s t e d group was lower.  intelligence Generally  speaking, the students who took an average p a r t i n e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s surpassed i n academic achievement, those taking a nominal p a r t only. groups demonstrate of  The s c h o l a s t i c averages of the  t h i s tendency.  Whereas  the average rank  the l e a s t i n t e r e s t e d group was 2.8, the average of the  middle group was 2.9, and the average of the most i n t e r e s t e d group was 3.3.  The computation of c r i t i c a l  r a t i o s proved the  s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the averages.  The c r i t i c a l  r a t i o between the average rank of 127  t h o s e t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s w o r t h 1-5 a c t i v i t i e s w o r t h 4-8 t h e s e g r o u p s was  p o i n t s was  critical  s t u d e n t s who  taking  so t h e d i f f e r e n c e between The  critical  t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s was  g r o u p was  17.29.  ratio  14.48 and  These-critical ratios  d i f f e r e n c e i n average r a n k s between  the  were: e n t h u s i a s t i c i n t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r and  t h o s e who  or r e l a t i v e l y u n i n t e r e s t e d Thus t h e  of those  r a t i o between the mediumly i n t e r e s t e d  t h e most I n t e r e s t e d prove t h a t the  3.11  s t a t i s t i c a l l y important.  b e t w e e n t h e l e a s t and while the  p o i n t s and  were m o d e r a t e l y i n t e r e s t e d  i n them was  a real - difference.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on w h i c h T a b l e X X I I I i s b a s e d i n -  d i c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s who  participated actively i n extra-  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s tended to excel i n s c h o l a r s h i p t a k i n g a m i n o r o r m o d e r a t e p a r t in,,these a c t i v i t i e s t h a t , i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , t h o s e who  t o o k an  those and  average  i n t e r e s t i n these a c t i v i t i e s d i d s l i g h t l y b e t t e r i n t h e i r r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l a r s t u d i e s t h a n d i d t h o s e who researches,  described  took a merely  nominal p a r t .  The  i n Chapter I I I ,  r e s t r i c t e d the  above g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t o s t u d e n t s o f  high  average or s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e . Such a l i m i t a t i o n i s demanded b y t h e rigid  data given  i n t h i s chapter.  c o n t r o l o f p u p i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  s a t i s f a c t o r y grade standings intelligence The  not  P o s s i b l y a more  responsible  for  o f t h e g r o u p s w h i c h had  low  the  quotients.  f i n d i n g s of Chapter IV b e a r a s t r i k i n g  t o t h o s e o f C h a p t e r I I I and  give 128  support to the  resemblance general  assumptions w i t h which Chapter I I I concluded.  Once a g a i n t h e  positive relationship  activities,  between e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  b y number o r b y v a l u e , and s c h o l a s t i c Again the superior s c h o l a s t i c who  t o o k an a c t i v e  s t a n d i n g has been  shown.  s t a n d i n g s o f many o f t h e s t u d e n t s  part i n extra-curricular  activities  have  s t o o d o u t i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s c h o l a s t i c marks o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e who were l e s s i n t e r e s t e d  129  i n these  activities.  CHAPTER V  THE VALUES OP EXTRA-CURRICULAR A C T I V I T I E S AS  INDICATED I N THE  130  QUESTIONNAIRES  The d a t a o f t h e two p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s have b e t w e e n t h e number o f  indicated  a positive  relationship  activities  i n which  standing.  T h e y have shown t h a t , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e i n t e l -  a pupil participated  extra-curricular  and h i s s c h o l a s t i c  l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s were above 1 0 0 , t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y f o r t h o s e who  t o o k an a c t i v e p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  t o have h i g h e r s c h o l a s t i c  activities  r a n k s t h a n d i d t h o s e who  l e s s active p a r t i n these a c t i v i t i e s .  took a  T h i s tendency  roused  a n a t u r a l query; were t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t i a l l y or wholly responsible f o r these higher ranks?  scholastic  The d a t a o f t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s w a r r a n t e d  assumption  of such a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p .  to discover i f t h i s causal r e l a t i o n s h i p n a i r e s were p r e p a r e d .  par-  I n an  existed,  no  attempt question-  S t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , and t e a c h e r s were  a s k e d t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d show t h e i r o p i n i o n s of the advantages  candid  and d i s a d v a n t a g e s w h i c h a r e  a t t r i b u t e d t o the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  131  activities.  STUDENTS' QUEST 10NNAIRE P l e a s e answer each of the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s by p l a c i n g a c h e c k mark u n d e r " Y e s " , "No", o r " D o u b t f u l " . If possible, b y e a c h a n s w e r p l a c e t h e l e t t e r o r l e t t e r s o f t h e above a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h suggested y o u r answer. Questions  Yes  No  Doubtful  1. Do y o u t h i n k t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s improve the school? 2. Have t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s h e l p e d y o u i n your r e g u l a r s c h o o l work? 3:. Has y o u r g r a d e s t a n d i n g d r o p p e d s i n c e you have t a k e n p a r t i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s ? 4. Have y o u .sometimes. f a i l e d t o do y o u r r e g u l a r s c h o o l w o r k and a s s i g n m e n t s b e c a u s e you w e r e b u s y w i t h e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? 5. S h o u l d a p u p i l be a l l o w e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n more t h a n t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s ? 6. Have y o u a h o b b y ? 7. Did extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s start y o u on t h i s h o b b y ? 8. Have y o u s e l e c t e d y o u r f u t u r e v o c a t i o n ? 9. D i d e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s suggest t h i s v o c a t i o n t o you? 10. Has y o u r s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e b e e n more r e g u l a r because of these a c t i v i t i e s ? 11. Do y o u w a n t t o q u i t s c h o o l ? 12. Do y o u want t o s t a y i n s c h o o l a s l o n g as you can because you a r e a c t i v e i n e x t r a curricular activities? 13. Do y o u want t o s t a y i n s c h o o l as many y e a r s as y o u c a n ? 14. Do y o u l i k e m u s i c ? 15. Did e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s give you t h i s l i k i n g f o r m u s i c ? 16. Do y o u g e t a l o n g w i t h p u p i l s , t e a c h e r s , and o t h e r p e r s o n s b e t t e r t h a n y o u d i d i n Grade V I I ? 17. Has y o u r c i t i z e n s h i p mark d r o p p e d t h i s year? 18. Has y o u r c i t i z e n s h i p mark i m p r o v e d t h i s year? 19. Can y o u a c t as c h a i r m a n o f a m e e t i n g without f e e l i n g very nervous? 20. Are you a b o o s t e r f o r y o u r s c h o o l ? The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e m e t h o d has many i n h e r e n t f l a w s .  answers are o p i n i o n s ; sometimes the o p i n i o n s are g i v e n c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of each q u e s t i o n , but 132  The after  frequently they  are g i v e n w i t h o u t adequate thought.  The a n s w e r e r ' s r e a c t i o n  t o t h e q u e s t i o n s may be d e p e n d e n t u p o n h i s mood. i n s t a n c e t h e same b o y f i l l e d  I n one  i n two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h i n ; a  p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l m o n t h s . , The a n s w e r s t o s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s on t h e two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i f f e r e d . students  Of t h e 362 g r a d e  351 r e t u r n e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  nine  N a t u r a l l y the  q u e s t i o n s were n o t s u i t e d t o t h e a b i l i t i e s o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s . Some q u e s t i o n s were i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e Intelligence quotients. or omitted answers.  t o students w i t h low  O t h e r s t u d e n t s gave d o u b t f u l a n s w e r s  I n some c a s e s t h i s may be c o n s t r u e d , a s  a c r i t i c i s m of the wording  of the questions; i n other  t h e i n e x p e r i e n c e o f the, s t u d e n t s i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r v i t i e s may h a v e p r e v e n t e d  the answering  of certain  cases acti-  questions.  Though t h e w r i t e r , a n d t h e o t h e r s who s o k i n d l y a s s i s t e d i n the formation o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t r i e d t o e l i m i n a t e l e a d i n g ' q u e s t i o n s , some s t u d e n t s may have: d e c i d e d t h a t , I f t h e y d i d n o t a l l o c a t e some a d v a n t a g e s t o e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r they had missed may h a v e f e l t  activities,,  p a r t of the advantages of sehool l i f e .  t h a t t h e y were e x p e c t e d  Others  t o a t t r i b u t e many v a l u e s  t o e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r ^ a c t i v i t i e s a n d , i f t h e y d i d n o t do s o , they would d i s p l e a s e t h e i r t e a c h e r s .  Still  o t h e r s may have  f o l l o w e d t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f some member o f t h e i r c l a s s .  Though  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e s t r i c t e d - t o 20 q u e s t i o n s , some may have l o s t I n t e r e s t b e f o r e t h e y had f i n i s h e d answering a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s and may h a v e a n s w e r e d some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s i n a t h o u g h t l e s s manner. with scholastic  I n o r d e r t o compare t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  s t a n d i n g s and i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s p u p i l s 133.  were a s k e d t o s i g n t h e p a p e r s .  Though t h i s may have e l i m i n a t e d  any t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s s i l l y a n s w e r s , i t may have i n f l u e n c e d some t o e x a g g e r a t e t h e v a l u e s o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  activities.  TABLE X X I V P U P I L S ' QUESTIONNAIRES (551) Yes 1. 2. 5. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.  fo  No  (92.59) 4 325 (44.15) 110 155 ( 7.59) 284 27 (16.23) 276 57 (37.52) 157 131 (85.47) 44 500 (17.66) 248 62 (40.45) 141 142 (10.25) 258 56 (32.47) 185 114 (12.82) 268 45 (32.19) 159 113 (77.77) 49 275 '(85.18) ' 32 299 69 (19.65) 249 (76.06) 32 267 (30.48) .220 107 142 . (40.45) 180 (59.88) 120 140 37 (72.07) 253  fo  Omitted  ( 4.55) 1 20.56) ( 7,97) ( 2.84) ( 15.95) ( ..56) ( 5.12) ( 16.80) ( 8.54) (12.53) ( 8.54) ( 15.95) ( .5.69) ( 4.84) ( 6.26) ( 12.53) 4.84) 4 ' ( 5.12) ( 23.56) ( 15.96)  6 14 12 8 7 5 25 9 27 10 8 25 •:9 3 11 8. 7 11 9 12  Doubtful  fo  16 ( 1.13' 72 (51.35 ) 28 (80.91 (78.63 )' io (44.72 56 2 .(12.53 18 (70.65 59 (40.17 50 (73.50 : 44 (52.13 30 (76.35 56 (45.29] 20 (15.96' 17 ( 9'.ir 22 (70.94 44 ( 9.1V (62.67 17 18 (51.28 82 (54.18 49 (10,54] 1  1  1  fo  (1.71 (3.98 (3.41 (2.27 (1.99 (1.42 (6.55 (2.56 '(7.69 (2.84 (2.27 (6.55 (2.56 ( .85 (3.13 (2.27 (1.99 (3.13 (2.56 (3.41  The s t u d e n t s g a v e o v e r w h e l m i n g s u p p o r t to t h e e x t r a curricular activities, the  92 p e r c e n t s t a t i n g t h a t t h e y I m p r o v e d  s c h o o l . . T h i s q u e s t i o n , h o w e v e r , was t o o g e n e r a l t o c a r r y  any r e a l degree o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .  A c y n i c a l observer might  maintain that the entertainment derived from these  activities  was t h e m a j o r m o t i v e f o r t h e s t u d e n t s u p p o r t o f them. v i o u s l y many s t u d e n t s who t o o k l i t t l e answered t h i s q u e s t i o n a f f i r m a t i v e l y .  Ob-  p a r t i n them must h a v e The r e s t o f t h e q u e s t i o n s  f o r c e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o g i v e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r f i r s t answer and t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  o f t h e o r i g i n a l answer i s t e s t e d i n t h i s  manner. 134  A common c r i t i c i s m o f t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i s t h a t t h e y d e t r a c t f r o m t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. and I V have d e n i e d t h i s t e n d e n c y .  Chapters I I I  The p u p i l s ' a n s w e r s b o r e  out the f i n d i n g s of these c h a p t e r s .  W h i l e 80 p e r  answered d e f i n i t e l y t h a t t h e i r grade  s t a n d i n g s had n o t  s i n c e t h e y had  taken part i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  cent dropped  activities,  o n l y 7 p e r c e n t s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r s t a n d i n g s had d r o p p e d  under  these circumstances.  though  I t may  Two  o f t h e s e l a t t e r s t u d e n t s , odd  seem, had t a k e n a v e r y m i n o r p a r t i n t h e  activities.  extra-curricular  T w e l v e had t a k e n a v e r y a c t i v e p a r t and  them have s i n c e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d t o c u r t a i l t h e i r curricular activities.' degree o f i n t e r e s t  The  extra-  r e m a i n i n g 13 had t a k e n an  Out  These of the  .answered t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a b o u t 8 p e r c e n t  had t h e i r s c h o l a r s h i p a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d b y activities.  average  i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme.  f i g u r e s present several i n t e r e s t i n g percentages. t o t a l 551 who  some o f  extra-curricular  H o w e v e r , a b o u t 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e '551  took a nominal p a r t i n these a c t i v i t i e s ,  students  so none o f  these  c o u l d have s u f f e r e d t o any d e g r e e f r o m t h e i r s h a r e i n t h e extra-curricular activities.  Of t h o s e who  a c t i v e p a r t , a b o u t 10 p e r c e n t d r o p p e d  took a  i n rank.  l a r g e r number, a b o u t o n e - s i x t h o f t h o s e who  really A much  answered,  admitted t h a t the d u t i e s of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s times caused assignments.  some-  a n e g l e c t of t h e i r r e g u l a r s c h o o l work.and B e f o r e r e a c h i n g a d e c i s i o n on t h e i n f l u e n c e  of  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l w o r k t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e q u e s t i o n must be 135  studied.  F o r t y - f o u r per  c e n t o f the s t u d e n t s  stated that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a -  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s h a d a s s i s t e d them i n t h e i r s c h o o l work. had  aided  A m o d e r a t e number l i s t e d  them.  regular  the a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h  A l t h o u g h a l l the a c t i v i t i e s  received  credit,  c l u b s and t h e s c h o o l m a g a z i n e , t h e "Tee J a y " , were m o s t quently mentioned. students  The a s s i s t a n c e  of E n g l i s h i s obvious,  the l a t t e r would g i v e to  while  c l u b s , i n many  a r e an o u t g r o w t h of the r e g u l a r s c h o o l work.  The a s s i s t a n c e  instances,  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  b e t w e e n r e g u l a r s c h o o l w o r k and some o f the o t h e r is less intimate.  fre-  activities  t h e y o f f e r e d must have b e e n  i n the development of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  S e l f - r e l i a n c e , enhanced  i n t e r e s t i n t h e s c h o o l , and many o t h e r f a c t o r s m i g h t r e s u l t i n an improvement i n r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. answered q u e s t i o n  Of the 155 s t u d e n t s  who  two a f f i r m a t i v e l y , 22 t o o k a m i n o r p a r t i n t h e  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme, 92 t o o k a n a v e r a g e p a r t , and 41 took a very  active part.  The o m i s s i o n  of s t u d e n t s  who  m i n o r p a r t i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme p r e s e n t e d ger  case f o r the v a l u a b l e  s c h o o l works  54 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s  an a c t i v e p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s  s c h o o l w o r k i n some c a s e s , i n many more i n s t a n c e s .  who  stated that  have had a d e t r i m e n t a l  these Thus,  i n f l u e n c e on  According  t o the s t u d e n t s ,  participation  i s an a s s i s t a n c e , not a  hindrance,  work.  Some s t u d e n t s ,  took  t h e i r i n f l u e n c e has been b e n e f i c i a l  in extra-curricular activities  the  on  them i n t h e i r r e g u l a r s c h o o l w o r k .  t h o u g h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s may  to r e g u l a r s c h o o l  a stron-  i n f l u e n c e of these a c t i v i t i e s  approximately  a c t i v i t i e s had h e l p e d  took a  a s has b e e n a l r e a d y  noted, cannot a f f o r d  time t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 136  require.  Many  students appeared t o r e a l i z e t h i s .  T h i r t y - s e v e n p e r cent  b e l i e v e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d be l i m i t e d t o t h r e e vities.  The w o r d i n g  acti-  o f t h i s q u e s t i o n w o u l d have b e e n i m p r o v e d  by t h e a d d i t i o n a l word "major" b e f o r e t h e word Some s t u d e n t s made a comment t o t h i s e f f e c t .  "activities". Others  stated  t h a t t h e e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d be d e p e n d e n t on t h e student's s c h o l a s t i c attainments. were agreed  that the a c t i v i t i e s  A c o n s i d e r a b l e number  s h o u l d be r e l e g a t e d t o a  p o s i t i o n w h e r e t h e y w o u l d be s u p p l e m e n t a r y t o t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. I n c r e a s i n g amounts o f l e i s u r e t i m e o w i n g t o t e c h n o logical  a d v a n c e s a n d unemployment h a v e c e r t a i n l y  the n e c e s s i t y f o r a v o c a t i o n s . students s t a t e d t h a t they.had per cent o f t h e t o t a l hobbles,  E i g h t - f i v e p e r cent o f t h e chosen hobbies.  Of t h e s e , 17  number, o r o n e - f i f t h o f t h o s e who h a d  gave t h e c r e d i t f o r t h e i r c h o i c e s t o t h e e x t r a -  curricular activities.  C l u b s were most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d  as t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e s e s e l e c t i o n s . curricular activities  I f the extra-  can suggest worthwhile  s i x t h of the students, they are performing in this  heightened  hobbies  t o one-  stellar service  field.  A widened c u r r i c u l u m , w i t h a l i b e r a l c h o i c e o f courses, t h r o w s t h e b u r d e n o f a s e l e c t i o n of. a v o c a t i o n on t h e s h o u l d e r s o f t h e s t u d e n t , h i s p a r e n t s , and t h e s c h o o l .  Try-out  courses  i n g r a d e s s e v e n a n d e i g h t h a v e shown t h e s t u d e n t s t h e i r bilities.  Experience  and w i s e  guidance  possi-  should d i r e c t the  m a j o r i t y o f grade nine students t o t h e choice o f v o c a t i o n s , 137  e v e n t h d u g h t h e s e c h o i c e s may be t e n t a t i v e ones o n l y .  Forty  p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y had d e c i d e d upon their future careers.  Of t h e s e 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l  number, o r o n e - f o u r t h o f t h o s e who h a d c h o s e n v o c a t i o n s , s t a t e d t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had determined choice.  their  I f t h i s f i g u r e presents a true p i c t u r e of the i n -  f l u e n c e o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s , t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s d e s e r v e t h e s u p p o r t t h e s t u d e n t s gave them in  q u e s t i o n one. If  t h e s t a f f and t h e attendance  o f f i c e r are a l e r t , i r -  r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e may be a c r i t e r i o n o f t h e h e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d r e n t o a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a t i t i s a s i g n o f t h e i n t e r e s t which  t h e y have i n a l l p h a s e s o f s c h o o l w o r k .  A  c e r t a i n number o f c h i l d r e n , h o w e v e r , make t h e s l i g h t e s t i n d i s p o s i t i o n an e x c u s e  f o r absence.  Others  display too  keen an i n t e r e s t i n t h e s c h o o l and endanger t h e i r h e a l t h by a t t e n d a n c e when t h e y w o u l d be b e t t e r a t home.  Fifty-two  per cent of the students stated that the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had not a f f e c t e d t h e i r attendance.  Many o f t h e s e  added t h e p r o v i s o t h a t t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e had always regular.  been  T h i r t y p e r cent of the students claimed t h a t the  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had improved t h e i r attendance.  To c h e c k - t h e  reliability  to  t h i s q u e s t i o n , t h e w r i t e r checked  of  t h e p u p i l s i n two c l a s s e s .  the r e s u l t s o f t h i s  o f t h e answers  the attendance  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e  investigation. 138  the regularity of  record presents  *' >  TABLE XXV  ATTENDANCE OE THE STUDENTS OE TWO CLASSES EROM SEPTEMBER TO MARCH INCLUSIVE Days  Absent  L i t t l e Share i n Activities  0 1-5 6-10 11-15 16 & more Totals  Average  Share  Large  1 2 1 2 1  0 19 5 8 2  4 24 4 1 2  7  34  35  T a b l e XXV shows t h a t a t t e n d a n c e , a t l e a s t i n t h e s e two c l a s s e s , appeared  t o be i n f l u e n c e d b y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a -  c u r r i c u l a r activities.-'-  When t h e s t u d e n t s ' a n s w e r s o n a t t e n -  d a n c e w e r e a n a l y z e d , t h e y gave t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s :  of  t h o s e who r e p o r t e d t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s  improved  t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e , 14 t o o k t h e minimum p a r t i n t h e s e  activities,  74 t o o k a n a v e r a g e p a r t , a n d 24 t o o k a v e r y l a r g e p a r t .  The  d e l e t i o n o f t h o s e who t o o k a minimum p a r t showed t h a t , o f t h e total  number who t o o k a n a c t i v e p a r t , 48 p e r c e n t d e c l a r e d  t h a t t h e i r attendance had improved. answers i t appears  t h a t , i n about  curricular activities  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e  one-half the cases, extra-  tend t o improve  attendance, a tendency  w h i c h i m p l i e s a n awakened i n t e r e s t i n t h e s c h o o l a s a w h o l e . A c r i t i c might  s t a t e t h a t t h i s i n t e r e s t was c e n t r e d on e x t r a -  curricular activities c u l a r programme. deny t h i s  t o the exclusion of the regular  curri-  The a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n t h r e e a p p e a r t o  supposition.  little  The a v e r a g e numbers o f days a b s e n t f o r t h e 3 g r o u p s w e r e : s h a r e i n a c t i v i t i e s , 6.0; a v e r a g e s h a r e , 4.9; l a r g e  s h a r e , 3.0. 139  A desire to quit school i s , a l l too frequently,the outcome o f e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e home. though,  Frequently,  l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e s c h o o l i s t h e prime cause  of t h i s d e c i s i o n .  Twelve p e r cent of t h e c h i l d r e n  a desire to quit school.  expressed  Seventeen o f these took a minor  part i n the extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t , and 4 t o o k a v e r y a c t i v e p a r t .  24 t o o k a n a v e r a g e  The d e d u c t i o n o f t h o s e  who t o o k a m i n o r p a r t l e f t 11 p e r c e n t o f t h e o t h e r s to quit school. had  On t h e o t h e r hand 77 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s  decided t o continue t h e i r school l i f e  possible.  anxious  a s many y e a r s a s  T h i r t y - t w o p e r cent o f the t o t a l ,  t w o - f i f t h s o f t h o s e who w i s h e d  or approximately  to stay i n school, credited  t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e i n c e n t i v e t o do s o . Of t h e t o t a l number t h a t a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n 12 a f f i r m a t i v e l y , 11 t o o k a s m a l l s h a r e , 71 t o o k an a v e r a g e s h a r e , a n d 31 more than the average share I n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  activities.  T h e s e f i g u r e s i n f e r r e d t h a t a t l e a s t 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s who a n s w e r e d t h i s q u e s t i o n a f f i r m a t i v e l y h a d h a d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o b a s e t h e i r a n s w e r s o n e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e . T h e y a l s o showed t h a t s l i g h t l y more t h a n 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s who t o o k a n a c t i v e p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r v i t i e s a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l  acti-  students  had h a d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own o p i n i o n s , t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d by e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  activities.  A f u l l y - d e v e l o p e d s t u d e n t s h o u l d h a v e an a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e f i n e a r t s : In wording  music,  l i t e r a t u r e , p a i n t i n g , and t h e o t h e r s .  q u e s t i o n s 14 a n d 1 5 , no q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w e r e p l a c e d 140  on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t e r m ,  "music".  However,  an  a f f i r m a t i v e a n s w e r t o q u e s t i o n 15 i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e c h i l d had  c l a s s i c a l , r a t h e r t h a n - p o p u l a r , music i n mind  cause the  students of Templeton J u n i o r High School l i n k music  w i t h the Fine A r t s Club.  Sighl^-flve per cent of the  according to t h e i r r e p l i e s , l i k e d music.  Of t h e s e  be-  students,  approximately  20 p e r c e n t , o r somewhat f e w e r t h a n o h e - f o u r t h o f t h o s e ' w h o l i k e d m u s i c , s t a t e d t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had them t h i s l i k i n g f o r m u s i c .  A t t e n d a n c e a t any o f t h e numerous  S i r I r n e s t M a e M i l l a n F i n e A r t s C l u b programmes w o u l d any u n b i a s e d  convince  o b s e r v e r t h a t t h i s e s t i m a t e i s b y no means ah  over generous The  given  one.  d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s p i r i t o f c o - o p e r a t i o n i s one  of a l l s c h o o l systems.  I f r e l i a n c e c a n be p l a e e d on  p u p i l s ' answers, Templeton J u n i o r High s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s aim.  aim  the  S c h o o l has been q u i t e  S e v e n t y - f i v e per cent of the  students  b e l i e v e d t h a t they got along b e t t e r w i t h p u p i l s , t e a c h e r s , o t h e r s i n grade n i n e than t h e y d i d i n grade seven. cent f e l t  t h a t the degree of c o - o p e r a t i o n between  and o t h e r s h a d n o t i n c r e a s e d . t h i s e a s e was  themselves  less  co-operative  A n e g a t i v e answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n might  c o n v e y t h e same m e a n i n g a s a n e g a t i v e a n s w e r t o q u e s t i o n t h e s t u d e n t had  per  However, a n e g a t i v e a n s w e r i n  no p r o o f t h a t t h e s t u d e n t was  than i n grade seven.  Nine  and  always been c o - o p e r a t i v e .  c a n be a t t a c h e d t o t h e a n s w e r s o f t h e n e x t  Little two  10:  significance  questions.  p r e v i o u s l y e x p l a i n e d , the system of marking c i t i z e n s h i p i s b a s e d on t h e number o f m e r i t s and 141  demerits  r e c e i v e d by  a  As  student..  T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  g i v e n t o many o f t h e  d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of the f i r s t  term before a l l the  v i t i e s o f t h e s c h o o l were f u n c t i o n i n g t o t h e i r f u l l As  students  a r e s u l t , although opportunities f o r receiving  acti-  extent. demerits  were as f r e q u e n t as u s u a l , t h e c h a n c e s t o e a r n m e r i t s w e r e fewer than u s u a l .  N e v e r t h e l e s s 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e  students  r e p o r t e d i m p r o v e m e n t i n c i t i z e n s h i p w h i l e 30 p e r c e n t a drop i n t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p marks.  reported  Of t h o s e r e p o r t i n g a d r o p  ' i n c i t i z e n s h i p m a r k s , 28 t o o k a s m a l l p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r activities, part.  58 t o o k an a v e r a g e p a r t , and  Of c o u r s e  the l e v e l s of c i t i z e n s h i p from which  s t u d e n t s d r o p p e d and be  21 t o o k a v e r y  t h e i r new  drawn f r o m t h e s e  However, t h e y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f  The  i s more l i k e l y t o be  a n s w e r s t o t h e l a s t two  s a l u t a r y than  harmful.  q u e s t i o n s on t h e  s t u d e n t s p l a c e d on t h e w o r d s " v e r y n e r v o u s "  and  H o w e v e r , t h e s e a n s w e r s d i d show a g e n e r a l t r e n d . p e r c e n t o f t h e p u p i l s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had confidence to conduct a meeting without  figures.  extra-curricular  question-  n a i r e were g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  nervousness.  the  c i t i z e n s h i p m a r k s w o u l d have t o  s t u d i e d b e f o r e c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be  activities  active  the  "booster". Nearly  sufficient  40  self-  e x p e r i e n c i n g any undue  B u t t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e was  a c q u i r e d i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t s an  unsolved  problem. S e v e n t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e c h i l d r e n s a i d t h a t t h e y were b o o s t e r s f o r t h e s c h o o l , w h i l e 10 p e r c e n t gave t h e t h a t t h e y had no  school s p i r i t . 142  One  impression  g i r l gave a t y p i c a l  answer.  T h i s -student  was one o f t h e a b l e s t s t u d e n t s  i n the school,  p r o f i c i e n t i n h e r c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r r e l i a b l e and c o n s c i e n t i o u s  i n a l l her e f f o r t s .  t h a t s h e t r i e d t o be a b o o s t e r  work,  She r e p l i e d  f o r the school.  Modesty: may  h a v e t i n g e d many o f t h e o t h e r a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , e s p e c i a l l y to questions three-fourths the  1 6 , 1 9 , and 20.  of the students  school morale i s high.  However, i f n e a r l y  are boosters  for the school,  B u t t o what e x t e n t  d i dthe e x t r a -  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e development o f t h i s school  spirit?  No d e f i n i t e a n s w e r c a n be g i v e n t o t h i s  question, but a rapid other  questions  glance  over t h e answers g i v e n t o t h e  warrant the inference that the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  a c t i v i t i e s contributed their f u l l The  students'  questionnaires  share. s u b s t a n t i a t e d many o f t h e  c l a i m s made by t h e e x p o n e n t s o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r The  students'  activities.  o p i n i o n s may be s u m m a r i z e d a s f o l l o w s :  (a)  t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s improve t h e s c h o o l  (b)  t h o u g h a s m a l l number may d e v o t e t o o much t i m e t o  these a c t i v i t i e s ,  and, as a r e s u l t , drop i n s c h o l a s t i c  standing,  many more f i n d t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s o f r e a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e i r regular school (c)  work  these a c t i v i t i e s  suggest h o b b i e s and v o c a t i o n s and  f o s t e r a l o v e f o r music> (d) and  these a c t i v i t i e s stimulate r e g u l a r i t y of attendance  encourage students The  students,  t o complete t h e i r school  then,  favour  education  t h e assumption t h a t there i s  a degree o f c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n 143  extra-c.urricu.lar a c t i v i t i e s r e g u l a r i t y of attendance,  and  and  a student's scholarship,  the l e n g t h of h i s stay i n  school. P o s s i b l y the students are r i g h t :  the  relationship  b e t w e e n t h e number o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s scholastic two  s t a n d i n g w h i c h was  c h a p t e r s may  tors,  i n no way  discovered i n the  have b e e n a c a u s a l one.  h a v e i n f l u e n c e d one  did  the  B u t numerous f a c activities,  group t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a t i t  other.  The  g e n e r a l h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f  s t u d e n t s may  h a v e b e e n b e t t e r i n one  I r r e g u l a r attendance,  group t h a n i n the  Faulty teeth, eye-sight,  h e a r i n g a r e o f t e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o o r m a r k s and  low  Glandular disturbances offer a  c u r r i c u l a r w o r k . " A n o t h e r f a c t o r , and  or  l a c k of  specialized  e x a m p l e o f t h e e f f e c t o f h e a l t h on c u r r i c u l a r and  extra-  a v e r y common one  school d i s t r i c t , i s m a l n u t r i t i o n .  relief:  other.  i n a b i l i t y "to t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n  extra-curricular activities.  interest.  the  owing t o poor h e a l t h , c o u l d cause  s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g and  this  the  previous  connected w i t h e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  may  and  Many p a r e n t s  in  are  many o t h e r s a r e b a r e l y e k i n g o u t an e x i s t e n c e .  s u f f i c i e n t f o o d o r the wrong k i n d s of f o o d are c e r t a i n i n f l u e n c e a c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e t o and  144  attainments  on In-  to  at school.  TABLE XXVT PHYSICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION OE 345 GRADE NINE STUDENTS, 1938-1939. Condition  Frequency of those taking a c t i v i t i e s e v a l u a t e d a t 0-3  F r e q u e n c y o f those F r e q u e n c y o f t h o s taking a c t i v i t i e s taking a c t i e v a l u a t e d a t 4-8 vities evaluated a t 9 o r more  A  30  56  51  A  53  79  56  :'B B  1  D  2  B. 'E  3  B  5  DE  2 1 90  Frequency  142  113  T a b l e X X V I p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the one,  health conditions  of the students.  The l e t t e r s  T a b l e XXVT, a r e t h o s e u s e d b y M e t r o p o l i t a n  A signifies The l e t t e r s ,  e x c e l l e n t h e a l t h , B good h e a l t h , D and E, p l a c e d  Board,  and C f a i r  health.  o r an e n v i r o n m e n t a l  The m o s t common p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s w e r e t e e t h i n  need o f d e n t a l  c a r e and f a u l t y e y e s i g h t .  p r o c u r e d eye g l a s s e s t h e y no l o n g e r  were s t i l l  C h i l d r e n who h a d  l i s t e d as d e f e c t i v e s ,  were h a n d i c a p p e d i n t h e i r r e g u l a r  The d a t a i n T a b l e XXVT show t h a t , w h i l e the  Health  beside the other l e t t e r s , r e -  present, respectively, a physical defect difficulty.  i n column  students taking a c t i v i t i e s evaluated 145  though  school  work.  45,1 p e r c e n t o f  a t 9 o r more w e r e i n  p e r f e c t p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , o n l y 33.3 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s f r e i g h t e d a t 0-3 r e c e i v e d t h e p e r f e c t mark for  general  valued  health.  The m i d d l e g r o u p , t a k i n g  activities  a t 4-8, h a d 39.4 p e r c e n t o f i t s t o t a l  l i s t e d - as p e r f e c t .  frequency  These p e r c e n t a g e s appeared t o prove  that  t h e h e a l t h f a c t o r was one t h a t i n f l u e n c e d g r e a t l y t h e number of a c t i v i t i e s  i n which a student p a r t i c i p a t e d .  of t h o s e w i t h m i n o r p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s were:  The p e r c e n t a g e s  group  taking  s m a l l e s t number o f a c t i v i t i e s ,  58.9 p e r c e n t ;  a v e r a g e number, 56.4 p e r c e n t ;  g r o u p t a k i n g l a r g e s t number,  49.6  p e r cent.  Once a g a i n  group  taking  t h e h e a l t h f a c t o r a p p e a r s t o be a  v i t a l o n e , t h o u g h i t s i m p o r t a n c e i s n o t so p r o n o u n c e d h e r e a s i t was i n t h e f i r s t  s e t of comparisons.  However, two r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s , must be c a r e f u l l y a n a l y s e d before  a f i n a l conclusion  on t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e g e n e r a l  p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n of the students i n the three be  reached.  In the f i r s t  place  d e f e c t was n o t a v a i l a b l e .  groups! c a n  t h e g r a v i t y of each p h y s i c a l  A strident w i t h a decaying  or f a u l t y e y e s i g h t ; i s c e r t a i n l y a t a disadvantage but  tooth  temporarily,  o n c e t h e s e d e f e c t s h a v e b e e n r e m e d i e d t h i s s t u d e n t i s on  an e q u a l b a s i s i n most o f h i s c u r r i c u l a r a n d e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r activities  w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s who were o r i g i n a l l y  p e r f e c t p h y s i c a l specimens. had  l i s t e d as  Some o f t h e s t u d e n t s ,  permanent p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s b u t ,  according  of course,  t o the school  n u r s e , t h e m a j o r i t y o f d e f e c t s were o f a t r i v i a l n a t u r e . f o r e , i n many c a s e s , t h e s t u d e n t s l i s t e d  a s A^ w e r e j u s t a s  c a p a b l e o f e x c e l l e n t s c h o o l w o r k and o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n 146  There  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s as w e r e t h e s t u d e n t s l i s t e d A.  S e c o n d l y , o n l y 5.8  per cent of the t o t a l frequency  as had  g e n e r a l h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h were somewhat u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and t h e s e c a s e s were q u i t e e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d . h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n was taking l i t t l e  r e p o r t e d f o r 7.8  An  inferior  p e r cent of the group  interest i n extra-curricular activities,  p e r c e n t o f t h e g r o u p t a k i n g an a v e r a g e ' a c t i v i t i e s , and 5.3  i n t e r e s t i n those  p e r c e n t o f t h e group t a k i n g an out--  s t a n d i n g i n t e r e s t i n them.  Of t h e t o t a l g r a d e n i n e  enrolment  only 8 students d i s p l a y e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y h e a l t h which be a t t r i b u t e d t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . 39.7  per cent of the t o t a l enrolment  and 54.5  4.2•  had  could  Therefore,  as  satisfactory health  p e r c e n t had p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s , m a i n l y o f a m i n o r  n a t u r e , I t appears, t h a t p o o r h e a l t h c o u l d n o t have b e e n an extremely important i s s u e i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of  scholastic  s t a n d i n g and t h e d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n more t h a n a v e r y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e The another  c h i l d ' s environment  of cases.  o u t s i d e the classrooms i s  important factor...Many  c h i l d r e n , f a c e d by  impos-  s i b l e s t u d y c o n d i t i o n s a t home-., have no o p p o r t u n i t y t o t h e i r b e s t work.  do  O t h e r s , p e r m i t t e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s t o  g a t h e r on s t r e e t c o r n e r s , t o a t t e n d t h e a t r e s , o r t o s i p a t e t h e i r t i m e i n some s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , e v e n i n g e v e n i n g , r a r e l y p r e p a r e l e s s o n s and,  147  g e n e r a l l y , are  disafter lackadaisical  from i n s u f f i c i e n t  sleep.  below the standard take l i t t l e  Such c h i l d r e n a r e l i k e l y t o d r o p  t h e i r a b i l i t y suggests.  O t h e r s may  i n t e r e s t i n the school's e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s  because o f , t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as c l u b s , t h e Y, M. C. A., and many o t h e r s .  church  O t h e r s a r e engaged  i n e a r n i n g money, and a r e u n a b l e t o j o i n a n y s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n 'which, meets.. a f t e r t h e d i s m i s s a l b e l l .  Some s t u d e n t s ,  a f t e r a day. a t s c h o o l , work u n t i l l a t e i n t h e e v e n i n g . Obviously  these l a t t e r students, through  no f a u l t o f t h e i r  own, t e n d t o n e g l e c t a l l t y p e s o f s c h o o l w o r k . The  c h i l d ' s . a t t i t u d e may be a d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n h i s  achievements.  Some c h i l d r e n , o w i n g t o u n s y m p a t h e t i c  treat-  ment b y t e a c h e r s , may h a v e e r e c t e d a b a r r i e r b e t w e e n thems e l v e s and t h e s c h o o l , a b a r r i e r w h i c h p r e v e n t s w i t h any t e a c h e r s vities.  co-operation  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any school, a c t i -  Sometimes t h e t o n e o f a c l a s s d i s c o u r a g e s i t s  i n d i v i d u a l members f r o m t r y i n g t o g a i n h i g h m a r k s and f r o m sharing i n school a c t i v i t i e s :  a n y i n d i v i d u a l s who d i s p l a y  too g r e a t an i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l a r e t h r e a t e n e d by o s t r a c i s m . I n r a r e c a s e s , m e m b e r s h i p i n an a d o l e s c e n t the  same I n f l u e n c e .  o f t h e home.  gang'may w i e l d  The c h i l d r e n o f t e n r e f l e c t t h e a t t i t u d e  'While most p a r e n t s  are i t s . d e s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c s .  support  the school,  others  T h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e encouraged  t o p i c k f l a w s i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , management,, and  148  personnel.  U n s a t i s f a c t o r y m a r k s a r e accepted- a s a f a i l u r e  t h e p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l , n e v e r as an i n d i c a t i o n o f and  on  inattention  p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e on t h e p a r t of t h e s t u d e n t .  Still  o t h e r p a r e n t s , by t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f e v e r y t h i n g b e y o n d the immediate l i m i t s of the  " t h r e e R's"  as " f r i l l s , "  courage p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r One  o r more o f t h e s e  of the students.  f a c t o r s may  activities.  h a v e i n f l u e n c e d many  P o s s i b l y t h e y a f f e c t e d one  s t u d e n t s more t h a n a n o t h e r .  group of  Though s u c h a s u p p o s i t i o n i s  s i m p l y a g u e s s , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y c a n n o t be i g n o r e d . t h e l e s s , t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y c a n n o t be reason  f o r denying  children  accepted  may  as a  Neversufficient  the answers g i v e n by t h e c h i l d r e n .  The  gave t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r . a c t i v i t i e s c r e d i t f o r  much o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two estimate  dis-  groups.  of the v a l u e s of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  have been t o o g e n e r o u s .  Their activities  Yet the assumption t h a t  the  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s were o f c o n s i d e r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n improving the  s c h o l a r s h i p , attendance,  s c h o o l seems t o be  justified.  149  and  attitude  towards  PARENTS'  -QUESTIONNAIRE.  P l e a s e p l a c e a c h e c k mark •under " y e s " , "no", o r " d o u b t f u l " t o show y o u r a n s w e r t o e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . I f p o s s i b l e , b e s i d e each answer p l a c e t h e l e t t e r o r l e t t e r s o f the a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h I n f l u e n c e d your d e c i s i o n . Questions Y e s No 1. I n y o u r o p i n i o n do t h e v a l u e s o f e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s outweigh t h e i r d i s advantages? 2. Has y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r a t t e n d e d s c h o o l more r e g u l a r l y s i n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e activities? 3. Has y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r n e g l e c t e d s c h o o l studies to participate i n extra-curricular activities? 4. I n y o u r o p i n i o n does y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r t a k e p a r t i n t o o many e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r activities? 5. Has y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r i m p r o v e d i n g r a d e standing since taking part i n extra-curricular activities? 6. Has y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r become more i n t e r e s t e d i n school subjects since t a k i n g part i n these activities? 7. Has y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r l o s t i n t e r e s t I n ' i ": s c h o o l s u b j e c t s b e c a u s e t h e y seem d u l l b y comparison w i t h e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? 8. D o e s y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r l i k e m u s i c b e t t e r than formerly? 9. Has y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r a h o b b y ? 10. Did extra-curricular activities start h i m / h e r on t h i s h o b b y ? 1 1 . Has y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r s e l e c t e d a l i f e vocation? 12. D i d e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s suggest this vocation? 13. Does y o u r son/daughter g e t a l o n g w e l l with others? 14.. Does y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r o f t e n q u a r r e l with others? 1 5 . Does y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r t a k e an i n t e l l i g e n t p a r t i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a t home? 16. Does y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r p e r f o r m r e a s o n a b l e d u t i e s s u c h a s c h o r e s and home s t u d y w i t h o u t prompting? 17. Does y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r f o l l o w y o u r i n s t r u c t i o n s r e a d i l y and r e l i a b l y ? 18. Has y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r a n i n t e r e s t i n s u g g e s t e d changes f o r improvement i n o u r c i t y , p r o v i n c e , and d o m i n i o n ? Other advantages:  Doubtful  Other d i s a d v a n t a g e s : 150  The n e x t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t t o s e l e c t e d  parents.  I t was deemed i n a d v i s a b l e t o send q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o t h e parents  o f c h i l d r e n who t o o k a minimum s h a r e i n t h e e x t r a -  curricular  activities.  l e s s had v e r y decided activities,  Though some o f t h e s e opinions concerning  parents  doubt-  the worth o f these  t h e m a j o r i t y w o u l d be u n a b l e t o a n s w e r t h e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e from p r a c t i c a l  experience.  This  questionnaire  s u f f e r e d f r o m some o f t h e d e f e c t s w h i c h were i n h e r e n t i n the  students'  questionnaire.  S e v e r a l o t h e r f a c t o r s may  have i n f l u e n c e d t h e v e r a c i t y o f t h e answers. n a i r e s were t a k e n  The q u e s t i o n -  home and r e t u r n e d b y t h e c h i l d r e n .  f e w c h i l d r e n may h a v e a n s w e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e selves. parents  them-  I n a v e r y f e w c a s e s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t t o of foreign birth.  Some o f t h e s e may n o t have b e e n  able\to understand the questions t h e i r children's advice.  and may h a v e  Some p a r e n t s ,  accepted  realizing  t h e i r c h i l d r e n would have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o read a n s w e r s , may h a v e d e c i d e d  that their  t o prove t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n the  e s t e e m i n w h i c h t h e y h e l d them. parents,  A  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , some  i n an a t t e m p t t o g i v e a b s o l u t e l y f a i r  answers,  may h a v e b e e n o v e r - c r i t i c a l o f t h e i r own c h i l d r e n .  151  TABLE X S Y I I RESULTS OF PARENTS' QUESTIONNAIRES 100 C a s e s Item  Yes  No  Doubtful  Omitted  1 25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15; 16. 17 18  67 40 9 4 31 62 4 61 78 16 35 6 5 92 91 81 81 53  17 49 85 90 57 22 89 26 17 71 51 82 85  12 11 5 5 12 16 6 13 5 11 14 10 7 8 5 10 10 26  4  The  4 9 8 19  1 1 1 2 2 3  1 2  p a r e n t s were n o t n e a r l y as c e r t a i n as t h e s t u d e n t s  t h a t t h e advantages  of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s  outweighed  the disadvantages.  W h i l e 67 p e r c e n t a n s w e r e d t h i s q u e s t i o n  a f f i r m a t i v e l y , 17 p e r c e n t were c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e d i s advantages  surpassed t h e advantages.  P o s s i b l y the children's  answers were b i a s e d by t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e advantages, w h i l e t h e parents..were  i n f l u e n c e d by c e r t a i n  w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s had c o n s i d e r e d t r i v i a l .  disadvantages Some p a r e n t s  b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s o c c u p i e d t i m e w h i c h would have been b e t t e r employed on r e g u l a r s c h o o l work; t h e s e a p p a r e n t l y were a n x i o u s t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n highest possible scholastic  standing.  should win the  I n some c a s e s  c h i l d r e n may n o t have r e c e i v e d t h e s c h o l a s t i c r a n k m i g h t be p r e d i c t e d b y t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s : 152  parents  their  which i n other  cases the parents  w e r e l i k e l y unaware o f t h e  a b i l i t y of t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  Some p a r e n t s  intellectual  may  have f e a r e d  an a f f i r m a t i v e a n s w e r w o u l d e n c o u r a g e an i n c r e a s e number o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . have o b j e c t e d  to the l e n g t h of the  high school.  They may  p l a y i n open a i r and  may  i n the  have f e l t t h a t i t l e f t too  time f o r the performance of chores, h o b b i e s , and  i n the  Many p a r e n t s  s c h o o l day  that  junior  little  the development  of  therefore objected  to  the  •meetings w h i c h were s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d a t noon h o u r o r a f t e r school.  Still  o t h e r s may  curricular activities  h a v e h e a r d so much o f t h e  and  so l i t t l e  work, t h a t they f e a r e d t h e  of the r e g u l a r  r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m was  r e l e g a t e d t o a p o s i t i o n of i n f e r i o r i t y . c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may answer the f i r s t  have d e c i d e d  a n o t h e r 12 p e r  Nevertheless,  apparently  doubt t h a t the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  F o r t y per d r e n had  t o the  two-thirds  regular  cent of the parents  attended  who  not  of the  seemingly, agreed w i t h the activities  were an i m p o r t a n t  r e g u l a r i t y of  students  that  153  chil-  per-  students  i t surpassed  as a w h o l e .  The  parents,  extra-curricular  f a c t o r i n the  attendance.  activities  Though t h i s  t o o k an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , students  cent  participating  as t h a t r e p o r t e d by t h e  the p e r c e n t a g e g i v e n by the  to  parents  reported that t h e i r  s c h o o l more r e g u l a r l y s i n c e  so g r e a t  other  curriculum.  actively in extra-curricular activities. c e n t a g e was  being  T h e s e and many  to express doubt.  were a w o r t h w h i l e a d j u n c t  school  17 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r e n t s  q u e s t i o n n e g a t i v e l y and  f e l t no  extra-  improvement  of  T h e - p a r e n t s were l e s s h a r s h t h a n t h e t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s f o r the n e g l e c t per  students  of s c h o o l work.  i n blaming Though 9  c e n t b l a m e d t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s f o r s u c h n e g l e c t , 85  c e n t b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s c r i t i c i s m was  unjust.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o m p l e t e d by the p a r e n t s t o o k t h e most a c t i v e p a r t per cent of the parents  Though t h e s e of students  who  in extra-curricular activities,  stated that t h e i r children did  t a k e p a r t i n t o o many a c t i v i t i e s . parents,  per  o b v i o u s l y , d i d not  The  f e a r any  vast majority  not  of  detrimental e f f e c t which  t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s m i g h t h a v e on t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l w o r k . fact,  31 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d  In s c h o l a s t i c standing  t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had  F i f t y - s e v e n per  s a i d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had  improved  not  cent of the  parents  improved under these  cir-  However, the answers g i v e n by t h e p a r e n t s and  7 and  by the  students  to  questions  3, 4,  3, and  suggested t h a t the m a j o r i t y of these students  4,  6,  r e t a i n e d an u n c h a n g e d s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . a n s w e r s c a s t no  a higher  The  parents  were n o t  t h e i r school l i f e .  o f t e n a s s i s t e d the  subjects.  had  parents' extra-  students  to  asked whether t h e i r c h i l d r e n  extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s to  However, t h e y were a s k e d w h e t h e r  c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had the  The  2,  s c h o l a s t i c standing.  been encouraged by the  increased  to questions  d o u b t on t h e p u p i l s ' o p i n i o n t h a t t h e  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had achieve  In  since t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n extra-  curricular activities.  cumstances.  90  students'  Sixty-two  per  lessened  interest i n their regular  had extend  partior  school  c e n t s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had 154  become more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r r e g u l a r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s , w h i l e a mere f o u r p e r c e n t r e p l i e d t h a t t h i s i n t e r e s t decreased.  Once a g a i n t h e p a r e n t s ' a n s w e r s b o l s t e r e d t h e  s t u d e n t s ' c o n c l u s i o n t h a t an i n t e r e s t , which regular attendance, was  had  resulted i n  b e t t e r m a r k s , and more y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g ,  f r e q u e n t l y s t i m u l a t e d by e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  activities.  S i x t y - o n e p e r c e n t s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had an i n c r e a s e d l i k i n g f o r m u s i c , -whether t h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n was e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r w o r k , was  b u t no q u e s t i o n , t o  acquired  determine  an outcome o f c u r r i c u l a r  or  p l a c e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  S e v e n t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t Of t h e p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had  chosen hobbies  and t h a t 16 p e r c e n t o f  t o t a l number, o r a b o u t o n e - f i f t h o f t h o s e w i t h h o b b i e s , r e c e i v e d the suggestions f o r the a v o c a t i o n s i n the curricular activities.  The  figure's g i v e n by the  and p a r e n t s i n a n s w e r t o t h e s e two  extra-  q u e s t i o n s bore a  P o s s i b l y t h i s was  an  had  students  s i m i l a r i t y , y e t t h e a n s w e r s t o more c o n t r o v e r s i a l showed a w i d e d i v e r g e n c e .  the  striking  questions  indication  of the v a l i d i t y of the answers t o b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A c c o r d i n g t o - t h e p a r e n t s , 55 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r had  s e l e c t e d v o c a t i o n s , 6 p e r c e n t o f w h i c h were  by t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme.  t h o s e who had  had  suggested  In t h i s instance the  p a r e n t s gave l e s s c r e d i t t o t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r than d i d the students.  children  activities  While the students b e l i e v e d t h a t ,  chosen v o c a t i o n s , e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  of  activities  guided the choice of n e a r l y one-fourth, the parents p l a c e d  t h i s f r a c t i o n at one-sixth.  However, t h e p a r e n t s and 155  students  agreed  t h a t t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s e x e r t e d a moderate  degree o f guidance Students  i n the s e l e c t i o n of vocations.  should develop  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of co-  o p e r a t i o n , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and r e l i a b i l i t y . The  s c h o o l aims t o p e r f o r m  t h i s duty.  The n e x t f e w q u e s t i o n s  were framed t o d i s c o v e r t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had a c q u i r e d t h e s e  qualities.  The  p a r e n t s ' a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s 13 and 14 e v i n c e d t h e o p i n i o n that 5 p e r cent o f the students lacked co-operation, w h i l e 92 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n p o s s e s s e d  this fine  quality.  M n e t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f t h e parens^; s t a t e d t h a t " t h e i r t o o k an i n t e l l i g e n t p a r t i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a t home. t h i s c o u l d be a c c e p t e d had  gained  Possibly students  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and i n i t i a / t i v e a n d were n o t t o o  shy t o express be  a s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e s e  children  t h e i r opinions f l u e n t l y ,  even t h o u g h t h e y m i g h t  i n opposition to t h e i r parents' ideas.  The a f f i r m a t i v e  a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s 16 and 17 r e f u t e d a n y t h e o r y t h a t t h e present  g e n e r a t i o n does n o t compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h e p a s t .  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a r e n t s ' e s t i m a t e s , 81 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r children displayed r e l i a b i l i t y centages  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  The p e r - •  o f a f f i r m a t i v e a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s 14-17 were  e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y h i g h , much g r e a t e r t h a n w o u l d be  expected.  T h e s e s t u d e n t s w e r e o n e s who h a d t a k e n a n a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme. had to  P o s s i b l y t h i s programme  f u l f i l l e d c e r t a i n o f i t s a i m s a n d h a d h e l p e d t h e student's; develop  these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 156  An e x c e l l e n t c i t i z e n must  have a l i v e  i n t e r e s t i n t h e community:  self-centred  v i d u a l s r a r e l y c o n t r i b u t e anything of worth t o t h e i r In  t h e p a r e n t s ' o p i n i o n s , 53 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r  a l r e a d y have a n i n t e r e s t i n s u g g e s t e d improvement o f l o c a l , The a belief  indicountry.  children  changes f o r t h e  p r o v i n c i a l , and f e d e r a l c o n d i t i o n s .  m a j o r i t y of parents, l i k e the c h i l d r e n ,  expressed  i n t h e many v a l u e s a t t r i b u t e d t o e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  activities  and supported  every c l a i m w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s had  advanced. The  next  s t e p i n t h i s s t u d y was a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e  a n s w e r s g i v e n b y t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p a r e n t s .  The  a n s w e r s o f t h e s e two g r o u p s s h o u l d show a h i g h d e g r e e o f similarity.  Wide d i v e r g e n c e s  i n t h e a n s w e r s t o many  q u e s t i o n s would i n d i c a t e that, e i t h e r t h e students o r t h e p a r e n t s o r b o t h had answered t h e q u e s t i o n s t h o u g h t l e s s l y . I d e n t i c a l a n s w e r s t o many q u e s t i o n s w o u l d a r o u s e  t h e sus-  p i c i o n t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had been answered under the i n f l u e n c e o f one o r t h e o t h e r p a r t y and t h a t t h e y d i d n o t express the true opinions of both  157  groups.  TABLE X X V I I I COMPARISON OE THE 'ANSWERS OE  64 PARENTS AND  Points 1. Values of these a c t i v i t i e s are g r e a t e r than t h e i r disadvantages Students . Parents 2. These a c t i v i t i e s improve attendance Students Parents 3. They c a u s e n e g l e c t o f s c h o o l work Students Parents 4. They i n c r e a s e i n t e r e s t i n school Students Parents 5. The s t u d e n t h a s a-hobby Students Parents 6. Extra-curricular activities suggested t h i s hobby Students Parents 7.. The s t u d e n t h a s c h o s e n a vocation Students Parents 8. Extra-curricular activities suggested t h i s v o c a t i o n Students Parents 9. The s t u d e n t i s c o - o p e r a t i v e Students Parents The  THEIR CHILDREN  Yes  No  Doubtful  63 43  12  1 5  4  23 23  34 30  4 7  3 4  11 8  48 53  5 3  28 32  23 21  11 10  2 1  54 48  7 :i5  2 1  1  12 10  42 42  7 6  3 6  25 20  28 34  10 10  1  .9 3  45 38  5 7  5 16  51 59  8  4 5  1  Omitted  •  g r e a t e s t spread of o p i n i o n appeared i n the answers t o  the f i r s t point. been suggested.  Some r e a s o n s The  f o r t h i s d i v e r g e n c y have a l r e a d y  d i f f e r e n c e i n the wording  of the  questions  p r e s e n t e d t o s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s w o u l d p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n t h i s difference. activities t a g e s was  The  s t u d e n t s were a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e  improved made.  the school:  no m e n t i o n o f t h e i r  P o s s i b l y the wording 158  extra-curricular disadvan-  of the students' question  influenced-some  s t u d e n t s t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n  affirmatively.  The s e c o n d p o i n t was t h e o n l y one i n w h i c h . t h e r e complete agreement between t h e p a r e n t s  was  and t h e i r c h i l d r e n on  a p o s i t i v e value of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s .  The  a n s w e r s t o a l l t h e o t h e r q u e s t i o n s , e x c e p t i n g p o i n t 8, a n o r m a l amount o f a g r e e m e n t .  showed  P a r e n t s , t h o u g h f e w e r o f them  a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n one a f f i r m a t i v e l y , c a s t l e s s "blame t h e i r c h i l d r e n on e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s  than  f o r causing  n e g l e c t o f r e g u l a r s c h o o l w o r k a n d gave more c r e d i t t o t h e i n t e r e s t arousing stimulus of these  activities.  The  chil-  d r e n ' s a n s w e r t o p o i n t 4, h o w e v e r , may n o t h a v e b e e n s t a t e d , f a i r l y as these  a n s w e r s were b a s e d on t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o t h e  q u e s t i o n , "Do y o u want t o s t a y i n s c h o o l a s l o n g a s y o u c a n because you a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r More s t u d e n t s t h a n p a r e n t s  activities?".  r e p o r t e d s t u d e n t s had chosen  h o b b i e s and v o c a t i o n s and, r e s u l t a n t l y , the s t u d e n t s more c r e d i t f o r t h e i r c h o i c e s t o t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r vities  than  d i d t h e i r parents.  divergence  t h e i r parents'  knowledge  The r e p l i e s t o p o i n t 8 showed r a t h e r a w i d e of o p i n i o n i n the a f f i r m a t i v e column, a d i f f e r e n c e  w h i c h may be e x p l a i n e d b y t h e e q u a l l y w i d e d i v e r g e n c e column o f o m i s s i o n s . suggested  acti-  Some s t u d e n t s may have s e l e c t e d  t h e i r h o b b i e s and v o c a t i o n s w i t h o u t or consent.  gave  The number o f o m i s s i o n s  by the p a r e n t s  t h a t t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were f i l l e d  i n b y them-  s e l v e s , not i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  159  i n the  Point 9  was  b a s e d on q u e s t i o n 14 on t h e p a r e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e , "Does  y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s ? " and on t h e  s t u d e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e , "Do  t e a c h e r s , and Seven?".  you  get along w i t h  o t h e r p e r s o n s b e t t e r than you  As a s l i g h t q u a l i f i c a t i o n was  answers, the negative  on q u e s t i o n  16  pupils,  d i d i n Grade  p l a c e d on t h e  a n s w e r s by 8 s t u d e n t s w e r e t o  students'  be  expected. A d i a g n o s i s of Table XXvTII proves t h a t , of cases, the p u p i l s ' a n d t h e i r parents c a r e f u l l y and answer. of t h i s .  The  i n the m a j o r i t y  considered  each  question  gave a w e l l - c o n s i d e r e d p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n i n e a c h  ;  study of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s convinced  the  Many q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , b o t h o f s t u d e n t s and  of  writer parents,  b o r e comments w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e d t h e p a i n s t a k i n g manner b y w h i c h t h e y had The  reached  their conclusions.  s t u d e n t s b a s e d t h e i r a n s w e r s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n  t h e i r r e p l i e s may  have been b i a s e d by t h e enjoyment  derived from these  activities.  The  b a s e d on h e a r s a y  they  p a r e n t s ' answers were  r e s u l t o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r own the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  and  a c t i v i t i e s and,  c h i l d r e n ' s reactions to  t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , were  r a t h e r t h a n on a c t u a l  knowledge.  The  teachers  w e r e p l a c e d i n t h e most f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n t o p r e s e n t  opinions.  T h e i r i d e a s were t h e r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r o l e sponsors who  and  o f a d a i l y o p p o r t u n i t y t o compare t h o s e  were r e l a t i v e l y u n i n t e r e s t e d i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  to those  s t u d e n t s who  a c t i v i t i e s as t h e  were anxious  to participate  school a u t h o r i t i e s would permit.  reasons the f o l l o w i n g  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  teachers. 160  the  of  students activities  i n a s many For  distributed to  these the  TEACHERS'  QUESTIONNAIRE  Questions Yes 1. Do t h e v a l u e s o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s outweigh t h e i r disadvantages? 2. Do p u p i l s a t t e n d s c h o o l more r e g u l a r l y because of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? 3. Do y o u t h i n k e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n f l u e n c e p u p i l s t o r e m a i n i n s c h o o l a s many y e a r s as p o s s i b l e ? 4. Do p u p i l s n e g l e c t t h e i r s c h o o l w o r k t o participate i n extra-curricular activities? 5. Do p u p i l s d i s p l a y l e s s i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r s c h o o l w o r k when t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e activities? 6. Do p u p i l s i m p r o v e t h e i r s c h o o l w o r k when • t h e y become i n t e r e s t e d i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r activities? 7. S h o u l d p u p i l s be p e r m i t t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n more t h a n t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s ? 8. Do e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s p a r t i a l l y solve the problem of i n d i v i d u a l differences? 9. Do p u p i l s l i k e m u s i c , a r t and l i t e r a t u r e b e t t e r because o f these a c t i v i t i e s ? 10. Do p u p i l s f i n d h o b b i e s t h r o u g h t h e s e activities? 11. Do p u p i l s s e l e c t t h e i r v o c a t i o n s b y t h e t r a i n i n g they receive i n these a c t i v i t i e s ? 12. Do p u p i l s d r o p i n c i t i z e n s h i p when t h e y take an a c t i v e p a r t i n these a c t i v i t i e s ? 13. Do p u p i l s become c o n c e i t e d b e c a u s e o f the p o s i t i o n s they h o l d i n these a c t i v i t i e s ? 14. Do p u p i l s c o - o p e r a t e b e t t e r w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r s because o f these a c t i v i t i e s ? 15. Do p u p i l s c o - o p e r a t e b e t t e r w i t h o t h e r p u p i l s because of these a c t i v i t i e s ? 16. Do p u p i l s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s d i s p l a y l e a d e r s h i p and i n i t i a t i v e ? 17. Do t h e p u p i l s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s show a g r e a t e r s e n s e o f r e s p o n sibility? 18. Do p u p i l s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s show no d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s f r o m t h i s participation? 19. Do p u p i l s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s d i s p l a y i n t e r e s t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h w i l l t e n d t o make them e x c e l l e n t f u t u r e citizens? Other advantages: Other disadvantages: 161  No  Doubtful  Absolute the t e a c h e r s '  c r e d e n c e c a n n o t be g i v e n t o t h e r e s u l t s o f questionnaire.  The common f l a w s o f t h e '  q u e s t i o n n a i r e method, w h i c h h a v e b e e n p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , may have a f f e c t e d some o f t h e a n s w e r s .  This  questionnaire,  w h i c h was a n s w e r e d b y 44 t e a c h e r s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y  99 p e r c e n t  of the s t a f f ,  questions,  demanded p a i n s t a k i n g t h o u g h t .  b a s e d on e x p e r i e n c e  The  w i t h a l l p u p i l s r a t h e r t h a n on i s o l a t e d  ' i n s t a n c e s , f r e q u e n t l y drew t h e a n s w e r , " d o u b t f u l " .  Though  t h e t e a c h e r s w e r e a s k e d t o o m i t t h e i r names f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a few appeared s u s p i c i o u s of t h e use t o which • t h e i r a n s w e r s were t o be p u t .  The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t  their  i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s m i g h t be made a v a i l a b l e t o o t h e r s t h a n t h e w r i t e r and t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t h e y  gave  m i g h t i n f l u e n c e t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s may have t i n g e d t h e a n s w e r s on some q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  Some, p o s s i b l y , f e a r e d  t h a t t h e a l r e a d y l e n g t h y t e a c h i n g d a y m i g h t be i n c r e a s e d if the  t h e i r o p i n i o n s d i s p l a y e d t o o much e n t h u s i a s m f o r extra-curricular activities.  experience  O t h e r s , who have h a d l i t t l e  i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , c o u l d not ans-  wer t h e q u e s t i o n s  reliably.  b i a s , t h e r e s u l t o f one v e r y successful venture  Still  others exhibited a  s u c c e s s f u l o r decidedly un-  into the f i e l d  vities.  162  of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -  TABLE X X I X RESULT OE TEACHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE 44, Case's :tem  Yes  1 2 3 4 5  34 16 21 11 2 17 0 36 38 39 4 0 3 39 38 28 34 1 31  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  No  fo  (77.2) (36.3) (47.7) (25 ) ( 4.5) (38.6) ( o ) (81,8) (63.6) (88.6)  ( 9  2  8  )  ( o ) ( 4.5) (88.6) (86.5) (63.6) (77.2) ( 2.2) (70.4)  9 16 32 5 42 '.4 5 2 11 42 24 0 2 2 1 36 1  Doubtful  fo  ( 4.5) (18.1) (20.4) (36.3) (72.7) '(11.3) (95.4)  ( 9  )  (11.3) ( 4.5) (25.. ) (95.4) (54.5) ( 0 ) ( 4.5). ( 4.5) ( 2.2) (81.8) (• 2 . 2 )  8 20 14 17 10 22 2 4 8 2 28 1 17 4 3 13 8 6 11  (18.1) [45.4) (31.8) (38.6) (22.7) (50 ) ( 4.5)  ( 9  n e a r l y 5 p e r cent of these  expressed  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  )  (.18.1) ( 4.5) (63.6) ' 2,2) 38.6) 9 ) 6.8) 29.5) 18.1) 13.6) ( 25 )  Seventy-seven p e r cent of the teachers, stamp o f a p p r o v a l o n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  Omitted  fo  placed  fo  o 0  ) ) ( ) ( o ) ( o ) ; o ) ( o ) ( 0 ) (6.8) 0  '2.2) (2.2) (2.2)  2.2) 2.2) r  2.2)  2.2) I 2.2) ( 2 • 2) 2.2)  their  activities,  while  the opinion that the disadvantages  a c t i v i t i e s o u t w e i g h e d t h e i r a d v a n t a g e s . . The t e a c h e r s '  answers to, t h i s f i r s t  q u e s t i o n p l a c e d them i n an i n t e r m e d i a t e  p o s i t i o n between, t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t s a n d o f t h e parents.  Possibly  l e a s t unbiased a fairly  figure  o f t h e t h r e e a n d may be a c c e p t e d  sound a n s w e r t o t h i s  In the matter teachers  the teachers' percentage presented the as  question.  o f t h e improvement o f a t t e n d a n c e , t h e  took a median p o s i t i o n .  Though 4 5 p e r c e n t  a n o n c o m m i t t a l a n s w e r , 36 p e r c e n t . a n s w e r e d  gave  affirmatively.  So t h e c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s ,  teachers,.  p a r e n t s , a n d s t u d e n t s , was t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  activities  163  s t i m u l a t e d ; r e g u l a r i t y of  attendance.  N e a r l y h a l f the teachers b e l i e v e d that the who to  students  t o o k an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s - w e r e more l i k e l y r e m a i n i n s c h o o l f o r a g r e a t e r number o f y e a r s t h a n  s t u d e n t s who;.were u n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . percentage  proved  those  This  t h a t t h e o p i n i o n s o f a l a r g e number o f  s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s c o i n c i d e d on t h i s q u e s t i o n . Twenty-five per c e n t o f the t e a c h e r s f e a r e d t h a t the students tended  t o n e g l e c t t h e i r s c h o o l work t o  in extra-curricular activities.  participate  Some t e a c h e r s may  have  had  i n m i n d t h e I n s t a n c e s when s t u d e n t s r e q u e s t e d p e r m i s s i o n t o m i s s t h e i r r e g u l a r l e s s o n s i n o r d e r t o p e r f o r m some e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r duty.  Some s t u d e n t s , u n d e r t h e s e  circumstances,,  not o n l y missed p a r t of the l e s s o n , but a l s o f a i l e d  to  en-  q u i r e , f r o m t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s what a s s i g n m e n t had b e e n g i v e n to  the c l a s s .  However, t h e t e a c h e r has  the r i g h t t o r e p o r t  such n e g l i g e n c e t o the sponsor  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h  the student i s connected.  student r e c e i v i n g  Any  a b l e comments o f t h i s n a t u r e may his  position.  which  unfavour-  be r e q u e s t e d t o r e s i g n f r o m  Thus t h e remedy f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n l i e s i n t h e  t e a c h e r ' s hands.  Though the t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e n t a g e  was  much  h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e p a r e n t s , i t Showed a f a i r d e g r e e o f conformity w i t h the students' e s t i m a t e .  The  large majority  o f . e a c h group appeared c o n v i n c e d t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  acti-  v i t i e s were n o t a m a j o r r e a s o n f o r n e g l e c t of s c h o o l work. The  t e a c h e r s were r e q u e s t e d t o answer a n e g a t i v e  t i o n on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 164  queson  i n t e r e s t * i n r e g u l a r s c h o o l work.  Less than 5 per  reported that a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these reduced the  activities  I n t e r e s t I n r e g u l a r s c h o o l work.  f o u r t h s of the t e a c h e r s  cent  Nearly  three-  signified a belief that this  parti-  c i p a t i o n e i t h e r increased i n t e r e s t i n the r e g u l a r o r had  no p e r c e p t i b l e i n f l u e n c e on i t .  The  curriculum  p a r e n t s , when  a s k e d t h e c o n v e r s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n , gave a m a j o r i t y  de-  c i s i o n t h a t t h e a c t i v i t i e s c r e a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n t h e required school studies. t h e . a c t i v i t i e s had The  The  p u p i l s themselves i n f e r r e d  produced a g r e a t e r degree of  interest.  t h r e e groups suggested, then, t h a t the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  a c t i v i t i e s were p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l i v e l y so many s t u d e n t s  d i s p l a y towards a l l a s p e c t s  A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f p a r e n t s t h a t s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g had the  that  per cent  students  disagreed w i t h these, while one-half H o w e v e r , a s t h o s e who  a s s u m p t i o n o u t n u m b e r e d t h o s e who appears t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e  claimed  denied  suggestion  chose t o  give  accepted  this  i t t h r e e t o one,  t h a t the  students  U n l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n has  c r i t i c i s m of the  it  c r e d e n c e c a n be p l a c e d on i t .  s h o u l d be  m i t t e d t h e p r i v i l e g e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n more t h a n t h r e e vities.  of  Eleven  t e a c h e r s were p r a c t i c a l l y unanimous i n t h e i r  j e c t i o n o f any  life.  T h i r t y - e i g h t per cent  asserted t h e i r belief i n this theory.  a n o n c o m m i t t a l answer.  The  of school  been r a i s e d by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme.  the teachers  and  interest  caused  165  peracti-  considerable  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and  w i t h t h i s programme u n d e r s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s  re-  may  experience e x p l a i n much  o f t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n and  doubt w h i c h c e r t a i n t e a c h e r s ex-  p r e s s e d when t h e y were q u e s t i o n e d  on t h e v a l u e s w h i c h  -  the  e x p o n e n t s o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a t t a c h t o them. The to  t h r e e g r o u p s , s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , and  be o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t c a r e f u l l y r e g u l a t e d  a c t i v i t i e s t e n d t o b u i l d up  lengthen  and  the educational l i f e  appeared  extra-curricular  an i n t e r e s t i n t h e  r e s u l t s i n b e t t e r attendance to  teachers,  school which  s c h o l a r s h i p , and w h i c h t e n d s of the average c h i l d .  How-  ever, u n r e s t r i c t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o the w r i t e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , may portance  o f t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m and  a s s i s t the aspect  e c l i p s e the  harm r a t h e r  The  overwhelmingly  prevent  t h i s c o n d i t i o n , and  participation  h i s r e g u l a r s c h o o l work.  f e a r t h a t s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s , a s a w h o l e , w o u l d  not understand why  answer  determination  to l i m i t a child's  according to h i s a b i l i t y to perform The  important  negative  by the t e a c h e r s t o q u e s t i o n 7 demonstrated a to  than  s t u d e n t b y " a n o v e r - e m p h a s i s on t h e l e s s  of school l i f e .  im-  the term " i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s " e x p l a i n s  t h i s q u e s t i o n was  r e s t r i c t e d t o the t e a c h e r s .  Though t h e  t e a c h e r s w o u l d l i k e t o t r e a t e a c h c h i l d as a s e p a r a t e u n f o r t u n a t e l y the  study,  s i z e of the average c l a s s f r e q u e n t l y f o r c e s  the t e a c h e r t o t e a c h to the median of the c l a s s r a t h e r than d e a l w i t h each student  a s an i n d i v i d u a l e n t i t y .  per cent of the teachers  felt  Eighty-one  that the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  v i t i e s o f f e r e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s o l v e , i n p a r t a t the problem o f ' i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  166  to  acti-  least,  The,opinions  o f t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s on t h e a e s t h e t i c  influence of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s displayed a close similarity..  S i x t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s and 61  per cent o f the parents thought vities  developed  the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i - .  an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e f i n e  arts.  The e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v e d c r e d i t f o r t h e c h o i c e o f h o b b i e s and v o c a t i o n s a l s o .  The t e a c h e r s were more  o p t i m i s t i c t h a n e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s i n t h e i r e s 'timate of t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the a c t i v i t i e s of  hobbies.  i n the s e l e c t i o n  E i g h . t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f them s t a t e d t h a t t h e  p u p i l s found hobbies i n these a c t i v i t i e s . o p i n i o n of the v o c a t i o n a l guidance  However, t h e i r  c o n f e r r e d by t h e t r a i n i n g  i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s was t h e l o w e s t o f t h e t h r e e groups.  Only 9 per cent of the teachers b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s  t r a i n i n g was a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n t h e c h o i c e o f v o c a t i o n s , while one-quarter f e l t  t h a t i t was a n e g l i g i b l e f a c t o r .  The  i n d e c i s i o n o f 65 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s f a c t o r may n o t be a s t r i v i a l a s t h e a f f i r m a t i v e  percentage  implied. Hone o f t h e t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s c a u s e d p o o r e r d e p o r t m e n t , and l e s s t h a n 5 p e r c e n t b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e honour a t t a c h e d t o o f f i c e s i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s caused  conceit.  N i n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s were c e r t a i n t h a t t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme d i d n o t c a u s e a l o w e r i n g o f t h e citizenship  standard of the school.  N e a r l y 90 p e r c e n t o f  the teachers b e l i e v e d t h a t these a c t i v i t i e s created a g r e a t e r 167  s e n s e o f , c o - o p e r a t i o n among t h e s t u d e n t s and b e t w e e n t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e i r t e a c h e r s .  F r o m an e n t i r e l y s e l f i s h  view-  p o i n t , t h e n , t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a r e a boon t o the teachers.  Though t h e y i n v o l v e t h e l e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e  s c h o o l day, t h e y l i g h t e n t h e t e a c h e r s ' burden o f d i s c i p l i n e . From t h e c i t i z e n ' s v i e w p o i n t , t h e v a l u e o f i n c u l c a t i n g  self-  d i s c i p l i n e must be a x i o m a t i c . According to the teachers, the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r v i t i e s were a c h i e v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s inculcating leadership, i n i t i a t i v e , bility.  While  the f i r s t the  acti-  i n t h e i r a i m s .of  and a s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i -  63 p e r c e n t s t a t e d t h a t t h e y w e r e  developing  t w o , 77 p e r c e n t b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y were  developing  third. One t e a c h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t no d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s  from p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  resulted  O v e r 80 p e r c e n t w e r e i n d i s a g r e e m e n t  w i t h t h i s lone teacher.  S i x teachers expressed  one t e a c h e r f a i l e d t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n . m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s have a c c e p t e d  d o u b t and  However, a s t h e  e v e r y one o f t h e s u g g e s t e d  b e n e f i t s c o n f e r r e d on p a r t i c i p a n t s b y e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r vities,  acti-  the assumption t h a t the vast m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s  d i s p l a y some d e s i r a b l e o u t c o m e s a p p e a r s  justified.  S e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s , a much h i g h e r  percen-  tage than t h a t o f t h e p a r e n t s , s t a t e d t h a t they b e l i e v e d t h a t the experience  gained  i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s would  serve t o mould t h e p r e s e n t  generation into excellent c i t i z e n s  of t h e f u t u r e . 168  Advocates  o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s are accused  o f b i a s when t h e y l i s t  t h e numerous v a l u e s o f t h e s e  activities.  T h e i r c r i t i c s m a i n t a i n t h a t some o f t h e s e v a l u e s a r e t h e o r e t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n a c t u a l and t h a t t h e y a r e t h e outcome o f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n r a t h e r than t h e r e s u l t o f genuine  investigation.  T h i s w r i t e r r e c e i v e d a n s w e r s t o 495 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t t o t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , and p u p i l s .  T h i s number i n c l u d e d s t r o n g  s u p p o r t e r s and v i o l e n t o p p o n e n t s o f t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r v i t i e s a s w e l l a s many p e r s o n s who a d o p t e d  a neutral  on t h e i r w o r t h .  to give a f a i r  consensus  Thus t h i s s u r v e y a p p e a r e d  acti-  position  o f o p i n i o n s on t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l u m and t h e c o n -  c l u s i o n s based  on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s h o u l d b e , on t h e w h o l e ,  r e l a t i v e l y f r e e from b i a s .  T h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s were a commen-  dation of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s  because:  (a)  they f o s t e r school  (b)  t h e y a i d i n t h e d i s c o v e r y o f v o c a t i o n s and a v o c a t i o n s  / (c) (d)  morale  they i n s t i l a love of the "fine a r t s i n t o the students t h e y i n c r e a s e i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l which causes improvement i n r e g u l a r i t y o f a t t e n d a n c e , i n d e p o r t ment, i n r e t e n t i o n o f c h i l d r e n a t s c h o o l , and i n standards of s c h o l a s t i c  (e)  attainment  they develop c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of co-operation, i n i t i a t i v e ,  self-reliance,  l e a d e r s h i p , and r e s -  ponsibility (f)  t h e y encourage the f u l f i l m e n t of c i t i z e n s ' p r i v i l e g e s and d u t i e s 169  CHAPTER V I  GENERAL CONCLUSIONS  170  I t was p o i n t e d o u t i n t h e f i r s t curricular activities,  chapter that e x t r a -  though not always g i v e n t h a t d e s i g -  n a t i o n , have h e l d a p l a c e i n e d u c a t i o n and  since e a r l i e s t  that world conditions during the l a s t century  times  have  augmented t h e demand f o r t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n a l l s c h o o l programmes.  The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s e  a c t i v i t i e s , as g i v e n  i n C h a p t e r I , I n c l u d e t h e a i m o f improvement o f s c h o l a s t i c standing.  However, n e i t h e r t h e i r a n t i q u i t y n o r t h e i r  objectives i s proof that e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s succeeded, i n r a i s i n g t h e s c h o l a s t i c s t u d e n t s who  standings  have  of those  have a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n them.  n e c e s s i t a t e d an o b j e c t i v e s t u d y i n a modern  lofty  The  proof  s c h o o l of t h i s  p r o b l e m o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c  standing.  Templeton J u n i o r High  S c h o o l , where t h e w r i t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s t e a c h e s , has a t o t a l e n r o l m e n t o f o v e r 1500 s t u d e n t s c u r r i c u l a r programme, Thus t h i s  and a. c o m p r e h e n s i v e e x t r a -  which has been d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I .  school presented  t i g a t i o n of t h i s problem.  an i d e a l l o c a t i o n f o r t h e i n v e s Through t h e kindness  of the  p r i n c i p a l o f t h i s s c h o o l , Mr. H. B. F i t c h , a c c e s s t o s t u d e n t s ' r e c o r d s and r e s e a r c h among t h e s t u d e n t s , and  parents,  t e a c h e r s wa-s p e r m i t t e d . Former researches  on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e x t r a -  c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g f r e q u e n t l y concluded had  with the assertion that extra-curricular  activities  not been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the m a j o r i t y of low s c h o l a s t i c 171  s t a n d i n g s . T h o u g h , i n the those of low  cases of  some s t u d e n t s ,  I n t e l l i g e n c e , an u n r e s t r i c t e d  t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s might have i n f l u e n c e d a d v e r s e l y , the  authors believed  that  have b e e n b l a m e d f o r most o f t h e attainments.  The  writer  The  d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r s I I I and  The  scholastic  an  the  t h e i r r a n k s were s t u d i e d . an  active  that  TV  scholastic  i s in entire  l e a d him  agreement  w h i c h have b e e n  t o assume t h a t activities is  improvement i n s c h o l a s t i c  Both y e a r s the  fre-  standing.  students at Templeton  same t r e n d d u r i n g t h e  an  two  Junior  years  group w h i c h took  part i n these a c t i v i t i e s attained.marks which proved  a large  predicted  should  i n s t a n c e s of poor  investigations  s t a n d i n g s of the  High School displayed  standing  other factors  'active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r q u e n t l y a c c o m p a n i e d by  participation in  scholastic  of t h i s t h e s i s  with these conclusions.  especially  by  number were a c h i e v i n g t h e  r e s u l t s which might  a study of t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s .  This  g r o u p , i n s u c c e s s i v e y e a r s , d e m o n s t r a t e d a much c l o s e r l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i t s i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s and  re-  i t s ranks  than d i d the  group w h i c h t o o k a nominal p a r t i n t h e s e  acti-  vities.  g r a p h s show t h a t  of  the  The  group t a k i n g  receiving ligence  t h i s was  a small share I n  not  the  result  extra-curricular  activities  a l a r g e r number o f h i g h e r m a r k s t h a n i t s i n t e l -  q u o t i e n t s s u g g e s t e d . , I f e i t h e r group e x c e l l e d  intelligence quotients,  i t was  freely in extra-curricular  the  group w h i c h  activities.  I f the  its  participated students'  ' i n t e l l i g e n c e i s h i g h a v e r a g e o r above a v e r a g e , t h e n ,  the  relationship  scho-  :  between e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r • 172-  be  a c t i v i t i e s and  lastic  s t a n d i n g s a p p e a r s t o be  The  tables,  an a d v a n t a g e o u s  graphs, c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n ,  c r i t i c a l r a t i o s g i v e n i n C h a p t e r s I I I and of a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  extra-curricular  showed t h e  e x i s t e n c e of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , but  this relationship d a t a i n t h e s e two  l e n d s credence t o the a c a u s a l one. scholastic  The  the  chapters.  the  The  theory that  s t a n d i n g a p p e a r t o be  Even the  difference  can  be  fifth  the  i n the  as  no  indication  deduced f r o m  c h a p t e r , however,  r e l a t i o n s h i p may  be  affected  i n f l u e n t i a l on  the  extra-curricular activities in extra-curricular  f a c t o r of g e n e r a l h e a l t h  between the  acti-  of methods u s e d  many f a c t o r s w h i c h m i g h t have  group Immensely i n t e r e s t e d  vities.  variety  i s a c a u s a l one  group l i t t l e . i n t e r e s t e d on  The  and  gave e v i d e n c e  scholastic  the  standing.  IV,  v i t i e s and  that  one.  scholastic  c o u l d not  as  actiexplain  s t a n d i n g s of the  two  groups. The  o n l y f a c t o r w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o a p p l y t o one  o n l y was  an  vities.  Thus t h e  active participation i n extra-curricular p r o c e s s of  elimination  suggests  e x i s t e n c e of a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c t i v i t i e s and  scholastic  o p i n i o n of the  s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , and  in  the  to the and  standings.  The  extra-curricular  that  they stimulated  an  t e a c h e r s , as They  of given  believed  direct  aid  c u r r i c u l a r programme  i n t e r e s t i n the 173  the  consensus  a c t i v i t i e s offered  students i n t h e i r regular  acti-  extra-curricular  questionnaires, supported t h i s theory.  that  group-  school which  was  r e f l e c t e d i n the students' s c h o l a s t i c standing. appears j u s t i f i a b l e  Therefore i t  to assume that the main cause f o r the  advantageous r e l a t i o n s h i p "between e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  acti-  v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c standing may be a t t r i b u t e d to the extra-curricular But  activities.  the value of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s was not  l i m i t e d to i t s i n f l u e n c e on r e g u l a r school work. of v o c a t i o n s and hobbies,  The choice  the r e g u l a r i t y and l e n g t h of a t t e n -  dance a t s c h o o l , the growth of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e l f confidence , r e l i a b i l i t y ,  initiative*  and co-operation, the  a p p r e c i a t i o n of the f i n e a r t s , and the development of those a b i l i t i e s which create worthy school c i t i z e n s and may i n f l u e n c e the c h i l d ' s behaviour when he becomes a c i t i z e n of the s t a t e , a l l have, i n the e s t i m a t i o n of teachers, parents, and students, r e c e i v e d a stimulus from the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  activities.  These a c t i v i t i e s appear to be i n d i s p e n s a b l e .  I f their influence  on s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g were n e g l i g i b l e , t h e i r other  accomplish-  ments would warrant t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n the school's programme. However, the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s appear to e x e r t a b e n e f i c i a l i n f l u e n c e on s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . appears j u s t i f i a b l e  Therefore, i t  to accept the c o n c l u s i o n that p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s i s a profitable enterprise f o r the m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n because t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l  assist  them i n t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c endeavors and w i l l present an opport u n i t y f o r the students  to s a t i s f y many of the other  of t r u l y educated persons,  174  criteria  BIBLIOGRAPHY A. B o o k s 1.  B u t t e r w e c k , J".. S. a n a M u z z e y , G. A. "A Handbook f o r Teachers: an I n t e g r a t i n g C o u r s e f o r C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s i n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s . " Hew Y o r k , E.P. D u t t o n & Co. I n c . , 1 9 3 9 .  2.  C h a m b e r l a i n , L e o M. "The T e a c h e r and S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n . " Hew Y o r k , P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c . , 1 9 3 6 .  3.  Dewey S o c i e t y , F i r s t Y e a r Book o f "The T e a c h e r and S o c i e t y " New Y o r k , D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Co., 1 9 3 7 .  .4.  D r e w r y , Raymond C. " P u p i l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n H i g h S c h o o l Control." New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & Co., 1 9 2 8 .  5.  F o s t e r , C h a s . R. " E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s i n t h e H i g h S c h o o l . " Richmond, V a . , Johnson P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 2 5 .  6.  F r e t w e l l , E l b e r t K. "Extra-Curricular Activities i n Secondary S c h o o l s . 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