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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An investigation of the relationship between extra-curricular activities and scholastic standing Found, Richard Keith 1939

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN-. E2TRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES AND SCHOLASTIC STANDING by R i c h a r d K e i t h Found A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE ^ REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS I N THE DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY TEE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MARCH, 1939 •CONTENTS Chapter Page I The H i s t o r y and O b j e c t i v e s o f E x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s 10 I I The E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s o f Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . . . . 39 211 An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the R e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Number o f A c t i v i t i e s and S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g , 1957-1938. 59 IV An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the R e l a t i o n s h i p between the Humbler o f A c t i v i t i e s and S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g , 1938-1939. 89 V The V a l u e s o f E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i -v i t i e s as I n d i c a t e d I n the Q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 VI G e n e r a l C o n c l u s i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . 143 2 Number Table I. Table II. Table III. Table IV. Table V. Table VI. Table VII. Table VIII. Table IX. Table X. Table XI. Table XII. Table XIII. Table XIV. LIST OF TABLES T i t l e Page Letter Grades, Numerical Equivalents and Percentages Receiving Each. . . . 65 Numerical Averages and Equivalent Letter Grades 66 Intelligence Quotients with their Theoretically Expected Scholastic Standings, 1937-1938. . . . . . . . . 66 Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and of Students Talcing 5 or more A c i t i v i t i e s . 70 Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students of Superior A b i l i t y Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 6 or more A c t i v i t i e s 74 Comparison of the Scholastic Standings of Students, with Intelligence Quotients between 90-110, Taking 0-2 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . 77 Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students with Matched Intelligence Quo-tients, Ranging between 90 and 138, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s 82 Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students of Superior Intelligence, with Matched Intelligence Quotients, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and 6 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . 83 Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students of Average A b i l i t y , with Matched Intelligence Quotients, Taking 0-2 A c t i v i t i e s and 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . 87 Relationship between the Number of At h l e t i c A c t i v i t i e s • a n d Scholastic Standing. • • • • . • • • • • • • « • 88 Relationship between the number of the Non-Athletic A c t i v i t i e s and Scholastic S 1j 3.11(3. X « e e s « e » 0 « 9 « e « e e QX Comparison of the Number of A c t i v i t i e s and Scholastic Standings of Students Taking A t h l e t i c A c t i v i t i e s Only and of Students Taking Non-Athletic A c t i v i t i e s Only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Relationship between the Number of A c t i -v i t i e s (Both Types) and Scholastic Standing. « . • • • • • • • • • • • • 96 Relationship between Number of A c t i v i t i e s and Scholastic Standing. 97 3 Number T i t l e Page Table XV. Table XVI. Table XVII. Table XVIII. Table XIX. Table XX. Table XXI. Table XXII. Table XXIII, Table XXIV. Table XXV. Table XXVI. Table XXVII. Table XXVIII, Table XXIX. Comparison of Scholastic Standing of Students, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s , whose I.Q. 's have been Equated i n Different G r o u,jp s • « « • « • • • • 9 9 Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students, i n Different Intelligence Quotient Groups, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . 104 Points f o r Different A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . 110 Intelligence Quotients with their Theoretically Expected Scholastic S"fcctncl in§s • « • • « • • « • • • « « 111 Comparison of Number of A c t i v i t i e s in which Students Participated and the Scholastic Standing They Received. . . . 113 Comparison of I.Q,.'s and Scholastic S "fcEind x n.|5 • 1X5 Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students in Different Intelligence Groups, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . 118 Comparison of Evaluated A c t i v i t i e s and Scholastic Standing 121 Comparison of the Intelligence Quotients and Scholastic Standings of Students Taking A c t i v i t i e s Evaluated at 1-3, 4-8, and 9-32 . 124 Pupils' Questionnaires (351) 134 Attendance of the Students of Two Classes from September to March Inclusive « 139 Physical and Environmental Con-d i t i o n of 345 Grade Nine Students, 1938-1939 145 Results of Parents' Questionnaires 100 case s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Comparison of the Answers of 64 Parents and Their Children 158 Result of Teachers' Questionnaires 44 Cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 4 LIST OP FIGURES PAGE Figure I, Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students, with Intelligence Quotients averaging 109, who took 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and who took 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . 72 Figure II. Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students of Superior A b i l i t y Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 6 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Figure I I I . Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students with Intelligence Quotients between 90-110 who took 0-2 A c t i v i t i e s and who took b or more A c t i v i t i e s . , 78 Figure IV. Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students with Matched Intelligence Quotients, Ranging between 90-138, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Figure V. Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students of Superior A b i l i t y , with Matched Intelligence Quotients, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 6 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Figure VI. Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students of Average A b i l i t y , with Matched Intelligence Quotients, Taking 0-2 A c t i v i t i e s and taking' 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Figure VII. Comparison of the Number of A c t i v i t i e s and Scholastic Standings of Students Taking A t h l e t i c A c t i v i t i e s Only and of Students Taking Non-Athletic A c t i v i t i e s O n l y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Figure VIII. Relationship of Number of A c t i v i t i e s and Scholastic Standing . . . . . . . . . 98 Figure IX. Comparison of the Scholastic Standings of Students, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s , whose Intelligence Quotients have been Equated i n Different Groups. . . . . « . . . . • • • . « . 100 Figure X. Comparison of Scholastic Standings of Students, in Dif f e r e n t Intelligence Quotient Groups, Taking 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and Taking 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . 103 Figure XI, Comparison of the Number of A c t i v i t i e s i n which Students Participated and the Scholastic Standings they Received, 1938-1939 • • • . • • • * . . • . • * 112 Figure XII, Comparison of Scholastic Standings and Intelligence Quotients, 1938-1939. . . . . 114 5 LIST OF FIGURES PAGE F i g u r e X I I I . Comparison o f S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g s o f S t u d e n t s , i n D i f f e r e n t I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t Groups, T a k i n g 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s and T a k i n g 5 o r more A c t i v i t i e s . » . 117 F i g u r e XIV. Comparison o f Number o f E v a l u a t e d A c t i v i t i e s i n which S t u d e n t s P a r -t i c i p a t e d and S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g s They R e c e i v e d 120 F i g u r e XV. Comparison o f S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g s o f S t u d e n t s , i n D i f f e r e n t I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t Groups, T a k i n g A c t i v i t i e s E v a l u a t e d a t 1-3, 4-8, and 9-32 125 6 INTRODUCTION When t e a c h e r s meet, one o f the common sources o f d i s -agreement i s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s o f s t u d e n t s . These d i s c u s s i o n s a r e , g e n e r a l l y , m e r e l y e x p r e s s i o n s o f o p i n i o n and have no o b j e c -t i v e b ases. As a r e s u l t , no d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s r e s u l t from them. T h i s w r i t e r d e c i d e d t o a t t a c k o b j e c t i v e l y t h e problem of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . The f i r s t two c h a p t e r s o f t h i s t h e s i s p r e s e n t i n t r o -d u c t o r y d a t a w h i c h a re e s s e n t i a l f o r the comprehension o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c a r r i e d out by t h i s w r i t e r . I n Chapters I I I and IV t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s based on t h e data c o l l e c t e d from t h e f i l e s o f Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l . y e a r s o f 1937-1938 and 1938-1939 a r e de-p i c t e d i n t a b l e s and graphs- The s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s o f s t u d e n t s who t a k e an a c t i v e share i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s a r e compared w i t h t h o s e o f s t u d e n t s who took an i n -s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme and t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e v a l i d a t e d by c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s i n which s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i -p a t e d and t h e s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s t h a t they earned. Chapter V c o n t a i n s t h e answers g i v e n by s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , and t e a c h e r s t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on t h e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and the 7 c o n c l u s i o n s which c o u l d be based on these answers a f t e r an a n a l y s i s o f the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n the groups t a k i n g s m a l l , average, and l a r g e numbers of e v a l u a t e d e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The f i n a l c h a p t e r l i s t s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s which appear j u s t i f i e d by t h i s study o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e number o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . 8 CHAPTER I THE HISTORY AND OBJECTIVES OF EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 9 T h e o r i e s o f e d u c a t i o n and p s y c h o l o g y may change, but c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t eras p r e s e n t b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s . They pass t h r o u g h the sta g e s o f i n f a n c y , c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n c e b e f o r e they r e a c h m a t u r i t y . The average p r e - a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d has always l i v e d a r e l a t i v e l y c a r e f r e e e x i s t e n c e . He i s de-l i g h t e d t o p r e s e n t h i s - c h i l d i s h p e r p l e x i t i e s t o some under-s t a n d i n g f r i e n d and t o a c c e p t t h a t f r i e n d ' s a d v i c e and g u i d -ance. Between the ages o f 12 and 16 the awakening o f h i s own i n d i v i d u a l i t y t r a n s f o r m s the c h i l d . Problems become a p e r s o n a l m a t t e r which must be s o l v e d by l o n g hours o f arduous tho u g h t . O f f e r s o f a s s i s t a n c e may be c o n s i d e r e d an a f f r o n t to h i s newly d i s c o v e r e d a b i l i t i e s . A f e e l i n g o f power and s e l f - I m p o r t a n c e p o s s e s s e s the c h i l d . . A d e s i r e to o r d e r r e -p l a c e s the w i l l i n g n e s s t o obey. Once the c h i l d d i s p l a y s t h e s e a t t i t u d e s he has c r o s s e d the - t h r e s h o l d from c h i l d h o o d i n t o a d o l e s c e n c e . F o r t h e n e x t few y e a r s o f h i s l i f e he w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by u r g e s which a r e as i r r e s i s t i b l e t o t h e normal c h i l d o f 1939 as they were to the c h i l d r e n o f p r e h i s t o r i c times.- McKown-1- l i s t s c u r i o s i t y , g r e g a r i o u s n e s s , m i g r a t i o n , l o y a l t y , l o v e o f a p p r o b a t i o n , sympathy,' mastery, i m i t a t i o n , and sex as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a d o l e s c e n t d e s i r e s . These d e s i r e s have always p r e s e n t e d a c h a l l e n g e .to e d u c a t i o n . I f t h e t h r e e main e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , the home, t h e church, and the s c h o o l , f a i l t o o f f e r adequate f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r f u l f i l -ment, the c h i l d i s l e f t t o h i s own d e v i c e s w h i c h may l e a d _ ______ . McKown, H a r r y C- E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s . New York: M a c M i l l a n Go., 1937, 22Z : ~ ; ~ 10 him to the p f t i m e s d e t r i m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e o f u n c o n t r o l l e d a c t i v i t i e s . Y e t not u n t i l r e c e n t times have the s c h o o l s a c c e p t e d th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f oppor-t u n i t i e s for. a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e s t u d e n t s so t h a t t hese u r g e s may be d i r e c t e d t o d e s i r a b l e g o a l s . The changes i n c u r r i c u l a and methodology and the i n c r e a s e i n e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s have p r o v i d e d t h e s e e s s e n t i a l oppor-t u n i t i e s . Meaning o f E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s The i n n o v a t i o n s i n c u r r i c u l a and methodology a r e beyond t h e scope o f t h i s paper, w h i l e t h e : ' e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s a r e i t s v e r y essence. But what a r e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? " E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r , " l i k e many e d u c a t i o n a l terms, i s an e l a s t i c term which has been s t r e t c h e d t o s u i t the p u r-poses o f d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s and e d u c a t o r s u n t i l i t has l o s t most o f i t s s p e c i f I c . m e a n i n g . The term " e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r , " I n f a c t , I s r e a l l y a misnomer. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r c a r r i e s the c o n n o t a t i o n of some n o n - e s s e n t i a l a d d i t i o n t h a t i s o u t s i d e the r e a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l . C o - c u r r i c u l a r , e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r s o c i a l i z i n g - i n t e g r a t i n g , and numerous o t h e r terms have been advocated as more a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f these a c t i v i t i e s , but c o n t i n u a l use seems to have determined t h e c h o i c e o f the term " e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r . " A d e f i n i t i o n o f e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s w hich would meet u n i v e r s a l a cceptance i s almost an i m p o s s i b i l i t y . An e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y i n one s c h o o l i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n 11 a n o t h e r . -However, Cubberley- 5"; E r e t w e l l 2 ; Overn^; Roemer, A l l e n , and T a r n e l l ^ agree on the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s . E x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s are; not a new development, but they are_an o r d e r l y o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h o s e p r o j e c t s o f a d o l e s c e n c e ' which have always been connected, o f f i c i a l l y o r u n o f f i c i a l l y , w i t h t h e s c h o o l . They a r e t h e d i r e c t outcome o f t h e s h o r t -comings o f the t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m which a f f o r d e d a l i m i t e d o u t l e t f o r t h e a d o l e s c e n t y e a r n i n g s . The e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme b r i d g e s t h e gaps i n t h e a u t h o r i z e d c u r r i c u l u m by the I n c l u s i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s Virhich a r e adapted t o t h e s a t i s -f a c t i o n o f t h o s e needs ,of the s t u d e n t s f o r which t h e r e g u l a r c ourse o f study had made no p r o v i s i o n . The scope o f t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , t h e n , depends e n t i r e l y upon the s u f f i c i e n c y o f the s c h o o l ' s d a i l y c l a s s r o o m s t u d i e s . I n t h i s t h e s i s e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s w i l l r e f e r t o a l l t y p e s o f t e a c h e r g u i d e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n which a r e not i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m . .1 E r e t w e l l , E l b e r t K. E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s i n The Secondary S c h o o l s , Cambridge, Mass: Houghton, M i f f l i n Co. , 1 9 3 1 . P r e f a c e by E. JP. Gubberley. 2 I b i d . , 6 3" . '' "" ' Overn, A l f r e d V. The. Teacher i n Modern E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Co., 1935, 206. 4 Roemer, J . , A l l e n , C. E., Y a r n e l l , . D . A. B a s i c Student A c t i v i t i e s . New Y o r k : S i l v e r , B u r d e t t & Co., 1935, 12. 12 H i s t o r y of- t h e E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s I t i s o n l y because modern ed u c a t o r s have begun t o c a p i -t a l i z e upon the s e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t h a t they are sometimes c a l l e d new. Though e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s have o n l y emerged i n t o prominence d u r i n g t h e l a s t two decades, they o r i g i n a t e d i n a n t i q u i t y : the . . p r i n c i p l e o f e d u c a t i n g c h i l d r e n through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l i f e s i t u a t i o n s i s as o l d as c i v i l i z a t i o n i t s e l f . I n p r e h i s t o r i c times t h e c h i l d ' s e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n was dependent on p a r t i c i p a t i o n I n the a f f a i r s o f t h e home and t h e t r i b e . Y e t even i n t h o s e days l e a d e r s r e c o g n i z e d the y e a r n i n g s o f a d o l e s c e n c e . E l a b o r a t e I n i t i a t i o n ceremonies i n t o c e r t a i n t r i b e s o f f e r e d a d i r e c t o u t l e t f o r t h e s e u r g e s , w h i c h might not have been s a t i s f i e d by t h e o r d i n a r y r o u t i n e o f l i f e . • v I n Greece, as I n our modern s c h o o l s , games and s p o r t s were p a r t o f t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m . Y e t s p o r t s had a p l a c e o u t s i d e the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m a l s o . The Olympic games, though open t o a l l , might be termed one o f t h e g r e a t e s t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s o f a l l t i m e s . P u b l i c s p e a k i n g , t o o , r e c e i v e d g r e a t emphasis, both- as a p a r t o f the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m and as an a d d i t i o n to i t . Many modern s c h o o l s boast o f t h e i r s t u d e n t government which, i n r e a l i t y , i s commonly a c a r e f u l l y r e g u l a t e d s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s c h o o l government. The Greeks had a r e a l s t u d e n t government:. s t u d e n t s , on o c c a s i o n , chose t h e i r t e a c h e r s . T h i s p r a c t i c e , I f used a t t h e p r e s e n t day, might e l i m i n a t e t h e boredom o f 13 l i s t e n i n g .to i l l - p r e p a r e d l e s s o n s . I t s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o s t u d e n t s o f t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l , however, c o u l d s c a r c e l y he recommended. The i m m a t u r i t y o f t h e i r judgment might r e s u l t i n the a b s o l u t e n e g l e c t o f some o f the funda-m e n t a l s u b j e c t s , whereas courses which c o n t a i n e d t h e minimum o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t h e maximum o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t might be overcrowded. S p a r t a , l i k e l y , o r i g i n a t e d t h e embryo which l a t e r became the s e c r e t f r a t e r n i t y w i t h i t s concomitant e v i l s . Thus, though Greece had e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , they c o u l d n o t have been s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive t o s a t i s f y the. i n t e r e s t s o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y those o f S p a r t a . D u r i n g m e d i a e v a l t i m e s e d u c a t i o n ebbed and Europe s u f -f e r e d from a s c a r c i t y o f t e a c h e r s . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e management o f t h e s c h o o l was e s s e n t i a l . Even t h e t e a c h i n g was l a r g e l y i n t h e hands o f m o n i t o r s who r e l a y e d the l e s s o n s from t h e over-worked t e a c h e r t o h i s overcrowded c l a s s e s . R e n a i s s a n c e I t a l y r e a l i z e d t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f s p o r t s and games t o c i t i z e n s h i p , but the R e f o r m a t i o n i n n o r t h e r n Europe soon c o u n t e r a c t e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . The s c h o o l s r e f l e c t e d t h e i n t o l e r a n c e o f t h e p e r i o d . They became more academic: the I n s t r u c t o r was i n t e r e s t e d i n man's s o u l and d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l l i v e s o f h i s s t u d e n t s . I n t h e s e t i m e s t h e Idea was born t h a t a l l s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s a p a r t from t h e c u r r i c u l u m , i f they were t o l e r a t e d , were t o be i g n o r e d . Thus e d u c a t i o n and book l e a r n i n g became synonymous. The t h e o r y o f f o r m a l 14 d i s c i p l i n e and the b e l i e f i n the t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g m i n i -mised t h e importance o f the content o f the s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t h e methods o f pedagogy. The d i f f i c u l t y o f s u b j e c t s , r a t h e r than t h e i r i n t r i n s i c w o r t h , determined t h e i r c h o i c e . Though Rousseau, P e s t a l o z z i , F r o e b e l , and.many o t h e r s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t these t h e o r i e s were wrong, t h a t s c h o o l s h o u l d resemble l i f e , end t h a t s c h o o l i n g was n o t , o f n e c e s s i t y , d i s a g r e e a b l e and un-i n t e r e s t i n g , t h e s e i d e a s made slow p r o g r e s s . The p e r i o d o f t o l e r a t i o n o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and the p e r i o d o f o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s r a n s i d e by s i d e v a r y i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n a c c e p t e d by t h e m a j o r i t y o f e d u c a t o r s . However, s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s were never e n t i r e l y banned i n England. Student" government, w i t h p r e f e c t s and m o n i t o r s , has been an.accepted f e a t u r e o f E n g l i s h s c h o o l l i f e f o r c e n t u r i e s . I n E l i z a b e t h a n E n g l a n d th e headmaster o f W e stminster, by r o y a l command, had h i s s t u d e n t s p r e s e n t a L a t i n p l a y every C h r i s t m a s t o encourage th e s t u d e n t s i n " g r a c e f u l g e s t u r e and p r o n u n c i a t i o n . " F o r e n s i c s e a r l y g a i n e d a f o o t h o l d and Eton's f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n i s dated 1786. D r a s t i c c o n d i t i o n s had y e t t o e v o l v e b e f o r e adequate e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s were t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e s c h o o l programme. The e a r l i e r American e d u c a t i o n a l w r i t e r s were u n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a s p e c t o f s c h o o l l i f e , but D r e w r y l r e p o r t s t h a t "random b i t s o f e vidence i n d i c a t e some tendency 1 Drewry, Raymond G. P u p i l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n H i g h S c h o o l C o n t r o l . New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & Co., 19£8, 4. 15 toward s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h i g h s c h o o l management b e f o r e 1865. At t h i s t i m e t h e h i g h s c h o o l f e l t no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e s o c i a l l i f e o f the s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h e r s 5 p o l i c y towards c l u b s and s o c i a l l i f e was one o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e . I n e a r l y days t h i s a t t i t u d e was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . The home and t h e church s u p p l i e d the needed a c t i v i t i e s . S c i e n c e and i n v e n t i o n , however, c o m p l i c a t e d t h i s e a r l i e r c i v i l i z a t i o n and l e d t o the r a p i d r i s e o f c i t i e s . The homes no l o n g e r o f f e r e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r adequate p a r t i c i p a t i o n n o r were the p a r e n t s t r a i n e d t o p r e s e n t t h e t y p e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n needed i n t h e r a p i d l y e v o l v i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n . The ch u r c h , t o o , l o s t much o f I t s e a r l i e r i n -f l u e n c e , and c o u l d n o t f u l f i l a l l I t s former f u n c t i o n s . Y e t the s c h o o l s p e r s i s t e d i n l e a d i n g t h e s i m p l e l i f e w i t h t h e development o f t h e i n t e l l e c t seemingly the whole aim o f edu-c a t i o n . I t i g n o r e d t h e f a c t t h a t i t had t o s h o u l d e r the t r i p l e burden o f home, s c h o o l , and chur c h . T h i s i n e r t i a was r u d e l y d i s t u r b e d by s t u d e n t s , w r i t e r s , and e v e n t s . The i n t e r e s t s and u r g e s o f the s t u d e n t s c o u l d n o t be b l o c k e d . I f home, c h u r c h , and s c h o o l would n ot o f f e r the a c t i v i t i e s t h e i r i n t e r e s t s d e s i r e d , s e c r e t f r a t e r n i t i e s and o t h e r u n c o n t r o l l e d a c t i v i t i e s would have t o s e r v e as s u b s t i t u t e s . A t t e m p t s t o suppress c o l l e g e o r h i g h s c h o o l f r a t e r n i t i e s f a i l e d as t h e i r members were o f f e r e d no a l t e r -n a t i v e s . Thus e d u c a t o r s were c o n v i n c e d o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s as the o n l y e f f i c i e n t p r e v e n t a t i v e f o r the d i s a s t r o u s a f t e r m a t h w h i c h a l l t o o o f t e n f o l l o w e d 16 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n u n r e g u l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . One p u p i l r e q u e s t soon f o l l o w e d another u n t i l changes and a d d i t i o n s i n t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m and t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s s a t i s f i e d t h e s t u d e n t s * needs. 'The success o f t h e s e t r i a l s c o n v i n c e d the e d u c a t o r s o f t h e worth o f e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Thus th e s t u d e n t s themselves h e l p e d t o overcome many o f the t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s o f t h e p e r i o d . P o s s i b l y Dewey's t h e o r y t h a t s c h o o l s s h o u l d encourage co-o p e r a t i o n and s o c i a l s e r v i c e gave a g r e a t e r impetus than d i d t h e w r i t i n g s o f any o t h e r man, t o t h e movement f o r change I n t h e c u r r i c u l a and methodology o f t h e s c h o o l s and f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e s c h o o l p r o -gramme. These causes o f change, however, were overshadowed by t h e metamorphosis o f w o r l d a f f a i r s . The G r e a t War and I t s a f t e r m a t h emphasized t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p r e p a r i n g c h i l d r e n t o l i v e i n a r a p i d l y c hanging d e m o c r a t i c c i v i l i z a t i o n , r i d -d l e d by d e f e c t s which demanded immediate c o r r e c t i o n . The g r e a t p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f secondary e d u c a t i o n , t h e I n c r e a s e i n l e i s u r e t i m e , t h e t e m p t a t i o n s o f t h e new e r a , and the s p e e d i n g -up o f e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l changes enhanced th e c r y f o r a r a d i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l s . E d u c a t o r s and p h i l o -sophers r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l and the s o c i a l o r d e r s t o o d too f a r a p a r t , t h a t no s c h o o l I n i s o l a t i o n , p r e s e n t i n g a c u r r i c u l u m which was academic and u n s o c i a l i z e d , c o u l d s e r v e i n t h i s emergency. However, the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m o f a s c h o o l i s n o t adapted t o r a p i d a d justment, and w h o l e s a l e ex-17 p e r i m e n t a t i o n might e a s i l y cause u n t o l d c o n f u s i o n . The e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , t h e n , o f f e r e d t h e s u i t a b l e f i e l d f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . T h i s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n soon demonstrated which a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be an i n h e r e n t p a r t o f t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m and w h i c h c o u l d be more e f f i c i e n t l y h a n d l e d i n t h e e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r programme. The r i s e o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s from comparative o b s c u r i t y t o t h e i r p r e s e n t prominence was a s t o u n d i n g l y r a p i d . The f i r s t c ourse on e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s was o f f e r e d f o r t e a c h e r s by F r e t w e l l i n 1917. Now such c o u r s e s a r e an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g . McKown 1 p o i n t s out t h a t i n 1927 t h e r e were l e s s than h a l f a dozen books on e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on t h e market w h i l e now t h e r e a r e a magazine and more than 50 books which p r e s e n t t h e t r e n d s i n t h i s f i e l d . E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a p p a r e n t l y are h e r e t o s t a y . Many e d u c a t o r s a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e I s as much power f o r e d u c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r p r o -gramme o f a s c h o o l as t h e r e i s i n t h e c u r r i c u l a r programme. The O b j e c t i v e s o f E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s A l l a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m are n o t n e c e s s a r i l y genuine e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . True e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s must conform t o c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s . They must be c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m . I n t h e m a j o r i t y o f cases they s h o u l d grow out o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m and, 1 McKown, op. c i t . , 4. 18 i n t i m e , r e t u r n to t h e c u r r i c u l u m as one o f i t s b a s i c features.. They must ser v e v a l u a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l purposes, o r t h e i r i n c -l u s i o n I n t h e s c h o o l programme i s unwarranted. "The e n t i r e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme i s c u r r i c u l a i n t h e sense t h a t i t i s r e c o g n i z e d as a means o f a t t a i n i n g fundamental e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s r a t h e r than s e r v i n g o n l y as a source o f r e c r e a t i o n and e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r t h e p u p i l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t . " - 1 - E n t h u s i -a s t s have o c c a s i o n a l l y brought e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n t o d i s r e p u t e by t h e i r f a i l u r e t o ponder c a r e f u l l y the e d u c a t i o n a l m e r i t s o f an a c t i v i t y b e f o r e i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n . Some a c t i v i t i e s may have been d e l e t e d from th e r e g u l a r c u r -r i c u l u m owing t o t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l u s e l e s s n e s s ; o t h e r s , f o r t h e same r e a s o n , were n e v e r p l a c e d I n t h e s c h o o l programme. The i n c l u s i o n o f such a c t i v i t i e s i n .the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r f i e l d cannot a u t o m a t i c a l l y change them i n t o sound e d u c a t i o n a l de-v i c e s . Many e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r p r o j e c t s make v i t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to r e a l e d u c a t i o n . T h e i r v a l u e s may e x c e l those o f some o f t h e a c c e p t e d s c h o o l s t u d i e s . However, i t would be r i d i c u l o u s t o d e c i d e f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t a l l t h e c u r r i c u l a r s u b j e c t s s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d by t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The s c h o o l must r e t a i n a w i s e b a l a n c e between t h e s e two t y p e s o f o f f e r i n g s and i t s s e l e c t i o n o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s must be t h e outcome o f t h o u g h t f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The mere a l l o t m e n t o f t i m e f o r c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s and t h e a p p e l l a t i o n I Chamberlain, Leo, M. The Teacher and S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n New Y o r k , P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1936, 449. " e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r " a t t a c h e d to them i s i n s u f f i c i e n t ; c e r t a i n e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a must be met by t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . The seven c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f secondary e d u c a t i o n s et st a n d a r d s o f achievement f o r b o t h t h e c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r programmes. These w i d e l y - a c c e p t e d o b j e c t i v e s a r e : ( l ) t o m a i n t a i n h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , ( I I ) t o g i v e command o f t h e fundamentals, ( I I I ) t o c r e a t e worthy home membership, (IV) to c r e a t e e f f i c i e n t c i t i z e n s , (V) t o t e a c h p r o f i t a b l e employment o f l e i s u r e t i m e , (VI) t o p r e p a r e f o r v o c a t i o n s , and ( V I I ) t o develop h i g h s t a n d a r d s o f e t h i c s . ^ Though the r e g u l a r s u b j e c t s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d h e l p t h e p u p i l t o a t t a i n t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , i t i s ex t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o prove t h a t some o f them have much i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s d i r e c -t i o n . S i e b o l d ^ ' r eached some i n t e r e s t i n g judgments on t h i s m a t t e r . A s s i g n i n g a p o s s i b l e 3 f o r each o b j e c t i v e , he d e c i d e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t " E n g l i s h " d e s e r v e d 17 out o f a p o s s i b l e 21 marks, whereas s c i e n c e , mathematics and f o r e i g n languages had to be s a t i s f i e d w i t h 7, 6, and 5 p o i n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . S u r e l y , t h e n , c r i t i c s were j u s t i f i e d when they clamored f o r changes i n and a d d i t i o n s t o t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m . But a r e t h e e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s h a v i n g any g r e a t e r success i n m e e t i n g _ U. S. Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 35, 1918. ' • 2 S i e b o l d , R i c h a r d . A New D e a l f o r t h e Curriculum,, C l e a r i n g House, V o l . I X , No. 2: 68-71, October, 1934. 20 t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s ? R i n g d a h l 1 asked t h i s q u e s t i o n o f s t u d e n t s who had reached t h e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . About 75 p e r cent o f t h o s e who r e p l i e d were o f the o p i n i o n t h a t t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s d i d more than t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m t o f u l f i l t h e s e c a r d i n a l aims. Even though t h e s e s t u d e n t s may be c o r r e c t i n t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s we s h o u l d n o t s l i p i n t o t h e s i m p l e e r r o r o f a s s i g n i n g too many v a l u e s t o t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . Chamberlain-e n q u i r e s i f many o f t h e v a l u e s a s c r i b e d t o e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n by s c h o o l men who found i t h a r d t o r e s i s t t h e demands o f the p u p i l s and th e p u b l i c . T h i s t i m e l y query d o u b t l e s s c o n t a i n s an element of t r u t h . S c i e n t i f i c p r o o f o f t h e v a l u e s o f the c u r r i c u l a r s u b j e c t s and t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a r e l a c k i n g . Indeed i f one wanted to get so t e c h n i c a l as t o i n c l u d e i n t h e s c h o o l programme o n l y t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s whose s p e c i f i c edu-c a t i o n a l v a l u e had been c a r e f u l l y determined, one might have d i f f i c u l t y i n b u i l d i n g a s c h o o l programme under p r e s e n t s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s . . Y e t , as a l l the a v a i l a b l e w r i t e r s a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s have g r e a t p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r the a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e seven c a r d i n a l aims, t h e y a re ove r w h e l m i n g l y agreed t h a t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s have earned t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n . r ~ "•' i • R i n g d a h l , N. R. E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s i n E l e -mentary S c h o o l s . S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , V o l . I X , No. I : 3-5, September,! 1957. 2 Chamberlain, Leo M. The Teacher and S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n . New Y o r k : P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1936, 444. R a t h e r t h a n l i s t i n g t h e above mentioned aims o f second-ary e d u c a t i o n as t h e c r i t e r i a f o r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , t he s t u d e n t s o f t h i s s u b j e c t have e n u n c i a t e d p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e i r own. I n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s e i t w i l l be seen t h a t they a r e con n e c t e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l seven c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s . McKown 1 recommends the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s : 1. c a p i t a l i z i n g , f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f i t i m p o r t a n t fundamental d r i v e s ; S. p r e p a r i n g s t u d e n t s f o r a c t i v e l i f e i n a democracy; 3. making s t u d e n t s i n c r e a s i n g l y s e l f -d i r e c t i v e ; 4. t e a c h i n g them s o c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n ; 5. i n c r e a s i n g t h e i n t e r e s t o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e s c h o o l ; 6. d e v e l o p i n g s c h o o l m o r a l e ; 7. f o s t e r i n g s e n t i m e n t s o f l a w and o r d e r ; 8. d i s -c o v e r i n g and d e v e l o p i n g s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s and a b i l i t i e s . W i th the s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e l a s t o b j e c t i v e t o guarantee t h e i n -c l u s i o n o f t h e development o f h o b b i e s , t h e c h o i c e o f v o c a t i o n s , and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h i s l i s t w i l l c o i n c i d e w i t h s i m i l a r l i s t s suggested by o t h e r w r i t e r s i n t h i s f i e l d . Aim I C a p i t a l i z a t i o n , f o r E d u c a t i o n a l P r o f i t , o f Important Fun-damental D r i v e s . McKown's f i r s t o b j e c t i v e has a l r e a d y r e c e i v e d some a t t e n t i o n I n the e x p l a n a t i o n o f the cause f o r t h e i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Once t h e i m p o s s i -b i l i t y o f t h w a r t i n g t h e a d o l e s c e n t u r g e s was r e a l i z e d , t h e next s t e p was t o u t i l i z e them. The a s t u t e e d u c a t o r r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e were c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t t h e a d o l e s c e n t would do anyway and t h a t any attempt t o co e r c e him from t h e s e normal _____ McKown, op. c i t . , 12-16. 22 a c t i o n s might i m p e r i l h i s m e n t a l h e a l t h . T h e r e f o r e , he a s s i s t e d the p u p i l t o improve t h o s e d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n s which the p u p i l f e l t f o r c e d t o p e r f o r m and he c o u n t e r a c t e d u n d e s i r -a b l e t e n d e n c i e s by h i g h e r t y p e s o f a c t i v i t y which were w i t h i n the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y . Tftien c o n f r o n t e d by a g o a l he wished t o r e a c h , the c h i l d worked d i l i g e n t l y and h a p p i l y . But too o f t e n the r e g u l a r s c h o o l work d i d n o t o f f e r such a g o a l . So, i n many eases, t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t e d the m i s s i n g s e c t i o n needed t o g i v e t h e s t u d e n t s a s a t i s f y i n g , w e l l - r o u n d e d e d u c a t i o n which would a s s i s t i n t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f a l l seven c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s . ' Aim II.-. . P r e p a r a t i o n o f S t u d e n t s f o r A c t i v e L i f e i n a Democracy. The i n d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e e l e c t o r a t e i n our own cou n t r y t o t h e p r i v i l e g e o f t h e f r a n c h i s e and the m e r c u r i a l r i s e o f " d i c t a t o r s h i p s i n Europe and I n t h e Americas s t r e s s t h e v a l u e o f t h i s second o b j e c t i v e . Nor s h o u l d i t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t such t r a i n i n g f o r c i t i z e n s h i p i n t h e f u t u r e may a l s o a f f e c t t h e development o f worthy home membership and e t h i c a l c o n c e p t s . So i t i s incumbent on t h e s c h o o l s t o p r o v i d e t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e t r a i n i n g f o r l i f e i n a democracy. The b e s t t y p e o f t r a i n i n g i s o b v i o u s l y a c t u a l c i t i z e n s h i p i n a m i n i a t u r e democracy which p r e s e n t s as many genuine l i f e s i t u a t i o n s as f e a s i b l e . Y e t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y a u t o c r a t i c i n n a t u r e and no sound method f o r a v o i d i n g a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h a t a u t o c r a c y i n a l a r g e p a r t o f the c u r r i c u l a r work has y e t been d e v i s e d . Though c i v i c s may be a r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t , i t s . i n -e l u s i o n i n . t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m does hot f i l l t h e need. " I t ' i s n o t a knowledge o f the forms o f government t h a t i s needed i f our democracy i s t o endure.- I t i s r a t h e r a h a b i t o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e r i g h t s o f o t h e r people,-an a t t i t u d e o f r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y towards o b l i g a t i o n s one has assumed, a w i l l i n g n e s s to h e a r b o t h s i d e s i n a d i s p u t e and to make a d e c i s i o n i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e evidence."- 1- Such t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e s the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n which abounds i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . No p u p i l , no m a t t e r how backward i n h i s r e g u l a r s c h o o l work, s h o u l d be c o m p l e t e l y d e p r i v e d o f a chance to p a r t i c i p a t e . I n l a t e r y e a r s t h i s s o c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n may e x e r t more c o n c r e t e good than a l l t h e r e q u i r e d c u r r i c u l a r s u b j e c t s . The student s h o u l d be shown th e e x c e l l e n t f e a t u r e s o f our system o f government, but t h e I n a d e q u a c i e s o f r e a l government procedure s h o u l d not be m i n i m i z e d . -Though i t ,would be f o l l y t o i n t r o -duce t h e s e shortcomings i n t o s c h o o l l i f e 9 y e t the s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be aware o f them s i n c e o n l y an e n l i g h t e n e d e l e c t o r a t e of t h e f u t u r e w i l l e r a d i c a t e them. The o b j e c t i o n may be r a i s e d t h a t such t r a i n i n g i n c i t i z e n s h i p may be unduly c o s t l y i n t i m e : s t u d e n t s may f l o u n d e r i n t h e i r i n i t i a l a t t e m p t s a t s c h o o l l e g i s l a t i o n and the r e s u l t s may appear i n s u f f i c i e n t t o w a r r a n t t h e t i m e and energy which has been expended. Y e t a sponsor, o v e r - a n x i o u s to g u i d e , may e a s i l y become a v i r t u a l d i c t a t o r and t h e a c t i v i t y may l o s e i t s prime purpose. The s c h o o l must s e r v e as a s o c i a l l a b o r a t o r y i n which t h e y o u t h _ . J o h n s t o n . E. G. I n t e r n e s i n C i t i z e n s h i p , S c h o o l A c t i -v i t i e s , V o l . I t , No. 2: 61_6^, 75-76, October, 1937. ' 2 4 / i s p e r m i t t e d , t o l e a r n through d o i n g and th e r e b y develop r i g h t and wholesome c i v i c a t t i t u d e s and I d e a l s . R e a v i s 1 b e l i e v e s t h a t i t w i l l be a happy day f o r America when i t s p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s a r e ha n d l e d as e f f i c i e n t l y and u n s e l f i s h l y as the student a c t i v i t i e s o f the s c h o o l . I f t h i s can be s a i d o f Canadian s c h o o l s , the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s w arrant a l l t h e time devoted t o them. Aim I I I Development o f S e l f - d i r e c t i v e S t u d e n t s . The t h i r d o b j e c t i v e i s t o t e a c h c h i l d r e n s e l f - d i r e c t i o n so they w i l l have the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n i t i a t i v e , and l e a d e r s h i p . We o f t e n make u n f l a t t e r i n g comparisons between the s t u d e n t s o f r u r a l s c h o o l s and tho s e i n c i t y s c h o o l s . R u r a l s t u d e n t s , upon t r a n s f e r r i n g t o urban c e n t r e s , f o r g e ahead r a p i d l y and o f t e n e x c e l t h e i r new c l a s s -mates. Y e t c i t y s c h o o l s have s u p e r i o r b u i l d i n g s , equipment, and p e r s o n n e l . L o g i c a l l y the r e v e r s e s h o u l d be t r u e . The h a r a s s e d r u r a l t e a c h e r o f s e v e r a l grades must, by f o r c e o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , throw h e r s t u d e n t s on t h e i r own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i n i t i a t i v e . Those who l a c k t h e s e q u a l i t i e s a r e , a f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s o f d i s c o u r a g i n g f a i l u r e s , e l i m i n a t e d from t h e s c h o o l system. A l t o g e t h e r too f r e q u e n t l y the c i t y s tudent i s a b s o l u t e l y dependent on t h e t e a c h e r who p a i n s t a k i n g l y s o l v e s every p u p i l problem. S t u d e n t s l e a r n , not by p r e c e p t , but by d o i n g ; t h i s i s e x p e c i a l l y t r u e o f t h e development o f s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . P r o g r e s s i v e l y d i f f i c u l t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ___ _ R e a v i s , Wm. C , P i e r c e , P a u l R . , . S t u l l k e n , Edward H. The Elementary S c h o o l - I t s O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1955, 199. 25 must be p r o v i d e d f o r the p u p i l s as soon as they demonstrate the a b i l i t y t o assume them. Though t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m work p r e s e n t s m u l t i t u d i n o u s minor openings f o r t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which r e s u l t i n s e l f - d i r e c t i o n , the work i s compulsory and the c l a s s i s d i r e c t e d and con-t r o l l e d by t h e t e a c h e r . On t h e o t h e r hand c l u b s and o t h e r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , though t e a c h e r - s p o n s o r e d , should be i n i t i a t e d and dominated by t h e i r student members. The sponsor's guidance may be v e r y o b v i o u s at f i r s t , but soon . the s t u d e n t members s h o u l d be a b l e t o r e l e g a t e t h e sponsor t o h i s p r o p e r p l a c e , t h e background. T h i s environment o f comparative freedom o f c h o i c e as to t h e i r a c t i o n s s h o u l d i n -c u l c a t e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h i n i t i a t i v e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Though the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n s t i l l i n g c h i l d r e n w i t h a sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has l o n g been r e a l i z e d , l e a d e r s h i p has been c o n s i d e r e d an i n b o r n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e f o r t u n a t e few. We a l l know t h a t l e a d e r s h i p r e q u i r e s such q u a l i t i e s as a d a p t a b i l i t y , q u i c k c l e a r t h i n k i n g , i n i t i a t i v e , i n t e g r i t y , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , b r o a d v i s i o n , t a c t , good judgment, w i l l i n g -n e s s t o work, u n s e l f i s h n e s s , i m a g i n a t i o n , f a i t h , courage, and enthusiasm. Some s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , as a r e s u l t o f home c o n d i t i o n s , a r e more g e n e r o u s l y b l e s s e d w i t h t h e s e q u a l i t i e s than are o t h e r s , but t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n have enough o f t h e s e t r a i t s , p o s s i b l y l a t e n t , to make them p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s . Thus t r a i n i n g f o r l e a d e r s h i p s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e same g e n e r a l scheme as does t r a i n i n g f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i n i -t i a t i v e . The r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m may p r o v i d e many s t u d e n t s w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h i s t r a i n i n g , but the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d g i v e such o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a l l . Many edu-c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s have e r r o n e o u s l y assumed t h a t a h i g h i n t e l -l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t was e s s e n t i a l f o r l e a d e r s h i p . At times p u p i l s have been e x c l u d e d from e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s because t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , thus d e p r i v i n g them o f any r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f l e a d e r s h i p which became t h e monopoly o f a s e l e c t few. Such p r a c t i c e s a r e d e p l o r a b l e . The t e a c h e r ' s t a s k i s t o h e l p each s t u d e n t t o f i n d out h i s own I n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s , t o d i s c o v e r t h a t a c t i v i t y i n which he can develop e x p e r t n e s s , and t o g i v e him an o p p o r t u n i t y t o be l e a d e r i n i t . Democracy, whether o f s c h o o l o r community, i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i d e l y shared. I f t h e average boy o r g i r l may be a p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l l e a d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e , a l l must be g i v e n t r a i n i n g i n t h e fundamentals o f l e a d e r s h i p . Too o f t e n the i l l o g i c a l , o r even m e a n i n g l e s s , f l u e n c y o f a demagogue sways the p o p u l a c e . The t r e n d t o d i c t a t o r s h i p may be a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f a p a u c i t y o f r e a l l e a d e r s and o f an u n t h i n k i n g acceptance o f t h e i r e m o t i o n a l l y t i n g e d arguments by t h e p e o p l e . We must develop l e a d e r s who r e a l i z e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and a u d iences who can a p p r a i s e , a t I t s w o r t h , t h e h y p n o t i z i n g v o l u b i l i t y o f many s o - c a l l e d l e a d e r s . I n t h e s e t i m e s no p e r s o n can be an e x p e r t i n a l l f i e l d s o f knowledge. However any p e r s o n who has r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g I n the fundamentals o f l e a d e r s h i p s h o u l d be a b l e t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between the a c t u a l c o n t e n t o f a r e p o r t and the o r a t o r i c a l t e c h n i q u e i n which i t i s c l o a k e d . H i s own a b i l i t y 27 A t o sway a n - u n t r a i n e d audience warns him a g a i n s t the p o s s i b i l i t y of beguilement by some o t h e r speaker's f l u e n t tongue and charming manner. H i s e x p e r i e n c e i n h i s own s p e c i a l .'sphere o f knowledge has shown M m t h a t a l l statements r e q u i r e c a r e f u l study and a n a l y s i s b e f o r e they can be a c c e p t e d as t r u t h s r a t h e r than branded as propaganda. T h e r e f o r e , at h i s Insure, a t r u e l e a d e r w i l l v e r i f y the e s s e n t i a l p o i n t s o f t h e speech t o which he has l i s t e n e d . Any speaker, aware t h a t h i s a u dience has had t h i s t y p e o f t r a i n i n g , w i l l r e a l i z e t h e . f u t i l i t y o f any attempt t o cover i n a c c u r a t e f a c t s o r an i n -s u f f i c i e n c y o f d a t a by v o l u b i l i t y . E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s , more t h a n any o t h e r p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l programme, p r e s e n t such t r a i n i n g . , and, f o r our own f u t u r e w e l f a r e , such t r a i n i n g s h o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d i n a .democratic f a s h i o n . Aim I V \ Development o f S o c i a l C o - o p e r a t i o n . The concept o f the s o c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n I s a l o g i c a l outcome o f t h e second and t h i r d o b j e c t i v e s , s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a c t i v e l i f e i n a democracy. I t i s r e a s o n -a b l e to expect t h e s c h o o l t o s e t up an environment i n which a l l o f i t s members, th r o u g h a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l , may move p r o g r e s s i v e l y t o a more complete a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the d e m o c r a t i c way o f l i f e . The .democratic way o f l i f e e n t a i l s a r e s p e c t f o r the r i g h t o f o t h e r s , an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s , and a d e s i r e to work t o g e t h e r f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e g r e a t e s t number. A genuine l e a d e r , i n a l l senses o f t h e word, r e a l i z e s h i s own 28 shortcomings., I n c e r t a i n spheres and, r a t h e r than stumble b l i n d l y f o r w a r d , s o l i c i t s t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f l e a d e r s whose knowledge i n t h e s e spheres s u r p a s s e s h i s own. S e l f i s h n e s s ravages home, s c h o o l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l i f e . The w o r l d a w a i t s t h e e r a o f c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s to s o l v e i t s problems. S o c i a l -i z a t i o n o f t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l work emphasizes c o - o p e r a t i o n b u t , f r e q u e n t l y , t h i s i n f l u e n c e I s n u l l i f i e d by c o m p e t i t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n s and r e p o r t c a r d s . I n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s r i v a l r y e x i s t s , but i t s m o t i v e i s d i f f e r e n t . I t i s no l o n g e r r i v a l r y t o determine I n d i v i d u a l advancement, but r i v a l r y t o determine who can.best promote the a c t i v i t y ' s aims. Co-o p e r a t i o n i s e n f o r c e d , n o t by t h e t e a c h e r s , but by a much more, p o t e n t agency, t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e o t h e r members o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T r u l y t h e i n c e n t i v e t o i d e a l i s m s h o u l d be one •of the main outcomes o f t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l u m . Aim V I n c r e a s e o f I n t e r e s t i n S c h o o l E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s must h e l p t o c r e a t e I n t e r e s t i n t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l work, an i n t e r e s t which i s t o o o f t e n n o n - e x i s t e n t . We a r e b e g i n n i n g t o r e a l i z e t h a t the f o r m a l s c h o o l has n e v e r been v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s aim because p u p i l s e r e c t e d r a t h e r e f f e c t i v e defences a g a i n s t a s c h o o l regimen t h a t d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e i r major needs and, i n many ca s e s , q u i t s c h o o l . One remedy f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e p l a y element i n t o s c h o o l l i f e , but s u r e l y such a move n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t o m o t i v a t e the r e g u l a r s c h o o l work 29 which, w i t h i t s emphasis on s u b j e c t m a t t e r and the a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s , d i s c o u r a g e s s t u d e n t s who are not a c a d e m i c a l l y i n -c l i n e d . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r and the l e a r n i n g o f s k i l l s a r e mere i n c i d e n t a l elements i n a modern s c h o o l ' s aims. The major o b j e c t i v e i s t h e develop-ment o f w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Y e t , i n p r a c t i c e , t h e s e mere i n c i d e n t a l s assume l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s . Success, even i n a t r i v i a l u n d e r t a k i n g , w i l l c o m p l e t e l y change a c h i l d ' s . a t t i -tude toward s c h o o l . A l l c h i l d r e n , whether s u p e r i o r , average, o r s u b - s t a n d a r d , c r a v e r e c o g n i t i o n f o r m e r i t o r i o u s s e r v i c e i n achievement, e f f o r t , and c i t i z e n s h i p . The g r e a t e s t i n c e n t i v e s t o a ttempts t o succeed i n s t u d i e s and c i t i z e n s h i p a r e p o s i t i o n s which demand r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t t h e p u p i l s a r e capable o f assuming and w h i c h g r a n t them c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s . Though c h i l -dren p e r f o r m the m o n i t o r i a l d u t i e s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m , t h e r e a r e n e v e r enough o f t h e s e t o occupy a l l t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e s e d u t i e s a r e not s e a l e d t o t h e v a r i o u s a b i l i t i e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n . The r e g u l a r s t u d i e s o f f e r even fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f t h i s n a t u r e . The e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s must f u l f i l t h i s f u n c t i o n . A l l t h e a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d a r o u s e a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n t h e s c h o o l : some w i l l m o t i v a t e the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m i n o t h e r ways. R e g u l a r l e s s o n s , f o l l o w i n g a s e t c u r r i c u l u m , d e t e r t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s from e x c u r s i o n s i n t o by-paths o f e n q u i r y suggested by t h e s e l e s s o n s : overcrowded courses o f study d i s -courage t h e s e d e v i a t i o n s . The e x t r a - c u r r i c u l u m , however, as w e l l as b r o a d e n i n g the knowledge o f s t u d e n t s i n s u b j e c t s a l -ready b e i n g s t u d i e d , may v e n t u r e i n t o f i e l d s o f knowlege as 30 y e t untouched "by t h e p r e s e n t c u r r i c u l u m , though they may he i n c l u d e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m o f the f u t u r e . Thus t h e e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s c r e a t e i n t e r e s t i n the s c h o o l work at p r e s e n t i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m and a l s o a s s i s t i n a t t a i n i n g the aim t h a t s c h o o l i n g s h o u l d n ot merely s a t i s f y immediate wants, hut a l s o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f t h o s e wants which a n t i c i p a t e f u r t h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . Aim VI Development o f S c h o o l M o r a l e . The development o f s c h o o l m o r a l e h o l d s n e x t p l a c e i n the l i s t o f o b j e c t i v e s f o r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . S c h o o l m o rale o f t e n tends to become an a b s t r a c t i o n , a l o f t y aim which b e a r s no d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the c h i l d . The a s s i d u o u s r e p e t i t i o n o f p r e c e p t s and mottoes, promulgated b y t e a c h e r s , may ensure a l i p s e r v i c e t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s c h o o l m o r a l e . A genuine s c h o o l m o r a l e demands more th a n t h i s . Every s t u d e n t must f e e l t h a t he i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n t o which he has c o n t r i b u t e d and w i l l c o n t i n u e to c o n t r i b u t e h i s be s t e f f o r t s . The s c h o o l t r a d i t i o n r e p r e s e n t s t h e h e r i t a g e l e f t by t h e forme r s t u d e n t s . I t s p e r f e c t i o n s demand obedience i t s i m p e r f e c t i o n s c h a l l e n g e improvement. Each annual i n f l u x o f s t u d e n t s must f a c e i t s t a s k . T h i s t a s k may be d i f f i c u l t , but i t i s not beyond t h e scope o f t h e p u p i l s 1 ' a b i l i t i e s . " Youth i s f u l l y c a p a b l e o f b e a r i n g t h e weight o f problems d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the m o r a l , c u l t u r a l , and i n t e l l e c t u a l a s p e c t o f t h e s c h o o l . Boys and g i r l s a r e a b l e to b u i l d t r a d -i t i o n s which b i n d s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s t o h i g h 31 and n o b l e forms o f conduct."- 1- S c h o o l morale should permeate t h e whole s c h o o l , but i t s e s p e c i a l l o c a l e i s t h e e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Here s c h o o l s p i r i t l i k e l y had i t s g e n e s i s and upon t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s depends i t s s u c c e s s f u l c o n t i n u a t i o n . Nor s h o u l d t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f a c h i l d ' s s c h o o l c a r e e r n e c e s s i t a t e h i s abandonment o f t h e f i n e p o i n t s o f h i s s c h o o l m o r a l e . T h i s m o r a l e , extended to p o l i t i c a l l i f e , c o u l d purge i t o f many o f i t s d i s g u s t i n g f e a t u r e s . Aim ¥11 Development o f Sentiments o f Law and Order. I f s c h o o l morale i s kept on an a b s t r a c t p l a n e i t has l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the s t u d e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , r e s p e c t f o r l a w and o r d e r must be v i t a l i z e d b e f o r e i t s r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s g r a s p e d . E x t e r n a l l y imposed l a w s , even when supported by h a r s h punishments, a r e o f t e n flouted*', many ti m e s i n a s p i r i t o f b ravado. Campaigns to c o n v i n c e t h e p e o p l e o f the m e r i t s o f c e r t a i n laws produce s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s . 2 But each c i t i z e n must a c q u i r e a sense o f p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the laws b e f o r e obedience t o t h e laws w i l l be a commonly ac c e p t e d p r o c e d u r e . A d m i t t e d l y t h e l a w l e s s c o n s t i t u t e a d i f f i c u l t problem f o r s o c i e t y ; but t h e n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g , n o n - t h i n k i n g and n o n - v o t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s o f s o c i e t y c o n s t i t u t e an even more s e r i o u s problem. There a r e grave dangers t o I ~~ W i l l i a m s , N. "Democracy - Keynote o f the D e t r o i t Con-v e n t i o n , " quoted from Dr. G o s l i n g . C l e a r i n g House, V o l . X I , No. 1: 8-11, September, 1937. 2 The "100 D e a t h l e s s Days" campaign i s an example o f t h i s . 32 s o c i e t y from.those who s i t i d l y by, l e t t i n g m a t t e r s t a k e t h e i r own c o u r s e . The c i t i z e n s must r e a l i z e t h a t the laws are the d i r e c t outcome of a j u d i c i o u s use : o f the b a l l o t ; t h a t the laws a r e , i n d i r e c t l y , laws of t h e i r own c h o i c e . T h e r e f o r e , the law i s a c t u a l l y the e x p r e s s i o n of the w i l l of t h e m a j o r i t y . Commendable laws deserve r e s p e c t and enforcement, not o n l y by o f f i c e r s of the law, but by the f o r c e of p u b l i c o p i n i o n : u n s a t i s f a c t o r y laws demand, not e v a s i o n , but p u r p o s e f u l p l a n n i n g by the c i t i z e n s w hich w i l l r e s u l t i n the amendment, or r e p e a l of such laws. S c h o o l s must i n s t i l t h i s p h i l o s o p h y i n t o the c h i l d r e n . Even c h i l d r e n of s c h o o l age d i s p l a y an u h s a t i s f a e t o r y adjustment t o the law. J u v e n i l e c o u r t s and r e f o r m a t o r i e s a re evidenced, o f the a n t i - s o c i a l a t t i t u d e of many c h i l d r e n . The s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r f i e l d have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e here. Most of the r e g u l a t i o n s , of a s c h o o l s h o u l d be l e g i s l a t e d by the s t u -dent government and s h o u l d be e n f o r c e d by studentT o f f i c i a l s . I n t h i s way t h e s t u d e n t body w i l l g a i n t h e c o n c e p t i o n of law-making; t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l observe the f o r m u l a t i o n of l a w s , not f o r purposes of t y r a n n y , but t o expr e s s the c o l l e c t i v e w i l l of the m a j o r i t y . Each s c h o o l c i t i z e n w i l l r e a l i z e t h a t t h e laws a re ah advantage t o the g r e a t e s t number and t h a t , i f he i s i n the m i n o r i t y , t h e d e p r i v a t i o n of a f e w of h i s former p r i v i l e g e s w i l l work t o the b e n e f i t of many o t h e r s . Thus t h e p u p i l s w i l l l e a r n t h a t t r u e freedom cannot p e r m i t an u n d i s -c i p l i n e d y i e l d i n g t o e v e r y d e s i r e ; i n s t e a d i t demands a r i g i d adherence t o p r i n c i p l e s of wh i c h t h e m a j o r i t y have approved. 35 I d e a l l y , t o g a i n t h e s e i m p r e s s i o n s , every student s h o u l d have the p r i v i l e g e o f law-making and lav/-enforcement. O h v l o u s l y t h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e i n a l a r g e s c h o o l , i f such o p p o r t u n i t i e s are t o emanate from the s c h o o l government and s c h o o l law-enforcement body"only. The s c h o o l must expand i t s e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s t o i n c l u d e a l l * . Then t h e p o t e n t i a l t r o u b l e - m a k e r , v e s t e d w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o e n f o r c e o r d e r , may become-a worthy s c h o o l c i t i z e n who w i l l not countenance any i n f r i n g e m e n t o f s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s and many o t h e r s , though p a r t i c i p a t i n g l e s s a c t i v e l y , may become c i t i z e n s who w i l l r e s p e c t t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s and w i l l r e a l i z e the o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t accompany them. P r o b -a b l y p u p i l s develop as much o r more s e l f - c o n t r o l from d o i n g t h i n g s i n which they are i n t e r e s t e d as from t h o s e which are d i s a g r e e a b l e and b o r i n g . Genuine d i s c i p l i n e s h o u l d n o t be imposed from, w i t h o u t , but s h o u l d be s e c u r e d by e n l i s t i n g the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f p u p i l s i n worthy p u r p o s e f u l e x p e r i e n c e s . D i s c i p l i n a r y c a s e s , i n p a r t a t l e a s t , are f r e q u e n t l y t h e r e s u l t o f t r y i n g to f o r c e p u p i l s i n t o a m a l a d j u s t e d c u r r i c u l u m . The r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m can be a d j u s t e d , but can i t ever r e p l a c e t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e i r innumerable oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r p u r p o s e f u l e x p e r i e n c e s ? R i n g d a h l 1 b e l i e v e s t h a t d e l i n q u e n c y between t h e ages o f 14 and 15 can be h a l v e d by 2 t h e i n c l u s i o n o f more e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . K e l i h e r _ j , — _ R i n g d a h l , N. R. Some I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s i n an Elementary S c h o o l . S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , V o l . X, No. 1: 29, September, 1938. K e l i h e r , A l i c e V. P l a y ' s t h e T h i n g . C l e a r i n g House, V o l . X, No. 6: 330-333, F e b r u a r y , 1936. 34 suggests t h a t the a n t i - s o c i a l a c t s w h i c h have l e d t o the i n c a r c e r a t i o n of j u v e n i l e s i n r e f o r m a t o r i e s and the dependence upon o t h e r s f o r amusement are the d i r e c t r e s u l t s o f an i g norance of how t o p l a y . She b e l i e v e s t h a t the e n t i r e school.programme must"be i n f u s e d w i t h the p l a y theme t o w h i c h the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s e s p e c i a l l y l e n d themselves so e a s i l y . But t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of the word " p l a y " must not be m i s c o n s t r u e d . The p erson's a t t i t u d e t o a c e r t a i n t a s k , not the job i t s e l f , d e c i d e s whether t h i s d u t y s h o u l d be c l a s s e d as "work" or " p l a y " . P l a y , as we know, has a d i s t i n c t t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e . The n e a r e r work approaches p l a y , the g r e a t e r a chance man has t o s u r v i v e the p r e s s u r e s about him. I n , s c h o o l s , the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f an en-l a r g e d e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme and t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e o f t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r system to many of the r e g u l a r s u b j e c t s would e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o an i n t e r m i x t u r e i n w h i c h p l a y and work would be i n e x t r i c a b l y f u s e d . I f t h i s Utopia can be r e a ched, even i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , the problems of d i s c i p l i n e and d e l i n q u e n c y may u l t i m a t e l y v a n i s h and an a t t i t u d e of r e s p e c t f o r l a w and o r d e r may become an a c c e p t e d commonplace. Aim V I I I D i s c o v e r y and Development of S p e c i a l Q u a l i t i e s and A b i l i t i e s . The l a s t o b j e c t i v e towards which e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s s h o u l d s t r i v e i s the development of s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s and a b i l i t i e s . T h i s problem of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i s one of t h e most d i f f i c u l t problems c o n f r o n t i n g e d u c a t o r s . The w i d e s p r e a d use of t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t has l e d t o an a m e l i o r a t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e s t u d e n t s of subnormal and 35 s u p e r i o r a b i l i t i e s . F o r example, c o u r s e s have been d i f f e r e n -t i a t e d so t h a t , a l t h o u g h a l l are expected t o master c e r t a i n minimum e s s e n t i a l s , enrichment has been added f o r those o f s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y . Such a scheme, however, tends t o emphasize q u a n t i t a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Other i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h are not dependent on i n t e l l i g e n c e p r e s e n t another angle of t h i s problem, the s o l u t i o n of w h i c h i s even more b a f f l i n g . We know t h a t a l l normal c h i l d r e n have the. same fundamental u r g e s , but we a l s o r e a l i z e t h a t c h i l d r e n have dormant t a l e n t s w h i c h , t o o o f t e n , are not aroused d u r i n g the c h i l d ' s s c h o o l l i f e . Y e t t h e s e undeveloped a b i l i t i e s a re f r e q u e n t l y t h e v e r y ones w h i c h s h o u l d determine the s t u d e n t s ' v o c a t i o n a l and a v o c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s . The importance o f t h e s e p u r s u i t s i s a x i o m a t i c . The unemployment problem shows no s i g n s of abatement, y e t the v a r i e t i e s ' o f employment are s t e a d i l y mounting. S p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s the keynote of our c i v i l i z a t i o n . To p r o c u r e s a t i s f y i n g employment, th e c h i l d s h o u l d e a r l y l e a r n and develop h i s s p e c i a l t a l e n t s . The l e i s u r e time a t the d i s -p o s a l of the average a d u l t o f t o d a y would astound t h e p a s t g e n e r a t i o n . Y e t t e c h n o l o g i c a l improvements s h o u l d f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e the amount of l e i s u r e t i m e . L e i s u r e time i s o f t e n squandered: an i n c r e a s e o f l e i s u r e t i m e , under p r e s e n t con-d i t i o n s , might have a d e l e t e r i o u s i n f l u e n c e . The w o r t h y use of l e i s u r e time n e c e s s i t a t e s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a l l to the p l e a s u r e s and v a l u e s i n h e r e n t i n h o b b i e s . The s c h o o l must l e a d i t s s t u d e n t s t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a v o c a t i o n s w h i c h are s u i t e d t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s ; a v o c a t i o n s which 36 w i l l ensure a w i s e use o f t h i s l e i s u r e time and, i n times of d e p r e s s i o n , a p o s s i b l e secondary source of revenue. To d a t e , the s c h o o l s ' accomplishments i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n have l e f t much t o be d e s i r e d , y e t the s c h o o l s do not deserve to o s c a t h i n g a c r i t i c i s m . . C e r t a i n l y t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d encourage the development of independent i n t e r e s t s , i n t e l l e c t u a l , a e s t h e t i c , or p r a c t i c a l , on the p a r t o f the s t u d e n t s . But t h i s i s h a r d l y a f e a s i b i l i t y i n the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l a r work. It- i s humanly i m p o s s i b l e f o r the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , f a c e d by t h e average l a r g e c l a s s e s , t o d i s c o v e r the i n n a t e endow-ments of each s t u d e n t , o r , i f t h e y are l o c a t e d , t o g i v e them ample o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development. Guidance t e a c h e r s , by t h e use o f i n t e r v i e w s , case s t u d i e s , and p r o g n o s t i c t e s t s , a c h i e v e e x c e l l e n t r e s u l t s b u t , once a g a i n , the numbers t h e y are expected t o c o u n s e l make tho r o u g h e f f i c i e n c y a superhuman t a s k . T h i s v a l u a b l e c u r r i c u l a r work must be r e t a i n e d , but i t must be supplemented by a comprehensive l i s t o f e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s . As t h e s e o f f e r i n g s a r e u s u a l l y e l e c t i v e t h e y g i v e e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n and c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s t u d e n t s . I n t h e r e l a t i v e freedom of t h e s e p r o j e c t s d i f f e r e n c e s o f i n t e r e s t s , c a p a c i t i e s and i d e a l s come t o the f o r e and may be s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y n u r t u r e d . Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s may f u l f i l t h e i r l a s t o b j e c t i v e : the p u p i l w i l l f i n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and t h r o u g h them he may d i s c o v e r a d r i v i n g d e s i r e which w i l l , determine h i s l i f e t a s k . 57 I n this., c h a p t e r the o b j e c t i v e s o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s have been d i s c u s s e d a t some l e n g t h . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h these a c t i v i t i e s a re a c h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l s i s s t i l l a c o n t r o v e r s i a l q u e s t i o n . Research workers have l a b o r e d i n the f i e l d o f th e s e a c t i v i t i e s , and, i n the v a s t m a j o r i t y of c a s e s , t h e i r r e s u l t s have been f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e s e a c t i -v i t i e s . D e f i n i t e p r o o f s , however, a r e l a c k i n g : q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s p r e s e n t a p i c t u r e of c o l l e c t i v e j u d g -ments, not a b s o l u t e p r o o f s . " I t r e q u i r e s time t o prove t h e i r s u p e r i o r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e i t s e l f , but those most i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s t r a i n i n g ( e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ) f e e l t h a t the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l o f t h e l a n d w i l l e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e as y e t undreamed o f upon the s t a n d a r d s , a c t i v i t i e s , and happiness of i t s f u t u r e c i t i z e n r y . " ^ 1 P r o c t o r & R i c c i a r d i , op. c i t . , 223. 38 CHAPTER I I THE EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES OF TEMPLETON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 39 Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , where t h i s s t u d y was made, was o f f i c i a l l y opened i n 1927. P r i o r t o t h i s date Mr. H. B. F i t c h , i t s p r i n c i p a l , and Mr. Robert S t r a i g h t , now i n s p e c t o r o f s c h o o l s i n "Vancouver, had v i s i t e d many j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l was an experiment, but t h i s experiment was based on t h o u g h t f u l i n -v e s t i g a t i o n and s t u d y . The p r i n c i p a l and h i s s t a f f were aware t h a t the essence of the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l a y , not i n the improved e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n t , but i n t h e enlargement o f oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r stude n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The approach t o t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m was s t i m u l a t e d by a w i s e c h o i c e of t h e m u l t i f a r i o u s o l d and new methods wh i c h t h e fo u n d e r s had s t u d i e d . The e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , w h i c h had h e l d a v e r y i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n i n the v o i d e r type s c h o o l s , be-came an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the s c h o o l programme. The complacency of b o t h t e a c h e r s and t h e p u b l i c t o an e d u c a t i o n a l system which a c c e p t e d p a s s i v e s u p p o r t from t h e s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d a severe shock. Y e t t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t many o f t h e newer s u g g e s t i o n s had .not proven t h e i r w o r t h tempered t h e d e s i r e t o i n t r o d u c e too many changes. The e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme of Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l was g r a d u a l l y e v o l v e d t o i t s p r e s e n t s t a t u s . Many i n n o v a t i o n s have been t r i e d . Those t h a t proved s a t i s -f a c t o r y were r e t a i n e d ; the o t h e r s were d i s c a r d e d . The p r e s e n t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme, though one of which b o t h s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s a re pr o u d , c o n t a i n s i m p e r f e c t i o n s which time and e x p e r i e n c e w i l l e r a d i c a t e . 40 L a s t y e a r , 1938, the S c h o o l C o u n c i l of Templeton J u n i o r High S c h o o l p u b l i s h e d a "Handbook f o r S t u d e n t s . " T h i s 100 page guide f o r the 600 or 700 grade seven s t u d e n t s who an-n u a l l y e n r o l l a t Templeton p r e s e n t s a summary of the s c h o o l t r a d i t i o n s , r e g u l a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s an e x c e l l e n t example of s t u d e n t a c t i v i t y . The members of the S c h o o l C o u n c i l , w i t h s t a f f c o - o p e r a t i o n , c o l l e c t e d and a r r a n g e d t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h i s book. The p u b l i c a t i o n e n t a i l e d the e x p e n d i t u r e o f more than 100 d o l l a r s . Undaunted by t h i s o b s t a c l e t h e s t u d e n t s , by a v a r i e t y of means, r a i s e d the n e c e s s a r y funds,, The w r i t e r acknowledges th e k i n d n e s s of Mr. D. B. MacKenzie, v i c e - p r i n c i p a l o f Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , and the S c h o o l C o u n c i l o f 1938 f o r the p r i v i -l e g e of u s i n g passages from the "Handbook." As "the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i s r e a l l y a young democracy, a t t e m p t i n g t o p a t t e r n i n m i n i a t u r e a l l the l a t e r a c t i v i t i e s of l i f e , t h e r e s h o u l d be almost innumerable o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . One of the most p r o f i t a b l e of t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s s t u d e n t government and, s i n c e the s c h o o l ' s i n c e p t i o n , s t u d e n t s a t Templeton have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s c h o o l government. The accompanying diagram w i l l g i v e some c o n c e p t i o n of t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f the p r e s e n t system. As the diagram shows, a t the p r e s e n t time a s c h o o l c o u n c i l , t h r e e grade c o u n c i l s , and f o u r house c o u n c i l s , under the s p o n s o r s h i p of f a c u l t y members, share i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s c h o o l . Each c l a s s , i n a r e g u l a r l y conducted c l a s s -41 STUDENT GX) VERMENT SCHOOL OODMOU (!1 members) TEMPLETON JUMIOR HI(33,SCHOOL I. Executive House II., Executive President Vice-President Secretary,-Treasurer (Chosen by House I, Council) ' House I. Council House I, Glass Representatives from Grades 7,8,9 (39 members) President Vice-President -Secretary, Treasurer (Chosen by House II. Council): House.II. Council House I L Glass Eepre sentati ve s from Grades 7,8,9 (39 members) Executive of 4-electedby whole school 2 members of Grade NiiB: Council 2 • « « » Eigt. « 2 R " tc Serai R 2 H n Each Houe: Executive Tee Jay Representative'; Girls* Club Head >f Monitors Girls* Club Tee Jay Monitors Executive ofI Grade Nine Ouncil 3 repre sentsive s from Each Grade Nine Class Staff Sponsors House III.. Ezecutive House IV. Executive President Vice-President Secretary, Treasurer (Chosen by House III. Council) House III. Council House III. Class Representatives from Grades 7,8,9 (39 members) President Vice-President Secretary, Treasurer (Chosen by House TV. Council) House IV. Council House IV. Class Representatives from Grades 7,8,9 (59 members) House I. Grade Nine Class Representatives i CI. 1-10 House I„. Grade Eight Class Hepresentative s CI. 11-24 House I. •• Grade Seven Class ^preventatives. 01. 25-40 House II, Grade Nine Class Representatives •'CI." House II. Grade Eight Class Repre sentati ve s Gl. House II. Grade Seven Class Repre sentatives 01. Executive oft Grade Eight Ouncil 3 representsives from Each Grade light Class Executive oft Grade Seven ouncil 3 representsives from Each Grade Seva Class House III. Grade Nine Class Repre sentat i ve s CI. 1-10 House III, Grade Eight Class Representatives CI. H-24 House III. Grade Seven Class Representatives 01. 25-40 House IV. Grade Nine Class Representatives. CI. 1-10 House TV. Grade Eight Class Representatives CI. 11-24 House IT. Grade Seven Class Representatives 01. 25-40 1 room e l e c t i o n , p i c k s a p r e s i d e n t , a v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , and a s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r . These c l a s s o f f i c e r s become members of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e grade c o u n c i l s . The e l e c t i o n of the exec-u t i v e s of the grade, house, and s c h o o l c o u n c i l s i s a f a c -s i m i l e o f r e a l l i f e . June, the e l e c t i o n month of each y e a r , i s a month of b u s t l e . F i r s t mimeographed n o m i n a t i o n p a p e r s , w h i c h may be p r o c u r e d from c o u n c i l members, must be s i g n e d by a t l e a s t f i v e v o t e r s and t h e nominee b e f o r e the n o m i n a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d v a l i d . A n o m i n a t i n g committee of each c o u n c i l , w h i c h i n c l u d e s the sponsor, checks the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f the nominated s t u d e n t s c a r e f u l l y because the d u t i e s o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e t h e l o s s of o c c a s i o n a l l e s s o n s and t h e p o s i t i o n s w h i c h t h e y hope t o f i l l w i l l demand c a p a b l e , r e l i a b l e incumbents. P e r s o n s whose s c h o l a r s h i p o r c i t i z e n -s h i p i s c o n s i d e r e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y may have t h e i r names w i t h -drawn a f t e r t h e y have had a p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the n o m i n a t i n g committee. • Next the a c c e p t e d c a n d i d a t e s , sup-p o r t e d by t h e i r campaign managers, expound t h e i r t h e o r i e s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o a s s e m b l i e s o f the e l e c t o r a t e , the w a l l s of t h e s c h o o l f l a u n t e l e c t i o n p o s t e r s w h i c h have met t h e r e q u i r e -ments of the s t u d e n t s ' P o s t e r U nion and, as a r e s u l t , t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f d i f f e r e n t c a n d i d a t e s become a common theme of d i s c u s s i o n . I n the meantime a c h i e f e l e c t o r a l o f f i c e r , r e t u r n i n g o f f i c e r s , and t h e i r a s s i s t a n t s have p r e p a r e d b a l l o t s and p l a n n e d the d e t a i l s o f the e l e c t i o n . Sometimes t h e a u d i t o r i u m becomes a s e r i e s o f p o l l i n g b o o t h s ; sometimes the S o c i a l S t u d i e s rooms s e r v e t h i s purpose; but always the e l e c t i o n • 42 i s i n the capable hands of s t u d e n t s . As the e l e c t o r a l O f f i c e r and h i s s t a f f c ompile the r e t u r n s , an e x c i t e d crowd a w a i t s the r e s u l t s i n the a u d i t o r i u m . Templeton agrees w i t h W e l l i n g 1 t h a t , though i t t a k e s t i m e , s c h o o l e l e c t i o n s must be as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o r e a l e l e c t i o n s t o t e a c h c i t i z e n s h i p and coun-t e r a c t v i c e . The s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between v o t e -c a t c h i n g speeches and genuine promises,, t h e y r e a l i z e t h e p r i v i l e g e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the f r a n c h i s e , and t h e y see b e f o r e t h e i r eyes the u n f o r t u n a t e outcome of an unwise c h o i c e o f l e a d e r s . The grade seven e x e c u t i v e , o f c o u r s e , cannot be e l e c t e d t i l l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the f a l l t e r m, but the e l e c t i o n o f a l l t h e -other e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s i n t h e e a r l y summer g i v e s the s c h o o l a n u c l e u s w h i c h can c a r r y on the e x e c u t i v e d u t i e s from t h e f i r s t day of the f a l l term. F r e -q u e n t l y the c r i t i c i s m is-made t h a t b o t h t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i -s t r a t o r s are much too a f r a i d o f the m i s t a k e s the s t u d e n t s may make i f t h e y are g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t y t o e v o l v e s t a n d a r d s of b e h a v i o u r t h r o u g h an a c t i v e and t r u l y r e s p o n s i b l e s t u d e n t government: that, t h e y m i s t r u s t the a b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t s t o develop a r e s p o n s i b l e s p i r i t once r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s g i v e n them. T h i s c r i t i c i s m may be l e v e l l e d a t Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . No p r e t e n c e i s made o f g r a n t i n g the s t u d e n t s more t h a n a share i n t h e management of the s c h o o l . C h i l d r e n of j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l age are c o n s i d e r e d too immature t o con-t r o l c o m p l e t e l y t h e government, of the,:school. Though r e s -t r a i n t may be e x e r c i s e d by t h e c o u n c i l s p o n s o r s , w i s e d i r e c t i o n 1 ' ~~ W e l l i n g , R i c h a r d . "New, S o c i a l H o r i z o n s S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , V o l . X, No. 1: 5-6, September, 1938. • 43 ' f r e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e s i t . • Each grade c o u n c i l d i s c u s s e s - m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g t h a t grade and l e g i s l a t e s on them. Suggestions a f f e c t i n g t h e whole s t u d e n t "body r e s u l t i n recommendations which are forwarded to. the S c h o o l C o u n c i l . The grade c o u n c i l s assume t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of o r g a n i z i n g - a u d i t o r i u m , a s s e m b l i e s , o f c a r i n g f o r s c h o o l equipment such as maps and study h a l l books, and o f r a i s i n g money f o r any worthy purpose. Each c o u n c i l r e c e i v e s i t s quota o f the s c h o o l f e e s from the s c h o o l . c o u n c i l and, i f t h i s i s not bu d g e t t e d w i s e l y , a d d i t i o n a l r e -venue must be p r o c u r e d t h r o u g h the e f f o r t s o f t h a t c o u n c i l . The S c h o o l C o u n c i l , w i t h a membership o f twenty-one, c o n t r o l s and c o - o r d i n a t e s s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e conduct of s t u d e n t s o u t -s i d e the c l a s s r o o m s ' a r e f o r m u l a t e d by t h i s c o u n c i l and t h e i r enforcement i s d e l e g a t e d t o the seho'ol m o n i t o r s . The members of t h e d i f f e r e n t grade and house c o u n c i l s are urged t o r e p o r t the p r o j e c t s of t h e i r c o u n c i l s t o t h e c l a s s e s to-encourage the c o - o p e r a t i o n of a l l and t o s o l i c i t s u g g e s t i o n s from the st u d e n t body. O c c a s i o n a l l y a c l a s s f e e l s t h a t one or more of i t s o f f i c e r s are not f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r d u t i e s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e s e o f f i c e r s may be r e c a l l e d and r e p l a c e d by o t h e r s . T h i s p o l i c y , though r a r e l y u s e d , s e r v e s as an i n c e n t i v e t o commendable s e r v i c e on the p a r t o f t h e o f f i c e r s . The o f f i c e r s , of c o u r s e , s h o u l d s e t an example t o the r e s t o f the c l a s s . I n f r a c t i o n s o f s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s by c l a s s o f f i c e r s w i t h i n o r w i t h o u t c l a s s r o o m s a re not countenanced. O f f e n d i n g c o u n c i l members may be suspended o r e x p e l l e d from the 44 c o u n c i l by a d e c i s i o n of t h e i r own c o l l e a g u e s . Members, whose s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g drops below the p r omotion requirements are a u t o m a t i c a l l y d i s b a r r e d from c o u n c i l p o s i t i o n s . T h i s a c t i o n i s j u s t i f i a b l e on two s c o r e s : i n the f i r s t p l a c e i t p e r m i t s a l a r g e r percentage of the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n t o p a r -t i c i p a t e i n s t u d e n t government and, s e c o n d l y , i t safeguards the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t condemnation by the i r a t e p a r e n t s of c h i l d r e n who have f a i l e d i n t h e i r r e g u l a r c u r -r i c u l a r s t u d i e s . Though the s t u d e n t s do not c o n t r o l the s t u d e n t government, the sponsors and many o t h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t the form of s t u d e n t government used a t Templeton J u n i o r High School g i v e s the s t u d e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y to d e v e l o p i n i t i a t i v e and l e a d e r s h i p , to l e a r n c o - o p e r a t i o n , to become more s e l f - d i r e c t i v e , and to c r e a t e a more wholesome s c h o o l atmosphere because of the l a r g e r s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s c h o o l a f f a i r s . L a s t y e a r a house system was i n s t i t u t e d to r e l i e v e the c o u n c i l s of p a r t of t h e i r former t a s k s and to p e r f o r m these t a s k s more c a p a b l y . The i n a u g u r a t i o n of the house system ser v e d two main purposes. I n the f i r s t p l a c e f r i e n d l y r i v a l r y s t i m u l a t e s i n t e r e s t i n such s c h o o l events as s p o r t s , p l a y c o n t e s t s , and o r a t o r i c a l c o n t e s t s . The c o u n c i l system was unable t o produce as much r i v a l r y as the house system: com-p e t i t i o n s between c o u n c i l s of d i f f e r e n t grades or between c l a s s e s , s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of c o u r s e s and i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , were o b v i o u s l y u n f a i r . The house system by a d i v i s i o n of each c l a s s i n t o f o u r houses, e f f e c t s a j u s t d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s t u d e n t s by age and by i n t e l l i g e n c e , w h i c h encourages f r i e n d l y c o m p e t i t i o n i n b o t h b r i g h t and d u l l c l a s s e s . A s t u d e n t remains i n the same house t h r o u g h -out h i s s c h o o l c a r e e r and d e v e l o p s a l o y a l t y t o t h a t house whi c h encourages a g r e a t e r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s c h o o l w e l -f a r e . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s c h o o l c o m p e t i t i o n s and a s s e m b l i e s , r e g u l a r i t y and p u n c t u a l i t y i n a t t e n d a n c e , h i g h s c h o l a r s h i p , and f i n e c i t i z e n s h i p on the p a r t o f a s t u d e n t count-toward the s t a n d i n g of h i s house. Thus a s t u d e n t who never w i n s a c o n t e s t can s t i l l a s s i s t h i s house. The house s t a n d i n g s are p r o m i n e n t l y d i s p l a y e d i n the main h a l l o f the s c h o o l so t h a t a rearrangement of them i s i m m e d i a t e l y n o t i c e a b l e t o a l l the s t u d e n t s . Thus the house system p l a c e s a premium on the h a b i t s w h i c h a l l p u p i l s s h o u l d develop and s t i m u l a t e s p a r -t i c i p a t i o n by a l l i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . I n the second p l a c e the house system a l s o i n c r e a s e s the number who may share i n s t u d e n t government and t h u s r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g i n p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e d u r e s and i n the development of i n i t i a t i v e and the o t h e r d e s i r a b l e t r a i t s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 p e r cent o f t h e s t u d e n t s serve on the grade and s c h o o l c o u n c i l s . A t l e a s t a n o t her 10 p e r c e n t guide the d e s t i n i e s o f the houses as each house has a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n every c l a s s . As the house r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e cannot be a c o u n c i l member a l s o , each c l a s s must have a minimum of 7 o f f i c e r s . I f t r a i n i n g f o r l i f e i n a de-mocracy demands a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e o f l i f e i n a democracy, the combined c o u n c i l and house systems c e r t a i n l y o f f e r such t r a i n i n g . 46 The development of an a l l - r o u n d s t u d e n t r e q u i r e s the development of a sound mind i n a sound body. P h y s i c a l edu-c a t i o n p e r i o d s , under s k i l l e d guidance i n a modern gymnasium w i t h adequate equipment, a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t s t o b u i l d a sound body. The p l a n of awarding house p o i n t s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n I n team games o r i n f i e l d e vents f u r t h e r s the work of the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s . At Templeton J u n i o r H i g h School the emphasis i n a t h l e t i c c o n t e s t s i s p l a c e d where i t b e l o n g s . Though i n t e r - s c h o o l c o m p e t i t i o n may arouse s c h o o l s p i r i t , e s p e c i a l l y i f the home team i s the w i n n i n g one, i t tends t o the d e v e l o p -ment of a few o u t s t a n d i n g a t h l e t e s t o the n e g l e c t o f the many who share i n games v i c a r i o u s l y o n l y . I n t e r - h o u s e games s t r e s s the number p a r t i c i p a t i n g r a t h e r than the q u a l i t y o f t h e p l a y . Under the Templeton system boys and g i r l s are d i v i d e d i n t o s e n i o r , i n t e r m e d i a t e , j u n i o r , and midget. Then the members s i g n up on teams r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r houses and the House Spo r t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f each house s e l e c t s t h e c a p t a i n s . Though the l a r g e r number of p o i n t s i s g a i n e d by w i n n i n g games, y e t p o i n t s may be p r o c u r e d by f i e l d i n g teams w h i c h are s u i t a b l y c l a d t o b e n e f i t by a t h l e t i c c o m p e t i t i o n s . While th e boys i n d u l g e i n s o c c e r , v o l l e y b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , y a r d s , and s o f t b a l l , the g i r l s p l a y s o c c e r , f i e l d hockey, v o l l e y b a l l , d o d g e b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , s o f t b a l l , and s p e e d b a l l . Other a c t i v i t i e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d when time p e r m i t s . The c u l m i n a t i o n o f the s p o r t s y e a r i s S p o r t s Day. A g a i n t h e c r i t e r i o n of a s u c c e s s f u l a t h -l e t i c programme i s u p h e l d . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s an open champion-s h i p event i n each d i v i s i o n , t hose e n t e r i n g such a c o m p e t i t i o n 47 are .excluded from o t h e r e v e n t s . The house w i t h the most e n t r i e s may d e f e a t a house which, w i n s a few'more v i c t o r i e s . As i n a l l o t h e r phases of the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme, p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the many r a t h e r t h a n e x c e l l e n t performance by the few i s the aim. P r o p e r conduct i n the h a l l s , a t the b i c y c l e sheds,' and on t h e s c h o o l grounds has been d e f i n e d by the p r e s e n t and former s c h o o l c o u n c i l s . Though the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s are c o n v i n c e d o f t h e v a l u e of the s e laws and make them a s e l f - i m p o s e d o b l i g a t i o n , a c e r t a i n number o f malad-j u s t e d s t u d e n t s w i l l always f l o u t t he law. The m o n i t o r s serve a d u a l purpose: t h e y compel an acceptance of the s e r u l e s .by; a l l and t h e y guide b e g i n n e r s -and v i s i t o r s t o t h e i r d e s i r e d d e s t i n a t i o n s . The h e l p f u l r a t h e r t h a n t h e d i s c i p -l i n a r y a s p e c t o f m o n i t o r i a l d u t y i s •'emphasized. Though the d e r o g a t o r y a p p e l l a t i o n ."cops" i s o c c a s i o n a l l y a p p l i e d to. the m o n i t o r s , p o s i t i o n s on the m o n i t o r f o r c e a re t h e g o a l o f many s t u d e n t s . The b u l k of the s t u d e n t s r e a l i z e t h e v a l u e of t h i s f o r c e and c o n s i d e r membership i n i t an honour. The m o n i t o r s , as c u s t o d i a n s o f the law, have t h e r i g h t t o g i v e t i c k e t s t o any who d i s r e g a r d s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m s . The r e c i p i e n t s o f t i c k e t s a r e o b l i g e d t o a t t e n d a c o u r t w h i c h , except f o r the o m i s s i o n o f l a w y e r s , resembles an a u t h e n t i c law c o u r t . The o f f e n d e r . p r e s e n t s h i s e v i d e n c e , o c c a s i o n a l l y s u p p o r t e d by Yidtnesses, w h i l e the m o n i t o r who wrote the t i c k e t d e s c r i b e s h i s s i d e o f t h e c a s e . A f t e r the evidence has been weighed and t h e v e r d i c t d e c i d e d , the sponsor o f the m o n i t o r s 48 g i v e s t h e - s e n t e n c e . Thus, through the m o n i t o r i a l system, a phase of r e a l i s t i c everyday l i f e i s i n s t i l l e d i n t o the p u p i l s . They r e a l i z e t h a t the laws are the outcome of t h e d e l i b e r -a t i o n s of the c o u n c i l members whom t h e y have e l e c t e d . There-f o r e t h e i r o n l y source o f r e d r e s s from u n s a t i s f a c t o r y laws i s a t t h e p o l l s . S e c o n d l y t h e y l e a r n t h a t the laws which have t h e a p p r o b a t i o n of the many a r e s a c r o s a n c t : the d i s s e n t i n g m i n o r i t y must a b i d e by such l a w s . True freedom i s not l i c e n c e . Though th e d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y p e r m i t s i n d i v i d u a l freedom, t h i s freedom n e c e s s i t a t e s a c o n f o r m a t i o n t o c e r t a i n r e g u l a t i o n s . They observe t h a t u n b r i d l e d freedom would soon degenerate i n t o anarchy. T h i r d l y the i m p e r s o n a l i t y of the l a w i s r e g i s t e r e d on t h e i r minds. Punishment i s meted o u t , not t h r o u g h t h e a n i m o s i t y of a m o n i t o r , but by the s t u d e n t ' s f a i l u r e t o comply w i t h some r e g u l a t i o n . The c o r r e c t a t t i t u d e toward l a w e n f o r c e -ment i s developed. The m o n i t o r s , l i k e t h e p o l i c e , a r e f r e -q u e n t l y f o r e e d by a sense o f d u t y t o p e r f o r m d i s a g r e e a b l e t a s k s F r i e n d s h i p must be overshadowed by c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s . The m o n i t o r s must t r e a t f r i e n d s and s t r a n g e r s i n the same i m p a r t i a l manner, o r s t u d e n t s , a n x i o u s t o g a i n the p r e s t i g e o f m o n i t o r -s h i p , w i l l r e p l a c e t h o s e who have been g u i l t y o f l a x i t y o r f a v o r i t i s m . I t i s q u i t e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t , under such con-d i t i o n s , t h e s t u d e n t body as a whole a p p r e c i a t e s the f u n c t i o n s of t h e m o n i t o r i a l s t a f f and o f f e r s c o - o p e r a t i o n t o the b e s t of i t s a b i l i t y . The t r a n s f e r e n c e o f t h i s a t t i t u d e t o the c i t y and a l l o t h e r p o l i c e f o r c e s would j u s t i f y the Templeton 49 system and- o f f s e t the view, so o f t e n i m p l a n t e d i n a d o l e s c e n t minds, t h a t p o l i c e m e n are u n s y m p a t h e t i c , o f f i e i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s who deserve h i n d r a n c e r a t h e r t h a n a s s i s t a n c e . Fourthly each s t u d e n t n o t e s the f a i r n e s s Of t h e m o n i t o r c o u r t and g a i n s an a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e j u s t i c e o f c o u r t s i n g e n e r a l . I n the f i f t h p l a c e s t u d e n t s d i s c o v e r t h a t i n f r i n g e m e n t s o f the law o f t e n cause s u f f e r i n g t o the i n n o c e n t . Laws were made t o e l i m i n a t e c o n f u s i o n and t o p r e v e n t a c c i d e n t s : d i s o b e d i e n c e , whether t h o u g h t l e s s o r m a l i c i o u s , may r e s u l t i n i n j u r y t o o t h e r s . R e c k l e s s m o t o r i s t s and o t h e r l a w evaders of the same i l k a p p a r e n t l y never l e a r n t t h i s lesson.. I n a l a t e r s e c t i o n , devoted t o a s t u d y of t h e c i t i z e n s h i p e v a l u a t i o n t h e o r y , i t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t one g u i l t y member may a f f e c t the c i t i z e n -s h i p o f an e n t i r e c l a s s . The d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e s w hich many g a i n by s h a r i n g i n m o n i t o r i a l s e r v i c e need not be men-t i o n e d as a l l p o s i t i o n s of t r u s t develop s i m i l a r t r a i t s . I n r a r e c a s e s , of c o u r s e , e g o t i s t i c a l o r i g n o r a n t m o n i t o r s abuse t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s o r exceed t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . Such eases r e -c e i v e summary t r e a t m e n t . M o n i t o r s who have a c t e d i m p r u d e n t l y t h r o u g h i g n o r a n c e a r e r e - d i r e c t e d by the sponsor of the moni-t o r s . The o t h e r s a r e d i s m i s s e d o r suspended. Though t h i s system d o u b t l e s s has many f l a w s , i t o p e r a t e s q u i t e e f f i c i e n t l y . T h i s p roves i t s p r e s e n t v a l u e and suggests t h e v a l u e s w h i c h may a c c r u e f r o m i t i n l a t e r y e a r s . A few y e a r s ago the "Tee J a y " , t h e s c h o o l magazine, won f i r s t p l a c e as the b e s t s c h o o l magazihe i n the p r o v i n c e . Y e t e x c e l l e n c y of the f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t i s not the prime aim of 50 t h i s a c t i v i t y . "Our magazine r e p r e s e n t s a p r o j e c t i n which the whole s c h o o l has a p a r t . The "Tee Jay" wants t o promote s c h o o l s p i r i t and make e v e r y p e r s o n i n the s c h o o l f e e l he has a p a r t i n the paper. I t p r o v i d e s t r a i n i n g i n l e a d e r s h i p and d e v e l o p s the i n i t i a t i v e o f those s t u d e n t s who have an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n i t . " 1 T h i s a c t i v i t y o f f e r s a v a r i e t y of p o s i t i o n s as e v e r y t h i n g except the p r i n t i n g i s i n the hands Of the "Tee J a y " s t a f f . The s t a f f i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups - the Edi^-t o r i a l S t a f f , t h e B u s i n e s s S t a f f , and the "Tee J a y " Cover C l u b . Grade seven p u p i l s are urged t o a v a i l themselves o f v a l u a b l e e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h t h e y may g a i n i n t h i s a c t i v i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t d u r i n g t h e i r e n t i r e t h r e e y e a r s a t j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . Music and a r t r e c e i v e the a t t e n t i o n t h e y w a r r a n t i n b o t h t h e c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r "programme. C h o i r s and o r c h e s t r a s , w i t h some o f t h e i r p r a c t i c e s s c h e d u l e d d u r i n g r e g u l a r s c h o o l h o u r s , a t t r a c t t h e i r q uota of m u s i c a l l y i n c l i n e d p u p i l s . S e v e r a l a r t c l u b s s u p p l y the demands of s t u d e n t s whose s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s i n c l i n e them t o t h i s type of v o c a t i o n o r a v o c a t i o n . Many p u p i l s , however, though t h e y may e n j o y music and the o t h e r f i n e a r t s , 1 do not w i s h to j o i n c h o i r s , o r c h e s t r a s , o r a r t c l u b s . Many o t h e r s have developed no d i s c r i m i n a t i n g t a s t e i n the s e l e c t i o n of m u s i c , p a i n t i n g , and t h e o t h e r f i n e a r t s . Though t h e y may have a l a t e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r them, I • Handbook f o r S t u d e n t s , Templeton J u n i o r H i g h , Vancouver, B.C., 1938, 57. 51 the regular, school periods in these subjects are too few to counteract the outside environment. The radio and the motion picture bear a heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to which they are slowly awakening. Too frequently their influence has been negative or even detrimental. They have f a i l e d to arouse the children's love for the fine arts. Miss Marjorie Agnew, head of the g i r l ' s guidance department, a l e r t to the challenge inherent in these circumstances, organized the f i r s t S i r Ernest MacMillan Fine Arts Club in Canada. "The s p e c i f i c aims of this club are as follows: 1. To co-ordinate the work of the Fine Arts i n the school. This is done by a system of associate members in which any pupil may take'part, thus coming i n contact with s p e c i a l i s t s i n the Fine Arts, 2. To bring about a close re-lationship between pupils and those working for the Fine Arts throughout the c i t y by making the v i s i t i n g a r t i s t s honorary members of the club. There are three classes of members. F i r s t , the Active Members, These are students who have performed on one of the programmes, active o f f i c e r s , class o f f i c e r s , or students who have done special work for the club, such as making a Fine Arts Scrap Book. Secondly, the Associate Members. These are students who have attended the club's programmes four consecutive times. The members are encouraged to c o l -l e c t news clippings and make scrap books. Thirdly, the Honorary Members. These are men and women outside of the Club who have helped or participated in any of the programmes,"1 This club meets once a week at noon. A good programme is I r Handbook, op, cit»., 54-55, •• 5 2 always a s s u r e d . When t h e r e are no v i s i t i n g a r t i s t s t o d e l i g h t the a u d i e n c e , t a l e n t e d members of the s c h o o l are g i v e n a chance to show t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . The high p o i n t i n t h i s c l u b ' s a c t i -v i t i e s i s a F i n e A r t s S e r i e s , p r e s e n t e d about E a s t e r of each y e a r . These programmes sponsor such a r t s as v o c a l and i n s t r u -m e n tal music, d a n c i n g , a r t , moving p i c t u r e s , and l i t e r a t u r e . S i n c e t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h i s c l u b o t h e r : s c h o o l s i n the c i t y have e v i n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f i n the w o r t h of t h i s p r o j e c t by s t a r t i n g s i m i l a r c l u b s . Vernon and Nanaimo now boast F i n e A r t s C l u b s . "So Templeton i s honoured t o t h i n k t h a t I t s e f f o r t t o broaden the i n t e r e s t i n the work of the F i n e A r t s Department i s h a v i n g e f f e c t f a r beyond i t s own b o u n d a r i e s . " 1 One o t h e r c l u b , t h e E v e r y G i r l ' s C l u b , deserves s p e c i a l m e n tion. T h i s c l u b , w h i c h i n c l u d e s .every g i r l i n the s c h o o l , encourages the c o - o p e r a t i o n of each g i r l . Through a system o f committees d e a l i n g w i t h each g i r l ' s d a i l y s c h o o l : : a c t i v i t i e s t h i s c l u b a s s i s t s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s c h o o l . R e a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s 'to the s c h o o l are encouraged by t h e awarding of badges t o a c t i v e members. Honour badges are p r e s e n t e d t o those whose Qualifications meet the s t a n d a r d s s e t by the p r e -s e n t Honour Members. Space does not p e r m i t an account of a l l t h e numerous p r o j e c t s sponsored by t h i s c l u b . Three a c t i v i t i e s g i v e some i m p r e s s i o n o f the scope of i t s a c t i v i t i e s . G-rade E i g h t p a r t n e r s a c t as "big s i s t e r s " t o the i n c o m i n g Grade Seven G i r l s and Welcome them a t a p a r t y . E v e r y Open Day t h e I Handbook, op. c i t . , 56. 53 g i r l ' s c l u b room i s the scene of a t a s t e f u l l y arranged hobby show and e v e r y f a l l the g i r l s e n t e r t a i n t h e i r mothers a t a Hallowe'en Tea. The boys' c o u n t e r p a r t i s t h e H i - Y C l u b . Though i t s membership i s l i m i t e d , i t s p r o j e c t s are immense. "F a t h e r and Son N i g h t , " w i t h i t s gymnasium d i s p l a y , shops i n s p e c t i o n , a u d i t o r i u m programme, and r e f r e s h m e n t s , g i v e s the f a t h e r s the o p p o r t u n i t y the mothers have had a t H allowe'en. Though a few of the c l u b s meet o u t s i d e r e g u l a r s c h o o l h o u r s , Tuesday i s t h e r e g u l a r c l u b day. The a f t e r n o o n p e r i o d s a r e s h o r t e n e d and the grade seven p u p i l s are p e r m i t t e d t o go home u n l e s s t h e y w i s h to' a t t e n d the, o c c a s i o n a l assembly spon-s o r e d by the grade seven c o u n c i l . A l l the grade e i g h t and nine, s t u d e n t s are g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e l e c t t h e i r f a v o r i t e clubs.. The m a j o r i t y are a s s i g n e d t o t h e i r f i r s t c h o i c e f o r t h e f i r s t t e r m and t o t h e i r n e x t c h o i c e f o r the second term. I f a c l u b member i s a n x i o u s t o do so, he i s f r e q u e n t l y a l l o w e d t o remain i n the same c l u b t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e y e a r . The s t a f f b e l i e v e s , however, t h a t a g r e a t e r b e n e f i t i s d e r i v e d by s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n b o t h academic and a t h l e t i c c l u b s so s t u d e n t s are encouraged t o make c h o i c e s w h i c h w i l l a c c o m p l i s h t h i s end. The hand book l i s t s t h i r t y - f o u r c l u b s f o r p u p i l s e l e c t i o n . These are the c l u b s w h i c h have been the c h o i c e s o f f o r m e r p u p i l s . C l u b s w h i c h r e c e i v e inadequate s u p p o r t are d e l e t e d . Upon the r e q u e s t of a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e number who have found a sponsor a new c l u b may be s t a r t e d . O v e r n 1 s t a t e s t h a t some s c h o o l s 1 : Overn, op. c i t . , 216. 54 f o l l o w t h e ' r e p r e h e n s i b l e p r a c t i c e of r e q u i r i n g each stud e n t t o j o i n a c l u b o r t o be s u b j e c t t o the punishment of s t u d y i n g . Yet s t u d y s h o u l d be a p r i v i l e g e , never a punishment. He be-l i e v e s t h a t the needs of p u p i l s i n the s t u d y group have not been d i s c o v e r e d and, as a r e s u l t , i t i s the t e a c h e r who should be p u n i s h e d , not the p u p i l . ..Templeton has a s t u d y c l u b , but whether Overn's s c a t h i n g c r i t i c i s m o f i t i s j u s t i f i a b l e i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . A d m i t t e d l y some j o i n the s t u d y c l u b because t h e i r i n t e r e s t has not been aroused by any o t h e r c l u b s . Other r e a s o n s , however, i n f l u e n c e t h e c h o i c e o f t h e study c l u b . Many boys d e l i v e r newspapers or have o t h e r a f t e r - s c h o o l j o b s . Though the c l u b s s t a r t i n s c h o o l h o u r s , t h e y extend beyond the r e g u l a r s c h o o l day. F o r t h i s r e a s o n some boys and g i r l s p r e f e r a c l u b w h i c h ends a t t h e u s u a l c l o s i n g time of s c h o o l . Some s t u d e n t s , because of o u t s i d e engagements o r because of t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o work a s r a p i d l y as o t h e r s , a r e d e l i g h t e d a t the o p p o r t u n i t y t o complete t h e i r assignments. S u r e l y such s t u d e n t s do not c o n s i d e r a s t u d y c l u b t o be a punishment. Nor does the w r i t e r o f t h i s c r i t i c i s m a p p r e c i a t e the h a n d i -caps under w h i c h many s c h o o l s o p e r a t e . The number of c l u b s must be l i m i t e d t o t h e number o f sponsors a s t a f f can s u p p l y . I d e a l l y t h e r a t i o o f p u p i l s t o t e a c h e r s would not exceed t h i r t y t o one. A c t u a l l y the average, c l a s s approximates f o r t y p u p i l s . A f t e r the. d e l e t i o n of t h e grade seven s t u d e n t s f rom the e n r o l -ment, the number of s t u d e n t s p e r t e a c h e r would s t i l l average between t w e n t y - f i v e and t h i r t y . Some c l u b s , such as Camp Cooking, must have a l i m i t e d membership o r t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f 55 the c l u b w i l l d e t e r i o r a t e . The a d v i s a b i l i t y of c r e a t i n g c l u b s f o r v e r y s m a l l groups who cannot be s a t i s f i e d by the e x i s t i n g c h o i c e s , i s , t h e r e f o r e , of d o u b t f u l v a l u e . To p r o v i d e oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r . t h e g r e a t e s t number by a w i s e s e l e c t i o n of c l u b s appears t o be the i n e v i t a b l e outcome. The v a l u e s o f the c l u b s bear a s t r i k i n g resemblance t o t h e v a l u e s of the o t h e r e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s though each c l u b emphasizes c e r t a i n p urposes which i t i s e s p e c i a l l y adapted t o f u l f i l . O c c a s i o n a l l y some p r o j e c t i s so immense t h a t i t r e -q u i r e s the c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t of e v e r y member of the t e a c h i n g s t a f f and o f the s t u d e n t body. The s c h o o l c a r n i v a l i s such a p r o j e c t . Though the s c h o o l b oard s u p p l i e s the minimum e s s e n t i a l s of equipment, f r e q u e n t l y a s c h o o l needs a d d i t i o n a l equipment, such as supplementary r e a d e r s , a motion p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r , and m u s i c a l equipment, f o r w h i c h the s c h o o l b o a r d i s u n a b l e t o pay the f u l l amount. Under the s e c o n d i t i o n s the s c h o o l a r r a n g e s a c a r n i v a l o r some o t h e r m o n e y - r a i s i n g d e v i c e . The s t u d e n t government o r g a n i z a t i o n s sponsor th e s e schemes and recommend them t o the s t u d y body w h i c h s u p p o r t s ihem whole-h e a r t e d l y . The c o - o p e r a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , and t e a c h e r s , p r e s e n t and p a s t , have made; thes e c a r n i v a l s r e m u n e r a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l w h i l e the s t u d e n t s , by t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n , have reduced the c o n f u s i o n of p r e p a r a t i o n s t o an a b s o l u t e minimum. Though the s e p r o j e c t s are not p r i m a r i l y e d u c a t i v e , t h e y o f f e r c o n c r e t e evidence o f the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e student body as a whole and of the i n d u s t r y and i n i t i a t i v e o f many of i t s members. .56 . . • , A l l the ..activities aim at the development of good c i t i z e n -ship so a clear conception of the extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s i s impossible without some knowledge of Templeton's c i t i z e n -ship system. Obedience to laws i s not the only c r i t e r i o n of a good c i t i z e n . The truly good c i t i z e n contributes to the wel-fare of the community and participates a c t i v e l y i n commendable projects to the best of his a b i l i t i e s . The school hopes to develop c i t i z e n s of this l a t t e r category and Templeton has a system of recording ci t i z e n s h i p which, i t believes, achieves this end. "It has been our aim in cit i z e n s h i p training to allow every boy and g i r l the opportunity of building up a positive record of ci t i z e n s h i p that w i l l become of permanent value to him i n l a t e r l i f e . In many schools a purely negative system of citizenship rating exists. Demerits are fr e e l y handed out to pupils every time they break one of the many rules, but no credit whatsoever is given for those countless other times when these boys and g i r l s act in such a way as to be a credit to themselves, their parents, and their school," 1 The handbook l i s t s twelve methods by which merits may be ob-tained. Both the regular curriculum and the extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s provide numberless opportunities for gaining merits. L i s t s of the methods by which merits may be earned and of the misdeeds re s u l t i n g i n demerits are posted i n each room. The stress however, i s l a i d on merits rather than on demerits. The a c q u i s i t i o n of many merits i s within the reach of each student, both by his individual e f f o r t s and by his co-operation ~ 1 Handbook, op. c i t . , 47. 57 w i t h the r e s t o f h i s group. A c l a s s , by o u t s t a n d i n g con-t r i b u t i o n s t o the s u c c e s s o f a day's l e s s o n s , by whole-h e a r t e d a s s i s t a n c e t o a s u b s t i t u t e , and by obedience t o t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n s , as e v i d e n c e d by an absence of summons t o the m o n i t o r c o u r t f o r one month, may earn c l a s s m e r i t s . The s t u d e n t r e a l i z e s t h a t m e r i t s and d e m e r i t s r e p r e s e n t a r e c o r d of h i s a c t i o n s : t h e y are not rewards and punishments. Each stude n t may have d a i l y r e c o u r s e t o h i s c i t i z e n s h i p r e c o r d and s t u d e n t s d i s p l a y o b v i o u s d e l i g h t I f t h e y succeed i n b u i l d i n g u p ' p o s i t i v e r e c o r d s . The number of m e r i t s and d e m e r i t s de-t e r m i n e s the c i t i z e n s h i p marlc p l a c e d on each r e p o r t , but I t a l s o s e r v e s , a much g r e a t e r end. "At t h e end o f t h e y e a r the t o t a l s are r e c o r d e d on the permanent r e c o r d c a r d s i n the o f f i c e . These c a r d s remain i n the s c h o o l permanently. Perhaps t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r a p u p i l l e a v e s t h i s s c h o o l he d e c i d e s t o go t o work. He needs a recommendation as t o h i s . c h a r a c t e r and a b i l i t y . He i m m e d i a t e l y remembers the r e c o r d he has b u i l t up w h i l e a t Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . When'he comes t o ask f o r a l e t t e r o f r e f e r e n c e , Mr. E i t c h w i l l o b t a i n h i s permanent 1 r e c o r d c a r d f rom t h e f i l e . " Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l augments the c i t i z e n s h i p r a t i n g system by badge awards. L i k e the c i t i z e n s h i p m e r i t s the badges are s u f f i c i e n t l y easy t o . e a r n so t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be a b l e t o d i s p l a y a t l e a s t one badge. The badges may be earned d u r i n g t h e Grade Seven and Grade E i g h t : y e a r s , but t h e y are not p r e s e n t e d u n t i l the p u p i l e n t e r s the ~ r ~ Handbook, op. c i t . , 49. 58 n i n t h grade's. I n t h i s way t h e y remain an i n c e n t i v e t o co-o p e r a t i o n and i n d u s t r y f o r a much, l o n g e r p e r i o d . S u f f i c i e n t c r e d i t s t o w a r r a n t the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a second badge are r e c o g n i z e d by the i m p o s i t i o n of b a r s on the o r i g i n a l badge. Though the a t h l e t i c and s c h o l a r s h i p badges are beyond the n a t u r a l a b i l i t i e s o f many c h i l d r e n , the c o m b i n a t i o n badge, which i s dependent upon the number of m e r i t s w h i c h a student has g a i n e d , i s w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f any c o - o p e r a t i v e s t u d e n t . Any s t u d e n t who r e c e i v e s two badges of a d i f f e r e n t t y pe i s f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e g r a n t of a monogram badge. E v e r y y e a r a few s t u d e n t s w i n a l l the badges. These have been o u t -s t a n d i n g members o f t h e s c h o o l and have t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o become l e a d e r s i n t h e community. These s t u d e n t s a u t o m a t i -c a l l y a t t a i n membership,in the S i l v e r T Glub, so named a f t e r the c l u b i n s i g n i a . T h i s i s a permanent c l u b , t o which new members are added a n n u a l l y . Tear a f t e r y e a r the c o n t a c t be-tween t h i s c l u b and the s c h o o l i s r e t a i n e d . Though no attempt has been made t o d e s c r i b e a l l the e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s of Templeton, i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s o u t l i n e has p i c t u r e d In. s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l t he major a c t i v i t i e s on w h i c h t h e d a t a i n t h e s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s are based. 59 CHAPTER I I I AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NUMBER OE ACTIVITIES AND SCHOLASTIC STANDING, 1937-1938. 60 P r e v i o u s S t u d i e s of t h e I n f l u e n c e of E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i -v i t i e s on S c h o l a s t i c Standing,. I n p r e s e n t i n g t h e p i c t u r e of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n t he p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s an attempt has been made t o e v a l u a t e them i n c u l t u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms. The v a l u e s p r e s e n t e d , however, do not r e c e i v e u n i v e r s a l acceptance. Indeed t h e r e i s no g e n e r a l agreement as t o the p l a c e o f the s e a c t i v i t i e s i n the s c h o o l programme. Some e d u c a t o r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be extended t o i n c l u d e t h e e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m so t h a t v i r t u a l l y a l l r e g u l a r c l a s s work would be conducted i n the same manner as c l u b s a re now o p e r a t e d . Others are c e r t a i n t h a t the e x t r a -c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d be c u r t a i l e d o r even e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s l a t t e r group m a i n t a i n s t h a t the s o - c a l l e d v a l u e s are c h i m e r i c a l and t h a t the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s o f the a c t i v i t i e s outweigh t h e i r advantages. The most common c r i t i c i s m of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i s t h a t t h e y d e t r a c t from r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. C h i l d r e n ' s minds, i t i s h e l d , are so d i s t r a c t e d and t h e i r r e -g u l a r l e s s o n s so f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r r u p t e d t h a t t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s u f f e r s . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the e f f e c t of e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s upon academic achievement, t h r o u g h the method o f l o c a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s i n which a c h i l d engages and the s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g t h a t he a t t a i n s , c o n s t i t u t e s the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of t h i s s t u d y . W h i l e t h i s s tudy i s not the f i r s t attempt made t o a t t a c k t h i s problem, i t appears t o be l e s s i n c o n c l u s i v e than any 61 p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n which the w r i t e r encountered. M u e l l e r , Swanson 2, H i l l 3 , and M e c h t l y 4 - r e p o r t e d t h a t , i n the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s , an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by s t u d e n t s i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s e x e r t e d no d i s c e r n i b l e i n f l u e n c e upon these s t u d e n t s ' s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s . P r u n t y 5 advanced the b e l i e f t h a t p u p i l s , whose share i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s was c o n t r o l l e d , were s t i m u l a t e d by the s e a c t i v i t i e s t o improve t h e i r s c h o l a r -s h i p r e c o r d s . I n v e s t i g a t o r s of the a t h l e t i c s e c t i o n of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s made more p o s i t i v e c l a i m s , as a r e s u l t of t h e i r r e s e a r c h e s , t h a n d i d t h e . w r i t e r s who had not c o n f i n e d themselves t o one d i v i s i o n of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -6 7 v i t i e s . W o r c e s t e r and K i n g ' s t a t e d t h a t the average academic grades of a t h l e t e s were h i g h e r t h a n the average marks earned by the n o n - a t h l e t i c s t u d e n t s i n t h e areas where t h e i r i n q u i r i e s were made. Of course t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by Worcest e r and K i n g a re no p r o o f t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s caused t h i s s u p e r i o r average s t a n d i n g . Many o t h e r f a c t o r s may have been p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e academic p r e -eminence o f t h e a t h l e t e s . F o r example, th e s e s t u d e n t s may have p l a y e d games because t h e y were i n b e t t e r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n t han t h e average s t u d e n t and, because o f t h e i r b e t t e r h e a l t h , t h e y may have e x c e l l e d the n o n - a t h l e t i c s t u d e n t s i n s c h o l a s t i c e f f o r t s . I n h i s own i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r found no s u b s t a n t i a t i o n f o r t h e t h e o r y t h a t a t h l e t i c s t u d e n t s have a tendency t o s u r p a s s t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n the p r e s c r i b e d 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 As r e p o r t e d i n McKown, op. c i t . , 600-613:. 62 s c h o o l s t u d i e s . McKown, though he d i s p l a y s a s t r o n g b i a s i n f a v o u r of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , summarizes i n a f a i r manner the f i n d i n g s o f the r e s e a r c h e s he has mentioned i n h i s book. He m a i n t a i n s t h a t the evidence w h i c h t h e y p r e s e n t p r e v e n t s any t h o u g h t f u l person from making sweeping g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e w h i c h the e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s have upon the s t u d e n t s ' success o r f a i l u r e i n the c u r r i c u l a r s u b j e c t s . He a s s e r t s t h a t , a l t h o u g h these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d i s p r o v e t h e assumption t h a t , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t u n f a v o u r a b l y the p u p i l s ' academic e f f o r t s , t h e s e r e s e a r c h e s do not wa r r a n t t h e con-c l u s i o n that,, i n t h e m a j o r i t y of c a s e s , these a c t i v i t i e s a s s i s t t he s t u d e n t i n h i s r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. The f a c t t h a t such a pronounced advocate o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s as McKown i n t i m a t e s t h a t t h i s problem has y e t t o r e c e i v e a f i n a l s o l u t i o n suggests t h a t another s t u d y on the s u b j e c t may have c o n s i d e r a b l e t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i l e the p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n o f t h e problem may e v e n t u a l l y determine the i n c l u s i o n o r r e j e c t i o n o f c l u b s i n t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l programme o f B r i t i s h Columbia. To the b e s t o f the w r i t e r ' s knowledge no i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s n a t u r e has been made i n any j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i n Canada, though the problem i s j u s t as v i t a l here as i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Sources o f I n f o r m a t i o n f o r the P r e s e n t Study. The o f f i c e f i l e s o f Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , w h i c h were a v a i l a b l e t o the w r i t e r , c o n t a i n e d r e c o r d of marks s h e e t s , permanent r e c o r d c a r d s , p r o g r e s s c a r d s , m e d i c a l c a r d s , attendance 63 . r e c o r d s , aird ^ a c t i v i t y c a r d s . The f i r s t f i v e on t h i s l i s t gave the. sex,. i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t , grade s t a n d i n g , g e n e r a l h e a l t h , and r e g u l a r i t y o f attendance o f each s t u d e n t . The a c t i v i t y c a r d s s u p p l i e d t h e needed d a t a on e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . These c a r d s were compiled d u r i n g guidance p e r i o d s by the p u p i l s t h e m s e l v e s . To encourage a c c u r a c y and complete-ness i n thes e r e c o r d s o f u s e f u l c i t i z e n s h i p t o the s c h o o l , each c a r d was made by one st u d e n t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r on whom he was r e p o r t i n g . A f t e r t h e s e c a r d s had been checked by the guidance t e a c h e r s , t h e y were a t t a c h e d t o the permanent r e c o r d c a r d s . P u p i l s f o r whom no a c t i v i t y c a r d c o u l d be l o c a t e d were o m i t t e d from the p r e s e n t s t u d y . I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g 329 grade n i n e s t u d e n t s was c o l -l e c t e d and t a b u l a t e d under the f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : s ex, number of a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , grade c o u n c i l member, m o n i t o r , M a c M i l l a n F i n e A r t s Glub member-, member of the "Tee J a y " s t a f f , G i r l s ' C lub member, house c o u n c i l member, member o f some o t h e r c l u b o r c l u b s , member o f a committee i n t h e grade o r house c o u n c i l s o r i n guidance c l a s s e s , e l e c t o r a l o f f i c e r o r a s s i s t a n t , a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s c h o o l c a r n i v a l , t o t a l ' n u m b e r o f a c t i v i t i e s , s c h o l a s t i c grade a t E a s t e r , and i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t . Many s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s w h i c h are based on group t e s t s t e n d t o be i n a c c u r a t e . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y , however, many s t u d e n t s had w r i t t e n s e v e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s 1 w h i c h s e r v e d as checks so t h a t , w i t h _ _ _ The m a j o r i t y o f i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s used i n t h i s t h e s i s were based on the N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t . 64 the r e s e r v a t i o n t h a t any i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t r e p r e s e n t s a range w i t h i n w h i c h a s t u d e n t may be p l a c e d , t h e s e r a t i n g s appear t o be as a c c u r a t e as i t i s p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n w i t h group t e s t s . To ensure a complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the next main s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r , a b r i e f summary of the method by ' which l e t t e r grades f o r s u b j e c t s and f o r grade s t a n d i n g s are a s s i g n e d a t Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i s e s s e n t i a l . TABLE I LETTER GRADES, •NUMERICAL EQUIVALENTS AND PERCENTAGES RECEIVING EACH L e t t e r Grade Pe r c e n t a g e R e c e i v i n g t h i s Grade N u m e r i c a l E q u i v a l e n t of L e t t e r Grade A/: 6 5' . Bl . 24 4 • c+ 13 - • } 3 1/3 c 14 3 ' , c- 13 2 2/3 D 24 " 2 E 6 1 Table I shows t h a t the s u b j e c t marks are a s s i g n e d i n such a manner t h a t the l e t t e r grades s h o u l d f o l l o w the normal cu r v e of d i s t r i b u t i o n . No t e a c h e r , however, i s expected t o f o l l o w t h i s system s l a v i s h l y . Marks w h i c h , i n the o p i n i o n of the s u b j e c t t e a c h e r , do not p r e s e n t a f a i r e s t i m a t e o f the c h i l d r e n ' s work may be a l t e r e d . I n the computation of grade s t a n d i n g the n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s of the s u b j e c t marks w h i c h a c h i l d has earned are t o t a l l e d . E n g l i s h and math-e m a t i c s , because of t h e i r assumed p r o g n o s t i c v a l u e , each count as two s u b j e c t s and the n u m e r i c a l grade of each one i s doubled. 65 I n t e c h n i c a l c l a s s e s p r a c t i c a l a r t s , w hich are s t u d i e d f o r double the number of p e r i o d s n o n - t e c h n i c a l s t u d e n t s devote t o them, a l s o count as two s u b j e c t s . The n u m e r i c a l t o t a l of marks o b t a i n e d as above i s then d i v i d e d by the t o t a l number of s u b j e c t s , a d j u s t e d as i n d i c a t e d , to g i v e the s t u d e n t ' s n u m e r i c a l average, TABLE I I NUMERICAL AVERAGES AND EQUIVALENT LETTER GRADES N u m e r i c a l Average L e t t e r Grade 4.1 - 5 A 3.9 - 4.0 B+ 3.7 - 3.8 B 3.5 - 3.6 B-3.3 - 3.4 C + 3.0 - 3.2 C 2.7 ^ 2 , 9 C-2.5 - 2 , 6 D4-2.3 --2.4 D 2.1^ - 2.2 D-0 - 2 . 0 E The system shown i n T a b l e I I i s based on a normal curve of d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g e n e r a l r a n k s between t h e l i m i t s o f 0 and 5 o r grades E and A. TABLE I I I ,INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS WITH THEIR THEORETICALLY EXPECTED SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS, 1957 - 1938 I.Q. Group P e r c e n t a g e Frequency Rank 127 - 141 6 20 A 122 - 126 7 . 2 ) 24 B f 119 - 121 7 . 5 ) 2 4 . 2 25 B 116 - 118 9 . 5 ) 51 B-111 - 115 1 0 . 8 ) 56 C + 106 - 110 1 4 . 7 ) 3 7 , 5 49 C 103 - 105 12 ) 40 c -100 - 102 1 0 . 4 ) - - J 35 TJ+ 97 - 99 6 . 6 ) 2 6 . 6 22 D 91 - 96 9 . 6 ) 32 D-72 - 90 5 . 7 19 E Tot a.1 Frequency 333 Many f a c t o r s determine a s t u d e n t ' s a t t a i n m e n t i n h i s s c h o l a s t i c e f f o r t s . I n t e r e s t i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , home c o n d i t i o n s , h e a l t h , employment "before or a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s , and i n t e l l i g e n c e are a few of these f a c t o r s . A l t h o u g h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s and i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s are not e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h , the c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n b e i n g .45 i .03 i n 1937-1938 and .44 I .028 i n 1938-1939 i n the cases of the grade nine s t u d e n t s a t Templeton J u n i o r High S c h o o l , the t e a c h e r s a t t h i s s c h o o l p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on the f a c t o r of i n t e l l i g e n c e than on any o t h e r s i n g l e f a c t o r . The s t u d e n t s ' s u b j e c t and grade s t a n d i n g s are compared w i t h t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . Students w i t h h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s and low grade s t a n d i n g s are c a r e f u l l y examined to d i s c o v e r , i f p o s s i b l e , the cause of the d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g and t h e i r academic rank. The i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t of a s t u d e n t i n f l u e n c e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of h i s pro m o t i o n t o the next grade. A s t u d e n t w i t h a low s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g and a low i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t has l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y of prom o t i o n , u n l e s s some o t h e r f a c t o r , such as age, e n t e r s the cas e . I t i s f e l t t h a t such a s t u d e n t would encou n t e r extreme d i f f i c u l t y i n the work of the h i g h e r grade i f he were promoted. A s t u d e n t w i t h a low s c h o l a -s t i c s t a n d i n g and a h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t , on the o t h e r hand, p r o b a b l y w i l l be promoted. The te a c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t such a s t u d e n t ' s low s t a n d i n g may have r e s u l t e d f r o m some remediable f a c t o r and t h a t the nex t grade's work l i k e l y w i l l 67 be w i t h i n h i s comprehension. Though t o o g r e a t an importance may seem t o be a t t a c h e d t o the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , the reasons f o r t h i s a c t i o n are f a i r l y o b v i o u s . The o t h e r f a c t o r s which might a f f e c t t h e s t u d e n t s ' s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s a r e not a v a i l a b l e f o r e v e r y s t u d e n t n o r can t h e y be p r o c u r e d w i t h the same degree o f ease w i t h which the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s can be found. S e c o n d l y the system o f c o m p i l i n g l e t t e r marks f o r s u b j e c t and grade s t a n d i n g s , as shown i n T a b l e s I and I I , has i t s o r i g i n i n the normal curve o f d i s t r i b u t i o n w h i c h has i t s b a s i s i n the t h e o r y t h a t the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m t h e t a s k s l a i d out i n the s c h o o l ' s c u r r i c u l u m . T able I I I shows the ranks t h a t the t e a c h e r s a t Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l would have expected from s t u d e n t s i n d i f f e r e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t groups i f t h e y knew of no o t h e r f a c t o r , such as i l l h e a l t h o r home c o n d i t i o n s , w h i c h might a d v e r s e l y i n f l u e n c e s t u d e n t s ' academic a t t a i n m e n t s . I f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s among the grade n i n e s t u d e n t s a t Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l d u r i n g the y e a r 1957-1958 had f o l l o w e d t h e normal curve of d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s of the l a r g e s t group would have f a l l e n between 90 and 110 w h i l e the group below t h i s range would have c o r r e s p o n d e d i n s i z e t o the group above t h i s range. That i s , I t might be assumed t h a t , o t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , those w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s i n the range of 90 and 110 sh o u l d have earned an average o r 0 rank w h i l e t h o s e p u p i l s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g s above o r below t h i s range would 68 r e c e i v e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , B- and b e t t e r or D4- and p o o r e r . However, o n l y 13 of the grade n i n e s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h i s y e a r had i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s below 90 w h i l e 136 p o s s e s s e d i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s above 110. T h i s skewing of the curve of i n t e l l i g e n c e made i t i m p r a c t i c a b l e t o a s s i g n s c h o l a s t i c rank on the b a s i s o f c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . The d a t a , shown I n Table I I I , i l l u s t r a t e s t h e system by w h i c h the s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o each I n t e l - . l l g e n c e q u o t i e n t Was determined. The second column of Table I I I g i v e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same pe r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n , as shown i n Table I , w h i c h was used t o determine s u b j e c t and-grade standings.. The l a r g e f r e q u e n c i e s a t c e r t a i n i n t e l -l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s p r e v e n t e d t h e e x a c t d i v i s i o n of the t o t a l frequeues?" of 333 i n t o the t h e o r e t i c a l l y p e r f e c t p ercentage groups. The d a t a , w h i c h are shown i n columns one and f o u r o f T a b l e I I I , g i v e t h e grade s t a n d i n g s w h i c h s h o u l d have been g a i n e d by s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l d u r i n g 1937-1938 who p o s s e s s e d I n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s r a n g i n g between 72 and 141. 69 - V TABLE I V COMPARISON' OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS TAKING 0-3 ACTIVITIES AND OF STUDENTS TAKING 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES Cases t a k i n g 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s Cases t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s Frequency 11 3 7 15 8 30 20 7 3 2 4 S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g A B4-B B-Cf C c -D+ D D-E Frequency 25 4 . 6 14 16 28 6 7 1 1 2 S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g A B4-B B-G| C C-D4-D s D-E T o t a l Number o f Cases 110 Average I.Q. 109.28 Median I.Q. .10.8.00 Median Rank C T o t a l Number of Gases 110 Average I.Q. 108.87 Median I.Q. 109.00 Median Rank . 0 4 Table IV g i v e s the r e s u l t o f the f i r s t s u r v e y of the p r e s e n t s t u d y i n v o l v i n g 220 c a s e s , a number wh i c h t h i s w r i t e r f e l t t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o g i v e v a l i d r e s u l t s . Though the average and median i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o f the two groups are n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l , the median s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g of the group w h i c h t o o k the more a c t i v i t i e s i s d e f i n i t e l y h i g h e r . 1 Whereas the group t h a t t o o k the fewer a c t i v i t i e s made a median rank o f C, t h e rank w h i c h i s g i v e n on T a b l e I I I as t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l y e x p e c t e d one f o r an i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t of 108, t h e group t a k i n g the l a r g e r number of a c t i v i t i e s ex-c e l l e d i t s expected median rank by a p l u s . An i n s p e c t i o n of The c r i t i c a l r a t i o was 3.05. 70 the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l e t t e r grades i s r a t h e r i l l u m i n a t i n g . The group t h a t t o o k f i v e o r more a c t i v i t i e s had more th a n t w i c e as many A's and h a l f as many E's as the group t h a t took t h r e e o r l e s s a c t i v i t i e s . Table I V s d a t a , t h e n , p o i n t out t h a t the group w h i c h t o o k the l a r g e r number of a c t i v i t i e s tended t o have a b e t t e r s c h o l a s t i c r e c o r d . However, the f i g u r e s i n T a b l e IV a r e p a r t i a l l y dependent on averages which can be swayed t o g i v e a wrong I m p r e s s i o n by the i n c l u s i o n of excep-t i o n a l l y h i g h o r e x c e p t i o n a l l y low f i g u r e s . T h e r e f o r e the f i g u r e s o f t h i s one t a b l e cannot be a c c e p t e d as c o n c l u s i v e p r o o f t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d f r e e l y i n e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s s u r p a s s e d the o t h e r s , on the average, i n academic a t t a i n m e n t s . The f i g u r e s i n T a b l e IV skew d e c i d e d l y from a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . The number r e c e i v i n g A i s t h r e e t i m e s the normal number w h i l e the f r e q u e n c i e s o f D and E are l e s s than h a l f t h e expectancy from a normal curve o f d i s t r i b u t i o n . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s may e x p l a i n t h e s e d i s c r e p a n c i e s . Teachers who have a l t e r e d the l e t t e r grades would a f f e c t t h e d i s t r i -b u t i o n s l i g h t l y . The w e i g h t i n g o f E n g l i s h , mathematics, and, i n some c a s e s , p r a c t i c a l a r t s marks would change the d i s t r i -b u t i o n markedly. The o m i s s i o n of s t u d e n t s who t o o k f o u r a c t i v i t i e s and o f t h o s e who had no r e c o r d of a c t i v i t i e s would a l t e r the curve o f d i s t r i b u t i o n . These f a c t o r s s h o u l d serve t o e x p l a i n the u n u s u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e IV and i n some of the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s . 71 PIG. I. COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS, WITH INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS AVERAGING 109, WHO TOOK 0-3 ACTIVITIES AND WHO TOOK 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES. 72 The f i r s t attempt t o show the d a t a g i v e n i n Table IV i n a graph had d i v i s i o n s a l o n g t h e base l i n e f o r the cases making p l u s o r minus i n the B, 0, and D groups. T h i s d i v i s i o n i n t o 11 groups gave an i r r e g u l a r graph as t h e normal curve of d i s -t r i b u t i o n s o f r a n k i n g s i n c l u d e s o n l y 5 d i v i s i o n s , A, B, C, D, and E. To e v o l v e a graph w h i c h would be comparable t o the normal curve o f d i s t r i b u t i o n the cases w h i c h r e c e i v e d p l u s o r minus i n a c e r t a i n l e t t e r group were added t o t h a t l e t t e r group. T h i s method i s used i n a l l the f o l l o w i n g l a d i e s w hich d e a l w i t h a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l e t t e r g r a des. E i g u r e I i n d i c a t e s i n g r a p h i c form t h a t the group t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s had a few l e s s c ases r e c e i v i n g B, C, D, and E s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s t h a n d i d the group t a k i n g 0-3 a c t i v i t i e s but t h a t i t had more th a n t w i c e t h e number of cases r e c e i v i n g an A s t a n d i n g . T h e r e f o r e the group t a k i n g the l a r g e r number o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s appears t o e x c e l the o t h e r group i n s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . The r e s u l t s of t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y suggested a f u r t h e r s t u d y of those s t u d e n t s who had s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y such s t u d e n t s , by means of an e n r i c h e d c u r r i c u l u m or some o t h e r p l a n , s h o u l d be f o r c e d t o u t i l i z e a l l t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . I n p r a c t i c e , however, t h i s aim i s r a r e l y e n t i r e l y a c h i e v e d . Though t h e c h i l d r e n of s u p e r i o r m e n t a l i t y may be g i v e n a few o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o employ t h e i r i n t e l l e c t s f u l l y , g e n e r a l l y t h e y t e n d t o c o v e r o n l y t h a t work w h i c h i s w i t h i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the median s t u d e n t . L o g i c a l l y , t h e n , t h e s e b r i g h t e r s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be a b l e t o a f f o r d the time t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n many a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o u t d i s p l a y i n g any d e t r i m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e oii t h e i r r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. TABLE V COMPARISON' OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS OF SUPERIOR ABILITY TAKING 0 - 3 ACTIVITIES AND TAKING 6 OR MORE ACTIVITIES Cases T a k i n g 0 - 3 A c t i v i t i e s Cases T a k i n g 6 o r more A c t i v Frequency S c h o l a s t i c Frequency S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g S t a n d i n g •6 A 16 A 1 Bf 3 B+ 5 B 3 B 3 B- 6 B-2 Cf 5 C4-14 c 5 C 7 c - 0 c -1 D-f 2 D+: 0 D 0 D 0 D- 0 D-1 E 0 E T o t a l Number of Cases 40 T o t a l Number o f Cases 40 Average I.Q. 1 1 9 . 4 7 Average I.Q. 1 2 0 . 2 7 Median I.Q. 1 1 7 . 0 0 Median I.Q. 1 2 0 . 5 0 Median rank G Median Rank B , I t was found t h a t p u p i l s w i t h s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e tended t o p a r t i c i p a t e more f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s t h a n d i d the average p u p i l s . As a r e s u l t , T a b l e V l i s t s the s t u d e n t s who took s i x o r more a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n , as i n T a b l e IV, t h o s e who took f i v e o r more a c t i v i t i e s . Though th e w r i t e r attempted t o keep c o n s t a n t the average and median i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s of the two groups i n Table V, the v a r i a n c e between the median i n t e l l i g e n t q u o t i e n t s espec-i a l l y c o u l d not have been e l i m i n a t e d w i t h o u t a d e c i d e d r e s t r i -c t i o n i n the number o f cases s t u d i e d . 74 T h i s t a b l e p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of grades. The l a r g e s t number o f the group t a k i n g 0-5 a c t i v i t i e s c e n t r e a t 0 w h i l e the g r e a t e s t f r e q u e n c y i n the o t h e r group i s a t A. On t h e b a s i s of i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t , w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r h e a l t h , i n t e r e s t , o r any o t h e r f a c t o r s , a l l the s t u d e n t s shown on t h i s t a b l e s h o u l d be ca p a b l e of r a n k i n g C4- o r b e t t e r , a c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e I I I . 1 Y e t , i n the group w h i c h t o o k few o r no a c t i v i t i e s , n e a r l y 60 p e r cent ranked C o r lo w e r w h i l e i n the second group l e s s than 20 per cent ranked C o r l o w e r . I n the l a t t e r case an over-emphasis on e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s might e x p l a i n the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g , but t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n would be o f s l i g h t importance i n the case of 60 per cent i n the group w h i c h t o o k fewer a c t i v i t i e s . A p p a r e n t l y an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s d i d not i n f l u e n c e a d v e r s e l y the s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s o f the m a j o r i t y , because o v e r 80 per cent o f the s t u d e n t s i n the group w h i c h t o o k s i x or more a c t i v i t i e s made s a t i s f a c t o r y grades, and 40 per c e n t o f t h i s group r e c e i v e d the h i g h e s t s c h o l a s t i c grade. On the o t h e r hand, an a b s t i n e n c e o r near a b s t i n e n c e from t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s appeared t o have had no b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s on s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g i n n e a r l y 60 per c e n t of the c a s e s . T a b l e V, t h e n , l a y s s p e c i a l s t r e s s on the s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t between the s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s o f the two groups and l e n d s s t r o n g support t o the c o n c l u s i o n , apparent a l s o i n Table IV, t h a t t h e group w h i c h t o o k more a c t i v i t i e s tended t o e x c e l the o t h e r _ . T h i s r e f e r s t o the r a n k e x p e c t e d from p u p i l s w i t h I.Q. o f 111 75 ases 3 0[ 25 5 0 0-3 Ar>. f.i v i t.i p r 6 or more A c t i v i t i e s i \ \ N / \ \ \ \ \ \\ V S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g F I G . 2. COMPARISON OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS OF SUPERIOR ABILITY TAKING 0-3 ACTIVITIES AND TAKING 6 OR MOKE ACTIVITIES. 76 group i n r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l a r s t u d i e s . 1 T h i s tendency may he more pronounced i n Table V than i n Table IV, because the f i f t h t a b l e i s r e s t r i c t e d t o s t u d e n t s of o u t s t a n d i n g a b i l i t y . L i k e l y the r e g u l a r s c h o o l programme o f f e r s few problems which neces-s i t a t e the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t h e s e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s . Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s s t u d e n t s w i t h s u p e r i o r endowment may adopt a l a c k a d a i s i c a l a t t i t u d e . However, a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some a s p e c t of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s may demand the use o f the s u p e r i o r c h i l d r e n ' s e n t i r e m ental c a p a b i l i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , these a c t i v i t i e s may s t i r such s t u d e n t s out of t h e i r l e t h a r g y and s t i m u l a t e them t o improve a l l t h e i r work. F i g u r e 2, wh i c h i s based on t h e d a t a from Table V, i l l u s -t r a t e s the s u p e r i o r s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s o f the s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 6 o r more a c t i v i t i e s . ... TABLE VI \. f COMPARISON OF THE SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS WITH IN-TELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS BETWEEN 90-110, TAKING 0-2 ACTIVITIES AND TAKING 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES : Cases t a k i n g 0-2 A c t i v i t i e s Cases t a k i n g 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s F requency S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g 2 A : 0 B f 2 . B:-8 B-3 0+ 10 C 15 0 -4 Df 1 D 2 D-3 E T o t a l number o f cases 50 Average I.Q. 103.30 Median I.Q. 103.00 Median Rank C- t o C Frequency 8 1 2 5 7 15 4 4 1 1 2 S c h o l a s t i c Standing A B f B B-C4- . • C 0-D+ D D-E T o t a l number o f cases 50 Average I.Q. 102.95 Median I.Q. 103.00 Median Rank 0 . The c r i t i c a l r a t i o was 4,71 Cases 15'' 10! " — 0-2 A c t i v l t i < 5 or more / A c t i v i t i e s / ; !S v\ 1 1 1 \ \ \\ \\ \\ 1 1 1 1 \\ \\ \\ \\ I j 1 1 !r \\ \\ — i \\ \ \ \ % \ A " B C D E S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g FIG . 3. COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS WITH INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS BETWEEN 90-110 WHO TOOK 0-2 ACTIVITIES AND WHO TOOK 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES. 78 I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t number of s t u d e n t s i n the h i g h a c t i v i t y group i t was n e c e s s a r y , i n Table V I , t o i n c l u d e those who had taken f i v e a c t i v i t i e s though Table V i n c l u d e d i n t h i s group o n l y those who had t a k e n s i x o r more a c t i v i t i e s . On the o t h e r hand a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e number of the low a c t i v i t y group had t a k e n 0-2 a c t i v i t i e s t o g i v e the d a t a needed i n T a b l e V I , w h i l e t h e study of the super-i o r s t u d e n t s , i n Table V, had f o r c e d t h e i n c l u s i o n of t h o s e t a k i n g t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s t o g i v e an adequate number f o r t h i s group. Once again., i n Table V I , t h e r e i s evidence of the p o s i -t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the number of a c t i v i t i e s and t h e s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . Though the median ranks were c l o s e , the median of the group which t o o k more a c t i v i t i e s was i n the upper range of the C grade w h i l e the median of the o t h e r group f e l l between C- and 0. A c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e I I I , C- s h o u l d be t h e average grade of t h e s t u d e n t s l i s t e d i n T a ble V I . Of the group w h i c h d i s p l a y e d l e s s i n t e r e s t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , 50 per c e n t s u r p a s s e d the rank o f C- and 20 p e r c e n t d i d not a t t a i n so h i g h a mark as C-. I n the o t h e r group 76 p e r c e n t e x c e l l e d the C- rank and 16 p e r cent were below t h i s s t a n d i n g . F i g u r e 3, w h i c h i s based on t h e d a t a i n Table V I , p i c t u r e s the s l i g h t improvement i n the s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s of the s t u d e n t s t a k i n g 5 or more a c t i v i t i e s o v e r the s t u d e n t s t a k i n g 0-2 a c t i v i t i e s . Though Table VI and F i g u r e '3 do not show q u i t e so s t r i k i n g a tendency, as d i d Table V and F i g u r e 2, 79 ' f o r those s t u d e n t s who t o o k an e n e r g e t i c p a r t i n t h e e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t o get h i g h e r s c h o l a s t i c marks than the o t h e r s , 1 n e v e r t h e l e s s i t d i s p l a y s the same g e n e r a l t r e n d between the number of a c t i v i t i e s and academic s t a n d i n g t h a t was i n evidence i n T a b l e s TV and V and F i g u r e s 2 and 3. T a b l e s V and VI have p i c t u r e d t h e s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n -ments o f s u p e r i o r and average c h i l d r e n , c o n t r a s t i n g those who had t a k e n few a c t i v i t i e s t o t h o s e who had t a k e n many a c t i v i t i e s . To complete t h i s s e r i e s of comparisons, a studjr d e a l i n g w i t h b o r d e r l i n e and. subnormal c h i l d r e n was needed. However, Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , i n 1928-1929, had so few cases of grade n i n e s t u d e n t s whose i n t e l -l i g e n c e was below average t h a t no adequate s t u d y c o u l d be made o f t h i s group. The weaknesses of the method o f comparison shown i n the f i r s t t h r e e t a b l e s suggested the use of p a i r s of s t u d e n t s matched f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , thus e l i m i n a t i n g dependence on average and median i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s which, might be d r a s t i c a l l y changed by t h e i n c l u s i o n o r r e j e c t i o n o f a few e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h o r low s t a n d i n g s i n one group or t h e o t h e r . _ _ _ -The c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 2.21 was s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n c o n c l u s i v e . 80 0-7, A r . t . i v i +.i p « - 5 or more.' . . . A c t i v i t i e s . " / / / 7 / 7 \ \ \\ / 7 I / / \\ \\ \\ \\ \ \\ \ "X I""-" " 'r ti~" ~ " n" S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g 4. COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS WITH MATCHED INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS, RANGING BETWEEN 90-138, TAKING 0-3 ACTIVITIES AND TAKING 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES. 81 TABLE V I I COMPARISON OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS WITH MATCHED TNTELLIGENOE QUOTIENTS, RANGING BETWEEN 90 AND 138, TAKING 0-3 ACTIVITIES AND TAKING '5' OR MORE ACTIVITIES. Cases t a k i n g 0-3 a c t i v i t i e s Cases t a k i n g 5 or more a c t i v i t i e s Frequency S c h o l a s t i c Frequency S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g S t a n d i n g 7 A 18 A 3 Bf 4 B+ 6 B 5 - B 14 B- 12 B-7 C4- 10 25 C 22 C 16 C- 5 C-4 D+ 7 D4-2 D .: 1 D 0 D- 1 D~ 4 E 3 E T o t a l number of c a ses 88 T o t a l number of cases 88 Median rank G Median rank C4-Table V I I and F i g u r e $4appear t o c o r r o b o r a t e t h e f i n d i n g s of T a b l e I V and F i g u r e I . The group w h i c h took the g r e a t e r number of a c t i v i t i e s has a h i g h e r median s c h o l a s t i c rank, a much g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f h i g h g r a d e s , and a s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r number of low grades t h a n has the group w h i c h took fewer a c t i v i t i e s . Y e t the c r i t i c a l r a t i o between the groups i n T a b l e V I I was 1.54 so no s t a t i s t i c a l importance can be a t t a c h e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n median r a n k s . 82 TABLE V I I I .COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC. STANDINGS OP STUDENTS OP SUPERIOR INTELLIGENCE, WITH MATCHED INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS, TAKING 0-3 ACTIVITIES AND 6 OR MORE ACTIVITIES. Cases t a k i n g 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s Cases t a k i n g 6 o r more a c t i v i t i e s Frequency 3 0 5 4 1 17 5 0 0 0 2 S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g A Bf B B-C* C C-D.4-D D- ;< E T o t a l number o f cases 37 Median rank C Average I.Q. 119.5 Frequency 14 2 3 7 2 7 0 : 2' 0 0 0 S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n A B4-B B-Cf 0 c -Df D ' ''7' D-E T o t a l number o f cases 37 Median rank B The d a t a shown i n 'Table V I I I v e r i f y the r e s u l t s of t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s shown i n T a b l e V. 1 A l l t h e s t u d e n t s l i s t e d i n T a b l e V I I I had s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e and the average i n t e l -l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t was 119.5 f o r each group. T h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n t o T able I I I , a l l t h e s e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d have ranked i n the v i c i n i t y o f B. I n t h e group t a k i n g the l e s s e r number o f a c t i v i t i e s 8 p e r cent ranked b e t t e r t h a n B, 13 p e r cent ranked B, and the r e s t , 79 p e r c e n t , were below the expected rank. Of t h e s e , 5 p e r cent r e c e i v e d the l o w e s t r a n k i n g . The scho-l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s of those who took s i x o r more a c t i v i t i e s were much more s a t i s f a c t o r y . F o r t y - t h r e e p e r cent of t h e s e The c r i t i c a l r a t i o was 3.85, 83 Cases 30-,r* i •3 A c t i v i t i e s '—— • 6 or more A c t i v i t i e s 2 5 ; 2 0 ! I 15 ! 1 10 5, ^ — / \ / \ / \ \ \ \ \ • \\ 0 A ' B . . " C " D S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g P I G . 5. •COMPARISON' OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS OF SUPERIOR ABILITY-, ' WITH MATCHED INTELLIGENCE. QUOTIENTS, TAKING 0-3 ACTIVITIES- AND TAKING 6 OR MORE ACTIVITIES. 34 l a t t e r s t u d e n t s ranked B+ o r A, 8 per cent r e c e i v e d a B s t a n d i n g , and 49 p e r cent d i d not a t t a i n a B s t a n d i n g . F i g u r e 5 b e a r s a s t r i k i n g resemblance t o F i g u r e 2. Once a g a i n the s t u d e n t s t a k i n g the fewer a c t i v i t i e s are r e p r e s e n t e d by a l i n e w hich approximates, e s p e c i a l l y i n the A, B, and C r a n k i n g s , a normal curve of d i s t r i b u t i o n . The l i n e r e p r e s e n t i n g the s t u d e n t s t a k i n g the l a r g e r number of a c t i v i t i e s , on the o t h e r hand, i s skewed d e c i d e d l y t o -wards the h i g h e r ranks and shows a g r a d u a l d i m i n u t i o n i n the number of cases r e c e i v i n g each l o w e r s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . F i g u r e 5 emphasizes the s u p e r i o r i t y of the s c h o l a s t i c ranks g a i n e d by tho s e s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d more f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The r e s u l t s i n Table V I I I and F i g u r e 5 emphasize t h e c o n c l u s i o n s reached i n the e a r l i e r s t u d y , the r e s u l t s of wh i c h were shown i n Ta b l e V and F i g u r e 2: p u p i l s of s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e who p a r -t i c i p a t e f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s have, i n the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s , a h i g h e r academic s t a n d i n g than those whose p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i s v e r y r e s t r i c t e d o r n e g l i g i b l e . -85 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s / // \ \\ // // // \\ \\ \\ —; J-7 \\ \\ V -\ \ N S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g . 6. COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS OF AVERAGE ABILITY, WITH MATCHED INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS, TAKING 0-2 ACTIVITIES AND TAKING 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES. 86 • ; TABLE XX COMPARISON.OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS OF AVERAGE ABILITY, WITH MATCHED INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS, TAKING 0-2 ACTIVITIES AND 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES. Gases t a k i n g 0-2 a c t i v i t i e s Cases t a k i n g 5 or more a c t i v i t i e s Frequency 2 0 2 7 3 7 9 3 1 2 1 S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g A -B| B B-C f C c -D4-D D-E T o t a l number of cases 37 Median rank C Frequency 8 1 2 5 4 13 1 2 1 0 0 S c h o l a s t i c S t a n d i n g A B+ B B-0 + C c -D4-D D-E T o t a l number of cases 37 Median rank C4-The r e s u l t s shown i n Ta b l e I X are more c o n c l u s i v e t h a n those g i v e n i n T a b l e V I . 1 The median s c h o l a s t i c r a n k s a r e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n Table IX. The s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g of the p u p i l s who took few o r no a c t i v i t i e s approximates a normal curve o f d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h the median rank of C and g r e a t e s t f r e q u e n c y a t C-. The curve o f the second group i s skewed toward t h e A end. Though the median o f t h i s group i s C4-the g r e a t e s t f r e q u e n c y i s at C. The comparative s t a n d i n g s of the s t u d e n t s t a k i n g 0~2 a c t i v i t i e s and of t h e s t u d e n t s t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s are g i v e n i n F i g u r e 6. The d e c i d e d skewing toward the A The c r i t i c a l r a t i o f o r the groups i n Table IX was 3.00. 87 end by those 'students t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s i s i l l u s -t r a t e d i n t h i s graph. The t r e n d i n Table IX and F i g u r e 6 i s l e s s obvious than I n the case of s t u d e n t s w i t h s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e , but the s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s are s l i g h t l y ahead o f 'the o t h e r s i n s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . TABLE X ;.. .,.'•; RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NUMBER OP ATHLETIC ACTIVITIES .AND SCHOLASTIC STANDING. I.Q,.'s not equated I.Q.'s equated a t 103-104 . 1 2 4 5 ' ' 6 7 [umber of Frequency Average Average Frequency Average ;Average L C t l v i t i e s I.Q. Rank I . Q. Rank • 1 . 7 103.7 -3.0 G 7 103.7 3.0.C 2 3 98.6 2,5 m 2 103 2.8 C — 3 ,•': 3 110.3 3.7 B 2 .'. 101.5 3.8 B •' "4 : • I 103- 3.1 C 1 103 3.1 C 5 •': 5 106.2 3.8 B 4 103.2 3.6 B-; 6 V 2 111 . 3.5 B- 1 104 3.1 C T o t a l s 21 17 Table X shows t h a t o n l y 21 s t u d e n t s c o n c e n t r a t e d on the a t h l e t i c phase of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t o the e x -c l u s i o n of the n o n - a t h l e t i c o f f e r i n g s o f t h i s programme. The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s , as w i l l be se e n , i n . l a t e r t a b l e s , devoted t h e i r e f f o r t s t o n o n - a t h l e t i c e n t e r p r i s e s o r t o a m i x t u r e of the two g e n e r a l t y p e s , a t h l e t i c and n o n - a t h l e t i c . The t o t a l f r e q u e n c y of 21, ••shown" i n column two of Table X, i s too s m a l l t o form the b a s i s 88 o f a d e c i s i v e c o n c l u s i o n . The cases w i t h unequated i n t e l -l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , as shown i n columns 5 and 4 of Table X, d i d somewhat b e t t e r , on the average, than p r e d i c t e d by a s t u d y of t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . The t o t a l f r e q u e n c y of 17, shown i n column 5 of Table X, was o b t a i n e d by the o m i s s i o n o f 4 cases so t h a t t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s of those s t u d e n t s t a k i n g each number of a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s might be averaged a t 105^104. Owing t o the s m a l l number of c a s e s , the average f o r the group t a k i n g t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s had t o be l e f t a t 101.5. I n e v e r y group, e x c e p t i n g the one which took two a c t i v i t i e s , t he s t u d e n t s t a k i n g a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s o n l y , as shown i n columns 6 and 7 o f Table X, surpassed, the mark suggested by t h e i r average i n t e l l i g e n c e . The average rank of t h e e n t i r e group of 21 was 3.17 o r C w h i l e t h e rank f o r the group w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s equated a t 103-104 was 3.24, a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r average but one w h i c h was s t i l l w i t h i n the l i m i t s of a C grade. Reference t o Table I I I shows t h a t t h e group w h i c h t o o k a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s o n l y surpassed i t s t h e o r e t i c a l l y e x p e c t ed rank o f G-. B e f o r e any con-c l u s i o n s c o u l d be reached, however, comparable i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of those s t u d e n t s who t o o k n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s o n l y had t o be made. 89 S c h o l a r s h i p 5.0. 3.6 3.2 2.8; 2.4 0 1 A t h l e t i c N o n - A t h l e t i c \ •  " 1 / / / y / ^ < \ \ \ \ > \ \ / / ' - / 0 "• 1 " 2 3" """4 5" 6 Number of A c t i v i t i e s PIG. 7. COMPARISON OF THE NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES AND SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS TAKING ATHLETIC ACTIVITIES ONLY AND OF STUDENTS TAKING NON-ATHLETIC ACTIVITIES ONLY. 90 * TABLE X I RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN' THE NUMBER ' Oi NON-ATHLETIC ACTIVITIES AND SCHOLASTIC STANDING. 1 * Q,* * s not equated I.Q.'s 109-equated •110 at 1 2 4 5 •6 7 Number o f Frequency Average Average Frequency Average Average A c t i v i t i e s I.Q,. Rank I.Q,. Rank . 1 20 105.2 3.0 C 15 109.6 3.1 C 2 42 ; 102.3 3.0 C 31 109.4 . 3.1 C • 3 19 111,1 3.3 C-f 18 109.8 .3.3 0| 4 24 105,5 2.7 0- .. 17 109.2 3 e S C 5 27 113.5 3.4 C+ 21 109.8 3.3 C4-6 9 112.1 3.3 Cf 109.7 3.3 C + 6 116.2 3.7 B o 9 .1 120 4.1 A 10 1 123 3.1 C 11 1 121 4.1 A T o t a l s 150 109 Of the 150 cases shown i n coluiiins 2, 3, and 4 i n T a b l e X I , o n l y the stude n t t a k i n g 10 a c t i v i t i e s made a l o w e r rank t h a n h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e w a r r a n t e d . Of t h e r e s t , the cases t a k i n g 1, 2, 7, 9, and 11 a c t i v i t i e s , or a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f the t o t a l f r e q u e n c y , made a h i g h e r average s t a n d i n g than would be p r e d i c t e d f r om t h e i r i n t e l l i g e h c e q u o t i e n t s . The f r e -q u e n c i e s , shown i n column 5, were the r e s u l t of o m i t t i n g s u f f i c i e n t s t u d e n t s t a k i n g each number o f a c t i v i t i e s t o enable the average I n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s f o r each group t o be equated a t 109. The f i g u r e , 109, was chosen t o p e r m i t the i n c l u s i o n o f as many ca s e s as p o s s i b l e . The average r a n k s , as shown i n column 7, a r e a l l normal o r s u p e r i o r s t a n d i n g s 91 f o r s t u d e n t s whose i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s were 109 d u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r 1937-1938,. With the e x c e p t i o n of the s t u d e n t s who took 4 a c t i v i t i e s , the average r a n k s , as shown i n column 7, improve s l i g h t l y w i t h the number of a c t i v i t i e s t a k e n / The average rank of the 109 cases w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s equated a t 109-110 was 3.2 o r C, the rank which these s t u d e n t s s h o u l d r e c e i v e a c c o r d i n g t o the t h e o r y shown i n Table I I I . A comparison of t h e s e s t u d e n t s and of t h o s e t a k i n g o n l y a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s appears t o prove t h a t t h e a t h l e t i c s t u d e n t s e x c e l those p a r t i c i p a t i n g o n l y i n non-a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s i n s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . The average rank of the 150 s t u d e n t s " p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s was 3.13. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o between t h i s average and t h e average a t t a i n e d by t h e s t u d e n t s who t o o k a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s o n l y was .38, a f i g u r e w h i c h shows no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between the s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s o f the s t u d e n t s p r e f e r r i n g a t h l e t i c and t h o s e p r e f e r r i n g n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . However, as the group t a k i n g n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s had, on the average, h i g h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , the n e x t s t e p i n the i n v e s -t i g a t i o n was a comparison o f the s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s of groups o f s t u d e n t s , w i t h s i m i l a r average i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , who took a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s o n l y and who t o o k n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s o n l y . 92 * y TABLE X I I COMPARISON OF THE NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES AND SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS TAKING ATHLETIC ACTIVITIES ONLY AND OF STUDENTS TAKING NON-ATHLETIC ACTIVITIES ONLY. A t h l e t i c Non-- A t h l e t i c 1 2 •3- 4 5 7 Number pf Frequency Average Average Frequency Average Average A c t i v i t i e s I.Q. Rank .' I.Q. Rank 1 7 103.7 3.0 C 18 103.5 3.0 C 2 2 103 3 . 8 0 - 40 103.1 3.0 C : • 3 2 101.5 3.8 B 10 103.4 3.2 C 4 1 103 3.1 C 21 103.4 3.0 C 5 4 103.2 3.6 B- 12 103.2 3.3 0 + 6 1 104 3.1 C 5 103.6 3.3 C + T o t a l s 17 106 Columns 2, 3 and 4 o f Table X I I d u p l i c a t e the l a s t t h r e e columns o f T a b l e X. The f r e q u e n c i e s shown i n column 5 of Table X I I were s e l e c t e d from the f r e q u e n c i e s g i v e n i n Table X I t o o b t a i n an average i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t of 103-104 f o r each of the s i x groups. The 2 s t u d e n t s who took 5 a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s and the 4 who t o o k 5 a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s d i d much b e t t e r s c h o l a s t i c work, on the average, than the o t h e r s t u d e n t s , w h i l e the 2 cases who too k 2 a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s b a r e l y reached the s t a n d a r d o f academic a t t a i n m e n t s e t by t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e . A l l the o t h e r s t u d e n t s shown i n Table X I I made b e t t e r ranks than t h e i r m ental t e s t s suggested. The s t u d e n t s t a k i n g a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s o n l y had an average rank o f 3.24 o r C w h i l e t h o s e t a k i n g n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s had an average o f 3.07 o r a l o w e r C grade. These averages appeared t o support the con-c l u s i o n , suggested by W o r c e s t e r and K i n g , t h a t , as a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s do not te n d t o encroach on r e g u l a r s c h o o l time t o 93 the same e x t e n t as do the n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , p u p i l s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s o n l y have s u p e r i o r s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s . However, the c r i t i c a l r a t i o between these two averages was 2.06 so t h a t no s t a t i s t i c a l s i g -n i f i c a n c e can "be a t t a c h e d to the s l i g h t l y h i g h e r academic s t a n d i n g of the s t u d e n t s t a k i n g a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s o n l y . Though the p r e s e n t w r i t e r can produce no s t a t i s t i c a l p r o o f f o r h i s t h e o r y , he b e l i e v e s t h a t the p u p i l s who c o n c e n t r a t e on n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s do j u s t as w e l l a s , i f not b e t t e r than, those who a p p l y themselves to a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s o n l y . A thorough study of Tables X - X I I shows the reasons f o r t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n . I n the f i r s t p l a c e a l l the s t u d e n t s who took n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , as shown i n Table X I I , e x c e l l e d the academic rank w h i c h they were t h e o r e t i c a l l y expected to a t t a i n whereas two cases or 11 per cent of the n o n - a t h l e t i c s t u d e n t s f a i l e d t o do so. The method of comparison of the s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s of the a t h l e t i c and n o n - a t h l e t i c s t u d e n t s , as i t appears i n Table X I I , i s not q u i t e f a i r . Nine s t u d e n t s , as shown i n Table X I , took more than 6 n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . As a r e s u l t the s t u d e n t s who took most a c t i v e p a r t i n the n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s d i d not appear i n t h i s comparison s i n c e no s t u d e n t took more than 6 a t h l e t i c a c t i -v i t i e s , , Many s t u d e n t s of s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e are a l s o e xcluded from the comparison due to the method of e q u a t i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . Y e t s t u d e n t s of s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e who p a r t i c i p a t e f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , as shown i n Table V I I I , are f r e q u e n t l y the ones who r e c e i v e h i g h 94 s c h o l a s t i c r a n k s . The i n c l u s i o n of such s t u d e n t s might have a l t e r e d the outcome o f t h e comparison o f the a t h l e t i c and the n o n - a t h l e t i c s t u d e n t s . F o r example, 6 s t u d e n t s o f sup-e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e took a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s o n l y . T h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s averaged 118 and t h e i r ranks 3.6 or B-. As Table X I shows, 6 s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 7 n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s had an average i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t of 116.2 and an average rank o f 3.7 o r B. T h e r e f o r e , the few d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r i n d i c a t e no tendency f o r a t h l e t i c s t u d e n t s t o sur p a s s the n o n - a t h l e t i c i n scho-l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . Indeed the s t u d e n t s who chose n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , as shown I n T a b l e X I I , d i s p l a y a tendency t o earn somewhat h i g h e r s t a n d i n g s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e e x t e n t of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s r e g u l a r , though s l i g h t , improve-ment i n achievement, as shown i n F i g u r e 7 and Ta b l e X I I , appears t o be a more p r o m i s i n g omen o f the advantageous r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e g u l a r s c h o o l work'and the e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t h a n are t h e i s o l a t e d cases of s u p e r i o r s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g i n the a t h l e t i c group. 95 • TABLE XIII RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE 'NUMBER OP ACTIVITIES (BOTH TYPES) AND SCHOLASTIC STANDING. I.Q,,'s not equated I.Q.'s equated 109-110 at 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 umber o f Frequency Average Average Frequency Average Average c t i v i t i e s ;l.Q. Rank I.Q. Rank 2 9 1 6 9 . 3 2.7 C- 9 109.3 2.7 C-3 16 1 1 1 . 3.2 C 15 109.4 3.1 C \ 4 12 106.4 3.3 G+ 9 109.7 3.2 C . " 5 30 108.1 3.3 Cf 27 109.9 3.3 C + 6 17 112.2 3.3 04- 15 109.9 3.2 C 7 9 104.8 3.1 C 5 110.0 3.6 B-8 4 108.5 3.4 C4- 3 110.3 3.5 B-9 14 112.5 3.3 C+ 12 110 3.2 C 10 1 109 4.1 A." • 1 109 4.1 A 11 ' 4 109.2 3.4 Cf 4 109.2 3.4 C + 12 1 124 4.1 A 13 2 120 3.7 B 14 2 116.5 3.8 B T o t a l s 121 100 3.2 C The s t u d e n t s who t o o k 2 o r 3 a c t i v i t i e s , as shown i n columns 3 and 4 of Ta b l e X I I I , d i d not do q u i t e so w e l l i n t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c work as th e y s h o u l d have done, but a l l t h e o t h e r s a c h i e v e d s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a n d i n g s o r e x c e l l e d t he s t a n d i n g s w h i c h t h e y might have been expected t o a t t a i n . The s t u d e n t s w i t h h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s have a tendency t o p a r t i c i p a t e f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Once a g a i n a c e r t a i n number o f cases was s e l e c t e d f r om t h e t o t a l f r e q u e n c y of 121 i n o r d e r t o equate a t 109-110 the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s of the groups w h i c h t o o k d i f f e r e n t numbers o f a c t i v i t i e s . The f i g u r e s d e p i c t i n g the groups w i t h equated average i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , as shown i n columns 6 and f, p r e s e n t a somewhat i r r e g u l a r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number of a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as i n p r e v i o u s t a b l e s , the e x i s t e n c e o f a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number of a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g cannot be i g n o r e d . TABLE X I V RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES AND SCHOLASTIC STANDING. I.Q,. T s not equated I.Q.'s equated 109-110 a t 1 5 4 5 6 7 imber o f Frequency Average Average Frequency Average Average j t i v i t i e s I.Q. Rank I.Q. Rank G 9 102.3 5.1 C 1 29 104.9 5.0 C 21 109.2 3.1 C 2 55 103.7 3.0 C 45 109.1 3.0 C 3 40 111.3 5.5 C4- 56 109.0 3.3 C + 4 36 106 3.0 C 28 109.4 3.0 C 5 60 110.5 3.4 Of 56 109.1 3.4 C4-6 28 112.1 3.5 04- 23 109.0 3.3 04-7 14 109.5 3.5 C4- 14 109.5 3.3 C4-8 4 108,5 5.4 CV 4 108.5 5.4 04-9 15 115 3.4 0+ 11 109.3 3.5 C4-10 2 116 • 5.6 B- 1 109 4.1 A 11 5 111.6 5.5 B-12 1 124 4.1 A 13 2 120 5.7 B 14 2 116.5 3.8 B T o t a l s 302 239 5.1 C The t o t a l f r e q u e n c y , 502, o f Table XIV i n c l u d e s a l l the eases w h i c h were s t u d i e d . The d a t a on whi c h Table XIV i s based i n d i c a t e d t h e tendency, apparent i n p r e v i o u s t a b l e s , f o r s t u d e n t s of s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e t o t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , and f o r those s t u d e n t s t a k i n g a prominent share i n these a c t i v i t i e s t o earn b e t t e r s c h o l a s t i c r a n k s than the o t h e r s . The i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s were equated as i n c l i o l a r s h i p .5.0., KU- 1 I : 1 : ' ' . . •_ - - • ^ _ 0" 2 - - 4 6 0 " 10 12 14 Number of A c t i v i t i e s FIQ. 8. RELATIONSHIP OF NUMBER OP ACTIVITIES AND SCHOLASTIC STANDING. 98 T a b l e s X > - i X I I I . Though a smooth curve i s not found, f a v o u r -a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number of a c t i v i t i e s and scho-l a s t i c s t a n d i n g can s t i l l be d i s c e r n e d . The e x i s t e n c e o f a s l i g h t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e number of a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h a st u d e n t t a k e s p a r t and the academic r a n k t h a t he earns i s shown i n F i g u r e 8. The d a t a shown i n T a b l e s 17 - X I V i n c l u s i v e have p o i n t e d t o t h e same g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n ; some degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the number of a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s . When the c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n was computed f o r the t o t a l number o f cases a s m a l l p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , .27 - .036 was found. Next the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , w h i c h s h o u l d be a f a i r l y r e l i a b l e i n d e x t o the s t u d e n t s ' s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s , were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the grade s t a n d i n g s . The c o e f f i c i e n t o f 4-c o r r e l a t i o n i n t h i s case proved t o be .45 - .03. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o between the p r o b a b l e e r r o r s of thes e c o e f f i c i e n t s was 3.76. TABLE XV. COMPARISON 0E SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS, TAKING 0-3 ACTIVITIES AND TAKING 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES, WHOSE I.Q. fS HAVE BEEN EQUATED IN DIFFERENT GROUPS. 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s 5 o r more A c t i v i t i e s I.Q. Group Frequency Average Average Average Average I.Q. Rank I.Q. Rank 80-89 3 85 2.7 C- 84.6 2.5 D4-90-99 14 95.4 2.8 C-. . 95.4 2.7 C-100-109 . 4 1 104.5 3.1 C 104.5 3.4 0 + 110-119 32 114.1 3.B C 114.1 3.5 B-120-129 10 124.8 3.4 C4- 124.8 3.8 B 130-139 2 135 3.6 B- 135.5 3.8 B T o t a l s 102 3.12 3.36 99 S c h o l a r s h i p 3.2 2.8 f 2.41 0 ! j)- ' • • -1 5-3 A c t i v i t i e s ) or more A c t i v i t i e s ••• j - ( / / / • n - -"- win"'• i"i i i •' ''•''•'•i -r " i / i -.•..... /'-A . 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t s PIG. 9. COMPARISON OP THE SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS, TAKING 0-3 ACTIVITIES AND TAKING 5 OR MORE ACTI-VITIES, WHOSE INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS HAVE BEEN EQUATED IN DIFFERENT GROUPS. 100 T a b l e XV e x h i b i t s the most e n l i g h t e n i n g f a c t s so f a r g i v e n i n t h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e number o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . The groups w i t h l o w e s t and h i g h e s t i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s might have been o m i t t e d because o f the s m a l l number of cases from the group t a k i n g 0-3 a c t i v i t i e s and the group t a k i n g 5 o r more . a c t i v i t i e s . The group which t o o k few o r no a c t i v i t i e s shows, an even improvement i n marks f o r each i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l but a t each l e v e l , e x c e p t i n g where the i n t e l l i g e n c e was below-average o r l o w normal, the rank of t h i s group i s below th e group w h i c h t o o k more a c t i v i t i e s . The s u p e r i o r s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s , whose i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s were above 100 and who t o o k 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s , o v e r t h o s e s t u d e n t s a t s i m i l a r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t l e v e l s who took, 0:^3 a c t i v i t i e s are p l a i n l y shown i n F i g u r e 9. The d a t a w h i c h appear i n T a b l e XV and F i g u r e 9 seem t o j u s t i f y two c o n c l u s i o n s . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e p u p i l s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s of l e s s t h a n 100 s h o u l d be f o r b i d d e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n more than a l i m i t e d number of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e y s h o u l d not be a l l o w e d t o a c c e p t i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n s w h i c h may e n t a i l f r e q u e n t absences from r e g u l a r s u b j e c t p e r i o d s . S tudents p o s s e s s i n g h i g h average o r s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , however, may be encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . I n t h e s e cases a h e l p f u l , r a t h e r than a d e t r i m e n t a l , r e l a t i o n s h i p appears t o e x i s t between the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m . 101 . The c r i t i c a l r a t i o between the average rank of the group t a k i n g 0-5 a c t i v i t i e s and the group t a k i n g 5 or more a c t i v i t i e s was 6.64, a s t a t i s t i c a l p r o o f of t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f -f e r e n c e between these two groups. I n Table XV the number o f s t u d e n t s t a k i n g few a c t i v i t i e s and t a k i n g many a c t i v i t i e s i s i d e n t i c a l f o r each i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t group. The s i x » average i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s f o r those t a k i n g 0-3 a c t i v i t i e s and f o r those t a k i n g , 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s are s i m i l a r . There-f o r e , the d i f f e r e n c e between the average r a n k s , 3.12 and 3.56, of these groups cannot be dependent oh d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e l -l i g e n c e . The d i f f e r e n c e must be the r e s u l t of some o t h e r f a c t o r . The f a c t o r w h i c h I s common t o b o t h groups i s p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . So i t appears t h a t an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n was' l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the h i g h e r s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g earned by t h i s group. The c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e / q u o t i e n t s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s of the, group w h i c h p a r -t i c i p a t e d i n 0-3 a c t i v i t i e s was .36 £ .06 w h i l e the c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e group w h i c h t o o k f i v e o r more a c t i v i t i e s was .51 - .049. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o between the p r o b a b l e e r r o r s of th e s e two c o e f f i c i e n t s was 2.00 so t h a t the chances were 91 out o f 100 t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s was a r e a l one s-e -tiha-t no s t a t i s t i c a l importance can be a t t a c h e d t o the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two c o e f f i c i e n t s . 102 S c h o l a r s h i p B f B B-C + l C- : D I D-£ Lfc 80-89 '••0-3 A c t i v i t i e s 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s / / / / / / / / , / 90-99 100-109 110-119 120-129 I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t Group 150-139 PIG-. 10. COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS IN DIFFERENT INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT GROUPS, TAKING 0-3 ACTIVITIES AND TAKING 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES. " 103 TABLE XVI COMPARISON OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF -STUDENTS, IN DIFFERENT INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT GROUPS., TAKING 0-3 ACTIVITIES AND TAKING 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES :" 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s 5 o r more A c t i v i t i e s I.Q. Group:, Frequency Average Rank Frequency Average Rank 80-89 6 C- 3 D4-90-99 30 c - 14 C-100-109 48 c 42 C+ 110-119 33 0 41 04-120-129 10 C4- 35 B 130-139 3 C'f 3 B T o t a l s 130 3.09 138 3.29 I n Table XVI the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s are not equated. T h i s t a b l e i n c l u d e s a l l the s t u d e n t s who took 0-3 a c t i v i t i e s and 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s . The numbers of cases of the two groups a r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , 130 and 138. The s t u d e n t s t a k i n g t h r e e or l e s s a c t i v i t i e s show a g r a d u a l improvement from the l o w e s t I n t e l l i g e n c e group t o t h e h i g h e s t but do not r e a c h the h e i g h t o f s c h o l a r s h i p a t t a i n e d by a s i m i l a r group shown i n Table XV. The s t u d e n t s who t o o k f i v e o r more a c t i v i t i e s d i s -p l a y somewhat, h i g h e r ranks i n the upper i n t e l l i g e n c e groups than d i d t h o s e shown i n T a b l e XV. F i g u r e . 10 i l l u s t r a t e s the d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e XVI. . The c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n of the two groups have a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e than the two c o r r e l a t i o n s based on t h e equated groups. The c o e f f i c i e n t between i n t e l l i g e n c e and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s o f a l l who t o o k t h r e e o r l e s s a c t i v i t i e s was .32 - .05 w h i l e t h a t o f the group which took f i v e o r more 104 a c t i v i t i e s was .51 - .04, a d i f f e r e n c e of .19. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o between the p r o b a b l e e r r o r s o f these c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n was 2.97 which meant t h a t the chances of the d i f f e r e n c e between th e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e i n g a r e a l one were 97-98 out of 100. The average s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g of the group t a k i n g 0-3 a c t i v i t i e s was 3.09 and the average rank o f the group t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s was 3.29. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o between t h e s e average r a n k s was 6.41. T h i s demonstrates the s t a t i s -t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e between the s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s o f the groups. The s t u d i e s so f a r d e s c r i b e d seem t o j u s t i f y c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s . The c r i t i c a l r a t i o s of the p r o b a b l e e r r o r s of the c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n showed t h a t no s t a t i s t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y c o u l d be g i v e n t o the d i f f e r e n c e s between p a i r s of c o e f f i c i e n t s . However, the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s of the average r a n k s r e c e i v e d by s t u d e n t s t a k i n g minor p a r t s and t a k i n g major p a r t s i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s were, i n many c a s e s , s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o prove the s t a t i s t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e average academic s t a n d i n g s . A s t u d y o f the. t a b l e s and graphs show t h a t the s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t e n d t o have h i g h e r average s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s than dp those who have v e r y l i t t l e I n t e r e s t i n these a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s tendency i s e s p e c i a l l y pronounced i n the cases of t h o s e s t u d e n t s who have h i g h average o r s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , 105 s t u d e n t s o f \ h i g h average or s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e s h o u l d be encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s because s t u d e n t s of t h i s c a l i b r e who e n t e r whole-h e a r t e d l y i n t o e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s appear t o e x c e l the o t h e r s i n s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . 106 CHAPTER I V AN INVESTIGATION OP THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES AND SCHOLASTIC STANDING, 1938-1959. 107 The data i n t h e p r e v i o u s chapter-.showed the e x i s t e n c e of a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n 'between the number o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich a s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t e d and the s c h o l a s t i c rank t h a t he r e c e i v e d . Though i t seemed improbable t h a t t h i s was a mere chance r e l a t i o n s h i p , such a p o s s i b i l i t y c o u l d not be i g n o r e d . However, i f t h e evidence o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s p o i n t e d t o t h e same p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , the l i k e l i h o o d of c o i n c i d e n c e h a v i n g a f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s would be p r a c t i c a l l y n u l l i f i e d . T h e r e f o r e the w r i t e r c o l l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s , s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g , and i n t e l l i g e n c e of each grade n i n e s t u d e n t who a t t e n d e d Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l d u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r o f 1938-1939, i n o r d e r t o check the f i n d i n g s o f 1937-1938. Two methods of i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e c o l l e c t e d f a c t s were t r i e d . Though a l l the schemes w h i c h had f o r m e r l y g i v e n i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s were o m i t t e d , t a b l e s , graphs, and c o r r e l a t i o n s , s i m i l a r t o those w h i c h had p r e v i o u s l y Shown i n f o r m a t i v e r e s u l t s ? , were p r e p a r e d from t h e new d a t a . T h i s method p e r m i t t e d a f a i r comparison of t h e f i n d i n g s o f the two y e a r s so t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y of the 1937-1938 con-c l u s i o n s c o u l d be t e s t e d , t h u s v e r i f y i n g the e x i s t e n c e o f a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number of a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . 108 The second method was a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the f i r s t . I n Chapter I I I and i n the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s c h a p t e r , where the f i r s t method i s used, a l l t y p e s of a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v e the same e v a l u a t i o n . Y et one a c t i v i t y may e n t a i l f a r more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and may demand much more time than another. O b v i o u s l y the p r e s i d e n t of the S c h o o l C o u n c i l has a more onerous t a s k t h a n has a s t u d e n t who i s a member of s e v e r a l minor committees. By the f i r s t method of computation, however, the p r e s i d e n t would appear t o be much l e s s a c t i v e i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . A t r u e p i c t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s t a k e n and t h e s c h o l a s t i c r a nks g a i n e d by s t u d e n t s n e c e s s i t a t e s a " w e i g h t i n g " o r a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t h e v a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o the d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . P o s s i b l y the most a c c u r a t e system of awarding the number of p o i n t s w h i c h each a c t i v i t y d e s e r v e d would have been the d i s c o v e r y of t h e number of p u p i l - h o u r s each a c t i -v i t y consumed. As i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a p r e v e n t e d the a d o p t i o n of t h i s p l a n , the w r i t e r drew up a t e n t a t i v e t a b l e of the number of p o i n t s w h i c h , i n h i s o p i n i o n , s h o u l d be g i v e n f o r eaeh a c t i v i t y . T h i s t a b l e was s u b m i t t e d , f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , t o t h o s e members of the Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s t a f f who were best, q u a l i f i e d t o judge t h e wort h of each a c t i v i t y . 109 TABLE XVTI POINTS FOR DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES Number o f P o i n t s Type of A c t i v i t y 1 a) membership i n any Wednesday C l u b , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the Study Club b) a s s o c i a t e membership i n the G i r l s ' Club o r the M a c M i l l a n F i n e A r t s Club c) membership i n a guidance c l a s s com-m i t t e e o r a c o u n c i l committee 2 a) a c t i v e membership i n the G i r l s ' Club o r t h e F i n e A r t s Club b) membership i n any o r g a n i z a t i o n v/hich meets o u t s i d e the r e g u l a r s c h o o l hours c) c l a s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o the F i n e A r t s C l u b 3 a) membership i n a grade o r house c o u n c i l c l a s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o the "Tee J a y " , the s c h o o l magazine c) e x e c u t i v e member of any minor c l u b 4 a) membership on e i t h e r t h e m o n i t o r o r the "Tee J a y " s t a f f b) honour membership i n the G i r l s ' Club c) membership i n the R e f e r e e s ' Club o r c a p t a i n c y o f a team 7 a) e x e c u t i v e member o f any o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d on the Sc h o o l C o u n c i l b) membership i n the Sc h o o l C o u n c i l o r the Supreme House C o u n c i l 10 e x e c u t i v e member of the Sc h o o l C o u n c i l o r t h e Supreme House C o u n c i l T a ble X V I I i s a consensus o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , guidance t e a c h e r s , and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r sponsors a t Templeton J u n i o r 110 H i g h S c h o o l * The v a l u e s shown i n Table X V I I form the n u c l e u s of the second method. The t o t a l s of the e v a l u a t e d a c t i v i t i e s of the grade n i n e s t u d e n t s , w h i c h were determined by t h e use of the above t a b l e , were compared w i t h t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c r a nks t o d i s c o v e r i f a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the weighted a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s would be apparent. Though t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t i s o n l y one o f the f a c t o r s t h a t determines success i n s c h o o l work i t i s the one most commonly used f o r p r e d i c t i v e purposes. A g l a n c e a t a s t u d e n t ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t suggests the degree of d i f -f i c u l t y t h a t he w i l l encounter i n h i s p r e s c r i b e d s t u d i e s . However, u n l e s s the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s f o l l o w a normal curve o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e y l o s e much o f t h e i r p r o g n o s t i c v a l u e i n r e g a r d t o grade s t a n d i n g s based on t h i s c u r v e . TABLE X V I I I INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS WITH THEIR THEORETICALLY EXPECTED SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS, 1958-1959. I.Q. Group Pe r c e n t a g e Frequency Rank 125-156 6.0 21 A 120-124 - 8.8 32 B+ 116-119 6.9 25 B 114-115 7.7 28 B-110-113 14.3 52 C4-105-109 17.9 65 C 102-104 11.3 41 C-99-101 8.2 30 D4-95-98 5.2 19 D 91-94 ., 7.7 28 D-83L90 6.0 21 E T o t a l s 100 362 Table X V I I I shows the s c h o l a s t i c grades which Templeton s t u d e n t s , whose i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s ranged between 83 and 111 S c h o l a r s h i p 2.4 t. \ 1 o FIG. 11, 6 9 Number of A c t i v i t i e s COMPARISON OP THE NUMBER OP ACTIVITIES IN WHICH STUDENTS PARTICIPATED AND THE SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS THEY RECEIVEDj 1938-1939. 15 112 136,.might have r e c e i v e d d u r i n g the ye a r 1938-1939 i f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of grade s t a n d i n g s had conformed t o t h e d i s t r i -b u t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . _ TABLE S IX COMPARISON OF NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES IN WHICH STUDENTS PARTI-CIPATED AND THE SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS THEY RECEIVED, 1938-1939 No. A c t i v i t i e s Frequency Average Rank Average I 1 40 2.7 C- 106.7 2 56 2.9 C- 107.4 3 58 2.8 C- 105.2 4 51 3.0 C 105.8 5 47 3.1 C 105.0 o 34 5.3 C + 112.5 7 18 5.0 C 108.7 8 15 3.5 B- 115.5 9 • 10 5.5 C4- 115.5 10 7 3.7 B 108.8 11 6 5.7 B 117.8 12 2 4.25A 120.5 13 0 14 0 15 1 3.9 B+ 121 T o t a l 345 The d a t a w h i c h appear i n Table X IX and F i g u r e 11 show a g r a d u a l improvement of s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g of s t u d e n t s i n r a t i o t o the numbers of a c t i v i t i e s t h e y had t a k e n . Students who s h a r e d i n 1, 2 and 5 a c t i v i t i e s d i d not earn so h i g h an average rank as t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s p r e d i c t e d , w h i l e t h o s e who took 8 and 12 a c t i v i t i e s s u r p a s s e d the academic grade suggested by t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . A moderate p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s shown between the number of a c t i -v i t i e s i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d and the s c h o l a s t i c r a n k s t h e y r e c e i v e d , t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n b e i n g 113 S c h o l a r s h i p 5.0JJ o •;• 80-89 PIG. 12. 90-99 100-109 110-119 120-129 I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t Group COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS AND INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS, 1938-1939. 130-139 114 .35 - .03. , The c o r r e l a t i o n of the p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s d a t a , as shown i n Table X I I I , had r e s u l t e d i n t h e p o s i t i v e c o e f f i c i e n t , .27 - .03. The d a t a shown i n column 4 of Table XIX show a s l i g h t tendency f o r the s t u d e n t s of s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y t o t a k e more a c t i v i t i e s than the m a j o r i t y ; The c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s and number of a c t i -v i t i e s was .218 - .034. Though the tendency f o r b r i g h t e r c h i l d r e n t o p a r t i c i p a t e f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s may be one reason f o r the p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number of a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a r s h i p s t a n d i n g , a p p a r e n t l y t h i s tendency i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y common t o be c o n s i d e r e d the o u t -s t a n d i n g r e a s o n . TABLE XX 'COMPARISON OF I.Q.'S AND SCHOLASTIC STANDING I . Q. Group No. of Cases Average Rank Average no:; c A c t i v i t i e s Not Weighted 80-89 20 2.7 C- 4.4 90-99 68 2.7 C- 5.5 100-109 116 2.8 C- 3.8 110-119 105 3.2 C 5.5 120-129 45 3.6 B- 5.3 130-139 8 3.8 B 6.8 T o t a l 362 The t o t a l f r e q u e n c y , 362, o f Table XXT and F i g u r e 12 i s the l a r g e s t f r e q u e n c y g i v e n i n any comparative t a b l e i n t h i s c h a p t e r because a s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g and i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t I T a b l e X V I I I , of c o u r s e , has the same f r e q u e n c y . 115 was a v a i l a b l e f o r n e a r l y e v e r y s t u d e n t i n the grade IX c l a s s e s . Column 4 of Table XX shows the tendency f o r b r i g h t e r s t u d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n more a c t i v i t i e s than do the d u l l e r ones. T h e " g l a r i n g e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s t r e n d i s i n the cases of t h e s t u d e n t s o f b o r d e r - l i n e i n t e l l i g e n c e . The i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o f some of t h e s e s t u d e n t s g i v e a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n of the s t u d e n t s ' m e n t a l a b i l i t i e s because some of the s t u d e n t s were o f f o r e i g n b i r t h and, as a r e s u l t , s u f f e r e d f rom l a n -guage d i f f i c u l t i e s . Croup i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s cannot g i v e an a c c u r a t e c o n c e p t i o n of t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s of such c h i l d r e n . Though th e s c h o l a s t i c grades between the l o w e s t and the h i g h e s t i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s groups r i s e g r a d u a l l y from C- t o B, t h i s range i s l e s s t h a n might be expected. Reference t o T a b l e X v T I I shows t h a t / t h e b o r d e r - l i n e and low average i n t e l l i g e n c e groups both earned b e t t e r average grades than might be p r e d i c t e d from t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , w h i l e a l l t h e groups w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o f 110 and h i g h e r s h o u l d have been c a p a b l e of b e t t e r work. The c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n between th e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s and s c h o l a r s h i p was .44 - .028. T h i s c o e f f i c i e n t bore a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y t o the c o e f f i c i e n t of .45 - .03 c a l c u l a t e d on t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r the y e a r 1937-1938. 115 S c h o l a r s h i p 5.0 fpr 3.2 2.4 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s 5 or more A c t i v i t i e s y , . ,. / / / / / y / / X / / 0 80-89 90-99 100-109 110-119 120-129 130-1 I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t Group PIG. 13. COMPARISON OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS, IN DIFFERENT INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT GROUPS, TAKING 0-3 ACTIVITIES AND TAKING 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES. 117 * J TABLE XXI COMPARISON OP SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OF STUDENTS, IN DIFFERENT INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT GROUPS, TAKING 0-5 ACTIVITIES AND TAKING 5 OR MORE ACTIVITIES. 0-3 A c t i v i t i e s 5 o r more A c t i v i t i e s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I.Q. Group Frequency Average Average Frequency Average Average I.Q. Rank I.Q. Rank 80-89 7 . 86.4 2.2 D- 11 86.3 2.5 D4-90-99 38 95.5 2.7 C- 18 94.7 2.7 C-100-109 50 103.9 2.7 C- 41 105.1 3.0 0 110-119 43 113.5 3.0 C 39 113.9 3.5 B-120-129 15 123.7 3,4 Cf 24 IS 3 • 3 3.7 B 130-139 o 7 131.7 3.8 B T o t a l s 153 2.8 C- 140 3.2 C A l t h o u g h no attempt was made t o equate the average i n t e l -l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , shown i n columns 3 and 6 of Table X X I , t h e y are s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r t o p e r m i t a comparison o f those s t u d e n t s t a k i n g 0-3 a c t i v i t i e s and those t a k i n g 5 or.more a c t i -v i t i e s . T h i s comparison i s shown i n F i g u r e 15. I n t h e group t a k i n g 0-3 a c t i v i t i e s t hose cases between the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o f 80 and 99 d i d s l i g h t l y b e t t e r and those between 110 and 139 somewhat p o o r e r , on the average, than would be expected by t h e r e s u l t s of t h e i r m ental t e s t s . I n the group t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s t hose cases i n the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t range o f 80 t o 119 s u r p a s s e d the average rank suggested by t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , w h i l e the o t h e r s were a l i t t l e b elow-the rank w h i c h t h e y might have a t t a i n e d . The c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n betv/een t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s and scho-l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s proved t h a t the group w h i c h t o o k more a c t i -118 v i t i . e s came c l o s e r t o a c h i e v i n g the grade s t a n d i n g of which i t s members were ca p a b l e -than d i d the group which took fewer a c t i v i t i e s . The c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the group t a k i n g 0-3 a c t i -v i t i e s was .36 - .05 w h i l e the c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the o t h e r / group was .47 - .04. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o between the p r o b a b l e e r r o r s of these two c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n was 1.71. I n 1937-1938 the c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the group t a k i n g 0-3 a c t i v i t i e s was .33 - .05 and f o r the group t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s 4-.51 _ .04. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o i n t h i s y e a r was 2.97. The b o r d e r - l i n e and. s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e c a s e s , i n the group t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s , as shown i n Table X X I , had c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r average s t a n d i n g s than had.these cases i n the group t a k i n g fewer a c t i v i t i e s . The d a t a , g i v e n i n T a b l e X X I , show a tendency f o r those who had t a k e n an a c t i v e p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t o e x c e l t h e o t h e r s i n s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . T h i s tendency I s e s p e c i a l l y . n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e cases of t h o s e who had h i g h average o r s u p e r i o r i n -t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . The average academic rank of t h e s t u d e n t s t a k i n g 0-3 a c t i v i t i e s was 2.8 w h i l e the average rank of those t a k i n g 5 o r more a c t i v i t i e s was 3.2. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o between th e s e average ranks was 8.28 so the d i f f e r e n c e between them was s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e . Thus the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the two y e a r s , as shown i n Table XXI • and T a b l e XV, and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i g u r e s , 9 and 15, l e d t o the same c o n c l u s i o n s . 119 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Number of A c t i v i t i e s F I G . 14. COMPARISON OF NUMBER OF EVALUATED ACTIVITIES IN WHICH STUDENTS PARTICIPATED AND SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS THEY RECEIVED. 120 TABLE X X I I COMPARISON OP EVALUATED ACTIVITIES AND SCHOLASTIC STANDING E v a l u a t e d A c t i v i t y f r e q u e n c y Average I.Q. Average Rank 1 7 107.1 2.7 C~ 2 41 107.0 2.8 C-3 46 106.4 2.9" c-4 33 106.3 2.9 c-5 33 107.7 2.9 c-6 33 101.9 2.7 c-7 23 106.9 5.3 C4-8 21 105.3 5.1 c 9 23 104.3 3.3 c+ 10 15 110.0 3.2 c 11 11 108.0 3.0 c 12 16 106.3 3.2 c 13 6 116.1 3.1 c 14 2 116.5 5.2 c 15 5 122.6 3.7 B 16 7 115.5 3.3 C* 17 4 110.0 3.2 c: . 18 1 131.0 4.3 A 19 0 20 .2. 118.5 4.3 A 21 3 101.0 2.9 c-22 3 110.6 3.6 B-23 2 124.0 4.0 B+ 24 1 114.0 4.6 A' -25 4 120.0 3.7 B 26 2 114.0 4.2 A 27 2 •120.5 4.1 A 28 1 122.0 4.8 A 29 0 30 0 31 0 32 1 119.0 3.7 B . Tot? i l 348 The f i r s t column of Ta b l e X X I I shows the p o i n t s , f o l l o w i n g T a b l e 1, a s s i g n e d t o the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . The t h i r d column i n d i c a t e s a tendency f o r s t u d e n t s o f s u p e r i o r m e n t a l i t y t o a c c e p t a v e r y r e s p o n s i b l e share i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s . . The f o u r t h column, which p r e s e n t s the average r a n k s , shows a tendency f o r the s t u d e n t s who had t a k e n a r e a l l y 121 e n e r g e t i c p a r t i n the . ' e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r ' a c t i v i t i e s t o e x c e l the o t h e r s i n academic s t a n d i n g . A comparison of the rank accom-p a n y i n g each average i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t and of the rank w h i c h might he p r e d i c t e d from the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , as shown i n Table X V I I I , p o i n t s out the tendency f o r those t a k i n g more a c t i v i t i e s t o surpass the o t h e r s i n s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s . While-,' i n the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s , s t u d e n t s t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s e v a l u a t e d a t 1, 2,, 3, 4, 5, 10, 13, 14, 15, 17,-and 2 5 - p o i n t s -'received l o w e r s c h o l a s t i c ranks t h a n t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s suggested, s t u d e n t s t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s e v a l u a t e d a t 6, 7, 9, 12, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, and 28 p o i n t s d i d b e t t e r s c h o o l work th a n a s t u d y o f t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s would f o r e c a s t . T h i s i s p i c t u r e d i n F i g u r e 14. The t o t a l f r e q u e n c y of Table X X I I , 348 c a s e s , was broke n i n t o t h r e e groups, as n e a r l y e q u a l as the d i s t r i b u t i o n p e r m i t t e d , to''analyze the s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s of th o s e who were s l i g f t t l y , m o d e r a t e l y , and e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g d i v i s i o n s r e s u l t e d : ; s l i g h t l y i n t e r e s t e d , : 1-3 a c t i v i t y p o i n t s , 94 eases; m o d e r a t e l y i n t e r e s t e d , 4-8 a c t i v i t y p o i n t s , 145 c a s e s ; e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t e d , '9-32 a c t i v i t y p o i n t s , 111 c a s e s . The d a t a , when so d i v i d e d , showed t h a t those s t u d e n t s who were s l i g h t l y i n t e r e s t e d tended t o do p o o r e r s c h o o l wcrrk t h a n t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s suggested, t h a t a m a j o r i t y of those who were m o d e r a t e l y i n t e r e s t e d s h o u l d have done b e t t e r , and. t h a t a m a j o r i t y of those who were v e r y i n t e r e s t e d d i d b e t t e r 122 •than would'be expected by a p e r s o n who had examined t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on w h i c h T a b l e X X I I i s based a g a i n showed the tendency f o r s t u d e n t s who were v i t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t o l e a d the o t h e r s i n s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s . The m a t e r i a l , the v i t a l elements of which are g i v e n i n T a b l e X X I I , suggested t o the w r i t e r t h a t an almost I d e n t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p might be found between the e v a l u a t e d a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g as had been d i s c o v e r e d between the number of a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h ' the s t u d e n t s had taken and the s c h o l a s t i c r anks which t h e y had r e c e i v e d . The c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between the p o i n t v a l u e s of a c t i v i t i e s t a k e n by s t u d e n t s and the s t u d e n t s ' academic s t a n d i n g s , .38 £ .03 proved the c o r r e c t n e s s of t h i s a ssumption, b e i n g o n l y .03 h i g h e r t h a n the c o e f f i c i e n t of . c o r r e l a t i o n between the number of a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . 1 - The e v a l u a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s , though i t may have been a f a i r e r method, had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c t i v i t i e s and academic rank. T h e r e f o r e i t appears p r o b a b l e t h a t w e i g h t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s t a k e n by s t u d e n t s d u r i n g the y e a r 1937-1938 would not have a l t e r e d , t o any c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t , the f i n d i n g s based on t h a t y e a r ' s d a t a . .38 1 .03 r e p r e s e n t s a spread between .50 and .26 w h i l e .35 i .03 r e p r e s e n t s a spread between .47 and .23. 123 T A B L E X X I I I C O M P A R I S O N OF T H E I N T E L L I G E N C E Q U O T I E N T S A N D S C H O L A S T I C S T A N D I N G S OF STUDENTS T A K I N G A C T I V I T I E S E V A L U A T E D AT 1 - 3 , 4 - a , and 9 - 3 2 . 1-3 4-8 9-32 I.Q. Group Frequency Average I . Q. Average Rank Frequency Average I . Q . -Average • Rank Frequency Average I . Q . Average Rank 80-89 4 85.5 2.5 D4- 11 86.5 2.7 C- 4 85.5 2.9 C-90-99 25 95.4 2.6 Df 26 95.0 2.8 0- 15 94.3 2.8 C-100-109 31 104.4 2,7 C- 55 104.7 2.8 C- 26 104.9 3.0 C 110-119 23 113.1 3.0 C- 39 113.7 3.1 C 38 113.7 .3.5 B-120-129 11 124.0 3.3 04- 11 123.9 3.4 04- 21 122.7 3.8 B 130-139 1 151 4.0 B4- 7 131.7 3.8 B T o t a l s 94 2.8 2.9 111 3.5 124 S c h o l a r s h i p 3.6 I : i 1—3 A c t i v i t i e s . 1 -- ' 4-8 A c t i v 9-32 A c t i I t i e s v i t i e s / /' / / / / / / / / / / / • / / 9 I r // / ' \ -. 80-89 " 90-99""' 100=109 110-119 120-129" 130-139 . I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t Group FIG. 15. COMPARISON OF SCHOLASTIC STANDINGS OP STUDENTS, IN DIFFERENT INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT GROUPS, TAKING ACTIVITIES EVALUATED AT 1-3, 4-8, AND 9-32. 125 The average intelligence quotients, shown i n columns 3, 6 and 9 of Table XXIII, are s u f f i c i e n t l y similar to allow comparisons of the average ranks, given in columns 4, 7, and 10, of this table. Table XXIII and Figure 15 point out that the students who took a c t i v i t i e s worth 1-3 points, showed a gradual improvement i n scholastic ranks from the low to the high intelligence groups, However, the average student i n the 120-129 intelligence quotient group was considerably below the expected rank of B4 (See Table XVIII). The coef-f i c i e n t of correlation between intelligence quotients and scholastic standings for those students taking a c t i v i t i e s h l i s t e d at 1-3.points was .31 - .06, Though the range of scholastic ranks earned, on the average, by those whose a c t i -v i t i e s merited 4-8 points started s l i g h t l y higher and, because of one case, ended higher than did the ranks of students un-interested in extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s , the bulk of the students who displayed moderate enthusiasm f o r these a c t i -v i t i e s had a very limited range of scholastic ranks. The c o e f f i c i e n t of correlation between their intelligence quotients • • . • jj, and scholastic standings was ,33 - .049, With the exceptions of those in the 80-39 and 130-139 inte l l i g e n c e quotient groups, those who took a leading part i n the extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s showed a f a i r l y satisfactory range of scholastic ranks. The c o e f f i c i e n t of co r r e l a t i o n between their intelligence quotients i and scholastic standings was ,49 - .05, However, the c r i t i c a l ratios attached no s t a t i s t i c a l importance to the differences between the pairs of c o e f f i c i e n t s of correlation. The c r i t i c a l 126 r a t i o between the coefficients of correlation for those talcing a c t i v i t i e s evaluated at 1,3 and for those taking a c t i v i t i e s evaluated at 4.8 was .25. The c r i t i c a l ratios between those taking the largest share i n extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s and those taking a medium share was 2.31, while the c r i t i c a l r a t i o between this group which evinced the greatest interest i n these a c t i v i t i e s and those who were moderately interested i n them was 2.30. A further study of the data, which are summarized i n Table XXIII, showed that the students most interested i n extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s tended to receive the highest marks. This was true of the average student i n the following intelligence quotient groups: 80-89, 100-109, 110-119, and 120-129. Though the intelligence quotient group, 90-99, of those taking the most active part i n the extra-curricular programme was equalled by the similar group of 26 students taking a c t i v i t i e s evaluated at 4-8, the average intelligence quotient of the most interested group was lower. Generally speaking, the students who took an average part i n extra-c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s surpassed i n academic achievement, those taking a nominal part only. The scholastic averages of the groups demonstrate this tendency. Whereas the average rank of the least interested group was 2.8, the average of the middle group was 2.9, and the average of the most interested group was 3.3. The computation of c r i t i c a l ratios proved the s t a t i s t i c a l significance of the differences between the averages. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o between the average rank of 127 those t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s w o r t h 1-5 p o i n t s and of those t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s w o r t h 4-8 p o i n t s was 3.11 so the d i f f e r e n c e between the s e groups was s t a t i s t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t . The c r i t i c a l r a t i o between the l e a s t and the most i n t e r e s t e d groups was 14.48 w h i l e t h e c r i t i c a l r a t i o between the mediumly i n t e r e s t e d and the most I n t e r e s t e d group was 17.29. T h e s e - c r i t i c a l r a t i o s prove t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n average ranks between the s t u d e n t s who were: e n t h u s i a s t i c i n t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r and t h o s e who were m o d e r a t e l y i n t e r e s t e d or r e l a t i v e l y u n i n t e r e s t e d i n them was a r e a l - d i f f e r e n c e . Thus the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on which Table X X I I I i s based i n -d i c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y i n e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s tended t o e x c e l i n s c h o l a r s h i p t h o s e t a k i n g a minor or moderate p a r t in,,these a c t i v i t i e s and t h a t , i n the m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , those who t o o k an average i n t e r e s t i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s d i d s l i g h t l y b e t t e r i n t h e i r r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l a r s t u d i e s than d i d t h o s e who took a m e r e l y nominal p a r t . The r e s e a r c h e s , d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I , r e s t r i c t e d t h e above g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t o s t u d e n t s of h i g h average o r s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e . Such a l i m i t a t i o n i s not demanded by the d a t a g i v e n i n t h i s c h a p t e r . P o s s i b l y a more r i g i d c o n t r o l of p u p i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s a t i s f a c t o r y grade s t a n d i n g s of the groups which had low i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . The f i n d i n g s of Chapter IV b e a r a s t r i k i n g resemblance t o t h o s e of Chapter I I I and g i v e support t o t h e g e n e r a l 128 assumptions w i t h w h i c h Chapter I I I concluded. Once a g a i n t h e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , by number o r by v a l u e , and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g has been shown. A g a i n the s u p e r i o r s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s of many of the s t u d e n t s who too k an a c t i v e p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s have s t o o d out i n c o n t r a s t t o the s c h o l a s t i c marks o f the major-i t y of those who were l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n these a c t i v i t i e s . 129 CHAPTER V THE VALUES OP EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES AS INDICATED IN THE QUESTIONNAIRES 130 The d a t a of the two p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s have i n d i c a t e d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h a p u p i l p a r t i c i p a t e d and h i s s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . They have shown t h a t , e s p e c i a l l y when th e i n t e l -l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s were above 100, t h e r e was a tendency f o r t h o s e who took an a c t i v e p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t o have h i g h e r s c h o l a s t i c ranks than d i d those who took a l e s s a c t i v e p a r t i n th e s e a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s tendency roused a n a t u r a l query; were t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s p a r -t i a l l y o r w h o l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e h i g h e r s c h o l a s t i c r a n k s ? The d a t a of t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s w a r r a n t e d no assumption of such a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n an attempt t o d i s c o v e r i f t h i s c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d , q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s were p r e p a r e d . S t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , and t e a c h e r s were asked t o answer q u e s t i o n s which would show t h e i r c a n d i d o p i n i o n s of t h e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s which are a t t r i b u t e d t o the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . 131 STUDENTS' QUEST 10NNAIRE P l e a s e answer each of the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s by p l a c i n g a check mark under "Yes", "No", or " D o u b t f u l " . I f p o s s i b l e , by each answer p l a c e t h e l e t t e r o r l e t t e r s of the above a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h suggested your answer. Questions Yes No D o u b t f u l 1. Do you t h i n k the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s improve the s c h o o l ? 2. Have t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s h e l p e d you i n your r e g u l a r s c h o o l work? 3:. Has y o ur grade s t a n d i n g dropped s i n c e you have t a k e n p a r t i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s ? 4. Have you .sometimes. f a i l e d t o do your r e g u l a r s c h o o l work and assignments because you were busy w i t h e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? 5. Should a p u p i l be a l l o w e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n more than t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s ? 6. Have you a hobby? 7. D i d e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s s t a r t you on t h i s hobby? 8. Have you s e l e c t e d your f u t u r e v o c a t i o n ? 9. D i d e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s suggest t h i s v o c a t i o n t o you? 10. Has y o ur s c h o o l attendance been more r e g u l a r because of these a c t i v i t i e s ? 11. Do you want t o q u i t s c h o o l ? 12. Do you want t o s t a y i n s c h o o l as l o n g as you can because you are a c t i v e i n e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? 13. Do you want t o s t a y i n s c h o o l as many y e a r s as you can? 14. Do you l i k e music? 15. D i d e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s g i v e you t h i s l i k i n g f o r music? 16. Do you get a l o n g w i t h p u p i l s , t e a c h e r s , and o t h e r persons b e t t e r t h a n you d i d i n Grade V I I ? 17. Has your c i t i z e n s h i p mark dropped t h i s y e a r ? 18. Has your c i t i z e n s h i p mark improved t h i s y e a r ? 19. Can you a c t as chairman of a meeting w i t h o u t f e e l i n g v e r y nervous? 20. Are you a b o o s t e r f o r your s c h o o l ? The q u e s t i o n n a i r e method has many i n h e r e n t f l a w s . The answers are o p i n i o n s ; sometimes the o p i n i o n s are g i v e n a f t e r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of each q u e s t i o n , but f r e q u e n t l y t h e y 132 are g i v e n w i t h o u t adequate thought. The answerer's r e a c t i o n t o the q u e s t i o n s may be dependent upon h i s mood. I n one i n s t a n c e the same boy f i l l e d i n two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h i n ; a p e r i o d of s e v e r a l months., The answers t o s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s on the two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i f f e r e d . Of the 362 grade n i n e s t u d e n t s 351 r e t u r n e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . N a t u r a l l y the q u e s t i o n s were not s u i t e d t o the a b i l i t i e s of a l l the s t u d e n t s . Some q u e s t i o n s were i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o s t u d e n t s w i t h low I n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . Other s t u d e n t s gave d o u b t f u l answers or o m i t t e d answers. I n some cases t h i s may be construed, as a c r i t i c i s m of the wording of the q u e s t i o n s ; i n o t h e r cases t h e i n e x p e r i e n c e of the, s t u d e n t s i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s may have p r e v e n t e d the answering o f c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s . Though the w r i t e r , and the o t h e r s who so k i n d l y a s s i s t e d i n the f o r m a t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t r i e d t o e l i m i n a t e l e a d i n g ' q u e s t i o n s , some s t u d e n t s may have: d e c i d e d t h a t , I f t h e y d i d not a l l o c a t e some advantages t o e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , , t h e y had mis s e d p a r t of the advantages of s e h o o l l i f e . Others may have f e l t t h a t t h e y were expected t o a t t r i b u t e many v a l u e s t o e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r ^ a c t i v i t i e s and, i f t h e y d i d not do so, th e y would d i s p l e a s e t h e i r t e a c h e r s . S t i l l o t h e r s may have f o l l o w e d the l e a d e r s h i p of some member of t h e i r c l a s s . Though the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e s t r i c t e d - t o 20 q u e s t i o n s , some may have l o s t I n t e r e s t b e f o r e t h e y had f i n i s h e d answering a l l the q u e s t i o n s and may have answered some of the q u e s t i o n s i n a t h o u g h t l e s s manner. I n o r d e r t o compare t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s and i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s p u p i l s 133. were asked t o s i g n the p a p e r s . Though t h i s may have e l i m i n a t e d any tendency towards s i l l y answers, i t may have i n f l u e n c e d some t o exaggerate the v a l u e s of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . TABLE XXIV PUPILS' QUESTIONNAIRES (551) Yes fo No fo D o u b t f u l fo Omitted fo 1. 325 (92.59) 4 ( 1.13' 16 ( 4.55) 6 (1.71 2. 155 (44.15) 110 (51.35 ) 72 1 20.56) 14 (3.98 5. 27 ( 7.59) 284 (80.91 28 ( 7,97) 12 (3.41 4. 57 (16.23) 276 (78.63 )' i o ( 2.84) 8 (2.27 5. 131 (37.52) 157 (44.72 56 ( 15.95) 7 (1.99 6. 500 (85.47) 44 .(12.53 2 ( ..56) 5 (1.42 7. 62 (17.66) 248 (70.65 18 ( 5.12) 25 (6.55 8. 142 (40.45) 141 (40.17 1 59 ( 16.80) 9 (2.56 9. 56 (10.25) 258 (73.50 50 ( 8.54) 27 '(7.69 10. 114 (32.47) 185 (52.13 : 44 ( 12.53) 10 (2.84 11. 45 (12.82) 268 (76.35 30 ( 8.54) 8 (2.27 12. 113 (32.19) 159 (45.29] 56 ( 15.95) 25 (6.55 13. 275 (77.77) 49 (15.96' 20 ( .5.69) •:9 (2.56 14. 299 '(85.18) ' 32 ( 9'.ir 17 ( 4.84) 3 ( .85 15. 69 (19.65) 249 (70.94 1 22 ( 6.26) 11 (3.13 16. 267 (76.06) 32 ( 9.1V 44 ( 12.53) 8. (2.27 17. 107 (30.48) .220 (62.67 17 4 4.84) 7 (1.99 18. 142 . (40.45) 180 (51.28 18 ' ( 5.12) 11 (3.13 19. 140 (59.88) 120 (54.18 1 82 ( 23.56) 9 (2.56 20. 253 (72.07) 37 (10,54] 49 ( 15.96) 12 (3.41 The s t u d e n t s gave overwhelming support to t h e e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , 92 p e r cent s t a t i n g t h a t t h e y Improved the s c h o o l . . T h i s q u e s t i o n , however, was too g e n e r a l t o c a r r y any r e a l degree of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A c y n i c a l o b s e r v e r might m a i n t a i n t h a t the e n t e r t a i n m e n t d e r i v e d from t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s was the major motive f o r the st u d e n t support of them. Ob-v i o u s l y many s t u d e n t s who too k l i t t l e p a r t i n them must have answered t h i s q u e s t i o n a f f i r m a t i v e l y . The r e s t o f the q u e s t i o n s f o r c e d the s t u d e n t s to g i v e reasons f o r t h e i r f i r s t answer and the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e o r i g i n a l answer i s t e s t e d i n t h i s manner. 134 A common c r i t i c i s m of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i s t h a t they d e t r a c t from the r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. Chapters I I I and IV have d e n i e d t h i s tendency. The p u p i l s ' answers bore out the f i n d i n g s of t h e s e c h a p t e r s . While 80 per cent answered d e f i n i t e l y t h a t t h e i r grade s t a n d i n g s had not dropped s i n c e t h e y had t a k e n p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , o n l y 7 p e r c e n t s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r s t a n d i n g s had dropped under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Two o f t h e s e l a t t e r s t u d e n t s , odd though I t may seem, had t a k e n a v e r y minor p a r t i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Twelve had t a k e n a v e r y a c t i v e p a r t and some of them have s i n c e been i n f l u e n c e d t o c u r t a i l t h e i r e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . ' The r e m a i n i n g 13 had t a k e n an average degree o f i n t e r e s t i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme. These f i g u r e s p r e s e n t s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g p e r c e n t a g e s . Out of the t o t a l 551 who .answered t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , about 8 per c e n t had t h e i r s c h o l a r s h i p a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . However, about 30 per cent of the '551 s t u d e n t s took a n o m i n a l p a r t i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , so none of t h e s e c o u l d have s u f f e r e d t o any degree from t h e i r share i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Of those who took a r e a l l y a c t i v e p a r t , about 10 p e r c e n t dropped i n rank. A much l a r g e r number, about o n e - s i x t h o f those who answered, a d m i t t e d t h a t the d u t i e s of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s some-ti m e s caused a n e g l e c t o f t h e i r r e g u l a r s c h o o l work.and assignments. B e f o r e r e a c h i n g a d e c i s i o n on the i n f l u e n c e of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on the r e g u l a r s c h o o l work the o t h e r s i d e o f the q u e s t i o n must be s t u d i e d . F o r t y - f o u r p e r 135 c e n t of the s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had a s s i s t e d them i n t h e i r r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. A moderate number l i s t e d the a c t i v i t i e s w hich had a i d e d them. A l t h o u g h a l l the a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v e d c r e d i t , c l u b s and the s c h o o l magazine, the "Tee Jay", were most f r e -q u e n t l y mentioned. The a s s i s t a n c e the l a t t e r would g i v e to s t u d e n t s of E n g l i s h i s o b v i o u s , w h i l e c l u b s , i n many i n s t a n c e s , are an outgrowth of the r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e g u l a r s c h o o l work and some of the ot h e r a c t i v i t i e s i s l e s s i n t i m a t e . The a s s i s t a n c e they o f f e r e d must have been i n the development of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S e l f - r e l i a n c e , enhanced i n t e r e s t i n the s c h o o l , and many o t h e r f a c t o r s might r e s u l t i n an improvement i n r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. Of the 155 s t u d e n t s who answered q u e s t i o n two a f f i r m a t i v e l y , 22 took a minor p a r t i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme, 92 t o o k an average p a r t , and 41 took a v e r y a c t i v e p a r t . The o m i s s i o n of s t u d e n t s who took a minor p a r t i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme p r e s e n t e d a s t r o n -ger case f o r the v a l u a b l e i n f l u e n c e of these a c t i v i t i e s on s c h o o l works a p p r o x i m a t e l y 54 per cent of the s t u d e n t s who took an a c t i v e p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s s t a t e d t h a t these a c t i v i t i e s had h e l p e d them i n t h e i r r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. Thus, though these a c t i v i t i e s may have had a d e t r i m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e on s c h o o l work i n some c a s e s , t h e i r i n f l u e n c e has been b e n e f i c i a l i n many more i n s t a n c e s . A c c o r d i n g to the s t u d e n t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i s an a s s i s t a n c e , not a h i n d r a n c e , to r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. Some s t u d e n t s , as has been a l r e a d y noted, cannot a f f o r d the time t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e . Many 136 s t u d e n t s appeared t o r e a l i z e t h i s . T h i r t y - s e v e n per cent b e l i e v e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d be l i m i t e d t o t h r e e a c t i -v i t i e s . The w o r d i n g of t h i s q u e s t i o n would have been improved by t h e a d d i t i o n a l word "major" b e f o r e the word " a c t i v i t i e s " . Some s t u d e n t s made a comment t o t h i s e f f e c t . Others s t a t e d t h a t the e x t e n t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d be dependent on the s t u d e n t ' s s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e number were agreed t h a t t h e a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be r e l e g a t e d t o a p o s i t i o n where t h e y would be supplementary t o the r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. I n c r e a s i n g amounts o f l e i s u r e time owing t o techno-l o g i c a l advances and unemployment have c e r t a i n l y h e i g h t e n e d the n e c e s s i t y f o r a v o c a t i o n s . E i g h t - f i v e p e r cent o f t h e s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t they.had chosen h o b b i e s . Of t h e s e , 17 per cent o f t h e t o t a l number, o r o n e - f i f t h of those who had h o b b l e s , gave t h e c r e d i t f o r t h e i r c h o i c e s t o the e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . C l u b s were most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned as the m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e s e s e l e c t i o n s . I f the e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s can suggest w o r t h w h i l e hobbies t o one-s i x t h o f the s t u d e n t s , t h e y a re p e r f o r m i n g s t e l l a r s e r v i c e i n t h i s f i e l d . A widened c u r r i c u l u m , w i t h a l i b e r a l c h o i c e o f c o u r s e s , throws the burden o f a s e l e c t i o n of. a v o c a t i o n on the s h o u l d e r s o f t h e s t u d e n t , h i s p a r e n t s , and the s c h o o l . T r y - o u t c o u r s e s i n grades seven and e i g h t have shown t h e s t u d e n t s t h e i r p o s s i -b i l i t i e s . E x p e r i e n c e and wise guidance s h o u l d d i r e c t t he m a j o r i t y o f grade n i n e s t u d e n t s t o the c h o i c e of v o c a t i o n s , 137 even thdugh these c h o i c e s may be t e n t a t i v e ones o n l y . F o r t y p e r cent of the s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y had d e c i d e d upon t h e i r f u t u r e c a r e e r s . Of these 10 per cent o f the t o t a l number, o r o n e - f o u r t h o f those who had chosen v o c a t i o n s , s t a t e d t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had determined t h e i r c h o i c e . I f t h i s f i g u r e p r e s e n t s a t r u e p i c t u r e of the i n -f l u e n c e o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s , t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s deserve the support the s t u d e n t s gave them i n q u e s t i o n one. I f the s t a f f and the attendance o f f i c e r are a l e r t , i r -r e g u l a r attendance may be a c r i t e r i o n of the h e a l t h o f the c h i l d r e n t o a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a t i t i s a s i g n of t h e i n t e r e s t which t h e y have i n a l l phases o f s c h o o l work. A c e r t a i n number of c h i l d r e n , however, make the s l i g h t e s t i n d i s p o s i t i o n an excuse f o r absence. Others d i s p l a y too keen an i n t e r e s t i n the s c h o o l and endanger t h e i r h e a l t h by attendance when t h e y would be b e t t e r a t home. F i f t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had not a f f e c t e d t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e . Many of the s e added t h e p r o v i s o t h a t t h e i r attendance had always been r e g u l a r . T h i r t y p e r cent of the s t u d e n t s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had improved the r e g u l a r i t y o f t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e . To check-the r e l i a b i l i t y of the answers t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , t h e w r i t e r checked the attendance r e c o r d of t he p u p i l s i n two c l a s s e s . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 138 *' > TABLE XXV ATTENDANCE OE THE STUDENTS OE TWO CLASSES EROM SEPTEMBER TO MARCH INCLUSIVE Days Absent L i t t l e Share i n Average Share Large A c t i v i t i e s 0 1 0 4 1-5 2 19 24 6-10 1 5 4 11-15 2 8 1 16 & more 1 2 2 T o t a l s 7 34 35 Table XXV shows t h a t a t t e n d a n c e , a t l e a s t i n t h e s e two c l a s s e s , appeared t o be i n f l u e n c e d by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . - ' - When the s t u d e n t s ' answers on a t t e n -dance were a n a l y z e d , t h e y gave the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : of those who r e p o r t e d t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s improved t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e , 14 took the minimum p a r t i n the s e a c t i v i t i e s , 74 took an average p a r t , and 24 t o o k a v e r y l a r g e p a r t . The d e l e t i o n o f thos e who t o o k a minimum p a r t showed t h a t , of t h e t o t a l number who took an a c t i v e p a r t , 48 p e r cent d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e i r a ttendance had improved. On the b a s i s of the s e answers i t appears t h a t , i n about o n e - h a l f the c a s e s , e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t end t o improve a t t e n d a n c e , a tendency w h i c h i m p l i e s an awakened i n t e r e s t i n the s c h o o l as a whole. A c r i t i c might s t a t e t h a t t h i s i n t e r e s t was c e n t r e d on e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t o t h e e x c l u s i o n of the r e g u l a r c u r r i -c u l a r programme. The answers t o q u e s t i o n t h r e e appear t o deny t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n . -The average numbers of days absent f o r the 3 groups were: l i t t l e share i n a c t i v i t i e s , 6.0; average s h a r e , 4.9; l a r g e s h a r e , 3.0. 139 A d e s i r e t o q u i t s c h o o l i s , a l l too f r e q u e n t l y , the outcome of economic c o n d i t i o n s i n the home. F r e q u e n t l y , though, l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n the s c h o o l i s the prime cause of t h i s d e c i s i o n . Twelve p e r cent of the c h i l d r e n expressed a d e s i r e t o q u i t s c h o o l . Seventeen of the s e t o o k a minor p a r t i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , 24 took an average p a r t , and 4 took a v e r y a c t i v e p a r t . The d e d u c t i o n of those who t o o k a minor p a r t l e f t 11 p er cent of the o t h e r s a n x i o u s t o q u i t s c h o o l . On the o t h e r hand 77 p e r cent of the s t u d e n t s had d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r s c h o o l l i f e as many y e a r s as p o s s i b l e . T h i r t y - t w o p e r cent o f the t o t a l , o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o - f i f t h s of t h o s e who wished t o s t a y i n s c h o o l , c r e d i t e d the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e i n c e n t i v e t o do so. Of the t o t a l number t h a t answered q u e s t i o n 12 a f f i r m a t i v e l y , 11 t o o k a s m a l l s h a r e , 71 took an average s h a r e , and 31 more t h a n the average share I n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . These f i g u r e s i n f e r r e d t h a t at l e a s t 90 p e r cen t of the s t u d e n t s who answered t h i s q u e s t i o n a f f i r m a t i v e l y had had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o base t h e i r answers on e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e . They a l s o showed t h a t s l i g h t l y more than 40 per cen t of the s t u d e n t s who t o o k an a c t i v e p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 p e r cent o f the t o t a l s t u d e n t s had had, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own o p i n i o n s , t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d by e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . A f u l l y - d e v e l o p e d s t u d e n t s h o u l d have an a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e f i n e a r t s : m usic, l i t e r a t u r e , p a i n t i n g , and the o t h e r s . I n w o r d i n g q u e s t i o n s 14 and 15, no q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were p l a c e d 140 on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the term, "music". However, an a f f i r m a t i v e answer t o q u e s t i o n 15 i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the c h i l d had c l a s s i c a l , r a t h e r t h a n - p o p u l a r , music i n mind be-cause the s t u d e n t s of Templeton J u n i o r H i g h School l i n k music w i t h the F i n e A r t s C l u b . S i g h l ^ - f l v e p e r cent o f the s t u d e n t s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e p l i e s , l i k e d music. Of t h e s e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 p e r c e n t , o r somewhat fewer than o h e - f o u r t h o f those'who l i k e d music, s t a t e d t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had g i v e n them t h i s l i k i n g f o r music. Attendance a t any of the numerous S i r I r n e s t M a e M i l l a n F i n e A r t s Club programmes would c o n v i n c e any u n b i a s e d o b s e r v e r t h a t t h i s e s t i m a t e i s by no means ah over generous one. The development of a s p i r i t of c o - o p e r a t i o n i s one aim of a l l s c h o o l systems. I f r e l i a n c e can be p l a e e d on the p u p i l s ' answers, Templeton J u n i o r High S c h o o l has been q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s aim. S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r cent of the s t u d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y got a l o n g b e t t e r w i t h p u p i l s , t e a c h e r s , and o t h e r s i n grade n i n e t h a n t h e y d i d i n grade seven. Nine p e r c e n t f e l t t h a t the degree of c o - o p e r a t i o n between themselves and o t h e r s had not i n c r e a s e d . However, a n e g a t i v e answer i n t h i s ease was no p r o o f t h a t the s t u d e n t was l e s s c o - o p e r a t i v e t h a n i n grade seven. A n e g a t i v e answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n might convey the same meaning as a n e g a t i v e answer t o q u e s t i o n 10: t h e s t u d e n t had always been c o - o p e r a t i v e . L i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e can be a t t a c h e d t o the answers o f t h e n e x t two q u e s t i o n s . As p r e v i o u s l y e x p l a i n e d , t h e system of marking c i t i z e n s h i p i s based on t h e number of m e r i t s and d e m e r i t s r e c e i v e d by a 141 student.. T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g i v e n t o many of the s t u d e n t s d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t o f the f i r s t term b e f o r e a l l the a c t i -v i t i e s o f the s c h o o l were f u n c t i o n i n g t o t h e i r f u l l e x t e n t . As a r e s u l t , a l t h o u g h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e c e i v i n g d e m e r i t s were as f r e q u e n t as u s u a l , the chances t o earn m e r i t s were fewer than u s u a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s 40 per cent o f the s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d improvement i n c i t i z e n s h i p w h i l e 30 per cent r e p o r t e d a drop i n t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p marks. Of those r e p o r t i n g a drop ' i n c i t i z e n s h i p marks, 28 t o o k a s m a l l p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , 58 t o o k an average p a r t , and 21 t o o k a v e r y a c t i v e p a r t . Of c o u r s e the l e v e l s of c i t i z e n s h i p from which the s t u d e n t s dropped and t h e i r new c i t i z e n s h i p marks would have t o be s t u d i e d b e f o r e c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be drawn from th e s e f i g u r e s . However, t h e y i n d i c a t e t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i s more l i k e l y t o be s a l u t a r y than h a r m f u l . The answers t o the l a s t two q u e s t i o n s on the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e were g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n the s t u d e n t s p l a c e d on the words " v e r y nervous" and " b o o s t e r " . However, t h e s e answers d i d show a g e n e r a l t r e n d . N e a r l y 40 p e r cent of t h e p u p i l s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had s u f f i c i e n t s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e t o conduct a meeting w i t h o u t e x p e r i e n c i n g any undue ner v o u s n e s s . But t h e degree t o w h i c h t h i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e was a c q u i r e d i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t s an u n s o l v e d problem. Seventy-two p e r cent of the c h i l d r e n s a i d t h a t t h e y were b o o s t e r s f o r the s c h o o l , w h i l e 10 p e r c e n t gave the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y had no s c h o o l s p i r i t . One g i r l gave a t y p i c a l answer. 142 T h i s -student was one of the a b l e s t s t u d e n t s i n the s c h o o l , p r o f i c i e n t i n her c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r work, r e l i a b l e and c o n s c i e n t i o u s i n a l l her e f f o r t s . She r e p l i e d t h a t she t r i e d t o be a b o o s t e r f o r the s c h o o l . Modesty: may have t i n g e d many of the o t h e r answers t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , e s p e c i a l l y t o q u e s t i o n s 16, 19, and 20. However, i f n e a r l y t h r e e - f o u r t h s of the s t u d e n t s are b o o s t e r s f o r t h e s c h o o l , the s c h o o l morale i s h i g h . But t o what e x t e n t d i d the e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e t o the development of t h i s s c h o o l s p i r i t ? No d e f i n i t e answer can be g i v e n t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , but a r a p i d g l a n c e over the answers g i v e n t o the o t h e r q u e s t i o n s w a r r a n t the i n f e r e n c e t h a t the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r f u l l s h a r e . The s t u d e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s u b s t a n t i a t e d many of the c l a i m s made by the exponents o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The s t u d e n t s ' o p i n i o n s may be summarized as f o l l o w s : (a) the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s improve the s c h o o l (b) though a s m a l l number may devote t o o much time t o thes e a c t i v i t i e s , and, as a r e s u l t , drop i n s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g , many more f i n d t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s of r e a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e i r r e g u l a r s c h o o l work (c) t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s suggest h o b b i e s and v o c a t i o n s and f o s t e r a l o v e f o r music> (d) these a c t i v i t i e s s t i m u l a t e r e g u l a r i t y of attendance and encourage s t u d e n t s t o complete t h e i r s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n The s t u d e n t s , t h e n , f a v o u r the assumption t h a t t h e r e i s a degree of c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n 143 e x t r a - c . u r r i c u . l a r a c t i v i t i e s and a s t u d e n t ' s s c h o l a r s h i p , r e g u l a r i t y of attendance, and the l e n g t h of h i s s t a y i n s c h o o l . P o s s i b l y the s t u d e n t s are r i g h t : t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and the s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g w h i c h was d i s c o v e r e d i n the p r e v i o u s two c h a p t e r s may have been a c a u s a l one. But numerous f a c -t o r s , i n no way connected w i t h e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , may have i n f l u e n c e d one group t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a t i t d i d the o t h e r . The g e n e r a l h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f the s t u d e n t s may have been b e t t e r i n one group t h a n i n the o t h e r . I r r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e , owing t o poor h e a l t h , c o u l d cause low s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g and i n a b i l i t y "to take an a c t i v e p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . F a u l t y t e e t h , e y e - s i g h t , o r h e a r i n g are o f t e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r poor marks and l a c k o f i n t e r e s t . G l a n d u l a r d i s t u r b a n c e s o f f e r a s p e c i a l i z e d example of the e f f e c t of h e a l t h on c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r work. "Another f a c t o r , and a v e r y common one i n t h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , i s m a l n u t r i t i o n . Many p a r e n t s are on r e l i e f : many o t h e r s are b a r e l y e k i n g out an e x i s t e n c e . I n -s u f f i c i e n t f o o d o r the wrong k i n d s o f f o o d are c e r t a i n t o i n f l u e n c e a c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e t o and a t t a i n m e n t s a t s c h o o l . 144 TABLE XXVT PHYSICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION OE 345 GRADE NINE STUDENTS, 1938-1939. C o n d i t i o n A A :'B B D B. 'E B DE Frequency of those t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s e v a l u a t e d a t 0-3 30 53 2 3 Frequency 90 Frequency of those t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s e v a l u a t e d a t 4-8 56 79 2 1 142 Frequency of thos t a k i n g a c t i -v i t i e s e v a l u a t e d a t 9 o r more 51 56 1 5 113 Ta b l e XXVI p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s o f the s t u d e n t s . The l e t t e r s i n column one, T a b l e XXVT, are those used by M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Board, A s i g n i f i e s e x c e l l e n t h e a l t h , B good h e a l t h , and C f a i r h e a l t h . The l e t t e r s , D and E, p l a c e d b e s i d e the o t h e r l e t t e r s , r e -p r e s e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a p h y s i c a l d e f e c t o r an e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i f f i c u l t y . The most common p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s were t e e t h i n need of d e n t a l c a r e and f a u l t y e y e s i g h t . C h i l d r e n who had p r o c u r e d eye g l a s s e s were s t i l l l i s t e d as d e f e c t i v e s , though t h e y no l o n g e r were handicapped i n t h e i r r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. The d a t a i n T a b l e XXVT show t h a t , w h i l e 45,1 p e r cent o f the s t u d e n t s t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s e v a l u a t e d a t 9 or more were i n 145 p e r f e c t p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , o n l y 33.3 per cent of those t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s f r e i g h t e d a t 0-3 r e c e i v e d the p e r f e c t mark f o r g e n e r a l h e a l t h . The middle group, t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s v a l u e d a t 4-8, had 39.4 per cent o f i t s t o t a l f r e q u e n c y l i s t e d - as p e r f e c t . These percentages appeared t o prove t h a t the h e a l t h f a c t o r was one t h a t i n f l u e n c e d g r e a t l y the number of a c t i v i t i e s i n wh i c h a stude n t p a r t i c i p a t e d . The percentages of t h o s e w i t h minor p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s were: group t a k i n g s m a l l e s t number of a c t i v i t i e s , 58.9 per c e n t ; group t a k i n g average number, 56.4 per c e n t ; group t a k i n g l a r g e s t number, 49.6 p e r c e n t . Once a g a i n the h e a l t h f a c t o r appears t o be a v i t a l one, though i t s importance i s not so pronounced here as i t was i n t h e f i r s t s e t of comparisons. However, two r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s , must be c a r e f u l l y a n a l y s e d b e f o r e a f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n on the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n of the s t u d e n t s i n the t h r e e groups! can be r e a c h e d . I n the f i r s t p l a c e the g r a v i t y of each p h y s i c a l d e f e c t was not a v a i l a b l e . A strident w i t h a d e c a y i n g t o o t h o r f a u l t y e y e s i g h t ; i s c e r t a i n l y a t a di s a d v a n t a g e t e m p o r a r i l y , but once th e s e d e f e c t s have been remedied t h i s student i s on an e q u a l b a s i s i n most of h i s c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the s t u d e n t s who were o r i g i n a l l y l i s t e d as p e r f e c t p h y s i c a l specimens. Some of the s t u d e n t s , of c o u r s e , had permanent p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s b u t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s c h o o l n u r s e , t h e m a j o r i t y of d e f e c t s were of a t r i v i a l n a t u r e . There f o r e , i n many c a s e s , t h e s t u d e n t s l i s t e d as A^ were j u s t as capable of e x c e l l e n t s c h o o l work and of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n 146 e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s as were the s t u d e n t s l i s t e d as A. Secondly, o n l y 5.8 per cent of the t o t a l f r e q u e n c y had g e n e r a l h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h were somewhat u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and these cases were q u i t e e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d . An i n f e r i o r h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n was r e p o r t e d f o r 7.8 p e r cent of the group t a k i n g l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , 4.2• per cent o f the group t a k i n g an average i n t e r e s t i n t h o s e ' a c t i v i t i e s , and 5.3 p e r cent of the group t a k i n g an out--s t a n d i n g i n t e r e s t i n them. Of the t o t a l grade n i n e enrolment o n l y 8 s t u d e n t s d i s p l a y e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y h e a l t h which c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , as 39.7 p e r cent of the t o t a l enrolment had s a t i s f a c t o r y h e a l t h and 54.5 per cent had p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s , m a i n l y of a minor n a t u r e , I t appears, t h a t poor h e a l t h c o u l d not have been an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t i s s u e i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g and t h e degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n more th a n a v e r y s m a l l percentage of c a s e s . The c h i l d ' s environment o u t s i d e the classrooms i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . . . M a n y c h i l d r e n , f a c e d by impos-s i b l e s t u d y c o n d i t i o n s a t home-., have no o p p o r t u n i t y t o do t h e i r b e s t work. O t h e r s , p e r m i t t e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s t o g a t h e r on s t r e e t c o r n e r s , t o a t t e n d t h e a t r e s , or t o d i s -s i p a t e t h e i r time i n some s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , evening a f t e r e v e n i n g , r a r e l y p r e p a r e l e s s o n s and, g e n e r a l l y , are l a c k a d a i s i c a l 147 from i n s u f f i c i e n t s l e e p . Such c h i l d r e n a re l i k e l y t o drop below the s t a n d a r d t h e i r a b i l i t y s u g gests. Others may take l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the s c h o o l ' s e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s because o f , t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as ch u r c h c l u b s , the Y, M. C. A., and many o t h e r s . Others are engaged i n e a r n i n g money, and are unable to j o i n any s c h o o l o r g a n i -z a t i o n 'which, meets.. a f t e r the d i s m i s s a l b e l l . Some s t u d e n t s , a f t e r a day. a t s c h o o l , work u n t i l l a t e i n the evening. O b v i o u s l y t h e s e l a t t e r s t u d e n t s , t h r o u g h no f a u l t of t h e i r own, t e n d t o n e g l e c t a l l t y p e s of s c h o o l work. The c h i l d ' s . a t t i t u d e may be a d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n h i s achievements. Some c h i l d r e n , owing t o unsympathetic t r e a t -ment by t e a c h e r s , may have e r e c t e d a b a r r i e r between them-s e l v e s and the s c h o o l , a b a r r i e r w hich p r e v e n t s c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h any t e a c h e r s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any school, a c t i -v i t i e s . Sometimes the tone of a c l a s s d i s c o u r a g e s i t s i n d i v i d u a l members from t r y i n g t o g a i n h i g h marks and from s h a r i n g i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s : any i n d i v i d u a l s who d i s p l a y t o o g r e a t an i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l are t h r e a t e n e d by o s t r a c i s m . I n r a r e c a s e s , membership i n an a d o l e s c e n t gang'may w i e l d the same I n f l u e n c e . The c h i l d r e n o f t e n r e f l e c t the a t t i t u d e o f the home. 'While most p a r e n t s support the s c h o o l , o t h e r s are i t s . d e s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c s . T h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e encouraged t o p i c k f l a w s i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , management,, and 148 p e r s o n n e l . U n s a t i s f a c t o r y marks are accepted- as a f a i l u r e on the p a r t of the s c h o o l , never as an i n d i c a t i o n of i n a t t e n t i o n and p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e on the p a r t of the s t u d e n t . S t i l l o t h e r p a r e n t s , by t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f e v e r y t h i n g beyond the immediate l i m i t s o f the " t h r e e R's" as " f r i l l s , " d i s -courage p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . One or more of these f a c t o r s may have i n f l u e n c e d many of the s t u d e n t s . P o s s i b l y t h e y a f f e c t e d one group of s t u d e n t s more th a n another. Though such a s u p p o s i t i o n i s s i m p l y a guess, the p o s s i b i l i t y cannot be i g n o r e d . Never-t h e l e s s , t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y cannot be accepted as a s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n f o r denying the answers g i v e n by t h e c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n gave the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r . a c t i v i t i e s c r e d i t f o r much of t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups. T h e i r e s t i m a t e of t h e v a l u e s of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s may have been t o o generous. Yet the assumption t h a t the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s were of c o n s i d e r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n i m p r o v i n g s c h o l a r s h i p , a t t e n d a n c e , and a t t i t u d e towards the s c h o o l seems to be j u s t i f i e d . 149 P A R E N T S ' -QUESTIONNAIRE. P l e a s e p l a c e a check mark •under "yes", "no", or " d o u b t f u l " t o show your answer t o each o f the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . I f p o s s i b l e , b e s i d e each answer p l a c e the l e t t e r o r l e t t e r s o f the a c t i v i t i e s w hich I n f l u e n c e d your d e c i s i o n . Q u e s t ions Yes No D o u b t f u l 1. I n your o p i n i o n do the v a l u e s of e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s outweigh t h e i r d i s -advantages? 2. Has your son/daughter a t t e n d e d s c h o o l more r e g u l a r l y s i n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these a c t i v i t i e s ? 3. Has your son/daughter n e g l e c t e d s c h o o l s t u d i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? 4. I n your o p i n i o n does your son/daughter t a k e p a r t i n t o o many e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? 5. Has your son/daughter improved i n grade s t a n d i n g s i n c e t a k i n g p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? 6. Has your son/daughter become more i n t e r e s t e d i n s c h o o l s u b j e c t s s i n c e t a k i n g p a r t i n these a c t i v i t i e s ? 7. Has your son/daughter l o s t i n t e r e s t I n ' i ": s c h o o l s u b j e c t s because t h e y seem d u l l by comparison w i t h e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? 8. Does your son/daughter l i k e music b e t t e r t h a n f o r m e r l y ? 9. Has your son/daughter a hobby? 10. D i d e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s s t a r t him/her on t h i s hobby? 11. Has your son/daughter s e l e c t e d a l i f e v o c a t i o n ? 12. D i d e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s suggest t h i s v o c a t i o n ? 13. Does your son/daughter get a l o n g w e l l w i t h o t h e r s ? 14.. Does your son/daughter o f t e n q u a r r e l w i t h o t h e r s ? 15. Does your son/daughter t a k e an i n t e l l i g e n t p a r t i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a t home? 16. Does your son/daughter p e r f o r m r e a s o n a b l e d u t i e s such as ch o r e s and home s t u d y w i t h o u t prompting? 17. Does your son/daughter f o l l o w your i n s t r -u c t i o n s r e a d i l y and r e l i a b l y ? 18. Has your son/daughter an i n t e r e s t i n suggested changes f o r improvement i n our c i t y , p r o v i n c e , and dominion? Other advantages: Other d i s a d v a n t a g e s : 150 The ne x t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was sent t o s e l e c t e d p a r e n t s . I t was deemed i n a d v i s a b l e t o send q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o the p a r e n t s o f c h i l d r e n who took a minimum share i n t h e e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Though some of these p a r e n t s doubt-l e s s had v e r y d e c i d e d o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the worth o f these a c t i v i t i e s , the m a j o r i t y would be unable t o answer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e from p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u f f e r e d from some of the d e f e c t s w h i c h were i n h e r e n t i n the s t u d e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S e v e r a l o t h e r f a c t o r s may have i n f l u e n c e d the v e r a c i t y o f the answers. The q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s were t a k e n home and r e t u r n e d by t h e c h i l d r e n . A few c h i l d r e n may have answered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e them-s e l v e s . I n a v e r y few cases q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent t o p a r e n t s o f f o r e i g n b i r t h . Some of these may not have been a b l e \ t o u n d e r s t a n d the q u e s t i o n s and may have accept e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s a d v i c e . Some p a r e n t s , r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n would have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o read t h e i r answers, may have d e c i d e d t o prove t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n the esteem i n w h i c h t h e y h e l d them. On the o t h e r hand, some p a r e n t s , i n an attempt t o g i v e a b s o l u t e l y f a i r answers, may have been o v e r - c r i t i c a l o f t h e i r own c h i l d r e n . 151 TABLE XSYII RESULTS OF PARENTS' QUESTIONNAIRES 100 Cases Item Yes No D o u b t f u l Omitted 1 67 17 12 4 2- 40 49 11 5 9 85 5 1 4 4 90 5 1 5 31 57 12 6 62 22 16 7 4 89 6 1 8 61 26 13 9 78 17 5 10 16 71 11 2 11 35 51 14 12 6 82 10 2 13 5 85 7 3 14 92 8 15; 91 4 5 16. 81 9 10 17 81 8 10 1 18 53 19 26 2 The p a r e n t s were not n e a r l y as c e r t a i n as the s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e advantages of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s outweighed the d i s a d v a n t a g e s . W h i l e 67 p e r cen t answered t h i s q u e s t i o n a f f i r m a t i v e l y , 17 p e r cen t were c o n v i n c e d t h a t the d i s -advantages s u r p a s s e d t h e advantages. P o s s i b l y the c h i l d r e n ' s answers were b i a s e d by t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the advantages, w h i l e the parents..were i n f l u e n c e d by c e r t a i n d i s a d v a n t a g e s w h i c h the s t u d e n t s had c o n s i d e r e d t r i v i a l . Some p a r e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s o c c u p i e d time which would have been b e t t e r employed on r e g u l a r s c h o o l work; th e s e p a r e n t s a p p a r e n t l y were a n x i o u s t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n s hould win the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . I n some cases t h e i r c h i l d r e n may not have r e c e i v e d the s c h o l a s t i c rank w h i c h might be p r e d i c t e d by t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s : i n o t h e r 152 cases the p a r e n t s were l i k e l y unaware of the i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Some p a r e n t s may have f e a r e d t h a t an a f f i r m a t i v e answer would encourage an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Many p a r e n t s may have o b j e c t e d t o the l e n g t h o f the s c h o o l day i n the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . They may have f e l t t h a t i t l e f t too l i t t l e time f o r the performance of c h o r e s , the development of h o b b i e s , and p l a y i n open a i r and t h e r e f o r e o b j e c t e d t o the •meetings w h i c h were sometimes c a l l e d a t noon hour or a f t e r s c h o o l . S t i l l o t h e r s may have heard so much of the e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and so l i t t l e of the r e g u l a r s c h o o l work, t h a t t h e y f e a r e d t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m was b e i n g r e l e g a t e d t o a p o s i t i o n of i n f e r i o r i t y . These and many o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may have d e c i d e d 17 per cent o f the p a r e n t s t o answer the f i r s t q u e s t i o n n e g a t i v e l y and a n o t h e r 12 per c e n t t o e x p r e s s doubt. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t w o - t h i r d s of the p a r e n t s a p p a r e n t l y f e l t no doubt t h a t t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s were a w o r t h w h i l e a d j u n c t t o the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m . F o r t y p e r cent of the p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l -d r en had a t t e n d e d s c h o o l more r e g u l a r l y s i n c e p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t i v e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Though t h i s p e r -centage was not so g r e a t as t h a t r e p o r t e d by the s t u d e n t s who t o o k an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , i t s u r p a s s e d the p ercentage g i v e n by the s t u d e n t s as a whole. The p a r e n t s , s e e m i n g l y , agreed w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s were an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n the improvement of r e g u l a r i t y o f a t t e n d a n c e . 153 The-parents were l e s s h a r s h than t h e s t u d e n t s i n b l a m i n g these a c t i v i t i e s f o r the n e g l e c t of s c h o o l work. Though 9 per cent blamed th e s e a c t i v i t i e s f o r such n e g l e c t , 85 p e r cent b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s c r i t i c i s m was u n j u s t . Though t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were completed by the p a r e n t s of s t u d e n t s who took the most a c t i v e p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , 90 per c e n t of the p a r e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n d i d not t a k e p a r t i n t o o many a c t i v i t i e s . The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t s , o b v i o u s l y , d i d not f e a r any d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t which th e s e a c t i v i t i e s might have on the r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. I n f a c t , 31 per c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had improved I n s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s i n c e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . F i f t y - s e v e n p e r cent of t h e p a r e n t s s a i d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had not improved under these c i r -cumstances. However, the answers g i v e n by t h e p a r e n t s t o q u e s t i o n s 3, 4, 6, and 7 and by the s t u d e n t s t o q u e s t i o n s 2, 3, and 4, suggested t h a t the m a j o r i t y of t h e s e s t u d e n t s had r e t a i n e d an unchanged s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . The p a r e n t s ' answers c a s t no doubt on the p u p i l s ' o p i n i o n t h a t the e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had o f t e n a s s i s t e d the s t u d e n t s t o a c h i e v e a h i g h e r s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . The p a r e n t s were n o t asked whether t h e i r c h i l d r e n had been encouraged by the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t o extend t h e i r s c h o o l l i f e . However, t h e y were asked whether p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had l e s s e n e d o r i n c r e a s e d the s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r r e g u l a r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . S i x t y - t w o p e r cent s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had 154 become more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r r e g u l a r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s , w h i l e a mere f o u r p e r cent r e p l i e d t h a t t h i s i n t e r e s t had decreased. Once a g a i n t h e p a r e n t s ' answers b o l s t e r e d the s t u d e n t s ' c o n c l u s i o n t h a t an i n t e r e s t , which r e s u l t e d i n r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e , b e t t e r marks, and more y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g , was f r e q u e n t l y s t i m u l a t e d by e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . S i x t y - o n e p e r cent s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had a c q u i r e d an i n c r e a s e d l i k i n g f o r music, but no q u e s t i o n , t o determine -whether t h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n was an outcome of c u r r i c u l a r o r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r work, was p l a c e d on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S e v e n t y - e i g h t per cent Of the p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had chosen hobbies and t h a t 16 per cent of the t o t a l number, o r about o n e - f i f t h of t h o s e w i t h h o b b i e s , had r e c e i v e d t h e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r the a v o c a t i o n s i n the e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The figure's g i v e n by the s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s i n answer t o t h e s e two q u e s t i o n s bore a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y , y e t the answers t o more c o n t r o v e r s i a l q u e s t i o n s showed a wide d i v e r g e n c e . P o s s i b l y t h i s was an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e answers t o b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A c c o r d i n g t o - t h e p a r e n t s , 55 per cent of t h e i r c h i l d r e n had s e l e c t e d v o c a t i o n s , 6 p e r cent of w h i c h were suggested by the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e p a r e n t s gave l e s s c r e d i t t o t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t h a n d i d the s t u d e n t s . W h i l e the s t u d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t , of t h o s e who had chosen v o c a t i o n s , e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had g u i d e d the c h o i c e of n e a r l y o n e - f o u r t h , the p a r e n t s p l a c e d t h i s f r a c t i o n a t o n e - s i x t h . However, the p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s 155 agreed t h a t t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s e x e r t e d a moderate degree of guidance i n the s e l e c t i o n of v o c a t i o n s . Students s h o u l d develop the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of co-o p e r a t i o n , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and r e l i a b i l i t y . The s c h o o l aims t o p e r f o r m t h i s duty. The next few q u e s t i o n s were framed t o d i s c o v e r the e x t e n t t o which the p a r e n t s be-l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had a c q u i r e d these q u a l i t i e s . The p a r e n t s ' answers t o q u e s t i o n s 13 and 14 e v i n c e d the o p i n i o n t h a t 5 p e r cent o f the s t u d e n t s l a c k e d c o - o p e r a t i o n , w h i l e 92 p e r cent o f the s e c h i l d r e n possessed t h i s f i n e q u a l i t y . M n e t y - o n e p e r cent of t h e parens^; s t a t e d t h a t " t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o o k an i n t e l l i g e n t p a r t i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a t home. P o s s i b l y t h i s c o u l d be a c c e p t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s had g a i n e d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and i n i t i a / t i v e and were not t o o shy t o expr e s s t h e i r o p i n i o n s f l u e n t l y , even though t h e y might be i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e i r p a r e n t s ' i d e a s . The a f f i r m a t i v e answers t o q u e s t i o n s 16 and 17 r e f u t e d any t h e o r y t h a t the p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n does not compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h the p a s t . A c c o r d i n g t o the p a r e n t s ' e s t i m a t e s , 81 p e r cent of t h e i r c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y e d r e l i a b i l i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The p e r - • centages of a f f i r m a t i v e answers t o q u e s t i o n s 14-17 were e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y h i g h , much g r e a t e r t h a n would be expected. These s t u d e n t s were ones who had taken an a c t i v e p a r t i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme. P o s s i b l y t h i s programme had f u l f i l l e d c e r t a i n of i t s aims and had h e l p e d t h e student's; t o develop t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . An e x c e l l e n t c i t i z e n must 156 have a l i v e i n t e r e s t i n the community: s e l f - c e n t r e d i n d i -v i d u a l s r a r e l y c o n t r i b u t e a n y t h i n g of worth t o t h e i r c o u n t r y . I n t h e p a r e n t s ' o p i n i o n s , 53 per cent of t h e i r c h i l d r e n a l r e a d y have an i n t e r e s t i n suggested changes f o r t h e improvement of l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and f e d e r a l c o n d i t i o n s . The m a j o r i t y of p a r e n t s , l i k e the c h i l d r e n , e x pressed a b e l i e f i n the many v a l u e s a t t r i b u t e d t o e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and supporte d every c l a i m which the s t u d e n t s had advanced. The next step i n t h i s s t u d y was a comparison of the answers g i v e n by the s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p a r e n t s . The answers of t h e s e two groups s h o u l d show a h i g h degree o f s i m i l a r i t y . Wide d i v e r g e n c e s i n t h e answers t o many q u e s t i o n s would i n d i c a t e that, e i t h e r the s t u d e n t s o r the p a r e n t s o r b o t h had answered the q u e s t i o n s t h o u g h t l e s s l y . I d e n t i c a l answers t o many q u e s t i o n s would arouse the sus-p i c i o n t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had been answered under the i n f l u e n c e o f one or the o t h e r p a r t y and t h a t t h e y d i d not ex p r e s s t h e t r u e o p i n i o n s of b o t h groups. 157 TABLE X X V I I I COMPARISON OE THE 'ANSWERS OE 64 PARENTS AND THEIR CHILDREN P o i n t s Yes No D o u b t f u l Omitted 1. V a l u e s of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s are g r e a t e r than t h e i r d i s a d v a n t a g e s Students . 63 1 P a r e n t s 43 12 5 4 2. These a c t i v i t i e s improve attendance S t u d e n t s 23 34 4 3 P a r e n t s 23 30 7 4 3. They cause n e g l e c t o f s c h o o l work Stu d e n t s 11 48 5 P a r e n t s 8 53 3 • 4. They i n c r e a s e i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l S t u d e n t s 28 23 11 2 P a r e n t s 32 21 10 1 5. The s t u d e n t has a-hobby Students 54 7 2 1 P a r e n t s 48 : i 5 1 6. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s suggested t h i s hobby Stu d e n t s 12 42 7 3 P a r e n t s 10 42 6 6 7.. The s t u d e n t has chosen a v o c a t i o n S t u d e n t s 25 28 10 1 P a r e n t s 20 34 10 8. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s s uggested t h i s v o c a t i o n S t u d e n t s .9 45 5 5 P a r e n t s 3 38 7 16 9. The s t u d e n t i s c o - o p e r a t i v e S t u d e n t s 51 8 4 1 P a r e n t s 59 5 The g r e a t e s t spread of o p i n i o n appeared i n the answers t o t h e f i r s t p o i n t . Some reasons f o r t h i s d i v e r g e n c y have a l r e a d y been suggested. The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e w o r d i n g of t h e q u e s t i o n s p r e s e n t e d t o s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s would p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . The s t u d e n t s were asked whether the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s improved t h e s c h o o l : no mention of t h e i r d i s a d v a n -t a g e s was made. P o s s i b l y the w o r d i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' q u e s t i o n 158 influenced-some s t u d e n t s t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n a f f i r m a t i v e l y . The second p o i n t was the o n l y one i n w h i c h . t h e r e was complete agreement between the p a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n on a p o s i t i v e v a l u e of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The answers t o a l l the o t h e r q u e s t i o n s , e x c e p t i n g p o i n t 8, showed a normal amount of agreement. P a r e n t s , though fewer of them answered q u e s t i o n one a f f i r m a t i v e l y , c a s t l e s s "blame th a n t h e i r c h i l d r e n on e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s f o r c a u s i n g n e g l e c t of r e g u l a r s c h o o l work and gave more c r e d i t t o the i n t e r e s t a r o u s i n g s t i m u l u s of th e s e a c t i v i t i e s . The c h i l -dren's answer t o p o i n t 4, however, may not have been s t a t e d , f a i r l y as th e s e answers were based on t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o the q u e s t i o n , "Do you want t o s t a y i n s c h o o l as l o n g as you can because you are i n t e r e s t e d i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? " . More s t u d e n t s t h a n p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d s t u d e n t s had chosen hobbies and v o c a t i o n s and, r e s u l t a n t l y , the s t u d e n t s gave more c r e d i t f o r t h e i r c h o i c e s t o t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s t han d i d t h e i r p a r e n t s . Some s t u d e n t s may have s e l e c t e d t h e i r h o b b i e s and v o c a t i o n s w i t h o u t t h e i r p a r e n t s ' knowledge o r c o n s e n t . The r e p l i e s t o p o i n t 8 showed r a t h e r a wide d i v e r g e n c e of o p i n i o n i n the a f f i r m a t i v e column, a d i f f e r e n c e w hich may be e x p l a i n e d by the e q u a l l y wide d i v e r g e n c e i n t h e column o f o m i s s i o n s . The number of o m i s s i o n s by the p a r e n t s suggested t h a t t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were f i l l e d i n by them-s e l v e s , not i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . P o i n t 9 159 was based on q u e s t i o n 14 on t h e p a r e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e , "Does your son/daughter get a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s ? " and on q u e s t i o n 16 on the s t u d e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e , "Do you get a l o n g w i t h p u p i l s , t e a c h e r s , and o t h e r persons b e t t e r than you d i d i n Grade Seven?". As a s l i g h t q u a l i f i c a t i o n was p l a c e d on the s t u d e n t s ' answers, th e n e g a t i v e answers by 8 s t u d e n t s were t o be expected. A d i a g n o s i s o f Table XXvTII proves t h a t , i n the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s , the p u p i l s ' a n d t h e i r p a r e n t s c o n s i d e r e d each q u e s t i o n c a r e f u l l y and ; gave a w e l l - c o n s i d e r e d p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n i n each answer. The s t u d y o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o n v i n c e d the w r i t e r of t h i s . Many q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , b o t h of s t u d e n t s and of p a r e n t s , bore comments wh i c h i l l u s t r a t e d the p a i n s t a k i n g manner by w h i c h t h e y had reached t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s . The s t u d e n t s based t h e i r answers on p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e i r r e p l i e s may have been b i a s e d by t h e enjoyment t h e y d e r i v e d from t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . The p a r e n t s ' answers were the r e s u l t of the o b s e r v a t i o n of t h e i r own c h i l d r e n ' s r e a c t i o n s t o the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and, t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , were based on h e a r s a y r a t h e r t h a n on a c t u a l knowledge. The t e a c h e r s were p l a c e d i n t h e most f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n t o p r e s e n t o p i n i o n s . T h e i r i d e a s were the r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r o l e o f sponsors and of a d a i l y o p p o r t u n i t y t o compare those s t u d e n t s who were r e l a t i v e l y u n i n t e r e s t e d i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t o t h o s e s t u d e n t s who were a n x i o u s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n as many a c t i v i t i e s as the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s would p e r m i t . F o r t h e s e reasons the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d t o the t e a c h e r s . 160 TEACHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE Questions Yes No D o u b t f u l 1. Do the v a l u e s of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s outweigh t h e i r d i s a d v a n t a g e s ? 2. Do p u p i l s a t t e n d s c h o o l more r e g u l a r l y because of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? 3. Do you t h i n k e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n f l u e n c e p u p i l s t o remain i n s c h o o l as many y e a r s as p o s s i b l e ? 4. Do p u p i l s n e g l e c t t h e i r s c h o o l work t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? 5. Do p u p i l s d i s p l a y l e s s i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r s c h o o l work when t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s e a c t i v i t i e s ? 6. Do p u p i l s improve t h e i r s c h o o l work when •they become i n t e r e s t e d i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? 7. Should p u p i l s be p e r m i t t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n more th a n t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s ? 8. Do e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s p a r t i a l l y s o l v e the problem of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s ? 9. Do p u p i l s l i k e m u sic, a r t and l i t e r a t u r e b e t t e r because o f the s e a c t i v i t i e s ? 10. Do p u p i l s f i n d h o b b ies t h r o u g h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s ? 11. Do p u p i l s s e l e c t t h e i r v o c a t i o n s by the t r a i n i n g t h e y r e c e i v e i n the s e a c t i v i t i e s ? 12. Do p u p i l s drop i n c i t i z e n s h i p when t h e y take an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s ? 13. Do p u p i l s become c o n c e i t e d because o f the p o s i t i o n s t h e y h o l d i n these a c t i v i t i e s ? 14. Do p u p i l s c o - o p e r a t e b e t t e r w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r s because o f the s e a c t i v i t i e s ? 15. Do p u p i l s c o - o p e r a t e b e t t e r w i t h o t h e r p u p i l s because of the s e a c t i v i t i e s ? 16. Do p u p i l s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s e a c t i -v i t i e s d i s p l a y l e a d e r s h i p and i n i t i a t i v e ? 17. Do t h e p u p i l s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s show a g r e a t e r sense of r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y ? 18. Do p u p i l s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n these a c t i -v i t i e s show no d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s from t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? 19. Do p u p i l s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e a c t i -v i t i e s d i s p l a y i n t e r e s t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h ich w i l l t e n d t o make them e x c e l l e n t f u t u r e c i t i z e n s ? Other advantages: Other d i s a d v a n t a g e s : 161 A b s o l u t e credence cannot be g i v e n t o the r e s u l t s of the t e a c h e r s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The common f l a w s of the ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e method, which have been p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, may have a f f e c t e d some of the answers. T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w hich was answered by 44 t e a c h e r s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 99 p e r cent of the s t a f f , demanded p a i n s t a k i n g thought. The q u e s t i o n s , based on e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a l l p u p i l s r a t h e r t h a n on i s o l a t e d ' i n s t a n c e s , f r e q u e n t l y drew the answer, " d o u b t f u l " . Though the t e a c h e r s were asked t o omit t h e i r names from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a few appeared s u s p i c i o u s of the use t o which • t h e i r answers were t o be p u t . The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s might be made a v a i l a b l e t o o t h e r s than the w r i t e r and t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n which t h e y gave might i n f l u e n c e t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s may have t i n g e d the answers on some q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Some, p o s s i b l y , f e a r e d t h a t the a l r e a d y l e n g t h y t e a c h i n g day might be i n c r e a s e d i f t h e i r o p i n i o n s d i s p l a y e d t o o much ent h u s i a s m f o r the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . O t h e r s , who have had l i t t l e e x p e r i e n c e i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , c o u l d not ans-wer t h e q u e s t i o n s r e l i a b l y . S t i l l o t h e r s e x h i b i t e d a b i a s , the r e s u l t of one v e r y s u c c e s s f u l o r d e c i d e d l y un-s u c c e s s f u l v e n t u r e i n t o the f i e l d of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s . 162 TABLE XXIX RESULT OE TEACHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE 44, Case's :tem Yes fo No fo D o u b t f u l fo Omitted fo 1 34 ( 7 7 . 2 ) 2 ( 4 . 5 ) 8 ( 1 8 . 1 ) 0 o ) 2 16 ( 3 6 . 3 ) 8 ( 1 8 . 1 ) 20 [ 4 5 . 4 ) 0 0 ) 3 2 1 ( 4 7 . 7 ) 9 ( 2 0 . 4 ) 1 4 ( 3 1 . 8 ) 0 ( 0 ) 4 1 1 ( 2 5 ) 16 ( 3 6 . 3 ) 17 ( 3 8 . 6 ) 0 ( o ) 5 2 ( 4 . 5 ) 32 ( 7 2 . 7 ) 1 0 ( 2 2 . 7 ) 0 ( o ) 6 1 7 ( 3 8 . 6 ) 5 ' ( 1 1 . 3 ) 22 (50 ) 0 ; o ) 7 0 ( o ) 4 2 ( 9 5 . 4 ) 2 ( 4 . 5 ) 0 ( o ) 8 36 ( 8 1 , 8 ) '.4 ( 9 ) 4 ( 9 ) 0 ( 0 ) 9 3 8 ( 6 3 . 6 ) 5 ( 1 1 . 3 ) 8 ( .18 .1) 3 ( 6 . 8 ) 1 0 39 ( 8 8 . 6 ) 2 ( 4 . 5 ) 2 ( 4 . 5 ) 1 '2.2) 1 1 4 ( 9 ) 1 1 (25. . ) 28 ( 6 3 . 6 ) 1 ( 2 . 2 ) 1 2 0 ( o ) 4 2 ( 9 5 . 4 ) 1 ' 2 , 2 ) 1 ( 2 . 2 ) 1 3 3 ( 4 . 5 ) 2 4 ( 5 4 . 5 ) 17 3 8 . 6 ) 1 2.2) 1 4 39 ( 8 8 . 6 ) 0 ( 0 ) 4 9 ) 1 2.2) 15 38 ( 8 6 . 5 ) 2 ( 4 . 5 ) . 3 6 . 8 ) 1 r 2 . 2 ) 16 2 8 ( 6 3 . 6 ) 2 ( 4 . 5 ) 1 3 2 9 . 5 ) 1 2.2) 17 3 4 ( 7 7 . 2 ) 1 ( 2 . 2 ) 8 1 8 . 1 ) 1 I 2.2) 1 8 1 ( 2 . 2 ) 36 ( 8 1 . 8 ) 6 1 3 . 6 ) 1 ( 2 • 2) 19 3 1 ( 7 0 . 4 ) 1 (• 2 . 2 ) 1 1 ( 2 5 ) 1 2 . 2 ) Seventy-seven p e r cent of the t e a c h e r s , p l a c e d t h e i r stamp of a p p r o v a l on the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , w h i l e n e a r l y 5 p e r cent e x p r e s s e d the o p i n i o n t h a t the d i s a d v a n t a g e s of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s outweighed t h e i r advantages.. The t e a c h e r s ' answers to , t h i s f i r s t q u e s t i o n p l a c e d them i n an i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n between, th e o p i n i o n s of the s t u d e n t s and of the p a r e n t s . P o s s i b l y the t e a c h e r s ' percentage p r e s e n t e d the l e a s t u n b i a s e d f i g u r e o f the t h r e e and may be a c c e p t e d as a f a i r l y sound answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . I n t h e m a t t e r of the improvement o f a t t e n d a n c e , the t e a c h e r s t o o k a median p o s i t i o n . Though 4 5 p e r c e n t gave a noncommittal answer, 36 p e r cent.answered a f f i r m a t i v e l y . So the consensus of o p i n i o n o f the t h r e e groups, t e a c h e r s , . p a r e n t s , and s t u d e n t s , was t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 163 s t i m u l a t e d ; r e g u l a r i t y of attendance. N e a r l y h a l f the t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t the s t u d e n t s who t o o k an a c t i v e p a r t i n these a c t i v i t i e s - w e r e more l i k e l y t o remain i n s c h o o l f o r a g r e a t e r number of y e a r s than those s t u d e n t s who;.were u n i n t e r e s t e d i n these a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s percentage p r o v e d t h a t the o p i n i o n s of a l a r g e number of s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s c o i n c i d e d on t h i s q u e s t i o n . T w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the t e a c h e r s f e a r e d t h a t the s t u d e n t s tended t o n e g l e c t t h e i r s c h o o l work t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Some t e a c h e r s may have had i n mind the I n s t a n c e s when s t u d e n t s r e q u e s t e d p e r m i s s i o n t o m i s s t h e i r r e g u l a r l e s s o n s i n o r d e r t o p e r f o r m some e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r duty. Some s t u d e n t s , under th e s e circumstances,, not o n l y m i s s e d p a r t of t h e l e s s o n , but a l s o f a i l e d t o en-quire, from t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s what assignment had been g i v e n t o the c l a s s . However, the t e a c h e r has the r i g h t t o r e p o r t such n e g l i g e n c e t o the sponsor of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h w h i c h the s t u d e n t i s connected. Any s t u d e n t r e c e i v i n g u n f a v o u r -a b l e comments o f t h i s n a t u r e may be r e q u e s t e d t o r e s i g n from h i s p o s i t i o n . Thus the remedy f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n l i e s i n t h e t e a c h e r ' s hands. Though the t e a c h e r s ' percentage was much h i g h e r t h a n t h a t of t h e p a r e n t s , i t Showed a f a i r degree of c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the s t u d e n t s ' e s t i m a t e . The l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f . e a c h group appeared c o n v i n c e d t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s were not a major reason f o r n e g l e c t of s c h o o l work. The t e a c h e r s were r e q u e s t e d t o answer a n e g a t i v e ques-t i o n on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on 164 i n t e r e s t * i n r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. L e s s t h a n 5 per cent r e p o r t e d t h a t a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s reduced t h e I n t e r e s t I n r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. N e a r l y t h r e e -f o u r t h s o f the t e a c h e r s s i g n i f i e d a b e l i e f t h a t t h i s p a r t i -c i p a t i o n e i t h e r i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m o r had no p e r c e p t i b l e i n f l u e n c e on i t . The p a r e n t s , when a s k e d the converse of t h i s q u e s t i o n , gave a m a j o r i t y de-c i s i o n t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s c r e a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n the r e q u i r e d s c h o o l s t u d i e s . The p u p i l s themselves i n f e r r e d t h a t the. a c t i v i t i e s had produced a g r e a t e r degree of i n t e r e s t . The t h r e e groups suggested, t h e n , t h a t the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s were p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l i v e l y i n t e r e s t so many s t u d e n t s d i s p l a y towards a l l a s p e c t s of s c h o o l l i f e . A c o n s i d e r a b l e number of p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s c l a i m e d t h a t s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g had been r a i s e d by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme. T h i r t y - e i g h t p e r cent of t h e t e a c h e r s a s s e r t e d t h e i r b e l i e f i n t h i s t h e o r y . E l e v e n per cent d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e s e , w h i l e o n e - h a l f chose t o g i v e a n o n c o m m i t t a l answer. However, as t h o s e who a c c e p t e d t h i s assumption outnumbered tho s e who d e n i e d i t t h r e e t o one, i t appears t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e credence can be p l a c e d on i t . The t e a c h e r s were p r a c t i c a l l y unanimous i n t h e i r r e -j e c t i o n o f any s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be p e r -m i t t e d t h e p r i v i l e g e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n more t h a n t h r e e a c t i -v i t i e s . U n l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n has caused c o n s i d e r a b l e c r i t i c i s m of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h i s programme under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s may e x p l a i n much 165 of the condemnation and doubt which c e r t a i n t e a c h e r s ex- -p r e s s e d when t h e y were q u e s t i o n e d on the v a l u e s which the exponents of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a t t a c h t o them. The t h r e e groups, s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , and t e a c h e r s , appeared to be o f the o p i n i o n t h a t c a r e f u l l y r e g u l a t e d e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t e n d t o b u i l d up an i n t e r e s t i n the s c h o o l w h i c h r e s u l t s i n b e t t e r attendance and s c h o l a r s h i p , and w h i c h tends to l e n g t h e n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l i f e of the average c h i l d . How-eve r , u n r e s t r i c t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o the w r i t e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , may e c l i p s e the im-p o r t a n c e of the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m and harm r a t h e r than a s s i s t the s t u d e n t by"an over-emphasis on the l e s s i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f s c h o o l l i f e . The o v e r w h e l m i n g l y n e g a t i v e answer by the t e a c h e r s t o q u e s t i o n 7 demonstrated a d e t e r m i n a t i o n to p r e v e n t t h i s c o n d i t i o n , and t o l i m i t a c h i l d ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o h i s a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m h i s r e g u l a r s c h o o l work. The f e a r t h a t s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s , as a whole, would not u n d e r s t a n d the term " i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s " e x p l a i n s why t h i s q u e s t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d t o the t e a c h e r s . Though the t e a c h e r s would l i k e t o t r e a t each c h i l d as a s e p a r a t e s t u d y , u n f o r t u n a t e l y the s i z e o f the average c l a s s f r e q u e n t l y f o r c e s t h e t e a c h e r t o t e a c h t o the median of t h e c l a s s r a t h e r t h a n t o d e a l w i t h each s t u d e n t as an i n d i v i d u a l e n t i t y . E i g h t y - o n e per c e n t of t h e t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s o f f e r e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s o l v e , i n p a r t a t l e a s t , the problem o f ' i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . 166 T h e , o p i n i o n s of t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s on the a e s t h e t i c i n f l u e n c e of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s d i s p l a y e d a c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y . . S i x t y - t h r e e p e r cent of t h e t e a c h e r s and 61 p e r cent o f the p a r e n t s thought the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i - . v i t i e s developed an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the f i n e a r t s . The e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v e d c r e d i t f o r the c h o i c e o f hobbies and v o c a t i o n s a l s o . The t e a c h e r s were more o p t i m i s t i c t h a n e i t h e r of the o t h e r two groups i n t h e i r e s -'timate of t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the a c t i v i t i e s i n the s e l e c t i o n of h o b b i e s . Eigh.ty-eight p e r cent of them s t a t e d t h a t the p u p i l s found hobbies i n th e s e a c t i v i t i e s . However, t h e i r o p i n i o n of t h e v o c a t i o n a l guidance c o n f e r r e d by the t r a i n i n g i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s was the l o w e s t of the t h r e e groups. Only 9 p er cent o f the t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s t r a i n i n g was a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n the c h o i c e of v o c a t i o n s , w h i l e o n e - q u a r t e r f e l t t h a t i t was a n e g l i g i b l e f a c t o r . The i n d e c i s i o n of 65 p e r ce n t o f the t e a c h e r s suggests t h a t t h i s f a c t o r may not be as t r i v i a l as the a f f i r m a t i v e percentage i m p l i e d . Hone of the t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s caused p o o r e r deportment, and l e s s t h a n 5 p er c e n t b e l i e v e d t h a t the honour a t t a c h e d t o o f f i c e s i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s caused c o n c e i t . N i n e t y - f i v e p e r ce n t of the t e a c h e r s were c e r t a i n t h a t the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programme d i d not cause a l o w e r i n g of the c i t i z e n s h i p s t a n d a r d of t h e s c h o o l . N e a r l y 90 p e r cent of the t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s c r e a t e d a g r e a t e r 167 sense of ,co-operation among t h e s t u d e n t s and between the s t u d e n t s and t h e i r t e a c h e r s . From an e n t i r e l y s e l f i s h view-p o i n t , t h e n , the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s are a boon t o the t e a c h e r s . Though t h e y i n v o l v e the l e n g t h e n i n g of the s c h o o l day, t h e y l i g h t e n the t e a c h e r s ' burden of d i s c i p l i n e . From the c i t i z e n ' s v i e w p o i n t , the v a l u e of i n c u l c a t i n g s e l f -d i s c i p l i n e must be a x i o m a t i c . A c c o r d i n g t o the t e a c h e r s , the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s were a c h i e v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e success i n t h e i r aims .of i n c u l c a t i n g l e a d e r s h i p , i n i t i a t i v e , and a sense of r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y . W hile 63 p e r cent s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were d e v e l o p i n g t h e f i r s t two, 77 per cent b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y were d e v e l o p i n g the t h i r d . One t e a c h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t no d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s r e s u l t e d from p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Over 80 per cent were i n disagreement w i t h t h i s l o n e t e a c h e r . S i x t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d doubt and one t e a c h e r f a i l e d t o answer the q u e s t i o n . However, as the m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s have accept e d e v e r y one of the suggested b e n e f i t s c o n f e r r e d on p a r t i c i p a n t s by e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s , t h e assumption t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s d i s p l a y some d e s i r a b l e outcomes appears j u s t i f i e d . Seventy p e r cent of the t e a c h e r s , a much h i g h e r p e r c e n -tage t h a n t h a t o f the p a r e n t s , s t a t e d t h a t t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s would serv e t o mould t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n i n t o e x c e l l e n t c i t i z e n s o f t h e f u t u r e . 168 Advocates o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s are accused o f b i a s when th e y l i s t t he numerous v a l u e s of these a c t i v i t i e s . T h e i r c r i t i c s m a i n t a i n t h a t some of these v a l u e s are t h e o -r e t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n a c t u a l and t h a t t h e y are the outcome of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n r a t h e r than t h e r e s u l t of genuine i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s w r i t e r r e c e i v e d answers t o 495 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s sent t o t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , and p u p i l s . T h i s number i n c l u d e d s t r o n g s u p p o r t e r s and v i o l e n t opponents of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s as w e l l as many persons who adopted a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n on t h e i r w o r t h . Thus t h i s s u r v e y appeared t o g i v e a f a i r consensus of o p i n i o n s on the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l u m and the con-c l u s i o n s based on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s h o u l d be, on the whole, r e l a t i v e l y f r e e from b i a s . These c o n c l u s i o n s were a commen-d a t i o n o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s because: (a) t h e y f o s t e r s c h o o l morale (b) t h e y a i d i n the d i s c o v e r y of v o c a t i o n s and a v o c a t i o n s / (c) t h e y i n s t i l a l o v e o f the " f i n e a r t s i n t o the s t u d e n t s (d) t h e y i n c r e a s e i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l w h i c h causes im-provement i n r e g u l a r i t y of a t t e n d a n c e , i n d e p o r t -ment, i n r e t e n t i o n of c h i l d r e n a t s c h o o l , and i n s t a n d a r d s of s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t (e) t h e y develop c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e , c o - o p e r a t i o n , i n i t i a t i v e , l e a d e r s h i p , and r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y ( f ) t h e y encourage the f u l f i l m e n t of c i t i z e n s ' p r i v i l e g e s and d u t i e s 169 CHAPTER VI GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 170 I t was p o i n t e d out i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r t h a t e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , though not always g i v e n t h a t d e s i g -n a t i o n , have h e l d a p l a c e i n e d u c a t i o n s i n c e e a r l i e s t times and t h a t w o r l d c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g the l a s t c e n t u r y have augmented the demand f o r t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n a l l s c h o o l programmes. The o b j e c t i v e s of these a c t i v i t i e s , as g i v e n i n Chapter I , I n c l u d e the aim o f improvement of s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . However, n e i t h e r t h e i r a n t i q u i t y n or t h e i r l o f t y o b j e c t i v e s i s p r o o f t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s have succeeded, i n r a i s i n g the s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s of those s t u d e n t s who have a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n them. The p r o o f n e c e s s i t a t e d an o b j e c t i v e s t u d y i n a modern s c h o o l of t h i s p r oblem of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , where the w r i t e r of t h i s t h e s i s t e a c h e s , has a t o t a l enrolment of over 1500 s t u d e n t s and a. comprehensive e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r programme, which has been d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I . Thus t h i s s c h o o l p r e s e n t e d an i d e a l l o c a t i o n f o r the i n v e s -t i g a t i o n o f t h i s problem. Through t h e k i n d n e s s o f the p r i n c i p a l o f t h i s s c h o o l , Mr. H. B. F i t c h , access t o s t u d e n t s ' r e c o r d s and r e s e a r c h among the s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , and t e a c h e r s wa-s p e r m i t t e d . Former r e s e a r c h e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g f r e q u e n t l y c o n c l u d e d w i t h t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s had n ot been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the m a j o r i t y of low s c h o l a s t i c 171 s t a n d i n g s . T h o u g h , i n t h e cases of some s t u d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e of low I n t e l l i g e n c e , an u n r e s t r i c t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t hese a c t i v i t i e s might have i n f l u e n c e d s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g a d v e r s e l y , the a u t h o r s b e l i e v e d t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s s h o u l d have been blamed f o r most of the i n s t a n c e s of poor s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s . The w r i t e r of t h i s t h e s i s i s i n e n t i r e agreement w i t h t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which have been d e s c r i b e d i n Chapters I I I and TV l e a d him t o assume t h a t an ' a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i s f r e -q u e n t l y accompanied by an improvement i n s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . The s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s of the s t u d e n t s a t Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l d i s p l a y e d the same t r e n d d u r i n g th e two y e a r s t h e i r r a n k s were s t u d i e d . Both y e a r s the group w h i c h took an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a t t a i n e d . m a r k s w h i c h proved t h a t a l a r g e number were a c h i e v i n g the r e s u l t s w h i c h might be p r e d i c t e d by a s t u d y of t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . T h i s group, i n s u c c e s s i v e y e a r s , demonstrated a much c l o s e r r e -l a t i o n s h i p between i t s i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s and i t s r a nks than d i d t h e group w h i c h t o o k a nominal p a r t i n t h e s e a c t i -v i t i e s . The graphs show t h a t t h i s was not the r e s u l t of t h e group t a k i n g a s m a l l share I n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v i n g a l a r g e r number of h i g h e r marks t h a n i t s i n t e l -l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s suggested. , I f e i t h e r group e x c e l l e d i t s i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , i t was the group w h i c h p a r t i c i p a t e d f r e e l y i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . I f the s t u d e n t s ' ' i n t e l l i g e n c e i s h i g h average o r above average, t h e n , th e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and scho-: • 172-l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s appears t o be an advantageous one. The t a b l e s , graphs, c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n , and c r i t i c a l r a t i o s g i v e n i n Chapters I I I and IV, gave evidence of a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g . The v a r i e t y of methods used showed the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , but no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a c a u s a l one can be deduced from the d a t a i n these two c h a p t e r s . The f i f t h c h a p t e r , however, l e n d s credence t o the t h e o r y t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p may be a c a u s a l one. The many f a c t o r s w hich might have a f f e c t e d s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g appear t o be as i n f l u e n t i a l on the group l i t t l e . i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s as on the group Immensely i n t e r e s t e d i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s . Even the f a c t o r o f g e n e r a l h e a l t h c o u l d not e x p l a i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s of the two groups. The o n l y f a c t o r w h i c h appeared t o a p p l y t o one group-o n l y was an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s . Thus the p r o c e s s of e l i m i n a t i o n suggests the e x i s t e n c e of a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and s c h o l a s t i c s t a n d i n g s . The consensus of o p i n i o n of the s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , and t e a c h e r s , as g i v e n i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , s u p p o r t e d t h i s t h e o r y . They b e l i e v e d t h a t the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d d i r e c t a i d t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l a r programme and t h a t t h e y s t i m u l a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n the s c h o o l w h i c h was 173 reflected i n the students' scholastic standing. Therefore i t appears j u s t i f i a b l e to assume that the main cause for the advantageous relationship "between extra-curricular a c t i -v i t i e s and scholastic standing may be attributed to the extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s . But the value of extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s was not limited to i t s influence on regular school work. The choice of vocations and hobbies, the regularity and length of atten-dance at school, the growth of the characteristics of s e l f -confidence , r e l i a b i l i t y , i n i t i a t i v e * and co-operation, the appreciation of the fine arts, and the development of those a b i l i t i e s which create worthy school c i t i z e n s and may influence the child's behaviour when he becomes a c i t i z e n of the state, a l l have, i n the estimation of teachers, parents, and students, received a stimulus from the extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s . These a c t i v i t i e s appear to be indispensable. If their influence on scholastic standing were negligible, their other accomplish-ments would warrant their inclusion i n the school's programme. However, the extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s appear to exert a b e n e f i c i a l influence on scholastic standing. Therefore, i t appears j u s t i f i a b l e to accept the conclusion that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s i s a profitable enterprise f o r the majority of children because this p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l a s s i s t them in their scholastic endeavors and w i l l present an oppor-tunity for the students to s a t i s f y many of the other c r i t e r i a of t r u l y educated persons, 174 BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Books 1. Butt e r w e c k , J".. S. ana Muzzey, G. A. "A Handbook f o r Teachers: an I n t e g r a t i n g Course f o r Classroom Teachers i n Secondary S c h o o l s . " Hew York, E.P. Dut t o n & Co. I n c . , 1939. 2. Chamberlain, Leo M. "The Teacher and Sc h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n . " Hew Yo r k , P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c . , 1936. 3. Dewey S o c i e t y , F i r s t Year Book of "The Teacher and S o c i e t y " New Yo r k , D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Co., 1937. .4. Drewry, Raymond C. 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"The Elementary S c h o o l — - I t s O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " Chicago, I l l i n o i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1935. 16. Roemer, Joseph; A l l e n , Chas. .F.i; Y a r n e l l , D o r o t h y A. " B a s i c Student A c t i v i t i e s . " . New York, S i l v e r B u r d e t t & Co., 1935. B. Magazine A r t i c l e s 1. B a k e r , G. Derwood. "Hobby C l u b s i n the South Pasadena J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . " C l e a r i n g House, V o l , X: 334-337, F e b r u a r y , 1936. 2. B a l f o u r , C. S t a n t o n " N o n - A t h l e t i c H i g h School .Contests." C l e a r i n g House, V o l . X I I : 81-85, October, 1937. 3. B r i g g s , Thos. H. " C a v i l l i n g a t Complacency." C l e a r i n g House, V o l . V I : 70-83, October, 1931. 4. C a r l s o n , L.L. "Idaho E d u c a t o r s Give Reasons f o r P u p i l M o r t a l i t y i n J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Grades." C l e a r i n g House, V o l . 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" D e m o c r a t i z i n g the E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r Problem" C l e a r i n g House, V o l . V I I : 86-91, October, 1932. 12. J o h n s t o n , Edgar G. " E x t r a A c t i v i t i e s and the Cur-r i c u l u m . " C l e a r i n g House, V o l . X I I : 144-149, November, 1937. 13. J o h n s t o n , Edgar G. " I n t e r n e s i n C i t i z e n s h i p . " S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , V o l . IX: 61-62 and 75-76, October, 1937. 176 14. K e l i h e r , A l i c e Y. " P l a y ' s the T h i n g , " C l e a r i n g House, Y o l . X: 330-335, F e b r u a r y , 1936. 15. Long, F o r r e s t E. " P l a y as a Way of L i f e . " C l e a r i n g House, Y o l . X: 323-325, F e b r u a r y , 1936. 16. Lowe, B a r r e t t " C o - o p e r a t i o n between S c h o o l and Church." S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , Y o l . X: November, 1938. 17. Ivlair, A d e l i n e "Guidance Through C r e a t i v e A c t i v i t y . " C l e a r i n g House, Y o l . X I I : 26-29, September, 1937. 18. P e r k i n s , H. Y. "An Approach t o E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i -v i t i e s . " S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , Y o l . IX: 59-60, October, 1937. 19. P o r t e r , Henry C. "The O r i g i n and Development of E x t r a -C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s . " S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , Y o l . X: 147-148 and 168-170, December, 1938. 20. R e i c h e r t , W a l t e r P. "An E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r C u r r i c u l u m . " C l e a r i n g House, Y o l . Y I : 150-154, November, 1931. 21. R i n g d a h l , N. R. " E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s i n E l e -mentary S c h o o l s . " S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , Y o l . IX: 3-5, September, 1957. 22. R i n g d a h l , N. R. "Some I l l u s t r a t i o n s of I x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s i n an El e m e n t a r y S c h o o l . " S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , Y o l . X: 7-9, September,.1938. 23. Roemer, Joseph "The Emergence o f E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s . " . S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , Y o l . X: 291-292, March, 1939. 24. Wade, J . T. "Our Sc h o o l s and P o t e n t i a l D e l i n q u e n t s . " C l e a r i n g House, Y o l . IX: 72-75, October, 1934. -25. W e l l i n g , R i c h a r d "New S o c i a l H o r i z o n s . " S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , Y o l . X: , 5-6, September, 1938. 26. Wessel, Herman M.. " I n s t a n c e s o f A d a p t a t i o n s t o Meet I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s . " C l e a r i n g House, Y o l . X: 285-287, January, 1936. 27. W i l l i a m s , Norman "Democracy—Keynote of the D e t r o i t C o n v e n t i o n . " S c h o o l A c t i v i t i e s , Y o l . I X : . 8-11, September, 1937. 28. W r i g h t , C. 0. "Student A t t i t u d e on Sc h o o l C l u b s . " C l e a r i n g House, Y o l . IX: 46-47, September, 1934. 177 

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