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A study of type questions for general science tests Flather, Donald McIntosh 1939

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t f 51 B% • r>'*> 7. A S t u d y T Y P E for CIENCE T E Donald Mcintosh Flatter A TW«* is Submitted f o r the D e c r e e of MASTER OF ARTS in tine D e p a r t m e n t o f EDUCATION T h e U n i v e r a i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A p r i l , 19 39-ACKITOWLEDGEMMTS The w r i t e r i s indebted very deeply to p r o f e s s o r C.B. Wood of the Department of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, for h i s c o n t i n -ual a s s i s t a n c e , i n s p i r a t i o n , and co n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m as w e l l as for h i s permission to submit the questionnaire to h i s c l a s s i n Education 23 during the summer of 1938, The w r i t e r wishes tfo thank Dr. Win, B l a c k , a l s o of the Department of Education. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r h i s l u c i d general c r i t i c -ism of the th e s i s and fo r h i s many valuable suggestions that have im-proved t h i s r e p o r t . Further assistance has been obtained from Kr. Lord, P r i n c i p a l of the P r o v i n c i a l Normal School at fancouver who a s s i s t e d i n submitting the questionnaire to the members of h i s c l a s s l a s t summer, Education 12, Constructive c r i t i c i s m s have been received a l s o from Dr. J.B.W. ^ p i i c h e r (formerly of II. B.C. ), Dr. H.B. King (Technical Adviser to the Department of Education, V i c t o r i a ) , Mr. Bobt. S t r a i g h t (Bureau of Measure-ments, Vancouver School Ho&t-d ), and from Dr. W.J.Osburn (Department of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of Washington). D.M.F. FCRMORD This research was undertaken to demonstrate what could be done i n the way of t e s t i n g the achievements and the growth of a b i l i t i e s which form the a n t i c i p a t e d outcomes of the courses i n the high schools, general Science IV and 7. As the research has turned out i t i s r e a l l y only an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the problem , f or many s u b s i d i a r y problems that were uncovered have been l e f t untouched. The w r i t e r had hoped to make a complete survey, but t h i s desire had to be narrowed down considerably. Further d e t a i l e d study of the t e s t i n g procedures as app1ied to each objective of the courses i s needed, as i s a l s o a more s c i e n t i f i c way of s e l e c t i n g the obj e c t i v e s of a course and then e v a l u a t i n g them. . In f a c t , the l i m i t a t i o n of research to any one of the several objectives i s r e a l l y a %ajor problem i t s e l f . While the work may not be as complete as i t might have been, ther9 i s a considerable amount of information presented that can be used i n a programme of t e s t i n g i n General Science. The w r i t e r has p r o f i t e d g r e a t l y by the research, and has been able to apply many of these suggestions found i n the text to h i s own programme of t e s t i n g . TABLE OP COITMTS Chapter J AH OUTLI1TB OF THE PKOBLM! P a g e l Gaieral Conditions A f f e c t i n g the problem 1 Local Conditions A f f e c t i n g £he Problem 2 Dearth of Kecent Experiments on t e s t i n g 5 . " Summary ^ Chapter I I AIT MAMIKAl'ION OF THE PRESENT OBJECTIVES OF GJSKmAL SCIENCE IV AHD V 8 Scope of Chapter The Objectives of General Science IV and V 8 Examination and A n a l y s i s of present Objectives 9 Eva l u a t i n g the Importance of the Present Objectives 18 Re-arrangement of the Present Objectives 29 Chapter I I I COMMON FORMS OF TSST ITHtfS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS ON TESTS , 31 Scope of Chapter 31 The Three Major Types of Tests 31 Research L i m i t e d to Questions Testing Achievements 34 Chief forms of Questions i n Common Use 35 The True-False Question 36 The Multiple-Choice Question 38 The Completion or R e c a l l Question ' 40 Matching Questions 41 The Analogy Question 42 Diagrams 44 The "Catechism" Type of Question 46 The Essay Type, of Question 46 ^ Mathematical C a l c u l a t i o n s 53 Checking L i s t s , a n d . " I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s " 54 The Performance or '^pr a c t i c a l " Test 54 Oral Examinations, Interviews 56 He-arrangements 58 Comparisons and Contrasts 58 Constructions and Drawings 59 Comments on R e l i a b i l i t y 60 General Conclusions 61 Chapter IV a STUDY OF PRESENT STANDARDIZED TESTS I I SCIENCE 62 Purpose of This Study 6 2 Tables Summarizing I n v e s t i g a t i o n s 63 Hi g h l i g h t s of Tests i&amined . • 79 A p p l i c a b i l i t y of Standardized Tests to Testing programme . 80 Specimen Test:: Questions from the Standardized Tests 83 i i i i v Chapter V MODIFYING THE FOR MS OP QUESTIONS TO PIT THE .BEMANBS OF THE TWO ° MAJOR" OBJECTIVES page 101 Outline of Procedure 101 Questions A p p l i c a b l e to the F i r s t Objective (Knowledge) 102 Questions A p p l i c a b l e to the Second Objective(Methods) 113 Chapter 71 FORMS OF (lUESTIONS FOR 'THE OBJECTIVES OF 'INTER* MEDIATE VALUE. Questions A p p l i c a b l e to the Third Objective (Resourcefulness) Questions A p p l i c a b l e to the Fourth Objective (Health) Chapter VII FOEMS OF QUESTIONS SUITABLE FOR TESTING THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF '"LEAST11 IMP ORTANGE , 139 Questions A p p l i c a b l e to the F i f t h e Objective (Avocations) 139 Questions A p p l i c a b l e to the S i s t h Objective (Contributions) 149 Questions A p p l i c a b l e to the Seventh Objective (Errors) 1€4 Sub-objectives of the Seventh Objective 155 Questions A p p l i c a b l e to the Eighth Objective (Vocations) 161 Questions and Aptitude Tests • 165 Questions A p p l i c a b l e to the Ninth Objective (Experimentation) 167 p e n c i l • -and-paper Tests 168 C o r r e l a t i o n , " A b i l i t y to Manipulate" w i t h " I n t e l l i g e n c e " 170 Summary 176 Questions A p p l i c a b l e to the Tenth Objective 177 Measuring Growth i n Reading I n t e r e s t s 179 129 129 135 Chapter V I I I CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 189 Bibliography 198 Appen&M - ( i ) 206 The {Questionnaire i Measuring Growth of I n t e r e s t s , Experiment £ i v Experiments on C o r r e l a t i o n of"pencil-and-paper Tests'* w i t h ' p r a c t i c a l " (performance ) Tests x i v Experiment I I on Flower, Clam, Stem x i v Experiment I I I Microscopic Test on Stem of T i l i a x i x Experiment IV Measuring Volumes. Weighing x x i i Measuring the Growth of Reading, Experiment V • x x v i i AT V INDEX TO TABLES Table I Summary of Returns of Questionnaire Submitted to Two Glasses of teachers, Summer Session, U.B.C., 1938 page 22 Table I I - Evaluations and Weightings Made by Sixteen A d m i n i s t r a t o r s p r i n c i p a l s , and Science Committee Members 25 Table I I I Summary of Evaluations by 78 Teachers, IMC• 26 Table I ? - Analyses of Standardized Chemistry '^ests 64 Table V .Analyses of Standardized p h y s i c s Tests 68 Table VI Analyses of Standardized Biology '1'ests 70 Table V I I Analyses of Standardized General Science Tests 72 Table V I I I Analyses of Aptitude Tests and Others 74 Table IX . Analyses of M a t r i c u l a t i o n Papers 76 Table X A Comparison of Frequency of Question forms on Tests 78 Table XI Abstract from Ruch and R i c e , Frequency of Question Forms 79 Table X I I Comparison of Degree Which the 29 Standardized Tests Which Were Examined Measure the Achievements Other Than Knowledge • .80 Questionnaire Blank Appendix i IHDEX TO FIGURES Figure I Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Rankings of the Ten Objectives by F i f t y - t w o Secondary School Teachers 23 Figure I I Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Seventy-eight Evaluations of Objectives 27 Figure. I l l Flower, (Ruch-?openoe F i g . 2, Form A ) 83 Figure IV Lever , (Buch-popenae Fig,4 . Form A ) 83 Figure V P u l l e y s (Ruch-? openoe Fig.10, Form A ) 88 Figure VI Pump (Ruch-p.openoe F i g . 15, Form A ) 84 Figure V I I photosynthesis (Ruch-3? openoe F i g , 18, Form B ) 84 Figure V I I I C o l l e c t i n g Carbon Dioxide (RUC1I-P openoe,Fig.10,Form B ) 84 Figure LI.. Bunsen Burner Flane (parsing F i g , 6, Form A ) 85 Figure X C o l l e c t i n g Gases over Water (Persing) 85 Figure XI Gas Generating and C o l l e c t i n g (persing Form A ) 85 Figure X I I Graph, A n a l y s i s of Copper Sulphide 87 Figure X I I I I l l u s i o n s : and Accuracy Test (Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude) 88 Figure XIV; Reading Weights on Toledo Scales 116 Figure XV Beam Balance 117 Figure X I I Rock S t r a t a 118 Figure: XVII Graph , A i r Resistance and V e l o c i t y of Car 122 Figure XVIII L i g u i d s i n Graduated Measures 173 Figure XIK Dissembled Apparatus 173 Figure XX Clam * . 174 Figure: XXI Flower ' 174 Figure XXII Stem o f ' T i l i a , Tansverse Section 175 Figure XXIII R e l a t i v e Fields,,of Testing f o r Mastery, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , , and Achievement '•'•'ests. 196 CHAPTER 1. .AH OUTLINE OF THE PROBLEM. The purpose of t h i s research i s to survey what has "been done i n developing the techniques of testing i n the f i e l d of General Science, and i n other f i e l d s that might make contributions, and to show how the forms of tests and of questions may be applied to measure progress of p u p i l s towards the objectives of General Science courses. General Conditions A f f e c t i n g the Problem. With the broadening of the conception of education that has occurred i n the l a s t twenty-five years there has been an increase i n number of the objectives of any course i n the secondary school. At the turn of the century the d i s c i p l i n a r y value of a course was the chief objective, and this i n turn was followed by what might be termed the "subject matter era'* wherein the greatest emphasis was l a i d j i n the accumulation of f a c t s . Science courses have gone through this t r a n s i t i o n l i k e a l l others. When the r e s t r a i n i n g bonds were broken at l a s t a period developed i n which ^educators seemed to outdo themselves i n s e t t i n g up objectives, even by the hundreds for some courses. A l l these objectives obviously could not be attained because i t was humanly impossible. This period of excessive expansion of objectives has given place to a more moderate se l e c t i o n of attainable objectives at the present time. With the growing emphasis on a moderate range of attainable objec-tives for any good science course a swing away from the narrow i n f o r -mational or factual type has occurred. Concomitantly with this change i n educational philosophy there should have been a marked p a r a l l e l i s m of methods of t e s t i n g achievements of"the several objectives. Up to the present time this movement has not been vigorous, for only occasional evidence i s presented of attempts to meet this new need of adapting meas-uring devices to the objectives. To study the functions and a p p l i c a b i l i t y of question forms i s a use-f u l service at this stage of the development of science courses i n general because many are being revised. Further, to imow how and when to use the forms of questions i s also of considerable importance to the average teacher i n General Science i n order that he may measure d e f i n i t e l y the par-t i c u l a r achievement under examination. Mils research may be of assistance also i n helping a teacher to r e a l -ize that the t e s t i n g of achievement of any objective must be done d i r e c t l y and not by round-about methods. I t should a s s i s t the teacher to be care-f u l i n the choice or selec t i o n of ideas that he wishes to combine i n the preparation of questions and tests of a s p e c i f i c nature. Local Conditions A f f e c t i n g the Problem. Besides these general reasons for the research there are several l o c a l conditions that demand a survey of testing procedures i n the f i e l d of General Science. At the present time there i s considerable bewilder-? ment among teachers of General Science i n B r i t i s h Columbia concerning te s t i n g procedures. This confusion i s abservable i n discussions of the Science Section of the Secondary Teachers' Association of the Lower Main-land, i n l e t t e r s to the magazine "The B. C. Teacher", and i n numerous l e t t e r s written to the Department of Education on the matter of t e s t i n g . There are four l o c a l or p r o v i n c i a l factors that are responsible for the confusion i n t e s t i n g i n General Science. F i r s t of a l l , a new type 3 of science course has been projected into the upper grades of the high school i n the form of General Science 17 and V which f i r s t became opera-tive i n 1937 and 1938. These courses are decided innovations and because of t h i s f a c t very l i t t l e experience up to t h i s time has been gained i n the preparation of suitable achievement t e s t s . The Department of Education has not yet given any guide to the teachers of science by the s e t t i n g of a paper i n General Science IV and V but i t i s taking steps to develop sa t i s f a c t o r y examinations. The older tests on the s p e c i a l sciences can no longer be taken as c r i t e r i a , and only the occasional test item on these papers i s ever l i k e l y to be needed i n t e s t i n g i n General Science. Furtbar, testing procedures i n the past i n General Science have been i n advance of those i n the special sciences, and these procedures are having more ef f e c t in modifying the testing i n the special sciences than the reverse case. The second Important factor i s the attitude of the Department of Education which i n s i s t s i n accordance with the educational philosophy published i n i t s programme of studies that the t e s t i n g of p u p i l achieve-ment i n General Science must be done i n agreement with the objectives of the course. Q?he Department of Education has announced also that students who w i l l write the f i r s t graduation paper i n General Science i n June 1939 w i l l be held responsible for work done i n General Science I I I , IV and V, and that teachers must a l i g n t h e i r own t e s t i n g programmes with the objec-1 tives of the courses i n question. The Department of Education has stated that "The examination papers for matriculation s h a l l be i n conformity with 2 the p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down" by i t s e l f . In the eyes of the advisers to the 1. Programme of Studies for the Senior High Schools of B.C.,Bulletin V l l l , p . 60 2. Programme of Studies for the Senior High Schools of B.C.,Bulletin 1, pp. 20-21 Department testing assumes a great importance and "must be regarded as an essential part of the teaching process". Continuing i n t h i s theme the Department adds that " I t i s fundamental that testing should bear upon the 1 objectives of a course". This new emphasis upon t e s t i n g i s indicated s t i l l more c l e a r l y by the quotation that "Knowledge and s k i l l s are beyond question important, but are not the only outcomes of the educative pro-cess, An examination, or an examination system, which stresses these outcomes to the exclusion of the others, not only excludes these outcomes from the testing procedures, but speedily excludes them from the teaching 2 • ; . procedures as w e l l . It would seem quite clear from the foregoing state-ments that a f u l l e r , more s c i e n t i f i c programme of testing to include the hitherto untested phases (in B r i t i s h Columbia at least) should follow and keep pace with the ideals of the l a s t r e v i s i o n of the science courses. The t h i r d factor of importance comes to l i g h t i n studying the prob-lem of the accrediting of'high schools. Such accr e d i t i n g does not r e l i e v e the school i n the s l i g h t e s t degree of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for e s t a b l i s h i n g sound testing procedures, but rather increases the need of the accurate measuring of achievement. The school may be freed from the rigours of long hard examination periods but^ia not r e l i e v e d from i t s duty to meas-ure achievements i n a precise manner. Further, because accr e d i t i n g i n -volves the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i t i s desirable that exact measurement of achievements be developed, for the p o s i t i o n s of both the high school and the University must be protected. Accurate measurements of achievements would tend to prevent d i f f i c u l t situations from a r i s i n g , L. Programme of Studies, B u l l e t i n 1, pp. 20-22 2. programme of ;Studies, B u l l e t i n 1, pp. 20-22 F i n a l l y , the whole educational structure i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s being c r i t i c i z e d rigorously i n c e r t a i n quarters and attacked openly by many persons who attempt to keep down the costs of education. Many expendi-tures are attacked as being unnecessary, or as providing only the " f r i l l s " of education. Very frequently adequate science equipment i s c l a s s i f i e d under this l a t t e r heading, as i s also the b u i l d i n g of suitable rooms i n which to conduct science teaching. Exact evidence, i f i t can be obtained, of. p u p i l achievements of the objectives of the courses i n science i s nec-essary to defend the cost, time, and e f f o r t spent i n science t r a i n i n g . I f a course claims to develop more than knowledge achievements i t must have some measure of these broader accomplishments. In order to support expenditures for equipment and buildings objective evidence of the devel-opment of s c i e n t i f i c habits of thinking, of attitudes, of techniques, and of the other outcomes i s highly desirable. Dearth of Recent Experiments on Testing. A consideration of the f i r s t four l o c a l factors mentioned would suggest that the time i s now r i p e for examining seriously what types of tests are applicable to General Science i n order that p u p i l achievement of the various objectives of the science courses may be measured. In carrying out this idea the f i r s t step was to examine the l i t e r a t u r e on testing, and more p a r t i c u l a r l y on science t e s t i n g . There appeared to be r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e on achievement t e s t i n g except i n the f i e l d of measuring factual matter. (With the l a t t e r f i e l d almost a l l teachers are quite familiar.) However, there are several unrelated reports of research y i e l d i n g ideas that can be incorporated into a more extensive programme of t e sting designed to evaluate some of the more subtle aspects. The .incorporation of these contributions into the science and p r a c t i c e of educational measurement would be i n I t s e l f a valuable service. According to Dr. J . B. W. P i l c h e r there has been no s i g n i f i c a n t con-t r i b u t i o n to the science of educational measurements i n the l a s t ten or twelve years, although refinements and r e p e t i t i o n of o r i g i n a l experiments 1 iiave occurred. There Is need at the present time of a re-examination of past contributions to measurements i n the l i g h t of further experience and newer concepts of the function of teaching. This need was foreseen by Dr« A. W. Hurd i n 1929 who concluded a f t e r an extensive survey of te s t i n g techniques i n physics that "Existing measures of educational products need further study and improvement. -Many a b i l i t i e s , presumably developed by science ins t r u c t i o n , have not been measured objectively, and there i s no objective proof that the claims (of developing these other a b i l i t i e s ) are j u s t . " " A b i l i t i e s presumably gained'in the laboratory have not been measured objectively as yet, though a beginning has been made." A survey on the part of the" writer revealed that comparatively l i t t l e had been done along that line since Dr. Hurd made the foregoing statement. Hot very much has developed that could be turned i n t o Immediate use i n a testing programme devised i n accordance with the objectives of General Science 1? and "V. This inadequacy of te s t i n g techniques i n measuring p u p i l s ' growth along the l i n e s of the objectives of the course provided a challenge to modify old or to invent new techniques. Teachers, claim, p o s s i b l y with a great deal of truth, that the teach-ing of science has improved during the l a s t f i f t e e n years, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the development of a b i l i t i e s other than the gaining of fac t u a l 1. Conversation with Dr. p i l e h e r during summer of 1958. -2., Curtis, F.D. Second Digest of Investigations i n the Teaching of Science material, present day tests r a r e l y show this trend, not because i t i s not there, but because they, are inadequate measuring instruments for the pur-r pose. Although i t may be desirable to develop adequate instruments to show t h i s change i t i s more important that these tests be developed for regular use i n the ordinary routine of teaching, so that a l l attainments made by p u p i l s In the f i e l d of General Science may be judged, , 'Summary . In general the p l a n of the research was t h i s ; f i r s t , to read generally on the problem of t e s t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y as I t applies to science; secondly to examine the present objectives of General Science IV and V and to f i n d some way of arranging the objectives i n order of importance. The next major step was to analyze common types of questions to see i f they are adaptable to any or a l l testing purposes. This step completed, the next l o g i c a l move was to examine i n d e t a i l present day standardized tests to see i f one or a combination of several would serve the needs of the courses* If such were found n a t u r a l l y no further work would be needed. I f none could be found,naturally the duty would devolve upon the writer of t r y i n g to improve or modify present forms or to Invent new techniques. The r e s u l t s of this research w i l l be summarized i n the f i n a l chapter. . ; , CHAPTER 11 AH EXAMINATION OF THE PRESENT OBJECTIVES OP GENERAL SCIENCE IV and V The Objectives of General Science IV and V. At the present time the courses i n General Science IV and V have ten objectives which were chosen by the r e v i s i o n committee after long and careful d e l i b e r a t i o n . These objectives were thought to be souni, reason-1 able, and attainable. Stated as they appear i n the b u l l e t i n they are 1. To acquire a body of Imowledge i n the f i e l d of science which w i l l enable the student to interpret and appreciate h i s environment. 2. To develop a b i l i t y i n the use of the s c i e n t i f i c method, e. g. (a) To make accurate observations, and to record them systematically (bj To draw v a l i d conclusions. (c) To suspend judgment u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t evidence has been obtained. (d) To develop a c r i t i c a l yet tolerant attitude toward new ideas. 3. To develop the a b i l i t y to perform simple experiments, and thus to appreciate the experimental basis of science. 4. To enable the student to counteract s u p e r s t i t i o n and to correct erroneous b e l i e f s through the ap p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s . 5. To appreciate achievements i n the f i e l d of science, and the contrib-utions of s c i e n t i s t s to the modern world. 6. To explore the f i e l d of science i n order to a s s i s t the p u p i l to choose his vocation,. 7. To provide materials for a worthy use of l e i s u r e . 8. To develop the desire to read s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e . 1.,Programme of Studies for the Senior High Schools, B u l l e t i n 1, 1937, p.159 8 9. To develop resourcefulness and ada p t a b i l i t y to new conditions. 10. To acquire knowledge which w i l l contribute to p u b l i c and personal health. These are the objectives which w i l l guide science teachers for the next few years. Whether a teacher thinks that they are too extensive or too r e s t r i c t e d they are open to modification only by the proper authority, the Department of Education. Examination and Analysis of Present Objectives. In order that both teaching and t e s t i n g i n General Science may be most eff e c t i v e i t i s necessary to examine the ten objectives stated above in a very careful manner. Such an examination should include both a c r i t i c a l study of the implications of each objective together with a weighting or evaluating of each objective r e l a t i v e to the others of the set. Upon these two bases each objective w i l l be analyzed i n the chapter. The need of an analysis of the objectives i s evident i n the f r e -quency with which teachers question the implications of one or more of them. . Few teachers agree exactly i n their interpretations of objectives unless these are elaborated or q u a l i f i e d i n some way. Because this task has not been done i n the courses i n question attention must be given i t i n this chapter. The evaluation of objectives i s advisable i n order to obtain a stan-dard, a l b e i t a conservative one, to be used i n s t a b i l i z i n g the teaching of a course. Almost every teacher has a bias toward some objective of a course, and i n c e r t a i n cases this Is so strong as to subjugate the others or to exclude them completely. A l l teachers, either overtly or covertly, s i f t the objectives to f i n d which they think the most important. A-mere.. 10 general measure on the value of objectives than the opinion of one person surely would, be more valuable and r e l i a b l e . Likewise the most important objectives w i l l be demonstrated. These facts are needed i n order to allocate the teaching e f f o r t , testing time, and c r e d i t s . There seems no v a l i d reason why the evaluation of the objectives should not be expressed i n a composite opinion of those most q u a l i f i e d to give opinions, namely the teachers i n the secondary schools, professors, and those i n central p o s i -tions i n the educational system. To obtain this general measure a question-naire was submitted to these persons. Because the science r e v i s i o n committee appointed by the Department of Education d i d not make any attempt to evaluate the objectives, i t became necessary to do that i n this research. It i s desirable to know not only what to teach but also how much of i t to teach. The committee did not go this far i n i t s deliberations but simply picked out what i t considered to be the most suitable objectives from a rather extensive l i s t selected from many sources. Thus the weeding-out process Is a sort of crude evaluation of the ten objectives as against those not selected, but i t i s not accurate enough for a basis of t e s t i n g . To assume equal value for each objective i s unwarranted, and to assume that the objectives as l i s t e d i n the B u l l e t i n 1 are ranked i n order would be wrong for the committee made no attempt to organize the objectives In order of value. The present order i n the B u l l e t i n therefore has no i n t e n t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The part immediately following w i l l be devoted to an analysis of the objectives. This i n turn w i l l be succeeded by the evaluating of the objectives by means of the questionnaire. Each of the ten objectives w i l l be dealt with i n turn. 1 1 "To a'cquire a body of knowledge i n the f i e l d of science which w i l l enable the student to interpret and appreciate h i s environment". This objective i s meant to include the fa c t u a l side of science teaching, the s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s , the laws or p r i n c i p l e s , and material of a sim i l a r nature. In fact i t s f i e l d corresponds to the usual connotation given to "subject matter". In General Science IT and T there i s to be a wide range of material expressing the basic p r i n -c i p l e s i n broad and simple terms rather than i n minute intensive d e t a i l that Is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an advanced course of u n i v e r s i t y c a l i b r e . This objective seems to be c l e a r l y defined^for no person replying to the questionnaire seemed to be i n doubt about i t . "To develop a b i l i t y i n the use of the s c i e n t i f i c method; e. g. j -(a) To make accurate observations and to record them systematically. (b) To draw v a l i d conclusions. (c) To suspend judgment u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t evidence has been obtained. (d) To develop a c r i t i c a l yet tolerant attitude towards new ideas. It seems that the f i r s t sub-objective i s dependent upon two dif f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s , that of observing and of recording. The four sub-objec-tives do not cover a l l phases of the s c i e n t i f i c method. Several persons who r e p l i e d to the questionnaire made reference to this f a c t . At least two other sub-objectives should be included i n order to round out t r a i n i n g i n the a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method. These are 1. To develop the a b i l i t y to recognize a problem, to see that one e x i s t s . 2. To develop the a b i l i t y to formulate hypotheses from scant data, and Its a l l i e d a b i l i t y of developing a theory from more data. 12 These 'two sub-objectives are indispensable to the s c i e n t i f i c method and should be included under the general objective proposing to develop the a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method. Except for these apparently necessary inclusions the statement of the objective seems to be s a t i s f a c t o r y . There does not seem to be any overlapping with the preceding objective although doubtless material from the f i r s t objective must be used to develop the a b i l i t y to think s c i e n t i f i c a l l y . 3. "To develop the a b i l i t y to perform simple experiments and thus to appreciate the experimental basis of science" seems at f i r s t glance to belong under the second objective. When we examine the r i d e r "and thus to appreciate the experimental basis of science" we might well wonder i f this appreciation i s not developed adequately by the second objective. Eleven persons replying to the questionnaire made un-s o l i c i t e d statements of t h i s nature.. I f the objective were set for purely "mental" development this comment would be quite true and the objective could be included under the second one. The development ' of a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method i s larg e l y a mental develop-ment• perhaps i t can be sub#limed into a purely mental process. The thi r d objective t r i e s to dir e c t us away from this to the developing of the mechanical s k i l l s and the concomitant confidence necessary for each of us to do experimenting on our own. It suggests that the student should be able to do experimenting for himself on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e concerning simple problems that a r i s e i n h i s everyday l i f e . The objective does not imply that he must experiment to f i n d out everything,as this would be a very wasteful, tedious, and lengthy education. The student should be able to experiment by himself to the extent,that he r e a l l y can appreciate the contributions of great 13 s c i e n t i s t s . So one can r e a l l y appreciate these increments to our s o c i a l wealth and knowledge u n t i l he has met the d i f f i c u l t i e s , doubts confusion, annoyances, and despairs:that go with actual experimenting The average class-room experiments, wherein the student by himself or i n a group does the actual experimenting^is the " f i r s t step i n this d i r e c t i o n . He may not learn any more basic p r i n c i p l e s , nor under-stand them more c l e a r l y than when taught by well-prepared demons-trations but he does obtain t r a i n i n g i n mechanical s k i l l , and de-velops self-confidence i n various degrees. Here would be trained and tested, a p u p i l ' s a b i l i t y , to plan h i s attack on a problem of not - too great d i f f i c u l t y , and h i s a b i l i t y to c o l l e c t the necessary apparatus or materials and arrange them to conduct his experiment or other a c t i v i t y . The committee i n including this objective seems to intend something similar to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n outlined here. Good testing technique must determine the "various degrees" of improve-ments of this type: involving the testing of s k i l l s as w e l l as "mental' processes. "To enable the student to counteract s u p e r s t i t i o n and to correct erroneous b e l i e f s through the application of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s " . It smacks of the s c i e n t i f i c crusader's s p i r i t endeavouring to arouse the student to set h i s lance against the hoary head of error . Its basic intent i s that the s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and t r a i n i n g developed should not remain passive, or inert, but should be active, dynamic. Well might we ask what we should do under this heading. There seem;; to be several sub-objectives that would be p r o f i t a b l e to record here, namely-- to recognize errors i n l o g i c such as some of the simpler s y l l o g i s t i c forms; to t r a i n students to trace true cause and e f f e c t 14 to o f f s e t the f a i l i n g that humans show i n using mere coincidence as a basis for conclusions or judgments ('This i s an extremely valuable t r a i n i n g i n I t s e l f and worthy to be included i n any educational programme); to develop the attitude of rigorous c r i t i c i s m of/what the true s c i e n t i s t usually terms "pseudo-science"; to render the student immune to the misapplied use of the term science, p a r t i c u -l a r l y by certain types of advertisers, and to replace a s l a v i s h obeisance to the mere words "science" and " s c i e n t i f i c " with an up-r i g h t , honest view of what i s truly s c i e n t i f i c . With t h i s analysis of the objective completed, the objective does not seem to transgress seriously on the others. It i s supplementary to the f i r s t two. "rJ?o appreciate achievements i n the f i e l d of science and the c o n t r i -butions of s c i e n t i s t s to the modern world". The objective dealing with the appreciation of the contribution of s c i e n t i s t s to. the modern world and t h e i r achievpments i n general i s a straight-forward objec-tive with no more implied than i n the d i r e c t statement. It does not overlap the previous objectives, and i s one of the enrichment type of objectives. It deals p r i m a r i l y with the development of a t t i t u d e s . "To explore the f i e l d of science i n order to a s s i s t the p u p i l to choose his vocation" does not overlap any other objective. It would suggest that the student from his experience with the subject would learn where h i s weaknesses and strength lay i n order that he may choose more wisely to take^or no p l a t e r t r a i n i n g i n these f i e l d s . .With the increasing complexities of modern science p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n -ing i s being pushed into the higher grades of even u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l so that r e l a t i v e l y few vocations based on science are now available to the high school graduate. His graduation and high school t r a i n i n g 15 i n science at best i s only a pre- r e q u i s i t e for la t e r work. This objective would mean that the science department must be integrated very c a r e f u l l y with the Guidance programme, an admirable objective • I f c a r r i e d out properly. 7. "To provide materials for the worthy use of l e i s u r e " i s an objective at f i r s t innocuous i n appearance. Commonly, we would suppose that i t refers to the development of hobbies, reading i n t e r e s t , and such. The d i f f i c u l t y here l i e s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the word "worthy". What one societ y deems worthy another does not; for Instance Germany now has her s c i e n t i s t s working f u r i o u s l y to develop explosives, to discover a l l manner of things to render Germany s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . Why? Hot with the view of true self-sufficiency,which i s a moderately worthy aim to most people 7but for the purpose of gaining European hegemony, i f not world domination. Of course most of the other nations i n Europe oppose t h i s . Is the great Interest which vast numbers of Germans take i n science of t h i s type a worthy interest? W i l l her a b i l i t y along this l i n e give to her the supremacy which comes from the survival of the f i t t e s t , or w i l l i t lead to the extinction of a c i v i l i z a t i o n ? The worthiness of t h i s aim i s d i f -f i c u l t to establish,to the subjective nature of worthiness. Take, ' ' 1 A as another example the case of a young g i r l with the usual b i o l o g i c urges^might conceivably transgress present s o c i a l mores, p o s s i b l y abetted by frequent attendance at the lower type of dance h a l l s . Dancing i t s e l f i s not i n i q u i t o u s . This i s one use of l e i s u r e . But suppose as a r e s u l t of her interests here the g i r l gave b i r t h to a Suggested as a c r i t i c i s m of the objective by Mr. R. Straight, Supervisor the Bureau of Measurements, Yancouver School Board O f f i c e , Vancouver, 16 ch i l d , s o c i e t y at present immediately would condemn her and the i n -cident. In Germany H i t l e r has announced that persons must take a much broader view of i l l e g i t i m a t e births than they have done i n the past and must come to look upon i t as the normal procedure. Does not t h i s action of the g i r l insure that the race w i l l be maintained, and do not the statesmen of the various nations uphold the mainten-ance of national vigor as a most worthy aim? One society condemns, another accepts the same incident or interest as worthy. Who i s to judge worthiness? Nevertheless, some workable d e f i n i t i o n of what i s worthy would help the teacher even i f this d e f i n i t i o n might not please a l l philosophers. The suggestion, based frankly on a u t i l i t a r i a n philosophy, i s herewith advanced that the development of any interest which does not injure the i n d i v i d u a l p h y s i o a l l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , and morally (on the accepted standards) and which does not injure other persons would be a worthy interest to follow. There i s a wide choice of opportunities i n science to develop worth-while, informative, or harmless i n t e r e s t s . To show to the student these opportunities i s the main end of t h i s objective which does not seem to encroach on other objectives. "To develop the desire to read s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e " . It i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the objective "to develop the a b i l i t y to read s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e " . The development of desires i s very d i f f i c u l t to ga»age, whereas the measuring of a b i l i t y i s r e l a t i v e l y simple. This objective does not seem to cut across any others, although of course i t i s dependent upon some of them^notably the f i r s t one which develops the understanding necessary for reading. 17 9. "To develop resourcefulness and a d a p t a b i l i t y to new conditions" i s a very worthy aim. It i s based i n part upon past experience,-and hence the science course could be of inestimable value i n giving a wide, sound experience,- and i n part upon native i n t e l l i g e n c e which purportedly cannot be develop ed}much though i t may vary i n indivu-a l s due to b i o l o g i c functions. It would seem that one of the very important sub-objectives here would be to develop a true appreciation of the understanding of cause and e f f e c t , for resourcefulness i s not manifest except i n new conditions where an analysis of causes i s paramount, however rough and ready this analysis might be. A mass of sound information would also be of great value, and t h i s would be contributed by achievements toward the f i r s t objective. 10. "To acquire knowledge which w i l l contribute to p u b l i c and personal health" i s an objective which l o g i c a l l y must be subsumed.under tte f i r s t objective as i t deals p r i m a r i l y with reactions to environment. It merits separate mention from the p r a c t i c a l point of view because there exists a great tendency to scotch this aspect i n the " s t r a i g h t " science courses. This statement i s supported by the r e s u l t s of research conducted by Dr. D. 0, Baird who made an analysis of b i -ology books and the courses of study i n New York state. One of his findings was that there i s less work i n p u p i l s ' notebooks on health aspects of biology than was found In text-books and courses suggest-1 ing that this work i s passed by i n some degree. And biology has the greatest amount of time spent on t h i s phase of any of the special sciences. The usual chemistry course ignores health aspects other 1. Baird, D.O., Contributions to Education, #400; Teachers'College,Golim-bia Un. New York. 1929, Abstract, Curtis, Sec. Digest p. 202. 18 than the breathing of pure a i r , the p u r i f i c a t i o n of water (mainly chemical at that), and sometimes mention of drugs that can be syn-thesized, with some of the newer books including foods and vitamins, * physics passes by nearly a l l aspects of health excepting the problems of v e n t i l a t i o n . In no physics book which has been examined (of the . nine leading Physics texts on the continent) i s a mention made of care i n handling e l e c t r i c a l appliances, connections, and such, nor is any mention made of f i r s t a i d for e l e c t r i c a l shocks. This neglect of health aspects by physics courses and to a s l i g h t l y less degree by chemistry courses i s a f l y i n g into the face of r e -1 search r e s u l t s obtained by Dr. G-. S. Craig who found that the weight-ing given by laymen to an extensive l i s t of objectives of education placed the "acquaintance with such elementary laws of nature as are necessary f o r the health of the i n d i v i d u a l and the community" above a l l others, followed very c l o s e l y by the "major causes of i l l heaL th and the contribution of science to the correction of these causes". Evaluating the Importance of the present Objectives Having examined the objectives of the courses i n q u e s t i o n j i t was next necessary to gain some idea of t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance. Admitting at the outset the weaknesses of a general opinion which often expresses the status quo and may exclude very r a d i c a l , new, and perhaps more valuable ideas, s t i l l the best way of obtaining this information of weighting i s by a measure expressed by the more enlightened group of human beings. In t h i s group should be placed those who are most affected by the objectives, the teachers of science, and the various persons who are i n executive positions; 1. Craig, G.S., Contrib. to Ed. #276, Teachers' College, Col. Univ., New York, ADStract, p. 40 Curtis, Second Digest of Invest, i n Teach.of Sc. or administratice ones. Other teachers would form another useful group for purposes of comparison as well as the professors at the University, The laymen i f they could be p r e v a i l e d upon to express opinions would form a sort of control. It was proposed to f i n d this information by the questionnaire method, and to submit the questionnaire to these groups. (a) University professors; persons who hold high administrative p o s i t i o n s , (If enough returns had come i n to warrant separation, these two groups would have been segrjated,) (b) Science Revision Committee members; science teachers i n the high school. (Again i f s u f f i c i e n t returns had come i n these two groups would have been separated.) (c) Other teachers of: the high school. (&) Any other returns not included i n above. 1 Before setting the questionnaire^sections of two books were studied. These provided considerable guidance. The f i r s t rough draft of the question-naire was prepared and submitted to several persons for c r i t i o i s m . As an outcome of this c r i t i o i s m i t was thought advisable to prepare an explanatory sheet to accompany the questionnaire. On i t was placed the purpose of the questionnaire, the evidence of i t s need as indicated by various quotations, and a paragraph of directions to follow i n making r e -turns. The objectives were placed on the questionnaire form unaltered and without comments. Only th e i r order or sequence was altered, lest any un-conscious influence might be exerted to suggest that the Science Revision Committee had evaluated them i n the order i n which they appear i n the Prog-ramme of Studies. The questionnaire was memeographed and d i s t r i b u t e d 1. Monroe and Enge(:hart, "The S c i e n t i f i c Study of Educational Problems, Chap. I l l , x i l l • ? Alexander,Carter. "How to Locate Educational Information and Data 20 personally,'and by mail with .suitable postage and addressed return envelope: enclosed. A copy i s included i n the Appendix. When the questionnaires were returned they were sorted into the two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of Science Teachers and Non-science Teachers for those that were received from the Summer School classes and those that were returned through the mail. The special groups were canvassed i n d i v i d u a l l y , so that their returns could be kept separate from the others, and the forms for these were modified s l i g h t l y i n the headings to comply with the po s i t i o n s occupied by those canvassed. The returns from the University professors were not very numerous mainly because most of the science departments are not very active during the Summer Session, and few of the professors were present. Their returns have been incorporated with those who occxipied administrative or executive p o s i t i o n s , The members of the Science Revision Committee are widely scattered during the holiday season and i t has been impossible to secure the opinion of some of them. As questionnaire returns go they have been rather s a t i s f y i n g for from the one hundred forms issued to date eighty-five have been returned. Of these f i f t y - s e v e n came from the two Summer School classes, Professor Wood's . 1 graduate class In Problems i n Education, and Mr, lord's class i n School ,2 Law and Administration. The f i f t y - s e v e n were almost evenly divided be-tween Non-science Teachers (28) and Science Teachers (27) taking as the c r i t e r i o n of segregation the person's one statement as to whether he con-sidered himself a science teacher or not. A few of the Non-science group had taught science but not a great number. The returns of rankings were t o t a l l e d , and then averaged; this was thought to. be a s u f f i c i e n t l y accurate method for the needs. The percentages • Education 23 • Education 12 21 were treated the same way. The ranking returns were f u r t h e r analyzed "by making a histogram, then showing the range of v a r i a t i o n , and l a s t l y c a l c u -l a t i n g the standard d e v i a t i o n to get an accurate view of the homogeneity of opinion, The r e s u l t s from these two groups f o l l o w i n the t a b l e s . The f o l l o w i n g frequency histograms show c l e a r l y the massing of opin-i o n i n some of tables and a d i s p e r s i o n i n others. There seems to be a con-s i d e r a b l e degree of unanimity of opinion between the science teachers and the non-science teachers, as both groups show almost the same massing or d i s p e r s i o n . The massing of opinion concerning the present objectives 1, 2, and 8 as shown r e s p e c t i v e l y i n d, f. and g i s very emphatic, Note the p e c u l i a r schism i n # 3 ( j ) and 5 ( e ) . In § 4 (b) there seems to be a group who have very emphatic ideas that the overcoming of common e r r o r s and s u p e r s t i t i o n s i s not the f u n c t i o n of a science course. There might be i n t e r e s t i n g reason's f o r t h i s but the questionnaire d i d not c a l l f o r any comments on the o b j e c t i v e s as l a i d down i n the course. 22 TABLE 1 A (Very-. &u-*J>3f>-~'B'«imx.\-eQj Summary or returnsyjsubmitted to two classes of teachers attending the Summer Session of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1938. Objective Ranking (Column A) Percentages (B) Sum of Average Re-rank Range Stand, Sum Ranking Rank Dev. a Worthy use (#7). of leisure • I' : . Science T. 138 5,11 4 2-8 11.66 240 9.00 Hon-science .153 5.46 5 2-10 2.15 250 *) © 2 «3 b Counteract (#4) superstitions . Science T. 166 6.15 7 2-10 2.76 173 6.3 Non-science 181 6.46 7 2-10 2.845 211 7.81 c Develop r e -(#9) s ourcefulne s s ... ., Science T. 135 5. 3 2-10 2.26 261 9.66 Non-science 127 4.53 3 1-10 3.01 325 12.03 d Bodv of Seien-(#1) t i f i c know. Science T. 52 1.92 1 1-5 1.202 555 20.55 Non-science 68 2.43 1 1-5 1,46 574 21.25 e Achievements (#5) i n f i e l d of sc. ; Science f . \ 159 5,96 6 2-9 2,27 193 7.14 Non-science 167 5.96 6 2-9 " 2.15 202 7.48 f Use of scien-(#2 ) • t i f i c method -. Science T. 68 2.52 2 :. 1-7 1,72 414 15,33 Non-science 72 2.61 2 1-8 1.98 531 19.66 r Desire to read (#8) s c i e n t . l i t e r . 216 8,00 10 2-0.0 2,13 142 5,26 . Soienoe T. • ' ' Non-science 236 8 .43 10 3-10 1.195 129 4.78 h p u b l i c and per-n i o )sonal health Science T. 157 5.81 5 1-10 2.65 243 9.00 Non-sc lance 139 4.96 4 1-9 2,03 271 10.37 i Explore re (#6) vocations Science T. 197 7.29 9 1-10 2.108 173 6.41 Non-science 185 6.61 8 2-10 175 6.48 .1 A b i l i t v to (#3) experiment ., Science T. 189 7.00 8 2-10 2,32 189 6.92 Non-science 189 6.74 9 3-10 2.19 173 6.41 Sum of choices made by adding a l l the rankings for any one objective. Average obtained by d i v i d i n g sum of choices by frequency; 27 for Science Teachers, and 28 for Non-science Teachers. Standard deviation calculated by Pearson product-moment method. Percentages were summated and averaged from returns on questionnaire. FIGURE 1 23 F r e q u e n c y oTi»tri b u t t o n s of r a n k i n g s or- e v a l u a t i o n s g i v e n f o tine t e n o b j e c t i v e s o\ G e n e r a l S c i e n c e I V a n d V l y F i f t v - f i v e ^ c c o n d o.ry S c h o o l T a a c i r i f c r s attfenoli/ig Tha S u m TO <r»^  S e s s i o n of t|i<2 U n i v t r i i t y o f fini. C o L ^ H i & f c K j r a - m s . o f S c i e n c e a c l l e r s in. r e e l , " H o n - s c i e n c e T e a - c h e ^ j in gmer!.) Oloi&ctiv« a." E 1' 3" V I' fc' T' 8 Ob j e c t ive C ( # q "m Bullefml) l 2.' 3' 4' s-' 71 8' <?' ft1 Ko-^kiiA^t ObjectiVc "c" ( # 5 \ n B u l k t m l ) 10 a M *> c v u. 0 loje c t i v c b ( H ,nB«Hetw I J 24 u-10. _V Z' 3' V i " 71 6' l ' to' Olojecf ii/e "d" (#] in B u l l e t i n I ) 1i 1o4 U4~| 1' £ 3' A' S' 4' 7 1 ft' ««' |V »ve 1 (*2 ^ I b a l l e t ^ l ) FIGURE 1 Leant) 24 11.1 Objective "<j" (*8l.i Bulletin i) it 14. id > v. a. 4 O b j e c t i v e k (*10".n Bulletin ] I * i *' 3' 4' S< 4' 71 i 25 'TABLE 11 Evaluations and Weightings Made by Sixteen Administrators, P r i n c i p a l s , and Science Committee Members Objective Ranking (Column A) Percentages (B) Sum of Rankings Average Rank Re-ran: c Range Stand.Dev Sum Average Weighting a Worthy use (#7) of leisure 92 5.75 5 3-9 119 7.43 b Counteract (#4) superstitions 108 6.75 8 2-10 2.84 117 7,3 c Develop r e -(#9) sourcefulness 75 4.68 3 1-10 2»3^ 152 9,5 d Body of scien-(#1) t i f i c know. 23 1.43 1 1-3 .75 403 25.2' e Achievements i (#5) f i e l d of scien n ce96 6. 6 2-9 1.83 125 7.8 f Use of scien-(#2) t i f i c method 32 2. 2 1-4 1 305 19. g Desire to read (#8) s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e 120 8.5 10 3-10 2.15 85 5.3 h P u b l i c and per (#10)sonal health 88 5.5 4 2-10 3.04 143 8.93 i Explore for (#6) vocations 113 7.06 . 9 3-10 2.1 108 6.75 j A b i l i t y to (#3) experiment 101 6.3 7 2-10 2,52 108 6,75 26 TABLE 111 Summary of Evaluations by 78 Teachers (Composite of a l l returns.) Objective Ranking; (Column A) Sum of rankingsl Average! Re-rank rank: rankings Range of Stand Dev. Sum Percentage (Column B) Range of % Average Weighting a Worthy use (7). of l e i s -ure b Counteract (4) supers-t i t i o n s c Develop re-sourceful-ness d Body of s c i s n t i f i c (1) knowledge of envir. e Achievements (5) i n the f i e l , of science f Use of s c i e n t i f i c (2) method g Desire to read scient.| (8) l i t e r . h P u b l i c and (10) personal health i Explore for (6) vocations j A b i l i t y to (3) exp eriment 431 502 366 5.53 6.43 4.56 155 463 185 629 429 545 1.98 5.91 2.37 8.06 5.50 6.92 6.98 10 2-10 2-10 1-10 1-5 1-9 1-8 2-10 1-10 2-10 2-10 2.01 2.78 2.64 646 539 821 1.20 2.20 1.65 2.08 2.54 2,13 2,27 I 1576 576 1389 394 720 1-20 0-20 2-35 8.28 6,91 10.53 509 8-50 1-20 6-40 1-10 3-25 3-12 2-20 Numerals i n brackets denote order i n B u l l e t i n 1 page 159 20.2 7.38 17.8 5.05 9.74 6.24 6.53 11 20 18 10 98.66% 99% I* requcw^Y tU*1*9r« .ms SWoWing tKe l>\btr i b ution of ti»« Seventy- 03W Ranki'oa-5. Gwen to toe T e n Objeciives o f Genera,! ScienceIV". 5 01 At->»• «• 18-o # r« b (1-10, page I S ^ j B u l k f i n l j FIGURE II (c««t) Frequency I>i»t«-ibuUon of Seventy-eigWt Evaluations of f\\z Objectives. 0 bjcdwe a. C*7i po-3« 15q,E>ullctinl) 2a-jo-ts If. 14 V 0 4-I 1' 4' 3' 4' J' y 7' ft' <,! 16+ Eva.lu(ttien> (."Ra-nkingj) Objective lo (*4, page 15<J^ B«JL l) J*-84 1' 3' 4i ti 71 a' i' i? Object me 1 (#3, page 1 5 ^ 5 0 llefin i ) 22 2D 24 it-It->• , I * Objective € paae JS^ Baliet'n l ) l( 31 41 j ' 4l 7< fll flT Objects Z.' 3' 4 1 5"' 4' 7' a 1 1> (d O b j e c t i v e 3 C*»,fl5«?,2>ull«tm]) '"' SUMMARY The Bearranging of The Present Objectives From Table 111 i t w i l l be seen that the order of the objectives ar-ranged with the most important f i r s t should bes-1. To acquire a body of knowledge i n the f i e l d of science which w i l l enable the student to interpret and appreciate his environment. 2. To develop a b i l i t y i n the use of the s c i e n t i f i c method; e. g j — (a) To make accurate observations and to record them systematically, (b) To draw v a l i d conclusions. (c) To suspend judgment u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t evidence has been obtained. .(d) To develop a c r i t i c a l yet tolerant attitude towards new ideas. 3. To develop resourcefulness and a d a p t a b i l i t y to new conditions. 4. To acquire knowledge which w i l l contribute to p u b l i c and personal health. 5. To provide materials for a worthy use of l e i s u r e . 6. To appreciate achievements i n the f i e l d of sctenoe, and the contrib-utions of s c i e n t i s t s to the modern world. 7. To enable the student to counteract s u p e r s t i t i o n and to correct erroneous b e l i e f s through the application of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s . 8. To explore the f i e l d of science i n order to a s s i s t the p u p i l to choose h i s vocation. 9. To develop the a b i l i t y to perform simple experiments, and thus to appreciate the experimental basis of science, .0. To develop the desire to read s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e . This order now provides a guide for the amount of t e s t i n g material for each objective. The percentage weightings give a more precise guide, but they should not be used r i g i d l y , A minus v a r i a t i o n of one per cent for the lesser important objectives and a greater dispersion of up to a plus ten per cent for the f i r s t objective would seem f a i r . CHAP TER 111 • COMMON FORMS OF TEST ITEMS AND THEIB FUNCTIONS ON TESTS Scope of Chapter 'Having determined the r e l a t i v e importance of the objectives of Gener-a l Science, with p a r t i c u l a r reference to the B r i t i s h Columbia courses, General Science IT and T, i t i s now necessary to investigate tests and types of questions that compose them i n order to f i n d which forms of ques-tions w i l l measure i n the best manner achievement of these several ob-j e c t i v e s . In this chapter a survey w i l l be made of the more common t.yoes of questions found on both standardized and ordinary tests i n the f i e l d of science. This w i l l be followed i n Chapter IT by a more detailed study of c e r t a i n standardized tests to see to what degree these tests attempt to measure achievement of the various objectives. In subsequent chapters an attempt i s made to adapt and invent question forms to meet the several objectives more adequately. The Three Major Types of Tests It may be said of t e s t i n g that there are three major purposes--1. To.obtain administrative data. In this category should f a l l the tests used for the a l l o c a t i o n of letter-grades. Tests used to segregate the abler students from the less able into respective classes have t h i s function. Many Aptitude Tests f a l l i n this grouping, although some l i k e the Seashore Musical Aptitude Test t r y to obtain an absolute measure r a t -her than a r e l a t i v e one. In a l l these tests the essence Is to obtain a d i s t r i b u t i o n , to f i n d 1 the r e l a t i v e placement of p u p i l s measured against the others, -. flawkes,Lindauist,and Mann,"The Construction and Use of Achievement Tests" P 23, pp Ib4-lfa5 and passim. 31 2. To ascertain achievement i n a given f i e l d ; A unit test of the factual matter, a general test of a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c procedures devel-oped during the course, or a test of the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n -cipes to health problems would be examples of achievement tests r e s t r i c t e d to c e r t a i n f i e l d s , A test of this type should be a comprehensive one sam-p l i n g a l l sections of work of at least average importance. 3. To diagnose student d i f f i c u l t i e s ; This test should be quite exten-sive as i t i s designed to locate p u p i l d i f f i c u l t i e s . When c r u c i a l sec-tions of work are'being tested,such as a law or'principle^ several points attacking the problem from d i f f e r e n t angles should be employed. The administrative test may be b r i e f and makes much use of sampling. Every item should have a discriminative value d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g i t sharply from the others. It i s o r d i n a r i l y a short test with the minimum number of items necessary to give r e l i a b i l i t y . It need not be all-embracing as long as there i s present a proper sequence of d i f f i c u l t y of the test items. These items should have their discriminative power measured i n terms of standard deviations, For instance i n preparing the test the examiner may have test items A , B , 0, j j a l l of equal discriminative a b i l i t y but dealing with quite d i f f e r e n t topics. He need chose only one of these for h i s ad-ministrative t e s t . (Jommonly an achievement test may be defined as one designed to ex-press i n terms of a single score a p u p i l ' s r e l a t i v e achievement i n a given f i e l d of achievement. Hawkes, Lindquist and Kann assert that ac-hievement tests should be made on a basis of the discriminative power of the items to provide a progression from low standard deviation values to 33 high ones, i t should be comprehensive. With some parts of the d e f i n i t i o n the writer i s tempted to disagree, mainly on the basis of the word " r e l a -t i v e " . The conception of the achievement test as explained above i s based on pragmatic philosophy. While i t i s admitted that there i s continual change, p a r t i c u l a r l y during the discovery period of science that the world i s i n today, nevertheless one can develop measuring instruments that are less r e l a t i v e and more nearly absolute than i s the letter-grading based on a normal curve of d i s t r i b u t i o n , There i s no purpose gained i n making an achievement test r i g o r o u s l y discriminative, for- an administrative test does t h i s . Bather the achievement test should be a "pupils* t e s t " whereby he can see how much he has or has not learned or developed, i t should not be a mastery test which more nearly approaches the diagnostic t e s t ^ i n func-t i o n , but rather i t should be of the nature of a more nearly complete or absolute standard upon which may be indicated the l i k e l y high and low scores. While the i d e a l test of this nature should cover a l l points of a course such a test i s impossible i n p r a c t i c e . However, the sampling could be so extensive and intensive that the r e l i a b i l i t y of the test w i l l be r e -duced only by an i n s i g n i f i c a n t amount from the i d e a l . Referring to the i l l u s t r a t i o n i n the preceding section i f items A, B. C, D test d i f f e r e n t topics they must be included i n an achievement t e s t . To i n s i s t that items of no discriminative values should be eliminated from achievement tests i s unfair. There may be f i f t y items of fundamental importance i n a course that a l l students^having taken the course^could answer. These must be ex-cluded from present type achievement tests as not possessing discriminative power. Their i n c l u s i o n i n a test i s looked upon i n the nature of padding, and so i t would be i n an administrative test, but i t i s not i n an achieve-34 merit test for i t represents the basic or minimum course more t r u l y than the average score taken from the d i s t r i b u t i o n . Achievement t e s t i n g surely must measure t h i s . To judge a p u p i l , or a teacher also, upon only the discrimie* nativ-e questions based on a course i s not obtaining a true measure. Dis-criminative tests take o f f the cream, but then there i s a great amount of value i n skim milk. To broaden the conception of achievement tests would seem to be In l i n e with present thoughts on the matter of making reports on students. I f the future report i s going to be less competitive and more nearly a report on what the student himself i s a c t u a l l y doing, I t would : seem necessary to measure on an absolute standard. The basic achievement which when put into straightforward questions and not garnished or embellished, has l i t t l e discriminative power could be included i n the absolute standard. Diagnostic tests should be b u i l t on a d i f f e r e n t p l a n from either of the preceding. They should be extensive, should not be shortened by sampling, and should have several questions bearing on each of the more important or c r u c i a l points such as laws or p r i n c i p l e s , i n order to come at the problem from d i f f e r e n t points of attack. This i s necessary because a law or p r i n c i p l e Is based usually upon two or more factors i n t e r a c t i n g , and the misunderstanding of any one factor prevents the understanding of the p r i n c i p l e . They should be arranged so as to repeat basic items to see i f weakness or strength of p u p i l i s consistent. Research Limited to Questions Testing Achievement Of these three types of tests only the achievement group i s selected for study. It i s Intended to try to f i n d or devise techniques of testing that may be used i n measuring achievements i n the f i e l d s of the various objectives rather than to make a s t a t i s t i c a l or mathematic treatment of the f i e l d , which i s another problem e n t i r e l y . In a l l the types of tests mentioned above the forms of questions are the s.ame. It i s not the form of question that makes an achievement or an administrative test but the plan and construction of the test as a whole. The form of the question has a considerable bearing upon the v a l i d i t y of the question and hence i n d i r e c t l y upon the v a l i d i t y of a test. It i s im-perative that the question be analyzed on this basis, "Is i t a c t u a l l y t e s t i n g what i t i s desired to test?" I f the present form of question does not test d i r e c t l y what i s desired perhaps another form would be better. Ghief Forms of Questions i n Common Use The c h i e f types of questions i n common use i n class-room work and upon standardized tests are«-1. True-false and modifications, 2. Multiple choice and modifications, 5. Completion or R e c a l l , both sentence and paragraph. 4. Matching or Association. 5. Analogy. 6. Diagrams, Charts, Graphs, 7. Catechism. 8. Essay type responses, 9. Mathematical c a l c u l a t i o n , 10. Checking, check l i s t s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s . 11. Performance or " P r a c t i c a l " t e s t s . 12. Oral Examinations, interviews. 13. Rearrangements, ^ 36 14. Comparisons and. Contrasts. 15. Constructions, Drawings. The True-galse Type The form of t h i s test causes the student to decide whether a statement i s true or false and to r e g i s t e r his decision accordingly. There are many variations of this $- Right or Wrong, Yes-No, Plus-Zero, Plus-Minus. Another type i s to arrange a test with the same point repeated i n various forms throughout the test i n order that "consistency of opinion may ,be checked. Another form has the s p e c i a l phrase or word tested i n i t a l i c s or under-l i n e d . If the student decides that i t i s false he must correct the phrase or word, This i s one of the f i r s t developed objective questions. During the "twenties" of this century i t became very popular, but i t s p o p u l a r i t y i s waning now. Pew standardized tests now employ .'iv ... They are r a p i d l y done by students, r e q u i r i n g ten per cent less time than a two-choice ques-t i o n (multiple choice arrangement), up to f i f t y per cent for r e c a l l and for; the simpler c a l c u l a t i o n type of problem not involving complicated com-1 putations, Ruch and Stoddart found that the true-false type of question was the least r e l i a b l e of a l l types of objective questions, with a 2 r e l i a b i l i t y for f i f t y Items of only ,555 as aginst .811 for r e c a l l . 1. Toops,H,A. "Trade Tests i n Education", Teachers College, Contributions to Education No. 115, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y 1921;pp. 39-52. 2, Ruch,G-.M. and Stoddard,G-.D. "Comparative R e l i a b i l i t e s of Five Types of Objective Examinations"; Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.16 (1925) pp. 89-103 ' 37 When t h i s was -equalized by the Spearman^rown formula to give the r e l i a b i l i t y on the basis of equal time, then the r e l i a b i l i t y increased s l i g h t l y to .664 as against »896 f o r the completion r e c a l l types. To obtain a r e l i a b i l i t y equal to that of f i f t y r e c a l l or f i f t y m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e questions, another seventy to nin e t y extra (120-140 t o t a l ) t r u e - f a l s e questions are needed. I t can be seen from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n that t r u e - f a l s e questions take more time to do the same job of measuring as r e l i a b l y as the r e c a l l o f m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e do. Too'ps' work corroborated the f i r s t r e l i a b i l i t y f i n d i n g s but did not agree on the r e l i a b i l i t y - t i m e b a s i s . This form of question can be a p p l i e d to most f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l . I t can be of considerable value i n t e s t i n g superstitions,common e r r o r s , g u l l i b i l i t y , and s i m i l a r r e l a t e d t o p i c s . I t i s acceptable f o r t e s t i n g opinions, and can be u t i l i z e d f o r f a c t u a l t e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y where only two p o s s i b l e choices e x i s t . I t i s commonly supposed that sets of these questions ean be prepared very e a s i l y and speedily.. When prepared i n a hu r r i e d manner the q u a l i t y of the questions i s very v a r i a b l e . Questions prepared t h i s way freq u e n t l y con-t a i n f a m i l i a r phrases and leads, p u t t i n g too great a premium upon the a b i l i t y of the student to r e c a l l words and not ideas. Tests of t r u e - f a l s e types stress texts and words too much f o r use i n science. On the other hand, when sets of questions are prepared c a r e f u l l y by om i t t i n g a l l leads and by q u a l i -f y i n g the debatable p o i n t s s u f f i c i e n t l y , there i s l i t t l e , i f any, saving of time for the teacher. There i s a l o s s of time i f the teacher prepares the extra number of items necessary to obtain r e l i a b i l i t y equal to the others. The t r u e - f a l s e question often i s ambiguous, e i t h e r too extreme or too expensive i n scope, or q u a l i f i e d , so much as to be worthless. 38 Multiple Choice This type i s usually a d i r e c t statement followed by several answers of varying degrees of accuracy, one of which usually i s correct, or supe-r i o r " to the others. The choices can be short {single words) or long statements. The type i s modified sometimes into the multiple response form wherein more than one response i s to be i d e n t i f i e d as correct. Oc-casi o n a l l y no response i s correct. Almost a l l standardized tests use +Vuj type, some tests employing them to the exclusion of a l l others. It pos-s i b l y i s the most valuable type because i t can be so arranged as to cause active thinking, comparison, reference to data, and reasoned judgments. But merely because a question i s multiple choice" i n form does not mean that i t i s of the best type. It may be demanding only a r e c a l l of facts as i n the following »-At sea.level a i r pressure per square i n c h i s (a) 13.6 l b . , (b) 5 l b . , (c) 62".5 l b . , (d) 14,7 l b . (e) 30 l b . (f) 29.9 l b . 5.x The above example I l l u s t r a t e s how a multiple choice can be made into pue that demands the sorting out of a great number of terms or quantities that the student encounters i n science, Buch and Stoddard found that the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s type of test varied considerably according to the number of choices, two-choice questions showing .737, three-choice ones only ,59'8, (four-choice not mentioned), five-choice ,796. When corrected for time and r e l i a b i l i t y the r e s u l t s were i n order .902, ,806, — , .901 as.against .896 for completion r e c a l l and ,664 for tr u e - f a l s e , Toops found that they required s i x t y per Cent more time to do, but gave them a 1, Kuch and Stoddart, op.cit, p>6<)- Jo2. 39 t i m e - r e l i a b i l i t y value of only ,607 as against .664 f o r t r u e - f a l s e . These questions can he a p p l i e d i n t e s t i n g achievements i n almost a l l f i e l d s . They are p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n t e s t i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s , f o r a l t e r n a t e responses can be made very p l a u s i b l e , The m u l t i p l e - c o r r e c t response type i s a l s o of good value f o r t e s t i n g i n science where often several f a c t o r s are invo l v e d , or sev e r a l consequences may r e s u l t from a c e r t a i n cause. I t i s valuable i n t e s t i n g hypotheses based on data. i To make these questions most valuable great care must be exercised i n these ways :-1. Make a l l answers approximately the same length. 2, Do not become habituated i n placement of the c o r r e c t response. 3, Make the i n c o r r e c t responses appear quite p l a u s i b l e . Do not make them appear r i d i c u l o u s so that the correct response stands out from them, 4, Avoid clues to the answer i n such apparently n e u t r a l things as ar-t i c l e s , a d j e c t i v e s , phraseology, 5. Avoid s p l i t t i n g the question by having the responses i n the middle, p l a c e responses at the end, 6. For ease i n marking have students s e l e c t the l e t t e r of the response and place i t i n a blank at the r i g h t hand side (or l e f t ) . Avoid u n d e r l i n i n g the answer i n order to speed up marking, and to avoid problems that a r i s e from u n d e r l i n i n g a p a r t of a response. 7. Make the responses Involve a c t i v e t h i n k i n g by c r e a t i n g problem s i t -u a t i o n s . 8, F i x the l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y equivalent to the grade or course. 1. Toops, "Trade Tests i n Education"; op. a i t • pp.39-52, -' ' . • • 40 J . Completion or B e c a l l The: form of this may vary from one "blank to be f i l l e d i n by the neces-sary answer to complete a sentence, to a paragraph with several to • many blanks which must be answered c o r r e c t l y to make a complete correct parag-raph. In Chemistry the completion.of equations i s e s s e n t i a l l y of this type. Some mathematical problems are of th i s type when reasoning by analogy i s not involved. For example•-To drag a sack of potatoes twenty feet across a fl o o r and using f o r t y pounds of force requires that — : foot pounds of work be done. ! Table completion i s another v a r i a t i o n of this i n very compact form, This i s p o s s i b l y the oldest form of objective question developed by educational research and one of the most valuable. It Is easy to make and need not be bookish. The questions are applicable to every s i t u a t i o n which demands a fa c t u a l answer, tp computations, "to descriptive questions, to compact tabulations, and to many questions involving the drawing of a con-clusio n from data .presented. This l a s t reference suggests a p o s s i b i l i t y of i t s use i n testing achievements i n the use of the s c i e n t i f i c method. With longer responses the o b j e c t i v i t y of the answer i s usually lessened. For the short answer type Huch and Stoddart give a r e l i a b i l i t y of ' 1 ';' ,811 for f i f t y questions, Toops reports that they take more time i n the 2 r a t i o of twenty-three to twelve (nearly twice as long) than the true-false, When equalized by the Spearman-Brown formula on a time ba.sis Toops reports a r e l i a b i l i t y of .618 and Euch and Stoddart ,896. The greater amount of time needed to do these questions i s due to two factors, p r i m a r i l y because 1. Such and. Stoddart, op. c i t . fyeq-toa 2, Toopsj op.cit,, 'Pyo , 41 of the direct r e c a l l of the response which sometimes demands considerable mental e f f o r t , and secondly the mechanics of writing out a response i n ~ stead of s e l e c t i n g a l e t t e r or a choice. •TO be most useful these questions should be prepared c a r e f u l l y . Arrange the questions so as to• 1, Keep the responses short. 2, Work c l e a r l y so that the type of response i s shown d i s t i n c t l y . 3. Avoid bookish statements or habitual expressions of the teacher. 4, Include no more i n the \statemsnt than i s functional. 5. Do not confuse the Issues. Test for one s p e c i f i c point at a time,e.g., The Danish s c i e n t i s t Oerstad discovered that wire carrying an e l e c t r i c current produced " -^ ", ' This contains i r r e l e v a n t material i n the reference to Oerstad that may 'give a l e a d to the answer. The question as i t stands i s combining two ideas that should be separated, namely the i n d i r e c t s o c i a l contribution made by Oerated and the "straight science". The question reworded to test the science only would be: "A wire carrying an e l e c t r i c current produces • • ", As i t stands now i t tests science only but i t i s not p r e c i s e . The current may produce heat i n t e r n a l l y ; l i g h t i f the resistance and temperature i s high enough, or an electromagnetic f i e l d , or a l l . The question would be more s p e c i f i c i n this form "Around the wire carrying i t , an e l e c t r i c current produces — " . This i s now precise and eliminates the irrelevance of s o c i a l contributions. 6. Try to arrange blanks so that they f a l l at the end of the l i n e and can thus be arranged i n columns. F a i l i n g t h i s , number the blank and provide a numbered space at the r i g h t for the response. 7. Do not leave keys or clues i n the composition or grammar of the test item. 8. Because there Is a tendency for l a b e l l i n g or naming i n this type of ques.tion try to word i t To. make questions more active. Rather give the name or term and have the student apply i t , or complete the description, 9,. In the tabular forms the questions should be stated separately and a br i e f e r p a r a l l e l column heading given. 10, In the tabular form avoid simply factual r e c a l l and try to inolude comparisons, reasonings, etc* 11, Do not abbreviate a statement to such an extent that i t becomes a puzzle to the student, nor ins e r t so many blanks that he cannot follow the thread of thought. There may be several words of an o r i g i n a l state-ment that may become the question response, but i n cases l i k e this choose the word which emphasizes action or understanding of a p r i n c i p l e rather than terminology. Paragraph completion questions are e s s e n t i a l l y the same as the sentence completion. Great care must be exercised l e s t the paragraph become too dissected with blanks. Matching Questions or Associations One l i s t contains items which must be matched with other items i n another l i s t , usually by transposing the l e t t e r or number of one to the blank i n front of the other. Other variations arej to give the possible responses i n a group, from which the correct responses are selected and written i n the appropriate blanks. These questions have been badly prepared i n many cases so that the r e l i a b i l i t y varied. Too many leads were included i n many, others lacked 43 s p e c i f i c n e s s , ., When prepared c a r e f u l l y they possess a high r e l i a b i l i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y . They are speedily w r i t t e n , and r e q u i r e about the same length of time as the t r u e - f a l s e questions take. They can be made quite searching by adding a t h i r d or fourth column of infermation to be matched against the f i r s t and second. They are not very e f f e c t i v e when t r y i n g to test complex p r i n c i p l e s , nor for the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data. They can be used to bet t e r advantage when t e s t i n g b r i e f f a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s such as matching men's names to t h e i r d i s c o v e r i e s , laws with t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s , causes and e f f e c t s , d e s c r i p -\ t i o n s , c o n d i t i o n s or demands w i t h vocations, a t t i t u d e s d e s i r a b l e i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s , and s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l . The matching questions do not take up as much space as the m u l t i p l e -choice, or even as much as the t r u e - f a l s e u s u a l l y . They are r e l a t i v e l y easy to make and to mark,Observe the f o l l o w i n g r u l e s when pre p a r i n g them, 1, The prime r u l e i s to have homogeneity of choices. -"'•11 responses of one column should be p l a u s i b l e answers f o r the other, 2, Leads must be eliminated, and stock phrases a l s o . 3, There should be about ten t,c f i f t e e n items w i t h a minimum excess of three p o s s i b l e responses i n order to avoid answering by e l i m i n a t i o n . 4, One or two responses should be used more than once (with a warning), 5, Arrange items i n a manner that reduces mechanical e f f o r t tb a minimum; names i n a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t s ; dates i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order;long items on the left-hand side,short ones on the r i g h t . Analogy Questions This form i s arranged l i k e a continued p r o p o r t i o n question, but i t u s u a l l y involves only four terms,one of -which i s missing and must be pro-vided by the student. This form of question u s u a l l y involves reasoning by analogy. Uany c a l c u l a t i o n problems are of t h i s type; e.g., 1. I f the mercury i n a barometer tube stands at t h i r t y inches when alt pressure.is 14.7 pounds per square inch, how high w i l l the mercury be when a i r pressure i s 7.35 pounds per square inch? These are p r i m a r i l y a form of s y l l o g i s t i c reasoning. They are i n the nature of continued pr oportion where the fourth term or extreme can be found from the others. Arithmetical calculations are of this type. These questions are highly objective, speedily done by the student i f he knows the material, and f a i r l y r e l i a b l e , b e i n g about on a par with the four- or five-response multiple choice. They are very suitable when te s t i n g laws such as Ohm's Law, Charles' Law, Boyle's Law, gravity pressure i n f l u i d s , etc. They are also of great value i n comparative work i n Biology wherein one organism or organ i s compared with another. This type of test item i s not as common In the higher grades as i n the lower. It might be very advisable to extend i t s use because of th e . l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g involved. Because of the brevity of these' there i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n the way of i r r e l e v a n t material, leads. On this basis they perhaps exceed a l l other i'orms i n value. 1. They must be prepared with care to see that the analogies are funda-mental and not s u p e r f i c i a l . 2. In order to avoid memoriter response the analogies when applied to calculations must not be of the type done habitually i n class, 3. I f these questions are prepared afresh each time^the great number of acceptable combinations of factors w i l l enable the presentation of new material and thus increase active thinking, 4. The l o g i c should not be "crossed over". This i s easier to check i n short statements than in,long ones. 5. Include s u f f i c i e n t explanation i n the captions or directions, with , perhaps an example, to 1B t the student know exactly what he i s to do. 6. They cannot be applied w e l l to iso l a t e d facts, but are very useful to test the knowledge of the in t e r a c t i o n of several f actors.' 45 Diagrams The dataware presented i n the form of a diagram or picture which the student must interpret, Direct questions may he presented, (reasoning (finding the new condition when a ce r t a i n factor i s changed), r e c a l l , or interpretation; Students may be asked to answer by selecting a l e t t e r representing a part of the diagram, or by naming, or by i n f e r r i n g con-sequences, This i s a form of question that has been limited u n t i l recent time to Biology and l a t e r to General Science. This form of question i s being used increasingly now, so that i t i s not uncommon to see Physics tests and Chemistry tests with diagram questions. They can be made very objective; they can be done speedily or slowly according to the amount of mechanical work attached, and they have a high r e l i a b i l i t y when c a r e f u l l y prepared. They add a va r i e t y to a test and can test>outcomes of teaching other than factual absorption. They are very useful In t e s t i n g interpretation of the data presented by the diagram, Theyr educe the premium on words so 1' that a.student r e l y i n g only on "word memory" i s placed at a disadvantage. The diagram bears a closer resemblance to the o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e than words do. A r i s t o t l e reco&mzed this i n his statement that, "A pi c t u r e i s worth ten thousand words". They sample other a b i l i t i e s than a b i l i t y to read. Graphs o f data may be used demanding in t e r p r e t a t i o n . The p a r t i c u l a r care needed i n preparing diagram te s t s i s 5 -1. To make the diagram large enough and clear enough for comprehension of a l l relevant d e t a i l s . A diagram should not be less than about two inches i n diameter, 2, Avoid a r t i s t i c embellishments. 1. King,Mary H . j P u p i l Comprehension of Place Location Data i n Junior High School. American History, pp. 227-233, pp. 323-327. 46 Sometime-shading to segregate one area from another i s v=ry helpful The use of several colors i s better s t i l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n b i o l o g i c a l diagrams where one tissue may disappear from one region and appear i n another place. ^ 4. Use bold clear-cut l i n e s . 5, Stress the function of parts or the i d e n t i f y i n g parts that perform given functions,rather than mere naming. 6, Be sure that adequate directions are given. 7. Arrows or guide lines when used should end in_ the region required. In mimeograph work s o l i d l i n e s are less confusing than broken ones. Sometimes i t i s preferable to stamp the number or l e t t e r of the res-ponse r i g h t i n the diagram and have a p a r a l l e l numbering or l e t t e r i n g system at tne r i g h t hand side of the page for the responses. This column of responses f a c i l i t a t e s marking. The writer found by experiment that a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ranging from .27 to ,77 existed between diagram tests and the actual performance - 1 of various laboratory a c t i v i t i e s made as p a r a l l e l as p o s s i b l e . This i s not high enough to warrant the claim that the diagram test measures the same a b i l i t y as an actual manipulation test does. The Stanford Scien-t i f i c Aptitude Test scores correlate rather highly with l a t e r s c i e n t i f i c success i n science work done at Stanford, y i e l d i n g correlations of .77 .06 for Chemistry and .951 .02 for Physics. In this test diagrams are an important factor, i n some portions becoming the major factor. Although diagrams p o s s i b l y are not testing the same factors exactly as actual manipulation there appear to be many factors common to both methods. Diagrams have t h i s advantage that the data or materials presen-ted to each are constant, whereas i n actual manipulation tests i t i s rather d i f f i c u l t to obtain exact equality of apparatus or supplies among students. In both methods a s i m i l a r i t y exists i n the s e l e c t i o n of data thought to bear upon the problem. 1. See appendix, pp xiv to xxvi. 2i Xyve, Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Test, passim i n l i t e r a t u r e accom-panying test? 47 The "p'er'shing Laboratory Chemistry" Test made a considerable use of diagrams. They merit wider use, "Catechism" Type This i s perhaps the oldest form of objective questions. It was developed by schools and methods attached to various churches i n the past as far back as medieval times. It has a direct question to be answered by only one b r i e f answer. It was directed p r i m a r i l y to text-book learning and tended to be s t u l t i f y i n g . It was highly objective ( • as far as i t went but i t remained too r i g i d . It was quickly prepared, e a s i l y and r a p i d l y answered, but i t emphasized rote learning to such an extreme that i t l o s t favor with educators. There i s a s u r v i v a l i n the, short, direct questions aimed at measur-ing f a c t u a l knowledge. These are seldom found on,standardized tes t s . Essay. Type Questions The form of these maybe a d i r e c t question, or an imperative sentence to "outline, make, explain, describe," etc« In either case i t i s expected that the student w i l l give a.more or less lengthy reasoned response. It i s intended usually to test such a b i l i t i e s as the student's power of organizing material, of exposition, of tracing cause and e f f e c t , or of memorizing of long passages or processes. They are seldom found on standardized tests because of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n marking. For.many years preceding the last two decades questions were asked i n such forms as to demand essay or paragraph responses. The essay question can be either an excellent or a bad one according to whether i t stresses active thinking and planning, or simply rote learning, 'This difference i s 'extremely hard to detect on paper for much of the value of an essay question depends on what was taught' and what questions the student had answered "before the t e s t . It i s unwise to teach for the pur-pose of a s s i s t i n g students to answer certain questions. This, of course, applies equally f o r c i b l y to any objective type of question. It i s the freshness of approach that helps considerably i n making essay responses more dynamic* Re-casting questions that may have been used once as class room a c t i v i t i e s increases the mental a c t i v i t y on a t e s t . The turning of the point of the question toward the application of ideas or p r i n c i p l e s i s a very e f f e c t i v e way of improving the question. In class procedures i t i s quite l i k e l y that the chemical properties of oxygen may be studied, and questions l i k e ; " L i s t the chemical properties of oxygen" assigned for study purposes. To revise the question i n the following form introduces a more active p r i n c i p l e than rote memory and repetitions "What are the chemical properties of oxygen that make It important'?" The l a t t e r form i s a more l i f e - l i k e form^for i t has the element of genuine enquiry i n i t . It demands a ce r t a i n a b i l i t y to organize, and to apply knowledge gained to solve a p a r t i c u l a r problem, i f the work i s taught with the outline of the l a t t e r question a good deal of the organizing and application of ideas w i l l be done by the teacher, hence reducing the value of the ques-tion somewhat, • Many teachers f e e l that the essay tests do serve a more valuable function than the r i g i d o b j e c t i v i s t would admit. They can be used very e f f e c t i v e l y i n testing appreciation and interpretation. They-are very useful i n t e s t i n g the student's a b i l i t y to organize material, providing ; that the question matter i s fresh, and they serve this purpose better .• 49 than the r i g i d objective questions do which attempt to cover the same ground "because the objective questions have been organized already by the examiner, The essay tests force the student to approach pr oblems as wholes, to organize h i s attack, and to break down the problem into i t s components, These questions force the student to select his data from a mass of information so that they can be made to measure the student's a b i l i t y to s i f t the grain from the chaff. In the functions of organizing an attack on the problem, the marshalling of facts, i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n and appreciation tiie essay type of test .seems superior to the objective or short answer type. The chief d i f f i c u l t y connected with essay tests i s the marking of the responses i n a r e l i a b l e manner, TO improve the essay test three major methods are p o s s i b l e , u l r s t a table of spe c i f i c a t i o n s of the exact objectives of the question should be prepared. Mext the question i t s e l f must be i n the best form p o s s i b l e . L a s t l y a key for marking or evaluat-ing responses should be prepared. The f i r s t step,that of laying s p e c i f i c objectives for the question, i s of course a procedure that must be adopted for a l l good questions, "What know ledge do I need to test?" "What organizing a b i l i t y i s demanded?" "What interpretations i s the student able to make?" These are examples of questions that the examiner must ask himself at t h i s stage. He must go further and l i s t the knowledge, outline the organization and problem, and t r y to gauge possible interpretations, Having set up h i s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the question, the examiner can improve the question form and function by judging i t on the bases follow-ing* .. ' . ' 50 1. It i s axiomatic that the question must he based on the student's experience, and not completely foreign to i t . 2. The question should provide a new s i t u a t i o n or a new approach to an old one. Questions should not be stereotyped or bookish. 3. " The question should demand an organization of material on a problem-solving basis rather on a factual r e c a l l or descriptive basis (Unless i t i s these a b i l i t i e s that are to be tested). 4. Sampling should be more extensive than many essay tests have demanded, i f one may judge of the great number of examinations of the essay type which are composed of four, f i v e , or s i x questions to be done i n two or three hours. To answer twenty short questions i n an essay manner within the same l i m i t of time extends the sampling to four times the o r i g i n a l and thus increases r e l i a b i l i t y . If i t Is desired to test a b i l i t y to handle long problems one of these i s about a l l that should be included on one examination, 5. The question should give a clear idea to the student as to what i s wanted,, some times the breaking of the question into parts or head-ings i s h e l p f u l . 6. The question should put a premium on thought rather than verbiage. Students should know c l e a r l y that extended wordy answers are not as valuable as are l u o i d concise ones, A very fine means of i l l u s t r a t -ing this i s to take an example of a wordy, frothy response and a good succinct one. Ask the cl a s s to put down one point for each new idea bearing on the question, then read each chosen response slowly. The class scores are usually a l l the teaching needed to i l l u s t r a t e the difference between a bad and good essay response, 1„ The actual mechanics of.writing should be reduced to a minimum, because i t i s not w r i t i n g speed or l e g i b i l i t y that i s being tested but a b i l i t y to think i n the p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d tested, 8. Avoid using optional or alternative questions. 9. ])o not set a value upon a question u n t i l the keys are made. P a i r s of questions of f a i r and superior types are chosen as i l l u s -trations : 1, (a) HOW does water freeze? or (b) Explain the changes that take place when water cools, or (o) Describe how water freezes i n a lake. (d) Why must a l l the water i n a pond be cooled %G> 4!^. before any of r,,> the water w i l l freeze? 51 2. (a) .Explain how sulphide ores are smelted. How i s sulphur removed from c e r t a i n ores i n smelting? 'What are the properties of sulphur-dioxide that affect l i v i n g things'? (b) Why i s vegetation injured and human health impaired around smel-ters r e l e a s i n g sulphur dioxide into the a i r as a r e s u l t of smel-ting sulphide ores? 4, (a) Described the complete process of photosynthesis. (b) A white l e a f , a green one picked about midnight, and a green one picked at noon of a sunny day a l l are tested for starch by using iodine. Only the l a s t one contained any. By reference to the processes that occur i n leaves account for this difference. The l a s t step i s the preparation of keys. Because many examiners i n the past have f a i l e d to prepare keys ;the essay test l o s t much of i t s value. It became too subjective. A key based on p o s s i b l e correct responses reduces considerably the s u b j e c t i v i t y . How much work i s expected, of what quality? Should s p e l l i n g and compositional d i f f i c u l t i e s be deducted from the science score, or only Indicated to the student? In preparing a key the examiner must guard against two tendencies^that of s e t t i n g too high a standard that i s more i n keeping with the examiner's tr a i n i n g , and the op-posite^that of accepting almost anything, that i s written. ii There are at least four plans of evaluating essays and paragraph responses i n use at present* These are;-1. Take a l l the examination papers and read a l l responses to question one; arrange responses approximately into three, f i v e or seven categories according to merit. I f three groups are selected, refine • these. If seven, re-read the borderline cases. Having done this marks can now be allocated, top marks for the best paper, and zero for no attempt or an attempt that i s short and hopelessly jumbled. This was one of the f i r s t methods used i n getting away from the sub-jective method of marking. It i s pragmatic i n philosophical imp-l i c a t i o n and to this extent i s on the same ground as most objective test s . The lack of a key somewhat invalidates results, for a key tends to eliminate subjective reactions, especially i f the key has been prepared i n conjunction with two or three other examiners who discuss each po i n t . (D) 5. (a) 52 2. The secorfd method of marking essay questions i s to note on a l i s t a l l v a l i d or c o r r e c t responses. Occasionally the examiner w i l l be forced to accept ideas advanced by the student that he had neither expected nor accepted p r e v i o u s l y because a strong v a l i d argument had been ad-vanced. This l i s t of correct items then forms the marking l i s t against,which a l l responses are measured by g i v i n g a point for each > acceptable item. Maximum marks are almost an i m p o s s i b i l i t y w i t h t h i s method of ev a l u a t i o n because many students advance p o i n t s not ad-vanced by others. 5. The t h i r d procedure i s a comination of the f i r s t two. A l l the cor-r e c t response items are recorded as i n the second method. During the examination of reap onses they are sorted i n t o a d e s i r e d number of groups as i n the f i r s t method. This involves p r a c t i c a l l y no more work than the second method,for i t takes only a f r a c t i o n of a second to place the response i n one p i l e rather than another. The best r e s -ponse as measured by the/number of co r r e c t Items or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s receives f u l l marks i f an a r b i t r a r y value, had been set, and the others pro r a t a when compared w i t h the. best response. This method i s very much more r e l i a b l e than the common method of reading an es-say^then a s s i g n i n g a value to i t , A v a r i a t i o n of t h i s procedure was adopted by Dr. W. J . ©sburn, now i n the Department of Education, U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, i n develop-ing h i s "Thought Tests" i n h i s t o r y and geography."" He took a l l the p o s s i b l e c o r r e c t responses given by a large group of p u p i l s to cer-t a i n essay type questions, tabulated .them, then prepared a key to use when administering the t e s t s to new ;students. The items that were standardized p r e v i o u s l y became the y a r d s t i o k f o r l a t e r t e s t s . An ex-perienced teacher teaching two to four classes of the same grade and ta k i n g the same subject could prepare a key of t h i s nature that should be usable f o r f i v e years or more. I t i s desirable not to ex-press scores on a percentage basis ;-but i f they must be,percentages can be c a l c u l a t e d aginst the key. I t i s be t t e r to take d i s t r i b u t i o n s , or more simply " s a t i s f a c t o r y " or " u n s a t i s f a c t o r y " d i r e c t l y from the raw scores, 4, The f o u r t h general procedure i s f o r the examiner to w r i t e out the marking key on the b a s i s o f h i s judgment as t o what a p e r f e c t r e s -ponse, a mediocre one, and a poor one should be. This i s a d i s -t i n c l y p r o f i t a b l e method where the question demands i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or attempts to measure depth of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . There i s the danger that the examiner w i l l set h i s standard too high, more i n keeping w i t h h i s own t r a i n i n g than that of the student's. Hawkes, l i n d q u i s t and Mann suggest a p l a n that may be taken e i t h e r • as an a l t e r n a t i v e or as v a r i a t i o n of the above. The examiner prepares a l i s t of a l l the items or degress of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , e t c v which he thinks should be included i n a p e r f e c t answer, then proceeds to . > 53 mark responses i n proportion to the number of acceptable items or degrees of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . These methods are rather dangerous to use by one teacher only. A group of teachers -working together gives better r e s u l t s , i . e . ; l e s s sub-jective and more r e l i a b l e . Also i t i s unwise to put t h i s method i n the hands of an examiner who has had no experience with the subject or student l e v e l for which the test i s designed because the direct contact with the a b i l i t i e s of students does much to improve judgment or q u a l i f y decisions. A l l of the above four methods are not applicable to any or a l l essay type responses. The f i r s t three are useful for t e s t i n g arguments, reason-ings, cause and effect r e l a t i o n s h i p s , applications, and rote learning or memory. The l a s t one i s superior for testing organization, the preparat-ion of keys or tables, p l a n of attack, discrimination, interpretations, and such. A l l of these procedures can be improved s t i l l further by working out some penalty to be exacted when students include wrong responses. An es-say response d i f f e r s from an objective one (except completion types) to this extent that the student shows his own genuine p o s i t i v e and negative knowledge. On an objective t e s t wrong answers are those provided by the examiner for the student to accept or r e j e c t . .Normally the student may not have thought of any of these. On an objective test a student may suffer from no more than doubt and yet select a wrong answer that i s not his own. On an essay test every wrong point i s the student's own, so these r e a l l y should be deducted from the gross score to obtain the net score, i n this matter the essay test has a d i s t i n c t s u periority over the objective type, one that i s perhaps worth following further. 54 The essay tests are not as sat i s f a c t o r y for measuring extent of i n -formation as are the objective. The objective type give a much wider sampling i n the same time and with less e f f o r t . The essay test should attempt more to measure depth of understanding. Mathematical Calculations. Computations This i s a type that i s not c l e a r l y marked off from the completion type on one side nor from the analogy type on another side. The balanc-ing of equations i n Chemistry,/ the application of mathematical laws and formulae, and longer arithmetical computations come i n here. While r a t i o may be used i n these,usually other mathematical processes like the concept of an equation are involved as w e l l . Nearly a l l science tests include a few problems of this type. They are objective i f simple, but become rather subjective i n the very involved problems because examiners do not agree on the methods of solution, the succinctness of work, and similar items. In science they usually represent the b r i e f e s t way of representing the functioning of some p r i n c i p l e . They are a necessary part of testing, but they are often overdone. The questions involving mathematical r e s -ponses can be padded quite e a s i l y with ir r e l e v a n t data. It i s for this reason that most of the poorer mathematical questions are poor* they attempt to t e s t for two objectives at once, the a b i l i t y to segregate data, and the a b i l i t y to apply a law or p r i n c i p l e . In t e s t i n g p r i n c i p l e s the data should be p e r f e c t l y straightforward, and should not involve un-duly awkward computations i n the solution. Inmost standardized tests i n science^mathematical -problems (as d i s t i n c t from the simple completion type) seldom exceed ten per cent of 55 the number of items ;but often they are weighted to exceed this value on the t o t a l test score. Checking. Check L i s t s . " I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s " Usually i n this form of test the student i s asked to check or evaluate items or information provided on the basis of c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a or according to his own f e e l i n g s . These are used frequently i n connection with attitude tests, person-a l i t y t e s t s , and similar work./ They can be modified to test factual matter, and are r e a d i l y adaptable for purposes- of comparing a number of items. When used In this way Ruch and Rice r e f e r to them as i d e n t i f i c a -1 tions. The difference between i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s and the usual check l i s t s i s that the student i s asked to i d e n t i f y a certain thing as having certain properties or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and on the check l i s t he i s asked to evaluate items according to c r i t e r i a provided. Whether the student a c t u a l l y uses a check mark or selects a l e t t e r i s not very important. Both of these question types have the essence, of a multiple choice form and function i n them. Check l i s t s are of value i n t r y i n g to discover i n t e r e s t s . With care i n preparation they can be arranged so as. to give a p r o f i l e view of responses. Performance or P r a c t i c a l Test This is an attempt to strike d i r e c t l y at some achievement which i n -volves s k i l l s , techniques, and even attitudes and i n t e r e s t s . The response to a question of this type i s not e n t i r e l y mental. Such exercises as to type accurately at a c e r t a i n rate, to swim a certain distance, or to set 1 . Ruch, G-.M., and Rice,G.A.• Specimen Objective Examinations, £ 56 up certain apparatus would be examples of the simpler types of these ques-tions. In t h i s type i t i s not so much the question form as the response which i s d i s t i n c t i v e . It i s " t e s t i n g by doing". In tests of this type the actual form of question may be direct, or i t may be a command to do a c e r t a i n task. It d i f f e r s from a l l the preced-ing because i t involves a c t i v i t i e s other than thinking and w r i t i n g . It involves muscular coordination, s k i l l i n techniques that have been developed i n the course, a plan of attack on the problem, and a certain amount of resourcefulness, ' This type of test i s used more i n u n i v e r s i t i e s than i n secondary schools. To incorporate t h i s into regular t e s t i n g programmes would be a wise step because i t tests d i r e c t l y achievements i n the way of s k i l l s and techniques, These cannot be tested properly on paper tests. P o s s i b l y one of the reasons these tests have not become common i n secondary schools i s the time i t takes to do them, the need of a large room properly equip-ped, and the need of s u f f i c i e n t equipment for the tests, (whether these are administered i n r o t a t i o n or n o t ) . However, there are. many simple per-formance tests that can be adapted. For instance there i s l i t t l e reason why students should be asked to Identify the parts of a flower from a diagram when the actual flower can be given. If i t i s actually function-ing knowledge that i s being tested ,the examination of the flower i s va s t l y superior. The " p r a c t i c a l . t e s t s " that form a part of many science courses i n u n i v e r s i t i e s are a step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . They need to be prepared with p a r t i c u l a r care to see that they are i n line with the specifications that Duetto be l i s t e d . There i s some d i f f i c u l t y marking responses. This 57 d i f f i c u l t y varies with the items tested. Identifying the parts of a flower can be as objective as any paper test item- likewise to i d e n t i f y the parts of a pump; or any machine. Where larger problems involving invention or adaptation are set the evaluation of responses becomes more d i f f i c u l t . B'or t h i s reason the examiner just beginning.to use this form of test should choose simple examples. This provides a better d i s t r i b u -t i o n or sampling a l s o . These tests seem to have a use i n testing re-sourcefulness. Oral Examinations. Interviews' Again i t i s not so much the form of. the question here as the method of responding which characterizes t h i s form. The question may be given o r a l l y , as i s the usual case, and the response i s usually o r a l . However, the response may be written. It i s an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c test, a "man to man" test and i s inapplicable i n general for the average teacher con-fronted with mass production. Much time Is involved and this usually forces a r e s t r i c t i o n of this method to the urgent minimum. This i s a form of examination which i s very transitory i n i t s evid-ence of a c t i v i t y unless the spoken words are recorded on a dictaphone. For this reason evaluation i s very subjective and d i f f i c u l t . It i s rather limited i n use because I t takes much time also. It i s very valuable i n diagnostic work, and f o r special purposes. It requires considerable a b i l i t y on the part' of the examiner to make i t worthwhile, an a b i l i t y : to .keep up with events and even to anticipate them. I f i t i s a mere oral questioning this might be done better on paper. Its value l i e s i n the interplay of minds, the more personal touch which i s often of im-measurable value, 58 As a means of diagnosis i t i s very valuable. As an accurate evaluation i t s merits seem dubious. Rearrangements" In t h i s type of test the student must arrange a jumbled array of data into the natural sequence, or be able to select stages or steps i n a complete sequence. 'The essence of this form of question demands the a b i l i t y of the student to trace cause and effect r e l a t i o n s h i p s , trace true chronological sequences, or phase sequences. An example would be to arrange the phases of the moon i n correct sequence s t a r t i n g with the l a s t quarter, or to give the stages i n the metemorphosis of a b u t t e r f l y . It'is useful In t e s t i n g knowledge about rhythmic phenomena. It i s necessary to have the question worded so that there i s no con-fusion i n the student's mind about the meaning of the factors, nor to give i r r e l e v a n t clues by the i n c l u s i o n of time adverbs, The series of events or Items should not be too long, c e r t a i n l y not to exceed ten, with f i v e to seven a r e l i a b l e number. There i s a d i f f i c u l t y i n marking these c y c l i c or sequential forms of questions. If the student omits or advances one of the steps of a series but places a l l the others i n the r i g h t order, either advanced or retarded, a d i f f i c u l t y looms, A formula to give credit on the basis of (n-1) where n stands f o r the number correct i n the sequence may be used i n mark-ing. .Comparisons and Contrasts This form of question tests the student's a b i l i t y to examine dafea 59 data and f i n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In t h i s sense i t involves a rather active mental process. This process seems to "be a k i n to that of drawing con-clusi o n s from data, or forming hypotheses, and would seem to be quite valuable f o r t h i s purpose. I t can be made quite objective when the an-swer i s l i m i t e d to one word, or one term. Sometimes i t i s v a r i e d by asking the student to eliminate the unrelated f a c t or item. e. g. Gross out the word which does not bear a close r e l a t i o n to the others of t h i s group. (a) ^teamchest, manifold in t a k e , carburettor, d i s t r i b u t o r , pump. (b) Sepals, p e t a l s , root h a i r s , stamens,, p i s t i l s . Example of the f i r s t formj In one word or term st a t e the group or a r t i c l e to which each belongs, or the f-aaction (a) Steam chest, e c c e n t r i c , s l i d e valve, connecting rod. (b) Filament, wheel, element, electromagnet. (c) Sperms, eggs, spores, gametes, zygote. Sometimes a student may be given a p a i r of terms or examples which he must compare to f i n d s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s . When the responses demanded are long the r e l i a b i l i t y decreases; when short the r e l i a b i l i t y i s high. Constructions and drawings These questions require the student to construct a diagram or drawing from memory. They demand a f a i r l y accurate knowledge of r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f p a r t s together with a c e r t a i n manual f a c i l i t y or a t t i s t i c a b i l i t y . When the a r t i s t i c element i s reduced to the minimum and only o u t l i n e or simple diagrams are demanded they serve a very u s e f u l f u n c t i o n . They are used only moderately i n sciences, although b i o l o g i c a l examinations have, i n -. 6 0 eluded considerable questioning of t h i s type. P h y s i c s tests i n dealing p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h l i g h t and e l e c t r i c i t y u t i l i z e t h i s form frequently; Chemistry t e s t s only o c c a s i o n a l l y do so. Comments on R e l i a b i l i t y The r e l i a b i l i t y of t e s t s i s a very s p e c i f i c concept. R e l i a b i l i t y o f a te s t Is r e s t r i c t e d to a c e r t a i n group w r i t i n g the t e s t under c e r t a i n con-d i t i o n s . Change any f a c t o r and the r e l i a b i l i t y changes, A word of caution i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t i e s quoted Is i n order although these quotients . do suggest a c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e i n value f o r forms of questions. Some of- the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y of te s t s a r e ; length-wording of items, sequence of items on the t e s t , length of responses demanded ( o b j e c t i v i t y ) , d i r e c t i o n s given to students, form of test items, time, The r e l i a b i l i t y of a l l forms of t e s t s seems to be increased when d i r e c t i o n s not to guess are given to the students. This improvement i s 1 most noticeable i n t r u e - f a l s e questions. The foregoing study o f the forms of questions was made p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the aim to study standardized t e s t s to see to what extent they t e s t the more i n t a n g i b l e achievements of students i n science courses. To examine the forms of t e s t s to see i f the form pl a y e d an important p a r t i n t e s t i n g achi-evements was considered a p r e r e q u i s i t e step to the work in.the f o l l o w i n g chapter. The experience gained from t h i s survey / 1. Ruch,G.M. and DeGraff,M*H, "Corrections f o r Change and 'Guess" vs. 'Do Not Guess"; I n s t r u c t i o n s i n M u l t i p l e Response Tests"; Journal of Educational Psychology, Volume 17 $1926) pp.368-375 61 would a s s i s t materially i n analyzing standardized tests for the extent to which they measure achievements of the various objectives of General Science 17 and "v". Prom the foregoing study two general conclusions can be drawn, 1. Form plays a limited part i n testing achievement. Some questions by virtue of their form cannot test certain mental processes, such as reasoning, planning, drawing, conclusions, while other forms may test these. Factual material can be tested by many forms of ques-tions, 2. Within a given form there may exist a considerable variation i n the searching power of a question dealing with a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . The degree of vigour possessed by the question i n any p a r t i c u l a r form depends i n a large measure upon the training and mental a c t i v i t y of the examiner. I f the examiner maintains an attitude of stimulatin, higher mental a c t i v i t i e s this w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the s p i r i t of the question. ' \ CHAPTER IV A STUDY OF PRESENT STANDARDIZED TESTS IN SCIENCE In the preceding chapter forms of questions were studied to see to what extent they might he used i n measuring a l l the achievements a student may he expected to make i n General Science IV and V. In this chapter stan-dardized tests w i l l be examined to see what types of questions are used, the functions of these forms, their r e l a t i v e importance on each test, and to what extent each test measures the achievements r e s u l t i n g from a s t r i v -ing for the objectives of the science courses i n question. In order to make t h i s survey twenty-nine standardized tests i n the sciences together with seven matriculation papers i n the sciences which were set by the Department of Education were examined. These tests were chosen from the f i e l d s of Chemistry, physics, Biology, and General Science. They range i n type and purpose from achievement tests, aptitude tests, to r a t i n g scales and int e r e s t tests. For purposes of comparison the mat-riculation examination papers were included In the survey. Each test was read c a r e f u l l y to discover the types and the functions of the questions with the hope that one, or a combination of two or three, could be adapted for use i n the high school courses i n general science. This was done by c l a s s i f y i n g the test items according to the objective with which they c h i e f l y were concerned. Ten rubrics corresponding to the ten objectives of the course had to be provided. The analysis included also an examination of frequency of a p a r t i c u l a r form of question and a comparison of this with the t o t a l number of points on the test. Following the analysis tables there i s a b r i e f summary of thes;e 62 6S points and a few comments. After this part samples of the more o r i g i n a l , unuaual, or more e f f e c t i v e types of questions that possess great promise for testing purposes i n General Science IV and V have been abstracted and included i n this chapter. In each case an attempt was made to examine the function and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the example. In the following analysis tables the objectives of General Science IV and V have been rearranged according to their order of importance as 1 found by the questionnaire. The Soman numerals represent the revised order 1, For many.valuable suggestions at th i s point the writer i s indebted to P r o f . C, B. Wood. 64 TABLE li&T ANALYSIS OF STANDARDIZED CHEMISTRY TESTS. (over) GOL-OMBlA CHEMISTRY TEST, OT A 65 True-or-false . 12 equations are_hard None None information items 3 Completion Items Mult i p l e response with true-f a l s e items on each. Information, P a r t l y a judgment 5 t e s t . Equations Completion to p l a c e . Much mem-ory attached hut some reasoning and conclusions from given data. Math, problems. FOB! A AND B; 1924. POWERS GENERAL CHEMISTRY TEST, FORM A p a r t 1~"5-Mult,choice" Equations'are i n information .part test of drawing 55 items conclusions from p a r t 11-Equations and data completion type 5 Math.calculation 55 points of formulae from FORM B s i m i l a r . -data • PERSHING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY TEST FORM A Much use of diagrams Observing and r e -to present data from cording a b i l i t y i s which the student i s tested by #22 through to make h i s observat- medium of diagram. ions and draw conalus- Several demand ions, hence could be close observation i n next column,except and accuracy i n an-that many items are a l y z i n g diagram. p u r e l y factual;©.g. #5,6,7,8,15,16,17-21, 23-28,44-48. 67 out o f 69 are completion type with a few" choice''mixed i n MALI If DIAGNOSTIC CHEMISTRY TEST " A" Tabular"properti es 5 Math.balancing of t e s t " good but " r i g i d " equations 12 p o i n t s 9-completion and 20 M u l t i p l e choice balancing four' items,reasoning 7 problems ealcu-Completion or r e c a l l l a t i n g weights, 17 i t e m s , a l l inform- volumes, e t c a t i o n a l • '  None None The emphasis upon lab.tech-niques would tend to test far resourcefulness #11 detecting unnecessary fa c t o r s seems usable. is) one d i r e c t l y . Balancing de-mand some resourcefulness None 65 ' TABLE CHEMISTRY ACHIEVEMENT TESTS • V HEALTH . 71 SCI.CONTB. V l l SUPERSTI. Y l l l E3PERI. IX TOCATION.X~R^ADria HARVARD H . S . G H E E ! . T E S T ~ None None None None None None COLUMBIA CHEM. TEST 2 true-false 3 true-false items. items None None None None None None POWERS GEN. CHEM. TEST Par t 1 Pa r t 1 3 items 5 items mult.-choice mult-choice None None None None PERSHING CHEM.LAB. TEST None None Very i n d i r -e c t l y by forcing at-tention on manipulation and expe r i -ment. The major part of the test f a l l s into this c l a s s . Much use of dia-grams i n l i e u of ac-tual things Would give a student a good idea whether or not he were suited for experimental work None MALIN DIAGNOSTIC TEST None - ijone None None Hone None 66 CHEMIS'TKY 'lKS'I'S (continued) (over) 'I'ABLE (eOttltl nHTiMIS'JRI TESTS 1 KHOtLES&E etc, GO-OP EHATIVE. GH2MISTRY Multiple response questions, 4Q questions Matching, and v a r i a t -ions; 110 items Information, theories f a c t s , terminology, occurrence, e t c . Completion 65 p o i n t s 11 SCI EST. MB'fffOl? 1 H T^30T:IRGEFtJL» " I V LEISEEB, TESTS. TEST 1 INFORMATION Equations i n p a r t . Valence questions on the general-i z e d case. l a t h , problems. None None CO-OPERATIVE uiMiiSTRY TEST, 'TEST C ( s i m i l a r to above) Multiple long response questions Matching and v a r i a t -1 ons, Usual types f o r f a c t -u a l t e s t i n g ; term-inology-application of p r i n c i p l e s . Observation by using the graphic formulae for organ-i c chemistry. None None GO»OPERATI?E CH1MISTRY TESTS TEST 11 ON USE OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD p r a c t i c a l l y none of t h i s test can be c a l l -ed informational. To do i t does not neces-s i t a t e memorizing many fa c t s before-hand. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n CAKPENT2R AND CARLETON Usual run of. multiple choice,matching,comp-l e t i o n or r e call;equa-tion s . 24 pages of tests averaging about 18 i tems per page Great use of graphs f o r c i n g accurate o b s e r v a t i o n , a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t data, checking hypotheses, drawing conclusions from data only. Graph or other data given. S e l e c t i o n of the best statements concerning these, 8 groups of questions averaging 7 to a group. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Tables of data l i k e -wise, Susp ending judgment C r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . 15 questions of mul-t i p l e choice type' but long responses reasons COMPREHENSIVE MASTERY Whatever there i s In balancing equations. Math, c a l c u l a t i o n s . Not d i r e c t l y , may do i t i n -d i r e c t l y . None PESTS IN CHEMISTRY 1935 None None ' 67 ""TABLE (oont.) . OHM 15TRY TESTS V HEALTH . VI SCI.CONTR.V11 SIP ERSTI .7111 E3PERI. IX TOCATION»X READING CO-OPERATIVE CHEMISTRY TESTS. TEST L Two or three 5-6 h i s t o r i c , usual types and None lone None Hone Mult.choice commercial processes Matching Mult.choice CO-OPERATI7E CHEMISTRY TESTS. TEST C. much as None Hone None None above CO-OPERATIVE CHEMISTRY TESTS. TEST 11 ON USE OF SCIENTIFIC 1ETHOD Only i n d i r e c -t l y by type of matter cho sen. Hone Only Indirec-t l y by test-ing for a b i l i t y to reason from data and be c r i t i c a l None None None CARPENTER AND CARL ETON COMPREHENSIVE TEST IN CHEMISTRY 1935 Few items About 5f0 of of usual usual factual None None None " None typ es typ es. Mult.choice Matching R e c a l l TABLE ..7 ANALYSIS OF STANDARDIZED PHYSICS TESTS (over) TABLE PHYSIOS_£E3TS. 1 KNOWLEDGE, n p,m"KNT „ METHO D HURD'S FINAL TEST IN 82 Itarns t o t a l 4? out of 68 f a c t u a l completion 10/14 f a c t u a l mult.-choice o HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS 15 questions of c a l c u l a t i n g types which may t e s t f o r a b i l i t y to draw v a l i d math.conclus-ions from data, or merely a math.test 11 out of 68 c a l c u -l a t i o n completion 4/14 c a l c u l a t i n g m ult.-choice. COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU PHYSICS TEST 144 items t o t a l A l l p r i n t e d , no d i a g -rams. p l u s and zero m o d i f i -c a t i o n o f t r u e - f a l s e 94 i n f o r m a t i o n items i n -p'pqnTTRP.TCFTTL. 17 LEISURE None None A and B 50 items based on data given, to draw con c l u s i o n s , e t c . True-false type None None COOPERATIVE PHYSICS TESTS KILZliR-KIRBY MATHEMATICS INVENTORY TEST 10/66 f a c t u a l i n f o r - 50/66 math.reasoning mation f a c i l i t y i n h a n d l i n g 9/24 Geom.figures Completion equations,etc. Com- demand c e r t a i n p l e t i o n type amount of 15/24 Geom.figures r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s r e q u i r e reasoning from data. HUGHES PHYSICS SCALES, INFORMATION S, THOUGHT R, S. F a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n 1 of mult.-choice £5 D i r e c t questions demands reasoning None None Some of catechism type,some p r o v i d i n g data 5 mult.-choice STEWART-ASHBAUGH PHYSICS TEST ( E l e c t , Sound, L i g h t ) 8 sets of matching q u e s t i o n s • t o t a l 35 items 1 group of 5 questions (matching) based on diagram. 8 problems i n v o l v i n g mathematical reasoning 69 TABLE (o o n t . ~ "PHYSICS TESTS V HEALTH VI SCI.COMB. VI1 SUPERSTI. T i l l EXPER• IX VOCATION X READING HURD'S FINAL PHYSICS TEST None None JMone None iMone None COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU PHYSICS TEST A and B jjone None None None None None COOPERATIVE PHYSICS TESTS None None None None None None KILZER-KIRBY MATHEMATICS INVENTORY TEST None None None None None None HUGHES PHYSICS SCALES, INFORMATION S, THOUGHT E, S. None None None None None None STBWART-ASHBAUGH PHYSICS TEST ( E l e c t , , Sound, Light) None None None None None None L TABLE 71 ANALYSIS OF STANDARDIZED BIOLOGY TESTS (over) 1 CTOWLEDGE 11 RC1MT.METHOD RUCH^COSSMAN BIOLOGY TEST FORM A & B items t o t a l Test 1 Mult,-choice ' Test 111 Making with 5-7 choices, accurate observation Informational,recog- of diagram and i n t e r -n i t i o n . 35 items p r e t i n g diagram. 15 Items. Test 11 Mult.-choice 4 p o i n t s on deduct-Use of diagrams .None ions from data on Mendel's Laws, of statements. 15 items, p a r t l y reasoning,Inform. Test l v Paragraph completion 15-20 items. pomp l e t i o n ? r e c a l l 0AKE3-P0WERS TEST OP GENERAL BIOLOGY Detecting R e l a t i o n -ship s ( C l a s s i f i a c t i o n types) Exercise of t r a c i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , or organizing data on some basis might be Glassed here None 23 Mult.-choice i n -formation 32 True-false ( ,0) MICHIGAN BOTANY TEST Test 1 Yes-no recog-n i t i o n , 20 items Factual Test 11 Mult.-choice None v 4 options.20 items Test" 111 Matching - 20 items Test IV Mult-choice on four optional statements.20 items COOP RIDER BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION TEST 1924 94 items t o t a l 17 r e c a l l completion 16 re c o g n i t i o n true fa l s e 17 multiple choice 9 best reason 35 s e l e c t i n g r e l a t e d data  VAN WAGBNEN READING SCALES IN BIOLOGY FORMS A & B None None Bone 1929 Informational i n -d i r e c t l y from ma-t e r i a l of te s t True-fals6 40 porces student to his data f o r draw-ing h i s conclusion or answer,indirect, perhaps adaptable None None COOPERATIVE BIOLOGY TEST (1935] 22 Mult,-choice 6X3 Diagram (18 mult .-response) 33 Matching Groups (99 items) 7 1 TABLE (oont. BIOLOGY TESTS V HEALTH V I S C I . C O N T . 7 1 1 S U P E R S T I , n i l EZPER, I X V O C A T I O N X R E A D I N G RUCH-COSSMAN BIOLOGY TEST PORK A & B Completion and Completion mult.-choice mult-choice None d i r e c t only i n d i r e c t Emphasis placed on act u a l ex- None amination by diagrams. Not comp-l e t e l y v a l i d A rather good te s t although not covering a l l our objectives w i t h t e s t i n g techniques. Only i f ordinary paragraph completion could be interpret*-ed as t e s t i n g t h i s . P r o -bably not, CAKES-* OWERS 6/66 items some m u l t i j -choice True-false 6 i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n or checking type MICHIGAN BOTANY TEST 3 items, usual types /80 None / 8 0 None M one Information e n t i r e l y fflone aone wordish COCPRIDER BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION 2 0 / 9 4 items Usual types None / 9 4 None / 9 4 None None None VAN WAGENEN READING SCALES 2 / 1 5 chosen uould be u t i l i z e d f o r m a t e r i a l the same way as f o r the others by chosing reading m a t e r i a l to read, s u i t a b l e to these aims. But then the test i s only i n d i r e c t w h i l e the main aim of t h i s i s to t e s t reading a b i l i t y . COOPERATIVE BIOLOGY TEST ( 1 9 3 5 ) 9 items / 1 4 0 4 items / 1 4 0 Mult-choice Matching, TABLE 7 1 1 ANALYSES Of GENERAL SCIENCE TESTS (over) TABLE n.mTWAT, SCIENCE TESTS 1 KNOWLEDGE 11 flRTERT.METHOD. I l l RESOURO™!,., IV LEISURE RUCH-POPENOE GENERAL 70 items of general information,laws, e t c 6 Mult.-choice type Diagrams and figures to work drom SCIENCE TEST FORMS A & B The ten diagrams on p a r t two are com-binations of i n f o r -mation tests,obser-vati o n tests,accuracy, and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , isntphasis not so much on books and words, None None DVORAK GENERAL SCIENCE TEST FORMS 60 p o i n t s , a l l i n f o r -mational Mult .-choice H l None None •ENERAL SCIENCE TEST FORMS A & B. 192? POWERS A l l of 100 items mult.-choice with f i v e op-tions A l l i n f orma t i onal wone None None UNIT TEST FOR "SCIENCE 14 unit tests for i n -formation, of the usual type.True-false with i t a l i c i z e d emphasis; mult.choice;matching Good t e s t s In general. FOR TODAY" ' ' One complete test to be given at end of course on s c i e n t i f i c method; data with de-ductions 12 items; A t t i t u d e s 27 " p r i n c i p l e s and generalizations with deductions. None None 2— -3 reasoning questions None COOPERATIVE GENERAL SCIENCE TEST (Underhi 11 and Powers, 1936,1937} Forms 1936,1937 have 2 — 3 reasoning t o t a l of 150 items questions,problems None mainly f a c t u a l 84 items are match-ing, i n small homo-geneous groups 53 multiple choice(5) 12 p o i n t s on diagrams. Form N (revised 1937) — 3 None 80 items t o t a l , a l l multip'le (5) choice, diagrams. None 73 TABIEL. (oont) G E N E R A L S C I E N C E T E S T S .  ¥ H E A L T H V I S C I . C O N T B . V l l 3UPERSTI. ¥111 E A P E R . 1A V O C A T I O N . X R E A D I N G R U C H - P Q P E N O E G E N E R A L S C I E N C E T E S T F O R M S A & B 5 / 50 items 3 /50 items 3/ 50 Diagram type Usual factual Usual types Usual type of test may none none type of questions give more Mult.choice emphasis DVORAK GENERAL SCIENCE TEST 18/ 60 items Mult.choice 2-3/ 60 1-2/ 60 None None None items items P O W E R S G E N E R A L S C I E N C E T E S T F O R M S A & B 16 / 100 items 9/ 100 items 3/100 items None - none None mult.choice UNIT TESTS "SCIENCE FOR TODAY" 4/50 on aver- 1 or 2/ 50 Attitude age. no new tests i n -types eludes some items. Promising None None flone C O O P E R A T I V E G E N E R A L S C I E N C E T E S T 1936 Part 1 (12/84 items) 3/150 items 1 /150 20/150 items fV ": as t o t a l 1937 Part 1 18/84 items 28/150 t o t a l Form N, 1937 9/8 items, , 2/150 items 0 /150 3/80 items 1/80 None J^ one flone None S one None None none none 1 74 TABLE V l l I ANALYSIS OF AT? TITTJDE TESTS AND OTHERS (o ver) T A B L E „ — •• q r T ^ S T H O D n i S » k __jy^ EISSM. Djo. d i r e c t i n f o r -mational t e s t . a , l - t e s t i n g desire to Ex.1 tests r e - None source fulness i n l o c a t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and i n " t i n k e r i n g " tinker or f i x things Five mult.choice and resp onse. Ex.E-Suspending judg-ment; snap decisions. Four .mult.choice type •. Ex.J-for reasoning (Bi c y c l e , and gears questions) 8 mult, choice. Ex.R-pick out incon-s i s t e n c i e s of phrases i n a paragraph, phrases are numbered Consistency of p o i n t of view i s tested to c e r t a i n extent 5 checking questions Te s t i n g observation Ex.F-Optical i l l u s -ions, (ranking type) Diagrams Ex.K-Arranging data and s e l e c t i n g cogent data or steps. Good. Five mult .response Ex.L-uheeking missing l i n e s * a b i l i t y to f o r -mulate systematic p l a n to attack simple prob-lem.25 checking items STANFORD EDUCATIONAL M£ T1TUDE TEST (JENSEN) Nothing f o r these r u b r i c s , but may have p o s s i b i l i t i e s when modified to s u i t the vocational aspects or obj e c t i v e s . STANFOSD INTIKEST REPORT (COWDERI * None None perhaps i n d i r e c t l y through p r o f i l e obtained. BREWER VOCATIONAL APTITUDE EXAMINATION FOR: BOYS (Harvard) x^ ione None None DETHOIT MECHANICAL APTITUDE TEST 40 items t e s t i n g A b i l i t y to sort knowledge of a r t i c - c o n s i s t e n t l y p i c t u r e s of nuts,bolts,screws, washers. 117 (Observation) Matching p a r t s to form given f i g u r e . Estimating s i z e , judging shape, r e l a t i o n s .  None lone on l e s i n trades, 35 mult.choice uses 40 on functions of pa r t s of various machines 7 5 TABLE (cont,) AT? TITTJDE* TESTS AID OTHERS. V HEALTH VI SCI.COI'ffi. V l l SIP ERST I. V l l l E2PERI. IX VOCATION, X READTWa STANFORD SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE TEST None None Ex.O-Dectect- Ex, 1 Entire test None ing flaws i n Testing for a b i l i t y pseudo-science a b i l i t y i n higher (Generating and desire s c i e n t i f i c power) to tinker, vocations ( D i r i g i b l e to moom) Two mult.-choice STANFORD EDUCATIONAL TITUDE TEST (for students i n Education) Comparing jobs and returns,etc. STANFORD INTEREST REPORT BLANK None None None BREWER VOCATIONAL INFORMATION None None None DETROIT MECHANICAL APTITUDE TEST . None None None None None None Testing Likes Testing I n d i f f . , D i s - reading l i k e s to find interee-interest f o r ts by vocation,260 check-l i s t Mult.choice 43 items Entire test for mech. i n c l i n a t i o n Much use of diagram. 4 items None 76 TABLE ANALYSES OF MATRICULATION P- J? ERS (over) TABLE v~ r, ?^ fTCT TP.TTT.a M'TOl? T E 3 T > ^ ^ *MIKAT IONS n sfUElT. METHOD 111 RESOUR^FTTT, 1? LEISURE PHYSICS 1938 Completion sentence answers 1957 Completion, sen-tence type; 46$ Math, problems, i f these could be classed here, 48$ Math.reasoning, etc, lone lone lone Hone CHEMISTRY 1937 . Informational,recall Equations ?? memoriter Math.problems ?? Subjective,descrip- 35$ tive . 65$ appr ox, 1938 Informational,recall problems and memoriter.Subjective equations 15$ approx. de s c r i p t i v e , 85$ Shorter questions None Hone lone lone BIOLOGY 1937 & 38 Group 1 Functions. Informational, Semi-objective. 20 points,40 items Group 111 Modified matching C r i t i c i s i n g on data p a i r s Comparison of two given items to f i n d likenesses and d i f -ferences; s e e k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; columnar,brief,semi-objective Considerable mental resource-fulness i s de-manded by this type of question It segregates the memorizer, who us u a l l y does poor-l y lone 1936 10 b r i e f comparison subjective quest-ions, short essay 4 Essay type, p l a n -i n g and memoriter 20 d e f i n i t i o n s i n groups of f i v e 10 on structures, functions.- Short essays. Comparing type of questions ? Some resourceful-ness demanded. lone 77 TABLE " MAmiCULATIOI P JEERS V HEALTH Vl^.SCI. COM1. ?11 SIP ERSTI» V l l l E3gEB:. IX VOCATION X READING-PHYSICS 1938 None 2-3 items None None None None 1937 None 1 item None None None None CHEMISTRY 1937 4-5 points 3 points processes. None None d i r -e c t l y None None 1938 BIOLOGY 1937-8 2-4% 1 point None None d i r -e c t l y None None 1936 5% approx. 1 poin t None Questions about ex-periments reputedly done In class 78 TABLE :.X . . A COMPARISON OF FREQUENCY OF QUESTION' FORM ON TESTS STUDIED. TESTS A B C D E F G H I J* TOTAL Chemistry 65 %• 7,1 220 24 234 297 25.5 32.2 76 8.3 23 2.5 0 0 3 0 23 918 Physics i 94 26.2 40 11.2 19 57 5.3 15.9 50 13.9 73 20,2 25 7 0 0 16 358 Biology % 108 20.3 119 22 i& 161 37 30.3 7, 33 0.6 4 .76 0 51 9,7 12 2.3 12 525 General Science % 0 . \ 84 18.7 363 2 81 0 0 0 0 0 21 449 Others % 0 20 10.9 65 65-35.3 35.3 25 13.3 Oi 0 10 8.4 0 30 185 Total P ercent-age 267 483 11 19V7B; 842 458 34.5'il9,2 184 7.4 100 4.1 25 1.2 64 2,6 12 « 6 102 2,435 100$ A True-False B Matching C Multiple Choice D Completion E I d e n t i f i c a t i o n F Computations G, Direct or Catechism H Analogy I Re-arrangement J* Diagrams (number of Figures only) not included i n t o t a l . 79 It may be worth while to draw attention to a few points i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table IX. General Science tests make a great use of multiple-choice tests, almost to the exclusion of a l l other kinds. Biology tests use them about one t h i r d as much and Physics very l i t t l e . This disuse of multiple-choice -questions i n Physics seems odd to the writer for he has had no dt f -f i c u l t y i n preparing questions of this type on Physics, Many excellent thought-provoking questions can be formed using Physics material. Physics tests seem to r e l y on true-false and computations mostly; Chemistry upon completion and multiple-choice, A word of information should be added concerning the true-false r e s u l t s . Truerfalse questions were found on the older tests In the main, and very few were found on tests published within the la s t three years. On science tests i n general multiple-ohoice i s the mos t widely used form, with analogies and rearrangements least used. This l a t t e r fact seems strange insofar as science i s supposed : to deal l a r g e l y with com-parisons, and with c l a s s i f y i n g and organizing knowledge. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g tD compare these r e s u l t s with those of a similar nature obtained i n 1929 by Ruch and Rice. These men undertook to tabulate a l l the frequencies of question forms submitted on the tests entered i n 1 the national competition of 1927-1928, TABLE XT ' FORM OF TEST ITEM PERCENT : 1. Completion 29.71 2, True-False 24,12 3. Multiple Choice . 16.45 4. Matching 10,67 5. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s 9.17 6. Computations 1.77 7, Re-arrangements 1.77 8, - Analogies 1. Table adapted from Ruch & Rice "Specimen Objective Examinations" p; 9 80 The following table gives a rough abstract on the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of present standardized tests to measuring achievements i n General Science objectives* TABLE XI? • COMPARISON OP DEGREE' WHICH THE 29 STANDARDIZED TESTS EXAMINED MEASURED OBJECTIVES OTHER THAN KNOWLEDGE. Questions on Objectives Chemistry physics Biology General Others 111 Resourcefulness 0 0 P 0 25* IV Leisure^ 0 0 0 0 0 V Health .33 0 27 10.5 0 VI Contributions of Sci e n t i s t s 1,55 2,8 0 V l l Superstitions Errors, etc. 0 2 2 0 VI11 Experimentation 2 3 1 3 10 IS Vocations etc. 0 0 0 0 30 X Reading 0 0 0 0 5 * This score i s at t r i b u t e d titude test almost e n t i r e l y to the Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Ap-Van Wagenen Reading Scales were not included i n any of these because none could be obtained for Chemistry, Physic* and General Science. The inc l u s i o n of their scores would increase the reading percentages by ap-proximately f i v e per cent. 81 Were i t not f o r the Cooperative Test Service and the Stanford Scien-t i f i c Aptitude t e s t s on the a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method there would be only a minute amount of t e s t i n g done on Objective 11 (the a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method). Nearly a l l t e s t s are i n f o r m a t i o n a l t o approximately n i n e t y per cent of the value of the t e s t . When the values i n the table above are compared w i t h the values ob-tained from the questionnaire i t w i l l be seen that t e s t i n g i n science should be r e - d i r e c t e d r a t h e r d r a s t i c a l l y . Note, however, that the values for "Health" c o i n c i d e . I t would appear from the foregoing analyses that no present standar-dized t e s t would serve s a t i s f a c t o r i l y the demands of a good t e s t i n g prog-ramme i n s c i e n c e , nor could a combination of two or three of present t e s t s s u f f i c e although some of the uncommon types could be made very u s e f u l . There i s no standardized achievement t e s t s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r General Science 17 and 7. The Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude test i s good but may be too d i f f i c u l t . Something more than the Van Wagenen Reading Scales i s necessary f o r reading. No t e s t s are made to measure a b i l i t y to use l e i s u r e w i s e l y , a t t i t u d e , nor f o r vocations, and few attempt to measure resourcefulness and l a b o r a t o r y p r a c t i c e (Pershing). The Cooperative Test Service attempts to make t e s t s to measure the a b i l i t y to t h i n k s c i e n t i f i c -a l l y , In view of the emphasis on the objectives of the course e s t a b l i s h e d by the returns from the questionnaire i t would seem unjust to judge the progress of any student s o l e l y on the knowledge or i n f o r m a t i o n a l b a s i s , or to judge a teacher'ei a b i l i t y e n t i r e l y on the basis of student success i n a c q u i r i n g information and knowledge. I t seems that the only way out 82 of these d i f f i c u l t i e s i s for the teacher or the examining a u t h o r i t i e s to devise s p e c i a l tests which w i l l measure achievements and growth i n f i e l d s other than the p u r e l y i n f o r m a t i o n a l . The l e a s t s a t i s f a c t o r y science tests appear to he the physics.,f or they are too r i g i d , unadaptable, and narrow i n compass. The more modern Chemistry and Biology seem to be more progressive i n form. In many cases the Biology and General Science t e s t s are very s i m i l a r f o r each makes much use of mu l t i p l e - c h o i c e and diagrams, and is broader i n s p i r i t , f o r they stress human values more. I t i s to be hoped that test s i n General Science 1? and Y w i l l f o l l o w the more recent trends i n Chemistry, Biology, and General Science such as those prepared by the Cooperative Test Service, and the Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Test and the P e r s h i n g Test, Alt o g e t h e r , I t appears that present standardized t e s t s have f a l l e n very f a r behind the needs of science courses. They s t r e s s f a r too much the i n f o r m a t i o n a l aspect and do not s t r e s s enough a c t i v e t h i n k i n g i n handling new s i t u a t i o n s In which the student must use h i s t r a i n i n g i n science. Tests could be fashioned a f t e r the Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Ap-ti t u d e Test or the Cooperative Chemistry Test 11 to provide t h i s desired mental a c t i v i t y . Likewise c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be given to measuring growth towards the other o b j e c t i v e s , C e r t a i n types of questions have appeared as the "sto c k - i n - t r a d e " of examiners. Some few seemed to possess unique functions or at l e a s t are adaptable to measure some of the achievements f r e q u e n t l y passed by. Three sources of t e s t Items were most remunerative of e f f o r t . These were the Kuch-Popenoe General Science Test, the Cooperative s e r i e s , and the Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Test. The following pages contain, abstracted test items chosen mainly from the above-mentioned three sources i n order to demonstrate some of the types of questions that should be useful i n a testing programme i n General Science I f and v. SPECIMEN TEST QUESTIONS From; Ruch-? openoe General Science Tests., Forms A and B purpose of test items; not stated by authors; (mainly for information). Directions; F i l l i n each blank so as to make a true statement, v-C . . . Figure 2 . In the diagram of a typical-flower• s^J^^^aAig a. The p e t a l s (the corolla) are marked by the l e t t e r . . Wll* \V b. The stamens are marked by the l e t t e r .... c. The sepals (calyx) by the l e t t e r «... d. The p i s t i l i s marked by the l e t t e r (This test shows a good r e s t r a i n t i n the use of shadin It i s clear, accurate, and not too idealized.) C Figure 4. ' Flqure JV Cf'j.4.) a. In this lever the force i s applied at ...., b. The fulcrum i s placed at the point ,.... c. The mechanical advantage of a lever of this class i s always ..... than 1. Figure10» a. The mechanical advantage of this p u l l e y system i s . . . . . . . b. The rule for the mechanical advantage of any p u l l e y system i s that the mechanical advantage i s equal to the number of times the cord passes to and from the .pulley. Ftaurc Ul inXCwC V. LlAO_LL I. LU-LLU 111 I II II III I » t » 9 Y Fi^ureVc. Disregarding f r i c t i o n , the force needed to l i f t the V (Tig.io3 100-pound weight shown i s pounds. 84 Figore 15. ..{On the. test) '-> A. a. This i s a drawing of a b. The p i s t o n i s le t t e r e d * f ft « ft ft 0 & 9 ft fl ft ft B • ft « o. She valve which opens on the upstroke i s lettered.,. d. The greatest distance that valve C can be placed above the l e v e l of the water at D, i f the instrument i s to work successfully, i s about ., feet. Figure VI Figure 18, Form J3 (On the test) P i a U r e V l f a , A green under-water plant has just been placed i n /p , By the apparatus shown i n the sunlight. The gas * which i s being collected at A i s ,, b. A glowing s p l i n t placed i n this gas w i l l | « M I I I M M * t l ( M I M M B M I « M * I M I M M I M « l t « I M t c. This i l l u s t r a t e s a phase of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l process known as • O— II'\-jrm. LULL r - ....... 1 f Figure 15, Form B. a, In the f l a s k shown at A there i s a solution of molasses to which some, yeast has been . added. The gas which i s being collected at, 13 IS •««•«••••»*«*««»«••*ftftftftft«»«««««ett«««tft* F i g u r e VJI1 a . . w i l l be forned. c. There w i l l be formed In the l i q u i d i n the f l a s k marked A a quantity of A p p l i c a b i l i t y t This form of test would seem to be useful not only for informational t e s t i n g but for testing powers of observation. P o s s i b l y i t could be used i n tasting for "simple, experimentation", measuring the student's a b i l i t y to r e c a l l what has been done. It i s possible to memor-ize drawings as Information can be, but a few new twists to the diagram and new forms of the same old problem w i l l usually eliminate the memor-i z e r s . This type of question seems promising for testing the parts and . functions of more complex machinery than shown here, and i s much used f o r b i o l o g i c a l forms. 85 SPECIMEN TEST QUESTIONS. From-. Pershing Laboratory Chemistry Test, Form A. ^  Purpose of test items; To measure achievement of p u p i l s i n laboratory technique; to recognize suitable apparatus; to detect errors of procedure, i n apparatus set-up. Directions; F i l l i n the blanks with the correct answers. Use diagrams j f o r reference. Metals sometimes may be i d e n t i f i e d by fusing the metal s a l t with borax to a transparent bead. Some metals y i e l d a bead of a given color when fused i n the oxidizing flame and a bead of a d i f f e r e n t color i n the reducing flame. Thus a compound of i r o n fused with borax i n the flame at "A" of F i g . S w i l l produce a colored bead while i f fused at "B" w i l l produce a color. A borax bead containing manganese and fused i n the o x i d i z i n g flame w i l l produce a color. 11. -Study the apparatus shown i n F i g . 18 and r e c a l l charac t e r i s t i e s of substances which may be prepared i n t h i type of set-up. Of the substances l i s t e d below mark with an "A'' those for which the apparatus i s "Appli able", and with "N" for those for which the apparatus i s "Not applicable". 60..Carbon dioxide ..........63. Nitrous oxide ...... 61. Hydrochloric a c i d .......64, Hydrogen.,.,,....... 62, Oxygen,, Figure IX ( F i g . (s on test) F i g u r e X tF*'g. ie) 111. A student working i n the laboratory ctesired to prepare and c o l l e c t carbon dioxide. He decided to colls ct i t by water displacement method. The apparatus i s shown i n Figure 12. After the reaction had been going on for some time, he f a i l e d to c o l l e c t any gas i n bottle B. Check the apparatus and note any d i f f i c u l t i e s * The student did not c o l l e c t the gas because; (Check correct- answer.) a« The gas dissolves In water a* Heat should be applied to the apparatus. c. Tube F does not extend down into the l i q u i d . d. Tube D does not extend down into the l i q u i d . e. Not- enough marble i n the b o t t l e , f. More zinc i s needed, g. Acid used was too strong. • - < • •(These figures tend to be too small. Compare'With preceding.) C — L L L L L L U L L L L L C U F i g u r e XI 'Of Am)licabiIit.Vi This type of question seems on the surface to test f a i r l y well f o r the common techniques, and on the surface should approximate /scores with the tests made with the actual materials. The investigator has not been able to f i n d any control experiments on this basis, nor correlation experiments, done by these people. The test seems to f i t i n with "develop* meht of the a b i l i t y to perform experiments". This problem was the basis orf some research into c o r r e l a t i o n the results of which are given i n a 1 chapter, The correlations are not s u f f i c i e n t l y high to assume that t h i type of test >s .equivalent to a " p r a c t i c a l t e s t " . .SPECIMEN TEST QUESTIONS, from- The Cooperative Chemistry Test, Test 11, page 7. purpose of test item; To measure the a b i l i t y of students' interpretation of experimental dat r e s u l t s . Directions. Each exercise consists of two parts- f i r s t a description of an experiment and the r e s u l t s obtained- and secondly of conclusions and i n t e r -pretations of the experiment, lou are to judge the soundness of these i n -terpretations. Head c a r e f u l l y and assume that a l l facts given you are cor-r e c t . I f i t i s a sound conclusion based on this experiment alone place a ( 1 ) i n the f i r s t parenthesis after each interpretation- ( 1 ) If i t i s unsound because i t i s contradicted by this experiment place a(3) If i t goes beyond the results of th i s experiment only,-place ' & V ' H hr^kA(2), That i s , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be true or false, but you are unable to say from t h i s ''experiment only. Next, consider a l l these i n t e r -pretations marked two (2) that go beyond the reach of the experiment and further r e f i n e your opinion of these i n this way-If you judge the inte r p r e t a t i o n to be true or highly probably (judging from evidence which you have obtained from other sources than this experiment.) mark i t Plus i n the second parenthesis (2) ( + ) If you judge Interpretation to be untrue or highly improbable (judging from sources of evidence other than this experiment mark i t zero (0) i n the second parenthesis (2) ( 0 ) If you cannot decide whether the int e r p r e t a t i o n i s probably true or untrue do not place any mark i n the second parenthesis. (2) ( ) plus and zero are used only after i n terpretation that you mark (2) ( 1 ) • • ( - ) SOUND CONCLUSION? based on th i s experiment only. ( 3 ) ( ) CONTRADICTED; by r e s u l t s of this experiment only, ( 2 ) ( +' ) HIGHLY PROBABLY; but goes beyond re s u l t s of this experiment, ( 2 ) ( — ) HIGHLY IMPROBABLE; goes beyond the re s u l t s of this experiment. ( 2 ) ( ) CANNOT DECIDE; goes beyond the r e s u l t s of this experiment but cannot decide whether highly probable or highly improbable. 8, The following experiment was performed i n d i v i d u a l l y by 160 students*. The same amount of copper was heated with an excess of sulphur, forming cuprous s u l f i d e . .each student weighed h i s product and found the percent of cop-per that i t contained. The r e s u l t s for the 160 students are p l o t t e d i n the graph below. The t h e o r e t i c a l percent of copper i n cuprous sulphide i s 79.,9. This.percent i s calculated from the formula weight of cuprous s u l f i d e . . (Graph and questions on following page.) 8, (continued j 5 0 87 c -n 10 •3 = s o 1 • i • 1 1 / £ t » f p t ' 7 \ :a.\ % oi / f - Middle SO% ai ! 8Vudtn-t> i # • 1 1 1 1 "Per oent" of c » p p e r r e p o r t e d . Figure X11 a. The excess sulfur was completely .burned i n each of the experiments • ( ) ( bo Some of the students did not heat the copper and sulphur long enough i n the/presence of a i r , ........ , ( ) ( ) c. 7/hen the students performed t h i s experiment, each student ob-tained the theo r e t i c a l percent of copper i n cuprous sulphide ( ) d. A constant error was introduced i n some of these experiments,( ) e. More students obtained r e s u l t s below the theoretical percent of copper i n cuprous sulphide than above i t ., ( ) £. On the average the percent of copper i n cuprous sulphide found i n these experiments was higher than the percentage calculated from i t s formula weights ( ) g« Some of the students weighed the cuprous sulphide while i t ( i ( ) ( ) I » ( ) h. Students who found that their cuprous sulphide contained 72^, copper had more sulphur i n their cuprous sulphide than students who found 86^ copper. .., «. ( ) ( ) i . Students who found th e i r cuprous sulphide contained 72$ cop-per had more copper i n their cuprous sulphide than students who found 86$ copper, ...... ( ) ( ) A p p l i c a b i l i t y ; This seems to be a very f i n e type of question to measure a b i l i t y to draw v a l i d conclusions from data presented. While i t nay seem to be unduly lengthy i n i t s directions here, i n the r e a l test the di r e c -tions do not occupy such a proportionate amount of space because seven other questions of equal length are included under the same set of direc-tions. 88 grom» Standord S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Test, Objectiver To test student's a b i l i t y to proceed with caution and to read instructions c a r e f u l l y , and his thoroughness of execution, (Authors claim that they r e a l l y have very l i t t l e to do with illusions,which at f i r s t glance they seem to be.) 11. Rank the rectangles A, B, G. D. £, F. G i n order of their height; that is", write 1 i n the small space next to the Miter i n the column corres-ponding to the highest rectangle, 2 next to the l e t t e r corresponding to the next highest, e t c . A p p l i c a b i l i t y - Questions of this type can be used to test students' a b i l i -t y to make accurate observations and to record them. The i n c l u s i o n of op-t i c a l i l l u s i o n s catches the careless worker. Although this test item might appear to be too easy for many persons attention can be drawn to the fact •that i t i s used i n Stanford University with some success, and to the fact that the question has a good discriminative value. This i s a paper test that appears' to replace actual measurements but i n r e a l i t y demands that measurements be made, Students have r u l e r s and are permitted to use them .but many do not do so taking the question as too easy to warrant such an outlay of e f f o r t . 89 SAMPLES OP TEST ITEMS, Prom Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Test Exercise 0 Objective of test item;;. To test a b i l i t y to detect f a l l a c i e s and not to be misled by apparent p l a u s i b i l i t i e s . (Authors claim that this item i s a goo "bait"- for the imaginative minded who are not s c i e n t i f i c , as this par-t i c u l a r group does very poorly on these items). 11, At a recent meeting of the American Association of Mechanical Engineers the following project received thorough consideration. With the future development of extremely l i g h t gas engines i t w i l l be possible to b u i l d d i r i g i b l e balloons much l i g h t e r than those b u i l t today. It might be t hen poss i b l e , by the use of a i r tanks, provided for breathing, to attempt a f l i g h t to the moon. Supposing that the distance to the moon i s 200,000 miles, and the average v e l o c i t y of such a d i r i g i b l e would be 100 miles per hour, i t would be possible to complete the journey i n about 2,000 hours. The following reasons either for or against the project were given by various.members. Put an A i n the squares next to the reason which you would endorse and a • next to those to which you would object. ( ) 1. Less than 25 years ago almost everyone believed that f l y i n g , as we have i t today, was a rank i m p o s s i b i l i t y . Therefore, the above pr o j e c t i s worth trying, ( ( 2, The above project i s worthless, for i t i s well known that a i r i n the upper layers of the atmosphere does not contain oxygen and therefore i s not suitable for breathing. ( ) 3, The above project i s worthless, for i t i s d e f i n i t e l y known that . the atmosphere does not extend beyond a few hundred miles from the earth. ( ) 4. The above project i s worth trying, for the advance i n engineering i s more r a p i d than ever and i t i s unwise to set any d e f i n i t e l i m i t to i t . (The manual and scoring key places a minus sign i n front of ,# 1, 2, 4, with plus i n front of # 3 to get f u l l credit of 5; 2, 3, as plus given credit of 3.) 90 From { Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Test, Exercise K Objectives of test item-To detect the aptitude of the individual i n v i s u a l i z i n g a s t a t i s t i c a l or experimental si t u a t i o n ; capacity for a n a l y t i c a l discrimination of values of data; of recognizing a l i k e l y plan of attack. Directions 11. A housewife uses 2 quarts of b o i l i n g water f or her coffee and wishes to f i n d which of her three k e t t l e s , a 4-quart aluminum, a 5-quart copper, and a 3-quart granite one, consumes the least gas for the b o i l i n g of the water. Check only those statements which w i l l enable her to get the right answer, ( ) 1. P i l l a l l three k e t t l e s with water, { ) 2, pour into each kettl e 2 quarts of water, ( ) 3, place a i l three k e t t l e s on the gas range, heat them at the same time, and time each k e t t l e u n t i l the water begins to b o i l . ( ) 4. Place a l l three k e t t l e s on the three d i f f e r e n t burners on the gas range and heat them one a f t e r another. ( ) 5, Place one k e t t l e at a time on the same burner and heat. i t . ( ) 6, Time each k e t t l e u n t i l the water begins to b o i l . 1. A P h y s i c i s t wanted to measure the length of a fine wire with p r e c i s i o n for this reason he measured i t several times. Below are given the results of the measuring:-1st measure 13.63 o.^ • 2nd measure 13,13 •' 3rd measure • 13.12 4th measure , 13,14 5th measure 13,15 6th measure .. 13.16 * What Is the probable length of the wire? Answer here ( ) A p p l i c a b i l i t y ; Questions of this type could be u t i l i z e d i n teasting a student's a b i l i t y to select data, to p l a n the essential steps of a b i t of exoerimenting. It could be used also to test his powers of organizing an attack on a problem under "the a b i l i t y to perform simple experiments'. 91 From: Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Test, Exercise E purposes of'test items; To.test "suspended judgment versus snap decisions"; to test tendency to guess or.act on i n s u f f i c i e n t data. Directions; Place a check mark ( X ) i n the space next to the. correct answer below; I. What w i l l he the average cost of l i v i n g i n this country i n the year 5000? { } 1. About $50 per month per capita, ( ) 4. About $300 per month per capita. ( ) 2. About $100 per month per capita. ( ) 5, About $500 per month . per capita, ( ) 3. About $200 per month per capita. ( ) 6. If unable to answer put a check mark i n front of t h i s . I I . I f you stack nickels i n one p i l e 10 feet high, i t w i l l contain; ( } 1. About $100. ( ) 3. About $225, ( } 2. About $200. ( ) 4. Over #250. 5. I f unable to answer put a check here ( ), I I I . A c e r t a i n government, s e l l i n g land, offered i t on the following terms; { ) 1. I f the buyer i s an immigrant, he may pay $1,000.every year for 20 years. ( ) 2. I f the buyer i s a native born, he may pay #100 the f i r s t year $300 the second year $500 the t h i r d year, and so on, the annual payment being increased each year by $200 for 20 years. ( ) 3* i f the buyer i s a war veteran, he may pay #1 the f i r s t year $ 2 the second year $4 the t h i r d year, and so on, the annual payment being doubled for each year for 16 years, ;, ' ; 4. If unable to answer place a check mark here ( } Which terms are the most advantageous? Put a check mark i n the correspond-ing square.  A p p l i c a b i l i t y ; Questions of t h i s type could be used quite e a s i l y to t e s t a DUDil's a b i l i t y to suspend judgment when confronted with i n s u f f i c i e n t data". This i s part of general a b i l i t y i n use of the s c i e n t i f i c method. Erom; Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Test 92 Purpose of t e s t item; To tes t student's a b i l i t y to detect i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . Read the f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y . Read the f i v e paragraphs. I f a paragraph i s consistent throughout, put an X i n the square across from the top of each paragraph; i f i t i s not, place a there, and wr i t e In the spaces across from the lower p a r t of each paragraph the numbers corres-ponding to the phrases or sentences which cause the inconsistency or lead to an i l l o g i c a l conclusion, J )_ 1. At sea l e v e l . when, atmospheric pressure i s normal 1 2 water b o i l s at 212^ P. When atmospheric pressure drops 3 4 below normal, water b o i l s at a timperature lower than 212°P. 5 In l o c a l i t i e s s i t u a t e d above the sea l e v e l , atmospheric -pres-6 7 sure i s often below normal. In such l o c a l i t i e s 8 9 water always b o i l s at temperatures below 212° P. f ) ( ) 10 11 J )_ 11. When a body i s heavier than i t s volume of water, i t sinks-i • -otherwise i t f l o a t s , cork i s l i g h t e r than water* therefore i t f l o a t s . Sodium I s l i g h t e r than water. 4 5 Sodium i s a metal. Metals usually sink i n water. 6 7 J ]_ ( ) A chunk of m e t a l l i c sodium thrown i n water w i l l f l o a t . A p p l i c a b i l i t y ; This form of tes t c o u l d serve a very valuable f u n c t i o n i n measuring a b i l i t y to th i n k c l e a r l y enough to counteract s u p e r s t i t i o n and to correct erroneous b e l i e f s . Erroneous b e l i e f s c l i n g on u s u a l l y because they are p l a u s i b l e , but they u s u a l l y contain consistencies which t h i s detects. 93 SP ECIMEN QUESTIONS Erom$ Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Test, , Js&ercise I Purposes of t e s t items; The t e s t of the t r a i t of a "bent" for experimentation has been devised to detect, not the a c t u a l experimental a b i l i t y due to t r a i n i n g , but the f i r s t impulse which i s u s u a l l y symptomatic of an experimental bent* D i r e c t i o n s Suppose that you have p l e n t y of l e i s u r e and the necessary means f o r the meeting of the s i t u a t i o n s described below. Check ( x ) f r a n k l y the statement which comes nearest to the way i n which your f i r s t impulse would lead you to handle the matter, ( i f you wish to be helped by t h i s test you must be a b s o l u t e l y frank,) ° Suppose that your alarm c l o c k suddenly stopped because of some tr o u b l e . { ) 1, Try to determine how serious the trouble i s , and then take i t to a watchmaker, ( ) 2. instead of tampering w i t h the clock and making matters worse, take I t to the watchmaker, ( ) 3. Locate the cause of the trouble and t r y to co r r e c t i t . I l l , You wish to know whether the a s s e r t i o n that there are spots on the sun's surface i s c o r r e c t , { ) 1, Look up the matter i n a textbook_on Astronomy. "(' ) 2* Ask a competent person to give you the information de s i r e d . ( ) 3, Observe the sun through a telescope. V Suppose that you are very much i n t e r e s t e d i n the behaviour of m e t a l i c potassium i n water. To get the information de s i r e d ; ( ) 1. Look i t up i n the Encyclopeodia B r i t a n n i c a under "potassium". ( ) 2, Look i t up i n a good chemistry book, ( ) 3. Drop a p i e c e of m e t a l l i c potassium i n t o water, ( ) 4, Ask a competent person to give you the information de s i r e d . A p p l i c a b i l i t y ; This question type could be used to t e s t f o r v o c a t i o n a l leanings. By choosing items from the various f i e l d s of the General Science courses some measure might be gained as to the amount the student has had hi s l a t e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s awaked. This type of t e s t would not s u f f i c e oy i t s e l f but must be supplemented by case studies and job analyses. SPECIMEN TEST ITEMS 94 From; Cooprider Information Test i n Biology purposes; To test for b i o l o g i c a l information only, completion tests or r e c a l l ; 2. The.gas given off by animals i n r e s p i r a t i o n i s ,, .... 16,Thallophytes that have no green coloring matter are known as Recognition (True-false) place a check ( ) BEFORE the sentences below that are true and a cross, ( X ) BEFORE those that are not true; 1, The p i s t i l and stamens are the most important parts of a flower,, 13. The tomato i s a berry. Multiple Choice (Underline the best answer,j 1, Rubber i s obtained from (animals, o i l , minerals, c o a l ) . 2, Starch i s made by plants i n the (roots, s o i l , leaves, flowers, bark). Best Reason Modification of Multiple Choice. (Check best reason with ) 11, A frog l i v e s i n the mud at the bottom of a pond a l l winter so that; 1. It w i l l not be seen. 2, It can reproduce, 3. It can keep warm. 4, It w i l l not freeze. C l a s s i f y i n g or 'Tracing Relationships In each group of words below draw a line through one word that does not belong there, 2, Scales, endoskeieton, exoskeleton, hairs, feathers, 3, Eye, antennae, nose, ha i r , tongue. 4, Turtle, a l l i g a t o r , frog, chameleon, l i z a r d . Ration or Logical Selection Type. In each group of words below draw a l i n e through two words i n the paren-theses that t e l l what the thing always has, 2. B i r d (nest, eggs, bones, song, t a i l ) 3. Cell ( c e l l - w a l l , protoplasm, nucleus, c i l i a , centrosome) A p p l i c a b i l i t y . The usual run of tests f o r information. Quite useable thus, 95 S?EGIMM TEST ITEMS From* •Cooperative Chemistry Test, Test 11 purpose of Item. To test for the a b i l i t y to apply p r i n c i p l e s . Directions. In each of the following exercises a problem i s given. Below each problem are two l i s t s of statements. The f i r s t l i s t contains state-ments which can be used to answer the problem. Place a plus sign ( ) in the parentheses after the statements which t e l l what w i l l probably happen. The second l i s t contains statements which can be used to explain the r i g h t answers. Place a plus sign ( ) i n the parentheses after the statements which give the reasons for the r i g h t answers, 1. Chlorine is a poisonous gas. A few breaths of a i r containing as l i t t l e as o n e - f i f t h chlorine gas i s f a t a l * Magnesium chloride i s more than t h r e e - f i f t h s chlorine. What would happen as the r e s u l t of eating some magnesium chloride? Jisxplain, a. Death w i l l r e s u l t . . . . ...a.( ) b. The magnesium chloride might improve the flavor of the food b.{ ) c. There w i l l be no injurious effects . , . c,( ) d. The chlorine from the magnesium chloride w i l l i r r i t a t e the l i n i n g of the stomach . . . . . . . . ..........d( } Prom the following statements select and oheck the ones which indicate tte l i n e of reasoning that you followed i n making your predictions above. e. Elements lose t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s when they form a chemical compound. « G • \ j f. Magnesium chloride i s a mixture of magnesium and chlorine...... e f • ( J e« Chlorine reacts with complex organic, compounds, • S« ( ) h. Magnesium chloride i s a s a l t similar to sodium chloride ,h,( ) 1, The properties of a compound are l a r g e l y influenced by the properties of the elements forming the compounds. . i . ( ) J. Small amounts of chlorine i r r i t a t e l i v i n g c e l l s and prevent them from functioning properly. » 5 • ( ) k. The ingredients of a mixture r e t a i n t h e i r individual properties after being mixed. ...,.«, elC « ( J 1, Chlorine reacts chemically with l i v i n g c e l l s producing death... .!.( ) A p p l i c a b i l i t y . When modified i t should work equally w e l l i n Gen, Sc .& T,: ;t6 be used to test development of a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method. 96 •'•SPECIMEN TEST QUEST IONS. From; Van Wagenen Beading Scales i n Biology, Scale B. purpose of test item; To test student*s a b i l i t y to understand l i t e r a t u r e of a b i o l o g i c a l nature. Directions; l e a d the paragraph c a r e f u l l y . Then read the f i r s t statement below the paragraph. I f the idea i t expresses i s stated i n the paragraph even though: i n d i f f e r e n t words, put a check mark i n front of i t . If the idea expressed i n the statement can also be derived or inferred from tie-ideas i n the paragraph place a check mark before the statement. Than read the other statements following and treat them likewise. Do not check statements which do not apply exactly. 98 15, The minimum essentials of a c e l l may be no more than a nucleus and cytoplasm, but r a r e l y do we f i n d c e l l s so simple. A structure which must be present always at least functionally, whether s t r u c t u r a l l y demonstrable or not, i s a surface layer or membrane, a protective and discriminative f i l m that bounds the cytoplasm. The c e l l membrane usually has a.marked degree of toughness and e l a s t i c i t y and i t serves to keep out of the c e l l substances that are in i m i c a l to l i f e and to admit materials necessary for metabolism. It also shields the sensitive protoplasm from mechanical shocks and Inj u r i e s , Even i n apparently naked c e l l s l i k e Amoeba, where there i s no v i s i b l e c e l l membrane, we know that there i s a di f f e r e n t i a t e d surface f i l m that plays the role of a membrane; for naked protoplasm quic-k l y y i e l d s to the c y t o l y t i c . action of water, i s this membrane a p a r t ct the l i v i n g c e l l or a mere dead product of the l i v i n g cytoplasm? Emphatical-l y we may say that the membrane i s l i v i n g , for i t has a l l of the properties of a l i v i n g thing, i t i s sensitive, conductile, c o n t r a c t i l e , and capable of growth and r e p a i r , i t i s , moreover, so highly i n d i v i d u a l i n i t s make-up that i t has the capacity of semi-permeability. A semi-permeable membrane i s one that i s permeable to solvents but more or less impermeable to cer-t a i n substances i n s o l u t i o n . This property i s important i n the l i f e of the c e l l because protoplasm i s a c o l l o i d solution and i t i s kept intact by the membrane, while water and the necessary dissolved food elements pass i n and the dissolved waste products pass out. The c e l l membrane then i s of prime importance i n r e t a i n i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the c e l l and in presiding over the metabolic exchanges which form so large a part of the l i f e of a c e l l . 1. S e n s i t i v i t y , c o n d u c t i l i t y , c o n t r a c t i l i t y , and c a p a b i l i t y of growth and repair constitute the properties of l i v i n g cytoplasm. ,,,,.2. A l l c o l l o i d solutions quickly y i e l d to the c y t o l y t i c action of water, ,,.,,3, The membrane of a c e l l i s merely the dead product of the l i v i n g protoplasm. ,.,4. Qne of the functions of the c e l l membrane i s tokeep the protop-lasm i n t a c t . A p p l i c a b i l i t y ; While this test item makes no attempt to measure the desire to read s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e i t does measure the a b i l i t y to do so. The a b i l i t y to comprehend what i s being read i s a tool of the desire to read. Without the tool the desire cannot get very f a r . Some measure of the a b i l i t y to understand what Is read should be incorporated into any credit given to achievement i n the desire to read s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e . 97. SPECIMEN 0323*1' QUESTIONS ' jar om; Columbia's He search Bureau Test i n physics. ' purpose of test item Not stated i n l i t e r a t u r e , The test i n general i s an Informational one. Item shows a possible use i n testing for the a b i l i t y to apply p r i n c i p l e s . Directions; Place a plus ( ) sign after any statement you think correct, and a minus ( J sign after any that you think wrong. problem; A cube of glass 3 inches on each edge, with a l l faces polished, i s placed over a black dot on a horizontal sheet of paper. The index of r e f r a c t i o n of glass i s *r t 21. The dot viewed from above and v e r t i c a l l y , appears to be more than three inches below the upper surface of the glass. ( ) 92. i f l i g h t from around the dot i s r e f l e c t e d at a l l from any of the surfaces, i t i s t o t a l l y r e f l e c t e d , ( ) 93, The beam from any point of the paper becomes a converging beam af t e r passing through two p a r a l l e l faces of the block* ,...*.*«•( ) 3?EOIMM MSiVQUKSi'lOaS proms Maiin Diagnostic uhemistry Test, Form A. purpose of items; TO f i n d weaknesses i n the f i e l d of uhemistry. F i r s t p a rt i s a table with one column containing many characteristics or properties l i s t e d , i n the other columns the student has to check or reject these properties, f o r a l i s t of several elements or compounds. (A concise way of doing this and holding promise for adaptation.) p a r t 11 Best answer muitip^le choice type. Writing formulae A. Write i n the blank the correct formula of each compound,if correct.copy. Sample NaPO^ «..,,.....,..... . NagPO^,,. f , , , « , , « « » « « » • « « » » » « « , » , « , « 5. HaQ 7. A1(H0 3) etc. B, Write the chemical name of the compound after each of the following; Sample HClOg..,. c h l o r i c acid • 10, HOI 12 e 1T€^> • «•••?••••#»•»••*•*»•#»»»•••#•••»« 15 $ ItfclQlO • •••#•••••#•••••••«« • • »••••••••* C. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the following! Sample Sodium bromide .......laBr . 19, F e r r i c hydroxide, 20, Sodium perchlorate D. Balance the following equations; 22. A l C l g + HaOH — Al (OH) s +- NaCl 26, Ha H 2 0 — — — — — — NaOH -V E% B . Complete and balance each of the following double decomposition equations; 27« FeSO !KHyiOH ———————————— . , , , , , , . , , « , « • . ~f~ . , , , , « , . . . « • « , * . . 4 * 29« Z n . H C 1 — — — — — — — — • » « » « — ~t~~' ,,,,,».,,,,,,,»,, F. Solve the following problems, using the space provided for any c a l -culations; 36, Find the water of c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n i n CUSO4.5H2O. • • A t o m i c we Answer.,..,,,.,.«...... 38.From the following elation,calculate how many V l i t e r s of oxygen w i l l be required to burn completely 20 l i t e r s of SO. 2 CO -V- 0 2 — 2 C0 2 (All.these are usual type questions,) 9 9 . SPECIMEN TEST QUESTIONS. groin; Unit* Tests, Caldwell and Curtis, ''Science for Today'1 purpose of test item; To test the s c i e n t i f i c attitudes held by the p u p i l . Directions The p u p i l was told to refer to pages 12 and IS of Science for Today, by Caldwell and Curtis. There he would f i n d a l i s t of sixteen at-titudes that characterize the t r u l y s c i e n t i f i c man. With these attitudes l i s t e d i n front of him the student then had to decide which attitude f i t t e d a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n , (This i s r e a l l y a matching question.) He then had to f i l l i n the numbers of these printed attitudes as he saw f i t , 5. "I know that our radio i s the best kind made, because the man said so on the broadcast." 7. "The airplane was wrecked on Friday the thirteenth. I happened to think of the day and date just i n time to change my plans so as to make my t r i p on the next day. , 13. "Charles Goodyear spent many years i n planning and making hundreds of experiments before he f i n a l l y learned how to vulcanize rubber. A p p l i c a b i l i t y ; This test seems to test more a student 5s a b i l i t y to judge the attitudes held by other persons or the best attitude to assume i n a given s i t u a t i o n , that i s ; t h e i d e a l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n and solution. Dpubt might be expressed whether these tests w i l l test for the student's own attitude's i n similar situations or not,. The only test for this i s to put the student i n these situations either actually or v i c a r i o u s l y and have him state h i s own a t t i t u d e . However, the test does bring to .light, the student's atten-tion, that c e r t a i n attitudes are d e s i r a b l e , others not worthy of a f a i r -thinking person, and thus the form above may be used better as a teaching device. 100 SPEC HEM1 TEST QUESTIONS. ' From s Caldwell and Curtis, Test on S c i e n t i f i c Method (Tests for"Sc.for Today). Purpose of t'es't item; To test f o r the student's a b i l i t y to. analyze a prob-lem into i t s component steps. The paragraph which follows describes the a c t i v i t i e s of a s c i e n t i s t i n solyiug an important and d i f f i c u l t problem. Each sentence i s numbered. Write i n the blanks following each of the phases of the s c i e n t i f i c method outlined below, the number of the sentence or sentences which i l l u s t r a t e s that phase or stage. Not every sentence that i s numbered w i l l i l l u s t r a t e a phase of the s c i e n t i f i c method, (1) A l i t t l e more than a century ago, Daguerre, a French a r t i s t , was ex-perimenting i n order to discover how to develop a photograph negative,-, (2) At length he was on the point of giving up.in discouragement when one morning he was astonished to f i n d that an exposed plate, which he had l e f t i n a cabinet the night before, had become developed. (3) He f e l t certain that the vapor of some chemical or combination of chemicals i n the cabinet had developed the negative, (4) Could he succeed i n discovering which chemical or combination had. effected the change i n the plate? (5) he de-cided to remove one bo t t l e from the cabinet each day and to leave an ex-posed plate overnight with the remaining chemicals. (6) This would be a slow method ,but one l i k e l y to solve the problem, (7) Days passed; the number of bottles slowly diminished, yet each morning he found the plate developed, (8) F i n a l l y one morning he found the plate undeveloped, (9) He had removed .mercury from the cabinet the night before, (10) Mercury vapour must therefore be the chemical which had developed the negatives each time, (11) Daguerre therefore began to experiment with mercury vapour and freshl y exposed p l a t e s . (12) The results were successful. (15) He had solved h i s problem, ,(14) He r e a l i z e d , however, that many further improve-ments i n his process;must be made before he could perfect a s a t i s f a c t o r y process of photography, PHASES OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD. a. Locating and defining the problem. £1-3 8 9 * • 9 « » b. Planning experiments. b & • « » e » o © c. Using controls. C 9 9 9 • 9 9 9 6 d> Isolating.the experimental f a c t o r . cl • * « 9 « « 9 0 e. Making caref u l observations. 9o M » 9 • 9 • f. Making inferences/ or drawing conclusions from the f a c t s . X « 9 9 '9 9 0 g. Making hypotheses from facts and observations. g* t 9 • • 9 9 9 h. Recognizing errors or defects i n conditions or ex-h. 9 9 9 perlpent' " ft • * * « i . Evaluating conclusions i n the l i g h t of the facts or observations upon which they,are based. 3. *«« * * 9 * 0 J. planning and making new observations, or checking ex-periments to f i n d out whether c e r t a i n conclusions are sound. }^ * 9 9 9 * * 9 • CHAP 'PER Y MODIFYING QUESTION POMS TO PIT THE DEMANDS OP THE T570 ,v MAJOR" OBJECTIVES OP THE COURSE. In this and the following two chapters an attempt w i l l be made to adapt old forms, and devise new ones that w i l l supplement those types mentioned i n Chapter 111 i n order to suit the needs of a testing prog-ramme based on the objectives of the General Science courses i n high schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. Each objective w i l l be dealt with i n order of importance and question forms w i l l be suggested. The following i s a general outline of procedure j -1. A re-statement of the objective i n the order l a i d down at the end of Chapter 11. 2. Noting the percentage weighting given each by the averaged returns of the questionnaire. 3. An analysis of the objective for i t s s p e c i f i c aims or sub-objectives for the purpose of f i n d i n g the major spec i f i c a t i o n s to which a v a l i d question i n that f i e l d must conform. 4. The kinds of tests deemed suitable and v a l i d for the s p e c i f i c objective. 5. Presentation of sample test items. (a) purpose of test item stated when the objective i s complex, (bJ"Directions to students" for test item. (c) Test item, (d) Scoring; this i s presented only for some of the newer types, and i s not included where existin g forms are modified only s l i g h t l y . 101 102 Objective j To Acquire a Body of Knowledge In the F i e l d of Science that W i l l Enable the Student to Interpret and Appreciate His Environment. This objective of the General Science courses IV and V i n the high school curriculum of B r i t i s h Columbia received the highest ranking and the greatest percentage weighting of a l l the objectives. The value when averaged gave t h i s objective a weight of twenty per cent. This percen-tage weighting i s probably lower than a true value might be, due to the conservative central tendency of averaging the rankings returned by the various teachers. P o s s i b l y a weighting of twenty-five or t h i r t y per cent would be better. However, because i t i s the most important objective i t should not be considered so important that i t may exclude a l l others. It must be remembered also that the objective dealing with the development of the s c i e n t i f i c method was ranked very close to this one. There i s a wealth of t e s t i n g techniques suitable f o r the measuring of achievements i n this f i e l d . They can be divided roughly into the essay or paragraph tests and the shorter objective t e s t s . The various types have been segregated to som6 extent i n the preceding chapter, and i t could be seen from the analyses that some forms of questions f i t t e d cer-t a i n testing purposes better than others. The f i r s t of these groups of questions i s that of the essay or parag-raph type and the many modifications. It i s s t i l l much used, and probably w i l l remain i n use. Well prepared essay questions i n this f i e l d s t i l l possess very valuable functions i n the science courses. It i s debatable whether the accepted mathematical w>e=ther--ttrs--accQgtod roa taenia frir&al type of question i s any more removed from the charge of memoriter work than some of the essay-type questions unless special care i s exercised. Stu-dents have memorized type problems i n mathematics to pass tests just as they have memorized material to he used i n paragraph or essay questions. Changing the d i g i t s i n mathematical questions i n the attempt to form a new question i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution to testing procedure. This "revised" question when answered by a student who has memorized the type of question i s c e r t a i n l y worth no more than should be given for similar memoriter work i n essay-type questions. These questions have been modelled after the samples shown i n Ruch and Bice's book "Specimen Objective Examinations", and are a l l suitable for t e s t i n g procedures designed to measure the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge, Thus they would be s u i t a b l e to use i n a programme under the f i r s t objec-tive, of the General Science courses 1? and V. Completion or R e c a l l , (with v a r i e t i e s . ) The completion type of question i s considered the most r e l i a b l e according to Ruch and others who have worked on the problem of the r e l i a b i l i t y of objective questions. They vary i n o b j e c t i v i t y from the completely objective to the semi-objective. A. Sentence Completion* 1. As we ascend through the atmosphere we f i n d that the a i r pressure 2, The usual valence of calcium i s . , . 5, The gas used i n nearly a l l forms of r e s p i r a t i o n i s . B, paragraph Completion: When a copper wire forming a c i r c u i t i s caused to pass through the f i e l d of force of a magnet a(n) . . . . i s produced therein. This current l a s t s only as long as As soon as the wire moves i n the reverse d i r e c t i o n the current . . . . C o i l i n g the same wire ten times to produce ten loops to cut the magnetic li n e s of force causes . . the current of one loop. P l a c i n g another magnet of equal strength adjacent to the f i r s t i n cooperation with i t and using the ten-looped ••coil w i l l produce a current that i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . than that produced by using one wire and one'magnet. Tabular forms of Completion Questions* 1. Complete this table of the properties of the various element Property Mercury Iron Carbon Nitrogen Gopp er .State under normal condit-ions of a i r . temperature; s o l i d l i q u i d or gas. Spe c i f i c Gravi f /;•' Action with ox; ygen Action with ca: .cium Valences L„-_.. 2. Describe b r i e f l y the following substances under the headings shown; Characteristic Copper p orcelain Bake11te Ebonite Aluminium Action with e l e c t r i c .curren t Action with a s t a t i c e l e c t r i c charge. Conduction of heat. S p e c i f i c Gravit y 105 .3. Compare «thB following organisms on the bases-given; Organism Food Methods of Locomotion • Obtains oxygen'' Organs of sight Body covering Srasshoppe Clam Fish J Frog Grouse (Bird) WOlf;, (Mammal) D. Another modification of completion questions can be derived from the mental testing diagrams of C y r i l Burt. Instead of taking common things, such as the diagrams of a person's head, a ladder, and so forth, from which essential lines are omitted, diagrams of model pumps, actual pumps, plants or animals, chemical set-ups, and similar i l l u s t r a t i o n s could be used for the student to complete the essential lines as i n Burt's t e s t s . 13* Chemistry makes mueh use of completion questions i n the form of equation completion and formula completion questions. There are several variations of these. 1. What are the symbols for a. Calcium b. Iron . . . . . . . • • « . • • • • etc. 2. What are the formulae for a. Hydrochloric acid . . . . . . . . b. S i l v e r n i t r a t e . . . . . . . . . . etc. 106 E » i . . . . 3, The symbol 01 represents the element i? o « « « « , « • . , • • * « « 4, TheN formula CaSO^ represents the. compound . » . , . . . , . , , . STagCOg represents the compound 5, Complete the equation to show what compounds, elements, are produced or freed; a. PbS •f Og — • PbO ,.,<«««.,,,.,,,,, b. AgNOg-\- Fa CI- ••••••••• T • •••>..»..>., c. FeS-V- HC1 +• . ..... True-false Question Types. With Variants: The most commonly met variants of the true-^false are the "yes-no", "right-wrong", and the "plus-minus" types of questions. These are so well known that anything more than a sample of each i s unnecessary. 1. A l l s t r a t i f i e d rocks are sedimentary. (True False or { T F ' 2. Within e l a s t i c l i m i t s s t r a i n i s proportional to stress. (Yes No Z. Aluminium i s a more common element than i r o n i n the earth's crust which has been explored, (Right Wrong 4. Photosynthesis occurs i n a l l green parts of plants during only the s u n l i t hours, A modification of these questions i s to have the student provide the correct answer to a l l those questions which he marks wrong. These correc-tions are placed i n blanks provided, as follows; 1. A l l s t r a t i f i e d rocks are sedimentary. True False . , ^ ' f ^ ^ - , , . Multiple Choice Questions, A, Underline the best answer; 1. The substance which takes most heat to raise i t s temperature one degree Centigrade for each gram of substance i s (aluminium, copper, water, alcohol 2, place i n the brackets the answer that best completes the statement; Multiple Choice (cont.) 107 The mineral element that i s obtained from the deeper strata of the earth's crust by the Frasch method i s (phosphorus, carbon, copper gold,, sulphur, zinc) . , . ' 1 1 » « « « This question form i s not as desirable as the f i r s t or the following because- i t e n t a i l s more e f f o r t from the student to do the mechanical work and i t does not produce any greater mental e f f o r t , nor does It increase the v a l i d i t y or r e l i a b i l i t y of the test item. 3. place i n the brackets the l e t t e r (or number) of the answer that com-pletes the statement i n the best way: The process whereby each c e l l unites with food and oxygen to obtain heat i s a. c i r c u l a t i o n , b. r e s p i r a t i o n , c. transpiration, d. i n s -p i r a t i o n , e. photosynthesis, f, digestion. (b) 4. Put a check mark (or a c i r c l e around) i n front of the l e t t e r of the answer that best completes the statements When any a r t i c l e i s dropped from an at titude of about 15,000 feet through the atmosphere; a. the v e l o c i t y of the body w i l l continue to increase 32 feet per second per second u n t i l i t reaches the ground. b. the body w i l l f a l l at the same v e l o c i t y during the complete f a l l . c* the v e l o c i t y w i l l be decreased as the object f a l l s through the denser a i r near the ground. d. the acceleration w i l l not be 32 feet per second per second because the atmosphere i n t e r f e r e s . 5. Put i n the brackets the number of the best statement to use i n order to complete t h i s sentence c o r r e c t l y ; ( ) When common s a l t ( laCl) i s used to treat hams or bacon either by rub-bing i t on them or by soaking them i n a strong brine i n order to pre-serve them the s a l t * a. preserves the food mainly by chemical change of the food, b. poisons the bacteria and the germs. c. causes an osmotic action that makes the b a c t e r i a l c e l l s lose too much water to permit them to l i v e , d. when on the meat forms an ant i - t o x i n against the germs and bacteria, Multiple Choice (cont.) 108 6. Marie "yes'.* or "no" to each statement below as you see f i t t i n g to do; (true ^ false ) (right ^ wrongs 3. On weighing the reagents and products when s i l v e r n i trate and sodium chloride solutions that are hermetically sealed i n a f l a s k are mixed the r e s u l t s support the law. ( ) a.' Energy can neither be destroyed nor created. ( ) b. When a mass of ions i s injected into a chemical reaction using such ions the reaction goes i n such a d i r e c t i o n as tends to decrease them. ( ) c. Matter can neither be destroyed nor created. ( ) d. Gases i n chemical reactions unite i n whole i n t e g r a l r a t i o s * Multiple Response Questions. In the questions of t h i s type more than one correct response can be included* 'They form a good antidote for the idea that students sometimes hold that there i s only one r i g h t answer to a problem. They can test a series of relationships and demand a good deal of reasoning, as well as a command of a broad f i e l d . In the following questions more than one answer i s correct. Underline each answer that you think correct; 1. The following are good sources of protein :(potatoes, eggs, bacon, milk, cheese, cakes, lean meats, c a r r o t s ) . 2. The production of i r o n i n blast furnaces u t i l i z e s (sulphur, i r o n ore, tuyeres for hot a i r , reverberatory flame, coke or coal, and acid liming limestone, a basic l i n i n g , phosphorus, tungsten, molybdenum). Matching Questions i n making these questions i t i s imperative that they be homogeneous, p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n General Science where a process of elimination of the very diverse material that i t i s possible to put together w i l l give the student an answer which his actual knowledge does not warrant that he gat. Matching Questions (cont.) 109 In order to' show the contribution of each man to science place the l e t t e r opposite his name i n the blank i n front of h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r i -bution j . invented a reasonably cheap way to release aluminium from i t s compounds, , invented the idea of molecules to explain chemical reactions and compounds. . invented or developed the microscope. , showed that gases increase i n volume with temperature increase d i r e c t l y as their ab-solute temperature. , discovered the nature of combustion and the importance of weighing a l l reagents and products i n a chemical reaction. In the above item #5 i s not homogeneous, as a l l the other items are d i s t i n c t l y chemical, enabling a person with very s u p e r f i c i a l knowledge of the work to separate t h i s item from the others. Also to use " G a l i l e o " as one of the choices" i s next to useless as almost everyone recognises his contribution as being i n the f i e l d of physics. A l l choices must have d i s -criminative value. When the l i s t of blanks i s short more extra choices must be provided than when the l i s t of blanks i s long i n order to reduce the chance of a r r i v i n g at answers by the process of elimination. When only f i v e or s i x blanks are to be f i l l e d about ten to twelve choices should be given. Rearrangement In this type of question items must be rearranged i n the proper sequence, either temporal when dealing with a process or development, or i n some other manner. Some sequences have a de f i n i t e s t a r t i n g point, while others are c y c l i c that can be started almost anywhere. For this l a t t e r group i t i s wise to give the f i r s t point of the cycle that you wish a. Scheele i * • * c t b. H a l l c. Lavoisier 2 t • • • • d. Dalton e. Charles 3 9 • • » « f. Boyle g. Gali l e o 4 « * 9 9 9 h. Leeuwenhoek 5 * « « * « Rearrangement (cont) 110 to have rearranged i n order to simplify the problems of marking. One question of each of these types i s given. 1. Rearrange these items to give an outline of the contact process of making sulphuric a c i d . 1. drying the S0 2 5. roasting a sulphide to get S0 2 2. absorption tower 6. contact towers with catalyst trays 3. Fuming H2SO4.S02 7. washing impurities out of gases 4. heating gases Correct order 1 . . . , 11 . . ., I l l . . TV . . ., V . . ., VI . . V l l . . . 2. Rearrange these l e t t e r s to show the complete course of the blood, beginning with the blood i n the a l v e o l i (small sacs) i n the lungs of a human body. a. l e f t v e n t r i c l e , b. c e l l s , c. c a p i l l a r i e s , d, l e f t a u r i c l e , e. pulmonary a r t e r i e s , f. r i g h t v e n t r i c l e , g. lungs, h. r i g h t a u r i c l e , i . systemic a r t e r i e s , j . a i r sacs or a l v e o l i , k, pulmonary vein, 1. systemic veins. Starting with j the rearranged l i s t would be 1 . . . . 11 I l l « . . . . IV . . . » . V • . . . . VI . . « . . * V l l . . . . . V l l l . . . . . . . IX . . « « • • A . . . . . . A1 . . . e • , • « Analogics A fourth term that bears the same relationship to the t h i r d as the second does to the f i r s t i s the usual question form of this type, The fourth term i s to be supplied by the student. While apparently ether terms l i k e the second or the t h i r d may be l e f t out for completion by the student a l l these questions can be rearranged to make that term the fourth. However a l i t t l e v a r i e t y i s desirable. 1. platinum powder• converting S0 2 and 0 2 into SOg ,: converting C 0 2 and H 20 into CgH 20 6 2. longitudinal wavesj sound transverse waves . . . . . . Anologies (cont.) 111 3. feathers : birds mammals. Identi f i cations These questions seem to he a combination of matching and completion types, Ruch and Rice l i s t them as d i s t i n c t types, 1, In the exercise below you are to i d e n t i f y each substance as being an Element, a Compound, a Mixture, a Solution, or an A l l o y by placinj around each i n i t i a l of these words a r i n g to c l a s s i f y each substance quartz . * » • • » 33 c M S A beach sand , ,• ., ,. * • o « « III 0 M • S A a i r , , « « « . , • • 9 « - * * jE G 1 s water •» » • • »s C M s A 2. Mark the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Mammals with an M, of Vertebrates i n general with a 7, of Insects with an I, of Birds with a B, and use an A for a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that applies to A l l , and IT for one that applies to None. 8k « Diaphragn . . . . . . . . . . M V I B A N b. Constant body temperature. , M 7 I B A ;., N c. Nervous system M ? I B A " N d. Jointed backbone . . . . . . M V I B A. N e. Gizzard , , , • « • , , , , M Y I B A N f. Spiracles, trachea. . . . , M Y 1 B A N g» Milk glands , . . . . . . . M Y I B A 5 h. Fused or r i g i d bones, porous I Y I B A 1 1. Ovaries and spermaries, . , M '• 7 I B A N Reproduction from Memory Shis i s one of the l a s t types l i s t e d by Ruch and Rice, and i s very well known. • .. 1. Write balanced equations to show what happens when sulphur i s igni t e d i n an atmosphere of oxygen* i n an atmosphere of nitrogen. 2. Give Ohm's Law and explain the function of each factor i n i t . 3. By m eans of a balanced equation explain the process of photosynthesis i n a simple form. 112 Seductions from Premises This example comes d i r e c t l y from Buch and R i c e 1 s book "Specimen Objective Examinations", page 20. This type of question seems to reduce memorizing to a minimum and puts a premium on the a b i l i t y to use data provided and on the understanding of the basic p r i n c i p l e s . 1. The following formulae are corrects K 2 0 , HGl, H3PO4 , ZnO, H2SO4 , GaO, KOH, KtTO3 , C r 2 0 3 Prom these facts calculate the valence of each of the following: Chlorine . . . . . . . Phosphate r a d i c a l potassium. . . . . . . Calcium . Hydrogen M t r a t e r a d i c a l Zinc . . . . . . . . . Chromium. . . . . . . . . . . . The o r e t i c a l l y the questions above should demand active thinking i n order to solve the problem. The examples chosen are a l l soon memorized by the average student. To avoid this d i f f i c u l t y stranger material for testing i n this manner must be chosen, say the rarer members of these families, or use complete abstractions i n x and y. Computations These have been present i n the educational systems from time immemo-r i a l , i n these the emphasis i s on the mathematics science. Because of their tendency toward the pure abstraction of s c i e n t i f i c thought and reasoning i t should not be assumed that these are the only kind of ques-tions that test for s c i e n t i f i c a b i l i t y . 1. What weight of ammonium chloride w i l l be required to produce 10 l i t r e s of ammonia measured at 23°6 and 751 mm. pressure? {Chemistry Supplemental Examination for Matriculation, B. C. August, 1938). Computations (cont.) 123 2. What force w i l l he required to balance a weight of 200 l b s . placed one foot from the fulcrum of a second class lever fi v e feet long, ignoring the weight of the lever i t s e l f ? 3. Yellow peas were crossed with green peas and a l l the r e s u l t i n g were yellow peas. If the F]_ flowers were a l l s e l f - p o l l i n a t e d and 'the seed sown the next year to produce 12,000 seeds altogether, what kinds of seeds would they he and how many of each kind would he found? To Develop the A b i l i t y i n the Use of the S c i e n t i f i c Method; e. a., a. To make accurate observations and to record them systematically. b. To draw v a l i d conclusions. c. To suspend judgment u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t evidence has been obtained. d. To develop a c r i t i c a l yet tolerant attitude towards new ideas. This objective has been ranked second with a percentage weighting of 18$. The objective n a t u r a l l y received a heavy p o l l , together with a considerable unanimity of opinion. It i s one of the two major objectives, hence testing achivements toward this goal should be done with extreme care. The introduction of tests to measure the a b i l i t y to use the scien-t i f i c method would appear to be a decided innovation i n almost a l l the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Science Revision Committee has sub-divided the objective into the four parts as above. Some authors suggest more steps or sections i n the s c i e n t i f i c method than these, Caldwell and Curtis i n their textbook" • l • '•• .- : Science for Today seem to include some nine or ten, i f statements scat-tered throughout the book are to be taken at their apparent value. Some of these seem to coincide. Then there are the more or less t r a d i t i o n a l five steps to follow i n laying out a record of an experiment or the ex-periment i t s e l f ; problem, apparatus, method, data or observations, con-clusion. The objective of General Science 1? and V omits very d e f i n i t e l y 1 Caldwell and Curtis-Sc.for Today.pages 9,10,11,12-13,14-16,20,31,38-9,57 59,63,72,96,106,124,1.17,140,147,158,167,171,173,247,289,353,366,360,402,417, 114 the f i r s t one which demands the a b i l i t y to see that a problem i s present and then to formulate i t . This sub-objective should be included here and i n the objective covering the development of actual experimenting. No mention has been made of the i s o l a t i o n of the experimental factor. This i s more or less a part of the general a b i l i t y to recognize a problem. The use of controls or c o l l a t e r a l experimental factors was not mentioned, The3e sub-objectives should be incorporated, whether the Science Revision Committee included them or not, for they are part and p a r c e l of the scien-t i f i c method. Some authors and books include the a b i l i t y to formulate hypotheses as a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t function from that of drawing sound conclusions from date. The formulation of hypotheses and the drawing of conclusions seem to involve the same mental processes, the only difference being the degree of r e l i a b i l i t y of the data-upon which each i s based. No hypothesis i s ever made but that i t i s based on some modicum of experience. The hypothesis i s not a hypothesis by virtue of some dif f e r e n t mental x^rocess but because the data from which'it i s drawn ,<ire:extremely scant or untrust-worthy. In s i t u a t i o n s l i k e these s c i e n t i s t s set up usually some "temporary working conclusion" to guide them i n devising experiments to c o l l e c t more data. This temporary conclusion Is what'is commonly c a l l e d the hypothesis. Its purpose i s to c l a r i f y the problem one step further, and i n this does d i f f e r from the conclusion or law. It i s nevertheless obtained by a similar mental process. The hypothesis i s then set to work i n other ways, u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t data have been col l e c t e d to warrant drawing conclusions that may be considered v a l i d . Therefore, i t Is only the degree of d i f f e r -ence i n the r e l i a b i l i t y of the data that makes for a difference between 115 hypothesis and conclusion. On this basis l i t t l e attempt to develop any tests for hypothesis alone w i l l be made,but attention w i l l be limited to the tests f o r the a b i l i t y to formulate conclusions from data, and to r e a l i z e when date are too d e f i c i e n t to trust completely. During the period when the main work of examining test items was i n progress the lack of t e s t i n g techniques for the purpose of measuring a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method became apparant. The only question type that occurred occasionally was that of "deduction from data", and which was p r a c t i c a l l y always mathematical data,' Such questions are known commonly as the "math problems" i n physics and are found^a lesser extent i n chemistry. With this b i g gap i n t e s t i n g techniques i n view,work was done devising means to measure achievements i n this p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . The following question types ware developed after much hard work. The f i r s t items appear on the next page. purpose of Test Items; To measure the a b i l i t y of the student i n making accurate obser-vations and measurements, To see i f p u p i l can detect common p a r a l l a x errors, can use the beam balances accurately (that i s make correct readings), and realizes where the chief errors are most l i k e l y - t o occur i n measuring l i q u i d s . 1 1 6 1. This pr ob 1 am ar ose i n a meat store. <S>- -Glass window to see readings. A lady customer, 5 ft.7 i n . t a l l , or-dered two pounds of steak from a butcher whose .height was about 5 f t , l In. The man put some meat on the scales, and after they came to rest said,"Two pounds" The woman,disagreed,claiming that they were two ounces short In weight. The butcher leaned closer tp the scales and declared that the meat actually weighed F i q u r e XIV one ounce more than he f i r s t said. P o s i t i o n G i s the customer's eye. p o s i t i o n B]_ the butoher's f i r s t . P o s i t i o n Bg the butc-her' s second. Answer These Questions on the Above Problem .1. Who was right? (butcher, customer, neither, both) 2, Why did the butcher on leaning closer maintain that the weight was a c t u a l l y greater? 5,. Use the l e t t e r s to designate the reasons In the l i s t , below that you would use to support your decision i n question 1. a. The butcher because he knew that the scales were "fixed", or incor-r e c t . b. The butcher,because he knew that the scales were quite accurate. c. Meither,because their eyesight might have been poor. d. Both, because i t ' s a l l i n the way you look at things. e» The customer, because she knew or suspected that the scales were "fi x e d " or i n c o r r e c t . ' f. The customer, because she suspected that the butcher had placed his thumb on the pan to increase the apparent weight. g. Neither, because the true weight l i e s half-way between the two h. The customer, because of the p a r a l l a x of the butcher's eyes. 1. The butcher,because of the p a r a l l a x of the customer's eyes, j . I f none of these,add your own reason . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. In weighing some powder the person set the beam balances true f i r s t , then poured forty cubic centimeters of i t on a thin piece of paper. This set was then placed on the l e f t pan, and a 50 gram weight, a 20 gram weight and another 20 gram weight were added to the r i g h t . The 117 r i d e r or marker on the beam at the top was moved toward the right u n t i l the scales balanced at the p o s i t i o n shown. The rider had been placed previously at .8 i n order to compensate for the piece of paper which was placed on by i t s e l f . What i s the weight of the powder measured out? .grams. 111. You wish to measure 100 c.c. of water into a graduated vessel of 200 CSC. capacity, . What-are the three most important things to do.in order to get exactly 100 C o . measured into the.graduate? X o v « * t « * « » « * » « « « t 9 « * » « * « t « * « t > « « « 9 e • • * « « « • • • • • • • « • • » • « « « « « • « * « « 3 « • • • • • • » B • s * * » » » * « » * • » • « « * » * ? - • « » * * » 17. In reading the temperature registered on a thermometer being used to measure the temperature of melting i c e , i n a large glass beaker,care should be taken to follow the suggestions i n the statements lettered*-1 • * * • « 2 t * * • • t • 3 % • * • • * • * «5» • • • S« * * « a. Do not s p i l l any water from the beaker as i t w i l l a l t e r the tempera-ture . b. place only the bulb of the mercury i n the ice pack. c. When reading the thermometer take i t out quickly and very c a r e f u l l y and hold i t near to the eye to be sure. d. See that the bulb and part of shaft with mercury i n i t are buried i n the ice pack, ^ e. Place the bulb of the thermometer one-half inch above the Ice surface, f . In reading the temperature have the eye and mercury top on the same l e v e l . g. Put ice and thermometer set i n the r e f r i g e r a t o r . h. Eead the temperature on thermometer while the thermometer i s i n the ice pack. 118 Scoring Question #1, one point per blank. Question #2, three points, one point for the correct gross t o t a l (involving the r i d e r value and weights, one point for deducting the weight of paper; and one point for correct net t o t a l . Question #3, one point each for;- horizontal base, on eye l e v e l , lower sur-face of meniscus curve. Question #4, one point each for d, f f h. Questions 11 and 111 were tested by the investigator to see i f the paper test would a c t u a l l y test laboratory techniques. On the conclusion of the experiment (Exp. 17 i n Appendix) i t was seen that the two methods of t e s t i n g are not t e s t i n g the same things^as the correlation i s low. Moreover, the paper test seems the harder (except for measuring volumes of l i q u i d s ) . f o r In this and other experiments the score on the actual manipulation was higher than on.the paper score, (It i s quite conceiv-able, however, that this condition might be reversed e a s i l y i f the p u p i l s did not obtain much t r a i n i n g i n laboratory work. The students of the classes tested had done a good amount of laboratory work i n the previous years). gurpose• To test the student's a b i l i t y to form hypotheses (a form of deduc-tio n from data. 1. In diamond d r i l l i n g along the base of the Rocky Mountains i n Alberta the geologists found the cores yielded series of rocks i n two groups as shown i n the diagram. What hypothesis would you advance to explain this? Explain what you would do to confirm or destroy this hypothesis. ore H'o-es . . . 119 IX. You have been c a l l e d i n to find some solution to a serious t r a f f i c problem occurring at a f i v e - s t r e e t junction, without any special traf-f i c rules for that corner. What would be five hypothesis that you might advance i n solving the problem, and that you would exoect to test out experimentally? (Too many accidents are occurring" at this junction,) d ® • • « « . . • . « • , « , « , , , , • , * o Scoring; For each of the above problems there are p o s s i b l y several sen-sib l e hypotheses. For the fir s t , o n e these hypotheses may be advanced;-1, overlapping nyu a the s i s ad v^riond f 2. trie repetion of similar h i s -tories for that area i n two di f f e r e n t periods of time, 2. cataclysmic explosions superimposing one series on top of i t s e l f , etc. Each sen-s i b l e hypothesis would have to be counted. A series of questions should be given to attempt to reduce subjective evaluations to a min-imum, that i s , sampling should be large. For the second question many hypotheses might be advanced such as;-1. too great a speed as causing the accidents, 2. poorly kept vehicles, 3. too much extremely slow t r a f f i c i n a heavy stream, 4, types of t r a f -f i c too mixed, p i t c h of h i l l s , 5. road surfaces, 6. business of neig-borhood. Each hypothesis w i t h i n reason would have to be accepted, and a complete l i s t of responses might not be b u i l t up for a considerable time, be-cause of repeated additions. One point each could be given. Purpose of Test Items; 1. To test pupil'' s a b i l i t y to organize a problem into l o g i c a l steps. 2. To test the p u p i l ' s a b i l i t y to recognize the parts of a s c i e n t i f i c problem. Directions » The group of sentences which follow have been taken from an account of a rather famous s c i e n t i f i c problem that was solved. The statements have been put i n a d i f f e r e n t order, and then l e t t e r e d . Read them through c a r e f u l l y , t r y i n g to piece together the l o g i c a l sequence of events. At the end of the series are questions to be answered. a. Many triangulations and calculations were made by both investigators, b. On the night of September 25, 1846, Galle turned his telescope to the point i n the sky where the new planet was predicted to be, and found i t . c. Something under certain conditions produces other actions. d. For the f i r s t f o r t y years aft6r i t s discovery Uranus followed the cor-rect path l i k e a l l other well-behaved planets. e. Both Adams and Leverrier attacked the problem without the other's knowing;,! t . f. The heavenly body acting on Uranus must be farther out In space. ,g, 'The new planet was named Hep tune. h. The planet Uranus i n 1820 was s l i g h t l y out of place and expected time, being ahead and out farther, i , The theories upon which the p o s i t i o n of Uranus for 1820 was predicted were e n t i r e l y erroneous. j . The planet Uranus i s being p u l l e d out of i t s normal path by another heavenly body farther out, and this heavenly body Is unknown up t i l l now. k. The new heavenly body must l i e where the lin e s of triangulations and the calculations coincide. 1, One of the greatest triumphs of mathematical genius occurred i n 1846. m. The laws of mechanics and gravitation were proven wrong for the f i r s t time by a concrete example of di f f e r e n t actions possible i n heavenly bodies. n. The heavenly body acting on Uranus must be hearer the Sun than Uranus. o. By 1840 Uranus was so far out of p o s i t i o n that the discrepancies were intolerable to a meticulous astronomer who put f a i t h i n the c a l c u l -ations, p. Why was Uranus not i n the po s i t i o n s ascribed to i t by the calculations q. Uranus Is out so far i n space that i t s surface temperature i s proba-bl y below zero by 200°F. during the middle of the day. r . Many involved mathematical calculations based on the laws of mechanics and gravit a t i o n showed that the new heavenly body must be inside of Uranus' o r b i t . s. Ten years l a t e r the differences i n time and p o s i t i o n were s t i l l greater^so that Uranus was an appreciable distance outside i t s o r b i t . t. It i s known that any two heavenly bodies tend to draw each other to-gether by virtue of t h e i r g r a v i t a t i o n. u. Some other heavenly body was acting on Uranus to p u l l i t out of i t s calculated p o s i t i o n . v. The index of r e f l e c t i o n of Uranus i s very low so that the observations were not r e l i a b l e . By. using the l e t t e r s i n front of each statement re-arrange them to include only the necessary statements and to form a series that gives the correct sequence of ey.ents and actions. Be sure to use the l e t t e r s of only the statements that serve a direct function In the problem. 13....14....15....16....17....18....19...,20..,.21..,.22,...23....24. Scoring; The scoring of questions of a c y c l i c nature i s always rather d i f -f i c u l t . What are you to do when a student s l i p s up on one stop early i n the cycle hut a l l the others are i n order hut out of their correct position? I would suggest that for any runs or sequence that the score for that p o r t i o n he (n—1} where "n" stands for the number of items i n correct sequence for that portion. One s l i p w i l l automatic-a l l y drop the score two points. This exercise could have the questions asked i n another way. Ask s p e c i f i c questions about ce r t a i n statements as;-1. What i s the use of statement " j " i n working with the s c i e n t i f i c method? 2. What i s the function of statement "s"? (problem, hypothesis, data, conclusion, unnecessary). 3«. What i s the function of statement "k" i n solving the problem? This form of question makes for greater ease i n marking for no worries of evaluating sequences are present. On the other hand i t loses considera-bly i t s v a l i d i t y as a test for the a b i l i t y to organize the steps of a prob-lem. Another form of questions based on this exercise would be;-What statements of those l e t t e r e d above form the;--1 • I* O^O~I.Q xti ••••••• «««»•••««* 2. Examination of older theories 3, Experimentation . . •£<:. ' * ' . . - This type of test would serve n i c e l y i n testing for knowledge of the various steps i n the s c i e n t i f i c method, but it. loses somewhat A* v a l i d i t y as test, of organizing a b i l i t y . To organize^the student must r e a l l y do the organizing of the whole question. Questions that present him with a p a r t i a l organization of the preceding two types invalidate the purpose s l i g h t l y . Question might have the f i r s t few steps already or-ganized by l e t t e r , or the middle two or three, or the l a s t . This would seem to invalidate the test less as a test of organizing than the second and t h i r d types do. •- : u ——••—;— ;' • purpose of Test t To test a b i l i t y to interpret data* To test a b i l i t y to draw v a l i d conclusions. To apply the generalization accurately to applicable new si t u a t i o n s , 1. The following represents the r e s u l t s of some research Into the effect of v e l o c i t y on the a i r resistance of an automobile t r a v e l l i n g at various speeds. DIRECTIONS: Placed after the data and graph are some statements and con-clusions. You are expected to read a l l data c a r e f u l l y and to make a l l decisions on the basis of what i s presented to you here. Examine each of the statements below, decide which of these judgments f i t s i t best, then i n s e r t that l e t t e r i n front of the judgment into the parentheses i n front of the judgment. a. A SOUND CONCLUSION based on evidence only, b. A conclusion CONTRADICTORY to evidence shown. c. QUITE PROBABLE.,but evidence or data does not go that far to show, d. NOT LIKELY C(ERECT, but evidence does not go that far to prove d e f i -n i t e l y . e. NOT RELATED to the experiment, INAPPLICABLE. loO-SZ. So-**, AO . 3S-X V I I 1. (cont.) 123 COMMON VELOCITIES* 1. Automobiles 25-45 miles per hour, 2. Speed l i m i t s i n B. C,, 30 miles per hour. 3. Launches, 7-15 miles per hour, 4. Coastal steamships, 15-25 miles per hour. 5. Aeroplanes, 90-200 miles per hour, H u l l — t h a t part of a boat f l o a t i n g i n water, and supporting the super-structure. Stream-linihg~B:ounding the corners, and tapering the shapes, of bodies i n motion to reduce the vacuum behind, or the "after-drag", ( ) 1. Streamlining the body of automobiles would be of l i t t l e importance . for machines that t r a v e l within the l e g a l speed l i m i t s . ( ) 2. The resistance of a i r increases proportionately to the v e l o c i t y of the car. ( ) 3. Stream-lining the h u l l of a launch would be of very l i t t l e a s s i s t -ance i n saving f u e l , or i n gaining speed, ( ) 4, Driving automobiles at higher speeds produces increasingly greater a i r resistances. ( ) 5. The v e l o c i t i e s i n a i r above which resistances increase very r a p i d l y are above 40 miles per hour. { J 6. The measurements are not accurately made because the graph i s not curved evenly. ( ) 7. The stream-lining of aeroplanes i s r e a l l y unnecessary, i t being mainly a type of a r t i s t i c designing, ( ) 8, Stream-lining the h u l l of steamships would not reduce resistance very much. ( ) 9. Stream-lining the superstructure, upperdecks, etc., of a steam-ship w i l l not reduce the a i r resistance to any great extent, and therefore Is not necessary. ( )10. The weight of the a i r a f f e c t s the resistance offered the car. ( )11. Mileage per gallon of gasoline used by an automobile would be less at 60 miles per hour than at 30 miles per hour. ( )12, Mileage per gallon of gasoline used by an automobile would be } . greater at 50 miles per hour than at 25 miles per hour. SCORTMJt One point each, and the t o t a l of correct responses. — - u ——'• : — Purpose of.Tests To test the a b i l i t y of student to arrange data In a systematic manner, more p a r t i c u l a r l y this time by use of graphs. 2, To test a b i l i t y to interpret data. 3, To test the a b i l i t y to suspend judgment i n the face of i n s u f f i c i e n t f a c t s . 4, To p r e d i c t r e s u l t s on the basis of data. 124 DIRECTIONSi On the graph paper record the data given below, then use your graph to answer the questions asked, DATA In finding how well a certain s a l t dissolved i n water at various tem-peratures a laboratory worker observed these facts;-Salt A s-At 2 0 ° C . « • • e 31»S 1 grams, dissolved i n 100 grams of water 4 5 ° C , • • 9 • 73»4 ft 11 tt tt n rt tt 0 ° C . 6 9 9 • 13 93 tt n •t tt it ft it 5 ° C . 9 4 9 f t IB* «» if n it it M it • 4 0 ° C . 9 9 9 9 63 9 ft u ft it n it n 6 0 ° C . 0 9 9 9 1 1 0 9 75 ft . «t it tt ft tt ft 1 0 ° C . • 0 9 9 17«*B 11 tt it it tt ft H 3 0 ° C , • 9 9 • 4:6« it tt « tt tt tt ** Salt Bs-At 0°C. 9 9 9 0 3 9 6 grams dissolved i n water per 100 grams of water. At 5°G. 9 9 9 0 « &J tt tt it 11 tt it it it ft 9 0 ° C . 9 9 9 « 47 9 6 it it it it it it t» tt tt 1, How much of s a l t A w i l l be dissolved • 9 9 « * 9 * 9 9 i n 100 grams of water at 70°C? 2, How much s a l t per 100 grams of water » 9 9 « 9 » * 9 « w i l l be dissolved at 15°C? 3« How much s a l t of sample A w i l l be dissolved In 500 grams of water at 4, : How much of s a l t B would dissolve i n 100 grams of water at 55°C? 5. How much of s a l t B would dissolve i n 100 grams of water at 100°C.V • •» • 9 9 9 » « * 6, How much of s a l t B would dissolve i n 400 grams of water at 7 5 ° C ? « 9 9 9 * * 9 9 « 7. At 50<>C. which salt dissolves better i n 100 grams of water? 9 9 9 9 * 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 * 9 9 9 8, What relationship exists f o r salt A between quantity of. salt d i s -solved and -iwsperature?' SCQBUJiSs The f i r s t three questions can be scored p e r f e c t l y objectively above a s l i g h t tolerance that should be permitted for instrument errors, p e n c i l l i n e s , etc. (as this i s not a method whereby the student can obtain 125 the exact mathematical r e s u l t s ) . A tolerance of, say .2 grams, would be permissible* Each correct answer would be given the one point. For ques-tions 4, 5, 6, 7 the best answer, and r e a l l y the only one correct,is that the "data are i n s u f f i c i e n t " , or "I don't know". Any r e s u l t s based on a straight l i n e graph must be thrown out for just enough evidence i s presented to show the careful worker that this i s not of that type. However, some of the more ambitious, taking a hint from the graph of A w i l l attempt a curved graph. In cases l i k e these the examiner w i l l be forced to go back to his o r i g i n a l data to f i n d i f the responses should be accepted. Really they should not^as this i s a test to see i f the student r e a l i z e s that he has not s u f f i c i e n t data. For question 8, answers should be of this type and value; increases more than proportionately to temperature, 3; increases but not evenly, 2; increases with temperature, 1; no answer, 0. A better evaluation for questions 4, 5, 6, 7, would be to' give 3 points for "insuf-f i c i e n t data" or equivalent; 2 points for responses within tolerance l i m i t s set; one point for no answer; and zero for a l l others. The actual graphs should be marked^too, say two pja£aJ>s for a graph that i s correct ("the arranging of data"), one point for a f u l l graph that i s rather careless, others zero^for s a l t A; for s a l t B the graph should run between the f i r s t two points with a s l i g h t curve, to get two p^ltf^s; a straight l i n e from the.second point to the t h i r d could well be given a minus mark of one, — — U ; Purpose of Test Item; To test the a b i l i t y of student i n drawing v a l i d conclusions; i n suspending judgment i n the face of i n s u f f i c i e n t facts; and in i d e n t i f y i n g the variable factors i n a complex. 126 PIRHOIIOJS.; READ CAREFULLY the data presented, and the statements below that. «,ach statement you are to judge on the basis of the five standards or judgements l i s t e d below and l e t t e r e d , m the parentheses i n front of each statement record the l e t t e r of the judgment that best f i t s that statement. The Late Blight of Potatoes i s caused by a fungus parasite (phytophth^ora infestans) that grows throughout the potato plant, p a r t i c u l a r l y the -leaves, and producing death i n those parts infected. When inf e c t i o n i s severe the whole plant may be k i l l e d and k i l l e d very rapidly, seemingly overnight* This i s what happened i n Ireland i n 1845 to cause the I r i s h Famine, and i t resulted i n d i r e c t l y i n the death of thousands of I r i s h and the emigration, to America mainly, of about a m i l l i o n pa ople. In order to try to control such a disease many experiments have been done . Below i s the table showing the data from one of these experiments studying the fac-tors that affect the disease. p l o t s of land 1/10 acre each were marked out on very good s o i l that had been under proper c u l t i v a t i o n f o r many years. Each year new p l o t s were used and a r o t a t i o n developed. Three p l o t s were chosen each year; i n one the potatoes were sprayed on a very rigorous schedule with Bordeaux mixture which forms a copper hydroxide f i l m over the leaves; another p l o t of potato plants was sprayed on an equally vigorous schedule by using lime sulphur spray of the proper concentration (as found by other ex-periments), while i n the t h i r d p l o t the potato plants were not sprayed at a l l . The b l i g h t attacks very severely during July and early August i f conditions are r i g h t for i t . YEAR WEATHER DURING JULY,rain,sky AVERAGE TEH1,. JULY YIELD BORDEAUX YIELD LIME SULPHUR YIELD UK'S? RAYED 1. moist,alternating 58° F. 3,255 lbs . 2,982 l b s . 2,070 l b s . r a i n , warm 2. dry i n June,occas- 62° F. 3,409 3,024 1,207 ional showers July s « generally fine & 73° P. 2,810 2,643 2,725 c l e a r , l i t t l e r a i n 4. showery generally 59° F. 3,229 2,956 2.046 5. moist,alternating 64° F. ' 3,156 2,740 1*477 r a i n & warm. 6. fine,few showers 71° F. 3,566 3,179 1,697 7. f i n e , c l e a r no 74° F. 2,892 2,459 2,706 r a i n 8. f i n e , c l e a r , no 70° F. 3,278 2,933 3,162 r a i n 9. very rainy 62° F. 3,582 3,092 1,679 10. cloudy not much 66° F, 3,217 2,769 1,946 r a i n 127 In front of each of the numbered conclusion place the l e t t e r of the one statement above which you think describes i t best. a. SOUSED CONCLUSION' based on evidence only. b. a_ conclusion CONTRADICTORY' to evidence shown. c. QUITE PROBABLE but evidence or data do not go that f a r . d. NOT LIKELY CORRECT but evidence does not go that f a r . e. NOT RELATED to experiment or INAPPLICABLE. Conclusions; ( ) 1. Any fungus —M'Wing spray gives equal and adequate protection. ( ) 2. Hotjdry weather hinders the development of Late Blight disease. ( } S« Rain and moisture play no part i n the action of the parasite in causing the disease. ( ) 4. A l l data of y i e l d s are i n v a l i d because the areas of comparison are not equal. ( ) 5. Bordeaux mixture seems a c t u a l l y to increase the y i e l d s . ( ) 6. The best s o i l was chosen for the Bordeaux sprayed p l o t s , ( ) 7, S u f f i c i e n t data hav<?been obtains d to draw v a l i d conclusions as to worth of spraying. ( ) 8. Lime-sulphur spray reduces crop y i e l d of potatoes i n some way, ( ) 9* Late Blight i s worst i n the hottest years, ( )10. The colder the temperature the better the parasite grows, k i l l i n g more potatoes. ( )11« Lime-sulphur spray of the concentrations used protect the potato plants from the p a r a s i t e . ( )12. Because the spraying costs on the average 60^ ' per p l o t and pota-toes average only 59c' per 100 pounds i t did not pay f i n a n c i a l l y to spray. Purpose of Test Item; To test the a b i l i t y to detect p r i n c i p l e s at work as shown i n the date (drawing v a l i d conclusions) and to apply these p r i n c i p l e s to new suitable situations. (Question type suggested by Professor C. B. Wood) Directions This table presents data obtained by measuring current and the strength of the magnetic forces produced when e l e c t r i c i t y was sent through helices or c o i l s of d i f f e r i n g numbers of turns. Three t r i a l s were uncompleted; you are expected to f i l l i n these blanks with your calculations based on the evidence. 126 TORUS OF * CURRENT IN MAGNETIC STRENGTH WIRE IN COIL AMP EXES 10 200 IN UNITS 800 1/10 600 1/2 800 b.,,».o,,,, #« 4 f t f l Ci « t » i i i i i t« t 11 i t JL 50 1 0 0 * 50 600 700 i 3 5 0 80 200 100 Scoring} The scoring i s very objective for t h i s , simply one point for each correct response only. The a b i l i t y to make accurate observations and to organize thasedata and record them neatly are achievements that can be evaluated d i r e c t l y from the student's note books, or laboratory books to obtain a f a i r l y s a t i s -factory measure. Perhaps this may be a good interim procedure u n t i l tests that are more v a l i d than the marking of books can be devised. The marking i s more v a l i d when r e s t r i c t e d to organizing. In marking the laboratory books the best plan i s to examine a l l books and separate them into seven groups accordingly from best to poorest. It i s advisable to check the placement of books i n any category,, for a few of the f i r s t ones examined p o s s i b l y may have been misp>laced when viewed i n l i g h t of the f u l l e r experience.' These can then be a l l o t t e d l e t t e r grades, or points, according to the method i n use of recording achievements. 'CHAP TEE VI . FORMS OH* QUESTIONS FOK • %ii±is OBJEC'i'I VfiS OF °lMa'EBMM>IA.SiBr VALUE. In this chapter are grouped the test items suitable for testing achievements of the objectives of intermediate value. These objectives obtained a weighing of eleven to ten percent, which marks them off ab-r u p t l y from the two preceding but only s l i g h t l y from those which follow. TO Develop Resourcefulness and Adaptability to lew Conditions; This objective was ranked t h i r d with a weighting of eleven percent. • Judging -by the returns on some of the questionnaires several per-sons think that t h i s objective i s debatable on psychological grounds,, Four expressed the opinion that i t i s psychologically impossible to develop resourcefulness because i t is. a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i n t e l l i g e n c e , 1 or on the basis of Spearman's theory one of the s p e c i f i c factors. These comments set the investigator to examining the theories of i n t e l -ligence again just to check up. It i s not intended to go into a lengthy discussion of the theories of. in t e l l i g e n c e at this stage and to use ideas deduoible from the theories but rather to deal with d i r e c t ex-perimental evidence on the problem of testing and developing resource-fulness. It might be said i n defense of this objective that ons of the out-standing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a resourceful person i s his adaptability. While doubtless a d a p t a b i l i t y i s i n a measure based on i n t e l l i g e n c e , or more c o r r e c t l y upon the degree of responsiveness of an i n d i v i d u a l , i t i s "1. Spearman, Charles; "The A b i l i t i e s of Man," passim. 129 130 not synonymous w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e , I t i s rather on a t t i t u d e of mind which can be developed i n a person, A very i n t e l l i g e n t person can be unadapt-able even i n these f i e l d s . A d a p t a b i l i t y i s developed by experience and correct a t t i t u d e s , The degree of development i s of course l i m i t e d by the degree of na t i v e responsiveness of the i n d i v i d u a l . Resourcefulness may be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of persons. The great American nation has been derived p r i m a r i l y from B r i t i s h stock, i t i s doubtless a very resourceful nation, p o s s i b l y much more so than are the B r i t i s h , This difference may be at-t r i b u t e d to t h e i r need to adapt themselves to new and d i f f e r e n t surround-ings. This need Is not evident i n the l i v e s of the B r i t i s h for whom conditions are s t i l l s i m i l a r to those of past days and are not changing r a p i d l y . I t seems quite p o s s i b l e to make out a strong case to show that resourcefulness can be increased i n any person by c r e a t i n g the proper a t -ti t u d e of an open mind, by showing that problems often have more than one s o l u t i o n or one way of s o l v i n g them, by improving powers of observation of d e t a i l s around one, and by teaching students to arrange t h e i r observat-ions i n some o r d e r l y or systematic manner. All these processes can be developed by good t r a i n i n g i n science. Thus i t seems i n order that t h i s o b jective be r e t a i n e d . There i s evidence^too rto show that resourcefulness may "be developed. i One experiment c a r r i e d out by Beauchamp and Webb t r i e d to te s t the resourcefulness of high school students. These i n v e s t i g a t o r s reported that there was vary l i t t l e c o r r e l a t i o n between resourcefulness as they measured i t and i n t e l l i g e n c e as measured by two w e l l known general i n t e l -ligence t e s t s . The O t i s i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t gave a c o r r e l a t i o n of ,21+ .09 1« For .examples of these .see p , \33 with resourcefulness, and the Mcuall Multi-mental Test ,04 .09, The xerkes-Hoss Adolescent-Adult scale correlated with the resourcefulness tests to the extent of .42 - .08. Therefore, they conclude, the i n t e l -ligence tests are not measuring the same things as.their resourcefulness tests were, at least to any great extent, i t might be pointed out here that resourcefulness correlated with the achievement i n physics, which was measured at that time i n the rather bookish manner, to the extent of I .14 £ .09. These investigators go on to say that i f resourcefulness i s r e a l l y a desirable factor of a p u p i l ' s a b i l i t y then we are not j u s t i f i e d '< •• 2 i n measuring him only by tests that do not measure this q u ality. Growth i n resourcefulness was reported a l s o . Thus i t seems that the i n c l u s i o n of this objective i n the Science courses ly and v' i s quite j u s t i f i e d . Moreover i t has been judged quite important by many teachers with a f a i r l y good degree of unanimity. some examining of the term resourcefulness i s necessary i n order to see just what.is implied. The average s i t u a t i o n demanding resourceful-ness i s one that has a new element i n the problem. We say. that the person who i s able to solve such problems with new elements i s resourceful, the more so i f he can solve them quickly, i n solving them he usually makes use of the very simple things that are around him. It i s necessary not. to confuse t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c with ingenuity; the two may be c l o s e l y related, but ingenuity has more inventiveness to i t , i n making his solution to the new complex the person also makes much use of experience. If the foregoing i s correct then these seem to be the characteristics of resourcefulness; to r e a l i z e the d i f f i c u l t y or problem, to survey the t e r i a l s that can be used i n solving i t , the manipulation of these ar-ma 2.. Beauchamptf-O-,and Webb/ il,/\.;"R« NVU^n.-K'cS fr\> ASH - . (Vol- X-KVm) 152 t i d e s , the c a l l upon experience or memory for p a r a l l e l s , and the c a l l i n g i n of i n t e l l i g e n c e . What can be done to develop'resourcefulness then? students can be trained to i d e n t i f y problems; they can be taught systematic surveying of materials that might be useful; the provision of a wealth of experience, d i r e c t or vicarious, w i l l prove of inestimable value; they can be trained to manipulate apparatus. So from this i t seems that much can be done to develop resourcefulness, and thus the testing programme should follow the teaching. Perhaps i t might be better to say that the knowledge that tests can be devised for this purpose should encourage the teacher to Include training, for ,this i n his programme. Any test of resourcefulness, must place the person i n a new complex of circumstances, xhere are many problems i n the d a i l y teaching experience that c a l l for resourcefulness. To enumerate many here would be to rob such Incidents of the element of the new. Many laboratory a c t i v i t i e s and tech-niques that form part of the regular work i n higher years have r e a l elements of resourcefulness i n them when applied to the lower grades. Uare must be taken when chosing from these that they are not e n t i r e l y beyond the ex-perience of the student. The type of test administered by iseauchamp and Webb demanded actual things to work with, although tseauchamp and Webb' did divide their group into two,and alternate paper response and actual manipulation between the two sections. ; They provided a booth for each student to use. In the written res-ponse type a l l the equipment and the problem,which was printed on a card were uncovered on a given sig n a l ; whereupon the student had to see what the problem was, survey his apparatus, then write b r i e f l y h i s procedure. Pbr the actual manipulation group also the problem was printed on the card, but the actual solution demanded the use of the apparatus.. A time 133 l i m i t of seven minutes per item was deemed s u f f i c i e n t , is'ach student was asked also to'state whether or not he had done something similar to the test item before. Out of the 1,309 successful accomplishments 896 "were based on some modicum of experience. & co r r e l a t i o n of .60 between ex-perience and resourcefulness shows the benefit of experience i n any resourceful act Resourcefulness i s not mere r e p e t i t i o n of experience but i t i s founded on i t . " The scoring was e n t i r e l y i n the hands of the supervisor who watched the actual manipulations, Successful responses only were counted and no f r a c t i o n a l credits given, A few of the Items from aeauchamp and Webb.' s l i s t w i l l be included here • FOitfi'A I. udven; jiunsen burner fastened down; gas supply; matches; short rubber tubes (too short to reach from jet to burner); glass tubes (of s l i g h t l y smaller external diameter. Required; TO l i g h t the Bunsen burner without moving i t . 3, (Jivenj Two bottles of odd shape, nearly the same siz e ; pan of water. Required; To f i n d which bottle holds the more. 16.Given; A s t r i n g one yard long; s c i s s o r s . Required; To secureaccurately a strong s i x inches long. I I . u-iven; jj'lask; one-holed stopper; funnel; water. Required; To prove that a i r occupies space. FOBiffl B 1. Given; Basket b a l l bladder; balaices; weights; s t r i n g . Required; To prove that a i r has weight, without going further one i s tempted to say that the l a s t two a c t i v i t i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r are included i n science tests and science courses i n many places. This probably does not matter i n the least, providing that they have not been done already i n the class or grade which i s being tested. Some types of questions that seem to he answerable only on paper and having the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s that demand resourc'efulness are; 1. Givenj Two steep h i l l s and a moderately narrow valley; a watch with second hand; r i f l e and she l l s - a person stationed or r e s t i n g about half-way up one of the h i l l s . Required : To f i n d the distance across the valley at the altitude of the person. -2. Givenj A f i s h that has just been caught; small trees and willows near by; " f l i e s " ; hooks; spinners; basket; s t r i n g or l i n e ; knife; lead sinkers 1 oz to 4 oz. Required* To f i n d the weight of the f i s h , 3. Given: A small f i r e from a short c i r c u i t i n your car; out on a country side road f ar from help; no f i r e extinguisher. Required: To put out the f i r e immediately. Others .that seem to demand actual materials to be present i n order that the student can make the necessary thought connections are? 1. Given, some empty halves of peanut s h e l l s ; sand or s o i l ; s a l t or sugar. Required; To demonstrate the process of osmosis, 2. Given; An angel-cake t i n ; and three other pans, of s l i g h t l y larger diameter, al k a l i n e water (or some Other with chemical impuritie s) f i r e or Bunsen burner. > Required; To obtain water chemically pure i n order to put i t i n storage b a t t e r i e s , 5, Given;Potatoes; pan of water; k n i f e ; sugar. .Required;; To prove that water passage from c e l l to c e l l occurs by osmosis. 4. Given- A tack at the bottom of a hal f - i n c h hole s i x inches deep and d r i l l e d into a piece of wood that cannot be turned over; n a i l s • and spikes up to seven inches i n length; a dry. c e l l ; and thin silk-covered copper wire. ;, Required; To get the tack out so that d r i l l i n g may be resumed, and the wood not injured. . 5. Given; A shovel with a cracked handle but not separated; a very heavy rock (about 250 lbs,) i n a hole two and one-half.feet deep; dug i n a garden. Required- To get the rock out of the hole, assuming that i t i s much too heavy to l i f t . 135 •go Acquire Knowledge Which W i l l Contribute to Public and Personal Health This objective was ranked fourth and received a weighting of ten percent. There seems to be no confusion as to. the intent of the objective, A science teacher Is directed by this objective to see that the required knowledge or information i s given when the science course approaches health topics, or when p r i n c i p l e s are involved which are transferable to health and safety studies. While there exists a special series of Health courses i n B r i t i s h Columbia schools no one expects the science teacher to teach the entire health course. There w i l l be many places where the Science' and Health courses meet or overlap. These linkages should be made very evident to the student. The objective emphasizes the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge that should be put into active use by the student to safeguard his own health and , that of the community. To see that this information and tra i n i n g i s given and to try to see that i t becomes eff e c t i v e i s the duty of the teacher. The t e s t i n g for the information acquired w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y easy. To test to see hew s o c i a l i z e d health attitudes have been developed w i l l not be too d i f f i c u l t . The common forms of questions can be used for these. To measure the transfer of information into active l i f e of the community would be a big task beyond the power of one teacher to do. MULTIPLE CHOICEf Underline the best answer. 1. During the winter the a i r taken into the hot a i r heating system of any bu i l d i n g and warmed only becomes; a. too humid, b. too warm, c, s l i g h t l y higher i n humidity, d. s l i g h t l y lower i n humidity, e. too dry, 2. A i r that i s s t i l l and very humid hinders considerably the process of a. transpiration, b, r e s p i r a t i o n , c. pers p i r a t i o n , d. c i r c u l a t i o n , e. digestion. I 136 3. The best method of i l l u m i n a t i o n , to use where.much reading w i l l be doral-i s : a. d i r e c t , b . . t o t a l l y i n d i r e c t , c, se m i - i n d i r e c t , d, t o t a l l y d i r e c t , MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS; Pla c e the l e t t e r i n front of the term i n the blank numbered in,"front of each statement so that a c l o s e l y r e l a t e d p a i r of ideas r e s u l t s , a, f i l t e r i n g 1 . a d d e d i n minute q u a n t i t i e s to k i l l germs that b, d r i n k i n g water might be i n the d r i n k i n g water of many large c, s e p t i c tanks c i t y systems. d, sewage e, b o i l e d water 2,,.. greatest dangers from water supply occur. f, t yhoid g, c h l o r i n e 5 . . . . . . . . . s i n g l e drop i n a tumbler or glass f u l l of •h. summer vacations water u s u a l l y k i l l s a l l germs, i , f l u o r i n e j . d i p h t h e r i a 4 does not remove germs from water. , k, t i n c t u r e of iodine . . j , b o i l i n g 5 .........disease spread c h i e f l y through water and mil k 1, winter s u p p l i e s , m. typhus 6 . . . . . . . . . s u f f i c i e n t l y pure i f i t contains nothing n. s p r i n g unwholesome. COMPLETION OR RECALL; f i l l i n the blanks i n the statements i n order to make a complete accurate statement. 1, The souring of m i l k i s caused by . ... r , 2, In short sightedness the image f a l l s the r e t i n a of the eye. 3, The i n v e n t i o n based on the use of e l e c t r i c i t y and vacuum tubes that i s of most b e n e f i t i n surgery and diagnosis Is ., ..... ANALOGIES; complete the analogies below with a word or statement that . makes the same or very s i m i l a r of words as e x i s t s between the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the second pa i r f i r s t p a i r . 1. Body wastes s l a r g e r animals s ; toxins ; 2. Mh02 • ; KCIOg ; ; ,....; ingested p r o t e i n 3, f l i e s . typhoid ; ; f l e a s ; .«••«.,••,,,,.,, 4, P tyqjiin ( i n s a l i v a ) ; s t a r c h ; : pep s i n ; ««««•,•»•••••... 5. wood a l c o h o l ; g r a i n a l c o h o l methyl e t h y l ; ; ,,.,........•; COg 137 IDENTIFICATIONS; c l a s s i f y these a f f l i c a t i o n s as,-a.communicable diseases b, non-communicable diseases, c. an i n j u r y from external causes, d. a heredi-t a r y defect. ,When you have decided to which of .the above group each a f f l i c -t i o n belongs w r i t e the l e t t e r of that group In the appropriate* blank. 1... ..» concussion of the b r a i n 2.. . . s i x f i n g e r s on each hand 3................ tub e r c u l o s i s i n c a t t l e 4............... .potato scab 5... .....diabetes of man 6,. .winter k i l l i n g of bark of trees 7................hog cholera 8 .scurvy 9...».»*•........typhoid 10 .wheat r u s t DEDUCTIONS FROM PREMISES, (drawing v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s ) . Read the paragraph as c a r e f u l l y as p o s s i b l e then answer the questions at the end o f the paragraph. Be c a r e f u l to make no statement that i s not deducible from the quotation. "Metchnikoff, a great Russian b i o l o g i s t , observed that the Bulgarians are an unusually l o n g - l i v e d people. In t r y i n g to discover the reason for t h i s he searched f o r something i n t h e i r l i v i n g conditions which was d i f f e r e n t from the l i v i n g c o n ditions of a l l other peoples. He found, among other things, that the Bulgarians drink more bu t t e r m i l k than other peoples. He-therefore concluded that the d r i n k i n g of b u t t e r m i l k was responsible f or the . long l i v e s of the Bulgarians, and that i f other peoples were to adopt the custom of d r i n k i n g as much b u t t e r m i l k as the Bulgarians, they would l i v e as long as the Bulgarians. 1. What causes long l i f e ? . ............... 2. Is the r e l a t i o n s h i p mentioned abov8 coincidence or true cause and ef f e c t ? ••»••••»••••••» .*..»»••....... 3. The experimenting that was done by Metchnikoff to v e r i f y h i s conclusion was ..«..«•<>...•>•• .............>. .«••••»•••••«•« 4* Is Metchnikoff 1 s conclusion sound? *-• • • • . • . • , . , « • 138 ,MODIFIED ESSAY TYPE AND SEMI-OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS Answer the f o l l o w i n g questions b r i e f l y and as ac c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e . R e s p i r a t i o n i s an extremely important process that i s c a r r i e d o n ; — Where Using what gaseous element? R e l e a s i n g what gaseous compound?.... DETECTING- RELATIONSHIP S: below are p a i r s of terms. You are to f i n d a very important or. fundamental s i m i l a r i t y between the two Items, and an important d i f f e r e n c e . Your answer i s to be l i m i t e d to from four to s i x words i n each space. P a i r s of Items S i m i l a r i t y Difference  1. - , D i f f u s i o n a. b. , Osmosis n a t u r a l immunity a. b, . a r t i f i c i a l immunity 3. Ti-a/ismuiloyi of •. malaria a. • bubonic plague COMBINATIONS SO MANY IMPOSSIBLE TO MEMORIZE Demands a c t u a l a c t i v e thinking.over of f a c t s , Tne f a c t s may be memorized but the way to use them cannot for the student can have no idea what p a i r of ideas are to be compared. GHAT? I'M V l l iKMtos' OF uUJBStiuifs bl/lTABLJS F O K -iasSl'lNtt 'ufiB ACKIBVMMTS • OF'LEAS T " I M P OR T A N C E . l'hls chapter deals w i t h forms of questions suitable for t e s t i n g i n accordance w i t h the objectives of General science l y and v. xhese objec-t i v e s are not sharply marked o f f from the preceding and comprise s i x of the ten o b j e c t i v e s of general science l v and v. •x'Q provide M a t e r i a l s f o r v/orthy Use of Leisure xhis objective was ranked f i f t h w i t h an average weighting of eight percent. At the outset i t appears that the measurement of achievement toward t h i s goal i s extremely d i f f i c u l t . F i r s t , the complete attainment of the objective i s not p o s s i b l e i n school, but only i n out-of-school hours or i n l i f e a f t e r l e a v i n g school, xhis f a c t makes the t e s t i n g of achieve-ment extremely d i f f i c u l t and next to impossible^, Were i t not f o r c e r t a i n evidence one would be tempted to say that I t i s impossible to t e s t f o r achievement here. Any programme of t e s t i n g t h i s objective i s based on the hope that I n t e r e s t s aroused i n school l i f e w i l l c arry over i n t o a d u l t l i f e , t o a moderately high degree, xhorndike long ago gave some idea that t h i s i s p o s s i b l e i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o how w e l l p u p i l i n t e r e s t s c a r r y over i n t o l a t e r f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , r e p o r t i n g 1 c o r r e l a t i o n s between these two of .66 and .89, xhis measure of the t r a n s f e r of I n t e r e s t s i s at l e a s t as great as the carry-over of many of the ordinary t o p i c s taken i n high school courses, A t e s t on the increase i n t e r e s t s would appear to y i e l d a f a i r l y v a l i d measure of achievement In any p a r t i c u l a r course. I n t e r e s t s do not develop e n t i r e l y on t h e i r own, from w i t h i n as i t were, but are the r e s u l t s of wider experiences that 1, xaken from H u l l ' s report i n "Aptitude -resting" page 190. , . 139 1 4 0 'come from education. There i s development of interests and this develop-ment should "be "measured, Another d i f f i c u l t y with this objective l i e s iri the interpretatiai of the word "worthy". The d i f f i c u l t i e s concerning the interpretation of the word iiave been mentioned i n --a.- preceding chapter. ' The chief purposes of testing the progress toward t h i s objective seem to be to measure the p u p i l ' s r e a l i z a t i o n of the wealth of interesting material, which can be of tremendous interest i f pursued further, and i n measuring the teacher*s success i n arousing these interests. very few of the usual question types, are suitable for testing achieve-ment of t h i s objective, xrue-false, completion, multiple choice, deduc-tions a l l f a l l short of measuring with any degree of r e l i a b i l i t y that which i s worth while. Most of them are b a s i c a l l y opposed, for they are based on the philosophy of giving the student only certain choices which he must act upon, and not on the conception of the complete freedom of choice which marks most avocations, , .Desires and urges may drive a c t i v i t y i n almost any d i r e c t i o n . Those a c t i v i t i e s which injure the person morally, p h y s i c a l l y , and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y we choose to c a l l "wrong". They may to so i n the l i g h t of an omniscient judge, but our basis for judging i s more or less a r b i t r a r y , i t seems safe enough to consider any response which does not contravene these standars as a "correct response", p r a c t i c a b i l i t y and costs are other factors influencing i n no small-measure the choice of avocations. The amount of leisure i s another serious problem, although i t appears to us now that the future w i l l b r i n g more f o r the great majority of persons. The essay type of question undoubtedly serves a good purpose here for i t leaves the horizon unobstructed, only bidding that the student 141 look east, west, north, or south f o r s o l u t i o n s . . xhe evaluating of s t a t e -ments made by the student may be d i f f i c u l t but the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s should demand .only that the student r e a l i z e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r avocational i n -t e r e s t s , and that the hobby or i n t e r e s t be not a n t i - s o c i a l or a n t i - p e r s o n a l , i f the student makes out a good case for a hobby that the examiner had not thought p o s s i b l e or i n t e r e s t i n g the examiner must accept h i s response. aome questions that attempt to t e s t i n t h i s manner are here presented; 1. Suppose that you have s u f f i c i e n t spare time and just enough money to provide the needed materials to cover expenses,what hobbies or i n -t e r e s t s ' of a s c i e n t i f i c nature would you follow? Or r e c o g n i z i n g economic l i m i t a t i o n s , t h i s : 2, ouppose that you have s u f f i c i e n t spare time, but not very much money, what hobbies or i n t e r e s t s of a s c i e n t i f i c bent or based upon what you f i n d i n t e r e s t i n a science course would you follow--xhe essay type question should be t r i e d again but t h i s time w i t h c r i t e r i a for measuring the responses. Here i s a good place to use i t . AS s a i d before, most of the older methods of measuring essay type responses f a i l e d to provide the examiner w i t h any scale of values. Another type of question that measures a student's a b i l i t y to see opportunities f o r i n t e r e s t ^ c t i v i t i e s i s to l i m i t the f i e l d of science and to ask him what p o s s i b i l i t i e s there are i n that realm, ouch questions as t h i s must take a moderately wide sampling i n order not to m i l i t a t e against a person who does not happen to be e i t h e r i n t e r e s t e d or able i n the f i e l d s e l e c t e d , ^ suggested question of t h i s type f o l l o w s : What hobbies or i n t e r e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s do you think you.could develop i n the f o l l o w i n g f i e l d s ? . e l e c t r i c i t y ? Heat? Light? isuoyancy and Archimedes' P r i n c i p l e ? 142 •Chemicals that a f f e c t human beings? Minerals and Metallurgy? study of rocks? clothes and t e x t i l e s ? Microscopy? study of sea animals? Trees and Flowers? another ma thod of a r r i v i n g at some idea of success i n the development of avocations has been to use check l i s t s , xhe usual check l i s t i s one of the " i n t e r e s t " type, and u s u a l l y not very s a t i s f a c t o r y , f o r i t requires customarily a' checking of each item In which the person examined i s i n -tere s t e d . Almost immediately the examinee "catches on- to the purpose of the t e s t , and from that moment the r e s u l t s , a r e not very v a l i d , oometimes to reduce t h i s e r r o r somewhat the examinee i s asked to evaluate each one of the Items on some such b a s i s as " l i k e i n d i f f e r e n t , , . d i s l i k e " . This lead i f c a r r i e d further can produce more accurate r e s u l t s so that the personal e r r o r of deli b e r a t e bias In order to obtain a higher score can be reduced to a very low l e v e l , ±he f i r s t attempt o f the i n v e s t i g a t o r to extend t h i s technique was to have p u p i l s evaluate given items numerically according to the stated scale of values, as f o l l o w s * ' • ' Below i s a l i s t of hobbies, i n t e r e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and such that are based upon some phase of •science work such as you have been doing or are now doing, head each item c a r e f u l l y , t h e n place the number of the statement l i s t e d that best explains your opinion, r e a c t i o n , or a t t i t u d e to the item, use a S to show that you have been f o l l o w i n g those a c t i v i t i e s f o r some time now (that i s , before t h i s course, and s t i l l continue to do so). Use a 2 beside those hobbies, i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s that you have developed during t h i s course, or have revived as a r e s u l t of t h i s course. 143 Use a 1,.....beside those a c t i v i t i e s which you were in t e r e s t e d i n but discontinued, before you took t h i s course. Use a 0 beside those hobbies, a c t i v i t i e s i n which you have absolute l y no i n t e r e s t , nor had an i n t e r e s t i n the past. Use a -1......beside those a c t i v i t i e s that you th i n k a student should not f o l l o w at a l l . use a -2 beside those hobbies, i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s that you once followed but have turned against as a r e s u l t of t h i s course HOBBIES, INTERESTS, ACTIVITIES, EVALUATION. 1. Reading a good book on b u i l d i n g of great p r o j e c t s , tunnels, etc 2, Chemistry experiments on your own < 3. Making exp l o s i v e s , n i t r o g l y c e r i n e , e t c . 4. Keeping a science scrap-book 5, C o l l e c t i n g and p r e s s i n g flowers ,. 6, R e p a i r i n g e l e c t r i c a l systems, d o o r b e l l s , etc *. . . . . . SCORING: This form of test could give two measures according to how i t i s scored. I f we wish to f i n d the e f f i c a c y of the course i n developing these i n t e r e s t s and hobbies we c e r t a i n l y must consider the number of 3's and 2*s together w i t h the number o f 0 ss and -1's and -2's. This scoring i s sug-gested ; Frequency of 3's m u l t i p l i e d by 2 Frequency of 2»s m u l t i p l i e d by 1 Summation for" gross p o s i t i v e scores. Frequency of l ' s m u l t i p l i e d by 1 Frequency of -1 m u l t i p l i e d by 2 Summation of negative scores. Net s c o r e — — p o s i t i v e gross minus negative gross scores. I f a net negative score were obtained i t might mean that the course has been u n p r o f i t a b l e , or that the teacher i s d i s l i k e d . Further, i t i s quite conceivable that a person g i v i n g t h i s r e s u l t may have only a few i n t e r e s t s i n the course yet may f o l l o w them very v i g o r o u s l y . For f a i l i n g to b r i n g out the great i n t e n s i t y of these i n t e r e s t s the scheme i s at f a u l t and would need to be supplemented, but the tes t does appear as i f i t would 144 give a good measure of extent of i n t e r e s t development. To obtain some idea of the extent of the student's i n t e r e s t the frequency of the 3's and 2's could be summated with the frequency of the l ' s . Further work on th i s idea was done i n the hope of obtaining some gra p h i c a l arrangement that might give a more i n t e r e s t i n g a n a l y s i s of the s i t u a t i o n , using as a guide the work that has been done to develop person-a l i t y contour graphs and s i m i l a r s t a t i s t i c a l f i g u r e s . I f one desired to f i n d whether a student's hobbies and l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s ran towards chemistry or towards b i o l o g y ? t h e top i c s could be arranged i n these groups. Further, i f one desired to f i n d the extent of the student's i n t e r e s t s , t h e headings could be arranged i n columns and a p r o f i l e view obtained of the course's r e s u l t s and the p u p i l ' s r e a c t i o n s . The l i s t presented to the student must conta i n those items that may be deemed s o c i a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . To introduce negative f a c t o r s i s to introduce another problem e n t i r e l y , that of e v a l u a t i n g what i s s o c i a l l y worth-while, This l a s t f u n c t i o n i s done best by s p e c i a l l y trained persons. With the foregoing rearrangements made the f i n a l form i s now presen-ted*- - . DIRECTIOSS. In reading through t h i s exercise you w i l l see two s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t gives you c e r t a i n statements that you w i l l use In e v a l u a t i n g the l i s t of items which f o l l o w s to make up the second s e c t i o n . Each statement has a number so that you can use the number instead of copying the statement and thus save time. Read the statements very c a r e f u l l y , then judge each item on the basis of these statements, p l a c e a check mark i n the column  of the value you give. Use a 4 to represent those hobbies, i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s that you have s t a r t e d or developed during t h i s course. P l a c e the check i n Column 4, Use a 3 w i t h a check mark i n the proper column to represent those hobbies, a c t i v i t i e s which you have been f o l l o w i n g f o r some time and s t i l l do. 145 Use a 2 to represent those a c t i v i t i e s or i n t e r e s t s that you think: you might'want to adopt. Use a 1 w i t h a eheck mark i n the proper column to represent those hobbies, a c t i v i t i e s that you ceased to follow before you took t h i s course. Use a 0 check mark f o r hobbies, and a c t i v i t i e s i n which you have absolute-l y no i n t e r e s t , or desire to f o l l o w , nor had i n the p a s t . Use a -1 check mark f o r those a c t i v i t i e s which you think a student should not f o l l o w at a l l . Use a -2 check mark to represent hobbles, a c t i v i t i e s , e t c. that you once followed but have dropped or turned against as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s course. Example ITEM 4 5 2 1 0 -1 X & Growing p r i z e - w i n n i n g chrysanthemums 2. C o l l e c t i n g diamonds 3. Studying the s t a r s 4. E t c , 146. ITEM Developing and p r i n t i n g your own photographs 2. Chemistry set of your own __ 3. Making, face creams,, lotions, etc, \ . 4. Reading a r t i c l e s , hooks, etc, on chemistry i  5. Making home-made soaps, etc. . .... . 6. Making charts', flow sheets, etc.of chemical processes 7. E l e c t r o p l a t i n g " \ -8* Making p l a s t i e s .' .; ". '. .  .  9. Collecting, common chemicals .......... - . . - ' 10, Making explosives 11,Making a simple telescope of your own; lenses_ 12,Setting up e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t s , d o o r - h e l l s , e t c . 13.Making "amateur radio" sets, operating _4, Studying the weather ____________ 15.Reading hooks on physics 16,Studying the stars . 17^Making good pic t u r e s " ...... 18.Perpetual motion machines - _ _ _ 19,Science of sounds, and instruments 20 .Model airplanes . . . • 21. Gardening ; -22, Keeping pets of some kind _____________ 23,.Gollecting Insects \ 24.Collecting flowers . __ 25,Studying microscopic l i f e • :  26*Photographing b i r d s , and animals . 27.Pishing .. . .  28 .Learning to i d e n t i f y trees and .shrubs .  ,29«fi.-ading.articles and books about animal or plant l i f e 50,Keeping a small aquarium •' . 31, Grafting and budding plants ... •  32, C o l l e c t i n g f o s s i l s _______ " . ' 33*Making mineral and rook c o l l e c t i o n s __ . 34.Reading of surface changes i n our earth , ; '. 1 •35,photographirg mountains and rock formations . 36, Keeping a science scrap-hook. ..' : - 37, Taking t r i p s to study geological formations • . . 38, Taking t r i p s to study b i r d l i f e 39, Taking t r i p s to study d i f f e r e n t plant and animal environments • -4 0 , T i s i t i n g i n d u s t r i a l plants . • SCORINGj The same plan of scoring could \m followed as for the l a s t metK-od with this advantage, that the response. sheet when complete forms a 147 SCORING: (cont.) p r o f i l e of i n t e r e s t s i n s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d s . However the p r o f i l e obtained depends upon the, p l a n or arrangement of the test.: I f i t i s desired to see which u n i t promotes most i n t e r e s t s the items of the test must be ar-ranged on a p a r a l l e l u n i t b a s i s . In connection w i t h t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n of the check l i s t idea the examiner prepared a l i s t of one hundred twenty p o s s i b l e "general" type of avocations based on science and asked a c l a s s of Grade I X students, one of Grade X, and one of Grade XL (having taken General Science 11, 111 and IV r e s p e c t i v e l y the preceding year) t o evaluate t h e i r avocational i n t e r e s t s i n s c i e n c e , The purpose of t h i s t e s t was to see i f i n t e r e s t s increase 1 w i t h the more science work taken, To gain some idea of the value of the measurement of the increase of i n t e r e s t s one should remember Thorndike' s research on the carry-over of adolescent i n t e r e s t s i n t o adult l i f e where he 2 found a c o r r e l a t i o n of .66. The r e s u l t s of the experiment conducted by the experimenter seem to show that the "seven value" scale p r a c t i c a l l y eliminates the "padding" e v i l of the usual c h e c k - l i s t s wherein students often guess shrewdly i n attempts to make high marks, The " l i k e " column that Is so frequently found i n c h e c k - l i s t s has been broken up and made more s p e c i f i c so that a vague l i k i n g must be c l a r i f i e d i n the student's mind before he enters h i s score on the l i s t . The results-show a d i s t i n c t increase of the 1. R e a l i z a t i o n of p o s s i b l e avocations ( t r u l y a c r e a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s ) • i n each year of science. 2. A c t u a l hobbies developed from year to year. There Is no dropping of i n t e r e s t s due to d i s l i k e created by the science courses. .Whether the s p e c i a l sciences create more i n t e r e s t s t h a n General Science could not be answered from t h i s experiment, but the r e s -1, See Experiment 1 of Appendix f o r f u r t h e r r e s u l t s . 2, Thomdike Ex. "The Permanence of I n t e r e s t s " ; Popular Science Monthly; Y o l . 81 (1912) p449. 148 ponses of several Grade X I students who had taken one year of special science work suggested the p o s s i b i l i t y of this i n certain f i e l d s , The form of test seemingly does measure growth of interest and thus i s valid f o r the purpose. / 149 To Appreciate Achievements i n the F i e l d of Science, and the Contributions of S c i e n t i s t s to. the Modern World • This objective was ranked s i x t h and given an average weighting of nearly eight per cent. The objective i s rather straightforward w i t h no i m p l i c a t i o n s that are not r e a d i l y seen i n the statement as i t stands. The a p p r e c i a t i o n of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s to our s o c i a l heritage made by men of science can be measured moderately e a s i l y , w i t h s c a r c e l y any m o d i f i c a t i o n of many of the e x i s t i n g question types. Those forms of ques-t i o n s which demand a s s o c i a t i o n s , comparisons, or evaluations seem to f i t t h i s o bjective b e t t e r than those l a c k i n g t h i s element. For t h i s reason essay response questions comparing the r e s u l t s of two men's co n t r i b u t i o n s or t h e i r e f f e c t s on s o c i e t y are very good, but the d i f f i c u l t y of evaluat-i n g the responses i s greater than fer the objective questions. Matching questions are f a i r l y good^for they seem to evaluate t h i s a ppreciation to the extent of a s s o c i a t i n g or of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g among those who made these c e r t a i n c o n t r i b u t i o n s . D i r e c t questions asking students to name the c h i e f c o n t r i b u t i o n or c o n t r i b u t i o n s of c e r t a i n men are quite u s e f u l , but have the s l i g h t l a c k of complete o b j e c t i v i t y when several p o s s i b l e responses could be counted as c o r r e c t . With a p r o p e r l y prepared t a b l e of s p e c i f i -cations for each set of questions the marking should become quite objec-t i v e . Completion and m u l t i p l e choice questions tend to emphasize more the f a c t u a l r e c o g n i t i o n r a t h e r than the a p p r e c i a t i o n of the contribut ions. In p a s s i n g ^ i t seems that one warning should not be overlooked. While I t would be very f i n e to compare the r e s u l t s of s c i e n t i s t s i n b e t t e r i n g s o c i a l conditions w i t h those of warriors and statesmen, the objective type of question f i r t h i s measuring of a p p r e c i a t i o n would seem to be un-s a t i s f a c t o r y on a (science paper because the student would soon "catch on" to the s i t u a t i o n and would give h i s answers a bi a s towards the s c i e n t i f i c 150 c o n t r i b u t i o n s . I f the questions and comparisons are kept w i t h i n the s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d t h i s objection no longer holds. Comparisons between the c o n t r i b u t i o n of a s c i e n t i s t and another person outside of the f i e l d of science are bast done i n debates. Essay questions are moderately f a i r t e s t i n g means,but the evaluation i s extremely d i f f i c u l t and i t i s essent-i a l that a key be prepared, TYPES OF QUESTIONS, 1, Essay type; Compare the con t r i b u t i o n s to humanity of the two French-men Napoleon and Pasteur. SCORING-; The s p e c i f i c a t i o n s demand an appreciation or evaluation of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s . The question does not inform us on what b a s i s the student i s to judge, and i s to that extent poor, I f itt i s on.the u t i l i t a r i a n b a s i s of the greatest good to the greatest number, t h i s should be s t a t e d . The question would be better i f re-worded; Compare the c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the welfare of humanity made by the two Frenchmen Napoleon and P a s t e u r , Judge on the bases of the extent that h e a l t h , wealth, and happiness were increased or reduced. Such a question now permits the p r e p a r a t i o n of a marking key. i n favor of each you should expect to f i n d these points advanced Napoleon; caused the r e v i s i o n of weights and measure to be com-p l e t e d , and the metric system to be introduced. Stim-ulated-.the methods of p r e s e r v i n g food, of course to make hi s army more independent of time and fortune, so that App e r f ' s discovery of canning was the r e s u l t . Emphasized the importance of d i e t f o r an army. P a s t e u r ; brought s o l u t i o n s to the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n several of France's major sources of income; the cause and cure of anthrax; of the souring of wines; of the dying of the silkworms; a cure for hydrophobia; h i s research l e d the way to a n t i s e p t i c surgery by L i s t e r ; and es-t a b l i s h e d the germ theory of disease. Swept away much of the ignorance and s u p e r s t i t i o n i n France. Has saved m i l l i o n s of l i v e s , and continues to do so, though dead. A l l nations have p r o f i t e d . Against each; Napoleon brought great disturbance to the world; ( much misery and many dead "heroes" and innocents; ', h i s p r o j e c t s unbalanced Europe f o r many years a f t e r h i s f a l l . P asteur's l i f e was exemplary,f or we have no records of unkind or c r u e l actions on h i s p a r t , nor have h i s d i s c o v e r i e s decreased health, wealth or happiness, 1 5 1 'Having prepared the specifications ;we are then able to evaluate the points of c r edit, and .thus help to make evaluation more objective. 2« Direct statement type, semi-objective; What do you consider the chief contribution to society of each of the following s c i e n t i s t s ? a * Lavoisier 8 » « * * » « » « * « t « B » » . . * » « . , t * » « 9 « » » - t t , . » » » * . * , * , » . * f l » - 0 o , , » , . 6 , * 0 4 P b * bfalHeO 9 9 9 » 9 9 « 9 « 9 9 9 » 9 * ? 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 . 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 . 9 * 9 9 4 9 - . 9 l « e 9 9 e < t 9 * « « » l » 9 « « 9 e e c• _sraday « . < > » t « * t i « » « « « * ' « 4 « « « « « f t * » * * « * « . • * s . t , « , « » , % » t v , ( a « , - a t t do 1? a s t e ur < .«- • . * « _ * • « , « ? « i * * 9 « M » « « < « « • M < • > « • « i • « M « i • M • « « « « e t « « « « « « t * eo l i j d i s o n t » t . « t * « » « * « * 4 t t t * 9 « « . • • « « * • » * « « • • « • • • « • ! • • « • . • • » « • • « . • « f«. de _*orest t « « « « « . t » « t « . • • • « « • * « . » » • • « « _J * 11 0 Ch 4 « 9 9 9 9 9 * 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 « « 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 . 9 9 9 - 9 9 9 9 « 9 9 9 « t 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 t « 9 9 9 « 9 « 9 4 C « 2^ # iual t on < i t « « * « 9 » 9 « . o « « « * « « « « » * « * * t « * « * « % « « « « 9 « * * « * * « » » * * - e « « * » 9 . . « • » » • • • _L « j^ eWt On & 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 _ 9 « 9 9 » 9 9 - » « 0 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 _} • J3Urb ai_~ e 9 9 9 9 9 » 9 9 9 t j 9 9 9 9 « 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 l 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 e » 9 « 9 « 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 » 9 9 9 C 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 « 9 _C« k)QU-l der S «> « 9 9 9 9 » 9 9 9 « « 9 9 9 9 * 9 * « 9 9 * * _ 9 e « 9 9 9 < , 6 * 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 « Watt 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 » 9 9 9 » 9 9 9 9 9 * 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 * f 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 « 9 9 « 9 9 9 m« J3aeICe land . « « . e 9 9 9 e 9 » 4 9 « e « * » « 9 9 » 9 # 9 « . « » * 9 » « e » 9 B » » « e e 9 » ® « « « « * » 9 t * 9 9 f l - « 9 » 6 « 3. Multiple choice questions. I . The man c h i e f l y responsible for' the modern advance i n chemistry through virtue of h i s experiments on combustion and oxygen i n combination was a. Gay-lussac, b. uoyle, c. uharles, d. Lavoisier, e. Mendel, f . _ara-day, g. ualtoni I I . Whose discoveries have been developed to such an extent that vast amounts of moderately cheap energy hitherto wasted can now be put to work for man? a. Lavoisier, b. fcendel, c. Horse, d. archimedes, e. u'araday, f . volta, g. Ohm, h. js e l l . 4, R e c a l l or completion type; F i l l i n the blank w (ith the name of the person who made the f o l l o w i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i e t y . 152 a..,..«......,...,,,..,insisted that before any germ be classed as the „ , causa of. a p a r t i c u l a r disease i t must f i r s t be i s o l a t e d , then grown, replanted to re'cause the disease, k r e a l l y the f i r s t of modern s c i e n t i s t s who placed v more f a i t h i n what he saw whan he experimented than i n the statement of old and long dead author-i t i e s , c, . suggested the f r u i t f u l theory that only whole atoms can unite w i t h only whole atoms i n the usual chemical r eact i o n s , d. , ,. i n 1882 showed the value of v a c c i n a t i o n against sheep anthrax on two groups of sheep, A valuable type of question, and p o s s i b l y the best, i s to give a name of the person making a very simple s c i e n t i f i c discovery and to ask 1 the student to supply the modern a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s . For instance: Below i s a l i s t of very simple d i s c o v e r i e s made by i n v e s t i g a t o r s In cer-t a i n f i e l d s , m the blank name our c h i e f modern a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s idea;-1. In the 1840* s "iwan made a pie c e of metal wire glow red hot when he passed e l e c t r i c i t y through I t , 2. About 1700 j-iauptman and Longius, w i t h the a i d of crude lenses, d i s -covered l i t t l e w i g g l i n g things i n the pus from l e s i o n s of c e r t a i n diseases. iviod.am app l i oat I on ,,...•.•..•.».«.•»••»•••»».••.•.»•••.•»,»•»»»»,«• 3. Faraday a c c i d e n t a l l y moved a c o i l of wire through the f i e l d of a magnet to produce a temporary current i n the wire . Modern a p p l i c a t i o n ,,,,.,,...,..,...•..•••••»•«»•«•«»••••»«••««»«•»• 4. L a v o i s i e r found that the weight of Oxygen and mercury produced by heating mercuric oxide equalled the weight of the mercuric oxide.. Modern a p p l i c a t i o n ......... 5. In 1883 ii-dlson discovered that from a wire near another one heated red hot, and both i n a vacuum, a negative current could be drawn. Modern a p p l i c a t i o n 6. when a tube containing a i r under reduced pressure of a p a r t i a l vacuum h a s ' e l e c t r i c i t y .passed through i t aglow develops. Modern a p p l i c a t i o n • 1, suggested by p r o f , u. B. wood of the university of B r i t i s h uolumbia,. 153 xhis type of question i s e s s e n t i a l l y a completion question and posses-ses a high degree of r e l i a b i l i t y i n general, xhe correct responses are l i m i t e d i n number to a reasonable degree, f o r seldom w i l l more than three or four major a p p l i c a t i o n s r e s u l t . 1 *_he converse type of question i s p o s s i b l e but i t demands a greater f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h s c i e n t i f i c h i s t o r y than i s u s u a l l y found i n high school students, js'or instance, to ask : "What very simple discovery r e s u l t e d i n the development of our modern steam engines*?" or "The modern steam engine has been developed from the simple . . . . . . of might produce these answers;-a. Watt's - i n v e n t i o n " of the r e c i p r o c a t i n g steam engine, b. JS ewe omen' s " a i r pressure and steam" engine, c. Hero's steam machine. Likewise the l i g h t i n g e f f e c t caused by e l e c t r i c i t y p a s s ing through small enough wires had been seen by many observers before Swan1s work, which i n t u r n l e d on to jidison's work, I f t h i s type of question i s used w i t h i n a defined boundary, say the contents of c e r t a i n text books i t could be quite u s e f u l . I t would be cast best i n a completion form. However, the f i r s t type o f t h i s p a i r could be used to go back to the prime d i s c o v e r i e s w i t h probably no increase i n d i f f i c u l t y . Another v a r i a t i o n of the f i r s t i s to name an inve n t i o n or a discovery and ask how i t has been applied, omitting a l l reference to the names of persons. 1. Also suggested by P r o f . u. 13. Wood, 154, xo enable the Student to Counteract s u p e r s t i t i o n and to correct erroneous r e l i e f s Through the .application of S c i e n t i f i c P r i n c i p l e s . xhis objective was ranked seventh and given a weighting of seven percent. xhe objective at f i r s t glance would seem to duplicate much of objec-t i v e number two, that i s , the development of the a b i l i t y to use the scien-t i f i c tcb thod, for I t states that i t s c h i e f means of a t t a i n i n g i t s end i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c rm thod, a teacher might wonder i f he l i m i t e d h i s a t t e n t i o n to the development of s c i e n t i f i c method and t h i n k i n g that i t might be enough i n i t s e l f , because there should be considerable t r a n s f e r , fieally the teacher must see to i t that these common elements are brought i n t o the consciousness of the p u p i l s before the transfer w i l l take p l a c e . i t would not be safe to r e l y only on t r a i n i n g i n the use of the s c i e n -t i f i c IJB thod because many wrong b e l i e f s come to us without c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , xhey creep i n t o our. stock of Ideas when we are c h i l d r e n , they insinuate themselves .injnews and i n a d v e r t i s i n g , xhe l e s s our t r a i n i n g has been i n the ways i n which wrong b e l i e f s are absorbed the harder i t i s for us to detect the presence of them. T r a i n i n g i n c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , l o g i c , and the methods employed d e l i b e r a t e l y by a d v e r t i s e r s and propagandists w i l l a s s i s t m a t e r i a l l y i n checking wrong b e l i e f s , h a l f - t r u t h s , and s u p e r s t i t i o n s . Many people seem to possess compartments i n t h e i r "mental stock'* for they hold ideas i n one f i e l d of thought that are p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y to those held i n another f i e l d . Teachers are human and are l i k e l y to overlook teaching this,aspect of science t r a i n i n g unless the objective i s stated c l e a r l y , i n these days of t u r m o i l amid fountains of propaganda t h i s objective can serve a very valuable f u n c t i o n i n p r e s e r v i n g democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s from the p a r a s i t i c 1 5 5 growths that tend to develop and eventually k i l l them. On this matter science r e a l l y should j o i n forces with s o c i a l studies. i n view of the foregoing discussion the objective merits a place, jj-or what sub-objectives should a teacher strive? xhis i s a necessary question both from the point of view of teaching and from testing. In high school work the training of students should be toward the counteracting of some of the more insidious wrong b e l i e f s than against the simpler, common superstitions such as those concerning ground-hog day, walking under ladders, and breaking mirrors. The teacher must oppose these, of course, with the reasons and truth of each situation because there i s a continual reappearance of these beliefs_,although t hey are slowly losing place i n the minds of the people' at large. i n high school the teacher should set himself more against wrong b e l i e f s , the " o s t r i c h attitude", f a l l a c i e s of thought that are or may be widespread or p e c u l i a r l y l o c a l , half-truths, p l a u s i b i l i t i e s without a true foundation, astrology, fortune t e l l i n g , propaganda, and the ever-increas-ing menace of ruthless, yet b r i l l i a n t l y s k i l f u l advertising carried on by certain types of business, the enervating effect of r e p e t i t i o n ("Hopetit-ion makes for i r u t h ! i . j , - a u t h o r i t y , and the almost sl a v i s h veneration for the words "science" and " s c i e n t i f i c " which have been prostituted by person's with u l t e r i o r purposes. A pause here to analyze some of the techniques of propagandists would not be amiss as i t w i l l help to c l a r i f y the objective.' xo achieve their ends propagandists use these techniques i n the main. xt> oppose these might be, considered as some of the sub-objectives. 1. '"Circumlocutions to reduce chances of ready analysis of the situa t i o n , 2. «sed herrings*'; drawing some other Is sue or idea across the path of the thoughts which they had started to follow i n order to lead the minds of the hearers or readers from the r e a l issue or condition. 3. - l a b e l l i n g " ; damning something by giving i t an opprobrious name such as "worn-out theories", -antiquated", "fad", - ' f r i l l - ; or oppositely b o l s t e r i n g some weak case by the use of favorable or strong labels, -such as " s c i e n t i f i c " , "accepted custom", "new", "old and t r i e d " ; almost any term can be.used either way, showing.our enslavement to words and lack of understanding of ideas. 4. '"Climbing on the band-wagon", " everybody fs doing i t " . These a r e t he stock-in-trade methods of party heelers and workers, and nation-wide advertizing of cigarettes and such. Sheep-like "follow-the-leader" i s the game to reduce thinking to a minimum, mental Integrity often gives way to socia l convenience, 5 . " A u t h o r i t y " , and the modern form i n advertising "endorsation", "so-and-so. says so i ;, i s the ultimate of too many arguments. We had enough of this f o r two thousand years after A r i s t o t l e . To quote an example from another fie I d i f Jean ^struc's authority i n trance and at the court of Louis js.lv had not been so great the germ theory of disease advanced by such men as nauptmann, Langrus, Kircher, and Saguens would have developed into the useful state almost two hun-dred years before I t did and would have prevented untold suffering . ~" - jean Astruc's analysis of the theory showed that he had a clear un-derstanding of the implications of this theory, yet he preferred not to throw over the entire theory of disease then held. With b r i l l i a n t r h e t o r i c a l "red herrings", circumlocutions, and reference to the prestige of\ the leaders i n his profession he strangled the infant born of:the hew discovery of the microscope. "isndorsations" are modern advertising forms of this same weakness of humans, indorsations, usually for a p r i c e , are found i n almost every large advertisement i n magazines, and are extremely d i f f i c u l t to p i c k out from the.truthful statements. 6. "Repetition", repeat a wrong b e l i e f enough times and i t tends to simulate truth. Repetition i s an opiate, 7. another error, mainly i n reasoning, i s the ancient 'Post hoc, ergo propter hoc". This has been with us l i k e the plague i n days gone by, and can.be eliminated by the same methods, the application of the sa n i t a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c method. This c e r t a i n l y should be one of the items f o r which we should teach and t e s t , for this i s the basis of many of our superstitions which are based usually on coincidence. In order to test for achievement of the objective almost a l l the common types of 'questions can be used. One of the most promising i s the "deduction from premises or statements" because errors and fallacies 157 can be incorporated i n t o the question without making them too obvious. In l i f e most' o-f our wrong b e l i e f s insinuate t h e i r way into our mental stook, together w i t h the true b e l i e f s , The i n c o r p o r a t i o n of an error cr f a l l a c y Into a very p l a u s i b l e paragraph mixed w i t h true statements i s a very l i f e - l i k e s i t u a t i o n . Moreover, the a b i l i t y to deal w i t h longer and. more d i f f i c u l t problems than i n the j u n i o r high and elementary grades should be developed i n the high school,because l i f e s i t u a t i o n s often are very complex. The very b r i e f completion t e s t s , m u l t i p l e choice, and true-f a l s e questions are very u s e f u l to check the more common errors and super-s t i t i o n s w i t h which the student by the time he reaches high school,should be quite f a m i l i a r . True-false questions serve a very u s e f u l purpose as means to make r a p i d i n v e n t o r i e s of the stock of f a l l a c i o u s b e l i e f s h e l d by a person. A l l these types are u s e f u l , but t e s t i n g i n high school should go a b i t f u r t h e r than memoriter acquaintance 'with these wrong b e l i e f s . That i s why the "deduction from statements" type of question should be used more, f o r I t does c a l l f o r t h a higher degree of mental a c t i v i t y than memoriter type questions. I t i s a more l i f e - l i k e problem i n s o f a r as i t can present an o l d e r r o r i n a new guise, and i s very much the way these problems are met i n day to day experiences; To be able to detect these f a l l a c i e s when the f i r s t acquaintance i s made with a s i t u a t i o n i s akin to a s e p t i c surgery and hygiene; "An ounce of prevention i s worth a pound of cure". When the I n f e c t i o n becomes deeper I t i s much harder to e l i m i n a t e , Frequency of meeting i t often d u l l s r e s i s t a n c e to i t ; as Pope says i n h i s "Essay on Man" "Vice i s a monster of so f r i g h t f u l mien, As to be hated' needs but to be seen; "Yet seen t o o / o f t , f a m i l i a r with her face, We f i r s t endure, then p i t y , then embrace." 158 An example of the "deduction from statement" question i s given here; DIRECTIONS: Read the paragraph c a r e f u l l y then answer the questions below. Each statement that you f i n d i n the l i s t after the paragraph i s to be judged by you as "True" for which you are to place a plus sign ( + ) i n the parent-hesis i n front of it> "unsound or false judgment"; place a minus sign (~ ) i n the parenthes-- es. •"Having no r e l a t i o n to the problem"; then place a zero (0) i n the parentheses. "An investigator, operating under the authority of the American Medical Association, found that, i n examining the products and advertising of,four .hair-dye manufacturers, each one contained at least one' of these poisbns i n the preparation; lead acetate, s i l v e r n i t r a t e , copper sulphate, parap-henylendiamin. One of the manufacturers strongly maintained i n his ad-v e r t i s i n g that his products contained no s i l v e r n i t r a t e , the dangerous paraphenylendiamin, or copper sulphate; another's advertisement claimed that no poisonous/lead acetate, copper sulphate, or paraphenylendiamin, was used; the t h i r d produced a doctor's statement tthat ho harmful lead acetate, s i l v e r n i t r a t e , or paraphenylendiamin enters the formula; the fourth one claimed that h i s product was free of paraphenylendiamin. A l l advertisers used many testimonials from customers t e s t i f y i n g to the worth of the. products." (The investigator Was well trained.) • ' ) -1, The t h i r d hair dye contained the poison paraphenylendiamin. . ) 2» JPhe investigator i s only one man against the many who wrote tes-timonials so h i s word should not be accepted. ) 5. The f i r s t hair dye probably contained lead acetate. •) 4. The purchaser deserves to be "stung" i f she i s not sharp enough to f i n d out things for herself, ) 5, Germany has. banned a l l hair dyes containing chromium, cadmium, and lead s a l t s , ) 6« The advertisements c o r r e c t l y advertised the products for. no. manufacturer would put harmful substances into a preparation. ) 7. A l l these manufacturers followed the prac t i c e of t e l l i n g h a l f -. truths i n order, to hide the r e a l truth. .) 8, Many women use these dyes so that, the dyes must be quite s a t i s -factory. ) 9, The 'investigator- was a highly q u a l i f i e d thorough man so that h i s decisions weigh more than-all the. testimonials, many of which might have been forged, )10, In order to cover their; own shortcomings the advertisers drew at-, '...tention "to the'harmful ingredients of other hair dyes. SCORING! Because there are three possible values to be given each state-ment the questions more nearly approximate multiple choice than true-false. In three-answer questions to subtract one-half the wrong responses from the sum of the c o r r e c t ones i s the usual procedure. 159 TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS, These questions should not be the usual very b r i e f question that they so frequently are, f o r very seldom do we f i n d our errors and wrong b e l i e f s eroded of p l a u s i b i l i t i e s . Four questions have been suggested of the true-f a l s e type which can be used very e f f e c t i v e l y here for the purpose of test-i n g a b i l i t y to detect f a l a c i e s . DIRECTIONS* Mark each statement "R" f o r r i g h t or "W" for wrong according to your best judgment. ( j 1, A small v i a l of mercury worn on a pendant around the neck of a person going on a long sea journey w i l l prevent that person from becoming sea-sick. ( '.) 2, I t i s quite p o s s i b l e to t r a v e l to the moon i n a d i r i g i b l e or b a l -loon i f only s c i e n t i s t s could discover a way to drive the c r a f t out,beyond the r e g i o n of strong g r a v i t a t i o n a l p u l l of our earth. ( ) 3, There i s a strong p o s s i b i l i t y that forces are s t i l l unknown to us, j u s t as e l e c t r i c i t y was p r a c t i c a l l y unknown over 150 years ago. { .) 4, Engineers are making steady progress reducing f r i c t i o n losses i n machines. I t w i l l be p o s s i b l e one day to develop engines and motors w i t h our f i n e workmanship that once set going w i l l continue to do so u n t i l we wish them to stop, (To show the extent to which wrong b e l i e f s spread even i n educated persons may the i n v e s t i g a t o r state that the f i r s t one i s a b e l i e f that he met as h e l d by two lady teachers i n Vancouver who were t e l l i n g of t h e i r plans f o r a t r i p to England and France. They had asked a druggist i n town for some medicine or cure for -sea-sickness. He had advised thafmercury i n a small v i a l to be worn about the neck as a pendant as being one of the most f r e q u e n t l y used methods of warding o f f sea-sickness. The teac'ln-.ers asked f o r .a v i a l each. Each v i a l of mercury was w e l l sealed. On t h e i r r e t u r n from the t r i p one was asked how she got along on the ocean voyage and she remarked that she had been quite sea-sick but guessed that i t must have been from the f a c t that she kept the v i a l i n her handbag as she did not l i k e the appearance of the pendant when hung around her neck. She presented the i n v e s t i g a t o r w i t h the v i a l of mercury which was kept for many.years. With the other teacher he was unable to get i n touch.) I f the l a s t . q u e s t i o n were reduced to a blank statement about per-p e t u a l motion there would s c a r c e l y be one student who would not give a correct response, but as the question stands many who do not recognize some stock phrase w i l l succumb to the p l a u s i b i l i t y . 160 The above form of question could be improved s t i l l f u rther by asking the students to correct a l l statements which they do not think to be c o r r e c t . 161 H i s ' l c a t i o n f f l 8 l d ° f S ° i e n C 9 i n *> the P u p i l to Choose This objective was ranked eighth and given a weighting of s i x percent. I t would imply that the student should r e a l i z e these fa c t o r s at l e a s t when he decides to f o l l o w a p a r t i c u l a r vocations The Student or Apprentice 1, h i s own a b i l i t y i n the p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d 2, h i s i n t e r e s t s In the type of work done. This i s not iden-t i c a l w i t h #1, although i t doubtless contributes to achieve-ment . 3, h i s h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s . The 'Vocation or Job ' 4, the t r a i n i n g or knowledge demanded by the vocation, 5, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and opportunities of the vocation, 6, the monetary returns from the vocation. 7, the h e a l t h conditions or hazards. Prom h i s r e g u l a r work i n science the student should get a f a i r idea of h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the r e s u l t s of t e s t i n g for the f i r s t three o b j e c t i v e s . His i n t e r e s t can be determined mainly hy himself; be-cause i t i s a personal matter. Prom his courses, and from discussions that should take place from time to time i n h i s c l a s s and among his f r i e n d s , he should obtain an i n k l i n g of what vocations there are i n which science t r a i n i n g i s necessary, but this, information would not be s u f f i c i e n t and must be supplemented mainly through the Guidance courses. Prom the science work he should gain a knowledge of the laws, p r i n c i p l e s , f a c t s , that any p a r t i c u l a r p r o f e s s i o n or vocation based, on science demands. The monetary returns and.the health conditions should be studied mainly i n the guidance group and the Health classes r e s p e c t i v e l y , i t seems that the 162 main f u n c t i o n of the t e s t i n g programme as i t p e r t a i n s to t h i s objective would deal with ^factor four mentioned above, and s l i g h t l y w i t h the others because these others w i l l be tested i n other p a r t s of the course or In other courses. a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the m u l t i p l e response question type would serve very w e l l for measuring knowledge concerning the techniques demanded by any p a r t i c u l a r v o c a t i o n that i s based on science, wo samples of t h i s type are offer e d below : DIRECTIONS: Below you w i l l f i n d a statement w i t h a l i s t of items of know-ledge, techniques, and a c t i v i t i e s that may be necessary f o r a person to possess who Intends to enter the vocations mentioned, place.a check mark i n the blank i n f r o n t of each Item that you think the person should posses. , A druggist p r o p e r l y trained In pharma drug s t o r e , should have considerable ) a.the measuring of e l e c t r i c i t y ) b . s o i l c o n d i t i o n s and e r o s i o n , j c.weighing chemicals ) d,growing -plants and c a r i n g f o r them,• •• • v ) e.the g r a f t i n g of trees and shrubs ) f . i d e n t i f y i n g chemicals, compounds J g,atmospheric changes } h.the e f f e c t of age on organic c Dmp ounds. ( ) i.spectrum c o l o r s and l i g h t t h e o r i e s . cy, and not just a salesman i n a a b i l i t y and knowledge concerning ) j,measuring l i q u i d s ) k,medicinal p l a n t s ) 1.astrology or e f f e c t of stars ) m,rocks and rock strata,groups ) n.chemical formulae ) o.plant f a m i l i e s and r e l a t i o n s . ) p.communicable diseases, .).q.emulsions, c o l l o i d s , s o l u t i o n s . U . A g i r l contemplating becoming a nurse, besides possessing the a t t r i b u t e s of good heal t h , p a t i e n c e , strength, and cheerfulness should know con-s i d e r a b l e about these f a c t s , p r i n c i p l e s , and techniques. •enzyme a c t i o n and d i g e s t i o n .the laws of g r a v i t a t i o n .various rocks and minerals •communicable diseases. v e n t i l a t i o n . r e f r i g e r a t i o n systems .wonderful new medicines w i d e l y advertised.. ,germ theory of disease. .the nature of heat .how mammals reproduce .breathing system of mammals 1.dynamos and e l e c t r i c motors m.Lenz's Laws, n.to every a c t i o n there i s an equal and opposite' r e a c t i o n , o . i n t e r n a l combustion engines, p.preparing food and d i e t s , q .six simple ma chines . r . x-rays. s.osmosis and d i f f u s i o n t,gradation and diastrophism u,streamlining and transport. 163 -SCORING: When no set numbers of responses are demanded from the p u p i l i t seems f a i r e r " t o count a l l h i s correct responses. These should be i n t e r -p reted to mean a l l the check marks i n the correct places and those un-checked that should be unchecked, prom t h i s sum the errors should be sub-t r a c t e d as i n t r u e - f a l s e types, of which type question t h i s i s r e a l l y a form, i f the s u b t r a c t i o n i s not done a person could score f u l l value by checking every item, and the t e s t would be useless to measure h i s knowledge of what would be needed i n the way of t r a i n i n g , i f , on the other hand, the question i s worded t h i s way, "Check the four (or f i v e , s i x , etc.) items of the l i s t which you think a person should know i n order to enter t h i s p r o f e s s i o n (or v o c a t i o n ) , " then the question must be reorganized, i n r e -c a s t i n g the question care must be exercised to include just the four cor-r e c t responses w i t h a goodly number of " o f f - c o l o r " and i n c o r r e c t ones. Another type of t e s t item i s what might be c a l l e d a case study. This could be the record of some person, and the d e c i s i o n that he had to make i n the matter of choosing a vocation, xhe person's marks in;.-sciences could be examined and the student asked to make a judgment as to what l i n e of endeavour-he would advise a person with such a record to f o l l o w , Ques-tions could be asked also about other f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g such a d e c i s i o n to see i f the student r e a l i z e s the importance of fa c t o r s other than those of an academic nature. An example f o l l o w s : " E l f r e d a Garrett i s not quite sure whether to become a nurse or not. she must make up her mind t h i s year because the h o s p i t a l where she wishes to t r a i n demands of i t s student nurses that they have high school work i n chemistry, Biology, and Home Economics (cooking, foods, d i e t e t i c s ) . She w i l l enter her l a s t year at high school next year and she can work i n these subjects i f she d e s i r e s . • Below i s her record; 164 The r e q u i r e d riome .Economics course she has taken already w i t h these marks for the four q u a r t e r l y rankings; _ , 0 , B , B. Her marks i n General Science were; F i r s t Year Unit 1 (matter,atoms,molecules,formulae,chemical laws] Unit 11 (energy,force ,power,machines,electricity,magnetism] U n i t 111 (atmosphere,gases,climate'weather) Unit IV (water,its o o m p o s i t i o n , p r e s s u r e , p u r i f i c a t i o n , l i f e ) Unit V (surface of the Earth,rocks,minerals,earth movements) D Unit y l (plants,use and functions of parts,and p r o t e c t i o n ) (forests,animals and care) u • Second Year Unit 1 ( L i f e processes common to a l l l i v i n g things-adaptation to environrnent;heredity;reproducti on] U U n i t 11 (Transportation,role of e l e c t r i c i t y , i n t e r n a l combustion engines, safety measure "u Unit 111 (Radiant energy,communication,light,sound,radio) Jj U n i t IV (Carbon and n i t r o g e n cycles;chemical p r o p e r t i e s of these;compounds o f these elements.) C-Unit v (Earth's crust and minerals; methods of obtaining and r e f i n i n g needed minerals; carbon,sulphur,salts) _ p l a c e a check mark i n the blank opposite the best answer according to your opinion i n each of these 'three questions, -'or the l a s t one you are to do more. _ou must check the reasons or statements below that you would use to support or defend your d e c i s i o n i n question 3. 1, judging on the b a s i s of her 'General Science marks, next year i n chemis-t r y E l f r e d a would ( ) a, do .extremely w e l l ( ) d. l e a r n very l i t t l e .( ) b, do w e l l ' indeed ( ) c, "get b y w i t h a b i t of d i f f i c u l t y ( . ) e. f a i l completely, 2, Judging l i k e w i s e from her record i n General Science, Biology for E l f r e d a would ~ { ) a. be extremely d i f f i c u l t ( ) d. not be of much use ( . ) b. be s u c c e s s f u l l y handled ( ) e, be unnecessary, ( ) c. cause her to f a i l next year 3, E l f r e d a should ( J a. become a nurse without any more h e s i t a t i o n ( J b. not consider nursing any further ( j c, consider many other factors as w e l l REASQES t ) 1. Biology o f f e r s no serious obstacle to her progress, ) 2, chemistry w i l l give too much trouble to be worth i t . ) 3. She must l i k e " l o o k i n g a f t e r people", ) 4, She could p a s s . i n chemistry w i t h much hard work, ) 6. The Chemistry course w i l l be much easier next year. 1 6 5 ) 6 , They say that the Biology course i s harder next year. ) 7 , Her record i n Home Economics i s not good enough. ) 8 , Strength and health are important factors. ) 9. Patience i s a necessity i n the vocation of a nurse. ) 1 0 . Her Home Economics record i s quite favorable* Aptitude Tests might be given as i n Stanford University, but this i s very much out of the f i e l d for the science department. Again, many of the factors tested by the Stanford s c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Test are tested i n good te s t i n g programme that covers General Science I? and V. Any test that measures achievement i n the use of the s c i e n t i f i c method w i l l cover most of -the work of t e s t i n g that the Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Test covers, Further testing than this i s the duty of some other department, probably that of Guidance. Likewise, tests of vocational interests l i e i n the domain of the Guidance department, for any testing programme that would be worth while would be too extensive to be included i n the science courses, 'That i n t e r e s t s are a very potent factor i n the choice of a vocation, 1 even more important than a b i l i t y , i s shewn by irranklin's research, an abstract being presented herewith-Grade V l l B p u p i l s Number 'average l.'.j. Av. Score on c l e r i c a l Test Control group average n o n - c l e r i c a l 5 0 0 1 0 6 , 5 3 4 , 8 Experimental group desiring c l e r i c a l career 1 3 5 9 9 , 3 4 7 , 5 Two standard group i n t e l l i g e n c e tests were given? the c l e r i c a l Test was from the Columbia Institute of Kducational research. Additional evidence of the value of in t e r e s t i n vocational guidance can be found i n Thorndike's report, 1 . Adapted from h u l l ' s report i n Aptitude Testing, page 1 9 1 (C.L.IIullj Franklin, JS . JS. "The permanence of Vocational Interests of Junior High School P u p i l s , "Johns Hopkins Studies i n Education, ^6,JohnHopk. Press 166 -He found that i n general the order of a person's interests for any given period correlated ,89 with the order of the same person's estimates 1 of h i s a b i l i t i e s f o r the corresponding period, Bridges and Dollinger found student interests correlated with student estimates of a b i l i t i e s 2 to a rdegree of ,57, It would seem from a l l this that interest i s a valuable c r i t e r i o n to use i n deciding vocational matters. It probably follows that a very f r u i t f u l way to achieve vocational guidance i n science would be to develop interests i n science, and to give a sense of success i n the f i e l d . At present this degree of success i s r i g i d , fixed by the theory that marks or grades must be di s t r i b u t e d according to a normal curve of d i s t r i b u t i o n . We are bound to rank 25% very low, 50% average, and Z5% as very successful. It does not offer very much encouragement for the. weaker students, who, no matter how hard they work and what they a c t u a l l y may accomplish or know, are, always struggling against the com-p e t i t i o n of abler students. Truly are our t e s t i n g procedures extremely important and i n f l u e n t i a l . It seems necessary to adopt some system of reporting progress that encourages more pupils and develops their i n -terests In connection with the choice of a vocation the,Interest c h e c k l i s t developed under the worthy use of l e i s u r e could be of some prognostic value The carry-over of .Interest may be assumed to be approximately similar to interest Increase i n each course. Direct evidence.needs to be c o l l e c t e d from interests functioning i n l a t e r l i f e i n order to cor-rel a t e with prognostic values. -1, Thorndike^.L.,"Early Interests-Their Permanence, and E e l a t i o n to A b i l i t i e s , " School and Society, Vol.5,1917, pages 178-179 2, Bridges,J.W.,and Bollinger,ffi.,"The Correlation between Interests and A b i l i t i e s i n College.Courses,"Psychological Eeview,Vol.27, ' 1920 pages 308-314., 3, See Appendix, Experiment 1, pp l V - X l l l 167 ' To Develop The a b i l i t y to Perform Simple Experiments and Thus to Appreciate the S c i e n t i f i c Basis of Science. -This objective was ranked ninth and received a weighting of seven percent, i n view of the fac t that i t overlaps other objectives i n part, the apportionment of marks or credits w i l l needs be somewhat arb i t r a r y . Because of i t s overlapping the second objective dealing with the develop-ment of s c i e n t i f i c thinking i t i s p o s s i b l y better to allocate the major part of the credits or narks to achievements of a nature similar to manipulation, acccmplishing general laboratory techniques, care and clean-l i n e s s , and planning ari attack upon a problem., .any a b i l i t y i n experiment-ing would seem to be a composite of these minor a b i l i t i e s above and also of the a b i l i t y to organize data and to deduce v a l i d conclusions from the data obtained, xhe l a t t e r two minor objectives are part of the s c i e n t i f i c method which i s mentioned i n the second objective. On the other hand manipulation and organizing plans bear a very close relationship to resource-fulness and adaptability, with these two boundaries i n mind i t would seem safe for' the teacher and examiner to interpret the objective as throwing more emphasis upon the actual doing of experimental work and not upon what is c a l l e d csmmonly "book-knowledge". It i s true"learning by doing" , The simplest of experimental problems should be attempted for i n these the essences the experiment Is-found. Doing many simple experiments w i l l produce greater mastery of the method of experimentation by habituating the student than w i l l the attempting of a few long_,involved experiments. 10 one can develop a great a b i l i t y i n experimentation merely.by watch-ing others do the experiments, or by reading about them. Granted, an observer can learn something by so doing; i f he i s well-experienced he may learn much by.observing and comparing with h i s own technique. The only r e a l measure of achievement of t h i s goal i s to measure the achievement d i r e c t l y by having the student perform the experiments, or manipulations, or techniques. For these experiments or techniques to be used as test items the teacher should have c l e a r l y i n mind the purpose of each, and should work out a scale of values, just as f o r other examinations. Indirect evidence bearing upon this aspect of the problem developed from experiments conducted by the writer. Correlation between "pencil-and-paper" tests and actual manipulations were low i n several of the experiments and never higher than .77. The t e s t i n g of achievement by p r a c t i c a l work i n using experimental techniques introduces many d i f f i c u l t i e s , chief among which are the needs of equipment and demands for space. Because experimentation demands room i t i s not as convenient a method of testing as paper and p e n c i l tests are, Again, the student i s up on his feet and his eyes can not be limited i n range, whether he i s deliberately try i n g to f i n d outside assistance or not. Small booths or arrangements similar to these are p r a c t i c a l l y a necessity f or t h i s type of examination when the size of the class exceeds even f i f t e e n situdehts. Most classes i n General Science i n high school run between t h i r t y - f i v e and f o r t y - f i v e . In the larger classes p r a c t i c a l examination of these a b i l i t i e s i s very d i f f i c u l t owing to the lack of both space and privacy In t e s t i n g . Only the simplest of techniques could be measured In this way then, for one teacher could not hope to check and cr e d i t f o r t y doing a "job" that takes on the average about four to five minutes. I t i s p h y s i c a l l y impossible i f he must supervise to prevent the spread of information and assistance. P r a c t i c a l l y no schools have equipment i n the way of booths that could be used. This may be one of the reasons that so l i t t l e has been done along this line to measure 1. See Appendix Experiments 11, 111, IT pp .XIV to X U 1 , p r a c t i c a l achievement. For these many reasons teachers i n science desire and t r y to develop paper t e s t s of these achievements that have a s u f f i r c i e n t l y high c o r r e l a t i o n with the a c t u a l to make them worthwhile. For the sub-objectives of p l a n n i n g the procedure, and for making v a l i d conclusions the p e n c i l and paper t e s t i s equal to any other means, When ac t u a l manipulation i s involved, or when one must go to the prime sources f o r h i s data, p e n c i l and paper t e s t s no longer seem to s u f f i c e , Two chief means of measuring achievement i n actual experimenting are a v a i l a b l e . One i s to keep a record of the student's experimentation each p e r i o d that he i s expected to work i n that way. The other i s the " p r a c t i c a l " or performance examination mentioned above. P r a c t i c a l exam-i n a t i o n s are not at a l l common i n high schools, but they are used more fr e q u e n t l y i n u n i v e r s i t y work in . several of the sciences. Sources of questions p o s s i b l e to use i n " p r a c t i c a l " or performance examinations would f a l l i n t o these c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s * 1, R e p e t i t i o n of some experiment done i n class work. 2, M o d i f i c a t i o n s of experiments done i n c l a s s work. 3, E n t i r e l y new experiments but not above the l e v e l of the grade a b i l i t y . 4, C e r t a i n .small techniques / ' t r i c k s " , and so f o r t h that might be c a l l e d the b u i l d i n g stones of the experimental methods. The P a r s i n g Laboratory Test i n Chemistry has attempted to test for the l a s t , and sets questions that demand the r e c a l l of information that would f a l l i n the f i r s t group. Ho l i t e r a t u r e has been found to show how v a l i d t h i s test i s f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r purpose, as the authors make no mention of comparing the test r e s u l t s w i t h a c t u a l manipulation and t e s t 170 questions,* Much of the t e s t i s a c t u a l l y f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l that could be measured equally w e l l without diagrams, A c e r t a i n amount of guidance con-cerning the v a l i d i t y of diagram tests as against the a c t u a l manipulation of things can be obtained from some of the work of Dr. H. A. Toops. Moreover, research conducted by Dr, H. A, Ruger i n 1922 would suggest stro n g l y that the a b i l i t y to manipulate things and a b i l i t y to handle ideas ( i n t e l l i g e n c e ) are not l i k e l y the same a b i l i t i e s . In checking the cor-r e l a t i o n between a b i l i t y to manipulate things on the Stenquist Assembly Test w i t h general i n t e l l i g e n c e c o r r e l a t i o n s were quite low, ranging from ,06 to ,11 f o r men and women of a Summer Session group to ,41 and .15 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r a Winter Session group. I t i s quite p o s s i b l e , for a person to rank a genius on one and an i d i o t - on the other. I t i s advisable to t e s t d i r e c t l y when measuring a b i l i t y to manipulate t h i n g s , to set up experiments, to perform experiments. Toops reports that the c o r r e l a t i o n of p u p i l ' s scores on three paper t e s t s using p i c t u r e s compared w i t h success i n shop work, e t c . , was lower than the c o r r e l a t i o n s of the scores on the Stenquist Assembly t e s t w i t h shop success. - P i c t u r e t e s t s c o r r e l a t e . • f a i r l y h i g h l y w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e , + .60 but the Stenquist scores c o r r e l a t e d only +.42 (approximately) w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . General Trade and Mechanical Interest Tests c o r r e l a t e low w i t h Army Alpha, Some examples of questions i n p r a c t i c a l work and experimental proced-ures i n v o l v i n g a c t u a l manipulation w i l l be presented here? DIRECTIONS; You are being .tested on your a b i l i t y to handle and arrange things necessary i n doing experiments; 1. Toops "Tests f o r Vocational Guidance of Children Thirteen to Sixteen," 2. Toops "Tests for Vocational Guidance of Children.Thirteen to Sixteen," ConT;. to Education #136 Teachers College Columbia pp, <i4-25 3. Op. c i t . pp,27-32. 171 1, You are to pour some a c i d from the b o t t l e i n t o the test tube so that the i n s t r u c t o r canwatch you c a r e f u l l y . Pour about 5 c. c. and then r e t u r n i t to the b o t t l e a f t e r the s i g n a l to do so has been given. Suggested s c o r i n g ; 4 for a completely s u c c e s s f u l performance covering;(?3the holds.. ; of the stopper In the u s u a l l y accepted manner between the f i n g e r s of e i t h e r hand so that the p l u g p a r t i s away from the a r t i c l e s handled 5^wato^-. .es the clearance of c l o t h i n g , e t c , j ^ t i l t s b o t t l e c a r e f u l l y and pours gently;${replaces acid a f t e r s i g n a l ) R e p l a c e s stopperf£_abel side of the b o t t l e i n palm towards palm of hand, or up, 3.for any procedure that differs _ s l i g h t l y on a«y but the l a s t item. 2 f o r a performance that i s rather careless but does not s p i l l any a c i d , or a good performance up to here but f a i l s to r e t u r n stopper when r e t u r n of a c i d i s made. 1 for a poor performance without r e t u r n of stoxoper, 0 for any performance which s p i l l s a c i d , p r o v i d i n g that i t i s cleared away. . -1 f o r any performance which a f t e r s p i l l i n g the a c i d f a i l s : to wipe i t up w i t h rags or dispose of I t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , . 11, Weigh the stone which you are given as accurately as you can. Record' the number of the stone, and also i t s weight. Do l i k e w i s e with the p i e c e of wood, SCORING: Here the s c o r i n g i s very e a s i l y made? for the only point that the i n s t r u c t o r must decide i s what tolerance w i l l be permitted. This, of course, depends In large measure upon equipment. Two p o i n t s for each s a t i s f a c t o r y weighing. One p o i n t might be allowed for weights s l i g h t l y o f f , say by one-f i f t h ' or one-quarter gram. Zero f o r a l l other weights. I n s t r u c t o r must.J>e prepared f o r change i n weight of samples due to breakage or other i n j u r y . 111. On the demonstration table i s a s e r i e s of containers with l i q u i d s i n each. You are to record the l e t t e r of each one and a f t e r i t pl a c e your measurement of the volume of l i q u i d i n that container, SCORING-: / One p o i n t each. 17 You are to arrange the apparatus a l l o t t e d to you so that i t . c o u l d be used to prepare and c o l l e c t q u a n t i t i e s of a gas that w i l l not d i s s o l v e appreciably i n water. 172 SCORING: Five p o i n t s f o r a completely set up arrangement; deduct one mark for each e r r o r such as t h i s t l e tube not low enough ( i f used); d e l i v e r y tube down i n t o the reactants; loose cork or stopper; pneumatic trough not included; d e l i v e r y tube not submerged; c o l -l e c t i n g b o t t l e s not f i l l e d w i t h water. 7. P i n the p r i n t e d l a b e l on the appropriate organ of the specimens provided. (Specimens do not need to be named nor labe l s arranged into groups; p r e f e r a b l y they should be jumbled so that I d e n t i f i c a t i o n would show more active thought.) cortex, f o o t , sepal, modth, p i t h , xylem, sepal, heart, anther, ovary, stomach, s t y l e , b r a c t , phloem, adductor muscles, cambium, g i l l s , stigma, mantle, p e t a l , r e t r a c t o r muscle, medullary ray, siphon, f i l a m e n t . SCORINGj One mark each correct l a b e l l i n g ; or sum can be divi d e d by two i f weighting appears too heavy, etc. A l l these questions can be turned i n t o paper and p e n c i l t e s t s w i t h various m o d i f i c a t i o n s . I t i s debatable whether t h i s i s a wise procedure or not, There has been an attempt to keep to the same subject matter f o r each question i n t u r n i n g the preceding into p e n c i l and paper t e s t s . 1. E x p l a i n b r i e f l y what you would do i n pouring a c i d from the acid b o t t l e i n t o a t e s t tube, I f you cannot explain b r i e f l y i n words a sketch may help you. a. With the a c i d b o t t l e stopper , b. Grasping the b o t t l e of a c i d ,, ,, • • » t « » « » « . » » » * « f t t « * t f f * « 9 « » * » « « t * 0 * « » t » « « « t * « « « « » t « t « « « « « « « « « » t S t . t e, When you have s p i l l e d some ,. 11, What i s the weight i n grams of a stone 11 c.c. i n volume which, when place d on the l e f t pan of the balance, needs a twenty gram weight, a 5 gram weight on the r i g h t pan, and has the beam r i d e r or marker w i t h i t s r i g h t edge at the s u b d i v i s i o n 7 and i t s l e f t edge at the f i r s t s u b d i v i s i o n between the numbered marked p o i n t s of 3 and 4? 173 111. What i s the volume, i n each of the diagrammatic representations of the l i q u i d i n each, measuring vessel? * Water t=-I30 -iiO Alcohol =—100 -9o - _ _ 8 0 Sea Water Mar-cur y — JO - 9 A c c — J O X V I U IT. Arrange the apparatus sketches so that when assemblecPthe "sketch °" that you make w i l l show a complete set-up of apparatus s u i t a b l e for p r e p a r i n g and c o l l e c t i n g a gas-like oxygen or hydrogen. 0 wo "Rl-l-lDtx?!-•Plate. S o l i d c l a e m i c a U A c i d s A Wetter 1 E/ 174 Vv P L A C E S H E P R O P E E ' T E R M A 3 L A B E L III T H 1 B L A M S P A C E S P R O V I D E D , cortex *f opt, sepal, mouth, p i t h , xylem, sepal, heart, anther • ovary stomach, s t y l e , b r a c t , phloem, adductor muscles, cambium, g i l l s , stigma mantle, p e t a l , r e t r a c t o r muscle, medullary ray, siphons, fUament! F i g u r e X X I 175 Other types of t e s t items can be found on the P e r s i n g Laboratory rest i n chemistry, Although i t has been out of f a s i o n f o r many years to hold these views i think that a w e l l worded essay type question can do much i n f i n d i n g whether a student can p l a n or organize his attack on a problem i n a s a t i s -f a c t o r y manner. Some such question as t h i s v:ould make a student think and p l a n w e l l , "Given a p u l l e y set, and weights, s t r i n g , and scales i f needed show how you would prove that i n any machine "work i n " i s equal to "work out". The scoring would have to be worked out on the basis of so much f o r p l a n , a c e r t a i n value f o r his procedure i n the actual manipulation, more for his recording and arranging data, and the f i n a l p a r t score that f o r conclusion. 176 As a r e s u l t of experimentation done by the i n v e s t i g a t o r i t was found that i n the b i o l o g i c a l aspects most students who study the course by making use of specimens, diagrams and tests make s l i g h t l y higher marks on the p r a c t i c a l l a b e l l i n g t e s t s . (This does not apply to d i s s e c t i o n a b i l i t y which was not tested.) Judging from the r e s u l t s of Experiments 11, 111, l y found In the Appendix the a b i l i t y to perform simple experiments must be tested d i r e c t l y In a c t u a l experimental conditions and cannot be tested r e l i a b l y by a "paper t e s t " because the c o r r e l a t i o n s though p o s i t i v e are too lowyranging from + ,21 to + .77 . In l a t e r work c a r r i e d on by the w r i t e r on the use and value of d i a -grams i n t e s t i n g , s e v e r a l improvements were made i n the fun c t i o n of the t e s t s , xhe preceding diagram t e s t s emphasize names, or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , the anatomical or s t r u c t u r a l knowledge. The f u n c t i o n a l or p h y s i o l o g i c a l as-pects can be t e s t 6 d e q u a l l y r e a d i l y by diagrams simply by a r e v i s i on of wording injaccordance w i t h t h i s p o i n t of view. For instance,by r e f e r r i n g to Figures XX, XXI,XXII i t w i l l be seen that s u i t a b l e questions can be cast In e i t h e r of these two ways-a. By msing the number opposite an organ or structure s t a t e ; 1. The muscles which close the s h e l l s 1 2. The organ that obtains oxygen 2.,,.,, 3. The organ that does the burrowing i n the sand 3 4. The organ that produces p o l l e n 4...... 5. The t i s s u e of the stem possessing the power to div i d e 5...... b, State b r i e f l y the f u n c t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g s t r u c t u r e s ; 1. The organ numbered 9 • • 2. The orgsa unmbered 13 3. The orgaa numbered 19 , . ,,,., 4. '•'•'he organ numbered 17 i • 9 « • • « • * • This form of question emphasizes f u n c t i o n and demands considerable s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, w i t h a minimum of technological jargon. 1. See Appendix pp. XlY to JDOT1. 177 'Jo Develop the Desire to Read S c i e n t i f i c L i t e r a t u r e . This objective has been ranked tenth w i t h a weighting of only f i v e per cent, I t d e f i n i t e l y was considered the lea s t important of a l l the ten objectives by the seventy-eight teachers and administrators who r e p l i e d to the questionnaire (before September 15, 1938). The question might be r a i s e d as to whether or not t h i s should be an objective of these science courses. The Science R e v i s i o n Committee a f t e r lengthy reading and discus-s i o n of the obj e c t i v e s of these science courses decided that t h i s i s an appropriate one. Supporting evidence comes from the i n c r e a s i n g frequency wit h which popular a r t i c l e s of a s c i e n t i f i c f lavour are included In the general reading matter of newspapers and magazines. To increase the desire of students to read m a t e r i a l l i k e t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y a worthy aim. I t may or may not be d i f f i c u l t to accomplish t h i s . To develop the desire to read i s one t h i n g . Enthusiasm i n the teacher does t h i s quite w e l l . To measure t h i s increased desire i s very d i f f i c u l t , AS the objective stands i t i s admittedly hard to test achievement of i t , f o r I t d i r e c t s the e f f o r t of the teacher along the l i n e of developing a desire to read s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e and not d i r e c t l y to develop the a b i l -i t y to read i t . Another p o i n t worth noting i s that there are many l e v e l s of i n t r i c a c y and d i f f i c u l t y of s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e . The objective has been c r i t i c i z e d on the grounds that there i s s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e of such weight that the s p e c i a l i s t s i n the f i e l d have d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding i t . This i s quite t r u e , but more i s implied by the Committee than the reading of s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e o f a d i f f i c u l t y commensurate w i t h the t r a i n i n g i n science that the student possesses at that.time, or very s l i g h t l y more d i f f i c u l t i n order to permit h i s growth i n understanding of science. " S c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e " should not be taken here to mean the 178 ' o r i g i n a l sources which are u s u a l l y r e p l e t e w i t h t e c h n i c a l terms, but rather the good resumes of such works, a b s t r a c t s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s / semi-popular and sound popular a r t i c l e s i n books and magazines. Any t e s t f o r t h i s objective should test d i r e c t l y the desire to read, such books and a r t i c l e s . The d i r e c t measure would be to give the student c r e d i t for the extent of improvement of t h i s d e s i r e , but how can i t be measured? By t a k i n g the student" s own word directly?' Or by t r y i n g to get some i n d i r e c t evidence that would be more r e l i a b l e than h i s professed achievement? dearly a l l teachers would p r e f e r the second method when they must deal w i t h great numbers of students whom they cannot know very w e l l . One i n d i r e c t measure and a f a i r l y v a l i d one i s to give the student:credit f o r what books he has read during the' course. The evaluating of t h i s c r e d i t leads i n t o a r e a l d i f f i c u l t y . Here the teacher must be a b i t ar-b i t r a r y i n h i s evaluating,for no way to measure and weight t h i s achievement o b j e c t i v e l y has been developed, i f t h i s objective were given a weighting of 5% of the course value I t would seem that the reading of two books of merit equal to P a u l de K r u i f s "Microbe Hunters" would s a t i s f y , and more, the demands of t h i s o b j e c t i v e . Scarcely any person can read such books without obtaining a very v i v i d p i c t u r e or impression of that f i e l d and i t s s c i e n t i f i c procedures. So also w i t h slosson's "Creative Chemistry", and many others, xhe t e s t i n g of the reading of such books can be done quite w e l l by.asking the student to answer a sheet of questions prepared on the book i n question dealing w i t h only the major p o i n t s of the book, and the person's opinion.of i t . A teacher needs only to know that the person has obtained a f a i r l y good idea of the boofe as a whole. The student should not be expected to remember everything as i n a text-book. These test papers made by students, should never be returned but destroyed l e s t other students l e s s conscientious obtain them and memorize the t e s t without 179 a c t u a l l y reading the hook. The t e s t items should he i n forms s u i t a b l e to the m a t e r i a l . This method i s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t e s t i n g knowledge of the books i n the school l i b r a r y , i t cannot be c a r r i e d - f a r beyond t h i s step, however. • The w r i t e r has come upon one method of evaluating the desire of students to read s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e . This method gives a view of the success of a method rather than the amount read by each student, although the method could be revised to measure students i n d i v i d u a l l y . The method was discovered mainly by accident, i n preceding years the students i n the w r i t e r ' s biology c l a s s e s were l e f t free to read whatever was a t t r a c t i v e i n the way of books w i t h a b i o l o g i c a l scope. Out of s i x t y - s i x p u p i l s of the preceding two years only eight had read s p e c i a l books i n b i o l o g y to the t o t a l of fourteen books. (One had read three, four two, and three only one.) x'his represents about o n e - f i f t h (.213) of a book on s c i e n t i f i c matters per student. This year the w r i t e r , being d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s low reading quota., , assigned two books to be read by the students for c r e d i t . These books were to be selected from two l i s t s prepared, one book from each l i s t . Books were placed e i t h e r i n the group of biology a p p l i e d to health (such as "The Microbe Hunters," "Man vs. Microbes," "Ehe L i f e of Louis P a s t e u r " ) , or. i n the group of general b i o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t (books by Ernest Thompson Seton, Wm. jjsebe, n a t u r a l h i s t o r i e s , books on mammals, b i r d s , i n s e c t s , and s i m i l a r ones) . During the school year u n t i l the end of March thirty-two students of a c l a s s o f t h i r t y - f i v e had read sixty-two books or an average of 1.94 books each or 1,77 for the e n t i r e c l a s s . Of course, t h i s i s required reading but i t s concomitant seems to be a development of true i n t e r e s t 1 8 0 i n t h i s type of l i t e r a t u r e because nineteen a d d i t i o n a l books beyond the p r e s c r i b e d ones have been read by the c l a s s for an average extra work of ,54 of a book per student, xhis compares very favorably w i t h the .213 of free undirected reading of the preceding years. To assign a wise minimum of books seems to develop the desire to read more l i t e r a t u r e of a s c i e n t i f i c nature. To develop the desire to read one must develop the a b i l i t y to read also-. At high school l e v e l the a b i l i t y to read i s not u s u a l l y dependent upon the t r a i n i n g of eye movements,for these customarily have been devel-oped i n the elementary school. Only a few remedial cases of t h i s nature are l i k e l y to occur i n high school, xtather should the t r a i n i n g be along d i f f e r e n t l i n e s , o^me of the main f a c t o r s at t h i s l e v e l i n the develop-i n g of the understanding of s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e are the development of vocabulary and the a p p r e c i a t i o n of the p r e c i s i o n of t e c h n i c a l terms, the a n a l y s i s of phrases and clauses to trace the exact r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and the p r o v i s i o n of a good general background of knowledge or information. With the f i r s t and t h i r d the science courses are d i r e c t l y concerned, but the second p r o p e r l y f a l l s i n the domain of the Isnglish courses i n high schools Testing f o r the increase i n vocabulary i s done already w e l l enough'in most science courses i n the p l a c i n g of terms on ordinary, achievement t e s t s i t i s to be expected that the background of knowledge would be obtained according to the a b i l i t y and i n t e r e s t of the student. The amount of t e s t i n g of terms on any tes t should not exceed f i v e percent of any achievement t e s t , A f u l l e r programme of t e s t i n g t h i s achievement would cover i s here-w i t h suggested. The objective w i l l have been s a t i s f i e d when evidence has been obtained by the teacher of;-181 a. The amount read during the course* b. the development of vocabulary necessary to understand reading matter. c. the knowledge of sources, of information according to the f a c i l i t i e s of the school, or l o c a l l i b r a r y . d. a measure of reading a b i l i t y such as made by the Van Wagenen Reading Scales i n biology. One procedure dealing with "a" above has been advanced. As to the next item, "b'Vit i s considered to be well enough done, and a familiar enough procedure by virtue of tests given for terms, Beading a b i l i t y i s obtainable in-a way similar to the van Wagenen method, that- i s by using reading scales. Only "c" remains for which a measure has not been found. One has not been discovered by the writer i n his reading, but quite pos-s i b l y as Serenes said of old, "There i s nothing said which has not been said before," A method of measuring this knowledge i s suggested i n the following paragraph. The f i r s t thing that a teacher should do i n attempting to test achievement along t h i s l i n e i s to make a survey of what books his students are able to obtain, for the extent of reading i n science that a student may be expected to reach can be measured i n a l l fairness only .In terms of the books that he has.^at h i s command. For most, this w i l l mean the school l i b r a r y , and the p u b l i c l i b r a r y i f there be one, Sometimes i n the smaller schools the teacher might f i n d i t necessary to supplement the school l i b -rary, as so many do now, with their own books. Other books may be obtain-ed on loan from c e r t a i n distant l i b r a r i e s . Obtaining books i s r e a l l y another problem outside the scope of this report. One p r a c t i c a l way of measuring t h i s growth i s to prepare a l i s t of books and magazine a r t i c l e s at the beginning of the year, post i t up i n the l i b r a r y or class room, or otherwise l e t the students know, then examine them at the end of the term 182 or year on t h e i r knowledge of sources or general reading experience i n science based on the contents of these books. The f i r s t type of question i s a t e s t of knowledge of sources taken from the example i n Hawkes, L i n q u i s t , and Mann, "The Construction and Use of-Achievement Tests, page 232; DIRECTIONS: In each of the exercises below, you are to suggest the sources which you think best for g e t t i n g Information on the question given. Be as d e f i n i t e i n your suggestions as you can be. I f you mention a book, or magazine, or newspaper, st a t e i t s name. I f you do not know i t s t i t l e , t e l l how you would f i n d i t . I f you suggest some other sources, be just as d e f i n i t e i n d e s c r i b i n g them. 1. where you could f i n d out about the general p r i n c i p l e s which help to ex-p l a i n the methods of sending p i c t u r e s by wire? 2. Where could you determine the r e l a t i v e e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y of i r o n copper, and aluminum? 3. I f you are making a s p e c i a l report on the corpuscular theory of l i g h t , where would you g e t . h e l p f u l Information? Such an exercise as t h i s i s not very objective and needs a very d e f i n i t e set of d i r e c t i o n s to evaluate responses. purpose of t e s t ; (given i n t e x t , more or less as above.) Values to be assigned to answers; Allow 4 p o i n t s c r e d i t f o r each source l i s t e d by the p u p i l which i s r e l i a b l e for the Information sought and which i s as a v a i l a b l e as any other e q u a l l y r e l i a b l e source. Allow three p o i n t s c r e d i t f o r each source l i s t e d by the p u p i l which i s r e l i a b l e for the information sought but i s not as a v a i l a b l e as other r e l i a b l e sources which he f a i l e d to mention, Allow two p o i n t s c r e d i t for each source which Is l i k e l y to contain some of the information sought but i s only f a i r l y dependable. Allow one p o i n t c r e d i t f o r each source which i s so vaguely defined by the p u p i l that he would be u n l i k e l y to f i n d i t without considerable l o s s of time. A l s o , one p o i n t for an omission or an " I don't know" answer, Allow no c r e d i t f o r any source l i s t e d by the p u p i l which Is u n l i k e l y to provide any h e l p f u l information or which provided information which i s not dependable. 33 183 A refinement of t h i s type of question that suggests i t s e l f seems to he more objective and more e a s i l y marked. Although i t demands the evalu-a t i n g of sources, these sources are not. l i k e l y to come from many po i n t s and make the marking a herculean job. I f the student knows the source! of-his reading m a t e r i a l from the prepared l i s t s t h i s type of test item would seem to be quite f a i r as i t measures achievement i n a r e s t r i c t e d f i eId. DIRECTIONSj Below i s a l i s t of books and magazine a r t i c l e s w i t h t h e i r authors and below each book i s a suggestion or problem that may or may not be found i n each book. I f you think that the book contains the suggestion or problem expressed i n a manner that Is moderately easy to understand and i s r e l i a b l e P l a c e a 3 i n the blank provided. I f you th i n k the book contains the suggestion or information but i s very d i f f i c u l t to understand (too many t e c h n i c a l terms and ideas) P l a c e a 2 i n the blank provided. I f the source mentioned contains t h e information but the information i s very u n r e l i a b l e or open to question P l a c e a "1" i n the blank provided. I f the book does not contai n that type of information at a l l P l a c e a "0" i n the blank provided. a. Beneath Tropic Seas (Wm. Bsebe) a very i n t e r e s t i n g book dealing with sunken treasure ships and the salvaging of these. Should be read by everyone. b. The Hunger Fi g h t e r s (Paul de K r u i f ) t e l l s among other things how Saunders of Ottawa developed the Marquis wheat f o r northern Canada. C The Universe Around Us ( S i r Jas. Jeans) explains i n r e a d i l y understandable finglish the marvels of the heavens. d. The Nati o n a l Geographic Magazine One Issue contains a f i n e exposition on the b u i l d i n g of an amateur's r a d i o s e t , e. 100,000,000 Guinea p i g s ( E a l l e t and Schenck) t e l l s how the American p u b l i c has hundreds of patent medicines f o i s t e d on i t . » f. Creative Chemistry (Slosson) a chemistry text that goes i n t o the t h e o r e t i c a l problems con-cerning the union of atoms i n chemical r e a c t i o n s , w i t h many mathematical equations to prove statements. 184 Mark!ng r e sp on s e s » As the questions stand now there i s only one correct answer, which i s evaluated i n terms of the scale provided. The method of s c o r i n g i s to give one p o i n t for correct responses and none f o r omissions and Incorrect responses. However, along w i t h the newer idea that i s creeping i n t o the e v a l u a t i o n of responses p r o v i s i o n may be made for the p u p i l ' s recognition of the f a c t that he does not know and does not attempt to answer, i n preference to g i v i n g him the same mark as one who makes a wrong answer, Three could be given for the c o r r e c t responses, and one f o r blanks or " I do not know". In such a case t h i s l a s t response should be included i n the scale of values presented to the student. The matching type of question i s quite u s e f u l here. An example f o l l o w s j DIRECTIONS: Prom t h i s l i s t of books s e l e c t the l e t t e r i n front of the name of each book that w i l l associate the book w i t h the t o p i c or i n f o r -mation i n the l i s t below; a. Beneath Tropic Seas (Beebe) g.Harvest of the Years (Burbank,Wilbur[ b. Iron Peddlers (Davis) h.Hunger Fighters (de K r u i f ) c. Universe Abound us (Jeans) i,Cre a t i v e Chemistry (Slosson) d. 100,000,000 Guinea P i g s ( K a l l e t - j.Modern P h y s i c s (Dull) & Schenck) k.How to Enow Our Miner-e. Microbe Hunters (de K r u i f ) als. e t c . (XYZ) f. The P e t Book (Cornstook) l.Down Below the Light Zone (Williams) 1. Explains to you many of the fraudulent p r a c t i c e s i n p r e p a r i n g and s e l l i n g many of the patent medicines i n the United States of America. 2. T e l l s among other things of the general procedures of making popular perfumes, and t h e i r manufacture a r t i f i c i a l l y . g, Relates experiences i n the f i r s t s e r i e s of r e a l l y deep-water ex-p l o r a t i o n of s e a - l i f e . 4, shows how the laws of p h y s i c s apply throughout; explains man's greatest but most useless triumphs. ^5, Explains how and why Marquis wheat was o r i g i n a t e d f o r northern Canada. 185 MARKING*. This question type could he marked i n the usual way i n which matching questions have been marked, or evaluated on some scheme to c r e d i t "no response" as against a c t u a l wrong Information or guessing, The cor-r e c t response must always be valued at more than double the "no response" wherever any standard demands that the student reach an achievement of 50%, or some such a r b i t r a r i l y set standard. The m u l t i p l e response type of question can also be u t i l i z e d for the purposes of t e s t i n g knowledge of sources, 1. You wish to f i n d information how to make and s a i l a model s a i l b o a t . Check the sources mentioned below that you think most l i k e l y to contain t h i s information and which you would go to f i r s t * ( } Tours Through the World of Science S k i l l i n g . ( ) The S c i e n t i f i c Study of Problems Monroe and Engelhart ( ) . I n s t a l l i n g Launch Engines Claibourne ( ) Journal of Chemical Engineering ( ) Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a ( ) popular Mechanics { ) N a t i o n a l Geographic Magazine ( ) Mechanic Monthly ( ) London I l l u s t r a t e d News ( ). L 1 I l l u s t r a t i o n " 11. You wish to f i n d a moderately recent a r t i c l e on the p r o p e r t i e s of matter under high pressure, yet not very t e c h n i c a l . Write the name of the book or magazine l i s t e d above that you think most l i k e l y to contain t h i s information. These questions were tested on three c l a s s e s , i'he tes t s seem to measure growth i n reading experience, and i n d i r e c t l y growth i n desire to 1 read s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e . However no c o n t r o l s could be set up, 1. See Experiment 7 i n the Appendix, Measure o f j i g a d i n g A b i l i t y (Applied to Other l i n e s ) 186 Benzene, which should not be confused w i t h petroleum benzine, i s formed during the f r a c t i o n a l d i s t i l l a t i o n of coal tar or s i m i l a r products. Although I t Is an e x c e l l e n t solvent for gums, f a t s , and r e s i n s i t s most u s e f u l property i s that i t can be acted upon rather e a s i l y to form many other more important compounds, such as dyes, a n t i s e p t i c s , perfumes, and explosives. i?or many years a f t e r i t s discovery by Faraday, i n 1825, i t s s t r u c t u r a l chemical formula remained unknown although i t s empirical f o r -mula had been e s t a b l i s h e d . This lack of knowledge m a t e r i a l l y hindered progress i n the study of I t s chemistry and p o s s i b i l i t i e s . In 1855 a German chemist who had long worried over t h i s very problem sat down before h i s f i r e one evening a f t e r a hard day i n h i s laboratory, and soon f e l l f a s t asleep. During h i s sleep h i s mind was occupied by a weird dream which conjured up- snakes and atoms, w r i t i n g around and i n and out, and dashing madly about, " A l l at once", reported Eekul'e' the dreaming chemist, " I saw one of the snakes seize i t s e l f by I t s own t a i l , and the form then.whir le d mockingly before my eyes. As i f by a f l a s h of l i g h t n -ing I awoke and spent the r e s t of the night i n working out the consequenc-es of the hypothesis," His s o l u t i o n f o r the probable s t r u c t u r a l formula of benzene was the now famous benzene r i n g or hexagon composed of s i x carbon atoms, one at each angle, w i t h an atom of hydrogen attached to the outside of each atom of carbon. This s o l u t i o n produced wonderful r e s u l t s i n the study of benzene d e r i v a t i v e s , Years a f t e r t h i s discovery, Kekule, i n commenting on the weirdness of i t , declared, "We must l e a r n to dream-Check those statements thus ( ) which are e i t h e r made d i r e c t l y i n the paragraph or are reasonably deducible from the m a t e r i a l . Do not check any one that Is not deducible d i r e c t l y , nor made i n the -paragraph, ( ) -1. Dreaming Is a very e f f e c t i v e way to solve the great problems met In chemistry. ( ) 2, Benzine i s prepared by d i s t i l l i n g wood or coal t a r , ( ) 3. The c h i e f u s e f u l property of benzene i s that i t can be conver-ted moderately e a s i l y i n t o many d e r i v a t i v e s . ( ) 4. Benzene i s used mainly as a solvent for f a t s , r e s i n s , and gums. ( ) 5, .Kekule discovered benzene. 1-( ) 6. The benzene r i n g as worked out by Kekule i s : -187 SCORING: A not too cumbersome method of scoring would be to modify van Wagenen'.s method by t o t a l l i n g a l l the c o r r e c t l y placed check marks and the proper blanks l e f t blank, then s u b t r a c t i n g the check marks i n the wrong p l a c e s and the blanks which should have been checked. Before items of t h i s type should be submitted f o r achievement t e s t i n g they should be tested f o r d i f f i c u l t y and then graded. Those used on achievement tests should be of an approximately equal d i f f i c u l t y each time used i n order that comparison of achievement w i l l be constant. Another v a r i a t i o n f o r t e s t i n g the a b i l i t y to understand the l i t e r a -ture of a subject i s the use of m u l t i p l e choice questions on a given parag-raph as done t h i s year f o r the f i r s t time on the S o c i a l Studies m a t r i c u l a -t i o n examination, An attempt w i l l be made to adapt t h i s technique to a physics example hera : * "One Is of Course s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the compression of a gas into a^small volume when pressure i s exerted on I t , as dr a m a t i c a l l y demonstrat-ed • i n converse by the a i r that rushes out of one's t i r e when one has a punc-ture, but the compression of l i q u i d s and s o l i d s i s not so evident or so r e a d i l y demonstrated. This has l e d to sometimes f a n t a s t i c popular ideas about the, absolute i n c y b m p r e s s i b i l i t y of l i q u i d s l i k e water, ideas which v .;• were supported by e a r l y crude experiments by p h y s i c i s t s , Nevertheless, both s o l i d s and l i q u i d s , as w e l l as gases, are compressible; the difference i s merely one of degree, r e q u i r i n g much more d e l i c a t e apparatus to d i s c l o s e i t . I t Is even more d i f f i c u l t to demonstrate the c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y of s o l i d s ; i r o n , f o r example^is 100 times l e s s compressible than water, However, when pressure of thousands of atmospheres become a v a i l a b l e , the volume changes of l i q u i d s and._.solids become large enough to be measured accurately with comparatively .simple means. Liquids may lose 50 to 40% of t h e i r volume, The volume of lee at room temperature at 50,000 atmospheres i s found to be only &0"/o of the volume of the water w i t h which the experiment s t a r t e d , Metals are i n general much l e s s compressible, but there Is a great deal of v a r i a t i o n , and the most compressible metal, i s more compres-s i b l e than ordinary l i q u i d s , and may be reduced to l e s s than one-half i t s i n i t i a l volume by a pressure of 50,000 atmospheres. Two tstages are to be recognized i n the compression of a l i q u i d and to a l e s s extent i n the compression of a s o l i d . At f i r s t , while the pressure i s comparatively low, the c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y i s comparatively high; t h i s Is followed at higher pressures by a r e l a t i v e l y extended range of lower c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y . The f i r s t stage i s due to squeezing the atoms or the molecules i n t o t i g h t e r c o n t a c t — " t a k i n g out the sl a c k " from the atomic 1. van Wagenen, Reading Scales i n Biology, L i t e r a t u r e accompanying test (Manual). 188 s t r u c t u r e . The second and more extended phase i s due to more deep-seated changes which may a f f e c t the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the atoms and the molecules themselves. The f i r s t stage can be understood with the stock of older ideas, which was adequate to e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s between l i q u i d s and gases, but to understand the more deep-seated a l t e r a t i o n s I t i s necessary to use some of the newer ideas of quantum theory. Below i s a s e r i e s of questions based on t h i s paragraph or excerpt. Check only those answers or statements that agree w i t h the t e x t given; 1. This report by Br, Bridgman of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y states that ( ) a. gases are e a s i l y compressible at average conditions, ( ) b. gases can be compressed at only low temperatures. ( ) c, l i q u i d s are incompressible. ( } d. s o l i d s can be compressed under tremendous pressures. 2. The compression of matter under c e r t a i n conditions and enormous pressures ( ) a, permits at the lower l e v e l s the atoms and molecules to readjust t h e i r i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e . ( ) b. can be completely understood on the basis of the f a m i l i a r laws concerning the expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n of gases. ( ) c, causes i t to pass through a series of events that can be grouped i n t o two s tages, ( j d. forces the deep-seated a l t e r a t i o n s of molecules and atoms, 3. From t h i s a r t i c l e a person could t r u t h f u l l y surmise th a t : ( } a. the older s c i e n t i s t s were so c a r e f u l i n t h e i r work that modern techniques r e a l l y cannot improve upon t h e i r s . ( ) b, s c i e n t i s t s ideas of the laws of nature are not f i x e d but change w i t h i n c r e a s i n g experimentation. ( ) c, t r u t h i s not f i x e d but i s v a r i a b l e . ( ) d, s c i e n t i s t s concern themselves deeply with the most useless of th i n g s , ( ) e. fu r t h e r knowledge gained from the experiments might give us a b e t t e r idea of the nature of the i n t e r i o r of our earth. SCORING; This exercise could be scored simply by counting the correct scores, i t would seem b e t t e r to deduct mistakes, but perhaps not omis-si o n s . This i s not an exact t r u e - f a l s e s i t u a t i o n where only one s t a t e -ment i s made without any corroborating evidence. There i s an element of m u l t i p l e choice i n the m u l t i p l e response. Both the p r a c t i c e o f deducting e r r o r s and of not deducting them are followed on standardized t e s t s f o r t h i s type of question. • CHAP T3£R 7 1 1 1 CONCLUSIONS AND li ECOlffifflKDAT IONS. 1. I t i s axiomatic that t e s t i n g and teaching should bear d i r e c t l y upon the objectives of the course. i'he objectives must be kept i n mind quite c l e a r l y when tests are being prepared. 2. As a c o r o l l a r y to the f i r s t p r o p o s i t i o n i t would seem that the objec-t i v e s of a course must be selected with great care. The objectives of a course should not be r e s t r i c t e d to only those wherein achievements can be measured r e a d i l y , i f an objective i s a t t a i n a b l e , i s deemed good, and i s worth the e f f o r t and time ;then i t must be included, and t e s t i n g prog-rammes must be adapted to the measuring of t h i s o b j e c t i v e . 3 . I t seems h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e that the c r e d i t s or marks recorded to the student's account should be apportioned approximately In the magnitude of the percentage weightings found by means of the questionnaire. (See Chap ter 1 1 ) , In r e f e r r i n g to these objectives and t h e i r evaluations i t w i l l be seen that the f i r s t one p e r t a i n i n g to f a c t u a l knowledge i s given a weighting of twenty percent. Compared w i t h the weighting of s i x t y - f i v e to n i n e t y percent that many science courses give to information the twenty percent seems very low. However, to t h i s twenty percent, which should be construed as mainly "pure" s c i e n t i f i c information may be added the ten percent of questions r e f e r r i n g to h e a l t h . Another seven percent d i r e c t e d to t e s t i n g the student's knowledge of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of science to c i v i l i z a t i o n can be combined with the others, together w i t h seven percent to be used i n counteracting f a l s e b e l i e f s and s u p e r s t i t i o n s . 1 8 9 190 ' A l l these t o t a l f o r t y - f o u r per cent, or approximately f i f t y percent. That i s , f i f t y percent of the student's c r e d i t should be a l l o c a t e d to these o b j e c t i v e s . This does not appear to be quite so d r a s t i c a reduc-t i o n as the bare twenty percent appeared because many achievement t e s t s do include some or much of these a d d i t i o n a l types of items. May i t be s a i d i n p a s s i n g that i t i s t h i s type of m a t e r i a l subtended under these objectives which i s most e a s i l y "crammed" by students f o r w r i t i n g t e s t s and examinations. The adoption of a procedure s i m i l a r to that advocated here would tend considerably to discourage "cramming", or at least to devaluate i t . 4. i t i s h i g h l y desirable to break the t e s t i n g programme into four groups of t e s t s , s i m i l a r s u i t a b l e t e s t i n g procedures apply to c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s . Other groups of objectives present s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t e s t i n g . I t i s thought advisable to segregate the objectives i n t o the follov/ing groups i n order to s i m p l i f y the various complications: (a) Informational; (b) vocat i o n a l and Avocational; (c) Reading, and (d) Performance tor " p r a c t i c a l f ( ) Tests and S c i e n t i f i c Method. (a) Informational Regular u n i t or achievement t e s t s can be made to include the four o b j e c t i v e s 1, l v , VI, V l l {body of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, Health, achieve-ments i n the f i e l d of science, s u p e r s t i t i o n s and false b e l i e f s ) i n the p r o p o r t i o n of 20, 10, 7, 7, TO round the weighting s l i g h t l y i n order to give a t o t a l of f i f t y the p a r t s would then read, 25, 10, 8 and 7. These t e s t s can be administered as usual f o l l o w i n g the completion of u n i t s of work, or o<n> a f i n a l achievement t e s t . (b) vocational and, ^vocational 'i'ests on the worthy use of l e i s u r e (objective v) and exploring vocations, (objective T i l l ) could be combined i n the p r o p o r t i o n of 6 to 10 r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t might be argued that these could be p l a c e d on achievement test s because p e n c i l and paper t e s t s can be prepared f o r these o b j e c t i v e s , To obtain a r e l i a b l e measure requires questions of a s u f f i c i e n t number that the t e s t i n g w i l l occupy a p e r i o d of c l a s s time, b'or t h i s reason i t was thought advisable to separate t h i s m a t e r i a l from the preceding, These t e s t s ean be given at the end of each u n i t , W t l t would seem b e t t e r to give them/|four times a year instead, because more comparative work between u n i t s could be Included, The t e s t i n g would not be too r e s t r i c t e d then, (c) pleading Heading test s and measuring increased desire to read (Objective x j can be f i t t e d i n to the ordinary u n i t s , i t i s p o s s i b l y desirable to I n -clude one of these reading a b i l i t y t e s t s i n each u n i t of work, xhey can be taken from t e s t books a v a i l a b l e and be d i r e c t l y on the work so that no time i s l o s t , e. g.^ s i l e n t reading t e s t s , xhe "desire to read" should be checked at the beginning and end of a, year"s work, (d) Performance and S c i e n t i f i c Method The "performance" type t e s t s would include some under objective 11 ( s c i e n t i f i c ne thod), 111 (resourcefulness) and IX (experimentation) i n the p r o p o r t i o n of 18, 11, 7, x e s t i n g achievements under these objectives could not be done very f r e q u e n t l y . Twice per year i s l i k e l y to be the best number of times to t e s t . I f these t e s t s are to be administered twice per year the f i r s t should occur c e r t a i n l y no l a t e r than January and should be looked upon l a r g e l y as a diagnostic t e s t to see wherein the p u p i l s are weak. The f i n a l t e s t should be given a f t e r a l l the u n i t s are completed because each u n i t of work w i l l l i k e l y add some a d d i t i o n a l procedure to t h e i r knowledge of the s c i e n t i f i c method, or at l e a s t some new s i d e l i g h t , xhe" c o n t r i b u t i o n s of each u n i t to resourcefulness should be important, and the a b i l i t y t o experiment should improve w i t h each u n i t of work taken. I t would seem advisable to do t h i s t e s t i n g at the end of a course i n order to obtain b e t t e r comparative test items u t i l i z i n g procedures in,: several t e s t s . For schools that make a p r a c t i c e of promotion by unit there would be many new problems. I f such schools tested a l l objectives at the com-p l e t i o n of each u n i t w i t h any degree of r e l i a b i l i t y . i t would take nearly a f i v e - p e r i o d week to do i t . ^'his would seem to be a very great amount of time to spend on t e s t i n g , I f they did not te s t a l l achievements they would be f a l l i n g down i n t h e i r d u ties. I f they l e f t these general achievements to the end of a s e r i e s of u n i t s (or a course).they might f i n d that they are i n a dilemma^for i t i s conceivable that a student may reach a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of achievement on the infor m a t i o n a l test but be quite u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n h i s a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method and to experiment. What should be done w i t h such a student? He has "passed" i n h a l f h i s work and " f a i l e d " i n the other (which i s not taught as a d i s -t i n c t u n i t f o r him to r e p e a t ) , These three objectives are included together because the type of t e s t i n g w i l l , or should,be much a l i k e f o r a l l . xhere should be a c t u a l manipulation i n many cases, which would necessitate s p e c i a l arrangements i n the l a b o r a t o r y or some other room. These arrangements take consider-able time and cannot be made w i t h the f a c i l i t y that p e n c i l and paper t e s t s can be * 1 9 3 The sampling i n these t e s t s must be as extensive as time w i l l permit i n order to gain as much r e l i a b i l i t y as p o s s i b l e . 5. For a s i m p l i f i e d introductory programme a r a t i o between the "informat-i o n a l " and " p r a c t i c a l or doing" objectives of f o r t y - f o u r to t h i r t y - s i x ( f i v e to four) could be maintained. For the f i r s t year i f the examiner only attempted to f o l l o w out these two major means of measuring he w i l l have made a d r a s t i c break, and a very valuable one, w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l methods of measuring achievements. I£ p o s s i b l y i s advisable that the examiner keep to these two f i e l d s for h i s f i r s t attempts, or at l e a s t u n t i l ho f e e l s he i s on safe ground. 6. Tests i n v o l v i n g diagrams, graphs, scales, etc., should be used i n t e s t i n g the f a c t u a l side of l e a r n i n g more than they are used at present on t e s t s . They can be made very u s e f u l , 7. Diagrams should not be considered as a s u b s t i t u t e for any test demand-ing a c t i v i t y or manipulation of m a t e r i a l s . There are common elements be-tween these two methods of t e s t i n g but they varyt@o much between i n d i v i d u a l techniques„and c o r r e l a t i o n s are too low even f o r the highest to warrant the assumption of e q u a l i t y . Because of the usefulness of diagrams on achievement t e s t s i t should not be assumed that they are. v a l i d t e s t s f o r resourcefulness, experimentation and s i m i l a r a b i l i t i e s . (For further information see Appendix pp. XiV to XK71.) 8. Increase i n reading i n t e r e s t of students i n Science can be measured from grade to grade. Science teaching does produce increments of i n t e r e s t among p u p i l s i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a reading, (See Experiment Y i n Appendix p. XXVI1). Again, as elsewhere, i t i s the d i r e c t attack upon the stirnu-194 l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t that produces best r e s u l t s , By d i r e c t attack i t i s not meant that a l l hooks he assigned, hut that reading should be as free as p o s s i b l e . I t may be necessary to a s s i g n a few books to s t a r t o f f the programme, but t h i s assignment should be reduced to a minimum. 9. I t seems within.the realm of p o s s i b i l i t y that tests can be made to measure a l l achievements or a b i l i t i e s , These t e s t s and questions have been suggested i n chapters V, VI, and V l l . 10, I n t e r e s t of students i n avocational science grows w i t h each course taken. This growth can be measured (See Appendix, Experiment 1, p 1 ) . The survey of standardized t e s t s reported i n Chapter IV would seem to suggest that no present standardized t e s t s would be s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t e s t i n g i n General Science IV or V, nor would a b a t t e r y of present t e s t s s u f f i c e , 11, The form of the question should be such that i t t e s t s the mental process d e s i r e d , memory ( r e c a l l , completion i n the main), a s s o c i a t i o n (matching), s e l e c t i o n (multiple choice, m u l t i p l e response), deduction (from data s u p p l i e d ) , computation, comparison. Factual or informational tes t s w i l l use the f i r s t three forms mainly. Testing the a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method would make use of the l a s t four to a greater extent. Testing should be done as much as p o s s i b l e I n science f o r the under-standing of the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e by emphasizing the "why", "the consequences of such an a c t i o n " , "how does i t happen" ideas. 12, The v a l i d a t i o n of the t e s t i n g of the a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method w i l l be r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t , B a s u l t s of t e s t s w i l l need to be com-pared w i t h the teacher's opinion of the student's a b i l i t y , w i t h h i s 195 u t i l i z a t i o n of the method In h i s d a i l y l i f e a f t e r he leaves school, w i t h the success he has i n using the method i n u n i v e r s i t y work i f he goes there. The most valuable c r i t e r i o n might be the extent to which the s c i e n t i f i c method i s applied In s o l v i n g the problems of d a l l y l i f e . The objective r e a l l y alms for t h i s . To measure t h i s transfer from the teaching i n school to the a p p l i c a t i o n i n d a i l y l i f e i s a task too extensive f o r one teacher to do. I t r e a l l y needs to be undertaken by some c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y . Likewise the v a l i d a t i o n of the tests on vocational and avocational aspects of science courses can be obtained only by seeing to what extent the r e s u l t s of the t e s t s have guided students i n t o or away from s c i e n t i f i c vocations and avocations, This v a l i d a t i o n would demand a considerable " f o l l o w up" programme, IS, The purpose of the test must be kept c l e a r l y i n mind. The teacher must ask himself, " I s t h i s to be a mastery t e s t whose c h i e f purpose i s to discover i f b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s have been .grasped, an achievement test to see how much of d e t a i l s and b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s has been learned, or an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e test to rank or place the student or to secure data?" 14. There should be a c l e a r e r , perhaps a new,connotation given to mastery t e s t s , achievement t e s t s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t e s t s . To study the f u n c t i o n of each as ; it. should be i s r e a l l y another problem. I t i s suggested that mastery tests be d i r e c t e d toward the measuring of basic achievements that no one Is l i k e l y to forget . The extent of t h i s area cannot be s t a t e d u n t i l measurements are taken for each course. Region A on the chart represents t h i s area, (Rgu-^ M'J A d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e s t s are composed of only fca those Items which have 196 good d i s c r i m i n a t i v e power. These items, the more d i f f i c u l t , are represent-ed by region B on the chart. Achievement t e s t s should be made to measure both f i e l d s , the d i s c r i m i -native items and the b a s i c mastered items of regions B and A. A c l n i e v c m t o i Tests The achievement t e s t r e a l l y should be one to measure the p u p i l ' s growth. As i t i s used and i n t e r p r e t e d rather widely at the present time i t i s r e a l l y an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or grading test from which A's, B's, G's, D's, B's are obtained. 15. The present connotation given to achievement t e s t s implies the '. e v a l u a t i n g of a l l achievements on the basis of a s i n g l e composite score for each t e s t . A grave p h i l o s o p h i c a l and mathematical problem a r i s e s here which cannot be answered i n t h i s work. Can these diverse a b i l i t i e s be measured and summated i n terms of a s i n g l e score? The theory of a d d i t i v i t y demands that only addends of i d e n t i c a l q u a l i t y be summated. In other words i t involves the old problem of t r y i n g to add f i v e rocks and four - oranges. This d i f f i c u l t y i s rather a serious one and needs to be faced soon. In connection w i t h the reform of report cards of student progress the p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s implied here must be s e t t l e d . I f a report card i s 1 9 7 going to conta i n only a reference to t o t a l achievement i n a subject there must be the summation of .scores of p o s s i b l y too diverse q u a l i t y . I f these achievements cannot be summated i t would demand a report card w i t h progress evaluated i n iterms of each objective for each course. I f report cards are to be modified further u n t i l they become diagnostic reports i t would be more important s t i l l that a l l t e s t i n g be done i n accordance w i t h the objectives of the science course. BIBLIOGRAPHY Organizing the problem. 1, Alexander, Carter; ( L i b r a r i a n P r o f e s s o r , 'Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ) , How to Locate Educational Information and Data; Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ; 1935, 2. Monroe, W.S,, and Engelhart, M.D.; The S c i e n t i f i c Study of Educational Problems- Macmillan, New York; 1936. Testing procedures and Theory of Measurement. 1. Caswell, H.L., and Campbell, D.S.; Curriculum Development: American Book.Co,, Hew York, 1935; Chapters VI, X I I I , XIV. 2, C u r t i s , P.D.; Second Digest of Investigations i n the Teaching of Science;!', B l a k i s t o n ' s Bon and Co,; 1931, Si ........... .A Digest of the Investigations i n the Teaching ofSci_enoe_ i n the Elementary and Secondary Schools; g , Blaskiton's Son & Co.; 1925. 4, Downing, E,R.; Teaching Science i n the Schools; U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1925. 5, Draper, E.M.; p r i n c i p l e s and Technique, of Curriculum Making; D. Applet on-Century; 1936; Chapter on t e s t i n g , Chapter XV. 6, F r a n k l i n , 3.B.; The Permanence of Vocational Interests of Junior and Senior High School p u p i l s - Johns Hopkins Studies i n education, JJIO. 8, Johns Hopkins P r e s s , Baltimore; 1924. 7, G a r r e t t , Henry a.; S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education; Longmans, Green, and Co., lew York; 1933. 8, Hawkes, H.E., L i n d g u i s t , E.F., and Mann, C.R.; The Construction and Use of Achievement Tests; Houghton, M i f f l i n Co.* 1936. 9, H u l l , C l a r k L.; Aptitude Testing; 7/or Id Book Company, 1928. 10, Hunter, G.W.; Science Teaching at Junior and Senior High School Levels; American Book Co.; pp 55-111, 205-229, 487-507, 412-443. 11, Einsey, A.e,; Methods i n Biology; J.B.Lippincott Go,, 1937; Chapters I I I , 1, X I I , X I I I , XVI. 12, May, Mark A.; " p r e d i c t i n g Academic Success;" Journal of Educational Psychology. V o l , 14 (1923), pp 429-440. 198 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1 9 9 , 1 3 . Monroe, Walter Scott; Introduction to the Theory of Educational  Measurements; Houghton M i f f l i n Co.; 1923. 14. N a c c a r a t i , 3 . , and Lewy-Guinzberg, 13.L.; "Hormones and I n t e l l i g e n c e " . Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 6 (1922;), pp. 221-234. 15* P i n t n e r , Rudolph; I n t e l l i g e n c e Testing. Methods and Results; Henry H o l t and Co., New York; 1923, 16, 'Programme of Studies f o r the High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia; B u l l e t i n I^pp. 5-26, 159-189. 17, Ruch, G.N,, and Degraff, M.H.; "Corrections for Change and «Guess' versus 'Do Not Guess' I n s t r u c t i o n s i n M u l t i p l e Response Tests;" . Journal of Educational Psychology. Vol. 17 (1926); pp.368-375. 18, Ruch, G.M., and R i c e , 6.A.; Specimen Objective Examinations; Scott, Foresman, and Co.; 1935. 19, Ruch, G.K., and Stoddard, G.D.; "The Comparative R e l i a b i l i t i e s of Five Types of Objective Examinations;" Journal of Educational  psychology. V o l . 16 (1925); pp,89-103, 20, Spearman, Charles; The A b i l i t i e s of Man; Macmillan Co., New York; 1927, 21, Stenquist, John L.; Measurements of Mechanical A b i l i t y ; Teachers College C o n t r i b u t i o n to Education. No, 130, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ; New York; 1923, 22, Terman, Lewis M.; Measurement of i n t e l l i g e n c e ; Houghton M i f f l i n Co.; 1916. 23, Thomdike, E.L.; "The Permanence of I n t e r e s t s " ; Popular Science Month-l y . V o l . 81 (1912). 24, Thorntike, E.L., and Terman, Lewis M.; and others; " I n t e l l i g e n c e and I t s Measurement"; Journal of Educational Psychology. Vol. 12 (1921), pp. 123-212. 25, Toops, Herbert A,;-"Tests f o r Vocational Guidance of c h i l d r e n Thirteen to Sixteen"; Teachers College Contributions to Education, no.36 Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York; 1923, 26, Toops, Herbert A,; "Trade Tests i n Education", 1921;Te'achers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York. 200. BIBLIOGRAPHY, Text-Books and Work-Books Examined For Test Items, Procedur Techniques. • ' PHYSICS 1. Bawsden, Arthur T,; Man's P h y s i c a l Universe; Macmillan Co.; 1937. 2. Black, N . H . , and Davis, H.N.; Elementary P r a c t i c a l P h y s i c s ; Macmillan C . 1938, 3. D u l l , Charles E.; Modern P h y s i c s ; Henry Holt and Co.; 1935. 4. F l e t c h e r , G.L., Mosbaeher, I . , and Lehman, 3 . ; U n i f i e d P h y s i c s ; McGraw-Hill Book Co.; 1936. 5. F u l l e r , R,W., Brownlee, K,3., Baker, D.L; F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s of P h y s i c s ; A l l y n and Bacon; 1933. 6. Jean, F.C., Harrah, E.o,, Herman, i i . L . , and Powers, Sr.; Man and the Nature of His P h y s i c a l Universe- Ginn and Co.; 1934. 7. M i l l i k a n , R.A., Gale, H.G., and coyle, «j .P; New .elementary Physios; Ginn and Co.; 1936, 8. Stewart, O.M., Cushing, B.L., and Towne, J.R.; Physics f o r Secondary Schools; Ginn and Co.; 1932. 9. Wilson, Sherman It,; D e s c r i p t i v e p h y s i c s ; Henry H o l t and Co.; 1936. CHEMISTRY 1, B i d d l e , H.C., and Bush, G.L; Dynamic Chemistry- Rand McNally and Co.; 1936, 2. Black, N.H., and Conant, J . 3 . ; New P r a c t i c a l Chemistry; Macmillan; 1936, 3* Brownlee, R.B., d u l l e r , Hancock, Sohon, Whit s i t ; F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s of  of Chemistry; A l l y n and Bacon; 1934. 4, Bruce, G.H,; High School Chemistry- A l l y n and Bacon; 1931, 5, D u l l , Charles £.; Modern Chemistry; Henry H o l t and Co, 1936. 6• Hessler, John C.; The F i r s t Year of Chemistry.- Ben j , Sanborn and Co. 1931, 7. Howard, R u s s e l l S.; Units i n Shemistry- Henry H o l t ; 1934. 8. J a f f e , Bernard; New World of Chemistry; S i l v e r , Burdett, and Co.; 1933, 201 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9. Kruh, F^O., uarleton, A.H., ana Carpenter, P.P.; Modern L i f e Chemistry •J.B. Lippincott and uo. ; 1937 . ~ 10. Mcpherson, W., Henderson W.E., and Fowler, G.¥. ; Chemistry for Today. Ginn and Co.; 1934. : BIOLOGY 1. Baker, A.D., and M i l l s , L.H.; Dynamic Biology; Hand McUally and Co.-1934. 2» Benedict, B.C., Knox, W.W., Stone, G.K.; High School Biology- Macmillan 1938. 3. Cole, E.G.; An Introduction to Biology; John Wiley and Son- 1933. 4. Corwin, W., and Corwin, M. J . • L i v i n g Things.- Blakiston's Son and Co. 1934. 5* Curtis, F.D., Caldwell, O.W., and Sherman, ET.H.; Biology for Today. 1934. 6. F i t z p a t r i c k , F.L., and Horton, R.E.; Biology; Houghton M i f f l i n Co.;1935. 7, Hunter, George W.; Problems i n Biology; American Book Co.; 1935, 8, Kinsey, A l f r e d C.; A Hew Introduction to Biology; J.B.Lippincott; 1933. 9. Meier, W.H.D., and Meier, L.M., and Ghaisson, A.F.; Essentials of Biology. Ginn and Company- no date. 10. Mank, H.C.; The L i v i n g World; Benj. H. Sanborn and Co.; 1935. 11. Moon, Truman J., and Mann, P.B.; Biology for Beginners- Henry Holt and Co.; 1933, 12. P h i l l i p s , M,E., and Cox, L.E.; Elementary Biology; Clarke, Irwin, and Co., London, Eng.- 1933, 13. F leper, C.J., Beauchamp, W.L., and Frank, O.D.; Everyday Problems i n Biology; Scott, Foresman, and Co,; 1936. 14. Smallwood, W.M., 'Reveley, I.L., and Bailey, G.A.; New Biology; A l l y n and Bacon- 1934. 15. Wheat, F. M., and F i t z p a t r i c k , E.T.; General Biolofg; 1932. 16. Wheat, F. M., and F i t z p a t r i c k , E.T.; Advanced Biology; American Book Co., 1936, 202 BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOLOGY. ; 17. Wood, G.C., and Carpenter, H.A.; Our Environment- A l l y n and Bacon; 1938. GENERAL SCIENCE. 1. A l l e n , T.B., and Perguson, W*P,; Elementary Science; Ryerson P r e s s ; 1934. 2. Bush, G.L., Ptacek, T.W., and Kovats, J , ; Senior Science: American Book Co.; 1937. 3. Caldwell, O.W., and C u r t i s , P.P.; Science f o r Today; Ginn and Co.; 1936. 4. Clement, A.G., C o l l i s t e r , M.C., Thurston, E.L.; Our Surroundings; Iroquois P r e s s ; 1934, 5. Davis, I.C., and Sharpie, R.W,; Science; Henry Holt and Co.; 1936, 6. Hunter, G.W., Whitman, W.G.; Science i n Our World of progress; American Book Co.; 1955. 7. p i e p e r , C.J., and Beauchamp, W.L.; Everyday Problems i n Scfe.nce; Wm. Gage and Co.; 1936. 8. Powers, S.R., Neuner, E.P., and Brun.er, H.B.; Man's Control of His Environment• Ginn and Co.; 1935. 9. Regenstein, A.B., and Teeters, W.R.; Science at Work; Rand, MeNally and Co.; 1935. 10. Watkins, R.K., and B e d e l l , R.C.; General Science for Today; Macmillan; 1936. 11. Webb, Hanor A,, and Beauchamp, R.O.; Science by Observation and Experiment; D. Apple ton-Century Co.; 1935. 12. Weed, H.T., Rexford, P.A., and C a r r o l l , P.B.; Useful Science f o r High School; 1935; John C, Winston, 13. Wood, G,C, and Carpenter, K.A.; Our Environment Series I . I I , I I I ; A l l y n and Bacon? 1934, 203. BIBLIOGRAPHY. WORKBOOKS • 1, A d e l l , J . C . , Dunham, 0.0., and Walton, L.E,; Explorations i n B i o l o g i c a l Science; Ginn and Go.; 1937, 2, B a i l e y , G.A., and Greene, R.A., New Laboratory Manual; A l l y n and Bacon, 1934, 3, Baker, A,0., and M i l l s , L.H.; A c t i v i t i e s to Accompany "Dynamic Biology." 1935. Rand, McUally, and Go. 4, B i d d l e , H.C., and Bush, G.L.; Laboratory Manual for "Dynamic Chemistry," 1936, Rand, M c l a l l y , and Co. 5 , Brownlee, F u l l e r , Hancock, Sohon, W h i t s i t ; Laboratory Experiments i n Chemistry; A l l y n and Bacon, 1935. 6, Cal d w e l l , 0,?/., and C u r t i s , F.D.; Workbook for "Science f o r Today;" Ginn and Co.; 1936, 7, Caldwell, O.W., and Sherman, K.H.; Workbook for Biology for Today, Ginn and Company; 1936. 8, C arpenter, F.F., and Car l e t on, R .H,; Comprehensive Units i n Chemistry. J. B . L i p p i n c o t t ; 1935, 9, Dovning, E. R., and McAtee, V.M.; Problem Solving i n Biology, Lyons and Carnahan, 1934. 10, Downing, E.R., and McAtee, 7.M.; A Learning Guide i n Biology; Lyons and Carnahan; 1936. 11, F u l l e r , Brownie6, and Baker; Laboratory Exercises i n P h y s i c s ; A l l y n and Bacon; 1932, 12, Hessler, John C ; Workbook Manual for F i r s t Year of Chemistry; Benj. , J . Sanborn; 1934, 13, Mank, H.G.; Adventures i n Thinking; Benj. H. Sanborn; 1935. 14, Van Buskirk, E.F., Smith, E.L., and Wilson, J.R.; Workbook f o r "The Science of Everyday L i f e " ; Houghton M i f f l i n , 1931, 204 BIBLIOGRAPHY TESTS, STANDARDIZED AHD OTHERWISE, BIOLOGY 1, Gooprlder, J.L.; Cooprider B i o l o g i c a l Information Test; 1924; P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Co., Bloomington, 111, 2, Downing, E.R., and McAtee, \Teva M.; Biology Unit Tests; Arrangement A and B. 14 t e s t s ; Lyons and Carnahan. 3, Laidlaw, O.W., and Woody, 0.; Michigan Botany Test; P u b l i c School p u b l i s h i n g Co.; Bloomington, 111, 4, Such, G.M., and Cossman, L.3., Euch-Cossman Biology Test; Forms A and B; 1924; World Book Company, 2126 P r a i r i e Ave., Chicago. 5, Yan Wagenen, M.J.; Tan Wagenen Reading Scales i n Biology; Forms A and B; 1929; The Educational Test Bureau, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn. CHEMISTRY 1. Carpenter and Carleton; Mastery Tests i n Chemistry; 1935. 2. Cooperative Chemistry Tests I , I I , C; Cooperative Test Service, New v: . ., .i.Ybrk, 1936. 3. Gerry, H. L.; Harvard High School Chemistry Test; Forms A and B; G i v i n and Co.; 1922. 4. J e t t e , E.R., Powers, F.R., and Wood, B.R.; Columbia Research Bureau Chemistry Test; Form A; Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ; 1929; World Book Co., 2126 P r a i r i e Ave., Chicago. 5. M a l i n , J.E., Diagnostic Test i n Chemistry; Forms A and B; P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Co., Bloomington, 111.; 1932. 6. p a r s i n g ; Laboratory Chemistry Test; Forms A and B. 7. Powers General Chemistry Test; Forms A and 3 ; World Book Co., 2126 P r a i r i e Ave., Chicago, 205 BIBLIOGRAPHY. PHYSICS 1. Cooperative p h y s i c s Test- Cooperative Test Service; Hew York. 2. F a r w e l l , H.W., Wood, B.D.; Columbia Research Bureau Ph y s i c s Test- Forms A and B; 1926; World Book Co, 31 Hughes; p h y s i c s Scales, Information and Thought- P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Co., Bloomington, 111. 4. Hurd, A.W.; F i n a l Test i n High School p h y s i c s ; 1930 Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers College, Columbia. GENERAL SOI MCE. 1, Caldwell and C u r t i s ; Unit Tests for "Science f o r Today"; Ginn and Co,; 1936; 17 t e s t s . 2, Cooperative General Science Tests ( U n d e r b i l l and Powers?- Forms 1936, 1937; N; Cooperative, Test Service, Mew York, 3, Dvorak, A,; General Science Test; Forms Sg , Tg , B^ j 1924; P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Co., Bloomington, 111. 4, Dvorak, A. and van Wagenen, M.J. ; A n a l y t i c a l Scales of Attainment; 1933; Ed, Test Bureau Inc., Minneapolis, Minn. 5, Powers, S.R.- General Science Test; Forms A and B; 1927; Bureau of P u b l i c Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . 5. Ruch and P openoe; General Science Test; Forms A and B. OTHER TESTS 1. Brewer, ; Vocational Aptitude Test f o r Boys; 2. Camp, K.L. ; Iowa P h y s i c s Test; P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Co., Blooming-ton, 111. 3. D e t r o i t Mechanical Aptitude Test. 4. Stanford Educational Aptitude Test, 5. Stewart-Ashbaugh P h y s i c s Tests, Form 1; P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Co., Bloomington, 111. 6. Zyve, D.L., Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Test; 1929; Stanford Univer-s i t y P r e s s . 7. Sangren and Marborger; Michigan I n s t i t u t e Test i n P h y s i c s -APP ENDIX :• QUESTIONNAIRB . EVALUATING- THE OBJECTIVES OP THE GENERAL SCIENCE COURSES IV AND V. PURPOSES OP QUESTIONNAIRE. I t i s desired to f i n d an evaluation of the objectives of the present courses i n General Science IV and V i n order to guide the development of question types that would be suitable for achievement test and v a l i d for the o b j e c t i v e s of the courses. Testing would also involve some means of apportioning achievements towards the various objectives, that i s , a weighting must be e s t a b l i s h e d , EVIDENCE OP FEED OF -QUESTIONNAIRE. 1. programme of Studies f o r High Schools of B. C., 1937, page 27 re m a t r i c u l a t i o n and a c c r e d i t i n g ; "A system of a c c r e d i t i n g w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d . There i s , therefore, no longer any reason why high school teachers In t h e i r teaching and school procedures should hesitate to aim at the achievement of the general objectives of education and p a r t i c u l a r l y at those objectives which may be achieved through thei r own subjects. This applies e q u a l l y to methods of t e s t i n g , f o r i t i s fundamental that t e s t i n g should bear upon the objectives of a course. Page 21, An examination that stresses these outcomes (knowledge and s k i l l ) to the e x c l u s i o n of the others not. only excludes these outcomes from the t e s t i n g procedures, but speedily excludes them from the teaching procedures as w e l l . 2, Morrison, H,C, "The p r a c t i c e of Teaching i n Secondary Schools" 1926. "The moment we attempt to apply a systematic procedure to our teaching we are confronted w i t h the need of a process of t e s t i n g . I t i s not enough to teach; I t Is necessary to f i n d out whether our teaching has registered.. 3. Kurd, A.W. Pu b l i s h e d master's t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, (paraphrased) The r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment apparently support the claim that d i r e c t methods of attack r e s u l t i n most accomplishment. I t would seem that the bast way to secure a desired r e s u l t Is to teach for that r e s u l t This experiment leads, a _ p r i j a i i , to the conclusion that there must be d e f i n i t e aims i n the course i n p h y s i c s , or any other course, 4, Thorndifce, E.L. His theory that tra n s f e r of t r a i n i n g occurs only Insofar as there are i d e n t i c a l elements i n both f i e l d s that are consciously r e a l i z e d would suggest that any course must be taught toward the objec-t i v e s of that course. Therefore again, evidence from h i s experiments and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s would commit a teacher to teach d i r e c t l y f o r anything which i s to be done s u c c e s s f u l l y . Some sort of t e s t would be the only way of f i n d i n g success or f a i l u r e , 5. Hawkes, L i n g u i s t , and Mann. "The Construction and Use of Achievement Tests" page 5. One major defect of t y p i c a l examinations has been the f a c t that they have given evidence with reference to only a l i m i t e d 11 number of objectives of that course, and have not indicated adequately the degree to which students were a t t a i n i n g a l l the desired outcomes of i n s t r u c t i o n . Page 7. R a r e l y do we f i n d students tested on such objectives as t h e i r a b i l i t y to u t i l i z e the s c i e n t i f i c method, consistency of p o i n t of view, t h e i r s k i l l i n laboratory work. Page 13. I t i s r e a d i l y apparent that the procedures of formulating and analyzing.the major objectives for any course are d e s i r a b l e , and are i n -valuable when making a comprehensive programme of examinations DIRECTIONS FOR WALtTATITO TUB OBJECTIVES, Cer t a i n objectives have been l a i d down by the Committee which prepared the courses General Science IV and V. I t i s desirable to f i n d which objectives various groups of people think most important. Two means of e v a l u a t i n g these would be• 1, to rank them numerically i n order of importance 1 to 10 as you see f i t and 2, to give a percentage r a t i n g on the basis of an estimate as to what f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l outcomes each objective Is worth. Below are found the ten objectives selected by the Committee, but jumbled i n arrangement l e s t there was any attempt by the Committee at weighting, (In order to avoid outside influences upon your decision.) To the r i g h t of each statement there are two columns. In Column "A" place your numeri-c a l or o r d i n a l ranking values g i v i n g the value 1 to that objective that you t h i n k most valuable i n the course, 2 to the next, and so f o r t h up to 10, i n Column !tB" place an estimated percentage of "worth" beside each o b j e c t i v e , ( I t i s admitted that up to the present no very s a t i s f a c t o r y t e s t s have been developed for some of these ob j e c t i v e s , so please evaluate these items on the i d e a l i s t i c assumption that v a l i d tests can be prepared fo r each, such t e s t s might be of a quite d i f f e r e n t kind, from the usual p e n c i l and paper type.) Each responder Is asked not to r e f e r to books or to other person's opinions, but to use h i s own c a r e f u l judgment as to what he thinks best. On the questionnaire although a space i s provided for your name i t i s not necessary to f i l l t h i s i n i f you do not wish. However, an iden-t i f i c a t i o n - w o u l d add i n t e r e s t . (Questionnaire on next page.) ttUisS I ' I O S J S A I H(submitted to teachers) £LAVJS X G U " T A U G H T SCiMiUA' SUBJECTS? . . . . . . . . IF SO v/HIcE OF xrusSE? Agriculture,Biology, uhemis try, Oen-.science ,Physics DO YOU COKSIDsER THE FIELD OF SCIENCE TO BE YOUR SPECIALTY? . , i i i * * s « OBJECTIVE SANK PERCENTAGE A IB a« 1 0 Provide materials f o r the worthy use of l e i s u r e . b. To enable the .student to counteract superstition and to correct erroneous b e l i e f s through the application of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s . PPucaTion C. To develop resourcefulness and adaptability t conditions* J o new d. To acquire a body of knowledge i n the f i e l d s of science which w i l l enable the student to i n t e r -pret and appreciate h i s environment. e. To appreciate achievements i n the f i e l d of science and the contributions of s c i e n t i s t s to the world. f. To develop a b i l i t y i n the use of the s c i e n t i f i c method, e. g., a. To make accurate observations and to record them systematically. b. To draw v a l i d conclusions. . • c. To suspend judgment u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t evid-ence has been obtained, d. To 'develop a c r i t i c a l yet tolerant attitude towards irew ideas. g. To develop the desire to read s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e h> To-, acquire'knowledge that w i l l contribute to public and Parsenal health. i . To explore the f i e l d of science i n order to assist the p u p i l to choose his vocation. j . To develop the a b i l i t y to perform simple experiments and thus to appreciate the s c i e n t i f i c basis of science. ESFERIKENT I Iv purpose To t r y to develop a t e s t i n g procedure which w i l l giwe a measure of the avocatidnal i n t e r e s t i n science created by a p a r t i c u l a r course i n science. p r e p a r a t i o n of Tests L i s t s of p o s s i b l e avocational a c t i v i t i e s were prepared by s e l e c t i n g those suggested i n a wide v a r i e t y of text books. The l i s t s were separated roughly i n t o sections based mainly p h y s i c s , chemistry, or bio l o g y . Each item was to be evaluated by the student on a seven column scale as shown i n the sample. To reduce the mechanics of student e f f o r t , the student was asked to make only a check mark i n the proper column. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The t e s t was. given to one cl a s s from each of Grade IX, X, and XI i n B r i t a n n i a High School, These classes were 17, 10, and a mixed group takin g General Science V. I t was not p o s s i b l e to a l t e r the classes at a l l i n order to equate them f o r a b i l i t y ( e ither i n general or i n science) or i n t e r e s t . The Grades X and XI classes are approximately average as shown by the school records of the students. The Grade IX cl a s s (Class 17) may be s l i g h t l y above average, because t h e i r age grade average i s lower than the normal of 14 years taken on September 1, 1938. So f a r no rankings or t e s t s of the c l a s s have been made. Each c l a s s was given s u f f i c i e n t time to f i n i s h the t e s t . The slowest students u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d t h i r t y - f i v e minutes. So or i n g was done simply by adding the check nark i n each column* This was extremely easy and i s one of the advantages of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r form of t e s t , Scores f o r each column were then averaged, SHOWING P.5I—AVlOHSH IP - B E T w e e H I M T E K E 5 . T S D E V E U o p E D Aft3> !MuyiBE"FL O P S C t E N C e CLOU-RSFS T A K S N -Last Tear's Science Course No. of i P u p i l s GRADE IXJGen.Sc, Glass 17 ! 11 GRADE X !Hen.Sc. .Class 10 GRADE XI Mixed ..111 Gen.Sc. IV 37 37 39 C o l , 5 iPos-s i b l e new Int.Avl Col. 4 Act, new Int,Av Col. 3 Int -erests |.cont.. Av. , 14.76 .378 16,86 | 1,4 ( i 20,8 I 1.75 1,81 3.24 2.7 -Gol. 2 Int-erests drop-ped Av, Col. 1 Should not adopt Av, Col. 0 No i n t -erest Av, C o l , - l dropped because of Sc. Courses Av, 1,35 • .62 102 .026 .3 .27 98.65 .08 3.5i : .33 91, ,05 CONCLUSIONS Several warnines m^t >,a i . ™ » « , A . g S m u s t b e m a d e » however, before conclusions ges are drawn because (.1) The data are based on only three classes of d i f f e r e n t a£ (2) No c o n t r o l group which had no science t r a i n i n g could be found (3) Classes were not equated although they were roughtly "average" The r e s u l t s seem to show that the test has the power to d i s t i n g u i s h increments i n i n t e r e s t s and avocations a t t r i b u t a b l e to science courses taken by the students. Bach year more students see the p o s s i b i l i t y of more science avoc-a t i o n s . The increase i n p o s s i b l e avocational a c t i v i t i e s amount to four or f i v e items, A c t u a l avocational a c t i v i t i e s Increase each year being more pronounced i n Grade IX General Science 111, The reason f o r t h i s i s not shown on the t e s t , but i t may be due to the f a c t that students begin to handle things more and to perform experiments more by them-selves i n t h i s and l a t e r courses (compared to conditions i n elementary s c h o o l s ) , Avocational i n t e r e s t s maintained increase between General Science 111 and IV, but dropped o f f for General Science V, This may be due to the greater demands of academic work and courses of the senior years of the high SGhool courses, made upon the student. Other fa c t o r s may be operative. There i s an increase In the number of avocational a c t i v i t i e s dropped each year.' This may be a n a t u r a l concomitant of mental growth for few persons maintain every avocational a c t i v i t y that they adopt, With increases shown i n i n t e r e s t s and hobbies each year, i t i s only to be expected that fewer n e u t r a l or "no i n t e r e s t " responses should be made each year. I t was r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g to the i n v e s t i g a t o r that so very few a c t i v i t i e s were dropped due to the negative influence of the science courses taken, as a s l i g h t l y higher average was expected. Few students t h i n k that any of the a c t i v i t i e s of the l i s t are harm-f u l or should not be adopted, GENERAL The same t e s t when given to i n d i v i d u a l s i n l a t e r years might r e v e a l an i n d i v i d u a l growth of i n t e r e s t s comparable to the group increments, mentioned. This could not be tested by the i n v e s t i g a t o r at the present. v l AN EXERCISE TO SHE HOW SCIENCE HELP YOU TO USE YOUR LEISURE TIME. As the t i t l e suggests t h i s exercise i s set as an attempt to f i n d out to what extent science courses have provided you with worth-while i n t e r a s t s a c t i v i t i e s , and hobbies to f o l l o w i n your l e i s u r e time. In reading through t h i s exercise y o u ' w i l l see f i r s t a l i s t of values or marks to give c e r t a i n items i n the second l i s t which follows i t . In order to save your time as much as p o s s i b l e you are asked to put check marks only i n the columns that f i t your e v a l u a t i o n best. After you have read each item c a r e f u l l y place a check mark i n Column .5 to represent a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s which you have not followed but would l i k e to.some time i f you have s u f f i c i e n t funds and l e i s u r e Column 4 to represent those hobbies, a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , etc., that you have adopted or have developed during t h i s course. Column 3 to represent those hobbies, a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , etc, that you have been f o l l o w i n g for some time, and s t i l l continue to do so. Column 2 to represent those hobbles, a c t i v i t i e s , I n t e r e s t s , etc. that you did follow' at one time but dropped before you took t h i s course, Column 1 to represent those a c t i v i t i e s i n which you think a student should not p a r t i c i p a t e at a l l . Column 0 to represent those a c t i v i t i e s i n which you have had no i n t e r e s t , and s t i l l have no i n t e r e s t . Column -1 to represent hobbies, i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s , e tc. that you f o l -lowed at one time but have dropped or turned against as d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s course. Please consider these f a i r l y . EXAM? LS j ITEM 1, Growing p r i z e - w i n n i n g flowers 2, Studying the s t a r s . 3, C o l l e c t i n g diamonds by s t e a l t h 5 4 3 2 1 0 etc, ITEM ROUP 1 PLACE EDGE OP CHECK: SHEET HERE 1. Devising l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s 1. 2. Making rheostats,and other e l e c t r i c a l devices.,, 2, 3. Constructing small telephone systems other e l e c -t r i c a l t h i n g s , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 3 . 4. Making small e l e c t r i c a l motors for boats, etc....4. 5. Experimenting w i t h s. t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y 5. 6. using the p h o t o - e l e c t r i c eye i n various hook-ups 6. 7. Amateur w i r e l e s s s e t s , c o n s t r u c t i o n and use..... 7. 8* Making r a d i o sets of simple or complex types. ...8, 9, Making microscopes or telescopes .9. 10. M i r r o r s and "magic" wi 11. Experimenting.with prisms and lenses,,., .11. 12 , photography • color and l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s . . . . 12. 13, Experimenting w i t h sounds. .13. 14, B u i l d i n g and running water wheels ...............14, 15. B u i l d i n g and running motor v e h i c l e s of various k i n d s , . ,»,,.».•,.••»»•••••.».»••••».•••.••,••••,15, 16. Renovating o l d cars, doing a l l work yourself.....16. 17. Constructing model steam engines.................17, 18, Doing t r i c k s , etc. based on the knowledge of i n e r t i a , centre of g r a v i t y , e q u i l i b r i u m ,18 . # »• 22« « »»2*3« ..,24. ...25. ,.,26, , -^.jjaij.c3j. u u ana contrac 20. Devising machines to harness various forms of energy,.,20. 21. Constructing sun machines ,,, 21. 22. p r o j e c t i o n lanterns 23. Making model airplanes,, , 24. Studying the weather, sayings and superstitions,.,. 25. T r y i n g to b u i l d perpetual motion machines.....,.,,. 26. Working with vacuum tubes,. , # . , 2V. S a i l i n g and buil d i n g model yachts....,...,., ,.,27. 28.- Studying the stars, directions, a r t i c l e s on astronomy. ,28. 29. Heading books and a r t i c l e s on e l e c t r i c i t y e t c . 2 9 . 30. Heading books and a r t i c l e s on radio and w i r e l e s s , . 3 0 . 31. Reading to keep up with modern discoveries in physics,.31, If you have other interests, etc. add them here and treat likewit 32, "33. 34. 35. 36. 37. GROUP II 1. Glass bending and blowing. §. .1. 2. Making a c o l l e c t i o n of d i f f e r e n t s a l t s , ,2. 3. Keleasing gases from compounds. ,3. 4. Making e l e c t r i c c e l l s and batt e r i e s . . . . . 4. 5. Studying " F i r s t Aid" for poisons of a l l kinds .,.,.,5. 6. C o l l e c t i n g samples of dif f e r e n t gases, storing,,, ,.6. 7. C o l l e c t i n g minerals and ores.., 7. 8. Trying to smelt and r e f i n e ores and m i n e r a l s , 8 1 9« Experimenting with a chemistry o u t f i t . 9 . 10. Testing common things f o r acids and g a s e s . , . , . , ,10, 11. Testing the action of e l e c t r i c i t y on-compounds and e l e m e n t s . 1 1 . 12. Maying and c o l l e c t i n g c r y s t a l s of dif f e r e n t kinds......12.. 13. Experimenting with chlorine .13. 14. Tracing the chemical properties of families of elementsl4. 15. Making your own paper f o r blue-prints, exposing, developing.............15, 16. Experimenting with sulphur 16. 17. Making modern r e s i n such as bakelite, redmanol.........17. 18. Making and studying colloids,,,...................».•• .18 . 19 . P e r f orming " t r i c k s of chemi cal magic*'................. ,19. 20. Experimenting with the spectacular elements. 20. 21. Developing, f i x i n g , p r i n t i n g your own photographs.... ...21. 22. V i s i t i n g chemical i n d u s t r i a l plants ,...,....22. 23. Analyzing foods ., • 2 3 • 24. Organic chemistry (organic acids, aldehydes, alcohols, esters),.•........••,.24. 25. The making of glass and related materials..............25. 26. Identifying elements i n compounds .....26. 27. Making explosives .27. 28. Fuels, sampling and experimenting with them . ..<28. 29, P r e p a r i n g diagrams of i n d u s t r i a l chemical processes..29. 30, Making charts of atom s t r u c t u r e s , , . . . , . . . 50. 51. Radioactive minerals , , .31. 32, C o l l e c t i n g and studying t e x t i l e s , . , . . ........32. 33, Studying anaesthetices , 33. 34, P erfume .making .,. 34, 55 ft X^ iSt/XX 33. t 1 OH • 9 9 * 0 9 • 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 V 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 » 9 1 9 9 9 * 9 * 9 9 9 9 * 9 35 • 36. Analyzing patent medicines, fake "drugs", .,.,,.,36, 9. IViQltX S DStjO S « * 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0 9 9 9 9 9 « 9 9 9 9 9 9 « 9 9 9 9 « t « 9 9 9 9 9 « « « 9 3 7 9 38. Making your own sprays f o r spraying garden p l a n t s and trees ,38 . 39. C o l l e c t i n g and studying about modern al l o y s . . . . . . . . . . 3 9 . 40. Reading books and a r t i c l e s on modern chemistry,.....,40. : i f you have other s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s of a chemical nature that are not included on the l i s t above add them below and t r e a t s i m i l a r l y . 41, 42, 43. 44, 45. 46. 47, 48 49. 50. v l l i GBOUP 1 1 1 1 . Developing h y b r i d p l a n t s 1 2 . breeding experiments on Mendel's Laws,...,, ,,2 3 . Experiments on p l a n t n u t r i t i o n 3 . 4 . G r a f t i n g , budding and l a y e r i n g . . . . . 4 . 5. doing on nature h i k e s . . , , , 5 , 6. Growing p l a n t s under various conditions to te s t r e a c t i o n s , . 6 . 7 . -'frying to t r a i n low forms of animal l i f e , 9. A t t r a c t i n g u . i r . l l . M r t B a r o m d " ' e -10. s u ^ l n g and oaring for an ant-a J £ ^ a tain-s t r a t i on n e s t , 1 0 , 1 1 . M a i n t a i n i n g a. demonstration hive of bees 1 1 . 1 2 . Growing protozoa and b a c t e r i a i n a hay i n f u s i o n . , . , 1 2 . 1 3 . Carrying on regeneration experiments w i t h hydra crabs, etc 1 3 , 1 4 . C o n t r o l l i n g soma i n s e c t pest of your region . 1 4 . 1 5 . Photographing "nature i n the Wild",.,,,.,.., , . 1 5 , 1 6 . C o l l e c t i n g harmful p a r a s i t e s , preserving , . , . . 1 6 , 1 7 . C o l l e c t i n g u s e f u l p a r a s i t e s , , 1 7 . 1 8 . c o l l e c t i n g weeds............. 1 9 , c o l l e c t i n g seasonal flowers (spring,summer,fall)...19. 2 0 , c o l l e c t i n g f a m i l i e s of flowers (rose,lily,compos-ites,heather ) 2 0 . leaves of trees native to region . . . 2 1 , leaves of introduced t r e e s , , . , . , . . 2 2 . bark and wood samples of various t r e e s . . 2 3 . £ 93?HS 0 £* Cll S "fcr XCts • • * * • • * • « » v * 9 * * « a « * # s « s 24: 9 HID S SG S 9 • 9 9 * 9 9 9 9*9 * * 9 9 9 9 « 9 9 9 9 9 * 9 9 9 9 * 9 9 0 9 9 ^ 5 © Mushroom and toadstools, e t c . , spore p^ifin.'fcs * c « • ft v « * f t » 2 6 e fungal p a r a s i t e s , etc.; moulds, wildews 2 7 , f^TUl tS » 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 * 9 < 9 9 0 * 9 9 * 9 * 9 9 9 9 9 9 t * « 9 28 9 0^ f3T*XXXt 5 * 9 9 9 9 t * 9 9 « 9 9 9 9 * 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 V f i 29 « how plants.defend themselves,, , . , . , 3 0 . p l a n t s to show means of seed and f r u i t d i spersal 3 2 , i n s e c t s to show or ders,. f a m i l i e s , e t c , , . 3 3 . i n s e c t s to snowlife h i s t o r i e s ; Hiker moun ts,,........«34, Aquatic or marine forms of l i f e . . . . . . . . , 3 5 , Insect g a l l s on p l a n t s . 3 6 . examples of p r o t e c t i v e c o l o r a t i o n . . . . . . , 3 7 . 3 8 . Making l i f e h i s t o r y studies of insects (moths, b u t t e r f l i e s , b eetles, e t c . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 8 . 3 9 . w studies of some insect pest or pl a n t p a r a s i t e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 3 9 . 4 0 , " studies of chicken or some b i r d . , . 4 0 , 4 1 , » studies of frogs or toads 4 1 . 4 2 1 >t studies of mammals.............42, 2 1 . M 2 2 , Fl 2 3 . !» 2 4 , M 2 5 . r> 2 6 . , ti 2 7 . tt 2 8 . tf 2 9 , M 3 0 , It 3 1 . ' ft 3 2 , n. 3 3 . it 3 4 , ft 3 5 * tt 3 6 , •t 3 7 , it 43, Observing and i d e n t i f y i n g a l l the b i r d s of your l o c a l i t y . 43. 44, *' a l l the mammals of your l o c a l i t y . . 4 4 , 45, Studying the various p l a n t and animal habitata and environments,.,.45. 46, Studying a l p i n e or mountain a s s o c i a t i o n s ,46. 47, Mapping a l l the trees i n a given area, etc........47. 48, Mounting b i r d s or mammals (taxidermy)...,,«,,.,.. ,48 . 49, Beading s t o r i e s about w i l d animals, accounts, 49. 50, Reading general b i o l o g i c a l t o p i c s . , 5 0 . I f there are i n t e r e s t s of yours that have, not been mentioned here them to the l i s t i n the spaces below and t r e a t them s i m i l a r l y . 51. 52, 53. 54, 55» 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, INTERESTS OF SCIENCE STUDENTS SCIENCE 111 GLASS 17 COLUMNS A, J C,M C, LeR D, D • Ti 91 L,P L,B L,S{B) 17 10 36 7 6 12 13 14 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 7 0 .2 13 2 0 0 6 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 103 107 71 112 113 111 100 98 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 o M,H . . M.H M,B M,S 10 10 13 1 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 1 1 0 0 103 115 107 0 0 0 McA,P 27 0 2 0 9 77 0 McD, S 18 0 2 6 2 95 0 o McG,J 0 0 0 0 0 121 McI,H 22 1 11 1 0 85 o McZ,JD 21 0 0 0 0 100 0 Mow, A .. 16 0 0 0 0 107 0 N,M 57 0 0 1 0 83 0 N,E 7 0 0 0 2 112 0 P,T 32 0 6 0 0 84 0 S,M 10 0 1 10 0 104 0 S,M 16 ' 0 1 0 0 104 0 S,B S,G 14 0 3 0 0 109 0 S,D 15 0 0 1 0 102 0 S,A ' 3 0 3 10 0 106 0 ?,H 10 0 0 2 1 109 0 T,Y 31 0 0 0 0 89 0 T,M 3 0 0 6 0 112 0 U,K 15 0 5 0 8 95 0 W,T : 16 0 0 0 0 106 0 W,G 16 0 1 0 0 106 0 W,D 0 0 0 0 0 121 0 w,J 34 0 7 0 0 80 0 W5E 12 0 0 0 0 109 0 W,J 2 1 0 1 0 116 0 Y,T 21 .0 0 0 0 99 0 1  546 14 67 50 23 3774 1 INTERESTS OF SCIENCE STUDENTS x i i SCIENCE I? CLASS 10 STUDENT COLUMNS 5 A, A B ?H B, A : B, D C, J C,M C,M e , K P,R P,D G , A' H, -S H, A •T,G E , a? K , W L,T M,N M,H McB,P McV,l P,S "' F, W P,M R,J R,H R,M R,M S, J 8, E 3,5 S,G T,M i& W,F L , a ' D,M 13 12 2? 23 12 23 19 12 12 17 16 44 14 34 17 26 10 17 1 17 26 10 2 15 11 13 16 57 77 28 4 2 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 6 5 4 0 2 3 9 4 4 -1 4 0 100 0 0 0 102 0 9 0 96 0 4 0 105 0 5 3 95 0 3 0 104 0 3 0 91 1 5 0 95 0 2 0 102 0 1 0 106 0 4 6 2 1 98 0 0 1 5 0 110 0 2 3 4 0 97 0 0 4 1 4 106 0 1 5 1 0 70 0 1 0 1 0 105 0 0 0 0 0 0 87 0 1 2 2 0 100 0 11 8 0 0 76 2 0 1 2 0 110 0 3 8 1 0 100 0 2 3 0 0 110 0 1 1 8 0 96 0 1 3 0 0 110 0 0 4 7 0 109 0 0 0 0 0 104 0 0 2 7 1 85 0 3 4 5 0 99 0 0 0 0 0 119 0 0 0 0 0 106 0 6 0 1 1 100 0 1 4 3 0 97 0 4 1 2 0 105 0 2 5 5 0 52 0 2 o 2 0 100 0 0 3 3 0 108 0 1 2 12 0 80 0 624 52 120 110 10 '3580 x i i i I N T E R E S T S O P S C I E N C E S T U D E N T S S C I E N C E V S C O R E S H E E T S T O T A L S S T U D E N T C O L U M N S 5 4 3 2 1 0 ~ 1 A , T A , E , J A , N B, J 1 3 2 1 3 2 9 3 0 1 0 1 1 4 2 1 1 3 1 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 2 9 7 1 1 7 7 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 B,D G,Y 3 7 3 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 4 8 3 C,P i\E 3 3 2 0 2 1 5 2 0 0 0 1 1 5 8 4 0 0 1 4 0 4 1 0 1 9 3 0 3' 2 0 1 0 1 1 5 0 C , L 5 1 0 0 0 0 66 0 G , A 4 2 0 4 1 1 0 9 0 GjP: 7 0 0 1 0 1 1 3 0 H,W 2 0 4 0 0 0 9 7 0 H,H 18 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 H,R 1 2 0 0 0 1 1 7 0 H,W 2 0 0 6 1 1 9 3 0 K,J 5 5 1 2 7 0 9 4 0 L,M 9 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 0 L S T 7 0 1 4 0 1 1 0 0 L , D 1 9 . 2 2 8 0 9 0 0 M 5 N 1 5 1 2 0 0 1 0 5 0 M,0 5 3 0 0 0 0 8 8 0 M ,I 1 9 1 2 0 0 9 7 0 I , T 3 0 2 6 0 1 1 0 0 MoC,B 4 1 0 2 0 0 78 0 P , M 5 7 0 5 4 0 58 0 S , P 5 0 6 3 0 1 0 7 0 S,M - 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 8 0 S,A , ' 1 6 ' 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 S , A 3 2 0 3 3 1 0 5 1 1 T,S 4 9 " 0 5 1 0 2 5 3 0 W, 3 7 0 1 5 0 1 0 8 0 W,H 3 1 0 1 1 6 3 ' 7 0 0 W,T 6 6 0 3 0 0 1 3 0 W, J 1 5 0 0 0 1 1 0 6 0 W,E 3 1 0 5 2 1 8 4 0 S,M 2 5 0 ' 0 1 0 9 4 0 Z , E 8 4 6 4 0 98 0 8 1 3 5 7 1 0 5 1 3 7 1 3 3 5 5 0 2 XIV EXPERIMENT I I FURPOSE To see how studens' a b i l i t i e s to : i d e n t i f y structures shown In d i a -grams of organisms c o r r e l a t e s w i t h a b i l i t i e s to i d e n t i f y the actual organs i n the .organisms. PROCEDURE Three common and r e l a t i v e simple subjects were chosen, the clam, a g l a d i o l u s flower, and a cross s e c t i o n of a Angio sperm tree trunk. The diagrams, to match were prepared anew d i r e c t l y from an average sample of each type of specimen, xhe same number of. l a b e l s were to be used on each of the paper and. speciman p a i r s of t e s t s , except that i n the case of the g l a d i o l u s diagram three sepals and two p e t a l s had to be l a b e l -l e d c o r r e c t l y i n order to get one p o i n t f o r each, xhe large transverse wood sections had to be p o l i s h e d to show the s t r u c t u r e , ADMINISTRATION OP TESTS The diagram t e s t was given i n one p e r i o d . The students were asked to go as r a p i d l y as they conveniently could but ware t o l d that they might take what time they needed. The p r a c t i c a l t e s t was given two days l a t e r without warning, xhe students d i d not know that a second t e s t was coming. Each student doing the p r a c t i c a l t e s t was given a sheet of clean cardboard on which was p l a c e d a clam, g l a d i o l u s flower, and a p o l i s h e d cross-section of Lime or Lindensstem, Each was given the mimeographed l a b e l s , and suf-f i c i e n t p i n s to attach l a b e l s . Students were given s c a l p e l s , probes and s c i s s o r s , so that the p a r t s to be l a b e l l e d could be dissected or l e f t e n t i r e whichever they p r e f e r r e d . Labels could be attached any way provided they were on the cor r e c t organs. On completing h i s l a b e l l i n g the student had to pl a c e h i s named cardboard on a side table for marking. At the end of the p e r i o d ( j u s t before lunch) three t r a i n e d biology stu-dents marked the r e s u l t s according to d e f i n i t e i n s t r u c t i o n s . As these students themselves were able and knew t h i s work, the corrections would l i k e l y be quite accurate. This was borne out when the i n v e s t i g a t o r checked at random f i v e s e t s . These were found to be marked c o r r e c t l y . The students a l s o corrected the paper tes t s from prepared keys. Scores on each organism were kept separate and c o r r e l a t i o n s "paper vs. p r a c t i c a l " -run f o r each s e t . PLACE THE PROPER TERM' AS LABEL IN THIS BLANK SPACES PROVIDED: Cortex, foot, sepal, mputh, p i t h , zylem, sepal, heart, anther, ovary, stomach and- i n t e s t i n a l mass, s t y l e , b r a c t , phloem, adductor muscles, cam-bium, g i l l s , stigma, mantle, p e t a l , r e t r a c t o r muscle, medullary ray, siphon, f i l a m e n t , bark, i i a l l i a l muscle, s h e l l . He s u i t s The paper test of diagrams took fourteen minutes for the l a s t student to complete while the speciman test took t h i r t y - f i v e minutes for the l a s t to complete the t e s t . Only c o r r e c t l a b e l l i n g s were counted. So deductions were made for e r r o r s . B , J B t J C, G G,L P,A P / , M " a,v G , I H, B J.D K, T KfM L,4T I , D M,i> M , H JI,J N,B P M P , J P,D R , P S,P s,s S,B S,T s,it W,G S* A C t * W s S . Act. M a — A c t . 6 7 8 10 6 5 8 7 4 3 9 10 10 10 8 • 10. 9 10 3 8 6 9 8 9 8 . 11 4 8 11 10 7 10 5 3 5 10 2 8 11 8 3 10 6 7 4 2 6 6 4 4 11 11 10 10 9 8 4 5 8 10 1 1 . 5 9 6 9 11 10 226 272 Ave. 6,65 8 Correlations ,66 t ,07 6 6 6 4 6 6 7 4 6 6 5 3 7 6 5 5 2 3 1 1 4 8 7 4 6 8 4 2 8 8 7 5 7 8 5 5 6 8 5 3 8 8 7 5 8 8 5 4 5 7 5 5 7 8 7 5 6 6 7 4 8 8 7 5 5 3 5 4 7 8 5 4 4 3 7 5 8 8 7 5 4 6 2 4 7 8 5 4 5 2 5 4 7 7 7 5 3 3 6 4 8 8 7 5 8 8 7 5 7 8 5 5 4 3 7 3 6 6 6 5 1 1 5 5 5 8 6 5 7 4 7 5 8 3 7 3 203 207 195 144 ,97 6.06 5,74 4,23 .78 t ,04 .54. t ,08 x v i i i : g ^ d l n g s Judging by the average marks made by 34 students on the Clam and the k lower t e s t , students make better marks on the p r a c t i c a l than on the paper diagram t e s t PAPER PRACTICAL  C } a m 6.65 p o i n t s 8 p o i n t s Flower 5.97 6.06 Stem 5 s 7 4 4 > 1 The i n v e s t i g a t o r i s of the opinion that t h i s not due to le a r n i n g e f f e c t . The Stem test showed the reverse of the f i r s t two to add support to t h i s statement. l\To corrections were made. No books were borrowed from the room l i b r a r y i n the i n t e r i m . The reason f o r the lower marks i n the Stem t e s t came out i n the marking of the t e s t s . Because the cambium, phloem, and cortex i n the ac t u a l specimen occupied a r i n g about one to two m i l l i m e t r e s wide the mechanical d i f f i c u l -t i e s of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n were great. This was borne out i n asking c e r t a i n students a f t e r what d i f f i c u l t i e s they had met (Students d i d know t h e i r s c o r e s ) . A l l reported the same d i f f i c u l t y about the s i z e of the r i n g . ( I t seems obvious that i f other teachers wished to do t e s t i n g of t h i s type they must make sure that the specimens are large enough to l a b e l a l l parts asked, or el s e use microscope examination techniques when dealing with, m a t e r i a l of t h i s type.) The c o r r e l a t i o n s were f a i r l y high f o r the f i r s t two, ,66±,07 and ,78+ ,04 while only ,54±,08 for the stem. On the various tests most made ( i d e n t i c a l p a i r s of marks on the 1 * - — -marks f o r the Clam and none for t I d e n t i c a l scores Higher scores on p r a c t i c a l t e s t Higher score on paper t e s t Seventeen out of t h i r t y - f o u r students d i d better to the extent of two p o i n t s out of nineteen on the diagram test for the f i r s t two (Clam and Flower), The stem te s t was not included for a s p e c i a l problem e x i s t s there (as shown l a t e r ) . Twelve di d approximately equally, to a tolerance of one p o i n t . Five d i d better on the diagram t e s t . (Four of these are known to the i n v e s t i g a t o r s to be "text memorizers" p r e f e r r i n g not to work wi t h the specimens provided. These r e s u l t s suggest also another problem, that of the r e l a t i v e worth and time-worth of the two methods of presenting m a t e r i a l and t e s t i n g . I t i s necessary to note here that the students at a l l times have specimens or m a t e r i a l s to examine i n a l l cases, where these would be of any s e r v i c e . These r e s u l t s conceivably might be at variance w i t h those obtained where classes are taught l a r g e l y from text books or diagrams only without specimens. For the time spent a paper t e s t w i l l be more economical but shows only a c o r r e l a t i o n of .66 w i t h the a c t u a l specimen t e s t i n g , but because i t i s g e n e r a l l y the desire of most progressive educators to get away from the a b s t r a c t to the concrete wherever p o s s i b l e the r e s u l t s of t h i s t e s t would suggest that more t e s t i n g of a p r a c t i c a l nature should be incorporat-ed i n t o any t e s t i n g programme. Stem. Clam Flower Stem 6 15 0 19 12 1 9 8 33 xix Questions i n v o l v i n g the handling of a c t u a l things need to be prepared w i t h the utmost thought for p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , such as manipulation and s i z e of objects. Above a l l i t must be r e a l i z e d that although the c o r r e l a t i o n s are p o s i t i v e and moderate, s t i l l they are far too low for a teacher to use a paper te s t as an equivalent or substitute for a " p r a c t i c a l t e s t " . XX EXPERIMENT 111 PURPOSES am tem from (a To check the r e s u l t s of the t h i r d p o r t i o n of the preceding t e s t . (b) To f i n d what c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y the t i s s u e s of a transverse s e c t i o n (stained and prepared) of T i l l s stem (a woody stem) and the a b i l i t y to l a b e l a reasonably accurate diagram of' the same k i n d of stem used i n the preceding experiment. PROCEDURE Because the r e s u l t s of the t h i r d s e c t i o n of the preceding test were so much at variance w i t h the r e s u l t s of the f i r s t two p a r t s the i n -v e s t i g a t o r suspected that the two forms of the t e s t s were not as eoual i n d i f f i c u l t y as they might be. Largely by inspection of p u p i l s at work l a b e l l i n g the p o l i s h e d transverse stem sections of wood the i n v e s t i g a t o r could see great d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n separating these three t i s s u e s cambium, phloem, cortex. The area of these three combined was not very great, and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of tissues was d i f f i c u l t . To b r i n g the p r a c t i c a l side of the t e s t i n l i n e with the diagr used i n the preceding experiment the microscope s l i d e of T i l i a stem which the diagram had been taken was put under a microscope having a demonstration eyepiece and i n d i c a t o r needle, The section was stained with methylene blue and s a f r a n i n and magnified s i x t y (60) diameters. A l l the names of the t i s s u e s were put on the blackboard so that each student would be f a m i l i a r w i t h the terms used. No student had been t o l d h i s score on the preceding t e s t , nor had he corrected a psper, nor seen h i s own corrected paper, No student knew that the second t e s t was to be presented so that oh the basis of chance and human i n e r t i a there would be very l i t t l e further study on t h i s t o p i c , i n the i n t e r v a l between t e s t s , e s p e c i a l l y as. the students had been n o t i f i e d that t h i s was an experiment and they had been asked to carry out i n s t r u c -t i o n s c a r e f u l l y . Each student was summoned i n d i v i d u a l l y to the microscope where the i n v e s t i g a t o r took the main eyepiece and needle i n d i c a t o r and the student the branch eyepiece, E i r s t the microscope was focused so that the student had the c l e a r e s t f i e Id p o s s i b l e , (Sometimes f o c a l lengths of person's eyes d i f f e r ) . Then a survey o f the e n t i r e stem was presented t o the student without comments. This was at a speed c o n t r o l l e d by the student's request.' Then the student was asked to name the various parts of the stem. (In order that no memorization of a sequence of answers was pos s i b l e by those who had not yet been summoned to the microscope the order of answers for each i n d i v i d u a l was d i f f e r e n t . G o r r Q C t answers only were counted, i f the student were h e s i t a n t the question was repeated. Wrong answers were corrected t h e r e . The r e s t of the c l a s s worked at an unrelated assignment, RESULTS A a ^ ^ , This microscope t e s t took forty-one minutes f o r 34 students taken i n d i v i d u a l l y . The scores were j SCORE ON DIAGRAM TEST MICROSCOPIC TEST SCORE ^ STUDENT B * J 6 B, J 7 5 0 , 6 5 V C, L 5 ° 4 4 E,M 5 L,J L.D 7 M,D 7 E, P x P,A 7 F, M 4 4 G , - 7 7 5 G, I 5 4 H , B 5 I J,D 7 5 K . * 5 * 5 6 5 7 . 4 5 6 7 4 5 4 7 6 7 7 6 6 6 5 7 7 7 M,H 5 McL fJ 5 N,B 7 P , 1 7 P.J 2 R,F ' 5 S,G 7 S,Z 6 S,S 7 S,B 7 S,T • 5 S,E 7 6 W,G • 5 W,A 6 W,G 7 W,B 7 T o t a l 195 193 Average 5 . 7 4 5 . 5 7 C o r r e l a t i o n .69 i ,06 x x i l FINDINGS I t i s obvious that t h i s p a i r of tests i s more nearly p a r a l l e l than the f i r s t p a i r , The p r a c t i c a l test y i e l d higher scores than i n the previous method. The c o r r e l a t i o n w as about the same as i n the f i r s t two p o r t i o n s of the second experiment, namely ,69 IT .06, EXPLANATION; A p o s s i b l e explanation of the higher scores and c o r r e l a t i o n would l i e i n the fact that the cambium-phloem-cortex tissues were magnified more nearly to the size of the diagram. Then again the diagram used was taken from a microscopic view, 'The r e s u l t s here together w i t h the r e s u l t s of the preceding experi-ment should make i t c l e a r that p r a c t i c a l t e s t i n g material must be chosen w i t h great care. Prom these experiments i t would appear wise for a teacher to t r y out any p r a c t i c a l t e s t on a small group f i r s t . x x i i i E X P ER IMEKf T I ? PURPOSES' (a) l'o see i n which form of t e s t , a c t u a l manipulation or a "paper t e s t " , .based on'simple laboratory exercises the p u p i l s of high ..school classes show better r e s u l t s . (b) To f i n d the c o r r e l a t i o n between marks of each type of t e s t . PROCEDURE, Only two classes were a v a i l a b l e for t e s t i n g namely a Grade SI General Science F, and a Grade X General Science, The Grade I X class a v a i l a b l e had no t r a i n i n g i n these laboratory techniques so that they; would be of l i t t l e value. ' For the purpose of t h i s experiment teo common laboratory a c t i v i t i e s v,'ere chosen (a) the measuring of volumes of l i q u i d s (b) the weighing of a r t i c l e s , Each of.these two a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be treated separately here. (a) Four graduated v e s s e l s , 25.0 C.C, 100 C.C., and two 10 C. C. graduate were chosen. In the largest one 162 G, C. of water were places, i n the second 66 C. C. of methyl hydrate {GHgOHj, were added,, i n the t h i r d one 3.2 C, C, of concentrated sulphuric a c i d , and i n the l a s t one 6.2 C. C. of mercury, A s e r i e s of four diagrams was prepared, w i t h the l e v e l of the water shown by l i n e s . The meniscus curve was shown, The l e v e l s shown of the l i q u i d s were d i f f e r e n t from the four a c t u a l cases i n order to avoid a d i r e c t t r a n s f e r , (See p m c 173.) In t e s t i n g the students the paper test was given i n the usual way? when f i n i s h e d the papers were c o l l e c t e d , and marked by the examiner only. Because only ahout f i f t e e n minutes of the class p e r i o d had been used to do t h i s t e s t on paper the f i r s t p a r t of the p r a c t i c a l t e s t , {volume measuring) was given. The four graduated vessels were numbered and placed on.tables i n the front of the room. Each student was given a blank sheet of paper on which he had to write h i s name and c l a s s , and then number spaces 1—4. xhe students were arranged i n a single f i l e and brought i n front of the graduate on the north side of the room f i r s t , p a s s i n g southward to the next, and so f o r t h . At the south end of the l i n e the student's paper was c o l l e c t e d so that i n the arrangement prac-t i c a l l y no chance of copying occurred. RESULTS The two sets of scores were tabulated, /over) Scores on " GENiiKAL SGI MCE V Student Actual Measuring Hi a 2"' 3 A . I S 1 0 A, 1ST 2 3 B,J 2 0 "B,D • 2 0 C,P 2 0 F,H 0 1 P,P 2 4 G,Lino 1 0 G,Law 2. 0 G$ A 2 2 G.P • 1 1 H9W 1 2 H,H 2 0 H,H 0 1 H,Wm 2 4 E,J 2 0 L,M 3 2 L,V ' 1 0 L SD 2 3 M , N 2 2 M ? C 2 3 M,I 0 3 M,Y 2 1 Mc,R 2 1 P,M 2 1 S,F - 2 3 S,A 2 1 S,L 2 4 Q?5 S 1 0 ¥,S 2 0 W,H 1 2 3 2 W,J 2 3 W,E 5 2 2 5E 1 2 3,M- 2 3 TOTAL 63 63 AVERAGE 1.7 1.7 asuring Volumes vs. Diagram1' • Class 10, GENERAL SCIENCE IV Student Actual Diagram Measuring A, A 0 1 B,H 1 0 B,A 2 0 B,D 1 1 C,J 1 0 C,M 1 1 C,M 2 • 0 C»R • 0 0 D,M 1 0 D,R 2 1 H ?S 0 1 2 2 J,C 2 1 KfT 2 3 K,W 0 2 L.V 1 3 ffi,H MCB,P 0 1 2 3 McV, E 0 0 P,E 0 2 P,W 3 3 E-,M 1 0 •R'TT 1 0 R, J 1 0 R,H 1 0 R,M 0 0 R,M 2 2 S,J 1 4 S,J 2 2 S,E 0 2 S,E 4 4 3,G 0 0 T,M 0 0 T,P 0 0 W,P 2 0 L,R 1 1 39 40 1.08 1.11 CORRELATION .24 ± ,12 .24 + .1 XXV FINDINGS From the average scores i t might he deduced that there i s an a c q u i s i t i o n of manipulatory s k i l l s as a r e s u l t of General Science 1? work as conducted i n B r i t a n n i a High School. As can he seen from an examination of the c a l c u l a t i o n s the c o r r e l a t i o n s were very low .(-,24 "t .12 and ,24 ±. .10) showing that the two ire thods of t e s t i n g are not l i k e l y t e s t i n g the same thi n g , Teachers evidently would be i l l advised to consider a paper t e s t of an a c t u a l manipulating s k i l l as equivalent to a d i r e c t t e s t . PROCEDURE A paper t e s t was prepared explaining what weights were used, where a r t i c l e s were placed on balance ;and such (as shown on the sample t e s t paper). A beam balance of a good grade was provided f o r each p a i r of students A s e r i e s of pebbles was weighed by the i n s t r u c t o r , numbered, and the weights recorded. Each.student was given a pebble t o l d t-o weigh i t as accurately as he could by himself, record the weight on a s l i p of paper, sign h i s paper, and turn the paper i n . Having each pebble d i f f e r e n t insured, that no copying could be done i n a rather crowded laboratory. SAMPLE OF TEST RESULTS Oil SE5T F AGE Again the c o r r e l a t i o n s are very low, (.21 i - .10 and .58 i ,08 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The two types of test s could not be considered equivalent as they obviously are not t e s t i n g the same a b i l i t i e s . Actual s k i l l s must be tested d i r e c t l y rather than by means of paper t e s t s . One c l a s s , Glass 10, shows a much higher C o r r e l a t i o n on t h i s than the other c l a s s does. So f a r the i n v e s t i g a t o r has no explanation. Even the higher cor" r e l a t i o n , which approximates those i n Experiment 111, Is not high enough to warrant the use of a paper t e s t to examine a s k i l l , or any manipulative te s t , ocores on GENERAL SCIENCE T Student , Actual Diagram Weighing A, T 2 0 A 9E 2 0 "hi 2 2 B, J ' 2 0 B,D 2 . 0 CSE 2 0 P,H 2 2 E,F 0 0 G, Lino 1 0 G,L 2 0 G,A 3 1 G,P 2 0 H,W 1 0 H SH 1 0 1 0 H,W 2 2 K,J 2 3 L,Bf 2 3 L.V 1 ,0 L 5D 2 3 M,N 2 3 M, C 2 1 BE, I 0 3 M,Y 3 3 Mc,R . 2 2 P,M 2 2 S,P 3 2 S,A 3 0 S,L 2 0 T, S 3 1 w,s 3 3 ¥,H 0 0 W,T 2 0 W,J 0 3 W,E 3 3 Z,E 1 0 S,M 1 0 TOTAL - 66 39 AVERAGE 1.71 1.05 C03EEL&TI0NS .21 1 .10 x x v i l Weighing vs. Diagram" CLASS 10 GENERAL SCIENCE IV Student Actual Diagram Weighing A, A 1 0 B, H 1 0 B,A 3 2 B, D 2 2 o.-J 1 1 C, M 0 1 C,M 1 l C, R 0 0 D, K 1 l D,R 2 2 H,S 2 z H„ A 2 1 J*C 1 0 K,T 3 2 K,W S 0 L,V 2 1 M,H 1 0 M C B ; P I o McV,E 0 0 P ,E 1 1 P ,W 2 0 P , K 2 2 E , T 3 1 R, J 2 2 R,H 1 0 R,M 0 0 R 5M 2 1 S,J 3 1 8 , J 2 0 S , l 2 0 S, 2 1 1 S,G 0. 0 T,M 1 0 T,P 1 1 W , P 1 1 L,R 2 2 TOTAL 53 30 AVERAGE 1.47 .83 .58 t .07 x x v i i i EXPERIMENT V PURPOSE,, OP TEST • (a) To see i f there e x i s t s an increase from grade to grade i n the amount of reading of s c i e n t i f i c hooks i n the school l i b r a r y . (b) To see i f the test and technique measures t h i s suspected increase (the v a l i d i t y of test) PROCEDURE p r e p a r a t i o n o^JTest F i r s ^ complete survey of a l l magazines and books i n the school l i b r a r y was made. Each magazine or book was read or sampled by the examiner i n order to become f a m i l i a r w i t h the contents. Then ques-ti o n s of a broad nature based on major topics or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the book or magazine were prepared together w i t h spurious answers that might be deducted from the t i t l e s i n order to check those students who might be tempted ~to guess the answers. Because there were not very many magazines w i t h s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l i n them a matching-question group was f e a s i b l e . For the books t h i s form seemed u n s u i t a b l y mainly because of the number of books, and the r a r i t y of the use of some. A m o d i f i c a t i o n of the t r u e - f a l s e type seemed most e a s i l y prepared and the most compact form of question, M u l t i p l e choice would demand much more time to prepare, and f o r the present was avoided, Completion or r e c a l l questions are almost an i m p o s s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s work due e i t h e r to the tremendous number of correct responses to broad or general questions that are p o s s i b l e , or to the too precise or minute type of question that evolves when questions are prepared i n a way to reduce the great number of p o s s i b l e c o r r e c t responses.+o W other- iype-A s e r i e s of "yes-no" questions i n connection w i t h the t i t l e s of a l l the books m a t e r i a l i z e d from the various attempts to prepare a t e s t . One rather important difference between preparing an ordinary i n -formation test or s i m i l a r type, and questions to f i n d i n t e n t of reading Is that of sampling, For a survey of the reading done by students a l l t i t l e s of books i n the p a r t i c u l a r l i b r a r y s e c t i o n must be included. The only sampling permitted would occur i n the s e l e c t i o n of statements about the book. The t e s t was mimeographed. A copy f o l l o w s . (b) A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Test The t e s t was given to the same classes as i n the preceding t e s t s , namely, Class 17 Grade IX 1938-39 B r i t a n n i a High School Class 10 Grade X General Science V Grade XI 1938-39 B r i t a n n i a High School The same l i m i t a t i o n s of numbers and lack of equating classes w i l l be present i n the r e s u l t s of the experiment. To use the L i b r a r y Loan Cards and records for the source of m a t e r i a l for t h i s experiment was not considered sound becausej-1, The school l i b r a r y had been changed from an antiquated ns thod of handling, cataloguing, and recording to the Dewey decimal system and loan cards a f t e r Christmas of the year 1937* 'There are no records preceding t h i s date. . , 2 Many students read books i n spare periods, l i b r a r y p e r i o a s , noon hours and a f t e r school r i g h t i n the l i b r a r y l e a v i n g no records to check. There are reserve shelves with no records kept. x x i x Administering the Test .(cont.) The c l a s s was informed of the purpose of the t e s t a n d put at ease regarding low scores l i k e l y to r e s u l t . They were asked not,to guess hut to answer only those questions which concerned books that they read. These d i r e c t i o n s were f e l t to be necessary i n order to reduce to a minimum the desire of some students to gat a high score, f o r i t doubtless would be p o s s i b l e to obtain a higher net score on t h i s test by some shrewd guessing. As a further deterrent against deliberate guessing _the students were t o l d that t h e i r scores would not be given to them a f t e r the c o r r e c t i o n of the t e s t , as i t was f e l t that t h i s a c t i o n would tend to eliminate r i v a l r y for high scores. The c l a s s was informed that i t could have a l l the time that any par-t i c u l a r person needed. Also the c l a s s was informed that i t would take about twenty-five to t h i r t y minutes to answer the t e s t . (Some students a c t u a l l y took the f u l l f o r t y minutes.) Of course r i g i d c o n t r o l over the group to prevent copying or communication of information was exercised-The scores of two p u p i l s who were i n c o l l u s i o n were deleted from the records so that the eaaminer f e l t that true net scores had been obtained, In any event t h e i r gross scores were lower than the c l a s s average. The d i r e c t i o n s on the t e s t stated that "wrongs" would be subtracted from the"correct" gross score. The examiner as a r e s u l t of c o r r e c t i n g the paper f e e l s that t h i s procedure was j u s t i f i e d f or on several papers e n t r i e s were made against several books that the examiner suspected had not been read. The c o r r e c t i o n s made by c a l c u l a t i o n on s i x t e e n papers (Checked by l a t e r personal interviews) showed net scores of zero, which coincided with admissions from these s i x t e e n that they had not read any of the books. "*B33? OF USE OF SCIENCE BOOKS IB THE LIBRARY 1. Place_ the l e t t e r that i s opposite the t i t l e s of magazines found i n our l i b r a r y m the blank i n f r o n t of the statement that describes that maga-zi n e , or a p p l i e s to i t . 'Two encyclopaedias have been included i n t h i s l i s t a l s o , and i n questions. h. Modern Mechanic i , Nature Magazine j . World Book k, London I l l u s t r a t e d News 1. Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a in. Popular Mechanics 1,, , Contains rather t e c h n i c a l a r t i c l e s concerning the i n v e s t i -gations i n t o the composition of substances; i s f a i r l y up-to-date. 2 good source of g e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l for the northern p a r t of the continent by v i r t u e of i t s e x c e l l e n t photographs of g e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , a. Punch B . G I L Oval 8. Journal of Chemical Education d. Canadian-Geographical Journal e. L ' I l l u s t r a t i o n f. S c i e n t i f i c American g. N a t i o n a l Ceographic Magazine XXX THE TEST (CONT'D) 3............... .contains a wealth of plans and d i r e c t i o n s for constructing many kinds of things- also a few a r t i c l e s of s e m i - s c i e n t i f i c nature. 4...............a magazine that gives an up-to-date report on many f i e l d s of science, and i n a way that can be understood by the average high school p u p i l . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f r e q u e n t l y contains many photographs, diagrams, a r t i c l e s on the development of airplanes and a v i a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y warp lanes of the world, 6............., .suitable f o r a moderately p r e c i s e e x p o s i t i o n of some of the older c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n a l l f i e l d s of science. 7 rep orts the a c t i v i t i e s of one of the la r g e s t commercial chemical manufacturers i n Canada. .very frequently produces excellent a r t i c l e s , colored p l a t e s e t c . on the geology of almost any p a r t of the world. 9 ....contains many a r t i c l e s , s t o r i e s , e t c . , of a s c i e n t i f i c nature, and w r i t t e n i n a s t y l e that maies i t very s u i t a b l e f or junior high and s i m i l a r grades. 10 often contains e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e s of a nat u r a l h i s t o r y type, w i t h f i r s t - c l a s s p l a t e s . • 11.... . .contains a page c a l l e d "The World of Science" w r i t t e n by foremost s c i e n t i s t s , and u s u a l l y b i o l o g i c a l i n nature; often there are other f i r s t - c l a s s a r t i c l e s on anthropology and biology. 11. The f o l l o w i n g exercise i s to see how f a m i l i a r you are with the science books of our l i b r a r y , i'here i s a t i t l e of a book, together w i t h the author's name, and one or more statements about the book. I f , as a r e s u l t of your reading, you recognize that the book mentioned contains m a t e r i a l of the type described place a "YES" i n the blank i n front of t h i s statement but i f you th i n k that the book does not contain t h i s k i n d of information place a "NO" i n the blank. I f you know nothing about the book leave the space blank; do not guess as the err o r s w i l l be deducted from the other marks. BIOLOGY FOR TODAYt Caldwell and C u r t i s , 1, an extremely t e c h n i c a l and d i f f i c u l t text explaining a c c u r a t e l y the functions that are common to a l l forms of l i f e , 2 I s based mainly on the Idea that a l l organisms are con-t i n u a l l y s t r u g g l i n g to secure energy i n order to carry on other a c t i v i t i e s . THE NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS; 0 U r t i s 5 . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . A book e x p l a i n i n g the nature of p l a n t s and flowers i n a way s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r students from grades seven to ten. TREES AND SHRUBS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA; Anderson 4,,,.,,., Contains many photographs, diagrams, and chatty a r t i c l e s about our native t r e e s . MARVELS OF FISH LIFE; Ward 5 , A very readable book e x p l a i n i n g reports of such phenomena as changing of c o l o r , and p r o t e c t i v e c o l o r a t i o n of f i s h . x x x i THE TEST (CONT'D) ILLUSTRATED EL OR A OF THE NORTHERN STATES AND CANADA; B r i t t o n & Brown 6 A s e r i e s of three volumes eg books w i t h l i n e diagrams and sketches of the great majority of p l a n t s found i n our region. BIRDS OF AMERICA; Nature Lovers L i b r a r y , Volume 1,11,111 7 A catalogue only of the b i r d s found i n America. MAMMALS OF AMERICA, Nature Lovers L i b r a r y , Volume IV. 8 ' Contains a r t i c l e s and colored p l a t e s , e t c . , about frogs, f i s h , and snakes of America. DEVILS, DRUG-S, AND DOCTORS, Haggard. 9» ..»••«•• Contains chapters t e l l i n g of the various ways that mankind has cared f o r or neglected mothers and babies. 10 • .Gives a comparison of the ma thods used by the "doctors" and medicine men of Egypt, India, China, The Indians of Americas, and many backward p eople . 11 .Contains chapters on "Pestilences and M o r a l i s t s " , and the s o c i a l diseases. IS. C r i t i c i s : e s our modern doctors as being s e l f i s h and not w e l l t r a i n e d , MAN VS. MICROBES; E'opeloff, 13 ...., .Relates the s t o r y of basteriology, i t s r i s e and present importance, 14..............Certain microbes are "harnessed to industry", s o i l bac-t e r i a are u s e f u l . 15.. Contains chapters on I n t e s t i n a l b a c t e r i a , lockjaw, b o t u l -ism, cholera, yellow fever. 16 .............>Shew s how smallpox, colds, and i n f a n t i l e p a r a l y s i s ( p o l i o m y l i t i s ) are a l l b a c t e r i a l diseases, FODDER AND PASTURE PLANTS. Clark and Malte 17 . . I l l u s t r a t e d book to a s s i s t i n i d e n t i f y i n g , and to spread information and advice about, the c h i e f p l a n t s used f o r l i v e s t o c k . AUDEL'S GARDENERS' AND GROWERS' GUIDE 18 Explains where and how to market produce; Market boards "pool, i n v e s t i g a t i o n " , 19., Gives many u s e f u l h i n t s to the average c i t y gardener, TEXTILE FIBRES, Mathews 20 Kxplains how the c h i e f c l o t h i n g m a t e r i a l s of the world are produced. HO"/ TO KNOW TEXTILES. Henley 21.,, Gives ready means of analyzing various f a b r i c s to f i n d a c t u a l components; the uses of the s e v e r a l f a b r i c s , TWENTIETH CENTURY BOOK OF RECIPES. Henley 22. ..An e x c e l l e n t book that goes Into a l l phases of cooking and cookery. Should be read by a l l future cooks. THE TEST (CONT'D). X X X 1 1 MAKERS.OF.SCIENCE. ?A book that gives biographies of the c h i e f s c i e n t i s t s i n each of the f i e l d s of p h y s i c s , chemistry, biology, and astornomy. THE RADIO AMATEUR'S HANDBOOK. C o l l i n s 2 4 G-oes i n t o the t h e o r e t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s and laws concern-in g the use of radiant energy as a e a r l i e r of our messages. FLYING AND HOW TO DO IT. Jordanoff. 2 5 . . . . . . . A very chatty simple book explaining the f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s of f l y i n g . 2 6 . . . . . . . . No diagrams or p l a t e s i s a serious f a u l t i n the book. OUTLINE OF SCIENCE. S i r Jas. Thomson 27 • .A masterly series of books that deals i n the main with the developments i n chemistry and p h y s i c s . THE UNIVERSE AROUND US. S i r Jas. Jeans 28.-... ."Exploring i n Time", "Beginnings and Endings". 29 ."Exploring the atom" THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY. E i n s t e i n . 5 0 . . , . , , A very easye xplanation of how there i s no absolute time or v e l o c i t y by the man who f i r s t develops d t h i s idea. THE NSV KNO^EBGE, Duncan. 3 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A book dealing w i t h new methods of l e a r n i n g and teaching, DISCOVERY, THE SPIRIT AND SERVICE OF SCIENCE. 52.................Shov/s how s c i e n t i s t s are r e a l l y explorers i n t o the realms of the unknown, ELEMENTS OF PHYSICS. Smith 3 3 . , A very i n t e r e s t i n g and e a s i l y read book on the rudimen-ts of p h y s i c a l forces, of the average high school student's l e v e l . PHYSICS FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS. Knowlton. 3 4 , , , . , , .A book dealing w i t h dynamics, l i g h t , heat, sound, e l e c t r i c i t y , and magnetism i n the advanced manner. EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCE. C o l l i n s . 3 5 Contains d i r e c t i o n s and many explanations f o r simple experiments that can be performed at home or school, to i l l u s t r a t e c e r t a i n t r u t h s , SOUND. Richardson 3 6 , , . . . , , . . , ..A simple book devoted to an easy explanation of musical and harmony. CREATIVE CHEMISTRY, Slosson. 3 7 ..Contains chapters on high explosives and gases used i n warfare. 38 Explains how perfumes, and dyes, and drugs are nade. THE TEST (CONT'D). x x x m CREATIVE CHEMISTRY. Slosson. 3 9 ' G o e s i n t 0 great d e t a i l s concerning the structure of atoms. CHEMISTRY AND CIVILIZATION. Gushman. 4 0 ..Shows how c e r t a i n discoveries i n chemistry have changed d r a s t i c a l l y the c i v i l i z a t i o n in-which we now f i n d ourselves. THE DISCOVERY OR ELEMENTS. Weeks. 41,...............A hook w r i t t e n by a woman who t e l l s i n a very i n t e r e s t i n g manner the t o i l s and troubles, of the b r i l l i a n t successes of chemists i n searching f o r new elements, THE CARBON COMPOUNDS. P o r t e r . 42...............Deals with the organic compounds t e l l i n g how they are derived; benzene r i n g . THREE CENTURIES OP CHEMISTRY. Masson -5 • The great c o n t r i b u t i o n s of chemists from the days of the Moors to the present time, UNDER THE TROPIC SEAS. Wm. Beebe 44 ,,Explains how treasure i s recovered from the hulks of sunken Spanish galleons In and around the Caribbean Sea. THE PET BOOK. Corns took, 45 ..Explains how to care f o r p e t s , 46..... , .Relates of the other peoples of the earth and t h e i r p e t s . SMITHSONIAN SCIENTIFIC SERIES. 47 ....Has volumes on great inventions, p r e h i s t o r i c man, i n s e c t s , 48... .Deals i n another volume w i t h minerals from earth and sky. 49,,, ,... .Contains a volume of cold-blooded animals; frogs, f i s h and snakes, THE OLD RED SANDSTONE. M i l l e r 50 A recounting of the discovery and an explanation of the importance of t h i s deep layer under England, THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH. Chamberlain 51 Supports the hypothesis that the solar system has con-densed from a r o t a t i n g mass of gases, WATER INTO GOLD. S. H i l l . 52 , .Paints a v i v i d p i c t u r e of attempts to rec l a i m the tremendous amounts of c o l l o i d a l gold i n sea water, 5 3 Describes the r a i s i n g of grapes and r a i s i n s i n A u s t r a l i a . MORE FOR YOUR MONEY. Bennett. 5 4 . T e l l s you how to bargain with any person who i s at tempt-ing ' t o * s e l l you something', p a r t i c u l a r l y how to guard against high pressure salesmen. xxxiv THE TEST (CONT'D). RATS, LICE AND HISTORY. Zinsser, 55 Deser ibes g r a p h i c a l l y the cause of bubonic plague (the Black Death), i t s prevention, trench fever, THE NATURE OF THE 'PHYSICAL WORLD. 56....... .Rather p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s of the world of physics as we know i t now, 100,000,000 MILLION GUINEA PIGS, K a l l e t and Schlink. 57....................Speaks of the American p u b l i c as experimental pawns of the many g e t - r i c h - q u i c k schemes In patent medicines. 58.......... T e l l s what widely advertised drugs and patent medicin-es, a n t i s e p t i c s , e t c , are worthless or worse, FORESTS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. Whitford and Craig, 59...................A t e c h n i c a l accojnt of the d i s t r i b u t i o n and value of the various f o r e s t t r e e s of B. C, R E S U L T S Class 17 Student 1938. (Sept,) Scores Magazines Scores Books B r i t a n n i a High School Student A, J 0 2 C,M 0 0 C,L 7 0 D,D 4 0 1,1 2 4 L,p . -. 0 5 L,B 0 0 L, S 2 5 M,H 3 0 'M,H 2 0 M,R 2 2 S 3 0 McA,P 1 0 Mc5,S 1 0 McG,J 0 1 McI,H 3 0 McZ,P" 2 0 MoW,A. 5 1 H,M 2 0 3 1 ocore s Magazines Scores Books P,T D 0 P , H 3 0 . B,M 3 0 S,M 2 0 S , B 2 0 Ci n >->, u 0 0 S,D 0 0 • A 3 0 T,H 3 0 T,Y 3 0 f,M 0 0 uyx 3 0 W , T 3 0 W,G 2 0 W,D 3 0 W,J 2 0 W , E 1 1 W , J 3 0 Y,T 0 0 TOTAL 84 20 AVERAGE 2.15 .51 XKXV1 Class 10, Science IV B R ™ I A H I G H 3 ™ L Sept. 1938, STUDENT MAGAZINES BOOKS STUDENT MAGAZINES BOOKS A, A 5 0 B,H 5 2 B„A 3 4 B,D 3 3 C,J 5 6 C,M 6 0 C,M 6 0 C,H 2 9 D,M 6 4 D,R 6 0 F,D 6 0 G, A 5 1 H,S 7 0 H, A 4 3 J,C 5 1 K, T 5 6 K,W 5 2 D,V 3 4 M , N 0 0 . M,H McB^ P-McV,E P,B P,W P,M -ft, T E,J R,H R,M R,M S,J 3, J S,S •S,B S,G T,M T,P TOTAL AVERAGE 2 6 3 5 6 5 4 1 7 3 4 4 3. 3 3 4 1 3 156 2.6 xxxvIi Science V B R I T A N N I A H I G H S C H O O L Sept. 1 9 5 8 SWOmr ' ;• M A 5 1 Z I H B B O O K A , T 4 4 A , E J 4 2 A , N 5 5 B, J 3 6 B, D .8 2 G,Y 4 .2 c,p 2 3 7 P , H 7 P , F 3 4 G , L 5 3 Gr„L 6 1 0 , A . 4 5 G,P 3 . 0 H,'Y 5 0 H,H 3 2 H,E 3 3 H,W 5 1 0 K , J ' 7 1 L . M 3 3 L,V L , P M , N M,C M, I M,Y McC.B P , M S,M 3 , A S,L 2 , 8 W,S W,H W,T W , J W,E Z , E T O T A L AVERAGE M A G A Z I N E B O O K 4 2 8 6 2 6 3 1 5 0 4 0 4 4 6 3 4 1 1 3 8 4 2 4 3 5 3 4 0 4 1 0 2 2 5 2 . 4 3 3 3 1 5 8 1 3 4 4 . 1 5 3 . 5 3 XXXV111 Iff.WffftS Judging by the average scores from the various classes I t seems that the test does a c t u a l l y measure the students' use of the science l i b r a r y . , There i s a y e a r l y increment of books read from a Grade IS average score of ,51 p o i n t s (not books), through a Grade X average of 2.6 p o i n t s , to a Grade XI average of 3,55 p o i n t s , ( F i f t y - n i n e p o i n t s covered forty-two books). I t seems that i n the school tested that f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h magazine content increases m a t e r i a l l y i n Grade IX. Newcomers to the school are w e l l acquainted with P o p u l a r Mechanics, and the National Geographic, but during the year become f a m i l i a r with h a l f a dozen other magazines. Scien-t i f i c American and the Journal of Chemical Education are scarcely touched - t>y any.students up to Grade XI, Any use of these i f at a l l must come i n Grade X I I which was not tested at a l l . The. test had an e x c e l l e n t teaching value for i t drew the a t t e n t i o n of many students to taese books and magazines i n the l i b r a r y . Unfortunately the i n v e s t i g a t o r d i d not a n t i c i p a t e t h i s so no preparations were made to check loans, readings, i n order to compare these r e s u l t s w i t h previous c o n d i t i o n s . The examiner was asked many more questions about the books, and more students brought books to him to discuss c e r t a i n a r t i c l e s than occured at any otner time since the establishment of the l i b r a r y . A l l i n a l l , the test seems to show f a i r promise of a reasonably objec-t i v e method to secure data on the extent of the use of the science s e c t i o n of the l i b r a r y . Quite l i k e l y the technique could be transferred i n t o any other department. Doubtless the t e s t could be Improved w i t h further ex-p e r i e n c e . I t would need t c be enlarged each year because of additons to the l i b r a r y . The technique would l i k e l y break down when used for "exten-sive s c i e n t i f i c l i b r a r i e s " as i n U n i v e r s i t i e s , where p o s s i b l y a d i v i s i o n of the f i e l d s might be w i s e r . Another p o i n t that might be gleaned from the experiment i s the answer to How Many Books Should an Average Student Read Each Year? 42 Because a score of ,51 represents (.51 times 59) or .37 approx. of a book which t h ^ Grade IX students seem to have read i n one way or another before they entered high school I t would seem that at the end of the f i r s t year they had read (2.6 times 4 | ) minus .37) or 1.48 (approx,) of a book. This amount would suggest a C value i f any c r e d i t were given to students for books read, but because the r e s u l t s were obtained from only one c l a s s (average a b i l i t y ) f u r t h e r need of t e s t i n g Is advisable before t h i | f i g ure should be taken as a guide. During the Grade X year (3.52 times -gg- ) — (.51 p l u s 1.48) or .65 of a book i s read. This f i g u r e i s p o s s i b l y quite awry fJIai the c l a s s - t e s t e d i s n o t o r i o u s l y poor i n a p p l i c a t i o n , though average i n a b i l i t y . Nevertheless, the method of obtaining much wanted data seems c l e a r , needing only more cases to s e t t l e the p o i n t . That i s , classes i n each grade should be given the same test at the same time, late i n June or e a r l y i n September. In order to secure the average, increments of preceding years must be deducted from the average score for that grade. 

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