UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of type questions for general science tests Flather, Donald McIntosh 1939

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1939_A8_F4_S7.pdf [ 34.09MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105394.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105394-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105394-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105394-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105394-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105394-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105394-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105394-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105394.ris

Full Text

t f 51  B%  • r>'*> 7.  A  Study  TYPE for  CIENCE T E  Donald  Submitted  Mcintosh  A  TW«*is  for  the  Flatter  Decree  of  MASTER OF ARTS in tine D e p a r t m e n t  of  EDUCATION The  U niveraity  of  British  A p r i l , 19 39-  Columbia  ACKITOWLEDGEMMTS The w r i t e r  i s i n d e b t e d v e r y deeply t o p r o f e s s o r C.B. Wood o f the  Department of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r h i s c o n t i n u a l a s s i s t a n c e , i n s p i r a t i o n , and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m as w e l l as f o r h i s p e r m i s s i o n to submit the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o h i s c l a s s i n E d u c a t i o n 23 d u r i n g the summer of 1938, The w r i t e r w i s h e s tfo thank Dr. Win, B l a c k , a l s o o f the Department o f E d u c a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r h i s l u c i d g e n e r a l  critic-  ism of the t h e s i s and f o r h i s many v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t have improved  this report.  F u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e has been o b t a i n e d from K r . L o r d , P r i n c i p a l of the P r o v i n c i a l Normal School a t f a n c o u v e r who a s s i s t e d i n s u b m i t t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to the members of h i s c l a s s l a s t summer, E d u c a t i o n 12, C o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s have been r e c e i v e d a l s o from Dr. J.B.W. ^  piicher  ( f o r m e r l y of II. B.C. ), Dr. H.B. K i n g (Technical A d v i s e r to the  Department o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a ) , Mr. B o b t . S t r a i g h t (Bureau  o f Measure-  ments, Vancouver School Ho&t-d ), and from Dr. W.J.Osburn (Department o f Education, U n i v e r s i t y of Washington).  D.M.F.  FCRMORD  T h i s r e s e a r c h was undertaken  to demonstrate what c o u l d be done i n  the way of t e s t i n g the achievements and the growth of a b i l i t i e s w h i c h form the a n t i c i p a t e d outcomes o f the courses i n the h i g h s c h o o l s , g e n e r a l  Science  IV and 7. As the r e s e a r c h has turned out i t i s r e a l l y o n l y an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the problem , f or many s u b s i d i a r y problems that were uncovered have been l e f t untouched.  The w r i t e r had hoped to make a complete survey,  but t h i s d e s i r e  had t o be narrowed down c o n s i d e r a b l y . F u r t h e r d e t a i l e d study o f the t e s t i n g procedures  as app1ied  to each  o b j e c t i v e of the courses i s needed, as i s a l s o a more s c i e n t i f i c way o f s e l e c t i n g the o b j e c t i v e s o f a course and then e v a l u a t i n g them. . I n f a c t , the l i m i t a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h t o any one o f the s e v e r a l o b j e c t i v e s i s r e a l l y a %ajor  problem i t s e l f . W h i l e the work may not be as complete as i t might have been, t h e r 9  i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d programme o f t e s t i n g i n General S c i e n c e .  t h a t can be used i n a  The w r i t e r has p r o f i t e d g r e a t l y  by the r e s e a r c h , and has been able to a p p l y many of these suggestions i n the t e x t to h i s own programme o f t e s t i n g .  found  TABLE OP COITMTS  Chapter J AH OUTLI1TB OF THE PKOBLM! Gaieral C o n d i t i o n s A f f e c t i n g the p r o b l e m L o c a l C o n d i t i o n s A f f e c t i n g £he P r o b l e m Dearth of K e c e n t Experiments on t e s t i n g . " Summary  AIT MAMIKAl'ION OF THE PRESENT OBJECTIVES OF GJSKmAL SCIENCE IV AHD V Scope o f Chapter The O b j e c t i v e s o f G e n e r a l S c i e n c e IV and V E x a m i n a t i o n and A n a l y s i s of p r e s e n t O b j e c t i v e s E v a l u a t i n g the Importance o f the P r e s e n t O b j e c t i v e s Re-arrangement o f the P r e s e n t O b j e c t i v e s  Pagel 1 2 5 ^  Chapter I I  8 9 18 29  Chapter I I I  ^  COMMON FORMS OF TSST ITHtfS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS ON TESTS , Scope of Chapter The Three Major Types o f Tests R e s e a r c h L i m i t e d t o Q u e s t i o n s T e s t i n g Achievements C h i e f forms of Q u e s t i o n s i n Common Use The True-False Q u e s t i o n The M u l t i p l e - C h o i c e Q u e s t i o n The Completion or R e c a l l Q u e s t i o n ' Matching Questions The Analogy Q u e s t i o n Diagrams The "Catechism" Type o f Q u e s t i o n The Essay Type, o f Q u e s t i o n Mathematical C a l c u l a t i o n s Checking L i s t s , a n d . " I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s " The Performance or ' ^ p r a c t i c a l " Test Oral Examinations, Interviews He-arrangements Comparisons and C o n t r a s t s C o n s t r u c t i o n s and Drawings Comments on R e l i a b i l i t y General C o n c l u s i o n s  8  Chapter IV a STUDY OF PRESENT STANDARDIZED TESTS I I SCIENCE P u r p o s e o f T h i s Study Tables Summarizing I n v e s t i g a t i o n s H i g h l i g h t s of T e s t s i&amined . • A p p l i c a b i l i t y o f S t a n d a r d i z e d T e s t s to T e s t i n g programme Specimen Test:: Q u e s t i o n s from the S t a n d a r d i z e d Tests  iii  31 31 31 34 35 36 38 40 41 42 44 46 46 53 54 54 56 58 58 59 60 61  62 6  2  63 79 . 80 83  iv Chapter V  MODIFYING THE FOR MS OP QUESTIONS TO PIT THE .BEMANBS OF THE TWO ° MAJOR" OBJECTIVES O u t l i n e of P r o c e d u r e Q u e s t i o n s A p p l i c a b l e to the F i r s t O b j e c t i v e (Knowledge) Q u e s t i o n s A p p l i c a b l e to the Second O b j e c t i v e ( M e t h o d s )  p a g e 101 101 102 113  Chapter 71  FORMS OF (lUESTIONS FOR 'THE OBJECTIVES OF 'INTER* MEDIATE VALUE. Q u e s t i o n s A p p l i c a b l e to the T h i r d O b j e c t i v e ( R e s o u r c e f u l n e s s ) Q u e s t i o n s A p p l i c a b l e to the F o u r t h O b j e c t i v e (Health)  FOEMS OF QUESTIONS SUITABLE FOR TESTING THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF '"LEAST IMP ORTANGE , Q u e s t i o n s A p p l i c a b l e to the F i f t h e O b j e c t i v e ( A v o c a t i o n s ) Q u e s t i o n s A p p l i c a b l e to the S i s t h O b j e c t i v e ( C o n t r i b u t i o n s ) Q u e s t i o n s A p p l i c a b l e to the Seventh O b j e c t i v e ( E r r o r s ) S u b - o b j e c t i v e s of the Seventh O b j e c t i v e Q u e s t i o n s A p p l i c a b l e t o the E i g h t h O b j e c t i v e ( V o c a t i o n s ) Q u e s t i o n s and A p t i t u d e T e s t s • Q u e s t i o n s A p p l i c a b l e t o the N i n t h O b j e c t i v e ( E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ) p e n c i l • -and-paper Tests C o r r e l a t i o n , " A b i l i t y to M a n i p u l a t e " w i t h " I n t e l l i g e n c e " Summary Q u e s t i o n s A p p l i c a b l e t o the Tenth O b j e c t i v e Measuring Growth i n R e a d i n g I n t e r e s t s  129 129 135  Chapter V I I  11  Chapter V I I I  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  189  Bibliography  Appen&M The {Questionnaire Measuring Growth of I n t e r e s t s , Experiment £ Experiments on C o r r e l a t i o n o f " p e n c i l - a n d - p a p e r Tests'* w i t h ' p r a c t i c a l " (performance ) Tests Experiment I I on F l o w e r , Clam, Stem Experiment I I I M i c r o s c o p i c Test on Stem of T i l i a Experiment IV M e a s u r i n g Volumes. W e i g h i n g Measuring the Growth of R e a d i n g , Experiment V  AT  139 139 149 1€4 155 161 165 167 168 170 176 177 179  198  (i)  •  206 i iv  xiv xiv xix xxii xxvii  V INDEX TO TABLES Table I Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table  Summary of R e t u r n s of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Submitted to Two G l a s s e s of t e a c h e r s , Summer S e s s i o n , U.B.C., 1938 page 22 I I - E v a l u a t i o n s and W e i g h t i n g s Made by S i x t e e n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s p r i n c i p a l s , and Science Committee Members 25 III Summary of E v a l u a t i o n s by 78 Teachers, IMC• 26 I ? - A n a l y s e s of S t a n d a r d i z e d Chemistry '^ests 64 V .Analyses of S t a n d a r d i z e d p h y s i c s Tests 68 VI A n a l y s e s of S t a n d a r d i z e d B i o l o g y '1'ests 70 VII A n a l y s e s of S t a n d a r d i z e d General Science Tests 72 V I I I Analyses of A p t i t u d e Tests and Others 74 IX . Analyses of M a t r i c u l a t i o n P a p e r s 76 X A Comparison of Frequency of Q u e s t i o n forms on T e s t s 78 XI A b s t r a c t from Ruch and R i c e , Frequency o f Q u e s t i o n Forms 79 XII Comparison of Degree Which the 29 S t a n d a r d i z e d Tests Which Were Examined Measure the Achievements Other Than Knowledge • .80  Questionnaire Blank  Appendix  i  IHDEX TO FIGURES Figure I  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of R a n k i n g s of the Ten O b j e c t i v e s by F i f t y - t w o Secondary School Teachers Figure I I Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of S e v e n t y - e i g h t E v a l u a t i o n s of Objectives Figure. I l l Flower, (Ruch-?openoe F i g . 2, Form A ) F i g u r e IV Lever , (Buch-popenae F i g , 4 . Form A ) Figure V P u l l e y s (Ruch-? openoe F i g . 1 0 , Form A ) F i g u r e VI Pump (Ruch-p.openoe F i g . 15, Form A ) F i g u r e V I I p h o t o s y n t h e s i s (Ruch-3? openoe F i g , 18, Form B ) F i g u r e V I I I C o l l e c t i n g Carbon D i o x i d e (RUC1I-P openoe,Fig.10,Form B ) F i g u r e L I . . Bunsen Burner F l a n e ( p a r s i n g F i g , 6, Form A ) Figure X C o l l e c t i n g Gases over Water ( P e r s i n g ) Figure XI Gas G e n e r a t i n g and C o l l e c t i n g ( p e r s i n g Form A ) F i g u r e X I I Graph, A n a l y s i s of Copper Sulphide F i g u r e X I I I I l l u s i o n s : and A c c u r a c y Test ( S t a n f o r d S c i e n t i f i c A p t i t u d e ) F i g u r e XIV; R e a d i n g Weights on Toledo S c a l e s F i g u r e XV Beam Balance Figure X I I Rock S t r a t a Figure: X V I I Graph , A i r R e s i s t a n c e and V e l o c i t y of Car F i g u r e X V I I I L i g u i d s i n Graduated Measures F i g u r e XIK Dissembled Apparatus F i g u r e XX Clam * . Figure: XXI Flower ' F i g u r e X X I I Stem o f ' T i l i a , Tansverse S e c t i o n Figure XXIII R e l a t i v e Fields,,of Testing f o r Mastery, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , , and Achievement '•'•'ests.  23 27 83 83 88 84 84 84 85 85 85 87 88 116 117 118 122 173 173 174 174 175 196  CHAPTER 1. .AH OUTLINE OF  THE PROBLEM.  The purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s to survey what has "been done i n d e v e l o p i n g the techniques  of t e s t i n g i n the f i e l d of General Science, and i n other  f i e l d s t h a t might make c o n t r i b u t i o n s , and to show how and of q u e s t i o n s may  the forms of t e s t s  be a p p l i e d to measure p r o g r e s s of p u p i l s towards the  o b j e c t i v e s of General Science  courses.  General C o n d i t i o n s A f f e c t i n g the P r o b l e m . W i t h the broadening  o f the c o n c e p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t has  i n the l a s t twenty-five years o b j e c t i v e s of any  there has been an i n c r e a s e i n number of the  course i n the secondary  school.  century the d i s c i p l i n a r y v a l u e o f a course was t h i s i n t u r n was  At the t u r n of the  the c h i e f o b j e c t i v e , and  f o l l o w e d by what might be termed the " s u b j e c t matter  era'* wherein the g r e a t e s t emphasis was Science courses have gone through  l a i d j i n the accumulation  seemed to outdo themselves i n s e t t i n g up  the hundreds f o r some c o u r s e s . be a t t a i n e d because i t was expansion  of f a c t s .  this t r a n s i t i o n like a l l others.  the r e s t r a i n i n g bonds were broken at l a s t a p e r i o d developed ^educators  occurred  When  i n which  o b j e c t i v e s , even by  A l l these o b j e c t i v e s o b v i o u s l y c o u l d not  humanly i m p o s s i b l e .  T h i s p e r i o d of e x c e s s i v e  of o b j e c t i v e s has g i v e n p l a c e to a more moderate s e l e c t i o n o f  a t t a i n a b l e o b j e c t i v e s a t the p r e s e n t  time.  With the growing emphasis on a moderate range of a t t a i n a b l e object i v e s f o r any good s c i e n c e course a swing away from the narrow i n f o r m a t i o n a l or f a c t u a l type has  occurred.  Concomitantly w i t h t h i s change  i n e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y there should have been a marked p a r a l l e l i s m of methods of t e s t i n g achievements of"the s e v e r a l o b j e c t i v e s .  Up  to the  p r e s e n t time t h i s movement has not been v i g o r o u s , f o r only o c c a s i o n a l evidence  i s p r e s e n t e d of attempts to meet t h i s new  need of a d a p t i n g meas-  u r i n g d e v i c e s to the o b j e c t i v e s . To study the f u n c t i o n s and a p p l i c a b i l i t y of q u e s t i o n forms i s a usef u l s e r v i c e at t h i s stage of the development of s c i e n c e courses because many are b e i n g r e v i s e d .  F u r t h e r , to imow how  i n general  and when to use  the  forms of questions i s a l s o of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance to the average teacher i n General  Science i n order  t i c u l a r achievement under M i l s r e s e a r c h may  be  that he may  measure d e f i n i t e l y the par-  examination. of a s s i s t a n c e a l s o i n h e l p i n g a teacher to r e a l -  i z e t h a t the t e s t i n g of achievement o f any and not by round-about methods.  o b j e c t i v e must be done  directly  I t should a s s i s t the teacher to be  care-  f u l i n the c h o i c e or s e l e c t i o n of ideas that he wishes to combine i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of q u e s t i o n s and t e s t s of a s p e c i f i c  nature.  L o c a l C o n d i t i o n s A f f e c t i n g the P r o b l e m . Besides  these g e n e r a l reasons  f o r the r e s e a r c h there are s e v e r a l  l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s that demand a survey of t e s t i n g procedures of General S c i e n c e .  field  At the p r e s e n t time there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e bewilder-?  ment among t e a c h e r s o f General Science i n B r i t i s h Columbia t e s t i n g procedures.  i n the  This c o n f u s i o n i s abservable  Science S e c t i o n of the Secondary Teachers' land, i n l e t t e r s to the magazine "The  concerning  i n d i s c u s s i o n s of the  A s s o c i a t i o n of the Lower Main-  B. C. Teacher",  and  i n numerous  l e t t e r s w r i t t e n to the Department of E d u c a t i o n on the matter of t e s t i n g . There are f o u r l o c a l or p r o v i n c i a l f a c t o r s that are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o n f u s i o n i n t e s t i n g i n General S c i e n c e .  F i r s t of a l l ,  a new  type  3  of science course has been p r o j e c t e d i n t o the upper grades  of the high  school i n the form of General Science 17 and V which f i r s t became operat i v e i n 1937  and 1938.  These courses are decided i n n o v a t i o n s and because  of t h i s f a c t v e r y l i t t l e experience up to t h i s time has been gained i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of s u i t a b l e achievement t e s t s . has not y e t given any guide  The Department of E d u c a t i o n  to the teachers of s c i e n c e by the s e t t i n g of  a paper i n General Science IV and V but i t i s t a k i n g steps to develop s a t i s f a c t o r y examinations.  The  no longer be taken as c r i t e r i a , papers  i s ever l i k e l y  t e s t i n g procedures  o l d e r t e s t s on the s p e c i a l s c i e n c e s can and  only the o c c a s i o n a l t e s t item on these  to be needed i n t e s t i n g i n General S c i e n c e .  Furtbar,  i n the p a s t i n General Science have been i n advance of  those i n the s p e c i a l s c i e n c e s , and these procedures  are having more e f f e c t  i n m o d i f y i n g the t e s t i n g i n the s p e c i a l s c i e n c e s than the r e v e r s e c a s e . The  second Important  f a c t o r i s the a t t i t u d e of the Department of  E d u c a t i o n which i n s i s t s i n accordance w i t h the e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y p u b l i s h e d i n i t s programme of s t u d i e s that the t e s t i n g of p u p i l  achieve-  ment i n General Science must be done i n agreement w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s of the course. who  Q?he Department of E d u c a t i o n has announced a l s o that students  w i l l w r i t e the f i r s t  g r a d u a t i o n p a p e r i n General Science i n June  w i l l be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r work done i n General Science I I I , IV and  1939 V,  and that teachers must a l i g n t h e i r own t e s t i n g programmes w i t h the objec1 t i v e s of the courses i n q u e s t i o n . The Department of E d u c a t i o n has s t a t e d that "The  examination p a p e r s  f o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n s h a l l be i n conformity w i t h 2 the p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down" by i t s e l f . In the eyes of the a d v i s e r s to the  1.  Programme of Studies f o r the Senior High Schools p . 60  of B . C . , B u l l e t i n V l l l ,  2.  Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the Senior High Schools of B . C . , B u l l e t i n 1, pp. 20-21  Department t e s t i n g assumes a great importance and e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s " .  "must be regarded  as  an  C o n t i n u i n g i n t h i s theme the  Department adds that " I t i s fundamental t h a t t e s t i n g should bear upon the 1 o b j e c t i v e s of a course".  This new  emphasis upon t e s t i n g i s i n d i c a t e d  s t i l l more c l e a r l y by the q u o t a t i o n that "Knowledge and s k i l l s are beyond q u e s t i o n important, cess,  but are not  the only outcomes of the educative  An examination, or an examination system, which s t r e s s e s  outcomes to the e x c l u s i o n of the others, not from the  t e s t i n g procedures,  but s p e e d i l y excludes  2 procedures as w e l l .  only excludes  pro-  these  these  outcomes  them from the  teaching  • ; . I t would seem q u i t e c l e a r from the f o r e g o i n g s t a t e -  ments that a f u l l e r , more s c i e n t i f i c programme of t e s t i n g to i n c l u d e  the  h i t h e r t o u n t e s t e d phases ( i n B r i t i s h Columbia at l e a s t ) should f o l l o w keep pace w i t h The  the i d e a l s of the  l a s t r e v i s i o n of the  t h i r d f a c t o r of importance comes to l i g h t  lem of the a c c r e d i t i n g o f ' h i g h s c h o o l s .  science  and  courses.  i n s t u d y i n g the p r o b -  Such a c c r e d i t i n g does not  relieve  the school i n the s l i g h t e s t degree of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g sound t e s t i n g procedures, measuring of achievement.  but r a t h e r i n c r e a s e s the need of the The  s c h o o l may  be  accurate  f r e e d from the r i g o u r s of  l o n g hard examination p e r i o d s b u t ^ i a not r e l i e v e d from i t s duty to measure achievements i n a p r e c i s e manner.  F u r t h e r , because a c c r e d i t i n g i n -  v o l v e s the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t  exact  measurement of achievements be developed, f o r the p o s i t i o n s o f both high school and  the U n i v e r s i t y must be p r o t e c t e d .  of achievements would tend to p r e v e n t L. 2.  difficult  Programme of S t u d i e s , B u l l e t i n 1, pp. programme of ;Studies, B u l l e t i n 1, pp.  20-22 20-22  Accurate  the  measurements  s i t u a t i o n s from a r i s i n g ,  Finally,  the whole e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s b e i n g  c r i t i c i z e d r i g o r o u s l y i n c e r t a i n q u a r t e r s and a t t a c k e d openly by many persons who  attempt to keep down the c o s t s o f e d u c a t i o n .  tures are a t t a c k e d as b e i n g unnecessary, of  education.  Many expendi-  or as p r o v i d i n g only the  "frills"  Very f r e q u e n t l y adequate s c i e n c e equipment i s c l a s s i f i e d  under t h i s l a t t e r heading, which to conduct  science  as i s a l s o the b u i l d i n g of s u i t a b l e rooms i n  teaching.  Exact evidence,  i f i t can be  obtained,  of. p u p i l achievements of the o b j e c t i v e s of the courses i n science i s necessary to defend the c o s t , time, and e f f o r t  spent  i n science  training.  I f a course claims to develop more than knowledge achievements i t must have some measure o f these broader accomplishments. expenditures  In order to support  f o r equipment and b u i l d i n g s o b j e c t i v e evidence  of the d e v e l -  opment of s c i e n t i f i c h a b i t s of t h i n k i n g , of a t t i t u d e s , of techniques, of  and  the other outcomes i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e .  Dearth o f Recent Experiments on T e s t i n g . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the f i r s t suggest  that the time i s now  r i p e f o r examining s e r i o u s l y what types of  t e s t s are a p p l i c a b l e to General of  four l o c a l f a c t o r s mentioned would  Science i n order  that p u p i l achievement  the v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s of the s c i e n c e courses may  c a r r y i n g out t h i s i d e a the f i r s t  step was  r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e on achievement t e s t i n g except  familiar.)  (With the l a t t e r f i e l d  almost  on  There appeared to be  i n the f i e l d  of measuring  a l l teachers are q u i t e  However, there are s e v e r a l u n r e l a t e d r e p o r t s of r e s e a r c h  y i e l d i n g ideas that can be of  In  to examine the l i t e r a t u r e  t e s t i n g , and more p a r t i c u l a r l y on s c i e n c e t e s t i n g .  f a c t u a l matter.  be measured.  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a more e x t e n s i v e programme  t e s t i n g designed to e v a l u a t e some of the more s u b t l e a s p e c t s .  The  . i n c o r p o r a t i o n of these c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t o the s c i e n c e and p r a c t i c e o f e d u c a t i o n a l measurement would be i n I t s e l f a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e . A c c o r d i n g t o Dr. J . B. W. P i l c h e r there has been no s i g n i f i c a n t cont r i b u t i o n t o the science o f e d u c a t i o n a l measurements i n the l a s t twelve years, although refinements 1 iiave occurred.  ten or  and r e p e t i t i o n o f o r i g i n a l experiments  There I s need a t the p r e s e n t  time  of a re-examination o f  p a s t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to measurements i n the l i g h t o f f u r t h e r experience and newer concepts  of the f u n c t i o n of t e a c h i n g .  This need was f o r e s e e n by  Dr« A. W. Hurd i n 1929 who concluded a f t e r an e x t e n s i v e survey o f t e s t i n g techniques i n p h y s i c s t h a t " E x i s t i n g measures o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o d u c t s need f u r t h e r study and improvement.  -Many a b i l i t i e s , presumably  developed  by s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n , have n o t been measured o b j e c t i v e l y , and there i s no  o b j e c t i v e p r o o f t h a t the c l a i m s  are j u s t . "  (of d e v e l o p i n g these other  abilities)  " A b i l i t i e s presumably g a i n e d ' i n the l a b o r a t o r y have n o t been  measured o b j e c t i v e l y as y e t , though a b e g i n n i n g has been made."  A  survey on the p a r t of the" w r i t e r r e v e a l e d t h a t comparatively l i t t l e had been done along that l i n e Hot  since Dr. Hurd made the f o r e g o i n g  very much has developed  t h a t c o u l d be turned i n t o Immediate use i n  a t e s t i n g programme d e v i s e d i n accordance Science 1? and "V.  statement.  w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s o f General  This inadequacy of t e s t i n g techniques  i n measuring  p u p i l s ' growth a l o n g the l i n e s o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f the course p r o v i d e d a c h a l l e n g e to modify o l d or t o i n v e n t new Teachers,  c l a i m , p o s s i b l y with a g r e a t d e a l o f t r u t h , that the teach-  i n g o f s c i e n c e has improved d u r i n g the l a s t in 1. 2.,  techniques.  f i f t e e n years, p a r t i c u l a r l y  the development of a b i l i t i e s other than the g a i n i n g o f f a c t u a l Conversation w i t h Dr. p i l e h e r d u r i n g summer o f 1958. C u r t i s , F.D. Second D i g e s t o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the Teaching o f S c i e n c e  material,  p r e s e n t day t e s t s r a r e l y show t h i s t r e n d , not because  there, but because pose.  they, are inadequate measuring  Although i t may  i t i s not  instruments f o r the pur-r  be d e s i r a b l e to develop adequate  instruments to  show t h i s change i t i s more important that these t e s t s be developed f o r r e g u l a r use i n the o r d i n a r y r o u t i n e  o f t e a c h i n g , so that a l l attainments  made by p u p i l s I n the f i e l d o f General Science may  , 'Summary  be  judged,  .  In g e n e r a l the p l a n of the r e s e a r c h was  this; f i r s t ,  to r e a d g e n e r a l l y  on the problem o f t e s t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y as I t a p p l i e s to s c i e n c e ; secondly to examine the p r e s e n t o b j e c t i v e s of General Science IV and V and to f i n d some way  of a r r a n g i n g the o b j e c t i v e s i n order of importance.  major step was  next  to analyze common types o f q u e s t i o n s t o see i f they are  adaptable t o any or a l l t e s t i n g p u r p o s e s . l o g i c a l move was see i f one  The  T h i s step completed,  the next  to examine i n d e t a i l p r e s e n t day s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s t o  or a combination of s e v e r a l would serve the needs of the courses*  I f such were found n a t u r a l l y no f u r t h e r work would be needed.  I f none  c o u l d be f o u n d , n a t u r a l l y the duty would devolve upon the w r i t e r of t r y i n g to improve  or modify p r e s e n t forms or to Invent new  techniques.  r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l be summarized i n the f i n a l c h a p t e r .  The  .; ,  CHAPTER 11  AH EXAMINATION OF  THE PRESENT OBJECTIVES OP  GENERAL SCIENCE IV and  V  The O b j e c t i v e s of General Science IV and  V.  At the p r e s e n t time the courses i n General Science IV and V have ten o b j e c t i v e s which were chosen by the r e v i s i o n committee a f t e r l o n g and careful deliberation.  These o b j e c t i v e s were thought  to be s o u n i , reason1  a b l e , and a t t a i n a b l e .  S t a t e d as they appear i n the b u l l e t i n they are  1.  To a c q u i r e a body of Imowledge i n the f i e l d o f s c i e n c e which w i l l  2.  enable the student to i n t e r p r e t and a p p r e c i a t e h i s environment. To develop a b i l i t y i n the use of the s c i e n t i f i c method, e. g.  3.  (a)  To make accurate o b s e r v a t i o n s , and to r e c o r d them s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  (bj  To draw v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s .  (c)  To suspend judgment u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t evidence has been obtained.  (d)  To develop a c r i t i c a l yet t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e  To develop  the a b i l i t y  toward new  to p e r f o r m simple experiments,  ideas.  and thus to  a p p r e c i a t e the experimental b a s i s of s c i e n c e . 4.  To enable  the student to c o u n t e r a c t s u p e r s t i t i o n and  erroneous b e l i e f s 5.  through  to c o r r e c t  the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s .  To a p p r e c i a t e achievements i n the f i e l d o f s c i e n c e , and  the c o n t r i b -  u t i o n s of s c i e n t i s t s to the modern w o r l d . 6.  To explore the f i e l d of s c i e n c e i n order to a s s i s t  the p u p i l t o  choose h i s vocation,. 7.  To p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s f o r a worthy use  8.  To develop  of l e i s u r e .  the d e s i r e to r e a d s c i e n t i f i c  literature.  1.,Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r the Senior High Schools, B u l l e t i n 1, 1937, 8  p.159  9.  To develop r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s and a d a p t a b i l i t y to new c o n d i t i o n s .  10.  To a c q u i r e knowledge which w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to p u b l i c and p e r s o n a l health. These are the o b j e c t i v e s which w i l l  next few y e a r s .  guide s c i e n c e teachers f o r the  Whether a teacher t h i n k s that they are too e x t e n s i v e or  too r e s t r i c t e d they are open to m o d i f i c a t i o n only by the p r o p e r a u t h o r i t y , the Department o f E d u c a t i o n .  Examination and A n a l y s i s of P r e s e n t O b j e c t i v e s . In order that b o t h  t e a c h i n g and t e s t i n g i n General Science may  be  most e f f e c t i v e i t i s necessary to examine the ten o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d above i n a very c a r e f u l manner.  Such an examination  should i n c l u d e both a  c r i t i c a l study of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of each o b j e c t i v e together w i t h a w e i g h t i n g or e v a l u a t i n g of each o b j e c t i v e r e l a t i v e set.  to the others of the  Upon these two bases each o b j e c t i v e w i l l be a n a l y z e d i n the c h a p t e r . The need of an a n a l y s i s of the o b j e c t i v e s i s e v i d e n t i n the  quency w i t h which teachers q u e s t i o n the i m p l i c a t i o n s of one them. . Few  fre-  or more of  teachers agree e x a c t l y i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of o b j e c t i v e s  u n l e s s these are e l a b o r a t e d or q u a l i f i e d i n some way.  Because t h i s  task  has n o t been done i n the courses i n q u e s t i o n a t t e n t i o n must be g i v e n i t i n this  chapter.  The e v a l u a t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s i s a d v i s a b l e i n order to o b t a i n a s t a n dard, a l b e i t a c o n s e r v a t i v e one, a course.  Almost every  teacher has a b i a s toward some o b j e c t i v e of a  course, and i n c e r t a i n cases or t o exclude  to be used i n s t a b i l i z i n g the t e a c h i n g of  t h i s Is so s t r o n g as to subjugate  them completely.  the others  A l l t e a c h e r s , e i t h e r o v e r t l y or c o v e r t l y ,  s i f t the o b j e c t i v e s to f i n d which they t h i n k the most important.  A-mere..  10  general measure on the value  of o b j e c t i v e s than the o p i n i o n of one p e r s o n  s u r e l y would, be more v a l u a b l e and r e l i a b l e . o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be demonstrated. allocate  the  teaching e f f o r t ,  v a l i d reason why  Likewise  t e s t i n g time, and  credits.  t i o n s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system. submitted  those  to these p e r s o n s .  to do that i n t h i s r e s e a r c h .  what to teach but a l s o how  by  the o b j e c t i v e s , i t became  The  only  committee d i d not  go  simply p i c k e d out what i t c o n s i d e r e d  to  be the most s u i t a b l e o b j e c t i v e s from a r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e Thus the weeding-out p r o c e s s  of the t e n o b j e c t i v e s as a g a i n s t those not enough f o r a b a s i s of t e s t i n g .  the Department of  I t i s d e s i r a b l e to know not  much of i t to teach.  t h i s f a r i n i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s but  i s unwarranted, and  in central posi-  To o b t a i n t h i s g e n e r a l measure a question-  E d u c a t i o n d i d not make any attempt to evaluate  many s o u r c e s .  expressed  to give o p i n i o n s , namely the  Because the s c i e n c e r e v i s i o n committee appointed  necessary  to  There seems no  the e v a l u a t i o n of the o b j e c t i v e s should not be  i n the secondary s c h o o l s , p r o f e s s o r s , and  n a i r e was  important  These f a c t s are needed i n order  i n a composite o p i n i o n of those most q u a l i f i e d teachers  the most  list  s e l e c t e d from  Is a s o r t of crude e v a l u a t i o n s e l e c t e d , but  i t i s not  accurate  To assume e q u a l value f o r each o b j e c t i v e  to assume that the o b j e c t i v e s as l i s t e d i n the  B u l l e t i n 1 are ranked i n order would be wrong f o r the committee made no attempt to organize  the o b j e c t i v e s In order of v a l u e .  The p r e s e n t  order  i n the B u l l e t i n t h e r e f o r e has no i n t e n t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The p a r t immediately f o l l o w i n g w i l l be devoted to an a n a l y s i s of the objectives.  T h i s i n t u r n w i l l be succeeded by the e v a l u a t i n g of the  o b j e c t i v e s by means of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . be d e a l t w i t h i n t u r n .  Each of the t e n o b j e c t i v e s w i l l  11  "To a'cquire a body o f knowledge i n the f i e l d of s c i e n c e which w i l l enable the student  t o i n t e r p r e t and a p p r e c i a t e h i s environment".  T h i s o b j e c t i v e i s meant t o i n c l u d e the f a c t u a l s i d e o f science teaching, the s c i e n t i f i c of a s i m i l a r n a t u r e .  f a c t s , the laws or p r i n c i p l e s , and m a t e r i a l  I n f a c t i t s f i e l d corresponds to the u s u a l  c o n n o t a t i o n g i v e n to " s u b j e c t matter".  In General  Science  IT and T  there i s to be a wide range of m a t e r i a l e x p r e s s i n g the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s i n broad and simple  terms r a t h e r than i n minute i n t e n s i v e  d e t a i l that Is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f an advanced course calibre.  This o b j e c t i v e seems to be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d ^ f o r no p e r s o n  r e p l y i n g t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e "To  of u n i v e r s i t y  seemed t o be i n doubt about i t .  develop a b i l i t y i n the use o f the s c i e n t i f i c method; e. g. j -  (a) To make accurate (b) To draw v a l i d  observations  and t o r e c o r d them s y s t e m a t i c a l l y .  conclusions.  (c) To suspend judgment u n t i l  s u f f i c i e n t evidence  has been  obtained.  (d) To develop a c r i t i c a l y e t t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e towards new i d e a s . It seems t h a t the f i r s t abilities,  sub-objective  i s dependent upon two d i f f e r e n t  that o f o b s e r v i n g and of r e c o r d i n g .  The four sub-objec-  t i v e s do not cover a l l phases o f the s c i e n t i f i c method. persons who r e p l i e d to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e made r e f e r e n c e At l e a s t  two other  sub-objectives  Several to this  fact.  should be i n c l u d e d i n order to  round out t r a i n i n g i n the a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method. These are 1.  To develop the a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e a problem, t o see t h a t one exists.  2.  To develop the a b i l i t y t o formulate  hypotheses from scant  data,  and I t s a l l i e d a b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g a theory from more d a t a .  12  These 'two s u b - o b j e c t i v e s are i n d i s p e n s a b l e to the s c i e n t i f i c method and should be i n c l u d e d under the g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e p r o p o s i n g to develop  the a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method.  a p p a r e n t l y necessary i n c l u s i o n s the statement to be s a t i s f a c t o r y .  Except f o r these  o f the o b j e c t i v e seems  There does n o t seem t o be any o v e r l a p p i n g w i t h  the p r e c e d i n g o b j e c t i v e although d o u b t l e s s m a t e r i a l from the f i r s t o b j e c t i v e must be used to develop 3.  "To develop  the a b i l i t y t o t h i n k s c i e n t i f i c a l l y .  the a b i l i t y to p e r f o r m simple experiments  and thus to  a p p r e c i a t e the experimental b a s i s of s c i e n c e " seems at f i r s t to belong under the second  objective.  glance  When we examine the r i d e r "and  thus to a p p r e c i a t e the experimental b a s i s of s c i e n c e " we might w e l l wonder i f t h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n i s n o t developed objective.  E l e v e n persons  s o l i c i t e d statements p u r e l y "mental"  r e p l y i n g to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e made un-  of t h i s n a t u r e . .  I f the o b j e c t i v e were s e t f o r  development t h i s comment would be q u i t e true and the  o b j e c t i v e c o u l d be i n c l u d e d under the second of  adequately by the second  one. The development  '  a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method i s l a r g e l y a mental develop-  ment• perhaps i t can be sub#limed i n t o a p u r e l y mental p r o c e s s .  The  t h i r d o b j e c t i v e t r i e s to d i r e c t us away from t h i s to the d e v e l o p i n g of  the mechanical  s k i l l s and the concomitant  each of us to do experimenting  on our own.  student should be a b l e to do experimenting  confidence n e c e s s a r y f o r I t suggests  that the  f o r h i m s e l f on h i s own  i n i t i a t i v e c o n c e r n i n g simple problems t h a t a r i s e i n h i s everyday The  o b j e c t i v e does n o t imply t h a t he must experiment  life.  to f i n d out  everything,as t h i s would be a v e r y w a s t e f u l , tedious, and l e n g t h y education.  The student should be able to experiment  by h i m s e l f t o  the e x t e n t , t h a t he r e a l l y can a p p r e c i a t e the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f great  13  scientists.  So one can r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e these increments to our  s o c i a l wealth and knowledge u n t i l he has met c o n f u s i o n , annoyances,  the d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  doubts  and d e s p a i r s : t h a t go w i t h a c t u a l experimenting  The average class-room experiments, wherein  the student by h i m s e l f  or i n a group does the a c t u a l e x p e r i m e n t i n g ^ i s the " f i r s t step i n t h i s direction.  He may  not l e a r n any more b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s , nor under-  stand them more c l e a r l y than when taught by w e l l - p r e p a r e d demonst r a t i o n s but he does o b t a i n t r a i n i n g i n mechanical s k i l l ,  and  velops s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n v a r i o u s degrees.  trained  Here would be  and tested, a p u p i l ' s a b i l i t y , to p l a n h i s a t t a c k on a problem - too great d i f f i c u l t y , and h i s a b i l i t y  de-  of not  to c o l l e c t the n e c e s s a r y  apparatus or m a t e r i a l s and arrange them to conduct h i s experiment or other a c t i v i t y .  The committee i n i n c l u d i n g t h i s  o b j e c t i v e seems to  i n t e n d something s i m i l a r to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o u t l i n e d h e r e . t e s t i n g technique must determine  the " v a r i o u s degrees" of  Good  improve-  ments of t h i s type: i n v o l v i n g the t e s t i n g o f s k i l l s as w e l l as  "mental'  processes. "To enable the student to c o u n t e r a c t s u p e r s t i t i o n and to c o r r e c t erroneous b e l i e f s through the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s " . I t smacks of the s c i e n t i f i c c r u s a d e r ' s s p i r i t  endeavouring to arouse  the student to s e t h i s lance a g a i n s t the hoary head o f e r r o r .  Its  b a s i c i n t e n t i s that the s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and t r a i n i n g developed should not remain p a s s i v e , or i n e r t , b u t should be a c t i v e , dynamic. W e l l might we  ask what we  s h o u l d do under  t h i s heading.  to be s e v e r a l s u b - o b j e c t i v e s that would be p r o f i t a b l e  There seem;;  to r e c o r d here,  namely-- to r e c o g n i z e e r r o r s i n l o g i c such as some of the s i m p l e r s y l l o g i s t i c forms; to t r a i n students to t r a c e true cause and  effect  14  to o f f s e t the f a i l i n g that humans show i n u s i n g mere c o i n c i d e n c e  as  a b a s i s f o r c o n c l u s i o n s or judgments ('This i s an extremely v a l u a b l e t r a i n i n g i n I t s e l f and worthy to be  i n c l u d e d i n any  educational  programme); to develop the a t t i t u d e o f r i g o r o u s c r i t i c i s m of/what the  true s c i e n t i s t u s u a l l y terms "pseudo-science"; to render  student  immune to the m i s a p p l i e d use  l a r l y by c e r t a i n types obeisance  o f the term s c i e n c e , p a r t i c u -  o f advertisers, and  to r e p l a c e a s l a v i s h  to the mere words " s c i e n c e " and  " s c i e n t i f i c " w i t h an  r i g h t , honest view o f what i s t r u l y s c i e n t i f i c . of the  I t i s supplementary to the f i r s t  "J?o a p p r e c i a t e achievements i n the f i e l d o f science and r  with  of s c i e n t i s t s to the modern w o r l d " .  The  t h e i r achievpments i n g e n e r a l  the p r e v i o u s  of o b j e c t i v e s . "To  two.  the  contri-  to. the modern  i s a straight-forward  t i v e w i t h no more i m p l i e d than i n the d i r e c t statement. overlap  transgress  objective dealing  the a p p r e c i a t i o n of the c o n t r i b u t i o n of s c i e n t i s t s  world and  o b j e c t i v e s , and i s one  up-  With t h i s a n a l y s i s  o b j e c t i v e completed, the o b j e c t i v e does not seem to  s e r i o u s l y on the o t h e r s .  butions  the  objec-  I t does not  o f the enrichment  type  I t d e a l s p r i m a r i l y w i t h the development of a t t i t u d e s .  explore the f i e l d o f s c i e n c e i n order to a s s i s t the p u p i l to  choose h i s v o c a t i o n " does not suggest that the student  overlap any  other o b j e c t i v e .  from h i s experience  l e a r n where h i s weaknesses and  w i t h the subject would  s t r e n g t h l a y i n order  that he  choose more w i s e l y to take^or no p l a t e r t r a i n i n g i n these .With the i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t i e s  I t would  may  fields.  o f modern s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n -  i n g i s being pushed i n t o the h i g h e r grades of even u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l so that r e l a t i v e l y few v o c a t i o n s based on s c i e n c e are now to the h i g h s c h o o l graduate.  available  H i s g r a d u a t i o n and h i g h s c h o o l  training  15  i n s c i e n c e a t best i s o n l y a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r l a t e r work. o b j e c t i v e would mean t h a t the s c i e n c e department  must be  v e r y c a r e f u l l y w i t h the Guidance programme, an admirable • 7.  This  integrated objective  I f c a r r i e d out p r o p e r l y . "To p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s f o r the worthy use o f l e i s u r e " i s an at f i r s t  innocuous  i n appearance.  objective  Commonly, we would suppose that i t  r e f e r s to the development of hobbies, r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t , and  such.  The d i f f i c u l t y here l i e s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the word "worthy". What one s o c i e t y deems worthy another does n o t ; f o r Instance Germany now has her s c i e n t i s t s working f u r i o u s l y to develop  e x p l o s i v e s , to  d i s c o v e r a l l manner o f t h i n g s to render Germany s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . Why? Hot w i t h the view of t r u e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , w h i c h i s a moderately worthy aim to most p e o p l e b u t 7  f o r the purpose  hegemony, i f n o t w o r l d domination. n a t i o n s i n Europe oppose t h i s .  o f g a i n i n g European  Of course most o f the other  Is the great I n t e r e s t which v a s t  numbers o f Germans take i n s c i e n c e of t h i s type a worthy i n t e r e s t ? W i l l her a b i l i t y along t h i s l i n e g i v e to her the supremacy which comes from the s u r v i v a l of the f i t t e s t , e x t i n c t i o n of a c i v i l i z a t i o n ? ficult  to e s t a b l i s h , t o ' 1  or w i l l i t l e a d to the  The w o r t h i n e s s of t h i s aim i s d i f -  the s u b j e c t i v e nature o f w o r t h i n e s s .  Take, '  A  as another example the case o f a young g i r l w i t h the u s u a l b i o l o g i c urges^might  c o n c e i v a b l y t r a n s g r e s s p r e s e n t s o c i a l mores, p o s s i b l y  abetted by frequent attendance at the lower type of dance h a l l s . Dancing i t s e l f i s not i n i q u i t o u s .  T h i s i s one use of l e i s u r e .  But  suppose as a r e s u l t of her i n t e r e s t s here the g i r l gave b i r t h t o a Suggested as a c r i t i c i s m of the o b j e c t i v e by Mr. R. S t r a i g h t , S u p e r v i s o r the Bureau o f Measurements, Yancouver S c h o o l Board O f f i c e , Vancouver,  16  c h i l d , s o c i e t y a t p r e s e n t immediately would condemn her and the i n cident.  In Germany H i t l e r has announced that persons must take a  much broader view of i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s than they have done i n the p a s t and must come to l o o k upon i t as the normal p r o c e d u r e .  Does  not t h i s a c t i o n of the g i r l i n s u r e t h a t the race w i l l be maintained, and do not the statesmen o f the v a r i o u s n a t i o n s uphold the ance o f n a t i o n a l v i g o r as a most worthy aim?  One  mainten-  s o c i e t y condemns,  another accepts the same i n c i d e n t or i n t e r e s t as worthy.  Who i s to  judge worthiness? N e v e r t h e l e s s , some workable  d e f i n i t i o n of what i s worthy would help  the teacher even i f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n might not p l e a s e a l l p h i l o s o p h e r s . The s u g g e s t i o n , based f r a n k l y on a u t i l i t a r i a n p h i l o s o p h y , i s herewith advanced  that the development o f any i n t e r e s t which does not  injure  the i n d i v i d u a l p h y s i o a l l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , and m o r a l l y (on the accepted standards) and which does n o t i n j u r e other p e r s o n s would be a worthy i n t e r e s t to f o l l o w . in  There i s a wide c h o i c e of o p p o r t u n i t i e s  s c i e n c e to develop worth-while,  i n f o r m a t i v e , or harmless  interests.  To show to the student these o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s the main end of t h i s o b j e c t i v e which does n o t seem to encroach on other o b j e c t i v e s . "To develop the d e s i r e to r e a d s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e " . d i f f e r e n t from literature".  It i s q u i t e  the o b j e c t i v e " t o develop the a b i l i t y to r e a d s c i e n t i f i c The  development of d e s i r e s i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t  whereas the measuring  of a b i l i t y i s r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e .  to ga»age,  This o b j e c t i v e  does not seem to cut a c r o s s any o t h e r s , a l t h o u g h o f course i t i s dependent upon some o f them^notably understanding n e c e s s a r y f o r r e a d i n g .  the f i r s t  one which develops the  17  9.  "To  develop r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s and a d a p t a b i l i t y to new  a v e r y worthy aim.  I t i s based i n p a r t upon p a s t  hence the s c i e n c e course could be wide, sound experience,-  and  conditions" i s experience,-and  of i n e s t i m a b l e value  i n p a r t upon n a t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e which  p u r p o r t e d l y cannot be develop ed much though i t may }  a l s due  i n giving a  to b i o l o g i c functions.  vary i n i n d i v u -  I t w o u l d seem t h a t one  important s u b - o b j e c t i v e s here would be  of the  to develop a true a p p r e c i a t i o n  of the understanding of cause and e f f e c t , f o r r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s manifest  except i n new  of sound i n f o r m a t i o n would a l s o be  of great v a l u e , and  be c o n t r i b u t e d by achievements toward the f i r s t "To  h e a l t h " i s an o b j e c t i v e which l o g i c a l l y must be  A  mass  t h i s would  objective.  a c q u i r e knowledge w h i c h w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to p u b l i c and  first  i s not  c o n d i t i o n s where an a n a l y s i s of causes i s  paramount, however r o u g h and ready t h i s a n a l y s i s might be.  10.  very  personal  subsumed.under tte  o b j e c t i v e as i t d e a l s p r i m a r i l y w i t h r e a c t i o n s to environment.  It merits  separate mention from the p r a c t i c a l p o i n t o f view because  there e x i s t s a great tendency to s c o t c h t h i s aspect science courses.  This statement i s supported by the r e s u l t s of  r e s e a r c h conducted by Dr. D. 0, B a i r d who ology books and f i n d i n g s was aspects  i n the " s t r a i g h t "  made an a n a l y s i s of b i -  the courses of study i n New  York s t a t e .  One  of h i s  that there i s l e s s work i n p u p i l s ' notebooks on h e a l t h  found In text-books and courses suggest1 i n g t h a t t h i s work i s p a s s e d by i n some degree. And b i o l o g y has the  of b i o l o g y than was  g r e a t e s t amount of time spent on t h i s phase of any  sciences. 1.  The  usual chemistry  of the s p e c i a l  course ignores h e a l t h aspects  other  B a i r d , D.O., C o n t r i b u t i o n s to E d u c a t i o n , #400; Teachers'College,Golimb i a Un. New York. 1929, A b s t r a c t , C u r t i s , Sec. D i g e s t p . 202.  18  than the b r e a t h i n g of pure a i r , the p u r i f i c a t i o n of water  (mainly  chemical at t h a t ) , and sometimes mention of drugs that can be t h e s i z e d , w i t h some of the newer books i n c l u d i n g foods and *  vitamins,  p h y s i c s p a s s e s by n e a r l y a l l aspects o f h e a l t h e x c e p t i n g the problems of v e n t i l a t i o n .  .  syn-  In no p h y s i c s book which has been examined (of the  nine l e a d i n g P h y s i c s  t e x t s on the c o n t i n e n t ) i s a mention made of  care i n h a n d l i n g e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e s , c o n n e c t i o n s , and such, i s any mention made of f i r s t  a i d for e l e c t r i c a l  shocks.  T h i s n e g l e c t of h e a l t h aspects by p h y s i c s courses and l e s s degree by chemistry 1  courses  i s a f l y i n g into  search r e s u l t s obtained by Dr. G-. S. C r a i g who i n g given by laymen to an e x t e n s i v e p l a c e d the "acquaintance  list  to a s l i g h t l y  the face of r e -  found t h a t the weight-  of o b j e c t i v e s of  education  w i t h such elementary laws of nature  necessary f o r the h e a l t h of the i n d i v i d u a l and  as  o t h e r s , f o l l o w e d v e r y c l o s e l y by the "major causes of i l l  and  the c o n t r i b u t i o n of science to the c o r r e c t i o n of these  to g a i n some i d e a of t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance.  ideas, s t i l l  and may  exclude  the b e s t way  a measure expressed  causes".  i n questionjit  at the outset the weaknesses of a general o p i n i o n which o f t e n the s t a t u s quo  v e r y r a d i c a l , new,  of obtaining this  teachers of s c i e n c e , and  was  Admitting expresses  and perhaps more v a l u a b l e  i n f o r m a t i o n of w e i g h t i n g  by the more e n l i g h t e n e d group o f human b e i n g s .  group should be p l a c e d those who  heaL th  Objectives  H a v i n g examined the o b j e c t i v e s of the courses next necessary  are  the community" above  all  E v a l u a t i n g the Importance of the p r e s e n t  nor  i s by In t h i s  are most a f f e c t e d by the o b j e c t i v e s , the  the v a r i o u s persons who  are i n executive p o s i t i o n s ;  1. C r a i g , G.S., C o n t r i b . to Ed. #276, Teachers' C o l l e g e , C o l . Univ., New York, ADStract, p . 40 C u r t i s , Second D i g e s t of I n v e s t , i n Teach.of Sc.  or a d m i n i s t r a t i c e ones.  Other teachers would form another u s e f u l group  f o r purposes of comparison as w e l l as the p r o f e s s o r s at the U n i v e r s i t y , The  laymen i f they could be p r e v a i l e d upon to express opinions would form  a s o r t of c o n t r o l .  I t was  q u e s t i o n n a i r e method, and (a)  proposed to f i n d  to submit the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  U n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s ; p e r s o n s who positions,  ( I f enough r e t u r n s had  these two (b)  t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n by to these  the groups.  hold high administrative come i n to warrant  separation,  groups would have been segrjated,)  Science R e v i s i o n Committee members; s c i e n c e teachers i n the high school. two  (Again i f s u f f i c i e n t r e t u r n s had  come i n these  groups would have been separated.)  (c)  Other teachers  (&)  Any  of: the h i g h s c h o o l .  other r e t u r n s not i n c l u d e d i n above. 1  Before  s e t t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ^ s e c t i o n s of two books were s t u d i e d .  These p r o v i d e d  c o n s i d e r a b l e guidance.  n a i r e was p r e p a r e d  and  submitted  The  f i r s t rough d r a f t of the  to s e v e r a l persons f o r c r i t i o i s m .  As an outcome of t h i s c r i t i o i s m i t was an e x p l a n a t o r y  sheet  thought a d v i s a b l e to p r e p a r e  to accompany the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  purpose of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  question-  the evidence  On  i t was p l a c e d  the  of i t s need as i n d i c a t e d by  various q u o t a t i o n s , and a p a r a g r a p h of d i r e c t i o n s to f o l l o w i n making r e turns.  The  without  comments.  conscious  o b j e c t i v e s were p l a c e d on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e Only t h e i r order  or sequence was  form u n a l t e r e d  altered,  l e s t any  i n f l u e n c e might be e x e r t e d to suggest t h a t the Science  Committee had e v a l u a t e d ramme of S t u d i e s .  The  and un-  Revision  them i n the order i n which they appear i n the P r o g q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  memeographed and  distributed  1. Monroe and Enge(:hart, "The S c i e n t i f i c Study of E d u c a t i o n a l Problems, Chap. I l l , x i l l • A l e x a n d e r , C a r t e r . "How to Locate E d u c a t i o n a l Information and Data ?  20  p e r s o n a l l y , ' a n d by m a i l w i t h .suitable postage and addressed r e t u r n envelope: enclosed.  A copy i s i n c l u d e d i n the Appendix.  When the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d classifications  o f Science  Teachers and Non-science Teachers f o r those  were r e c e i v e d from the Summer School through the m a i l .  c l a s s e s and those  that  that were r e t u r n e d  The s p e c i a l groups were canvassed i n d i v i d u a l l y , so that  t h e i r r e t u r n s c o u l d be kept separate these were m o d i f i e d occupied by those  they were s o r t e d i n t o the two  from the others, and the forms f o r  s l i g h t l y i n the headings to comply w i t h the p o s i t i o n s  canvassed.  The r e t u r n s from the U n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s  were n o t v e r y numerous m a i n l y because most of the s c i e n c e departments a r e not very a c t i v e d u r i n g the Summer S e s s i o n , and few o f the p r o f e s s o r s were present.  T h e i r r e t u r n s have been i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h those who occxipied  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or executive p o s i t i o n s ,  The members o f the Science  Revision  Committee are w i d e l y  s c a t t e r e d d u r i n g the h o l i d a y season and i t has been  impossible t o secure  the o p i n i o n of some o f them.  As q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s go they have been r a t h e r s a t i s f y i n g f o r from the one hundred forms i s s u e d to date e i g h t y - f i v e have been r e t u r n e d . these  f i f t y - s e v e n came from the two Summer School  .  and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  s i d e r e d h i m s e l f a science had taught  and Mr, l o r d ' s c l a s s i n School  The f i f t y - s e v e n were almost e v e n l y d i v i d e d be-  tween Non-science Teachers c r i t e r i o n of s e g r e g a t i o n  c l a s s e s , P r o f e s s o r Wood's  1  graduate c l a s s I n Problems i n Education, ,2 Law  Of  (28) and Science  Teachers (27) t a k i n g as the  the person's one statement as to whether he conteacher  or n o t .  A few of the Non-science group  s c i e n c e but n o t a great number.  The r e t u r n s of rankings were t o t a l l e d , and then averaged; t h i s was thought to. be a s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e method f o r the needs. • E d u c a t i o n 23 • E d u c a t i o n 12  The percentages  21  were t r e a t e d the same way.  The r a n k i n g r e t u r n s were f u r t h e r a n a l y z e d "by  making a h i s t o g r a m , then showing the range of v a r i a t i o n , and l a s t l y c a l c u l a t i n g t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n t o get an a c c u r a t e view of the homogeneity o f opinion,  The r e s u l t s from these two groups f o l l o w i n the t a b l e s .  The f o l l o w i n g frequency histograms show c l e a r l y the massing o f o p i n i o n i n some of t a b l e s and a d i s p e r s i o n i n o t h e r s .  There seems t o be a con-  s i d e r a b l e degree o f u n a n i m i t y of o p i n i o n between the s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s and the non-science dispersion.  t e a c h e r s , as b o t h groups show almost the same massing or  The massing o f o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g the p r e s e n t o b j e c t i v e s 1,  2, and 8 as shown r e s p e c t i v e l y i n d, f . and g i s v e r y emphatic, p e c u l i a r schism i n # 3 ( j ) and 5 ( e ) .  Note the  I n § 4 (b) t h e r e seems t o be a group  who have v e r y emphatic i d e a s t h a t the overcoming of common e r r o r s and s u p e r s t i t i o n s i s not the f u n c t i o n o f a s c i e n c e c o u r s e .  There might be  i n t e r e s t i n g reason's f o r t h i s b u t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d n o t c a l l f o r any comments on t h e o b j e c t i v e s as l a i d down i n the c o u r s e .  22 TABLE 1 A  (Very-. &u-*J> f>-~'B'«imx.\-eQj 3  Summary or returnsyjsubmitted to two c l a s s e s o f t e a c h e r s a t t e n d i n g the Summer S e s s i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1938. Objective  Ranking (Column A) P e r c e n t a g e s (B) Sum o f Average Re-rank Range Stand, Sum Ranking Rank Dev.  a Worthy use (#7). of l e i s u r e . Science T. 138 Hon-science .153 b Counteract (#4) s u p e r s t i t i o n s . Science T. 166 Non-science 181 c Develop r e (#9) s ourcefulne s s ... ., Science T. 135 Non-science 127 d Bodv o f Seien(#1) t i f i c know. Science T. 52 Non-science 68 e Achievements (#5) i n f i e l d of s c . \ 159 ; Science f . Non-science 167 f Use of s c i e n (#2 ) • t i f i c method -. Science T. 68 Non-science 72 r D e s i r e to r e a d (#8) s c i e n t . l i t e r . 216 . Soienoe T. • ' ' Non-science 236 h p u b l i c and pern i o )sonal h e a l t h Science T. 157 Non-sc lance 139 i Explore r e (#6) v o c a t i o n s Science T. 197 Non-science 185 .1 A b i l i t v to (#3) experiment ., Science T. 189 Non-science 189  • I'  5,11 5.46  4 5  2-8 2-10  6.15 6.46  7 7  2-10 2-10  5. 4.53  3 3  1.92 2.43  11.66 2.15  :  240 250  9.00 *) © 2 «3  2.76 2.845  173 211  6.3 7.81  2-10 1-10  2.26 3.01  261 325  9.66 12.03  1 1  1-5 1-5  1.202 1,46  555 574  20.55 21.25  5,96 5.96  6 6  2-9 2-9  2,27 " 2.15  193 202  7.14 7.48  2.52 2.61  2 :. 2  1-7  1-8  1,72 1.98  414 531  15,33 19.66  8,00  10  2-0.0  2,13  142  5,26  8 .43  10  3-10  1.195  129  4.78  5.81 4.96  5 4  1-10 1-9  2.65 2,03  243 271  9.00 10.37  7.29 6.61  9 8  1-10 2-10  2.108  173 175  6.41 6.48  7.00 6.74  8 9  2-10 3-10  2,32 2.19  189 173  6.92 6.41  Sum o f c h o i c e s made by adding a l l the r a n k i n g s f o r any one o b j e c t i v e . Average obtained by d i v i d i n g sum o f c h o i c e s by frequency; 27 f o r Science Teachers, and 28 f o r Non-science Teachers. Standard d e v i a t i o n c a l c u l a t e d by P e a r s o n product-moment method. Percentages were summated and averaged from r e t u r n s on q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  23  FIGURE 1 Frequency  oTi»tri b u t t o n s  objectives  o\ G e n e r a l  Taacirifcrs  attfenoli/ig  ^Hi&fcKjra-ms.  Oloi&ctiv«  of  of  rankings  Science Tha  Science  or- e v a l u a t i o n s  I V and V  l y  F i f tv-five  S u m TO <r»^ S e s s i o n acllers  a."  ^ c c o n d o.ry S c h o o l of  fini.  " Ho n - science Tea-che^j 0  a  f o tine t e n  of t|i<2 U n i v t r i i t y  in. r e e l ,  10  given  loje c t i v c  ( H  CoL in gmer!.)  b  ,nB«Hetw I J  M *>  c v  u. 1' 3"  V  I 'fc'T'  O b j e c t ive  8  24  u-  C  ( # q "m Bullefml) 10.  _V Z' 3' V  i"  7 6' l ' to' 1  Olojecf ii/e "d" (#]  in B u l l e t i n  I)  E  l  2.' 3' 4' s-'  Ko-^kiiA^t  ObjectiVc "c" (#5 \  n  Bulktml)  7  1  8' <?' ft  1  1' £  3' A' S'  4' 7  ft'««' |V  1  1i »ve 1o4  U4~|  (*2  ^  1  Iballet^l)  24  FIGURE 1 Leant) 11.1  it  O b j e c t i v e "<j"  14.  (*8l.i Bulletin i )  Objective  k  (*10".n B u l l e t i n ]  id  I *  >  i  v.  a. 4  *' ' ' < 4' 7  1  3  4  S  i  25 'TABLE 11 E v a l u a t i o n s and Weightings Made by S i x t e e n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , P r i n c i p a l s , and Science Committee Members  Objective  Ranking (Column A) Percentages (B) Sum o f Average Re-ran:c Range Stand.Dev Sum Average Rankings Rank Weighting  a Worthy use (#7) o f l e i s u r e  92  5.75  5  3-9  b Counteract (#4) s u p e r s t i t i o n s  108  6.75  8  2-10  c Develop r e (#9) s o u r c e f u l n e s s  75  4.68  3  1-10  d Body o f s c i e n (#1) t i f i c know.  23  1.43  1  e Achievements in (#5) f i e l d of s c i e n ce96  6.  f Use o f s c i e n (#2) t i f i c method  2.  32  119  7.43  2.84  117  7,3  2»3^  152  9,5  1-3  .75  403  25.2'  6  2-9  1.83  125  7.8  2  1-4  1  305  19.  g D e s i r e to r e a d (#8) s c i e n t i f i c literature 120  8.5  10  3-10  2.15  85  5.3  h P u b l i c and p e r (#10)sonal h e a l t h 88  5.5  4  2-10  3.04  143  8.93  i Explore f o r (#6) vocations  113  7.06  . 9  3-10  2.1  108  6.75  j A b i l i t y to (#3) experiment  101  6.3  7  2-10  2,52  108  6,75  26 TABLE 111 Summary of E v a l u a t i o n s by 78  Teachers  (Composite o f a l l r e t u r n s . )  Objective  Ranking; (Column A) Sum of Average! Re- Range of Stand Sum rankingsl rank rank: r a n k i n g s Dev.  Percentage (Column B) Range Average Weighting of %  a Worthy use (7). of l e i s ure  431  5.53  2-10  2.01  646  1-20  8.28  b Counteract (4) superstitions  502  6.43  2-10  2.78  539  0-20  6,91  c Develop r e sourcefulness  366  4.56  1-10  2.64  821  2-35  10.53  11  d Body of scisntific (1) knowledge of e n v i r .  155  1.98  1-5  1.20  1576  8-50  20.2  20  e Achievements (5) i n the f i e l , of s c i e n c e 463  5.91  1-9  2.20  576  1-20  f Use of scientific (2) method  185  2.37  1-8  1.65  1389  6-40  g Desire to r e a d scient.| (8) l i t e r . 629  8.06  2-10  2.08  394  1-10  5.05  h P u b l i c and (10) p e r s o n a l health  5.50  1-10  2.54  720  3-25  9.74  6.92  2-10  2,13  3-12  6.24  6.98  2-10  2,27  2-20  6.53  429  i Explore f o r (6) v o c a t i o n s j A b i l i t y to (3) exp eriment  545  10  I  509  Numerals i n b r a c k e t s denote order i n B u l l e t i n 1 page  159  7.38  17.8  98.66%  18  10  99%  I* requcw^Y t U * 1 * 9 r « . m s SWoWing tKe l>\btr i b ution Ranki'oa-5. Gwen to toe T e n Objeciives  50  1  At>»• «• 18o  Seventy- 03W Genera,! ScienceIV".  o f ti»«  of  r« b # (1-10, page I S ^ j B u l k f i n l j  FIGURE II (c««t) Frequency I>i»t«-ibuUon of Seventy-eigWt Evaluations of f\\z Objectives.  0 bjcdwe a. C*7i po-3« 15q,E>ullctinl)  1' 4' 3' 4' J' y 7' ft' <,! Eva.lu(ttien> (."Ra-nkingj)  Objective € paae J S ^ Baliet'n l )  +  l 3 4 (  16  2a-  22 2D  Objective lo (*4, page 15<J^B«JL l)  jots  1  1  j ' 4 7<fllflT l  Objects  If. 14  V  0  4-I  1'  3' 4i  ti 71 a' i ' i?  Z.' 3' 4 5"' 4' 7' a 1> (d 1  24 O b j e c t me 1 (#3, page 1 5 ^ 5 0 llefin i ) J*it>•  It-  I * 84  ,  1  Objective 3 C*»,fl5«?,2>ull«tm])  '"'  SUMMARY  The B e a r r a n g i n g of The P r e s e n t O b j e c t i v e s  From Table 111 i t w i l l be seen that the order of the o b j e c t i v e s a r ranged w i t h the most important f i r s t 1.  should  bes-  To a c q u i r e a body of knowledge i n the f i e l d  of s c i e n c e which w i l l  enable the student to i n t e r p r e t and a p p r e c i a t e h i s environment. 2.  To develop  a b i l i t y i n the use  of the s c i e n t i f i c method; e. g j —  (a) To make a c c u r a t e o b s e r v a t i o n s and to r e c o r d them s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , (b) To draw v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s . (c) To suspend judgment u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t evidence has been o b t a i n e d . .(d) To develop  a c r i t i c a l yet t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e  towards new  ideas.  3.  To  develop r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s and a d a p t a b i l i t y to new c o n d i t i o n s .  4.  To acquire knowledge which w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to p u b l i c and p e r s o n a l health.  5.  To p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s f o r a worthy use o f l e i s u r e .  6.  To a p p r e c i a t e achievements i n the f i e l d  o f sctenoe, and  the c o n t r i b -  u t i o n s of s c i e n t i s t s to the modern w o r l d . 7.  To enable  the student to c o u n t e r a c t s u p e r s t i t i o n and to c o r r e c t  erroneous b e l i e f s through the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s . 8.  To e x p l o r e the f i e l d  of s c i e n c e i n order to a s s i s t  the p u p i l to  choose h i s v o c a t i o n . 9.  To develop  the a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m  simple experiments,  and thus to  a p p r e c i a t e the experimental b a s i s o f s c i e n c e , .0.  To develop  the d e s i r e to read s c i e n t i f i c  literature.  T h i s order now p r o v i d e s a guide f o r the amount o f t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l for each o b j e c t i v e .  The percentage weightings  give a more p r e c i s e guide,  but  they should not be used r i g i d l y ,  f o r the l e s s e r important  A minus v a r i a t i o n of one p e r  cent  o b j e c t i v e s and a g r e a t e r d i s p e r s i o n of up  to a  p l u s t e n p e r cent f o r the f i r s t  o b j e c t i v e would seem f a i r .  CHAP TER 111 COMMON FORMS OF TEST ITEMS AND  Scope of  THEIB FUNCTIONS ON  TESTS  Chapter  'Having determined al  •  the r e l a t i v e importance of the o b j e c t i v e s of Gener-  Science, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to the B r i t i s h Columbia  General Science I T and T, i t i s now types of questions  necessary  courses,  to i n v e s t i g a t e t e s t s  and  t h a t compose them i n order to f i n d which forms of ques-  t i o n s w i l l measure i n the best manner achievement of these s e v e r a l objectives.  In t h i s chapter a survey w i l l be made of the more common t.yoes  of q u e s t i o n s found  on both s t a n d a r d i z e d and o r d i n a r y t e s t s i n the  This w i l l be f o l l o w e d i n Chapter  field  of  science.  IT by a more d e t a i l e d  of  c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s to see to what degree these t e s t s attempt  to measure achievement of the v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s .  In subsequent  study  chapters  an attempt i s made to adapt and i n v e n t q u e s t i o n forms to meet the s e v e r a l o b j e c t i v e s more  adequately.  The Three Major Types o f T e s t s I t may 1.  be  s a i d o f t e s t i n g t h a t there are three major  To.obtain a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d a t a .  purposes--  In t h i s category should f a l l  t e s t s used f o r the a l l o c a t i o n of l e t t e r - g r a d e s .  Tests used to  the  segregate  the a b l e r students from the l e s s able i n t o r e s p e c t i v e c l a s s e s have t h i s function.  Many A p t i t u d e Tests f a l l  i n t h i s grouping, although some l i k e  the Seashore M u s i c a l A p t i t u d e Test t r y to o b t a i n an absolute measure r a t her than a r e l a t i v e  one.  In a l l these t e s t s the essence  Is to o b t a i n a d i s t r i b u t i o n , 1 the r e l a t i v e placement o f p u p i l s measured a g a i n s t the o t h e r s , -.  flawkes,Lindauist,and Mann,"The C o n s t r u c t i o n and Use P 23, pp Ib4-lfa5 and p a s s i m . 31  to f i n d  o f Achievement T e s t s "  2.  To a s c e r t a i n achievement i n a g i v e n f i e l d ;  matter,  a general t e s t of a b i l i t y to use  A unit  t e s t of the  the s c i e n t i f i c procedures  factual devel-  oped d u r i n g the course, or a t e s t of the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c  prin-  c i p e s to h e a l t h problems would be examples of achievement t e s t s r e s t r i c t e d to c e r t a i n f i e l d s ,  A t e s t of t h i s type should be a comprehensive one sam-  p l i n g a l l s e c t i o n s of work of at l e a s t average  3.  To diagnose  student d i f f i c u l t i e s ;  s i v e as i t i s designed  importance.  This t e s t should be q u i t e  to l o c a t e p u p i l d i f f i c u l t i e s .  exten-  When c r u c i a l  sec-  t i o n s of work a r e ' b e i n g tested,such as a law o r ' p r i n c i p l e ^ s e v e r a l p o i n t s a t t a c k i n g the problem from d i f f e r e n t angles should be employed. The  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e s t may  be b r i e f and makes much use  of  sampling.  Every item should have a d i s c r i m i n a t i v e value d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g i t s h a r p l y from the o t h e r s .  I t i s o r d i n a r i l y a s h o r t t e s t w i t h the minimum number  of items necessary to give r e l i a b i l i t y . long as there i s p r e s e n t a proper  I t need n o t be a l l - e m b r a c i n g as  sequence of d i f f i c u l t y of the t e s t  items.  These items s h o u l d have t h e i r d i s c r i m i n a t i v e power measured i n terms of standard d e v i a t i o n s ,  For i n s t a n c e i n p r e p a r i n g the t e s t the examiner  may  have t e s t items A , B , 0, jj a l l of equal d i s c r i m i n a t i v e a b i l i t y but d e a l i n g with quite d i f f e r e n t ministrative  topics.  He  need chose only one  of these f o r h i s ad-  test.  (Jommonly an achievement t e s t may  be d e f i n e d as one  designed  to  ex-  p r e s s i n terms of a s i n g l e score a p u p i l ' s r e l a t i v e achievement i n a given f i e l d of achievement.  Hawkes, L i n d q u i s t and Kann a s s e r t that ac-  hievement t e s t s should be made on a b a s i s of the d i s c r i m i n a t i v e power of the items to p r o v i d e a p r o g r e s s i o n from low standard d e v i a t i o n v a l u e s to  33  h i g h ones,  i t should be comprehensive.  the w r i t e r i s tempted to d i s a g r e e , mainly tive".  With some p a r t s o f the  definition  on the b a s i s of the word " r e l a -  The c o n c e p t i o n o f the achievement t e s t as e x p l a i n e d above i s based  on pragmatic p h i l o s o p h y .  While i t i s admitted  that there i s c o n t i n u a l  change, p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the d i s c o v e r y p e r i o d of science that the w o r l d i s i n today, n e v e r t h e l e s s one less  can develop  measuring instruments  that are  r e l a t i v e and more n e a r l y a b s o l u t e than i s the l e t t e r - g r a d i n g based on  a normal curve of d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  There i s no purpose gained i n making an  achievement t e s t r i g o r o u s l y d i s c r i m i n a t i v e , for- an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e s t does t h i s .  Bather  he can see how  the achievement t e s t should be a " p u p i l s *  much he has  or has not l e a r n e d or developed,  t e s t " whereby i t should n o t  be a mastery t e s t which more n e a r l y approaches the d i a g n o s t i c t e s t ^ i n funct i o n , but r a t h e r i t s h o u l d be of the nature a b s o l u t e standard upon which may scores.  While the i d e a l t e s t  of a more n e a r l y complete or  be i n d i c a t e d the l i k e l y h i g h and  low  o f this nature should cover a l l p o i n t s of a  course such a t e s t i s i m p o s s i b l e i n p r a c t i c e .  However, the sampling  could  be so e x t e n s i v e and i n t e n s i v e that the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the t e s t w i l l be r e duced o n l y by an i n s i g n i f i c a n t amount from the i d e a l .  R e f e r r i n g to the  i l l u s t r a t i o n i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n i f items A, B. C, D t e s t t o p i c s they must be i n c l u d e d i n an achievement t e s t . of no d i s c r i m i n a t i v e v a l u e s should be unfair.  There may  be f i f t y items  that a l l students^having  taken  To i n s i s t  different that  items  e l i m i n a t e d from achievement t e s t s i s  of fundamental importance i n a course  the c o u r s e ^ c o u l d answer.  These must be  ex-  c l u d e d from p r e s e n t type achievement t e s t s as not p o s s e s s i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i v e power.  Their inclusion  i n a t e s t i s looked upon i n the nature  o f padding,  and so i t would be i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e s t , but i t i s not i n an  achieve-  34 merit t e s t f o r i t r e p r e s e n t s average score measure t h i s .  the b a s i c or minimum course more t r u l y than the  taken from the d i s t r i b u t i o n . To judge a p u p i l ,  or a teacher a l s o , upon only the discrimie*  nativ-e questions based on a course c r i m i n a t i v e t e s t s take  Achievement t e s t i n g s u r e l y must  i s not o b t a i n i n g a true measure.  Dis-  o f f the cream, but then there i s a great amount of  value i n skim m i l k . To broaden t h e c o n c e p t i o n of achievement t e s t s would seem to be l i n e w i t h p r e s e n t thoughts  In  on the matter o f making r e p o r t s on students.  If  the f u t u r e r e p o r t i s going to be l e s s competitive and more n e a r l y a r e p o r t on what the student h i m s e l f i s a c t u a l l y doing, I t would seem n e c e s s a r y  to  :  measure on an a b s o l u t e s t a n d a r d .  The b a s i c achievement which when p u t  i n t o s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d q u e s t i o n s and not garnished or e m b e l l i s h e d , has d i s c r i m i n a t i v e power c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the a b s o l u t e D i a g n o s t i c t e s t s s h o u l d be b u i l t the p r e c e d i n g .  little  standard.  on a d i f f e r e n t p l a n from e i t h e r of  They should be e x t e n s i v e , should not be shortened  by  sampling,  and  should have s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s b e a r i n g on each of the more  important  or c r u c i a l p o i n t s such as laws or p r i n c i p l e s , i n order to come  at the problem from d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f a t t a c k . a law and  or p r i n c i p l e I s based u s u a l l y upon two  the misunderstanding  the p r i n c i p l e .  of any  one  This i s necessary because  or more f a c t o r s  factor prevents  interacting,  the understanding  They should be arranged so as to r e p e a t b a s i c items  of  to  see i f weakness or s t r e n g t h o f p u p i l i s c o n s i s t e n t .  Research L i m i t e d to Questions  T e s t i n g Achievement  Of these three types o f t e s t s o n l y the achievement group i s s e l e c t e d for  study.  that may  I t i s Intended  to t r y to f i n d or devise techniques  be used i n measuring achievements i n the f i e l d s  of t e s t i n g  of the v a r i o u s  o b j e c t i v e s r a t h e r than to make a s t a t i s t i c a l the f i e l d , which i s another problem  entirely.  In a l l the types of t e s t s mentioned the s.ame.  or mathematic treatment o f  above the forms o f questions are  I t i s not the form o f q u e s t i o n that makes an achievement  or an  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e s t but the p l a n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the t e s t as a whole. The form o f the q u e s t i o n has a c o n s i d e r a b l e b e a r i n g upon the v a l i d i t y o f the q u e s t i o n and hence i n d i r e c t l y upon the v a l i d i t y o f a t e s t . perative  I t i s im-  that the q u e s t i o n be a n a l y z e d on t h i s b a s i s , " I s i t a c t u a l l y  t e s t i n g what i t i s d e s i r e d to t e s t ? "  I f the p r e s e n t form o f q u e s t i o n does  not t e s t d i r e c t l y what i s d e s i r e d perhaps  another form w o u l d be b e t t e r .  G h i e f Forms o f Q u e s t i o n s i n Common Use The c h i e f types of questions i n common use i n c l a s s - r o o m work and upon s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s  are«-  1.  T r u e - f a l s e and m o d i f i c a t i o n s ,  2.  M u l t i p l e c h o i c e and m o d i f i c a t i o n s ,  5.  Completion or R e c a l l , both sentence and p a r a g r a p h .  4.  Matching or A s s o c i a t i o n .  5.  Analogy.  6.  Diagrams,  7.  Catechism.  8.  Essay type r e s p o n s e s ,  9.  Mathematical  10.  Checking, check l i s t s ,  11.  Performance  12.  O r a l Examinations,  13.  Charts, Graphs,  calculation, identifications.  or " P r a c t i c a l "  Rearrangements,  tests.  interviews.  ^  14.  Comparisons and. C o n t r a s t s .  15.  C o n s t r u c t i o n s , Drawings.  The  36  True-galse Type The form of t h i s t e s t causes  the student to decide whether a  statement  i s true or f a l s e and to r e g i s t e r h i s d e c i s i o n a c c o r d i n g l y . There a r e many v a r i a t i o n s of t h i s $-  R i g h t or Wrong, Yes-No, P l u s - Z e r o ,  Plus-Minus. Another type i s to arrange a v a r i o u s forms throughout ,be  test w i t h the same p o i n t repeated i n  the t e s t i n order that "consistency of o p i n i o n may  checked. Another form has the s p e c i a l phrase  lined. or  or word t e s t e d i n i t a l i c s  or under-  I f the student decides that i t i s f a l s e he must c o r r e c t the phrase  word, This i s one of the f i r s t  developed  objective questions.  D u r i n g the  " t w e n t i e s " of t h i s c e n t u r y i t became v e r y p o p u l a r , but i t s p o p u l a r i t y i s waning now.  Pew  s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s now  employ  .'iv ...  done by s t u d e n t s , r e q u i r i n g ten p e r cent l e s s time tion  ( m u l t i p l e c h o i c e arrangement),  up  They are r a p i d l y  than a two-choice  to f i f t y p e r cent f o r r e c a l l  and  for; the s i m p l e r c a l c u l a t i o n type of problem not involving complicated 1 putations, was  Ruch and Stoddart found  the l e a s t r e l i a b l e  r e l i a b i l i t y for f i f t y  that the t r u e - f a l s e  ques-  com-  type of q u e s t i o n  of a l l types o f o b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s , w i t h a Items of o n l y ,555  as a g i n s t .811  for r e c a l l .  2  1. Toops,H,A. "Trade T e s t s i n E d u c a t i o n " , Teachers C o l l e g e , C o n t r i b u t i o n s to E d u c a t i o n No. 115, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y 1921 pp. 39-52. 2, Ruch,G-.M. and Stoddard,G-.D. "Comparative R e l i a b i l i t e s of F i v e Types o f O b j e c t i v e Examinations"; J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , Vol.16 (1925) pp. 89-103 ' ;  37 When t h i s was -equalized by the Spearman^rown formula to g i v e the r e l i a b i l i t y on the b a s i s o f equal time, then the r e l i a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y to .664 as a g a i n s t  »896 f o r the c o m p l e t i o n r e c a l l t y p e s .  To o b t a i n a r e l i a b i l i t y  equal to t h a t of f i f t y r e c a l l or f i f t y m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s , another seventy to n i n e t y e x t r a (120-140 t o t a l ) t r u e - f a l s e q u e s t i o n s are needed. I t can be seen from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t t r u e - f a l s e q u e s t i o n s take more time to do the same job o f measuring as r e l i a b l y as the r e c a l l o f m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e do.  Too'ps' work c o r r o b o r a t e d the f i r s t r e l i a b i l i t y f i n d i n g s but d i d not  agree on the r e l i a b i l i t y - t i m e  basis.  T h i s form of q u e s t i o n can be a p p l i e d to most f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l . I t can be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e i n t e s t i n g superstitions,common and s i m i l a r r e l a t e d t o p i c s .  errors,gullibility,  I t i s a c c e p t a b l e f o r t e s t i n g o p i n i o n s , and can  be u t i l i z e d f o r f a c t u a l t e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y where o n l y two p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s exist. I t i s commonly supposed that s e t s of these q u e s t i o n s ean be p r e p a r e d very e a s i l y and speedily.. When p r e p a r e d i n a h u r r i e d manner the q u a l i t y o f the q u e s t i o n s i s v e r y v a r i a b l e .  Questions prepared  t h i s way f r e q u e n t l y con-  t a i n f a m i l i a r p h r a s e s and l e a d s , p u t t i n g too g r e a t a premium upon the a b i l i t y of the student t o r e c a l l words and not i d e a s .  Tests o f t r u e - f a l s e  s t r e s s t e x t s and words too much f o r use i n s c i e n c e .  types  On the o t h e r hand, when  s e t s of q u e s t i o n s are p r e p a r e d c a r e f u l l y by o m i t t i n g a l l l e a d s and by q u a l i f y i n g the debatable p o i n t s s u f f i c i e n t l y , there i s l i t t l e , time f o r the t e a c h e r .  i f any, s a v i n g o f  There i s a l o s s o f time i f the teacher p r e p a r e s the  e x t r a number o f items n e c e s s a r y to o b t a i n r e l i a b i l i t y equal to the o t h e r s . The  t r u e - f a l s e q u e s t i o n o f t e n i s ambiguous, e i t h e r t o o extreme or too  expensive i n scope, or q u a l i f i e d , so much as to be w o r t h l e s s .  38 Multiple  Choice  This type i s u s u a l l y a d i r e c t of v a r y i n g degrees of accuracy, r i o r " to the o t h e r s . statements.  The  The  statement f o l l o w e d by s e v e r a l answers  one  of which u s u a l l y i s c o r r e c t , or supe-  choices can be  type i s m o d i f i e d  short  sometimes i n t o the m u l t i p l e response  form wherein more than one response i s to be c a s i o n a l l y no response i s c o r r e c t . type,  {single words) or l o n g  i d e n t i f i e d as c o r r e c t .  Almost a l l s t a n d a r d i z e d  t e s t s use +Vuj  some t e s t s employing them to the e x c l u s i o n of a l l o t h e r s .  s i b l y i s the most v a l u a b l e type because i t can be a c t i v e t h i n k i n g , comparison, r e f e r e n c e  Oc-  so arranged  I t pos-  as to cause  to data, and reasoned judgments.  But merely because a q u e s t i o n i s m u l t i p l e choice" i n form does n o t mean that i t i s of the b e s t t y p e .  I t may  be demanding only a r e c a l l  of f a c t s  as i n the f o l l o w i n g »At s e a . l e v e l a i r p r e s s u r e p e r square i n c h i s (a) 13.6 l b . , (b) 5 l b . , (c) 62".5 l b . , (d) 14,7 l b . (e) 30 l b . ( f ) 29.9 l b . 5.x The above example I l l u s t r a t e s how pue  a m u l t i p l e choice can be made i n t o  t h a t demands the s o r t i n g out of a great number of terms or q u a n t i t i e s  that t h e student reliability  encounters i n s c i e n c e ,  of t h i s type  Buch and Stoddard found t h a t  of test v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y a c c o r d i n g to the  number of c h o i c e s , two-choice q u e s t i o n s  showing .737,  three-choice  only ,59'8, ( f o u r - c h o i c e not mentioned), f i v e - c h o i c e ,796. for  time and r e l i a b i l i t y  as.against  .896  the r e s u l t s were i n order  f o r completion  r e c a l l and  found that they r e q u i r e d s i x t y p e r  1,  Kuch and S t o d d a r t ,  the  op.cit,  ,664  .902,  When c o r r e c t e d ,806,  for true-false,  Cent more time to do, but  p>6<)- Jo2.  ones  —,  .901 Toops  gave them a  39 time-reliability  v a l u e of o n l y ,607 as a g a i n s t .664 f o r t r u e - f a l s e .  These q u e s t i o n s can he a p p l i e d i n t e s t i n g achievements i n almost all fields.  They a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n t e s t i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n o f  p r i n c i p l e s , f o r a l t e r n a t e responses can be made v e r y p l a u s i b l e , m u l t i p l e - c o r r e c t response  The  type i s a l s o o f good v a l u e f o r t e s t i n g i n  s c i e n c e where o f t e n s e v e r a l f a c t o r s a r e i n v o l v e d , o r s e v e r a l consequences may r e s u l t from a c e r t a i n cause.  I t i s valuable i n testing  hypotheses  based on d a t a . i  To make these q u e s t i o n s most v a l u a b l e g r e a t care must be e x e r c i s e d i n these ways :1. Make a l l answers a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same l e n g t h . 2,  Do n o t become h a b i t u a t e d i n placement of the c o r r e c t response.  3,  Make the i n c o r r e c t responses appear q u i t e p l a u s i b l e . Do n o t make them appear r i d i c u l o u s so t h a t the c o r r e c t response stands out from them,  4,  A v o i d c l u e s to the answer i n such a p p a r e n t l y n e u t r a l t h i n g s as a r t i c l e s , adjectives, phraseology,  5.  A v o i d s p l i t t i n g the q u e s t i o n by h a v i n g the responses i n the m i d d l e , p l a c e responses a t the e n d ,  6.  For ease i n marking have students s e l e c t the l e t t e r o f the response and p l a c e i t i n a b l a n k a t the r i g h t hand s i d e ( o r l e f t ) . Avoid u n d e r l i n i n g t h e answer i n order t o speed up marking, and t o a v o i d problems t h a t a r i s e from u n d e r l i n i n g a p a r t o f a r e s p o n s e .  7.  Make the r e s p o n s e s uations.  8,  F i x the l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y e q u i v a l e n t t o the grade or c o u r s e .  1.  I n v o l v e a c t i v e t h i n k i n g by c r e a t i n g problem  Toops, "Trade Tests i n E d u c a t i o n " ; op. a i t • pp.39-52,  sit-  -' '  .•  •  J  40  .  Completion or B e c a l l The: form of t h i s may v a r y from one "blank t o be f i l l e d i n by the necessary answer to complete  a sentence, to a paragraph w i t h s e v e r a l to • many  blanks which must be answered c o r r e c t l y to make a complete  correct parag-  raph.  I n Chemistry  the completion.of equations i s e s s e n t i a l l y of t h i s  type.  Some mathematical problems a r e o f t h i s type when r e a s o n i n g by  analogy i s not i n v o l v e d .  F o r example•-  To drag a sack of p o t a t o e s twenty f e e t a c r o s s a f l o o r and u s i n g f o r t y pounds of f o r c e r e q u i r e s that —: foot pounds of work be done.  !  Table completion i s another v a r i a t i o n o f t h i s i n v e r y compact  form,  This i s p o s s i b l y the o l d e s t form of o b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n developed by e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and one of the most v a l u a b l e . need n o t be b o o k i s h .  I t I s easy to make and  The q u e s t i o n s are a p p l i c a b l e to every s i t u a t i o n which  demands a f a c t u a l answer, tp computations, "to d e s c r i p t i v e q u e s t i o n s , to compact t a b u l a t i o n s , and to many q u e s t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the drawing o f a conc l u s i o n from data .presented. of  T h i s l a s t r e f e r e n c e suggests a p o s s i b i l i t y  i t s use i n t e s t i n g achievements  i n the use o f the s c i e n t i f i c method.  With longer responses the o b j e c t i v i t y o f the answer i s u s u a l l y l e s s e n e d . For  the s h o r t answer type Huch and Stoddart give a r e l i a b i l i t y of ' 1 '' f o r f i f t y questions, Toops r e p o r t s that they take more time i n the 2 ;  ,811  r a t i o o f twenty-three  to twelve  ( n e a r l y twice as long) than the t r u e - f a l s e ,  When e q u a l i z e d by the Spearman-Brown formula on a time ba.sis Toops r e p o r t s a reliability  o f .618 and Euch and Stoddart ,896. The g r e a t e r amount o f  time needed t o do these q u e s t i o n s i s due to two f a c t o r s , p r i m a r i l y 1. Such and. Stoddart, o p . c i t . fyeq-toa 2, Toopsj o p . c i t , , 'yo P  because  , of the d i r e c t r e c a l l  41  of the response which sometimes demands c o n s i d e r a b l e  mental e f f o r t , and secondly the mechanics of w r i t i n g out a response i n ~ stead of s e l e c t i n g a l e t t e r  or a c h o i c e .  •TO be most u s e f u l these q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d Arrange  carefully.  the q u e s t i o n s so as t o •  1,  Keep the responses  short.  2,  Work c l e a r l y so that the type of response i s shown d i s t i n c t l y .  3.  A v o i d b o o k i s h statements  4,  Include no more i n the \statemsnt than i s f u n c t i o n a l .  5.  Do n o t confuse the I s s u e s .  or h a b i t u a l expressions o f the t e a c h e r .  Test f o r one s p e c i f i c p o i n t at a time,e.g.,  The Danish s c i e n t i s t Oerstad d i s c o v e r e d that wire c a r r y i n g an e l e c t r i c current produced " ^", '  This c o n t a i n s i r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l i n the r e f e r e n c e to Oerstad that may 'give a l e a d to the answer.  The q u e s t i o n as i t stands i s combining  ideas that should be separated, namely the i n d i r e c t s o c i a l made by Oerated and the " s t r a i g h t s c i e n c e " .  two  contribution  The q u e s t i o n reworded to t e s t  the s c i e n c e only would be: "A wire c a r r y i n g an e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t produces •  •  precise.  ",  As i t stands now  The c u r r e n t may produce  and temperature  i t t e s t s s c i e n c e only but i t i s not heat i n t e r n a l l y ; l i g h t i f the r e s i s t a n c e  i s h i g h enough, or an e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c f i e l d ,  or a l l .  The  q u e s t i o n would be more s p e c i f i c i n t h i s form "Around the wire c a r r y i n g an e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t produces  —" .  and e l i m i n a t e s the i r r e l e v a n c e o f s o c i a l 6.  T h i s i s now  precise  contributions.  T r y to arrange b l a n k s so that they f a l l a t the end of the l i n e  can thus be arranged i n columns.  F a i l i n g t h i s , number the b l a n k and  p r o v i d e a numbered space a t the r i g h t f o r the response.  and  it,  7.  Do not leave keys or c l u e s i n the composition or grammar o f the t e s t  item. 8.  Because there I s a tendency  f o r l a b e l l i n g or naming i n t h i s type of  ques.tion t r y to word i t To. make questions more a c t i v e . name or term and have 9,.  Rather  give the  the student a p p l y i t , or complete the d e s c r i p t i o n ,  I n the t a b u l a r forms the q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d be s t a t e d s e p a r a t e l y and a  b r i e f e r p a r a l l e l column heading g i v e n . 10, I n the t a b u l a r form a v o i d s i m p l y f a c t u a l r e c a l l and t r y to i n o l u d e comparisons,  reasonings, etc*  11, Do n o t abbreviate a statement  t o such an e x t e n t that i t becomes a  p u z z l e to the student, nor i n s e r t so many blanks that he cannot f o l l o w the  thread o f thought.  There may be s e v e r a l words o f an o r i g i n a l  ment t h a t may become the q u e s t i o n response, but i n cases l i k e  state-  t h i s choose  the word w h i c h emphasizes a c t i o n or understanding o f a p r i n c i p l e r a t h e r than  terminology. Paragraph  sentence  completion q u e s t i o n s are e s s e n t i a l l y the same as the  completion.  Great care must be e x e r c i s e d l e s t  the paragraph  become too d i s s e c t e d w i t h b l a n k s .  Matching Questions One  list  another l i s t ,  or A s s o c i a t i o n s  c o n t a i n s items w h i c h must be matched w i t h other items i n u s u a l l y by t r a n s p o s i n g the l e t t e r or number o f one to the  b l a n k i n f r o n t o f the o t h e r . responses  Other v a r i a t i o n s a r e j to g i v e the p o s s i b l e  i n a group, from which the c o r r e c t responses  are s e l e c t e d and  w r i t t e n i n the a p p r o p r i a t e b l a n k s . These q u e s t i o n s have been b a d l y p r e p a r e d i n many cases so that the r e l i a b i l i t y varied.  Too many l e a d s were i n c l u d e d i n many, others l a c k e d  43 s p e c i f i c n e s s , ., When p r e p a r e d c a r e f u l l y they possess a h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y and objectivity.  They are s p e e d i l y w r i t t e n , and r e q u i r e about the same l e n g t h  of time as the t r u e - f a l s e q u e s t i o n s take.  They can be made q u i t e s e a r c h i n g  by adding a t h i r d or f o u r t h column of i n f e r m a t i o n to be matched a g a i n s t the f i r s t and second. They are not v e r y e f f e c t i v e when t r y i n g to t e s t complex p r i n c i p l e s , nor f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d a t a .  They can be used to b e t t e r  advantage  when t e s t i n g b r i e f f a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s such as matching men's names to t h e i r d i s c o v e r i e s , laws w i t h t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s , causes and e f f e c t s , d e s c r i p \  t i o n s , c o n d i t i o n s or demands w i t h v o c a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s d e s i r a b l e i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s , and s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l . The m a t c h i n g q u e s t i o n s do not take up as much space as the m u l t i p l e c h o i c e , or even as much as the t r u e - f a l s e u s u a l l y .  They are r e l a t i v e l y  easy to make and to mark,Observe the f o l l o w i n g r u l e s when p r e p a r i n g them, 1, The prime r u l e i s to have homogeneity of c h o i c e s . column should be p l a u s i b l e answers f o r the o t h e r ,  -"'•11 responses of one  2, Leads must be e l i m i n a t e d , and s t o c k p h r a s e s a l s o . 3, There s h o u l d be about ten t,c f i f t e e n items w i t h a minimum excess of three p o s s i b l e responses i n order to a v o i d answering by e l i m i n a t i o n . 4, One  or two responses s h o u l d be used more than once ( w i t h a w a r n i n g ) ,  5, Arrange items i n a manner that reduces m e c h a n i c a l e f f o r t tb a minimum; names i n a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t s ; dates i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r ; l o n g items on the l e f t - h a n d s i d e , s h o r t ones on the r i g h t . Analogy Q u e s t i o n s This form i s a r r a n g e d l i k e a c o n t i n u e d p r o p o r t i o n q u e s t i o n , but i t u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s o n l y f o u r terms,one v i d e d by the s t u d e n t .  of -which i s m i s s i n g and must be p r o -  T h i s form of q u e s t i o n u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s r e a s o n i n g by  analogy. Uany c a l c u l a t i o n problems are of t h i s type; e.g., 1. I f the mercury i n a barometer tube stands a t t h i r t y i n c h e s when alt  p r e s s u r e . i s 14.7 pounds p e r square i n c h , how h i g h w i l l be when a i r p r e s s u r e i s 7.35 pounds p e r square inch?  the mercury  These are p r i m a r i l y a form o f s y l l o g i s t i c r e a s o n i n g .  They are i n  the nature o f continued pr o p o r t i o n where the f o u r t h term or extreme can be found  from the o t h e r s .  A r i t h m e t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s are of t h i s  type.  These questions are h i g h l y o b j e c t i v e , s p e e d i l y done by the student i f he knows the m a t e r i a l , and f a i r l y r e l i a b l e , b e i n g about on a p a r w i t h the four- or f i v e - r e s p o n s e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e . They are v e r y s u i t a b l e when t e s t i n g laws such as Ohm's Law, Charles' Law, Boyle's Law, g r a v i t y p r e s s u r e i n f l u i d s ,  e t c . They are a l s o o f  great v a l u e i n comparative  work i n B i o l o g y wherein one organism or organ  is  This type o f test item i s not as common I n the  compared with another.  higher grades as i n the lower.  I t might be very a d v i s a b l e to extend i t s  use because o f t h e . l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g i n v o l v e d . Because of the b r e v i t y o f these' there i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e way o f i r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l , l e a d s .  i n the  On t h i s b a s i s they perhaps exceed a l l  other i'orms i n v a l u e . 1.  They must be p r e p a r e d w i t h care mental and n o t s u p e r f i c i a l .  2.  I n order t o a v o i d memoriter response the a n a l o g i e s when a p p l i e d to c a l c u l a t i o n s must not be of the type done h a b i t u a l l y i n c l a s s ,  3.  I f these questions are p r e p a r e d a f r e s h each time^the great number o f a c c e p t a b l e combinations o f f a c t o r s w i l l enable the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f new m a t e r i a l and thus i n c r e a s e a c t i v e t h i n k i n g ,  4.  The l o g i c should n o t be " c r o s s e d over". short statements than i n , l o n g ones.  5.  6.  to see that the a n a l o g i e s are funda-  T h i s i s e a s i e r to check i n  Include s u f f i c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n i n the c a p t i o n s or d i r e c t i o n s , with , perhaps an example, to 1B t the student know e x a c t l y what he i s to do. They cannot be a p p l i e d w e l l to i s o l a t e d f a c t s , but are v e r y u s e f u l to t e s t the knowledge o f the i n t e r a c t i o n o f s e v e r a l f actors.'  45 Diagrams The dataware p r e s e n t e d i n the form of a diagram or p i c t u r e which the student must i n t e r p r e t ,  D i r e c t q u e s t i o n s may he p r e s e n t e d , r e a s o n i n g (  ( f i n d i n g the new c o n d i t i o n when a c e r t a i n f a c t o r i s changed), r e c a l l , or interpretation;  Students may be asked  to answer by s e l e c t i n g a l e t t e r  r e p r e s e n t i n g a p a r t o f the diagram, or by naming, or by i n f e r r i n g consequences, This i s a form o f q u e s t i o n that has been l i m i t e d u n t i l r e c e n t to B i o l o g y and l a t e r  to General S c i e n c e .  time  T h i s form o f q u e s t i o n i s being  used i n c r e a s i n g l y now, so that i t i s n o t uncommon to see P h y s i c s t e s t s and Chemistry  t e s t s w i t h diagram q u e s t i o n s .  They can be made v e r y o b j e c t i v e ;  they can be done s p e e d i l y o r s l o w l y a c c o r d i n g to the amount of mechanical work a t t a c h e d , and they have a h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y when c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e d . They add a v a r i e t y to a t e s t and can test>outcomes of t e a c h i n g other factual absorption.  than  They are very u s e f u l I n t e s t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  the d a t a p r e s e n t e d by the diagram,  T h e y r educe the premium on words so 1'  that a.student r e l y i n g only on "word memory" i s p l a c e d a t a disadvantage. The do.  diagram bears a c l o s e r resemblance t o the o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e A r i s t o t l e r e c o & m z e d t h i s i n h i s statement  ten thousand words".  than words  t h a t , "A p i c t u r e i s worth  They sample other a b i l i t i e s than a b i l i t y to r e a d .  Graphs o f d a t a may be used demanding i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The p a r t i c u l a r care needed i n p r e p a r i n g diagram t e s t s i s 5 1.  To make the diagram l a r g e enough and c l e a r enough f o r comprehension of a l l r e l e v a n t d e t a i l s . A diagram should not be l e s s than about two inches i n diameter,  2,  Avoid a r t i s t i c  embellishments.  1. King,Mary H . j P u p i l Comprehension of P l a c e L o c a t i o n Data i n J u n i o r High School. American H i s t o r y , p p . 227-233, pp. 323-327.  46 Sometime-shading to segregate one area from another i s v=ry h e l p f u l The use of s e v e r a l c o l o r s i s b e t t e r s t i l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n b i o l o g i c a l diagrams where one t i s s u e may disappear from one r e g i o n and appear i n another p l a c e . ^ 4.  Use  5,  S t r e s s the f u n c t i o n of p a r t s or the i d e n t i f y i n g p a r t s g i v e n f u n c t i o n s , r a t h e r than mere naming.  6,  Be  7.  Arrows or guide l i n e s when used should end in_ the r e g i o n r e q u i r e d . In mimeograph work s o l i d l i n e s are l e s s confusing than broken ones. Sometimes i t i s p r e f e r a b l e to stamp the number or l e t t e r of the r e s ponse r i g h t i n the diagram and have a p a r a l l e l numbering or l e t t e r i n g system at tne r i g h t hand s i d e of the page f o r the r e s p o n s e s . This column of responses f a c i l i t a t e s marking.  bold clear-cut  lines.  sure that adequate d i r e c t i o n s are  that perform  given.  The w r i t e r found by experiment that a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n r a n g i n g from .27  to ,77  of v a r i o u s  e x i s t e d between diagram t e s t s and the a c t u a l performance 1 l a b o r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s made as p a r a l l e l as p o s s i b l e . This i s  not h i g h enough to warrant the c l a i m that the diagram t e s t measures the same a b i l i t y as an a c t u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n t e s t does. t i f i c Aptitude  Test  Stanford  scores c o r r e l a t e r a t h e r h i g h l y w i t h l a t e r  success i n science work done at S t a n f o r d , .06  The  f o r Chemistry and  .951  .02  Scien-  scientific  y i e l d i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s of  for P h y s i c s .  In t h i s  .77  t e s t diagrams are  an  important f a c t o r , i n some p o r t i o n s becoming the major f a c t o r . Although diagrams p o s s i b l y are not  t e s t i n g the  same f a c t o r s e x a c t l y  as a c t u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n there appear to be many f a c t o r s common to both methods.  Diagrams have t h i s advantage  ted to each are constant, rather d i f f i c u l t students.  that the data or m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n -  whereas i n a c t u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n t e s t s i t i s  to o b t a i n exact  e q u a l i t y of apparatus or s u p p l i e s among  In b o t h methods a s i m i l a r i t y e x i s t s i n the s e l e c t i o n of data  thought to bear upon the problem. 1. 2i  See appendix, pp x i v to x x v i . Xyve, S t a n f o r d S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude p a n y i n g test?  Test, p a s s i m i n l i t e r a t u r e accom-  47 The "p'er'shing Laboratory Chemistry" diagrams.  They merit wider  Test made a c o n s i d e r a b l e use  of  use,  "Catechism" Type This i s perhaps the o l d e s t form of o b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s . developed  I t was  by schools and methods attached to v a r i o u s churches i n the  p a s t as f a r back as medieval times. answered by only one b r i e f answer. book l e a r n i n g and  tended to be (  I t has a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n to be I t was  d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y to t e x t -  stultifying.  I t was  •  as f a r as i t went but i t remained too r i g i d . e a s i l y and r a p i d l y answered, but extreme that i t l o s t  highly objective  favor w i t h  I t was  q u i c k l y prepared,  i t emphasized r o t e l e a r n i n g to such an educators.  There i s a s u r v i v a l i n the, s h o r t , d i r e c t questions aimed at measuring  f a c t u a l knowledge.  Essay. Type  These are seldom found  on,standardized  tests.  Questions  The form of these m a y b e a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n , or an imperative to " o u t l i n e , make, e x p l a i n , d e s c r i b e , " etc« that the  In e i t h e r case i t i s  sentence expected  student w i l l g i v e a.more or l e s s lengthy reasoned response.  It  i s intended u s u a l l y to t e s t such a b i l i t i e s as the student's power of o r g a n i z i n g m a t e r i a l , of e x p o s i t i o n , of t r a c i n g cause and  e f f e c t , or of  memorizing of long passages or p r o c e s s e s . They are seldom found i n marking.  on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s because of d i f f i c u l t i e s  For.many years p r e c e d i n g the l a s t  asked i n such forms as to demand essay  two  decades questions were  or paragraph responses.  q u e s t i o n can be e i t h e r an e x c e l l e n t or a bad  one  The  essay  a c c o r d i n g to whether i t  s t r e s s e s a c t i v e t h i n k i n g and p l a n n i n g , or simply r o t e l e a r n i n g , 'This  d i f f e r e n c e i s 'extremely hard to detect on paper f o r much of the value o f an essay q u e s t i o n depends on what was  taught' and what questions the  student had answered "before the t e s t .  I t i s unwise to teach f o r the p u r -  pose o f a s s i s t i n g students to answer c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s .  T h i s , of course,  a p p l i e s e q u a l l y f o r c i b l y to any o b j e c t i v e type o f q u e s t i o n .  I t i s the  freshness o f approach that h e l p s c o n s i d e r a b l y i n making essay more dynamic*  R e - c a s t i n g questions  that may  have been used  room a c t i v i t i e s i n c r e a s e s the mental a c t i v i t y on a t e s t .  responses  once as c l a s s  The t u r n i n g of  the p o i n t of the q u e s t i o n toward the a p p l i c a t i o n of i d e a s or p r i n c i p l e s i s a v e r y e f f e c t i v e way  of improving  the q u e s t i o n .  In c l a s s  procedures  i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y that the chemical p r o p e r t i e s of oxygen may and q u e s t i o n s l i k e ; " L i s t study purposes.  be s t u d i e d ,  the chemical p r o p e r t i e s of oxygen" assigned f o r  To r e v i s e the q u e s t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g form i n t r o d u c e s  a more a c t i v e p r i n c i p l e than r o t e memory and r e p e t i t i o n s "What are the chemical p r o p e r t i e s of oxygen that make I t important'?"  The l a t t e r  form  i s a more l i f e - l i k e form^for i t has the element of genuine enquiry i n i t . It demands a c e r t a i n a b i l i t y to organize, and to a p p l y knowledge gained to s o l v e a p a r t i c u l a r problem,  i f the work i s taught w i t h the  outline  of the l a t t e r q u e s t i o n a good d e a l of the o r g a n i z i n g and a p p l i c a t i o n of ideas w i l l be done by the teacher, hence r e d u c i n g the v a l u e of the quest i o n somewhat,  •  Many t e a c h e r s f e e l that the essay t e s t s do serve a more v a l u a b l e f u n c t i o n than the r i g i d  o b j e c t i v i s t would admit.  They can be used  e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e s t i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  very  They-are v e r y  u s e f u l i n t e s t i n g the student's a b i l i t y to organize m a t e r i a l , p r o v i d i n g ; that the q u e s t i o n matter  i s f r e s h , and  they serve t h i s purpose b e t t e r  .•  49  than the r i g i d o b j e c t i v e questions do which attempt to cover  the same  ground "because the o b j e c t i v e questions have been organized a l r e a d y by the examiner,  The  essay  t e s t s force the student  as wholes, to organize h i s a t t a c k , and its  components,  to approach pr oblems  to break down the problem i n t o  These questions f o r c e the student  to s e l e c t h i s data  from a mass o f i n f o r m a t i o n so that they can be made to measure the student's a b i l i t y to s i f t of  the g r a i n from the c h a f f .  o r g a n i z i n g an a t t a c k on the problem, the m a r s h a l l i n g of f a c t s ,  p r e t a t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n tiie essay o b j e c t i v e or short answer The  type o f test .seems s u p e r i o r to the  c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y connected w i t h essay t e s t s i s the marking of  major methods are p o s s i b l e ,  TO improve the essay t e s t  i n the b e s t form p o s s i b l e .  responses should be The f i r s t  is  three  u l r s t a t a b l e o f s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the  o b j e c t i v e s o f the q u e s t i o n should be p r e p a r e d . must be  inter-  type.  the responses i n a r e l i a b l e manner,  ing  In the f u n c t i o n s  Mext the q u e s t i o n  exact  itself  L a s t l y a key f o r marking or e v a l u a t -  prepared.  s t e p , t h a t of l a y i n g s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s f o r the  question,  of course a procedure that must be adopted f o r a l l good q u e s t i o n s ,  "What know ledge do I need to t e s t ? "  "What o r g a n i z i n g a b i l i t y i s demanded?"  "What i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s the student  a b l e to make?"  of  These are examples  q u e s t i o n s that the examiner must ask h i m s e l f at t h i s stage.  go f u r t h e r and  He must  l i s t the knowledge, o u t l i n e the o r g a n i z a t i o n and problem,  and t r y to gauge p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , Having set up h i s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the question, the examiner  can  improve the q u e s t i o n form and f u n c t i o n by j u d g i n g i t on the bases f o l l o w i n g * ..  '  .  '  50 1.  I t i s axiomatic that the q u e s t i o n must he based on the experience, and not completely f o r e i g n to i t .  student's  2.  The q u e s t i o n should p r o v i d e a new s i t u a t i o n or a new approach to an o l d one. Questions should not be stereotyped or bookish.  3. " The q u e s t i o n should demand an o r g a n i z a t i o n of m a t e r i a l on a problems o l v i n g b a s i s r a t h e r on a f a c t u a l r e c a l l or d e s c r i p t i v e b a s i s (Unless i t i s these a b i l i t i e s that are to be t e s t e d ) . 4.  Sampling should be more extensive than many essay t e s t s have demanded, i f one may judge of the great number of examinations of the essay type which are composed of f o u r , f i v e , or s i x questions to be done i n two or three hours. To answer twenty short questions i n an essay manner w i t h i n the same l i m i t of time extends the sampling to f o u r times the o r i g i n a l and thus i n c r e a s e s r e l i a b i l i t y . I f i t Is d e s i r e d to test a b i l i t y to handle long problems one of these i s about a l l that should be i n c l u d e d on one examination,  5.  The q u e s t i o n should give a c l e a r i d e a to the student as to what i s wanted,, some times the b r e a k i n g of the q u e s t i o n i n t o p a r t s or headings i s h e l p f u l .  6.  The q u e s t i o n should p u t a premium on thought r a t h e r than v e r b i a g e . Students should know c l e a r l y t h a t extended wordy answers are not as v a l u a b l e as are l u o i d c o n c i s e ones, A very f i n e means of i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s i s to take an example of a wordy, f r o t h y response and a good s u c c i n c t one. Ask the c l a s s to p u t down one p o i n t f o r each new i d e a b e a r i n g on the q u e s t i o n , then r e a d each chosen response s l o w l y . The c l a s s scores are u s u a l l y a l l the t e a c h i n g needed to i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f e r e n c e between a bad and good essay response,  1„  The a c t u a l mechanics o f . w r i t i n g should be reduced to a minimum, because i t i s n o t w r i t i n g speed or l e g i b i l i t y t h a t i s b e i n g t e s t e d but a b i l i t y to t h i n k i n the p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d t e s t e d ,  8.  Avoid u s i n g o p t i o n a l or a l t e r n a t i v e  9.  ])o n o t set a value upon a q u e s t i o n u n t i l Pairs  of q u e s t i o n s of f a i r and  questions. the keys are made.  s u p e r i o r types are chosen as  illus-  trations : 1,  (a) HOW  does water freeze? or (b) E x p l a i n the changes t h a t take p l a c e when water c o o l s , or (o) D e s c r i b e how water f r e e z e s i n a l a k e . (d) Why must a l l the water i n a pond be cooled %G> 4!^. ,,> the water w i l l f r e e z e ?  r  before any  of  51 2.  (a) .Explain how (D) How  5.  4,  smelted.  i s sulphur removed from c e r t a i n ores i n  (a) 'What are things'? (b)  sulphide ores are  the p r o p e r t i e s of s u l p h u r - d i o x i d e  smelting? that a f f e c t  living  Why i s v e g e t a t i o n i n j u r e d and human h e a l t h impaired around smelt e r s r e l e a s i n g sulphur d i o x i d e i n t o the a i r as a r e s u l t of smelt i n g s u l p h i d e ores?  (a) Described  the complete p r o c e s s  of p h o t o s y n t h e s i s .  (b) A white l e a f , a green one p i c k e d about midnight, and a green one p i c k e d at noon of a sunny day a l l are t e s t e d f o r s t a r c h by u s i n g i o d i n e . Only the l a s t one contained any. By r e f e r e n c e to the p r o c e s s e s that occur i n leaves account f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . The  l a s t step i s the p r e p a r a t i o n of keys.  the p a s t have f a i l e d  to prepare k e y s t h e essay t e s t l o s t much of i t s v a l u e .  I t became too s u b j e c t i v e .  ;  A key based on p o s s i b l e c o r r e c t responses  reduces c o n s i d e r a b l y the s u b j e c t i v i t y . quality?  Because many examiners i n  How  Should s p e l l i n g and c o m p o s i t i o n a l  much work i s expected, of what d i f f i c u l t i e s be deducted from  the s c i e n c e s c o r e , or only I n d i c a t e d to the student? the examiner must guard a g a i n s t two standard  that i s more i n k e e p i n g w i t h  posite^that ii  of s e t t i n g too h i g h a  the examiner's t r a i n i n g , and  the  op-  of a c c e p t i n g almost anything, that i s w r i t t e n .  There are at l e a s t four p l a n s  responses i n use 1.  tendencies^that  In p r e p a r i n g a key  at p r e s e n t *  of e v a l u a t i n g essays  and paragraph  These a r e ; -  Take a l l the examination p a p e r s and r e a d a l l responses to q u e s t i o n one; arrange responses approximately i n t o three, f i v e or seven c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g to m e r i t . I f three groups are s e l e c t e d , r e f i n e • these. I f seven, r e - r e a d the b o r d e r l i n e cases. Having done t h i s marks can now be a l l o c a t e d , top marks f o r the best paper, and zero f o r no attempt or an attempt that i s s h o r t and h o p e l e s s l y jumbled. This was one o f the f i r s t methods used i n g e t t i n g away from the subj e c t i v e method of marking. I t i s pragmatic i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l impl i c a t i o n and to t h i s extent i s on the same ground as most o b j e c t i v e tests. The l a c k o f a key somewhat i n v a l i d a t e s r e s u l t s , f o r a key tends to e l i m i n a t e s u b j e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i f the key has been p r e p a r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h two or three other examiners who d i s c u s s each p o i n t .  52 2.  The secorfd method of marking essay q u e s t i o n s i s to note on a l i s t a l l v a l i d or c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . O c c a s i o n a l l y the examiner w i l l be f o r c e d to accept i d e a s advanced by the student t h a t he had n e i t h e r expected nor accepted p r e v i o u s l y because a s t r o n g v a l i d argument had been advanced. This l i s t o f c o r r e c t items then forms the marking l i s t a g a i n s t , w h i c h a l l responses are measured by g i v i n g a p o i n t f o r each > a c c e p t a b l e i t e m . Maximum marks a r e almost an i m p o s s i b i l i t y w i t h t h i s method of e v a l u a t i o n because many students advance p o i n t s not advanced by o t h e r s .  5.  The t h i r d procedure i s a c o m i n a t i o n of the f i r s t two. A l l the c o r r e c t response items are r e c o r d e d as i n the second method. D u r i n g the e x a m i n a t i o n of reap onses they are s o r t e d i n t o a d e s i r e d number o f groups as i n the f i r s t method. This i n v o l v e s p r a c t i c a l l y no more work than the second method,for i t takes o n l y a f r a c t i o n of a second to p l a c e the response i n one p i l e r a t h e r than another. The best r e s ponse as measured by the/number o f c o r r e c t Items or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e c e i v e s f u l l marks i f an a r b i t r a r y value, had been s e t , and the o t h e r s p r o r a t a when compared w i t h the. best response. T h i s method i s v e r y much more r e l i a b l e than the common method o f r e a d i n g an e s say^then a s s i g n i n g a v a l u e t o i t , A v a r i a t i o n o f t h i s procedure was adopted by Dr. W. J . ©sburn, now i n the Department of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, i n developi n g h i s "Thought T e s t s " i n h i s t o r y and geography."" He took a l l the p o s s i b l e c o r r e c t responses g i v e n by a l a r g e group of p u p i l s to c e r t a i n essay type q u e s t i o n s , t a b u l a t e d .them, then p r e p a r e d a k e y t o use when a d m i n i s t e r i n g the t e s t s t o n e w s t u d e n t s . The items t h a t were s t a n d a r d i z e d p r e v i o u s l y became the y a r d s t i o k f o r l a t e r t e s t s . An exp e r i e n c e d teacher t e a c h i n g two to f o u r c l a s s e s o f the same grade and t a k i n g the same s u b j e c t c o u l d p r e p a r e a k e y of t h i s nature t h a t s h o u l d be u s a b l e f o r f i v e y e a r s o r more. I t i s d e s i r a b l e not t o exp r e s s s c o r e s on a p e r c e n t a g e basis -but i f they must be,percentages can be c a l c u l a t e d a g i n s t the k e y . I t i s b e t t e r to take d i s t r i b u t i o n s , or more s i m p l y " s a t i s f a c t o r y " or " u n s a t i s f a c t o r y " d i r e c t l y from the raw s c o r e s , ;  ;  4,  The f o u r t h g e n e r a l procedure i s f o r the examiner to w r i t e out the marking k e y on the b a s i s o f h i s judgment as t o what a p e r f e c t r e s ponse, a mediocre one, and a p o o r one s h o u l d b e . T h i s i s a d i s t i n c l y p r o f i t a b l e method where the q u e s t i o n demands i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or attempts to measure depth of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . There i s the danger t h a t the examiner w i l l s e t h i s standard too h i g h , more i n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s own t r a i n i n g than t h a t o f the s t u d e n t ' s . Hawkes, l i n d q u i s t and Mann suggest a p l a n t h a t may be taken e i t h e r •  as an a l t e r n a t i v e o r as v a r i a t i o n o f the above.  The examiner p r e p a r e s a  l i s t of a l l the items or degress of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  etc  which he t h i n k s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a p e r f e c t answer, then proceeds t o  v  .  >  53  mark responses i n p r o p o r t i o n to the number o f a c c e p t a b l e items or  degrees  of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . These methods are r a t h e r dangerous to use by one  teacher only.  A  group of teachers -working together g i v e s b e t t e r r e s u l t s , i . e . l e s s sub;  j e c t i v e and more r e l i a b l e . hands of an examiner who  A l s o i t i s unwise to p u t t h i s method i n the  has had no e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the subject or student  l e v e l f o r which the t e s t i s designed because the d i r e c t contact w i t h the a b i l i t i e s o f students does much to improve judgment or q u a l i f y d e c i s i o n s . All  of the above four methods are not a p p l i c a b l e to any or a l l essay  type responses.  The  first  three are u s e f u l f o r t e s t i n g arguments, reason-  i n g s , cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a p p l i c a t i o n s , and r o t e l e a r n i n g or memory.  The  last  one  i s s u p e r i o r f o r t e s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , the p r e p a r a t -  i o n of keys or t a b l e s , p l a n of a t t a c k , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and  interpretations,  such. All  o f these p r o c e d u r e s  can be improved  still  f u r t h e r by working  some p e n a l t y to be exacted when students i n c l u d e wrong responses. say response  d i f f e r s from an o b j e c t i v e one  t h i s extent t h a t the student shows h i s own knowledge.  An es-  (except completion types) to genuine p o s i t i v e and negative  On an o b j e c t i v e t e s t wrong answers are those p r o v i d e d by  examiner f o r the student to accept or r e j e c t . not have thought  o f any of these.  out  .Normally the student  On an o b j e c t i v e t e s t a student  the may  may  s u f f e r from no more than doubt and yet s e l e c t a wrong answer that i s not h i s own.  On an essay  test  every wrong p o i n t i s the student's own,  these r e a l l y should be deducted score,  i n t h i s matter  o b j e c t i v e type, one  so  from the gross score to o b t a i n the net  the essay t e s t has a d i s t i n c t  s u p e r i o r i t y over the  that i s perhaps worth f o l l o w i n g f u r t h e r .  54 The  essay t e s t s are n o t as s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r measuring  formation as are the o b j e c t i v e .  extent of i n -  The o b j e c t i v e type give a much wider  sampling i n the same time and w i t h l e s s e f f o r t .  The essay t e s t should  attempt more to measure depth o f understanding.  Mathematical C a l c u l a t i o n s .  Computations  This i s a type that i s not c l e a r l y marked o f f from the completion type on one side nor from the analogy type on another s i d e .  The b a l a n c -  i n g of equations i n Chemistry,/ the a p p l i c a t i o n of mathematical formulae, and longer a r i t h m e t i c a l computations may  come i n h e r e .  laws  and  While  be used i n t h e s e , u s u a l l y other mathematical p r o c e s s e s l i k e  ratio  the concept  of an equation are i n v o l v e d as w e l l . N e a r l y a l l science t e s t s i n c l u d e a few problems of t h i s type.  They  are o b j e c t i v e i f simple, but become r a t h e r s u b j e c t i v e i n the v e r y i n v o l v e d problems because  examiners  do n o t agree  s u c c i n c t n e s s of work, and s i m i l a r  on the methods o f s o l u t i o n , the  items.  In s c i e n c e they u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t the b r i e f e s t way the f u n c t i o n i n g of some p r i n c i p l e . but they are o f t e n overdone.  of r e p r e s e n t i n g  They are a n e c e s s a r y p a r t of t e s t i n g ,  The q u e s t i o n s i n v o l v i n g mathematical  ponses can be padded q u i t e e a s i l y w i t h i r r e l e v a n t d a t a .  It i s f o r this  r e a s o n that most of the p o o r e r mathematical questions are poor* attempt  to t e s t  f o r two  o b j e c t i v e s at once,  duly awkward computations  they  the a b i l i t y to segregate  data, and the a b i l i t y to a p p l y a law or p r i n c i p l e . the data should be p e r f e c t l y  res-  In t e s t i n g p r i n c i p l e s  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , and should not i n v o l v e  i n the  un-  solution.  I n m o s t s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s i n science^mathematical -problems (as d i s t i n c t from the simple completion type) seldom exceed ten p e r cent of  55 the number of i t e m s b u t  o f t e n they are weighted to exceed t h i s value  ;  the t o t a l test  Checking.  on  score.  Check L i s t s .  "Identifications"  U s u a l l y i n t h i s form of t e s t  the student i s asked to check or  evaluate items or i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d on the b a s i s of c e r t a i n or a c c o r d i n g to h i s own  criteria  feelings.  These are used f r e q u e n t l y i n connection w i t h a t t i t u d e  t e s t s , person-  a l i t y t e s t s , and s i m i l a r work./ They can be m o d i f i e d to t e s t matter,  and are r e a d i l y adaptable  items.  When used In this way Ruch and R i c e r e f e r  factual  f o r purposes- of comparing a number o f to them as i d e n t i f i c a -  1 tions. The that the  difference  between i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s and  student i s asked  the u s u a l check l i s t s i s  to i d e n t i f y a c e r t a i n t h i n g as having  p r o p e r t i e s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and  on the check l i s t he i s asked  evaluate items a c c o r d i n g to c r i t e r i a p r o v i d e d .  Whether the  a c t u a l l y uses a check mark or s e l e c t s a l e t t e r i s not very  certain to  student important.  Both of these q u e s t i o n types have the essence, of a m u l t i p l e choice form and f u n c t i o n i n them. interests.  Check l i s t s are of v a l u e i n t r y i n g to d i s c o v e r  With care i n p r e p a r a t i o n they can be arranged  a p r o f i l e view of  so as. to give  responses.  Performance or P r a c t i c a l  Test  This i s an attempt to s t r i k e d i r e c t l y a t some achievement which i n volves s k i l l s ,  techniques, and  even a t t i t u d e s  and i n t e r e s t s .  t o a q u e s t i o n of t h i s type i s not e n t i r e l y m e n t a l . type a c c u r a t e l y at a c e r t a i n r a t e ,  The  response  Such e x e r c i s e s as to  to swim a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e , or to set  1 . Ruch, G-.M., and Rice,G.A.• Specimen O b j e c t i v e Examinations,  £  56 up c e r t a i n apparatus would be examples o f the simpler types of these questions.  In t h i s  type i t i s not so much the q u e s t i o n form as the response  which i s d i s t i n c t i v e . In t e s t s of t h i s i t may ing  I t i s " t e s t i n g by type  the a c t u a l form of q u e s t i o n may  be a command to do a c e r t a i n t a s k .  because i t i n v o l v e s a c t i v i t i e s other  i n v o l v e s muscular c o o r d i n a t i o n , s k i l l developed  doing". be d i r e c t ,  or  I t d i f f e r s from a l l the p r e c e d than t h i n k i n g and w r i t i n g .  i n techniques  It  that have been  i n the course, a p l a n of a t t a c k on the problem, and a c e r t a i n  amount of r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s ,  '  This type of t e s t i s used more i n u n i v e r s i t i e s than i n secondary schools.  To i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s i n t o r e g u l a r t e s t i n g programmes would be  a wise step because i t t e s t s d i r e c t l y achievements i n the way and techniques, one is  These cannot be  of the reasons  these  t e s t e d p r o p e r l y on paper  Possibly  tests have not become common i n secondary  and the need o f s u f f i c i e n t equipment f o r the t e s t s ,  are a d m i n i s t e r e d i n r o t a t i o n or n o t ) . formance t e s t s t h a t can be  schools  adapted.  students should be asked  (whether these  However, there are. many simple p e r -  For i n s t a n c e there i s l i t t l e  reason  to I d e n t i f y the p a r t s of a flower from a  diagram when the a c t u a l flower can be g i v e n . ing  tests.  the time i t takes to do them, the need o f a l a r g e room p r o p e r l y equip-  ped,  why  of s k i l l s  If i t i s actually function-  knowledge that i s b e i n g t e s t e d ,the examination  o f the flower i s v a s t l y  superior. The " p r a c t i c a l . t e s t s " t h a t form a p a r t of many s c i e n c e courses i n u n i v e r s i t i e s are a step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . w i t h p a r t i c u l a r care  They need to be  prepared  to see t h a t they are i n l i n e w i t h the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  that Duetto be l i s t e d .  There i s some d i f f i c u l t y marking responses.  This  57 difficulty  v a r i e s w i t h the items  tested.  flower can be as o b j e c t i v e as any paper the p a r t s o f a pump; or any machine.  I d e n t i f y i n g the p a r t s of a test item- l i k e w i s e to i d e n t i f y  Where l a r g e r problems i n v o l v i n g  i n v e n t i o n or a d a p t a t i o n are s e t the e v a l u a t i o n of responses difficult.  becomes more  B'or t h i s reason the examiner j u s t beginning.to use t h i s form  of t e s t should choose simple examples. t i o n or sampling a l s o .  This p r o v i d e s a b e t t e r d i s t r i b u -  These t e s t s seem to have a use i n t e s t i n g r e -  sourcefulness.  O r a l Examinations.  Interviews'  Again i t i s not so much the form of. the q u e s t i o n here as the method of r e s p o n d i n g which c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s form.  The q u e s t i o n may be g i v e n  o r a l l y , as i s the u s u a l case,  and the response  the response  I t i s an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c t e s t , a "man to  man"  may be w r i t t e n .  i s usually oral.  However,  t e s t and i s i n a p p l i c a b l e i n g e n e r a l f o r the average teacher con-  f r o n t e d w i t h mass p r o d u c t i o n .  Much time Is i n v o l v e d and t h i s u s u a l l y  f o r c e s a r e s t r i c t i o n of t h i s method t o the urgent minimum. T h i s i s a form of examination which i s v e r y t r a n s i t o r y i n i t s e v i d ence of a c t i v i t y u n l e s s  the spoken words are recorded on a  dictaphone.  For t h i s reason e v a l u a t i o n i s v e r y s u b j e c t i v e and d i f f i c u l t . l i m i t e d i n use because I t takes much time a l s o . d i a g n o s t i c work, and f o r s p e c i a l p u r p o s e s . ability  I t i s v e r y valuable i n  I t requires considerable  on the p a r t ' of the examiner to make i t w o r t h w h i l e ,  to .keep up w i t h  It i s rather  events and even to a n t i c i p a t e them.  o r a l q u e s t i o n i n g t h i s might be done b e t t e r on p a p e r .  an a b i l i t y :  I f i t i s a mere I t s value l i e s i n  the i n t e r p l a y of minds, the more p e r s o n a l touch which i s o f t e n of immeasurable value,  58 As a means of d i a g n o s i s i t i s v e r y v a l u a b l e .  As an accurate  e v a l u a t i o n i t s m e r i t s seem dubious.  Rearrangements" In t h i s data i n t o  type of t e s t the student must arrange a jumbled a r r a y of  the n a t u r a l sequence, or be able to s e l e c t stages or steps i n  a complete sequence. 'The essence student  of t h i s form o f q u e s t i o n demands the a b i l i t y of the  to t r a c e cause and  effect relationships,  sequences, or phase sequences.  trace true c h r o n o l o g i c a l  An example would be to arrange  the phases  of the moon i n c o r r e c t sequence s t a r t i n g w i t h the l a s t q u a r t e r , or to give the stages i n the metemorphosis of a b u t t e r f l y .  It'is  useful  In t e s t i n g knowledge about rhythmic phenomena. I t i s n e c e s s a r y to have the q u e s t i o n worded so that there i s no f u s i o n i n the student's mind about the meaning o f the  f a c t o r s , nor to  give i r r e l e v a n t c l u e s by the i n c l u s i o n of time adverbs, events  or Items should not be  f i v e to seven a r e l i a b l e  con-  The  s e r i e s of  too l o n g , c e r t a i n l y not to exceed  ten, w i t h  number.  There i s a d i f f i c u l t y i n marking these c y c l i c or s e q u e n t i a l forms o f questions.  I f the student omits or advances one  but p l a c e s a l l the others i n the r i g h t a d i f f i c u l t y looms,  of the steps of a s e r i e s  order, e i t h e r advanced or r e t a r d e d ,  A formula to give c r e d i t on the b a s i s of  where n stands f o r the number c o r r e c t i n the sequence may  (n-1)  be used i n mark-  ing.  .Comparisons and T h i s form  Contrasts of q u e s t i o n t e s t s the student's a b i l i t y to examine dafea  59  data and f i n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . mental p r o c e s s .  I n t h i s sense i t i n v o l v e s a r a t h e r a c t i v e  T h i s p r o c e s s seems to "be a k i n t o that of drawing con-  c l u s i o n s from data, or f o r m i n g hypotheses, and would seem to be q u i t e v a l u a b l e f o r t h i s purpose.  I t can be made q u i t e o b j e c t i v e when the an-  swer i s l i m i t e d to one word, or one term.  Sometimes i t i s v a r i e d by  a s k i n g the s t u d e n t to e l i m i n a t e the u n r e l a t e d f a c t or i t e m . e. g. Gross out the word w h i c h does not bear a c l o s e r e l a t i o n to the o t h e r s of t h i s group. (a)  ^teamchest, m a n i f o l d i n t a k e , c a r b u r e t t o r , d i s t r i b u t o r , pump.  (b)  S e p a l s , p e t a l s , r o o t h a i r s , stamens,, p i s t i l s .  Example of the f i r s t formj I n one word or term s t a t e the group or a r t i c l e t o w h i c h each belongs, or the f-aaction (a)  Steam c h e s t , e c c e n t r i c , s l i d e v a l v e , c o n n e c t i n g r o d .  (b)  F i l a m e n t , wheel, element, e l e c t r o m a g n e t .  (c)  Sperms, eggs, s p o r e s , gametes, z y g o t e .  Sometimes a student may be g i v e n a p a i r of terms or examples which he must compare to f i n d s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s . When the responses demanded are l o n g the r e l i a b i l i t y decreases; when s h o r t the r e l i a b i l i t y i s h i g h . C o n s t r u c t i o n s and drawings These q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r e the student t o c o n s t r u c t a diagram or drawing from memory.  They demand a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e knowledge  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f  p a r t s t o g e t h e r w i t h a c e r t a i n manual f a c i l i t y or a t t i s t i c a b i l i t y . the  When  a r t i s t i c element i s r e d u c e d to the minimum and o n l y o u t l i n e or s i m p l e  diagrams are demanded they serve a v e r y u s e f u l f u n c t i o n .  They are used  only m o d e r a t e l y i n s c i e n c e s , a l t h o u g h b i o l o g i c a l examinations have, i n -  .  eluded c o n s i d e r a b l e q u e s t i o n i n g of t h i s type. p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h l i g h t and e l e c t r i c i t y u t i l i z e  6  0  Physics tests i n dealing t h i s form f r e q u e n t l y ;  Chemistry t e s t s o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y do s o . Comments on R e l i a b i l i t y The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t e s t s i s a v e r y s p e c i f i c concept.  Reliability of  a t e s t I s r e s t r i c t e d to a c e r t a i n group w r i t i n g the t e s t under c e r t a i n conditions.  Change any f a c t o r and the r e l i a b i l i t y changes,  A word o f c a u t i o n  i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t i e s quoted I s i n order a l t h o u g h these quotients . do suggest a c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e  i n value f o r forms of q u e s t i o n s .  Some of- the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t e s t s a r e ; l e n g t h w o r d i n g of i t e m s , sequence of items on the t e s t , l e n g t h o f responses demanded ( o b j e c t i v i t y ) , d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n to s t u d e n t s , form of t e s t items, time, The r e l i a b i l i t y  of a l l forms o f t e s t s seems t o be i n c r e a s e d when  d i r e c t i o n s not t o guess are g i v e n t o the s t u d e n t s . 1 most n o t i c e a b l e i n t r u e - f a l s e q u e s t i o n s .  The  This improvement i s  f o r e g o i n g s t u d y o f t h e forms o f q u e s t i o n s was made p a r t i c u l a r l y  w i t h the aim to study s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s to see to what extent they t e s t the more i n t a n g i b l e achievements of s t u d e n t s i n s c i e n c e c o u r s e s . To examine the forms o f t e s t s to see i f the form p l a y e d an important p a r t i n t e s t i n g achi-evements was c o n s i d e r e d a p r e r e q u i s i t e work i n . t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . /  step t o the  The e x p e r i e n c e gained from t h i s survey  1. Ruch,G.M. and DeGraff,M*H, " C o r r e c t i o n s f o r Change and 'Guess" v s . 'Do Not Guess"; I n s t r u c t i o n s i n M u l t i p l e Response T e s t s " ; J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , Volume 17 $1926) pp.368-375  61 would a s s i s t m a t e r i a l l y i n a n a l y z i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s f o r the extent to which they measure achievements o f the various o b j e c t i v e s o f General Science  17 and "v".  Prom the f o r e g o i n g study two general c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn, 1.  Form p l a y s a l i m i t e d p a r t i n t e s t i n g achievement. Some q u e s t i o n s by v i r t u e o f t h e i r form cannot t e s t c e r t a i n mental p r o c e s s e s , such as r e a s o n i n g , p l a n n i n g , drawing, c o n c l u s i o n s , w h i l e other forms may t e s t these. F a c t u a l m a t e r i a l can be t e s t e d by many forms of questions,  2.  W i t h i n a g i v e n form there may e x i s t a c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the searching power of a q u e s t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . The degree of v i g o u r p o s s e s s e d by the q u e s t i o n i n any p a r t i c u l a r form depends i n a l a r g e measure upon the t r a i n i n g and mental a c t i v i t y of the examiner. I f the examiner maintains an a t t i t u d e of s t i m u l a t i n , higher mental a c t i v i t i e s t h i s w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the s p i r i t of t h e question.  '  \  CHAPTER IV  A STUDY OF PRESENT STANDARDIZED TESTS IN SCIENCE  In the p r e c e d i n g chapter forms o f questions were s t u d i e d to see to what extent t h e y might he used i n measuring  a l l the achievements  may he expected to make i n General Science IV and V.  a student  In t h i s chapter s t a n -  d a r d i z e d t e s t s w i l l be examined to see what types of q u e s t i o n s are used, the f u n c t i o n s of these forms, t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance to what extent each  test measures the achievements  on each t e s t , and  r e s u l t i n g from a s t r i v -  i n g f o r the o b j e c t i v e s of the s c i e n c e courses i n q u e s t i o n . In order t o make t h i s survey twenty-nine  s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s i n the  sciences together w i t h seven m a t r i c u l a t i o n papers i n the s c i e n c e s which were set by the Department of E d u c a t i o n were examined.  These t e s t s were  chosen from the f i e l d s of Chemistry, p h y s i c s , B i o l o g y , and General Science. They range  i n type and purpose  r a t i n g s c a l e s and i n t e r e s t riculation  from achievement  tests.  For purposes  t e s t s , a p t i t u d e t e s t s , to of comparison  the mat-  examination papers were i n c l u d e d In the survey.  Each t e s t was r e a d c a r e f u l l y to d i s c o v e r the types and the f u n c t i o n s of the questions w i t h the hope t h a t one, or a combination of two or three, could be adapted f o r use i n the h i g h s c h o o l courses i n general s c i e n c e . This was done by c l a s s i f y i n g the t e s t items a c c o r d i n g to the o b j e c t i v e w i t h which they c h i e f l y were concerned. ten  Ten r u b r i c s  o b j e c t i v e s of the course had to be p r o v i d e d .  c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the  The a n a l y s i s  included  a l s o an examination of frequency of a p a r t i c u l a r form of q u e s t i o n and a comparison  of t h i s w i t h the t o t a l number  o f p o i n t s on the t e s t .  F o l l o w i n g the a n a l y s i s t a b l e s there i s a b r i e f summary of thes e ;  62  6S p o i n t s and a few comments. unuaual,  or more e f f e c t i v e  A f t e r t h i s p a r t samples of the more o r i g i n a l , types o f questions  that possess  great promise  f o r t e s t i n g purposes i n General Science IV and V have been a b s t r a c t e d and i n c l u d e d i n t h i s chapter.  In each case an attempt was made to examine  the f u n c t i o n and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s  of the example.  In the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s t a b l e s the o b j e c t i v e s o f General IV and V have been r e a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r  Science  order of importance as  1 found by the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  The Soman numerals r e p r e s e n t the r e v i s e d  order  1, F o r many.valuable suggestions at t h i s p o i n t the w r i t e r i s indebted to P r o f . C, B. Wood.  64  TABLE li&T  ANALYSIS OF STANDARDIZED  CHEMISTRY TESTS.  (over)  GOL-OMBlA CHEMISTRY TEST, OT A 65 T r u e - o r - f a l s e . 12 e q u a t i o n s a r e _ h a r d to p l a c e . Much memi n f o r m a t i o n items o r y a t t a c h e d hut 3 Completion Items some r e a s o n i n g and M u l t i p l e response w i t h c o n c l u s i o n s from t r u e - f a l s e items on given data. each. I n f o r m a t i o n , Math, p r o b l e m s . P a r t l y a judgment 5 test. Equations Completion POWERS GENERAL CHEMISTRY TEST,  None  None  FOB! A AND B; 1924.  FORM A p a r t 1~"5-Mult,choice" Equations'are i n information .part t e s t o f drawing 55 items c o n c l u s i o n s from p a r t 11-Equations and d a t a c o m p l e t i o n type 5 M a t h . c a l c u l a t i o n 55 p o i n t s o f formulae from FORM B s i m i l a r . -data • PERSHING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY TEST FORM A Much use o f diagrams O b s e r v i n g and r e to p r e s e n t data from c o r d i n g a b i l i t y i s w h i c h t h e student i s t e s t e d by #22 through to make h i s o b s e r v a t - medium o f diagram. ions and draw c o n a l u s S e v e r a l demand i o n s , hence c o u l d be c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n i n next column,except and a c c u r a c y i n ant h a t many items a r e a l y z i n g diagram. p u r e l y factual;©.g. #5,6,7,8,15,16,17-21, 23-28,44-48. 67 out o f 69 a r e c o m p l e t i o n type w i t h a few" choice''mixed i n MALI If DIAGNOSTIC CHEMISTRY TEST " A" T a b u l a r " p r o p e r t i es 5 Math.balancing o f t e s t " good b u t " r i g i d " equations 12 p o i n t s 9-completion and 20 M u l t i p l e c h o i c e balancing four' i t e m s , r e a s o n i n g 7 problems e a l c u Completion or r e c a l l l a t i n g weights, 17 i t e m s , a l l i n f o r m volumes, e t c ational • ''  None  None  is) one The emphasis directly. upon l a b . t e c h n i q u e s would tend t o t e s t f a r resourcefulness #11 d e t e c t i n g unnecessary f a c t o r s seems usable.  B a l a n c i n g demand some resourcefulness  None  65 ' TABLE V HEALTH HARVARD  CHEMISTRY ACHIEVEMENT TESTS • . 71 SCI.CONTB. V l l SUPERSTI. Y l l l E3PERI. IX TOCATION.X~R^ADria H . S . G H E E ! . T E S T ~  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  COLUMBIA CHEM. TEST 2 true-false items. None  3 true-false items None  POWERS GEN. CHEM. TEST  Part 1 Part 1 3 items 5 items mult.-choice mult-choice  PERSHING CHEM.LAB. TEST  None  None  Very i n d i r e c t l y by forcing att e n t i o n on manipulation and expe r i ment.  The major p a r t of the test f a l l s into this c l a s s . Much use o f d i a grams i n l i e u of a c t u a l things  Would give a student a good i d e a whether or not he were suited for experimental work  None  None  Hone  None  MALIN DIAGNOSTIC TEST None  - ijone  None  66  CHEMIS'TKY 'lKS'I'S (continued)  (over)  nHTiMIS'JRI TESTS 'I'ABLE (eOttltl 11 SCI EST. MB'fffOl? 1 H T^30T:IRGEFtJL» " I V LEISEEB, 1 KHOtLES&E e t c , TESTS. TEST 1 INFORMATION GO-OP EHATIVE. GH2MISTRY E q u a t i o n s i n p a r t. Multiple response questions, 4Q q u e s t i o n s None None Valence q u e s t i o n s Matching, and v a r i a t on the g e n e r a l i o n s ; 110 items i z e d case. Information, theories l a t h , problems. f a c t s , terminology, occurrence, e t c . Completion 65 p o i n t s CO-OPERATIVE uiMiiSTRY  TEST, 'TEST C ( s i m i l a r  M u l t i p l e l o n g response questions Matching and v a r i a t 1 ons, U s u a l types f o r f a c t u a l t e s t i n g ; terminology-application of p r i n c i p l e s .  O b s e r v a t i o n by u s i n g the g r a p h i c formulae f o r organi c chemistry.  GO»OPERATI?E CH1MISTRY TESTS  TEST 11  to above)  ON USE  Great use o f graphs f o r c i n g accurate observation,ability to i n t e r p r e t d a t a , c h e c k i n g hypotheses, drawing c o n c l u s i o n s from data o n l y . Graph or other d a t a given. S e l e c t i o n of the b e s t statements concerning these, 8 groups of q u e s t i o n s a v e r a g i n g 7 to a group. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Tables of data l i k e wise, Susp ending judgment C r i t i c a l attitude. 15 q u e s t i o n s of mult i p l e c h o i c e type' but l o n g r e s p o n s e s reasons COMPREHENSIVE MASTERY CAKPENT2R AND CARLETON Whatever there i s In U s u a l r u n of. m u l t i p l e balancing equations. choice,matching,compMath, c a l c u l a t i o n s . l e t i o n or r e c a l l ; e q u a tions. 24 pages of t e s t s a v e r a g i n g about 18 i tems p e r page  p r a c t i c a l l y none of t h i s t e s t can be c a l l ed i n f o r m a t i o n a l . To do i t does n o t necess i t a t e memorizing many f a c t s before-hand. Identification  None  None  OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD Not d i r e c t l y , may do i t i n directly.  PESTS IN CHEMISTRY None  None  1935 None  ' ""TABLE V HEALTH . CO-OPERATIVE Two o r three u s u a l types Mult.choice  67  (oont.) . OHM 15TRY TESTS VI SCI.CONTR.V11 SIP ERSTI .7111 E3PERI. I X TOCATION»X READING CHEMISTRY TESTS. TEST L 5-6 h i s t o r i c , and None lone None Hone commercial processes Matching Mult.choice  CO-OPERATI7E CHEMISTRY TESTS. TEST C. much as None above  CO-OPERATIVE CHEMISTRY TESTS. Only i n d i r e c t l y by type of matter cho sen. Hone  None  COMPREHENSIVE TEST IN CHEMISTRY  Few items  About 5f of  of u s u a l typ es Mult.choice Matching Recall  usual factual typ es.  None  None  TEST 11 ON USE OF SCIENTIFIC 1ETHOD  Only I n d i r e c t l y by t e s t ing for a b i l i t y to reason from data and be critical  CARPENTER AND CARL ETON  Hone  None  None  1935  0  None  None  None  "  None  TABLE ..7  ANALYSIS OF STANDARDIZED PHYSICS  (over)  TESTS  TABLE 1 KNOWLEDGE,  n  PHYSIOS_£E3TS. p,m"KNT „ METHO D  in  HURD'S FINAL TEST IN HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS 15 q u e s t i o n s o f 82 Itarns t o t a l c a l c u l a t i n g types 4? out o f 68 f a c t u a l w h i c h may t e s t f o r completion a b i l i t y t o draw 10/14 f a c t u a l m u l t . v a l i d math.concluschoice o i o n s from d a t a , or merely a math.test 11 out o f 68 c a l c u l a t i o n completion 4/14 c a l c u l a t i n g mult.-choice.  -p'pqnTTRP.TCFTTL. 17 LEISURE  None  A and B COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU PHYSICS TEST 144 items t o t a l 50 i t e m s b a s e d on A l l p r i n t e d , no d i a g d a t a g i v e n , t o draw rams. conclusions, e t c . p l u s and z e r o m o d i f i T r u e - f a l s e type cation of true-false 94 i n f o r m a t i o n items  None  None  None  COOPERATIVE PHYSICS TESTS  KILZliR-KIRBY MATHEMATICS INVENTORY TEST 10/66 f a c t u a l i n f o r 50/66 m a t h . r e a s o n i n g mation f a c i l i t y i nhandling Completion e q u a t i o n s , e t c . Comp l e t i o n type 15/24 Geom.figures require reasoning from d a t a .  9/24 Geom.figures demand c e r t a i n amount o f resourcefulness  HUGHES PHYSICS SCALES, INFORMATION S, THOUGHT R, S. Factual information 1 of mult.-choice £5 D i r e c t q u e s t i o n s demands r e a s o n i n g None Some o f c a t e c h i s m type,some p r o v i d i n g data 5 mult.-choice STEWART-ASHBAUGH PHYSICS TEST ( E l e c t , Sound, L i g h t ) 8 s e t s o f matching q u e s t i o n s • t o t a l 35 items 1 group o f 5 q u e s t i o n s (matching) based on diagram. 8 problems i n v o l v i n g mathematical reasoning  None  69 TABLE V HEALTH  (oont.~ "PHYSICS TESTS VI SCI.COMB. VI1 SUPERSTI. T i l l EXPER• I X VOCATION X READING  HURD'S FINAL PHYSICS TEST None  None  JMone  COLUMBIA RESEARCH BUREAU PHYSICS TEST jjone  None  None  iMone  None  A and B  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  COOPERATIVE PHYSICS TESTS None  None  KILZER-KIRBY MATHEMATICS INVENTORY TEST None  None  None  HUGHES PHYSICS SCALES, INFORMATION S, THOUGHT E , S. None  None  None  None  STBWART-ASHBAUGH PHYSICS TEST ( E l e c t , , Sound, L i g h t ) None  None  None  None  L  TABLE 71  ANALYSIS OF STANDARDIZED BIOLOGY TESTS  (over)  11 RC1MT.METHOD 1 CTOWLEDGE RUCH^COSSMAN BIOLOGY TEST FORM A & B items t o t a l Use Test 1 M u l t , - c h o i c e ' Test 111 Making w i t h 5-7 c h o i c e s , accurate observation I n f o r m a t i o n a l , r e c o g - o f diagram and i n t e r nition. 35 items p r e t i n g diagram. 15 Items. Test 11 M u l t . - c h o i c e 4 p o i n t s on deducti o n s from data on of statements. Mendel's Laws, 15 items, p a r t l y reasoning,Inform. Test l v P a r a g r a p h c o m p l e t i o n 15-20 items. pomp l e t i o n r e c a l l 0AKE3-P0WERS TEST OP GENERAL BIOLOGY Detecting Relation23 M u l t . - c h o i c e i n ship s formation ( C l a s s i f i a c t i o n types) 32 T r u e - f a l s e ( ,0)  .None  o f diagrams  ?  MICHIGAN BOTANY TEST Test 1 Yes-no r e c o g n i t i o n , 20 items Factual Test 11 M u l t . - c h o i c e None v 4 options.20 items Test" 111 Matching - 20 items Test IV M u l t - c h o i c e on f o u r o p t i o n a l statements.20 items COOP RIDER BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION TEST 1924 94 items t o t a l 17 r e c a l l completion Exercise of t r a c i n g 16 r e c o g n i t i o n t r u e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , or false o r g a n i z i n g d a t a on 17 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e some b a s i s might be 9 best reason G l a s s e d here 35 s e l e c t i n g r e l a t e d data VAN WAGBNEN READING SCALES IN BIOLOGY FORMS porces student to Informational i n h i s d a t a f o r drawd i r e c t l y from maing h i s conclusion t e r i a l of t e s t or a n s w e r , i n d i r e c t , T r u e - f a l s 6 40 perhaps a d a p t a b l e COOPERATIVE BIOLOGY TEST (1935] 22 M u l t , - c h o i c e 6X3 Diagram (18 mult .-response) 33 M a t c h i n g Groups (99 items)  A  None  None  None  Bone  &  B  None  1929  None  71  (oont. TABLE BIOLOGY TESTS V HEALTH V I S C I . C O N T . 7 1 1 S U P E R S T I , n i l EZPER, I X V O C A T I O N X R E A D I N G RUCH-COSSMAN BIOLOGY TEST PORK A & B Completion and Completion Emphasis p l a c e d on mult.-choice m u l t - c h o i c e None d i r e c t o n l y i n d i r e c t a c t u a l examination by diagrams. Not completely valid  None  Only i f ordinary paragraph completion c o u l d be interpret*ed as testing this. Probably not,  A r a t h e r good t e s t a l t h o u g h n o t c o v e r i n g a l l our o b j e c t i v e s w i t h t e s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s . CAKES-* OWERS 6/66 items some m u l t i j choice True-false  6 identificat i o n or checking type  MICHIGAN BOTANY TEST 3 items, usual types /80 None / 8 0  M one None  COCPRIDER BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION items U s u a l types None / 9 4 None / 9 4  Information entirely wordish  fflone  aone  20/94  None  None  None  VAN WAGENEN READING SCALES 2 / 1 5 chosen u o u l d be u t i l i z e d for material the same way as f o r the others by c h o s i n g r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l to r e a d , s u i t a b l e t o these aims. But then the t e s t i s o n l y i n d i r e c t w h i l e the main aim of t h i s i s t o t e s t r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . COOPERATIVE BIOLOGY TEST ( 1 9 3 5 ) 9 items / 1 4 0 4 items / 1 4 0 Mult-choice Matching,  TABLE 7 1 1  ANALYSES Of GENERAL SCIENCE TESTS  (over)  TABLE 1 KNOWLEDGE  n.mTWAT, SCIENCE TESTS I l l RESOURO™!,., 11 flRTERT.METHOD.  SCIENCE TEST FORMS A & B The t e n diagrams on p a r t two are combinations of i n f o r mation t e s t s , o b s e r type vation tests,accuracy, and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Diagrams and f i g u r e s isntphasis n o t so much to work drom on books and words,  RUCH-POPENOE GENERAL 70 items of g e n e r a l information,laws, etc Mult.-choice 6  DVORAK GENERAL SCIENCE TEST FORMS 60 p o i n t s , a l l i n f o r mational Mult .-choice  POWERS •ENERAL SCIENCE TEST FORMS A & B. 192? A l l of 100 items mult.c h o i c e w i t h f i v e options wone A l l i n f orma t i o n a l UNIT TEST FOR "SCIENCE FOR TODAY" ' ' 14 u n i t t e s t s f o r i n - One complete t e s t t o f o r m a t i o n , of the u s u a l be g i v e n at end o f course on s c i e n t i f i c type.True-false with method; d a t a w i t h dei t a l i c i z e d emphasis; ductions 12 items; mult.choice;matching A t t i t u d e s 27 " Good t e s t s I n g e n e r a l . p r i n c i p l e s and generalizations with deductions.  IV LEISURE  None  None  l None  None  None  None  None  None  H  COOPERATIVE GENERAL SCIENCE TEST (Underhi 11 and Powers, 1936,1937} Forms 1936,1937 have 2 — 3 reasoning None t o t a l o f 150 items questions,problems None mainly f a c t u a l 84 items are matchi n g , i n s m a l l homogeneous groups 53 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e ( 5 ) 12 p o i n t s on diagrams. None Form N ( r e v i s e d 1937) 2 — 3 rreeaassoonniinngg None 2—-3 80 items t o t a l , a l l questions multip'le (5) c h o i c e , diagrams.  73 TABIEL. ¥  (oont)  HEALTH  V I  RUCH-PQPENOE  GENERAL  SCI.CONTB.  GENERAL  SCIENCE TEST  FORMS  5 / 50 items 3 /50 items 3/ 50 Usual f a c t u a l Usual types Usual type type of q u e s t i o n s Mult.choice  GENERAL  SCIENCE TEST  16 / 100 items 9 / mult.choice  FORMS  A  &  SCIENCE  1A  VOCATION.  X  READING  B  none  none  None  None  none  None  None  flone  None  None  None  B  100 items 3/100 items None  GENERAL  1936 P a r t 1 (12/84 items) 20/150 items as t o t a l 1937 P a r t 1 18/84 items 28/150 t o t a l Form N, 1937 9/8 items, ,  &  None  UNIT TESTS "SCIENCE FOR TODAY" 4/50 on aver- 1 or 2/ 50 A t t i t u d e age. no new tests i n types eludes some items. Promising  COOPERATIVE  A  EAPER.  Diagram type of t e s t may give more emphasis  DVORAK GENERAL SCIENCE TEST 18/ 60 items Mult.choice 2-3/ 60 1-2/ 60 items items  POWERS  SCIENCE TESTS.  V l l 3UPERSTI. ¥111  None  -  TEST  3/150 items V  1  2/150 items  0 /150  J^one  S one  none  3/80 items  1/80  flone  None  none  f  /150 ":  1 74  TABLE V l l I  ANALYSIS OF AT? TITTJDE TESTS AND OTHERS  (o ver)  TABLE  „  —  ••  q  r  T  ^ STHOD  n i S » k __jy^EISSM.  None l - t e s t i n g d e s i r e t o Ex.1 t e s t s r e source f u l n e s s t i n k e r or f i x t h i n g s in locating F i v e m u l t . c h o i c e and difficulties resp onse. and i n Ex.E-Suspending j u d g "tinkering" ment; snap d e c i s i o n s . Four .mult.choice type •. Ex.J-for reasoning ( B i c y c l e , and gears questions) 8 mult, choice. E x . R - p i c k out i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s of phrases i n a paragraph, p h r a s e s a r e numbered Consistency of p o i n t of view i s t e s t e d to c e r t a i n e x t e n t 5 checking questions Testing observation Ex.F-Optical i l l u s i o n s , ( r a n k i n g type) Diagrams Ex.K-Arranging data and s e l e c t i n g cogent d a t a o r s t e p s . Good. F i v e mult .response Ex.L-uheeking m i s s i n g l i n e s * a b i l i t y to f o r mulate s y s t e m a t i c p l a n t o a t t a c k simple p r o b lem.25 c h e c k i n g items STANFORD EDUCATIONAL M£ T1TUDE TEST (JENSEN) N o t h i n g f o r these r u b r i c s , b u t may have p o s s i b i l i t i e s when m o d i f i e d t o  Djo. d i r e c t i n f o r mational t e s t .  a ,  s u i t the vocational aspects STANFOSD INTIKEST REPORT None  or o b j e c t i v e s .  (COWDERI * None  BREWER VOCATIONAL APTITUDE EXAMINATION x^ione None  perhaps i n d i r e c t l y through p r o f i l e obtained. FOR: BOYS  DETHOIT MECHANICAL APTITUDE TEST 40 items t e s t i n g A b i l i t y to sort knowledge o f a r t i c consistently pictures of n u t s , b o l t s , s c r e w s , l e s i n trades, 35 m u l t . c h o i c e on washers. 117 ( O b s e r v a t i o n ) uses M a t c h i n g p a r t s to 40 on f u n c t i o n s o f form g i v e n f igure. p a r t s of various Estimating size, machines j u d g i n g shape, relations.  (Harvard) None  None  lone  75  TABLE V HEALTH  (cont,) VI SCI.COI'ffi.  AT? TITTJDE* TESTS AID OTHERS. SIP ERST I. V l l l E2PERI. IX VOCATION, X READTWa  Vll  STANFORD SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE TEST None  None  Ex.O-Dectecti n g flaws i n pseudo-science (Generating power) (Dirigible to moom) Two mult.choice  STANFORD EDUCATIONAL  TITUDE TEST  STANFORD INTEREST REPORT BLANK None None None  (for  Ex, 1 Testing ability and d e s i r e to tinker,  Entire test for ability i n higher scientific vocations  None  students i n Education) Comparing jobs and returns,etc.  None  Testing Likes Testing Indiff.,Disreading l i k e s to f i n d i n t e r e e i n t e r e s t f o r t s by vocation,260 checklist  None  None  Mult.choice 43 items  4 items  DETROIT MECHANICAL APTITUDE TEST . None None None  None  Entire test for mech. inclination Much use of diagram.  None  BREWER VOCATIONAL None  INFORMATION  None  76  TABLE  ANALYSES OF MATRICULATION P- J? ERS  (over)  TABLE  ~  v  PHYSICS 1938 Completion sentence answers  1957 Completion, sentence type; 46$  CHEMISTRY 1937 . Informational,recall memoriter Subjective,descript i v e . 65$ appr ox, 1938 Informational,recall memoriter.Subjective d e s c r i p t i v e , 85$ Shorter questions  BIOLOGY 1937 & 38 Group 1 F u n c t i o n s . Informational, Semi-objective. 20 p o i n t s , 4 0 items Group 111 M o d i f i e d matching C r i t i c i s i n g on data p a i r s  1936 10 b r i e f comparison subjective questi o n s , short essay 4 E s s a y type, p l a n i n g and memoriter 20 d e f i n i t i o n s i n groups of f i v e 10 on s t r u c t u r e s , functions.- Short essays.  r, ?^ fTCT TP.TTT.a M'TOl? T E 3 T > ^ ^*MIKAT IONS 111 RESOUR^FTTT, s f U E l T . METHOD  n  Math, problems, i f these c o u l d be c l a s s e d here, 48$  Math.reasoning, etc,  1? LEISURE  lone  lone  lone  Hone  None  lone  Hone  lone  E q u a t i o n s ?? Math.problems ? ? 35$  p r o b l e m s and e q u a t i o n s 15$ approx.  Comparison o f two g i v e n items to f i n d l i k e n e s s e s and d i f ferences; seeking relationships; columnar,brief,semiobjective  Comparing type o f questions ?  Considerable mental resourcef u l n e s s i s demanded b y t h i s type o f q u e s t i o n I t s e g r e g a t e s the memorizer, who u s u a l l y does p o o r ly  Some r e s o u r c e f u l ness demanded.  lone  lone  77 TABLE V HEALTH  Vl^.SCI. COM . 1  " MAmiCULATIOI P JEERS ?11 SIP ERSTI» V l l l E3gEB:. IX VOCATION  X READING-  PHYSICS 1938 None  None  2-3 items 1937 1 item  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  None  CHEMISTRY 1937 4-5 p o i n t s 3 p o i n t s processes.  None  None d i r ectly  None  None  BIOLOGY 1937-8 2-4% 1 point  None  None d i r ectly  None  None  1936 5% approx. 1 p o i n t  None  Questions about experiments reputedly done I n class  1938  78 TABLE :.X  . .  A COMPARISON OF FREQUENCY OF QUESTION' FORM ON TESTS STUDIED.  TESTS  A  Chemistry 65 %• 7,1  Physics  i Biology  % General Science  % Total P ercentage  C  220 24  234 297 76 25.5 32.2 8.3  94 40 19 26.2 11.2 5.3  E  57 50 15.9 13.9  F  G  H  I  J*  23 2.5  0 0  3  0  23  918  73 25 20,2 7  0  0  16  358  TOTAL  33 0.6  4 .76  0  51 9,7  12 2.3  12  525  0  0  0  0  0  0  21  449  185  \  . 84 363 18.7 81  2  0  20 10.9  65 65- 25 Oi 35.3 35.3 13.3  0  10 8.4  0  30  267  483  842  102  11  458  184  100  25  64  12  19V7B; 34.5'il9,2 7.4  4.1  1.2  2,6  «6  A  True-False  B  Matching  C  M u l t i p l e Choice  D  Completion  E  Identification  F  Computations  G, D i r e c t  D  108 119 161 37 20.3 22 i& 30.3 7,  % Others  B  o r Catechism  H  Analogy  I  Re-arrangement  J * Diagrams (number o f F i g u r e s only) not i n c l u d e d i n t o t a l .  2,435 100$  79 I t may be worth w h i l e t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o a few p o i n t s i n Table  IX.  General  Science  illustrated  t e s t s make a great use of m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e  t e s t s , almost to the e x c l u s i o n of a l l other k i n d s . about one t h i r d as much and P h y s i c s very l i t t l e .  B i o l o g y t e s t s use them T h i s disuse of m u l t i p l e -  choice -questions i n P h y s i c s seems odd to the w r i t e r f o r he has had no dt f f i c u l t y i n p r e p a r i n g questions thought-provoking  o f t h i s type  on P h y s i c s ,  Many e x c e l l e n t  questions can be formed u s i n g P h y s i c s m a t e r i a l .  t e s t s seem to r e l y on t r u e - f a l s e and computations mostly; completion  Physics  Chemistry  upon  and m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e ,  A word of i n f o r m a t i o n should be added c o n c e r n i n g the t r u e - f a l s e results.  T r u e r f a l s e questions were found  and v e r y few were found  on the o l d e r t e s t s In the main,  on t e s t s p u b l i s h e d w i t h i n the l a s t  three  years.  On science t e s t s i n general m u l t i p l e - o h o i c e i s the mos t w i d e l y used form, w i t h a n a l o g i e s and rearrangements l e a s t used. seems strange  This l a t t e r  fact  i n s o f a r as science i s supposed to d e a l l a r g e l y w i t h com:  p a r i s o n s , and w i t h c l a s s i f y i n g and o r g a n i z i n g knowledge. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g tD compare these r e s u l t s w i t h those nature  obtained i n 1929 by Ruch and R i c e .  of a s i m i l a r  These men undertook to tabulate  a l l the f r e q u e n c i e s o f q u e s t i o n forms submitted 1 the n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n of 1927-1928,  on the t e s t s entered i n  TABLE XT '  FORM OF TEST ITEM  PERCENT  :  1. Completion 29.71 2, 24,12 True-False 3. M u l t i p l e Choice . 16.45 4. Matching 10,67 5. Identifications 9.17 6. Computations 1.77 7, Re-arrangements 1.77 8, Analogies 1. Table adapted from Ruch & R i c e "Specimen O b j e c t i v e Examinations" p ; 9  80 The present  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e gives a rough a b s t r a c t on the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s to measuring achievements i n General  Science  objectives* TABLE XI? • COMPARISON OP DEGREE' WHICH THE 29 STANDARDIZED TESTS EXAMINED MEASURED OBJECTIVES OTHER THAN KNOWLEDGE.  Questions  on O b j e c t i v e s Chemistry  111 IV V VI  Vll  VI11 IS X  Resourcefulness Leisure^  Biology  General  Others  0  0  P  0  25*  0  0  0  0  0  0  27  10.5  0  2,8  0  Health Contributions of Scientists  physics  .33  1,55  Superstitions Errors, e t c .  0  2  2  0  2  3  1  3  10  Vocations e t c .  0  0  0  0  30  Reading  0  0  0  0  5  Experimentation  * T h i s score i s a t t r i b u t e d almost titude test  e n t i r e l y to the S t a n f o r d S c i e n t i f i c Ap-  Van Wagenen R e a d i n g S c a l e s were n o t i n c l u d e d i n any o f these because none c o u l d be obtained f o r Chemistry, P h y s i c * and General S c i e n c e . i n c l u s i o n of t h e i r scores would i n c r e a s e the r e a d i n g percentages proximately f i v e p e r cent.  The  by ap-  81 Were i t not f o r the Cooperative t i f i c Aptitude  Test S e r v i c e and the S t a n f o r d S c i e n -  t e s t s on the a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method there  would be o n l y a minute amount of t e s t i n g done on O b j e c t i v e 11 (the a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method). N e a r l y a l l t e s t s a r e i n f o r m a t i o n a l t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t y per of the v a l u e of the  cent  test.  When the v a l u e s i n the t a b l e above are compared w i t h the values  ob-  t a i n e d from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t w i l l be seen that t e s t i n g i n science should be r e - d i r e c t e d r a t h e r d r a s t i c a l l y . for  Note, however, t h a t the v a l u e s  "Health" coincide. I t would appear from the f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s e s  that no p r e s e n t  standar-  d i z e d t e s t would serve s a t i s f a c t o r i l y the demands of a good t e s t i n g p r o g ramme i n s c i e n c e , nor c o u l d a combination  of two or three of p r e s e n t  tests  s u f f i c e a l t h o u g h some of the uncommon types c o u l d be made v e r y u s e f u l . There i s no s t a n d a r d i z e d achievement t e s t s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r General Science 17 and 7.  The  be too d i f f i c u l t .  Something more than the Van Wagenen Reading S c a l e s i s  necessary  f o r reading.  S t a n f o r d S c i e n t i f i c A p t i t u d e t e s t i s good but  may  No t e s t s are made to measure a b i l i t y to use  l e i s u r e w i s e l y , a t t i t u d e , nor f o r v o c a t i o n s , and few attempt to measure r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s and l a b o r a t o r y p r a c t i c e ( P e r s h i n g ) .  The Cooperative  Test  S e r v i c e attempts to make t e s t s to measure the a b i l i t y to t h i n k s c i e n t i f i c ally, In v i e w of the emphasis on the o b j e c t i v e s o f the course e s t a b l i s h e d by the r e t u r n s from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t would seem u n j u s t to judge the progress  of any student s o l e l y on the knowledge or i n f o r m a t i o n a l b a s i s ,  or to judge a teacher'ei a b i l i t y e n t i r e l y on the b a s i s of student i n a c q u i r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and knowledge.  success  I t seems t h a t the o n l y way  out  82  of these d i f f i c u l t i e s i s f o r the teacher or the examining a u t h o r i t i e s to devise s p e c i a l t e s t s which w i l l measure achievements  and growth  infields  other than the p u r e l y i n f o r m a t i o n a l . The l e a s t s a t i s f a c t o r y s c i e n c e t e s t s appear to he the physics.,f or they are too r i g i d , unadaptable, and narrow i n compass.  The more modern  Chemistry and B i o l o g y seem to be more p r o g r e s s i v e i n form. I n many cases the B i o l o g y and General Science t e s t s are v e r y s i m i l a r f o r each makes much use of m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e and diagrams, and i n s p i r i t , f o r they s t r e s s human v a l u e s more.  is broader  I t i s to be hoped t h a t  t e s t s i n G e n e r a l Science 1? and Y w i l l f o l l o w the more r e c e n t trends i n Chemistry, B i o l o g y , and General Science such as those p r e p a r e d by the C o o p e r a t i v e Test S e r v i c e , and the S t a n f o r d S c i e n t i f i c A p t i t u d e Test and the P e r s h i n g Test, A l t o g e t h e r , I t appears t h a t p r e s e n t s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s have f a l l e n v e r y f a r b e h i n d the needs o f s c i e n c e c o u r s e s .  They s t r e s s f a r too much  the i n f o r m a t i o n a l aspect and do n o t s t r e s s enough a c t i v e t h i n k i n g i n h a n d l i n g new s i t u a t i o n s I n w h i c h science.  the student must use h i s t r a i n i n g i n  Tests c o u l d be f a s h i o n e d a f t e r the S t a n f o r d S c i e n t i f i c Ap-  t i t u d e Test or the C o o p e r a t i v e Chemistry Test 11 to p r o v i d e t h i s d e s i r e d mental  activity.  L i k e w i s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n to measuring growth  towards  the other o b j e c t i v e s , C e r t a i n types of q u e s t i o n s have appeared as the " s t o c k - i n - t r a d e " of examiners.  Some few seemed t o p o s s e s s unique f u n c t i o n s or a t l e a s t  are a d a p t a b l e to measure some of the achievements  f r e q u e n t l y passed by.  Three sources o f t e s t Items were most remunerative of e f f o r t .  These  were the Kuch-Popenoe G e n e r a l Science Test, the Cooperative s e r i e s , and  the Stanford S c i e n t i f i c A p t i t u d e The  f o l l o w i n g pages contain, a b s t r a c t e d t e s t items chosen mainly  from the above-mentioned three the  types  General  Test.  of questions  Science  I f and  sources  i n order  to demonstrate some of  t h a t should be u s e f u l i n a t e s t i n g programme i n v. SPECIMEN TEST QUESTIONS  From; Ruch-? openoe General  Science  purpose of t e s t items; not  s t a t e d by authors;  Directions; F i l l  s^J^^^aAig Wll* \V  B  (mainly f o r i n f o r m a t i o n ) .  i n each b l a n k so as to make a true  v-C  Ftaurc Ul  Tests., Forms A and  statement,  . . . Figure 2 . In the diagram of a t y p i c a l - f l o w e r • a. The p e t a l s (the c o r o l l a ) are marked by  the  letter..  b. The  stamens are marked by the l e t t e r  ....  c. The  sepals  «...  d. The p i s t i l  ( c a l y x ) by the l e t t e r i s marked by the  letter  (This t e s t shows a good r e s t r a i n t i n the use of I t i s c l e a r , a c c u r a t e , and not too i d e a l i z e d . ) C F i g u r e 4. ' Flqure JV inXCwC V. LlAO_LL I. LU-LLUCf'j.4.) 111 I II  II III  shadin  a. In t h i s l e v e r the f o r c e i s a p p l i e d at  ....,  b.  ,....  I  The  fulcrum i s p l a c e d at the p o i n t  c. The mechanical advantage of a l e v e r of t h i s c l a s s i s always ..... than  1.  Figure10» a. The mechanical advantage of t h i s p u l l e y system  Y V  is.......  b. The r u l e f o r the mechanical advantage of any p u l l e y system i s t h a t the mechanical advantage i s equal to the number o f times the » cord passes to and from the t» 9 .pulley. Fi^ureVc. D i s r e g a r d i n g f r i c t i o n , the f o r c e needed to l i f t the (Tig.io3 100-pound weight shown i s pounds.  84 Figore 15. ..{On  the. t e s t )  '-> A. a. This i s a drawing of a  * fft«ftft0  b. The p i s t o n i s l e t t e r e d & 9ftflftft B •ft« o. She valve which opens on the upstroke  i s lettered.,.  d. The g r e a t e s t d i s t a n c e that v a l v e C can be p l a c e d above the l e v e l of the water at D, i f the instrument i s to work s u c c e s s f u l l y , i s about ., feet. F i g u r e VI  Figure 18, Form J3 (On Pia  the t e s t )  V l f a , A green under-water p l a n t has j u s t been p l a c e d i n /p , y the apparatus shown i n the s u n l i g h t . The gas * which i s b e i n g c o l l e c t e d at A i s ,,  U r e  B  b. A glowing s p l i n t p l a c e d i n t h i s gas  will  | « M I I I M M * t l ( M I M M B M I « M * I M I M M I M « l t « I M t  c. T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s a phase of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s known as  F i g u r e 15, Form B. a, In the f l a s k shown at A there i s a s o l u t i o n of molasses to which some, yeast has been . added. The gas which i s b e i n g c o l l e c t e d at, 13 IS •««•«••••»*«*««»«••*ftftftftft«»«««««ett«««tft*  • O —  II'\-jrm.  LULL r  Figure  -  VJI1  .......  f 1  a  . . w i l l be  forned.  c. There w i l l be formed In the l i q u i d i n the f l a s k marked A a q u a n t i t y of  Applicabilityt T h i s form of t e s t would seem to be u s e f u l not only for i n f o r m a t i o n a l t e s t i n g but f o r t e s t i n g powers of o b s e r v a t i o n . P o s s i b l y i t c o u l d be used i n t a s t i n g f o r "simple, experimentation", measuring the student's a b i l i t y to r e c a l l what has been done. I t i s p o s s i b l e to memori z e drawings as I n f o r m a t i o n can be, but a few new t w i s t s to the diagram and new forms o f the same o l d problem w i l l u s u a l l y e l i m i n a t e the memorizers. T h i s type of q u e s t i o n seems p r o m i s i n g f o r t e s t i n g the p a r t s and . f u n c t i o n s of more complex machinery than shown here, and i s much used f o r b i o l o g i c a l forms.  85 SPECIMEN TEST QUESTIONS. From-. P e r s h i n g Laboratory Chemistry Test, Form A. ^ Purpose of t e s t  items;  To measure achievement o f p u p i l s i n l a b o r a t o r y technique; to r e c o g n i z e s u i t a b l e apparatus; to d e t e c t e r r o r s o f procedure, i n apparatus set-up. D i r e c t i o n s ; F i l l i n the blanks w i t h the c o r r e c t answers. Use jfor reference. Metals sometimes may be i d e n t i f i e d by f u s i n g the metal s a l t w i t h borax to a t r a n s p a r e n t bead. Some metals y i e l d a bead o f a g i v e n c o l o r when f u s e d i n the o x i d i z i n g flame and a bead o f a d i f f e r e n t c o l o r i n the r e d u c i n g flame. Thus a compound of i r o n fused w i t h borax i n the flame at "A" of F i g . S w i l l produce a c o l o r e d bead w h i l e i f fused a t "B" w i l l produce a color. A borax bead c o n t a i n i n g manganese and fused i n the o x i d i z i n g flame w i l l produce a color.  diagrams  Figure IX ( F i g . (s on test)  11. Study the apparatus shown i n F i g . 18 and r e c a l l charac t e r i s t i e s o f substances which may be p r e p a r e d i n t h i type of set-up. Of the substances l i s t e d below mark w i t h an "A'' those f o r which the apparatus i s " A p p l i a b l e " , and w i t h "N" f o r those f o r which the apparatus i s "Not a p p l i c a b l e " . 60..Carbon d i o x i d e ..........63. N i t r o u s oxide ...... 61. H y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d .......64, Hydrogen.,.,,....... 62, Oxygen,,  Figure X  tF*'g. ie) 111. A student working i n the l a b o r a t o r y ctesired to prepare and c o l l e c t carbon d i o x i d e . He decided to c o l l s c t i t by water displacement method. The apparatus i s shown i n F i g u r e 12. A f t e r the r e a c t i o n had been going on f o r some time, he f a i l e d to c o l l e c t any gas i n b o t t l e B. Check the apparatus and note any d i f f i c u l t i e s * The student d i d n o t c o l l e c t the gas because; (Check correct- answer.) a« The gas d i s s o l v e s In water C — a* Heat should be a p p l i e d to the apparatus. LLLLLLUL L L L L C U c. Tube F does not extend down i n t o the l i q u i d . F i g u r e XI d. Tube D does n o t extend down i n t o the l i q u i d . e. Not- enough marble i n the b o t t l e , f . More z i n c i s needed, g. A c i d used was too s t r o n g . • < • •(These f i g u r e s tend to be too s m a l l . Compare'With preceding.) 'Of A m ) l i c a b i I i t . V i This type of q u e s t i o n seems on the s u r f a c e to t e s t f a i r l y w e l l f o r the common t e c h n i q u e s , and on the s u r f a c e should approximate /scores w i t h the t e s t s made w i t h the a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r has not been able to f i n d any c o n t r o l experiments on t h i s b a s i s , nor c o r r e l a t i o n experiments, done by these p e o p l e . The t e s t seems to f i t i n w i t h "develop* meht of the a b i l i t y to p e r f o r m experiments". T h i s problem was the b a s i s  o f some r e s e a r c h i n t o c o r r e l a t i o n the r e s u l t s of which are given i n a 1 chapter, The c o r r e l a t i o n s are not s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h to assume that t h i type o f t e s t >s .equivalent to a " p r a c t i c a l t e s t " . r  .SPECIMEN TEST QUESTIONS, from- The Cooperative Chemistry Test, Test 11, page 7. purpose o f t e s t item; To measure the a b i l i t y o f students' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f experimental dat results. D i r e c t i o n s . Each e x e r c i s e c o n s i s t s o f two p a r t s - f i r s t a d e s c r i p t i o n of an experiment and the r e s u l t s obtained- and secondly o f c o n c l u s i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the experiment, l o u are to judge the soundness of these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Head c a r e f u l l y and assume that a l l f a c t s given you are c o r rect. I f i t i s a sound c o n c l u s i o n based on t h i s experiment alone p l a c e a ( 1 ) i n the f i r s t p a r e n t h e s i s a f t e r each i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( 1 ) I f i t i s unsound because i t i s c o n t r a d i c t e d by t h i s experiment p l a c e a(3) I f i t goes beyond the r e s u l t s o f t h i s experiment only,-place ' & V ' H hr^kA(2), That i s , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be true or f a l s e , but you are unable to say from t h i s ''experiment o n l y . Next, c o n s i d e r a l l these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s marked two (2) that go beyond the reach of the experiment and f u r t h e r r e f i n e your o p i n i o n o f these i n this wayI f you judge the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to be true or h i g h l y p r o b a b l y (judging from evidence which you have obtained from other sources than t h i s experiment.) mark i t P l u s i n the second p a r e n t h e s i s (2) ( + ) I f you judge I n t e r p r e t a t i o n to be untrue or h i g h l y improbable ( j u d g i n g from sources o f evidence other than t h i s experiment mark i t zero (0) i n the second p a r e n t h e s i s (2) ( 0 ) I f you cannot decide whether t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y true or untrue do not p l a c e any mark i n t h e second p a r e n t h e s i s . (2) ( ) p l u s and zero a r e used only a f t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that you mark (2) (1 ( ( ( (  3 2 2 2  ) • • ( - ) SOUND CONCLUSION? based on t h i s experiment o n l y . ) ( ) CONTRADICTED; by r e s u l t s o f t h i s experiment o n l y , ) ( +' ) HIGHLY PROBABLY; b u t goes beyond r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment, ) ( — ) HIGHLY IMPROBABLE; goes beyond the r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment. ) ( ) CANNOT DECIDE; goes beyond the r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment b u t cannot decide whether h i g h l y p r o b a b l e or h i g h l y improbable.  8, The f o l l o w i n g experiment was performed i n d i v i d u a l l y by 160 students*. The same amount of copper was heated w i t h an excess o f sulphur, forming cuprous s u l f i d e . .each student weighed h i s p r o d u c t and found the p e r c e n t of copper that i t c o n t a i n e d . The r e s u l t s f o r the 160 students are p l o t t e d i n the graph below. The t h e o r e t i c a l p e r c e n t o f copper i n cuprous sulphide i s 79.,9. T h i s . p e r c e n t i s c a l c u l a t e d from the formula weight of cuprous s u l f i d e . .  (Graph and q u e s t i o n s on f o l l o w i n g page.)  8,  87  (continued j 5  0  c  i  1 •  1 :a.\ % oi  1  / £  • -n  10  •3  =s  /  »fp '7  \ f-  oent" of  t  # •  Middle  SO% ai !  1  8Vudtn-t> i  1 1 1  o "Per  t  c»pper  reported.  F i g u r e X11 a. The excess s u l f u r was completely .burned i n each of the experiments •(  )  (  , (  )  (  )  c. 7/hen the students performed t h i s experiment, each student obt a i n e d the t h e o r e t i c a l p e r c e n t of copper i n cuprous sulphide (  )  (  i  d. A constant e r r o r was i n t r o d u c e d i n some o f these experiments,(  )  (  )  e. More students obtained r e s u l t s below the t h e o r e t i c a l p e r c e n t of copper i n cuprous s u l p h i d e than above i t ., (  )  (  )  £. On the average the p e r c e n t of copper i n cuprous sulphide found i n these experiments was h i g h e r than the percentage c a l c u l a t e d from i t s formula weights  )  I  bo Some o f t h e students d i d n o t heat the copper and sulphur long enough i n the/presence o f a i r , ........  (  »  g« Some o f the students weighed the cuprous sulphide while i t  h. Students who found that t h e i r cuprous s u l p h i d e contained 72^, copper had more sulphur i n t h e i r cuprous sulphide than students who found 86^ copper. .., «. ( i.  Students who found t h e i r cuprous sulphide contained 72$ copper had more copper i n t h e i r cuprous sulphide than students who found 86$ copper, ...... (  (  )  )  (  )  )  (  )  Applicability; T h i s seems to be a v e r y f i n e type o f q u e s t i o n to measure a b i l i t y t o draw v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s from data p r e s e n t e d . While i t nay seem to be unduly lengthy i n i t s d i r e c t i o n s here, i n the r e a l t e s t the d i r e c t i o n s do n o t occupy such a p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount o f space because seven other q u e s t i o n s o f equal l e n g t h a r e i n c l u d e d under the same set of d i r e c tions.  88 grom»  Standord  S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude  Test,  O b j e c t i v e r To t e s t student's a b i l i t y to proceed w i t h c a u t i o n and to r e a d i n s t r u c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y , and h i s thoroughness of execution, (Authors c l a i m that they r e a l l y have v e r y l i t t l e to do w i t h i l l u s i o n s , w h i c h a t f i r s t glance they seem to be.) 11. Rank the r e c t a n g l e s A, B, G. D. £, F. G i n order of t h e i r h e i g h t ; that is", w r i t e 1 i n the small space next to the Miter i n the column c o r r e s ponding to the h i g h e s t r e c t a n g l e , 2 next to the l e t t e r corresponding to the next h i g h e s t , e t c .  A p p l i c a b i l i t y - Questions of t h i s type can be used to t e s t students' a b i l i t y to make accurate observations and to r e c o r d them. The i n c l u s i o n of opt i c a l i l l u s i o n s catches the c a r e l e s s worker. Although t h i s t e s t item might appear to be too easy f o r many persons a t t e n t i o n can be drawn to the f a c t •that i t i s used i n S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y w i t h some success, and to the f a c t that the q u e s t i o n has a good d i s c r i m i n a t i v e v a l u e . This i s a paper t e s t that appears' to r e p l a c e a c t u a l measurements but i n r e a l i t y demands that measurements be made, Students have r u l e r s and are p e r m i t t e d to use them .but many do not do so t a k i n g the q u e s t i o n as too easy to warrant such an o u t l a y of e f f o r t .  89 SAMPLES OP TEST ITEMS, Prom S t a n f o r d S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Exercise  Test  0  O b j e c t i v e of t e s t item;;. To t e s t a b i l i t y to d e t e c t f a l l a c i e s and not to be m i s l e d by apparent p l a u s i b i l i t i e s . (Authors c l a i m that t h i s item i s a goo "bait"- f o r the i m a g i n a t i v e minded who are not s c i e n t i f i c , as t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group does very p o o r l y on these i t e m s ) .  11, At a r e c e n t meeting o f the American A s s o c i a t i o n of Mechanical Engineers the f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t r e c e i v e d thorough c o n s i d e r a t i o n . With the f u t u r e development of extremely l i g h t gas engines i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to b u i l d d i r i g i b l e b a l l o o n s much l i g h t e r than those b u i l t today. I t might be t hen p o s s i b l e , by the use o f a i r tanks, p r o v i d e d for b r e a t h i n g , to attempt a f l i g h t to the moon. Supposing that the d i s t a n c e to the moon i s 200,000 m i l e s , and the average v e l o c i t y o f such a d i r i g i b l e would be 100 m i l e s per hour, i t would be p o s s i b l e to complete the journey i n about 2,000 hours.  The f o l l o w i n g reasons e i t h e r f o r or a g a i n s t the p r o j e c t were given by various.members. P u t an A i n the squares next to the reason which you would endorse and a • next to those to which you would o b j e c t .  (  )  1. Less than 25 years ago almost everyone b e l i e v e d that f l y i n g , we have i t today, was a rank i m p o s s i b i l i t y . Therefore, the above p r o j e c t i s worth t r y i n g ,  as  (  (  2,  (  )  3, The above p r o j e c t i s w o r t h l e s s , f o r i t i s d e f i n i t e l y known that . the atmosphere does not extend beyond a few hundred m i l e s from the e a r t h .  (  )  4.  The above p r o j e c t i s w o r t h l e s s , f o r i t i s w e l l known that a i r i n the upper l a y e r s o f the atmosphere does not c o n t a i n oxygen and therefore i s not s u i t a b l e for breathing.  The above p r o j e c t i s worth t r y i n g , f o r the advance i n e n g i n e e r i n g i s more r a p i d than ever and i t i s unwise to set any d e f i n i t e l i m i t to i t .  (The manual and s c o r i n g key p l a c e s a minus s i g n i n f r o n t of ,# 1, 2, 4, w i t h p l u s i n f r o n t of # 3 to get f u l l c r e d i t of 5; 2, 3, as p l u s given c r e d i t of 3.)  90 From  {  Stanford S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude Test,  Exercise K  O b j e c t i v e s of t e s t itemTo d e t e c t the aptitude o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n v i s u a l i z i n g a s t a t i s t i c a l or experimental s i t u a t i o n ; c a p a c i t y f o r a n a l y t i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of values of data; o f r e c o g n i z i n g a l i k e l y p l a n of a t t a c k . Directions 11. A housewife uses 2 quarts of b o i l i n g water f o r her c o f f e e and wishes to f i n d which o f her three k e t t l e s , a 4-quart aluminum, a 5-quart copper, and a 3-quart g r a n i t e one, consumes the l e a s t gas f o r the b o i l i n g of the water. Check only those statements which w i l l enable her to get the r i g h t answer, (  )  1.  P i l l a l l three k e t t l e s w i t h water,  {  )  2,  (  )  3,  (  )  4.  P l a c e a l l three k e t t l e s on the three d i f f e r e n t burners on the gas range and heat them one a f t e r another.  (  )  5,  P l a c e one k e t t l e a t a time on the same burner and heat. i t .  (  )  6,  Time each k e t t l e u n t i l the water begins to b o i l .  pour  i n t o each k e t t l e 2 quarts o f water,  p l a c e a i l t h r e e k e t t l e s on the gas range, heat them a t the same time, and time each k e t t l e u n t i l the water begins to b o i l .  1. A P h y s i c i s t wanted to measure the l e n g t h of a f i n e wire w i t h p r e c i s i o n f o r t h i s r e a s o n he measured i t s e v e r a l times. Below are g i v e n the r e s u l t s of the measuring:1st measure  13.63 o.^ •  2nd measure  13,13  3rd measure  •  •'  13.12  4th measure  , 13,14  5th measure  13,15  6th measure ..  13.16 *  What I s the p r o b a b l e l e n g t h of the wire?  Answer here  (  )  A p p l i c a b i l i t y ; Questions of t h i s type c o u l d be u t i l i z e d i n t e a s t i n g a student's a b i l i t y to s e l e c t data, t o p l a n the e s s e n t i a l steps of a b i t o f exoerimenting. I t c o u l d be used a l s o to test h i s powers of o r g a n i z i n g an a t t a c k on a problem under "the a b i l i t y to p e r f o r m simple experiments'.  91 From:  S t a n f o r d S c i e n t i f i c A p t i t u d e Test,  Exercise  E  purposes o f ' t e s t items; To.test "suspended judgment versus snap d e c i s i o n s " ; to t e s t tendency t o guess or.act on i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a . Directions; P l a c e a check mark ( X ) i n the space next to the. c o r r e c t answer below; I. What w i l l he the average c o s t of l i v i n g i n t h i s c o u n t r y i n the year 5000? {  } 1. About $50 p e r month p e r c a p i t a ,  (  (  ) 2. About $100 p e r month p e r c a p i t a . . ) 3. About $200 p e r month p e r c a p i t a .  (  (  (  ) 4. About $300 p e r month per capita. ) 5, About $500 p e r month per c a p i t a , ) 6. I f unable to answer put a check mark i n f r o n t of this.  II.  I f you s t a c k n i c k e l s i n one p i l e  10 f e e t h i g h , i t w i l l  (  } 1. About $100.  (  ) 3. About $225,  (  } 2. About $200.  (  ) 4. Over #250.  5. I f unable to answer put a check here (  III.  contain;  ),  A c e r t a i n government, s e l l i n g l a n d , o f f e r e d i t on the f o l l o w i n g terms;  {  ) 1. I f the buyer i s an immigrant, he may pay $1,000.every 20 y e a r s .  (  ) 2. I f the buyer #100 $300 $500  i s a n a t i v e born, he may pay the f i r s t year the second year the t h i r d year, and so on, the annual payment b e i n g i n c r e a s e d each year by $200 f o r 20 y e a r s .  (  ) 3* i f the buyer #1 $ 2 $4  i s a war v e t e r a n , he may pay the f i r s t year the second year the t h i r d year, and so on, the annual payment b e i n g doubled f o r each year f o r 16 y e a r s ,  ;, ' ; 4. I f unable to answer p l a c e a check mark here (  year f o r  }  Which terms are the most advantageous? P u t a check mark i n the corresponding square. A p p l i c a b i l i t y ; Questions of t h i s type could be used q u i t e e a s i l y to t e s t a DUDil's a b i l i t y to suspend judgment when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t data". This i s p a r t of g e n e r a l a b i l i t y i n use of the s c i e n t i f i c method.  92 Erom;  S t a n f o r d S c i e n t i f i c A p t i t u d e Test  Purpose o f t e s t i t e m ;  To t e s t s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y to d e t e c t i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s .  Read the f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y . Read the f i v e p a r a g r a p h s . I f a paragraph i s c o n s i s t e n t throughout, p u t an X i n the square a c r o s s from the top o f each p a r a g r a p h ; i f i t i s n o t , p l a c e a t h e r e , and w r i t e I n the spaces a c r o s s from the lower p a r t o f each p a r a g r a p h the numbers c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the p h r a s e s or sentences which cause the i n c o n s i s t e n c y or l e a d to an i l l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n , J  )_  1. A t sea l e v e l . 1  when, atmospheric p r e s s u r e i s normal 2  water b o i l s a t 212^ P. When atmospheric p r e s s u r e drops 3 4 below normal,  water b o i l s a t a t i m p e r a t u r e lower than 212°P. 5  In l o c a l i t i e s s i t u a t e d above the sea l e v e l , atmospheric -pres6 7 sure  f  )  J  )_  (  )  i s o f t e n below normal. 8  water always b o i l s 10  I n such l o c a l i t i e s 9  a t temperatures below 212° P. 11  11. When a body i s h e a v i e r than i t s volume of water, i t s i n k s -  i otherwise i t f l o a t s ,  J  ]_ (  )  • c o r k i s l i g h t e r than water*  therefore i t f l o a t s . 4  Sodium I s l i g h t e r than water. 5  Sodium i s a m e t a l . 6  Metals usually sink i n water. 7  A chunk o f m e t a l l i c sodium thrown i n water w i l l  float.  A p p l i c a b i l i t y ; This form o f t e s t c o u l d serve a v e r y v a l u a b l e f u n c t i o n i n measuring a b i l i t y t o t h i n k c l e a r l y enough t o c o u n t e r a c t s u p e r s t i t i o n and to c o r r e c t erroneous b e l i e f s . Erroneous b e l i e f s c l i n g on u s u a l l y because they a r e p l a u s i b l e , b u t they u s u a l l y c o n t a i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s w h i c h t h i s detects.  93 SP ECIMEN QUESTIONS Erom$ S t a n f o r d S c i e n t i f i c A p t i t u d e Test, , Js&ercise I P u r p o s e s of t e s t i t e m s ; The t e s t of the t r a i t of a "bent" f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n has been d e v i s e d to d e t e c t , not the a c t u a l e x p e r i m e n t a l a b i l i t y due to t r a i n i n g , but the f i r s t impulse which i s u s u a l l y symptomatic of an e x p e r i m e n t a l bent* Directions Suppose that you have p l e n t y of l e i s u r e and the n e c e s s a r y means f o r the meeting of the s i t u a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d below. Check ( x ) f r a n k l y the statement which comes n e a r e s t to the way i n which your f i r s t impulse would l e a d you to handle the m a t t e r , ( i f you w i s h to be helped by t h i s t e s t you must be a b s o l u t e l y f r a n k , ) °  {  Suppose that your a l a r m c l o c k suddenly stopped because of some trouble. ) 1, Try to determine how s e r i o u s the t r o u b l e i s , and then take i t to a watchmaker,  (  ) 2. i n s t e a d of tampering w i t h the c l o c k and making matters worse, take I t to the watchmaker,  (  ) 3. Locate the cause of the t r o u b l e and t r y to c o r r e c t i t .  Ill, { "(' ( V  You w i s h to know whether the a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e r e are spots on the sun's s u r f a c e i s c o r r e c t , ) 1, Look up the matter i n a textbook_on Astronomy. ) 2* Ask a competent p e r s o n to g i v e you the i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d . ) 3, Observe the sun through a t e l e s c o p e . Suppose t h a t you are v e r y much i n t e r e s t e d i n the behaviour of m e t a l i c p o t a s s i u m i n w a t e r . To get the i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d ;  (  ) 1. Look i t up i n the E n c y c l o p e o d i a B r i t a n n i c a under "potassium".  (  ) 2, Look i t up i n a good c h e m i s t r y book,  (  ) 3. Drop a p i e c e of m e t a l l i c p o t a s s i u m i n t o w a t e r ,  (  ) 4, Ask a competent p e r s o n t o g i v e you the i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d .  A p p l i c a b i l i t y ; T h i s q u e s t i o n type c o u l d be used to t e s t f o r v o c a t i o n a l l e a n i n g s . By c h o o s i n g items from the v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f the General Science courses some measure might be g a i n e d as to the amount the student has had h i s l a t e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s awaked. This type of t e s t would not s u f f i c e oy i t s e l f but must be supplemented by case s t u d i e s and job a n a l y s e s .  94  SPECIMEN TEST ITEMS From;  Cooprider  Information  Test i n B i o l o g y  purposes; To t e s t f o r b i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n completion  only,  t e s t s or r e c a l l ;  2. The.gas given o f f by animals i n r e s p i r a t i o n i s ,, 16,Thallophytes that have no green c o l o r i n g matter are known as Recognition  ....  (True-false)  p l a c e a check ( ) BEFORE the sentences below that are true and a cross, ( X ) BEFORE those t h a t are not t r u e ; 1, The p i s t i l and stamens are the most important 13. The tomato i s a b e r r y . M u l t i p l e Choice  (Underline  1, Rubber i s obtained  the best  from (animals,  p a r t s of a flower,,  answer,j o i l , minerals,  2, S t a r c h i s made by p l a n t s i n the ( r o o t s , s o i l , Best Reason M o d i f i c a t i o n o f M u l t i p l e Choice.  coal).  leaves, f l o w e r s , b a r k ) .  (Check best reason w i t h  11, A f r o g l i v e s i n the mud a t the bottom o f a pond a l l winter  )  so t h a t ;  1. I t w i l l n o t be seen. 2, I t can reproduce, 3. I t can keep warm. 4, I t w i l l not f r e e z e . C l a s s i f y i n g or 'Tracing R e l a t i o n s h i p s In each group of words below draw a l i n e belong t h e r e ,  through one word that does not  2, S c a l e s , endoskeieton, exoskeleton, h a i r s , f e a t h e r s , 3, Eye, antennae, nose, h a i r , tongue. 4, T u r t l e , a l l i g a t o r , f r o g , chameleon, l i z a r d . R a t i o n or L o g i c a l S e l e c t i o n Type. In each group o f words below draw a l i n e through two words i n the p a r e n theses that t e l l what the t h i n g always has, 2. B i r d (nest, eggs, bones, song, t a i l ) 3. C e l l ( c e l l - w a l l , p r o t o p l a s m , nucleus, c i l i a , centrosome)  A p p l i c a b i l i t y . The u s u a l r u n of t e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n .  Quite useable  thus,  95 S?EGIMM TEST ITEMS From*  •Cooperative Chemistry Test,  purpose of Item.  Test  11  To t e s t f o r the a b i l i t y to apply p r i n c i p l e s .  Directions. In each o f the f o l l o w i n g e x e r c i s e s a problem i s g i v e n . Below each problem are two l i s t s of statements. The f i r s t l i s t contains s t a t e ments which can be used to answer the problem. P l a c e a p l u s s i g n ( ) in the parentheses a f t e r the statements which t e l l what w i l l p r o b a b l y happen. The second l i s t c o n t a i n s statements which can be used to e x p l a i n the r i g h t answers. P l a c e a p l u s s i g n ( ) i n the parentheses a f t e r the statements which g i v e the reasons for the r i g h t answers, 1. C h l o r i n e i s a poisonous gas. A few breaths of a i r c o n t a i n i n g as l i t t l e as o n e - f i f t h c h l o r i n e gas i s f a t a l * Magnesium c h l o r i d e i s more than t h r e e - f i f t h s c h l o r i n e . What would happen as the r e s u l t of e a t i n g some magnesium c h l o r i d e ? Jisxplain, a. Death w i l l r e s u l t b. The  .  .  .  .  ...a.(  magnesium c h l o r i d e might improve the f l a v o r of the  c. There w i l l be no  injurious effects  .  ,  food  .  )  b.{  )  c,(  )  d. The c h l o r i n e from the magnesium c h l o r i d e w i l l i r r i t a t e the l i n i n g of the stomach . . .. . ... ..........d(  }  Prom the f o l l o w i n g statements s e l e c t and oheck the ones which i n d i c a t e tte l i n e of r e a s o n i n g that you f o l l o w e d i n making your p r e d i c t i o n s above. e. Elements l o s e t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s when they form a chemical compound.  «G •  \  j  chlorine...... e f • (  J  • S« (  )  ,h,(  )  .i.(  )  »5 • (  )  k. The i n g r e d i e n t s of a mixture r e t a i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t i e s a f t e r b e i n g mixed. ...,.«, elC « (  J  c h e m i c a l l y w i t h l i v i n g c e l l s p r o d u c i n g death... .!.(  )  f . Magnesium c h l o r i d e i s a mixture o f magnesium and  e«  Chlorine  r e a c t s w i t h complex organic, compounds,  h. Magnesium c h l o r i d e i s a s a l t 1,  s i m i l a r to sodium c h l o r i d e  The p r o p e r t i e s of a compound are l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e d by p r o p e r t i e s of the elements forming the compounds.  the  J. Small amounts of c h l o r i n e i r r i t a t e l i v i n g c e l l s and p r e v e n t them from f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y .  1, C h l o r i n e r e a c t s  A p p l i c a b i l i t y . When m o d i f i e d i t should work e q u a l l y w e l l i n Gen, Sc .& T, ;t6 be used to t e s t development of a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c :  method.  96 •'•SPECIMEN TEST QUEST IONS. From; Van Wagenen Beading S c a l e s i n B i o l o g y , Scale B. purpose of t e s t item; To t e s t student*s a b i l i t y t o understand l i t e r a t u r e of a b i o l o g i c a l nature. D i r e c t i o n s ; l e a d the paragraph c a r e f u l l y . Then read the f i r s t statement below the paragraph. I f the idea i t expresses i s s t a t e d i n the paragraph even though: i n d i f f e r e n t words, p u t a check mark i n front of i t . I f the i d e a expressed i n the statement can a l s o be d e r i v e d or i n f e r r e d from tieideas i n the paragraph p l a c e a check mark before the statement. Than r e a d the other statements f o l l o w i n g and t r e a t them l i k e w i s e . Do not check statements which do n o t a p p l y e x a c t l y . 98 15, The minimum e s s e n t i a l s o f a c e l l may be no more than a nucleus and cytoplasm, but r a r e l y do we f i n d c e l l s so simple. A s t r u c t u r e which must be p r e s e n t always a t l e a s t f u n c t i o n a l l y , whether s t r u c t u r a l l y demonstrable or n o t , i s a s u r f a c e l a y e r or membrane, a p r o t e c t i v e and d i s c r i m i n a t i v e f i l m that bounds the cytoplasm. The c e l l membrane u s u a l l y has a.marked degree of toughness and e l a s t i c i t y and i t serves to keep out o f the c e l l substances that a r e i n i m i c a l to l i f e and to admit m a t e r i a l s necessary f o r metabolism. I t a l s o s h i e l d s the s e n s i t i v e protoplasm from mechanical shocks and I n j u r i e s , Even i n a p p a r e n t l y naked c e l l s l i k e Amoeba, where there i s no v i s i b l e c e l l membrane, we know that there i s a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d surface f i l m that p l a y s the r o l e o f a membrane; f o r naked protoplasm q u i c k l y y i e l d s to the c y t o l y t i c . a c t i o n of water, i s t h i s membrane a p a r t ct the l i v i n g c e l l or a mere dead p r o d u c t o f the l i v i n g cytoplasm? Emphaticall y we may s a y that the membrane i s l i v i n g , f o r i t has a l l of the p r o p e r t i e s of a l i v i n g t h i n g , i t i s s e n s i t i v e , c o n d u c t i l e , c o n t r a c t i l e , and capable of growth and r e p a i r , i t i s , moreover, so h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i n i t s make-up that i t has the c a p a c i t y o f s e m i - p e r m e a b i l i t y . A semi-permeable membrane i s one that i s permeable t o s o l v e n t s but more or l e s s impermeable t o c e r t a i n substances i n s o l u t i o n . This p r o p e r t y i s important i n the l i f e of the c e l l because p r o t o p l a s m i s a c o l l o i d s o l u t i o n and i t i s kept i n t a c t by the membrane, w h i l e water and the n e c e s s a r y d i s s o l v e d food elements pass i n and the d i s s o l v e d waste p r o d u c t s p a s s out. The c e l l membrane then i s of prime importance i n r e t a i n i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the c e l l and i n p r e s i d i n g over the m e t a b o l i c exchanges which form so l a r g e a p a r t o f the l i f e of a cell. 1. S e n s i t i v i t y , c o n d u c t i l i t y , c o n t r a c t i l i t y , and c a p a b i l i t y of growth and r e p a i r c o n s t i t u t e the p r o p e r t i e s o f l i v i n g cytoplasm. ,,,,.2. A l l c o l l o i d s o l u t i o n s q u i c k l y y i e l d to the c y t o l y t i c a c t i o n of water, ,,.,,3, The membrane of a c e l l i s merely the dead p r o d u c t of the l i v i n g protoplasm. ,.,4. Qne of the f u n c t i o n s of the c e l l membrane i s t o k e e p the p r o t o p lasm i n t a c t . A p p l i c a b i l i t y ; While t h i s t e s t item makes no attempt to measure the d e s i r e to r e a d s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e i t does measure the a b i l i t y to do so. The a b i l i t y to comprehend what i s b e i n g r e a d i s a t o o l of the d e s i r e to r e a d . Without the t o o l the d e s i r e cannot get very f a r . Some measure of the a b i l i t y t o understand what I s r e a d should be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o any c r e d i t given to achievement i n the d e s i r e to r e a d s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e .  97. SPECIMEN 0323*1' QUESTIONS ' jar om;  Columbia's He search Bureau Test i n p h y s i c s . '  purpose of t e s t  item  Not s t a t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e , The t e s t i n general i s an I n f o r m a t i o n a l one. Item shows a p o s s i b l e use i n t e s t i n g f o r the a b i l i t y to apply p r i n c i p l e s . Directions;  P l a c e a p l u s ( ) s i g n a f t e r any statement you t h i n k c o r r e c t , and a minus ( J s i g n a f t e r any that you t h i n k wrong.  problem; A cube o f g l a s s 3 inches on each edge, w i t h a l l faces p o l i s h e d , i s p l a c e d over a b l a c k dot on a h o r i z o n t a l sheet o f p a p e r . The index of r e f r a c t i o n of g l a s s i s *r t  21. The dot viewed from above and v e r t i c a l l y , appears to be more than three inches below the upper s u r f a c e of the g l a s s . (  )  92. i f l i g h t from around the dot i s r e f l e c t e d at a l l from any of the surfaces, i t i s t o t a l l y r e f l e c t e d , (  )  93, The beam from any p o i n t of the paper becomes a converging beam a f t e r p a s s i n g through two p a r a l l e l f a c e s o f the block* ,...*.*«•(  )  3?EOIMM MSiVQUKSi'lOaS proms M a i i n D i a g n o s t i c uhemistry Test, Form A. purpose  of items; TO f i n d weaknesses i n the f i e l d o f uhemistry.  F i r s t p a r t i s a t a b l e w i t h one column c o n t a i n i n g many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or properties l i s t e d , i n the other columns the student has to check or r e j e c t these p r o p e r t i e s , f o r a l i s t of s e v e r a l elements or compounds. (A concise way of doing t h i s and h o l d i n g promise f o r adaptation.) p a r t 11 Best answer m u i t i p ^ l e choice type. W r i t i n g formulae A.  W r i t e i n the blank the c o r r e c t formula of each compound,if c o r r e c t . c o p y . Sample  NaPO^  «..,,.....,..... . NagPO^,,.  5. HaQ 7. A1(H0 )  ,,,«,,««»««»•««»»»««,»,«,«  etc.  3  B,  f  Write the chemical name o f the compound a f t e r each of the f o l l o w i n g ; Sample HClOg..,. chloric acid • 10, HOI 12 e 1T€^> • «•••?••••#»•»••*•*»•#»»»•••#•••»« 15 $ ItfclQlO • •••#•••••#•••••••«« • • »••••••••*  C.  Write the c o r r e c t chemical formula f o r each o f the f o l l o w i n g ! Sample Sodium bromide . . . . . . . l a B r . 19, F e r r i c hydroxide, 20, Sodium p e r c h l o r a t e  D.  Balance the f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n s ; 22. A l C l g + HaOH — 26,  B.  Ha  H  2  Al(OH) +-  NaCl  NaOH -V  E  s  0 — — — — — —  Complete and balance each o f the f o l l o w i n g double equations; 27« FeSO !KHyiOH ———————————— . , , , , , , . , , « , « • . 4 * 29« Z n . H C 1 ————————•»«»«—  F.  %  decomposition ~f~  .,,,,«,...«•«,*..  ~t~~' ,,,,,».,,,,,,,»,,  Solve the f o l l o w i n g problems, u s i n g the space p r o v i d e d f o r any culations; 36, F i n d the water of c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n i n CUSO4.5H2O. • • A t o m i c we Answer.,..,,,.,.«...... 38.From the f o l l o w i n g e l a t i o n , c a l c u l a t e how many V l i t e r s o f oxygen w i l l be r e q u i r e d to burn completely 20 l i t e r s of SO. 2 CO  -V-  0  2  —  2  C0  ( A l l . t h e s e are u s u a l type q u e s t i o n s , )  2  cal-  99.  SPECIMEN TEST QUESTIONS. groin; Unit* Tests, C a l d w e l l and C u r t i s , ''Science f o r Today' purpose of t e s t i t e m ; To t e s t the s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s h e l d by 1  the p u p i l .  Directions The p u p i l was t o l d to r e f e r to pages 12 and IS of Science f o r Today, by C a l d w e l l and C u r t i s . There he would f i n d a l i s t of s i x t e e n a t t i t u d e s that c h a r a c t e r i z e the t r u l y s c i e n t i f i c man. With these a t t i t u d e s l i s t e d i n front of him the student then had to decide which a t t i t u d e f i t t e d a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n , (This i s r e a l l y a matching question.) He then had to f i l l i n the numbers of these p r i n t e d a t t i t u d e s as he saw f i t ,  5.  " I know that our r a d i o on the b r o a d c a s t . "  7.  "The a i r p l a n e was wrecked on F r i d a y the t h i r t e e n t h . I happened to t h i n k of the day and date j u s t i n time to change my p l a n s so as to make my t r i p on the next day. ,  13.  i s the best k i n d made, because the man  said  so  " C h a r l e s Goodyear spent many years i n p l a n n i n g and making hundreds of experiments b e f o r e he f i n a l l y l e a r n e d how to v u l c a n i z e rubber.  Applicability; T h i s t e s t seems to t e s t more a s t u d e n t s a b i l i t y to judge the a t t i t u d e s h e l d by other p e r s o n s or the best a t t i t u d e to assume i n a given s i t u a t i o n , that i s t h e i d e a l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n and s o l u t i o n . Dpubt might be expressed whether these t e s t s w i l l t e s t for the student's own attitude's i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s or not,. The only t e s t for t h i s i s to put the student i n these s i t u a t i o n s e i t h e r a c t u a l l y or v i c a r i o u s l y and have him s t a t e h i s own a t t i t u d e . However, the t e s t does b r i n g to .light, the student's a t t e n t i o n , that c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s are d e s i r a b l e , others not worthy of a f a i r t h i n k i n g p e r s o n , and thus the form above may be used b e t t e r as a teaching device. 5  ;  100 SPEC HEM TEST QUESTIONS. ' From Caldwell and C u r t i s , Test on S c i e n t i f i c Method (Tests f o r " S c . f o r Today). Purpose of t'es't item; To t e s t f o r the student's a b i l i t y to. analyze a problem i n t o i t s component s t e p s . 1  s  The paragraph w h i c h f o l l o w s d e s c r i b e s the a c t i v i t i e s of a s c i e n t i s t i n s o l y i u g an important and d i f f i c u l t problem. Each sentence i s numbered. W r i t e i n the b l a n k s f o l l o w i n g each of the phases o f the s c i e n t i f i c method o u t l i n e d below, the number o f the sentence or sentences which i l l u s t r a t e s that phase or s t a g e . Not every sentence that i s numbered w i l l i l l u s t r a t e a phase o f the s c i e n t i f i c method, (1) A l i t t l e more than a c e n t u r y ago, Daguerre, a French a r t i s t , was exp e r i m e n t i n g i n order to d i s c o v e r how to develop a photograph negative,-, (2) At l e n g t h he was on the p o i n t of g i v i n g u p . i n discouragement when one morning he was a s t o n i s h e d to f i n d that an exposed p l a t e , which he had l e f t i n a c a b i n e t the n i g h t b e f o r e , had become developed. (3) He f e l t c e r t a i n t h a t the vapor of some chemical or combination of chemicals i n the cabinet had developed the n e g a t i v e , (4) Could he succeed i n d i s c o v e r i n g which c h e m i c a l or combination had. e f f e c t e d the change i n the p l a t e ? (5) he dec i d e d to remove one b o t t l e from the c a b i n e t each day and to leave an exposed p l a t e overnight w i t h the remaining chemicals. (6) T h i s would be a slow method ,but one l i k e l y to s o l v e the problem, (7) Days passed; the number o f b o t t l e s s l o w l y d i m i n i s h e d , yet each morning he found the p l a t e developed, (8) F i n a l l y one morning he found the p l a t e undeveloped, (9) He had removed .mercury from the c a b i n e t the night b e f o r e , (10) Mercury vapour must t h e r e f o r e be the chemical which had developed the n e g a t i v e s each time, (11) Daguerre t h e r e f o r e began to experiment w i t h mercury vapour and f r e s h l y exposed p l a t e s . (12) The r e s u l t s were s u c c e s s f u l . (15) He had s o l v e d h i s problem, ,(14) He r e a l i z e d , however, that many f u r t h e r improvements i n h i s process;must be made b e f o r e he could p e r f e c t a s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o c e s s of photography, PHASES OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD. a. b. c. d> e. f. g. h.  L o c a t i n g and d e f i n i n g the problem. P l a n n i n g experiments. Using c o n t r o l s . Isolating.the experimental f a c t o r . Making c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n s . Making inferences/ or drawing c o n c l u s i o n s from the f a c t s . Making hypotheses from f a c t s and o b s e r v a t i o n s . R e c o g n i z i n g e r r o r s or d e f e c t s i n c o n d i t i o n s or experlpent' " i . E v a l u a t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s i n the l i g h t of the f a c t s or o b s e r v a t i o n s upon which they,are based. p J . l a n n i n g and making new o b s e r v a t i o n s , or c h e c k i n g experiments to f i n d out whether c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s are sound.  £1-3  8 9 * • 9 « »  b & • » «e » o © C 6 cl • * 9«« « 9 0 9o M 9 • X« '9 0 g* t • • 9 9 9 9  9  9 •  9  9  »  9  •  9  9  9  9  9  h. 9 9 9  ft • * * «  3. *««*  ^} * 9 9  * 9 * 0  9 * * 9 •  CHAP 'PER Y  MODIFYING QUESTION POMS TO P I T THE DEMANDS OP THE T570 ,v  MAJOR" OBJECTIVES OP THE COURSE.  In t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g two chapters an attempt w i l l be made to adapt o l d forms, and devise new ones that w i l l supplement those mentioned i n Chapter 111 i n order to s u i t  the needs of a t e s t i n g prog-  ramme based on the  o b j e c t i v e s of the General  schools  Columbia.  of B r i t i s h  types  Science courses i n h i g h  Each o b j e c t i v e w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n order o f importance and q u e s t i o n forms w i l l be suggested. 1. A re-statement  The f o l l o w i n g i s a general o u t l i n e of procedure j -  of the o b j e c t i v e i n the order l a i d down a t the end o f  Chapter 11. 2. Noting the percentage w e i g h t i n g g i v e n each by the averaged r e t u r n s of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 3. An a n a l y s i s o f the o b j e c t i v e f o r i t s s p e c i f i c aims or s u b - o b j e c t i v e s f o r the purpose o f f i n d i n g the major s p e c i f i c a t i o n s to which a v a l i d q u e s t i o n i n that f i e l d must conform. 4. The k i n d s of t e s t s deemed s u i t a b l e and v a l i d f o r the s p e c i f i c objective. 5. P r e s e n t a t i o n o f sample t e s t  items.  (a) purpose of t e s t item s t a t e d when the o b j e c t i v e i s complex, (bJ"Directions to students" for test (c) Test  item.  item,  (d) S c o r i n g ; t h i s i s p r e s e n t e d  only f o r some o f the newer types,  and i s n o t i n c l u d e d where e x i s t i n g forms are m o d i f i e d slightly. 101  only  102  O b j e c t i v e j To A c q u i r e a Body o f Knowledge In the F i e l d of Science that W i l l Enable the Student t o I n t e r p r e t and Appreciate H i s Environment. This o b j e c t i v e of the General Science courses IV and V i n the h i g h school c u r r i c u l u m of B r i t i s h Columbia r e c e i v e d the highest r a n k i n g and the g r e a t e s t percentage w e i g h t i n g o f a l l the o b j e c t i v e s . averaged  The value when  gave t h i s o b j e c t i v e a weight of twenty p e r cent.  tage w e i g h t i n g i s p r o b a b l y lower conservative c e n t r a l various teachers. would be b e t t e r .  tendency  T h i s percen-  than a true value might be, due to the  of a v e r a g i n g the r a n k i n g s r e t u r n e d by the  P o s s i b l y a w e i g h t i n g o f twenty-five or t h i r t y p e r cent However, because i t i s the most important  should not be c o n s i d e r e d so important  objective i t  that i t may exclude a l l o t h e r s . I t  must be remembered a l s o that the o b j e c t i v e d e a l i n g w i t h the development of  the s c i e n t i f i c method was ranked very c l o s e to t h i s one. There i s a w e a l t h of t e s t i n g techniques s u i t a b l e f o r the measuring  of  achievements i n t h i s f i e l d .  or paragraph  They can be d i v i d e d roughly i n t o the essay  t e s t s and the s h o r t e r o b j e c t i v e t e s t s .  The v a r i o u s types  have been segregated to som6 extent i n the p r e c e d i n g chapter, and i t could be seen from  the analyses that some forms of q u e s t i o n s f i t t e d cer-  t a i n t e s t i n g purposes The  first  b e t t e r than o t h e r s .  of these groups of q u e s t i o n s i s that o f the essay or parag-  raph type and the many m o d i f i c a t i o n s . w i l l remain i n use.  I t i s s t i l l much used, and p r o b a b l y  W e l l p r e p a r e d essay questions i n t h i s f i e l d  possess v e r y v a l u a b l e f u n c t i o n s i n the s c i e n c e courses. whether the accepted mathematical of  still  I t i s debatable  w>e=ther--ttrs--accQgtodroataenia frir&al type  q u e s t i o n i s any more removed from  the charge  o f memoriter work than  some o f the essay-type q u e s t i o n s u n l e s s s p e c i a l care i s e x e r c i s e d . dents have memorized type problems i n mathematics to pass  Stu-  t e s t s j u s t as  they have memorized m a t e r i a l to he used i n paragraph  or essay questions.  Changing the d i g i t s i n mathematical questions i n the attempt to form a new  q u e s t i o n i s n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to t e s t i n g procedure.  " r e v i s e d " q u e s t i o n when answered by a student who  This  has memorized the  type  of q u e s t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y worth no more than should be given for s i m i l a r memoriter work i n essay-type  questions.  These q u e s t i o n s have been modelled  a f t e r the samples shown i n Ruch  and B i c e ' s book "Specimen O b j e c t i v e Examinations", for  t e s t i n g procedures  designed  and are a l l s u i t a b l e  to measure the a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge,  Thus they would be s u i t a b l e to use i n a programme under the f i r s t t i v e , of the  Completion  General Science courses 1? and  or R e c a l l ,  The completion  reliability  V.  (with v a r i e t i e s . )  type of question i s considered the most  a c c o r d i n g to Ruch and  objec-  others who  reliable  have worked on the problem of the  of o b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s .  They vary i n o b j e c t i v i t y from the  completely o b j e c t i v e to the s e m i - o b j e c t i v e . A.  Sentence 1. As we  Completion*  ascend  through  the atmosphere we  find  that the a i r p r e s s u r e  2, The u s u a l valence of c a l c i u m i s . 5, The gas used i n n e a r l y a l l forms of r e s p i r a t i o n i s B,  paragraph  , . .  Completion:  When a copper wire forming a c i r c u i t i s caused to pass through the f i e l d of f o r c e of a magnet a(n) . . . . i s produced t h e r e i n . T h i s c u r r e n t l a s t s only as l o n g as As soon as the wire moves i n the r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n the c u r r e n t . . . . C o i l i n g the same wire t e n times to produce ten loops to cut the magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e causes . . the c u r r e n t of one l o o p . P l a c i n g another magnet of equal s t r e n g t h adjacent to the f i r s t i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h i t and u s i n g the ten-looped ••coil w i l l produce a c u r r e n t that i s . . . . . . . . . . . . .  than that produced by u s i n g one wire and one'magnet. Tabular forms of Completion Questions* 1. Complete t h i s t a b l e of the p r o p e r t i e s of the v a r i o u s element Property Mercury .State under normal c o n d i t ions of a i r . temperature; solid liquid or gas. S p e c i f i c Gravi  f  Iron  Carbon  Nitrogen  Gopp er  /;•'  A c t i o n with ox;ygen  A c t i o n w i t h ca:.cium  Valences L„-_..  2. Describe b r i e f l y  the f o l l o w i n g substances under the headings  Characteristic Copper Action with e l e c t r i c .curren t Action with a static electric charge. Conduction of heat.  S p e c i f i c Gravit y  p orcelain  Bake11te  Ebonite  shown;  Aluminium  105  .3. Compare «thB f o l l o w i n g organisms  Organism  Food  on the bases-given;  Methods o f • Obtains Organs o f Locomotion oxygen'' s i g h t  Body c o v e r i n g  Srasshoppe  Clam  Fish  J  Frog  Grouse (Bird)  WOlf;, (Mammal)  D. Another m o d i f i c a t i o n of completion questions can be d e r i v e d from the mental things, forth,  t e s t i n g diagrams of C y r i l B u r t .  Instead of t a k i n g common  such as the diagrams o f a person's head, a ladder, and so from which e s s e n t i a l l i n e s are omitted, diagrams of model  pumps, a c t u a l pumps, p l a n t s or animals, chemical set-ups, and s i m i l a r i l l u s t r a t i o n s c o u l d be used f o r the student t o complete  the e s s e n t i a l  l i n e s as i n Burt's t e s t s . 13* Chemistry makes mueh use of completion questions i n the form o f equation completion and formula completion q u e s t i o n s .  There are  s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s of t h e s e . 1 . What are the symbols f o r a . Calcium  2. What are the formulae  b. I r o n . . . . . . . • • « . • • • • etc. f o r a. Hydrochloric acid . . . . . . . . b. S i l v e r n i t r a t e . . . . . . . . . . etc.  106 E  » i 3, The symbol  .  .  .  .  01 r e p r e s e n t s the element i? o  «  «  «  4, The formula CaSO^ r e p r e s e n t s the. compound  «  ,  «  •  .  ,  •  •  *  «  «  . » . , . . . , . , , .  N  STagCOg r e p r e s e n t s the compound 5, Complete the equation to show what compounds, elements, are produced or f r e e d ; a.  P b S •f Og — •  b.  AgNO-\- Fa CI-  c.  FeS-V-  g  PbO  ,.,<«««.,,,.,,,,,  •••••••••  T  • •••>..»..>.,  +•  .  HC1  T r u e - f a l s e Q u e s t i o n Types. With  .....  Variants:  The most commonly met v a r i a n t s of the true-^false are the "yes-no", "right-wrong", and the "plus-minus" types o f q u e s t i o n s .  These are so  w e l l known t h a t a n y t h i n g more t h a n a sample o f each i s unnecessary. 1. A l l s t r a t i f i e d r o c k s are sedimentary.  (True  False  or 2. W i t h i n e l a s t i c l i m i t s s t r a i n i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to s t r e s s .  {T (Yes  F No  Z. Aluminium i s a more common element than i r o n i n the e a r t h ' s c r u s t which has been e x p l o r e d ,  (Right Wrong  4. P h o t o s y n t h e s i s occurs i n a l l only the s u n l i t hours,  '  green p a r t s o f p l a n t s d u r i n g  A m o d i f i c a t i o n of these questions i s to have the student p r o v i d e the c o r r e c t answer t o a l l those questions which he marks wrong.  These  correc-  t i o n s are p l a c e d i n blanks p r o v i d e d , as f o l l o w s ; 1. A l l s t r a t i f i e d r o c k s are sedimentary.  True  False  . ,^ ' f ^ ^ - ,  M u l t i p l e Choice Q u e s t i o n s , A,  U n d e r l i n e the best answer;  1.  The substance which takes most heat to r a i s e i t s temperature one degree Centigrade f o r each gram of substance i s (aluminium, copper, water, a l c o h o l  2,  p l a c e i n the b r a c k e t s the answer that best completes  the statement;  ,.  M u l t i p l e Choice (cont.)  107  The m i n e r a l element that i s obtained from the deeper s t r a t a of the e a r t h ' s c r u s t by the F r a s c h method i s (phosphorus, carbon, copper gold,, sulphur, z i n c ) . , . ' » 1 1  «  T h i s q u e s t i o n form i s not as d e s i r a b l e as the f i r s t  «  «  or the f o l l o w i n g  because- i t e n t a i l s more e f f o r t from the student to do the mechanical work and i t does not produce any g r e a t e r mental e f f o r t , nor does I t i n c r e a s e the 3.  v a l i d i t y or r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t item. p l a c e i n the b r a c k e t s the l e t t e r p l e t e s the statement i n the best  (or number) of the answer that comway:  The p r o c e s s whereby each c e l l u n i t e s w i t h f o o d and oxygen to obtain heat i s a. c i r c u l a t i o n , b. r e s p i r a t i o n , c. t r a n s p i r a t i o n , d. i n s p i r a t i o n , e. p h o t o s y n t h e s i s , f , d i g e s t i o n . (b) 4.  P u t a check mark (or a c i r c l e around) i n f r o n t of the l e t t e r of the answer t h a t best completes the statements When any a r t i c l e i s dropped from an at t i t u d e of about 15,000 f e e t through the atmosphere; a . the v e l o c i t y o f the body w i l l continue t o i n c r e a s e 32 f e e t p e r second p e r second u n t i l i t reaches the ground. b. the body w i l l f a l l  at the same v e l o c i t y d u r i n g the complete  fall.  c* the v e l o c i t y w i l l be decreased as the o b j e c t f a l l s through the denser a i r near the ground. d. the a c c e l e r a t i o n w i l l not be 32 f e e t p e r second p e r second because the atmosphere i n t e r f e r e s . 5.  P u t i n the b r a c k e t s the number of the best statement to use i n order to complete t h i s sentence c o r r e c t l y ;  (  ) When common s a l t ( l a C l ) i s used to t r e a t hams or bacon e i t h e r by rubb i n g i t on them or by s o a k i n g them i n a s t r o n g b r i n e i n order to p r e serve them the s a l t * a. p r e s e r v e s the food m a i n l y by chemical change o f the f o o d , b . p o i s o n s the b a c t e r i a and the germs. c.  causes an osmotic a c t i o n that makes the b a c t e r i a l c e l l s l o s e too much water to p e r m i t them to l i v e ,  d. when on the meat forms an a n t i - t o x i n a g a i n s t the germs and b a c t e r i a ,  M u l t i p l e Choice  6.  (cont.)  108  Marie "yes'.* or "no" to each statement below as you see f i t t i n g to do; (true ^ false ) (right ^ wrongs 3. On weighing the r e a g e n t s and p r o d u c t s when s i l v e r n i t r a t e and sodium c h l o r i d e s o l u t i o n s that are h e r m e t i c a l l y sealed i n a f l a s k are mixed the r e s u l t s support the law.  (  ) a.' Energy can n e i t h e r be destroyed  nor  (  ) b. When a mass of ions i s i n j e c t e d i n t o a chemical r e a c t i o n u s i n g such ions the r e a c t i o n goes i n such a d i r e c t i o n as tends to decrease them.  (  ) c. Matter can n e i t h e r be destroyed  (  ) d. Gases i n chemical r e a c t i o n s u n i t e i n whole i n t e g r a l r a t i o s *  nor  created.  created.  M u l t i p l e Response Q u e s t i o n s . In the questions included* hold  that  of t h i s type more than one  'They form a good a n t i d o t e  c o r r e c t response can  f o r the i d e a that students sometimes  there i s only one r i g h t answer to a problem.  They can t e s t a  s e r i e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s and demand a good d e a l of reasoning, command of a broad  In the  be  as w e l l as a  field.  f o l l o w i n g questions  each answer t h a t you  more than one  answer i s c o r r e c t .  Underline  think correct;  1.  The f o l l o w i n g are good sources of p r o t e i n ( p o t a t o e s , cheese, cakes, l e a n meats, c a r r o t s ) .  2.  The p r o d u c t i o n of i r o n i n b l a s t furnaces u t i l i z e s (sulphur, i r o n ore, tuyeres for hot a i r , r e v e r b e r a t o r y flame, coke or c o a l , and a c i d l i m i n g limestone, a b a s i c l i n i n g , phosphorus, tungsten, molybdenum).  :  eggs, bacon, milk,  Matching Questions i n making these questions  i t i s imperative  that they be homogeneous,  p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n General Science where a p r o c e s s of e l i m i n a t i o n of very d i v e r s e m a t e r i a l t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to put  together w i l l give  the the  student an answer which h i s a c t u a l knowledge does not warrant that he  gat.  Matching Questions  (cont.)  109  In order to' show the c o n t r i b u t i o n of each man  to science p l a c e the  l e t t e r opposite h i s name i n the blank i n f r o n t of h i s p a r t i c u l a r  contri-  bution j a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.  Scheele Hall Lavoisier Dalton Charles Boyle Galileo Leeuwenhoek  i  *  •  *  c  t  2  t  •  •  •  •  3  9  •  •  »  «  4  «  *  . i n v e n t e d a reasonably cheap way to r e l e a s e aluminium from i t s compounds, , invented the i d e a of molecules to e x p l a i n chemical r e a c t i o n s and compounds. . i n v e n t e d or developed the microscope.  , showed that gases i n c r e a s e i n volume w i t h temperature i n c r e a s e d i r e c t l y as t h e i r abs o l u t e temperature. 5 * « « * « , d i s c o v e r e d the nature o f combustion and the importance of weighing a l l reagents and p r o d u c t s i n a chemical r e a c t i o n . 9  9  9  In the above item #5 i s not homogeneous, as a l l the other items  are  d i s t i n c t l y c h e m i c a l , e n a b l i n g a p e r s o n w i t h v e r y s u p e r f i c i a l knowledge of the work to s e p a r a t e t h i s item from the o t h e r s . one  o f the choices" i s next to u s e l e s s as almost  c o n t r i b u t i o n as b e i n g i n the f i e l d criminative value.  When the l i s t  of physics.  A l s o to use " G a l i l e o " as everyone r e c o g n i s e s h i s A l l c h o i c e s must have d i s -  of blanks i s short more e x t r a choices  must be p r o v i d e d than when the l i s t  of blanks i s l o n g i n order to reduce  the chance of a r r i v i n g at answers by the p r o c e s s o f e l i m i n a t i o n . only f i v e o r s i x blanks are t o be f i l l e d should be  about ten to twelve  When  choices  given.  Rearrangement In t h i s type  of q u e s t i o n items must be rearranged i n the proper  sequence, e i t h e r temporal when d e a l i n g w i t h a p r o c e s s or development, or i n some other manner.  Some sequences have a d e f i n i t e s t a r t i n g p o i n t ,  while others are c y c l i c that can be s t a r t e d almost l a t t e r group i t i s wise to give the f i r s t  anywhere.  For  this  p o i n t o f the c y c l e that you wish  Rearrangement  (cont)  110  to have rearranged i n order to s i m p l i f y the problems of marking.  One  q u e s t i o n of each of these types i s g i v e n . 1.  Rearrange these items to give an o u t l i n e o f the contact p r o c e s s of making s u l p h u r i c a c i d . 1. 2. 3. 4.  d r y i n g the S 0 a b s o r p t i o n tower Fuming H2SO4.S02 h e a t i n g gases  C o r r e c t order 1 . Vll . . . 2.  5. r o a s t i n g a s u l p h i d e to get S 0 6. c o n t a c t towers w i t h c a t a l y s t t r a y s 7. washing i m p u r i t i e s out of gases  2  .  2  .,  11  . . ., I l l . .  TV  . . ., V . . ., VI . .  Rearrange these l e t t e r s to show the complete course o f the blood, b e g i n n i n g w i t h the b l o o d i n the a l v e o l i (small sacs) i n the lungs of a human body. a. e. i. 1.  l e f t v e n t r i c l e , b . c e l l s , c. c a p i l l a r i e s , d, l e f t a u r i c l e , pulmonary a r t e r i e s , f . r i g h t v e n t r i c l e , g. lungs, h. r i g h t a u r i c l e , systemic a r t e r i e s , j . a i r sacs or a l v e o l i , k, pulmonary v e i n , systemic v e i n s .  S t a r t i n g w i t h j the r e a r r a n g e d l i s t would be 1 . . . . 11 Ill « . . . . IV . . . » . V • . . . . VI . . « . . * V l l . . . . . V l l l . . . . . . . IX . . « « • • A . . . . . . A1 . . . e •  , • «  Analogics A f o u r t h term that bears second  the same r e l a t i o n s h i p  to the t h i r d as the  does to the f i r s t i s the u s u a l question form of t h i s type,  f o u r t h term i s to be s u p p l i e d by the terms l i k e  the second  student.  or the t h i r d may  be l e f t  While a p p a r e n t l y ether out f o r completion by the  student a l l these q u e s t i o n s can be r e a r r a n g e d to make that term the However a l i t t l e v a r i e t y i s d e s i r a b l e . 1.  2.  p l a t i n u m powder•  converting S0  ,:  converting C0  l o n g i t u d i n a l wavesj sound transverse waves  . . . . . .  and 0  2  2  2  and H 0 2  The  into into  SOg CgH 0 2  6  fourth.  Anologies  3.  (cont.)  111  feathers  :  birds mammals.  Identi f i cations These q u e s t i o n s seem to he a combination o f matching and types, 1,  Ruch and R i c e l i s t  types,  In the e x e r c i s e below you are to i d e n t i f y each substance as b e i n g an Element, a Compound, a M i x t u r e , a S o l u t i o n , or an A l l o y by p l a c i n j around each i n i t i a l of these words a r i n g to c l a s s i f y each substance quartz beach sand air  , , « «  . * » • • » 33  c  M  S  A  , ,• ., ,. * • o « « III  0  M •  S  A  G  1  s  C  M  s  « . , •  •  9  « - * * jE  •» » • • »s  water 2.  them as d i s t i n c t  completion  A  Mark the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Mammals w i t h an M, of V e r t e b r a t e s i n g e n e r a l w i t h a 7, of Insects w i t h an I, of B i r d s w i t h a B, and use an A f o r a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that a p p l i e s to A l l , and IT f o r one that a p p l i e s to None. 8k «  b. c. d. e. f. g» h. 1.  Diaphragn . . . . . . . . . . Constant body temperature. , Nervous system J o i n t e d backbone . . . . . . Gizzard , , , • « • , , , , Spiracles, trachea. . . . , M i l k glands , . . . . . . . Fused or r i g i d bones, porous O v a r i e s and spermaries, . ,  M M M M M M M I M '•  V 7  I I I  V Y Y Y Y 7  I I 1 I I I  ?  B B B B B B B B B  A A ;., A " A. A A A A A  N N N N N N 5 1 N  R e p r o d u c t i o n from Memory Shis i s one of the l a s t w e l l known.  types l i s t e d by Ruch and R i c e , and i s v e r y •  ..  1.  Write balanced equations to show what happens when sulphur i s i g n i t e d i n an atmosphere of oxygen* i n an atmosphere of n i t r o g e n .  2.  Give Ohm's Law  3.  By m eans of a balanced equation e x p l a i n the p r o c e s s o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s i n a simple form.  and e x p l a i n the f u n c t i o n of each f a c t o r i n i t .  112  Seductions from Premises This example comes d i r e c t l y from Buch and R i c e s book 1  O b j e c t i v e Examinations", page 20.  "Specimen  This type o f q u e s t i o n seems to reduce  memorizing to a minimum and p u t s a premium on the a b i l i t y to use data p r o v i d e d and on the understanding o f the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s . 1.  The f o l l o w i n g formulae are c o r r e c t s K 0 2  ,  HGl,  H3PO4 , ZnO,  H2SO4 , GaO,  KOH,  KtTO , 3  Cr 0 2  3  Prom these f a c t s c a l c u l a t e the valence o f each o f the f o l l o w i n g : Chlorine  . . . . . . .  Phosphate r a d i c a l  potassium. . . . . . . Hydrogen Zinc . . . . . . . . .  Calcium Mtrate radical Chromium. . . . . . .  . . . . . .  T h e o r e t i c a l l y the q u e s t i o n s above s h o u l d demand a c t i v e t h i n k i n g i n order to s o l v e the problem. by the average s t u d e n t .  The examples  chosen are a l l soon memorized  To a v o i d t h i s d i f f i c u l t y stranger m a t e r i a l f o r  t e s t i n g i n t h i s manner must be chosen, say the r a r e r members o f these f a m i l i e s , or use complete a b s t r a c t i o n s i n x and y.  Computations These have been p r e s e n t i n the e d u c a t i o n a l systems from time immemorial,  i n these the emphasis  i s on the mathematics  science.  t h e i r tendency toward the pure a b s t r a c t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c  Because of  thought and  r e a s o n i n g i t s h o u l d not be assumed that these are the only k i n d of questions 1.  that t e s t f o r s c i e n t i f i c  ability.  What weight of ammonium c h l o r i d e w i l l be r e q u i r e d to produce 10 l i t r e s of ammonia measured a t 23°6 and 751 mm. p r e s s u r e ? {Chemistry Supplemental Examination f o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n , B. C. August, 1938).  Computations  2.  3.  123  (cont.)  What f o r c e w i l l he r e q u i r e d to balance a weight of 200 l b s . p l a c e d one foot from the fulcrum of a second c l a s s l e v e r f i v e feet long, i g n o r i n g the weight of the l e v e r i t s e l f ? Y e l l o w peas were c r o s s e d w i t h green peas and a l l the r e s u l t i n g were yellow p e a s . I f the F]_ flowers were a l l s e l f - p o l l i n a t e d and 'the seed sown the next year to produce 12,000 seeds a l t o g e t h e r , what k i n d s o f seeds would they he and how many of each k i n d would he found?  To Develop the A b i l i t y i n the Use a. b. c. d.  To To To To  of the S c i e n t i f i c Method; e. a.,  make a c c u r a t e observations and to r e c o r d them s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . draw v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s . suspend judgment u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t evidence has been obtained. develop a c r i t i c a l yet t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e towards new i d e a s .  T h i s o b j e c t i v e has been ranked of  18$.  The  second w i t h a percentage  o b j e c t i v e n a t u r a l l y r e c e i v e d a heavy p o l l ,  c o n s i d e r a b l e unanimity  of opinion.  I t i s one  weighting  together w i t h a  of the two major o b j e c t i v e s ,  hence t e s t i n g achivements toward t h i s g o a l should be done w i t h extreme care.  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n of t e s t s to measure the a b i l i t y to use  the  scien-  t i f i c method would appear to be a decided i n n o v a t i o n i n almost a l l the schools of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  The Science R e v i s i o n Committee has s u b - d i v i d e d the o b j e c t i v e i n t o the f o u r p a r t s as above.  Some authors suggest more steps or s e c t i o n s i n  the s c i e n t i f i c method than these, • l • '•• Science f o r Today tered throughout  C a l d w e l l and C u r t i s i n t h e i r .:  seem to i n c l u d e some n i n e or ten, i f statements the book are to be  of these seem to c o i n c i d e .  taken at t h e i r apparent  Then there are the more or l e s s  f i v e steps to f o l l o w i n l a y i n g out a r e c o r d of an experiment periment  textbook"  value.  scatSome  traditional or the  ex-  i t s e l f ; problem, apparatus, method, data or o b s e r v a t i o n s , con-  c l u s i o n . The o b j e c t i v e of General Science 1? and V omits very d e f i n i t e l y 1 C a l d w e l l and C u r t i s - S c . f o r Today.pages 9,10,11,12-13,14-16,20,31,38-9,57 59,63,72,96,106,124,1.17,140,147,158,167,171,173,247,289,353,366,360,402,417,  114  the f i r s t  one which demands the a b i l i t y to see that a problem i s p r e s e n t  and then to formulate  i t . This sub-objective s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d here  i n the o b j e c t i v e c o v e r i n g the  development of a c t u a l  experimenting.  No mention has been made o f the i s o l a t i o n of the experimental This i s more or l e s s a p a r t of the general a b i l i t y The use  o f c o n t r o l s or c o l l a t e r a l experimental  and  factor.  to recognize a problem.  f a c t o r s was  not  mentioned,  The3e s u b - o b j e c t i v e s should be i n c o r p o r a t e d , whether the Science R e v i s i o n Committee i n c l u d e d them or not, f o r they are p a r t and p a r c e l of the s c i e n t i f i c method. Some authors and books i n c l u d e the a b i l i t y to formulate hypotheses as a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n from that of drawing sound conclusions from date.  The f o r m u l a t i o n of hypotheses and  seem to i n v o l v e the same mental p r o c e s s e s ,  the drawing of c o n c l u s i o n s  the only d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g the  degree o f r e l i a b i l i t y o f the data-upon which each i s based.  No  i s ever made but t h a t i t i s based on some modicum of experience.  hypothesis The  hypothesis i s n o t a hypothesis by v i r t u e of some d i f f e r e n t mental x^rocess but because the data from w h i c h ' i t i s drawn ,<ire:extremely scant or u n t r u s t worthy.  In s i t u a t i o n s l i k e  these s c i e n t i s t s set up u s u a l l y some "temporary  working c o n c l u s i o n " to guide data.  them i n d e v i s i n g experiments to c o l l e c t more  This temporary c o n c l u s i o n Is what'is  I t s purpose i s to c l a r i f y the problem one d i f f e r from the c o n c l u s i o n or law. s i m i l a r mental p r o c e s s .  commonly c a l l e d the  hypothesis.  step f u r t h e r , and i n t h i s does  I t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s obtained by a  The h y p o t h e s i s i s then s e t to work i n other ways,  u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t data have been c o l l e c t e d to warrant drawing c o n c l u s i o n s that may be c o n s i d e r e d v a l i d .  T h e r e f o r e , i t Is only the degree o f d i f f e r -  ence i n the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the d a t a  that makes f o r a d i f f e r e n c e between  115  h y p o t h e s i s and c o n c l u s i o n .  On t h i s b a s i s l i t t l e attempt  to develop  t e s t s f o r h y p o t h e s i s alone w i l l be made,but a t t e n t i o n w i l l be to  the t e s t s f o r the a b i l i t y  limited  to formulate c o n c l u s i o n s from data, and to  r e a l i z e when date are too d e f i c i e n t to t r u s t  completely.  During the p e r i o d when the main work of examining i n progress  any  t e s t items  was  the l a c k of t e s t i n g techniques f o r the purpose of measuring  a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n t i f i c method became apparant. type that occurred o c c a s i o n a l l y was  The  that of "deduction from data", and  which was p r a c t i c a l l y always mathematical  d a t a , ' Such questions are known  commonly as the "math problems" i n p h y s i c s and are found^a i n chemistry.  With t h i s b i g gap  only q u e s t i o n  l e s s e r extent  i n t e s t i n g techniques i n view,work was  done d e v i s i n g means to measure achievements i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n types ware developed The  first  The  a f t e r much hard work.  items appear on the next page.  purpose of Test Items; To measure the a b i l i t y o f the student i n making accurate v a t i o n s and measurements,  obser-  To see i f p u p i l can d e t e c t common p a r a l l a x e r r o r s , can use the beam balances a c c u r a t e l y (that i s make c o r r e c t r e a d i n g s ) , and r e a l i z e s where the c h i e f e r r o r s are most l i k e l y - t o occur i n measuring l i q u i d s .  116  1.  This p r ob 1 am ar ose i n a meat s t o r e .  <S>-  A l a d y customer, 5 f t . 7 i n . t a l l , ordered two pounds o f steak from a butcher whose .height was about 5 f t , l I n . The man p u t some meat on the s c a l e s , and a f t e r they came to r e s t said,"Two pounds" The woman,disagreed,claiming that they were two ounces s h o r t In weight. The butcher leaned c l o s e r tp the s c a l e s and d e c l a r e d that the meat a c t u a l l y weighed  -  Glass window to see r e a d i n g s .  Fiqure  XIV  one ounce more than he f i r s t said. Position G i s the customer's eye. p o s i t i o n B]_ the butoher's first. P o s i t i o n Bg the butcher' s second.  Answer These Questions on the Above Problem .1.  Who  was r i g h t ?  (butcher, customer, n e i t h e r , both)  2,  Why d i d the butcher on l e a n i n g c l o s e r m a i n t a i n that the weight a c t u a l l y greater?  was  5,.  Use the l e t t e r s to designate the reasons I n the l i s t , below that you would use t o support your d e c i s i o n i n q u e s t i o n 1. a. The butcher because he knew that the s c a l e s were " f i x e d " , or i n c o r rect. b. The butcher,because he knew t h a t the s c a l e s were q u i t e a c c u r a t e . c. Meither,because t h e i r e y e s i g h t might have been p o o r . d. Both, because i t ' s a l l i n the way you l o o k at t h i n g s . e» The customer, because she knew or suspected that the s c a l e s were " f i x e d " or i n c o r r e c t . ' f . The customer, because she suspected that the butcher had p l a c e d h i s thumb on the p a n to i n c r e a s e the apparent weight. g. N e i t h e r , because the true weight l i e s half-way between the two h . The customer, because of the p a r a l l a x of the butcher's eyes. 1. The butcher,because of the p a r a l l a x of the customer's eyes, j . I f none of these,add your own r e a s o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11. In weighing some powder the p e r s o n set the beam balances true f i r s t , then poured f o r t y c u b i c centimeters o f i t on a t h i n p i e c e of paper. This set was then p l a c e d on the l e f t pan, and a 50 gram weight, a 20 gram weight and another 20 gram weight were added to the r i g h t . The  117  r i d e r or marker on the beam at the top was moved toward the r i g h t u n t i l the s c a l e s balanced at the p o s i t i o n shown. The r i d e r had been p l a c e d p r e v i o u s l y a t .8 i n order to compensate f o r the p i e c e of paper which was p l a c e d on by i t s e l f . What i s the weight o f the powder measured out?  .grams.  111. You wish to measure 100 c . c . of water i n t o a graduated v e s s e l of 200 CSC. c a p a c i t y , . What-are the three most important things to d o . i n order to get e x a c t l y 100 C o . measured i n t o the.graduate? X  o  v  «  *  t  «  * •  « •  *  » «  «  *  «  «  »  « •  3 « • • • • • • » B • s *  17.  « •  « •  t •  9 •  « •  * •  » «  « •  * •  «  t  «  *  «  t  >  «  »  •  «  «  «  «  «  « •  « «  9 *  e «  «  * » » » * « » * • » • « « * » * ? - • « » * * »  In r e a d i n g the temperature r e g i s t e r e d on a thermometer b e i n g used to measure the temperature of m e l t i n g i c e , i n a l a r g e g l a s s beaker,care should be taken to f o l l o w the suggestions i n the statements l e t t e r e d * 1 • * * • « 2 t * * • • t • 3 % • * • • * • * «5» • • • S« * * « a. Do n o t s p i l l any water from the beaker as i t w i l l a l t e r the temperature . b. p l a c e only the bulb of the mercury i n the i c e pack. c. When r e a d i n g the thermometer take i t out q u i c k l y and very c a r e f u l l y and h o l d i t near to the eye to be sure. d. See that the bulb and p a r t o f s h a f t w i t h mercury i n i t are b u r i e d i n the i c e pack, ^ e. P l a c e the bulb of the thermometer one-half i n c h above the Ice s u r f a c e , f . In r e a d i n g the temperature have the eye and mercury top on the same level. g. P u t i c e and thermometer set i n the r e f r i g e r a t o r . h. Eead the temperature on thermometer w h i l e the thermometer i s i n the ice pack.  118  Scoring Q u e s t i o n #1,  one p o i n t p e r  Q u e s t i o n #2,  three p o i n t s , one p o i n t f o r the c o r r e c t gross t o t a l ( i n v o l v i n g the r i d e r value and weights, one p o i n t f o r deducting the weight of paper; and one p o i n t f o r c o r r e c t net t o t a l . one p o i n t each f o r ; - h o r i z o n t a l base, on eye l e v e l , lower surface of meniscus curve. one p o i n t each f o r d, f h.  Question #3, Question #4,  blank.  f  Questions 11 and  111 were t e s t e d by  the i n v e s t i g a t o r to see i f the  paper t e s t would a c t u a l l y t e s t l a b o r a t o r y techniques. o f the experiment (Exp. 17 i n Appendix) i t was of t e s t i n g are not  t e s t i n g the same things^as  Moreover, the paper t e s t seems the harder of l i q u i d s ) . f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n was  In t h i s and higher  conclusion  the c o r r e l a t i o n i s low.  (except  f o r measuring volumes  other experiments the score  than on.the paper score,  o b t a i n much t r a i n i n g i n l a b o r a t o r y work.  c l a s s e s t e s t e d had  the  seen that the two methods  on the  (It i s q u i t e  a b l e , however, t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n might be r e v e r s e d did not  On  The  actual conceiv-  e a s i l y i f the p u p i l s students of the  done a good amount of l a b o r a t o r y work i n the  previous  years).  g u r p o s e • To t e s t the student's a b i l i t y to form hypotheses (a form of deduct i o n from data. 1.  In diamond d r i l l i n g a l o n g the base of the Rocky Mountains i n A l b e r t a the g e o l o g i s t s found the cores y i e l d e d s e r i e s of rocks i n two groups as shown i n the diagram. What hypothesis would you advance to e x p l a i n this? E x p l a i n what you would do to confirm or destroy t h i s hypothesis. ore  H'o-es  . . .  119  IX. You have been c a l l e d i n to f i n d some s o l u t i o n to a serious t r a f f i c problem o c c u r r i n g a t a f i v e - s t r e e t j u n c t i o n , without any s p e c i a l t r a f f i c r u l e s f o r that c o r n e r . What would be f i v e hypothesis that you might advance i n s o l v i n g the problem, and that you would exoect to t e s t out experimentally? (Too many a c c i d e n t s are occurring" at t h i s junction,)  d®  • • « « . . • . « • , « , « , , , ,  • , * o  S c o r i n g ; For each o f the above problems there are p o s s i b l y s e v e r a l sens i b l e hypotheses. F o r the f i r s t , o n e these hypotheses may be advanced;1, o v e r l a p p i n g nyu a the s i s ad v^riond 2. trie r e p e t i o n o f s i m i l a r h i s t o r i e s f o r that area i n two d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s of time, 2. c a t a c l y s m i c e x p l o s i o n s superimposing one s e r i e s on top of i t s e l f , e t c . Each sens i b l e hypothesis would have t o be counted. A s e r i e s o f questions should be g i v e n to attempt t o reduce s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s to a minimum, that i s , sampling should be l a r g e . f  For the second q u e s t i o n many hypotheses might be advanced such a s ; 1. too g r e a t a speed as c a u s i n g the a c c i d e n t s , 2. p o o r l y kept v e h i c l e s , 3. too much extremely slow t r a f f i c i n a heavy stream, 4, types of t r a f f i c too mixed, p i t c h of h i l l s , 5. road s u r f a c e s , 6. business of n e i g borhood. Each hypothesis w i t h i n reason would have to be accepted, and a complete l i s t of responses might not be b u i l t up f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e time, because of r e p e a t e d a d d i t i o n s . One p o i n t each c o u l d be g i v e n . Purpose of Test  Items;  1.  To t e s t pupil'' s a b i l i t y  to organize a problem i n t o l o g i c a l  2.  To t e s t the p u p i l ' s a b i l i t y to recognize problem.  steps.  the p a r t s of a s c i e n t i f i c  Directions » The group of sentences which f o l l o w have been taken from an account of a r a t h e r famous s c i e n t i f i c problem that was s o l v e d . The statements have been p u t i n a d i f f e r e n t order, and then l e t t e r e d . Read them through c a r e f u l l y , t r y i n g to p i e c e together the l o g i c a l sequence of events. At the end o f the s e r i e s are questions to be answered.  a. b.  Many t r i a n g u l a t i o n s and c a l c u l a t i o n s were made by both i n v e s t i g a t o r s , On the n i g h t of September 25, 1846, G a l l e turned h i s telescope to the p o i n t i n the sky where the new p l a n e t was p r e d i c t e d to be, and found it.  c. d.  Something under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s produces other a c t i o n s . For the f i r s t f o r t y years a f t 6 r i t s d i s c o v e r y Uranus f o l l o w e d the corr e c t p a t h l i k e a l l other well-behaved p l a n e t s . Both Adams and L e v e r r i e r a t t a c k e d the problem without the other's knowing;,! t . The heavenly body a c t i n g on Uranus must be f a r t h e r out In space. 'The new p l a n e t was named Hep tune. The p l a n e t Uranus i n 1820 was s l i g h t l y out o f p l a c e and expected time, b e i n g ahead and out f a r t h e r , The t h e o r i e s upon which the p o s i t i o n o f Uranus f o r 1820 was p r e d i c t e d were e n t i r e l y erroneous. The p l a n e t Uranus i s b e i n g p u l l e d out o f i t s normal p a t h by another heavenly body f a r t h e r out, and t h i s heavenly body I s unknown up t i l l now.  e. f. ,g, h. i, j.  k. 1, m.  n. o.  p. q. r.  s. t. u. v.  The new heavenly body must l i e where the l i n e s of t r i a n g u l a t i o n s and the c a l c u l a t i o n s c o i n c i d e . One o f the g r e a t e s t triumphs o f mathematical genius occurred i n 1846. The laws o f mechanics and g r a v i t a t i o n were proven wrong f o r the f i r s t time by a concrete example o f d i f f e r e n t a c t i o n s p o s s i b l e i n heavenly bodies. The heavenly body a c t i n g on Uranus must be hearer the Sun than Uranus. By 1840 Uranus was so f a r out of p o s i t i o n that the d i s c r e p a n c i e s were i n t o l e r a b l e t o a m e t i c u l o u s astronomer who p u t f a i t h i n the c a l c u l ations, Why was Uranus not i n the p o s i t i o n s a s c r i b e d to i t by the c a l c u l a t i o n s Uranus Is out so f a r i n space that i t s s u r f a c e temperature i s probab l y below zero by 200°F. d u r i n g the middle of the day. Many i n v o l v e d mathematical c a l c u l a t i o n s based on the laws o f mechanics and g r a v i t a t i o n showed that the new heavenly body must be i n s i d e of Uranus' o r b i t . Ten years l a t e r the d i f f e r e n c e s i n time and p o s i t i o n were s t i l l g r e a t e r ^ s o that Uranus was an a p p r e c i a b l e d i s t a n c e outside i t s o r b i t . I t i s known that any two heavenly bodies tend to draw each other t o gether by v i r t u e of t h e i r g r a v i t a t i o n . Some other heavenly body was a c t i n g on Uranus to p u l l i t out o f i t s calculated position. The index of r e f l e c t i o n o f Uranus i s very low so that the observations were n o t r e l i a b l e .  By. u s i n g the l e t t e r s i n f r o n t of each statement re-arrange them to include o n l y the n e c e s s a r y statements and to form a s e r i e s that gives the c o r r e c t sequence o f ey.ents and a c t i o n s . Be sure to use the l e t t e r s of only the statements that serve a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n I n the problem.  13....14....15....16....17....18....19...,20..,.21..,.22,...23....24.  S c o r i n g ; The s c o r i n g of questions o f a c y c l i c nature i s always r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t . What are you to do when a student s l i p s up on one stop e a r l y i n the c y c l e hut a l l the others are i n order hut out of t h e i r c o r r e c t position? I would suggest that f o r any runs or sequence that the score f o r that p o r t i o n he ( n — 1 } where "n" stands f o r the number o f items i n c o r r e c t sequence for that p o r t i o n . One s l i p w i l l automatica l l y drop the score two p o i n t s .  This e x e r c i s e c o u l d have the questions asked i n another way.  Ask  s p e c i f i c questions about c e r t a i n statements a s ; 1.  What i s the use o f statement  2.  What i s the f u n c t i o n of statement c o n c l u s i o n , unnecessary).  "s"? (problem,  3«.  What i s the f u n c t i o n of statement  "k" i n s o l v i n g the problem?  "j"  i n working w i t h the s c i e n t i f i c method? hypothesis, data,  This form o f q u e s t i o n makes f o r g r e a t e r ease i n marking f o r no w o r r i e s of e v a l u a t i n g sequences are p r e s e n t .  On the other hand i t l o s e s c o n s i d e r a -  b l y i t s v a l i d i t y as a t e s t f o r the a b i l i t y t o organize the steps of a problem. Another form of q u e s t i o n s based on t h i s e x e r c i s e would be;What statements  o f those l e t t e r e d above form the;--  1 • I* O^O~I.Q xti ••••••• 2.  Examination  3,  Experimentation  •£<:.  -  ' *  «««»•••««*  of o l d e r t h e o r i e s . .  '..  This type o f t e s t would serve n i c e l y i n t e s t i n g f o r knowledge o f the  various s t e p s i n the s c i e n t i f i c method, but v a l i d i t y as test,  of organizing a b i l i t y .  it. loses somewhat A*  To organize^the  student must  r e a l l y do the o r g a n i z i n g o f the whole q u e s t i o n .  Questions that p r e s e n t  him w i t h a p a r t i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p r e c e d i n g two types i n v a l i d a t e the  purpose  Q u e s t i o n might have the f i r s t  slightly.  ganized by l e t t e r ,  few steps a l r e a d y  or the middle two or three, or the l a s t .  seem t o i n v a l i d a t e  or-  This would  the t e s t l e s s as a t e s t of o r g a n i z i n g than the second  and t h i r d types do. •-  purpose  1.  :  u ——••—;—  o f Test t To t e s t a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t data* To t e s t a b i l i t y to draw v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s . To a p p l y the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n a c c u r a t e l y to a p p l i c a b l e situations,  ;' •  new  The f o l l o w i n g r e p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of some r e s e a r c h Into the e f f e c t of v e l o c i t y on the a i r r e s i s t a n c e o f an automobile t r a v e l l i n g a t v a r i o u s speeds.  DIRECTIONS: P l a c e d a f t e r the data and graph are some statements and conc l u s i o n s . You are expected to r e a d a l l data c a r e f u l l y and to make a l l d e c i s i o n s on the b a s i s o f what i s p r e s e n t e d t o you h e r e . Examine each of the statements below, decide which of these judgments f i t s i t b e s t , then i n s e r t that l e t t e r i n f r o n t of the judgment i n t o the parentheses i n f r o n t o f the judgment. a. A SOUND CONCLUSION based on evidence o n l y , b. A c o n c l u s i o n CONTRADICTORY to evidence shown. c. QUITE PROBABLE.,but evidence or data does not go that f a r to show, d. NOT LIKELY C(ERECT, but evidence does n o t go that f a r to prove d e f i nitely. e. NOT RELATED to the experiment, INAPPLICABLE.  loO-  SZ. So-  **, AO .  3S-  XVII  123  1. (cont.)  COMMON VELOCITIES* 1. Automobiles 25-45 m i l e s p e r hour, 2. Speed l i m i t s i n B. C,, 30 m i l e s p e r hour. 3. Launches, 7-15 m i l e s p e r hour, 4. C o a s t a l steamships, 15-25 m i l e s p e r hour. 5. Aeroplanes, 90-200 m i l e s p e r hour, H u l l — t h a t p a r t of a boat f l o a t i n g i n water, and s u p p o r t i n g the superstructure. Stream-linihg~B:ounding the corners, and t a p e r i n g the shapes, of bodies i n motion to reduce the vacuum behind, or the " a f t e r - d r a g " , ( ( ( ( ( { ( ( (  ( ( ( }  ) 1. S t r e a m l i n i n g the body of automobiles would be of l i t t l e importance . f o r machines t h a t t r a v e l w i t h i n the l e g a l speed l i m i t s . ) 2. The r e s i s t a n c e o f a i r i n c r e a s e s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y to the v e l o c i t y o f the c a r . ) 3. S t r e a m - l i n i n g the h u l l o f a launch would be o f v e r y l i t t l e a s s i s t ance i n s a v i n g f u e l , or i n g a i n i n g speed, ) 4, D r i v i n g automobiles a t h i g h e r speeds produces i n c r e a s i n g l y greater air resistances. ) 5. The v e l o c i t i e s i n a i r above which r e s i s t a n c e s increase very r a p i d l y are above 40 m i l e s p e r hour. J 6. The measurements are not a c c u r a t e l y made because the graph i s not curved e v e n l y . ) 7. The s t r e a m - l i n i n g o f aeroplanes i s r e a l l y unnecessary, i t being mainly a type o f a r t i s t i c d e s i g n i n g , ) 8, S t r e a m - l i n i n g the h u l l of steamships would n o t reduce r e s i s t a n c e v e r y much. ) 9. S t r e a m - l i n i n g the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , upperdecks, e t c . , o f a steamship w i l l n o t reduce the a i r r e s i s t a n c e to any great extent, and t h e r e f o r e I s not n e c e s s a r y . )10. The weight of the a i r a f f e c t s the r e s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d the c a r . )11. M i l e a g e p e r g a l l o n o f g a s o l i n e used by an automobile would be l e s s at 60 m i l e s p e r hour than a t 30 m i l e s p e r hour. )12, Mileage p e r g a l l o n of g a s o l i n e used by an automobile would be . g r e a t e r a t 50 m i l e s p e r hour than at 25 m i l e s p e r hour.  SCORTMJt One p o i n t  each, and t h e t o t a l o f c o r r e c t responses. —  -  u ——'•  :  —  Purpose o f . T e s t s To t e s t the a b i l i t y o f student to arrange data I n a systematic manner, more p a r t i c u l a r l y t h i s time by use o f graphs. 2,  To t e s t a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t d a t a .  3,  To t e s t  the a b i l i t y  to suspend judgment  facts. 4,  To p r e d i c t r e s u l t s on the b a s i s o f d a t a .  i n the face o f i n s u f f i c i e n t  124  DIRECTIONSi On the graph paper r e c o r d the data given below, then use your graph to answer the questions asked, DATA In f i n d i n g how w e l l a c e r t a i n s a l t d i s s o l v e d i n water at various p e r a t u r e s a l a b o r a t o r y worker observed these f a c t s ; Salt A At 2 0 ° C . « • • e 31»S 1grams, ft 4 5 ° C , • • 9 • 73»4 tt 0°C. 6 • 13 9 3 «» 5 ° C . 9 4 9 f t IB* ft 4 0 ° C . 9 9 9 9 63 9 ft . 60°C. 9 1 1 0 9 75 1 0 ° C . • 0 9 9 17«*B it 30°C, • 4:6«  tem-  s  9  9  0  9  9  •  9  9  9  9  9  9  9  9  11  Salt BsAt 0°C. At 5°G. 90°C. 1,  9 9  0  3 9 6  « &J 9 « 47 6 0  9  d i s s o l v e d i n 100 grams of water tt tt n rt tt n •t tt it ft it if n it it it u ft it n it n «t it tt ft tt ft tt it it tt ft tt « tt tt tt ** 11  M  •  H  grams d i s s o l v e d i n water p e r 100 grams o f water. tt tt it tt it it it ft it it it it it it t» tt tt 11  How much of s a l t A w i l l be d i s s o l v e d i n 100 grams of water a t 70°C? •  2,  9 9 « * 9 * 9 9  How much s a l t p e r 100 grams of water w i l l be d i s s o l v e d a t 15°C? » 9 9 « 9 » * 9 «  3«  How much s a l t  4,  How much of s a l t B would d i s s o l v e i n 100 grams o f water at 5 5 ° C ?  :  5.  How much of s a l t B would d i s s o l v e i n 100 grams of water at 100°C.V •  6,  •» •  9 9 » «  9  *  How much of s a l t B would d i s s o l v e i n 400 grams of water at 7 5 ° C ? « 9 9 9  7.  * * 9 9 «  At 50<>C. which s a l t d i s s o l v e s 9  8,  of sample A w i l l be d i s s o l v e d I n 500 grams o f water at  9  9  9  *  9  9  9  9  b e t t e r i n 100 grams o f water?  9 9 9 9 9 * 9 9 9  What r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s f o r s a l t A between q u a n t i t y solved and -iwsperature?'  of. s a l t d i s -  SCQBUJiSs The f i r s t t h r e e  questions can be scored p e r f e c t l y o b j e c t i v e l y  above a s l i g h t  that should be p e r m i t t e d f o r instrument e r r o r s ,  pencil lines,  tolerance  e t c . (as t h i s i s n o t a method whereby  the student can obtain  125  the exact mathematical r e s u l t s ) . permissible* t i o n s 4,  A t o l e r a n c e of, say  Each c o r r e c t answer would be given  5, 6,  .2 grams, would be  the one p o i n t .  7 the best answer, and r e a l l y the only one  the "data are i n s u f f i c i e n t " , s t r a i g h t l i n e graph must be  or " I don't know".  Any  curved  graph.  correct,is  thrown out f o r j u s t enough evidence i s presented However, some  t a k i n g a h i n t from the graph of A w i l l attempt a  In cases l i k e these the examiner w i l l be f o r c e d to go back  to h i s o r i g i n a l data to f i n d i f the  responses should be accepted.  they should not^as t h i s i s a t e s t to see i f the has n o t s u f f i c i e n t d a t a .  evenly,  ficient  4,  temperature, 1; no answer, 0.  5, 6, 7, would be  increases A better  to' give 3 p o i n t s f o r " i n s u f -  data" or e q u i v a l e n t ; 2 p o i n t s f o r responses w i t h i n  l i m i t s s e t ; one p o i n t f o r no answer; and The  he  F o r q u e s t i o n 8, answers should be of t h i s type  2; i n c r e a s e s w i t h  e v a l u a t i o n for questions  Really  student r e a l i z e s that  and v a l u e ; i n c r e a s e s more than p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y to temperature, 3; but not  that  r e s u l t s based on a  to show the c a r e f u l worker that t h i s i s not o f that type. of the more ambitious,  For ques-  tolerance  zero f o r a l l o t h e r s .  a c t u a l graphs should be marked^too, say two pja£aJ>s f o r a graph  that i s c o r r e c t ("the  arranging  of d a t a " ) , one p o i n t f o r a f u l l graph that  i s r a t h e r c a r e l e s s , others z e r o ^ f o r s a l t A; f o r s a l t B the graph should between the f i r s t  two p o i n t s w i t h a s l i g h t curve,  s t r a i g h t l i n e from the.second p o i n t minus mark of  to get two p ^ l t f ^ s ; a  to the t h i r d c o u l d w e l l be given a  one, —  Purpose of Test Item; conclusions;  run  To t e s t  —  U  ;  the a b i l i t y of student  i n drawing v a l i d  i n suspending judgment i n the face of i n s u f f i c i e n t  i n i d e n t i f y i n g the v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s i n a complex.  facts;  and  126  PIRHOIIOJS.; READ CAREFULLY the data p r e s e n t e d , and the statements below that. «,ach statement you are t o judge on the b a s i s of the f i v e standards or judgements l i s t e d below and l e t t e r e d , m the parentheses i n f r o n t of each statement r e c o r d the l e t t e r of the judgment that best f i t s that statement.  The Late B l i g h t of P o t a t o e s i s caused by a fungus p a r a s i t e (phytophth^ora i n f e s t a n s ) that grows throughout the p o t a t o p l a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y the -leaves, and p r o d u c i n g death i n those p a r t s i n f e c t e d . When i n f e c t i o n i s severe the whole p l a n t may be k i l l e d and k i l l e d v e r y r a p i d l y , seemingly overnight* T h i s i s what happened i n I r e l a n d i n 1845 t o cause the I r i s h Famine, and i t r e s u l t e d i n d i r e c t l y i n the death o f thousands of I r i s h and the e m i g r a t i o n , to America mainly, of about a m i l l i o n pa o p l e . In order to t r y to c o n t r o l such a disease many experiments have been done . Below i s the t a b l e showing the data from one of these experiments s t u d y i n g the f a c t o r s that a f f e c t the d i s e a s e . p l o t s of l a n d 1/10 acre each were marked out on v e r y good s o i l that had been under p r o p e r c u l t i v a t i o n f o r many y e a r s . Each year new p l o t s were used and a r o t a t i o n developed. Three p l o t s were chosen each year; i n one the p o t a t o e s were sprayed on a v e r y r i g o r o u s schedule w i t h Bordeaux mixture which forms a copper hydroxide f i l m over the l e a v e s ; another p l o t of p o t a t o p l a n t s was sprayed on an e q u a l l y vigorous schedule by u s i n g lime sulphur spray o f the p r o p e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n (as found by other exp e r i m e n t s ) , w h i l e i n the t h i r d p l o t the p o t a t o p l a n t s were not sprayed at all. The b l i g h t a t t a c k s v e r y s e v e r e l y d u r i n g J u l y and e a r l y August i f c o n d i t i o n s are r i g h t f o r i t .  YEAR  1. 2. s  «  4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  WEATHER DURING JULY,rain,sky  moist,alternating r a i n , warm dry i n June,occasi o n a l showers J u l y generally fine & clear,little rain showery g e n e r a l l y moist,alternating r a i n & warm. f i n e , f e w showers f i n e , c l e a r no rain f i n e , c l e a r , no rain very r a i n y cloudy not much rain  AVERAGE TEH ,. YIELD JULY BORDEAUX 1  YIELD LIME SULPHUR  YIELD UK'S? RAYED  58° F.  3,255 l b s .  2,982 l b s .  2,070 l b s .  62° F.  3,409  3,024  1,207  73° P.  2,810  2,643  2,725  59° F.  3,229  2,956  2.046  64° F. '  3,156  2,740  1*477  71° F.  3,566  3,179  1,697  74° F.  2,892  2,459  2,706  70° F.  3,278  2,933  3,162  62° F.  3,582  3,092  1,679  66° F,  3,217  2,769  1,946  127  In f r o n t of each of the numbered c o n c l u s i o n p l a c e the l e t t e r of the one statement  above which you t h i n k d e s c r i b e s i t b e s t .  a.  SOUSED CONCLUSION' based  b. c. d. e.  a_ c o n c l u s i o n CONTRADICTORY' to evidence shown. QUITE PROBABLE but evidence or data do not go that f a r . NOT LIKELY CORRECT but evidence does not go that f a r . NOT RELATED to experiment or INAPPLICABLE.  on evidence o n l y .  Conclusions; ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (  ) 1. Any fungus —M'Wing spray g i v e s equal and adequate p r o t e c t i o n . ) 2. H o t j d r y weather h i n d e r s the development of Late B l i g h t d i s e a s e . } S« R a i n and moisture p l a y no p a r t i n the a c t i o n o f the p a r a s i t e i n causing the d i s e a s e . ) 4. A l l data of y i e l d s are i n v a l i d because the areas of comparison are n o t e q u a l . ) 5. Bordeaux mixture seems a c t u a l l y to i n c r e a s e the y i e l d s . ) 6. The best s o i l was chosen f o r the Bordeaux sprayed p l o t s , ) 7, S u f f i c i e n t data hav<?been obtains d to draw v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s as to worth of s p r a y i n g . ) 8. Lime-sulphur spray r e d u c e s crop y i e l d o f p o t a t o e s i n some way, ) 9* Late B l i g h t i s worst i n the h o t t e s t y e a r s , )10. The c o l d e r the temperature the b e t t e r the p a r a s i t e grows, k i l l i n g more p o t a t o e s . )11« Lime-sulphur spray of the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s used p r o t e c t the p o t a t o p l a n t s from the p a r a s i t e . )12. Because the s p r a y i n g costs on the average 60^' p e r p l o t and p o t a toes average o n l y 59c' p e r 100 pounds i t d i d not pay f i n a n c i a l l y to spray.  Purpose o f Test Item; To test the a b i l i t y to detect p r i n c i p l e s at work as shown i n the date (drawing v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s ) and to a p p l y these p r i n c i p l e s to new s u i t a b l e s i t u a t i o n s . (Question type suggested by P r o f e s s o r C. B. Wood) Directions T h i s t a b l e p r e s e n t s data obtained by measuring c u r r e n t and the s t r e n g t h of the magnetic f o r c e s produced when e l e c t r i c i t y was sent through h e l i c e s or c o i l s of d i f f e r i n g numbers of t u r n s . Three t r i a l s were uncompleted; you are expected to f i l l i n these blanks w i t h your c a l c u l a t i o n s based on the evidence.  126  TORUS OF * WIRE IN COIL  CURRENT IN AMP EXES  MAGNETIC STRENGTH IN UNITS  10 1  0  50 *  0  50  200  600  700  i  800  1/10  600  1/2  800 Ci « t »  i  i  Scoring}  i  i  #  t  The  11  i  100  s c o r i n g i s very o b j e c t i v e f o r t h i s ,  each c o r r e c t response  0  200  4ftfl  JL  t  5  80  b.,,».o,,,, «  t«  i  3  simply one p o i n t f o r  only.  The a b i l i t y to make accurate  observations and to organize  thasedata  and r e c o r d them n e a t l y are achievements that can be evaluated d i r e c t l y the student's note books, or l a b o r a t o r y books to o b t a i n a f a i r l y f a c t o r y measure.  Perhaps t h i s may  i s more v a l i d when r e s t r i c t e d  satis-  be a good i n t e r i m procedure u n t i l  that are more v a l i d than the marking of books can be d e v i s e d .  from  tests  The marking  to o r g a n i z i n g .  In marking the l a b o r a t o r y books the best p l a n i s to examine a l l books and separate  them i n t o seven groups a c c o r d i n g l y from best to p o o r e s t .  i s a d v i s a b l e to check the placement of books i n any category,, f o r a few the f i r s t  ones examined p o s s i b l y may  l i g h t of the f u l l e r experience.'  It of  have been misp>laced when viewed i n  These can then be a l l o t t e d  or p o i n t s , a c c o r d i n g to the method i n use  letter  of r e c o r d i n g achievements.  grades,  'CHAP TEE  VI  . FORMS OH* QUESTIONS FOK • % i±is OBJEC'i'I VfiS OF i  °lMa'EBMM>IA.SiBr VALUE.  In t h i s chapter are grouped the  test items s u i t a b l e f o r t e s t i n g  achievements of the o b j e c t i v e s of intermediate v a l u e . obtained a weighing  These o b j e c t i v e s  of eleven to ten p e r c e n t , which marks them o f f ab-  r u p t l y from the two p r e c e d i n g but only s l i g h t l y from those which f o l l o w .  TO Develop R e s o u r c e f u l n e s s T h i s o b j e c t i v e was  and A d a p t a b i l i t y to lew C o n d i t i o n s ;  ranked t h i r d w i t h a w e i g h t i n g of eleven p e r c e n t .  • J u d g i n g -by the r e t u r n s on some o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e v e r a l p e r sons t h i n k that t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s debatable Four expressed develop  on p s y c h o l o g i c a l grounds,,  the o p i n i o n that i t i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y impossible to  r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s because i t is. a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i n t e l l i g e n c e , 1  or on the b a s i s of Spearman's theory  one  of the s p e c i f i c  factors.  These comments set the i n v e s t i g a t o r to examining the t h e o r i e s of i n t e l ligence again just  to check up.  I t i s not intended to go i n t o a lengthy  d i s c u s s i o n of the t h e o r i e s of. i n t e l l i g e n c e a t t h i s stage and  to use  ideas deduoible from the t h e o r i e s but r a t h e r to deal w i t h d i r e c t p e r i m e n t a l evidence  ex-  on the problem of t e s t i n g and developing r e s o u r c e -  fulness. I t might be  s a i d i n defense  of t h i s o b j e c t i v e t h a t ons of the  standing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r e s o u r c e f u l p e r s o n  out-  i s his adaptability.  While d o u b t l e s s a d a p t a b i l i t y i s i n a measure based on i n t e l l i g e n c e , or more c o r r e c t l y upon the degree of responsiveness "1. Spearman, C h a r l e s ; "The  Abilities  129  of Man,"  of an i n d i v i d u a l , i t i s  passim.  130 not synonymous w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e , can be developed  i n a person,  a b l e even i n these f i e l d s . correct attitudes,  I t i s r a t h e r on a t t i t u d e o f mind which  A v e r y i n t e l l i g e n t p e r s o n can be unadapt-  A d a p t a b i l i t y i s developed  by experience and  The degree o f development i s o f course l i m i t e d by the  degree o f n a t i v e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s  o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  R e s o u r c e f u l n e s s may  be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p e r s o n s .  The great American n a t i o n has been d e r i v e d  p r i m a r i l y from B r i t i s h s t o c k ,  i t i s doubtless a very r e s o u r c e f u l nation,  p o s s i b l y much more so than are the B r i t i s h ,  This d i f f e r e n c e may be a t -  t r i b u t e d to t h e i r need t o adapt themselves to new and d i f f e r e n t ings.  surround-  T h i s need I s n o t evident i n the l i v e s of the B r i t i s h f o r whom  c o n d i t i o n s are s t i l l s i m i l a r t o those of p a s t days and are n o t changing rapidly. I t seems q u i t e p o s s i b l e t o make out a s t r o n g case to show that r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s c a n be i n c r e a s e d i n any p e r s o n b y c r e a t i n g the proper a t t i t u d e o f an open mind, by showing t h a t problems o f t e n have more than one s o l u t i o n or one way of s o l v i n g them, by improving powers of o b s e r v a t i o n of d e t a i l s around one, and by t e a c h i n g students to arrange i o n s i n some o r d e r l y or s y s t e m a t i c manner. developed  by good t r a i n i n g i n s c i e n c e .  o b j e c t i v e be r e t a i n e d . may  "be  their  observat-  All these p r o c e s s e s can be  Thus i t seems i n order that t h i s  There i s e v i d e n c e ^ t o o t o r  show t h a t r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s  developed. i  One  experiment c a r r i e d out by Beauchamp and Webb  r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s of h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s .  t r i e d to t e s t the  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e p o r t e d  that t h e r e was v a r y l i t t l e c o r r e l a t i o n between r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s as they measured i t and i n t e l l i g e n c e as measured by two w e l l known g e n e r a l ligence t e s t s .  intel-  The O t i s i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t gave a c o r r e l a t i o n o f ,21+ .09  1« For .examples o f these .see p , \33  w i t h r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s , and the M c u a l l Multi-mental xerkes-Hoss Adolescent-Adult t e s t s to the extent  of  Test  s c a l e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the  .42 - .08.  ,04  .09,  The  resourcefulness  T h e r e f o r e , they conclude,  the  intel-  l i g e n c e t e s t s are not measuring the same things a s . t h e i r r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s t e s t s were, at l e a s t to any  great extent,  i t might be p o i n t e d out here  that r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the achievement i n p h y s i c s , which measured at that time i n the r a t h e r bookish manner, to the extent .14 £  .09.  i n measuring him  are not  justified  '< •• 2 only by t e s t s that do not measure t h i s q u a l i t y .  i n r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s was  l y and  Growth  reported a l s o .  Thus i t seems t h a t the i n c l u s i o n of t h i s o b j e c t i v e i n the  important  I  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s go on to say that i f r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s i s  r e a l l y a d e s i r a b l e f a c t o r of a p u p i l ' s a b i l i t y then we  courses  of  v' i s q u i t e j u s t i f i e d .  Science  Moreover i t has been judged q u i t e  by many teachers w i t h a f a i r l y good degree o f unanimity.  some examining of the term r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s i s necessary  i n order  to  see j u s t what.is i m p l i e d .  The average s i t u a t i o n demanding r e s o u r c e f u l -  ness i s one  element i n the problem.  who  that has a new  i s able to solve such problems w i t h new  more so i f he use  can solve them q u i c k l y ,  o f the v e r y simple  We  say. that the p e r s o n  elements i s r e s o u r c e f u l , the  i n s o l v i n g them he u s u a l l y makes  t h i n g s that are around him.  I t i s necessary  to confuse t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w i t h i n g e n u i t y ; the two may r e l a t e d , but  be  not.  closely  i n g e n u i t y has more i n v e n t i v e n e s s to i t , i n making h i s  s o l u t i o n to the new  complex the p e r s o n a l s o makes much use  I f the f o r e g o i n g i s c o r r e c t then these seem to be  of  experience.  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s ; to r e a l i z e the d i f f i c u l t y or problem, to survey  ma t e r i a l s that can be used i n s o l v i n g i t , the manipulation 2..  was  Beauchamptf-O-,and Webb/ il,/\.;"R« NVU^n.-K'cS fr\> ASH -  .  (Vol- X-KVm)  the  of these a r -  152 tides,  the c a l l upon experience or memory f o r p a r a l l e l s , and  i n of i n t e l l i g e n c e .  the c a l l i n g  What can be done to d e v e l o p ' r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s then?  students can be t r a i n e d to i d e n t i f y problems; they can be taught  systematic  surveying of m a t e r i a l s that might be u s e f u l ; the p r o v i s i o n of a wealth experience, d i r e c t or v i c a r i o u s , w i l l prove be t r a i n e d to manipulate  apparatus.  of  of i n e s t i m a b l e value; they can  So from t h i s i t seems that much can  be done to develop r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s , and thus the t e s t i n g programme should f o l l o w the t e a c h i n g .  Perhaps i t might be b e t t e r to say that the knowledge  that t e s t s can be d e v i s e d f o r t h i s purpose should encourage the teacher to Include t r a i n i n g , f o r ,this i n h i s programme. Any  t e s t of r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s , must p l a c e the p e r s o n i n a new  circumstances,  complex of  xhere are many problems i n the d a i l y t e a c h i n g experience  that c a l l f o r r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s .  To enumerate many here would be to rob  I n c i d e n t s o f the element of the new.  such  Many l a b o r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s and t e c h -  niques that form p a r t of the r e g u l a r work i n h i g h e r years have r e a l elements of r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s i n them when a p p l i e d to the lower grades.  Uare must be  taken when c h o s i n g from these t h a t they are not e n t i r e l y beyond the p e r i e n c e of the s t u d e n t .  The  ex-  type of t e s t administered by iseauchamp  and  Webb demanded a c t u a l things to work w i t h , although tseauchamp and Webb' d i d d i v i d e t h e i r group i n t o two,and a l t e r n a t e paper response  and  actual  m a n i p u l a t i o n between the two s e c t i o n s . ; They p r o v i d e d a booth f o r each student to use. ponse type a l l the equipment and were uncovered  In the w r i t t e n r e s -  the problem,which was p r i n t e d on a card  on a g i v e n s i g n a l ; whereupon the student had to see what  the problem was,  survey h i s apparatus,  then w r i t e b r i e f l y h i s procedure.  Pbr the a c t u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n group a l s o the problem was p r i n t e d on the card, but the a c t u a l s o l u t i o n demanded the use  o f the apparatus..  A  time  133 l i m i t of seven minutes p e r item was  deemed s u f f i c i e n t ,  is'ach student  was  asked a l s o t o ' s t a t e whether or n o t he had done something s i m i l a r to the t e s t item b e f o r e . based  Out  of the 1,309  on some modicum of experience.  s u c c e s s f u l accomplishments 896  & c o r r e l a t i o n of .60 between ex-  p e r i e n c e and r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s shows the b e n e f i t resourceful act  of experience i n any  Resourcefulness i s not mere r e p e t i t i o n of experience  but i t i s founded on i t . " s u p e r v i s o r who  "were  The  s c o r i n g was  e n t i r e l y i n the hands of t h e  watched the a c t u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s ,  S u c c e s s f u l responses  only were counted and no f r a c t i o n a l c r e d i t s g i v e n , A few of the Items from aeauchamp and Webb.' s l i s t w i l l be i n c l u d e d here • FOitfi'A I . udven; jiunsen burner f a s t e n e d down; gas supply; matches; short rubber tubes (too short to r e a c h from j e t to b u r n e r ) ; g l a s s tubes (of s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r e x t e r n a l diameter. Required; TO l i g h t the Bunsen burner without moving i t . 3, (Jivenj Two b o t t l e s o f odd shape, n e a r l y the same s i z e ; pan R e q u i r e d ; To f i n d which b o t t l e holds the more.  of water.  16.Given; A s t r i n g one y a r d l o n g ; s c i s s o r s . Required; To s e c u r e a c c u r a t e l y a s t r o n g s i x inches l o n g . I I . u-iven; jj'lask; one-holed stopper; f u n n e l ; water. R e q u i r e d ; To prove t h a t a i r occupies space. FOBiffl B 1. Given; Basket b a l l b l a d d e r ; b a l a i c e s ; weights; Required; To prove that a i r has weight,  without  going f u r t h e r one  string.  i s tempted to say that the l a s t  two  a c t i v i t i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r are i n c l u d e d i n science t e s t s and science courses i n many p l a c e s .  T h i s p r o b a b l y does not matter  i n the  least,  p r o v i d i n g that they have not been done a l r e a d y i n the c l a s s or grade which i s b e i n g t e s t e d .  Some types o f q u e s t i o n s that seem to he answerable  only on paper and  h a v i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t demand resourc'efulness a r e ; 1. G i v e n j Two steep h i l l s and a moderately narrow v a l l e y ; a watch w i t h second hand; r i f l e and s h e l l s - a p e r s o n s t a t i o n e d or r e s t i n g about half-way up one of the h i l l s . R e q u i r e d To f i n d the d i s t a n c e a c r o s s the v a l l e y at the a l t i t u d e of the p e r s o n . :  2. Givenj A f i s h that has j u s t been caught; s m a l l t r e e s and w i l l o w s near by; " f l i e s " ; hooks; s p i n n e r s ; basket; s t r i n g or l i n e ; k n i f e ; l e a d s i n k e r s 1 oz to 4 oz. R e q u i r e d * To f i n d the weight of the f i s h , 3. G i v e n : A s m a l l f i r e from a short c i r c u i t i n your c a r ; out on a country s i d e road f a r from help; no f i r e e x t i n g u i s h e r . R e q u i r e d : To p u t out the f i r e immediately.  Others .that seem to demand a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s to be p r e s e n t i n order that the student can make the necessary thought connections are? 1. Given, some empty h a l v e s of peanut s h e l l s ; sand or s o i l ; s a l t or sugar. R e q u i r e d ; To demonstrate the p r o c e s s of osmosis, 2. G i v e n ; An angel-cake t i n ; and t h r e e other pans, of s l i g h t l y l a r g e r diameter, a l k a l i n e water (or some Other w i t h chemical impuritie s) f i r e or Bunsen burner. > R e q u i r e d ; To o b t a i n water c h e m i c a l l y pure i n order to p u t i t i n storage batteries, 5, G i v e n ; P o t a t o e s ; pan o f water; k n i f e ; sugar. .Required;; To prove that water passage from c e l l t o c e l l occurs by osmosis. 4. Given- A t a c k a t the bottom o f a h a l f - i n c h hole s i x inches deep and d r i l l e d i n t o a p i e c e of wood that cannot be turned over; n a i l s • and s p i k e s up to seven inches i n l e n g t h ; a dry. c e l l ; and t h i n s i l k - c o v e r e d copper w i r e . ;, R e q u i r e d ; To get the t a c k out so that d r i l l i n g may be resumed, and the wood not i n j u r e d . . 5. Given; A s h o v e l w i t h a cracked handle but not separated; a v e r y heavy r o c k (about 250 l b s , ) i n a hole two and o n e - h a l f . f e e t deep; dug i n a garden. Required- To get the r o c k out o f the h o l e , assuming that i t i s much too heavy to l i f t .  135 •go Acquire Knowledge Which W i l l Contribute to P u b l i c and P e r s o n a l H e a l t h T h i s o b j e c t i v e was ranked f o u r t h and r e c e i v e d a weighting o f t e n percent. There seems to be no c o n f u s i o n as to. the i n t e n t of the o b j e c t i v e , A science teacher I s d i r e c t e d by t h i s o b j e c t i v e to see that the r e q u i r e d knowledge or i n f o r m a t i o n i s given when the s c i e n c e course approaches h e a l t h t o p i c s , or when p r i n c i p l e s are i n v o l v e d which are t r a n s f e r a b l e to h e a l t h and s a f e t y s t u d i e s . H e a l t h courses  While there e x i s t s a s p e c i a l s e r i e s o f  i n B r i t i s h Columbia schools no one expects  teacher to teach the e n t i r e h e a l t h course.  the science  There w i l l be many p l a c e s  where the Science' and H e a l t h courses meet or o v e r l a p .  These l i n k a g e s  should be made v e r y evident to the student. The  o b j e c t i v e emphasizes the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge that should  be p u t i n t o a c t i v e use by the s t u d e n t that o f the community.  to safeguard h i s own h e a l t h and ,  To see t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i s  g i v e n and to t r y to see that i t becomes e f f e c t i v e i s the duty o f the teacher. easy.  The t e s t i n g f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y  To t e s t t o see hew s o c i a l i z e d h e a l t h a t t i t u d e s have been  w i l l not be too d i f f i c u l t . f o r these.  developed  The common forms of questions can be used  To measure the t r a n s f e r  of i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a c t i v e l i f e of  the community would be a b i g task beyond the power of one teacher to do.  MULTIPLE CHOICEf  Underline  the best answer.  1.  During the w i n t e r the a i r taken i n t o the h o t a i r h e a t i n g system o f any b u i l d i n g and warmed only becomes; a. too humid, b . too warm, c, s l i g h t l y higher i n humidity, d. s l i g h t l y lower i n humidity, e. too d r y ,  2.  A i r that i s s t i l l and very humid h i n d e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y the p r o c e s s of a. t r a n s p i r a t i o n , b , r e s p i r a t i o n , c. p e r s p i r a t i o n , d. c i r c u l a t i o n , e. d i g e s t i o n .  I 136  3.  The b e s t method o f i l l u m i n a t i o n , to use where.much r e a d i n g w i l l be dorali s : a. d i r e c t , b . . t o t a l l y i n d i r e c t , c, s e m i - i n d i r e c t , d, t o t a l l y d i r e c t ,  MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS; P l a c e the l e t t e r i n f r o n t of the term i n the b l a n k numbered in,"front o f each statement so t h a t a c l o s e l y r e l a t e d p a i r of ideas r e s u l t s , a, b, c, d, e, f, g, •h. i,  filtering 1 . a d d e d i n minute q u a n t i t i e s t o k i l l germs t h a t d r i n k i n g water might be i n the d r i n k i n g water of many l a r g e s e p t i c tanks c i t y systems. sewage b o i l e d water 2,,.. g r e a t e s t dangers from water s u p p l y o c c u r . tyhoid chlorine 5 . . . . . . . . . s i n g l e drop i n a tumbler or g l a s s f u l l of summer v a c a t i o n s water u s u a l l y k i l l s a l l germs, fluorine  j . diphtheria , k, j, 1, m. n.  4  does not remove germs from w a t e r .  tincture of iodine . . boiling 5 . . . . . . . . . d i s e a s e spread c h i e f l y through water and m i l k winter supplies, typhus 6 . . . . . . . . . s u f f i c i e n t l y pure i f i t c o n t a i n s n o t h i n g spring unwholesome.  COMPLETION OR RECALL; f i l l i n the b l a n k s i n the statements i n order to make a complete a c c u r a t e statement. 1,  The s o u r i n g o f m i l k i s caused by . ...  ,  2,  I n s h o r t s i g h t e d n e s s the image f a l l s of the eye.  3,  The i n v e n t i o n based on the use of e l e c t r i c i t y and vacuum tubes t h a t i s of most b e n e f i t i n s u r g e r y and d i a g n o s i s I s ., .....  r  the r e t i n a  ANALOGIES; complete the a n a l o g i e s below w i t h a word or statement that . makes the same or v e r y s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the second pa i r of words as e x i s t s between the f i r s t p a i r . 1.  Body wastes  2.  Mh0  3,  flies  2  •  s  ;  .  l a r g e r animals  s ;  KCIOg  ; ;  typhoid  4,  P tyqjiin ( i n s a l i v a ) ;  5.  wood a l c o h o l ; methyl  starch  grain alcohol ethyl  toxins  ; ,....; i n g e s t e d  protein  ; ;  fleas  ; .«••«.,••,,,,.,,  ; :  pep s i n  ; ««««•,•»•••••...  ; ; ,,.,........•; COg  137 IDENTIFICATIONS; c l a s s i f y these a f f l i c a t i o n s as,-a.communicable diseases b, non-communicable d i s e a s e s , c. an i n j u r y from e x t e r n a l causes, d. a heredit a r y d e f e c t . ,When you have decided to which of .the above group each a f f l i c t i o n belongs w r i t e the l e t t e r o f that group I n the appropriate* blank. 1... 2..  ..»  concussion  o f the b r a i n  . . s i x f i n g e r s on each hand  3................ t u b e r c u l o s i s i n c a t t l e 4............... .potato 5... 6,.  scab  .....diabetes  o f man  .winter k i l l i n g  o f bark of t r e e s  7................hog c h o l e r a 8  .scurvy  9...».»*•........typhoid 10  .wheat r u s t  DEDUCTIONS FROM PREMISES, (drawing v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s ) . Read the p a r a g r a p h as c a r e f u l l y as p o s s i b l e then answer the questions at the end o f the p a r a g r a p h . Be c a r e f u l t o make no statement t h a t i s not d e d u c i b l e from the q u o t a t i o n . " M e t c h n i k o f f , a great R u s s i a n b i o l o g i s t , observed t h a t the B u l g a r i a n s a r e an u n u s u a l l y l o n g - l i v e d p e o p l e . I n t r y i n g to d i s c o v e r the reason f o r t h i s he searched f o r something i n t h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s which was d i f f e r e n t from the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f a l l other p e o p l e s . He found, among other t h i n g s , t h a t the B u l g a r i a n s d r i n k more b u t t e r m i l k than other p e o p l e s . Het h e r e f o r e concluded t h a t the d r i n k i n g of b u t t e r m i l k was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the . l o n g l i v e s o f t h e B u l g a r i a n s , and t h a t i f other p e o p l e s were t o adopt the custom of d r i n k i n g as much b u t t e r m i l k as the B u l g a r i a n s , they would l i v e as l o n g as the B u l g a r i a n s . 1.  What causes l o n g l i f e ? .  2.  I s the r e l a t i o n s h i p mentioned abov8 c o i n c i d e n c e effect?  3.  The experimenting  Is Metchnikoff  or true cause and  ••»••••»••••••» .*..»»••....... t h a t was done by M e t c h n i k o f f  was ..«..«•<>...•>•• 4*  ...............  1  s c o n c l u s i o n sound?  to v e r i f y h i s c o n c l u s i o n  .............>. .«••••»•••••«•« *-  138  ,MODIFIED ESSAY TYPE AND SEMI-OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS Answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s b r i e f l y and as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e . R e s p i r a t i o n i s an e x t r e m e l y important p r o c e s s that i s c a r r i e d Where  • •  ••. •  . •, . ,  on — ;  «•  U s i n g what gaseous element? R e l e a s i n g what gaseous compound?....  DETECTING- RELATIONSHIP S: below are p a i r s o f terms. You are to f i n d a v e r y important or. fundamental s i m i l a r i t y between the two Items, and an important d i f f e r e n c e . Your answer i s to be l i m i t e d to from four to s i x words i n each space.  P a i r s of Items  Similarity  Difference  a.  b.  a.  b,  1.  - , Diffusion , Osmosis  n a t u r a l immunity . artificial  immunity  3. Ti-a/ismuiloyi of  •. m a l a r i a •  a.  bubonic p l a g u e  COMBINATIONS SO MANY IMPOSSIBLE TO MEMORIZE Demands a c t u a l a c t i v e t h i n k i n g . o v e r of f a c t s , Tne f a c t s may be memorized but the way to use them cannot f o r the student can have no i d e a what p a i r of i d e a s are t o be compared.  GHAT? I'M V l l iKMtos' OF uUJBStiuifs bl/lTABLJS F O K -iasSl'lNtt 'ufiB ACKIBVMMTS • O F ' L E A S T " I M P OR T A N C E .  l'hls chapter d e a l s w i t h forms o f q u e s t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r t e s t i n g i n accordance w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s of General s c i e n c e l y and  v.  xhese objec-  t i v e s are not s h a r p l y marked o f f from the p r e c e d i n g and comprise s i x of the ten o b j e c t i v e s of g e n e r a l s c i e n c e l v and •x'Q p r o v i d e M a t e r i a l s f o r v/orthy Use  v.  of L e i s u r e  x h i s o b j e c t i v e was ranked f i f t h w i t h an average w e i g h t i n g of e i g h t percent. At the o u t s e t i t appears t h a t the measurement o f achievement toward t h i s g o a l i s extremely d i f f i c u l t .  F i r s t , the complete attainment  of  the o b j e c t i v e i s n o t p o s s i b l e i n s c h o o l , but o n l y i n o u t - o f - s c h o o l hours or i n l i f e a f t e r l e a v i n g s c h o o l , ment extremely  x h i s f a c t makes the t e s t i n g o f achieve-  d i f f i c u l t and next to impossible^,  Were i t not f o r  c e r t a i n evidence one would be tempted to say that I t i s i m p o s s i b l e to t e s t f o r achievement here.  Any programme of t e s t i n g t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s  based on the hope that I n t e r e s t s aroused i n s c h o o l l i f e w i l l c a r r y over i n t o a d u l t l i f e , t o a m o d e r a t e l y h i g h degree,  xhorndike  l o n g ago  some i d e a t h a t t h i s i s p o s s i b l e i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o how  gave  well  p u p i l i n t e r e s t s c a r r y over i n t o l a t e r f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , r e p o r t i n g 1 c o r r e l a t i o n s between these two  of  .66 and  .89,  x h i s measure of the  t r a n s f e r o f I n t e r e s t s i s at l e a s t as great as the c a r r y - o v e r of many of the o r d i n a r y t o p i c s taken i n h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e s ,  A t e s t on the i n c r e a s e  i n t e r e s t s would appear to y i e l d a f a i r l y v a l i d measure o f achievement I n any p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e .  I n t e r e s t s do not develop e n t i r e l y on t h e i r  from w i t h i n as i t were, but are the r e s u l t s of wider experiences 1, xaken from H u l l ' s r e p o r t i n " A p t i t u d e -resting" page , . 139  190.  own,  that  140  'come from education.  There i s development of i n t e r e s t s and t h i s  develop-  ment should "be "measured, Another d i f f i c u l t y with the word "worthy".  this o b j e c t i v e l i e s iri the i n t e r p r e t a t i a i  The d i f f i c u l t i e s concerning the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  word iiave been mentioned i n --a.- p r e c e d i n g '  chapter.  The c h i e f purposes of t e s t i n g the p r o g r e s s  seem to be  of  toward t h i s o b j e c t i v e  to measure the p u p i l ' s r e a l i z a t i o n of the wealth  m a t e r i a l , which can be o f tremendous i n t e r e s t i f pursued measuring the teacher*s success i n a r o u s i n g these  of i n t e r e s t i n g  f u r t h e r , and i n  interests.  very few of the u s u a l q u e s t i o n types, are s u i t a b l e f o r t e s t i n g achievement of t h i s o b j e c t i v e ,  x r u e - f a l s e , completion, m u l t i p l e c h o i c e , deduc-  t i o n s a l l f a l l s h o r t of measuring w i t h any which i s worth w h i l e .  degree of r e l i a b i l i t y t h a t  Most o f them are b a s i c a l l y opposed, f o r they are  based on the p h i l o s o p h y of g i v i n g the student o n l y c e r t a i n choices which he must act upon, and not  on the conception of the complete freedom of  choice which marks most a v o c a t i o n s , , .Desires and urges may i n almost  any d i r e c t i o n .  Those a c t i v i t i e s which i n j u r e the p e r s o n m o r a l l y ,  p h y s i c a l l y , and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y we i n the l i g h t  o f an omniscient  less arbitrary, not contravene  drive a c t i v i t y  choose to c a l l "wrong".  They may  to  so  judge, but our b a s i s f o r judging i s more or  i t seems safe enough to consider any response which does these standars as a " c o r r e c t response",  p r a c t i c a b i l i t y and c o s t s are other f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g i n no smallmeasure the c h o i c e of a v o c a t i o n s .  The amount of l e i s u r e i s another  s e r i o u s problem, a l t h o u g h i t appears to us now  that the f u t u r e w i l l  b r i n g more f o r the great m a j o r i t y o f p e r s o n s . The essay type  of q u e s t i o n undoubtedly serves a good purpose here  for i t leaves the h o r i z o n unobstructed,  only b i d d i n g that the  student  141 l o o k e a s t , west, n o r t h , or south f o r s o l u t i o n s . . xhe e v a l u a t i n g of s t a t e ments made by the student may be d i f f i c u l t but the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s should demand .only that the student r e a l i z e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , and t h a t the hobby or i n t e r e s t be not a n t i - s o c i a l or a n t i - p e r s o n a l , i f the student makes out a good case f o r a hobby that the examiner had not thought p o s s i b l e or i n t e r e s t i n g the examiner must accept h i s response. aome q u e s t i o n s t h a t attempt to t e s t i n t h i s manner are here p r e s e n t e d ; 1.  Suppose t h a t you have s u f f i c i e n t spare time and j u s t enough money t o p r o v i d e the needed m a t e r i a l s to cover expenses,what hobbies or i n t e r e s t s ' of a s c i e n t i f i c nature would you f o l l o w ? Or r e c o g n i z i n g economic l i m i t a t i o n s ,  2,  this:  ouppose t h a t you have s u f f i c i e n t spare time, but n o t v e r y much money, what hobbies or i n t e r e s t s of a s c i e n t i f i c bent or based upon what you f i n d i n t e r e s t i n a s c i e n c e course would you follow-xhe essay type q u e s t i o n should be t r i e d a g a i n but t h i s time w i t h  c r i t e r i a f o r measuring the r e s p o n s e s .  Here i s a good p l a c e to use i t .  AS  s a i d b e f o r e , most of the o l d e r methods of measuring essay type responses f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e the examiner w i t h any s c a l e of v a l u e s . Another type of q u e s t i o n t h a t measures a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y to see o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n t e r e s t ^ c t i v i t i e s i s to l i m i t the f i e l d of s c i e n c e and to ask him what p o s s i b i l i t i e s there are i n t h a t r e a l m ,  ouch q u e s t i o n s as  t h i s must take a m o d e r a t e l y wide sampling i n order not to m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t a p e r s o n who does n o t happen t o be e i t h e r i n t e r e s t e d or able i n the f i e l d selected,  ^ suggested q u e s t i o n of t h i s type f o l l o w s  :  What hobbies or i n t e r e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s do you t h i n k you.could develop i n the f o l l o w i n g f i e l d s ? .electricity? Heat? Light? isuoyancy and Archimedes'  Principle?  142  •Chemicals t h a t a f f e c t human beings? M i n e r a l s and M e t a l l u r g y ? study o f r o c k s ? c l o t h e s and t e x t i l e s ? Microscopy? study o f sea animals? Trees and Flowers?  another ma thod o f a r r i v i n g a t some i d e a o f success i n the development of  a v o c a t i o n s has been t o use check l i s t s ,  xhe u s u a l check l i s t i s one  of  the " i n t e r e s t " type, and u s u a l l y not v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y , f o r i t r e q u i r e s  c u s t o m a r i l y a' c h e c k i n g o f each i t e m I n which the p e r s o n examined i s i n terested.  Almost immediately the examinee "catches on- t o the purpose of  the t e s t , and from t h a t moment the r e s u l t s , a r e n o t v e r y v a l i d ,  oometimes  to reduce t h i s e r r o r somewhat the examinee i s asked to evaluate each one of  the Items on some such b a s i s as " l i k e ,  .dislike".  indifferent,  T h i s l e a d i f c a r r i e d f u r t h e r can produce  more a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s so that the p e r s o n a l e r r o r o f d e l i b e r a t e b i a s I n order t o o b t a i n a h i g h e r score can be reduced first  attempt  to a v e r y low l e v e l ,  ±he  o f the i n v e s t i g a t o r to extend t h i s technique was t o have  p u p i l s e v a l u a t e g i v e n items n u m e r i c a l l y a c c o r d i n g t o the s t a t e d s c a l e o f v a l u e s , as f o l l o w s *  '  •  '  Below i s a l i s t of h o b b i e s , i n t e r e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and such that are based upon some phase of •science work such as you have been doing or are now d o i n g , head each i t e m c a r e f u l l y , t h e n p l a c e the number o f the statement l i s t e d t h a t b e s t e x p l a i n s your o p i n i o n , r e a c t i o n , or a t t i t u d e to the i t e m , use a S t o show that you have been f o l l o w i n g those a c t i v i t i e s f o r some time now ( t h a t i s , b e f o r e t h i s course, and s t i l l continue to do s o ) . Use a 2  b e s i d e those hobbies, i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s that you have developed d u r i n g t h i s course, or have r e v i v e d as a r e s u l t of t h i s c o u r s e .  143 Use a  1,.....beside those a c t i v i t i e s which you were i n t e r e s t e d i n but d i s c o n t i n u e d , b e f o r e you took t h i s course.  Use a  0  beside those h o b b i e s , a c t i v i t i e s i n which you have absolute l y no i n t e r e s t , n o r had an i n t e r e s t i n the p a s t .  Use a  -1......beside those a c t i v i t i e s t h a t you t h i n k a student should n o t follow at a l l .  use a  -2  beside those hobbies, i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s that you once f o l l o w e d but have turned a g a i n s t as a r e s u l t o f t h i s course  HOBBIES, INTERESTS, ACTIVITIES,  EVALUATION.  1. Reading a good book on b u i l d i n g o f great p r o j e c t s , t u n n e l s , e t c 2, Chemistry experiments on your own < 3. Making e x p l o s i v e s , n i t r o g l y c e r i n e , e t c . 4. Keeping a s c i e n c e scrap-book 5, C o l l e c t i n g and p r e s s i n g f l o w e r s ,. 6, R e p a i r i n g e l e c t r i c a l systems, d o o r b e l l s , e t*.c . . . . . SCORING: scored.  This form of t e s t c o u l d g i v e two measures a c c o r d i n g to how i t i s I f we w i s h t o f i n d the e f f i c a c y o f the course i n developing these  i n t e r e s t s and hobbies we c e r t a i n l y must c o n s i d e r the number o f 3's and 2*s t o g e t h e r w i t h the number o f 0 s and -1's and -2's. s  T h i s s c o r i n g i s sug-  gested ; Frequency o f 3's m u l t i p l i e d by 2 Frequency of 2»s m u l t i p l i e d by 1 Summation for" gross p o s i t i v e s c o r e s . Frequency o f l ' s m u l t i p l i e d by 1 Frequency o f -1 m u l t i p l i e d by 2 Summation o f n e g a t i v e s c o r e s . Net s c o r e — — p o s i t i v e gross minus n e g a t i v e gross s c o r e s . I f a net n e g a t i v e score were obtained i t might mean t h a t the course has been u n p r o f i t a b l e , or t h a t the teacher i s d i s l i k e d .  Further, i t i s quite  c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a p e r s o n g i v i n g t h i s r e s u l t may have o n l y a few i n t e r e s t s i n the course yet may f o l l o w them very v i g o r o u s l y .  F o r f a i l i n g to b r i n g  out the g r e a t i n t e n s i t y o f these i n t e r e s t s the scheme i s a t f a u l t and would need t o be supplemented, b u t the t e s t does appear as i f i t would  144 give a good measure of e x t e n t of i n t e r e s t  development.  To o b t a i n some i d e a of the e x t e n t of the student's i n t e r e s t the frequency of the 3's and 2's c o u l d be summated w i t h the frequency o f the l's. F u r t h e r work on t h i s i d e a was done i n the hope of o b t a i n i n g some g r a p h i c a l arrangement that might g i v e a more i n t e r e s t i n g a n a l y s i s of the s i t u a t i o n , u s i n g as a guide the work t h a t has been done to develop p e r s o n a l i t y contour graphs and s i m i l a r s t a t i s t i c a l f i g u r e s .  I f one d e s i r e d to  f i n d whether a student's hobbies and l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s r a n towards c h e m i s t r y or towards b i o l o g y t h e t o p i c s c o u l d be arranged i n these groups. ?  F u r t h e r , i f one d e s i r e d to f i n d the e x t e n t of the student's i n t e r e s t s , t h e headings c o u l d be arranged i n columns and a p r o f i l e view obtained o f the course's r e s u l t s and the p u p i l ' s r e a c t i o n s .  The l i s t p r e s e n t e d to the  student must c o n t a i n those items that may be deemed s o c i a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . To i n t r o d u c e n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s i s to i n t r o d u c e another problem t h a t of e v a l u a t i n g what i s s o c i a l l y w o r t h - w h i l e ,  entirely,  This l a s t f u n c t i o n i s  done b e s t by s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d p e r s o n s . W i t h the f o r e g o i n g rearrangements made the f i n a l form i s now p r e s e n ted*-  - .  DIRECTIOSS. In r e a d i n g through t h i s e x e r c i s e you w i l l see two s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t g i v e s you c e r t a i n statements that you w i l l use I n e v a l u a t i n g the l i s t of items which f o l l o w s to make up the second s e c t i o n . Each statement has a number so t h a t you can use the number i n s t e a d of copying the statement and thus save t i m e . Read the statements v e r y c a r e f u l l y , then judge each i t e m on the b a s i s of these statements, p l a c e a check mark i n the column of the v a l u e you g i v e . Use a 4 to r e p r e s e n t those h o b b i e s , i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s that you have s t a r t e d or developed d u r i n g t h i s c o u r s e . P l a c e the check i n Column 4, Use a 3 w i t h a check mark i n the p r o p e r column to r e p r e s e n t those hobbies, a c t i v i t i e s which you have been f o l l o w i n g f o r some time and s t i l l do.  145  Use a 2 to r e p r e s e n t those a c t i v i t i e s or i n t e r e s t s that you think: you might'want t o adopt. Use a 1 w i t h a eheck mark i n the p r o p e r column to r e p r e s e n t those hobbies, a c t i v i t i e s t h a t you ceased to f o l l o w before you took t h i s course. Use a 0 check mark f o r h o b b i e s , and a c t i v i t i e s i n which you have a b s o l u t e l y no i n t e r e s t , or d e s i r e t o f o l l o w , n o r had i n the p a s t . Use a -1 check mark f o r those a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h you t h i n k a student should not f o l l o w a t a l l . Use a -2 check mark to r e p r e s e n t h o b b l e s , a c t i v i t i e s , e t c . that you once f o l l o w e d but have dropped or turned a g a i n s t as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s course.  Example  ITEM  X & Growing p r i z e - w i n n i n g chrysanthemums C o l l e c t i n g diamonds S t u d y i n g the s t a r s Etc,  2. 3. 4.  4  5  2  1  0  -1  146. ITEM Developing and p r i n t i n g your own photographs 2. Chemistry s e t o f your own __ 3. Making, face creams,, l o t i o n s , e t c , \ . 4. Reading a r t i c l e s , hooks, e t c , on chemistry 5. Making home-made soaps, e t c . . .... . 6. Making charts', f l o w sheets, e t c . o f chemical p r o c e s s e s 7. E l e c t r o p l a t i n g " \ 8* Making p l a s t i e s .' .; ". '. .. . 9. C o l l e c t i n g , common chemicals .......... - . . ' 10, Making e x p l o s i v e s i  11,Making a simple t e l e s c o p e o f your own; l e n s e s _ 1 2 , S e t t i n g up e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t s , d o o r - h e l l s , e t c . 13.Making "amateur r a d i o " s e t s , o p e r a t i n g _4, Studying the weather ____________ 15.Reading hooks on p h y s i c s 16,Studying the s t a r s . 17^Making good p i c t u r e s " ...... 18.Perpetual motion machines ___ 19,Science o f sounds, and instruments 20 .Model a i r p l a n e s .. . •  21. Gardening ; 22, Keeping p e t s o f some k i n d _____________ 23,.Gollecting I n s e c t s \ 2 4 . C o l l e c t i n g flowers . __ 25,Studying m i c r o s c o p i c l i f e • 26*Photographing b i r d s , and animals . 2 7 . P i s h i n g .. . . 28 .Learning to i d e n t i f y t r e e s and .shrubs . ,29«fi.-ading.articles and books about animal or p l a n t l i f e 50,Keeping a small aquarium •' . :  31, G r a f t i n g and budding p l a n t s ... • 32, C o l l e c t i n g f o s s i l s _______ " . 33*Making m i n e r a l and rook c o l l e c t i o n s __ 34.Reading of s u r f a c e changes i n our e a r t h , •35,photographirg mountains and r o c k formations 36, Keeping a s c i e n c e scrap-hook. ..' 37, T a k i n g t r i p s to study g e o l o g i c a l formations • . 38, T a k i n g t r i p s to study b i r d l i f e 39, Taking t r i p s to study d i f f e r e n t p l a n t and animal environments • 4 0 , T i s i t i n g industrial plants . ;  ' . '.  1  .  :  .  •  SCORINGj The same p l a n o f s c o r i n g c o u l d \m f o l l o w e d as f o r the l a s t metKod w i t h t h i s advantage, that the response. sheet when complete forms a  147 SCORING: (cont.) p r o f i l e of i n t e r e s t s i n s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d s . However the p r o f i l e obtained depends upon the, p l a n or arrangement of the test.: I f i t i s d e s i r e d to see w h i c h u n i t promotes most i n t e r e s t s the items of the t e s t must be a r ranged on a p a r a l l e l u n i t b a s i s .  In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n of the check l i s t idea the examiner prepared  a list  of one hundred twenty p o s s i b l e " g e n e r a l " type of  a v o c a t i o n s based on s c i e n c e and asked a c l a s s of Grade I X s t u d e n t s , of Grade X, and one  of Grade XL  one  (having taken General Science 11, 111  and  IV r e s p e c t i v e l y the p r e c e d i n g year) t o evaluate t h e i r a v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s in science,  The purpose o f t h i s t e s t was 1  w i t h the more s c i e n c e work taken,  to see i f i n t e r e s t s i n c r e a s e  To g a i n some i d e a of the value of the  measurement of the i n c r e a s e o f i n t e r e s t s one should remember Thorndike' s r e s e a r c h on the c a r r y - o v e r of a d o l e s c e n t i n t e r e s t s i n t o adult l i f e where he 2 found a c o r r e l a t i o n of .66. The  r e s u l t s of the experiment conducted by the experimenter  seem to  show that the "seven v a l u e " s c a l e p r a c t i c a l l y e l i m i n a t e s the "padding"  evil  o f the u s u a l c h e c k - l i s t s w h e r e i n students o f t e n guess shrewdly i n attempts to make h i g h marks,  The " l i k e " column that Is so f r e q u e n t l y found i n  c h e c k - l i s t s has been broken up and made more s p e c i f i c so that a vague l i k i n g must be c l a r i f i e d i n the student's mind before he e n t e r s h i s score on the l i s t . The r e s u l t s - s h o w a d i s t i n c t i n c r e a s e of the 1. R e a l i z a t i o n of p o s s i b l e a v o c a t i o n s ( t r u l y a c r e a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s ) • i n each year of s c i e n c e . 2.  A c t u a l hobbies developed  from year to year.  There I s no d r o p p i n g of i n t e r e s t s due science courses.  to d i s l i k e c r e a t e d by the  .Whether the s p e c i a l s c i e n c e s create more i n t e r e s t s t h a n  General Science c o u l d n o t be answered from t h i s experiment,  but the r e s -  1, See Experiment 1 of Appendix f o r f u r t h e r r e s u l t s . 2, Thomdike Ex. "The Permanence of I n t e r e s t s " ; P o p u l a r Science Monthly; Y o l . 81 (1912) p449.  148 ponses of s e v e r a l Grade X I students who  had taken one year of s p e c i a l  science work suggested the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h i s i n c e r t a i n f i e l d s ,  The  form of t e s t seemingly does measure growth of i n t e r e s t and thus i s v a l i d f o r the purpose.  /  149  To A p p r e c i a t e Achievements i n the F i e l d o f S c i e n c e , and the of S c i e n t i s t s t o . the Modern World • This o b j e c t i v e was n e a r l y eight p e r  cent.  Contributions  ranked s i x t h and g i v e n an average w e i g h t i n g The  of  objective i s rather straightforward with  no  i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t are not r e a d i l y seen i n the statement as i t stands. The a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n s to our s o c i a l h e r i t a g e made by men  of s c i e n c e can be measured moderately e a s i l y , w i t h s c a r c e l y  m o d i f i c a t i o n of many of the e x i s t i n g q u e s t i o n t y p e s .  any  Those forms of ques-  t i o n s which demand a s s o c i a t i o n s , comparisons, or e v a l u a t i o n s seem to f i t t h i s o b j e c t i v e b e t t e r than those l a c k i n g t h i s element. essay response q u e s t i o n s  For t h i s r e a s o n  comparing the r e s u l t s of two men's c o n t r i b u t i o n s  or t h e i r e f f e c t s on s o c i e t y are v e r y good, but the d i f f i c u l t y of e v a l u a t i n g the responses i s g r e a t e r than fer the o b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s . questions  are f a i r l y good^for they seem to e v a l u a t e  t h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n to  the e x t e n t of a s s o c i a t i n g or of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g among those who certain contributions.  D i r e c t questions  Matching  made these  a s k i n g students to name the c h i e f  c o n t r i b u t i o n or c o n t r i b u t i o n s of c e r t a i n men  are q u i t e u s e f u l , but have  the s l i g h t l a c k of complete o b j e c t i v i t y when s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e responses c o u l d be counted as c o r r e c t .  W i t h a p r o p e r l y p r e p a r e d t a b l e of s p e c i f i -  c a t i o n s f o r each set o f q u e s t i o n s tive.  the marking should become q u i t e  Completion and m u l t i p l e choice q u e s t i o n s  objec-  tend to emphasize more  the f a c t u a l r e c o g n i t i o n r a t h e r than the a p p r e c i a t i o n of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s . I n p a s s i n g ^ i t seems that one w a r n i n g should n o t be overlooked.  While  I t would be v e r y f i n e to compare the r e s u l t s of s c i e n t i s t s i n b e t t e r i n g s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h those of w a r r i o r s and statesmen, the  objective  type of q u e s t i o n f i r t h i s measuring of a p p r e c i a t i o n w o u l d seem to be s a t i s f a c t o r y on a (science paper because the student would soon " c a t c h to the s i t u a t i o n and would g i v e h i s answers a b i a s towards the  unon"  scientific  150 contributions.  I f the q u e s t i o n s and comparisons are kept w i t h i n the  s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d t h i s o b j e c t i o n no l o n g e r h o l d s .  Comparisons between  the c o n t r i b u t i o n of a s c i e n t i s t and another p e r s o n outside of the of s c i e n c e are bast done i n debates.  field  Essay q u e s t i o n s are moderately  fair  t e s t i n g means,but the e v a l u a t i o n i s extremely d i f f i c u l t and i t i s essential  that a key be  prepared,  TYPES OF QUESTIONS, 1,  Essay type; Compare the c o n t r i b u t i o n s to humanity o f the two men Napoleon and P a s t e u r .  French-  SCORING-; The s p e c i f i c a t i o n s demand an a p p r e c i a t i o n or e v a l u a t i o n of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n does not i n f o r m us on what b a s i s the student i s to judge, and i s to t h a t extent p o o r , I f itt i s on.the u t i l i t a r i a n b a s i s of the g r e a t e s t good to the g r e a t e s t number, t h i s should be s t a t e d . The q u e s t i o n would be b e t t e r i f re-worded; Compare the c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the w e l f a r e of humanity made by the two Frenchmen Napoleon and P a s t e u r , Judge on the bases of the e x t e n t t h a t h e a l t h , w e a l t h , and happiness were i n c r e a s e d or reduced. Such a q u e s t i o n now p e r m i t s the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a marking key. i n favor of each you s h o u l d expect t o f i n d these p o i n t s advanced Napoleon; caused the r e v i s i o n o f weights and measure to be comp l e t e d , and the m e t r i c system to be i n t r o d u c e d . Stimulated-.the methods of p r e s e r v i n g food, of course to make h i s army more independent of time and f o r t u n e , so t h a t App e r f ' s d i s c o v e r y of canning was the r e s u l t . Emphasized the importance of d i e t f o r an army. P a s t e u r ; brought s o l u t i o n s to the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s e v e r a l of France's major sources of income; the cause and c u r e o f a n t h r a x ; of the s o u r i n g o f wines; o f the dying of the s i l k w o r m s ; a cure f o r hydrophobia; h i s r e s e a r c h l e d the way to a n t i s e p t i c surgery by L i s t e r ; and est a b l i s h e d the germ theory of d i s e a s e . Swept away much of the ignorance and s u p e r s t i t i o n i n France. Has saved m i l l i o n s o f l i v e s , and c o n t i n u e s to do so, though dead. A l l n a t i o n s have p r o f i t e d . A g a i n s t e a c h ; Napoleon brought great d i s t u r b a n c e to the w o r l d ; ( much m i s e r y and many dead "heroes" and i n n o c e n t s ; ', h i s p r o j e c t s unbalanced Europe f o r many years a f t e r his f a l l . P a s t e u r ' s l i f e was exemplary,f or we have no records of unkind or c r u e l a c t i o n s on h i s p a r t , nor have h i s d i s c o v e r i e s decreased h e a l t h , w e a l t h or happiness,  151  'Having prepared the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s w e are then a b l e to evaluate the p o i n t s of c r e d i t , and .thus help to make e v a l u a t i o n more o b j e c t i v e . ;  2« D i r e c t  statement  type, s e m i - o b j e c t i v e ;  What do you c o n s i d e r the c h i e f c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i e t y of each of the following scientists? a * Lavoisier b * bfalHeO  8 » « * * » « » « * « t «  eo  • . *  « _ * • « ,  lijdison  « ? « i * * 9 «  ^2 iual t on #  _ } • J3Urb ai_~  < • > « • « i  l  » -  0  o  , , » , .  6  , *  0  4  P  9 l « e 9 9 e < t 9 * « « » l » 9 « « 9 e e  s  .  t  , « , « » ,  « i • M  • « M  %  »  t  ,  v  (  a  « , -  a  t  t  • « « « « e t « « « « « « t *  «  «  «  «  «  .  t  »  «  9  9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9  e 9 9 9 9 9 » 9 9 9 t j 9 9 9 9 « 9 9 9 9 9  9 9 _ 9 « 9 9 » 9 9 - » «  «  .  •  •  •  «  «  •  *  «  .  »  »  •  •  «  «  * *  0 9 9 9  « » » * * - e « « * » 9 . . « • » » • • •  9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9  9 9 9 9 l 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 e » 9 « 9 « 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 » 9 9 9 C 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 « 9  9 9 9 9 » 9 9 9 « « 9 9 9 9 * 9 * « 9 9 * * _ 9 e « 9 9 9 < ,  9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 » 9 9 9 » 9  m« J3aeICe l a n d  t  9 9 9 9 * 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 « « 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 . 9 9 9 - 9 9 9 9 « 9 9 9 « t 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 t « 9 9 9 « 9 « 9 4 C «  _C« k)QU-l der S «> « Watt  M  < i t « « * « 9 » 9 « . o « « « * « « « « » * « * * t « * « * « % « « « « 9 « * * «  _L « j^eWt On &  1«  » « « < « « •  t  4 « 9  11 0 Ch  M  f  t » t . « t * « » « * « * 4 t t t * 9 « « . • • « « * • » * « « • • « • • • « • ! • • « • . • • » « • • « . • «  f«. de _*orest _J *  9 * 9 9 4 9 - .  « . < > » t « * t i « » « « « * ' « 4 « « « « « f t * » * * « * « . • *  <.«-  1? a s t e ur  » » . . * » « . , t * » « 9 « » » - t t , . » » » * . * , * , » . *  9 9 9 » 9 9 « 9 « 9 9 9 » 9 * ? 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 . 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 .  c• _sraday do  B  9 9 9 9 * 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9  6*  9 9  9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9  9 9 9 9 9 *  f 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 « 9 9 « 9 9 9  . « « . e 9 9 9 e 9 » 4 9 « e « * » « 9 9 » 9 # 9 « . « » * 9 » « e » 9 B » » « e e 9 » ® « « « « * » 9 t * 9 9 f l - « 9 » 6 «  3. M u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s . I.  The man c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e for' the modern advance i n chemistry through v i r t u e o f h i s experiments on combustion and oxygen i n combination was a. Gay-lussac, b . u o y l e , c . u h a r l e s , d. L a v o i s i e r , e. Mendel, f . _ a r a day, g. u a l t o n i  II.  Whose d i s c o v e r i e s have been developed to such an extent that v a s t amounts of moderately cheap energy h i t h e r t o wasted can now be p u t to work f o r man? a. L a v o i s i e r , b. fcendel, c . Horse, d. archimedes, e. u'araday, f . v o l t a , g. Ohm, h . j s e l l .  4, R e c a l l or c o m p l e t i o n type; F i l l i n the b l a n k w ith the name o f the p e r s o n who made the f o l l o w i n g contribution to society. (  152 a..,..«......,...,,,..,insisted that before any germ be c l a s s e d as the „ , causa of. a p a r t i c u l a r disease i t must f i r s t be i s o l a t e d , then grown, r e p l a n t e d t o re'cause the disease, k v  c, .  d. ,  r e a l l y the f i r s t of modern s c i e n t i s t s who p l a c e d more f a i t h i n what he saw whan he experimented than i n the statement o f o l d and l o n g dead authorities, suggested the f r u i t f u l theory that only whole atoms can u n i t e w i t h o n l y whole atoms i n the usual chemical r e a c t i o n s , ,. i n 1882 showed the value o f v a c c i n a t i o n a g a i n s t sheep a n t h r a x on two groups o f sheep,  A v a l u a b l e type of q u e s t i o n , and p o s s i b l y the b e s t , i s t o give a name o f the p e r s o n making a v e r y simple  s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r y and t o a s k 1 the student to supply the modern a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s . For instance:  Below i s a l i s t o f v e r y simple d i s c o v e r i e s made by i n v e s t i g a t o r s I n c e r t a i n f i e l d s , m the b l a n k name our c h i e f modern a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s idea;1.  I n the 1840* s "iwan made a p i e c e o f metal w i r e glow r e d hot when he p a s s e d e l e c t r i c i t y through I t ,  2.  About 1700 j-iauptman and Longius, w i t h the a i d of crude l e n s e s , d i s covered l i t t l e w i g g l i n g t h i n g s i n the pus from l e s i o n s of c e r t a i n diseases. iviod.am app l i oat I on ,,...•.•..•.».«.•»••»•••»».••.•.»•••.•»,»•»»»»,«•  3.  Faraday a c c i d e n t a l l y moved a c o i l of w i r e through the f i e l d o f a magnet t o produce a temporary c u r r e n t i n the w i r e . Modern a p p l i c a t i o n ,,,,.,,...,..,...•..•••••»•«»•«•«»••••»«••««»«•»•  4.  L a v o i s i e r found that the weight of Oxygen and mercury produced by h e a t i n g m e r c u r i c oxide e q u a l l e d the weight of the m e r c u r i c oxide.. Modern a p p l i c a t i o n .........  5.  I n 1883 ii-dlson d i s c o v e r e d that from a w i r e near another one heated r e d h o t , and b o t h i n a vacuum, a n e g a t i v e c u r r e n t c o u l d be drawn. Modern a p p l i c a t i o n  6.  when a tube c o n t a i n i n g a i r under reduced p r e s s u r e o f a p a r t i a l vacuum h a s ' e l e c t r i c i t y .passed through i t a g l o w develops. Modern a p p l i c a t i o n •  1, suggested by p r o f , u. B. wood of the u n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h uolumbia,.  153  xhis type o f q u e s t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a completion q u e s t i o n and p o s s e s ses a h i g h degree o f r e l i a b i l i t y i n g e n e r a l , l i m i t e d i n number to a reasonable  xhe c o r r e c t responses are  degree, f o r seldom w i l l more than  three  or f o u r major a p p l i c a t i o n s r e s u l t . 1  *_he converse  type  of q u e s t i o n i s p o s s i b l e but i t demands a g r e a t e r  f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h s c i e n t i f i c h i s t o r y than i s u s u a l l y found i n h i g h s c h o o l students, js'or i n s t a n c e , to a s k  :  "What v e r y simple d i s c o v e r y r e s u l t e d i n the development of our modern steam engines*?" or "The modern steam engine has been developed from the simple . . . . . . of might produce these answers;a.  Watt's - i n v e n t i o n " o f the r e c i p r o c a t i n g steam engine,  b.  JS ewe omen' s " a i r p r e s s u r e and steam" engine,  c.  Hero's steam machine. L i k e w i s e the l i g h t i n g e f f e c t caused by e l e c t r i c i t y p a s s i n g through s m a l l enough w i r e s had been seen by many observers before Swan s work, w h i c h i n t u r n l e d on t o jidison's work, 1  I f t h i s type o f q u e s t i o n i s used w i t h i n a d e f i n e d boundary, say the contents o f c e r t a i n t e x t books i t c o u l d be q u i t e u s e f u l .  I t would be c a s t  b e s t i n a c o m p l e t i o n form. However, the f i r s t type o f t h i s p a i r c o u l d be used t o go back to the p r i m e d i s c o v e r i e s w i t h p r o b a b l y no i n c r e a s e i n d i f f i c u l t y . Another  v a r i a t i o n o f the f i r s t i s to name an i n v e n t i o n or  a  discovery  and ask how i t has been a p p l i e d , o m i t t i n g a l l r e f e r e n c e t o the names of persons.  1.  A l s o suggested  by P r o f . u. 13. Wood,  154,  xo enable the Student to Counteract s u p e r s t i t i o n and t o c o r r e c t r e l i e f s Through the . a p p l i c a t i o n of S c i e n t i f i c P r i n c i p l e s . x h i s o b j e c t i v e was  erroneous  ranked seventh and g i v e n a w e i g h t i n g of seven  percent. xhe o b j e c t i v e at f i r s t glance would seem to d u p l i c a t e much of object i v e number two,  that i s , the development of the a b i l i t y to use the s c i e n -  t i f i c tcb thod, f o r I t s t a t e s t h a t i t s c h i e f means of a t t a i n i n g i t s end i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c rm thod,  a teacher might wonder i f he  l i m i t e d h i s a t t e n t i o n to the development of s c i e n t i f i c method and  thinking  t h a t i t might be enough i n i t s e l f , because there s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r a b l e transfer,  fieally  the teacher must see to i t t h a t these common elements  are brought i n t o the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the p u p i l s before the t r a n s f e r w i l l take p l a c e . i t would n o t be safe to r e l y o n l y on t r a i n i n g i n the use of the s c i e n t i f i c IJB t h o d because many wrong b e l i e f s come to us w i t h o u t c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , xhey creep i n t o our. s t o c k of Ideas when we are c h i l d r e n , they i n s i n u a t e themselves .injnews and i n a d v e r t i s i n g ,  xhe l e s s our t r a i n i n g has been i n  the ways i n w h i c h wrong b e l i e f s are absorbed the harder i t i s f o r us to d e t e c t the presence  of them.  Training i n c r i t i c a l analysis, logic,  and  the methods employed d e l i b e r a t e l y by a d v e r t i s e r s and p r o p a g a n d i s t s w i l l a s s i s t m a t e r i a l l y i n c h e c k i n g wrong b e l i e f s , h a l f - t r u t h s , and s u p e r s t i t i o n s . Many people seem to p o s s e s s compartments i n t h e i r "mental h o l d i d e a s i n one f i e l d to those h e l d i n another  stock'* f o r they  of thought t h a t are p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y field.  Teachers are human and are l i k e l y to o v e r l o o k t e a c h i n g t h i s , a s p e c t of s c i e n c e t r a i n i n g u n l e s s the o b j e c t i v e i s s t a t e d c l e a r l y ,  i n these days  of t u r m o i l amid f o u n t a i n s of propaganda t h i s o b j e c t i v e can serve a v e r y v a l u a b l e f u n c t i o n i n p r e s e r v i n g democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s from the p a r a s i t i c  155  growths that tend to develop and e v e n t u a l l y k i l l  them.  On t h i s  matter  science r e a l l y should j o i n f o r c e s w i t h s o c i a l s t u d i e s . i n view o f the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n the o b j e c t i v e merits a p l a c e ,  jj-or what s u b - o b j e c t i v e s should a teacher  strive?  x h i s i s a n e c e s s a r y q u e s t i o n b o t h from the p o i n t of view of teaching and from  testing.  In h i g h s c h o o l work the t r a i n i n g of students should  be toward the c o u n t e r a c t i n g of some of the more i n s i d i o u s wrong b e l i e f s than a g a i n s t the s i m p l e r , common s u p e r s t i t i o n s such as those ground-hog day,  walking under l a d d e r s , and breaking m i r r o r s .  must oppose these, of course, w i t h the reasons and because there i s a c o n t i n u a l reappearance  concerning The  teacher  t r u t h of each s i t u a t i o n  of these beliefs_,although t hey  are s l o w l y l o s i n g p l a c e i n the minds of the people' a t l a r g e . i n h i g h s c h o o l the teacher should s e t h i m s e l f more against wrong beliefs,  the " o s t r i c h a t t i t u d e " , f a l l a c i e s of thought  widespread  t h a t are or may  be  or p e c u l i a r l y l o c a l , h a l f - t r u t h s , p l a u s i b i l i t i e s without a true  f o u n d a t i o n , a s t r o l o g y , f o r t u n e t e l l i n g , propaganda, and  the e v e r - i n c r e a s -  i n g menace o f r u t h l e s s , yet b r i l l i a n t l y s k i l f u l a d v e r t i s i n g c a r r i e d on by c e r t a i n types of b u s i n e s s , the e n e r v a t i n g e f f e c t i o n makes for i r u t h . j , ! i  of r e p e t i t i o n  - a u t h o r i t y , and the almost  ("Hopetit-  s l a v i s h veneration for  the words " s c i e n c e " and " s c i e n t i f i c " which have been p r o s t i t u t e d person's w i t h u l t e r i o r A pause here  by  purposes.  to analyze some o f the techniques of propagandists  would n o t be amiss as i t w i l l help to c l a r i f y the objective.' t h e i r ends p r o p a g a n d i s t s use  these techniques i n the main.  these might be, c o n s i d e r e d as some of the s u b - o b j e c t i v e s .  xo achieve  xt> oppose  1. '"Circumlocutions t o reduce chances  o f ready a n a l y s i s of the s i t u a t i o n ,  2.  «sed herrings*'; drawing some other Is sue or idea a c r o s s the p a t h of the thoughts which they had s t a r t e d t o f o l l o w i n order t o l e a d the minds o f the hearers or readers from the r e a l issue or c o n d i t i o n .  3.  - l a b e l l i n g " ; damning something by g i v i n g i t an opprobrious name such as "worn-out t h e o r i e s " , -antiquated", " f a d " , - ' f r i l l - ; or o p p o s i t e l y b o l s t e r i n g some weak case by the use of f a v o r a b l e or s t r o n g l a b e l s , -such as " s c i e n t i f i c " , "accepted custom", "new", " o l d and t r i e d " ; almost any term can be.used e i t h e r way, showing.our enslavement to words and l a c k o f understanding o f i d e a s .  4.  '"Climbing on the band-wagon", " everybody s doing i t " . These a r e t he s t o c k - i n - t r a d e methods o f p a r t y h e e l e r s and workers, and nation-wide a d v e r t i z i n g of c i g a r e t t e s and such. Sheep-like " f o l l o w - t h e - l e a d e r " i s the game to reduce t h i n k i n g to a minimum, mental I n t e g r i t y o f t e n g i v e s way to s o c i a l convenience, f  5.  " A u t h o r i t y " , and the modern form i n a d v e r t i s i n g " e n d o r s a t i o n " , "so-and-so. says s o , i s the u l t i m a t e of too many arguments. We had enough of t h i s f o r two thousand y e a r s a f t e r A r i s t o t l e . To quote an example from another f i e I d i f Jean ^ s t r u c ' s a u t h o r i t y i n trance and a t the court of L o u i s js.lv had not been so great the germ t h e o r y of disease advanced by such men as nauptmann, Langrus, K i r c h e r , and Saguens would have developed i n t o the u s e f u l s t a t e almost two hundred years b e f o r e I t d i d and would have prevented u n t o l d s u f f e r i n g . ~" - j e a n A s t r u c ' s a n a l y s i s of the theory showed that he had a c l e a r und e r s t a n d i n g of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s theory, y e t he p r e f e r r e d not to throw over the e n t i r e t h e o r y of disease then h e l d . With b r i l l i a n t r h e t o r i c a l " r e d h e r r i n g s " , c i r c u m l o c u t i o n s , and r e f e r e n c e to t h e p r e s t i g e of\ the l e a d e r s i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n he s t r a n g l e d the i n f a n t born of:the hew d i s c o v e r y of the microscope. i;  "isndorsations" are modern a d v e r t i s i n g forms of t h i s same weakness of humans, i n d o r s a t i o n s , u s u a l l y f o r a p r i c e , are found i n almost every l a r g e advertisement i n magazines, and are extremely d i f f i c u l t to p i c k out from t h e . t r u t h f u l statements. 6.  " R e p e t i t i o n " , r e p e a t a wrong b e l i e f enough times and i t tends to simulate t r u t h . R e p e t i t i o n i s an o p i a t e ,  7.  another e r r o r , mainly i n r e a s o n i n g , i s the ancient 'Post hoc, ergo p r o p t e r hoc". T h i s has been w i t h us l i k e the plague i n days gone by, and can.be e l i m i n a t e d by the same methods, the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the s a n i t a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c method. This c e r t a i n l y should be one of the items f o r which we should teach and t e s t , f o r t h i s i s the b a s i s of many of our s u p e r s t i t i o n s which are based u s u a l l y on coincidence. In order to t e s t f o r achievement  common types of 'questions can be used. the " d e d u c t i o n from premises  of the o b j e c t i v e almost a l l the One o f the most p r o m i s i n g i s  or statements" because  e r r o r s and f a l l a c i e s  157  can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the q u e s t i o n w i t h o u t making them too obvious. In l i f e most' o-f our wrong b e l i e f s i n s i n u a t e t h e i r way stook, together w i t h the t r u e b e l i e f s ,  i n t o our mental  The i n c o r p o r a t i o n of an e r r o r cr  f a l l a c y I n t o a v e r y p l a u s i b l e paragraph mixed w i t h true statements very l i f e - l i k e  situation.  Moreover, the a b i l i t y to deal w i t h longer and.  more d i f f i c u l t problems than i n the j u n i o r h i g h and elementary should be developed v e r y complex.  is a  i n t h e h i g h school,because  life  grades  s i t u a t i o n s o f t e n are  The v e r y b r i e f c o m p l e t i o n t e s t s , m u l t i p l e c h o i c e , and t r u e -  f a l s e q u e s t i o n s are v e r y u s e f u l to check the more common e r r o r s and  super-  s t i t i o n s w i t h w h i c h the student by the time he reaches h i g h s c h o o l , s h o u l d be q u i t e f a m i l i a r .  T r u e - f a l s e q u e s t i o n s serve a v e r y u s e f u l purpose as  means to make r a p i d i n v e n t o r i e s of the stock of f a l l a c i o u s b e l i e f s h e l d by a p e r s o n .  A l l these types are u s e f u l , but t e s t i n g i n h i g h s c h o o l s h o u l d  go a b i t f u r t h e r than memoriter acquaintance 'with these wrong b e l i e f s . That i s why  the " d e d u c t i o n from statements" type of q u e s t i o n should be  used more, f o r I t does c a l l f o r t h a h i g h e r degree o f mental a c t i v i t y than memoriter type q u e s t i o n s .  I t i s a more l i f e - l i k e problem i n s o f a r as i t  can p r e s e n t an o l d e r r o r i n a new problems are met  g u i s e , and i s v e r y much the way  i n day t o day e x p e r i e n c e s ;  f a l l a c i e s when the f i r s t acquaintance  these  To be a b l e to d e t e c t these  i s made w i t h a s i t u a t i o n i s a k i n to  a s e p t i c s u r g e r y and hygiene; "An ounce o f p r e v e n t i o n i s w o r t h a pound of cure".  When the I n f e c t i o n becomes deeper I t i s much harder to e l i m i n a t e ,  Frequency o f m e e t i n g i t o f t e n d u l l s r e s i s t a n c e to i t ; as Pope says i n h i s "Essay on  Man"  " V i c e i s a monster of so f r i g h t f u l mien, As to be hated' needs but to be seen; "Yet seen t o o / o f t , f a m i l i a r w i t h her f a c e , We f i r s t endure, then p i t y , then embrace."  158 An example o f the "deduction from statement" q u e s t i o n i s g i v e n here; DIRECTIONS: Read the paragraph c a r e f u l l y then answer the questions below. Each statement t h a t you f i n d i n the l i s t a f t e r the paragraph i s t o be judged by you as "True"  f o r which you are to p l a c e a p l u s s i g n ( + ) i n the p a r e n t h e s i s i n f r o n t of i t >  "unsound or f a l s e es.  judgment"; p l a c e a minus s i g n (~ ) i n the parenthes-  •"Having no r e l a t i o n to the problem"; parentheses.  then p l a c e a zero (0) i n the  "An i n v e s t i g a t o r , o p e r a t i n g under the a u t h o r i t y of the American M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , found t h a t , i n examining the p r o d u c t s and a d v e r t i s i n g o f , f o u r .hair-dye manufacturers, each one contained at l e a s t one' of these p o i s b n s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n ; l e a d a c e t a t e , s i l v e r n i t r a t e , copper sulphate, paraphenylendiamin. One of the manufacturers s t r o n g l y maintained i n h i s adv e r t i s i n g that h i s p r o d u c t s c o n t a i n e d no s i l v e r n i t r a t e , the dangerous paraphenylendiamin, or copper sulphate; another's advertisement claimed that no p o i s o n o u s / l e a d a c e t a t e , copper sulphate, or paraphenylendiamin, was used; the t h i r d produced a doctor's statement tthat ho harmful lead a c e t a t e , s i l v e r n i t r a t e , or paraphenylendiamin enters the formula; the f o u r t h one c l a i m e d that h i s p r o d u c t was f r e e o f paraphenylendiamin. A l l a d v e r t i s e r s used many t e s t i m o n i a l s from customers t e s t i f y i n g to the worth of the. p r o d u c t s . " (The i n v e s t i g a t o r Was w e l l t r a i n e d . ) • ' ) -1, The t h i r d h a i r dye contained the p o i s o n paraphenylendiamin. . ) 2» JPhe i n v e s t i g a t o r i s only one man a g a i n s t the many who wrote test i m o n i a l s so h i s word should n o t be accepted. ) 5. The f i r s t h a i r dye p r o b a b l y contained l e a d a c e t a t e . •) 4. The p u r c h a s e r deserves t o be "stung" i f she i s not sharp enough to f i n d out t h i n g s f o r h e r s e l f , ) 5, Germany has. banned a l l h a i r dyes c o n t a i n i n g chromium, cadmium, and l e a d s a l t s , ) 6« The advertisements c o r r e c t l y a d v e r t i s e d the p r o d u c t s for. no. manufacturer would p u t harmful substances i n t o a p r e p a r a t i o n . ) 7. A l l these manufacturers f o l l o w e d the p r a c t i c e of t e l l i n g h a l f . t r u t h s i n order, t o hide the r e a l t r u t h . .) 8, Many women use these dyes so that, the dyes must be q u i t e s a t i s factory. ) 9, The 'investigator- was a h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d thorough man so t h a t h i s d e c i s i o n s weigh more t h a n - a l l the. t e s t i m o n i a l s , many of which might have been f o r g e d , )10, In order to cover their; own shortcomings the a d v e r t i s e r s drew a t , '...tention "to the'harmful i n g r e d i e n t s o f other h a i r dyes. SCORING! Because there are three p o s s i b l e values to be given each ment the q u e s t i o n s more n e a r l y approximate In three-answer  q u e s t i o n s to s u b t r a c t  m u l t i p l e choice than  true-false.  one-half t h e wrong responses  the sum of the c o r r e c t ones i s the u s u a l procedure.  state-  from  159  TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS,  These q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d n o t be the u s u a l v e r y b r i e f q u e s t i o n that they so f r e q u e n t l y are, f o r v e r y seldom do we f i n d our e r r o r s and wrong b e l i e f s eroded of p l a u s i b i l i t i e s .  Four q u e s t i o n s have been suggested of the  true-  f a l s e type which can be used v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y here f o r the purpose of t e s t i n g a b i l i t y to detect f a l a c i e s . DIRECTIONS* Mark each statement "R" f o r r i g h t or "W" to your b e s t judgment.  f o r wrong a c c o r d i n g  (  j 1, A s m a l l v i a l of mercury worn on a pendant around the neck of a p e r s o n g o i n g on a l o n g sea journey w i l l p r e v e n t t h a t p e r s o n from becoming s e a - s i c k .  (  '.) 2, I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e to t r a v e l t o the moon i n a d i r i g i b l e or b a l l o o n i f only s c i e n t i s t s could d i s c o v e r a way to d r i v e the c r a f t out,beyond the r e g i o n of s t r o n g g r a v i t a t i o n a l p u l l of our e a r t h .  (  ) 3, There i s a s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t f o r c e s are s t i l l unknown to us, j u s t as e l e c t r i c i t y was p r a c t i c a l l y unknown over 150 years ago.  { .) 4, E n g i n e e r s are making steady p r o g r e s s r e d u c i n g f r i c t i o n l o s s e s i n machines. I t w i l l be p o s s i b l e one day to develop engines and motors w i t h our f i n e workmanship that once s e t g o i n g w i l l continue to do so u n t i l we w i s h them t o s t o p , (To show the e x t e n t to w h i c h wrong b e l i e f s spread even i n educated persons may the i n v e s t i g a t o r s t a t e t h a t the f i r s t one i s a b e l i e f that he met as h e l d by two l a d y t e a c h e r s i n Vancouver who were t e l l i n g of t h e i r p l a n s f o r a t r i p to England and France. They had asked a d r u g g i s t i n town f o r some m e d i c i n e o r cure f o r -sea-sickness. He had a d v i s e d thafmercury i n a s m a l l v i a l t o be worn about the neck as a pendant as b e i n g one of the most f r e q u e n t l y used methods o f w a r d i n g o f f s e a - s i c k n e s s . The teac'ln.ers asked f o r .a v i a l each. Each v i a l of mercury was w e l l s e a l e d . On t h e i r r e t u r n from the t r i p one was asked how she got a l o n g on the ocean voyage and she remarked that she had been q u i t e s e a - s i c k but guessed that i t must have been from the f a c t t h a t she k e p t the v i a l i n her handbag as she d i d n o t l i k e the appearance of the pendant when hung around her neck. She p r e s e n t e d the i n v e s t i g a t o r w i t h the v i a l o f mercury which was kept f o r many.years. W i t h the other teacher he was unable to get i n touch.) I f the l a s t . q u e s t i o n were reduced to a b l a n k statement about p e r p e t u a l m o t i o n t h e r e would s c a r c e l y be one student who would n o t g i v e a c o r r e c t response, but as the q u e s t i o n stands many who some s t o c k p h r a s e w i l l succumb to the  plausibility.  do not r e c o g n i z e  160  The above form o f q u e s t i o n c o u l d be improved s t i l l f u r t h e r by a s k i n g the students to c o r r e c t a l l statements which they do not t h i n k to be correct.  161 His'lcationf  f  l  8  l  d  °  f  S  °  i  e  n  C  9  *>  i n  the P u p i l to Choose  This o b j e c t i v e was ranked e i g h t h and g i v e n a w e i g h t i n g of s i x p e r c e n t . I t would imply t h a t the student he decides  should r e a l i z e these f a c t o r s at l e a s t when  to f o l l o w a p a r t i c u l a r The  vocations  Student or  Apprentice  1,  h i s own  a b i l i t y i n the p a r t i c u l a r  2,  h i s i n t e r e s t s In the type o f work done. This i s not i d e n t i c a l w i t h #1, although i t d o u b t l e s s c o n t r i b u t e s to achievement .  3,  h i s h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s . The 'Vocation or Job  field  '  4,  the t r a i n i n g or knowledge demanded by the v o c a t i o n ,  5,  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and  6,  the monetary r e t u r n s from the v o c a t i o n .  7,  the h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s or h a z a r d s .  o p p o r t u n i t i e s of the v o c a t i o n ,  Prom h i s r e g u l a r work i n s c i e n c e the student  should get a f a i r  idea  of h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the r e s u l t s of t e s t i n g f o r the f i r s t three o b j e c t i v e s .  H i s i n t e r e s t can be determined m a i n l y hy h i m s e l f ;  cause i t i s a p e r s o n a l m a t t e r .  be-  Prom h i s courses, and from d i s c u s s i o n s  that should take p l a c e from time to time i n h i s c l a s s and among h i s f r i e n d s , he s h o u l d o b t a i n an i n k l i n g of what v o c a t i o n s there are i n w h i c h science t r a i n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y , and must be supplemented m a i n l y  but t h i s , i n f o r m a t i o n would not be through the Guidance courses.  sufficient  Prom the  s c i e n c e work he should g a i n a knowledge of the laws, p r i n c i p l e s , f a c t s , that any p a r t i c u l a r p r o f e s s i o n or v o c a t i o n based, on science demands. monetary r e t u r n s and.the h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s should be s t u d i e d mainly the guidance group and  the Health c l a s s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  The in  i t seems t h a t  the  162 main f u n c t i o n o f the t e s t i n g programme as i t p e r t a i n s t o t h i s o b j e c t i v e would d e a l w i t h ^factor f o u r mentioned above, and s l i g h t l y w i t h the others because these others w i l l be t e s t e d i n other p a r t s of the course or I n other c o u r s e s . a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the m u l t i p l e response  q u e s t i o n type would serve very  w e l l f o r measuring knowledge c o n c e r n i n g the techniques demanded by any p a r t i c u l a r v o c a t i o n t h a t i s based on s c i e n c e , wo  samples o f t h i s type are o f f e r e d b e l o w  :  DIRECTIONS: Below you w i l l f i n d a statement w i t h a l i s t of items of knowledge, t e c h n i q u e s , and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t may be n e c e s s a r y f o r a p e r s o n t o p o s s e s s who Intends t o enter the v o c a t i o n s mentioned, p l a c e . a check mark i n t h e b l a n k i n f r o n t of each Item t h a t you t h i n k the p e r s o n should p o s s e s . , A d r u g g i s t p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d I n pharmacy, and n o t j u s t a salesman i n a drug s t o r e , s h o u l d have c o n s i d e r a b l e a b i l i t y and knowledge c o n c e r n i n g ) ) j )  a.the measuring o f e l e c t r i c i t y b . s o i l c o n d i t i o n s and e r o s i o n , c.weighing c h e m i c a l s d,growing -plants and c a r i n g f o r them,• •• • ) e.the g r a f t i n g of t r e e s and shrubs ) f . i d e n t i f y i n g c h e m i c a l s , compounds J g,atmospheric changes } h.the e f f e c t o f age on o r g a n i c c Dmp ounds. ( ) i . s p e c t r u m c o l o r s and l i g h t theories. v  ) j,measuring l i q u i d s ) k,medicinal p l a n t s ) 1.astrology or e f f e c t of stars ) m,rocks and r o c k strata,groups ) n.chemical formulae ) o.plant f a m i l i e s and r e l a t i o n s . ) p.communicable d i s e a s e s , .).q.emulsions, c o l l o i d s , s o l u t i o n s .  U . A g i r l c o n t e m p l a t i n g becoming a nurse, b e s i d e s p o s s e s s i n g the a t t r i b u t e s of good h e a l t h , p a t i e n c e , s t r e n g t h , and c h e e r f u l n e s s should know cons i d e r a b l e about these f a c t s , p r i n c i p l e s , and techniques. •enzyme a c t i o n and d i g e s t i o n .the laws of g r a v i t a t i o n . v a r i o u s r o c k s and m i n e r a l s •communicable d i s e a s e s . ventilation . r e f r i g e r a t i o n systems .wonderful new m e d i c i n e s widely advertised.. ,germ t h e o r y o f d i s e a s e . .the n a t u r e o f heat .how mammals reproduce . b r e a t h i n g system o f mammals  1.dynamos and e l e c t r i c motors m.Lenz's Laws, n.to every a c t i o n there i s an equal and opposite' r e a c t i o n , o . i n t e r n a l combustion engines, p . p r e p a r i n g food and d i e t s , q . s i x simple ma chines . r. x-rays. s.osmosis and d i f f u s i o n t , g r a d a t i o n and d i a s t r o p h i s m u , s t r e a m l i n i n g and t r a n s p o r t .  163  -SCORING: When no s e t numbers of responses  are demanded from the p u p i l i t  seems f a i r e r " t o count a l l h i s c o r r e c t responses. p r e t e d to mean a l l  These s h o u l d be  inter-  the check marks i n the c o r r e c t p l a c e s and those  checked t h a t s h o u l d be unchecked,  un-  prom t h i s sum the e r r o r s should be sub-  t r a c t e d as i n t r u e - f a l s e types, o f which type q u e s t i o n t h i s i s r e a l l y a form,  i f the s u b t r a c t i o n i s not done a p e r s o n c o u l d score f u l l value by  checking every i t e m , and the t e s t would be u s e l e s s to measure h i s knowledge of what would be needed i n the way the q u e s t i o n i s worded t h i s way,  of t r a i n i n g ,  i f , on the other hand,  "Check the f o u r (or f i v e , s i x , e t c . ) items  o f the l i s t w h i c h you t h i n k a p e r s o n should know i n order to enter t h i s p r o f e s s i o n (or v o c a t i o n ) , " then the q u e s t i o n must be r e o r g a n i z e d ,  in re-  c a s t i n g the q u e s t i o n care must be e x e r c i s e d to i n c l u d e j u s t the four c o r r e c t responses w i t h a goodly number of " o f f - c o l o r " and i n c o r r e c t ones. Another type of t e s t item i s what might be c a l l e d a case s t u d y .  This  c o u l d be the r e c o r d of some p e r s o n , and the d e c i s i o n t h a t he had t o make in  the matter of choosing a v o c a t i o n ,  xhe person's marks in;.-sciences  c o u l d be examined and the student asked to make a judgment as to what l i n e of endeavour-he would a d v i s e a p e r s o n w i t h such a r e c o r d t o f o l l o w ,  Ques-  t i o n s c o u l d be asked a l s o about other f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g such a d e c i s i o n to  see i f the student r e a l i z e s the importance  o f an academic n a t u r e .  of f a c t o r s other than  those  An example f o l l o w s :  " E l f r e d a G a r r e t t i s not q u i t e sure whether to become a nurse or n o t .  she must make up her mind t h i s year because the h o s p i t a l where  she wishes to t r a i n demands o f i t s student nurses t h a t they have h i g h s c h o o l work i n c h e m i s t r y , B i o l o g y , and Home Economics (cooking, foods, dietetics).  She w i l l e n t e r her l a s t year at h i g h s c h o o l next year and  can work i n these s u b j e c t s i f she d e s i r e s . •  Below i s her r e c o r d ;  she  164  The r e q u i r e d riome .Economics course she has taken a l r e a d y w i t h these marks f o r the four q u a r t e r l y r a n k i n g s ; _ , 0  ,  B  ,  B.  Her marks i n General Science were; F i r s t Year Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit  1 11 111 IV V yl  (matter,atoms,molecules,formulae,chemical laws] (energy,force ,power,machines,electricity,magnetism] (atmosphere,gases,climate'weather) (water,its oomposition,pressure,purification,life) ( s u r f a c e of the E a r t h , r o c k s , m i n e r a l s , e a r t h movements) ( p l a n t s , u s e and f u n c t i o n s of p a r t s , a n d p r o t e c t i o n ) ( f o r e s t s , a n i m a l s and care)  D u  •  Second Year Unit 1 ( L i f e p r o c e s s e s common to a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s - a d a p t a t i o n to e n v i r o n r n e n t ; h e r e d i t y ; r e p r o d u c t i on] U U n i t 11 ( T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r o l e of e l e c t r i c i t y , i n t e r n a l combustion engines, s a f e t y measure "u U n i t 111 (Radiant e n e r g y , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , l i g h t , s o u n d , r a d i o ) Jj U n i t IV (Carbon and n i t r o g e n c y c l e s ; c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f these;compounds o f these elements.) CUnit v (Earth's c r u s t and m i n e r a l s ; methods o f o b t a i n i n g and r e f i n i n g needed m i n e r a l s ; c a r b o n , s u l p h u r , s a l t s ) _ p l a c e a check mark i n the b l a n k opposite the best answer a c c o r d i n g to your o p i n i o n i n each of these 'three q u e s t i o n s , -'or the l a s t one you are to do more. _ou must check the reasons or statements below that you would use to support or defend your d e c i s i o n i n q u e s t i o n 3. 1,  j u d g i n g on the b a s i s o f her 'General Science marks, next year i n chemist r y E l f r e d a would ( ) a, do .extremely w e l l ( ) d. l e a r n very l i t t l e .( ) b, do w e l l ' indeed ( ) c, "get b y w i t h a b i t of d i f f i c u l t y ( . ) e. f a i l completely,  2, Judging Elfreda { ) a. ( . ) b. ( ) c.  l i k e w i s e from her r e c o r d i n General Science, B i o l o g y f o r would ~ be extremely d i f f i c u l t ( ) d. not be of much use be s u c c e s s f u l l y handled ( ) e, be unnecessary, cause her to f a i l next year  3, E l f r e d a s h o u l d  ( ( (  J a. become a nurse w i t h o u t any more h e s i t a t i o n J b. not c o n s i d e r n u r s i n g any f u r t h e r j c, c o n s i d e r many other f a c t o r s as w e l l  REASQES t ) 1. B i o l o g y o f f e r s no s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e to her p r o g r e s s , ) 2, c h e m i s t r y w i l l g i v e too much t r o u b l e to be worth i t . ) 3. She must l i k e " l o o k i n g a f t e r p e o p l e " , ) 4, She could p a s s . i n c h e m i s t r y w i t h much h a r d work, ) 6. The Chemistry course w i l l be much e a s i e r next y e a r .  ) 6, ) 7, ) 8, ) 9. )10.  Aptitude  Tests might be given as i n S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , but t h i s i s  very much out of the f i e l d f o r the science department. the  165  They say that the B i o l o g y course i s harder next year. Her r e c o r d i n Home Economics i s not good enough. Strength and h e a l t h a r e important f a c t o r s . P a t i e n c e i s a n e c e s s i t y i n the v o c a t i o n of a nurse. Her Home Economics r e c o r d i s quite f a v o r a b l e *  f a c t o r s t e s t e d by the S t a n f o r d s c i e n t i f i c good t e s t i n g programme that covers General  that measures achievement i n the use o f the  Aptitude  Again, many o f Test are t e s t e d i n  Science I ? and V.  scientific  Any t e s t  method w i l l  most of -the work of t e s t i n g t h a t the S t a n f o r d S c i e n t i f i c Aptitude covers,  Further  probably  that of Guidance.  i n the  t e s t i n g than t h i s i s the duty of some other Likewise,  cover Test  department,  t e s t s of v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s l i e  domain of the Guidance department, f o r any t e s t i n g programme that  would be worth w h i l e would be too e x t e n s i v e  t o be i n c l u d e d i n the science  courses, 'That i n t e r e s t s a r e a v e r y p o t e n t  f a c t o r i n the choice of a v o c a t i o n , 1  even more important  than a b i l i t y , i s  abstract being presented  shewn by i r r a n k l i n ' s r e s e a r c h ,  an  herewith-  Grade V l l B p u p i l s Number C o n t r o l group average n o n - c l e r i c a l 5 0 0  'average  l.'.j.  Av. Score on c l e r i c a l  106,5  34,8  99,3  47,5  Test  Experimental group desiring c l e r i c a l career Two  standard  135 group i n t e l l i g e n c e  from the Columbia I n s t i t u t e of the value  t e s t s were given?  the c l e r i c a l  o f Kducational r e s e a r c h .  Test was  A d d i t i o n a l evidence  of i n t e r e s t i n v o c a t i o n a l guidance can be found i n Thorndike's  report, 1.  Adapted from h u l l ' s r e p o r t i n A p t i t u d e T e s t i n g , page 1 9 1 (C.L.IIullj Franklin,JS.JS. "The permanence of V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s of Junior High School P u p i l s , "Johns Hopkins Studies i n Education, ^6,JohnHopk. P r e s s  166 -He found  that i n general the order of a person's  given p e r i o d c o r r e l a t e d  i n t e r e s t s f o r any  ,89 w i t h the order o f the same person's  estimates  1 of h i s a b i l i t i e s f o r the corresponding p e r i o d ,  Bridges and  Dollinger  found student i n t e r e s t s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h student estimates of a b i l i t i e s 2 to a degree o f r  ,57,  I t would seem from a l l t h i s that i n t e r e s t i s a  v a l u a b l e c r i t e r i o n to use i n d e c i d i n g v o c a t i o n a l matters. f o l l o w s that a very f r u i t f u l way would be to develop i n the f i e l d .  It probably  to achieve v o c a t i o n a l guidance  i n t e r e s t s i n s c i e n c e , and to give a sense  i n science  of success  At p r e s e n t t h i s degree of success i s r i g i d , f i x e d by the  theory that marks or grades must be d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g to a normal curve of d i s t r i b u t i o n .  We  are bound to rank 25% very low, 50%  and Z5% as v e r y s u c c e s s f u l . for  I t does n o t o f f e r very much encouragement  the. weaker students, who,  a c t u a l l y may  average,  no matter how  hard they work and what they  accomplish or know, are, always s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t the com-  p e t i t i o n of a b l e r students. important and i n f l u e n t i a l .  T r u l y are our t e s t i n g procedures I t seems necessary to adopt  extremely  some system of  r e p o r t i n g p r o g r e s s t h a t encourages more p u p i l s and develops t h e i r i n terests In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the choice of a v o c a t i o n t h e , I n t e r e s t c h e c k l i s t developed  under the worthy use  of l e i s u r e c o u l d be of some p r o g n o s t i c value  The c a r r y - o v e r of .Interest may  be assumed to be  s i m i l a r to i n t e r e s t Increase i n each c o u r s e .  D i r e c t evidence.needs  be c o l l e c t e d from i n t e r e s t s f u n c t i o n i n g i n l a t e r l i f e relate with prognostic values.  approximately to  i n order to c o r -  -  1, T h o r n d i k e ^ . L . , " E a r l y I n t e r e s t s - T h e i r Permanence, and E e l a t i o n to A b i l i t i e s , " School and S o c i e t y , Vol.5,1917, pages 178-179 2, Bridges,J.W.,and Bollinger,ffi.,"The C o r r e l a t i o n between I n t e r e s t s and A b i l i t i e s i n C o l l e g e . C o u r s e s , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l Eeview,Vol.27, ' 1920 pages 308-314., 3, See Appendix, Experiment 1, pp l V - X l l l  167 ' To Develop The a b i l i t y to P e r f o r m A p p r e c i a t e the S c i e n t i f i c  Simple Experiments  and Thus to  B a s i s of S c i e n c e .  -  This o b j e c t i v e was ranked n i n t h and r e c e i v e d a w e i g h t i n g of seven percent,  i n view o f the f a c t that i t overlaps other o b j e c t i v e s i n p a r t ,  the apportionment  of marks or c r e d i t s w i l l needs be somewhat a r b i t r a r y .  Because o f i t s o v e r l a p p i n g the second o b j e c t i v e d e a l i n g w i t h the development of s c i e n t i f i c  t h i n k i n g i t i s p o s s i b l y b e t t e r t o a l l o c a t e the major  p a r t o f the c r e d i t s or narks t o achievements o f a nature s i m i l a r t o m a n i p u l a t i o n , a c c c m p l i s h i n g general l a b o r a t o r y techniques, care and c l e a n liness,  and p l a n n i n g ari a t t a c k upon a problem.,  i n g would seem t o be a composite  .any a b i l i t y i n experiment-  o f these minor a b i l i t i e s above and a l s o  o f the a b i l i t y to organize data and to deduce v a l i d d a t a obtained,  xhe l a t t e r  c o n c l u s i o n s from the  two minor o b j e c t i v e s are p a r t o f the s c i e n t i f i c  method which i s mentioned i n the second  objective.  On the other hand  m a n i p u l a t i o n and o r g a n i z i n g p l a n s bear a v e r y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p f u l n e s s and a d a p t a b i l i t y ,  w i t h these two boundaries  to resource-  i n mind i t would seem  safe for' the teacher and examiner to i n t e r p r e t the o b j e c t i v e as throwing more emphasis upon the a c t u a l d o i n g of experimental work and not upon what i s c a l l e d csmmonly "book-knowledge".  I t i s t r u e " l e a r n i n g by doing" , The  simplest  of experimental problems should be attempted  essences  the experiment  Is-found.  f o r i n these the  Doing many simple experiments  will  produce g r e a t e r mastery of the method of experimentation b y h a b i t u a t i n g the student than w i l l the attempting of a few long_,involved 10 one can develop ing  experiments.  a great a b i l i t y i n experimentation merely.by watch-  others do the experiments,  or by r e a d i n g about them.  Granted, an  observer can l e a r n something by so doing; i f he i s w e l l - e x p e r i e n c e d he may l e a r n much b y . o b s e r v i n g and comparing w i t h h i s own technique.  The o n l y  r e a l measure of achievement  of t h i s goal i s to measure the  achievement  d i r e c t l y by having the student perform the experiments, or manipulations, or techniques.  For these experiments  or techniques to be used as t e s t  items the teacher should have c l e a r l y i n mind the purpose should work out a s c a l e of v a l u e s , j u s t as f o r other  of each, and  examinations.  I n d i r e c t evidence b e a r i n g upon t h i s aspect o f the problem from experiments  conducted by the w r i t e r .  developed  C o r r e l a t i o n between " p e n c i l -  and-paper" t e s t s and a c t u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s were low i n s e v e r a l of the experiments  and never higher than  The t e s t i n g of achievement  .77.  by p r a c t i c a l work i n u s i n g experimental  techniques i n t r o d u c e s many d i f f i c u l t i e s , c h i e f among which are the needs o f equipment and demands f o r space. it  Because experimentation demands room  i s not as convenient a method of t e s t i n g as paper  and p e n c i l t e s t s are,  A g a i n , the student i s up on h i s f e e t and h i s eyes can not be l i m i t e d i n range, whether he i s d e l i b e r a t e l y t r y i n g to f i n d o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e or not.  Small booths  or arrangements s i m i l a r to these are p r a c t i c a l l y a  n e c e s s i t y f o r t h i s type of examination when the s i z e of the c l a s s even f i f t e e n situdehts.  Most c l a s s e s i n General Science i n h i g h school  run between t h i r t y - f i v e and f o r t y - f i v e .  In the l a r g e r c l a s s e s p r a c t i c a l  examination o f these a b i l i t i e s i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t space and p r i v a c y In t e s t i n g . measured In t h i s way  Only  owing to the l a c k of both  the simplest of techniques c o u l d be  then, f o r one teacher c o u l d n o t hope to check  c r e d i t f o r t y doing a " j o b " that takes on the average minutes.  exceeds  and  about four to f i v e  I t i s p h y s i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e i f he must s u p e r v i s e to p r e v e n t  the spread o f i n f o r m a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e . equipment i n the way  o f booths  P r a c t i c a l l y no schools have  that could be used.  This may be one  the r e a s o n s t h a t so l i t t l e has been done along t h i s l i n e 1. See Appendix Experiments  11, 111, IT  pp .XIV to  XU1,  to measure  of  p r a c t i c a l achievement.  For these many reasons t e a c h e r s i n science d e s i r e  and t r y to develop paper t e s t s of these achievements that have a s u f f i r c i e n t l y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the a c t u a l to make them w o r t h w h i l e . For the s u b - o b j e c t i v e s o f p l a n n i n g the procedure, and f o r making v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s the p e n c i l and paper t e s t i s equal t o any other means, When a c t u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n i s i n v o l v e d , or when one must go to the prime sources f o r h i s d a t a , p e n c i l and paper t e s t s no longer seem to s u f f i c e , Two  c h i e f means of measuring achievement i n a c t u a l experimenting  are a v a i l a b l e .  One i s t o keep a r e c o r d of the student's e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  each p e r i o d that he i s expected  to work i n that way.  The other i s the  " p r a c t i c a l " or performance examination mentioned above. P r a c t i c a l exami n a t i o n s are not a t a l l common i n h i g h s c h o o l s , but they a r e used more f r e q u e n t l y i n u n i v e r s i t y work i n . s e v e r a l o f the s c i e n c e s . q u e s t i o n s p o s s i b l e to use i n " p r a c t i c a l " or performance would f a l l i n t o these  examinations  classifications*  1,  R e p e t i t i o n of some experiment  2,  M o d i f i c a t i o n s of experiments  3, E n t i r e l y new  Sources o f  experiments  done i n c l a s s work. done i n c l a s s work.  but n o t above the l e v e l o f the grade  ability. 4, C e r t a i n .small techniques / ' t r i c k s " , and so f o r t h t h a t might be c a l l e d the b u i l d i n g stones o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l methods. The P a r s i n g L a b o r a t o r y Test i n Chemistry has attempted  to t e s t f o r  the l a s t , and s e t s q u e s t i o n s that demand the r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w o u l d f a l l i n the f i r s t group.  Ho l i t e r a t u r e has been found to show  how  v a l i d t h i s t e s t i s f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r purpose, as the authors make no mention of comparing the t e s t r e s u l t s w i t h a c t u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n and  test  170 q u e s t i o n s , * Much of the t e s t i s a c t u a l l y f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l that c o u l d be measured e q u a l l y w e l l w i t h o u t diagrams,  A c e r t a i n amount of guidance con-  c e r n i n g the v a l i d i t y of diagram t e s t s as a g a i n s t the a c t u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n of t h i n g s can be obtained from some of the work of Dr. H. A. Toops. Moreover, r e s e a r c h conducted by Dr, H. A, Ruger i n 1922 would suggest s t r o n g l y that the a b i l i t y t o manipulate things and a b i l i t y to handle ideas ( i n t e l l i g e n c e ) are not l i k e l y the same a b i l i t i e s .  I n checking the c o r -  r e l a t i o n between a b i l i t y to manipulate t h i n g s on the S t e n q u i s t Assembly Test w i t h g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e c o r r e l a t i o n s were q u i t e low, r a n g i n g from ,06 to  ,11 f o r men  and women of a Summer Session group to 2  r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r a W i n t e r S e s s i o n group. p e r s o n to rank a genius  ,41 and  .15  I t i s quite possible, for a  on one and an i d i o t - on the  other.  I t i s a d v i s a b l e to t e s t d i r e c t l y when measuring a b i l i t y to manipulate t h i n g s , to set up  experiments,  to p e r f o r m  experiments.  Toops r e p o r t s t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n o f p u p i l ' s scores on three paper t e s t s u s i n g p i c t u r e s compared w i t h success i n shop work, e t c . , was  lower  than the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the scores on the S t e n q u i s t Assembly t e s t w i t h shop s u c c e s s . - P i c t u r e t e s t s c o r r e l a t e . • f a i r l y h i g h l y w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e , + .60 but the S t e n q u i s t scores c o r r e l a t e d o n l y +.42 intelligence.  General Trade and Mechanical  (approximately)  with  I n t e r e s t Tests c o r r e l a t e  low w i t h Army A l p h a , Some examples o f q u e s t i o n s i n p r a c t i c a l work and experimental ures i n v o l v i n g a c t u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t e d  proced-  here?  DIRECTIONS; You are b e i n g .tested on your a b i l i t y to handle and arrange t h i n g s n e c e s s a r y i n d o i n g experiments; 1. Toops "Tests f o r V o c a t i o n a l Guidance o f C h i l d r e n T h i r t e e n to S i x t e e n , " 2. Toops "Tests f o r V o c a t i o n a l Guidance of C h i l d r e n . T h i r t e e n t o S i x t e e n , " ConT;. to E d u c a t i o n #136 Teachers College Columbia pp, <i4-25 3. Op. c i t . pp,27-32.  171  1, You a r e to pour some a c i d from the b o t t l e i n t o the t e s t tube so that the i n s t r u c t o r c a n w a t c h you c a r e f u l l y . P o u r about 5 c. c. and then r e t u r n i t to the b o t t l e a f t e r the s i g n a l to do so has been g i v e n . Suggested s c o r i n g ; 4 f o r a c o m p l e t e l y s u c c e s s f u l performance covering;(?3the holds.. ; of the stopper In the u s u a l l y accepted manner between the f i n g e r s of e i t h e r hand so t h a t the p l u g p a r t i s away from the a r t i c l e s handled ^wato^. .es the c l e a r a n c e of c l o t h i n g , e t c , j ^ t i l t s b o t t l e c a r e f u l l y and pours g e n t l y ; $ { r e p l a c e s a c i d a f t e r s i g n a l ) R e p l a c e s stopper £_abel s i d e of the b o t t l e i n palm towards palm of hand, or up, 5  f  3.for  any procedure that  differs _ s l i g h t l y on a«y but the l a s t item.  2 f o r a performance t h a t i s r a t h e r c a r e l e s s but does not s p i l l any a c i d , or a good performance up to here but f a i l s to r e t u r n stopper when r e t u r n of a c i d i s made. 1  f o r a p o o r performance w i t h o u t r e t u r n of stoxoper,  0 f o r any performance w h i c h s p i l l s a c i d , p r o v i d i n g t h a t i t i s c l e a r e d away. . -1 f o r any performance w h i c h a f t e r s p i l l i n g the a c i d f a i l s : to wipe i t up w i t h rags or d i s p o s e of I t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , . 11,  Weigh the stone w h i c h you are g i v e n as a c c u r a t e l y as you can. Record' the number of the stone, and a l s o i t s w e i g h t . Do l i k e w i s e w i t h the p i e c e o f wood,  SCORING: Here the s c o r i n g i s v e r y e a s i l y made f o r the o n l y p o i n t that the i n s t r u c t o r must decide i s what t o l e r a n c e w i l l be p e r m i t t e d . T h i s , of course, depends I n l a r g e measure upon equipment. Two p o i n t s f o r each s a t i s f a c t o r y w e i g h i n g . One p o i n t might be a l l o w e d f o r weights s l i g h t l y o f f , say by onef i f t h ' or one-quarter gram. Zero f o r a l l other w e i g h t s . I n s t r u c t o r must.J>e p r e p a r e d f o r change i n weight of samples due to breakage or other i n j u r y . ?  111.  On the d e m o n s t r a t i o n t a b l e i s a s e r i e s of c o n t a i n e r s w i t h l i q u i d s i n each. You a r e to r e c o r d the l e t t e r of each one and a f t e r i t p l a c e your measurement of the volume of l i q u i d i n t h a t c o n t a i n e r ,  SCORING-:  /  One p o i n t each. 17  You a r e to arrange the apparatus a l l o t t e d to you so that i t . c o u l d be used to p r e p a r e and c o l l e c t q u a n t i t i e s of a gas that w i l l not d i s s o l v e a p p r e c i a b l y i n water.  172 SCORING: F i v e p o i n t s f o r a c o m p l e t e l y s e t up arrangement; deduct one mark f o r each e r r o r such as t h i s t l e tube n o t low enough ( i f u s e d ) ; d e l i v e r y tube down i n t o the r e a c t a n t s ; l o o s e cork or stopper; pneumatic trough n o t i n c l u d e d ; d e l i v e r y tube n o t submerged; c o l l e c t i n g b o t t l e s not f i l l e d w i t h water. 7.  P i n the p r i n t e d l a b e l on the a p p r o p r i a t e organ of the specimens provided. (Specimens do not need t o be named nor l a b e l s arranged i n t o groups; p r e f e r a b l y they should be jumbled so t h a t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n would show more a c t i v e thought.) c o r t e x , f o o t , s e p a l , modth, p i t h , xylem, s e p a l , h e a r t , anther, ovary, stomach, s t y l e , b r a c t , phloem, adductor muscles, cambium, g i l l s , stigma, mantle, p e t a l , r e t r a c t o r muscle, m e d u l l a r y r a y , siphon, f i l a m e n t .  SCORINGj One mark each c o r r e c t l a b e l l i n g ; or sum can be d i v i d e d by two i f w e i g h t i n g appears too heavy, e t c .  A l l these q u e s t i o n s can be turned i n t o paper and p e n c i l t e s t s w i t h various modifications. or n o t ,  I t i s d e b a t a b l e whether  t h i s i s a wise procedure  There has been an attempt t o keep t o the same s u b j e c t matter f o r  each q u e s t i o n i n t u r n i n g the p r e c e d i n g i n t o p e n c i l and paper 1.  tests.  E x p l a i n b r i e f l y what y o u would do i n p o u r i n g a c i d from the a c i d b o t t l e i n t o a t e s t tube, I f you cannot e x p l a i n b r i e f l y i n words a s k e t c h may help you. a. W i t h the a c i d b o t t l e stopper  ,  b. G r a s p i n g the b o t t l e o f a c i d ,, •  • » t « » « » « . » » » * « f t t « * t f f * « 9 « » * » « « t * 0 * « » t » « « « t * « « « « » t « t « « « « « « « « « » t  e, When you have s p i l l e d some  ,, S  t . t  ,.  11, What i s the weight i n grams o f a stone 11 c.c. i n volume which, when p l a c e d on the l e f t p a n of the b a l a n c e , needs a twenty gram w e i g h t , a 5 gram w e i g h t on the r i g h t pan, and has the beam r i d e r or marker w i t h i t s r i g h t edge a t the s u b d i v i s i o n 7 and i t s l e f t edge at the f i r s t s u b d i v i s i o n between the numbered marked p o i n t s o f 3 and 4?  173  111. What i s the volume, i n each of the diagrammatic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the l i q u i d i n each, measuring v e s s e l ? * Water  Alcohol  t=-I30  =—100 -9o  -iiO  IT.  Sea Water — JO -9  Mar-cur y  — J O  XVIU  -__80  cc A Arrange the apparatus sketches so t h a t when assemblecPthe "sketch °" t h a t you make w i l l show a complete set-up of apparatus s u i t a b l e f o r p r e p a r i n g and c o l l e c t i n g a g a s - l i k e oxygen or hydrogen.  0 "Rl-l-lDtx?!-  wo  •Plate.  Solid  claemicaU  A  Acids  1  Wetter E/  174 Vv  P L A C E  SHE PROP EE  'TERM  A3  LABEL  III  T H 1 B L A M  SPACES  PROVIDED,  c o r t e x *f opt, s e p a l , mouth, p i t h , xylem, s e p a l , h e a r t , anther • ovary stomach, s t y l e , b r a c t , phloem, adductor muscles, cambium, g i l l s , stigma mantle, p e t a l , r e t r a c t o r muscle, m e d u l l a r y r a y , siphons, f U a m e n t !  Figure  XXI  175  Other types of t e s t items can be found on the P e r s i n g L a b o r a t o r y rest i n  chemistry,  A l t h o u g h i t has been out of f a s i o n f o r many years to hold these views i t h i n k t h a t a w e l l worded essay type q u e s t i o n can do much i n f i n d i n g whether a student f a c t o r y manner.  can p l a n or organize h i s a t t a c k on a problem i n a s a t i s Some such q u e s t i o n as t h i s v:ould make a student  think  and  plan well, "Given a p u l l e y s e t , and w e i g h t s , s t r i n g , and s c a l e s i f needed show how you would prove t h a t i n any machine "work i n " i s equal to "work out". The  s c o r i n g would have to be worked out on the b a s i s of so much f o r p l a n ,  a c e r t a i n value f o r h i s procedure i n the a c t u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n , more f o r h i s r e c o r d i n g and a r r a n g i n g d a t a , and the f i n a l p a r t score that f o r c o n c l u s i o n .  176  As a r e s u l t o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n done by the i n v e s t i g a t o r i t was found t h a t i n the b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s most students who s t u d y the course by making use of specimens, diagrams and t e s t s make s l i g h t l y h i g h e r marks on the p r a c t i c a l l a b e l l i n g t e s t s .  (This does n o t a p p l y t o d i s s e c t i o n  a b i l i t y which was not t e s t e d . ) J u d g i n g from the r e s u l t s o f Experiments 11, 111, l y found I n the Appendix the a b i l i t y to p e r f o r m simple experiments must be t e s t e d d i r e c t l y I n a c t u a l e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s and cannot be t e s t e d r e l i a b l y by a "paper t e s t " because the c o r r e l a t i o n s though p o s i t i v e are too lowyranging from + ,21 t o + .77 . In l a t e r work c a r r i e d on by the w r i t e r on the use and v a l u e of d i a grams i n t e s t i n g , s e v e r a l improvements were made i n the f u n c t i o n o f the t e s t s , h e p r e c e d i n g diagram t e s t s emphasize names, or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , the x  a n a t o m i c a l or s t r u c t u r a l knowledge.  The f u n c t i o n a l or p h y s i o l o g i c a l a s -  p e c t s c a n be t e s t 6 d e q u a l l y r e a d i l y by diagrams s i m p l y by a r e v i s i on of w o r d i n g injaccordance w i t h t h i s p o i n t of view.  For instance,by r e f e r r i n g  to F i g u r e s XX, X X I , X X I I i t w i l l be seen t h a t s u i t a b l e q u e s t i o n s can be c a s t I n e i t h e r o f these two waysa. By msing the number o p p o s i t e an organ or s t r u c t u r e s t a t e ; 1. The 2. The 3. The 4. The 5. The  muscles which c l o s e the s h e l l s organ t h a t o b t a i n s oxygen organ that does the burrowing i n the sand organ that produces p o l l e n t i s s u e of t h e stem p o s s e s s i n g the power t o d i v i d e  1 2.,,.,, 3 4...... 5......  b, S t a t e b r i e f l y the f u n c t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g s t r u c t u r e s ; 1. The organ numbered 9 • • 2. The orgsa  unmbered 13  3. The orgaa numbered 19 4. '•'•'he organ numbered 17  , . ,,,., i • 9 « • • « • * •  This form o f q u e s t i o n emphasizes f u n c t i o n and demands c o n s i d e r a b l e s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, w i t h a minimum o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l j a r g o n . 1. See Appendix p p . XlY t o JDOT1.  177 'Jo Develop the Desire to Read S c i e n t i f i c T h i s o b j e c t i v e has been ranked per cent,  Literature.  tenth w i t h a w e i g h t i n g o f only f i v e  I t d e f i n i t e l y was c o n s i d e r e d the l e a s t  important of a l l the t e n  o b j e c t i v e s by the s e v e n t y - e i g h t teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who r e p l i e d t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (before September 15, 1938).  The q u e s t i o n might be  r a i s e d as to whether or not t h i s should be an o b j e c t i v e of these science courses.  The Science R e v i s i o n Committee a f t e r l e n g t h y r e a d i n g and d i s c u s -  s i o n o f the o b j e c t i v e s of these s c i e n c e courses decided t h a t t h i s i s an a p p r o p r i a t e one. S u p p o r t i n g evidence comes from the i n c r e a s i n g frequency w i t h which p o p u l a r a r t i c l e s o f a s c i e n t i f i c f l a v o u r a r e i n c l u d e d I n the g e n e r a l r e a d i n g matter of newspapers and magazines.  To i n c r e a s e the d e s i r e  of students t o r e a d m a t e r i a l l i k e t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y a worthy aim. or may not be d i f f i c u l t t o accomplish t h i s . i s one t h i n g .  Enthusiasm  I t may  To develop the d e s i r e t o read  i n the teacher does t h i s q u i t e w e l l .  To measure  t h i s increased desire i s very d i f f i c u l t , AS t h e o b j e c t i v e stands i t i s a d m i t t e d l y hard to t e s t achievement of i t , f o r I t directs  the e f f o r t o f the teacher along the l i n e of d e v e l o p i n g a  d e s i r e t o r e a d s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e and n o t d i r e c t l y t o develop the a b i l i t y t o read i t . Another p o i n t worth n o t i n g i s t h a t there are many l e v e l s of i n t r i c a c y and d i f f i c u l t y of s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e .  The o b j e c t i v e has  been c r i t i c i z e d on the grounds t h a t there i s s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e o f such weight it.  t h a t the s p e c i a l i s t s  i n the f i e l d have d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding  This i s q u i t e t r u e , b u t more i s i m p l i e d by the Committee than the  r e a d i n g of s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e o f a d i f f i c u l t y commensurate w i t h the t r a i n i n g i n science t h a t the student possesses a t t h a t . t i m e , or v e r y s l i g h t l y more d i f f i c u l t i n order to p e r m i t h i s growth i n understanding of science.  " S c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e " should n o t be taken here to mean the  178  ' o r i g i n a l sources which are u s u a l l y r e p l e t e w i t h t e c h n i c a l terms, but r a t h e r the good resumes of such works, a b s t r a c t s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s / semip o p u l a r and sound p o p u l a r a r t i c l e s i n books and magazines. Any t e s t f o r t h i s o b j e c t i v e should t e s t d i r e c t l y the d e s i r e to read, such books and a r t i c l e s .  The d i r e c t measure would be to give the student  c r e d i t f o r the e x t e n t of improvement of t h i s d e s i r e , but how can i t be measured?  By t a k i n g the student" s own word d i r e c t l y ? ' Or by t r y i n g to get  some i n d i r e c t evidence t h a t would be more r e l i a b l e than h i s p r o f e s s e d achievement?  d e a r l y a l l teachers would p r e f e r the second method when they  must d e a l w i t h g r e a t numbers of students whom they cannot know very w e l l . One  i n d i r e c t measure and a f a i r l y v a l i d one i s to give the s t u d e n t : c r e d i t  f o r what books he has r e a d d u r i n g the' course. c r e d i t leads i n t o a r e a l d i f f i c u l t y . b i t r a r y i n h i s e v a l u a t i n g , f o r no way o b j e c t i v e l y has been developed,  The e v a l u a t i n g of t h i s  Here the teacher must be a b i t a r t o measure and weight  t h i s achievement  i f t h i s o b j e c t i v e were g i v e n a w e i g h t i n g  of 5% of the course value I t would seem that the r e a d i n g of two books o f m e r i t equal to P a u l de K r u i f s "Microbe Hunters" would s a t i s f y , and more, the demands of t h i s o b j e c t i v e . S c a r c e l y any p e r s o n can r e a d such books w i t h o u t o b t a i n i n g a v e r y v i v i d p i c t u r e or i m p r e s s i o n o f t h a t f i e l d and i t s s c i e n t i f i c procedures. many o t h e r s ,  So a l s o w i t h s l o s s o n ' s " C r e a t i v e Chemistry",  and  xhe t e s t i n g of the r e a d i n g of such books can be done q u i t e  w e l l b y . a s k i n g the student to answer a sheet of q u e s t i o n s p r e p a r e d on the book i n q u e s t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h only the major p o i n t s o f the book, and the person's  opinion.of i t .  A teacher needs o n l y to know t h a t the p e r s o n  o b t a i n e d a f a i r l y good i d e a of the boofe as a whole.  The student  not be expected to remember e v e r y t h i n g as i n a text-book.  has  should  These t e s t  p a p e r s made by students, s h o u l d never be r e t u r n e d but destroyed l e s t other s t u d e n t s l e s s c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b t a i n them and memorize the t e s t w i t h o u t  179 a c t u a l l y r e a d i n g the hook. the m a t e r i a l .  The t e s t items should he i n forms s u i t a b l e to  This method i s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t e s t i n g knowledge o f the  books i n the s c h o o l l i b r a r y ,  i t cannot be c a r r i e d - f a r beyond t h i s s t e p ,  however. • The w r i t e r has come upon one method of e v a l u a t i n g the d e s i r e of students to r e a d s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e .  This method g i v e s a view of the  success of a method r a t h e r than the amount r e a d by each s t u d e n t , although the method c o u l d be r e v i s e d to measure s t u d e n t s i n d i v i d u a l l y . was  d i s c o v e r e d m a i n l y by a c c i d e n t ,  i n p r e c e d i n g years the students i n the  w r i t e r ' s b i o l o g y c l a s s e s were l e f t f r e e to r e a d whatever was i n the way  The method  of books w i t h a b i o l o g i c a l scope.  attractive  Out of s i x t y - s i x p u p i l s o f  the p r e c e d i n g two years o n l y eight had r e a d s p e c i a l books i n b i o l o g y to the t o t a l of f o u r t e e n books.  (One had r e a d t h r e e , f o u r two, and three  o n l y one.)  x'his r e p r e s e n t s about o n e - f i f t h (.213) of a book on s c i e n t i f i c  matters p e r  student.  T h i s year the w r i t e r , b e i n g d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s low r e a d i n g quota.,  , a s s i g n e d two books t o be r e a d by the students f o r c r e d i t .  These  books were to be s e l e c t e d from two l i s t s p r e p a r e d , one book from each list.  Books were p l a c e d e i t h e r i n the group of b i o l o g y a p p l i e d to h e a l t h  (such as "The Microbe H u n t e r s , "  "Man  vs. Microbes,"  "Ehe L i f e of L o u i s  P a s t e u r " ) , or. i n the group of g e n e r a l b i o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t (books by Ernest Thompson Seton, Wm.  jjsebe, n a t u r a l h i s t o r i e s , books on mammals, b i r d s ,  i n s e c t s , and s i m i l a r o n e s ) . D u r i n g the s c h o o l year u n t i l the end of March t h i r t y - t w o students of a c l a s s o f t h i r t y - f i v e had r e a d s i x t y - t w o books or an average o f books each or 1,77  f o r the e n t i r e c l a s s .  r e a d i n g but i t s concomitant  1.94  Of course, t h i s i s r e q u i r e d  seems to be a development of true i n t e r e s t  180  i n t h i s type of l i t e r a t u r e because n i n e t e e n a d d i t i o n a l books beyond the p r e s c r i b e d ones have been r e a d by the c l a s s f o r an average e x t r a work of ,54 of a book p e r s t u d e n t ,  x h i s compares v e r y f a v o r a b l y w i t h the  of f r e e u n d i r e c t e d r e a d i n g of the p r e c e d i n g y e a r s .  .213  To a s s i g n a wise  minimum of books seems t o develop the d e s i r e to read more l i t e r a t u r e a scientific  nature.  To develop also-.  of  the d e s i r e to read one must develop the a b i l i t y to read  At h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l the a b i l i t y to r e a d i s not u s u a l l y dependent  upon the t r a i n i n g of eye movements,for these c u s t o m a r i l y have been d e v e l oped i n the elementary  school.  Only a few r e m e d i a l cases of t h i s nature  are l i k e l y to occur i n h i g h s c h o o l , different lines, ing  ^ome  o f the main f a c t o r s at t h i s l e v e l i n the develop-  of the understanding  v o c a b u l a r y and  xtather should the t r a i n i n g be along  of s c i e n t i f i c  l i t e r a t u r e are the development of  the a p p r e c i a t i o n of the p r e c i s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l terms,  the  a n a l y s i s o f phrases and c l a u s e s to t r a c e the exact r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and p r o v i s i o n of a good g e n e r a l background of knowledge or i n f o r m a t i o n . the f i r s t and t h i r d the science courses are d i r e c t l y concerned, but  the With  the  second p r o p e r l y f a l l s i n the domain of the Isnglish courses i n h i g h s c h o o l s T e s t i n g f o r the i n c r e a s e i n v o c a b u l a r y i s done a l r e a d y w e l l enough'in most s c i e n c e courses i n the p l a c i n g of terms on ordinary, achievement t e s t s it  i s to be expected  t h a t the background of knowledge would be  a c c o r d i n g to the a b i l i t y and i n t e r e s t of the s t u d e n t .  The  obtained  amount of  t e s t i n g of terms on any t e s t should not exceed f i v e p e r c e n t of any achievement t e s t , A f u l l e r programme of t e s t i n g t h i s achievement would cover i s herew i t h suggested.  The  o b j e c t i v e w i l l have been s a t i s f i e d when evidence  has been obtained by the teacher o f ; -  181 a. The amount r e a d d u r i n g the course* b. the development of vocabulary necessary  to understand  r e a d i n g matter.  c. the knowledge of sources, of i n f o r m a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the f a c i l i t i e s of the s c h o o l , or l o c a l  library.  d. a measure of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y such as made by the Van Wagenen Reading Scales i n b i o l o g y . One procedure d e a l i n g w i t h " a " above has been advanced. next item, " b ' V i t i s c o n s i d e r e d  As to the  to be w e l l enough done, and a f a m i l i a r  enough procedure by v i r t u e of t e s t s given f o r terms,  Beading a b i l i t y i s  o b t a i n a b l e i n - a way s i m i l a r to the van Wagenen method, that- i s by u s i n g reading scales. One  Only " c " remains f o r which a measure has n o t been found.  has n o t been d i s c o v e r e d by the w r i t e r i n h i s reading, but quite p o s -  s i b l y as Serenes s a i d of o l d , "There i s n o t h i n g s a i d which has not been said before,"  A method of measuring t h i s knowledge i s suggested  i n the  f o l l o w i n g paragraph. The  first  t h i n g that a teacher  should do i n attempting  achievement along t h i s l i n e i s to make a survey are able to o b t a i n , f o r the extent may be expected  o f what books h i s students  of r e a d i n g i n science that a student  to r e a c h can be measured i n a l l f a i r n e s s only .In terms o f  the books t h a t he has.^at h i s command.  For most, t h i s w i l l mean the school  l i b r a r y , and the p u b l i c l i b r a r y i f there be one, schools  the teacher might f i n d i t necessary  r a r y , as so many do now, w i t h  the b e g i n n i n g  otherwise  lib-  Other books may be o b t a i n -  O b t a i n i n g books i s r e a l l y  another problem outside the scope of t h i s r e p o r t . measuring t h i s growth i s t o prepare  Sometimes i n the smaller  to supplement the school  t h e i r own books.  ed on l o a n from c e r t a i n d i s t a n t l i b r a r i e s .  at  to t e s t  One p r a c t i c a l way o f  a l i s t o f books and magazine a r t i c l e s  of the year, p o s t i t up i n the l i b r a r y or c l a s s room, or  l e t the students know, then examine them a t the end o f the term  182 or year on t h e i r knowledge of sources or g e n e r a l r e a d i n g experience i n s c i e n c e based on the c o n t e n t s o f these books. The f i r s t type o f q u e s t i o n i s a t e s t of knowledge of sources from the example i n Hawkes, L i n q u i s t , and Mann, "The of-Achievement T e s t s , page  taken  C o n s t r u c t i o n and  Use  232;  DIRECTIONS: In each of the e x e r c i s e s below, you are to suggest the sources which you t h i n k b e s t f o r g e t t i n g I n f o r m a t i o n on the q u e s t i o n g i v e n . Be as d e f i n i t e i n your suggestions as you can be. I f you mention a book, or magazine, or newspaper, s t a t e i t s name. I f you do n o t know i t s t i t l e , t e l l how you would f i n d i t . I f you suggest some other sources, be j u s t as d e f i n i t e i n d e s c r i b i n g them. 1. where you c o u l d f i n d out about the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s which help to exp l a i n the methods o f sending p i c t u r e s by wire? 2. Where c o u l d you determine t h e r e l a t i v e e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y of i r o n copper, and aluminum? 3. I f you are making a s p e c i a l r e p o r t on the c o r p u s c u l a r theory of l i g h t , where w o u l d you g e t . h e l p f u l Information? Such an e x e r c i s e as t h i s i s not very o b j e c t i v e and needs a very d e f i n i t e set of d i r e c t i o n s to e v a l u a t e p u r p o s e of t e s t ;  responses.  ( g i v e n i n t e x t , more or l e s s as above.)  Values to be a s s i g n e d to answers; A l l o w 4 p o i n t s c r e d i t f o r each source l i s t e d by the p u p i l which i s r e l i a b l e f o r the I n f o r m a t i o n sought and w h i c h i s as a v a i l a b l e as any other e q u a l l y r e l i a b l e s o u r c e . A l l o w t h r e e p o i n t s c r e d i t f o r each source l i s t e d by the p u p i l w h i c h i s r e l i a b l e f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n sought but i s not as a v a i l a b l e as other r e l i a b l e sources w h i c h he f a i l e d to mention, A l l o w two p o i n t s c r e d i t f o r each source which I s l i k e l y to c o n t a i n some o f the i n f o r m a t i o n sought but i s only f a i r l y dependable. A l l o w one p o i n t c r e d i t f o r each source which i s so vaguely d e f i n e d by the p u p i l t h a t he w o u l d be u n l i k e l y to f i n d i t without c o n s i d e r a b l e l o s s of t i m e . A l s o , one p o i n t f o r an omission or an " I don't know" answer, A l l o w no c r e d i t f o r any source l i s t e d by the p u p i l which I s u n l i k e l y to p r o v i d e any h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n or w h i c h p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n which i s n o t dependable.  183 A refinement  of t h i s type of q u e s t i o n that suggests i t s e l f seems t o  he more o b j e c t i v e a n d more e a s i l y marked. a t i n g o f sources,  A l t h o u g h i t demands the e v a l u -  these sources a r e not. l i k e l y  and make the marking a h e r c u l e a n  job.  to come from many p o i n t s  I f the student knows the source!  33  o f - h i s r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l from the p r e p a r e d l i s t s t h i s type of t e s t i t e m would seem to be q u i t e f a i r as i t measures achievement i n a r e s t r i c t e d f i eId.  DIRECTIONSj Below i s a l i s t o f books and magazine a r t i c l e s w i t h t h e i r authors and below each book i s a s u g g e s t i o n or problem that may o r may n o t be found i n each book. I f you t h i n k t h a t the book c o n t a i n s the suggestion or problem expressed i n a manner t h a t I s m o d e r a t e l y easy to understand and i s r e l i a b l e P l a c e a 3 i n the b l a n k p r o v i d e d . I f you t h i n k the book c o n t a i n s the s u g g e s t i o n o r i n f o r m a t i o n b u t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to understand (too many t e c h n i c a l terms and ideas) P l a c e a 2 i n the blank p r o v i d e d . I f the source mentioned c o n t a i n s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b u t the i n f o r m a t i o n i s v e r y u n r e l i a b l e or open to q u e s t i o n P l a c e a " 1 " i n the blank p r o v i d e d . I f the book does n o t c o n t a i n t h a t type of i n f o r m a t i o n a t a l l P l a c e a "0" i n the blank p r o v i d e d .  »  a. Beneath T r o p i c Seas (Wm. Bsebe) a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g book d e a l i n g w i t h sunken t r e a s u r e ships and the s a l v a g i n g of t h e s e . Should be read by everyone. b. The Hunger F i g h t e r s ( P a u l de K r u i f ) t e l l s among other t h i n g s how Saunders o f Ottawa developed t h e Marquis wheat f o r n o r t h e r n Canada. C The U n i v e r s e Around Us ( S i r J a s . Jeans) e x p l a i n s i n r e a d i l y understandable finglish t h e marvels o f the heavens. d. The N a t i o n a l Geographic Magazine One Issue c o n t a i n s a f i n e e x p o s i t i o n on the b u i l d i n g of an amateur's r a d i o s e t , e. 100,000,000 Guinea p i g s ( E a l l e t and Schenck) t e l l s how the American p u b l i c has hundreds of p a t e n t medicines f o i s t e d on i t . f . C r e a t i v e Chemistry (Slosson) a c h e m i s t r y t e x t t h a t goes i n t o the t h e o r e t i c a l problems conc e r n i n g the u n i o n of atoms i n chemical r e a c t i o n s , w i t h many m a t h e m a t i c a l equations to prove statements.  184  Mark!ng r e sp on s e s » As the q u e s t i o n s stand now evaluated  there i s only one c o r r e c t answer, which i s  i n terms of the scale p r o v i d e d .  The method of s c o r i n g i s to  g i v e one p o i n t f o r c o r r e c t responses and none f o r omissions responses.  and  Incorrect  However, a l o n g w i t h the newer i d e a that i s c r e e p i n g i n t o the  e v a l u a t i o n of responses p r o v i s i o n may  be made f o r the p u p i l ' s r e c o g n i t i o n  o f the f a c t that he does not know and does not attempt to answer, i n preference  to g i v i n g him the  same mark as one who  makes a wrong answer,  Three c o u l d be g i v e n f o r the c o r r e c t responses, and one f o r blanks " I do not know".  or  I n such a case t h i s l a s t response should be i n c l u d e d i n  the s c a l e of v a l u e s p r e s e n t e d  to the  student.  The matching type o f q u e s t i o n i s q u i t e u s e f u l here.  An example  followsj DIRECTIONS: Prom t h i s l i s t of books s e l e c t the l e t t e r i n f r o n t of the name of each book t h a t w i l l a s s o c i a t e the book w i t h the t o p i c or i n f o r m a t i o n i n the l i s t below; a. b. c. d.  Beneath T r o p i c Seas (Beebe) Iron Peddlers (Davis) Universe Abound us (Jeans) 100,000,000 Guinea P i g s ( K a l l e t & Schenck) e. Microbe Hunters (de K r u i f ) f. The P e t Book (Cornstook)  g.Harvest of the Years (Burbank,Wilbur[ h.Hunger F i g h t e r s (de K r u i f ) i , C r e a t i v e Chemistry (Slosson) j.Modern P h y s i c s (Dull) k.How to Enow Our Minerals. e t c . (XYZ) l.Down Below the L i g h t Zone (Williams)  1. E x p l a i n s t o you many of the f r a u d u l e n t p r a c t i c e s i n p r e p a r i n g and s e l l i n g many of the p a t e n t medicines i n the U n i t e d States of A m e r i c a . 2. T e l l s among other t h i n g s of the general p r o c e d u r e s o f making p o p u l a r perfumes, and t h e i r manufacture a r t i f i c i a l l y . g, R e l a t e s experiences i n the f i r s t s e r i e s of r e a l l y deep-water exp l o r a t i o n of s e a - l i f e . 4, shows how the laws of p h y s i c s a p p l y throughout; e x p l a i n s man's g r e a t e s t but most u s e l e s s triumphs. ^ 5 , E x p l a i n s how Canada.  and why  Marquis wheat was  originated f o r northern  MARKING*.  This q u e s t i o n type c o u l d he marked i n the u s u a l way  185 i n which  matching q u e s t i o n s have been marked, or e v a l u a t e d on some scheme to c r e d i t "no r e s p o n s e " as a g a i n s t a c t u a l wrong I n f o r m a t i o n or guessing,  The c o r -  r e c t response must always be v a l u e d at more than double the "no  response"  wherever any s t a n d a r d demands that the student reach an achievement o f 50%,  or some such a r b i t r a r i l y set s t a n d a r d .  The m u l t i p l e response  type of q u e s t i o n can a l s o be u t i l i z e d f o r the  purposes of t e s t i n g knowledge of s o u r c e s , 1. You w i s h to f i n d i n f o r m a t i o n how to make and s a i l a model s a i l b o a t . Check the sources mentioned below t h a t you t h i n k most l i k e l y to c o n t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and which you would go to f i r s t * (  } Tours Through the World of Science  Skilling.  (  ) The  Monroe and E n g e l h a r t  (  ) . I n s t a l l i n g Launch Engines  (  ) J o u r n a l o f Chemical  (  ) Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a  (  ) p o p u l a r Mechanics  {  ) N a t i o n a l Geographic Magazine  (  ) Mechanic Monthly  (  ) London I l l u s t r a t e d News  (  ). L I l l u s t r a t i o n 1  S c i e n t i f i c Study o f P r o b l e m s  Claibourne  Engineering  "  11. You w i s h to f i n d a moderately recent a r t i c l e on the p r o p e r t i e s of matter under h i g h p r e s s u r e , yet not v e r y t e c h n i c a l . W r i t e the name of the book or magazine l i s t e d above that you t h i n k most l i k e l y to c o n t a i n this information.  These q u e s t i o n s were t e s t e d on three c l a s s e s ,  i'he t e s t s seem to  measure growth i n r e a d i n g e x p e r i e n c e , and i n d i r e c t l y growth i n d e s i r e to 1 r e a d s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e . However no c o n t r o l s c o u l d be set up, 1. See Experiment 7 i n the Appendix,  Measure o f j i g a d i n g A b i l i t y  ( A p p l i e d to Other  186  lines)  Benzene, which should not be confused w i t h p e t r o l e u m benzine, i s formed d u r i n g the f r a c t i o n a l d i s t i l l a t i o n of c o a l t a r or s i m i l a r p r o d u c t s . A l t h o u g h I t I s an e x c e l l e n t s o l v e n t f o r gums, f a t s , and r e s i n s i t s most u s e f u l p r o p e r t y i s that i t can be a c t e d upon r a t h e r e a s i l y to form many other more important compounds, such as dyes, a n t i s e p t i c s , perfumes, and e x p l o s i v e s . i?or many years a f t e r i t s d i s c o v e r y by Faraday, i n 1825, i t s s t r u c t u r a l c h e m i c a l formula remained unknown although i t s e m p i r i c a l f o r mula had been e s t a b l i s h e d . This l a c k of knowledge m a t e r i a l l y hindered p r o g r e s s i n the study of I t s c h e m i s t r y and p o s s i b i l i t i e s . In 1855 a German chemist who had l o n g w o r r i e d over t h i s very problem sat down b e f o r e h i s f i r e one evening a f t e r a hard day i n h i s l a b o r a t o r y , and soon f e l l f a s t a s l e e p . D u r i n g h i s s l e e p h i s mind was occupied by a w e i r d dream w h i c h conjured up- snakes and atoms, w r i t i n g around and i n and out, and dashing madly about, " A l l a t once", r e p o r t e d Eekul'e' the dreaming chemist, " I saw one o f the snakes seize i t s e l f by I t s own t a i l , and the form then.whir led m o c k i n g l y b e f o r e my eyes. As i f by a f l a s h of l i g h t n ing I awoke and spent the r e s t of the n i g h t i n w o r k i n g out the consequences of the h y p o t h e s i s , " H i s s o l u t i o n f o r the p r o b a b l e s t r u c t u r a l formula of benzene was the now famous benzene r i n g or hexagon composed of s i x carbon atoms, one a t each a n g l e , w i t h an atom of hydrogen a t t a c h e d to the o u t s i d e o f each atom of carbon. This s o l u t i o n produced wonderful r e s u l t s i n the study of benzene d e r i v a t i v e s , Years a f t e r t h i s d i s c o v e r y , K e k u l e , i n commenting on the weirdness of i t , d e c l a r e d , "We must l e a r n to dream-  Check those statements thus ( ) which are e i t h e r made d i r e c t l y i n the paragraph or are r e a s o n a b l y deducible from the m a t e r i a l . Do not check any one t h a t I s not d e d u c i b l e d i r e c t l y , nor made i n the -paragraph, ( (  ) )  -1. Dreaming I s a very e f f e c t i v e way to solve the great problems met I n c h e m i s t r y . 2, Benzine i s p r e p a r e d by d i s t i l l i n g wood or c o a l t a r ,  (  )  3. The c h i e f u s e f u l p r o p e r t y of benzene i s t h a t i t can be ted moderately e a s i l y i n t o many d e r i v a t i v e s .  (  )  4. Benzene i s used m a i n l y as a s o l v e n t f o r f a t s , r e s i n s , and gums.  (  )  5, .Kekule d i s c o v e r e d benzene.  (  )  6. The benzene r i n g as worked out by Kekule  1-  is:-  conver-  187 SCORING:  A not too cumbersome method o f s c o r i n g would be to modify  van  Wagenen'.s method by t o t a l l i n g a l l the c o r r e c t l y p l a c e d check marks and the p r o p e r b l a n k s l e f t b l a n k , then s u b t r a c t i n g the check marks i n the wrong p l a c e s and the b l a n k s which should have been checked.  Before  items  of t h i s type should be submitted f o r achievement t e s t i n g they should be t e s t e d f o r d i f f i c u l t y and then graded.  Those used on achievement t e s t s  should be of an a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal d i f f i c u l t y each time used i n order that comparison  of achievement w i l l be c o n s t a n t .  Another v a r i a t i o n f o r t e s t i n g the a b i l i t y to understand the  litera-  t u r e of a s u b j e c t i s the use of m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s on a g i v e n p a r a g raph as done t h i s year f o r the f i r s t time on the S o c i a l S t u d i e s m a t r i c u l a t i o n examination,  An attempt w i l l be made to adapt t h i s technique to a  p h y s i c s example hera :  *  "One I s of Course s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the compression of a gas i n t o a ^ s m a l l volume when p r e s s u r e i s e x e r t e d on I t , as d r a m a t i c a l l y demonstrated • i n converse by the a i r t h a t rushes out o f one's t i r e when one has a punct u r e , b u t the compression of l i q u i d s and s o l i d s i s not so evident or so r e a d i l y demonstrated. T h i s has l e d to sometimes f a n t a s t i c p o p u l a r ideas about the, a b s o l u t e i n c y b m p r e s s i b i l i t y of l i q u i d s l i k e water, i d e a s which v .;• were supported by e a r l y crude experiments by p h y s i c i s t s , N e v e r t h e l e s s , b o t h s o l i d s and l i q u i d s , as w e l l as gases, are c o m p r e s s i b l e ; the d i f f e r e n c e i s merely one of degree, r e q u i r i n g much more d e l i c a t e apparatus t o d i s c l o s e it. I t I s even more d i f f i c u l t to demonstrate the c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y of s o l i d s ; i r o n , f o r example^is 100 times l e s s compressible than w a t e r , However, when p r e s s u r e o f thousands of atmospheres become a v a i l a b l e , the volume changes of l i q u i d s and._.solids become l a r g e enough to be measured a c c u r a t e l y w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e l y .simple means. L i q u i d s may l o s e 50 to 40% of t h e i r volume, The volume o f l e e a t room temperature at 50,000 atmospheres i s found to be o n l y &0"/o of t h e volume of the water w i t h w h i c h the experiment s t a r t e d , M e t a l s are i n g e n e r a l much l e s s c o m p r e s s i b l e , but there I s a g r e a t d e a l of v a r i a t i o n , and the most compressible m e t a l , i s more compress i b l e than o r d i n a r y l i q u i d s , and may be reduced to l e s s than one-half i t s i n i t i a l volume by a p r e s s u r e of 50,000 atmospheres. Two tstages are to be r e c o g n i z e d i n the compression of a l i q u i d and to a l e s s e x t e n t i n the compression of a s o l i d . At f i r s t , w h i l e the p r e s s u r e i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y low, the c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h ; t h i s I s f o l l o w e d a t h i g h e r p r e s s u r e s by a r e l a t i v e l y extended range of lower c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y . The f i r s t stage i s due to squeezing the atoms or the m o l e c u l e s i n t o t i g h t e r c o n t a c t — " t a k i n g out the s l a c k " from the atomic 1. van Wagenen, R e a d i n g S c a l e s i n B i o l o g y , L i t e r a t u r e accompanying t e s t (Manual).  188  s t r u c t u r e . The second and more extended phase i s due to more deep-seated changes which may a f f e c t the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the atoms and the molecules themselves. The f i r s t stage can be understood w i t h the s t o c k of o l d e r i d e a s , which was adequate to e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s between l i q u i d s and gases, but to understand the more deep-seated a l t e r a t i o n s I t i s n e c e s s a r y to use some of the newer i d e a s of quantum t h e o r y . Below i s a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s based on t h i s paragraph or e x c e r p t . only those answers or statements t h a t agree w i t h the t e x t g i v e n ;  Check  1.  T h i s r e p o r t by B r , Bridgman of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y s t a t e s that  ( ( ( (  ) ) ) }  2.  The compression of matter under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s and enormous pressures  (  (  ) a, p e r m i t s at the lower l e v e l s the atoms and molecules to r e a d j u s t their internal structure. ) b. can be c o m p l e t e l y understood on the b a s i s of the f a m i l i a r laws c o n c e r n i n g the expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n of gases. ) c, causes i t to p a s s through a s e r i e s of events that can be grouped i n t o two s t a g e s , j d. f o r c e s the deep-seated a l t e r a t i o n s of molecules and atoms,  3.  From t h i s a r t i c l e a p e r s o n could t r u t h f u l l y surmise t h a t :  (  } a. the o l d e r s c i e n t i s t s were so c a r e f u l i n t h e i r work that modern techniques r e a l l y cannot improve upon t h e i r s . ) b, s c i e n t i s t s ideas of the laws o f nature are not f i x e d but change with increasing experimentation. ) c, t r u t h i s not f i x e d but i s v a r i a b l e . ) d, s c i e n t i s t s concern themselves deeply w i t h the most u s e l e s s of things, ) e. f u r t h e r knowledge gained from the experiments might give us a b e t t e r i d e a of the n a t u r e o f the i n t e r i o r of our e a r t h .  ( (  ( ( ( (  a. b. c, d.  gases are e a s i l y compressible at average c o n d i t i o n s , gases can be compressed at o n l y low temperatures. l i q u i d s are i n c o m p r e s s i b l e . s o l i d s can be compressed under tremendous p r e s s u r e s .  SCORING; scores, sions.  T h i s e x e r c i s e c o u l d be scored s i m p l y by c o u n t i n g the c o r r e c t i t would seem b e t t e r to deduct m i s t a k e s , but perhaps n o t omis-  T h i s i s n o t an exact t r u e - f a l s e s i t u a t i o n where o n l y one  ment i s made w i t h o u t any c o r r o b o r a t i n g e v i d e n c e . m u l t i p l e c h o i c e i n the m u l t i p l e response.  state-  There i s an element of  Both the p r a c t i c e o f d e d u c t i n g  e r r o r s and of not d e d u c t i n g them are f o l l o w e d on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s f o r t h i s type of q u e s t i o n .  CHAP T3£R 7 1 1 1  •  CONCLUSIONS AND li ECOlffifflKDAT IONS. 1.  I t i s a x i o m a t i c t h a t t e s t i n g and t e a c h i n g should bear d i r e c t l y upon  the o b j e c t i v e s of the c o u r s e .  i'he o b j e c t i v e s must be kept i n mind q u i t e  c l e a r l y when t e s t s are b e i n g p r e p a r e d .  2.  As a c o r o l l a r y t o the f i r s t p r o p o s i t i o n i t would seem t h a t the objec-  t i v e s of a course must be s e l e c t e d w i t h g r e a t c a r e .  The  o b j e c t i v e s of a  course s h o u l d not be r e s t r i c t e d t o o n l y those wherein achievements can be measured r e a d i l y ,  i f an o b j e c t i v e i s a t t a i n a b l e , i s deemed good, and  i s w o r t h the e f f o r t and t i m e t h e n i t must be i n c l u d e d , and t e s t i n g p r o g ;  rammes must be adapted to the measuring of t h i s o b j e c t i v e . 3.  I t seems h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e t h a t the c r e d i t s o r marks r e c o r d e d to the  student's account  should be a p p o r t i o n e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y I n the magnitude of  the percentage w e i g h t i n g s found by means of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Chap t e r  (See  11),  In r e f e r r i n g to these o b j e c t i v e s and t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s i t w i l l  be  seen t h a t the f i r s t one p e r t a i n i n g to f a c t u a l knowledge i s given a w e i g h t i n g of twenty p e r c e n t .  Compared w i t h the w e i g h t i n g of s i x t y - f i v e  to n i n e t y p e r c e n t t h a t many science courses give to i n f o r m a t i o n the twenty p e r c e n t seems v e r y low.  However, to t h i s twenty p e r c e n t , which  should be construed as m a i n l y "pure" s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n may be added the t e n p e r c e n t of q u e s t i o n s r e f e r r i n g to h e a l t h .  Another seven p e r c e n t  d i r e c t e d to t e s t i n g the s t u d e n t ' s knowledge of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f s c i e n c e to c i v i l i z a t i o n can be combined w i t h the o t h e r s , t o g e t h e r w i t h seven p e r c e n t to be used i n c o u n t e r a c t i n g f a l s e b e l i e f s and  189  superstitions.  190  ' A l l these t o t a l f o r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t , or approximately f i f t y p e r c e n t . That i s , f i f t y p e r c e n t of the student's c r e d i t should be a l l o c a t e d to these o b j e c t i v e s .  This does not appear to be q u i t e so d r a s t i c a reduc-  t i o n as the bare twenty p e r c e n t appeared because many achievement  tests  do i n c l u d e some or much of these a d d i t i o n a l types of i t e m s . May i t be s a i d i n p a s s i n g t h a t i t i s t h i s type of m a t e r i a l  subtended  under these o b j e c t i v e s which i s most e a s i l y "crammed" by students f o r w r i t i n g t e s t s and e x a m i n a t i o n s . The a d o p t i o n of a procedure  s i m i l a r to t h a t advocated here would  tend c o n s i d e r a b l y t o d i s c o u r a g e "cramming", or at l e a s t to devaluate i t . 4.  i t i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e to break the t e s t i n g programme i n t o f o u r groups  of t e s t s ,  s i m i l a r s u i t a b l e t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s a p p l y to c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s .  Other groups of o b j e c t i v e s p r e s e n t s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t e s t i n g .  It  i s thought a d v i s a b l e to segregate the o b j e c t i v e s i n t o the f o l l o v / i n g groups i n order to s i m p l i f y the v a r i o u s c o m p l i c a t i o n s : (a) I n f o r m a t i o n a l ; (b) v o c a t i o n a l and A v o c a t i o n a l ; (c) Reading, and Performance  (d)  tor " p r a c t i c a l ) Tests and S c i e n t i f i c Method. f (  (a) I n f o r m a t i o n a l R e g u l a r u n i t or achievement  t e s t s can be made to i n c l u d e the f o u r  o b j e c t i v e s 1, l v , V I , V l l {body of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, H e a l t h , a c h i e v e ments i n the f i e l d of s c i e n c e , s u p e r s t i t i o n s p r o p o r t i o n of 20, 10, 7, 7,  and f a l s e b e l i e f s ) i n the  TO round the w e i g h t i n g s l i g h t l y i n order t o  g i v e a t o t a l of f i f t y the p a r t s would then r e a d , 25, 10, 8 and 7.  These  t e s t s can be a d m i n i s t e r e d as u s u a l f o l l o w i n g the c o m p l e t i o n of u n i t s o f work, or o<n> a f i n a l achievement  test.  (b) v o c a t i o n a l and, ^ v o c a t i o n a l 'i'ests on the worthy use o f l e i s u r e ( o b j e c t i v e v) and e x p l o r i n g v o c a t i o n s , ( o b j e c t i v e T i l l ) c o u l d be combined i n the p r o p o r t i o n of 6 to 10 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I t might be argued t h a t these c o u l d be p l a c e d on  achievement t e s t s because p e n c i l and paper t e s t s can be p r e p a r e d f o r these o b j e c t i v e s , To o b t a i n a r e l i a b l e measure r e q u i r e s q u e s t i o n s of a s u f f i c i e n t number t h a t the t e s t i n g w i l l occupy a p e r i o d of c l a s s time, b'or  t h i s r e a s o n i t was  the p r e c e d i n g ,  thought a d v i s a b l e to separate t h i s m a t e r i a l from  These t e s t s ean be g i v e n a t the end o f each u n i t , W t l t  would seem b e t t e r to give them/|four times a year i n s t e a d , because more comparative work between u n i t s c o u l d be I n c l u d e d ,  The  t e s t i n g would not  be too r e s t r i c t e d t h e n , (c) pleading Heading t e s t s and measuring i n c r e a s e d d e s i r e to read ( O b j e c t i v e x j can be f i t t e d i n to the o r d i n a r y u n i t s ,  i t i s p o s s i b l y d e s i r a b l e to I n -  c l u d e one of these r e a d i n g a b i l i t y t e s t s i n each u n i t of work,  xhey can  be taken from t e s t books a v a i l a b l e and be d i r e c t l y on the work so t h a t no time i s l o s t , e. g.^ s i l e n t r e a d i n g t e s t s ,  xhe " d e s i r e t o r e a d " s h o u l d be  checked a t the b e g i n n i n g and end o f a, year"s work, (d) Performance and S c i e n t i f i c Method The "performance" type t e s t s w o u l d i n c l u d e some under o b j e c t i v e 11 ( s c i e n t i f i c ne t h o d ) , 111 p r o p o r t i o n of 18, 11, 7,  ( r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s ) and IX ( e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ) i n the x e s t i n g achievements under these o b j e c t i v e s  c o u l d not be done v e r y f r e q u e n t l y . b e s t number of times t o t e s t .  Twice p e r year i s l i k e l y to be  the  I f these t e s t s are to be a d m i n i s t e r e d twice  p e r year the f i r s t should occur c e r t a i n l y no l a t e r than January and should  be looked upon l a r g e l y a s a d i a g n o s t i c t e s t t o see wherein weak.  the p u p i l s are  The f i n a l t e s t should be g i v e n a f t e r a l l the u n i t s are completed  because each u n i t of work w i l l l i k e l y add some a d d i t i o n a l procedure t o t h e i r knowledge o f the s c i e n t i f i c  method, or a t l e a s t some new s i d e l i g h t ,  xhe" c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f each u n i t t o r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s should be i m p o r t a n t , and the a b i l i t y t o experiment  s h o u l d improve w i t h each u n i t o f work taken.  I t would seem a d v i s a b l e t o do t h i s t e s t i n g a t the end of a course i n order to o b t a i n b e t t e r comparative tests.  t e s t items u t i l i z i n g procedures  in,: s e v e r a l  For s c h o o l s t h a t make a p r a c t i c e of promotion by u n i t there would  be many new p r o b l e m s .  I f such s c h o o l s t e s t e d a l l o b j e c t i v e s a t the com-  p l e t i o n of each u n i t w i t h any degree of r e l i a b i l i t y . i t would take n e a r l y a f i v e - p e r i o d week t o do i t .  ^'his would seem to be a very g r e a t amount  of time to spend on t e s t i n g ,  I f they d i d not t e s t a l l achievements they  would be f a l l i n g down i n t h e i r d u t i e s .  I f they l e f t these g e n e r a l  achievements to the end of a s e r i e s o f u n i t s (or a c o u r s e ) . t h e y might f i n d t h a t they are i n a dilemma^for  i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a student may  r e a c h a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l o f achievement on the i n f o r m a t i o n a l t e s t but be q u i t e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n h i s a b i l i t y t o use the s c i e n t i f i c method and to experiment.  What should be done w i t h such a student?  i n h a l f h i s work and " f a i l e d "  He has "passed"  i n t h e other (which i s n o t taught as a d i s -  t i n c t u n i t f o r him t o r e p e a t ) , These three o b j e c t i v e s a r e i n c l u d e d together because the type o f t e s t i n g w i l l , or should,be  much a l i k e f o r a l l .  x  h e r e should be a c t u a l  m a n i p u l a t i o n i n many cases, w h i c h would n e c e s s i t a t e s p e c i a l arrangements i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y or some other room.  These arrangements take c o n s i d e r -  a b l e time and cannot be made w i t h the f a c i l i t y t h a t p e n c i l and paper t e s t s can be *  193  The sampling i n these t e s t s must be as extensive as time w i l l p e r m i t i n order to g a i n as much r e l i a b i l i t y as p o s s i b l e .  5.  For a s i m p l i f i e d i n t r o d u c t o r y programme a r a t i o between the " i n f o r m a t -  i o n a l " and " p r a c t i c a l or d o i n g " o b j e c t i v e s of f o r t y - f o u r to t h i r t y - s i x ( f i v e to f o u r ) c o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d . For the f i r s t year i f the examiner  only attempted to f o l l o w out these  two major means o f measuring he w i l l have made a d r a s t i c break, and a very v a l u a b l e one, w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l methods of measuring  achievements.  I£ p o s s i b l y i s a d v i s a b l e that the examiner keep t o these two  fields  for h i s f i r s t attempts, or at l e a s t u n t i l ho f e e l s he i s on safe ground. 6.  Tests i n v o l v i n g diagrams, graphs, s c a l e s , etc., should be used i n  t e s t i n g the f a c t u a l s i d e of l e a r n i n g more than they a r e used a t p r e s e n t on t e s t s .  7.  They can be made v e r y u s e f u l ,  Diagrams should not be c o n s i d e r e d as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r any t e s t demand-  i n g a c t i v i t y or m a n i p u l a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s .  There are common elements  be-  tween these two methods of t e s t i n g but they varyt@o much between i n d i v i d u a l techniques„and c o r r e l a t i o n s are too low even f o r the h i g h e s t to warrant the assumption of e q u a l i t y . achievement  Because of the u s e f u l n e s s of diagrams  on  t e s t s i t s h o u l d n o t be assumed t h a t they are. v a l i d t e s t s f o r  r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s , e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and s i m i l a r a b i l i t i e s .  (For f u r t h e r  i n f o r m a t i o n see Appendix p p . X i V to XK71.)  8.  Increase i n r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t of students i n Science can be measured  from grade t o grade.  S c i e n c e t e a c h i n g does produce increments o f i n t e r e s t  among p u p i l s i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r e a d i n g , p. XXVI1).  (See Experiment Y i n Appendix  A g a i n , as elsewhere, i t i s the d i r e c t a t t a c k upon the stirnu-  194 l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t t h a t produces best r e s u l t s ,  By d i r e c t a t t a c k i t i s  not meant t h a t a l l hooks he assigned, hut that r e a d i n g should be as f r e e as p o s s i b l e .  I t may  be n e c e s s a r y to a s s i g n a few books to s t a r t o f f the  programme, but t h i s assignment should be reduced to a minimum. 9.  I t seems w i t h i n . t h e realm of p o s s i b i l i t y that t e s t s can be made to  measure a l l achievements or a b i l i t i e s ,  These t e s t s and questions have  been suggested i n chapters V, V I , and V l l .  10,  I n t e r e s t o f students  taken. The  i n a v o c a t i o n a l science grows w i t h each course  This growth can be measured (See Appendix, Experiment 1, p 1 ) .  survey of s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s r e p o r t e d i n Chapter IV would seem to  suggest that no p r e s e n t  s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s would be s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r  t e s t i n g i n General Science  IV or V, nor would a b a t t e r y of p r e s e n t  tests  suffice,  11,  The  form of the q u e s t i o n should be such t h a t i t t e s t s the mental  p r o c e s s d e s i r e d , memory ( r e c a l l , completion (matching),  i n the main), a s s o c i a t i o n  s e l e c t i o n ( m u l t i p l e c h o i c e , m u l t i p l e response),  (from data s u p p l i e d ) , computation, comparison. t e s t s w i l l use  the f i r s t three forms m a i n l y .  deduction  F a c t u a l or i n f o r m a t i o n a l T e s t i n g the a b i l i t y to use  the s c i e n t i f i c method would make use of the l a s t f o u r to a g r e a t e r  extent.  T e s t i n g should be done as much as p o s s i b l e I n s c i e n c e f o r the unders t a n d i n g of the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e by emphasizing the "why", "the consequences of such an a c t i o n " , "how  12,  does i t happen" i d e a s .  The v a l i d a t i o n of the t e s t i n g of the a b i l i t y to use the  method w i l l be r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t , p a r e d w i t h the teacher's  scientific  B a s u l t s of t e s t s w i l l need to be com-  o p i n i o n of the student's a b i l i t y , w i t h h i s  195  u t i l i z a t i o n of the method I n h i s d a i l y l i f e a f t e r he leaves s c h o o l , w i t h the success he has i n u s i n g the method i n u n i v e r s i t y work i f he goes there.  The most v a l u a b l e c r i t e r i o n might be the extent to which the  s c i e n t i f i c method i s a p p l i e d I n s o l v i n g the problems of d a l l y l i f e . o b j e c t i v e r e a l l y alms f o r t h i s .  The  To measure t h i s t r a n s f e r from the teaching  i n s c h o o l to the a p p l i c a t i o n i n d a i l y l i f e i s a t a s k too e x t e n s i v e f o r one teacher to do.  I t r e a l l y needs to be undertaken by some c e n t r a l  authority. L i k e w i s e the v a l i d a t i o n of the t e s t s on v o c a t i o n a l and a v o c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of s c i e n c e courses can be obtained only by s e e i n g to what extent the r e s u l t s of the t e s t s have guided students i n t o or away from s c i e n t i f i c v o c a t i o n s and a v o c a t i o n s ,  This v a l i d a t i o n would demand a c o n s i d e r a b l e  " f o l l o w up" programme,  IS,  The purpose of the t e s t must be kept c l e a r l y i n mind.  The  teacher  must ask h i m s e l f , " I s t h i s to be a mastery t e s t whose c h i e f purpose i s to d i s c o v e r i f b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s have been .grasped, an achievement test to see how much of d e t a i l s and b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s has been l e a r n e d , or an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e s t to rank or p l a c e the student or to secure 14.  data?"  There should be a c l e a r e r , perhaps a new,connotation given to  mastery t e s t s , achievement t e s t s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t e s t s . the f u n c t i o n of each as I t i s suggested  ;  it.  To  study  should be i s r e a l l y another problem.  t h a t mastery t e s t s be d i r e c t e d toward the measuring  of b a s i c achievements t h a t no one I s l i k e l y to f o r g e t .  The extent of  t h i s area cannot be s t a t e d u n t i l measurements are taken f o r each course. R e g i o n A on the c h a r t r e p r e s e n t s t h i s a r e a , ( R g u - ^  M'J  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e s t s are composed of o n l y fca those Items which have  196 good d i s c r i m i n a t i v e power.  These i t e m s , the more d i f f i c u l t , are represent-  ed by r e g i o n B on the c h a r t . Achievement t e s t s should be made to measure both f i e l d s , the d i s c r i m i n a t i v e items and the b a s i c mastered items of r e g i o n s B and  Aclnievcmtoi  A.  Tests  The achievement t e s t r e a l l y s h o u l d be one to measure the p u p i l ' s growth.  As i t i s used and i n t e r p r e t e d r a t h e r w i d e l y at the p r e s e n t  time  i t i s r e a l l y an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or g r a d i n g t e s t from which A's, B's,  G's,  D's,  15.  B's are  obtained.  The p r e s e n t c o n n o t a t i o n g i v e n to achievement t e s t s i m p l i e s the  '. e v a l u a t i n g of a l l achievements on t h e b a s i s of a s i n g l e composite score f o r each t e s t . A grave p h i l o s o p h i c a l and mathematical problem a r i s e s here which cannot be answered i n t h i s work.  Can these d i v e r s e a b i l i t i e s  measured and summated i n terms of a s i n g l e score?  be  The t h e o r y of a d d i t i v i t y  demands t h a t o n l y addends of i d e n t i c a l q u a l i t y be summated.  In other  words i t i n v o l v e s the o l d problem of t r y i n g to add f i v e rocks and f o u r - oranges. T h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s r a t h e r a s e r i o u s one and needs to be faced soon. I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the reform of r e p o r t cards of student p r o g r e s s p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s i m p l i e d here must be s e t t l e d .  the  I f a r e p o r t card i s  197  going t o c o n t a i n only a r e f e r e n c e t o t o t a l achievement i n a s u b j e c t there must be the summation of .scores of p o s s i b l y too d i v e r s e q u a l i t y . I f these achievements cannot be summated i t would demand a r e p o r t card w i t h p r o g r e s s e v a l u a t e d i n iterms of each o b j e c t i v e f o r each course. r e p o r t cards are to be m o d i f i e d f u r t h e r u n t i l they become d i a g n o s t i c r e p o r t s i t would be more important  s t i l l that a l l t e s t i n g be done i n  accordance w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s o f the science course.  If  BIBLIOGRAPHY O r g a n i z i n g the p r o b l e m .  1, A l e x a n d e r , C a r t e r ; ( L i b r a r i a n P r o f e s s o r , 'Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ) , How t o Locate E d u c a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n and Data; Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ; 1935, 2. Monroe, W.S,, and E n g e l h a r t , M.D.; The S c i e n t i f i c Study o f E d u c a t i o n a l Problems - M a c m i l l a n , New York; 1936.  T e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s and Theory o f Measurement. 1. C a s w e l l , H.L., and Campbell, D.S.; C u r r i c u l u m Development: American Book.Co,, Hew York, 1935; Chapters V I , X I I I , XIV. 2, C u r t i s , P.D.; Second D i g e s t of I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the Teaching of S c i e n c e ; ! ' , B l a k i s t o n ' s Bon and Co,; 1931, Si  ........... .A D i g e s t of the I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the Teaching ofSci_enoe_ i n the Elementary and Secondary Schools; g , B l a s k i t o n ' s Son & Co.; 1925.  4, Downing, E,R.; Teaching P r e s s , 1925.  Science i n the S c h o o l s ; U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago  5, Draper, E.M.; p r i n c i p l e s and Technique, o f C u r r i c u l u m Making; D. A p p l e t onCentury; 1936; Chapter on t e s t i n g , Chapter XV. 6, F r a n k l i n , 3.B.; The Permanence o f V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s of J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h School p u p i l s - Johns Hopkins Studies i n e d u c a t i o n , JJIO. 8, Johns Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e ; 1924. 7, G a r r e t t , Henry a.; S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y Green, and Co., lew York; 1933.  and E d u c a t i o n ; Longmans,  8, Hawkes, H.E., L i n d g u i s t , E.F., and Mann, C.R.; The C o n s t r u c t i o n and Use o f Achievement T e s t s ; Houghton, M i f f l i n Co.* 1936. 9, H u l l , C l a r k L.; A p t i t u d e T e s t i n g ; 7/or I d Book Company, 1928. 10, Hunter, G.W.; Science Teaching a t J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h School L e v e l s ; American Book Co.; pp 55-111, 205-229, 487-507, 412-443. 11, E i n s e y , A.e,; Methods i n B i o l o g y ; J . B . L i p p i n c o t t Go,, 1937; Chapters I I I , 1, X I I , X I I I , X V I . 12, May, Mark A.; " p r e d i c t i n g Academic Success;" J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . V o l , 14 (1923), pp 429-440.  198  BIBLIOGRAPHY. , 1 3 . Monroe, Walter S c o t t ; I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Theory of E d u c a t i o n a l Measurements; Houghton M i f f l i n Co.; 1923.  1 9 9  14. N a c c a r a t i , 3 . , and Lewy-Guinzberg, 13.L.; "Hormones and I n t e l l i g e n c e " . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Psychology. V o l . 6 (1922;), pp. 221-234. 15* P i n t n e r , Rudolph; I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t i n g . Methods and R e s u l t s ; Henry H o l t and Co., New York; 1923, 16, 'Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the H i g h Schools B u l l e t i n I^pp. 5-26, 159-189.  o f B r i t i s h Columbia;  17, Ruch, G.N,, and D e g r a f f , M.H.; " C o r r e c t i o n s for Change and «Guess' versus 'Do Not Guess' I n s t r u c t i o n s i n M u l t i p l e Response Tests;" . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . V o l . 17 (1926); pp.368-375. 18, Ruch, G.M., and R i c e , 6.A.; Specimen O b j e c t i v e Examinations; Foresman, and Co.; 1935.  Scott,  19, Ruch, G.K., and Stoddard, G.D.; "The Comparative R e l i a b i l i t i e s of F i v e Types o f O b j e c t i v e Examinations;" J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y . V o l . 16 (1925); pp,89-103, 20, Spearman, C h a r l e s ; The A b i l i t i e s of Man;  Macmillan  Co.,  New  York;  1927,  21, S t e n q u i s t , John L.; Measurements of Mechanical A b i l i t y ; Teachers C o l l e g e C o n t r i b u t i o n t o E d u c a t i o n . No, 130, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ; New York; 1923, 22, Terman, Lewis M.; 1916.  Measurement of i n t e l l i g e n c e ; Houghton M i f f l i n  23, T h o m d i k e , E.L.; "The Permanence of I n t e r e s t s " ; P o p u l a r l y . V o l . 81 (1912).  Co.;  Science Month-  24, T h o r n t i k e , E.L., and Terman, Lewis M.; and o t h e r s ; " I n t e l l i g e n c e and I t s Measurement"; J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . V o l . 12 (1921), pp. 123-212. 25, Toops, Herbert A,;-"Tests f o r V o c a t i o n a l Guidance o f c h i l d r e n T h i r t e e n to S i x t e e n " ; Teachers College C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Education, no.36 Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York; 1923, 26, Toops, H e r b e r t A,; "Trade Tests i n E d u c a t i o n " , 1921;Te'achers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York.  200. BIBLIOGRAPHY, Text-Books and Work-Books Examined For Test Items, Procedur Techniques. • '  PHYSICS 1. Bawsden, A r t h u r T,; Man's P h y s i c a l U n i v e r s e ; Macmillan Co.; 2. B l a c k , N . H . , and D a v i s , H.N.; 1938,  Elementary P r a c t i c a l P h y s i c s ; Macmillan C .  3. D u l l , C h a r l e s E.; Modern P h y s i c s ; Henry H o l t and Co.; 4. F l e t c h e r , G.L., Mosbaeher, I . , and Lehman, 3 . ; M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co.; 1936. 5. F u l l e r , R,W., Brownlee, K,3., Baker, D.L; A l l y n and Bacon; 1933.  1935.  Unified Physics;  F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s of P h y s i c s ;  6. Jean, F.C., H a r r a h , E.o,, Herman, i i . L . , and Powers, S r . ; Man Nature of H i s P h y s i c a l U n i v e r s e - Ginn and Co.; 1934. 7. M i l l i k a n , R.A., Gale, H.G., Ginn and Co.; 1936,  1937.  and c o y l e , «j .P; New  and the  .elementary P h y s i o s ;  8. Stewart, O.M., Cushing, B.L., and Towne, J.R.; P h y s i c s f o r Secondary S c h o o l s ; Ginn and Co.; 1932. 9. W i l s o n , Sherman It,; D e s c r i p t i v e p h y s i c s ; Henry H o l t and Co.;  1936.  CHEMISTRY 1, B i d d l e , H.C., 1936,  and Bush, G.L;  Dynamic Chemistry- Rand M c N a l l y and  2. B l a c k , N.H.,  and Conant, J . 3 . ;  Co.;  New P r a c t i c a l Chemistry; M a c m i l l a n ;  1936,  3* Brownlee, R.B., d u l l e r , Hancock, Sohon, Whit s i t ; F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s of of Chemistry; A l l y n and Bacon; 1934. 4, B r u c e , G.H,;  H i g h School Chemistry- A l l y n and Bacon; 1931,  5, D u l l , C h a r l e s £.; Modern Chemistry; Henry H o l t and Co,  1936.  6• H e s s l e r , John C.; The F i r s t Year of Chemistry.- Ben j , Sanborn and 1931, 7. Howard, R u s s e l l S.; U n i t s i n Shemistry- Henry H o l t ;  Co.  1934.  8. J a f f e , B e r n a r d ; New World o f Chemistry; S i l v e r , B u r d e t t , and Co.;  1933,  201 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9. Kruh, F^O., u a r l e t o n , A.H., ana Carpenter, •J.B. L i p p i n c o t t and uo. 1937 .  P.P.;  ;  10. Mcpherson, W., Henderson W.E., Ginn and Co.; 1934.  and Fowler, G.¥.  ;  Modern L i f e ~  Chemistry  Chemistry f o r Today. :  BIOLOGY 1. Baker, A.D., 1934. 2  »  and M i l l s , L.H.;  B e n e d i c t , B.C., 1938.  3. C o l e , E . G . ;  Knox, W.W.,  Dynamic B i o l o g y ; Hand McUally and  Stone, G.K.;  High School Biology- Macmillan  An I n t r o d u c t i o n to B i o l o g y ; John Wiley  4. Corwin, W., and 1934. 5* C u r t i s , F.D., 1934.  Corwin, M.  and Son-  and  and Horton, R.E.;  7, Hunter, George W.;  Problems i n B i o l o g y ; American Book Co.;  10. Mank, H.C.;  The  B i o l o g y ; Houghton M i f f l i n Co.;1935. 1935,  I n t r o d u c t i o n to B i o l o g y ; J . B . L i p p i n c o t t ;  9. Meier, W.H.D., and Meier, L.M.,  and  Company- no  Ghaisson, A.F.;  1933.  E s s e n t i a l s of  date.  L i v i n g World; Benj. H.  11. Moon, Truman J . , and Mann, P.B.; Co.; 1933,  Co.  Sherman, ET.H.; B i o l o g y f o r Today.  6. F i t z p a t r i c k , F.L.,  B i o l o g y . Ginn and  1933.  J . • L i v i n g Things.- B l a k i s t o n ' s Son and  C a l d w e l l , O.W.,  8, Kinsey, A l f r e d C.; A Hew  Co.-  Sanborn and Co.;  B i o l o g y f o r Beginners-  1935. Henry H o l t  12. P h i l l i p s , M,E., and Cox, L.E.; Elementary B i o l o g y ; Clarke, Irwin, Co., London, Eng.1933,  and and  13. F l e p e r , C.J., Beauchamp, W.L., and Frank, O.D.; Everyday Problems i n B i o l o g y ; S c o t t , Foresman, and Co,; 1936. 14.  Smallwood, W.M., and Bacon-  'Reveley, I.L., and B a i l e y , G.A.;  New  Biology; A l l y n  1934.  15. Wheat, F. M.,  and F i t z p a t r i c k , E.T.;  General  Biolofg;  1932.  16. Wheat, F. M., Co.,  and F i t z p a t r i c k , E.T.; 1936,  Advanced B i o l o g y ; American Book  202 BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOLOGY.  ;  17. Wood, G.C.,  and Carpenter, H.A.;  Our Environment-  A l l y n and Bacon;  1938.  Elementary S c i e n c e ; Ryerson P r e s s ;  1934.  GENERAL SCIENCE. 1. A l l e n , T.B.,  and Perguson, W*P,  ;  2. Bush, G.L., P t a c e k , T.W., Co.; 1937. 3. C a l d w e l l , O.W.,  and Kovats, J , ; Senior S c i e n c e : American Book  and C u r t i s , P.P.;  4. Clement, A.G., C o l l i s t e r , M.C., I r o q u o i s P r e s s ; 1934, 5. D a v i s , I.C., 6. Hunter, G.W.,  and Sharpie, R.W,; Whitman, W.G.;  Book Co.;  Science f o r Today; Ginn and Co.;  Thurston, E.L.; Science;  Surroundings;  Henry H o l t and Co.;  1936,  Science i n Our World of p r o g r e s s ; American  1955.  7. p i e p e r , C.J., and Beauchamp, W.L.; Gage and Co.; 1936.  Everyday Problems i n Scfe.nce;  8. Powers, S.R., Neuner, E.P., and Brun.er, H.B.; Environment• Ginn and Co.; 1935. 9. R e g e n s t e i n , A.B., and T e e t e r s , W.R.; Co.; 1935. 10. Watkins, R.K., 1936.  Our  1936.  and B e d e l l , R.C.;  Wm.  Man's C o n t r o l o f H i s  Science at Work; Rand, MeNally  and  General Science f o r Today; M a c m i l l a n ;  11. Webb, Hanor A,, and Beauchamp, R.O.; Science by O b s e r v a t i o n and Experiment; D. Apple ton-Century Co.; 1935. 12. Weed, H.T., R e x f o r d , P.A., and C a r r o l l , P.B.; S c h o o l ; 1935; John C, Winston, 13. Wood, G,C, and C a r p e n t e r , K.A.; A l l y n and Bacon? 1934,  U s e f u l Science f o r High  Our Environment S e r i e s I . I I , I I I ;  203. BIBLIOGRAPHY. WORKBOOKS • 1, A d e l l , J . C . , Dunham, 0.0., and Walton, L.E,; E x p l o r a t i o n s i n B i o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e ; Ginn and Go.; 1937, 2, B a i l e y , G.A., 1934,  and Greene, R.A.,  New L a b o r a t o r y Manual; A l l y n and Bacon,  3, Baker, A,0., and M i l l s , L.H.; A c t i v i t i e s to Accompany "Dynamic B i o l o g y . " 1935. Rand, M c U a l l y , and Go. 4, B i d d l e , H.C., and Bush, G.L.; L a b o r a t o r y Manual f o r "Dynamic Chemistry," 1936, Rand, M c l a l l y , and Co. 5 , Brownlee, F u l l e r , Hancock, Sohon, W h i t s i t ; Laboratory Experiments i n Chemistry; A l l y n and Bacon, 1935. 6, C a l d w e l l , 0,?/., and C u r t i s , F.D.; Workbook f o r "Science f o r Today;" Ginn and Co.; 1936, 7, C a l d w e l l , O.W., and Sherman, K.H.; Ginn and Company; 1936.  Workbook f o r B i o l o g y f o r Today,  8, C r p e n t e r , F.F., and Car l e t on, R .H,; Comprehensive U n i t s i n Chemistry. J . B . L i p p i n c o t t ; 1935, a  9, Dovning, E. R., and McAtee, V.M.; P r o b l e m S o l v i n g i n B i o l o g y , Lyons and Carnahan, 1934. 10, Downing, E.R., and McAtee, 7.M.; Carnahan; 1936.  A L e a r n i n g Guide i n B i o l o g y ; Lyons and  11, F u l l e r , Brownie6, and Baker; L a b o r a t o r y E x e r c i s e s i n P h y s i c s ; A l l y n and Bacon; 1932, 12, H e s s l e r , John C ; Workbook Manual f o r F i r s t Year of Chemistry; B e n j . , J . Sanborn; 1934, 13, Mank, H.G.;  Adventures i n T h i n k i n g ; B e n j . H. Sanborn; 1935.  14, Van B u s k i r k , E.F., Smith, E.L., and W i l s o n , J.R.; Workbook f o r "The Science o f Everyday L i f e " ; Houghton M i f f l i n , 1931,  204 BIBLIOGRAPHY TESTS, STANDARDIZED AHD OTHERWISE, BIOLOGY 1, G o o p r l d e r , J . L . ; Cooprider B i o l o g i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n Test; 1924; P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Co., Bloomington, 111, 2, Downing, E.R., and McAtee, \Teva M.; B i o l o g y U n i t T e s t s ; Arrangement A and B. 14 t e s t s ; Lyons and Carnahan. 3, L a i d l a w , O.W., and Woody, 0.; M i c h i g a n Botany Test; P u b l i c School p u b l i s h i n g Co.; Bloomington, 111, 4, S u c h , G.M., and Cossman, L.3., Euch-Cossman B i o l o g y T e s t ; Forms A and B; 1924; World Book Company, 2126 P r a i r i e Ave., Chicago. 5, Yan Wagenen, M.J.; Tan Wagenen Reading Scales i n B i o l o g y ; Forms A and B; 1929; The E d u c a t i o n a l Test Bureau, I n c . , M i n n e a p o l i s , Minn.  CHEMISTRY 1. Carpenter and C a r l e t o n ; Mastery Tests i n Chemistry; 1935. 2. Cooperative Chemistry Tests I , I I , C; Cooperative Test S e r v i c e , New v: . ., .i.Ybrk, 1936. 3. Gerry, H. L.; H a r v a r d High School Chemistry T e s t ; Forms A and B; G i v i n and Co.; 1922. 4. J e t t e , E.R., Powers, F.R., and Wood, B.R.; Columbia Research Bureau Chemistry Test; Form A; Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ; 1929; World Book Co., 2126 P r a i r i e Ave., Chicago. 5. M a l i n , J . E . , D i a g n o s t i c Test i n Chemistry; Forms A and B; P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Co., Bloomington, 111.; 1932. 6. p a r s i n g ; L a b o r a t o r y Chemistry Test; Forms A and B. 7. Powers General Chemistry Test; Forms A and 3 ; World Book Co., 2126 P r a i r i e Ave., Chicago,  205 BIBLIOGRAPHY. PHYSICS 1. C o o p e r a t i v e p h y s i c s Test- Cooperative Test S e r v i c e ; Hew  York.  2. F a r w e l l , H.W., Wood, B.D.; Columbia Research Bureau P h y s i c s Test- Forms A and B; 1926; World Book Co, 31 Hughes; p h y s i c s S c a l e s , I n f o r m a t i o n and Thought- P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Co., Bloomington, 111. 4. Hurd, A.W.; F i n a l Test i n High School p h y s i c s ; 1930 Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia. GENERAL SOI  MCE.  1, C a l d w e l l and C u r t i s ; U n i t Tests f o r "Science f o r Today"; Ginn and 1936; 17 t e s t s .  Co,;  2, Cooperative General Science Tests ( U n d e r b i l l and Powers?- Forms 1936, 1937; N; Cooperative, Test S e r v i c e , Mew York, 3, Dvorak, A,; General Science Test; Forms Sg , Tg , B^ School P u b l i s h i n g Co., Bloomington, 111.  j 1924; P u b l i c  4, Dvorak, A. and van Wagenen, M.J. ; A n a l y t i c a l Scales of Attainment; 1933; Ed, Test Bureau I n c . , M i n n e a p o l i s , Minn. 5, Powers, S.R.- G e n e r a l Science Test; Forms A and B; 1927; Bureau of P u b l i c Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . 5.  Ruch and P openoe; G e n e r a l Science T e s t ; Forms A and B.  OTHER TESTS 1. Brewer, 2. Camp, K.L.  ; V o c a t i o n a l A p t i t u d e Test f o r Boys; ;  ton,  Iowa P h y s i c s Test; P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  Blooming-  111.  3. D e t r o i t M e c h a n i c a l A p t i t u d e T e s t . 4. S t a n f o r d E d u c a t i o n a l A p t i t u d e T e s t , 5. Stewart-Ashbaugh P h y s i c s T e s t s , Form 1; P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Co., Bloomington, 111. 6. Zyve, D.L., S t a n f o r d S c i e n t i f i c A p t i t u d e Test; 1929; S t a n f o r d U n i v e r sity Press. 7. Sangren and Marborger; M i c h i g a n I n s t i t u t e Test i n P h y s i c s -  APP ENDIX :•  QUESTIONNAIRB .  EVALUATING- THE OBJECTIVES OP THE GENERAL SCIENCE COURSES IV AND V. PURPOSES OP QUESTIONNAIRE. I t i s d e s i r e d to f i n d an e v a l u a t i o n o f the o b j e c t i v e s of the p r e s e n t courses i n General Science IV and V i n order to guide the development of q u e s t i o n types t h a t would be s u i t a b l e f o r achievement t e s t and v a l i d f o r the o b j e c t i v e s o f the c o u r s e s . T e s t i n g would a l s o i n v o l v e some means of a p p o r t i o n i n g achievements towards the v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s , t h a t i s , a w e i g h t i n g must be e s t a b l i s h e d , EVIDENCE OP FEED OF -QUESTIONNAIRE. 1. programme of S t u d i e s f o r High Schools of B. C., 1937, page 27 r e m a t r i c u l a t i o n and a c c r e d i t i n g ; "A system of a c c r e d i t i n g w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d . There i s , t h e r e f o r e , no longer any reason why h i g h s c h o o l teachers I n t h e i r t e a c h i n g and s c h o o l procedures should h e s i t a t e to aim a t the achievement of the g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s of education and p a r t i c u l a r l y a t those o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h may be achieved through t h e i r own s u b j e c t s . This a p p l i e s e q u a l l y t o methods of t e s t i n g , f o r i t i s fundamental t h a t t e s t i n g should bear upon the o b j e c t i v e s of a course. Page 21, An e x a m i n a t i o n t h a t s t r e s s e s these outcomes (knowledge and s k i l l ) to the e x c l u s i o n of the others not. only excludes these outcomes from the t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s , but s p e e d i l y excludes them from the t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s as w e l l . 2, M o r r i s o n , H,C, "The p r a c t i c e o f Teaching i n Secondary Schools" 1926. "The moment we attempt to a p p l y a systematic procedure to our t e a c h i n g we a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the need of a p r o c e s s o f t e s t i n g . I t i s not enough to t e a c h ; I t I s n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d out whether our t e a c h i n g has registered.. 3. Kurd, A.W. P u b l i s h e d master's t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, (paraphrased) The r e s u l t s o f t h i s experiment a p p a r e n t l y support the c l a i m that d i r e c t methods of a t t a c k r e s u l t i n most accomplishment. I t would seem t h a t the b a s t way to secure a d e s i r e d r e s u l t I s to t e a c h f o r t h a t r e s u l t This experiment l e a d s , a _ p r i j a i i , to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t there must be d e f i n i t e aims i n the course i n p h y s i c s , or any other course, 4, Thorndifce, E.L. H i s t h e o r y t h a t t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g occurs only I n s o f a r as there are i d e n t i c a l elements i n both f i e l d s t h a t are c o n s c i o u s l y r e a l i z e d would suggest t h a t any course must be taught toward the object i v e s o f t h a t c o u r s e . Therefore a g a i n , evidence from h i s experiments and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s would commit a teacher to teach d i r e c t l y f o r a n y t h i n g w h i c h i s to be done s u c c e s s f u l l y . Some s o r t of t e s t would be the o n l y way of f i n d i n g success or f a i l u r e , 5. Hawkes, L i n g u i s t , and Mann. "The C o n s t r u c t i o n and Use of Achievement T e s t s " page 5. One major d e f e c t of t y p i c a l examinations has been the f a c t t h a t they have g i v e n evidence w i t h r e f e r e n c e to only a l i m i t e d  number of o b j e c t i v e s of that course, and have not i n d i c a t e d adequately 11 the degree to w h i c h students were a t t a i n i n g a l l the d e s i r e d outcomes of instruction. Page 7. R a r e l y do we f i n d students t e s t e d on such o b j e c t i v e s as t h e i r a b i l i t y t o u t i l i z e the s c i e n t i f i c method, c o n s i s t e n c y of p o i n t of view, t h e i r s k i l l i n l a b o r a t o r y work. Page 13. I t i s r e a d i l y apparent t h a t the procedures of f o r m u l a t i n g and a n a l y z i n g . t h e major o b j e c t i v e s f o r any course are d e s i r a b l e , and are i n v a l u a b l e when making a comprehensive programme of examinations DIRECTIONS FOR WALtTATITO TUB OBJECTIVES, C e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s have been l a i d down by the Committee which p r e p a r e d the courses General Science IV and V. I t i s d e s i r a b l e to f i n d which o b j e c t i v e s v a r i o u s groups of p e o p l e t h i n k most important. Two means of e v a l u a t i n g these would be• 1, t o r a n k them n u m e r i c a l l y i n order of importance 1 to 10 as you see f i t and 2, to give a percentage r a t i n g on the b a s i s of an estimate as to what f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l outcomes each o b j e c t i v e I s worth. Below are found the ten o b j e c t i v e s s e l e c t e d by the Committee, but jumbled i n arrangement l e s t there was any attempt by the Committee at w e i g h t i n g , (In order to avoid outside i n f l u e n c e s upon your d e c i s i o n . ) To the r i g h t of each statement there are two columns. In Column "A" p l a c e your numeric a l or o r d i n a l r a n k i n g values g i v i n g the value 1 to that o b j e c t i v e that you t h i n k most v a l u a b l e i n the course, 2 to the n e x t , and so f o r t h up to 10, i n Column B" p l a c e an estimated percentage of "worth" beside each objective, ( I t i s a d m i t t e d that up to the p r e s e n t no very s a t i s f a c t o r y t e s t s have been developed f o r some o f these o b j e c t i v e s , so p l e a s e evaluate these items on the i d e a l i s t i c assumption t h a t v a l i d t e s t s can be p r e p a r e d f o r each, such t e s t s might be of a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t kind, from the u s u a l p e n c i l and p a p e r type.) !t  Each responder Is asked n o t to r e f e r to books or to other person's o p i n i o n s , but to use h i s own c a r e f u l judgment as to what he t h i n k s b e s t . On t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l t h o u g h a space i s p r o v i d e d f o r your name i t i s not n e c e s s a r y to f i l l t h i s i n i f you do not w i s h . However, an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n - w o u l d add i n t e r e s t .  (Questionnaire  on next page.)  iii  t t U i s S I ' I O S J S A I H ( s u b m i t t e d to teachers)  £LAVJS  X G U" T A U G H T  SCiMiUA' SUBJECTS?  IF SO v/HIcE OF xrusSE?  . . . . . . . .  A g r i c u l t u r e , B i o l o g y , uhemis t r y , Oen-.science ,Physics  DO YOU COKSIDsER THE FIELD OF SCIENCE TO BE YOUR SPECIALTY? . , *  OBJECTIVE  a  «  1  0  use  of leisure.  b. To enable the .student to counteract s u p e r s t i t i o n and to c o r r e c t erroneous b e l i e f s through the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s . PPucaTion  C. To develop r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s and a d a p t a b i l i t y t o new conditions* J  d. To acquire a body o f knowledge i n the f i e l d s o f science which w i l l enable the student to i n t e r p r e t and a p p r e c i a t e h i s environment.  e. To a p p r e c i a t e achievements i n the f i e l d o f science and the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of s c i e n t i s t s to the w o r l d .  f . To develop a b i l i t y i n the use o f the s c i e n t i f i c method, e. g., a. To make accurate observations and to r e c o r d them s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . b. To draw v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s . . • c . To suspend judgment u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t e v i d ence has been obtained, d. To 'develop a c r i t i c a l y e t t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e towards irew i d e a s .  h>  s «  SANK PERCENTAGE A IB  P r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s f o r the worthy  g. To develop the d e s i r e to r e a d  *  scientific  literature  To-, acquire'knowledge that w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to p u b l i c and P a r s e n a l h e a l t h . i . To explore the f i e l d of science i n order to a s s i s t the p u p i l to choose h i s v o c a t i o n . j . To develop the a b i l i t y to p e r f o r m simple experiments and thus to a p p r e c i a t e the s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s o f science.  Iv  ESFERIKENT I  p u r p o s e To t r y to develop a t e s t i n g procedure w h i c h w i l l giwe a measure o f the a v o c a t i d n a l i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e c r e a t e d b y a p a r t i c u l a r course i n science. p r e p a r a t i o n of Tests L i s t s o f p o s s i b l e a v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s were p r e p a r e d by s e l e c t i n g those suggested i n a wide v a r i e t y o f t e x t books. The l i s t s were s e p a r a t e d r o u g h l y i n t o s e c t i o n s based m a i n l y p h y s i c s , c h e m i s t r y , or b i o l o g y . Each i t e m was t o be e v a l u a t e d by the student on a seven column s c a l e as shown i n the sample. To reduce the mechanics o f student e f f o r t , the s t u d e n t was asked to make o n l y a check mark i n the p r o p e r column. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The t e s t was. g i v e n t o one c l a s s from each of Grade IX, X, and X I i n B r i t a n n i a H i g h S c h o o l , These c l a s s e s were 17, 10, and a mixed group t a k i n g G e n e r a l S c i e n c e V. I t was not p o s s i b l e t o a l t e r the c l a s s e s a t a l l i n order t o equate them f o r a b i l i t y ( e i t h e r i n g e n e r a l or i n science) or i n t e r e s t . The Grades X and X I c l a s s e s are a p p r o x i m a t e l y average as shown by the s c h o o l r e c o r d s o f the s t u d e n t s . The Grade I X c l a s s (Class 17) may be s l i g h t l y above average, because t h e i r age grade average i s lower t h a n the normal o f 14 y e a r s taken on September 1, 1938. So f a r no r a n k i n g s o r t e s t s o f the c l a s s have been made. Each c l a s s was g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t time t o f i n i s h the t e s t . The slowest s t u d e n t s u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d t h i r t y - f i v e minutes. So or i n g was done s i m p l y by a d d i n g the check nark i n each column* This was e x t r e m e l y easy and i s one o f the advantages o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r form o f t e s t , Scores f o r each column were then averaged, SHOWING P.5I—AVlOHSH IP - B E T w e e H Aft3> !MuyiBE"FL OP SCtENCe  IMTEKE5.TS DEVEUopED CLOU-RSFS TAKSN-  Last No. o f C o l , 5 Tear's i P u p i l s iPosScience sible Course new  Col. 4 Col. 3 Act, Interests new Int,Av |.cont.. Int.Avl Av. ,  GRADE IXJGen.Sc, Glass 17 11  37  GRADE X !Hen.Sc. .Class 10 ..111  37  GRADE X I Gen.Sc. Mixed IV  39  !  14.76  .378  1,81  -Gol. 2 C o l . 1 IntShould erests not drop- adopt ped Av, Av, 1,35  .62  Col. 0 No interest Av, 102  •  16,86 | 1,4  3.24  .3  I 1.75  2.7  3.5i  :  .026  .27  98.65  .08  .33  91,  ,05  ( i  20,8  Col,-l dropped because of Sc. Courses Av,  CONCLUSIONS S e v e r a l warnines m ^ t are drawn because g S  ™  »  «  ,  A  .  m  u  s  t  >,  a  b e  m a d e  i. » however, before c o n c l u s i o n s  (.1) The d a t a are based on only three c l a s s e s of d i f f e r e n t a£ (2) No c o n t r o l group which had no s c i e n c e t r a i n i n g c o u l d be gesfound (3) C l a s s e s were not equated although they were r o u g h t l y "average" The r e s u l t s seem to show that the t e s t has the power to d i s t i n g u i s h increments i n i n t e r e s t s and a v o c a t i o n s a t t r i b u t a b l e to science courses taken by the s t u d e n t s . Bach year more students see the p o s s i b i l i t y o f more s c i e n c e avoca t i o n s . The i n c r e a s e i n p o s s i b l e a v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s amount to f o u r or f i v e i t e m s , A c t u a l a v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s Increase each year b e i n g more pronounced i n Grade IX General Science 111, The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s n o t shown on the t e s t , but i t may be due to the f a c t t h a t students b e g i n to handle t h i n g s more and to p e r f o r m experiments more by thems e l v e s i n t h i s and l a t e r courses (compared to c o n d i t i o n s i n elementary schools), A v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s m a i n t a i n e d i n c r e a s e between General Science 111 and IV, but dropped o f f f o r General Science V, T h i s may be due to the g r e a t e r demands of academic work and courses of the s e n i o r years of the h i g h SGhool c o u r s e s , made upon the s t u d e n t . Other f a c t o r s may be o p e r a t i v e . There i s an i n c r e a s e I n the number o f a v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s dropped each year.' T h i s may be a n a t u r a l concomitant of mental growth f o r few p e r s o n s m a i n t a i n every a v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y t h a t they adopt, W i t h i n c r e a s e s shown i n i n t e r e s t s and hobbies each y e a r , i t i s only to be expected t h a t fewer n e u t r a l or "no i n t e r e s t " responses should be made each y e a r . I t was r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g t o the i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t so very few a c t i v i t i e s were dropped due to the n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of the s c i e n c e courses taken, as a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r average was expected. Few s t u d e n t s t h i n k that any of the a c t i v i t i e s of the l i s t are harmf u l or should n o t be adopted, GENERAL  The same t e s t when g i v e n to i n d i v i d u a l s i n l a t e r y e a r s might r e v e a l an i n d i v i d u a l growth of i n t e r e s t s comparable to the group increments, mentioned. This c o u l d not be t e s t e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r a t the p r e s e n t .  vl AN EXERCISE TO SHE HOW SCIENCE HELP YOU TO USE YOUR LEISURE TIME. As the t i t l e suggests t h i s e x e r c i s e i s set as an attempt to f i n d out to what e x t e n t science courses have p r o v i d e d you w i t h worth-while i n t e r a s t s a c t i v i t i e s , and hobbies t o f o l l o w i n your l e i s u r e time. In r e a d i n g through t h i s e x e r c i s e y o u ' w i l l see f i r s t a l i s t of values or marks to g i v e c e r t a i n items i n the second l i s t which f o l l o w s i t . In order to s a v e your time as much as p o s s i b l e you are asked to put check marks only i n the columns that f i t your e v a l u a t i o n b e s t . A f t e r you have r e a d each i t e m c a r e f u l l y p l a c e a check mark i n Column .5 to r e p r e s e n t a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s which you have not f o l l o w e d but would l i k e to.some time i f you have s u f f i c i e n t funds and l e i s u r e Column 4 to r e p r e s e n t those hobbies, a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , e t c . , that you have adopted or have developed d u r i n g t h i s course. Column 3 t o r e p r e s e n t those hobbies, a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , e t c , that you have been f o l l o w i n g f o r some time, and s t i l l continue to do so. Column 2 to r e p r e s e n t those hobbles, a c t i v i t i e s , I n t e r e s t s , e t c . that you d i d f o l l o w ' a t one time but dropped before you took t h i s c o u r s e , Column 1 to r e p r e s e n t those a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h you t h i n k a student s h o u l d not p a r t i c i p a t e at a l l . Column 0 to r e p r e s e n t those a c t i v i t i e s i n which you have had no i n t e r e s t , and s t i l l have no i n t e r e s t . Column -1 to r e p r e s e n t hobbies, i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s , e t c . that you f o l lowed a t one time but have dropped or turned a g a i n s t as d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s course. P l e a s e c o n s i d e r these f a i r l y . EXAM? LS j ITEM 5 4 3 2 1 0 1, Growing p r i z e - w i n n i n g f l o w e r s 2, S t u d y i n g the s t a r s . 3, C o l l e c