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The prose style of Richard Hooker in "The laws of ecclesiastical polity" Gale, Anne Moira 1939

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0< ' €. - \ 0, , The Prose Style of Richard Hooker i n "The laws of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y " . by Anne Moira Gale. A Thesis submitted f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of • ENGLISH. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia APRIL, 1939. TABLE 6f C O N T E N T S Page INTRODUCTION... . . . .. ( i ) Chapter'!: THE PROSE RHYTHM of the POLITY . . . . . . . . 1 . Phrases - v a r i o u s t y p e s , . . . . A n a l y s i s of paragraphs from Hooker, ' R a l e i g h , Sydney... . . 3. • Observations from a n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 . C o n c l u d i n g remarks, t h e o l o g i c a l prose and p o e t i c prose c o n t r a s t e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 . " I I : THE USE of the CURSUS and the CADENCE r J by HOOKER. : . .23, Time the b a s i s of rhythm. > . . . . . . . . 2 3 E x p l a n a t i o n of Cursus and Cadences........24 Types of sentences u s i n g Cadences and Cursus............. 26 Cursus and Cadences i n paragraphs.........28 Co n c l u d i n g remarks 32 . Appendix A — f u r t h e r examples 33 I I I : THE INFLUENCE of LATIN on HOOKER'S PROSE STYLE.. 35 Grammar and syntax 35 L a t i n i z e d v o c a b u l a r y . . . .-. . . 37 Hooker's prose compared w i t h L a t i n of S t A u g u s t i n e and T e r t u i l i a n ...40. Co n c l u d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s on v o c a b u l a r y — grammar, s y n t a x , p e r i o d i c sentence ........45. S e l e c t i o n s from o t h e r E l i z a b e t h a n w r i t e r s ' of Uprose 48 Note on S p e c i a l Use of S e c u l a r Vocabulary.51 IV: A SHORT ACCOUNT of the PUNCTUATION of the POLITY. .53 I t s modernity. . . 153 Use of c_olon. ...................... 54 Br a c k e t s and I t a l i c s 55 V: THE USE of RHETORIC i n the POLITY......... 57 Orname n t a t i on, • A m p l i f ,1c a t i o n . 1 ; '. L o g i c a l Order ..57 D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of "Lessons as a way to F a i t h " 61 An o u t l i n e of "The Strength of Man* s A u t h o r i t y " 72 Concluding remarks 74 0 ONOXjXJS I O U • »**•«»*• • » * * » » 8 * « » » * » » * « « > # » * • « • • * • • • • • o V S U n i t y of S t y l e i n the P o l i t y 76 " " Aims " " " 78 " " S p i r i t " " " • 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY. • ..82 ( i ) The Prose S t y l e of R i c h a r d Hooker, as found i n "The Laws of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y . " I n t r o d u c t i o n . R i c h a r d Hooker wrote The Laws of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y as a defence of the Church of England a g a i n s t the a t t a c k s of both Roman C a t h o l i c s and Reformers. Most of h i s arguments were d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the l a t t e r , whose l e a d e r , Thomas C a r t w r i g h t , had a t t a c k e d the Church of England f o r r e t a i n i n g too much of the c e r e m o n i a l and d o c t r i n e of Rome-. Hooker was able to show t h a t h i s church embraced n o t h i n g con-t r a r y t o any laws of s c r i p t u r e , but had a c h i e v e d an almost p e r f e c t compromise between l a c k of reform and- u l t r a r e f o r m ; and he managed t o make h i s opponents appear g u i l t y of a l l s o r t s of e r r o r and p r e j u d i c e . He, l i k e the Reformers, r e g a r d -ed the Roman Church as a danger s a f e l y escaped, but he was f a i r enough, (-only a t such times as were n e c e s s a r y ) , t o admit t h a t t h e r e was some wholesbmeness i n the d o c t r i n e and c e r e m o n i a l of Rome. Hi s r e a s o n i n g shows the same e l a s t i c i t y , b e i n g f o r the most p a r t profound and l o g i c a l , but o c c a s i o n -a l l y more nimble than w e i g h t y , more i n g e n i o u s than c o n v i n c i n g . 1. Of h i s "sweet r e a s o n a b l e n e s s " there are many examples, and of h i s p i e t y , but the g e n e r a l temper of the t r e a t i s e i s t h a t of the keen t h e o l o g i a n b a t t l i n g w i t h another e q u a l l y e x c i t e d over p o i n t s t h a t few but master t h e o l o g i a n s would choose to d i s c u s s . 1. Of the Laws of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y by R i c h a r d Hooker. Everyman's L i b r a r y , e d i t e d by Ronald Bayne, 1907. ( i i ) The s t y l e I.that c a r r i e d the l o g i c i a n through h i s l o n g and t e d i o u s campaign answered a l l the demands of i t s master. I t had the d i g n i t y and f u l n e s s of . E l i z a b e t h a n ' E n g l i s h , a d m i r a b l y s u i t e d to the, s e r i o u s theme. I t l a c k e d the s i m p l i c -i t y of B i b l e language. I t r e f l e c t e d , r a t h e r , the c o m p l e x i t y •of the "-author's r e a s o n i n g s i n the i n t r i c a c i e s of i t s l o n g p e r i o d s , phrase and c l a u s e t u r n i n g t h i s way and t h a t i n the "course of e x p o s i t i o n " , or r o l l i n g on i n the " f l o w of 1, e l o q u e n c e J But even more n o t i c e a b l e than the c o m p l e x i t y of such'passages i s the c l a r i t y of the s t y l e ; f o r an argument must be c l e a r in, order to be c o n v i n c i n g , and the l o n g e r the . 2 . sentence the more d e f i n i t e l y coherent i t must be. The prose of Hooker i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , unmannered, u n i m a g i n a t i v e , whol-l y : s u b s e r v i e n t to the matter - the s h o r t e s t means of e x p r e s s i o n f o r what was i n i t s master's mind. My paper b e g i n s w i t h an attempt t o a n a l y s e the Ehythm and the P h r a s i n g , and shows how they add t o the s o n o r i t y of t h i s m asterpiece of prose. Paragraphs by R a l e i g h and Sidney, contemporaries of Hooker, are i n t r o d u c e d f o r purposes of comparison. Some v e r y s p e c i a l e f f e c t s i n rhythm are a l s o d e s c r i b e d under the heading of Ctirsus and Cadences. Then, t u r n i n g from the d e c o r a t i v e s i d e of t h i s prose to the f o u n d a t i o n on which i t was b u i l t , I have t r i e d t o prove how c l o s e l y the L a t i n u n d e r l i e s the E n g l i s h , and i n how many ways i t s i n f l u e n c e i s apparent. A f t e r t h i s , by way of c o n t r a s t . 1. Read, E n g l i s h Prose S t y l e , p. 71. 2 . I b i d . , p. 37. ( i n ) there f o l l o w s a s h o r t s e c t i o n on the S e c u l a r Vocabulary, the use of n a t i v e , household terms, which, though not as numerous as the words of L a t i n o r i g i n , are e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e . The P u n c t u a t i o n i s next c o n s i d e r e d , a t t e n t i o n b e i n g g i v e n c h i e f l y t o the c o l o n s i n Hoofer's: prose , which r e l i e d v e r y much on t h a t device." The l a s t of the s e c t i o n s d e s c r i b e s the use t h a t Hooker.made of the Rules of R h e t o r i c . In the C o n c l u s i o n I f i n d t h a t , d e s p i t e the g r e a t r e s p e c t w i t h which c r i t i c s have t r e a t e d Hooker, he has not been g i v e n f u l l c r e d i t f o r the U n i t y a c h i e v e d by h i s m a s t e r p i e c e . I have been o b l i g e d t o i n c l u d e a g r e a t many q u o t a i t l o n s from The Laws of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y i n support of t h i s o r t h a t statement, thereby, a,dding c o n s i d e r a b l y to the b u l k of my essay. I am w e l l s a t i s f i e d , however, to l e t Hooker's prose have as much space as p o s s i b l e , f o r i n t h i s case the i m p o s s i b l e happens, and the g r e a t e r Is c o n t a i n e d by the l e s s . CHAPTER I . THE PROSE RHYTHM--COMPARISON w i t h RAIEIGH and SYDNEY. The f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s on prose rhythm are talcen from The Technique of E n g l i s h Verse by G. R. Stewart, and _The  Rhythm of E n g l i s h Prose by Norton R. Tempest. Prose rhythm cannot be determined by an ex a m i n a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l words of which i t i s composed. These words must be grouped i n t o phrases. A phrase i s an arrangement of s y l l a b l e s , or perhaps i t c o n s i s t s of only one s y l l a b l e h a v i n g some l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and a t l e a s t one s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e . " I n g e n e r a l " says G. R. Stewart, " a r t i c l e s , p r e p o s i t i o n s , con-j u n c t i o n s , and most pronouns and a u x i l i a r y verbs are p r o -nounced a l o n g w i t h a more s t r o n g l y s t r e s s e d word". F or the purpose of i n d i c a t i n g a s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , i t i s proposed t o use the "S" t h a t Stewart has adopted. He marks u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s w i t h "o", or w i t h an "1" i f they have secondary s t r e s s . I n prose one f i n d s the f o l l o w i n g combinations of s t r e s s e d and u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . S "law" OS . "attempt") So " w i n t e r " ) d i s s y l l a b i c ooS "at a blow") 0S0 "remember" ) t r i s y l l a b i c Soo ^ p r o p e r l y " ) Sooo, or Solo "melancholy" 0S00 " e t e r n i t y " . ) ooSo "one a n o t h e r " ) naeon oooS, or l o o S " i n the event") oSolo e t c . The d i f f e r e n c e between prose and v e r s e , i n the matter of p h r a s i n g , i s t h a t the former i s improved by the use of the RHYTHM-. . 2 l a r g e r phrases, i ,e. , those of ..four and more s y l l a b l e s , whereas verse must admit them c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a r e l y . -Both prose and v e r s e , however, c o n t a i n " r i s i n g " and " f a l l i n g " rhythm. Such phrases as.end w i t h a s t r e s s a r e . s a i d to have r i s i n g rhythm, e.g..., :"attempt'". On the o t h e r hand, " w i n t e r " has f a l l i n g rhythm, and a phrase l i k e " i f o n l y " , " n e u t r a l " or "waved" rhythm, : Stewart says.of prose rhythm: "Ordinary E n g l i s h speech I s composed r o u g h l y of: r i s i n g p h r a s e s , 45^; f a l l i n g , 10<#, and n e u t r a l , 45^. ....The number of r i s i n g phrases i s determined p a r t i c u l a r l y by the f a c t t h a t a r t i c l e s , p r e p o s i t i o n s , and c o n j u n c t i o n s a t t a c h themselves t o the f o l l o w i n g word. The same c l a s s e s of words coming i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a d i s s y l l a b i c f o l l o w i n g word g e n e r a l l y g i v e us n e u t r a l p h r a s e s , e.g., T t h e people'; m o n o s y l l a b i c words sta n d -i n g alone a l s o i n c r e a s e t h i s group." (1.) Norton Tempest, i n The Rhythm of E n g l i s h P r o s e , says: "Many E n g l i s h rhythms are t r o c h a i c , (So) but the s t a p l e f e e t of o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l prose are iambs, ( o S ) , (2.) amphibrachs (oSo) and anapaests." (ooS) (3. )• 1. e., two r i s i n g , and one waved, rhythm. . " R i s i n g and waved rhythms are the b a s i s of E n g l i s h speech. F a l l i n g and l e v e l p r o v i d e v a r i e t y . " (4.) By " l e v e l " he must mean a m o n o s y l l a b i c phrase, Paeons (Sooo, oSoo, ooSo, oooSi) are v e r y v a l u a b l e i n p r o s e . Tempest e s p e c i a l l y l i k e s the T h i r d Paeon (ooSo'), f o r i t s rhythmic e f f e c t . What he says about phrase rhythms i n 1* T e c h n i c a l E n g l i s h Verse-, p. 38. 2. Rhythm of E n g l i s h P r o s e , p. 41. 3. U s i n g c l a s s i c a l terms, as S a i n t s b u r y does i n A H i s t o r y of  E n g l i s h Prose Rhythm, Chapter 5. 4. Rhythm.of Eng. P r o s e , p. 48. 5. I b i d . , pp. 42-43. RHYTHM. 3 i n d i v i d u a l sentences i s a l s o worthy of note. Most sentences, he says., b e g i n w i t h a weak s t r e s s , o f t e n an .iamb ( o S ) : t o t h i s r u l e C a r l y l e was a n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n . The middle of a sentence, o f t e n n e g l e c t e d by 17th and 18th cen t u r y w r i t e r s , can be made f o r c e f u l by p u t t i n g s h o r t phrases I n the midst of l o n g , by the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of s t r e s s e s , t o make the " a r c h " of the sentence, or by use of a mo n o s y l l a b l e or l o n g f i v e - s y l l a b l e d phrase as a " p i v o t " . The end can be made i m p r e s s i v e by rec e s s or ad-vance of the s t r o n g s t r e s s ( e . g . , ooSo, oSo, oS; " l a m e n t a t i o n s 1. and mourning and woe"). Longer phrases, says Tempest, occur i n "numerous" p r o s e , i . e . , prose t h a t i s more ornamental and r h y t h m i c a l than common speech. I t remains then t o take r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples of Richard.Hooker's prose and see whether,they i n c l i n e more to o r d i n a r y speech or t o numerous prose. I have s e l e c t e d ( I ) Book V*, P a r t I , Paragraph 1, ana ( i i ) Book I , P a r t XVI, Paragraph 1, and w i t h - t h e s e , e x t r a c t s from R a l e i g h and Sydney, h i s contem-p o r a r i e s , f o r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s . Pew th e r e are of so weak c a p a c i t y , but p u b l i c e v i l S oS ooS oSoo oSo So t h e y e a s i l y espy; fewer so p a t i e n t , as not t o ' c o m p l a i n , when oSoo oS So oSo oS ooS ooSo the g r i e v o u s In©onveniences t h e r e o f work s e n s i b l e smart. ooSoo oS S Soo S Howbeit to see wherein the harm which they see c o n s i s t e t h , oSo oS So oS ooS oSo the seeds from which i t sprang, and the method of c u r i n g i t , oS oS oS ooSo oSo S 1. E z e k i e l S: 10. 2. S a i n t s b u r y , p. 461. RHYTHM. 4 b e l o n g e t h t o a s k i l l , the study whereof i s so f u l l of t o i l , and oSo ooS • oSo oS oS S oS ooSo the p r a c t i c e so beset w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h a t wary and • re s p e c t -* iS oS oSolo oSo ooSo i v e men had r a t h e r seek q u i e t l y t h e i r own, and wish t h a t the S oSo S So oS oS ooS w o r l d may go w e l l , so i t be not l o n g of them, than, w i t h p a i n ooS ooSo S oS ooS and h a z a r d make themselves a d v i s e r s f o r the common good, oSo . S - oS oSo ooSo S ( i i ) Book. I , P a r t XVI, paragraph 1, the f i r s t s e n t - • ence:-Thus f a r t h e r e f o r e we have endeavoured i n p a r t ; t o open of what S .3 So oooSo oS oSo oS na t u r e and f o r c e laws a r e , a c c o r d i n g unto t h e i r s e v e r a l k i n d s ; So oS S S oSo So oSoo S the law which God w i t h h i m s e l f hath e t e r n a l l y s et down to f o l l o w oS oS ooS S oSoo oS oSo i n h i s own works; the. law which he h a t h made f o r h i s c r e a t u r e s ooS S oS oooS ooSo t o keep; the law of n a t u r a l and necessary agents; the Taw oS oS oSoo oSooo So oS which angels i n heaven obey; the law whereunto by the l i g h t oSo oSo ' oS oS oSo ooS of reason men f i n d themselves bound i n t h a t they are men; the oSo S S oS S So ooS oS law which they make by c o m p o s i t i o n f o r multitudes, and p o l i t i c ooS oS'olo oSoo oSoo s o c i e t i e s of men to be guided by;- ' the law which b e l o n g e t h unto oSoo oS ooSo S oS ooSo ooS each n a t i o n ; the law t h a t concerneth the f e l l o w s h i p of a l l ; So oS ooSo oSoo oS and l a s t l y the law which God h i m s e l f hath s u p e m a t u r a 11.y r e -oSo oS oS oS S ooSolo oS v e a l e d . I t might peradventure have been more p o p u l a r and more oS ooSo oS oSoo oS p l a u s i b l e t o V u l g a r e a r s , i f t h i s f i r s t d i s c o u r s e had been Soo oSo S oS S SC ooS spent i n e x t o l l i n g the f o r c e of laws i n showing the g r e a t ooSo oS oS oSo oS n e c e s s i t y of them when they are good, and i n a g g r a v a t i n g t h e i r oSoo oS S ooS ooSolo ooS of f e n c e by whom p u b l i c laws are i n j u r i o u s l y traduced. oS So S ooSoo oS ( i i i ) S i r Walter R a l e i g h ( H i s t o r y of the w o r l d ) : I t i s t h e r e f o r e Death alone t h a t can suddenly make man t o know oS So S oS S oSoo S S oS h i m s e l f . He t e l l s the proud and i n s o l e n t t h a t they are but oS oS oS oSoo ooS oSo RHYTHM, 5 a b j e c t s , ana humbles them at the same i n s t a n t , makes them c r y , oSo S ooS So So S compl a i n , and repent, yea even t o hate t h e i r f o r e p a s t happiness oS bo'S S So oS oSo Soo He takes the account of the r i c h and proves him a beggar, a oS ooS ooS oS S oSo oSo naked beggar, which hath i n t e r e s t i n n o t h i n g but i n the g r a v e l So S oSoo oSo S ooSo t h a t f i l l s h i s mouth. He holds a g l a s s b e f o r e the eyes of the oS o'S oS oS oS oS ooS most b e a u t i f u l , and makes them see t h e r e i n t h e i r d e f o r m i t y and Soo oSo S So S oSoo oSoo r o t t e n n e s s , and they acknowledge i t . oS oSo S 0 el o q u e n t , j u s t and mighty DeathI whom none c o u l d a d v i s e thou oSoo f S oSo ' S oS ooS S h a s t persuaded; what none have dared thou hast done; and whom ooSo oS oS S oS ooS a l l the w o r l d h a t h f l a t t e r e d , thou only hast c a s t out -of the oS oSo oSo oS S ooS w o r l d and d e s p i s e d ; thou hast drawn t o g e t h e r a l l the f a r -ooS S oS oSo S o S l s t r e t c h e d g r e a t n e s s , a l l the p r i d e , c r u e l t y , and a m b i t i o n of So S oS Soo ooSo oS< man, and covered i t a l l over w i t h these two narrow words, Hie oSo oS So oS 3 So S S j a c e t l So In the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s are shown the r e s u l t s o b t a i n -ed from r e d u c i n g the use of v a r i o u s phrases t o a percentage b a s i s . Book V, P a r t I . ( I n t r o d u c t i o n ) R a l e i g h , H i s t o r y of the World. P h r a s e s . .61 Phrases .99 R i s i n g - 24 ........... .40^ R i s i n g - 39 ........... .40f« F a l l i n g - .5 896 F a l l i n g - 13 8* Waved - 52......... . . =»... . 52# Waved - 48.... . . 52?* Monos - 11... -.1796 Monos - 23 .24?& Pae-on - - 8 13?& Pae on - 8 85* (6 T h i r d P) (6 Second P) Waved 0S0 - 11.......... 17?& Waved 0S0 - 14 14?& Book I , P a r t XVI, Laws, 1. Ph r a s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Monos - 14... 14/° R i s i n g - 42 ....... .43?& Paeon - 15 .... .15$ F a l l i n g - 8 896 (5 T h i r d P) Waved - 48 ....... ,49?& Waved 0S0 - 9 9<fo RHYTHM, 6 I t h i n k i t - c o n v e n i e n t t o p o i n t out here t h a t , i n the " I n t r o -d u c t i o n " and i n R a l e i g h ' s famous passage on Death, the p r o p o r t -i o n of Waved ( o r n e u t r a l ) , t o R i s i n g and F a l l i n g phrases i s the same. In Laws there i s a predominance of "Waved" over o t h e r k i n d s , and the same i s t r u e of the o t h e r two p i e c e s . Some s i m i l a r i t i e s i n p h r a s i n g can be compared: I n t r o d u c t i o n (Book V ) . R a l e i g h . Laws (Book I ) . Few there are S oS of so w e a k J c a p a c i t y ooS oSoo the study whereof oSo oS i s so f u l l of t o i l oS S oS make themselves S oS a d v i s e r s oSo f o r the common good ooSo S c r y , complain S oS and lament ooS what none have dared oS oS thou hast done S oS a l l the p r i d e , S oS c r u e l t y Soo and a m b i t i o n of man ooSo oS ( I n above note s i m i l a r i t y of rhythm d i f f -erence i n s u b j e c t matter.) 0 e l o q u e n t , j u s t oSoo S' and m i g h t y Death!, oSo S, the lav/ t h a t con-oS ooSo c e r n e t h the f e l l -0S00 owship of a l l ; oS The phrases above, which have been shown to be a l i k e i n rhythm,, are Widely d i f f e r e n t In the matter whereof they speak. R a l e i g h ' s phrases are memorable, Hooker's are not. Laws, Book I , P a r t XVI, sentence 2. But forasmuch as w i t h such k i n d of matter the p a s s i o n s of men S ooS ooS S oSo oSo oS are r a t h e r s t i r r e d one way or the o t h e r , than t h e i r knowledge oSo S S S ooSo S oSo any way set f o r w a r d unto the t r i a l of t h a t whereof t h e r e i s So S oSo So oSo oS oS ooS doubt made; I have t h e r e f o r e t u r n e d a s i d e from t h a t b e a t e n S oS So S oS ooSo p a t h , and chosen though a l e s s easy y e t a more p r o f i t a . b l e way S oSo S oS So S oS Soo S i n r e g a r d of the end we propose. L e s t t h e r e f o r e any man s h o u l d ooS ooS ooS S So So' S oSo RHYTHM. 7 marvel wnereunto a l l these things tend, the d r i f t and purpose oSo S S S S oS oSo of a l l i s this, even to shew in what manner, as every good and oS oS - . So oS oS So oSoo S oSo perfect g i f t , so this very g i f t of good and perfect laws i s S S oSo S oS oSo S ooS derived from the Father of l i g h t s ; to teach men a reason why ooSo oS oS S oSo S just and reasonable laws are of so great force, of so great use S oSolo S S ooS S ooS S i n the- world; and to inform their minds with some method of ooS oooS oS OS So ooSo reducing the laws whereof there i s present controversy unto oS oS ooSo Solo ' So t h e i r f i r s t original causes, that so i t may be i n every par-oS oSoo So oS ooS oSoo oSoo t i c u l a r ordinance thereby the better discerned, whether the Soo oS oSo oS So oS same be reasonable, just, and righteous, or no. oSoo S oSo oS S i r EM l i p Sydney ( l y r i c and Heroic Poesy): I s i t the l y r i c that most displeaseth, who with his tuned lyre So oSo oS oSo S ooSo S and well-accorded voice, giveth praise, the reward of virtue, oloSo S So S ooS oSo to virtuous acts? who giveth moral precepts and natural prob-0 S 0 0 S oSo So So oSoo So lems? who sometimes raiseth up his voice to the height of the oSo So S oS ooS ooSo heavens, i n singing the lauds of the immortal God? Certainly, oSo oS 000S0 S Soo I must confess mine own barbarousness. I never heard the old oS oS oS Sool oSo S oS song of Percy and Douglas, that I found not my heart moved S oSo oSo S oSo oS S more than with a trumpet; and yet i t i s sung but by some blind S oS oSo oS ooS S oS S crowder, with no rougher voice than rude style; which being So oS So S oS S oSo so. e v i l apparelled i n the dust and cobweb of that u n c i v i l age, oSo oSo ooS oSo oS oSo S what would i t work, trimmed i n gorgeous eloquence of Pindar? S ooS S oSo Soo oSo I n Hungary I have seen i t the manner at a l l feasts, and a l l oSoo ooSo oSo oS S oS other such-like meetings, to have songs of their ancestors' So So So oS S 0 0 S 0 0 valour, which that right s o l d i e r - l i k e nation think one of the So S oS Sol So S S ooSo chiefest Icindlers of brave courage. So oS So RHYTHM. 8 laws - sent. 2. Bk. I. Pt.TVT. Sydney."Lyric and Heroic Poesy" Phrases . .. 110 Phrases q* Rising - 36 . . > 36?& F a l l i n g - 12 . . .11£ Waved - 62 57?& Monos - 32 30?& Paeon - 13 .11$ (6 Third P) Waved -oSo - 15. 14# Rising - 24 25^ F a l l i n g - 16 1796 Waved - 56. .58^ Monos - 24....... . ... ...... 25^ Paeon - 9 . 1 0 ^ •(5 Third P) Waved 0 S 0 - 18.............205* These two passages make a group, "because they contain a very large percentage of waved or neutral rhythms, and there i s a rough correspondence between the number of r i s i n g , f a l l i n g , monosyllabic and other phrases in. each. The preponderance of waved or neutral rhythms i s again noticeable. There i s similar phrasing i n the following cases: Laws (2) as every good and perfect 0 S 0 S 0 S 0 g i f t , S a more profitable way oS Solo S Aside from that beaten oS 0 0 S 0 path S the d r i f t and purpose oS 0 S 0 of a l i i s this oS oS unto their f i r s t o r i g i n a l So oS 0 S 0 0 causes So I never heard the old song 0 S 0 S oS S in singing the lauds of the 0 S 0 oS 0 0 0 S 0 immortal God? S who with his tuned lyre S 00S0 S i n the dust and cobweb of that 0 0 S 0 S 0 oS u n c i v i l age 0 S 0 S kindlers of brave courage So oS So Once again i t must be remarked that, whereas the phrases of Hooker and Sydney may be the same, there i s no comparison in. RHYTHM. 9 beauty of d i c t i o n and i d e a . Hooker speaks of "a p r o f i t a b l e way",- or " f i r s t o r i g i n a l causes"; and these ideas are l e s s s t i r r i n g than "the o l d song" or "brave courage", or "the -lauds of the immortal God". In Book V, P a r t XXXVIII, "Music w i t h Psalms", the f i r s t f o u r sentences are admirable examples of Hooker's rhythm, and are shown below, a n a l y s e d i n t o t h e i r phrase s t r u c t u r e . Touching m u s i c a l harmony whether by instrument or by v o i c e , i t So Soo Soo So oSoo S oS oSo b e i n g but of h i g h or low i n sounds a due p r o p o r t i o n a b l e d i s -S oS oS oS oS oSol o Sol o p o s i t i o n , such n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g i s t h e - f o r c e thereof,, and so S ooSo ooS oS ooSo p l e a s i n g e f f e c t s i t hath i n t h a t v e r y p a r t of man which i s oS oS ooSo S oS ooS most d i v i n e , t h a t some have been thereby induced t o t h i n k t h a t oS oS oS So oS oS ooS the s o u l i t s e l f by nature i s or hath i n i t harmony. A t h i n g oS oSo S oS So Soo oS which d e l i g h t e t h a l l ages and beseemeth a l l s t a t e s ; a t h i n g ooSo S So ooSo S S oS as seasonable i n g r i e f as i n j o y ; as -decent b e i n g added unto oSolo oS ooS oSo ooSo So a c t i o n s of g r e a t e s t weight and s o l e m n i t y , as b e i n g used when So oSo oS 00S00 oSo S oS men most s e q u e s t e r themselves -froffl a c t i o n . The reason hereof S oSo oS oSo oSo oS i s an admirable f a c i l i t y which music hath t o express and S 0S000 oSoo oSo S ooS oloS r e p r e s e n t to the mind, more i n w a r d l y than any o t h e r s e n s i b l e ooS S Soo oSo So Soo mean, the v e r y s t a n d i n g , r i s i n g , and f a l l i n g , the v e r y s t e p s S oSo So So oSo oSo S and i n f l e c t i o n s every way, the t u r n s and v a r i e t i e s of a l l ooSo Soo S oS o'oSoo oS p a s s i o n s whereunto the mind i s s u b j e c t ; yea so t o I m i t a t e them, So oSo oS oSo S S oSoo S t h a t whether i t resemble unto us the same s t a t e wherein Our oSo ooSo So S oS S oS oS minds a l r e a d y a r e , or a c l e a n c o n t r a r y , we are not more c o n t e n t -0S0 S ooS Soo ooS S oSoo e d l y by the one c o n f i r m e d , than changed and l e d away by the ooS oS oS oS oS ooSo o t h e r . RHYTHM. 10 I have chosen a l s o Book I , P a r t IV, paragraph 1, sentence 1, f o r a s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s . But now t h a t we may l i f t up our eyes (as i t were) from the oS oS oSo oS ooS ooSo f o o t s t o o l t o the throne of God, and l e a v i n g these n a t u r a l , con-ooS oS oSo oSoo oSo s i d e r a l i t t l e the s t a t e of heavenly and d i v i n e c r e a t u r e s : oSo oS oSoo ooS So t o u c h i n g Angels which are s p i r i t s i m m a t e r i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l , So So ooSo ooSoo oloSoo the g l o r i o u s i n h a b i t a n t s of those sacred p a l a c e s , where oSoo oSoo oS So Soo oSo n o t h i n g but l i g h t and b l e s s e d i m m o r t a l i t y no shadow of ma t t e r oS oSo ooSoo oSo oSo f o r t e a r s , d i s c o n t e n t m e n t s , g r i e f s , and uncomfortable p a s s i o n s oS l o S o S ooSolo So t o work upon, but a l l j o y , t r a n q u i l l i t y , and peace, even f o r oSoo oS S oSoo oS So oSo e v e r and ever doth d w e l l : as in. number and order they are oSo oS S oSo oSo ooS huge,.. mighty, and r o y a l a r m i e s , so l i k e w i s e i n p e r f e c t i o n of So oSo So S So ooSo ooSo obedience unto t h a t law, which the H i g h e s t ; whom they adore, So oS ooSo S ooS l o v e , and i m i t a t e , h a t h imposed upon them, such observants : S oSoo ooS oSo S oSo the y are t h e r e o f , t h a t our S a v i o u r h i m s e l f b e i n g t o . s e t down oS oS ooSo oS So oS S the p e r f e c t i d e a of t h a t which we are • tto pray and wi s h f o r on. oSo oSo oS oS ooS oSo oS e a r t h , d i d not te a c h t o pray or w i s h f o r more than o n l y t h a t S oS oS oS oS oSo oS here i t might be w i t h u s , as w i t h them i t i s i n heaven. ooS oS S oS oS oSo Music w i t h Psalms, Law t h a t AngeIs Obey, Book V, P a r t XXXVIII. Book I. Phra s e s .120 Phra s e s . 94 R i s i n g - 41. v . .35?6 R i s i n g - 33 3S> P a l l i n g - 17. ... .... ..... .13f* P a l l i n g - 10. . . .llfi Waved - 6.2..............,52/» Waved - 51............. . 54^, Monos - 24 20fi Monos - 10 ...llf« Paeon - 2 0 . . . . . . . .17fo Paeon - 15 '.16?& (9 T h i r d P) (8 T h i r d P) Waved oSo - 17 .13/c Waved oSo - 19... 20fo The "Music" and "Angels" passages show a g r e a t s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e i r percentage of r i s i n g , f a l l i n g , waved, and. paeonic phrases. RHYTHM. U Waved or n e u t r a l rhythms are i n the g r e a t m a j o r i t y , as i n a l l o t h e r eases. The passage from R a l e i g h i s i n c l u d e d i n comparison of rhythms: A n g e l s , The law o f . Death ( R a l e i g h ) . Music w i t h Psalms even f o r ever and So oSo oSo ever doth d w e l l oS a l l the p r i d e , S oS c r u e l t y and amb-Soo ooSo i t i o n of man oS whom none c o u l d ,oS ooS adv i s e thou h a s t S ooSo persuaded, what oS none have dare d oS' thou h a s t done; S oS (The above are examples of r i s i n g rhythm v a r i e d by waved and n e u t r a l phrases.) But now t h a t we oS oS may l i f t up our eyes oS l oS as i t were from the ooS ooSo f o o t s t o o l t o the ooS throne of God oS the oS g l o r i o u s i n h a b i t a n t s oSoo of those s a c r e d oo So p a l a c e s Soo the v e r y s t a n d i n g , oSo So rl" s Ing and f a l 1 Ing, So oSo the v e r y steps and oSo S ooSo i n f l e c t i o n s every Soo way; S ( F a l l i n g rhythm i s found i n the two above examples.) where n o t h i n g but . oSo oS l i g h t and b l e s s e d oSo i m m o r t a l i t y , no ooSoo oSo shadow of ma t t e r oSo f o r t e a r s oS a naked beggar, oSo So which hath i n t e r e s t S oSoo i n n o t h i n g but oSo S i n the grave1 which ooSo oS f i l l s h i s month oS When the seven e x t r a c t s , f i v e from Hooker, and one each from RHYTHM. 12 R a l e i g h and Sydney, are taken as a whole, the p r o p o r t i o n of one k i n d of phrase t o another i s i n the order f o l l o w i n g : Waved o r n e u t r a l phrases . 5 3 9 & R i s i n g " . ...36 ?& M o n o s y l l a b i c " .. 20fo Waved "oSo" " ....... 1596 Paeons ( 4 S y l l a b l e s ) 1396 F a l l i n g " . .1196 Waved or n e u t r a l phrases i n c l u d e , of course, paeons, t h r e e -s y l l a b l e d waved phrases, and m o n o s y l l a b l e s . The f i g u r e s ( r i s i n g , 3 6 9 6 ; f a l l i n g , 11?&; waved, 5 3 9 S ) do not e x a c t l y agree w i t h Stewart's 4 5 , 1 0 and 4 5 p e r c e n t . H i s count, i t must be remembered, was f o r o r d i n a r y E n g l i s h speech. The e x t r a c t s chosen f o r t h i s paper had s u b j e c t s above the l e v e l of o r d i n a r y speech; and s e e i n g t h a t the number of n e u t r a l phrases i s a l s o above t h a t l e v e l , i t may be surmised t h a t such phrases improve the rhythm and s o n o r i t y of pro s e . Such a c o n c l u s i o n i s i n agreement w i t h the o p i n i o n of N. Tempest, mentioned on page 3 . A glance a t any of the phrases chosen f o r comparison w i l l show what smoothness-and v a r i e t y of rhythm can be ach i e v e d by waved " 0 S 0 " or " 0 S 0 0 , 0 0 S 0 " groups. C o n t r a s t , f o r i n s t a n c e , " j o y , 1 . t r a n q u i l l i t y and peace" w i t h these headings from a newspaper: "Robber murders s l e e p i n g seaman.." ( F a l l i n g rhythm overworked.) "Car deaths double d e s p i t e speed law". (An u g l y group of m o n o s y l l a b l e s , a i d e d and a b e t t e d by a l l i t e r a t i o n . ) I t i s a l s o apparent from the l i s t shown above t h a t the mono-s y l l a b l e p l a y s a g r e a t p a r t i n the making of numerous prose. Both R a l e i g h and Sydney make f u l l use of i t , the former a t the 1. Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , A p r i l 1, 1938. RHYTHM. 13 "beginning and end of h i s sentence: "0 e l o q u e n t , j u s t . and mighty Death! .......and covered i t a l l over w i t h these two narrow words, Hie j a c e t I " Hooker w r i t e s , i n the second sentence on laws: "to t e a c h men a reason why j u s t and reason-a b l e laws are of so g r e a t f o r c e ; " "Whereunto a l l these t h i n g s tend.," • The i n d i v i d u a l sentences of the c o l l e c t i o n under d i s c u s s i o n number i n a l l f i f t e e n ; of t h e s e , t e n b e g i n w i t h an u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e . The r e s t s t a r t w i t h e i t h e r a m o n o s y l l a b l e or a phrase i n f a l l i n g rhythm. Here i s s u p p o r t , then, f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n of Tempest, mentioned on page 3. The middle of the sentence. On the f i r s t i n s p e c t i o n , the most obvious device used by Hooker, Sydney and R a l e i g h f o r m a i n t a i n i n g f o r c e i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l sentences, seems to be p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n . R a l e i g h and-Sydney do not repeat c o n s t r u c t i o n s more than t w i c e o r three t i m e s , but Hooker, i n the f i r s t e x t r a c t on Law, begins minet c l a u s e s w i t h "the law". Since,, however:, i t i s the phrases t h a t are b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d here, the q u e s t i o n i s , how d i d t h e y , t o o , a s s i s t i n the a r c h i t e c t u r e of whole sentences? Tempest suggests the p u t t i n g of s h o r t phrases i n the midst  of l o n g . He was r i g h t , - . Examples f o l l o w : R a l e i g h : "...thou hast drawn t o g e t h e r a l l the f a r -s t r e t c h e d g r e a t n e s s , a l l the p r i d e , c r u e l t y  and a m b i t i o n of man", oS "Soo ooSo oS RHYTHM. 14 Sydney: "..who w i t h h i s tuned l y r e and w e l l - a c c o r d e d v o i c e . So S oSolo 1 Ho oke r : * ( i ) " . . . t u r n e d a s i d e from t h a t "beaten p a t h . . . . " ooSo ( i i ) " l i g h t and b l e s s e d i m m o r t a l i t y " S oSo ooSoo Sydney: "songs of t h e i r a n c e s t o r s ' v a l o u r " S ooSoo So The middle or a r c h of the sentence can be maint a i n e d by p u t -t i n g s t r o n g '„stresses t o g e t h e r . e.g., Hooker: ( i ) "from the f o o t s t o o l t o the throne of God." S ( i i ) "huge, mighty and r o y a l armies," S So oSo So ( i i i ) "adore, l o v e and i m i t a t e " oS S oSoo ( i v ) " e x t o l l i n g the f o r c e of la w s " oSo " oS oS (v) "whereunto a l l these t h i n g s t e n d . . " oSo S S S S ( v i ) "the v e r y s t a n d i n g , r i s i n g and f a l l i n g . . " , oSo So So oSo R a l e i g h : "..makes them c r y , complain and r e p e n t . . " So S " oS ooS T h i r d l y , the middle of the sentence can be made to " p i v o t " on a m o n o s y l l a b l e or l o n g phrase. e.g., Hooker: ( i ) " g i f t . . . ' a s every good and p e r f e c t g i f t , so t h i s v e r y g i f t of good and p e r f e c t l a w s . . . " ( i i ) " . . i n h i g h or low sounds a due p r o p o r t i o n a b l e d i s p o s i t i o n ." ( i i i ) "as decent b e i n g added unto a c t i o n s of g r e a t e s t weight and s o l e m n i t y , as b e i n g used when...." ( i v ) ".. t o u c h i n g a n g e l s , which are s p i r i t s i m m a t e r i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l , . . . " I n the same sentence the m o n o s y l l a b l e s " l i g h t " , " t e a r s " , " j o y " , "peace" and "law" serve a d m i r a b l y as p i v o t words. (v) "Few the r e are of so weak c a p a c i t y . . . " RHYTHM. 15 ( v i ) ". .. .belongeth t o a s k i l l , the study whereof..." Of the end of a sentence, Tempest, whose su g g e s t i o n s have "been used f o r the b e g i n n i n g and middle , says t h a t i t can he made i m p r e s s i v e by recess, or advance of the s t r o n g s t r e s s . Both of these t e n d e n c i e s are re p r e s e n t e d I n the seven passages u n d e r ' d i s c u s s i o n and the r e i s a t h i r d which c o n s i s t s of a l t e r -n a t i n g , r i s i n g and f a l l i n g rhythm i n the s h o r t phrases, oS, So oSo, S. I t has a good c o n t r a s t i n g v a l u e a f t e r a l o n g s e r i e s of more c o m p l i c a t e d phrases. 1. Re c e s s: -I n t r o d u c t i o n , Book Y: "... i n c o n v e n i e n c e s t h e r e o f 00S00 oS work s e n s i b l e smart." S Soo , S " . . . t h a t the s o u l i t s e l f by ooS oS oSo natur e i s or ha t h i n i t S oS So harmony. "• Soo "...and they acknowledge i t . " oS oSo S "...even t o hate t h e i r f o r e -So oS oSo pa s t h a p p i n e s s . " Soo "...and a m b i t i o n of man, and ooSo oS oSo covered i t a l l over w i t h these oS So oS two narrow words, Hie j a c e t ! " S So S S So "...trimmed i n the gorgeous S ooSo eloquence of P i n d a r ? " Soo oSo Music w i t h Psalms: R a l e i g h : (Gradual) Sydney: 2, Advance:-I n t r o d u c t i o n , Book V: "make themselves a d v i s e r s f o r S oS oSo ooSo the common ^ood." S RHYTHM. 16 laws, 2: R a l e i g h : Laws, 1: (Gradual) 3, A l t e r n a t i o n : Law of Angels; Music: Sydney: " j u s t , and r i g h t e o u s , or no." S oSo oS "hut i n the g r a v e l t h a t f i l l s S ooSo oS h i s mouth." oS "0 e l o q u e n t , j u s t , and mighty oSoo S oSo Death!" S "and l a s t l y the law which God oSo oS oS h i m s e l f h a t h s u p e r n a t u r a l l y oS S l o S o l o r e v e a l e d . " oS " . . . p u b l i c laws are i n j u r i o u s l y So S ooSoo tradueed." oS " i n s i n g i n g the l a u d s of the oSo oS oobSo immortal God?" S " d i d not t e a c h t o pray or w i s h f o r S oS oS J oS oS more than o n l y t h a t here i t might oSo oS ooS be w i t h us as w i t h them i t i s i n oS S oS oS oSo heaven." "as b e i n g used when men most s e q u e s t e r oSo S oS S oSo themselves from a c t i o n . " oS oSo " t h i n k one of the c h i e f e s t k i n d l e r s S S ooSo So of brave courage." oS So I n t h i s p l a c e belongs t o o , the l a s t Sentence i n Book I I : "as I am v e r i l y persuaded t h e i r s i n S oS Soo oSo S oSo t h i s case was." S There a r e , then, c e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s to be made on the phrases of the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y . Compared w i t h h i s RHYTHM. 17 b e t t e r known contemporaries, R a l e i g h and Sydney, Hooker i s shown to have used e x a c t l y the same phrases, i n the same p r o p o r t i o n . He ma i n t a i n e d the d i g n i t y and harmony of h i s prose by a more l i b e r a l use of waved and n e u t r a l phrases i n p l a c e s where they made v a r i e t y i n , or l e n t substance t o , the sentence:. He made an e x q u i s i t e use of s h o r t phrases at the c l o s e of p e r i o d s , and knew a l l the va l u e of the s i n g l e mono-s y l l a b i c s t r e s s . But where R a l e i g h ' s m o n o s y l l a b l e was "Death", Hooker's was "Law". 1. "Death" i s an emotive word. I t arouses some degree of wonder and awe i n the mind of a l l who hear i t , whereas "Law" has l i t t l e ^ i f any, emotive power. I t has the au s t e r e nature of a concept. I have a l r e a d y noted b r i e f l y t h a t a l t h o u g h the phrase-rhythm of Hooker and R a l e i g h i s s i m i l a r , the language o f the l a t t e r i s f a r more s t r i k i n g . T h i s , a g a i n , i s because h i s language i s more p o e t i c , has more s t i m u l a t i v e power on our i m a g i n a t i o n , i s more emotive. Such words as " c r y , complain and lament", put ns i n a dreamy or r e f l e c t i v e mood, w h i l s t Hooker's •"advisers f o r the common good" changes our a t t i t u d e t o one more s e r i o u s and i n t e l l e c t u a l ; the i d e a i s now moral, c o n c e p t u a l , not p e e t i c . I n the prose s e l e c t i o n from Sydney, a l s o , t h e r e i s the passage: " I never hear the o l d song of P e r c y and Douglas.." By these words, a p l e a s a n t emotion of some k i n d i s a t once s t i r r e d up i n the rea d e r . The e x p r e s s i o n i s i n t u i t i v e , whereas Hooker's phrase: " t h e i r f i r s t o r i g i n a l c a u s e s " i s c o n c e p t u a l , RHYTHM. 18 and has t h e r e f o r e an emotive power l e s s d i r e c t l y o p e r a t i v e . I t might be argued that'.Raleigh and Sydney had an i n i t i a l advantage over Hooker i n t h a t t h e i r s u b j e c t s - Death, and P o e t r y - are i n themselves emotive, whereas Hooker's one and only i n t e n t was to analyse Law - a word which i s o f t e n ^ a s s o c i a t e d , f i g u r a t i v e l y , w i t h dryness and dust. A l l the more i n t e r e s t i n g i s i t then to note t h a t w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the P o l i t y i t s e l f there are the two k i n d s of a p p e a l , emotive and c o n c e p t u a l . Of the paragraphs quoted i n t h i s c h a p t e r , both t h a t on "Music w i t h Psalms" and the one on "Law" (sentence 1 ) , are l a r g e l y t h e o r e t i c a l i n matter, but "Angels" and, l e s s o b v i o u s l y , the " I n t r o d u c t i o n " to Book V are g e n t l e r and more p e r s u a s i v e , though s t i l l d i d a c t i c , i n tone. The t h e o r e t i c a l 1. paragraphs have a "hard r i n g " , as though the words are meant 2. t o " c a r r y i n a l e c t u r e h a l l " . T h is e f f e c t i s p a r t l y a c h ieved ( p r o b a b l y q u i t e u n c o n s c i o u s l y on Hooker's p a r t ) by ending w i t h a noun or s t r o n g s t r e s s : e.g. Laws ( i ) : "...law a r e ; . . . s e v e r a l k i n d s ; ..own works; .... t o keep; . . . . i n heaven obey; . . .are men; .... .eaeh n a t i o n ; . ..of a l l ; ... .hath r e v e a l e d . . . . or laws IT • • • • Music: "....beseemeth a l l s t a t e s ; ....as i n joy.; ..... to the mind; . . . s e n s i b l e mean, .....every way;" The p a r a l l e l i s m , a l s o , i n these " l e c t u r e h a l l " paragraphs i s obvious and t i n n y : i n Laws ( 1 ) . nine s u c c e s s i v e c l a u s e s b e g i n 1. Mod. Prose S t y l e , p. 126 2. I b i d . , p. 127. RHYTHM. 19 w i t h "the.law". I n "Music" we see "the very s t a n d i n g , r i s i n g and f a l l i n g , the v e r y steps and i n f l e c t i o n s every way...." A f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the use of concepts, or of words hay-i n g a narrow c o n n o t a t i o n : e.g..Laws ( i ) : K i n d s , works, c r e a t u r e s , reason, com-p o s i t i o n , p o l i t i c , s o c i e t i e s , d i s c o u r s e , laws. Music: i n s t r u m e n t , p r o p o r t i o n a b l e , e f f e c t s , d i v i n e , harmony, seasonable, f a c i l i t y , i n f l e c t i o n s . Turning t o the l e s s t e c h n i c a l paragraphs we f i n d t h a t i n "The.Law which Angels obey" the e x p l a n a t o r y aim i s sub-o r d i n a t e d t o r e l i g i o u s emotion. There i s a d i s t i n c t tendency t o end. w i t h f a l l i n g rhythm: ..these n a t u r a l ; . . . d i v i n e c r e a t u r e s ; ..sacred p a l a c e s ; . . . . r o y a l armies; imposed upon them; . a s . . . i t i s i n heaven." The " I n t r o d u c t i o n " i s more r e f l e c t i v e than e m o t i o n a l . I t tends t o use not e x a c t l y ^ f a l l i n g . r h y t h m , but unemphatic m o n o s y l l a b l e s a t the c l a u s e ends: "of c u r i n g i t , . . . . . q u i e t l y t h e i r own, ....not l o n g of them, . 1 . . . . . f o r the common good." The rhythm i s more s o o t h i n g i n ''Angels" and the " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , and i s not f o r c e d i n t o p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n s . I t h i n k t h a t perhaps I have, a l r e a d y g i v e n enough space to the. m i n g l i n g of l o n g and s h o r t p h r a s e s , on page 1 3 t and w i l l content myself here w i t h p o i n t i n g out the ph o n e t i c syzygy e x e m p l i f i e d i n the l a s t few c l a u s e s of the ,! I n t r o d u c t i o n . The theme i s the apathy of those who l i k e a sequestered l i f e , who "had r a t h e r seek RHYTHM. SO q u i e t l y t h e i r own, and w i s h t h a t the w o r l d may go w e l l , so i t he not l o n g . o f them...." The simple language echoes t h e i r modest a m b i t i o n s . One can almost hear them hope t h a t the "world may go w e l l " . This the p l a c e t o make f u l l e r mention of such p a r a -g raph ends a s . t h a t of Book I I quoted on page 16 as an example of a group of s h o r t phrases: S, oS, Soo, oSo, S, oSo, S; "...,as I am v e r i l y persuaded t h e i r s i n t h i s case • was." The q u i e t i s m of these f i n a l words a f t e r the keen argument and l e n g t h y summing-up. of "the s t r e n g t h of man's a u t h o r i t y " i s a p e r f e c t r e p r o d u c t i o n of Hooker's g e n t l e n e s s of s p i r i t , . and r e l u c t a n c e to be f o r e v e r engaged i n c o n t r o v e r s y . Another example occurs at the end of the second paragraph of Book I I : "which of h i s i n f i n i t e l o v e and goodness the F a t h e r of a l l peace and u n i t y g r a n t . " Sometimes the q u i e t i s m merely echoes Hooker's s e l f - r e s t r a i n t , h i s r e f u s a l t o descend t o abuse: Bk... I l l , P a r t I I I , KTo. 2: "they g i v e men g r e a t cause t o doubt t h a t some oth e r t h i n g than judgment doth guide t h e i r speech." Other examples: Bk. V, P a r t X X I I , l a s t paragraph: "For i n t h i s we are not t h e i r a d v e r s a r i e s , though they i n the, o t h e r h i t h e r t o have been ours." Bk, V, paragraph 2: " g o d l i n e s s b e i n g the c h i e f e s t top and w e l l s p r i n g of a l l , t r u e v i r t u e s , even as God i s of a l l good t h i n g s . " (Note m o n o s y l l a b l e s a t c l o s e ) . Such paragraph c o n c l u s i o n s as those above, f o l l o w i n g a l l the weight and f u l l n e s s of p e r i o d i c s t r u c t u r e . , p a r a l l e l i s m , r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n , are v e r y p l e a s i n g , and "present t o me, a t l e a s t , one of the charms of Hooker's s t y l e . At these p l a c e s RHYTHM. 21 . he.seems to he no l o n g e r c o m p e l l i n g h i s r e a s o n i n g to be under-1. stood,.but t r y i n g to "win" us over by p r e s e n t i n g h i s own modern s e l f . There i s s t i l l a l a c k of emotive words, a l t h o u g h the Angels passage,uses g e n e r a l c o n n o t a t i o n s such as: " l i f t up our eyes,"" " f o o t s t o o l , " "throne of God," " g l o r i o u s , " " l i g h t ; " " b l e s s e d , " " t e a r s , " "huge," "armies," "heaven," The I n t r o d u c e ; : t j o n appeals to the i m a g i n a t i o n w i t h such concrete e x p r e s s i o n s a s : "weak," "smart," "seeds," "sprang," " t o i l . " The b e s t examples of c o n c r e t e , emotive language i n the P o l i t y are to be f o u n d i n the s e c t i o n on S e c u l a r Vocabulary. I t i s time to leave the d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of f o u r s p e c i a l paragraphs, and r e t u r n t o c o n s i d e r the phrase-rhythm i n the P o l i t y as a whole. By now I t should be c l e a r t h a t i n o r d e r to be s t r i k i n g and u n f o r g e t t a b l e , the phrase-rhythm must be combined w i t h emotive language. Of^ such passages t h e r e are v e r y few i n the P o l i t y b e s i d e s those t h a t I have shown and a n a l y s e d . And y e t there i s no paragraph i n the Whole of t h a t v a s t work t h a t i s w i t h o u t the charm of Hooker's f l o w i n g rhythm, w i t h i t s a l t e r n a t i o n of l o n g and s h o r t , r i s i n g and f a l l i n g , p h r a s e s . There i s an unhurried.pace about i t , t h a t s u i t s the grave thought of the w r i t e r . I f i n d e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h i s connect!on.the words of Bonamy Dobree on t h e o l o g i c a l 1. p r o s e , when he r e f e r s t o "the steady sound of the v o i c e , the muted ups and downs, which r e a l l y g i v e the sense of a b s o r p t i o n . ..." There c o u l d be no b e t t e r example of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1. Mod. Prose S t y l e , p. 133. RHYTHM. than the prose rhythm of the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y . CHAPTER I I . THE USE of the CURSUS and the CADEFCE * .. "by HOOKER. Readers of The Laws of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y are a t times rewarded by what have been c a l l e d " n a t u r a l , u n f o r c e d • ' '• • 1. bursts- of r h e t o r i c " , " s w e l l i n g p e r i o d s " , "purple passages", of which Boole I , P a r t IV, paragraph 1, i s an example. Far more n o t i c e a b l e than these r a t h e r r a r e p i e c e s , are the form and rhythm of hundreds of sentences, s h o r t or l o n g , on any and e v e r y page of the t r e a t i s e . These sentences are s e t , or appear to be s e t , to a c e r t a i n ' t i m e - p a t t e r n . We are reminded of the theory of G. R. Stewart, i n h i s book, The Technique of E n g l i s h Verse, t h a t the b a s i s of the l a t t e r , i s not s t r e s s , o r metre, but time. In the l i n e s by Tennyson: "Break, Break, Break, On thy c o l d gray stones, 0 Sea..." b o t h l i n e s take the same time t o say, but we h u r r y over the words of the second l i n e i n o r d e r t o match the time of the f i r s t . Hebker makes 12J do the. same i n numbers of h i s p e r i o d s . Glauses appear to be equal i n importance, and a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal in. l e n g t h , and we u n c o n s c i o u s l y read the 2. one i n the same time as the o t h e r ; e.g., "Sometimes t h a t which we do i s r e f e r r e d to a f u r t h e r end w i t h o u t the d e s i r e whereof we would l e a v e the same undone, as i n t h e i r a c t i o n s t h a t gave alms t o purchase thereby the p r a i s e of men." 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Laws of Ecc. P o l . , p. 2. 2. There i s , of c o u r s e , no metre to these sentences. See S a i n t s b u r y , p. 450: "Prose Rhythm has as i t s essence v a r i e t y and d i v e r g e n c e " . CURSUS and CADENCE. 24 Scores of Hooker's sentences are l i k e t h i s example, h a v i n g two somewhat s h o r t e r c l a u s e s f o l l o w e d "by a t h i r d a p p r e c i a b l y l o n g -e r . The e f f e c t , as i s i n d i c a t e d i n the example above, i s a s s i s t e d by a c e r t a i n s t r e s s on "end" and "done" and "men". In f a c t , such s t r e s s e d c l a u s e - e n d i n g s were found t o be so u n f a i l -i n g i n t h e i r presence, t h a t they a i d e d m a t e r i a l l y i n d e c i d i n g on the p a t t e r n type of each sentence. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n -e nabled them to be c l a s s e d as e i t h e r " c u r s u s " or "cadences". E x p l a n a t i o n of Cursus and Cadences. A c c o r d i n g t o Tempest, the Cursus was o r i g i n a l l y a ' ' 1. r h y t h m i c device of o r a t o r y used by the Greeks as p u n c t u a t i o n , I Greek audiences were f a m i l i a r w i t h the scheme, and would some-times even c l a p the time --of the c u r s u s , i f they f e l t they had w a i t e d too l o n g f o r i t . Roman o r a t o r s borrowed the cursus f o r purposes: b o t h of p u n c t u a t i o n and ornament, and men l i k e C i c e r o used i t i n w r i t i n g as w e l l as speaking, to pr o v i d e a neat 2. c l o s e t o c l a u s e s and p e r i o d s . The L a t i n of the e a r l y 1. Rhythm of E n g l i s h P r o s e , p. 74. 2. I have s e l e c t e d the f o l l o w i n g examples of the L a t i n Cursus from C i c e r o ' s P r o Lege M a n i l l a , E d i t e d by J o l i f f e and Tracy. P l a n u s Tardus 1. 72: " b e l l a g e s s e r u n t " 1. 351: " r a t i " n e d i s s e n t i u n t " 1. 79: " l a u d i s f u i s t i s " 1. 398: "imperii c a r u i t " V e l ox. 1. 152: "diutTssime commoratur" 2. 622: "salutem provTnciarum" CURSUS and CADENCE. 25 C h r i s t i a n s r e t a i n e d the cursus ( w i t h t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , t h a t t h e i r L a t i n : now had accent i n s t e a d of q u a n t i t y ) ; and t h i s c u r s u s was reproduced i n our E n g l i s h language w i t h v a r i o u s m o d i f i c a t i o n s : e.g., x 1. C l a s s i c a l L a t i n Late L a t i n E n g l i s h 1. P l a n u s : voce t e s t a t u r n o s t r i s infunde c_ountless m i s f o r t u n e s comely and g r a c e f u l pardon f o r o f f e n d e r s 2. Tardus: N o s t r a c u r a t i o i n carnationem Can a i n G a l i l e e _ cognovimus S e c r e t s of p h i l o s o p h y 3. Velox: fluminum _quae g l P r i a m _ Vapour up~6*n the t e n e t i s perducamur _. mountains time of these urns deposited E v e r y cursus ends w i t h a weak s y l l a b l e . The cadence i s a rhythmic device of language, h a v i n g the same use and purpose as the c u r s u s , but b e i n g n a t i v e to E n g l i s h . U n l i k e the c u r s u s , the m a j o r i t y of cadences end w i t h a s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , a v e r y common type b e i n g the 4 - 1 : " b r u t i s h and. s h o r t " . (The c o u n t i n g i s done from the l a s t s y l l -a b l e , and every s t r e s s i s numbered'accordingly. The same r u l e h o l d s f o r the c u r s u s ) . Some v a r i e t i e s of n a t i v e cadences are 2. l i s t e d below: 3- 1 "we*ary backs". -4- 1 " c h o r a l lament". 6-1 "motionless^ as the snow". 5- 3-1 "down'Within h i m s e l f ^ . 5-2-1 "now f o r the f i r s t time". 5-3-2 " k i n g of a l l England". The numerous prose of the E l i z a b e t h a n s , a l r e a d y p r o -v i d e d w i t h n a t i v e cadences, and a d o p t i n g the cursus of L a t i n 1. Examples from Norton: Rhythm of Eng. P r o s e , p. 81. 2. I b i d . , p, 83. . CURSUS anacCADENCES, 2 6 owes much of i t s "beauty to the rhythm added by these d e v i c e s . F o r the r i c h e s t examples we l o o k to the w r i t i n g s of Browne, T a y l o r and R a l e i g h : "0 e l o q u e n t , j u s t and mighty Death!" or t o the B i b l e : " l a m e n t a t i o n s and mourning and woe", - but even i n the p l a i n prose of Hooker they occur o f t e n enough to l e n d s o n o r i t y to h i s l o f t i e r themes and emphasis to almost every sentence. I t i s p o s s i b l e to p i c k out a few d e f i n i t e types or p a t t e r n s among such sentences, a c c o r d i n g to the number or l e n g t h of t h e i r c l a u s e s . The end of every c l a u s e i s c l e a r l y marked by a cursus or cadence. In the examples which have been chosen, n a t i v e cadences are i n d i c a t e d by underlinement and the cursus by use of c a p i t a l s : -A. This type has two s h o r t c l a u s e s f o l l o w e d by a l o n g . I t e x p r e s s e s statements which come to a f o r c e f u l c o n c l u s i o n . e.g., I f Reason e r r 3-1 We.FAIL INTO EVIL, 5-2 and are as so f a r f o r t h d e p r i v e d of the g e n e r a l p e r f e c t i o n we 3eek. 4-1 B. This type begins w i t h a b r i e f emphatic statement which i s a m p l i f i e d by two much l o n g e r c l a u s e s . e.g., I n f i n i t e d u t i e s t h e r e a r e , 4-1 the goodness whereof i s by t h i s r u l e sufFICIEETLY MANIFESTED • , 7-4-2 a l t h o u g h we had no o t h e r warrant b e s i d e to approve them. 5-2-1 C. The t h i r d p a t t e r n expresses a statement by sandwiching two o r more s h o r t p a r t s between two l o n g e r c l a u s e s , the l a t t e r of these b r i n g i n g the sentence to a f o r c e f u l c l o s e . e.g., A g a i n there i s n o t h i n g i n i t but any man 6-3-1 h a v i n g n a t u r a l p e r f e c t i o n of w i t 4-1 and RIPENESS OF JUDGMENT 5-2 CURSUS and CADENCE, 2? may by LABOUR AND TRAVAIL f i n d out 5-2, 4-1 D. This sentence d i m i n i s h e s from l o n g b e g i n n i n g s t o a s h o r t unemphatic f i n a l c l a u s e . e.g., F o r i f once we descend unto probable c o l l e c t i o n what i s convenient f o r men 4-1 We are then i n t e r r i t o r y where f r e e and arblTRARY.DETERMINATION, 7-4-2 the t e r r i t o r y where human laws t a k e • p l a c e 3-1 which laws are AFTER TO BE CONSIDERED 7-4-2 E. Type E resembles D, but has only two l o n g c l a u s e s and a s h o r t c o n c l u d i n g one. I t makes statements. e.g., The r u l e o f diVINE OPERATIONS OUTWARD 7-4-2 i s the d e f i n i t i v e apPOINTMEKT OF GOD'S OWN WISDOM 7-4-2 set down w i t h i n h i m s e l f . 5-3-1 F. Argument or v e r y p e r s u a s i v e r e a s o n i n g i s the u s u a l purpose of type F . Two or more p a r t s of v a r y i n g l e n g t h are put between a s h o r t i n i t i a l and a s h o r t f i n a l c l a u s e . M o n o s y l l a b l e s are o f t e n found a t the b e g i n n i n g and end, and l o n g phrases i n the 1. m i d d l e . e.g,, Whereupon t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n i s 3-1 t h a t s e e i n g t h a t each s o r t of people hath . . a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of r i g h t from o t h e r , and t h a t . w h i c h i s r i g h t of i t s own nature must be everywhere one and the same-. 4-1 t h e r e f o r e i n i t s e l f t h e r e i s n o t h i n g r i g h t . 6-3-1 G. This type develops a crescendo of l o n g e r and l o n g e r p a r t s , and i s found i n passages of eloquence. e.g., and i s i t p o s s i b l e , t h a t man, b e i n g not only the n o b l e s t c r e a t u r e i n the w o r l d , 5-1 but a v e r y w o r l d i n h i m s e l f 4-1 : h i s transGRESS1K G- T H E L A W~0F NATURE s h o u l d 7-4-2 draw no manner of harm a f t e r i t ? H. Sentence H tends t o balanced s t r u c t u r e , c o u p l e t form, and 1. See above, p. CURS Ud and CADENCE 28 a s s e r t s w i t h a l l the c e r t a i n t y of a maxim. e.g., A law t h e r e f o r e , GENERALLY TAKEN • 6-2 i s a d i r e c t i v e r u l e unto GOODNESS OF OPERATION, -7-4-2 S e n s i b l e goodness i s most apparent, near and p r e s e n t .6-4-2 Which causeth the a p p e t i t e t o "be t h e r e w i t h s t r o n g l y provoked 4-1 The s o u l then OUGHT TO CONDUCT THE BODY, and the s p i r i t of our minds the s o u l . 6-3-1 I. Type I i s s i m i l a r t o H, hut has double the l e n g t h in. the p a r a l l e l p a r t s . e.g., For as much he l p whereof as may be i n t h i s case, 5-2-1 I have ehDEAVOURED THROUGHOUT THE BODY of 7-4-2 t h i s whole d i s c o u r s e 3-1 t h a t every former p a r t might g i v e STRENGTH UNTO ALL THAT FOLLOW 7-4-2 and every l a t e r b r i n g some l i g h t unto a l l b e f o r e . ,. 6-3-1 Refer t h i s sentence to the love of God, 3-1 and i t e x t i n g u i s h e t h a l l heinous crimes; 6-3-1 r e f e r i t t o the LOVE OF THY NEIGHBOUR, 5-2 and a l l g r i e v o u s wrongs i t b a n i s h e t h out of the w o r l d . . 4-1 Passages which show an e x t e n s i v e use of the cursus and the cadence, otherwise than i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n , are r a r e i n Hooker's prose. There a r e , i t I s t r u e , the d e s c r i p t i o n of the w o r l d s h o u l d Nature " i n t e r m i t her cours e " , Book I , P a r t I I I , No. 2; p a r t of the account of the "law which angels obey", Book I , P a r t IV, No,. I ; the c o n c l u s i o n t o Book I I , P a r t V I I I , No. 7, and to Book IV, P a r t XIV, Nos. 6 and 7; the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Book V, P a r t I , Nos. 1 and 2, and a passage i n p r a i s e of music, Book V, P a r t XXXVIII. I t i s to be doubted i f there are any o t h e r r h e t o r i c a l passages b e s i d e s those mentioned above, and only two even of these approach b e i n g "numerous" pr o s e . One noteworthy f a c t about them i s t h a t the n a t i v e cadences CURSUS and CADENCE. 29 v e r y much outnumber the cursus -, by about two to one, and t h i s , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t Hooker's ear was a t t u n e d t o c l a s s -i c a l rhythms. The f i r s t example "should Nature i n t e r m i t h er co u r s e " amply proves t h i s , f o r i t has twenty cadences and only two c u r s u s . Most of the cadences are of the l o n g e s t type, made of s i x or seven s y l l a b l e s . In t h i s l o n g sentence about to be quoted,, there i s i n the f i r s t p a r t a rough a l t e r n a t i o n of l o n g and s h o r t cadences; towards the end s h o r t ones are used,, tend-i n g " a l l the time t o go from l o n g t o s h o r t e r . 1. "Now i f nature should i n t e r m i t her course, and leave a l t o g e t h e r though i t were but f o r a w h i l e the o b s e r v a t i o n of her own  laws; 6-2-1 I f those p r i n c i p a l and mother elements  of the w o r l d , 6*1 whereof a l l . t h i n g s i n t h i s , l o w e r w o r l d  are made, 3-1 should l o s e the q u a l i t i e s which now they  have; 7-3-1 i f the frame of that heavenly a r c h 6-3-1 e r e c t e d over our heads . 4-1 sho u l d l o o s e n a n d . d i s s o l v e i t s e l f ; 7-3-1 i f c e l e s t i a l spheres : 3-1 should, f o r g e t t h e i r wonted motions, 6-4-2 and by I r r e g u l a r v o l u b i l i t y t u r n them-s e l v e s any way as i t might happens I f . -the PRINCE OF THE LIGHTS OF HEAVEN 7-4-2 which now as a g i a n t doth r u n h i s ' unwearied c o u r s e , 6-3-1 sh o u l d as. i t were through a LANGUISH-ING FAINTFESS 5-2 begin to,.stand and to r e s t h i m s e l f ; 6-3-1 i f the moon should wander from h er  beaten way, 7-3-1 the times and seasons of the year 5-1 •blend themselves by d i s o r d e r e d and confused m i x t u r e , the winds breathe out t h e i r l a s t gasp, . 4-2-1 the c l o u d s y e i l d no r a i n , 3-1 the e a r t h be defeated of heavenly i n -f l u e n c e , the f r u i t s of the e a r t h 4-1 1. Mr. Tempest has made use of t h i s same passage, I f i n d , t o i l l u s t r a t e the use of a "theme" i n r h y t h m i c a l prose. Rhythm of Eng. P r o s e , p. 63. CURSUS and CADENCES. 30 pine away 3-1 as c h i l d r e n a t the w i t h e r e d "breasts of t h e i r mother no l o n g e r able to y i e l d them r e l i e f ; 4-1 what would, "become 4-1 of man himself"" 3-1 whom these t h i n g s now do a l l s e r v e ? " 4-2-1 The " b r i e f e r cadences towards the c l o s e add an urgency of emphasis to the a p p a l l i n g p i c t u r e of c o n f u s i o n and i n t e n s i t y , the importance of "man h i m s e l f " . The sentence from "The Law which Angels obey" i s , on the o t h e r hand,, almost e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g i n cadences of the " b r u t i s h and s h o r t " v a r i e t y . I t employs many cur s u s , which, w i t h the more e l a b o r a t e of the n a t i v e cadences, set t h i s s e n -tence on a p e d e s t a l . "But now t h a t we may l i f t up our eyes 4-1 (as i t were) from the f o o t s t o o l to the throne of God, 7-3-1 and LEAVING THESE NATURAL 6-3 c o n s i d e r a l i t t l e the s t a t e of heavenly and d i v i n e c r e a t u r e s : t o u c h i n g A n g e l s , which are SPIRITS IMMATERIAL 6-3 and i n t e l l e c t u a l , the GLORIOUS INHABITANTS 6-3 of those sacred p a l a c e s , where n o t h i n g but l i g h t 4-1 and BLESSED IMMORTALITY 7-3 no SHADOW OF MATTER PGR TEARS Cur:5&2; Cad:4-1 dis c o n t e n t m e n t s , g r i e f s , and unCOMFORT-ABLE PASSIONS TO WORK UPON, 9-6-3 but a l l j o y , t r a n q u i l l i t y and peace 5-1 even f o r ever and ever doth d w e l l : 7-4-1 as in. NUMBER AMD ORDER 5-2 they are huge MIGHTY AND ROYAL ARMIES Cur: 7-4-2 Cad: 6-5-2 so l i k e wise i n p e r f e c t i o n of obedience unto t h a t law which the Highest whom they adore, l o v e and i m i t a t e , h a t h imposed upon them, 4-2-1 such observants, they are t h e r e o f , 6-3-1 t h a t our S a v i o u r h i m s e l f 4-1 b e i n g t o s e t down the PERFECT IDEA 5-2 of t h a t which we are to pray and wish f o r on e a r t h 6-4-1 CURSUS and CADEMCES. 51 d i d not t e a c h t o pray or wish f o r more than only 6-4-2 t h a t he"re i t might he w i t h us 6-3-1 as-iWith them i t i s i n heaven." 6-4-2 In the t h i r d example, the c o n c l u s i o n t o Boolr I I , there i s no remarkable beauty, but r a t h e r a use of cadences and c u r s u s t o procure emphasis: e.g. "Whatsoever i s spoken of God, 4-1 or t h i n g s a p p e r t a i n i n g t o God, 4-1 though i t seem an honour, 6-4-2 IT IS AN INJURY." " 6-3 I n the v e r y l a s t sentence of t h i s passage the frequency of r h y t h m i c a l phrases i s i n accord w i t h the "sweet reasonableness" of t h e i r author: " I t h e r e f o r e leave i t to themSELVES TO CONSIDER 5-2 whether they have i n t h i s f i r s t p o i n t 5-2-1 or not overshot"themselves: 3-1 which God doth know i s q u i c k l y done, 3-1 even when our meaning i s most s i n c e r e . 6-3-1 as I am ,VERILY PERSUADED 6-2 : t h e i r s i n t h i s case 4 - 2 ~ l was." A l l t h a t i s to be noted i n the two c o n c l u d i n g p a r a -graphs of Book IV i s the frequency of s h o r t (4-1 or 3-1) n a t i v e cadences i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n . O t h e r s — " H e n r y the E i g h t h " ; " r i g h t e o u s and j u s t " ; "Edward the Saint"-~show how common such cadences s t i l l a r e . In the l a s t l i n e occurs a f i n e c u r s u s : " g l o r i o u s and s a c r e d i n s t r u m e n t " . A prevalence of n a t i v e cadences i s observed i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to Book V: " e a s i l y espy", and " s e n s i b l e smart", c l i c k n e a t l y a t the end o f the c l a u s e s of the f i r s t sentence. F u r t h e r on come c l a u s e s t h a t are f i n i s h e d o f f w i t h " f u l l of t o i l " , " q u i e t l y t h e i r own", "Church of God", "Almighty God", "common cause". The l o n g e r CURSUS and CADEHGES. 32 rhythms are too r a r e t o l e n d any s o n o r i t y : "appeasing p u b l i c d i s t u r b a n c e " and " R e l i g i o n w i t h J u s t i c e " are both c u r s u s . The page " t o u c h i n g m u s i c a l harmony" i s on a h i g h e r l e v e l of prose, l a r g e l y because i t c o n t a i n s many cursus -, t h i r t e e n . Of these s ome a r e : m u s i c a l harmony 6-3 r i s i n g and f a l l i n g 5-2 sorrow and heaviness 6-3 s t i r our a f f e c t i o n s 5-2 moderate a l l a f f e c t i o n s 7-4-2 se q u e s t e r themselves from a c t i o n 7-4-2 Elsewhere i n t h i s paper i t has been mentioned t h a t phrases such as the paeon and monosyllable i n c e r t a i n combinations, can make v e r y p l e a s i n g r e a d i n g ; but i t must be admitted t h a t there a r e hundreds of s i m i l a r phrases and combinations t h a t make no i m p r e s s i o n of s o n o r i t y a t a l l ; whereas every time a cursus or a cadence i s used, i t s e f f e c t i s to i n c r e a s e the f o r c e or the m u s i c a l q u a l i t y of Hooker's otherwise not r h y t h m i c a l prose. I t i s the cursus and the cadence t h a t o c c a s i o n a l l y make of h i s passages "numerous prose." To t h i s statement i t i s necessary t o add t h a t , a l t h o u g h the cur s u s i s always melodious, the cadence i s o f t e n n o t h i n g more than a device of p u n c t u a t i o n . Thus Hooker used E n g l i s h cadences f o r the same purpose as the a n c i e n t Greeks had used t h e i r c u r s u s . APPENDIX A. (Ca.-- Cadence; Cs.—• Cursus) SENTENCE TYPES. Bk. I , I I , 2. A. (1) The works which outwardly are of Cod., Ca they a r e ' i n such s o r t of him being one, Ca t h a t ' e a c h Person hath i n them somewhat p e c u l i a r and proper. Cs Bk. I , I I , 3. (2) He t h a t s t r i k e t h an instrument w i t h s k i l l Ca may cause, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , a v e r y  unpleasant sound Ca i f the s t r i n g on which he s t r i k e t h chance to be uncapable of harmony. Gs Bk. I , V I , 1. Ga (3) The s o u l of man b e i n g t h e r e f o r e a t the f i r s t as a book wherein n o t h i n g i s and y e t a l l t h i n g s  may be i m p r i n t e d ; Gs we are to s e a r c h by what steps and degrees i t r i s e t h unto p e r f e c t i o n of knowledge. Ca (4) ..a t h i n g which we so l i t t l e hoped t o see Ca t h a t even they which b e h e l d i t done Ca s c a r c e l y b e l i e v e d t h e i r own senses a t the  f i r s t b e h o l d i n g . Cs. _ — ( I V , 'XIV,- 7.)-(5) . . f i n a l l y i n a l l t h i n g s then are our c o n s c i e n c e s best r e s o l v e d , Ca and i n a most agreeable s o r t unto God and nature s e t t l e d , Ca. when they are so f a r persuaded as those grounds of p e r s u a s i o n Cs. which are to be had w i l l bear. Ca. ( I I , V I I , 5.) (6) For t h i s cause h i s t e s t i m o n i e s , whatsoever he a f f i r m e t h , Cs. are always t r u t h and most i n f a l l i b l e c e r t a i n t y . Cs. ( I I , VI, 1.) Bk. I , V I I , 2. B. (1) Choice there i s not. Ca. APPENDIX A. (cont'd.) -unless the t h i n g which we take to he so ' i n our power t h a t we might have r e f u s e d and l e f t i t . I, VIII, 9 . ( 2 ) and, t o conclude, the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s t h e r e o f are such as i t i s not easy to f i n d men ignorant"" of them. I, X, 1 . (3) Two f o u n d a t i o n s there are which hear up p u b l i c s o c i e t i e s ; the one, a n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n wherehy a l l men d e s i r e s o c i a b l e l i f e and f e l l o w s h i p , the other an order e x p r e s s l y or s e c r e t l y agreed upon t o u c h i n g the manner of t h e i r u n i o n i n l i v i n g t o g e t h e r . I, III, 2 . ( 4 ) ..expedient i t will/be t h a t we sever the law of nature observed  by the one from thai; "which the other i s t i e d unto II, IV, 5 . ( 5 ) Nor l e t any man t h i n k t h a t f o l l o w i n g the judgment of n a t u r a l  d i s c r e t i o n i n such cases, C we can have no assurance t h a t we p l e a s e God II, II, 1 . ( 6 ) N e v e r t h e l e s s i t may perhaps be a q u e s t i o n , G whether S t . P a u l d i d mean t h a t we s i n as o f t as ever we go about a n y t h i n g , G w i t h o u t an express i n t e n t and purpose t o obey God t h e r e i n . n i CHAPTER I I I . THE INFLUENCE of LATIN , OH HOOKER' S PROSE STYLE--GRAMKAR- - SYNTAX- -VO CAEULARY- - SE NTE NC E STRUCTURE. Too o f t e n t o a v o i d remark, the prose of the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y runs something l i k e t h i s : "Which t h i n g h i m s e l f w e l l enough u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and be i n g not i g n o r a n t t h a t e t c . , e t c h i s r e s o l u t i o n i n f i n e i s , t h a t i n the church a number of t h i n g s are s t r i c t l y observed, whereof no law of S c r i p t u r e maketh mention one way or ot h e r ; t h a t of t h i n g s once r e c e i v e d and confirmed by use l o n g usage i s a law s u f -f i c i e n t . " In t h i s passage there are c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s of Hooker's f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h L a t i n . "Which t h i n g " i s e q u i v a l e n t t o L a t i n "quod", a word which, though a r e l a t i v e pronoun, i s o f t e n p l a c e d f i r s t i n a sentence. " H i m s e l f " r e p r e s e n t s the emphatic pronoun " i p s e " . The p a r t i c i p l e "understanding" f o l l o w s b oth i t s o b j e c t and adverb. The phrases " i n the Church" and "of t h i n g s once r e c e i v e d " are w i d e l y separated from "observed" and "usage", the words to which r e s p e c t i v e l y they have r e l a t i o n . Throughout Hooker's prose, indeed, anyone even s l i g h t l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h L a t i n can e a s i l y f i n d i m i t a t i o n s of c o n s t r u c t i o n s which he i s - accustomed to r e g a r d as p e c u l i a r to t h a t language.. There i s , to b e g i n w i t h , a c l o s e reminder of the a b l a t i v e a b s o l u t e p a r t i c i p i a l phrase: 1. e.g. "This done.....the judgment of C a l v i n b e i n g  a l l e g e d " "These t h i n g s St. C y r i l d u l y c o n s i d e r i n g . . . . . " LATIN. 36 2. R e l a t i v e pronoun w i t h antecedent repeated: e.g. "He f e l l at l e n g t h upon Geneva; which c i t y the * i bishop and c l e r g y . . .had, ... ..forsaken* " "The cause of which t h e i r d i s p o s i t i o n so unfram-able unto s o c i e t i e s where i n they l i v e . . . . " 3. Demonstrative pronoun separated from r e l a t i v e pronoun, and d e f e r r e d : e.g. " I n a word, not to whom no c a l a m i t y f a l l e t h , but whom n e i t h e r . m i s e r y not p o v e r t y i s a b l e t o move from a r i g h t mind, them we may t r u l y pronounce • fortunate.-" 4. Use of " t h i s " , " t h a t " , or "the o t h e r " i n s t e a d of "former" and " l a t t e r " . e.g. " . . . o f these who doth doubt a t any time? of them who doubteth n o t ? " "For i n t h i s we are not t h e i r a d v e r s a r i e s , though they i n the oth e r h i t h e r t o have been ours." 5. I n v e r s i o n of order of v e r b s , s u b j e c t s , o b j e c t s , c l a u s e s : e.g. "Other canons they a l l e g e and r u l e s not unworthy of a p p r o b a t i o n . " "We are not a f r a i d t o present unto God our p r a y e r f o r those t h i n g s which t h a t he w i l l perform unto • us we have not sure nor c e r t a i n knowledge." "....are by d o l o u r and g r i e f . . . . . .cured.. " 6. Use of emphatic and i n d e f i n i t e pronouns as i n L a t i n : e.g. "For themselves do not a l l b i n d the Church." ".....those i n v e n t i o n s whereby some one s h a l l seem to have been, more e n l i g h t e n e d from above than many thousands." "....and to, adorn the se p u l c h r e s of c e r t a i n . . . " 7. An echo of the L a t i n "sunt q u i " i n t r o d u c i n g a r e l a t i v e c l a u s e ; a l s o an example of the s u b j u n c t i v e of c o n c e s s i o n . e.g. "There are t h a t e l e v a t e too much..." ( L a t i n "sunt q u i " ) . "There are t h a t of dead have been made a l i v e . . . " " . . . a l t h o u g h there be a k i n d of n a t u r a l r i g h t " . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h L a t i n p r o s e , and f o r g e t f u l n e s s of the absence of i n f l e x i o n s i n E n g l i s h , l e d Hooker sometimes t o LATIN. 37 l e n g t h e n out a sentence beyond the l i m i t s of comprehension: e.g. "Thus we may s a f e l y conclude, t h a t i t i s not e v i l simply t o concur * 'with the heathens e i t h e r i n o p i n i o n or i n a c t i o n ; and t h a t c o n f o r m i t y w i t h them i s only then a d i s g r a c e , when e i t h e r we f o l l o w them i n t h a t they t h i n k and do amiss, or f o l l o w them g e n e r a l l y I n t h a t they do w i t h o u t other reason than o n l y the l i k i n g we have t o the p a t t e r n of t h e i r example; which l i k i n g doth i n t i m a t e a more u n i v e r s a l approbation of them than i s a l l o w a b l e . " (IV, V I I , 1.) e.g. "Which b e i n g g e n e r a l l y thought upon as a matter t h a t touched n e a r l y t h e i r whole e n t e r p r i s e , whereas change was n o t -w i t h s t a n d i n g c o n s i d e r e d necessary, i n r e g a r d of the g r e a t hurt w hich the Church d i d r e c e i v e by a number of t h i n g s then i n g r e a t use, whereupon a g r e a t , d e a l of t h a t which had been was now to be taken away and removed out of the Church; y e t s i t h t h e r e are d i v e r s e ways of a b r o g a t i n g t h i n g s e s t a b l i s h e d , they saw i t b e s t to cut o f f p r e s e n t l y such t h i n g s as might i n t h a t s o r t be e x t i n g u i s h e d w i t h o u t danger, l e a v i n g the r e s t t o be a b o l i s h e d by disusage through t r a c t of time." ( I V , XIV, 3.) In the f i r s t sentence there I s c o n f u s i o n due t o an o v e r - f r e q u e n t use.of the pronouns "then" and " t h a t " — a con-f u s i o n aggravated by the omission of "which" a f t e r " t h a t " . The second example l e a v e s one i n doubt as to which i s the p r i n c i p a l c l a u s e . "Whereupon" i s a co n n e c t i v e which gen-e r a l l y takes a n a r r a t i v e one step: f a r t h e r , but here i t i s hot c l e a r What happened bef o r e " t h a t which had been" was to be t a k e n away. L a t i n Vocabulary. I n c o n s i d e r i n g such L a t i n i z e d v o c a b u l a r y as i n phrases l i k e "Ascension, i s a p l a i n l o c a l t r a n s l a t i o n of ; C h r i s t , " " f l e s h and bones c o n t i n n a t e w i t h H i s , " and " s e s s i o n a t the r i g h t hand of God," i t must be remembered t h a t Hooker was not to know which words would s t i l l be used, and which would be a r c h a i c , i n the days to come. Such words as " c o n t i n u a t e " and " t r a n s l a t i o n " (meaning LATIN. 38 "removal") were not so much evidences of pedantry on the p a r t of Hooker as i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t new L a t i n words d i d e n t e r the E n g l i s h language as a r e s u l t of the Renaissance. Some have remained i n use and make a f o u r t h i n the s e r i e s of i n v a s i o n s 1. of L a t i n i n t o our v o c a b u l a r y : the f i r s t , from the Roman o c c u p a t i o n ; the second, from the E a r l y C h r i s t i a n Church; the t h i r d , through French a t the Conquest; the f o u r t h , from the New L e a r n i n g , i n the S i x t e e n t h Century. Gf these, the l a r g e s t group was the French. In. a sentence of 367 words, Book I I I , P a r t 17, No. 1, the words from Old French are as f o l l o w s : m a i n t a i n e d , S c r i p t u r e , n e cessary, d i s g r a c e , number, ordered, d i s c r e t i o n , n a t u r e , d e v i s e , a t t i r e , b e a s t s , p r o o f , a f f i r m , s a c r e d , n e c e s s a r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r , a p p l i c a t i o n , s p e c i a l , occas-i o n s , r e s p e c t s , t r e a s u r e s , abundantly, s c a r c e l y , n o b l e , p a r t , n e c e s s i t y , purpose, form, government, manner, g e n e r a l , p r e c e p t s , examples, p r o p o s a l s , f i n a l l y , p r i n c i p a l , p o l i t y , imagine, c o n t a i n e d , accused, p o i n t s , r e l i g i o n , substance, ru.de, f a s h i o n , m a t t e r , pertain., cause, accused, p o i n t s , r e f e r r e d , c o n s c i e n c e , judge, deserve'. This makes 53 of L a t i n - F r e n c h o r i g i n , out of a t o t a l of 70 L a t i n words. Those d a t i n g from the Renaissance a r e : i m p o r t , s u f f i c i e n t , comprehend, i n f i n i t e , d i r e c t i o n , p r e s c r i b e , d i r e c t . This whole L a t i n group comprises 21$ of the t o t a l of 367 words i n the sentence. The percentage l.s h i g h e r - • 2. ' t h a n i s u s u a l i n the E n g l i s h language, - lAfl. The i n c r e a s e 1, E n g l i s h Grammar, Secondary Schools, p. 287. (Perhaps not the h i g h e s t o b t a i n a b l e a u t h o r i t y ; but the p o i n t i s not l i a b l e t o much q u e s t i o n i n g ) . 2. Eng. Gram.. Sec. Sch., p. 293. -LATIN. 39 i s p r o b a b l y due t o the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l nature of the s u b j e c t . 1. As a g e n e r a l r u l e , the L a t i n words are l o n g e r than the Saxon. Some of the l a t t e r a r e : "time, wisdom, l i g h t , mind, man, knowledge". In t h i s l e n g t h y sentence the l o n g L a t i n words are the i n s t i n c t i v e c h o i c e of the author when he needs to r i s e from mere e x p o s i t i o n to p e r s u a s i v e eloquence:-" . . . . i f we acknowledge t h a t as w e l l f o r p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n t o s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s , as a l s o i n o t h e r m a r i i f b i d r e s p e c t s , i n f i n i t e t r e a s u r e s of wisdom are over and abundantly -t o be found i n the Holy S c r i p t u r e , yea t h a t s c a r c e l y there i s any noble p a r t of knowledge worthy the mind of man, but from thence it.may have some d i r e c t i o n and l i g h t ; yea, t h a t a l t h o u g h there- be no n e c e s s i t y , i t should of purpose p r e s c r i b e any one p a r t i c u l a r form of church government, y e t t o u c h i n g the manner of g o v e r n i n g i n g e n e r a l the p r e c e p t s t h a t S c r i p t u r e s e t t e t h down are not few, and the examples many which i t p roposeth f o r a l l church governors even i n p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s to f o l l o w : . . . . " This use of L a t i n i z e d v o c a b u l a r y was f a r from b e i n g Hooker's o n l y way of p u t t i n g f o r c e i n t o h i s arguments, but, c o n s c i o u s l y or n o t , he r e a l i z e d the s o n o r i t y of these new p o l y -s y l l a b i c words, and l e t them r e v e r b e r a t e through h i s more i m p r e s s i v e passages. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know what f r e s h n e s s of d e l i g h t was a f f o r d e d E l i z a b e t h a n ears by such combinations as " d i r e c t i o n and l i g h t " , " l e t s and impediments", " d o l o u r and g r i e f " . Be t h a t as i t may, w i t h a l l h i s predilec--'." ti.on f o r the s u p e r i o r L a t i n v o c a b u l a r y . Hooker used i t f o r o n l y one f i f t h , or l e s s , of h i s book. This d i s c o v e r y about one o f the most e x t e n s i v e uses of L a t i n i z e d E n g l i s h supports the w e l l known f a c t t h a t the work-a-day Anglo-Saxon element i n our language v a s t l y predominates, and must always predominate i n 1. Rhythm.of Eng. P r o s e , p. 43. LATIN. 40 even the most l e a r n e d and e l a b o r a t e of prose. There i s a l s o another way t h a t Hooker, i n common w i t h a l l the E l i z a b e t h a n w r i t e r s , combines L a t i n and E n g l i s h v o c a b u l a r y . He uses synonyms such as: " d i r e c t i o n and l i g h t " , o t h e r examples are l i s t e d below: Book ¥, P a r t X X X I I , No. 2. " l e t s and impediments." " V, " XXXI, " 4. " i m p e r f e c t and lame." " V, " LXXIV, " 4. " s m a l l and p e t i t pavments." " V, " L.XXVII, " 4. "tempests and storms." !' V, " LXXX, " 3. "congregations and f l o c k s " . V, " LXXXI, " 6. " p r o b a b i l i t y and l i k e l i h o o d . " V, " LXXXI, " 8. "scum and r e f u s e " . V, " LXXXI, " 8. "eyesores and b l e m i s h e s . " V, " LXXXI, " 8. "detriment and h u r t . " V, " LXXXI, " 10. "weak and unsound." V, " LXXXI, " 17. "grounds and maxims." V, " X L I I , " 2. "sharpness and s u b t i l i t y of w i t . " V, " L X X I I , " 16. "dolour and g r i e f . " He a l s o , i n the sentence under d i s c u s s i o n , has a way of b e g i n n i n g a passage w i t h E n g l i s h v o c a b u l a r y , and ending w i t h L a t i n : e.g., l e f t f r e e . . . to be ordered at the d i s c r e t i o n of the Church. l e f t unto the w i t of man.,..to devise h i s own a t t i r e , are those t h i n g s l e f t out t h a t s h o u l d . . . p e r t a i n t o the form and f a s h i o n of i t . C h i e f among the L a t i n a u t h o r i t i e s of R i c h a r d Hooker were. St. Augustine and T e r t u l l i a n . These men, l i v i n g i n the f o u r t h and second c e n t u r i e s A.D. r e s p e c t i v e l y , were w r i t e r s not of C i c e r o n i a n , but of the l a t e r , decadent, L a t i n . Qui&tus 1. Septimius F l o r e n s T e r t u l l i a n u s was born at Carthage i n 155 A.D., but was as t h o r o u g h l y a Roman as i f educated i n Rome i t s e l f . H i s l e g a l b r a i n and o r i g i n a l c r e a t i v e power gave 1 ' E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a . V o l . 21. 14th e d i t i o n , p. 974. LATIN, 41 p r e s t i g e and f o r c e to C h r i s t i a n L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e . He i t was who made t r a d i t i o n i m p r e s s i v e . H i s style-, a k i n to t h a t of P l a u t u s and Terence, was much i n f l u e n c e d "by the Greek of the Sep t u a g i n t and the New Testament. Among the works quoted "by Hooker a r e : De Corona M i l i t is,- and De Resurrect lone Garni s, a l s o Contra H e r e t i c o s . Two hundred y e a r s l a t e r , A u r e l i u s 1. A u g u s t i n u s , b e t t e r known as S t . August i n e , was born i n North A f r i c a , 354, and l a t e r became Bishop of Hippo. He wrote many g r e a t works on the Church, the best known of which a r e , De C i v i t a t e D e i , Confessiones„ and De T r i n i t a t e . I f not "the g r e a t e s t man t h a t ever/wrote L a t i n " , -he-was i t s supreme expon-ent I n h i s day. The s t y l e of both these s c h o l a r s i s , as has been s t a t e d , v ery d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of C i c e r o . I t has a more f l e x i b l e i d i o m , t r a n s l a t e s more r e a d i l y I n t o E n g l i s h , and i s f u l l of s h o r t , b a l a n c e d phrases. On the whole i t i s more V i g o r o u s than weighty. When Hooker was t r a n s l a t i n g d i r e c t l y from i t , h i s E n g l i s h was more abrupt and a l i v e . Sometimes, however, h i s c h o i c e of Anglo-Saxon v o c a b u l a r y o u t d i d even the L a t i n , i n d i r e c t n e s s . There f o l l o w s a s h o r t passage from St. Augus t i n e , to show the s i m p l i c i t y of the s t y l e ; then the r e n d e r i n g of St. Aug u s t i n e ' s L a t i n i n t o E n g l i s h , by Hooker. S t . A u g u s t i n e : Hooker:(Bk.Y, P t . X L V I I I , No. 13) I n h i s ergo t r i b u l a t i o n i b u s In these t r i b u l a t i o n s ( s a i t h S t . quae possunt et prodesse et A u g u s t i n e ) , which may h u r t as n o c e r e r q u i d oremus s i c u t w e l l as p r o f i t , . . w h a t we should 1. Enc. B r i t . Y o l . 2. 14th e d i t i o n , p 681. LATIN. 42 o p o r t e t nescimus; et tamen q u i a dura, q u i a m o l e s t a , q u i a 'contra sensum n o s t r a e i n f i r m -i t a t i s sunt,* u n i v e r s a l i humana ask as we ought we know not, yet because they are g r i e v o u s , be-cause the sense of our weakness f l i e t h them, we pray a c c o r d i n g v o l u n t a t e u t a n o b i s a u f e r a n t u r t o the g e n e r a l d e s i r e of the oramus. (1) . w i l l of man that God would t u r n them away from us. Hooker's word " f l i e t h " i s more i m a g i n a t i v e than the L a t i n " c o n t r a " . Again from St. A u g u s t i n e , and from H o o k e r ( B k . I I , P t . V, No. 3..) Sive de C h r i s t o , s i v e de e j u s E c c l e s i a , s i v e de quacunque a l i a re quae p e r t i n e t . . . . S i angelus de c a e l o v o b i s a n n u o i a v e r i t p r a e t e r quam quod i n S c r i p t u r i s l e g a l i b u s e t ' e v a n g e l i c i s a c c e p i s t i s , ana-thema s i t . (2) Whether i t be a q u e s t i o n of C h r i s t , or whether i t be a q u e s t i o n of h i s church, or of what t h i n g soever the q u e s t i o n be.... i f an angel from heaven s h a l l t e l l us any t h i n g beside t h a t you have r e c e i v e d i n the S c r i p -t u r e under the Law and the Gos-p e l , l e t -him be accursed. There i s a s i m i l a r s i m p l i c i t y of order i n T e r t u l l i a n ' s L a t i n and a s i m i l a r c l o s e n e s s between i t and Hooker's t r a n s l a t i o n -legem et prophetas cum e v a n g e l i c i s e t a p o s t e l i c i s U t e r i s m i s c e t , et inde p o t a t f idem: earn aqua, s i g n a t , Sane t o S p i r i t u vest-It',- e u c h a r i s t i a p a s c i t , m a r t y r i a e x h o r t a t u r . (3) I t i n t e r m i n g l e t h w i t h evangel-i c a l and a p o s t o l i c a l w r i t i n g s the Law and the Prophets, and from thence i t d r l n k e t h i n t h a t f a i t h , which w i t h water i t s e a l e t h , c l o t h e t h w i t h the S p i r i t , n o u r i s h e t h w i t h the E u c h a r i s t w i t h martyrdom s e t -t e t h f o r ward. T e r t u l l i a n : Hooker: (Bk. I l l , P t . V I I I , No. 8 . ) U t a r ago et s e n t e n t i a P l a t o n i s a l i c u j u s p r o -n u n c i a n t i s , "Omnia anima i m m o r t a l i s " . At cum a i u n t I w i l l t h e r e f o r e myself a l s o use the sentence of some such a s - P l a t o pro-nouncing every s o u l immortal. But when I hear men a l l e g e , "That which "Mortuum quod mortuum," et i s dead i s dead", and "While thou "Vive dum v i v i s , " et "Post a r t a l i v e lie a l i v e " and "Af t«r 1'. E p i s t . CXXI. on 14. 2. Cont. L i t e r P e t i t , l i b . i i i . 3. T e r t u l l . Le P r a e s o r i p t . advers. Haerct. LATIN. 43 mortem omnia f i n i u n t u r , death and end of a l l , even of death etiam i p a s : " tunc meminero i t s e l f ; " then w i l l I c a l l to mind e t e t c o r v u l g i cinerem both t h a t the heart of the people a Deo deputatam". (1) w i t h God i s accounted dust.'" As has been s a i d above, t h e r e was a t times a g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e between o r i g i n a l and t r a n s l a t i o n , w i t h the c r e d i t f o r g r e a t e r v i g o u r g o i n g to E n g l i s h : " n u l l a V e r i t a s i n s i n u e t : " s h a l l hard-l y beat i n t o men's heads any t r u t h . " For the most p a r t , however, Hooker's E n g l i s h f a i t h -f u l l y f o l l o w s the L a t i n , the only d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t f o r c e d upon him by h a v i n g to render a s y n t h e t i c language i n t o one tha,t was h i g h l y a n a l y t i c a l . For i n s t a n c e , Hooker had t o . say " I w i l l use" f o r T e r t u l l i a n s ' one word " u t a r " , and he needed s i x E n g l i s h words t o t r a n s l a t e the t h r e e L a t i n ones: ""Wive dum v i v i s . " I t would not do to ignore a l t o g e t h e r the i n f l u e n c e of C i c e r o I n an e s t i m a t i o n of the s t y l e of Hooker, or of any one w r i t i n g E n g l i s h a t t h a t p e r i o d . C e r t a i n - r h e t o r i c a l de-v i c e s , p e r f e c t e d i f : not i n v e n t e d by C i c e r o , were p a r t of every w r i t e r ' s s t o c k - i n - t r a d e , and are d e s c r i b e d on Page 58. With r e g a r d s i m p l y t o arrangement, type and l e n g t h of sentences, C i c e r o h i m s e l f c o u l d h a r d l y have w r i t t e n one l o n g e r than No. 8, Book V, P a r t LXXV, which c o n s i s t s of f i f t y - o n e L i n e s , and covers, almost a page and a q u a r t e r . I t i s , i n c i d e n t a l l y , a t r a n s -l a t i o n from the De C i v i t a t e Dei„ of St. Augustine. In t h i s s entence, and i n o t h e r s of s i m i l a r p r o p o r t i o n s , t h e r e i s not a l i t t l e of C i c e r o ' s " d i c e n d i g r a v i t a s e t c o p i a " , - " f u l l n e s s 1. T e r t u l l . De_ Resur.. C a r n i s . LATIN. 44 and weight of o r a t o r y " . Hooker c o u l d not hope to reproduce i n E n g l i s h the i n v o l v e d order and s k i l f u l j u x t a p o s i t i o n of words of the g r e a t Roman s t y l i s t . Sentences from the P o l j t y which are too i n v o l v e d to be c l e a r , have a l r e a d y been quoted. Hooker d i d , however, make constant use of the device of " c l i m a x " , or p e r i o d i c arrangement. He would b u i l d up, f o r example,' a." s e r i e s of c o n d i t i o n a l c l a u s e s , and reserve the a p o d o s i s , preceded by a c o l o n , t i l l the very end. With what complete success he c o u l d develop such a p l a n as may be seen from the f o l l o w i n g sentence, which i s of q u i t e o r d i n a r y dim-e n s i o n s but which i l l u s t r a t e s the s t y l e of i t s author', p a r t i -c u l a r l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e to p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n s and c l i m a c t i c o r d e r . The q u o t a t i o n i s from near the b e g i n n i n g of Book I I . "Now whether i t be t h a t through an earnest l o n g i n g d e s i r e to see t h i n g s brought to a peaceable end,_I do not imagine the matters whereof we contend to be fewer than indeed they a r e ; or e l s e f o r t h a t i n t r u t h they are fewer when they come.to be d i s c u s s e d by reason, than otherwise they seem when by heat of c o n t e n t i o n they are d i v i d e d i n t o many s l i p s , and of e v e r y branch an heap i s made; s u r e l y , as now we have drawn them t o g e t h e r , c h o o s i n g out those t h i n g s which are r e c m i s i t e to be s e v e r a l l y a l l d i s c u s s e d , and o m i t t i n g such mean s p e c i a l t i e s as are l i k e l y ( w i t h o u t any great l a b o u r ) to f a l l a f t e r w a r d of themselves; I know no cause why e i t h e r the number or the l e n g t h of these c o n t r o v e r s i e s s h o u l d d i m i n i s h our hope of s e e i n g them end w i t h concord and l o v e on a l l s i d e s ; which of h i s i n f i n i t e l o v e and goodness the. F a t h e r of a l l peace and u n i t y grant'.'" The sentence begins w i t h two lengthy., p a r a l l e l s t a t e -ments, or r a t h e r , hypotheses, i n t r o d u c e d by "now whether" and "or e l s e f o r t h a t " , r e s p e c t i v e l y . These two c l a u s e s l e a d w i t h d e l i b e r a t e u n h u r r y i n g pace t o the p i v o t , or a r c h of the sen-tence , which comes a t the word " s u r e l y " . Thence, the d i r e c t -i o n of the' thought i s downwards, by way of such c o n n e c t i v e p h r a s e s as "as now", "choosing out", "and o m i t t i n g " , " I know IATIN. 45 no cause", coming to r e s t a t l a s t i n the p r a y e r to the "Father of a l l peace and u n i t y " . P a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n i s found not o n l y i n the c l a u s e s b e g i n n i n g w i t h "now whether" and "or e l s e " h u t a l s o i n those t h a t b e g i n "choosing" and " o m i t t i n g " . The p l a c i n g of the c l i m a x i n the middle of the sentence, r a t h e r than a t the end g i v e s a v e r y p l e a s i n g e f f e c t , and i n i t s g e n t l e rhythm, r e p r e s e n t s p e r f e c t l y , the sweet reasonableness -of Hooker's mind. On the whole, however, i t must be s a i d t h a t the l u c i d i t y of the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y i s clouded by super-imposing the s t y l e of c l a s s i c a l L a t i n on the f r e e - f l o w i n g E n g l i s h language. What C i c e r o s u c c i n c t l y conveyed by p a r t -i c i p l e and. i n f l e x i o n s , Hooker had to organize out of c l a u s e s and more c l a u s e s , (see Book I I I , P a r t IV, No. 1, which has . t h i r t y - s i x ) , and he was always i n danger of s a c r i f i c i n g u n i t y , coherence and f o r c e t o weight and, f u l n e s s . C o n c l u d i n g Observations. The i n f l u e n c e of L a t i n on Hooker's E n g l i s h Prose I s shown i n h i s v o c a b u l a r y , grammar and syntax, and sentence con-s t r u c t i o n where i t a f f e c t e d l e n g t h and p e r i o d i c arrangement. He, when t r a n s l a t i n g from T e r t u l l i a n or from other Church Fathers:, f o l l o w e d t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n s , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , word f o r word. Yet the E n g l i s h he then wrote i s not apprec-i a b l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of h i s o r i g i n a l work. Hooker's s t y l e , c l e a r l y t hen, was modelled on L a t i n . The q u e s t i o n s a r i s e was t h i s La-tin i n f l u e n c e of any v a l u e t o h i s prose, or the r e -v e r s e ? was he l i k e h i s contemporaries i n f o l l o w i n g L a t i n LATIN. 46 so c l o s e l y ? In answering the f i r s t q u e s t i o n , mention should be made a g a i n of the i n c l u s i o n i n h i s v o c a b u l a r y of a few words of L a t i n o r i g i n t h a t have s i n c e become o b s o l e t e . These are the only o c c a s i o n s when L a t i n v o c abulary seems to i n t r u d e i t s e l f . The E n g l i s h of the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y . i s not o v e r l o a d e d w i t h d e r i v a t i o n s from the L a t i n language. I would admit t h a t Hooker shows a p r e f e r e n c e f o r p o l y s y l l a b i c words, and t h a t most of these words have L a t i n o r i g i n ; but they do not make h i s E n g l i s h d i f f i c u l t to f o l l o w , only r a t h e r more e l e v a t e d and i m p r e s s i v e than t h a t of common speech. The e x t e n s i v e v o c a b u l a r y r e f l e c t s Hooker's great l e a r n i n g . He knew w e l l enough the v a l u e of '•-everyday words, f o r v i v i d n e s s and p o i n t . When he used synonyms from L a t i n and E n g l i s h , s i d e by s i d e , he was f o l l o w i n g a v e r y g e n e r a l custom i n E l i z a b e t h a n E n g l i s h p r o s e : e.g. "We have e r r e d and strayed",. (Book of Common P r a y e r ) . The v o c a b u l a r y of the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y i s one of the m e r i t s of the book. •: The same cannot be s a i d of the syntax, and c e r t a i n g rammatical forms, borrowed from L a t i n . They r e t a r d the modern r e a d e r , because they change the normal order of words. In t h i s r e s p e c t Hooker was much more at f a u l t than h i s con-t e m p o r a r i e s , as: w i l l be shown below. ( S i m i l a r l y , i n h i s MSS, he r e t a i n e d the o l d - f a s h i o n e d s p e l l i n g , and thus gave e x t r a work t o h i s p r i n t e r s ) . He i s c o n t i n u a l l y h o l d i n g readers up w i t h such sentences a s : "of any t h i n g more than of God they c o u l d not by any means l i k e , as l o n g as whatsoever they knew b e s i d e s God they apprehended i t not i n i t s s e l f , w i t h o u t de-pendency upon God;..." We have to read twice b e f o r e we can LATIN. 4.7 "apprehend" the meaning. The frequency of passages such as the above p r o v i d e s the only excuse f o r s a y i n g t h a t Hooker's prose s u f f e r s from the i n f l u e n c e of L a t i n . Hooker h i m s e l f d i d not speak such E n g l i s h ; other men d i d not w r i t e i t ; he t h e r e f o r e was a t f a u l t i n e l e c t i n g to w r i t e i n a manner t h a t was un-n a t u r a l and not c l e a r . The p e r i o d i c sentence t h a t Hooker borrowed from C l a s s i c a l prose was used by: him to.the g r e a t e s t advantage. I t was e x c e l l e n t f o r mustering an a r r a y of f a c t s ( o r s u p p o s i t i o n s ) i n order of i n c r e a s i n g Importance, and f o r b r i n g i n g them to an i m p r e s s i v e c o n c l u s i o n . I t a l s o matehed the d i g n i t y of the s u b j e c t . Although a few sentences are r e a l l y i n v o l v e d and l a c k i n g . i n u n i t y , o t h e r s t h a t seem overlong and weighty, are so only because of Hooker's l e a r n e d method of argument. Read a few paragraphs of a more ra m b l i n g prose, such as H a k l u y t ' s , and you w i l l agree t h a t the p e r i o d i c s t y l e gave to Hooker's prose b o t h order and beauty, Nothing c o u l d be e a s i e r than to decide whether the prose of the . P o l i t y was more L a t i n i z e d than t h a t of con-temporary works. One has only t o r e a d the f l o w i n g n a r r a t i v e of North's P l u t a r c h ' s L i v e s , or the s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d d e s c r i p t i o n s i n H a k l u y t ' s Voyages to r e a l i z e t h a t i n comparison w i t h these Hooker wrote a p e r i o d i c , L a t i n i z e d s t y l e t h a t would have been r a t e d as p e d a n t i c y e a r s b e f o r e . By a combination of e l a b o r a t e p e r i o d i c arrangement w i t h an o v e r - L a t i n i z e d , syntax, he gave even to some of h i s s h o r t sentences an u n f a m i l i a r t w i s t t h a t h i n d e r e d comprehension. From the f o l l o w i n g s e l e c t i o n s from LATIN. • • 4.8 the prose of men who wrote j u s t ah out the same time as Hooker, i t w i l l he r e a l i z e d t h a t f o r s i m p l i c i t y and r e a d a b i l i t y , Hooker comes a t the f o o t of the l i s t , i n no way i n advance of Ascham, and as remote and academic as Bacon. S i r Thomas North: C e r t a i n l y d e s t i n y may e a s i e r be f o r e s e e n than a v o i d -ed, c o n s i d e r i n g the strange and wonderful s i g n s t h a t were s a i d t o be seen before Caesar's death. F o r , t o u c h i n g the f i r e s i n the element, and s p i r i t s running up and down i n the n i g h t , and a l s o the s o l i t a r y b i r d s t o be seen a t noondays s i t t i n g i n the g r e a t m a r k e t - p l a c e , are not a l l these s i g n s perhaps worth the n o t i n g i n such a w onderful chance as happened? - . 1 - - P l u t a r c h ' s L i v e s . (Trans) 1579. H a k l u y t : They are good f i s h e r m e n , and i n t h e i r s m a l l b o a t s , b e i n g d i s g u i s e d w i t h t h e i r c o a t s of seals-' s k i n s , they de-c e i v e t h e , f i s h , who take them r a t h e r f o r t h e i r f e l l o w s e a l s , than f o r d e c e i v i n g men. They are good markmen. With t h e i r d a r t or arrow, they w i l l commonly k i l l a duck or any o t h e r f o w l , i n the head, and commonly i n the eye. When they shoot a t a g r e a t f i s h w i t h any of t h e i r d a r t s , they use to t i e a "bladder thereunto whereby they may the b e t t e r f i n d them a g a i n ; and the f i s h , not a b l e t o c a r r y i t so e a s i l y away, f o r t h a t the bladder, doth buoy the d a r t , w i l l a t l e n g t h be weary and die t h e r e w i t h , 2. --Voyages, 1589. Thomas Dekker: But oh the v e r y Rushes where the Comedy i s to daunce, y e a , and under the s t a t e of CamMses h i m s e l f e , must our f e t h e r e d E s t r i d g e , l i k e a p i e c e of Ordnance, be p l a n t e d v a l -i a n t l y (because impudently) b e a t i n g downe newes and h i s s e s of the opposed r a s c a l i t y . For do but c a s t up a r e c k o n i n g , what l a r g e eummlngs-i n are pursed up by s i t t i n g on the stage. F i r s t a conspicuous Eminince i s g o t t e n ; by which meanes, the b e s t and most e s s e n c i a l l p a r t s of a G a l l a n t (good c l o a t h e s , a p r o p o r t i o n a b l e l e g g e , white hand, the P e r s i a n l o c k , and a t o l l e r a b l e heard) !• Anthology of E n g l i s h P r o s e , Everyman's L i b r a r y : p. 50 2. I b i d ; , p. 57. a r e p e r f e c t l y r e v e a l e d . Wi 111am Shake s p e a r e: LATIN. 4 9. 1-- - G u l l ' s Horn Boole, 1608. . . . . . f o r a n y t h i n g so overdone i s from the purpose of p l a y i n g , whose end, both a t the f i r s t and now, was and i s , to h o l d , as 'twere, the m i r r o r up to n a t u r e ; t o show v i r t u e i n her. own. f e a t u r e , s c o r n her own image, and the ve r y age and body of the time h i s form andpressure. Now t h i s overdone or come t a r d y o f f , though i t make the. u n s k i l f u l laugh, cannot but make the j u d i c i o u s g r i e v e ; the censure of the which one must i n your allowance o'erweigh a whole t h e a t r e of o t h e r s . 0, t h e r e be p l a y e r s t h a t I have seen p l a y , and heard others p r a i s e , and t h a t h i g h l y , not to speak i t p r o f a n e l y , t h a t n e i t h e r having the accent of C h r i s t i a n s nor the g a i t of C h r i s t i a n , pagan, nor man, have so s t r u t t e d and.bellowed, t h a t I have thought some of na t u r e ' s journeymen!had made men, and not ,made them well., they i m i t a t e d humanity so abominably. --Shakespeare's Hamlet, (1602) Act I I I , Sc. 2. F r a n c i s Bacon: I t i s a strange t h i n g t o observe how high'.a r a t e K i n g s and roonarchs, do set upon t h i s f r u i t of f r i e n d s h i p , where-of we speak; so g r e a t , as they purchase I t , many-time, at the ha z a r d of t h e i r own s a f e t y and g r e a t n e s s . For p r i n c e s , i n r e -g a r d of the d i s t a n c e of t h e i r f o r t u n e , from t h a t of t h e i r sub-j u c t s and s e r v a n t s , cannot g a t h e r t h i s f r u i t ; except ( t o make themselves capable t h e r e o f ) they r a i s e some persons, to be as i t were companions, and almost equals to themselves, which many times s o r t e t h t o in c o n v e n i e n c e . 2. --On F r i e n d s h i p , 1579. Roger Ascham: Amongest a l l the b e n e f i t e s y e t God hath b l e s s e d me w i t h a l l , next the Knowledge of C h r i s t e s t r u e R e l i g i o n , I counte t h i s the g r e a t e s t , t h a t i t p l e a s e d God to c a l l me, t o be one poore m i n i s t e r in. s e t t y n g forward these e x c e l l e n t g l f t e s of l e a r n y n g i n t h i s most e x c e l l e n t Prince.. Whose onely example, i f the r e s t of our n o b i l i t i e would f o l o w , than might England be, f o r l e a r n y n g and wisedome i n n o b i l i t i e , a s p e c t a c l e t o a l l the w o r l d b e s i d e . — S c h o l e m a s t e r , 1570. 1. A Century of E s s a y s , Everyman's L i b r a r y , pp. 31-32. LATIN. . 5 0 .John Donne: • Now when I b e g i n t h i s book, I have no purpose to come . i n t o any man's debt; how my s t o c k w i l l h o l d out I know not; perchance waste, perchance i n c r e a s e in'use;, i f I do -borrow any t h i n g of A n t i q u i t y , b e s i d e s that I make account t h a t "I pay i t t p o s t e r i t y , w i t h as much and as good; you s h a l l s t i l l find'me t o acknowledge i t , and t o thank not him only that hath digg'd out t r e a s u r e f o r me, but t h a t h a t h l i g h t e d me a candle to the nlace 1. — P r o g r e s s of the S o u l , (1601) R i c h a r d Hooker: V o l . I , P. 199-200. For which cause, the Lacedaemonians f o r b i d d i n g a l l . a c c e s s of s t r a n g e r s i n t o t h e i r c o a s t s , are i n t h a t r e s p e c t both by Josephus and Theodoret de s e r v e d l y blamed, as b e i n g enemies t o t h a t h o s p i t a l i t y which f o r common humanity's sake a l l the n a t i o n s on e a r t h should embrace. Page 408. So t h a t customs once e s t a b l i s h e d and confirmed by l o n g use. b e i n g p r e s e n t l y without harm, .are not i n r e g a r d of t h e i r c o r r u p t o r i g i n a l to be h e l d scandalous. V o l . I I , p. 198. For i t may chance t h a t h i s purpose i s sometime the speedy death of them whose l o n g continuance i n l i f e I f we s h o u l d not wish we were u n n a t u r a l . Page 400. To s c o f f a t the manner of a t t i r e than which there c o u l d be n o t h i n g d e v i s e d f o r such a time more grave and decent, t o make i t a token of some f o l l y committed,for which they are l o t h t o shew t h e i r f a c e s , argueth t h a t g r e a t d i v i n e s are some-times more merry than wise. As f o r the women themselves, God a c c e p t i n g the s e r v i c e which they f a i t h f u l l y o f f e r unto him, i t i s no d i s g r a c e though they s u f f e r p l e a s a n t w i t t e d men a l i t t l e -t o i n t e r m i n g l e w i t h z e a l s c o r n . The above examples of Hooker's prose were taken from approximate l y the same,pages i n each volume. This was done i n order to secure chance specimens:, and make the comparison as f a i r as p o s s i b l e . The examples prove, I hope,, t h a t Hooker's s t y l e was 1. Poems by John Donne, Everyman's L i b r a r y , 1931. LATIN. 51 more L a t i n i z e d than that- of h i s contemporaries. Note on S p e c i a l Use of S e c u l a r Vocabulary. I t i s o n l y f a i r , a f t e r condemning Hooker f o r h i s o v e r - L a t i n i z e d sentences, to p o i n t out that s e c u l a r element i n Hooker's language which i n t r o d u c e s terms from the everyday w o r l d , terms s h o r t , p i t h y and almost racy. The s e c u l a r element i n q u e s t i o n occurs o f t e n enough t o be a d e f i n i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the t h e o l o g i a n ' s s t y l e . The examples w i l l > e x p l a i n themselves:-e.g. "We w i s h they had h e l d themselves l o n g e r i n , and not so dangerously f l o w n abroad be f o r e the f e a t h e r s of the cause had been grown." "Legends...heaps of scandalous v a n i t i e s . . . they have been even w i t h d i s d a i n thrown out, t h e . v e r y n e s t s t h a t bred them a b h o r r i n g them." "The i m p i o u s . . . l a y f o o l i s h l y those eggs out of which t h e i r woeful overthrow i s a f t e r w a r d s hatched." ( O f t e n , when co n t e m p l a t i n g the ' u l t r a - r e f o r m group, Hoover used metaphors from n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , as above.) I can add t o these examples a rpassage more e l a b o r a t e l y planned, w i t h something of the c o n c e i t about i t : "Sermons as keys t o the kingdom of heaven, as wings to the s o u l , as spurs to the good a f f e c t i o n s -of man, unto the sound and h e a l t h y as f o o d , as p h y s i c unto d i s e a s e d minds." Such w e a l t h of d e s c r i p t i o n was not u s u a l w i t h Hooker, who,did not s t r i v e , l i k e L y l y , t o produce ornamental prose. To say the same t h i n g i n many d i f f e r e n t ways was a device of r h e t o r i c known as a " c o n g e r i e " , and was not i n f r e q u e n t l y used by Hooker to the e x t e n t of one or two r e p e t i t i o n s . The above example i s f o r e i g n t o Hooker's u s u a l s t y l e . He was not the LATIN. 5 2 man to waste time on c o n c e i t s . Most i n s t a n c e s o f . s e c u l a r v o c a b u l a r y , however, are not c o n c e i t s , but n a t u r a l o u t b u r s t s of v i g o r o u s e x p r e s s i o n . He wants to " r i p to the v e r y bottom" the o r i g i n of C a l v i n ' s d i s -c i p l i n e ; he speaks of "sermons as the f l o w i n g sea", of t h i n g s o f g r e a t e x c e l l e n c e which are " b i t t e n a t " , e r r o r t h a t may be "sponged out"; he wants t o " d i v e " i n t o men's conscio u s n e s s , t h i n k s of those t h a t "wade" i n the two f i r s t k i n d s of g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n s , r e f e r s to "swarms" of unworthy c r e a t u r e s , and t h e i r " f r y " . I t might almost be s a i d t h a t Hooker made metaphors from common t h i n g s only when making and i n d i g n a n t p r o t e s t , knowing t h a t by thus b o r d e r i n g on the c o l l o q u i a l he would get more a t t e n t i o n . Ho o b j e c t was to* a l i e n to the s u b j e c t : the mind was an " a n v i l " ; censures were "out of square"; o p i n i o n s Were " b l o t t e d out", charges d i v i d e d ' i n t o " s l i p s " , " s o d e r i n g " c o u l d be done w i t h the "glue of a r t and wisdom"•; / whilec t o change from covetousness to s u p e r s t i t i o n was not b e t t e r than moving "out of l i m e i n t o c o a l d u s t " . Men are "raw and d u l l " , h e a r t s "dry and tough", i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " c o l d " , and some men, a l a s , " f r o z e n i n wickedness". I t i s a g a i n to be n o t i c e d how by i m p l i c a t i o n he d e l e g a t e s h i s opponents to the lower orders by r e f e r r i n g to t h e i r "crew" ("a bishop of t h e i r own crew,") or even m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t they "bark a g a i n s t t r u t h " . 53 CHAPTEH IV. A SHORT ACCOUNT of the PUNCTUATION of the LAWS OF ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY '- I n the P o l i t y the f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n t h a t one r e c e i v e s of "the p u n c t u a t i o n i s t h a t i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y normal, t h a t i s to say, almost modern. The second i m p r e s s i o n i s th a t the c o l o n f i g u r e s f a r more l a r g e l y i n Hooker's prose than i n the s h o r t e r sentences t h a t E n g l i s h tends to use a t the present time. T h i r d -l y , a f t e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t of the t r e a t i s e has been read, i t becomes apparent t h a t i t s author was r a t h e r more i n c l i n e d than we are to depend on i t a l i c s and b r a c k e t s f o r emphasis. There i s n o t h i n g awkward, however,, i n such usage, and indeed there i s so l i t t l e t h a t i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n a l l of Hooker's punct-- u a t i o n , t h a t were i t not f o r the f a c t t h a t the MS., w i t h p u n c t u a t i o n complete, i s ex t a n t i n the B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , i t might be supposed t h a t modern e d i t o r s had s u p p l i e d the stops t h emselves, to s a t i s f y the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the reader of to-day. I n e x p l a i n i n g the phrase " p r a c t i c a l l y " normal, I might mention Hooker's use of an i n t e r r o g a t i o n mark a t the end of an i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n : Bk. I I , P a r t I I , No. 2: "But the q u e s t i o n i s , whether on l y S c r i p t u r e - do .shew whatsoever God i s . g l o r i f i e d i n ? " In Bk. V, .Part XX, No. 4 , he omits a comma a t the end. of a p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n : " T h e i r judgment i n t h i s we may not, and i n t h a t we need not f o l l o w . " A p a r t from d i f f e r e n c e s such as these, the p u n c t u a t i o n ow n PUNCTUATION. 54 of the P o l i t y i s l o g i c a l , and g i v e s few s u r p r i s e s . What does cause amazement i s the g r e a t l e n g t h of Hooker's p e r i o d s . We wonder how, i n some of them, he achieved u n i t y and coherence; and i f he d i d , h i s success was due to the f u n c t i o n of the c o l o n . I t s p l a c e i n the sentence was the same as i n modern E n g l i s h , namely, between the c l a u s e s of balanced sentences, or b e f o r e l e n g t h y q u o t a t i o n s , or between a l o n g s e r i e s of sub-o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s and t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n . I t s use may be the same i n b o t h E l i z a b e t h a n and modern E n g l i s h , but i n Hooker's prose the c o l o n was a p e c u l a r l y p o w e r f u l . s t o p . I have i n c l u d e d b e l two examples from the P o l i t y , the f i r s t e x e m p l i f y i n g a very, common.use of the c o l o n w i t h "as",and "so", the second showing t o what l e n g t h s ( i n i t s . l i t e r a l s e n s e ) , a p e r i o d c o u l d go, whe a colon,was i n s e r t e d here and there t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the end was not y e t . Bk. V, P a r t X X X I I , No. 1: "As t h e r e f o r e , p r a y e r s the one way are f a u l t y , not whensoever they be openly made, but when h y p o c r i s y i s the cause of open p r a y i n g : so the l e n g t h of p r a y e r i s l i k e w i s e a f a u l t . . . . " Bk. V, P a r t XL, No. 3: " E i t h e r there wanted wise men t o g i v e E z e c h i a s advice . and t o in f o r m h i s of that, which i n h i s ease was as tru e as i t i s i n ours, namely t h a t without some i n -convenience and d i s o r d e r he c o u l d not appoint those Psalms t o be used.as o r d i n a r y p r a y e r s , seeing t h a t a l t h o u g h they were songs of t h a n k s g i v i n g such as David and Asaph had e s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n to-use, y e t not so the whole Church and people af t e r w a r d s whom . l i k e o c c a s i o n s d i d not b e f a l l : or e l s e E z e c h i a s was persuaded as we are t h a t the p r a i s e s of God In the mouths of h i s s a i n t s are not so u n r e s t r a i n e d l y t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r , but t h a t others may both conven-i e n t l y and f r u i t f u l l y use them: f i r s t , because the m y s t i c a l communion of a l l f a i t h f u l men i s such as maketh every one to be i n t e r e s t e d i n those s p e c i a l PUNCTUATION. 55 "blessings which any one of them r e c e i v e t h a t God's hands; secondly, "because when an y t h i n g i s spoken t o e x t o l the goodness of God whose mercy endureth f o r ' e v e r , a l b e i t the v e r y p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n whereupon i t r i s e t h do come no more, y e t the f o u n t a i n c o n t i n -u i n g the same, and y i e l d i n g other new e f f e c t s which are but only i n some s o r t p r o p o r t i o n a b l e , sa s m a l l resemblance between the b e n e f i t s which we and others have r e c e i v e d , may serve to.make the same words of p r a i s e and t h a n k s g i v i n g f i t though not e q u a l l y i n a l l circumstances f i t f o r both; a c l e a r demonstration whereof we have i n a l l the a n c i e n t F a t h e r s ' comm-e n t a r i e s and m e d i t a t i o n s upon the Psalms; l a s t of a l l because even when there i s not as much as the show of any resemblance, n e v e r t h e l e s s by o f t e n u s i n g t h e i r words i n such manner, our minds are d a i l y more and more i n u r e d w i t h t h e i r a f f e c t i o n s . " The b e s t way t o support my statement t h a t Hooker de-pended r a t h e r much on b r a c k e t s and i t a l i c s , f o r emphasis and sarcasm, would be t o show the whole book w i t h the many i n s t a n c e s I t w i l l be perhaps s u f f i c i e n t t o say here t h a t the b r a c k e t s have very o f t e n the f o r c e of an a s i d e , - i n t h a t they have a tone d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the main argument, - and t h a t i t a l i c s r e p r e s e n t the e x t r a i n t e n s i t y which Hooker would have put i n t o h i s v o i c e had the passage been d e l i v e r e d i n a sermon. Both of these d e v i c e s a r e i n my o p i n i o n , used f a r more f r e q u e n t l y i n the P o l i t y than would be c o n s i d e r e d good i n modern p r o s e , which would p r e f e r to put the words needing s t r e s s , in. a p o s i t i o n demanding emphasis? Two or three examples of Hooker's usage are added below: Bk. 1, P a r t I , No. 4. "....when those k i n g s (some few excepted) to b e t t e r t h e i r w o r l d l y e s t a t e , (as they thought) l e f t t h e i r own and t h e i r . p e o p l e ' s g h o s t l y c o n d i t i o n uncared f o r ; " Bk. V, P a r t I I , No. 2. "these trencher-mates ( f o r such the most of them be) formed to themselves a way more'pleasant': .... " PUNCTUATION. Bk. V., P a r t X X I I , No. 10. 55 " . . . i t r e s t e t h t h a t e i t h e r the sermons which we hear ' should he our r u l e , or ( t h a t "being ah surd) there w i l l (which hath y e t g r e a t e r a b s u r d i t y ) no r u l e a t a l l he re m a i n i n g . " Bk. V, P a r t XXI. ".-.'.now i t has grown to he a q u e s t i o n , whether the word of God.be any o r d i n a r y mean to save the s o u l s of men, i n that i t i s p r i v a t e l y s t u d i e d or p u b l i c l y read and so made known, or e l s e only as the same i s preached, that i s to say, e x p l a i n e d by l i v e l y v o i c e , and a p p l i e d to the people's use as the speaker i n  h i s wisdom thinfceth meet." Such are the s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s of Hooker's v e r y c a r e -f u l and l o g i c a l p u n c t u a t i o n . I t only remains to say t h a t , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e - a t h i s time - recent i n t r o d u c t i o n of the use of p u n c t u a t i o n , h i s c a r e f u l use of a l l the stops deserves the h i g h e s t p r a i s e . In our modern p u n c t u a t i o n , we are f o l l o w i n g Hooker's.examples.• CHAPTER V. THE USE OF RHETORIC I N "THE LAWS OF ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY". Ornamentation, A m p l i f i c a t i o n , and L o g i c a l Order. In the eyes of h i m s e l f and of a l l w r i t e r s t h a t f o l l o w -ed'him, C i c e r o was the best exponent of the best p o s s i b l e s t y l e 1. o f prose. He e x p l a i n e d h i s s t y l e i n Book I , Chapter XXXIV of the De Oratore,, There were three s t y l e s of w r i t i n g or speak-i n g , namely, the l o f t y , the p l a i n and the i n t e r m e d i a t e . Of these he used and p r a i s e d only the f i r s t . No s t y l e c o u l d be g r e a t which was not f u l l and e m b e l l i s h e d , l i k e h i s own. People s a i d t h a t Demosthenes, the g r e a t Greek o r a t o r , had the A t t i c s t y l e , simple and d i r e c t . C i c e r o maintained t h a t the A t t i c s t y l e was on the c o n t r a r y , ornate and copious: i f Demosthenes was not ornate and c o p i o u s , he was not A t t i c . So c e r t a i n was C i c e r o of the p e r f e c t i o n and beauty of h i s own l o f t y s t y l e , t h a t he recommended i m i t a t i o n of i t t o a l l who would succeed i n o r a t o r y . In order t o i m i t a t e h i s c o m p o s i t i o n , the student would need t o f o l l o w h i s methods, and, by d i l i g e n t use of h i s own "ingenium" or w i t , a t t a i n t o such ornamentation and a m p l i f i c a t i o n of h i s theme as would e n t i t l e the r e s u l t t o be d e s c r i b e d a t l a s t as l o f t y p rose. These three i d e a s of i m i t a t i o n , ornamentation and a m p l i f i c a t i o n became the e s s e n t i a l s of a l l the r h e t o r i c of the Renaissance. Under the heading of i m i t a t i o n came the c o m p i l i n g o f "Commonplace Books", i n which a student wrote down any 1. Wit &na R h e t o r i c , p . 8 0 . RHETORIC. 58 n o t a b l e passages from whatever he was r e a d i n g , w i t h a view to q u o t i n g them i n some argument, or i n c l u d i n g them i n a theme. I m i t a t i o n a l s o e n t a i l e d a copying of the devices used by C i c e r o and o t h e r s , i n the second and t h i r d p r o c e s s e s , namely, ornamen-1. t a t i o n and a m p l i f i c a t i o n . Ornamentation c o n s i s t e d f o r the most p a r t of the l i b e r a l use of f i g u r e s of speech. Of these there were h e l d to be two k i n d s , the names of which were o r i g i n a l l y g i v e n by A r i s t o t l e : " t r o p e s " and "schemes". A trope i n v o l v e d the a c t u a l a l t e r a t i o n of the meaning of a word or sentence. A scheme was any o t h e r a r t f u l v a r i a t i o n . Henry Peacham i n h i s "The Garden of Eloquence" (1577) gave d e t a i l e d l i s t s of the 3. v a r i o u s k i n d s , and of these a few can be mentioned here. The m a j o r i t y are no l o n g e r heard of. Tropes, i n words, giv e us: metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche; i n sentences, a l l e g o r y , hyperbole, sarcasm, Irony. Schemes, i n words, g i v e us such cases of d e l i b e r a t e o m i s s i o n as: zeugma, asyndeton, and o t h e r f i g u r e s such as r e p e t i t i o n , c o n j u n c t i o n , and s e p a r a t i o n . In sentences, schemes have two aims, one, to a f f e c t the emotions, the o t h e r , t o a m p l i f y . Schemes f o r e m o t i o n a l e f f e c t i n c l u d e : e x c l a m a t i o n , moderation, c o n s u l t a t i o n (e.g. r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n ? ) and 1. Wit and Rhet., pp. 24-48. 2. I b i d . , pp. 14-15. 3. I b i d . , p. 238. RHETORIC„ 59 p e r m i s s i o n , ( p o s s i b l y paradox and-apostrophe). Schemes f o r a m p l i f i c a t i o n are c a l l e d : d i s t r i b u t i o n (dilemma and c l i m a x ) ; d e s c r i p t i o n , which i n c l u d e s d i g r e s s i o n and encomion; comparison, i . e . , s i m i l e and a n t i t h e s i s ; and c o l l e c t i o n , which embraces emphasis, s y l l o g i s m s and "gnomes" or p r o v e r b s , Ralph Johnson, who was a London schoolmaster, l i s t e d the f o l l o w i n g r u l e s of a m p l i f i c a t i o n , f o r the b e n e f i t of h i s . 1 . ' ' ~ s c h o l a r s . R i c h a r d Hooker, as a schoolboy w i t h a theme to be developed, was expected ( 1 ) t o reckon up a l l the p a r t s i n c l u d e d i n the gen-e r a l heads of the Theme; (2) to examine i t s antecedents, concomitants, and consequents; (3) - t o s t a t e i t s ca.uses, grounds or o c c a s i o n s ; (4) to d e s c r i b e each circumstance (e.g. i n an account of a siege say what happened to everybody i n the town); (5) t o i n c l u d e e x p l a n a t o r y or d e s c r i p t i v e d i g r e s s i o n s ; (6) to make almost u n l i m i t e d use of comparisons or s i m i l e s ; (7) t o make up " c o n g e r i e s " or groups of sentences a l l meaning the same but d i f f e r e n t l y expressed; (8) to d e f i n e or d e s c r i b e one s u b j e c t by v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t words. theme; (9) to use r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , such as apostrophe; (10) to show the good or e v i l of the c o n t r a r y of h i s ( H ) "to support h i s theme w i t h examples and apoph-thegms from g r e a t w r i t e r s . 1. Wit and Rhet.. p. 222. RHETORIC, 60 F r a n o i s Meres, i n Wit's Treasury, l a i d s t r e s s on the " I T " iraportanoe of l o g i c a l order i n a theme. He would have f i r s t , the Exordium, announcing the s u b j e c t ; the n a r r a t i o n , e x p l a i n -i n g i t ; the Causa, s t a t i n g the arguments f o r i t ; the Con-t r a r i u m , the arguments a g a i n s t ; the S i m i l e and Exemplum, f o r comparisons and other means of support; the Testimonium, or Summing up of the c a s e , and l a s t l y , the E p i l o g u s , a w e l l - t u r n -ed c o n c l u s i o n . B r i n s l e y mentions the same s o r t of l o g i c a l o r d e r ; Exordium, K a r r a t i o , C o n f i r m a t i o or p r o o f , C o n f u t a t i o , the 3. c o n t r a r y , and C o n c l u s i o . Angel Day, In h i s E n g l i s h S e c r e t o r i e says t h a t f o r good s t y l e b o th "pregnant w i t " and " a r t e " are n e c e s s a r y , and he, l i k e Meres and B r i n s l e y r e q u i r e d , f i r s t of a l l , a l o g i c a l arrangement w i t h ''everything i n h i s due o r d e r , p l a c e and p r o p o r t i o n . . . . t h e n b e a u t i f i e d and adorned." There are evidences of such t r a i n i n g as t h i s every-where i n the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y . A glance at the index t o every book shows t h a t the arguments were put i n a c e r t a i n order and d e a l t w i t h i n d e t a i l f o l l o w i n g the o r i g i n a l p l a n . Each s u b d i v i s i o n was numbered, and was then d i v i d e d i n t o 4. paragraphs, a l s o numbered. The i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n the index might indeed be regarded as p a r t , a t l e a s t , of the Exordium, e.g., Bk. V, P a r t I I I : 1. Wit and R h e t o r i c , p. 216* 2. I b i d . , p. 220. 3. I b i d . , p. 85. 4. I am not sure whether the numbering of the paragraphs was done by Hooker or by l a t e r e d i t o r s . RHETORIC. 61 "Of S u p e r s t i t i o n , and the r o o t t h e r e o f , e i t h e r mis-.guided Z e a l , or ignorant f e a r of d i v i n e g l o r y . " Bk. .7, P a r t X XXII: "The l e n g t h of our s e r v i c e . " Bk. V, P a r t X X X VIII: "Of music w i t h psalms." Bk. V, P a r t L X I 1 : "Whether baptizm by women be t r u e baptizm, good and . e f f e c t u a l to them t h a t r e c e i v e i t . " Bk. V, P a r t X X I I : "What they a t t r i b u t e t o Sermons o n l y , and what we t o r e a d i n g a l s o . " As the q u e s t i o n that t h i s P a r t XXII d e a l w i t h i s one t h a t might p o s s i b l y bear d i s c u s s i o n even to-day, i pro-pose to f o l l o w the methods used by Hooker i n p r o v i n g h i s p o i n t and show what use he made of the f o r m a l t r a i n i n g which he had had. F i r s t In importance i s the l o g i c a l o r d e r , ( p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h an argumentative work of t h i s k i n d ) , second, the ornament a t i o n and a m p l i f i c a t i o n . I have d i v i d e d t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of sermons and l e s s o n s i n t o i t s p a r t s , exordium, n a r r a t i o , and so on. Then i n each p a r t , I have t r a c e d Hooker's argument * s t e p by s t e p , and have shown what use he made of the v a r i o u s d e v i c e s of r h e t o r i c . EXORDIUM. As he e x p l a i n s i n the i n d e x , he i s t o show t h a t j u s t as much i s to be a t t r i b u t e d t o r e a d i n g the B i b l e aloud i n Church, as to sermons. His a c t u a l words are quoted above. NARRATIO. "They" (Thomas C a r t w r i g h t , and other c r i t i c s of the RHETORIC. 62 Church of England} obscure the v i r t u e of r e a d i n g the word, and a p p r o p r i a t e the s a v i n g power of the Holy Ghost to sermons. A m p l i f i c a t i o n and Ornamentation. Congerie of a i m i i e a ; "sermons as keys to the kingdom of "heaven, as wings t o the s o u l , as spurs to the good a f f e c t i o n s of man, unto the sound and h e a l t h y as f o o d , as p h y s i c unto d i s e a s e d minds." A n t i t h e s i s : "unto the sound and h e a l t h y as f o o d , as p h y s i c unto d i s e a s e d minds." Climax: "even the v i r t u e which i t hath t o c o n v e r t , t o e d i f y , t o save s o u l s , t h i s t hey s t r i v e m i g h t i l y t o obscure." Hyperbole w i t h s a r c a s t i c i n t e n t : "they l a b o u r t o a p p r o p r i a t e the s a v i n g "power of the Holy Ghost,..." Sarcasm: "they separate from a l l apparent hope of l i f e and s a l v a t i o n thousands whom the goodness of A l m i g h t y God doth not exclude." CAUSA. The Causa c o n t a i n s f i v e arguments:-1. S t . P a u l r e q u i r e d that the Church"s a f f a i r s should be p u b l i s h e d by r e a d i n g the word of God. A m p l i f i c a t i o n . Emphasis; "...might f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n of a l l be p u b l i s h e d , and t h a t by r e a d i n g . " 2. P u b l i c Reading began when books were s c a r c e ; thus i t saved the Church's s p i r i t u a l l i f e . Ornamentation. R h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n : " . . s h a l l we set l i g h t by t h a t ' custom of reading,' from whence so p r e e i o u s a b e n e f i t h a t h grown?" 3. The r e a d i n g o f the B i b l e i n every C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h proves our u n i t y of b e l i e f . Ornamentation and a m p l i f i o a t i o n . L i t o t e s : "The v o i c e of the Church...is.•..no mean RHETORIC. 6 evidence." B n e t o r l o a l q u e s t i o n ; "...suppose we t h a t the minds of men..are not moved...when they c o n s i d e r . . . t h e sacred a u t h o r i t y of S c r i p t u r e s ?" Emphasis; "The r e a d i n g t h e r e f o r e of the word of God.. . . i n open audience i s the p l a i n e s t evidence we have of the Church's Assent and Acknowledgment t h a t i t i s h i s word." 4. Reading the l e s s o n s g i v e s t o uneducated people p r e c e p t s ; by t h i s means a l s o they hear the whole B i b l e . Sermons o n l y to u c h on a p a r t . 5. Reading the l e s s o n s i s do u b t l e s s a simple method of t e a c h i n g the f a i t h ; i n t h i s a k i n t o e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i n C h r i s t i a n i t y , which i s meant to he s i m p l e . COHTRARIUM. ,.,. . (The arguments f o r sermons and a g a i n s t l e s s o n s , are taken one by one and r e b u t t e d . ) These arguments are eighte e n i n number. 1. They say t h a t r e a d i n g cannot c r e a t e b e l i e f , o n l y a i d i t . By the t e s t i m o n y of S c r i p t u r e , we can e a s i l y prove . t h a t t h e y are wrong. A m p l i f i c a t i o n . Examples t o support theme; ( i ) Repentance of K i n g J o s i a h when the law was re a d . ( i i ) From Deuteronomy - t h a t by h e a r i n g the law people may l e a r n to f e a r the L o r d . ( i i i ) The s a y i n g of C h r i s t , t h a t those who would not b e l i e v e the S c r i p t u r e s were not l i k e l y t o b e l i e v e p r e a c h e r s , even one r i s e n from the dead. Emphasis; The use o f i t a l i c s . "Thou s h a l t read t h i s Law before a l l I s r a e l , t h a t men, women, and c h i l d r e n may hear...." 2» They m a i n t a i n t h a t r e a d i n g the l e s s o n s cannot move obdurate h e a r t s , but such h e a r t s , s u r e l y , are obdurate RHETORIC. 64 a g a i n s t sermons as w e l l as against, l e s s o n s . t 3. They say t h a t r e a d i n g the S c r i p t u r e s w i l l not c o n v e r t i n f i d e l s . We say t h a t r e a d i n g was p r e s c r i b e d f o r us, and not f o r i n f i d e l s . Ornamentation. A l l i t e r a t i o n : "..men b a p t i z e d , bred and brought up i n the bosom of the Church." 4. Objects of nature cannot breed f a i t h i n u s , be-cause, they do not e x p l a i n any d i v i n e m y s t e r i e s , and we are able t o master them w i t h our human b r a i n : the S c r i p t u r e s should not be c l a s s e d w i t h n a t u r e , as our opponents would have us do; S c r i p t u r e has a d i v i n e source, and can t h e r e f o r e i n s p i r e f a i t h . 5. Far from i t being "an e x t r a o r d i n a r y work" when r e a d i n g w i t h o u t sermons e f f e c t s b e l i e f , i t i s to be expected, f o r the E v a n g e l i s t s wrote w i t h the hope t h a t a l l . ' who read would b e l i e v e . Ornamentation. R h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n : "But d i d we ever hear i t account-ed f o r a wonder, t h a t he which doth read, should b e l i e v e and l i v e a c c o r d i n g to the w i l l of Almighty God?" Argumentum ad absurdum; "unless we suppose t h a t the E v a n g e l i s t . . . h a d a s e c r e t c o n c e i t . . . t h a t no man i n the w o r l d should e v e r be t h a t way the b e t t e r f o r any sentence by them w r i t t e n , t i l l such time as the same might chance to be preached upon or a l l e g e d at the l e a s t i n a sermon." 6. There a r e , they a l l o w , s l i g h t b e n e f i t s gained f rom r e a d i n g the B i b l e ; i t f a c i l i t a t e s the work of sermons. But was not the aim of the S c r i p t u r e s the s a l v a t i o n of mankind? Ornamentat i on. Sarcasm: " t h a t which we move f o r our b e t t e r l e a r n i n g RHETORIC. A5 an.a i n s t r u c t i o n ' s sake, t u r n e t h unto anger and c h o l e r i n them.." Congerie: " t u r n e t h unto anger and c h o l e r i n them, they grow a l t o g e t h e r out of .quietness w i t h i t , they answer fumingly t h a t they are "ashamed to d e f i l e t h e i r pens w i t h making answer to such i d l e q u e s t i o n : " Sarcasm: "They t e l l us the p r o f i t of r e a d i n g i s s i n g -u l a r , i n t h a t i t s e r v e t h f o r a p r e p a r a t i v e unto sermons; i t h e l p e t h p r e t t i l y towards the n o u r i s h -ment .of f a i t h which sermons have once engendered; i t i s some sta y t o h i s mind which readeth the S c r i p t u r e when he f i n d e t h the same t h i n g s there which are taught i n sermons, and thereby p e r c e i v e t h how God doth concur i n o p i n i o n w i t h the preacher." Metaphor: " . . i t . . d o t h . . . h e l p the r e t e n t i v e f o r c e of t h a t stomach of the mind which r e c e i v e t h g h o s t l y f o o d a t the preacher's hand." Climax: " I s i t c r e d i b l e ... t h a t . . . the cause...why S c r i p t u r e was w r i t t e n , the cause which a l l men have ev e r t i l l t h i s p resent day acknowledged, t h i s they s h o u l d c l e a n exclude as b e i n g no cause at a l l . . . ? " Metaphor: "...and l o a d us w i t h so great s t o r e of strange concealed causes which d i d never see l i g h t o t i l l now?" Irony: "...the v e r y c h i e f e s t cause of committing the s a c r e d Word of God unto books', i s surmised to have been, l e s t the preacher' should want a t e x t whereupon t o s h c o l y . " 7. They m a i n t a i n t h a t sermons alone cause f a i t h ; b u t w i t h s t r a n g e l y poor l o g i c , they n e g l e c t to prove t h a t f a i t h can be caused by n o t h i n g e l s e . Ornamentation; R h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n : "... do. only sermons cause b e l i e f , i n t h a t no other way i s a b l e t o e x p l a i n the m y s t e r i e s of God....?" Hse. of synonyms:."...although they be i n t r i c a t e , obscure and dark..." R h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n : " I s i t then i n regard of sermons only. . . .-. ?" Climax and r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n : "Unless t h e r e f o r e . . . RHETORIC. 6 5 we s h a l l t h i n k , . . t h a t otherwise n e i t h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n i n the bosom of the Church, nor r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n , / nor the r e a d i n g of l e a r n e d men's books, nor i n f o r m -a t i o n r e c e i v e s by conference., nor whatsoever u a i n and d i l i g e n c e i n h e a r i n g , s t u d y i n g , m e d i t a t i n g day and n i g h t on the Law, i s so f a r b l e s t of Cod as to work t h i s e f f e c t i n any man; how would they have us to g r a n t t h a t f a i t h doth not come but. only by h e a r i n g sermons?" 8. Our opponents m i s i n t e r p r e t the words of S t . P a u l on "the f o o l i s h n e s s of p r e a c h i n g " which must save them which b e l i e v e , and the words, "How s h a l l they hear without a preach-e r ? " . . . . S t . P a u l was t h i n k i n g of the G e n t i l e s , who must be taught before they can be converted. S t . P a u l d i d not mean C h r i s t i a n c o n g r e g a t i o n s . A m p l i f i c a t i o n . S y l l o g i s m : s y l l o g i s t i c r e a s o n i n g i s behind the s t a t e -ments, but the s y l l o g i s m s are condensed." " S a l v a t i o n b e l o n g e t h unto none but such 'as c a l l upon the name of our Lord Jesus C h r i s t . ' Which n a t i o n s as y e t unconverted n e i t h e r do nor p o s s i b l y can do t i l l they b e l i e v e . What they are to b e l i e v e , i m p o s s i b l e i t i s they should know t i l l they hear i t . T h e i r h e a r i n g re q u i r e t h our p r e a c h i n g unto them." Use of examples: " T e r t u l l i a n , to draw even Paynims themselves unto C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f , w i l l e t h the books of the Old Testament to be searched, which were at t h a t time i n Ptolemy's l i b r a r y . " Ornamentation. R h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n w i t h i n t e n t to show h i s meaning  by an absurd i l l u s t r a t i o n : "...dare we a f f i r m i t was ever h i s meaning, t h a t unto t h e i r s a l v a t i o n who even from t h e i r tender i n f a n c y never knew any f a i t h or r e l i g i o n than o nly C h r i s t i a n , no k i n d of t e a c h -i n g can be a v a i l a b l e s a v i n g t h a t which was so n e e d f u l f o r the f i r s t u n i v e r s a l c o n v e r s i o n of G e n t i l e s h a t i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y .?"... 9. We t e l l them t h a t C h r i s t s a i d , "Search the S c r i p t u r e s ; " "Yes", they r e p l y , "but the Jews had a l r e a d y heard h i s sermons." Thus they d i s t o r t the S c r i p t u r e s ; but RHETORIC. 67 sermons can never take the p l a c e of the word d i r e c t from God. A m p l i f i c a t i o n and ornamentation. Example: "For i f sermons must "be our r u l e , because the A p o s t l e s ' sermons were so to t h e i r h e a r e r s ; then, s i t h we are not as they were hearers o f the A p o s t l e s ' sermons, i t r e s t e t h t h a t e i t h e r the sermons which we hear should be our r u l e , or, ( t h a t being absurd) t h e r e w i l l (which y e t h a t h g r e a t e r a b s u r d i t y ) no-r u l e a t a l l be remaining f o r t r i a l , what d o c t r i n e s now are c o r r u p t , what consonant w i t h heavenly t r u t h . " R e p e t i t i o n : " ' e x p l a i n e d or d e l i v e r e d unto us i n sermons'. Sermons they evermore understand to be..." Metaphor: "For t o u c h i n g our sermons, t h a t which g i v e t h them t h e i r v ery b e i n g i s the w i t of man, and t h e r e f o r e they oftentimes a c c o r d i n g l y t a s t e too much of t h a t over c o r r u p t f o u n t a i n from which they come." 10. They take Solomon's s a y i n g , "where there i s no v i s i o n the people p e r i s h " to mean t h a t there i s . n o s a l v a t i o n w i t h o u t p r e a c h i n g . But P r e a c h i n g i s not the only way to a t t a i n v i s i o n . A m p l i f i c a t i o n . Use of example: the words of Solomon. 11. Sermons, they say,, are much more e f f e c t u a l and i m p r e s s i v e t h a n mere r e a d i n g of l e s s o n s . A m p l i f i c a t i o n and ornamentation.. , • . I r o n y : "...how the savour of the word i s more sweet b e i n g brayed...." Use of example: "Alcidamus the s o p h i s t e r hath many arguments, to prove t h a t v o l u n t a r y and extemporal f a r e x c e l l e t h premeditated speech." "Gnome" or p r o v e r b : "For there i s n o t h i n g which i s not someway e x c e l l e d even by t h a t which i t doth ex-c e l , " N.B. This i s Hooker's only r e b u t t a l f o r t h i s p o i n t , and i t i s d e c i d e d l y weak. 12. Sermons, they say, b e i n g an ordinance of God, RHETORIC. 68 have t h e r e f o r e H i s "blessing. Heading, we say, i s a l s o an o r d i n a n c e , and God would not b l e s s one ordinance and leave another u n b l e s s e d . A m p l i f i c a t i o n . . Use.of examples: " S t . Augustine speaking of devout men, noteth...how a t t e n t i v e ear they gave unto the l e s s o n s and chapters r e a d . . . . " " S t . C y p r i a n observeth t h a t r e a d i n g was not without e f f e c t i n the h e a r t s : o f men. T h e i r joy and a l a c r i t y were to him an argument, t h a t there i s i n t h i s ordinance a b l e s s i n g . . . . " S y l l o g i s t i c r e a s o n i n g : "And i f h i s grace do a s s i s t them both t o the nourishment of f a i t h a l r e a d y bred, we cannot.... imagine t h a t i n breeding f a i t h , b i s grace doth c l e a v e to the one and u t t e r l y f o r s a k e the other." 13. Reading i s c l a i m e d t o be "hard" f o r the people. Very l i t t l e i s obscure; most i s s i m p l e , now t h a t we have the. B i b l e i n E n g l i s h . Ornamentation. A l l i t e r a t i o n : " p l a i n and p o p u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n s . " 14. Reading, they c l a i m , i s too " e a s y " ' f o r the people. But, we say, by the goodness of God, a l l the ways to s a l v a t i o n , a r e easy, and meant t o g i v e access to a l l . A m p l i f i c a t i o n and ornamentation. Metaphor: "The 'easy' performance of which h o l y l a b o u r i s i n l i k e s o r t a very c o l d o b j e c t i o n to p r e -j u d i c e the v i r t u e t h e r e o f . " Use of Example ;•"-.. .the meanest and worst people under the law had been as a b l e as the p r i e s t s them-s e l v e s were t o o f f e r s a c r i f i c e . " R h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n : " I s i t not as e v i d e n t a s i g n of h i s wonderful provid.ence over us, when t h a t f o o d of ; e t e r n a l l i f e , upon the u t t e r want whereof our endless death and d e s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y ensueth, i s p r e -pared and always s e t i n such a r e a d i n e s s , t h a t those v e r y means than which n o t h i n g i s more easy may auf-RHETORIC. 69 f i c e t o procure the same?" 15. They induce people t o imagine t h a t i f there i s no sermon, the church i s f o r s a k e n of God. Is t h i s r i g h t ? A m p l i f i c a t i o n and ornamentation. Congerie: "...are judged as i t were even f o r s a k e n of God, f o r l o r n , and without e i t h e r hope or comfort;" S i m i l e : "sermons as the f l o w i n g sea," 16. They go so f a r as t o put sermons above p r a y e r and sacraments; . s a y i n g t h a t i s a man i s saved by p r a y e r s and sacraments, and w i t h o u t p r e a c h i n g , i t i s a m i r a c l e . This i s outrageous! Ornamentation and a m p l i f i c a t i o n . R h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s : "Who can choose but t h i n k them c r u e l which doth hear them so b o l d l y t e a c h . . . t h a t both sacraments and p r a y e r s a l s o , where sermons are not, 'do not o n l y not f e e d , but are o r d i n a r i l y t o f u r t h e r condemnation?"' What man's h e a r t doth not r i s e a t the mention of these t h i n g s ? " Example and s i m i l e : " I t i s tr u e t h a t the weakness of our w i t s and the dulness of our a f f e c t i o n s do make us f o r the most p a r t , even as our Lord's own d i s -c i p l e s were f o r a c e r t a i n time, hard and slow to be-l i e v e what i s w r i t t e n . " Congerie: (see f i r s t example of semi-colon) Page 54. 17. They c a v i l a t our terms "necessary" and "most p r o f i t a b l e " , s a y i n g t h a t two t h i n g s cannot both be "most" p r o f i t a b l e . T h i s . t h i n l o g i c f i t s the r e s t of t h e i r arguments. A m p l i f i c a t i o n and Ornamentation. Use, of examples; r e p e t i t i o n : "...a t h i n g which. God h i m s e l f d i d i n s t i t u t e amongst the Jews f o r purposes t h a t touch as w e l l us as them; a t h i n g which the A p o s t l e s commend under the Old, and o r d a i n under the Few Testament; a t h i n g whereof the Church of God' h a t h ever s i t h e n c e the f i r s t beginning.reaped s i n g -u l a r commodity; a t h i n g which without exceeding g r e a t d e t r i m e n t not Church can omit...." RHETORIC1. 70 Metaphor: "A poor, a c o l d , and an hungry c a v i l ! " I rony: "They have a g a i n s t i t a marvellous deep and •profound axiom, t h a t 'Two t h i n g s t o one and the same end cannot hut v e r y improperly- he s a i d most p r o f i t -a b l e ' . " 18. They shun d e f i n i n g a good sermon, and do not e x p l a i n why the A p o s t l e s ' sermons, when read out l o u d , cannot save s o u l s . Ornamentation and a m p l i f i c a t i o n . R h e t o r i c a l Question: "Are they r e s o l v e d then at the l e a s t w i s e , i f p r e a c h i n g be the only o r d i n a r y mean whereby i t p l e a s e t h God t o save our s o u l s , what k i n d of p r e a c h i n g i t i s which doth save?" Sarcasm: ( i ) the above example, ( i i ) "so that...we may at the l e n g t h understand from them what t h a t Is i n a good sermon which doth make i t the word of l i f e unto such as hear." R h e t o r i c a l nn.estion: "...of a l l t h i s what i s there i n the best sermons b e i n g u t t e r e d , which they l o s e by b e i n g read?" Examples, used ad absurdum and c o n g e r i e : "So t h a t a l t h o u g h we had a l l : the sermons word f o r word which James, P a u l , Peter., and the r e s t of the A p o s t l e s . made, some one of which sermons was of power t o con-v e r t thousands of the hea r e r s unto the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h ; yea a l t h o u g h we had a l l the I n s t r u c t i o n s , e x h o r t a t i o n s , c o n s o l a t i o n s , which came from the g r a c i o u s l i p s of our L o r d Jesus C h r i s t h i m s e l f , and s h o u l d read theirp t e n thousand times over, t o f a i t h and s a l v a t i o n no man c o u l d hereby hope to a t t a i n . " - TESTIMONIUM. (summing up of the case) Sermons are only one of the ways i n which the t r u t h o f - r e l i g i o n can be-presented unto men. Our opponents have e r r e d i n encouraging the o p i n i o n t h a t because sermons can be more e f f e c t u a l than other methods, the l a t t e r are rendered RHETORIC. 71 thereby u n e f f e c t u a l t o save s o u l s . The apparent e f f e c t i v e n e s s of sermons compared w i t h r e a d i n g of the l e s s o n s i s due to the f a c t t h a t the people c a r e l e s s l y miss the r e a d i n g , because they know they w i l l one day hear i t again,- hut the sermon they must l i s t e n t o , f o r i t comes "always new", and when over, w i l l be l o s t , "and t h a t without a l l hope of r e c o v e r y . " Ornamentation, Metaphor: " . . . s h a l l here s i t down to r e c e i v e our a u d i t , and t o c a s t up the whole r e c k o n i n g on both s i d e s ; " .- S i m i l e : "...as medicines... take e f f e c t sometimes under and sometimes above the n a t u r a l p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i r v i r t u e . . . , " EPILOGUE. ( w e l l - t u r n e d c o n c l u s i o n ) - In t h i s c o n c l u s i o n Hooker shows the moderation of temper and of language g e n e r a l l y t o be found i n h i s f i n a l words.. Such moderation i s a l s o good d e b a t i n g , which i s always c a r e f u l t o g i v e the other s i d e i t s f u l l share of p r a i s e . The e p i l o g u s i s quoted i n . f u l l : " A l l which n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , as we c o u l d g r e a t l y wish t h a t the r i g o u r of t h i s t h e i r o p i n i o n were a l l a y e d and m i t i g a t -ed, so because we h o l d i t p a r t of r e l i g i o u s i n g e n u i t y to hon-our v i r t u e i n whomsoever t h e r e f o r e i t i s our most h e a r t y d e s i r e , and s h a l l be always our p r a y e r unto Almigh t y God, t h a t i n the self-same f e r v e n t z e a l wherewith they seem t o . a f f e c t the good of the s o u l s o f men, and to t h i r s t a f t e r n o t h i n g more than t h a t a l l men might by a l l means be d i r e c t e d i n the way of l i f e , both t h e y and we may c o n s t a n t l y p e r s i s t to the world's end. F o r in. t h i s we are not. t h e i r a d v e r s a r i e s , though they i i i the other h i t h e r t o have.been ours." With t h i s magnanimous c o n c l u s i o n , o f f e r i n g the hand of f r i e n d s h i p to a d e f e a t e d a d v e r s a r y , Hooker ends an i n g e n i o u s defence of the v a l u e of r e a d i n g l e s s o n s , as opposed, t o . sermons. RHETORIC. 72 I t must be s a i d , however, t h a t a l t h o u g h he r e b u t t e d argument a f t e r argument, e i t h e r by qu o t a t i o n s from the B i b l e , of by i r o n i c a l comments or by absurd i l l u s t r a t i o n s , he was o b l i g e d t o admit i n h i s Testimonium t h a t sermons are a f t e r a l l more e f f e c t u a l , s i n c e i t i s to them and not to the r e a d i n g t h a t people g i v e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . The ease of Lesson versus Sermon was f a r from b e i n g the o n l y one t h a t Hooker examined. H i s P u r i t a n opponents r e v e r e d the S c r i p t u r e s so,deeply - ( a l t h o u g h they a p p a r e n t l y d i d not l i k e them to be read a l o u d i n Church), - t h a t they came t o i n s i s t t h a t S c r i p t u r e was the only a u t h o r i t y f o r C h r i s t i a n men, even a d o p t i n g the extreme view t h a t i f S c r i p t u r e d i d not e x p r e s s l y command an a c t i o n , t h a t a c t i o n was wrong. In r e p l y , Hooker, i n the seventh p a r t of Book I I , made a gr e a t s t a n d f o r "the S t r e n g t h of Man's A u t h o r i t y . " EXORDIUM. "An examination of t h e i r o p i n i o n concerning the f o r c e of arguments ta k e n from human a u t h o r i t y f o r the o r d e r i n g of men's a c t i o n s and p e r s u a s i o n s . " (From,the Index, t o Book II), NARRATION.. (Paragraph I ) : "An earnest d e s i r e t o draw a l l t h i n g s under the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of bare and naked S c r i p t u r e hath caused here much p a i n s t o be tak e n i n a b a t i n g the e s t i m a t i o n and c r e d i t of man." This would i n the end "overthrow such o r d e r s , laws and c o n s t i t u t i o n s i n the Church and leave' " n e i t h e r f a c e nor memory of Church to continue i n the w o r l d . " . CAUSA. F a c t s support the f o r c e of man's a u t h o r i t y , a f f i r m -a t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y . (a) S c r i p t u r e accepts man's testimony. (b) Two or thr e e w i t n e s s e s are r e l i e d on i n law. '•(c) Opinions and judgments of men are f o l l o w e d . •(d) The w i s e r we ar e , the more we l i s t e n to wise men. (e) Man's a u t h o r i t y has n e g a t i v e f o r c e ; only s i x RHETORIC. 73 Eawards.:are i n the Chronicle,, t h e r e f o r e there are no more. 'Notwithstanding man's i n f i r m i t y , we are o b l i g e d t o b e l i e v e him a t times. (a) The f a c t s of h i s t o r y and geography a l l depend on r e p o r t s . (b) The f a c t s of S c r i p t u r e are based' on w i t n e s s . Hen may, a f t e r due p r e p a r a t i o n , make pronouncements on matters d i v i n e , and may be heard w i t h r e s p e c t . F a i l i n g S c r i p t u r a l a u t h o r i t y , our judgment must be a l l o w e d to f u n c t i o n . (a) We i n c l i n e t o b e l i e v e what i s probable. (b) Doubt does not imply l a c k of grace. (c) F a i l i n g I n f a l l i b l e p r o o f , the judgment o f .many wise men should be g i v e n c r e d i t . The Church Fat h e r s used t h e i r powers of r e a s o n i n g ; i f they had not, we might be guided by the uneducated mob. (a) To re a s o n i s the d i f f e r e n c e between man and beast. (b) Irenaeus b e l i e v e d i n r e a s o n i n g and p r o o f s , (c ) so did. Jerome , (d) so d i d A u g u s t i n e . (e) When i n doubt we c o n s u l t wise men. ( f ) When, both d i s p u t a n t s quote S c r i p t u r e , n o t h i n g can be proved, c . f . , the D'onatists and A r i a n s -(g) I f reason i s not r e s p e c t e d , i g n o r a n t men b o l d l y u t t e r erroneous statements. The d i s c i p l e s were not reproved f o r wondering i f the "Scribes were r i g h t . Our opponents use the testimony of others i n p r o o f s . The Causa c o n t a i n s ornamentation and a m p l i f i c a t i o n 1. o f many k i n d s , i n c l u d i n g an example of d i g r e s s i o n . There are many keen, s a r c a s t i c q u e s t i o n s , and shrewd comments such a s : -11 St. Augustine e x h o r t e t h not t o hear men, but t o hearken what God speaketh. H i s purpose i s not ( I t h i n k ) t h a t we.should stop our ears a g a i n s t h i s own e x h o r t a t i o n . . . . " TESTIMONIUM. The Testimonium i s i n P a r t V i l l i , , and i s c a l l e d "a 1. Book I I , P a r t V I I , p a r ; 6: "Which o p i n i o n RHETORIC. 7 4 d e c l a r a t i o n of the True View", The. Epilogue takes up the f i n a l paragraph, and i s one of the best examples of Hooker's mind and C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t . "So we must l i k e w i s e take g r e a t heed," (he s a y s ) , " l e s t i n a t t r i b u t i n g unto S c r i p t u r e more than i t can have, the i n c r e d i b i l i t y of t h a t do cause even those t h i n g s which indeed i t h a t h most abundantly t o be l e s s r e v e r e n t l y esteemed. I t h e r e f o r e leave i t to themselves to c o n s i d e r whether they have i n t h i s f i r s t p o i n t or not overshot themselves.; which God dot h know i s q u i c k l y done, even when our meaning i s most s i n c e r e , as' I am v e r i l y persuaded t h e i r s i n t h i s case was." CONCLUSION. R h e t o r i c , w i t h R i c h a r d Hooker;, was not a conscious e f f o r t t o w r i t e i n the f a s h i o n a b l e or approved way; i t was the most n a t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n of h i s t h i n k i n g t h a t c o u l d be imagined. He d i d not need to t r y to be s a r c a s t i c . H i s achievements i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n Were the outcome of h i s reason b e i n g outraged. N e i t h e r were h i s l o n g s e r i e s of p r o o f s and r e b u t t a l s merely an e x e r c i s e i n l o g i c . One cannot imagine the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l  P o l i t y b e i n g w r i t t e n any other way. He shows gre a t s k i l l i n the use of every d e v i c e , so much so t h a t sometimes, he s a t i s f i e s our sense of j u s t i c e , or our l o y a l t y , w i t h o u t r e a l l y p r o v i n g h i s p o i n t ; f o r i n s t a n c e , by the use of the r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n (.'No. 16, Page 69). In t h i s case, i t c o u l d be maintained t h a t , i n h i s day to appeal to r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s was the s t r o n g e s t argument of a l l . Indeed the whole . of the "Lessons ver s u s Sermons" case i s a crowning example of the v a l u e of r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s i n argument. For h i s a n t a g o n i s t was r i g h t , and Hooker knew i t . . . . H e d i d h i s b e s t , but alth o u g h i n d i g n a t i o n d i g n i f i e d by means of c l i m a x and " c o n g e r i e s " c a r r i e s g r e a t weight, i t proves n o t h i n g . Be t h a t as i t may, much t h a t i s s t i m u l a t i n g RHETORIC. 7 5 i n the P o l i t y i s the r h e t o r i c ; whether i t he the t h o u g h t f u l r e a s o n i n g of "man's a u t h o r i t y " , or argument of a more specious n a t u r e ; whether i t he the i l l u s t r a t i o n s c a r r i e d to the ah surd, o r the mocking i r o n i e s ; or whether i t he such forms of ornamen-t a t i o n as metaphor and r e p e t i t i o n . The p l e a s u r e , d e r i v e d from his* s k i l l i s doubled by our r e c o g n i t i o n of the calm and temp-e r a t e judgment t h a t i n s p i r e s the whole argument. For r h e t o r i c w i t h Hooker was not an end, but a means. A weapon i n s k i l l e d hands, i t was not used u n t i l needed. With Hooker, e v e r y t h i n g , even f i n e w r i t i n g , came second t o h i s b u r n i n g d e s i r e to save h i s church. C o n c l u s i o n . I t might appear from the f o r e g o i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the prose of R i c h a r d Hooker, that he wrote w i t h l e s s , success than h i s contemporaries. H i s paragraphs are not, l i k e those of Thomas Browne, r e a d and r e - r e a d f o r t h e i r strange s p e c u l a t i o n s and p l e a s i n g s t y l e . Phrases of h i s are not, l i k e R a l e i g h ' s , l o v i n g l y quoted i n t r e a t i s e s of E n g l i s h prose. I t i s only r a r e l y , as has been p o i n t e d out, t h a t any passage of Hooker's approaches i n emotive power the l e v e l of the prose of h i s f e l l o w s a t t h e i r b e s t . Rhythm and r h e t o r i c , cursus and cadence, v o c a b u l a r y from the l i v i n g w o r l d and wisdom from the dead, a l l these be employed,' not l i k e Browne, to g r a t i f y a melancholy whim, not , l i k e R a l e i g h , to w h i l e away an i d l e hour, b u t only to add s t r e n g t h and emphasis t o the p r e s e n t a t i o n of i h i s case. The prose of the. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y has a u n i f o r m -i t y such t h a t any page shows the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l . F i r s t t o the mind occurs the p h r a s i n g which i s always p l e a s i n g , i t s rhythm f l o w i n g and u n h u r r i e d . I t i s , indeed, l a r g e l y the rhythm t h a t makes, the t r e a t i s e l i t e r a r y , and not merely d i d - :. • a c t i o , p rose. Modernized, the book would l o s e i t s a t t r a c t i o n f o r a l l but s t u d e n t s - o f t h e o l o g y . Another u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c of Hooker's s t y l e i s the use of cadence and cursus a t the end of c l a u s e s and sentences. More emphasis i s i n t h i s way added to h i s statements, than i s r e a l i z e d on a f i r s t r e a d -i n g . (Paragraphs b e a / u t i f i e d by cursus and cadences are not so noteworthy, because they are r a r e . ) Emphasis i s achieved i n two other important ways, both of which show what a g r e a t w r i t e r of prose Hooker was. One i s the cumulative power of p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n h i s massive p e r i o d s . E q u a l l y e f f e c t -ive-, as every reader of the " P o l i t y , must w e l l remember, I s the - r e p e t i t i o n o f - " f i n g e r i n g " ' - o f c e r t a i n words, sometimes l i k e n o t e s of solemn sound, and sometimes l i k e m i s s i l e s h u r l e d in 1. d e r i s i o n . As p l e a s i n g as the emphasis, i s i t s o p p o s i t e , the f f u i e t i s m " , the peaceable l a s t words of many a l o n g and son-orous argument. For a l l these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s there i s no need to s e a r c h ; they are the s t y l e . I t i s p e r f e c t l y f i t t e d f o r the theme; d i g n i f i e d , as s u i t e d the d i s c u s s i o n of r e l i g i o n ; c o p i o u s , thus encouraging the enumeration of every p o s s i b l e d e t a i l of p r o o f - but making use a l s o of s h o r t sentences, f o r statements needing more f o r c e than f u l l n e s s . Combining w i t h t h i s m a j e s t i c prose were a l l the d e v i c e s of r h e t o r i c t h a t can s e r v e to persuade, s t i r up, reprove or r i d i c u l e , the o p i n i o n s of those contrary-minded.. The r e s u l t i s a , s t y l e which a" happy combination of s u b j e c t , purpose and c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g shaped i n t o the f i t t e s t instrument i t s maker c o u l d have s e l e c t -ed. And i f i t can-be s a i d t h a t i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g - and R i c h a r d Hooker's z e a l was s u r e l y s i n c e r e enough t o be t h a t -can u n i t e w i t h the energy of thought t o produce the p e r f e c t 2. s t y l e , then i n The laws of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y we have i t . 1. Book I I , P a r t IV, No. 5, " i n d i f f e r e n t " . 2. Eng. Prose S t y l e , P. 66. 78 No one e l s e of the E l i z a b e t h a n s had ..an aim so l o f t y , o r s e t h i m s e l f a"task so tremendous as d i d R i c h a r d Hooker; and no one, except perhaps Ascham, g i v e s to the reader such an. i m p r e s s i o n of earnestness and s i n g l e n e s s of purpose as pervades t h i s l a b o r i o u s work. Hooker was the s o l e w r i t e r whose purpose and p l a n were so e a r n e s t l y f e l t t h a t he had no time f o r f l i g h t s of f a n c y and g e n e r a l d i s c u r s i v e n e s s . A l l was t o the p o i n t , a l l was p a r t of the argument, p a r t of h i s strenuous b a t t l e a g a i n s t the f o r c e s of b i g o t r y and c r i t i c i s m . The u n d e r t a k i n g would be stupendous:, even i n modern times, c o m p r i s i n g as I t d i d , the a n a l y s i s of. law, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o e c c l e s i a s t i c a l m a tter, and the defense of the whole system of the d o c t r i n e , l i t u r g y and r i t u a l of h i s church. Once or twice o n l y , i n the p l a n n i n g and w r i t i n g of t h i s g r e a t argument d i d Hooker so f a r f o r g e t h i s s u b j e c t and purpose, as t o d i g r e s s . Nowhere d i d he even i n d i -c a t e t h a t any p o i n t connected, w i t h .the church was of more i n t e r e s t to him than another.. Every argument was p r e s s e d v i g o r o u s l y and e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y as though alone v i t a l t o the s t r u g g l e , whether i t concerned the nature of the T r i n i t y , or the n e c e s s i t y of a p r i e s t ' s wearing a s u r p l i c e . . E v e r y t h i n g mentioned, every j i b e and p r o t e s t , p l e a or r e b u t t a l , was germane to the g i g a n t i c p l a n of defense. Not only d i d Hooker c o n c e i v e t h i s purpose, but c a r r i e d i t out u n t i l death prevent-ed the p u b l i c a t i o n of the l a s t t h r e e of the e i g h t books pla n n e d . S u r e l y , t h i s achievement, i n an age when most men wrote merely i f mood and id l e n e s s , so i n c l i n e d them, de-s e r v e s g r e a t e r fame than a l l ; f o r i t s author made s e r i o u s 79 b u s i n e s s of the a r t of w r i t i n g , made the noble E n g l i s h tongue f i g h t i n the cause of t r u t h , i n s t e a d of d a l l y w i t h romance, and produced the only h i g h - s o u l e d work i n prose from our language, 1. when our language was at i t s b e s t . A l l who have made any comment on the w r i t i n g s of .2. R i c h a r d Hooker have admired the " f i n e s p i r i t of t o l e r a n c e " w hich he has shown. I t cannot be denied t h a t without s a y i n g i n so many words; " I am a man of j u s t d i s p o s i t i o n , " he l e a v e s everyone a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n that he was. P e r s o n a l b i a s i s q u i t e banished from h i s e x p o s i t i o n , a n d ; w l t h complete s e l f -effacement he keeps h i s thoughts as an- i n d i v i d u a l i n the back-ground, .very r a r e l y u s i n g the f i r s t person s i n g u l a r , and not even drawing on e x p e r i e n c e s from h i s own l i f e f o r p r o o f s . Such modesty redounds g r e a t l y t o h i s c r e d i t , so t h a t he appears always as the i m p a r t i a l seeker of a s o l u t i o n to the problems of r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s . He i s i m p a r t i a l , i t i s t r u e , o n l y so f a r as the f i n d i n g s of h i s c o n v i c t i o n s a l l o w him to go. I t must be admitted t h a t h i s r e a s o n i n g was not always profound, and t h a t he sometimes p r e f e r r e d absurd i l l u s t r a t i o n s to a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n , or p r o o f . An example I s t o be found i n the Hneg-a t i v e argument from- S c r i p t u r e " . He would a t one moment use the name of the D e i t y as a weapon of debate, as a s o r t of un-answerable argument, and a t another reprove h i s opponents f o r 1 . I had f o r g o t t e n the A u t h o r i z e d V e r s i o n ; but i t was not one man's work. 2 . V o l . I , I n t r o . , p. XVI. 3. Bk. I I , V, 5. presuming to d e c l a r e t h a t God was i n agreement w i t h t h e i r b e l i e f s . Such i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s as these do, f o r the moment, but n o t f o r l o n g , dim the p e r c e p t i o n of Hooker t h a t i s the c l e a r e s t i m p r e s s i o n l e f t by the P o l i t y ; t h a t of a w r i t e r who was a t a l l times devoted to h i s cause, determined to defend I t , but eager t c p e r s u a d e h i s a d v e r s a r i e s , and ever h o p e f u l of t h e i r r e con-c i l i a t i o n ; : never f o r g e t t i n g t h a t both he and they should l i v e i n C h r i s t i a n b r o t h e r l i n e s s . S i n c e r i t y and modest z e a l , w i t h p a t i e n c e and d i l i g e n t perseverance compose the s p i r i t i n w hich the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y was w r i t t e n , a s p i r i t which i n f o r m s i t from the f i r s t page to the l a s t . N e i t h e r h i s o c c a s i o n a l use, w i t h i n t e n t to d e r i d e , of s e c u l a r v o c a b u l a r y , n o r h i s keen sarcasm, nor h i s . r e s o r t i n g t o the l u d i c r o u s , i n any Way d e t r a c t , f r o m the C h r i s t i a n g o o d w i l l and r e l u c t a n c e t o d i s p u t e which guided Hooker's g e n i u s . Even to-day the work b r e a t h e s s i n c e r i t y and f a i r m l n d e d n e s s , so t h a t "good Master Hooker" seems much more a l i v e to us than E r a n c i s Bacon i n the admirable but s o u l l e s s Advancement of Learning;" or Hobbes, i n the s t r i n g of maxims t h a t make up The L e v i a t h a n . Hooker s e t h i m s e l f a mighty t a s k and throughout i t s performance show-ed a b r e a d t h of wisdom, s e r i o u s n e s s of thought and d i g n i t y of s t y l e t h a t d i d honour to h i s cause. This cause was l o s t a f t e r Hooker's death; the P u r i t a n s triumphed, and a l l h i s l a b o u r was i n v a i n . I t would be sad i f our race were t o 'forget a l t o g e t h e r t h i s g r e a t work - g r e a t not only f o r i t s u n i t y of s t y l e and . s p i r i t , but as the memorial of one man's endeavour i n l e a r n i n g and perseverance i n what.was f o r him the l a s t f i g h t , perhaps, of the Holy C a t h o l i c Church a g a i n s t the d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s •gnorance and calumny, and the proud, i n t o l e r a n t s p i r i t c i reform. B i b l i o g r a p h y . "Chamber's Cy c l o p a e d i a of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e " , •(London and Edinburgh: W and R. Chambers, L t d . , 1903) Cowperthwaite, W. A., M.A. , and M a r s h a l l , E. E., M.A., "An E n g l i s h Grammar.for Secondary Schools", (Toronto: The Copp C l a r k Co., L t d . , 1927). Crane , W. G. , - "Wit and R h e t o r i c i n the Renaissance", (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,: 1937). Dobree, Bonamy., "Modern Prose S t y l e " , ( O x ford: At the Clarendon P r e s s , .1934). Edwards, S. L., "An Anthology of E n g l i s h P r o s e " , (London: J . M, Dent and Sons, L t d . , 1934). E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , ( 1 4 t h e d i t i o n ; New York and Chicago E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , Inc., 1937). Hooker, R i c h a r d , "Of the Laws of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y " , (London: J . M. Dent and Co., 1907). L e g o u i s , E m i l e , and Gazamian, L o u i s , "A H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e " , ( R e v i s e d e d i t i o n ; London: J. M. Dent and Sons, L t d . 1937). M i n t o , W i l l i a m , "Manual of E n g l i s h Prose L i t e r a t u r e " , ( 3 r d e d i t i o n ; Edinburgh and London: Blackwood and Sons, 1886). : Read, Herbert Edward, " E n g l i s h Prose S t y l e " , (London:- George B e l l and Sons, 1928). Rhys, E r n e s t , "A Century of E n g l i s h E ssays", (London and Toronto: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1917). S a i n t s b u r y , George Edward Bateman, "A H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Prose Rhythm", (London: M a c m i l l a n and Co., L t d . , 1912). Simpson, P e r c y , "Shakespearian P u n c t u a t i o n " , ( O x f o r d : The Clarendon P r e s s , 1911). 83 Simpson, P e r c y , "Proof-Reading i n the S i x t e e n t h , Seventeenth and E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s " , (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1935). S t e w a r t , George R., J u n i o r , "The Technique of E n g l i s h Verse", (New York: Henry H o l t and Company). Tempest, Norton R., "The Rhythm of E n g l i s h P r o s e " , (Cambridge: The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1930). 

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